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This work lt» grcfwn out of a counvo of i&^tiirt4 wliicAi 
ft tfe givHD AC tlt« T^wT?ll Institute In Boston ghfIj in the 
rpring of 1871. 1 taay b^f permitted to suy tb^t wheD 1 
cxtgitgcd to prepare Uxoed kctiuv^^ the subject wa4 aot 
t>cw to zse; and (hat ihd iiiten'^ aiuce they were de- 
livered bu bwD devoted to studies in the sam<i £if1d, the 
neoJts of whi^ &/Q inoorporitt^ la this volume* It haa 
»|ipearod to mo |ir»cilcable t^ pr^aeut to mtAlItgeut and 
«dttost0d nvdmra, withm the uompuds of u volume like tlia 
{■OMOt, the HMOiu of aoquaintmg theioaolvea with thd 
«cigiB and itttoro, tho fhadpol ^uto ard GhanLct«r« of the 
Brfonmtian ; wlolc, at the Hune Utiic, througli notc-4 and 
ntevnoMi, iha hiitoriuil A[:ii^Eriit ehoald bo gnidtfd t€ fur- 
ther l oae arch f ou tlie vuHotut topia vrhioh wo bixiufht 
nniGT hiA notioe. There aro two features in the ploa of 
tfae pnaent work to wluch it may not b& Iinprupur to cull 
tfteolioD. With th« rttligion« and theologtt^al dd« of tho 
liiitofy of tfao pofiod, I haro ondcAVonxl to istcrwcaTO and 
lo ««t in tbeir tmo relation tho political, secular or mtff^ 
flaniiril idanonla, whidi bad no jHJA^'rfiil %q influRnco in 
i blgmtn tag Hm oouiw of menu. The- attempt has alio 
been made to elncKlato briefly, bat suiEdeatJy, pointi 

port^ning to tli^ hietory of theological dootrino, ba uoder 
Btz^dlng of which i& pecuUu'ly cutciGntiul in the »tudy of 
thih puriuc] uf luutoryn 

Thd ^thoritie^ on which I have chl^Qy dopuudetl, luv 
mdicatod m tho ra£ir^u];il rofi^roDoee. The hi^bi^L pLicci 
WloagB to the wiitin^i and especially the coiTtispoudeooa 
of the ReformerB theinselvi'S. The letters «f Lutb^M^ 
kmothon, Zwiuglo, CaJriii ; Che oorr^tqxjiidfTDco ol the 
Engliali ^vith the Helvetic Reformers during tlie rei^os ol 
Heury VIIL, Edward VI., ajid EUvMbelb ; the correapio* 
d^oce nf R^formpira in tht* Prench-sppaking iRTidx, in tJift 
«ollootion of M. Horminjrtrdj afF*>rd the moat vivid ns WftU 
AA correct imprca^iou of the trunaactions in w}u<?h ditir 
fcuthcirr* Vxirr* lu Ufidin^ ]iJtrl., Works lik^ fhc '' Oi>rr«ipi.«i- 
denceof Philip 11,/* which M. Gachard — lunonghis other 
7a1uabl4> oontnbutioTiB — hfis pubUsh^ from the iirohiv^ 
of SUiiawcitt*, Imve caat much new light on another ftide of 
the liiftTory of t3iia erun Of the nior« T'eeent liistorians, 
th«r« &ro two of ^hnm I nm bound, to mnko sp'^ciftl m^ntioTk 
ID this placo. The Gret in RmiJze^ %7hci^ adrninihlo KoHai 
of works on the alitc«utb ai^d w^ventwnlb ttnturiiri ]i;ivn 
been eiinfltiinily In riy bunds. Thi' niingihig of g^ieml 
HeVB \Ttth uppOQitc and ehai-actonstic fLKtd, lenda to the 
hbtcncal prodncbioo» of Uiis tnily illostrious writer a 
pMiiliar cbiirfTi. The other Idatoritin h Oii?eelei', wlio po»* 
•Msed in fin «miTii?nt d«gi^<n the gooiua for Ai^curncy, 
wluch Gibbon nccribcd to Tillomont, and whose invMta- 
gationsi though cxt^wnrc nnA profound upon nvtary ivnod 
of Chnreh History, -Arr? nowhere mf.ire inntniotive th*R 
upon th<^ period of the* R^formiition. It must b« a mattet 
ol ttDCero regret to fdl aeholeuu thttt Ncftndet did not lin 


Mr^ferwHid hk fC^wA trorIc,tiio oaunt^rqiart of Gi<^«^ 
ler, into this penod. Hie postbumooii History gf DocUuw 
!s quJti.' bnef id ite troatmeat of tlw ProLu^tpsuit muvf-iitntit, 
ImC in not iranttng ui fltrildrg Bii^estionB. Perbaps I 
ibotild ttdd to tliiff plioit ciitAldgniOf thn ** Uistoiro <)« 
Wvcco *' of Hean M^irlm. which Appcivni to mc to bo tho 
mocd fitiia^bjry of Ike comf leiifuialv^f wuH^s iiii tUKhintory 
of tliat «mntrjr* 

Tbcra ii ono oxplnnntioiTi Hrthor which I &m aiudous 
b> EAnke TcnpecdDg tbe d«sjgoof ihi% book. It n uitcndcd 
in nu wuMf »^ n pultrimijEil irurk. lb liju uut vuUirHil into 
iny tboaghtB to inaalo^t^ th^ creed of Frot^staDtlsm, or to 
pfOpa£&t« nny typ<» ot OhriatiaJi doctrmc ; [uudi kea to 
Idiidic MihncMty Agwnjtt th« Church of Komc. Vt^ry 
•mncM AS the poiiiln *it illltaranv*'. uro whii^Ti lu^jmnttn fJ)0 
hodj of Prote*iknt» from tho body oi Homan Catbolica, 
tfatt poinlA on wtiiob they ofp'ec outv^iTg^l m imporbuiou tfio 
potnta GO wiiich tLey differ, Wlioi^vtr fjupp0!i(?(» th^t Uiis 
Ref ormeTB were exempt frnm gmTd fjiiilts and infinrities, 
noftt etthor be ignorant of th«T bi^toryi or bnvo studied 
ti ondcr tlie influence of a purtiaan bia& Impurtliility, 
krm>Tijr, U tioi iiiditTurtmf:^ j aud a fnf;;!^! And carping 
■pint, that oldlk the natural outflow of a just AdmirsLtion, 
mny, tqtudiy wiUi tfae spirit of hciro-worsJiip, binder one 
from ftrriTing at tbo ml tniUi, na ysc\l lu tlic bcitt Jcasooe 
•f bisiory. 

Should this vo1iim« Iw med bi the duB^-room^ it may 
be KQggcfltcd to tcudiCTV that fr^aent ref>.^r4^ce ihoald 
b« cwk to tbe C^ironological l^blc in the appendix, 
whffvaoonteinponioeoiui events in tbn difFL-rt?nt cmmtTici 
a« potted tc^etlMr, Dat4« am pretty tbiekty Ktravn 



thraa^h tlm taxt. l>iit an* giv^u min'4* fully in th(* Tablt^ ©f 
CoiiU'UtM. Ill tli'^ Liat «f Wtirlts, ^vliioli follows the Chro- 
uulo^cai Tabic. I have bi^ieHy ulinractorUed ttome oi the 
1iix>ka UiwhiL'h die Ent>ro AilvTU^i^oil :hluileiit wouJil u&trirAlly 

I«i# IUyeVh Jon, U, I9T3. 


hn two or three plftce» on^y. in thu rolame, \hn tnTm 
"^ ooDstit'fltfLntiAtinii *' 19 applied to the LuUi^mu du^trmti 
of the EiK'Jiarint; but Ui6 term la defined (p, 148) u 
tJn^ on*[mTj*j^(j« of two substaJices, — a seiintj in which it 
In iJlnwi'd by tliB beat LutUemu tbeologiaiia. Tln^ attcai- 
tiv(! nuwl^r uf tb« Inst iJinpter will ob8er¥e tluit the 
oiTvL'ta wliiiib are Lhera ascribed Lo Uie Ilefurnrntioii, Jire 
nr:tt c^riidilMl to the do^niatio systuiii of Protect tan tism ri- 
oluftivt-ly. but la tlu* Protestiint religion, tak^u 1:0111pm* 
bensivoty. It b thB genius ain^ spirit of ProtestsintiAiDt 
aaftoen in the long prowaaiw of hintinry, which an* them 
referred to. The place and tba iaifxirtarite of th« Re- 
DEdMance are illiiHtrated in VRrioua parU of the volume, 
MpodAlly in the thiH rhnpt^r. The induenj-d of t)i« 
RomiuuLnco <m intidi^m <^uJtt]ro is not aiiderntted in thia 
work ; nor ii the Ri*n&)»uuicc confounded ^vitli the relig* 
UKu Rolorm. Th&re lit oiw other point which may deaerrfl 
a word of Titmurlc. Tlie Cburoh of tht^ Middlu Agat I do 
not GOnnduT ** u utitig^tt^d uvU," but lui iiivuk-ubiblQ bono- 
fit to locitjty, Whfi.% U laid of the Papacy flhonld not be 
und»nitood of die Chun^hf — the* ocg.tri/^l, -xilleotivp in> 
duenoo of CImctiamty. Bnt even tho Papacy, iw U 
•hown, WM, in tii<t medlsa^ period, in aiaiiy respcctA, n 
b«D«li(Giit inatitiition. 



Drrsoovcmor; tkb oocnKXA^ cmiucTEm or xn kixobha 


Luag loMoricAl prqMfmUoQ of tkoe cvoat* . * ■ . I 

Ay^mjp <f liullTlriTiftU ftfitto hft im<1ftrv*ltaftft . , . . t 

Thoarim la nfp««t %o tka B^ortaftiiga I 

An viniloeks] hjpotlicȣi ........ 3 

TIkotj tliJA it vu a r|:T.uTi'| cpf mooftrlic or^lur* ... 3 

nM it ni mn «ctitlcauC4l dlfputo 4 

That It WW fl Eiitv |ihain of thn />kl <vinfUi^t nf Pop<>ji And Fin|OTWi 4 
Tkat it WM AA uuBrrootloD JigaiDat autUoritjr > (AdTouqod by t}m.- 

x^) 4 

TkaA it ra ■ tr«ui&)D9t vtcp fi>wudi BationAliKn , • . < 

Tbm BaAtBudcn priaufUj a rtJl^loiu orcnt • . « ■ 9 
JadaHiTig ffcAnffar of mailliivitl Ohrlmianicy : ^niiuni mAcrtion 

«f Uio apurftml oianont fi 

PMuMtf^niiim pvkilJT* m veil M DCjCA^lve .... 6 

h hM «A objMtittt fWeo- s 

II |»«cdc«I]j' Mvncd (lio rifcbt of prhoto judfimcat • . 10 
k wvi * put i>r tliif f^Qfin^ jirog^VM of «ool(j(j • . . .14 
Geotfftl <!lun<«cfutk0 of tti9 ODtir« pohod . • , ■ IQ 
Tvo-IpU upcet df tlic QcrumiAiIou*^rcll;£iou», owl i>uUtk«] or 

•«c«ilar IT 

ChMAolocitfl Umiu of Uio cm 11 


ans M* TUB patal nuuAitGiiT and its pwouim 


riBHIiHrlBii r^POUtd pHcfUj auCooHcj U 

TW rtUtten of ttOti^oUl uiUioriry Ea P]i]>a- wpTvmM^ 14 


Tht now [Xipf-Doitii >n »ipirltuii1, in cDntmiAt yrlth tho aH 

AtiMniW of a mHlUlorliLl j>ric^*ithotid . - . • > 14 

Oflliwn of l!io jinoiltivo Cbiutih lA 

F^0tdoii5 oE A piie«thi>od gndoaily MB0ct«ki4 wjJi tJ:ic utaiMrj l€ 
Gmnth of n liLi^rnr^hf ... . . . I| 

IniniBU* jind T^LrtulliMi niAko Oka Cliurtik the door of AMOtl ti> 

CliriAt (dmi St)0> .,.-...• t* 

Giuiio* oT (lie ifTModGDOD of (h« Soo oT Bom* ... II 

A«kDOwlviJ^l ID tho Euti bocmiM Hom* b tl« cAptol j ckuoiod 

In Uie W«n on jii^flount of Puter . , . . • '30 
AoO»ldon<rf CoitHLiiuLirjti(J]l) ; Churol) not i]mr];4<t ta tho Slato, 

Mid why M 

Povor of Ihn Knipcron over tlio Qiurob . > • .11 

Deolino of die Eaipin mcnwwi the authonty of eJhe H^TniAa 

biflbop at 

l4L>, thif (Jriiiit ^140-ieiJ . . . , . . 91 

Tbtt Va\wtKy i^aXtt:^, yvt cm)iiiigvnii» by Urn fall of tba Wwt«ni 

KEnplnT(4;ii) » 

B[irr4d t^iL' AmniAiQ and Motin-minodAiLinm . < > > ^ 59 
Fnr] JtHlcmco of ihn Pflpcin/ wJdi ilni Frnnk* f'iO) . 22 

H'Nf'iiw of UitL i^psQy bj* Hfjiiit HnrJ CbairlftnK^o , .S3 

Bl^nt^vmio} uf tlko LurouiiEjtjn uf CUar|(!rji;Ljitu (SOO) . < 23 
tClfWt ni' Iliii Hill Ol' Ilia HnipiW rm lliu PbftdOy . ■ - • M 

Tlx- r*cLitlirt»»locU:i DocrtilAli (cinu hAIj) , . . < &I 

KnfniTiulhv NiNmliuif, (AAFi-Aii?) 18 

Anaivhy m luJy i the pcAod of porvacncfi iatorrentioe of 

lli^uiT' I1J. (1019) SA 

lUldabmrtd (lots'-! U^&) ncrl hia rvrorming plan i thotttj af tbo 

Psfiaof jiad Uifi BtBpiru : (Jtclr Innriftabla coiiflliti . 36 

AdiantJigi<4 of Lhft Ftfocy in (hit lyinflict .... II 
Vloloryof tbiaPojKtfi Ilcnr/IT., Iha W<ir««CQn(W^W (llli); 

Aleundi^rnL(llTT) , . n 

CkibnlnaUon of FApd power ; Uaoo«Dt III. ;n9«-]fiej ft 

U^ Umgcr of llio Fipal QOku . , , .It 

HIm of ihtf «p1rii of tLAtioDAUim ; It* raridiu nunlCMCadou SI 

DvAofiU of iLa PnpM/ in Uw Mi4dhi Aj^ oppraaoh «f noplto 

era . . la 

Natloniil It^npuMflBfl anil KlQMkiufaa U 

And^dDranhloal vpiril »f die TcmaraUr writsra • . . U 
Ilia tamit vplrit In thn T^i^bu M 

BMotvni«*i&«tUMlV^/i Uonifiuv^in. (11M-1*^>> - - *f 
OobOcI oT BtmtBwa with rhiiip thu Fair . . »T 

'O^JMnc pxwdgc of tlie FapU3j; the Bnbj-Iaalui o&pt||ritj 

<iM»-n;7j . . . . n 

Chancier of tbc Papacy lU Avlxnon ; P<itnrch'A Vvdaxmy . 80 
OfipunitiVQ frum Gtsvifttiy »or| En^Enri<l • , . . ftO 

Tlw MonkrctartJii^iiiBt ttxa Pipurtt . . . . < 44 

AUAcU <poo P«pJ tivur|i«tiODj| lij wnUrt; Uirnlius o{ F^diu 

»il WllUvn nf Or^'am • * . . . . . 41 

Tbc G*tli«ab •? cooatitmiotiiit Haerf \ ihb Beftinalnc CoimclU 

(1445^1443) 4i 

InCaviulDg w^nj Ol oatjond anil nut^tiLir, in \hii recta of eL»l«iM«- 

Ikal fibdbjTh ta ^ UncenTb ocniur> 4'! 

CoiMrJlrTnTiiin iif III linn fill ■ ; F,ri;^(xr4. fmrn^', S[MTn - 44 

faODlnr >l»l rnrinr i luirirrr r if Tfif Pi-rprii .14 

tfutupIV'(l4;i-3t)« LimKViit VnT4]4S4-9S); Alnxnudcr VI, 

(us^KtrrA); .itttiiiit iL(>Ar>-i-].i) 4: 

ftSuinctcrfli LeoX (lAlS-tl); jod^^vnt of Soj-pl, PnlUrldDl, 

Mtwori. Oolrdftnlini ........ 46 

Tlu) importanoa oi tJi« Fopw* ohjefly poUlicDil ... 44 

coiwcniuu* bo Huita iljrom Prlikcit* more ijipaTvaE Llj«n rt*l < 4A 

OlMlniion in Ihft n^iAil nf tlio Pr^riiatir S.irtrliiin (iMii) 48 
Ifooihulloa of fccclAr nn'] j^liticiBj laiercAU, vmtt in tho c<>nlcjt« 

<if ChaitM V. iKil Prancli 1 49 

n« doTekpanant of andootlinn latl thi: n^culu-ixinj^ of the Pa- 

pcitijr, 01 (ho br^uaiQ*; uE tbc KlxtocutU coutuiy . . ,40 


TK>a ruoft TO rule hixtkehtii ckhtuiit. 

MnUvr*] CtiriAkiilt; cZur^tturiMd by k^iim ... at 

Vbra> erf RtteUoA x^tlxst it : divont fro» [lo^niu ; nilDCki en 

Iho umrpalMVd and abtuM of ihc clergy i o^^vo^lioo to tbc 

«m«m1*d «*tHun of nrFEnonlH ind ouMtcrixlw .03 

•f » poHibtD iAvnMM of Ult«Iti^DOft ... A3 

of Itfvsniiuwnol the Itiafljniuitlini - • • 09 

Astl-M«0doUI M«Ui 34 

Tha CwlwriflU (Albi}^Dae») H 

Thi If alfltimt: dudrcrlfitn (ino) ... of 

Hu WvooiMvi Sptrilaialt; tbc l^mtrioftlii > • < .AT 

nw Bfvnlao* u<l Be-jbv^a • . • . §t 

WhtH ji i^kauA by ht rlM of Ibwa MCt* M 


The couMTatlTa or GftlUean [tcfonnnri , , . • . N 

iatti SI 

Dow ho wbt prJteotod .59 

Tiwi r^iiiu^ii ... fio 

John UijK4 (13TS-1CIA) ; Ub pmdvci.'ssvrB; MatllilAa oT Jftaow 41 

Tbo clmracUr aadpr-inc^Lpbiiof Iluu ..... fiS 

HwA ami WicLliflu uu tL» KuiliutUj ut^ pr^Uu^ luiJ mogblrattu 62 

Jobn Wl<i«o) (U10-MT1) | Lutb^r'i opinion of bim ... V> 

SftvotiaruU (ItCft-GG) €4 

'Hiu MyvNlm; olurMCarof Mjatlulmi Gd 

Myiuoivia niaoa^ the Schooliaoii ; Bornnrd, UondvtjntiirA . 00 
JUm TftuUir OSaO^iaOl); il'i *' (JcrmnD Thoobf^" • . .06 

Thii " ImiTiiiioti of Clirt^t. " If 

Tlio Itcvi^raJ td Lcorningi bfl^ina in It&lj", UonlD (Hflt-lMl) 1 

Sptciid of (fiu liU'r&ry apint; uorii^Uiqtiviiccii Ut tlia Churoh . M 
D«oc£u (Ldd iHulU of SdboljLStJcUQi ; eausei of Jta liownfiJl . G9 

It Iliu! Imt itn viUlU^ ■ vlTecl uf NwnlniirEKin .... TO 

Ilonc^wl eiudj' of thu KuUiorfi ocid c^f tho Scnpturoa ■ • • f 1 
SceptJuul »|>Hl iit llmiiHuii^n in lut/ ; iullucncu uT UiD dualc 
vehoul on thu Cluirvh of Italy ...... 71 

Scml-pn^^iui tou« of ijolitics iijii]i:tl4c> ; MoccliUvclU (UGS-1£S7) 78 
LUI1;^]|"J» loniT nr tIiiLiLAni>ii:i in OvrtiiJiiEi/ ; lli-ijch11u (106-LA32) 14 
iLf I'lctor^' over tLo Maoka ^ . . . « > < ■ 70 
fluoJUDbdi anil ihv Univiu^iUvs \ Wllteuber;; OB<32) - - '^ 

Hamnninn in England ; Co]et> EroAiiiufi, Mora . .71 

Tho "Eu^pLM " ; lu Ubvml LduiA on Kcligioo . . . . Tfl 

Er]uiUDft<l-l6T-l53A)thuliMLtuTof Kunrnnisra . - .77 

11;* fixm« ftcd ftoquiiematiU . >■..«• 79 

Uii " riniK of Putly " ... ft 

Hit* oliatliiWDirnt of wwTi*fntitic!Bl fUlin ud tht^Hw . ■ il 

UiD odldont of the Father* ftiid of Ihc Nev Tcatmuoat • • Si 
iHirbfion i)t bis uritiiiKi ■ ' ...... 8f 

Vihat nuy bv iafvmd from tlioir clurftctor And popolirity . • 91 
BaeapitulaliOD ; spupUJuu ot tic ri>v of a uow urd^r of tlila^i . U 




liVvtMtantuB coDgcBuJ to tbo tieniiUL miod • • > SA 

Luihcribc licn>arUui BuffinuAttiui . >^ . . . ftJT 

JLdbbUi(14S3j uuIpttrULtog* Bf 

at^-fDn(lAOl-^)i ratOTAOWiTCDt (1^04) . , BB 

FMitom PiiAMn r U WttUnbarg (laos) 89 

Uux»r7 fta4 iboolofkol BtUinDuatj M 

fdifkmi «JEpcricaco SI 

Am JDsdfioulM i* bf Mlh »l 

cf toddgeiioei i the ScboIuUo ibaaiae . • • . frl 
•pposMilw nlaoilndnlgenceab/'Telnil <iai6) . Bt 

LBUirr (HMtskifl aii]clyHT«'lVBca(l£lT)i tbraroontODU . , 9a 
nadr «OKt in (Wmiitny ........ E»5 

<mci^i BCd rtfpiiiMj bo nui^u C&jtitKO it Augiburg C^^^^) - ^^ 

Avc«d**toibcuuc«o£Icrtdbjr ALltlu <luil>>. , . . H 
1b»Lri(NwDiipaULtb» (IMS); Philip NfubuiKt.hrm , .97 

tllliTlhln't rhmiTrri Luthor^i f-cnialitj' an'I humQi 9S 

& amatM thai lb«f prtmuj oTi?!!^ PoiW I^^'iir' Aimmno . 93 

SSveflof 1^ Lolp*^ DiipciUtUn upgn Mi tludica lad opimom 99 

Be^pvdfllo tliotoitj^ A(blf«»U>Lbe Nub]i9(t620> , . lOO 

VrWtM -• Uw B«byLotLUQ Cnpttiitf <i tU Church *' (tiV^o) , IflO 

ticaflCMmmlcmcix); fauma ihupqui bull (IJ^EO) . • lOl 

product ift Cacntiuij ; bo findi politlotl, rellgIoiU| 

mad fiunirr aIUco 103 

Umma {]4aa-t»3) IQI 

TliTikal oandl&ni of GcrtOAiir ; vobkaBM of tbo ceatnl gvrcrft' 

Abortive eObfti uodfr MidttilUn (1403-1510) lo orgattlM Ui« 

EwpiR IM 

DbcQvt«d«>sddinrd«r; «ocDpWttl« bj Cht knl^M^Uudti«b 

Ao pWiMliy IM 

TlHtokcckn of CfaulM V- (1^1$) r cnnnHiunat 4!nnn In Eti» 

f^)p« 101 

BIfaUitp of Cb&riM V. aihI FrwRU I. (12I&-I&47); lU 
^Rumdi^ thfl itroai^ of tb« riviU* rorpvctivol^ ... 104 
id Chw*o« T> : hb xraduct la the kITau of lb« Bdcr- 


LKhviunaMd to tl»i)lMorW«MM(t»l); hlijaiinwf lOt 
4^f04nbc&re tLcDtei TtAiM«tonMi« .114 

ffaoDdBodtf tbabftnoftlMiEBriDD . . * . Ut 

AJBiMttaTt^EnpOTorwlthLMX; ffefturmfcf U .11 

LidlxrUtlw WArtiMrc<»>l-ll) US 

nfa mtnfa^MU ; Ubon oa tbn tnailidMa <£ Un New Tcaab> 
moAt •-.•....... IIS 

(l»V) llfl 

H6roMon*cvdcr; UftTMtlitaB 114 

TfeCmndltif R«gnii:j<t(!c]iB«itt>nppr«wLutb«naiBi il4 

The oharvuu' of Fopo AdiUn VL (iM^-tl) Rcd POpo CbuABl 

VIL (i:23-3*J 1U 

"n* Diet at Karanbcrg (i&U)i ivundj the nibjvci of Um 

Woraa dccro* u> dus KTcnlpftoM« , . , . 113 
Uabn fiTCftlliolIi; lAiAMaaml Uabopi; ilin«ioa af ilMNsdnd . tIA 

FrotMUnt I.ta^»ofTcir^a<]fi9«) U6 

BftUlc oi P*tU (]A»J ; cockbdtfflGj •e^<t Cturb* . . , U< 
TliM Dii-ldf Spinw (lAM) nfiun* to eaJbnm dw Wonu Edkt 11€ 
Sfk of Uonao aad triumph of tlw Cmparor (1W> . . Iff 

B«prc«lv«u;iiouartbaDioiaf&pire»(lS28);dwFn>taA . Ill 
OppMitiODo£L«th«rloaf«*>lrc|iilaMO . .Ill 

^ lXc« oT Aupdjiut (IMO) ; illnatl» ubd tfiiii *>t OiarU* lU 
Th« Angfbuf^ Confetdan uwl ^nlqgjr , . . . , 119 

Dvcrco ftdfioneio tfa» PMbxtHrt* llf 

The omn^ uul fiilielity of Uw Ekvlor JoLu . , * . lli 
LviliDT' at Coburg (lAAU) : bi* corT««|Kuuleac« . IM 

Hill innrnj^cv ntUi CmWuu vca Btffft (1^36) . , . • US 
Hip [iioUrMi; fflWt oF hb UEUDpli< - . . . , ISS 

ail contraronf trith KIa;i lloiuy V'Ul. (USS) . . . , IM 

Tlw luUBpmMW of Lutiicr'* UjiA^iittt^i^. bvv capkuivi - lU 

Hi» flpolcgi'iio l*tter to Heniy VIll. (1J>W) . Ifle 

Titc {K>9itioa of £nuau la roUUwi lo lie LntlionhQ mor^ 

mem - r ifT 

His RTftdiuO QftnmganLCQC tram Laibor ud bia caoao . . ISV 

Mcriu oftbt' cvDinrrVrr/ ....,, , 111 

liubUity ctf HiUBAaum ta«fiiwt a TLuforiD ..... Itf 

ThA p«aMUiU' war (lfiU&) ; bow for ovbg to IVotortantlatt . I4S 

Luibi-r luppofta tLe pHoov •••*■,. U4 




00 ji runt 



CVUtOLR AXIk Tma vwlmi (ouuax) HHrOIUIATlClV. 

IW ''^***^** oX ifae Svbs ; Utcx bcttq >o morcvuuiva la tlit 

«naiM dE FftfiM AA-l of ibo P«p« ..... IM 
Birtli AfZmJEis^ <l-ld4>; libDaliTftdMnwCcr;ti*oc]vc«tion . 1A7 
jU Gtft/w (j:>i>&-iii) he oppotMilie lynvm of pflndaax aad of 

lw«4 Mrriuo !jaJu?iJta ^nntih .... IM 

Al Kiukdela (IQIC-Ii) itrdMha* gdnlioa hy lJi« gmce of 

ClvtaiUaEu US 

AikpU Ilia friod^ d ib ucJutiT« authority of iLa iJibto IM 

f^fvrJmA^itsi^lndul^QCi:!: bfliUbtltihtaLlkt Zurieh (1510) < ISt 
tli> i|D«IJ>k« ti a KD&n jiaiJ a proKcbcr . , . . . 140 
Pabll* dk|iul*li« (llM); dw conDolI Ci/Lliocit^ Buvtiiiui Iiim 111 
Hk floelriaiu : Ji Hocnut ^lapucftdaa . . 141 

Zsidi bcfono* a sepvoca l^iotofttMt Chunib (1S14) . 141 

£«^qb'« ^ CamumUf? ao Tnw and FuIvh RoIIeIoi] " (IC20> 145 
Sp ^itw xtpOrttBg th« Mialvalioo of Ebo bc-ithdii . 149 

IW Bakfliatfiaaia BjwI {ifiltO) ; Ucrae (IMi?) i St. Gall (im) ^ 

fkh»*niiniOTi (ia99> 143 

n» nfirltMfTiniT reroUitioii i« alio 4 poKtietil ooo . 141 

ClwUm of LaiLo aud ZwIngU ; llicimLlt^iu uqwdvocc . 144 

ODnpAJ^*^ OtfniwaUHD of Lather lU 

Mfc*|B*g c^pAtrittlm aodrdS^d ia Zwlagb 14^ 

LMtfrr bd ih* radnuirtf t» thn Chur^li of lUimn . . Ui 

lb* &Hliariilio «oatroT«ny betvrtvn iIm LnUwrnnv and the 

SvIm ur 

fHwoij of dn it«vlria« ef tbe Kuob^rict .147 

ntfveofiBlOQi; LaUiar, Ziriaglc^ Calrio 14$ 

Oimpi! t^hrah^r'a vdi«nin}r« au^aJhk fh« Zvtnglun doctmic 149 

naOos«eftPMa(MMrb'aiY(>AS0) 1£| 

na waa h ; ntrtcqucxt i«ilvaj of tliv conCTOTAiv^ 0^^) - 1^ 
fittilrrnihi of tb» Stim Kafonaatioa ; var b«tn<oaa the Catb- 

ofio aad PtotCAloai Caatoai IH 

DwMliaf ^wlagb (taai) . !&» 

Oc 'Dcalr of Poaao t Fruc«auatbm clwckod . . . .164 
|%auiHoaflf lU L^UpjaafSm^lt^d (l^ai) , ... 154 
FW to^wiW dJ M tlid Ibv tap joAn (1AS2-4V) Inai cvnyitg 

out ilia AngiWrK Decnc . , . ISt 

CMkaUo lyM^aa (iaS6) l»i 

Coaf«tmc« ol tha opp*)dng putloa (lJkftr--4l) i Contarinl . . 151 
Thii I^nj^TJij of Sninlfnliln hon wt^^lcncd , . , . lU 

ftUvfSo* 0( Saxnn)' joinif tLm Kntjidror (1A4C) .... 16ft 

LMtd«;» of LiiLhfi 1M 

TbaralalioatorLitthar «ntl MnUni?Uir>n to onch Adior > iSC 

Uotoaolbon'B fiuK-nJ ftddruff on LathiT (IMfi) • . > IG9 
Lut^lsr^n |>awL-riuicHDnmcoee , remulu of DUUicigc^ > . . 14> 
Tfa« MrnalcAldio war (154 G-47> 1 defeat ol Cbo Prol09tUt« a Mnht 

berg (1347) . . IM 

"nio Anffibnrjf Itiwrinii (L>4S); Chwle^i plan of pnciGpadon . iSi 
&•» diiappointcdi action oi the Council of Tront < > 1$4 
Udoo ol Fibul m, mill Fnuu^L» L t^n^l Lim (IMT) , , 1S5 
BMbUnw to th» Ao^ttirg luteHm ta North Gflnuftn^ ; tha 

Uipilc tuldlm (lA^H^ i iW 

Bflt(,fir pro^p^cianf rmEPBUnrliini lAt 

Uanrioa tnni agikiast Charlus; <IriTM him oatoE litaHpraok 

Ci»a2) lar 

TvMLyofPiuwiii (]Sfi2) . . . , l«r 

reac« «! Augsburg (lAAA); iha juB rsfirmandii tlie EocloaLBotl' 

0A[ R«S0rTAT.VH1 . . . lift 

Abdjciitioborchu]Di(ia5C) IM 


mi RRP<iRUATlCklf a TDK MCANI^tKAyiAV ttlTlODdhCe, tM tU 

aitjLTOmc ifATioae, akd rx ucituakt. 

Bpfi^ of l1l« RdWmaUoa; ageoe; of Gcnnana; inducace of 

WltTpnhpTff , , , . . . , - 170 
Hie ScJiRiiinAvUa kb-:doa:ifl; tli<3 Uokm of Cftlotup (1397) > 170 
Chriflliui 11. of IX'UQiuk (lltlA-?3) farora F^tcaUaUun, thtm 
driwi ba«k 170 

B4 bdcpoPOiJ nnd mjccoedod hy Pradcric I. (ifiSS-SS] . . ITl 
6pnw] of IfUthmiTil^ni in Di.*iimurk Id 1ii«r«IgD . < , ITS 
Undop ChriiUao IJL the KQformatioTk b UjcaUcod . . .ITS 
Oo&BiituUon pftlio Ihtnipli PrutctUaL Chivi^h < . . • ITS 
UvtOMmrk movDmcaM in Lnbtfcl: imd other atitt, in connaciioft 

with Iho Itcfonnatloa - , . . . . iTft 

BatvbUdhniHril u{ lVM4<PtAmiMru ill Ncjrwri}' (lAAf) . ITS 

Otaf aad Lauraa^to PoMrwa preach I^Mftantivin in Svoden 

(lAlt) . in 

GwtavQi Vam (ia!»k60} fkwn It * 11* 


ft fa •adytoJ <^ifcft Plat of n'o^cTM (iMQ . , . . HT 
Wbi WM dofld vlih fccUMticol propcrt/ • .177 

FkOnra «l nbMquuLt •flofta loraAorv Uklliolidua ITT 

BSsotff iIk exfcntiaaof Llaes is BoLemia (lllfk) . • ■ 177 
Qoirile nomniMti vn^ hoih ttEI^ohi mil nulonal . , 17B 

Hm liana nd of ilia « i^ for tha Lkjiy ; hiitOfy of tLo pmotie* of 

xiUiiAUiig it n« 

ne Pr^ad Unlrenitir AmIoth forthe fJlrnquirtB * I7> 

DivlnoBoriiM CimiaiUj; tbo Tobontca 110 

Ziik>(l3«^US4) durirlewkr IAD 

n* Ankla*«fPrt{oe, th«pUtlbnii oTUio Utrftqulati (UU) . 160 

rr—Tf fail 111 nlilin tfirn I8t 

wn heard M Oic Conndl DTButJ (14^5) . . . .181 

H^CompacUlA * 18S 

CbcdSct u# Catlidjiei lunl TaburLks J93 

Tbii riM ortfa« BrclhfVa la Uoltj (drod llMl) , » IBS 

FAVuraUe rvcdpikm of LutLor&nleni b^ Uw IIunLtes . . l83 

Ttift DtnqidtU rafliatt tojrdn Pcrdtnud kn tbe Srn&lcAldlc wiip ins 
pcrweoiba orB^bcmian ProiCitlAain < . IBf 

eondbbm ot Fulaad aI tlu* liuie of tin? KvTuniitttioii , tffi. 

Bov J^QtMUatlfa m taitr«dQ««d ia& 

Ue tfrtmiot tfae qbv 4oc<riDo ia FoUah Ptuhja Kod U Liroma 

(UM) . p . IBS 

U. (Ifii8-7t) fararabb to It ISO 

IkMftrim unoDf Freiwtaatti : »;irv«(l of UnilioiiLDliiii IAS 

Jafal^l.«MO(14»»-16«0) .107 

Uidoa of Lpthrinit Cftltuti*, diid Broduun, tn Uio SjnoJ of 

8codofalr (1A70) 187 

gi|iMll9ofrtglMigrMrt«d«oftUtlii)CbiiJ<i:h«« . .IBS 

n> BcfasiUoo blioJc«eJ bu> Unocvr . . .IBS 

ttfUlTf'*""^' t'*^")"l — ^''I — H - 1** 


CUHa WoBC* to the aeooixl eoasniEii>a of Etiixmtm 111 

Bbyrth(ia09),fMiil!7, udttkcMlon ttt 

StalUdMPnitj iMj«# tftWftt (>r[04ni ftad B^d^lti . I9i 

Qb awal pwCTMid hnbE^ of Btudj, ■ . • IM 

S«— *'< twfctfw on " CkawDoy " (i»t3);hbiudv« km 



EbciruTunloD (I5$1!> > • i IH 

Bi* r^unro and lov« of rvttretnent ... . - IM 

Obli^d Ut Hr iVom PoHd (ISSI); mt AogooUnia; »t Bttra; 

nrlimui to F^iriA ,,...-. IM 

Otklii^Ad acftlD to tjt OQ account ^ p1>0^* agtinit dw laiM 

(I53i) , . . . IM 

At brwKl'^^^)! >tu(^«Hcbnjw> wrltot tlWlnititutol" . ll^T 

Bli mutiru m i-UiUjfuAiu^ LLiia wi;rk < . . . i « Itf 
Hi* chitncIcrlitLcA u II writor ADd n man .... - llM 

Uifl ^op^u of t^M Uitj]« a« die Efi>l« frUudAcd f>f tlv<;Uiit« • 199 

HIji pani?optEon of ihv Cliurch cind rcrcivaco for II , . . 100 
Hio iloctriiio <ff j>rO(!vMinatiQ(i . . » . . . 9M 

Lb nituclicd tj tlw docirluu tm [irLu:iJc[ik gn>Lin[lJ • • « tOl 

Ujji v^unioii rjoQipAfi^d yi^th tluU <^i Aujptliaa . - 109 

Hid nbilitj MS o coaimoDUt£ir .,,»•>• flOl 
Not EUk oitrcmlBt m rapoft to (onni unl ril«i . . • SOS 

llm iv.'vcbtiy of hi» I'jiupvr ■•>••!• IM 
nil ^ttty tlogu] urlJ) iJiu OU TisMaraant flptHt . . . SQA 
UIh bomU|;« to Uw ftnd toiua ol'Uw «xaJUtioa or God . Mft 

LMibi\iiui la tb ffX^patHoa tluui LuLhor . . • t IDS 
Hii gr»atn««of mlod ard ariJiATUiLer . • • . • SOd 
I^Utbo court oC the Duchefla of FcrTain(]fi«G} ... 107 
4lopi at G«n<^«u on Iiia rvturu (1CI36) ..... SOf 
&ftDifira eubjv(;t W !^avqy< nclu4iT«< iU uiiiop«DiJ«iio6 (lAJJ) . )08 
pRflvnUat Ufluciiced from Bomo <..,*. 208 
Kjqi(il>frm vfthn Kiatiap fri>m Gencvft tnd MUbllrthnMot of ^«U 

c«taQUuii iViB^) 909 

Fu«1 (t48V-lfiflih) ; IjEh biflUiry nod tiluiw^tor; bEt pmAcUa^ aA 

Gonoya S09 

XH«.-<iiit«iit llwro with Uio novr cculeiibjLloal >jiloia • • SlO 

ftuie of iDt'raln 910 

Forol mOTca CoItui to rcmdn imd uUflt Hm (1090) « . 911 

fiuirt nt^LiliLliom uT CLunih. dlA?IpUa« 119 

OppoBLtioo lo ibvm . . , • * 919 

Tlic prenclicrs »fuio t> CbdailalAtAr the SAvranwal > • • 919 
' Thvy ure Imnijhfld hy ihe pitiwn» (I5»») . < . . IIS 
Caitln resides ftt Straeburg ; nEtcnde tlia Qennaa n>J(foQB Ooa- 

Hia opinlob of Lulber i bj* reUlioai to ItlaUticilio& . . 914 
Rm w4mA-& .......«•■ lU* 

U rMalladtE>G«aeTa (1041), and «b/ , , . llfc 






B* rakcOiioft to f««ara •.>«..* lit 
Tl« dvatfLVvi 4ilvl1 «n 1 MvIudivT.inl «yil«iii .... 11T 

XWe UtUo CchmU t llie Coondtorr HB 

TlfSUu nparrhloo of iki peopiv by jinAi:lMfrt «nil uJcIcn tl* 

tW VoorvblQ Compaojr 219 

CaltU ulic* pin Ia frutiUi tlia civil Uv* > ■ . • til 

nnv tb« ptMiphm v#rv frhown . . St9 

niMffinfTinp nrirnt: ikt UboHiaaa * tW 

C«nfa£D*Uon oTiBlTuvPt cbifiws i>r Calibrs op^vwitsnit . . St. 
Svmilj of tlM G«ii«Tu Uw« . « m 

EiBjE^Oft* iatcJ&ftaca : lU Uiilorr • > . > . M 

FrwiiM.1 fn ihf hrkidifl Agf4 t» 

n* BdbRMn did cot *dTooatc tolcraUon .... Mi 
Owilrli of CaJviii und efTurU lu iutlioliUtv Ixln . ■ lU 

B abfte builAoJ (UM} for awBlUag tho dcwiriao of prodofdA*- 

tio> t» 

CvpaMoncif Cuic1!t^(lfl44) ..... . Ssa 

Bfic^ftid HcrrdDJ ; bU Uib^irj Mid ctijimct«r . • . SM 

^ book on tkw " Errun cif iha Trinhy * (IflSl) . . .Ill 
tt«MCOEu!1wot^ll»«fi«jtondoii<^ CtrLatU^ty" . . 128 
THed for hemj b-jfon? a E«oiu Ovtbolio Ul^utl ixt Vkaao . 2S6 
TVoef fnnaibnl frrjin Gisnorm , . . . . 128 

Be ^otpw tad c«ino« to G«dOtk (lUS) « i * ■ tM 

1« kTivXed >iid trU . . . . • . . 228 

It ««rBTkUJ ftiid buraod il lb* fltako 230 

A^tncy of Ci>ii& ID Uio tmou^tioD i tcj^i^ot of GuiMt • 291 
n* «x«aatknt oT Sorvotui jfaniirsllj &|i|injVod .... IJII 
yWllfcw oSort* of dM Libcitidoc I cJiair final onsrlLniw (l&OS) 24fl 
CW^fa*! BaUpUed tabor? (uul vui lultm^nvu - . 334 

Sft ImI /om ; tlu vnri^t^ of hit vinplcytni^nU ; bu iafimutiai of 

Wd/ 23ft 

HU U*t iOnn (i&**) i hit Intarrluv vlth ihu CouMiil . 233 

tlU la^ncrrkw vrli^ the proacbo* . * * • < 231 

telnaM of Ui chftrwuv 233 

C^Jahai kj* orophMlt on ibo »orar«j|[Ql;f of Ifod . . 233 

— WV^*«««^locirin[lMrt; 233 

l\ doM Mt rnnmlep iho gu rw pfii cnt of llo Cbnrah to tb3 «iv1l 

Mdoriij . . 233 

lM<taid orjuilntloa Ij npubElcui . * . - . 244 
H iw«*Ci ovtUjr HT««|{«t7 bj ax*.t[ik{ Iho tUvIoo , . 2tQ 

rfrt ftfMiid^ In tri tlnif tIiti rj-ff rrfhiritf . 241 



Tint BEFOititft'rioK m pkaxqe^ 

Tba &tTbonn« ami PtirlfArrmnt opponv itncirlnjLl tnoovailaoi . %M 
££Faut o£ tlua n^puiLl «f Iho PritgiuffltiQ tianotloD (151S) til 

Baferm cnuLOAiea firvio Uumiiiiivm «*>«!• Ml 
Pr«nd« L (IM&^7) ', the patron of Icomilig Atld nrt . . SU 
LcAirrv(U50-lft3Ct), tlu* Fntiiarnf LLmRcfgrmHtioaj hiBAttdiM 

and writLn^ . . , * %%M 

fliA mysCiCiJ turu ; hi* pupil, Hrifoaua .... Ai4 

BiXtUitx ^d tbc SoibouPv AuJ of E^liauaaat to LoAvre ud Us 

•ohool 3lt 

HdTwjt BupproHied in Mgaui (1525) . . • • • t4& 
Unrsnrei, Queen of Nunrra (1493^t54S); ber ifrnpuhy vlUi 

(be Mjtftlcnl Scltool .949 

Hot wimii<^a ; alie fUv^jn the ProtcsianCa vllliom Jalixtng then MS 
Fnnoid L oppOkM tlie Surbonae ; iiipporte Ws oMer . . . M7 
Clioag^ Hb caur»; ciigagCA ill portvcull<pu .... MS 
Doubtful po«U3oD of FmnriA r&^ir^riii^ thti R^hnrMion * * MS 
Romci KoQUcsanci!^ tbo K^formatioD i the tltrcc rJTnU • i MV 

Wh/ Ciirrlnlnm wjuhUaIEVimI KftO 

Spihi of lyyyola atuX tho CaUiolla Huiatkia . . , . 9fi0 

Uabelzkw (H«3-ICC3) SM 

VicnUfttioQ of Fruci* L vid itt ooav«jucac«i . . . Ut 
He ponocutCB Uio Prot«>tMti (U64) i coortft tl« ulUuoa «f iht 

I,nihnrnTi prinrta . , ' >^ , . . , 2fll 

Sprvtul of ProlvBlJinEiflm [q Prvncci ia tis miga ... US 

Innuviici; of Giruui-ft jkad of Cotviu 303 

B^Dry n. (1C4!-fi9j; fai»hniitlllly Ur thfl&^foruiati'^n . , U4 
Ita prc^i-cai *.«...,.., Ur4 

lli« CotvIniFis hold ti (roncml S/nod (IM9) , . . . ttA 
l^mscutioD aJler tlio uwity of CaWoa-CuubruU ; dcftUt of 

UeEi>n. (Kfl9) SU 

lldtdvin of tlia BuSeren . ....,•. IM 
Ho* the nugucriobi bccArao a p^titicAT (uttj • • • . S6i 
Cnthftrin^ do MaiUc^I ; h^ r^l&Llitnf To Hvnrj «nd hil mlMnn I 

aad tcT chtu-nctor 14' 

FniarUlT. <i:^:^l?-«0) la cuotroll^ by tbo Oubtoj divlr hitfnj 

ind cbomcter . , . . ■ . ■ • V 

DiKDJitfDt of tJjd Bourbon* o&d CliAliUoai '> • • 
Coofiflctlon of tlio gnat nobki vrlU) tho CalTlnlflti . 


Ivia traie^oa to ttc>a mbialAJoA ; tbclr pA^eucv . . HO 

maicqqcpcw; )^q EdiijK of LoniorLatb 0^^*^) - ' - ^^ 
i^Caj vi|1»rt* Ikjf iicIjUlju i^f tW rmd-^UiiU fur iLLvrt/ vf 
wcrthip . . . . . . i . . * St9 

JTbn ScbU* Gcifcnl ca]l«4i lOKCtber U Orlouu (1580) . . ESt 
II of Coml^; NaTniTt< p]iti>-rl iin^W Hiim^illiLnot ' ' fEt 

bv t]iocjitb]iftUual l*tct&AiuDtbiii SGI 

FramavJ V ^ "^^^^ ^^ FraDvis It (1560) ... HI 
CatbamA dc M«l>^i ; bcr viittuJ gunliimBbip or CharT» DC. 

(16e&-;«), uJit^ncy H3 

cf Lflospiul . . , KB 

ciiXa VroUumats HI 

McnUBjrencu JuiJ St. Aa'lc4 furm iBb TriumTlmw . aft* 

~n«C<>Uoqaf uPoiu/ (UeiJ; Bax« VG5 

Tbc &Uct of £<. <I<miii;iL (150E) gmutd & mvojauns of tolcn^ 

tki& 9^9 

n« Mfcwcr» of Vvaj (1^*3) bogins tbo ciril iran • « S4}r 

Hti(Maoc« J^uehi In vctr^dBrcpu t^ik 

tit tUoMtt', bMU« of liroux (l&Cf); niwuanniioa <f 
GidOT(iMiii) eao 

Uw KdktOf AmboiM tlftSaj; tbt chlncUF of it . . Il«» 

lit llaxiKsou uko up vrDf ; Peace of LoaxfumQiLu (IfOS) , 270 
^ConfianfM* »£ BftfUlHiti (IA4A) ...... «rO 

k«wa] of tLo KAJ uaJor SpAnieh influcaocj bnttloa cf Jornno 

■BiS UufiCOfitOur (Ifiaa) STl 

TtMvofScGffrmiin (lA?^); rooaoai thil itinii(<q««<l lh«Conrt 
10 ia^« pcAC«i farEifieiJ l9"iui [ilaccd la tLc honda ol ihe 

IlpBrital tf4id« In Eiin>|HJ : vlll l''nu>cc moke war on Spala V . 971 

oi« - . . . 179 

covMatoCevrt; ha^cliimc^cr tn 

ovigto of iha UiiuiLen of Sl Bjtnhol^Kiifrv (idTS) * . sn 

ti bcvo pUanocI ^juUorV 976 

J«7 mt MjkJrV] mul u EcQW 2f f 

Sffbcft tf tlw trAAttcra 00 the ntrrinag Hu^craoti , . 97T 

TbpuCf of Um fVilktiquFJ or UbnnJ CatlioEict b fomvd . t77 
OvfBftUaiion of iho Lvagus . • , . - . tri 

rtooldoftof UtarjUI-OAU^fr) . . . - ITS 

bcOBSOBkaUoD of l<4Tvtc 4ad Coodu V ^'tu* V. (IMA) . V9 
War of th4*''nrt«U«iri«i*-<lAB6) . - . tr> 

^^m ntii coHTEtrrs* ^^^^^^ 


^* AMnBainAiIon of tJxj tjvjwfl bjr ordm of Uttnry llL (15S4) 

%n m 

H« join* the nrmj pf Hi'nry of NuTnrro • • 

m ■ 

.s«o ■ 

UtTiiry IV>; blaiTikrvitb tbcUni;ub; Uiobotlleof Itt/OOOO) SS: ■ 

Hii fiiiiM-t wiUi AlMSindor of I'upmn (3SB2) 

f»0 ■ 

ALjuritiaa of lii-arj JV. ; lU motitui (I5l>3) i tU ufTuct < 

. ^1 ■ 

sst ■ 

. $sfl ■ 

IW iiluLjalalr^UoQ of tUvj IV. ; tin Edict ?£ Xiuitcs (l-'.^a) SSS ■ 

^_ Tlin IlujfuriiioLi bttcomaan IJiiUlcd aoddpfcn^Ta partj 

. 18A ■ 



^^^V **^ TUB nnrftHUATioir nr utB rraTnianLAift^s. 


P Prosperity anJ iotulligoncc of iho poople ol Uta Ncthfltlnadj 

tM ■ 

R«]:LTlna (if Jm FfBlliU'l&nda ta tfau (?i^rnia.E] Sntptre , * 

. 180 ■ 

flW H 

PiiTde^'utitiy cdiclsKrl' CLailoA V. (15S1 SC4O * < 

. SflT ■ 

ManjnHiotas It Br»«»<U (ia!f3); Liidie^< hymn , 

asT ■ 

CiintlTinod pcnccution hy Chjirlct V* ) Bumbor oC oaor^fit 

. am ■ 

U8 ■ 

FAEiaiii^thl nnd duHjiolk ohdKkctjcr of Philip 11^ (l5EiS-9EI) , 

. U9 ■ 

nil uiijioimtArLl)- !□ dm K'flburtaadi . . . • 

no V 

Tho (E^At Qobk'ii; Onogo, EguuTOtl ..... 

. 1BD ■ 

Uarguvi <A iWma j« isado Hvf^Dt (J&SO) ( bar cftoraoter 

301 H 

999 1 

Ccmiluijt of llw i^orurniaunt b pUicod Id hU hjuuls . 

SOS 1 

Pli&Up kccpt Iq tlie N^AlbcrUadii SpaaUli rtgimcuU - 


Ba vr^b»< navt l^«ho|irloi .... 

SOI fl 

. i» H 

Clmrftritnr at the n^jtlra; WHlJixm of Orunge 

isa ■ 

PluUp n^Qutfi Uw [wrumting ICiIivU - . . • 

, S04 ■ 

TIm loquIiiIUoa uid U* cruclllun - . ■ ■ 

334 ■ 

Or«n^ ftnd E^ont tr^iDjiljLia of GnniroILe to tbe Eiag 

. st»a H 

Oovr fju Ol-utoUo WM reDporinble • ■ • > 

S04 1 

He lonve^ tb« cuunTiry (tAfli) 

. ie« 1 

Dp«cch of WilUMnk of Orange ft^uDst tbo potkr ^ tbe gorej 


ment .... , . . . 

SM ■ 

h^ont cooa 10 Spun to unlightoa ihu K'^^ 

sdi H 

Be a duped bj the uAor^acop itt PLlUp * . 

30* H 

m ■ 


Thm " CewpranlBs *" (]5«d> Vtr 

Tht Bcfmt «Hoan ProtoatiAt pnMhing ontctlu of Iho eitJM 399 
nifip pniiBri W mil^l« lii« v<^ti(;j ; (Lv prwf iff Ui^ per- 

My ■i9ii 

ToBtcA^ (1£M> affft 

Hh lucent rakn a tniwwhU ttm CmiT^^'ltfnwf of NubtM . 300 

OsttK* l«^vc» tho oonolTjr 30V 

TiwtjTiinni of FhUip ; mlmwi vt di« Duiv d' AUji (I^GT) . 801 
Ob krrwti Kgrbont an4 Horn ; Ui« " Council of BLood " . «0l 
Alnt ^efiaftlJ Lvoti of KftMoii; fip<^oaL nnd Hor& irc b<JiOAd«d 

(ta«s> sot 

Alrft'«piUk«l telAtioa<UtiO) SOS 

TIh rpcrii of mirt*on b Avakvuod -...<• 30i 

SotUail ftod ZcAkaJ Mdofst i ffcic n^ujiLitutJon ; Onu^o nftdo 

Sodihulder (lOTI) SOi 

AlvKdtlotMilbythopoopIo; bob MCdlod (1073) . . 30£ 

RBqD«ruRiKcee<bbim(UT3) S0» 

Grovili oC B IVornimit tUic uruTor Orange .... SOA 
FlMMknaa^ KriLaat Lnroku tut )jo1|>^ lliu Pjiciricnttun of Glioat 

<ia:«) ao« 

Qm Joh0vnocc4dtf Koqoosoni (L57G) *0< 

lUrUtoB brtvtcD Uio Soutbcm *ad NQnhern rrovtacoii . 306 
AlaxBiuI'VOf rihTTDii itiiu^r^cl* l>nn John (lA'H) . iOA 

IW Uuccltt Cul«ii ronD«4 m Uit ^*fTlh (lfiTl>) , . a07 
rhii|JL«Ty td WUlbn of Onuijfa (IIISQ) ; hU '• Apolngy '- sqj 

Hi* (bwvt«r , . . p * 30» 

Hi* umuloMka 0»*) 308 

Hm Cdthofi? FroriiMiM vubmlt to I'AmA SOU 

nulip'n LalcDtfoQioTcmoTo tiloij dcalb «f FvmaO'^^S) - 810 
Rrw of thm Daidi lUj^Min; dtauiim of Fhllf^i lUiit of Apatn .311 

n«A««l>^rtiM« 811 

nwT^lnceoC Cali^aiKa 811 

n« CaiTlftbU il> not ailo|:rt tbv pruciplo of loleratbn . ^IH 

Wwvcsk RrvlMUiiU Juid dAbolk* Ui rwpctft (« Lu- 

ulftrawo . . • • • 418 

Wtti«a ol OrftAfftt «dpouu» rolifloui llbortj I [ 8 

flianinfij an tba nhtloa of Uid Clmit:h bj the dvLl no- 

Ibtffi^ 3U 

loi ifavAniJnuA cwtroveriT . . • |U 




{nllrwhti; of 'lie R.i<viv;il (if Irjmiiii;* . , . , , 3lf 
CjArdioffll WoUuy a ttivnd of lonrning . , • . SIS 

'fjaJniu (J- ;a3tt) nnU PtUli (il. iwa) 317 

Tho pcguLurtljr of tin? KngTiil^ lli.HfnfTii*lioD .... SW 
Nn proniincnt EfJidcr* jujioii the CocUaaQt .... 319 
Hurjp/ Vrn, BL^eks Ji;)ivorcti«Wira CI«mtfnlVlL(l3»r) , . 913 
Hottry vn'iticct iko power af llio Popo and Uio olor^ in Hog- 

la[iJ 01» 

RavivcA iixc itfltuto of "pirKmuniro " (1^31 J . , . , mij 
AiMi-iMiR.ll I'y the clor^ u Ht/ vf the I^h;;|i»1i Chonoii . 330 
In (livctn-i;il iiTLcl innrHi^-L Anne BalcE^ik (lAAS) . • . - S^ 

Thaitctol bup(«iu&uj (1&91) 8>l 

AboUplung <jf iliv moii&Bli»rJV9 (UtiU) 331 

A CatboUi; tDd R ProtMlanL partj' ia Ou CoudijU xnd Id tho 

CliiiFcli 3n 

CrtktiULur londa du- PrutiUiUiiit patiy -, IUh chAnwt«r , . , 3S3 

TbomoB Cr>mw«U; (lOrcUnar S}S 

'Ilm EnAludi Biblu isiicd bj Uio King's AUtlitn'Uj' • ■ • 333 

Tho Tt[i Arti[?Toii ^1^36) Saa 

lliD KcbclUQbtif use 9E3 

Thn Cithollc pun/ in the utccdcnc/ ; tha Six Ardckt (IAS!») 394 

Thtf FtIL nf C'romvi^ll (1510) AH 

Aau^onJi^ii of Iht; Iwij pikrllo* dJIct Hcnry^a deatli (l&IT) . 313 
Prot-^Tniiiimii pnivHiia uiiiti>r KdA^rd VI, ... . ;d33 
Crubflicr reiiiforaod hj thaoiopioiiB from the ConilciPOt . - 313 
Thn Brtok of Coxnninii IVn/ftf (ia4fl, lfl&2J ; the Arfk-lwof K<f- 

Ligioti {U39J 33^ 

iha |irii^ii;A9 U>o lapU (ijr thu pujiuUr fi^liu^ - . . . AtH 

Vkll vl' \]\*i l*ti>te<-U\v SornenuL'C (I5M) 3S3 

EUvim] of iLfl coclcsiistlcnl itnlntc ftir 

ECeAi'lluuiiLry movcmi^nL ujider Mjiry (1AA3-^3J . ■ • SfT 
Ijbtioritioii or tlw Cftthclifl lyatpm; ber viuiiige irllh PUl£p 

n. C1&34) ar 

Hiirljnlom of Cr&nmtT-, KfdTiT-, nnrl I^mer (ISa&-fia) 33t 

TLe (!haraci<r of Cniiiinifr iZf 

tTiipop:;lHrliy of M;iry »gil tt* t^ux^j , • ■ . . 3SI 

!■»..... 391 

Bcvtdoo M tbo Artk'lfM <19fi») m 

A«t of SvTBVtTnwTy nnd A«U <>f UQi'onniij (lAfifJ; Court {>£ 

ni^ ComiuUikMi <JA«3) Ul 

TWAUDfBt of th« CftltfilJCA £41 

PbtincUoo botwfva tbo AcjiJlC»ii C1iur;ili u><J iho ProtcaUU 

CSnircluii en ihn Coniliuiat ^M 

Littl« ooi>t n >T tf nj <m lvpi«eopAo/ in th* Jir«t ago of vho H«ft>r 

owlb lai 

nvMmol rtbiida ^f tbn Kn^llih >ai1 tbi« CaniinontAl Churchci 389 
CnaajTT »s*cri9 Uko fodlji [>f Uic clergy .... 338 

Aftrcf^ttit^l of ihi- An)ilkiiu uuil ConllTioitf4J Cliurcliu on pro- 

ilnUaatfjJt ...'..,,. 333 
Tho Ai^UftibiaiD ui4 Ctliiaiitic doctrine compEirDd . . . 3S7 
|ftfluciic« vT Calvin aoJ i^ blip vrittajpi iti Kiij^Uni « , 33$ 
AngUoui illfirca noi H^M preiltvtjjinrljini . . , , «3S 

AnKttcaD JocnincCalvtoiAic oa the Kucliotifi . 840 

nte ilDctrinv nprantNl in tLu Arliului • . . • , SAI 
TW I^vibU objfctiOHB tf* tho ^atmcnti , - . . S4A 

Ttowof J«irti BuJ otLt'c Kti»bvtJmii biehopB . . » « MS 
TbA Qneni'* opfmlllm la chELngn In iho ritnil . SM 

Upt «iifatrtiia< <f iizuronuU/ M5 

CanwrlflitAD AdvocBte af rrpibjlerlikJLiBUi (13T3) , , 343 

TW WuiEig 4l IjU prindplv* oa Ulo l^o»Q*ft liupnizitw^ - . $iB 
IUm od' Uir Jiiii«pva-l<ai« : thclt ptiin^iplw . • , . M7 
Bofilwr on Cburcfa gommmcnc mid on Uio ralatlon Af dinvch 

md 8bito SiT 

ICartf «f llur wDCTOTenFy of ihe AngillrnnM Aod PLxrttiins 349 

LMd BMoq'i TtvUv of it 319 

Kg ioottocWn la EnuJjmd -■--<>. SSO 
Coo»Mr|r)n 4^ lh«< Si'ottiiifi KpfivnjiiTinn ivilfi Klrrihaib . . 9St 
Cfaacvclcr </ iht SiQiUah no-billty ; of lIic cotumam . . 9^3 
Th* *irr^ l^jTniii ^nd vii;iouii ; iJitilr wvulih .... 3j)I 
Tr»tiB«&l of Pratutiintitin ondur thij l^L^-ot Muy (lUMiO) V5t 
lUlsnuf Kttoa AuB li>i;C^Lftiii>u((lJJa) .... 3^3 
TIm «duMUon c^ Kdov : l^tii to proAiTli ; n cipdve in FFvnCA 

(I»i7> 9AI 

Bi nablM >t OwMTft (ti>il4-3»); bin " Mon vinous B«iclnji-n of 

Wmco" 3M 

Tka CbtftOftBl uT ibu LorJt of Jhn Nragn^tioa <]5ST) > . M 

tm ooxTKins, 

The pnoflUiig at Knot ; UunDcium . , . . , IM 
ElkabediHiihiit irQop«loudbbolord»(U€0) ... VM 

DmJik uf Uic Quti^ii-Ecijuot (UtO) ', legal osUbLUianfit idfn> 

«fUwuni (I1«0> S5t 

Hm •GvliMUtfLiuAl ]iroiiorljfi tiov used - . . ■ ■ 9J>f 

Bttvn of Alu^-, Qutvn of Scctn, fram Frucc (I^^Oi ^' 

idmAOUr 8ft7 

Stiv dui»i nut mlat rnAcBUuLiKii ; gtuiiuds of bxr poUc^ . , AJJS 
Kjmc'j oppoaiUon 1o the mnti in her CbApa]{1fi«l) . . 3^0 
Caataroncw of Knoi nail lLc Qui;4;u . . . , ■ , SGQ 
01ieir4fiW« 0(1 the '* ro^mcn of voDiea " .... SSI 
Oa tlio t'i^hx M' vubjoctc U raMil Uioir Microi^ - , * 161 

KoLA'a uiirnkm of Mnry , S9A 

Uo proachod ijc%)£st ibe dAaeicg ■! Uolyrood; uotfa^r oonlkr- 

<ovc ivitf] Mir; ......... 3l34 

Tho pcfifilL' supfimH the miuu In the iviuiarn dimrlcu (lAAA) . 3(14 
Kd^x cI^dijnilH tht^r (vaJucL in A coriTvmtioa widi lliu Queen • 334 
£uL>2( umlgutfd lurcoaviraia^ lu:r LiiT^-a .... Aftti 

llo fl^kcribftt ht» axi^nvtAiian b^crrv lit^r uiil tbu tYiij Council . ;9a7 
Kjiox'b public pnjcr for tLc (^e<iii aod tiio realm . . 34f 
Hn coniJiUn tolnniilon of Catlialic wonhlp « vSn . . . stfJI 
Mar^'« nutfnngo with UarnJi^ (1&C6J . , . . > S60 
It dUploAMita RUstbeili ; Mary'e hope* ceitUv in Spain and tha 

Gu3ct 30} 

Muf Ji*? ciT Itiutg hr D^iraluy auJ Uig JcaIuui ugUl«M> (I5$i}) « 370 
Mic^'t rcpugnanw to Dflmley am] Ami?]i]iH<nt to Bothwdl . 379 
Cvcumvlunt^t'* precciliu;; ibc uurdcv L>r DornLoy . . . 373 
Abdtif-lltiEi or tUc gucwn liv Botliwt-U (UC:) , , , S74 

Ha U dlvorcQii froiQ liu "ilc iiad marrjei MatJ' (t^€ 7) . . 374 
6fa« vnmnUu* lu ihti lDnI« at CjuUnj UiU (IfiOO . . . 373 

Tfa# piriblMD of thu " ooiikpt ivtCrav " 17« 

MArjiibdkftlc* in fhvor of bcrson; moJees MuiT«5recTOt{13GT) 374 
Coiuiliutluu uf i1i4 Kirk; die Svcunil BuoL uT DiidpUnc 

tia?;-(il) 373 

Fall «Ubli»h[UTOL of On PRobytorinu vyttom <l5a3> . . 330 
HjVy nvApAt from I^Oflilevon (iDtiHj ; In dcfuCod JU L«ngii4l« 

(l^Gl^) ; H priKOcr in Ln^lami .... - .300 
t(oitltlt7 ol tha CmibDiJc tUjkctUm to £U£ibfllti , . < ASI 

She«ua<i«}uOpto tb«KHtLvrbuidiX>^BS) 333 

Gundon of Muy (laaO »k 

J«f«at of lh« SpiJiidh ArosuU (15MI) 333 




fiBte of thd Catlulio Ibcftctlao «n Ol^ IrUh 
Ijnl Bacoa oa tba nttj to tJV*t IreUad 



Kirrtinm to [Vo(aajuib(ra orjiuii«<l (i> tul/ ant! Spnia . . SSS 
I'UfillCAJ cvodilwo (/ luly iu ita bcwia^ ua Fmlcitcuititfuj 3SA 

TW MmpUoa of the CiMireh uodu-ttood hj lEHllam . sh» 

ArvUdof BrMcia(<LllU> m 

D(ia4Q<lllU-l33L)4lUi]k*lJMtaaipUiiiiJ puicur^liut uut UiBCaiU- 

olbdogmM ««T 

Hb U^ «f t^ rcMorol EinplM 388 

Htiw BocinKvSo{lfft^;A) cn.'AtiUivCbiir.liujia thiJvlvE^ . 5S8 
Tbo vpbit of lAx lUnoiiMTicc ; Lckurcntiuf VbU& (d. Uti^j , 3Sf» 
TW MTikc of IluuuiiiURi ADiI lu tiinlu i tbo jaaJuiaioa < « 8A0 
UUhoioA of Lnlluna wri^ugt in Itaiy . . . , , 390 
l^ni>i«#l4acUiD la IiaN a iLioflc «r dc^crou . . . . 3!>1 

TUt 4>r«ur)' uf Ditiutf Lora; CuMUririi «... 393 
TW refoti^fd c^niom in Fommi tto Duchcv Eon6o (1(^7} . 393 
FtaCMtAalifui tu odivr cilii^Ji ....... 398 

hX^'i; Juan Val(lcTC«1n-a IMD) 8H 

OcUdo «ad PeUr JJiutyr %H 

rktari<r» mOw ua llw " fitnafila uf Chriet " . . .396 

Hm Swnrncnuiriaa dupuur 196 

■^hJ IIL (I68i~l»> J««v« lli« GfttLvlic ii:iforui^ac P^^J (1837) 898 

CoBt«ria1aiIUli»boii (IMI) 338 

CinAa icftiU die riiEldJvcrbhodox party ol nJora . . 338 

Ofdtfs; ihoTheMintCt^l) 33T 

L«folA (UVl-1 \)4) foucdi tbd Drd«r or the Jcndu 

(l&tO) 833 

IDaboaktif ^'SfririlUTtl F^urt^lvtii" 339 

TWeOOiUtDdooof Cb^ JMiiit ontci' 400 

TWCvvDcauf Tmt<3a4^!&fl3) 4M 

lU dcAnitiorH uo ant('Fn>t«-iUi;)t 801 

Iu pnviWal Hork la tho va/ of tvform . < . • . 401 
fk* Cfraoril Mcm Lo oooRoii^JftU Um C«tlio1Io Churcb * 403 

lajoUitiao i IM }u9Uty ; llw 8p«Ai>b loquiiUiaa 401 

1»qubiUo6 b Tul^ (lMa)» how un^ABiacLl . . ,404 



PefMCuljoii of rivl<;riUnU --...•> 40f 

Siifipn^tion i:if Br>r)Vi; ihe Iwicx Prolyl blEotitu (1567) 401 

Tifcu IriJtjn EnjiurKfttoi'ltL-* ....,* tO< 

PfTw^cuiiLm ui L'liikn^clicfil €uclioiic« . . . • ■ I4# 
Kittrpntioit of Trotoflikntiiui in Italy . > . > , 40< 

QjHTi-rtK tit l^MtPKfan^iHm M Si.vHli* Hriri VjiUodi^lM , , , 407 
Hcccjrtion of iho doctrJoo of JuBtiiicnlioD by Fnith . I0# 

^<Wtt(/rjy* ci55!»-go) 4oa 

PicrKtuduuof Uic E\aiLe«Ucj)lCalbDTlc»; Cvroat* (lOatJ-l^Tfi) 409 
AltUiiiiu uf ilii:' PufieH in n^bpeot to itii< ChUiiiliir Ki^uorion ; Vaul 

IV, (im-Jtf); FiuslV, Cta59-(i5>i Hub V, (ISIiil-T^J - 411 
fiijitut V. >i%i^uiujiiU4kiiW> Ih'itr; IV. (lABS), ami nupparU liio 

r*ljg<ir 4H 

Cbjiaj^u ^i> Ui^ iTitcIkciual spEnt of Italy i TusBr> (\S>Ai-H} ; Iho 

mm 4i;]uHilHirr jialndd^ ...... .419 

Cbrlu Borrtimvo'i prxvito virtuiu tiod ChrictUa wi>rk (15JS-S4) llil 
Tbc JcAuiu ad cducolora ...■•.. 4IS 
Thii^ '■itiitnl ilif^ir lallunn^iii In Ruropn , . . . . 414 

CouniritB rcooTiinsl 10 tho Churoli of Hctne - • • . 114 
CiLii>rA uf Uiu vlicck uf ProU^UmUAu) ; MAcaulay'd illflctuBJoQ . 41A 
Tho cryitikUlxiagor pftrtiQi ....... 419 

I^UlUal Lrrnnj^uHioaU ........ 419 

The rmn'tpi "f iibiixci in thi» ThimOi of Kniae - . - 41T 
PrctciloutJ vAalo tliclr cU'ccfcth In caalcjta with i>ao anolhcr . 417 
Tliti lt.-tU.T uncJLULxxlJuu (jf l1i^ Uuiimi) CalboUcj . . , 417 
Thoj* UK> tho VEu-;ctt«i of Ulvnti Hnit 4'hAmctor .... 410 

Mijni n.K>t«d AtUcLawDt la Soullxcra Europo to tlio Cbiirch id 

Ronw lift 

ULbcotJ ofkKie in tb4> ICondnn Cathotio Partyi lt««ff<»t • • it0 

W R« 

I Pri 

I n 



R«vri^>ivxptiiiMiov'1 hy tho Calbolic EuoetioD . • . 411 
Princip^ lopLct to bo coiuliictvd ....•• 431 

Fi«i1iirq of C1)firtt^» V. k> «ubju^alu ihts Prot««lAiiU • • 4>t 
£ao7t of tlM Peoijo of Aa^ibufi; (13E>5) ; Pblllp U. &M np- 

porH<t by FtnJlauiil L auA MaJiimilinii H. < • , 43* 

Tlirir tiifrwioirtrn Hni!pr flir (»iy of Ih* J«DiU aftd iho Catholk 

RfuUon > . » . ^ . , , . 4SI 

of ^ JWrtf Yeact* WWfrtfS-TWa) . . ivs 

VMJBiilUn oT BaiorU (icou) 4S« 

to Frt«Urk V^ (lie KVclor lM«ibf» (101?) . , , 4U 

of Ferdinutil IT,, imd cf the Elivtor . , , «St 

lMoat«>f Uift li:ib&iiuftria ; «oaquCfll or thit lVlntin&t4> (!Cf!} . 495 

nple alluitvv ^f lliu rrpUimliuu uf tlio Eli-utar (1423) • 43A 

WnlleoMfiB ilk^liv^n F«n!in*nd from aiibjrcti-^ to the Ltftgoo 4}S 
Tbc Mmttit^itloQ of lb« &nii[i>A ; tho iiii«tri«« of fhc vnr 4?S 

Vk4ork«or WAllcnMclnaadof Tit[y(ie79-20) .197 

tla I^Mci uf RcitituUoD (lOfO); Uic rvoKiviii of W«ItL-iut«iD 

(IMO) .,,.,.... All 

patlTM . 420 

fflelOTtai cC Guu^i; WUIfroitom r«»ppoiiiiod {t68S)s iba 

of Uu^n (1433) . . , ' . . . . 4» 
orKkhvll«iL (U34-TU9) ; groitnd of Fnudi laC«N 

wUop 4I» 

' tbB deiUi uf WaJluuBtom C t e34) 430 

fttJuttwiMico of Kklielicij m tho cotiducl of tha 9%t (1631) . IBI 

TW Angjftv pnilnc(«li'uiU ivbj ....>* 491 

Tb* FVaMoT W«tcp]uilJA(Ifi4«) 491 

RhMos of £nt£aad flodcr tbc ^Ciuftii .... 488 

WUcning gtilT bet««vii AngiluruiB uu4 PutIusjib . . 438 
UwCkftij of Jama L (ItiaS-^A) to th« Puritano ; ttuj lUmf too 

C^vri OjafffWco <ie^) 484 

Charto' T (itn ly) : hi« uittcrftrj syttrm of gpvurnirj^Qt . 4Sfl 

I^wid (U33) 488 

Lngvq juid Cunuiuit of rlu> SouU (I4S8) . . 48T 

wtr buweva Kiag juut Pu-lIuncDt (ici'j) 437 

W«rtniaf|a-A»<n>U7; |iariiDiiait(l«4S) . . , 4$7 

ttof Piwlirteffanfamj howlim^tol . 48S 

II (lt5S-88) Mkd ILo lAdopoad«nu . . . .488 

niKtiicnof Nc«Ei]gbiud OA:^') MO 

^3Mr aoclutAilSfU (/itcn ...... 44D 

bcAween Oac UM^uhuMtU koU Pljaonth vi^ttlem 440 

In T^tfOfH prmcrtul by Cronmcll . > . 441 

BMlantkNi of Clurlm ir. (lEfiO) ; b/i*f f^ff^^^to^l . . 441 

Th« rmbyUTbina ju« iJbedmJ V ^ ^^ . . • • lit 

n« SftToj Conr«rvnDBO*0l> -'<•<' 441 
qectk«d'tbcruritoDiiibiiflan<1889) , , . 441 




AllUnvc of CbuHH IL mnd LLmiH XIV, (jg?0> . . . 44S 
BcaJ <toJj;iii of Cborki bcLrnycd , . , . . .-444 
JjLmi>«n. (IAK&-AA) ; flieCourtof High Commiirion (l«A6) 444 
He cndcaToro lo^ia tlic support of Iba I^iritEiDS (1G$T) . 444 

Thk-: Iti'vutuliuix ol 1638 444 

TlwAi/tof r<ili>r»tion 415 

Fftlluix of the CoaLprehoniion GiLl 44& 

Vcrmnni^nT ciub^lnhmont at PrcHhyUVliuilnn In Sc^lUnd (1690) 446 
PDrwcaiJovi of Ihn tlcxtmnntiirt uador JacniM IL . . 44V 

Etfuutof Hviiry iV.'i OuKtb (Id^it) ou llit^ Fn:ndi poUo/ . .447 
iU*Dlt of till- Udj^tiLiiota (I^Sl) ; itt earaas cmd cffact . . 44? 
LoaiiXlUnOi^lO-lftiA) : iLoiumttof Uichdic<u (l€£4-4V) .446 
Hit (Innir^Atic; IKiIbry ; hli deBDruciioD af ibu Huganikot povor 

(leSft) 449 

Loab XIV, (ia&l-]f|5) ; hU designs in rupcot to Fmnoo uid 

|H> tordgn |>ew0rA - . , 4fiO 

Tbs ABHnabt^ of IfiAlt ; tbo FcMir Proposibiona of CitUicaD 

lllioriy 450 

AdJEi-liuirn^ with IbDOC«nt X£L (ISDI-ITOO) ; ihn work of HtM^ 

»uei • . * .401 

Jinieniini .*.,...... ifll 

DcclLciLng nputaiicn of ihc Jf^mitft ; FakpI {iSii-Hi) > , 4fil 
SoppftssliiQ <rf Furl UujJLt KIO : |HirMH:uticiii cf lljr JniiH^abU 4fl3 
FttFKi/iJtion of Ibii HLtgut'iiots \ Borooatiou oi tha £diot of 

Na^iUib (]iJo^> 4A9 

1u ffferion Frnnctf ,...,... .4&4 
WiLre kmdl»l by Uic ambttJOn of Loulf XIV. . . . 4fifl 

^IlElAiTi »( GratiKi^ (IBAO^l'OS), bia uLi^roaivt , . > 456 

'[ltd ntri Lilt 45t 

Projtralioa of xha CatlioUo RckUou 45t 

KSavi of tLo pcTFccutitjo of tho JanaDoifU oa tlio CaCLolio 

Clijrvh 463 

^^^ i^iprotMib of Uao feTO i;tf rwolaliou . . . . , 454 

I Tko fuTidimonb^ piicicifk** <d ProUM&ntian . 45fl 

I Ko oODLrover*^ bctwoGii Uiu iwu pArbki on bUa TfiJiIly&ad 

^^^ AuinflnxtxTiL ..,«•.,*. 4^1 




diftiTTDVO on tlio ibccitao cJ tla • . • . . 4B0 
n*«CCflUat doctjiiM of juj^tiiSoAlioQ .... 480 

fcklJoa ijf c(blc4 U rc%ioa 401 

[y^oewuM doctrten of th* cjj liiKtvf. anthorltr of ihn acrtjitoraa 461 
[A^rKajcDt of tha rrote««uit LSturfJicn en t}iU point 4CS 

[7W ivu FniiesAukt prlodplud uiLlt« in ou« • . • ■ 4U 

Cstl^iv (lo;tnQ« of Juftiflc&tloa .... AB3 

ProccvUiu docuiae rMpeotjag iLo Churdi .... 464 
1^ Bor&ui CjiilwUc dorrtrinc mpooUoff Jin Chun^ • • 4U 

ft«q>«oijii^ tnjitioa 466 

Bopcctinif dw wCTimgaa 4M 

^0«BAi of Uie phraji, «z cpon opcnto , • . * . 407 
lifiutuKQA of eh* Bomftn (^tlwlic riQw .... 4Sf 
'BigiBia Cutholk daciriaa of tbo irii»ifCli(;i>d . • . 46> 

FbotMlAftia BiaiiiuUii % ujjItctuI pricitliocd of balicT«ii 4GI 

fcot wU at ti«v of 1^ Ducobar otuH d<*ipi of Ibo MCtoiDCiiU > 4G9 
Kflvet oi thn. pRjioatttat Tbj« of j(MtS£cBt!un apon Tirioua dog* 

m^m %m6 |it»eUo*a 47Q 

FtOtatmat coain-rvnla on prQiIutitMidoo 471 

AnclnuDUcs vid lU lecdef* (1410) 4T9 

Jiviiioo lotirwn AraitDiAiu and CAlvinJlaU b Hotkail 471 

fijiHdcf Durt (L«ia) 474 

f i«w of «ripafel tin xhd <£ ibo atoaojnont • 474 

ohvtrtnf of tlio AnuIoioQ bhwlL^um > - . • 47ft 

JbMbv^ii 47& 

Aatilriailvuu of tho n^ of Uia BcfijnsstHni . • 477 

of UidurUniim in IcHj 477 

$OC£itui ()^T'16QI) .... . . 47B 

SoQiaou Uiioolojjr 479 

Ut unkn Lmbdrtai aad C4.vbi]iti . , . . 481 

to Mil* ft'MMtaaU 4Jkd Romia Callioli^ > 4S1 

CHknnv«f OfoUiu (lOiS) • . . . . 499 

doiblBd pctftiMt . . 4U 

■nd BowUTi . . * > 48a 

«r tW4Bon»>tr«nak]s III 




Or^a\:rML\irn of Prottt^lAiilivKi not uiilfcijnu la the ilUTemtt cotu^ 

Ihu iSl 

Frot^nAuU united ia opp«iag Church gonernmoDt hj a pifen- 

hond iU 

Tbo piiDoipk^B of LuthOT n>p«tttiB{( «hwch poU^ . . . IB! 
NvL FMlUod juid nh/ ...•..•. iSB 
Lnthar ami MnEuicU^ion <mi fhA uilhoiit/ of civil tutar^ in tho 

CliunL 4a» 

Twp chwftfinrl^tlp Ihitunu of ihe Luthcrwo poller , 4$i 

Ofi^n of (lOiiKiHtivrii^" ........ I9t 

The Sj-Dod of ilombcrg in IJcaM ...... 4^9 

Lnthir'i opJniDn of i\s plan of Chiirrh gofAmiaeTit . , . 493 
Lccli^MuwUcEbl ^vkirauitiitt bj^ |>Tln{iA« in Laihonui i^tAtM. . 404 
Thuark-t cu nhi[:li k itju fouadrd • . . . ^ • 494 
Churcb goTcriLmctit m iha ScfonDtid Chnrchoi • . • 495 
ZwiD^lo> tjfflcoi -.....•», 4Dfl 

CaMiiV ihfcjiy of ChititJ] ^rtirnment . . • . . 1!I7 
The cLviL auttoritj bound io euppraas errcr . , - . 407 
TliL^ rrvfbja^riau cunstiiijliuD la Fraaae aticl in ScotUad . 490 

Tho An[j!iettQ tfrtabllihtoenl 49V 

Various iLixincs; EnvitiafUfltn : Uookv .... Et09 

Wnrbiirion'nthcoty: Colprld^e'a theory JlOl 

Gl.-vlxinao I CiiLiliat^r* i JdAcaula^ ,,.... SOI 
ComLiiatimi ill tliG Eu^jILbIi Cburch - , • • . -DM 
BuUnmunfi on die lacliitfct Aniharfg^ cf Um Pqifl 111 voUtioii to 

tliA (i^ruporftl fiovcr .....•., (04 
The JivuiTs ailvix'ai« pojiulnr MjyenstgDt^ . . . , , BOB 
Prot**tQnU mjimlnin the dmno rlflihl of king* , • . SO? 

Tim pyntfiTL I't Ili(^ N^iiA Cti^Uarl coluouta . . . • BOt 

niitinrLicik tvlwri^n PlyttioiirJi unit MufEtchUMtU , . M"* 

Thit N^iw Ku;:ljm(1 Ktivti^iikvUc^nl SjAli:in £03 

Uu^r WLUJniii» HdvucjkUfn mli^^uus Uhctty (cItfk 1030) • . 004 
Tha Biuuao CnthoUo Cburch la iho UnJled Statu . . SOt 




MR A»;|.AT)IHI OP ntpOmM'A^'nAH TO CVLTlTftK \tt1» CtFTLlL, 


ITmuiim/ id ivwkkr AvU U conpoctlon bUIi jiiiacliilM . )l( 
G«*«ni covipnKTi of C«ih»Tict -tin] Prot^intjuit nailont Ali 

t^ai^ from Mitfimlnjr < MO 

hangn fmm C^rlyU flit 

laddcsro oT Pr<oC««t*Dti«B) opon iibniy . , fit 

Ailllkftl cf!ccu of tbe E<b>nualit>D All 

Wlut iVotviwuiffitt did fbr Uhany In Eurapa . 51b 

U ib« Uwicd SuktM 515 

PlofiAianti lutfi tnwn ^iLt:^ □(' piTHTUtton .... ftlfl 
m« bli&ltii^l tn b* inrpniiBtunl villi thtir prin^lplan ■ • SIT 

|t>«i«n Cotbolkok hon (u mpcttBihlf^ ogn Coi porjvculMiA • ftlfl 
liff'""^'^ if the RcfarfiiikctiDiTi on iLtiM-HEurc uid lolfiQCft . . btS 

n* coiDpfunU <if Knumu* , , fti9 

Wfael of lie uUfuLicD of PrabaUnlJun In Spnln - . . aid 
«tf imAilMttiol fWcdom «ad uiUv^^ty . 621 

It of tin axticctioD of IVotoatftu^ua ia IljJf . , . MS 

of llfiifatiirR nDil nn MM 

f^gatemiioo of G&Liluo 528 

nm i;Toaud> of lib wiLiIcuiaaUoji 624 

li t tr Mm^t ta t'nwna AUa 

HhB iVoSlililtor; acJ tx^iarjiatory Indooa .... 636 

H«>f*t of ifcf! fcaunhlp of luoki. on July 63T 

Cnvonbiptf t»3^ la HrolCpLbatcounUiw , , . » 511 

TW IVBV Ui ibQ rutiuu period , Miltoa 939 

n« fMM ftJ^ ^B Iteftoniloh StI 

fMBCTtion br tbo Je«idt* vitl Llitir fcbol^r^JJlp . ■ * , 610 
Tlv fvadin; of iliD Bkhtfl ; jjolkj of ihft CHorch of Katatt 5S0 

Wlij Ui* biiy lim a^xl^-^^ t^^ ^'^^<* 9'1 

TiN^lictiuI «S«CtQ( ihia ituluig uf iLu UiEjIn [a Prgtcilaatcaui:- 


lif tk« iCefoTXD&Uoa on KnglUh LiWr^tnrft . • ftit 

IUBflau> UiOD of ElkabDthaD wiiixn 666 

BBatt of tho B«fi>nniiIl0Ei oa th^ G«nnui iDtcllccI , .(64 

1m LBlcdI«ccaAl *9cct U HolJnod uid Sootluid . ■ • 666 

of Ikfi BefbfnAiion on RiilotDphj' , , • 6H 

BafrinniTi' rjililrn nf AHic^tlo 614 

BMOOndottof pUlotaplir b^ B^uwa oud Du CbHm > 6ir 

8«tfm*i Ua4*acj o»ngtQiAJ with IVotftilknlifln U* 

The CftTtuUii awtW! b eaniKUt vkth thu M*it1atTft1 
PvrmBJil hietorj ami rolntiom of I>.:p CnrUm (lW>fl-UfiO) 
His lyfLtm i-'onJi^miiv^ b)' lLp SorboDDu , ■ 
Inlluon^A ol' ^ic Kciarumiioa ou otLcr iclaaoM 
ProtrtsUiuuFiin miJ Jiii Fmu Arr» 
CcirnpiHitan of the ti^rrmnfi nnd lie Lntin OMtlMii 
Art in ihv NutbcrlftaiU - , , * . 
Eff <>;t^ of tlic RcrbriuailLra ua Btfligjun . 

OrirfiTi of ictidctit)' in Ruropo ... 

ProU-Btaui (Iif^atiBia prnyokrd & rrrolt 
'XTiis i^ cAn-icd to tta oilromo . ■ • . 
KIk. «ni) Aprrnd uf Ui'iiuu . . • . 

IVuiution ta Puithcim .... 

ficcpckiRin ta Roman CftdioUc coontriu . 

Eiio oE dto Crilic^al Scboal . . > . 

DoiilicAfu] rmjUiDitlic Rfednajilinu 

Nctmdcr on Iho oHk^q tkad typc< of Bj^tiondUm 
Mu1iipt^jii);ur Prutufltiiiil BciTlA .... 


&utm< of tLvnu djii3JijQd • . ■ . < 
Toiclpai^^ \o unity ..,,., 
IVhicijilc of pnij^^AK ta ProtuBtnotisni . « 
ProtcflUnt nad CutLolii- Mi^ioas . , • 
ChrifltiuniE}' Dot hottUe to cultUM ... 
Ernr of ilie MidilEc Agoe * ■ 

Promrnndim LToIdi It 






lii A L»T <»7 Uoou ON riH UsPOIUtATlOB 

rAr)EX . . . 





I^OB four moot pmmincnt -n-unts of mo4cni hiatoryftre 
ih^ inrftsioik of "diQ b&rb&rian?, which, blendod tho Ow- 
and RoiDMi elem^aU of cdvilieLLtioD, oJid eubj<«oted 
neir Datioofl <o tLe ludaouee of ChrisCi^Tdty ; tho 
vtiiii tiniku tip Htu iit;igiiiiiii») uf Hun^pr^n 
', Hiid bj^ inflicting a blow upon tha fmidul KTKtc^iii 
A patb For the centralization of tbe niitiona and 
gofemmeota of Europe; th& ReformntioUi in ^vhictt ra- 
ligioii vu pu^ifl4^cl and thi> buuisTi iniiid omaucipated 
from •ac«rdnul uulbortty ; imd tbL> Fn^nuh Eevoldtioi], & 
tittmendoiu xtrngglc for politio-n.1 nqtinlity. Tlu? R(?for- 
nuktion, liko tbeee otlmr gre^t iH)cta1 oonviil&ions, n&s Icing 
In |mT|£ijratioo. Of the French Re^'oluLioo. tbe last upuu 
Hk hU of liistonc*! epocbft of cap;t;il imporhuice, D« 
Tot3^W:v>Il<s ofc0crT««: ^^ lb wtLH \*msH f^i all li fortuitoua 
«v»t. It II true Uiftt it took tho world by surpripft ; and 
r^*t it WW nnlv the cotapletiou of travail mmt probnged, 
lihe toddo«> and ^ol«nt termination of a work on whicu 
gjeaeratium \ind htfvn laburuig."^ T\\v mvlhot} of 
iv^4l«mx* in hUtoTT in ncrcr mugicnl. In proportion to 
lira mAgnitiide of the catA«trcpH« arr the lenfcth of time 
and tho vanocy of affsamtm which aro employed in pro- 

ilartUng, are not to be awribed merely tn utiraa proii- 
maUi ATiijecKdaxiU Tlie Prulealaiib inOTemeat ia oftan 
looked upon i%a Imrdly leas pr^tertiatiinLl aud asbonUliiQg 
Uum woiild bu ttkc ri\in^ of tho eitn at miiltitgLt. Hut 
tlie mora it i^ exnmini'J, Uiu Ivsid (I(M!Ii it wear iUia nifir* 
volooft jiapect. In truth, novr^r wiu ft Uiiitont^Al (.■riftii 
mon! pliiboTtitcly prrjiiirfyl, sintl thin thniugh n triiiii f»f 
causes which rench UicU m(/j tin? n-iiKiU? ^asL Nor U it 
tbo fact that audi events aro wholly out of thc^ reacli ot 
huuiaiL fopwi^:\L; llicy caat thoir aliadows before; they 
ftre iht! object of prosentitiieutB tnoro or leafl dutan«t, 
Aom4iti]?u=« of (ltfirut« pr<?droticu.' 

But in ftvcHding one i^iclr^me \tu nre nr>t to full into thfl 
opfo^lix^. W<T iiiuati liikn into iiccotinti thy pcraonal <)ua.l- 
]tii3saud tho plaadc agency of individuals not 1«im tliao 
the operatiou of gent^rai caofle*. Especially if & revolu* 
ticu ill loug cetabliabod opiikionB and bubita of fi7<UnK ii 
to take pkcQ, Uicrre must b» individtmU to ntUy upon ; 
m«ii of power who are abl« to cJOAtft and Bustnin in 
orhim ;« new moral Yiiv wlileb tbey have first realized in 

NotwitbEtandingtJjat throe nonttinca liare since cli^9cd« 
tho rwtl otigin and siguificiUicc of the Reformation rcmatD 
a Rubjoct of oontrovcTfly, I'ho rapid Bprc&d of Luther'a 
opinions waa attributed by at least one of Lie oontem- 
pori*nes " to a c^Ttain imcomnion and malignant position 
ot llie atiirrt. uhLL-h sLiitU.'t'cd Uie spirit of giddETii^wt and 

1 Tmalj yttPt liafcra Ibii byttitioii ai l^vk XVI,, ImtA CliMivnl*l<T moMi 

'* [c thf>n, »ll tbw tj'izifiL'init which 1 h^in tfrar mat itlth M hi4bi^iy, prcvku* lo 
pHiE cKmil|^ aiul rvtnliEliaiift in goL-cMUKnf, R4bv <«!■( tncl livJjin^iotu lo 
Ft»o«V' CliMifKrHiUi t«fn* (Due. 3^. 1763) ; qunUd lij Cifl^ln, ffuffvf »/ 
rJU ^WhM Hti^I^*i"it^ <t- iJ- Ju tt-j CiUuwuih (Whlur^, [hftfa ™*ir» ifala iBf« 
vhq lo«h«d fcwrt'BM EaiuiDCi:l0rEuEjcAl rr\'o1utiun C.*iri!ini] Julian Ctuartnl, 

IT., Ib 1*11, pmJkTtd A giMct iiprLbPf i>r llw T»itj" (or Ehu uwrihruH oJ ikw 
rnpC oWrgj, itnJ « liarvj euqp* bmidtbla ihku lliil al iliu Qoliamijuii. /i'jrijr 
/. /■J»'>, Gt'r'^ iH kh« Cy>rd jEnea Sy^-na, p. dfl- U ii ^nn in pfirt b^ 
lUvnBlilEit. I43l> K4. 19 t cHtnicU Ett GiMtJor, pQfiwI- ui. v. c 1, f 119, ii- 1!. 


■UMTfttioD over the world."' Alth^ntgh the a^b-olo^cftl 
•olntMiL hv no ftdrooubctt Icit, it wnn n^t wholly iiuplau- 
■ibte tn dttt ag0 irbca tli« fincient Art of for^t^Uin;- the 
^tore hj am bwpeetlnii of tho AtAra counted among ItM 
ran BO nccompliMlH^l n sc-holar ii« Meliiiictltuii, n 
ffaitunuui M Migadouft u BurLcig!i, mttd a far-slghtAil 
like Pope Pftul UJ.. '^ vrLo appointed no im* 
ntltrtK of the conawlory, uii<liirtoctk no joiimcy, 
ritbout obtefring tba coiikit«Uia.ii>iu and chor>^ing tho day 
triiWi apji(*afv<l tolibn rusaomiRnndcd by thk^ir aspect.*'' 
Dnt otliL-T fTxpljuifttSonn of dli^ Pr/ft.i'^i.Hii^ ntovt^in^iit, 
arc l;BrdJy loo* iniagmary axid iniidequate, have 
gravely aaggefltod. Wben Uie reining Pope. Ia*o 
bmnt ol tbo commoUon UiAi hitd udecn >ii SiLXony, ho 
tne«d k a iquAbble of motiUfi. This judgmcTLt, 
rliicli, cODHidering tlio tAicn and dtoAoar^e from whkh it 
ly nrrt oppasum mm^h MirpHw, 19 ivix'bnfld hy 
rilttnao anta^nistio to one azioUier m ihv>h- Apiril aa 
loMoet uid Vultalrc: one iIiq (]hAm]>[rm of ihn antt* 

1 iofflH,i:fHciin«,tuulA0J.p.l34iqdaud1]> KobcEtMin, /Tipiory i^CAorfW 


■ KnAc, ffUuff^tkt f^Bi (Mn. XiutiD'i trmiisl.l, r. M9. 2aJ. On iIh 
«l ftimlidfly Id IuIt. rrom \ht UiJn«DLh KOiury, wj Uurokliftrilt, 
iL iCr^aimMUCt it rutiirn.. p. I>J3 mi|. In n;n np U Almrti^'J bf 
if, Id «aaimen ulrh ftrtftrmr, ilrncHinc^ftt I7 mhi* nf thr T'ipM. 

Iha fraii'timtrniirii'iii[iii(iiiiiii. <i>4 rfip mlft^miul pnliltr.lifL Htxllii, hIufciI In 

|«d bmiTrjg>;r fr«|wrrtnf Qiir#n lUiiufHlFi'a miimt^- In Uiv EitMTith 

Qaitu ft Mill mvUr*; in lnarvTratifll S«laabf tttrtofttal thti ItrghAil 

Kvn Uv fiHf aaipmnnt'r-, Tvehn Rrih* AOd E*|)!it, Aid nnt 

^ 1^ U^ bi bCidc^- Tti0 JnCfir. f ri^rn A aEiirly of Tfaii Pan»t<IUEioD4 

vhtHi VilaoKvla Vf^mi, ilHenli«-l liii r^mrlfir JHaii^d, 'JfJtr/iriAi 

tika AuA* *l TrMir Unl Bacw, tlUiDuirh fa* proooupMi AttnArixf 

ia"mlbirk4T4 il|flri£«il An dtvgvi^tr raJKl^C Ui^t «1tdIU iDi» 

4MiW lOravnT-fluiiitr^mlpnr- 


protctpunt theology, and the other the IcadiAr of ttio liftrty 
cf froo-tbiiikoTb JD Uio l&st ccntuty.' J£vcn n livii^ Goo 
man LifltoriaOt a Ittunod aa well u brilUiuit wntrr, gpoAka 
of the ReformadoQ ba aa academical quarrel that; servvd 
aa a imd^uH fur nil tlif ili)Wont«nt of a turbolont age.* 
It U tnjc tlijit fill Ai^^HUnum owuk l>t^u t]i« conflict bj 
awmling f^crtuin practice's uf a Dotiimiouu thttt ctuah 
found niiicli support in hin own order, and that Iho lival 
univorsiti']'^ of Witt^nbi'rg and I*cips[c enlielcd on oppo- 
Hlt« sid^ in tlt^ Atrif^. But the&e are mere incidenU- To 
Lriftg tbum forwiird aa principal cauaea of a ini^t; lu^ 
Uitia c}\iwgi'.^ ia liltln abort of trifliiig." A class of imrnoiui 
dispose of the ivholc que«tiun in n summjiry mruiucr bj 
calling th« ItcformAtioR » new pheiae of the old couilict 
which tbo Popi]ia bad wa^d with tbo Hohenstaufi^n Em- 
|wrorv; ol the atru^le between dvil and eccb^iiufilioal 
uutbority. But tb*T Refornmdon waa not confined to 
(SiTTHttiiy : it wiu^i RuniprfLU movement thiit involviwl » 
relijfiotiH n^volutiozi ill the TeuUmii; n&llons, and powef* 
fully olTcoled tliu char;icti;r aud destiny of Uiq Romanio 
propic:! among wtit:b it fiulod to triumph. MoreovcT* 
while the pohticiil nid^ of tha Reforuuitiou 19 of ^cat 
ImportojiceT both in tho mv«atjgation of the caoaes and 
effuotAof Proteatanti»in> Uua is far from being th^ exclu- 
iive or(*v':'ri jntNjonilnatjt eleiueTit in tile problttm. PtJit- 
icn\ iiginirji'x vivt^ ratlittr an uiEoient aiuciliar)- thnn a 
dirrct ,'U>d pnncipcil cjmne. 

CJtii/.ot hew pi'ci^r-iitcd Ilia views respecting tbe naturo 

I TuliiLifv. li^ii lur Im jr«rA cIl IT7> Diet. PkiL (An. CUntS} i hawM^ 
tTtriiUiimt iki Frv!.; <Kwtu. v. titl. Tin* munn ihltif It MiO T7 Vnvnt, 
"Uinln LiLllior. »ii X\nUn frlnr, finifcHur In ilm 1Tnlvi«r<li7 itf W^Ufvhfffr 

' UttialinfiT rhii*lljr'U'><^nii]m1 f nr Ihii nrtr Jon ihttt l.qlhnr via (uihiiiiful I7 
t»Mntiriun1 iLl t>di^hl upfiii liit nn1"r- Alif Fhn rtiBpovnl i>( JitdulgBAf«A nrvm v 
bthir rrikl b0 roT«lAi!T Htil it i* nrit Ini* riiJit Thii |»[iijnvn b**) bf«n ttiuoJI^ 
fivtb tB VTk* AligiilliiBUn*- Sh IVrUrJAni, lih. 1. c 3, { T; WniHiiifitim 
HiMttr^ qT tt* AffonHrifii*, 1. ia4 TIib oiigm nf Ihia impuUt u i>t jamlaiuf 





of the ll^formnti'iii, in a Icdurc dcrifbc;d Ui thia tijplc*' 
Tho RcfciEOfkU:^, in bin judgment, was an cilort to Julivei 
buQ^iin rvason hxim iho bonds oi nutiiority ; ^ it wna im 
innunotion of tbo bumsui miad against tkfi absoIui4» 
power of tbo »plntu^ ord«r/' It vfOA not ao accident, 
As roflnlt of Kcmi* <^&^tiuJ ctitruiiisl^ut^i^ ; k wila not nlmply 
an elFort t4> purify tUt? Th« ctmipn^itLtitKLVii luul 
luooi povrerful cause vi3.a tho desire of tbc human mind 
for Irceckim. Ftix thought and inquiry aro tho legitd* 
n»t« product, the r*^ intent of thd movement- Sudi u 
Gtmot'fl katcTf rutation. Bui he id cartffol to add that hb 
definition dooa not <Loicnbo tho coumIouh purpofte of tho 
melon who achieved Ihc mvnlution. Tlio R4»(ormatj(m, 
ks SttJB. ^' in liiia roApect iierforiTi*^ mare thjui it under- 
took, — [Korvi, probably, Uiad it deairiJHl.'* *' la point of 
/iwf, it produced the pjxivalcncy of free inquiry ; in point 
ol priti^ipic^ it boUcTcd tbat it w^ ^^iibnti tilting li logiti- 
BiAto for on iU«fptiin:ite powor." Tho diatlncticn between 
tl>0 ooDtfciaua aim% ci thu hjoiiurH iti u rovolution, niul tho 
real drift luid aJtimnt^* efftfct i>f tlmr work ; b<>twwTn tbo 
ifiraci Mid ffbt^h ih*^y vnth^nvni- U* secuiVf .uid the dir^jier, 
b&ddccD impulw, llie utidfiriu'rt^iit by wbii:b tbey jutg 
n«lly iiBpciW, h on« thiit !« proper to be mndOi It 
wooM tppcur evident, aIso, that tho overthrow of tho 
MtlLOrit^ of tho Cliurch wu^c affect tho princtplo of an- 
fthofity in ^eii«ral ; bo iax^ at It^aat, ae ovcutually to loiul 
to ft ierutlny of tbo founduiionH of autlL<>rtty whtirtvur it 
isaMKunnl to vjcai. Y«-t vrn vnntiin^ to ritii4[<h«r th? in* 
Lerpnrlottoji of f^itixot dofeotiroHA oinfining thit impnrt 
lukd cScct of llw Beforniatiou within too narrow Uinita. 
Tkfl Befonnatiioo cUim^ to bt^ » refonn of reli^oii; it 
COrtAinly a roli^ou« rtrrolution ; nnd ivlijj^iou ia ao 

noancern of mnn nnd no docrp nnd pr'rviutivo in iti 
lionce, thttt thifi distinclivo feature of Hm Reformation 

b« b^]d to belong to ilA eefi^itial i^aracter. li 

oitbor words, tiieuUtnat^ motivi^niidfisAl effect is nnt lil^ 
ftrty alone, but Ihe impiwvemeut of religion likewise-* 

ThttTK U a rl;t« of wnUini who would maktt (he Rvfor- 
mftticti iL tmiiMLtiotin] vniy piiving tlie way For &eotUiiik- 
ing or anbctf f, Wc might my tJmt tJicre arc two nlooiieA 
who advocate thU viow. On tho on<* btind H-jmiwi 
Catholic writOTB have frequentlv declarwl Prolf«lunti*in 
the natui^ j}£,rvik^ of R^kilonallsm ; and on tlie other 
hniid. Rjitionalisls tlK^nisu^hx's, who r^j^ct Chriatktiit^ aa 
n BUperiDfLtunil nuil adltiontiitiTTi ny*ti-ni, liavtr appltiudfid 
the Keiorniation as a stop toward tbcir position. Hoth 
dikBflce of critics procc<td on tho oasamptinn, that tho 
Chrifltiari rolit^on 'n to fa.r coincident ^th the niadi»yfti 
nyatom, that lh« fall of the hltt«r logioiilly cam*! with it 
tlu- abutitton of U»i fornipr, TItuit xtiu n^iiirtvl ffir t)i<-Mi 
Iftt^nt, tniidt*npif» of Proteatantism to drivulop thrmiu'lvrA ; 
they wirre liidtlcu from tho oyea of Uie Reformers Ihi^iii- 
ftolvcs; but, it b allt|-od. tUey have aince becomo appar- 
ptit- Tins cliitrftclcr wn* imputed to Protcfltantiftm, on 
it* lirrt [\ppnnrvinc«, by itfl enomio*, and ift cftm churgod 
apon ii by iu theological advorearioa at the present day-' 
Thus, Bahnes, th& author of an oxtaneive work on the 
ficimiwmti^-t pftraiU of Cutholioinm iuid PrfJtf«Uttifi«m 
iipriii nvi1i/^tttmi, r^surl^:L]lt.'< that f.)u* i^yntt^in which he 
opposed Lo'ade lo atheism,'' Anothor recent Catholic wtiter 
affiiTflfl. that " tho principle of HatiotuUtam is inherent 
ill tho very imlure of Protpetuutism." * For tho opinioiu 

' Eltofhcn Oulidl lunutfr u^a Uktt lb< HcfunuitiDn itm HMCLtiallj lud 
rniin tho verj Arvt ■ rfH^luui ttfom i dnd that, aa l\> iioliLint "ihtj wen ^tt 
MCfMBcx lar^Dfi bm nui| Ut vh'mi t'ua,"^ Si, LoyU a*J CnUiHy |>> IMi« 

' UcdIaT^iu rl*1«i tliti hJD Uihor br^n lo laXroi-L lib fuilljr la VAtonl 
Iht^pltt^ir. tin llic Ant h;j|t(ArAuia of rTvlcjUalliuii fniu Lite IrElieC l]j&t || votJd 

' J, U. llTibcrtoup^ l^M ill Elt« L]fv iif Df. J. A' Miilir^r, :>rvni«lfo ih«E(if^ 
Uilk [noslAUujt i>f Mtiblftr'* ff.VfAMrfrit p, .UKlIi. DiilMMiIrr blnuelf appdaft 
lo dla«aL IroiD tlti Wk^l CiiZjuUf nj^irvMsLAElua <iii Elilt point* Aail Ur rtful 


0f Mm frM»-tlitnlciiig ncliool on thi.i pornt, vrc nuiy rcfcf 
lo the 6CrMA oE bbtoriciil work^ by M. I-niiTrnt, whtcii 
«oabiia mndi TntaabU tnfonnHti'Jii. i^pPciLUly upon thm 
Middle Agm-i This vriter h^ilds that CliHstiAtiUy ite^ 
u to gire |ildkC4> CO > rekl^^n of tli«^ fiii.iir'^^ Ui^ pMcitta 
dnuoctet of vrhidi ba dov» not [irtiteud Lo ilwcrUic. H* 
dedans Uubt revi^ltd rdigion atiuuU or fidla mtb tbe 
PupAOjt iLnd tbat ProUttanttim ** loLcb tj^ tbo dt^tiii^ «f 
Uiv fundaai«ntiU dogiou of bigtot^ci^l Cbrif^tiaoi^," ■ 
U« haite tli» It^formttion as ui iDtgrm^'liate ni&g^ in tbo 
progroM of inAnkini) to thut hi^er piano wlien:^ CJiru* 
tvtniLy U tu bo iut[ii-mtHl^. Wluitliur FrutoBtaatlaii] foti* 
taf« tnfiddity or not ia a f|uc9tion which caji bo more Intel* 
Ggcntij considered hi:iT«it€t. It mny he observed bcrc* 
bowev«r, that tJio Kofornurrd thGmfloJve« conaidooMd that 
tbeir woti »rr«cted tbe progr^issof unbelief and sfived tli« 
nligioo of Europe. Lut]iE*r aays that, such were diia 
ucHfaiiatii^l Abusi4 iit Cfi<ri[i-'uiy tluLt frigbUiil dihuiili^n 
WMilcl infAlbblj hHV» «krjB(t.'!», tliiLt. :ili if^ligioii wqM bnvo 
pefiabnl* and Cfinilia&» bare become Epicareiaiifi.^ The 
liifid«lity iImz luid taken root and sprung uj* in the atroug- 
huUb of tbo Cbnrob, in oonuc^tjon witb Uid revival of 
nl—l^t l(«rnii^« tbroiLlt-tiud to «pn.Hul over Eiiropu, 
Mdmncdtrw. tn ft faniiHiir bftti^r to a fri»id, iiffirina ttiat 
br HKiTr scrioiig (Li«tiiiiHL»r4U — longi^ gmriorrs Uimi^kn* 
-* vuaVd Imttt broken out« If Lutlior bod not appearei] 
ftikd tamed tbi> Bludiea of m<Mi in another diiwctlon,* Tlie 
Kcfocinotiou broujcbi a rorival oC ruligicu^ fvt^lui^. luid 
nvollMlt by m rouetionnry tnllucutw^ in a gnuit ciiildc- 



ening of roligloiu *cttl within tlift C^t-lnjlia body. Ijtiunait 
Llmsell elaevlieii^ &fLruu] tbal in the sixteenth century, 
roUicicn was in u tiliiU^ of (locajiencc &nd tlin^tonod with 
niin;^ tii^t Luther uHvotud a riiUgicu^ revdlutiou m tbts 
EQintJ of Ml ago that wiia incUadcL to iuGdGlity imcj mov' 
ing toward it Bnt a rapid pace ; " tliu^t Ke was a. reformer 
for C&lholJoisin sis wt^W ns for PitittstjLniisui ; thut thti 
Ettforniatioji wju* tlii? fiw of uiGJulity ajid aavud the 
CbriaUEiit wurld from it< But no cannot pursue the topLo 
in thiEt pjjLOc, Let it «ittlioo h^^n^ to ioterpoao a 'vramiiig 
agn.iD8t incMitious genonklizutJoji, 

Tho ReformatioJi, wbaUvnr may Ljits been ite l&t^nt 
taadGncles M\d oltenoi' c(>nBeqi]i^n<7Ba, was &n event witMu 
tJir^ doiniiiii of ivlif^tuii. From tliiB point of vi^w it Tna»t 
fimt« nnd piiur to uU ApeculaUtm upon its utdireot ujtd n^ 
znoU rcaalu, be oontcmpln.tud* 

What wao the fundnmcutoJ c^l^l^acte^is^x^c of thia tcto- 
Idtion? 3efore> a va«t institution had been interposed 
botff^ifQ tin* imJividiwl and ilie objocta of i-oUgiouu fajth 
and li*>iH\ Thi? RefnnnHliioji changed all thia ; it opcnod 
tn thi*-- iiidivi<hi:d Ai direct acces to tlie beavenly gitod oF- 
feied him In lLu Go^pid. 

Tho Gcxiimji nationa which eatftbliabt^d tlitimwlrctt on 
the mins of the Itoman i'^mpin', ruanved Cliristiivnily 
with docility, itut it tvae o, Citristianity, M^hich, though 
it retained vitnl (elements of the primitive doctrine, had 
bGoninp trjinnffirmed into an eitflmal theocracy with lU 
pri™ihuoJ ELtid Li-ivjntmijfh. it wa« uodi'.r this mixnu 
ByBLein. this cornbinatiou of the Qoapel with chamctor- 
ifitic featiirua of the Judaic dispenaation, th^t the new 
nations were trained, Such a type of Christiaiiity had 
oartttia sdvantagoc in relation to th4>ir uncivilized couditioD. 
lu extenullty, it^ b^gal oliaracter^ a^ well as its j^cor^feoui 
ritiml. gHV8 it u iiii(.'iiti;ir poivi-r over dL^m. But uV, 
throij^'h th<' Mwhlln Ag«», wbilitt thn autwjwl» UiRwc^ti* 

HAS A FOffnVE 0II»1. 

that had boon grafted ott Chri^iticmity dcvclc>pcii 
iMelf tnon and moro in tlio polity nnd n^oir^hip ol tho 
Lonb, UkO rcflctionuiy opci<xtion of thfi> primitive, .tpir- 
^kool iclu& df the kingdom of Ood wn^ likewise more 
aQ(jr« ouuiircM. WiUitii the stately and iinpoBiiii; fubrto 
0^ the ecdCflJMlical Aynieui, iLi^re vra« a furce. a^ it wcie, 
imprisooedt eUu^IIijf; for freedonu And ^adually a<cqiur- 
ing 0tr«ogtli ttuUicTteiil to bruik dowu Ulo witll ttiut cc>n< 
ftned iL *' Tbo RuiormutioD, vii^wod m ite moat gvnitvol 
duunctcr, vhn tbii rfoction of Cliristiaiiiity a& Gospel 
e^nimit Chnitiimity >ih Iliw.^* ^ Fi< iuuhL ]i,]>io be reiiiom- 
^berwl chat irith the tnulitloaal fonn of CUrisUaaity 
" Ui«ro waa banded dowu, ia the aacred text iteelf. & 
MMiroe of diWuc kiiowlcd^ Jicit expow>d iii like oannor 
to <joTni^iio% imm wkidi dm Cliurcj]] mif;ht luiirn how to 
diitiiigiiu3i primitirn Cbrntijitiity from nil cubBf^^unn^ ad- 
aiul en t-RTrj f'jrwani the wnrk iif purifying the 
CliHstuui ujiLiouuMiciMi lu iU e.uLlru (XJutp1t;UiW^ 

ProtcsLLDtintit, ihi^n-forr^ hux] i\ ;x)NtiT*T lu vtvW a9 n iivig- 
kdr. It bad eojncllung to assert as well ^s som&' 
^Hii]]^ to df-ny. If it iliacaivlcd one iotenprotatioQ oC 
uty, it espoused jiootbtrr. Old bdlieis wore aub- 
Bot u Ml effftoi of u ti;uri! pittiiou for revolt, but 
11 1|m» tTXpdUiTCf powiT cf dcippt^r eonvi^I.loiut^ il 
fVnr xpjkTiTlK-EiMioo of t.njth* Thw lilnirty wKic-U tlie 
Bcformrm prtejevi IIi^sL ;uk1 cliiclly was uoL the abstracb 
ifiglit to cLooM tmo's creed without ccjuBtratiU* but a lib> 
[vrty tlut Horn from thu luiforccd Lippropnatiou by tlie 
\U of trtUb in Jiumony vitH it« inmost nuturt^ ^nd Jtft 

ions ii«08a«iti«>- 
II b erU^nr-, also, from tli^ foregoing statament, that in 
PfofaMrfjtntwp Uicru wjiH lui objei^tlvu an well na & ttubjeo- 
ilive fjustor. 1^ nc%r t^e oE reli^oti, tlcvply rooted 

• V«Mw. fif*«ritf fArfnvy << lAf CkfimUu JTvA^ca <i«lJ 0«rrA rT<irwr'« 
M^), ID- I H^. T%« titm niHfi In cha fi«n|rnpb tbon niEiiCBacUllir ■» 
ffii a«h Oitf of XMn4*r id ifM f^MU^w r^mA ta^ 

thoiigh it WAA in f;tLbjootiv<! impulaes uid eoiivjutloiM, 
owed its b«qng to tho dintrt conEitL^t ot tlie mind with tb« 
Sr-riptan^, In them it found ntike its w>urc^ knd ittt 
n^tlsitiTv nomr Thia disMni^itf^liea Frol^lann#iii, Itis* 
tonmlly coiUMdirrrJ, ircin all niuvt?meuts on the plun« of 
OAtur^l reltgi9ii, arid atompa upon it a tUBtinotively Chria* 
liaii chanujter. The new q^iriturd lifo had conscUnxoXy ita 
fovntalit-head in tbe writings of the Prophets and Apo»* 
dee. There mu no pretem^e of devimng n new rplij^on, 
but r^nl^ <>f n!f*^T-m1ng thf* old, aovonliiig to itaown au- 
thnritnlivi* f^tTrndiLnls. 

Yet th^ Proloirtant Refommrfl. in transferring their n\- 
kginnco from the Clwm^h Ut the* Word of <iotl, privotically 
aeaorttd a right of privntc jiidgmi^nt. Thoir procooding 
nas foiuided on » wnhjectiv^, pereonal conviction. Deny 
to tbe Iiidivlduid thi^ uUimatt' iprvrogAtW^ of dL«cldmg 
wIk'h* imlh<jril.y in mutlj-rH wf religicm is rightfully phiti^l, 
and then wlmt thi* wknowkdgod nilc of fnitJt mc^bnn, and 
thdx irhole movement becomes indofenalble, IrratioiiaL 
H«lie« intoUectual liberty, fn^edom of thought and in- 
(gmry, ym^ ft oonix-'qut-noi* of tho Rofonnutioii, that oould 
not fail tf> bo rvontnally rcoliKod, 

But wh ill? tho Reft>mi:ttinn in ifa distinctivo charactef 
ia a Tv1i^i>iL4 event, it \» not an isolated phenomenon. 
It U rt jKirt AJid fruit of tjiat geiieml progress of Bfici"ty 
which niarka the fifteenth otntiiry and tJic opening of tho 
flixti^c-ntb [Li Iht pi-riod of transition from the Middle 
Agv>« to modi?ni civUistation.' Thia waa the period ol 
invt^ntionit And disi^ovimAs ; whun tlte magnetic compasi 
coming into g^ni^ral rise enab1i*d jidventurous mariii^ra 
tu atet-r their viiaw-la iijIo remote aeaa ; when ^m^xiwilMT 
PATolntioaiied tlie art ol war by lifting the pi^siaant to tho 
level of tlio knight; wh«n printing by monJtlc typc» 

i:8(k>, p. 1 t«i|. J.l. Hillur^ Kir^*tr»yvekie^*t, f^ ii^ i*^. GdiBbAUl, Cat- 

M% LD»bD'i fill,), a 0D1, cn» «|1, 


hniiaK^d a neir uicl mnrvcloufl meaiiR of diiTiuung knovl- 
edgt?. It YTks Lhu en* of great iiautic^ Jtfcoveriea ; ^hea 
CoJumlms fiddcd aaoUi^r hcmiaphorQ to tlie %forld oa 
IcMOvn to EurufMOiit, and Va^o d^ Gaiu^L. auUiii^ to Tn- 
dwnNiHil tbi- CujN* iif Gocui Hop.^, (i]>i<Tie<i :i newhij^liwtiy 
tnt nomiEM-RT*. Tt \kmi liknwixp t)t« rrn ivhrti thi^ liriiri^s 
irenj explored, and Ccp^raicus diwOTcr<^d the triip systflra 
of Uw unircTw. Ibcn, aUo, tiw nia-^tcrjjiocoa of finciDiit 
•oolplurft ani] the Utomry troA&itros of antiqiuty wei'd 
bfou^t foTCb from tbelr tcnibs. It was the pt^riod of a 
XMTV life in Art. lli« ugu fif Ritpli^tijl und MIlIiji^I Aug^lo* 
td T^tiinAnlci dii Vind tmil A1br<rt. Diirer. Tlib r^vivini 
•todj' of Gicck And Latin Ut^^r.xtnrc vfm directing Intel* 
l^tiial activity into dcw cbaDnrU. Kqnstlly cnontentoua 
wm» the ehon^ in the politioAl lifo of Knropo. Montircliy 
bftvin^ giOMfd the vi^jtory over feud^Uun, ttie prindpol 
Icbgdoroov erpeciaUy FV»ne«, Spain, and EngliLud, w^q 
l»mmitig«uiisulldatvi1. Tin- 'mv;tHiim »f Tddy byClutrlr-Jt 
VIIIm ill 14m, ciwnniii^iicf^i dw ware of which It^ly wns at 
OQoe tli0 tLL'alr« «m) tJi« prise. And tbe conilictB of Uio 
Eoropc^a &t;it«« for the acqiUHitlon uf t*rn"itory or of na- 
ocpdrncy ovit one uDotliLx. To tln< intcruuuniL: of niitiona 
bj iBWUU of ooBun(Ti*09, which -hiul cpivod from Vonico, 
GoBoa, and lh« towim of tU^ HanK«itin I-**agiic-, through 
the rnt of Western ICmi^Tv*, ^vua uiIlIkI the intereunrse of 
dijikumc^. A at^te-eyHlvju n^A grou'ai^ up< In vvliinU 
rttUtioQA. In tliR variolic diii]i^M.-:i by wiiicL tJio tnuisi- 
ttoAl i?m M chamcti^mad, tin- Knnuinic p^ropl-^s on the 
wboU toc^ the Lead. Bnt tb? R'>forniaticn in reUgion 
vu not their work. 

A* PnvUuriftneiicm tn itn on^rin wan nntnntjiuilalcdr-vMntf 
ao it drew after it poUtical nnd viri.^l ohaiij;™ f>f thn high- 
«t mocivent, H«t»c« it pa^aent^ ^ twofold aapccL On 
tho «o6 hud, H is a tnLnnformtLtion ui tho Church* ir 
ith^A an involved C4>nt«tU of ihw^logiana, niodilioaticfiu 


of creed and ritual, new systems of polity^ an altered 
type of ChmUan life. On the other hand, it is a great 
tranaacttOD, in which sovereigns and natunui bear a part ; 
the occaaion of war« and treaties ; the close of an old and 
tite introduction of a new period in the history of cnltm-e 
and civilization. 

The era of the Reformation, if we ^ve to the term 
this oomprelienaive meaning, embraces the interral b^ 
tween the posting of Latber*a TheeeSf in 1517, and tin 
eoDClusion oi the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, 



Okx QiAOiitial port i>f Prct^tnntism wa« the cibolition 
of the anihority of die KerarcUical oriJer. Boaanet La£ 
ivmarked that if it Ifl only abiT^eg in the Chuivh tbat 
M^pumtt* Pn>UAUuil3 frum CuLliuU<-ji, Uit^in ;ibuHr-» (^in l)e 
rRCncdiiT<1, And tliun Uie gruuud of Lli(< oxixtvi^nc o? th(5 
ifl takpti nw»j,^ But to wy tJiat the Jteformsi- 
begm:! in a pronst agftinflt abneoe of admiuigtratioD 
BH ^inply to aay tluc ProtfVtaiitiEm waa not fuU-grown 

,at the iiart. In Its n^nture foTui, a^ all ihn world Icuo^vs, 
ilie Rrforroatiou was a rejeL-tion of p.ipal fliid priestly 
aatlicrrily. In studying the movement, ibis is one of the 
noun potntfi to ivlilcli ^ittention inuat br lUm^^ti^il. In 
huiairing mto the ciLiia&i <^ the Ttefomx^UoTi, thcrnfoire, 
yft tbiJI first review %ht rise and progrow ol the hicr- 
«rahioal 8jBt«ai| and ^hovr how it had boon w<«lcdned in 
Ibe period inunediftt^y antecedent to the sixteenth <ym* 
tnry. W« tli&lt T-lit*ii coDteraplate a variety of fiietii 
vhich hi;tukL<iitnl & rtHi^hntti ruvoluLum and cuntrihiitHd 

^1r) prodQC? it. 

I T^v aunt oFtAflM abut* bcfnnlbt Kpf onnAtJon I0 ftilm^netl It^ iba rugbmr 
■flibenUBi HriliTTTiJEM m^i 1 "AnnH illfinoE, inLci|uiB Litih#rvn4 
■nA onrtmr, naJlB («niH cnc, ut \\ utiaitlwt, ^tti aOuA 
■■llft<l>^«ni) pmpVTtl in iniJkfJli voclabutieli h Ftf^tai, null* 
AKl|itiA< rrnlli in atrn< IU^'t^* tniitnfo. nnlU In fftSat iliriiili 
Id*, naOa prDytvoairaijAmtnl fvrt£^i>" <Jf*ft, n, UK; nrGvMfliu 
»<Bf ■ wmt^ati, i. tt- rtf AOrimt. VL c«nr4f**<l i« tht inctvrXi- 

ibtAn Ui>v*«fa lb* lc««r rutc ii Ibtdcru?. lUfnd^liK. «4*n.Vf#. ub. 

*- Ut^ TW LMtm of KrAWDu thomat la eonoboMtivt (H(iin»>» 


Tho i<left of lii^ aiittiority of Un^ Hact^Hntiil onlnr U 
knpnniblo from the* ult^n nf papal Mipriimju'y witliin it. 
Yet, an « matitfi" o( Wl, ruuxiy Lrf the causes tliat tended 
to tlie ovprtJiiovf rjf failli iti tiju latU-r Joctriue, opet»l*Ki 
likewintj tj undtrmiiic tin* forratT, Tht' koydton*^ cf the 
oivh c-cnild lint ha kiimuticd wiUioiit otlts^tiiiff tlit? stiibility 
of thn whnlit Htrm^tnro, In the pruM.'nt ohuptv[% tlii^ ri«0 
niirl ()j»^tfne cf ttm pipnl (^nmininn will bit ihp man *xi)> 
ject *>f rttfention ; aiid in treniting of t}ie »(*cond bnnicli of 
tlie topic. Uit OtH;IIue of the Papiwy. we ali^U dJusct a^t^n 
tinn in piu'ticulu to the intluenL:e of a cuube vhiah maj 
be dc^nomiRftt^d tlii^ Etpirit of nationnJinm. 

The relit^on of the old dispvnsttticm is dtJclared in th^ 
Old Testument iUelf, by the prophets, to bo nidimental 
mtO irrfriKluLTlory to a mote apintual syati^Eii. This uliar* 
ju^trir iif itiwardiieas belongs to tlie religion of Chr'iEtt, 
which, for iHnn rcn^on, is fitted to ba univerHul. Worship 
b sot fiCG £rom legal rt^^trictioni^, and from the external 
and seneuoua charaderifltica of tho Jowieh ritual. In oao 
gnind fi-uture. oiiiit<iully, id tUt? ivligion of ttio New To#* 
taniont d3Bliiiguh«hcd from the prepiimtory system — the 
absonci^ of ^ En^diatoriii.] prifvitlKHiH. Tht^itiAcipli^ wereto 
form a (uiuinuiut^ of WethitjEi. who aliould be aatnicnatad 
in » foolang of L'quatity, tM of tlt^m being illumlniit'i^d 
mid directed, lui wull iia united, by thu one spirit. Tho 
porsevorirg cfFottn of tho judaising party to prGaerrc the 
diatlnotiTO f«&tiir«« of tht^ Jeni^h ayat^m and foist them 
upon clie ChnT^h, failed. Tbe true« catholic IntarpretA- 
tion of the GoNpl^l, m giviiJg liberty to the aoul and direct 
Aocew tfi Ocfd tlirtnigh tlir out? high pl'ifl^t ^vho Kii^ieT- 
aodes all other prlcttly mfdiation — that intr^rpi'etatioia 
to ^f hlch all of the Apoetlcs assented iti principto, but of 
whioliPaulwaBBoeloar aiidet«adlfiAt LLne^rpoiindvr — prt^- 
vc^iLod in thn Christian >od«tl«ft Ibal w«re early su^itbirod 
ovoT th<} Roman Rmpirr. Tlioir organisation wwi siniplo 
TT>e idrei of a body in uhiHi. wldln hU the mpmbets sarv« 


tftdi otb«r, thov nn> trtilt itdnptcd to dilTcrront fuuctiona, 
for ^N^udi tli^ an? ^T«>rally dn«igTi:it^r:l by lh'> rtiliug 
principle «— vhidi, in the caa^ of ike Cbnrt^h, is the Di« 
viTi« Spirit — luj ni tin? imd. A* wa« uatnnil, at! of tiie 
CliriKUniM in » u>vii vmi^n imitotl in one vic-li-t,y, or pci.'1e»ia, 
the old Urecli t«rm for nn itPBembly Icgitlly called and 
«uminn«i«d. In caoli society there waa a board of paatora, 
aaU«d indillenntLy cdden, jireebyt^ra — a nuiM<] taki^n 
ffom tbo lynitgOigu^ — or bUliops, ovi>rtt««»t t n^unu f^vui 
by tJjit Ort.H*ti ti penwins clir^r^d wit)i u guiding ovnr- 
ngbt if] civil lulmliiiBtnir.roQ. In x}in i*\iM\l\vm of tliftiiii 
thid body uf di!M;IpW liaj a cunliolling voice, altliough, aa 
lotig aft Uit< Apoatiofl lived, tH«jr aiigg^stiuiia or appoint- 
mcnta ivould nntiindly be ac)ueptt-d< Tlir»te otBntm did 
DOi giTO np, fit lintt, Uieir soculnr oocup]itir>nii ; thoy tc^rro 
oot evMi, «t tlio outnet, ititniati^d as a potmUai- function 
^th tlM» biiaiiiMS of t^aohing^ whirli was free to all and 
l^Mcittlly diCTOived <>u a c\iim of pt*i-ai>iiH \\}ni ftaumn] i1i<h* 
ilptftlad by Ibvir ^ft* for tbi» work, 'flu? rldiirt, wif.b 
tli« doftoonft whom hmncm it wii5 to look after the poor 
aftd to iwrforiTi kimhru! dalioss were Ihc offircrH, to whom 
tAob iiuJ« ooramanity «0TinmiCt^ the laad in tlio mun^n- 
nwat of Ita affairt. Tlie cliangd tbat took' plaoe, either 
fVnringor nooci iift^r thti Hgtt of thi* A[Kmtb«, by wliioh 
pwoedmcr wwt givi-^i in f^ick Ixiiird of pAJitcjm to otitt of 
their number to iv1>oid tlio tiUe of biehop was r.TclusJTely 
4ppfopnat«d. did not of itaelf invoWc any fnndamcntiLl 
dltomtion ill tbo aptrit ox polity of tho ohurubo^.' But 

t Tla poStJ flt itt« Cbanb 1& tiiv H^itiwtcillG ij;* If tdmlrftbl^ diucridrd ^j 

npUA's |i«llulBr bjpoilisil* mptrtiuc Uif viIk'" "^ ^'■'i l^pt^cnitite 1*4* f^jninl 
Ontv, tf or fiTvf. TUq Bonu CvJidLId kih) A;ic11eaii rlint, itui lli* F.piicu- 
ptfjk, H 4 HHtjBa oMcr. wu a*lAlaad by the AtntCltn ior tbt *buEc (liufirj, » 
^Wlloal hy WftrifF. Xirr-Afnrrfif rUUi f^l-, IHAU. Ha (v»iiLi'tj<Ari» vii rlu 
rtwM^tll lUii of Wallfr'i «ort I* IhVOf Itlrhtpr. JTr'rdtitTR^r fTUi vil„l»TSl< 
Ta«n k AB i*lr bt^fiiVBl l>kv'iKTimi nn tTiP "rbrbiLnD BiliiiMrr '* tij ["nrr 

«tev«f rvvliiiUttt !■ ■tfwsr'-l rivX'wiiL-r «eii1 r>1'u>lvr in ilii:]rCliuh.h Lililv- 

iJ totitfkn f4 iM »^JHl >• "loi^ la form • iLbftrr. 



AA we ftpprcfxch tho cIoa{> of Uio neeond ctnttiry ""c finJ 
marked dr.iijio>^< eoiup of them of n [>ortcii)tr>na L"h!mu?tBr 
auoh a^ indliiate that the prncesa of pirpmali/jng tlio 
CliriHtiiui TT*]i;^i<fTi luul the idL\k of tliH Clmrrh, liaa fnirly 
iH^t ill- T\iit mlnt^^^iiK^nb uf lIk^ junbdictjoii of biahoiHt 
by extending it over <lcpundeni chorchee in Ukt noi^boi^ 
hood of ilic tf>w]i0, and th^ tniiltiptyini; of church rfliG»i^ 
wo cli:\iifie8 of kes moment. Bnl dio ofFicAra of tho Church 
itr^ in iVQ And mora aasnming the position of a disdnct 
un!(^r, ivhidi li pliiceil a,lM:v8 the hiity Hud is the ap* 
piiintcyl mcHliiim uf cunveyjiig to thfttn gi"ace. The oon- 
C''ptii>n of n. priesthood, lifter the Old Testament ttystem, 
is nttnchirig itself to the Christian miiiiHtry. Along with 
thia <;m<l(]JLl chan^ thero is ftn impt^rcciptiblo yot grow- 
ing depaitnre from the fvirtdaniental doctrine of salva- 
tion, »6 it lijid heen *^l hrlh byPuulvaml an adoptloa 
\tt n more legul viow, in which faith ja identi&ed with duo 
hrma\ belief, and hcnco la conpl^I with works, irml^iid of 
bdng thi-'ir fruitful tfourcc. Thin doatrimil diujigu and 
thijt nttributing of n priwtly function and prerogntivo to 
the clprpi,% wi»n» not in any nonsiderablo flogroe tlio tp- 
Bult of efforU on the part nf J^wisli Oliriatiana and of 
judaii^iitg purU«»i wltich hhd Lt^u e:trly ovan^irna und 
txmi as hrrt^Ucnl w^:U Lc^yond the {hHq of the Chnrch. 
They were ruthcr thu product of tendencies in human 
nAtuK, ivhidi Jire liuhb to manifcot theinBelTca at any dme. 
and whid] stn-vt- tf» acrouut in gr^t part for the tonacaoiu 
adherenr-e f>f the Jewiah aeetarl^B to their rituah But 
Cheae tendeiioien wera maUirlally aided by the pecuHiiP 
L^rcuniHtimcivi iti which thn fjirly Clnin^h wiw jihuirxl, of 
which the ftbn»c of the TauliiK^ doctrine by Gjiostic and 
by Andnomion epcoulations wae doubtlesa ouo. There 
voro cansefi which ijave rise at once to the hi^^mrdiioal 
' ha 01 doctrine and the liitrartliiad polity, Tbo poiw< 
i*utlana to whii?h the Church waa aubjeot at tlie hamin of 
thtr Riinan gnvurnnn.i^iit, and «tiU more the ^>at ronllirl 

CfeOWni O? A HrlllAftCBT. 


witli k ftvmrm of heretical t4)aclLi>r« wlio aoiigbt to auml- 
gunuVr ClirUdiutit^' iritb viLrioua (oitiu of Gri?i!k und 
OnimtAl pliiliMnphT. wiggi'HU^il Ow nreil cff n, ninr^M'tim- 
paot ofguunUioii. Thu j>j>1ity of ihv. Olmi-rli n^ihirjlly 
ti>ok A form corT«*poDdii)g lo politic;Ll models tlieti vxtat- 
t&ii;, Conlodenvtod government waa sotiutliiiig f^iinlUju 
to the Grvtk mind. TUe Cliuroh in tUt? «LpiUil o£ ii prov- 
ing, wilU ita bjihop, ecuily ucqiiii'^d a. pri<ct*clciic<; (>vi«r thi^ 
other chiirohr^ and bUhopvt in thu stiinin district, and thiis 
llie m^Lro^UtAii Bjcteni g^r«-w up. A higljer ^radi^ uf 
enun^uiAi waa accoided to tliy buJjop» hihI diun:li*?H ol 
the principat citied. audi as Rome, Akxaiidria, zuid Kpli^ 
PWt and tliud wo KcivG the ^L^niu of a mord cjctijindcd 
bMrarchkul cwaj. 

Even aA early (w the* Utttr pnrt of the upond century, 
ih© Chnn^h Itita pawned inio rlis iyiTiditi*>Ti of a Tislble c»r* 
giiniKui cum[UO]i\veaUb> We find Irtftteua ixtltrln^ thn 
EiLtnon^ diotam thnt where the Churcli Itt — meftning tli© 
Tiaible body with ita clergy and sficramoutt) — there Ia 
*he Spirit of (iudt and If hero th^}>|nrit uf QoJ i^^ there in 
iho Cbordi,^ To bo out olE from tbo Churoh ia to bo aop- 
anUtid from Chnnt. The Churdi U tlte di^cir i)f :uHwafl to 
Him, Vfv <-Ari -lino n-adfly acuouiit for tlic impcirtiuicn 
that began In b^ aLiach^d to tra^lition ; for tlie defend^trv 
itt ChnsUanlty a^^ainat Gurjstical corruptionn naturally 
(aO back on tlie bistorical rrideaco :iiTordod by thn prt^it* 
eaoo and tcatiniony ol tbo leading chun:hra whii^h tbo 
Apostloa tbonuolTQB had plantod. Jrcn.njiu and TortnU 
dan difvct the inqoirer to ^ to Corinth* Ephesoa, Homo, 
ta tho plarea nhi<ri> the ApoHtles bad lati^lit, and ancor* 
laili whetbi*r t\u^ novrl Hjn'jTuIutliaiH of thi? Iimi^ nnM 
fontly dnim tho aaiicticiD of tko tii>t di^ciplca of C1in»t< 
or bad be«n IruitsLiiUted froiu them.' It in tlic pr^ 

1 di^ JUvftti;, itt- is. f U trvhwn* n Biahflp af lypm fnm ITI io m 

I, « rVfitft|itf tt CtfUit^ d i« Utv«hi V9a arid »& 



vcs AXD DKLnrE or the fafil hieiuacbt. 

emiiieoc*) iif Roin^. u ttiF* cuAt^Mlian uf triditiona, that 
ircn«cua mejbn5 to ua^irrt in a notnl potna^ in wliicii bo 
exftltfl tlmt Church.* Bnt thia vort of preeminence might 
contribute to pw>[»aro tho way for iuiothftr nnd n far dif- 
Cerect conception, wliich Tpould connect ttsolf with it, 
Th« unity of the ChiiruU, tlua grmt vi^l« eod«ty of 
Ctirtttumii, wiu< niilT/i-iI in Llir* tiriil/ of Uie Hnofnhfbil 
body. It iTM n^ilaral to seek &nr] to find n head for thia 
body. And where ahoiUd it bo sought except At Komev 
the o&pitui <Ti tho ^oiid, the Mat of the pTmcipal Church, 
when, no it v..u» ^ncrmllj and poHmp« truly believt^d, 
PeC^r MS wdl aa l^nnl had pumhi^ an miittyn ^ Aftor 
l'**f**r came fc be wifiHidprnii thp rhip/f nf the AponlleSi 
&iul \^h(*iu neA^ lhf» cIlvp uf Llie seoinid century, tlie idfOl 
waa 9ti^tfsU-d ju;d bc^cunio curnmt tlut Pelvr had hr«B 
bialiop of the Komnn Chnrchi, j% vtrong fotxndfttion was 
laid in tJic minds of men for tho rcco^ition of Uio pri- 
macy of that Chun;]! and of its olilef paator,* Tho habit 
of thun n'j^i'dh]^ tho m^v of Korov, «o fur if-iiiu ground 
thnt in rii^ tnL<i<l]t> nf tlie third cvuUiry vet» find n, C^'priiui 
whoae jwa! foreptscop»1 indcp^ndotico woiiW not tol«ratd 
the sul jettiun of nut? hiflhLjp to uuotber. alii] ftpnukiiig of 
thill, !irc liS fhi-. flourvo of sju*erdotal unity.' Th© infln* 
onoca tha^ gradually Wuilt up thi^ primacy of the Koinan 
bifthopt and had a spociat forco of opfrration in Uio Wcetorn 
Chiircht w«r« multiform. Ronio hada prolmiQcnco and 
a grindcttr in Htm ortimaUon of men, audi iw ao madam 
cttiiH, liowffvt^r c]ilondid, bavn «?vr-r HraltHJ. To tlut cnp- 
itnl ihp nations Itad houik »Kxru«1ome<l to lofik with awo, 
Somctlilng of thie rwcrvnco waa utaily tnLnaferred to tha 
Ohurc-h trhich hnd ita neat in th« KtcrnAl City. The cxuh 
torn of r^ganilfig the Koinan Kmpircita n divinely oon»ti* 
tuted th<<fttre for the Chri^an n^ligion, which God had 


I Uh, III. iii. S: 

■ Th« flnl mnvClab nf Ptipr ma Biibop of RnH ii in Ik* . 

*bvb van «vni|iufl«d in tht UtUr pari *t1 Ui« iac«i4 flDlOr 




for thin and by k long proviilrrriFml liUt^iry, Idd 
incoitfiuirrUiP ('»|iit»l nf iIk! Rmpim Um iin^di-nUnivt 
itrupolisiif Cbr'uitiaiilly. In Umf« of pcirsecutioiu the 
fiiat iatellkgencfi of the gathmng stomi vva« cfto^ coni- 

Itkd^ to be tbft carlioit victtim. Tho Roiuau Churok 
warn rowrcd u lli« only upoittolif- 1^ in tliu Wi<»t. Many 
of th^ irhnrrhiw of tJiii WrwI. wr.rr. phmiri) Uy \is agi'in'.y ; 
many iw^sivpul from jt pccuinary aid. 'J*1k"Ii> wi^'O.^ f*:wc/ 
fiitifl» Uiaa in the EosU and hence fevrer uouipctitorb to di»- 
Uie pretfiusioos of tho Hoinan bislioj^ nud low room 
for IJio d«T«1opin«iit of Lbo TnetropoLiUm e>dtiji[i« wltiob id 
th^ Eftft optTTUted ui u. GOTtftm oxU'jit ilm ii di<H!k upoo 
!&• RmbstSon of nny single prelatt?. From tha Uaginning, 
tbe La&Id ChurcL p^l'>ok of the pracitlca^l apiiit of the 
imre oniuiij; wUopk It wa^ jihuited; it kr^pt ou ita path 
iBwn> ftcndilr, while tht^ luLit, awiiyvd by the speculative 
qnrii of the Groolc, wno conrul»cd by the great GOfitro- 
vernee in thooloRy. which mark oapociaUy tho fi>urLU and 
Iflh oenturi^fl, Throagli all th^^ period of tha AHaa oind 
MovtoriAn oonOifjU. thi! R'jman b:!*hop st(>od sufficu^itly 
apiifi frum the cunlctidiEit^ jnirLiKi l<> :icf|ian^ gruat im|Hjrt- 
UkoeiD tbrir Dyc« and to nsako hj« support corded by 
oaA of tiwcu Hi3 wa« tbc powcrf al neutral whom it wna 
lor the intercet of all Eaotions to ooncUiato, Tho desiro to 
gftin the etrej^lh wluch the adhe^oQ of 00 iuiQu^ntialtt 
pMl&to muct give, vould iiiduoo pnrduuu to revert to htio 
n m nmpins nnd bi oxhIi hrn pTTTc^gfttiw in flatt^fring Istn- 
fiiag». Slid] iw uiid^ dilferent circumatajicea they would 
sv«r have employed. At critical uiOTiif^nto the Roinftn 
octniiUy interposed with doctrinal ft^nnulaa whioh 
Bwt with goncnd luiccptAnoc ; tho moot mcmomblo in- 
Maoe boiiig thnt of tbo (Kcumeniof^l CoTuicit of Ch&Ioo- 
doo (451), wh«o the statomeDt of the creod ro«p9cting fitm 
pcfwmof Chmt vrua ^ubahiiLltidly dmtni from the letter 
of Lea I. ftut how im tlir R;udicm prvrluttia were Inim 




na« biiLiiMttid hI Uiia >try coancil* where a tltubi und 
b.&uotarv pre-»<lence was granted IiItu, at the same tiima 
that tqiuility in other reapecia was du-imL'd for Uit-f 
Hirthop (if Caiwtiintinoplc, on account of liin bcmg bisOit^p 
of " New Kome," Leo wn» cut to the qtli^^k by this pro- 
cee<hng of the council, which plj^wd h\n niitbnrity on so 
prei'jinoua a foandblinn lij inaktiig it dept-iident solely r»n 
the iK>HtiCftl imporliiiioi; of tlip city where Jt was cxurtr^l. 
He repela the dcclanitdon of the council with great 
wRiTrntii, !ui<l tieecrts that tho iLOthonty of spiTitruU Komo 
is founded on iLe fact that it h the see of P«ter. But 
L^ does not riinouuo^ the ad^antagc^e to h<s derived from 
the commonJing poUtiivLl posStion of Komt*. but skillfully 
interweaves this with Uk^ moi^ vltnl conMiJenttion just 
namedi He chums that the Hotruui Empire ^ws^ built ap 
with reference to Christianity, and that Home, for this 
reason, waa choatjii for the bishoprio of tJie chief of tbo 
Apc33tks. Thia idea as to tho doBJga of tho Koman 
Empire psissed dowD to later timea. It is iioplied in tba 
lines of Daute, wh**ro^ speaking of Rome and the Empire 
hn Hiiys: — 

" Fur aUl^lid |ier In ioo tviia 
^^^_ C udeIb II iBcaannr dal mAggior Pien." ^ 

^^F If WO w«t«h tho ooorao of history for eovcr&t OGiiturie« 

W aft«r the Beocmd, we otwerve that the attwupta of th« 

I R^^man bishops to exereUe judielul orl^ialative fum^tbni 

B in rttlatifiji tu thif ri'Jit at tlif C'lturcli, now sticoprd and 

I again are iT})ii1sod ; but on tJie whole, undbr all these 

I flnctuatdona* thcdr pow«r h increauDg. 

I The aoceeaon d Constantino (^11) Fonrd the CIitiTcli 

I ai> firmly organiaod under ita hiemrchy that it coulJ not 

I ho nhnolni^ly nioi^od in th$ §tat^, as nii^ht have been 

^^^ the roiolt had its oonstltiitLon been difT^rentH But ufu^ 

8IU Ili4 iiiiHwnr #1 lh« jctiuMbI Pater/' 



Um mnd Ilik tnr^^von^ tli^ nnprpniTtcy of the aute and 
m large* m*"auiiir*i »f rniiirfil av^r ecrlesiasticAl alTaira mn 
fwuitfained bjr Ui« empenna. Gc*ii(-i'aJ t:umi{2iln. for ex< 
ample, wei^ convoked hy litem ttnd pnnidtrJ over bjr 
Uuitr rcprcocEctutiv^ jtnd cundliiir dcci'CCff pulilJnhcd M 
Uvn of tLo £iii|nrG. llic Itotnan biebopn felt it to bo OH 
lioDor to hti judged only by the emperor^^ Id tbe 
cUvdng pfirirtd of imperial history, the emperors favored 
ditf eoclesia«tio;d primacy of lliv lli>TiiarL tn^\ a^ ii 1>t>]it} 
d( unity in tli« Rmpirv. Political disonlers tt^itflcd Ut 
4levat« the ponticn of th^ Homnn bi^^hop, eap^^cially 
vrfocn h« wu ft peroon of rcmorkablQ talcTils and energy. 
Iq vodi a OMO the offlo^ took on new prerogativtie. Loo 
the GrMt (i4<"-llil), tho fiiist, porlwps, who is entitled 
to ba rtylei Pcpe» wilh ttii? nmrt? mof^t-rti ussoointions of 

Uhi titli*, pn>vri;l hiimuiif a pillhr rf ntrv^iiglh in thi^ mirl^t 

of tftmult aikI anarch>. Ilia ooDftpIcuouB eurvk-L's, n& iu 
iUoUing R01114 froni Uiu burbarUiia and prutectm^ ita 
iahabttantAt ^xdliUtcd the toicrcW of 1% spirltiinl JQn»di» 
tioa that atr>7tchod not only cvor Italy, but a^ far tie 
Oaol ood Africa. To him wjts f*iv«D by Vulentinian III. 
(445) an bnpcrliL diecUrauoQ wtildi ma/lc bim flupreme 
atvT ihr Wtaetrni Oliiirdj. 

The fftlt ol ihe Wrikm Binpirv (4Trt'> in mjr impor* 
tent particular vras of signal advantage to the popoe : it 
tibcnit^ th«m from subjection to the civil power. Tht 
bt« of the Eaat^m CIturefa luid cf tho aou of Ccinfitfintino- 
|ile might bnvo bo«n th^ fat« of thn Wdstum Church and 
«f Eome, had its po1iti<*^1 fitnation h^t^n «qiia,]]y nnpro* 
pHloua. Tlie »Javi»h oDiuIitimt tt* wliirh IIkt Roman 
bUiofM wfTrt* mluot?d m tiiri brirf pcritHl of the? full 
Greek ralo in Ttftly, afurr tho cont^ncfft of JuKtinian 
(6S9-&9S)t proTce how cloorly tho vignr ntid gr^jwth <.| 
Im papal institution woro dL'ipcTidt>nt on furor n^ politic&f 
cirMUflatanc«a. From thu t^oblo a^rvitufld it vraa lib 

■ Orwl>r.ii,LS.|«t 



nnt«d by Uie LouiWi iiivaaion* which broko doWT) lli« 
Greek poifrer in tJ:tj ii^nlnaulft. 

But tho direct coiiduijucjuiUH of Uio fiUl of tlio Homiui 
dominion iti Uiu WoKt haJ Ix^c!!; dluadtroua Uj Ui^ CLorcii 
ftml lo llie Papa^^j'-' ChriKtirtii Brttnitj biu! been *iim^ 
qnarai:! by Lbtt lieiitiiien Si4Xiiiih frrjiTi thct cmuiKiut. -ArU 
Auiaiu had H^raaJ fflj and wide among th« Gcrmanio 
triboa. Tlie Greek Church, which bocamc more and EOore 
ilistinct from tli<; Latin, in Ungiia^ cnH^J^ ojid nlual, 
AttiuJini ibtull with inorOMing loyalty U> the Patimrch _ 
of ConnTiLntinopU. A« Ari^tniMm wr\s, st^p by 4tep, diiu H 
pliUNiil by orthndoicy t-liroiigh lh« fltmcpirjtKof tin* Frinkn, 
lh«i authority of the Papacy viqa not pi^portioLittttily ad- 
vaiiccU. Kvvn tlie pcnrer of metropohtaiis in th«f diilex- 
eat comitrk-* nnnk, iUid tho goverumdot of the CJiuroh 
r«9«t4Ki in diu blinds uf Lh(> kiuga und of this anvtocney of 
nobluR luid biihopi. The biMhi>i)Ei un<Ivr Ute Merovingian 
kingN Hmii&4iHl ^Ttulth, but M iiidiolv Wvp^ whJi littln 
oonueiii fiti- lli^ iiit4<t>«U of rulJLruiii. Tlie diaurdt-r iti the 
Fnuik Cluu^b n^aclied its height uiider Cltirlca M:ui<^* ■ 
A,t this tirot) the bereticaJ Lumburda had founded tbeir 
kingdoni in tlio h^nrt of iLily; nnJ th^ Arab*, bftving 
earned thoir dominion QT«r Africa and Sptin, vsra ad- 
TUKnng appeuviitly to Uie conqu««t of Europe. 

'Hke fonuiiate alLan>:)d of tlid Papacy wiEii thr* Franka 
waa the event on which ita whole randiaTat kiatory bonwd. ■ 
They counted at their ocmversion, in tbo fifth century, only . 
abont live tbonaamd wnrriorn. They gained tho aaocoQ- 
teMy over tho Einrgundians and Goths, and tbias awMfod 
tlie vJotory of tho Catholic f^th OT«r the Avian type of ■ 
C^iriatiaiuiy. Tlitt aton^ v/ua au vi\^ti% of iugnttl nunDent^ | 
in tta uUiinatd bearing wi Xhn giujidl iL(itnini<Ki. Thtmt 
nnd^ Cbnitra MartcU at PtntMn l7'^2), they dufoatodtfae 
Mo«kin> who, iu tlirir Tictoriona pcogf«fla»«Tt^«iiarc)ui|| 
Chnstondom iui<l tlircatening not ocdy to cnuh the IV 


|i«cy boi Avefi c<> r*xlirpate Clii-LfiLi;L]iity itseU^ Under tho 

die oonTcmion of ttio Gcr]niti].-i ; liiiuncLf i^n Aiiglo-^jixi^n, 
of the DMion whicb lind been wtrn from lu'^ithcuinm by 
.mnnoauijda sont directly from tiuit pi^utifT whoso roiffit 
MfMnCes the ac^cieut <ir classicnl from the inediEwol <^i'a 
oi tbo CLorch, Gnf^ory the Great. The iiotirpalioii of 
P«|ii]i« lilt; founili;!' uf ilm Cibrloviii^ihii lim-, wtim lutlltiiTiHl 
in Uie vycA i>f Iuji Nibjccts liy Uu; kililcIioh oUtniik^l from 
Popo Zucliajiwi (^750). The political rcQijvfbliou of thd 
FruokUh monarchy wnaatt«iidod by atiext^naion of Uie ii^ 
diMiiMof thepapiJM6. TheFraukiah Cliuiviiwiifi brought 
into cloMr ocnncottoa ivtlii Rooie. Hxa prlutficy of Pttter 
WBJi univen&llj rftcogni^Ml; it vvi^n [u^titunnl, through tlio 
bbom ol Boiiif^kiXT, » far Ij^Ikn' HlgriiflL^iuicti Uimi it Ifful 
ever before poAMMciJ.' After tho Lijitiliurda hail tvrc^atcd 
[fWn tlie Ui^ekp tliclr ^rc^ii^cva m Etiily, and wt^ra 
Umfttcmuig Homo, iit Ji time, Lou, wJa-n, by tJic oontrO' 
TGffVy about tLio v^oraliip of i[UAgoi4> tho WoDtom Churcli 
waa aepira&»d From tLc £aet aiuL tlie Roiiuui bUhop vrag 
Uft to protect luinsi'if, W luriic<il It* thu Fiiiiik'* for ittiiift- 
atkOB BgKimt Ilij* lirn*Lii<iil unil ii^^gn-Asivr? iit'iglilnnit. TIm 
delireraoco acbisTdd firat by Tcpin (T54-65>, imd then by 
(%tt1eiaacii&t re»iilt«d in thi; coi-otiulion of tlic Utter* ob 
CSirutnw dfty, dOi}, in tka BLuiUi:a u£ 8t. I'oU^r by Ui« 
bojub of the Fopc- TbvB CSiiirk'd bi^uini^j iu form whiit )ui 
bad fiiado hiinft<?lf iu fjict, Ui<i Kmjiciur of tluk \VmC. Th« 
idott of the perpotiLity of the lioinim Kniptre was t^ever 
fcM& irmm tba mliuU of nneru In iJie corotiallon of dmrleat 
thi' Popf? nrtmdly procc-^^dssl in Uiu chaiTictrtr of a rrpnwn* 
bUiT« oi tbo liotHAJi pcopIc>Eiiid liis act ^iglli lied tEir ro« 
vival of tbo KotnAti Empire. Chiirici^iagiic, while bt 
tceoguaed ibo Pope as Uw Bpinttuil beAd of the Churoh, 
dmoma^td hEnueU ui « master lu rt^ft^reuee to luiii, aa in 
mlfttioa to Ida ciwii 1ii»1iiapei. Biit vUilu tliti f<Htndaticia 




waft Uud for tit" papal kingdom m Italy by die gntnl* (jf 
Pepin and CliiirlcJuii^tiis a pluiiaibli- ground veas iilno fiir- 
niethcU for tlio niibM^quent uluitii thrvt Uu> J'opc, L>y liifl 
omi authority, hwd tmrsftiired tlie Empire from thn Koflt 
tf) thn Wp8t, ^nd selected the imlividual to Eill the 
t)]tx>iie.^ Ill Uter tlmeB tlie coroimtioji of Chnrles lent 
OuIi>r Lu tlje pielcuded riglit of the pouUfEa ixi exert a 
gOTvming influence in civil not leaa tUau in ecclesiantiail 

Ak th« diviAionn and oontlicta i>i Chnj'leinagne'a em- 
pire after his death tended to ©sKilt the bishops who 
wen* called m to apt iw imipIn'K aninng rivitl a^pimnts or 
Hiui'lL'd ftn' the rtfliyluus HajicUoii i*hicli Uibj ixjuld givti 
to nu^xrrufid ambitjoo. so did Uufl era of disorder tend to 
magidfy tJic po^cr of tUo rocognizcd head of the wholo 
opiscopnti*. In thi* period apponrmi the FiOm or Psoudo- 
Isidorisji DecratolA, which formuliaod, to bo Biire« tfii^ 
denoies alre^idy rif<^» biU still imparted tn tlioso tendanrlea 
lUi anthnriuiivt" bitsia and an iU]gytn*nt&l etrength. Th*i 
FaIn* Div-n;baU brought forward principles of eccli^ia«tica1 
law wLick mado tbo Church independent of tEie Stat« 
and olevatijid Hit Iloman Soc to a [>ontio!i unkuown to 
prtcodin^ ȣ<**- Tlio immunity and high prerogative 
of hishopo. the exaltation of primatije. as the dinct instm- 
mont« of x\ip popi'Kj above io&t;T>t|>olilan3 who v:vk ol*ia<>ly 
d*>pond^iit nn thn fvciiW niler^ and tlie ascription nf fho 
higLt«t leglalatiTe and judicial functions to the Roman 
Pontiff, wen among tJio leading fcatun.*» of tliii spunoiu 
collection, wtuch fiound Its wuy into tbo cod» of cnnon 
\av 4ind radically modilsvd iha nnei<Jnt coulmiiutiad Kya- 
cein-* I'hnro wnn only nr('di!d a pop<» of Nufficaont talenta 
and energy to give practical pfTiwt to tbfvap np-x princt* 

I For th^ EiL^ov^ M E^<< ptfm} kliifdnm In latr. rrt ihr nrk of Sur^Phflni 
ilv)> inrltir rrf tBk tf«rk la tbv JVrtf /"iifAnto, rat. extI. fJu, IMTK 
», n«. Ilirf iirit«|i)V4*fJihMirltrtBt444»«ribeiriMl»MBt»7- 

pl«0S ui'l mch ik pfrreon appcarnd in Niohol^ 1. (868- 
867). Availiu^ hini^lf of a. favoriiblt^ juTi4_^t[jii>, ho i^xer* 
eke«i Uie <l[ftolpll[io ct (be Cbtirch upon Lr>tli:tir 11., tho 
Ktt^ (jf LrirRkiiie. wlioiri ha ftjrviH^ t(i sitibiuit ia tUn 
pai|ttl juilg^iufTuL III n ntutrimum^J 4?7lU!((^ wlillrf In; tlf»- 
pOAcd iho Archbiflkop* who hiul eiidenv<fred to bittBc hU 
porpoM:. At Iho Jtnino time. Nicboloa humbled Hincmiir, 
die poverful Arobbiihop of Rhdim^, who hud diar\}'j;^d'^ 
thft appeal whioli one of h\s biabopfl, Rothud cf Soiadona, 
bud mndtv (o R<ini(i. Sjtsb ^c^rtioUK jf j^'iwor^ for vrliirTli 
Lhi^ FiilM? ni*cr<-tiiU funiiHlii'd n. wnmmt. eeecn tci itiif'id 
pftt« th« IliMcbrTindifiii agt*. 

Anxtotu to doLivor tbciiksclv^s ^m tlie control wluch 
OlMri«i9B^o hftd e«tabUalieU over tlKmt, the popoii excn 
lotMnted tUe diword amooj^ thi> FruiUuHli jiriiKtia ; but thff 
wtrchial oonditioa into wliicb thi; Empire ultimately firlL, 
U*ft llw Pwpauy, ft>r it tv^Mliiry aiul !i, luitf, fhr prpy of 
Italiau f«ctJotiflt by the agency of wLicli tLe papai oIEoe 
wm* rtJuiMrd Lo a lower (joint of tut^ral de^r^id^ljci) timn 
it CTerrcttchcd before or mncie.* Thiat^m — tiiiring a con* 
■iderable portioii of which hnrlotn ciiapnaxl of rhe ptkpftt 
offloe, ftDd thMj- par»mcuT« wore the tiara — wna inter- 
rapud by the int^rventioD of tlio O^nnan flororelgni 
Otho r. and OtiMJ in. ; witJi tl«* first fjf wlnjin Uh^ Holy 
Rnntan BiapifPt in Uie himih^ iu wbidi tlir^ U used 
ill mbM^uect aged, tho si^cubr counterpart of tlie Pa- 
pacy, takoa ita origin.* Tho potitifTa prcf^jra-d the amy 
of iKo «mp«rors to that of iha U\*iteH Jtiiliuii bnronn.* 
Tliia dark period yra^ t«rminau»d by Hrtnry HI., who 
appvaxvd In Italy nt tlio hciul cf im tirmy, .ind, in 104fi, 
|C tk« SjraoiJ of Sntri^ wbii^h }m had convoked, dAtlironed 

■^nt? iW Fmin 1* irlirlh tAnfrliitl. Ilanniuh Jimvi^j. a- OnO u^> 1I« rrm 


S6 1U3K A£n> DECu;^ of the rArxE. iiiFJUE^r, 
thixHT ni^i! pujH», ;i.n^ raia^d to die vacitul offict? ouo of 

The impcrinl oWwx^ hiitl pJUUH^d mto the h^uitb »f tho 
Gorman liingUi nn<l tltt^y, tiko thuir Cnrloviiigiim prfi<lo- 
c«B9ors, rwcufwl tli^ I'lipnry fmm tUiBtriirtion. W^ h^ive 
reached tW period wlitti Vlildebrand (1<ITS-108r>) a{> 
pviired miUi liiH V4dL rt^foiiimi^ pluu, VVUilt^ lie uiuitid ai 
a tborousfh rcfuriiiLttloii ol moritU and a n-dtoration ot 
uodr^iiuiticiJ onW und dincijiliiK?, bu coicpLod with thU 
Uad&bU project the fixed d^'ui^i to nubprdinatc thn Stat« 
to the Chtircb, titid to subj^^t Dio Cliiiicb to the abwlntd 
Butbority of llio t*"p<?.' Th^ fhrfiHeriitirni of thU enter* 
ptis*'. III wliidi yood uiid e*il wti'c ttliiuint i ii«?iii4ntbly 
Idtmdud, l>y IlL]dr_brn.iii1 bimiii^lf. tiud by il arxicn nf nblo 
rtn<l ftspirmg pontilta who trod in hw fooUti*p5, occAsioned 
tho conflict K'lwcj^n tho J'ii|iricy and llio Empire. 

Thifl ooiiili«t, witb whiob medi;«vaL history for aevoml 
oeoturies roiouiida* wa8 an Inovilabl^ cons^quejice oi ibu 
foiidal ftystom. Tim dnprnili'iicf^ of eoclMiBStiCAl priilcM 
upon tbnir sovereig^n, find lici^cti his right to invest them 
wltb the b:iJg>?s of tlioir office, niUht be m^iiutaiTii^d ; ntlior- 
wis© tbe kiugUom Tvould be di^ititd ngivinst itai-lf. On 
tho contmry, tiuob a rolutioii on tlic part of hinbopji, in- 
dopondcntly oF inmonynnd hindn^f corriiptionawliich woro 
eomiflct^d wit!) the cnntrol nf Becnlnr rnlert over the aj^ 
[)Ointiiient of eccleslaaticM^ wus imtiirHlly di-vnied fatal to 
Lbe uUity of tlie itatcenluUiI body, T[> (Ik Ibct UnihdM :if 
anthority beUrtwn tho two powers, tlic Ripacy and tho' 
Empire, to whom tbc gOTcrnmont of the world was sup- 
poeod to bo ooiumittGd by tbe ordin^hneo of heaven, wut 
Impracticable without a contest- Tbiit Uie Empertjr wi» 
eoiUDUttsioned to preside over the temporal aCfaini of men, 
whiU-^ thr PiT|KT w:in t» ^itili* &ind gmrni tln-m in thingn 
spiriti^a), wa* t<>o isig(i« a r.ritj'rion fir di-finiug the limite 

flmt6a-aifUintt,u.t€ln Xtttiaitir iWdnur, ISMl, p. Ill mi 




|Mnrecswa£ a i^eUticn with whii-li. ou the ftuppoftitioc 
thAt U vrer« practkabloi neiibtfr piuty w^ouli Lu coutont. 
It ma a Bttnggle cm bcdi »iU«^ for umvcr^^l mociat<^ti7. 
Covuoqnmtlf our evtnpiducA can bo jj^v^ui without rv- 
•arvtt to DciUii^ p^rty, or nithvr they nxnst tHs ^van to 
eft:?1i «> far a* f'Hrli [iitHirril Ui fnrh thr enL-nwu^hmi^nts* nnd 
frsvcctUie uiiduo piY!d<fmi[ia,ncL- of tlie oilier. N^'ither 
aimed &4 the <lQ»tru>:tioi:i, but eadi at the subju^attou, <ii 
the other. It vim a battle whoro eockity w^^uld bavo 
«qiiaUyHiffvru<l from tbu oomptfitenrtd poTxiutnuiit triumph 
of «ithisr oantMtant. 

Tbt* Papncy liad gn-nt jwlvuntjigwi fcir prmH-ntUng fnTw 
VBrfiire agadint the Einpiiv^ frvtrn jipnrt from Uri fon-^ of 
the rdisioift» »catiEa«DU which tbo k^aJ of the CUuiKrh 
could mora esiaUjr biroke in hi» fttvcir, Ther^ wn^ iin in* 
eon^^niity betvum the Bt»tifni attributucj !<> the ICmpcror 
and th« fact that his ftctuid dorouiton wna f:ir fi<om binng 
ttMixUHOflive intfa Chriat^nilom. He could a^ert Bothing 
■mm thmi a BhiiJowy, tlieon^Lical tfupremticy ovi*r Ibe 
ottifT klngitomK of Wt^aUrrn Eiinirtir. Thn Pi>|x>, on tb^:! 
ountr&ry, ytm cwry wh^re the acknow lodged ln'Ond of LtvtiD 
Chriatiaitity. If a jdJoney for their ovni ri^bts niigJit 
tempt otbcr kuii^ to m&kd cobuiiou oauao fhlth the Hwr 
poror Bgamtt ptip^l aRgficwioua^ tbttt fading woulil bo 
Bflivtr^iz«d by tbv dan^^cr to otiu-r ftoveringiis tlr:U would 
BoOovr fmifi thi* triiitnpb nnd iittdrHfutjid 4iTn1tHtirrn of Uw 
Em|Hre. Fi^w kingn wcxc powi'wt^d of thft inn^ianiniity 
of St, Lows of Franco* who exerted all tho poi-ierB oi 
pr4kcrful rvmonfftnuiotf ta pTOtoct t'rod«nc 11. from tbc 
•mpEflcuhk TiiuUctiTi*cK« ot Gregory IX, Mcroov(<r, tbo 

on of tfa«r G^n'nan pmperora to iha liit^rnjrchy of 
kI"f^oni WW* quite differi-^nt iTiym thut ln-id V>y 

li'iRAgtie. w!io AcL^d tlit< parLof an pccltwiandcsl aa 
WvU KH u civil ruler. An iitibfifwunblo and «IUctiTe sap- 

tho |)Opot found in thc£ German pnncro thdiuMlroa. 


tilt cTJiLt yowwJh uf tlie Empire, and In thtir diepc«itio» 
to put cln!ukH Upon thtf p<>w^or of tlieir tovtrt-iK^ifiH Tli» 
namn oiuKt whiuh imp^dod Lbe tiuperorv in auting upon 
Italy, nidixi tho po^nKt in Anting upon Gt^rm^my. 'i'bo 
fltr^nglh fif tim ptipi^s Uy in the iiit(«l.iTu> divij*it*ii8 whicli 
ikwy iroulj Climate tLere. ITie att^^uipt of Givgory VIT, 
todetltrone Henry IV, i^ouM have bet-n utterly liopcdeoB 
but for thfi diaiillcH.'tioii wLidi tlie nrbitniry oonduot tjf 
Hcniy had provoked lunong fcuA ovm eubjeete. On tha 
rontrftry, the muiiicipal wpirit of libeny io the Italiiin 
€lti«d, tiitd tlivir dtflvrmtiied etniggltt for tn^lepen deuce, 
provided i}w [Hi|»iH wiUi patHil. )i)U«t JigHiiinL Uift luipnriu] 
Authority, The poiitifiB worn nbln to prcsuMit tJiomBrlvos 
in the attrftctirc light of dmiiipion* of pt^pnUr fTccdom 
in its battle with dcQpotiam. The cl'UBad<^» gave the 
popea tho opporliinity to oomti fcmrard u* the loaders of 
ChriBtondom, und turt; to their own ii(<^oiuit tht? rtli^ioiia 
entliTiaiiiam wliicrh Hprend oa n, firn nvnr Rimijxi. Thi*. tin- 
tncdJiit** iiiflufin-e of this gr*"iit movement, was sepn in ihe 
iiitigmeiiti^i) power at the }iontilT», luid the dititlninUed 
itrergth of the iinpeiial ratiae.^ 

Tlio Papacy waa victorioua in thfv protracted atmgglc 
with tho Empiro- The humiliation of Henry IV,, wliom 
Hild^btnn<l );L"pt wiiiting for tluve wiulot dayB. in tho 
garb of n pt-nilrnt, in th« yiird o( the ofistle At Csinossa, 
wbftl*vpf TTiglit hn the diJigraoi? whieh it tniTictfld iijHin 
tti« irrij»:Tiiil uiuae^ wha but the pohtic act of it p;i»atO]iiitti 
yonng nilcr, vrho wiw no other wny of regaining tha alle- 
ginnco of his nulijisrta (1077). Whtin thft liftinjj of tho 
ftseoTnn^nnicatinn wiui found not to iorhido tho fnll resto- 
ration of hh riphta a« a 80Vfln>it^;n* he took np arms with 
ui i^nergy and «uoee66 that allowed how little bia apliit 
WH* liniltpu by th" iiidigiiiljt*s I(j which b** bad niibTiii1LHl. 
The WoriHfl CVimonlat, whirh (^iitiu H. (ttircbidrnl with 
Henry V, m 1122, and which provided both for a secuUi 
I ad«ii[MQifrr, m. m. hf IS' 



A ^nnUul tnvoatituro, wita a markt^, though not a 
foUj 6tcmr&^ iriumpU of th^ Piipooy, it wna a. ;:;t-L^t 
•tep towupdft oompk't© uniJiucipation from iuipurijil awAy>* 
BnC tluftcknovlctlgmvnt nrhit^h Pn-d'^rif^ R:irbarrv3i!L nin!i)« 
ofhiftrin and error to A^^Ai^<lt;r 1 1 J. aU V»^rkii>?, l-i 11TT« 
«ft>er a ooateat (or imperial prerogatiT^ which tlut mou- 
arch k&d kept op lor DCarly fi geu^ration. vviu an im[nv9i- 
ftT« iudicntion o£ Lhu ^iJc oti wludi titc: viotor^^ wiu to 
TML Tlia triumph of the Papacy nppcorad coinplot« 
irlvn Gregory X. (1271-1^7*5) directed the Gl4>ctwiU 
princvB tn choose an enapi^n^ witJiiTi a ^iv^^n inti^rvfLl, 
iuid tltrvQtisiitHlt ill caa^ lUtry rcTiMtitl to (comply wliU tli9 
maoilate, to appoint, in conjunction witK hi» cnrdiniJa, 
Ml emperor for th<^m ; and when Rudolph of Hnpcbnrg, 
whom tii«y pTOCoodcd to choose, tkoknowlodgcd in tho 
most unr«MrT«d and subinlasive nianuor the Pope's au- 

It WAa dariiig tlir pnigrrjei of tltn nrrnggli^ w'lth thn 
Empire, that tltff |iapa] |K)wer may he HHid to liHve c\\\- 
nuuAlrd, tn lite ^ijchteeii yisxvA (1138-121(3^ ui which 
Innocvnt IlL r^igncd. tJie pupal inntituticrL fthone forth 
m fail MpkndoT.* 'ilto onfororTmc^nt of cdihnqy but 
plAOod the entile body of tfa« oler^ iu a closer ralatioa to 
the wrereiffn pontiff. The Vionr of Peter had b^omd 
tha Vicar of God and of Climt. Tlw iiU-a of a theot?rn(.*y 
on aartli, tn whidi thu Popr idioiild nilir U\ \hU tthjinw-Uv, 
fttUy powr«w^d the mind of Iiuioccnt, who nnitod to th« 
fiWFTBg^ pcrtiaa'^Lty, and lofty coiaceptiona of Gr^f^or^ 
VI U a broader ranip >i statesmanlike* capacity. In hb 
Tittw tlio tiro Nvordfl of ti>iDpi>nU and fiocleaiaatiojvl power 
lt»d l«>th 1ks>i) ^vcn to Pt^'^' and to bia ntccMAom, mi 
tkai ihm rjinJiTy auvi'tifigii dnrivod hxx pn'rognt^re front 
Ibahfttdof tli« Ctjnrrh, The king wm to th^^ Pope ta 
die moon to the «un — a lower luminary shining irith 

• Rvlw. CMfAUfr Awl '' 

'.il Mtuit,tnit CIMII- 



borrf>w4*il ligliL Acting on llii* tht^ury* Im tL<flUEn<til th« 
|Kint Df nrliiUT in \Uv. (^inh^nUnnN iif nittimm, luuE itlitimptl 
the right to detliroite kitig» ftt his plciwure. Tbiis ho 
iiiterpoBcd to decide tho disputed imperial dccticn in Oct- 
mnay ; J.uid whiMi OUio iV., tlie umpcrct whom hu Uud 
pluaed la powm-* prov«Hi falao to hia pliwlgda reBp^(?tuig tbo 
[in]>;il itL't;, he L^xcummuiiicaUd lUid d^pcsL'd him, luid 
hrf»ig}ii frrw»rd Fivtl*:ri<T 11. in hia stt'iul. In hlacondicf 
with J piiri, King of England, Itmot.'tiiLl' laid IiU kingiloin 
ubuer hn ItiUrdlct, axcxrniiuuuioatcd him, aud Enally ^tq 
hi» doxninions to tho sovoreign o( France ; Jind John, 
ikfter tlio must abji:ct humiliLitiou, rcccivt^d thotn Ixick m 
fga from the Pope. In the Chtiivli h« cissiimed tho char- 
acter of universal bishop, uiid<?r the thonry that all epifr 
("Opal powvr was originally dep<i*<iLed hi Pttl»?r and lu* 
HW^c^effions. and eoin in militated Ihroagli this Rnunv; t-o 
biahopB, wlio were thus only tJie vicftra of the Pope, EUid 
might bo dopo&^nd at will. To him belonged all IcgU- 
LcLtivu anthorityi counolle having m^rroly a ddibemtire 
powur, while Ujc rif:lit to convoke th«m and to ratify or 
Runul their proct'irdinj^ helongyd €3t(?U8iTely tfj him. H« 
AlDim wnfl not- iKiimd by the laws, and might di^ponae 
with Llnau in the tiiuie of othBrs. Even the dm;lrm« of 
[mpal infalHUIity began tosprt^ad, ani3 aeems Jmplit'd, if 
not explicitly ;hVowcd, in tho teaching of the moat cmiticJit 
theologian of the age, Thomiis Aquinas. The ooclceiaa- 
tical revohition by whieh the powers tbiit of old had b^n 
di^rribur^d through the Church wero now ah«oTb«d aud 
fVtficentnLtinl in the Pope, -waa HDidugouH bo tho politiod 
bbnngo in which thn femlnl system gradually grive plaen 
to moiiaichy. Tht? right to caufiim the appointment of 
ftU biahepB, the right even to nominate biahopa and to 
dinpo« of all bc'ueiiwa, tin? cx(?lusivo right of abaolution, 
csiLonizntioUi, rind dispensation, the rii^ht to tax t)iu 
ebnrchna — nnch W9r9 eom« of tW ennniutuA prrrogiu 
tives. for the enfoi-eem^nt of whieh pitpnl Ipgaton, clothod 

DETVLOnreirr opibb lay «pistT. 

Mnt info all ihi 

itrio^ ol 

with j^rnple poiren, veto Mnt inio aJ ihc ooiinirto^ 
Eoropru to orcrride tha authority of biahcpa tmd o£ local 
cooksiasUcftl tiibun&li. Thi> oetabliaJim^nt (tl Uio fainoui 
■Mflutioftnt oirdon of St. Pmnoift Rud St. Dominio rjvitioi] 
sp % Bvum of idnvnoit; praa^itrt wlui wtfro i-I<Mit^1y 
KU4Ucb«d to ihe PopA, ami rffjuly to iliifi»ii<1 pnpil |>r9k 
ngaUwo and ^p^l estorUoiu >i^altk»it w]iu»u^VL-r cppoii- 
tion ini^t anao from the s^ular cit-'rjty. GAiiuujf a t*)<t\r 
bold ill the uDiT«raittc«, tbey ii&Riti?J und defended m 
IflCtmoi and «ohola<tic systems t1I[i^ conception of tb« pn- 
ptX i&adtutkn:! in vrhich ail thGs& iLsurpaUoiiM and &buM« 
wera containM. 

Bat at tJi« itaiim lime iltiit tbt! Papu;^ wiia iwliioviili^ 
ita victory over tlit: Empircr, a po^Tcr wiu nt vn^rk U: t!io 
boaoro of society, vhich wiu dc^ttitiod to render thii.t rtc* 
toty ft bnJmn one, and (o WT>^At the «ccprrc imtn thv^ band 
of tiM O0D(|iKror* Tlu8 poorer may be de^j'tbed as 
Mtioaalian), or tho t«ud«Qcy to centr all nation, wliioh In* 
Tolwd an oxpaTwion of tnti^tHgoTio*- and nn r^rul of tha 
fiXduBve domtnation of nrlit^Loun iuid <K^cle4ia«ik<a1 in- 
tateta.^ The fMutarixiug and o^^nlralmng t^iidoiK^i 
a ottoenary atep in tbt^ pragre^ of civiUciition, wna a 
iorott advcno to the impaJ dopunioii. Tbu cnfranobiso- 
itof tho towna, vbiub fUtim from Uui tJcfVimtb oem* 
tury, and tha growtb of thpir pj>iircir; tlm mn of com- 
BMroe ; tha cnuadea, wjiicb in varinii^ way? len^ a. powei^ 
fo] itnpolae to ihn ticvr crryHtaUiEalUm of Kiiru]x*EiD 

jet^; Uh; cosicf^ption of monarcbif tn itn f^nropfan 
lonn* vluch cn;^rcd the inbds of men im early ab tho 
iweiftb ccntary — tiuao aio eomo of tlio piincipiU ugna of 
tb«r adrcot of a oev order of thiii;^> Before tho ^ad of 

1 "Tha |ft*dtl4l but vWv nulitfn of ll» ottiflrAl fr<rliDf (Jet tWitlHlHB 

iBvTTTjiiitfM «»44« Jllfvrini foriDt Ami nuaM fwUcitUtlr m tlit 

feb«( IsTMiaMvi «nd Uif cvorikt jf t^a II«1]iiii<laufan, b cdnimuAdLa 

ta tim PrvKb BvrnluUon, toi} h tiiti vEiJtila En Ulc miMi c^ 

■ad li ibt uuCDiLlim >t ovt qvd tliiip.*'— Ontr"^*^<u> "* 


th^ i,Iurt4?oiif.h century, tbti liutt Syrian t<>wn in the htm^ 
of th^ Christians wa^ yif*l(Ji.'<l t^ fb^ Saracens, and the 
|)Tn*iilijir trnUiuiuaciin wliidt biid drlvtfu mulUtuOin hy ill 
IiTi^tLntiblR itnv.c to ibe cotiquust of tho holy pUtcv^ hjid 
Taiii«h(»l, The stniggk of the PApttcy with tbo Empira 
luid boeu rcfLlly it£c1f a ccntcBt bctvxin tho «CGlo8ia»ttcal 
Mid iiiQ lay ei^ni<?nU <*f society* The triumph of the Pa- 
pa^' bad bi-xMi ijvvliig ii> tlio peculiar constitution and 1d- 
triiisie wi^Jtnesa of tJie Germiin inomirtJiy. It tm<l b*iftii 
effiwited by the aid of the Germitn prinwj*; bnt thuy, in 
tlieir turn, sruru foLUtd i^ady to rcdiat papal eni^roftcb* 
menls, Fnun tho tlm« of the barbiuiau mvawjuo, 
Kurope hfi<L fo^m«^d» &o to spciJc* criiu fujuily> united by 
tbo botid. of religion, under tho tuielj^ of the Papncy. 
All other influencpa tendod to diviBion and IsolstiOD. 
Thv i^mpii'o of Cbaj't<<miigiio foimed hut a temporary 
hnsHkwMtei' in opjjtHittitui to these temlenciea, Tlie G«r» 
niftn HpJrit of indrpondtni:"; was unfavomblc to political 
uuily. Tbo feudal a^reteiu w:i5 an atomic couditJon of 
pohtical aoiiicty. In this atjtt** of tbio^, tbo Church, 
through ita hitrnirobLcuI or^ixnixution under ome chii:f, did 
a b«neIic«iU work for civibzation by fuaing thn ptioploB* 
UB far as its in^u^nce weut^ into a single c/immiinity, and 
wibjet^ting thera t[> at anifonii training. Tim mediifitfjd 
Piipuey, wbatevcr<*vilsiLiay hnvo been cnuiiccted -witli it» 
saved Europe fioiu tiuaidiy and lawlessness. '^Prori- 
denco might have otlierwiue ordaiixed, but it ia impoeaibU 
for man to imagine by what other organizing or oonaoli- 
datmg furce, tho common wt^nltJi of the Western ni^tioni 
CouJd have grown np to a discordart, indeed, njid eon- 
Hicting league, but still to a league, with tliat unity and 
ivinfomdty of urftmiPtw, uwigt'W, luw3, rvligioit, wbSdi \\a,vn 
madv' thi?ir riTalne», oppijgnai^uies, and even their long, 
ceaeelesa w&re, on the whole to issue in tho noblcat, 
higltf^t, moist intoElccttin,! form of civiliKiition known to 
miux^ ' ' Hut thfi timo mftat como for the divcpwfying of 



onity, tor tho dovolcpiaiMit of tho ikAtlona in th«if 
N[»iAt« tiKUTidQality- ThiB waa iv c1iilu>:i; <.<{uiLUy india- 

The developm«Bl of the nut^oirat iinguiLgi'it wIikIj fot- 
Lotn the clubatic (>rno(1 if t1>i> aehI UMitlt ccrntuiIeAf 
u ui iDteradn^ taga of that now stage in thd ndY&nc^ 
IDOotoC orilaationt upon wliicli Eitrupi^ was pivparmt; to 
Qnt«r. It ia worthy oi ut>tic« thcvt tho carbont vomimulftr 
lilcnituro in lUdy, Gcrniunj, Frunce^ xtnd England in- 
voItkI tn no griTut un ri:t4tnt «:Um>i3 mid iiiv(?ctives ftgainat 
«cclc«uwti(«. Many nX tht* wriU'i^ in t1ii> llvuig tojigues 
were Uymeiu A cbtm ttl Ihj r«julv?ra Hpnuig up, eo lliab 
it mui no lonsrer the cam tliAt ^' clerk " vrfis a eynonym for 
one wUo m nblc to road and write. '*The greater part 
of liboratore in the Middlo Aj^cb," eaya HsLllam, '' &t loaat 
from ibo twotfth oentiiiy, mny be oongttlered a^ artillery 
IsreM ngoinit tLo dt^rgy." ^ In Spjiin, the coaCast with 
thp MinrK infnwd trtta tlifl WiHIf'dt titera,ry jimdEirrtion* 
tbe mtn^tnl st^ntimontA of loyiiUy arid religion-^ lint tn 
Gvrmuiy thti mtniicsurgrrA nboQiul in hustilc iLHusioiin to 
tli0 weaJth and tfranny of ccclcsiAStica. Walter von disr 
VoKeiiroicle, (Iio greateet oJ tho lyric pw^ta of bis time, 
» wiLrm cUunpbn dt tlio impcnal eide aj^^at tho pop^e, 
doDOWCtt fr»]y tho ntiho* and Uflurpatlona of tho 
ChatctL* It ifl tnta thiit thn brut" <-pU', of wliioU Riry* 
uutl the Fox may be muKidi^fipd tlni blnwoni, which 
fignrm Uf:gely in the auly lil^^ratoro of Germany and' 
tho ne^hboring oourvtnetii, vniA not didactic or satirical 
in ila dengn.* Bat it wili Ut<?r 0[>nT6rt<!d iitU> tbU use 
and tiimod titto ft rohit^ln foir chListieiii^ the fiinltjt of 
pri«stB and mmibA.* Th€ Pri>v@n^>Al bvrda v&vg bd\d adiI 

*>wt f— mni 



VASpaiing in their ti^tttm^nt of tliii Hi<imT<'Hy uiitil th^j 

DanLB and Pvtnin:Ji ugn^lixed tho Ix'^muiug of a 
national Hlemlure tiy thelv deiiuucatioii of tho vici^ and 
uAurpulnr>iitt of thu PupEuiy ; whil<^ m tho pcoou oi 
UdcciiHd tlitt populni relU^ious tt^ohi^ra are a mark for 
aikboimiJed lidicrule. Eriglisli poetry begins with aoH' 
t^inpliioiis and iniliguHnt c<>naure oC tbe inorkH un<) 
Ll^li'^L- c1er^\ with tlia boldest maiitfe8ta.tioim of thu 
>iiili-liiL*r7ir(:bic^ tendi^iicy. " Teutonisia,*' says Milraiui, 
"i» now holding its first initiatory struggle ^tli l*utin 
ChriFitianity." * *'■ The Vision of I'lera' Ploughman/' by 
Wilham Langland, whicli bem? Uie date of 13t:^S, ia 
from the pen of an earnest reformer who vaUiee n^aAoii 
Aiid (^onnuli-nce as the guides cif tlie houI, and attrlbiitei 
Ui« aormwH iiad onla-initiea of Uie world to tli^ wi-^^tb 
find worldly temper of the clergy, and eapecUlly of tho 
mendicant orders.^ The poem cnda with uu na»crti'>n of 
the srmxU vaiuii of p^Jpt^B' pardoaa and the enpt-i'iority of 
a ri^htixnia lifw over triwt iii iiidul^-enuea- " Fierctr thd 
Ploughman's Cri?de," is a poem from anotht?r hand, and 
nnpposecl to hnvtt been wrilti?n lit 1^94. The? piM't intro- 
duces a plain man vtho la acquainted ^ritb tlie nidi" 
lucnU of GLristlan knowl»fdge and vntuta to learu hb 
crccdi He upplit» succesai^'ely to tlie four ordcre of 
TQondicant friant, who ^ve him nL> eati^action, but mil at 
««aoh oth(*r. nnd Are absorbed in riches and sonminl indnl- 
(fenoe, l.*^ving thom, he finds an honest [lUnigbman, wh/> 
inveighs iEgalnHt tJie monastic orders and gives Inm the 
ituitructiou irUicli he dti»irtt»»* TTnj author is an avowed 

1 Hmtrrj/ tf Lntin CAtiHUini!^. *lii. AT^ In [hi^ jiiiil m tU* iFimt |kri>r#d- 
IriiE f'ltii|i1"m, -Mitmnn ^v* an mlr-nutinjf d''W-rl [allien df Thx rnriy vmaniUr 
niffHhirp* ]i\ i-h. IV- hp Hp^jilEii i>f Tim utmi'nl Ijitkn pm'mt rh«i ■pmng tjp 

^•fitiMli Foftry. aart ¥iiL (val. (L M). 

< Tin pMDi U pDbtjfltu4bf tlia K«rlt Hn^irK Trtt tfoottf UB(T^ Wvfga 
IK1 li ill, <7). 


WieklifliU», CitAucw, in the picture of Modal life whi<ib 
has drawn in the ^* C&ntcrLurjr Tulea^" ahows biiDtteli 
fuU ac-cord with Wickiiffe m the lIo^tiUty Ui tho meti- 
dioaai ln&». CbJHic«r ruMrreo }wt tiJiiiiiution for tho 
•imple and f&idiful pauuh pricut, "^ndi in iioL^ thought 
wul work ; '* th^ tiighitr cUrgv he lin^ndUs iti a gDnuiiw 
^ASiti-PUwrilDtSLl spirit In fht* " V^rdane^r" U^lnn vntAi 

"ArtuAil ol [FH""fi QOiBefniu Ibioitidl hoi." 

^A depida a dianctor wbo cvca thcti uxuittrd bcom luid 
It U cTtriooA to observe in many of tlie early x^Uera 
who haTB htwn inferred to, how rever>?EOfl for ri.'Iigion and 
for the CtniTi^ ia bleDdn) w\ih bitl4<r o(-ui4Jir» of iti^ nr* 
&ud WT^altli cif r-LxIrp^iiuitiui ; how tht npintiml 
'«Sce of the i'opc U di»tkLgui»lied from hh temponJ 
powQT. In Ibe one cLaracter he ia revered, in tho other 
m daaoBDiKd. Tho GoUoa of ConKULiiticu'e donattou 
W hk wMtem doEAiniooR to Fopo SiLvo^t^r, whicli vwi 
enrroat in Uia Middle Ag«A, ftooounto] for fill th& btIU oif 
Chun^h, in lii^ jitdgini>nt of the eii^^iTiieA of tUv i>*tn- 
^ov/vr* Thi*x>4 wuH ilitf ?i(iui\itT of Uit? pnd<} aibd 
ot ihft pofXfl. Doin&« advcrtfl to it tn tho tinea : 

"Ah> CVi>««nflm. fiF bov aiwh lU wu maULtr, 
Xo< tij oonTf moD. bui thai indf7lij;»diixnr, 
Vfhitb Ibi nm TEAltb^ fiiher ifick tFon Lh««." ■ 

And ia anocber plooe, ho refora to C[>natantii<e, vho 
iOfl 9»j% of lum in Panuliset 

* lU* knowlb lit D0V all the if] dccT^iasd 

Fnrn Ui ,iEi>«d iiliiA It duI hinnlul 14 hlia, 

■ J|^ ite ni^ ** Ihl, CMUuitiD, ili quftnio 111^ fq iiuU*> 

Cb* lal« rt«M il finma na» pAUv t " 

Dtl Boa ban* opw, (Uf gU ^ aL>Qt4, 
ArT«|nu diu >U ' PUmJd iodi diitnLfo." 


BifE A)n) iMEcajsi or tbe papal aiBuiBCEr. 

IVe find 11 iiko liUDcnl r«ftp«ctiikg tbe fatal gift to 8il- 
T««t«r, in tUo WiJdcnttiiui poem, '* TUo Noblo Ldsaon. " 
WuU*!r vtmiUr V*ijii"hvLiid>=m^i^llieftngtiLa, when Ciin* 
■huitini? cn(i£>wi?d SilviaiU-r with worldly jitiwer, cry out 
witJi griftf ; and justly, he ndds, wim« tlxe jxipea wi?t« to 
liM that po¥r«r to ruio the emperors and to stir up thrt 
prinoM afi^ust thorn. ^ These bitter lamcniationa con- 
tinue to be h«ard from udvxiaitu of v^forrOf ootU tbe talo 
<rf ih<» alleged donation wu* diftcorered to be deatitaCd of 

TliLi &iil4*hi«nkrchical spirU waa pow<^rfiil!y rpinforocd 
by l1ji> k'^itits. CVom Lbe tiilddk' «f tbo lhirt«eaLh cen- 
tury ib« Uiutemty of Jldog&a ruau m importance aa tba 
l^reut ocat of tbe rurivod »tudj of Rom:ui jnritrpradaooc. 
Ah Puria w-J3 thi> Auiuuiury of ttioology, Brilc^iui wm tUo 
nami-^rr of l\xw. Jjvw wiw tmltiTatcd, ho^n^vi^r, «t otbi*r 
nniv^n^tiiTEt.^ Tluit a r1:iM of laymtvn x1ir>iil<l nriHt vho 
viCK devoted to tho study and expootion of die amiaDt 
[aw waa in itself a aignificaut etcoL Tha I«^ta wen 
tho natural defenders of the state, the powerful auxlBii- 
rl»of tlio king«.* Thdr iuducnco ww in oppocttioai to 
iendalim:) and on the eide of monarcby, and pUoed l>iii- 
Wftrka mnnd tbe (!ivil anthority in Its coDte^t against the 
enoroeiGbirti^utA of tlie diiirel], Tli« hienLnrhy wm ocin- 
fn>tit4Al by a body of li^iracd men, tbe guardiatiH of a 
Tdnorablo code. m-Uo claimed for the kings the n^bta of 
OoBMr, and could briag forward in oppoaitjott to iii6 can- 
ons of tho ChYiroh canons of an eariler dsle,* 

Xba effeotoal PMkOtSon a|;>aiiut tho Papacy ^taa horn 
the miga of Boldface VUl., who dkurisbad to the full 

> VA4iSV> ('VHilMrf Ad 'JK Jbdt, iiL USm^ 

coxFucT or rmur vi. ako BOKtrACE vm. 


todenl the tJirorm cif Hiltbbmm) am] Tnii<^:^^iit ItK, but 
WW dcetitiUo of bhdr sAgacity ftrtd pL^ictical xvisdoiu.' 
The rcaiaUnce ttiftl ho prcvokod sprang from tlie apint 
vrhich we liavo termed iiationaibaip Th^^* coutcBt ui 
which ihd Uobciiiit:\ufou hoA porialmd- wiw tukvu up by 
Uie Kinj; of Fniin^e, tli« iwuiiiry wliith t}i otightmt th^ 
Uiildhf Agiv Inci iHH-n tli» tniHt fHiilifLjI pivit,Lii^|j>r of Lh« 
r&pckcy, and whose loj&l house li^ bfrea ebtubliHlied h/ 
the popofl on lui Italian throce aa a bxUwark agatiiat tkd 
Empire. It wod oniUudcd thai Ui<^ir proteutorB should h*;* 
ec^m^i U»eir cooquerortt.* Thv couDiet <il BouifiLOi» with 
Philip (iic Kiitr ii of romarkablu iiiUrcst fcjr intiny roi- 
•otw. Onii ADiirL^o nt Bririfiu^'s angrr wan t\n» levying 
by Pliilip of estraonluiar}' taxea on tfie clergy and hia 
pmiLiLiUnf; «f the txp^rlatjon of jfoM and fM.Iv<jr from 
hia iungdom. Anotbisr puitit, in the highc^nt dcgri^f^ in- 
tCTOAting, i% tho manner in whicli th<^ righu of the laity 
IB nhitioD t€ tlw dor^gy ccTme ap for dincnssion. Ono de- 
inlDg diamct^riatlo of the Prot^ataut Reformation wiui 
tba rolvftto nf tlie Itiity fmm HulHurrvi^mr-y to ch'nral <-<in> 
ImL Thnn' la uimKbing timiniiii* in th« r»j>niiiig wnnlii 
whkch give iU titio to one of Uie famous bulbi of this 
pontiff; CUrici^ hicas* It b^^ne with reminding Philip 
ittwt l<»g tndt^on exbibitd I^iyitK^n ^ liai^tilo find inle- 
nobioToai to cUrgyoMD. Not Ivtsti lignifiantit, in Uit^ light 
ttf «iib«iX|auat hUtory, i« onu of thu r^TiiponiiCji uf Philip 
■O tbo Po|H*'i^ indrgn^inl rnmpTnirtU, in whitrh thi« ^ing 
■Anuft thai ^^ Huly M^Lher CUuidu Lite Spouae uf OlirUt, 
•fl composed not only of dergymeu, but also of laymen;** 
illtfi dfiigymon iuq guilty of uji ubimf* whtn tUt>y try to 
excltuaroly to thoinaelvoEL tho eccl^tainatioiJ 

^ Ifritfirr b TmJ. ^rWi «f> itof^.trio !*///. t i<'nn» f^fn^q^ ilMiIr. la 
IbVMfftf vela li 1^ vltfit (tf VTbtiMa 'to rfiiaw of ,^ltmcJiilJ^> ^v>y m 
r«4#H Oa^tfU, UL Idt Mq. Sobinb, hi ID* fltjuwi l-«a»>lic) (^dr-ait> 



liberty vrilli wlmJi liie ^thw* of Ctrt&t baa uiudc ub froo 
tbut Chrint biniMli oomiauud&d Uj vintdnxt to Cwsar th* 
thing* tli»t nm Caaur'*. Mere wmurlublu Hill iv thti 
fiitt tbiit Philip Iwioo ■luijiiitiDrii to his suppurt Uw m- 
UU'M of hiM rfDiliTt Alii Llint tlio iiHtioii Jitnood finnly by ita 
exc^uiuituiicalcd flov^vci^* Tbc pootUicAl ateertiooa io 
r«ptrd to thv two swordjt, tho ftupromacy c^ th« «ooJeflU»- 
tioiJ over tUa Umpot^l power, and the aubjoction of 
evcrv i*rpiiCiird to thtf Pcpv, who judgiJA ilII and in judf^ 
by nunc, H-i-rii int'i by il dfileriiiiiuid rti&i3ta]]f<f on thn 
part of t.h<j I'Vtiii^ nntinn. Whtn BtmifttiM Ttiunmruiod 
thu Frt<iti.'li clurtry to Romi?t to i^it m jitdgmcni on Ibo 
kiTiK, ibt^ ttc't »rou»od £k tcmpcet of indignation. Tlia 
Papal Bull, etiatohed from the hand of the Lc^te, vtm 
publicly burnL'J in Noirv Datue, *>n Iho lltli of YvhivMry^ 
1302. TliJ^ ^'I'^'W '*' Kniiico iL[lcin»«*J to tha incon«ed 
ponriff n dfiniul of hiA pro]hHitifin tliHt in wviihir inatUfn 
llie Popt< bUjida ^ibovu tho Kijig. FinikUy all FntiMW 
nnii^^l in nn Jippt^al lo a g?]i^T;d cuuucU. It vras by two 
laymoi, WiJliMU of Nngtu^at, keeper of tbc kiag** scaU 
and Sciarra Colonni, Cliat the poi«onnl ntUck wae madij 
on Bomfoea at Anagui, wliidi nwitltod siicirtly aftervatda 
inhi)id«ach (ISOa). 

Wij linvo now HknUed th© point w1i«n tlia pn-tUgQ of 
the rapa<^ bcgiui tu wane aa rapidly «a, iji Uin pi^ucnling 
oanturioa. it hod grown. Thia Ul wa* duo to the 
flxpaiiaioo of iDtcUigvinco, to the general chaagc in eociety 
to wbioli refer«no0 baa h^m mode. Bat U waa aoeeler- 
dtod bj ii:ltuonc<^ wliieh w«r« vubjoct, to a uonaidt^rablvi 
eoctontt to tliu ci)iiE rol uf tlib jiopHt thitnui^Wiw. It u tba 
uuriijd r>f tbit iWbylriiiuui rjiptivity, or iha long im* 
dnuin iif ilxv pupe« at Avjgiwn, mid of the great Mbkui. 
During a grcvkt part of this period tliv Papftcy waa 
euaUrtNi to Fmocc, luul admiuidt^rcd In the intcmt oi 
diL« l-Venoh couit* Thii Atoation impalloJ th« pi>pi.w to 
SDJutt and uggrwUTO ai«a«urM towvd GgnoAny, Km^ 



LOSS «r ntlSTIGK. 


land, and ollter Cathi>1iu uoucitnu^ inaaaiireA vrliScb could 
not fiiil t<i |ir»viilsp I'iinitwt rfwrjitim-nt,. FrtUM^i wan will* 
ing, SA long as tbc Pap&cy rcnminf^d her t<ioln to tndnlge 
Ae popoB in oxUftvngfint oBMrbioDsof authority, vhich 
ootUd c>cily b&ve tho offwt to Aggravato tho oppo^itjon oa 
tbo pwrt ol other nations. TJio rovcnties ci rhe oourl 
ftt Avignon vrttn auppUed by meaua of t^xtoTtiious itiJ 
iMitT|iiUic]iim wbWJi ))wl Im^i hithr^rt/j wiilioutH (^xutrpi^iw 
Tfa« niuHi|»li*vl Tr*<rvaiioKii ni ccclrm Ant IrJil (jflii'jvi, «vr4i 
of bish^^nicfl iiDcl [HaiAhca, wliiiii i%i^to brrAtowDd by Ui« 
popee upon onwortby portona, or i;ivk>n in uammrfltitiffi 
bo ptsBOOB already podsesaad of li^r.^tivi^ plai^JM; thei 
«Uja of tbo flrat fniitA or ,jHv-it£if» — n tribute from 
OMwholildrfturb^i^llL^M^ftxid tbeldv}'irt{; of bunltfUBCona 
tmxjtA upon all nuiki oC tliu clvi^y, i^jjt-cJjtUy Lbir^u of tbn 
k>w«r grade*, vkfo among tlii> motbuda rvoortod to for 
ivplcaiftbuig tbo papal treasury-. Tiio ciFoot of those 
T«noaa fonna of occlo«ui«tu:i^ oppn-Atum upon piibbo 
opinioQ wni tbe greater, when it was kuown tliut di« 
vQAhh tbns gained wtuit LuAujvport ut Avigucm nn (»i:- 
trwn''iy liiiurii^iu :iDd prt>fl]gnti3 f^oiirt, tbr iHiumlh^w inv 
tnon&Uiy of vhliieb luft bocn viridly dcpictod by Tctrardit 
■B «yo-intiM«. 

Tho ottMitpt of John XXII. to izuuiitaiii tim absoluto 
tmfrwnmixy dt tbe Pope ovor tho Empire and to di^privo 
Loai* of Bunma of liia crown, tJiat bu niigbt plsux* it on 
tfao bead of tbe Kiag of Fnuir^s hiid itn i^fF^ct in Ger* 
EDBiiy adBlagona to tbat producwl iu Fiam^t- by tJtK run* 
Qict of BoDifuce aud Ilubp. TU« imperial tigilA found 
Jw boldeat dofesdem. At tengtli, in XZ''*^^, tho cli^ctonil 
|*ivee> aoLonaoly dodarod UiAt fJio Koman kingr^i^vee 
Us appoiBtHMEkt and autboiity soJ^y from the elect^iral 

In B»gl«»wl from tbu Con^tltutlooH of Clarcmdw] under 
Hvnj II., ia 1154, diaT lukd been inaiiifeot a dispowtioa 
bo UboiL tbo juriadiction ood »t bound* to the cnoroacb- 



mcntn of the ('hiiivli* and oapodoJly to curt&U fomgn 
ccclcaiastical intorforenco in the aJIi^im o( iha Idiigdotn.' 
Now that tbp» Ptipacy had boconiH tbd iiuitrumeat ol 
France^ thia spirit of re&ifiULQce wus luLturiLUjr i|ui(;kened. 
Two irnpurtaiib Atatul«a of Edwnrd IIT. were the cod- 
«pqumi<<o: tin? nL,itiil« ni provieorH, wluch devolyed on 
the King the right to fill tJie CLurcH ofDcott tKn.t hud 
bwn raorr&d to the Pope; A-nd thn stututo of prj&mu-' 
luro, whiob forbado siibjocta to bnug, by diroct promcu* 
tion or api^eal, bufi^r^ niiy foreign tribuoali a <»a8d that 
fell tirdwr th** Kiivg's jurifdictioiu 

111 thia contifit oF the fourteenLh century, "mounruby " 
naa tbe w^tUjiword of tltc [tdveritaries of tlie Papacy^ tho 
»ymboi of the now generatioD who were breaking ioow 
from (lie douiinatit iJoufi of the Mitltlle Ai^-'H. *'Th*iinoii- 
arcbiatfl rose iigaiiut the papists, "^ hi }^Tj\ui&it wnjttb© 
rights of the throne and ite indcpendt^ticu of the Churoh 
which were miiintsiined by thp juriMfi, anH by ihf school- 
tiieEi, ^ .Tohii Ljf PiirU ittid (^)i!i:<Jit]i, who (^iiiic* to Uutit 
help. Li Geniiuuy it wn* thij cilil iiii(M*n"vil right* a* de- 
fined Ln the ciiil law, and as preceding even the exist- 
eiitc of tbu Cburch, that weitj U^jfeudcd, In uppoaiticn 
to the pohtical idetus of htn ntaotcr in theology, Thomw 
Aquinas, Dontr wrote hig noted trt^atinci on monarchy, 
in advoca^^y of Ghibelline pHndplen, againat the cL^au 
of the pop^a lo temporal power. Ap^trL from the greftt 
luilueuL^ uC tU» book, aiid onUidt* i>f Italy, t,li« quefltion 
of the ciigin of the Empire and the nature of mouarohy 
in general, led to cAme^t investigation. In Germanj 
eapodoilyi legleta and thoolo^laiifi immersed themad^oi 
in hi&torieal and critical iuquiri<-*a upon tlm foundatioii 
of <!ivil iLUthority^ and thd ground on which papal intar- 
f^^nmnivi with vncahir gDvemmcnt prnfvRiied U> repote 

Aktatvitri J. DriU<tk il J. Kire^t t^inr Ztil-, i vuJ). ri3tt0.t 



Then vHtcrB <lid »ot atop with confuting Ut« notion 
tli&t tl)«T Ecupiie vnu tTaafifvm-d by fiaput iiuthr^nty from 
the E:iat to ihis Wott- Tliit (Wlol>rftti*d work of MiirsiUiit 
of PttUuji, tlw '* D«fen«or Pftcia," wwit beyond the idoas of 
tlie sge, U)d ikflsail^ aven tlie spiritual aathorlty of \hB- 
Bomad 1n»hop. Itdi^stcd that K-ter ^va^ nupr^nQover 
tbe other Aposllctf, und cron denied tliJit be can be prored 
to EiftTd over rinitcd Kcmc, Thio w^nrk maintained tho 
mpi omo ftatliority of a gonoral ccandt. Tho Muic>ntiw» 
cr MhisniaUc&l F^aacoK&naT ^^o insisted on the rule ol 
poverty AS htiMling on tbe el^rgy, »nd fiCLiuerl Jolin 
XXn. of li«n»jr for n'j«("tinj^ Uirir jirinfipliMintiiciuM 
om tbc moift 8id<i. William of Occam secoiidt^d Marailius 
in a trcatiae entitle " Eight Quvatioi;s ou the Power of 
tfao Pop«/' Oooom, liko Dtuitd, roatcd hi« denial of tho 
Tmlidity of tho aUog«d doaation of CotiJitantirko on th^ 
groond that ao emporor had nn right to renounce tho ti4- 
ftlieikable rights of the Kmpir^, He placed the Kmperot 
and Ilia 0«t)aral Couacil ubovf* L!il< Po]tQ, as his judgiw. 
Coronabitin, \v\ «ud, wn* a l^uumn ri?i^mojiy, wbid^i any 
biebop rfiiiM pcrfkirio. " Thc^*^ bold writings attacked tho 
ecdloctive hii^THrcbv in aU iU fundriiuentai pilnctplca ; thoy 
inqnired, wttli a ^u^rpaoM of enticisin beforo unkco^vs, 
into tbc DfLtui^ of tho priLMly olbci^; Uicry rc«tnotod 
Um notion of hi^i^^jiy, to wbioli tJie Church hud gEvrm no 
vide an e3;<«n9ioR; they appealeil> Anally, to the Holy 
Smplui>% fcft Llie KMily \nl'nl jiuLbi^rlLv hi mntlem of faith. 
A* fcTTcnt in oiuirc] lints ih*^nr- tliccilogiai^n imbjvctod tbo 
Gbnreh to th« State. Their hcrcticaL t^ndcncic^ nn-: 
soo&ood a DiOir proc^^M In the tnlnda of mi>n, in i^ob' 
the unity of th« OatlioUe Cburdi v«ut doirn," It is to be 
obwrrod that among tbc pnncipal library obamplona of 
Louis €if ftavaria thrrr n-a^ fmin^l a r«rpTv«ontaUro of 
:b of tbC' cultiva1«><1 n^tioiiA of the West.' 

I OncBwrinto ti. U», IW- Cupioa* nUHU tnm lb« Dt/tnMt- Piuuf 
%%kA wtm Ibft yi^km prcOuctlD* of WAmUun of FwIua «ail Jtbo of Jttio, 



DmiJig tliA Bcliism which cnanwl npcii tli^ i*lE«tioii of 
Drliiui VI. ill VSl^ ilnsTe vm preMuicd before Christoik- 
doTO tht: ^pectjicle of tival popoe impr^caticji: cumea 
upon auJ] otliur; i:ad] wilb Tua court to bo maitiljiitiod 
by taxes iithI vontributbitt* wUieh lud to be lurjuly in- 
oreiftA^d *in ar<*otintof the ^liviiiir^. WtiMimen wer« 4?f^m' 
pellfid to HkfMiKr botWL-(!& rivii! L'lAimanls of tlieoMoe, it 
vfaa utevk;LbIv tJiait tlii^re bUould arute ji atill di.*ii3^h-r Invea* 
tig&tioD into the origin and groimiU uf pap^U Jbntbonty. 
tiK]iuTorft rcvcritxt to tbo varlier n^va of the Church, in 
ordor to And t>oth the cjiiises EUid tlie imre of ihtt drGadfol 
evils under ^hioh Chriiil^&ii Hocinty wiu lufTi^iriiig. More 
than on& jurist »rid th«i>]ng[3Ln (villed nttention to the am-> 
bition of tho popes for Becubir niTo und to their oppn.-»uvn 
donmuituHi uvcT tliu Church, oa tho primQ fountAiu of 
this frightful disorder. 

We havo no\r tc glanco at tho vigoroos and prolonged 
endeavors, which provod for the rooet part abortive, to 
roform th(^ Church *^iii Ueud and m<;mbers.'* Pnnooi 
tQtervfpri'.d to make ^icaoe betwtwn popoj, as popoA had 
btifcru interv^iie'l k» tnitk^ |h*ii.'e hi^twri^i prijiot.'**.^ It. » 
th(t i-ni (if the Rtiunning CiiiuidlB ul Tiwi, CwiisiaiwK, luid 
Baael. trlico, Lar^ly under tiio l^ud of tho Paris tluToIo* 
gisais^ A r>?£orDititicD m thi? momls and admiiustnition of 
thi,* Church was eoitght through tho agency of thoSQ 
griM ueaembhW The theory oa whioh D'Aiily, G«f- 
mmt ftud the otlier t-i-uder^ who ooSperMed with th^m, 
proonednl, vrim t}i:it of rpiwojin), nd oontraKted mth (uu 
paU siipreiniu;y> I1ie Popi? was piiniatB of the Clmroh, 
but bi«hop9 derived thdr autUotity aiid trmt* for ihe di*- 
ohorgts of their oilif^t?, not from him, but from the ntiiie 
Aourco a^ tJint hxim whi^h ho dorivcd bij powciv. Ilio 
Chnrohf when gathered t'xjnthftr by its n^prvuoniauvM in 
% (pnend oouneil, la the aupreino triltiual^ to whic^ th^ 
Pop*: hiiniwlf ut auhordinatd and auieiuibLtt. Thmr ajn 

iLnfVDt, Jl4A/0fM-. t^K- J [1119- tUJt,} 

TBI nraunNa oocmcna. 

to rodoM htm tf> thb nmk of a cunaL ttntirinal tnatead 
of Ml nbaolnte ranoiiirdi. The GibllicAii tbL^olu^ijuid hcM 
^to an infoUibilitjr tv^ding nomo^hcro in the Ctturoh \ 
I0«t of tlMvm, aD<l iiltim&tJjly all of t^m, plicir^^ thin 
InlaUibilin^ in cBCumenical coiincila. The ilatt^iif^ bopt^a 
under whkb tiro Coutiut of Ptaa opeimtl Sta (Jrocwjin^, 

ice of tho ri*fornicr» to push tiiroagli Lbcir mea** 
Isnt without a pope* and Xha failure of Alexander V- to 
tfee pl«4lj^ which bo tia<l miido thi^m prior to 
oketion. Mi^orer, the tuJmm cotiLinuLHi, tvjth tliivu 
popofl iu tho tXK>iii of two. Tho Cocinoil of Cnnntancft 
imdfT thn faifPflt auspi<*-»fi, Th** rewlve to vfite by 
la WHS n ^i^riifltr.iiii m^i of a tif>w (trdi^r of ilitiijjrH, 
KCi^ 4:ruiJml tbi* doagn of tlic; flji^tiovDi Popo Jihn 
XXIIL to control the o«iirmbIy bj the prcpondci-auw 
o( ItatioD votcc. Solemn dcclamttoiia ci tho auprcmncy 
Uid Mttbontv of tUd Counoil woro adopted, luid vwre 
camsd oat in tbo Actusil dnp^d^tion of thn infamoun I'upi). 
Bat the pluifl of r^orm vr^r^ mostly wi-orkod on tbe ^ame 
fodc on which ih^y had brokein at Pisn. A pope mnut he 
•Jarln] ; and \f3Li"liii V. , on^'H i^Immcii. hy HkllHul mJiimgH* 
nent nnd by itopctnitc arr;titg«mcntA ^th ditft^n-nt prinoe*, 
wu able to undo, to a great fxtont, tbo salutary work of 
ihc CotinoU ai»d <^vcn b4>foru ite a*lji>itmmcnt to ri-^aa»ert 
the »«rr doothvo of pupal suporU'rity wliieU tliu Counoil 
hftd rvpodiatoil. Hio vabnbuitml failuro <if thb CoiiiicHl, 
noM august ccdeHiafiticid suuHimblage of tbi? Midill^ 
to aoiiioVB rafornui wltidi tlioii|;htfu1 anJ good nutfi 
flverywht!iv deemed mdiBjienaitbU*, wan a proiif xhnt aoido 
mum rmdical m<^ane* of rrformiition would bavc to bo 
adopted. Hot lUiothcr grand o.^ort in tho aamc dirr«tioii 
vw> pot fnrth ; and tho Council of Ba^ol, notwithataodinft 
ttiat it adopted Dam^r>ii9 meaaur^ of h b«iueScpnt charaC' 
Nr, wbSfb wen* wvi'ptiibltT tn the- Cntht^tic nal Ioiik. h;ul sit 
Ipit no bff*ttiT iMOUt ; firr noat of thn sidvjir.tAgi<ia tb;(t wmt 


gTAikt^ to Ui«Tn and tha concessions tb^t were maJo by 
tbtf^ popes, **8pecialJy lo Germany, they contrived uitc^ 
■viojrd^ by ndruit ilifiloruacyt tu tvciiU- 

H tvi: look At tlic condition of £urope m lliio firtc«i;fJ] 
omtiiry, lifter th^; time of tbn nnliiam VkU^ tho neformiitg 
councils, wo obBe4'vo thnt politicnl considorationfl liavQ 
sway, in the Tix*m of distinctively cccleuaAtioal moUvos 
and fec'ling*,' NutionaL rlvalriei and the atobitioii of 
prhiciB itre everj'whurt" prominent, Tim Movnroigni of 
F-Tir\ipe »rc euduavoring Ui iLiigm^rnt their jMiwcr at- iho 
oxpcnac of tllO Ghurcb, odpccuUl^ by taking into their 
haada ecckaiaatical appoiaUucnU. Ii wiw during th& 
fiftoouUi oentury Uiat liie Europoau nionarduwi wore ac- 
qutiiuu; a firm oi^uixuttcit), lu England tlio w»rd of tho 
KoA<*« tmcl(*<l xrith th<T iiccc^on of Henry VIL, and in Uia 
Hon lind M:r,c4:t»K>r th^ righU nf boiTi tiiitw w^r« uniled- 
Ux France Lbo cuntiiry of blttfu witL Kugliunl liad betan 
foLk>wcd by tho reduction of the gteai feiidatoties to sdb* 
joction (o tJio cro^ra. Ju Spain. Castile and Aragon vera 
united by tbt> mmritM-e of tbvir ao>rcroigns, and tbaic 
Idngdom vnuk Gonsoltdnted by tbu oon£iui;iat of Granada. 

At tfaia cndcal «pocb, vhvn it wonid huro been in chd 
iugiiMt degree difficult for pnntilTK dt^voted to tho inter- 
eata of religion lo bresut tha dctnunant spirit of nfttJoiiaJ* 
iun, it apji«iir4:d U: bo Uic &0I0 ainbttlon of a seriee of 
popcA to ^iggmndir^c Utcir fnmiLic^ or to •trengthcn the 
■tatca of tho Church, f^o longer absorbed in any ^raad 
pablic object, like the eriiaade«, tbey plottt^d and fouglit 
to build up prmdpuUtiea in Italy for Uii'b- r^Intivet. Tci 
*lift furthriTinec of »«eh worldly jwhi^nnMt, tbi'V (tiit^a appti^^d 
ihp tr4-a«Lin^ whi^^h Xhi^y pmciiri>id by tnxing tbn Cliiircb 
Mid from the sale of cbm^ ufUcea. Tbe vldouB cUamol^ 
of MTonl of then) augmented the ncanila! which this cor- 

mHd <^r QAinwD ifi'l vt Uik T^p^i ■jntf^mt^ i« dwuTilnl, tnth rvpkon* oliailMt 
bm tti* pol«aJc«t Vfilnrr yrin> partfripaM kn It, bjr UiBwhr, CA«r«4 giff>n 
111. V. L 4 ll«. 


TUpi prJcfij o^TAtiHl. SixtiiJi IV., ftiinin^ to found u prin- 
cipality for liis D«|>fa«ti4 — ovy acojidiu;^ Ut MmJLiiiviflli, 
faifl iU«g^tiiD&tc &0Q GUxilamo ttiario — fj^von^ tbo con 
Jjsgaiaat the livoa cd Jalian and Lorenzo Uj^ MixUci, 
'mhkt T««ulted fn die afisaaainatioa of th^ formvr ort thii 
aurpk ol tbe vlt4r, durlug tbii colebmtion cf Ligh maj». 
He Ui«r(i jmrnal NrLpl^s Jfi ii»:ikitig Wir.r r>n Plnr«Ti™\ In 
Older to gain Fcnrtra for hU nephew, be fual iuultud 
Venice to irv; but ^vhen bis ncpbow went over to tL« 
Add of iJaplo&i tbo Pc»po foraook Ui^ Vuu^jUiui allii-a imd 
exootninunicatod tboni. Llltk regard wimj pojd to this 
ftct, Aud hk conwqntuit cbagrin bn^tentxl hifi ttoaitb. Iit- 
Vlll-> txwid^a nHvHtidng ih^^ fortcnpg of aeTen 
^itiinale cbildreii, and waging two w^tiH ^vlth Nm[)1m(^ 
dvcd Ml axiutjuil tnbut« ivora the Sultnu for di-t»iriirig 
brother uid rirftl in prieonii in^tcjid of srsiiding Itim to 
a iatcc d^iunBt tho Tqrks, the oncmiod of C^riutcu- 
dotn. AlvumJcr VI., wboee wiokodnese bduga to miod 
tlw dfti^ dtyn of tbo Papacy iu Lbo tenth t^entiiryT occu- 
pied t^nu^ in buildijig up it pnncipn,lity for hk f^ivorito 
■cm. that monster t>f depravity, CwraHr Borgia, and in 
MMi—iiig tnnefunv. by btuiti and izmA unmns^ fji- tlic sup 
port ol the ticenttouft Eoni;in Coiirt. Ha b aaid to kivo 
died of the poisoD which bu had coumcI to bo pivpircd 
far ft ricb Cftrdin^ vbo bribod th^) head ooolc to sot it bo- 
foro tli« Popo hImadU. If Juliii« IL aEttiafiod tho arubi- 
lioo of bia £im£Iy in a naoro peaoeable vay^ bo attU found 
his mjoytnvnt in war and uonquust, uiid umdu tt bU Kido 
iMk to flxt^iid tito StBi.t«» of Uio CIiuExJi. TTo oi^nlzed 
UUaniMft and defeated one enemy aXtor another, fovciu^ 
Touoo to saocutnb, and not bceitatlng, old uvux &a Im wao, 
u tike ti*c fitid liiinrtL-U, in winter. HaTinf; brenjj^t m 
the Fte&ch, suid joined Uio leoguu of Cnrobmy for tho aako 
oubd'iiiig Vetii<w, he callc^d to hU ude Lbo Vtinelinna 
till! tfxpvbicio of tbe P«<Qolt (151*))-^ 

I Otf^Hv «ab«d]B4 iu voiapUbU ■niuit ^ha orrupt fad *xtonl«bil# ad 



Upai, hierarcsy. 

This abaf^rptioD of tba pop«d in i^lHsh aiit Moutu 
scbemee wa» not in an ag^ nf ignorance* but jiihC at. the 
|WrIud wIjcu lisirnifijj fuul mvived akiul wbi:»ii Biitupe tisa 
imt«iiMl uftou nil «ni of inveittiomi ajud diHcorcrIca ^litob 
woro iliutbjuod to put n iicvr facu ujicii civilisation. Tbo 
demoralij&ixi conditioa of the Chureh v/ne n. fiict that 
Gonki not fait to (Ittlw to itself ganeraL Attcntion- 

[..(N) X,, niiul? H rfirclin^ 'it tJt^i »gG nf thirteen and 
|xijie at tliirt^'^even, wlicktte pMtillttoiLl^ vvaa U> be tii^iml- 
iwd by iho b<*giuiung of the Uefonuutioa, iras fiee from 
tbo revolting vicoH wbiclj biul degnidi^d sovvnhl c£ bit 
nour prvdei:eaaora, rmd from the violent [itid bciUigcrcot 
tomper of Jiiliui IL, who immttcliftt^ly precede bim-^ 
Yet the influencd of Lis character ^nd j^licy w^ oaloo- 
lubed to ttreiigtbi?!]) tltu dl8»ff«)t;tioii to^»i-d Lhu Fnpauy^ 
^iirpi, m bis *' Hislorj of the Counal uf Trtnt," afU?r pnuw- 
iiig the 1e^Lnki:ig, toAte, mid bbcrolity of Leo, reoiavkA with 
tiao wit, that *' he would hare bet^n a porfcot Fope. il be 
had combined irith these qualitioa aotm knowledge of tbo 
uiTairt of nrli^on jizid a greiiter inclination to pi^rty, for 
nnithor of wblcb be nmnifeeti^ much concern." * Kvos 
Pal)Avlcini« the opporuint (rf Siirpi, lumf-nts that Leo called 
about bliu UiOHU vilxo wer« raLhi^r familiiu' witli tlm fiibbM 
of GL'c?eot» wid iht doili^'hlfi of dit^ i>oota tbau wltii tbo 
hlntory of tbo Churcli tind tho doctrino of tlio fatbcra. 
Ho dcplorcn tho devotion of Loo to profnco atudi«9t to 
hunting. j>«tin^, and ps^^eaats ; t<^ einploymatitfi ill Knitod 
to Ilia itxalt^nl office. li he had beea 9imound«d by ikgo- 

rnlnltrmlmiof JulTni, ttnli,tDd(oitUKcainirT7,fnGmB»niiM. A rvmltiRftlMt 
H'tlii>iajri«, or ■ |£THI ilnTHlMa fnm UU Kofnjm <7hi]n<ti, tik^ (liJit n! rha Tli>- 
LiDLAOir. tn d'cUml m b« Immffitn^ IT ihttt u^jU vHr* a<H wnvatad. 
- GUiHkr, III- T, I, § 1^5. n. 3s 

' Tb*r* u aft ffmaud fer baliAvlog Uw mu Julaui cliu^ua df imnkinilitf wbiafc 
lu<« b*AD (aMiin [ii;iiii>4 hiffl. llitj' u« brvu^^t Idf^UUF fmia the ori^fi^ 
■unH In Ik/Lu't L>ieIJoiupj. 

1 <'lC*4nblM>Uitaan|viFfuLlaPariE«ficD, Jbi;<in'^UBKUi«v«i«c4]D^'uiit3i]iukb| 
«o|tn1tloii4 dcilt ooB« diZU riZj^innu, «d iliqafAta pia ti'incliiiiuionv alln pi*lK 
|«U' idii ■!«]]' iltvft dcUs qidJl am iBH[j*r* arBr jrno Gorft,'' /afprwdvlCW 

OUBAOTOt 4# IJ»> X. 


loipAiu. PAtlaTicui] thinks \hni be wcuUJ )mvr5 bi«n moni 
cwitMnu In diiitrllKt^ti^ iodalgcncoa and Ul^ tlur h»i:«ic« 
of Lutbor mi^lit, pvrLitpit. Jiuvo bouti qiiit^lcly uupprcMod 
by tb« writxngM of Igamivd tnoti.^ Tho IqlUuil bJittonutt 
Uimti>ri Mid Gtucdftrdini, in oanti^ctiin vnih th^lr pruisa 
of L«o, Bl^d tli« nuft^iviDg^ iLat wera ff^It l>y wii^e mva 
at Uh) oubIIv pHii[i wUidi bu cliniib&yvd ftt bia c^irotiattoii, 
mod "lomnirc bu bixity in tlic dulmcjiuitmtion of bi^ office.^ 
Thf cbirf putor cf the Cbnrcb wiui s^^en to ^ivc bin)aclf 
Bp to tiw fa«cinAtioQ0 oi lit«mtiint, urt, ani mo^c. In hia 
gay ftDd Juxonoai coiut, r«liginji wilh a tnattor of subord- 
\]xiXq oi^Dcem. Vawt ai»m8 of monpy wliicb wpre gHtli^r^ 
Crmn C1inUi;4ii pmpli? ui-n? bi\uibeil upjii Fuh rt^UtLivot.' 
Leo's iDflomce foatcrod wl^t Raiiku Laa wall culled ^ft 
of tnteUectnal seuAUftlitr/' 
It u troo tbfit ooouionaliy th^ intoroHte of aoveroigns 
laoved them t&dUy to admit pretensioHB ou tbe »ide ol 
tte popee, chat wn^ fa^t hAcciming obsolete. Di 1462, 
Nidutu V. gnintvd to Alpb>.inMc, King at Portugal, tho 
privilego of mbduing and rifitiuing to }wr{ii^tLjal nurvitDd^ 
Sanwenai PigUtt, md otber iutidcisitiid i?tti?mitiH u£ OLriRt, 
and o£ appcopdaluif to him«el£ hll of Uluit kiu^dcjiurt, 
bsmtoritt, nnd property of wbuto^i^r votU public and pri* 
Ttto; and two y*An nitcrvrnxds^ by tbu uimu ^^upoitoUo 
Vlttori^/* bn b(«towpd \m him tb» m^w liiAcovaritw on 
the watCem ooavtof Afrim. Ali^^Andnr VI., in iirtiieof 
ijghu derived (rom F«U^ to ibe ApoaloU^; Stsu, uAiiuaiMl 

CM^b «ibcri ''Br bMM* WrllcJifl ^KflUKLalkA d^ G«;i(diiiiit l!«n«i 
^M lirioc WAvtt, Ccaiito^ uud Uibe Air Kunii uul WlaKuKliaJk ; •%« 

» iteH^Jia«(fl^Jh TrMfc. 140 J. Ub. i. Oh n. 

« IbnMd, ^a^ili <r/&iJU, torn xiv, ICO, GuThUhIiiiI, /^fAta d*/nb, 
^ H, VK 91, Sat, ■!», un tU. 7P, IM. 100. 
• BvU, DmtKl* OtMiMM, I IM. loKw Ciy* i^^ 1m X^ fr. eh. uIt4 
Mb BCiinit (kt Inpnijicija of ai^LbHtLiy, tiuL ili™ not cvbccal tht 

48 B15£ AND DftOtIMB OP TUX |>AFAL HOaifiCHT. 

to give avay, ^ of hia mtre libontUty," to Fonlinumi aibd 
IflaboUo, atl Ui<] newly d;EM!()7(.*rcd rt^iona of Ainorioiii 
Crom & luao ttrctcfaing ono hunilrvd li^ugvoH wi-Ht^vard of 
tbo Axi^riTK, suid t'Xtuiiding *' frnm Uki H.r<!li(r in tli« lUiU 
nrcti<: jkjIo," AfterwardA P^enlinand »}k™-e*l 1^ tho King 
of Porttigul tliat ttiifl Uii^ alioiild run tlirce htindrod aitd 
ue^onty, inat<<ail of oao hunilrod Icog^ica toUic west of tlio 
Azores. But the iniport£Lnoe of Uio poput» m Uiu ponod 
was L'W^fly d(*pi>nJoiit on llieir t*?itipcinil power to ItolVf 
unrl i>t^ Oil.? politioni ('umLimiluttix wltik.-Ii i]u*y ni?re nblti 
to or^nir^. TLu cijiK^rjisiiiiia which tboy ohUiLHi^d from 
prince* wore often gf more Bpimrfrnt tbwi ivsl constf- 
qucnco- ThU ffinCt is illustrated in the aiurcDdcr of Uiq 
Pragmatic SuicdoD by Frttticia I. to Lwi X- (I6I53, 

In 1438t afUir the Coiiqc^lI of Basel had pasaed its ir^ 
forming nieaBurtis, Cliarles VIl. ]ia»f<iiihled tjie clergy iif 
FntiiW! Ill 11 grear Syiuiii at Buurgiw. Niyirly two hki*- 
turira before-, that dexotcd aon of the Church, Loai« IX-» 
— St. hcnm d France — had iwued tlie fanioi>!» Pm^- 
inatic Hancrtjon, th« charter of GaUican iibettt<«, by whidli 
mtorf«ronco with free elections t3 bendtotti iji Franoo, and 
exaottoTiA and au<eHSiitont£ of monny on th« pArt of tkd 
popea, i*^cept on in^ut ocryialon*, and irith the Idng'e 
nniHi-fit^ w*?p& ffirbidden* With tbiP <<vamp1e liefor*? thrm, 
tlwi ?^yhwl of Buurges iuifterkd the rii^hLs of nnlioTial 
ohurchcui, not only aboT« the Fupt\ but iilto above the 
Councili, a part but not all of whoM ro-formatory docreea 
it adopted. It dfvclEvrvd tho Pope Aubj^c^C to a iteaerol 
ootmcil, and bound to convnV(» a cotnu-il t^r^ty tAD yean. 
Ttie ri^it of iiomlnalioD to benufic^A wh8 danled (o tb« 
Pcipp, exLM7]>L in A fiMv iiut^uiL-vn fpiTcbilly m*itnriHJ, and 
appeals to htm wcro rcatrtct^d to the graTctt casea. 
AmoDg the prorisionA of the linm^c« Sanction waa tha 
deuMnciatlon of annat<« nnd fiT^fniits m amony. The 
iffTorfA of Piua IT. and Paul II. to procure the repecil ol 
thv Pri^matie SriECtion we** steadily reauKd bv tli« 


6coin-AB srtBir or the patact. 



P;trU3uut»t uf ParL^ When, tlier^fore, Leo X- miojctylftd 
hi obtaioiufi: frota Fnmcjs 1.. af^e^ liis v!ctorioii« cftnipiign 
bi It^v, tkr ^ttxukdoaimcnt of tbu S^mctioD, it Beamed to 
be a grcfit ndvikDCQ on t)i«i)tid«of the P^ipticy, [q reality, 
bomvt^r, allhough Xht\ G»llirtn Cban-Ji v/aa rMjv^ of lU 
llbertitti* Uuo I'ope gaineiJ only th" nnJiiitoA, vrliiltf thi9 
puwirr uf iiDuuualMig to tbc gr^t beuetkea fell to the 
king. Morc:oT«--r, ^bs coercion tJsat woa required to bring 
the l^rliamont to rcgutur \hv xmvf CoiiL-orJiil, atid th^ 
indignation which it »wiLk«ni>d throughuut t'r;LQOi->, ]>rovi^d 
thtX it r«ralt4fd bom DO cbAiig9 in th« wntimcnt* of tbo 


Tli«f long Ktra|^l<? o( Fniiu^m L hjicI Cljnrlcsi V., uud 
ifao vi%y in vliiob It vfTcctcil the fottunc^A of PnjU*Ht4uibj»a, 
afford a coDstioit itlustrotioii of Uio prrdoniinfmcc which 
Ittd b^CQ gained hj socular und political. i>vi>r purely 
eoelMiaAtial utMnsta. Thore were onCical radinenCs wli«a 
not cnly di« king and the ouip^'ror. but tiie Pop** itiso, 
were lod &om motirM of policy ta biHMiinn dm virtiiu] 
illbe of the Prot«&taiii (&uh». 

tt ia El ntdking iniTidRiiU Atiil ypi tltuntrutivL- of the 
spoilt of the nge, that tho Enipvror >ti:Kimili£Ui ttvnt word 
to tiio Elector l<>edciicof Saxony t^ take good ooro of Lq- 
— " we might) perhapo, bivu u>^d of hliu Aomo limo 

otiwr."* For fbar tliat Ch&rlv« V. n^uM b(i too mnch 
by tbo dcatmetion of tlit* Pr^itt^ntont Lvngao 

Smakald, F^«|1■^ P»iil ITT- n^a,)W rh^ triHi|ui which he 
lent to tlie dujiervrr, auiI eiii^Luii^d Kruncia I. to 
pro««ciit« im dm^ of aiJiiiff thtj Piult»UiiiU. The Pope 
% n nwflnago to thi^ French king, ^' t/:* h^lp thceo irbo 
not yet b<Atcti-** At thij moment wht^n thu Protce* 
CBOJto niight M^m to b« on th^ vpitq^ of extinctioi^ 
Pope and tho King of Frano4» npp**ar a* it*i iIfr»nd"nL 
PraDcis «tt«o weght to nuike Uif Tijrk« his alkiefi ir« liia 
itmgglo agniiut th«i Eiii]ioror. What u oIihuj^l* waa thu 





from the tUy^ wU^n lh« priiicira jiiu! natinns of Kiintpv 
were bandeii Lc»^tiier, nt tlic call ot the CLurob, to wrest 
the holy pUeea from Uie inlldula ! * 

Thufi, ht tl:*! tK>giaiungof tUc eixteenlU ccnturj\ thero 
arft tv(> fftctji whbli arrast uttcntit^n : — 

Fimt, tlin tipvnlopment tithJ ooosollAition of the ii!itinti«, 
in thpir wpnrntp inJivi^mility, ezich \rifh irs otni lan- 
l^ufti.;^, L-utlure, la^vs. aiiil iiifttitulloiu, and aniinatul hy a 
mxti*jiuil sptrit Uiat clia/ed under foreign ecclt^aatioil ctm 

Sonondly, \U'^ eecvilixri'ang of the Pupicy. llic popM virciiallv rpnouncpd Ihe lofty pnattion wliich th<^y etill 
wummed to hold, and wliirh, to a. certaJn eirt^nt, they had 
onoe reftlly hi*]d, uf mnnd Atid religious gimnlJiLUft of aw 
oi^tj". As ti-^nipnml nilcra, tbey vrcn; immrrsc'd in politU 
cal cont**fltj» imd scbemca of atnbitJoii. To further tbcso^ 
they prostituted the opportunitiw afford^ by their i]^ 
itiial function, anU by the traditirjnaJ r^^'erwuoe of men, 
tvhich. though wi^akfcnud, wa* itill poworful, for tht^ir 
epiiteopiit authority. It wiu nnavcndubU^ thnt tlioy atkI 
th*^ir nf!iri^ with thi^m, ahfinlfl aink in piihlit? eJ^t*'*'"*- 
'* During the Middle Agee,*' says Coleridge, the Papacy 
vnu Hnothi*r name " for a confederation of lenrncd mon 
in th*' w-^.it of Eurf>pi? iigiiinst ch(* harbtuinm iLnd igno* 
rnnin of tbii timos. The I'ofw? wiui thr diiof of Una oon- 
r^dnmoy ; ani), so long na be retained that eharftcteti hie 
pow«r tran jiiJtf. and irrflflistih1», It wan the principal 
miNitia of prenei-ving ftn" uw Jmd fi?r all jpnterUy iiU lhn.t 
we now Imn? of tlit; Uluniiuatiofi nf pa»t a^bi. But il« 
flooa nji the J'opm tnjulf: a «cpftration bctwrc^n hu character 
M premier cbrk inChrifltcndcmand as a tKcul&r pTuice — 
u aoou UA he h^gan Ic ar^uabbte for tovnb arid ea^tli.'e — 
thwi h« at cnet-^ brokti thi> t'liurm, nnd fft^re binh t/i a 
TQvolatfon-" " KviTywhM'c, but i'«p'i:isilly ttiroiighoiit 
the Ni>H>li of Kifmp«^» tfirr biY';irh nf filling and itynijtiithj 

fiKCCLAB spmrr op the pafact. 61 

went on widening ; bo that all Germany, England, Scot* 
land, and other oonntriea, atartedf like giante out of their 
sleep, at the first blast of Luther^s trumpet-" ^ 

1 TalU TaSk (JdIj U, 1830)- Almoat the (unifl Btatement u to tJie mond 
CaU of tbfl Pftptcj Is Dud« bj ■ fur-mjnded Catholic hiflCoriAO. He tracer it4 
decltDO from tbe finbjfoafjui captiTity, tiirorigh the period of (be Bcformbif 
Councils, Jind Uie reign of Jn^Jna II. ind the popes of the hooae of MedicL 
" Bh dmhiii hmtten die PiipHte dnrch itu VennitUersmt tiber dcD FUnten gt*- 
tutden; jeEit sb*rHt«11tea Msich denBclbeagleich mid enreckt«TiT durch Ibn 
Lodor- ond Erir-gmhut, NcEd ood Hase gegen Bicli' So vsr die ^unze monl' 
behe Kntt, wndnrcli B«di nU viv jBhrhnpdeneti di« WoU bebenscbt biUe, 
■mtorgnbeD, mid es bed^te onr eincB kriiftigGri Stonei, am ile tibv dcp 
u mrfn-" J. 1. BitUr, KirfAmgackiekU, u. 111. 



Tax m&dije^ type ^f religion^ in oorrtrast mth prim 
Itive Christianity, in pervaded by a certain lE^liam. 
Rverytlutig is pL-Bacriltrd* rwiticed to rule, flubject«i to 
authority* Medieval C^tLoUcieia luay be coiitempluted 
nodcr tiie tliret^ depiirlmouts of dogniiu of polity, rtnd 
of Chnatian IHe, uxider whi(^ nioJea of vrorship aio 
inclndod.' Under tliiG liuit comprelietiaive mbric, mon- 
aaticism, (nr (?xaiiipk', which springv nut of a certmn oou* 
oeptdoii oi tlifT Cljrlsliau life, btlL<itgB> The doginiitic sy»- 
tein, BB ubiborated by the ecbooltueu from the in^itonAk 
{omiahed by tradition and sanctioned by tba Church, 
OODBtatnted Oi vast body c£ doctriDc, ^bich every Cbn»* 
tiftn was bound to accept in all its partiovdan. The 
pblrty of ill© Ciiorcb lod^d all i^i>vGmiutnt ia the b:uid» 
cd 4 [*i:pi'rit*r diias, th& priestbcod, who ^rera the com- 
iniiDdonHl, iniliApeu^ble almotiera of dlvnie graoe. TllO 
wonhip centered in tLesacri^a of Urn iil^^, a mnst^ntly 
repeated mtntcic vrrougbt by the haiida of tho priest- 
111 tbe idea of thi^ ChrlBtiaa UfiN the riaiblft a4>t wn.i madi) 
to count for eo muoh* ct^remouies vn^re so multipUod and 
00 highly vultiod. that a oharLi^er cf est^mali^ vtOM 
Vtamped ap<m tha nmtbud of ftalvation. SalTatdom, la* 
tteiid of Ll'Iu^ a purely gratuitous m^t^ (lowing fmm tli« 
mercy of God, ^'-.ta ci>imecUid with buiiuin inont- 11i«) 
^onutibttivc, >u oppwti-d to ihti quahtatiTc standard of 


A a'limjAL tsACTioef. 


«&eaDieoo», the <li<pocition to laj ■tren oo pArformaiioe* 
nod AbBUD9fic«6^ iu.4i4^Ad oF tlis spirit or pdndplo ab th» 
fuumlHtloti of Ibe wbole lift;, luy ;ir' ttiM rtit^. nf nolHiflU^ 
Ri»d tbo ooctwtic inttitutioii. Tlu^ uiumw, pjtgiiiu^igeAi 
fMtiiigi, BagrUfctioM, pravun to «AintA, homage to their 
nlkfi aad imagM, and tdmilar fonturt^ go proiuiii/uit in 
mediieTal pMty, illttsttnUt iU «4«ential cha.nict<^r. rhria- 
tftai^ty WM oonvettdJ into an external ordljuuioo. Into a 
routid of obaenvnoQB.^ 

TUc r^octson wlucli inaiuf^tod ilacif fmm iimir t<k lime 
within the CburcJi. anterior to tli« Reformation, lui^ht 
ham m vpccUl rclatioD to either of tho coiiatitu«At 
alcfBecta of the nie£«val ^vtem, ot it mif-ht bd dlr&ijlod 
^aintt tbem all togethar. £t might appear in t1i« form 
cf diaswint fitiin t]i« [u-^^tiling i1g^[iiilh, t^ppciiJly from 
tbo <loctiinR nf huTnaa nienf. in sitlv^tinTi ; ih mtglit La 
leToied Bgaiiut tho pncsthcod as luarptng a fiuii^tlmj not 
pro them ia the Gospel, aud tts dep^rUag in viuioiu 
wayn frooa thu primitive id«ft of thu Oiiri^tiun naiiuGtiy ; 
it Rii^t take tho form of an oxplidt or indiroot reaiat- 
aDoe to the axaggatat«d <«£40ia of rit«4 and oeremomei 
sad aii9t«riti». fn eHh^rof the«e directions the spirit* 
dkI pJuisi^t ut Clinj»lijiiiU.y. which tad Ijvcomv ovtirljud 
and cramp<Kl bj tradtiiona, nil^ht ap[>i-Ar su^ an antago- 
niitie av aikatiy n:tioratiag foroc. A general progrcM of 
&afceli]0e&oe, oepcciaUy if it should load to tho study ol 
aariy Chnatiaiiityi would tond to the sumc^ result. 

11m foreraoDun of the Ht^coatioti hxvn bvcn prop- 
erly diridod into tvro i^huue*.^ Tbo drtt of th«fn con- 
iiat» ol the men vho, in the quiet path of iheolagioal 
nwu tfdi »nd leaduugt or by pntctlcal vxertioiu in behalf 
of a contemplative, eq^trilual tone of pictj, were unde^ 
muiing tiiO tnuhlional sj^tcm. Tho oocond embraoed tha 

MT Jtr ICf/Wm«lCM 


UKMi ^ m«n*frIiE> iire better known, for tlw ruiuon tJmt 
^Wf tetimptjtd to cnrr}- <mt tlu^ir Idf^jta prKctieft.11y Id th« 
wihjr irf iiff(S(!ting eMilmiu^icnl (jlm.tigf^. Thii fintt lOwiff 
ftro moni obACurr, hut. wt^i'c not, ]^nh inflnrntifLl in prcpAr- 
iag tkd grCKUid i'jJ the Itefcnm^tioi]* i^rotorAtaatlam wm 
i^ relum to tho Scriptures aa the authontto sonroe of 
Chnetijin knowlcd^ ajij to ilie principle that ealvation^ 
iLiit iiiwujJ ]>v&v», b not froin tb^ Chnroh or front I imttn 
worku ethiuU or ceremoniiil, but through ChriNt ulmtn, 
recttivri) by tbo soiil in an n^.t nf t.ruiit. Whovfveri 
wliothej: ill thff chair of theology, [n the pttlpH* tlirongh 
the devotional tn.\iti*o, or by foattrir^: lh*> atudy of lan- 
^ugus Hiid o? hidti>ry, or in perilous combat with t^ocloai- 
AAticttl abufics, drew thu ininda of ta^n to the S<*TiptiiTOi 
»Tid to a mora spiritnnl coHuoption of religion, wwa, iti a 
greatAr or It^sa rnea^iiro, a reformer befoi^ the R^forma* 

In tb<5 preceding oh,ipt(ir wv h&re reriewed tbc rise oi 
tho hicmn'-hical iirdcr, and hoT<j noticed one of tlic main 
cauai^Sf tho tondenc}' to centralization, the epiriL of niv- 
tionatiHrn, whiiih had weakened the authority of tho 
fllwgy, and i^siJecially, at the beginoiiig of tbe sixt4»«Dth 

tnry, hwl iimtnnHlly nidticpd the power nf the 

Wo baire oow to diroct attentioti to ^Arious Bpwnul 
oauckfA ftnd omens of an npproiw^lung re\oliition, which 
would nffiiet nut only tbo prjiity but the entire rcligiotic 
syBteiu of tba mcdin^val Church. 

I. Among tbi>«n ph^-nomena is to b^ mentioned the nsf 
of anti-«K***nlotJLl hwtrt whu-h Apnitrf^ op :ls ntrly rw the 
nlpvt^ntb i**jilury»but nounHbfd diii^fly in thp twelfth and 
thirteenth. Thr^o indlcnt^ a widc^-Aporrad dinatiafa^tion 
vilh tU© worldlirow of the clergy, and with prclatica^ 
f^vemm«ut in tho Church. Tht^re wore indiviJu&lB, like 
Pctttrof BniySf hiniAvlf a priest, and Honry tho Deacon, 
a monic of Clugny, who. in Hw oarlii-r part oi th« twelfth 

2l3m-^<!aSWfJLL «»CTS. 

fliatary, mulo • ^reat dirturWrioe m Sotithcra FTQn«« by 
T«hcniaiit mrcctivc* sgaiiHit thn tmmomliu<:d i>f thi* pnt^Ht- 
hood and their lUttrped domiaion. Tbo «iKuLtuD(;oLitt np- 

of penonu of 0\i9 chaiactor, ^hoM impMurn«d 
WOD for tlieiD nunLeroua luiheiente, shovs tbtit 
the popolor rBTerenoe for tbft cWrgy ma Bji&keu. Citn- 

mmiM^ tlie aeotAfioft of thU ptriixl 4r« Uim 
vbo vcre found in iu:TVcnil ciiufitrioEi^ but 
Iwevo moit anmiaroiMi in thodtio«cl North Jtiilynndol tbo 
iDUtli of Fm>M. Tbo duAliam of tb^ anci^mt Maniclittun 
mnd at tlu? Utor Ptuilioi&ua-* tbb diBory that thi> f^mpim 
of A*! wnrld is diviilnt btrLvriwiL twu antngonUtic princi- 
|ile»— ^bogotbev with thn wtccticiam that grctvr^ oat of it* 
mppoon in n grc>ap of ^i&ct*, whicli vrcar different n^tint^t 
ia the ▼ariottfl n^ou vfa«f« thc^ iito founi,^ TKsy aro 
e^Mrmetonzed in common bj a reDnndatton of the au- 
tJiontv of ibe priascbood- In SouthDm Prnjit^e, wbera 
tboj M3rpiirvd tho iiaiii« iif Allij^uiH-n« tlii*y vrirrc! waU 
drgsoned« and were ppotpcted hy pi>wurful laymt-n. The 
poems of ifao tronbBdoore ehow to what axivut Hie clergy 
k^ fallen into dur«putd m this \ren.Uhy imd Qt^urulilng 
difltnctJ' In tli« oKtiamtivo, opulont, ii.nd most cuvilixLVJ 
pMtion of Knnoo, whicb fomifKl t\\a domiiitoir of iha 
Comt of TouloQS«, thu o!d religion ww virtually «up- 
bj the nev sect-. The Albi^ru^inn prvat^hei^, who 
find wilb ibeir beterodox t«ii*?ta a fliiiiMn^ y:va\ ttit 
parity of life, nvrtf btArd 'with favi^r by nil clnBticfl. Tiiu 
«3air|ialJoii of ihia numcrouM luid formidable sect was ibo- 

> Ulna Ibi «r)|£lB mnd luuiuil aIaiJdi of tht» lecu^ thsJr tHuIi, lUiil Tiwii 
■iiMtiB tt itc eartkr liulbtic k<nui», m ^flaAitdtr, CAunrA /TfiL^q-/, Iv- tAl. 
■^1 Gk^ir, JEir«^^«r4Ml«> "l ill. T. 1 ST , Mftmui, flut,3ry '*f Luti* 
CArifffialiy. v. IM wi.i Dutr* KtratMsadUtAti, ih. ini nq.: Srhmidf. 

0r^mmm4 At WatUtutm |BM)| ftlu, fiym ^tt-*j*i1/in4, 11^3) ^fhmiill 
tftoHfii M tflipiivn (hi htoMTn mini i linn of rbf (ttlMrim w^fh '^p I'volMiiu 
■i «*i •• vMk ibfl MuffWuM 

• Htew. /-VIA CUi^»n^% V, 104 Bi« AIM p^ m. 


oom{>YUht>(1 only Uirough a blooily o.riiaLiule, that was itui 
ou f4Kit uiLilnr Uii) auspiiied of lauuceut III., ujid wa» ful- 
loTTcd b^ dio c£forto of tim Inquimtion. \rhicli hord h»<l its 
bc-^~hti]ngJ The Albiifcndcti, in tUc-ir oppanition to ilm 
anthnrity of ixiclonisinticjil tnidition tmd of tho htomrchy, 
and in their rejection of pUgrimag^a nud of certain pnw- 
tioes, like the wi>rRhip of wiitiIh and imagw, Hnticlpated 
the ProteaUmt Um;triii« ; althougli ui olhtu^ r«fi{>ac:Lfl Llit^U' 
cited ia erep more at variance ^th the spirit of I'lotca- 
tantiam ihaa b tJmt of their opponeutA. It h mtareatmjc 
to obBervo that at the «n>ment wUtfix thL' Pupacy apptiu.r<id 
to b(» nt tho x<^nith of iU power, n rt^bellion hroku out, 
whidi coiiM only b*^ put down by a gii^it «xer[,ifin frf 
Toilifary forc^ nnJ by brutalities which have Mt aji in- 
delibta st^iu upc>u those- vflm instigated them.^ 

The WuJdcnB<ia, u party liot t&i»t<)d with Mmiicheiui 
dootrlnu, and disttnot from th^ Oathnnste, Jtrosc^ in 1170, 
undor tho l«(id of Pnti^.r Waldo, of LyonJi, h'^imling thAin* 
selves forbidden to pr«&ch in a mmple maimer, alt^ tho 
fixaniplt) of t}ie A[)i:?8i]ti», tli^ *^ Poor Men of Lycmn," u 
they wrrci stylcnl, iiindc? a itiuid iignin!»t thnrni'lnsivn right 
of tho cIcTgj' to tciocb the Gonpch Ali:bi:>ugh the Waldf nscs 
ar6 not of eo high antiquity as was often supposed^ since 
they do not roaob further back than Waldo, and Eilthougb 
tb«y were fM-ksa enlightened us to docitrine tlian they be- 
ciiire oftco* they Imd been brought in contact with Protos- 
tjintJani, yat their uttiu^hmeut to tlip Sfriptiinvi, and th*iir 
opposition to clerical UburpLklJuu and proili^-aoy, entitle 
them to a pUce among tJie precuiBon» of the Rt^fonnaUon,* 

^ "U «■■ « wtr,'* viyn Guiidt^ '■batvHQ (niKliil Fnqot uid mimidp*! 
fnDEa." ffiVijruf Iff OrHiStitittt. lect. »- 

■Pl. *'AIi>AKuii»"," dndou^fum fo IsiMti t!iw ntpaaiibHll^ pf U»t Pop* wid tl]>aa< 
sltti^iiuil AiiUiorHim for tfau A^^igcDHLiL uuk^iiacrHiiL But thii in poiuiUg aolj 
l« Ik r«ry liffliioj, oxljiJai- It vp^ nat until tri^hlful «tr«itiv k4d bcoD com- 
DtltftJ, ihjil BQ iiiIaiu|iL "rdH iukjIv tv ovb Um fvouly whicfa bikd bvDii oieUfd 
bj t^Q fni»l urifDnl BpHuIi^. 
' Tbt prJiukpkl wDfki HhUb hftri Hrred lo RtU« JJftpaled prioU m p^rtaaj 


'hw^rirr fhnj wrmr, tiiey tnik<)Jcd among tbc pur>ple tho 
t« to r«ftcl the Bible, 'l^hv priDcipal tlic-^lxe of thd'it 
lftba» vTM Milaiit and other pIaoe« in the north -^f lulj 
ftnd the AOQtb of Franoe, where the liieTiir*>hy had a 
weakcrr b(4d on the pwjple, and win^ns muuy wIki w(Tr« 
di>|furied ^th thr jirifathood vptk Vikr.vv\%p. rnpnllpd bj 
tbo obnovigm theology of the Cathiknstc* 

'iliQ dq>&rt«i9 of tbo l^Vrtncificone from the role of 
pOT«rl7 lod the fttrioler party in thtit ord^r to broak off i 
mud an efforts t/> heal the echlem proved iiieff^tuid. Th» 
Spirituuis, aa the stri'^ter ioi-t wero oiiUwl, in thtdr ziml 
unid rcdmiAAtitid eDrm|}ti(in tiiJ noh Kp:triT thti RdmftTi 
And thc/t rspccirtllj the \&j brctLrcn ainojig 
the Fratn*!etii. were Jfilivorcd ovef to the Iiic^ulu- 


At the end el the tw«llth oentuiy tlierro woro formed 
m tfc« NcUi^rlandu sociot£c« of pruning wDrnon* calling 
"Itm Befifnires, wbr> I«d a life of devotion without 
VOWH. SlioiLir sor^ietli'ii of irien. who W(.-n> oulli^d 
tftiik.v-4Tro ikftrriiTJU-[)!^ formRd. Mjiny^f both rljieses, 
for the Bftlce of protection, connected thcmsrrlvc^ with UiQ 
Tertiaiica of the mooMticr ordnr«. Many, following the 
nio of pover^, became meodiaants along thd Rhine and, 
poriuipa;, Uir^ngh the indoence of the aect of the FrdQ 
Spmt " % Pantliftiftti« *e«t — adopted herwl.-^ fipinionx ; 
0E> th»t ilir. iianiiK Riiguiiin tiixd Bi^ghurd, nnU-idr of tha 
NtfthctUndji, bec«mo rmonyrDOLis with heretic. A itwarui 
i«l ftnthaaiaata and fon&tica, known by those uppelbtionn, 
a ticiccte h-oetUity to the corrupt ud]iLiti]atrj.tLon 
th« Churcli. 

VdUnm IIBMF. HtnojC hu bnuigtiE fflnrtAl nA*f info^ 
Ui wtirli 'in Oa VtUtnwi En hit JtMti-KfkfyeiopMit. Bin lntJklf 
■<niiifr1|f *t tft* A<4^ i-fyft-vi rQDdm it hi^niy pfobiir>li^ (btt 
Via AMfl^Mkl ffl fft' flfi'«nrb eaaiarf On thr <liM fif (be oThir 
B WfWbi^ ami Ebv jrit4ri«[jiUonivbiPh tikfr Fiivn iDiTrrrd. ■« tin 
~w^ utitlf Tkal tht WaI-Ivcuv ter« do iiitirfnofi prinr la Waldo » »f> 
■■Aid •! pHMHi hy oOnpHcat trbolab 

Tte toifttwjct' and tho mimbfli of thi» HpmriM nf ni»ictsi- 
rio«, tf huju lin? Iiiqui^ilioTi r-fMiliI not rilirjiat/\ »n*) who* 
it ibiniUI Im nlwfrveil, vrt^ro diuhUv pbim &ud uuleariiud 
pTDplt^, )n\iT<f lU-it a profound OisaatJiifaciluii wUU ika 
exiatiog <irdrr of tbings, and ti ilvop cr^iving* iiimglod 
th<rugli it w^ with ignonuicu uid fupentitioa, for the 
r^toratloiL cf a mora dmpUi and apoitoltc ty^e of Chris- 
tittnity, had penetratwJ tlic liiwor nn1k?.ni of Kx'inty, For- 
nmrty they who wm^e olTeiid^d by the wen-lth and worlclly 
Umtpt r of tile titcr^y, had found n-UeC by retreatiiig to 
tbc auflmiticA cf tntjDntftic bio witkin the Cburtli, but 
the monastic sooictics, codJL la it^ turn, ivfl Ikicy giov 
oLd^, f^-U iuto th9 luxoriotu ways frmu which thmr fovA- 
dtiT« had l)«en anxjouft to Mcap^. Now. &s W9 approadii 
thb t-prwli oi (Jie Refrji'mafioii, w« observe Uie t^^fideoicr^ 
nf IbU M>rt of OMiTmLioii Ilj i^tiibudy itai^lf in anohi whieh 
&««umo a qucfflbnabU or openly uiimicib] attitude tav^rdi 
tbe CburoJi. Vot it m vrcIJ tbat bho oocLonaetioal rovola- 
tion WW not Itft for tbem to iv^oomplish* but was n^afsrred 
for <udif;htt-it<^d and 3t>b^r^miiii3od m«u, Avhu would knovr 
how to build up lis well ns to destroy. 

n. The CooiserTativ*' R(?fDnQi.*T^» the ohampiona of the 
lihin^, HpiAiTupiit, or OolUtAti. ZA ujiiLnistml wIUi tliH 
pap^i.l amfTcj^LioR cif tlic bicnm^hy : thti Irurli-m iii tba 
reforming c:>i-incil4, t>ot>ti by what these ciTUDont men 
achieved and by whnt they fuled to ncJiiovoi prepnxod 
the way for th^ (^at change frotn whicji they theuiHo!vo4i 
would bitve recoiled iix dismay- In oarryin^ forwwrd thciw 
batttu thuy wuru led Ut expr>se with unsparing ftnvuitj 
tint f-mrrv luid rmtii'ft, i\a ^Yell ^is Uu? unonnoTU lUurpLlionfi 
of autiiority, tritJ* which th<i popes were chatgctibUT. This 
could not but cucatLnlly Lowor tho r<^poct of nMn for the 
papoi office iUflf. At tho fiauno time tho discomfiture of 
thoio r4*formvra, m far a« tUt^lr ijriiioipal attwapt 14 con- 
ooxfittdy tA rtrfomi thtt Chun^h ** in hi^ and mecnberfl/' ft 
di«0Dif1tmNT oIFijcU^] by th*T prrMiatHncy nnd dexterity ol 

UA40AL KferOltMncS. 


jtx^ pofm ahJ tiMtir adli«irL'nu, ruiulJ nU fail to lenvn tb» 

baT« to be opughb for tbo tinbcfiTAbk gricvanucfl 
:r which iht Clmrcli Jaborcrcl. It Duist nob bo for- 
fCotUfcu bowetctf-, thai Gi.<i^ti« U'^UU>\ and tUoir coiupe«n, 
V«re «i» finnly wt^diktl to tii6 dootriii« of a privfltttood in 
llu ChurcJif uid to tlio truditionnl dogmatic nyslvin^ M 
WPV9 tiioir opp44innu. At Ccm!il»n'rp, t1i« I'^riu thnr- 
ikgiaiiB aJitwet outetnppwl tlmJr pHpnl ^ntf^giinlnt;^ ui ths 
violent treotinefit of Husadunnjc the eeuloiitt of tlie Couu- 
cQ* «ikd in the dAcnty witli "ivlxich they uopdcinnL^d lum 
vnd Jcrcmo of fmguc to tho atako. Jt v^wa n rcJonnn- 
tioo of nkorsiUt not of doctiin^ ac which th^y stim^d \ thfl 
nbotioD, but not tliB df«Cnicti<>n af priestly authority. 
m. But th^ra vr^rA iTHlivHnaLlri before, nud Ioti;|; ht^fiirw 
tlvi thuD of fjudicx, who iim &^}propriuttty ciilh-^ riulUid 
ffioTiDcn ; men irh(\ b VMcntiid points* ii[tticipatcd i'ae 
Prottttflot movement. Thciv wore cctnapicuottA cITorta 
wlii<^ if they proTod to a conaidenihk <ixtenb nbortivo 
«t the moiiKot, left lood to ripwi iLflorwivdji, and wen 
tb9 hftrhzngor of mor« ofFecttud monsurofi. Of all thk 
rlir of reformere before the Reformation, John Wkoh- 
Bflo ts the Ji^ucit reniJirkabhTi^ LiYtn^ ui tb^ niidttL of 
(bartt!«iilli cvntury, iir^y a hundn^cl and fifty yeiLn 
Lothori not an obivcurc or ilUtcmto man, hut a 
tnuood tbaologiau, tt ProfoMor at Oxford ; not hidirg 
opQuioOB^ but proclaiming thcni with bc4dii6SB; he, 
ilcmy. took the pwUiDii not only of a Prdtfiitmnt, 
hat, in many important parLlfulsLrs, of a Puritun. In hi> 
iprmcipKJ woHc he aiBnu» tkit Ut> wH^ng, nnt vYoa a 
pa^ffd decree, has Any raUdity furtJ^i^r tJutn it ia foundeif 
«n tiio EIolj Sctiptntm; ho dcaic* t^miubatimtlntion. and 

^a«if«Hi OkmrrAt llUlltAjc-- V- 401 «in 


fttti*ibut^a ih^ orlfrin of tliie dof^& to the mibalitiition of 
a belief in papal decLirations for belief in the Bihl«; 
bt! awsrtrl* thiit iti tlie priiailivH Qmitb tJiere wt^iv. but 
two wirU (»f oli-rgj' ; doiibb Uie Scrijituml warr.uit tor lh« 
nt«a nf CPtifirmiitic^n iixid cxtrMiio unction ; would bixvo 
all iiitfrrfcirnn<*« with civil ntlnirH tu\d t^mpoml nuthoritj 
intep<iiot<»4 to the olerffy ; «pf«lc? against tJ»e n«w*»ity of 
a»irii.nilaj* o»"»iTf^wion ; avere tbat tbe exprciae of the pnjFor 
to bind and hxmv ia rjf no elTeot, save when it is confirmed 
tn tilt? juclgiTK-tit of Cbrttit ; la upfjonr^d to tlie multiplied 
nuilc^ of the dt^r^, popis, oardimiK pfitrliuvhs, monkb, 
ctuionn, And thn n^t ; nptidinl^^ tlic doi>tritio of indul- 
Ifeikced and si[pprflVo|»ntriry mflritft, thn dootrini;* of tU« 
^xoelleTK* of p(*\*'rty, a* that wjis ludd and na it lay Bt 
Uie foundation f>f llm ni('ndk'M.tiL ordera ; ELtcd In? m^ta liim> 
v-lf Eiguliint ArttGcIiil (^Imtvli iiiuhic. j)}i:tun?a in -iVDrsliip, 
coiuecnition witli tlio iiw? cf oil and solt, cnncniinticni, 
pilgrimages, rhnrefi nsybtma for CTiminolM, colibocy of the 
clergy.^ Almost cYorj- difitinguiBhlni; feature of the 
OMdiseval and papal ohurcb, us coiitradted with Ui« Frot* 
«i*tant, is dirt?L'tly disuwrod iind L»i>mbut4?d by Wicrkliffc. 
How was it pf)!wiye t1in,t h& i^iLild dii Uiis »o bmg, ill th^ 
B^. nitli compjimtWe iiiipumty, and dio at last la luA 
bffli, wlu*)i fto majiy whom he immcaflurablj oulAlrippud 
in hin reformatory id<>aa paid (or their ditt»<}nt witli tlictr 
iivcA? 'IIlo nvut^n iu fuund piu-Uy in tho fact tliat ho 
id<»titifi^d hini>u4f with tbo IJnivoneity of <^)xfr.rd, and 
with tlip flp^fiilar Of parinh clpi^gy in th*^ir atro^le afif&iuBt 
tli^ HHpirtug ineiidivanli ord»^n4, and stJI] more in the fiurt 
tlmt bi? *Um>J Itjrih in tlu' ch;iramt«r of A cbxinpionof nv\] 
and kingly nu:)»ority. .t^in^t Rc^Jcmuticnl encroachments. 
Ha waa [protected by bdwjird III., "nrhoeo ca\i9o ngaiiut 
papal tyr^uiny bo had eiipport^d ; and aft«r EdwunlV 
donth, by powurfid Bobl^. He waa elroug ti-ntnigh U 

1 tt/tpt »Aip*vta fnirn [hi Tnntflffvt ua in iJUHttf, nt- tr. *, f IV, n. L Al 




widttUnd tli« opfuvition t^ hie worW of trAnslftting tiM 
Bible, and publidy i*^ iK'ffln'J the right of th^ jioopl.^ ta 
have Uw Smplttrvb in Lhcironn Uiugue- Not uulil iho 
of Htairj V^ vtlicii tlia reUtiun of the tdtigs bj ilie 
l^rgy wiu c^jui^si, van the pci'soouttoii ot the Wick- 
liffitv^ or LolLudit, &• thoy worocikUcd, vi^orouAly itndGr- 
itHk«r. Thpy wra not cxt«nniDitt4>ii ; but the priticipl^a 
Wickliff*^ (v>ntjniM'd trt hiLVm sullfTrtiiktA in the poor and 
iro i-lnsfi^s u\ Kiigliuid, dL>wn to th« onllu'e^king uf 
Prot«0Uut moTemcal, It h reTuarkablu that Wiok- 
fc predicted thai iunouj; the iriouka theMiat^lvua tUc-rd 
arUo ptiTKioja who n-ould libruidoa thoir fulao iiiter- 
tions of Chrbttunity, ^uid, ruturuing to Lbo ori^tiuJ 
iligion ot Cliriitt, wrtuld hulUL up dui Chtivi^h in th« 
liritof Taur^ 

In tli« Baino raJik with Wtckliffe fttauda the niiine or 
John Hwa.^ Before Uiiv iti Bohemiu tlxure bad it{>|^(iArvd 
UilitJi n^ Conrad of \VjildhuuKsn, prusiohcrfi nnimibtc^ 
viUi ll>o ftery zeal of prophets, luid UftiEg up tlicdr 
in the face ol p^raeoution, !ip;ftiiiet thi> oomipilou 
rdifpoii-* SliO luoro wa^ Hui^a iiidvbled to Mitlthi:^ 
Jannw, whuw idnvi n^e])reLiu;^ iht OmruU mid Llia 
rl^tiou oC clergy to hkitj uiTolvied the gctma of dfangcn 
tfeore n>£cal tli&ii ho litnL^Mf prrcrivi^l. vriu 
itroi^y bflitODoed, likovians by tho writiugs of Wide- 

Ulittfit t4 M^fatHtt VhtitiX pnniffTam, et tunc iBdlAeAbiiJlL *f«]a»i«iK 
rim 1-hI«i/' H-^ Hmdrr, r. )74. 

iMlhr^l Knadflv GtH^ Bi^^ry, v. HU H^i G^fKl, £■/# ^nJ 7Vn<« v/ 
/«^ Awll^llI 4h HAfka (4 Vu dvr flanft aad I^iFiitiI iiihiEi lh« f'oBQ' 
^ •! &aa«a*««; 1- Krvna^, emei^-ilt J. BtfiuVA. H./iT'ial. in XV. 


Jiffc, and vii% notivd in iliAiieiTiiiiatiti^ Uiom. TJie B<k 
hemiati i^^fiinncr Imd luoa thcoloKioul aoumcai cluui tJH» 
KnglUh, with whom ho n^?™! in liU ndvowifjy cf pliilo 
iopliical i^isin and pivt(h«tinAtio[t ; nor did lie go «o fw 
OD tbe road of doc^triiul innovfttiuii ; ainee Hua% Co Uie 
loat, naa a believt^r in tmneubetfttttmLirm, But m hn 
Qoncejftion <if the fuiictii^ns and duUus of tkt^ cli^rgy^iii 
hid zeal for pmcticul hoUnuais aud in hU i^^caltntiijn oC 
tbo Scriptural obow the dogQiiu oikI ordiniuuTo* of tbft 
Cfaorcbi in moral fixcflllonai luid htdroiffm i^ <:)mmct«r» 
HttAs tfan <iuulciue by none of tJie refcrrineiv before of 
MHi-V- I^itther. ^viit^n hv vfoA a tii^nik* ju^cid^utHtljr ledl 
upon a volumui of tint atnuoun o( HvtM. in tEi« conrciit 
libruy of Brfurt, and yr^a otriick mtb wt>ncicr that 
the author of rnich KontimmU as tbay ^mntninod should 
Dave bwrn pnt to dpjith for hi.^n^^y, lit tJio attiLude 
vhic^h How aii»nm<'d liffom thi? Conncii of Constonoe, 
LtiHiv vran invoht-d tlie a^wrtiotj of one uf Um disLitietiTii 
priElcjplfof of Prxjlcstitittisin ^— ibiiL of irhit right of private 
juc^«iit, tlo vaa commazkded to retract hii atowuU of 
(^linlon, and thia ho rofosed to do ontil he oould be c.<on- 
vinccd bv u!|ctmKttt and b^ catatione from Sotiptui« that 
his opbiiotu weru «rronr?ous. That U. tie wctit b*hu)d 
the anthnrtty of thrt Ciiiuicit. Tbi> itcclf, in their «yM, 
tunotuit^ to fls^T^nt her^Vi aitd vas ffiffit^ifrBt to con- 
Atxmi him. It w&a a repudialion» on hia aide, of the 
principles i^ Cburdi anth^tr. vrliich vna a vital pait of 
tho ccdouAfltical sjatom, Thi> cruet cxoentdon of Huh 
(141 j) ard of Jc^romc, ceq^ouially a* thu fonnor tuid 
rested on the Emperar's aafo-oondocl, oxdtod a stfimn of 
wrath nniotkg tlit^ir ouuiitryn^i^n iind lulltf^i^nU.* 1V>1]^ 

Ihd. ^aKmius 4ni4 !• iDftlniaJMd kif OaWt, Ciw£Un«MlU4K, vB. Fur ■ 

Om oI thp [it'i'r'^ DffciHB «f fliiH* la dig vfw of Ib« OoukiI uil vl uj«uy 
mnbtn tibt** vh li» doettiuei lunnccd Lq bin. dul pnUv mil mitr^uxv 



^ttift wBfl long (iie lii«atnf of violent agilatinn and rif cfini 
Bepeat«<l cni&^eA wi^te uiirjeilakeu agautnt tlid 
UuauMa, but reftiill«d m the deks^t of tlic; ituuilante. 
More poctfio moasurea, o^juplcd with inU^rtuil oo^kliotd 
m thtfir t^scrt btxly, iuiolly rcduc-t^d thoir utrnngtb mid 
Wt them li pi*y to tlieir prfrseeiihir* ; btit tin? Bohj^- 
taiaa bretlircn. ati ulTAbont from the mnu^ r^ulltuil nf tlin 
Haa&tc pnitiem contiaaed to exist in j§cpa.rat]cn from 
ChttTchi tad in ihp-Ji confeasions, drfiwit op at Ui« 
UDg of tho aixtf^ontti ct^ntury, tlloy reject tranflub- 
itiatioD, purgatory, stTid the worebip of aiUDta, 
OlLer names exi«t, 1^8* ivTirrwned than tJio§e of Wick* 
IiiTt! and Hittc, but uijually dtsw^rviiig lu Im^ inAnrilH.d 
juiHKig tlic hcf^ddN ol tUet tieformtttioti. Aiming tlimn is 
WcsmU wb*> mw ooimeotod ut different timea with 
CTnivcratios of Colcgna. Louvuin, Piuris, and Hoidel- 
ft t^aob«r of theology, and died in 14S9.^ Hq 
fotth in «xp1iiut and imiphatir InngtiH^e the docirW 
«f joattficadon by fiUtli itbrm. A^idiHt, th:- tiUf^gJitl m- 
EattibUi^ of biediopftAiid }idiiLl£Fei, he nvvm t1k»i uiiuiy of 
Uie grofttot popoA Imvc fidlcn into pcstili^Dt cnors both 
of doctriiM) and proctioo; giving ne examples, Dcucdict 
XIUm Booi^ce DC-. John XXIIL, Pius IT., and Sixtne 
IV. It Uu been nid that thor& is scaroely a fundus 
nt<*ntal tenet of tli« reformcnt wbii^b Wnuel did not nvovr. 
LutlMV, in hiN prrfaco to a ca1lei<tifln of tmTiirid nf Wm- 

ty. BiA Him u|ilaia*d lu Uic Ojimtil ihut, hi Ui* t[ir*» Aiicb 

Tbij tfa totluilt of Cbi Blldcd cbofVEar tbnt tunu> iJic uimiiL oweil^i; '.r 'hii 
«AHb ttMib itfl «i«Kl*lax Iti ftini^iluuk Set>«[| iMj Irupuruiiic Ejucttli^a, 
r^lttftf^in. LSI! I Sdmntl. p, QII^e W«Knburr> 11. tHi iJjo, llcfclp, CV'o- 
^Ib^^M^MMi TIL L 103. To WlckLlflo H«rt Imimleil fclmLLir optoiuuji, 
0<i^ Ahu tn A UdB of ETicB, bfl bell, (U pomie {irvponj: nilmrr mtv 
__M tat PM ioM.'OlKtor, UL, 'v. 0. tin. I ItO, D. lAi i4ulin>dLli, 
WkStmftKkidtu, Kzxir. US* 

f«|. |L pfL SiJJHf' l^ir th* rritTtnutity d^LiiIujh irf Julia (4 (icvb ftit^ 
at Waw(, «H IMbnmn, »<} ftn^lrr, in, T. b, f U«> 


mI's trcatiAOjL, dodArm him to bavo been ei man of adni- 
rftblc ^niiu, a rai^ and grcab aovi, and so far in accord 
with liliti ne to <]Dctrin4s tliibt if liu haij n*ui) «ciunw tbd 
worka of Weucil, it Taif^hc liavi^ btt^u pUuaibly eaSd by hk 
tinemii<H that ti» butl btiTmwul tnTurytbcng fnTin thtiin. 

A man wliuau dotitntUbl piHilitiii wiL-i far lr»4 rImrM 
frotti tbr current sji^lcm, Imt who must be ranked among 
tho notofl pTccursore <if tho Kcformataon, ii Savonarola.' 
From 14S^ to hie dojkth in 111>S« he livod at Flor(>tL<:<s 
and for a whili*, by the force of hift intellt^etuul and 
monil cliaracter, and by bia conifuaikdhig ^oqiierK'r^, ct* 
pr|4^d a niHriJiC influeni^a lu llie affmra i>f Uut city, Hn 
VTM Urgijly inBtnimcntal in thi* rxpnNion of the house 
of M<^ici from Florence. An^mnst tbfiir tjranny zund 
tho iramomlitic^ whi^jh they footopod h« directed from 
the pulpit his aharp inveotirea. On tba invauon of 
the French nndt^r Charles VIII., wMeU SavotiJiroln had 
|»rt?didMil, li« w** n.hl»?, IhrtPit^i Ihi^ pcn*<mal r*wpBc-t, 
amounUng l-o aW", with whii'h htt inHpir\iiJ Wi*» king^, to 
render iiaportant service* to Klorciice. Ilia poaititrti 
there reaeinblod that which Oalvin lonj- lunrntainp^ i\t 

(lliufldtirc. lA'IA), nuil Uribiir incnirip lAUl. lilsfnrRt^ri^f irhirb ti<faf4i^rta. 
c3f*11^ of SHtorarolH'* dafliino. llir LuElcr of lit* kvqiiIi iff hi* CBrrurr riwi* 
Hlh li'wntk wthatfl JfrriBiir A<iPftanp/iit^#1 V^f^ift Pttili^iliatit. mk* /:/riu,/mf 
F. T. Ptrrrui tl'irli. tflftj). An f<itrinn«ry vohmMv li'i^ ot StirtnArnlit It llukl 
b^ VHIrtrt— /*» .tt'irit iff iiiM\tfliiin Sntvuiar^Jii e it'' m'ri ttJtj^t, tMjvnta dt 

lo th» AttgnMc f^klffin hi (1i« Cfiorrh, thniiK^k Lonlito in pa.p«l ftbHiltbthm 
Villul t^mtfulc* liiin BCftlnkl 1]J4 tcudiaon im]m(Afioii i>f * dnmngoflcBl Ufa 
par *Bil ubililu bliD 41 Ik iJiatbUifti paErioL. iU aW thovn tlut !^«vi>nAro]B*B 
nflflUlion mdof (onvn vw PuTy In nferaiM to lUe »ource af hi* propbHriti, 
vbediFF Btftuivl OF nptfUitlvnkl { a point an whidiUcliad ^^liRiJ^iBdno uiufttrv 
evirfLL'tioo- Ad InAtrvAivv nai brilUkftE ailick byMitman (wrltiia prltfb 
(tic pithlknilrja of VillRrrt Life* n;i|ic&rvl \a tiia Iffrttrt^ fiteit* (IW0)» ft 
4 ioanA in MDiumu*) Xmayt (Lamlun^ U?C)^ il[iv»ufo, b^ <l'arKt mifl (Mn^ 
L«iw], fvoof Ihi 1D041 mnuluMe ikont* at tlu prncot ila|r, prDHOU % 



hy Uw ilivnr^iUxi'il [?ikri<littii[] of tlii> CUun-Jt ;u)cj uf w>< 
dcty, he poared out hu rebuke* withi^nt »tiiit, unat tli« 
political axtd rol^oiB clcmcnta tlut woto combined 
l^aiiut him, Qffo9t«d his d«etruction.> Hq bad pv^ 
DDODCod tht^ exoommunicatiDQ, Tvhich vcua iaaned agstiast 
him by the tbgitimi^ Alexunder VI., void, IliJ d^ekn^ij 
thai ti insB Irom iZie dtivll, ujul bu Uad couI'IuuihI Ui 
pivncih ^ipiincit the jxi|i:i] (rrvbiblliun. In pmoii he com-, 
pomd u tnfccG upon tliv tifty-tirat pAnlto, id which ho 
Mkiiuit M ncur Uw I'mU^aUuit vi^wn oif juutilic^rLtian, thut 
Luthor publijihnd it witli a Intid.tCorv prof^ico, Suvonii- 
robfc did iKit dPApair of T-he cansp W wliich he laid dovrn 
hia Hfd| but porediL'ted a oaming Hefcirin^klloii. 

IV. We lurii tiww lo niiotbvr claaa i>f me:i wlio power- 
fnll^r* though indireutl^', |i(iv«d tbo wuj for the Protett' 
tMit Kovolution — the My^tioi^,' 

Myiti«i*ini ]tiu\ daTolopad itcolf lUl through tho flclida*- 
tk> pariod, in indlvidn&lg of profoi^ud retlgjoiu feeling, to 
wlkwn tJw exckiBLvety <UjLU>crictil ti^ndeiicy wua i^epugu^irit. 
flucli men werv SU Bu^rjiid, notuitcat.ijtTL, mid Ui-? Adkml 
of Si. Victor. AnMlin hiti)5Rlf. Uic f.lthf^r of thr; Achoal- 
nun^cd with hii lo^enl hnbit ft tnyotical vein, and 
ooubiiution wu in fnot diitriictorietic oE tho boat oC 
lb» tebolMtic theologiaua. But with th« dedina of 
■dsobuti^um, partly ue a chji8»> »ud |»:irtly aa an oflfeut* 
lyaticnAiu auamued » luurt) dibluu^L H]LH|ie. Tlif? (ilmnu^* 
hteiftia of llu: mystaca hi the llfo <>£ fi^ciing ; tb(^ profeir' 
of uttnitioii to t^o, lh<: quc«t for knowlojg« 
thnngh Light imparted to fi>oling i-athor thaji by pr'>- 

1 par AB «aaiD|!k af hu tltatuiflUfien *f Llifi rcDilKj' md otbdr liiu of lib* 


aemat of th« mtolicct ; the mrlwclling of God in i\vt 
RouJ, okvntcd to a holy aUra by tho conaciooanoa^ of His 
jfrBflwnco; abeolnt^ self-ronvmciatiou and tbt* abaoqatioa 
of tJio human will into the dKin^ ; tha ecstatio mood. 
The theory of tlie myfttio muy ur^ly slide into jian^i^ 
iaiiU -wlioxe tlur luiiou of tho hutnftn eijiirit wtUi the dm:i« 
b rusolvod intu tho idT^ntili cation of the two.^ Thi-n t^-Mi- 
dtuioy in pcrciqitiblc in one clnss ci the ante-Frot^^tant 
myttio*, of which Miwtor Eckurt ia a prMuinont ropre- 
wntative. lie was Provincial of the Dominicana for 
Saxouy ; Uju ^i-'iib of Im tubors waA in the neighborliood 
of lTju R1i[iii.\ Atti] hr* iIiihI ^ilruut 1^129- AHjlufct^d iii> 
ci^^tii-'n <:ji,1Hng thi^mrk^lrcs the Fricndi of God, Although 
Uiey formed no iwct, gtow up in tli« nouUi and vtmA, of 
Gi^u^iELitv nnd in tho Nnthirrhuidn. I^hoy mftdo mligion 
cpTitrt* in a culm devoutness, in dlsintoi^ost^d love to God 
and in labors of b^nevolenc*^. It we» in Cologne, Stras- 
burg, m\d in other |}luce» Eu lUk neighhoihotKl <if tJia 
Rhin<f, th:)t thr prcnchoni of ihin c]as& chiefly lluLin:»hod. 
Of thoin tho mo»t eminent ;3> John Tftiiler (ISiiiMSCl), 
Doctor oublimiB utt illaminatua, os ho vrtA styled^ ft 
|>nT)il of Eokart, hut au o}:ipoaer of pantheism nnd a 
pKiftoti^ of evaugeli<^al fervor.* To him Ludier ©irone* 
onittv lutrrjhf^d tbi? litt](< \nni\c wliieh einauat^it from som^i 
mvnibfir of tbiti m^«tE1^.Lt aiclitioU mllitvl ^^llje Oernuin 
Thftoiopy,'' Ok book which I.uthcr pubUshixl nncw in I0I6, 
uid &OTU which ho anid Uiftt, next to tho Biblo nnd St. 
AiigOBtinv, be bad learned more than from Any oiiher 
book of wlnit God« Chriat, ninn* aud ftlt things aro. The 
njvtic* worn vugerly hi^urtl by Utoivuwtda who yvjuned 

i^. RiUvtir>Uai«>7«cUl7A*>d«>«(G«M^ 8«*<i!>e,I]iH,ir«ir<rv 
fttf . n. n. iriPhnKk* D. U, tlfcv Toit^, UOt). 

TUS RIfVIVAL 09 lkaknimg 


fior a mor^ vital kiml of rdlfeion than tbii CUurch hiid 
afforded them- Tlnf " In^tatJon ol Cliriirt,' by TliouiJia 
s KpTti|ns. II trikrk whirli U^ jirr>liidkly UekI n l:irgi^ r.'ircM- 
latioD Ihnn niiy t^Ui^r oxcupt the Biblu, U a ilno ^xumplo 
of tbe c^uraGterifltic spirit of tho myadcal scliool.^ The 
rrfowiatory fiSiect o£ the mystics ^ynn tvofold: lliey 
weakened tlie iaQi^ni!» of tLv Bclioluatiu ey^a^-'ut ami 
called men amiy from a di^mutic religion U> numetbtng 
more iniranl sLod iipirittml; and thnir Uibora, lil<*TW)*if. 
taad^d to htt%i\i up Ihi' 4rxcc*%iv(^ rAtoiim of rmtwiird 
•acratmntfl aud ccremomefi. t^taudlug mdiin tlio Ohuccb 
and makiDg no qitanel with It, thoy were thua prej 
tbe ground, i.vipyL»JaJly in Gi-nuiuiy, UirougL the whoU of 
thtt fouftutfnUi oi-iJlary, for the Protestant wfomi. With 
thevu pioacpTV uf ruform, iind not ^th men like Iltisa and 
WtckKff"*, thv ri'liginus training cf Luther und his griint 
taoireaKnt liavo a direct UbLoiical t:iiJuitH:U(>iL 

T* An «t«dL of eo^al iinportiuice, u an indlapncenbla 
prevttpuattc and iDcana of a rcfnrnmtii>n in religion, wii« 
Um lOrival of loaniiiif;. Thie groat intoJectual chungo 
^^fcMMitafcd ^^om Italy as ita fountain. During the Middle 
Agea. tti the midAC of pr^^Tiiiling doi^kneai and disorder, 
Italy iiavvr vrhoUy Ui8t llie Liiic^a of :tni.-Lent i^lvilization. 
'^'Rm night ivhuili di?MMTii(lf?d npon hur was tU^ night of 
aa Arctu flommor.'^ Thcdu\v[)b[^^nn tore-uppear before 
tibo last nxBeeliob of the preceding stmaet had faded from 
tliB horuoa.''*^' The threo great imtors, Danto, Pe- 
tvarch. aod Boooacclo, Introdnood a Dew eru of oulture, 
IVi tiui long n«yl£Gt wtiidt tbo iilaittiu nuthan had 
saflcrod, Dmnto mfoni» vrhtm he »iy» of Virgil tljHt he 

"^w*<1 tnm tone f nnlDiM '^I^TiHHHnt/'* 

Tba mind ol Italy more and more tamed back upon iti 

■ MuHUr, Jt:wiy #- ^rioMiQH^ Xttiyi, I, (Xrv Vcfk, IMtL 



andoit history toid litontaro. Tbo Modj of tiio 
nbrnnn btv^kni(> a poaeion. No puiu ftnd no expenw vi 
Hpanvl tn ivcvrfrring maniiMripIs and in coU«ioting libi 
rim. I'nooes Iwcune tba penonal eitltivatots and pn> 
faM pBtroM oF leumiig. The saine lesd extended ilat^ 
to Grvek litfTuUtrc. Hm: philoMphen and pooti of sa* 
bquity VMV onoQ idotg road with doligfat in tlnar own 
bongmes. Th« captaro of ConMaatiaopIg by tho Turica, 
in 14$S, bronght a throng of GT««k ichoUi^, with xhm 
invalmble literary trauam; to Italji &nd g&v& a fradi^ 
unpiib« to the new. wLodiitfi. From Tuly, tho 
Ut^T^ir}' fpirib aproftd otct tlic other couatrici ol Europo. 
The tmmiuiiti<<a — ^nunmor, rhetoric^ pootxy, cloquonoet 
the ck^iiTtl fl^nthom — attractod tbo AttootioD of ^M 
Rtodione of letjr i* U<f fO> 

■< OiLeF fuiur^ fllf fb* world '■grHl btutf 

And Hitdn 03 c^ viMl EtthariEutc* 
Wen fpsni tha tomb* «f ni^ltr ABCiMlorft 
!%■ HvAr^ tlL4 fsH, tho gant, tt« iliMB Tmrpa 
Thi hr d«p tmricd with 1h# n«adM of aU r« 

lad TibiM* Willi Ibt h«>t ud B*l0dr, 
8dma t7 lb* momth af «Id Uaau d*r^ 
lb ibB^Tni H^^tlrt aUJc Miflat, 

Is ipinltajl liodiH. wiagtd vtK4% 

Find ■ iiF* ■iiJJiu^^" * 

nxtn^mGiit bronght with it moineiitoiu 
q/avaam tn the 6«Id of raligion. U marked the ndront of 
R new KUgo ol oLilluro, w]i«n Uic Chaixh w«« no longer 
to btf the ftolo inatnictor ; Tvhcn a wider hortson was bo 
b« op«ai«d to tL.6 bunmn int^dicct*— an dFoot analogovi 
to thivt w>on to b« prtxluccd by the gmnd gocgraphical 
ducrkv(>iy of El now linmiEphfTo. Ohristianity wae t<* oomt 
Into oontAOt with tlur products of tho int^ect of the an 

> a«Dtt* KII*«^ ^-^ ^XPiyi PF B>^ 


«atii39Vi Aiic to asalniibta vliatevcr ini^lit r r^t be 

For MTevBl liundivj yean thv Sehola^tio philoaoplk^y oud 

Wiien tl>» Scboc4iiien JtrtMi? witli tli<<ii' im.-iiuxl'^ irf logii^itl 
VHilyBU ofid disputation, thn old compilAtiona or book» <rf 
,«xcarp(a ftom tlic Fathora, out oi which tlioology, for « 
lBiuilb«r c€ oentviiee, hod been eliKiicd, quickly booam^ 
;ttb0al«t«, ftad die Adlt^ivutA of the fomiLT uu-'tiiod wi^ra 
iaUeHv ffolipeu-^d by tUv Kttrn*'tlvonn« of <h« iifw w^itinoi*. 
Young uvf.n hy UuiuKiLni?K lliirkiMl ufUrr t.hi^ iiiw U-Jit^liraiL 
From about the middle of Ui«^ ele^'dolh century ScLolaati* 
«iaoi b»d boQn domiuaot. NL>r ^vaji ttii^ ur^ witliout fruit* 
Aa a discipline for thu intellect at st^mi-tiviViyjcd \ttxif\m i 
«• ft ^otmtvrpotMi t:i thu tondoDiTirti to c^tbiimium iind 
iponttitioti vrhicb vntm HFo in tli<^ Middles Agns ; ng a 
ljD«aiw of redndng to a rt^uUr and r.-in^ldi? fom tJje 
erenl cjf Uie Clmn^i, so that tL oun]d ht< i-x--iii]iiied und 
I, tlw Mbobuiic trruturif^ mid tin* IiiUOIictunl pnxl* 
<*ct« «f tt wrtro of high vnlnc' Hut the niurowiicM and 
oikor giM> dcf<>ct» of the scholititic culture vrci-o kid 
bftM by the incominfC of the newetudio«. The barbarous 
■tyltf iuid the irbole mctliod of Lhi> Sclioolmen became 
obDoadoiu iird ndf^^louA in Lhu eyi^ of thu de\ol«4ift of 
oknniml leaniiiig. Tim rxtmTAgiuit hnir-^plittiug nf 
B oot— uid Ouncdus. when compEircd witli the nobler 
moUlod oC tho phlloeophore of antiquity', excited diadmiu 
Tho iroricB of Arutctle, vfhxa^ were now posMnod i& 
thftiroim huigiugu. expo«<*d bluudem lii tfao tmiuktion 
l.«d hiterpfvtation rif htm, whtt^h Inr^ight dkgnuM Bpoii 
tt«> Sdtonbnc*]!- TUnir ignr^iticn of hiit/iry, thftir anoriii- 
^ liahit, tiicor overdr^iiru Aiibtlctly u^od endlcM wnULg< 
ij3^ made Ihen objects of doriait^n ; ruid u tho School- 
had oiic« nppiaDtc^ the CVmpilcj-a, so now Uie riu;e 
•f syllogutw! reosoneim wru^ ir tlieir t'lr^, Uughed off iLi 
by ths nvw gMumoon of dnsncn] »cho!ttni. 


But thn fiiU of Sdi<iWti(Tiflni did not take pliu-xi until tl 
ho^ nin itA c^ounu mid lout itit vitality. 'Fltn oAimntia^ 
prinraplp r>f Ihp SHu>o!nn>n wn^i thi? cunvjipanclpnog ol 
fiiitli rtiid r(»:frtoTi ; tlie i'liariu:t>>ri8tii; ainr waa tlie viiulic*- 
tioiv uf Un.' cuiiterila of feitii, tli** ai'UcltH o! Uie creed, 
on grcufids of rviuson. This continued to bo t!io dmr&o* 
tor of ::^Qlio]a£tici&TD, oltliou^L the auccc^eors of Aniidin 
did tiotf like birn, iiaplr^ to t-stabliah the poeitive truthn of 
Chrifitinnity by iirgiiinents ivid^pendent of reYdlation, 
'* Fidt* cjiijf'riti mteileL^tuiii ^* wmj* e\er tlie motto. Tliero 
vf^re indmduals, aa AbBl;trd in the twelfth century, nad 
Hoifer Bacon in the tidrttenth. who aecii: refttivc nndcr 
tlio yoko of uuthonty, biit who reiilly ditler from tJi<nr 
QO»tompornnJ4 rutlier in tliQ tone of their mind tbnn <n 
thnir ihivilogical teneU, Scbolasticisra, when it gftvs ii^> 
thn Jttti-mpt Lrt verify to tlie iutelligt^tii* wLnt fidtL rw- 
utiived oji LliG Hutliority of the Cbun:U, confeaapd ila <]Wii 
fu^Uurt^. Tbii» truTiHitlon vrna mjulc by Diiiis Scotus, It 
W4W (!)ccani, the pupil of Hcotua^ by wbom tho change vaa 
cooeumniatod* Ho wae tho loading agout iu roviviiig 
Nomiiuiliam. Although both WiL^kiifCo o,n^ HuHb were 
ReaJiattt, it w^ia Nouiiiiulinm ihat brought Scholiwticiain to 
jui «nd. In giving (udj a. subjectivi; vubdity lo gencnii 
arjti.oii5 mid to n?:;isoTkiiiga fgiuiJod nn th^in, lit seokiiig to 
bhow that no settled conclusions caji be ronx^ed ou the 
path of rational inquiry and ai^umeut. and in leaving no 
cither warmnt for OLiireb dogtoae exoopt thutof authority, 
a foundation wa* laid for scepUmm. Tho way was paved 
for tlid prinoipk wbit^h foi^nd u. diictiiif^t t?xprP!ixioii in tho 
fiftui^ntb ct^ituT^'f thjit iL thing miLy bo ti'iii^ in theology 
and fuUe. in philosophy. Occam was a sturdy oppon^il 
of tbo temporal power of tho popca, a defender of tho ia- 
dopeudonoo of tbo civil authority as related to them. 
Wbva ho sugf^oflta propoiitjona at varianoa with ortbo* 
dcixy Jind iirgutia for tbt^m, bo Ravui himai^lf fnim tha 
mpnUilUin uf litre^y by proftwiirig an al»to]iitesiibiiiiK3Ui>a 


to Altthority ; bat it i« dittrcnEt to hHi^^vr ihcs^. profes* 
MOOS perfociiy snccTc. Ncniijiali^m noccrii^^nW icudoJ t^ 
finooarafcet abot ftn eiapirioAl m^itborJ, aa atteiitii>[i to tU& 
beta of &atUD& vad of inuev evperioiico, in tlift room of tbo 
lofpetd fabric wlUdi kiJ bi^i.-]t j!ti.tbvei'li<i]. Tin? sdiolastia 
fibiluHipliy, irlien it caine k> alHint the disAuimiKo uf 
flMon and tlie creed, dug ita owit gnive.' It myiy bo 
mentioned hcru tbnt l^utbcr in Lia youth yma n diljgi^jit 
student of Oocnm. Fc^in Ocoiim ho dorired doffrtiEoe, A* 
to anodier Ncminsiliflt, D'Ailly, hi? n\p4vl the sugg«^tion, 
ol Id* doctHni? of the I«orilV Su[ip-r.^ 

But oUiortaJTecOiuf a iimrc piaiiivt- duiivu^l^r UmiL iho 
doimf&U of SdtoI.vdcLHiu llowcd from thc^ r«nf>V7itioii of 
Ifinmiiiiir The Fjbtbcus wcir hroiight out cf th^ii- ob- 
•ctui^, ftnd tbcir t«acbtiiga might bo ooinpar<>d with ibo 
dognmtic ny^tam wbiuh professod to hd fouuduU Uf>oa 
ilMoa, but which hnd E-eully, hi ICa paftiogi? through iho 
niedtflrvnL |H-riiifl, Uikrti nn frjitun^ wliolly unknown to 
the |iftlnHti« age. Moi\f thau ihi:;, tbiir ScriptMiei? of the 
Old aod Kcir XeAtamcntt the piimiiive documeaU of the 
Cbmtian nligioiu were brought forAvaid m tho cii^md 
tov^EUQCf to serve as n toLuaheton^ by ^vhicb tht> pntvailing 
dootrin^ and 4?cckvi]uliuil Hyat«iu tuuiit hu t<^tvd^ Thi* 
nevly invented Art of pniititig^ un j^irt which nlnnoKt itn- 
nndtaMy attaiiied a high dvgrco of purroclion. In coimeo- 
tioci witli tbe lordly kee iioportaab maaufuclui-e of p;i|mr 
from linen, stimalated, at the ttame tiioe tlutt tt fed, tlio 
a|ipotiU for lttor&ture> It \a evident thut the frc-ahiy 
w r a hap u d thirvt fcr ktLowbdg^^ with tho ubuMdnnt r;4^m 
Eorgrvti^iniE it* mngt produ^^ » wiii -tp(i?n<l fenoent. A 

'1Mb «dbiiB4*t licH vnpCft Cixuu. IIbJub h:uja<a uKftrsbai Tbmui tft 


movdttMDt bad bopm, in tho prasecico of vrliloli Lalia 
CbrlBiJaiilt^', thai vnst is^hAQ of piety auU sui^irHLitiou^ oi 
reuQA lutil iJiiH^HJitiuii. wuuUI nut bv Mt andtuttirbncl. 

Fican thu Ix^imiiij^ uf tliL^ huuiAmritic niriYiiJ, iL lo- 
■&tn<^ north oi the Alpd, cnpooially in (icmiiuiy, chnroo- 
toriiiuc«di£Fc»rcTntirointhoAa\Tli]<^h pcrtnincHJ to it in Italy, 
111 itxOy tho iiiimftiiUtfl wore ho sniitten with antiquity, 
flo CB^dvHted with andeat thought, aa to look \Titb indtf* 
ffir^iL^ aiiilf vurj' frequeiilly, witli » aot^rvi; Hoi*ptti*i«fn, 
upon CJirl^ti^ilty arid the Cljutvli,^ Kvrn ;iii Epiniirr^ui 
inliilrUty oa to tiic foundfLtion* of religion, which was 
gilt ii-iini Lnciv^iiit jiiid from the <lmki^Lci4 <if (Jicoro, 
occ«^l ft wide cird« of litersry ta^n, Prwichere, iu ft 
otmin of Rorid rhetoric wi>mld aflsoointe the nam^ift of 
Greek aiKl Romjui luTfitH ^rjth those of u[H)stW]UidauiiitR, 
Hud vriUi ibe heiiuk i>f lJi4f Savlum hinuwlf. H lui exmn^iln 
t)f difttiti^iahni pi«ty wiia rcqiiirnd, ^vTfl>r<^ncc would be 
mfulo tA NumiL I'oinpiliiw. So pvcvtdont wnj; diflboliof 
roepocting tho fiiudjimoDtal tniUisof oattirat roUgicn thnt 
tht ComicU of the Laten^n. under Leo X-, felt called upon 
ti) uflirm the innuortality ujd bidix'idu^iUty of tUu uuul. 
Thp revival of lifp^rratum in 1 Uily wja tliiiK^ tnr) a nonmdtv- 
al>le Ue^Ttte, lUe ravival of pa^aniim. When we look at 
tlie ph."U ajid rliettjrkmns. m- ^h^juld ftupp<«e Uuit tho 
goda of thci old iii)'Ujciloj^y hud rJaun from tlio dead, wlulo 
in tliC naindft of thinkirif!; men Plato imd Flotinii.i had itnp- 
plftnt^d I'anl itnd iKniali. If ii^ thi> Floivntiod school of 
Platonifits, iiTidi>r the l«id of Mar^iliiis Fidnus, a more 
beUevmif cein|>er prevai)«d^ yet tLea^ miugled fre^^ly with 
Cliriviiaii IvnotA faaoicA borroweii Irom tJw fjiv^^iiu phi* 
loAophy. tt i» not nMuit that religion ira« drivca out bj 
huituniun. The spirit of religion hid ranuhod to * great 
Q3Lt4;&t b<ifi>re. and Hantaouoa took poasecsion of vacaat 
gn^iiTul Undt^r lite inflaeiiM of the ohune ichooL«7i 
QtuML. Uiv C'hunfh id llaly '*gav« hetiwlf up to all tht 



n l— m iv* of an iruli>1(*ntt t'li^hitt^ luwntioiiM civilir-Htion ; 
lo» 1aMt« for lectins ihe aru, jiud Aocii^l aiitl pU^slL-ial 
MJojiBeiito. Look at iIm way iu vrhlcli tbe mvo who 
plvy«d tbe greab»l irolitdcal ood lit^nry farts bt tkat 
period iMBHhd tbosr Lrw — Coidinol B^mbci, for oxumplOf 
— a«Mi 70a will hn curpriMd by tbo mtxturu wluoh it Cix- 
bibita of ItiiimcAM ^fffttniiiAry and intrlUvr^iial (ruhuru, 
of euerratcd DBnuers and meatal vlgi^. la Aurveyiiig 
ifata peri^. iii<l««d, when we look at tlie aUt« of opuiioni 
wad of Bodal relatioiUt we ttugbt iTim^mf^ i^tir^W^ Uvvof^ 
aoutt^ the Fnnok of the ei^t^Knth v<^attit-y. Thfri* \ra^ 
the nunc ihtflni for tho prognwi of intdl^nce, and for 
ihn acKiainfUif-iit nf mtw idinut; thn mniH taiiUt for nn 
agn«abl« ami easy 1iftr> the same liixnryt the saiiif^ lictMi- 
tMusnenos there waa the aajoic want of poUUcal euci^ 
mad of aioml ptiociplce* ootiibiiitHl witb Aiu^lar sincentjr 
eod ftotivitj of mind. Tho litcruU of thi' fifteenth ocn^ 
lary tteod in the aainii rolation to tlio pnJatM cf the 
Cborch tA tb« men of lott^re attd phili^ph^K of th« 
MgfatMitith did to dir* nobility. Tlivy li:id the tanui 
epiniofui and manovm, MwhI agrt^uthly Ui^Uicr, ;vud ^ra 
t baaaal Tea no anoaniices nboat the ntormi th±ii were 
bfvwtag nmnd ihom. The prclatca of tho tiftccntti <ciw 
tary. aad Car^aJ B<imbo ajuodj* tho vosU no utore fore- 
Lirtlter and Oth'in than the eoortiers of Louis XIV, 
w the French Retuhuion. Th» aix:dogy bvtwiMn 
the two cjiMv lA ■tnlcing wnd inUnicttivi-," ' 

llw Birmi-pagvk spirit wwi not confined to elegant Mu 
vnUwe, Iceotcvedtbe sphere of politics and practical 
nofftlft, and in this department found a STMi^mutio ex- 
preMon in^'Hie Prince " of MacchUvullL Thii work, 
witieb WM intended lutithur an » iatin», nor m jui «xp<^ 
Mir« of king-craft for thp warning of the pnoplo, but as a 
dode of |io)iti4ial nuulim, m^ia atdefIaii<M> tJ^i* pmH 
oiplM of Chrintiaii laoraUt^. Tim only ap<^0C7 that cai 



f4 spKciAL CAU&ES akh oueks of thb n'jtiiuiATicni. 

bfi niati^ for it is thnt it mtnply n-Tl(^i?U tlui u^'tual jintfr 
tic^* of lb.1^ flge^ the liabiti^al oftmliMt nf mlpni, in whij?h 

Ma,odiiiLvclli wiLa a. [Kitrlot. he w^m at liKirt u republicaiit 
but br^ ^omA to have cxmL'iuilixl tht^t lUt\y luitt no liopo 
Mvvo in D dtijipoi, and thnt nil mt'diinG Are jixatiEmbk which 
are reqniwtQ ar adviintngi^onv for sectiricg im end. Tet 
hi* wsw eiippi>rt.**ii ji^nd h<*M ixi vst^em by Li»o X- und 
Oeiiwiit VTI.. iiinl iiiMiT'ilK^l \m flagitiou* tr<?w*ti»*© to 
youiiK I-tmTiiM> <ly Mt-Uki. Tlw p<jlitifjtl cijndition of Italy 
fnrorcid thi* gmwth of a jmbiic ojiinion. in whkh thu vlc« 
rccoinim:ndi3{l in^Thti l'rmc<i " wcfc louluid upm not only 
witUi>nt disapprobatioUi but as (rommt^nditblt^ qunlitio^ in 
a Btat£isinan.^ 

In nf^niEiuyj on tHn mmtTiirj, fniiu thii outjwiL, Uip nr-w 
Icnrning ivju cultivated in a religious spint. It kindled 
the desire to ejEaioinc tlio wi'itirj^ of the Fntbiirs and to 
fltudy corncaUy thu Scriptures. E<^uf^bU;i, the n^cognizod 
liTiuIor of tbo Gormivn Humniiifitu, conAidtinid that hk 
^if:Ltn«t work. Ins most dunvbU monumcnti wuh tiin 
Hcbr<]fw tirarnmar. His battle with tlin mriiikN iusidit- 
cialvti evtaut lu tlm i^umbat uf Um new era xvitU the okL 
Ri'Ui^hlb biid ntiidivd GriM.*W At Pftrtn acjd Boavl ; he had 
k'l^urt^d in nhrirjun schoola nnd univtrniticd : h^id buen em- 
ployed in importinit olti^^^u by princc.i ; ha<t vidtod Rome 
onotHoiAl btitinoHB; at t'lirence had mingl&fl with Poli- 
tian, ritvi d** Mimndola, Marstllus Ficinns ; had dev(>twl 
hiniH.'lf enthusiadtijcHlly to tha study of H^brew^ not ooly 
aa llie laiigiNige of Un-. ScTiph:rrA, \nii nleio bt-oiuw; bft 
aupiHir^] liimscif to find in the Kribbalacorroborution uad 
illttstnvtton of Christian doctrincfl. He woe <!Tcryvbcn 
famous as a scholar. The Domiuio^me of OolognOi vith 
HoogstTateu^ au ignorant prior, at Uietr b«ad, vexed ftt 



ilinS Tvffiinl to support ib^m in their pTOJ^ot for 
lying Jtidaimn by tiUi'iitikg fill Ul'j H^brijw literature 
ijjiccpt the Old TtfAUtuif^nt — ii prujt^ciH iv wEiicU Uiay liwl 
bcvn tiicttcd bj Ff«ffot'kcni.,iconvcrtoi] Jt^w^^put firrlli 
ft t^solote wad DuUf^TuLfit effort to got liiio convidi ci of 
hoTMy or force lum Co retriiot liiii publUlii^d ofnoioaa, 
diat soft irrordi abd TeuaoDal>l(- isoao^^ssion^t ari>rv 
brailtnit, lie tiHik iiji tJio conUmt lit n^lil irnrTiE^'t^. und 
bong mpporii^d Ly tlitt w1i<ik [fum^LtiiBt p^^rty^ wliicli 
nU>cd in drfrtiiw of Ihcir chief, he iit length eucce<id<jd, 
thooi^li not witbc'ut paseing through much nnxii^ty and 
pnril* in Achiovinj* si vio^>^y• By it tho scale waa lurnod 
sgsiJnHt the &dr«rsaHes of literature. The scholare van- 
qtufllied the monks. In Ibia troiifliot Reuc^hlin wui L«i1i*^ 
cjpntly autli^ hv Pranoia of Bickii^i) juid rTlrioh vim 
Huitvtu both uf t)a-m cjuiirT diapottod, if it woa ncccsvary, 
t<i mako nw of cnmid wcjipouti ogainett the hofitito cccleei- 
astjc*. It ▼» tho alliiuice of tho knightji vnxh the pio- 
noon of iMnmif;. Th« I^pitlolfv cbscurorvm virorumy 
mmjioaed by Htttten ^ud others, are a8coriiful mitire upun 
dui i^onmce, bigoUy, ajid inioltfTiinun (if irnir^tnitrTuimd 
ifco tnosilu.' Thc^ applauno tlint ffrcct<!d thr? appr^finuice 
nf tlkc^o Mtos. in \Thiah tho monka nm bold up tti iiiotcb* 
iMi lidioitl*, wiw a idgnilicant «i^ of tho progrew of in- 
feriUgaDOO <Uie). 

Tbe Hutnuusto w«re itlow !□ g^ainiiif^ a foot1in!r1 in the 
nulvemlke, Tbese «atftbliabiiteiit6 in Q^rmmiy lad bn^ 
bMiiid«d on tbo model of pAnn* Tbeoloj[y bjid th? upprr- 
aioat ttftl, atid the Se^olunti^ plulonophy wna cntlmmcd in 
tbo etuim cf i]i>tniction. In ptirticalur. Pom and Cologne 
w«r» tbd tfromgholdi of the traditional theology. Tho 
HnmnniBrii nt h^nglTi gaini^d u'lmistfLimi for tbfir »tiidini at 
Headelberg, Tiibln^n* andauiue otlicr {jUces. In 150-i 
tfce Elector Frodcric of Saxony orgatm:ed a nnivL-niilry at 



Witteub^rg. This new iiutitution, trhtc^H (Ui<'lRr«<il Ao* 
giiMine to be-iU juttron «aint, wha fnnm rbo dret f^Tor^bl^ 
lu DitiltL^il ivIuiiiefL, ttnd gitva ^i^ UtrapiUible rei:«pt](ii:i to Uie 
tuicZLcrs of cl;uuiic^ Icarnitif^.^ Ucrc won to bo tlid kedrtb- 
ntuno of Llic llofornmtjoii. 

In oth&T tuiuntrieA the <:uus» of loumin^wiu ftdvuncing, 
mac. broujfhL with it inoTL'UHcd liburnliW, luid l4:ndciiidai 
to reform in f*Hgion. In 1498, Co!^, t.ho nnn of a 
wH^Lliy LMiulfitL nit-rrliJiaL wIki liitd Im'^.i T^uml Mjiyor <j| 
tliv cltVt bad iv-turiii^d fri>tii lus HtaiUi.-H ui lUily. and w<^t 
cxpotmding tliL- (jiv^ik op^Htlt^ of FauI ut Oxford, to th4> 
(U^light of nl! ^rlLo ttnpirod after tlio ** now Lnamiii)^,*' mmI 
tite diiigUBt iLXul Eil^irni of tlio dnvotiMvi of tli* Sdio1itfti« 
tbooli^, ll^f wnx jniniid >>y Ivraimiin, tlum thirty yaan 
cf agi?, of tlw HaniK*. oa CoU-i, »iid not y*!it ri'*»'ii to fame, 
but full of ardor m tl*^ i-iuitjuU uf kiiowleJs:^. and gkil to 
^ut«r mtc the clo6Q»t boiida of frieiidHliip niid ft^Uowahip 
with tlio more devout, if Ivuh brdbtmt loid vuraatilo, EnfT" 
lUh itclioliir. To ditmi wiu united ii young maji, ThomnA 
Moiv, vrhn %TAfi dp«ititin^ tn iht> Uw, but vvbce« lov^ of 
Vnav^ln]^ Bjul [«)'iLt|>atliy wiUi tbe julvancing ^pmt of thd 
H^, bruu^ld Uiiu iuLo LuLim;iU< r^blluxifi witli t}m iwu 
nchoUn junt num[-<<i.^ Calct. Men-, ;iui] Erosuiua oontin- 
itcd to b<^ fnond-1 luid fi^lloW'l&bL^Lt^ra m n commcn cttu«o 
to tho nn(L CoUit buotLnift Dc^jinot St. PauriiT foLind^d St- 
Paiit's Ri'ho'U ^t hU owm t^ipt-nsr^ and boldly, yet with 
^'nev^, oK<Tt.c»d \i\n titfliimce, nnt cmiy in favor of <.'La^ 
hIch aiid Iliblic£Ll «tudy. but »Uio, not wiLbouL peril lo 
faimMeif, ng^LiiiAt au|)cxQUtioD aud in bobalf of «uligbtini(»l 
vicTwa in ruli^on. Moru folbwod the ttatcm pnth, und in 
\m "Utopiii" he hiui n cluiptcr on tho rcLi^ionfl of ihmt 
Vnnginary commonwAalth, in whk^i ho r«pr«Nmit« that tfa« 

* Von bodiFr. €ftelikhn dn- J^Wn^fp/t, Tt. M. 

<Aj;'* onlWl LD fe bn<Tll1iy u> IV r ^tiidy ol UrMlt, |t rrmlnilt ftia M r.b« vt 
tlli*lfa|>UltbMnriw«rrHly Mliloh nxiBlril ■Ehniiif ilic niiivmiUTv lUHhtfU WiMt 

courr. von:. a»d esashvs. 


p»of»I« wvrc debnting among ili'^riiv-.lTfin ^'wlmthnr one 
Hut irtrc dM0CD by tliem to be n prk^t, wouM not be 
'fteroby qulifiod to do all the thiii^ that bcloog to tiiat 
duusoter. oven dwngh iw h&d no authority <l«rivod from 
AeFiq»e-" It wuon^of the:kii<-l?nt kwBof tlieUto;M;iii« 
iitlut DO one ahoiUtl b« pouialici^ fiir liU rell^^oTr, but con* 
vrrta wwr* to bn miuli- tn nny fniUi only '* by ^imlrA^lft anj 
BifNdeat wftysi witliout lh<^ uac of reproacbea or violeni^." 
ftb^j maide coufcnio^ not to priests, but to Uie beacU of 
fctnUiM. Hi^ir worship wna In terafiles, in wliicb iv«to 
IM» iin«4*», aiul ivbere tlie fomu oi dorodciu urere cur^ 
CbDj £mm^ ui iueh a way tm not to ofFi^nd ib^ feiflingH 
nf any d:uu of satuxm wimtlupj^nm. In Uiin wnrW, jm bi 
tb4? swnnoii» ijf Colvtp evea »ucb lui wore pmutcbod bpfore 

Ifaory VIII., there was n plain expOiiirQ of th< barburi- 
mad iaapoboy of war. In refarenoe to what v/v teno 
lltioal «acl sooial Bt^cnco* ^^re appear in tlio tvacbiit^ 
Colet umI Mcro, ami of tbolr Mill piord famou* suwo- 
a bmnADo squint and si boittility to tyriuiiiy and to 
ftU opprmir* 1egi«jlAt>ir>Li, wbidi not leas cotuonatit 
with the spirit of tbc Oospel, than thoy weru iii advaiKMi 
ol the prakctica of tLo tines.' 

Tho fonimcivt i^protiontetive of Hum:inifiiTi, t]ur iucor- 
naiioa« u it wtte^ of its gn^niun, wv Eriumutt.^ Tho 
pwtinbunen wbicb bn laiiitni'd u a litrniry ihah k what 
no QtJtfW jicbalnr hnM iippii^:uJt(^, iin1(>jvh it ht> Voltaira, 

vbirtii be ittCnUJed m thti Jeforifiice paid to blm by Ihn 

UC3tRt >a5b, bl«;M, Bariftitr tWri*, 17^;. Jurilji [ITAS-OO), Bm^undi, 
HMb A4aV UtSwr tU3>^ Ir^ RrUrJ li. /^ncA^UTHl T^t^^'j K-nKytvpAl 
^unUli aSif t? MWf« . 4 «b £(h b" 7^t**ril iu liia £iWr« rvr li R*nau^mf^. 

iIiIb IslffanL ol « ffiiwiQ, JonJii*! Llit Li u^ihlBf kul Jk " -^lh' ^iik," 
■ a diilifi HOlihiUDaiK lU irmiu cf |rlu one at ijnTirtrj, <i li oih of 


^Tcnt in worldly rank. Each was a vrit onrl &ii toonoolaAt 
in hie own way, but thoir oharaoten in other T««peet< 
WBFA <jTiit« unlike.' The frinie of £i':ismua vraa r^uderod 
I^OhBililf, in ji».['t, by llie iiTiivi^nKil ust? of TaIhj, jik Uitt 
common Imigustge of vducati<d meti ; a jittttc of tlnn^ of 
wUL<?h bis yvTiXit of familiarity with ItaliiLO fui<l EogiUU, 
AithLHi^'b he h{i4 npji^urncd iti ItaJy and livc4 long ir 
EogkEit], ig a cimoaa etgn. By tfa« irreeietibk bent of 
hiE mind, SL« well ra by aa»tdi]on» <'ultuT«, Brasmiu was 
A Timii of lettr^n. He miut Le thaU whatever eUtf li«i 
failed to l>e, IUh ktiowl^go of On*ek wua inferior to 
that of h\» i'joxitttttjyiirn.ry and riTiil, Budjniifi ; lie took no 
pairm tof^ivo hid stylo n ul^wuiiul liniiib, mid laEighixl at 
llio pedimtio CicoFDniaiu* who avoLdt^d all phmiKUJlogy not 
miTicLioniHl hy tho bwt ancient authority, and fiome^oitiB 
nil words not found in Iheir fftvorite author.' H« wrote 
hai*tily : ** I jjiBuipilate," h« aaye* "luLlicr thaii com- 
poae."' Yet the wit and wisdom and Tari*?d eniditii:m 
which he poured forth frf>m his fnll mind» made hiin 
jutttly tho meet popular of writora. Ho eat on his throno, 
an object of admiration and of envy. By hh muLtifarioui 
pubtioationa ajid Iub vndu ^^orreApoiidence with eminent 
p(ii"siins» *n'*d(«NU4iics, fitat(«men, luid miholai-s, hia iuftueoi'H 
wiw flifTusp.ri over nil Knmpe, In a11 the earlier pfirt ol 
hi& cai'eer Eiasnius atiuggkd srith indigence. Hw health 
wa8 not ati^ugand bethought that hoconld not livr upon 
a little- HiB depiMidj^co upon patronage and paiwioDfl 
placed fetlew upon hini» to some uxtent, to the end of bit 
lAte ; y<Tt Im \av&\ miit^jt(^, frerpitntly th^.ise t/.t re» 
oeifc thi^ ittt^'ntl^niM of this gi oiit nl a, distfinc^ from them, 
and eclect4>c1 for hia place of abode the <a^ of Baul, 
«3L6ro he was frte aliko irom acc^alar and eoolcuaaticol 
tynukcy. ErtUkinud, by ]m writings and hi» entirg por- 

■^lAfSl KfM.7 L 





inHuonoo, m tfao too of mporntitioD* Id b>3 anrVf 
'dayv b^ bad ta<tod, by ccni^trAint, tomi^thiiig of monlciuh 
fifev and hUnattnml abhonvnt-^ of it wna mnjlo tmin? in- 
toiue by this bitter recoHectii>D ani] by tbe trouble it ro»t 
iutn. ftft«r ho bukd bvcomia (ttiuous. to n^loa^e kiiuself from 
Ube thnldom to wIticH bid former a^^ocihttiA wi^re iiicliniNJ 
to obII him buicJ:. In tntUi, liu i^onductt.'d a lifo-l^ii^' war« 
farv ftgnirwt tha moiiki; ^nil tJ^cir Jdi^iK miA praiJtioui. Uia 
•* Praa^ of Folly " und, in particiibp, thi* '' CjUcK|in(«/" 
in whi-'b tlw! idTi^tLf*H+, iliiter.icj, 8elf-i»diiig'Tn?*.% un^l arti- 
ficial Hud Dsekaa auft^Jlitw of ^^ the ii?Ugiouai'* were 
liAodled in tlw ino4t di-rertimg style, irurv read witb ia- 
fimt4> MnQMineAt by oil who s^|^Lthi:fi<''l wctU thu uuw 
ftadJMt ftiul by titounndfl who did not cuEuuliU^ tba ufftict 
of thw tolling KAtim in ahiitin^ popnljar nt?niv-nco for tfi« 
riiTiiTli. IV " I*i*»e of Folly" waa ^Trittno in 1510 
or LjII, in Moi^'h bouse* for tbe amuaomput of bis bvtt 
and A few oilier frieufltL Folly w pi-i7^jiiiii?d, iind nrfir^ 
ftcnt^ AM dbooncuDg to bcr folhwrrpi on tbt^ftftainLoi 
■uuildiMl. Ail oluAM come in for their slmro of ridii^uZc. 
GisibmAii&iu fuid pddAf^p;Q«e« in th« fa>Qd atmos^ovQ 
i]< lhe«r M^oolroODts. b^wlEng at their hoys nitd bratin|f 
llwn ; tdiulaslic liiuulnigiAtiH, wi%ii^Ilii^ ii|j(m frlvolouH 
azid EiuK>1uh)e qticatlnnj, luid pmtiag of ibc phy?iicnl ccni* 
itUution of tJio irorld u if they b^d ixini<^ dnim fi-om a 
coancil of the gods — ''vnthwliom nml whow f^gnjcchireft 
ftUan u mightily ftmusad ; " nicti):^, ■' th@ TSic^ of fi«w 
J«««,** irbo WB torpriwcl at last to find tbomselvM among 
^ goAts, on the left liand of die Jtidgv, fiinug iranio 
thjui cominoa luulun &nd wagoneni; kingi wbv forget 
their rBvponstbilitice, roh their mibjccts, nnd think only of 
their ovd pl««4iire«, aa hunting arid tho keeping of flne 
bofVM; pop«a who, though infinn old m<\n, tubo tb» 
twoH into their hsindB, artd "^tom lair, religion, p«aoe, 
■nd all hnntan affain upside down" — iQch are aome of 
•bn diTMioiitt if uuinkiiid who nrtt bi^ld up to ridhiule. 


At thin tttnn Jnliiu If. HIIcil th<i pcqwl oliuir, and al) 
rcftJcm of I'Jrt^flmii^ muflt h»vc rccognixcd th& pijrU'oit 
which he drew of Ih^ Trajlike old pontiff. Era*mii» did 
not ^iKiro thf* k*_i(«*iKla of tUu wiinU, whirb fomuMi ai) tiiir m 
mark for iht^ Kh:\fL4 of %vit: iitul \*\ Ms olihcr vat ions on 
Uid trljf^niata of St. FraiicK tifTi^iLtltHl the onlor of 
wbidi U« vrua tlie nimcjat iiflurcd founder. When i^ 
quuvtUd by u (Ardiiiul lf> draw up tho live^ of di€ SainU^ 
btj Ixf^i^d to be 6xcu«ud ; they wt-^r^ U>o full c(f fablei.i 
Hw o-cimmMnU on raihg'uv(«nu]i(iiit fn the C)ii]i'(<li, on tlis 
w[tijrU(.mft nn*\ vi*v* of drrgy, tmm tJic Pop** ihiwn 
w&rds, wei'e not thtt le*B biting and cffisctivc, for tie hu- 
morous form in wlikh lh«y ^vere gooorally caat, Indoedt 
Oft ColoridfCv hiut mtid« it itt a mt^il <>[ thtr ]tiata of £[nsiTuia 
that thoy ci;n lUi ha triLni^lLttod iDto iir^Pioiitc. Tliora 
wntt what Iwr »Uod n, '' I'hjuiuaie ItUigdnm," n,nd he wouU 
HRvrr writj* anything^ hi^ flaid, thiit wnuld givn airl anii 
vuiufoit U> Uitf defcadera uf it,' hi hia own mind, ho 
ditftlriguiahr^ biTtui^un thu Cliurch nml Uk; ''Popinh wrct," 
Ik* be designated^ oven in a letter to Mclancthon, the sa^ 
portc^r^ of eoclcsiasticiLt litbnsea and tynuiny.^ Thoro 
;ve«t, in liifl judjfm«nt, two evUa that inuet be out np by 
the roots before tiio Churth oonld Jmve peace. The ou« 
wiis Iiiitrird for thu ooiirt i^f Rorni>. rri^asioiu^l bj' her ha- 
toliTabh^ n\7Lrici? oiid rnit^lty ; i.hi? otlu'V vtaa tb<f yoko (if 
human t'ontititLition^. robbing the; nooplc of thdr rdligions 
liberty. Ho would luivc mndo thn creed a yijy ahort 
9no, limited to n few ^' plain tmtha contained m ^cnp- 
toiv,*' and k<iviiig all tli^r^st to thd individual jadgm^nt. 
H<4 thiiiij^ht tUnt ETKiriy tJtlii^ nliould l>t< rfft-rriHl, not a<.w 
ooidiug to llie populur cry, lo *' \\m next ^ncral ujuncil," 
bat t<i the litne wbei: yf& ai:^ God face to face.^ Portly 
Erom tile nntuml J:itidn^:» of hU tamper, portly from him 
liberal cuttnro, and atili more, poriiap«, from n poraonAi 
appre<7iation of tho difficalttM and uneertainttes of r«li^oi1i 


THE VtlTCfOS OP C&JtS3J::i8. 


•oiotui thai vithout tUtf priuaiw* of » pretty wHc toleration 
oo the pmrl of rukrt ui Cburtli mid Stuto, ho irould him- 
Mlf EuQ ill, Hcf ipi^ui, iu iuctt obliged tf> bi> cotmtimtly on 
luB dtfawe Bgiuiut «1mrgtM of Uc^rosy. Ho huA Hdd thingi 
iritliout immlH^r i^hirli oiMild i^Lxily ]w l.itrrinl InUi grcfuiiitt 
cf scGusadon, lUs enemies ^crr^ QunicTr>iifl and viDdicUvei 
*iid althocigfaf ic tho litcmiy combab, he vus more than « 
^Afttcb forftU of thom, ho was aonsitivo to th(^ir attacks. 
fiooompUiiu that tho Spaniard, Stunk^t hud pn?8ent»xl 
to Leo X. a Ubel a^iuat him, oontaining eixty tfaouaand 
liornuKi t-xirai^L<-d inmi Lih wntiiij^-' NotwitlisUiniling 
■11 lu» drniala iuid pinfi^ASLuitti, thtrro lurkc-d iu tliu niiruk 
of tJtc ftrdcait ndhcrLtibi of tlie mt^diierfll ayEtem, ^ in- 
tivc toclin^ IJiiLt lii^ wiui ii diingi^roua ciicmy, and that 
lbs infln«no», m> fnr ^ it proviiik^d, coiild otily conduo*.* to 
thiCfir ovptUitow- In th\ti fepling, ^hnt<»vpr inay huve boou 
tme of lliftir i]ifti*ifie «!iMrgj*ft, Ihty wtn^ fully jiixttflr^d. 
Yot Jt in diKilitful ^vhot.1]f.<r tlio r^oiid<.<i]inrLtirn of hU " (7o1- 
loqoies " by tho University of Pnria, and oth^r procoel- 
ingi of a liko aaturc, whioh cmanfit'Cd from the raonkiBli 
pftTtytdid not operate to give to hisid^^ awider currency. 
BqI there n^aa ft positive ^To^k whioh Erasmus did, thu 
viliditT tni] vulue uf wTiioIi It \a dlilidilt U> uven'itUEnutit. 
By liiii ■HliiiciiiA 4)f Cypriiui and Juvtrnw^ iiitt\ liU tmnMlou 
tioDs from Origin, AthnnajJu*, and ChryBOfltom, he cpwied 
Op the fenowlcdgo of ChrLRtion antiquity, and gave bin 
CWttemporancA aecoM to a pnmr and moro BiblicuJ thc- 
ologj. U&f edition of iht^ N^w Teet'uuent, )u« panphraM* 
cl the New Testament, which wijro at one time appointod 
In ho nml in tJii^ ebmrb<<n 'if Kn^Ixud, hifl iKiniaiviitnjrii'ii, 
irrnllvA nn prR*rhing, and vimousi fithrr works, pro- 
.-4ed Cbrisaan knowledge in a m'Ht n^maikiiblc dci^n«. 
In Ub vntiiigB of thn tort, along with t^iliglitcncd viewi 


ef dootriiit^ and of (he natLin? nf xUt* (^hrifttHJuii Iif<^ vim 
mrtwat ^^MiipluiikU ogaiiist the multitudir i>i churcii ^rdm* 
taxctsB coDtrivod for tlie oppreaaion of Itie poor imti th« 
mriobin^ of tba dor^fy, Hu wotild havo tho laity in- 
itniot'H) ; li« wi^liisd that the Uuniblt«t woman mij-kt read 
th<* ftoHpi'U- Thi* jtiUai:rii)g cust^mm luui ritjw wirliwliu^i 
thn Cliiirrh wjm InintpTH^d, am pnin W out m Uli e<»mnipnU 
oil 8cri{.iturv> In tbc9& publi cations, wliir^ the nrt ol 
printing fto-i«tt«T«4 in nioJtipliod cditiooe over l!]iimp<\ th« 
gfviit Lifflite of the pAtiistic a|^, nod thff Apostloe thcm- 
mLv4i«, n«|>]hMi^ to break up the T^gD of auperstition. 
NuvL<r trM Hti allUwri* between author and pnrLli?T more 
1iji|ipy fur birth jKiriu-v, iir tiuirv fruitful f)f ^"^ to Uik jhjW 
Uct than wu that bot^iiFrcn Knuntiiiui and Fmbrtt of Bua«l. 
Ill Yiow of tho "ffbob cBiw DiuiftfHm* prodaoticu «f tfas 
Chiolof UiD tlumuuatetitu not AxaggmtedpMJM tony 
tiuit 1m wu *' the liying «mbodiin«nt o£ almoat ^ th^ 
wMifa, lb ooaweqiMnee of the wvivtX oi tbe scvdy o< the 
KDobate, dks mbd of tKif Wi^strm miCfaaui for BiBt« than n 
kuntlriH) ^vmn hiul ivmught out and AUaitied, It m« not 
imif * IcDOwleclgo of Iwigugc*, ml coly cahmtiaD of 
■lyl^ol tMto;Utthct«wilb thewlwleBuotel cwl had 
VfcviTv^ A fpw^r turn, » ^er tovich* in thu oooprebstt- 
idT« MOMt one way ny tfaet Ewnm wm the BtoM «bW 
tivKtwl auA of kb Ubml" > 

Of tW ivhUvaw of Ervattw Id Lathrr sod tlto Pnt- 
iftutt OMIHV dten vOl ba HI QOGHM t« ipnk 
Hb writiiifiv mkI tbo roocfAwa m ordftd to 
Itnl tih* Kt(T\«|wAn Tuiiki hed o w l gm wn the 
tMielMd sptMa, ukI ww rendr to fac«ek 


Soiie •( tU pniKs^ pc iabi i& tfce Tim 
paveMArdli&MeeBdathe prccwBng kctee^ 
lib* «niBM thet f^vtd t^ vey «f the 
b# IwMv vet fwtli M foUovt:^ 






Aiatmg i\w. tttdient ff;«tiinwchLtrv>ti^ri»tiL* of thit MLdcQ« 
Ag>'A -nvu* : thi- hulirn'LliiiHtJiiti nf Hvtl Ui tiTli'Hi^uitirHl 9i> 
ietyt of lliB State to th^ vast tboocratical uommiuuty 
ceotXQ At; Itcnic : Uie£t>vQmm«ul uC Uia Cliurch 
; tht umion of ]>6oplM nndor u oommou co- 
d««]UAtlciil liiw And a uuiiiirin Latin rittuil ; un mtclbctool 
Bi^vitj fJL3i|H?d by Ui4 dvrgy uul ntbfiern^tnt to the pr^ 
vailing r»<ligini-s; atA w^\pmaJit\ca\ pynwm, 

AiuoDg the ^iD[jtouifl of Ifae rim of a dbw order ol 
Vfwv; — 

1. Tbc luicul spirit; becoming oiivu to the rigbts luid 
tntariMto of civil ftooicty ; dcvcJf^ping in the towns a. body 
of (itiuiDA bold to ODi\fTonit derii^ aitlliority, stnd with 
tfaw praotloal oiiderBt&Ddkiig sbajpened and invigorLxtcd 

ditvraiOfHl iiidtwAry ftiid by o/^rnitM?rt* : a- laJtH.1 spirit 
rltii'Ji HiAnifnti^il iUnlf, iilnti, m tlw liJwerrJ^uMi^, la&utiiv-ji 
aimed at the Tioc« of tho clc^y ; which, likewise, gavo 
nw to a tiKWo intniAo fccliog of pabKotiaiu, a ii^;f aense oi 
ntttionul bond, a dvw vi^r iit aotiouiU ohnrohce.^ 

2. A coiucioiu or nncoiuiaiouit religioiu opposition to 
10 «0tabUilMd iy3t«m ; ttn opponitinn whidi nppnnrRd in 

like tho WaldeiiAea, who brought forward th^ Hible 
aa a tntnns ttf vorrDcliij^ the teaduug. i^^buking tbe olli- 
oari, or i^formin^ the; orgftuiuktJoiL of ihv Churdi ; or in 
mjvtki vriio n^pardcd religion na lux inwiird lift:, tm im* 
iWjMifahi* fttatibin of tlio ijidiTidaal to God, and prcachEsd 
feft<aiit] J to the people in their owil tonf^^ 

3. A Bttfury aod ioi^Qlific movement, following <uid 
lacing tbi) iretliod of culture tliat yvnut p««(^i]lkr to tha 
li^fTUI agr : n movv^ir^nt whu^h tiil^irgr.d thi? inn nnd 

Loltiplie^l tliVAtibjectaof thoi]^btniidiDTo»tigation ; wliidi 
inepitution and natnmcnt from the maet^rpic^^oa d 
(cit'nt wifltkun, akquauoat and art- 

■t ■ dUliHl htflJ, JB li« mnu vl tb* mon fvwnt nilnc abora, 



These three latent or open spedea of antt^oiusm to the 
meditsY^ apirit were often mingled with one another. 
The Mystic and the Humanist might be united in the 
same person. The laicaL spirit in its higher types of mani- 
lestatioD waa reinforced by the nerr culture. Satirical 
attacks upon absurd ceremonies, upon the folHed and sins 
of monks and priests^ had a keener edge, as well aa a 
more serious effect, when they emanated from studeuti 
hmiliftr with Plautua and JuvenaL 


DI£T OF AUOeBCBG, 15^0, 

GbrmaKT, iitolvdiiiit Utia N^thi^liuids arid Swits'^'limd, 
WWS Um oeocr^^ tl]4T pruK'ipiil tliuitn-, of tlio H^formatloa. 
It ifl not WTlhoivh tnibh that thu Gi;rmu,ra» uUim, ns the 
mttTB diarttrli-rifitju uf tbuir I'ace, a. ouitAJQ LiwiirJutais. 
or ipintiudiiy m tlia largu *exise of tliQ term- This goea 
CftT to «aplikin the hcwpibiblc reoeptioD which the Gi«rmiiaic 
tribe* glAT* to Qinitiiunty, iviid tlie docility vnth wfaioh 
tbigr ambrftood it.^ Thoy found in the ChristisJi I'oligion 
A coogMual Bpirit- Th^ Onnnan spirit of ii^depend^Tio^ 
or tovfi of [M-nvnml lib&T-ty, \a u. Lraiii.-]i ti tfiLs gt-iiL*nil 
lulnt a( ta'iaA, OtrnniLiiy begnii Ite exisleiici; as n distinct 
mlioo in n suoocwful r^idtance to tJie utteinpt of tli« 
e&OfiCy to di«poao of Uiq inherituocc of Clin^rLeiiu^tK^.^ It 
WM tikfr G^rm&iia who prevented hi« monarchy irnm Wing 
e o oTcWftd into an eoo]eei3«tioal State. On the field of 
FoolL-nnj tJiu forwa of tli« Friiuks w^ra aepamW Into 
two hivttW diviHiiiits, Uiit? ouK t:<nii]HM>-(l pri^diimEmtntly ol 

A ■*Biii^daiOiruliaUiD]iiBJcUUwMil«ii DAutachab frvm<l and irldanrlr- 
tff fvwikiiAn) nelnthr bckusi der deuuhih* Ch^rnklit Jmcb dv CtiHRUin- 
BIT At TstL^idiug hIivf xlbtli trfauJ nidi lu der KiMic CtrLtll >«l|jiil, 

r, p. T. '^cAui lajq «f Kka kiLEibtl Gcnuw, lluit Ihtj cDJWoiwil U uii- 

• taUBt i>«-aei< a«KMAlt<. L ]0**A. 



die Oiirmiiui oloiDi^ot, which pbntod itnclf on the (ifmoRs 
traxUtional law for r^f^ulating thn fliM^cc^Hnijii ; th? othor ol 
tht? Hom^i element ihat had the wipjioil of the* pwl*«ia»- 
tictt, MyHtniuiHiLi, tlic prrxliK-l rjf M cr.tvtEj|^ for a iiA'i^ivn 
of ]t*iu sihgw mid tn[>re Ur-arln, had, oit we havts netf^ ita 
vtronghold* in tli*^ liittv^r pLirt rif liii? niocIucviU fcriod, jii 
Gt-nnajiy^ The tniunph of tho Pupcicy hitd bi?en dae to 
Uae division betwts^n the oDip^ror and the gr^tit Faaaabi 
not to any doep-seared fondneae (or & foreign and occleel 
iwtind H(]jin<]tiju*y. It Wild iijitunt! thut the HeftiririEitiott. 
whit^h iVTU( iui iijinKiiig Ji^iiiat i^loricid usurpiitJoD iiud in 
favor of a more inwaT^d mwl qnritwd wniahJp, nlioald 
spring up in Gornifti:iy. A UcrmaTi phUoaophor h&s dwelt 
Willi doqiionoo upon tho fact tliat while tho rest of the world 
Lad gontJ out to Auierloo, to the Indies, Ifi qnv^t of rii*hE>« 
attd to fdund sui Mirtlily t^nipirj- tinrirdin^ the glolk\ oti 
whic'.h thf» Nirti Hhoiild nnvnr M«t, a autiplt^ tninik, licmiifg 
i^ftway iixna tlie things of lenne find empty fornix, wait find- 

Him whum ikvi dbi:iploa liod once auught for ui a 
■cpulcbri; of ntono. Hcg«l attributcia the inooptton und 
■OcooeB of the K:*fomiJLti<)ii to thia ^^ ^rnciont and conj^Uintly 
'pteserred inwaivlTiese of tijo Gi?rmiui p&f>ple," in conee- 
quenoe of which tliey sire not content to approach God bjr 
proxy, ur pni tttf!ir n^li^ioii fiuUide cf tltein, in Hiirmnar^nlH 
tV>d o'^rv--iiionii-.% in e^i timioua. im|Kviing [«|H^Whv>fiJ A Gvi 
wuxu hi«trrnAii lum mod^ iHihAtfintially tho same oMcrtion 
reapceting the gnihis of tbc- German people i ''Ono pe- 
culiai* charucteristic for which thd G^rtnim race bafi dvef 
bv^u diBtbiffuitihed is their profound Ai^nao of tho r«li^f>afl 
ftlointmt, mhiLthI In lit- inmost Jq^thsi of Uie wiul; thi^Sr 
.mndlnnui 1c hi* impitllM by ilm diwqiriUnt Htrifis of tlin 
world find itiifruilful hummi ordinances. Co eeok 

fiiid God in the di:cp roccfiees of Uielr own hearte* und 
to experience a hidden Ufe in God apnnging fortl» In op* 
portion to bunen oonc^ptions of th« abfttvnct iottilUxal 



iktiC I«ave tbti tunrt coltl lukd deiuii, a nirchani»Tu that «^d* 
»vrtn religion iiito Jb round ol milwimi cci\i[uonji»."* 

UiK|UMtionitl>1y tbo hwro of tlip iipforraation wae Lm- 
ihev. Without lu:u iiiifl bi» powerful lofiuoDce, otbof 
reformaiory moVBrnentfi, ^ren su(;I] a^ liad on tiiilep^iiili'jit 
begiimijiif, like that i^ KwiiigK miglit haro f^iilrj] ^f mic* 
CCB. As liir net we can juclgr, tliey i^oiild hjivo pro<l»ocd 
tto vnd^-dprciul ccrmoiotton nnd Ivd to nci t^ndiirin^ results. 
It haji boon «ud, witii truth, of Luthc'r, thiU '^ ]\\s whole 
Hfe And irhsnc^r. hh bpiut iltkI dou) sud mind, &r« iden- 
tiAfid and one with Iiia ^ri*at work, in a. manner very liif- 
fL*rtDt frtitu wlial we HL-e iti uLh*^i' iji-?iu MelhiioUiuit, for 
invtttDO^, ni^y easily ha cfiiiceired ajmrt from tJii^ RcCurEtih- 
lion, M Uk eminent dirinc* living in other tigtm of tlio 
Cbircfa, u Uuj fri4?ncl of Aiif^fltimi or tho ccmpanion of 
Ftfiwloa. Evi^ Ci^Tin m»y b«» »ppamted in thoii^^ht 
Irom tli« Rgd '>f the Reforomtion, nnd may be a^C aiuung 
tin SdiooUittm^ Lir ill (Jib iuuuceI cUjtiuber i>f Hildi^hniTK] 
or of lonoasiit, ur nt t.Lu Symrd of Durt, or Hinong Crcni- 
veU'ft chApIain*.*^ " but LutJjcr ii]>art ^m tho ItcfDL- 
oution wouid coami to bo Lndier.'' ' 

Hexraebom in 1483. at ilio very Um<? when Coluai- 
bm was eiTugf^liiig t> obuSii tho lucnm of prosecuting 
that viiyagii which rvMiiUad in thu diatriivitry of a uiiw 
wrliU' [| U a marktii) l)i«1onr-al comrirl«ikM.% wLic-b haa 
aure Uun onoo bc«ii pointed ou^ that the reftiirm tif the 
Ckrwtiau Mlifion ^Iiould be fiiiuultJU^eoiiA with tlvs o[)en-* 
iogof neir nifpoua of lUu ^lobc\ into whidt Chriati;inity 
«M to bo oarriud.* Liitbur'« family, before hiM birtb, 

< IM«atlAon *idtt« Um UdiaKi uoOLvr cTini ft«id lUt vbUe aha kiic«- 
ta^ vUhrrHklol/UM^f ud hOU-i ■kc cvtld MttMUMUbv ifan^BArtfC fail 

HU t'lU Jf, iMii^ri, II- ^nw tf« of opluiiiiii In ne*v «l mwviflf dknv- 




lukd romovocl to KiAlcbon from Mubni, a villagu id tli# 
Tburingmn Komtt, nMLr tho itpot whore ]3onifac«, th* 
apostle of G^rraaTiy^ ba<l ftrst pmached tli*» Gospel.' 

-^ I mn a jitut^uuilV ?»rjri,^^ ho viyn-, *^ ui v ^tJi4;r. mjr 
gntndfather, mj great ^^arKlfiitber yreve tbon^u^lt pvo*- 
nnU (rcchtc BiUMm)." Uis domet»tdc tmining wiu well 
moontt but rough and atutoro^ Hv wo^ anvi^rQly punbh^^ 
f-Di' alight ollEi^rtfr^it, both at home and hy hi« t««€hen< 
At school hd waA chastised fifteei^ timea, in one forenoon, 
For triviJil ui' iuiM^naiy Jtifrh4.'ririnM of Itiw. Hnvuig 
njxmi » ycEir »bt ecbitol at Ma^lrburg, he vaa sent t<^ tho 
FiBncuOfta •chool nt t^iAcnnch, where ho wuig i.t th<i 
doors of tho priDci]>al ritiKcns, nftor the old Gorm&n coa- 
tom, for tho means of support. D^atinect for the legal 
profoasion, he pnrsiied, at the University of ETfurL, thi^ 
NorainitUHt logic ftnd tlin nUwjiii^K, and mitdt^ n ht^ginmng 
in thui fltndy of AriiitntliK Hd wnn twnnty yiuim old and 
had taken lliu DiLoljolor^a degive vnhva it Lup^jed Lh:it, 
while htt wjiK lof^kiiig one (lay ut tbc bouka in th^ ilrfurt 
library, bo cgMoally tonic np a copy of tbo Latin Hiblo. 
Jt iru tho first cimo in hie Ufa tJmt ho hud ovor takon 
the saorod volume in bis bande.^ Struok with surpriao at 
the riehnesa of Its contents^ oompared with the e^tra^ts 
whii*h liif li£id hfr*n\ want to ht^&r in tlie Churcli sfyrviL*tt< 
hr rl^ild it wltJi nigorucss und inti^nse dj;ljght^ Tht?4 lumr 
was an opoch in his existence. Deep roligicus Mudctifa 
that h^d bauutcd him from ch.iidbood, moved him, two 
y«»re lutt^r, o^inst th<> will of his father, to fi^rsak^ the 
kgal profettlofi and OQtw tho Augnsuruon oonvent, whero 

uKht ftupHtlnff t^a (>Mp*l Kn4 vlUi tha miriJ of ItunJoj;, U ncund (f ttt* 

' a wplnuB vriLrrii^DilivqarllDrTivnJoa of Ikt 11f» of Lulhtr b Jiir^wia, 
titfArrf»fiMZfi«r-^«Btfrf krfAHi JNvrfn^sJimiKir. S vqIl (IMS). 

^ VsThtdlu, JIfMvrCfit «m <!. £|<44Hlly«« V. ^v^er. it. ) {«!. inoi, TbEi 
tiUtBt flimnli'ler thowi liow jetqaIv d«ft<Lfvfi wu lti« trljiiiutu laittruL^Moi 
Civen <0 f^ytil hy rpfrrron k> lile own cut, Tlu p&»a|^ mi/ bu frul ii 

unrBEH AT wimscDBsa. 


hr- becainti a moiik uul a pne«t. It is vfOi-\hy uF rOTOftik 
tiiAt tbe only two books tb:it he carried into tbi^ c^iivent 
me hut Plannu luv) Vi^^ H^^ro 1m remiun«d until bo 
wna cftlkd to thu cuwly foundiTd Univvrnty nf Wtttcn* 
'wrg^ 'Jlw F^l^ictorof Saxony liod c4bibliiih<'<i thiK ntiivvr- 
iity, giving to tliB pioGenors charge urt^r the principil 
CJiurc}i AJid tiie enjoyment of itfl Lai^mefl ; h'a idea beiug 
not ^nlj to org^W^o a pboo of iDstructioii, but to oolkct a 
lemic«l body, to irhiclu m dil&ciUt and dcubtlul quaattoii^i 
Im nugfat, nooordiDg to tbu provtdling cotitom. niacrt for 
eoonnl- flvr^v, to quoto Anothor'n trordfi^ we fled thp 
poor innu7'§ boy who^ hiivrng " bnnomo i\ yonng Dotrtrrt", 
btrvtsnt iumi rejoicing in ili^ yuriptutwi, wall verflud ni Ilia 
Aiigiuitiaf;^ Aquiu-iA. Uouitm, aiid Qi^rBoii, faiiiiljiu' witU all 
Ihtt subtle theological and philosophical uotitrovcmlt^n of 
the day, wa» alrwuly spoken of honnrably ia mder 
cirel^. Ma good, clavier tJiinJcor^ as a viatorions AAulee 
ai tb« wpveniacy of Aristotle : u^nk a lively intense In 
thm vCnigglca of tJio HmtiiuimLs ugxiiiHt Uie nncinnt bai^ 
b«mt>i ; wa* wtcoio^ by tluj ina*t tx^lnbraifHoil ch:Jini|iio[W 
ol ibo htadom of scionco ; woa oxaltod by tJio apptob^ 
tioci ol Ilia oolI«acLi6B^ of tli« stitdiente that ducked to hid 
Uettma — in a word, w&a advan<jiag n itb rapid etdpa to 
t^ higfaart houortt ol htunuy reiiowi^" ^ ThiB wan Uu 
ntBStion ol Lutbvr ^jthen tlje ev^nt oocnrn^ that gar» 
dsanwrtfT to tii* rpnminrlbr of liia aax&^r. 

Hen we luuftt paut»e to cguvder thtt ruIiKiuiid kk^n^ 
lieoct of Lotber ; for irLoever would explon? tlo <»uani 
ol history tmai look bcn«?ath ttu; surfaoo of cn^ntn at tho 
qj trit aal lifo of men. Hu ouriior oonucptir^n of Chris- 
tianity is oondenwwi in ono exprMsioiii th^t he bod UKike^l 
vpar ChHsC as ^ Uwgirer, a aec-ond M-Kes, only that tfaa 
!jm>nr vn» a k^iobitor of mom awful ngoT. " We vuro 

*]«, our kc ffethtnd fnnn ovc «l bli««rij [cctcfvDa Wciu, L il 



aU Uuglit/' lu> ouya m bis " Titbk-tiilk/' " tliat w<.^ must 
nmko aulitifiujtiun for onr ain^, &ud tliat Clmst at tho laat 
duy woiiM di?imui<l liow ^v*> liiul iitoiic^J foj' our guilt* and 
Jiow m:iny guoil wcirUw wi! liiul June," Mi^bua^Oiua iwyg 
Uuit liL(= motivci which led liiin tu n^opt tlra inoim«tJc tUa 
was rliiA : " Oftcti wbeu h« thought on the &DgcT of GvnI 
i>r of Uio woudorfiU instances of dirino pimi&UmeiiU ho 
WU0 aeuvd witli a terror 8o violant that h« waa Wf^lluigh 
ilMTfift ot lii*/' ' WUeu Le h<»ld Lia 6rst inaas, jind cjtmo 
Itc nMut«i tho wfirtb, " I bring this offenng ut Uu^(*, the 
^lemiil, liviug Qcxl/* h<» wn» witJi difBoull^ roAtRiiutfd 
from rubliing away from the altar in fear and dlhiu^y. 
" 1 bui," h<* ccaftiflaeflt " a broken epint, auil w-w evtrr in 
tOROir." *' I tfore out my body with viji^ imd ftu»tinga, 
imd Iio|J4al1 tbuft to aati8^f the lnyr and dellvor uiy con- 
noiuuf^? innn tbi' ntirig of jjuilt," " Had I not biwn re- 
diMimo-d liy tint oomfurt of thet Oi>«jMd, I rKtiihl not h&vo 
livuJ tvfo yeaj^ longer*" This comfort lie bewail to ub* 
iu'm tlirou^h mi uld inouk who poiated huu lu tlw eon- 

Loo in tho Apoatlca' Croed, "I beiiere in tJio for^ve- 
of flina." and to & pfL««ag« in St. liomord wh&rt> 
is made to Paul's doctrine tbat "mau is jiuti* 
fi«d by faith/* Still more was he aided by the Jiiditnotu 
^COQUAitU of Jcthn Stiiupit!!:^ tha lonnuKl mid pUidft VicA?- 
■gen«ral of bii! <^»n!cr, wlirjsn worils, Ijutlvr-r aflf.^rwanb 
Bmd, piercod bim '* like the aliarp arrow of & ation^ man." ■ 
"'jotudied Auguatimi and Tauler, and caught grltmpws 

OTJuif^tical doctrine in them,^ EdpL^rioLly ho doro^ 
Lkoaolf to the study of thi^ propli^tn imd fipoKUe*. Ho 
lud hardly K^guu U^ expound Ui h\n pupilM the Epistle to 
tbo Unman«. wlirn bin L>yi> f»AtenHl upon th^* citutdon 
from a prophet, '*Lliu juat hhall live by faith/' Tlinwi 
words iierer <ittiuud to ticund in liin cat. Going to Romft 

i Viut M- rMk.,v. 
mn*tiiii^>tina>iHtiuj|itaimii/* lit WttK»| 1. 40. 

oa « miuion for Iuk order O^^^)* ^^ '^^ about full of 
terottonal anlor, fron cliurch to ■ hurcli. But thr>3u wonli 
«f thd Apofitid Paul, >< t^ juat aliall livo by faitk," mora 
ftad note iiDpreesad th^mseLvos upcm liLt tliDu^r^i' . Mi- 

At Imgtli the\t full mraniiig liiii^t upon him. '* Through 
the (i<^pct th-it n^liTPfiuifnnEH i» I'^vcnlixl whii^li avuU ht^ 
fore- i-iiid — hy whidi I Ic, out nf gnu>2 ami «iere ci*mpa»- 
■iom jintifim lu thivtu^h faitb/' ^< Hort^ I fult at onoe>" 
b0 aja. ** thttt I Xfcas wboUy bom a^tn tuiA tli&t I kbd 
Hllt«r«<l difougli open (i'Xii'^ into riii-aJisu itaiv^U. Tluit 
piMy 111 PmiI vHtf Uuly ti> me tbu ^aUt nf Putmll^ti/^ ^ 
Ho Mvr tbnt Chriat b nnt oome 114 a lawgiver, butiiJt a ^itv- 
kmr; Umt love, nr>t wnith or justicCi, in the mativtr in hiit 
miaoioci and vork; Uiat U)d f^rgiTirnrni; of einn throu^b 
Hin b « free f*ifc ; tb^t t\\Q ivL-ition^hip of tho eoiil to 
Htm, nnd timxif^i Him to tlie Father, Trhioh Is cxprt^sa^ 
hy thflt Urnn butb, Uit^ nsjKviiHivt- net tti llii- fii»i1 tii Uin 
JSrlne Bterey. is M that ia mijuinil. TIlla Turthorl ol 
ncooaliatioD 14 without tJio works of the Uw- G>>0(] 
mffkft are the fruit of failli, a spoataiit^ouA unH neoeeaitry 
linduot, Now he lu^ fuuiul u clut,' to tlio undv»tiiudin(( 
of the Bibl«. If Joltn wjin liiit L-Lvuntv Evan^eliit, bo 
IhuhI in tbem allytno fUx-trin^. Hut in tha writings of 
fpali, vrhuae rvltfjioua i]ev«lopiiiV!rit »o chjifAy rfAembtMl 
Ui fnm, hi> futiud a proteAt u^^djiinL juilaixluK tliiMjbfor 
ind OD Mwrtjaii of Aalviitiau by faitK, in oppo^iiLion tii a 
t«gal By*t<TiD, whkh i^\t: bim intcjiAn aatiBfitntlon- Tbo 
EpaitJM to tho ItonuiAA and <iiLbtianii yn:iro bia ^miliar 
NaDpftDDOfkB ; l^e lattvir b^ atyied, in lus bu.moroiifi way, 
Ui wifo, bU CaUiaHiMf von Bora. 

TliJ* ]/>gii«l aua9ie'[{ui'Oi.i<H uf Iun hkvt jitMifcioiu in niW 
ttoD to tlio ordiniinoeo and crr«mcmir:i of th« Churoh, and 
ihft prindplo of Chnrdi authority, \ud not occtmx-d to tho 
Iho^^te of Luthor ft irnd only proridontial ^iruotii, and 

1 Pf^f, tfftrwm tlMl^. 



ttio rrJIciition whtoli tliL^y iti<Sui»H], tJiii,t liiou^bt. the latent 
lYintj'Jit* ot Uis j>rinc4'lt- lo JiatiiiuL ('uiihiuijiiikiiiah. Tlia 
»t of thcac cvenU ^M the appcomi^cc of TcUcl, a 
batvkei- of IndLilgcnccs, in tlie ucigbborhoixi cl Wittdi* 
hisr^, Xbt* aii&cliiof roeultmf; irom this traffic waa forc^ 
(~e& tfc« lilteutioii of LutUtn- by in^M that worv.cliaolos^d k 
Utn in th« confesiiion;!]. FI^ wtxa mi>TL-U to pvoadt against 
it» to iirrttn If] bEshn|)» m uppoi^ition to it, und fiiuilly lu 
poat h'w five Bud iiinoty tHhi'*.*** on thcr dont of <Jm^ Churdi 
of A!J Sainla at Wittenberg (1^11). 

IndivlK^'noi^ in tha earlier agoa of the Cbiiroh, Jiad 
ibo^u lb rt-liLMttiori of peuimov, or of tii<> dlEtdpUiio imf^omxl 
"by tUv Cburt')i on |XTultt*iitM wLo had bi^n guilt}' of mortal 
nin. Thii dcHTti-int* of p^nancR Twjalrt'd Umt lor mipIi nin 
tisfttction *liimM bn nnprraillr*] to nvitntioii and i.'on- 
fosuon. Then c^mo the custom of commutiu^ ik*^a 
api»oint«d t«mporAl pcii^tica. When ChristJaiiity aprejkd 
tunong the northuni tmtioiis, tlio ouuoiiiiml iii<iiaiK!<<a wfrr^ 
^£roqu«nUy foond to be ttiappUvftbIc to thoir conditiou. Thv 
of accepting oHenugs of money in the room ol 
the ordiimry fontin of pen^noe, 1i!irni4>mE^1 xritb ili*^ punal 
DtKhvi ill viigm? amtnig t]tG barbaxuuj pwjpleH. At Hrattlict 
nc«t hod only <-jcer^3ed the office d( no intcrccmor, 
rradnally tb« muplo fonctiOTi of dccUring tbr dirintt 
Ivenoea u> tii« ponitsnt troneformod itself into that of 
a ji>d£iN fiy A<iLiinR«t the pi^eet is made the hi»tninicn: 
of oonvfylng th« divine pardon, the vahlele diroi^h 
whiisb tile gp^tati of Qkk\ [KWtfa Ut tim |H<intniiL Witii 
thi.' jtiliilnm, or pilgrunagvs to Rome, cinloIntH) hy Um 
I, como tho pkaxory inddgoncc^ or tho complete n*- 
Qou of ail tmpoml pcnaltioB — that ia* tho pcQaltie« 
•till obKgatory on th« penitent — on tho Eulflliimsut of 
ribod oonditiona. These penakic* mictht uxl^nd lat« 
bat tlitt iikdiilgi-iio^ obtitenU-d th^^ni [ill. In 
m thlrte«ntb century, Ali^xatiilcir uf Ha1i.-« and TIiwiiu 
AQuinnft set forth tho tbcory of aupctvrogfttory monta, «t 

LTmtn'^f TPIESCR. 


Cluisl iiiul lltj* [caIhIa^ im wliic-ii tin? rtilt^ti of tlit^ Church 

taigUt djuw for the Kn^tit of xhv lc*a woithy &11O m[>rd 

needy- 'ITii* vriA somcthbig distinct from tJie powei- of 

tho koye, tlio power to grant abai^lutioo, vhidi uiIiutmI 

In the prieetLood aloiw. Tho ^temal pun^flimMit of mor* 

tel cjn being remitteJ or comniuted by the abHclutiOD nf 

Uie |Ttit«il« iL iii'-tA ii\ivn Ui tlii* Pdjn* iir Iuh JLj^i^nts, by iJuc 

ymnt of uidtil|CtMicv», iv nauit tlic tt!tiipoL'AL vt t^rmiiu^hU 

pcDftltitio tiukt jitill rrjrt<^ on the \uxid of the tnuisg^^AOt . 

"Xlitui wmlii might be dotiTcPcU forthwith fem pofgihtonal 

fire. Pop4» Sixtufi tV., m 1477, h&d offici^illy declared 

that MMiIs slrearly in jnugntory are eiuiino!pAti<d pfff 

moSttm tuffntyiii di:Lt ih, tim work dutie fn iK^hulf uf 

tbcm D|>cnkt<9 to rfTi'ct their ix^ti^iMt ui a vniy wiulogoas 

to the efficacy of pi-aycr- N evert hd<isf(, the pciwvi" ihzit 

vms claimed over tkc <lofl.d, sraa Di:it praoticjilly dimmifihi'd 

by thifl rcelrictioii, Tbo buaine^ of eelliti;^ indulgifnoM 

hud grown by thv j^n>ii%bititu^.ii of it. '^ K\(U'rwhoro," 

M^ Enamiu, **di^ rt^miuion i>F piirpktnnskl t^rmfint !• 

Hold ; nor w it fold only, hnt forcM i3poT> th<nM* who »^ 

tav it^**' Aa iuiiu«|{od iy T«l^l jiud Ibo other eitii^- 

nricfl Kikt out to ooUe<^t money fur tJit^ building :>f ^t. 

Pc<tcr'i Churdi, the indulgtu*^!^ wna a stmplt^ bargain, aO' 

►inliri^' to which, on tluT pAyniimt of a stipuktod sum, 

tbt individiuil received a full diar'.lmr^ft from th^ ponnlti^^ 

nf idn or procured tho release of a sonl frora the tlamea of 

]furgati)n^. t\te ftii^vf<iK'HM uf aiiih wus offured t[i Ihif 

Lij,irkt-t fur monry. Ag^iin.^t thm lucTJitlvc Imde Luth«r 

&tad up an earnest n.^monstratice- The doctrine rjf hb 

tiicacft WM Uiat tho Fope can abvolvo only from Ukj pun* 

Uomiti whidi Ilia bimseU impoees; that UiMft do not 

reach bopnid doath; mcrvcvor, that Uie right tn abooW 

pFTtunn to iMhap niwi |Kiituni, pot \t*s» thrui t^ the !'op« ; 



that the fbiin^Atinn of mdulgt^nom U in thn pi^vrrr ol tlit 
k«iyK; tliiat ftl^Mfiliition Wnn^n ti> nil |>i'iiiUinLA. tint ik not 
UnJupensBbK ifcTid iji of less n^GOUikt thai] ^rorks of pictj 
&Bcl rhoTCY. li the Pope caii frco sonb from purgntory, 
why not dolivGT thom all at once? TJio troiwiiry of 
meriu Is not ct«niocl, bur ll;e Pope cannot di^p<^ii»t? It fnr^ 
tber th&u li« hr»UU iii liia ltAn<] tlie Intercessions of the 
nhimrJi. Tho iviij mjiJ Lri|« treaaiiro uf tlifi (!lliur«Ii b 
uancrti^il U> be thi? fftiHpcl uf gnioc. If Hic Pupv knevr 
what rxtortiiiti \r\ prtLCticod b^ tbu pro/ichcTM of indnl* 
geiie<«. ho woiiM rather, it ie siud, mc St. Potcr'a OKurch 
retlticijd to nah^ than built up out of tbe bonB« and flnsb 
of the lamba of hi* flock. Tlie tbeses wore an attack on 
tbe ThonnHt tbi^ary of indul^no.e8 ; but hi aplrit, though 
untduscitmiiiy 1*j tht autljor. tht-y erlruck much Jee^ftr.* 

No on<? cim rcuAoitLibly cioubt that LtillLf^r'!* conaoicncft 
wiia in tho woric im which ho hod ontcrcd. If over ti mas 
w^ji actuatftd by simph*, prtifLiiind oonvictioiis of i3uty, it 
wna hev^ The abu8i?s af^inet which he oried out w^re io 
tniquittiiift atiU mift<*hi#»tfoua in hia ey<v* tbjit h« i^iiuhl not 
kprp Jiil<-nt.. Hi^ hiwl no mnlntion to gratafy. A;* fur lU 
\m eartblj pruapeot« \rcrc concerned ho bad nothing to 
ffaiD, but appiirently, io caao ho pCTaevcxcd, evorythiwg to 
lo«. He hjuino thought of throiring off hia aUcpauoo 
to tbo Kumiin Church. At a luti^T time be eau) of thi> 
tbcHUBt : " 1 allow these propoaldona to staivl, that by thorn 
it may apprjir bcnv we:ik 1 W]\s^ nnd tn liow flnctiiiLtixig ft 
Btnto of mind I was vvhen I lH_^gfLn tVu bu^new. I vni 
tben a monk, aLnd & mad papi»t ; ready to inuxder aii;f 
ptireoii who dciu«<l obedionou to the Popy," ^ He hod 

flflf). j 439 They an ^vin la Ciritrijiri by UtiiMr» ijiUk**^» £<&«, p^ TS. 
< LurLer vpualti ut hia uaotfrwioa I'jiUr to U* Uitbapof MflF«»biifg^F«b.4t 
mO)| D0Wul(eJ,4Oi llJKiDtinia. ho Hyif Toalil to LliAlef ■ mtdnUtt V 
M «<» hiuBUicI l>,r vtir^Jly inutiuuu tia* alio. D« Wtn*. tit. fiL( (LMI*rli 
ll«tBfX'r}iuu ) ' "'tbrU meu mi hine nuit q^^ Ptrbum Ual pun Oailltll. aa» 

" Pt^. Pfwr, |1U«,) Tbe UWimiTMt yetr \U^f ^, Hlfl), Id hk UUm U 

1'9 TltGdEd. 95 

9mbr>c«Ml vilh }n% wlrolr r^uiil » truth wliinli Kn )tf\im ia 
b« itt tlic Scriphims but wlirrc it wculii Icfld bJio he 
ConM not utitidpntc. He wni^ ntill an obcdioot acm of the 
Cbtudi. Hie t^cac« ^oro propnuilioiks f^rdiepate; they 
coDohiddi with the tinc^re and aolcuin declaration that ha 
»innu«^l nothing, but left Bver^tLiri^; Ut tlir* jtid^nirMiL of 
the CUurcl;. Wiiat ha wmjM du in autn tin? Qmmh 
tboold dccl&rc ii^zunnt liitn, and forbid him to tc:Ai:}i what 
be IcEVcw to be tlio (^rtis^pcl i wluit course he would tftko 
vfh^n tht^ alhnntativ<t «hou]<l bo prf^nonti^d of gi^iikg up a 
trotli vhich stood in letters of light on the pai-e of Scrip- 
lure and had imprinted it^oTf an hiflwiul, or of rejioiinciug 
lui idlt^giaou? ill Hhl<:h be hmj i;ruwiL tiji, the otili^ition tii 
wludi he bttd Oliver fouud ik-cuaeou to doubt — this v/oa 
a qocstion whicJi <]id not occur tpO him, Thia portion 
ol tbo eottwjT of LiUh«r i« intcUigiblo only whon wo r&- 
nofnb^ tJiat the irwompatibldneBB of thd tmditional view 
td Church authority vich hln intei'pretMttoii of thd Gospel 
•om^thii^ thjit ha d]H(*r>v<'riui by dt'^nm^ imd that 
forced upon him by the acUul trfra-tnient whlrh his 
AactriiMf reoeived from lh« eocleetaadcal Tul(^n». NoUuitg 
bob bis iotenae, Imng belief rwpocitLng the? nAture o/ Um) 
Qci^>fil ooald hftre MiAocd &> noutmUzc and at hut ovcr^ 
cme hU Artnblubod dcforonco for Oharch sctporbni, 
"Of" ho «xchurDt, '* with wliat anxiety and labor, mih 
vhat ttfor^ng of tho Scrriptur^ havi? [ jii«ti6ed myvtiU 
■ cDoadMiOH, in Mtmt^Ain^ ufi n\mit: sigsdtiHt thr Voju* I '* 

Tla lbeM» urero dctngned to stibsorvu aii iiiimediate, 
W eod, but they kindled a oomniotion over idl Okt* 
^Ij. Both ihr? n ligioa.4 and politiord opponent* of the 
^k in indulgcnoci ^cctt^l Vio ubUr and galJ/mt a epohca- 
Bbo,* "No cue," »y» 1-ath^, "would b«U th*» cat*; 

^ t-, st'Ttnc th« JTfgUBiff* of lbs tbcHu, Ire '*J*, it oennr^umn wftA 
^ 'iHwicin of itiJriCBAl •JUfrfucBJ " Vcxtm turnip *vEent L*hniti» la 1* 
r^iiii^i M IcqtlUltl ■piMCfc'"-" Dt W<tu, i- 133- 

' "tx k/n^tM IBM ktouDqut AWT* bE« iroffuliini, i|iiik1 iavuK 5*t" cbtbi huh 
*^ In M BcMJBtlk— illir, <|uItniB ti^Uiui urbciu iui|i!v>vruit ct filu^ftTtp 



tiM boroay-nuiat^n of the Proachjn^ Order Uud drivea 
tiio ■BWJrtd to terror by their flroa.*' » ** Thaaka bo to 
«xclftiino>d Rvuclilin, ** thr? trionkft 1iuv(> now found 
'■% rnnii who will ^ivt Lht^m uiidi full (•:iJ|ilL>ymriLt thiit 
thi^y will l>n ^l-i^l l<3 Imvi: my oltl r^ tn piiAs Aimy in 
I." * Maximilmn %Ta* not aori'v to wje tbc thesea i^p- 
•ftatt Eraamtu wiia at heart g[jLfl thnt a new ii^uil vigoroc* 
nnto^onict of suporstttion had eteppod into the arotia. Bui 
^ponouta <|iiiaicl7 appeared ; Sylvt«t^r Pri<>rmfl, Mty^ter 
of th« Piilsit*« at Rom*^, (iffi'mhil tluit hiii Dominican 
order i^hoLild tntt-t a n^liufT frnni no in»giiinc»iit a 
qiiart«r ; T^iel hlmjurlf, vrh<Mr^ coiinter-thc^aes gidbod foc 
hiiu at ori'X^ A d'Xitorat<^ ; Dr. 4li>lin Eck, jin Cttport* W6U- 
raod, nmbitLOiia th^^loipcal diBpiitant, who wolcomed Ad 
Miooowton to Bi^nalize bimaelf Luther left tiono 
W ihflcn uniwawertHl. Tlii?ir wppi^aU in humnTi uuUiority 
Iftd iiim tu pljuit himKirlf mom distiTictly en the ScTtp- 
^tnr«»; nitd the dofcnw of tho dctcittjihlo pnetiooi irhi^ 
bad waaiM, inflamed his Lmliguatiogi eti J moreAg^jart 
tiicm. Then follovre bla autnmona to Rodks which m 
iDdifiod, nt the ruquust of Uih noblc-hr^rortcd protector, 
^c th^^ \Vitt\ whom Loo X^, for poUttoul riHUKUvi, 
antioiiB nt tlitit momi-nt to (^mcilin-Uf, int^i n Kiiinmom 
Angnbiij^' U* rriH't the l^-gftt^^, CajMnn (1518). Lutli<)r 
found hirn BapeivilltJtuit '* * complete It^imi and Thoniiot," 
trho wimU hnvt' no discniiiHOU, auJ wlioeo requirvnMiit 
thut Lutliia- dbiiiuld n>truct his opinioiu, wild mot with ft 
GBvil but diHndvd rvftiKid. " I will not/' wroUi Lvtborto 
tCu'l*itfutt, ** bf^ocfme ft licrc^tlc? bv d^inying tho truth by 
vhioli I 1x*(^ino A Chnntmn : «ooner will 1 dift. be burnt 
be bttuiflbed, be anatbi^inatized/' ^ He left the 
nhom Ills dark* fiUstt^nini; «je« were tiowtw aigr«ettbtA 
iod ttppcnlcd from tho Popo ill-iiifcrmcd to ttio aamo 'jet 


UT-mf'ViAed.' Wbr-n a bull wna^flfltiQcE from Roino, iia- 

»cttiii^ iho docchue aa to indulg^Dooaf wLidi Luther Iiud 

]iD|]«igne<L hit publiahed lua Appeal ivym tbo Popi< lo a 

grji'^nil iviinriL Slill he Imikml for u roci)^iiIir>n (if tlm 

Uuilf from Ulo aiitfi^irititTd^ of Um Cliunli. MiltiU, iJjo 

MOocd raowtcngor ft^sm the papml court, a Saxon by \>iT\h, 

MncilkftLory in m&nDcr, nnd profoenn^ a symp&tliy with 

Lotfair iu his hatred o£ the worat abuae^ of the vtiiJilurH 

af tfidul^Dcefl, ociuaUy pereiuxded him to tibvUiin from 

futher mnibut tm tlw -ftihJtMrr, pr<>Ti<Uid his tippc^iit-nift 

wiHild idixt nniEun aihint.^ Tlut ihia tnit^ii wiu cjiiUiUly 

bmluiii by the chaD«D^ of Cck t^ a public di?tputatmii on 

FnW'will nnd f^ruioc;, topU^ on wliioh ho hnd bcfnrc dr.bntcd 

with Cftrletadt, cu<t of tht> th^ogi(^ftl profc^Aora a.t Wib- 

tanbcric; and b^' thif programme which Eok put forth, 

tamdi to the fturfirm* uf Lutljer, in mUI^Ii las ophiioiLH 

vtnt dimiTUT ptfimiU-d. h\ iJu? o|h?it mtgnii whtdi ium* 

nrynj J^nthrr to Itrjprac to nttciKl tlii; diApuhktion* th^ro 

Mt by hi» enie Iliilip Mobticthom a y^jiuj^; mau of ui'«o- 

ty-two, of proooL'ious tak'Ht^i and ripe flolioliLraJiijj, whom 

kii [|;rfti>il-tiuclu« lUniL^hhn. li»d n*ciunn>L-7ul(.>d to the* E]L^f' 

Wtfi Proff-jvH- ui Gn*i.-ic, ixnd Huct tf> WiltLiibvr-g wUb u 

^nvi^ ptiiphivy fif Hw t^mlannn'- tJiat nwuilcil him.* 

Al th«agu of tvmilj Km |wjwei-» itiid hi** «finilju-shij> were 

AcButarv, Unlike Lulbor in hu tL-mpt^raineut. they 

Ait tMl THlJuiit III Uiii linntjty al Mltlltv'i wunn rlfmrnHnlkca. 

'I«Alte to U44iftr<riaft, (W;pu« Jf<p:, i. M. ILmirkfEn *p|»ljrti Fit hini Ih« 
^** loAbivlilin (G*iL IfLlr '*|li Rilbi pn*HjEi[ niiiiuiu, iu v[wn» IbUi- 
^^ to. Iii4 ^i4r^«, TntflQi <i^*l iiiomii Klulium.'^ MkfuiiL-Tlhkd't Jri^ipd 

**flw«* To nndtr y'^l'*' >*'ut« iirlv Onfk or LaCici wii ifHiAl vhft 

* Wbtai M t«niMi bl» irtth «Crv«kL 0iiiiJv«^«a fvc Li* uui ^try *upbimiDiH 



were Uii? prnmt*irpiirtji of ciich otlitr. Muljiin^tUoffi fddDi 
reet and eupj.^^rt in Ihn robtii^t nutiirc, tli*' ititropid *pirh 
of Luther : Luther admiral, m tnm, tlif* fine- biit cavtioiH 
|jtU-]1«*fl. iL[til ihf e\»c't ;ind Ample- learning of MelfiRctlion. 
EhcIi linit t^j tln^ otlitfr the must effective luteiutniice. Sft 
uatiniato u» their fni^ntlMhip tluit Lutbt^r darctt tc ^t hoLfl 
of Ihc Tn&nii!ici'i|it v!<->miiumtanoB of lua youn|[p iUflOciAte» 
whow modpHty k^^t tli<frn from tlio prda«^ luid to wmA 
tii^tn. without tlip author'^ lnictwli?r!go, to the prinb^rr* 
•' Tliii little Greek," saul f^ntlfer, " aurptissca ini* in Uie- 
olijgj'. Uiff" I'V Ills i:<jrmiiButiiry on the EpUblc to t}m 
Rotn&nH, Mrlfirctlion IjLid tin? foutiil^tioTi o! tlic Protcft- 
tMit (Txrgwin ; ixnti hin ^Uictriiml trei^tiai^, the " Lewi Com- 
mntica/* won lor liim a iilco diflCinction in thia department 
of theoloffy. 

Tli>* diMpiit;iilo]i a.t Li.*i|isiL" ^veiit im for u weyk betww?n 
Cnrlatciill and EL»k,on tlu"inlrir»tf.<? llirmrH i>r fn-ivwil! an*! 
grn.O(i, III whirli thr fornior d*^fcnded tho Augnatinian aocl 
tin* latter the senii-lV'Iagian aide, aud in wbich tb* flutrncy 
tuid a^-lfi-'itni^Ha of I^<;k ^honc t^ advjintiigi^ in conipunAon 
with Uia Icaa faojI« iidvoraary. Thcu Lutb^r »^cndc?il tbc 
ptittCuriii. Ht wks in \hv primo of Hfs, in. hU tbirtr-axtli 
ywflT, if niiditliMg height, at, thah tim** thin in p<>r9on, and 
with Jt *.'li'«,r, THeltHlionn viiw?. It li a fiict nut, ivithfiul 
iIltt^^vat tluit he carried In }ils liAnd a iKiOc^ay of iUiwrtK* 
He tcok ddif^bt in nniurc — in tho skj, th« bloMCnm, 
luid birds, lu tbc? loidnt of bto ^roat conflict ho would 
turn for rftcn^ition to hia ^.irdeii, and oorreepond vlth hia 
friends about xh^ seeds and uten^ that 1m lVlLntl^l ia 
prtionre for it." At liornt^ and \ritli bis fri(^nd» bitwiut fnjl 

t^m ihci [wn aF rpEfru Mn^oElonii*, xj^ WAddlnflnn^ 1. 190- 8co iIbd mplFT 
J^fHiTfiA- 0hA., I. Wl. Ii Wr<Yl Juno^T, trr July IC^ tetU, 
■ '^WMIf ^HtHU wiilt liEi mcait>?r> U miring. 1 tv^iH Uugh atUn u4 *tllit( 

ItmUfnf him." l^aDDri^Wflae. Ufilt. (Dbc- Ulb]. Da Wetio, UL M, Sm, «Jf« 
ti. lift 




lomoT* wAjj cnthumaaticaUy fotiU of mutii^, uud pfnye^ 
nitfi flkUl on the InUi ttnd tbo flotv ; iu Uiei tmturut eon- 
■tituttun tUo very oppMite of nn Maa&tUs.^ HU powerful 
mittid — forho wAft, prol]«bK% Uip nliWt miLTi nF hlii tima 
^ VAA connected with a cliild-1ik<; fiy-^ltiii.N? of fftiliti^, 
and A Uige, generoua sympaUiy with buimiu u^tura in &U 
ita innocent inamJceCation». 

StiUMlic^ bofora Dnktt Gcr>r^, vho jirovcd to be n do- 
cklod cnovDT of the RLsformationT und before the iLuditory 
who tat witb him, [.uthirclifi^imsed with his oitpcnent tho 
primacy of th^ Pope. In tli^ <xnirHi* «f tlie rullonuy lie do- 
dnred Ibati tbt^ lEis-uUbipoI Ibe Pupt; in iiuL ]]idiii|Jt?i]tiiib1e; 
tfant Um Orient^ OhurcH is e. tTii«: Oiiivcb. vnthout tho 
Pope ; tkat the primacy i« of human iuid not of divine ap- 
pointnMot, Startling as theeopropofiitiona wore, tikey were 
kaa no tLan vraA liia ;ivowul, iii rc-eponao t» an mquiry, 
tint ninong the nrticltsi fur wliioh John IIuhh Jiud b«on 
QogiMii^nninl M di<r Coimril of OnnntAiLcei tln'n* ivem some 
that wen* lhorT>i]jfltIy Clin^tiaii and evntigi^licul. A ft*o1-> 
ing of omaxcini^iL mii tbiuuich tht? saeenibly, n.ud an 
juidibl^ cxprcflinon of anrpriac And juiger brokd fram the 
Upe of the Dttke.> 

Tbd Ui^Klllltloiii ftt LieipBio, by fitmndatlng Lather to 
fartbur Rludiea Into the on^ of the pApacy and into Uiq 
cdkamditr of Huiu and of hln opiuiimK, l>rouf|;bb Idii niind 
to ft nion df^idnl n^iiinidHtirm of Immsm authority, knd 
Id m growing 8n»p)ci:>n that the papid role uaA a usurps 
ticA in the Oiurcli and a hat*?fnl tyranny." Up to thja 
time hisatt4^mpt had been to induonoc the ecuk«iiu»ticAl 
^ikm ; now hv tuni«d to th^f people. Hit *" AddruBn to 

I Bvl b* H V •bMcmltfW In fvtC ud drlnk^ "t»](Jq mviflvl «lh\ t( potv," 
mjt BihTilif— Ofm tnrtoMj oe^mntXr* d^jtSt vtiJil u)t* onlr* Unit 

■ KuU, L tn fBtt- 

■ Bifin L^ rirpiaiftrri it LtlvtUs Aa (nn;* to 3p«l#tiD O/Unk lA. lAU>Ji 
V«w •( ilwTitl FvntUciim. |iio mu tbfputatloiw, tf (bnanm libJ tsqiiDrj 

^ •riaan fBf«A AMkbrfalm TriH vcl «t»«iQliii«|ui adco mlpvn asmiuiiiltii 
> a»ltiTiw T'^njii ri riT TTTlTin iTr i' h itrn-'- " 1>< WttM, i. Ml. 


ITO «f3llCA7< 

th(.> CliruLtUti Nobloa of tlie German Nation " vf^B & ri&ff- 
iiijf nppi-jil t^ tho O^^rmjui^ to tuk^ t1i« «y>rk of tefor- 
iniLtEon itili) t^irjr own l^iLtitln, Ui ]>n)Li^ tlir? Grrirmii 
ppopio ngain«t tlie nTsricn nnd iymiiiiiciLl irttcrm codling 
of the liom&ii ecclcfliaatdce, to deprive the Pope of bi» mU 
in ftiMular offairat to abolish cotnpiiUjiry odlibaoy, to reform 
thi0 uunvcute and restrain th^ meDdicaut ordera, to oome io 
ft recoudliittioQ witli the Boheioiaoa, to foster eduoadon. 
In tbi* barAnguo Luther atrikee it blow a.t the (1i^linc?tK»n 
betwoeD iHynian nod prii.<ati qu which iho Ijio.viLrdiioAl 
syttem T«sM. "WohaT^one baptism and onn faith/' 
he aftjs, ** and it ifl that Trhich conBtittilce a spiritual per- 
Boik'' H« oompAxw the Churdh to ten aona of n king 
vhO| bavii^ e>qQAt ri^t»f chooie one of their number to 
b* this " minintiT of tlwnr comnion power." A compary 
r^ pimiK Inymrn in n drJiort., having no orHnhiMi prii^H 
among them, would h^ve the Ligbl to confer that olUoe oo 
one of tliemaelviM, whether ho were marnod or not ; and 
t^ tho man no choai^ ^vould ha m$ truij' n pnort luf if ^ 
Uw bi«hopfl in tho world h&d ooDflocrat^^d him. * Tht> 
prieetlj eharaoter of a layman and the import&noe of edu- 
cation are ih& leading lopiL^s in this atirrCi^ appeal His 
tmiiriHT Km 0]» Btibylmjum Cuptjvity uf tlm Chnnrh fnU 
lowed, in whii^h hu bandied tho fubj«ct of thv wvraniMitflt 
attAckod trajtflubatantiataofi, "md Ag statuteathat riolAt«d 
Chnatiac liberty, such aa thoee wtich prti»cribed pil^m* 
agea, ^tii^ga, and moaaatidani. Ho bod diaoororcd the 
doaa Qonneotton betirocii tho doetrmal and practical nbiiaea 
of the Churt?bJ At this tini« (1520) litf *4'Ttt to 1,^ X. a 
lattor contnining (mlii^^naeotm of jx^rvon^l n-spp'^t, but oooti* 
paiing him to a latnb iJi the mttlbl of ^voUde* aud to 
Daniel ajnong tho )ioua> and inrofatDg him to set aboub a 
work of refonnntiou in hia corrupt court and in the 
C'linrch.' With it hu vvnt bta Diauoorva d4 MtrtaU 

• \Mktn HVfM to hiTi •A',m«Ja»A, *p U Una Uma. * p*f*aaid rawd aai 


THE tmx OF txaunvxicAnoK. 


tn tliiA Ncirnon on ^' Tbe Pn^eduicL ctf a Cbi'ietlftn 
Miui," l.Tidii^r Hi-t Uitlh in a nmile nrnl ulevatiHl Mmin 
Uh'* ii(WHit]ii(-,Mcf Inny rsligior], iJie maiHrige of the 3i;iul 
So Chrbt throogb Cuth in the Word* and the viMl oontic^* 
tion ol f^th And works. h\ this n-<rati9f» ht? fi&es nbi>vo 
tbo atm<w|^erc of contri^vQi^y, aiiU niifoEd^ iiis ideib of 
ClitijUiaiutj in thu gt-tilitl tone of devout feeling. 

Hilt luuriiif dtirin^ lln- jirrioil between ttic prjatiu^ ol 
the Inijtsm Jiiul Thit flit^il lirrvK:!! withHDini^cuiibe judgi^l 
comctly oiUy wL<iu it ia rameinbeTed that Lis mind was 
tn u tmmuuun eiate. Ho wne woridcg ikia svay by do- 
grocAtotbv light, Tbi» «jcplain9 the eeeming iuooQaifr- 
toscktft in lu« oxprcmoii* rdative to tbe Pope and tlio 
Chtmli. vhioh oocHidoniklly uppifiir in bis letters and pub- 
Ueatlonft during tins iDtervaU *^ I am cins of tho^e,'* ha 
md, '^ftiuoiii^ wbom Aiij;;iiHl,mu hojs dji^at-d Iiiiiia^— ol 
tboM vho hiive c:n»fiunlly udrancvd by wntiog and 
toaduag; not of thoacvho at ti single bonnd apring to 
porfectioo out of nothing." ^ 

The Bull which condeuoned fcrtyn^ue propodtiom of 
Lnthi^T, *iid excommniut*at«l him If lie nUoidd not r^ant 
within miy iL^yit, ^iflrr vrhinh t'-vcry CliriettAn tT]7igiEit, 
wftB to be retjuirod tci nrri^t htm puid deliver htm at 
Bocae. ww» inued on tho IGtli of Jumv 1520. Luther pnfe 
forth a peuiipUlot in reeponao to thia esiacmble bull of 
Ai>tiohri*t, OA ho GoJled it ; anil (m the 10th of Deocmbcr, 
in tbs piibUe place at Witt4!Tibcrg« in thn prvs'pttife of an 
MMmbly of doc!tr>n cf tl^" tmiv^rftity, Atndenfs. and 
people, he thr«iw iz^ tr:i^-&tber wi^h the bixtk of catLoii Uw, 
mil a fpvr ut^ii?r fH|U2iUy obnoximia writing inUt thti 
Samcs. By thi* Act he completed hia rupturr with the 

Vi^Mt kr Im^. ttm Lbt latanniii^lJng cf pvriatiaT twiuplitnvufB uilh lUqim- 
vMiOftW Uv eavrtind o£ lb* Ramu Chur^fa {vfiicb ii rifled "■ ZjHAliDut 
4MI«tf VBlWn *'>*>» i]-4il4p','d 16 aaridUtta ii\a Tar>a'a faviTf. 
> f§^/. q^im*? "Qui dd *Ihtlc- rep«fi.'j fiunt jumiiijp cum nikLl liat, bA4|>i 
■■|tt« Ualui, B«qi4 vxjdtL" 


Papal [K>e. Tbt}^t^ vra^ no longer room for rotrcat. H^ 
bud bunitrd hifl uIu^b tfeland liim,' 

Hum clccijiivo siUrp <lrow tUu atUriitdon oi tltti wliulu Gur* 
n^an tiiUifiti to TjutJii*rH <jtu!<t<, imd tenil(?d to cououiitnito 
all thtt Tarif^ii* cli'-in<tnto» I'i djjjxjsiLiou to Lhe PajMicry.* 
Lutb(M fo;md polilical support in the frieodly d»pusitiou 
ff the Elector* Aud From th^^ jiulate with whom thi) coo- 
fliot of tha spiritual with thti vivW oourta was a atajidiug 
giiovaiico, Thu Papal Bull waa exUuuvoly r^^urdod u 
u new iwfriiigi*m*^nl at tbti rij^liU of thti luvil |icwcr> 
I'hr' n'liigioii* upponiti'in in thn Pajwwj, v^hiiJi lijul hcifkn 
quickeued by Luthcr^a theolo^cnl wiitlngs, and wliicb 
foiuid an uiapiriiiK gi-ound of union in Uifl appeal to fiw 
Diviuo Word and in bia arraignrntiiit cf tliv I'ojx! ua im 
oppoocr of it, ongngiL'd the B\-nipatby (j£ a largo portion of 
tlio inforioi" clergy and of the ni<*nantic orders, Luther 
ahi* found zealoaa allies in the literary claaa. Til** 
HmiiiuiinUi vvum eilliui- i^ulcit, lalwnouj* sdiuliin, who ap- 
pliwl r-h^rir rrsiyirchra in ]>hili«iophv and cluawical literatnrfl 
to the illufttvatioii of the ycripture* and tJw d(dvu!»t3 of 
Scripttinil trutli t^^uat huimm traditioua* of whom 
MdiUictbun vraa a. tyjt^i ; or thuy wure pootSi, fillc'd vnth 
A nntii^niil npiritj eugor to aveogo the mJignit]i>« suf- 
fer^ by Gormany under Italian and Papal rule, and 
raad^ not only to vtiidic^ab^ thbir L-auao with invectives 
and aadjtvi, but ulao with iJiair swor Jh, Tiit*f werp th« 
oombtttAnU far Ri^ucblin ^igninitt the Doiainican porMCtt* 
tion; thoauthotnof the"Episto1:e Ob»cutxirum Vitorum." 
hnthor, with hie d»wply roUgtons feeling, had not lik^ 
Uie tone of lh«o produotions. UlHoh von Button, on« 
ot thti \rrtleri, tie mmt prominent repreaentativL^ of ma 
yrrntlifiit fiUr/iti^ to whom wr* Imrr ja«t rcfi'nvd, bad not 
beua iiLtereated at Brat in the affair oi f^itth^r, which he 
rt-^^aided aa a m^iJkUh and tbeologioal dispute But hn 
•0011 divined ila true obaruot^r and wide-readunif soopo 

roUTTCAi. oojrorrros or germjlvy. 


mnd btrciunu i>u4t of the R<^f(>rm«r'« mcmt ardani fiiipport* 
Rnt. Hi- ftfxviDilt'il ruthi^r'n r^^ll^'iniin n-ppp^k hy »4CTJ'i-tf4^r<> 
in^ bvoadcut bU own caiuuc pliili^pii^ fiud sut'u'ea, liL 
wluch tbe Pi>pe toad Iiia ^i^ttita ^mU Jtb^ttura in Gcrnuuiy 
«ran halxxl vrith uubriilW :ii?vi^hty. Abandoning tlv< 
Latin, tlic proper t^^iigj^LiAi of tht; Humjini&te, he bcignn 
U> writ!! m ihc vcnia^riiLir, IJutc^n enliett?d his fnejiil 
Knuiciii vnn i^ic^lciiigtin^ nnoth^r pHlilotJc kuIgliC, and tllft 
most iiol^d of tlie claM who oQ^ti^d llii^inaelviu to r^ruM 
wrongs by «ipluit» wul uicur^ionn tinJeruken by tljtiir 
own uuthortty, oiitii to Uie tcrrcir af tbuse vsho wero thua 
■nniWi Sii^luDgv^n M^-nt to J^iithor an mvitAtion^ in coH 
.faa p#idiad a plai» of rofug^ to oottl^ to his Btrong c&fitld 
of Ebernbcrg.' 

We OKiflt paiifi« liGTt* to look fur a monji^nt iit tJi« pf>lit- 
£e&l condittriTi i>f GvrmHuy. In i\\v fJk*eutti ccnuiry thi^i 
CMitcttl goTCTTUDcnt h^d become so wcakcu^^d, tliab iLq 
£iop«ro cxiakd more in oamc than ia reality. 1>tiniuiJky 
w an acgn!|p^t« of noniotOQa sm&ll atutca, tvich cif 
wlu^ iTtti to tt groat «xtont, indopcaulvnt wiUila \u ovm 
bouBib. Tbo G«nDAii kbif^ having hqld tbj» imp<mal 
office for BO mnnj j^^-ntnrif-^, the two station!^ wero pmrti- 
onlly rv^2inln] :ib iiiy^piimMt? ; buL iifitber ha klii^uf Grer- 
vuiy DOT lu tlw bcail of tlic Hilly R<jnuiu Emplro, had lie 
loffictCDi power to prcserre onlrr amon:: Mi- ihit^, or to 
tbiao tlkoca in common cmcrjimi^n n^ ^i>-[imLi ^r of 
j^^umiotu By Uio golden bnll of ChArloB IV., in 1350, 
tbe «leoCcaaL con^irution waa defined and settle, by 
irlridi Uia prdtlotriliuiiiLM? (if powi^r viaj* U^ft in tiio Widi 
of tbe vnvrii louUng pnncoA to wliom tho choice of Um 
Etfip«c^r v»B co&imittod. Kr> mcuuics Eiffecting tbo 
ftommoD fl^foro could bo Adopted oxoopt by tho cotiMat 
of Uw DkU a body oomposod of iho electon, tho pnncee* 
Attd Ibo oilioi. Privuto i^ara rvem of frequent occuneno* 

LtrmCB Aia> the onnfJiN BEroRHAHoor, 

l«tiri»ii Iho c>m|ioii»^iit parte of the oountiy. Thtfj 

mijfUl viitLT sc^p^Liteiy into fctvlgit allinDcos. During 

tbc ivifi^ of Mfi^imiliun ji^'^^t i^ IForU were made to eatab* 

linh :i iMiter c-^niitituiiou, but tli^y mostly foil to Uia 

groiittLl in o)iit«-Hjiir!n[-t< of thu inulmtl uiiwllliiigiu?** of 

ihti iitnl4t)i iukI thn Kmpcmr th^it tiithf^i' p^irty should pjl- 

erciM power* The Pijblic Poacoand the Impcri&l Chaiii- 

ber were constituted, tho former for the prcveatiou of 

(jataati&c vmr^ and Uio lattor a auprome judioial tribunal ; 

but uGitht-*r of th<*«tf in@a3aTi?fl waa more than partially 

BQCOOMtuI- Thu fuJliiru to create ft bottt^ orgnnication 

for Ow Ktnpim iiK-rrtFiMKl tlit^ fiirment, fur which tliHm 

war« abuml^at caiuea prior to thcM; abortive attemplfl 

The eUorts of Lho prlnc«?s to Liicreaae their poorer intliiu 

their ftevoral priucipahnce brought ou quarnsU vitk 

boi^opt ojid knijthw, whoic trndilioDiil privik'^ea were 

dirtAiUKL li!ij>(^-nully among thi^ tnighta a mutlnooa 

faeling wuA (rrnrywlH^rff rifM, wliinh oflun brokn forth ill 

d«ulftof VLulenoe and even in open wiirf are. Tbe ettiaa 

comphiinrd uf th« opprt-s«on which tlivy luul i-o niidarci 

frciin Ui^impcriftl gorcmmcnt and of the wiong* indicted 

upon Lheii5*^ the princes and by the knighta. Thnring 

wmmtmitiPft of trad^rnea and artisana inritod hoattlitr^ 

froin evi^y quarter. The h^avy bunleua of fixation, tl^ 

iran'ourity t>f trii«d wjd cf pomEnvrrw, wem for tJwin aa 

intril'^ruhli! grit^v^uKiif. At Ihi^ sik-tn*^ tjini*-, all over Gef^- 

matij^t tho nutdc population, on account of Uib luirdsthip 

of thMT flitaatioTit were iii a of dioaffection whidi 

ndl^ at any momont btint forth id a, formidable rcbd- 

liosw In hddidon to all th«ao tronblos luid ^ov^oea, 

tba extortioitsi of Romn had ffttrrod up % general feeling 

of indignation,^ Vujit mms^of mnney, the fntlt of tax^ 

tioD or ilie price of tlie viLlHiiiLl if^\v uf Cliuivli ofRueHk 

wtire oirritfd out of tJiu oouiitry to ruplenlah the ooffea 

at th« Popu. 

^ Buke.LtllM%. 

Ob tbedfiftUtof Miucumlinn (Juia-iry 12, t^l^J^ tha 
priiMTipLiI XKparantH tctr thtt KiiPt'i'SMan^ vn^rt^ Vharipn^ tho 
jouthfol Kiug of Sjnut. and FrauL^ifi 1., tliL* Kiii^ of 
France. Cli«l«». wbo ir» the grauilt^iL of MaxiEniU^n, 
And the tan M Plulip unci of Joauna> tbe duugbt^T of Kcr- 
^inand a&d Iaal:^UI^ inherited Atmlria und the Low Coun- 
' liiM, the CTowii« of CtiAttle ^uul Arjgcm^ of NnvuTTtf, of 

' Spun in (Im New World. Tlif.t Gli^ct^jre ofTered tJie int- 

penal offic« to Frederic o( Stixouy, a, prbce held m 

aniveranl Mt^em Cor Mb nLadom and liigh character ; bub 

bo judged tbiit tko roHOuroue at hin oommuud wore nob 

pffiAGi«Dt toonablo hlni to govorn the Empire witli ofli- 

^ntncf, and csurt hia inflaoncA with decLsirc? elfect in favor 

of Cbarles. 'flw d«t4p*iHsm of the French King wai 

AMred, aiid Charlt* wa» prefi^rrpd. parLlj Ijecausi?, from 

ttio ntUDtiun of hiA hci^Utiry dr>m]nioiiB m Germany 

aod fr<im tbo extent of bis power, it wnd thought that 

. lie wooJd prcYO th& bo»t d4f<rndor of tiio Eiuplrc ngoinat 

th« Ttirki. Biit th& princee took can?, lu ihu '* ^'apjiu- 

Isdm" whieh aocompimied tbd ©leetion of Charles, to 

InUtq wwi MLfingBudu ngstiiut i>m-nnu'htni-iklA mi tlii- p^trt 

<d tlio n«w &iDp«Tor, Tlr pTonii»nI iLikt to Tikftkr w^^r or 

! pettoCf or to pnt luiy etato iiDdcr tho ban of the Empiro 

^ irillioiit the oannt of dio Diet : that ho wi^tild givo thfl , 

' psUtc offioM iuto th« h&ik'3a of G^niiam. &c h!« ncU 

difw* in Gomtony. and not bring foreign troopn into th» 


Tbo oopoMitrAt^ of ao much power in a alngle tndi- 

viAml txt^ied g^neml alttmi. Such tux approach (4> & 

ttiuvonol moturcby had not been ^tan in Exirtij^o aiiiue tbo 

dft7« of Clukrlcnui^c^ 'I'Iir indcpcndi^^cc of &11 othor kin^ 

jdotnft woold soom to bo piU in porih it was racwODftUy 

''twwl tk&t Cli»l«ft woukl »Tai1 him»elf of his vast GtTODgtll 

^to rwtora tbe Rmplrt* U* Ite aiu-i<^nt llmlta, aod to rerlve 

>ti dUm In «ti]Tranmay^ Thcji Appruht-nAion, (if itanlf. 

wouM ;iJ^<ii^imt for tli*^ lumtility of FrunoiK, iLp»rt frdiu 

pJe^^tioiiH But there wpre particiiUr owb*w nf <liKagrn('. 
munt beLwi^eii llit riv»1 monLirclm u'lttf;)i ruiilil ni't f^kii to 
produce aii open ritpturci In belio-lf of Ibtf Empire, Cliiki'I^A 
oiftinicsl Lomburdy luii capcdolly Milan* togotUar vnth 
a portioTi tif Scullnirn Frwiixi — the old kingdom of Bur- 
gundy or Aries:. At tlio hair of tho diiko£ of Durgtindy, 
he; d^unnil thn pnru of cbe old duk^om vrhich biid bwtl 
Inciirporated in l*Va[»ce, after the death of Gbaj-Ies tli« 
Bold. I,t bad lieeii tie iiiubitioa of Ftunoe, since iKq 
^tion of (HiarUft VflL, to ttbabliflh Lbi power in 
,y. b^ninc^iti, tx^doa bis d^tonniniition to dine; ^^ tlio 
DonqnOAU which hn had itLrojL<Iv mndci, dftim^d Naples in 
virtuit of th*i rights of the house of Anjon, which hj«l 
r^vpTtfld lo thf» Fi't^ndi *-r*»rtn ; hi* olaiiued uloo SjLi&iiisli 
Ifavarre, ^vhicb Uml hoRij sei/tnl by Fiirdiuand, nud i)ut 
aiueminly of Fl&ndci';! and Artois. TJic scene, w well 
Bti tho mftin pHsM^ of tho coiiflict» wab to be in Northern 
Itixly. Tho prcpondc rancid of etreugth vraa not ao do* 
ddedly on the feide of CharW aa might at firet upjiL-^r. 
The Turks pvrp<?tuiilly incnaL^^d tlio ca^tvm fr^nticm of 
hi* hT-rr^diULry Onrmuo d'nniiumis, wliidi wisre giv«n over 
to F<^nlij"irLd hi* Wolhrr. HI* teiiritoriea wsro widely 
separated from one another, not only in epace, bat abo in 
laikgoai^, local inatitutiona. a^id cu3tA>ma. Several of tho 
oountn^s over vrludi he r<jij:ni*d wi-ro in a etntc of tntomjU 
confusion. This vlu tmo of Spain, :ifl well na of Cr9r- 

Fur nKinthji afb^r the do^th rf Maximilian, llie Etiipittt 
WM without a head. JV^^iriir uf Saixuuy. who vriw dis- 
posed to protM;t Tuthirr than n;[>rran die mowtnont of 
LuUicr, wu TCgvnt in Northern Germany. Hod ho been 
in middlo lif« And been ondiK>d with nn Mi«rgy oqnsd to 
\a% tmga^ty sind ^tcaIIoiic^ I10 might have oompHed witb 
tl»^ f)n*fi^ntrT<^ of th^ el^ctora and have pla«^ bimaelf al 


tb^ boAd of thi^ G&rmaJi Tiadj!>n, wbicb vns now conAoioiu 
of the Ceelbuj; of iinliouAlity^ AnH full of zupIriiliorLa uftur 

CTuirlva V. vau ntit thu mnit to umuniR rac}i ^t ]>0Mitj(in. 
He cUrvrlopnd n teftncitr of purpo^rr, n roatici** ^ctiYity, 
■Hfl a fAT-cightrd fAlnilutioti, which «ror<yfar in ndvanoo of 
IIm flxpovtatiofiH ^tntertnined rpsp^otinf; hiTn in bis etvdf 
yoadi. Rni bia irhol«> hiet^ry ^hows that he liad i^a Ade- 
quate appivc'in.Lioit of the i>ior:il for4.v of Pri^tivtauiCiinn. 
Htn penMa^d tuyTiiji^ithif-j wi-iv Willi tbi^ nld »yi(t«ia to 
which li<: iincJ bt'cn cdacntfrH, nnd thinwns more and mora 
the Otfc irk tbo liitti^r pnrt> of Im caroor. Uut apart hom 
Ilia nvm opiniona luid predil^tiona, hia poeitiou na ruler 
ol Spfdn, trhortf Aft nio*t biffoted tjpt? of Oitliohmm 
pT<?vaili'd. would tiave tlir I'fTL'c't- to prt'^-riit him frriin 
MiVfirlii^ hiii crrnii^crtlim with tlip Itc>:nn,n Ohurrh. M^ire- 
over> the irtiolc idea of the Empire, as it luy tii Kis mind 
uul fts it wu involved in ail hi« antbitiou^ sch^m^. pTt> 
•uppowHt tha unity ol thu Church nitd union vntb the 
PnpMcy. The microd chLimctcr, tho piiculiar eupromaey 
of th« Hni^r«, rnUKl tipoo tho cone^ption that it waa 
mor^than din 1ciiigdr>ni of Germany, mors than a Gorman 
rmpin?, ih»t it mnt tlie ally and protector uf lh» irn^ns 
C^ibolic Cliurch. OiTrmany Wii* rvganli-*! hy OhiLrlw V- 
wanly one of the couutnm over which ho ruled. The 
pMuU&r intert'iiB of Germany were subordinato. in Lis 
tlmoKiits^ to ttio roaro oomprehen^ivd tobeinca of jiolitica) 
«fg;;nuidbr^ef]t to which his life wm devot^^d. lie aet«d 
in tlw iiiTBiir of tlm Rt^ftninatioEi from political motivM. 
Tlmr, at Inmt, wmi iippennost. , nnd ii^-onrdmgly hi§ 3on- 
Inci Taritd (o coufoini to tho intercit of tho hour. H« 
mifiht deplore tho nao and progroea of LathotaiUBin. hut 
Im dMTod fltill Ivee the ftiieeoM of Fnui^ia I. m the II 
poDSiifliilA. Mrnvo^vr. m eiirryiu^ out Iiia phins for hha^ 
valf, nud for thit tru]it:itinn of tlif* idi*a of tlii< Hiripiru, faa 


miglit fall into coudict with tbc hf^^d a£ the Clini'cli. TUft 
old ci:>iir4*at oi popo and emperor migbt be rovivcnJ. Tluft 
wiu tbc inert? liable to ckm^tit in a period iv)i«u tlic p^fx^ 
wi<K- anxJoLialy ]aborin|^ for tboir own ti^niponJ pr>w<»r, 
and for th« ndvauounieut of Ibi'ir MatlTtu^ in Ttnly. A 
ciiiiibiiiiition of nil tbr foix^iia ujipodiad U* llic ii«w tlix-tiito 
ivtight Aiifiioc to k^Tix.-^ it. But would tJiu connbumtlon be 
effocUd? Ill atldition to the jeaiotuice tbat (^xist^d b^ 
twecii ibc pnticipal p<^totitate«,lh>? Emperor. tht^Fo];««ikad 
tbo King ol FniuoL*. dix iaioufi mi^ht t!oaily uri»u among the 
CatboUt* pdntv-.-c in Gcnnuuy, fmni) t)u' fi^ur, for rxampU, 
of Hi*" irv'Ti'stsJiig jiftWiT f>f tlr* finiifp nf AiintHn, In adili* 
Uoo to die ixjudlcucig iDterastfl out of whicli tb« Lulhanui 
mari*m«at might find ita proSU Uermatiy and Has ahorea 
of tbe Moditorrano-.iii wt^ro inoesaautlj ttircstendd by the 
Turks. It inigUi be iiupmoCioaVkto pdrwcubo tbo dia- 
_ ttplea <if tlL4f now dotftrina, and at tha mna time entire 
tbe-ir help ^gaiimt tbp ooranmn ^nemv r^f nhrint^ndom. 

Wh(*n Cltark^ V. flret armvd in Gvriiiaiiy^ be bud 
n«amui for coi3p«ratui|c wjtli the Popv, and when tbb wna 
tho case bu own prcfcrfriiora »ooo<idcd the motive of pot* 
ley* Y«t Luth-.T And the LutJiinut caiuc li.-u3 ntttiK;tixl « 
ivlif[i^u» and nati'inal sympathy that waa too atrocif; to 
permit biiu to b« eond«-innod by the Ettperar withmU a 
h««ring. A Iwa HiimuAry eoone must be takeu dnn 
that whirh thii pa-pid parly nrgod npon hiau^ flf^niv the 
«umi»i>na wbkh Lather rocoiml to appear aad aKawer 
for hiinneU al tho Diet oC Wetms. In this vuntiaooft he 
n<<K>g^Mxed a i-all of Ood to f-ive t^atiincny to the tmth. 
At! bo made hiB >oon)«y Ln the lunMr'a vafp3a**wban 
he Tfvr-l to Aiig«burg to meet Oajataa, he had worn a 
horrowed rORt — bi» uwi an cihjtvt nf uuETrr^ ini^rMt 
and alt^itiua. At ErfurU the Uatvevnly went out in a 

1 4W Ikt Tn II mow who wcv iMil I* Iba li^iraal nul. TweHli oil 
ilmltt. At bU« vM Ban au^nMb-L fU OprM bi Uk> l>-< «tf 
W«M>. OtatoUtairbHfRnft>unMicdacrvliai^*blcati4«>c^»V 




pfooeuuon to m«et liim. Acme on honeha^k, Trltli ^ |^iY«t 
ihrDo^ on foot* ai>d vnfiloctmed liim iritli a ap^oi:li frtim 
the rector. H« peoftveor^ in liu JL>iirn(-y, uot^tlistuod' 
ing itlnon br ihe vn^y and tiiftny voices of dkcounigo 
nwtii — fningtoJ, to ho «Dn^ wiT.b others more i^hrmng 
— wtiiih mrblum »trvi*ry fAv^J When Ltr reiirticil t.lw 
, |jtf£ fitftdoii h« w a4ii4cJ bj A councillor of Fiedexic 
I uoi kk go «n ; tho fato oF Huaa, it vrn^ said, might befall 
titia. To which ho rephod : *' Hnm has boon bumodi 
\mi not tht tntth widi him. I will go in, thi^ugh aa mutiy 
dwiht vrum aiming at uie na tbeK ani tili^a ini^ tlie roof/*^ 
Hu icnIo inbi till? Uiwn ni niidtla^'t rJintuf^h &LrteU 
ctovdcd with people wlio ]i™l g.itlicrvd to nw him. On 
tbo following dAy« at foiir o'clock in tho afternoon, bav- 
iog ftcst •olOTnnl^ coouix^nd^d himseLf to Ooil in prayer, 
he was <A00tt«d bj the impdri&l maat«ir of the hon^t 
Ulri«h of Pap|>oiih«in3. bo the h pTl of auilBnoe. Htt vm 
coddiietttl by » [wivalt? and dnniiLouH way hi iirdttr tn 
avoid tlM prms of Iho muUituilu; y<'i Uio wJiidttwjt und 
roula tLat orcHooked the route wLicli he took, vero 
Ulttniced witb spectators. Ae ho entered the augUAt oa- 
iMttbly he hihM ibe youthful Eiaparcir on his throw, 
vntli Ilia brotli«r, the Ari^bduk« F^-rdinand, at hh Bide, 
■lid a fanllkiBt n*tinuB at pnmxs iind nobk'A. Iny and 
|^Booleaia«iii»), lunmig whi>J]( wen' lu«own wovciv.ign, FivtU 
erio tba Wiaiy« and tiM lia]id^ja\e, Thilip of UcaBc* whu 
VM tbf-Q bat 80TOQt««ii yeaffloE a([«, toj;-i7ther with th« 
^|Hiti«i of th<^ imperial cities, fi>n<i^a auibatmiKbrs and 
a nuiaeroiui anay of di^aiiariofi of evavy tiLuk. ft wu 
MdmatMl tiiat not Uoit iTian fivo ttionaund penonn w«t* 

* fcl ililiiMllBt ihfilh in |[ii nil E>/ Ujiiuuliu, ilKil. B^^ M lb 

* *^"'™'^1 lb«|n<l*« Ins ot Ui* cxpmtini. Nr« EAuWi. AM, and bb 

BHi f*fto A vtUtli il b i|UiiUil; *'tP«uiir mlr ^tmLliIiiu «UA OppmEutra 
i^ WumtH, fCUivte: *Er wiATte gift WnnfLlnt, MeiijLj;IeicIi m >Sci luiM 
Imfff ii*>ini.aWiaitti<£rffldtwafin."' JfjAra, ct*ff. g^/: jUiA,(llffll? 
>. It (M 'TVfflu't ^f«■>.lr«^ Br inlwl at Wmv. April Iff, }GSt. 



vollvct^xl In and aroumd tho hall. For a momi'ot ht 
iotfQi^Hi to bo somewhat A-waled by the Impodng olianMS 
U't «f Uu* oMJvdhiy, R<^ sputi? in u lnw voIit, ;uu^ insmy 
tiionght tliat ho wiw nfniid. In n^ply to iho qitostion 
whether ho rctriictcd whnt Iir hnd written in his b^wloi, 
tfao titJce of which svere rcaul, he oskod for timo to frajuc 
■a answer auitahle to ao f^ve a qudstion.^ Time waH 
given Ilihi. and on the foUowItig eTeiung^ at a.n hoiir so 
\mAK iliAi I;iiii[)ri were 1i||^1iU'«.1. \i** w:u uiil'« mor^ U!tht>rtd 
xnii> Uli- jui^rmhly. II13 ifxliibitr^c] no tn^n (>f exiibnrnuu^ 
mentt but ui a valni« dcteiiiiuicd manner, in sti^ng and 
manly toiie< of Totcci docLiuod to rovoko hia opiDions or 
tN>nd<>inn hU writings, tuilJl they should be dtsprored by 
itMiio oUitir [luUionty ihan pope or ooundl^ even by ol«ar 
tii>iiriicii^ic4 lit St-rintuTO tir coneliifttve ftrgirin<-nt!t from 
mwi>n. A roLiiK'ii cttuUl on, he juiid ; nijd }ir declared 
luni«?lf r€Ady to prove it, Wheit a tiavil. deJimio answer 
lo the quesUoQ whc^thf^.r he would rc^ranl, waa dcmajided, 
he ropliL^ that hin Of^natrienoe w<>uld not permit him : 
** H<ini I 9;t:Liid ; 1 (^mn»:>t do othurwjtfc. God hnlp me. 
Amen," TUpvt* worn in.-uiy b^idrj^ th^ Saxon Elector, 
whD^e G^nnaii hearta wer*? thriUed by the noble de- 
mntntrr <jf huUivr i-ii Umi moint'uUiua daj»* Ttikfliis «f 
ndmi ration >ind ayinpiitliy wt*-it» not wanting. Find 
riolcnco boon utt«iipt<xi, there ynm too many jonug 
knight^ arrood to tho tooth and ro-solvod to protocrt hioi. 
to giv«i to ativh an attempt an aaanrance of anoc^BO. Oo« 

1 TUMt Uithtf u&fl for iIqIij'Iiu trico niiulD « j;»iiQ4 nf npnAdi by «4- 
g — I kfc ^«o (l>f tntTiti 111 ^|iiMiiE>^iiff>. fB S«ckpiidorf. Hb. i, Hcl. I0» f M- 
iKhia tfRMloliH |'r]k|pKity m lVr»f««tAPC wriUn. fieri WAOdinfftDP. Lait, 
Hal 1ti» fiiplipitucn b* ihM h« htd. IB all (iMtabiltiy, not upKttd ■ potvi^ 
M17 iliiMnil r^ (>'« nnTMHp inA vlahf4 tnr <f m M rmn* in uinrHr^Mp^ 
ftaJt/ Ifi irliv 0I rkfi lire rhnl fiM vnrtn|;i fonuln?!!, ■!»!# MUf fkiap. 
Mftr pafBBCialltlM, 'fTi^ rwiiiMt for in«tpan«r*#nt *«■ iio«bi>t4ii ib ttonf- 
laffi «r1lh f rw ^nni of Jtmind SfhurT» hjt lo^J HlfTAAE 1^ ttti U|h***( 
tKHalar, IT. i-:,(l,ii^ 7<J. lUnU qbH«v«- ■■ AM-rt •« aahm dk fwiaTlifc 
Ivltan il-4 lUiduu fitr vt^ id AriBtifwh." /InlKl. IfM^., l JM- 

Wbo -WW proBont bntifittfl tiiat Latiidr rGttirn^^J to Mb 
fod^ogv, foil oC coara(*6 ind obeerfulQess, and dLH.'Iiu'<^'l 
that had be a thonsAikd h^^tda he would Imvu thum nlj 
vtmck oft Wfore li^ would luaka u Tttnuiii^fi.^ Somcjt 
advu«d Qtju-kn to dian^uril his stifi^tioiidut^t, but lift re- 
indml>«red tbo bluftH of ^igfiamund. when Hum looked 
him in tlio f*oc nt Conntonoo, oad rcfiuod* Kven Ptik<9 
Q«otso of Saxony cttod cot sgaiii«t an aot eo doiu^iitorY 
to GeriD&n honor. It b worUiy of nctijs that tbo £m- 
peror. ill his luat dnyn* at thtt Coiivetit of Ytiste^ whiui 
Knp<*niUUfin \\Bui iiiciv AWa^* ovrr liim^ n^gri^Urtd hi* own 
SdeLit^ to d\ity and lionOT at the time wtiea li« Imd 
Itiithcr in Iub power.' When a {)&Tt of the asacmily had 
gone homo, thu decroo was proclauned that pUuj^id Lnthcr 
under thd ban of tbe £m|urd. Bearing the s&m& doto aa 
tho MnlMici; cif outhiwry n^uinat Utni was 3 treaty be- 
tw«Kil Ijt** X. und ChHrh^ fur Ujii rireouquefit of Milan 
by tlu) laiter.' The Popo wA^ ilJso to cbst^iin fiijiu com- 
pljring with the wiah of the Spauuh Eat^lt^i^ tlmt he? wittdd 
•often Uur rigor* of th<J lui|uifiit[on in Sjiuixi, ii ucci'maxy 
lattniakcnt of Charloa'a tynuuiy^* 

Loo X. haci oppo«»J tho nloction of ChArl««, fuid had 
BadB great exerdons to Ap>nini thn plnvation uf tVanoIa 
to the im]»Hul ftiAtioi^. The L'opd was rMolv«d to pr«* 
TiQitt, U h«oonl<l, tlie tK/veieiiciitjr of Nstplea aitd this Im" 
peml office from being in the Biuno hands. Ho drcadud 
the oooMqattoCGA to hia own ntntut and tho effect upon 
Italy gmorally that; wonld rpgnit from nuch an aooujnula- 
tion of pow«r. Bnt ait^r Charlea hnd boen choaen, both 
tha Eioi>«irur and I.tvflaw the adTantagc« that wuuld jAt- 
teBil upon Ihidr uinuu, and the dainagH Ui^ nu-h eimld 
Qpoti the other m otae th«y penerert^d in thtir 
W>«tifity. AcoonUngly thi^y eoncludod an alliance, a 

• aat»na » , Bbt^ ^ OU^ ^^, PrcMM't AppcDiUx (111, Ctt). 


UmtEK AND Itl£ €£[atA?i KEFOftUATIOlff. 

DudTi proviftLon of whidi wha that tlio partiiw nrrrti to 
diviflt! |jL«tweru ibtiiu the |.'!jici?d Lli be coEiqucrcd bj the 
Bmprn>r in Lomborily. 

ThtLi l-uthcr Tvua plu<!0il unjer tlio ban of tho Kmpir^ 
And of tha OhnriJi. Th« two grt^at inadtuliMis. iW two 
poU>niatnfl, in wbi)in it liiul bt>t*ri iincL^iiieti z\M aU V»> 
thority nn PSLrlh ji pmhfMlii^d, |irimuutiai?<l ngiunflit liiin. 
The movcnicut tliat hatl cnlisttui in itfl mipport to *> ^rcsd 
nn OKtert the iitoraiy and political, as w^U a» tho di** 
linctivi^ly reli<^-ioas, <>loiiiont8 oE oppodition to Rome^ was 
Dondttmncd by Clmrcb and SUiie, It rem^ed to b^ m«ii 
wbcth«r tb« ftt^one of the Diot oould be cairi^l into ei^ 

Now vrtfi find Ijutbcr in tlic Wiirtbtirg« tUn plnrm <if 
rtfugc chosrn for him by the firm bat discrcot Elector, 
It 15 a vOTy fine rconark i>f Mobinctlion roepocdng tho 
Sleotor to whofio honest piety and diaoemiii;^ tpint the 
Rolormation o\vi>ii uo much : " He wns not one of thoM 
who wonld fltiflt^ iJtHngc^H in thciir mry birth. H9 wov 
inbjoct to the will of God. He rvmA th« irdbing^s that 
iHttti put fortlk, iLTid would not pi^rmit any powei to crnah 
irh&t he thon^t truu-" Here, though enduring much 
phyWijiU pun i}OQ»:ft|uttut upon ne^laotof cxeruuiQf^ Lntlkcc 
iH incoiHuully nt worh, aoudiiifC forth coiitroTWvial pj\m- 
phl^rbi, ^vriting li'ttprs <if r^ommf^ Hiid crncKittntgvment to 
hiu friiuidji^ ond hthnnng on h\» trimfdAtmn of the New 
Tcfltamcnt, tho fui^t portion of that tgtuoh of tht? tiutlm 
SdiptUTCfl, wliich lA ODO of hia moat T&lii»ble ^iin to thi? 

tG«nnan people.' Idioflaatio* viiaX in on^ry put, olo^od 
In the rihcy lanp^a^^e of common life, it or«ab^ itpcirt 
from its rt>1i^(jttH inilut^icv. ild 4;poch in tho litomry d«>- 
nilopiiicnit of IJk* Oi-nnaii nntitm.' Troitbhw at Witteii* 
1 Iln JuliwU Iv Ilia ^rbjainl OiMirldnip Dv 'E^cUt. II- rp- 1. IT, «>, 34, «a «Il 
* Oil LU(^ imtioot [laniktlaiu at Ika Qiblo Intu HSi^h atnl f^w ilirnnu, Mid 
M Ulvir miiilII droLi]«t!«i, v«|ik1b1|>' umuiiu llm UlVt me H^rjuu'ii Ar4i'/?«9tr> 
* f}D tilt] JlkuI'.' II ULik« ALlvunUdfDuf LiUtLurV Qilili v fumUUriu* '*piBp^ 
bnh *' — A " f^LU'lJuiLcnul irork far (he lumuiloa of tba pHjdn " — fltap* jn 
end tviDirkF liv lt*K*V /"A" ''«'' <?urUrAr4 ^ trrrtt, Ix. AM. sDt. 




;tfUid him fonJi, from hid roCrorkt* An iooroolAStio 
liad broken out nnder ih^ lead of CarlaUdt, 
for ihe porpoAo of swe&pirg awxy in an aLlinipt and vl^ 
Umt mmnaer ritea iIulI were cWmt^l TiioriiijfniuuM v'ltTi t!w 
new dodnotf. TJi«ro IpTsa ^t t'^^iUiiu ci^iiMmti^:^^;^ in L}jift 
nuSod voreractti, luid mAny of the chnni^ th/tt were a^ 
bctnplvd, LoUkit aA<l hin foliowcni thf^m^iclvc^ otToctc^ 
nftammnla. But thern was a spirit of i>nc^1iueii]kem and 
vLoleuoot of whiob Luther 8ait Ih^ dan^r ; and the inno- 
ilora vivTO aLUCtdalitif; wttli t][«ni*'elv«) jJEVti^nded |ji'0|>1ioU 
Zwivkuu, who i^liLJitii^] £1 miiitciiLonn iii.>«]ur;vtiim nt\d 
wc^ti the »po«tlr« of a siwial n'-vi>lntion. Luthci compr©- 
ftt A gUncc tJic fiili import of the cnai«. Should 
novemout issito in a sober £in4^ialut&rr reform, or run 
out into a nild, 6u:iatic!dl ae^t ? Ht ih a m:irlc of tl)« dotmd 
^Ipnuwrratlttin of LutUui-. or ruUi(.<r (if Lis profound Clin»* 
wiMlom, tnlmt bi* dt'^HinsI rm <iTiiLUgi» thtii, did ni>t 
rmilt ftpoQbtfWNuily from an insight into the trao princa- 
plrtt of ibe GoApf). Better* hi^ thought* to lot uIuidxioim 
Hto utd ccrcmoniixi ronituu, unL^» Uicj Eidl itvfny frgni 
jr pc[N:oivvJ inconsistcnoy ^vith th<? OoApoi, lu tlin 
^tunU romilt of incoming liglit nnd th« udncatinn of con- 
Mi«ai9*. " If m" he «ud, " are l» ho ic'tnofrlsuitu l)(honnae 
^r Jem Tr«*ry-, then like them w*^ murit kill ull the uii- 
jbeUrrffm.'* ' Hi> iffui uiiwriLliiig tu ):ttvo the utLentiaa of 
diawu &VBT from tlic i;pntnil ^^ucitioni^Jiy an rxcit^ 
nraitttboctlpouitaof mV'ordiiiatoninmriit; jvnd ho cotuilcd 
tto cftionSBS to bo of £iny valuo, however reAacm&bl^ in 
itenwolTW, which were bron^^t to paM hy the dictation 
Isii^f* IT by ^ly frinn cf i<it4>ni:i1 [iri*H»iin*. ScH'tii^ 
ftill Bxtpntof llir dfing<?r. h« riWilttcL wh^UiiVf-r iticfcht 
b&'foll hiiDMeif, to rctinn to 1ii» flock, leather nrvcr ap* 
pr«ni mure grand th^tn at this ntomoDtu To thc^ pradent 
..BUctor wfi'> vnim4>d biu of^et learing hie rotr^at, nnd 
|u»i that tw coald not protect hira n^inst the oon- 



pequenoeft of die adlcl of Womu^ lie wrote iu a ioSly 
■lr;tJn i>f ('Diintg:? >uli3 tmih, Hia went furUi. W nitld^ un- 
der fAT lughrr pi'ot<:ction ihttxi ihai iif t1i<: Elrctor. Ttui 
WW* a came not to bo iiidwl or dinxtcrd by tbc nwcmi- Hft 
whc ha£ most f^ih will bo of moiit ubo. " Sinco I now 
perceive,"^ he wrot^, '* that }-onr Electoral Grace is atill 
Tcry woak in faith, 1 can bj' no means regnnl your EUo* 
tiinil Hi^Tim^JU iia tht? uiiiii vtliu In iiblt- Ut aliidd at i%ro 
meu'^ ^ If hi> liru) km pivtulikg biialn<^f>ei ni Tjeipnc, lio iwiil. 
u he had ^t Witt*mbcrg, he would ride in tbcic if it 
wiovd DuLti (ii lipgtfl nino days !' Arriving at Wittoa- 
berj:, ho <Tnt«red iho polplt on tha foUowin^ Sunday, nnd 
by a. %vnvA of oigUc diACoitnes put an (nd to tliv fonuU 
dkbln dlKlurbiuiou (l.^i^^>, 

He«(ored ti> WittetibRrg, Lutljrr coBtiimed h>£ hercu- 
lean labors as a prcitchcr,tcadLer,and author, CL>ruineo* 
tta^^ tiucla, letters upon ull die varioua tbejtiee on which 
ho wa« daily eoimulted or on which ho ft-It Irapdicd to 
epoab, continually flovrod from his pon. In a ainglo year 
ht- put forth not le«B than one hundred aud eigUty-'tbtoo 

Mi'imlimn thti Ciinniul nt Rc^noy, who mariHgod the 
gurenim^at in tho abaonco of the Emperor, etedidily d^ 
cUned to julopt meaviuroa for the extirpation of tlie Lu- 
thomnj. TtK-'ground iras tahedi that thu ruJi^oua move* 
neat WIU9 ton much a matter of cowcscnec ; it had lAkcn 
root in thu minda of tiH> gntiit a numbfir to allow of ita 
teppl'ewini) by furcv. An Ji(l->mpt t^i do 80 woiild breed 
diflturbjuioea of & dangerous character. TIih drift of fa^ 
\vg tbruugh the nation vma unintEStakably in t]i«! dirrction 

X lltWnit*, II- uu. 
1 Tl* Wvtif. il. |«]. 

* Un H^-ir *',SHm c*rtfi vnlorim mi^ntli «( promT* mnnnn* *qiw mlhl Unit. 
^*«ii pninHlur* q(tl<«|^li1 mpM." UUtrld 14p«lAUo iF^ff. :(.]^«)|i H* W«(t«^ 




nviswf «F ^eaausxt. 

of nfom. Adnu VI., who wna a man of strict inonJiv, 
tho suocoawTT of Leo, X., foiind himself unnbit; ti; rt^mc^rly 
tlid sboMi to -which bo ftttnbutetj tbe Luth^nm inoTO- 
ni<n)t. Tfaer d^nanil which bo Tnjv]^ by bm Irg^r^ iit tlio 
Dii^ of Kurember^g. in l>'f22, llmt thi:^ ilecr^Ht ii^iiinAt 
LuUier abuulO bf? euforcei], w^ met by tlie pic«eutfttiQi] 
of a liift of :i bundred grievancue of wluch tbe Vioi bud to 
compbuti io thi3 Koraao eoo. Ilia BEX-coaeor, Clomcnt VI]., 
in whom tbn old spirit of voHdUned^, After the brief iiw 
Mmtl of Adriftj)'« T«]gn, wiia reVnstati^il in tbe pupsil 
C^air, faivtl litiTk* bi>i,l«r at thit Dii'l. of Niirtnilt^rgt in 
1624. when^ through liia Ungate Cjnupegglo, he demanded 
tho onroudiUond nippree^iou of tb^^ Lutb^nui bereay. 
^Thti i'opt: and th« £mpcror uouJd obtain no more than un 
aDdofiaito oogAgorooDt to obawrro \iia Wortn^ decree, ^' lu 
fivM pcseibl"/' 'Jilts w;don w«s <Miuival*int to rcumuid- 
in^ ih** ?ubjpc1 to the wveral pHiit*ft« witbin their respeo- 
ti\M l«?rrituri*«. It ivan i^i^tipW wIUi n mfpreiirt? of dia- 
pubfd mattcm in n gRiu^ml oL^undU and with n rcnohititm 
to iak« op the kinidT«d octmpbintfl at tho next diet. A 
majority Quidd not be obtained a^nst tbo LuthtM^nJia Hjid 
tn fnTOt- of tltu oooroivo moa^urod domaudud by the Pope 
and b^r Chxricc. And thu movomvnt of refortu wbh 
^pTMuHng in ftTK^ry part erf Gwmiany. 

Tlus upect of affiura movc^L tbvt papj^l jmrl.y to the 
nJuptJoo of Jhctive iD«aniiQB to turn tlie M^^le tiii tbt- otiiei 
nd<] — nKnaunB which he^pai Uie liivuiou of G<;rnuu3y. 
Up to thin poiitt 00 dtriaion hod o<^ctirnKL llt^ nntioo 
aftd moved iw oon lx>dy i it btid n^fuA^^'^d Uy ^ipprcm the 

il0«r OpmCMUI. Xnw- gtrwnofift p^nrtn WipTTn pnt fr>rth to 

imnbliif) iho CatJH>ti<9i into :t rompnt^t party for mutual 
aid luul ikfeiiae. At IWjabon art alllauce of thia diaiat^ 
foTB)^ by thn CatJioUc pnncoa and btahcrpH of 
Sootli Gcnnaiky, by the U-tnait of wliicb Uie Witt«nb(-rg 
Mmty wat to bo itxcludod fn>m tbuir donuoiooB, and tlioy 
vwe to litttp «acfa i>tber in tb*>ir commou dangen. At 



tlio Diet of NtJieTiiberg it kid boeu UttemiUied to Im^U 
na Eidnembly almrtly niu-r »t Spin^ft (ox the ret[u]iatioD «d 
«iMiWuiiiti<'tti nitiiirs. Tin? ]irii[<rus wua^ to procuiv ImIoto^ 
hntid frc^m Ihrir coiint.-iUor5 mid AcJinlarv a Nbitomunt of 
thfi jifiintu tn (iUjiiitv, The gTievaiU'jyi of tho lULtion fl^itro 
to Vi tad, ftTn.1 r*mwJ»(rs wore ta be eou^t for tlwm. 
Tliti luiLion waa tu JeUbyiaLe ujul act ou tUe gi^at uiatlcr 
of rellj^iouA reform. Tbo pronpeut wa& that the oraiif^* 
icnJ party w-:>alU bt- m the munjcrity* Tho ptipul court 
mvf tliir diin^;«^ thu.t wlia involved in oji uncmbLy gathccod 
for mich a piirpnw, and doterminwi to pr«v«nt the in«9t- 
inp. At ihi* Tiiompnt war W3* br*^lring out, liefween 
Chm'l*« atid Fraiitia* Charlea hud no iiii^liriaLiun Uj<ifT<*ud 
tki? l^ope. He forboiilui tlin itaMinbiy At Spin» juid, by 
If^ttm nddrcMed to the priticrji indmdunlly, cndcftTorod 
to drivo thom into thn o)i:4>c»tion of the odiot of Wornte* 
la oona^qtifhnro of th«J4@ thr«<at«ni&f^ moTemeutSi blie 
Elect:»r of SriTony and the I^^aitdgrave of Hease cnturc'd 
into tlift dirfniHcvt* ViigiM uf Tta^u, in wliioh thry wn*0 
join<^d by gt^vcrjl Pn"t*islRnt i^nmiimmtios. The battle 
of i'avia and tlie capture uf Fr&ociA I. vrero QveotA that 
uppejued to h^ fntii^iit •vhh pml to the Frotti»tAiit cauuw. 
In the t'cncc^f Miidiid |JanuiiTyl'1,]r>*^tJ] both ftovcrcign* 
avowod Uio dctonninfttaoo Ui ««pprr«n hopchy. Bnt tbo 
dangerous prepr}nd«ra,noa obtuned by the Emporor craBted 
an Hlami t.liroiigLout Europe; »iid tin? relwue of FruMdtt 
vrw t'Aitiyit^tX by Urn iir^uii/jitJoit nf n. ctunfi^ilemny nfpiirut 
CbftHcn, pf which Clrincnt ^m the Ica^iing promoter. 
This changed the imperial polii^y in rofetcmco to Uu 
Luthorana* Tho Diet c£ Spiree in lo2l> ucajuiDOiAaly v^ 
Holvf>d that, until tJm tiiGctiuff of a ffeuorul council, every 
9^if chonld act in ivgnrd to the •diet of Wonc* u h 
mi^h^ ftnjrwrr to Giid n.nd hm Impnrkl innjt-iity. Ono9 
mi>re (.i>inn!Uiv [vfn>H^d i" sUf!«i Uic Rtf<iiin»tion, and 
a<lfif;ted t]i« principle' tliat nadi of t!ie ootnpdtciit part^of 
^e Empire nlionl^i be Irft free to act iiooi>rding to ita 


wilt Ic vmM a monmtro of tho bigbo«t impaHmicd to Um 
etttitto of ProtMtantttm. It i« a j-reat Uuidnuirk in th« 
bidovy of ths Gefrm^ui Reform;ttion, The wtir of the 
Rni[h*nir&lid lht< Po]>0 li^Tolvrd the ntiCfvMity uf (.(ilemtitig 

In 16^, lin impvriid tirmy, compoMd Largely of Lu- 
tliofiui biCiutTy, ctiptttrcd and uai^lci^d the city of li>£Di^. 
FocMTorul monttift tbv I'opt? wns hd<l a prifiuneT. For 
B ntunbor of y««J» the podti^m of Chiirles crith resp^ot to 
Frauhoe vhl ibv Fope, &m1 the fear of Tuikyi inv'jiiktn, 
hmd opcmied Vj embolden and greatly atrpngtli^^ii tlie 
CHUAR of Lutbor. But now tliat Uio Emju^tur liad gaii'iind 
m comploto riclorjr in Italy, thu CotJioIia purty roviviixl it» 
policy of ropcwiooi luid nt die Dint of Spii-OA^ in 16i!9, 
a majnirftj wm obtaiiu^d for nn edict virtuatly forbidding 
tl»e progren of the iC^fi^niiation in Uit.' atiite-i wliicrli Luul 
■dC wweptMl iL, at tlw rfiiuie Uuie lli^t UlH^rly wo-t ^ivi<!ii 
to tbo adhcnrtild oi tlm old confesai^D in thi^ rcfcnncd 
gtiU<a to oelcbrato tbcar rites with freedom* li \s impo»- 
libltf to dcechbe hero the methods by wliioh a rtivursiil of 
tlbtt actional poUoy vae thus prooured. The deci8kv^> dr- 
tomstanouwiiAthiLtCluTliett v., Incoiuequetujeof hi^ »ym< 
pfttJiy wiUi thu >]i;rit uf S|iaiiiHh C^UiulidHin, iiinU<iul of 
pff^t^ himself »t tiw- liowl of t^m g^ri-Jht rtUgioiin uid 
■vliim] tnoTcmont in Germiuiy, cLotc to moiDtuQ the 
«iici«nc union of tho Empire with t\x& P»p!u:y. Tht pn^ 
Ujtk ngtthtft tJi4- prooeodinf; of ttie Pic^t^ which f^uri; the 
baibA of Pn>tUHtiuttii to the reforming party, And th^ ap- 
pMl to tbo Kvpomr, ton gL'iionl rir n G^Tmnn conncil. and 
to M urtjiftrliai C1iK«ti:in ju'lgr^^^, w.ia »4igit«Ml hy John, tht! 
Kliidur nf Snxuuy. ibu Mnr^avv of BnLiidt?tibiu^. Uu) 
I>vbeof BruDfwick-Liineburfc, the L<itidgniT« of Hcom. 
tfae J*rince of Anhult ; U> whom wvro united f':>urtOQa 
cMcBi uaong whidi ^f^i-ff Nun^mbci^t&tiiwburg, AadCoo 


Tbt purty of reform did not oomid^r it«elf bound h* 



the ooticn of tbu Diet, not otiiy bocaitfio ita «diot looko4 
to coTn^ulfliun in ix tiiatt^r tbat should be left to thd 
ccnudtTitcij, but »Uc* bttuuse It ovortlitGw a pf^licy tvliich 
hiid litrcti sokfinnly urtitbliiJjfHl ; k [loUci^ on Uu^ tuith 
of whiuh the princfi« Hiid cit]«» that wi^n; f^Toniblo to 
tbe ev}^ti^licul cause had procced^id Id shaping their r&- 
ligiou» polity uud woraliip. The efforta madu, cept'cially 
by tliu Lundgrtive d H4>flBe, to ccnabiue tlio Bupport<fra of 
the Itotonnatitrn in ii defensive lea^e, were obilltd by Urn 
fipjMiiiition of Luther to mej-^iires that If^oked ta a witr 
with thi'i Emperor, &Jid ettll mora prevented from beicg 
BUCtvttifiil by liiH deitermiiK^d tJiLwiiliUgUL'Ha U* uiiil*- with 
the SwijM, Crti lU-'OJimt of what lie tuiiaidered ih^'tv berctii^iil 
doctriius oE the? micniineDt. Lutbcr mtd hiA luiaocdatci 
wfiro bnbuud with a Benec cf tbe obligation of Ul<i )(iibjo>ct 
to tho pawAtM that be and with t}ie ftictedneflft of th*^ Em* 
ptrw. The Cfiurw for th* Christian to tak^ in their 
judgoienL, waa tJiat tif pasaive abedjfiiice, TIikj IjVw- 
wjtic dc^t^iiicHl it an iinh^wful Qiizig to joiii ivith orroriatA 
^vrith mca irho Kjected matenal parts of Chmliau 
truth. Uo^rovor opon to criticieiu tlie pcBition of tho 
Soxou r^fonuGrs was ou butb of tht>s6 poiiibi, it ttbould 
not be forgotten thiit tb9ir general luotivu vru tho «ub- 
Umr! dijin^gaiv] of nrnrti uxptMli^nc^y, which hiid chsirAOt^iw 
iz^t jiiid, wi.^ may ndd* had oociobled tliefr nioven^ent at 
evciy step* 

Irt this etatc of things, the Emperor, flushed -nith m^ 
000a, met the repre»entativE»i of Uic Jimpirt; in 16J*0, ot 
th& mumonMa Diet of Augnburg. Tbo inconvoEiioDc^ 
and dangf?T of kipping fliu Popo in captivity had caused 
Charlen Ut wwl* fur an acicoiiimoi.latton wtth hiio. Tb« 
drtsire of CltmeiLt Vn.. a^f'wrkia^ puUtiu?uL txj hrtvii 
Flon^nce restored Ui hiA family^i in i^onnoctlon with ether 
Irfls inflncM^tid oornnidrrationj^i. in?tpircd him with a lik^ 
ff^flUng ; so that amity was re establish c^< I, At the sam* 
time Ths rfra*;e of Cambray temiiimted for a time th^ 


COp Urt vitfc FrUice, Tlitr Kuii^tivir ^<^\l» freed ftoiii thd 
•afaamttuMOtla iduch liai) Lbdi^rc^d hitu from puitiiitf 
foTtfi f1i'1«'riiiini<rl i-nilrxvont I*,!! n'Hl.uri? tJui unity of tlio 

flJIod vritb a aeoac of Iiia rcapi^iiaibility 04 iho hca<i of tLo 
Uoty Honmn EnpirCi tlio gUi^rtlJan of ChiiatJanil^ anil of 
Uii? Cbunih. Ho wm surrounded by tiie Spauidh nobility 
at wi-U n* l>y tfao princvs luid rtiprf>!(L«Dtitiv-;£ of tbt* Ern- 
pm. Tlw iliwign wiw to pi^niiiu^i-, and, if thi« should 
prt>Te Jmpraoliwtble, to orerawd arul ctwrco tlur I'rijtin*- 
tiLQlA into tux aLomdonmeiAt of tUeir <:aufle. A faitti aud 
br?ri^iam lew tttefulf-tst irouH ijiv\e jk-ldt^ to the tremen* 
iIqim pnsdtturu tbut waa broti^ljt to bixir upon thcitt, it 
Wftf Qoi eoiuttdoTcd winfs or ^ufti fi^t* Littli<^r to p> tci 
j\ii^hurg. H«» «^n« 1<rft hcJiind in tb^ c^utle of Ccburf^, 
witiiiu Ute linratfl of tlte El^rtorH dominloti, but lit* Ldd 
frequent uiuuuuuluitiuu wctb tlt» Sa^uu tln^oloj^mti^ wbii 
ftttcnded tlio Elector. THr o«lebrated C/unff^nAirHn^ dmwii 
np by Mclanctbon. in a conciliatoTy spirit, but clvarly 
defimni; tbo csBcoitial t«nci9 of l'r<>tt?«t&uij)^r[i — ii (u<tH.*d 
wfakh haa obtained mora ouTronoy and rcupe^^t tliim tmy 
atbvFrot««tanC»rmbol— 'Vrnatefidtothu Asscfrably. Tbo 
r^ply, miiipiHnl by K<Ji And otliiT Ciitlidlii; tii«>lf>gifui]i, 
WSs also pn^voiti'd. Tli'rii Fo1b>w<^d nfTrirtAnt uoJiijirdimiMT, 
in whkfa Mfll&jQCthc^n bore a proniincut parti and Bbcwod 
m wilUngiiuoa to oonoedo everythiD^; but that which wu 
df^^tsM taotit viutU TbtiftA vSocta MX to thu i^round. 
Tbvyeoalcl invent no forxBulnBcnwluoh thi^y oauld itgn«, 
^pon th0 nMUtt of workft, pmanci>, and tb« in^rocation of 
itJL Tlifl t-lalH>rat« unA !\h\v A]YA*v^y by MHaTi'^tlion, 
ilefiiniit! tjf (be Cojifewitin, who ni>L bi'itnJ. but svaa 
rb«1ird by the autltor. Th^ majority of the Diet en^ 
IJmiMH] tbc tMtomtioa of the; old coclc«i»ticiU ini^itutioiM, 
Allowing t^ ProtMlnnte Umv for roHoction imtil th*< IOIji 
jf Nf>r«nnber of tllo foUoirinf; year; nft<*r whicli, it wm 
-jkpUmV cotncjon wouM be adopted. Nncbinff in th«< ht» 



tory of tlui Kt-foriu.&tii.<u U uhmv^ p&tbotiv Uiaa tii« condud 
of Ui^ EI<3dor John at Au;^l>uri;, who, in the (uU pro»- 
ptvl of th(^ min of t<v4>ry j^nnlily int^r^t, aud uot witUoiit 
tUv ilL-L<|ial H'ruibility from hin AtUidimL-iit to lliv Etn- 
iwriiriind to the ptuiciaof tlir- KnipnT'^iicTv^rthL^li-jA iTst>lv0j 
to ataud by *^tbc iwpcrishftble Word of God.'" Tbe 
R<!f6niKii9 wcTQ wililDg to release tiiiu from all obltgatioD 
to prob>ct them, to tuko wliatever lot ProTidoQoe tuight 
ti^ml upoti Uii*m ; bin tbia crue-h«aLrt«d ptiib» rvfused to 
i-cmiprciriiTxe in tliu l*-ujit bi* *wri>d c^oiivietion*.' 

Tho Irttora wntten by Liitbin liurlog Qk ^wnions of 
th^ \}Kt (^xbibii la K'ld 11-licf the [Lob]««t axul niuot aU 
tni(^(tv(? Htd-^ of bin ohiiractt^r- The fine nungUu^' of je*t 
ttnd uiriic^U tliL' grcuid vluvatioD of bia fiutb, bis vcnrn^t 
d&uiitUvn cuiuMj^v luul hut hrotxd Ho^Qity, ^lts never mor^ 
striking. iJc take* timi: to vmiv » cherming letter to U* 
lifctbi i^nii. ^ To hUfrif-ndHat Angnbiirg Hp sportively wril«i 
tbal lij ILl- fitick of i;[Hj\Ts auid roukii burryuiy Xo tunl fro, 
imd Am^miEig in ji Lliiokct before \a» wiiidon, lj<i Jinds 
ADQthcr Diet, with tto diik^H n,m\ brd^ vrbjch quite re- 
eemblce tho imporiiil oaiwmbJy. " Thoy du-o not for large 
haUfl oud palooE^a, for their LslU is roofed by tho boaotiftti, 
widL>ftpriHuUiij; sky, \U floor U the einiple turf, ita tublwi 
nre |irptty g«TiMi bniiiolit*a, and SU widJi* »n? us widi* 114 
tb(i wrjrUr« it^nd." ^ lln ^Ul build Ibt^rt;, 111 hiii NO^olliHion, 
tbroo tftboniBicLesi ouo for the prophotA^ one for tbc I'»al< 
loTt and another for ^aop ; for not only vill ho expound 
tli« Scn]^urc-B, he will trau^U* .&op, too> for the in* 
■tncticn of Ini Odrmontt.^ Wby had Mutur Jciuhiin 
ttrica written to him in Orw^k? H« would reply in 
Turliiidi.Ao thjLl. MHJ^Mrr .hm.MiiTiL Tuiglit uUo ivju^ whnt ho 

1 Joho iliu C'f>urJive >ucH*liil bit bPt^thur, Frtdarlc ttifl WlH.lnUS^ 

ID. Vi'«(r4, iv il. 

* D* WgEIp, |v. I, B, 13. TIjd ifUflr ii AafQ^I rmiu "(J>« Dial 4>f Unun^ 
iVhiM," April flS, EC30. Wrifiiij- 1u ^fiklAlin ii ti-:w J^rt ^liir ib Eho hvb* 
itnuiE, hcufilaf " ITvt U ■• in turiiTiuiiuii *ai1 b; tNimpLiliitin ihtil I jut, tbot 
Au^ n(4l Uiii nfluaUuua wUiub ru>h m u|«[i map If iaC«il I may v«pd 
Ot U'tUt. I' n. « !>> WdOa, lv.%. 



VOuU ncH iindATsiand.^ Ht? a^ta a trap to d^oya foatidi^ 
o<i»titiiJ&u'?il rritieixroaii appi^ovsiluf a ^k^r^ w]noh LuUiuv 
Uad hiiu«L'U parllj cttiupojinj, bub whk'ii lu? ctintrivvtK tri 
bavtt pAtt&«<iE off jtfi H p4*rfurinjtTicc nt Atigaburg, U> t^^lo 
-kmtc the tiutnmce cf Oht^rkn »nd I'VniinjLnd.' 8uiTcdng 
hiouelf tx^m proatrutji>Li of iitront^th and from a thunder- 
ing iti the hf4iU whick forcud him to laj down bis bookA 
UiT dAV>^ liA rnjnini Mplanrilion to cbserre the niles fcr 
tlj*r c&ra of Urn " little Ixxlv." ° He ex}torl« tLe aiixioiti 
FtiUIp u> Uie vxeroisb of Krt^lt-r fuith^ If Moaeo hud rt^ 
solvod ia Icuow juMt Iioiv b« vnu» to uncdpc frc^m tho lutiij 
f>f I'haniolit [j^nLi^l ^TOuld liiivo bocn in l^^pt to-djiy> 
Lpt Fbilip cwui« To tH> /4^c^tlr mundi and 1(?t the I>ird 
go^'nm-^ In bAf^jng private ^li^ta anJ ^l^ictiona, PEiilip 
wuh Uir? Mrtiti}^, hnt llm iippoHite in true, »:tid Luiber, 
ol tlvne trbitiJi ie'^ uf a pubUo nature." If we iull^ ht) 
*i]r». Chnnt fulln, unJ 1 pr^tsr tt> fall vdih Cbrbt than 
ituid with O^t^aaJ Hv n?joiciw to hiivo hvt;d tfi tiuvo tho 
CcwJuoion n^d bciore tlio Emptro.' Ho bids MoliukctlioD^ 
if tke C4UBe is nnjosc, to ahAndon it ; hi^it if it be joat, to 
CMfli ftwav bu fuiiH. 11^^ is full of thiU mibbiiki* LvudL- 
dfiQci? n'hi'tb rui|{ out iii t.litr nnai pupiiliu' of hia Ljiuiw, 
*■ tbe HftrwHUAiAC of the Reformation" — 

"KiDffvtfr HarjiBf tindrf GoTl" — 

Tbrve bouTB tii tiv9 d^y U& sp^nt in pray^tr." Hi> writ^A 
tn tJ)*^ Ebvtor's anxioitt Cbanoellor ; '* T have lately teen 

< lUJ., p. Tl. 

» iiiu,ii.u ' iuiL.|iLoa. * [t-ij., p. 00. 

> Tdl D^«iM. vbv «■ vltb lilut. BTuui w HrtimULou i " 1 cAUODt 140- 
#«nrltf tA llib[iiui'#Bi|pdr»lf]t>HiiIfuiiiu», cLcDrtuEccuriCG, (liii). Md 
M «• AeMtl • ilmt. Q« DVurUin (fans Icmptn, tionvnjr. bj aUHlLoHi, 
M n>4ftul<tn ol Gon'f Word, N'm i iIaj ttuut vbon ^o du» mi 
hcunt uA ifaoHbnl luttnt fvr imdj. In pmy^. iynrr I IbaO tlit 
iomH t« bcv liim rnT' '^"'1 ffC'li vrluc ■ fnlrti ^iiirvrO in liu wiml*! 
^frtfM irMi fDrb (vmritH ihcionipinw hit vim utkJniE vLUi fi»*^\. u»l v«( 
vflk «w« tUUk ntd bAK TlvMC HfBf I M If ht ma iaIUitir«1iIi Ji fmhirinl 
I kknr/ Ik* Mk4 'iTi«£ Ttinu kA ciijr Got! unl riiii^. f4u I im 
Tbfiv all hrtic ^ t^mnr ih« |«nfcu^>n nf l^tj rtiiltrti^ If lliflii 
M M<, ^ bnrd •& 1>i4p h waII » min- In iniUt, lh« vhbt* B*lttir ft 


two woiiitera, — firat, lu* I It¥i1<r4 out of lln* wimlow, 1 
eiivi Llie hULCM lii Lbif heaveicb iLud the entire tN^ntiial 
vault vrhidi Cod liiw miaeU ; y«t l!ie iieav«na fell not* 
und tii<j vriult ntill atiLudcs firm. Novr twm^' would be p[1ad 
tn 1^41 till! pilLuTi thai KUMbun it, uid grofip luid f««l 
thrtni." " 'l'h(» <^thnr ii-ns r I snw gn*At t\i\t± nloQiJn hiui^ 
ing ahnvft im wiih riipIi weighty thnt thny might. hi\ raim- 
puTL'tl tu a ^r«uL hi^ei : 2Liid j«t I fiaiy no ground on wLJcb 
they itaU^il iiud no T«satl wliereia itiey ^itr* toutaiued ; 
yet thi^y <iid itot fitIL u;>on us, but nn.Itit<!(l unwiUi vi luirab 
look n,ncl AjmI nwnv. As l^icy ^hslSS iiw^iy, n minbf^w uliinm 
forth on tIic grniiiiH am! on our iw)f >" * "All thiugw,'* 
he vrritea m luiother plaw, **are in the liajids of God, 
vfh\y L*aii uovfii- the flky vtiih ulouda Mid bri^iten It ngaJn 
ill n. niomeut,"^ It is pilitful to liim tiiat God'* Word 
ma-^t bo so flilont nt Augi*burg ; for the Proteetants wore 
not fillowod to preach,^ tic had n settled 4^fttnu( od 
Cftinpeggio and tho oth^r Italians ; ^^ where &n ItalinJi i> 
good, ho i» uioapt good,*' but to find «acli an onu in os 
hnrd aa trt find a black >twan. Ha w<^nt tJong with 
M^'hkiirthf^E^ ut a vrilllngn^M lo oii^kt^ i^o^R'^Hi^iona. pro 
vldnl llie cYiiiigelicaJ duclrlue itud frei-Uom iit iin^cblr^ 
it were not ti^tcrifictid. He biM no »nnpicioii of Thilip, M 
BOmo had- J'hcaxj were many crmmooics. which wc» 
trifloe^/enV«/fl! — not worth dieputing about. Yet it 
did not belong to the magietrate to dlot&te to tha CboTCk 
in thea^ pt"int*,* He woidd j^o so far, tliough not withoot 
rrtliH'UmL'i% la la rtllow hishnjH t« iTimiJnur, but wimld 
IH^riiiit nr> ALibjt:^!!^!! Ut tli<* PapAoy. Dut LiiLluTT had no 
belitif in tlio powibUity of a oomproniliio or reconcttiatioQ. 

Thl» ifirni iTf Utr* han aniy iioinpillvd to UfhvtAiaiMk tCi Thnuntrvt Ihta 

. i |>« W«(i4«Ir. 1^. Ai ui«rli<irdjirH'thlb4 orcwbrKpf hlslatarrfe' wUk 
C>]<U]ir ill ^pl? I'r Ibt L|U^t]n vUmhii wouiil hLiiilI it thif RSKearbhOBldM^ 
•upjrittc li]iii, Unftmwvml, " Caiar dim nvitvn ITliujiii:*] : " 

• U W*tu, W. 110, KM. 



OTOT- Ht^r^oovUd bo no agrt^i^mt^nt hi d^ii-triuo ; politi- 
cal ppsww alonp vrau to ht* aimed iiC nnd hopo^ tor} llvncd 
be ivjoic^d whc^ii Ctie purlloiis nL^gotintLoua helv^e^'ii th^ 
o|>poaum; ouLiiuilUte of theulogiaus vft^ta Ln>ujjlit hj na 

Ihero on Mveral <)oGurniUOc« not yet notioed, which 
tookptftcein tlio uitvrTjtl buLwc^m the Diets of Woiina 
mad of Atigxbttrg, nnd wliieh nrv of marked importance 
botli m tJi«iir bearing on t\n- Itpfommtion, and aa illoa- 
U«tiag tho p9T90Dat cbaia^kr of Luther. 

One oi tiie«e ereots wa^ \m iujlttU^'ls iu 152^3* to 

Cotlufuio Ton Bora. Ho resolved upou Uiib iiiuaeuru^ ju 

we loom froM lunuclf* pikrtly bvcitudu be cx^icct^d that 

bU 1if<^ wonUI not cMitmrni Inng. Mid \i& waa detormincid 

to EiMiiiV, in thti in(Ht impiv^AJvn form» hin l;i^f,iTnony 

■fflllini the [tomittb Ifiw of oulibiicy. Anctlier tuutivQ 

wu a jruai-EUOt; for ikt biippineaa of domeauc life, vthkh 

Im pftTcnta, vho luui cmbriit^^'d tiv-. new fAJtb« cncoortkgcd. 

^Vha MAndft] thnt bip njnrrin^ cntu^d, lirot among bia own 

fUend^ and t]i«a thn world ovt^r, hnrdly ftUl jdirjTt of that 

Oecwlofiefl by tlje posting of hifl tb(?sfis. Tli^ erampla 

of liotJier wHtf (t^lun^ by many of bia aAHor^ulti«. wliiuli 

g»vo riae U» tlte i:bjir.u?t^iEitic juAt of Eraaruita, tfiAC' what 

bad bcfoi aUlcd a tragedy MwmtJ tu be u ooiuedy, va it 

Cttme oat ta * tnAmaga The niorriiigo of an *poebat», 

vwnfc with a nmawaj nun b^tokftattd, in the viovr df 

Uw lapentitionA, the ocooing of Antiobnut aa th^ trxdt 

tjf tbe itnballowed utuoiu But it wha one of Ui<uw bttltl 

^vtvpit clutn»cicnfttic of Liitbr?r, wbkL« tti t)i^ Ii^iig ruof 

pCDTwl of advntitii^ to bii c^-iuac. It j^vl^ him th<; voIaoo 

of bomd, in sha intoiwo oxcitctucnt and pTodi^ona kbon 

in wlucU h« wag imjnenod for tbo r<iftt of bin daya. 

TbvA. vi^ minimi, And soDg and frrtbcn wHh his diil* 

Jtvoi, in tl>c drde uf biti frientb. he |>oumt out bid litiinr>v 

■ D* Wtil*, 1* 110^ 


^Cbd kindly f^elin}^ ^iliotit «tint. Hia itiv«?irliikg 1ott«n bi 
hm wifiT — » liw " MiHtrtHh KtiU?«'* *' DiidoresH LulLer*" w 
he vtyW h?r-*ftiid tlin tomieT exprvMiona crf hifl f^nei 
%t the death of hid children coiild ill ^h- uparud from the 
rocotdft of thifl <h«p-h<^urCfid miti.^ 

Amon;* iheao events jtre hia wmtirivorfitiui with King 
Henry VIII. and witli KT"iwmrin< Fmrn thn oiirnet It 
»j» i^vHli<iit lliai Lutlier ijiuat eiUitr give up \m iTotrta 
or diDU-tid fill' it 4^ntaBt iiotuitlena advera&rivn. Hn 
polcmiciil 'writinii.'s nro t!ii:rcforQ quite mimuroua, and it 
ehovvn th*! uiiiplitiido of hiff mind Uunt ho did not &l]ovr 
hiainelf to be so fnr abnortHxl ill lhi» MOtt of work ^ to 
nt't{l**ct more pns*itivp luhom, thriing*! hm Bibl^, cat»< 
rhibTiM, eeriiianH, tnt^tv, for the building up of the 
Churohn llo hiid I'J fiK^it hin ttvrix (nL-uds ivhT-n they 
ttwi^rvL-d irom th(? truth, ua did Uarltrtjidl, and nhio 
Ajcriouhk, who «6t up a form of Antiit^miajiiaiti, But 
hit principal !itt»mry biiltha wi>rv witJi Hunry VIII. und 
urit.b Eru*mu8t The int*>aiiw?Taoce of Luther's Unguu^ 
Uaa bdi^n e^ns^, &a it wua then, ii Hiilijeut of fnN|u»nt Dfin- 
unrp. Tt nnidt hp rwiiipmhi-ft^l, li(i\ri?>vr, whnt u tirmjM-jit 
of doniindation fc^ll upon him ; how htr iitood for ^ill his 
iifo a. mnrlc for tiio pitihm hotrtility of ix great pnrt cf the 
world. It mnflt h*.^ mnn'mhri|\*<l, too, thut for n tiiuo ho 
etood alont^, and «ivL«rything d^-ponded oh his eonatimcy, 
deU»nuluKt)cjr]« tiiid dAvitilletu ei^liI id the loumt^iuiiicu of 
h» tMiiHiv H;id litt rtH.ver»"d> i?v rry ihiti^^ M'ouhJ hnvii Iw^i^n 
toot^ And mildti^M of huiguikg^, Im> ^fud^ wm not hia 
gift; he i?ould not trend so «oft]y and li|>htly as Mclanc- 
tht>n.* HU oonviotione woro too iutcnao to admit of ftti 

dtalh uF Ilia Et4iu:1jLr-r 1>v Woilir. LU, ilA4, A L^Tinpli^Ei fUTnuci nf Lutlitir'i 
ibiuHKli^ di4rui4<r xin\ r^hii^jii U citmi hy V- 1*. llnfriiAn. ^■itbarJi'i w* 

tktr'tZeknrlat-ptnffwH. wm M, Jitlimm KicuIhui Anurn [litipiJg, JftHj 
* Jailer to Ott Elwiur Hfohn, D& Wflli*. Hr, IT, 



tn of ^ktm in CJay Imt the strongest Un^af^ ; in 
^rordft tlj^t were blows- >f^>rQ0veT4 he b^lievr^i iiv (o b^ a 
Bound noil win policy to Ring nway reserve and tri sp^ak 
ODt, in U)« uwit unflpnrifig manner, iht* Kt'jitirnerit.A nf Ili& 
■oiiK It «ma mit a diiwiue U* Lit i:ut^d liy a jnillijiUvr.' 
Tbe foTmitlAblc cnemj ng^innt whicli hi? wit* vriLging ww, 
VM rondcTcd moiN? nrrognnt And cxnctin^ by every act d 
dofeVttDce eLown him, ^rtd hy (iwiiy c^ncriAHicn- Tlicra 
WM no middle coui«c< to be pniRU^d> Tli?r@ mQ»t be 
«um>i)dar. or o]i^it. iiticoinpiH»mii<iiig war. H^^sifies ^n hla 
«tu(ly of tyin Bil>lc?, Iiu oiu* himMU lt» find a wttr- 
raAt for 4JI bU liAri kn^iJift;, in tbc^ onimt- ttktMi by tht 
|4<opbcti, by C^hrinl, nnd by I'auU' Ho fuLt thut he wtu 
in oonflict with ihn ttitnio l^buriviEUord tlttfolo^ ruid ctliicn, 
«4ticli coiled forth tbp tflrrihlp di'nunHationii rec/>Med \n 

lA^^w Ti^TATiveut- If il wa« [>rr>]i^r io cal\ tUIii^a by 

[tficb n};bt immm tli«D. il wzia prDjier nun, Hh IlxiI 
ImmpeTtsI h\ tbe b^giiming* ii(< (^amc to tliinlc. by 

'■■ Use humilitY, by * lingering revci'cni.'i^ for nn tiutliwr- 
ftj ih^l deMrvod no n^voroticc. He ro;:prctti>d Lbat at 

;:WanUfl btf }u»d D{>t't^on ;L»difT<>rtmt. tont^ ; tLut hu btkd 
Lid nnytiiiiig ubout retTa'ftb}^ lu co^g bo ooiUd b« oon- 
TiTiivil iiT bn iTHiTT. Ht? vrnitM pjuI nil xiii^li <piali fitxtUf inn 
ami I'oirArdly n^rupbv to thit wiiidn; Itf: vniiM »l;uid by 
«r1iat bo knrv to 1x> trutb. without any timid respect for 
te ■drereani'*-' Tbr»cf ootisidcnLtione aro noC vitboot 

■ * AM ffV iloftnulain «H Jc )i4cc at in^iriuUlllBCo Imjin ni, zul vtrbuv 

* "MitB Hu^tl cM nldil uiii MiHtlluiuki. Ci^ aEviu nldifd fidcraick 
^tt,«4«**ebuaU!i'.«iiKjj*utl, irLo Stli K^fT Miljtr t^nilmn liibo." DvW«tUk 

* 111 i:(fn ivbDiki far Idi i/rtLtntiHt in ■ IcUvr Co WcnctAkoi link f-locwl 
|>t tlVk, IM VTviit, I ir^ AoKHiif olhor UilnoB he Bjir *' ndooanlB BiW 
a/tm nartn vnlo cncumur. tnox imUn la abUtlooina, kom^B n r-«nui;«," 
Wi My ■>■ "WW ttai roTi uil HTTniT«rt c-DTa|«i1blvL r>r W^uv, ik Vlft 

* lUun WfiHi^ IfVtfit^for ' Ivtlnitlnfin TiltI IaUp-" HhIU warr* 

mttiffnttmit r4 Italian, vhtr* woulil liaw hrvi rAa RfiTuniLAilun? T^a En» 
«^v (u vAlnn tfifivnlf, tnqph Lib IodIi «irA mnjiUrenry upru l^!b«r. 



weight. A moa w!iLoe untitral vr^apmi a a battii^«xtt 
Cau^t tivt l>c r<]l>uki^d Eur not buidUng & rafncr. There ia 
AometiiDufl yrork to tx) done- whicli the lightvr juid tnura 
graot-fol w«tipon could ouvor ftoooiDpli«h. At Uw tfunic 
ttnu-, vriUi bll LiithL^r'n LundftnivM of frnling, with hu 
firii; mill evwj |M)i.tic MUMbility, diere wa* a VH*in of 
coarMrncM, a pkbui&u veJifimvui^ viluch* vrlieu he wua 
^idcd by oppuitlonr^ngeoderod scurrility, 

Tho b-x>k of H*iary VITl v/aa dirticitnl against Lu- 
iher « work on the toomiucuts, " Thn Bahylonian C»j>- 
Uvity,"* It In miLrkfid by extrtiQe haiiglitiri^ss tnwani 
Lxithrr, mill Ih hnrdly li'iM viUipiinitivf tlinn tl^i Riifurinrr'n 
fainous reply. Lnthi-r was the hcuod who had bioogbt 
up licrcflic^ anew out of hell ; princes would combino to 
bunj him and hia books toother. It waa thrc-ughout aa 
appeal to authority ; Luth«r bad audaciouely presumed 
to Btit himaeli a^uflt pop^n and doctors without nimiber. 
T\\l^ 'ntiitmuntm <>f Huiry'n btKilc iXtUiU wlioUy dnjiHiidHd 
on tho fact that JU aulhor wix* one oi lb*: rul*ini i>f tlwj 
earth. Luther probably itic^it to neutralize Uua unpraft- 
aion by berniriiJK ^h« purplo of thia regal dispiitaiit w-ho 
had rttcppud forth, wiiJi Ixia ctowti on Uia hc^ad, into the 
amnii. of tlittol<^«il difbatd, to win from ih<i Pope* whom 
h« objiq^qaiotwly Hnttivc»f), Uie titl« of T5<*ft*ndL*T oi Uia 
F»Lth. Suljwujnently, whm Hoiify wiis mputud to be 
faTorubtc to the I'rot^ULnt caiiae, at the eamcfit soLicatn* 
tioii of Kint,' CKriatiao 11. oE D^^nmark and of other 
frii^iidfl, Luther atoIo to the King a humble apology for 
the vioknoo of hi* bnguugi* ^ niukin^ ui> withdraw^, 
howi^vsr, of jtny (lortton of hia doftnni?. In compo^ng 
lhi« rtjifilo^'iii^ li'.ttcr be w!i* carrird jiwilv. ht^ nay»«by the 
pruiiipLJiigH of utbera* to do what of bimi'^lf htj would nercr 
hare (lone. Yet, notwithstandit)|; the nngciirrotift roovptioii 
and UAO of the hotter by Henry, Luther did not ngnt 

1 jWiverilo Btpten SaaraaMnt<mkn oJmnu Moriinvn Lmiltrmm lUtll 
UltpnblliEffl In ■ Oenun [innilaUori Iji Wklcb'i cd. vf Lulliar^ Wittifh 


ihni hf hh^ -vmiteix iu oa lie did not regnal the aeoding 
of u ^tniLir c-puitic to Duk« (jScor^. As far ju hia crtm 
pcnon vniA concerned, Iio noid, ho viu willing in bnmblo 
hinHH^f to n c'hild ; hit drntrtiio ho would not cj>TnprT>mi0O, 
But 9:icb ^p4^ent^^« ^^t^bluh^ bam ld the feeling, 
whidi ht^ hikd «iutert»UL«d b^fore^ th&t humility wsa 
Utruwn Jinav : tl^ut hrr^i w;i3 ;i »rorlid ihjiiQk-I, in wliurh 
gmtlc wcrdii -m^tt*. nunintcrprat^d, and tlicwrforc, wasted, 
Aud into which it wm v:>rso than foUy to cotcr vrith hj« 
hftDdfl ti^> Undot suob circtirrtstani^s, n lann nnu^t 
naltiMr thinh of rotraat nor of thd possibility of placat- 
ing Ch« foe. It vm natural that hEs «cp<*rierLOo» of oon* 
tmvvmiy, in thinr iiotuin rni ii trnijirr nHtir-^tlly ritmlatcvH^ 
^ould fxintributc io wivry Lutlii-r Irx hcyoml t.lur Inviiriiln 
td c^i&ntj^ ai welJ as of civility, in hia treatment of tbe 
SaerameotariatPB, iho odherentfi of Zvrm^t. 0£ this 
matter, wbara hifi i&t>«inp0rfttioe wOfl moito OLisoLieTOiu, 
wn ftbnll «p«ik in another pluct. 

As to Er^miLs and the Saxon Reformera, th^re was an 
mntiHkt wiflli oil both aldfie tlmt lit> r<1)im!(1 iiot t:i,kt* |mrt 
Ng]un«t ibcsn. Lutli«r, ibiid Mt^Utii^Ul{>ii ctLill inurK, rv>< 
irpoctod him u tlio pntriArcb of letters, tho rt<tom of tlio 
hli|pA89M« and the dfcctirc antagonist of fui&6fi^ni and 
miporatitioD- Wb«n Luther published hia wl^^ on tht 
GnLitiiUM. ba ragnCt^ tbat Enumua hitd uot put forth ft 
book on tho tame aabject, which would huvi> rundtrod hit 
cnm unnf^mttiy.^ RnLjntinn, In trirnj rniiid not but »p> 
plauJ Ut^ flnft movement of Luther. Ilia lovtr of liters 
Inra. not 1«« than hia T«ligiouB predUt^ctiomi, would In- 
cline Mm Atrofkffly to the LuUiLnm wd<u Tbc Witt«n* 
bcrx tliootOKiuns wotu earnest cliampiona of the Lnono of 
lo«mbig But tho «antton of ErutmoA wnii nuuiifvut from 
tba bogLunng. Ho avoldod the need of oammittiit^ lilm* 
aclf by pnjfMnng to his varinufl oorrespoiidenbt tb:it \m 
Wl iK>4 read tha booka of Lutber. He t«^d the Elector 
> iHvrtoi LIU. 



ai Svtoiiy. in an int^Fvimn^ at Coli:>gn^. eliortly b^oiv tbl 
Diet of Worm*), tliat tlie two gr^at fiffenoiw of Liitii^tf 
wvri! Umt Im liud Umctljt^ Uit? crown ol tite Pojie sjid tfae 
Wlii<« o! t1it3 ii)i>]Lk:(^ Tlif^ expreaRdfnin of HynipaUij vrttli 
the \\'ittciibcf^ movement thut oscftjwxi liim, notvitlii* 
Manding bis pnadonoOi <ir which Tcnchcd thc^ «^r of tb« 
poblio through the imautborirod publication of hia Jetton, 
ke[it Utiii buay lii alUyiug Uie auspieiom and A.Tuc.ietie§ tA 
Cnihalto friiuiilH luul piiiToiw- But LuLlu-r m«1 Eriuiniifi 
wtio ulitrily ciivci-RL' from njw anotln-j' in nli^nujU^i ; irnd 
^* auuli uiilik^" a^ Ooloridgi^ LfiA eaidi '^«nd in dislike^.'* 
Et&mciua, it liiH b<?^n roiujirked -with U-uth, lacked depth 
uid fvrvo]" of rL'Jigiou* eonvL-tioiia. H<* watt a typical 
latitudti][Lri!iti, in tlie ciiet of bU miiid,^ HIb abaorbuif; 
pguuiou wiw tor lif^ratiire, H© <?oiild not eonceivH how 
uiy m^tn of tiwta ooiild prefer A ugoHl.i iie ta .Womft , 
wliile Luiber (Xiuld uotSHe buvr auy u^aii that loved the 
GoBpul coutd fail to bet Auf^idtlnc, witU his little Greek 
uid Jcs!^ llcbrcw, iudnitcly above Jerome.^ As tltc ecu* 
Hiet which Luther had excited grew warm, fittcnticu 
wfts inevitably druvrii uway from the pursuit of letters 
and abaorbod hx theological inquiry aad oontrovewy ; and 
tliiH i'Wtigi^ KrifitnEiA ilrplnnid- Thn livAt whiith Lntltitr 
niaLTiirt'xtrd wwi ropiigriHUt t<j bis taste. The Uof<Tntt"r'< 
Tehcmcuce aud roo^hueM became luore and zuore offen- 
nvc to hint." Hraamus bated a coinnKitiOii, and ttud litm* 
aelf that h<j would uicritiou u. part of tho truth fortheank« 
ol peiioe, und that bo won not of tho atufT wbicli [n&rtyn 
uvmado of. Hn could 1)e an Arian oni IMAgtun, b«aaad« 
^^L if the Ciiurdi IimI ao ritiidu lU <:reed ; iirid yi^t, iu hia in- 

^^V I It j> Ui« '*En?ilBriiticui" uf Rruinai Lhtt JAodji r<ntlKh <#h. Ilv- a. 3ll to 

r ujT "Knuumj iiuy la p(rr;«Li]c<r*J thv father af ndt»nal tbv&loQ^- AfUt « 

■ ilbmliur fif ut bundrti) yc^im, k wu roviTJuJ hy lbs ,V.rriuniBni nf Tloltaa^ 
I Gprfiv, Limtiflrvli, md I'tOrm; in Kngliini] by fTbllHn^ircnlh, tlia ItEitu^lm*' 

■ ^ditloa}. Ti1l<4w, Club), HcAdliy;* «to. 

Unfl£K AND oxfiin;&. 


malt bevt, uid ftport ircin Ihc fcwlmg tliitt Tiu must bo 
ftaclioti^l cnmoifflifrct thn nutitority nf ll jt (^IjurclL r^uiiitj^c) 
Cor litUe. Being l>j Uicpoi-ftnicut. by hia pmHouiU x-^ltir 
tioDo. and by tbe dfect of ycura. uiuU w<: might add, on 
prukciplu* a Um«-eervur, he found liiuidi-'if. hi-'ittg a}ao tiic 
BCH0t proounDnt muii of i\i*^ n^, m an emb&rcn&sittg «itu- 
atioD- Ho luiict >bLj in th« Churcli, yet, if possibLo, 
otfODd ii^di«r p&ny.^ Lntiim- s^j.w tTn^JUgh him,aJKl in a 
Irti^r that wa£ meaut to be fiii'iidly, iie Irritated Lb« givat 
«clu>Iar by inviting bim to be d «pi^tator of tbv uuLgulfi- 
ccnt tru^'dy to wbidi Ik- wika nut fitted to be un EiCtor.^ 
Tbc rclimid oi EnurnQs to ^u Ulncli wii HiiUttn wlii^n 
bd TkfiitM B.'LSoi* suid the fitrious coQtr4:>vcJity tli»t oiuuwl 
bct^x*«n ibem — for iCrftsmus wiu* provoke<l inxo tbe use 
al ft fttyb) wbioli ha v»ry tnucli de^jlured In Lul^her, vui 
i3>n)ti»iitj^ifl7 wMoli Ldtlier did not fiul li> puiitt out — 
vuft tlj<; Hut decided step in tbo iiliei^jition of tbc great 
acbolftr from tbo cvaitgdiocbl pmrty. Then Kraaniua ot 
leogtli yield4*d to tho peorsuaaJous tbitt bad loii^ br^wi ud- 
liroaici to Iuid irmn tbu papal eidij, aud took thv fj<jld 
flgaittSt LutJitTri id u trc^tuicf ou f^4^l^-wit] ; in wUi<:li tljo 
Befonoer irtw jWHinttcMl on h mihjivTt whrm liiH rjclmva- 
ipnt biii|[tnj$Q uxptued liim to an eiL^y attack, and on 
wbkh Enutmun could vrrito wiUi ^omt? vvurmUi of convio- 
tioo. Ho «nd hiii aasocxut4» prd't.^rn.'d Uiu Urutilc tbuology 
to tbftt of Aogustinc, on tbin subj<;ot of hlic will. More 
Mwo oooopliun^d that Lutiier " dung by tootb and luU 
to tb« do^jitifi of Auguftin^." Theologiaiw who ^pbdn 
difficQlt)«ft by r«ft!rring to ^'original «iu,'* Ensraua liad 
anoe likvitnl to iHtn>Iogcni vAio fnTI l>;t<'l: on tlin ittiux 
Tlia moderativn of tbe pcnoaol icfcrrnccs lo Lutlicr in 
iJm boob of EnuinuA did not regtmin tlic formor from tbe 
■Kt Df tbi? «ov6rcet stylo in bia rt-ply. £niainas» ba 
tboogfat, bad taken hit placo undor tlid baonei of tha 




Pope ; ht* IhiH cfimi^ nut on llie fltui>P*-Ugi;iu ii<ip, Ituqu 
whloU vrhcilii HyKtjfiii ci HHlvutuin hy niciril. n;iA iiunp* 
Aittble i and tli« kiglier lua staading tbc morv usepariug ■ 
EUuet be Uie Attack tipoD him, Tho rejoinder of Kmamus ^ 
— 'the *' Hypwmrjpiaf^*," tho drat part of whicb appeared 
m 15^6, iwd the 5E>x>ud lu 1527 — cf>rBpUtt-d, if uaything 
vras wnnUrd to comploti?, llieit mutual t^strangnm^nt. 
Fn>rn thai, time Luther hitUi tuiiUy spoki.^ »i hint w; n di»- 
cipltsof LiiciAn,ik di!*?ipln of Rpitiunw, jui enemy of all re* 
UglouH, t^spei/ially the Chriatiau^ find flung at him other 
nppt?lhittoiis« which, t£ lit^riilly unjust, aotuctiuica bivd the 
truth of a oiuit^titurt;* FinaUy, u loriK Luttor of J^utlior 
to hiji fricmd Niclioloa von Amsdorf, m vhkh tho nulhor 
undertook to tniUuLiiu n. ctargn nf HoApticimn, aa well at 
of friviih^iiA levity, ftga^nr^t HnuLitias, by reference U> hb 
wmiioeuta un Scripture, drew out ji rcjply which in 
cuirkcd by all tb« refiucmeDt, ingenuity, nnd wit for 
which Krasmun wn£ deservedly f[Linou3- Frc*tn thia timei 
hiB iLuimosity a^net tho Froteetant amsQ w^ut oii in* 
cn.a^ig- Luther more than onoe tiomplmna t!mt Enw- 
mua eould inuke tbe ftiiia and diatresB of the (Inirob ft 
theme for jeatiiig.* In the epistle to Aiuadorf, hv chsirgofl 
him with infualug into the young a epUibAtwur wiUi 
rebgiouA eajnestne«8*' 

I IH W<tU«J- to. EI4 iliiiJn iifiU witb KrumWH "natX ct IbfoTo^fait" te 

rrtaiiiix"Eicrvit tJiiiiKiihi4 ]L->(in;: wny, itit |iflrlQd"fiivi>tlMlBlinDflL]abaiij«/* 
rtalil., Iv, rM: I^EttffluNlc. Anwlorf. Lutber. Lt vlU be mavmbaiMf liAi 

i^ iUil-. it- Alft. 'Hie loEU-n of Lmhvr Mil f oriJi ilm tUn And pnvrov of W 
iHEnjLiEEmcni from Efuujui. In % Iriiar U) fiiuilhili] (Octslwir 10^ I511> hi 
HiC^rTAHB Ilia ilkKiit (tiiiu itiD EJl^k III ILehiiuuii ihM, \ty "vnrbat nf Ihl 
Uiip" TuuE JjJCAOB o^iriuiii^ii] vriirki dlisnii, i: Tim liln uw[i rinw at joWMr^ 
hflfi. Mil wliilio* SpaEflUn w tpj tc alicf lIlq v *»» nf Kntmnn •" thW pftii; 
H< irrlErt tr) E^nc* <MjIt1i I* lAlT), Uiit ^c r^Ail* Kritunux ^ ■■ nn^rai* 
KDWinuiD, " l« iiylM him — hut Uiat t^li niopni f"r lifm ilimiriMw* i1*ily_ 
l^jiT F,Fi.«iiiiJ» VKix^r* imll in« li^oranra nf pFlw* anil iriiiali. hiil ilfi^ mrf 
ttir*ll BufTir^iently on (tirltt ^n*! ih« gnif?' c^f Uodi "biiiiLJinii prwrklsql in » 
flfli tiiiAiB cllv^no." He i?oiniri rri TTi> toucIijiIoti roWTuiilf.ifid iir^iafdl kA 
td iI1itlw« ir. Id oMqf nti to fjTVp tlil u the «oainlH iod rivals ol Bnnnu 
*jvUi4t'i fViwifv iif rlifi Inrllj aI Kr«nnni in nfaiviKit lo tlu ciJinlUH of Om 



E^M look bftlow Hun A(i[Tt<l4^iiU iif t\u\ onntmromy, kii^ 
anide pavticiilmn in which Luthor was r>fteD mcorrect* 
fts h<s was iic^arit&ble in his g«neraJ eatimAte of hiB as- 
Ui^Qiflt, vre m«at oonoliitdo tli&t Lnthar waa AtUI in thb 
right in his jadgm«»t r««pe«^tttig thd reform of thft 

OhtfT^ f* fmqvntf^ «&Iii«hh4. CnMim>fApn1 H, tMfl) trmu to ili4> lUwtor 
■ littiCa In *rbk^ b» carapllmaaUd Lotbar. In imting u> hpalntin (^fflir t3, 

LtMtutf bAd vhctib a tvpaelJul tcUsr id KnumiiK ElEjtlkII, in whiih hj> uliiiitfi 
^livrlcHV* itdif appmitLi^i tnirbJdi Ervmu* nplJEtJ, In riLir> U\ icr^ 
T*T*" bat ctcila^ t^nw. KtvrjUiiufl ■]i4*> (ji«t iJHniiiu> vm fmunlilu u 
l^lbrt, bbCdiJ ooL ^fViQ tl **t* tit bflrijr tiifl £XlBii[ I'f lii' tympHby. llJii 

ifJlft V*bocilim an tJiB \\it4H'i,Hi liuvr ftr fti^Lii [Itu ri^Jit hjiv S^nihtrmn 
b^lMandhvn, <if tBHin*. Ijij^uk uiui^ 'avuEnlifv lu Liu- ;:i ' L ihi iluiilIj<u In mf- 
totMslrW*!^ Tjimiiiiii ihtl I.i«]}ii!rvf<iiEM be uioiv Diuili-wn, tm wriuu 
It Upaltfli. ^H'^rrfiT'-rt l^lJlFui E-rumu* looki " nua ad ^^mrtm, »u! ait pa^ 
mm":** jnrvittl mr, t\am in iiri^tiWitmrn hi Ntivuiii T^uuilhehiCuem io m iifmi 
<Witi i : * jiimni fi^'ita niri[*iniiiH-hrt«JamH ' -^In erkM" mi'* i-ffj^cHitwi : 'II 

1%, liSiit bt dnigf* Era*mii> mrlj rpftrav^rijC) " Jtiui4 KplkltttMnim lVT]^^llfl," 
bd» HV^ faiMfliiiy ta him ind ri^t tlU'ErJiti. im] tlwkfut rlmi hn ^irvfon iini^|Htii 

■•Mr 0^ W- UMJk t^ *rtBot ttuU h* )■ nmv Ehm [CntaniEU th-vnit from 
liBCa ^HdaiCiDif iuit, bat [FlaL hu han on f«ai ef >',niiniJi(*i tiliiijiirLifv : " pi'lffti' 
9tt hC nrilfc* ipiuii tloquualift, pulioT kpintui ■iwn Engntiiiru. idiijikr fiAm 
^am ««dili»" Tv Qkoiuipviliiu Ota* 9i>, IU3>, b* ■pviL* of tltu covart 
of tuaniia la Ul* Uilbcnn dul-rim, nqj i:lijiFtfEflrii<* hm ihuT 
iMrWoxU, «E a Mflrilc^* Uuiliis nviwuvii^ Forlo irt i|Mi] turn Muvo 
bMWpvftAvMHl DMrrvEUE lira All muliun >t[ii1jn(r|iLdd lul puit^iidnt partJ- 
■■t)s*v ptvTvlklt*' In Myn\, It^i, LutiiuFvmtu jiUiLcrtjal^imu', m^Ukh 
bB **k4« ■■ (iAh of paA«t ^1ll lu ■ mLDAor to tivU'ltt<^iiding lUiJ vitli Buclk 
|IbIb ubiarral&itta Opon tbt liniUlidui ot Elmmiua u tu eniifiigr and dinvnt- 
■^«b lbiib*««till BD( r4ll lobe liriCLt«d brit la tbin iiPf uUr e|pitil«, irlilob 
vav v«| waal but ^vj lU cALctilnCcd t« [irodiicE tmityt Luih^r vtprr^Ha ibi 
vlA Iftat b^ fri*a^ wDvId daukl f rtrni — JlJa^ Eof mut j m lha]r wi^uld ili^i tt 
b wldadi " S Ibcj EiaiifanJ jtHit iBib«ilit;r wii vAifbtd liv crratm i>( Iha 
aivi^ iiUib fit! Imik iA><f uctodcd lli« Qtuun uf yvue ^tmir^" 11* vqi^ 
M«»«itb Ua ««na|4Ddait in i^cir uf tbc HnM iniuuiiL af painlty wblcb Rri^ 
MM bid aftcLlitil Bcu*^ bmiHtf, "lUKa »■■» litiiivu vliIdc ■]|i:]i Hfi fimn b 
kMAdsfl jQrHKftTivnknL'* TU* nii^j' of Emimij*. ibuuj;li dluhlAaJ Ju (duv, 
biv il«\it> W ■■■ vfftodBi]. Id i*«<p(imliit- oF U» «und ^ur Ei* i^vt 
bi Ibt tn|iRt*iatli4 U Ha ap|K<iwEiL« uf f-ut^vi uid VTOl« bit Ijouk J!>r 
itrWrrii, vUeb *u roJlcwt*! by ftfi >iTiin(iriIuiia cumrovtrvt. Frvn 
IjoWr JMBimcM Um ullluaL natrr*- Bi calli Knu]i;iii lUaL ^'iMd 
(Da Wtlta. \a. n\, pnntJrtt Oiac lia w'Jt "fall Ixivwi va 
l/M-, ttth «n4 cbintnttMA Ura bi Iba mufter aMtad «hit«. 




Obnrob. It coiilil nut conic Imm liti<niture. KiiuiiTiui 
could a^BiuJ lIig outwi^rks, siich n.'t the follic4» i^f monkciy, 
but the principles out of wJiich tUoso obnoxioi^e |>niciic4>fl 
bad f;r')\ru, ho svoiild touoh only eo far aa it could bo 
di>iic without iltiug^r to Licu^lf and vsdtliout diaturbouee, 
Ltither biul l)wii I]iniai<lf a tiwiik, not liVt Erjuinnft lor « 
briiJ tunt^ mid llmnigli I'oinjiulrtimi, \nti of iboJii', witli ii 
profound inwai'd conscccBtion. He had pcr«i>na11y tested, 
irith all aincf nty and eamcstucae, the prcTailIng By^teiu 
of religiou, luitil ho disccrucd tho wrong fouLidatiom on 
whidi it TVHti^d. H« eaw that the tree must bt^madogood 
btiforu th<» ehsirat-'ti^r o( tlio fruit could bo ehangod. And 
tlii^ri^ WH> Htill a viUiiUty in tha M Ky5ti<Tti with u'htch the 
w<^Apons of Erw^nmH wcm quite instiHickiit to cnpe. It 
ifl hiiuiiiiavuiif to see Lirn reflortiug to tho I'ope*a kg&to, 
and th^n to the Fop^ hiroauU* for kave to rvud tb« ^ 
writLDj^ ol Lutlur. Itia safe to atfirm that the I£t»»- fl 
mian school wonid eventually have bt><m drivt^n to the 
wall by the moBastic pEirty, which aoonor or later ^vould ^ 
Eiavj^ coinhiued Ita «iu>]-^i<^H ; aud tlmt withont the* wti'mur ■ 
Imttln WRg<Hl byLnihi*?. llii? lilerBry refoniiersi with tlmir 
lukewarm, ct^tuvocal position in relation to fandfuuentaL _ 
prlnciplea would havo succumbed to the terrors oi tho-fl 
InrquiBition. Thuro was CL>rtaiu to ha aii arouaed, im- 
jjlayable eJirntfitiiese on tin* pajjal side ; i lU;e spirit wa* 
required in the cnu^ of reform. At tlie sAvtiQ ttrnt*, ju^ 
lice to EmsinUK renin's tluit fie should h*i jiMgEid ratliei 
by UiB n^hittou to the pn:ci:diiig agt-, Umu by ouxDpnn* 
■on with Lather.^ The fororuiiuer is not to be weighMl 
by the siiuidiirda of the era which ho ha* hoI^cd to ia* 

As we have touched oti the penooal traite of Lnt^wr af 
a oonti'o venial Is t^ It Is well to add here thdt of all m 
he may frinet easily he mismpn^nnUHh A niua of im 
oatioii and fooling, trith intcnHn oanviutjona tliitt bunusd 

> SCmoH^ r>M turn fMtn, p «H1- 



vttennces be iwwt took piuna to rm^aaan* Ua lao- 
gtugc. H<^ put forUi Ui» dcjotnno ui uUutliiL^, ].>ujuiIl>k- 
ioal fomu, out of wlitcli A oold-blood^Ml critic, ur Unrtful 
poiwpio oould ouiLy miike Ly>nTjiii(l[i<tiuTH imd (vbtiinlitiuH. 
Itt dd« miMCt, bfi miN M «rtl(»n nuil utn^ti-.-vt im iho 
wnUn of tho Bibb. Ukc Paul, and go tho «ame 
grounds, he bae been cbaiged with faToring on onti- 
Doiniaii lumeea ftni poaitive immorality'. It U u charts 
which i>aiaaatL'a from ignonuice or malice. It is fre- 
qntfently mndo by jiloddent wlio are iiiaipablw at inter* 
|>mti]^g thn EprTiH iirliiiranni'jif of iMiti'ilng lTit<i Um |}ro* 
fouml ooDccptiou& of x ma.u of genius, but aro vmply 
eboclEed by theot.' 

Oat; oilior event of wLich wo have to spook U the 
PidtKiiii«' \Vai-. TJi*j |>reai?liiiipof Lutber auJ lufl aaso 
ciiiti4 fjnx]ui:t.'d Ia(*vtUil>ly el f^riuent, lU vrluob tuudt-'iLci^^ 
to ttud4] djiHiixirr iiii^ht piuiil) m-ijiiirif juMtiiniiul furi^tr. 
Ihe di«cunt«nt of ibc n^iblfvi or kuiglita with tbe princes 
■ougbt to ally iteelf with tUo iw^ tGnX in btiimlf of a 
p«n Goepol ; but tbU n^volt wiia brought to an uud by 
tbe defeat and diiath of hVamna of SiukitigL-n. TLv dU- 
Bfleotiou of the |>uumuit3i, on iLCcjouiit of tbi^ opprt^OQ 
DUiIm' whicJi tlvy iiijirnr^cl, Uar3 long existed. It hud UhI 
In BuTcral iittUuio^ 0^ open iiiuuri^^Ttion. Tajii^ l^^foro 
tli« Refonaatioii xhtrb had bctiij uingltfJ mtl tbcoe 
poiitioal tendenoiee & religjnij:» dement.^ Bub Uit^r die- 
n>nV;iA vru foTiMsnbed by tho nprcnd amoag tb^iu of tliu 
LutbctAD doctrine of Christian bbwty, from whicii tlujy 
drnv mfrninoet in aocord with thi^ir own a^furationft, 
and bjr tlw [.popular nxcJt^imeiit wliJirb Uit? Rf-fnrninttin 
ldQdl«d< There yitat a sL<<!ulur and religious mdi^ Ui tbe 
revolt. UeaTier bardcm hod been laid upon tlie labonnK 
dMi b^ their lay and cocloviostical ninBtcrs. Tho forcible 

■ IW iiWilwii pl UiifuiL upoQ Lvibrr, luiEiUjtr wlih t^t friDDwtu lUlr 

V^«<W-, Me. lU ca, ttbtj, 
» &..1U.. 1 197. 

aiic^ Their roll cif oomplEiinlA oiirrieji us forwnr^ if th# 
(lnya iif tl»n Fmndi ttr»vciliil,iini ; nor ra*ri it Im quratioued 
thftt man^ of thcrii nkll'Til Inrully for rodrem.^ LuUi«r 
hod mucb sympalby with thorn ; bo ndviacd miitiud cson- 
MMiona ; but ho ^vas infl«?cibly aod en pnndpk <»ppo0ed 
to a reaort to urma. Ha had c^ouiiaeled Sioldiigeii and 
HattiJii ugoioftt it> In gt?iiunil hd aut his face afpiAnrt 
tr«ry kttimipt In rrrmovp thi^ cim»e of refonn frfiin the 
aniiiii of di'Mcusaion t€ the fiM of habT.Le, Wlint would 
bMODie of sohoula, of teaching, of preachiiLg, ho sjud, 
when ouoe the eword was drawn? It waa a part of hia 
dehboru-to roeolution to keep th« iniuda of men upon Um 
muin qiii?Btiona in i^ontroversy, that there might b& an in- 
U^lligent, eulighteiied, free iidcption of the tnttJi, Th« 
[](*.aaiLnU, he ht*\i\, had ii4> right 1^^ mftlcc! ui hisumvlifin. 
Like the fiuly Cliristianji^ he felt timt it w^a a Apirit- 
nal iig«ticj utid nut force tli3.t could giT« to the truth a 
real yi<!tor7> Ilo wanted to keep the chujm^ of God clear 
ctf the antangt^monta of vroHdly prudenco and worldly 
power. Heaoa, when thoir gr^mt rebellion broke out, in 
1624 and ir>2i3, he exhorted the priiicct to put k down 
wiUi n strung hnnd. He £itw, in the cTent at thn Aiion^oi 
of it, lUithiDg but the JeatvuctJon <rf civil onlrr an<l a 
wild reigti of fanaticiaciu^ Tho abolition of all cxi^tin^ 
authority in Church and atatc, oquality in rank and in 
property, w€re a port of tho pcuaanta' oroed. If the fact 
ol the FCTolt, evidently oocaaionud as it wa<, to aoma ex- 
tent., by the Reformtition, prcKlncM a tf«inporary rtwc^don 




igainst it, Uub effect was diminished by the outspoken, 
etTennoaB oppo^tion which Luther had made to the ill- 
foted enterprise. The Reformation is not responsible ior 
the Peasants' War. It would have taken place if the 
Protestant doctrines had not been preached ; and it waa 
caofled by inveterate abosea for which the ecclesiastical 
piiocefl in Germany, by their nrfortions and tynumj, 
vote duedy ftoooutttBh^ 



At t^d i^e ^bcn Luther wiw bcgiiuiicg to atti^acL the 
attention of Kuropr., nnothor reformatory movement* of a 
typ6 eomewhat peculiar, wae Bprmgiug up on a moro con- 
tnot«d theatre. In tbo fiftet^nth century, tbo Swiu, 
wLoAc military strength had been df^veloped in tbclr long 
um! viirtAjnciiLH !ili'ii;i;glH (tM \ndtJi}rtnh\nn% mtd trhn haul 
doDo mucb to n^olutionise the art of w&r by showing 
thttt infaalry might be more than a match for onvtilrj, 
ytCFd omploycd in Utrgo iiumbera, oa rocrc^inaiy ^Idicrs, 
in Jtoty. The Pop« and the Freu<^ Kin^ w<tro tho chioE 
oomp«titon in ftfforbi to seuuru thi^j^ valunbin anxtli&riee. 
The raoAnM hy w}jich thin wilb iiicxyiiiipti^hed were dd- 
inotfilinng in their influence upon the country. Thu 
toragn potieatatM puruhtLaed* by hribca ajid ptutHinnn, 
tlio ooopcrntaOD of mflnt^atwii pui^<>ns A,m(»ng the Swias, 
&nd ttmis corrupted tbci apirtt of patriotiam. The pAtron- 
hif^ o£ tho Ohun-h wait tinud in un unprinc^lplod maniwri 
Icr ttiG fiinbflrani^n cif tbi« worWly interest of the Pop*. 
EcclttftiHfltical diHciphne wha siicriflced, ]>refennentii and 
indnlgHnfxst lavlahly biM)towe<l. in order thnt Lh^i h^irdy 
{WMHintfy might \ya isntiocd from thcLr homeet bi fight bin 
b«ttlee in tho IbUinn pcninnnU. Ihfto broitght bome 
from tiiar oampoigne vic^totts uid Uvlow habite. At tha 
mu6 tdtne, in oonBd^ience of vluie tbey witieraed in 

ftaly, moc^ of their rav^renoe for th^ rulun of tljfi ChoicAl 
^waa diBpelled. The ^^ornipt adtiumairution uf tii^; CUintah 
luvl » likn cITdcI «>[! dj«ir c»>untrymRrL wliu mnmnful lit 
home Thui tliurti vr^u ;i t'oinbmjLtiijn <)f ii^ncicA irhidl 
operated to Jcbruw the loorjtla of the Swim pcopli^, at the 
•amo timo that tfaolr superstitious atvo for occlctiiaatical 
Bopenon waa vanishing. Tli(* uifluiiiiot? of thu Ut^aury 
mlttire of linj ogv. tdi^. ru^de itat^U fi^Ii Iii Swil:c4-rhiui1. 
Higk >ohrxiU hiu\ «|)mitg np ia vanoiu citiii*. A cindn oJ 
Bwti whti wcnr inU^iXwUvl ill vIojmIueiI llti-iHiurv ainl wrrr 
gnidvAlly act|uirmg more ejil^hteucj;! id«n« in rcli^on 
lud th^ centre b Baeclt vIi>^ro Kraaiikiia took up hk 
nbcde in 1516 aud bvoaute iIumt acknovvkd^od hi>jul.^ 

Ulrich Zwiu^U*, Uio fouadar of Protuatazitli^in in Swit- 

Mrlftod, vrsA bom on tht^ lit of Jiumiiry, 1^4^ in Wilct- 

hans, an obw^iru ttrwii ntna.ii>i\ fiigb i:in i,lm im.iunUitns 

nbidi overlook the valley of Toggenbur^. He wii» unlj 

a fcv wrecks Toouig^ thau LuiUer* Thi? futlinr of 

Zwiagk vu tbc prinuipul tniL^^Atrutc of ibe towru^ 

Youngc ZwiDglo Bp«nt hia boyhood at hom^^ until be was 

9tiQt to acibool first at BaMi, and thk?u ut Borne. Brif^htp- 

iBiiidod and eag^r for kncnrledge, he waa rIso early dla* 

tingiiiKh'.^ ftir bin love of LrulJit whJub tiK\«r <:»imid to \m 

cine ol the marki^ virtiicvi of bin <Ji;inu^ljTr. Likr I^Dtb^r, 

ho Ittd aa cxiraordinary talent for nauflic. lie leanwd 

tft«Twardfl to pJay on varioua in^truiuciitfi. Arocmg liii 

i«odat«« at the Umwreity of Vienna, wbero bu vntA iirvt 

phoed, woM the famoua Ef:k ; auid at Buaol, U: wbkk 

fho^ be was trannf^firvd, Cajtito and Lifo Joda, who vi^ra 

ti>b« lufl conFederatea in thi< work of ivrfonn* wei>3 ainoiig 

\m finllovr-HUideuU. Here Ida priucipal u^a^bei' wag 

IWquu Wyttcnbacb* a man of liberal tojidenoiee. a» vroll 

it of dOYOUt cbaiQCtcr. who p»dict^ the downfall of 

>ftf*t^ aaHvrtcr Z^n^t't faiiiitv In 1^4 vlHLlenl MafTipb^ Af J. a 
tirao^r. riFvi 3in*^ «M c/t* .^Avvff.VAr* O-'frn. fl Tub. tlMT}. 


poMCii^n. Kwingt» wiM u^lou)i MHiidml (if tbn IaIjii 
cImwos, uDil aftr*]' W»'n[ning a prator «t flhnm, hi? pmjie* 
cdted tjic n^ding; af ihe Roman luithoTSt partly for the 
truth wUioh he lovod to sviek in thorn, and partly to uittko 
bitiuolf an orator. He watered, alfio, %vith dilif^nofr upon 
the ttviiiy of Greek. H<* cftr&fullv oopied with hin own 
Imnd thri vpmtlvA of Paul in tJiu ori^nitlj tluit hf? might 
ha** thwi* ill » pnrtnhlr voliiinn and ccumttt th(»in t« 
memory. Moro aticl more h<^ dorotod I^Lmaerlf to th^ 
ezanunatioD of the Blblo and doforrod to its authority. 
Ho rcwl tho Fnth-ipB, aa couiiaolora, not un utithontn- 
ttve |^id«tt- He ffaa oblt^d to leave GloruEt, on iiccount 
of hi* hold (>jijn*ititni Ut tlin xy«ti<m of pmiiontf and of 
niFii^^infiry unrvioii uiuW th*' Pi'^nrli. Zwinjjlft ur»ji Jt 
thorough patriot from hia early bovhood- He lltft^a^ hy 
the heartlutoD^ ti> talea of gall&nt work doue hy \\ia ida 
taTOd And towa^imr-n in the recent wttx Ligmnet Charl^ of 
Bavgundy. A« hi? grow old^r ho witnoM^ tho dirlete- 
rions ftff&ot of the Frenoh inilii^nco, to vrhich w« have 
iulvert«il. He aaw* moreover^ the bw condition of monk 
<ttnnng tlm crlnrgy, iind ^msime nif>r<- blivif to tlin chrplor* 
ible stAt« of things forni Oic biltrr tximpunctiOD which 
own oompUanoo with temptation in a sm^\& iuMance, 
him-' At firat ht did not look upon imlitory ecrrlce 
■which w^ rendered at tbe cnll of the Pope, tho Hood of 
tho Cburoli, with the iuue dlflapprobntioD vhteh h« fvH 
hi rrgArd to th«i Pnmeb. He «Ton accpnipftiii«*d hit 
panflhif>nor» in w:ir, and was present od t!to field ol 
Marigaano, lie, monoTer. thought it no wmng to t^ 
om9 a |icaiioa from the Pope* yr}d<h waa fint giren him 
for the pnrohiue of hooka. But bb pubbc opponticn at 

Aibl*iWt, Bma^^iA M^SfU, 

4 Jti/. jn>«u 





fllnms lo thp Prciiwli pArty, wlucji was shfJiig th«re. 
obliged hun io leave nnd to take up Ms abwle at i% 
aaalkr pUco, Einsicdcln, ^hcrc he took the i>ihcA ol 
pMtor uid proaclKir in tho Church f)f the Virgo Erornt- 
tan* — Virffin of tLe Hemiitag**, This wtlb m liil6, 
Hvru wua u dr^iflli^ ub v&ll aa a dmrcli, with i^ store of 
IrgRndn. It vrw* (Iw cJili-i rt-niirt of jJiii^ninH from all tlm 
ndjacent rrgioD. Indulgi-nci^fl were Hbt-rally br-itowcdt 
aad lui imii^ of Majtv. of peculiar aruictity, attroottxl 
CfOwdfl of dovotoTA. Zwin^lcT, %i']thoTit iJin^atly luwftiling 
the wortliip of tho Vii-giu, preiiohfld to th« Uirong of 
viflitora the doctrine of satlTat^on by Christ, nnd of his 
tatacj nod vaUsm^uiiy wt :i Suviuur, whidt hml lueii iriore 
Ufed 10019 impTctocd on lili inim) by iUt< inrr^ALignlum tti 
&t ScriptoTM. Tbo people Jdt thnt tlicy were hcnring 
new tratb, and a fttrikmg cITect %vftA pr^dncod on many* 
He had noir fully mado up hie mind t-> go to tho Wori 
of God M the ultJmmte authority, id pref^^reiioe to the 
dogmift of m*in. To imUvirlitalK, to ]\\a fnc'TuI Ciipito und 
to 0«r£iud tSittcn, ho ntaCod tTiut In? fimml (n t.liii Sirrip<> 
turee ao foundatioD for the rule of the I'apocy.^ lie 
trea mid to Cnpito, ui 1617, that ho thou}:ht the 
PapftOy must f&lL In l'il8, bo prUKhed u^^ainat one 
Saimoci, irho, like T«txi»l, wju :i poddler of mdutt^ticot, 
eo that thL> trofltn mut itoppud in thn Canton of S^hwpiu, 
iLttd Sajiwmn nbli^f^l to i1rramp> In I511>, owing v*?ry 
tuitch lo lh» iufliieiKw vt leiuliiig up^TiiriitH t>t the Fiviti-b 
p«rty, Zw initio waa iTAnsftm^d to thu C(Lt:jf»lr«il Chitr«^.h 
ni Zurich, thcD a ctty of about Acvi^n tlmiixand tnhabit- 
anta. Hcic h*; tarried out Uin pirpoae, whicl> ho aw- 
iMuncixi U thu out94t, of exponndinj* the Bible to hia 
h«nn>r^ and of inmlrating tha truth whieh he found there. 
In clua way, in aemoai wbidj wt-rr* hi^iird by il fiiiilliLude 
miih eager intcreat. lie w^t Umugh tliu Gonpel of Idni- 
tthev. He explainedf idao« tlie epiatW of Paul ; and for 

« Ghr^Mofftl, I. fti 




fenr that Home wnuM Iihvi^ Uvtt mt^pfwt iar VauI, m be mm 
bot Que of iLe twelve, he showod Uic id^rnt^tj of Pctcr'i 
doctnue hy mi i^xpoaition of iiia opistlca, lie fa&d grcbt 
power oa a |>n-ai^or ; ono of hia bQEi»<t« said thai ii 
teomvJ ta him Uiul Zwbi;^!^ held him 1>y die htdr of lua 
btMul^ Wh'^n ^uniwiFi np[it'itrt-d with liU t)idiil^<.ii(nvi (in 
1519), ho Hguiii dumnitii'iHl h'liu itnd hiH tnidi*^ »ml wtti 
BU|jporW in hts opponition by the Ut»hop of CoD«taiico, 
toirhoni Sauuon bad Ecglcctcd to exhibit his crcdondAls; 
K> that tUo friav w^jia donitHl permifiaioD U> voud hie irardft 
in Zurich. Zviuulu wa3 h man of robuat b<^altb, oheoi^ 
ful <v>untimutic;i: mid kiui.Uy m^iiuit^n, affiiblu wiih hU 
cJaues^ a mnn c>f iiiHcfutiig^bli- iiiilu!4ti-y, yp.t rnjoyittg 
domefititj life to tho full — he wa8 niarriiid in 1524 — sod 
fond of dpondlcig ftu eveuluff at the iiui. iu f&ruiljaj' coo- 
vtiafttioD with nio^tratw or leading oJtituaa, or with 
■traiijB^^in who bapp^D^ to be pr«aoat»i Upri^Ut, hum- 
bb bttforo God, but fom-kaut bttfor^? mim. dwobgid to Um 
work of a preacher and pFigtot, but taking ftD acrtivo part 
iu wlml*?vt^r coiMTBPned Uia weU-bebig of bU vountry, 
Zwiriglr iL(?i](iirod fiv drgmfii, Ui^mgh tint without oppcM 
atioiL and oc4;^A4ioiiAl cjiposurc to extreme dan^^* a coo- 
trolUni; influouco in Zvrich. A taming pant in hk 
.«af(i«r vfOiA tlio pubUo diBputatioTi, %vhioh wu* held «t hu 
'cvn rvqui^t^ iinduT the liouplui^ of tha govbnunont of 
Zurich, on the 29tb of Jaiiitary, 152d, m th? great 
Connrtl Halt, wTii^m hp hml projirui^i to defend himaelf 
against uU who choau Ui brlu^ agtiiiiaL hiiu tdiargiv uf 
He had i^ally won Lite hiLttU brforcilani), in 
ting the Comidl to tuk« Uie p^Lrt of judgi^, and to 
all qucationb deddcd by rofcrcncc to the Scnpliuw 
akm#. In an open npao^, in tho midat of an asBambl^ ol 
jBOn than 8lx bundivtd nien,heeat by a table, on wIucAiIm 

popim fvm dki powlEi int. D«jn raavicM omnu ^nnnj ifiiJrks«ilii ^•rdi' 
Boll •t B*ncief a«k bU at {nfmift terilr iLli* defiiiu*i««mAn>'i«t >d ■• 



pUced tlie HeLt>?w and Givek SL^ri|>nir«*j* uiid th** lj!ktm 

kgalrurt hi* f^^obk onuikiiEa, n^iilccd in on iujimctioii irom 

iLfi CoiiiKil to pcrftcvcT^ in prcAching from th(? Sciipturcs 

ttlone. tmd n Uk« conuaaiid to aJJ the dor^^ Ui ttMch 

DOtfaiitg vldcb tJbo 8oTi^tui-^ do not ^vamuit. lu tht* 

«cinlar«nc« bu di-'fiuukHi aiicty-ae^-^^u propojtitiunu trliidi 

worm ItttvIih] ji|^QNt Uh- riy)&U^m nf tlii-^ R/im;ui CiLlltolTC 

Churcli. Tlir. stuUiority of tJir Oim|^rl in subjititutiul for 

ibe luithority of tbo Cliiirch ; the OhurcK is declared to 

faa Ulo oomouiiiiou of tlic iaithful. who have no bend biit 

Chriit; ftdvtitton is Uirouj^li fuilh in Hiui aa the only 

pri«st nnd intercovsor; Uw Fupu^y and Ui<! inacA, invoo^ 

tioji of ft:ifnUt juntiftciitiiin by wurkit, ^tutia, (vitixviihi, pll- 

grinuiffesi moiuuflic ord«re ajid th*^ p]i<'^tli^)cx], AuriciiUr 

eoafoHHMi. A]HM>1utiOD, indtilgoncee, pcn^uces, pui-gfttoiyt 

and indeed oM iht clijbi-act«r]ati(> poculimtic^ ol tbe Ro- 

W) Catliolic crcc^d \\nd cultua itro rcjtidodn Juriiidic;- 

tioa ovier tho autlionti«« of th-^ Chiircrh ia ciaimod for the 

dfU mAf(UUut^.' Affnin, in another dispatadon, befoi^ & 

Modi iitoit* uumerouw ttndit^EiLv, on dm '3GtJi of HrltJitir 

Wlowin^, hi^ ulihiini'il :t ili^'rw! of Lht- Ojiiiicll ftguluiil 

tia 1U0 of injagutt (tnd tlits sacrifioe of tlie ihuhh. Aft«r ii 

Office ooEiteatt be <al«.blitthcd the prmoip]o Lbht the frvtU 

4 tlia CImndi aro optional, not obligiit^ry. In ull the 

AiogM of this sort, radical w Uiny w^ro, «xtnndin|^ ev«Q 

BotbediflBw of the organ in thi^ minster, Zwinj;le pro- 

ObJcd twnpHTiLi-ly. Willi Uie kihjb n-jpud lu wisik «iii- 

*6ltnO(3i whicli Luther IipuI aIlowei, nnd tnkirig cntti tlint 

tmything Bbooid be d^nn in »ii orderly mnnncr, and by 

pAliQ uttlionty. Lilc^ Luthc^i', h*- ha^ u o^jit<'-it t> in*- 

te with Attabaptiflt ^mthoiiiiLFts, Zurich* wpnntod 

tm the JuriAiiictiori of tlio llithop of ConKlnnfl*!, 1ut<4un«i 

■ QjciKlt, nt tike htciA 'if vrhik^b Vp-ere llm m^istiut*** 

wliit vitr^^ pTopcr rrprrastttttircg^ in 7t>r\i\^{v'b vioWa '^ 

ibe hndj of tke congrcgatioc (1^24). 



"•CurnmimUiry im Trui' -iiid FailMi* Ri-li^oi^" \fhlr1i mw 
dBdic^ti^d to Francis 1.; oiid. liboitt tht^ name time, • 
Utatifld on odgiiul nn. In thc9c luul other writittgv he 
tet fortli hij« tbooEo^nal sf6Uim> In most pcnnts ho coin- 
cldeM witb the iuuhI l^teat&nt doctrine, Bui, as wiU 
\us fiX[}h\rtod^ he depkrt^d farther from the uld system In 
hin i!i>iiti<|htii>ti of tlif- s^Li^nt-mt^uEA ; lie ^L!U!riU!d U> Uj«m u 
\t^M iiupirtJtnt fmioLion ; iinti ha ci>n9iidr.rrd originjtl fiiii 
a disorder rather tbcA a «tatc involving g^itlt^* It ]» to- 
mnrkiLble that Zwiujfio in bia philoeophy waa a prodcati- 
nLiriaii o£ an extrGiuc typ<*, and anfiLiipatiid CalvinUm in 
avowing tbtSBUpmlupaLirisuJ UiueL : hi thi* pm^ioulux going 
beyond Aiigtistiniv Btit ho held ttmt Chri*t hiu mdomnod 
the entire tmr^, wliidi htw he^n loaL in Adam ; and that 
inffliUtA, riot only auch oa are uubaptiwd in Cbriatmn 
land.<t, but i\x*i olTapmif; i^f the hcnthen, nUot ore all 
saved. MoreovL^r, ha did not notiopt thc^ prcraihng belief 
in the univijraal condemnation of the heathcOi Thfi paa- 
RUgea of ScTtptiire whioh o^em to assort thia h« rt^^rdud 
aa intendetl to iipply oidy to su^h im huur the fl(«p4!l sind 
willfnlly rpj«H:t it. Thu divine eWtion fuii) thi^ lihimina- 
tioii of tlia S|urit are uot confined, he UiougUU widtiu the 
i:ircht tff rvve^lc^d religion, or U> !liofl« who recdivd the 
Word iLtid oacnimcnte. The virtuc^n of hc:athon sngoi and 
bcroc4 nrci due to divine graoft. By graco thoy were )od 
to ex^mM taith in God. A SocratiM, ho says, was mono 
pioua ard hoty than aH Dominicans and FTan^isi?anH. On 
the cat.'ilo^e of aatnta v^^th tb^ patnanrlia aiid prophets 
at titV' Old Tpitjnin?nt h« iii^orSntea, besldi*3 SocTTit-fw. tlic» 
names of the t^c:pip,i, C^amillui^, tne Ciitos, Numa, Aristi* 
dca, Seneca, Pinclar, oT<on llio3nii» and Herculos.* 'Iht 

^ Pin if|i[tiluii u[i 111)! subiiM^C viu-IpI hi[Ejdi4tu(t iiC JJITmbt UmuL Sue SalLvr, 
J>[j*rtrwi flSffl. J'v^ini/t^ tii'ifitrtil .AWlUck aiu JalJfS. i8M, TKtvl. Jakr^^ 
ft *1 wy- 

> /We j fi^HU^. Cycm, [T. n>i " Von full 'Ir hmuK elotj dli moo nftactt 
Ban fldcllt (inliiiji. ab 1[do mnsdl nonlIi> uque «a c|ii* ADniuinnkiUuriBnij i|iMa 
run lii b^tik I'um I>» vlnrur-^' 





infloeit^w of Zwinglo*^ tcuuiLiiUtic uultiirvr i« olivious in 
tliifi portion ol his teaching. '^ He had Kiuioil LLiuetf," 
BftjB Ncamdcr, ** with tbt^ atiidy of aDti()uity, for wluclt be 
hftd a prcdilocUOiaf ftnd had n^t die Hglit uriUiiori ft^r 
ditfdjiguiAhiiif; tha «tMcal standing-polat of CUmtuuLity 
from iliM ef t)i« nneienta."' 

for a leader GxHoInrnpoiiliu!!, vrlio h.-id Wongr^cl to the 
BCbooI of l^mnma*!, -vfoa nn erudite nt7-ikolnri:>f miM t«mpcr, 
uid in his general tcoio rrarunbtoij Mclanothon, In that 
dty it guned the upper hand in 15S9. Id Berne it wu 
tttabUahed after a greai public dia[)iilnliori« at wfaioh 
Zvinglt! WAS prvs4^t]L, iii l/i^^. Tlii^ njitiic ub;iii^f Ltjtik 
pla^w in St. Onll itiid SiJinffhniiHrfji. 

Tbl« ccclcAJB^tical revolution woa at tho same timd a 
political one. Then? waa a contoat betwecu tbu tcpubli- 
euk and reforming party on the one Itand, who w«re bent 
OQ purifying (he country from thi^ ePfi?ot* t>f fortilgti in- 
SuGD<w, from xha oomiption nf mnrr;(U And of patrioti^ia 
wfikrh hitd resulted from that source, and an oli^^nliy, 
DEI Ui« o4ber, wlio dium; to tln^ir penuonH, and lu the nj-»- 
tcm of merc«n&ty aemce witli n'hicU tUinr power vtm 
OOODOctcd- TIlc piuty of Zwingle wisru contending for 
A todal and nntional reform, on a rciligioun fo^indnticn. 
Tll«y aim«)d to makn the Giupl nnt <inly a a^uroe ol 
li^t and Itfe to Uifr indiviihiii], but a retiovaiujj^' power In 
tho Ixkly |KiliUc for eifectiii^ tlit- i-t?fijr:ii ttf liiu Miuial lihr 
■ad of tbo oivil orguiization of the country. 

Wc bAT« DOW to consider tho rolation of the Lutherw) 
»nd Zwingllnn movofnentB to ono aooth(>r, The;^ wcro 

4h^L AUHoAs^ca, p-IIOl Utu'liuibRniiiituiJtinirD fur (ha MrliJlcM U«u4 
rwhimi 10 %dle«« l« ibB i«7iihni of ArtiMitc. (4 Xwii^t, Quart H«itb 

fo^BH h ptai p*laMil cOffi qui M f«:i poi j Bwcddrr ■« nciiaJB«u&v ii L'uali 




great diffc*i^>noc^ bctwf>>3D the two leaders, lather tmd« 
BO to ApexvL^ Lv<h1 i»to th^ Ayatum cf tb^ Latin Chtirob to 
a dtfgrL*4} tUiit wfLi! not true in the f^aae of Zwtngle. Out 
of pri>foiut() ugiliitiuii. llmurji^^i Loiimr menial alru^l^ En 
wltioJl 1u^ n^riiivrtl! itid »r dlnTj^tHLou htmt aWijiuI, 
Lutkcr liad como out of tUo old »yBtem, It wu« a proocii 
of pcrson&l cxponcaoo vitli which hi:* iiit^lWtujLl cnlight- 
ftnmont kept paoo. Ono truth, ttint of linlvatif^n by faith, 
in ooDtnut vnih aalv^tion by ibe morit of works, atood 
promirt^ititly before tlie syen oi LutJier. Tlje iitvthod of 
iiir£ivr.txt'j>n^ ff rL*comiilUtlon witU Oud, had bseii with 
blm, from tiiei early youth, the oiiu eiigroaning problem. 
I'ho rrljition of fctic individual lo GrxJ hnd nbtu^rbod hii 
IhrnightHnnd movod hie f^ensibilitiea to tht? lowejrt daptbe. 
Thf tienunciation of tho :iuthority of tbe Oiurch was aia 
act to whit'li nothing wrmld h^iv^ driven litni hut thefurco 
of Lis coiiviL'LloDs reajwutiiig the (5euta-al trulli oi juHllfitu- 
tiou by fiuth aJoiie. The coursi- of j{wm|,d»N pcRforiJ 
dovolopincnt bad been different. Of c)ieerful temper and 
fcmd of hie olaMttB, ho hod folt no incliiution to tho u>f>- 
naatio l[fG. He came out of the Eniemiau sabool, Thu 
ftuUiority of tliB Church never bad a very «tr^g hoM 
upon ldtn,i'vrn bnfiin? bpripluJUy ijuesUoiird th<^ validity 
of it. An \i*- .thidiiid iiin S^'rtptarrH and f^^h. tlirir pi>vi«pr. 
ha cflflily gave to tbom the allcginnoi^ of bis nund and 
hcATb. It cost hicu Utl1« inward cfiEort to caat oil what* 
evf^r in thvi dootriufJ t>r eouIeBiaetioAl ayHteoi of the J^tin 
Cbureli uppt-nm^l to UUn at vunaiK«^ with ch^; Biblo cor _ 
with eamiuoii MlTTllu^ In hi« mind tliAn.^ \rM no h^rd cod* m 
flict with nti ^«hlihhnd pi^jndiM?. It would be Tciy 
anjtut to deny to Zwingli^ ndIgiou4 tiarnEAtuew ; buL Ibe _ 
•0UTW of hia inward life waa such Uiat. atthovgh ho m 
beurttly a(.'(-L'fTted the prindplu of JLutiflottioii by taaA, ^ 
ho bad not the snmv vivid idt^a of it* tnkajBocndoni unpoiv 
tancv* which [,ntht*r had. Zwiiigle, a bn!f) luid bid4*pMid 
*nt studnnt, umk tlio Hiblo fnr hm chftrt, fljid was d* 

UAlit A3rr> tirrvouc coktarkd. 145 

tanuj by DO itrrupl4ii of lult'ijt roverwnctf fmm nbruplly 
dilM3mlingij»uge!.iwluJit.lit? HiIiIimIii] rint. au.iil<Uo]|- U^i1«i 
Ltttikvr WM di^poiar^l to Imro unt-^urlmd wlmt tln^ Uibio 
did iwt probibit, Zwingk was more in^^lincd f r*ject 
vriuU tbe IJibk did not <?njoin< Ci<*sc1y r«Intod to tlti« 
Afferetice in persofi^i] cliar^oCer, ii the votr importuiit di- 
iri-n<:tv 111 \h& aim* of tlie two refoimt-re. Lmher waa 
jiniL'!li3il, ill line aviiK* vf U:ti ti-rni : hw rtjm|iiithi/i'il witli 
the boiiiL^T feelings. •^ U» wu triTuiter of thv. UQinnly Ifui* 
pn0O of Ui« pcopl% No niEUi ktir^w bntti-r hi^w to ro^bch 
Ibdr Leftrt*. lie wo* a Gorman xrho wus iTiapirr>d mtb 
K nftlion^ BOUtimeqiU&nil indjt*n&iit^y resont^d i}mwton^ 
biJI]ot4.vl tipQu tiU L'oiuitTj^ Btit bS!t uIti] v'iL>t tbi'uugtiout 
ft di*tiiii(^iT n^lijfiiiMH urn?, H« di'L'w ;i slmq> Um- brtwnpn 
tlie rnncti^m wbirb bo coiinHvrd to iK?li>Ttg to blic, m » 
|ir«acber aitd dieuttit'i'^n* ^u<^i i^<^ spL^r^- of [KiUtical ac- 
tion. Absorbed ia tbt tnitb wbltli bo ci»nm(lr>rvd tbt Ufe 
ftnd ftOQl of the Qo0|>olt mckd iiit>mt upon proptvgnting it, 
bt bad no flpQCiftl ftfititqdc for tho orgimi2Ati[>n of tho 
Cfaurdb ; much 1««8 clid be m^ddl*? with the afFiun of civil 
fnwmtnentt except tn the charant^r of n minister, to eii> 
)m oltndirniMt to rauMinlif-il niilbcrrilv. S^wiii^li-a :uiii 
Ukd troHk irorn K> diTrnu",, hU ttim of mitid cuid tuA dr> 
cankAtADCi^ boing m difTcrcnt, thnt Litth<^r and the other 
fiuon tlie)ol<iciaD9 were dovr in undorfttaofling him Etod ia 
U^C J(iltk« Co hira,' Zwin;;le wfts n p&crint and a «ooial 
nffoniMir. Tfa« aaWution of his coiintvy from misf^cm* 
WM imil uriizii>ral[ly w uii i^iul. iiiiv|iatrid>k% In hu 
itiftd* from cbr iTl7<jrt to bring iniliviilii^Un tu tbtt pncticn] 
voi^ptAOCO of the GnopcL^ I'hc SwIa people unit be 
lif(«d op &om tli<eiT di?gon«rftc^ f ftod tbo infltrumctit ol 

■nil* <« IP win l» » t «y by lliinJ**h«tf*». 2^ e»«<wflrtMI TMcA 

'tfioi vU<4fl« IHH dtIMn AMdiod cbIcuI levam lu"iTiifO, ulo f du Ok^cmiK 
.■*— nOi Zc^t^, It, 



raS ZVI^GLIAV B&>X}K1IAT1£>». 

doinff this van thi^ tntth (if tln^ Bibln^. to bo s^pplieJ not 
only to the iiidiviiliial in hin pcmonivl rclalioitn to Gi>d, 
but alflo to ocrroct abneea in Ib^ ewial and oivil life of th4 
tmUoii. Tlivae gi-ew cut of a^lflshness, aiid there was uo 
LTirc? fur thut miw in the Wurd of Gtw^ AfitT SCwtiiglo 
rriLoiim^^l ihr. Pijkt'fi ik^iikkiiu iind dri^lint'it lim flLiLtcrriiig 
offer to iiiAko it liirg^^v, find tocilc Iti* JitAnrl ngninst forca^ 
itifiu^nce, coiul* fruiii what quarter it raight, which at- 
tuiDcd Ltfi uid^ iLt ilii-i cr:«t cf iiaticnal comiiiUou, ho r&- 
lumblud m hu patiitioii, iii Iub mmglvd pivtrLutism und 
pioty, tk> Uil n*ibnsw pro^ihetit. " THm Ciirdtnul frf Sit- 
ter," li" «Hi^, "with nght\nyirs ii ri'il Uui ntifl rhifik ; 
j-ou bjbvif oixly to wring tikom [uiJ ^ou will bohuU tttu 
bbod of your tivari^t kiuetneu dripping; Jrcm thent ! " 
He vould hibTu the Swistf Eibeftmii from all thcm^ dlnhuoor* 
flblo, pomujouji lUlifmcc^. 

'The quogtion of priointy OA to times b«tw^n Kutber'e 
movj^m^nt and that r»f Zwingle, bw often boon diBcueaad, 
Zwingh* iL-wi'ifi,'*! with tniJh thut hU ojiiiiionH (t^nc^mUig 
tho B.ufJitfl'ity of i\t<^ Soripturc^ :ind the njijIihiKl of salva- 
tioui were formed indcpendeiktiy of the influeuce of Luther. 
It ia trud thatt uidvpond<^utly of Luther, ^wiutclu, on 
Qftriy Ofl 1518^ f^rtMKihvd u^uel tUv unto of indulgvjncc*. 
But the oxpnMwions of Zwii^lu on tlit^iin tupioji wirnt taob 
Bfl might hn htrsird elsewlu-re fi'mn othrr good mfin- In 
this inrtttJ*r ha hftd tiie suppirt nf th« JJifthop of Con* 
vtuiK^tf. iUid did not iiLL'ur LJil< di»ipli^adiire uf Ijimj X-, who 
li»dt porhupH. karjied mockration fi-um tlitt orcurrcTLCcs ic 
SucoRj. Tlio greitt point in LnthrrV ctkW wh:« htft CoUi^ 
ion \rith the iiuUmrity of tlic Cliurcb, It is justly claimed 
for Luther tlijit tie broEco the path in this momentoTu and 
p«nloufl oonfiict. When Luther was put under the ban 
of die ChurLh, Zwingle was sttU thr wrjpinil (*f k pcn- 
Bion from the Po[>e> When Lutlnir itt Wonn», Tn tlie 
iaoc of the German Empire, rcfusod to submit to tli« 
utliority o-f Popo Of Conncili Zwin^flo had not ye* \>*as^ 






pGttUdBtey IctUr from I'opc^ Adriim VI. Zwinglo trom 
tlie beginning vnts troiitod with tliti utmost forbitnnuioi:, 
from thd coDOoni of tho pnpni r^niiit fnr ittt pitititnl Hud 
i»]ftilt mtensta. These circimii^taiio'^ inv^ilve Lutliing 
iUcmliUhltf tf) Zvriikgltf, when the whol& hiatory of hb 
rdftttoas to the Papiicy 19 m:tlerstood. But the^' doiiioii< 
ttoftto that ihc cliutinutiou ol aoundiiig the tniicpet ol 
ItTolt Agfthtft tlio Homoii ee«; belongs to the Snxon ny 
fomw. Luth0r'sToio«> which wrifl hi»iird in ex^^ry country 
o£ Europe^ reached tli9Talli3yM at 8wIt?>?H!iiiil. Itw;i4 Mmn 
tlui Zwiugle W3I21 duLT^eU by hi» eiiuiiiiVA villi (jtiiiig k 
foUoiTcr of Lutli4^r. Thi» ho dcn:*^. nt thi^ iuimtr time 
thai be avowed hu Agnvimr-tit M^th Lutht^r In tho grent 
potDta of dcotrinc, mid courng^vjunly spoke of him in 
tfirau of warm pnuae. Bat it was the noise of thi^ battld 
wlndi Luthej' wai inigC]:g that 0}>ened tho ey*?a of men 
to tlio Tfitd drift (if /wiEi^lu'a t<?^!jiiiij^. 

An iinha|>py event for thi.^ iMtwi* of Uid RdfoniiJitfon 
WM the oaLbrcaking of the great coiitrovoray beLvrct^u Llifi 
Littbcraiu nnd the Swiss* upou the Euchurist. in 15!^, 
at tbo very tiDic when the division of Germany into twa 
bostik jMUti««t Vrot«<stAnt ^n^ Cfitbolit^, wa? tajdng place, 
tbs BVBtigeUaLl forcaa vrere we^koned by this int^atina 
OOOfiict.' Tbi) (WtriiiH uf tniiiiulHLLiitiiitcoit ia not a iloc^ 
tdae of tlifi Hrfrir'iit rhun^h. Tin- vii<w of AiigtifdtnUt 
wfaicji vaa tlut a spintnaL powiiiir is Ini^Kirtod to tlie bread 
ami wui«, analogous to tbo virtuo aupposod to Inhen in 
Jm bapti*mal wut^ir, bng prevailed iti thi> Lutiii Churcb, 
even Kft«r tbo moTO uxtremo opinion had been bronohnd 
bj Jobti of PanriAuafl suid tliv Gni«k thnolciginnii. This 
ii viridiont irom the effect thi^t wsm pnidr^^r<l wh(*Ti tititnd 
tntnmbiituijliatioii, or tlie i:uiivei?fiori of thij bnrad and 
wiiit' into tJiR Ujdy luid blood of Ohmt, waa odrocatad 
tn tbe uitith contovy by ICadborb, the Abbot of Corrny. 


rsK zwmoLLug uiFOBKAncui. 


T1u5 theory vftkA oppoood by his <x)iitomponm<M, K^btmiu 
Mtturiu jind by RatrarunuBi who adhered to th4 vi^wa of 
AugiutinA^ Till! hn--iid uud wine noiimh the body, but 
ill* ii|untu»l |M>wtT impurW to tiit^m — tlw HpiriLual 
body of Clirint, of wbidi tlicy luo tJie ugn^ia reuuived 
by faitb aud nounehcs Uic soul to an immotlal life- In 
th« ttiorenth oontury, the view of Ksidbcrt hwi tko tu 
pu&ed tho ascendoncy that Bert^igart who dafdodod tho 
Tuort? uDoidot theory, waa condenmed, ^IthougU it wfii 
chiimr^ tliut hia oplaum whs fnvured by HiUli.'hniiit]. 
Tnui«nU«tJLii(Hijitton, the di&iigti of auliaUtice, viaa dcfoiid«d I 
by tho UuUng Khoolmcsi of thn thirteenth centiirj, ui>d 
vae taadQ an article c-f faith by tho foorih Lato-ran Coan- 
cili in l'Ji5, under Innocoot IIL - ■ 

Th& Ruformen, witii one acoorJ, denkd tlus dof^ma, 
toguthiT with Oiti jLJiiiooiHtMl doctrim* u( tliu ftuorificiul 
dutrnfdtriMif tJi^t Rituhumt. But In oUier reepui:lii tlwy M 
wcrre Dot agr«od amoi^ thcmBclTG^ Lutbor affirin<Td tbo 
ftctoal, obJQotird preaeoce of th« fElonfied body ami blood 
of Chriat, i& <toaacctioQ witli the breftd aod wiuc* ao that 
til* body and blood, in aoirm mystorioiu wo^, aro roo^rod 
by tbo eommaaiciuit w]i9th«r h« bo a b^liftver or not It 
is tha doctiin? of two 8UbstAnc<?6 in the sacrai]aent» or ooCK 
■nbatttiilJaticiii. IIia doi^trine iiK'ludeJ a^ bcili^ in tha 
ttba^Uty ^ ^^ human nature o( llic zL-mciKlvd Cbmt, 
Zwinglo, oo the contmry, hnd como to coiuider tbo Lord'a 
Stipp<^r na hftviag phncipo-Lly a mn cjaoiuc a^ifWnr^ % 
as a. symbol cjf tho atoiun^ <leatb of Clmftt and a tok«u odf 
pUdge — as a ring vould be a pUdgu — of ita cwUinuaL 
«ffioftoyJ A middlL* tiijw* wUidi whg that of Calviu, tliou^ 
■BggiNitixl by othi^cv iH'fatt^ him, v^a that of it nxU biit 
qniibual roooptdoA of Chrut, by Uie boIieTor alcme, wbeie- 
hy UuvQ is in^danttx] in th« aotil the geno o! a ielorUl«d 
body or form of bolnf likn UuU of ChrifiL In thia \kv 
Ube el«Bnc<nta aro tba vymbol, tho plod^«, or aothcnticii' 

^ Lrrotss BceTiurv to tub s^ciiAUHN-TASuira. 149 

Ck)0 of the gr»» of God thioiigTi the <i«itUt of Ciimt. 
ftod at the nine tim« to tlic balicvcr, though to no oUi^r. 
Ouifft k hinudf myai«noufiIj Joid Bpiritually impiu-U'd, 
M th« power of A n^vr Ufe — tbij povr^r of reeurrecticii. 
FrotD tii« liatnwi nature of Chrkt, wbich is now ei:altwl 
to tueuTen^ or (nrfin hi6 fltvnli^ tlifte eiitt^i'8 into tlie HOiil uf 
tiknbiilifiTer A 1]r«^iv[ii)^ iiiHuinicu, ho tlint ht< in uitlUid ia 
Ibe most intim^to unioti to tho Sariour.' 

Tlw vebeanence of Luther's hostility U^ tlic Zwii^Uaa 
dotTthncf b raauifeflt in Ha corroBpondent^o for i& conaldor- 
ftbU p^jriod aitvr lfa« ria© of th<><!ontroverey> Th-ire w*ir6 
no term* of opprobrium too violent for )iini to apply to 
ft9 tezKd. and the peivinaof tht* Siici-umetitumns. Tliirrw 
Verv tiiii(<A when for speciAj I'BaaojiH — ehiL^fly from the 
hopv that tlujj were coming over to Iiia ojnmun — liia 
btttility VFOA sciutbly nbiitvd. But Iim ubhi>rTonc<^ of tho 
ZvingUaa dootrinc never left liim. Tlic rensoxt9 thiit 
uiddd btna into sm intolerant juid it nohari tabid coutee 

1 Littff ifid n*< linlil rhni (])« briV'iLl)^ body of ChrUi. whli-li 1* nfflnn^ Lfid 
OBriv^d Ifl Cka wnmraE. 4>(rijp]i>i f^ttP. YaI it ta mwivril Irj alt who junAkfl 

if ttibr^ttO U'1 vlnn — nm kpnrTlnn r>r ihr Unt^, Imf Uii nnrifA TJirk^Thy nfh 

k ^^ cff vxpmMniH ihi (111* ]»]nr- H*f , f^r 0Kqni|>Ef, Eh* lu«rnir<tiflni 10 
¥|lwi*hr[fi ■rfi*T" ""'-*■"— —^>^ Mtir^t ili^oul; " timE M ciinkma ilnitnnHV 
ftil^fj diM ««hrtuJti|[ 'n an6 mil dvhi Knvl il*r IWt l-hnili ifvonvird, 
^ lAVflOoi, w«id*i |ln>d vii^t uiiil WitlM^Aar l^iiiMirlail trlrk* uml tAfila, 
^ tf i^jTlhtrtli JfMHUp iinil mn dtn jC^Hdn jutua^tn vr<inl>-'* I'u IVvlEti iv. 
1^ II* MKiMUMlliario<ly<if (Jhrirt i4 Mii,*ftinlin/i/fr hnc not ii/fdilfli- — ^ 
•r vcngfiof iputi — ptvHnt, l>fl W^riai, it- y^, Zwln^Q,«B tl< 
r, imh^ dbU A* Mr «i Cbrif 1 1a prHumc, In ildj •«&■«, kt t^ ■*!»< 
TliUft Iw vrtU* lo l^thff LiJmjvlf fApnf, IMT' Xftfa^, Ojitr**, tUI. 
9]i " !faafaH>«BbUiIiij4«tlJ4ohis<|iiAin iLiiml OirEnii Corpus i;uiim inu^btia 
'(naia ncnlfUv pl^rvn aoaittll^' «kif i4»aiii h>l* ranU'iuprjiljiJiii-. " J^win^fk 
Md Ui bUtwn wm jnan tn^ mifft Ai'pafii i" Mk\i Jiji[KiruiiH^fi lu • iphi^ 
ni ftmrnnotvi (^Itf in Mt* M^itnifiu Titio L'.ftlilii rii»pLjiiie<(] hikI aiIiIuI 
At pvMir* vaaljoa cf t iJlr«t liEtu'iKt upuii Oic litllevLfiK ctintniUEiUvul, 
vlfch llvn Enrtft C\r^l ltkrjL*<h 11^* iirftJium ut umLrniiicnUUiy tf liii Iimeuu 
tmam. Ibi 4d4 ifid Uh^. Ukuujjj W^Ily k^aj^bIv*], ai? naljy liuiJvtcJ Id 
(kiflHl of Lte lufitnir; Hu eJTnC of kl^ FaIlJj. by "Uit hctdl (uocr i>t rj» 
QrdX Hplnc." /mtfiMh^ |r. i.-Ii^ f. 10, ftJ, Aji tlilr bhurk-Al aiKuitjMS }rf 

L MtmOmaUtt In UUDtr'* I*vf»iiSttJkt AbhM'Sliniiim. pp, 4D4-U7. 



of conditd it U noL ImjxiAEiiblf to tliAi^ovttr. Tlit- obnii^ 
ioiiji T,h**»ry wiis fitsL jimiKwiiJ by C^irUl^ult, an «tit.l)4' 
eiaat Mid fftDiitiG wlio hftd given Luther infitiito cronbli^. 
uid it wafl dofended b^' Ikim thrc>ugh a weak dovioo of 
«x«^;C(^ii)< It WB8 ft»oci&t€d in Lutbor'e mind with tho 
•xtremu ■pirituiJUui, ot the fttibjectivd t«Ddt>acy, which 
nnJiirviLlui-'d and Uuidud to swoop jiwuy tins objec?tirB 
iccam of grA<>% f.liH Win\l iw w*tll hk iUr. wn-rH.menta. luiri 
Ici Huli&titute for tJjfimri siktieiI illNiniiLAtmn or iiisjitnUion 
hoia thi: Spirit.' Tbt Wurd aiiJ Uie Sacmmeiito Luther 
hod muidc Uie critvrin ot tht^ Chiirdi. Ou tiptiulding ihvm 
in their jaat pLioo, utiirytltu;^ tliat dtHtiu]E^ll^hc?d liia te- 
fono from nnthiiEtJuini or ritt:(>n»UMin dc^j>uiid(!<l. He had 
never thought of forsaking the dogmntii^ ay^tt^ra of Ladn 
ClinfttSuJiit^ ill itfl (rarlib-r and jtiirer da^s, »Tid lit« IuoIcmI 
wiUi lilann ou vrbnt gtniok liim »rt :t rjiUutialiatic )nnc>v»* 
tioD< Bcaldcn, over and abovi?;i]l Uir'an con side nttiotu, the 
ical objective pn™?.ut!o of Uhrint in hio human nature, 
W&6 u belief tkjLt had taken a ik^ep iiuld of LJa iuui^no- 
lion and fti<fling«< He hsxd hv4ti\ tempts to ^vct to tho 
text — '* th« ia my body" — u looiH-r, moro (igorativo 
IDeftning ; hut th(» t«xt, ha d*?clar*»d, was too strong tor 
him. He miuatp take it ju«t ns it ivEidti, Thu tnilli m 
that Uia religious fwilings w^rc iiitcTtwin>xl witli tbt- lik-ml 
irtcrprt'tittion. Being immovably and ou euch grounds 
eotubliahcd in hU opinion, ha trould havo no fcllovrsbip 
with »U(^b m r&]<^exvd it. T1ir>y dcniud, lu ha conrnderedt 

I Lutlitr tr»t In tho hthll uf fLlpcatlaliii; (he ^wlnjiliiV' ■• " tcbwamxir.'* 
Tk'it tttrat al Cnit ln»('po"LU| tv«i u tt tcnn of D|ipruljr1iiiu. Put J.uihrt wiiutf 
V4d Nat la IliA r/A/fn'^H Wonl UhiJ (he (^^^Ctpr McmiiirrttL A> Ui« tmtb tu 
iqlJia VTcM wbnLL h cDlond UiQcarvvDii ti tliB uiiticUevfr: u it vrimUtfl Wmd 
4 Qui, liuAWfif \\ isLt-bl ha iv^lvrJ] w wuCUxht iu tLo ktcnuivtiiil tU* 
aMl*» wbAtevor llic btllvti oi fHliniff of tbr rtvliitnt jiJLi;bt tc- TUv Mk-runvoi 
*BtBOmp[«L<i tDdfpoHLltDTl^Qf Uic cldrKki vf iZio ii:cJ|iicii(. jjm Ion Ucui i^ 
*t« diBTiil'-'i vf Ibc DilnlifUf - It oirvJ lla complil^ufas IV UiD Jihluir Jnrillalfiia; 
pMSf. ij iLv nyi of tiitf niii «nr ttiD mine, vhathcr iljcj bll tjpvn Lha v^ IhM 
JMI if» or iiimn dm bllD'l' In i wuht, Luilur r?[t sirrf^ifly xlioi \in ZntogUiH 
lUr^bDU^iI iixp nuili lo Uie bubjmiJvB fAccor, to ftlth> aod thti> McriAcat cIk 
tfinnitnlijctdvAcnflnicL^-ruf tht nmuolenco— dDlflff b.irUiD Brfuncntt v hA 

m utidti of tbe Chrbtl^in litlih, ^ jirecioue fact <'f Chrift' 
tum expcrieitc«- Tbd uiuon of the believer vni\i {Jhr'tBi 
— the tiiu0 fjiifttica^ is u. Uiouie on vbiob b<^ lias writ- 
Ua more tn^pivsiiTely, |H*rbiipa. tlum upou uiiy otbei t^pic 
rf ChristUti doctriDc' I'hiidmipliu'iJ fiLjiM-ticmn ojiinlflHi 
for tiotiiiiig urith him !4gaiiiat die intiiitiouB of the eUurjkl 
or reli^OUa nature. lie waa profooodly sensible tlvit th« 
toWtbB of TVlig^a tjanfioeod tho Limita of tbc und-^raiaiid- 
log. Difficultiee raised by tba mono UDdcTBtandiiig, in 
bowevQT plawble form tbey nigfit be presented, h» con- 
ndemd to be r^ly feuperllLml. Yei^ In def'^iiJiitg )ua 
own view lie wuiifflHJnitw i^unIetH^ndul ti> light with iri^ap- 
OOB «1 plulocKvphy nrhich hn bod dnxim ui earlier cLays 
from Um; tome* cf Oocjhm. 

Of count tho tnoet urg^t <iXQrtioiifl i;7oiild be madd to 
bfo] a Boblsm that tbreat^aad to breed great dibo^teie to 
tbd Ptoteetant cause. Not only waa il u si^amlfll ol which 
tiui Rcmami CtiLlioliit [uitiy vruuld mily bti Um h^Ljipy t/i 
■^te ttn abandaiit iwe^ bnt it i.li0t:r3ict^d the coanseU and 
teded to psf&lyse the physical »ti-uii^h uf Lbe PiotcBtunt 
tttenai. The thcolc^lau vrho waa ino&t [mkvatrioua in tlie 
vork of brii^tng iiboul u uuion, iviih Murtia ltua<T> yvho 
bvm hb poiitioii ut Stnuibur^ wjut v/v\i nuiit^'d witli refirr- 
«¥*■? to both of thu w>nt('n(5itig piirta<**, and who vnm i;n- 
conunoaly ingi^iiioUKnt frAiEkin^conip]Y>nii^ie8,ci' aidevifiltig 
(niuWsiiBidsiULyiiiEibtguoud tocuvf^r duaoud-nt upInioiM. 
ftoifi ftnd violont though LutJivr fiometimes yvM, lie wda 
«l«fffi ttticdy hoRiwt tmd ouUi>olc(in. luid fcr this Koacax 
fTDTcd on aoBU} ocojuiont uniniutiigivtblo ; imd Zwiii^Oi, 
ntnir«t lu wut bu di^iim for piiu-e, wn« too Bmoer« luiC 
iiU-rF^)PcfJng Ui hiilp hix ppSnion under equivocal phruti- 
ology. At Icaati when it wui^ openly utbu'ked, lie would 
ifl opcalj 0taiid for ita dofeiia^ Of thf* pnitocn who wv^rt 
Uttvo in efforts to pi^ify the cppannf; adioob nnd bring 

i Puqgfla Iran LMhtF at IW* Hibjn 11115 ^ v**^ ^r* DarBn, fnfirfrl^^ 



tli6m upon aomo comiaon ground, Pbilip, tho LuiilgrATv 
ot Hoaae, w.ts taott coaupiciiou». Thn moBt momorablo 
ftttcm|>t of ihjs wrt w;i*i tlio Ccnfercncp at. Mnrbnrg in 
1«»29, xvlti^n* tliQ Swi^ tlit^ologiiiuii int^t LtiLlttr ujiil Me- 
Lujctlion. Tlic fonuer accomoukdatcd UiaaiKlTW U> Llia 
views of tlic Luth(:rattd on the sabjcct of origiiuLl rtju, tmd 
I m ^mc ^tbfT pQints tv^pccting wliieli tboir orthodoxy hiul 
been qu^tionod. The only point of di^erenc^j vnt» th(» 
Kuoltari^t ; but b&re tbe diiT^nmc^ proved irreci>nciJsd>1e. 
Tli« LM]4.lgr&ve arr^ngL^d lliut private i.vinfeivi]C(« should 
first be hold behre«n Qi^cGhtrnpiLdius aiid Luther, aitd be» 
tvreen McLin<:Uirm and Zwm^cle ; Zwingle and Luther 
being thiiH kept u[Hirtf tmd oiu^li put by th^ side of % 
titoologion of mild And oonciLiiLtoiy tempor. Qut tlio 
oxpenm^^ut w&s fmith-jui- Nik more coulrl an a^ro^ineot 
be rHK^ifid when avll wjv a^iH-ntbkd wiUi the l^andgraTe 
mid a Aelect eoiupftny of spet^tora. The theolo^aua aat 
by a table, ihd Saxona on one side and tlie Swiss oppo^te 
them. Luther wrot(3 upon Um tablr; witli chalk his toxti 
— ''hoc f«f. moum cnrpiis "' — and i-ofnacd to budge an 
iota from die literal »eiiae^ But hh opponents would not 
admit tlie actual presence of tho body of Chmt bi Uta 
KKTiunruit, (ir tJutt his Ixxly is ^e<^t?i\vd by iniW-luTVi^nt. 
flnnilly, whi^n it W7iti t^ridriit tliiit nn rtkuimi^ii gnnuid 
OOuld be reached, S^wingtc, with tear* in liia eyes, offend 
the band of fratcimal fellowahip to LulhoVp But tfaia 
Lflther refused to tako, uot willing, eaya £jmk(», to rco 
Ognke them a« of tbe same commuuioii. But mon* wita 
metrnt by thia rvliwal ; Lutbc^r wtmbl n'giird tlip Swirw aji 
friendit, but i^uch Vi» the intlurncc of his dogmatic *yB- 
tetn over hi« feelings, thjit be could not bong lunuelf to 
regard them as Chrialiaii brethren. J^tber and MeUno 
thon ^l Hm tmio appear to ha^-o tiuppotfed that an aji^ree- 
moxt it) tvtiry articlo of buliel im tho ucceuiuy condition 
(if rhrtHtiEin fiOlowubip, Hotb pArti«« ongngrd to bo 
Erii-Jidly io iotts uiother, and to abstain from initatirig 


THE EDCflArttmrawfEWBftt — ua 

Ingaig^. Tboy sagmd in oommou fourlotm ixrlioT«!e of 
boA nlAttng to ih^ geeat pobiU of ClLristtimi doc^iriiio, 
and |)n>utK»e«l to vxtfroim- tcmard <nii^ iLiiJ)th(>r all tha 
cdiftnijr vriuc}i is coaiauiteiit wlUi :i guwl (xh^mjioik^. I^hem 
wtto A ooDndcTftblc time dmijig which tJic seutuueal^ £ji(3 
Un^iuge of LathoT in relntioD to the SiK:ravit^iiUiriaii& 
w«to gr*»tly ftofteiKd. In parttoul^ wils llus tho cuoo 
while he was at Coburg^ during the suaaiuiis of tl:e Diet 
itf Ati)g>l>urg. The iinpi^riH) dtic'ii of S^mthrrn Gvrmftny, 
bjr tbc agi^^iMj vf thi? itulc-f^ttigiiMu UiK^ir, Jilthonglj they 
^yiDpAthiAcd witb the Zwiogliiin doctrine, were odiiiiLt^ 
to tlic luogQc of SiDALuUd. La lo'S^ the moat dibtm* 
goidicd tbeologians of Upper Gcrmaiiv joinini LittLer and. 
hU foUonere m subaoribiDg to tlie WUt^ibyrg Conuord, 
wbieh expr*«aie<l, with ulight reaej-viitifina, the Litth^iran 

n^v**' But ibr SwiMA JulhercTi ta nf Zwiiigle refu»ii><il to 

ion lliia decd.^ In 154t&, the publication of Zwingle'a 
writings by his eon-in-lav, (iualt^ir, vrith an ai»o!(^tic 
y from hia pen. once mote roiucd Uu? irn of LitthcTi 
ftod fa« bognn ngnin to ibnoitnco tho Zwijigliam and thair 
dootriiM in th«» former vitapuativid 9tr;iui.^ 

* It b Mi tf i eJ llM^ ibt bodj uAblooddrClKuLbrotfutv |jrdeAi,a)d dEanf 
fetta aciMmitUid an nuiirtd tvcn b; did "uuhoiiIi]'.'^ Ddboi dlMJl^ 
^rtiteJ tMwvw} tfu "ummrtby" uil "saUIoi^" Uu cliinJAroeiDL'iLt loirlhi 

W.I. IT. 

> TIm nay Qal Liahti, ihanlj bef<re his dulb, uknovlod^ to Mduio- 
ttea tbit bebul e*BBQB''u Ui ihs ucnuncnlAf ennn-ovcnj. h^Yfn. for nu 
flBiplk Iff OicMoffrJ. LUKl. [I Isa HcLicl] : nq Culli;, rrrf«>A rfitr CA^rni^ft^ 
MB Mthmcihau ok r%tti^ff'*^ prr-, p *Ki. I.uirirr irul ML'ln^^^^f>^ iTprvruIiNl 
fcrihrlr liili«vuUlniii>D.Sv}» tRLin njuiti mwllnr* 4>iiT ciudcofj^ and 
iKfrflHi caai^ltoa of tin k^I rhirjirirf 'J^ /TinffJ^"" wrTirM m 
KctOwr of [|tt OMpntivii at Mnrhnri;; fnllv t:m>pr<1 ilifl npiirinti of 

irWn«* (£■ Ijtihtnn itivlrtm* rrBTi iirKtn t^M ji1i4 «f 4 r|iinTatltfiftf 
«| it* h«HTi vliira W Chrukl, nf lU wlttrt trmiif*>]1 niHin if liy iu rrUli^n lo 

TW fitful Lalhtr^WalCk, tnd tbs pirllAuUr irireaifUUuLCH unAtr whKt\ ba 

Svte^ vUrh HU aAMn (> \Aithtr, md tva- .nidrpnud b* liini u p«maal 



We turn jow to the catastrophe of th« Swi» tt^fornu^ 
tirm. Tliere was a gn>win|f hostility boCwe^u (he five 
intiiiuUiiii (siilUmih thai, ruiimtiit*!! OulliulUi nud ihn mtien 
iu wliidi ProtvuLuiliatiL luul brtHii t-aU-blinliT-r], Tho 
Outholio orLntcrnn cuti^nTd into n Icjigu^; wiili Kcrdiimud of 
Aiwtm. I'rotcfltJitit jinuiclivmi who f^ill into tJio hands 
of th9 Catholics wpivi pat to doath. Tho new dootrine 
vaa BUppreesed within thBir limits. Th^ dlstrif^ts that 
he!oTige<l in common to the Hevt^niJ oaritaii^ fiirniHherl tlin 
tKH^3U(li'ii f<ir Inl.trr I'oiitnivrrt^y. At Iriigth Ziindi Ijmk 
Up arms, nud withoat bloodshed forcrd the five cantoiu 
to tcur up the computet with Amtria, to conclude that o-aoli 
gove<rEunebt should \m heV' U> decide for itself upou the 
Teligiooa i]U6Btion, and to pay the coats of the projected 
wat. The behavior of ihv Hve i<iLiiti>t]H, however, wiu 
not iii>|TrurKd. Th^nr Uin^ib?ning HtUtixdc hsi Ziiiich tn 
fcrm [Jlinnccn vnth the city of Stnv*burg and the Lajid- 
^avo of Hcaae. Tho foroo of tho I'rotosbaiita, apaft 
irom foreign help, was greater than tliat of tht'ir udvcr* 
aaiiea. Zmuglo Te4}oiiimonded bold m^o^ur^. Uo 
thonf^hl that th« t'Oiistituttou of tha SwUh Coufodtiiuoy 
idioiild hu [ihauged, ih> l.hiit thi^ pn'|Joiidrriii<^ft might be 
givejL to the cities whoro it justly belonged, and liJciin 
from the moimtain <hstricte which liad bo ahatnefully inio- 
udcdtlitir powci^ The t^hief deuiauda thut were r<>4iUy 
miulc, wuro that tho Pruteatunt dootrine^ whioh wiu pro* 

HiCvrTtBtf tt lit I'UtliaT tjHUctf Ad ■■Uvlritk* kntXt "tl hit op^oaeal (Id 

1D3». Df Wutfo, V, 3}, lid <]iHk> kindly *>' ^wJiJiclu: " Llbfic viilui Jkuct 
rlnjcliu^i pD^iuAm Mnt^iunii wJlil tIiu* ft ttudlcw mt, Tirjuj ^[lUaiiiiLL «*«> 
tavl, tJcui *L iE<ijUni[i*dJiiiii/'vti^. Ilv ipMktor die si\itha liuJ ti^ul- 
«nnc; 9i ZwUmeV* (IomUi- Bul Mlirn LJp itSiiTfimiirK mi t^ivJtvl. tin wtvtt In a 
llLTp^m rpStiL. 8pb. fur0a>]i]|ilr. u Mlrt h> Wcjic. J 4lk (JttUUIfv 3, ICO, t>« 
Hi>i.p, It, »:i1j. Rut J^ttin^^. I» lUa AJ«i iVufu—- ttin i:md whirli lir ]ir«- 
■I'lHtit Al Aiiin<1fur2---Li4i)iliu(Ti^cd Liilljr.'r'«u[j|Eilun AilluUntltjf ttinAti "«Vio 
look Fitch iir Ujd r]»Ii-[)(arji ol R(yL>l: " QuL 4i]iiilu JGtt.vpt)m'u rvJii>nclBn[ " — 
in HiLi>Dnlou u ublijiit u it vriu irrlrfilluij (fti>. Fhl-, S), Liiihv"4 lltn* 
•buLfriicn, uci:«ii<tTiui) hy lb* inlDllijrvricB thul Tlie Svia* arvni dfmiunttn/ hlK 

nkATR OP zvrraLs. 

laned m tho loww ouitoiii, nhnnld be tolfmiodi in the 
upper, aod that [wesccution 3tioul4 coam tficiM. But t£i« 
qaeslion was wheiher even these demfiJiUa woiUd Lw en* 
fonwd. Zivimgle vraa tn ffivor of ov^i'puvvvrm|{ tLi> ^iicsm^ 
bj a dirttct kUwJ^, imtl ni vxtovUug fi-ijiii dn'in jtmt Lvin- 
C n waomi- But he* trajt ovi<]iTiLln<l, And huU nti'iuui-iui wnm 
'feaorted to. Tlit' attempt wm made to coL^rcu tilit! CatliuliG 
OBBtooa by iion-uiUirc^unv, ly thua cuUiji); oil tlicir aap* 
pBot liio effect wn0 that tiie Cntbolica woro ^^nablcJ to 
toUfict tboir <trpiiglh. ivhili th(> ProtcattLnt citicA woni di- 
i^ed by jealnnxiw iltkI by diHJLgro9m@nt aa to what migbt 
btt the beat potioy tc adopt. Zurich was kft wUUctut 
liftip, tf) (-oTifniTil, kviih hii^iy Kiid iruult^qimlii ]ir<-*pani.ti[iU9 
the n^mMjiinl ativti^lb vt tlio O^iLhulic party, Tba 
Zuticl] force vraA dcfcAtod at Cnppcl. on tlto lltJi of 
October, IdSl, and Zmogfc^ who hud ^ou']) lortli aa a 
dwpJain vritb bU peoplo to b:^ttle, foil. Hu huU atiticl- 
paUd d«fuut from the time whan hia cuuiiitul-d tvi^ro dijiro- 
fpuilcd, and bo bad found it iiiiprv;«ibl<? to bririg the 
miif^iatj^ibM of Borne to a re«ohitioii to aut with deciHuin.. 
In Um tbiitik of Lhe ll^t, be i-aiaed hU vuiue to tjicounij{|tt, 
hie compntiions^ but nutde no xiso of hia wKapona.* Aa H0 
tvdtiivoii bis tnortJtt wound, hu t^xdaimod: " WIlaI cviJ is 
tliie ? th«y con kiti tlio body, but not tbo eouJ I " ' As ha 
lay, etiU brefttliing, on the field, with hiB liands folded 
and ]ii« oyee directed to bonTen. one or nior(< bi-ni^d sol« 
dWn ftaknl hint t) i^uEifrwt U* a pniwl^ »r tit m\\ mt \(:iry 
■nd the Bointa. He shook hU bend in toki.'n of ivfn/<ftK 
They knew not to whom they wore apeakiug, buL ordy 
tliat he waa a bcroiio, and with a eliigle sword- rJirudi put 
end to hid tUep* NotiffithBtuudiag thb dof^t, the 
paity of tbo refonned inlgltt lmv<f rutni>vi*d tlielr onuM 
But they Uu^k«l nnion and t^nrrgr. Ziini^h iird Bcnn* 



tniiiot Ji 8crio(i» check upon the Prrjtr-nta.nt int<Tr<-*t and to 
nnftblc the C^itholics to rcpoasoas thcmeclvc^ of portioni 
tif the ^'ouiic! ^hicih thoy had kiet. 

TUv menace uddretued h^ th» Cntholio luajurltv at tho 
DiK of Aii^liiirg h> th» PriiUi[ibint,s, li»d lij tl(p ffinniu 
tion of tlip Pr^jtestunt Dpfiriinivc I-rftgnr; of 8»nu!«iHf to 
wluch the four imperial citic« of South Gcrmnny ihnt held 
the Zwinpliitn opiniflnn, but wcto now dieconnoctc^ from 
the conf*djrat*y of their Swies bwlhr<»n. wore admitted 
in loSL The Imperial Cliamber had been purged by 
f^lt^ nxrhmtun (jf all whu wen- mipjHWPil to nyiiipulhijEe Willi 
till' Eirw (jjumim?!. Thi-t tribiiiuU wna to h« nmdo tht^ in> 
«tnimcnt of a legal pnniocutioTt. The Emperor procurxMl 
the election i>f hm brother lu) Rcmnn King, in a niftnai>r 
which involved a virtUtioa of the rights of the Electors; 
and was adapted to eToite the apprehensions of the Prot 
PBtiint*,^ 'Vhti Wittenbtrrg th^rildgijin* waived tiiyir op- 
[loaition to tin' project of wltlirtnnding fh« Empwror. 
Lulher toot thL> ground that. Tvhilo ta CLriaLtaua, they 
ouglit urJt to reecrt to force, yot the rights and duties o! 
live pnnc-Ha m rcfer^moo to the Ernpi-ror wore a polilioiJ 
qui^Htion fur juristn to di?EunniuTi, u,iid thut Cliristiunit, tin 
m^nitiorA of tho atatcv tKvrn Ixnind tcj liiki? np annn in 
defrnnn of thiAr prinrj^a, vrhpii tliftw jvn* unkwfiilly nft- 
mulled. Tho politicnl aitLiatiou for tvn yeant lifter tliu 
Diet of Aiigsbiirg waa sucU aa not only to disable Oliarleti 
Inrin the forcible execution of ita deorE>e, but ctXao caob at 
to favor tha prograsA of thi* Ri^fonnatEon. Tha Loapi^ 
of SmnlcuUI, «ln>Dgth«TU!d by it ti.-inp(>nu>y nlliiuicc with 
tJie l>nkwi of |lft\",H'itt iind by trcjitiHi with Kraijw Jind 
Dt-ninurV, wha ivo ftfi-[nidab1e to bi^ attacked. T^e Lnup* 

C4«B« uf ili4 J^iu|jviT<r ilur^ikf thn llfvUnhf vf cbv liitrvr, uiiJ of ihe laUfff ivtv 



IfrS'X " tbe peace of Nuremberg " providod tliat reljifiouf 
ftffun flltould ht left unclmi^d, until they could be od- 
jtMtcd bjr li Qow Diot, or by a n^w CounciL Suob u Conn* 
Qjl th4» l*rot«HlAnt« had doraftndftd at Augsburg and 
CliftfW \tiiA prrtintapd to prfwrne. Kotwithsfjinrling t.lm 
dislutl>Auce pixxlui^eO b^' tliw A-imbapliflt L-uiuuituiibta at 
MiiuBlcTt tlic Rr^furiuOiUon adv^inctic] wiLli rapid 0Lr]de«. 
'l'hi= IVotctftdDt l>aku of Wiirttmburg w^ih voiiatj^blmhfTd 
in liifl poMOwicns by the l-antlgrvivc of llfiano, in 1J*S1. 
Brandenburg sod dveaJ Saiony, by tW death of thtt 
Elector and of the Duk^ became rmt^stant Catliolio 
pnnom were begiiiuiiig to gmiit n?]i]fli>U4 liberty tu tljfir 
•iibjcotA. Tlio nar willi Fiuiice, v^Uidi broke out in 15%3, 
tkrvd Jt trapcasiblc for the Emperor to hinder th\» 
The SoulcaEd Lcogvio -vm cxtendod by tlio 
ion of more priociafl and <Mtiea, The Protcutaota 
nftMisJ U> comply with the lummoiia ta n OoiinciU in 
vh>(*h, by the ti^tnut o( di^ invitntioTi, th«ir cond^mnadon 
W9* H forwgijnit i^tmcliiMion. At&mii>il at tha growing 
Ureugdi of Proi«ataifiCiitia. tbe It^dlng CuUeuIic iv(Liit«9 
mutod iti ft Holy League at Narrmberg, in 1>^<S$, whida, 
liko tJiu Len^fl ol Smt^cald, ^ma ostc-ruiibly for dnfciuio,^ 
Th* noxt lJir»o yjuitfi nr*> nMirk(i<l by oRorte to aeeard 
p«bo9, of vrhidi th(> C<>nf9reiice and Dli^t <if Rxttiriboii, lu 

> th*«BM af itw Bcf<iriBailiuii iviuviii&n*! b> ihv ili^itH at rmtVflUU 

wvwBqiHBSt of dH '* iUj|cai«ii<>D " wfalLlj LuiUlt oJiii hlatqnifliLin vrtaifrl i)m 

Mh dlfoRid liOB fata vtfe, vbo IiaiI btrauiu ni[iuiruiii tu hlra uji vfotmi of 
Mv iNltr^kMrdMi tedpmuttkabith Thi* ^-iiQuriin tiicirTViva ' iimviitii 
(far n|in«<M«Dil cATTted irtOi 11 ft^JtliM] rrhnt«[unin9 ili4t VHn 
S« Kdkf, \r. IM H^ l7[ifoutidM dikrii-n wiinn IjiUut bi voi^ 
iHih likM nl4|f4r trvnc, h5 I'roEtttmi u «ti] ii cailiolie vrtUn * 
■J ■wp'*, U*t Ikr vv v(ii«ltd by ■ hUMi wt^n^ fcrr ibr mrnivia ol thi 
IBrtr^ tlui iip»u la bmr of pa^npunj, at* -— h/v rvpowi by|UitE S««hIp, Knmnvt, l-Jh^'f <iw*vmllkl^ 




1641. is tlkd moHt icTnm-kabl<T. On thj« occuion tho Pope 
vr^ represemted by hU Legate, Contftrini, who held • 
view of jiiatificalion not diftaimilar to thnt of the Prot' 

^its ptith of conctSKiLOii. In tlitsc iicgutuLtiona aii victual 
n^rrrmmt vrn.i nttAtncd in tho statement of ionr doo* 
bir^ol points, which nnbraccd the subjc^tn of tho ontuic 
ni cniui, originiLl sin, redemption, and jii«tiIication ; but 
upon the Church, 8iic:nLni4>nts, and kindred toptca, k waa 
found that no ci>ui;r>rd wns Htt^unahl'?. Tl^e Kin^ of 
Pnuce, from the scliiJ^h purpose to tiiw&rb the effort for 
union, rritli others on the C^tttiolic side who were iMStu* 
atod by diffei^ent motives, oompltiincd of tlic concctMOOS 
that had been made by tho Catholic party; and Con- 
tdrini waa checked by orders from the Pope. Th« 
Blect«r of Sitxony waa eijuully diAKu,tiHlied with ilm pro* 
ueediijgs oi Molauuthou, ajul togBllinr witli Luther, n'ho 
regarded the hopo of a conipromiee na 'n'bolly fiitilct&Qd 
4A inapircd by i^aUn. WAfi |Tn.t:ilied when the abortivo 
COoforoQoo wnA brought to an end. The ntH)caaity of 
(^etiicig help at onae againat the Turka comp<;Ued Clinrloi 
oac© mote to aai^ion the peuoo of Nuremberg \ritli od- 
ditjonal proviaign^ io die ndv^itjtge of t\m Pr^itefltanta, 
lliitt unj^uciMvinfiil expeditioEi (tgalnut Algicra, in 1541, and 
iho renewed war witU France, t':^ether with the TVirhudi 
varin which his broUier Fcrdinaud whb involved, obliged 
the latter* at a Diet at Spiree in 151:^, to grnntacon- 
tinnanoe of the religious peace. The impunul doehuataon 
ftt RutisiboTi vr\iA nitil]4^1 by tJie JliQt of Spires, held in 
1544. The prrapectfl of tlie Protectant cause liad been 
bright. For a time it aeemed probable tha.t all Qeriuauy 
vrould adopt the new faith^ Hut tlie League of Smaluvld 
VTBM f^rievouflly weakened by inlernol disBenaion. Tho 
oidea eompbined of arbitrary proceedings of tha Klootor 
df Sftxony nnd thr< L:indj^vi.* <if H4-j£;i;; frrr axamp1«i^ in 
the «spu1uoii of the Duke of Dmnninck frnra hin Undi 8 






meaniiv that briHif^t tht^m inUyt*ojtiUct with thi^ imperial 
court* Bui Uw? ta-Uii invent mi* thi^ h<ij.iility of Maui'ke, 
Duki^ of Saxonjr, to tlic Elector, whlJi i-^ted un vM-i»ijii 
in^unds, aud which bod octcc before brouifUt Qn^tn to Llio 
V(7T^>u o[ irar; aad tho abandonment of Uil^ J^j^^k^ bv 
Uuarifti, in \o42- The El^tor of Br^uji^nbor^ brui n^ 
jfiQiir-(] tJii^ Tjr9Lgi]i4, iu»l vriu Mlnwiul in Mn roni^^ hf 
ibo old Elector raULtJne, wJio adopted tUu RtifuriiiaLiun* 
i& 1545. The Huperor forced IVajice Uk cuucIihUi tlie 
poaoe oC Creapy* in 1M4. At tho Diot ol \V>>rma l& 
Idiuroh, 1M5, th« Prot«8t£Lntfi refiigeil to tnk^^ partititlL« 
Couodl of Trent, The hoatilitj of tliL^ Elector to 
Mwmcu pn^ve-iiUnI \ha turm-xi'nm vi a Hciw* jilEiiim'^ bi^* 
twven tbft two Suxonw tuui Jlcfun. Mn.iir](%-« nti lulrcat 
aod ambitious p(^tidAn, loving pawr more than ho 
tot^ hia faith, at icbgth Irtad<^ his bargain with Cliorh^. 
and GOfjui^ to unite with him in making war upon thv 
£lttctOfff uhofl« t«nitories Manric« coveted, iLnd upon lh» 
LdUM^rftYo, tJie two priitci» wlioiti the Einp^mr pri>ff'wi«d 
to attack, not on religioungroiiiu!»|lkUtp»u i>fTrmi.^r8 4igainst 
tbs Liim Ami peftco of tho K(upira> While tlio Enipuror 
WM dftUjin^ with tiia Protectants iLat ha nilglit prepaid 
to fltnJco a nooro cdfeutivo blow, Lutbor died at EiaTebcn, 
the plsKf? of hiN birth, on Uii' IStli of F^bruiLiy, I5^ti. 
tiis Ufil daj? irnre not hiM hc^M. HIn ln^CLlth wiui itndi*Tw 
ninvd, Uid l>e aufT«red grievoiijily irain vnrioiw dijir>r'dnr4, 
lirriiill] froui>vvQn%c^uUiiurjiLi h«adadi«i lie w&a cp- 
prrainil irifh n grrnt variut^ i>f littU eniploytnenlfl rolat- 
kig to public mid prirntn nffAina, 00 that (poinf; ona d^ij 
ban his writing-ta'blo to thi> window he fjineit^d Uuit ho 
ittw Satan mookili;; lum for having t<j i^oimumii Iiik timo 
in omLvm biuineiik^^ Bia intellM^tual pfiwi*r« wr-rr not 
vnTtM^blnL Hi« mligioiiei triuil cojitiuucd lirm 0^ f^ reck* 

i ' tl#f* ihltf fciVT* I tt*vii pMbmJ with l\tt knivfrifA aiLiI ItH of i Ukf^r, 
Ihan Ika 4lTtDK T«l, Lf q^ qdb wtn incliork cJi«lh<£U<]f 



Hia coam^ aad his a3aiimu<:e of the ultioiHte victory 
of tli-s ixutU never (fiUeied, But hv lost Duo clvcwrfui 
Bpiritd^ iJiL* joyf^nu toiK^ tliut liaJ bofuro diuTuot«ri»ud 
him. Ho took tliirk yiuwh o£ tli(» wickodnow oi tho 
tirni-N mil rtf nociety iibout him. Hi wiu tVAnrj of tlitt 
wdvKl, wuary of lif».\ aii^l Irmgi'd lo he relftwi>i frc^ra ttj 
jicirvlciui. Hi; was ulJ, he aald, useleea, a cuinb^^r of tJke 
gr>und, and hi? ^vuutcd to go. Hia disii Election with 
WittcubiTrg, on acijourit of vrlxat he coiiaideixsl U:o hixuew 
of fiLHiily gox^ernnient iind rrj^rclienaible fafibiuiut in ro* 
ip^-t to dtV9, w;ts aiiob tliiit he detemiined to quit th^ 
plwp, HTi^ bp WRM disHiiadtHl riilj hy th« ntiiti^d intfliv-oH- 
aioiis (*£ iUm Eki^lor, and of the Hiithurities of th* Uuivwr- 
BJty tuid of iha town. Hi) fcdl uito a couAiot with the 
jurinU on ^uxs^nint of thtrir dt^oJjtmtiniL tbut thu coiiMcut of 
p^r^mt* is rot nUolutnly indiftponsabltr to thn validity of 
ft mELmsgd ecgag9ment:, suid ho attacked them pubOdy 
from till? pulpit.' The finendsbip of Luther and Melnriiv 
thou w)i?i njjL brokc'ii, but pftrtirdly diillLvl in CAmtu^qwi^nt^ 
of thiiobigifTil (liiTcrnnocs. Thpro were tvo pt>iiit> on 
which MclancthoD swerved from his onrlier views* Fi-oni 
tbu tJiue of tho coiitrovcroy of LitUicr and f^rasmua, 
M^lanoihon had bo^>un to modify' hia ideae of pr^deBtiiuL- 
tinn, iiivl lo iueliiio to the view that wtia LLrt«rwardji ctiWcai 
SyiHirgiimu whroh givi-Jt to tin? will »u niTtivi% though a 
■aibonlinntr, ntrrphivrngt^nrry in convpnuon. On ihij^ wjb- 
iect', hovFcvoi> Ibo practical, if not the tkeor^tiL-al vmws ui 
Luther wore also mtxlititd, aa U evident from the letlcfi 
whicli hu %vTf>to in >vply to ptqdexcd persona who ap* 
phad to Mm for couuscd. Tlio differouee on thift mbjgct 
btftwiH^n him nnd MLdiutctlion, if onQ exlstud, ocnuioQed 
no hrd^rh. Tt wan nut until nftar I.Tith^r^ d«'4Ub thai 
liH fidloivers made tbb a ground of zitiack on Midauo- 

iCt«Tlc.l tnw LvikcrvibM»^)«lillfttlui In bb vbale lieiuiiUA 
Ut Hbon fik. ttkv CttHi b* tftd ovw bad Mon uKkiT tkn dnf«c UuK fMi 



tfcon anil Ui^ sdbjf^t of u ilteologic^l contest. H«l, on 
the Loid'& Su|j]frr. Llie lualLi-r <ni vi]ii*ih Lutlivr w;ia luimL 
senmlive, MclaiK.'Ui'jn, from tibout tlic tinir of the \)it% 
of Aupibur^, l^.-giin to divinlr iiom hia foniirr opinion. 
Thtf Kpi^i wbicli LutlioT hixd ctrnt rtvx^r him in Win youth. 
wHt brokim ; iui<l, inflltivnci^ by thti ni-gunxfUiU of (Boi>> 
lAinpadiiiA ftjid hj hU own mHHpi*nH*?nt Htiicly of thu 
Fn'Jieni, he i«*Uy emhroi^etl, ui liin uwu mind. Uii? dJvlu- 
iido dootriiMt wUdi wa£» lu anWUuice, Uiti o[>iiiicjti tulvo* 
ted hj CEcoU^npidiun jltuI llucfsr, Mt^latu^tlicjn still 
kjivtvd the ^win^iian theory wbioli niFuJr CLriat in tlic 
■ncrftmoit me^raly tho obj«ot of tho contemplative act of 
bnt tbo othor lijfiodi^^i^ of a renl but apiriiiuU ni- 
JoD of HliEi. in (.HmiiL^L'Liua wlUi Lin- bn-'jil uuri win^ 
Hiti«J]rd him. Mifln.nothon's rcainrvo niid mixicty to keep 
tin* pt-UfCo tM)uld u^jL wholly oLii[iM-:t] iWih tliiiTi^^' rjf opin* 
ion; and penoivi \r*^rt: tifit wantiu^, uF ivhoiii NkhoLiu 
Aic^dorf mu tiic chief* to excite uis fur an they coutd. th« 
jeidovfly nud hutitiltt\ of Lulfior. Tho ivi^ult wjvi thitt 
Um «ouGdvutUi iiiUiiiaoy of tho two men wi\a iiiU<rruptvd. 
For veverol ytLiu Mebtucthon lived ui diHtrtuw luid m 
dAJly rTpwtjUJori of Inking drivrn from )iU pliU'i!!.^ 
"'>fi".-n," bf Nijs, wrSliiiy in tireek w* be fi^ei^uvntly did, 
wbea ho wanted to ex|]ri»ut »omotlil»;^ wliicli be \n^ 
mbM todiviilgc — '*Oftcn hftvolnaid tbcit \ dn'ntW th« 
old B0O of A naton) 80 paafiionato, bkc th»t oi Hcr- 
soloi, or Fbilo<jteteft. or the Roman Gcnoral^ MiLTfua,"' 
\m nuoariu of this sort ho ruioiT«d. m be uxf^liLinLHl lator, 
Ki tho TvhKoujROO eomroon to m^m of (i bt-rnic inLikfiJ V4t> 

> Crrym X^,t r. iU* tiiUe, p, lit. A ItlDn dI Miliuictlioa to CtflovlCtj 
|i« CnVdlM- of Dakc UtUTVQ j Cfl^pvi Mt/. , r), tTU}, wrlUvU JUM vfiBJ- Uu 
iIbb^ dtt fhxli iMk Wir, Id wlilcb h« irvtkivt tb* «»a«iw.4c4 Ludior, 
•iQf^i tioaf of til* asoomJvrUblt nbUnai In n-Mcb Iw !i(iil ttooii with iJi« 

Kivbis •& M ^v^arteA noococ, c*"> ondrr lA* ^l^clIraautlHlP^ JtJMi aemm 


G^Kp ]V>. 

■ <uau, p. iu 


..-■ I 






In raformicip to lIut iirKlnL^ tnniLifnc'T tri ivuK^awicm ;trul I'tim' 
ptoiuwe ou die j^art of Molaocthon, tliaji LuUjct. For 
tlie dian^ io tii^ir relatiooA* tbo four and conAoquent n>< 
■crrc and Abyui^Hti of Uie 4>De wero not Icaa roafjutittiblo 
tbuiUii^impurioiudUpcsltlODOf die other. It trould bi> tt 
inUtrnk^A to MuppOM that Luther loot hlft eonfi<leitcc and Ifivo 
Cntrarltt l>i< Vhiiingnr MHvKUiitis ft^r tapn^saiunK iif LtillnT, 
ID bi3 T0ry la«t d^yvi provo Ui« coutniry. It wouM be an 
cnrort likewue, to suppose that McUnctJion ovcir caiue to 
regard hun lu a;bcr tJian ona of tbc foremi»t of men, » 
hoOt «D(k>wod ^ith nobI« and &d!iiinib1o qtmUtto» of 
bmrt u mil as mind. But tliu urigiiiid cotitturu-ty in 
IIm tDH i f iBiPPMt of tbn tvpn mem, jomi^ Ia tlie iufirm- 
i^M of diimracMr in LtttJier, wbii'h wfre aggrfkVHlf-J by 
long jTttftra oi streuuoua i»>uibut aud Ubor, aud bv diMiuAis 
bad Ihft effect tr> cloud for u irUilf? tbi^ir mntuAl a^mpatby 
■nd oonUAlity of int^roourm-s But tlic fcruat tioul of Uu- 
tiMor ehine« oat in tbo last Icttors b« nroto — eovGnU of 
thou affeoCioDaie epiatlea to Melanctboa — and in tbo 
\aat EM-'Tnioiii li« prvacb-txl at Hialt^beiu ; wbt.'n*, within a i^yr 
nxln ijf tilt- Unxijui lu ubii-li hi3 wiu& born, full of faitb and 
of peace, he breathod bis last. *' Ho la gone*'* 93.1d Me- 
bwcthon to bia at«deDtB» " the chariot of Israel aiid Ow 
boneroftn thereof^ who ruled the Cburob in ti:<^o lost 
troabted timee." In iha oonrM of tbo funt^riJ <uldr«M 
which T^fnliuQfrtbun pronoancctd ov<-r th^ grave Ix^neath 
lim pTiipit wbimi ibi' roi^^n nf hiit.hpr bad bo Iotj^ b^^n 
heard, b« ivf<.*n«d to tlie coinpLuiit inaflaajfiUEUtLtitlifir'i 
«xc«anv6 vcheioaiice, and quisled ihu! Uwin^'Hi rvinnrk »f 
BrBODinSi that ** Qod luui given to tbU Inst utnt\ on ui^count 
of tho gratrav ol it» cfifoaauar a Kharp physician.^ With 
gnef «nd t4«n, he odd, that choked hiA uiu^ranoe, he set 
forth dhQ grand laborv ef Lutiier, ^ kindness, g«ualit^, 
and diguiti^ of Ida olmmctert Ida frv^edom from pt^ntaiuJ 
unbitiaii, till' wi«dont and aolinvty tbiii wvm iiiingli'd 



or Ltrrm, 


acUlniMS and null mum lii t(ulKu?(^m-nt li-lU-.t-a of Muljino 
Llloa« Inkcce of A p&rtuil cfltrangcinftnt m^ij' hn tli*tcct4?d 
iu kifl to£iCi the effect i« only a iliiwrimin^^ciLg inntcEid of ft 
b!bid ttdinintioii of ono with wbom ho waa connected ^y 
iLD indissoluble bond. oE love*' 

L&Uicrr, u-b4li**er ilotluotioD from hia merit may b« 
ataHi* iKi tliiT AviiTii iJ TluIIh >it)i1 iulirrtuUiiK, wiui rnif. uf 
Uhmb vxtnordiwuy in<^ti of wliom !t inn^ bo w^iid, in no 
«puil of hicro-iroralup^ but in sober trutL, that iheix 
povrer, w nuuuf»ted iu history, can only be compared to 
tlmt of ibo gMttrt pciruumeot forc<« of uLitura, ^ He i£ 
OlM of UioM groftt hi£toric:iT llgurL^i in wbidi whole 
kStdons ncognize thftir own tyi><\"* A life-long oppo- 
tteot ol i^rolfisLanuam, one of the tint Catholic scholars 
<rf Uie a^p?, biiy» uf htm; ^^It y/nti LuLhtr's o;^e.q>o\verij||j 
gnfttDOfl of miEid and marvcIouA ^ulI]y-«ulod^e^a which 
auMLo him to bo tho toon of hiA time nud of hLa pcopio ; 
Bad it is oorwot to atiy Uiat tLitre u^ver hua btitu a Ger* 
Bto who hsu 40 iutnitiv'^ly undi>rdtoi}cl bit* jH^oplo, ^id in 
tvm Ins been by thn nation so p<)rf«ctly conipr(jh>^dod, 
1 iniglit Bay, abBorbed by it» wi thi.^ Aii^8tiniaD mr>nk !kt 
Witt«nbtT]j. Ho&rt au<l iiuiiil of iLf? G^rinjins were iu 
bn bnnil like the lym in tbc linnd <if the miuilcijui. 
ICor^ovcTt be has given to hoa pii^plt? in^r^ thivD aay 
irtkar nan in CImsUAa agea baa evorglvea to a poople: 
iHiptage, manuat for popuJar inHtructiun, Bible, hyrona 
td wonbip ; nni ovcrytlung wbtoh his upponeata in 
Aair tun had to off^fr or t<i pln,j.Mi in ^vinipHriwin witb 
theoo, ultuivnl it«»t*lf tani«* aiid powf^rl^fi Hiid coIofIem by 
tba Ma uf bra AvreepUig eloqueuue. Tbay aUluleuw^ ; 
be ^M>ko with tile tongoe of an orator; it la Uu onjy 
ite liaa stamped the impcn^ablc aciJ ol hia own aool, 
iJOco upon Uii^ GenuAD LuLgnage tmd npon th^ QGrmai 

« «MiK pp. IH uiu 



mind ; »iid aran lIlohu Gi-rrimiiH who ublionidil Eilrn u thi 
powrtrfiit hi^rntir iiiid Mi^ihii^^r ni tin- iitttitm, lutihul tH-^ijMs 
they mast dific»iirB3 with bis vrord/i, tlit;y must think 
with his thoughts.'' ^ 

The iSrualc&ldic tatit bogau in 164ti» NotwithstaiMl- 
lug thd disudvouti^ra^uti BLituntion of Uie Prfft«flUiiT«, had 
the military inaiiiigDmirnt bccii good, th^ might Uav« 
ftcluavi^d 4iici?^Aa. Itut H Hpirit of indtrisioti uml ii]iu^<> 
tivity prevailoiL llw Elector, John Fredeiic, dri>ve from 
bis tvmUjiy the fort^m of M^tmice. but w£iaaurpn0e<J,do- 
fcfbtcdr oX)d capturwl by Clinrlos u.t Miiiilburg^ on thn 2^tJi 
of April, 1547; uud acjon £bftcr tho L&nc^nive ^iirrcndcii^d 
hini^ftlf and flubniittyd U> th<» Emperor. Th© victory of 
ClutduA up^^^ud tu be ulruo&t oompleta. His plan was to 
bring thiT PiuUsiiiinis once more under trhe GithoUcr biunir* 
ohy, arid In in^^i^ ilti'in t^rmli^iit by l.he removnl nf rxU^T' 
nal abuM^H. IIJ* t>£tiiua,tti of th» iru^ dmmuter and nior^J 
■trcn^Ct^ ;>F Proti^fitatitbin was ^'UwayA superficial- U«aoe 
ho puD foitb £1 proTisiL>rial formula — c^iileii, after the 
uaotioD of it by tho Piot* tli*i Augaburg iotonm — at 
tho aAU\<t timu Uuit a ecbi:Tui; for reformation wut^ by 
hii authority laid before Hm GermiLn biahopii, in vrhioh 
changes were proposed in points of external order. The 
work whidi he lijul ibua commetK^ed be bopE<d tli^t tlw 
Council of Trent wouhl comjjli^l^. But ibia plan, how-* 
ever prgmiitiiig it Avcmod to the Emperor, bad to contend 
not only with th>:i oppositAon of earnest Prot^atocl^. but 
ftlfio with the dJ£cordaj)t ideas and projocts of the I'opo. 
Charles bad voimtdd upon euppnattiug ProtoBtfmtifton hf 
thiT jomt influrm^fi of Im own poi,T<»r iind of th« Council, 
But till- Ciiuudl Ltd Uigun iU work^ not with n.eaHatei 
looking to a n-iomhation, bat with the condeauuUiou of 
the Pnrtcstant doctiinea* Morccvcri Pope Paul ill., tA* 
lliQu^b he hoped that bunofit would the Church 

> [Mliniciir, rn-TrJpe, nW. (Honkh, IBTft). 8*0* ftl». bit wlhr Wdil 



im orrmu. 


Bnudoiildie war, ilmti]<<d il ion nhv>ci]ittn joicmra 
M'ft^iMutol OWIcAt wliich vroM render him Jajjger- 
tm in itoiy. Honcc he wi«ltcd that the Elector might 
bold out agAUi4t tho ETn[i(>ror, Aud aotit a niL-^aagu to 
Frukcu 1, to &id the former. He wiiLdrc^w thc> ilidift- 
cipliii«<l tJoop« vritli Vfhicli hij Lad (uruiTflitrd Cliurlcn, nnd 
vxdlnl (In? Eii]|ii^riirV inU?ris« di»|iltMmiim b^v nnnimng 
tii(^ CauncU tc Uologttn, Thi? Popt-] Francin wc-ro 
ooou moTO cWeEj ullit-'d. iind nt woric on th<? ProtcKtnnt 
aido fot tbc purpoeo of dimiriiuliiiig thu ixjwtrr of Chrtrloa. 
The impenal bubopfl rt?fiiHod to l^ave Ti^nt, and the 
CouMil WAS Tendered powerless. The measures under* 
tnlc4-ti by CImtIia Wf-Vi'-, lii'sldni, c*niBidereil liy \ht'. Pmn? 
and 1>jr xcnloiM OatlioHiTi t'^ he tm v.tictitAi-}un^-.ut upon hiH 
^nritaid aDthontr. a umitpfttion of powcm not bc-langing 
to a aecular ruloTi In Southern Germany tho occeptani^ 
of tbo Interim was forced upon the IVite^tant alntea ivud 
Qtioi. Id Kortliera Qerouuiy it was generatly reaintcd. 
Tbd ct^ of Magddburg osipnctaUy Migntitizi^d itself hy its 
|>Bn«Teniig refosat to submit to tht': zit^w arrangfrDienU. 
Ihzkt- Mtturiiw modifU^il thti Interiui, retaining the ettieii- 
tial foAtar«a of tJie Lutbermi doctrine, hut allowiDg Cintlt- 
olic ntc» ftiKl iurtittitiantK* and thus franiL^d tliu LcipAit; 
Intmm. lliis procooding, uhUJi v;in JiucompUiihtfd by 
tho ud of UeJattotlioii tind thn otJKi- WirtfTnborg tbtiolr>- 
gnuii, led to a bitter eontrorersy in thi' Liktheran Churoh 
on tlio MRRUT (^ue^iLKiii whidi axtUK u|i i?WvvhH[>< In i.uniiiv^. 
tkiu vritli Puntiiiiiiini, vhcthcr thmc obnoxirxi^ ritm nnd 
iMD|^o ndgltt be adopted by tho Church v^ things morally 
lodiifereiit — adiaphora — ^ when tho [UA|^trati3 eojoliu it. 
Htknothoa incurrod the fierce hoetility of tho Btrioter 
I^ntbdvais, uid the controversy vtoji of Long oontino- 

* Thm MilMttfin Tf "- tat in tii%.oi\rf<aMiaatin tha porfo'ldf tbd fnU( IB, 
itr^"" te r^— TMiTirt. kni>*wtr. In Jiucl» ',» bim, UuiC in tit^DlnjE 1> t HVLilcAU 

TL« ConnMl had been r^aeaembled at 'Vnvnt hy Pop* 
Juliiifl Jll., ^\iO vTu» u'li*>ny favorable t** th*? Kmppror. 
Fri>tr*jilji>il. Htuli'K lijv) iroUrrtul luUi iLt?|foUHtioi)a wlUi lU 
and il Aot^iJtrd pmbabk l\uit Gt^nruuiy muni hiive to lU 
auttioriiyt v/\f?n Uic nholo sitiiftticm vtoA turn<xi hy tiio 
bf>ld moveiu^Dt of Doko Maurico for tho roficno cf thm 
cauiat wluch ho had been oliietly instramentol in cniahlni^. 
NotwitJiutnndiug tbftl G^nnany waa bi appeurauio^ well- 
nigh RubjiLgJttfid Ui tJi« ErnjH-TfjT, Uieit? wiire [njwurful 
^lerui^nU ii( inipnaitiini. TW Turks lijul ('Jiptntrd Trijmli 
fruiii Lhu KiiEghta of St* John, and kindlod anew th« 
tlnmnt of war in H«jit:ary» H<?iiry VIJi„ tbc Kiug of 
l^ughuid. h^ died, ami h^eai siKviHxted by Edward VL, 
by vrhom J'rotf^t.jiTitism was 44tfi.hli!iJiixl in tbat ocan- 
try, H^nry II. of Fr^ince wjis uniting with xhv fin^aniot 
of die Emperor in lt;ily, jind itj Si'|i[*'niber. l^K)!, hc*»* 
LiUL((*ti omM jnora iM>in<m'ii(vd ln-Lwi-en tliR twu nviil 
powers. The hcrcic resifiUiiice of Magdeburg li»d stimiL- 
Uti^d tlic entbusiftflna of the ProtestuiiU <ff NortU Ger- 
mtuiy. The project o( Ciiarle* V. in uiakt hie oon, 
Philip of Spiiin, his G^o<^6S5<tr to the Empire, hnd cveo 
thi«3ten«d U't a time t*> produce ftn ««traiQg(<m^t b^ 
tweea the F.mpewirHud Fi-rdiTi.ind. The German princeii 
weri< olferid*-4l at the preferenct; giv^n to Spiuibli iidvii^m 
■lid at pimi^nol ttlifclita whtdi thiry h^ HuffcEcd. Thi; vxm* 
tinnod pTt*rnct? of foreign troop* in violation of tho Em- 
pcTCr's pr^minr nt h\n clcctii?n woa offonaivo to thti luiitioa. 
Mfturic« b^d beoomo an objeot of geuenU hatred runcvig 
Jiose whom he bad betrayed. Citr»u«, loud on volJ w 
teep, werr- fr**t-1y tittr'tt'^i agiLinxt him. 'ITi^ nuffmn^ of 
the griod Elet^tor, urhcmi nri tl^nnlfi and no bribes could 
Induce to GOmpn^imAO hu relij^ioiu fmth. a^id tJi» uon> 


Eii« uhn M tm^lj. tn 'drnil ■ ^bh &u*wifu ■qptrinr^iy of Ltiv Pup* «vor oOiu 


of the BttpukitiotiH given dii the oocaJi-U <A iiia aiin^ciidt^r- 
for the fnltillmont of whioli Mnnnco wjta liutd to bo lui- 
stn?rabl««, vroro not only pornonnlly dinpli^rtnin^ to him, 
but tbey brought npan him incroit^ing iiiij>^pnlnritj. His 
apptiofttioQB to th» BnipOTor for tlie rele»8d of the Laiid- 
gnvR, Maiintw'a fjilfjer-iii-lrtw. had \M\i\fi\ iiiffTei-tiuiL 
Tb^ Spimiiu-dA -vtrrvi threatening that tlic GcnTinii priniii?* 
ehould be put doifn, and intimatioriA that Mnurico Jiim* 
mU migbt bavo to bo dealt with na tho Eloctc-r h:*A 
been, were ocoa^onally thrown oat. Tbd Bie;*e ol Ma^ 
dcbuT]^ whi«li Mnuritt!, trho had uiid&rt&keti to execute 
thp impi'risd ban ugainit that r\ty, \rtvi Iringiiidlv pronn- 
mtliig, si^rieil 3M a covi^r for imlhary jiri^p^irJitifiTis- liar-* 
ing aecvred tbo coSpenitioii l^ een^t^] Proti^bUint pnuce» 
on whom he oouhl n^y ; hiring ^ronvmcf^d witli diHicully 
tho EunUicfl of tbi^ axptivt? prinivji timt b<; niight L« 
trusted ; having, ateo, noi;otiut«d nn allianiie with H^iny 
TI,. who w»i to niak« a diwr^on agabfit CbiuW, la tii« 
>VUi'Tr!iLnd)i ; buviHg i.H>Tn« to nil iitn^^^rsiaiuUng uriili 
MagdvbiiTg, wtiidi vim U) Anrvi- lui a rt^fiigt^ in iiim! of 
4«fail : having made tbesa and all riUicr inx^dfal prepura- 
tioiia with profound oectvcy, !i« auddvnJy ttiok tho ti^Id* 
and mnrchipp at tbo head of an txviny wluch inc^eaaed at 
erorj »tvp of his tidvimect, hrr (rroniHTd tJm Alp, and forcud 
tk« BoBptt'or, who was aufF<>riiig fi'om ^w atts-ric of tb^ 
gout, to flj from Ifuispruc^k.' Thia tntimph was followed 
Vf U>i» treatjr d£ PtuMnu. Gliiirli'M Mi his ImjLher Prrdi- 
BBud Co nq^tiate witli tbn princt^n. Thi^ ilt^miLnd of 
1Iatmc« and of his ftaflociat«» was that the Protcjstnnti 
ibonid liaT« aa awumico of toloratioD and of aji equality 
d nglita with tho OathoUua, wbo4h«r the efloru to socara 
*di^QUi anunimity in tha rutlr:ki: nhould auooeed or uot. 
To this F^i^inand fgnw his aMnnt; but thu Euipi-ror 



imjx'llf^d iitikt* by i-on^rieiu'i' and b^ pn<l4>, i^otvitbatand* 
liig bin liuiiiilijitbif; (b*rt*iLL» iroiiM ni>t In- bnmgbt tncoiu^uv 
in iluei efi|^ulrition. The ProtcrtanU obUunc^cl the pled^ 
of Eunncrtty^ 9E prncc, nwi equal righto, uutU the rvlj^uua 
difFuroncoA shgiild bo «(ittlod by 0, DAtional aaaoiiibh' or a 
g<iii«ra] cotindl. The captive prinoes were a«t at liberty- 
<~3inr1e4 was obliged to see bU ]ong-<.'h':THah£Kl phin tor tb* 
ileaLruuUou of Pro LesUiTi Limn UiniiiiUil-n in a mortifying 
fiulure* Al thtf Di(;t<j£ Au{j:^bu]-g in lo-)r>, tha i^?]rbrated 
BclJgioufl Fcftcc Wft» concluded. Kvrxy prince waiS to ba 
allowvd to chooso botwoon tho Catlii^lio religion and tbd 
Augvburi:; Coafeesion« oiid tbe reUgioQ of tbe pritioc woa 
to bo that of tbe hmd over which bo reigned. Tho 
Oatlialiiw wrtJitr*^ tn ^^upt eccUsiaatirad prin^ea from tbi^ 
fimt wticli.' ; Hw PiTrt«»(JiTiIfl ohjemteJ to tJie spi^oruL P'i- 
DftUy the GccIefiiastJcal icserration ^'ns adopted into tho 
brcoty^ accoMiriit to which oYcry prolato on bocomine 
Prot«Htant nhould resign bis benoficri* \ mid by an iLeooiu- 
pimying doalAratioii oi Fei'diiiand, tlie Gu.t>je<:ts of ccclo- 
oasticnl princes were to etijoy religious bbftity. Thd 
Inijx'riul Ch:iinbur, whi<;b biid be«n a print* tpaJ liuiLni- 
rni'i^l fif i)[ipnv(»iiD in the Imnds of tbu OatJia1it«, wiw 
rooan^litut^d in aocb & way tJmt tbe rights of tbo Prot^ 
twtaula niMx* protected. Charles took no pnrt pcr&onally 
ui tliL' procuediui^ which led to the religious poaw>. It 
bvolvL-d a «onoo&Hioik to the adherents of tho Auj^butfC 
Coofca^n — the liborty to pmctiee their rell^'ion with- 
out moliuttiktfnn iir loiu of rivil privilpj^^ii, ^-liKlic^ ■ 
oouncil shontd or should not hU(xi4ti^ in iiiiitliig tbe 0j>^)O9* 
ing partita — a conceanoiii which bo hnd intended iier«r 
to gmnt. Hnt the pro^rtta of thought Aud tho etreni^ 
of roligiouD contrictionff wcro too uiighty to be ovMcomQ 
by fon^. Medlsnvnl iinp«riaU«m v:a.i obbf^d to giro «ay 
before tlie for^^ea atrayed ngain^t. it. Tli«* ftbdic«tlon of 
Cliir1t!«, wlio felt bimBelf physically uui^UiLl to tho carai 
of bi.i iilBcA, fallowed, aiul the imperial stetion dcTolved 
m bift h**othor (1666). 


Thus Protestantiam obWued a legal recognition. Dur- 
ing the next few years, the Protestaot faith rapidly spread 
even in BaToria and Austria. Had it not been for the 
Ecclcfliafltical Reservation, sa^ Gieseler, all GormaBj 
woold have soon become Protestant. ^ 

^ Giesalar, IV. L 1 « U. 



Wkbn w** inquire into thi* mrp^na hy whirli th*]4 Oftr- 
UEUJi Hi.'f<.n'iuatiuii t?:iU^uded iLaelf iiito Lbt: ^jaoviil cuuu* 
tries, tbo ;i#jL"u<:y of the Ourmmifl wlio wui^ m-ttled m 
tfac!do Uuidi» cHJtiNUmtly upjjoiirn, Oirci ia rvmindod uf tho 
dilTuninn c^ tho ani^iciit Ilcbrumt, ilhij of tho |jurt. tdkon 
by tli^m in opening a wny ioT Chrinlianity beiycuid the 
boiuida (jf l*alesT.ine. Another very conspictions u\8tra- 
uitut. 111 tlip Bpreai) of tlie Lnthtraii diKTtriutt w?ui WitU*h- 
Ix^g, Uw rfliiownwl scliixil U' Avhuh yomig moa were 
ftttrstctcd out of iiU the ncighbortiig Luula. Xtie use of 
Latin aa a vehiclo of t^^iLchlii^ nud aa tha common kn* 
guii^ of edm'jitwi pc^ra^jna of wUiiluver natioriiility, vc-sx- 
dcrod thia prntititiible. But tlie Scamliimvmnswen> them- 
sfilv^K II. bniuch of Ibe great Teutonic fflmily, near kinnrnpn 
of ibe (ieririjLii^, »nd ratmeL^tfil with tlkem, bealde«, by the 
buuds of cuiEtjiitu'cliLt i:iU?ii^ij[inft?. 

In 1397* the three ScjirtdinuTian kingdomo, Dcnmnrk, 
Norwny. nnd Swuden, wero unitwl by tbc Union of Cal* 
mar, in which it wkw prr^vidofl that ftkich nation ahmild 
prdaerve ii« Uwn and inatitiitions^ and share in the «Iqo- 
tiou of ibe oonunoij aoverelgu. The K*ult» bowwvur, wju 
a. Icmg stnigghi for DiuiishHJiiin^inwy ovi-x Swinb^n. Wlu^ti 
tliM }ii.^frrnr^iin in G^mi uny iKigrm, Chrif-Unn 11. of Deiw 
oLiirk w&» eiigoged in a eoatcflt for the £>vrddi«h tbruii«. 
(n ad Uufle oountriee th^ proltvtea were poaodeaed of gre^t 



wealth, aod rei^ mudl nsLni^LHl tlif? antlrnrity if t>i0 
BOT«nigii as iretl as Una [Kiwt!r of the occaJar nobb^t.^ 

CUmUuii II< vrutf tfurroutidod, in DcnmiU'k, by a body 
ol adviMn vrht> ftympathizod with the Luthomn inovo 
tnunt in SjucinVt Ha ww hinifleU dispose tc dcpR-u! tlia 
painTT of diH c<n-WiaMicJ4l ^tod lay ifcristocriLyy, wid, fr<T 
tltiv mdt ttiough not wltliout tlcu njlmixturf; uf otlir-T hiuI 
better iBOtiv«fl, act towurkt<j enlightt^n and cIcTalo the 
tower olaaBea. Xbe encoungomcnt ot Piotedtantiam a&- 
oardcd witli ]u« goncEiul policy. In 15'20« ho E<?nt for a 
Saxou prcAcbor to corve oa chnpli^u at Lin court aiid as 
ft r«J:gi<]iDi instrnrtor of the people, and s«b9i?(iiieiitly in* 
wlusd LutfacrJuiuaeLf iuto hu kluj^Juiu. Al tin: ainrii^ liinvf 
tint Christian axiuled hini^clf uf thr^ ptijuJ Liiu jia u wilt^ 
eut for lii» tyraiuiy luid cruelty in ±>\rc<lcn, lie continued 
ill Ueamark to prcmctc tbc csto^bliahnicnt of ProtBaCont- 
iaitt. Id 15S1 be g^t forth a book of laws, which conttuu^Ml 
•DActraenta of a Protast^it tendency ; among them ona 
ti* vti^otmgv thfi marriagv of all prehit^si nod firissiJL, and 
antitJit^r for diapeni^mg with nil Ap|>ei(lA to Rimn'.' Aftner 
lua Muqpmary proLv^diiigH aguiiiHl Sweden, jliidiiig that 
hia orovm wva in danger, he retr^^ti^d his reforroatory 
laawotai nl tbo insti^t^on tif jl pupal logitt(^ But ba 
iwa dep<ja<^ by the probttca luid ngblus of Demn^irk, and 
Ua luiclct Prederia L, Duke of Scbleawig ^M IIolHtptn, 
mw mode king, in 1^2^ 

FrfMlnrie at hiH luui^iMiim, thim^h j)i-rw>ii:illy int<Um<d tn 
pTftlimliuitinni; wvt oMigrd to pledge- himaelf to the Diiir- 
■A mafcaato to r^.'aift Ita introdiiction* juid to ^aot it no 
toicratboo. Tiw exikd Chmtian idcntifi^i LiioucU with 
tlio ProtcaUutt oauso, tbon^ not with oonataucy ; for U 
Iha chaifto lacka proof tlmt, ut Augiiburg, in l^SO, In 

in KFOMfATlOM W DEimUUC. ^^ 

Otd#r to get th<^ lu-lji (jf the Emperor, Lb formally a1^ 
juriHl llm iTviiD^i'lic^l fniUi^ it is trur thut in ITi^t li« 
irrOEaiAoJ to uphold tbc CfUbolIc Church !d Norwny, II9 
rendered a good scrvico by cflosing the New TcjitEuneBt 
to bo tntJkdlat^ into Daniab, which wob done by twc of 
bU nobtdft- Tbt» immediate occasion of the aucoeaaful lu- 
IfOtluction of Lutbc'i'aiilsm iiilo Dj^ninork was Ute iicttv« 
pit^jiHg^ium <if L(. in flit-. DudiiitH cif Sdi1<%swig i4iid l-fol* 
■l^in, whore, in 1524, Fri*<irric inip>i«*d ni^timl t^>l»'nition 
au both parties- In Dcnni^Lrk ibsflf the i^tudy uf dm 
Bible vma oiiooumi^, & Biblical thc^olog^- vroA incutciitcd, 
nod fiOOksLootiGul abuuoa cc-Liaimtd by a iiumbvr uE oikrnc^t 
pi!oacl&«n,9Linong whom wna Paid Khiu of HolKitigor, Pro- 
Tincdal of tho Oiinncliti'si, wh<i wcrkfd with much effect 
In this diivctlon, iJrlKfugb 7it Injit, WUir Knuimns^ \w chmn 
to aUdo in the old Churcli, and oven turned hin wi-Apfini^ ■ 
iritfc n Inttor antipathy, og^nat the R^ormem. In IL20, 
the; Kin^ dfiohirod himfli^U in iiwar of thn Ucformation, 
tho doctrine of which war diMominated ruprdi}' in tlio 
alties. The mogt stealous advocate of th^j n«^w doctrine 
wnM Jnlin Tauitsvii. ftL>nielJmt?* I'ttlk'd tho Dnnijth Luther, 
who ><h;diful »it; WltbKnU-r^, mid iiStr.r 1524. in de^ance 
of the opposition of the binhops, pre.ichi_'d Lulbi^nuiiiiin 
with imLrked effect^^ ITic l>nnTsh nobility were fi^mniblo 
to the King'» ^idc, from jcAloiuy of th« power of tho 
prvUCc«. and the do«irc to po«oe» thouMhta of eocUaiaft- 
tioal property* At the Diet of Oddnse* m IftHl. it wna 
orflibed ihat msimage flhontd be allowed Co thu dco^, 
tbnt LiitliemnEftin aboutd be tot^rati^d, and that bdabopa 
should thrJici'lorwArd iibfttam from getting the pallium 
from Rome, baU when choscA hy the izbapt^r, shonld _ 
look to the King alone far tbe ratification o{ thdr eloo- M 
tion. Conv^^rttf to Luth<>niuiAm weiro mado in groat nun- 
bor«- WiboTg in Jatkutd, and Mulrao in ScboflMOit iPGn 
Um prin'^'pal 4^c<iitr^ wh«iiK!0 th^ r^ortned f^th wftf dil 

ovoi tfao Idngdosi- Hooln and trn<!ta in crxpoaitioD 
ddfeiuo of it,a« wnll u4 thi> Uiblo in tlie i^emaculsu- 
ton^fu^ were eteiywhere rirtjulatpii. The Lntherana 
wi^u, !ri 1.^^, |U^«c^il4^il their Ounft^h^ion of Fnitli hi 

bind ; but tn cooucqiicncc of tlic pledges of FitHkrio at 
bu acccMion, the bisltop^ were not deprived of their 
povr«r. His <Wt1if in l^SS, 1^ to n combined el^ort on 
tb«ir pare to abrogate the recent Grrrk-^iHArTtziil <^liangG« 
an<l restore tliu cxdusive doniiitatioii of thi.-" ohl f^hgiou. 
They MccordTn^ly ttfused tu shLocljon tlie t^ectjim ol 
ChnAtmu m.. Frc^jcric'd eldest nf>iit wlic Imd Ujen activo 
in oatoUuhing I'votcvtontUm m the iJuvUk'u; until their 
eonBtnt vfta ooia|nUod by tbo Mttnnipt of tho Couut of 
OldenbiiTf^, a Fiotoabuit, to reatoi*^ the depog^l Christina 
11^ wliom ihvy ^till in*M-^ itsarv*! h^ikI LiLl.ed. liy Chrifl* 
lun in^ vrlifMr? ;)iluiir:itJo]i fur LtiLhcr 1i:id hnm lirtiL 
kitidli;d ul thn Diet of Wonns, whci'c thia prince was 
pnMCDt, the fluthofity of the prcljttc» wob Aboilsliefl. at Ji 
Uiei at CopoQb&e^D« m i63tLt and tho Ri^fonuiLtion uni- 
vanoUy Ufj;uU»eil. The bishopa woi'o forLvti lu rtjuounoo 
tboir dignities. A eoiutttution for tUi^ Diuiiiib Church 
wan fnUTK-d, uiul f^iEbniitti^ tn [,iTthi-r for liU K[in<i(iciii. 
BugezihageD, & promineuti friend of tfu^ 8»xon Uofonuer, 

utto tlie kiugdoiiu on tbi? Kiu^'h iiirltatii^u, and* in 

7« crowned him and hU (juecn, and purfcrotoi Lhu new 

ecdoniwticfd (UTtuig<eiccntd. liivb[>|)0, or uupurintcndcntif 

appointed for tbi.* <liocPBefl, :ind forrnjiUy eonAOcratod 
tfaajr office* by Hugefihagi^i himiuttf, *' iit vtmvt «pinco- 

na Luther exjirps<^d it. The tiniversity of Co[iei>4 
wv reoiganhted. aud other achoob of Itsarmitg 
tvteblished in the iranouo dtiea. 

Utifl final chumph of I'rotc.itivntaiin Ln Denni^k wu* 
OQUneotad with omuita of peenliar intftrott in th^* history 
of thi* Rnfomtttion.^ Thd Lutheran doctrine bijid quickly 



BEFORUA-nON m i>e)ni;i&K. 

penotnttcd into ovcty pUco wlicrc the German to&guo 
WMDpokcn. 'ilic dtico of f^oi'thont Cicrmany, the mom- 
t»n nf th^ old Hans^^^c Leit;*u«<, ^va it a hoepitj|b]o ro- 
eeption, Tlie etrorig burg^her d^as In theee towiiB lent 
& wiilfojj e:ir to tbe prea^iheni from WittenlM-rg. Th« 
IffttiaA, at tlir |if-'ncHl uf itA gn<»1'vL prcujnrritj, in tlio 
[oiiit«eiitb century* compniwit in iu conf r^crnoy nil tJi« 
mahtimc towns of (Jtiamftny, together with Magdobnrg, 
Bnnuwick, and <^tho^ intflrmoiliate places ; ani 03Eeit«d a 
eoQtroUicg indu«iioe IE th« ScATt'lmavi^ kiu^omA. It 
vtM wuOcgikmI hy the At^pnnitltJi: of the Nt*Lht*rbndii, 
mfrrr 1427. Tlu' grciil vuliie of Um Lmili? nf Ihn niiTt]i* 
tm kingilijms, of tho protiuot* of thru* mines and fiaL- 
«hcs, made it of tho liiglicst importance to Liibock, ih& 
lading city of Uko llanmi, to ko€p its oommr^rcial and 
pallticaL supremacy. Christian tl., the broth«r*in-luw of 
Clurttt v., was witbstood in hia attempt to vubdu*^ the^rn EiiiLiDEiH by Llie LnWtkfirs, by wboiti Gurttavus 
Vw«t wa* awi«tcd in gaining tlw tlirontr i>f Swi^Jeii, Tlie 
i^«& which* like Hamburg &nd Magdeburg, Lad a magi** 
ttiicj tliat \vi\z lATorablo to the Protoetaut doL'trinL-, ro- 
ooiTod thi; now nvattni witliout any aorious politicn] dis- 
turbance. But in Bome other towns, u Bromon and 
Liibock, the acc<?plnnc«> of Liithnpanifim wm attended by 
ubange8 in the ^oveninientt whicli ver^ efTected by tli« 
but^ljcrnit mid wcm dfiicocnilio in Uit?ir Gbamottir. Tim 
new Biirgonwitrr, at Lilbi^ck. WnU(:nn<ibcr. wliom the 
revolution bad mi/nid to power, nf^otmtod a treaty of 
alliance with the Engiieb King, Henry VIII. The gr^at 
object of Lilbeck cra^ tc keep the trade between the Bal- 
Cic luid tlic Nortli Si?n in lU own hiuida* But Hia sjtu- 
atifin in Drnnmrk, hht^r the. dt'nih of Fri<i)i!n<! f., wwi 
*iicti that Liibeck reversed its nttitndc and c»pousod the 
uiniKT <i llin veiled King, Climtiai) 11. llio Liibeck«n 
Iband that tlii^r coutd not Iobk'^ ooimt upon tho ooSpoa- 
tioti of Denmark in their oomuiertjlAl poUoy« and that 




Ohnati^n ni.,ol HoUt^in, could not bi? cnli?t<Hl in unpport 
of tbcir hootrlc iindrrtnkingft iLgninnt JlL^lbii^t. Honcc, 
thfty pill torward th« Conrt <i Oldenburi:; a* a chriukpioa 
of the banifib^d soveivign. Maln^^. Ccipcnha^euT oncl 
oLiier crititt^ of Denmark. aj< ^vt-ll ha f^lrAmmiV, ICosLodf, 
Had uUipr olO vliivh of Uie Huiih^l, nl oiifif* tr;mftfunHMd 
Uicir fonni^r mumclpnl njitcju, or give to it n tltntoomtic 
c»At,uicI )atao<i hixad^ witli L^iibcck in bf'hn.H of Christion 
ll„ wliOM mcibnirw, when bo wu« on tlio tbron^, had 
looked to aa tnorenae of tb^ powet of tie btii^hei* * laas, 
Hw confederate dttes e^tabllabed tlieir allinnoe "fflth 
Kngbind, and gained tu t\mv nidt^, u Gurniiin ]irjit<w, 
Duke Albert nf MoclcWbnrg. ThU ortmbmntitin h?id to 
be overcome by Christian IIL, before ho could rcigu otot 
Denmark. Hia ener^f>tic olTone wore successful; and 
witb Ui6 defeat of Liibeiik, llie domooratlo or rov<>lutian- 
«j inoTcm«nt> th^ radSeal elem<?ut, whif^U tUrL^utuuaJ to 
identify itmir willi tlu< RfTrormuLiim^ w;u kuIhIuikI. S^or^- 
d«o contributed iU hi^lp to (hi< HMianm'iU i>f Thi^ ivsitlt. 
WuUenvebei lumaeU waa brud^dit to Ibv scaffold. The 
priDcipJct of Liitbcr and bia uH^ocUti^s. itiut tbe euue« ol 
reli^m mnflt ha ktipt ^paruti-* Jfuni uctK>niOB of polttiooJ 
or eocud nYolntion. W4d pniL-dcaLly vintlJcutod. In Mut^ 
■t<!r, Uii» principle biwl to be mfLinU]D<^d agninnt a, eocial- 
iat inovemetnt In wlm-li tbe elei^gy wt-tv llie leiulern. In 
Ldbrtck, it WBH iMjIitimtl Jtcd L<untuit?iL:ia] iiEtibitlun tlmt 
ooo^t to idcntifj vith tta ovrn aspiruti(rn« the Protestant 
reform. Cbrinaan [IE, ^ms a Protcstntit ; hi? triumpht 
aimI tlttt of biJi alliivi, did not vonk<in tbn i'rotoatant 
hitATWX. althongh it «n^«rt«d a n^w political fabdo 
which h«d been w^t np in conneotion with it. 

Tlif? n-ivptinn of Pii^h-eiliuiiUiu in Njrw:i}' waa 4 OOQ* 
ariprnoa of the occlruiiuitji^pJ revolution in Denmark. 
QhfUtiaii III> WM nt tint cpprir^d m that country ; but, 
ba 1637< the Ar«lkbi>bop of Drontbcum 6od, with tba 
of bis Catbodral, to tho Netherlands, ^nd Nor- 


vray WHS rodocod to the rank ol a province uf Denmatk. 

clniiW agL'iidea, altlioD^fa the BUliop ot $kuUic4t» irbo 
hull Imwu a fttti<lfnt, III A^tU'^iiWr^, mu Ml ftctivi? und in- 
HucJitiul tcarln'r til Ujo in^w dL>^triiMJ. 

Aa earl/ a^ lolO, two stiidenta who had aat at the f«^ 
of Luthor i:i WxtUnibor^'i Ohd luvtl Lawrciiui} Potersoiit 
b«gui to pToach the uvuiiguHcol doctrint* in Swc^Un. The 
Koforinfttion pn^vnilivl, hovrovL^r, ihroiigli tho jigliticalrev* 
olutlon vluch iui»>^H On^Uivntt Vtuai li~i Ow tltmiK^. Cbti*« 
Liftii II, of I>ai)UiJirk waa SQ^poi-lt^J tu hlu i-ndisji^-on to 
ooaqiior Swtrlcji, by p/ipal edicts, and hy tlit^ oDcponktioQ 
of thfiT arc^libuihijp^ (vutibivQn l^llc, TJm Swcdinb prol- 
atoa wpro ft»vornl>lo to tho Daniiih interest. Gnstavoe Vaaa^ 
a, DoblcimnJi who wor i^Iated to the fiunily of $tur<3, wtkioli 
had fumlalied several jidministrators oi- regenU to Swochuk 
|iriin" tci lu [^nitHiii'iHl. by Oliriatiiin TI., luiiL^i'tDolc in Ub- 
emtfl hi» <n>Tint.ry from the. DAiiisli yoke»«inl aiicceeded In 
bin imtnotic QiiUirpnau. llv wua favurabJc U> tbu Lo- 
^i>ran doctrine^ njid waa tho nnore incLuicd to ancare for 
it the aiccjidcncy, oj} he covc^d for hi» impovoriahed 
Inmflary the va£t wealth which bad bes<n accumulate by 
thi> iNx^lmiaiitioii. Ho ap[>oijited Lawrenci^ Airdetvun, m 
rfinvi'ft ia }A\iitvrnm%m, bw eliwicijbir ; OW Pttcmm Im 
mndi^ at priAitxJicr In ^St(htkh»lm, u-itd IjiLwreiii^i PfftmaiTn n 
thvo1o^r>l profcflSQr ni Upndtt. Plotv of the buho|s in 
behiUf of Cbriatiaa U. naturally ctimolAtcd tho prodU«^ 
tion of (ihiatavus for tlio I'rot^tant syateai, A publJa 
divputitlon VTM held in IS^-l* by the appoinCment of tlio 
king, ut L'piaU, iii whkh Ohd P«t«»cti mfti]tuin«<l Um 
Luthnran opinion*. Tlui pi^miJiry tMinh^Tiii wbii^i OtiH* 
Uvi» laid ujion Ui4»cl«rgy <:-k<^iM disaffection among tkttv. 
Piiially, iki th« Diel of WcAU-na, in lo37«tbo ccmtrorcny 
was bfofight to a criaia, GtavUvua thrMlen^ to abdieai* 
lu< throno if bii damand* w«re not ooropUcd viUk Tba 

BTABUSmBHT 01* PftOTlieTA?mSSif. 

wh vru that liberty wii^ ^iint<^d *' fi>r tbo prcachon to 
proelftun the pure Wowl o( (iod, * n Protestant di>Uiuti<ni 
b«iDg coupled vnih thj« phrac« ; attd the property of tlio 
Church, with th^ aulbority en re^ilnte C'ccltj^adtlcid uf- 
lain, VThtt ilfUvT^red mUt (lie li&rul of tl^o ^i^*^- XKt 
clinrdifw whi«li cai1ifW3H3 tine Pri>t«vtaiit fuitb presarTed 
tJn^TF nsreniif*. TJiq cccJt'AAstiail proptjrly (\i\l lot the 
rooat pftrt to the pOBficaioD of the nobler. TLo couimon 
people, not inAtnictcd ui Uio new doctrino, w<iro giHicznUy 
tttlaclittl to the old ri^lifcious Hy»t«ni- Gustavua propo«ud 
to tntrodnce ckuigc!^ gnLduLdly, mid to [irovidH for thn 
imtriirtion nf tJii^ pi^siNtrlry. Hr hud tf} put. di>wn n. d»n- 
g«nms insurrocLloQ »bich ^t&e ejccitcd id pari by priests 
vho wen boettlf: to iLt^ reli^-ioufi iuiioTiLtioiu. Uy de- 
grcf^ the* SncdkJi nation acquired a tirin nttttohmont tc} 
the Protcfttftnt doctrino jvud wunhip, Guutnvua wilh aqo 
ooodttd by Eric XIV.« w1ici«a partiality to Cidtiiiism madd 
iko impnmoti on hiii mbjpctfl. Tlu^n fnllowed John Hh 
(l&t)ft-irf&2), V 'ui marHcHi n Catltolia print^ti&s nf Potnnd, 
uid who mndi? n jirolongcn]* ;ii^d vrliat nt tiini^ HurniiMl 
Ukrij to prOTe i eacccssful effort, with the aid oC uatiito 
J<Mut«» '-o latx^idiicQ a moderate type of CatholiciBm, and 
to KdoncUo tii^ nation to ita ^idoptiou. Popular ftreUng 
was a^nfft him; and aitor hia death the lituf^y vrhioh 
1m had iwttahlliJiri) aiirl iitwHiuiti'ly iEtatntain»f, vst» ahoU 
UimI hy a Connrt] at UpiQili in 1'^£^>(. and tbfr Aug^bnrg 
CiifiTTiinn a(^L-j>ii^d aA the cn^ of th<j Naliouhl Chun^. 
SgiunaDd III, of I'oUnd, on account uf EiU CuthoUdann, 
W*0 provenltd from reining ; and thi5 crown at ^wc^drn 
w»* giT<t(i to Giiirbtnu VaMi'i youngest aon, Ohaflas IX , 
wbo becune king in 1604. ^ 

The di<titxti(?boii t)f Hmiw by ihit Couiidt of Con«lAiiiM 
Id 111'^ foUownl in tho nrxl yrair bv thti rxixittiou cl 
i«xoire of Prague. »ent a thrill of indignation throi^h tho 


lotiuw wvra couvnrt^d from hpathAnifiin by two Grogfr 
Tnonkm M**thrxJiuB anri Oyiil ; hnt tht- power if tiifl G^r* 
iiiHiin, iMuipleil with tli'i influence <>r thp Rc^touti ae^, »e- 
tuTffll tli»?ir adiittmou tu Cljo LaUuCUurcli* In llie Mlildle 
Agea, hovrever. u stxugglo took pLiiao b<)tweon thd ver- 
lUOEilar ixnd tho Latin ntiialn An Etppliuation for loavo 
to xiHiJ. the foiTner wws dt^nicd in u pori^mptory tnatwcT by 
Gregory VII- LTnderlying the raovement ot wlitch Hnm 
wftH the principal anthtir, was h DftUoiial ainJ >v rrligirHui 
filing. Tlie fa^orera of the Huaaito reform wei'e of the 
Slavic p>pulatIo[i ; ttA oppori^uTu \rero the Qormaiia. The 
ooateat of tho two purttuB m tho Uiiivt*rsity of Prague \ijd to 
UQ uuiiJi^inti^al ruvolulion, a diuDge in the constilutitMi <d 
thif UnivL'naty, wliloh gnve the prejiont^etunoe fif p*»wt:r 
in i\w. i:on(lnct of Jl.s nftaire lo the natives, Ut-niTi', ttwi 
Gemmu atudeutfl left in a body > anJ out of thia groat 
eiodua arose tho UnivierBity of Leipslc. The effect of 
tJiie iiTudeniicn) qunrr^L was to cstubliah tlie naoondcncj 
of Hnsfifind his foliowcre. While the Owntnl of Con- 
ntfLTioe WAR in eoBBion, J^^olmlhiSf priest of the Chntcb of 
St. Michael at l^fsgne, hpgBn tJ» ail minister the nip to 
tbe laity ; and tbu praotic)t> obtained thu Han<:tluil of Hum 
himaelf. Tlie cup hiid \tven ongiiutUy withdrawn litaa 
layman* not with the design to conft?r a nt^w distinction 
■pon the prioatly order, hat «imply from rcvcrcDCO lor 
tho sicrnnK^nts.1 winn, which n^Ls often spilled in the 
durtribntiiit of it thrcugh an aM&mhIy,' The cuBtom^ 
oBOs established, became a fixed rule In the Church* ancl 
contributed iv vnhancie still fmtbet the dignity ^if tlin 
eacerdotul cl«u». Thotii;LG Afji^iiLas aided in contirming 
tbu innovation by inculcatitigthedortrineof concomibmoc- 
tho doctrino that ihfl whole Ghriat m in each of the ele- 

Mmte. uhI » reccCved, tlierdforo, by him who partakoB of 
thv hnoA ftlon^ Tiie UtraquieU of Boh«miih claimed 
Ibe oup. They went boyoDd the poftltioQ of Hua», aud tw- 
«c?rl'^ lliELi lh<} raception of bi>tt] rUtin^iitn U i-ast^nLml to 
thn valiiHty <)f ibi^mcinincnt. HniciiforwiLrd thi? it<;m>knd 
for the chftlicc bcciime iht most di4tu;g:tii»hing bad^ ol 
Uic Uunitc», the subject of a Jong and tcmbk cnutoiBt. 
Tlio Cosncii nt Coo^tAnoe pronounced tlie Utracjuiat op- 
pOACAU of the Churcb doctrine fic^retica. 

FifEy-four Bohemian uml Miji-aviuii rkoLlt^A st^nt from 
Pragiui A Itlti'j t^> thn Coitinrll in wliidi tJmy ivpfillrtd Uin 
acctuntioDA of hixroy ^hich lind been mjid^ ngainst thcii 
countrymen, and denounced in the strcn^^vt liiiigit;igo tho 
cnol treatraent of Huse. Tbia wiis bL>£or'o tlio bumiiig 
of Jeromi>. an «veDt thiit raised the atorrn of indiguation 
in BoliHmiu to ii grwitor liLnght. Tlit Pr-igue Univcraity 
dprlATt^d for rin? ITtriKiuJiits, atid t.htnr dot-trine »[)eedJly 
g»iood tho ftHwnt of the major part cf the nation. 

The Council, Mid Martin V„ reeohid upon fortuLle 
BKNWvno for the tcprcaeion of Ulo Boht-^miim irnxin.itA. 
IMn'T'^ vaa & conbtitncnt purt of tlit? (Ti!rirmn Ktnpirc, 
tad tbo oxocttdon of thfua mi>«HuroK f^ll t^i thcT lot of Sig- 
inund, itii h^fld, wha WHA itn nhjet^t ikf npudrtl liatr^d in 
Bdliftnuaon &cGOiuit of liiu agency in i\\*^ d^ath nf Hum. 
Tbve 0OOII Arooe lu Bohcmiit a |)o\Terfu] pirty which 
wnt Eur beyond th<- Utrnqtusts in their doctrinal innovn- 
tiOBS, ftiMl in hoattlity to the Kominh Church. The 'L'a- 
boritM. at they wcro ntylod, gnthorcd in ra^t multitndet 
to bear pTMcbing, and to c^^m^nr th^ir nnjon ivith one 
atMCber.^ Their creed, which tnok r^n new phiifleB from 
tina bi limti. mobrvL-ed iht.' ki^diujf pulutn of what, a 
esntwy UtoTt ww included in Protcat;intiain ; nlthou^fh 
Ibflir toaoti vcre not d^duf-od frrirn simplo and tnndo- 
awBtal prfnciipln, nor booed tog^thor in a logically oohe* 
nut ■yBt«a. Unlike tbA ordinary UtraquMta, th<^ i» 



jectcd t4Tui:«ul>«bLnlitbtini]. Thoy, lilwi, iifpcnW to Um 
ffibk, fl» n1«:iTLC aiith^ritatJvo, ?tTiil rcfiuod to ttubmit t» dia 
docisioiiE of the pcp<s, to tUc coiinoiU, or to the J«th«n. 
For ft while, chiluuUc und apoctklypUc thoorios provail^ 
ftmong xhijia. Pb^^ordant ]>oliti<;Al t^ndenciea Bf\iar&t«d 
tlir ULnt4jLuii(« frf^iii th« T»linnted — tJia IhIIae Ji^aJi* 
ing (IniiHuTmLid i<li-iu» rdtijJHi-Liiij^ gin'enuimtit ami ^lociifty. 
Ho opp^itinji wlilcli thoy (^xpcnenoKl oonrcrtcd thor 
enthu^lamzi bl^ fnnntidum ; and, tiiciv<Ht by a fanocu 
iooDoclMtic spirit, dmy &Muult<^4l ohun^hfis and convoDto, 
and d«iAttvy^d tha tm«itn*a which hod been ^tb>><rad by 
the prJe«tboixl, and tbe "implemfintfl ai idolatry-"* In 
ZUka, tXve hiohI iiuIihI cC Lbuir leaders, Uiey l]^4) ;i i^icnil 
ol ilcrun lujd stubborit bruYttry ; luid undoi' litn guidiuioa 
Iho foffOC of tlie HueiFtUi.<!t bvoAmo w\dl-nigh irrcwAtible.. 

In 1421, thu modnrn-tn UtriKtulittA, or CalixtJOM, em- 
bod'uMl th(Mr bciliof in Itmr nrtiolM, tb9 Article of Pra^ii^ 
whidi btw'aniei a TntkinoTiib]^ dixTjment in the histoiy of 
thv HiLVilLe □uuLn^vursImJ 'riiL<y ru^pjin^d tlml tlitf Wur4 
of OihI should b<; preikclied (ruely ruid wibliout liiiidnuiw, 
by Chrijitian pricots, throughout the kingdom of tiobe- 
mifb i that tho eiKTuiucjit shonltt be tidmimBtcredi in both 
forma, to all Chri^ana, not excluded by naortal sin from 
tbe reception of it \ that pri^ti* and monks stoTiJd b^ d^ 
fw(t(!d of llieir control ovf^r worldly giitxla ; tlut mortal 
nns tvpmally nil publln tranjigi^raMiDna of GoiL'i law, 
iriHithor by priecitfl or lnyin^n, sboulcl be •abject to * reg- 
ulnr find atiict diBciplin^^ ; and that on cad should h^ pufc 
to aU alanderoiu aomuatioiu against the Bobomian poop1o> 

On the relations of the Utraqtustfl to the Tabont««, 
the mod^rmtt^ to tUu nulkul HuHiitiftt, the history of Bi> 
hi-mia for % cutitiiry iiitiniHtely d«|H-*nda, T\w two |Hirtti« 
might ntiTtc in a cn^in involving danger io both; bat 
they wore often at imr with or.e another ; and tlwii conn 
von en^my know bow to turn to ch6 bc«t aooouat tbdr 

> Cwwnk^ i. Itf : OIh^h. ib- v. A, | Ul, d, ttk 

difleMOMW, Th& noac couspicuoua f^atUTA thitt 
beloa^^ to them. In eomiDoiit waa the demATid that, Llia 
imp ft}iuuU1 b« niluimntcirtHl Lo llm IalL>. 

Tlinv ciU3Ai]u:i« uDilerttikeii by iht authority, and at 
the ooiunuLud of the Uhur^j, tilltfd HcjUcmiu witli thQ 
h^rrof« of ^ar ; but tticy v^huUy fuiled tu isubiu^ dit> 
hv<r«t;c8 who wpm nnitod to rt^iifit them. Vxist Aniiiui 
were b€ial«ik and <1nv(i>n «iiit nf Uir lutiintry. On die otrlinr 
band, the Boheiulaiu repfud tlie alUu^kT^ ma^le iipcn tlicm, 
by ilcvastating incunions into the xii^igbborii^ Gemmo 
territory, nil«d by Ht^ir cnvmioa, 

Conviaood, at liLet, of th** futility of thd uffort to oon- 
^UQT tbo Hufi^tv*, their appooi^nta (^osijnted to t^eat with 
CL^m. By tho advictr of Cardiiml Julian Ctioarual, vfha 
bad accoRipftQicd tlii^ btit ^'.nirvbdiiLg ^irmy Li^mat thcni, 
and ahared iu ita iiAoiitxoua overthrew, the CEcumenicol 
Coun<ul of Ba«cl dodded to imtor into ncgotiatic^na with 
thua. Havioi; fint oarofnlly obtuirLod abundant guaraii- 
tMS for tliorir pononal saiety, and s^k^uui pl<Alf;t]H that 
tli«y ahcmld hivfv il free and fuU h^iritLg, Iho TItr;iijiiTat 
cMg^Mtnii niprr^irritnri n n of hoih the L-ndiii^ p;iz'Ut'!i, 
tbe CftlixtinM and TAboiites — piesented tln-tiusclven at 
BaseL At tbcir hood waa Etoky^ana, who belonged to 
die nodcuhte p^rty, but wna hold in univorsiLl o^tconi tor 
hk talent*, kamhiic. and moral oxoellence, Tbo Hussite 
thflologuuu nmsX thtfir freedmn to thu full esLUiut, They 
hanuipied tliu Cuundl fiir dayn in dti^ft^nae of Ihe [hi-n 
•eribed doctriutt, in rindicAtion of tK» memory of Husa, 
Mid on tlko ecckdtMtical ahusc^ to wbidi tboy ]mA cndcav- 
oMd to &]^Iy a Tomody. Tho diScrrncn t>^twwn tlua two 
Boli«miaji parti« wna bmtj^t out in ii\** 0pw>chi^)i of 
tlk«dr refipectire representatives, and waa iikiliriilly tntnd by 
CiJUfini And the Couucil, iu order Lo \indun the »cpara> 
tion beCwACJi them. After Lon^ ii«^tintiona, a»d tho 
acndinfE of an embaa&y from the Council Ui UohfUita, tlia 
H»«it«a obtwnod certain ooncoitticns whioh were set forth 



in ft dticuinent termed tbo ronipsurtaU. Thp c^munnniou 
might he given in both IcihiIh tji nil aflnlr^, whn should 
ilef^LE-ti it ; but It niufrt, at tlie same time, be tau^bt tlutt 
the whole Clinat ie recci/od under Qoch of the olemeata 
TliO iDflioiion of ]>i>iialti«« on pureona ^^Ity of mortal »ii, 
on wliich the Utraquihta insiateJ, miut be left with priotta 
In iht' voAid of i_'lerit'al i^ersona, and i^tli ma,gistratti» in 
tU*? t'jUH? i>f liyiNi'ii. Tlie ArUd*^ in rejjanl to tlm ^w# 
juiiU'hiitg of tlt<^ Won] wiLi iju;Lli{it<d by cou^itliig tb*^ lib- 
orty to preach, to pcrsotis rr^lwly caUod, and authorized 
by bialjopfl, Ab to tho control of property, this woa to bo 
allowed to secular priests only, and by them to be exois 
dfted aooorduig to the prescribed niles. The Compactata 
craA tbe i^iaiier, bi defeoae of whioEi the UtraquiiitR 
wojccfl n%iny ii Imrtl coritmt; amco it vtoA a cxmactant 
effort of the papcs to annul the conocaaions Trbich it oon- 
fjiinnd, and to reduce even tho most moderate of ihib 
llumUi Hocts to nn oiaot conformity to tbe Ilrjman ritual. 
and to the mandates of the Roman See- This Lmnn^mtint 
openilM aUn to ill^de the OallvtineB ani) Tu}>orit<« 
into mntii:iJly hiHtlibi niinpH. An lunnnd t^nnflti^ sunned, 
m which the Taboritcs wcro thorfntghly ranquuhed* 
Thenceforward tJjo powor remained in tho bauda of tlie 
Utraqiuatfi wlio wore uoeirous oE approaching aa atwrlj to 
the doctrinea and ritee of the Catholic Church in otlKrr 
ooontriea na theb' eonviL-lI'ina would tdlow. It wn* far 
ffoiJi beiiiij U'ue tJi:tti jh?!u^ rt-Hjjltfd from the downfoU ol 
the Tnboriti-h, juid the conciliatory proceedings of the Ga* 
lixtineu. Tbo luatory of Bohemia, throug^h the £Lfteentli 
cimtriry, in a lon(» rocord of bitt<ir and bloody oonBint*, 
havinpfnr thpjr f»nd Ihw rftflt^raiion of unifonnily in re* 
li|^ioTi, About the middle of the century, a n*w party, 
Jm Bretbn-ii in Unity, who iuburilwi many of the doo- 
.Tiital itloaa i>f tliK Taburitea. bnt with n more oonserTa* 
Live tirncit rtdativc to tht? nacramf^nt, and a more gtutlt 
uid peaceful to-mpcr, loparatcd entirely frota the Chujck 


Thejft ID thdr tuTti, were thi^ oliji^ct* of porfw^utTon at tho 
hAnds of tbc more ^nhcxloic Uti'iiqtiinta. UlttmAtoty tiha 
Bretliren w«r0 join^ by notnA iioblog, and au^quired ;i 
preuior degTM of aecunty. Th^y wpto canuBoted with 
nrrtLilii Wald«iifl£ui Cb.rl8tt!inA, and^ Ui some extcut, in^ 

Thud BcIientUL for ecveral geiitrutiona fiad really bnuin 
mgagod in u etrugglo b> build up u iiiitiGtud uUuiv^li in of^ 
poftitioa to the douunatUig Eind uuifyiiig apirit of Rome* 
Wh^n LtUhrr'a cloptriin' bi*i?!iin^? kuowii, it wtxs fnvoriMy 
r^cmvtHi hy tl»e Br<'^n, mid tln*j dsdreil lo wmiii^rt 
tlwonelvefl with the Saxon reform. At fimt Lutlicr \vaa 
Doteatiftflod witb thoir opinions, c-spcciiilly on tlio eacra- 
mcDi; but, after coBfeT«iicc» with tb{>m^ hi? concluded timb 
thctr fttulU were ohiefly in <^xpreaslon nnd wore owin^T to 
n wxnt of th^togicill cultUl-Lv After thu t^xumple of tlio 
Lutlwnuiit at Angnbarg^ tliit Rvuitgi;licu.1 Brt^tbren, in 
li'r^^t pnMcnbod to King Pcrdinand tht^ir Confeasloth 
The (talixtmes vera divided on the question of pualiiuj^ 
forwud tb« HuHoltc wform in tho iire45ticH uidictitud by 
LnUtL'i. A rmij'jrity of th*5 estiitiMi wtls ut fiT*)t r>bU.iiiL'd 
in favor i4 di^lciratioiu virtuidly Luthomn, But tho 
more conBTrvHtivn nLr;i{|iiiHU, w}ic} |i1mit*;il tUi;m»rtltfi?A tin 
Uw Gaopcictjdnt »oon rnllii^il and giLiued tlte TippT.-r hciiKJ. 
Hmff«t«r4 tho Lutheran dcH^trinc continued to spread ikod 
to mLiUiplj its odh^rcDta &Diong tho CahxtmG« &s woU oi 
the Hruthrv^n. The two parnoa, on «mbntcing Prote8t;int- 
iffB, differed fn>ni one ftnother chiefly on points of tli*- 
cipluw- WhiOT this STnalfatMif! war hnikfi mit, tho Utm* 
q«0fa ri*fi)»r<] to fiirrtiq)! trnojn in Fnrdinjinrl, in ;ud of 
tbt} attempt of CiiAJica V, to crush thu ProtestanU, bnt 
loined ^ Electa of Saroc j. The Bohemians shurod ta 
btU roeoMUi) the dlftOBtcre which fell upon th« ]*rntct« 
paity ftftsr tlunr dftf«at at Miild1>erj;. Ferdb&nd inlli^'t^ 
upon tbom mwvrei pi-nultiei. Tolenitinn waa now df^niej 
Vftallcorevpt tb& »ntt-I.«t1i«ron Hiuititiv; hnd IhU dn>T« 




numj^ of tho Biyrthmn into PoLuid imd Fnibatft. Ptom 
tbo irci&i' 1^2, tho JoAnito w^ then eume into tile country, 
endeavored to pnmmttH'i nil whuA^ diiwrTit fron t.U^ Romixlt 
Church weikt heyutid tJkc »Utiiil&ii.l of thr Coiopaclat^b 
In 15Tfj, did BvaDgolica] OfLtiztinci wad Brcthr«a anited 
in prcooutkiK U' conft-^eiou of fiuth to Miiximitian IL As 
the puwtiT of Ltiu Jti&uile uicrt<idc*d, tli«re w^ no safety 
for the iidhervnts of the Lutheran or the Swiaa reform. 
In 1606, Ui *uch us rec^ved i)M tonfeesion of li^Tfj tb«ra 
TfM granUirl & IctCi^r putent — or " letter of niujmty**^ 
irluch placed thorn on a footing of Legul eiiuollty with the 

WboQ tho G^nuan ReformadcQ began, PoIojih] 
ri^B^ to tluit [joaition whidi rendered it, a gmienitioa 
liiter, the must powc^rfiil kiugilom in Eiistcru Kuropc. 
The SUrooic populatiojt of PoUnd h^ never manifcatoi 
any peculiar devotion to the Roman ace. Contiictd be- 
tween Tioblcfi and biahopa, in which carnal weapons on 
one side were often apposed to the exoonummicati^m luid 
tho interdict on the other, and conteata between princes 
and the popes on qu^.lona of prcra|gH,tivG, had heonHhuii- 
drtjit in Polish hintory iov aevoraJ cenLunea*^ At Lhe 
Conm^l of Cotutt^uict?. Poles were active in the ytariy of 
Tofonn. Well-founded diaaiTootion nt thu. immonU chu- 
acter of tho olorgy had widely prcvailod. lloncc tho 
&nti-GaoerdoUl eecta, as tho Wsldonaca und the Ueghards, 
won many followers, and were not exterminated by the 
1[iqi^LKUion, by whidj, about the middle of tlm fourteenth 
eentury, tlieor opea mautfeatiition wao suppnissc^d. Fu 
more tnfluuntt^ wtu-i- thu Hu0Qjtf?:i, who did much to pro- 
poro thn tfruund for Proti^atuntiam. Biii^ominn ilrcthnXi 
driven from lh«ir own land, niLturally took refugo in Po- 
land. Tbwe circum^tanni?!!^ nnd otimr agonci«f, such ai 
the nttid'^iu^ of Pohah stiLilento at Wittenberg and tha 



cmplpyio^Dt of I,Ljih'.'r.ui it'^i^rs »liu] prt^^i^licdB tit the 
fiuiultcwuf nulfkst, i>|)i;Eie(l Uir duur U'X Uie mgi'esa f4 tlr<T 
ProUatmit di^trino. It f^Aiv\y gaiTit:^ dbciplcs, capecijd]; 
ID tho Ucrmjui citivs of L'Dlx.iJi I'ruK.iiii. In Danbiig, the 
ptiactpal city of this proTincii, it ijinda mch progrce^ tlutt 
!fi lo:M fiTOchurchoe werdfpvi>niij>U»it«a(]herentB.^ But 
hero a tnrbitI«Rt party arcw^ who, not satiKfied mth tol 
emtion, biaiiittiJ uj)tiii Ji-ivjii|^ uul the Cattiulk worjililp, 
Wkud uniaxial \ty violent mcaaun-ti itj displLidiig bLe ^i»U 
mg uxAgutnkttf f und in du^plyin^ Lticir pUci^amtli offiocn 
from tboir own nimtbcr. f'hu into-rforcncQ ci the Kivkg, 
Sigumiuid h, was invoked, who rvrtorod thq old ord<»r of 
thiogB. The progreft* of the I,utli«ra.n cause, however, 
wuft not sLopped, ajul Duiit^ in the u^xt reign betvuiie 
pmioiuIiiaiiUy PrQUoUml. Tlir: cututcil oAid the bui^hcn 
oj £lUiig ncocplcd tbo lt<^forED^.tio]l in 162S. Tbom iU«> 
bec«l&e Protc^tAHt. Tho ftdvnnco ot tlio Hcformation in 
tli« neighboring i;ORiJuumtie« mado it impoasiblo to exdudn 
it Iroax Poland, wh«rt numk^t-ous bargh^^r^ und puwi-rful 
nabl«« n^giLrded it witli favor. By t]ie treaty of Tbnni 
trj l-l^itf^t tbn old Ti*«tonic oriliT of d'iisadliig kuighlMj 
m bWib hftd long gf>verucd PnuwAi siurehdercvd West Pnis- 
mjk and EiiueUrul to P<jlaiid,aDd retained East Pfii««a na 
» fief oJ the PclifrU crown- At tbt? roqucet ci AllK!i-t ai 
Bnskdffibitr^, tbu Grand Mu^u^r, iwo prej^chen wvm mni 
by Latlior to Kuni^borg, in lij2S. Tbe Rcform^ition 
mnftly ^>PeAd ; and wlnm Albitrl;; ntU'W liaving beon de-> 
CeHted hy Poknd, Heculsuaod bi» dadi^, in Vi'lCr^ tliu 
prvvaleoioe of tbe ProLeataat doctiine wwi secured. Ijj 
1^4, bo fiHuided tbu Univcruity of Kunt^bi^rg for the 
cdatsutioo of pivocbuiv and Ujo (ixtoiiuiun of Uio now fnith. 
Itt Lironia, which, afu^r 1521, wu indop^ndent of tho 
reAtoiiic Order, the Reformation ]ik44wiAo found a willing 



^riutuil Itrtler It) (lit |]rijfewuj|>i of tho eYa-iii^elii-'-il ijctelritwi 
in Hiira« E«vr[, jtiiil Durpat. Citi(» in the viiriotis pftrU 
of I'oluud tutd ftunilida ol distinction cmbmccd the now 
fiiitb. In lo4ti a inulHtudij ol l^ohomiiui Hrrithtv^n, oxdlea 
from tJ[<*ir i^otiiitry, came In to *treiigthp?n the I'rot^stant 
inf'f^ivAT-, In fhiR jvnr SigiRmiind I. died, and was auC' 
ceeded bj Lib wjtj, Slgiuniuiid IT., ur SigismiEiid AiignN* 
tuft, wlw wiiH fripwily tu the erttngBlin^il dnrtiinp- CiU* 
Tin d(*dicntcfl to him his Comrtientary on the Epifttle to 
tbu Hobrow*, wid Biiba*qui-ntly corrospotid^ with Inm. 
In the Diet ti 15o2, Mtroug iudiynariou niis miuiifcstMd 
Againnt the cltrrgy on HfitMiunt erf the jutx^LWitigH of an 
eccleeiasticjil trlbLmnlngiuni^t Stjidiiicki, an emiiit^nt iioble- 
maiL The clerg}' were forbidden to inflict any tempor&l 
pujushment on those whom thoy might proiioutK>o het^jro- 
dox.^ At 0. Diet at Plotrkow in 1555* el n&tioim) council 
for the settleiiK-nt of religions differeuc-s was di;majtdpd, 
and was pre»venle<l from nasembling only by the strennoufl 
KKertions of the Pf^pe. Religioiia freedom woa ^^ittyJ 
by tht liiiig t<] t!ie cities of Diii^tzfr^, Tlioni. ain! Elbing ; 
and aJ»t» to Livonia In tho treaty of 1-561, by whirli it 
waa annealed to FolA&d. Dias^nffion amortg Protc^toiita 
tht-'niaL']vf.*3 woA Lhc chief hindrcuico in the way of tlw 
ogmplete dilFtiaiou o( the Protestant faitb, whkh at thui 
tiiTLti laid penetrated -Ai i-unki of stxiiety. T!i«» CttlvinUtH 
wfiro niimermia] t\u-.y i^Tgntrnx^] thnrnsflv«w Jiivording t«i 
Lhti Pit^bby ttii iaii form, and a. union bctwecTi them and the 
BK'threjn, io respect to doctrine, vraa cemented at a ejDod 
in irii^On Oppoaed to theat' woro the Lutherajia, who 
were moeitly G-ormiuui, and who took Uttlia paim to prt^- 
a^t^ tlieir sy^tjam tlsrough tlio inAtnimentnUty of sn; 
other language thar their nwn, Thp ITnitAriang fdnoed 
a tliird pi^rty, wbit^b fotnid u, lender in the tirudite Italiaii, 



J^ftMStQfl Socmiie, and bocanip utrniig, in psLrH<iuiar iim^ng 
the hiffh^ oTi^nwH. The mtPMtinr divisions timong thn 
I*ru1t3iljuil& alTcJitltHl ui v:iriLJUb vtayn n great udvtiEituj^ 
to thtdr oflbi^iiiffia. All xMt^^ •A^:com[iiltihvd^ and bide 
iatigabU defeiicl«<r of Cacholiobni was found in Ito^iia, 
Biflbop oi Cului, luifl, alUir 1£M, of Krmeloud. Oa the 
ProtvltAot «idp. eo[upir>uutt9 fur Ills etIforU In bi<hiU of 
umntr, iw iTftll ::a for Ium gr-ircu^l cljiinicU-r atid ilhi^r^incKl 
V^Hm. wan JotiiL :'» T.ipu^Op BoTii of s Wealthy and nriM 
tocnttic f&ruily ici I'oIanJ. ho waa do«tiJicd for tbo prii^^ 
boodt ftud after complotiiig tua studies m hb imdre 
muittj, bo waorlcd to foroi;;!! mxivemtiee, eepei:uiUy Lon- 
v»Ib and Ba*J^ At BsLstl ho wiis Uitiumtu with Enwmiu, 
mnd for a tiitK? lui himuti' at \m htm^m. Kar ^O^-vt-n yejir*, 
from tli« yfar Irt^Ci^ lie Uljoipd to r»tjk(fli?4h in Poland a 
itfurmstioDaft«<rtJt«Hrd«Diuin t^'jie. FindiiiK his iTX.eriioitH 
fruttltto, ho leCt h\& cuuntry* tovk u moTfi doci<itd p^nitico' 
on tbo Protoetiuit ddo, c^nd f<>r anuinbur ol yo4tr» uupviia- 
tonddd tbe or^niiatioi^ of tho Protestant UhLUMih in Eaet 
FH««]iuld* Ait« tht> Sniiiti_'Lddio Wflr and th*^ |^£fi:ige of 
lb*.' Interim^ he went to EugUnd, wbei'e he waa brought 
tuUi tL idau- n^utitm with Cnutrimr, uivl I'icik i^h^irgi^ uf 
tb« cburrJi nf r»roLgii ri^flid^nt^i fii^t in London nod th<m, 
from 1563 to lo5G. in LVajikfort. After the Polish Diot 
in 1666 bud gmEtt4<d a frt-*? cxtirciao of thp ProK^atant re- 
h^oo m Ibo houMW of incliviJind uoblomon, htii^co wot 
ta^nd bftok to liit country by King Sigisnmnd. Honr hci 
IftboTi^ to pn]m<^14T viiiity lif^twi^ni the CiUvinifits and 
LnlhcimTH, uid for th^ spreiid of the rroU-^tatit fnitli. 
He di«d In 1660. Ten yeatrs lifter, tbe Lutherana, id* 
flocucod by eomiAel from Witl^nber^r, where the nchool <A 
HehonctboD tbeu hmd tfwity, jomi<d with tbv Swiba oad 
iIm Bratbrfm, &t the Synoil of Stmdomir, lu the adoption 
uf a oofnmon cr^d- ThU Conf^eition U oonrtoniint witb 
the CalTvutic view of tb«» sai^ntnient, bat it cumfuOy 
■vmik UiiyiittgT! tliat migbt ^va uHouee to LuUier^iv: 



and it Encliidea ui ex]>1icEt Baiiiiliciij of tbe Savau CaDl««r 
Mini« wUkli bail been pi'«|KirMl Ui Ih- •umi to Llie diuiioii 
oE IVcnt.' Aiivt thi; Jnntlx of Sigi-imuiid in 1.572, thft 
aova. bcoamc cbctnTc, and tlio aoTcroignw were obliged to 
Bseeat to tbci ''Pjui l^ssidcntiuni," n^liich guoimDUiGd 
equAHty of rij^hu tc all dmrehoa in the kingdom. Under 
the term ■* Dioaiilents ** were mcluile(3 the Catholics lU 
wnU BM (Jitt (ttliHr religioHs Urtlies. Tlie Duke of Aiijcni, 
ftfU^rvTJinLi Hv-iiry III. i>i Fmn^e, uii boiitg clcctotl King of 
Poland, in l^T^ found it impoaaibk to escape from takiii|; 
eolomn o&thd to proti>ct tUc I'roteatimt religion i^^aiiut 
p«re^utioai oud AggiYteiou. But th^ royal po^ver wu4 M 
miicli wfeak**HL*J tliat, nhhougU the loouatchs might effect 
iHtJi by tJwi bc^towiil of hoiinra Jind nfliti^s, the fat© of 
Prot<'frtjmf.i5ni iIt'|ifiu*lLtJ iri;iiiily on the dinpiMitioii of the 
nobles. To dctnch these from the Proteatiiut eide and to 
giUD tkem oTer to the Catholic Church, through nagtiba- 
tions cf (sdwiatio!! lutd by other inflniinocs, form*-'d ono 
primo objoct of the Jcfuita ; to whom^, in connection with 
the fatal diviAtons and qnarreU of Proteetanta. the Cath- 
(dio ruaetion was t^ be indebted for its gr^at aucc«» in 

Numerous Germans vrcvQ settled in Uongary, by whom 
the doctrini*a aud the writingB of Lutbev were bronght into 
that country-. Bebemiiin Brnthrtin, and WaldansGB jot 
|8Urei, t-ontribiitL^d lo the favombk? r«*ption uf Pnitmi- 
Ltwn \iy th*^ jteople u-nioTig xphcnn th<ty dwrlL 1^ui>< 
garian ttudantH not only re(4i>rt4i1 to the univt»r«ities of 
Poland, but went to Wittenbeig also, and returned to 
tljfliaeiiiiii&tc Uiti principk'd vrliicJi tliey had learned from 
LnthiAT and Mcliuicthon. It wns in vain that the now faith 
ms forbiddfin- A savage tttv/ against Luthunuia, which 
waa padaed at the Diet of Ofen, tc I'^^S, did not Mop th« 



[icogrcM of tbtt ProbMtaut movomoat. It nrnmutod tram 

tht iWKJ^hf, mni] niti^tly sipnwl witli grvat rjtpirlity, Tn 

1^23, tbe i^rotcstaiito were the prevalUu^ pi^'^y iu Hui^ 

xnaiuutAdt. aad two yeaxs aft^, tJio live ruyal free ciUcm 

in Upper Himsiffy adopUd ilio IMoi-iuLktiou,^ Tli« aew 

viovrs weru «mbnood alfio by powi^rful nubltv. At tiio 

hagtawiftg of Uii> iibci4H>iit!i oi*Tttury. pritivte of thi-< SkvoDtc 

HouMi of JitffifUfin rLTigniul in Uii^ Llinat kingilniiH of Po- 

Und, Uohcmtm und lluiigni^. Rut Uir-f found ic for their 

ioteroflt to ooriDcct tWrnMlms, by caAtnmoTiioJ altlAiiccft, 

witli tho rulirtg family ia AuetrlaH^ Louis 11., in 1-S2i^, 

attempti^d to stem tU6 f^ntat iDva«ion of tlie Tm^ks, uiid«T 

SoUman, \vitli a.ii lUj^ufBelvnt fierce, and ^(^ibhtHl uhi?r lu* 

giutt di^eiU i»t Moliiu^. Fuf-diiiiLiid iif AiiHtrl:! oIu,imc*il 

tho ISobcmin luid flui^gjiry, wliidi the death 

id. Louia left Tftcaut By prudent manag«m^Dt« lie buc- 

oMded m prooaring hia clootion 00 Kitig of BohLiuia, 

ogftboi his am\ntioua oompetdtor, tho Duk« of Bavaria. 

In Hangavy h* antarcd iat^ vrar witli a riml ufii^tLrunt to 

lb« down, on* of tha groat mngrmti^, John of Zilpolya, 

^Todeof TransyhanijL Bnt.H Ft^rvhnsvii^ and Z^polyti 

(oand iL cocpnHeut U>deuouu<% the riot^BlAule, iu ord*.'j' lu 

tocnre Ihb anppoTt of tlio bbhoirA. But ueilLr^r found tt 

pwUot in tho larcunurtanoos iii wlucU tUey vnin; ploc^, 

to«Bgagioiii peraocution. During tduN d^mo^tic couQtct, 

4» SfiCorma^n Advanced in xk<t portiomt cjf llungniy 

m occupied by Um Turks, Ky th>? pea<^« of 1.5^18, IVrdi- 

Buulgamei) tliv tUiVHie. Jolii) uiia to retain Ti-nii^ylvb- 

tetand ■ port of Uppvr Hungary, durbig hib life. Aftvt 

ka death, his Queen, laidjcUii, dung to liia pDaHCflstona, 

*a4 Una waa the occMKin of a cotitiniuuioe of war. The 

<W« SnxOQ pGpnlatioD of T^nAftylvanla adopted tho 

Ai04)«rg Canf«sdoD ; the S^iiod of Erd^jd, in Hungary, 

iMtiMl a lUc« dadantlun. Ev«ii tlii.^ nidow iT f^oaia 

liTvnid th« Lvtlwnai doctnn^. Quqch IsabelU. in 1557. 

« UtvOtf, IV, L t, I IS. < Kuk^ /inUrA, QtteinifHt. iu «K vq 



tMjuul puliUtiU ctyihUt vitU Uie dtphoUvH. Uiuigar^, like 
PoUnd, wtut a eeirera »uHerer tfarou)[b tbo Btrifd of 
Prilt^ntants amoug thcmaclvuaH l^ho Svri&a df>otriDij of 
thii i<^ii(Thuri«t found fuvor, Q&])(!<?mlly among the nittivo 
Hiin^ijjiiift. It dt^ivAd inurvus^d pt^puUrity SLfWr th? 
fldojjt'ion of it by MnUln-w Devay, wlio was thn mrjfit 
wimieiit uf Uiu l'i\^Lo8laiit leadi^ra.^ Aftt?r stiidyuig al 
Ciw^ur, ht renidtd for a time ab Witlvnbt'rg* In Uie fain- I 
il^of Luther ; and, after hut n-tiim to hia country, 1>rv.;utic 
m very BiioccJi»fiiL prcnuhor of the Lutheran doctrines. Ut 
vsA more than onc« irnpriaoned, but did not ceaso, by fl 
preaohina; and by h\s puhliwitions* to promot* (li^ Prot* 
Cfttnnt nLii?w*. Til l.'i33. litf [iiiblislit^d !i Mjijcyar tnmilii- 
ticin <jf thn r^iUtlui (jf St. PiLult juid t.hrrj:} yntra uftor- 
^wards, I* Tcrsion of the Gospclftn Dcvay had bix^ii intj- 

to \ntL Mclancthon, who prcachcJ in Latin t^ liiui imd 
to otlicrr atudiiiitB who did not uuderetatid GermLui ; luid ho 
was wpU fi<M:|ti!iintrd vMi Grynrous Hiid other Swiss Ro- 
foraiOTH. Abnut fhp yrar 1540, DeViiy began to proniul- 
g&t* the Calviristiri view of the SflrraTHent, to the Amax4^ 
pif!jit jkiid ilifif^Liftt of Lullier,w|]o exprensrd liis fiiirpriM* in 
lett^i'S to Kiingnriane, Li lo5T, or l»'j.'jfi» a Cfth'Snifltio 
creed wna adopted by a Synod at Cienger," Tho Colvin- 
iatio doctrine ultimnldy prcvaUcd and cetahli^ed itaelf 

ong the Magyar Proteatanta. In TmruiylvaniUt tho 
Unitarians were iiuinei-ous, and tbej- were gronfed tolora- 
tioii HI l^)"! ; no t\mi four luga!u^ foruiH of ndigiort 
existed thpTfl. Notwil.listjtnding tlje iiiihuppy contaat of 
Lutlier&nfl and Calvimsta, Protcstontisni oontinued to 
gain ground in llcuigory, through the reigns of Ferdinand 
L and Mmdtnilinn II., and for n. long tim^ nodcr Kndolph ' 

1 Benag, JCvtl-Ewjidi. v»]' xSX- LuniK, JTU: Eatl. Rof. in Hunffotia ai 

■ Cifnf>tito CatmutHta, la KtanMjv. p- C49, tu lOM all of Ilia BuDgariv 
fMtlnliUa cbanttt HibiiiltUd is ttt Co^fitth E^ntioa. 


XI- Only three ms^&tea remsined in the old Chnrch, 
But Hungary was to fomiBh a field on wMeh the Catholic 
Beaction, under the mam^ement of the Jesuits, would 
CKert its power with marked success.^ 

> At u aariy data, then mn DoniAniu folloven of Luthw in tlu NMhflN 
liadi; but H wiU ba mon codtadudI to Eunto thb prognu :d ProtHUAtka 


Thb Ruformatioo waa firmly cfttublialiL'd in (icrmiinj 
,btiOTD it hiwl IilUlmi root or Uid found wi iU'hnr>\vUiJg(>d 
loadAT EunoTLg ihi-. Konismio Tintiorw, ^xxtrh n tt-nd^r &t 
l^gth sLpppnred in tiict pftrMnn nF Jiihii OMlvin, wttr«« in* 
flaeiice waA Jeatbied Lo exttfiL<1 uiuoli bL.<yuU(] ih\^ l<T»uii(iA 
of the Laliii uuUoa*. and wliose nauic w»h ti> ^o dt^wn Iq 
po«t«rity in frcqm.«£it aaaomzttion with iUui cf Lntbi^,' 
CcUvin wna born at Noyou, iu Piaardy, on tlio 10th of 
Jnly, 1509- H« v/sa only «iglit yonn old whon Lutli^r 
IMwtpH 111* theew. Re WlongM to the swcnd ^neratloQ 
,of refuri]iL'<rH, arid tlilf^ riroumaiaTLrv ia im|N)rtatit i^ ^fTecU 
both liih (iwn ]»ctS4D])a1 hititury niid thu chamctirr nf his 

iric. When he amrfd at miinlinofl, the f»pcn war upon 
the old Church had alrakdy bcon waged for a score oi 
y«a», Thu hmiily of CaJvin had been of htimble raokt 
but it w«a advmi*.'wl by his futber, who bold various 
offic!!'*, inr>ludmg tliiit uf nuUirj' in tbf n.v](<M;L4tii'ul mart 
at Noyiin, iind n»'*^n*liiry t/n thi- bisliopriiv Tim pliynicAl 
CODetitatJoii of Calvh^ wna not strong, bnt hts unoocnmou 
intellectual powor wa^ oai^ly ii^uifijiHt. Attracting tht te> 

Vlimiili Au L'-Ai-n 7irArmh i7<i£ruu. vuii IVil fttDTy [ HaifthviV* lUB^ A 
thofnn^i hiiT dilfu-pljr wntUin blD^fihy : J^Aatn CoMi, atime KirvAt U. aAi 
fIfKAf ■■ f^'h/, mn ^- W. Kumfubultftt F-nur Band iLcipiUr. ISAU)- Kan^ 
vhnLni MIL Ibimjui (iftUnlint Ihumti^b \o hli rBurchw ud ill>|)Wi:foiuipt| but 
mit fnandlj la Oil*m fUnry Mid KAmiuduiElA mnf tiA pKilUbly Hid 

tKlbtrfvId, llVHi, Tbiab Ibl Ih»I M l^v ii'^rmmt iWr-t of tho mforinfip. A 

V TTTB tttrCil'nOK OP CAtTm. 193 

QM of the Doblr Eanrttly of Moiumor, residing »t Noyon, 

16 ma token imd^ LliL-ir patroimgo and liiutructc^l vrith 

Ibar cluldn»iu He had no <^xp6neni3e of tho rou^ oon- 

Siet with punur^- whi^^b iimny •>£ thy Gerrnnji imd Swi« 

nlbrrnv^ nvtr* ubUgiii bi tHL-tr juiUii Ij> ninl*]'gj>. Wlati 

cMtly iwinlvn yi^mi nU), Ih^ wivi iii;uln thri tYHnpirmt nf t}m 

iDcofDe of ft L'lmplamcy* to whi^^h, n few yc^rs aftervrardsr 

tbv iucX'iiKi of j^nothOT bcni^tico wmt n^UUtl. At tho ootsot 

lib lather ittt^iidcd that ho Bhoald ha a ptinst. TrEina- 

Ivrr^ to Parifl, he was Hm in the CnlJ^g<^ (\e la Ma^rch^^ 

vtwrv ht.* wid Uiuglil IjEiUu by n t^\i\i\viii^d HuniLtnut, 

Miirtiriii Ciirilii-r, lH?ltA?r kuuAu iiiidcir \hv nmuc uf Ca^v* 

dmiuBt for whoni he chemhvA n llfc*lon^ alLachjat^iil, and 

wfucii he succeeded in {ilachig In diai^^ ^f hi»] bclmo) at 

QoierB. He alau tftudk(.<d m the Coll<Sgt' MrjiitiLt^u. whvt^ 

he IVM tnujunl ill o^hcliuitLc lope undrr ii Ic^nmi^d Span- 

llri, who aftonmnJii, iit the larno ^<hool, guicl^ the 

AttSMof Ij^atini; F^ynln..' 'ninrti Calvin siirpni^ed UEa 

■■iHTiimiii iji aaFtidiiity and aptititde to l^ani : hut he 

Mfmi much o\ th<; L^uio hy hitn^i^lf. ^td fn^ui Uih nt^rujiiA, 

uA [icrhaiw, *CY*!rici tumof tnind, iros nidtnatncd *" Tlic 

Antvaativo Caac " ' lie liad rc^whod hin eighteenth y^ftr, 

hid r*c«it«cl the toosars, sind er^'U pivncfi<*d <x^ca«if»niU}y, 

lotli^L jmA lak«n orders, wh«D his f Ather, f roiu ambittt^na 

nvitlrvA, ch;tii^-d bta plan and (roiiohided to ipiulify lira 

■■ Til' tbi- profwtiitm of a. jurist.' He jw^^unliHgly [irtM?- 

<«e«d hit \cgAi »tadic« und«r c^«bntt«d tcncJtcns at Ox- 

W> ood Bou^ca. As a sindciit of hiw ho attained the 

h|h«it prafiAieocy and distinction. Ho und^vmhted hia 

Wth h} stadytT)-; fate into the ni.£>ht, in order to 

viange uiid digest the oonteuta of the Leerarea which be 

bid limrtl diuing the d^y,* Barly in the muniitij^ bo 

'Im^tm, Lag. V tiuiiot, ta, /jrwttami Ci>*w, P- ■■''^ 

*■ nkont «fibt■^ tfm ilia np«nt« *tbii inpiilil fri muUmlum AmHhltH^" 


194 ioint CALvm ahd tbe gouevasv nsFORUAnoa. 

wmild nwiiki? to ri;]H-at to liiniixrH vr}i:«L bi> luul tUua r6- 
daccd to order. Uo never required but a fow b^ium Tof 
iLecpi and, m wiw alw the cmc with MiUcuk thoti» liin in* 
tenae mental Activity froqufrntly kf^pt him &WRkn thrOLigk 
tltui Qt^ht. So lii^'lily wMfl be e8t^eiav>d by hj« inKixuctora 
that (iftt«n iTli4-n t|ii>y «n*rL- Lt'iniioi'HL'Lly uWut lie took 
thtiir pbuKT, At ihi' siimc t.ltm- be uidijl^d bm tuaUi for 
H to rft tur c, iLnd Irtimcx) Ort^t^k fnim die Gfrnuiui PmfitMor 
of that Iftiigungr, Mcldiior Wohniir. who hud iidoptc^ 
l'rot4^et£mt upinions and whoso irdnonco would uaturE^y 
t^nd to r^;ji<»vi' prejndioet of hia pupil a^iiist tlie u&w 
dootrind- Before thie thitQ, n.t iln^ UT^ent n-qui^Ht of ii 
Pni(j'j<]»nt nilati^T, VvU-x 01ivi?tsiTi. afli^rvvnnl* ihv. Jir*t 
Pmtjvtnitt tnm)t1at«)r of tbo Bihle iiito FiVincL, ]w 
directed his attentinn to Ltic study of the Scriptures. In 
1580, Luving completed hia law 8tndii>a, he raturued t^. 
Paria, and vfe have Uttlo knowledfi:^ oJ bim up to l;&&2t* 
tha ditto of Ids first publivatiou^ tui luuMitut^fd i^dition of 
Seneoa'fl tTeatiB& en '* Clomuncy." It bae b<^en erroneoualy 
■apprwed that hr* fao|jed by tlii» work to move Frauds L 
to adopt a milder policy towards Qm p«nH9Cubad 
cstante. No snob d<»igu Hppi5:u-a in the book.* Ou ibo 
contrary, at this tiiac, C^h'in liad ito other pbui thnn that 
of pur«aiDg tho cnrooi' of ii liumaniat, and atirtod to hr. 
himMlf into notice wi a ncbolar and author. It ib proi 
abl« that hi« »atioii« of r^^forin w»re Ju aympatby witlt 
tliotie at Eevidiliii ajii) Entamiuiv H» wnttia to bU frii^iids 

ttil^ my, hiijI iviijirnni;i^ihr-4l,r)ii>r<Pfi>rri, Af iitr (.^Tln't conmnlov, a nviiinfld hf 
DifthT, Binon^ vTinm aii? Jl'^nrj. h Oi>, and M(>nntr^ ibe ^ti. ''Ctld-in "in Uit 

p- 1C9. I'^or Itin rvnlrnrr iii din nntCmrr, "m .Sirfhpttn. t, 14' Tfa« rilsJieaadn 
(tolb» Afihntnt 14i f.lit} Ja jtvfrvl ApnJ4, irUif. Sulh[<liii giftt IbU v lb* 
dittot hit tnriiminn. t(nl nmhnvnn iMhirM i>l%-tiir#]tLirni, dAtvil SfpilHnbflr 
4,1AM. CtlriK Bin il^n/m't iinhn failmMi TtiM tn l(«i ihiifi « rw «a*rh* 
wnvcfiloB tb* l^oinlknta wwn Infiklnj^ (a him fnr inrirurtiaa. Thlt n^l^ioiM 
•hug* mmt bhtfl hcAn thnrllr iflvr thfi piiMiojiTini] irf 8«iu(4^< fj«*tlH- T|it»i 


ootrraKEKw OF (sAvnst, 

id in drculAtaig hi« bo<^ and in calling attention to 

lt« & p*rt ©f hi« mc4ivo Wag, how^vor, to reuub[tra(> him- 

»T;lf for tbo coec of ilid publioation.^ Hia noteacw Senecv 

•bow hi* widu HCViuiiiuluiiM with Ltii> oUdAtc^, hin d]»*:irim- 

m»tBon uiul hb po^tpr of ltji.'l(i iiiUiC'-nii^r;!. It wm Kli<ii*l1y 

aiter chn ishia of tl^v ittirk. tltnt hiH '^imd<Ip.n iTinvftmion," 

louaftluouwB«xpreMioD, took place. lle'wnU^: *^ Afiir 

■tT' hcttrt had loDg hwn prepared for thd moal wunr^t 

Mtf-oxUDinatton, on m Midcbeii i^xa foil knowk'd^ ol thr 

mth, Uko H bri^t light, di»cl<wcd to tn^ tho nbjas oJ 

«rron in wbioh I whs w«1t«rin}-, tb^ «in and shame until 

wkicb 1 iru d^led. A horror seized on my aoal, tvliert 

1 Wcainw DOiHinooM uF toy mvU:W]iLe«fl jind iif t)ic mcrm 

leitihie mjanry tbHt wjia bt;fore inc. Aii^l wlml wjia loft, 

Lord« for me, miMnibte iind nbject, but, with tean and 

oin of snpplicatJon to abjure the old lifo which Thou 

cqwbiiuied, iwd to fice into Thy path?" Hv deacnbi.^ 

UuMtf Oft hsTing Mtrivxdi m vain to attaUi inwitrd p«uoo 

bj the metbodA weft fotth in thu ttw-hing of th« Ghim>fa. 

Bat thfl more ba 1i^ djrei:t«>d IiIm ^}« iiiwan], or ii|Fwiinl 

t> Out, tlm monf did his (Kiiiw^iuictf toritt»iit him. ^* Only 

c«e haven of Kdration i^ then; for our soiiK^* he nnyv^ 

"vd Ih^ i« tbo compuoion of God, whit^h in o9crcd t4> 

M in Chtut": *■ We aro saved by graoe, not by our 

maitm^ ftoc by our worlu, Sinco wo ^tmbnu-c Cltnst by 

Uth, and, ai it vuru, <tiTtur into hiM follownhip, we 

«l tiiiftt in lli«> ljuigii«g<^ of Srnpt.iins ■ j notification 

hyftjtii.'^* Alihougli wv kimw ]eam uf OftWiu'n iit- 

Wd ripvricnoe, yvt ita tmHutiftl identity witli that 

"fF Lnthnr, iM obvioun. Calvin bod bcwtutod about bc- 

Mniuf n Prototant, out of tcTCicnco for tho Church. 

Btt he au mcxlifitrd Im oonc«ption cf Uie Chnnb a« t« 

pODftive that th* cbugtj did uot involvo a reiiiuiehiticn 

ol iL* MvfnUrrahip m tlio tmu Cimrdt wt coiuiitUdit 


for tike Cliurch, in it^ i?mitm<<f itiTiKtSlt^rXhttJi in u 
lurm wliurvvor Ui« GuHjje) is falthhiJly pivivchcd find tbo 
itK-niiiti'iits Ailuiuju(t<-rr'd ct^uformably lo tli« direetjona of 
Cliridf'. CMvin wtw ujiturjllv rcacrvod und even b^bioli 
ho aspiivd uftor noUiiug highi^r, either aftvr i>r bvfi^ire liu 
ooDveroion. tli£Ji tbe opjiortimity to pciraue hia «tudlv« in 
redrezni^nt> Ho had an instinctive rppiign;i,n(v ti> piih- 
lUilty luid ciiiiltd:. HIb former atudleB, to be t^iins hud 
now a »nuoiiLLiry pliu« ; hid whole aavl was absorbed in 
the es&minjitioD of the Bible luid in the invcatigation of 
Teli^oufl tnitUJ iiutetiJI Lc craycd scclusiiPii and qoict- 
Ho found, however, thut, uotwithstauding hU yontli, in 
th<ft eompjuiy of tUu porw>out^ Prot-wtanta at Paria hd 
WW qiui^ly ivgnnlfcl iw n U^sider, wid hia coiiiuel wiia 
Miiight by nil who 1i;ii1 iiiii-d of religloiiH inatmt^tion. liitt 
this Hori of Uboi w;hA of fJcort uuEitiuuAiice. Qe wrote fur 
hui friend, Nidiohu» Cup« who bad bten ntade Recicr of 
tht:^ Un;vcr«ity, oo opening addrcM, m wluoh wcK inlr^ 
duced tlie ideas of the Rciorinatioii ; and tho excdtGiaoiit 
tliftt waa produced by the delivery of it obllj^ed both at 
tlivm to fly in crdur to eaoape arrest, C^dvin fint uraat to- 
Angoul^tiM.^ where ho enjoyed thin nocApty of his ftieoid 
Louis du Tillet and the use of a goiin] library, witidi he 
turned to the h«st account. Then be vlnilvd B6ink» 
and at the court of Mju^Ttret^ tho Qu«en of Navarre, mgUa 
of Fran^ i-, he rai?t ihn Eigcd Lci^vrc, the father of tha 
Reformation in France. Ho went to Noycm, vrlieru bfl 
parted with the b^n^fic^s, the iDCome of which h*i cDtdd 
not ctJiistieiititJiiflly n?taJrj, and tlam rf-Lurn*^ to Pans. 

Tlie iitiprudf^ntzPTLl of thi? ProfrsitHnt^ in ptmtii^g placanU 
against tbo maS4, sthred up tho anger of the eijurt» itndJ 
CaJviji waa agaib obUgcd to fly. Not without an imrard 

ig^looad tears be Ixidc Fai-u^QUtc bis oouDtry.^ About 

xhxa tim^ h« put fortb bia (Irattboalf^ioai [lablioatbn, ibfi 

** P«ychopiumycLn,'' s polamicul book ugLimitt tbo don* 

triiif* whicb wim proloatMHi by AlLlL^1;lfl^iAtM, Unit tb^ aouL 

Bleeps between lieath nml tliui id^urTfi^lioii. At Stnu* 

boxg ki5 vaa warmly received bjf Uucer, and jlI Uaaol bjr 

Orrnaus and Capito. At Baael he begtm to lkx-juuc thf 

liobi-trw liui|fuiig<j. und was nbk to grtitify Iub strong iu* 

clUmtion for rdttrcmcnt and study. It vms beri^ tlut bo 

wrole Im* " Tnatilntc*/' The firet edition wFts nnl j tb<s 

genn of thf vroiU, whicli grew m snccessivn issues to itn 

pT^w-ut Bize.' Wbat moved him to the composition af it 

wiut the crwei perwcution to which hia brethren wore sub- 

)cct iu IV&uOrj. Hv wished to rGiaovc tliu improcitiion that 

thvy wem fuiiatj^ Anfibaptists, seeking tluj overthrow 

<4 eiTil order, which their opprt^aeore. In ordor to pacify 

the dd^eacoro oF G^rmaui LutbersLna, induatriously prop* 

Ufpiii<d.' He wuti dcBirtJua uf bringing Fntncin I. into 

■yiapatbjr wjtJi th(^ ni:w dtictriiic. For this bwt i^nd^ the 

didioatjoa to tho king, which baa bocu geuorallj atdmired 

lor tlA literary merit, and as a condeuat'd and powerful 

nudictUioQ of the Frotc«?taut caiw;, tyno tompuGed- ThU 

rkqunt appeal to the jii^liee of tbi! tdiijv ooneludes tbun : 

^Bat if yooT ears artv %o preoccupied with tha whispt^r^ of 

'■^ nuh-Totent aa to leuve no cippui'tLudty for tbe actTiiii'd 

'j) >|««k for ttuaaselvaik ajid It th(«e outraf^enus furitvi, 

"vilb jour connivance, coctiDae to pftrsccute with impris* 

vcncala, icourgca, tortnrcat corfidcnticiiB, iind Elamoe, w« 

i^ indeed, like sbcep destined to the ehhugtitor, be r^ 

'1W AiDifMtJux bt4nu7 4{i]Mib« ai U> the lantrustt l&vbkh It flnt tp- 

^ r>tr4«4 U LuAik uil tb« tuthot'M nua? wvIfodMd to It SfV Ihv rn-lviE' 
In IW PViV flUktii vf OiMa'p vriUliEs, •dJu4 by Bnum. CLinllF, mid 
II lOiA Minlbh L HI- Giiliot. Ujirvra Mill kD]>l< lhA( Lbs Out ac[Hki« 

Tbkte «ji WW kit talt luoUit; "Kfl|ii*1a biua finPiSi" via. A^. Ce 


g;reateflt extrei&itiM. Yet sbalL w« in pn- 
poBBceft our aomfs, and wait for tbo mighty bfuid of 
Lotl, whi^ uadoubtodly will in time appear, oud 
sliijw itii-lf armfrd fr>p thi* <!<.>] iveniuo^ of thQ poor from 
thHr Hlttktiiiii, and ftjr ibi* [xmlabuu-ut of thi'ir flwpiwtrsif 
wbti now t»xiiU. in such perfect security. May tha Lan), 
LliL' Klog of KiikgBi cBtnblisb your tlirone witli rightj^oua- 
Dt^sa, ati<I yotu kiu^om witb oqulty.** Altboit^h tbia 
famoue msjimJ wik£ much ompUfiod from time to drae, 
until it tLpp«ared mtb th«f author'^ lut^at cbang«a luitf 
BpdUitlonia in XtjtiO^ yet the doL^lriue of it nuderweut iw 
altnratinn, and tbe idectiLy of Lbe work vthm al'Evnyn pro- 

.flerred.' We may ootico in this place Aonie of CfJiiIu'a 

'fibatracterietica a^ a vrtii&T tmd a mau. Ills direct iii- 
fludace wofl prt-domiiiantly and almoat txcluaivoTy upon 
the Liphcr olaasi'S of sociL-ty, Ho and hia syst^nn t^Uid 
powerfully upon tlie people, but iiidiret^'tly through thd 

.BgKnny of othnra. He wns a patridEin in hii> TAmp^ra- 
ro€mt- By bin early s^Hocintioris, and as an vfievt of hU 
cultun^ Le ncx^uired & oettjiia reGneinent utid decldi^d nf* 
ftoilica for the class e!<iTatcd hy birth or ediicattcn. TTus 
ma one of hia points of draaimilarity to Lnthcr; be teas 
not Tittei, Itho the Gorman refoTmer, to oomo home to 
"the biisinL's^ iLud bosoms '■ of oommon men. Ha bttd 
not the popuUr eloqnonf* of I-utbor, nor liad he tlia gnnhit 
Ifiat left itA imprv'ss oit thw words and works tif ibo Sstxon 
rt^fariutii-; but ho waa a more exact and finlabcd scalar 
tli&n Luther. The Latin style of Calviu haa bwn uni- 

FTcmtlTy pTAiBod for ite claaaioal punty- Ho vns a tczao 
vnUir, hiLlinj^ ditTuHenegs. He vms master of A 
metho<l, n groat lover of tieatnAw and order. In all 
words there glowa tbo fire of an intcnw ronviatioo. Th» 
*'** '* \re- in tmUi h, ntiitTniror^s oration, in wbidi 
thfi rtiv^iii of disi^iifisioa rolla onward with Jtn imp^tnooi 

1 AuTiularvliw uf ibo chiujfcilD thB taxiixuivt pdlctouti jrvunud In Ifei 
■Ml Alston of Ctfrla'ji WTltiii|£i(BiMdi eitll^ VoLL 

TfiE '* PZS T r TFT H ," IM 

e^TTPTit, ywt ftlwnvh ki>i*]idt witliin i(^iWIii«*d chAon^l. The 

witrk. in iu wlioli? totie, ia r^.iauved jui (at jm [hittBililtr fmm 

die dry trecUu^tt of «cltoUivtitj tbt^cilugy, with whidi it has 

olt«ik b#oo<hi«wL In fomung an ctttiiDat4) of ColTin, u a 

Unnlovr, Um firci thing to obwrrvouth&t ho waa a Kionoli- 

mtti sad A lmvj«r. 1^ natnrd sud lua txfdcijig oon^plivd 

u> mak^ him euiinonilj 1i~<girHl and systemat^o. That 

lakvit [ururgJtuixftti^u wUIiii is aam'itmd tohittt^umitryiiicm 

■• &iijftUuu&l tnutt Inkjnged Lo hiiti in a& emiuetit dcgn*e. 

tl WM nianiliobcd ui thi? j^roductii of his intell.ect, not 

|09 tkio lA hid pffteticcU a^ti^ity. He came forward at ft 

mommA who) tho icI^m of Ibe Reformadon wer& ^rid^lj 

dUuedf but nb^n no adeqnato reduction of them to a 

gnteOMtSo form hfid 1«um aohievet). The lUij^Tuatit; fnrua- 

Xkm of M'^loiusUnsn, innritoriou^ thcmgh it bir, wm oC com- 

pantiTvly limited «copc. TIk li«ld wa^ for tb« moat 

ptft pp«D i and when Calvin appoarfMl upon lU bo wha 

•i ODOR raoognused a« fnllj oom patent for hU iaak, and 

gnotod bj MohiDulhon him^tlf il« " tho thoclo^n." 

hj tfas «cwrat«t« of Pr^^ti^tontiinj hiA vrort ^vas ntyked 

" th« Koran of the bpretic^." (If th« cleamms, coherence, 

ind HTmnjetry vt ail t\A dimTiuBzuu^^ Lhfrrt* is itu eiewi] to 

tficak. It b rcmarkabLn thut the tUrcilogic-^d opiaioiu of 

CilTiD remained uncbftngcd from tbo time of hui convcr- 

■>«• to fais 4eath.> Hiia, it is weU known, "wos tM from 

Uk|tli«ftOf Lutber^orof MvlanathoniOreren ot ZiTinglo. 

^ [fftuM obumcl^rktii^ of bii syat^^m la tho ttcitdfuat. 

c*nsBt«nt Adoption uf Uitr Biblt- «u Hin tola iitMiidArd ot 

<iMriiiR. Hb wvntu d)4( doi^trino that tbo trath of tbo 

Bibb r«at« on ibo tathority of the Church. The Dinno 

wtbmi^ of tho Biblo cvi be proved bj rcsMin ; uMur^d 

^■ttetioa ci tho trutH of tic Gocpel and a fpiritual iuaiKbl 


iiO|KUtHl hy the Holj GkosL Wh&t cuukc^ T«jify 
^Itoclf by ihv explicit liulbun^ cf Scripture (XHmU Jor 
nothing. Tliat inbred lOTcnDoe for the UKomt Qmrcib 
aud tlknt biHunQoo ol Ctmstun antiquity, wbkli in seoD 
in LuiKtfT, wnv eotmhf furdgn to CbItiii. Ho h6\SM 
Iho KtatJien, eflpeciidly Augutinci, in ostvem ; bst tui 
Duktaa uu tipokitfittt fur ^baiply oontradicting ihtm aJU ^ 
mn he deoma tU:Tm ut vanoJice wifah Holy Writ. ¥ta 
til" Papiicyn And for tW taict^ nnd riUti whicL bo oon* 
udont tbo "impious invonti^uu of mon," \\'itl]oot wonvint 
frotn tbi» Word of God, kd feeU &n inien^ hatrod, not 
Qnmtni^lf^ witb sooru. Vet, probably, none of the Be- 
forUKam Hpisik kj (ifUm nxid witli fto imirh disfereiicf" uf tJi« 
Ghurob. But by i\»^ Cliuivh In; mcoiu snineUilDg dIfTer* 
ttnt (refill tlic> Miovrdotal or^^foiixntion of tho Rcouon Oiitbolic 
body. Ho bohia to the Church invisibKcomposodof tru« 
belioTvr* ; iitul to thr Cbiircb viaibk^ the criteria of wbkb 
uv tlin ri|;1it [u1inini«lT&tlon of the Saentuidabif aod ihm 
tMMilibiguf Uu^ Woni, Ftirtlio vi»ibIo Church, a* tbnitoon- 
itililtDd. ho fiToln Uit; diH^ptut i-nvtoriLc^^ niid hold» Ui:iit out 
ii it thtw^ U uo cdTAtioQ. The schi^maUc cut« bimself 
vhff from CbriflL Por th«t Cbovcb* w oetablishod after thd 
modol of tho Now TcBtamoat^ bo deuuuidd a BubmiuiiaQ , 
UtiJit thwi of that which tho Homui Cutholic pfly« to the 
ftialhtiHiad oxpouMdm of hi* ^ithJ But tho strildiy, 
thn iNMNilW iivtum of Calvin's ^stem, i« zh& doctrfaw 
ttt l^tWnnliiutniu Thia doclrluv, ni tiit* ouUd.^ indnnd, 
«Mf«ftiiMOtt 1o «ll of the Kcfonnera. Prcdr^itinAtion i« 
lk»vrWd by ImUmf, i» bia book on the '^ Scrntiiilc if th« 
WUI," «n«<i in n^atioQ to TkAo«dBM», in tcmv mon 
tib ibiui tht) most vxtnmt steteiMaiiU ol O-Utih. 
lhMl^ oeotubcabfe pariod, wrote in the !uu» 
Xwtnitt^ in hi» iReUpfayvcttl thaory* ^d not illf- 
hitt kulhcc RoKrom. IVy wiorp tuut«6 m 


nc IKKTItlKK or PSE|»:8TI5ATT071- 201 

tCTiTing \hi* Aiigu-itaiiiiiii t.hwilogj. In ripjiositiuri to thn 
PdL^iatt dhxtrinc, irliicli aitcctod iu a gi\^tc-i or le^a dc- 
greo All the schools of CatLolic theology, it is vcrj im< 
portant to onderatand the motivoa of th& K«fonnera in thie 
pfooed^ng. CalTin vraa noi £» Bpeculativ^ philcaopbor 
w1k> tJiougfat out n luK^iiotiUtrian thL-or^- uud dvfifodi^ it 
lur ibn nwu^ri (Tml hi; tuin3i]il<fnH] it i-jqiitlili- «if Miig 
lo^colLy est At>li Abed. It is true ^at the kcy-nrjto in his 
f^r^tcjn ytsa a profound sense of Ibo e^altfitioii of Cod. 
Nothidig could be adnaiUed that aoomiMl to clasli id tho 
kttt with UiB uniT«nal coDtrol, or to OLuat ti shado ttpoo His 
ottaiftcienct? luiil omnipotence. But thi? diruiit grounds or 
Kiuitt n of liii diH-t^riiic were [imrtiLMl, PrriWUti^Lticm to 
bim U tli« corrchvto of lium»ii (It^^irudimrf ■ ; UuM^tmnter- 
[«rt of the doctnuQ cf grace ; the antitliests to aalvatioa 
bj merit i the implied oonacqueuce of inun'a complete 
boadnge to mu hx ol^odcn, it is iavolvL^d that man's 
•iJvatioD b not bia own work, but, wholly, thi? work of 
tiu gn«e of God ; &nd in elation, also, th«T« u laid a suro 
Inmdfttiou for tht* believer'e »iM:urit^ under nil aft* 
■ulU Lif ti?(ii Illation. It is pnu^iciil iaLcreats wltu^h Otti- 
lia \a Bcdnloiui to guard : be clioga io tim doctrine for 
*liil ho concdcn Ob roli^oua raluc* »nd it ii t\fi rtioro 
lUn juatico to him to lomombor that ho habiiuiilly At>-loa 
tk« ttnei, which proved to be 00 ohaoidouB, an unJathom- 
Ak cayHtary, an abyw into vrhloh uo mortal nUnd Cfln 
^Vdiod. And, wlifTthrr rmuiHtimlly tir nut, tltrr« in thn 
taft mrwsAi aaaertlon of t1i« laorat and v^^poiialijle n^ure 
4 Otto. AaguE9tincr liad hi>1d Uiat in i}ic fjdl cf Adam 
fc cctiro roort ^mtrc involved in a common tv^t imd a 
B^nmon c&tii0in?f>h<;. Tht^ vnW \b not dcntroycd; it is 
^ froe to aUt bat is utterly diGnbUd ai rogard* holi* 
0^^ Out of tho masfi of mankind, cdl of whom nan 
lEke guilty, God chou^a n j^irl lo he i\w recipioittv of 
Uinttrcy, wlioin Hi: puiifiot by au irTe«iatib]e influence, 
b|| IcftToa ttiQ rest to su^cr the p^tutty which they have 


S4)2 jorof cxtrm asd im m:?vcvAS BxronaATioH. 

jiwtly brcm^Kt ii|m«i tlmmMtlvcH, lu tli« ** Inatitiil*^,' Oil- 

vm dov',-} whut Kuthcr had dont; in Kis boolc iig^itut EnuH 
nuui ho mOpkcn tho Fall itoo!fi the primui tvans-^roe^uion, 
the obj«t of tai cfKri^nt dccroc- In thin piirticiilnr Ua 
goes beyond AtigListino, and appstr^ntly j^tTi>rd9 st itsnotioit 
to Uie tmtretiie, or tti[pra-]A|>tian»n typ«fif theology, vrliioli 
afterwardH found iium«riniH def^f^dera — wliioji trao*« niu 
to the direct ngcncy ai Cod^, nnd even fmittda the duitiao 
tionof right and wning iiltimhu^ly on his omiu potent wilL' 
But whon Calvin wns nitlod upon to d^^finc his doctrino 
luorv oarefiilly, as in the C*onjifn«« 0-^n&vensi9, he cnnfiue* 
MniA^lf to the awertion of a permissive decree — a volitive 
pt-rtiiifwli>[i — in lliR vu£^ uf Uip fimL aJii. In other wuiUa, 
ho iLic.t nut 4:>vt;r»tc}i Ihu Augasliuian prirnt;t>n. He ex* 
piidtly ftvor* thitt every dccrro of the Almighty springft 
IrotD rcaflonj^ which, thongh hidden from us, arc gi>od and 
sufficient ; that is to say, hc< fonnds >nll upon rif^Ut, and 
not right upon will-' He diffe», however, both from Ai*- 
ffofftinc and LnthttTt in alfirming thnt noiK( who ar^ oiie« 
Gouvcirbed h«1l from a state of grace, thti number of be> 
Hevum bulug iv>exteiiiiive vlth tlie number of thti kIwtL 
tbit na&in pecutiarity uf Calrin'ii treatment of thU satn 
jcct> M compArt^ci ^rith tho coitno pureed by tho otheor 
KofomiQn, is the gFc«t«r proouoonco whioh fa« g^res to 
PredestmatioD- It stands in dio foreground ; it is novor 
kit out of raght. Lntber*tt prAcdcal tutndUog oT thb 
dogriLit vnta i{n\{t^ dilTerniLL, tTinliU' hh irjflamiut it nw 
treattxl more and more into tho background, until not 
only iu MQluncthon's system* but aUo In the later Li> 
tboraa theology, unconditional Fred»tinutton diouppnorod 

As A commen tutor, tho ability <if C'^lvin la vety great. 
Th# firut of hix Mfrirai of workit in this d«paftm«iit— hk 

' ii«r. 111. ixhl- D vf^. 

* tfym Waul. ul.i. Um- vlLL (IMi, "riin iinnni bJbll dHvnm fte 



VQck on tho SpiaUo totho Konuuu — waa mti&d vhiU 
be wa« nt 5tni«burg, »ft«r hji avulsion from <^«novA, 
The pTpparatioo cf hi« comm^ntHri^ wh8 Blwiaya tho 
tnoat oonguoial of hi* occupattoru. If his r^^er^, hu oa&i 
aftid, gatbettid us much profit from Ujq pvii^d, sa tir did 
bom the oompontiooi of thvm. he ^lioold hans no rcAMon 
to H^prct tbc l^bor which trh^y hivU ciont. Ilc^ woB poft- 
loaaed of an exogetic^ Uct which f«w imvo ^iisiled. Hd 
hM tkd true epirit of a BcJioIar. He dot^la LrrelcTaDt 
talk upon a pUN^m^, hia iui/uUIh iIk irit?uTiiii]{ in {.iuicIim 
Will pmntncl U-JTrt-^. IL-^ i« nmiily, tii'vtr i^v^uh^ji difTiiTuU 
tic»t but ailvnvyv gmppli^ with them; and he ii^ cmidid* 
He makee, ou pointe of dogm&t qiialiiicationa and occo- 
BMnol couccesioua wbioli are ^^ucnilly left out of hia [loknt- 
leal l^aliaea, bnt which liiv indUpetiaabld to a eorreot 
ftppny-iAtion uf hia cpiniotu. H hi> cruutod lui r-jiocb lu 
ciocirinK] UiiHjJjig^, It ix njimlly Ij-ut^ thjih h^* did miic?h tJ» 
found a new era, for irhich, however, 31elaticthou tmd 
otlKsn hjid pai^ Uic way. m the exegc^ia of Uie Sciij)- 
tnrc*. LuthcT tKii^d ^m tho niam iJoiv of ii pits^go, but 
was ICM procoAe OK a philolopojit critic. The palm bc< 
longs to Lcttlt^r, ns a tmnslator ; to C^ilviii, as ;ui inter- 
preter of thfi Word. 

NoLwttiiribindiiig Olu nuliml priiioijilt^A i:if Cidviti, It cle- 
■nrvi^ to bts ruiiiaurkud Llmh iiA n pnirUcJLL Rcforinc-r, ht> 
«aa, in aomc marked particulfLr^, oiTit the extrcnnnt which 
he is coQUDonly sappovod to ha^va been. Hv did not favor 
the kymoelueiio floeauiree of men bko Knox. Uv vma not 
cmi ItOttUlo to bUhop* u a jure humano [unui^ment.^ 
He wouhl ncit have i^arcd ta ahitliRb ihp four Christian 
tntiTalfl, whir.h th» Gflnimui Chnrvh, withoiit hi* ^tmcy^ 
mriy diacarded. In bis «puiUeti to S^;inerfldt, die IVitM^ 
(or in tho time of Edward VI., ^md lo the* Eugbab R^ 
formciBt be cnticizud fr^roly tUu Aiifcl>(^iuv Cliurolu Too 
Mineh, hf nid, wim oonondH to wenic brwtbreit. U> bMt 

» Hcdtt. II ua tia 

204 Joi 


[>!(>'.< klii-FLiU vha with for Ma or thiit, wiUitiut knowing 
vihy" ilri Ihiinght it a M^nilHl, he WToit4» Ui Cmnmetf' 
that All iriaiiv papnl ('■imqitlons rerrmin ; for exumpte, 
iUat " idle glutUma tu"u euj>iJiJrt<?d tu chaiiL vtHfWre iii an 
imknuwQ tongue*." But he vti\3 indifTcrent respecting 
vaiioun otiiit^mn txnd c^^NTmoiiio-jt^ whicli ii more ngid Pun- 
buiUm Ti^ndi* it :i pr>int of ctiiiHdoiK:^ to »bjtiro. 

Then* ttr4> markod p^^-^onal trsJtfl of C^lnu, which «t- 
hlbit i!ii^iiiHi>lv'^ in his I^tti^rn hiiiI oHier Mntriigs, aoi) 
which wr i-linll finil tH[i-<<iritt4<i] iti ihe c«ui"^(i <ff Ivjt life. 
Iiwtf>fttl i)f tin? grninlity, wliich is imc <>£ the nntivc qiuJI* 
^ticB of Liithrr, -wc fiud lui r-ccrhity, which is felt moro 
lily thnn *!ooprih*^il, ixnd which, more than juiytliUig 
bfis i)iqpiror1 jni>hi tildes with avvn^ou to liim. 
t«aa, his <li«cijjle, fn<*[ul, :uid tnogrupher, it\uiv% tliat in 
btiyhooi! ]in wus ttii; iM^nxnr nf th*; fuiilta cif hu muXt^ 
Through lifr% lir; hnd iv tone, in reminding men of their 
i^ or *uppos»MJ dcliiiqiieni;ies. which provoked rvM-iit- 
mont. To those much older tluui bimsoU, to men liko 
Cmnuier and Molunclhoii, he wrote iii tliis utioundciou^ly 
cutting ttty]i^ Thiiru w-.ia much ui the U'tithfulncvc, Udel- 
ity, nnd nminig^T, wlih^li lir miiniff!Kt» mrn in hiK rpproof§» 
h> coinmatnl ly-si^vL Y«U tliciv was » tjirt quality wlii^ht 
ooupIhI with hia miyieldiiig tonadty of opimob, vna 
^pted to pruvohe diacsteem- W« le*ni from CtUvin 
limwrU. tliat Melmothon, mild ae be wiia bntnrilly, wna 
offeiidied iit ttiu utylc ol one: of hU admonitory «rpiat]e8, 
that ]w tnre it in piece*. Thr* wTPtchwl health of CaJvin, 
with til'' rTi*»rmoiH hui^lens of labor thnt nested upon blm 
for yi?Jira> Imd sin mifavomhle afftct upjd a lampftr nn^ 
uiuUy imtiihlc. He vena oocn^ionally au oumed iiwny by 
9f pofldon, thnt ho loot lUI »cLf-oontTol.* Ho afi- 

i It xam a fiirrvtiT jt1ir4«i> bI 0*i>«vii i " Bxur nit D«s in Ant Hfj|l« vlt Alf 

J. lis. "Tluj miw« pf f^i« ii<iC4p«itInta«" TaItIii t*y*, " h^H a*nAnn*i| liim In u 
fnub]« Ubiu'* II>bt>, j- Ufl- 

wiUi tlk<i ittmojit frftalmcM I lu* hiul 

to tame ^^ tlL<T >7i]d bciuvt oE hin itn- 

X^r;" &od on lue deatfa-b«d he aftk^tl pardon of tho Stm- 

ftt« of OeniOTft for oiitburets of piiwi.-in, wliila nt thp fifim* 

time hn duUilcAc! Uiein fur tlietr Forln^^JMrkL-j^ Tlf^ Interbi- 

ngmpItfu^B nf CnWiti, nvrm miidi jla admire him most, hatO 

ruoftric^ that 1u» pii;tj wn9 unduly titrgod with tlio Old 

TvtoUQfiHt spirit. It is ongniHcnnt thnt tlio ^:l^^t miijority 

of tlie Iffxtfi of hie bomilio« n.nd sormoup, ns fiir ?ie thay hnvo 

been preserved. lur^ from Hit^ ^nc-it^nt Scriptiirea, Hoin»^ 

ha luw U ft pEiTt of hilt b^LU^. Ttt bring tbLMiglit, fei'l'mg, 

uid will, Ui bring Uiit rwrii lift*. Aiid i\m Wxw of oiht^ia. to 

bring CliurcJi and 8tAt*^ int<^ !Hibjfictifm to law, \i> his 

prindpaL aim. He- j» ovcroomo with Awe at the incon- 

«embl« poiTOT and hoLinoM of God. This thought, ie 

o«t in his miud- Of his convoreion, ho writes; 

fuddenty produced It^ he fluddeidy subdued my 

to tlif- nbtHliHiiv of HiN wiU." T(i oboy tliL- will uf 

^toA vna hts »iipTi?nK* piirposft in liff^ nnd in this pm'])i:r«i.i 

hii Kiol WW undivided ; »o mutinouA feeling waa aufferod 

la brtieipofli^ it momentary reairtjuite. But tho Irudar, 

AU tempi^ ailaii wama Loot in th4^ fi.-eUiig of the eubjeot 

twud liiA Uwfitl ]{ii1iir. A KunAc! of the vxaUutiuu of 

W cot only tah^ uwny :d] frar <>f roi»n, but in*i':iwi to b* 

>tl«iu]ed with MJTii(5 J'i4M I'f heriKibilily with n»^&rd to 

fk lot. To pnuiiute the hi>[iur of (?od. Hud to secure 

cod at all h^Eord^ la tliv chtr^ objeot in new. 

^btoTor, in hiJt jndgmont, brin^ dbhmor upon ttto 

Ahaigb^, IM, for oxunplo, attuckir modi? tipon tlii) tnttl^ 

liteTai Ilia indignation, »dcI hn fpnU boiinri, in ronsdeno^t, 

^emrfpont anrfi attacks with n pitilew h':«tiUty. He cm- 

^^rt% it ail iifi|itfr%tiTe duty, aa lie T-.\preaiily deelarea, lo 

^ tbo enrnuea of fiod. li. i i n t^^ tlt^m, b^aayas 

*l ironld rather be cnu<!d, tiiun uj^ bj uu^ry/*' Henoet, 

not conacioiiflly rinii^To, and though roally 



|dBC»bJ« iu riinoiitt liiatKiiofia wliere he w:^ i^eraupiJIj 
wnmgnA, Iki- wiut uii rirt; tha iiKJiiti-iii Ui^i lie coiifLviv^ 
th« honcrr of God to be MnAiltxi. How difficiiU it wixili 
bo for sucb a man to dis^rinimibto tMitwc^n pcrmouHl focl- 
ing uid s<7ial for & ctittno with which bn l«Lt iiiinv^^itf to bg 
IhorQugLiy identifi^. it is easy to mid^i^tajid. Calvis 
did not touch human life, at «o ninny |H>]i]te,fts<^iH hntHer; 
auiJ hnvitij^iL livut WuiidhvmpiiUi}' bltumiU . Ue haa dUi-itcUid 
IcTCi ayiii|i»ltiy innn uUicm. Th(^ |HK-tic bupu'jUaon thtth 
|fav^ InrtJk t<> the ntirring hymiiA of the Gcnn^ui l^ormftr, 
wiui not AiAong h\9< giftn. H(i wn>t)i} u poom in luitin hox- 
JLTn^Uns, r»ii the triumph nf Chript^ whicli wa* compoMd 
at VVonne during thd Conference there — Lb vhiot be 
duscrjb^ 1^, Ooclila^ufi, aiid oth^r Ca>tlLollQ oombatttaU, 
SB dragged after l.liv thatiot uf the vlcturiuus Rcdt!ojiiGr. 
A fow hymnn, mostly vcmoiui of l'«ii3ni», hnvo Uttcly been 
tm»d to hiv pen.' it luw boon noti(;4;d tJmt idtbough bo 
Hpcnt the mci^t fi hit )if<» on the bovden of the Lako ol 
Gen$VI^l]1A uow]ivi-<* aUudva lo th^ boautjful Mxoi^ about 
HluQ. Yot, tbiMv id Huioothuig tiuprttuiivt^, tlic^tigli it bo « 
ilf^fi^r.t, in tliiK ifxrbwivo Atuni'j^l^ai] (if hiK mmil in tbings 
invisible. Wheu we look at his oxlf aardiiiaiy intelloct, 
U liie cultare — wliicb opponents like Howueti hfvre beeo 
forced Ut Cf>imu(Trid — at Uid invincible ooeigy vbiob isuido 
hiic ciiduru with more than ctoioftl fordtudti infirmhiu ol 
bod}' tuid^ whidi moat men would hsLve sunk, luid to 
pwrfnrm, in the midst of them. Bin inm*dibl(? fi.nxkniit orf 
^^^ QQvtit^ Libor ; when nu sue hitii.i & aehuW' u^turaliy (oml 

^^H of aecluAloit. phyiiic&lly Liuijd, and reooiluig from noloii- 
^^^ ety and fitrifi^ abjuring tliv ewer tbut waa moot to hi* 
^^ tvtttc, and plunging with a ginglc-boartcd. difiint€re«itod zcoi, 

^H «nd an indomitable will, into a hard, protract^ oaait««t 
^^ ud when wu follow bia atep^ and see wbat tliuigs be 





iffe fl tod, wa cumot <icny bim tho attnbutee oi gro&tnew. 
The Skoaato of G^n^va, aft«r hia d^atli, «puko vi '- Lb« 
inaj«0ty *' of his character. 

Catriii ptiMittbeJ t]ie llrii e<!itu>M of ihv limtitiitMft, with* 
oai till? kiiiiur]i?dgis of uiy <it\v. ni HjuhtI, no ^ivri'^n wji« tie 
to notoricl^, Apan fr»m the repute oE this vrork, lii« 
Ibsio oa Ui iicntc, prominng theologian vrua c-jtlctidiii^. 
'Uftving visited Italy, and remained for a whilo iit F<^f]-iu:ii, 
At tlie court of t]i« aecompliBbed DuclieAs, tk^^ daniigUtttr of 
Ixmu KIL, uiul lIie< prot^^fi^r of tlit- ProleHtJiTiia, witlj 
whom \ui krjit u^i a nirrp^jNimlrniM- lifUrwrnils, hn r<i- 
tumcd to Bji^cI, And tlit^nce mjivic n tfecmt viait ta Fnuicct 
Aod to ilia nAtJTo plocC' L>r» account of the cil>Mi'\t<;tioii 
of tiie ruTitL' through Lornun->, bv the ^rmy of Charlt^a V., 
Im «*4 out to n^tum by th<> way of G&nova, Tharo ho 
Sfriwd on tliu 5tb of Auj^unt^ loSO, with the design of 
tsurjing hut n. Aingli- tiighi ; ^tfU^ whidi he (;i|iect<^) to 
|Km(ie hifl joiim(.'y to ba«cL llcrc ocoun^ed the ev^ut 
lliKt dkftjted Uj« future ccunci of hia Jifi^. 

Tfao w«r of Ciip]>cU ilk whii^h ZwiitgU hiid fulJen, hjul 
left the prcpondcnincu in tbu Swiaa Confodemc^y m tpho 
hftikda o£ thi^ Catholics. Th^y used thoir pow»r to 
bnaffiiio th^lr ftdversnriee in varir^im wny», &nd to re-- 
Mtiihtbth l\\v uM religion In 8i>]ub di^trltt^ fvotit whii^h \t 
luwl bi-Tii irip(4k<d oi' iu whidj the |Kuple W(it« dlrided. 
The iL-adlng cities of Zurich. Ucnir, tiixd ihuKU hovrcvor, 
nsuuotid ^thfol to tbo Itcfomintion. A niixtura of 
polttio&i drciuaatULoe« and roligious uifluoDcee at l<»Qgth 
jTMitorl a now Mat for Protcdtantiam at Genova. 

G^iMTft, litnnti'd on Uu? lurdf^r of T^iko L^^mnn, nnw a 
bngiDMit of tb? old Kingdfim of Rurgiindy^ and wan 
gotvnMd for mAtky canturica by the bishop, who wv 
^OATJD by tho cttDOHS of tho Cathedral. The biahop, lij 
an arrangement with the neiKbboriDg Counts of titmeva, 
kftd ooDUsittod to tliam his raril jurisdiction ; but os 
aoMidiiiit to offioa, ho alwayv iworo to oi^^tain tht; fruji- 

oattebbotf A^lfcdM. TWvmI A0 ml of tfa. 
tlvrt4(«iUi omtafj, tlni oCee ol VSduMc v Vice-rag«nftv 
VM fiMrfiiiiil tran dim to tfas Doke* of Sftvc?. Tlie 
d^ lor Ibe tml port nM itedf afur » npvbtiom lona, 
nd tht Emperofv FV«d«ne Baibaioi, Cbafto IV., 
■AC SigkmvKi, ■■ ft meaiw of pntecCiae it aeaiMt eo- 
<r) tJii aM*i oa ths put «f Saivoj aad of the «Hint> of 
QvQSrva, fWugmiMl tlui pla^e «■ a HtT ol tlie Empai^ 
Twke ft jr«ar dio loaf i^'Ddm who |««c4kmUjF owing^ t^o 
gOTinuneot were Aotm hf the Jta cn a M y of cttimv, Ai 
Um IwipnniD^ ul the aixteeotii oenlu^, the oadiitioiiB 
fivTjjocUof tho ViditnittMtkdGcfieTWMtoloofe for help 
vuliii|r^>rttot]i«SwiMcuitOfiii. Ckiu-Iviillf., wbobeoamo 
Ditkr of Huvoy in 1 'jCM, cntt^rvd Into » wtruggtv, for thu 
«ntijngBtirin ol Oftiw*!*, whirli imntinufsd tmitt^ ynrs. 
FiiJilirtg it iiii|>096i1>1e bj secuns lua end bj artful aegodfr 
tkcn vith the dUi^o*. hf>, with tbo oMbtaiiOQ of Pi>pe 
I,«o X.4 ffjrotMl uj>on them, in 1^13, John, tHo U^atATtl of 
Uavo}', wlic bocfimo bt»liop andor tbo ftipolntioii that ho 
frovlii |^r« tho cr>ntrr>I of the city, M ha ab dril atfidn 
wsraconosrrHu!, xaUt tfu' luiiuU li tUe Duko. The dtiuscM) 
tinilur die lead of Uouivaiti, Berllii*lit-r, nnd oUti^r patJint«, 
aift<1aabrmvu rvalatuncc. Thi^DtjlctTiu^iLiiR^'l the maatery, 
Mcl Bertlittlior wm put to <i(<iUlu The rcTolutioii ninoh 
fll»Ofnled tJio city trt>m tho tyrantiy of Savoy etnU nvtorad 
lift fr«4^i:lF»iTi» wii* iHshievML by tlio lud of Murne and Krci- 
butg. Thc< CiifittvariR were divutod into two piurtiMi the 
Cuiifi^nrat4.t« (Kirl^iiiMAtfri), w)v\ vroro lor «tribiDf^ baoda 
with tlio Sn^M, jiiiU t]j« Mnmvliikea, or HtDien-tite of tin? 
Uak«, Tho fornivr wvr^ iuodwafal, Tlie uni-^? uf Vi* 
d«ino WM HbDlinhrd, nn<l olvil and military power pnTm^^d 
frnm t1i4i bishop into tJi<f Iiaudd uf tJu; poopl^? f' L-'i'(^>. 

Til"* \'iv\\ w«» folIowiKl by iin ciocl<«iaatioal roroLutioii. 
Bt>niu InHfitni- Prrjtiiiiiiuit \ Kreibnrg rauiuncd Cfitlioliv 
Krtiiti HtTi rtn A I'rfit4»1nnt inflnefice was exerted In Q«a 






erVL Tbu youTw pooplo mjidu ukc nf thtir libt-^rty tu din* 
n^guiil iHn jinvirij>ti<mii of tJu- ChiinOi in n-i^p^i-t Ui «l>- 
BtiiMOM from mcjit od Ea«t dnjA^ and Ji^piitcfl aj'OHe 
bfftwcm tbc <3ei:E6iu jtcul tlie e^L-.lebtaAtica. Some efEorb 
wa« mado to ootrect th<7 dttiaulutL- luiUiU of th<-' pricatfi, of 
whom tti«ra WOT© t]irc<) bundrod in OiTHva, in tkidor to 
Cake 11 pottu^t wixipcjn out at thu hiiiubt cif t\\r refi>tiiutni. 
Bttt PnitsHtjintwm^ hy rhn 4>ffnrtK of Fiiri-l anA atlutr 
ptvsvhvny gHin«d ground, itiifcil at lenglJi, in '15<i5, witli 
tW aki of Berne, a ai^coud rorulullun limk pluot?. hi wliiiJi 
llie biabop iTAB cxpt4l«d, n.i]d L'njtf^i^htutnm w^ia r^teib- 
labud. Jq cctm<K:tion with thii; Hi(iti^, th^ itdjiioi^^nt tci 
fitovy wu oobquer^c], and with it tlio c^tl^ whicli Itad 
nrred as Btronii^lioUlB cf tbe Duk«, and a£ coiivenient 
plaaw of alieltiT for fiigitivts, mid tiir tha tyvgmxvjAiiitai of 
ntbM-kH u|Hni the dt/. f>Mi[*t>L w»h rKfoi'tJiiid, iiiut kt tlj4< 
woe tiin« gained ita iiuIcpendvincfT.' 

Thfi prindpa] A^ant in pLautinfj: tbo now doctru>e in 
G<Mici-a hud hvcw Fnrol, bcmi in HKt), ^f a nobk 
^unily ID Oftpi in Dauphin's; n wm%'<^rt to I'rotcfltrtrtisTii^ 
drnea oot of Frunc« by peKecutioTi> :ind wt^loom^ to 
Swltzeriaiiri Hfl one able to preach to tlie Freiirli ptipiiln- 
ticin m lInTir own liii]^ii;igf\ Houi<»t. eiiiiI ri-'arlt^w, h\xl m- 
UunpTTikt*? ill Ijui^'iiagt; ;%m\ i^oiidtirt, lie; fii]T[iii];itcn] OjfiUtiiit 
tiu tctieti lUid pi\u:tic€d of Kf>TiLi<« lu city nnd country, m 
the ditacb«« or by the way^ido, whi^rcvcr bo r^mdd liiid 
«n aiiflience. AVhei«t«r bo proiiubwi iii» att.»ut'>f"irui Totoo 
roAo aboro tbo Louduit tiunnlt tliut ^viua r;dt£ud tu droKTB 
it' On oix? occaaon h& seiT^'^t t}ii> n^Iirs fn>m tlti^ lund tit 
ft prieat bi a prooerabon, and flinig them into ait adjiuwat 
riTer, Hv wwi froquisntly 1>ti4ttiu and bltiKfepuL bi inami- 

i TW fYiliiTifln* »■ G«pf* mi lb* btPedwUDn ol lb* Kiromniilifni al 

« U^ ru«^ I4UV 


210 J0B3I CALTia ASD TH£ 0&4EVAH fiafOftUAllOlf* 

mDt peril. Hi^ wiut f^ud in Imrr iliuk»uiii:4^tl Ehlaiuu^ aI 
BomI 34 &notk«r Uftla^m. and Enumiui repaid tltc cmnpU- 
a)«nt by dcacnblnt; Iiim. tu a letter, ba tho rnoet air^^ganti 
abiudvuf hiiil aluiiiK'L-fl* man he had ever met w^ith-' Yet 
FfkJtil did nut liiuit biinaolf t^^ deoiuticiation* Ho under- 
•toofl wril, iind know hrtve to infTul<'rtttf I'liMivimllj, the di«- 
tinotivi? doctriiipfi nf tho Pr^itestiuit; fHltJi. Hu rxrHtwl^ a^ 
Uruiplr 111 fn.-iLeva wilh m 1532, imiuddjj^tely aft«r tlic Gr^t 
iGViilubioii' lit! vi'M Uiuu driveu fruui tL<} dby« ajid owliI 
hift lifv to tfiR bursting of it gim tiiut wud lumiid at Mm, 
Thvi second liuiv EiG WJ15 more siiccrj^fiil. Tho now doC' 
trlDQ w!w engorly hoiird iiii<l wi«i numerous dieoipliaft. 
At tho jiolitioal reviilntion, wJiicli expelled th& bSsh«p, 
tliu Pi'Lit^-^iUi.Ttt fLiJlli wiifi HtlajilL'd by Llie HultiUm iu-*t of tlitt 
clti^iriA, T\\K gcimr;i1 <^uuncil, or thi^ ruiHi^mbly of ciitiT^eiu, 
legnlizod tlic now ordct oi divine scTricc, which included 
Hie admin iatz^tioQ of tho Supper tkricc ux tii« yutr ; 
abr>titi)iod ilLI the festivals exoopt Siii:LdfLy, and p ruhibitcd 
wcirldly fportfi, fiuch a« diuKuii uud inEutqucrados. TUe 
oitiz«i])s took an oatli to csot ofT tbn Rnmidi doctrine ajt6 
to Uvi* atv."i»nli ng ti"» (1i»* nil« of tfi*:r GLW|iel. But M^pxn of 
dwiffectiun sdoii itppeured- A Utrjp? porticui of tint iti- 
faabiunU of thU proaporotu, luxuviou*, and plcasuit^ 
lovmg dty, swm grew inipiiticiit *>i the new reatraiuU 
wlai;b tliuy hod accoptcd in iho momont ot exlularation 
&T«r thuir buwly i-iuntKl political tDde|MMtdotie6. Tb^ 
cHud out upenly agnlaat the preaeherv and domAn^ed 

Tluira ie no reason to doubt th^t tJie mciraLa of Q^uf^vH 
wi<n; in n low hUttc Tlte SavuyimlA bad nought to iwvijr« 
li« adherence of the young men by TiiT^ans of dances ajid 
coQviml entcrtainmf nto ; ruid Jlcrthcbor endeavored to 
|»dH<> tbie piirpoae by joining with tli^m hims&lf in ilmir 
voiay banqueuandlleeDtlciuB amusem^ta* Thu prioctt 
Wkd monk*, juwoniJng to t.riwtwortby cont^mpomry ao- 


QOte< ^rmn oxcaptioiudly profligate.' Tho proHtitutcm, 
ever whom th«im w%e plfto^d a qne^n who wiw rrgiilitrly 
wom to the fa1fi1lm«nt of proacribed functions, w^iro fjvr 
Iwjng confineil to iLe ijourfHC-T- ot (fie city ivliir?i wai 
speanlty lungDiH] It) tiLrm. Oanibluig-lLoiiiwn mid wiiiti- 
ptu^ w«ro «ciittcTcd OTcr tlie town. The rarions motivoa 
of oppoAtion to tho new iij^tcm wore sufficient to da- 
Yolop a powerful party that <i«miirjded the old ciiatomi 
And the fom^r liberty. They olainored for deltvenmoo 
from the yoke of the iireachera. 

Gi*ti(im imw ID iliin fjui-ioiiH^ cnnfuAnd state when Cd* 
vin arrived thf^rc. And toolc hh lodgings at an intk, iritfa 
Ibe intention of ramaimiig only for tho Dight. fn hia 
Prefect to the Commentary on die Pflitlma, which con- 
toiiu the movt iiiUrvBtu:^ p»Esii^» of imtobiogmphy that 
«« pontca from hU pen, he gives an cicj-ount of liln into]'. 
vi«»w with Farvil, In whmn his nrrival hml hrim roportivl hy 
luH frit^ud, Dti Tilt^t. Ffi^rel besought lum tu reiutuit mid 
m&aivi him in hia work. Cfitvtn dncljtied« plefiduig hin iin* 
williDgncM to bind himself to iiny ono pUce, nnd his dcmro 
to pnwociit« hift Btiidio^. Socirg thnt hia pi^ranosions wcro 
fnulJcwt P&rel told him that he might put fdrward hie 
llndfta* «ft & pretext, but thnt the curse of God would l^ht 
oo him if hft peTuaed (o tm^'Lgt> in HIb work. 0:iMn oft<*n 
refen to thU dccbtmtion, uttnrod with tho fervnr of A 
pioplMt* He says that he w&a struck witlt terror, and 
hHi ao if the hand of tho Almighty Iind boon etretchvd 
Mil from heaven and hud upon hmip Hu gave up bi^ op- 
pOMtion. *^ Viml" it ^ bi^n uuid, ^^ (^vo Gcnoru to 
the Rpformatifm, nrd Cnlvin to G"npva." Hs ot oin» 
ti^gui hiR irr^Ic, not taking rhfi post of a preRcb«r at f1nit> 
hut ^riiif; theolc^icdl t^tur^ of an exog^etical sort in tti« 
ChuToh oj St. Peter. He composed hastily & catedium 
for tbfl iostru«t*on of th« yotinfr, which he deemed b tlun^ 
4«BoatiiL] tn tho gniduico of ft diurdi. A oonfowion of 
liith, djawn np 1^ F»rol. wn# prtt«nt4»d toaU tho pwploi 

ns jonc cAvrm a>v nm gbot^ upoKMA-noit 

mhI bj tbcm EormaUy Ado|)t«d. A bodj of rcfoLUioai 
rolatiii; to cburdi varnoeft onddiBctpKine, contoming alarii^ 
gest proraioiu, wm Lik^wiM latifiad umI pot in c^wn* 
lioii. <^>po«tioa totliQ doctriiMt vad d«vuUioa from tho 
pneticcB tliiu nBctki]|«d, wnv penal off mi w. A bur- 
dn«v-r, for euunpk. for arnui^Dg « hnde'» li^ m- vluft 
wu dccTJif^ ui uoMttmlj- DusnntM', ns unprinODcd for tmt 
dftjTf ; And tho moUutri vrith two fcinato lri«ik(U^ who hod 
iid«d in tbo proMts, aoflered the boiop pvn&ItT. Dandng 
■nd aJir<l'pLiyiDg wi^re aUeo puniflhed by the m&|pitnito, 
Thi^ vivTc not wn.>tig to th^FDaelves^ Calvin said, Imc 
thf*y Tiiu) Ui^n kj ubunral Uutt tliurt^ wim Hit i^Oier fxiuiaa 
trot to prolkibit tli^m ftlt^^cihcr. lie vrho xt drcftdcd ft 
tumult, not only hud to encounter Anabnptiflt fnnaticfl 
who appcoix^d in Ctrinftfa, but soon found himsi^lf, witJi 
bU JUi«i>cuitot^ in c^inflict mth the fj^ov^miuent, ^nd wiUi 
Hie mujority of tbo tjiti/f^nB who rehelled ^nitut the itrict* 
nMM uf tliii new rv^lmt^.' At tbe Ik-juI nf thif purty i>f tv^ 
poMtiwi, or ipf tliu Libortinw, as they weTv styled by vhi* 
9Up\MvXvrt of ChItui, ifer* Auny PcvTm. Vwidel, aJid Jomi 
FhjLi]>pL\ wbo liiid bi^on ftinoiiff Uiu fiifftadvocibto of thii 
Ki^itriimt^on, lu Uicir nuik» ivoro inruiy of tbo Coofod- 
i<nU(w, or Ki4^tn/>9»tn^ who lud foti^Ht for the iadepon- 
doBou cf tbv dty. At Geneva, the baptifima] font, tbd 
four fosdvals c^ ChriBtina^ New Year's Day, the Aiinuri' 
djdir>Li, and tlio A^iMnnioTit sujd tliR uw of niilnrtvcnr-d 
bn^d i» llio SoGrtimanti all of whlcli were rcfaunod in 
Ht-('iii-% fiAii boon diocnidod. Tho oppoocntfl of the Ww 
iy»t«<in ^\\<^\ for tbo raotomtioa of the BersOM oer^ 
lDoai<«. Ftndii^ tb^nt9eh<e8 thwart^l by tbe auUioHtiH 
Id ihe vafoffoomout of L4iitrch dUctplii>u, ou Easter Sun- 
day (I5A8), iW tuiuitftRTK, Calrin* Piirrl, %m\ \wU 

I 11* w A<fnrflM, iniHli 10 Ut ■nntftotTfaa. m vttniad u uuck of • 
>lll|vHiLil,in'l n«n WHifetr o«Hnv- Bunmiamiwtt AMMJaftawlgatnl- 
lUidiM. fWt IIWET. I' ITS H^. iMrtn «!■ cMdMi M «» ibt tmtm «ttA 
liB 4*»l f« a* n^jprf w iW THdIijf, wd 4MI aot ladtt «ft iha md ptrm^ 



pw »chi>d in *ipTtp nf tlin prohihltinn »f tli** SyinU*?*!, njid 

aienL Tliervujicui, by » vutfi ot tlie CutuiclL wliicli wm 
cocnrnied Uic next dav by t}ir. ^laraH tuttn^inhly of Lha 
citisciii, thc^ were banished frf>m the uty. Fjiilm^ in 
thoir «fforte to Mcurc tho ink*rvoAition of Btnti^, imd in 
odior itegotifttiona liaving refeifinoo to tLeii r^Btomtiorii 
tliey parteii from oae anotlier. Farel went to Netiff'hfttel, 
fUrd CaWeii finind u <Minli;Ll r^uepfjtm eti Str^ljitfg. Xt 
vnu A gmicnil fLfvlltig« in wbit:L C»,lvm hliufielf abjircd, 
that the prr«cbi^r» luid £on« impruderttly fj^r in tlipir n> 
qiiircmcQts- Kut the joy of Calvin at behig dclWerod 
from tlie aiudetifift wliicli he had euSered, and in Snding 
liliawlf Jit liberty to il^€t« htni^lf to hie boolu, vii 
fftalcT, luT miy*, IIih.ij tindi^r ttie t^irciiniBtniK^e* was Im^ 
coming. Rut H^icm lir- wn* nolh'.UjptX by [iuiv.-r tj> tnko 
charge of tlie chuicb of l\'cncti refugees who were at 
Stnuibnrg, Once more ho "trafl uitimidai^d by Bucer's 
camcAt appeal^ who rumindod him of thecxrimpk of the 
fugitivo prophet Jonjih. I'hough hi« poounmry mipport 
W tmall, »o that he v/oa c^ampvllod to tak(?< Iful^^^rrs and 
etien to sell his book% ti> get fhe meane of living, he 
mu tttiafieit ;mil liii|)]]^, Willie aL Stiaalnirg. Ut? was 
faiQti^it luto itili^rooui'se ivti.h tlu^ Snxon theolt^l&Bn at 
tiM religions confervnoes held botwocn Uie y*ni,n 16IHI 
ami 1641« at Fr&nkfort, at Womi^ find at Hagcuau, and 
tn Gan&eetioa vltli the Diet at Ratifibon, where ContnruiJ 
appoarod ii«tbon»pruadtktativ<^of the Pope. Lj]ic< Lutht-r, 
Catvui had no faith m t\M pmetieubltfiieM of a onrnftTomi«e 
tfilh th*» Cfttholkw, fvnil tln^ iu^>tiiitions birpjuin*. inorr and 
mcire irkAume to him. ilia ignarance of the (lerman bui* 
gn^« occuoicmed him aome embairaaament* His tetciiti 
mad loamin^ wcro fully rooo|Ciiie<.<d by the Genntvu theo- 
lofluuas, and witli Molanethon ho formed a. frf^ad^hlp 
whieL oontinned with a t4T[i]>omry, pjirtanl bilernipLlon, 
VBtil thtfj weP» separate by dj^th. To Uce fxfnipminiHMi 


rf tlio I^pmo InU-riin. Ciilvin wu* liiiL^bly oppoeed 
On the gTMit coiitiw<irt4?il p(>iiit of thii Eu^h^rlst, h^ and 
McInnHliDn w<»nt i^rHuK nnJ tlii! liitttrr uoiinrlfid li> liuri 
tbs anxif^lLCfl wUirli ^^Ttglif^il hi^nvily upon liini oti ncoouiit 
of the jealuiiay OD the Luthcraii side, vrhich wa^ nwaWciiod 
bjr Ida oJiuuf^ cf opinion. With LuthF>r, ChItiti msveor 
wno into pur^oimT contact ; but ha ^a« di^li^hted to hear 
th*! tbo S^xon Ivadar hud i-end some of hia books with 
•*Bingiiljip unt.Ufjuriitm/' hiwi botniyt*^ no irntaLton nt hu 
iiiff<trenf£» on t\w que>*lion of the STipjivr, and liad ea- 
pT«mi»d a ki^li dc^^L^ of confidoi^^c in iiiA ability to be aflo- 
fnl to the Cliurch. Ht thought Luth*r a much greater man 
than Zwingic, but thut both •^&rti ouu-aidrd and tf>o mucsh 
midcr tlin >wny <if pn^judtce in tlieir ccmbat ufion the 
Kiicharisl. Hn <*x«l»ini* tbnt hfi sboiild trnver c*(»aeo to 
rv;vi*rfl LiLtlivir^ if Kiitht^r wi>rH Ui ciiU Liin a dfvll,* When 
calL<d upon at a lat^rday, after tb« d^aUi of Mt^UimtliQu, 
to tAkti the fiold aguiiitft biffuted Luthtnins. he brctln 
Mat with tlio cxo.lamntion : " Philip Molanctlion, I di- 
Ttei my wonU to th(»o who nov livott hofcre Qod mth 
JTcflua Christ, and tht^ro art ^TTtitLni' for iia UU wo aro 
gathon^d x*itb rhoe to that blessed n^atl A bnndrod 
timrtt hast thuLi miid, iffhvii, wt^riud witJi labor nnd np- 
pivesod vritli iiiiiieticJft, thou hn«t Ivd Uiy hnid HiFecdon- 
«t«lj upom my bowxn : * O that« O that 1 ralghtdie upon 
tlua boeomV' But notwithatanding tht^tr fni=ndahip, 
MoUaothon «o«ld not be preraiJcd oa to ttxpraaa liimtRU 
la fftvor of Calvin'p doctrlno of predf«tinftti<m, though tfi« 
bUtor diKlir&t«d to bun, m flattering terms, a treatiM on 
iIm nbjtct, and by tetters sought to «nilai his support 
CaMn waa bringiu^f Iiu Mebunctbon wrntu U> a frinnil, 
UkO Stw doctnno of Gris.* When Bolaoc vm taken iste 
HUtody for Tdwuwutlj attikckin^ tbia doctrioo im pobfie. 
Moiaiffriinp wToto to CanHRuriiu ^uit thoy hftd pit t 


Ikivi in pnMt] uiG<a\<!vn tor not u^^eitig :v^th Zmio.^ 
Tha rekdoM of Otd^-in to Uie fri^^'iids of Zwlngle ;uid to 
thn f^litiiY-liftf wliicli hjul lirr-n <'Ntji1ili:4hi;d imJer his aiiit- 
picw, TTOir f<'r a wliik* iinrtt^ttliMl- Onlvin'ji Eiirlmristic 
doctnne differed from tbut of the Zuricli i'e£uriiii.*r, and 
he WB&0«epecte<l of xm intvLition tL> liitroducu tbv Lutbcmu 
theory-. Hl* auweodoii in oouviiioiug tln^m tktt Una au&* 
pidon vnu groiuidltiits, lUid in bringing itbout ^ luiiou 
tlifviugli the ueoeptAnt-^ of common fovmuhirltn. Tin- fact 
ttiHt Zwiiiglo liiul rsther prnfen^pil (lie: tK^^^triiu'- of j>r(^il(«* 
tinAtion oi & pluLoBOphic£i1 theorem, than btougbt it for- 
ward in popular tcacliing, icquircd fipccifil cxi:!rLiotia on the 
purtof Calvin U> qoi^t tlitf mi^vingai>f tbc- Sxs^i^B ive]>Qcit- 
ing tki4 point uIsOp' Id Uus effort L(? wa^ like^vise succcisa- 
fui y*t Bi'miT, i^nrtly from tiie disfavor whidi it f(dt 
tAwvLnU minor p'^f'jiliAritlps of the GeiLtivsiu 4:u1ti»4, but 
chtefl> owin^ to tlie diaappotiitDioiLt of palillcal ttL-beiUtiH, 
oev«r tnated Culvm wtLh entire confidence aud Enendli- 

WhjJa at StnL«l)nrgt Calvin wiih marripd to tho widow of 
an An&bftptiflt preAcb^ wliom h^ ha^ cnnv^rt^d. Several 
previouB attempts to negotiate a nmrriitge, in wbii^h lie 
hul pmrvnlfHl in ii ipjitL? lni!ii:it»^llko apii'it, with no out- 
lay id 9Katitnt'i\iy Iijul fmin vikri(tu» t nusea piDvetl ^ibcrLivi;. 
The Udy whom bo marnc>d Appear* t^ have bee& a pcnon 
oC rare worth* hia lifo with her was ono of unintcrmpt^ 
hamdoy ; and whsD* nine yearo after thvlr mamagd, ahe 
dUd, Ui dc«p grid proved tlie tendt^meaH of his yittaoh* 

1 MfUKMhae m.hi Ihal rbcj fiad rcvfvcil Jhe ftulJuUc dwoinrf M tAnrauJoi 

■ Cdnn crElidi<* 2Tin|*lt't Irvftliri^ni rtf ihittiottrint, Id « Ivllvr fi^ TtniJin- 
f«r iBflUii', «1euj3I,K Tti« 1tilL0«tnTint« rkf tb* tivrH HmrrhH In 1Il^ fMn 
•t BcImc VI* *tfy v<H«Liau to Ctlviq, m rikti tn^] ottT lollr-n «li4nr Lfht 
iiM—f^wflii'i-i on ibi* CAM Luirvetifol/ uh^mi* Ehv nnvUhnLpiMB of tht 


uiei^L fLii i.>iit^ cliliL a fli^iU lived but h Hbnirt timo. ll 
may 1h? iciimi'kHti b^^iv tbnl Osilviii whk fju fnmi Ix^dng un- 
ft(ii»ccjjtiblo to fncjicMtip. Witph F«.rcl and Virot he WM 
anitod in tlac cLoocftt buiuUof intimiLcy- 'i'bough scbooLed 
bo nibmiuioc, whon hct hotav of tlio ttfjaUi of oii« ftft«r 
anoUi«r cE his frionitji, li<» gtvei «i^ressicii to liia wtrrovr, 
8r>mf« times in patHntitr liuigiisLge. hevA loved bim oi i 

Tljn<v >'t?ui9 ttftf^r hta expulsion lie wtia rmnllixl to 
Giwcvn by the uiiitud voice* of the govcmmcjit and 
pooplf). Tho dUtTitctoi caaditton of the oity c&us4m1 oU 
eyoB t^ nim to him u th^ only hope. Disordor itiid vi«« 
hod liBt'ii ML the inore^'iB&. Soenea of boentioune^u and 
vtoleiiOL? wi^n'. wit[iiwi4<(l by Any uiirt l>y niglit iii Uie fhtrwcts. 
Tlio CkIJhIi^s ivi-re h(j[)liig t^ tuv i-hB old n^ltginn te*- 
gtoi'fd- Tbrn.' va^ a prospect tbat Ucme would find iU 
prolit m tbc nnarchical uhiation of ita neighbor, and e^ 
tilrliali lis oontrol in Geneva. Of tho four Syudi<^ who 
hnd bchcn riotive in tbu biuiinlLment of tho prouchcr?, one 
bad brokrti bin »f*ck by a Ml from a window, Rtiotliec 
biul br»>ii i^ii-nitAiI for mtirdt^r^nnd fJie r^niftintire two 
bud bi-<?ji biUJtiihed on suspiuiou of in«i*ori» Ttu? ooi»- 
vdcni^'vs of mniiy were aUvnned at thcac occoTrcaoca. 
Meantime C*vrdinn] Sadolet, BisUnp of Carpcotras, »d- 
drcascd to tho Soimto a vory pcrsiiasiv^ lott«r. free from 
all a^imonyt and oooch^d in a flattering style, for tho 
|Mir])oiM> ci brlnj^ng tho city back to the fold of Uin 
Cathnlir Cliuntb, To tbm dtKnm^nt (.nlvin puUi*ih«d 
» masterly rvplyi in wtiieh b(^ r*xpn?*M.H] hw gndyjag 
inlenal in tic wolfnrc of tho Ooncyaii Church, and re- 
viewed the Protc^atant oontroveray with angukr foroft 
iind clcantcw. ^^ H«re is a work," sfud Luther, on nsod- 
iflp it. *' tlmt bint hiindft ajid f<.«t/' Tbc pemna) rt^mm- 
kconccB relating to Init convArairm, which ara intnnvnvi^ffi, 
«Mk» It, as a coTLtribution to his hit^apliyi only fiocttitd 
ID iropurtjiiiue to thb Pn&ca to tiie refJuu, It ui&de 


latormblo imprcMun ibT^GoiKWLi. mid lui vdi- 
tioa oC it vm piiblisUed by tJio nutit^^iiticn. 'llm city, 
lorn by fa^tAon^ wiUi & government Xno whaIc to «>terdAe 
effective oodItoL, turned t^ t\n- bjvrki^h^l pv^irlier, who 
lud nerer been vilhoait a body o/ w^riii adJi^i^uiU, how* 
9Ter oTerburou in tlic CKcit^mrat that ntU-udcd hitt oxpol* 
Ron- licrc wuA uioUtur instaiio<? in whitth I'rovidnnce 
iMBMd W itit<'jf)Ottu to batUc Lin ^criKlLt^d plAn^^ and to 
OM him for a puipota not his owo. Ho oanld not think 
of going back, vrttboiit a almiMcr. TLt^ i-e^-.ollectioif of 
bift cunfluTtfl llnTiTj, mid of tlie Iroublea cf coiiM^iroci? ho 
had Fuffcrcil, vpaa dreadful to Kinn' Xt^it hr could not 
loGg mthstAitd the nnanimiiue opinion of hix friciKis and 
tlie Qumeet importuiiitii^s of cho Geno^uiL i^onato and 
peo^tle. To tb« Golicitations od tb^ depuni:s whi> followed 
htn from Slnubui;}^ lo Wurnii*, lu> liuawi.^i'ed luon* witb 
iMtm tbnn wonU, Hiv luitLHittit niut >Lt. li'ii^rJi tibtiiiriAil, 
wmI oocr moir he tcok np 1n« nbodc in Gencrn, there to 
lire for tStts reuuuDiier of hl« iUvAp 

Of ihc ti)-0t«m of ecclcfuttatii^ti,! und civil order wbicb 
mw fovmcd uadirt; bia itiEnencc, only the outlines casi bcro 
bd i^ren. His ides woji t^t the Church tJiould b« dit* 
dnet from tbe St^t^, but tb&t both »hi)Li1d 1>p intimnt^ly 
«eniv«Ced jmd mvtiULUy vouj>8T-ativ(* for a t^niiiion end — 
Um nwljEitJan of tbc kirgiltnn cjf God ni Lhu lir«» of tlw 
peopliB. The CburcJi n'an to infuso a religions spint into 
Ui« State ; tlio State wa£ to uphold and foster the inter- 
taiU <d tho Church- For the inniruction of tbo pL^pt<^, 
piifhnn, tf boMO qiuiiiiCAtionK have boun pnt to u borough 
IhC* mutt bi^ .ippotnti^d, m^d E'iwp(>rt fnr thnm und tvttpn* 
tion to th(?ir min]i^tTutHionH niU£t be enforoed by Uiv. Sn 
tbe tnuuiuij of Uie cbildnMi tn Uitr onto^uuo b indift- 
pcnwHr. sad tbi» mnnt UknwifKf be tiivnred. if noorAsary, 
bf tbo tnt^rrention of the niftgiatrftte. ITjc Three Comt' 
dbi or S«aat«Si tho Littde Conneit, or Councal of Tvonty- 

218 JOftH 

fire, Uw Council of Sixty, :LQd tlio Council oi Two llnu- 
dnxl, which bad oaiKU.ul Lvfurv, xf^ri> tin^ abciIisJi^Hl. but 
thnr fitTK-t'ioHH itti'I n*Utivr |ir(ir(>gAt]\wi v/arvt umitrmWy 
cbang^iK TIjit rlrirt t>f ^hII (hi? politii-jil djcingim niu to 
Gonccntr&tc power iu tbc bandn of tho I^ittlc OoiuiciL ntid 
to take it awaj from tho other bodies, and mpodally from 
the Gofiitro} Coui3<«iL or popular assembly of tlie oiti^eofi. 
Ee«le*iiiwtvml dUcipUiie waa In the hunils of the Coy- 
SISTOKY, a bcdy (■oinprxtt-cl uf tlii^ prt>tti^hers. who ;tL fiiHL 
wr<ri?i SIX iu Duuibr.r.aiid of twit^r^ ris ni^uiy Iriyatuu ; Uh: Iny- 
meiJ being iioniiiiaied by tlie predchen and choson &ii- 
DiiaUy by the Little Counuil, but the Ooaeral CoundJ 
Imviiijf ft \iiU> upon their uppL>iTitiiiciiit. Calvin tbue ro- 
vivL'ii, undoir u pvculior form, tho Eldei«bip in the Church. 
It hud i*xiMl«*d, to In* %nT*i, in aonie of the ZwingUan 
Chum-hoA, hilt iKit i\n nn i-fTmitiv« organ rzation. The 
|Fr<Michci3 were chosen by tlie mitusters already in olEce ; 
they gave in-oof of tUeir quiLliiitatioiifl by publicly preach- 
ing n acrmon, at which two members of thti Little CoLUicil 
wore prispiit. If tho mimstijrt opproyod of iho learning of 
tho t^ondid&te^ thoy presontei him to thft Counr^U, and hta 
elaotiou having bean sanction^ b^ thnt boily, oSght dayv 
wiirft givftn to Lhft [MTople, jii whit^h tli*Ty ntiglit liring for- 
VTAfx} objtviioiw if rh«y hiul itny, Uj Iiih uppointTinTit. The 
Comdatoiy had juiiBdicbioa in oiAtrimonia] caiiacA. Ta 
Ibid bfldy wae committed a moral ccnAorahip that o*- 
tonded over tbo entire U/o of evi*ry iiilmbifnat. It wha 
a court before which ntiy one might ha «umiTKin9d, and 
whidi Gindd not be treated with contnmftcy or disre- 
spect wrlJiout brin^^ng u|Kin the* olFender civil penaU 
titw* The power of escoiumuulvutimj watt in lU hMtid?( ; 
Vid «xoonminmi?ttioa, if it contjnncd beyond & cer- 
tnin timcHWUS hkewieo followed by ponni cotiacquonwM, 
lliougb ocrtonflibly puroly spintnai in its function, the 
Ccdieutory might hfuid over to the magisti^to tnn^ 
prM6or8 whose offenses were de&irjed to be grave, or witc 


jfto sabmit to correction. 'Vha city vaa divided 
aod in each of thorn a preacher aaii elder 
had mponntendenoei, the ordinanoe being tbut xLt leaat 
Mkco id a y«ar ©very family must be viaityd, and tvft-ive 
mofa ndmomdon, eouniiL<l, ah t'tjniTurt, its its ctonditicTi 
might 4ull for. Rvcfr^ nick p^^Min was requirEd to iwnd 
for the niimstcr. From tliui Tigilant, etringtnt, unlvcr- 
fti^ (fuperviAioh tlicro was no escape. Thcio \va« rto 
rwpect for |hm«oji«; the hij^b and the loir, tlio rlob aiid 
thii poor, vrtarc xUkb subjei^tod to ouu inf^c^iciblij riik> lu 
th9 Coamitory, by tucit oonivnt, Culviu U)ok the post of 
Preeid^fit- Th<i mintMttirx — tli« Vkwekable Comkakt, 
»a lljtT were btjv'Itd — met (ogothci^ once a mouth for 
njatLuil fraternal otiiaure. OandiUat^^ fur the miuUtij 
vcr^ cxAiuiiKxl und ordained b;y tbem. Thej were to be 
kept up to a liigh ntonilfmi of profi^BuionuJ qualiJiruvtionA 
und of conduct* Calvin, it may bv ob&ervt^d, folt the Im- 
portance of an eifectiv« dpliviny t hv fi[ieHks iigninst the 
rrading of xernnoiitL' 

Id tbi^ fminiiig nf thu cW iL hiwH, Oalvin had n controll- 
ing inflncaco, Ilifi Itgnl education qiiaLJfted liim for Auch 
a -vrorkt and af> great w&s the respect cntcrt^ncd for htm 
tluA ho vrtttf made, not hy tmy utlfort of Lis own, tho vir- 
tual Ivgialator of thu city> Tho miiiutvut affair* enf^uj^Ml 
hia attmtion^ Ri>giitHtton>i for tTic waUliuig uf tin? ffita^t 
and for tha SLippreReioii of fires, art* found in hU Imnd- 
vfitinif. An vsaiiiiitiialiuu of the Gi^DcvaiL lhjeJc nluiwa Uio 
itrong ml!ttenc« of the Mooaic legislation on Calvin *« cx»n- 
oopdon of A wclJ*ord«nd oommiinity. Both tlic special 
•tatot«a ami thegeikeral tboocmtic character of tho He- 
brew ooniraonvrealth were never out of aisht-' In all 
poantA Calvin did not 6nd it pnKttcnble to (^onli-rm to 
bU own tbaonee. On« of hiitrjirdinul priiu^ipk-H in L|i»l 
to the oongregalioD belong t^h^ c.boice of iui r«ligi<jui 
laacli^H; Wt it wu prorid^ at Geni^Tii tbat the Oah 

220 joas a 

Icfinm, or Society of I'nuichon, ithonlil ftdkot penoiii ta 
Alt v-jK^aiiuii^ ami xo ths <>ongr9gntion w« 1«ft onlir A 
rato, wliloh wua regnrrled more n» a nomiiiftl tbnii a tpal 
pporogfitivi.\ \Vlt/iCi?v(*r niny liave been tli*? iiif1ki<Ti)L>?i of 
Calvuiivin on ntMtivt^^ Cidvin liJuiouU vus unfibvomblt? to 
liomocracy.' It ift rcmnrkmblo thut iiJinoab ttt thu bvgxD 
auig of lilft earliest writing, tho Commcnlflry on Scuoea, 
tUere ia an i:'\pre««ion of contempt for tlie |>opuUce. EFis 
<i3C|>tirluac«A ut Gena^ft, and ^speci&lly tb« dattgen to 

liiibli' If it xTiir« at t)i(* (liApoAiLl *>f n [nij}uh;t ami«ml>ly, 
couliirji^ Ilia uiclinatioD to an aristocratic or oligarchic 

Ciiiviu luul bL'gun^ After his n^tum, vrith moderutdon, 
witb no mAuilututt<>ii of vindictiveneaa, aait without nn- 
dertnking t» n-inove the other prencbers who hjid bn^n np- 
pr^TilAirl \,y thn oppsite party in hie absence. But symp- 
toms of dUaTft-ctlou werH nut lung in Eippwiriiig. Tho 
more tlio urw nyiita-iii wi-n dfivnlopwvl ill its i:|]Hr)i«t<^rij*tTC 
features, tbo more loud gn^ir th« oppoaitiou. I^t lu 
glance at the parties in this long continued contlict. 
A^iuat Calvin wv^rt^ tbo Libvrtmvs. ne they wero tatylod. 
Tliey f^cuisiftCi'd of tw«> cLilTorAnt (rI»hBP*9. lli^itv wore the 
riiT];itio:il Antlnotnnmn, nn nflfHlioot from the aeot of tho 
tVito Spint', ^vhri otnnMned {Kintliemtii? Uitv^ltif^' with a 
Ux [nor&llty, ju itLIuh liio iiid.rrbLgi> mbitinn wiut |ini(7ti> 
i3uJy Hub^urttftl and a theory allied t^ tho iDod«ni *' &ve 
Love" WA* more or [cat openly avowed and pnwJlictwJ, 
Thetr numt>or wa* ^iiftioicnt to form a dftngc«iU8 fncUun. 
and it Hppf4T« to bo proved that among thom wero p«r- 
KiiiM iti sLJIIii^mt drcum^tauoeB &nd posseesed ci much in- 
fluGDoe, UniLeil with tbn *' Spiritnela," us this rtwat of 
I^bertiJiee \t;w tt^rnud, w**™ thi.': Patriot*, aft thoj *tyled 
UiamMlvoo ; thoac irho livero fi;>r ni^tainlng tJio deiui>- 
«aCio ooufltitution, and joolous of thi< l*Vencbmcn iind 


foroignara vbo bod roi^fjtod in Ijtr^ numbon to 
tvtit And to whwa tb<^ tupj^oit^rd cf Col^rin were for 
giving the riglita of citixciiu. Tbu licuitiouH frets-tlimkera, 
tliL- nntivi- GeneraM pf tLciTioonLtii^ pn^liTitiei and up- 
p(jEH>d io thcgriintiogof pvliti<:ft1 |Hivn>i to tlw-imiikigrzuitH, 
Wfed tho imitCamdc who chof^J tinder th« noir Teatraintv 
pQl Qpon them, £;rafIiiaL1,v ci>mt>iucd af,-^iust tLo new ays' 
teio and tho man tvlii? vru^ \iti pnucipal autliui-. On tho 
oUl«r side ironi (Uom who proKnxod Ibe order, indftpen- 
danee« morality, luid tvTnfM>riil prtuspirity wbich were die 
trmt of tlw! nrw onU-r of tliiiif^s imd, in tJ>*? txisliiig tir- 
«om«tanccs, w«rc inMpiuubLo from it, uid cspccij^lly nil 
wbo thoTOiiglily accopled tliQ I'n'te^tant ayat^^m of <{oQ' 
trine ao «tpouiidfid by Calric. Jii tJiu nnUa of this party, 
wlikA DLEUntuincd iti feKi>nd<Tnoy, tl]t>u^li nat witUcut 
pvrilMin «trugg]^ 'WOTO th(? nnmitriMiH forb^rgnfTH, ^rhj liitd 
b— D,for thp mnfit part, driven froni tWir hompj* by pi*rN«- 
CUliuO. and luiil hcKii ili'Jitvu Ui Gnui^vH by tliu preaeiii^'e o( 
Cidvin and by tlie n:iigioLu4 iiyi«tiim <<Atiittli!i}it>d thi-nr. Oil 
* mj^\c occ4Mon not lest than thi^>^ hundnxi of ttir^e wct« 
ftUuraLixfd, Thai vido-eproad dii^fFcction bhouM cxiot, 
me iiMvitabk. The attooipt vrfe madu to extend over ft 
dty of tWL*fity thouwuul inbtbitnnt*, woitti^d to freedom 
uid littJ<? ff^nd fif n^-Htnunt, th« Atriot diif Tiplmt^ of a Cal- 
rintstw cJmrcb. N'lt only |n'i>fani^ni?4« !ind dninkpitnrwi, 
but mrnattoiu vrUicli lia^l been L-onaidHi-tHl iauoctint, and 
diTcr^:c!nt tiK<cl(jgioal dootnniM, if tbo cfTort wita m&dd to 
dtiftcnmato Uiucn, wcra norcrcly piiniAhod. In 1663j, 
ndtr Um fltjoro codn wiioh w&s o^tnblmhc^d under tho 
■■■pioei of Cfllvin, a ohUd waa beheaded for striking ita 
hther and mother. A diild elxte^^n yeoia old for atiempt* 
bt0 tont/iVn [la m»t1i»r, wan w*nLKncuHl Ut dniiUj, but, on 
■MOUEit ol itH yrmth, tT]« ncntcur^ w.-m iy>mmiit^d, oxiA, 
hvnng bc«n pnblidy vrbippcd, with a ci>H :ilv>n| itn neck, 
!f wna baiuibed fraoi tho city. In ld65 n womsoi wat 
akoatiiied *riUi rode for siunpiif- eoculur songa to tba melody 


of LliL* pNilms. Til IT)?!) {L ciilt^v^Ui^ guuUemjui yrm tm* 
pnnotii^i:! for twrmty-four hour* bccuum he wiu< found niad 
lug I'o^o, and h[iviiig bocri coni|H!ll<^<l to bum tlir book 
be wnw *^xppllcd fit>m tho city. Dancing, juid ihn man- 
iifju^iim or iifle of cardB, and of nine-pins, brotight dnwu 
upcin flie iluliiiqueiit tliif vellg(^^J1L'^ o( die Iautm. Even 
tUuHrt wlui lijuked "|HJH n iliuicH wen- uot dtuuiii fxuUi 
liiuiisUinunt. Tbc prr^vjili^iice of g;tinbting and the ii>* 
iltcent occtirrcncra at bnlla furninhrd thi> ground for th^sM 
»tringont €naotm<^DtB. To give tlio uaiucs of C^ttioUo 
saints to oluldren wae a penal ofTense. In ddiniral pr9- 
cea8*>s, Lorture was fri*e!y used, according tn tbe cnatom 
of tlitf liriii'JK, bi rlicit U^tiniony and coufeaaion ; ;Lud dettLh 
by firo wu« the iieuii-lty cf Li^ruaj'. lb is no wondvr tliAt 
thr pnriOEis became filled and the executioner wiui kept 

The auppreaaiOD of ouUpclci^ rcligioiu disient by foroe 
vntA aa luevltabji" result of th^ pm<--ipli« on which the 
Oen^vim ■^tiLte wna eatablish^. The Heform^n can noviar 
be r^iJrly judgwl utileea it \a k^pt in mind tii&t they were 
iitniiigers t<i ih^. Hiniled Jden. of the proper foucdou of tho 
states, which haa cc>me into vogiio in more recent timet, 
Tbo ancient rclt^ona vera all atate religions. It wa« 
a oiUYOCbal ixiuooption that a nation, ]tkt> a family, must 
profew but onv' faith, and praetice tbo same reii^ou^ 
nUa, Tht! tolonition of the auci^uta^ which htu be«u 
latidc^rl liy TiiiHh-m si^eptii^l writen, was only *W'h hm 
polytlLcivni tcquiica. The worship of a nadon w;iL« aa^ 
cred lyithiu iU territory, and among ita own people. Btii 
to iutrodue*? foreign rit<^, or make proaolytoa of Bomftn 
citi/onK, vrun contrary to Roman law, nnd vmt trov^roLy 
puniahed. This policy waa oonfcrmud to th« gonond 
feeling of antiquity- Tlin i>:Lrly Chriiitiiui riith<*ri*, n» 
TortnUian and Cypmn> Bptnk si,^,Liri»t <^oeroioii in niatlt^n 
of religioti.^ Afti-r tHiv. downfall of hcaithcnUm, tlie auo* 

of CoELihmtiite cnforecH oonformity to tho religioii 
of the Knipitv- ; aim! Ojnuhintinp hnnBtlE did tku eame 
within thd pnln of Ih^ Chrifitfaii Chiircli, as is aeeqi in the 
Anan contPriVpTsy. Tliore tvhr pflrseontioti both on the 
Oflhodciiiindf*ii(h«' Anun Mf. Sev^rv Ihwh whh* i-FiacMil 
ftgunai lb« MaiLictii-nuLi nx»\ Dortiitfats, Au^n.iUnc^ wLuj 
ill hift eurlicT vrritin^ hwl <>ppo?ieHl tJir unr of forcer for the 
«pn«d of truth, or xln* (^xtirpntion of t^-rn^r, ftlti.^rcd his 
*i«if« in ihfl Donntiat; comtnjvorBT. Ho would not have 
cafMtoJ puiMdnnfOTt inilicUid, 1>utwodd confine tbe pen&l- 
tiev of Ikerevy Ut inipnM>niiient ol- bnnlshrrieiit, tb« t*tiiiBi* 
vmdfin of gooUfi juul civil OiMHlitliijetw TIii<<hUlhi))h Iuu iJm 
atMmriabli! dwlinction of tncnrpor.iting tlv thr^rii-y of ]>er> 
•Kiitmi in on eLftborotft code, which thix-^tcucil Jeuth tc 
ber«4i<«s and in hia niign Uto tcfim Inquisitors of tiio 
faith fint appeAnJ The fiMiliiig of tho neoeaBity of uni' 
formlty In nUgbus belief jiud ivorahip, and of Uie obliga- 
tion nf ruliTi^ tf> pitinHh ^urd l<i t^xUirniimid^ infiilnlity iLnii 
h awi y vilhin l.h<Nr dominions. wh# uiiivi^reHl in tlkvi Mid- 
dle Ag«a< iuuootriit 111. Htifurced tliis obti^^Uuu uptvn 
prinoctt ondor the tUrvot of excointimii]<:;itfo[i, and of tJic 
forfnturc of thdr ;TtYtwik« and dominirjiiB- In 1:^0^ bo 
MtfiMiahod the Inqaiftition. It in truu thut iht^ Churoh 
k«pt Dp \he, caMom of tisldng Ih^ mngii^rii^i tn itpAr<» th^ 
liCa ol tii& condemned hwetio; but it wat« an etnpLy for- 
BftHtjT. Ilu? C1mn::U inrulta^Uid tbi* luwfuliif.^ uf iJ-w 
M T wt puniflhmcntA in «tic^ rjun^i. Loo X^ tn htit Bnll 
^aiBBt Lnthftr, id 15*20, cxpbcitLy condemns the proposi- 
liod ; '* U<er«tioo« oomburdre f^et contra Tolnnt&tdmi Spifi- 
ta»«" Xo hktoricat atudent neods to b9 told tvbat an m- 
cftWlftbtu amonnl of 4.<vtl b^s boon ^rrought^ by Catlioliai 
ukI by PtntnlAOtJi, fmm h miKinkifn bf^tii^f in thf? pnqwtnal 
tmlidity c{ th« MomiG civil l^ginlation. nnd froin n cog>* 

I F» ilw lijiffiirf of p«F«-tdkflH tM LtmboTrri, L Dl: GibbDS, Qb, nnt, [ lh< 
«l,-'U«^«''MU«H|{,JKati:vyr£/ TAfol UAf^ tfltfary i/ JTarin— f 



fifouduig vf the apml of the old dispemftdoii wiUi duipt of 
tke u«w — au overlcfokitig of tl]« progreuiTe duunctcr of 
l>ivinu ItovvUtiuiL Thu fUionntfETs held that otTcnacB 
o^jiitist the lii^c tabic of UkO luw, not kes than thg socondi 
fnJJ titider the juriwlicUoii tii tlin mA^stru,t0. To prot^t 
aiHl foHler puf« n^li^ioii, suid ki put down f;Lld» religluii, 
WHA th&t piirt of Ills offico to which hir wa& luutit wcnsdlj 
tsouud. Occoatonal utt«jr&nc^, it t« tme, which aeem 
IjjLrL>ti;gora o£ a b*jtt<jr dajv full from the lipa of I'rot' 
uNtaiit Wdtrra. Zwiuglu wiu uot disposed to p&raocutioib 
fjUthdr iciid, in refi^rnntut Uy thei prohibition of hla T«r#kui 
o€ the New Te«tami?iit : " Over th*? sotih of man, God 
cun itnd will U».ve nn oru'r rule, aa^i^ Himself alone;" and 
in l^iji hiTuk iig^iiat the AnabaptislG, he aayH : " It is not 
right tliat thcj sbouid so shockingly miiTdcx, bum, uad 
oruoUy fliay euch wi'c^tdiod pooplo : Lhoy ebonld let ovorr 
oni> boJlere what he vill ; ^th tie Scripture and Ood'» 
Word, th*y jiUjuld vbeck and vithataud them ; witli fiwi 
the}' will FicccmpliHh little. Tlie executioners on thia 
plan would be the modt Icanif^ dixloni/'^ But th«Ha 
m>h1ii wurdn rzitber^gd tbi^ dictuht^a of Lutihf*r'A hu- 
m^hUti iminilsiii thau deiintt*; principlefl by vrhii:h he ivould 
conxiAtcntly ubidu. It ia often charged upon tho Frotcfl- 
toDte th^niHclvcii U3 a Jliigrant inconaistoncy that ^hilat 
tbey were peraecated thenwelvcs, they were willing, and 
a[>mf*tinie8 eager^ to j>«rDecut« others- So far is C)d?ia 
fniin b*"ing iiiijii-eFfttN] with tliiitlutsongruity, tbofchttwritca: 
^^St-'t^iug tUiit tlie di-'fcndera of tlio Papacy ore ao bitter 
And bold in hehalJ of their supcjvtitton>, that ht their 
fitTodon^ inry thojr thod th« bbod of tbo innooeiitt il 
shoold shamo ChriAJan mai^smt^ that in the proo^otioa 
of certain truth, they are entirely deatjtut« of ipirit,"* 
THh iMpitssivH nii-Hduru» of CaUiulic rult^w wiini iin Rxmtt- 
\iUf for Pmh^lant rulcm to cinulAln ! Thrri^ wcn.-< voioe* 
coc^onnliy nu5cd in fav>r of toleration* The caah o* 

<:0»TB»T» or CALVUC. 


fierretm. pnjbably, U'IiJclI tiutrv tluui iiny Evinglr frririit to 
pn-dtic^ T¥i'j'.''j nnil mrjir cltArltnlile Ticw* on this aabjecti 
l'Vr«-thirk<TJ, -ivho had no convictiona for trhluh they 
would dio th^iuaelTce — tbe apostles of indiilerenou — 
wore natundly early in the field in favor of tli^ righU of 
oeiiuon. Bttt rtilifflmis toleratiun cotild iiev(<r [jbtiiin n 
gi-i^enb1 Bwujr, until Uitr liuiiUiUoiui uf hiitmm r^'X^xiiiHi- 
biLity, and the limited function to wbidi tho Stata ia 
proprrly Tcfltnctcid. wore better nndorstood* A mov& en- 
lighUmtxi charity, wiiicb makes lajgdr allcwanco for divor- 
■hles of int^UectukL vjew, U doubtless a puwdrful litudl- 
Ury in efkcttng tlils salutary ohaTigL*J 

Thn fvuiflictii tlirouj^i wlurJi Ctilvin listil to pnxs in iip- 
lioldjDg and danly i^tJibliMhin^' tbo Genevan tbeoarjicy, 
trctild have broken down any other than a loau of iron. 
Pcnonal uidxgdtioa were bcap(*d upon him. Tlic dogi 
m tikc, ctnot wero named after bim. Every dcric^ was 
imd«rtikon in order to uttiniidate him. As he wtt at bis 
■tvcly Ubk late at night, a gun would be discharged uudor 
his window. In one night fifty ahcia w«re fired beff^ru 
faj* hoUMv On our. ocettAvm 1i« Wfdkod Into the mitlst ci 
AO eiicttod mob and oEfcrod hU brt'a^t to their daggero- 

The cue of Bolacc, wbo was arretted and banishod for 
violttntly iLttAcking tho preachera ou tho eubjeot of pro 
dottaatioo, hflut nlmtdy been refern.-d to. Another m- 

> Lvdyi Ic cenmon with otber vrfiavi tt tho prcuAl df^, mikifl {Hncvutkia 

^tCi Blpcliif thtt iDDml DblfijaLty it invaTvod bi ba]ilLD|r pvP^^^^ v^'*'*- TiK>« 
^ri Mf i h^qU lukLa ■L-vpUilAii QHCDlUl to l^ft flwnlH of lolttalkin, fic« 
LMkj't^wtativK !»(■<:. J. Pu t«otlk.p,W)- D^t If UUi bo uw, h^wnliall 
w ■CTWPl for ibt ctp^iUui t« tbf iiilril ^f pcrHOUlion, vklch thtac vtry vrril- 
«■ «UilWl« to Ihd f dUDilcti of CbrlttUnLlT — (^ C^triit^ ud Uj« A pcarlta 7 Hucb 
^M< h — lilil I" UMindBTute vl * lUlioniJiwn " It ruJIf ilut lo ttaa Inoti^ 
^ po*T9 of Ll^iiiiuuty, aiut (4 iht wtiv uadinLMidJiic (rf Ito pmpUi and 
jt t^ Ibu'fci if ibn muiDfiiHrTliir uf »oil«(r '<^ '^'i* ^P^<^"* "^ tbunctoronia 
^■■ta*. n««Ma TWO viUdotpt to unduduUrDH* Rod currowun Tfa* 
i^ It IDmibI cv*Ban) A« vUkt Jt tlimt li^j/c^nc of reUi^uu— vf cluntr'* 
■Webb jrDiiWf*! livfit Pval in I CfiriiilUiniii jiiiK Ecllwr iiT Ukbq niD«ill«i 
^^■■1 MMbMB* li afiuUbni irtUi ft Uviuju <wH*i tai£k. 

3196 joax cALvm ahd tbe gesevah eefouatioii. 

aUnce vom^wbat uniilar wm th« coDtrorvrey witb CW 
tclUo, Ceatellio wn« a highly cultivated 5.'h'>Ur whoir 
'Ctlvin hml bi'oi^-bt fri>in Strusburg to take charf^ of th^ 
iGftnevib KoKodK He \va& daairoua of becoming a mmlcter, 
but Oilvin cibjnctnil Mt noootiTit of liis vtevH mi tlie Song 
|Of Stjk^mciri, i^hii'h Itr tliniighh Hhniilc) Iw .stnirk from thti 
[caiKin* and his opposition to the pMw^c of the TTCficI n^ 
^tpectinfl: tiic deeccut of Christ into hdl. The rcmiLt waa 
thiit C]u]t<.4tio at loii^th miide a pubh^ attack upon the 
pmiohoiic. ohiu|i^rk);tt'bL«ui\Ttth mtcleponce. aiid Ioab juatly, 
with othLT j^vn fnulu. H« occrHed CSitlviu of h. Iova of 
powi'r. Wlu'thflT- tlie rhn.i'gR wiiro tr(ie, Culvhj wroba to 
Fai-fil, hu wufi wiUiu^ to leuvv it to God to jud^. Tb6 
reault vntA that CasteUio, who hiid maJiy poiut« cf «xcaI- 
Icncc, Wfts i:ixpcUwl Iroin Geneva, iuid ixfterwivrdft pro<»* 
ciltcd iti print ti heated eontroveray w^ith Calvin and Htiet.' 
But th^Fu? »,nd lUl other instAncGS of allt^ged p(?ra^ciit]on »ro 
©vei-shaflowed by rh*? mere notrriHon^ riwe of S<*iTptiML 
Mifhni*! Servt-tns Wiis born nt ViiWu-Hvir, in Spuhi, iD 
IfM^ and w« therefore of the j^iiian ngr iw Cnlrin. Ao* 
cording to hlft ovm stfttement* ho \fia attttched, for a 
whilu, whtin a youth, to thescririceof (juiDtantt.tht^cImp' 
liun of ClmrlM V., uixd witnT>sat*d tlic Atutely ccromonici 
at tho coranaition uf th<i KmpL^ror cit Brilop^m, H* wa« 
Krnt by his f^*th(*^ to Trnlnnan to study law ; bnt h\n niind 
turned 61 UieiologirAl spc<ou]Ation, nnd, in coiiiie[;t'iou with 
otUt^r suholai™ of Iiih :u'^J^itjt»niri<, hv mu\ th« SiTipUin* 
'And the Fathen, es|M.ciiiUy the writers of tbe nnte-Niocn© 
pcnod. Ho lilno dcked in judicial astrology, in which 
ho vrn« a boli'3ver. Of an orifjiraU inqiuaitive mind, Ad- 
vi^nturom and uiilepondcrit in liia iHinkiiij^. ho ootivinccd 

1 WWiuCtlvlfi wu (txi:li«f]. hM w»JHm*ir'i for Lutbvrta tbcuMof iltDptf-' 
kilvii >ijLl1ikE>^ TUv u^iifitliriiiuii riiuiifot wliU'h Iik jtpiillmirnf^uatlhn ilk* Itnm 
fDlh-i^lK Ml 11 InnirlW. T\\r (irlcnn "^ TjiJvln'Kd^iaijlHi wl(hC4filf<tlto^OdTHi^ 
j^iiuarWiu^tdri vtl-li U\^ irihKUrk^n rif eKp ^drvTimrAtiiint— 1*fflvMI hi tftiilMH*. 
■u Vtrri, Thrr-rint. L ;ren. :4r«i. fcliui, L Alfl, jTa, !»«- A f«lr uooiul ol tU tt 


THE CABUm Of 9fi£VElU& 237 

Unurif of tlic gnjiLiuIkmnvm of tlirt djiims nf tli^ Rtiiniui 
Citiiclic CTimv.h ; bat ho w« not satisfied with ibe ProU 
oiBiit thc<»logy, MpcciftHy c«i tbo aubject of tho Trinity* 
Ctf*iaf; to BoaeJ he formod an aoctiiaiDULnci> wiih CEcokm- 
p&ri*Uf, wlio expressed u airoug <littliki< of bis uottoiu, 
Z«rii:^l«. vrfiTtm n^(i}|:tin(vti]iii-( eivwiilU'd, xxU\ that. aufiL 
ttdtiariA wiiuhl nuhvi-'rt thn ChriKtann ntligimt^ but ni^rinn to 
hftvo <iL»cfjURtC33aQCcd a rciort to force toi the AupjtrettdoD 
of then).' The book of Servf^tua on the " l^rrora of the 
Ittnity,'* appeared in 1631. hi it liu dtiundod a vitw 
(fanly nllMNl to tbe SiilM^UiaTi Lbucr)-, iind an rdi*a of tlie 
iicmiati^rt in wliiob !h<* comtnnn biTiit»f i>f twc* nfitnvi's in 
Cttrivt h»d no pTncp- He fnd*.^!ivorrd to <Tr i^' Calvin into 

I uorTe«pon(I«nce, hut became angry at the maiuiar in 
■Kicli Odriii lT«.itvd bmi and hi* ppcoiilat.idtiR. Htf n'rcrlQ 
Calvin a ntimbcr of Icttcn wcl! atorcd witS invi:^tivM 
■^inn tbct prevalent cmic<TptioD« of Chnftian doctHno, 

II ««J1 ae af^nst Calvin pdraonally. At lont;tli ho rc- 

toniAd to Pnrifi, wboro lia had prfaviounly Ktiidiod at t\V3 

Bjne tim« lliat Calvin waa tli(<r^ nnd nnd^ th«^ aMiimdj 

inne of VltlaiiuvtM, <lerivi.>iil from the villa^i* wbi^in^ he 

Itm Ivm, Tip [innrc-nl4-<d Iiih tittidit? in luitEinil ttvicinoe miH 

nfdkinet for which h<^ hnd a r<Mniuknblc ibptttudtr. Ho 

(fivined the tme atethod of the circuhtion of the Mood, 

tlnnat nntidpatlnt; th« luttT diaoovi^rj- of Hnrvoy<^ Aa 

ft prtcUtioncr of mcdidnc he stood in bifili rt-putu. After 

-npaat^dly chan^ng hh name* and rt^cidr'noc^ hu finally 

ImIc np Ilia abode in Vi^nnA, in \hn «inth of l'"'ninc<*, 

vfattrc he niki liospitably received by the ArcJibinbop^ and 

1m^ ^vi'd in tbi* IncnitiVT' pmcilc^of bin pt-of<-?uion. Dnr- 

fa^ 3iU thiA Limfi» in the aggrc^tc more tbim twtntf 

jMiVt 1m conformed outwardly to tho Catholic Chnrch, 

■Hcndod mttM, and iraa not anapoctod of her«iay. Hen 

ha fiiuthod B book, not Icm obnosdoui tJuin the flrvt, ea 

■ Bav7. /«*«« CiAm,tU- BiU-Ml 


tilled "The R^flloniliun of Chrlbtuialt/*' — OliriMtjiui* 
i»iii] HuHtUutio — kiiiil uot bt-iii^ Ma Ui ^t it priiitKil in 
Bud, bi^ brlbt-^d tin? ArclibinhiDp'n avra prlntei' ftml two o[ 
bifl tuAi^tsuitn, tt> print it for iiim wxrc^tly. lie Mipcria- 
Ibeudcd tbd prew, and ae&t copic^fi of tho anonymouB book 
m vfcriouB plaooA for sole, oot for]^tliug to tloipatuli oao 
'V mor^ oopiea ii8 preaents to Lbe Genk>v3m tL<.<u1c^iaui^ In 
UuK wfirk lilet i^Litiu^ptiuu iif Lliu itei*^!! of Clirist U )u>na»- 

mollified ; its doctnnc inaVrs a ncjuier a|ipr«4U-.h to 
'aathoifltic theories,^ I'hc^ two grand bindrauccs in ibo 
ol ttho aproad of Christianity wera dccJated to bo Iho 

la of tho Trinity and that of lufant BaptUni. Tho 
Ltucript of tht' fint draft of tJi« work Imd bcvm Aont to 
jjin at un oArH»r duy. A Fmirh rrfn^t^ rtwiding ^ 
Fene\a, by the name of OuiUauiTu^ Trie, in h lelt«r to Ao- 
Unnti Amt^ys, u Itoru&u Catholic telatjvt^ at Lyonn, mvAtt 
rvfcrcsncc to Serveitu ns tJie autliur of thU pc«tifcroua 
bcolCf nnd aA. nc^vcrtllf^[t«(l, T^njoying immin^ity in ft 
Churoh tJmt protended to bo £(^oU3 for th« «xtirp&tioii 
of hiirtwy, Aratiya carried llie iuforioution t« tho Aixdi- 
biabop of f^yoriA^ SiTrviTtutt wua arrested ; and mji oocl^* 
■tttical court nai^ i''d fc^r hia tri»1. Some P^ea of 
lui wmotil^d oopy of Uie ^* tuatitute*,'^ wUiiib lit* bid It^i^ 
b<>ffjre i^i'iit t^i CnlTix, und a jkitckI of Lt^i IcLIt^n were 
tranaimtted from ticn^Tft by Trio, for the purpooo of t»- 
tablLbUiug llio ch&rgo wliich bo had indiroctly oauiaed to 
b(] ipiutt>. Trio prcvaHLKl oa CaJvin to f^imt him this 
additionid uvidcnco. Surv^'tiu, and tho printer* ^tb him^ 
had sworn tliHt th«y kni^w nothing of the boob tidueh 
tphey bad published. Servetna jdao swore timt he vum 
not tlir [rt^rvim w1ii> h^ wrltLi^i Llii? buok on Uiv. '^ Rrrom 
of t^ Trinity'*" Bnt wbcni tUo Gcr«tui documcDts ai^ 



iit«d, ti« aftw diat couvictaon voa InevluU^, and contrived 
to Mc«p« from hit jailer. Tlie Vleiuie uourC liad to con*^ 
Iriit iurlf vntli w*i^mg Uin pnjprrty »[]il liiiniitig hiii 
idi^'- WV' know Csil\iii'» (IUp<Wti^n lowaixls him; for 
b ft ]i-tt«r Ui FaT«l L« h»A odcc- aald that U hia autliontj 
VAA of unj ftKuL, in coiio Stjr^ttuA vrord to oomu to 
Ucncva, he obomld not ^ u\tay liI^'o,' 

Servotiu, banng Mcaped frojn Vicnnci, after a fOTf 
Dicmttia ncbuJLy app^^r^l in Genevst and took loHgioga in 
m inn ti^ax omtt of ilii* j^iteM. Ifo liail biwu ilicTe fur a 
iPuntJi nitliout buiiL^ n:cogu]/ed,wlLtui C:i!vlii w^kH iiifunufMi 
«f Lia pmKbCOt and prticut^ his iirrest A «mbn of Cal- 
^ luda tiic ficeiuaticn. LLtimntelj, Calvin and all ttd 
other prcttchem were brought iac« to fcce with Uke ptb- 
fliwr, befuri? th<^ S«nat^ ivJiicL was to ait lii ji]dgiik«Dt tjptm 
liiui. In tho. *Lil]«Hjiu*jit |»ro<!t>e<tiiigH h<* tfj-ftndpd hi« 
thnntogit'iU rtjiinifttiK trith niticJi m-iit^nesAi but with a 
•tnngb oulpoumiij of ^loletkL dc^iiujiuULioiL.^ Hlh pni|ji>» 
ttiooi rxdatiT'T to tltt; pJLrticij>iLt.i<jii of nil thing!* in the 
tUtj, and tlic idoDtity of the world witli Qod, althou^ 
U siadfl the ambodiiDOnt of the pmaordiaj t^aL-iioo in 
the vofid to B[lring from a volilion, w«rc oouvh<^ in 
pbnmuJugjr whidi in^o tb«m seom to bl* uc'cuieri bi tli^ 
UgliMt JrgTi'u tLanguriitiK und rifpulniYtt,^ Ih^ caricatLiTod 
tbb C^MTih doctrine nf ili^ Tiinity by the moat olTeiuiiv« 
eooilKmauna. Hia ideas ^ere out of rehitioa to the Asut- 
i^f pbiloouph^ and theolo^, and were an anticipation of 
of npoctthitiviQ of a mnoh btcr dat^j. Hie phyncal 

Ml J KVftfAt tiTB Rrj iii»lftil, unci Hbii ftlraort like 'iiD prvdurlfiBUor Amt^ 
< ''Uan kJUB rith libber bickl maiofll, dui u:fa 1U4 >>i!i#r na illMca Rf 


tJim>rI«a won> iatcrwovcn ^'ith hi« th<K>li^. Hin mnxiiii, 
tbat '' no forte aott except by eonta<it," was conncctad 
uilli Ills dootrlae of tlie fiobstanHai r*innTmDiojtti™i r<f rtw 
Dfity Li-i ull ihirifi^ ; ;i]k4) \m t^jltl GeiIviji t^oiiCni-iiipl jointly 
tliAb if lift nii\y uudcratootl natural ncieiico, hv could com- 
prchctid thi* suljjcxrt. While hr wiis undri^foinp liin 
ITioJ, a mcesciigcr nrrivi tl trrm tin* tiibiini;! nt VirBnc to 
di^niaud tbeir oaciiped prieoit«r. There was no «Ai«ty for 
bim xvllli Papist or Prol^tant ! He choaf] to remain and 
tikki* biK elicuit^ vlit't'i* ]w w;l8. It in not [rrt|mjIj;diTii limt 
hi« l>ol<liii?ju Jiiid vvlicinenoc were InEijiirtsl by Aiif£g<c^ti(]iin 
ftoni the Libortijic partv, and Uint be frit tJiat flmy stnnd 
at liJ8 biickJ UaWiD wnfl ffir from being omiiijK»lciit in 
G«TU4*v& at this dmo. Ho vost in iticu in tbc very cmia 
of luB conflict wkb liia iLdveruariefi. It wua on 1]il> '27tli 
uf Atiguftt, l.Vtii, tb;it. b<* dtuoaniiwl StTvi^tust fn»m tluT 
piilpit; III' biul bifi'ti tirn^sli-d on t!m It^li <if t}iit K»m<f 
month- On the 3d of St-ptcraber, Calvju u'fuiwJ tii« 
Lord's Supper to Uitr younger Berthelicr. ik Iciidt-r ol tlio 
Liljortuit<ap So strong woe thia purty, that hjul the cauM 
^( Sorv(>tuii boon ufirried, as vnu attcmpt^di to tlia Council 
ni Ono Hnndn^d, Serwlus would hare OBWped. Ho 
wuH i^xtrrm^ly bold, and deTnanded that Calvin fthoutd be 
biudshr^ for bi4ii]^liig a iii:dti.'iotift iifi^uaadim, lud tJiiLt Inn 
property abould b^^ kuidt'd ovt^r U> him. Contmvy to hia 
oxpoctiition, htj wan crHjidcmncd- He c^llod Oalrin lo his 
prison, iind ruilfcd panlon for his personal treatment of 
bim ; but all att'?mpts to L^xtort from him [i rctraotiao 
of hf» doctiinee, wh«thor mndi^ by Culviii or by FnrAt 
before tli^ eK^ciiliEUi of thi» »pnt*ntio, were iDetT^wUuU* 
He ^ulhcrri^d to bin flpiiiirinA with hru>jii7 eonetaiicy, kiid 
WM bumi'd ttt tlic stake ou the moniing of tiie 27tJi iiT 
October, )65fl. 

■ ifiilim nprwuM ihr rtooidtd opiatnn ihilSirvrtut Tint io Otri«v« nl^in^ 
in th* L^b*it)npa. en.] ilinc rlwv #x|hi-C«[ *i'|i|rt>n Irain tiln, -Sr. L-^tlt a«4 
CiJnfe, fL MA, Halcbar* l> dv ^piad «vtd«i»tof dny prvrVaui uDiltnlUiJii^ 
httw*d bin MDd Ifaam. 



On thi! ou« haudt it la not Lruu tLat ChIvIu luriuiged 
Chat the mode of \v& doaCli aboulij Le ntwtll&wly pftiiifitt 
He mode tlie attumpt to liitvo it mitigiitfrd ; prob^Lily 
ilittt die Bvord mi^j-ht lui uttd iiijiteud of tlio fngot. And 
notiritluitiui^ng iIm! pnTvicHw thn-at, to which refftrptice 

rpftson to expect, tliat &crvetiL?4 tvoitU rf^L^ujji, Ou tbt? 

«lfcer h-An^ it caniKit bo deiiieil that hi; yielded to the 

lolicitj^tioD of IVic, imJ supplied tlw doourn<i»tiiTy eri- 

cknoL* wliich went from Gtncfvn to Ihi* oourl ut Vitmne. 

Ha caiiflod tho aireifit of 8iirv<rtn« H,t 0(m»v;i, and it in a 

tiolntiniTi nf Iiifltnriral tnitli tn sny tluiT, hft ilid mt. d#>«ive 

luA exttuLJoiL' Th« iiillii:lJoa of i^plud ^JimiBliHienl on 

CQC vrHoru he (Xjiiaidcn?d a bbtAi'Leinei'. an well tut wi lUfr* 

Mitftnt of the f[inda(ni;ntnl tnithft of Clirifltinnitr. vroa m 

hM jndgmont right. In the d^fon«o of tJi<> doctrino of 

the Trinity a^^infit ServottiB, which Calvin published m 

15M, he ent^n Intc n fontml argiuii^nt itj fuvor of tbo 

capital puni^hmnnt of <^niituin3M*ioii« horatics hy tho t.-lvi1 

AQthori^. He tltinka tha& if Rom»n Cathiklic nilera slay 

tbta binocmt, tItU la no i^oaaim why better and iiJOre mi- 

(ightiened mngutrAtc^ nliould ^parr? tliv guilty. Tlic whole 

diMiuaoa prorcs tlinttho ar^tfnvntit for (oIi^^itioD^ hotb 

from Scriptujo a&d reason, voro not iinkmiwti 1^ him. f >r 

be trica to aiuvrer tbom. He makes his appeaJ, in gi-«srt 

part, to the Old Tt^tiunt^iit. GiuEot tlius prououncon upon 

tiM nwp fif Si>rT*ttTK4 :ind Cidviii : " It w^w lh*^ir trn^icwl 

dtntitiy tu eiit«r inUi mortal oomb&t aJi the cbauipioua of 

two great caikMOv It is my profomid conviction that 

Oftivia'A cnitfQ irao the ^ood one ; that it -whA the uauAa 

of morality, of nocial onlnr, of civilixution. Si>i'vc-t\u 

>W«k«ra«Lfwtir<'it*ririiHlt(i*rIr>Piinl,i»r tithmify U. Ib4a, Afivtho*^ 
rmm «f t^mcu*, I'tJvjii <rTaiv Ut I'linl (Aii^iL«E *l), 1MAr» f«7liiC' " I tiCp« 
(■f«*]lh««B'ilanc««inirfl*ii>lha<ApiUUhciCil>Mrrtlh(r UmcUj^of rtn^t^uttl^n- 
SMCt* bt 4l»(wl/' lUirt^nlbiaibobtpitiadum.TwlBalTijrilTi?- <:«jTlif 
pflMbftvl «■ •liWv* work n dtfiivt of 1^ |«r«dniff> Itamy btf au» 


wiM uh^ r»prc«uii(atlvu of a «yatvm falda in itdclf, •uper 

of »ooi&l dimity in the indivMitul, nnd of moral order ia 
human eooi^ty. In Iheir diwiBLriinn «noninif«r, Calvin 
wiiM voiiMLUtMiLluuHljr f.i'ttliful to wliat. he bt^litrved to be 
tnith Aitd dLCtjr; but Ijl- w<ia bird, miu-Ji more InHucjiced 
by iriolenl aninjn«ity tlinn be imagined, und dovoid aliko 
of aympathy and gcDerouty. Sorvctos waa eonccna tiAd 
rovoluto Ln hm coni^totion, but ho waa ci frivoloue, pre^ 
lampttioui, viuii, nnd unviciun mfin, uupubio, m tinu^ of 
need, of reaoning to artiSoe and iintnttJi. Serv^tna ob- 
lAiDcd the liouor of b^ng one of tlie few martyr* to in- 
tultivTtiiTd lihrrJy; whilnl Cidvin, w}io wii3 iimlouliU^lly 
OBO of iboso vrho did moit toward the e«tAbUshn^<riit of 
ruli^oua liberty* bad tie misfortune to ignoi-e bU advei^ 
iuijy*ii iigbt to libtirty oE belit^f/*' Tbe forbeitnutoc of 
Calvin towurd Licliutt Sooi^iuB has been aomeUmna crctiv- 
■bdo?«(I a proof tliat ho wiui actuated by perwnal vindic- 
tiT«D««B in relation to ServetUB. But Calvia» wiioly hm 
he inigbt ilifTt-T from Si>i£imiaf n.^u^ni^i^d in him a Kobrioty, 
a moral rcHprct^ibility, which ]w wholly niisscd tii the 
refiUasa. vialonary, pa^wlouate pIijBiL"i4ti of VilJtnuuYi!- 
It vraA thi> djvertiity of character in tlit< two men, and tbo 
dilTcront mothoda which Uuay adopted to epread ttni 
^lootrinos, much morQ than any roeentincnt which Calvig 
miffht fe^l in oonAdqueno^ of the attaoka of Survc-tiu — 
whom be hx^ked down upon aa a wild, Tniacbiorotu 
dr^suutir — that uuuhri him Nn ct>iirfot>iif9 and lenient to 

'Hio execution of Servdua, witli a few nolftblc nxcop- 
toona, waa approTod by tlic Chrlntian world. Bollinger, 
like ftifind and moivoftor of Zwinglci justified itv Eren 
M^lanethoti gav^ it hiA sanction. The nse of infidel and 
bmaticAl A^^ota in the path of the Refornuition, ub an inci- 
dental conw!quv<n» of the inovdin^it, and tlie di*po«itioD 


at opjionejiU Co idtuitJfy it vrith tUaae ]i)aitiife8tatlurut 

their hottillcy to tiie»»» ;itttl thrir fidelity to Ihn primiipJil 
ftrticIcA oF tbc CbrUtiun f»itii. In rnjcotitig mfnnt Uip- 
tiam, and in th^ torm« of bis proportion respecting the 
idcmtit^ of ti© world with God, SerTetns waa at one witb 
the Libertine fw«-tliiaker*, "H& held witii the AuMf 
bnptiflU/* Miul tliai Ge^uevati S[?imW, :liu1 tniie^t. ftitfTi^r;^ ul 
though SeTvetua ftMCi'tet) that Ks had ahvn.ys con^anincd 
the oppoaition made hj the Aimb^ptiflts to the civil 

ilio conAict trjtli fho Libertiuo faction did not c^iid with 
Ul<i t-ondeninjitioii of Serv^tiis. The oc^urogG :ind doti^mi* 
Qatit'O of a Ujldebrand wt^^ rr^|iurEd to sti^m llie nppnsi- 
tkm which CiUvm liad to ini?et- An ilUrnipt Ui ov^^rthrow 
lh<? power of the Consisttir^, by iut<5rpttting the iiutJiority 
of tho Srmitci TTAi only bailed by Kit rcaulutc ri>fiiAAl 
to admit to UtoMcnitaent persona jndgorl to be unworthy. 
Finally, tbc E^Sorta of tbe Libertine party culminntiid 
in 1555, in on Armed conspir^icy under tlu^ iL^nd uf l^orrin, 
wluk bfld hM th«< highest 'MijeA in tho city ; &nc1 tho 
oomptete ov^rtbrow of ihie insnirection wii* th? death- 
blow ul tho ^i^ly* Tij the pri:ffiic43 tu the pHaiuiH^ CaJvlu 
BuUtOB a ptttheLio rcfartmcc to Uic stormy nc<ml^n which Im 
— by nature *' nnwnjUJtc ard timorous ^*^ had boon 
oompcllod to poea through ; to tho sorrow which ho felt 
m tliG dedtracticn of thoeo ^vhoiu ho would luLve pr^ 
fOTTOil to tav^; und to tlie multijiliod ctthimnUts tfi^it lu* 
mMtaUm p«rvi8t«a)tly biniptui tiivm him * " To my powvr," 

■ 0pm tb« Uf and vttaivu of ficfrvtuti ud thi diCMMiaaow of lb ttU 

4vi 4«rtltiAn i^m. Artif. JV^^crrcfif (ITDO); TrHhvvl VKo jlMf-ir^vAhrfir, 
mt Mt *' AmvvI " ta lUmff'i K^l-Em. i Dpa, Lift n/OiMw. dm. Lt. mid a^i 

L lap- M «"!-; livmi^r, AdJinVibn^Ji jf, /^Aiv f^Ti rf^ /'^rVA C^rSitf. H. Hft 
Ctf. TW Ma^^*' S«f*viiJf ii>CAtrin. iflfrc^frwlih iIib Ulnvtuuf tiiblMftf 
m Q—'i^ an E^vvn In Ihi nor oditlatj nt V\* WmU uf CUvJa ibx Bun, 

Ctam, m HrriKL m viit. [u^}. 



ho eajs, *' whicli Uioy otivy — O timt thoy were tbo ano* 
^e^oraf** ■<!£ I coAiiiot persu^^lo thom vrhlle I am 
alire iLat I am not arvn.ncioiu^ my rleath. at lea^t, will 
cuiivltii-i- tln?m of iL" Hia entire piijperty aftar biatlcxtli 
iui)[>iliiti:d t<j U<K» t]i;ui tvro liimtlrod ilolUn ! 

At the same timt) tlint h<] wna wȣ^ii^ tbU docaoetio 
oooteat. ht3 waa cxomng fv vast inflacinco aa a icUgioaa 
biU3Ut^r withiu tbo oity and over all £tiro{>o. Boeldca 
praadLiDg ever}- iay of t^acb alttiruato %?tH^, ho garo 
wvukly Clin-<i3 thiTologtcnl bT4.'tt]rtiEt. Hi!t im^noiy waa bo 
extensive tb»t if ho \ivA or\vr. mx^n s p(--nM>u. ho recognized 
hiTu Iii^ii.Lt-ilJfLlL'ly ytiiiTA aftcf^Tardfli ami if Liti>i-i-u|rUrd 
whlk tlictiitin^, !»■? could reaumo hiii t^ak, after tm iutcr* 
nil of houn, Ort tlic point whuru \i(^ hud h^ tt, witJioot 
aid from hin amaiiucnBUi. Hc-ncc, he vrna able to die- 
ooun^, oven upon tVie proph*>tsi, wb«i^ tuimerona hi«tori- 
&d referenws w^r? itivolvpd^ wiTJinnt the ^d of a »crap of 
pupiir, ami wllli uotliing brtfure him Iml Uik t<*xt, Bning 
tPoubl**d with ,vitllIUi^ be. spoke slowly, »o that !iia W'- 
ture4, ^ wJl a« many of his Aormona. wore t^eu down, 
word ffir word, oa tlioy wt'ro di?Uverod. Hnntlrv^da of 
auditors from Iho v^inoos countrioB of Europt" Hcck'.'d to 
Oene>^ to baton to his instructJonA. Prot«fttnnt ©xileB in 
great numboi^, many of Avhom w^P9 mdn of influ^Doe, of 
whom Knox wwt one, foiiwd a lefu^ lhf*rf*, and wi^ni bsLck 
tn tlii^ir bomn l>f'4r[ng tbu iinpr(*JA wbu^li bt^ hnd Ktmnped 
tij>ifu t1]e[ki. Uuder Ca1viK*« iiiflucnci^, Gcnova boi'ame to 
tbo Rofuaruc, what Wittenberg waa to the L<ith«na 
DAtions. TJ:c Acboo) of whi^^b Ca«tellio ma the head did 
not flouriah nftur ho Zolt it ; but, in 1568, a g^'mnaaam 
WU4 v6t4^bUsb6di and in tho foUowhig jwtr xh9 XcaA^my 

drt^iptft 'n^v f"^> la CO ut UiD pait-li«iiH u micincr vi ibo it?fc utldjrtqr 

iJc^ptm fliiMuJ. Ut^] Out Bcu. ihui vhoQD tJlorc ]■ do CbuuvIidcm 

Ihti i^iiMn rtffi^wl liJuiivU l^i ihki unlc^ laf iho S«iJta vatiU bM psnviit 

Vm «r iimlvrUkr 11. Villi CiWrmi, ^1, ^or nrlwr rtmrrniponr^ pmof, 
Dvt, f,'iffn «/ ^^r/ri^ 1. flSl. n, ^, Sp» iiIbo llrrry, IE. ti. huE Kim| 


ctf Theology »» founili^l, luirl Tiam plootKl ijvcr it. Th« 
WnUi^ of Calvin ur'.rra cirt^ilntwi in evevj couutry at 
EuTDpe. By hiA covrcapoii<:[oDc«t moreovor, Joa powerful 
^fi^iMB ms brought to haat dircoUy upon tho It^Kient iA 
Ut^ roiemmtOTy movenaent cverywboi^^f. lu Eii^brLtl nni 
France, in Swithind iind Pohmd wjtJ Italy, nn T,!wt niU f 
ttW M>mwpombTnta mitri pniKim und imblrA, ua wpU ad 
IhuologiiiiiTi Ilia counsels were caLIciI for und \}t\u&X Lii 
iBilfae» <if criticfbt import±tiLc«. II3 wtit«d to E^iranl VL 
ftod EbmibvUi. to Soini.'M.'l and Cnnmi^r. But wipuciully 
ia tho iLlfnirt of Uio R^foruiiLtJon m Fmnuu lita nffonoy 
vika pred&mitintit. GnitT^u mim thu liuuitlul^mit of French 
ProcastODtum. It imw thm-p thiif. itJi prwichera were 
tmiood. Tlie pnucipal n)*rn in tlie HTtjfvienot pHtty 
«OQk«d ap to Oalnn aa to an otach. Bub lies w:li 
atroDgly »vor»o to » nvort tu u-mn hikI to a dopc^^Lonoe 
on puliticftJ ftgciidcii iiiicUTxpi.-diuDtit. His in^tinctfl vr«r9i 
ia tfa» r««pdot, in full sLoeord vith tho§Q of Lulhoi'. it 
wobM bo impottiiblu to JettcrJb^ 1m conatnition with Cb<i 
Ho^nenot struggle, without ntirrsiting iJi^i eoitLro bistciryof 

In tho cuui'ludiug yean i^C Ciilviii*» UTe, be bid tbii 
MtilCacticiD of Meiiije Geneva dt4iTeivd from fnction* aod 
the institntiofts of vduatti'jn, which hn hod planted, id 9 
HontiiJiing oondition. Tho grievous mivlntiioe that ftJGictod 
hiBi d*jd Qot DiovQ hnn to diminish the prodljj^oua labon 
winch, to otb«r in^n in likt^ ^lr<^um§tarL«cA, would hniv liann 
aamdurftbl*. It hrA hrim hiH IiEd>]t whon thn day h^ 
tHMn oonnumed in giving wnnriiui nod lectures ; la tba aeii- 
Mn» of Iho coxisi«4ory over which be pKaided ; iti latteiid- 
Ing apon the Seiute, at their re^ar^ttt. to t&k« pnrt in Ui«iir 
doiibfffmtioni ; in rooeivinf; and nninrfirin^ l^ttorv tbnt 
y oapgd in upon btm frvim nvi^rv cju^trt^r ; in oonf nrrinf* with 
ti\m mmeroB* viKitont who nought hiik (idviexf or rami» to 
|i£m from cliiTerent conntriiM — it baJ been b» bftbit, 
pi^bt Gvua, to (le%vt« hiniaulf« wttb n Aemie uf tv^et^ 


to tho atuttii» ^liioU wore ovor mo»t iwoordant with bii 
ta0ta, and to tlw compoution of hU books. For a lonf 
ti]Ti«, II] the doairg period of his life, he took but ono 

DLCol ill A lluy, UQll LllLH WMH uftr^ll UlllttttNt- Ht.- litlldled 

for hotun m thr mumiii^, prvaoliod mid tlicii l<^turc;i, bo 
fore taking n m'irAri d fouti. Tocr weak to »it ap, he die 
tftt»d to au (unanuonjiiji fr^'in his bed, or tnuisactil buA- 
II68B wiUi tho»e who came to consult him. When bit 
body vt&& utterly feeble, ^ben be vns reduced to a tlud 
(vWt bis mind lixt none of itA cI<?u^fWA ot euergV' No 
oontphuitt in ivferanoc to bia phynlcoL ^ul!fcriIlgs wiui hmrd 
frombtm. Iliri lofty And intrepid spirit triuoipbcd over 
all pbyatc&l intiiTntty- From hia flick*b(ML, ho rcgnl&led 
tbe allnirs of the FreucJi Reformatiou, Wbtn be co<nId 
no longer «taud upon hia f«<.*^ hn wu« carried to cbtircb to 
ptLTtukL^ at tiiti I.unrH Suppvr^ and to a uvkioh of the 
Sfmatf!- Stviiiig tb^it liin I'tiil wiut nf^r^ he df^^inxl to meet 
tliia body for the biat time. A celebmbi'd arLiHt Ims dt^ 
ptoied ibu interview upon tbo aknraa. The ixnincttofv 
gathered iibout liis bed, iind bo fiddreascd them. Uo 
thankod tii«m for tJio tokavs oE honor which they bad 
giauttid to bim, and oravod their for^veneea for outbr«ak- 
inga of angor wbfoli they bad treated witb »o muob for- 
bMTADC!*?- He euidd nny vriUi tnitb, t^mt whjxutvco* mi^bt 
be hln fault*, ho had ittrvrd tbclr republic witb bis wboto 
souli He bad taught, h^ sfnd» with no feoUuf^ ul unoor* 
tiiiDty TCspocttng bb doctrine, but aiucerely and boneatly, 
aooordutf* to thg Word of God, ^* Wcr« it not bo," bo 
idded, ** I well kuovr that thu wrath of God would im- 
pend OTflr my bend/' Courtwuialy and aolemniy. in a 
pntAninl tonp, hr wHrrkf^d them of tJie tioed of buiniUty 
ftnd of faithful vi^ilaiio* Ut kn-p ulT tbt* dait^^tH tlut 
might threaten the St4ite. *' I know," hr mid. " tbo mind 
and walk of uucb oni? of you, and know tliat yc have all 
bood of admonition. Alucb b wanting even to tho beet 
of yoa/* Ho ooiicluded with a ferrant prayor. and took 




each tmt by tlic hand, m with l^ars they parted from him. 
Twodity»&f:ervf&nl4«bo mot tho clcr^'y <>f ib« uity nud ol 
tlM ocij^bboffbood. He 6^t lj|> ia hia bt>(] tiud, bivicjf 
oflered prayer, vpoke to tJioi:i. Uo bc^iui by wiyiiig tliat 
it might be tbouglit ttiiit he wtii* not t» *o bud n. cnnc lu 
he supposed. " Btit I iLMiiirr yim" he ndded, '^ iu nil n.v 
former illooase« aiid »uffcruig9, i have never felt iiiy>ieU 
»o weak and ODking fi£ now. Whou thty lay me d<rvm 
apoE tho bed, my tien^i^ toil ajid 1 boccmio tuiut.'* He 
rofQrr«Nl to lu* put caxiHsr in Oetiova^ WhiMi hv eiLine to 
thit Church tlieri) vriu proudttng, antl tlmt w:ui &11. They 
hnnted up Xhn imngw mid burnt them, but of .i. RcfniriTfi- 
Uuu there wm ootluog ; fJi wan muboi-dtu.ilJi>n »jid Uiti- 
order. He had hveu obliged to go through tL^meaidoun 
eooflict*. SometimCtf hi the night, he sjiid^ to terrify him, 
or abcty »bota btid been fired beforo hia door* 
'' Think,'* h& said, ** what aa impreflflioc that mnat make 
ti|KMi ft poor B0:holar» ghy a^id timid as I then tvas, utd at 
the hottom huTQ ulways b^^n,*' TJiis last atatemetit nv 
tpecllng hui mtnnO diapoaitioii, he repeated two or three 
tiincs ifith emphaas. He adverted to his bjuiifihiueut 
lod ftlAj in Straaburg, but ou hiit r(.turu tlie diiticultiea 
werro not diminitthod. They hud sot their dofi^ an himi 
with tho C7y : ** Seize liim ! vqIku him I " imd hid dotho* 
ood bk fl«sh had h««^ t^m by ih4?m. *' Althou^ I am 
oothhsg," Ike proceedeti to say, ** I know that I have pr^ 
venMsd mart' llutci tJiivK luindi'tv] ri{jUi wliii'h wunhl huv^ 
deoolated Geneva/* lie lu^krd thrdr pardon for hh mmxy 
ftuUa; ID particoUr for hia ijuickuetf, vehemenM, and 
r««djniM& to be aQfiry- '^^ regard to hia teaching and hia 
whtnigfti he ootdd my that God had givcti him tlic gruoa 
to go to work «anie»tly aud that he had 
aot knowingly pirrvrrtjn) tw ttrrcim^mmly intfiqin^h^d a 
ilj^g^ l^aaage nf Uje Scnptnrv^- flu hml written for ao 
ptfso ml «nd, but only to promote the honcr of God. He 
^ve tiwm iraritma exiiottali^as relating to ihA oblig* 


tiona of tbetr ol£cc ; ihtia took them (a^ch by tbo hftikid 
and**wc ptutnd from him," enyn Heui. ** with our fty«» 
hatlit^^l iTi t^ar4, luid i>iir Iiniirts full of uiiipciikftblo ^^^^1-" 
He <iieil on the STih of May, 1664. Hm pi«n-ii^ nyv 
rt'tnmeij tU 1>rit1taucy to the Lost. Apart from thia» his 
fijoe lind loui; ifora bho look of ilt^itb, and \\b appearaBcot 
fui wc {LTu informed by Be^fitt^ iruB not peruoptibjy :lMUiged 
oitCT the Bfpint tiiul Tc?ft tlio body. His last dnyo wi^rc oi 
n pioco with bi« life, lib whole course hitt b^en com- 
pu*«Hl by Viiwt tAi the growth nf mfl rind of a tree fmm 
another, or to s chabi of logical s^qnences. He wbsen* 
daed wUb % iiHvrTeiona j»ti;*trr i>f jtnrlereLAHfliiig. altliuugli 
the laiAgintitioin nnd nf^titimfntci were ]e» roundly d^< 
roiop^ Hw »ystcm.\t[C opirit fitt^nl him to be tho 
fouiidt^r of an ^tidiirirtg f^hool of thonght. In thi« <iinr- 
B^^mtic hn ni:ty bo compared with Aqalnas. Hd hai 
beon apprr»pri!itoly styled the Arifltotle of th<* Hofornui- 
l-jiui. He wsift » jMii-fi'dly hoiit'-Ht muii. Ht* aiibjedbvl his 
will to tho <5fc^nml rule of right, jw far a« he roiild dii^ 
coTcr it. Hi» motivea w©ro pare. He felt llint God wm 
BOOT Uim, and SHCriiitiLKi «v«rythuig to obtjy the diructtooi 
'>i Pn>vid<ino4?. Tho forir of C^d rnled in his son! ; not 
& nlftviflh frair, but ft principlo such oa animated th« 
proph^te of rh^ Old Covenimt. Th*i oombinntioo of hl> 
-|Uiditiru watn Hiii'hf Uiut h(i conid not fml to ftttrttct pro- 
-nmd lulmimtian mid rnverenoik Fmm one tA^^n* of iniridA, 
•knd «xcit<! intenbe antips^thy in aiiolher. Tliei>} in iki 
one of tho R^oTEtiere who b spoken tif. at thin Ifito day, 
vtth oo muoh perflonoLl feelirg, either of rcgitnl or avoi^ 
non. But wliooTur studies Lis life nnd wntings> oepociftlly 
!]m few pauAgoa in whif^h ha leu us into tu« ^^ofidoooe 
and appear* to invite cnir sympathy, will accjuire a groir* 
tu^ auiiM uJ lutt iiibtflleirtnal and mond gr^itui^os, and m 
teuder conmdenttjoa for his errors. 

In OdYttti0m, connd^cd jut a thoolr^cai system, and 
iwatjutcd with other typ<L« of Protvatont theology, then 

awYL tmMtr? 


ll aw obiHiutNistio, prrTviiding |irinoiplti- It U tlint of 
thtt KrvfinagTity cf God ; not r^nlv his uuliirtited control, 
within the sphere of mind, rw wnl! ns nf matter, but the 
determiiiatiDTi of His will, aa tlie iiltiinat^ caxiav t)f tlia 
MlTfttion of Ronic. and uf tbe ab&ndonmmit of cttieni tti 

In the cor^titntion ^hich Cafrin created at Croncvm u 
It ta ftd^n in tbe light which thG }^p&G of three oonturlu 
OtfU upon It, vrere two capital orrors. First, the jurte* 
dtctinsi of tli4> C^iiin^h, ila dmL'tpline ovf»r ita nii!mlv-<rit, vna 
txnv^tl mtd thi' ilrltiili of [■nmdiiiTL, [;xU?iuln<] civiti' pf^raoual 
jund donicstic life, to »uch a drgroc as iinwitrrantaWy to 
curtAil indivtdtiAl lib^riy. Se'condlj, tbo power of cocr- 
don ihttt ^m pwa to tlio civil authority mibverUid 
fowdum VI n>lif;ioiL3 opinion and worahip> 

How U il, tliL-n, that Culvlui^ui h iic'ltiiowledgvd, civon 
bj- it* /■:•***, to hiivi? jiniinotiTcl jjovv^rfidly the cause of 
rWil UbL-rty? One reason lios in the boundary Uiii^ itIucIi 
t dr«vr twlwe^i Church aud St&te> Odviiiiaiit ifoald 
jo( vurrcftdcT tho peonlior funr^ttonit of the Chur\:H to tho 
civil a'ltliorit^'J Whether tht? Chnrch, nr tho Govorn- 
n>eDt, abould tvguUte tho HdminietratLon of the Saora- 
B)i*at, and admit or reject commnnicants, wrw the qneft* 
tioii whTcU Calvin friu^it out with tlm aiithorhif^s ut Oen- 
evit. In iliia fm(iiit\ CidviiiiAin tUlTi^n^ fmui tliit rtitv 
tioo of th« civil rulem t^ thci Church, as c^tabti«hcd 
mider the auepiocfi of Zningle, oa wcU a» of Luther, and 
frtm iho Anf^lidon ayatom which oriipiiittod imt^t-r Hi^nry 
VTIJ- In iti theory of lhi» reapective po\rers of tho 
Chtnrch, wid nl the* Mjigtatnit*, CulvSiiism ;ippn>i.iinati^d 
lo the traditiortHl vinvr rf tlwt PjilJiolio OhnrvJi. In 
PvMioe;, iu Holland, in ScotUnd, in Englaud, whcroYOi 
OftlTitiiftm ^viiA planted* it hftd no scniplc^ about rcsiann^ 
the tjTWOTT of civil rulc^a. Thia principle, in Iho long 

t^ip^htOtt, I. Ill- 


mn, T^miid uioviUbly conduce to the progtcas d dTtl 
'freedom. It ie cerUic tliat iho cliatinction betvri^im 
Ctmrdi und Stiitj, wliieli waa rt.vognij;iid irom the eo»- 
venntiD of CunjEUiiit-Ene^ notwiLlisUiiiduig the lifiig nj^ uf 
intolonmco lihd }>«^nwu3Ution Umt were to Follow, wft* lb« 
firrt Bt«pt tbo DoccuihT^ condition, in the dcvclopmoot of 
relifi^ous liberty. Flnt, it iniist be settled tiiat the Stato 
ahfiJI not etcot^ its power ov^r tlie Churcli, withio ita 
propel' spliere; next, tlmt the StMe ab&U not l^od ka 
powuT tu tUc Cimruli, iia aii eiL«<culJcjiitir L»f eoi>)i!tfiA*ticttl 


LjLamaid reuoa wby CalTiEiUm Kas been ^Torable to 

HviLItlkerfy« Is foand in tho ropublieoii chai-oetcr of ita 
cTiurch crKiuiiauLtion. Laymen aUarod power with miu- 
ijit«m. Tbo pcoplo, ibo body of the oomgreg^itioit, to^ 
on uctivu luid r«H|iori!iiblti pivt bi tlie olioiu4t ot tlie i^«lsH 
And of idl ntUi<r (iinisun. At Gc-iiQTa, i\ia tt^iu1I^n nf tJivi 
Church vrith the civil itathority. and the cireitiii»taDC« 
in wLicIi Calviu was placed, reduced to a conaiderablD 
extent the ri^l power of tho poopLu m church afFuiA. 

iC&Ivin did not reaJi^ his own tlieory. But ebowhore, 
wpedftlly in cottntrios when; Calvmium had to oaicounter 
^le heetility of tSe Stau^, the ihmuKimtic timdfinmcA of 
tli^ ayfttecii had Cull roum far d«Tetopmenti Men wha 
-mfxti ^icouHtonued to rule thetuaelvea in the Church, would 
:h%ink thu anxtm privilege in tho eommuuwvuUh. 

Anc^thor eourcri^ of tho tnAueuc^ of Calrinistn, in od- 
vandng thu i^uim of civil Liberty, liufl bgeii d^frivod &oin 
ita theology^ The senae of the eiall^tion of tb^ Al- 
mighty Ruler, and of hi« iiitimAtd cunuv^^tion with the 
miimt4»t iuuidifiita and obUgatiuiia of Iiumjui llfi*, wlutli 
ie fostered by this theology, dwarfs JtU earthly potentjkteA. 
An inte:iw^ npintunlityt ^ conur^iousiioss tkit tJun life u 
bat an infiniE^nimnl frnfrtion of huir^an existenoe, diMdpat<« 
the feeling of personal liomagfl t^r mim, hcjwcwor higii 
thisii' ritLiUoii, &aA dulU the lustre i^ all wulhly gruncleiir 


CalTiniam and Romanism are the antipodes of each 
D&er, Yet, it is corioiu to obaerre that the eSect of 
these oppo8ite systems upon the attitude of men towards 
the ciTil authoritji has often been not diBaimilar. But 
the Calviniat, unliJte the Romanist, diapensea with a hu- 
roan priesthood, which has not only often proved a power- 
ful direct au^uliary to temporal rulers, hut has educated 
the sentiments to a habit of eabjectioiu which renders 
sabioifl^on to such rulers more facile, and leaa daw to 




iHE long contAit fi>r OitUiam nghttf had tdM^rail tha 
prei^ge of Ui^ j>i>j)i.-»« m Fmnnc, but it hnA not vrrjikrjiod 
tlift OftUioBc Cburcb. which wm ol^ov than the mom^chy 
itself. And, in tJie feeliDg of the people^ was bdi^olubl/ 
wocktod with iL' 'Hie Collt*{*e of ttie Sorkomie, f>r tho 
fh^ologinJ FiLCulty ut Pum* and tho ParlLomiuatf wltieh 
hjiJ t^igi'ttK^r niJUQtiiiic^cl Grilliisui ltbi?Tty, wi?n? anitvd In 
fetcsTt hci&tility l,aAll doiztrijial innciFjitioiui. Thp Coneortbt 
concluded bctwoen Priuicis I< xnd Loo X., after tbu battle 
of MarigiuuKii gare to thi> King the nght of pmeotatxoii 
to TBCAnt btincfieo* ; to tht^ Popo, the fint-fmiU. It OX- 
dt^ prcfonnd duicm:tvnt, and wi« only rc*gist4rod by 
Parliaiuout afler prolongc»<l n>HiKtanc<* and under a pro- 
tect. It uboliahed the Pi'aginatic SaTicfioii, which had ^ 
Writ iWntiHl ihu i^lmHtTr uf GEdllimit IiiOKpt7Rilr-in!ii! ; butH 
it weakfmod Ibt^ Cntlmlic Cbiirdi. vti\y jui it led to the 
i&tfodDction of iucompotf^t, unworthy persona, bTodt«aol 
the ccurU iuto occlctia«tical officos, and thua mcreased tfao 
neoe^bkty for reform .^ In So*ithem FraDo; a remnant of 
tho Waldeuaea bad durrii-ed, .md tht> r«CQll«ctiOEi ol tfao 
OatliArJHta wn-H ttlUL prtNwrvt^d in popuhir vongit ftud leg- 
mdSv Itnt tlicT firrtt imivrrin itc.^ tuwarilx rofonn CMOonat^ 
bom the UiuuAmst cultui^', 

A Uturury and aoiciitiiic apirlt iraa avrokoned in Fmaco 

■ Oa tba tJjrrapLiuii c^nwiutai upoD lit OMDorUl, mt lUaki, »flBiliiH|4 



tkioa^ll l&e lively inUirvuuniH vtlUt Ititly, wlttdi Milwiflted 
UKUrLtiuiA Xil. lukd Fninciti I. iiy Frojicia otipccudly, 
Ualiu) MboUn umI atUhU wiire iii4ui:(.xl is Largo nunt- 
ben to tftk« up tbeir sbodt.^ ia Friuiaa l'>«uohtii0ii Uke- 
vitA viftilul Ital}' luuL brangUt tiomo tli^ olauioaJ «ultuM 
iiHikJi ilwy nnjuln^l tliorv. Amoug tho auhcbn vho 
VttJtiTaicd Gre^ wa^ Uu(l»iia» the fur^uioot ul tlitim, 
viuHu Kruuiua »tjf led the ^* wonder ^sf TrAnco.'* After 
Hm '' Peace of dio DjUQua " ima oondudcd i^t Cutnbiaj, 
la 152&, wbon Fniucift surrondorod Itjkly to CharlGa V. ^ 
ft tbroDg ol pfttriodc ItnlUiift who f^aT^d or h&t^ tbd 
Spttnish ndei, Etis^m^ over the Alps and gaT« a ueir 

ioojod iu the kiih^ a Hbcr-il jiiid eiiLbuM;utic p:Ltroii- The 
sew Atudicft. cApccialiy ilc4^rcvr und Un?ck, wore oppooed 
b^ ftU Uio might of tho Sorbonnc, ttio leader of which w:ia 
Ihfl 3>iiidio, Beda- H« ai^d hie kssoci^it^ wurd un tUo 
wstch &»* licnay, ftnd ev^ry &uLbor who wu NuajMcud of 
flnMBBtepping the bootuU of orthodo:!/, wns immediately 
MBtued and auhjfwt«d to [lers^atioii. Thua two p^rtiett 
WRTfi funned, the ono fftf o»b1o Lo iht^ it&vr Uunuiig, aad 
tbo oUaov immi<ttl to it ftnd ri^dly wedded to tlio tradi- 
tMOftl theokgy.' 

The Fftlhor of the Fr^ocb K«fonn&t]Oii, OT the one 
acm ootitLed to tlua dUUikCtioL thftti any other, ia 
JftcquM Lefivn^, wbu wa« bom ui £l&ple«, & littk tU- 
hgB of Pitmrdy, abouc ymr 14rji), jiniiVKMitpd hu 
#ftflim ftL ih^ Univenity of Piiri«. nnd hariiig bucom« a 
ttHftvoJarUi and ft (Jrieat. «potit aom^ tome b luly. 
Afur hU rctuRk he taught nmthcmiiUuA and philttoptj 
U Pftnit w«* ftotivo ia puhliahiiiK and commcotiii^ on tho 
vorica of Anaiotle, which Iw bad xtodiE^d in tha originjU 
b Italy, ua well aa Lu pi'intLng bookv of ajicioiit mathonia- 
writxn^ of tlie Putli^n, and mysticsl productioni 

* W«b<r. Oi«AhWUttahi Pai ^ lhiy 4 Cakhimtm to rtrt alii to 



of the Miidlo j\£06. Letdrro vqb honct^d among tlM 
fliimaiuBtfl as tli6 rdstorer of philo^oplij and aci«ikc« ui 
tlie Uoiveralty. Deeply imbae3 vntli a reb^iwis spjrit, 
In l/t09 liu jmL forUi n cftmmpnULrv un die PuaJfiLii and 
ill 151 2 A cQEiiiiK-'iiULry tm tht^ F^pisUcs uf Paul. An catLjt 
W ftbout 1511!, be Mid to his pnpil FaraL: "^GodirUI 
nnoTitte tliG world, nnd you will be a witness of it ^ '* 
■ad t& tho laet nam^ work, he aaya Uiat tbe sigiu of tho 
tina«8 bt^tolTOD tluLt A rt^DOTatioD of the Church is n^ax ftt 
liiuij. H^ tii'Htrb^eiL tlie doctrbie of griituitoua justtGoatkont 
nnd il»idii witli Llir Sitriptureji us tJte otiprtnne aiid HufB- 
dcDt autfaority. But n, mystical^ rather thnn a polemical 
vc^D chitraotcri&M liim ; and wkiJc this provontod him 
from broaldLg with tho Church, it ako blimt<d thd iharp- 
BOfls of the oppoeiti^D whicb hk opinions wero adapted 
to produoB. Out.' ul LIh pupik vraa Bri^uimut, Biahap of 
Mcuiux, i\ho linld tlur Hiuiih vtnw of jtiHtjIirjitniti with TjI^ 
Rttgi and foBtcTcd tbo oTaogoljcal doctrino la hi« dioccte. 
Tho «uuuty of the Sorb^utit to Lefdm aud bu acIkx^ 
toolc It moro ag^ro«ivo form when the TmtingB of Luther 
begui to be rood in the Unircraity and oUowhcre. Tho 
th«o1ogiana of Ui« Sorbonno ftet tbeir fac^ps againet oroiy 
dBTifltioD from the do^fmatic system of Aquinaa. Rotui^ 
Uii, ha¥Uig bt^ii a aLudent nt PiltIm, had lui[^ed for fla(>- 
pori tjiere iti bU coiiQl jt with thi; Dominli^uuof Colpgno; 
bctt tlio l\tnA focuhy dcclfircd ag&iiLat him. In 1521 (hey 
nt in judgmvLt on Lnthor and condemned him aa a be^ 
tba and blasphemer.* H«K«y wae treaUd by tbcon 
cfE«av8 againat tho State ; and the PiirliEunont, tbo ); 
judicial tribunal, Hbov*L*d itiMf piwnpf- to caitv tKtt th^ 
diH;rt3iw by iht^ tnflicdnn nl the usual penaltiw- TTiu 
Sorboono fornially condcpuied ;%. disatirutiun iif L^fivm 
on & point of the cTan^jelical hUtory, in wbi^b h« bod 
oontrovottod Hm UiKbtionnl opinion. Ho, with Puc)* 06- 
rud Roiuaalf and othta pr«achcn, Joimd an asylum vita 

> l<«l«A<lb«i rvpUvd. 8«dh«darf. Ih Ut, 



Bii^Dfldt Lef^viv transluted the Now TMUiuont frwD 
|]ie Viilgate, aril, in a commentary on the Oonpel^, ?Tpli<i- 
rdy jiLnjia»uni.-H| llii? RUiIit tli<* tuilt; niliMif faUli, wliuili lIih 
uidiTidu^ ntiglit inti.'rprrt fen' lilnirvclf, Aivl ilrvLy^'cJ jutitt- 
6cAt4on to bo tJirou^ti foilh atFJuic, \Tit.boiit liiiiiiiin w<Jtlfi> 
or mcriL It eocmcd &« if Mccmc napircd to beoome nn- 
ocbor Wittenboig.' At ]«iigtJi a GommUsion of i'avlki- 
ment was appointed to uke eogui^Jinoi' of heretic* m th?Li 
diatriciv Brlfonni't., «tt1:^r iiitJTniilut^^tl, us Beza ustif^rtJt, 
or raooilia^ at tfio sight of an nctn^iJ m^cpssloji froii) the 
(Attrctu joiaed in the condemiLiLtioti of Luther and of hie 
opuuond, and et«u acquicact^d Jn tht; ptiraecutlon which 
fell upon ProtCttUuilioin wttltin hb diocux^,* h<^<>vTc 
flod to i^tnwbuTg, was nfi^rwardu rocAllcd by Fnrncia L, 
but nltimntely took np lt>s Abode in the conrC of tbo 
King'" sister, ifargaret, tbe Qiieen of Navarre.** 

M:ti|^vt> (rmn lliR firKL, xyos fiivuHLbly iti^rlitii^d t<> Hw 
new d(Xtrini:«. Tlicrc ircre two parties at tbo court. 
Tt» JDctbcT of Uic King, Louisa of Savoy, and Uie Chau- 
«tdlor Duprai, trorv allies cf th« SorbouTii^. I'hey mm 
d tho <3laKi of iiurnons. numcrouB In that n^t^ who nn* 
cl«*Tcr to atooo for private vic^ by bigotry, and by tbe 
perW0tttioii of heterodox opinions. Margaret, on the 
<xMitnuyT a Tcraatile and »ot*cnipli*hHl prliiueua, ch*?ri*lu?(l 
a M^fidail dovotion wlunh carrir^I ht r bi^yond Bn^oniict 
ttt hbt nctieptanco c^ tho teaching of the Itcformen. But 
lliia VC17 apint of mysticiacOi or qnietiam. pToduj»d in her 
tbiiid an tndiQerenon aa Co external rites and forms of 

> BaH» Aiiltf^ £<«L d. i'^W4i Jf^. od Ai^aiim^ dt /Vowm, IIvkL |1W0». 
Ill* Ibt b**lu *l tUt vark ut b^ ucilhu bud, bql wrlttan nular tb« avv- 
»^I<CBh^ lUno^JbAf-jni^ut "Boa." 

• IW bMU* p4ib wbkb KmhhI ud oihtr%. irbo vu«pUd Iha c«Ui» «l 
^ainnrii U- fvU^ but niMhri In th* fionnn CsiboJIe Clibnb, ud^annd 
« |«k«, b aathibiMl 1>j H<hnidl m bin trorli, ^(Vatv/ JtfiMJit'A ;>HJhCMlHr 1^ 

^ Bno^« Ou^-J&iCfd:, ■' Dri{<^*%'' "Otfnrd IloueL" and "Uarffrndte 

.; M tluU while shi:i nxcWrd 
ufaa oE •alvatiofi by laith, aad of th>[; direct per- 
•cauil comtnoiuoD of Lho toal with Chriet. ahe waa DQit 
woviftd to vidiiiraw from ths maaa, or sc^parato fonniiUv 
from the old Clmntli. Tlierv wha ^ w-triu fru^ikillbuiM (or 
th« Hitfottiiing pn!«(-ijcns m rlinpcoiitLuri L^ proUct ihftm 
MtJoM tbcir oocmio^ ft h-pc c>f piety that qo loogor nl* 
'irihod tiic ijiTOoation of mudm. and of tbc Vu^«wEid wi* 
oiu ctLcr pecoliaritioa of tbo Catbolio Ritual, yet left tlifi 
,|i»Gr«m^U kcd the polity of the Churoh un^AfiaiUd. Tho 
iiiiti« tkttai^lmitfat uf Murgaurt to bur brulhor, of 
which m niui-)i Iulm btv-ii vuid, UliiMtmUui her nMUim, in 
which aotifiibllity IijmI «o lai:gt B place.^ Tho aiitbcieM uf 
B rt'lijiit^ufl poem, the *^ Mirror of the Siafol tioul," vrhlcJi 
WUA ao ProtCBtmit m ltd ton& ae to exdti> tha nrbth o< 
tliQ Sorbuunc, und of aiuny dovotioDLil hyiiuu] uho ftlao 
Qijjnf>o»vd^ wbt-'u ill iiiiddlo lifv, the '' HvptaoiaroD,*' % 
aupra r>f tn.W in thv Ktylii of liocrjuuio, in which tho 
moral itfltciiiiiw i\nd warniugi* wre si weak antidote to 
the niituiikl lixflimucu t>i tljc iiAmti\tn tLcniMlix-j^* Be- 
fore tbo death cf her Btvt huabiini, (he Dnhc of Alea^ou, 
and whtlo eho woa a ^^di>w, c^bc cxcrtod her inflacjice to 
the full oxtont io beiiolf of the p€<rsi^ut^ Froteatuttit 
and Lu oppot&ilii>ri to ihv SorbomiQ. Aft^r hur auuriAgo 
to Hi'iiry d'Alhn^t, tbu King of Nuvjirrc, nbi; conttnudd, 
ill birr own littk i^tiiitt sind priiui polity, to fjivor the re* 
formed doctiiuc and iU profcaftors. OccaflbiuiUy hor 
peculiar temperament led her to CDt^rUun hoapitahly 

1 Ah ih* jiiaicbmi r-mtrU of HnEiri Mvtin, riiE, U, n, A. M- <;«n)«, lo U* 
BiifjD^Hnfiif li ^t nfjfrfw ffur JV'fr^pu/v-f'* if jH^mfAhf, vh^oh iarmt th* ^trtlKal* 
th* JVokMCi* iMtrtM th U Mtimt 4* la Satar^i, ban grrfli 411 impml'ablB rv- 
rinof tbft 'Mriittf inyrlufc/' ^»h mtlrilmtf* ftantpubld mlanlton (afhvdrtfl^ 

< !^ LJi« liHtJ but AilniJraSlfi ramtrk* of IVrfB«4r Mdri*^, In bka IntBTft 

.^■tioD of ihp uiADnDracif Thn FmncLh nnbililf at Oil* tima, tlut Hiuiiarvl iI»bI% 
iba tbi vrr^tor af th»( fiuripm knd ihaL bar dATigtiEor, tha viitann* uid mUi 
Jcbhiic il'/llMrC» ilioiLld havt |Kibl)Hbcd thrm la tbv linl u'RT<t cJiEmb, 6«v 
Uvric d'A ^j^u/, XliHorg tftk* Ai/Wmnf ■□» in Bit 7(W-/rdlM>, li ITO- 


EtFujiiAdta whit coiicvalcii au autluixiimti iiccMkne under m 
w^^-aUi^ iJit^ry ot goapel liUirt)', Calvin wrote to hot 
El tlio aubjeeti id couaixjut^jiuti ^f hor uompUint respecting 
K^ U^giifgn of bit book a^'uiiiNt this eet^t.^ Ho aomiH 
nniarc apuakii oX \wt utl^u^hiniint, unii tb:it of h^/r fneadSp 
Lo thn Cin!(|M^I, lu u plutjjnit: loyi:. Yut, 1.Ik< ilrift of Uer 
ofluenco nppcJJ'^ in thi: character of Iiul- daugUtei-, ibe 
heroic Juaiin*? U'Albiy^t, tho mother of Hiriii'> IV<* oiul in 
Uio roAUinee^ of tku pooplo, om^ wbciQ Moagarot immo- 
di^tcly riili'J, to rvoc'ivi! tUk; l'roU!«Uviit fultb. Her mftr- 
riugt! io ibc Kuig ijf Nuvurrv, imd rutireTnunt fr^m ih9 
FiviK^h ivHJi't were |ire(^-<ltiil b^' tlid rtttnrn to KngUnd ol 
cue «f Uit jpcuDg kdiv in bor «orncc, Anoc Uolo^a* 
niuiStt ttigicd history is so intimately comicctod with tlio 
iiitrocluctii>n of Frotcetantiam into England.^ 

Francu L, whodQ fsaucroua patroca^<; of artists tauX 
men of U»H4!r», giive him iho tillo vi " Futittr of Sti/ 
CDc^" JiaH ilu t^wr for tliir 8<»rboiitL4'-, fnr thn l^ur liniment, 
(7 for tht? uionkfl. Ht) eikt^rtj^mei) Uil^ p1»u of Liiugiii^ 
ErooiBua to Paria, aud placing him &t Uii: litad at lui in- 
idtution of IcArnmg. Hit read the Bibiu witii Uln niothcT 
MOd astcTi nnd fdt no oupcntitiouB avi^aioa t^ tho Icibd- 
M of rofonxu He eVtvhhthed tho coLIogo of ■' th^ tfareo 
IttgDOgeSt" ^ defiance of the Sorbonne, Tbo Faculty of 
Tliunlogy, and Uw. Parliammit, fuuud in tha Kiug ^nd 
cnurt a biudrUinnt U> tlirJr ji4rriuu;iiting jxilk^y. It vniA in 
dko tftCQ id hli oppoeitioa tt&t tlio Sorbonno pat tho tn^a- 
liBc <d Lefdvi« on their Ust of pi^]ubit<!d boolu. It vruA 
Kit through any Uf^'cncy of thu Kiii^^ Uiat the compaxiy 
of reforming f^rvodief* in Moiiiix vna diapur^d- Hi* 
Kfodi of tho ConstabU Botirban miido it ncix^jiftary for 

f^^^4JUtf0tMm^(lHi)i Smitt^t Lttir^ fU U R^^dt A'-mw .-y < lMt> 
Uar Uwrvclai Had cuvtr «n JetcrliC't br Vju I'^Jfiii, Cti>t^ il yt9wi^'*ik 


tm IXFOBltAlTO^ Jt FBA3fCX. 

Pnutdtt to ctifit-iliftle tbe ct^-rj-y ; hiiJ 1.1»e battle of Pans 
rullijwuj Lj Ui« taplivity uf tha King, aud tUs regmcT of 
hi» mothcfi giLVc XI frrc rclii to the porBecutom. An in* 
quUitonnl ro"Ut, conpciwd pftrtly of liiymcn, inia ord.Urjcd 
bj i'ArliAntont. liorctics woro barnrd at Ptiria, and in 
the pro^Dceft. harm de n^rijuin, who combing a cul- 
which won^ a^lminLCioD of ErHsmua, with the 
■tptigitius i-ttrnesUitaa ol Latbur, was tliitiwu iiitit |iri±Km. 
The King, however, on hU rotuni from Spiun, &t tlio 
earnest intcroesslDii of Miirgart^t* aet him free- Tli^ falL- 
uro cf Fmccis, in his renewed struggle in Ilnly, cmbold- 
onc<l tho perseouting ps^rty. Bcrquin, who had ooi]ik- 
m<Ticud LL prosecution nf^ainst Bed^. th? leader of tho 
hi^n^y^huutin^ vrjEnintwioTieri a.^^pO]Tit(]d hv th<« Sorbt^mt^ 
vnut [i^LLii tiikcn into €U»tody, Ortid bhi» time pnnttbodt 
th« Jiing conl'i inl<^rpo*o to sayt him- Tbo thvo- 

[ical antogoni^ of Itcform went so for as to cndca^'or 
to put reatriotions upon thi> professors in the a^Ue^ for 
[i^ anci^ttt Iftngtiagea* atid ev^en to lampoon, in a ffcholas- 
comflily, thf» King's aister, Hgiiinut whom they threisr 
out charges nf heresy, lieaidefl (.^nnricTmiing Upt IkioIc, the 
" MiiTi>r uf Lh« Slnfiil Suub" Fiuuci?* was. at thia Uniit, 
holding a conference with Clement VII,, m Provence, and 
on hia return wu extremely indigaiuit ibt the trcAtmeat 
tff hift Bi£t«T< lie aathoriiwl GiSriinJ KoujihoI to praaob 
freely in Paiia; and wh^n B^da m«ed an outcry flf^viiut 
his ceimons, F^^ands caiiaed Beda to be baoiiihed and 
proaf>o.utecl for aeditSoii. He dit*il lu pnnim, in liJBT, 

At thia mtiintmt it steraod doubtful what counw^ Fr^um 
would take in the great retigiouA confiict of the period* 
Inl£54, Homy VUl.scparatwi England from die Papacy, 
and made hiitiaelf the heud of the En);:lifth ClmrcK. Thii 
OTUDt mndu a profoar<l iTcpn^ssicn thri^ughout C1in«toih- 
dom. Sinnc the Dii^ of Womtn, xhn Pap^ey lind loM 
the lialf of Oonnsioy and of Switz«rland« tiien Denmaili 
Cm 1&2S;), tbev SweOeu (la 1527> and now Baghuid 

T%« Ncth»Iiu)i« tvisrc dtrvpEy agitntod, and thd ocnfla- 
gmtinn vrhirli Liitlir.r hiti\ kitiHIpH ^nm spreading into 
Itaij and SpAiDr The TeuloiiLc poitiou uf ClLriHU'iiduin 
wae lost til Itome ; what would be tb« dtciaE^ii tif ibc 
Aocuuuc nations ? It waa iDevitabL* thut uU cy^ nhould 
be turned lo Franoa, and to ita Eing-^ Eiuly in lo3t, 
cht' Landgrave cf H««M oame tc ntg'>tiat« in persun with 
PnuiinzL Mar}^n4 aomMpmdud with Mt^luttt^tiion, (Tbiim 
thn WW di9ir(>^ of bringing io Frnncfs. Tlje LHiidgraTe 
natircd the I>iiko of WiLrtcmbcirg lo liifi posseBaion^, and 
iu W'firtcmbcqg tlio two forms of worship, Lutberaii and 
Catholic^ w«« modQ free. Fraiioia I, hud approached 
neanr to iht Prot^utftnta ; and th» dt^th of Clemisiit 
TIT., in S«ptambar ol thU yt-nr (1534), hud relessttd 
Praiici^ from his political tivA wit}j the Medici and the 
Papacy. Th« nol«ilt spu?Ll of the djuitipiiniH of tli^ 
PapHcj in P^briflk Ui« oEIe&ftivc protx-i'dinjfs of monkA in 
OrUaiu and cLwwhcrc, hod produced a rtactton imfavor- 
«ble to thoir c»ti«o. 

An eminent modem liistoriui of Fr^moe haa dvpictcd 
(be three rival tyBtem^, Rcme^ the Heuaiaaauae, aed tho 
Ri-fonnntUTti, whid) wrrii piiy<c'ntftd lu l]ut ohinati of 
FraiR'ts and were rcprceent*iid in three individuHla, who 
tap^H-uvd to be together for a moment in Pari^ — Calvin, 
RaheJoia, Loyola.' 'ITiia ialeTeeting jjaesagd of Martin 
ft^K^itte a low obocrvutionti wLiohf how<?vcr, aru not 
vboliy in accord with his own. Calvinism weis a product 
*^ ihe Pranj^ mind. In its uharp luid logir^l stmctura 
'I Qurreaponded to the ^)eculiantie4 of tlte French mteL- 
W* In ita niocal «anieotne«, in itA detnand for tlie 
N)rm of «oc1cmaAtkiil abuser, it found a recrponM m 
Uft oomeicnc^s of good m^n. But Calvmi^m vaa tfae 
ni^QoX type oi Protostnntisni ; it bn>Ue abruptly and 
■UoluCtdy vitli the paftt, and miint ff>r tliifl rendon en> 
Q^Uor n wt migltt of 3ppo4inon from tnuLitinnnJ fafll< 

I Bimri lUnin, rLi. IBI> ■ Iht'l.. IU. 

JB^i fi'uiu aacnsl uv .tuptinititioua amuaatioiu^ Ibfl 

iflo^mft oi (inxIcAtLitatioji, wliiali CiilTiiuuin put lU the 

Egrcfr^nt of it« tbiK>lo^y, would atir up the hottilitj ol 

UDdn in vrhom cUi Hpirit of tlii; Ui^uiuK9Uincj3 wim prodoJA' 

laant, not t<i ^vak t>f tither cl;n4ftt'8. It wiw, morM>vi^> a 

defec-t^ iLai CHWiuuiri diil noi n«( to th« Uv^l nf i-Ali^niu 

tri>let^LioLj. lit Hiv uiidat u( ULt^iruvfu»uifeniige,tLe OaU 

TinUtic prctiolLvra of Friuioc Uir^ki^d tUt- arm of llie iuagi> 

tnbto to auppr^w luitl puiiidli AnnbAptutof S^rviirUftnAi 

und tho Uko, not ti» difiturbom of dvil oiiW, bat as 

Cbereticfl- But stroD^r Uian any otb^r obsttjida in th« 

pray ol lh« Cftlvinlalit* Reform wa* the amendmeiil of 

1U« wliii^li It rt^iuiruil. 1L wwt tuu titeni, uiiivJmitiEig & 

fwi oi »KniUA\'iiy to :itn,ki^ U-wU t^liuvblc to » laultUode 

of THGit itod women, ld the court fttid out ol it* wh« 

^oould hnvo endured cuaily its dootriiiol fcnnulM and hAv« 

^bmitt^d to ltd metlLi>d ol worehip. At th^ oppoaiti^ ez- 

tr«m« from Cnlvluifita vtm thQ spirit of Spanlih CiLtboU 

idiim, thn rr^awnkened £^1 for tho traditions, the &ii* 

thority, tht* iirkugiiiiitivLi waisbip of tiui old relij^ion ; iIib 

Hpu'it of the CaLlioUc ReucLiou. wliiulj fuuiid an eniboili 

m«nt in Loyola And bis f&moiu noc4<;ty. With thia 

gpirit Tmnoo u a oati^n, Fmnoo Icit to ite nature] im- 

EfiuJeoB tuid niLoitioe. did not sympatbiio. Iktwoen tbi:M 

mighty cont^oding forces. ^Licli mora and moic ifvor* 

boQiing into couttlot. waa tlie Utorary, pldloitopliical, tcop- 

tiual Uniiiu-r iif thu HmtiLiffioiiK-u* which fonnil im pxpretf* 

■ion in thftt vtrvngcvt fd vrriU'Ji, Itabdaia, wkctt« c^xtraor- 

daiuuy g^iuii boa bcon ackno^Yledged by th« profoundiwt 

atudcDte of Utoraturo, whoao influonco qjkid the Frcach 

lanj*uaj^) ha» hovti twrnpand t^ that of Dante upon tiw 

Itjduui,iuidxThov4)Ui;J undoramaakof burl«fiqiidfiottos^> 

of lUth attd ribatdry. too-, tro must Add — bid id«aA ttpoo 

humriii nature, society, (>ducaiion, :ind ridigioi. TUfl 

foJli^ of monks and ]>nt:«ls, the SJipluAlry and forodtj 

of the SorbouQt\ he Juei1ic» to «och an cxtont that li« 



parfrri pom-rful prfibM-*tc*nB to wtviy him trom Uiwr wmth. 
Hh rrvn\ Tflligirtii ilmw i»it rxti-rul hej-ond a iheiflJD^ m 
wbtcfi even ptri^oiiail immoTtaUti^ hae no L-Iear reccignitioiii 
It U (ioabll^iA true thai one type of thought anJ E^elin^ 
ia Fnuioc nt lUat duy is rdlocttid on tlio fuigea oi (iiu^ 
gtuitou tmd Pnntftgraul. A littlo Utur, a »c«pticiAm of 
E MQMtwhat modtdtni trpa, jfrt ti giMinina prodact, litcA- 
wise^ of thp Ri*n:ii>winp4^ apjip^ni in MontaignR, Wlisit- 
CTer aUraHiuTiM thif^ 8ppcle« of pfiilonopliical HCfipticisra, 
DC of natural n-lij^Ion. may have for Uie French niiud, il 
W iiio inUinj^H*i in form, it hitd too littlo uf uurHiMtnEW 
wnd conni£^, to modiat^ bctwm^n the two n^eoluto com* 
buant* wht* woi^ tfk c<^nl4TFid for th^ po^osdon of Francis. 
Hucbt if n'lt cvnyythinp, d^jwnded on thfi path whiob 
Uie lifdiltttinif moiiHrrh. FmiioJe I,« woiilil ^oiidtid^ to 
inlnT, The Fiviich nioujirchy. it Jum lieeii jhkI, wliich hud 
been emaooipfttcHl poUtically from Rome since PhiLp tho 
Fait, [md rnvthiag to gain by becoming PratcaUnt^ But 
It IcAot it had much to gmn by prt^aerving it3 indep^nd- 
•ooo; by rofuMJng to cnliat in the reactioQury, n>predsivo 
policy of Spsinirfi Cathrlidam ; hy de^^lining lo p:irtnlc9 in 
R work in which the House of Auatriii liail tnk^n th« 
IflBtUi^ |Art. But Fnuiois L did not a^um« a cliatiu<ff 
■nd indujKTndi^nt puaitiou. He did not i-m^jm^r*? Pnili*-»- 
Untijini; hn did not conAuitcntly tlirow himtiL-lf upon the 
Mde of oitrainontaiic] CtLtholiciam. I^ow pnrti&Uy tolor 
Hiag the KaformatioD, and now p4»r»ecutJtig it with hoao 
tndcr, be ndhered to no definite policy. By tbU ud- 
dHddcd and raoiU^lln^ attilude b« brcmght upon hii 
voontfj ipCAlcuInbld ntij»;rii!», civil vrari In uliich Fmntui 
Wftme '* not tli« nibitcT, bat the prey, of I^uropr," jmd 
Iti aoU " the fiightf id theatre of tho buttle of atx^ta ru>d 
Mt&OQ^'' " Hw dynasty perished in blood fuid mire," 
and Fnuic« would haro poriahcd \Tith il^ bad not tlut 
tUm b^n RTTtiibid tiy a vtitflHuan and imrrior whom 
Pn)-ridf»nr<> miimt iip hi ruitigziti' thr lo^ (if hi* tioutitry.* 


■ NotvpIUistftitcUiig \m fn&idly prokesloTia to tLd Lntlfee^ 
I tirm^ it Etoon appeared that If FnLii(*i4 would h^ve been 
I [fijul to i«<! II Ruffrriniiiion alUit Uil* RnLi4int;iii typtr, hw 

■ liHcl nu ffvniiatliy with atlfickn upon Uii* iWl.rInc Lif tJi« 
B ScLcmmciU* or upmi tbc hicrurclitcal :«y«tcm of tbc Church* 
I tho topics which hi^ aietdr, id kor writingft, had eitduIijjL 
I Nor hnd h& miy diapoeitioii to countenaiiiC^ movcoDeitta 
I ihu involved at rv^U^ioua division In Ula Idiigdotn. Am 
H loD^ aa reUu;iiii]H ^Uhl^u^ waa t^iiiri[>4?f] to uum iit nmk and 

■ wlucntioi^ the King might diMcountcimiiuo die ii9o of 
I force to TcpivM it ; but wbcn It pcnctr&tdd in^ tho lower 
I ranks of tho peopK tho case woa different. Unity m 
I ration vna aii olomont in the etren^^th of hU moiuniiT, 
I of which hu bOEUtvd. He prl^d t)ie old inaxini. '* I;n rvn^ 
I un foi, im Ina," Wln'ti* tht?i>*f(>n!, in Oirtobpt, 15it4, in- 
H consiflnmlj^ zi^nldtA prtMliil nt tht* iM>Tni*n of thn 8ln<«ltt 
B ill Paria, and even on tho door of the Kiiig's L'hambor m 
B Bloia, pLu^arda denouncing; the nuua. he fiicn&lii:EHJ hJa 
B devotion to the ('Othclic roli^on by comijig to Pam to 
I take part in solemn religious proceaaiond, and in dto 
B bumbig, ^vith oirciinuitniicen of atrocious oraelty, of 
B eigbteeii heretlc^a, Vet i\^\n he slioweti liimself anxioua 
I to einni^t a pctUlii^^d ;il]i^iiiL'u wibU file Gcniiaii Pntti^n- 
B tanta, and ovcm i^U^rcd luUt lu^rjiijui'iitnr. limkiitg to & 
' union of the opposing religious partica^ He went ao far 

aa to invite Melaucthou to Parid to help fonrard th« tof 
terpriac. He claimed that the pereonawho hud b(scn put 

I to d^^Ath vrero fantiticx and Koditioiu p^^plp, nhotn tba 
pafa^ of thd Stato r^tUn>d it neeeaaary to destroy* Li 
trutli, ihf* Grand Msiat^r. Montiiioreiu-t, iiiid tlie Ciirdinal 
lie Touriiim, HL'lJva piumott^ra of jw-mtrulimu liad p<iT^ 
landed Kim titat the jiosting of tho placardt was the firvt 
itcp m a grc4it plot of Annbaptiata, lA^ho dcaigncd to do 
in Franco ^nt tboy had done in Munater.' but tli« 
oiL-willingnefiB of Francis to produce a ecUiam, or to ph 
I 1 []<arilUrtifi»T[ik.«U 

In aciUtgoiiiam bo tlio CatJu^llc Cliurch obliged lum 
to giTc hin appnn-nl to a. rigid nUlcincot of <Ii>l' trine, id 
iqiponitiafi to dio i'rotc^nt ^-iowa^, vtiicli the Sorboano 
pot fortli, in tho form of a dirocfi^n to preacliom.^ He 
»v0n did not lift % tlngor, in 154j, to prevent the whole- 
ule FiLii^ghu^r of ]il» utiofFt*iidiii]^' WiiIdeiLHi^ri f^iilije^tK 

lo withat4:^iid aiiil reduce iImj power of tht? Emperor, Heuoe 

ha LotliTtitcd the frtcTithhip nitd n-ntiLitcd tim ciLuao ol tJi<! 

Pi<Dt08tAiit« in Cicm^iuiy, nrkilo be wna iofJiL^ting inipru- 

owiMOt and d«iith u{ion tb^ brethren ic Fmtice. it wim 

not partiality fr>r ProteHtantiam, Imt hostility to dittripm, 

Uiat moved Lim; uud *> Htrong wlis Uus BHiiLiaieuL. tbut 

hr. did nut htwiiuU; Ut luakG coiniiiQii c^ntn^ \\ lUi Um Turktf, 

f'jr the mkc of wftnlcr:nitig his ndT<!r&fl,nr. l.)n the vr]io!<:, 

iluring tho roign of l-^mncis, Prctestaiit opiniunw fouTjd 

vt a tittl« fftvar ftmong tlie higher cU^aoa- For a wbij«^ 

il w=« L«T:h*>rani9TO ttet wsu* adopted, Put Luther was 

-'HI itlOTDII^l^ly It Ol^rin:ill tr> ht< irUIl|jPrUll1 trj till) Fri?I|li!ll 

iml. It 1TW1 CnlviruMn, <ih ninm a& Calvinutni nj^uiw, 
vbicli atiractcd the syiii{3AthiGs of the Frcnchmeti who 
•ocvptod tlw> ProtOTtimt fcdth. 

Fw^ and Cdviii were bctb fugitivee from perw- 
'"ition in Franco, CaWia tctiirn^d to Geneva from hU 
Wutfanwnt in 1-Ml. Mnw^ and m^ira Gph^va l)eaiiii» 
*0 ■hj'IiUTI for Fi'JinHiTmin whnm into!eranci3 dmve From 
*^r oijuiilTj'. Many i>f Lliein c&uie, wearing the main* 
*bicJi tbct inAlrumi^abi of torture hud left upon ibom* 
^ th« victjnw of ivli^oiu o-uclty cmci^ptxl from tiM 
pttM of tho Jura and CAu^t nght of tho holy city, 
^5 fell oo their kn*?^ with thiraksgiving? to God.^ 
"«m thirty prbiting^officea of Geneva, Protestant work* 
*>ie nQit fnnli, which viam wvitU'-rtTd ovttc Fn-nce by 
*W«ira at tb<r peri! of thwr Htm. The Bible m 
'^nch w» boned in a little yolamc, wbidi it wtu cutty 




to bider also, the rflabns, in tL« veniidii of C1«m«kl 
UnroU witli the int«rlinoar mnsic of Goudlmcl' Cftlrin 
indofntigtvhlu in t?xUf>i'tiiiff and onooum^iii;; hia l^^uii 
icn by hU luttun. Proacher* wlio w^ro lT:uiK"d at 
bis mdo r^tnmpid tf> thi^ir i*ontitry nnd minUttri'd ta iho 
littla chiirebi?9 whkh long lii^hl l.hmr wi>i71il]> in secret. 
The Rafi>naatioii fiprcad mpidty, especially in the South 
of Fiunoe, ITiC apccladc of godly men of pnro liveB, 
led to thf¥ atiikr.^ vh\\e tkthoiets and eoo^^rre woro tolcmted 
ii thoy ^oLild go to Lhe raaaa, alienated umii^ from tlho 
old r«iigion. 

Hpnry T!., wbn ini™'i*pd*«l liin^ fnUirr in 1547, had no 
0yiu|};ithy wltli rroteetantiAm. ' JJo niigbt ttiipport tltn 
PtuttstautA abroad wben & politic&l object waa to Iw 
lined, ufi wh'Jn he ontf]rtd into a twftty with Mniiricc at 
timo wlivn thu Inttt^r "ivaii about to tako up anna 
Litivt tlio Rmperar; but at boma ha coopfintod with 
the Sorljonn<^, wUo were more and mors biiAy in tbeir 
work of extirpating fali4« doctrine by burning tbi^ bor^ 
Olid pnmniiii <if its pmfosaors- Ths rage of tlu? common 
people, and CY«n the holy horror of liccntioiiA cottrti«ra, 
woro excited by fictitious tales of Abominable vicxi whioh 
\yrna eaid to be prnctieed in the icieetinf*« of thd Ha^no- 
To be objects of thie sort of ealnmny has bu«n 
oommon cixpeHiinoe of aet'U wliluh h^ve be^n obUgftd to 
QBMftiicr' ilifat ritf* in nnnrooy.^ 

T^t in this rfrign the Protestant opinions nadd 
progrena. In lo5g, it va& eetimatod that tiwte inriE ^Mt' 
thousand plocca of reformed worahip scattewd orer 
Lnce^ and eongr^rgntionu ntiiuberiu|f fdur htindrod tbon- 
I'b^^y ^vr€' oi^iniiu?d aftor tiit.^ Presbytoriao fanOf 
and vere adhRmnlA nf thii fi«nitvnji typt^ of doctrine. Is 

Btti^ion. p, lOS. 
ri^intHwinn bfovie1it)t{;Kii[i,i Ehi? c«rlr riiiiAilanK in Uio fUniuui Rcupln- QJb 


l6M tbey vcntu^^fo" ho^jL|0]ioral synod ui ParUi 
wbeco th<^y Etdopttxl their lonnnuuii oi fiLiih and JqUit- 

After HiMin' f.T>ni^l«Jii(l iIh.' dkuilroiiH i^-M-r uf Cntoftu- 

Cftinbrv«iii, by wliu^K Im uoiujuosU in Italy iukI iu tlia 

Hetbcxlauda vroro gtvioii np to Spitin, nnJ hie tl^u^btiir, 

£lixabelU, waa to be lunmcd to I'hilip 11., mid hia sbtts-, 

UaigA»>t, to tbo X>iik» of ^c^vay, bo oomuiuuo^ with 

bush rigor lJi6 work of pera^utJon. It wiu involved in 

diiatnKkty ihut tlut Iw^i kingn Hlioiild iintts in tbo aup- 

preasion of firn'*y, "Tb*i Kin^^ nF FnLMi^e, wliu-b, slrioe 

tbe nivcxMa o£ Cbiu4i» Vh, hjid been ibu Unit ttowbr in 

EiirQ[M. bou^it. at Uio prico of aumy pi-ovinooa, tlie rtbitk 

q{ Li«atcniint of tbe King of SpiLiu in Uk^ Cathob'c 

puty/' ^ Hr (iiUTX^xictMlly prGi:j(^ntc?d bimKulf in n eoseion 

of l^irliam^nt, trbt^ro a milder jiuli^y b^td bngiui to fiivd 

idvocat^St aiid ordered the two intiiiib4>ri* who inuX ex- 

pnwu^l (biTHLwIvuti vxtJUl eciipbfiticjHlly uu tb^l nidti to Xnn 

ihni up in tbrt Bik^tilc. lia drobinrd tliLLt bif would niak^ 

Uit t:xtir^atton of heresy hie priitcipal bus[n>^33, Mid by 

kiUx tbi^atcncd tbo Parliivmcttt and inferior eourte in 

«ttc thcj ftbowvd miy letiienoy to h«retiea. But ui a tUt 

viicll formud » purt of tbe fi*«tlvalB lii honor of tbe toar- 

liiglBt a cplinUrr fn>ni tbt* aipi^ar tit MLnitgomeiy, tlio 

CItptAjn of bin Ou3trd», striK^k }\\* iryi.^ loid inflicted a 

*i*ail]r wouud. It bccuumI U> the I*rotcatautfl that ui Llia 

toometit of 03clrciiv« peril tlie baud oi tlie Ahnlglity w^i 

tntohcd otit to deliver tbi^in (^1661)). 

Tbua far p^reoeution biid fnilud of its dneigi^n ^'llio 
hn^tiot oad tbo politicians had thought to anmMlat^ 
btraiT fay tbe nnuib^r and atrnoky of the pnniahmentu ; 
ftar jvtrritivl vritli dbminy llmt Lbi< bydni iiEulti[^t4Til 
''Mi tmd^r tl^i^iT blow*. Thoy bad only nucc^^tied in 
^Ung to a degree unbcaid of before, alt that tbcro ore 
4 hmiio povr^n tn the hitman eoul- For oim ranrtv? 
i Muibi. lilt m. 

256 THK llEinDllHATTD?^ IR riAMTE. 

who didappifirpd in tlii; A&uk'ji, tUtirt; prt-!t(<[iU*<1 ihera^'^lvei 
n hutiilnu) miin^ : mm, vrrjim^n, diiMnui, niun-Jic-il Ui Llinlr 
puniflhinent, aiDgiDg tho Pstilms of Mikr<jt, or tlio Oiuitid« 
of Simeon — 

Saiptturl ]'aI to iroiia 9iunurk 

Hany expired in e^^sla^y^ irscrKible to the ri^flned m* 
tMVi (if Lbe sJLViigeFi wttu mveuted ii>j'LarL-H lu ptuU^ag Lbuir 
nguny. Mui'e tlmii one jui3gi! diud uf uoiLHli^nuiiitin or n>* 
mi^irse^ Otlicm ombrncrd the fjiitlt of thcnc whrjm Uicy scat 
ti> the .icoffv^Id. The c'xefliitiftner ai JJlj-ja was convorted 
at the j'oot of the pyre. All the threat phenomenft, in tho 
luuKt viiit prc*poctioaft, ol tli« firat day* of ClirEhliAiiiiy, 
w*rH iin'i] hj ri>itp[M?iip. MtMt of tl»' vioiim* diird with 
tlir cyi^ turni:*d tovrnrdit tliut Nrw J(>rLurJ«iiL> tlint holy catjT 
of thi." Aip* wljcrv^ soTiit.^ hiwl been to «cfik« whence others 
hud received tho Word of God. Not a prciLchur, not a 
miaaiouary waa condeuiiied who did not ealute Cidvin 
from iiifiT, thuuking hiMi for luLvin^^ pri>p;bred him for ao 
b«iiiltiftd an end. They no more chnught of repr<5:iching 
Calvin for not fnllowing them iiit(> Finance than a soldier 
jvpnoiL^K-n hiH ytu^^nt] fur tUfL plunging Jnli* tlm inMt^«.*'' 
Wc? hiivc Qovk' to refer to the tirnninstiTM^'.n thftt cnu- 
V cited til c Ha^icnoti into a pohticnl paity. With Uib 
accoeaion of Francis II-, a boy oE atKtOiJii^ Cailijii-tiit; 4e 
Medici, ihd widow of the latd king luid the motUur <jf 
hia anoceaaor, hoped Co gmtify her ambition by ruLing tho 
kin^Wu Thit daughtt^r ct Lrnvn/rr 11.. or Kloraaco, akd 
tbi- fut^L^u of Ch-mi^iit Vlt.^ htr duldhuud luid bnm pMfted 
in iin FitmrMiphc^]-*? of dtiplidty, nntl she had thoroughly 
imbibed the anpriiioipfed ninxtma of the Italian achool at 
pclif ice. The death of tho Dauphin had mSkda h(<r huabaud 
the h^h- of tbu throti«> ; hut his av^rsjou to hur -^-iw m«b 
t]:-»t, 3it :in eitrliiy dii^, ivhi<ii it vitu supposi^il tlint ro cbil* 
drai woidd spring from her miimnge, there wh£ an ]d«« 
I Vktnia, nil. tm 

tima^m^ iK-r b&clc to ItrJy, Sho biul to pAv a^i<ldoi]i 
«Kirl to tlio mi«truuuK of hav fathur-in-liiw :inr! h(?r hun- 
bi[>l, P.tpn afli*r tlir iiTiiJi of h*ir Hiil<Jmn mul ftftf^r lipr 
WIhikI vit<(Mii]r-il thij tUmni.\ tlift rlid not t'Si'jLp*? frtui^ hw 
Ijiimiliiiting position. SU<^ ^vilb dopeiident iipuu tlii^ ^ixxl 
^fliov o( Olttia of Poitiers, Hcniy"* iniatrc&8, for the 
^lintiruaifoo of TclAli<rii4 with h«r ]]a«l>>-LUil, whi>M repu^ 
Uivo m hor WM partly fomidwl on phveioal p*^culJarkiea, 
ihicli miv i1erlvt?(l fftJiu hev pmfli{j:it« futJier eukI wlikii 
vmailtti ;j (]lm*^iM^i L-uiLKtititiion upon her rhililivn.' Ac- 
^^t^inf^i ifoni curly childhood to hide h<ii' thoi^ghte aiid 
MingB : without cofiMicncc ninl almost without a heart ; 
'uicff IJUlo fur r&tigirjn except to bn(i^ its retitnui:st4. 
Cuhmno hod iiuraed h«r<lr<:'ani of anibttlon irt secret,' 
Butlho ffti?t thut FrsuioiB wjw h^yailly of iigf, though j>riu^- 
4i^ In liiH inin(irTU% di>utjijfc*itih-il liitr liope. It iriiniA- 
w«1y appeaivd tli&t tttc yt>nLkg King wxi '^nim\y luidor 
tbfr»ntn>l of t]i« Eainily of (Juise. OJaudc ol GuiAia hnd 
btctt a wcvlthr im I pn^mmt^nt nubloiium of Lorminf^, 
*llohwl dUtirgMiJili^fd liiiUHcU nt MiirigtiAncJ, und in the 
«W|uent cont«U vrith Chariofl V- IVo of his noiu, 
Foodi^ Dake of Gniw» und CharTi-a. dnlinjil of Lor- 
Vvjia, luul aLvjiiin<d ^tt-nl, poiAi*r iiruliTr Ern:iy It.: th» 
Diiiv as It TniliEary linuhir, iTipit^^Ejilly by tliu KuoucMful 
*faB6 o£ Metz and the talcing of (.'nlai^ ; i^nd tho Car- 
Culaa Confi^aaor of tlio Kiug, wikot^c iX'n^cicnco, Uesa 
*it«i he airricd in hi» akovo. Their aifitct hud m^Lrried 
^ai«i V, of Sootknd ; and b^r daughlurt Mar\' Stuut, 
*hi was to play so pmminrMtt ;i [Mirt in thi^ htitj^ry of the 
^tW^ wadded to the youthful Kini^, (Viiim II. fl^ wac 
*<34kiii ttiiiid Jiiid hody.iLiid it waA not difliL-uIt f^ir the 
^Wdbal imd Ui'? Dakc, both of tbtm ;*3piriui' ajid fidi'wt 

^ A^Jt^r^ J' L ZifH, 1. 14. SluiU«lunu[4n»Jbv Oiti Ducrl'Aiuualt 

pnen, with Ui:^ nirl of th^ vi^roua imd bcnutifnl vinng 
Qnoen, to maintain s, oomplete ii«c«iid^En<jy ov^r Lifo. 
Tbo Cardinal n^aa supreme in the afTalra of sSt^te, t)ie 
Diik(< in Lh» rnilitjiry rlfi[iArtnii^iit. Tl wiM HU ;i£(uel»tton 
i>f UnT ftokliiT iiticl tJir- iljploniJitifiL, Uio lloii and ilm fooc, 
for th«ir cconmmi .ig^rumlitomcnt. The Gtu«oe net tbem- 
aA]v«« up a» tbc oliitinpm* of the o\d religion, iJlhougb 
tbdy lit flrat iLd>>|>t>?<l tlio policy of w^thfitsndrng Cbur]«l 
V. thi'ough a» aLlisLiKM Kith thd Pope. They luul luty^ 
hayvft ci tu'rpiirln^ pinver hi It^jr, mtul juamuful t/> -.nliorit 
thn r\njm nf tl^L }ii>uhr nf Anjcni to Nnploji, On tUf» tu> 
ceauuti of X^mrtcia Ihcir first step wiia to laiiuoe Ui«> King 
to iilyt a cotiiUMiua dJsmia^il to tlio Orjind OoiiatAblc, 
Moiitiwirt'iioi, who, with hiB uumoroua r^ilutivue, luid bc^n 
riTiiLs (3f lliu CuiEL^ luul hwl tflmrod with thorn tlto 
Dfficci uii() honor:* of tlw kiitgdom. It wiu by the Hip- 
port of Diun^L nf Pi^itifirfi. oiikt nf whose ihiu^hters bad 
m;trL'itil their broUiei'. UiHt Urn GuUtH wan? hjihIjIhiI limt 
tv mnkiT thriuM-'lviifft Lht; i^igiiub^ jiud thtjn tbo ^upifnors ol 
Hontmorcnci, whom they givratly oalfltripped in poUuc&J 

It vr\*& not to ho e^<>ut<Kl tUut tli<» fci«bt ncibloa of 
Frunoit woiiM cguiifUy tum th<-- control gl tho gov^^mmeiDt 
practically iifiiir|>i:?d |jy pcni^inrt whom they considprwl up»^ 
atAXta, vflio Iih'u) Btizeil i>]i phiceH lltiit' diil not bi>1ij|]g Ut 
thdm by the 1a\Ta lutil cLiAtenirt uf tlm rnalm, Hii; iip}H>* 
ntaon to the CiuIwmi ceiiti^rcd iti two fiimilLrfl* tW hooACt 
of Boiirboji and CliAtilion. 'I'ho tbrco brothers of tJi« 
Coarmdr hoi;ia9 worn princes of the blood, boLn^ de»«iidt^ 
by a collatt^ral line from LouU IX- Antliooy of V«n- 
lotnu, thu 4.>ld4M(f, who by hia BiarrEfigii with Jeanne d'Al- 
bit*t« thi4 (laughter f>r Mjirgurtft. woru th« tiUia iif King nl 
KjivaiTf.\ h.*ii bf^ii nioTird to take the side of the Prot«ft- 
taiitA. but w;u4 a nmu of weak aiul v^dllatin^ chai-ider, 
H^} bul tin Jciftier bopL* tlian to {fct bndc from S|>cviu hit 
1 iivutituntii, rin. aoi 





fl tMil|iiiBlj of Nav^UTi>, or Co provide himaeLf vltli an 

K talent tlominion ^l^irher^. Tbt? second liratfaer, 
HiTM. Uie Oinliii^l i^ RoueUi wra of h -aniTliir tr-injiRr- 
pt. Tlif! third, LouiM, Priniw irf CoimW, wjui n briivp 
nifui, not tritboat noble (|miUti<^ bnt vru-h in conrw^l, nnd 
tw>t proif against tho ontircmonU of ^oimnttl plwwnre. 
The Proleslant wivea of th*»c< mon, th^ Qiin^in o£ Nav^tr? 
ma<l tl>e PrinceM of Coni5d, a Diece nf the Cnnwtable. had 
jtann flrmnuiA of reJt^oua oouvIcLion rli^Ti f.lielr hiisbanilfl. 
Tilt* thr«f? brot1i«T« uf tJ:e houac of Cimtilloru Aoiks of 
i/>uiia of Montmon^nd. the aintt^r of the ("onntaW*^, were 
im» o! A noblw make These were Odct, Cardinal of 
OiatiUon^ Admiral Coligny, and Dandv^lot, G(jloiiel of the 
CtklpitMS infantry. Coligay had acquired ^fi^eat oredit by 
bilRldlicing Hlri^l dSM.i[)lin« Into T.lie Frt-m'li infmitry, rtnd 
bj nlor nt St. Qiumfin mid I'lm^iprr-, In idl tin* r|iiii)i'- 
tMiof inind and cbniitctcT tlat oonati^tv human great- 
VtMt be waa without a poor. Hie attaclimeut to ibo 
rRtottUit caitM waa Btncorn arid iininoriiblr;. 

Thftt tho Sonrbons and tlw? gmat noblo* who wooro con 
iKetcd with thonn tdionld «i9«lc the srif port of tho perao- 
(nted Calnnlitfl, and that the Utter, in tiiTn, should ae^k 
fardoUvvtmnc^ lUrou^h tJii;iji, wibi lULtunU-' Thti (hthnt 
Vb* TiTtBal afnirj>nn(> who h^d taVr^i tho station that bew 
l ^tti to the pnDC«a of the bluod, and, at the aame t^me, 
*ne peraccutcm. The ncbled« their ant^i^^oniatt), and their 
hoUttant oo-ruJigionurtv hi;d a common caiiao. Thor« 
*ii • union of political and mligioiu motiTog to Innd 
Uitu all tCigatlidrr If politicat coo^derationa bad a f^w- 
^tmg welgltl with Anthony nf Natarre »nd Honie otlit^r 
hadtnt, thui waa iJie luLHlurluiti*, ^uid n heavy iniaJortima 
''liroY*^ of till? nngn^mobt; but it vrmn not llieir Innlt. 
"Iiik it is rain to ignoiv thii intlm-iif^e of pohticnl 
"pirati^Miai it is a greater error of »oa\e writ-jra, lika 
uLiila, to aamhe the whole moTOment of tlio llagiieDOt 

1 baU, I. IM. 


Ictuim to mgtivii* of ttiifl oJiuruotr^rJ Tbcru wiit on thm 
pfiu^ a cJiorovgb oppootition to thu cnufl pcms^utioa of tbfl 
C^VtiaistS and nil attarliinimt tf:i Ihrir rAiiAn, wliirli, If if 
was iiiL-oiisLLiit in aomv c»«ciSi pr\>ve<) in othen a j>rofuau(l 
uad ^roiiring coavicUoo, auch as no tcnx>rs and no eacrificn 
ooald weaken. 

CftlTuif l^t; Uic Lutbi!TTiQ ivJuruieTftf proftohud ^bo doo* 
tviiiifof ijh4sl]ei]oi> to ruturA, mid uuoompliitung ftubmiesioa 
to ttiifFeriitg and (1<>»th * Fur fortv yaavt thn unoffending 
Huguenots \\i\A Hctvd on :hU |>rini!iple unti stibiikillMl in 
indt^ACTiUible iudi^utliea ajid cnicitiea, inflicted uTten bjr 
totti vdio in their uiirn daily Uvea violated ettty oonunAad- 
mcsit of tho docoLoia^o. But OTen Calvin hold that UiLri»- , 
tunn might lawfnllj tuku up nxms, under nutbomod ■ 
hndiiN, to cvcrtbro^v uMuqiution, We shall seOf inor«* ^ 
oxnTj that it vnifi the- uiidi^f^l ntrodtics, not of iiiHg»> 
tiatee. but of th&ir tQbj&:^ts, acting witloat coh>r of Ijlw, 
that kindled the liamefl of civil war. But io Frarn^, as 
in rttTmnny, during t^iis ptmod, tlvo reltictuicf^ of the 
Protectants to abandon the ground of paneiva rooBtanco 
and to riso a^^ainat their oppre«9oi^, th« tndeciaioii of tho 
ProtostanU on t)dk question, more than once co»t thorn 

I'll? conspiracy of Amboisc wax n plot, of which a French 
gentltnitui< La Rt-Mtaudlc. was iht most active comtjin^r, 
lo dupoMCJfa thci U(uf»4?a of tholr poaitioo by force nnd to 

VflpiliininH 111 ubitifi Cnndi «nil oUifin nilvorjied Mt opfm «it, hoi f^ilij^nj 

■rwiaanl ilitm la ftibpt t man ttafiy pullry. tlnvila nuJru itM miiflpfnrjr 

oF AmboiM MiLt rwuir of thi* C4tnf«r«n«. But it |i cm «rB4[bCii tb*t 'ucti ■ 

cflflfannu* vu m^at btW. Sat th« uuuriiri^ JsrlUdHP at iHnln b^ Kuilut 

OB f»f« 10 r*ftrfiTK« b> Ilia ijobeiH a>ru]iif*'7, tWTin Hjri : " Captnduii 1«a 
lamtnUIiriua MloyoM f^naAtt d* rinhuintftft^ qiiDU frXir^O'l paat pbDlir la 
nliffiiTn ' fntviif d^bcurv ca btun die allraiJuit uui faornUTu buodflripi T"^ 
•atlcniktqtr l«iii In ^imi liAitu/* IId ■uyi, thnr Eie mplluil, ituti if » Hkck 
Inp at bluiO wnfo tfaty], nw ra vi bloml wuultt flaiv (i\ar C«rOp#j Dcnonr 
%At El I*1f«U«r *' fof *> nil lu jiiTruFi « liuriilrvil ljui»h fbmi fliil tlia uoncf Ihi 
Jheiefli* «r Lho Owpol Ai/tM bo Hkf>o*B4 lo tuAti cprmjbnBn." 



filftoc Uic control of thfs government in tho hantisof tho 
pnDO«« of tfa« bicod. (?ondi^ appears to baro been priry 
to it. Coli^y rofciaed io tuk<y [jart tn it j Calvi^i triod to 
dLaitia<U La Rciiiaudlc from exGcuiJaff lira projt^t]!, wliidi 
tba RelDtfint-T wliiml)" diaiip|»i'i>vtHU uhIc^sh the ])rin<u4 of 
Ibe btood, lint Ooudf nlijTit', but ihc first i>f tliem iit nmk, 
wcro to nuiction it« ukI FArliameitt were to join witli 
Ibosu^ The CruiaOA wove forewarned and forearmed, and 
took a AftVAf^o r^x'onp^, not only upon tlio L;i>tiBpiratorfl, but 
spoo a ^*at tiLiiJibvt of ianoc&ut ProU*8taut&, whom tJie 
oauftpimtont hiu\ irvitpd U) tlie court ta prea?nt th^ur 
prtitioiu. bitti whii bru) m; fitrLhi^r complicity in the 

Umi commotion of which this abortive scliome vrsa an 
inipnisive a^pit had tho cfToot to inodoralo for tho mo* 
luent Uie policy of tb& Cardittal. Th<^ prieone ^ore 
opeo^ ftDd tbo FrotoitJiatA ai^t iit UbL>rty. Tlie Edict of 
RomnntnlEn, ir 1>^>«l^, still forbade iJl Prntipf^t^nt !\8ai.'iii- 
blicft for scor^Jiip. hut proceeding against iiidivlducLln on 
aiocotuit of tlicir fjuth n^e to bo di'opjjrd. Tbi> tantiu, it 
iruMud, bad b<Kcmc too strong to bu untdit^Jttod from tbo 
field. The i'rot4^tnnt5 miulo n.n i^ppt^iU T^r itborty to 
l&Mtt tJ^^^ther for worship. I'h^rr |>i>tition was boldly 

I Sh CUfin'i l»Ur. fLlDil uTinr*, on tha Mibjfil {AfirLI m, IMilj, in lloa^, 
4L Sit HnC-, fk lU^ Th»n nn Id qn lU^iihr (hff Iji K«n4iidla KpnMnUd 
C"**^- la b« Lha riluit luilv of lli4 aiiliTprlid. ThiU hu wu !■ jpovfalljf h- 
MMsd, and p»b»bly with IrodL [Idiiri MKftl^. viiT. 11 Htj, SiamnridJ, /Hi- 

*MkliiHTfictinrBwfliwne!wit lilBt ilohielbit oJcbl iCflvo ob Ij RAnmuTrn 
^b nil CMd«TtnJiivJf± liaJfa/' <MIT.> Ka^iLi] Ad^trLA to Iha d«Qkiil dI 
CiO<l< j V«l kf only d*oM llioC he tiiJ 1>*<a a f^rlv in Ukj- mlerpriig affftmt 
Ac JTrt^^rit* £fa£e. Hc wvuU luU lu^o ailiuilUl UAf Ihc Coiitfw^j of An^ 

ib«uthwunIbpr«uiQjGllirvir1u«fjf C^liffly, •A;rtfK«ithtf<vniirrtrAtor»wq»« 
|f«nBtalby tukj>g"aa piubilir Aiitl kiih tf boQirr from LnifATlJnicnf hla lk^ 

iCeltgajruilQovriU U|iirUriM .tiavk^i) plow toj[t(lieT nn 

pr«^cnt<id i'l l)]o Khx^ in ^ui Anwmbly of NotttbloA at 
FttLiUiiiiililKnii by (olignVf whi> bnd <'«poaRMl, bnt not fvt 
(mblicly prof«w«l, tIi© ih-w npintons. At Ihfi same thno, 
B deinunJ u&A niacin for n nii^^ling of the Stales G^nt-rvl, 
U) coiuud&r tli« [jnancefi of Utt) klugdotii, imd for u Xjttionnl 
CquqoiI to Tv^Lilfttc the nffttira of religion. The Cordirml 
WM obUgiHj to nu^tLiooRe. Thit Giiiemm now <txcrt«iJ &1] 
their infltioncQ to GumbliK* nn ovi>rwhdniicg party ngniDfit 
tXiG^ i*roT«AtQikts Aud thi> Rourbon princos. Cftlvm ad- 
lii^ml t«» hiH principle hjiO (lifu^iiutenaiicixl :\l] vioU^iici* on 
tbo nlflft i»f tlifi PrijimfjinlH, who ^turK lui^tini-d (<* tftkr 
poM««non of cburchc«; but Iil^ Bought to pcmmdc the 
princes to collect tlic tioljl^ d I'rovoncc, LnngUixloe, 
Kjid Nonikauiy, aiid umlco Htioh a dt^ionetratidn aa woxdd 
of it*>lf, without bloorlshod. br^k down the power of 
iiivh untAgi-iiiiat*. TIju frivolouft Anthony v1 Nuvarro 
wiist hikt <«|uul lo fill iiiiinly nn uuilt^rljdcing. SiimnKinM 
by tho court to OrlQati5, hn went with Cond^. They 
w«it,aw»r».' of the ptill iii whidi they plaoxl t1i»?rua<*lvetf, 
and in op[K:«itIon tf) the luirice of thtiir friends iind the 
t-jitr<iatica of i\mi vrivvA^ <'Ond& vntA put under iLnv<st, 
OD iho chai^ ot ef>mplicity in tho Amboi^i^ Conspiracy. 
Tlic King of Navam* wan df^privpiT of hia ofBccn Eind 
giLirxb, mid sTirroniuW \i'ilh sulditrr^ And »\j\i.'A. Tho 
D»piiU<« of Lilt) E»tzit<7i,im tlicy am vix], found f^viTrything 
in tlic luinds i)f ih^ Cm^dinal ; and were to be compelled, 
at lh« outset, to nga a C&thoLic creed. Tho eamc test 
TTOft to ho pivocoited to th« choToUere of thtt Order of Sl 
Miehatilf i]w Firfvwb oardituds, the prebt^a, tha noblfi*, 
and fhr royal <Tt1^nr*r« pivAi<nt mt Orioiutt. Tho luymen 
wIlo flhoiihl imfiw to Hgn thin fnrmnbiry mrm in b@ de* 
privod of alt th^ir oAiet^ and eatatefl, uid the oexl 6xy 
M-nT to thf- atiike, Eixla«aAtl(3 were to be renmtided tr 
thea' iiwn onU^r fiu: trial and judgmenL It vnw ejcf>octG<S 
Mt i'oligtiy fttul DAikdoh>tf and prohoibly tlwir Iwotlter 
4> CxixLiiial, wociM bo iiivo1vi>d in tbi» dwlntction of dig 





Ftatatant lejwWlll^"l"he same t^reorl T\-n^ lo bE- Lmpi)ad<] 
aoiUoffieiELU smi p(UU>r» tWju^limit tbt- kiiij^Iom, mid 
thr r«M|itiiviiH-nh wigk tii U- v^iiffin^f^i! tiy b[xlii<.< of HiildSpiri;, 
who wrrr to ni!Liv}i thiniigh tltr InmL Tlu^ iloTrinimi <rf 
llie Cntholtc Church wa* to hn at oncci oatiiblif<licd- The 
Giiiec0 pufihi>d fonpfirdt ^th all possible lupidity, tlie 
proceaa agtuiist Cond^* who w^a ohar^od with liigli ttoa> 
jKWi.' He\n»eoademi:ed. ftnd tlie 10th of DeomuWr \ntf 
tb« diiy fiit*J for lim execiitinn. Just thtm, on the 5th of 
OiTi-nilwr, l.WO, tliC! young KiTig suddtnly died. Ortce 
mr>n^ the I'rotcstacte fctt that an interposition of E^ruvl- 
di^ic« had saved them- *' Wht'ii dl ww ioaU* aaid 3ca», 
*' behold tht' Lord *>ur Go.1 iiwuke .' " 

Tht opjiortiinity of tb« t^ini'ii Mother had o'>mo At 
laj^t- Thi- (]ui*sti<ni whfduir Iht **«jjirf *«n^ Charles IX., 
vru« in h>s imtmrily, r/mhl not Ih* dnnbtTni. Slit« aanuiu^d 
ilit< prfti'Lic^il ^^nltan^Ijf of huu, nud with il it vfrUml 
r^cncy- 'Hki phin of thu CSmaea to ci-uph tli^ hoLiiy? ol 
BourboQ. iLnd tht^W f>Mi>p^xtct% hy a single blo\v, had 
(ailed- L'HoflpitAl oa«tIy cnnvin<vd iho Queun that it 
ma for ber inlewsl to liberate Cond4* and W put a ohoolc 
upon th« pow«r of tbu oppo»itc ]iarty, wldoh liad barHy 
IiUImI nf nftnining to HlMr>liiEi^ rnrilnd, Thn Dnkr vnut 
too wise t'> attei)tpt to n-t.-iiii thp ftujiremacy, whioli tho 
Qiidui;^, hia brutlier, waci not diapurted to reliuqutali. The 
King of Navarro becftvnc Lkut^nant-genfinil, ITnj Con- 

tTkiA t^ ctiaoonof tlilt pbLw«d I'milliuil by tlift Huifuflnut iRailaiA Ad> 

alii ctf BA if duhr. Fur llu tt^iWnoi- t\t iTi rfnhl^^wbk'h apfwinEo IwiiffidOUt 
«■« ItoAri ll«rtlD, iT' M. n Fi'nnlv hiyi *' tch hafi^ iuhtii'Ii^ ;,iifLiiJittrn, «i^ 
Aut^flkH* 1l»tiArp(A£cn " — rlif Minrr»i«f lhvoort«pinuy— '^hi-^^iEjj:!. iiielitj 
«tt4i*Eb«i* c">i tuHvr Z«tiLfft1 L'm-lii witfiEm." t. Ifiit. MArim Hxp' '*Tlu 
ftAcMltttj oif l)it |i)«l, « 10 Rt «4iUUnT« ta nof douMiiiF. N'1h' *'i-iii** k«F>l u 
te«7>n%«^u kvtdnA it»* ftnlTSD ant (a Mnjlfrp, b^ •ny dfiv^^on r»i-iiifikf r^« 
AitfBrtaa ttAlH, lkBimr% nf tl]4 dfarrifi^tk^ii of li^n-iniv n«< iiTffrnliMh^ 

ttfKA) ^Inl of vUv, ftfv 4vlnEHl;p vnln fifin ^li« tii"rai fv^Jikt i^f 4-ir«r, !%■ 
ItL ^.'it.i^f^ — IMI t« t« My, ih* titiarmntftTSon ■>! tIli h»p«tk* hr l.rn, 
«^B 'ir «LIK iIh fckl«f tlfiUiiiatt — fudidvmjvbnD Jo Hit hg4fl i>r th«t%lif« Dl 



ktnblc Montmonjin^i ivoovcivd tij« diruction of miiitat^ 
afTiitrt, but Uio GuiiiOjL Icopl Uiuir pUcci in tho CoancU, 
:im! Diikri FmnHn vt^tiiinrd flu^ jwiwt; of inMati»r of tlifl 
rtiyal li<^iwi>ljolJ, Tile Jlu^ieiiuU, a* tlir'y i.auit' t« b* 
c^(l,> urcro pow«rfu] in uaitiboi«i ajid «dU niore iii tlj« 
oharucttir of thoir party. Eutiro counti^ were ulnioat 
wholly Proti^tuut. Thuy wero etrong among tbc uobLoc 
(Lnd nducivtod clias. Uany rich mertJi&iiU ftdhnmd to 
tlittm, Tlut llu^ir lftrgi!&t support was from the int'^IUfreiiC 
inidiilli; cl:b88t«, tlii^ HxtiHanA in t^w citle^i ; altLoiigli iK>t a 
feiv of the lower orders, \r\io hud mten tUe vrorLd, and 
tr<?re jmbottuod id boann^ t^rma^ were in th<3 TTu^cnot 
riiMku. In H rcprcEicntution utad*^ to thn i'<tpo, in 1561, 
by tho middle pJirty of French proliitce, it was eUkted 
that n q^iAit^r of tlie entire population of tk& kiu^dom 
vrt'VV' ProteaLaiitfl, Tliat it would b** Irnprai'tjL'jLblK to 
iixUimiinnU^ tliciti, and Umt bobb [tartlet kIivijIiI tiULki- tip 
their minds to live together in peatcc, ww the con^icli^jti 
of a fuiv diapfL^sionatc and far-sighted men, aniQii|[ whom 
wiba tUtf ChADccUor L'Hoapitai, vho had b«en callMi to 
his officii ufter th^ CooBpirocy of Aiubouo, iind whu put 
forrU hia host cxertiotiG to reconimi^ad thin w'mt^ und hu- 
mane policy. Hia tolprsmt view* WHre rpilected in edlotx 
of tire St:il4*3 General at Orloans, wh^re, ilIho, aound r^ 
forms wL-rt! adopted in ILq udminialmtlou of jaitioii ; l»iit 
tliew nif'-aaures wax rcsi^tod by PnxliMn^^nt, and by the 
CatboHc« attached to tho tiuisca. Tho Duko of U^um 
was joined by Montmorenoi ', and the}', with Ui« Marshal 

1 8«a4«cp]fttnt EhK nfi^ rif thn nupv tlufcqfnou {l> MOV Al Toura t%cn 
«•» • iupiuT(Jllai» lifflLpf chut Ih* (zhoil v( llitfh C«|kti m»in»il ihmiir}^ lli« 
dtjr M fiLg!bi- A> the I'toTo^UuiU li'^lil tliplr nvcUnK* IQ tbo ii i^^t, they vrrc 
dtrfilrvty calltri UupEVOOpla, M i( thoy irorn Hip Irncp ff K^nie lEujfhr Ai tbi 
0MWpkt«7 «f AinbviM Wu d^uurvrMi nt Tnun, &h» nnmc mt tb4t Tioe ob- 
Iifaie4 vomii<7-. Tlili «B|ilHrutian ii flvnn tr Iln TtiDa, 1»aW- T|]. Oihm 
miien. unnc ib«n Hail* d^AublgD^ ii, ftti), d^-rU-r ^£ frr>jn AW^v^tXi, ibt 
ruMtrc ^^"ta Lx? iitf pvly fif fnjoilfrrD aE Gmoi-i, wtia wcm far hfi alhux^ vilb 
IfifiDwiw. M^Tlii^ (TkJ^.M) unllMlAtb nxplonatljm. Uat^{Di^, ^ranfn^ 
•dopta DtMlif^Fj 1>iil (oiiiiL'f'U (III t'rm frith ihr nAmi of k |wrvoQ> 





oC Saint Andi'^, formed Llie TriuiiLvinite witJi wlHi the 
feebk? Kiu^ o( Sitvart« wji* liiii'^uaUy tiiuldn-il. Strlfi* 
in tba Council, bt'twc^i'ii the two piirtir^A. It vha 
id, much to the jay cf Uic l'r'>V^'t(i^i(>i, thtit n groal 
ligkius 4?onf<Mviiccf ^hQitl<i b^ h^Ui m I'oiAfiy i<> nt^c if thii 
two parfips could rotiie to an affpeementH In thia raeagiifp 
the CATn^inal of Lorraine cr*n'?«iTei:l, in the expectJition that 
he tdiuuM be jiLlt? to tiring out the difTe-renceshetweBJi tho 
C4lvjnm'.0 and Uk: LuthcruEis, and deprive the fotuier lA 
tljcir natural uUic* In the event of a r<'iigioa3 ws.r, which 
probably EUiticLpat^* The cloctiona frcm the nobjiity 
aikl the third relate fc>r the StittoA Genemlf whioh ^et aa 
•embled, in 15S1, at PunroW, aiid afterwards adjoiiraod 
t/> Pobay, were txtrtinidy unfiironiliU? to tht- (Vuiao fn«* 
tjon- Tliis mrj^rthig nit^ rr»11y si <:nsi« in tliv't liistrjry of 
l^'ruicc.' The DcblcHc: and tho coinnionalty were tiuited 
liiut th& dorgy, ^nd presented me^ure* ol ometitu- 
tional reform «>! a st^iitlilij* character, eudi, hud tb<*y 
bi-un cMTi^d tkltMigh, Hi would lmv« brought tlie Fnmch 
Titi (it govmmmrnt into a vtHkiiLg rriit^mblancsi to thiit 
of K:i^T:md« wonlil hav<^ ciLrriiil tli^ rnUion nt^i^^ in <jrie 
puXb. Aiid prcveatfjJ the citil wam. The Pope, the 
dergy, and the Kiuf: of Sp^un, unite<I In eUorte to atem 
tbe praviuhn^ ciinvnt t4:iwiird:t cotnpromiac or pvoci: ho 
tW«Mi tlio opf oaing confc««ioD«. IfiU the rc^ligious coUo- 
qay ««s kJd. It ffiui in tho autumn of 15^1. In tbo 
great llj?fecw>ry nf tS" llt^n^i^ictinf^ at Pniasy, the young 
Kiag Hat ill ibe mtdHl id llie nrlHtAHim<?y of Fratii^r-— > 
Catharino dc Medici, tin; KtiL|; vi N:iviim\ niid the; Prince 
of Cond^ tbn gri^at lordi> aiid Udic9 of the Court, c«rdi- 
lulai biehop^, and ubhot^ il^jctor^ of the Sorbonoo, ^nd 
a niin>f)roQA oonapaxiy of lessar nobles, with their wivta 
MkI dan^teis. tn this bnlUaut eoni^oune^ TlieOfloro 
Bv^ ii|)jKarad at Uii? head (jf the preiu-hera luiiI eldera 
fcpatfd by the IlugaraKitn to rrprr^mt Lbcii' cuiMf and 



Beia waa u iujui of high biilii, of pixrpu^aeflUDg atpp^jhr- 
UKOt of griueful aii<1 polbbed m&nn&ra, who vaa at faii 
in the nwtty of tlic court, nnd. prior to Lbo public 

f^TAnoct, won tho raipa«t lUid Cavor of miuij ri hifl uu- 
tUtnm by Vu jitlrnriivi'nrsK in noc-iiil intj-reciurwi',' U WQJ 
Rnm^^thing giLTiiM for TrritHgtnnttani wlii-n midi ;i insji, 
nitli wliuiii iTa^ie cuuld be ni> reluctaucf? to a£flcjout«oci 
cqiial t<-riLi3, was *ecii to coiiie forward in "ita dcfi-iuc. 
Hut liruii^ b4^<ir^'i hfao^ tui imprnMire npCAktr, vriM an 
oriiilitf^f'^holitr, vith hid WniingAo pcrfoetlyfttcommaiKla 
tbal Uo oould not 1)0 perplexed bj' liia adveraoriee. At 
ono urae then* wuji ftortie pro«peot of an ugr^m'^t, c^r&n 
in ri gcMiftrd d^linitron of tli« EuoliarlRL TIh- final result 
of tlip iiiUTviniTn, ptiblic nird |iriviiti*, tKat took place id 
connection ^th tbc confcrcnccii vm to conrinco botJi 
pftftjea tliat no compromue w» tb© pwita of theologjcnl 
(lifftM-C'iK* wa« pi-acticabb?- 

i}n llift ITth of Jiumary, 15fl2, was iemod the iinpor- 
lant Eflict of St- Gormain, It g»v© np th# policy, wH**b 
)ud b«i^D ptii<4])ei.1 for forty y^ai^. *.'f extirpating rdSgioua 
di)f!tt*rt. Tt gniuU^ a nieuBurtf of Uikratioii. Tha Pro^ 
c«tA&t« vcri^ to niTTcndcr cliurcbc4 of irhicb th«y had 
taken poaMsnon and wem to bnild no more. On Lhu 
o^er Imnd, they mighty nntU further order should be 
taken, hold dioir r«li(;ionB meotinj^s outoidc of tho wiUls 
of ciUt'S. by diiyliglit, without iirniii in tlunr hande ; and 
thiMT miM-lin^^ vn^rv. Ui W prrjbW.i^d by tlw polioe, Thoy 
wcTT to p»y vrgTinl to ttio festival days of ttie CalliiilSc 
Cfanrth. wero to aticmble no ctmrniotim or synods iritis 
out peimiaalovK ^^^c^rc not to ent^r into any military orgao- 
ix»ti<>n or lovy tuxM upon ono anoLh^, and were to teacib 
aoooniing to ttt« ScriptuTCx, without insulting the* inaea and 
Uher Ontliolic inittttutionti. It was a r^etrictod toloratton, 

V ttrt, h Kit<u its' ^ t^ d'Ampfllff* i. Afip, p UTI. 




tho pnictiii^ liiul Ijiii'ii I>1 givri fit txlt^^U at IMh nn^ 
tura BOOMi ktiLmlti cf oJUbtrucLiati. CidviTi rejolood in Et, 
«jul tlie C^riiuAta io\i Ihiit under it ilii.7 couU couvvil 
Ulo lution to tile i'rotc^jibaiit fuith. But the eUict wiiH 
not long obfiorvixi. Tho pupal It^gnti* and ttx^ Cublit^Lio 
oliiofa BUCoooduU in inducing thii King of NHVnrm to :iLj4m- 
don tlid rrof^tant {■jiiihl*. Up wiuj t'jiil thai, t,1ii» Pr>pp 
vrunid lutnul Itis ui^rlage, and that he (jould tbcu w^ 
Mary, Uie ^uuiig Qut^vn L>f ScolUnd. Ho waa not baau 

rCnottgli to couiiU-nuncri tliici jirc^po^ilJ TUt' ilirono of 
Sofdiniii vms hdd ntit t<? him na n <fQntpona[ition r>r the 
low of Kavam?, Tbo oidy Kopti for thn 0ucc««s of the 
tolenuit polioy of L'Hoi^pilAl IjikI rpj*ted in the unti>n of 
tlwi Quif'ii Mdtlier vrttli llit* |iniii;68 of Clie blood; ttnd 
tliitt union wiiA now Lirtjken. 

The leadera of the Cathnlic party were resolved not to 
BcqineBoe m a policy of tolci^Ltiou, not to ^v^ up the idm 
of obuiiung uuifonnity by ccerdoc. Tlio aia&iiicn) of 
Vfiwv wn« the ovrnt tlijit oocvudontxi war. On Strnday 

'aiomiii^, die flr^ of March, lo^2, th<i Duko of G^iJAc* Ar- 
rived At tho village of Vaesy on liU wity to PaHs, m tlio 
bmid f)l a n^tJiiuR uf wvt-nd liiiiLdiL^d iiuMi'A luid luildiim. 
Tbir i'roto*»Uiiitii wiTi* liolding tln-ir iv-tiginiis nervine in a 
Bpftdoua baro. I'iiitlicr be «cjit tAtno of hu men* tvbo 

.prorokiod Ik coDflict Tho roet of tho troop oamo to tlie 
loro off tho door, and with ^lue an<i wLbfun bluu^i- 
Itfrod and vrouiukd a large ntuuK^r of tho unarmed, de- 
lenwknEOongti'gKtjfitif anU pltiudr-j-nl thi^r hijiiwci. Gnlse 
loolEed ix\ and did nuL himlcr Uio work. In incU ha biul 
poiut to tke lowii vith the de^gn of pulting aa vnd tn 
tho HagufiDOt worehip th^rr^ TWr prefti::hi!r, blMMlin^ 
from hifl woundv, he ciirru il i li .^i n pn«onvr. Tha Uulut 
WW raoohrod, eepvoially id FAriH, trith acd^rnintLons. The 
Pi^)tQBtants thnjiigli'iut Fntncn jiutly c^oimidi-rvd his ddad 
B wvntoE; ^nd airucloiia violation of tlit?t Kt^ligiuua Peae^ 

TBE nroRVAttOH m trathx. 

md ll«tv u> Arms. Ill L'vtry puruL u ^.-ritKLdu vai pr^dnc 
■gniiuit Uin Hiigut^iKibs -^('l 1-^1" iK^iiin (if craeltjr dc^t fi>l« 
lowed iiavD bccii ntylcd. l>y n FWicb hictorlui, the Sc 
tartlidloniew of 150t£. llic Trinnivirs Bcixcd the p^nou 
the Qs^dn Mi>tb«r uui Ukt King, fmd, cirhor witli or 
vithout tht^tr £?QnBeDt, oonvejod them to Paris, whore th« 
vrhuK^ population wero full of b^ilred to tbe li^rvtics, An> 
nl.iuT iiiJLusu-j-tt lit. SuTiK^ rvnn mim< tTnii*;! Uuiu tJmt ol 
Vas»/, irfi4 the Ajgiml for un ontbunst of icoi>ocltk»tic fury 
the»do of the Huguciiola, wbicli wm atteikd^d with a 
de«tructJr>Q of monmueatA of ait and the profaAatioq 
»ypu)chroa* It vtsm true of t1i« HogtiiMiuts Umt, '* 1cm 
rboTDiUf in gi^ncriiU than tkeir udv^raarive, tow^ird m^a, 
lejrra^^tvfls impliuuiblc ftgsunAt tilings" — ngHiii^i ^haC* 
aver they ccmaideivi:! ob]<*cU or signs of idolatry.^ 

Thuh liejjiiii Llie in-vlva vi ttrrible wars, wlik'li uuly lr»r* 
njinaU-d sr'tih the aoccaaion of Henry IV, to the thixoiOi. 
In tJic dcvA5ttttion which tlicy cuuncd tJicy m&y be com- 
pftted t-^ the Thirty Ycara' War in Germany. Frtmioo 
sraa a pr«y to r«IigioLifl and politieid faauticiAm. Th« 
that are alvrayii kiiidlcid In civil wsm vror^ inadt» 
fflorf* flercp from Hin rcligioun rTin»iP('rnlj<in whioh wiia 
ipartwl Ui th»'iM. (Mfit<r imtimiHt hs wma intrvEtuhln, 
mingli^d in thn fi'I^Utful cviitesU ^uid Frames liiul well*nigii 
iftt ita irdcpcndcncc. It miiAt be ndmitt^ that lh« 
lug^ciii>ta aotod in eclf-dofcnso* As 'wo haTe »&id. thi^ix 
c<onncotiou with a politica.] P^^^i w1iat«vei: ovila vart in- 
otdental to &t. traa tho unavoLdabU result of tha conivo 
takiin by thnir imta^nUtn^ who attackf<d st onoo tho 
rrrjltfltftiit religion aivl tW right* of th^ princes wfwi pro* 
fvun^d itp But it wza pnvatu vio1tino» c^outiteiuiiced hy 
the iiuthotiti<^4 j^uiat wiiich tlie Uu{fu«nota TO#e in amwi 
Agr.ppa d'Anbignf, the Huguonot Liatorian of tho aix- 
teenUi centnry* sayn : " It i* to bn forov^r obeerved, that 
ttka^Mthi!iy put the reform^ to d^rhund«rUiafornu 4 

I Dun »«nJB, If. 124. 




]iiit»M. LovQTer iniqiiitoiiR mid cruel it was, tlioy etretcheil 
oat their necks, biic nf>t t.lic^Tr hands ; bnt nJien tie publto 
ftulltirntjr^ lljt- nijiffiaLnLtt^H wniirj' ut Llieir burnings, thrww 
the latitti into till! liAtuLn (jf Ihi^ oniwi), and l>y Liiiiiulls and 
^nut rojusucTT'* took nwny tbc Tcn<^rable face of jn^tico. 
and caoftod neighbor tc bo alaiu by ihcjghbor to tbe Aound 
of tnunp^taaad druma, who oould prevent the iuiK>Kibl6 
vkrim from oppaiiu^ ariu to arui, aiovl lo atitl, tiud from 
:akiiig the liiinlii^'wiij «f u jn*t fiiry frtmi h /iiry \vtth<xit 
jnitScD? • , . < i-ot fori'ij^n niil«i*n» jiidgf? mIktUhii- wo or 
our ttnfimj«a bftvo tbt; guilt uf ^aj upciii Llie foi^liuad/' ^ 

Koucn vaacaptiirod by the Ciitholica aiid Maoked, Thoro 
tie Kin'j uf Kiivarry, lighting on thu CLithobc mdc, fin 
I'cixiHl a morUd vouiid, fa ths battle of Druux, dio 
PmtnatuntH, M by Oriligny and Cond^, were worsted, but 
tlwir jwiwi^T wnn not bir-ki^n. Shortly ^ftec, the DnUe oi 
GuW, whtj irtwa cmit!i,voniig tn take Qrl^uTiH^ wjt*n*wui* 
liimti^ by a Huguenot nnbTcmftii. The act waa ccn- 
detuncd by Calvin, nor bfid it the a:iiict!ou of auy of tliu 
pTDtcfitant leadeifi, hoTVtxor Ui^yDiuyhjiVG rcfmint^ fix>m 
exortlnf; Lheinudvc* to hinder ib. Uoligny declared that 
\m bftd pivv4<cttcd the gxQcutton of F^Eniinr plota balore, 
lliaC \w bad no s^g^noy in this, bnt that for the bIx montlu 
prenoiu, fronri thi*tim& wb^ii be hud lLc>:ird tUnt tbi» Dniro 
■od bin brotticr, thit Car(1Ui;i1f ItujJ fonnvnl Ibi; design to 
Iwtroy bim luid his family, hci had ceased to Q\ini him* 
mU to Mvo the Duke. A year after the mujiEtAcrc of 
Vusy, tlie Ediot of AmboUo revatabliFihcd pnacc on tcrma 
BKwe £a\orabIa to thu higL noblo« on tbo Proteataut mJe 
thsn tht» preceding fdict, but 1ofu» favorable to th«f lunalto 
gMUiy and to tbe towns, inasmnch aa tliey were tdJcvrw) 
b«t A 9tBgl« jilacK of wunnbip in ^i di^i.rid i>r hnitliAgA, 
PftHs waji cx<H:pt«d : ihi^ut VroU^Umt iiron^lttp wae not (o 
bo lolt^mted. The capital bocamc more and mere a 



■bnilglii>1cl of CntJiftlii; fihiiAtidi^ni. Tlit^ seitleiniriit m 
U^tiiit^xl b^' Condd, but CoD^y n^futteU Ur givo loM 
unction to its promions, wli^ch wen: most uuaccepUibliA 
lo thd body of tb» Prote«UtiU, who vriiro uonfidL-fit tbut 
better tonus might buve b^t^i mLuk-. 

Thin pHi?ilSc»tioii c*tmld not Iht of long on<1unii]c«, Tho 
llugiiRnotH KMW rrniii tlur tJircilj^ning attltufle of tba 
court and the Lij»tile itiovem^ulA i>f tlicoi' ;id\-t^tiuirii<a tthal 
tliGTv vrju no inteutioii io ijluu^rvti it. Thvy itnticipnti-d 
tile nttack by tltiMit6Qlv(.« n^ortiTig to ann«; a BiciL«tire 
wUkh ihii IiW»r« foLt ubti^tMl tc» n^lnpt, thouglk n<ti with* 
o«il gnvv iiiiBgivingw. Tlwy *)Xtorted th« V*fiJu:Q of Loujf- 
{Liiiuniii / li'OS). whitli, howover, ri^ijiitubliahcd iuTxtao- 
liiilly tlu* VaViH tif r'*LtifKSvtioii. Cond<5'si Wk of jiidginifnt 
vrvi Ij^-JIy \v.M Mnin[iict]o[is lUelti hU v^ilut- in tbi^ ti<<[c)^' 

Chiuka iX, was lillcd frith cho^n und indignatioii at 
bfoof; driv'CD tc make an accommodatioa witli hiB subjocto 
ID arma. Tbo bltt<r aJiimomty ol tho C;itholi<ia U]TX>i]fcfa 
the country wae fitirrcd up iigiiiniit tJu) lluguonaU. But 
a ^w mouthfi bt^fore, the Duhe oE Alva had exKnted 
£^iiunt ;iiid Huni iii tho Nt^therbTuU. At Bayuiuve, 
wh(>r(> Alvii h]ul im^.l Uii? Qui^ttii MijLhm'aiid her dauglitt-r, 
Eli^ibtith of Sjjaiii, he had c|>ar<:d &o i>aiiid to indttoo lJi« 
French cuuii tii tn'(»?wtl to extreme meaaoiea agauist the 
ilugucncta. But thij yuun^ Kin|; lYua thou avono W tho 
renewal oi tlio viir lui^ to ri rcfiort to uruel punecution^ 
Wtd the i^u<^nn Mother rpfwK^ ta glvo way to Ak:r« por- 
•aanoDB,^ il(<r aim wus to balance the pATtlo^ againat 
eodi ntli«r, bo that netdie-r of tli^m oould be In a |)c«itLoa 
to oudangur ]a<r uwii powrr. Tltt» wuitU of Alva, buw- 
ftver* iDftde a stronger uupiumion on Montpcn^ier, Mont- 
luc and othi^r Cath<»Uc nobloa. The IO0I conStct. wbkh 
the HnguonolA had be£uiL« hud o^caaperat^d uD vhu wtiro 

IM irmv TqtiU*- ni44(i q f tin* atup. jinil tilda: " [L mntf Iht iHowvh! chti hit 
vlaUr^r llHTi hlK inUlUflt-" I. ^t. 

TBKAtr OF ST. €«UtAnL 


not tti iheAr party. The CatboUc cc»uutt*r-refi>ruuition 

ci die CAtboIic popaiatioiu ThiUp nnil Atvti rcicwcd 
tii«ir effort*, which wcro seconded bv the Crtrdinul of L/^r- 
noiK' ID Lho Council. Xho Hugucnot«, tbo kin^ waA told* 
ir4ir<i n>belB ; if tUey were not anbdued h« could not "be 
tluf ruler of tbtf land. Thus wsAfivafi oj3t^*> more i-on^awed, 
iindiT SpiiiiHli mttiirni^! luul cM>ii|H-i>iJinTi. Tlit? Hugui*- 
nols were now in mmw to li'^fcnd Ihvir l]l>erties Hf>iiiiivt a 
perfi£oas oocspitacj. The PriDce of Cond£ ajid the Ad- 
miml CoGgny had found aafety in K<.»clicllc, the tovm 
^lii^ often pTOf ed tht> bulwark of the ProteataJit oau*^, 
And mora than onoa Mavcd ii from fnfnl di^'VidtuT-. TUi» 
Edict of Pacilicntinn vms unnulh^d, Tlui HiignrTuitJt wpn^ 
beaten at Jiimsc in 156^, whcro Coiuli^ frll, leaving his 
lume to Itia elde&t aoq IJpury, a yontli of ee^oitleeu ; ;uid 
thft Bune y^ar they y^om d^f<eated again at Mcmt^fnttour. 
Now lUJcttoUo proved iU Talua to tlie Prot^ntunbt, wlio^ 
imdar Coligny, tucj^^mitUty dofondod the ^^ity aguinat Uie 
vktonoofl enemy. 

It veeoia itrange that the oourt should havB been In* 
Hinnl t(> tnaJtti jii'iu-<t hl Obi« Uim^^ But ttt« witr w^in tint 
like thn fnrmc-r crintrfttci, a local otir. It wa:« a gciicml 
war, in which fordgct nfttionn wore concerned. T^ 
Hncaooolawtr* ludod by monoy from England and itoo^ 
bom Gormany* Wb«ii they bad been ahut up iu Roabelle, 
wfam th« Qneeo of Navarre held h^r court, they tltbad 
cmt a ainall Ilc^t*t wlucrU tliey iuhhJ wttli niiLc}i ■■ffiri^!t along 
tl]0 fXMuU. It wiLA a dinrnctfinnfHic (if Coli^iy tbaU Ukoa^b 
uf tJcn beat«n in the 6eld, be wae able, afltr defeat, -to keop 
logethar hia f oroei and reamnti hofitiIiti«A. H*^ waa aood 
gtronfC «wnifeh to eaUy foctb fr<jm Rodi^'Uf* and to trnr- 
flnw Plane* at lh« head oi a body of tUret th<.Mittancl 
,lont, tha moat of whom wara QfrrmAnn, <uid whciM> pro* 
gmn, eapecially as it was known that the yourg ]>riDCf«, 
Niftvams and Oood^, ««re among tluiiu« awiikeiitfd entbu* 



ai&Am wb^tcrver they appoamd. Tho pOFMTOmiOV <il 
HugudDots and xh^'tr <]oiiiii]ui.'<l utruzi^^ih, uDeshftioflted by 
(kft^aU ooiutItut«d on^ of tlit* aigumvuU for p«4bc>^ JmI- 
i>LU)' of Spain wiui Uif tilJi<^r. Thii ftiiibitinii iif Philip nx* 
GtW uUnn nmong the FroDcb. lie had a aclieiao ioc 
cQoctiugttic Liborotionof Miuy QaociLof Scotaandof Ultr- 
\y\xi^ h&T to Den John of Austria, lu« baU-bratUer, by 
vhioli be hoped to bring Scotland, and ultimately "Kog 
land, und»r SpaEiiuh ooutroil. Hfi propiiE^d to marry bk 
Kuttei to Uie yoimg King of Frantiiv If Ume pUun tliould 
be oamisd oat, Bnghitid. 8r.otUii4* I'r&ncc, and tho Nctbcr* 
bmdfl might, liho Italy, bo made fiubordinate to Spaio' 
It wafl felt, moreover, that he wa^ takin;* part in tbe war 
against the Hugitenols mainly to pt-oinut^) h'vi iclilEth in* 
t4-rtsL, and llniL ht! rvixlt-rL-d liwi juaixtani!!; th>ui tliti i^nrmy 
guin^ fronn their German alU«s. The conit» lu lo70, 
n^rciMl to thn treaty of HL German, by which the pro- 
Tisioiut of tho Ediot of Puolfioation wore rovlved, and four 
fortiSed towns, of which Rodielle wa* one, w<are put for 
two years inbo the hantis uf tha Hugiit^uj^U, xn % guAriLntoo 
ir thinr Wtty iind fur tltu futiillmrnt of tbtt iitipulationA. 

Thtu tho obstinate refusal to grant a moderate d 
of religious liberty led to tbe ncoeeelty of a vaatiy 

mceauon, throa|;b which the kingdooi -wwa diTid4)(l 

'ttgainft Itself — another kingdom being, as it wore, Mtab- 

Biihivl witbin it. Ytit it vnvt n trtuiisure whii^h tbc< lingua- 

lot*, after tbcir cxponcnoo of the perfidy of the Oxirt, 

no altcrnatiTo bnt to demand. 

The ccmolnoon of thia peaoe with tho Hngucnota 
.bffooght upon tbi> European itatu a pohtioal cnm ol 
grwt momi^nt. It u-^emfrd ttk^ly that Franoe wmild taKe 
part in a coalition sgaLnst Pliiltp 11. The atate of thing! 
in uie IfetberlandH at tbiH jaQctutu wa^ favorable for aiuo^ 
an alliance. The union of Philip vritli Vcmcoiindwith th« 
Popo, and t)ic victory cf l>;panto, incrciwcd tho joalouay 
wi^ which Franco and England looked on hia ambitiooa 



dMQgnft. It waA nnjjirwi*d t!iiU. tlio DT(k<? of Anjou, thg 

hvir Ljf till* FrtTiidi cthwil jJmuld niii.rry (Jupiph Ktizabetli, 

and, vhcD th]» Dcgottalkn W)» broken ofF, tlutt Ula yuiuigtsr 

Itotbor, the Dakc d'vVlon^on, ahoulil marrj hei. Tho 

t^oeen Mother waa la appaiuiit, iLud probably, smi^sro 

aeooird with thia n^w poUey, Tin* nam of tUo CoiititubUi 

IhlonuaoreQot wi^re tbon pow^rCol at court, mnd it wiw 

otm of tU^ni, tJie Ttl^ir^TuLJ Fraiii^ls, wLo HTiggusttsd tliti 

■uUTiAge <jf the ^uiui^ri^t daughter of CuLliariii^« M&r- 

Cjjaici of VslIoIs, to Henry of Nararre. The Qiieeu 

Afotber f^ in with tho proposal, and tho Ha^euoU were 

^io( ftfcme to it. At about tho flame tinio Coud^ wtm 

vnurled to a princess of the bouae of Ctowe- So ardont 

'^rcra tho hoptfn of d)ti Pr<)t*5(tuifit that CoHgny hiinAcU 

cranH^ ta thi^ lyiui t vi.iul wim wjiniily rrt'^-ivcd by Catljarine> 

ilo yrsa a man of the purest and loftiest characttir- Ou 

Us oirn cslatc, he punctually attended, wiUi hia family 

«ikd dvpendant^ the Oalvmiutia woraliip ; luid at oilqIi 

Jec m ro n oa of tliA Lord's Supper, he was at pnins to hoal 

all quarrplfl and diff^ronci^a iimong bin people. He euterad 

into the civil wan with t\\^ iiimoMt r^hicUinot* nnd Hoi^ 

mif, in obedieuctf to the itik^iurativt^ call of duty, auii iii 

ncnpUanoe with this uouiidek of hia wife, who equalod 

Um in piety and in nobU^ni^i of Aouh Hfs did not allow 

th« epirit of a patriot to nuik in that of a partisoa. 

Kotwithatanriing that he »tood at thn liead of sl poworfol 

^y, and, though a iTtbjet^t, was :ible to make peace or 

hn wan brimd aud dinml*^r<^Ht«d lu ;ill bis plntiH. 

Omm m liU d«p(irtTnent, iuGexihle in hU priiidplM, 

Mamtl*^ in hia morab, vrith an immntjihlo tnist ld God, 

bo proecnta a commandiiig Bgurc in tho midst of tbo con- 

(won and ooiruption of the timoe. It wu tbo hatred of 

C^Ouiine de Medld to Cohgny that led to the maaftaore 

rf St. Butholoirmw. Sh«» aiiw how df.^eply the King 

rafl imprfvvod wiUi bU abiliUca luid i<Xi:dUenc«, Cli^Lrlri 

iX., viddj in body, like the otb^r nona of llenrj 11., mid 



an nn 


rhicb bfhd 

uiiivgniutPiT uatnir — nil llic bjul 

the hiXAT. ami diMo- 

Ittto society m which ho hiid been reared, and by tiMJ 
EnfIuf!iioo of hJ8 mcther, iviioao 6Uprom« purpoM woa ta' 
kfMfp up b^r ova Moeiid&Qcy qvgv him — aow f«lt for di#4 
fint time* tli« fn7i{nriuj{ influi^iioe of n nan itHo ctmUl 
nwnkpii tn hnr> wjiiHTLbnij^ of n?vcfi?iiCB aiiid love. TU»i 
Qi;o«n tAV thi\l diiy by diiy nlic wiia bccommf tiupjd.-uitcd«, 
Biiiiply by th« nikttini! iniproAAifm which Ccltgny made uponi 
hiT iuii. Thi) boet hopoB wc^ro awoken^ id CoE 
owu nuud by tlii^ fdui>»t filial i^f«ard with whioti iho 
|i«t«Dc;d 10 hinu He urged nio« aarDefitly that ttoTi 
■boiiM Ih< 4lni'l]Ln<j] ii^uiiKt SjHiin, ij,tid '.hi^ King vtvji tn* 
cJiDod to uk»^ dio rU^i". IIowi?vi?r C»vUmritir! imgbt bfl] 
diipoeed to prevent Philip frDin acquiHtig a power to* 
Fmnce that could bo dangei^^ua to bcraelf , ehe waa not oCj 
& mind to eatt^r into a w&r agaitiHt bim \ a. war, toa* tho^ 
most iauidcntully add to thd prOKfKsrity of tbo IlLgaonote,^ 
aod oonflrm the infiueaoe of CaUgny ovor the King., 
Whom would lie follow, Cat.hari»e or Coliguy ? Wanuj 
wiii\]k |)n4t[«(^d between Collgny »nd thn Qniien Mtithiir, ini 
the proBcocc of Cbailea. The Ailmiral *iid that tha^ 
King might be involved in war, even &g;^ii»t liL* TjrfUl 
— reforrin^ to Um ooniiict lu the NethorlantlB, mlo wfueli| 
Collgny w:ia ui'gui^ him to i^nter. It wa» pretended af 
wards UiLit h^? hud thrown out u threat ot reb^LLJ 
C^mnnii dtlerminivl In drHtrny him. Shr. <-h1Ih! in 
ud of that Giiisrs, his iniplaoablft eneniiefl, who kiu^f«d 
aven^ upon him the aaaasmnatlon of tlieir ^<^i4ktiv«J 
Herue'y^adaoii.thoDuki^of AnjuEj^aft^rvraFNlsHenryin^, 
on who^ (ihe doted and who woa cqtuiUy ntannrd Ett thfti 
feeling which Hio Khig miiiiifealud to Coligny, eiif*aj^i 
cordially in the plot, Thn Dtirhnu of Nnmoiira. thaj 
widow ol Fiuuri-k and the mother of Ffenry of GuiAoJ 
willingly aided tn dertaing and cairyuig oat tlin diaboTi 1 
ckI •chonte* Ooligny wue wounded by a shot from ol 




wimAnvr of u) tidluTivrt of the Giiisee. ThSa ^u en titi 
2Sil iif AiigiinU I'STi Thr wminrl was not ilaii^rouu, 
mid the plot luu! mist^^rrictt. Tlie failurt^ Invalvml thn 
more pcdl to the ^atJioi-a of it, from tbi? wympatthy willi 
th<s AdiQiml vhicb tLo King ^^xprufsctl, r«ul from his io- 
^Ifpntioii iLt the Guis^ who wrro Icnown to bo at the 
bottom of it. In u visit tu Coligny, in \i'bich tlie Queoa 
lCathi<T iinniinnmnif^d thi* King, the wcmnded ^i>t*mii, 
«ho nt tbat time fJimight tliat t.Ti^ bulkts wliit^h biLcl 
■truck liim nilglit kAve been poisoned, culled liim to t1i<j 
bdd-eid^. aitdt in an ;iiidi;rtoTic, cnuti^incd him ag^iiiet 
Ti«UIii)g to thci ooutjflirUof (.'^tharino and tho ffictioo mth 
vbii^ dm nllif^ herself. By the nvi^t iinporttmute 
urging, ^liA pxiortod from Charles a aut^munt of wbut 
the Admimi lia<l suit], 

Tl]t!r(at|ii:ru lb« pliui of n gPii'Tid nrnwuriw wim mntiireii, 
Hb«1 it b(^n tliougbt of bcforo? Paiiia had beeu taken 
to collect the HiigiLonots from all quartcre mto the dty. 
CtUionue hud iiuudt'-'d that the marriugo should tahc p!ac« 
tfiiro. Thi^rit itf ^^viduiK^a that tho idi^i <if eciaing on thie 
oecuioti to cut off ftomo of iIki HiigiLonot Jf^ders was not 
new to the Qneen*B rainrh It \h imjxwsihle to triLce out 
ihv jiiiiticHllieB of a iialuni vit umthi up of dt!»dL.' Sin 
vsa fallj uipahlt! of wcavttig tivti tH^hT^mt^ Binitdtant^inialy, 
udof ftT«iling hciTK^lf of dthcr rw cin:am5tancc» might 
dictate- At all cvont6, tho failure in tho fii'at attempt 
npon ColipBy moved her ai^d her ootifodorAt^a to imdct^ 
tolu A g«iLetal ma&aaGr«. Henry III., who wiji ono of 
ditid, tMert«4l tliat tliff Ring htm^rlf^ whi^n ha had boMi 
prerailvd R^tcni to acquieaco bi Ui^iruinlr-r of CcHgiiy> div 
suuukd that tiio IIagiieiiot4fFli<:»iildail be struck down, »9 
Hiat itoDo ihouLd be loft to 017 out ogainnt hU deed. Tho 
«ourt had beoB ab«orbed in the festiviti«s attending tho 

1 "^ CaO* r«iiiBa Aa?t la mni»tg:« niAmo <(l'un *t p<rJilK» TtMiiH J« m 
hmttiiL'* Hori ICudii, Ix, tOL hlkti«lnt» in tUa n*jnd uf ll» ■lorjiienl ur- 
<Ml«a o< lbs ai. Butkalomaw pic/, Mr> <'^ CAlluhqi?: *<Elb «i4il dvuUttf 
bw vrve bouL ■*-« fll^B-Aluvh^' Ovimt dt JttfivMi, p- 4}^. 



marmeo of Henry uE ^'aTu^^w. Tbo fanaticiAiD ol tba 
|WO('W ci Viirh wns ioBuncd by th^ pi^eflonoe ci tktt 
ProtiwlATil* ainoii^' ih^m. and «fforU w^re neoeMBij tc 

bo unililun tlti? p^LutioiiK of Uu: C(iUii>1iu populncQ, umI thn 
work >f d«(vth (»uLd bo done. Tbc fcoblc, iiii]»ilsiv«, im- 
potnouA, ha]f-<Li«tractod kingi vofl a«fiurcd tbai n 
vith Colif^n^' at its bend, bad beeii lonn^ u^igaiuBt 
■ndivaa yVwd with «rLr.rea.tiofi, ui^'um^aU, ibrvuu, 
his oppoftUiuii wiu lmj]ci-n duvrri, luid liu yitldc^ hiaiiiflf 
a pRMivo in^tniTi^tTnt inbo thi.^ h^uids of tijtf coiispira- 
»' In Lbc night of tbc 24tb of Au^st* At a, couoeirbed 
the luurdurtira f>.<i] ujiou tli^ victims^ tiwdeAtniction 
of tbu inoet uniiDirnt of wboin bud bo^Mj prcrjotuly allotted 
indiridnabi, th^ Dulce o£ Gui^e bixvtn^ bik4in it in cbat^ 
dmpntdi Coli^y. An iiicliacrimiiiAti^ nkugbtecr of ttii> 
HngnenotB follf^wed- The nii^rahle K\j^^ \vss M^en to 
firr ii|iun Uitm fruui UU window. Cimntiro w-w* wmt 
Umiiigli tbo coiiniry, luid in tW other t»wik« tlie umt) 
i^btfiU w;4iiie» vntK enacted- Ifol lew thai: two Uioii* 

1 On thr (niiPli cniitrov»rr"il Eiii^pailan. ^Imfhtr lb* iiumtm of fit. RurOn^ 
npv wiu prctniMtiEialKd. itrn itf rim iMt*.i iniuliim liLiiloclftUii, Itimh* ftn^ Hi^tm 
MjirTin, ATT niWjiiiliJilIx A^rn'^il- Tim injiunal pti'mtJk of Thklr il«v mm inilt- 
u(j«El ulinvtf, Str NjuiIik, i- :fl^ •fi^, and Mi cryanilnttiDTi ;t, in m«i,| i4 tt* 

ifigu-i U nut af tho ^nT^n whu wuuEd Bikli* fJxt muHUf* BpHng whallf 
bum lirt infurjird jiEaU dF <'^lxolit fHling la Pirb; of wUch Qia InHlvirliuh 
e«ttvrtigd jh lF irar« Uib ibcin initruffivnttk Virtlu \\m.- 30S] tnulicn Chat i« 
(uifCid^ thnl Ihfl jiurrii^ <>l Unymm •baotd b4 At farli, ihflf* «w b tlu cnbid 

ITbsn Calharuiu putbwdl o|i<Dlyi(t]u EtiMdof dsdf&Ry of fH4c*H "!t xm^p^ 
pa»^ riui Avdl loujoun Boit^ ilant mjii uptii M Am ' Tt fkntOnctv XDWUln pijil 
MrpHI *«lld liail«iiiimt In « Ji^fnlrcdv VSjxMtX^iMm./ivTfvo/aoM^^iity* 
llviia, p^ 103, Huniytlfa ti«n<i'*of St. Dartiulomflv It toiulCtitd ftiiuJm 
trr1U«rtin(p,aO0,ri.) Iuc<Diil]jfikCHl*i|bulA*d brKuthv^ Ilia Vier 4f Raoka 
Md M*rttn V 1o tha migii] uf tin (biVAtrDi ««t la D plot doAnlUlf lr«BU>1 loaf 
UfoTfi t>"t in ihi (umir an J fuia-IJdarh fiiclBcd bytho rallun of the «UviJiri| &« a»- 
MMlnuTt CfilljpiT* " •■JoT^'^ ^^ fiol J«w, />vh»VW*A •. A> iraH(«£?HfkM A'tdkf 
br llvujy Whhr In U'wiiiily Icntb^du ^dl UT«d&1ilFtfQrkoiilbeClvil Wart 
Fbf Jfiiwjrrr n/ A, Jfjfr(iui>nif if, ami Uy v'\ht,t JudliJuutvilltEb Brvnu^ji^.U 
Mi VfelB«ljls 'ffi><<''7 c/'Ar i7ii5n(iMii<£r {vh^ wit»).tfnla Ui>ril)idiD( lu Cbarla* 
tX-ifaa purpiw lod«wriJ]« Euiiuuiul Lndai* lo Tuf'i in vider t« cat ibviu itf 



Httd iTOTo killed in Turb, iL&d jlc many nn tv^onty tbon- 
lani in tbci ivst of Fnui<<e- Nav.irro nnd Coiidd wejv at 
Length obliged to conform to tbe Outhnilio Chm^li, to savo 
Ujtfir litc». The itKviH o( till? gieaL inuaJKuui; t^xulLud a 
timtatt of joyat Mntlrkl jvud iit Rome. It 14 wul tlint 
I'kilip IK, iov til? fimt timr U\ his lifr, Intiglir^d cloud. 
The I'opc ordered a IV JJf um^ and by proceasious and ju- 
btlaut UunkflgiviDga the Papal r^art signified the eatJa- 
Cftetion witL wbloU tbe intelligence w^w r««ceived. A 
medal vaa HLrwJi^ liuvliig on une aiile tJie ima^ of Grt^ 
orj XIII., sutd oil till: tbe oLber, tbc; desUuyhig itii^, 
viUl tkc wordfl ; Jltt^onotQi-um utrajcji (mdissiicrc fnf tho 
Hugueoots}' The i'opc oi-dcixxi Viiaari to paint and 
hittig up in tho VaClcaa, a picture wbicb sbould rcproaimt 
th& iluuglitur o! tbe Hogueikot^, ajid bear tho iBSCi-iptinu : 
** PtnUift3! C^iignii nt^rm ^^rohal*^ (tin* Pope iippTOVPi* 
tili." nlihying nf CoUgny). Atnoiig (In- (i<;titiot]B sipnlogivA 
vbicb tlio Fr&udi Cooit put foitit, tliat wliicli ebiirgt-d 
U|xjn LIic HuguvnvU^ plot against the lung juid goiuin* 
moDt, met witJi little, if uny, credence. ETciywhcrOi 
Qxoept ftt Madrid nnd Rome, in thu C^itholic ns ^oU &« 
Prottttant natJonAt tb^ atrociouH ciims wii^ re^&rd^d \ritb 
horror and wltb detestation of its perpetrators. 

Tbv Prot^uiiiti wtrt.' not Aubdned by tlie tiirrible lots 
wkidi tbcy bjul MifTitn^iJ. 'Llio bnrnlti); WTHtb vrliicK it 
oidtcd Among tLcm viw a n^w nourcv of itrcngtb- Uo- 
dudk etUl lield out. Nor did tlio (juccn Motkor dcdort 
btrr |TTv\-toas patb or ahow hei-sei di^poaed to a dose idli- 
uvx tritb PhUii)* Sb<.' ov«n sought to koep up ncgoti&tioni 
for thu iDaTTittge <}f Ahfni;«n witli BlixuU-tli. 

A n«v turn wnjj gfvon \n itffiiini 1>y t,1i(* fleparalifJiL of 
tli^ " PoUtiquefi/' or Ubei-al CaLiicfUd^. who weie i^i favor of 
tolftmtiou, from tbtir ffoi^itiaLl bi^tlirc^n. Tim vrimlom and 
ncccmty o£ thu policy whicb L'HoapitAl Imd vainly ivo 
Ofamondcd. woro oow r\>oog»Jj:i?d by ™ strong pirty. In 

»74 tll9 wretcb^ life of Chail^^ [X.<-:uiu' to an end. 



brvlhi^r iluiI MiixnuLir, Hvniy [IL« Llit^ tivnritc of bii 
i(*r, nn<\ tntwt full/ imbuwl with ht^r idciu, und who 
luid bocn aotivp in (N^iitrivijig the niiiaHacrc of St. Barthol- 
wnow, wae wholly ijictim]nstp-tit l« govoni & countiy Uiftt 
vu loTD by religioQH faciiotiH'r a coiintiy who90 treoBurj 
wJiA extiHutiliH], Aikd ^vlioHc [>eij[i1d wero (rlamoniui for d&- 
livrniTU*!' innH dieir heavy buixleiin tii tjuintian, nt lh« 
Baiiii^ 1ri]n<.^ tluit <i >troi>^ parly vruA cltTrtiAi^^lmg mdjcal po* 
liticjd rcformii. TIk' Kinsj tudoiivon^ to make hi* way 
by oraft and t]j^nblo-(L<'.iLlmg, but lost the oonfidcTiioi? of 
b<>tb of tho nligioiiD pariin;. In May* 1676, b& mzA'H hU 

ipCACt^ wtUi the tuiLt(<d ITiignenoU aT:d PolItiqu£*i, fP^'t'Mf 
tlm fonm-r iinrwlti(:U!il religiinia fitv^oni, with tbo 
id<iti of Pnriji, and aii equal ellgiblenf-Ai^ to nil irlftL-r^a 
Mid dignities* 

With the cofipomtioTi of Spain, Henry of Guun; organ- 
lod tbo CathoUo Loujifuc, for tli^ oiainti^uancc of tho 
CAthoLjc tvllg'iun and fortJie eKtti^>ati{m of Protc^ULntisin. 
Tb9 EetAtcs at Blfiis in 157C d^inaTidod that tliere fiUonld 
be but one roli^on In lh« kingdom. Tlie iiu^KrpalATity of 
Henry among t-ho extiente OaihiilEta wa» ntft only owing 
to his flhiiltlLng cnuTBG on tlic rcUgloEin qucv^ticai, but aUo 
to hid advancom>?nt cf porsonal favorites to tbc bighi:^ 

.offioea, anJ liia eubjection to tlioir inUnonco, in difitvgard 
of the c'Lilnta of lite gre!\t nohlea. The Le^iio ^um^ 
mtaieed ajiotber vilt, die tiixtU bi tlie serits, for this nt- 
tiiiinnt*iit iif iUAr riuln, and dr*^w Un* irrraolnt^^ and hn!p- 
les* King ivlong with tht^m. Tlic nwiiH was the btcuniig 
to the HugwcnotAof whnthadbccn giauted them in 1^76; 
but tbo 60\'cnth war, that aoon foUowisd, mdcd in tlio 
'idoptlon of ihe Ant Edit-t of Tok^ration. in lo84, the 
Duko of AiQQ9Dn, who, after tli« aec^uwion of Honry to 
the thronp, had wnm thn titir of thp Dnki? of Aujoo. 
died- Thiu Henry of NavaiTe was left the next ht^ir tc 
tho throne. The League, with Spain and Rcuiio at iU 
back, resolT^d that ho ahould nuvei wtatr tiie crown 

V^ dhortly \dUtr hi^ Ei^t^jiion U> tfio I'upul diatr, 
hnwd n bullf in n-hich lli^? Uvn L'rir]ct>«t NnvRtro nnd 
CoimM, Mhrnv^Hr^ nn<i If^pra promoteTB erf h^ro^y, 
■119 dieclared to have fork-^ilvil tiii<i]- i]i]^ilEiva mid |KiaAe»- 
aoBSi indndiog jlU tlLli^ to tUf Frt^jicli Uiruii^r, In dio 
WKT oC tliiQ '*■ tlirou Uciinue," U0 it wha calkd. Hujin- of 
KftTUTD woe vupportod 1:>y Krigliuid and by UtMipa froai 
Oernumy Luid Swit^^LTluiid. 'V\x*± King, <jn Iiii retEirn to 
Piirw, fotiiid i\iat Hrjin? nf Guiiitr wns grested by t.h« 
lunlUuidtT iiA Uk' U%'vi> iA thr war. Tlie attempt i>f tlio 
King to iiitnxlutiu Lxxll^ of truopa ilovottrd to luin»clf, 
MM Wft by tJio «nscticn of barniMd^a in tUe flti-«t't« of 
tho city, und ho wiui obliged to luukt.^ a UuiniliattDg ap- 
pucd to GuiM! U> quiiM the dborder. The Assembly of 
tlie Stahtwi Oi^iiin^d nt Blois, in I5S^, brought fonvHrd 
projecU of (vmAtittiliioEiul rt^furrn vrhidi I'mliiceil thit jHiwor 
«( th« King ti> » Jovr point. Hid jDoi'tificd,Lion, n-*M.-uL- 
iiitfiit, und iininitieucc at th^ fcatE-icnoiia Uid upon hiin, 
hibd novr rcudicd th^r hdght. Ui^ ciiufKid the Duke of 
Goiso to bo aAsaflftinntcd l>y tJio r<^y»l b»dy-giinnU, imd 
the Dukf^'s brothi^r, tho Cai-dinnl of f.oi-r«Lin«, to betiid- 
paCch^ ihi6 same <lu.y. 

Mvury Til. IduI how hrongtEL mi hluiHutf Uit! impWjLblK 
btctility of ih*^ I^c7Lgii<% Thi^ rtiiutlcal prr:K:h<^r9 of Piiii« 
bdd laxi3 up to tho cicecradon of the people. The doetoL'a 
of the Sorboone ti»teiiod to declare that ho he4 mcurr^l 
liib p«4iiilty of 4*KCoiiimuut<:ation, and that i\x& dubJL-crta 
wr* of right ub»o)v4>i1 from th^k itllt^giaiiee. The aeiuid 
aacoommiinic^itioii from thu Popi^ follovn-d. It wiu f<ir<- 
tanate for the King ib^U rhi.^ri? wr^ nn nniiy <^f Pix»U«- 
tmlM in die fiidd, iiuU*;r Prince IK^mj of NaTMic* The 
KiJ^ lOiDcd liumeU to the Prince. TJio anny, mada 
tticng by tho union of Uic Hti};uuii<^le juid th« PoUtiquoi 
*—ihB libond Cotliolic^ who wn? ai\\] Uyn.\ to the aovur- 
lign — drew near to Pitria. It wha Uirjught adviaiiblir in 
Ui« dty to wt a inttcli iipn thu Catlialioi whu wen; not 




of tii« Lulj^ui-. At tlint time, vUim the royul eftua^ 
butKiuIly ttuppvrUxl by Niivam-S vnm ^iuiii^ ^rcirndtA 
ideal prla»t, CUiuoot by luunft, nuuli^ bU vtay into tb< 
and tWw t1i» King (156d). 

Hairy iV- wajf now iIlo vovenrtgn ^f Franco L/ rif^t 
oC itib«ritanco ; but lio bod been decLu'»J uieUgiblu by 
tbe i'opi:. aud b< Had Lia kiiLgdoui to mil, 'Vlx L<cui^o 
vrerv <iwputfu<l Co put Pnnoi^ uudur Ibo ptotoctioji ol 
^Fbilip II, TlkL* DutiA of Mav-Muit^ lIiv br4>tl)i:r cf tkjt 
QuiiMU who uun; iissiisaiimted by unii^r of Uii* Kiog, WW 
at tlio b^^ ^ i\w ^oveniiuent wbicb tbo League pnivlft- 
ioualiy eiiubiittUvii. Tbc intore«La of Spi^iii wei-e tabrud 
fm^ by tbv ambooHiidor, Moudoui, m uatulv d]p!i>niAtdftt> 
vbam Eliv^tbirtb bud (ouud it iuoonsJAtcnt with her safety 
And thai of kingdom to iuQ^ to rvmnin in Knglaud. 
Philip Ih lupirvd to unito thp Catholic natirim undier bii 
rulo, and tlm L^ngitn wi-in no Icwt to tlii^ feeliit^of put- 
riotlBUi t4B W wlali liiiu fiuixMias, Tba pnjjiicj, of tJii' union 
of fViUKi; REui 8pMu fuileJ, lu fur jm Uwx Lun^ue vn&i 
DOnccL-ficd^ only by the joa1ou«y of the Doke o£ AiiycDocv 
^vho i-cfu£ed to cousLtit l.hat hia nepbow. whom it wat 

^poscd to luurry to FbUi^*^ duujfhtdr, dLould wear tko 
orovn* Tba galiiuitry of H^nry of Nav&m wa« omi* 
^caously diBpUyod. In tlie bnrili^^ Ivry, od the 14tlL 
of March, 1590, bu gain^.Hl n brSlIiinii victory, whii^ «i» 
ohtedy duo tu hiti |Tt<rsoDal v;Llor./Tbo »t»itegy of A1«x* 
under of ParaiiLi, oilo ol tlie id/o^t gr-ticimU of the aige^ 
ocutrulicod hia bucouui^ uijfi thut comuuuxdef dkcL* 
BtMidoA ilio diflcord In thi^ l,ri>fjguo, irhicb haa beau noticed, 
othef drcumstADcea gra^luAlly turned to ibe Advuntugo oJ 
H'Aiiry. The gi'e:«t obalKcli- iu the why of hu umsLing 
DppiMition v/itx tb» bi.rtl iliiit bvwiuiL PrirfHit<l«ilt« lybeo 

L 8(u t)Lii mnprktcf Dne i1'Aun4lt Ait Sflnry'* millUi^ Uloiiti, it- ITD^ TtM 
irmEfwUn io r«f»rwr>Di (<> Ui« i:u(L«tLtai1aD of th* inuki lUirl itia mj^Urf *< 


TH£ ADJUnATI<»l OF imBV IV. 2&1 

aged Co beoouio & Catb'^lit:, imuLedinitcly ^ftcr the doAth 

qS H«iry UL. be haul rcfuaud, hwt ui audi knas ivd to 

ifispiro Uid hop<j tliat bi: mi^^hL ulLinutt* l.y iioc'^di> lo Utd 

pfoputnJ, TJiu portion of Uio OlOloIiu body tbat Lud 

givun him tlinJr Htipport, wmiM mit luirmmt to tliu t^lnv^itatm 

of n ProteAtJiiit tu l]\*^'i>iu_\ It \t!i,^ not jitri^wiml tuu^ 

luUou ftUine, uoi^ waa it tbt^ dcHlie of ii^poiie fuv biooAeiii 

>;rbtcli ])u f«U aftoi mi bmg ^ coxtl!ii.t : it wna tLt^ oppor* 

tutiity thiit WU2^ gi>Yti Jiim to rt^^turu pcu^u to FraucUf that 

nt length tnovi'tl Jiim ta coufonn t^ tLo Ojithotic Cburoli, 

3t lud becvt nrgixi upon him, ih^l the conntitutiou of the 

Idngdom WLU sttcb tbut; be waa morally boimd to W a 

naeiiibitr uf tin- oKl Churuli. Ah Kia^, bi? bi^liifvtnl tliui 1u* 

<xwld idik'-ld tijo IIu^«noU Croiii peiTH^-cutlou, ju W(.'ll ks 

IfiDg to «i eod the terrible calaiuitiea luidtii- svbicb 

ftonoo WAa groaain;. Aa lung ue ho TCfuaiuusJ ouUiidti 

<if tho CaUiolio Cluuvh, he coidd not vnu iha oitioi 

Vi Ills eaoM, and Ilg ;:ould not hopn to mgn bytlmuld 

«]f the QolnUty alone. He bad ao doubt tlxut e^vation 

vu podHiMe in tliii eld Chun^b. Sully^ who dwidU with 

mudi Mdf-u:]iD|ibinnif-y cm t.lii^ [^rt wbirJ^ 1ii< in^lt In 

leading tLc King to abjure TrotejitAiitibiLu aiAoit.'d him 

that it sra^ not a change of i-ub^iou ; that the foundation 

cC tho two ejitetna wa« Ihu aumc.^ But Dti i'isrroii« wbo 

had b^onj ntumcd to tho Cutholiu Chnridi, and whom 

Htfnry idtortrnnii tawio Bislu'p of Evreux, bad at leaM 

in ^lul infliK'nt^n in penuadiDg the KUig to f oUov !u» 

■CQUUUple. Specific arlii^jes ijf fnctli tttut trrrii prr^^iiti^ 

to him* ku icfiiAod to tngn. Rut he wrnt iuUt t-ho Cliureh of 

St DcDi? und knrcling before the Archbifthop of Boiic^m, 

■oldDnly declund thftt lio would bvd and die m the Cath- 

(dicChordi, which he promised to protoet imd def^jud. Aa 

ho lud not really nlter^ hla opinions, the Jilep that ho took 

monewHcli uilmita of no moral jiutiil cation. Run, 

■ho was thfU) nvAT tiir end of hi» Hfe, wnito tn him a 



ptffactie a^ ■iiliifiiii wuiag ^wwt it> W< 
flOMtive of % man Uk« Co&pxj < cii w otiiig to fthjuK Uf 
rdigioM pra^Mna fnim Bfiv cnosicftpratiun of expedi- 
xatcj^ Moo of Ibo higbcwt ijpa oC diu^iictt^r tlo ng^ sad 
Imto cooflcq^cpoaa t« Providnoe. Bet Ht^iuj had lieoi 
ntnd in tbe OBOp i be had Beitlier the stnmjrth ol 
nl^joui oanwic&xm nor tba fMtrity of tifo Trhicfa m OT f w urf 
to th» rtmadud of tli« s«mnt Hngnmots- Thu lik 
Gutte piUute di«* guilt of an net whidi, if done hj n nudi 
of « fai^wr tmrnl inoet wovld Iiav^ been atUoded bj an 
QUer rain of ohanoter. The imtioo vaa now cocstly von 
to hi* caooft. It ii gratifym^ to find the moit ominont of 
thu ncBUt wntcn <m FrvDch lu»tory di«4ntui^ Erotn tlio 
pn|iQUr vi^w irhirli sunnnw tint it vwt d«nKin«tmbly iiu-i 
poiaibl« for UeuTY tu bttatu to tlw thruue wi^Uuul. abaii- 
dowtig liin faith. 'Hie ttni<> nrriter afree« wiUi dj«tin- 
gottbed indi^-idiiuU in tbo Cotbulio Churdi, ^o 0T«n at 
tiuit day prL-Cimvil that the King ahciuld ramiun an honeat 
ProtMrtAnt thaiii become a pretended Cntholjc* It U ua- 
^ii«ftlioDaUe, l>ovever. thsit die irankediHte «ffeci tra* to 
dpen hia way to tlio llirone and to j^ut mi end to thu lior* 
ror§ of dvil war. He rodo into Pari*, vptmng tbc irhit« 
pluniL- vrlijofa hi*d citon waved in the Uiic-Jc »f tho fight* 

Thi^ nbjurailon of llotiry mi|^t bo npprovod by a Prot' 
uttunt Uk<j Stilly, in whom religion was gubordinato to 
jKjlitifii; bnt it brought ouiiHti*im;it^u:i and gn«f to IIm 
great l>ody of hij< fnithful Tluga>^ot iidlicrrcntff who hod 
atood by him in the darkest boms, and who now saw the 
fotuidataona on iA-hicb thoy stood na a party, fitruck from 
iindifL' llmlT fi.<*t. It ifi remnrktiblo that lio retaliivd, Co «a 
l^vi mi pxli-nt* tht afToctioii of tlnj*e who most d«plon>d 
his diHiigifi of raJigion. Ilift c;i|>tivnUiig i|iia)itinn gara 
fiijn Tia altno^t incai^tiblo !i»ccDdcncy orcr tho bcort^ of 
mun. Hio abjuration of Henry woe not tbc only <!Tl 

1 par Ui* mmmiUuicH pf utTiu Pm«>lBa& ■«* ibc ihttruojcb «»vk irf WiA 

rsE ADunrsTKATTOs; 0-r mxtr it. 


cuww^ueiicc of Wii^ a jrt>ltUoiil [iiiity. OUuTm. i.-M|]i:^allj 
tioblt:^, nought ^md foun^ ppnt^^a.! adviiiitM^incnt by fbl* 
lowing the cscnropli^ of their L.'^hiriF^ Thr^ I'^odoT.'^hip of 
tho Uo^icnot pftrty wm covoUid hy ponona more omi- 
Dent for thoir rank th:tn for th^ir dorcdon to religion. 
The continued peir^et^iition, oi whio^ ih*]" liiigaenota we» 
IImi victhiiH, tfiittbliid Ui«m UM":dlj';t]iil inrtu-rvf thi^ir jiaKU 
icat oTgnnimtiim ; and lln? ataTnglh whitth tlw'j wtill moni- 
fi»i«d. Lodirectly audod the King in canjfiug into eff«ot 
tJ» policy of peace and toloraljon. He aimed to niodt* 
Tfttc tUu polL'mioiil urdor of tlie Huguenot chiimpiona, 
and did uot coisoinl liii) B;ttUr:iftion ivhi^ii his old Frii^nd, 
Da PlMfiis Mornay. vn\a oonvici.ed, in a tlispntation with 
l>u PeiToru at FoDtalneblena, of having iiuvTittiugly ti?u-d 
iBrnvtmiti* i5]taLHiiin frtjoi tlie eO(^l('HiaHti*"Ji.l ^vriti'iB.* 

The adnninwtrition r>f IlftnTy. thongh cTit short by th*r 
dagger ol KavoUlac^ wQ£ d£ inadcutiLblE; advauta^ to 
J^taaec. Wilii tli« JvaaiBtanoe of Liie iwtatt! Sully, he n>- 
onganJiccd tho mduntry, iiiid it^toit^d Uiv pni>ipnrity of the 
oountry. H« nihdx^ wur Q|Mjn Sp^iin, und in th^ treaty of 
Vcrviu, in I-'ifl^^, h« nH^nvi^rrd Uiu pUfrtS wliidi Imd hwHi 
eeoqneriMi from I*Vjwm.-«', With by Philip, mid by tht< Duke 
of S»Toy- The Pope waa comp^od to coududo pi-;L(;o, 
ud to annul hie vaj'iotLK fiduurtiitioua 4i^uuit ilcinry, 
vkile tiio latter rcfuAvd ti injd:<.' any dccIarAtion oxccpt 
tlttit ha bad returned to tli« CntlioUc Church ; ami he ad- 
bared to bi* promle<^ to piritect both r^li^ons. Tli<? id^«i 
of hU foK'igii ]>olicyf wliLcili vinA that of wakvnlng tJio 
pmriv of Spain, nod of HfipHburg, And of ext«nding tbe 
faomidiineM ni FraEic^. yiHA aharvrmxh taken up by Rldie- 
lieii« and fully ]val»;«<l. In the Edict of Nant««, in IfiOB, 
HtTury Mcurcd tc tibL< Huguenots that int^iaure of rdigiooi 
ibrrtj. atid the ^LiataiLt««4 of it, for which Uicy had cod- 

1 A Uvmi^U vltv •! \ht Kiog-n \MUny In titmUttg <nlH llw tlq^AooU H 



tended. It l«fl lortiiicd cities in tJicir bands, thva pet^ 
petuatiut; tlifl <txJ«teuou of an organized power vitbin tho 
&tet« i but tlm wuH a iii>L<cteity of th& timae. With this 
exooptioii, Lilt doiDutflic* pdHvy iuvolv«d Ui^ oonceiitr;4tion 
of powor in the monftrrl) ; n.iui in tliix nup^c't, Ridielien 
{(flowed ill his footete|i8. But if the accecwiou ^f Henry 
IV. bniugll a> coiupiLratlvu eeooiilj to Uib CalvbilaU of 
Fntncc, tliia wna the limit of ito ftdTantago to thcin^ 
From & rcligioua body, luiinuitod with the purpose to 
bru3^ the wbolo cotmtiy to the adoption of their princi- 
I, tboy wex« redooed to the condition of a d^mrnxQ 
\ eonftn^d hy mvtv^ and bounds, wliivb it ocidd not 
^w«rquLMl; H JiliJ^y tuore Htid more sepiiratud frcim the 
CathoTio population, and eipt^'sixl, bcAides, to the eviU 
coiJdequeiit on keeping up u poUdc^l and iniUtory »rg:uiH 
■otion. From thk moment^ ProtoaUmtiam iu Fi 



Thk Nttfarrlnndit formed a most valuable portion of tJio 

tXilMrritoi] domimoTiH of Clmrlea V» Tlun Ditkot^ of Bu> 

Iguinly. the d«ic^ndajita of King John of Fiajjce. takiijg 

^idv&iitage of tho voakni^as of tho Frencii crown aitd of 

%^Q VTftn b<!itvrooTi Franoe and England, Lad bnUt up bj 

Vttarnugf^t purcliafia, and ooDqu«et> ol< by mor« cnlpabk 

SBKuta, a ridi and powerful *lorainion. Tlie Duchy of 

Xliirgiimly grwlimlly extended itj* (?oiifiu^, until, m the 

%^]ign of Charles V,, it cooipriaed seventeen provinces, aud 

^TM ficarij cocxten^Tc with the territory lucludtid in the 

(■neat kiDgdOTDS of Holland aud Br^lgium. All of the old 

^rrit«n dea^ibe in ^lowxug language tli^ anequal^d proA- 

(lerity aud thrift of the Low Countries, aud tbe akill and 

lnti*IUgonco of tho poople.^ Agriculture, miinufnetiires, 

luid GOtnTii«rc«, irere oqudly 6^>iirislkJng and lnc:cutiT«. 

TlMre were three hundred and tifty dties. some of theu) 

the lilS««tand biiui««t in Europe. Anhvorp, mth a pop- 

■Ifttioii of coo hondrod thousiund inhikt>itiLnt(i, at a time 

irhao London had only ono hundred and Hfty thousand, 

»!■ tbe TOsort of merehaxits from ev^iTy quarter, and bad 

a trttde aurpoattln^ that of ;iuy rither Euro^n^aii I'lty. Tbn 

pK^leof tlw Ncrtlicrliindn wun^ notvd not Irtsn for tlinir 

I IMriU. Jtt MfSiuiUlfftca. hna- 1- Kai ■ flurnpftHi id rh« ntjir* nl ^ht. X^w 
OnatrtM^ tm llJVwvr, ti»Jk-*i. /^Hlfirt.4t. fi^,i>.JI&mvi 1'rMn>It, Hut. nf 

T*. Jm<* «"<- ''' ii BUot. Ju I^ajfl^Ba^ tob. l L v. HoiiWiHh, />«■ JA- 

tdity flbovm in the ioTOUtion of nmcliiikisi itud iti 
nOGtB, ATid for tbcir prDficiciicy in vdcitce utid ittt<ri^ thjui 
for titmr opulonctt aiid unterpriM. It vrnjt then botuc that 
votniTkOTL l;t1)oiv*ra, «v^n dio finhttrniGzi w)u> ilwrlt in tlie 
litLiA i>f Kn^hitJ. could rcjul nnd writ^, hikI Juh^um Lh« 
intei'pn.-Uidou of Scriptura. Local mlf-^o^vmmcait es 
ifted to a n!tnarkable oxtctit tLr<iu^htJUt tli& 6ev«iit«ec 
provinces. Eaeti bad lU owti chfLrttri'U rififliU, pnvUc^cCf 
ftnd immt;nitiua, und lu imiDL^moTud contoms, wLkJi th« 
Bovereigit \vnfi ^Hniiid tu kis^p Inviolut^. Tba p^ple loved 
their Trei^iltrii, Chi^rW V., vnth nil tlin fldriuitatfca de* 
rivad from Uin va^t powor, could Jtot amal^iuimU! Dm 
piOTiiicoft, or fiuo thf^m uiidt^r a common ayatcm, and mv 
obHgod towitiofy liitit»i:!li with being tht^ hf^od of n, oon- 
fedm^ ol ]ittl« ropublicc. But itt tho ITuyt of Aiigi^burg, 
in 154^ bo gticcWlnd in I^liiing thd eeparafion of tha 
Netherlands into a distinot, unit^ portion of tlio KiupLTo, 
|Myi:t^ ii« (ivu LtXtlii a ^ivfltf dJiuiunl, iuIj) tlv tnuxnry • 
llitvliig wi-Jfljii ^pol^iJd rigliU m ilw Diet; tinititlod to pro- 
tecUoiu bub exempt from the jnri^i<jtLi>n of tjie intperiiil 
judiciary, to whicb otlK^r paiis of tha Empii-o w«Tti sub* 

lu «uch » |xj|)ul»tioD, lunong tho coiintrym^u of EniA- 
inufi, where, too, in previous ngen;, v^ons forma of inno- 
viitiiiik and ilisseuL bud iLridL^Li, th^^ (loolriikidit i>f [^uthor 
inunt iiirtviLalily fioil au tntraim?. Tiit^y wnm ImiLght id 
bjfor«pi m«rdi-»utfi, '' bjgethtr with vrho«o commodill^," 
wntca t^c old Ji-suit hiitm-itin Stroda, " this pio^^ud often 
wbBmJ" They ven» introduced with the U^rmau and 
Swise eoldiera, whr-m Charlea V. bad oeoatiicu to bring into 
thft country, Proteetantiani waa also trtuiiiplantiTd hoia 
Rugbuid by imiiivroiiti <<xiW w}iii flird fmm tlitt persocu* 
on of Mary, Thr contiguity of the country to Gcrmmny 
utd Franco provided abundant a\-«nu«« for the lucoming 
of the nt^w opdiiiuiia. "Nor did Uio Kbinf; &om Gcx 
uimy, or thi:< Mcuai^ from Fhwoc^ to quote the n:^rel£iL 



iMtgimge of StradAt '' aond more water Into the Low 
ComntrieA, iboii by Lbc one tU^ coiiljiti^irui oi Lutht^r, by 
Uw otlierof Ciilviii, wan uupoi'tcd uiUi tlio tmruu Bt^c 
provini>!c/' ^ I'licf jtpirtt nnd ^jt^oupiitloiiit of tUu piioplo, 
UiA tvfaolo nttnofiplii'-rn nf ihc! country, vcf-ra jihigiil»rly 
prapiliou8 for the njiicad of tlit' I'rot'^taiit imivuDiont* 
TLe<:ilit^uf l-*l;MKWt« and UivvUuil, ofiptHjlaAij Autwtirp, 
Terr tAtly funtltihtrcl |n^>fRruM)r> oi tke uew fjutb. Chlirlea 
Vn iMUcd, tn loti\^ from Worm^. nti edict, tkn fir«t i^f a 
Beri(]« ciJ borbarotu onactinanU or ^' pliionrd^," for tho 
«xtinf;-iiift1i)n^ of li^rt^y in tlw NethorlLtuds ; and it did 
not raiuun ii dn-iul iL-ttoi* In I5i3, two Aiigustinlan 
monkit nt-n? Iiiinitiil nt Llii^ ulnkt* m KniKScLt. Afc«.r tlio 
firv vrns kindleti, diey i^ejivHt^d llif* Ap<)at!c'8 crwdt»uid 
flut^ t]i« lif Z><;ww /a«d<£tnuj.* TbU eieimtiun difw fi-oia 
Lutbcr no itiBpiriting ictU^r U' tJii' [j^irsL-cuUxi. Cliristiiuui 
qC HoLIitnd iind Hralntnt, j^iul iiKJVcci liim to write n stir* 
nikg hymn — bt>tfLi)iiiii^', ** Km naiiea Lied wir heben an," 
^*i-al vrhiolt Uiia followiug ii» unu of tho ^tuiix^ta : — 

■■QiiM ltttir«Bli« wlIL not Ik* 

Ilul KatTaicJ iitr mil iputp 

^LrvuLi, iliiiE^'uuit^ twit, ftuil j^irayc ^"'j* 

TLctt Itmrjiaii't itiuuc ui4 f«ar. 

'Phih filiuiiJ ftlric tiic lyraul'i iT|uii|tS 

Tc ilWiL-e i:iriilil lubilui?. 

FIv nrufil, whtfL <l«il. 1<< >irii: llio lUDiJi 

WlikU iti (LlJ li>u|{iitij;iM uml tirjijiiwij- 

Bjaunoil Uin wli^c murW ifirnir/ilt"* 

^ Bmd*t fluplMH't iiviiIbeIcq nOAT), ^ 34. Oil tUa cmtta ot tbc f«pL4 
■f«Mi«f PWMtnilini ta 1h* Low OiuiLtnHt p» Tb- Jib(4. !■ 31I^ 3>0- Jivti 

• " Dh AHhtp frill nttbt twvn nb, 
!;» vltaM Jn «Ucr Uaiti-u. 
Ulv blEfl kein Diicb. Lodi, <triib uocli (lr«tpt 

rio cr tm Lcbtci flunk tl?a Uoni 

Pl« nfuA u Echli u ■Hi^ui on 

Ull Alfrr AUiiilll\un< ZantfOi 
GflrfNtaid^luHoiLnfth ." OlAulir. ir. l9,1M. 



ras KmnuaAHTA. 


The edicts Bf^iikst ht>r^y tFere impei-feotly ex^at«*i. Tbt 
Regei^t. MirgATL^t of Savo}', waa lukowarm in the bLsta<;aa 
of peit$eciiLii>n ; tuxii lit^ aiK^isiwHir, M^riH., f.lifi Kni|>i-TC>r*H 
tojiiMr, ihv wuUiwi*f] QHi:?rn a( lliingiiry, ^^-nu ttill more 
leniently fJinposcil. The Prot-^.iUntt rapidly iucxraacd m 
nuinbor. Cfilviniflin* from Uw inHutivtico of Franc*?, and of 
Gen('Ta w!kf»ro joung men were sent to b*» t^diKfit^d^ oame 
to pTL^^riil among tlierft. ATiu.brkptiHt« ^id otUi'i' Ucenitioiu 
(ir ritfmlii*iil it^iiUhnii^tii, audi lui :i]>^H.':Lrt<d i-^ltwwhcri' Sn tho 
vrnlti^ t'i tint Ri^miiLition, ■ nuuirrrmiit; and tlidr 4>9t- 
cfiBBca aJiordcd a plausible pretext for violent ntcnaurea of 
Toprcadon against uU 'vvbo depFLrtcd fi*om the ol<I faith.' 
In 15ij0, CharleA V. i^ued a now Placard, iu whiuh tlio 
former purstHjulbip Micts were ooijfinued, uiid iii wliidi & 
reffri"[K:i.- wiift m«^K? (o Inqnisitora of the fnith, iw wi-ll as 
tn ihn nrdimi*j jiidgpa of the hisbopjs. Thin nic.itrtd gr^Ht 
alarm, since the Inqnldtioii wM an obj^ict of extremo 
avfrrsion and dread. The foroigi^ merchauU prepared tc 
[v^wv Antwerp, prict^a full, trmiu wiu* fo a, ^rwLt i^vtcnt 
aiipp<"nd('d ; anil mich \nis tin) diwift'c.'ction "Xcitod, that the 
Regent Maria inttrcede*! for 9orn<? modifloalion of the ob- 
noxionB d9(>reo. Verbal diangee w^re niado. but tbo foirn 
vt tilt? pi<if|dt^ wrre nut i^Tiifrti-d ; mid It wax pulillidicul »t 
Antwtfrj) iJi t-tinniM^tiifn with :i pn>hiAi iif tht- magUtratva 
in behalf of tlie lil>crtt(^3 whicli wcic put in peril by a 
tribtinal of the cliaractor tlircatened. *' And," aaya the 
teamed Amtinian hiatorinu, '* tm thie aifair of tlio Inqitin- 
tlon And tbtr opprca^on &om Spain prevailed aor^ find 
more, all mm bt^giui to ht*. canvirci^ t)uit thny wt'rr^ d««- 
tiaed to perpHiiitl slfLvrry."' Altlioagh i.her** vroA much 
penecalktii in tlie Ncticerlands Jurin]^ tlio long ruign nf 

< Th« Anabaptist offowci a«aSnrt Jccenirf ufl otJat 4ro iiaturrifT Jwrlt upon 
If viTiLcn itlspotol la Apolc^iffi for ilm [<orHfiiLioii4 in Ebe Ni'th'tlimiU: u 
*#\ r^ifTmif GrtdficJtlt^ m. W wq-ionl in \\U t^irtW Hrrh, >£^n1^ AdOiCT 
V£ttJerfAii/iH'd Grtt/ilfhu. Uui tUc fucit lod rlKiim^unOf^ ttw «!» fallb 
iully dcUUvd b/ Druidl ud oUwr vilUn vtion iyiiipflthl«* «p* do Um «tte 

smnr asd pouct or nmjf o. 

ChaHi-^ yvt lh^^ timnlji'T ijf martyr?* l-ohU init Iia^i? \tatm 
togivjit a.n nfty tiioiL»aiiJ, tliv numly^r in<:iit]nnL^ by one 
irntcr, mudj Iota one hundrvd thoLtntind, tho numbiu' givon 
by GrotiiK," 

III 155^ Cliiirli?^ v., enfeebled by his life-loDg oneiuyi 
ihti goat, ivhiL'li t^JiA a.^m\itt4Ml by r^v(-ntid uf fort'iue*** 
miuilfiiU tiMj, )|, U Kild. <jf ii fi^rmi^r Hftjiuj; nf fuut cf fiist 
C4iuiii]^nik-r», that " bi^twcon tho l>"flinrw 'if lif'.\ and the 
dity of de»lh, a 3|>:ic<.^ oii^ht to be intorpo«oil " — rcsig'aod 
hia thr'^^it', (did dovuirtfJ uputi iib aciht Pliilip JL, the 
govtirtiment i)l tli<i NL'tlu'riinUrt* to^^uUtur wirh thi? i*<?»t tJ 
bis vriiin dominions iii Spiuii^ Itnty, luid the New WorH. 
Political and iwligions iLhsdlritisnj wiiji th« Triiim article of 
PliilljiH ypeeil. flit n\e-A» w^^i-e fe^v In luimhi'V, but ha 
clung 1o tliain ;vit!i the mijrc* m]yi<;ldu;g teunciiy. TJio 
libcrtic* of 8pnin luul t>ntn ciL^Htnrycd nt the bcginiuug of 
ChnxloA** rHgn ; iind tli*^ iih[inlnt<i jeyat^m thnt wna ost^b- 
lithed tbero, Pliilip considered the only true or toh>rablo 
form of govprimivdt, Tu ruU', im fiir lu poatHibk^ aonoi'd- 
iag to lh:« ni«thoil, wliofrvor Im hiul aiitlioHt.y, xvjls un 
cstabllalted purpose in hix mind. At the «sime time, ha 
wnit rpMilr*«d tu xlimd totlh n« Uih iiltiiin|«*ni of iht RiJ- 
nmn Oxtholic <!'haivh, luid tlu; unrelt^ntbg foe of hcrcny^ 
wheroTeT he could rcucli it. Tlic Spanish monm'ciiy had 
irom tt tvlipoiiA diamcti>r From tho <layE of Fordinand 
Ditd Iml^^lii. JtH dtH<^ovul'iL's and conqiU-'Btii in tbo Now 
World hibd hvum puftlied hi the* tplrlt of r«ligiuiiii propo^- 
jjoodiflin, Th9 cniMuIn iigiunHt the I^lfinrs hyn\ iTh>?Cted 
ibv fan^^ad iteal ag-iinst h^n^y, Tii Spain, tlii' rnijiiLM* 
tjon vrnAiiU vsientiA] iimtruiut-nt vf tim clrH iidrniniEitni- 
^ioiif By ttntiim, and by tlir^ inHurn^T nf tho rircum* 
■iBDCce ID which lio wn^ placx^l, ('hilip wns Qua tnipla> 
Mc ivMimy of roli|[iouB diaeoitt. ^foi^ovor, he kncv^ that 
tf ho gmnlcd liberty of oonsciefico in one pnrt of hif 

^ " ?tuip«f ci^dIjImU bmclBnin non mknvt nntm iininiji,*'*tc 
w fifal i« «44« 1^^ L I- p. U. 



iomiidoiia, hg iiiij;Uc li^vo to io««t 9 umilnr jlnTuind la 
RnolLur — In Sp&iii itself. The cnunft«1»i nf hiii tiUuT, in 
wliom, lu hh siilvmtiMl iu years, aupuL^Utlou acquired ui 
LUicroaMng sw^tyt i^onfu'mnl Ptulip in liis uatolenuit big- 
ry.^ Tbero h'Mi been ii mxttim] 1ot« between C)iarle4 
and ibti paopio of Uio NothorlAinfo. Tbuj wurv pcwul of 
him oa ft ^uutvyninTLi !uid hiA nJTiibU miinnon in uibor- 
ocmrio icith th«m kept i»p hia popiiln.rity. Hid |ipjmeciL- 
tton of tlii« Pr<]t<«t:iilt4« :iriil Ilia cruelty ufli^i' llie ntppraA- 
eti>Ti »f thi» innurrT'c;lii.)ii Jkt Ghent, did uc^t nLilBit- tu alioJi* 
ato tlto loy£il if-t I ,%ITrct]c)iiutc rogiirvl of liju -iitbj<'i:iii. But 
I'fillip waA a S|xininni, ruid jihowcil it in till UU doinoan^ 
tr'\r(Li-d4tli('m, *' Kei-5>i>ko seldom, and tli^n nUSpatiiAh," 
Hb Bi]tiKl<:ii nbyjioHi iLud arrogi^ncG rjtpellod antt dittf;ustcd 
dicm. In tljf'numnjf «f>rdiHlly m<?*?LiiigUieirHX[3i'i'-swoniiof 

Among lIjui wetJtHy, spirited, ciilliTiitcd poople. PUllip 
aoertKHl iiujUjied to tntroduico his <foepolic eyoti^m* Th« 
grcftt n<jl>lc« of thb c<Jiinti'y, of vrliuni Williiim, Piince of 
Oranges i^^d the CounU Egmoiit and Horit, vn>tG tb« 


I Hk; bijfuti^ III Lbc HiiifAr«r.uHftl]A»«ilicr[falU wlildj Id luuiCitM aEIv 
bin nbdiuiClvjiH am-aet furili iii tlie li^cMj L^iimatijEi; noiK of SllrlliijCp He CMitir 
Jll/t jj^Tftrirfu r. "niuulbfr wtiimt »a IhP mbjoit nr* GwHird. ffiffiiin 
JToH iff Churlti Quiat : MltfTici. £'Anrff J Q^M, ton jUJieofin, wft 
Id Jtf^rt Its itoH'LU'fif iff 1"h«*. TliMr HuUicn ■« frviiiftfrt Tiy 
HUttJrsi if Fttit'if U- {'-M uf b i.]; iij«! in hl« ediTlfifi of RiitrfrtAHY- tlhfivy 
0* niarip»V., ii..S>J "iiq.. Su f^t^nrifi'tJcjii with I'nuidU n^fvih m«m»»tl run an 
,ltt» MRLI3 iFtAinc- 01 ri>q»i> ttii tiuiii^ruF lus^it iriwlv iTn' n'lruirk »rb<fi BRrtlw 
ID blm. ihaJ IiD hflU bofi; fucilikfi In rr/Ku: ta j>i-nc]iii'j' ««ijT«mii(y «f apln, 
W brrwron ivtlf, vlttii lir f^uld not nmltn Ia*} rlorlti 'tr ivairfm wrw*!- 
HMlTilBy iriffti (hfl M.vjnjjf m d rvUttElon ^r Sirx.lji, »lm oUinn *« ihnt TharfM 
fp>r«mMt iTi^ ^fliHtt vt rificftt Paiiff fJiuii fnrlririr'. Pic-licti ir>.(im ie fn V|4 
Milr, f 'hurLvh'ti IjiTiei StfimliiTyH liy wli'^m itii i^^mtr^^ini} nf Smrt**, fwfwM^ 
flf til* (lii^inloi of pliilDivriliurB, i* tirpm^wuJ ^rut d|ipli<Hl »n thj ronlrortnjH «r 

pVfw't »iprof Inn (iF ivpi^l liidt Kv bnil nnt tumi'it 1,iilS*i tt IVvnti', Avwt 

>h rvftl minil, Jii-[r.. I, w, iv^wcrij < Hr.[>c*T<«.ri, ni. ip4i, |>««i ViMa W 
»l4iwwl (n ihr Spjmtrh l[i<|ni'Jt'>r* im<l ro Plu[lp ojtbarlvitiu to f*b«t|f 
JLM , p|i>ir]S, iill. lilt UnnClf JitA iuvt Inldlonncn opfHir Id U»««dklt li Ui 
l^iucbiiQ* ra l'hi]ir»» 
• Jvm, t. lai 


(Ue#, TJiiijlit naturally exin^c^t to Ut* mtruidvU with ihfi 
priniajxd niAiiriffvniejil id Um {fovenimuiit iinili^r hhi- King. 
WiUiam, tbon^h bom of Luthoran pnrcDte, bjul bbcii 
brought up from bu bo^bood in tbc court oi Cluu'loi V., 
and waa a CaUiolic by profGfflii>n, but oppci*od ti> ptwccn- 
tioD. Ub ttXtraoTLliikut^ iLbilitiee bod mudo liini u favorit4i 
ol ebo KTn])«n>r, who guvu hlnx ir'jjjDiiF^iblo umploym^ta 
nnrl fifgfiiliiu) bin |Hiiti^,iilHr nigiinl by If^inirig npoii bin 
ftficJuTdt^r, at tlie raremony of tbe abdicAlian, and by 
•decluiic him U> couv«y iLo imp«nal ci'i>i¥ii i^^ bin Ijrcjtln-r 
Perdioiuid. I^mont, vnlli iiir JtMs depth of Migiicity and 
■toftdtBOM of obttTtUTtcx ttiiLQ Oriuigf\ wiic a nobleman of 
brilliant conmgo and attmctivd mnnii^is, nnrl hud wou 
hlgli i&me bi ccuui^ction witli the viotorii?s of Graveliiies 
and St. QuenUn. Tlie noblt^, both liifst^ uid otJit-rM of 
mfrrifjT nink, wi-r** bixiid'HH lu tli**jr bLvI"^ of living, nnd 
Ui«ir laTidb racpcudituros bjid broiigbt oa many of Uicm 
hmrj bnrdou of debt 

Philip did not xtcJoct liii Rr^^ut from tlic imebdcrftcy 
of tbo ctJUintryT noi' (bd bo nppoint uny oth^rr whom th^ 
Boblee ivi>nJd bnvo prttfomd; but bn appointed to tbia 
flfictt NDoTgani of Parrna* tb^ ille^timAt^ daughter of 
CliarlcB v., It pentuii uf tiiiu^ji union tuleuU liiid ciieqiy, 
uid tittorly devoted lo tbp will of hnr brothw. She wad 
aeGom|^jeh«d in the art of difi^miviliitiou and doubl«-d«flI- 
nig, wliidi fonni^d au coBunttiil part of Philip's motbod o( 
p>Tcrairg. Sho fiounfth<?d tho King'o jcaloney of Oran^ 
i&d Bf^oDt. In thc< liTit iKt of solcctin^ n Rc|^iit» Philip 
iSiowvd a oanttoa that partook of euBpioiou. At her aldo 
bi^ pUo^d, 11 her pHndpal K^lviiwr, OninveJIft^ thu Bbliop 
uf Arrut- HtH ^itlu'r vriu of hunibltf biriJi, btit had nuitvl 
biiUM-lf to an ImporUnt »ta.tioii midfj tho Emperor^ by 
irbocD t]i« taleiitfl of th<T oon wero also dtsocmodi Grai^ 
Hlft, th« TonnircT, iras mi abb and aooom|diebed mna 
tar] m^ll iMy|tuuiitid n-ilb th« country, but ieTTikljP d^ 
vot^d t4> d^ Kipg. Thu tbriM nobW wen plao»d in dm 


Uoujif il, but tfao seCTOt dir^ctioiu o£ Philip xo th<^ Ri 
n\rn» Huoh thnt the coDdud of nfTsuiv wu4 roeJly in tht 
h^iTirU of Granv«lte (1656). 

\ii iht^ mid^t (if ihi^ (iiunQiii>i &11I.1 feara wliinfi Ui>=ii>r]g^- 
Icatiuu uf biiL* govcnuu«al Qxcitvd, the atUoupt )t»ji uukde 
to retiiin in tbc Netlierlandn tMYurol rcgimonto of Sptuudh 
floli]iv»^ Tliict mi.*tutirL> vfua xuidtirUtkvix wbuti Uien! vim 
tio fligii of iJLit iiutirrectton. It vrtLA in violutixiii of tho 
AAcu^nt rigbu cif Uw ProvlnonA^ und impofiq^l ii Uirdon 
wliioli WAA t]xv mmv OTi«n>iu, siuoe, in tLe pivvIoiiB year, 
tlictv lidil b^tiu uiUTGi^ Aufleiing from tUe acariily of 
proTiaaiui- PluUp UvaI pleJgijd liia wi>rd, on 1&av)D|£ the 
^etlivrl^uidd, thai tbu troopA aLould b? withdruwn ^rithtn 
fiHir tiionibtf ; but tbut pledge ^ru ditregftrdAd. Tbo di»- 
nffru'dtin incrrMod to flDch A dtgroo, tbnt tho Rfg(*nt at 
liw^b iivAtW bmwlf nf n convnni^Eiif prpiUi\t fnr flpi^ilrng 
them away* Philip reluctantly acquioaoed iii what alie 
pronounced an abaolute u^ceeeity, if the country was to 
be fiurcd from iruKinvMrtton. 

Tho flctuond of tbi?^) imtatiDg mii'MuroA ^ms tho crea- 
tion of n Iat^ number of new bisboprlos- Wbatovec 
plauaiblo re^aaons migbt be urged in favor of tMs mecourOt 
fruin Utt- givut itifx iif Uiu exinLiiig diCK^tui?. mtd Ikiur in- 
courriiiriii rcUti<ii^ei to t.Ur r/xitiguoiu Oc'nuiui biHboprica« 
thi; real do^^^ of it w^ not miaundeiEtood.' It waa & 
port of tho macbinciy tc be employed for tight«ni&(f the 
cords of Chuioh diflcapline, aad for the (^^cturminatton of 
h«rofty. Tbe new bishops wtro to be clothed nitb tnqius- 
Itorial powora, TU« <*rHii.tio» ci »tt iminy iinportast pet^ 
aonugUt dcsTotcd. nf «iiiir«f^, tx> the finveroign, ^nw cnunt^ 
a diudranta^ to tho old hereditary aristocracy uf Um 

Thfi two mdaoireB of Hio roteotaon of Uk^ ttoopa, imd 
the iinpoiition of tlto l^ihopi — nunvnrce hnnng aa onw< 
oaa n4ution ta on* anctlifir — revealed unmistakabty tiu 
^ JuH. lip lee, on, 


pf)li<rr i»f Phi!i[>, Tfit" apolaglflU of tliu King Hiorg** tlwt 
troubli'fl tijjit i^innut.'il u|j«n die ninUtion of thc^ noble*, 
c»pcciaily of WiUmm^ \7\m\ it is siiidf wiitiktl to govern 
tbci cotujtjry UioiumiIvgs, Jinrl nid nil Ihny <N>iild xo L^xeJt6 
disftffectdoD, It may bo gi-^inu-d tliat th«y wer« uotiree 
Ikiun the [nflttence of jK-r8oiiaI motives, and cbufa^ miJer 
iho tunngwufuiU wLidi de^uivt-d llceiii nf lIh?!;- naliim! 
and legitinwte place in tliti control of imblig riilain., Tlio 
diargv thftt dtbcr of tbom nimcd nt a rcvoluti<»n is dc^ti- 
tlito of proof. In tlio midat of all tbnt in ^itbjoot to cou^ 
troreray, tvo tiling oitiuot reasonably be dlsputod. Oao 
is tlut forolgo domlu^tlon, that i*. the rtile of Spantfth 
o ffi c w m, luid like; ]inw!f»ii iif .SpM.niHb Mildinry, wr.n-. nn 
IntofulW tlu^ NHln*rWiKtn*iu»ili<iy w<^r<^ U* thi.^ GtirTnanSi 
It WB0 nbat contributed most to tho reaotiou ogBinat 
CliArles v., alt«r Iho Sntalc^ddic wt;r, aiid to the triumpl] 
of Mftorie^ The ether fact ie, tUikt |>oi-aeuutjon, the forci- 
Uv rcptOMioD of horef^, aft^ t)i«3 maDn«>r of Spiuiijih Cittli- 
oticiiTOt wflfl ropngnant to thu gi^nriiMl f^almg nf rliB peo- 
ple — of tile C^tliolic |K)pa1&tion — of flii< \ai\v CottnlneA. 
T1]tv« waa m\ AluKfepberv of fiiWoiit, and » eitaU; of pub* 
lioc^nioTu to wbkb tie pf>Ucy nf I'lulip vma tliomughly 
t^pOftcd. WiiltFUii iiftL^-vrurcLi dr-f-l:Li'o^i tlint. wJjilo hunt- 
ing in cottipany vrtth ]J«nry l[. of Fmncp. tliJvt monAPcU 
bad incaitticiusly KV^ed t^ Iiim the secret doeif^i ol 
UnseJf mid rhilip for the extirpation of lit'n?8y in tbolr 
^ominnJtiK. In Philip's Hclititiit? for tliiT inrnMMi of hinh- 
opt, and in hin detention of tiin troopv, WilliaiTi s»w the 
bcfjmiing of the oi^^utioR of the plot; jind he deter* 
fiuiie<I, he Biy>, that he irould do vrhat he ocinld to rid 
Uic Und of "the Spanish vermin." That William looked 
iLlviiit for a high malnnii^nirxl connvoUon^ du4?a not hidi- 
Dttn any dpop-hud plan i>f unlaivful pprwmal :tdv;in(<i*m»nC 
nor ID hia marria^B with Aium. uf Sax^my, ^»» tlirti? mny 
■enoaa Attfica{)t to nualtsad I'hi!ip ju to die religion U 


TOE RiTotiiATHn iH TIC imuamMo^ 

be uloptod by hii brid«-^ WiDaM «m diugMl w-;^ 
€bfriihi«g UmiUsfftllaB prind^ot ; bat tiw af^r.* wn* 
Hw^hiATnllun. ami bi* 4o«b bot appear to have o^Ua 
Uvngnosed Um booniis of macMky in tfa« tinttr of that 
prolottBd sagadty bj wbaA bo cofMd tritL unaompiiloiu 

I'bilip renewed ^ pT>ac u tiiig ediola of Cbwkfl V. It 
mw forbvl<kn to print, <^f • ^^^ luda, buy, or mU anj 
■ridng of T^dtPT, Zwinglf*, (EcnlanipadiiiB, Btioor, Cd- 
vln, or of aay othifi berctic ^ ti> hrrok or tc> injord auY 
iouign lit i\tv Vlr^Dt Or of tin SfJnta ; to hM or to attond 
BDj heretical nonventide. Laymni wvrt; |vohibit«d frotn 
reading the Sciriptiiru, or U^iix port in oonfcscDoea upon 
disputed poiati of <lo(;trm«. Tnuki!gr9««or^ m tMMt tboj 
iboold r«<tnnt, vrfrv, if th«y wvro mm, Co be behcoHed ; 'd 
womc-ii, to be Iririird alive. If oWtfiBti*. Ibov w«r« to b« 
burnt a1ivi% hjuI, in uitJit^r t3Vl#^, tlieir projirrr.y vras |r> b« 
oonfiscated- To omtt bD infonn vgainat suapidoii^ pvr- 
voois, lo entctt^, lodg«, focd, or clotho thtni, waai to b« 
I guitty if licri-ey* P<>raaii8 wlio, for IIkt rwirton that tbcj 

mn mspoctcd, vri^ri* tonfl<!mnts! to iibjnrc hcroaj, woro, 
in case tliey romlprtHl thatnAoU«fl n^in su^ioiotiv, to bo 
dnnh yrith ha lit-retioj*. K^vry a(*ciMer, in otw^ of conrio- 
tion, wnn tri n*cinvt* u Urge nliure of l\iv cim^tenUt^ ^Oo6m. 
Jiidgea WHHi absolnMy forbiddmi to dimluUh iu any way 
tiw praHcribed pctialtiea. Severe pemJties iivre Uimnt- 
MMfJ ogiiin-it miy who should intercede for hcrciica or 
proecnl u petition in hf^hulf of tUenu To carry out tb«ao 
tMobmcnts^ ChEirl^f hnd oMtiiblinlHfd mi Inqnimtioiit wbkh 
ffM »ot f>nly indopendent of the clprgy of tbe country, 

Lbot lo whit^h thcfT wew nil, from die hi^lioit (o ih« low«t> 
Inaw4>nihhv Thin wiw nnt tlu^ iSTp/miJiA Inmimitioti, but 
** vnia Miffioimrly ri^iiinm to ]i".u\ Philip to pronotiuoo it 
mtiri' pitkle-u tbmi tliiit trf S|]mii.' Uut^ te^nhJo na tl>« 

I CoBiTJiru I^«^if . U Ml. With Mr^Tlnr, t. MO ni). WUlbiD'* wif- iru n 
4«*Q'^ <Utilif niT I'lAMmiiaii 4* Rol il'^Udlir «iix Piirt B» I'lnourf 





Spain* It iTiu ^d by Philip, iiiid hjia W-ti urged liy lu« 
ilefvndCTB ajiiri:^ Umt tUo [ii:rtH^iiUn^ idirta were titc wmrW 
olChorictf, And that liin RU^^r^i^Afior nimply contutncu:! tc.«&l 
m ofMfffttiov. Tliift^m**iit ovfrrlooks the ^iiTinnistaii^otue 
that rlifiy pirt the aiUbority of Cliarlfta, p^ipnlur t.liongL 
he maii, to u Htirem IwiL ; Uiut Lliej' wimc not syfiU^tuuilL^ally 
enforced i thui tlitr unuHtira iiiiUctrd iitidoi' Hivm lind inijiv 
tt«d nwio Mvakenod tbc hoAtilitj of tlii^ prnpli^ to fiaoh 
nvCfljiitrcft ( and that in tbo ii)tcr\&l between tlic promnl- 
gHtkin of thmii b}' Charlea tmd the reu^wa) of th^ni by 
Pliilip. t}m tww opiiilotib luid i^niut-'d LL uifk^r iicoopiimoi^^l 

A» tW IntpiitfilJori pr<H-ivdi'd with iln UrMHly work, tJMi 
Itkdi^itmtioii of t\[v. [H?:op1ft foimil lUt/Tiiii^^ tlirotigb Oruiige 
and K^uont', >vhij iv*m*:riititrat?d ii^Miimt iiitr i^^ruehiui 
which werif iiLl]kie(i,aiidor>mpbuDf^d to ihu Kit^Kof (>r>i.n- 
veUOfOti wboin Uioy kid tlie ivttponaibiLity i^f cvvrytbing 
Uut mi* dona. 

Granv^llo i» <txcu1p4it«l by Ptullp from all reepon«i- 
bilily for the intjoduinioD ij the new bbbops; and be 
did nul irri^iiiulii witiii' iitbi^r nlmoxiuuM iiifiuiuniH \vW1i 
WBI9 iFtid In hiA i"-n*!cltU* lli« iiiijtiiUi<ji worn nrit enitrL 
But tbo lorde wt*re not out of tUo way in tindiug !■ 
biXD tfao ombodiiiicmt o! tim foreign dominatiou wldub 

[kQd*1!kiaCD«i tvl%>]«nifiii Uur; piijiolilB oinllhi] dq IuJ b lift c?»e prv^ 
flrillm* Ed kWatnit ay ■ l«uf«, L'alllvara rJaqoMUod eIh t*a|i^Jlu art 

//, J, jsn, 

^ Onii(* kU foitk KHoa of litmn thi-i^A citvnmttun'bv* la « Icncr to Uh K»- 
fAt 1 Jiuuir ^ IMU). lleif)«4k«nr Ehf J'l«ninlt « ^'qinlquDroliUmlLtetl 
nam gnioMi l» U rJ0>ii', mOirar vn lomjii r^nn ta mli^rfi [in^'i^rvlfB n'fwinil ■! 
■*pM kkHUlii niftttir#nj<ii( ft raAtn pingilff. fmt nnl1fltlr>?i cl pmr»n[iiH Aw tm 
nttn^ Ma Unr 'Acinn * nrtT«lkir',"#fr, lln ri<'[tkrr> pUinlj ihi litiJ mn**. 
^MiMM rfa«t vill fHiilC fntin jviHrti^Dpu In tli* w^^r pciitaj nf the krn^. 
ItoMt Y*A I^Dif«(¥r, /4n4sr4/ ''j U Mt^itn j^YMinjf-.VfUpoti^ tan* II. p. 10 

^ 111* f«Dl4 on ^wb firakifUB vw tm^tuiulj rtstiiM*d on pHiMijd I17 
QanhMil, Cim^pomdMif^. tUr,, i-<tc£- wj. < I'fvlimianry Raji^trHu ihu of 
lft« wmi ^df^ t&al Onnnlla did ftwia rKommtrLd the kwlnappki^of WUt 
tm t aian, «ria w lifcta from IxvtkIh, vtkiiv b4 ith tcody^ad- "v^ cutwJ b 



wu striking at flbo"TiftSffia of Eie couatrjr, Wimter? 
Opmiun \i*i mi|;Ul privnUly liold on to tiio vwLoiu of Aonio 
of Uit* inuaNiiKtt of riiitip, Iw iurv«r fiitttjnMl in hi* obi^ 
lIii-ixi-lv Hl^ kiKiw iiu lilghtrr Inw tbftn tho will of bU 
jnju>l<-r. Thu iicn unuiigumf!int i>f dioceiHeB abridgwl his 
own epiBcop&l iM>wei, ujuI would imturally be unwelcomt} ; 
but «kf.-n be wn4 m^^ Ar^^Ubialiop <>l MecliUn, luii] tben^ 
i^t iliKi intorcitttifin oE Uio il^^cnt, roocivud fruui Kcniu Uh) 
eutlmjUv bju, Uh> piinionAl diililcu of tfati lonla ti> Uiin «a 
ftii U|)flt»rt, and th«ir pjitTiotic oppoaition to the policy of 
wliioli hv wua Utt« uhluF 4<xeiL'iitor, reucheil ibeir cJiiii&x, 
Till-! rtTt^-t of tlie ouinjjluiuta of lli^ ui^blen u^^inL tUa 4»r- 
dinjil ^iiwi to kindiv m Phitip'A mind cm m«xtingiiiidiAble 
hosliliCy to tticui.' At Icngtli the Itcgcot, impftticntof 
hor dopaiiiicnt p>:«icion with roforaoce to Gmnveilci and 
willing; iliiit hL< i^bouLd bear all the odiuin^ took >idc« 
MgiLimi liim. Tli^ i<£eit«Tii6nt became «o funiiJdidilu tLat 
riiilip f[>iJiiil H jimUsxt for removing Kim frmn thit cnun- 
try, ai< if Ht tiis own rvipie^t; but iht^ Inqnlaliion went 
tonvnid with even grvatcr entjrgj^ in tlic wuik uf burning 
Mid bulging olivo Ua viotuna. It cTf?n pnt to d^^h tbo«e 
irho yrvic im^rody eiispectcd ol bitibonn^ hcrctioil opinions. 
Thv gT4}&t ^rdfi, who on the departure o[ th^>i CardutaL 
rctumixl to the Coimoil, from whi<jh Uiay hod previ- 
t>Lul^ withdrawn, felt that tfit^y wcas (l<!4^ni<>d to tv in 
pMXt ani(Wi?ndji1« for tlm inti'^cuint niurdi^rs {nTprfraLttHl in 
tlio naBi« ot justico and rvligion; and when Philip di^ 
tonuinvd to promiil^kt* tho d«cre<« of Trent, the Princ« 
of Oi-an^ broke tfatough hid rc^vrro and alartJcd tb« 
Counctk hv a bold and powerful tpo^ob upon thu tinngbt- 
aons and diLni^^rou* puLicv wbidi cbo govenuDent hu 
purrting. Thng^n^rai K»ii«e of tlte countij reooUed from 
UiDiL ntnci eveluAiafttii'tt] dtacipUiw* whli^li the rtvL-tionaij 

> Ir Uh JiUpt* ^ nbkli Iv iftirJ Ibt ttnth b4 orUut lUaviiiaM i^itMl 

jmmtj bgr fWMn gt « b«lf 4nm b^iiE Wl Fbilip adih lu Aa 4«iM 
^QmHw Wirit firt^iw m*mA4» Mw rir h — ^^q." OKteiil.l-101 

T!!i: COUFBOUeSE. 2&7 

^Olift'Pftrty in Eiiiope -w^n- eceklug to aat^ibliAli. It 
AbMniuod to dLipotch Egmont to Madrid to open 
tiie oyes of Uio King to the rool rituution. The ourdioUtj 
wilL wlikL bo viiis rooeired, suid the horrors wore 
rvndi-i'i-d him it) tho SpiLnish court, inad*^ him satisfied 
witli tlir xTnnolJi hnt Titgu<^ ani) iinmeftriiEig a*i4urajic:«« of 
l^hilip. EgtEJuiiL \k-iOi lh\i Luore iiiceiined, wliuii, ^ifLttr liin 
retuTUt ht> found that hf) hiul bt^ti dup^, and tluit Uac old 
0£etft v«ra to l>2 aliarpLy cnfonv^d without a jot of conccA- 
motiA Tint Muiouncomont lh«t tho porFweiition was to gc 
oa iviU^oLit tho Uatt mitigation, ^11^ the land with coit 
fl^niadozL The fordgn nierchLuiU fl«d. as irom a pcad* 
luDci^ titul Antnerp^ iJii* j>nii('i|ui1 iliilH.. wtis athnit. Th# 
biitHtion of IJw iw^nph^ fcjuiid » vi^it in n uiuUitudi! of 
uidTy or Batirical pnbJicntioDs, whicb no vigilance of thvi 
InC|ittaition could pi^ovc^ut from Aoeing lht^ hgUt,^ 

Aboot fivv huiidrt^ noblea^ to wJioin burghora wc^l 
aftrtmnhi nddiad, uuftod in mi ugnfUmiTnt ^uU^d th« Cc^ro- 
pr^fjtUf, by which th^y pledged tbema^tvee to witbatand 
the Spcmieib tyiuniiy, tbu luijuidiliini that vraii i^niMluag 
ihm ixmnlry, anil rMtr^ vUi\f-nl mil whiidi nboiild bi; iin* 
dertAkon agauiAt Any ouc of tWr nuinbiu-. In thin league 
weto Count Louin of Koflsau, a mnu of high ccum^,' 
bat moto i-xdlable and rudical than Iub bi;oUu^x.f-^o 
MCompIiMhcd St. Ald«gotidi.s and Bi'cdi>rodL% w1k<«v diar* 
^tter u-ajt Uw ontltlod to rvjKjieot, but ^dio wa*< fall oC 
^idt and danng. They n:»tir<fmi>btpd »t the outset only 
Uqg&] iiiivua of rtttiiiLaiiaf. Out. iu liieir nuikn wert! fomid 

t Tl« oii«r oMen of Philip on g|r<n in hk* f«nou* dli^tcU Iron t|ufart« 
l< V^vtU (UMAtvr 17. IMIIJ. G««bArd, u fxniir 

■ Qt«0v«[l«^«f«rrvfl|iffDi1nio* bHnrontfjint vnhfHVo Ihe (cvntml uitlpVbif 
IvhbtI* Ik* S[4aJi»il*— " t^ nuuvtiv rnlAnE^ qim Irm ri(naij{n« M tminr- 
■ilfcmni ■ lt>a«lca KApflc>i>H," u li^iltt't l(, [n nnt- ^\art[f*tpifntff:tatdm 
CWtCaW Jf CinnnfU, t0n« vU., p- f^^J}- 'I'hla anf ^ptfhy b* ■ItnlaiitM lA thv K- 
lariT tf Ilk* 1«H> iin ^rripii0i,un^ «*fLiiiim>4 in rciganl En Eh« intantitni nf th« 
Gd0 U I'rtttf la 1T14 Sfaiiitk L(if|uiiJ!^ikn. to nils Iti'm q< tr ruU'J in ItjlIj, ho, 
QxBfti«n« neauri'PpV ih* I4«l0«ikl4>f cilfkna And fIi*TifiitJL>Eii <nrli oa pUf« 



aomn w)t4i Itoptnl Ui infnt} tlmir frirtuuui by political OOltt* 
motion. The gi'cnt nobles atood u.Wf iruou tko AMOCt^ 
tiooi. WiUifim rapeciaUy won wm coiotigb to p4iToi»T» 
that it ur>uld ac^oomplifib nothing <df<v2titiil, tiut mthci un- 
piahl Uiti oiuise which aU had 91 h«Art. Th^ meinb«7« 
roiuUed on a ^rvtct yiihWo dtfiucmatiuliuti, aad waited oii 
ihi! Ritgi-tit ill IL iHJily viiih a iielitioit t.lj<it, luitil :i rvjieal 
of the edicts couUl be prncarcd, nhc would [ii].^«]x^jir] dw 
<utecutioD ':if them. Slio biidled licr indignntJon, bat Da^ 
layniout, i>no of tho Coonoil, w&a Imown to haw fityled 
litem '' a band of b«RRar».*' Tb^ aooepted lh« Utio aiMl 
adopt4yl tli« beggar'ii dack amd bowl for thdr lymbob. 
Miitr.itndi<A iif iH'i>p1i^ lingan ttnw to tuvaifmlilci all <a<<r thit 
ojh:ii c'tJiiiitry, for Uk' jnnpiw; of liHUiiing to t\w Cadvintst 
prcadiera aad of worabippuig accordinf; to their owa 
prefQL'euc^. Fivia ten to tweaity thouaaod pftraona wonM 
gDllitr, tbo women and uhildruii bbuig placed lor a^Mj 
la t]i« «iiutixs mid tbo whola anumbly bi^iag vncircl^d b^ 
anaed tneu, with wntchm^n «tntti»ied lo f^lve waruiiig of 
ftjaprvibohia^ diui^er. 'llii^y ]isL»?nt?d lu A M-rtncJii, Huag 
Pmlinx, and uhcmI ihi; (i{>fi()rttiit[iy t(» perform t)\n rite of 
baptisnt, or tho maningc mtticc where it waa Juiiivrl. 
Orao^e obtwicd fioiu tliG Kfsgont the allowance that tbe 
pKodiiuft )o tbu coimtry, oatmdo of tbc citjee, should not 
bo di»turb«d, Thii populjLr roovoznont wiw to pcweiti^ 
tliat the fuutid hcnwlf holplofis (li?^^. 

Philip hud Rtnhtinmly refused to comply with tlie urgunt 
rt-ijuiwte ^f l\w Jte^uL Ihhl^ iht? ediclA iHight hu laftMiwJ. 
T\To uubled. Dtighcii und Mwtt.i^iy, wiritf 8i?rrit to repre> 
lent to him tbi: ccnditioD of the oountiy^ und the extmt of 
Uie popui^ir iikdignat^oii. The Kiii;; at leug;th rraogniivd 
tb(? pei^ib *}( the fiitoution, aiul wr^ito to tho Kcgcur- thai 
thiAlnquEfriiiojiiiiigbtooMOipTOvidodtbdiLewbiabopft w«ra fl 
aitfTtrod tofxitroiiw* tbrirfunctioLsfroely; Uiat be imndia- 
poHi^d t(j iiKidei^ile lh»! PWarik, but thut dine wriuU) b^ i^ 
qibired ti> matiins ihn itiuuiim ; mid tbut thi? ftegi3tit rnl^ht 


CouledemUiM, but oUiora alf^, %n nnitr- 
At the luimo limi^ on rhp 9th t>f August^ 
lAGfl. ill tlir prrati-nnr^ hF h. notary, stni before l^he Diik^ of 
Aim Olid otlti-r vritiiBsms, he signed » }ii>t-rut <li<dLiralLi>u 
tbati mAvilbtUkii-iidgt^ uouroiicti givrii Ut thi^ Duriicjw 
ol PonnBi Aincv be hrid not i^ic^ in thi« mutter frcd^ and 
if»fmtniicouAly, ho liici nrt coffrvidcr hiin«<?lE bound by thiX 
promtM, hilt I'nM^n-od t» himf^^lC the ri^kt to punish tJia 
gnitt^ ]Mtri.iQ^ tmd specially the aatikors smd fomt^nten 
uf liuetethtirm.' He v^rotiH jilrtotri l.lie NutiHoof thff P^ipc, 
vUh mi iitjuiLcUun tif Mn^rccj. iux rxyrvmnji of hm piii-pcMo 
to maiittjun thn Ini^uiiitiDn aDvl tho cdlctA iu aJl their 
n£or.^ Philip hn^P thna Icfi bot^iDcL him tho ilccumcntAry 
proof of hJB p«rii<lyt of hiB d«lib<irat<! doui^Ti to broak Jiu 
wonl to & uatJOQ. 

\V1u)tf tha country vmc tims iigitabidi in tlie Fiimaier of 
^^iti, thAn> kniiwt ffprtli lli4^ rttrtrm nf i-yinoclasni that 
Bw*ijit ovri' Lla.^ land, daiLruyiug tli« |WiinljiigH, iniiigtv, 
Will ifthin^ HymWbi ftnil instrumenta tif Catlifhc woi^Mp, 
from tboAc vhich adcincd the great cathedral of Antwurp, 
loffidi aa dcGor&tcd tbc hniGhloat cliapeb and convenlA. 
Id FLuidera aloiie more tha,D foui' Jiaudrcd churi^hi*K urtTo 
adtiad. Th<i irork of d^uiruoiioa wiu 4cv*opi|)Ufilic)d hjr 
nolv luutily g^t-hcn'd, ^ind wav ouc^ fniJi at Uicv «xcit9^ 
M«tt Vui exai^x-rAUoii provoke^l by Hn^ t*rnb\e porftwi^ 
tiofi. MagbUuloi Kud bm-^hera, wheUivr CadK^ie or 
Prolwtihnti Iftoked 011, olTenng no rudst&nco to tho prog* 
ttm of ^0 t«inp<«t. th>vr«iv<d* it may bo coadcmnodt it 
vu not exactly Lik« tho itivotion f^f the tcmpka of ooa 
Mi^fioui denomination by fl&othw. Th»o odiGce* won 
bli tu oelou^ to tha people In oommoii; all had wxna 
Tight in tlt«in. OdvinUU JiL Unit. ]ii*rind liuhTtLinlly 

iMOOk hM bbi j*i( Ml Oh 3I«<liHUnti4 otfrntiMir la look Af(*r ibrnlonnillH 
'Qactflfl^: rull^, wib* Htm «ifn>|oiii]u» kivn* lii rrf«nn» Id IW 



lockod upon thf^ itao of imagi>B in vcrship, smd opon the 
tikht8, tiA foi-niB 01 i<l<»l;ktr}', of a aJn ^x^tloitly fuiLJddirii 
Ell Uit? ik-cAk^uo. SSciiilar uprisings of the [topulaco took 
fiJitm* in FniEKv? iinul fn ScoUiind, urtd from thn wim^ 
cKii«i». 'Hu' rri>U-*tnnt minUti'Tsf iuv\ tlio Prince oi 
f)mi]ge, widi other ditef^ of the hb^nkJ p&rtj'a generally 
denottiLcod Uio Iniage-broakiDg.' Tbe efT<!<rt of it vrna ill** 
netrouft. WLzit tbo i>:onookutA conuidi^nid Uio d<Mitnjotioa 
of tlio implumcnU of im IinpSoiia idolatry, tJta CAtlio1ic« 
ablion*od ai: *«rritog»*. TUv ]-nilnot\r |JH.rly wh* divide, 
uitd In4ih1i^ l,bU juitiLEit-kgi' ^ini-d by iUe^ giiV4'nin)etiU it 
plivunlble pivuaxl waA aFToi-dod for (Iih inoat wuitfiiiiiiiry 
rctnlinti<>n, Tho It«^eiit wna oblij^. however, to iuak« 
ft truwj witb till? Confed<.?mcry of iiobli^n. in \thich it fl's* 
agrood tluit thn Iiw^nmluin hIiouM bo given up Aiid lib- 
erty flll'>w^d to tho nc*w doptrinw» vrhiln thn criiifedemt**^ 
In renirn, !w long a* fb^ jiromiseM to them should be kept, 
wi^ri* l(> uLiiiiiloiL lliuir hAfluuinLtoii* Oniujju uiKUTtEHik to 
qjicill tbiT tlistiiibiinrc* iii Ant^nr^Il, and Egiiioiit. jn Fbin- 
dera i the lattoi^ Enaniff^tiiig hi> loyalty to OtLboltdE»ui 
and bla iuiger at tUo i<:onocla8l«, by hrtiUiX scvuntieflH 'J*h© 
Kt'^nt cxhibktLd tbo utmoet enorj^y in twproasinjc disorder. 
and in pcmiialjing x}w. ofTt^ridtr*, VuIuiioiciiint\i, whiph eu- 
deavor^l ti> Kljind a )ii^^g"f wskv 1»kc>n nnd b^^vily pun- 
lhIuhL f>rJ^r wai* ev<»rywlifi>T n'*Uirt'<L Orange fon^jiHw 
what t'tmniB Pbllip woidJ pureue. Ife wimld not takt\ th^ 
oAth of unlimited obedl^nua to wb&t thn King niiglit 
chooac to codLniand, nnd i^pnmting n?grctfillly from Kg* 
mont und Horn, w)]c> had more confirlf^nco in PbUip, h» 
rtttirod to DiH^nVarg, in Nfts&au, t)ie audODt Beut of Ills 
'^mily. Friuu the momenc wh«n Phil^ beurd tbo imw* 

I UntVy, k. bTO- TTbtrtair IllA populAT 1cAi1<ni tmn»T»n»i e# hntCf^Unlc. 
ng Ar UDt, jionafkf iJia<[upulb1 poiPU Hmr l1i«y<Jhl iifinjiitT*inK) hjlEcdl 

\\^\\ • \i. lUhdij. Jt^r* kit. ISlt lioU* tiii^ coorn.ry op^^n, Kocb wtIEm ia * 
pltnxual, |«irtiia& ipipir, b«t «rH4 ot hli rrllMlint iipn Uoirvy itv worlbf 


of tlt6 iconocksdo disturboiK'^e, He h^d no thought but 
thttt of ftrm*d ooercion ami v^ngeonoe. Wfiil** he was 
piv|iHrlng u ttiiliUtry force m> atroiig that \k tspwteJ to 
cat off lUL I^opi^ of n^Ul<uii.<c, he vi^tleil bU designs bv ii»- 
Bur&QCGfl to tht.' Ki?goFt and to the Coun^'il thrit his pnlifiy 
■WM to bo 0D4) of mi]<iiii?8e» elt^moncyi and gnioa, wiih tbe 
ftrot<lnnc« of all liafBhiL^tj?.^ It wn« fortunate th»t tb^re 
wiu odM; num tvhom he oould not decM^Ive, 

Wluit thi! Rogi^rit moAl di?|jnx.-jLt4.H] was tin- si^ncling of 
Uki Duke of Alva til i\\v. Nt'thcrhinLlit, U> whikin sfie hud 
ft fttrong persoiiAJ nntipatby, aihI who^e ectming, na sbo 
kiic'W, would undo at onco tho w^ii'k of {Miciticattoiii which 
■ho cojididea-d her««lf, tb rough Uer rouolute firoooediu}^, 
to liftTQ ncuxly accoiopliahvd- But tti uoivii'daiito with 
AIva'* ivlviw, Philip hiul ii™»lvM oti ti i;c'lu'm(^ of wivngn 
repri'^itl'iii and pLiniidiniciit, and AIvtl w>u ih^ [iti rami tie* 
b<rrtfd U' I'ftrrv it out. Ilia n^jni(alii>[i waa very luj^Ii itf 
n rallitiuy umit, although hia Udentti Acem nut to Iinire 
fitted him i<}T the niftrftgrmcnt nf Uvrgn nmijcfl ; ho had a 
ooDtrootfHlt but dear and craftj intellect, tmmoai^nrablo 
iLTTO^C'^co, itLfl<><xible obatiiiaoy, and ;l ht-ai-t of floats 
ConL-ilUtioD uiid mercy wei-e temia tiol found lii hL* vo- 
oahahtry. HIk thi'ury, liki? tlmt t^f PliiUp. vfiut Lhiit tlin 
ifrvjtt lordj^ wiTJT rtt tlu' hiittoiii of t1i(> (hsn.lTi'i^tjon of tlio 
itift-Tiur nobility, and that thc^ in turn ivei^c the moTer^ 
of cir!<liUi^n amoQS tUo peop]«. Nt>ithdr the Kin; nor 
hii GtictoI oiiiild coinprohend a upontmn-ous, common 
jf^tiuivnc. pervading a iisitLoi^ Alv» cojiociivod that th^ 
gieat mtet^? of Oiftrlr-n V. had boon in spanng ^e ca^ 
tivu leaders in Ihe Sinah^aldtr wtir. Fnnu tfie Rrnparor'i 
f^xp'Tit^iWi; be derived a (.i>in;.lu»Iv*' iiririiuH-nt ii^ndnnt t!V(Try 
policy bat that of unrelenting nr^vinfy in df^bng with 
Rl>0b and b«rotio?i. !Sucb naa tbo vann wit^i woa ohomn 
t«>ee4Uo tho diRturbaru^ea in the Notborlandtu Ho con- 
laetMl a body of t«a tlioinUDd Spauifih troops from Italy 

1 QuhAri'Hihili^MT.IU. 



ti> Ijuht oDimtr^. Aa him oooisa litj ne^r to GimoTn, F4f|M 
-PUtTk V' (Uttii^l hjm t4» tiUTi wuiiK tum\ cxtftrmiii^itK Ulii 
"Mtitif ileviU&uil apoeutw.*.' Boi Ii9 deoUn<4 to<km- 
wlt bom liu» ciuDoen route, roaintaitied |>ttfect diedpUne 
11^ his soLdiiaii <Uuii^ thi; lonn; iumI ponkius niAnh, 
and eT«ii g&v«acon of orgabiuuion t^ tho hondrecb of 
giiirlcoifio vbo foLlotred hia Anny. On-hia artivRl^ 1i»' 
«nd4!»TOTvd it* (lisiLTni MUHfuoimi, uihl gnduftlly made 
known Uift f7xt4-nt of tim uiitlttmty cmiitnittod to liim, 
VTM o.-tt)ivftlciit to tiutt of a dictetor. Tho lUsgcat 
lE^ntt'lf wholiy di^<Gstod of re*! ponr^r. Egmontand 
Horn ivort diMfoyed to BmnelB hy fj^n^Jous adU flatter- 
iD^ word«T imA tlieri tTvq,ob«roiuily iLrrnttud a^ isut into 
priunn, 'Hip ti-jribh^ Iritiatml wxa^il. wfurh win a|>- 
pro|>ii&tGLy tuuaed by Llie people^ '* the Coundl of Uh>od4** 
ftnd the vork of deatii beffoii, boom the priAond wenLj 
QTOvrdod vritli iianmtcA, itot a fow of vhom mnt 
EroQi thdr had* nt ntidni^L lli^r oxvcntionon 
biuy from morning till ^v^ning. Among the vi«tint8t- 
nob vi*ite apeciall^ iium«n>ii8, ^iiioe out end vrhurh Alvft 
kfifit ill vifiw, niktt tUs providing uf a nvciiuo for )ik 
pia«t«r> Ev«^ one v^lio hud taken part in thc^ |wtitioa> 
■gaitifit th« new btihoprica or Itio Inquieinoii, or in £anir 
of «ofti»iint* th& 6diota et p«i«eoudoti, waa doolarod ^Q^ 
of bigli tn»uoti. Ev«ry uohl^inait who hftd b(»eD cotic«ni«d 
In presenting ihv. |MTtitioiix, nv hnd ]i|i|>mTfKl iif thi^m ; hII 
flobltM aud oflic^rs v«ho, under tbe plea of a pramuo cl 
circnnutaiKxfl, luul piM*mlltcd the sermoiia; every mio 
vrho hftd tnlc&n part, in any vny^ in. the horftticnl nuiM 
pafKitiDge, and biuL not hindnciMi tho dt^^traction of tli« 
imaguH \ aU who had expTMMd th« opinion that the King 
LaiI no right to Utko (nana Ibu provinwiS thirlr liberty, of 
tliat the pivwiit tHbuDjd wm lYwtrirUd hv iiny Imm or 
priTiIegea, w«ra likemae nude goHiy of troawn* VfatM 
aad Ion of property, Tttre tbd inTariahlv pv^ially. ta 
throe nmnlhft <TightooB hondrcd inoji w<to m*«it to the BObI 



If^lii. Persons ^ete ojnUenutv^ forNiitgittg tlin aongH of Uie 
I Ott€U£, cr for &tttfji<liDg a C&LTuimti<: buriiil y^rs bcforo ; 
ant} for rtnying thiit ia Spain, olno, the new tloc trine would 
ipcyad ; :ind onothar foi- raying that on t? iiiu8t obey God 
ntfacif than ican. Mnnlly. on th^ 16th of Ft^bruary, 
1^168. all llio uihabiLuitA of tlie KtlhurbiiuU, villi 11 fntr 
«!XCV-|>t.i[iiiH tlml we.r» n^umnl, vyl^h-- lurhmlly (vjnrL^mm'<] tA 
dcith OiS heretics ! 

Orongo waA actiTe in doyiaiiLg m^^anfi of daUnfrance* 
Hifl br<fdi«r, Loou of Naaeau. ontL'j'-^d Fritubud, in April| 
1-^68, Ht iha head of art tirniy, mid ^unud u victory ovor 
tbo forc«a commaridwl by Cuuitt Art^inburg. In urdnr to 
■trikv tj^rmr And to srourt; himself in thi\ R'ur, Alvn hur- 
Ti^il through tlie prricewi a^iiwt Egmont arkd lloni, aud 
tbey vr«r« btibottdod 10 the great Bquan^ at Brmsui^ln. Alva 
tb«n mardied oguliut the anny of Louiti, which he d^ 
fcot^ond diirp6ncd> Ho au(.-u<<odvd, uhiu, by avdding a 
oombcit^ in brLfTliiig WiltuLm, whiJMn imny vrzm con^poaed of 
iRAtfimlB that coald not long be kept lopether. The nitfi 
of Alva vruH tlu? mopo fii-iuly i?atiLblitiln*d by thti uiutiK?- 
eenfol attpmgjtn to overthrow it, ai\d hr puraurd for w^vL-ral 
y«ttrs loDger hia murderous work- T}je entire number of 
jodiicial hoimkadco under Uifi adininieti-atLOD, he reckoned 
binftKlf at eiichteen thouaand- Multitudes omlgnUed from 
Um country ; nmnufaotoffiea vreie dcitort«d, uad buainctt 
WU parft]vi^d. In lf)^9, hti d('ti^rmtTii\1 ti> put in oprra- 
tion a BjYt^m of tsLXAtirm that kIuhiUI i\\\ the cofTere of the 
King. H(! unhuiibd Ul^I an extrsordlnary tax aliould hm 
levi«d. of ono pcrr ct'.ni. uu pruji^rty o( all kinds ; und that 
m pemancnt tax shooLd be paid, of tivo yor omt. en rvi^ry 
md» ol real estates and t«iL par cent on cvnry *aU of mer- 
clunidiac. This scheme, n« ill cnlciUatod f^r itA end tm it 
w^M bArbarcuK iu \U opprMeivcnem, raiBed onch a Htnt-m of 
opposition, thar» Aim htnu<.-lf wha moved to make a com* 
prosoifle. whioli comdated m postponing tlw executtnn <i[ it 
IOC two ynrs. Ills cai6nue«B Granvctlc and cthcrUt wcr» 


Antveqi, wU^ 


onljr Of 

"n^'i^mt «l vHlMiAw ftftA been ftlowhr 

ir^n, «■ Ife aiA << Jdr, 1671, AIt* c«m- 
Ibai the tosBi AdkII be leried Mfcordh^ ui hb 
Aft riwfi Wft ckMd, and tbe poopkioC aU tko 
pftmaoHi MMBid « vMBttdag u sttimda tbat be 
hb«Mto«3Ec«ptlcMff«flMlM — oovik, wtBe, ftesh, mild 
^frtm die <ip«nd^ of lus 4«Te^. Bm, iliU did not 

pttttded. Ahu TO (tn^)^ tncctiard nnd mdl; to eel tli<b 
baogman ai work ftg^m, n^cn be beard of tbo capttut^ oE 
Bricl b]r tlu "^ ft c a b c gM g " as 1b^ wcro called ; tine 
bardy iiAabituita ctf tbe coaat> ot Holimui axid Z>c&Iaud, 
wbo had <irgams§d tib«iivolT<M iiito pTod&tonr bands, uiuli^ 
tbebadmbal.W1U]ajnd«KMaTk. Ilif^ Priim of Onuigo 
W3W iinmnittjag in bia exertlofm to miw forow nipniile ol 
«ffeclJDg tli«^ ili'^liTpranot! of bia country. TIciIliLnd aiid 
Z«alaod tlirovr off tho yoke of Aim, nndl, in acoonbuHM 
iriili WiltiamH suggoatJiMU, adopted a iitt ooiutitatioii 
liy th<j («1aU« of HoUoiul, William was reec^CQ)>«<l as tbe 
King's Stultltoldur, the aUoiv of a connection witb Spain 
h^^ not ;yAt iilKuidtiiKv). He wut iit tho hc^nd of aii 
army witli i-vrry lio|»' r»f wm^c^^w, whnn tlie news of tlio 
klaiight^^r of St* lJarl!ii>]omcv* iiiiJuf tlie deatliof Ci>1i|^y, 
whicli cat <}fF tlic cocpf'ctation of aid from tVancot diaap- 
|ioLnt4Td lliis hope, M'>n», vrlipre hia brothor was, had 
lo bo giifvr up, and tUo army molt'^d awny- Bttt AIya 
was in«rT of hii oftk^ and began to he sensible of hit 
rsiluro to ofFoct tbo romdt wlifcb lie had been so conftdent 




of l^ia Ability to Hccur^. 1'hi^ bt>tin(llns; bAtrvd of thtt 
fwmpte ngninRt him wrw daily manifvist. He read it m 
tbe Itxrktt of all Tvliom Li? iiitt. Pliilip, tUougli alow (o 
learUt b«g;ut to eet^ tluib liiia Iiuj>L<a hud ntit bi^iui fiiliillnL 
Ali^ »OQgLt and obtiiinod u rvntil!^ uiui, at the und of thi« 
year loTS, Irft Iho Ni-tlierlundft, never to rstium. 

From ttie ciLpturv of Briel may be dated f-be coon- 
ntcncrtTi/iit tii tlir. long aiiH jirfliinim i^tni^l^ wlJdj 
nwitted Id the building ii|i of the Diul-1i tE'*[mblirj autd 
ibo ulciEtt»t« prostration of tlvs pinker of Sjwiiii. The 
tnool powerful em]^i-i; in thu wcrlJ w^l^ k<rpt ut bjLy, and 
evtintuall}' <liffculcd by a fuvr nmiLll etutcs which vroro 
goaded to n^iutuTicv by unpfirtilhUitd ont<^lty, and iii> 
■ptrvd ^th Eui un^xstmpM de^n of patiiotic aolf* 
■acrifiop. Tlw Eiero of tills ineindribLu strtiggk warn 
WiUtuij of OniiigQ, RequeHtiiw, ihvt Mn.n'?w{tr of Alva, 
vqoalcd hU prcdcccttor in mUit^rj nkiU, niid ua^ «vdn 
num dangerooEi, in ooiibc^ticdcc of his conciliatory term- 
per, vliuAi miglit dirido and dvmw hh uiiti^oiiiAt:^. A 
doiaifTO nnuwoty was more to bu div;tUud than np<^D and 
fitttctt hostility. In th^ fiidd, thf^ S]}»ni»v<U wcm victorj- 
OEM- In 1674, T^titiIh of Nil&viti ^rnii <1fiff^.tJ?d and aJoJu. 
Hut tJiey «xpeneiK^ h tv>et>H? in iIit^ uuburue.iisfiil aivgii 
of LeTdon, whosd home df.-ftuisr» la one of tbo tnnst notn- 
blc VTi^ntA of the !cin|; wtir. A new Frot^stAnt v^lAto vma 
growing tip in tho North, under the guidance of OraiigQ ; 
pud til negotiatioiiia lookiof; to p€iace vfam fruU^as^ sinco 
Spdn wfosod to ^iiut tol*?rati(Mi. Tliia was th^> one 
tidng wtiidi Philip wuijld not yu4d. Hi' fioiiM not eou- 
«ent Co mlo oviT hrrcttc*. In th«^ Soiilh, wT]«re CatholU 
um preirail«d, Requoom was EQCire HuvovtifuL But thv 
dvttth of tbid ooniiiiftitder« iti 1576, vrta ia\hrrrfA by ■ 
fcigh tf ttl r«rolt of bU »oUli«ra in the vmncxi citiT^ft wh^ra 
tibMy "vren vtataoncd ; nnd th^ fcon^ii of mtirdor And pil' 
hifp tint iittJAnd*d it, wh[<'h w^re moat ftppstliinfr in pop- 
■IcKM Mifl \r«lthy Antwerp, tjinght the BWlthem proT 




boee vbat they had to dt<^iid from Spanish dominut] 
Tlie Dobtei of Flondon mid Br.ibaiit, imtKul of a^^'kii^ 
lieJp frain Philip, npjili(<(1 lo Ornngn nrit) ihit ni>rthnm ■ 
pr(miLi!i<;( ; niij iii thu piidQcntinrL of Glicnt, Cot Ihft fin^t 
tirnr^, the Netherlands were unit<;il in on agreement to 
«xpoL th<T Spnniarda, nnd to maintam rcli^ous tolemtioii. ■ 
Pod John^ of Au^tniu the mooesaor of Roqii««ODs, wua 
brou^it la tlu? [y>int ol i»iil]^ an «diet wlii<jh eoutL-di^l 
tli« jMiiiilJi foRUitnisd iirf tlifl Ghfiut picj^iHwi. The n>- 
jtsutioa «f th«(s t«nii« hy WilliHin of OmngP hiu» Iwc^ti 
ConndftTcdt bj l^s adTcr»anc«, priXif poaidrc that aR)1>k- 
tioD. tiot patriotittnit w&a his ruling motWo. But ih^ con- 
eeauonid oi Don John involved the oxduaion of Uie publio 
ptofcMion of ProtcvtuEtUm fruni aU pUit'i^n Tvli4^ns it vnm 
not i^ttiibliiTuHt i\t th'^ d»b> «if thif pudflciition ; und, eon- 
mv]U(TntJy« tht^ hniiihhmnnt from iJii^tr hmnra nf rhnij»ind8 
q[ p»?accful bLUulii^s. aa wuLl aa Llie [usecorit/ of thtf prov- 
inoeawhererrottaUmtuim waanUuv l ■ riUuu(?» Morft 
than ilII, William di^tniRb^d tJin j<i;^<;L i il ^ '>:' ^pciiii, and 
hid BUaptoion», which bad thi?ir ground in fotrn^r oxpcfi- 
ci\c&& o! tn]&e d^iliLLj*^ w@r3 streiu^eEed hj iiiforoiation 
acquired from iiit(!ro»ipt(*d lottow.' It vnxa too Ut-^ fora - 
recv>tii'ili»tinn with Philip. Rut thi< Fli^tirUli and Bm- I 
bani- noliliT8 were j«iiloUft of ihn vrnineiico cajxiwUTd to the 
Priuco of Orange, Tho Uiiion wae weakened, and Ibe - 
vntr Ijrukc out again^ in irhtcJi the tmopA of Don John I 
gained tlio victory. Hut the: MJitiv. yi^iir^ on tbo Int oE 
October, 1578, their l^dpr dit^H, woitri«d with tha difB- 
miltlea of hia office, and disheartens by tli« tnatatoiit 
whidi liH bud n-^ceived ut ibi* h^iTtil^ of Philip. 

ATf-'XHtidrrr nf Piirtrm, ]>rrrliHpK tht! aliKHl [^^n«nl lyt tJi« 
tuii«» waa next entrusted with tbo rciuv of goverameiitt 
Expcnenor Lad Aliovrn tli<^ patriotic party that iha uiohW 
ity of th(* ouutht-^rn provincca were not to bti r<>Ucd on 
nd, in Jftnnaiy. 1679, thfrro itob formed, in tha North 



Z^'al&Dd. and live other proviuceK. It ^v;tB m L^uufwliiracy 
for ccmnioD dcfoowt and vriia tbe i;;«rm of ike DuUrh 
RcfwUic^ ICwftatonoed '' m the iiamu of tbe King;'' 
bat tiro yoBirA alterw^iHU, tbu fiction vms droppud, nud in< 
dopondonco fl«ckrud. In MjLnHi, l/>^0, l^hilSp procUimed 
WilllRnt an rmUrtw, ami mtt. h, priri* nu hin lipad- PIkitip 
Uued Uuu mill iagralitude 1-m- Uif? favDra wLidi liad bi?Ku 
bttitow<!d OD biiti b}^ CliarJea V., cbargt-d him whb 1jlt« 
iDg foii>Cntod all LcTv«y and rtvUition, with having ag* 
tivolj coontciuincccl tho plundmng of tha cburchca imd 
oloi*tera; in ^ne. wiih being responsible for a1) the mi»- 
«rU* of tjie ctmntry. The rjooument ftirt.her char^^^ 
llEm w(th dieri*Uirig jtwIouBy awl rtimtniBt, likf C-alu iuv\ 
Judju, uul frunt tiin kuiict cAiih<<, lut cvH non?(ci<Tlice. 
Any (>nc wbo vould dcLirer liiin, dead or aliTe, irw (0 
roceiro tvrenty-fi^'o Uiousond crowns, to Lave pardon for 
iQ offODieo, and, in case be belonged to lUe burglicr clowi 
to bo fttoTfttod to thn milk of si nobl^inMii^ Id rcsponso 
to ^eeo ftiwusationa, Willinm publiahod lib " Apology " 
or d^ense. lie counts thia outlawry and ]if?ciimiilatic«i 
at diugctt ■fpuiut tjiiii. an llie gn'&t^Ht liouor, sinu? Uiny 
diowod that htt bad dotic aU in bm pnwer to catobliali tho 
freedom ol a noblo Dntion. and to dolivcr it from a god- 
kao tTTBonj. Ho rcapect^d CLarloB V.^ but tbo Cavora 
wbieh ho bad reoeivdd froin the Eoip^i'or hckd beon re- 
tnrruHl In full mc^B^tiro by Uio publie ft**rvicoe which WQI- 
iuu bad rvndi<n^) xt gn^t luwt. To i.h» Ttnfcunded 
f p iLf won* of A pvintomd nature whicli Piillip hiul Intor- 
woveo irilb his iudlctmeat, William retorted witli hixn- 
actions i-quallv i^ve a^amat the privat^^ Ufe of tbo Kmy. 
Pbilip bud HtigmAtized bim as a fomjcncr, bccninft bo 
luppanod to linro fintt mn^n tbo light in GvnDcLny ; bat 
Ufl aac«9rtor« woiv nf higher ntnk than thowi of Pliillp, 
and liad bold |»wer in th^ Neth^rUinda for neven gen«r^ 
tfooN. Pbitip bud mt out to iniuiple iiuil^r fooi tba 




ri^te oDd bicdtutMia of tho country. H& tu\kxd citify 
iiikoC4iditaoinat ob«diBCic«« «a tf tLe people of the Notliev- 
IeimU were Neapolitans, or MUaaet«, or MLTage IruUniu. 
Titt? Kiii|vror CbuHtn hjid predicted Ui«! erih iJut wnuld 
n^Mili friKn tlin S[tiuidli pride «mI uia(d«lJCo ijf hix son ; 
boi BcitWr tiie »dmaiiitioQ oE m grc«t bi fatbor, nor 
|U8lacOt aor bit ontl\ t^^uld chAOgo Ilia oatuiCt or curb hia 
t^nankal will. Ho h^d b«ftt«n thd FMocli bv me^toB of 
VUlUm*> ooiuitrfmciit and owtf4 Ui« Lr^ty of peace, &a I 
good put> toWUlbam faimtwU; but «o far wua Pidlip i 
from fiwjii^ nuj enkotion of- grutitiuln. Umt Willinin, to 
liifl amutemGut, bod board from the Lps of Uvnry n., of 
AlWa vecrMconicTdiMs witJi him upou the oxtcmuna- 
tku of nil FroU»tanto% in both oountnefl. WUliam. ainco 
hi» boylKHjd, bad ^vtn UttJe attflnttoa to matt«n of Utb, 
and of tbo Chnn-li ; buu hb says, from liiu [^ooripavdoD for 
thn virtiinH »f lUu InqtiuitioQ, and hiM itidigiuitinn Ht tbp 
iTranuy pracliood ngaiiut his comtry, ho bad reiolved to 
oxen all lutt povren to remove the SpomarJ? nut <if it. 
and to fupprrva tho bloody tribimaJs. \h hnd never ap- 
prOT«d of the iconocslum^ and amilia ontbrcnki&gs of vio- 
k(n««, Hiftt h« had auffident reoaoo for fiyin;- from the m 
oonnby, wm ftdlj evinoed trf tbo ocecutttMi of Egmotit ■ 
and Kom, tUtf tarryiiig i^ liU innonfjit *oiii, who wkas 
itud>*nt Ht l.cnivaiu, to Spoia. by Philip'* onlvr. tbc coi^ 
6a<^Uou of his property, and tba senlODoeof tteatb pro< 
nonnccd a^juu^t Uun. Evertivhere, aaid WiUiAtn, Pliilip 
hOA IrodJcii uudvr foot oiir riffhte and broken Ina ootli t 
wo UiX\Ktt tht^r^jf'irv, nt^ iu voif-d«fonflo igninft him oad 
V«pel thu unpat^lelod trmnny. As f'lr mvttnuii, De- 
nuwtheneB incnleated that as the stTcai|^t buliv^rk agauui 
tyranny; nnd yet ika Mut^ediMibui Pliilip vnat » feeUe 
novici^ la trruiny rompared with die Spniii-nh PHilip. 

1'bero 14 no vmeou to qae«tion tlic sincvnty ai M'ilJiam't 
patriotbia.^ Hia intfiffeKnoo revpoiytms tk« rjontrovetted 

1 Wilirn wbD irvul4 iMk* uilMtft Ibt HOTiiif iv<kc l4 bit cbwu-w, Ai 



yuMtloiift ol n^ligii^n "xps broken up by tlju iii^Ut of tbo 
itTociou* rxuf'ltirii infl!d(?(L by the Imiuiiltiuu upon hifl 
coontrjincn* He eaiammtid the queRixnnA iit, Ttuiip, ;uid 
pracCicuUy* aa well aa LlieorcticuUy, i^iDbmr.dd Llje Protes- 
tant faitb. It ia no rr^pruoch to tiim that he early (wnu- 
lrat«il tbiJi cbarixutvr of tho gloomy and porlidioufl mJtr 
who vrn3 betit on vuslimng the NGtlicrl;ui(3s to bimB^lf 
uuil Ui Uii? PojiiT ; itni] tfiH.^ III? ha^ Ipw: nnd leas hop^ of 
the ptiMijaiblnicm <if pnicuni)^ any ainelfurutitin of hiH 
polky. Uut Williaiu, in tUo iudpiont stages of tlie Cfin- 
ftiot, vaa wisely i^olvtsd to ktcp witiihi tliu limite of the 
law« 4md to avoid cxtn^rnu and violotit riicruiurc^n so long 
fto thk modomtioa ihould be poesible.^ If, nt the outeet 
of Ilia ouidor, lui wun net free frnin ambition, bis cib&KLCt€V 
WS0 more and mora puiifieiJ by tLiTiger ^ikI fttifTerlng. 
Htt iDtut bo allowed a pUcc among patrintA Hlti^ Epmn* 
inoidafl and Waahint^tou. lUid }iq deservoit to be c^Ued tbe 
father df u nation- At leiigtb, iiftor six ioctTt^ctual at- 
tfimpte of tbo sort, a fan&ticai Catholic suc«<*cdt^d, &i\ tho 
IflUk ol July, 1^84, ifL aaBftMbating Willium. It wu 
dunutorvtic of Plitlip to puy grudgi&gly to the lieirt of 
t^ mnnhrrnr th^^ proini^Bil rewitnl. 

Upon the formation af the Utrc^cht CnioD, the grrator 
part of tlt« Ojitbolic proTincoa in thr South rntcrcd into 
flD arrang^mont with I'nrma. i'anna grant'>d tiUrrrJ 
UiaoA to the dtie« wbidi* one aft«r another, fell iuto hla 
k&nds. AittwL'q^ wOM proml&L*d that fu f^Itudid tliould 
■Ot bp r^|inir-H| ; Unit a SptLtiiuli gii.rriwtii nhoiiM Dot b« 

jMi CwTd iff /Vd*fr<L 1. 41. tti- t». 

«4ntif(il in f (IP hhwwfTnPo urTrt r4iw»t><i riT WillWr-^ To 'iiriiin^ Ili,i 

ffoarVw, tn hk> jtljry 4kf -'tifiiiimt.'* niHkn Ibt Rvj^nl *Ay t£ him; 
"Onmwiaiil nithl* ^■llE1■^ t'lriL' ■iv4liifik:i>n rr'thtEi in 'l\rt Hmr*, rr IaT b'ln- 
kife,'*«c^j and Ontc* U7» If* tjrsituti: '* lo^ Inc* vkcit Jiihrv hi*f i!1o Vf^ 
*BciiB* *B Hrvhi, trb t(>h# v» IjIU Mugui Ac1iuliv|iitlt und halU 



^ufLrli?n.iJ on lli^ uili^iblt^Litt^. On iliia one ooiulitiiuii tlM 
King itjfiutteil, Uj;it lliu Callioliic wuniia{) aliutiU be irittunvl, 
and i'rotc^Uittuaik b« aboliahcd. Tftc utmost that he 
C'nilti bfl pcrstiiiuliMl to gmnt ytxui that tvro jcnts «hould 
b« Allowed tlj^ iulijiULtanu of over}- p1»co oathor to become 
Catholic nr to qnit thd coantiyi Brabant ftnd Fbui<dcv« 
went rwtivered t>.i S|)ain. 

Tint urcJiiveH uF SJimnicEiA luive disclosed thi^ fact, 
whirh vrv not knomi to PiLrma Uiin&«1f, in cnnsequeiKS 
oC Lis dctttb bcforx) tbc execution of the deu^, that 
I'lulip vuA on tho point of rvmoving him from ]ui» oom- 
inuuU. TnBti|;ftt«d, periiapSf bj jei^ouay, on the oUcgcd 
^rrotmd that pArma had giTen too little authority to Span- 
ImrtU, Kiid frjr utluT rwaauna of ^v&n less weight, Philip liad 
nctuntljr dctrnnini^ U» ilUplchOrf the genrrul uhi> IuliI re- 
oonqumd for h\m die southern provinces of the N&ther> 
lAud^i and twico cArricd his victoiioiui umns into Frnnoc^ 
fcrQiiiK Henry IV. to r&iBQ tfa« nege of Pairis and of 
Roonn. llto Kinj^ did ntit idirink from the tngnttitndo 
involved in nnch nn net, luid from Uki indignant cond^miift* 
tion which the pahhc opinion of Guroj;ie would liave pnv 
DniuictHl vi|K>tt iL,^ It wua characlerlnUc of Pluliji to 
■eak the nccompHahmrnt of hia cuds b)- indirection aud 

Th« death of William £d not doetroy tho Rcptthlio 
whioh he bad cnllod into bdnf:. Id Manrioe, his »won4 
ton — for hit eldwt aon vm detained in Spain and 
bronght up towimi tlui !)puibli gciTnmninit<^tbe party 
of liberty found a Iwad who waa poesnaed of diatin* 
guinhed [Euljtary ability. Tlw neir «ommonw«aitb grov 
m poirrr. The Dutch eaOon capbmd tbo Teneb ol 
Spc^ OD arory ma vbcro tboy nppc«Todt and atbkcked 
icr remotest QoloniM. UtoBiagmfioenttoliciDeaof Philip 
voni doomed to aa igiiottuidotifl Etihrn. Hia d«apot£a 
lyBteca had fuH «way fn Spain, but It broqght nun upoa 

1 GNhv^LlKBL 


V RCLIG10U3 rABTl^. Sll 

prcpar^ ut «ttormoaa coat, t'ur tU(-- ucuiqut^J^t of KiigUud, 
vu #liftttercd in pioooa- hia had pLicuod to turn Fninoo 
into II Sponifih pravinnr^, but Im wiui fon^^d to ocincku<l<t 
the {Moco of Vervins with H^nrj IV,, and tkerehy to 
cooc«d« tbb superiiwity of the Fn^nch power. Under 
Pliilip Tn„ bin (inWrllf hurtuaaur, SiMiu wua i]rivi-u U* 
iX>nc]udc a truco of twclvo yrmrs with tlit rerylttd Neth* 
orUnds ; and KniLlIy, in tlits Prui^t? of WoAtphidia, wai 
oUigod to ackitowJedgo thHi- iiKlopt^ndoiLci^ 

The &beorbinf^ iiitere«t of th«> gr^at struggle with Spain 
leaves Id the bachf^i'ound thB dintinct.ively religioui and 
tlmilE^i^d sidti uf tliu Rt^foruiiitioii bi IJih Ni-ihi-rlunrU. 
AinibiLpt!i«Lt ^vvut ntiuu3\i\A^^ hut tht^ir wihl i-Lnil JJMor* 
Ifimizing thconcs rccciTcd a chrck through tho inlhiciEOo 
of Moono, whfS after the yr^r loS^, exerted a whuleeomo 
ttiJlw-BO« amc'ti;- xham, orgaiiLzuig <jhurcliea whiett ho 
t«itght ftnd regLilitt^d for nmny yoara. The MDnnuiiiifl* 
wero fr«i from ihii tifwnttoiia and revolutionary prineiplea 
which Lnd oovt^vJ the niuiie of Anabaptist with reprtiai^hj 
Jl|)nri from thsir |rts:uUai'ity ^tapeetiu^ baptiaiu, Ihtttv nt* 
jecdoai of oiith*. «nd their rcfuaol to serve in war imd m 
crrU offices, together \Htli thc^ aseetic discipline which 
thoy adopted — a pcint on whicli they becitino dividod 
WBOQg tliemseWos — tbey w«ire not diBtinguiRhed from 
ordinary Proitstaiila. Vet they ej^'.itiniiod to bo con- 
IowhImI witJi Lt)i4 fiiimtinid A imlnipliHta, luid vrerti uhjeetii 
uf n fei'ocioiu pemriiTution, which tJiey endured with heroio 
ptttifiDCO. The Calrini«tif gradu&lly obtained a d>;cLd<>d 
prcpODdenmoe orer the Lutherans. In 16GI, Qutdo do 
Bzc* nnd a few other miniat«ra composed the " Confo«»io 
B«^cm" which wa* ravited and adopted by a Syiiod at 
Aatwerp in 15^- TJiUcrt*?*! dilTum (roiri th« " Co«fe«w> 
OiiUi«a*^ oliiedy in ir« mnrp full expostlUon of naptinm, witb 

1 Sm lb* Hi. JftBM' K Ju J/fwunftfH, bjr Tan OotUntt, Id Uenutt, £ait 


CfttriBMCi ttcni * «a9j 4I dkar STttbot, with * L«tl«r. 

■D^ ■9i>^ ^'■•m- "Act a^ a tMr Utter tel 

flat A» 

vluefc ihxy bad BDinvaoe* dImhIt dotnoiH 
Mnttt that tfadr ij^iirn and. npinjnpg <w aot cutMl;^ 
*• but Uvt iMTing Um fw of tiod b«fgf« tfaio ajw, m^ 
b«^ taoifed by tfa* thrauong of Oifut, who h»d 4^ 
dand Id the Go^ dist he woiild dmy thera bclon 
CkkI iIm- PjOltfr. in fme ihmy (Ltoinl hiin b(*lcq:« xmmo, 
thtj ihcrviarK offend tbctr luckx io atnpctt, tfacar tonkas 
to kmr», tbetr utfoth* t» 91^ »im1 tbcir wfaoU bodi«« to 

y«t tbs Calnpivta <4 tb« NedwHaada, notvitltfUQdi&K 
thefT own dModfol milmi^;*, did not tbemadTC* relin- 
^osAh tlur (Uigmit that bcrciy naty be capprvgoMl by the 
mafbtnU*, Tb«ir diffcrmMw fmm dn-ir o|ijinTifinu was 
not on tJia quMUoQ vrbetiiec beresy is to W pumBbed* but 
how brrv«y a to be deAned. This dogma tbey introduoo 
into the Bclgio ConfeBsioa,* muI iDto their lotter Io U)« 
Kini?. Tboy woto dkfNMod, when tboy Lad Cho power, 
to infliot diBabititi^K and pcnalti^ on the Anabnplistai 
>vwi when they w<?re pwicpful aiilijiTtw. It miiKt not be 
foigottiin that nt Uiti \^ry Lliucr wh'on Pliilip's a|^'ula wen 
J^iiig tlicrir tiTrnble ^vork in the Nctlerhmds, Queen Eiit- 
tbcth whj likcnitfo ntrivLng to cTiJuroo onlfurmity h\ I'rot- 
■Ntanl EDgUkucl* Witli onu huiid dt^^ bi^^lpi^d the Crklrin- 
iirtic »ubjoet« of PhiLip; ^<ith th« other rLo tlinut h^rcvn 
PwitdUt nib]iK!ta Into loathaoniB dungnnTM, Not that 
E*rottfittniitit on Dtthtr Kidu of the sea wvi^ ea{Mil>lo of tli« 
atntclties for whiaU Pbilip wan UfAponsit^e* And a dif- 


hnmoe-- of d^'^grro in tbr <-xr'.t\yt^r^ of th'^ inharrfinity, wliidi 
VM Uh? hiiit of a fibinc pnnciplo, i^ 3b circiumstaiicc of the 
htgbeot importance* But thd jtriuciple ^aa at the root 
liie Baiuo. H^nce iJie doctrine of relii^ioiiA tobr^tion, 
which wjLB uvoiveil mil pmr^kvil t>y WilluTn rif Orfinini 
wMd n pnrt <if his ftitpportrm, in Ihn miire hDTinmbTti to 
thrill, in contrast with the pn^Tankat intolerance of the 
Age. As curly 00 IStiHi, in hia apooch before tho Regent 
and the Council, Wtlliam denouaeod por^acatioii o^futilo^ 
ftxkl confirmed hiit aKftLTtiori by &n iLppi^il to experience, to 
bi4toric0l 4ixittnpU'-!t, imdt^tit and n-eent. " Fcn^;ft," he 
Baid, '* ran make nn impniwion nn thu roii science.** Hfi 
DOin)Kirnl iuqtiiaiUjL'H Lu plivHlcmiis who, iiiaifiuT of uMriff 
mild and gtnlli' [in^dioin™, arn ** for ijmnt^diutjtly burn- 
ing or cutting off tha infootcd pnrt.** '* Tliia is tlie 
liaUiro of hi^rctf" ho addod. "if it rests, it nidt^ ; but 
ho that rabfi it, whets it/' ^ At it lat^^r timl^, h(> Imd 
to witfaitand the importunities of hiB friL^mls, who wished 
to OM fbrcp ^iSnut thi^ An^ibnptiflbi- St, Aldfigr>nde r^ 
porta that to hu at^jniruth in Imliulf of «uHj !l iiiv^jumieis, 
iita tlliMtnoiis chief '* replied pretty aliajplj','' Llwt fJwi 
■fljTiation of tho itdherent« of that arct mjght t;bkc th« 
plaoo of an oatli, and tlint ** wc? mif^ht not to prces this 
natter forlh^> unlow w<* would own at tho aarae tiin6i 
llMt the Pftpist^ wero in tho rif*>it. in forcing; na to a ro- 
fi^OD that was incompatible with our cDiisoieaoeft." " And 
ii|irai tills otBanoD," adds St. Ald<!{5inKle, " hr cmmniftndftd 
tli« »ving of a monk thnt vrnn hrrc not long tiiutv, who, 
QpOD aeTcntl objections brought n^nftt hia n-^U|^on, aa- 
aworexii 'that our pot had not been bo {oa$[ upon Uia Gro 
M thoim, vhom we ao mtioh blamed ; btit thut lt<? pUdnlj 
fbravLw that In ilm L'Ourtr> of & puir of buudr^^d yoan, 
)oe]«iiAAtical tictninion wrmld hi^ tiftori im c<i]iiii.1 fnot in 
lolh chnn*hee/" St, Alth-goodft him^rlf sW<^ that a 
jiohittuU of bobloi and of couunon people k«pt awa| 

1 Biwidl, t IM. 

S14 tlTR flBltmimV 131 T1K wmuMBs, ^H 

InflA Ui'' Cnlriaistio useiiiUlctt hoax the tcftr "of u new 
^mumy iu>4 yolio of spmta&t demiiuoa.*' Tho Gcnu&a*, 
Mfpftdaily, b« tajr*, jnto tbo lieU-rodox ** b«cftQ» thoy 
ilndid 'HIT tri9nlTi*Tmbl>o ngidxnttL." ^ Tn liiTA, tho Nfttaotul 
Sjiud o£ nil lh« reform^ chnretien srnt np to tho CoudciI 
ft |H*tition far rcligioiu toleration, which Ihoy dedred foi 
Ui«i]iMlrc« and pledged to Booun Ci^oiks* ** Tbo ex- 
perivikooorfka«ty<«i»,"ia^lli« Synod, *'liAd ti^agfat tbem 
that by hsuoD o( Uk^ nos tboy could oot all b« rodoocd 
In on* »nil tJut ftuiMf rvli^on ; " ftUft ihut without mutittl 
tfilomfi'^n) tliry coald iiot throw oft Uio Sp^nuh tvnumy.^ 
Tliey r^ffrr to the riTon of blood that hfui been «hod in 
KnULcv to DO purpOflCt ic tho cffoit to procure qnantmi^ 

Thure WW nri5lh(.T quifUioa vfhialx gave ri»* to dlvUiou 
amoii^ thu t-L>foniird, thu quotioit uf Uie r«1a6oii uf tli« 
Chiiruh ^l tlii? oivil auttidrily. Tliu CAtriiiista inuKt^^d nn 
thoir jmnciplo of tho autonomy of tho Church, and ro- 
jootod oodeaiaatical oaotrol om the pari of the St&to. Ab 
Iti Qtoetn ftad in Sootkud, thuy dcnutndcd that tlio 
Church ftUouLd bo uot w^pontt*;, bat dinttnot. On Uio 
ooQtnury, it groat pcui ol tho mjigisu^tM, oncl wttd tbom 
un inflti^nE.iut portinn of Uh? iMty, e«pMtal1y such as cared 
llttlv (or llie |Hrouliarir.it4 of Calrit^sm aa fliBttngtBdwd 
from Luthi'nLnluii. reabted thb di-inund. Theew ctainnid 
tbcit tho ciril Authority should hnTo power in the appouib* 
moDt of mliuston un^ in tha ndminiatntim of Ohardi 
gOTernttoat. In 157$, mdcr Ut« »xu^o« of WiUtam of 
Onnge* a programnM of forty McHetiastical bws vn» 
dni^n up. in coiifomUtj wtth this principle.* Thi)ac«aod 
Syni-xl Lif Dvru tn 1S78« endAimrvd b> tv^Juh? th« klim of 
cccWwtknl uitoponiyt throngh a syvtem of pro>bytmce 
ud of provincial a&d MtioQAl tynoda. B«t tho nvulfc of 
tbo Xrilo waa that tho CfaiAToh vaa LiAkted t» a pro ria na' 
M^ahntiou, tho prontuwo bvii^ sabdindad into 

t BtnJULVl «|UL,LMa • tM. L ua 


uid each congregatioii being governed according to the 
PieabTterian order. The germs of the Anninian contro- 
versy are obviouB in the hst quarter of the sixteenth cen- 
tmy. The party which called tor full toleration, and 
were impatieDt of strict creeds and a ri^d discipline, con- 
tended, also, for the nnion of OhuTch and State. The 
Spanish persecution confimiGd the Liberals iit the fear 
that the Chorch would subject the State to an ecclesias- 
tical tyranny ; it confirmed the Calvinists in the fear that 
the State would subject ^e Church to a political de^ 



Tbkbr la rfraaon to belie\% that the Lotlank, cm tlit 
j^niptcn of WickUffti were called, vore ctUl itomcrooa 
tong tbo lUBtic pfipuliitton of Eitgilujod stt the begiiuiijitf 
W the rixto:ntU a^ltllry, W« Imvo rccorda of Uu^ cm- 
cantation of somo and th(f burning of <itU«r adUcrojitv of 
^thi« eect in the early part of the wignof Honry VIIIJ 
idD John Knox preached in the North of finghind and 
the Soulli of Socilkud, ht) foiuid ^ cordial receptjou for 
hin doctritii^ in diatnct» where the f^olh^a hved. The 
roviTftl cf Icaming bad aleo prepnrctl a ycry diffcrtat 
oloAB in Kngltah aock^t}' for ocdoeiafitial reform* Lingnla- 
jtie aud piLtriittic Btndic^e hud bo^fun to flooriflb undt^r thd 
'Influonoi^ of Thom^w More, Colct, I>van of St. Pjiul'*, 
Wurham, A rchhiBliui] ni CunteHinry, tmd otiirr Tru^ndii 
of Er&anni3« and niukr tlm poraonnl iiifl»i"n*7ii gf Enwmiw 
himBelf.' Wobey. whatever luay have been his fatUta. 
woA n libt^ml paitiou of It^uruiiig, Uo obtam-^d Io^ito to 
tnpprcfs not less tluin twi^nty smallor moqiaaterlos^ lud to 
uAe thtiir property for thtr i^iitiitliithmont of n noblo col- 
Christ Church, Ht Oxford, smd of nnothfrr c^l^go 
a nuniery for it, at Tj)Hwldi. Hia fall fr^m poiw^r pF&- 
Tfint^ tl^ fiUl ttccompliithmfizit lii the vaat edticatjonn! 
iphuis which form hia ht^t titt« to i^Mcem. Wcln&y vw 
tiftiitoltticd to porKcutdon^ ruid prc-iurrod to bam hcrvtuol 

TOlhor tJian harotioe thcmaelvos.* M^ist of tha 
of " tbe n^w Inaming" were iliapoaeri lo remedy 
eccLeeiaaticxd abiiaea." Tlio writings of T_nther eajXj fomid 

Otford And Cftii»iriilg»i, Tlic yoxuiger generaUou iiJ 
Huntanbtji did not titop at Ui<t point rcrocfaod by Colct tuid 
ikiore. 'i'ytidftle nxkd Fiitti, both of wliom perished as in^Lr 
tyiv, And Uimr n^swciiktt'J', ri^nd Iho (>erm:Lii books wiili 
UTidity.' TyrdaU's vproion of tlin New Testimert vrm 
nrcal^r^d in apite of ih** t'fTorE* of tlie gi^vemment lo 
ftupptwfl lU* It was iuipoHHiblt? Lbint the ferment that ex* 
bted on die continent viiould fuil to extend itself ocroei* 
Uw ch&nni^L Yet at 1in4 tlic; ni^fi were not Aueptcioiti 
for tho now doctrtno. l^g Honry VI i I. nppctircd in ihe 
Ufltt au &n ftotsgonist nf Lntber, riiid i^ceived from Leo 
X.« in retnm for Lie pcleiikical bi:iok ujxm the Sacmmenti, 
tlin UtUf uf » Dufoiwlt-r (jf LliP FallJi-"* Little tlid ettliflr 
cf th^rni imagine tli^it tlici mtmi? Tnnniii'cb would sborllv 
Miiko one of tbe bcfvvii^t hlovr^ at tlit; Papal dombnoii. 

Tb« peculiarity of th<* En^liah Rffommtiun lice, not ia 
Itio cepOTution of a. political conunimity — in thia ooae ft 
powerful nation — torn zhs pupal Ht?u; for the iAmta thing 
torfc plant gmnrttlly wlirrr the RefamjutiVm prflvail«id; 
bnt it li*w in lb»^ fiw:t tbsit it involvfrd imnn?iliat**ly so llttJft 
leptrture from the dogmatic syfttem of llie tiudiiuviU 

*Buit, itutarytiftht Htf*'TVtitufH in flitgliiul (fmm 1^14 lA 1M7). RtVAi n 
WdHttif ftvminr, iuijI pnaenf i ttitUrliig ttEhfufff, dtf tit* wmru if 

*ft«» Ifi* Afcalrb nf r^lffC'i uirninn bofrmi lb* (.'nnvn^^itlnn hf l/^ttnliin^ 
Cmvfai Sv^iahn, TtmOr/vr^ /fr/Evrnm Ei/iniR- >Ua in Madi, p. 10. Wl- 

■ Irrlh «u boniHl ft SniUiffiM In l^AK lynililn w irmnglHl bihI riam«d 

* tmoin', ta a lMr4TloLalb«F. tpealu ciF Uia vann rae>plian al hli wnta^i 

■f Iflitpb >i IVU rvporli lo vb» tutoini UiOitru bcoka h«] round nblan •■ 
<^W4. Vtanl, f- IK- 
^ iMi ttk VM inlfvtitffil fnr hinwU ptnoullj^ t>u[ «u ntidiDd ifUf Uv 

villi l;*n*^ %mA truNihiiM M hi* iowiNf*. Uiv4, J7iiteff «V 

f, ft 90, ■- 



Cliui-t'h. At ilio outlet, the creed, An^ to 4 EtrcNit QSl4Bt| 
the polity fitid riluu]^ of the Cburcli iii Eugland rem^nftd 
tntacL tlLiu in tlitr grxiwlii (if tlti? Eiiglisli RrfnntiRtion, 
tlLl^^(* wcrtr tvfo f^tcrtiira, Uic onr, in n ^rin.'tr-, poliLicnl ; Uw 
oth^T, iloctriniil or mljgiou*. Thosci two figv:nciC8 might 
OOoloQCo or might climb v^tU ono another. Thoy ooiit<l 
not fftil to act itpoii otio iLHoi^h^r witli gr^nt effect. They 
moved u|>oa difffirent lines ; vet there w&re cettaio 
pHii4?;|»nJ eiidfi, whlcL^ from tLe b(?gtimiiig, llioy liad in M 
oonunon. ' 

Owing to thi» prctjUnrity, the lenders of l^i^gluih Ke- 
fonn on the npiritiMLl nid** did not play the promlDcnt 
poi-t which -woji taken by tho Rdform^n in Scotland aad 
on the Coutinont. In otfcf'T ootrntiioe* the political ad- 
heivntd of Pi^oleslanti^m were auxilki-iea rather tliHi) 
]>rlu(upiil!i< The forc^rout^d wiui tnyrupunl by nv^n likn 
Luther^ Cjilvin. and Knox. In Knglnnd tbcrrc wcro indi- 
vidiiab of tnatkod Icuiming, onorgy« umi courage ; bat to a 
conaiderab1>3 ext-Mit tJioy w^e caat into the Bhudo by thii 
controlling position which waa aiisunitd by Tulen nnd 
Btutesmen. Tho Eugliuh Hi-foruuitirwi, inut4.-ud of piiniu- 
ing its cr.irse sw n ri:IiglciTis :md inU'lliS't.nal niUTumpnt, 
wna fiubject, iu au important dcgrw> to tho &Lurbiug 
force of governmental authority, of worldly policy.' 

Henry VJll. bad been married, in Lib tvalfth year, io 
Catharine of Anigon, the widow of hii doccattd brothcv 
Arthur, :md the* tiunt at the Emporor Charloa V. A 
diepenwitio" hail bt«n ^ibtaint^ Hnnn n,ftj»f From Pope 
Juliua IL, marriage wit.h a (lccea»ed brother*§ wiTb being 
DOotrary to the caiion law. Scruples Iiad hwi% enterbuned 
narly by aomo in regaxd to ttie vali^ty of tho di^pcnaa- 
tioD, und, oonaoquentlyf of tho marruigo* W licthd 
Henry hi.m&«II shared t]ics9 scrapl^jf prior to his so- 
c[iiAmt»noe with Aime Bolcyn, it may not he easy to de- 
temute, l^or can we say Low f»r h\?> dj^iippolntment hi 


a»t tMTiiig » tan\i^ hm to \ilt> tJit-ond m»y li&rn prompts 

him to sock for di (liTorce. It ia ucit tmprobuLlti Uiut the 

death of his childrcA oxdfced in hln m'md a auptM^titbuc* 

iMllillg Kftpectiiiff the lavftiliM^uA of Lia ct^tnuction witli 

dtdkarmo- Tet aooordlni; td her m^Iuiuu U>»tisnoDy, miulo 

in UiH pnoenut?, tLv inumogu wiUi Arthur hnd not boon 

monnrariiEtl*^! : anH if mi, t}w main gr^kinul of tlx'M^ nT- 

legiKt DiiagiTiiigv and of the ftppIicaLion for llie annuUki^ 

of Uw nuuria^ biul no r«alit>\ ills a,pplic;itkm lo 

domeot VII. for tlio aunuUin^ of ilm ituuTiL^c^, wua 

tmmdod on two f^uud^: tirsi, tluvt it ia not eompctant 

Cor tliic Pope to gruit a diMpuntrntion iii nu^ a onjo ; ftnd 

wcondljr. thjit it WW gmntiHl rm t.hii bn^Ti of t<rTc>TienitB 

vojitMontatiom. IFcury's piMion tor Ann^ Boleyii mAda 

Uw iklaj ftnd Tjudll^tioii of Clemeut in r^^ganl to Uio 

diTOTC« the mort' uubi-AT;kl>le. Tbe l^opt- might n^itutnUy 

■hrink ftxim oiumUmK ^^ <^^ ^E hia prodeo^foor by a 

dacTM which wouUl involve, ut thtj niimo tim«i a reatric- 

tio4) <kf tbo papal pTerogAdve, But tbe real and obvious 

moUvu uf bb proeraALLiialing and evjuivo ^'oikdui*t mis hb 

Belnctaikiw U} tiffrml Chiu'liat V. TIiih temfxiriKiiig i*i>unia 

b OOM wfao«e «XAlt4xl office implied n profioitionDto raom) 

■ndefWDdeitoot was not adapted to iitcic&£c tho lo^ty of 

lii« Kingt or of iiis pcopio to the Papacy. By the oiviuu 

of Cnuuner, Henry 1^ tbo quwtiim oi tbo v&Lidity of 

the di^peiuatioiL bufors tha muvorntiwi of £iirop<i» not 

mbtUining. b^w^vm'. fmm tlw iwe *Tf liribpry abroiid, And 

^ nuwaii:^ at honi^. Meautjiue 1w pruutvdt^d Ur tbo 

adoption of meaaurxTd fur reducdng tlitr powci' of th<^ Popo 

%ad of tbc clergy in Hn^^lntid. JmJoii»y in tp^td to tho 

^«aIUi and tbo uAurpi^tioiiA of the bii?rArchi<«l hody, whioh 

ftftd loQf; be«D ft growing fMling* pcvpu^ i}\« nation for 

thsM bold racsAHiw. On« sign of diii feeling vox tha 

■ittifnctJofli wh.ieb hod beai felt at tho revtmintv \ii\t\ upon 

llw pnTilcgie of cleHcol exemption from napotisibliity to 

lb» <ml tribunild. In tbo prcording r«i^. a biahop bmd 



id tlmt sucHwu the prcjudioe of a Loudon jon'oguittt 
tbi' clorgy, that \i wonLd cunvict Alicl oi Uiu murder ol 
Cain. Thd fall of WoUciy, who irsw mini^d hv ilic fuilurv 
of tbe n^i^otiAtiona with Rome for tUo div^iroi?, nnil hv th« 
«ii]]iiLy uf Aiiite Kuleyrt. iitliiiJii]:Lted the wliule cl«nail 
bod}-, nnd lOJidr? tlicm >m ensy pj^y Lo ttie King's r4|}fLcii}. 
^The n^itlKirity of tlii^ Cardinal.*' says IIaIU tlie cli 
chroDicIcr, ^ set cb& cleric in such n pride thnt tboy dit- 
duinud all mon, wherefcro ^hcn ho ^ras fallon thoy fol- 
owud aftur/^ * Early in 1531, Henry rcvivetJ au otd 
•tjitutu i>f RJvUnn) U., luid aec^ua^d the oloi^ of Imriitg 
iDOurred the pemittifji ^ prixmunirti — forfeitun; of nil 
lUDviihli.*! gocKLi Mitl impiisoumcLt nt di0<:rctioa — for siit> 
initiiiig to Wolaey in his character of papal legate. As* 
BonbLeU in oou^'ccation, they woi-u obliged to implon hifl 
pardon^ and obtuinod it only in rotum for n ktrgvi euin of 
oaoney. In thi^lr putitton, he vnit^ atylt^d " tlut I^toctor 
And Si>pr«mp Hesid oftbn Chiircb »nd Glw;gy of England," 
tu whii'b wiLH luldt'd, aJt^r lon^ dt?bau<, tlin qualifying 
pbnwn; '*iw W aa is permitted by thu hiw i>f Ohn*t/' 
AcU of l^arLiaiDent took away the £j«t-fi'uit» from tUo 
Popv, probibitoU app<>alB from eccleahLstical courU to Rome, 
nnd, after tbo e«Rb4?cni.tion of Ci'auiucr, tut Archbiabop of 
CatLtcrbnry, ord^unnd that bunci^orwiird the ooii>oicniti(>n 
of all biabopg and arehbiahop* aboald be consiiiiim;Lted 
without applioat.ii>Ti to the Pope, Henry was msnTLe>d to 
Annia Rolnyn ah the tMt nf MiLrcib, 1iV3:^ On tJj« 
l^th of tbo ]>r<oc«ding July* at Windacr, he sAwCatliuiiie 
for the bst tim?. who hjbd bccu liia faitljful wife fuqr 
twonty-tbrt'O > t^re. Eleven wicka aftor the marriaK^, tJie 
kifi;; authorized CnmniE-r to decide the C[QBatioii oi tbo 
divorce without fear or favor ! Of coune the divoirM ivu 
dflorond. In lfiil4 tlie King wa* n^qiiin^d liy tlm Pfipc to 
take Xuh^k C^tharineion penally of fxenininamcatjon. Oft 
the &tli of Jime of tlut year, » icyal edict waa bauedt 


flboHahiag ti^e Pop^'^ autUctity in En;;laii{l. Furliuiucut 
[Muwdlbe act of eupreinayy, "TLiit tho King, our miv- 
«nsgn loni, Lin Imir* uutl HLiii(»^iTi(jrs, V'm^ at thi^ nrnlin, 
^adl be tAki*ii« jTCf^^ptml, uiiil rcjjul.iil lite only Aupreimj 
b«»d in civrtb C'C the Church of EugUticI, ciLllcd the An 
gtidum i^Gcloeiai" Tlus was followed hy oJiothur great 
measure for the further huinbliu;; of ocaloaiaatioal power 
— th«^ abolishing of tbe cloiaters ami the coiiEi^uutioti of 
thdr property —> ill 1536, Tbis Tt^U, tf> il gre^t t^xteat, into 
Uir bnniJn vd tbe TKjblrH niiil i^rniry* i\\u\ sr. powerful 
cRrct in binding thcnj lo the pc>licy of the king. Subs©- 
qitcTitly, tlic larger monixstorics^ wbicL had boon Bpared at 
6»t, eb^red tbe fate of the iiiforitit GsUbli&Umunts ; mwl 
bj tbe exptUiiou of tbe milriHl abbots from the uppcsr 
HoTiM', the |>r<*])ondemnoe of power was left witb tho 

■rruUr Wdn^ 

ThuA tbi* kiii|[dom of Eia^Und waa severed from tlia 
Papttcj. and the Cburch of iitigland brought into aubjeo 
lion to thi? civil AuUiority. 'I'hc old English feeling of 
likliko of fort^ipn ocdmaaCical control had nt [ji^t ripoiiod 
into S vitrification of the words which Shakespeare puta 
into tbe moatli of King Jobu, as a message to Pope liuio 

JLdd EhH mij^h mi^rv^ — that nn U«iiBn I>riHL 
SluD tltho nr (Alt Jn nur ^InminJont ; 

S* aubr fa>m, thqt gfixl lUpramq^j', 

Wban WD dn rti^, wa vnli jitniia upbolEl, 
Whhbdt tbi^ oviiUinue uf ■ mnrtal bvid. 
ft« laU UiP i'upv ; 4ll rurvraan ibC Miptfi, 
To him and lii« u«jr|r<d BbtliQriCj'p*'^ 

There had been no reiianciation of Catholic dootrineft* 
*nii? bi«.'niTt:by dlill i5XJtit«d uh tit uld. but with tbi? King 
Uk thii room of the I'opn, Ajt It* cartJdy head. There wen* 
two piyrticii sidn \yy mdc in the cpim^op^iL ollitwe nnd In tho 
CoiuiclL ' on^ of tbom di«pa«cd to prc« forwurd U> otbcir 

' KiBjc JuliD. vt iU-, K> L 


in ib^ direction of Pr<iCK«tai]ti>m ; tliu other bunt 
fipholding tlw nncdttnt i^nb^rl in itv: iiil'*.grity. Tin* A<4 
Siiiventiu^t a» far ns it had the sjrmpadi^' of tL« peo- 
pLa, CMiJd uol fftiL to abake thoir reveroDco far the eiktm 
^Bt«iii ol vlueh the FopH^y Juwl be<m do>>mcd vi mmh- 
|Nut« luad CO fi3uliii« m^ny to aabatitutA the uutliont5 
-of tfao BibU foff tbti of ihti Chunii : for to tliA BJbU Um 
mf)p«al hm\ bmui miuln in Uie DiJiUtir uf tliti! King's i\U 
VDvoaasnd thv Bible uiul tlzo onQHtitiitlnn iil tlL^r pHtRittT* 
Church had funiiabcd tli« grounda for the overtmow id 
pftpd «ipnfi>aoy. At the head of thv {lurty diofmoeil b> 
B^fonu, iktncaix tio bi^^ps, troa Cmnm«t, wlvy bud vpcnt 
jCTn^ timA in Gu'iniLaT* ftud bftd oiArrli^ for bis Mcond 
wif* « mmsB of n Lnthnnm tlu-(>lf^:ui, Oviiind^. f^ran- 
mer is vol! cbaractsrwid by &aok« m '^ one of Uum 
aatoiCA wluoli imiii have the irapport of thd supreme >iu* 
thonly* m onlcr to carry out their own opmionH to tbcir 
oottSttqiieua>s ; i^ tht^u tbey upp^Hvr ffntorpriaiDg and sfiir* 
itod, ■> do th«T brooiuii pbuit «od yielding, ^bcn tlua 
fftvOT is -nrithdniWTi fnan th«ni; they do not shioo by 
reaBotk of any montl'^4, but iJii^y ur4* wl-II mluptcd 
to aave a ouuhc iji dlilicaU ciiiTuniatauocsi fur a iiitim fiLVor- 
■blc tjmu." ' I^atimcr, who bcauoo Bishop of Worceeter* 
TOmiuloof tbenieratufT. AmniLg the other bifibopaof 
Protoetottx totidenoiffA, wno t^wnnl Fox, who^ at SmakuLd, 
hnd declared the Pope to be AnticbrUt. The loader ol 
itbe rn>t4?elaT]t piirty was Thonau Cromwell, who wu 
loade Lilt) Kin^'ii Viu-j^trr-iit in iHvli*Hi«iiti<<nl affairA^ who 
bad c3ondu(!t«d Uk) vuitatlon of tlm niLmastuHn wluch 
prcocdf^d the dostractiou of thom. and waa an adbervnt uf 
the tviorimxl doctrine. On the other ttd« wba Gardiner. 

I A'lyAu^Ar tf'#^u4f#, 1. 904- A luvvn, ihH IiHf faml], aiMinaMof CW' 


ifip of WWliiuitrr, wbo nplif-M fJii? KingM'SupnTin* 
ftcy, bat was an unbt^nding ztdvoc^ite of iht CaUioUc thwl- 
Ogy ; togclhci" with 'I'linat^^I i>f Durham, mid other bishopa, 
TbO King **hoWfsl hirasfilf, at first, fuvoi'iible lo the 
ProtOttant party. Tiio Engliah Bibi»}, which wa£ iaaued 
ODclttr IlIb authority, ani] a i^-Jiii}" rjf whioh wtut to be pliund 
■D rvrry diiirfh, had ujjon the tllWiJiif^H tli« EnM-njttiiin, 
iMnu]^ fnnn hU moutli ; *'■ Tby vrurd ia a L^ntorn unto luy 
fc«t." ' In 1636^ ten urticles were; Liid bnforo ConvcicAticiIlt 
adopted by thnt l>t>dy, and sent, by tho King** drdar, to 
ftU pMtoo^ 119 Hi guid« for their tejv-'liing. Th^ Biblo and 
llie thre^ stnctont crpwJs wpre. mrulo Ihp stjtndard of Joo- 
tnin*. SalviitW ia by faJtU m,iiJ witlioiit liiiniiin MientN. 
Tbc Aitcnimriit tjf tlio aXttir Ln defiiitd iii terms to wlibll 
lAitberwould not Lnvc objected. The use of imjtg^ and 
Tflriotui oUicr^^ auricular cotife^nlon, and tho 
biTocation of Bftinta^ nr« approve, but cautioiw are given 
agailMt pbiiHPA ronrflrtivl wif.h thj?s9 tilings. The aduiW 
tjuti that thert^ lA a Purgaldry lu r^ctuplt^d witTi thi^ ticnml 
uJ aijy J>D^Tca^ hi the Po|»o to dclmr miuIh fioin it, Hud 
with tbc K-jcction of oiI»«" »upcrjd:itionft coiiocctcd witb 
ttit old doctrine. These article**, ujimitiwfactory as they 
woe, in many T«q)^te, to tho Prot«st£uite« 'wan.- aiHI re* 
)»ird^ by them aa a long al^p In the rttflit dirt^tion. 
Tlw* Ctttliolic iKirty were offcncli^d. A nujority of tlm 
nktjnn HtiLl <Utng U* fiin iincni^nt religion. T\u^ Kiip^iro*- 
noR and apoJifktior of the monAAterics, whicli were pmed 
i» diBpeneen of boapitnlity and aciUTCefl of iwcuniary 
idTwataf^e to tU& rufitiu popuktiou, lind uxcitc<) n^uch 
daftoooiontf aiporially in tho North n^nd Woet, whrtre 
tbo Catholic's wcro mmtt numurniii]. Tb« dUaiT«otioD, 
wliic^ vTAJi hitighli^mvi by the lipaning cf th^ govi?n»* 
AflUl towflrdfl rroti^lant docLrluis liixkki< uuL in tJiu rebel" 
Boo of li^SC. which, oltbougb it v/ha put dovn without 
Mooeeuoaft to tlu? proinot«n of it* wna ancceedcd bj « 



rliJingt^ in' tliir KingV m^WrristJcAl |>u1ic)'. Thfr Oatliolio 

oppoffitiin: of CiaoBQiOr And hie fnendfL^ ihe Six AnicU* 
tor *' tiboli»hiaf* divemty of opinioiu'* in religion, yren 
framed iiilo & law, ThM« durtwd trwwnbKtAAti&tici^ dw 
Deed)ewD«9u of iviminunioii in \HAh kln^si, th^ celibacy of 
dta pntstluiod^ tin; (ihtigntiLiii itf Tim-K nf ch^titv. th« 
DOMttSty liuil vnluc of private nuweus and itt aLmrnW 
oonfemvon. Wbix^vcr dcDi€<l iranflubtAajiliatiun iviu to 
be burned at tho etako sls a h«rotic. AVdouvr-r flhonlij 
pubUdj atUck either of Ch^ o^er ardolun vtu to enffcr 
dulli E* n felou, vidiout benefit of cli^rgj. liDprison* 
mtnt, CDiiriBuniLian uf giHtds, iiiul <1ciit1i wen? tfinvatened to 
paipn.'»ionj( cif diwfiit frtjm thi; Wt five of tlie urlicLeH^ 
acccrdiDg Co its form and degree* The exinnttiL)!] of 
Ann6 BoLoyn and the marriikgo of tho Kiug to J^nc So^r- 
Donr (15£t6}; and *Lill wK^r*, the fall of Cromwell (1540), 
the ^jreat anpi^irt of the Protestant interest, which fol- 
Imvnl ajHin tti« timrriage of Ilcnipy to u Pmt(«tatlt prill- 
euBfl, AnrtA of CIi^to, ritid liie immeiLiAtc divorce, iiicrfjui^ 
the slTfrngth o£ the pereerufcing fnctioii. Tboae wlio d^ 
nied tho Kinf> supremacy ami tho6o wlio denied tmmnb* 
ftoRtiation wlto dragged on Hx^ same turdlc to the pUce 
cd oxccutbn.^ Eam^t bii^Uupe, aa Latinier uid Sbaxtoa, 
were iiTtprisoRi'd In tlte Tower. Cnuunor wsi proteet^d 
03' Uia own pnidpJica and tiie Kiiig^ii fnvor,^ 

> Tlifi ]■ DOT Ehr ^tliu-it ci diw-uiM 0( liuijfib Um piirvniuil rhJtrvicr rtf llutrr 
Vtllr ^ir J4iiip« M]lf>:lrl^1llll, Jiirnr riK^Dutillfijf [Jib t<:iKddnii* of Xa«« Bid 
Antift, ujVT "In Ihtu^ iwrMltn.fuL dnvf.m Hinry ipj'^iAi'luir). pfTti«pi. u i— lij 
Id tha Mtftt •tJin'liir^t nf [»titvl vtirloUiivd h* iFtLi inr^nnrhM iif Eiiiiii*ii m^e* 
■rtlf ilkiw-^^ tt-^niy ■■/ Adf/fiinJ, 11. rh- tu^ Mftuuliy itfnnaqmT4 bim '*9 
hirjf blii^ho ^TitirnrTrr m.^v hv Fi^it fN-syrLFii'^] liv jiiylrif;. ifitX li* ««■ 4l#«ftf4ii« 
H*flf p«Mon«ioii." ('■ I 1 L'lvi". 4 iftlM-r j<icqs»fnl» "I 

4* nor il^ny tfuf h* I- << ill fir-iftc^A j^f I cman; ruk 

U»n with tfio tranJ." iiaf- '^ tSu lifj.. n p. ». Ii. iii. Irfwii llvrbtit, tdH* 
fftf^nmir nf hk« wIlifalniA una jEA.Iitn>;, tay*- "JlK-ig DLTiiJiliuri*, Afnii W^ 


Tbtt dcAtli of H«nry put nu rm<1 tn tfu« pAm)(*ution> 
Hn hftil nttiT[n|iUif] to ivtiiMiKh jin Auglit-an (Iturvh nhidi 
^oold be ndthcr Protr/tnnt nor IU»mjiu Cathollct but 
irhldi ibould <iUFor from tlir^ Jtonmn Cntlioltc sjfltem only 
in thd rurtkle of the Ko^al ^Lipremocy. Hie Bucucaa veviA 
fem^rksVU, and ti:^ ht•el^ ftscril>ed corraotly to the eictroor- 
Uinury toK^ of bis cbai^acter, tho advanhigeous poaltSon 
of Eii^i^Um] witti itfttreiu^K tL>{ortiymH>vvtn*, UiH rrnvniiotu 
WiMiltli wbidj the ctiudBCiUicm at the rcllgioun liounra 
pbuxd at bia ^l^onul, aii<L the support of die DCutnJ* 
undoctdod dan vho itmbmix^rl neichcr opinion*' WiUi 
the death of Hmiry, the two parti^«, lu if relt^aaed from 
AfltTDDg hand, ftgHumed their nuliinkl antagonism, Thd 
^OTemmeutoDuld ina.iiitam it« iiii)epvuduiu.v of t1i«^ P;Lpiiuj' 
only hx oliliutiliif: t!ie &iip[mi-t *>f the Prnt^*fll-'intj*. Il^inry, 
iriUi the luocnt of ParliATntmt, liod dcUTmincd tho ordtt 
ci Uic AUtMCRiiorif giving proo<^dGnGe to l^dward, Uia «on 
by JanQ Seymour, ov«ir the two pricui^esL'^, Murj, tho 
dftiiglit«r of Cntharm*. and ELimbiitli, titer daughtor of 
Anit« Boleyn. Edwanl VI. waa tomthn-n tpn p^iira old at 
hissooMviicm in Ifi^T ; but ha an i5X}tEnpI>4 of inl^Tlertnal 
precocity he haa seldoui, if ever, beta surpji»sfd. He 
ma tirnily aittu<hed to the Protvabint lalthi A Kvgcacy 
wma flftloblbb^, in which Somc:r»c^t, the King*» uncle, wa* 
Chtof, and at tJiv lisnd of a l'rot<«tnnt majority. Tho 
Six Article* vram tvpnalfxL It was tlie penod of tba 

!■! «p<ilfl|Or f«f lltnrr VIIL Bui hv U\U U> ciTrr puv «.1i»iaji[-> Ai'tcuv o1 
At <x«c«e&xi vf l<or« ud «l lUicr, *fi ut ot cniEhx (Ji4i ti ilio i^wv **■ »]> 
r>te*<l vntfjir^vn^ lad tfi>|[ its (or tJie tlmrvL-Ciun uf (VulthII, Htrfnb 
hHd*i wbMbVf Ja*l)7 «r fi<il, ^mi^ ii|i tu iIib veiv UhA tit Ui« *cftl^>liL 
Amil ABn*l3«l4TBli* Milium] <4 be fcuiJiyuf Ilia vAu^ei tfruu^tiL m^aiii^i btv, 
Am **•> * bnitaJltj JD iLi ir^viiuUiHrtt vt lurt i(ii[irjtuiLLi|tut ukU cimtfiuii, 
ndia tkt mAffliCT wLHj Jwn Scrmour itai Tcr- jaiidjy, vMchLiliImpDAlbtt 
M M«v» til* <VDt*iiQiioT«i1c« of llffury trcn rLislit An dMJa^khliw tlw 
Wfin ^in Uv Ijidiir ptTLlaa (^ bit irifi. Aflcr Uie £dl at VTulic/, Ut b* 

tus rpfoimaticw cr EsrcLA!^ akd scoTLAm. 

SDQAlc;\1dic vfat &nil of tlio Iikoriiu in OrrmaDy, and IIm 
liAULLt of Cranmer ajj<l Kidlcy vera slrcD^ht^iKrd by Ui«>- 
logiMifl from ih^ continent. Poter Mitrtjr aud OcbitiQ 
vrer^ madi^ prof^ason at Oxfor<1 in 1547, ftnd Msutui 
Bocer tu»\ Piml Fngluft werer fjkll^d to Carrbi'idga in 1M9. 
The " Book of HonnUea " appe^ired Iii 1647 — BXi>«iitioo^ 
<^ Chrieitian dootrino ixliich Tvete ta b© read by Uw cJ^rgj 
in Mirir {^liurchoa every Sunday* CottrouDifm bud been 
orditrod to bo ndminiutcrod in botli ldnd«. I'nuttubfttAn- 
tifttion wni; now forronlly fthsmdrtn^^d ; thri lu^c^nd principal 
sleji, rtfl'T llm dr»*lHrsi.tioii of lb(» Royal Snpp^i»»aoyi Ui 
tlm progress o( the Kngliab Hefornmtion. Thwse diatigiv 
ptve rise to a new "Order of Commuiiiou ; " but tha 
Iftttor wiw aupofwwledt in !54tf. by tbo *' Boole cf Ccnnnon 
Priiyer," wbicb v,-ns revised in 1552, wlmn tJio tj«p of ooti- 
(tod oil, prayers for th^ d&nd^ and nnricniar confee- 
n, were n1>o1rsi]<?d. In lf>fi2, tbi* ArtiHpfl wotg framed, 
at fmt forLy-two Li number. Thus the Ani^Liu'in C^bur<rh 
obtained a ddlnitu conadtution and n rittial. Ablr. nitd 
Kt'iUoua prenchcrfl. among whom wort* Mntthcw Pai'ker, 
Latimer, nnd Jnlin Knox,^*- mnny c^nTortA to the 
Protestant doctrine. The pror^ress of innovation, bow- 
PVBT, was eoTnewhat tno rapid for ibe gonornl Bense of tho 
nation. Tin* ap<»liution of Chnrt'h jjn>pt*rtv for tb© proflt 
of iiidivitlan.ln, in wbidi SoiDtrsL-t wjis t^niinj)icuoiiSt gars 
jort offense. Arxioua to cArry out the plan of Hojtry 
VIIJ.. for the marriage of tbe yoang Qnoen Mary of 
Si:'>U:uid to Edward, and desirous of uniting the two 
countries in one fi^at Protestant powLT, Someraet invndod 
Sootlaiiid ; bat, l.lioiigh !iih u^rniK were aurr^ssfiil^ thi^ on- 
Itjinthy vl ihr. S(U)ln Lt Uit< dinu]njitji>n of tlii; English vas 
too vtrong to bo ov«rcomo; and Mary w&s taken ta 
FVanco, thoro to be uamod to the Dauphin, A (^tboUc 
robol^oii in Commvll and Dcronahire wua aufprcKwd 
bttt the opposition to Somorwt on rarioui groun<ljt, whicb 
was led by tbo Dtik« of Norlbumborlund, tintilly brought 

to tlu; »cAffo!d; tmd Nm-tlimnbcr land, who 
wiw now itt the hon4 of n^Eurs, concluded a pespce with 
Fnnc«^ in whicli tbd project of a inarria^^ of Edwund 
jjth M«y W8J» virtually renounced. Undi>r Cmnii>*>r'» 
Bpprlntend^^rtiv a revir^al nf itie t-ci.'1f^LLiHljri|] vT.Htutf*. 
including UidBfi for the piiinfiliituiiit cif lirn^Hv. wcv* iitidnr 
tok^n ; but the work triw not fitiislif^d when tho Kin ^dicdf _ 
lit tbc ti^ of sixtoi'-n (Ihh'i), ^"^ 

TlKf rvttcti-jnary movoRKmt that a.ttondod the aoceaeion 
nf Mirv lo thp throno^ waa hj?ightJ>n^d hy tlie aboilivt* at- 
i«iiipr. r^f N<iriiiiiT(iWHiincl Uy d^-priv** lif.*r of IL liy ]K!iiiiHid 
kk{ ibe djiii^ ^'^^ l^ 1jt?(]LLi?^0] Lli» u'nvwii Ui l^idy ■Tniiv 
^rey, r» di^(k:<?nd»nt of Hi^ury's fd[it<*r, ;uid a ProtcsitjLnt. 
irjii>in NcrtlinTnbr:rliinfl ]iml mirriird (o bin aoii. The pnrty 
iriiifih thnrt weight to ovwtbvow tho ordor of nuccoaeion tbst 
hsid hGQh fixtid hyiv^toi r:irliimT*mt» found that it woefeo- 
bJy sappoTted, soon beciinK* divided and ^^fTooied noddnp. 
TTn! iiaurrwillon iimW WytiL wius pnninInMl by tbii di-ittli 
d( ii» l<*Jidcm, Hiid b^l to tbi? txnMiUon cf Lwcly Jane 
Orey, Mary wiu narrow, with the obatlnato will of her 
falliur, and ftupetatiUoualy Attacli«d to the religion of ber 
iaoUi«r, Slie prooe«d<>d as eicpeditioiiely aa hor more 
prodeBt AdvUerA — of whom Philip of Spaiu was th« cliiei 
— wrnild pi'rmit, la rt^tttorv tbi? Cfttbolif? nyaU-m, She 
KKm dislodg^ thfl inairird t'-lri^ from iJirir pbic»w. The 
L^rnyer Book was abolished- Disdaining the sug^esLiosi 
liiat shi? aboiUd marry an l^ngbshinaiu *he ^v<5 ler hand 
U> Philip with a duvo^on in whii^h issU for tlie Catliolic 
faith vrm iuditttingvudiably Diinj^icd with pomonal r(?j^rd. 
Tbp priint rtn wbinh I'lirlinmimt iihnw^^d mtat hpftitation 
was the niatr^r of tlip Sripprimitry. Thfl oppo*iiHon to 
pn|vU ixvttml waa more (;eu«ral and beLt«i' «At£ihUalied 
iLan tj)0 anta^cbrn to Rom;ui Catliolic d(>i5tri»c. Par* 
lament ifiBitttod that tbu t^itiinuitoe cC tho abbey laiitU tc 
tiMiir DOW pontmwon Jibould he iitcorporat4?d m tbo vioj 
which n>Mtab1i4h«id papal :vuthori^. R«g;nald Pol^ 

Kt which n> 


628 rue KKFOBWAnas in vlj^glaicd axd scotlucd. 

wtv WM made Jogotc of the Pope in 16i>i, and uiK^cvfitftd 
Cnuimcr in tlic ikrchbJAbopiic, waa the Quc<:?»'a sfuntiMl 
OouQddlor. The fourth of the groat Duvumr«s for tbe 
deAtruodon of Prot^tautiam was the «aforcom«nt of the 
]ftv*agajimt1ir>rvjLv. (Sitrdmexlost iiotiine in abandonioj 
thr iloctnnr- at the! King'^t nu£irutii^\ whicb it h ilifiiouU 
to bcli«?o bbftt he orcr sincere]^- held. Ho und B^iaticr* 
the nov Uihhop of LoodoD, wot« active in pcmoctition* 
The f<:)roif^i thoolof^ans woro drivcD out of tho Idtigdomt 
piid thv fufuIjfD ooDj^^jtiouB dispersed- Not 1e«e thaa 
(light hun(ln<d EngMimrm, wUium Hv«!H were in daiiger at 
li(mtr, foitml n,n iiAyliini kiiuuig tlii-ir bivihrr-ii in fiemuuiy 
luiil S\?ilzeL'lAiui. The Dohle fortitude iritb which [looper* 
I^timct, Hid!«>\ aud uumerou« otfaCT mai'tyrat codorod 
thi! tiro, did much to utreogtlieu tJie Protoetaut cuuao nnd 
to brt-^il: di>ira tltc popuhmty of Miiry. Cnimnor, frcan 
thti duy vrli^n hti snw from hia prlfton-bowor tho bunking 
of h'tH crHnpsLnmne, ItidT'^y RTid Latimer, senma to li&ra 
h>st hlx -ipnt. Hh W4S puruimdud to Ujakt< hu :Lbjr?c*t n^ 
iTOtilatiun ; but, notwithfitoruliiig t1ii« net, it w«m tlvtor- 
mined that be should die> What ccurae ho would baro 
ftur^ued had ho been pcnnittcd to tirct it i^ impoAallde to 
tell ; hut, ID the proepeot of cert^i death, bis oouraico 
revived^ and ho ^xlilblted xt the end a dignity And con* 
itaiwy whid) htive gone far in thu Ktrruatiuu of ptisttyrity 
to m,\jcaw. far hi« previoiia infirinjiirji. Thn fmilt nf Cran* 
LQor vafla ti]iio-«crving Hpiiit; on ouduo subscnieucu to 
power ; a timidity, which ia not compatible with the 
hi^icat typo of manly hone^. An exaiuplo of Uiin if 
MCui in the course hi* aduptud on toJdnf; the oiUhA of oa- 
nonicul ob^di^noe to tho Popo, at liiM consecration aa 
Archbiabop; when he satisfied his eonscienoe by a pro< 
LHst to tJie BfTect Uiat h« did tmi vantildt^T hlinaulf buiind 
to :ibatjiii] from iiirii>ureii for tho n<ri)nii/(1Jo]i of the 
Church.' Llifl panidpatioQ in tho coadomnataou of John 

(Urkt D^Q n. CoiM. hw0.. rh- LI, [Hurpttn^ Am^ *<i.,pp. tt, CQ itid n) 



HUH &f MilAKil. d29 

^HUi, «rbo ttus buntt lil Smitlifidd iit lf,Afi for n«>tiyiiig 

^« corporal preeenco of Clirist bi tliL' Sin'-r:fcmont ; :md 

*^ill more, h» p«n iu tlu* rxpiMition tit Jnan Boiiclior, or 

■'ouu ut Knit, ivlii> uaa ctfdled au AtiiLbiLpliuU iinJ w*» 

^*'V4minL in tlic icigD uf Kdward, for aii lierdiciil opinion 

^^Vvpocting tho IncAxuution — no<t to opoulc oi other ox- 

^b>pl68 of alikq into]«^LUc« — am n blottipoDhumdmory. 

In tliL* tatl daya of Bdward, CrHumrr jinJ hin iinwciALn 

Wtfie «iigit|^ Ui abitping laws for tb& punlshnkent of b^ 

littvm in dficLruLca wiiicb be bad blmatilf ItoM not king 

W^foro, and for di«beUcvmg in wbtch bo bud luuistisi in 

brio^ng Kritti and otii^n to tbo itako. Tbo Pr<yt«8toat 

bitthopBf iaya Liiigardf theCatbolio blstomn, ** p^rieli^ in 

fl&ino» which tliey bad prepared for their adveraarles.*'' 

"Yvt CrAniiu-.r, lui Bnriir<t biw jiintly itntd, vttm itiAttgitttTd 

by uo ciuclly of tconpct. lie was under the «way of tbu 

iileft that tbore must be luuformily, and timt tho inagij»- 

tMiA niittt bo roapoujiibjo for Hecorln;; it. Tbiu idviii it 

viM| IB oonnuotiOQ witli tbo pliant diitpoaltiuii wbit^b b4>- 

loiig9d to htm by nnlurA, wbtdi movnl lilm, tn thf la«t 

ydarsof Heiriry V]]],, to an iinjiisti liable ix>nceft]ment or 

oompTOintM of bis opiuIoua> ft must be set dovni to bin 

CTvdit thnt bo ruUc'd Itii voi<K: a^iuiitt Uie adojitioo of the 

Six AttJclcfli, and iiitcrco<Icd, uLcn intcrcc^tioik, in how- 

«rvAr cABtiou«&fomi,va9 hazrirdoiiB, for the lJv««of Anne 

Boleyn and Cromwell, Bat th^ burning of a lqhu cf bifl 

nrnifniblt? nge, wbo tutil fillin] wi lar^ a sjriuu' iti tlii^ pnb- 

Ig oy«, wbottc band hact hocn pnwcd by Uettty VIII. 

when ho was <iying:> and ^boeo oitd death took p1iu» un* 

der circnmBtacc^fi ao afFwting, coo&ld cot fiil to r«ict to 

tl^ diMdvantu^ of ttkc Quuvn and of bcr crcod. Viinoai 

alher cuoMdi eoiupdrrd ui n^ndi^ her tuipopntar. To 1555 

P^uil IV., 3b violent bigoT-,:Lni3 wltbal boFtile to t1ii> Spaniah* 

Austrian Hoofte, 1>ei^%int* Poiw. lie ittaifitoO on a rMlor^ 

* Tbl< It pjumrbii loo ttpvrre, u lAt tempon] ivniJrJn of iiv-tvr* *m to be 

U9 Tm ineroftirATi6!9 m ksglam> 

tioo of Um Chttrcfa propcf^ in Engluhl, Re^romld bftve 
tbc raiiMMl mtmMtmm oftco noro taouLtod by tbe 
Thnt is to Bay, he vrju r(«olT«d to annul the ooodit) 
vllitfii ftlonei PaHiameni had ooo^iiii^ to rutore tho 

iimnMTT- ^Jurtu^tr, Kii^^laitd wim bruuyliU 

rhiUpi, li> tuke jurt in tli« vat of Spftin ngaunt Fimx^ 

.Krhich g»ro ttw ricloTj of EM. Quontin to tlio Sptaub 

'king, but iii«iiloth« Bnsliab smart undor tbe lowof GiUt. 

T1i4) Qu««n, whoao wtiole ftotal w&« bound np with tba 

ouiM of tlie Catholic Cfaarfth mid wbo baked upMi Philip 

aa its dtfunplop, iras forced to wibuMa tho hoat^liijr of tbo 

Popo to her hiuband, and to »ce Polo« vho bclongod to 

jthat atetkn of tho Cbthotica which wna inoUaud to Pro^ 

Wtaat ritwfl of jnrtiScatioii, nnd for thia reason waa dta*- 

Hk«d by Paul IV., doiwiv^ of the I^gatbe offloe. To 

add to lh« perils vi the utuiitiou. Pnmee waa lu allSano* 

iriUl Scotland. Mnry diM tm t1i« ITth of Norcmbcr* 

1568, 'r\K ucJEt night. Cardinal Pole dicHl. It b rouaark- 

Hblo that vrithm a ihort tuno faofoco ^ nSx^ tho (^eon'i 

hdaMh, not kit than thittaen of ber l^shops diod alao* 

Tho nAU4Jci wlo<iiii«l Ell£at>#th to the throne. Hv 
hias^ vthvh renlt«d (foai ho- edocation and her nativa 
[liabit utf fe^nfl-» wa« toward* n highly conacrttdivo i^ot- 
itinu. The poiat to which tbo wait imrvocably ab- 
icd wa« that of tho aorereiga'« Mpromacy, Uer own 
[itinaacy and titk to tha throne depended on it, and Vm 
t\ lore of p(iin*r oimfirnied her attadniutoit lii it. 
did not n*jeot the Prot<tftant doctrin<d rcspocting 
itmi.n sdvalioD aihd tho Buprctno authority of tht 
%mpairv^« but »1:« va« dispoMd to retain a« nnch as poo- 
ilihle of tho oaoient ritoal. Slw had a d««id«d ropugoance 
tho mafriage of chn (?l^r^, and vraa with difl&culty doK 
from abaoihit'*ly forliidding it. She kept cm tbe 
altar of her owu |)nv;itc] chapel a cmcl&c and a 
ondle. On bd acoavion. iho a taid to havv 
Panl IV, of tho fatct i hot this fanatica] ptcfate 1 


tfOplMfd tbftt ihc miJ!tt «Lihmit her clntntn in his docuion. 
At o Utcr day, whcui Pin* IV. otUrcd to tii^^c uupcrtant 
eoBCMUOiu, such ma the gmntinj^ of th^ cup to tha kity 
tikd tlip nw of Uio EofzlUh Liturgy, the propoa;it vtua n>-^ 
b^J. Iti l\w i^vLiiiuii (if llii< LiLcjrijy. Llit< ^huuMgL* in tlUi 
LiUuiy rcUtivp- lu tlif? ^' tyrEUiiiy of tlin Ririliop <if Ri:iiiir 
n»d all his dctefittthlt? rnoTtniti^^ '^ w;ia Quitted* u well ae 
Uw oxpbnatioD of the ruhrio tiiat by knocling in the 
SiurAmant no adoration is intended for aity cotporaJ pro«- 
•IW38 of Christ. Hit^ ForE^y-two Articles woi-h ix^ducKsd to 
Tldfiy-iiifi^ ill tU« rvTtfliuii Ljr Cuivo<.'ittioii in 1^03 : and 
It« not vraH minfirimfil hy Fiirlinmrnt m 1A71- Tint Ac4 
eccl^tinfltjcfU jxiwei' in tlL« hands ol 
Act of Ucifoniiity mad© dlMeat La 
piibUo toochbig wnd m tltc <^-raiQouice ot vfonhip^ unlaw- 
luL A Court tif ]^it;b CoiniutHe-imL wna cjstublinhed luid 
fumUied with lunplu powon tor i<iLtorcing uiiif-^nnitv, 
vtd mppmudng und ptiTilHliiti^ b^reny ^tu) diss?nt^ 

The two diisHe^ uf aahjecriii n^nHt whom th<*^ puwi^ni 
were to bo exertt!^ wvitc Uiu Cuthohui, »iid l)]i> |))irty 
vbftcli wBtt ^ovring np luidcr the Dttme <jf I'urKjiLnA. Tliat 
Uio portscntion to which CAthoIica woro sutjuct duriojjf 
dlia r«i|nt wau pnlLiat^di aad thut tho e^v^^ru jin^owMliuj^ 
■fftiiMt th«iu voie in «om« cftAua jutitiliiNl, by tliii pulituxJ 
hntility vrliid] wild uften inflr^pnrnbly mingUd ^th their 
fdigioiiN faith, U tran. Whwi thn Fmtr^txintii^m of tha 
Quucu witA iofldo thts j^rouud <ii »U:u^k tipou ht^r un tlin 
part of foreijfD poweiv, iuid of cciriKpirjicu-rt o^Ainst her 
\iUi I vbtfii at length aho wili dcpnist^il by a bull of I^tia 
Vp, and h<jr «iibj«x:!t6 rdoiuod from their ullo^iLUioe, It ir^a 
ttataral tbnt severity should be uaed towanU thiit portion 
of her BiibjecU who won- looked upon ^ th<f lutuml alliea 
nt Iwrr rm-iiilw. Vi-t k U Ukowisu true tliat ruprtsaivn 
fomiimnui vvn* ndoptrd H^Tiinhl tho OiktholuH in niitEiy 
«aM;» where josUot u wqI) «« «ouj]d policy would l&re 
iictetcd a diJiorenC courB«. 

A oirE^iiknition of tlw g«iu)aral chitraator cf the Anglicaa 
Cburoh, liB tliAt waa dctermineil after the luweaaim of 
EUzabetli, will qtiftllfy iu to understand the Puritiui cou* 
trOTVlHy. The fesilure tJuit <lkltii)^>ilied the Rnj^tUh 
Oburdi from tlir n^fomtcd cliurclica oa the CuLitirienl, 
vas the retcndcm i& ita polity and wonhip of ao mudt 
tlmt hod bclon^d to the Catholic sjrstom. llie B»C 
et'>p in tbo EnglUti Rtfonuatton was thd ftASdrtsoo of the 
Rc^al Snprenucf . At tbe begiDning this m««kikt a dMlb* 
ftlicin of till? untidrrai inde|>i<THlt-D(<4< of Rfuii«. Bui thi 
poAilivt^ rhjinu^lfr rif thU pLij|iri<Tii)ii^y wfui not r1<^»rly de- 
fined. In the tune of Hcouy VIll^ &iid m the bi^Ijiuing 
of Edwurd*d t^]fn« Cranmer and Uic biehopn, Hko dvi] 
officers, held tbcir commiBsioiu at the Kin^'n pleaaure. 
On tho dcnth of Elcnty, Cmnmcr coiuidvT^d thd arch- 
bildiopHc of C»nt«rbtiry vacunt until h? should be sup- 
plif?i1 with a r«iv nppnintment. As the head ol thn 
Church, the Kuig cullKI lu^dte Hitil diepnre biAhiipK^ tm hd 
oould iippciintftnil d<ignid(* uU othtir ofBcera in the kirigi 
dom. The «<pificc'pAl i>olit7' waa roiled, partly be4.<Aiuw 
the bishopH^enoraUyf^LlIn wiUitheproo«eding9iof llcnry 
VIII, and l^dwurd for tho rui^rta of tlie Church, and on 
ucoiint '>f the camps^ct ci^nnlasttion of thd monarchy, in 
oonao^a«3nce of which the nation acted as one body. But 
m the first Jige of the Reforuiation, and nntil th** rise of 
Pmrttauisic sat a dietincl pnrty, t^hum n-wt little con* 
trovers^ among Protectants in fx^kliuii to upltteopsu^. 
Not only wm MelanoUion AnlUng tn allow bj^iopit -mih a 
jure huTMino uutbontyi* but Lutlu^r and CTtlvin were aba , 
of tbo (amc mind. Tlio cpii;cy)]>,'d conetittttdon of the fl 
English Church for a. long poriod put no bamer in the ™ 
tray of tliG most fn?^ and fratomal relatioaa betvreen that 
Dfidy Tiiid Uic Pi-oleblHiit '.'liiiTcheB uii thu iMititanHnt- Ai 
mr hHvr\ Afi-iit Crnmnr-r phwril forrigii divLn<iA in very r& 
vponaihle pUkCos in the English Chmcb. Hinlflters who 
had received PreebvMt^ ordination iwre aimiitcd to 


TRR Ensoo?>At Qi7E?noir. 3S9 

Weo duLr^ of Eu^Uali purinLi^a witiic^iit w qu<»ttii>ii fm to 
tUo valnLly oi thoir ordtrs. \Vc lind i.'i-jiTimor, .^1 *litno- 
tliuii. And Cnlvin mor« tlian oiice In ccuTnufHincLtfikctt with 
one nimthflr^ in ri'gijrd to tliG calliug nf a goin'ntl Protefl- 
tA\tt Council, io i:w^Jnl^*l'atct thw irillu«in;e of Tivnl. Tim 
gr^t Kngli&b diviji«i iroro ia conHtaot oortespondBtice 
tnth the Uelvetio rvfotmi-ra. to whom thty looked for 
oounttcl A&d s^rmpnthy, luid wliom tliey ncldre^ed in ft 
livforootia] vid iflncdoniito atylo. The poatora of Zurich, 
BnlUnger tho successor, And Giialter the soTwin-lsiTP of 
Zwingl^v wvi'B dieir intimAttj itTid trunt'^d lulvifit^re- It 
wan d w>iiiii]UD upiiiioii tliat thuru Is m, parity betwtHoi 
builiopA And p^1e:lbyb^nl ; tli:kt tlic dl^nr^nce !s one qI office 
and not of order. 'i*lii^ hud bijcn a prv^Tailiiig view 
ftmoag tho achoolmcn in tho Middlo Agc9< Though it 
b*?iloQf-cd to biBbopA to ord&in aud {la the Lattii Cbciroh^ 
to coiidnn; yvt tho priest, not less thnii tho bishop, per- 
foHDi'd thn niimdL- uf rhe Enohariel^ th» higlii^At (truncal 
act. Cnknoier distinctly nssirln! tht? parity of tin? two 
cUc^rft of clergy. The aamo tiling is found in the "Binh- 
oprt* [Ji3Cfk»" or IitMiUuthn of n Christian Mtm, vrhich wm 
put forth by Linthority in 153TJ But CniimuT hjL} left 
ca record an <*xplicit !i*stjrtJon of hin opinion* Jeweii 

t BvMt I' 4M {AdilcnilaT- Bamvi mys thil il «« "llii iwrrimo'rk ntjlv ef 
1^ 11^ *■ ^ dtrlTfil Irom Xht wliwlmwi — " t" mefcen b nbopk and pHohIa w 
As HIM «A«>" Aflvr Ui« Trhdmiina Cuuncil, Lha dDctrlno of the ■■WvfiQ 
fbArt of UAost, piwallvd la tht CnUulLe Chaah. 8«d Gl«nltr, 1. 1. 1 

10- Wl^KlkBr bUhopB nr i>rli!«cji wm Ortt? umI If 1I10 |irk**Iit tinti 
I IM prkatt ebhLo Hid tiUtivp.'* Crminar amwvi : ''IVMilKiptviid pifntt 
■wciOM 1ID10, iriiliivn nvtAH thiaitt, bvl both gat vRlcv In ih* iM^lnaliiff 

qulml ntf coiuKTitLcm «( bMup ur priimlii. or oiU)' ■ifiwImhE l^j 1I;m}1Vcv1j« 
mScAmI?" Cnannr antirviii: "Tn [h« X«« IVjiEinniit. hu ilmL n Ei;]rnlnT»(1 
■I b»BtMii>p«riknHl. nM(l«th oo coatcmclfin try ilm Scnplun* fir alitctlun 
tf *n«iiitla4r lAcnrin u »tlKrlr>iii-" In ftnawrr loqumtliin ti, CnntuT uj^i 
r^M *' li la dm fatbitlifrD bf 4hit'B aw.'* if til tlir ^NEin]M uA prLcaN tti « 
««r^ w* <>**1< tiMl '*ai« KJnff flf ihflt rupnn ihauld mik« (]1aht>pi iM 


cme of the great lighU of ihr. HiigU»U Church in the esrij 
part ci thi? rtign cf Elizabotb, appcAra to bold thki y*ow. 
BancT<»tt, tbe eu<<e«^or of Whitf^ft ^ Arcbbisho}! of 
Cunti^i'buryt la tlioo^Lt to liave been tbe f\nt to maintiun 
thu ntisMnUj t)f bL>hr>^M, or tht- ^'wrj" divrntr iloiilriii*,' 
lliftnt w no tmn* of Aiirh h. r^trinft m the "^ Apology 
for tke Churcb of Ivag1i»i<l.*' &nit iii the '* Dcrcnsc? i>f the 
Apokkgy/' b^ Jcvr<*l, which liavo boon rc^rdcd by An- 
(flii-*uJifl with juat pride b4 an aWo Tcfutation of Romari 
OnthoUo acL'w&jlbm a^iinut tbiiir syBtem- At a mueb 
hitor time. I^rd B4K'r»n, \\\ bU ^* AdvurtbvnXJiit JMncvm 
ing Controvaraios of the Church of Rnglanfl," *p<^^ of 
thtr HlifT i7t^((3iijpnt of all tJte orden of Una Church, nu 
b^-gmniiig to oonilemn their op^n^jiU jts ^*a mcL'* 
" Y4M1, and Homc tndiscTV1^t pcntotio bavfl boeoi bold in 
opon prenchmg to uee diahotiombli^ and dcirogatcrj spocch 
vid 06iiBtir<> of th? chiirchoa abroad; and that bd^, «& 
eome of oiar men, aa 1 have heard, ordained In foreign 
parts, have been jimnouaced to hn no lawful nttnisfira. 
Thiia fffl 9^^ the bh'ginniiigs were mocb.'st, but ihe ex- 
tremes wei« Tiolent."' Near tlio end of Kli»ibeth'« 
re^n, Iloolcer* in hia celebrated vroric in dcf^n^c of tho 
Church oF Bngbnd, fully oonccdoa the validity of Pre*- 
bytoi'iai) ordiriation ; \rith tacit rcferencci aa Keblo, hla 
modem editor, conoed^, to the ooiitinonul ChutdiM. 

Otb«r blBbATW, with t^rcmivrll- rtumft, Ibid. Addfndn V. After dB«eifl>llw{ 
fa full dip tiiiirtkitn uf itg cliiHy* ^^ ^« ndil; "*nila flfOcr; (hla pgvpr uul lu- 
iborlLj-i wjM fciiDHiitfcO d'lrl Rivnn bj riiHnt lad liN Apoiiln cinlo cartilii 
xnanx niil^i l*"*" ^" t" «T, ttiiJt pilTvin or lilchoix, whom Iti^ dU fIhk.caU* 
«al KctmitiliriTiiutD Crriliiir |imjDmu>ii [mpoFtJllDn at h^udi/* "Tbctrttihlk 
atE Lu ilii' Niriv Ttvlunoirl Ehvrt ii iiif ini;ii]i.tin; mad* of uj 4vn** Df 4lKln^ 
Uu/w In uTtlra>t Ifut Eiulv oi diTkidit f>r mlubtvn, nA of print! or tdihopit'* 
Tblnmi bltUopit niLb a Kimt iininbifr ot Dtlivr vcctvlMtioi, nlMcr1b«4 llili 


1 Htltam rTi^nki UiJii tint nvri ItiTiirtifl tiught Lhl* Ttm, vA<n li U 
pCAtrl tiy lEiniiv xu b* fouud. hi Ul* kirmuji u flt. Piuil'« Cnw lUMtK^nn iHjiFiiKFi- Aid, tul-). 

X«iiil viA^ rcpr>>v^d in 11>(^l ict maintaining in his axer^ 
cw(> iot ilncbd^r of L>ivuiity nt Oxforil that thero oould 
bo Qo trup «burob without biatiopa ; " wfiiob wu* thought 
to cut n boDe of cout-^ritiou b<?t\r(i«u tin* Churdi of 
Englukd ttiid tlv? RL^Wint'd uit tin- Oantim^nt." Kvcti »« 
hdc tut 161f^ in the ii-ign of J;un&9 T.^ nil l^ijg1itt)i biahop 
uiil soTcml Anglican clcrg/mi?-Q s&l m the Syutxl of DoiU 
viih a prcebjt<sr for ita modoriLtor-. 

Tlie Angliotut Cliurcli a^tt-d with th« Protestant 
cJiutdfltf coi the coiiiinuut, on the aubjwt c>£ predestina- 
tlon. On UtiJi mbjt'ct, for a long period, ihe Prot<^tjLnt« 
gAniFTnll^ w«n* iimtiv) bi opimcm. They autopt^xl tho 
Angwliiuuti leneU TUe iuipoteii<;y of Uu? will is af- 
firnaod b^ LuLh«r as atrougly aa b> Calviu> Mdiuictbon'* 
groduiJ moditication of Uio doctrino, which nUowcd to 
the viU A oofipcmtivo ivgonir^- in conwraion, only affected 
ft portion of tb^ Lutheran Church. The k-adeta uf tbe 
EiigUab Refonniidoii, from the tinid wb^u tb^ d(*atb of 
Hcmry VflL plluu^d thum linnlynpun rrotontant gr-ovind, 
pmfeM {h*i doctriiK* of HbhEiUiUi, as i1i8Ti[i^tiL»bfd from 
i3Ddditjoii»l, j)r^deBiuiatiou, whidi h Lbt? iwialal future 
of both tl^o Augxutinian aiid CalriitiFitiu .ly^ftcmn. It is 
tmo thjht Onmmur, Uidloy, and I^^Atimcr liavc net Jcft «a 
iloftnito ct3Cp7«»ion« or- thi» Aubjoct m tht^ir writings ne 
fti btho case witb tii^ k^xabedian bishopB. But tijo ^Ten* 
taenth of the Ardcl« cannot fairly be hateiprvtcd in any 
oibiT M-tinit than tJint nf uiitrximntinnid ulcirtian; nnd the 
catitioikA vbicli ujo app^ndr-d, instf^Luf of bulu^ opjKMed tP 
tbjB int«rprotetion, deniomtrat« the oorroL^tcasi uf it ; lor 
irlio \7jw oTur " thruflt into dLuptnition, or into vrri>tch!fM- 
n«iiB oC moot nndoui tiviog," by tbo oppo«it4J dootri&o 'i * 

> U b l <i p u W W i* ui nlB^Tii. duV hi Iht Intulrr trLctber Ibo AfUdc* an 

Hm vrMnpibi dHiBBMof UiekrkCtt.tUHblftUpriiBrw'ifrlf i\rr<liMtlknp UirrvOM^ 
Ba^ftm iMOirtt i1V04l, Oa Aa uni >I<1p, vrllb ftimn bMliAUniiH If HMuo 
lltf«)d llnvTi*, vba rarkm lb* Mfilfom<n- Am fk^nWi. </ Ua j»ri, J^ 



Bmdf<nxl whi'ii E[i prwijii in lA:iidoiii)ifl{jLitiii1oEi Tliiamittj^ii 
witii c'ti-taiu ** #rtu-vfilleni." ol wliom he wrote to b» feU 
lOT-DULTlyr^ then lit Oxiortl. Kidlcy'n letter in reply ver^ 
tftinly impLi^H Avm^ithy with \n% fxi^nd in tliis opiruon ' 
dtryp« nayw that Ridiny nnd JJrarffoi'd ^vrote on prtdiHiti 
Btttinn, and tliat Uradfonrs tnt;idie xt^&A Epprov«d hy 

men to Hm^^T Jiml FcItT Martyr throw light <m hi« opiuii^i] 
n?Jfltivc t^ tliiji <^ufMtioD. Huccr, before he wm called to 
Eiig]&i>dt bad dodientcd hid cxpoeitioQ of ILt> Kom'iuiK, in 
^idi he> 8i3ta fortli tlie doctnne of abaoltitt* f^ndttftinntioit, 
to Cnuiittvr. P&ter Jlartyr i3labontl«ly di^^fndvd this 
ta^ncit fit Oxfnnl, and rnjilird In lh« nrtii-OnlvinUrk* trc*- 
tiatw of Siiiitlu his predi^cTj'swor, uiul of riglmiH, cli«- opptv 
jient of Ualvii:, It vfa» during the reiodeiic^ of Mnr^ 
at Oxfoid. thut tlie Article* Mx-rv fmniwJ.' On the ac- 
ccfusioii of Mnry, Crtinmur i^Hcrud to dcftnd, ii^ eoDJuno- 
tion with his friend Martyr, in a public di^ipnt&tioni the 
doctricioA ^Uich had been establtahed in iha yrvv\Q\i» n^jgn. 
It in impowihU* to b<!limt^ that they iniitf'-Ti Lilly differed 
nn this prjmtlnt*nt pfiint nf t.hmlrjgit^id belief,* There Is 
itioiti ^K^uiid for thu BAfierticiu thi\i tho frjriiiLiJikTieH of iJin 
Church of Kn^Uiid are Auguatmian, hi difltitif^iim from 

(niHlaa ai tlic anbJK^ ujrt; "ll !■ authe ^tAi iih»t tiui AriirU [ivJ] *««M 

la b*ff*uicJ lOconlliYii trtSt AuiTinS (Ifmlrin*" "U i< ttijr pnbtfhl* ikM 

tttlX, Jrl^l^ (Art- tri^)- 

^ TbQ uodDrtUaci at lEidltj^ i* ind[«aUiI ic (lia nibiiric thai lu iljim not *il(* 
othdrwjec Oft l^li 4ul>JwE '^ Ehun iho V4>Ty Iaie 44>tli» ab k wvn, tad ba ay il» 

' " lu ilna, VQii dor l^iulorihr Syiwda Im Jdbr IKEkS^ toFgnFuatP nUufcwtt- 
fc^fiiMTi^** ilvT EnjE^L^ hnii Kirchp, irnnlfTa Hit Lihro voji J«c KrlMituidr, 4«f 
Fnc4uTliJALirpiL> uni Jt liHl^iir'tijjuiij^^ Bufgrnominfib, to «{« Uarlrr, imd 
&H Uiia bII* cloii'Ki'iiiAtn itroLcvtantiiiclMQ TbcvW^ui id Kiiflud ■&■ wif- 
fBloElt Futtcri," \.h. 0-S«tn)idtT/*fl'*rrf«rtyf r*m»ij/W, A4A«i v, rrtEf^r^^n 

I Upun iIe« CLlvlnlfin v( Cnaimfr, KiilT*T, will lAlliner, «c« ItuL, Jttiigi^M 
TM«9^l in /,>^i«vJ, I. A^P Hunt rvi-^r* to i^numtt'r bifUt va tbc Grui BiMh 


OjilTiniiitin.^ Vrl, it ZH n«lmi1.U<i1 hy i^ntWil ^cliolan titti 
kL the bcginniiig of KlLt^Lb^tJj'a rt^i^'ii " (>jilviuiHliu* Utacli* 
(Bg geoerally prcvmli^dp' * But tbroi4;Ji the whob Tvign 
of Edmrd, hUo, Culvm'» pcrnonJil intludtc^ wiui ^jit in 
Bi^Und. HJH contruvorBy witli Pigliiiu;, nnd tli<i cxpul- 
Rion of lioLaoc rrt>ta Geiiovn in 1551, o^oited ^<?i]€irul ftt- 
t^ntJon, it \VTw iihoTit, tliin tim*? rhsit *?le»^tinn and Idiidred 
tu|iieH Ih-i^aii tulw ii^ititetl in Eujjluncl* Tliidi* datt^ nf 
Bejitt^nibrr 10, l-^irj2, BartboU^inew Tndii^niii wn^ti? tc 
ilallingcr : *^ J lun uxcc^cdingLy iliviroiin to know what you 

1 'Pi* t*"^^'^"^*'" "I wTiLrlit'vK'jfi I'SHkiI tmm AiijpkkMnn an- lUmt<- Ang-.v- 

Ma titt4f ihfl latl nf A^lJiin, rli«^ tlrnC xlii, m* Jilrjrrr. nt « |vT||uvltl'^prrn-f<v. 

CiKIn viartAl uhati^^l vrif^ a liupr, pDvivo p^rmiiiiinn nnrhn jutEril l*nil,«iii1 

_AiftJlH iCAl'nonlt inhji>JL rcfH IuI|iFqiifirBl)ifi>i.Htit kI««- lSriDiii[»'ii,p. ^Crj f 'Unt 

vi*w vu <1dT^|i»jiKl hy lhiE4 nMu hii'ti^kii rjf (lio { aJvlniPirL IlLiE^nlr^tiipaiiiifl-n 

Vttmmmtttt tjanl^uion, Mt\*i vtm tlii t'tvud of Uto Hj-imit nf l>fin (li>o« n<>i isn 
.bejTttd IL Adgutlia* huld <d lltn [nuecriElaEi, inirancl i«f iho i^pn^lj^L^o^i «f 
.«rtsh*4^ar rmtbflrlalhDimi'robAfiunfnnt I^iiii, bui In tint pmit»tim<4nl of all' 
r|VW lit* pAHBf^i HB UUncuh»r, I>ifffmt^-fi*'fhie*le, i- 40-J, } lli^li Cfiflaklj 

h«Ul(» • pvfilivf 4fPtf /li n|'rolj*i4<>nt 4Jiii]r>i;nii4 lir 1J14L «f ?1?vli(fii yvl 
'-d(ttk4 I^Bt Cr'fl t* Llir AiLlTirpf i>f cLo' Cjilvin fUiriirrtl frtiin Anpi^Ourr \m boU' 
',fa|;t»llw ptr*fvttfu<^ ft *.\^ Ih'I^'i?'^^ ilkai It, I'iaF i^nnt bur rfj< clnt 9in 

DD Ut< oou-^'rcJ- lliuf h» htlil [ii«t nU Uoi-\'iht\ intuit* v »vtil> This dMV* 

llEiUiftI«lCAlvIii- |»vr,i<.pjHj1Lui'l, I'k'- ■'/ DfXtr. 1^ li^ YAtfA.. tt. 
IM^r UiiL CaItIq tfauhca. U4( 1iiiif?ii tluL a Hipiui: Ericwunof frAto Ii j^mu 
MtaltlHpilintfbJliIruai buCitlU that 4]l*iub ore "rrrt^c«il Inlo dm Luly uf 
ibvcAumli.'* "fticcpiolu Itii (Gvd't^ fhlldrrci hy \ht wUmii tymljiA of utafi- 
tin/' udtfui "God hu lili diamm decneiof rpfviiunitrirc tbou vb^mlln 

hM alfipiM)." /fui-. IV. xTii 0, 31. Ufi i«QhH Lbn eracfl ti lapitfed, te 

iffn* BKUnt, t» iLOTHlHt idnlu, who an tbni n:iid?rcd nMm latECOUlir> 
■Ttw «« npfr/i lyjfrwiD ihfvarT of Ihn <piTitTl^t", Ihf theniy Of iftolr Illlfto40 
■tflffan^. likdoppnilniiJy «f rfip fpprin]: ot ih? rf^ipJrnt U rltnjHl^fo IL< 
Ji It .VflicTM, ftipToulv — aripl "tTio whnjpiflme cfT'^I ftr opimtjini " nf ftwm 
i»iiiflflafi1 "li>iiidi onlj» wnri^lty rmlne iho «m(«^' AtHpId itti. aHirbi 

■IvthlO V In ll(il7!Son[\rrirr." I'hLi ^* miWlTiiH tgul 10 li^ ■rlM.^TiiiLtrirT 
'KilOtTinu7>t|i)i( "tUrvnr^fS i!i» Cttmp'} tui'imaa^ i,ll mmi ^niinlljr," ana 
:><t "llw jgnnf « iM nrr JitfurH frtuitJlvIa <hi UhMul find rb« hupfriaL" /ml.. 

tytittttim U ff m* Uu '■>dr*l will," or paPpim, Anil "ihAt will of Uod' 


uid lliu otliLTvt^ry l(?uni«d loen, who U'e at Zuricli, 
r<*ix^cting tb^T prt'dtitmitUon *ad Providu.'i:o« of GoJ.' 
^ Tli<i gnuiU-r iiiim1i4Tr jimnng u%y cif wlmni I own mywtli 
to III' rjiu;. <iiii1»iHiMt Uii^ opli^lcjn »l Jii^in C^lvm w> being 
peraptcuvufl, &&d luoAt ei^rccablo to llol^ Scripiore. Aiid 
wu truly tbiuik God tliut tlia.t t9cccIliHit treatiao ol tlw 
TL^ry lunraed tuid eoEcvUiMit Jolni Calvin uK-^uiBt Pi^ehtaR 
iLiid oiioGoorgliiKSlouluA tthimld tiavt; ccmL< fvrlh nt tJio 
V9Ty time; uHii^ti tiie tjitratiuu la^gUTi lo bi* ugltiaU'd umong 
lu. For wt' piwft^w tliutr In* h« Uirnru umuh light upcm 
tUi; fatibjcel, o( t^lJicr ao h^indlcd it a^ that wc luivi^ nevet 
before aexitt aiiyttuDg more Ic^rucd or moi^* plain." ^ At 
tbiti timo, iiB Bulliuger mdk'Alva by liitt rvply, cvtn licwitf 
not uitUlii'd whb Urn auprulupeianiui ti^Dct, tlto tnodiftctt- 
tion of AugUEtiniHrn, whicJi Calvin haA broaclied ; the 
tbi^ory tii^Ll. UiL^ llrvt lSm !■ tbrt nliJF^t of ah (<fUuii;iit dt» 
cn*e.' After tlie accesbii^ii of Eliiabutb. Uio fii-ititutj* frf 
Cnlvin '* wertT gi^ioraiUy ui tUc bands ol the clergy, awi 
might bo coniidcrcd thoir t^xt-book of theology," ' 

But wbilo it \s truo tJiat tlio ADg]ii!an divinoi of tiw 
uxtc^mth uontuiy may bo told t^^ be Culviiiiatju io thcit 
opinion rirflpocting thu dtvuu; dt^cre^TS, it is nlao tru^ tliut 
Ihey weiv. a* n rule, nut ri^d ut !:}]p [irofewi*hii mid main* 
U?ii]im7(* uf ibis (logina. On th[« topir:, tU^y aJiannl in the 
prcviultiLg belief of tUe Pi-otesuiuU of thatikgR. But they 
oombincd in tlicir tliculogy othtr crlcmcnts wlucU htorxl 

1 After PomrBTtnyr tuik up hln rwideDi-t at 2iiTi«ih (In JUOf, DallJiiEijr «tat 
brrht^r ihanbeiun in buuarlion uf prtdnUnallbii. ^mUnmtg, Jtr^iLA'skycE, 

* niuni, h' fi^pns. We Aad vcpllclt iiratifi ihjit Jtv«il, Kowill, SmU^k, Oa, 
pnifH««! If' <cncur vHlh die HaforiiveFi nf Zufich imd iifnti^Ji intmry point if 
dotlriur- UmDttai.Cc/itat. l/u^^cU. ril. ArchU«LiipfiFljidiJ((b*i] IKahopul Lon* 
^n), "HlLnfcJ|]n«lr»ltdS,*4rif luraCercne* tDCcrtAin I^Lbfmiii4lDriuiiBiij"tl 

■biMlt]4llr«^ti'ifn»iJl Umlr nirn Lullinr '*ii chr ' b4Jii([iaj:<i nf llif nlill ' FTof WUW 


tttt in maro HLifani^fc rclinf. And the tnidintiy to f(t> hat^ 
to witiqtiity, lo Ncclf for moderate, a.nd to av(ji<l obDoxicpua 
eoDCcptiotift of doctiinc ; in n. word, ihty peculiar spirit 
EfwUrfvd bj* tbo %?holo AujifLcaQ system, Undod moro and 
more to bluoC the abarpuean of ciootriual Ht:Ll^meDtfl ou 
tim Mi1ij«<?t. Tliu uonlnift ia marlct^, in tWi* piLrticalar, 
bKtvr«Ri) Wliitgifl, n tttreTirniiH Calvlnist, mnJ HiMjlcur, 
who nppixivcd, in general, 'A the Ciilvlnietic system, but 
roproscaits in liis whole tone the school of diatinotiTely 
AjogUcan tbooloiE^&iiH whidi wlib acquiriu;; »,ii luuroueing 
aireiii^til,^ As lAt« m 15^6. th^ Lumbtah Artictoet, ccrn- 
taining tlio vtrongctt asa^rtion of uucondittomil election, 
ftnd tif n'|irobntion ulsn, wern suljsnHbpd by Wliitgift, 
th^n Arebbi)^lio|iiif Ciuili^rljury, by tliy bisliops ri rondini 
ftDd Ban^r. and with alight verbul arnuniloietita, by the 
Arcfalnaliop of York, and tronsmittt^d by Whitgift to the 
Univt^inity of Civmbiridp^; thc^e Articles boing, he njiid, 
an nxplicAtion of tho d'>ctriiie of tbe Obiirch of England,* 
At this tiiDv dissoiit fi-om Calviniam had begun dUtiACtly 
to nuuiiftnt if*i^If ; utid griidtially tjm Armiiiuui dootriDO 
qw«l in Rngland until, dining tbe next rcigti, it beciirna 
prfrvnlenl Id the eslabllshed Clitircb. 

Tht great and ftJmoot the only topic of doctrinal con- 

) Hoskrr, In fhit cuplotia Frrfjica lu Ub TmnUic. Uutld CaIvId. «huin tio pn^ 
—■■i»* "liM«mp*nir»lj ihr wimt mvi th*t flrtf [lie Tfriioh CLuruh did eujox, 
dDTAih* hMtr a f b jr^ynd liSm/' Ha T'"^''' ^vla'i " IndtlLurufl^* oiulCorriniflD- 
tatim, 4nahv nnnKnti^iriT^ili Mi du'trliftl i^mon. Jli ihc umc Uini], HookDi^ 
mrk to UBfrfd Uxrfiu^iji villi tiia ehmeterUtta or Lho AnaUcjm icb«L 
p Hmi pri Tuibeh hki tarflHtinic nnulciiQnwriAlhiraniu " tho mmpnlif mlTi^ 
^w Vd ifvbKil "iilth dt Tttv" a! Flu Anffllun Ca]v1itt*t», inch u Jnvl Ud 

* 114 Ijnbtib Arfldca mny ^ Fcoml ]n Nml, Ni^nry tf tbt P*r4uttUf i. 
tB,BidinC«rJnll, ilMiwyf/lt4^Hip:ff(App, 7)fi.Si:i^ l.^if«l«KM prtnl«th* 

jUllcfcw,tHhn vrilfAB Irr Whllalevr kml h •JilHrrthM^ II Arl- V-m«a*r1a pv^ 
mpML I IT. Iha tfliRiiinjf ftf ln# tnd JiiJcflf^'^nff r^tm of iTia rh|>rl crl.r. Art. 
TL aArwi* llipe tU who ■» poiMM&l vf ttila fnlth biiTD 4 laM iRanmnrv tni 
V^bCjAf UiUf orvluliE^ hLvieJoa, Tlt4 Aniflctnf fha Kplunpol €faiirr]i 
,4<t'*i H TnlBB4 ti Hll> v*n tlh-kla% L^-AMn^thr Anliljiitiff 1l4h«, wTu 
%ttam* lMva4t c< Uia tiuli CIhirJi In Ufll wv ■ ^Mt Ia4m«l tdvoetUof tbW 


BcfonEJAtioi], wft» the !-(jit] s Buppci. On tlii* subjrct, 
tho Church of EngUnd alJi?d iUoLf to tbo Kcformcd or 
OiiTiniatio bnuidi of tlio i'rotoaiAiit family. It xnxmt be 
remembered tk^t Bacex and Calvin bad struck out ■ 
middle patb k(^twt<4«i) die Ludieraa idea of die lucal pre^ 
rttK-r tjf till? IhmI)' uJ ClirlaL iu lUe EiJuliAriaU !U"I Hio ideA 
of ii mvw commrnmrjitii^n, wtiicH wsu the original vicv 
(^ Zwinglc. Tliifl middle doctrino denied the Lutlicjun 
bypothc^ia of tbo ubiquity of Chriat'g body, luiwrt^d that 
it b novcon&ied U* beaveiiitbnt&t the a&me time AJbrni^d 
ft r^aU tboitgb myAt^rionfl itnd purely epirltnal re<:«pdOtt 
i>r nhmt by lirlirvitrs alum*, by virtiiw of ivliidt it vilal- 
ilJrtg pmvor i^ mniitiiiTitt'^ibf'tl iv tile recipient, oven fniin 
UIb body. Witb thia hypothec of a real* but spir- 
itual pn^dimcc and receptioQ ot UliriMt the, ^viftglUn* 
wc^ro auu^tid. Bven Zwitif^le and <Ecolunjpadius wen 
oot dbpoiud to contend a^tnat it ; nnd it formod tho 
besU of union betv^n Calvin and his follower*, and the 
ZvrlnglLiti Cliuivbeti. At Llm outset, after giving up 
tmrvtnbKlniiliHtiiiii, OraiiinRr iidtiptnl the Lntbimui doo> 
trine of coiiAubstantiAtion ; but Ilidlcy oobrsoed th* 
8vi0a doctntiQi in ite lat^r form, aiid Craitmi^r avoirod 
blmttelf of Uio saiu^ mind. On the Slat of Doddmber, 
ITjIH, Bartholomew Tialieroti write* to BulUngor of tho 
Oiuputatioa which bad juit b<^a \udd in London, on tlM 
KnrlmHst, *' in tb^ prpawntw of ;ilmrutt nil t,1i(> nobili^ of 
Eoylajid." Hesajs: " tlie AreJiLiftluip uf Cfuileibory, 
Dontniry to griiend eixpectation, must t^pcmly^ tirndy, luxl 
knmf^dly rnainUinrMl your opinion upon tlii« subject. 
Hie ar^monts were ae follows : Tho body of Chnsi wm 
Uken tip from ne into beavonp ChriHl Ime k*ft the woirfd. 
• Yo havt* tho pooi- a1way« witli you, but mo yu havo not 
iilwn\ii,' citr. Ni^xt followc-d the lii^ihop of RorbntCJ*r* 
[Ridley]. "The truth never cbtaiitt-d a morcbriliinoX 
victory Ainon^ ua"—-Ujrit in, m euiiJltct with Ibo PakpieiU 



iivo that it ie all over with LullitjKiiiJsm> uow 
Ihat thoB» nliL» nQn± ouiiaidL>i^«d iU pi'iiK'ipul mid alinoect 
anl^ «iip(>orti«r>, huxti nXUigfihvr titimi! iivcr to our nidi?-" ^ 
Tli« exiles wIk» fl«d fmin Knglind ini Uti; dcfittj of Bd- 
vard, wtre iiiiio&pit4^Uly toceivcd in Gcuoioay Qu &ccoaul 
oC thdr GalrinifLTa, Jn l^dS* afior Uio I'cod^ption of the 
Aitictc* under Elizabeth, Juwol wroto ti> Ff^lor MLLrtyri 
** Aa for inAtt«r« of doctrine, we havo piircd vTVcrjiljiug 
nvray to tbe quicb, nad do not difter from yonr doctrino 
hy 'A nuirit lirt*ailtli ; for as t^ tlie iibiL^iiit;inan l^hacii'^ '^ -^ 
the LuUi^Tiui vi«w — ""^ Uieie U no diuigrr ni tbis lymntry. 
Opinjoou of that kind oj^n only gfiin odinitUinc? wlicro 
tbe rtonce li&Tt^ aejiac-" ^ Uut thoro ia no uccd of biing- 
iag lorvud £urthi:Tr uvideuoc on tlua poiut, eiiice the Arti- 
ule4 osjklidtly luut^rt tbc Calvinistio vi^w. In Hpetddng 
of dio ICngliah Rnfomiei's ilg Culrimstiu, it is not impliud 
UiAt they derived their npiricma fiyjm Culvir fxcluBlvely, 
ur mi;:4;ivud llmui un Iiih mithunty. TL&y vrar& aXths luid 

tbf hoil;f ^4 lAtuM tif Iftf S«yui"r nm rmirnl liy rJtQ niutiiJi : " Nul loiijj Ih!- 
ttiM [ umi.' liin uiLtl iTMlfriltiini, I H^ M llijii ^rriir 4kf |]ic n-4l frn'urttQ, vi t 
W4B intny ypju* j«i»i, in dinr* ndiiT ^mifv, k« tnxftmlwuntioilm " — liBW 

iam,^m Ut ImtJ^m S^ijitr |P>riii>r H-k.). p. nu In tbt H^maMon* r»p»t 
hw ttaa RtTuntiiii, fihor M Lho ]kr''[>nnriDn nf tin/ Arrit^lu nf 1&&3, 
Hbcv iTimiglil tliiH^T ti>n 7.winj^\\nr\. Mtw C\ Hc^iriiirf, /Virr lfaHj/r 
Vtrmi^: Labtn «- oW|VnrJX/^< JrftH[fl*B, p. 103 vi<^,l B*um, Crtfii^ «. 

^ M- Bat lliu [wl Lo no k«riav JwtgTMEnfiiU Bucur wul Martjr wcr? bcA 
HiWlanflillj Cal^diaric^ The uIub Ihaf C^utmar wu dinnulLDuJ ta Iba *' Rwji 
dxCf fa * '* in «Brti»dieta<l byhU nwa vunlj! *' Qut-ur iliiMatfrib la imihingtrvn 
(|;«lut|«diw *ricl ^CvtFicUu*;' Tbt /v-r^'f %f>rr(I^irWHbrT.lp. {QV Hit 
(^■■1^ iq Iht Order of CoiiiiTjuriiHMj, tri ifi« Hfivitloii of IKIifl, m y^innliau ie 

OCkMhb taridl tc1iDoLiuaalnf4 Ivlcvb, t* dnJtuhUly all(i'L■lt^t:rKlk ni4«>l- 

«! lilt vfifrU fur Rccit'luf; Chritt. Se* iMitfsif4 <if Kimg S4ipaf4 

— ' 4«Tiiiucuf CiKiiL vulhe ^vmucut. 
• PnWiMTT 7. l5dL £uidiLclilcn(ftt j«n»].|klt4. 


[fiftniHl m<?n, and I'xplcrt'U llii- Scriplur<?fl aiid ihe p«lrijtle 
writcw ft>r thetnuelvt**. Vut iit> iiami> wiu btid in higUiii 
himtir uinong thvxn tlmn tJiAt fjf ihn GiTmiviui Ri'Jnrrner. 

A i*<>iitr*>wi>*y of gr<*iit(*:r iiiLiniii-jit for i.hc Kiilnv^iiuimt 
ecdesiafitical m well ae poLlical tiistory of l^DgtjLLil, ur«i 
Umt betwevn tlio Aii^Ucans and PuntaJia. h'^om Uio 
beninniiiKi tbort* wijni aonic in Etigland who wioticd to 
iutruJui V nviirv nidimtl dLiing<>4 njvl to voof^rm tljci UngliBli 
RofoT miition to tlio tj-pi* whirh it Imd r**n^JnHl nmnng d» 
Rt'formed or Crtlvimstic GhuivJie* oii the ContinerL 
TliiH dibpobltlrm i^itiiied ianx through ike r«AideQ(.^ of tlin 
forvipi diTtnort ill HtigULnd In Uie time of Bdicvard, noil 
Hbll mure by tho return of t)io oxUen iiEU>r the occcsbiod 
of Klixaboth. The grunt ubetacliNi in the v/ay of oStnui- 
ing the chA-ngea which they desired, wore th« etreogtb 
of the Catliohc jKiit^y Hud tUd conaervutitfin of Qtievii 
KU/iib«;tli. Tim i!OQLritveray first luul it*m>w.'t l<* ihrt u«i 
of the vcstmcntA, e^pcd-iUy the cup and surplice, and 
extended to other pecuUaritios of the rlttial. Hit" ^(miid 
of the PuriUn obji^otiun was that Uicse tilings weru idon* 
tiiicxl in tht> po]>ulftr mind with U;c piipnl notion of a 
particular priofithood- Thuy w<?re badges <jf Popery, and 
for thii reason should b? disivirded. When it waa replied, 
dmt ihi^ ^Eirpllfw. tlje crosn :n kipllsm. kneeling jit tha 
Sacranitrnt, iiin tltingn indifTurunt In Lbeir u^it^ue, the re- 
joinder vf&» made that sldco thoy arc mislcAdiDg in their 
influence, Lhoy are not Iiidttforcnt. in the mon^ &taaa, 
but that if th<^r iu^ indiff4?r<Mit^ the magistrate hoA na 
right to tmpoHH them upon Chri»tiim puopto; it » sui in- 
frIn;{Qiaent of Chriatinn liburtyH Jn thin Inst aflirmatJoil 
viu involved an Sd^ with regard to the Siipreinaey whleh 
mnnt. IchmI td n dirT<'rt-nti< of it more nulirJil i^nnuTtaT- 
Hixiper, wtko 1:* oftrn strlrri \hr* fithcr of tho PnntAOv 
bad Hpent howg Limo At Zurich while the AdiaphonUia 
jontroTcmy, wbioh rehited to the Bome Bubjcijt of eur^ 
Qioni<<^ wu niging in Germ&ny. Beinf; ehoauD nndor 


VSR 0? PUirTAWJ^ 8H 

Edward, m 1S60* to tho biahopric of Crloucc^tcri, L<t rt^ 
fnacxl to wciLT the vestments a.t. his consecratifin, FintiUj, 
tfUkT be had been imptisoned, the <]ifHmlty vfn& at^Uled 
by a oompromiso. They were, ia fact, very nitich laid 
4side during tlitu reigii. Ai: ilie bf^^irmiiig of KliziibuLh'v 
mgti thi^re wua n gema^l feeling among her n«wly iip- 
poioted bbhop*. most nf whom h«Ml been abroad daring 
the pciviecudona under iMiu-y, in favor of tUe tLisUflo gf 
the To«tDa«i>t« and of tho of^ansivii c<Tr4imojit««. TMa wibs 
the wish of Jewel, of Nowoll, of Sandys, uftL^rwitrdM 
An-'bbiihap of York, of Gruidiil, who aucfttded Pitrkor 
ID tlu! u^c'ld)l!ihoJIrl<^ uf Ciiriif-rbury. Ottly Croc, thd 
BUtop of Cly, wbo, in tho church of tlie t^ilea ai 
¥natkt\nu bad l-^J the [laity which i;luug tv tho Eiigtiali 
Utui^. tmd furker^ who hud ruTimiiicd in EngLand 
danng tho iiite ruigii, wcro on tbo other side ; although 
Pafk«r appears, at th» otitsot, to have looked with d;>ubt 
or disfaror upon tiie vestmenta,' 3nrleighf Wakinghara, 
L<dcciit4ir, were in favifr of giving tlu^m up, or cii not 
taaldng thdr use conipulsory. B%dLsh ]>n.'lH,t»]iM, hi thdr 
cvrre&puudvvico. fip^uk of them in tho bojaa tatiua uf de* 
linOD aad cvni«nipt ua the Fiu'iUui It^uderJt ii.ftcrward« 
empjoycd. For cxainplot Jovrol anya in cino of Iiib Icttota 
to Potor Martyr : *' Now that thk> full light of the Goapel 
hMM abcne forth» tho v^ry vestiges of error muat^ aa far 
M po<tfib)u, bQ remcvud, (together with the rubblvh, kind, 
BJi did niyitig in, wltli tlm vrry dunL And I wish WQ 
could <*ffeet thi^t lu rMpect to that liikou ntiq^iJce." Tim 
•bitt^int^utd of Sl&vaa]ay aro auat^ed by the Cdni^jipoad- 
cnoo of the I^nghnli witli the Swum liciormcnL, and by 
oUwr ovidcnco : ^' 'i'hq l^ngliAh Itifforftiem wore eager t^ 
go ttB £ftr aa tb^ir brethren on the continent, TJie> 
uttaidmouflly eondemned as UDtl-ChristisLn mimeroiu do^ 
nwn Mid prai.'tict.<H t^ which Hi-nry h^td stiibbonity tuUwfrnd 
wmd wiiirb KlixaWth rebii^Untly ubiLndtnicil. MjULy fell 

I 8b#f1. f/uto? tflkt CA-irvA ^rfup/flul p, IM. 

M4 TflE kfirOKAUriOK Bi BX<iLAia> AKD SCOTLjUin. 


* alron^' n'[>agtiaiit.v nvan Ui diings inilifT«ivii(>, whir4i lud 

loo, Tbu5 Bi^op Uuojyir, irvlio died manfully at C]f>uo«^ 
ter for liid rvligiQin, lon^ cvfaacJ to wcttr the cpu«:op%l 
vosbn^at*. Bintiop Itidlfty, u lu^irtyt of xtilL grmUvr re- 
nown, pnll^ down th^ ancioDt siltur^ (>f Iiis diooes?, and 
the Eucharist tc be^ ndniiniatered in tbtf middle of 
ivUwt III t».bW wIticU tlid P^jtHia irruvBivutly ItrriDed 
oyabBt^bMociLt. ni.>tlEi)j> Jutrd pmuuuiicvil Uitr deriad giub 
to b« a st4t^ dresA, jx fooL'5 coat, 11 relic of Uio AmovitWi 
and protniseJ that bo would apare no lab^r to oitirp^to 
eucb dt*(£rudii]g abaurditios. Arohbuhop Giindal loug 
lusituud ubciut u^uptiug a mftre, from dialike of wLiit 
\w ifgaxdetl Ml tJuf mamTacry of uous'cnitiDn. Hiiihop 
Piirtliiir^ti iUtf.'rmJ a fcrvwait pmyor tlint ihtt Ghuixili of 
KngUuJ w>alJ propuati to her»elf th« Church ol Zurich 
u tbf; &bi9oiut« putt-^m of ti CHmtiau commuuiiy," ' But 
lh() ijttouti^ to whom tht.' lioy^il Supromru^y vrtut tbo m<tvt 
Vftluablo part of I'roto&ti^utism, wna infloxibiy i>|>poeed to 
tb& propoaijd chajij»es. Not witht>ut dl^Koultydid lb* new 
bkliupii «uoci,*vd ill pivK;uriti^' tbi< rt-mo\-u) of tmugu 
from thi". tiU^ndivM^ Thir gri^jit Unv of thu ProU'itbmt 
leaders wa« th&t Lhe Qu4>au would be drivoa over U> Um 
Caliiollc Church, in case they uudertook to witliaUnd 

» rfitr^ry ofKn^lArui. I. IT- 5TPn» ■•71 ll«twbci5 Grltid*! ip*» (ippnlnud 
Biktiftp i>r Ij^nilnn^ fit " ircnaiuppl qii4«r M>n» »cra|hlr4 iil mqtfiHirnahnni wat 
Italfegtt »p*ctil(^ Ibfr hihlfi id4 r^TlUD orroln'k4im fv^iiirlr*/] In Ih iiwl ot uuti 
«■ ifwih blJioiH, I'op Th* KfffrtrmM Jn thi-*f «<ti>« jr^tiprmJlv tfrnt np^n lb* 

ifPM*HidrinTbpll«Ju vt Kiiwc.cvvrf ut«^ Kfd Qari«n pra^tJHdbvtlAlApd^ 
liic ud IdAlntrou Ctiurvh iluiiay bn alMili'liid^ ■(!■] TbAl the *ftviit of 0«d 
■boulrl bt mmr 4ira|tr9t rlrl|iL of a|1 ibil >liuw. ]tociip, dM appunna. tlu( li« 
bcM fiiiTAinArElj ii>e4 bedoR, 4m«veil J»ie mII iJial lo M ad bcntr ibin iu]>u^ 
liDUi ud niiti^iriadAo.'^ Z^ ^ li'ri'a^/^J, p. 09. la iIm cvii^n i-l CflB«r4, 
&Uftifi Bi'var. wf<T<n^ (»Ti^r Oruinitr'f fo^ii «1 [^fnliclb, untWr ilMn of Ap«t 
Cfli ]K<&, f^fL'jiVp 'rl tin rfr?ntii-ii ut tht rr-inieiili, cliri'in, tH^, In lb* AjMEi^CAP 
lilW, tJid Hr^i "'flici aOimk ibil ib<tc u lib Hpcn<rlI«o In AfJt tUajCk, 
■bij IhqL llitj ii.r< velIv 1t> be hiuiikiI ft^r & ^uic. Id l^rf |iJ<^pU^ jvI tiAvioiK yn' 
flAmc<l €LH>1| kbbuld br Odcmd by L>9 uiUeuuvb IaodtkiJou frvu fntir*d«g 


Motft of tlio ^mtii4!iLt hn^jgn dWmt»a on the 
whom tboy coDHiilt^il, coiiiiiie]i?cl tli^m to r*y- 
tniihi in th« Chiirch» and not desert tlieir offices, but to 
laibor [latifiitlv F<i fflfi^eCp []w n-fr^niH ti wliloli tlie Qui«»n 
woaU not tlitin coiiwat. itut nijuiy of tin? (^'^'^ tliij itnt 
oonform to tlic obnoxioua (lurto of the ritiiol. This co- 
coaioDCd miiclj diwirdei' in woraliip, and, as the Puritanfl 
wftre not At hU ditpo&ed to fellow thoir own wayg iu aU 
loiio^ it [^ve rise &lao to much oontoiitioii. TL« Quooa 

a^ietunUy Pju'ki*!r, Ui inoi^cwie the ili^liTir|iu-iiU. At 
leogth, the Puritans begniii to or^^uilzij in separatLe coa- 
TMIticlos, Bfl their moctingB vr^i^e stykvl by thuir udv^r- 
awMfl) in order to woreliip nocorJiui^ to thtt muthod which 
tl»ey appi-ov(><l. Thuy wcrv nrntn'-vonn ; tlioir cJni-gy wfiro 
loamud und i^tTuotivi.' picni-hvn;, mid lioth clnrfrj juid p90- 
ph' wi^r*? wiUmg to mifTi*v fnr tlir ftak(> nf i*miwienoe. The 
cnselt but iiieflectuaU pct*etutiou of tlitni, daiknuti tlw 
ra^fD of EUxiilfcth, ciflpc^TtEiLly the lul.U^r phirt^ ckf it. 
Among the other i^ndA for trhich the l'iiritjui» w^Tcnlways 
soatous vft^TM etrif^tcr discipliDc m tho Clinrch^ and an 
edvestftd. «arDeflt miaiAti-y, to t&kt> the -plm^ cf th« 
tbOQindw of Dotorbiuly iDeoiDpL*u.*nt d4*rj^iivn> 

If Hooper wjiK tlu? piiront of PiiritJtnUm in it* indpli^nt 
form, n lik''! rvlnlitiit txi I'liriLinjMin, sw h np^ arid deirel- 
o|x^ Eiystem, belongH to Tboiiius ('^rtwrl^ht. Lady Mai^ 
guv r» Prof emor at Divinity At Ciiinbrtd^. About tfae 
yttu 1670, ho began to set t^rth thr. principles respecting 
ths polity of tho ChoToh and the proper reflation of tbd 
Church to the Slalo, which formed tho <'r«i>d of die body 
of the Puritan parly ^ifterwarda. The firti point in bU 
syitii<flti IN Llmt th(< Si^riptitri-j nn^ nnt ludy thi* ruk <4 
Hlxh^ hut aljio th'^ nilo fnv ihft gnvrrnmrnt nnd diJKt- 
of tho Church, 'iliey prommt a ichcanc of polity 



from irbwli tliM Cliurob u not nt Uberty' 
•ccond point U that Lhi> niuitagumeiit ot Cburch aff&UB 
hnUinfpi ta tli« Chun'Ji itaAf unrl ilff olTiu^^, nxn\ luiC tD 
civil magistrBtos. Curtwii^lit }irltl to tim old vii^vr of tlu 
difltiDction between 4fcclc^iiA8tic&] luul civil wcicty. Whilo 
tbo uafpstrati? may not <Uota.t4) to tho Church in mnttcTB 
portiiiDin^ to doatriue «ad didolpline, he etill ia boimd to 
prot4^ct uiul dafvnd the Church, and see that its decreed 
tati expciited- Caitwright wiia im ndvowite ot Iwlerattltm, 
In hi« «j~9itc]i], Cliiirch uDd State um iniiaxAtthh/ linkedt 
ihnd thcTo mxat h^ uniFormit^' in religion. Hut vr\u\t that 
eyatcm of religion and worship shall be, which it bcloopi 
to Uit- magisti'atd to maintAint it is for the ChIu^:^ in ilA 
own lUtiuiubLt^H, iind not for him to det'.lde. Moreuvcr, 
C'«TtwrigUt otinwincled Umt tJte RyKtJftu uf p[>litv wluth tha 
Swjj>l«r*a orchtiii is the rrvsbytrriiui^ iiud tliat pn^law^y 1%, 
therefore, unlawfid. 

This wiw, of couise, a blow at the QutKio's Suprenmcy, 
M it hitd h<«n iindcratocKl and f^crcinod. It is tnio that 
Elis^vboth diRchiimod the title of Hoad ol the Church iknd 
called herself its Governor. The thirly-eev^nth Article, 
whic^ vns framed under Elizabeth^ expressly dentin if> 
thn civil imnfiMLrjitR tbt rJf^diL tti UiinnnieilJir tht? W<jn! cir 
th(i HJh:rAii]Lf[]tfl> Hilt brr vl:4itjit<)iinl puwr.rhiLd nn deflDed 
limita- Sho did not hesitate to prcecnbc what should be 
prcachod and what should not bot &nd what ritca «hoiild 
be praatioed mid what omittod, in a alylo which n^nunds 
one of th>< Byzimtind emperors in tho age of JuEtinina, 
She w:iH nut !uitixfi«^d with diiqxiKing of ecdesJsLstical po0- 
iMi*sJonFi lit ]»iT will. Sir CbTi*t()plier Hatton, one i>S 1.U« 
Queens favorites, built hiA houiw In the garden pf Odx- 
tho Uiabop of Kly ; ajid vrktn he atteropt^d to prcvont 
the epoliatlon^ ah<i wroto him a Inconic noto,, in vrhich she 
tlirentonc^d witlt on oaUi to " unfrock " him if ho did not 
iiiKia^itly ooniply with hpr bebest. Sh# forbade, In thfr 
inoMt p*m?mpt/iry manner, the nieetingv of derg}'men fot 


I aii4 mutuul bnpj-ovetnejit, trilled ** jirfjphnBy* 
Ln^,'^ Wtj«u jVrcJibiaJic;'p Gnmlal objected to her order 
ttid tvciiii^cU bcr that the regubtion oi ruoh mnttcm 
bdoi^ 1o thu Cburt^U iteeif iulcL to iu biahvpe, aiio kept 
hitn Mi]ipt*iidi:'(l from bis <*ffice for n number of yoSire. 
Tbi? doctrine of CnrtwrigEit amiiliilatekl bui-h pi-otetiBJuns. 
Bu£ Jib oo]iLri>vt.'fb_v whi^^li it (Jiwnivl itfioh th« j>vt)pi*r *u>;i* 
at-tutlLJi; (jf Uifl <3]urch. najir^cljiUv uprjn the quealioiis reln^ 
uif;tc<:pitfoop(Lcy,wjUfii»ili[i(Kl tonhjilc^ftbi^EngliabCburcJi 
to its fouiuLiticmfl. Ho found ix vi^ovous opponout in Whit- 
^t ; tttid thei^ w«nj not wn,iir,ing many oth^ learned and 
(ttgi?T difiputants on vm^h mde. Before the end of ElUi^ 
betli'a iKiKii u diviBion appeareil among tlie. PijiLtitiui, 
bhxoQ^li iht run- of tlii; luilepeudcula.' TLey Umk tlif 
gn)Qii4 tJiat notionnl cliiircbcs hAve no rightfnl existeDce, 
Thoy diScrcd from the otiier Pviritaoa in being Separa- 
tists. According to Uieir eyetem, aa it i« ei^plutncd \*r 
by Jolin RobbiaoD, tboir prinolpid leader^ the looal Church 
i> indi*|)t'ndr*nt ; ^nUinomic in ita polity; its members 
beini^ liituiid tpg^tlivT by a covi^nanb ; ili« t«acbej>4 l^eing 
«I«;t>nl, Aud il« dificiplinu managed by popular vute> Tli« 
Ifldcipetidente did not recognize tho Church cf England, 
In Iti ttttioncd form, aa m truu Churuli ; but the ecponto 
poiii^h churdicso^unized und^r it, might be truv obnrchos 
of Cbrist^ TJioir primt^ fiidt naa thn ncglcci of diiot- 
pllme, ia eonflequence of whlob some other proof of ChtU* 
tnui obtmic-ti^r nnmt bn reijnired, hesidnH im'nilH-ivhip in 
iLen. During thr reign of Elizabeth^ the Indept^denU 
hid Acqoiied no considerable power, although they irere 
tke victims of cruel peT«eouticii. 

Abont the end of tbu sixteenth oenhiry, a new turc 
woji givon to the Puritan controvnrsy by tho grt^jit woik 
qI Hor<k4»r, th>? trrattAH on ICtTcUvinflt^icnl Polity, Tbs 

f lAdnn, l«lt.| 


rite* and cctvmomm^ and for the fttrticukr kic m reh fa ^ 
poticic*. and dwdpliDOi of ^hnnbiaiK tbtv be loft At Uigft."* 
|]« oompUim of ■* th« pwttftl oiFactatiiHi and imitAtioQ/ 
by th^ fnntnns, '*of ^e foreign HmrvliM." Bnt in m- 
^pocl U) u»u)jf tif U>e eviU «gvn«t n hlc^ tho Puiitouft j«t^ 
leatedtMdi u noo-rcotdenoe, plumliuea, vid tlie tgao- 
nacA ol the clergy, liu U lu ayinj>utby vrUb them- H« 
thiokj Uut lith?rty nboiald lubro boun gninUd in Tuhoui 
tiun^ wliioh vivr* aUowwl 1>y tfao loHng poirty to bo !■- 
diff«iviit. H^ vodild gine up Um re^irvil utm of tbo ring 
la Qiarnu^ ; would gtT« liberty in rafocc to the »aiptic« ; 
and he iroold not exaet mboenptkoa for ntoe and ctsrd^ 
meoikm^ om for utklcs of dootrina. At Uw time when 
Bftcon vFoto« til* opfwoaDbi of tlia PaHtAtu n^vrv b*^a> 
tiing tit look vdth Favnr nn n thincirjr whirli hiul not b<wn 
hdd bjr tiww before* tLat the eposcopa) \io\ity is Dec«asarj 
to iho euteaoe of a churdu Thus th« K^soopalianBft it 
veil u tUa Fftebytaciiuii, oontcnded uliko for tbo oxda* 
ktri^ luwfoliMtt of tboir iwf )ceti\*o ijrtuna- 

TliftcoDtroTVTftjr of CbnrdiTHEm iknA PtiritAn i« not ox- 
dikci ; but liovrarer opinions may differ ui regard to die 
Ent^iAh llefortnatioQ aad the merits of Hit prindpal acton 
ID it, OTCffy one ut tJio pvvcMUit day inusl rojmoo tliAt no 
tocnpaat of ioonodaam ovor swept oror Coglund, Wb^ 
avor looks on tboso 

nn pArtuke of & brUliuut Frencli writors sdmLntioD for 
"that pnuttdil good tuixi&ti nbidi luis effected rcvolutkaM 
witbottt oommitting nvngvs ; which, irhilr^ ivfonntiig ia 
ail diroctioRs, has dMtroyvid nothijig ; vfhkh has pT«oerved 
botli iu trees aod ita oonstiLutioiu whiJi lias lopptid off 
1^ dead bnnciivs inthout lotoHng the tnuik ; whki 

tadaayiu::. thing; but iLu Go4 LfldUflOw IU4llUrtrtplb*Cb«rhV>r 


etli. Lt feMoiB pliuu Ukat tliQ quwtlcaifl were UiOM 

oa 'whkh KDod oimI wieo ru^u atnopf; the l'rotC0t6atB 

tBi(;lit differ. HaH oi tUo nation unu CallioUc. The 

clergy t»ofi* of ftucb a chanwtttr that out of leii lUouafind 

tn*t tnoni lliLUi a ftrvr Imiiiiml rhiHi? t^i l<"-nvi? thrir pE^u^m 

KHthcr than conrorm to iUe Protectant syat«m of Ed- 

traril* A ^wit part of them woro pxtromcly ignorant^ 

wad an «qu;il iitiiubor j>r^>ft;n\Ki tbo Kd'iniiu CatJjolic ^ys- 

Itfin to any other. Hcht can tbe poopla €Ter bd itfcHi 

froni iKijwrT. tlie PtirilnciH ilttmiiniKHl, if iii> i-i^ry jH^iwp- 

tibic t'hiiiigi? t» tiiii<k* ill tlir^ iiiirdr-ii iif wor^Li^i luul in UiC 

apfwrol of tbo m'mutry ? If ttic tliivtinct^vi; riiililcinii and 

badges i>{ popOTyfirc loft, hoir iluxlt Iho poopl<T W^ br'>Ligbt 

OH of that vystcon, and be Wd tty ^ivexip tlie whole iJieory 

of pricsUy mediation 7 But th^ itate i>f thiuga that onovo^ 

ana piriy Ui adopt Ui'm irittidinnnri, luul im opptisiiti- n^i-<tt 

«po«i tlic jtidgm«nt of thrir i^ipoiMQtfl, Pr>testaDtisii] 

may fail dtogcthor, (hoy argtic<l, if it breaks too abruptly 

with t^o traditional cuetoms tc w}uch a ^rait P'^vt ol the 

nation are attacli^ Better to retain iivbntgvor it any- 

w«i» M)TM{utit>U with tU;i nsutntisU of l^rot««iatid)pnn, and 

w«nn tiKf peiipk fn»in Ui^ir old fiitperAtitions by a gentler 

proceeds Hold on to iJic itppareJ ami tlic cvreinoiileti, but 

nrefully inattuct tiii^ |>«i>plo an to their rral tiipiificni^oe. 

TbB5 the true doctrine will bo mvod ; nnd* nirrc4>vcr, the 

nligiotn lifo of Hm uACion ^U piv»i>rTe, in a dc^^^, it« 

pontintiity 'tm! ^'^mnprtinn Tvilh Xhv^ piwt, The* tract of 

L«nl Bsivoa mi tJi« '' i'ai:ifiaitioii iif the Clmrt^li," whltJi 

vrm vnitti^ri in the rdgii of the mcceasATof RlirAWh, ii 

a calm and moclcn^to rcmw dt tlii; Piintnn -isoDtrwcrayi 

in which both partin* 90010 bi for nbout an <>qua1 ahan^ of 

vcnuin.^ Kit c^omplaina nf t\w roritanB, among other 

0iing9> foiT insisting tliat th^re ia one preacribi^d fonn of 

diK^pline for all ohurcUcft and /or all tune. Hb aa»erta 

Ihat thttt are ^ the genAnil ralcfl of goreraniunt : but fat 


fflfiv^trfl fcnu tit tliifl tnirk, uombuied irith iu ti^iow 
n!MA>mng (iitd Itn cloqiMnce, MeiDtid to tukti up the cco- 
trowrty ittto n. Iiiglir-r atino<phcro.^ Hooker L^ndoAvort to 
go to the* botl'>m o( tbo enlij*iet by iuvfitiRiitnifj U» Mft- 
tore of InwB and tho origin of authority. One of hu fiu^ 
danientul prij|Mwi(ioua is Uiat tLo Cliuruh is eadu^ «^11) 
m If'jiiisliitlvi' Htillirjrky by iIb FouhJpt, wtl^iin Uif limtU 
Mrt by lliin. [t ttiny Y«ry it4 ci^giiniftition nnd nic:th^«c( 
W0T»tiip, rui<rib ii! nbut down to no prcocribod eyst«iD. H« 
boldu th&t Eptflcopncy \n on apoetobcnl institution, nnd u 
^e bMt form of f-ovaTDinoiit i but lie Apponn to tliink 
tliKt tlte gfrnoriil Cburdi, " 04 tlE4> liiglwftt subject «f 
powMT," {% ntit nliHcititb-ly txiiind b) luUiRnft Ui thin fijrvtom. 
Since di« Cltitri^b i« iJiuii nn Hiitbonxrxl lan^ver, it is 
fiif tioua lo diflolwy tLa regulationa which the Cburcfa Cfr 
bUjlifibea, wli«re Uity do nat amti«T«ne tJie lairt of ite 
Founder, tlookor id^-ntJlii.'d Churdi und State, oonndcP' 
Ing tlio Jtwo «d diftorr-nt lupactt ot fonction* of ono titid 
tho Rame society. Th^ fnpr^macy of the kin^ ovor tk« 
Cliiitvh iH (li« togWl eornlUiry. Tt \a reni&rk:LL1e thcit hu 
itii5wi<^r« tli4? (Himphunt ibul Cbri-iUmt jimijdt? uv di?[iriv«il 
of a voice in the choice of th<jir officer^ by 1>nn^ng for* 
irard tho theory of tho »ocml coinj^act^ the eamo th<^o^y aa 
that which Locke afterwards predated* In trcitb, tfaia 
tb0or>- ii; ono of tho oitrcHmLl prinoipW of Hooker. It u 
a govcnimt^nt of hiwn, nnd not a divpotmrn^ wtiicli he nd* 
VEXVtm Jioth for tho St»te and for tbp CburcH. Hib ooo- 
OPfition o| tt liiiiitn^d uiOTiHJvhy wna onf? fiutn »pn*<^a1>h< to 
the thenry or praclioc of tifu Tiidum. Biit bi: i:arif>iiJily 
appHcA thiA theory to justify «nch cuatomfl as tbo oootrol 
ncfnHscd by patfons In tii« fippointment of Iho citrgy, 

Aa ^ro look bftclt to tho bOKiiininffa of tho Pnhlan «on- 
tiiovt?r>ty in tliJ^ n.^n of Edvitrd and at tli<> itcoaaioa ol 

"HtfnwltJ roai<t « timtt vhcn iJirr* vmr^s itUffvit ^Eb rhvllj^ «»il mMltftM* 
A«]t rwtr* » !■# mnr* bIf**«A n^Anl (buj thn^ dicowd tolam" wiMfa 






fSlttnhotlij it KARmH jkljitii thM t,1ii» qiia-j^limifi wcm iIhim 
on wbicL ^ockI ujiil WLb« riieii among Hie l^DtcstoJiti 
micht <li1Ter. Half of tlit:^ ik^LtioD was UatboHc- 'llio 
clergy ifcro of tiuirh a c]uu'ac-t«3r thai out of tou thounund 
not more lUmi a f<*w Luudr«d obuse to k-uvw their piA^ei 
imtlMT tlian oonfuiTU to tliQ Protest.tnt sv«t«m uf Bd- 
vntrd. A gn^it pjirt of tliirni WL-re e\tn?Tai?ly igimniiil, 
«Dc1 an M^iLiL nui^bcr pvi^f^iTcd the ]tonif\n CfitlioUc s}'s> 
t«3A lo any other, lloir con the people ever be won 
from iMpeT^f tho I'aritaos domandod, if no VQVf percep- 
tible eboiifro is madi» Ui the niodt?^ of worsliip and in the 
B|^mr4-t of iha ministry ? If tbt- dUtluoilve ^mblr^raa and 
iHkdgm of |i()p!rytinT Mb. liow hIhiII tin? jir'ij»l*i b« linmglit 
out of tbat v^Kl«in, and bi.^ led ti> givnup i,h<' wliiili^ tlii^rjr 
of priestly mediation 7 But tlio btatc of thingn that moved 
one {nrty to adopt thia ooncluamEi, had an opposite elT«ct 
Dpou tlw judgmom oi tLL*ir oppoiiiiiits. Prott^^lmdUin 
■uy faut ultogutber, tlioy ai^uod, if it br-c^abi too ubruptkv 
with tb« tnuUtion:\l cintt^ma to wbioli a (;reut p»rt of th« 
nation are attaclii^d. 0Btt4>i' tu n^trLiTi wliaf«vnr in uny- 
WMi^ notiiptttitilA Vfith thn i^xf^atmlH cif Protiutftiitisiit, and 
wean the people from their old Aiipemtitirnu^ by o. ^^.ntler 
proee«8. Hold on to tlio apparel and the cereiivonLcA, but 
carefully ii)&tniet tho peopk as to tlieir ronl at(^>Gcanee. 
Thoa tile tiuu docrtriina will bo anved ; ond» niortover. the 
iwltgicniai lif« cd tbo nation will pru*L»rv>i, in it dugnw, itt 
nontinntty and [?c»nn«rtinn xvith thn piuit. Tho trwt of 
Lortl Boemi m\ Ibe. " IWilinAtlon of Mm Gbnvch," whicli 
vna inrUteii in tbo leigii of the anoccMor uf EUzpabtrtb, m 
acalin and moderate r«riew of the Puritan eontrovtr^, 
in whidi both parties como in for nbont an L<i)na] tthuro c4 
etnanro.* Ho ecnnplLumt of the Puritatiti, nmoiig other 
thin^ for iniixttng tinit tht^r^^ in onn pn^r-.ribiMt term uf 
disriplino for nit rbiiivhi^ji mu] For nil tinin. TTr? njuortv 
that there nre " the genei^ai t'llos of government : bnt loi 


pulidm, umltli-Krijilioiwuf diiait'liiw^ tUny bif Utfi hEh ]ni|^." 
Ill) ci>nipUii» of ^ tho pArUftl ftfTccttitiotL and imitAtioiu' 
by the rLuiUin^. *' of di« foroign churclics." Jiut in r^ 
■poot i» ftioiiy i>f tho «v)l« agiunst which Ibo ['nritaua pi-o- 
toted, each ita non-resideno^, plnralitl'Z^, atnd tbo igiio- 
rUKW of dir> elt^rgy, tie is in ByinpLtli^' witli tlwtD> He 
dilukii iJib-t ttUrrt)' aJumUl )i\\Mi bt^en griuil>iL| in >nrT<iuir 
tiling whiJi 5Viri%? iiUowcd hy tlio iiiting [nu'ty to Ijo iii- 
diffciv^nl. He \roiilti give lip tlio ttquircd iwcof die ring 
in imirnA^r ; wwld givo libortj" in rosp^ct to the eurplice ; 
and he would not exacrt siibccriptiona tor ntes and ocr^ 
moal«ft, a* tor articles of doctrine. At tbe tim*^ when 
Burun wr<itPs this oppojieiita of tlie Puritu^M w<!rc bf^n* 
mng \At Inok nitJt fnvor i>n <i tliiiory wliiuli 1ia^ noL b^^H 
held by thciQ boforc, that tho cpiaoopal i^oliiyui ncccflMip 
to tbo oxietenoo of a church. Thud tho Kpidoopaliaa»« ai 
w^ll a« th« Pr^byteriaiia, coikt«nd«d alike tor Uifi exoUi- 
nvo lawfulnoM ol thtfir r(^jif>oc-tiT« tystonui. 

1^0 oontTOvvjity of Cluitviim&iu aiid l^iiritan is not ex- 
tinct ; bnt however opinion* :iiay differ in reg-j^rd to tlM 
Eiijfllah Ib^ConiiaUcu and UiementAof Uiepnudpal arUvm 
in it, tiTtry <ma at the prvvonb Sa-y roust rejoice that no 
tcmpc«t of tconoc!hiiUii ever Hwopt over Knj^Und. Who- 
•TOT loolcB on thoso 

nuE jHirtiiUi^ [if u bnlliuiiL Fmni-Ji wrllrr^H mlminition for 
"Uaiht priu:tii-nl gijud sciatw wliidi \ma clT<K:tod rv^'otutioos 
witboiit committing rATogrs ; which, while roforznjnj^ in 
all directions, has destroyed nothing ; which luu pneerred 
both its tram and iu constitution, which h^ loppod off 
dut deud brancht^a witliout lercUni^ tU« tninlc; wlncii 

iod %ay iiKh iliiii^; bJir IhsT IW liarl Ihfttrie IlIip hiKnr (nih* CliuRti ffnr 


In our da^yt, aiuiMig nil nations, i* in thu cnjoifmcnt 
_aot oolj' of the ptv«uHit but the p;iet/' ^ 

Tbi^ bijitor}' of tli:j SoottinlL Iteitirrnation k cloeely lutein 
TOVC31 witJi that of ELiKAbeth's rci^'ii- Hi>r jS^arit^ 
depeadtxl on tho diTuioDB ol bor onomi'^, ou tho mutual 
jtMlouddiM of tho Catholic powera. To pr«voiit thorn from 
mttkliig oouimoii oaiise ;i.galii3t Lit, wa* oa*a of liiy prin- 
dptd uUiDKinU cf lifiT [Mklii<y. It wuM, :iIho, eMi.^Dti!U that 
neif ihi'i' of thrm ahc^uld ac^([(iiTc jiik^Ii wtrMiigth jind Liberty 
of adiou A8 wi>uld oudiLBgor her s&foty. ScotLuui, Uic 
enemy of Knt^htud, ai:d tho old ally of bVaiice, wm 
point from wht^'h* ubl she foarod and her ouGmicd 
bopod, tli4t moAt dAnjTuroui miMhult might be mudi^ upon 
ber sot) upon Kni^linh Pr^b^Jitiintiiint, The peri] waa 
innc<b aiJginii'iitW by thi^ prmiLltm i>r MH,rVi Qu^Bti of 
S«j|H, in rwULkni to the GiLboUiS goYtirmui^nU. HjM),hy 
iho Achem^A and uspinfctionA that grew out of bcr cl^ms 

In Scotland tha spirit of foudaliam waa not nrduccd, u 
k WHS in Eufflaod; tbe fceltiij; of alanaliip wmt etrtDng, 
and tho Dob!cfl f«h none of chat di^feriMiL^ to th*^ »oveiw 
«dgxi wfairii wiuh mnnifivtjH) in thn ni'ighbiTr i^JiKntry jind 
m Praoo& The Scotdsli King wha withotit a stHiuUng 
annjr or eT«Q a body-CT*'^* i^ud iDuat depend for Ua per* 
mud ptoteo^ion^ ao n^ll -m (or hb support in war* i>u tiio 
Ccodol milattn of tho cotuilry, who took the fidd under 
tflMr own lords. Tlie nntuiul roughut^ of tho iuifitoo- 
nej of Scotlvid wa« littU softened, exct>pt in a Uv in* 
■taiMMw, by their intercounte \vith the polrte nobility cf 
Ftnaoe, On th« ooutnuy, " thuir dreiw wm that of the 
flUnp or atabte ; they were ^rby in peroon, and tibrupt 
■ttd diampeotful in munnvr. CfLrrvin^ on thL<ir diapnt4«, 
mtd ovon fighting out their ficrrcf? quamiU. in Ihc^ pr^Hbenoii 
vi royalty, which bad by no naouu ttoronipUibnd tb«» 



■ orou ft, impAf^fll iWitv^n wliirh th« M(n<j>nMgii« nf Fnuie* 
b«cl nehiitvpfl nittoj^ tlitt (fayx nf FriLtTL-iH I. U'itli Uift tn* 
cepllon of oittf or \vo caaUcA, wliIcL bod been l>iull in tfao 
FVmoh titjle, tL<» beat fainilieA ^ore croirdod into Darroir 
•quare tovr«r»« in ftlii<]]] ull available means lied boot ex- 
baiuKid in »tr«t)gth, Icariug nuthiu^ for comfort cr 
bwiijty-" * The roj-al resid^nf**.-** witli Uie axLM^pticvi of tin 
limt palam, Holjrotid, were MtlU: ln'tt^r. Tlw (<ommrm 
pvojilo, p"or hut pnnicl* self-willi-fi lK>Ut.i^rou8 in tJ»«r 
rDnnnera.coiild DOttOfl ill Franco, be kopt at a ilifttaace from 
royalty, lu the reign of JhiLics V., and gGiic>rally durin; 
tliQ Cisgcncy at Ilia Quoian, Uie <iler;;ry and llio aoven^f-a 
wor« jdliiwi t>y u ouiumon di^nlw l'> t?urb th<^ poiVL*r of cIm 
nobdlity. Th** cl<'rgy [ir*ifit*vl by the furfciinn** iind pvD- 
ftlties^ inflicted on th(* anKtnrrni'y. Thin ^vn* »n« reaaoa 
wbj the nobles were inclined to favor iVotcstaadaai. 
ThA lay gentry had their ey^ fbccd on tho vaat eet^bei of 
thoir dorieal rivala,' The ProteatAnC teadeopy, boirerwi 
iviut oppo«i^ by the fixed, liertjditnTy fooling of ho«tUiqr 
CO Engkad uid to the predominance of English indaencou 
Perhu|w flior*J wvm no country whi^re the Cbnrt^li atood 
iu yrealwr need of i-eforinatioii. Llian Scotland. Tlip idtTi^ 
wvrc gcnemlly illibTrAbo. In the fifteenth ccntofy, tiiroe 
uuTcmitir^n Uixd htcn founded in iik-ntlAnd — St. Ai^lreva, 
Glugow, and Ab^'Mi^on; bixt tfaoy ftppoar Co havQ iie- 
eompliehod little in devating difi oharaot@r of die oleEg;^, 
althongb tb^y arr-i^ in tim^ to ««rve ^ffeottially the ouim 
of iXxtt Ri'fcirjEisil.iiii^ Tn 8(v»Lhui<l, tlir RRformadnn WM 
QcA prrcnlctd, but fotlowvdi by tbo rrvivnl of Inttan. 
2Jot only was the law of celibacy practically nboliahed, 
Irat tie priertly order was oxtn-indv di^H^Jtite. Half oi 
the prcperty of t^o kdnf^dom waa in Choir Uanda. Tbc 
eoTotooAiMH of <bo lay lonU and n pruvul^^nt jtutt tnd^ 
flniJon itt tlin proAigacy of thv. cJi^ri^MLl hndr w»r« Um 
moTiDg forc^iB of tbe Reformation II. should ba ineE> 



^m SBGE»T MAir. 

tlint pnunftwiirtliy. but in«JTfciuaI, attem|Jta Wert 
made by t*ic qM Chiircli to itboliih tliti mo-it crying 
nbiMOfiJ After the I'l'ot^^stimt spirit bcgnti to mrinHoftt 
itself, wLou tho clcTRy mot the robukfln tbiit wero &d- 
dresa^d to iheoi with cruel persecution, tlie poprilar indig- 
mitiOQ ouqitifvd u, domUe lutfrDHiij. We llri'.l. tbrt-iigiiout 
tfcT- S<v>ltiiib R Inform iil.ttmi, ii foni' nf Htirett-iil.big bcwtility 
to tLu pnpal sj^tcm of religion ; u tTrmpcr idonttcnl vnih 
thftt of tho prophets cF the Old Testam«Dt in referenco 
10 formatism &nd Idolutry In thf> Jowtfili Cburch- 

Thoio were martyrs lo tLu KcEfuvmatiou in iha rtif^n of 
JaniM v., Ih* rooal fluUhI of whuin wua Patridc Hamilton, 
vho liiul bcim u Hhifb^iit. lit Matrliiirg, nnr) wlmHi^ i\f»ih 
mjule a priffoinid iiiiiiniiwi"»n. Undei' the reg*Mi:ry nf tfie 
vidoif of Jame«, ^ti^r tliL* aabzutsluutiou of Cardliiitl Bea- 
too, the priiKipal instinriLtor of jHsriLwition. thtrt- vra^^ fcjr a 
hng tiiDif, a miM poUay in tlto tw-iitdn nt of h<!re!'y. 't"h<* 
Earl of Arrai), th« f^onl Prolnctor, at firi^t favoivd the 
PnrtOStant side. During; lh*_' lei^u of Mary of Kn^lihrid, 
tkn bottility iif Fntii?** to Pbilip iiT Spain nml to )uh 
Rnglifili QiifiRii, <tpi<rn,tj!il tn wvttrri a luntiTnt tn^atmrnL in 
Scotiuid for Pi^otMULUt refugtrea froiu aci'oira the l>oTd0r. 
Hie C'Miflpiracy of Aitiboiee liad mst then iakiyn plaoe» 
«id the Gutsn, the brotben of tlic K«^ut, ha<\ not fairlj 
ttntored on tb<.tr ^iind cruHndti ii^nintt tho Hag^vnota 
tnd tb^ ]lcii»(* of llciirbon. Bat Mary of Kngland dUd 
in November, 1558, and wn.8 siiee^^ed hy Elizabeth. 
BtvuiIh w«r« lijMtvDini^ toward a rKlr^iouf* war iti FniiaiT ; 
tbo Contpimoy of AmlHnKr? \vfw foi-m^Hl in l^iflO. At tli« 
JMtigfttioD of her trrothcrc, ft« it ia au^^poaed, the R^setit 
diangwl licr conrac, FLnd undertook to e^ny out rcprcMi^ 
WcaiMwi, It i;i^aa in 1559 tliat Jobn Knox retuniod cc 
Suotluiid from the Continent, and the erisla of tlie Seotti^ 
fiMformAtion nmn imcncfK 

Uttle is kncivm of the pa»DUf(e of Knox* At A* 
ITnlvenlt^ of GIiaj^v, be was a ccmtetDporttry o5 tlio <mI* 
■bcutetl mflitiTar and iuALiiriatiiK Gro^n Rti44i:in£Ui ; mul he 
hiul iiinmig 1ii« t4'-*cWr^ Jo}iti Miur, or MnjrT^ who had bci*B 
ia the Uniroreity of l^ans* and hod brooght Ucww vith 
him the GiiUicAii theory of chiuvh ggvenuueiati Il^Ulot 
trith ra^oal r>pu>ioaB upon llie n^bt r>f revoIqtiOQ, and tb« 
d<*rivatian of kindly aiUhojiiy from populnr ooxucvsit. M»- 
Jor b:ul iilmi imbiU^J Lb? bpinUm of tin-* anLHuntu thttt ty- 
mnniciilr^ in n virtiK-. fb: Wiw ncjt an iiblc man j yet he 
oDuiy have LS>:tLubut4(L tiamowliat to the dovelopmont of 
klndrtd u^iuious m the mind of Kno.^.^ Kiiok r««wl dili- 
fCi^ntly AuffLiBtmu and Jevomo^ mid Luartily tnabni'C^xl tike 
Ri^foniKHl fattli. I{<3]tt'iu wna juautBhiiiMd la ir>i6 by t^n- 
C|>initurAH nonu* f»f whom vn^nt miwt^d }iy rctfcntintrnt for 
f*rivaU* injuvJi^K, jL.nd sonmbj- a d*«ir« ta d^liv*ir tbo otAmcrv 
frtjut hi* crueUIi^H. Kiio-t huusolf proft«*eA to aL-qLiiau-u 
ill Uutt Invent, bo far m h waa prort dentin], or the net of 
God ; thr>ugb it ts <^Tidcat. likewise, that he hu Little, if 
BDy* repii^iTianco towards it, oonaidtM^ed ta the act of 
raun. Tho «neauc8 of B^ton took refu^ in the CjuitUi 
of St. Andrew*. Kuox Joined lliem, wiLb prlvuto pnpUe, 
whom hp vrjtn tht'tx iiiHtmeting. Tlii^rtf ho wtu n^lej to 
Lnrejich, and n^luctantly complied vrith the iin|>-mtire 
■mmmtjmi of Lia br»ttu^i. But thu ab9t!« was tnkiMi by 
the l^r^tidi; hi*, vrita earned <ia a CAjjtivA to France. aimI 
exporirncfrd hard umi^ thoro- After his rck^vi, ho wu 
actively employed in pt^aclunfj, principally in the NorUi 
of England, and produced a ^ent effect by fcis hout«ty, 
«ttne«tnu«ft, and blnnl f*hx|iipaL*t'. Nut fully Kutuifii-tt with 
tii0 Mrr^liMiMtii-al ftystUriii I'xLdilishm] by Ci';Lii]]ii<-r, he dc^ 
dmed & bi»hi^pric ui tiio Engliitb Cliurch. Duiiog tk* 
mgu of Maiy, be waa for ii, while at l-Vankf ort» aiul then 
led tl^ij (juiiy in tiic Cburch oC the oxiJoa, who wore op 

Lm. » m 34' 


posed to tlic 1H0 of tho Engliah I'niyor-boot, \titiiout 
ceit4ua albttntioiu ^fakh tbcy dcmajidcd. Tii« mt^et of 
tbis period ho tpenit nt GeD^ra, in the eooiaty of Citlvin 
and lh« oth^r Ge&evaii pn<tLchers. luid m u^^tivi? labor a# 
pastor of ft elitin-li <'orn|>[Wt*J ot KngliMli iituJ Scotdi r«d- 
dmln. It WRM nt ^rni'V^i tliut Iin |mt forth hi* iinluoky 
pablicfttioo, entitled Iho *' Firat Blju^t of the Tnunpet 
a^ftiiirt tbo MoDstrouFi Kc^mcrn *>£ Women;" u work 
vrhi^h wa« epdcially aimod, a^ Lo aftenvtirUa iMplfLitied to 
Maiy of ScoiUnd ^Dd to Elizabvtb. at '* tttu bbwljr Joko- 
bel"wbo vraallieu n-i^'uing iii Euj^lnnd, but whic'lid<mi«d 
tin! r^liluf winnmi lurulr rmt.i4in>i,ii»]igi*nr'r:d pruptflitioii 
b cthio, NotwitlutAndirg ihtt mconTGDienoe whlali tlJa 
dodnne oocftsioncd lum aftcrvrarda, h« had tbe majiUurfl* 
to r«fuA« to i^tnot it. His olomay attompU ftt npolog^t 
lor he WM ct^u moro awkward in fmtninu: npol^^cj! tban 
Luther, did not <*i^uciliLitc> th^; guod<-wiI1 of ICli^tnbeih, 

Thiringlh^ riMgn of Nfiiry i)f Kngln.nil, while there waa 
vrar betwet-n FraiR-u and 8p:tIiL Lliu Sut.iLLiKh i^xiliv^ wt^ra 
■Uu to OTinR Uick tu tlttiir ooutifxy. Kitox ^f1^n^Mf^I in 
15J>5, nnd in the folIf>wrLng yvar the Scottiali L^rotestftiit 
kffda QDited in a aolcniD Covenant to dcfcmd theix reli^ 
Ion ftgoinst porMcutioii. Tho gcvurument oneo moK 
mowed its repfiMsivo menditn's, and Knox, irht> hsd held 
ld> neetingii in yuriouA pl:»^(*4 with much rlTc^s, wm ogiiji 
(owfKl to Wtiv Tim Srnttiah *■ LnnU of the CongTf'g*' 
tioa " now reiolved at e\er;y liaziird to put mt ^•iid to the 
penecottoru The jealoua Foiling which wa« nwakt^nod 
reftpocting iha designs of Franoo upon Scotland, nnd which 
wmji augmir^ted by the marn^igo of Mary to tho Dauphin, 
ombin«il a powerful pany agrunst the R«<gonti Tho 
lords atid Ihi? Prol'mrnnt preaohen stood in oppoaltfon to 
tlie Qiweii ziiid tlie CathdlitT clt.-f^y. Knux relumed mid 
ibuDdered In the pulpit nji^amAt thtr idoUtry of tlio Romish 
wonhip* In F<?rth a s<irmcMi in dcr.unciatjon af the wor- 
rii^ of imogcfl vii» followed bj a riiing of what Kooi 




oULi ** rljc niH4';il imL)dliiile,*^ wliicli <l*-iiioli»1ifi<l t1ii^ni,Uid 

palluJ lUrwii Uit iLiuiismUrin*- TIiq wiiue Uuiig waa i)o«m 

•Uowhon?; tmd thin iconocla«ni 19 oiut of the duuncter- 

iatic foatarw <tf tho Scoltiali ilcform, In the Armod eon- 

to8t tliat onflaed, thd Kogont ^lined each ftdv»utagtt» tkju 

Elizabeth waa roliictantty obliged to ftiriiiflh op«Q udit- 

atu^ t'> t}i& Protestant party, to Sft^ Scotland from follmg 

inU) r.lir< ItiiuU of llii-* Fmui^lt. Her pmititiit waa an emi- 

bHrniKt«i[i|j; ouo to Leividf. Sho detoated Kuox avd bis 

pruicipto9. Shft DbhoTTod, oapcciAUj, the political tJi<.*0Tr 

vhich the Sc^^ttiAh I'rotortuiU avowtid mid put in prrLC- 

Cico, tbftt subjects may takd up snuf^ againat tbeir »or«- 

roigD. Yet the poUtioU &lt>i&tion was sih^ tbat ebe wai 

obUgud, na u i^oii^tt of ^viU, Lo ruuder tJiom aid* Thk 

vhv hm] doiur before cljUbli^^iUiinly. But iiciw tlto peril 

vu »o unmincnt, that ulic \T3ks lorccd to come out ixx die 

face of day and er&d her troope to tho afld^luico of tbo 

lords. Even tbe KinfX of Spain, tho champion of Catbol- 

laitmf TPQA »o un^dlliiig to iivi; tliCf FruDob mLUft^an of 

Scotland, thiit hit rt^joicH^l in tlio )iui-^4>4U( of EliiAboth't 

inti»rr^rHiM?e. Thft l^n^^ty of Firlinbiiryh, l>y Tvhk'li tho 

Fri?niJi wtTTU to evacuate Lvlth and hi^MH iSm country, 

limitc-d cAientiolly IIm prcxogativta of the ScxjUaaH cov^ 

rrign : war nnd p(i^ic<? cc»ald uot ht nudo witboLit tho con* 

B«nt of the EstalQs. Tbo Quoon-regcoit diod on tho 1<^ 

of Jime, 1560. Thd Estates convened m Aufpifit. Tllft 

Calvtoktic Coiifesslon of Faith was approved^ the Romaa 

CiUliiiIif. n^ligiiJii weli aiKjllnlif^d, ntul iht* ikdminLHtrring nl 

thr. riiuw, or B.ttcndatice iipon it, wu» forbiikh^n — the 

pcrtfilty for tho third offense boio^ doath. " On Iho 

morning of tb« ^th of Augusts 1560| tho Roiniith b:i-r- 

trdiy iffUfl fiupromo; in tho t^TeniIlIt of tho «aiii« tky, 

Calvhuitic Prottstimtiam yms oatAbliihod id it» Hoftd.'^l 

But whgth(*r thii Acts of PaHituiwnt would Abldu mod 

be eiTectiial or not, " dofiende^l on events yet to {xvueu** 

I B>)v1«d Jr. 19. 




;iiul Lis fnllcnv-ininiBt^rs found themselves nt t* 

idoptHm cf tbc ** Pint Book of DiicipliDe," the rentnuDta 
of vrhich irora not at all accepl^Lble to the lorda &nd btlrda 
vh9 bad nxei^'ed tbo Ctilvimstic doctrines with idaoity. 
Tkard vro8 biTohed in thU dispute another quoatlou vhii'-h 
oune up A^panitely — Umt of tLit^ dl&poaiti^n to be auido of 
•nfl4«iiiNtii*ul |]ni|>rirty. Kuox utid tlii? prf:achi;T» Wftni 
bent upon doTotiag it to tlitr u<tw Clmroli, For tho miu- 
iaiance of niinistera. Mhoob, ajid umveraities. To tht« 
taeiaoro tho lonLa of tUc uon^ogatcon, amoog whom the 
doain fot Uiu taudd and poeec-^iona wUit^lii tUey were able 
to SLppropnutv* nt th« overthrow of tht^ old religion, ttu 
<]irit« iu> potnnt 04 rwligious zeal, vould not conaent. Tho 
new GhaiT-ii wjw obliged Vi wiriU*nt itjit^f witli a portion 
of the property tliat haA belonged to tk^ old. Kodx. 
irho i/rnA ekillful Id penetratiiig the political echemt^s of hia 
odvtinuLrifTfl, tC^vn liin by irit^mlfl t-redit for triors sin^anhty 
and disuitcrost<rdncs» tlian tboy really bad. It was a 
vroakii«Afi that sprang? out of hia own mmple -hearted hon- 
vftty luid ze^L But iu tills inatter of tli4 ^* Booh of DIa- 
dpliut: *' jiud tXw Chiini}i properly, he saw tlidr motive 
tod g»re Ereo vttnmnrj^ to liU wmth, 

Franci* ll„ thn youtic: hiisbiind of Qoftcn Mary, died 
on th^T 5th of DooGrabcr, Ij^jO. Uy thie ©vent. Cath^ 
rioe de Mediei, who hated Mary, acquired power, and S9t 
ibont thd work of mediating b^iweon the two eoul<.niding 
|wtuM tluit dividiul Fni.m:i% Unit Hhii night L^mtnd ih^M* 
boib. ScotlaiKl WHH roli(.'vird fmiii dang«^r arii^ing oat of 
U*o ambitioxu plana of the Goiae*, Mary returned toliet 
cati^-^ kitigdom to aaatim<* her crown. We need not gt^i* 
Vedcnoc to th« eictravaf^nt pmieoti of such adf^uTi^ra ai 
Aantoinc, who uoompanicd her on lior voyage to Scot> 
land ; bat that tho wiut bpautifal in ^H-nun, of gnuNrfol 
and winning mannen, quick-witt«d, aconmplUhnl, with 
a IxNindlcta fuiul of «iier(Ey, there ia no doubL Shi 

36S THE nkitMdjkfl'Mil W nlBJMb kW (HHyPLiMA. 

.biul grocrn up in tho uUncwpbiTrv of doumt and comipticiil 
Tfhich surroLiini^d iho Fniticli oourt, in tbo sodoty, :f noi 
Linder the Influ^nc^ of Ca^hATiTiQ d<« Medici. BrAxUimp 
falnuwlf, tlie Hi-vQtious olirijiiloler, and Clifitelnr, Uie iU- 
fiarriHl |XJCTt> ottotbi;! of ht-r Frciidi oitiauiJaQUt who vntA 
EJtcrwardti bolieo^lt^d for bidu^g lilmaolf under hor bed, 
HUjCfCCE^t in part Ihij ehtLrtwtcr uf Uio aeeociatiuna Ui 
^hich mIii:: lijtd Loen pUcvd. She cum*^ to ruigp ov<n'A 
kingvlom whi*r*t tin? KtHt't<mt fonn of Culvmium hiwl linMi 
[uiulv till* \i\w of dm UruL No contra*t v&n b« Jiw>r*i 
striking Hum ihut piy^Bontc^l by this yoathCul Qumsiii fmh 
En>in tb« gayetita of her *'d<:jir Kranc^*' and from Ibo 
bomitgo i>£ tluT cTOLirticn Umt tbr^ngod tier Gtcps, and tbu 
bomtily iind MurruuiKliTi^ of b^r n&w iibo^ki. 
Brantome n^cord^ thut Ahi' w^pt for boiir« togetb^i on the 
Voyn^ ; Ami vrlkon sIm ^law (in- hor^'j) tij^t (uul be^n twiit' 
tu iMmvey ber from LtiiLb tc Holyiojd, hba ag»iu l«in*t 
into bean. Thu aituntlon waft 9ilc1i thnt any Activo oppo- 
BtJon to the newly cetabliaLcd religion would haro Iwea 
Entile fti>d diaastroua to boruclf. The Quiaee were hb* 
Burb^ iu tLt> civil eotUyet Ui France, wid could not undt 
tbt- work whioli tbt* Pr<itest:iut4 in Scotbuid bud cfF(»cc«d- 
Wlmfrvcr \titiiVH M»ry biwi of either Anoreeding i>r 8U|>* 
planting Elizal>?th wudd bav^ been ileatroyed by a pr4> 
inulure exliibitxon of an antl-Protftstant policy. Muy 
conkntf^ hrriittlf witli ci^b^bruting mitea in her own 
cbdpcT and in aiiwr ptiico4 where alio eojourtitrd. Tbo 
pnncipul direction of fd7q.iTS was Uft iu the liandd of hat 
bM.If*brcithcr, th^ J£»ul of Hurray* the leader of tbo 
Prot*?etant nobler. ^\ie even unit^Ml wkh Afurray in 
cnmhin^ t)i« E^u") of Hniitlt^y, ihn ririii^t And most 
pofwcrfnl of the Catholic lords, who, how^TW. hatl nut 
shown himself 1.1 steady or diBiateroatod friend of tho old 
r«Li}^on< Tin* ontliuaiaetio aduurera and npok^iil* d 
Mary mainudn thut ttbo was iincor4>ly in favor *d toknK 
tion. Tliey would mak« her a kind of npoAtU of ivJigou 


Gbfiiity- It u» nn onrwiMonnblu utrt-loli at diarlty, Now* 
Bver^ toeiippo«^ that nhw wi:Jiil<i :ujt {rum tlu' hi-giiinlng 
Itare T^jciced in the rr^tomrioTi, iiiu]« hiift it hrHui fi*iudhli?, 
the foiviblf' ivsTiir;iluiti of iJut o1[1 n?U^oii> It i* Qnw of 
lii^ good pLiiuta ihi\i alic tifivoi- forsook her own faith 
Erom mo^ves of sclf-iotcrt^Bt, aiid ne\'ei- aw^rvoj from hei 
Gdotity to il, shvq in one iostajict* and for a brief intorval, 
whvii vlie wiis ;:*rr]od nway bj' ber pusaiou fcr Bothwi'll. 
ThAt nhe should " serve the time and still coitunod^ hr?r- 
seU discreeUy and gently wilU )ifv own *ti^jt<^*i/' and 
** ui eflect to Ti*poafi mofjt on tbom of tiio refoncaed relig- 
ioo," pfn» the poUcv wJiloh bad bei>n skotcUed for Uer in 
Fmnocs iVi vc: learii from b^r faithful fnt^ml. Sir JamCi 
M<*IvilW IKr Ictbim to fop© Pius IV., and to hor 
iiAclttf the Carcbii:il i>f Lornure. in li563i plainly d4wlar9 
her indination U> hriikg Ixu^k^ old I'f.'li^Iixis i^ysti^nt tn 
ilA former flupremjbCV- Sba tittwLjfa.atly withheld bpr n»- 
■ent [rooi tli« acta of Partiament trhicli cbangcd thi? rv^ 
lif^on of thd couDtry ; and it waa an nnticttlcd cniistita- 
tiooal qiustioo whotbor aota of this nataro wi^ro valiil 
vitbotit tht* eorereiffn'a approval- M array oomiucu^d ilio 
gOttttundnt with a view to kcop in check both of the i"o* 
Bgiova partitw, tno tnatiibLiii t)i<r ProlMxInni t^f-LibljAlnnrmt, 
bat At the same time to [jrobx-t Mary in tiic personal cn- 
joyment oC her ovm woiBbip. 

Xhereaoltttlouof tht Qnt^uii to liavt< mjuiA in hercliapcl. 
Mid thoM^cret dcaifipi, ivhioh Knox mr^rorLnd raoro bolicvcd 
*wr to chooriiib, to tvCftntUjib pt>pery, found in that wformat 
an iniinovnblo antngonist- l!ia *• Histmy of the R^fornu^ 
tion of Rebgion in Scotland,'^ that igiiaitit -.liiiI <^rj^inul 
vov^, in wbiub bw deatribea bis own t'Art?rT, iiarraL™ ibe 
ri*c iumI progio* of the great conflict, in wbii;h thtr Qiit«D, 
with hi-T nin? powow of fnscinntiin and tntlQcnae, nl'>oil on 
MM nd(\ and he on tho other. Whrrn tlio prpparutionn for 
th« dnt moM ff«r« per^'«iv^ (oo tbo 24th of Argpul, 
■ U<w¥iirt, p. 8a. 

rm 1t£F0nHAT101l DI SIOLUCTt AMD fiCOH-AVD. 

Ifttn), '* tUu liturta oi all Uiu godly,*' he vys, « began t« 
b« buliJL-n: aiLil oi^ii bcgim o]H<iily to ifpcAk, ^sh&ll thni 
idol bu natTornd ug^iin to tdiko plftoft within tbia recLlm? 
It iJiaII nnL' '* ^ It wna prt^osed tliAt tb« ** i<lolat»7ir pri^ 
hboutii die the iltnUU ac^cording to G^'s 1»w-'' tUii Mtrr- 
r»y i^uairded tlie cUiipel door '* that nraio a!io(iU htirc wi- 
tivioo tc troiiblu tho pn««t,^' Murmy'A cxcnvr to, 
hown^ror, *^that bo wuuld etop nit Sonbtm^n to OBtor tho 
miL»-" Aftora littlo while, tha ProtnOetant lords, out of 
r^CBpect to th« QaMn'ii d«cUiration that h«ir oonMiQDOe 
bound faer to adhere tr> tJiB obnonon^ ritv« wer« tBapowd 
1A pnrifiU her to <iu lao. The/ wer» bt^wJtchiMl, :m Kricn 
thought, by the eiichantreBa ; and he m\Tighod in hin 
pulpit ngainrt idohitry, dedaniig that ono raa» wa* 
*^ moTo fearful unto him than if Con thousand arm«>d on- 
dnii«6 were landed in any part of tlie rdalni, of purpoco 
to Buppr^aa the hot^ religlou.** The Queea re^vod to 
ixy thn KfliH-'t of :t p-mtmul lutt^rrirw^, luu) of licr Kkill tn 
^retuonii^, upon this* uvmt iiitnu^table and powerful of all 
le profeasora of tlie uew faith. Nono were preBcnt, 
irithiu huarinj;, but Murnty. It wa« the Iir»t of the 
mt'monilib ct>iifyrttnoi?fl or dL'bmi>« whioh Kbotc hftd with 
t)n! Qtiiwm. Wu fi>llfiw hU owu ttarrutiT^. ** The Qimmu," 
be wtys, '^arousod bim, th;it ho had mised n p^^rt of Ii€t 
aubjeot^ itgiilnst hur rif^tlic^r antl againab herself ; tliat h« 
had written a book jigalmt her juat authonty *~alui 
Liocvit the Treataw ti^Umt tlii; RegimeTi of WonK-n — 
'vhich uhe hod And should cuueo tlie meat Leitrand in 
Europtr b) writo againftt it ; that ho waa th» caon of f;^oal 
tedition aud grxnt alaugbt^r iu England ; and that it m9 
wd to her that all that he did was by nB<?ror[ianoy. To 
which tJie ruud Jciliu ujinvmrt?d, * Mudam. it inajf plMwa 
your mnjr^ty pntiraitly to hear my nimplc anawcra. And 
fi»t/ fliud he. ^ if to tj»di the truth of God in SDocrityi 
U to rtfbuke tdokti^^ flmd to will % pccpk to wonhip God 

to Hut Word, ha tci tu'isa subjtvtn ii^ninnt tlioU 
princot, tiiun CiuiiiDt 1 be exciiaetl ; for it ltR8 pl^:k8ecl God 
of Hw mercy to makp me one, among many^ to discloea 
vnto this reiLlrn cIib vmitty i^f the piij^Mlic^l n-ligiuji, and 
Um deeeitt jiniiLMmdtjraiitijof UiJit Uirmati Anticlintt."' 
Uo iMgOD with thin perspicuouA atateinent of hta poaltiocu 
Uo voot OD to Kiiy thnt tlio true kitowleclgo of <^>od pro* 
iQOt^S obwdioKLCo to ruUfTH, iind M^'y hud rucflived nft 
qn(9igih9d 6b«di4WCfl frpra**Hui^hft« profess Climi Jesus.'* 
u erer ber aricE-«tora bid itctivyd fn.mi UiHr hisIio|)8. Aa 
Ur Ilia lKH>k» he vfuA ready to rotruct if hv cutilJ be □(jd* 
futi'd, but he felt able lo suAtAin its doctrinef^ ngaiiuffa 
%ay t^n who migtit attempt ti> impugn them, Knox had 
CLU UDboQiid^ ooofid^nco in his cattao, and no distrust oC 
kia own prowess in tlie defenat> of it. ■* You think," said 
Mary, " Umt 1 buv^ no jiiiit nnthority ? " To this dTr<^ct 
iiKjiiiry, h*! rcpliril by itiffrntig to Plato's *' R<?puNio," in 
wLkh the philosopher ^'d^in^uod maiiy tluji^ th^t thi*jj 
were Qtaialuined la thi^ vTi^rld ; " yvi ihh did not piv-vi^»t 
him from Uvin(; quiotly uudor tho uyntems of goTl^rl1In1;ut 
wbictt lio found cxidtinj^* ^' I have ooinmuniciLtcd/* ho 
ftddod, " my judgment to the world ', if the r^^Im fio/la 
DO liKOJiwnicrn^y in tbf» n^Tnnn of a ifforriLin^ thai whioh 
tJi«y approve T th^W nut furthnr diaallmv. rJiLui witJiin 
mj oirn hvarl, but aluiU he: iui noil coiitt^^it to live undt^ 
your gmc«, a» I'niit waa to Ur^ under Nero, Aiid my 
bope it tiiat Of I^ng ns that yo dofilc not your hotida TviLb 
du blood of the eainta of God, that n&ithi*r I nor that 
book shall «Jther hurt you or your authority ; for, in vi^ry 
d««d, EoiidiLTn. tb;tl Ivjok wmt writt^'iL nodt i^ndidLy 
ftgitilMt that wi<Tk<Hl Jt*7j.d>Kl of Knginiid/' ^^ But,*' ruid 
tlio Queeot *^ye epoak of woraci; in geneiftL'^ To this 
Kdox rtaponded that Le could bo charged nvitli onok- 
ng no disturbonoo, batUiat hie proachinftui t^ugland wnd 
olsowburo hod promoted quietnea*. Aa to tho chai^ of 
■•OVODuncy, ho could undurii that, iiMnng that liu Mnjcter 


siooiiKd cf tKiing " pomuwodwith boi^Ui^bub." 1 
'log Kdox'« offenRre book, Mary mmmdnj liiuL that 
commands subjecU tn obey rlwir pnnc*^, nnd afik«*d bun 
bow be n.'ri.iiti.-tT4Hl lii^ i.-0[]i.iitcl In ji^rHitailin}^ the peo|}la 
*^bo nfCfiiTiMiii'^Uti-'rrtiligioti tlum tlii^r prluccican alloir,'' 
▼ith tliat pioccpt. Knox replied thnt subjcc*ta nro noi 
bound to fmnio their rohgion according to the ikf^ctit* 
of their ]>rin<ioji«" and appealed to die eKample of ibB 
lerwUtt!^ iti Kgypt* &nd to the exunpU of Damcl, on 
wbidi be ili1aLt>[1 at flome length. **Y(ui,'* aud she; 
**i[ojii?of llieru riM^ed the awiud agLiinsb thrar [itinrit*." 
Knox aanwi-rcd that ntilL th(?ir denied obc<licncc to their 
mandates. Mnry vtaa mjt to bo driven fn-m hor point, 
ond repliod : *' But y<^t thfiy rceiated not by Iho aword.^^ 
** God/^ said h^ ^^M^dum, btid not given thera tha powor 
and ^he lueuut*/* ** Thhik. yt-','* sitid aUe, " thut »iibJ47ctii 
hiivin^ pnvrtr tiisiy rtwst their prim^ss ? " "If ihcir prinoRH 
exceed tin ir bound^i" laid ho, *^ Madnni» and do ^"igHhtrt 
that wbcitWe they should bo obeyed, it ia no doubt but 
they may ha ix^bttsl, (ireu by power i *' und ht; compared 
thin n?aictnrc<; to the; rrattraint iinpoocd hy children upon a 
6\iniiod father. " At tli^o wordsj tho <j,iiedn stood, us it 
were, amazod, more than a quarter of an hoar ; her cotm<> 
CenaLUCi^ alttred. Tio that I^ord Jimm't h^^ui to i-ntn-at her, 
ttiid to dcTHiiUuli, ^ Wliat h:i.<i ofTr.iuliHl yi>n, Miulani ?' At 
feogtli rlic «aid, ' Well, thi^n« I pci'ccivc that my auhJM^U 
ihftlL obey you, and not mo ; and sbail do what they liott 
And not wha.t I command i aud eo mu&t I bo ttub|oct to 
Uiem, aud uot thoy to mo/'* Knox domnirod to this 
toneloKioTj- '• My tmvail is tbiit hith prinoe* and «itb- 
jects otiey God." Kingn and qneeiia w*>re to he foAt«i'- 
hUheit^ mud ituThtfi to the Kirk. Kxi!itr<fl by l.hi> d^bate^ 
Miiry wrnt, pnrhnps, further thiin the bad fl-^i^^iirtl^ 
^^ lint yc arc not tho Kidc that I will nurse. 1 will ilnfrnd 
Hio Kirk ot Komei for it ia* I thtnk, the trtto Kirk d 
jod.** ^^ Tour will,'' iiaid he. *^ Mndnn, U no K;\»on 



,-our (bought make tU:tt R<^tnmi Lariol to b€ 
iraniiWuUitj ep^/uai* of hIobub CLtict, Ami 
woodcr notf Afnckn^ tb^Lt I cilU Kcmu u h&rlut ; for tliat 
Kirk ift altcg^'th-iT pnllulod ueitli nil kitid of ipintiml for- 
iiic;itioii, )LH vfvW ill lioclririi? i\» in iiiarmfir»i/' lln ofFi^ieil 
to |>n>vr; ttiAt tliK "'Kirk of tb« Jeira.'* 'vrli«u it ciWiHed 
Jc«iu,mn iKjt Hii fjir rrnioxrd from tnit> religion '^iis that 
KiHe of Homo in clc^jliurd." *• My conacicjico," amd 
Uary, " iji not eo." Conwitmco, ho imawGrGd, n^uiroe 
kaowl^dg^ ; !ind Il@ prrtcecckd to aay tliat «ha had eu- 
joyed iii> triie ttox-'hiikg. Di^sotiitdiiig to pnrtL'ului^ Uu 
jirunuuiiOiHl tlit; uvum " iJii! liivKJiUon fif Jii^itt," ax\il ific-n^ 
fcrv ''im (ibo mi nation before God/* To bia harADsue, 
Mury Miid: ^' Jf tbcy wt^m horc ^Thooi I liave bcaud. they 
wotUdmtffweryoo/' Knoat esproaBed tlie wiflh that the 

moAt l&aracd Papist in Euro^iu " wore preeonl, tlmt she 
light l«rurn '' tkL< vanity of tin.* pixpistticul religion," and 
how littlr gmiiiid it hud lu tli<i Wcml of Gtid. KimK de- 
parted, wialiing tlmt sbe mlglkt be h8 great, it bW^lng to 
Scol^id " tt» ever Di:bor.dL wua iu th« commfjnwcjdtJj nf 
InaeL" He ivnmrkti tlmt «hc *' contifmed in her mtiaalitg ; 
■ad d(vpi^ iind qtiioUy mix^WI dl vxiicrtiitioit/* Koing 
tllced by hvs friends at Xh** limit whiit hs tl)oiij;bt of L<ir, 
h« nkl; ^* If there be not in har !\ proud niind, a crafty 
wit. ttnd nn indunitt htsut ugajuhl God Hiu! bin truthj my 
jtidgrnniii fiiilwh iekt/' Tn Ivtmx. ;u hu u|i|]f-JirN in thi^nn 
iniiirrievn, ouo m&y behold tlic inaimation of ihei dutau- 
cnttic apint of CalTtDlflm. 

ihi Another o<<i^Hion Lo waa summoned to fhi; prc«cac» 
of tlin QiKMTn, ill ooiiM^quuncij of hU preiLching nbout tli9 
d^ninng it Hdyrjjod. Knox «iiid tlmt in tha presence ol 
her Coancil she waa gravn, hnf "how soon soever tho 
Kntii^h filhrtJt*, fiddk-rs, ;iiid *]lln-rs of tlistL L;Lrid gnt iata 
the hfriuo nlonr, tli<^ii might be «ef[) nkitiping not vory 
comely for hoDe«t women," It nuixt be remvk^d tliai 
tbe duwca in vog;u<i then ^rould not now be deemed yim-) 

M>mrly, pvrti by liberal oriU»,^ ** Ho ww catldd and 
■<'-Tu»o<l, 11^ oiifT tliAt hn<l irrcTorently spoken oC the Qaeeoi, 
intl tlmt tnivnilcMl to Mng her into biitred aud contompl 
of the people-'* ** Tlio QiiMin/' hn mrk. ^* roft/)<» ti long 
kur.Liig^Le/' lo vrliicfa h^ implied by rv))i.>;)tmg exactly wliftt 
hti hiu' aiuO ill llie jnOpb. In llio oourtfl of the ocwtct- 
•alion W freely c^prcflcsrd bi? opimon of her unclear 
ifhoai ]i& Mylvd. *^ eit«-iuicA to (io<l and luilo bis Son Jeoui 
Chridt " and declmi^d ber roi^uctit th^ ho would oomo jwd 
mulcts vrticit cTitJoivnu he liud to mako upon bcr conduct, 
to bi*r porAon&lly. Ho could nut vnut upon tndiriduals, 
but it WW Ilia hirM^tion " to rt»hnk«» t,li« Hina «nd vi«» of 
nil" in hiFt Ai?riui>iia, wliltrb be Liivitetl her lo voiuc »nd 
heur/ He vr-u ton nhr^vrd to couaeui to he silent in j>ubtio 
for tlic miico of tho pnTilego of <x>nvcrwng vnih her in 
privntif. Slitj nhowcd her displowant. I^nt "tlio mid 
John d«part«d with & rcoBOSXlsSo morry oounteiuaoe; 
wheFea,t some PapiaU, offend^, aild, ' He la vol afrtdd ; ' 
wlddt bt*HTd rf him, \u\ imaw(*r^d, ■ ^Vby ithnuld tbo 
ple&smg face of » gontlewoniHTi foar nii^ ? T liave loofetjd 
u) tJte fjictvi ci inauy angry metis and yet Iiav« nut been 

klraid iibure mi^iuiire/ '* 

Thn mjwtt o-iid aunoutnr ccnfonedon were not idiolly 
f^ven up, cflfM?dnlly in tbo woet^?im districts »oiith of the 
Clyde, "The brethren" says KnoY, "determined to 
put to their trnn lifl'nda/* and no longer wait for King m 
Coiiiii^il, but "nicecLJte the piimsbttiPiiL tJmt Gim\ hnd Hp- 
puinUd to idoUtera in kis Ltw, by snch mi^ni aa thev 
might, wbcr^^vcr they should be apprehended," Tlw 

brethren had bof^on thie work of exirouttiiif the law for 
:beniBi.'he«, when t^ Quoen, wlio wu ut Loohlovcn, sent 
for Kuux^ He defended the proot^nding. U^ctro Unf^ 
iipgliva tb*^ir duty of PUMnitxng th« lawi9, the pe^ople may 
do it fer them, 'Ami e\en re^tmin krn;{s, he add^, in entm 
Uioy spare tlie wjoked and (ff^pruaa tho iiiiiociFnt. ** Ttm 

* Bnrion, It- UN, 



CTOfcynplrn/' hf, *nitl, " nr*5 L^ridcnt, for Somiiel f^ai^J not 
to bIqj Aga^, tho fot wnd delicate JCIng of Amt^lok, wli^m 
King Saul haJ 8^v^ ; neitber- spare^i Elins Jo^GboVafabo 
prophetci Olid Baal s pn««et8« albi^it tLut Kiii^ Aliixb woji 
pcttWut, PtiTTH.-aa w\iit no mjit^iatruto, iind yet fi?iiroiJ Ha 
not tn atnki? Ctrihi nrid Zimri ** — nn^ liu specl^?^ in tim 
plaimet w*5nJ* th^ sm of wliieli tLtj wcrt guilty, [fe 
i]i£orm«d Mary tLM flhe nmat fulfill lier part uf " tlio 
mutual contract/' if »U^ cxpiM^tod to get obodlcntjo from 
btr nibjoeib.' " Tlis snid John kft Lor," biit^ miiirh to 
Im ■urprie^i esirly tb^ next mominpj, ehf* sfnni for him 
ag9Ut], He tnet h«r " at th^ hEiwking, by ^Ve«t Klnorcsa. 
Wbotbi^ it wiiH tliK ulglit's Hlf^"p> <»• ib-T^p ili.-wintiiltU.ion, 
thntiniultt hrr Uj forgtrt her furmcr Tingi^r, w\t^\ invu mnj 
doobt." Shu conversed witb him iu a familiar and coEifi- 
dcntiat stybt ttfikiiig bu good olfic^a to restore peace bd' 
fcmeD Cbe Earl of Argyle and hia wiii; ; nud u-uuikL up 
cbc Coitf4>ns[i<M» bj alluding to the interview of tb« pr*^ 
vioofi night, and by promhing '* xo minis^tor justice" u 
bo had ra^tiifMi- M^uiy fim^^ wt^re :ictuiilly iimilu, iLp> 
gnrKDtiy in pumufUHu of ber promieu. But frnm iibciut 
this tame (lo6d). fljoiptoais of n RoTni;^ r^jtoiion vren 
nMUiifQ8l« The Qiiiecrt'a inHnciice bc^n to bavo ita«fFecti 
KiURC w«a not iirn<'nmt of ber communication a mth 
Ftauutt, Sp^n, and the Piiprd Court ; for luf )iiu! hU own 
DOrr«»pondonce on the continont-^ hVom thw time Knox 
and tbe Que^n were really rngaged in ft content, ea^rb fot 
the <i3Sl*numatiun rrf llio oLlic-r^^ Wb^ii tt wwi ktiown 
tliftt sbi:^ VT8« coiwtdrring tbi^ quoAtiEin of ii marniigr- iritb 
tb« Archduke of Austna« or with Don OftrliM, the »on ol 
Philip ]],. and v^htvn Knox fomtd the ProUetaut udMm 
lukcwaira or inditfL-n^nt on the mibJ4>ct, tio did not htfoi* 
tatA tothander in tho ptilpit figiunit tho Kdiemo, and to 
prediot direful oon^equeaces, should the nobl^i^ nllow it to 
I So nirxiMl out. Cxiu{>emti-fl al lb« new inl«rferenoa 


tli« Queeu sumiiioned luux to htT [intAt^iice^ tmil with pnt- 
'iioiiHto outUuniU of wovpiug, d^nininet^d hh inipprtinant 
mnldling wil.h AfTnint tlmt Hid nnt b^lnng Ut him. Kikot 
miiuitAiucd liiji impvirlurbablc coolit<^88, altlioitgh he de- 
dared that be liavd uo plevuxirc in seeuig lier weep, »\ui^ 
that be could not. vitbdut puui, ttoc Uiu tcftia of his ovna 
boya wheu hia ohiutittod thvjiu DinmiMt^ from tho 
Qlic]4^ii'» |it\>Amioc, ho wuN dctiiitiud lor h whik in the ftdja- 
cont room, v;b«rH hn ** mnrrily '* qttpmd n quaint bomlly 
to tJi6 ]&.li«A i:if the onurt tm th^-ir ** gay gt?Ar *' dUid on tha 
baroc UjuL df-Silh wuidd lUJtki? wiUi LliHr flctdi und nil 
thtiiT Eiif^ry ; a, ty&ich iu n tone th^it hu been aptly 
UktiHixl to tiiat cf Uio soliloquy of the gniTo-di^Qr in 

Iti tho sdnamer of LS63« daring tho abaeuci^ of tho 
Qq€«<il from Ediuhtir^h^ hvT ivMowbn who wurtf l»(x be- 
IlukL atlntii[il4*d tji Iiold mtva in Uii^ i-hLiiutl i«t Holyrood, 
An unu.iuid rumhcr from the town joined them. '* Dtverx 
of the breUircj].. being acre offcndtsl, ixm:t(dt<^ liow to re- 
drefiS that enormity," They toaortod to the spot in orda 
to not<> flovm tlio mimca of such m migbt como to piutjci- 
pb; in thu utduwfal rite. It appeara that tha diapid <loor 
tmH bin-Et o^K'it, '^v^bcreat, tlid prleai and tlio Pr«Bcb 
dnme^ being a(Tniyi*d, mwlt? tlie aliout to In- sent to the 
tovni." Two of tht.^ party wi^rn in<lifit<^d *■ Nr rurryiiig 
[nHtolH wiUmi f^e bui:gh. coDVcnticm of Licg«» at Qua 
palooe, and inviusion of the Quoeu's 3(?rraiit£," Knox, 
wbo \ind bc^-n dotht^d witJi liuthority to summon tbo 
faithful tog<cthi?r in any gnive (.^naurguuoy, tMiuKi a cinrmUr 
oaUiDg upon then to be in Edinburgh nn thi^ tUy which 
hldl>&oadesi^nati?id for the trinb Thr Qnmm inuif^ned 
that vhn ]md tiow taught him iu a plain violaliou of tin 
law. lift -WTW rifquircd to nppear before hvr and tliA 
Privy Council, to which were joincid u oonaidcmblo nam* 
her of f^vc^inment officeifl and noblos- He giv«6 t 
gmphic dwoription of the scene and r»f the ooUoquiea 




tlwt look plftM. Ud states also tlmt " the bndt rtHti^; iu 
tlM town thAt John Knox waa seat foi' by tlia Qtu^iu, the 
bnrtlnwn of Um Kirk ftill^wuil \n Kudi numbi-r tha.t tpliti 
inner clone ivftM full, and :iU thti nUiiri^, '^vrn t^> tfi«T eh»Tn> 
ber <ioor irherc the (jtu^^n wtiil Council ^at," This gadior* 
ing of hie aeipprirtcra ut-Diild, of itsolf, diAUicUnG the Coon- 
oil in inr>1eHt Ium ; butt inddpendently of the immodiate 
ditTiger rttt"?n<1ing ^nch a step, l.he ProteatauL lords, th© 
0iibt1e Hitd uiiprinci^ili^d TA*thLti;^toat for &xain[th\ luivri^viv 
liic^ might charge httu tviUi fanitnciHrik. vrrm not at uU 
^dwpocicd t'> A^umc & pnniticn of hontility tr>wmx3/4 him. 
H<- hiwl kiftYi! to d'jpjirt, but did not g*3 until hi> hod 
turned to the Qsoon and piuyed Ihitt *■ G0I would purgv* 
ber heart from Popery and proa^rve ber from the oouns^l 
of f1aitl4-r«ra." tt U a marU i>f thi< stj^^tdfLi^l; h(^iit«ty of 
KnflS that hn hr<ik« olT inli^nTinuTif, fi>r iv h>i"g UnH% with 
Murray^ wbom ho honored and loved, but wlvjm ho 
bkuncd. in conjorction with tho othf^r lords, for nogloct- 
ing, in thu Purhiunj^iit of 1.'j03, tlio fimt Parlmmt'ut ufUT 
thii ijiiTriin'i arrivul, to ratify thn troiity of pEsioo niiuli.' in 
l&dO, and the p^tAblirthmoitt of tho I'rott^flUnt nrligion^^ 
Th^ principal bosiness don^ ut tluvt ■i-jwi<m w;w to givp 
n Itgml nnmiriiy U> tli« bjiiinrfFrjutiuiia that h^ul boeu mada 
of tho church liuiils, by which tlt^ tiobl^ hiid flo niuoh 
profited. It wa« a aliort time nft«r thi* ni<wtiii^ of Par- 
liament that Knox prcochcd tho famous sermon to which 
wi^ have referred, cm the Qtj^^n'a majTi&j*e. 

Tho gloomy proapeota of the oaiuo of reform led Knos 
to vdopt ft form of publk prayer for the QuMfH^ m u'hi^^h 
^e Almighty w** hi*song1tt to '* ihrltv^r IifT fnmi t}|« 
liDii(liig« and thraldom of Sataii,*' and thuA fittre thrr rt^atni 
*■ bxnn thitt phiguo und vengi-'anoe that inevitably foLlowB 
Idolatry," im wcU an hor cum soul from ''that etoifinl 
tennation which abides all obstinate and impenitent uDta 
tlM end." Atan aaii«mbly of the Kirk in th« nanintor of 
1 VcCrif , p. ftl. 


iS64, the propncty of Uud pray«c otunD up for di*imHi«&. 

At this mociin^ th'a luy krrdfi, Mtimiy, Hacailtcin, Argylc^ 

Jiorton, Lc'thitigtiMi, ftnd otbert^ t-nlvr^d into <l«b<an tritb 

Bo dniical ](tHd«r» on tlii* ijUL<sLi(»ti unci on Ujp proper 

boatment of titer Qufieii. But Kjiqx uid his auoisatet 

iBBort^d thtit the mjua is idolatry. iukL ^5 Old Teftta- 

m«at law ^nd prccodcnte* mii3i bo puiuslied -mih d«&tlu 

No roto wuft taken ; but it waa boou OTident to Uiv Uj 

L«addr« tb&t tbcrci wa^ no room for u uuddio p^rtyi 

and ni> hope? tbiit thu Quaen would ^ibiindon Itor '^ kloU 


It la obvloua tbat KnOx and Lia follovveta w«re no dii^ 
dplea of til*-* doctriuo of tolerjitiou. 'fwx> thui£». bjw 
ovur, doeorvo lo be uolicod. Firet, tUerij wua no kingdofli 
' wlii^ro Roumn CathoUos having ihu t^latiro Btroi^Ui of 
Fttkii CtilviniiitH or Si^otbncl wimUl buvij nndur«d for a 
nioTni*nt, n ProUatJint aovr*roign. TiiP Htoi-y of Hearv 
]V. of rraiiCL* showa wliat tLe OalLolit; yntiy d<-iiuuidn(l, 
«vuu wbi^a tLcru vraa x pu^crful minority tjpptiM^d to 
tbcot. Secondly, Knox n.nd hw awocUtc* VfCtn woll oqd- 
viaoed that tto Cjucpn, notwithstanding her fair profo*- 
noaSi only waited for a favorable opportunity to extirpate 
them and to brtiig hai^k the papal s^atem, the abolition 
of whidi she did not 4?onee(l9 to be U^^l. But, iip«rt 
from thtHiti cowudi!nitioii3, Ihi^ Romou Catholio. ritea, in 
the eyea of Knox, were idolatry which moat be capitally 
piutiahcd and nttcrly suppressed ; otherwiae the judgments 
of hsAvcn would fall on tlie land. Ho attributed tbo 
partial failure of the crope to tho wratli ol God at tba 

Thn PmtiwUuibt Iih^I n ritiiling of insnmirity, a feefiag 
tJkat their cau»e was bmng cautioual> uudeiiuiurtd. They 
watched with eager attention the Tarioua nc^cotlatUuM 
Iwriui; loapeet to the CJuu^i^et marrij^. H:^ they boca 
(ally awiiru of Uil> dToittt tlutt woro mude to «ffoct a mar- 
*^^ge bvtwoLia M^iry and Don Carloe of Spain, whiob 

defe^it»l hy die tuuvluiubtioii^ of CALbatiuu do 
Ucdici, throtigli hnr joalouAy of thc^ houtiv of Ouive, Uioy 
would havo hcim tilled with abmi luid Ln<lipiAtion. Tho 
propoftitioDfi of ELiiAb^tb, inclLiilmi* tlxat of a mjirriaj^e 
of Maiy to Leic««ter, f«il1 to the ground. How far the 
digUali Queun waa niiiiur*? iu tbem U in iiii{KitelU« tu 
vij, ainoe avcii licr ino«t Mi^t:L0Vi,i rulvinom o<iiil(l not 
Lithom her duplicity, <)n<: crb»ta<:lc in the w«y of l^lini- 
beth^e TOatrimoiLi&l schflmoa for Mary wm the atoady ro- 
fuaal of the former dodfiit&l7 to guarantee tlie Buc^f««ioa 
to lier iiutvr of Scol-Uuid. Slit? nK^nt to [■(•Wii tUia nnfu- 
guiLfd for licr Itfc ui her own li^wdn. All plriiui of \\tm noli 
voro cut od by Mary's RiJiniAgc with Damlcy. It woe a 
caao of uiatuul Ioto at lirvt Ngbt« Daralcy wsa Mary^s 
oousiD, and tb^ giunds^itu of Margaret^ Iho mldr of Henry 
yrn.. und ot the Eatl of Angus, whom alie tnftrried nfCttc 
tlwf flnuth fiF lior firat lri[»kb»,tid, Jnmnsi TV. Tilhry w»« 
dk&rmod witL iiia pcraoE^l appearance — hi^ tali form* 
the breadtli of hift Ahoulieta, &iid hi& Maooth. L&iidBome 
Cbc& Damkiy vra^ a Catholic Murray and tbt- Prot- 
■ttuita DppoMid thd inurriugi^ lU a duuUiv^j sitep towELrdu 
tho roetoinUion of th« old TcUgtoii. Thi^ycompIain^Hl that 
the Uvs agninflt idolatry were not enforced, Msry had 
taken a hoftband without conaumng her P^Ii^ni«nt, ivhich 
if iu>t illeipd, mia ind«oorouii ; uid ahc had prucUirnod 
bim u King of Scobs, wLidi vraa coniidoTcd an LuioonAti^ 
tvtional ticl.' Th^ Quooo liad married agsinat tho remon- 
strance of Eliiab«t1i find hud inrnrred ber dispIo^L^itTL*, 
Tlir; iKipen of Mary ctjntenrd lit i\w Kin^ uf S^tmii mid h^T 
olJtrT fri^ndA on Uii? (^mtiuciit. Tlic di»rf}ntiTnU:d Ixu^nns. 
with Mnrr*y at their h-Nui, took up nnas, but not rcij<iiv- 
ing tlM proraiaod ftid from England, th^Jir force* ^oro die- 
pmed, and the lexers tr«r« compelled to fly aorosB thd 
hmkr. JuHt at UiIm junt^tur^. it wa» apprehended that 
Prmnup And Spain wmdd join lundu in m ooonQan attndi 

«T0 THB 


BpoD LVotGAtontLsin.' It wna stipponodt tiiorigh rrnm^ 
owly. th&t Cathnnnc dc Mcdioi and hcraoD lijul i^gricd a 
league ftt Bayont]«, nt th^ inAtigation uf Alva, for Chit 
md. It vaft bttU0v«d, alfto, ttmt Mtiry h^A formally at* 
labelled her sigQatiirc to t\w Hanifr bofuL 7'he polide&l sSt> 
imtictu iraa «o perHoua for Euf^^find nud BngUah Protnt- 
titnbuun that EUuklK-tU vvna led falaely to diaavoir aII con* 
acOtion with Mumiy luul Um (iDt«r}>rtse. Hod Dnnikj 
boon »n oblo nuui, tuid Imd hia Queen been poieosMd of ft 
vi^d^jm and fii1f-t*iint.n>l equid tn her a^cubme^fi and nvftc- 
itj\ the iiiihftf«|nMit hiiiVjry o( Scotland, and of Eii^liiud 
too, vttfM liiivy beeu esatntially altered. Uut it tixrft tiil 
a abort time for tlid inoompattbility bet-preen Mniy And 
Dojulcy to mjimfcat itttt^lf. Klatu^d by hin cIoTfttioii, ho of- 
fi^nded tlie nobles by hin innoUmco imd nin of «iipeiiontv. 
Ilia drimk^QneBfi amd other low vioeg aoon dis^ni^t«d, and at 
leiigtJi complGt**ly alienaWid his wife. Mary wa» Irapni* 
doiit eiloiL^U tu hesLow w) luaiiy ui:irkji af fiitor tin Riicxia, 
an ItuJiati whom she Lad nuida her Spcretary, that be be- 
came on object of bitter hatred to the nobUity, TUey de- 
epieed Mm na ao upstart aii'l nn adrfruturer ^rho hnd 
tiBUrpcd that plucvj in tbo ouutih^Ih und f^od etoccw of tfac 
tjut-^c^n wbiL^b bi'longud tt> chemsetvei], Uiaaio bad pro- 
motinl thii mnmage vnt\\ Ditml^y, He wu cooadiend 
ono of the props of the RoEiinn Catholic faetiorL Pariia* 
nient waa about to asMuihle, ** Uxn nplritual tatnU?," tc 
qnotQ frotn a letter of Miiry bereelf, '' being plac^ then 
iu tijo flnok'iit inunni^r, t<^diug to have dene ootDO good 
anent ri3stormg thn mild ruh^icn, and to hjinTO proceeded 
kgalnnt our r^htln iii*cording to th*>Ir demerita," * Tho 
«>«tiiti?fl of Murray and hie confederates were to hit for- 
feited. Ou VtUi %ik of Maruli, l/itifi, Ricj^o vrw mtu^ 
der«d ns t}m result of a plot <if which DAmlriy on the oik 

* nitfj htA Bp[hlii>pT tit ih« fHiig flf ?4[Kjn r<ir brfp jk^iiul her iDbjBrti^ Km 
> I^Htbir nr Mby ifi hor <.'nunoiUDri ibi BLthop af Hon. m L^l^uofF, I Ml 


piH, who yina mc^vrd by ji^aJ<nitty af Ri?zio^ nnil Riitlivfrn 
Bud otbf^r ProtcBlnnt lords on the other, who were i^umg^ 
nt tlic inducnco itoqtiiroi by HtsEio, wcra the Authors and 
ftxocntfjTTK. Dnmloy waa aufj^ry that thd crown malri* 
inoaiiftL wns withheld from him. It waa stipuLtt^d iu a 
•wTBt «grwim'*nt of Ditrnlcy with the loiiht that tlnj Imn- 
iflhed uubleH nhoulil be I'PHtoreJ luiti the ProtHHtimf, n^b^ncjii 
m&iiitainf>d. mila dr^Lgged oiit of thn ^tpcirtEacDb 
in ivhidi the (juocn wns suppiug, nnd glnin in the adjo- 
c<tnt room. It wilh only thrv5<> morthn bi?foro the birth 
of the (jiid^n's eoi), aftorwsLrda Jamea V1-, whose lifa, as 
veil 08 the life of bis moih^r, were espoaed to imnU- 
actil fH^ril l>v tins swth? of brul^l violerm^-. The Qiicen'a 
jNiwrr i>f iliHacmbliug uow aerved hex welL She won thfp 
Iccbic Danilcy to a cooperation with her scheme, and o*- 
cft^ng OD Monday, at roidnighti from Holyrood — thn 
ttuml^r of Hizzio was on SatuinLiy evening — she rode for 
fire boura on horeeback, and reitrbed the etrong foitro^d 
ot Dtmlmr at daylight. TIio buriiHhi^d lord* h^d Appi*)i.n?(l 
in Edinbnr^ on Sunday, thi^ day nhj-t i\\v. muu\i>v. The 
new turn th&t w&s given to alTuirs by the Quccii'a bold 
and aoccce^ol morement obliged Mortoni and tho other 
lordfl vbo bod buon dir^tly participant lu the deBtruction 
of RtEBo, to toJco mfuge for a wbil^ in Enf;Iaud« Tlio 
oUi^TH, inelnding Mtimty, were received mto favor. Frtmx 
thii time^ KA we fnllnw thiH tmgic hifitory^ wn f,n-ad nt 
almobt evtiry Mep uj^ou diiipuled ground* Around these 
tnnsoctiona there hfive gathciod the coniUcdng »yfnpa- 
tbkfl of rdigiouB piirtiL^a^ not to opeak of tho por^onul fc«l- 
itigVUfluch dnitor uhout «vcriitaoI patlictic int«reitt. <^iwnta 
irliich havo boon eaUct«l by great poc^tfi aA^n approprhita 
ttaniA for tbe dtSlDa- But thpm am nnma Irft^Hng ii\ctm 
tint art- fully Livc^rtAined, and whether th»;y n.rr in every 
.'■M! ndrnittod or not. llicy ouinot piauaibly bo dirpobxL 
Oik of these fact« is the comploito cetraDgeTnont of the 
Qfteeofron) Doniky. He had been ineun and tte«ob<* 


Boongh to ftpp«ttr Mon tbe oowKdl aad aolttnmlj 
tttrm, vhat ovcrybod)^ kneir to be fabe, tfaftt bo hftd bad 
no a»i4»m tn thn idjhjing ol Rixno. H49 intvrrpd th* 
TindkEire haired of all vrlio baci been \ds cordvul^ttiUM in 
bbc communion of that ooU But Mnry took no pnins to 
OODCOaI, «ho i«ti]<rr tool: jmim to mimifnt publicly* h«r 
duvoogh diAKIw luid <<oBt«mpt for liiTn. Ilo wm decpleed 
aad fthiinnt^<1 by aIU Thn birth of hin son, Afc^rwArdd 
Jar[>ft« VT. of SrotlHiiil and James I. of Engl&nd, wbicb 
louk pljK«] ia Kdui1mrH;h CWtle^ on the 19lb of Juan, 
ir>66, did Qc>t tii[tH:t ihu relatione of his parents to cme 
anotlif^r. I'hu ivfiugnonco with vrhich Mary regarded 
l>Hni]«y ^'lu; known to ftvctrybody, and wa« repeated to 
forrign rr.nrt», ATif>t>ip«' fact is hpr growing fondneat for 
Bothwc^lK which wha. h\m>, a matter of commun ohcAvmu 
tlon. iiid vfnn mniitfi-il^rl by luiiouUikablQ :<igtk«. Bnth- 
wclL yvae il br»ve. udventurouft, re«oluto man, with toUM 
extt-'rioT putiEth fLoquircd at the court of Krfinoo, but on- 
■onipiili>i]n Had impniiciplod. Though connectod witfa 
th« Protestant »d4>, he had stood faithfully by tho Cjnoin 
Regt'ot, Mary'* muthL-r, mid by Mhtv beweU. H« bad 
txk(*n Tii> p^rt in tin; miirdc^r <)f Riwo, htil nil tbnt ooc^ 
rioD had hiniMlf ccc^pod hom Ilolyrood, and had l«nt 
her tdmely and ciTectiTc aawatftuoe. Althouf^ tho JmA 
is etitl qneetioned by Mary's «itfchn^aatic defendora, it it 
oovertholcM oetabbdkid tbut hor attachment to him grtw 
iiito an overpoworing pamion,^ BolliwtU hi»d a wif© to 
wluim hii had not loTig bi-im rnTUTtnl i Miiry hfld a bu^ 
band- Sucli were tho liindnuiccs in t\va way of theb 
onion. It van affiiiued subaeqaently by Afgyls and 
HuQtk-y that they, tether vribh BotJiweU, Mmraj, aikd 
Lc£li;nffton, uaod th^ diaaff^otdoD of tli« Quooa townnls ber 
nuabfuid nH u mouiLt of obtiiming hta ocxiwnt to the |4tr< 
don nnd rf^titni cf Mortnn nnd others, who^were in bAuMi- 
meiit on aoconnt of tbeir agency Lii the deadi of Riazirk. 



[fc«j begiui by prcipc^iii^ Ut lu-tr u, d]varvL% t>ut ** Llie on* 

dung elmr im tli;tl u. pnttnii^ii wnx iiijul*^ to rit\ tlitt ijuiwn iif 

hor niwDduTAbli? husbxnd, and tLat wiUiout a dlvotc^*^ ^ 

HortoQ WAS aliovTf)d to rotiim, but rclused to take an active 

port in the plot, uaLf^a8 he \v«ri> furmahL'd witli u* vrilton 

autlioriEatioiL (roin M^ry, wlili^h could not btj pro<;ured.* 

Murm}' claimed wiUi u-utJi tbut ho n(*ver imter-jd into un 

rngitguinriitp fi>r Uir murdfir »i DitrnEKv ; biitn Lethiiigton, 

■ccording Ut tiir j«tAtA<inriit of Argjlc niid Himtlejr, bad 

aaid UiAt Murray would ^Mook thraagh bis 6jigera^ — 

tliikt ifi, stand oiT aiid not intGrE^T^^. Wlititboi' Murray woi 

ftwtre oi tht^ [>]ot, uiid wu^ willing to have it out^M^ed bj 

othttT huudi tbftu bui iyvm, is ;a question wliidi <!:tnnot b<i 

dttamiinnd. TU^? Qiieen, jnat beforr, gnvi^ » striking 

proof of ber afTectic^ii for BotUwell by paving iiiiti a viiut 

whe« be vaa Ul, at tlie jwril of ber owu bfr, Dariiley 

had bctm taken ill t^uX vr^nt Ij^ GLisg^w, wberc be ^na 

Oircd for undur tljt> dirL-ctiun ot bin father, the old Earl of 

L^tuMU^. Tho Qliood AiiiioiLactMl bcr purpose bJ visit 

lum. She imide the ^it, imd aft^r they m^t, & convdr> 

Htiut] ocoun"i*d bt'twueii Diirult-y aud Cra,wfon3, a gentle 

man iti tbi! Buivitv ut l^^nniix, wluiin the htA in* 

itmct«d to obiurvo aud ropoit wbat^vor he aaw and L<i&nL 

Tht* Qiieirii ba^l anauged ^rith Darnley that he should 

bo Ukcti to Criugmillar Ca^tli^ and tlioro retxuvd uediud 

trMtDMatt. Both Crawfcrd and Darnluy oxproitiud to 

4O0 taotbor tb^r diftlikt^ of tbb nmnganont, la mch 

tir«u u LDDply a BUffpipioQ that evil, oven murder^ miglii 

pawibly b« uit^ul^. Dand^y 4*:c[ji'eaadtl to Mary }ui 

paDitoiMM;, luid hia ardcDl d«»irc f^^r tlu^ rratoniiimj of tbr 

oU rolfttkme botwccD t^icin. 8bc tnot his fidvuii<x-4 ap- 

purcotly in a fncndiy spirit^ and gavo him i»ir promiMt, 

A few d»ya later be v-m rdmov«d to Edinborgh, but in- 

■ 8t«fi«rttn, it. «»>««■ 

* UdirUni I* lb* D(Af«m[«]] lKoC titf B*do btfon hU «i«vu(ju(if uwuc J ilim Jh 

■f^vd kf hmkwtU to \BiO ip ib« iAji. ttHi uMi m ■ m^m Ia «i4 ivn«l 

H lo (Ikt Qitam: " Sba mM tb* Jg>( 'Jmngf/^ 



monitions, >)itrU iniuk brr bitterly Uj Ai?cp,/(^ »^ amU 
jhat do ihaL sj haetiljf which pr&ors^ <f/ tinie miffhi hap€ 
mcMmplUhtd" ihixt b, "pa( hint lUolhwcW] df4tn ooU qf 
fnmt^/*^ Thiit U one nmoog Ui« ftbuncUint prooSs tbat 
vh£itovt?ir conetnunt Imd boon put upciD bur inoromontt 
by Bothwell, the chain that bounci har to hhn wwq tl.n 
iniiitu&tlou of her otm heait- 

Tlm stiit^inauU la Uits furegi^Iu^ sketch re^ upon &vl- 
dBiiL'4^ ^bldi in mdi?|]cudunt uf U;q f&ntous ^* caakt-t Ici- 
Utn" — Uic letter* Aiid love-«»inrtA a^rcAwd by M11T7 
to Botbw«ll, togotb^r vitb coQtm.ctd of mmria^ botwcvD 
Uiem, which, it wae allegod, were found in a silver «&aket. 
that Bothwell, after hb flights rainly endeavored to pro- 
t-nre froTii the GisUe of Kdiiiburj^i. If tlie (fiAkel lettur* 
are gt^nuinr, thi-y proviT iiicuiitirsUihly tlifLt lu the nmrdfff 
of Domlcy, Mary wm &n nccomplioc before the act. 
The g^nmncoicse of tbcm baa bo^ mote or leva «lab* 
oratdy <UaoiiM«d, uad baa baan nuintainad by tha moat 
atninant hiatoruna, oa Huma>, Robartaoii. L^ung, Burtoot, 
Uadkiutoah^ Mignct, Runko. Tbetr gcnuinnnt^n hm bean 
driffrndnd biUOy by Mr. F^ond^^, in Jiih '• llintoiy tjl 
Eoglai^d/* The moat acute of tht' uriitern «ci tlia 
otJior aide ia Mr, Hoe^k, Uic autbcr of & recvnt work 
upon Mju'v ^h1 her jtcciuwrif*^ No cundid critic cun deny, 
wlzutuvur juny lu luu ^ml verdict, tbnt tlio tettors contain 
many intorruiL msu-ka of g(frmin<in«flg vhioh it ^ould ba 
ajtr4irdirgly diflii^nlt f ftr a rriunt^^rfeiter to inreot, and tlut 
the ftci'Litlii)' t-j ^hich Lhej' vfcrc btihji-etnl ui tli« SooUkk 
Privy Coiuicul, the Scotliah PiirluuBi^nU nnd the Bn^iili 
Privy Council vtoA mich that, if they ircrc foiled, it tt 
Mod to iLCOOLuit for tbo fniluro to doUict the impoature. 
Moreovar, the charactar of Murray, althoufE^i it may ba 
admitted that he \raanot ttie inmiiioulate pcaaon that h4f la 
aov»t-rJn^4« oijiiiiideretl to have- ht?uri, niu»l liava boan black 

I Mtntmn, II, KM. 



'tadfr^d if the«c dornminU, tcliic<-h Ilct bn^iight. r^rwurd to 
pntvn thn guHt tii hfa i^^Mt, wit^' fjirgMfi. [tut Miirraj ii 
liraificd not ouly by Ilia [H>fnoi]£i] aJLweJile and bj Lis pztriy, 
but by uicu like; SpirliiswoiMle and M<rlvilJCp' Rjiukv, vtho 
ooti&idtT9 tht: luttom to be gc-nuino, tltough txjzitcwiuit al- 
tered in p^utfling throiigh thu VMriouH tniiLt:Latif>iiBr suH 
iMnutOB to pronoDticu sl dticiiiion in rugni'il to tbe Qoeeo's 
foreknowlpdgo of the mnrd^r, Anrith*>r inl-^rpretation ol 
Ihe niHttt<r was bruwlied ^ dL^it Mniy u'lia Actually be- 
ooiiung drawn bo brr paaitwit biubiitid, thai tlicir refion* 
ciliAtion wiui Kinocrc ; nnd thjit ilotliwcil.aucing ihe dungtit 
tbitt hiA prijic would slip from hia gmsp, liixetcDcd th« 
oouaunmsitiou cf tus plot. Raiik«> observe tbat ths Bo- 
lution of tho problem belongs to the.' pot^t who <s»Ji open 
op tbi) deplba of tbi^ IiijliP^ thosu nbytMiti i^i wliidi th» 
nUimrfi nf pnmion trt^, aud iiciionK nri^ hum vhit*h 
^id defiance to Iftw aad to moraJityt and yet have 
deep roota m the bunitm souL^ It di^ea not app^^iir, 
howtiTCr, in what v^ay it le jxi^Jblo to reoonciie tJlc 
^nain«nc«« of tho c^iskct letters, its Rnnko athrms it, 
vith any other suppof^ition tbfm Marys oonipUcity in 
die plot in vhkcb Bothwell na^ the chief actor. There 
M dirci^vt- prouf that they hav^ nut Uevn uiatftrlidly la* 

^ "A umn truly i^nu!. vif! vimhy M Iir mtkeil jtnuinirit (1>ff iMt Httviiraon 


■ JTajttffct 0aA., LttT. Of QvijaiduetioQ of Uurj-. Kuiti uyi^ ''Ha^l 
iMrtaC^ kttb gm^up^an, giirl»lh «!■ la iSlat IJvHuri. noil ctmlnnU in (tit 
Saiav«vti«litH, Ehn An Hinrl n ic>t>«ii '' (p. 2fttti. 

9 BdrtBQ, V. IJlL AafD tfiD vfuJiiuiwliDiu erf llhii^iiilt (iriuiiirfftEir* af Uiifj. 
mJ id fat gioaiAiDf n of lti« cuitil iIofuiuiuU, 4iiii*a(4aTU th^L aliU iuCdnal 
Ik* bUoAi ot iMD. nor^rliVJiutLui- Ur tlvrijor ti^idDOv'* Jarlpneiil np«Q 
Ifea friTalMj of Ih4 vbol* Inqnirv. ilw rawni w^Hit u( Borten «i ili« 4u bM*, 
u4 M UmvA od Ui tAhtt, fuiiii*«i«i<r prtHot Ib4 cam ■■> A^v^oaK'T itut 

E«itJk'« iifb'>*yf^lfti^/tfM^'>/CAiii^ i«^ Jit«r4 k ^fot^iui CfrtnUd loi (Ih 
ipottin«o4B a*4w, IM£)i • wprk f«<vnbJi ut IIU7, piwaott la tin *JU««'i 
■Wlatv «*!«■* tVp lOioutiE «f v«lu*tila DiAttilft]- BudiukU, in Ui JTifbry. 



At Loc^lcv^, Mimr vigOMl two danunMitA, ih& om 
atiiliniting the thnmr, the tiUirr iipjHiinling ^lun^y Rc^ 
geut during tLo miuority of li«r child- ¥xi)m thiA dat«, 
in pnblk records, tho raiga of Jwc» VL conuaeoooL 
llw in^kDt Kjng v&s crowned •! Stirimg, ca Qm 39th ol 
July, 156T. 

In December, a PftrltAauDt anembl^. irhieb confirmed 
UtK Ai:tH nl liVlO fiiT till! mfjibliidiiperit of PnitrntntitiKni. 
Proni this Unm tho nvjr Kirk wwi iiblr to vrt on feet a 
fawn «ffic]cat diflciplicio than hod bcf?D ponibl« before. 
One sign of the chango was tbd DccWifl^tical oonsnn to 
•mhifh bU pubUcAtioiu veie 8ubj<fctud, In tUo oonatitu- 
tioo and govanunimt of tbo Scottijih Cliurob, tha Iny 
oldorthip has a prominimt pljttw. !n 15TS, tli« ** Sfnamd 
Book of Discaptin^ " 4;iiibodI«d'tlio complete PreBbyterian 
hieramby, awwDduig tx^m the p^irlah aMuona through Uits 
pnwbjteneo &nd provincial ayn^xls up to the Gi:i]enil An- 
ibly, which vm^ ttuprcrmou yuporintondpntn were tp- 
ibiod, who«o function it was to oarry out tho mou^uriu 
of the Asaenkbly. At Frankfort, Knox had oompoaed a 

but 9i-pwi\alJy in C^li Deuction t/ ihe AciiMi ^if Mtirs tiii«fi ifSfoi*^ «ht[.'h 
wuwrftltc unilur thcuipiwi ol Uumy, mwleji rhcu>EluI» ,v«i powrfu^ juid 
fefljecijv* •tuck, which Rllwij ±0 pif[iiilAr fi?tllnc. Advene tc M^iy* lti*T ^J(- 
liCtil ■! tJw Ifpno In I<)?niUncl. Ijtlj'i t>r^tuti iifikf tinntT fif -Vifjp, Irf una 
of bor vhIoiiv idhi-mi1«, in* a ji\n an iti4 d&tr itrla. }lo wu Ullcvcd bj 
DUinriili'iifjItavf Mnrfnn iho ronMnv nt l)n11ii?Li, Thv f^m ^^vnch hiuuruiH, 
Eiflllotwl wiib lin«litnfen, unil f^lil ii<it be IbituriMl by Jftvuv t- Id mnt?i hki 

Arv«]ir4<i^Mi fi<nriif>', naJiiiitJLinril ln-r Minm-vrr*- Antl'>r*nii inil tivhvn |iih- 
lUhrti Eh" i1nriin>vii[jt KpeiIi nuA finntall nmin m fiiur r^f ii*ry, '\'jt\tr, 
WhUkhnr, Kiiif (itAltncrV) iir|fiiiiil im tho ■•»■ aiilii, Ratttrtion appcndtd t»tlM 
tbin] viiliJEnn 4>f Iiik //iWoi-y l^f Arrjffiind ii rjnftitJf |(]hlivr! IKafrEAji^ h 
Kiikf Utrtiy'n Jinnier, la wlurli hti E-jmiid'r* thill Ii1itr7 "■■ pri*7" "B^ U^BM 
diji^hULiinI (Iib taiiia vitw in tii* faurfli vt'tumt. la th« trxi and hi u tlsbOMll 
oold lb.4Ei cuorHid f4t (Ei* (rauuLE]i.ui»k vt tba caakvt domnivtiU. IJ{lb«f1 
VliuiT'^ Fi<pli«^ Lu HubvrlM>ii. An mtopBiw dBcciHuit. la ignvBttBl fvltA Cb< 
VHtr* uf HuuLw mid KcburU'Ui, [111* liro s'ultiriiv* bf UaloolDi Liuib*« ifife 
iJ'HwtUmJ. iViriH AkiUbdvf IdluruC publiilivd, Is 10(4, ft cellMtiCB 
Lh Btiflu vDluriiVfi, vS Qii&fiL Uafy't L«tlan^ &tr. t'rvudv'i cWQilcmalioii ti 

a^M ll^i^of,, ly UoM, t\ UvliTii (Xuw Yarit, UT^!, it • polsftiol intk 

FDLmr Antf woKiur of the scomsa xtBS 8Tt 

book of di^voli^w for pnhUt* woraUip, whioh lie iwed in hit 
diutch ub Oejiova ; ■* The Foime of i'niy*^i« mid Mliiia- 
tnti<m of the i^&cmm«iiU. &c., ua4>d hi tlie Engliali Con- 
gng&liGai at Gediva« and >ipprovi-d by the fjoi^oits and 
godly iQ&rnod mtm, John Ctdvin." Thi^, with a law 
igMi, beonme the •* Book at Common Ord^r " for tha 
GhiutJ]. [t ocmttuiiE no form nf ah^oIiiTinn. (t 
jt Coufeuioii of F^Ith, wTiicli dlUorD fruin Lhiit 
irhich Pajrliatii«Dt and the General Afwembly ailopt^d. 
'i^tuA now Conf«^on ta tiun\od from Culviti'a CuUchiBm, 
r^Utixm to the Apcaths's Creed, Tbc doctrine vi tho 
8ftCnua4!nt i* idontii?iil with thiit of (^Ivin, cut i-lia^iti- 
gnubed froni ih* Litthtrnin HJifl thn <-7Lrlir^ Zwiitgliiui 
thaorj* There wiw ft geneial fonii of expulsion of iin- 
worUiy |wrii<:'EB from the LurJV Lible, in coimettion wiUi 
tho mjnifltmtton of the Sucratiu-nt. Thid wiui txdM 
eocoommuniciktion or ^^ foncinja; cf tho tublrA," MfutijvgiTfli 
iH \rol] M buptiumn. ^i^ur^ ccUbratcd in <^hurch and on 
3u]ida}«. This " Bo'>k of Common Order*' oontitmod m 
aao torthaiit a iiundred y«ari, wlmn It wa^ ili-r^ppi^il, in 
iu)vui4>rti(7Ei wit!i ibi^ contmit u^iiitit Rtij^llAh Priiyrt 
ikH>k. After the Pifabylerinu sj-st^^ni hntl bc-cn estob- 
(isbed by the Aaaombly. the old polity of the Chnrch re- 
aainod aa & matter of law. lljoro woro btehopai mul al90 
ibboCa and pnor« ; ibeae plaoea bein]^ t\L«d, aftor 1590, 
by Protobuita, and ituuivtimL<« by luymc^n. In 1572, it 
yrtut RgTBPil lM^twiv»n thi- ivirlj^siiiifltlrnl and c*ivil luitlionli^r* 
ibaL tbo old unuiefl and titles of ai^chblsLops and biBliu|j4 
iboold continue* although tha incumbents w«ro to Imve 
no power ^-attr than that of tiujitrinlciidonfs, nnd vrcrc 
tv bo aubjcot to tb>:i Kirk ;ind Gvntrrul AaaL^mbly m rpiril* 
iml tUngi u tbi±y vrere to tliu King in thivtgt CemponL 
T%9 tvEDpnmljtjm »r thr lU^ji hiul tnix-<tly flnwr<d ititn this 
hodft of laym»n. Thi» wvw what Knox cuvlc-mncd ; tho 
imval of episcopaoy, in the sbadowT fonn jiut dci^b«d, 
■ppaan to hare excited In bim littlo or no oppoaiti'toJ 


SM m BDXttUATroqt nc kkolaxd axd sootlaiok 

JUtor about twenty jroam, thi* FrvHbytenmi a^ntum, pan 
Uld siiDple, iriM fvita1i1i»ltiirl, under lli<tuii.«pdi^i^ I'f Aivln^w 
Mdvilla. Subtt«s^ueuUyt tho attciupL» of Jatncs VL to 
(AtabHah tbe ro;fal euprenukCY, and to introduce not only 
tfao ADgtkan polity, but the Aii;;liojta ritual, aUo, bflfpui 
that oontMt between tbo Throne atid thd KlrLL, which Hig* 
tUbUsbed the next n-'igr, and bninglLt Omrli^A 1. ui Uin/ 
■caffdd-i V 

The Qu««u Df Eugbuid profeased, ^ud probably ^vitli 
tinccrit}-, hvt high tudi^:ii&tiim at thv Uvatmi^ut of Mary 
by bvr »ub]i;ct4. It waa & flitgnint cLuir^^rd of Ciixa- 
b«th*» ^«At pr>1itik^ miuim "thnttlK? baud uticMild oot 
b« H^hjev^t tict tb« ftiotn/* Hut ill Mxinvy hUv- IuuI h pvT^ 
fipkadriUH ^iutl Hxdi man to deal mtL. It was tividrsit ta 
thti i^- ^ljm l]< r.' of Klifabeth and to ElJxabeth faeracl/, tliat 
if ^i: ii^Uiip^ivjd to put dowu thu Protostfint lonU, wha 
had iinprboT;<fd Miu*)' ^ind compellvd her abdi^^on, tliflf 
windd inkki^ cDij\n\*m <'inMM with Vranrj*, and ber own 
throne would ha th'Akvii, This 4:oncIuMicin« hov^r^r, itfaa 
not rt^aclied at ouce. Maiy eaovped frvm Lochlr^-i^ on 
tlic ^ of May, li^BS. iird an army quickly mili<?d to lior 
standard- It \f» xhoa tho wudi of Elimbrth aiid liGf 
Cftbmet to r«Atore her to h«r throne, without any hxntr* 
vendou of tb** Frenoh. and under »uch rirtiiiriHlauocft ui 
would KiTtM-'Lualty Hui^urK llio >a/cty uf Eji^buul atid tiM 

ITO«H- M^ftholMiifilrAl lM,/iirtfrv ^i^rijCAHTcA ^AviiiH^i 4«|,a 


I Hin HI fliyi rpf RnoT vin* ndC fr*4 fmm ^*nt tnrl iNinfll^f- Whaa ihi 
^Juwn'i ;uirr7 nriUlEKrc^ eIia hmr^f^iry im lATL) tn li'jLtr^timKk^ hi> rMir«I \b SL 

hw Uft A t«rf tnEATBdJiig dacriptton (if him, ■ iIxTr-plt q14 nt*. viih nv«st 
fnj v^uE hti nsfk, wilh 1 tfiJ! la banLl, ati4 Ei>||a>1 Liang U* itr«Cit b;^ hk 
tdtUut ■v^TTATkE, Iflclunt BuialTBs, "ftfid bj ib^ hip^ >:|?h«d 1*4 mnlkm 

«r* b« 1w1 4]n|]« «dth faW MroMdT b* vni k t^rllTt uvd Ti^rnu, iia< b« v« 
ifad^ld «JifE thvfqlpil UihUiViiltjvalVf if* (lle<,>^ |i.«|*.> 1» 
BBCjr»i iTfDt* (UvrwdBg Mmari^ of Kahl Kaon 4Ut^ on Ibc AiUi •! K» 
nml«r, ICT^ ll«r«o mU. vrm hit ^%t% * lUl b« aailkw tanJ aar te» 
tundsQrdMb," <8Qn«n, v tffT.) 




flioeadeiicj of Eliiiribetli iii IttT oi^iiiim'lB. Rut \fijaj'i 

log to muoh to Diimbarton Castle, ^nd ah& e3cape<l hy a 
pnoipttate Hi^lit iuto Engl^uiJ^ where she threw herscU 
CO tLv proU'oiioD f>f EUiubeth, Tlie iirdcnt iind pcreo- 
vtrmg noUcLtjitirjiu of Mury for an iutervijpw witli tli© 
Riigliitli QiK't'ii \VMi> |nit ufT until aha nhmild be oli?ftr<*d 
of tbe crime that wofi ituputvd to Llt. Mcii^iuy L^ud Urn 
Bvodatos were c&Ued upon to justifj tht^Ir proG<-ei]iiigti, 
md brooffbt forvrard tlii3*'caittlcutdi>cuiiicnt»/' tosiibatun- 
tiat« tli^ choTf^. 

Elizubetb aiif^lit cli-iEike t[u=^ religious £jatem of the vic- 
loriouH phrty in Si:»>t]jLnil UDd iibhoi: th<;ir pohtirji,! niflJC- 
iiDs; but thcj' wore^ in tho existing aitufttioii of Europe, 
bar alUe*. and to put Mary ba^k upou her tlirone would 
have bodn an act of eiii<jide. It inuat be i^membcrcd tbiit 
the noTor raaoiukodd her claim to Um crown of England. 
At this jiinutort.', it \stiH fcirtiuiute that tlio nhiw wnd eau- 
tioax Philip dc^liti^ the QfTcnsive alli:uic<^ that vvaa of- 
fered hiin by France. In 15G9, tho victory over the Hu- 
f^ueiiOtis lu FriiH'^B wiiA ft*Ui»wcd by a C'aLholit] ri-lntllirm 
in tke Kortl^ of ICnglmid* The tlcm^id iiiiA that Mjkrj' a 
title to the euuiAOwion eiLould bo iKktii>w!odgL^ The cac- 
vOQUmininttion of Eli:(ubi)tli by I'liui V. Bucccedcd. 
Thcnoofot^VHrdi nil who nympHthi^x^d with tbe spirit of the 
Catholic reactjoii in HEirrtpe, and acknowledged tho Pope^i 
aittliuiiLy, wtra uadt^t the fcttuiij^'nt, lejnpfjitiun U* trimt 
-Elixabt^th av a UAurpor who ought Ui hv uctuiilly dethroncfj. 
Th» rebeUion, under the haul of Norfolk, was nndcrtakcu 
inth the oxprfiM iind wj;rni npprobfttion of tho L'opot and 
Philip was only d^^torrvxl by pradontial motdv«i» from 
wndlng bU forces in aid of it; be preferred to wait until 
ill* inmrgnntn idiould \]hv^ nawd nu thu gH.'rf<ru of Uje 
QuMCU Till! iTiirriuit of crnit^ woa grddu;illy le^tug to 
It) open conflict with Sptun, wbicli bijtii tbc Qnctra uai 
Pbilip wtm mliacUDt to bogm. Fct her ovm Pt'cnritT 


■fa« 9KrMy provid4>d AAfiietniK^n tA tin* ntr^ltt^d jtiibJMto 
€^i Pliiiip in tlip Nptlif^rbnils, ivhuli jilmwcl Fmnois ■■ 
ln^rald to Uiu Souttlsli r«bek had grftti&xl Pliilip. Tbfl 
eDtiHequie>]c« waa that faTorahle Urnnfl wcrep^nt^sJ to the 
Ncth<irlaii(b in tlio Paoilloatioa of Gbeat^ in li>7fi. It 
WM material to bur Ini^nMiU that Uid Hu^^ueoiota tUoolJ 
not bi> ifiibcluufl, aiid nUo ooTt-rlly gave tlium Iwrlp whili 
atir- w:ui 111 friimilly rrflitirm^ wiih UifT Pmx^h ^niv*rnnnt>!nt 
1h»l wiut nfHfkiiig l>.i irniAh them. At length t,lii-^ (|4V(|»vrraiQ 
coudition of th^ Prot^tanta in the NGthorland* inipoaad 
on hor tho nooouity, in 15^, of oponly ecndjng ber 
tioopfi, uncler the command of L^ic^ter, for their d,i>Un^ 
ftnce. Shoriiy after, Drakt' a|>pi^ared before St* Domingo 
■nd toolc pcMfu&ion of tliat Uland. 

Mary Sbiiiirt wnji^ cc-ntrp of t.lic liopp* of thft *^iie- 
mic* of Protestant Hngland And of Kh^betli- Tlirir 
ploto Looked to tha elevation of Mary to th« throne vrhich 
Bllubeth flllod. Polittoal ambition LUid nsltj^oua fanati- 
Atn w«iv Hnkifd together in thin groat schomo. Mary' 
Bfo wan n^gnniftd by tho wisest of the English stat^m^n 
is a BtaiuHug niwmefl, ^Vll*ln hi^r <:ompllL"ity ^ritli t! 
QCtuHpimcy of Babliigtoii, whidi invtdvwl n BpaniHlt inin 
■ion and the d«tlin7ncm«nt und ilcnth of Bliznlwtli va» 
proTcd, tluj vxooution of Mary foll^^wcd (15S7). 

Apart from the inUrfcTmco of Eiizabeth m the Kothtf^ 
laQdi!> England and Spain had lon^ been engaj«ud in a do*- 
nltofy wiirfar^ on th^ ocean, where fho treaaiiTd ihip« of 
PblUp weru ir4.plurt?fl by Dniki? mn) bU (X)m[H^i^ iinil 
tht Spanish coloniea bnmsscd by thtTir attacloL TKn 
cmclty of the fnqiuaition to Engliali sailora in Spain 
qniokcnc^d tho riflisb of tho groat Kngliali marmen foe 
tlup kind of retaliation. The aalHuj* of tho inrinctbU 
Armftda for th^ eouquost of EngUnd wa« at onoa the cnU 
minatioa '.A tlua prolongi^« imhilinitji conflict, and tilt 
•Qpromr effort of thi? Catholic reactifm to annihilate Lh» 
I'roteAtent Cptt^aigth. llie valor of the Engll^ w-ounoL 



w^QunoL m 


vUfa Uk winds for their allien, diapeteed aud deatroyed 
tAtb nught^^ fleeti aud *' the oortliftnL oc^n e%'en to the 
Eroxcn Thulc* wns 8oatti:Tud ^Yith the proud ahip^vreckd of 
tho SpitniEh AruuwUt," * A tJiinth-blo-^ wilb tpvon tn tfio 
bopes of the enemies of Troleslant Ecigisjid (1688). 

A ftkfl^'h (it t1i« Rft(<inti;iii(>ri hi Orr:a Rntjiin ivtndd Iw 
incomplete without some ivitif^c of tlio iiLtcmpts to plant 
Prot<«taDtisin in Itcl^ind. Ircknd, one of thi) Isist of the 
ixxuttliM to bow to tha eiipromuoy of tho Holy S(i<?, hiw 
Iwoo cqtuilod by nono in ila d^votitJii to the !tomn.n 
Clinreb, ftlttiQugh tb^ iudt^pondc^nce of tho ci>imtiy wnn 
WTfVtnd from it under tUv warntnt of h, bull nf Adnan 
IV., vrliicli gave it to Ileiirj IT. Proteslftutism was rtsso- 
csited witl> the hfttod domination of foreiguera^ and waei 
propagated according to mi^tlxuds ru<:o^iixr7d in that a^ 
ttA IftvM to the conqueror-^ Invudora who v^erv- engngi^d 
in an ftlmoat pttrpvtua) conflict with a fubjoct raoe, the 
«ouno of which vas Tnarked by hon-Ib]*? miusnoree, could 
liardly hope tooonverl: Ute^r envui'v^ t'j thv'ir own roli^ 
ioQN faith. Httiirj VIII.^ hwiviiij; madp hiitutrlf thn hiwd 
of tho English Cburch, proccc^dcd to tu*itnblU1i his cccle- 
^aotical supremacy in tbo neighboring inland. ThiA vrwt 
orduaod bythu Irish Parliament In 16S7. but vrua re* 
inttcd by a g^cat puTt of the clergy* "^th tho Arohbmhop 
of Anna|;h at Uv>ir hoftd. Goor^^ Browne^ a wilting 
miant of tbo King, who hod b««n Provincial of Um 
Aoffoatlno frian in Kagbtrul, wfis miidn Archbubop of 
Dublin, The Proteslaitt hii^nLivrliy w»a L<onatitnt«d, but 
Iba pvople rcnudncd C^i^tholic* The mistaken policy of 
tifllfifli; to AngiicLT'i^ the country wa» punned, ajid the avr* 
tieoi of r^i^on wcix^ coiKincu^d in n ton^ic whiiili they 
did not undorataod. Tlie Pmycr Book, which wna intn> 
dnced in ISSl, vrm not rendered into JrUb, but n^u to 


h^ T<?^deti»r1 into Latin, for th« sake of fmffkttMticB ud 
othkTK ^m vers not. ac^naint^ed vrith Engliflb 1 On tiie 
ucceasidn of Marjr, thu uew fnbric ffluuli hud Wvi nuNHJ 
by ileiii7 VIII, unJ lua auu. fell U> pt«oeft wiUiout rtutiiiU 
tMor.^ A« tb«! CtULolio Httwtion Lhxmiui;! or^uibicd in 
Em-opo, and bvi^n to wa^* iu ooutuift x^tth Quoon Clisa- 
bttth, tlio Irifth who hsid to aonm mctt^t attouded the 
English H(*rvi4kx, gi^nrnilly <ltuH]--rUxl it. Protc^dantieni 
hud Qo fixiltiLg oaUiilfii of t1i4 ra]«, or wli«re Gugljuli 
aoUitti^ yrttt^ nob |)ti£«eat U» prcrtu^t it or foruci tL u}mii 
tlio pcopU. Tiu Episcopal Charub in Irdjiml wore a 
iOmcwtifit i'uritmiic ount^ and in iia fanniiliLrii:4i ai>t forth 
proDCUDentiy tbv CalvInUtiq th(M>Iogy. Th? N^w Testa- 
ment was not trai»]»tAd intn Imb until 1^02 ; aud tlitt 
Prayer Hinrk, thoti(;h trun^Ut^ e^rli^r, vikja not aoiuv 
lioued ty pulfUc autJmi'ity, nnd wa* Utllrt mit*dJ Among 
ranouti wimi tru^^gcstdona in I^irrd Bacon's tmct, written iu 
1*>01, cntitli^ *• ConAiUcraticDfl toticbing the Quc^ii's 8ct- 
vioe in iroland/' ta a rooonamoadatioo to t&k^ cam ^' ol 
the v«moiu of Bi1>l«« and oateAiamB, and other booki 
I truttruc-Uun, into tin? IriJi Ungimgi.v"'' Witli vqtuij 
GiigHcit^ and grml fi^utiiig^ lui i*inimi^]r; t}\t\ t^^ljLhVishmeni 
of volooiea or planUtdoas^ the sending out of Ferreat, 
popular preadicrs amd of pious and Je&nied blsbopo, and 
the fost^^rint: ct education. He reoommoncU nuLdncn 
and tol(*mttciu rattior than the luso of the b^mpond swordi 
But tho policy which the? gr^iiit phLlg<voplii>r und ftatott' 
tnm markftd oiif., ww* vi^ry iinpiirfniotly fnllowpd, 

• j^ fnot ft In vgL r, uf Uunrjou't tdlLJcvi of QKuu't Trillafi 

Pboti»ta>"tism, wLicL in the course of oqc ^aom- 
tion tpivad ov^r a great pavt of Central and Northem 
Enrcipe, |>«netnitec1 beyord the Alp» and thii PjTein;©*. 
BfLi h^re, in the llaliJiTi mul ^^jmnLsh |K>i]iiiatuhui, it f*n- 
muatepnd t)ta first i^iTei^twal n-'nisUjice, IIitm wmTn nrgAti* 
iiecl the f^rcfl* that vrcire to arrest itn ntfirch, and «7eu to 
rcccnqucr tcmtory which hud been surroDdoreJ to the 
Alter th(^ eratiEicipation of Italy from tho control of th« 
Truuvu cmptTijm, hy the dciwufiiU of the Hohc'iiifstiifon 
m ihr uiulfllif nf thn thTrU'fmUi n*^ntNTy, ft [x^ritMl nf 
ceDtimes &nJ a half elApac<l pnor to the invaaioa dt 
lc» VIIL Thi^n Itajj became the field itiid the prito 
^^ tbo confitct betwouu the SpzLuiah^Aastriaii house and 
^Bhuiee. The loai; uitvtra] of indopoiidenoo preceding 
^^BiU^pod), uotvrIth!it£in'Jin^ Uic turbulwicv and eonftiit^oji 
tlmt mftricnl tTip polil.i'-Til hiKtirry d Tbtly, VB« the errt in 
J which art, Utt^ra, ti'adc', tmt\ commeree floiiritilied mooi; 
I the penod In which tho intellectual -iii|>trn^rity t>f Italy 
unmiff the EuropfiUi nAtioaiB unu mont (xumpicuoit^n But 
L-iuricifi<d liberty "vraft ffmdually lost. The Lv>atlictii, in 
thn northnm !»nd cM*iitod citiofi, botwevi tho noblca and 
tho comiitrm«t, g^-nfmlly iiuiii<^d in thn triumph at tii*» Ut- 
ter ; but th>' iievt 8t^^p vv;ta the ifraspiDg of eiipr^Line powei 
a Hiiigl^ fivmly. The dtiinuiiciu of a lyiuut or hnd 


vw built up ou Ui« mioB of rupubUoaaittm. FIokdm 
fnlKjwinl Uio fftto ol otk<ir <dtlcfif luul fell ikt loot nndor tlw 
raU of tbu UlhIIuL^ Tho divinioii of It&Iy into KbibM, stt 
th« lu^iningof tltc fiftiMTttli otnitury^tif whicli NapltAf 
thei Fap^l Kiiigtldin, l<lorr-JK«i MiUu. nnd VenitrBr were 
bite cUief — wafl favombb to tli« IWDrruaLioii. Tlit^re vra» 
no one central ii'OTQruincnt vritU powi?r to crufik the ii«n 
Q|>imous> ft rui^Ut l>o poaiiibk l~c>r iUlhw vrho wora pems 
cuh^l in ono city t^ fUw into taiothor. On the c>tlit'r hui^l^ 
tho docliiiii i:>f thi! xpint of liburty^ wtiidi took pl«oi» in 
thn Tigp l>fifiJiv j!ji* Ri^fnrmiitiintf tin- WilliAiit ngi*^ of lir^r* 
otuni juid arU vk'as an inanspiciou5 eveat* 

llaly vr^ a ucar apccUtor of the voaality and proflt- 
Kuc>- of tliL- H^mim euhu, and Uio victim iu tliv BlrUi- tbjU 
viut ktmiliHl bv the ambition of tho pontiffn to 4fxt4ind 
tbdr tLjupoml tluintm^ui and to a^nutdi/L* tbcsr relative*. 
Tlu* rrbiikf* tlijtt WEjri? tlmiiden^d from ihn pulpit of Sa- 
vonaTXiIa\rereiiotAtiippudof tlii:!!!' luiluuiiou In ciJUAeqiu-ut« 
of Ilia (Jt^aUi, fur ^hidi tbe etiniily cjf Alcxi^tKlt^r VI. ^ib4 
i&r^7 TCAponiible. In tbo OouDcil of tbc l^atcnui, in 
161^ jE^diiu, General of the Augoatiuian Order, and the 
Connt of MirAndola^ amonj; oth^irs, denounce tha abtuet 
t!iat menaced the Chnivh nnd reli|^on itself vltJ] min^ 
Tha Arr^Li^iiEiieiit of tlm piijml adintniHtr-ktion bj tl)» 
TntnjQLl|i!ni; nJomirtTi would tintnm.lly meet will; a h^tit- 
pathftic n.flponjm in Itnly. Yot tbcre wrta a national 
prido connected with tlio Papacy ; (^nd thi^ scntimeat waa 
Vtrengtii^n^d by the circiunatanOQ that tho Papac^^ \nm 
oiten attacked aa tjn ItaJian imtJtutiOD, aud in a style th^t 
vnut ndn-plwl t[> wi>ii[id Italian f<M?liiig. 

Ah far bsuik h4 Um twi^lfUj century, Arnold nf lW^8<!-ia. 
inipired by tho tcichingB of Abotard tvith a love ;if LrntU, 
and cAt<^lun^ thoapirit which tbo grtru^le for mnjuc^pa! 

) 0« iliD coiilltloD of lulf fn tbol(flticciituf7, mSiiiin^rLJi, Sut^d.M^^t^ 


THE sruomtrs pianos of oatte- 


l«'jfimiiuif to noiiri*l[, demitnded titttt tiM 
al»irt;y tJiould reiitjujun? ilii^ir wurMIy ]>»iswiaiciiis and tpm- 
ponil jio-nrcr, anil rctiim toft life o; apostolic Bimplidtj. 
For a t\nx hid i^loqurticc carried the daj in Rome Itself, 
Ho pr?riBhtnl at l.oat, o martyr t^ liis prijiL'iplee-' The 
foiling and tiorh f»f tliG dergy, evon the ini<)uitous doingfl 
i>f fopeft, had been cast^g-ited by IxoMiiix vvrttuis from tfa^ 
A^vfu <tt Uit vtmaritbii' iiti'nu.tin^ Tlw! Uifl.y iind Intlcf 
inrtfCt^veci at Ditnlo nn? iLimtni ivt tb::^ ti.'iit[jorH] ivinbiti(»i 
vad nt pniticuLor TcisdcedA oi incainbenta of tlio Holy See, 
At th<i vciy opening of tho *' luicrno/' he paints tho ex- 
isting Church, slothed vr'tth t&mporal power, as — 

"A ihi>Mvriir» tfati wirFt all liiin|t?rin^, 
Strnitd Fo Ih ladun in her inGit;Tanu<i, 
And many tollt bu cfliiuil Lo Hud forlorn-" 

>p6 JUBttODB he charges with hcro«y and places amriug 
thi: loflffi'TnlpG Oclcatiiio V., for abdicating the papal 
eliair to givo room for Boniface VIH.^ li<« at thcf moutL 
cf hell Among tUose whom mer^y and justice hothdisdriin;^ 
And Botuloce bintnelf <>xpi]Lt^ hh crimes in u d@«^per nbyu 
of perdition ■ Tb© Popes had tiimed frtira nheph^rdii into 
wolvot, wid iici^lecting tijn Gnajmls and the Futliere, bad 
tbo DccTctnJs : — 


"TIMrtT]«4![E0CionHmirb ric>( Nonrvrb.*'" 

Miiiifred. the Bon of the Emperor l^Vedcrio II., died ex- 
eommumOLte ; but in I'urgittcry bo woe found having tht 
naiMi of i-Tcrbatiuif liapfnut^a ; — 

" By intUfAB trt Uifijn la not m Idoc 
Aff JoiLg u liELpt hai KiLTlEiinfC al gman-" f 

Bnt Tl»nt«^ n*r«iivi-tt tlie dtij^'mwi of tlie Clmn-li ; Uia vrliole 
ifl out ia tbfi mould jC the tf^itloual theology -, be 

. ■ /«;VrH, I. >»^L ■ lUd^xl.t. • IM-t, Ul. Ml 

plooot in tho joym oi Poradiiie* Lu *' ihe b^v«ii ol tbn 
fon," Aqoliuut, BomiTcntiara, Alb^'tlua MaguoA, P^-tM 
f.nintinn), mui tliii <i/t\wr gn<iiL ligliU tif urtiiudoi.y.^ Her* 
euLTdift gnwM iitidor & dooat irtyin wLioli tlinrc; in uo d> 
U^^TtiUi:--'. ^ It 18 tko abommationa in the co&duct of 
oooleumsticj^ and oflpoci^^lly tlnsiT ecizuro of worldly do- 
tniiuou. with tho wealth and prid^ wiuc;h &o>couipdny it* 
dut movu till* »ol(*mn poet'^ ir«. Against ibis temporal 
fuLa fuid purty i^pirit oi liia vu^u^utuuns St^ P^tm* iuvuiglii 
ID Pm^kdisc. Ha cxctiuini: — 

" Ib jtub «f tbtptunli Tlio npulou volva 
An Ha* trcm ban aIicw o'h tO U* pwloiW*' > 

I>anti>*e idoal b tlL« etuptre rc^tor^ to oniTenal tuto luod 
huvjiig iU XL^ut iu ludy. Thift tbcory of a nooiuufik^ is 
tlu! mibjt-trt of bin political tn^nr.iH^',* Pdtnrch take* tbtt 
nnin giuumtl piuitUirt, uUlunL^li bin dAniinrUtlnnw of th^ 
pollution of tlio PapoJ ouriai tbe mysUcal Uab^lou td lh» 
ApocalypM, bui-paai in iat^^ublty ttie moat Eery dedw»*- 
tion of Protvifhuit«i in la,Uir tiniun. Bm»aocio goo* h «tc|» 
fnrbbur. Uia trcntmctit of tb« Cburob^ hod wo no othot 
knowledge of Mm than wbat tJw l>ncniaoro&o affcwdH 
would even lead to tli^T cnndu^ion tb&t lie bad VO r^ncvw 
eiitu for lis li-aubiTig. EaJtmijulit.-^ ^rf-tvuim abrv uuida to 
figure 111 luil'iL-rLtun ixud Bcandaloua ailUAtioiiH. Quit of bil 
tatcA, for rxamplc, ia tlic ntor^ of a Jew whom & friend 
endeavored to coDTcrt to the CbHstiari fiutb. The Jew 

tvalJjr hnMlFa to LliP aplrlciijil »vnii[gBl7 Af rhf^ Popoh (JMihefn^ ik» thittlki 
priodpi] pMliof IhBi tffe tMlOTij^ 16 Hcrrt uii^flCATdflur uwitUov. TUi 
tfWAfy U MtMvIrit hj Ij^tnoijf Kfi>B?fll ' .'^/ii:> Sj^tttp aniipflpat* eht jrl I—I 
Li f^Fr^Tni^tCA, mi|iUl«4<nt^ rfik^THlt li^Hi** WtH rLondofl, IIS4>- Aanf 
tht mrnuHim If iwki Hfun llinic li dut of Pnti V, IfutU. iJiMf* m /';t«fcMy ■ jt, 
fWrid. 4i»tf ;'n«r^ ^fiH I'ork, 1805, A vjliiA^iu ]i*i ol «wFk> on Dnbi, Mm 
od (vhi4?li roltw dlrui'd^ 10 lilf ttiaologr, [■ f^ii^a bv Prof. Abt|a); lU ^ llHvy 
JKt /'Tm irr fr^»vrAr'j;^tfU «, •*!* 4tr*}/rt^/Jifh*n tffWfufMfH i«i iUnM'i ^|«l 
C owfl Jw , in Ibn JoAM. d. ^M^Utrh^n Vo^tU-VmUMn^, 1^ p. IH| n. Bf 



ItM t4> ^ from l*iim to Rome in order to wc Cbii*- 
tj&nity at i» hoad-riuart^ra — a purpose that strikes vritL 
4umaT his Christian £n«ti'l, who tloubte not tLftt th« in- 
Iqttlcoiu lives of ths Pop, of hia <?u,r Jiuula and court, wiU 
9!iaan frmi the Jew w iniml a.!! tJiotight« of (x>nver5ioil. 
But in due tlmf! fac comva IkicIc d. ClirifitLui brli«VFR, 

,i! explains to hiA A^tonishp-d friend thiit tho epoctade 
ch he hud hchcld in tUc capital of ChristJ^utity had 
oonvinced him that the Chrii^tiiin roiit^on liquet h%ve ft 
juponmtutal uri^n and divkic aupporl ; ^ha it would 
bvp been driven cml d tlit world bv the pniGlgbu^j- and 
folly of itii giL-LnlirvHH,' 

It tfl gencially coucoded that after the time of Dante, 
Petrarch* and Boccaodo, ih« paaaion&tc atudy of thi< on- 
ci«ntA, xvKicb tiii»o ipvat yn'it^T^ bud foflt4.-rod. nunptrndcd 
in a rviniirkjtblc dogroo thct d^relopmnnt of Itnhiui lit- 
■nttm^i tQ thn parh of cTiginal produrt^on.^ The Re- 
naJ«ftn<^ mm antiinnmn and critical in its apirit. All 
that uuidd btfd'Jue for a luixgtiiuci wjia to (^outit luid wi^igh 
the tnwmiTS of Antiquity vrliii^h enthnniAAtio cxplorcri 
diKovered within the walls of Dionastcries, or brooght 
ironi the Kaat, Thd revival of lettcre led to tho exposure 
ol fiedont, liko tfai3 preUitdod donation of ConstRndnft, 
which Lftur^fntiiu Vulla. whoio B^llimnino oaUftd u pro- 
ctusor of thtt Lutlwranii, diKprovt^l in a trttLtiw thjtt pro* 
dnood a general excitrODemt, The sceptical tone of Italian 
Huuanidm reduct^d to a low point tht^ autiiority (.>( th« 
Oioroh ainoog thu cuttivated claas. But tiio Hamontita 
■ddom po«c««d th<9 heroic quotiticft of cluunotar which 
qoolifiod thi>m to onduni itufft^n^ t^r the cnutuy of truth. 
Tbt loTo of famoyii pMsion whtdi dio CliHutiiin. spirit ia 

1 TbW jisa ii iev»dM*4 la » ditfcrval *]u|« br Vduln^vto MjBoi ^'ow 
afithni"! " Ul> uuiiuMioiNtitf dJvtba liQi^ itrtnbHd MDCartcA of ImpoiM* 

Ua/roin JVr-if^f, ^;i, 110 Ml 


^•■dvi} nit-:uiiin% iit l\n* tUivottwn of pn^n litomturp. Tboj 
bimipd inot^njut tii tJi» gmat on whom t1i(«y d^pen^tficl tea 
patruna^ and ud^uncemt^nt, but cvniod into their dt** 
puttitt wiUi cn« auotJjer au acrimoaj and Serceaeee with- 
oat previous i;uaitiiplo. Pog^[>, one of cHo piinapal iddo 
of Icttcre in the fust boJf of tha fifteenth oooUir^', infuaod 
into Jiitt pijtdiiucid wntlDga il ferocity whicb is only ]l*!14 
lepuUivu tliiui the groaa obaaemi.y iliu.i dt^flleA otliur warkK 
froni Im ]h;n.^ The JioXhm lluujAnUtd did il t&At wnrk 
of a ncpativis Bort in nwctpitig iivmy Aiipcrtttition, and is 
undorRiinijig the ct^dit of (jccIoniontLoa imd of thnir dogiwt^ 
Their positivo servicos in boholf of a tnoro oniigbteoud 
religion »re of !?» Account \vt gixid fruit often pow 
out of tlia attention tJi&t was giveEi Lo die SmjiUirea.* 
Acudi<tiili-A^ ur (irivatu Ut^niry iLMMKiiitioiiis, aprftng up in 
thf; principal citjcti ; and in them theological topics wcto 
duouuod with fruudmti. Tho widu-caprocLd culture foinwd 
a eoil in which. tJii» 8ood ci tho iwvr doctrine, andor f&vov- 
able circumstances, might g^rminato." 

At iiu I'urly day, Hiq vn-\t'\n^ <jf Luther And of the 
uditrr Rufunni-r* wt<it! nldvl^ djaa»?:iiiuatvd in lulj. 
TWy were circuLitcd under fiL-tidoua luunce, Jind tbua 

1 TlmlMHclu, £lon* delit ZrtffroNra /tet, vl- lOBT Boq^ On PdrS"* *■* 

■lhtIUIIiim./Afr.fi4fA«Cif.^A~urt{r«(,L.fif}- Sbcplicra, ^tn/Ayjiiu, p.4a 
Bbi!|i|jcril My> uf h\i •ivltiixiivy Mfl^ levrlyi Umt Klic,> «f/o " iaU>rf vkvi of fhi 
Hum* Ulan Elf lilt Eijiii'" 

^ Upou lb? iiiuiaT HuJ iThcfonB (Dittt u hqII MupvD Uiv olher cJuiBCLtCiaUct 
ftf the ltiMiit<H«b^.'r> liicic arr luUmliikft aUlvmaaltf In iSiiivUMnJl, Dit CWr«r 
d. ^HniaMiitr* in hnUiu (L^opbIi IMO)^ Aimnll^Qt i^t^tcli ut tbc ICeutiaaBH 

wriL rtn Elm liiirtmiLhtJiio in liity In tluL itf l>r. McTrtu. /fwJr^ r/Mr i^myfut 

tlifi nitMl vjtlitilili' iif liri- BLLfriu^niiliH rvUl^tiff I41 (be jivjw] iff Iljf RuCvnniiUua 
BaukK« tlitiurj/ 'tf i/i^ Pu^ti ^ffuv*? iJur[ft;r *A< WlA mif/ ITlA t'mfn**** 
(lIiL- HLiurl of Hit mrfli^r work. £ie yiitien v- V^thrr w/n 99M- £im^), piP 
HUE* jjQVtib wliJlUanikt rnaLic oT ajtinii» litklat- 





the vigiLuiC€ of the ucclettioeti^^tl aulLoritiea*^ 
between Oharlea V. imd tht' Popv, tlmt broke 
oat ID X5!£6, broLi^ht & boat of LutUertui eoldioi^ into 
IuUt. many of wfaon^ after tlii: M<*k of Home, remtimcd 
loog Ht Nliplc*. Not only by Unrir direct inllut-nuc, biil 
by tItA fn%e(loTn whicii tlidir pn-Aenoe rKv^w<>rktvl iliirlrtg 
die prOgTCAtt of Loj^tilitleb, tLu mtw <lo<:trEn» w:ia ilLiaeiui- 
ttated. TL« Auguatiiuaii lUt^oIogy t.oolc root m muny 
mindtt. und producod u gn:ittcr or Ic-^ aympnthy witli tlua 

titi-«tiU3t tnuvoioi^nt, Tb*j pecutmrity in the caao of It- 
t luid. vtili tiiorc'. ol Spiuit^ is, thut Frotostantlfim could 
Tir>t HV»w itN^lf wiUkoiir' bring iDrlniitly smckthei^, Ui^ 
t^etd rtvilcfltaiilifliu l^oliIiI not In« tiotpt In toueealiuenl,, 
PrcH^tatit worfttiippcn* could <;xigl only us scccat eouietioB. 
In ooimldcnng thu Roformjitioti in Uiese countricd^ wo 
nnat tnkc into view th« rottl but nnavowrd Prot^tant- 
mm } and alAO thd l^&ibga toward the Protectant system 
idilch n't*r& no: aufflcieint to prompt to a renimeiation of 
tbtt oid Cbari-'h, or \vi*rp represju'd biTforu ibisy analA ripen 
bito full cnn^kliaim- llwro wore sonif* who only ho|>a(l 
lor tbe remoyal of tJie corruptluii tJifit oxiBted in ILe Papal 
onut And throutjboLtt tbo CatloHc Cburcli, Another 
flbMi ^jTiputbix^d with tliu Riifcnuuts iu matters of doc- 
trine, oApeeiaiJy on tlio tiubjeijt of Justillojitiou. but were 
not disposed to ultor mfitetially the existing jinlity cir 
lonne of worship. Still another dass wph* df tiriTwi by 
tunidlty, ur bwJ* uf i^inLi^tia-HB, ijr mjiub mure ^xjuuutml- 
^Mp motive, £rom dccLiring in favor of the ProtcubiDb 
Bm«u. irbich tbc^t at hoart, adopted.^ Frotc«taatinca 
lb lUtly vraa thtu a thing of ilc^'ccfl ; and in its earlior 
vtuf^ developed itself in oonneotion \dth tcndencim 
wJticb diTiiTged into tbt n^actlonary. defensive, and 

BitaaUboa*fl Lod Cmmmu inT^ printed il Ttniu, tbv ouaq uf Lbt «fr 
^JMilv, £f vria i^cRi XitfT, /ULh > la*- 

892 TBC ^^^^^VnTTALT AUD SrADT. 

ftgffTV»4ive foroe t) which the CatWic Charch owed ite 

Bef'^re the duadi of l^eo X., AivfTeroittidcvotiariul npmt, 
o^o«c(l to tho Bccptiml Mid c-piciircon tionc of socivtj, 
ailuuCocttid iuttlf among a da«8 of e<la(X4t^ ItaUiftns. 
Fifty or abcty ppTnonn tmit^ at Home in wlutt t.h^ 
i^aDed i\i^ Or»U»rj tif DlTitu* 1j<h«, and *n.-ld [nviftuLfpi fur 
winaUip and mututU (^dlticAtioii. Amtfug tljcjin wrtvt rueu 
who &ft4<rwnrvlEi rc-udi<Hl the highest distinction, but voro 
d<^tinod to MTpnmtu from one imotbcr in their viows ol 
Keform : CwtaITa, Contaniu, Sadolet, Giberto, all of vrhom 
WHT« Aubaequentlj raade c&rdiii&lit, TIih isominoiii bond 
uiiciiig Iheiii wa* tJi« tiwritvhl dt^ir« for rJtt? ivitkjvuI at 
»buwJS Jtud for the mom.1 nrformiitii^n of thcr Cbnrch in 
its hcdd omd mombrrs. Uontarini nany bo cotutdcrcd tiio 
head of those who eeponaed & doctnno of JiLstifioAtion, 
not materially diAtingutahed from that of Luther. With 
him werw fimnJ, u few jvare later, nt Vmiw, bi-sidni 
fonnpr ^iwm'iiitc*, Fliuiiinin, n iborr^nglj iM-licyrr lu tbii 
evangelical tdca of gratuitous sitlvation, and It^^ioald 
Poto, -who adoptod the samQ opinion. ThiB party of 
EvmngvUoBi CathoUi>« were d«vot«d to the CatlLollc 
Chmvh, ami Ut titr* unity ol iL Tbelr vum unui to purify 
th^ ^xindng bfuly ; hitt in Ihirir viivwn nf tliw gtvat i|n> 
trine, whit'h formed tko original ground of coiitrov«r«y, 
thoy vrtood in a po«it^on to meet mid conoiliotd the Proi' 
cAlADtA. Thdt doeUwit of Jtutilicntion, bringing vrith 
it a gTeat«r or Ims inclinalion to other dootriiuU ebangoa 
in Iwt-ping nith it, apteiul among tlia intaUlgeiit oluaei 
tJinnif^hout TiAly. 

In PfrmrA, tbt; TvformMl opinions vrern iinominigrd 
And prolectcd by Mcnin nr Kcnatn, the wifo ol Horcnlee 
II , who y/niB oqu&lly dieCingQiahod for bcr lonnung ncd 
bur |>v»oiiftI attnwtionja. At bcr Coort th9 French post* 
ClctnvEit Marot» found a T«fuge ; and here Catkin resided 
lor K>m«i moiithd, under an annmed name. Among ttu 

firof^Ascivg in the Vtuxtr^ty at Fernira. wiuv Moc'^t^i, tb« 
f&tiicr of tbo oclfibntcd Olympic Mnrnta^, jinil, like bc^, 
uubucd with oTAtigi^JionJ opinion?. At Mortcna, wbich 
wa« rpnownod for tho culture of it8 inhabitante, ih^ ndw 
docttiiM^ found n hospitable reo^ption; e^pet^ially funoug 
die ukembera of the ;icndemy, who lookfil ^ritli t'<tiit«m|>n 
un tlie primta aiul uitmkn. Oitrdiu;tl Moroiie, the Bishop 
gf ModcDA. vr}io \uvil been nhe^ni in Qenii/uij oit iiLmT<>na 
fr^m the i'optT, writcn, in IMii: **WhcrcTcr l go, aJid 
&y>ra M qiiarl(?n3, I b«ar tbfft the city ha» b^eom^ 
LrOth^turi," ^ If] Ftorenoe, though it wna the fl^at of tho 
HeiikiJt iiit<\ fii['nitdie<l ill tliis '.i^n^ ti?ri |irFpe*:i, Li!o X^ umt 
CliEinenl. VIL, omuy t^uibnt^i) iht^ PruU^tiint &iith. 
Among thcTTD VTA* HrucwH. who publiahcd, at Venice, & 
tnoalfttiou of tUc Scriptnroe, and a commoutary on the 
whole liiblt^ Not lo^tlmu Ihroo tt-atifilutors of the Bit>Ie 
iu thin period vn-m l>L*ni lU Fli>rt*net\ At BologniL, 
Mojlio, a [wlebrutcd luii^hLT m thv l^nirert^ity, nfter tho 
yo%r I.'>^'% Ijtiiglit thp. \'rtiie%tiiTtt vii\wa on JiintifTc-n.t.iiin 
and uLbi--r jHiiitla, uiilH he wha rt-nioved from hm (rffitje bf 
Otdorof thii Pop(-> 8uW>pn-nt.h\ tlmmjih it if^tterr to tho 
Prot«*taat« of Bologna, from Hucrr, n.nd through nitothcr 
letter from tbem, wc k&ni that thoy vrcro nmnorouB. 
Venice^ ipherc- priDtin}; luid tlL4> book-trade £oaria]i9d( 
mA wh^ro the mt^^nmt poliuu vraii I«aH e^^vore than eta^* 
vheNi offered tho butt adnuitngui bcUi for Um uifii 
Roeptkm aod active difFiiAioii of tho reformed dcctiin^w. 
** Yoa giv« uw joy/' smd Luth^, iu 152ft. ** hj wlml jon 
wtite of the Vaietiane rcodnng the irord of Ood.'* 
PitttTo Caminfrccbi, vrho allvTmurdfl di«d for hU fivtth, 
Li^Cino, provincial of thn FnuidMaiui, who uUo por- 
Uied «a a marty^t and Baldatt&n Attim, wh<t nH»^ aa 
Wf^at of tho Protaitant princes in Oomiruiy, wiire amoi^ 
tlw DuMt afficivBt \u dilTiMini^: the l'ri>U«taiit opiuioaa.^ 
Padaa, Vvroua, and otliur pliu-^e^ within the Veii^tiau 

bfrritary, likrwini^ f«rnl*)M^d iLilhitiiitn of tljr ww fwraT 
33l« suae w£iA true oi the MUoncsc, vrhf^rc tiK; contiguity 
to fSwitivi-land, aud iho political duuigOA in the duchT, 
opened ar^nuce for thd introd action of horcs^. 

In Nupl4«. JiULQ Voidest & Spaniard. SwrfOtay of the 
Vuuroy of CbmrW V., yrvs au vloquont und inflnvntiil 
giipjKirfi-r *-i tin* I'Viinjjfi'lu'jd ilui-tritii', iiTid wnn to tlm 
hiU or pLutiol AdopticpQ of it many per»oiiH of diatinctioii ; 
iiii:Iuditig, it is thougbb, Vittoria CoIoehul and other xatm- 
Ikits of tho Colounn fiunily.' In many other fda«e»t a 
good begiDning vam mad« in th« Eatne dinxtioD. Kot a 
few amcin^ the iinmon»^ifl gifti?d and cultivated womeo In 
ihai 11^, wEivn X4.':lI for the fitiidy of llif< juidi-Tit aiitbon 
hod booi>iiin a ptTiViidin^ pnmicin, wt-n? at>lnu;to<l to the 
•TangcUcnl dortnnc. Thin doctrine gained many con* 
vcrtj^ nniftng th(* middle c-laaacs. In a decr<?e of the In- 
quiiibork^ tliro^ tboa»aiid eoliool-tiiaflti>j-« WL*re aaicl to hjiTO 
espouA>*d it. OomffA Informed Paul III. that '^ tlio whole 
of Ilftly wflA inf<s»rvd wiUi thf^ Lnth^tan heraty, whith 
had been ext«-iLAivoiy eukbnu^d boUi by ittatifitmt'ii tkxid 
w!(di'fliastj<a." ^ **"VVIiuIb librjinurt," itayH Mi*l^uicthnn, m 
a tetter written probably iti 1540, " hnrc been camuil 
from the Into fjiir into Italy/' Thore U no doubt that 
tbe evautr^Ucai doctriae wu» Envorably ivfpird«^ bj 
a large body of educated peraona, for it wtu atmcat 
excluftivaly Attiong tJie^ thut it fouiid sympitthy. TU« 
mofft «imini'nt prra<:b«r m Itnly, Bernardino Ochino, 
Ofneral uf tli^ OnpiicliinHt wbo drc^v crowds of udiiimng 
auditors ai Venice, and wbtrevi-r v\nt^ lie; appuirc^l iik th^ 
pulpit, nnd K^Ut Martyr VmnigU, nn honored Dtem- 
b^r of the Aii^tatinian ordor, vrlio wna hardly less dtstui- 
ptLshedi and a mudi abler theolof;;Ian, were of tliia nun* 

i au Tht Itarifil irLi^r? on Vililvi by I1r. ilil. l^j-hinvr, to Btnt^ JboL 'I Vrt v^nr tmk 1iTi?ihcn, A1foD*o ami Tun^ aUoBiA vm ita 
Iftpinbli^ 14 rLif Krfr>iTiullon, llr- IliiliiQCf ;im*Bli ^ full dHCffl^Db a| tt< 

1 <^«tiTJ hy MfOM, p. 111. 



Chidly owing Ut tlii? lulmra nf Murtjr, Lurm lisi4, 
perliaps, more converts to the rTAngelic&I faJlli ttioit iio; 
otiKr Italian city> Tbo littLo trcatiee on ilm ** BeineCtA of 
CliiTBt,^' which waa compoaod by PalcaJJo. ^vua ^jirculiLU-^d 
in thoceauik of copies,^ We have; tins l(?Ktuimny of Poj>o 
Cleiuti&t VIL to tlie widw prevalence, in diEfvrtmt part* 
(if TIaIv, d{ " flu! |T<".'*iifftnjiJS hi'ftsy of Lrithijr," tiot only 
unong Mciilsr pcraon^, hui also among tho deigy.^ 

Jq Wni^^r and Naples, the Rtifurmed Chuicht-a wcrw 
otKUiused with paalora, ttnd h^ld thoJr siicit^t mwtingfl. 
Uiilmpplly, Uie Sflcjumtutajian quarrel broTco r>ut in the 
Former jilftcc^ uud wittf u^ruvutcnl by ati intolerant letter 
of Liit])i*r, in w}iii"-li }]« ilei^-Lired his prpfeivjice of tran* 
ralnlAJitiatioii to tho /ywiiLgliUri (.liu'trme ; » It^Lti^r, whtih 
^[t^bmctJioii, ill kifl q)ifitlB» to fileucU, uodci-d wilh »tmrLg 
tcma ol ccudfimaatioD. 

Pa«iJU].tiTlio«ucoc«dodCJemebtVIl<, iu 1^34,ebowed 
hinwelf friciridly t^ thu Catholic refonning party. He 
iDJuii* CoDUirmi r^iirdinal. aud elevated to the aiimn raiilc 
CamJfn, PoU*, SsidnU-t, and others, mosr. nf whom bad 
Uolonged to th^y Omtiyvy of Divine T^ve, and fiome of 
wliuuu wen- fttuiidljr in the rroteatuiib diictrini? of salva- 
tion. He appointed ComminAicjuii qI Itcform, wlionn 
blinnttfn it vrtu to point out and rcmoTc abuses in tho 
B^HimP ciuia, Biich aa had oxcit^d ovorywhcre just (.lora- 
plitntr A commiBjion, to vhioh Siidok^ and Cirndfa 
bokngied, met at Bologna in 1&37, and prct»i*nt<!d to tho 
Po|)e u c^njiftum, nr ojnnioa, bi wbtdi thuy dea^^rihed th« 
■kuAra in thr adniinistr&tion of the Cburvh a^ aiuountirLK 
to " a p«0t.xf i^roufl malady/ Their adrlce wwa &p[iro\^ 
b; Paul III., and printed by hia dinection. Radiculo, 
however, wan (^xcitivl in Qonnany whnn it wm InMwn 

< Pv ■ fun Mooaat of FtXt^*t, an U- Y^4o»r« ^i^« ^/ P^lt^fioi Uttt- tf 
m^hMb to iUiiMjk[jve dC ilw iiur«ti'< of UvCrit- 



ul the iMMUm recommended fij tiie 
ptAbod SodolBt. 10 cottmoctioti wtih lu« aaeociatce, vu tbo 
•oEclnBioB of tfa<} CoUoquieft oX Emsmtis from BonunuTioi 
of Leonung. Thd bopoiof Coiiturim iind bk friondftirm 
nuiguliic ; mid it ftci^nMsd not inipo^iblr thiil n> grart coo- 
cflMorui might Itn iniuin ItiHt t»hn TVil'ulAiit* vnjuld once 
more uuili.' lljL'iiisi^vt.-» witJj the CLurcli, At Lite Odiir^r- 
CdUM At Hiitiabon, ui Lo41, Coiiturini apiH^ml :i» Li^^ito 
td ^ic Pope, and mut, on Uw otJi<-r side, Btuty un4 Mc* 
laacthon, tlie mMt modiinktv^ and yti^lding of iiU tho Prot- 
Mtent l<tftde9v. TUo political fitiution ww» eiich, ClifiC 
tho Empefor w:pt&^ himwlf to tiip utmnst to bring about 
ftn Acouniiuodiitiuii between LUe L\to paiiiea. Oti Utv t'UtT 
great ikrt]clo>« of llie natuTu cf iivm, on^;n:J aiii, mlrmp* 
tion and jii»ti]icAtion^ thr-y actually camo to an agro^ 
mcnt. Jiio E'l-ia^ibcy of the i'apa, fwd tfao BucbariflU 
ii«re the two f^reat poinu that remained. But tii*j pxuj' 
«otof union metirith opposition from vaHoua qitarteri. 
Khmcia I. Tftiwd mi nnt^ry iigtmwt it* ujim «iTTca;(l«r of 
the Catbolii^ fir.itii, h\s> cinlivo being the fe-ar of augment- 
ing the poHvr at CLarloi. Lather waA diaauXibiled with 
tlio platform. OD aooouiit of itd woiit of iie&ut«n(vi5. and J 
had no contidcncc in thu pmcticiibh-jiuaQ of u uii:c>n. <.>n f 
thio opposite Piflci, tliQ Kxxnn f^^olinf^ manifoatod ittelf; 
Cfimffa did not uppro^t* of thr torms of tho agreement 
which Contariri had sanctioTiedi especiaJly in regiard lo . 
jiivt]Gi»tiui], mid TaEil !1f. look the asLuie fii>w- Ttiifra^ 
w» jf^jtlonay ri Charlud At Rome: jdl of fiia r.nrjnit*^ 
comhinc'd againit the nchomti. Thiin tlic great project 
foJl lo ihft f^nnd. 

This uront marka the divi^on of the CaUiclio reform 
Ittg party. Oaraffi^ whUo severd and eameat En hia d 
."TtAiid fnr pnuiiicwl n-funiw wlduli nbrnjld puri^ ttit 
admiuiKtnitton nf ihv Clmrdi, tram iho Pope dovovar^ 
vraa flternly and inflexibly hofltU« to OTerj tnodificnt^coi 
0/ fiie dogmatic ftyal^m. He »tood forth aa the 


e Tcpro ■ 



vontetiv^ Axtd Ivadt^T of tboso who wora reootred to defend 
W the last tlic fH>iity luiU dt^mfts of tlio Chcirch, ngtkinut 
ail iotioTntion, vrhlU: nt tlt<^ same timo th^j AJrn#d to 
iofn«« a epirit of ttrict und even aspetin puriti,' and 3«al 
into aU its officers, from the Ljglie8t' to tliu Inwe^t. It 
w»a iliin party tbat reffved the boue of tlio CAtUdia 
ChurcUf r.iUIed iU diauT^iaii^i^d f->rces. jtnd turned '^poti 
^U advui^iriiyi with u ruiiowL'J aij<l furmldikbie energy. 

Thoro woi^Q twa prrndpftl itu^trumente by which tEiis in- 

fltid 3iggn»^iv« luov^mout' of the CAthnltO 

leeoiiipliHlit^d^ Thr>]<* ^^i'^•*^ Uiii ri:ii< of uew 

ordon, uipc^uilly tUo uriivr of JuAuiUi, aaid Um CuuueU 

of Tw^qU 

A mviviU ol K«ttl in ihu Ut^thoLic Chtirch hmt uLimyx 
b«0O ligiuJuod by tho apporLrbiU!n ^f tiuw dovt^lopmontfl 
ol Uie monavtio epirit. In timth, nKmasticUm arodd at 
the wilsM from a feeling *if wAArineAs »nd dia^mt ac t^io 
witrldUueta wliJiJi )i:id invaded llio Obuivh. Wlicn the 
widetif* ili»di?r ihn Rcnedlctiiie lule Inpncd fiimi ihuir 
atiictueaa of disciptinc and purity of hfc, new frcktenii- 
tiitt, u that of Clu^iii ApnLug up, in wkicU iDotiattio 
B&jnplicdty ujid tfururity wt^r^ ivBtori-*d- A^ thes^ in turn 
ftitlt tkti •lum'ntinf^ intiuonci^ of wealth, th« great inundi- 
cant ordttm, tlu' DutuiiiicHiu and Vrnivsheiiiif*^ wcrr* t^t^Ui- 
liflbfidf Um ofT«priiig of w irKire i?iarn4«t spiriL Oqb 
palfiable sign of th<j resubciuitii-iii of tlii3 Catholic body 
WM tbc fornuitiou iif n«n- iiKim^lic fmtenutiee. like tkft 
Uofttin*, wtto v'uru ori^ni&Hl undi^r tho AUApioctt of 
CtfttSft — prints wiUi mmuuttio vuwa, who did not <■«!! 
tfwmHTfm motika, how^v^r, am) adr>pt<?d no auaterltiM 
vbkJl Intorfered with their pructic^l tabors in preaobing, 
adininkiteniig tJiia Aaccatmeuht^ mid bt-udhi^ th« uk^k. 
Tlkdr Csmd ftddrc»>en fr^>m tht; pul|^tt wem the more 
InapfcuMvc from the kn^wlcdgo which tt uir uuditora hftd 
.4 their devoted lives. Thcj w^tq gtndu»lly traiv- 
[ loitnort into a senunary for tko tr^ning of prieciCA. K^il 


tbis vtd other now orders, ei^iiicant and cffcotiT4» M ^ 
tiioy ircre, were acxjii ^Upat^ by Llit; more rcDowncd and ^ 
imflventijU Socie^ of Jc^ua, I^mtttud Loyola* a Spuufth ■ 
soldier :)f nMa blrtb, blonJint; i^itli tbe love ot ha ^ 
(iroftwitijn mmiHjiing uf tbr? mitgioiis Hpirit ihaL lind 
diArfirtcrivml thi^ mnllniTnl dilvalnr, n*oi^vnil m thr vrtr ■ 
agaiuftt the l*rfn<:\u ul t}(c eie^^t^ uf Pampoluiut, wounds 
in both Lia le;^, wtiicli dleiibkxl him from military &er- 
vioOi In his luodit&tione duiiu;; bis illnoM, dso dcCQina ■ 
of «3ilTiUry w*re ouriooitly tuinglod witb devotional ae* 
pJmtloiui. Tbu glor}' of St. Doniuiiij, St. Fhmt^b. lud 
dtbor liTnwft (if ihi* fAitli, iwiieivl on liU mtHgimitioii.' ■ 
Moro imd luoro the Ttaioiis of a ftecalar kulghtbood traii»- 
formed thctuflclv«ft mto visloiu of a»]»ritUHJ knlgbtbood 
under Christ aa tho Leader. Hd exohanKed tbe romunoo ■ 
of Amcdie lor tbi? Uvcft cf tko vtuDtn. Tbe roauutic 
devoUou of u luiight to bw Esujy turned into jui tuuJogoiM 
r^tiHt^mtHinti t» the Virgin, bpfore whiraQ imnge b« bong 
up tilH tuict" arui sbi^ld. To^□bnt4^d f<ir a long tbi>a 
witb Tcntorm* iUid dt^pundiMicy, with nltirrnntimv} of 
poacB and joy* be at leugtb fooud relii'E ui tb« oafiTii> 
tion tbat bia gloomy icolin^ ^ore inapirationo of tho 
«Til spirit, aud tbtircforo to bi> trampled und&r foot nod 
awt oiit. He did not c^scnptj frum bU mcinbd dittrcM, aa fl 
Latb<'r did, by resting on the Word of Had and the re- 
TwJed ynethod of frtrgivpiiPHH, but in a way more cod- 
eouaut witb Uil- 8tiigul:Lr tdia-i-juiiemljiss of bid amul-' 
Tbe legal jyiitem t^f the Middle Agen b^ alimyn pro- 
dnooi) & y^xming for mpturoun, cctftFitic oxporiciKM, 
vbich migbt iitfoid that inward aMuranco of oalvntion 
which th« fiocep1«d tboory of JufltiHc&tion could not yield. 
At Paris, wbere Ignatius wenV to study theology, ba 
broagbt <!iimpli^tt-1y under Vm innuT'niv Lih two <7<>io|xlu- 
'•mn, FalM^r ^nd FraiiiriK Xavirr. In a cvU of tbn Co) 

* lU&kt. iTbfvryn/fhc i'l^a MSA, 


,qI Sti B^rbamt tbe tiral atep» wi^re taken in the 
tioii oi tliia powcriul aud celebrated society, 'l'hte« 
oikust SpauioHli joined Uici Aame ^nthuHiostiQ ctrulo, 
Tlicy took upon Uit»m Uio \'ow of cluistity, awore to 
pp«>nd thciT livcji, if jjoKsiblc?, m Jcnisalem, in ubsoliito 
povrrty, in tlio fiitn^ of ClirwI.iiuiM, or iu efTorts to convert 
riie SanCdLs; or, if tltis sbould not be pei'mitted tbeui, 
Atif «ig«£od to i>ffci tbcmaclvM to tbo Popo, lo be sent 
vrbenvcr Lo sliould wiah, and to do wUatover hu aliotdd 
tfOinmaiiJ- In Voidw?, lli«y \VL*ru ordained aa priestAt 
Aud h(Tru it bu^LUic.- uvtdunt tUat tlii? uj^^jiointed Llicaitre 
of thnr bihon wiut RuL'»p% and tiotp the Eiiat, In 1540 
Ihotr order waa sanctioned ; in 154-3> unconditioDally. 
Tbejr rfioeo Ignataua for their J'rcaidenL The n«w ofdet Wvrv-* 
waft Gsempt from thosd mcmaatio Gsorcaaca which con- 1'a-„^,^ 
Boniio tUt; timu of moolu (-C'liorally, iiud was left fr«i q^'^B 
for piuctic^ bibors. TTi*'**? werv prJucipulEy prisichiiig, 
Tumririg (vrnfrjuiinn, sind ilin^crtinj^ individual conai^ienof^, 
Kul [Jid ed(a-ati(in of yinith, n ]»art of Uii^ir wt>rk whJeli 
they n^prdmJ* from llic bt^'Juniu^* 3d iti tlie higbvnt '^^ 
alegne CMonti&L The ** Spiritii^il Cxerciaes " of Ignfltim k/t^ 
ma tli€ toxt-book, on which tho inward lifis of iko mem- 
ben via moulds, and whidi Borvod aa v. giude in th« 
skangeinent of the confeaalonal. The a,bsoIut« detach- 
Istg of ttic* KOiil frtirn Uie wuHd, niid fitim all iU ubjui^Ut ot 
riivirr, EUid t)i» silwihiti^ namTifUiitioii nf lUflf, u-nt n I'Jirdi* 
ual i^leuicnt in the dpLntual drill sot forth in this mannaL 
It id a <x>ur»e of aevore and prolou^d iiitroepecUou, znd 
ol foroLHi, M)ntmuoiu atti^ntioi^ to ut-rtaiu tbomctf oi 
tkought ; this du«igD ol tb<i whuh;} bvtng to bind the will 
mmovflbly in the patb of nligiouR conjincration. Thii 
«ffect is prodliwil by «irnting, Hnd, at thn Nimti liinff, 
nilrjngntitig the i[iiHf^malioii. It ii^ IL0 namLti vi?«, not 
thm diKtrinvn, ot tlic Oua[>el, (o w!ii<?h the mind ia 
riteted in prolonged c/mtcmplation- Thi: rum h to gire 
to the mental pcicoplionn the vividncn of external *Tid»iW^. 

B^ere of iho eou]/* To tbo iiitugin&tivo pieQr of Um 
Midillo Agt^ tlmt rev6le<] in ecstacies &nd rapUitx^, Im 
n\^i?a n ajHU'iituLit! ffjrin, ii dt?fliijl4^ liiret'tiun, Tlui i^ff<*ot 
uf II <lu(Gi|>tiiio liki< thin, wlicn; rrHM>ii givE"?! u|j tJkn Uiion4 
to iniagiiiationf wluch li ctcv vxcitod and at tJao csbiM 
^mc «uaktVL\L, could not be oilicrwiiMi thixn deleteioufl 
U|>ou tfnj uioriil LLLLlare. Vet tJier^ U a wid^i contvatt bo- 
tvre^a tka Jusaitium at Loyi>lft iliuI the d«^onontto JoituH- 
um dtrpicU'd ill tin* ^^Provincml ]^-lttfm." * 

Tl)44 lYiinpuit nifjuiiiz^vtinn of tlic SnrTivity rrf Jmus, with 
ito tUre« grades of meiitbcrsltip* iaclud<?d pitrtia3»>ii* S<yr 
routtuil oYrrHLglit i>f fiUuU u i^bnnKtcr^ tliat the Central 
ovi:it, not\oiljdt^tndiiig hb wcll-iiigh imliiiiiti<d powcTi 
niigiit be julmouteh^^d, nnd, on ndi^qiinlcr gTound«i depo»eil 
from his stiUion. Th<r onu cnmprolieinsivd obli^tioik to 
vhich elm inembera were bounds vena ihxi of IiuUUkt, nn- 
^utufcl.ioiiin^, tiii4|L^;Jiru!(l tibeditnoi!^ 'Va go vrlnfm th«tj 
were wui, if it wciti to a tiibu nf 8Av&ge8 lei the res 
tu»t«t(t |i;irl uf the ^l^tbe ; to di> wluLt tlit-^ were bidiUfi, 
ivilhout dciliiy u.nd without a murmur, in a opiiit of ftbeo* 
iuto »clf'sunvnd<it, *' utquc caduver," waa the primal daty. 
Such wiifi tli^ crtgin aitd ^n«ral ob&i>act«r of tbo Sooiotjr 
whidi nUkA dcbtiiK'd to wield mi iumUeuUbl<A i;J]u«nco id 
rutuKoitutirg Cutbtiliemm, us \viA\ iut in wt-ukrimng, and, in 
^>ome ijimrtrrXt H.iitiiiii luting the powor of itji adv^reariefl* 
'ITie Het-oiid of iLe ^n-al jigen<iies of Cutholii: renovation 
\ra4 Llic Tridcntiiiu Council.^ For a long period, the 


ukkf) It* ilrrfoDrbr ahiI itf-knlnjci'T- lUnk* tu> kuhJiMttd Ulh* ImfOKjuiL vrvi^ (v 
■ »4r\J>lniZ rTtli<l*in nn<l compp-niOJi, in tbn Appr^mlU (ft ll'l of (lit J7b4tffy ^ 
Afc« f\'i'v, J[fi uiya^ "Duili ?( thtm idv («fmp1at« lurLUuui lud uvidicflclDnl 
Ui [JiceT>'j'I( Tff i\n iLl-torlmEi, i^-liJi^h Pfli« uponcUuuniWWB lliij ob}«lB to (bah 
full iruth. Hill t>rLEii:> ILahi ttiitlncltj to linr. Sarpt bid iht Tunrtr tri ^d Aj 
but iJlf unlj &lLu wu t^ ttLtci; PkllAvldnL lui lollDltalj 1^ ol dn rv^ui^li 
tf/Mit, and hli object wm to Qpt™a h\t ^BrtT wH fcilffl*-" tf :5vp(, Buht 



pioject of a CoiuicU. wlii^>)i was a (nvorito onv) witli the 
lU-foriUL-re for souk? timis, suid whJclt the Emporor imuat^Ml 
nn^ wiw tvjiugiiuHt in iT»* Mgln^Ht ^li-grfP txi r.lip vnalicn «! 
the PopcWi A gfeiiv-val coumnl whs iheir dread, ft waa 
ftometUlitj;, lion ever, vrhicli tt was more mid mort: difllcuU 
to^TCHil. TliTj apnsul of lufrwy. «VL-n in Jtuly, wjui oiac 
motive which inndo J'ltul ilJ. willing to i^onvoko nucb All 
U»uii)bly. Th*' Coiinc!ii of Tr^nt won fonrmlly ripenwJ 
In December, 154o. Tlie RTWtt question wa» whether it 
ilioulil U*gLi] with llui vfUivin of tht' pMpu^y, or willi lU'H- 
Ril)<}ti« iif lifjj^om. Ill iithiH' wuixh^ ^vhiiL uUitudi^ Nlimili) 
tbc Council t^kc townrtU the Protcslftnt»* A coiiciIh* 
tory or iuitagoiu»tic ono? CarnfTa wad auatauioi in bi« 
policy by tliu Ji«uil8. Tlio Pjijuxl iiiUutintx' protiomiDAt^fdi 
Mxl hnving d«Jtni?0 thu HOurocn of Icnowlotli^ of Rj>V4>[ihd 
R«i1igion in torms thstt Idt tho nuthority of triidition un- 
iiiipair«4, vHtli aii:i1:b*?im!W ngubist the ProU-PlrtTit cToetrinG 
of till? F^xehJMive itutharity of Lite Scnptures, Uit? Conncil 
procoedfMl to i^>ni1t*inn the Protistiuit doc^rTinri of Ji]stJli<- 
oatiOEit diarcgaidiu^f the firg^umentA of thf> CT^angclicad 
Catbolio party of Oontariuii which waa offoctivcly i^p- 
rOMDbod in tlio dclmte. ThL> buooo^a whtL^h Clutrlea V. 
vroii gaining in tli« 8raalciild)o wiir, omboldcaicid the nilinj; 
party ?;t Tn-nt to aMcrt iha cM dogi]i;i> without iihatfw 
iDL-nl (IT conoes^oij. The theory of gridiial jiistiflcatmn 
tnil iif m^ritwaA ffUoTVud by mi equally jxisilive aaaur- 
tioft of the old doctrine of thn 6iLcrftm<:nU. Tho bUtor^ 
nf lh»? Council is injK'pnmhly conn<ictcd with the rclAtiom 
of tbo PopQ to C*bjLrl<!ifl V. TIli^ fullne§fi of tho Empo- 
ror'v triTimph, to much beyond the d^alro« of Panl III., 
M to th*j attt^mpted trtm»fei^nt'n of the CouncQ t^* Bo- 
logna ; auid r.hi^ ji^doii,'4y tJmt \r.L.n fi?h on iiaifiimi. nt thiA 

fcfr*M, nd im4 vilb muumiuiU Ulttott ir»«iaaa>l uy ibit th>v w« fUit 
lai^ar tlurt IVm^ bb hvincblljr r-r njiUruIly dtiortd t bat Ittt ▼beUwvrh li 


gnMtnm '^if tbu |iuwnr itajulmd \ty Oluurlf^ iit tlm rnd rd 
the war, luid cm j^xsount of the Iiitorim and the rvab ol 
hU «<^iMnufl of pHciticntJoD, dofcfttod the cncU which tlio 
Kmpetor hod hcpod to acccinpliah. Not to pureui^ Ui6 mib 
ject into ita details^ tho r^ault of all of the ii«gotii«UtJAt 
«iul titmggW of thu CoaaoU wm that Uio P»pui po««r 
Hptc^jiul wiUiouL i^nrULihiitttLL, KITurtn t» n^tlucn tlin |irff 
ixigiitivcfl cf tlie Pop^ \Tcrfi iDgcnioiuly batHcd. TTw 
i'r^^ftfMt^ ^W4T<\ or br!cf foritiala oi «ab«cnptioa to tbo 
Trid«nttuo Crood, ixxitaiuod a proiDiMOJ obodioiiiw to th» 
Fopi*. To tti^ formiiL&4ry all eoole^astioa and tiMohen 
an? n-sjmrk^d Ui i;iv't- their a^aoitt. The Hotnan CoCeehiim 
vriui ]iri^[uin'd luul jmliliHlnnl ondur Uiii dinv-tjon iif thai 
l'i>|s-!, b^ ihv aiilhcirily of tbvt CoiuicU ^ thu Viilgute, 
vrhicb had bcTCu JecUred authoritatire in voi:troT«i«ie&, 
vraA isiAUinl ui au uulUoi-iaivd editicii. and a Breriary and ji 
MuMtat \int fi^rlh fur urtivcrtuvl vuto. 'Ilia Ccuat:]! of Irval 
dill a gruftt work for tho oducutttm oE the clergy, tke 
better ciip^aul^dtion of ibo whole liierurdiical body* uiid 
ItmdjMcripliuL* I'f till* GliurcliK lUuauoiiH of rafonu iv^f- 
Lattnl tfuT*M ijf tJi» wtiulur at&d rtigijlur priivLlntfid, in* 
culoaU'd tltc obligatioiiA of bisbopft, and introditofMl a oev 
ordtr mid tfJELci^incj in Uio manago^mi^t of pai'Ube». 

Tim Creed of Troot waa de&nito and ititelljgsble in 
lUdoniftl of titu ditfticLguUbiug |>omuof ProtcMantUm ; 
but un x\w ijuustioikft ui dUjiuttf Ixrtwcun Augiutiniaii :uiil 
W*ini-Pr1iiginn ^liirtirfl in thtx Churchy it wun indefinite a»J 
sludioiisly Hnibi(^oua< Uut ihn Cuunoil, boUi by tin *Vhw 
tnaal formulati iwd ii» t^vtmaivry caiiuua, cutilribuufd 
very much to tUu csomolidAtion of tb(\ Cliurch m ft oooi- 
pttct body. It ^Djs no longer ncoesiary to Ac^nk for tba 
■tandard of orthodoxy in tlid \&Tiou£ and ooofiictiDg lyrit* 
Ingfi of f:ith<M^ iind sohoolmen, or In the multiplied dcclai- 
Uk'jirm ui Lhi? P<j[>i?h. Such a Hf:iudard vraa now preavntisd 
in a oimilirnikKl fi^nn imJ with rlirriit roforanoo to tbi> aih 
tngoniBtiC doctnncA of the dmo. 




Bnt tlr^rp iFfw HTmHi^ir »gi*Tii:y of a iJiJTrn^nt r.^ararti^, 
which WW* set 111 motlou fur llic piti-pfnw* of uradlc^iii^ 
faetm3r. TKia 'n'lut the Inqnuntion- It vroA reor^uiiveil 
in Itftlj cm the nscooamc^iuiAtiQn cf C»ruil» ; he vt^ pbcod 
ftt the hAad of it; 9U)d in lo65, the friiue uuthor uid 
tho Bttm chiof of this Cnbunnl 1>^4Uii9 I ^ i|h* undor thifi nnine 
of Paal IV. Tho lT»qiiisitioii wan nn inaUtiirinn which 
had iu orljjtu In Uu.- t<tal>' ihxyn of llie tijtrli-tiitlh ueiitury^ 
for the extir}iaiiun oi tin? AlbigonAEmi bereaj. It ia a 
Bonrti the pccnlifirity r>f which ]ic(4 in tlii^ foot that it ii 
uprcnl; coiJ!!tiniU^<l for the dotc^tioti rmd piniahnieiit of 
hoi^tkfl, and CT:|>er««dM. wholly or in part, in the dis- 
i^hrirf^ of iJiIb fitnction. tLe bishops or ordinary author* 
ilit<« uf till? Clitireh' Xt iff diLM iiri exli'iUjn.Hrmrv tribiiml, 
with Tt» {jun nilrv ntid tritrtliofU ot procrnling, its own 
modce of eliciting cvidcnccp The Spaiiiab Inqiiiflition, in 
itopocuB&r ff>nii, wofl set up \indor Fordinand and Ittt- 
bellib, in the &r«t iiiatAikce for the purpueu of diacorcnng 
and iftininliin^ tbo convcrtfi fn^tn Jiidiuflm who returned 
to ihw f'irniflir croed* The atrocitic** of whii?b it woa 
ilty iindier Torqnemadii make n durk luid bloody page 

S|>iiiinU hinlorj',' It grvw inUj nn innbUuLiuu (hhtx- 

UmnHvy tf ^^ liKiuiftiiiuEu ^nl 1i4«iiii;h*] Uhs but Di»fiDrEudLr«farilaii la- 
nMffEalkn al lim IiiMlgr^, jr^icDt ivmral jvai* iu Uie pnri«nit[i>n of lilt igrk, 
Tfaf rr««c1i Innaimiou of P«lllDr iru iuimIc uulai [Ji* ajitlwr't ryiv JJnivijUi 
w * l^bonl prlt&u Iu fymiiiUi)' wiiU iljij ubim vf lLo Pnnrli iCfVoluilnti, and 
aiyjitii of OwD«u(iut« rule iu SixJu^ Kn (itrllBinl Uiv InquhlOaji to ^a 
**Tto ii la lB» nrindiil*, in Ila ttiu*(lluliuii, «iJ In Iu Ibitr" iVnt.. |k ii.>> iad 
bv bad Bt tpvvUil ivvfnAO* fof Ilia Tuiwa. Yri ai thi titan of tA» compfVllMiA 

ti i^i* «ffTk. 111! rrlMloa (o ilia CiithiiZic Hiurvh wu nut, ■■ il atlvrwuvlft Iw* 

^Hnnui. 4niHtrtiiii4ic. HiowurKuf UtmniH Km hfrn (inrtrnrtMjp ciWolHl by 

^^b, l£al I. p- (It wi- H«f4« InaUlA, in Eha ftrH plfk/*, rt«t in» S]hiii«'^ v^n^ 
^Hpiui TV pr*ilQiitinA4llf ab Insmmcal nl ll!i« gnfunHikcnt, titfl rhat Thi J-v^m 
^^MuTnr*A to ritmk til* iWtfprSfiM'>f rViif HciT^ Offii?*: tnil. uvnmtJj.thal lb* 
flWvpaof ^tiiFilt7'1>ri)iiji!fLl0jiainif llti |iK]tii>il3an han littn ^;r«qr 1 y vs J^uv vl«4i 
BaMtf^ fri^BciftAl fiiriDi j*1Jn«r0'4 fJ]*^ mlBcUflijIatkia df t^ fwa1i«r«f vC^ 
KtDii* 4f Ibtf lii^irltJriun li e» la a* oIimttix! Ihat mail of hi* inhnailvtfileM 
■pn fJrtVkU. Htftfe ■■ ahlL^ la nulajn by infonniliBn vb joh MofVVt* hkurit 
lortfabM, ]l«M«*afiiiilt>tTlirirn-Kfpltku«rMlaa4«wt«^Wa\Rk,^}nVh^ 



t«nfli«« vitb th« kLDgdon^ wttli nn iixtrtindy tjiviaiod 
and cruel fij'stem of uHniiTitiimLHon ; and vrai* so Ittl«r* 
wuTvu \rjih Ui<? ti^U ^veruEiieiit. ilIIut Uuj litiitibliJig uf 
the iiobltw AAtl the deatrucbtou of llbeilv in iha ciLiimi, 
that tli<: dnipotic rulti of Churlc« V> mxd of Pbilip I !. could 
bftrdly hnvD iK^rin miiintJutLvd vritbout it- It vra,A ah en- 
giDe foi- Ktifling tK^dition lut irell lu horcitv. H^nc^ it ww 
daf^tided by the Spsmisli w^voiviignR ngjiinflt ohj^ctions ^itd 
i[jliunU of liic Po]ip«. file IiKjuibitiun, iii tb^ f^irni 
icli it aanuni^ id ItLily* under ihv aud|»iM» uf CHmffn. 
differed from the Gorrcnpundin]^ iiutitution m SpUDi in 
Komc rc«pcct^, but it i\:^mll<xi thn Utt«r in aaporwKlinc 
the ordinary tribuoaU for tho ^x^rciae of disoipllBO. and 
waa founded od the GSLmo general prmciplea. Six card!* 
rnda BiTu u\}id*! Iiiqiii^titdi'a g*?iienil, with jjhwlt t<> consti- 
tuU? iiifiTTnr tribuiutls nnii with ^uithnHty, nn hoUi afdea 
of the AJ|Ns to iucArccr&tc and try all saapectt^l |Hrni(>ici 
of what^v(-r rank or order. Tbe lerribltt nuichi^rry o( 
tJu4 court wnA at ohl'c iitst in motion iti tbc States of Iha 
Church, and ulthciigh rceietAnco was offered >u V'enioo 
and ill other parte of Ital^, tbo lnquiaitioii fjcmdnallj «ue- 
t^>ndod lia sway avev the whoh peiiin^uhi. Tbo result 
wiiA t)»ii th<f ii|^r'n imifiWHioTi nf Pr^kt^^HtnTitTsm vaa in- 
Btantly suppressed. In ir>42, prior to Ui^ fiJnnal estab- 
liehiueDt of tha Holy Oflii^tji, Oduiio uid Prf«r Martyr, 
oswiLhng longer lo conceal their ndhcsiou to the Proiea> 
tant fftitb, and being no longer aafc in Italy, had left thwr 
country and found refuge inth tho ProtoAtant* north ol 
the Alps. Equal amaiMUuebt ^nu oooaiionod whon, in 
tri48. V<Tg*Tio, bishop of Capo d'htria, a man of tli»- 
tinetioii, who Eutd Wi^n employed in Important i^cubaui^ 

^MiwicAAf Uirohiit, Pirf<t«a'*ftM«ua«r tbo |fl(|aiiiTJDD in m bla fft^ftvy 
0f rAd Ji*iy» f/ Frf^i^nnJ and Jru^Ufif y cb- vH. Ilrfili bv murb U> '<*j Vt 
(fuj iHipc«J(i4dj (J tbf .Ten-A to niiikiT |imHlytr*. wblth ho curujjtn ■ paUUikiB 
p| tbd iit^iifw Ukwft ItT liiD lpiiii*l[l.*n. ttii ihti r«l lumlicr pf innmcjfrv J«» 
Wl vunrtrU 1u rJihiEidnity, Tvbo liirik^ilitd buiiurv (v tUv liuzuliillan. pnwv 

r THE nRQUismon. IPo 

<|gr dk^ Popo. folldVcH i\ie\i example. A mullltiide of 
■wpe c tod penoELS il^xl to tUo Griaond uiul tc* oth&r parta o( 
SwitwrLiud. Tilt* jKiidvimea iit Modtsna and cUowherc 
vietv broke*!! up. Tlw Ducbww ot F*>rnii"]i wjui c^impfljlovl 
lo part fnim iiU uf ht?r PrHtiHtmit frii-'uda, tmd depondnrU 
and vntA tiPt3u*lf AitbjnHnl tn tvinfltnLinL by Iier Lualii^rid. 
Tbc Protcitai^t cburoJi of Lficamu was diiyen out, auder 
carcucnfltonccd of great httrdslnp, and foimd eid a^jluiti bi 
S«rit£cr]nad. Imprtaoiinciit, torturo, ai^d th<* flami^ wem 
every vylii»i"i> tniplojod tot' llio U«mtru(-'tifju oi hi'U^rodcKc 
opinioiu- At VindLHflliy pnn?iitv wiut to tJike the nnbnppy 
victim nnt; ii|k]II «u<h lU miilnight mid to pliu-^^ Idin on » 
pkok* between two boiiit^, wbicb woio rowed in opposite 
directions, leavuif^' liini to sink bcLkCfith the wli>«s. Mauy 
lUntuigvinbcil mtn were Immahud ; oLhora, aa Aonio Puku- 
lio and Ctinu?iiUffo}il, wctu put to di.»:Ltb- Th<i WnldiriifoAn 
nttt«nieiit in CidiiLriii wsik bLrbtiruii«ly mmuuicrud. Oiio 
tinvDtiAl part of rli^it work nf tbi^ Incjtiiiution, Rtir] a part 
in vbioli it ]iitni(ir*i] t" surpriHiiig siiL't<eHA, wafi tli« *n|v 
prnaioii of bcjx^tirid lti>i>ka. Th^ bciokbLdbii^ vrr-tx* obligi^l 
to pur^ Uiou: stocJv to on extent tliJit vtaa idmont ruinous 
to tbeir biis"mt«A. So \igilimt was tlio dcti^.otiTo police of 
the liiquijiition, Uiiit at tbe thciuetuide of ccpi«« of the 
ertBg^icAl b<Jok on Ukt '* Uvuotita of Clirist,*' it was long 
■opposed tliat not onn vnui. kit.' It im ordy w^tldn i^ tt 
eentperiodtJiAt ftfeWMirvivbg ^ikpi<vt h^ivi* E^timi? Ut light. 
An 11 prirt uf tlii* r(<pre-vij\u iiybltMii of CarafFA. the ** lu- 
«li>x*'of prohilntrd book* waa eit^lbliHh^^d. Btiaidea Uw 
particular Antbon« ^md booki which were conduEniii-'d, tbi^re 
TCA Ji Uftt of iu*>ro thATi nixty printcrn, nil of who»c pub* 
IkfttUma vvTii prohibit-Hh Car^dta put upar din Indi>x 
tbo CwM«i<ui« or J<?f>iW, wbu-b 'o nnniKtrUmi with S^ulolpt 
jui o<h#n« lin himBu4r b«] olT-iTd Ij.i Pmd UK, uii the 
Rttbjft'i of a rt^fomuitioit, nntl In whkh eccleai^tical abuaai 



uThkn in rTAJiT xxn st asc. 

tuul U'tii freely ^juiwTircd.* F.alcr, tnidir Ui« AnNpiom o4 
SixtuA v., tJiy "Index ExfinrgatnnTin " uiYu^a, for tlw P<m- 
iliiflnnntiuii, nul of i^iilHirR woi'k«,but oT {mrtlctiluT pauw^f^tt 
ill p«tmitl4^ LiK>kn. Till! nwoGpiiig penMH:utaoji wIidcU vai 
undertaken by the CatJif^ic Rencfcion did mit ts^Atc duo 
evangoUcal CntLolioa. whoso viowA cif Jiutiticat^on vor« 
obnaxioiiB to Um faotiom that had gained tlw aaoeiMl^aoy* 
TTitj WHTti regarded and treated se litlJe better tlum 
uvuwimI t!ni^n:ie>i of tJiu Chnrvli. Even CEUtUiiJ^l Pi>1i^, 
wUv )tiu) funuikcii England nLthnr itiEn iiccvdn to illv 
iiiL':wur<« of Henry VIIL* njid luid been uudo ['Ap^i Leg* 
ixti? ;i]]d Archbishop of CaiitcrVjury under Marr, \nu in 
iluHfTiKM.- ut tlje time of liis deatb, vKicb was ftimtiltaiiiVHM 
witli tlu*t ot tka CjiiCMjn. Cardinal Moron*, tlio AnJi- 
bistbf^ iif MtMk-Tin. clmr^tl with i-iroii luting P:il«*jvrLo'9 

hoolr nn Ili4^ Abniriiiir.iit« whh diMivin^ tUr mt^nl nf ^iXkI 

vorlu. and with like offenses, was luiprwoued for about 
two yt^ara, until the deattt of Paul 1V„ in 1559, iN?t him 
tnc- Tho cltariwrtcrintio tipirit of the dominant part^ m 
seen in tho impnicticablo demand of this Popo th^t tbc 
Boquealc-red property of the mona^erios iu Eji;;]and Ahoold 
be ivMbMiid, TUift pstrty su<wetdttd in virtuiUIy oxtni- 
gniKbing Pmti-HUintLHtn in TtHly, 


Id Spvii a literary apint had u^rly ari^t^a fmio tb<i in- 
floouM of iho Anibic acltoolD.' The ICri^miJUi cuttnre 
found & oordial rt^iH^'ptiiiii. *^'l1ic Complntoiaiaa Folj- 
^lot '* WW an 4Kiiti(m af the Soripturea that rofleota mucli 
:ntdit upon CfirdiTial Xitnenes, by whom it wu immod, 
Wti h*^ svji4 i*pp(if4i-d in rendering tha Bible into the ver- 
aacuUr of llie jiKuple, untl wwt a Kiipportr.r nf the Id- 
qni^tiijn. Thri n'-Mcntmcnt which this odious tiibiunJ 
awakdniid* wherever a lovo of freedom Hnf^red^ pr«lij»- 

I For ihi» firunf f>r thi«, h« k'fiEJrlt, |i. SL 
^^ yntf«y ^rJkr if^'^nmillviU lUt^. vxi it Kwlr !«~ vvfiL*. 



pcmt^l M>me to thi 

'IjlinK-** ot 1L« ilx-t.niii* w)ii(i]i il 

peivuouUHi. The iuti^n^Jiirw? wiUi GBruiiiuy aiM tlio 
Ketlierkiiidd, Into ^rhich many SpanlarrK botli l:iynie9i 
uid clcrpv. WTfx? brought from tho common ri^tnti^ ol 
I2u!*i* coiintrioe to Uharl<»a V., m&do the Protestant rlo^- 
triQOH familiar to many, of whom not fl few r^gvtnUxl 
tliem with faviir. It was obsorved tliat Spanish ecdwisin- 
lim who flujuurneil in Rn|;!!tfiil %hvr the Piiirriugt? of 
PUtlt|» n. to Mary, i^tmr 1k]L<:k bi fhrlr couittry, 1Ji)^[e(l 
with ihij hcrr^y which thoy biul gone fortt to oppoM* 
ITio wftr nf Charle* V, againflt C'lomcnt VIL, which led 
Co the sack of Romi^ and the impmoomeut of the Pon- 
tiif. and tlt^ \nc'^nov of a (jrettt b(wly of Spanish clergy 
mnd iiuIiIm* ut thu Oit:t of Aug^thnr^. wlu'n^ tjie Prot^*- 
tJiiitA [in<«r-iU''i) lUi^'tr ni>hlr i?i>:if«TS»joiii wiv^:t t^Tentu not 
wiUiout » favorable iiilla^uct^ iii thi^ nam^ direction* A* 
tmtiy hA lom, Lhc! fajuoo* priuiA^r of }}aeul, John Krobcn, 
•oQt to SpAin n collection of Lutbi^r'B trtutd in Latin, and 
daring tht! fiext year the Kcformor'n oommftntiiry on tlio 
GftbtiatiA. in urhinU liie doctinnc* was f^Hy ^xhibif«d. 
vni Cnuiahitud liiU> Sj>u.uish. ^^pamsU iranaliitions of did 
HibV wrm printed nt Ant.worp ciml Vrnirp, Jtnd mitwitJi'' 
ttanding th^ wj^lrhrdiess of tlii) InqiiiHition, onpirA o( 
iliein, aft vr«Il a« other publicutjoufl of iho l'^ot4^stants, 
wen! introduced into Spain in Eai^i^ oumbt^ra. Somo 
Hpftnianb perished rxbfotid. martyrs to thu ProtiMtiuit 
faiUi ; 38 Jayrno Enunae, a cLiltirated scholar, vho Trni 
burned at Rome in 1^4^, iind Jdan Diaz* who woa oaam- 
■lnat*d in G<>rmuny by ii fiurtitii-:d brother, who hail triwJ 
in THin to conv<*rt him* »nd wlio, hating ncnomplinhcd hia 
ftct of bloody fratncido, «acap«d into Italy £ind wan |iao> 
bectfd hoiQ piinifthment. It w&a at Seville and Vnlift* 
dolid that Proti^tttantiftm ohtaznrd moat i$dbGrn>Dta. ThoM 
«rho adopted ilit n^form^^d inCiTq^r^tntiou of the G^jiel* 
Ken«inl1y cont^nl^ th^ms^-lvmi with promulgating it, 
vkhoQt an op^n attaelc on thi? Catholic thi^oVngj (^ ^^ 


H iTALt AM flTAfev. 

Ohurali. It irta~tBe doctri am ot JQAtificntioti bj 
tlooe which, Uure ua m ItAly. g&incd nio^t cuireuc^-. In 
S«nlie thu ciuaRclicftl vkvra wero introduce bj Kod* 
rigo de Vftluro, ii mrui of r[Uik uid &«hion, whoto dttr^ 
iLctcr bcul lK?en tnuiitfikriiif!^! \>y the rceqitiua of thttm, tji4 
whn priimiilgTitifxl thom in cnnvnrnaUnii fin^l in i^^icpcmtioxu 
of tho SdiptuiG to pnv&to circloa* He waa Bar^d fnxD 
blio Qamea only bj tU*^ favor of pervooa iu aalhoiity, bnl 
vrnd imprboDod in a oonvont. Thu most ctniaeut pn^ach- V 
or* of tkii city, Dr. Jolm Kgidiu*, iiiid C<:i>iBtiiatlno I'oqo* ' 
dii In Funnto, who lind booti uhiipUuii o£ tlit> Emperor, 
nnlinfiv) in thp tis^w mov»m«*nt. Thp prfnlomin&nt ^ypJoioQ 
in Stivllte ivas uii tlju Hidii of thia real, tliuii^U ^Mtvrt 
I'rokitl^jaLmm. It fuutid a receptlun, aUv, in dui»l4?rv of 
thu <nty, uapcciuJIy Ln one bclor^ng to the HtcionyiDitce. 
Both in Sirritlr! wnd VallncUilJd tho^o were eoCTOt churcbee, 
fully i^i'gAikiiCed. itnd ui^etiiig in piivao}' for ProlcaUcit 
wotvhip. Id Yalladolid the Protetuut cau»e hftd & div 
ftn^ii)ih<wl lf>iuli-r in thn ptjimm of<« CazAtla, tbd 
Iin|ieria] i.-]i;(p].^iEi, who wih put to death by the In^idiJ* 
tian in 1^59. XU^ra Mi-r« probably two ihuuHuul jifmum 
in vikriota partA of Spmii who ^n-jt; united in the rrol* 
(Wtont fnith and bcld privitto racctinga for a tk«tnbfir of 
yoare. A Iru^ proporiion of them were pevsoua dia* 
tinguiabed for their rank or leomin^. The disooT^iry of 
Hi^ aecret an&oi-iutiouH ut Seville luid YaUadolid atlmu- 
hitf'.d tli(- TtifpiiKit.ion tii n^d^iriMi^l i^xi^rtinnv Tho fU^t 
of mrttiy f.'K'.illljitod th»> doteiotion of others who rertuuiirtL* 
Tlic duDgcoua weje filled aud the tembl« ivipltmcnta of 
tortaro wuro uwhI to lixtort cotifceabiia not only from men, 
but from ri>fm<id and dLdiaiitcly tnunod women. In 1^5^ 
and lf>i\0, two givat aut^f da/if w4iro held in the two 
dtien wherR hrnv^iy had tjiken tJie flnnert rooit- Th« oer^ 
monies w^re amn^d witL a view to atrik^ terror to the 
hearts of tin; aufFi-rtirs tbojmT^lvcB iintl of tho gr«^it tJirongi 
tbat gathered aa »pacUton of the acvn^ Tfao oondooiaod 




v^re VnTDecl alive, these who trould aooept th^ offiood of 
ft pHeat, hov^v^r, liavbig tlio ^rlvili^ge of bciii^ stro^Eiglod 
U^rjn^ Uu'ir IhiJiitsi vif-m cjist itiUi Um firo. Tin- King 
rjkI roviU fttmilj-, IJic gnytt |H.-rftoiiagi's of tlic iiourt, i'-l 
both 90XOB< g&ve couutcDancc to tbo proceediiigA by tUuir 
preeeoco* Similar (tufo«<^ij/e^ uccurred iu variotis othei 
plftoeo, with evo-y oircuautEui(-» calculated to hispir^ fuia 
ia ihn 1>«hQtJiM-aL Tbc offic^rrs of tkn hi<\nmtioa w^re la 
actJni Mid vigtknt, anil so ia<Trd1es)i, that there was no 
J f"ir uay w]if> were indtneil (*i Fi'<i(r&Utrit opi»Loii», 

Ti* ui Aighl i jiuil eveu tlxis wa^t dlllicull. CoveUiu&iiuaii 
•Uitfd ittwlf to rauiidci;»m, for thf; f(>rfeibird of jill prop- 
erty vraa Lt piirt o( thu piinalty invtitiably vieitijd upr^i 
horcvy. TbvM I'rotWntnntium \nia firadicated.^ The ro- 
Mraints laid upon Uberty of tpaohing smothai'Eid the intdl* 
lectual \\tv of iho country, 

III 8|nii)« nx ir It^ly^ tJio jiemeuutioei ilid nnt ii|vtr« the 
Evangelical CatJiollc«. Aniung these wa« BH^rtcihsm^ de 
Cnniuiia. Atvrlibt^Uop vf Toi^Jiv aud Primatif of Spain, 
who batJ stoLxi nmong the adroc&tes of gmtuiti:iuft juAliG* 
csttoti at tho Council of IVcut^ Ho had n.i:coinpiuued 
Philip n. to Eivlui^tl itncl token part in ^txaniiuin^ Prot- 
•stanti \rhi> pi^rUhi^d at tlui fltaktj andur Mstry. tlv 
was denonncv^ tn tlm TnqiiiAJtiou and impriaODcd at Vall^ 
d(il)d. Ht? irctimaey with Pole, ittid vrith Morcitit-, Fla* 
miuiD, aail uthi^r inninc?iil lUdlaiiM whj> v,-k*.V'. iTiHini'd to 
evan^Ucal cloc^inci. ^&» Qii<^. fact brought up a^imt him. 
Ilia catcchian, partly for its alleged leaning, lu noun; 
pointa, to tUo IvUttvmu theology, and partly bocnti»c it 
wiw vnthsn in the vulgar trjnf^tc, whs tho principal bftAH 
ol tha aocusuitton. !fovra« oharp>d with not having A4) 
diwd before the Holy OfRw leading Spanish FroteditfLnta, 
of wlkose aentimenta 11^ bad privately e^prease^ kta dtaap 
pmbnlion. At tlio end of mitcji yean litt waa tid:<fn to 

> for d*lM]i (if pvHcutioD, ■«• D« C»irc«. ^foaul ^r^^rufaaU (Lmloa 





Boom, cmd oiunr rmomB de1a5«i Grvigory XIII 
pooouiictfd watMiM, dndlDff him violently Hoapeot^of 
hivN^, firritiilizljiig lib cfttflflliinm, mjuiriiig liim Ui nlijvn* 
tlxtrt^n Lutlierun articlo*, anil miapi^itdiug luin from liti 
nS^ot for fir« jaan* At Iho expir^tioii of thb Umc, n^'^ 
lu?ing been for fiighMvi 50019 iHidor eomc species of cmi- 
fioetucnit, \w Oi-xl. A pHrt of Lho mat^riEil ol MCiisatk^ 
flgliunikt Cumnca. wiji duri7«d frv^m tho woriils of conaob- 
tiitn whif'li h--> biul a^drrMicid to thn dyin^ Rmjvmr, 
f^ljjijVrt Vh, nt tlifi onnvftut of Yiisti^ KiK'^ling at bii 
bcnlbidu, liie Ai^iibmbop, holding up & cniaSx, exdaiuied; 
^ Hdiold Him who Miswora for all I There n no nnir* 
im ; all is forgiven! " His words giLTO offeoec to bcom 
who w<<r6 present. Villabra, the Emperot'e FnToritA 
preiirl^«*r, w)io fullouirMl, rvuiiiitlAl I1U rapil mnntor tli.U mm 
hi* vriiA Iriirii nil thi: day nf St. Mnlthi^w^ ^in h« was to di# 
on thut of St- MAtthtna. With such intetcefieoTH, it wns 
Added, he; had noUiing to fAar> '* Thufl,^ writrn Migw-t* 
"tho twodoctrmr* that dlrided ttic \rorId in the age of 
ChaiioA Y.« were odco m<iro brcu|»lit before him. on the 
bed of d^th." > Boatdes the AwhbitJiop of Toledo, not 
\vis th:m tl^t SpiLiutth bUhupa, of whom tho most had 
MELt in thi' <'^mni!]l af Trt^nt^ and. twonty-Bv^ doctotvot 
theoli>^\ ainr>ngwhom were perscnA of the liiglimt end* 
Deuce for leariung. vrero llkewiae anaigued. And laost of 
tht^m obliged to ihaIco soono retiQOtioii or sobnut to 
puhlie htimilijition- 

It ifl fi irmnrhfthle evidence of the vitality of the 
olic re^otijii that it went fi^rward in aplte of the wuit oC 
v^lvo sympM-tliy on l]ii4 pEu-l of cerbLEn popes with its 
fiivtiritA iti*>ijnin<A« nr thu itKinnH^nli-nny nf thnirpniicy willl 
itaepnrit DLiid aims. What the uew niuvt^uitut nnjitin^ ■ 
ai^d the result townrda -vfhkh it tended, vroti the union oCfl 
the Ci^Ui6li^ |>iJWL-ni; cdpectcdly tat ftlliuico of t^c Pope 
kud Spiin. W hini CftmlTn nt tJio Age of AoTan^-niiio 

I BriHTtMiu,ffwt.v/CVaT<UiVA7»cMX*m**Ll.iii.l«l,«ll 




the Pitp^l tltroiux his Ktruugoat paAdcm lu^omp^i to 
iw hit hnjriul of Cluirk^ V-nnJ llit^ SpKnisirdH. With all 
bU Koiil for Ltic reform of wliich he li^ U-oii ujm uf (Iih 

tioAk bot from tMt a^^UtHU ambilioti fr-»m virhiiih nf^poH«m 
bud pnirioiwly aprucRi but in urtior trj vitn-y out hiir 
■■^^■^T'^ of lioitility to Sjmm^ HU stouU^vt drfairZ^n 
«g«>i«4 Alv:t iviTfi Gi^rtu^inH, miMt of wluiut wnm I'mtr-v- 
LinU ; he ev«Ti iiivokod thrli«lpof tho Titiks. The da- 
t of Ilia Frcacli aUitA at tit, Qui;utm« foUowL-d by the 
plcto Ducc<^aa of Alvii, foi-c«d upi>u him a cliTUigt; of 
policy. FortJivritli ho rvauniud with abtii^rbing <in(?rgy hit 
mtHrpriAM of raforin, aiui dincftrd^^J hin relations, wbom 
be l»d found to bo rrtuu^inxmH. This vr&a the end of the 
nepotuiik wbicb so loiig h»:l broiiglit diagnice and wealc* 
iMVto tJj.>oji the Tapal oHii^'. 13ut ilm wur l1i:iL 1ii* kimlUd 
Aidvd the cuu^i; c'f Pruteat^intiMii in Fr^noi^ ivi^d in the 
Kelh«rlaxub,nnd [Uw> in England. liLa political echoinea 
irer« portly re^KiiisiblA for bia atroj^uit ircsLbni^&t of KUut- 
botL, whoBi he did not \vi»h to lourry Philip, luid wlium he 
^id Willi Mtry Sttmrt, the cuudidnte uf thi.- Guik-^, to sup- 
pUnt. In Piun IV. (15r>?*-fl.'i) wtt httfo u ^lontifT vhn pnr- 
■oDiiliy did not «y)n|>Athtt« ruurli lA^ith the Ii^'jiuAUi"!], yet 
]«ft it to purene if ooiune unhlnd^rtd* U« lal>ored to 
tmitfi tiie O^olic vorld. tind ouocot^di^d iii piu^ifyin^ thi:: 
diviffioiu in the Counoil of Tn?at by nldlUul ni^f^tixitiiMid 
vrith ibo diffiimnC vovonogni. Pliu V. (1665-TS) waA « 
detvtod r>ipr(»ont»tivci of tb« Ti^d pstrt^-^ wiut zeaiouB on 
the one hait J for Uw reformalioD of thu Tujinl court, amd 
oa tho othf!r ftr iJic desLruotJon of heretics. Htt induot-d 
Dtilu Gottoao of Florence to deliver up to him Camodeochi, 
to BOComplishod litfirury nuxn. who, iiitliuiiLc<?d by Viildez, 
Ad early fnvorvd ProtcsbUktiHin, nnd hiul him brought to 
I Aona«, irhei-e he vru b^Uefld^d nnt^ hU \rn\\- cciinmittad tc 
I tfiA flames.' He af^roToJ of AhV> tloings in the NmIi- 


«diui(ln. QraJu^ly the Papacj caioe io jom hauda 
Spun ill lh*s gmud eJIort to ovc«^::omo Pr<>ketantin& 
Sixtus V. (^(H>mmuDiiml«d HiMiry IV, of Frauoo (1566)i 
Uo Junt hia moat 4iiinii>«t ourrp^ratioii to tbi) <iCFc)rt to oor* 
qnec England by tiK' Arnmdiu Hn wa^ licsin ^nd tottl 
with Oiiiiu* jtnd lUf? ffiidgtie, aiul npnu tU^ assaMmatioii «f 
Guibe« axt^j^iiiiiiutiicatui lltury III. If hu liaU-iiei] fiivor* 
ably to tJii: vjToiis tiuide to induce hbn to abKth'Q md 
rcc^r^iiKc* ili^nry (A Naviurc, \\\a Inotinntioiii* m xh3t% dl- 
rnctioij wtTTLT r>vi-n!omcT by tho onergc^tic ronoutranooe d 
rhilipJ hwxA tho hf>HtilQ attlMide of tbo Papaeytb&t, 
ctrongly atTorte<l the Catholic adh^r^ota of Navarra, and 
QOuGntird thi-iij iti Llii^ diB|XHulJim to n-i]tilni iif him a pro- 

Nothing cnti bo more striking than A^ change m tlie 
iiLtcUccttit\) spirit df Italy, aa we apjiroacb tbe end uf tbc 
sixteenth i'entm'>-' The old ardor in tbu study and imi- 
tation of tbt^ audenU has puvtcd amLy. Ev<in tlie r«iH<r- 
^nor» that «puiBd Iho ftrcbtt^tural r^malna of antiqnity it 
BU|jpUtit««d, ill tilt* ruhid of Sivtiiri V., for i<xiinijili^f by tlw 
d^>tire lij rijar t!dilt<wi tbal may nvid tlima. A iMd 
tndopctidtnit in\<i:7tigAtionv c«podally iu natun-i] aoli-otri-, 
tokos tbc placo of antiquarian aoholarsliip ; but thin avtr 
Aoioutific spirit^ wbidi oftt^n took a apeoitlativo Vanu m» 
ehkjckod And iv^prtia^v^d by tbo i^colouaatiad raiorc Loy- 
ilty to ib^ CbLireh, and a nfttgious t^mpor, in the strict 
form wbitli r.1ii> Catbnli{< nwtnmtion png^ndor^, pen^ 
fcrflt^d Jooirt>'. Pootry, painting, and iiiEi8ti^ Mft^n* ut unct 
ronoTfitcd nnd monld^^d by the r«ligiomt mlluencl^. Ta«D, 
who cboflo a pious orafluilL-r for ihc hero of hi» poem, the 
ftdiool of CiLntod, DoniiMitduno, and Guido Hcni, Paiw- 
bma, tbo groat comj)Orii?r, nuggont thi» rDvolnfioD in public 
Wling mul tuKtu III tbiw Hgi>, in contrast with di« og« of 

ILiatHq., IIL IUmq. HUfttf 

IKfllrESCg 07 HTE JteyiTS. 


Iha Ri^noiAiunci^ Tha piipid court, in itM nMttornd ntnci- 
IMM »nil Ef)lirii<^y, lu^LnifrHlri) iui-iitin- fiiilijri^tirirf tn i]m 
new ii^uvvuLcut. In <i ohiunctcr liko Carlo Bunuurjeo, *iia 
cottntei^rvXormalion appeiira in ii cLamderlatic but p^ 
caUntiy iiLtrautivo li}*ht. Of uMk! bjrtli. imd with tcicp* 
tfttion« to aoTiniinl iniljjl^<?nci* tl]rj\rii in bin patJi^ Iii> d^ 
voted binuti'tf to si rHli^iiiiM ViU^ rt*ith unwavering 6cl&Ii^, 
The neppli»*iv of Vinn V,, nUicvn nf th#i higlipst I'eaponii- 
blUty werr- fim-eil ii|>oii Iijeii, wlilcli lie iii^hHrg«;d weLEi ad 
cxciiipljiry <li1i^ni?L' ujid f;utbfu1tit:ba, tUn.t nudt sam wcro 
iacLliicd to envy or to ccnEitiri: ^f^u-. i^otnptAicd tn applatid. 
But bo velcomod the flay when he could U17 thorn down, 
tuid givo hlmfi^lf vr jolly to hts dioe(?sd of MiLin, where be 
wti» locbbiiljop. Ilia luitiring penevdranou in w^rks of 
dumty nnd Tvfonn, Ilia viaitjiiiDiu to n?Tnote»motintni]irnie 
viUsgi-i, ill tlici mrv nf ]iiH ITa(.'k,>Q3 Keiil for edtication, hia 
d«vi>ut|]L'»A, cuaadd him to bo styled, in tlit* biill Lbit e:in- 
ODiEcd hiui, ftti angel in lumaa lorm. His (rxf^rlionn in 
makibg prosplytcs, and bin willingnnM to persecute ben^y, 
volom agroaablo to contotuplato; but tficj wer^Aesscutiid 
leaturee of tho Catholic reaotion. 

Thi-' Jt-Hiiir* drst ostEibliaLed ibymstdvea in (oreo m ItJily, 
■nd m Portii^il, Spubi, luid Ib'^ir (iildnuw. " Out of tha 
raioiksry MolK^inrA of r^niiliiin,^' «ay» RHuke, *'■ aroso an In- 
llitutioii of iiflgularly ptw^tical tfciideuc,^ ; nut of t]i« rim- 
TCralons wroogbt by liis naoeticuim, mi institution framed 
witli all tho JHat and acouruto t^jilcubition of vrorldly pm- 4^ 
d«keo>" The uducation of youth, espeoiaily tliofio ol=V/ 
a^tmr Muik, i)iiic!kly it\\\, eo a krg« cxtffDt, into tbrir 
handa. Tlieir 8y6t4*m of intfllleetual tmining wiui aci^ord" 
iug III Li ntrict luetliod ; hut- Lbittr whrmU wrfr pnrvadnd 
by their p<.H:nliar rc?li^ouB npirit. It waa lai^ly thfougb 
*hmr iofiocncc that thir pro^e or soctiiar tone of cuJtin^ 
*bathMl prorailod in thi> Giti«« of Italy, ma vopcr^slod 
sf m culture In vhlah rovorenee for roUgioa and tho 
CbinoJ] wsm A Tital elAtn^nt From the two ^^cntw^w 


H the Df*^ order estcnded iu iofloenco into the other oovtt* 

H trE«tt (jf Uar[>}>t^ Tbcv fonnod a frr«at fltaadim armr, b 

H the iiorvio4i of Uii? Popv, for the propigfttioo of OfttboU* 

H lOMm. TItfi UnirrrMity iif VimnLi wus pltLcnJ under tluur 

H (Ibticti^xi ; t\wy L-r^lubUslRn] iU>miihi^1voji at CoLqgne Mid 

H Ingolvtedt and Prague, and from th«M ccntroA opot«tod 

H with great 8uooo«« in tlie Aiutrioik dominions, the Khen- 

H ish i^riiV'iitM!*, and otlior p&rta of GenoanT. The Duka 

H ci &&varia, partly fiom worldly uid p«itly from mligiotn 

H motiv^wt, enlUr^l \rHriiily m Lbe cwuMe of the Oulbolio ne- 

H nctiun, litid mmlr liiiniwlf itn chnmpiom In ttit? n^JtwRA* 

H ticftl sUt^'^ of Germany, the Fpirit of CathoIicUm «i» 

H I'fQvakciic-d, fOid tho toiomtioD promi^od to HrotOBt«DtB 

H by tho I'€4K« erf Aiftgabit^, wm fnyjiiexitly TidatAd. 

H The Poped, in thifl penod^ wer« liberal in theur eoi>c«»- 

H BjoiiTt to tlib Ctitltolic prijt<;(<a, who foiuid their profit in 

H lidpiii^ frrw^nl ihv n*JirLii>n»ry movRiitiiiiL fn thit liwC 

H quiiricT c£ the fnxt^^ntli century, mninly by tho labors at 

H thij JtJiiLUta, auid b^ thfj violent ineofturcd which Uioy ip* 

H >ti^tud, Uic tidtr wiui tiirued ^i{[riui^ Protcutfuiti«m ia 

H Southern GcnrnLtiy^ in BoboinU, Moruvi^k, Poland, and 

H Umig^ry. In the«ft couniri^, ProU«tAntJ«m had, on 

H the wbf^l^^ g-.iii]ed the mic^ndency, Togiether with Bot 

H giuirt Hrul Fraiit^t-, ihey uaciHtit'Ur^^d '* fclie great ilebnUblo 

H Ituidt" whom Ihu two iXHiftimioiis atmgglctl for Um 

H maatery. In all of them, Catholicism, with its oev 

H forced, wm tnuEuptiant, Tho Joeuita did much to pro- 

H moto thut Loeroaaed ^Kidtement of Catbolio feeling in 

H Pmuurr, wliich showed itaelf in thd &Uuf;ht«r of St* 

_ -^?PnrthMnnr-' mid th«^ warn of th<? Tvtmgui?, Front 
/DoLiay, thii M4T4LliIif;bni(»nt founded liy Cunlinal VTillJani 

/y AlU-ji^ thi^ nenl out their einiAsarics into EcglaiuL 

t« / Tan order waa active in Swedeu, and* for a time* hod 

^/ Bonio prospvcb of winning that kin^om buck to the 

/ Ottholio fold- Wbcrcv«r tboy did not pnfnul, tboy 
ihRrp(>ned the motual antagoaiem of the rival confe*' 

Tht* |>rogn<«s of the Catbolio n^atonttioii wim 

twit dieologiimA. Tho mutua] luurfility of Lathema 
ftnd CiiK'inl.'^t nppc^nxK in *onic crma, to ontwdgb th<iif 
nonnumi oppoution to Koiao. 

The qTiention Iiua oft^n been Asked, why« afler so ra|^d 
an iuh:uiLV! uf PriiU»ULtitiiim fur a luiK cMmtiiry, ii limit 
abotili] Lljcn Imvo Ijtmii scL to its progrotts ? Wby wn» it 
onnbJc b>ovcJi^tcp> the bcMjnds avIijcL it rourhc^l in thefurvt 
ftgQ of it4 cjci»tcnc4:t V MacauUy has bi^Tiillcd thia quce- 
tton in a flfilrit^cl i^eedy, in wfaich, with cert&ln refieotiH, 
wbloh utv fterflnetit niid valiinble, is coii])lo<l a sbigularde- 
nml tliiil the knoalr'r]^ of ivti^iun Ik jiri^gressivi^ or nt nil 
ilrpi'iL<l>-Tit. lEjioTi tlh- gi-iii'Titl I'ltlij^hf^niiiteiit of the human 
citiTi], Ajmri U*fiii Wi^ ixii.idoxical spocuUtlou on llm 
buit [lOiEit. hiti filntf-'fiit-rLt c>t' tlic j^rutiudft <:if Uie urreat uf 
tbo j^rjgrt'TU of Ptxrh^bbutmEii. thutij^h oloqucnt tuicl 
▼tlttflUOf ift quito in<x>nipl«to> 'i'hc principal oaoeos of 
tk&l «veiit we de«m to be the following : — 

1. Tbe ferment that attended ibe riae of Protestantism 
iniiii£ iivinituollj ItDbil U> iL i-ry?i[;ilU£iii^ of jiiLrLitn ; aivl 
tbiii luoflt nuJto np fv lianirT iu tbe wilj of the fnrtbra' 
qKTCAd of iho now doctmiei Protestnntiiim wan a moT4H 
BMOb of refonUt ariainfif within tht^ Church. At the out- 
•oti TovIUtudcfl etood, in nhition to it, iu the attitude of 
inqniron. Tlio^ vuro moro or Ub» favoffubly iiusliiMd to 
it* What counuf thoy wouhl tnkc, might ili^;>Rnd oia t]i» 
inflaiwcM to which tJi<iy would )inj>]tii[i in be exposed. 
Tbey were not immOTably attached to tbe old syatwii ; 
Uiey wen <^q to pereuaBion- But aa tho conijiot beoame 
«•»!, nuM w«r« moTi) uvl tiioto prompted to tnke nd«*i 
ftad to nuigo tlivnudvo* under ouo or tbo othor banner. 
Ttiii period of lliirttintion and convi^moii woald n^Uitndljr 
91ii>a to an end. A?) 80on as tbe spirit of jhirty v-ja Uiiu 
Leuod, it formed aii otifiUb.l« to the fuither progrecs of 


the n^nx t^piniojii ; £or Uii« cpirit comtnuaioatod itcv^U Eron 

S. TbB poLiUcal arningeTu^ntH vhic^ vera adopted In 

(ill toiuicfl to onfino Protestantism vrllliin ihr. Umiu which 
it hod c«^ly ikttLuncd, Tlu« U ft |>oint of great importBDco, 
ftud 18 not noticed by M&caulay. In Germany, the n^o- 
tiaiit'ciB and dispnt«s pn>d(i<wd by the religious ccitwt, 
imuf^ ID t}iit adoption ai tUrf pnndple, -^ cujoa n^c, ejoi 
nrllgi»;'* tlin n^U^on of tlio State ftli^ coiifurm to dakt 
of tlv; priuc«- Tliin principle, hcwcTcr, woM not bava 
availed to ftTT€«t l^-oti>eiaatiein. But tbe ■* oode^natical 
lOMrvation" did dins av&U, ^09 the convonnon ot na 
ec«ksUsC!ai] i-ul^i- 10 t)i« new &ltb was ftiiended vrith em 
ii]i|Mjrtnnt gnin t^i tlm Pn^ttiatiuit tsiiuM^: Itt? mitnt viuntn 
Lis ci£Scc. Tbe whole tendency of politicnl arr&i&gccLeuts 
in Germany wa£ to buUd up a wivU of Mparation between 
Uie two oonioesioua, luid to prot«et tbu territory of «ftch 
from the CEncroacbmcnt* cf Urn other. It must ho romoiD* 
htWM^ tbnt tli^ itpirit of propftgnndJsm did omt, gruii-ndLy 
Rj^fakiiig, tlmracterb^ Prutet^taJitism. The Proteil&nta. 
iUf[H-L'jjil1y in Ovrumuy, wurv satisfied If tliey could be left 
to develop, without intcrforcnoe, tLcir Dwu tsystjMn. The 
ntmovt limit of their dcmurd wn« room for Om tintural 
osponsioD.^ In tho Netht^rUmds, tb6 sepeiatioii of tho 
Widloon provinofiji from iha otber itatei, and tho &d- 
biTrt-Tuw of tli0 ttjnjttT Ui Sptuii, rciuM h4v<< no ti\hv.r nmnlt 
than to perpetuate tli«ir connection with tbo Gatliolio 
Churdi. In FVwice, tlie civil ware and the political aet* 
tlem.i^t to wliicii tlicy !«i. ro«Ut<-Hl in tJw fonnntjoa of 
tbe HngnejiotH int^ ^ compftot body, formidnhlo fnf 
def«iu». bnt powierlcva for the prcpagntion of tbnir faitb- 

■ '- Wloiilrffricfftiauriitdcr Pnt««ullflmaWlilklLMiak«hraiiW Vbtitt 

^ofta Hiflrr ruc«il J^odiiri fnumi wniM «Zmt Klwa nMMlv tt^», wmu no 
■Bibtf tmuiLet IM. ^(b iKigrtm ma fnmdCT Snnrirttaff ra entwfifliilv 



& '11m oountoT-niloiinntion in dioCatholioChiircb, by 
f«iK»>Ting the groei ftbiuea vrhioh hod been the objoet <J 
ffghteonfl o»iuplainT^ &3ok a fcniiidAbto weapon from tho 
lunda of Uie Pnjl-^t^nu. Al t1i*> ioajiw Utiii-. dw n|Hktliy 
ol lli« old CbuL^h \r.wL bn^ki^Ei »p, Um lUti'-iitii^ii of itfl 
rulcn ms no kingci- nbsorbiHi in nmbitioas sdiGmes at 
politic*, CT in iho grHttlictktt>>n of » literary inAte, which 
m^de tho Fapal court a ron Jezvuus of auUioK auU lu-tioto i 
biat A profound u'aU for thu doctruLt» and (orini of tho 
BuDiiin C;iUi(4ii? t^ligion ^mrviid^d uiid united ail ranks 
oi it» dlaif.iiilrA. 

4* While tlm coacvntralivn of foivt^ vrud taking 
phM on (hij Coolie ucl«, l^roCtiBtanta more and mora 
Wtttttcd their otn^ngtli hx contudU vrith onu another* 
Thoir mtittiiil intoknuiois fiicilitatod tbg adTjuicaoE their 
conunon wicmj. Motvowr, tho wArm, rctUgioua fi>oIin|; 
tbac animated the cnrly Iti?fonn»^rH ^zid the priuoea vrho 
dfiCendnl their aiiiiH% pu^uted tiVkKy tu a tuiixldtrmbln 
dflgrm, iLiid wn* «ii(^iwd»d by a tJieological rigidik^'^a, or 
a oelfiah, political spirit. The appearance of such ^ char- 
acter a* Maurico *>( (Saxony, in ao marked toutnwt vritU 
tho EI«vlord Kho lisUnvd to tho voio^ of LiiUior, uud 
oven vrith tJiu Ijuiilgritvu Philip of Huhmv, iiidiait4« the 
adTent ni lui vra when u tnon* politic &nd aclHiih tj^mpvr 
dtsplaoea the fiim|iJicity of ryi]i[ru)ir»i pnndplf!- Qneeu 
EILniWtli, vritli bi-r Uktwarm iitt^cLiuint to llie Refor- 
Oialion, and hor in^ntliicioun, croukvd polic^y, U a pool 
rcprcacaitihtiTo cf tho ivtigicun character of t'rotc«tantd«in. 
How mttoh more intr-nAn and ootiJiiMtiint vr:u» tho rchgtnua 
aaal of the ^ailur leftil^^r of the Catholic roatoration, 
PbUip 11. 1 The ardor of rmtestajiU spent Itaelf in 
ilcnDualid diauird, nL Ihe vary tlma wlien Om icrdor of 
OatboIi^nHm vras exerted, vntJi nndividt.'d energy, agi^nat 

b, Tho better ergaiuzation of the Cntholio Choroh vai 
V flisnal adrantsf^ in the battle witli Pr^ktestAntism 



vhii^h wiif divided \ttio am mruiy cburohufl oo H^ctv ivf-re 
political coirununitir^ ttiiit embraced the new tiotrtrrnc, 
Od thd CRtboUc fndv thcto cculd hu a pton of op«mtioM. 
h&ving respi?rf rot t« n. nngU ootintrv nlom^, fk MpanM 
portion of the fii*lil of combat, but fi^mi^il ii]xiii &aarT?f 
of Ij« whole aituHliuu.HJid ouTied out vitli *ole reft^rtfin:« 
U: a united »uccew. 

fj. Anothur uuuroo nt power in tho CAtboUo Church 
grow out of thfi habtt of iivailing itadf of aII variotjet 
of rvligioiu t^ni|VYruncmt, of taming to th^ bMt u)0OT]nt 
tlie wiile diviTMity (if tj<l«iif* and chanfcclt^r whioh ia d«« 
riOop^l witlitii ltd fold. The iLiapaftiuoiiiito uint ju<C4it4i 
politidnn, the luboriouA nchoUr, tlie aubtlia mid EdtiUfo] 
polemic, Uie fiery oithuniost, arc nooo of them rcject^di 
but M of them nangncd to a vrctrk ^ttcd to their re«pOi>- 
tivfi capficitt««. Mvn w diuiiniliir ns BeUarmmu sod 
IgnatiiiH were ^ngngwl in a couimnii cause, and w«« 
tfvtfu ivitliiii the KUuti fnil«riiity. ITii.n ruit<ini of the 
Cathfilie Church im ottni nttiilmli^d to » profound policy, 
l)ut whatcvor eagacitj it luay indicate, it ift prtibubty dur 
Icfls to the calcutat30D3 of a fut^aii-ULL^d policy, than to 
an hubitnal prinoipJo, or w;iy of thinkiJi^; in religion, 
which tH inhtin^nt in thu gpntuN of C&tholi^iiim. It had 
bppti justly ob«i*rv<*d that mi»n of th*> type of We«J^y, 
w1io» atnoiig l*roti^fttnU, hnv* }>ei?n foiwd to Ix-como 
tliu fuuikdi!!^ of distinct teli^iouA bodit^ wotihl havp 
found within tJic" Catliolio Church, h-td tJioy been bom 
th<'-r(\ Jion])itnbIc troatmont nnd <iongi^niaJ employment 
Thit hopt iha,t vrajt mar^hallod under tha command of 
tbo Popp, for tli& dctfens^ of Catlioliciam, vru liko an 
trmy tJmt InohideB HghtHtrmed ftltiruilahert and hf^avy- 
iim](<d Jirlillrryinr-ti, Kwift raivnlry, niid Mjiimwhn ran pen 
ptrato thp cimip nnd pry into l.he cohtiaciIh of ihe eoerny, 

T. ft c&nnot be denied that iti Southern Eun^ ihtrn 
wiifl nianirt^ted a moK^ rootiMl Attachment to the Itomiio 
(^atholia syetem, than exiatod among tho niitionfl which 




^^np^nl1 die Roforaititioin. In Gi^rtrmny, tho conmi<m 
gbdly Iward tb<» teaching of Luther- Ptotes- 
htism tbpre )i:vl much oE the ohnmctoL* of a uutioriol 
^nnoTcmeDL III TlHl^r umi SpEiin, It ^vilh muinly tlm l^jtU 
Item] cilftM tliul i-«ccaVL<d thn iirw doctiiiiFv llolaw ft 
toertmn gnid(^ of culture, few wnrc nffcct^d by it, Even 
in Fnitirc, wliirj) hud iiom^thing lUn) n iiiidtile poeition 
tratween tlie tvto Gunvnt« of (Opinion, it waa the ititel^ 
It middle oUm« together witJi flolioUra mid uobl<»«. 
Unit fitriiLHliHl 10 Prote-stuiitLtrti iT« HjIhf-ri^iitH, In Itsily 
und 8|niiti, tlu' n<^w doirtriiit.' did nut rf'JiL<1t diiwn Ui tliiii 
l^miigs of ikfttioiULl life. Moreover* it ia rcm^ikitble tlint 
lu tlie6<; uatioiia i^-hicli rcmatnf:d Catholi'-, srj many who 
weai 00 fiir tLti to rtiooivu thu e\Tingi>liciil doctriut* aubnton* 
ly lu it WW hpld by tlie Prott^stantn, wpro nnt im- 
Itfd to pftjit fjff tho polity or worship rf the old 
lurch. This fircurrwtano** h fnr from being wlioUy 
du*t t<i ttuiidily. Tliii outwjutl UirinH of Protesbiotlmn 
rere lew iw^-i-Maiy, Icsa congiriilid to thent ; the outward 
of Catboiicism were lr-4« obnoxious. Even in 
fVoiioo, Lhia oame phonorucnon ajipcarcd in the circle 
tilut early (fikthorod ithr>ut l^^fl^rro und Bri^oiwet, and 
espocialLy in ?klargnrot of Niivurre iind hvx foUowors, 
doctrine of gnitiiitoiifl salvation thmiigh the merits 
ol Clirifd,, the mwun)ni?83 of piety, tu fi:«tere<l by the 
«n-iuigi*lii^d [ItntrinH. wi*na {^i^U-ful Id Ultiru ; hut tlifcy 
vere not moTcd to retiouncc tho goremtncnt or diQ 
of the Church, or to affilijtte thcmscliea with 
ProUcrtont body. 
When all ihctta oircunt&tanvi^ aro contumplatod, it will 
to bo a matter of wf^nd^r tli»t PratoitaDtiun, ftftor 
flrat great victories wprc w(tn, bnltml in ibi nonn*^ und 
•nu at LenjfUi abiit up within fixed lKkuni1ario»^ 

Bnl On? naUtfilic j>arty were d«atiued to sulTer from 
tntomat thword. Ucfdro tho cloao of tho oantury, ttic fol* 
birors ol Ignatios* ^ho were semi- Pelagian ia thoir tfa^ 


ology, became involved in ahot strife witli th« DouiintcanSt 
who in coTnmon with their niA^«r, Aqumas, were ueatvr 
Lit Augtmliiit! ja Uicir vluw uf tUw rttlaliuu <*f gnuHi Ui fivt?- 
will. Tlii^ tUi;r>]i}^icii1 cuiillict Uiat yraa tliTU kiQillt^, vrju 
of long cotitinuAHcc, iLnd brouglit serioud diMurtciv iipou 
tlio Cnthotio Church, and, in ittt ultimate cSoct, npon the 
J«atiit ordit^r. Thia wa9 on<i uf a niiiubt^r of lulvfru^ in- 
fluenoes wbioh conflpirerl llnally to pnmly/^ the Catholio 
Rfiftiution, And to etop tJie progreu of the ooDDter-rvtEormft- 


The Catholic Reaction, of which the Pc*pe was th« 
■[liritual, and Philip W. the aecLihir chief. expfrieiiCL^d a 
tirribio reverse hi the ruin oi the Sptuiiah Artnada, luid 
tho feuLure of thiit ipgiintic; project fcr the conqaost of 
Knghuul. The eot^-hliah merit; if Henry IV, on the throne 
ol France wa* a, stjll nicii^ discoiiiTigin^ lilow. Prauee, 
the NvUierhiiida, mij Great Dritaiu were the priiit^ip»] 
tbeatrd of tlii^ eifcrta which hud for their end the political 
pcwJoiniDiuiAft of the Spaninh mortnrchy and tlie Bpiritual 
MpreiDOcy ol Komo, Tho struggle of Protoetantism oou* 
tfamee throuffli die ^r^ater part of tlie 8eventL**>nth c*n- 
taiy. Gradually the Catholic Reaction txpi^uded lEa 
fan*, Mud |H>litii?nl nif^Uvm luid hhi^s sxihtiuVianfetl th* 
unprtlne-K of fauaticiiun. 

The priucipal topacs to be coMidered are the thirtjr 
I'war; the BDi;lifih revolution*; tiid domeBtio und 
%rc3pi policy of Rictieltun and of Lotiin XIV. Thft roi^ 
of [^tib XIV. fntU principally in tlin hitter half of the 
wvenloptith fwuttirr, or ihp pnrifxl folIi>wing th*? proat 
European BPttTenient. t^ie IVao** of Wejitphklia. Vvtftonie 
natiuia of Cjiia lel^n la reqiiiAite fur a full tIl-w of tlie 
ooc^ict of Prote^sUntinm juid CutholtoiAin,^ 

Charles V. had found hiiniK^tf do<?cirod in hia politienT 

1 RittfHr, €tml!dkta </« Zeil«J'<n V- affK*rm<ttitfi ItflOS^ Ton lUiuatr, 
grtrAidkfi /W«pv mil ^ iWf J. Itt. /lAr., W. lU^ I.««nnt« I^r .Viifi'in^ 



CttluiiliiLioiia, iiud biLttied by tLo inc>ral foroo of tlio Prol^ 
veiiuii faitii lit Gurmauy. Hib final <i»?f^^t in Uie nttcmpt 
to uibjtigitUi Qiu Pr<>lvi;tiuiU Wit tUe Kmtiire Tri^alc It 
IS not ttttp t>»rtt: ni^muLTiy IrBt itn pi>Utj^ unity through 

bt?f»rv : rutlmr is it ti'ue Liiat tkei) it «acnflccd Ui« opj-ur* 
tunjt^^ of it-toYLTiiLg jtd unity aziti of pLidog it on an «rh 
dunng foundiktioii. Tliu KttVirmattuii in QGrtOADj, moffo 
thRn in nny otiior t^uiiiitryf uioiiuutvd uut froTn vbibttmen 
Uid m1«^n^i bill fmm tlm hi<iirb« uf thr jM>op1n. It wat 
LiiLilnrvil fi'iiJii tu-iiig iuiiv<'i>a1 by tliiT i>)kHi^ilM c««t in it< 
WH> uuil iry itJi utfii interiuil divialuun. 

Thi: l\-iu:u of Augaburj;, uiiafttiafw^tm-y m its proTit- 
ion« ^rm? to both jmrtioa^ ttlTvcti^d its tsncl u.i long ua 
the ctnpcrcn wcro impiirliol in tht-ir iLdmimttration. 
Ttia WW truii of Fpi'dinand L, whos^ accession waa 
reflated by Paul IV., tlifl on^my rtl liia Hoiiso ; and it 
vnm inic i?i|ima.11y ttl Majcttiiiliau IL, \i'lm vitu himM»H 
strongly iii^^liTied tn IV>U«l»iU i>piiiii>]t)4i :ind was opeoljr 
diorgtsd with liereay by CalUoUc tftalol*, Undiir lua 
tolcnutt ari-jty. l^uteetantiam apre^cL o^T-r Aiutria, witJi 
tbo t^ccptioai of thu rurnl iind ncclutlcd valloyc of tbe 
Tyrol. Clmrlea V- hud bfli*n obtigvdd to r«lin(tuiflb 
hifi wUU to hand do^vn i\\Q imperial crown to biu »>a 
Philip. Philips ^^ li^ fwJiallL'itl ext<rLii>Ti!t :L{^tniit Pmle*- 
tAntiHm. did nofn rr<irivi^ <4«:»ti^iiftrn*<i ttr mipjvii-t from the 
Austrian braiiL-h of Ilia family, llie cnieltaos of AIvh lu 
the Nt-tUtilandt^ au<l the inaasacra of St, Bartliolomow 
iTtfTO coudriniitd uiid dc]>lorQd by tin; Rmporor, Philip 
wae Ao iLfr:iid thnt Mnximilian himatTlE would join tbe 
Prot^fltaiita, that he dedui^d it aeoe«»ary to diaauade Mm, 
by the must preasing exhorCationa* from tnldng sueh u 
■ttp, WhiU* Uh' niiitisit wji* r:igiiig III the NHbc-rlHtidn, 
and btittt"i.iiiii tin' liiiguiTiKji* i»nd tliwlr pnrmiiTs in Fnxnoe 
the Luthtri-aiu uf Geiiuany remain*^ for tbe UKwt pan 
ueulml. Tlit^r boBtUity to OalTiiiiaiu had isuch to lU 




in ilpt^rmiijiidg t.lieir |>iMitioi]. Tliey w«ri> wiiriiud by 

tlio caujse yrnA i>nc% aijd thut If OuthoUc liLLatiuiAiii 
TTcre Qtit chiTcki^il, Germany wonld be the uiMt victim. 
in the lattor pgrticni of MiuJmilioD^s r^^tgn, whiuh ^viui 
from 1^64 to 1570, the Joeuits camG in. and dktm-bitTir;e« 
arc«e^ Rudolph H., his sufx^e^soi', hud beou brought 
op iu Sjjuiiif mid vfiut ujider bbt; iiinLuuu'n cif UiU Orfl^r. 
The Kinjc y^jiril clinnicti;ri£v<<] AliLlLlitoo, wlio fi:>lUiwi3d 
noart- In cfnir^cqui^nco rif the incompetence f>f RiidolpU, 
tbo govcmmcnt of Au»triA Mid tlurij^Ar^ Imd, diiriiL;; Uia 
lifOi be«)] t^en fiont hint Avtd ^ivvn to Maitliius, iiud tic 
in turn gav" way> in likn mjirn*'i\ to liia oDicein Ai'oh* 
ihikel'Vr-litmiKl, of ytyria. !i bij^oU-d Ciillidlfi- (16111-37). 
(VnliiiatidiUKlMaxutuljJUi, Duke uf liuvjuia, were tbe 
floroted ch&mpioon of the Cj^tho[ic Hciiction. M^tthiLtii 
bod bciui oooipcllcd to gntnt l^ Icttor p&tout to Hic 
Bo1i«iviiniiit, whiuh g^V9 tliom full reli^^oos tolonitioa 
ftud t<jiLil rii-bta wiLli Lb<; CuthtfLicu, Violiitionn of tho 
Ridi^uiti P<-sii"i* in firrrunny on tJiii nido i>f thn OttthoHci 
wvriT fni^pK^nL hi^hopn luid OntlioliL^ cjtjwt drove out 
th»fii rroLestdLirt Aubjucta aud aWUlli^d IVoLeaUitL wtir- 
jJii|>. Ttw indi^'nulit^n oi the Protcatjuitti tlir<niglufut 
Gcniioiiy wika 4^citcd by tbc trcutiuunl of tho free ct^. 
of Uoiuiuwortli, wliich vriu rxcl^ivoly Protontant, and 
nfiuwd to allow pEv>ce<««io¥L8 froin A Catholic convent^ 
theee b^Dg uicoiuistJdiil with n former a^re^ment. TLa 
citj vdtf pbiotnl uiuk<r ilm bau of Hm KiTipiri!, luid Ibo 
BttTArati Duku rnjuubinJ ;^^jiin»t it viUi ah QvczwhebriiEig 
furoei exdiided Pictefltoiit woi-abip* tuid lacorpoTAtcd the 
town mth hiB -jwii teiTitoTi<!d (IttOT). Coruploiuta were 
nuuie on tlio C&Ui-jlic mdu of uilructiona of ihn EccluGnu- 
tical PraviiKj, which <jrfiiut]<?d tliat bum^fioeA abould bo 
Tftj^tod liy incTimlxTTLti} who should embrace Pmtnfttaiit- 
iBiiL The PivtE^lanta h^ permitted Urn Emperor, in 
tbu Practtof Au^burif. oil hiu owa authority, to alGnc 

4iM rBonsTAKnSH « mz setesteektb cEDmrffT. 


fimJ^' i^fuseil lo adopt ; ju9t oa tiio iinperifil deuUmtloQ 
for tlit^ prot^clJoQ cf Protoatout comiuumtiea within the 
jYirl-^Jiction of Calholio prolat^^, had hat^ ptirmitbxl by 
tlic other piwty. Prt^tortuut priapcfl bud givwo to bcoui- 
fictv K~mg nt^ar thom^ whtoh hud tilrvody bcoD gunecl to 
th** llf»ff>rm*tii>ii, SinljiipM iiT nilmntiKtrnlinnt frr«n their 
uwu kiuameu ; juid at tli« dioU ihey urged tbt^ conipIc?tt) 
iil>olialiiu«iit of aU euch restnctloiifl upon religious £no- 
di:>ui.^ I!ut tJ](t ProTiBO'vr&d n^dly cnforood in tho cace 
of tho l-lti?ctt>r of Colo^ft, who wcitt ovci to Pn>t4Mt<iib- 
iBm in 1&S2. Tho outrego porp^tnLt^d againvt Donni< 
wSrth led to tb»^ formation of the EvAn^^oal Union 
(1608), a T>'»gue Lniri %vhid}, howerer, liU th« Prot«i»- 
tant Shitm did not Mitor, mid whlcli from tiac U^niung 
irat ireokly organized. Hut the Oalkolic League, wlucfa 
^Ttf fbnncd to oppose it, uadcr tho leadership cE Mud* 
milian of BaTaria* was firmly oemoutcd tuid full of 
(iner^. On the ProUutfuit nidt^, in addition to otlier 
tritiroea of di^ordj thn hofttiHty of the striot Luthaudi 
to the Cnlvinistfi wns a rontinnal and fruitful cuum of 
divkion- Tliu UohezitJiuid rcvcilu^ ngtunnt Rprdiiund 
Ih in lf!18, wli<;n their religtoiu libcttiM were vioUteil, 
Mid " nooording to the good old Bobcnuao ctutom/* u 
ono of tho nobloe oxpr««eod it, fluiif* tyro of the imperial 
ooaQoilors out of the window. Whuii, shortly aftor, on 
the death of filatthiaA. Ferdinand bocamo his raooenor, 
ths B<»lLC*mtMtiK refilled tu ackiwwledgo hlni sib thi^r 
kin^'i and giiTo iJie crowu ci BoTiemta to FTcdnric V., 
tho Elector PaUtifi«, and tlin aou-in-Uw of Jamea L 
of England. Ferdinand, a nunling of the Jesuits, trbo 
had early tatccn u vow to extirpate hi^roay in bt» ifa>- 
minioDfl, wtiich ho had kept, np to tho mvaffitro of Ui 

1 GiHtltTitv. I- 1,4 11- Upon Uii Ui(of7 «nd IbUrpnlMtia flf tb* BcdiriM 
Itatl HaHnvDOD, t« lUhh4, /'*vAi^e Ve»r\iefili, r. 26C, flTt Kq> [ iPfr^r, tI 
t Hq.^ Glntter, n I- 1, f D «iLit u- <Dh 


ortaBsa or the thdetv yi^abs' wab. 


ftbilityi threw biicfclf, oa miicb from ncceaaity as from 
choioi>, iuto tlio arms of tlio Catliolio Li^u^e. H& mauii- 
tettbd hit ardor iu the Cutbolic caiiae by itn jaalditons 
attfTDtion to religious st^rvioes. For exai(iple, li« lorjk 
pttri in n |>n>ceasiuu m tLe midRt ft il Hl^rni of rum 
luualating thua lli':^ zcnl whicli ilm Eiupuior Julian dis- 
played in colobrating tlio ritea of heathenism, Thua tbo 
AuBtriau mip^nsJ houee took up tLt) ^ork whtc^ lud 
lw«i bid down by Charles V., of dofeodhig and projuu 
^Liing CiilJioliL'miii, in ^LUEiLiii^ti wllh ihe CliurL'h. Tlie 
Cttlltolic: Ri-surLioii, whit^h Uui) fcjuml a reprf»entAtave lit 
I^l-p II., found another Iciuior in tha Emperor; and 
thtf two branches o£ tho llapabiir^ family were morr 
united ID relif^oua aympathica. Tho KIcctor, Frodenc, 
wiUi Uia obtnaaivo Calvinism, and with a court whose 
cTiutomi uiid miuini!rsi wvre not eongenial with Boh^-mian 
K'rling — uvpiviug little BUpport, moreover, from the 
Ptot^stajit pnncea or from England — enfTered a com- 
plete defeat. Lulhui-uu prejudices and tlie fear of i:oUQ* 
teiuncuig rcbeliioEi juid the rcrolutionary spirit, depnvixl 
him of his oatutal nllice. Ilio reealt wus thut Bohunua 
in0 abandoned to ^v and «woTd^ In tho frightful perse- 
cntkHB wliloh had for its object the t^iauicatlon of i'rot<«- 
luitlKn, and in tho prutnuiU-d wm^ that ensued upon 
it| tliP pi:»pillat]<in vuk [educed from about four miUitmn 
to bet vreea seven and dght hundred thoiuand ! It iran 
only when the Palatitiate was conquered <md deras- 
lated;' when tho do^L-topal rauk waa tranaferrcd to the 
DukQot Bavaria, and M'lth it the tc^rrit^irictt of Fnd^^ric, 
except what was givipn to Sp^n; and wli*!n Urn rnliM- 
prise of banigluDC Prctj?8tanti>itn wns Lv^tivrly undiTtnkim 
by tbi? uombluu] a^^truc^y uf Lht< U'vxipa of the Len^e and 
af Jcnut primU, tluit the Protestant powers took up 
the cause of the fugitive EkciUn. In 1C2^, En;;bikd 
HoUandi and Denmark enterod into an alliance for b. 

1 Tht B«ldi>l(parf UHinrj ■■» un^Ad oB U Sob* 


mtonliou. Cbmtiui: IV. of DvumariE wu defeated, 
BDd the DuiuaU lut^rveiitioa tiiiled. By robbing Fred- 
etie of tbo cloctpruL di^^ty euid coiii<irriiig it on tbo 
BiivnriAn Duki^, & inajority in tha olootoral body v«a 
Ac^oir^xi bj tW CiitholkA But tii* povor mtd statioci 
vfaicb the Dak*' gtuntvl, wfKimt^, in importAnt partM>> 
ulnni. lib murrosu fnim tJtoee oT FenUuatiuL II wiw 
tlm*ugb tilt? aid cf Wallfidpteiii aad l>i» connuiuiMtt 
RbilitY in cullvcting aijd orgiuunii^* aa well iia kadiog 
An fumij, tEuit Fordinand vmn Ma to emancipate bimMlf 
from iho mco&l oontTt:'! ol Maximilian and tlid LoagQV.' 
W^leuflt«U] vraa a Uohenwui noble, proud, able, and m 
mnyvd hy dnata% ot :limHl[li|) ; uuNtTUjnilifiu in ivsp^ct 
tg Uie mtunN which nilglit br^ ns|itir»l fmr tlu; ful£llti)f-nt 
of bU tlfinng scheaneft. He had rendered valnafala nuli- 
buy Borvioes to Ferdinand ; and, oa tho suppnosion oj 
tiL6 Bohomiaa nvolt, bad aoqulrcd vast wealth by tfao 
purGhiiiii» of oonfiftcatiod property. H# oflerod to xain 
aXL anny and to suslAm it. Uo made it support iUeU by 
(nUngn. It WLIA :i yvrM U tRLiiatdfm in due mi^thod of 
l^nwcniiing vrar, when Uii; olil AVKtirm of TisiidHi militia 
had paaaed awA>\ and the modern systont of mtioiial 
foroes orBtaodiug urmicfi had not ariAon. Amm vevtt,' 
madu lip of hiroUi^s of all natJona, vbo proaMutiMi var 
aa a ta^ado %vbin^!ver tljo richest booty was to bo gwawMl ; 
OOiifiid«ring inditcriiniiinte robbury a Ic^tixoatQ inga^^t 
of warfitrei. The Ineffable iiiiftenea of the protract«d 
■Lru^L^ in fl«:'iimny were due, l« a cuctiidenible extutit, 
to Uiis corn |ioh1 Lion q( tbr nrmicfi. Biutda tjf nrgiuii^ixl 
plunderers, with amu in their hand«, were let Looao upon 
an unprotected popiUadoUt captured cUSob bi»ng ^rtsi 
np to tlio unbridled piunoaa of a dcroe and lawlcaa 
poLdiory. Tho unaimod poopla dieadud th<iir frionds 
sardly less tban thdr foes. The good belu^vior of tha 



iraa a oaaiTcl to the uih^tbJUinla wiLli irUom th«j 
4U&0 in contai;t : aud ev^u tbe Sw^jdfd, ;ift^r tho desith 
of ihifiT gr^^t loudor, auok down townvdji tUc? lovnl ol thi» 
rc«t ol tJie cmnbutantf] in this frif^lLl.ftil conflict. It ia 
Qi> wonder that Germany, travcraod and trampled for » 
vho]» gi>ii«ratlc»n by l>b««e hrmXs of maratid^ra, vra& re* 
(}i»i^ jillU'jwt It* u deHfirL ; Uiat id iHidiin^il (sdiiruiUHa 
frwiD wliicli itr hua acvcr cntii'cly i^covorod- 

Vic*ory fttt-sncl<d Uio arm* of WiLlLciuttcm and of 
miy, the Gonoral of the Lcagu**. BmnsMnck and Haii- 
over, StlesiA, Sclileswig and HuUttiii, ft>U iiJto their 
poircr. The dukea of Mef^Ulenbiti^ w^r^ put under thd 
t«ui iif tlir Etiipin.^, juid I.Uuir temturj" givi*n, ju » m- 
wmrd, to Wq,1IciuU;ui (1627^. He wiu* itiwitntu tn n^duiM 
tbc Ocrmaii towns on the Bnltic> Btit StralsuiKi offered 
ft etubl>om reaUtarico wliicii lie could not overcome, al- 
tlioiiftti h« vowtfd that be woidd Iijivl' thu town if it 
vrvn bound to tbi< %ky by i?buiiLH of ndnuiant. Fib am- 
bitions lebemeq wi?re quite independent of the xefaemM 
nf tlm Ij^Agtte. wbit'h cuidd iKit L^uiiut iipou his hup^xirt. 
Svrh wiui tbeir ji^loiiHy wid iLnimuAity 1j)w:uvbi Hm com* 
DUadcr who ha^ miwlo Fci-dirwind fiy<t from tho'ir diotii* 
t«oni tb&t tbey induced him to rcmovo Walknstein from 
bi« oocamand. (Shortly before tbia« however, thej bad 
miorod tho Empvror to tbo adoption of u inMiaiirv oqu^lj 
duig^rous to bin enusu, an<L <mw Xh'At put fs^ divtiuit tli« 
hapm of iprwp, '\1\i% WW tbfl inmrmn li<iiot of ftestirntion 
(1629). wbii.-b dwUmd tb^t Xhv PniU-Blau I Sl»lwi. after 
tlu! Tn^t> of Paaaau, )md uu right l<> npjirEjfirhito ibc 
coJcdiuAtivMl bt?ii(!fio<;B w'^idi woro nnd«T th(»r iordnbip, 
Mid tbiftt otcry ik«t of AccnlariKntioD of thi» nnturo wa« 
nnll ; tliat all nrciibiAboprics nnd bisboprio* wJiicb bsid 
beiXdDe l^n:»tpntant ain«e dint Tr«>stty, mu«t ba Hirr«A4> 
diVHl : that tlie Declaration r)f Ferdniaiidl.,^v]ng liberty 
to t\v*- PrntMUnt ttubfecta of oocUuiaatkal piiiioai, wiu 
iamlid. a»d tba^ «udi n^bjucfa lugbt be fcrced to b«ooiiM 

428 non^A»riS3i ix tbe sevlxtexktb cesturt^ 

CotholJcft, TTT t'^ip^lod fmm tli«ir Iwmea. Tlmt is^ die 
|utrlB ol Lhe ReLi^iuuB rnti^ tti&L wtire udioiu Ui Uio 
Protovtanto wcix- to be enforced, accotiUiijc to tKc stno^ 
cut coontructiun, vliilc Uie portn obnoxious tu the Cmtbo- 
lioN wl^td to bi^ abrogntiMi. Moreover, Uic EtUot oitUinod 
thAt Uio Religious I'enoe «lionld n^^C Avail f<kr th« ptoteo- 
tiou of Culvinlat^ Z\niig)iaTia, or »ny other di6»nl«n 
Mttvt Uk' ;tilWrL'iiUi ijf Ujc Auj^bur]^ Cuiiftuaiuu. Tlw 
dittiig;iv tluiit hod Uiki^M plju% sbtdc tbe Pusati Treaty 
wcro of such a cbarwrtcr, that titc execution of tUc Indict 
would ba\€ brought a swoeping and violent rcvo^^titm 
in the ProUfiUnt oomrnuDitJes, It wfts eTiddot that 
nothing ]oft« waA buni«d at tban ihn entire extiitctiou ol 
ProtJ-ntinlism. Th<* mo*t luki^wjirrn of tho Princ««, 
indudiug tbe Electors of Hr»iiib.^nburg tuid Saxony, 
WW toaseKl by tliifi meaaaii-' ti> a aenau of tbe common 
dan^, Tttua Llic Edict of Itastitutic^n and the reuoral 
of Wiillormtoin from bid command, th^^ tvo mocuiut« 
dictated by tho Lcagao, aided tha I'ToU^ntant coiue ; tho 
firet by awakeiun)^ ^qJ combinint:; its eupport«r«, aiul 
tbt* Ht^cond by w^cdcoiuit^ t]ii< mlUlury iitn^ii^flli ul tfaeor 
ndvpr«iri(W. Wallcnntt^iii -mw il wicriii<:» to t}iR l^n^goo 
and to tbe omblUon of Maxiudlian* 

in tbt> M^coad diet of tbifl loiig dmnia. GustAvua Adol- 
fdiiu, of Sweden, is tbo horo. It bud bueu hi» aim in 
ft oooflict of eighteen ycon, with Di^nTivark, Pobknd, and 
Ru!t«ia. to ci>ntrcl thn Baltic S<^. Not only was thia 
jHiliticnl jiiiTi imperiled by the impf^rial nimqaeflta, but 
they involved tbe da,D^r of a Gntliolic reaction in Sweden 
tt«elf. Bodidf^ tUis iiiotire^ tho Swedibb King mm im- 
ptfUed to hitcTvcno by n gnniiinc nttaolLmcat to ProiO' 
hintjflin, Duch m hnd mj^pirod Gcnnan pnnooe, Ukcr t>^*- 
Mii* of S^txony, and Philip of H«<a&ei in t]i« first a^e of 
tbe Kefonimtioik. He wna not il oruasder, vbo a-iugbt 
to ttxWnniiiiiUe tlie op^xMirig fuitb, RaUut dtd bv wi«b 
boUi rtOi^itiijM pnrtii-n ti» n^jiptv^t itnclj otbrn' nght>, aimJ 




4w9l] In amity- His inlerjiOBitioii, full of yn^rW to him- 
<plf, wivi regaxded by Braiult^nbui^ nml Suiony with 
jwUoiuy ami it-]ru|^i;iiicp. It \viw ttot iniHI th^ burbaroui 
■ack atrul burning nf Mji^iIi^bLU'^^ by t)if> HHv;Lge Lrutr[^ii tif 
Tilly (ISiil), tbftt thi^ ncutiAl party wanj* loixej u» nitl^ 
with Swodpn, Tlio victory oj ^ufltavu^ over Tilly, and 
Ihfl triiiniphAnt lulv&jice of tho Swudto iuto the South 
of Gi^rm^iny, prcwtTated the po\vi?r cf tbt- f^flflgiiei, "We 
firfcl that GiiBLfLviifl WMJt ivgiirdud wrtth *nspic3ciii bv the 
pnDcts but vritli cxircliiility by tlu? Of.fntiftn dliea. Wlietlj^r 
his plan of pence, which tnibracod th* i-epHiil of thci 
Kiiict nf Restitution, the toleration everywherti of both 
relii;it>Ti8, thi* r^acoration of the Elector Palfttino to his 
territories and to iJia el^tr>ml dignJtyj n.nd tho btmiBh- 
nu-ni uf t,ht Ji>ft[iits, wmtuniplutiMl his own elevation to 
tiir runk of Ring tjf Romi*, miiKt rpniain nnwi'Laiu. No 
altcRiativc WAA left to Ferdinand but to call hm-k WH.Ib.^n-' 
■tcin ^m hia c^tatca. nnd give liim absolute powers in 
tiw conduct oE tho war — powers which mudc him indo- 
|>eiideitt of ;dl coutrolf and exempt from Hnbility to 
moUiper n-mtn^iil. TEie buttle? of Liitzcin, in 1632^ was a 
gnttt defefit of Walh>nnt^in» wui a, gloriona Tietory for tlw» 
Swnltn i but it cubt tbi'iti tbt; liftt of tb«ur king. 

In Ibtf nr-w p)];tBi^ wlncli tli« vrar nmiimtd itfter the 
fall of Gastams, tho influence of Kiohclicn bocomee moro 
and moro pixdomuaant. The policy of tho Cardinal wu 
tt> aUarn the end, which PV^tich politics had eo louj; ]>ur> 
fucd, of brtuking down the power of Hupuburg, and, at 
tba tuuati Unv^ of proJltiiijf by tlit^ intestine oonflict in 
Ocirmany, by vxteiutjEig tlie Fn^in^li frontier rn the Eust, 

Tbo grouctd on nhich Uichelieu rindtcati;d hiniHelf for 
lendiiig aid to Frotostant«, was, that tJto war waa cot a 
rciiginm, but a politioal one. It was the old oontwt ol 
Ftaneo agninA the anhlticud effort of the hoiuo of Htfpi* 
Ofifg, to destroy thn indepondi^uw of other nalionK, nod 
bnild np a nniverml monarrliy. Tin* iiitputnti^u) vast in 

lUgiiftiitlj denied ; Dor ia thcro rcnAi>n to think thnt micha 
design was «eTi<Xkalv ent«<rtaiikftd by tt^^? Eniperor -Mid bU 
|Uirlii<iuui. Vi>ta complete aqccess in their mix^ political 
luid rrlijfi^JUJt F-nU^rpnHo, voulil tiAve ^ivt^u dinn u tlanffit' 
WIS pr4-j>oii(k-r«ticc. lit Uio warfare it! PLilip IT. AgiuiuA 
Frotcntantiint), tho rniprcmAC)' oi ^pvn luitl the tritunpb 
of the Cfttholic cnniMj wcic linlccd together i» hi^ intnd. 
KJL^hi^lieu, in turn, ^a8 cbai'god with cbk^mhing an ^ual 
MiubitioQ iu b^lisklf of Fr&nce. Th« accuiatjon had bo 
much of inUb, thut lif*, tlnubtlras, HiniM to muw his 
cx>iiQlry U> tlie l«ftdin^- plat^^ fuiiou^ tku Kuropv^ui iiationa* 
HolUnd !i(^1ped the anii-AuatTiaxi It^a^e bj carrying on 
it4 own tiontcibt n^aimt tli<* troopo of Spain, but vnm 
diftorrvd from triatiTiu^ ftirtUur into thd war hj iippro- 
benmonft in nrfipr^nco U> FViinco, and tb^ r^nnspqncnopn 
diat uonM follow t1i« augiu^nUtioit of Frvaob \iOWirr^ 
Rlubtilibu bud refi-^ilni^d frtim eiign^n^ in tiie OKmoa 
war, until tlic quelling of^ Iln^jf^oti, Jind the captuns 
of Hocbelle Irft lii* ImnilB fi-ee. In r*rtum for the sab- 
sidica whicb hu furnished (jQstavun, lie find been oblo to 
^n from ihv vnwy monarch no nhoro in tlic nontrcl of 
ih*^ wnr, but only the plodgn that no attack should bo 
madp upon thi* Catholic religion as such. OxemtleiC, 
thi< Swf-di^h CEiaiioellor, on whom tha prii^cipa,! conduct 
of afTnim now devolved, visa, earaful to rvtJiiii for Uio 
Swede* rnhc mprcmo direction of the war, which waa done 
m the Ucilbronu Trciity of lQb<(, whon I'^aoco ontered 
Into an ttllianoo with Swetleu and the Proteetout Statei* 
WAll«n&tein became more itnd more an objoct of draad td 
hia iitijicniLl niiuilvr, uh wi'H iih to thn Lm^i^ Thft oom> 
mandiTT, whunt it witH now impriRKihlfi nitlifr to rpmova of 
to contmU was plotting to arrange for a peace* in wbii^ 
hb Bliouli Acttlc with Blanco and Sweden, aattafy iht Pro^ 
totanta, and probublr rcoervo Bohemia, na a rcwsid for 
luinaclf, H« bud aouuded bit oflicent, and oonfidod is 
tli^ fidelity t^:> their l^ridoT. The muidar of WaU«B«t«W 


t^ wat Uio moans chosen to puilaIl his trenflOD* smd 
kTiirt thj]> thn^tuiuid diingor. 

Tlir jin|iori:U vii-t.nry in tJie battle cif Ni inllnigi-'Ji, m 
10114, Itftcl tlni rffoct to give to Utcbeliea tli'? pr^^cioTninauco 
w]ii<Ji ho had Jong aspired after, Tho K wediah lovco wa# 
brvfkca. Tho aid of Fmnoe had now bwomo u, iiL-oeaaity. 
frftTicift Kod Swi*doj:i wcro thtiici^(on.Tftrd ro buvu ati equal 
pnrt in tbu niiinit^rnent of thd wat. Brsitider^buvg luid 
Sviony^ to wbom i\n> conDCciioD. vnth. Sweden h;id :dw»yA 
beeii n^pugii^irtt, [iiaile for theii)H<?]ve« n sejvirati^ treaty 
\ri\h the Emperot, l>^ which the Edict *A EWdtat^on. ft^i 
far aa they wore conconed, ^ris nbrognt^ The frenty 
bctvrccD f^fixoay and tho Emperor wtie concluded ut 
Prague, tn 1635. That tbo Elector shoold enter into 
tto dii(prac»ftd arrangemeut was owing, in part, n* hia 
jealouay of S^ved^d, ;;nd, in pjirt, tn tin* bigoti^d lioHciUty 
lo CttlvinajLiDt that prevailed in his cuiurt. Rtch^rUeuli 
chrire to build up n FiTrucb party ninoug Uic Gcrmniu 
nenkcd to be Accompli'^Jud. svbt-n lleinard. of WeiaiAr. 
thdr foKinoet geiiarat, m-uo taken into Ux^ pay of Fnnoe. 
Ym Bomard could not bu relii^^i on to con^-ut t>3 a per* 
iiiOiu^nt ceKtion <if lonitoiy to IbAt country - In bU tot* 
tmipnf, hn <*xprp«i8ly declar^rl iLgainnti it. Thr rb>iitb of 
Bernard in IGSH pWvd the C;inlinH] ;it tbi- t^itiil of all bis 
cflorte; fi^r thi3 pruneculunt of tho w^ir waa Ufi in the 
honda of tbt^ Fri?nch. nnd tho :bnni<*-H ciimc: mLdi-^i' the lond 
ol French otHeer*. The cbnractcr of tho war bad entirely 
cfaaDgwI. !'rot<'j*tflHiit states wow fiplicin;;^ on tho iiup^nal 
■id«, ft&d pnyii^^ a b^Avy pri^^ for tbL*ir dve^rtiLiii of tbi^ 
former allies, Eigbt more yvttn of \vm- wvtv n^iuimd lii 
}ma^ the Court of Vit?rna U> t^>niirnt' lo n full nmiimty 
ai2tl to the rtwtomtion of tho TeUgious poaco, involviDg th« 
Burrcpdrr of tho Edict of Ucstitutioc : mcofiurcft wfaioh 
wvtv iadi«p«TiBablo to 'iie tenniuation of tho woory ooti- 
An acquiC'^ence in tlMiae uei^eABary u^rms of pesM 

at hut wrung from the Emperor by hla mtlit&ti 



TliQ <ini«]tw« uiflicUd dkiriiig iliis w&r, «Q)ectaUy dvring 
tha \^t 7c»r» of iti upon tlic defcnaolcm poopk* arv inde- 
sfinfcnblc. Tktt popvUation of G«niuu>j U tuud td bbve 
dimiftiaLfd id Ujiny jreon from twenty to ^Jty per ccnu 
TliB population of Atigiiburg vrmt rv()ii<ml fmm oighty 
tbouand h> rig^bnii tiinnramL Of the four htuidred 
tbonnttd iDh&biUnU of Wurtcrabuiig iw Ifkte u 1641* 
onlj Coriy-ri^ht thooftuid we:m tcft. Cttice, rilUgef, 
«atfJ««, and booBM iiuMifue>»bl« had been burned to ihc 
graimd. Tba bAK statbtioe of dw defltructira of life und 
propertr are itpjudling, 

nauiUoal lt>nei'vatimi — fixing, Lowe rer, 10^ ha iht- m^mml 
jear, to duciU^ wliicli faith shi>nld pumM tHxIesiaaiical 
propertioi* It niodified the ju$ r^fonenandi^ aoourding to 
vhu^ tba TL^LKiuii ^f *^i^ atat^r vaa to ba di>tamikiiMd by 
that of thkr prince; and in thin mnttfir, kliso, 1624 vaa 
mstdf* thp nnnnnl yp;ir. Tlint, in t'> mVi whftt^wr miglit 
b^ till? f^itli of ilm priiic^e, t1tt< Tfli^oTi af kli^Ii Htnti* ma 
to be Calhnlln or Prnh.<»tnnt, lUMjorJing tis\ itn poattton %t 
that date. A« to their ^aro in the impena] admUuatra^cai, 
Ibe tiro reUgiona vrere pkcod on a fooling of subatuitial 
eqnftLitj. Rtflif^loiu fra^slom and iiivil e<[iialitT were nlaa 
ext«4idnd to the Calvinifttn; only t1i<Bi^ thT«« forma of 
Migion KtoLxn to \>v. tolrrutrrt in ihp Kmpiro, Hut tbe 
R[n]nrf» w:l4 n^diroMl In n xhA^ow bj tlii* giving of the 
power to decide^ instead of mlviaiji^. In all nu^tttrnt of 
peac«> vrar. tuxaticm, and tlte likr^ to Ulc Dit^l« and by tins 
allo"Bra»Citr gnuttcil to mffrnl>cni of the Diet to eontract al* 
liaiux* with nno nnothcr imd with forcngn powiora, pro- 
vided &i> pr^JLidlej^ ehonid coio<^ tbei^eby to Ibe Empire or 
the Emperor. The Independence erf Hal land and ed 
SHit/i'HmK] wiui forrnuUT m^npwledgi<d. Swedrtn nb- 
'utnt^l thr trFTil.ory vh^mi the Baltic, wbic^i Qiiativiis bad 
wanted, in addition to other important pbcc« about the 
N<wtb Sea, and the moutha of ii»e Oder, the Weeer, ane 




uinie A uirmljt'r of ihi? Gt-nnmi DiisL Among Lhii *wv 
quinitvoHA of Fmncn ^^^crc the tlirr<) biFihcpric3, M^U, Tnul. 
itnd Wrdiin^ ii-nd tlic li>ndg:rnviiitc of Upper iltkI Lower 
Abaco; Krancu Ihu* gnitiing iicixwi to the Rhine, Both 
8w^«n and t^unce, hy becoming guiinintp*** of tho p«ic^ 
obtained the right t^n intj^rfs^n? in th^ internal nffftire of 
GvntmiTy. So grvot vtuA Uiti pi^naUj p;ud Ijt uiril 

Engknij, during tbc reign of the Stuart kings, do 
teetid^ from tho lofty poeition which it had h^ld amou^ 
the European states, na a bulicark of Prol'?stjiiiiJHfii, 
Jai»c« f. (in08-lG&'>) bi-oiigiiL tu thu Ummt* tin highL<Nt 
nolKinn of kuigly auUiijnty, aitd iti cuntirction witJi iJiriTi, 
B coTvJinl butrnl of I'nnhyteriimiBin, whiclkhia cjEpeiiejicaa 
ID Scothwd led him t^ rcgnrd n» a. natural My of popultu: 
^Temnn«tDt. H« expreeaed his oouviuLioa in the tnuxtin, 
** No bUbopt DO lUn^.'' The uuiitnut betwinan obH^(|iiioiu 
pvhitnt on tJieir kuct^a bofurn him, »iid tlic tniiiiuh^rti of 
tlH> Kirk who ]iLilli<d hEs isWvii lui tln^y siflTninint^red their 
JaliDjt rvhukufl, deli^htvid Wta mjuI. ilo fouud luiuseU not 
^"iDOl)' d<:lirer*d from bifl tormtutora, hut an object of odiibt- 
tion* He lijul oitoe uid of tko ^* neighbor ICirk in I'lng- 
Iftsd'^thftt " it i« an ovil-MLid moM in Kn^^luh;"^ hut 
be mts cunrd of this livomion, if it wne eT»r »eriouAly 
mtCfftained. During the rei^ of Jnmea, the golf bo- 
twwn lb« Aiigliimn ChurL-li aiidihi? PnriU-iis wtu widi'iivil, 
chtvily iti c^U!(n|U«nQr! uf twu ohungiM whicli tixik plm-jr in 
fhticrmer. llic^ffpiaoopal pcJity which had been regarded, 
in tho sge of Kiieaboth, eu one omong yarioTia admis9ib]i> 
fomt of Chcn^h govemment, oanne to be more and more 
COfttddored a divine ordiiianc^, and Indiapensable to ih^ 
QMvdtutioji of a Ctmrcb ; ho Uiut, ah Mflraiilay cxpriMUUW 
h, m Chnrcb might ha ^cU hn viitTiout tbc ikh!tHnc of th« 

1 QkUfrmAt, r. LU, IDS. BtHflB, H Ml 

48d Fik^inaTAKne)! m the sEVEKTEErm cnommr. 

IMm^ or th« TncanDAtioTi, su without btidiopA, Th« 
other diimg^ wtlk the HpvArl in thi* AtiglKan Wly, nf ib* 
Ariuiiiijiit Lb&fluf^y, which iiklrodui^nl a dui^ti-uul UiiTi*r- 
encr Uuit IiJbrl not cxIMtnt IwfiMi^ b<5twe«ii tUo i?atAblialieiI 
Ohuirh uid tJi*^ I'untiu^a.' An thv curuimon m«iny. whi<Ji 
Anglican awl TurilAn coonbrnifd to t^fpoM*, boc^-omo Im 
CorniidAb)^ eincw tho gimt miijority of tlur nation w^rv 
now hofiiil^ to tho Catholic Churrh, Ih*^ two ]'rot««tant 
parli^A mvw leiM rMtraineti from muUiil i^tJi)t«iilk>ti, atid 
vrcm \vd by the vtr^' inlluciicv of LUeir coiitiKl vridi «i 
4ii4jtlifrio ^luirj>4ii tlicir chftructfTiEitk ^lointtf of di^'^T 

JniDCS lo«t U() time iti (^vuiciug bin liiintility to tho Puh- 
taos. On hiB way to Loncion, tb« MUl«A6ry p^litioa* 
et]^ed by Doorly a thoiiaaud oiiiuBteiSt wbo ftvbed for Ui« 
aboUKliin^fit of iiHHgi^ iTioHt (ibnnxioim to Lhe Piiriuiu^ 
vrwi ii<it only mr^tfiviHl wtUi n» fuvnr, but (rrii nf iJkm* 
who had prcscrntcd tbc prtition were actaAlly inipridottivd' 
by tho Star Uhambcr, on the ^roond that thojr act lozidod 
to BMlition nnd truaaon. The petittonen were not Scpv ^ 
nidtts; thay mndo no objttotion to opinoopncy. Tbcjf 
oompbined c^f non-r^isiidi'noiii^ pluroJitief;, «nd like ohuau^ 
tmd cf the cross in lisiptjsni, the »ip sjid sutpllce, and n ^ 
r«T oihi^r <K-nTnuiritiU pnrulhtntim-^ Tlit* (>|i|)iirl.iinity whj H 
pn^ir^iLh-d fnr ik Kcbmm of C^Jiiijirrhi-nnioTit whu^bt hxd it 
boon adopted, would h&re had tbc most important coiuo> 
qucno^ ; but Uut opportunity was not etnbraofid. In tlie 
Hampton Court OontoronM, v/hetG u i^'sr Puritan divine* 
inait tbv biiliops, the King trvnu^d thn former with 

^ JsaB«nD[i1tl>ealH bOlhBSfDDilof l>0Tt,wliuiru)r Tv hitafdll rrparbiol h* 
ftnt*tMai^ !^*mt oi Ibtiu ho nmnlcil ifiUk pm&utiuti in ilir CbuAb. Mul 
UarcblnMQ, wrilit^g ttl Oit lui^i tl Iviwtda 1009 Uhl lOII. in (^^ udjeI mi^ii, 
•1)1 vt ItiD <luLLriJii al pmloliiiAlinn > '* Al UtAl iTitic ihii Krqfl itucLtiv; ^rw 
auuf DUEuf fbUvD flllb tJiD prqi*l», but tfbi^iiL<iftlIj mubrKol bj- aU rdljc* 
bui bill holy ^rwn« iu the Ihm1>'* Z'tf'? 4;^ Cti. f/vfMmH^ p. flfi iBoticV 
•U .^ TiK ■rlminblc plciun gf FurlliUi di^n^^Lur |irEKa|c< ic tkk uiL-uitir i» 
tiftfnl tmly by 1I10 vittei'c tintnf pnjmUiH AifklidL Cranjntr. Tta liifltilim 
«e Ilia bkWiT- gf-ArolduIni ia Lrm CocIUli Cbuivh it i^Itui by Cosnlvctab 







[id SiMoli-*ncc. Hit plumed hiiuB&lf on the th^ 
^ Itfuniing »nd m-iitnr^tj whl'h lu' fn¥ici>?(:i hiniaeif Ic 
poisent and ^liicli foiiued oui? i>f bl»t Ue^Il'h tu tbe (IjsIjimv 
tion» which hia flatterer* gave him, uf biding tha Solaiiion 
<^ hia a£Q. Xlio pmidL-Ji larialiud or hiin b^- tlic bialiop*, 
— ottectf vhomdccliirod thai \^*^ undcmbUHilv sjiohn by th4 
direct iiiipirjitioH of th<-' iloly Ghost — in ooniiL'ctiQn vn^ 
Itirir cK^ruVHg:iTih tfn^nry of roynl uiithorlly, and of the 
sobmissioii owvd by the subject, lilted him witli delight. 
Tliift Ooaforoace had one valuabli^ TvmK Dr. Ke\t]old«, 
4m« i>f the Puritan repn:d&utativi>«, auJ perhapn tho iiio«t 
leuniod man in thu hmjcdom^ rucirjmmondf^d that n now or 
xiriflod vonaioji of tho Scnpr^urcrsi ahguH bci pr^pfLVod ; and 
tfau in;igg^?9ti»n J;im4>«, wbo complaitied of certain mar- 
giiisd obserTatiotia in "the Qeuevii DiblcV* wlddi wtH 
waiMvovtiiAti tu th& tiacrcdntuiH uf iMy;dLy, <-;iiiglit up iind 
CBQBod to be carried oot.' Tho d<.flirc of the clergy to 
cadiuioo thoir own authority by oxaltiag thai of tho 
oown, *pp«tr» in the AnibitiouB BohomiM vi Bunoroft, tbo 
Arcdibiidiop ot Cu,nU?rbiii^', \vtiii:li eticouuturud tliu rcniat* 
tnoft of Coko, the givut diuntpkiu of the common Uiv. 
Afkmgiui Ci^nl vnui in powrr, lluTfnm^i politico nf JiiniFtt 
were nut di^iltul^ vt Hpirll ; bat the timidity of ihv Kmg, 
joiiii^ with hvi datre to marry hia aon to a Spojiiah prln* 
COBS, prcTcnt^ hhti from eflieicntly /mpportin^ hui n^n^n* 
IftWi the Iflioctor i'ftliitino, nt the outbr'^ftlting of the thirty 
yM»* *(Tarf and moved him bw^ly to sacrifice li;Lli>Lf*h to 
'bo vtt^tmce of Spain. Hia want of common aeiwe viu 
■laifvftod in hi* jittnuipt I'l imjiu-u? t^piscopiicy upon lb» 
Yoottiih Cimrch. His urbitrAry prindptf^^ of novcrnniRob, 
trbiib ha had not pradfince onou^ to present hiia &i>iii 

> T^ lUiDittai rMoiC-Confvtvnu l« InMiwtiDjr ftnrl intporttct. bi pmrnnnf 
tkt vkanHtntfiM H tht tm MclMuMkjJ ptrt>«i uid at tha vovntl^ Vafft 
«f eW «n>v(iE< of IE iiH dwivvi tnm iit. Barlov** ti^[»it, nho ■■■ on tha 
^OU^ttn villa, h« Fiilltr, C&tirrJi i/ii^nry. v. SM: \«L, K U. . ch, I. ; r-arrt- 
«A JNalHf ^Oa/'huo, ji. til , Burton, f/Uorv qf Sf^m^. Vl 314 1*4 

rioresTATmsM w the sbvctteesth cfwtubt. 

eoawUntly [injcUiiitUtg, prepared tht vn^y for Uie Rveal 
cirtl cpntc«t tK&i broko out in tbo next retps* 

CbjjLTlcn 1. (l^^A-t^-ld) nuulo Uif) duliberuto attempt 
to gOTotti i^ii^laiid witbout a PuiiRBMnL Tboro u no 
dmibt tliat it w^ hu design to convnit Um liiDited tnon»r- 
diy into an Abttolnte <iii«^ Although « ^povov Protes- 
tant, Iju byiii|i:illii£e>l Fully witli wliat may be Ltfrm-^ tliB 
Rom^xDizitit: (iiirly in tUo En^li^b CUurdi, -jr ibc l>Arty 
which ffbood lit the f&rUieot n^novc from PunUuiiMa, nod 
ut^jtotX to tbo roiigioiu «y«taia o£ tho Church of liom*. 
CharWa treatmevit of the Papmts waa vmlUdng. Now 
the UwB vonld bts executed ngainst them, Aod now Cbe 
AxtHruLimi Iff UiT-m wimld 1m tUeg^Ujr tiiuiptuidcd by IIm 
Kuig'n dcctt^. But iha ixxyvuomii tavmUcs of the gOT- 
emmcnt towju^ thtm cwuld not cffiuQ the tn^yrMoon 
which hiid hwm nnde by tfic sending of an Bckgluh fleet to 
aid in the bbckacU of RooMle ( lG-2^>, -vinoh tlw P^eikdi 
Xing wag weklng to wre^t tttxn thv Uuguftucta. Laud, aa 
boi»st but nurrov-mitidod imd Kupomitiotia ttio, becuae 
Archbishop of Cautorhiiry, in 16fi8, To advunco, in fi^ 
»piH*t t'odiMtrine &nd Gtfreinuruttet. lu umr lu jKimible lo the 
Romas Catholic gyrtcoD, without ucopting ib» junadjc- 
taon of tiko Pope, wa« hit monifotl indinatiop. He re* 
eords hie drej^ma in im di&ry. On one oocnnoD he 
dreamed that be n-as reoonvertt^d to tbo Chntijh ol 
RoiQi;.^ It j%u& au uapleoAimt drtauri, «ino(> it related to 
a (iMngi^ tluLt, OA hb dciubtltvw fitlt, ntteoded lUa meaa* 
■rrft, hut vrhidi ho me^nt to eaojtpi^. Hla impnuidGabb 
sharacter aod kck uE tact, vmu Jamm I. nonirHtely db- 
oonicd> ^* The phun imth in that 1 keep Laud back frum 
all ploeo of ruLo and nutbority, bocauao 1 fiod tliM ho 
hath a nctleu spirit^ and eoimot cee when m.ittcn mo 
well, but lovee to toas and change, and to bring tbtnifs to 
R pitch uf n?f(irmatjciii, floating in hig own bnln. n'hiob 
nay cudangtrr th« Ht^ndfastneH of UiaL whicb is in • 


gorxi paM.^^ Of Laud^tt piniu reapocting the Scote. Jama* 
ttdilrd: '''He k.iuiw» nvL iht? sUnnnrJr ijf IIiilL people."' 
B^ mca09 cf ^g Court o£ High OauuuLAuun, » spei^uiti 
ol ProUtftaat Inquisition, lir^ engaf^'.d ^tlj a vigUaiit and 
m«rcal«e9 awal in the peraccutiou ol Fiiritwi^. Tbcy wvre 
oron pro«douUd for not complying with n<iw c<ncmonir« 
wfatcli Laud himatlf luid introduced, nnd for prt?achiTig 
Cnlviuivii ; and tlu^y w&r& punished (tn t\pv.\xiiin^ to r^ful 
ia die ci]iuvh«fl, tbo *' Bor>k of Spirts," which rec«)iimi»iid6tl 
gameo and ir^atimea, of which they did uut appimr. 
ThA Slax-Ciiuiabjr, and tlie IH^h CoiamifiEiion, nrc cm* 
Umb*, ua tiioy vcro ctlcctive iiietrumGntB., of the ecdcaj* 
utiiaJ and dviL tyrAnny t/> ^hich the English people 
von subjected, Thi? pnfleavnr tn force the Bli:^lkk 
Pniy«r-bnok upon ScotJ^Dd^ L^allefl out, in 16ft8^ tlie 
Soleun Laigu«? tumI Cuvenaul of the Sr^>U fcr the d«i- 
(cBM of pT«*1>yteri4LDi»iii. In 10)2, hoatilitieA began 
between the LoDg i'arli&nieut oud tlio King« tJie imme' 
diato ooooBtob htm^ tbta uburtivc utlt^mpt of ChailcA, in 
Tuilation of bui plcdg<!H, to iirruiil Pyni and hU nM^iAt4«, 
in tha Ilouna of Cnnirooni. Tlio Mome ycax FarhAmeot 
iOII?Ak«d th«» \Ve8lmtrml'?r A'Uf-mhly tx> advt^ th^m bl 
Um BUiUt-r dt reorjiiairiitrLitt^ iht< Church {>f Eii^bLiid. At 
dw outiKJt, II rmijoriLy vf ita ntnndxmi wum iKit oaly coo- 
fbaolng aauu8t<*rB, but wuuld harv bccit oont^ut "with a 
auidemtfi i^piscupiioy. It h^a btiun mid with troth that 
modoiutis Kpiiioopnluuitt at thd Aohool of Uslmr, and mod- 
naU I'resbjt^ricm of tho atampof K:ucti^, hnd littlo dif- 
MnSvy IB finding si comiroTi ground on which ib^y could 
■aile. A saoond |:iarty which, if not nomeroiu in the 
Awvmbly, vrmi gniwlit^ hi the naliou, vrim tluU of the 
Independents who held tc the oirU^goircmii^ power of 
the local cODgregatioa or chtucli. into the oommunioa ol 
IJQpj would roe«ivQ nono who did not givo proof ol 




bi*ing njiiriti]&] or ivgi'iiAmI.«Hl {>pr»oiiH. K^jr^otlng tlia 
goT«iiimt^i1 of prvlntea and