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Ac . No. 

Regiments and Armories 
OF Massachusetts 

Sh. N 


Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 

With I'oimi^aiis aM) Biographies of Officers Past and Present 


l./l'l KtKimtnl, M. I'. M.) 

Col(jni;l Wii.mam C. Capf.llf, Ass'l Adj.-Ginl 

Coi-ONF.L Augustus N. Sami'Son 

CaI'TAIN I.I'KF R. Lanfjy 


1ST LiriJT Austin Pf.tfps, VeUTin.iry Siirufon 

Captain Myi.fs Stanhisii 



Adjutant-General /• 


Colonel Embiiky p. Ciahk 

CdLONFi. Charles K. Darling 


The Lute Captain Elisha H. Shaw 

Colonel James A. Fpyl 

Lifiitfnant-Colonfl Otis H. Mark in 



cji Bedford Street 

Copyright, 1S99, 



To the (jodly and Brave Founders of Boston and Plymouth, and the JiL^^ssa- 
chusetts J\4Hitia : To the jlfyriads of Brave J\,fen who from Q'eneration 
to (feneration have Jifustered with the Battalions of J[4assachusetts 
in Peace and carried her jStainless Banner to fionorahle Vic- 
tory or Defeat in War: yind to every son of the Old 
Bay jState who believes that Freedom, Justice and 
Jdome are Best Defended by those who ]\fost 
Prize these Blessings, This Jdistory of 
Patriots, Jferoes and Jifartyrs 



\011IME 1. 

I. FlIRK-WliRD 7 

II. AT PHE 1'.\RTIN(t of THE WAYS 12 



Pai^'e 57, 1st line, for "Constans" read "Conllans." 

Pai^'e 5.'^. 5tli line, for '-then" read "than." 

P;ige 105, last line, for "1779" read "1789." 

Page 160, 30th line, for "12 companies with 66 present" read "466 

Page 249, 36th line, for "the division or company" read "I division or 

Page 343, last line, for "1889" read "1859." 
Page 442, 1 8th line, for ■■Yauca" read "Yaiico." 
Page 445, 8th line, for 1897-1899," read "1898-99." 
Page 470, the "frontispiece" referred to on this page, "Massachusetts 

Artillery at Gettysburg," will be found in the second volume. 
Page 478, 9th line, for "18S7" read "1897." 








1. F()RR-WORD 7 























1)1" Massachusetts, 

and Commander-in-Chief 


Winthrop Murray Crane, Cniverniir 

M. V. M., '1900 

The Valkyr 

Norse and Celtic Warriors ....... 

The Genitis of War ......... 

Napoleon and The Sphinx ....... 

Massachusetts Volunteer — Revoluticmary Period, 1779-17S3 

Second War with England, 1812-1S18 

War with Mexico, i846-i84<S 

Great Civil War, 1861-1865 

War with Spain, 1898-1899 
Officer of 17th Century ...... 

Draa;oi>n, 17th Century ...... 

Charles I. Demanding the Five Impeached Members. Pjiutmg hv J. S. Cfh 
Portrait and .Autograph of Sir Harry Vane 

Capt. John Endicott 

Signature of Capt. John Mason .... 

The Pilgrims at Prayer before the start for America. Pointing hv Robnt lV,-i 

The Burial of Miles Standish. Pjtiiting by Hemy Bacon 

The .\mbuscade. King Phillip's War. Drjwn hv IV.ilicr L. Greene 

Miles Standish's Homestead, Duxbury 

A Canadian Raid, Queen Ann's War. Dreiwii by IVhorf 

Sea front of Cartagena, Columbia, South America . 

The Ramparts of the Castle of Boca Chica 

Fort San Lazaro, and land approaches to Cartagena 

Modernized Great Gate of Cartagena 

Plan of the City and Harbor of Louisburg 

Town and Fortifications of Louisburg 

Signature of Sir William Pepperrel .... 

Louisburg Cross, lately stolen from Harvard College Library, Brought 

Louisburg, 1745-46 ..... 
Profile of the Walls of Louisburg 
Death of General Wolfe. Painlmg hr DeiiJMwu H^est 
Castle Island, Boston Harbor, 1789 . 

The Massacre at Lexington, .\pril 19, 1775. Oiawn by T^. Fjiniiiton El-xetl 
Captain Isaac Davis and His Acton Minutemen. April 19, 1775 . 

Etehed by ,^^ithiir L\nis 

Benedict Arnold 

A Minuteman at the Old Rail Fence 

Boston in 1775 . 

The Somerset Firing upon the Redoubt, as seen from the Parker PI 

ham Road, June 17, 1775 

General Stark. Painting by Chappell 

Death of General Warren ........ 

General Washington at Dorchester Heights. Painting by Gilbert Stuart 
Major-General Charles Lee ........ 

Washington Disbanding the Continental Army .... 

Revolutionary Recruiting Notice 

Colonel William C. Capelle 

General Steuben and Cavalry Escort, 1 780-1 783. Painting by Chapfiell 

Retreat of the British from Concord 

John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts 



I I 
I 2 


















The Document Room 
, Boston 

Samuel Adams ........ 

The Surrender of Burgoyne ...... 

Marquis Jean Paul Lafayette ...... 

Defense of Fort Moultrie, 1776, Artillerists and Infantry 

Storming the Tete du Pont, Churubusco. Mexico, August 24. 184 

South Armory, Irvington Street 

Irvington Street Entrance to the South Armory 

Staircase and Hall, South Armory . 

Officers' Room, South Armory 

Officers' Reception Room, South .\rmory 

Imitation Earthwork and Latest Pattern Gun for Fort Practice 

Military and Civic Parade at Boston, 1851 

Drill Room of the Naval Battalion 

\'iew of the Lynn Armory 

Lynn Armory — Stairway and Hall ..... 

Lynn Armory — Drill Shed 

Lynn Armory — Rooms of the Commissioned Officers . 
John A. Andrew, War Governor of Massachusetts 
Exterior of Lowell Armory ...... 

Lowell Armory — Main Entrance ..... 

Lowell Armory — Quarters of Company C. Sixth Regiment 

Lowell Armory — Quarters of Ambulance Corps . 

Office of Colonel William C. Capelle, A. A. G. 

.Xdjutant-General's Department. The Militia Room . 

-Xdju tan t -General's Department. 

Colonel Aug. N. Sampson 

East Armory, East Newton Street 

The Roll-Call. Crimea, 1854-5 . 

The Last Cartridge ..... 

East Armory — Drill Shed 

"Scotland Forever" ... 

East Armory — Colonel's Room 

The Soldier's Farewell .... 

Boston East .Armory — Detail of Balcony 
Saluting the Wounded .... 

Attack on a Convoy .... 

Saving the Flag ..... 

The Springfield .\rmory .... 

State Armory, Lawrence, Mass. — Drill-Shed 
The Bivouac ...... 

Fall River State Armory 

The Fitchburg State Armory. Tlvto. hv J. CMoiiltoti 
Fitchburg State .\rmory — Drill-Shed 
Fitchburg State Armory — Board Room . 
Typical Permanent Volunteer Camp. 1861-65 

Captain Luke R. Landy 

The Awkward Squad ..... 

.\ Regimental Detail for Guard Mount. 1898 
State Camp Ground, Framingham, 1898 
Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry 

Framingham, September 11, 189S 
Xt Mess in Camp. t)ld Style . 

Colonel Harry E. Converse, Acting Quartermaster- 
War. Prom the Paiiitiii<! hv Laiidscrr 
Lieutenant Austin Peters, Veterinary Surgeon 
Quartermaster's Warehouse, and Transportation in the Field 
The Care of Chief and Warrior, the Arabian War-Horse 

The Wagon Train 

The Arn'iv Mule-Team 

The Horse Guard— .A Little Sword-Play 

Captain Mvles Standish. commanding Ambulance Corps. M. \'. M. 

Mule-Train with Supplies at Santiago De Cuba, July, 189S . 

and Gatling Gun 

U. S. \ 









at South 

1 1 1 



21 1 









Regimental Hospital and Hospital Flag (Geneva Cross) Second Regiment, M. 

V. M., Lakeland, Fla., May. 1898 " 291 

Convalescents 292 

Ambulance Corp>;. M. \'. M. Corps Using Improvised and the Masssachu- 

setts Litters ............. 293 

.\mbulance Corps, M. \'. M. Ambulance, Tents, and Litter Service 297 

.\mbulance Corps, M. V. M. First .\id to the Wounded and Handling of Same 301 

"Lest We Forget," Santiago, July, 1898 ........ 305 

.\merican Infantry and British Cavalry — Long Range Position . . 307 

Lieutenant-Colonel Otis H. Marion ......... 308 

"The Trip .\cross the .\tlantic was a Very Pleasant One" ..... 309 

Incorrect Standing Positions of Excellent Marksmen ...... 310 

Correct and Incorrect English Military Standing Positions . . 311 

English Long Range Position .......... 313 

Correct and Incorrect English Military Kneeling Position ..... 316 

From the Left Shoulder at Long Range . . . . . 317 

Sergeant S. J. Wallingford, the Best Shot in the British Army, Firing in Mili- 
tary Lying Position ........... 321 

The "Texas Grip" with Variations ......... 323 

Colonel William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill) 324 

Home Again .............. 327 

Long Range Position. Head held up by biting a strap on the wrist . . . 328 

Lieutenant-Colonel Bowdoin S. Parker . . ...... 329 

Brigadier-General Thomas R. Mathews and Staff. First Brigade, M. V. M. facing 330 
Colonel Pfaff and Staff, First Heavy Artillery. First Brigade, M. V. M. facing 334 

Colonel James A. Frye ............ 338 

Colors of First Regiment, Heavy .\rtillery ........ 343 

First Heavy .\rtillery, M. V. M., Serving Field Battery at Fort Warren, 

1898 ............ . facing 346 

First Heavy .Artillery at Fort Pickering, 1898 facing 348 

Colonel Charles Pfaff, U. S. V., Commanding — Garrison at Fort Pickering . facing 348 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery. The 15-inch Rodman at Fort Warren . facing 352 , _^ 

First Regiment Heavy Artillery. Battalion Drill, Fort Warren, 1898 . facing 352 

Barbette Battery of Eight-Inch Rifles facing 356 

First Heavy Artillery M. V. M., 1S98— 8-inch Rifle Battery, Fort Warren . facing 356 
First Heavy Artillery, M. V. M., April 26, 1898. Off for the Front. Review 

by Governor Wolcott .......... facing 358 

Governor Wolcott Presenting the Commissions, Second Regiment, M. \'. M., 

May 13, 1898 361 

State Armory, Springfield, Mass. — Office Colonel E. P. Clark, commanding 

Second Regiment, M. V. M 363 

State Armory, Springfield, Mass. — Headquarters Second Regiment, M. V. M. 367 
Headquarters "Shack," Second Regiment, M. V. M., Lakeland, Fla., May, 1898 369 
State .Armory, Springfield, Mass. — Drill-Shed . . . . . . . 371 

State Armory, Springfield, Mass. — Quarters Company C, Second Regiment, 

M. V. M., Showing Memorial Tablet Erected in Honor of Comrades who 

Fell in the Spanish-American War ........ 375 

Field and Staff Officers of Second Regiment, M. V. M.. Spanish-American War, 

1898-1899 ............. 379 

Colonel Embury P. Clark 383 

Field, Staff and Line Officers of Second Regiment M. V. M., Lakeland, Fla., 

1898 385 

Headquarters of Colonel Clark, Second Regiment. M. V. M., Before Santiago 

de Cuba, July 12 to .\ugust 13, 1898. 

Field and Staff at Mess, Lakeland. Fla., 1 89S 

Commissary Department in the Field ....... 

Camp of Second Regiment. M. \'. M., Siege of Santiago de Cuba, 1898 

Spanish Fort at El Caney 

Second Regiment M. V. M. Entrenched Camp . 
Cheering Formal Surrender of Santiago, July 17. 1898 
Major-General Wheeler at El Caney .... 
Major F. G. Stiles 




The Worcester State Armory . ■ . 

Worcester State Armory — Drill-Shed 

Second Massachusetts \'olunteers in Cuba — "Talking it Over" 

Some of Our Cuban Allies ..... 

Worcester State Armory — Board of Officers' Room 

Worcester State Armory — Worcester Light Infantry Room 

"At Rest 'Neath Southern Skies" 

Colonel Charles K. Darling 

Attack on the Sixth Regiment of Infantry. M. \'. M., at Baltimore, Md., April 
19, 1 86 1. Drawing hv IV. H. Upham 

Group on the Yale off Santiago, 1898 

Group on Board the S. S. Mississippi, 189S 

Si.xth Regiment U. S. V., Embarking at Charleston, S. C. 

Unloading Mules and Horses . 

Landing in Small Boats 

Si.'ith Regiment, U. S. V., in Spanish-American War, 1898-99 

A Porto Rican Town and .\merican Encampment, 1898 

The Aquedttcts at Ponce, Porto Rico ..... 

Cycle Club, Ponce, Porto Rico, 1898 ..... 

Si.xth Regiment, U. S. V., in Porto Rico, 1898-99 

Porto Rican Transportation ....... 

The Bay State — The Massachusetts \'oluiiteer Aid Association. Hospital 

Steamship ............ facing 

Officers of the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association — During the Spanish- 
American War, 1898-99 .......... 

The Bay State — Operating Room facing 

Artillery, Bombardier and Matrosses. 1725-1776 ....... 

Bugler Reed saving Captain Bigelow of the Ninth Massachusetts Battery at 
Gettysburg . • . . 

Light Batterv in Action 

The Late Captain Elisha H. Shaw . 

Stable Call 

Riding to Water .... 

"The Bugle Call" 

Over the Shallows . 












"War is a terrible trade ; but in the 

cause that is righteoiis. sweet is the smell 

of powder," sings Longfellow, as said by 

the "doughty little captain of Plymouth" 

in his "Wooing of Miles Standish," and 

^^ , ^j- .-^ iM f ^ ^ "^ such have been the sentiments of his de- 

^^^^^-^Cj' -^^R^^^J^ scendants and people unto this day. 

\ tW^^^^^MI V^IP(t T^ Descended largely from those Norse- 

*■' ^^^Bfc *- r v^_.»_ men, who, between the 7th and i ith 

centuries, settled so large a part of the 
seaboard of the isles and countries of 
the north of Europe, what is now called 
"the Anglo Saxon race," and, indeed, the' 
so-called "Celtic races," which still main- 
tain a certain individuality of speech and- 
character, inherit from the fierce Norsemen much of their strength, daunt- 
less courage, sturdy independence, and innate love of military life. 

In mansion and cottage, mart and college, office, factory, laboratory 
and cornfield, wherever men of our race exist and labor, the summons of 
the Valkyr, Odin"s "chooser of the slain," comes to them with much of 
that terrible yet enthralling charm which Hereward's song in Kingsley's 
"Last of the English" so tersely expresses. Voicing his respect for his 
sire, and reverence for his peaceful and noble end, with his own choice of a 
death on the field of battle; how the rude pathos of his sorrow and filial 
esteem is blent with a pity which is almost contemptuous, because a great 
life was not made perfect by a grand and noble death. 

"Herevvard, King! hight I, 
Holy Leofric, my father. 
In Westminster, wiser 
None walked with King Edward, 
High minsters he builded, 
Pale monks he maintained. 
Dead is he. A bed-death, 
A leech-death, a priest-death, 
A straw-death, a cow's-death 
It likes not me." 



To high heaven, all so holy 
The angels uphand him, 
In meads ol' May flowers 
Mild Mary will meet him. 
Me happier, the Valkyrs 
Shall waft from the war-deck, 
Shall hail from the holm-gang, 
Or helmet strewn moorland. 
And sword-strokes my shrift be 
Sharp spears be my leeches. 
With heroes, hot corpses 
High heaped for my pillow. 

It is the '-war fever" of our own experience; that strange impulse, 
which once fastened upon a man's heart and brain, is stronger than love, 
fear, prudence, self-gratification, or any other human emotion or desire. 
However sublimed by lofty ambitions, christian impulses, or what we call 
civilization, it is at once the most exacting and the supremest mistress of 
all the deities worshipped by mankind. 

The writer well remembers the deep feeling and impressive enthu- 
siasm with which the late Gen. William F. Bartlett, then a mere youth, 
used to recite from Macaulay's "Horatius at the Bridge." 

"Then oiitspake brave Horatius, 
The Captain of the Gate, 
'To every man upon the earth 
Death cometh soon or late.' 

"And how can man die better 
Than facing fearful odds. 
For the ashes of his fathers, 
And the temples of his gods?" 

It was only a few years later that, crippled, and worn with the pain 
of wounds scarce healed, he led his Massachusetts volunteers, at Port Hud- 
son, in the hottest struggles of the "Wilderness, and into the fatal crater of 
the Petersburg mine ; nearly always wounded, yet never deterred from 
riding to meet death, as gayly as, later, he met the brave young bride, whose 
married happiness was so brief and yet blessed by the love of a brave man, 
whom all held in reverence and honor. 

Many myriads of such men, of high and low estate, have mustered 
■under the banners of the land of Massachusetts. Doubtless before our 
brief history was begun, Norseman and Celt landed on these shores, and, 
for a time, maintained a brief and evanescent autonomy, buildino- rude 
•castles or the unartificial ramparts of "garth" and "tun," and defending 
them with mace, bow, SAVord and sling, as they had been wont to do 
across the ocean. Their civilization was too rude, and their numbers too 
small, to maintain their superiority over Abenaquis and Esquimaux, and 
they fell under the arrows of their enemies, or, as is more likely, became 


iibsiirbed throu<;h intcrmarriacfc, and the cessation of intercourse witli the 
old world. 

The first settlers of Massachusetts were largely drawn from sections 
of the British Isles, whose earlier population had been founded by Norse. 
Norman-Latin and Celtic peoples, and later immig-ration has rather intensi- 
fied than diminished the hereditary military instincts which, never seeking 
a resort to arms and preferring the joys and arts of peace, still await with 
fortitude and confidence the final arbitrament of the sword. 

The precepts of Christianity have softened the primeval ferocity of 
the races, welded into the American people, and education and civilization 
have given them a loftier chivalry and greater forbearance toward the 
weak and ignorant, and a 
finer and better ci)ncep- 
tion of the aims of indi- 
vidual and national life. 
But their ancient courage 
and enduring fortitude, 
military pride and contempt 
of wounds and death, still 
underlie their apparent in- 
disposition to resent petty 
injuries and even insults, 
when not too long con- 
tinued, or offered by those 
for whom their contempt 
is not softened by pity. 

Since the settlement 
of Plymouth in 1620, and 
of Boston in 1634, the his- 
tory of the citizen soldiery 
of Massachusetts embodies 
the last period of defen- 
sive armor and antique 
weapons, and the earlier 

and latest epochs of modern warfarcwith many episodes world-famous in the 
history of human liberty, as well as in the annals of military develoj^ment. 

In these pages, it is believed that the living citizen soldiers of Mass- 
achusetts, and all who love and honor the myriads who have fought or 
fallen beneath the stainless flag of the Bay State, or the ancient banners 
of the province and colonies, will find a trustworthy and compendious 
history of the Massachusetts militia, from the earliest era of New England 
settlement and civilization. It is hoped that, beyond this, there will be 
found somethin"" of incentive to honor and to encoin-age those who to-dav 


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fill the ranks of the National Guard, and to keep alive and fitted for future 
usefulness that splendid citizen soldiery which, in every peril of the past, 
has upheld and defended a liberty-loving and just State government, by 
the self-devotion and intelligent courage of its best and bravest citizens. 

Those articles which deal with the several state departments and 
military organizations, are furnished by gentlemen whose prominence and 
usefulness are a guarantee of the accuracy and interest of their contribu- 
tions. The illustrations are numerous, and include many reproductions of 
rare and historically valuable sketches and engravings, which have been 
faithfully redrawn or exactly copied. The brief personal biographies, ac- 
companying some hundreds of portraits of past and present members of 
the State Volunteers. Independent Companies, and National Guard, will be 
of great interest to the present generation, and will form a memorial more 
lasting than brass or marble, to be proudly read by their descendants and 
eagerly consulted by historian and genealogist, long after the projectors 
of this volume and its j^atrons have slept with their fathers. 

The causes which have so long delayed the issuance of this work, 
have been many and irritating to all concerned. Not the least of these 
was the war with Spain, which, during 1898 and 1899, made imperfect a 
great deal of finished material, and necessitated revisals and enlargements 
of the whole work. It is certain, however, that, in the end, the subscriber 
will receive a volume of increased value, interest and beauty. 

Something of this history I essay to write, as a necessary and 
fitting introduction to the records of the Massachusetts militia of to-day; 
their organization, equipment, and interests. At the best, my story must 
be brief, and until the end of time the records which I seek to preserve 
and array in fitting words, will be the theme of generations of orators, 
poets and historians, who can never exhaust its rich mines of heroic deeds 
and noble purposes. 

I bring to a herculean task only faithful research, an honest desire 
to present the truth of all matters presented, and a firm and uncompromis- 
ing belief that no true American or impartial student of the history of the 
United States of America can fail to recognize the fact, that the citizen 
soldiers of the republic have built, enlarged, and preserved it, and can never 
safely relinquish the sword into the hands of a professional soldiery. 

Charles W. Hall, Editor. 


THE l.l.Nil ■. wl \\ vl. 



WHEN Napoleon the Great carried his hitherto all-conquering 
troops into Egypt, and marshalled his legions under the shadows 
of the great pyramids, he fully realized that he was departing from 
the policies and conditions which had, to that time, made him 
everywhere victorious. 

"From those pyramids, twenty centuries look down upon you," was 
his declaration to the men who had ever followed him to victory, and in 
the name of France, gained undying fame. 

As he reined in his war horse before the Sphinx, inscrutable mys- 
tery of a dead and forgotten past, and emblem of purposes unaccomplished 
and policies as yet untested by time and experience, the man of destiny 
inust have been busy with vague yet tremendous questionings of what fate 
or providence should ordain. He remembered how many conquerors had, 
before him, aye, back in the very night of time, and, in that weird and silent 
presence, thought of a glorious past, and vainly sought to pierce the un- 
knowable future. Rameses, Pharaoh Necho, Nebuchadnezzar, Cambyses, 
Darius, Alexander, Antony, Caesar; who had ever stood in that desert of 
sterile grandeur and awful mystery, and afterward known no loss of pres- 
tige, or escaped the final chastisement of too lofty ambition and over- 
weening pride? For Napoleon, as for most of his predecessors, through- 
out fourscore generations, it was, indeed, "a parting of the ways," a step 
from the path of iipward progress, into the downward road accursed of 
the gods. 



In preparing a work which shall present a fitting picture of the or- 
ganized citizen soldiery of the Old Bay State, as it exists to-day, it is well 
to remember that, from the very beginning of our history, every defense 
of (iiir tcrritor}'. and offensive attack upon a foreign enemy, has been 
chiclly entrnsted to those citizens of Massachusetts who were, at the sev- 
eral epochs of public warfare, liable to military service under the law of 
the colon}' or the state. 

To-day it is proposed to establish a regular army of 100,000 men, 
owning allegiance and obedience only to the national government, with- 
out anv strong home ties, enduring local affection or state loyalty; neces- 
sarily recruited from the least intelligent and enterprising portion of our 
population, and inevitably tending to become the mechanical and disci- 
plined instruments of any cabal or interests, which may for a time control 
or direct the executive of the United States. 

The regular army of the United States has never been in close 
touch or sympathy with the American people, and offers practically no 
chance of promotion to the patriotic American, who is willing to serve his 
country in the ranks, if only he can be assured a reasonable increase of 
pay, and promotion, should his services deserve them. As a result, it is 
difficult to secure desirable recruits for the regular service, while volun- 
teer regiments can be raised, within a 
few weeks and sometimes a few days. 

As will be seen later on, this differ- 
ence in the public estimation has always 
existed, and, with a great majority of our 
people, amounts to a distrust and dislike 
of the regular service, and an enthusias- 
tic esteem for and confidence in, the 
American volunteer and state troops. 
It cannot be denied that this distinction 
is due to the fact that few self-respecting 
Americans will, willingly, take service, 
as private soldiers, under the command 
of company officers of the regular army, 
and that the American graduate of West 
Point recognizes no spirit of comrade- 
ship or citizenship with the uncommis- 
sioned officer or private, in the ranks 
under his charge. 


It is speciously argued that, inas- 
much as in peaceful callings, the intro- massac.ifsetts volctnteek, 

duction of improved tools and closer Rtvoiuticnarv period, m^-nw. 



economies demand better discipline and 
training of the men employed, so modern 
warfare, with its scientific and more 
effective weapons and methods, demands 
a discipline and training which no volun- 
teer militia can ever hope to attain. 

It is a curious commentary upon 
the merits of this claim, that few inven- 
tions, improvements or useful innova- 
tions in the art and implements of war- 
fare, have ever originated with a gradu- 
ate of West Point, or been quickly recog- 
nized and adopted by those controlling 
the regular army, and that the United 
States, during the present century, has 
been especially slow and conservatively 
antiquated in these regards. Only the 
stress and perils of the Great Rebellion, 
could induce the changes from percus- 
sion and even flintlock smoothbores, to 
rifled and breech-loading arms of pre- 
cision, which had already been adopted 
by almost every nation in Europe. 
As a matter of fact, the weapons of the citizen hunter and sports- 
man, already proved and adopted by hundreds of thousands in peaceful 
life, were modified to meet the supposed needs of the soldier, and com- 
mitted to the hands of men, whose only training in their effective use, 
was self -acquired in their anti-military life. There has never been a time, 
when a team, taken from a regular army, could excel in marksmanship, 
those exclusively composed of civilians; nor do the records of the civil 
war anywhere tell of a regular regiment, whose services and bravery ex- 
celled those rendered by scores of state organizations. 

Even were it true, that the regular soldier of to-day is a better marks- 
man, braver acting en masse; more effectively and economically cared for: 
and, in a word, a better soldier than the average national guardsman, these 
are no sufficient reasons why a great .standing army should supplant the 
organized state militia of the republic. 

When the day comes in which we shut out every American gentle- 
man from the service of his country, unless he can secure a West Point 
graduation, or such political influence as will procure him a staff appoint- 
ment, or, at the cost of becoming that strange anomaly of our republican 
policy, a private of the regular army, then ends the old, true, warlike spirit 
of our Norse and Saxon ancestors, which has reflected again and again on 

Secoliil War witli England, I.S12-1818. 



the battlefield, and in the forays of the New World, the glory and the 
ehivalry of all the warlike past of Northern and Western Europe. 

The man who has no stake in the land of his fealty; no ehoiee or judg- 
ment in the men and prineiples whieh shall rule its present and bless its 
future fortunes; no hope of soeial, intelleetual, or industrial eminenee and 
independenee; no instinetive impatienee of the sense of easte inferiority, 
may be useful as a kind of national policeman, but ean never safely be 
exelusively entrusted with the privileges and duties of the American 

Still less ean the American citizen, entering manhood with an av- 
erage knowledge of the past of his race and country, be .safely taught 
that, for him, there is no chance to serve under the flag of his fathers, un- 
less he can secure a commission, or sacrifice all control of his own destiny, 
and most of his self respect, as a soldier of an organization, far more ex- 
clusive and undemocratic in its relations between officers and men, than 
the service of the British monarchy. If the time shall ever come, when 
over 100,000 men ean be recruited in the United States, for the regular 
service, it will mark the ebb tide of that ancient American spirit, which, 
in the past three centuries, has built up, in the western wilderness world, 
the greatest republic "of which the world holds record." It will also 
mark the full fruition of that deadly 
and poisonous growth, which has, in 
every age, choked, with its sordid love 
of gain and pleasure, the manlier and 
more generous qualities of decaying and 
dying peoples. 

There may be a possibility of an 
Americanization of the United States 
army; there can and should be a reor- 
ganization, and more liberal and effec- 
tive equipment and training of or-gan- 
ized state troops; but any risk of future 
war is better than an absolute surren- 
der into the hands of the national army, 
of the right to carry arms, to wage war, 
and protect the public peace and Ameri- 
can liberty. For nearly three centuries 
each generation of the citizens of Massa- 
chusetts have either given of their best 
and bravest, for the defense of their 
native land and loved ones, or have 
conversed with and honored those of a 
past generation, who had endured and 

War with .Mixico, 1&16-I848. 


conquered under the banner of the Colony or the state flag, the lions of 
England, or the stars and stripes of the republic. 

Until the end of time, or at least until the proud state motto "Ense 
petit placidam sub libertate quietem" no longer represents the steady pur- 
pose and aspiration of the "people of the Bay," the children of Massachu- 
setts are unlikely to reverse this experience of alternate "placid quiet" and 
the unsheathing of the sword. Not in our day, at least, will the arbitra- 
tion of European diplomatists take the place of the wager of battle, and 
reconcile the tyrant with his victims, the bully with his sturdy opponent, 
the fanatic with his infidel foes, or the half civilized and barbarous war- 
rior races — who are still to reach, through toil and battle, a higher place 
among the nations — with those they are to replace. 

The time was, as will later be recorded, when every man, bond and 
free, within the limits of Massachusetts, was under military authority, and 
obliged to procure and keep ready for in.stant iise, the arms and armor of 
his era. No excuse was accepted, except that of such ecclesiastical or 
civil authority, as it was deemed best to maintain, even in the greatest 

The enrolled militia of Massachusetts is only a name, as compared 
with the ancient Land-wehr of even the last century, and instead of en- 
couraging her people to practice mili- 
tary exercises, and dexterity and skill in 
the use of arms, the statutes of modern 
Massachusetts make criminal the for- 
mation and parade of independent and 
semi -military associations, under the 
plea that it is no longer safe to allow 
the people of this generation, the privi- 
leges freely allowed the last, and im- 
]5osed as duties upon their predecessors, 
from the first settlement of the country. 
To-day, l)y like sophisms, and 
special pleas, unfoimded on the expe- 
rience and records of the past, the advo- 
cates of a great standing, regular army, 
now seek to discredit that shadow of 
(lur real military strength, and great 
state militia, the National Guard, and 
with some, at least, the real motive is 
distrust of the people's loyalty, and of 
their love of peace and respect for the 
law. Even in an almost purely agri- 
cultural state like Minnesota, there are 

Great fivil War. ISfll-lSfii. 



•that the right of the 
arms shall not be 

men who are unwilling- to trust the 
people with the full privileges ac- 
corded them b\' the second Amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States, 
which provides 
people to bear 
abridged. " 

Men in the National Guard have 
aided in passing such laws, from a de- 
sire to secure sulficient state support for 
an effective and well-equipped state 
force, but they begin to see the devel- 
opment of the real attack upon the very 
existence of popular military life. 
Massachusetts will never agree to a 
policy which will erase the swordsman's 
blade from her blazon, and end forever 
the record of her state soldiery, glorious 
with the deserved victories and not ig- 
noble defeats of two hundred and 
seventy years of warfare against 
Frenchman, Spaniard, Briton, and the 
soldiers of the Lost Cause. 

It is. therefore, of especial interest and prime necessity, that at this 
time the citizen soldiers of Massachusetts and all those who believe that 
a proper military spirit and training should fit the citizen for the defense 
and maintenance of his own best interests, should stud}' and understand 
the history, development, services, and present condition of the active 
and sedentary militia of this state. 

We can certainly never adequately realize the great debt which we 
owe to the myriads of ilassachusetts soldiers who have perished in every 
century of our history, to secure a foothold on this continent and to 
maintain, perpetuate and increase the prosperity and freedom of their fel- 
low citizens. ^Miatever maj' be said of their discipline, there can be no 
doubt of their ability to meet the best regular troops of their respective 
eras, with a superior courage and more effective skill in the use of arms. 
Their descendants will not substitute a pretorian guard for the devoted 
and intelligent services of their best and bravest. 

No regular army which the world has ever seen has ever surpassed 
the record of the men of Grant and Lee, Sheridan and Jackson, Sherman 
and Johnston, Beauregard and Gilmore. and the other great leaders of the 
Civil War. Only two regular regiments were ever raised by the Confed- 
eracy, and neither of these great leaders deemed it desirable to call for a 

War with Sp.iiii. 1S>S-K19. 


large force of regular troops. They knew, but too well, that Americans, 
of the best stamp and character, could not be induced to enter such a force. 

In Sherman's adieu to that great army, which had followed him from 
Atlanta to the sea, and from captured Savannah to fallen Richmond, is 
embodied the spirit of many similar addresses by the great Americans, 
who have, from time to time, led the citizen soldiery of the New World. 

"But that you have done all that men could do, has been admitted 
by those in authority, and we have a right to join in the universal joy that 
fills oxw land, because the war is over, and our Government stands vindi- 
cated before the world by the joint action of the volunteer armies and 
navies of the United States." 

It will be the purpose of this book, necessarily in a concise manner, 
to describe the foundation of the existing .system under the colonies of 
Boston and Plymouth, the royal governors of Massachusetts Bay, the rulers 
of the revolutionary era, and the militia laws as they existed until 1840. 
In a more complete and comprehensive manner, the story of the general 
organization, and of its component bodies and departments as they have 
existed since that period, will be given by gentlemen whose services in 
connection with the citizen soldiery of Massachusetts guarantee the value 
and interest of their contributions hereto. 

In the proper place will be given some statistics, showing the 
comparative inadequacy of the regular army during the rebellion, as com- 
pared with volunteer troops, an inefficiency due, not to lack of courage or 
discipline, but mainly to the fact that neither the United States, nor the 
Confederacy, could raise enough regular troops to begin to meet the exi- 
gencies of that great struggle. As a result the few regulars, on both sides, 
were largely on special duty, or, when in the field, were weak in numbers 
and naturally less exposed to the fiercer struggles of the contending armies. 

Of course it may be possible, that by utterly abolishing the National 
Guard and any other state military organizations, an immense regular 
army may be siibstituted for our citizen soldiery, and to some extent 
supply their place in the national life and development. But this change 
cannot fail to diminish the patriotism and manliness of the great middle 
classes, and eventually to establish a very strong military caste, whose 
views of social and professional life and duty, will be utterly out of touch 
with those hitherto held by the American people, and this will be joined 
to a destructive efficiency and discipline, which may very possibly be used, 
to further break and diminish the free and democratic spirit of a people, 
who no longer will control and defend, but will be controlled and de- 
fended, by a strong, centralized and practically aristocratic executive. 

That the numerous and specious attacks made upon the National 
Guard are indicative of definite and radical changes in the military policy 
of the American people, is, however, only too evident. 

chapti-:r III. 



HILE the right of self-defense 
is universally recognized b}- 
mankind, the right to carry 
on war, both offensive and 
defensive, must rest on the authority, 
inherent or delegated, of some recognized 
ruler or nation. The basis of such right 
on the part of the people of Massachu- 
setts, as enjt)yed and exercised by them 
ior over one hundred and fifty years, was 
the following article in the " Charter of 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in New 
Englande," granted by Charles I. of Eng- 
land, March 4, 16:28: — 

" That it shall and male be lawfull, 
to and for the chiefe commanders, govern- 
ors and ofificers of the said company, for 
the tyme being, who shall be resident in 
the saide parte of Xewe Englande, in 
America, by these presents gratinted, and 
others there inhabiting by their appoint- 
ment and direcion from tyme to tyme, and at all times hereafter, for 
their special defence and safety, to incounter, expulse, repell and resist, 
by force of arms, as well by sea as by lande, and by all fitting waies and 
meanes whatsoever, all such person and persons as shall, at any tyme 
hereafter, attempt or enterprise the destrucc'on, invasion, detriment or 
annoyance to the saide plantation or inhabitantes, and to take and sur- 
prise by all waies and meanes whatever, every strch person and persons, 
with their shippes, armour, munic'on and other goodes, as shall, in hostile 
manner, invade or attempt the defeating of the saide plantac'on, or the 
hi:rte of the saide company or inhabitantes." 

Among the first memoranda of necessaries con.sidered meet for the 
" intended voiadge to New Englande " and in due tirhe purchased for the 
use of the colonists, are found the following lists of military supplies, 
which are of interest, as .showing what were considered the best and most 
effective weapons, equipments, ammunition and ordnance, at that time in 
use; and neces.sary for the formation of an efificient and well equipped 

iFKIi'KE: of ITth CEXTritY. 


3 drums. 2 ensignes. 

2 partizans for Captain and Lieut. 

3 halberts for 3 Sariants (sergeants). 

80 Bastard Musketts with Snaphaunces, 4 foote in ye barrill. 

6 large ffowling pieces, with muskett boare, without restes, 6 ffoote long 1-2. 

4 large ffowling pieces, bastard muskett boare, 5 1-2 ffoote long. 
loFFuU musketts, 4 ffoot barrill, match cocks, and restes. 

90 bandeliers for musketts with bullett bag. 

10 home flaskes for the fowling pieces, ilb. ea. 

100 swords with belts, 60 corsletts, 60 pikes, 20 half pikes. 

This list was afterward enlarged to include two hundred muskets. 
The artillery of the colony, besides the guns with which all ships 
in that day were of necessity provided, were supplied with the following; — 


2 demi-culverins 30 cwt. ea. 

3 Backers (sakers) 25 cwt. ea. 

1 whole culverin. 

2 small pieces iron drakes. 

40 barrills of powder, 3 ffother (about 7,200 lbs.) of lead. 

Very little armor was carried, there being but one record of a con- 
tract for the same, that with " Thomas Stevens, of Buttolph"s Lane, 20 
armes, viz., corselett, brest, back, culet, gorget, tasses and headpiece, var- 
nished, all black, with leathers and 
buckles, seventeen s. each, except four 
with close headpieces, and these at 24 s." 
The corselet, with or without a j-pecial 
gorget or neck protection, was the usual 
armor of the private soldier of the time. 
Every musketeer, pikeman and offi- 
cer carried a sword, costing the company 
frc)m two shillings to four shillings aiid 
sixpence each, and the crossbow was still 
considered useful in war, and some pro- 
vided, although nearly obsolete. The 
snaphaunce or flintlock, and the clumsy 
matchlock, which raised the cover of the 
priming-pan and set the burning coal of 
the match into the fine priming powder, 
were both carried by the colonists. The 
bandeliers were broad shoulder-belts of 

DKAOOON, nth CENTUKY. . . i . i ^ i ■ i i i 

neat s leather, to which were htmg, by 
leather thongs, twelve cases of tin or wood and leather, eleven of 
which held a charge of powder and a sufficiency of wadding, and some- 
times a bullet, although generally this was carried in a bag attached to 
the bandelier. The twelfth case was a " priming box of wood covered 
with black leather," containing a very fine-grained powder. 



Bayonets had been invented, but were mere daggers whose round 
hilts could be inserted in the muzzles of the muskets, and were not gener- 
ally in use. In battle array, bodies of pikemcn stood on the Hanks of the 
musketeers, or occupietl the rear ranks, allowing the musketeers to retire 
between and behind them when a charge was made or received. A mus- 
keteers' rest was sometimes provided with a spearhead or spike, to be 
used as a pike, but the long, heavy, eut-and-thrust sword of the period was 
then, and long after, the musketeer's chief reliance in hand to hand con- 
flict, and was carried by European infantrymen even in the present cen- 
tury. The partizan, halberd, and half-pike, 
the two first massive combinations of the 
war-a.\e and pike, and the latter a very 
slender and elegant spear, became obsolete 
during the present century, and were com- 
monly used to cha.stise mutinous and dis- 
orderly soldiers. The halberds, set three in 
a triangle in the ground and lashed together 
at the points, formed a convenient jiillory, 
to which the disorderly soldier could be 
secured to endure the severe discipline of 
the lash, and " the halberds " were ju.stly 
feared well into the present century. 

The Court of Assistants, at an early 
date, provided for the equipment, organiza- 
tion and di.scipline of a militia composed 
of nearly every man able to bear and use 
a weapon. At sessions held at Boston. 
March 22. 1631, it was thus provided: — 

" Further, it is ordered, that every 
one within the patent shall before the 5th 
of April next, take especial care that every 
person within their town (except magis- 
trates and ministers), servants as well as others, be furnished with good 
and sufficient arms, allowable by the captains or other officers; them 
that want (lack), and are of ability, to buy for them-selves; others, that 
are unable, to have them provided by the town for the present, and after 
to disburse when they shall be able." 

On April 12, 1 631, watches or night guards were established at Dor- 
chester and Watertown, and firing any piece after the watch was .set, was 
forbidden under a heavy penalty. Every musketeer was ordered to provide 
and keep ready for service, one pound of powder, twenty bullets and two 
fathoms (twelve feet) of match, the latter being made of loosely-twisted 
flaxen cord, soaked in a solution of saltpetre. 

ruKTli.MT AXI) Al-T0WKA1>H OF 


There was good reason for these orders, for already the danger of an 
Indian uprising was generally recognized, and the court had ordered that 
a general watch be organized, including all men between the ages of 
eighteen and forty-five years; also " all persons are to come to service with 
their muskets or other pieces fit for service, with mafch, powder and ball, 
upon pain of twelve shillings for every default." It was further provi- 
ded, that ■■ Xo one is to travel above one mile from his house without 
arms." and later, no one was allowed to attempt the " journey from Boston 
to Plymouth alone, nor two or three together, without arms," so great was 
the latent hostility among several tribes of the New England Indians. 

Later, March 6, 1632, it was further ordered, that " any single per- 
son not procuring arms, may be made to serve by the year with any mas- 
ter that will receive him, for such wages as the court may appoint." Cap- 
tain John Underhill, formerly a soldier of fortune, and Captain Patrick, 
were named as the recognized paid instructors in the art of war, and 
later, Captain Mason, an ex-buccaneer, it is said, and a Captain Traske, 
were prominent leaders in the colony militia. The Governor was to act as 
Commander-in-Chief, and this has been the law in Massachusetts from 
that day to this. Governor John Winthrop was the first commander, and 
was followed by Sir Harry Vane, the younger, who in 1637 returned to 
England, to become in due time a fearless member of that English 
parliament, which. refused to give up to the vengeance of Charles I. the 
five impeached members. Although he had refused to sanction the 
death sentence of Charles I., and in spite of the act of amnesty, granted 
by Charles II. at the Restoration, he was accused of high treason, and 
executed on Tower Hill, June 14, 1662. 

The following is a portion of the form of oath ordered to be admin- 
istered to each freeman of the colony, and no further military oath ap- 
pears to have been exacted, it being understood that the civil, military, 
and religious responsibilities of the candidate were equally recognized 
and assumed as collateral obligations: 

" I, (A. B.,) being by God's providence an inhabitant and freeman 
within the jurisdiction of this commonwealth, do freely acknowledge my- 
self to be subject to the government thereof, and therefore do here swear 
by the great and dreadful name of the ever-living God, that I will be true 
and faithful to the same, and will accordingly yield assistance and si:pport 
thereunto, with my person and estate, as in equity I am bound, and will 
also truly endeavor to maintain and preserve all the liberties and privi- 
leges," etc., etc. 

In 1635, much question arose among the more pronounced Protest- 
ant colonists, as to the lawfulness of their mustering under the cross of 
St. George, then blazoned on the royal banner of England. Captain Endi- 
cott, of Salem, is said to have cut out the offendina: emblem with his 



sword, and to have paraded his company under the mutilated flag. Most of 
the Puritans, at heart, sympathized with the stern enthu.siast, but it was only 
too evident that this action would leave the colonists without support from 
the English government, and exposed to French and Spanish spoliation, and 
thereafter this dangerous cjuestion was never again reopened, until, in the 
fullness of time, the descendants of pilgrim and puritan arrayed themselves 
against " the meteor-flag of England," and renounced their allegiance to 
British sovereignty forever. 


At about this time, really in September, 1634, the military govern- 
ment of the colony was committed to a " Council of War," composed of 
Governor John Winthrop, John Haynes, John Humphrey, and John Endi- 
cott, Esq. By an order of the same date, the law against giving English 
arms to the Indians was so far relaxed, as to allow the trained Indian ser- 
vants of certain settlers to hunt for their masters and to enter the train- 
bands of the colony. Governor Winthrop. and the deputy governor of 
the colony, John Winthrop, Jr., were first granted this new and dangerous 


privilege. The universal liability to military service was thus modiiied: 
•■ Certain men, by reason of age and infirmity, may be excused from train- 
ing, but must have in readiness at all times arms for themselves, as well 
as for their servants." 

On March 4, 1635, it was further "Ordered; that the Council of "War, 
to consist of Governor John Winthrop, Sr., Deputy Governor John Win- 
throp, Jr., John Humphrey, John Haynes, John Endicott, William Cod- 
dington, William Pinchon, Increase NoAvell, Richard Bellingham, and 
Simon Bradstreet, have power of life and death," etc., practically establish- 
ine a state of martial law. The several towns were ordered to build mag- 
azines within the month, and various measures tending to greater military 
effectiveness were adopted. 

In March, 1636, it was decided to have a representative muster at 
Boston, and it was ordered that all towns, except Ipswich, Newbury, Salem, 
vSaugus, Weymouth and Hingham, should send ten men each, completely 
armed, to the general court convening in May, which probably initiated 
that annual " May training," which became the great yearly holiday of 
the next century. 

On December 13, 1636, the field organization of the militia was 
thus perfected: "Ordered: All military men in this jurisdiction shall be 
ranked in three regiments, viz.: Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Weymouth, 
Hingham, to be one regiment, whereof John Winthrop, Sr., shall be 
Colonel, and Thomas Dudley, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel. Charle.stown, 
Newton, Watertown, Concord and Dedham to be another regiment, 
whereof John Haynes, Esq., shall be Colonel, and Roger Harklakenden, 
Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel. Saugus, Salem, Ipswich and Newbiiry to be 
another regiment, whereof John Endicott, Esq., shall be Colonel, and 
John Winthrop, Jr., Lieutenant-Colonel. And the G(n'ernor for the time 
shall be chief jreneral, and each several regiment shall make choice of 
such men as they think most fit and safe for the service and trust of those 
places of colonel and lieutenant-colonel, and present them, by their depu- 
ties, to the next session of the court. And, for the captains and lieuten- 
ants to the several companies, the several towns shall make choice of 
some principal man, or of two or three in each town, and present them 
to the court, who shall appoint one of them to the said office in each com- 

From the same ordinance it appears, that three " muster masters," 
one for each regiment, were appointed, viz., Captain L^nderhill for the 
" South Regiment," Captain Traske for the " East Regiment," and Cap- 
tain Patrick for the " North Regiment." These were paid a regular sala- 
ry out of the treasury of the colony, and appear to have kept the several 
companies in a high degree of effectiveness. 

In 1638, Captain Robert Keayne, a Boston merchant, and a 


niimbcj- of other gentlemen, organized the artillery-train, now known as 
the''Aneient and Honorable Artillery," whieh deserves a longer account 
elsewhere, than can be given liere. 

The first general muster of these new regiments took place May 6, 
1639, ^^'^ ^^ th^^ briefly described in Governor Winthrop's Journal: 
•• The two regiments in the Bay were mustered at Boston, to the number 
of one thousand soldiers, able men, and well-armed and exercised. They 
were led, the one by the Governor, who was general of all, and the other 
by the deputy, who was colonel, etc. The captains, etc., showed them- 
selves very skilful and ready in divers sorts of skirmishes and other mili- 
tary actions, wherein they spent the whole day." 

This military gathering took place at a time when the contest for 
supremacy between armor-clad soldiery and armorless musketeers was at 
its height, and the pike and bow had still champions among the recog- 
nized military authorities of the period. In America, the use of light 
armor against the weak archery of the natives was evidently desirable, 
where it could be used without overburdening the soldier. So there mus- 
tered upon Boston Common, then a mere pasture, unenclosed, nearly tree- 
less, and, for that day only, cleared of the coavs, sheep and goats who 
were wont to crop it, some ten companies of stalwart militia, varying in 
strength, and according to modern ideas, strangely un -uniform, inarms, ap- 
parel, and manoeuvres. The Boston company is the largest, numbering 
between one hundred and fifty and two hundred men, and the arms and 
equipments of its ofhcers and men, tell of the superior wealth and stand- 
ing of the citizens who compose it. Its musketeers are ranged according 
to the length of their weapons, some carrying matchlock muskets, with 
barrels six feet in length, and strong, steel-shod rests, and holding between 
the fingers of the right hand doubled lengths of match ready for present 
use. Their black armor is crossed with tassel-like bandaliers and broad- 
buckled sword-belts, and their stern and resolute faces are framed by the 
rims of japanned steel head-pieces or bas.sinets. Others have only equally 
long, but smaller bored fowling-pieces, with great powder horns and bags 
for bullets and "great shot"; but the have "bastard" flintlock mus- 
kets or "snaphaunces," with barrels four feet six inches in length, of 
smaller bore, and destined .soon to replace the clumsy matchlock guns 
altogether. Their officers wear more co.stly and complete armor, or rich- 
ly-laced and expen.sive buff coats, which were nearly proof against sword- 
cut or spear-thrust, and, in Europe, were fast supplanting all forms of 
defensive armor. Each captain and lieutenant, be.sides his heavy cut-and- 
thrust sword, carries a half-pike, a more or less ornamental .spear, with a 
short and slender, yet tough shaft, his insignia of office, and ready instru- 
ment of punishment for the stupid and disobedient. The sergeants carry 
no muskets, and their heavy halberds, made both for cutting and 


thrusting, are readily distinguishable, as they move on the flanks or in 
the rear of the lines of march and battle. 

Ranks of pikemen led the advance and brought up the rear of each 
marching company, and ranged themselves on either flank in line of bat- 
tle and in the manoeuvres; now advanced, to lead the attack, and again 
retired, to let the musketeers deliver heavy and slowly repeated vollies. 

All. both officers and men.carried swords, some, perhaps, a long, costly 
rapier of France or Italy, a trenchant blade of Toledo, a scimitar from 
fair Damascus, or farther India, or a basket-hilted claymore, a relic of 
some Highland foray or old Scottish war. For the most part, however, 
the soldiers carried plainly-made English weapons, with simple iron hilts, 
and costing sums which were eqviivalent to from $1.25 to §2. 50 of the 
values of to-day. 

A few mounted gentlemen and yeomen, generally in armor or buff 
coats, and armed with long swords and heavy petronels — extremely long- 
barrelled pistols — formed a small body of cavalry, some of whom also 
carried firelocks, or the huge-bored blunderbusses or musketoons, which 
are said to have at first been called "dragons," and given their possessors 
the name of dragoons. 

Some of the leaders had had 
honorable e.xperience in the campaigns 
of Europe, and some, it was whispered, 
had carried on that private warfare of 
the sea which fluctuated in that un- 
settled period between honorable ad- 
venture and accursed and merciless 
su;x.rrui:E OK cAiT. juiix .M.isux. piracy. !Many of the men had, in 

1636, accompanied Endicott on his 
mission of vengeance against the Indians of Block Island, and more in 
1637 had, under Mason, Patrick and Traske avenged the death of Captain 
Stone and his Connecticixt fellow settlers on the great Pequot fortress- 
swamp, slaying the men by hundreds, and reducing to slavery their 
women and children, the boys and youths, for the most part, being 
shipped as slaves to the West Indies. 

In 1642, a still larger number of men took jDart in the "^lay train- 
ing," over twelve hundred men having been miistered in the two regiments 
present, and with each succeeding year the military forces of "the ba}- 
folk" grew in nunibers and efficiency. 

In 1643, the colonies of Boston and Plymotith in ]klassachusetts, 
with those of New Haven and Connecticut, joined in forming that "An- 
cient New England Union Confederation," which embodied the interests 
and principles which have been the basis of every succeeding American 



In the same year Etienne de la Tour, of St. John, arrived bid'orc 
Boston in a ship of one hundred and forty tons, carrying one hundred 
and forty j^ersons, which had sailed from La Rochellc, and found her 
desired haven blockaded by the ships of D'Aulnay, the life-long enemy 
and rival of La Tour. La Tour had found means to get on board this 
ship and came to Boston to secure aid in breaking the blockade, and while 
there, joined with forty of his musketeers in the exercises of the Boston 
train-band, which, to the number of one hundred and fifty, mustered 
as usual and were greatly praised by the French partisan. ^Vbout the 
middle of [uly. La Tour sailed out of Boston to raise the blockade, hav- 
ing chartered four ships and a pinnace, and seciired the services of sev- 

From I'ahidn'j 1>y H-'nril Bacon. 


enty Massachusetts volunteers "at 40 s. per month," equivalent to nearly 
thirty dollars at the present day. Thus began the Acadian expeditions 
of that amphibious soldiery of the Bay Colony, which, in later years, 
were to harass, by both sea and land, the subjects of the French king. 

Plvmonth Colony, the older in point of settlement, had in like 
manner prepared to defend her subjects against the savage enemy, whose 
hidden archery at their very arrival assailed the pioneers on "The Field 
of the First Encounter." At an early date the colony established an 
armed militia including every male capable of bearing arms, and under 
heavy penalties made every house an armed garrison and its head respon- 
sible for a sufficient armament and ample supply of ammunition, -'two 
pounds of powder, ten pounds of bullets, and twelve fathoms of match " 


being ordered to each inusketeer. Only three years after the landing of 
the Pilgrims, in 1623, Captain Miles Standish, with eight men, visited 
Weston's unfortunate settlement at Wessagussett, or Weymouth, and 
nipped in the bud a dangerous conspiracy by slaying Pecksuot, Wittu- 
waumut, and other conspirators. There has been much condemnation of 
this summary and fatal measure, but it certainly never needed repetition 
in the Colony of Plymouth. 

Taught, by these and like occurrences, of the dangers of savage 
hostility, and mindftil of the perils which might at any time threaten, 
from the navies and pirates of the seas, the Plymouth settlements kept 
their militia in constant preparation, every town having its magazine for 
the town supply of powder, bullets, match, flints, etc., and its regular 
quota of horsemen, each armed with petronels and sabre, and ready at a 
moment's notice to take the field, or raise the country against the common 

In 1675, it was estimated that the population of the Massachusetts 
Colony was over 22,000; New Plymouth, 7,000; Connecticut. 14,000; Rhode 
Island, New Hampshire and Maine about 4,000 each; in all about 48,000 
to 55,000 souls. 


Nearly all the original settlers of Plymouth and Boston were dead, 
or at best had settled down by the fireside as worn-out veterans, when 
the fear and scourge of King Philip's war first fully tried the courage 
and martial skill of the citizen soldiers of New England. The terror 
came not without warning, if we may believe the records of those godly 
men who saw in it a punishment for unnatural and unforgiven sins — a 
permitted attack by the great Enemy of Souls upon the Israel of New 
England. From border to border there were fears of an unknown dan- 
ger, forebodings which none could justify and few dispel; the singing of 
bullets and the dying flourish and summons of ghostly drums in the 
evening stillness; the tramp of unseen chargers where mortal steed 
might not pass, and the wraiths of marshaled men and fleeting phan- 
toms of the victims yet to be. 

Thirty thousand Indians still found a home between the St. Croix 
river and the western boundaries of New England; but a large propor- 
tion of them were at peace with the whites, or neutral and indisposed to 
combine in a war against them. Nearly twenty thousand, however, were 
within the borders of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, and 
the Wampanoags, under King Philip, the son of Massasoit, began the 
war by an attack on Swansey, June 24, 1675. In the war which ensued, 
Taunton, Namasket and Dartmouth suffered much, but Philip was 
quickly defeated in his own territory, and took refuge among the Nip- 
mucks of western Massachusetts. The NarraQ-ansetts made a treatv of 

TiiK A.Mr.r>r \hK, k!N..'- wak. 

Drawn by Waiter L. Greene. 


peace July 15th, and promised to deliver up the hostile Wampanoags 
who should retreat into their territory, but the Tarratines and Penobseots 
took up ihehatehetin Maine, and the Xarragansetts and other tribes along 
the Connecticut also joined the enemy. Quaboag, Hadley, Deerfield, 
Xorthfield and Sugar-loaf Hill were almost de.stroyed, with the loss of 
many lives and much cattle; and in September war was formally declared 
against tJie Narriigansetts by the colonies of Massachusetts, New Ply- 
mouth and Connecticut. In October, the Indians about Springfield 
deserted their English allies, burned the greater part of the settlement, 
and I'oined King Philip, Canonehet, chief of the Narragansetts, and 
their allies. 

About one thousand men, commanded by Josiah Winslow of 
the Plymouth Colony, attacked in midwinter the fortress camp of the 
Narragansetts, situated on an island in the heart of a great swamp. 
The frost had bridged the water and made the deep bogs passable; the 
naked trees gave little shelter to the Indian marksmen, and, at the cost 
of nearly one-fourth their number, the English stormed the fortress, 
slaying nearly one thousand Narragansetts. The broken tribe took shel- 
ter among the Nipmucks, who in turn were hunted from place to place, 
until they were no longer able to meet their terrible and persistent ene- 
mies. Canonehet, chief of the humbled Narragansetts, was offered life 
if his people would submit and surrender King Philip to his English ene- 
mies. He nobly refused, and being informed that he was condemned to 
die by the hands of three Indian chiefs, allies of the whites, showed no 
fear, but said, boldly: 'T like it well, for I shall die before my heart is 
soft, or I have spoken anything unworthy of myself." 

But his self-devotion could only delay the death of Philip, who 
had been forced to take refuge among the Mohawks, but was soon driven 
from that refuge, and finally, with his wife and son and a few followers, 
ventured back to Mount Hope. The watchful English surprised and 
made prisoners of his wife and son, but he himself, eluded them. A few 
days after, while surrounded by a body of Plymouth musketeers, he 
attempted to escape. As he passed the line of ambushed foemen, he 
came upon one Caleb Cook of Plymouth, but the soldier's piece flashed 
in the pan. An Indian beside him was more fortunate, and as the report 
echoed through the woods. King Philip pitched forward upon his face, dead. 
Thus the first great champion of his doomed race yielded up his life, 
and King Philip's war was over. "Exchange guns with me," said the 
white man. The Indian made the desired transfer, and so it is that the 
lock and barrel of that fatal weapon are preserved to-day; the lock by 
the Alassachusetts Historical Society, and the barrel at Pilgrim Memorial 
Hall at Plymouth. It is said that Philip's wife died of grief , and that his 
young son was transported to the West Indies and sold into slavery. 


In fourteen months, nearly a dozen settlements had been utterly 
destroyed, and many others were partially consumed, including the loss 
of over six hundred buildings and much property, valued, with the 
expenditures of the war, at over one hundred thousand pounds sterling. 
Six hundred colonists, men, women and children had perished in battle 
and massacre, and the fear of like dangers and losses in attempting to 
form new plantations undoubtedly greatly discouraged immigration from 
abroad and enterprise at home. On the ilaine frontier the Indians, aided 
and encouraged by the French, continued the war until April, 167S, when 
peace was restored. 


In 16S4, the Court of King's Bench, in view of a writ of quo war- 
ranto issued against the Governor and Company of ^lassachusetts, gave 
judgment "that their letters patent and the enrollment thereof be an- 
nulled," and in July, 16S5, an official copy of this judgment was received 
by the secretary of the General Court. The government of both Massa- 
chusetts and Plymoiith, as administered by their respective companies, 
had passed away, and was succeeded by that of the King, as vested 
in the royal governor of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay. 

The militia of the New Plymouth and ilassachusetts plantations 
were the patterns after which ha\'e been molded the principal military 
forces of the American people. In Plymouth, more democratic senti- 
ments and policies exi.sted than in the ^lassachusetts jurisdiction, but in 
neither was there found anything like a military body, utterly subservient to 
the executive power, and out of touch with the popular spirit and 

Under the royal g<ivernors, the British armj- and navy became the 
main reliance of many rulers who, to a great extent, had forfeited the 
good opinion of the people, but, as will readily appear, the militia of the 
colonies were still the chief defense of their own borders, and indispen- 
sable to the British crown in most of the wars carried on in the New 
World against Frenchman or Spaniard and their savage allies. 



FR().M May 20, 16S6, to .May 14, 1692, Massachusetts history, for 
nearly si.\ 3'ears, properly belongs neither to the Colonial nor the 
Provincial period. From May 24 to December 20, 1686, Joseph 
Dudley, duly commissioned Lieutenant-Governor by King James II., 
administered the government. Under the laws previously existing, during 
this period, the four military companies of Boston were commanded by An- 
thony Checkley, Thomas vSavage, Benjamin Davis and Jeremiah Dummer. 
Sir Edmund Andros, the "Royal Governor," arrived at Boston 
December 19, 1686. In the fall of 1686 he impressed over a thousand 
men within the Massachusetts colony and led them into Maine, to Pema- 
quid and elsewhere. The campaign was mainly a defensive one, but 
Andros returned to Boston in March, 1689, only to be arrested April 18 by 
the train bands of the Colony, and forced to submit to the Council under 
the rule of Governor Bradstreet, and in the interest of William of Orange, 
newly become King of England. 

One of the most striking events of this period of warfare, in the 
year 1689, was the capttire of Major Waldron's forts at and near Dover, 
N. H., where, in the year 1676, he had treacherously seized some hundreds 
of Indians, who, trusting in his professions of amity, had come there to 
trade. Some two hundred were sold into slavery, and others were 
executed at Boston; but the survivors bided their time, and Waldron at 
last grew careless and relaxed his vigilance. On one fatal night, two 
Indian women got permission to sleep in each of his garrisoned trading 
houses, and at midnight each was oijened to the waiting warriors. Major 
Waldron and twenty-two others were slain, and twenty-nine who survived 
were carried to Canada and sold to the French as servants. 


On May 14, 1692, Sir William Phips, appointed governor under the 
new charter, approved October 7, 1691, arrived at Boston and the new 
Provincial Period began. 

The Boston colony was now a part of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, comprising the old Massachusetts Colony, the Plymouth Colony, 
Maine, Nova Scotia and all the intervening territory, excepting the "New 
Hampshire Grants." The Governor and the Lieutenant-Governor, with 
the members of the first Council, were appointed by the King. The 
popular branch of the legislature was to be elected by the people, and 
these in turn were to nominate candidates for vacancies in the higher 


branch, subject to the approval of the Governor; who also had the power 
to disapprove and annul any act of the legislature. All acts and laws 
were further subject to revision by the King, and could be set aside at his 
pleasure; and in the provinces of British North America, this last condi- 
tion existed within the memory of living men. The population of the 
Plymouth colony at this time (1692) was estimated at about 7,000, the 
Massachusetts colony at 40,000, and Maine, Nova Scotia and New Hamp- 
shire at from 10,000 to 12,000 more. The population of New England 
and English Acadia probably amounted to somewhere about 60,000 souls. 
Boston, then as now, the central metropolis of New England, had only 
about 7,000 inhabitants. A large proportion of these were freemen, but 
there were a few negro slaves, some Scotch "sold here for servants 
in the time of the wars with Scotland," and some Irish, "brought hither 
at several times as servants." Besides these, whose service in due time 
ended in their becoming freemen, the "Christian Indians," of Mashpee, 
Stockbridge and Natick amounted to several thou.sands. Their children 
were frequently apprenticed for a term of years to the English, and often 
became quite well educated and skilful in many industries, and the men 
often fought in the militia and served in the vessels of the colony. 


The people of New England, at this period, were equally ready to 
till the soil, or to embark in the fisheries, coasting trade, or more extended 
commerce. According to Randolph, there were 730 vessels, large and 
small, owned in Massachi:setts in 1676. But few of these exceeded 200 
tons in burden, and most of them were sloops, ketches, snows, etc., of 
from 10 to 100 tons. 

The almost constant wars between the powers of Europe; the 
depredations of privateers; the constant inroads of the savages of Canada 
and the frequent French wars, made it absolutely necessary to make every 
large vessel an armed cruiser, and every available man a soldier or trained 
sea-fighter; and to do them justice, most of the men of the New England 
coastline were eqiually qualified for land or sea service against the 
enemies of the King. 


While the French colonies in 1690, were comparatively weak in 
numbers (estimated at about 12.000 persons), they were largely aug- 
mented in the summer season by their fishermen, armed traders, and by 
soldiers who garrisoned the ports and fishing stations, many of whom re- 
turned to France in the late autumn. Planted by the crown and the 
church, and managed with a strict regard for the extension of French 
domination and Catholic supremacy. New France, including Montreal, 
Quebec, Acadia, Isle St. Jean 'Prince Edward Island), and the Isle Royale 


(Cape BretonK formed a elosely united eonfederacy, eajjable of stron;^' 
ilefense and terribly offensive nioveinents. 

For the latter purpose, tlie Indians of Maine, Aeadia and Canada 
were always ready and terrible instruments. Generally they were strong, 
agile, resoureeful and eourageous, handsome in features, intelligent, and 
greatly attaehed to their Freneh allies. The Catholie eeremonies and 
faith found them ready proselytes, and man}' inter-marriages, and less 
formal ties, not esteemed degrading in Indian eyes and tolerated by the 
eivil and religious authorities, made the term "Brother" the usual greet- 
ing between Frenehman and Indian. Liberal gifts of arms, ammunition, 
elothing, ornaments, and even food and money, were yearly distributed by 
the Freneh King to his savage allies, who, with rare exeeptions, never 
failed to respeet the rights and person of the humblest and most isolated 
French inhabitant, and were never wanting when New France was in- 
vaded, or a foray was to be made against the hated English. 


With the accession of William of Orange to the English throne in 
1689, came war between France and England, and although the French 
government proposed that the American colonies should be neutral in the 
struggle, this proposition was rejected b)^ the English ministry. Sir 
William Phips, then High Sheriff of New England, projected a descent 
on Port Royal in Acadia, and with eight small vessels, and seven or eight 
hundred Massachusetts militia and mariners, sailed from Boston, April 
28, 1690, arriving before the French fort on Alay loth, and after captur- 
ing it with little resistance, secured "booty" enough to pay the expenses 
of the expedition. Other small settlements were also visited, and the ex- 
pedition, having taken possession of every port between Port Royal and 
Boston, returned victorious May 30, 1690. 

A larger expedition against Quebec had been projected, and 
although the English government failed to send a fleet and army to co- 
operate with the colonists as requested, another expedition, also com- 
manded by Sir William Phips, numbering about 30 vessels and 2,000 
volunteers, sailed from Boston August 9, arrived before Quebec October 
5, and anchored before the city. On October 6, Sir William Phips 
demanded the surrender of the city of the aged Frontenae, whose reply 
was terse and significant: "I will answer him at the cannon's moiith." 

Thirteen hundred provincials under Major Walley were landed 
October 8, and were victorious in the preliminary skirmishes; and later, 
the four heaviest frigates opened fire upon the defences of the city, but 
Walley remained inactive and the vessels were repulsed, having suffered 
heavily in the bombardment. On the 9th and loth, Walley attacked by 
land with the provincial infantry and artillery, but was finally beaten off 


and re-embarked, having lost many of his men and some of his artillery. 
On the return voyage nine vessels were lost in the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence and the expedition returned to Boston. The failure of a land 
force, raised in Connecticut and New York, to invade Canada by way 
of Lake Champlain, and to invest Montreal, had enabled Frontenac to 
concentrate his whole force at Quebec, and in all human probability, 
saved Canada for that time. 

Two years later, in 1692, while Phips was governor, another expe- 
dition was projected for 1693, in which Sir Francis Wheeler, with a fleet 
from the "West Indies and a large force of English marines and regulars, 
was to meet the New England troops at Boston. Unfortunately, the letter 
advising the New England authorities failed to reach them until July, 1693, 
nearly a month after the English Admiral had himself arrived at Nan- 
tasket. Having previously lost by disease 1,300 out of 2,100 sailors, and 
1.800 out of 2,400 marines and regulars, the English Admiral was com- 
pelled to return to England. 

A plan for a rendezvous at Canseau, the following year, between an fleet with 2,000 English troops, and the New England transports 
with as many colonists, failed through misunderstandings, which finally 
resulted in the departure of Governor Phips to England, November 1694, 
to answer complaints against his administration. During these years 
however, he had done much to check the ravages of the Tarratines and 
Abenaquis along the Maine frontier, and had made a treaty with the 
Indians, which was broken by his successors. 

William Stoughton, Lieutenant-G:;)vernor under Phips, administered 
the government until the summer of 1697. During his incumbency, 
Pemaquid was taken by DTberville and Castine, and, in 1697, peace was 
proclaimed, and Acadia ceded and gi\'en up to France. 


After Lord Bellamont.who died in March. 1 70 1 , Governor Dudley suc- 
ceeded him, holding the reins of government until November, 171 5. War 
between France and England was renewed Alay 4, 1702, and, even before 
that date, French emissaries had induced their Indian neighbors to break 
the treaties, made by Phips, and re-negotiated at Casco and Pemaquid, by 
Dudley in 1702. During his regime, Hertel De Rouville with about 300 
French half-breeds and Indians, surprised and destroyed Deerfield, Febru- 
ary 28, 1704. Another expedition of 400 attacked Lancaster in August of 
the same year, and minor massacres and ambushments claimed victims in 
1705 and 1706. De Rouville, on August 29, 1708, nearly destroyed Haver- 
hill, and a second attack the same autumn came near finishing the work of 


In 1707, an expedition consistinjjf of two j\lassachtisetts regiments, 
with three ships, five brigantines and fifteen sloops, eonvoyed by H. M. S. 
■■Deptford" and the Province Galley, sailed from Boston May 13, arriving 
before Port Royal May 26. The troops were landed and the jjlace besieged, 
but the expedition was a failure. In this expedition j\Iassachusetts fur- 
nished 1,000 men, besides a large proportion of sailors. 

In 1709, a larger expedition was projected, for which Massachusetts 
raised about 1.000 and Rhode Island 200 men, but the English government 
failed to send the promised fleet and reinforcements, and the colonists 
disbanded after being in the service five months. 

In 1710, General Nicholson, with an English regiment commanded 
by Colonel Redding, two regiments from Massachusetts under Sir Charles 
Hobby and Colonel William Tailer; Colonel Whiting's Connecticut regi- 
ment, and one from New Hampshire under Colonel Walton, were mustered 
at Boston, and on September 18 sailed from Nantasket Roads for Port 
Royal in twenty-five tran.sports, convoyed by the Dragon, Falmouth, Loewe- 
staff, Feversham and Chester ships, the bomb-ketch Star and the Pro- 
vince Galley. On September 24, the fleet anchored in Port Royal har- 
bor, and within a few days the fort was invested and batteries thrown up, 
mounting, besides light artillery, two great and twenty-four Coehorn mor- 
tars. Subercase, the French commander, capitulated October 5, and 
Nicholson, calling the town Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne, left 
a "-arrison under Colonel Vetch and returned to Boston. In 171 1, General 
Nicholson went to England and memorialized the queen "in compassion 
to the colonies, to send an armament Canada," and, on the return of 
Nicholson, the governors of the New England colonies. New York, the Jer- 
seys and Pennsylvania were informed that a large fleet under Sir Hoven- 
den Walker, with forty transports carrying seven regiments of Marlbor- 
ough's veterans and 600 marines, commanded by General Hill, would at 
once leave England for Boston. 

Admiral Walker and General Lee arrived in Boston June 24-25, 1711, 
with 6,000 seamen and marines, and 5,500 troops, and landed the latter 
on Noddle's Island, now East Boston. Massachusetts appropriated 140- 
000 pounds, in bills of credit payable in two years, and promptly raised 
her proportion of the 1,500 men recruited in New England (reneral 
Nicholson in the meantime, with a force of 4,000 men from the other colo- 
nies and some Indian allies, commenced the land march from Albany 
against Montreal. 

The main expedition sailed from Bo.ston, July 30th, and .safely 
entered the Bay of St. Lawrence. Captain Paradis, the French ma.ster of 
a recently captured merchantman and a skillful pilot, was forced to guide 
them, but as they sailed into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, drew the attention 
of the naval officers to certain mysterious fires or lights, which, at night 


illumined the horizon with unnatural brilliancy. These, he said, were an 
unfailing forerunner of heavy and continued bad weather, and now exceeded 
in persistence and volume, anything he had ever before witnessed; and he 
wished them to seek a harbor at once. This they refused to do, and 
when in the embouchure of the St. Lawrence, a tremendous tempest was 
encountered. Nine transports, carrying nearly 2,000 men, were dashed 
upon the the shore, and over 1,000 veteran soldiers perished by drowning. 
When the fleet reunited, the officers held a council of war and re- 
fused to ascend the St. Lawrence, or even to attempt anything against the 
French settlement at Placentia, Newfoundland, on the way to England. 
The New England vessels returned to Boston, and General Nicholson, 
advised of the disaster, also led his forces back to Albany. In 17 13, the 
treaty of L'trecht ended Queen Anne's War and a long peace ensued, 
broken only by occasional "Indian troubles" of little moment. In 17 16, 
vSamuel Shute, an English officer, who had served in the wars of William 
and Anne, succeeded Dudley as Governor, and found in Massachusetts a 
population estimated at 94,000 whites, who possessed 2,000 slaves, with 
1 .200 civilized Indians, who professed Christianity and tilled their lands 
in peace. 


Sebastian Rasles, or Ralles, a Jesuit missionary settled at Nor- 
ridgewock, is said to have stirred up the Indians to commit certain out- 
rages, and in 1720 some attempt was made for his apprehension. In 172 i, 
200 Indians, under the French flag and accompanied by two 
Jesuits, visited Georgetown on Arrowsick Island and left a threatening 
letter for the governor, and the House at last prevailed on him to order, 
that 300 men should be sent to demand the said Jesuits and "the leaders 
and fomenters of this rebellion." 

For some reason, the governor delayed action, and the House sent 
Colonel Thomas Westabrooke to Norridgewock, who secured Rasle's 
papers, but the Jesuit himself escaped to the woods. A natural son of 
Baron Castine was seized and carried to Boston, and in 1722, a party of 
sixty Indians made prisoners of nine families at Merry Meeting Bay, and 
another band attempted to capture an Ipswich schooner, and burned a sloop 
at St. George's river. Later, Brunswick, Maine, was attacked and burned 
and war was declared. The governor, however, refused to let the House 
vote upon the term of service for which troops should be raised, and in 
the disputes which ensued nothing was done, until Governor Shute sailed 
for England to lay the matter before the King and Council; leaving Wil- 
liam Dummer, the Lieutenant-Governor, to carry on the afifairs of the 
colony. Lender his management, there was a better feeling between the 
governor and the legislature, but the Indian troubles in Maine and Acadia 
continued to increase. In July, 1723, the rendezvous of New England 


fishermen at Canseau, at the mouth of the straits of Canseaii, or Pass de 
Fronsae, was eaptttred by the Indians, and seventeen fishing vessels with 
ninety prisoners were taken. In 1724. the whole frontier was aflame, and 
at length Father Rasles and his Norridgewocks were attacked, himself 
slain, and the village and church pillaged. The colony offered a bounty of 
100 pounds currency for Indian scalps, and Captain John Lovewell, raising 
a large company of rangers, made two successful raids against the Abena- 
quis in January and February, but on his third expedition. May 8, 1725, 
was ambuscaded and slain with the greater nimiber of his followers. A 
truce followed, a treaty of peace was negotiated at Boston, and ratified at 
Falmouth, Maine, August 5, 1726. Trading houses were established on 
the St. George, Kennebec and Saco rivers, where the Indians found it to 
their advantage to trade peaceably for English goods, and, until 1744. 
there was very little trouble on the frontier. In 1727, Colonel Shute was' 
pensioned, on the accession of George II., and \Villiam Burnet became 
governor of Massachusetts, but, after a somewhat stormy career of three 
years, he died, and was succeeded by Mr. Jonathan Belcher. 

WAIi Willi SPAIN. 

During this administration, in 1739, war was declared against Spain 
by the English Ministry, and in 1740 it was determined that a fleet and 
army should be sent to capture the Spanish city of Cartagena, in what is 
now the State of Colombia, in South America. Lord Admiral Edward 
Vernon was reinforced at Jamaica by the squadrons of Sir Chaloner Ogle 
and Commodore Lestock, who brought with them a carefully chosen 
army under Lord Cathcart, who died on the voyage out to Jamaica, leav- 
ing the command to General Wentworth. Three thousand men were 
to be raised by the loyal colonies, but Governor Belcher desired to 
furnish 1,000 men from Massachusetts. The men were actually raised, 
under the captaincies of Major Ammi Ruhamah Wise, of Ipswich, Colonel 
John Prescott, of Concord, Daniel Goff, Stephen Richards, Thomas 
Phillips, John Furney and Dr. George Stuart of Boston, William Phips, 
of Cambridge, Joshita Barker, of Pembroke, and Timothy Ruggles, of 

Only four captain's and four ensign's commissions were forwarded, 
however, and only four lieutenants, the arms, equipments, weapons and 
uniforms for four companies were sent from England to fit out the Gover- 
nor's recruits. These were allotted to Phillips', Goffe's, vStuart's and Pres- 
cott's companies, and Captain Edward Winslow raised a fifth com- 
pany and accompanied the others to Jamaica, where over 4,200 colon- 
ists finally rendezvoused. Delay, disease, jealousies, incompetency, and, 
it is claimed, corruption, saved Cartagena from utter subjugation ; such 
as Louisburg knew four years later. 


The colonial troops were promptly landed at Port Royal, Jamaica, 
but it was not until the gth of December that the divisions of Sir Chaloner 
Og-le and Coinmodore Lestock came into port. Lord Cathcart, the com- 
mander in chief, had died on the passage, and was succeeded by General 
Went worth, and the fleet had suffered so much from heavy weather that 
it was not until February 25, 1741 . that the expedition sailed for Cartagena, 
and arriving March 9, 1741, ran down past the city and the Isle of Tierra 
Bomba, and anchored out of range of the ship channel of Boca Chica, some 
10 or 12 miles from Cartagena. The entrance was guarded by the 
Cham bra battery of three guns, and a fascine battery of 12 guns, which 
were promptly silenced and occupied. Further in, on the left, lay Fort 
St. Jago of eight; Fort St. Phillip of 12 guns; and the castle of Boca 
Chica with 94 guns. 

Beyond, the new fortress of St. Joseph of 20 guns, and a great boom 
barred the channel, behind which, moored broadside on, lay the fleet of 
Admiral Don Bias, including the Gallicia, Africa, San Carlos, San Phillip 
and Cassadada, all ships of the line, mounting in the aggregate 344 gi:ns. 
()n the island of Baru, also, were two masked batteries mounting 20 guns, 
giving an aggregate of 523 guns, all of them of what was then considered 
heavy calibre, besides mortars and swivels. Probably not less than 3,000 
men served these batteries, and with musketry and side arms took part in 
the defense. Besides these there were the city garrison, militia and 
guerilla forces. The bomb ketches of the fleet with assistance from the 

J'liuloijrapUetl lit/ fraticta R. Hart. 


broadside guns of the men of war, soon silenced the smaller forts of St. 
Jago and St. Phillip, which on March loth, were occupied by a party of 
British grenadiers and the Massachusetts and New York levies. 

On March 15, a large breaching battery was begun 450 yards from 
the great castle, but the batteries on the Island of Baru enfiladed it, and 
the Spanish forts and ships dispersed the working parties. On March 19, 
a landing party of mariners and soldiers successfully stormed the Baru 



outworks; a lunette with five, and the main Barradera battery of fifteen 
J4 pounders, and after spikiny the yuns, and destroying the earriages and 
woodwork with fire, returned to their ships. 

In the meantime Colonel ^loore, the chief engineer, had completed 
a battery of twenty-one 24 pounders, and a mortar battery with two large 

J'/w(uiji ti^'/iid iii I'lni: 


and twenty-four Coehorn mortars, which were soon unmasked by American 
axe-men and Jamaican colored troops, on the night of March 20, and 
opened fire at dawn of the 2 ist. 

The Spanish fire was so heavy however, that on March 22, Commo- 
dore Lestock with the Suffolk, Boyne, Prince Frederick and Hampton 
Court, ships of the line, and aided by the Princess Amelia, Norfolk, Cum- 
berland and other ships of Ogle's division, sailed up into the entrance, and 
with springs upon their cables, opened fire i:pon the Spanish castles and 
fleet. The results however, were disappointing, and the Barradera bat- 
teries which had been re-established, re-opened and raked the breaching 
battery, killing Colonel Moore while he was directing the bombardment. 

Next day, March 23, the same ships re-opened fire, and another 
boat expedition took the re-established Barradera batteries. The ships 
however, suffered severely; Lord Aubrey Beauclerc DeVere of the Prince 
Frederick was killed, and Commodore Lestock came very near losing 
his flag-ship, the Boyne. 

On March, 25 a general assault was ordered, and behind the 
main breaching battery, the flower of the land forces awaited the signal 
of attack. The "forlorn hope" of twelve picked grenadiers with muskets 
slung, matches burning, and bags of hand grenades open for instant use. 


were to hurl their deadly missiles among the waiting defenders. Fifty of 
their comrades came next, to charge over the broken masonry of the 
breach; 500 men of Whinyard's and Bland's Foot-Guards were to press 
in behind them, and detachments of Americans and of the Jamaican colored 
troops, were to follow with scaling ladders and wool sacks and to take 
part in the assault. Another party from the fleet were to land on Baru, 
take Fort St. Joseph and, if practicable, capture the Spanish men-of-war. 

The discharge of three mortars gave the signal, and every gun and 
mortar which could be broiight to bear by ship and battery, opened with 
a fury, which for a few moments utterly silenced the Spanish fire. Then, 
as suddenly, it ceased, and under the heavy smoke the troops dashed for- 
ward to the assault. With hoarse British cheers, the grenadiers fli:ng 
their grenades into the cloud of Spanish infantry whose muskets blazed 
incessantly across the ragged breach; their comrades, close behind, poured 
in with broadsword and bayonet. Colonel Whinyard died at the head of 
his men; Colonel Gooch of the Americans, was wounded in both thighs 
and carried to the rear, but the castle was won, and with it the rest of the 
defenses. Then the great San Phillip burst into flames, and the San 
Carlos, Africa, and Cassadada were scuttled by their crews and sunk at 
their moorings. Only the Gallicia, and the castle of San Joseph, both 
filled with combustibles and ready for the torch, were captured unharmed. 

A few days later the fleet were safely inside the land locked harbor; 
had secured the ^lanzanillo and Cavallo Pass forts of eighteen guns each; 
and, a day or two later, the Castillo Grande of sixty guns, none of which 
made any resistance. 

Cartagena now lay almost under the guns of the fleet; defended 
only by its own ramparts, mounted with 124 beautiful long, brass, Spanish 
cannon; and by the redan of San Lazaro mounting twenty-five guns, 
flanked by two smaller field-works of twenty-four more, and the church 
fortress of De La Popa. The latter work was soon abandoned to the 
invaders, and the Spanish governor Don Sebastian de Eslava, awaited the 
final struggle. 

By April 6, the army was ready to begin the siege of the city, 
but the activity of the early operations received a sudden check. A large 
proportion of the American contingent, had been kept on board the trans- 
ports, owing to a totally unfounded belief, that they were likely to 
mutiny and possibly to desert to the Spaniards. Unable to take needed 
exercise, fed for months on salt provisions and damaged biscuits; kept 
on a short allowance of water (three half-pints daily i in a tropical climate; 
daily horrified by the sufferings and death of comrades, whose bodies 
were often thrown to the sharks to be torn in pieces before their eyes; 
and worse than all the constant recipients of the insolence and abuse of the 
brutal British ofhcers; the Americans had lost nearly half of their number, 


and the British were in scarcely less evil case. Only 5000 men of 12,000 
were reported fit for dut}-, and these were rapidly succumbing to the hard- 
ships of the service, and the alternating tropical heats and almost inces- 
santly deluging showers of the rainy season. There seems also to have 
been a fatal lack of cordialitv and concerted action between Ailmiral 

i'tluI'Mjruiitii-ti inj J-'nitii'ilt A". J/tirt. 


\'ernon and General \\'ent worth, and instead of breaching San Lazaro 
by a combined bombardment, the fatal decision to attempt an Dpen as- 
sault, was arrived at by the council of war. 

This was delivered at daybreak, April 9, 1742, Colonel Grant 
with his grenadiers leading the centre, followed as before bv the Ameri- 
cans and the Jamaican negro troops. The smaller batteries were carried, 
but the scaling ladders were too short, the Si^anish fire heav}- and sus- 
tained, and the reserves on the flanks failed to come up in time to divert 
the fire of the besieged from the grenadiers. Gsneral Guise was accord- 
ingly obliged to retreat, having lost, it is said, nearly 2000 men out of 3500 

Notwithstanding the desperate nature of this attempt, no co-opera- 
tion on the part of the fleet was attempted, and the reason of Admiral 
^"ernon's insistence upon this calamitous assault, and his failure to aid it 
in any way, has never been satisfactorily explained. 

This defeat ended the siege of Cartagena, but a darker and more 
damning accusation arose out of the following events. A day or two af- 
ter the repulse Don Sebastian de Eslava sent out a flag of truce and in- 
vited Admiral Vernon and General Wentworth, with their subordinates to 
a banquet, to be held in a gorgeous marquee between the lines. The in- 
vitation was accepted and, after his guests were duly feasted and wined, 
the Spanish General sent several of his staff with a number of British offi- 
cers to visit Cartagena. They rode down the winding road and across a 
narrow causeway, to the island Xexemani, where dwelt Indian and 


Mestizo, fisherman, carrier, and sailor, and passing on came to another 
causeway, at the further end of which were the ramparts, and that fortress 
entrance, over whose lofty gates was blazoned the arms of Spain, and the 
inscription "The Defiance of the World." 

But while they passed through the approaches, bristling with long, 
brass cannon, and the bayonets of the city guard, and received the cour- 
tesies of hidalgo and soldier of fortune, it is said that Admiral Vernon 
and Don Sebastian de Eslava made a secret treaty for the ransom of the 
city, and, on the return of the visiting party, took a most courtly leave of 
each other as chivalrous enemies, devoted to the service of their respect- 
ive kings. 

That, under cover of night, Spanish boats, containing heavy boxes, 
came alongside the ships of Lord Vernon and Commodore Lestock, and 
that their lading was carefully transferred to the private cabins of these 
officers; certain it is, that it was openly reported at a later date all over 
both continents that Cartagena was ransomed for g,ooo,ooo pounds ster- 
ling, or §43,798,500, but the story was suppressed, and Admiral Vernon 
received public thanks and the countenance of his king. 

Some show of throwing up siege works was made, and the captured 
Gallicia, fitted up as a floating battery, was sent in alone and unsupport- 
ed, to engage the citj- batteries. Her captain, Hearne, with 200 men and 
sixteen 32 pounders engaged the main defences, mounting eighty cannon, 
for eight hours and finally cut his cables and drifting on the shallows, 
fought fiercely until the signal of recall was made and he could take to 
his boats. Leaving six dead on the riddled Gallicia, he brought back 56 
wounded men, having lost nearly one-third of his force. 

That same day, April iS, 1741, the army re-embarked, and for two 
weeks the expedition was engaged in destroying the fortresses of the bay 
and the defences of the entrance of Boca Chica. On May 7, the fleet 
sailed for Jamaica, having lost about 5,000 men by disease and battle, and 
having at least 5,000 more wounded or otherwise unfit for duty. At 
[amaica, reinforcements from England and the colonies, enabled Vernon, 
later in the fall, to attempt the capture of St. Jago, or Santiago de Cuba, 
but this too failed, apparently from the same factions and delays which 
had brought to naught the great Cartagena expedition. In 1742, the few 
survivors of the colonial brigade, about 500 men in all, reached home, 
among them Major Laurence Washington, who seems to have been 
placed on General Wentworth's staff in England, and to have served with 
distinction during the siege. From him Mount Vernon, named after the 
admiral, descended to George Washington, the first president of the 
fnited States. Other Virginian gentlemen, serving in the siege, included 
two sons of John Collier of Porto Bello, near Vorktown, Va., and Captains 
Bushrod and Fitzhugh. Captain Prescott of Concord, Mass., out of 15 



neighbors who enlisted, brought back three; and out of twelve picked 
men and a boy, from Hopkinton, only the latter returned to tell the fate of 
his companions. 

In after years Admiral Vernon tried to defend himself by attacks 
on the character and behavior of the British land forces and their ofHeers. 
few of whom, alas, had survived the perils and hardships of the siege, 
and their terrible and needless sufferings on board his transports and 
warships. He also attacked the Americans, but had to confess that their 
intelligence, skill and industry, had been of the greatest service. 

At Guantanamo, loyally re -christened Cumberland Harbor, little 
was done save to fortify the entrance, and essay one or two inefficient 
scouts along the narrow trails leading to Santiago de Cuba. No strength 

photographed by Francis R. Hart. 


was developed by the Spanish parties met, and very few fell on either 
side in the petty skirmish or two reported. Death was busy, however, 
and before the winter was over the expedition returned to Port Royal, 
lamaica. from which place most of the few survivors returned home. 


A certain remnant, however — how many it is now impossible to 
discover — sailed from Port Royal, August 13, 1742. under a Major Can- 
field, who, with 390 men, convoyed by the "Litchfield" man-of-war, under- 
took to occupy and settle the island of Ruatan, or Rattan, on the Mus- 
quito Shore, eight leagues off the Bay of Honduras. The island, pre- 
viously, and indeed for many years after a haunt of pirates, was about 
thirty-six miles long by six wide, well watered and fertile, afforded fruits, 
deer, wild cattle and hogs, and the waters around it abounded in turtle 


and fish. The Americans who went ujjon the expedition expected to 
found a settlement, and, on receiving their discharge, to tate up land and 
remain on the island. Notwithstanding their loyalty in volunteering on 
this service, their British commanders considered them mutinot:s, and 
suspected them of conspiracy against them; all the more that out of the 
two hundred Americans then upon the island, forty-seven were of the 
Catholic faith. It is probable that most of them were from the more 
southern colonies. Finally, on Christmas morning, December 25, 1743, 
at about i A. M., some of them discharged their muskets and gave three 
cheers, probably in honor of the day, as was then, and still is, the custom 
in some states. This alarmed the British commander, who at once 
ordered the guards doubled and sent to the "Litchfield" and a frigate of 
forty guns then lying in the harbor, for aid. A captain and two lieuten- 
ants with fifty men of Frazer's regiment of marines landed, who sur- 
rounded the Americans and arrested some forty of them. A rigid search 
decided nothing, except that Corporal Badger had in his box a round 
robin, or petition, to which a number of names were attached, written 
inside a circle as the spokes of a wheel radiate from its hub. "What was 
asked for does not ajjpear, but Sergeant Bates, another sergeant who was 
a coward and turned Queen's evidence. Corporal Badger and a volunteer 
not named, were arrested as the ringleaders of this "mutiny." Corporal 
Badger was shot, January 7, 1743. Sergeant Bates and the volunteer 
were sentenced to receive six hundred lashes each, and to be imprisoned 
on board the "Litchfield" "during His Majesty's pleasure." 

Whether these victims of British cruelty, or any of their unfortu- 
nate fellow volunteers were Massachusetts men, has never been deter- 
mined, but, as many who left Boston on that ill-omened Cartagena expedi- 
tion went intending to "better their condition" by settling in the W^est 
Indies; it is probable that the Bay Colony was there represented. 

In 1743, the few survivors of "Blakeney's Brigade" estimated at 
five hundred in all, returned home, about fifty reaching Massachusetts 
out of over five hundred who had been raised in 1740, or were afterwards 
recruited in 1 741 --42, by Captain Edward ^Vinslow. 


In 1743, the French in Acadia and Cape Breton had for some time 
showed a very hostile disposition, which culminated in a raid on the Eng- 
lish fishing station at Canseau, by a detachment from Louisburg under 
Duvivier, who took eighty prisoners, a number of vessels and consider- 
able booty. An attack on Annapolis was threatened, and the declaration 
of war between France and England left Massachusetts at liberty to make 
reprisals. Four companies of si.xty men each were raised in Massachu- 
setts, and sent to garrison Annapolis in April or ]\Iay, 1744. 



Governor William Shirley, an English barrister who had resided in 
Boston for some years, had succeeded Governor Belcher in July, 1741, and 
is generally credited with having planned that great colonial expedition 
which was to surprise the whole world by its temerity and wonderful 
success. Louisburg, on the south-eastern coast of Cape Breton, was at 
that time a strongly fortified city with works pierced for one hundred and 
forty-eight cannon, sixty-five of which, with sixteen mortars, were actu- 
ally mounted. Her ramparts, citadel and batteries, although not fully 
completed, were estimated to have cost the French government over 
S 10.000,000 of our currency. Her governor, the Sieur Duchambon, had a 
small but veteran garrison of French infantry and artillerists, besides a 
number of French settlers and sailors, and Indian allies; and although 
Duvivier had returned to France after his Canseau raid, the vague 
reports of Shirley's scheme of conquest were utterly despised and ridi- 
culed in Canada. Even the legislators of the Bay Colony deemed Shir- 
ley's plans so visionary that 
the vote adopting them was 
carried by only one ballot. 

William Pepperrell, a 
native of Kittery, Me., com- 
manded the colonial forces, 
which consisted of 3,250 men 


from Massachusetts; 304 men 
from New Hampshire, and 
300 from Rhode Island, be- 
sides the usual number of 


field, staff and line ofiicers. Captain Rous of Boston commanded 
the colonial fleet, consisting of three frigates of twenty guns each, 
a snow of sixteen guns, a brigantine of twelve guns, and five sloops 
of from eight to twelve guns each. The siege train consisted of eight 
22 -pounders, twelve 9-pounders, two twelve-inch mortars, and two of 
smaller calibre, with ten 18-pounders borrowed from New York. 

The expedition left Boston March 24, 1745, all the vessels reaching 
Canseau by April 4 ; the New Hampshire contingent being the first to 
arrive. Here they found that the sea about Louisburg was still covered 
with ice, and the expedition remained at Canseau until the end of April, 
being joined in the meantime by several English cruisers and a small 
squadron under Commodore Peter Warren. 

On ^lay i, a landing was effected at Gabarus Bay, and on the same 
day the French, terrified by the spirited and active movements of the 
colonists, abandoned the Grand, or Royal Battery after spiking twenty- 
eight 42 pounders and two 18 pound guns. This was manned by six com- 
panies on May 2, and eleven days later, twenty forty-twos had been put 
in condition and were rapidly destroying the French defences, while 
their comrades, dragging siege guns and mortars over the half-frozen 
mosses and morasses between Gabarus Bay and Louisburg, had estab- 
lished heavy breaching and mortar batteries on the west and south of the city. 

Several French warships were taken by the English and Colonial 
cruisers. Rous, of the Province Galley and Donahew with a Boston sloop, 
beat back an attempted reinforcement which essayed to cross the straits of 
Canseau. Numerous skirmishes and five unsuccessful attempts to take 
the great Island Battery by assault, had tried colonial bravery and endur- 
ance to the utmost, and sickness had at one time disabled over fifteen hun- 
dred men. Finally. Duchambon offered to surrender, on condition 
that his troops be allowed to march out retaining their arms and colors, 
and Louisburg was surrendered, June 16, 1745. A large amount of plun- 
der and prize-money was divided among the officers and men of the land 
and sea service, while Commodore Warren was created vice-admiral, and 
Pepperrell was knighted by the king. This reduction, by some 4,000 
colonial militia, of a citadel supposed to be able to defy an army of 30,000 
men, excited the liveliest admiration and wonder in Europe, and a veteran 
who was present and served under Duchambon in the siege, said that "in 
all the histories he had ever read, he met with no instance of .so bold and 
presumptuous an attempt." 


In 1746, the French government stung to utter frenzy by the hu- 
miliation, fitted out under the Due D'Anville, a fleet of 1 1 ships of the 
line, 20 frigates, five fire-ships and bomb-ketches, and 34 transports ha\'ing 


onboard 3,000 of the best soldiers of France. Admiral Constans, with 
eight vessels, was to join this ilect at Chchucto (now Halifax), where De 
Ramsay and other French partisans and the chiefs of the Abenaquis were 
to meet them with every settler and warrior who could be raised against 
the heretic. 

Once met, this mighty armada was to retake Louisburg and Anna- 
polis, and later, with the aid of a French and Indian force, penetrating the 
English territory by way of Lake Champlain, was expected to destroy 
every seaport from Maine to Georgia. 

Several hundred men were sent to Annapolis, the garrison of 
Louisburg was reinforced, Boston fortified and garrisoned, and over 10,000 
men levied to defend the coast. Besides this, 1,500 men were sent from 
Massachusetts to take part in an attempt on the French fort at Crown 

The fleet of D'Anville was utterly scattered and crippled by tem- 
pests, and the admiral on arriving at Chebucto, was only able to collect 
seven or eight of his 70 vessels. M. Conflans had grown tired of waiting 
and had gone back to the "West Indies, and the Canadian rangers had also 
started on their return to Quebec. D'Anville, utterly cast down, died 
within a few days after reaching Chebucto, and D'Estournelles who suc- 
ceeded him. resolved to besiege Annapolis, but the Indians were attacked 
by a fatal epidemic and perished by hundreds. 

While besieging Annapolis. De Ramsay was informed of the sui- 
cide of the unfortunate D'Estournelles, and retreated to Canada. The 
remnant of the great Armada sailed in November for France, but some 
vessels were wrecked and others captured on the return voyage. 

The peace of Aix La Chapelle, October 8, 1748, ended the wars of 
the Austrian succession an^ returned Louisburg to France, regardless of 
the interests of the British colonies. 

At this time, ^lassachusetts is estimated to have had a jjopulation 
of 200,000 souls, with a militia of 30,000 men, most of whom were sup- 
plied with the regulation musket, bayonet, cartridge-box and belts and 
twenty rounds of cartridges. These guns were generally in use for fowl- 
ing, deer and wolf hunting and the like, and, in ilassachusetts, the 
traditions of long and accurate .shots made with these muskets, are 
scarcely less wonderful than the tales of the deadly skill of the rifle-lov- 
ing hunters of Kentucky. 

These muskets, often the trophies of successful fight, by sea or 
land, against the French or Spanish or their savage allies, were to be 
found in almost every household in the province, and it was not uncommon 
to find in some houses a veritable armor3\ containing from six to ten 
muskets and long fowling-pieces, and as many cool and skilful owners to 
use them. They were a part of the outfit of every private and public 


vessel, and although a nominal peace existed from 1748 to 1754, there never 
was a time when the muster was neglected, or the danger of French and 
Indian aggression was not recognized. 

In 1755, Braddock moved against Fort Du Quesne, and on July 9 
his army, was utterly routed by less then half its number of French and 
Indians under Beaujeu, near the junction of the Monongahela and 
Youghiogheny rivers, where Pittsburg now stands. A second expedition 
under Governor Shirley, comprising his own regiment, that of Sir William 
Pepperrell, and Schuyler's New Jersey regiment of 500 men, attempted to 
invade Canada, but beyond strengthening the fortifications of Oswego, 
nothing was done. 

A third expedition, composed largely of Connecticut and Massa- 
chiisetts militia under the command of Sir William Johnson, the noted 
partisan of the Mohawk River Valley and the idol of that great 
Indian confederacy, "The Six Nations," found itself September 
I, at the southern end of Lake St. George, where he awaited a 
fleet of bateaux in which he proposed to convey his troops to the em- 
bouchure of the lake. The Baron Dieskau, a German veteran, had 
reached Quebec early in May with a large staff of French officers and 
detachments of the veteran French infantry of the regiments of la Reine, 
Artois, Burgundy, Languedoc, Guienne and Beam. Dieskau with a force 
of about 200 French and Indians made a masterly detour, and on Septem- 
ber 8, got in the rear of Johnson's army. Johnson detached Colonel 
Ephraim Williams of ^Massachusetts, (the founder of William's College') 
with 1,000 men and 200 Indian warriors to cut off Dieskau's retreat when 
the main attack was developed. About an hour after Williams' depar- 
ture, he was ambushed and slain, with Hendricks, a great war chief of the 
Six Nations, but under Nathan Whiting of Connecticut, the detachment 
retreated to re -organize its shattered ranks behind a breastwork of brush 
and fallen trees. Baron Dieskau followed fast but the American artillery 
scattered his Indian allies and after a brief engagement, Dieskau thrice 
wounded was taken prisoner. 

Another expedition of two battalions of 500 men each was recruited 
in Massachusetts by Colonel John Winslow of Marshfield, a grandson of 
EdwardWinslow, then a Major-General of militia, and by a Colonel Scott, 
who were subordinate to Lieutenant-Colonel Monckton of the British 
service, then residing in Nova Scotia. This expedition sailed from Bos- 
ton, May 20, arrived at Annapolis May 26, and sailed in 31 vessels, June 
I against Fort Beau Sejour at the head of the Bay of Fundy. On June 
4, they forced the passage of the Messagouche, and on June 8 invested 
Beau Sejour, which capitulated June 1 8, 1755. Another fort at Gaspercaux, 
Bay Verte, surrendered without a siege, and Captain Rous sailed to re- 
duce the forts on the St. John river. 


LOUISBURO, 174.j-4f>. 


A most painful duty was now imposed on the Massachusetts troops, 
the deportation of the hapless Acadians of Grand Pre, Chigneeto, and the 
outlying settlements. Many refused to trust themselves in the power of 
the English, and eseaped exile, but over 7,000 are said to have been 
scattered among the eolonies from New Hampshire to Georgia. Fire 
swept over their farms and villages, and their eattle and crops were the 
prey of their oppressors. Never again did they find their old homes, 
although thousands of the descendants of those who escaped still live 
along the shores of the St. Lawrence. 

In ]\Iay, 1756, war had again been formally declared between 
France and Great Britain. Three thousand additional men are said to 
have been raised by Massachusetts, for this year's service under General 
John "Winslow. Lord Loudon was made governor of Virginia, and com- 
mander-in-chief of all the forces in America. Governor Shirley was sum- 
moned to England, and there were many delays and serious losses. 

The Marquis de Alontcalm besieged and took Oswego, with Shir- 
ley's and Pepperrell's regiments, and an immense amount of provisions 
and other supplies. Winslow's march upon Ticonderoga was counter- 
manded, and the year closed with the French decidedly in the ascendant. 
In December, however, Sir "William Pitt became the head of the British 
^Ministry, and a inore effective policy was promised for the ensuing year. 

In 1757, Thomas Pownall succeeded Mr. Shirley as governor, and 
Massachusetts raised i ,800 men, for .service against the French, out of 4,000 
levied in New England. Lord Loudon, with 6,000 men in seventy trans- 
ports, convoyed by Sir Charles Hardy with four ships of the line, sailed 
from New York, and on July 9, had been met at Halifax by a large Eng- 
lish fleet with heavy reinforcements. This great expedition, which was 
projected for the reduction of Louisburg, was utterly without result, 
owing to the cowardice or incapacity of Lord Loudon. On August 9, 
Fort William Henry was captured by the French under General Mont- 
calm, largely owing to the cowardice or fatuity of General "Webb, com- 
manding at Fort Edward. The massacre of several hundred soldiers of 
the captured garrison, by the Indian allies of Montcalm, has left an indeli- 
ble stigma on the reputation of a brave and renowned soldier. In 
December, 1757, Lord Loudon was recalled to England, and Pitt had 
secured orders from the king, that any provincial officer, of no higher rank 
than colonel, should have equal rank with British regular officers accord- 
ing to the date of their several commis.sions. As a result of this just and 
politic measure, ]\Iassachusetts, in 1758, raised nearly 7000 men out of 
some 20,000 levied in the American provinces. 


The principal force of and Americans, under Generals and Wolfe, aided by a large fleet under Admiral Boscawen, 


reduced Loiiisburg July 26, 1758, capturing over 5,000 men, eleven war- 
ships, 240 pieces of ordnance, and an immense amount of military and 
naval stores. Another expedition from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and other 
colonies under Forbes, captured Fort Du Quesne, and George Washington 
with his Virginians, raised the British standard on the blackened ruins 
and named the site Pittsburg, in honor of the great commoner. 

The third expedition, comprising most of the Massachusetts levies, 
mustered over 6,000 regvtlars and about 9,000 provincials at Lake George, 
and on July 5 moved down the lake in large boats, landing, June 6, at 
what is now called Point Howe. Seven thousand men, in four columns, 
began the march toward Ticonderoga, but became bewildered, and falling 
in with a small party of French, had a light skirmish, in which Lord 
Howe was one of the first to fall. On July 8, Lord Abercrombie, who had 
succeeded to the command, after a pitiable display of consternation and 
indecision, followed Colonel Bradstreet, who, with the rangers of Rogers 
and Stark, had pushed on toward Montcalm's lines. The next day, July 
8, Colonel Clark, the chief engineer, reported that there was nothing in 
front to prevent a brisk advance, but Stark and Rogers declared that the 
temporary defences reported by Clark, were really strong breastworks of 
logs and earth. Abercrombie, despising their advice, ordered an attack, 
and Montcalm, to his own surprise, found that the Ihnver of the English 
army were helplessly entangled in the chevaux-de-frise of boughs and 
sttimps, which choked the roadway in front of his blazing ramparts. For 
two hours the English foot-guards pressed in with the bayonet, and the 
Black Watch and other Highlanders charged ■ with din of war-pipe and 
slogan, and of claymore, bi:t they fell in hundreds, and when they 
broke at last the army retreated to its boats, having lost nearly 2,000 men. 
Abercrombie was one of the first to seek safety in retreat, and with great 
haste re-embarked his army and set out on his return. Colonel John 
Bradstreet, detached with 3,000 men to attack Fort Frontenac on Lake 
Ontario, captured the fort and settlement, but Abercrombie had failed 
utterly, and as soon as possible was supplanted by General Amherst, fresh 
from the recent conquest of Lot;isburg. 

In 1759, Jklassachtisetts again raised several brigades of her sturdy 
militia — 7,000 rank and file, say the records — and Connecticut 5,000 more, 
out of the 25,000 men contributed by the thirteen colonies. England 
had furnished as many more, with a great fleet and heavy trains of field 
and siege artillery. 

On July I , Colonel Prideaux, with his regulars and New Yorkers, 
and Sir William Johnson, with his allies of the Six Nations, embarked 
on Ontario to attack Niagara. Prideaux was killed by the bursting of a 
mortar, but Johnson secured the capitulation of the place, July 25. With 
the fall of this important post, the French could no longer defend the 


chain of forts between Pittsburg and Lake Erie, and Stanwix, with a 
moderate force, occupied or destroyed them one by one. 

General Amherst had left Albany early in June, and on July j 1 , 
with 11,000 men, sailed in Abercrombie's track down Lake George, and 
the next day landed within a few miles of Ticonderoga. The Sieur Boul- 
amarque, who held it for Montcalm, had his orders, and loading every 
cannon to the muzzle, mined the fort in several places, built a great pyre 
which should eventually communicate with the magazine, and i>n July 
25 silently evacuated the French stronghold. On the night of July 25, 
a tremendous explosion and conflagration told Amherst and his men that 
Ticonderoga had fallen, but would yield but little booty to her captors. 
On August I, Crown Point was also abandoned, and the French had 
retreated to Lsle-Au-Noix, 
where they intrenched them- s_jM^ jJrr^^^^ 

selves with 3,500 men and ^,..,fc!rC. ^?'|M '-^^^=^- ~ - "==~"*2_^ 

100 cannon, determined to | xiiMa _„jae3 , /.^ ^ ,^ 

hold the entrance of the ' "" 

Richelieu River to the last. pkofile of the w.vlls of louisburg. 

Am.herst failed to advance 

further, and, about the middle of October, garri.soned his forts and 

returned to Albany. Thus fell the French citadel, which had long barred 

the main inland waterway to Canada, and sheltered the numerous parties 

of half-breeds and Indians, which had so often ravaged the valleys of the 

the Hudson, Housatonic and Connecticut. 


The English fleet and army destined for the reduction of Quebec, 
under Admiral vSir Charles Saunders and General Wolfe, left England in 
February, 1759, and, stopping at Louisburg for repairs and reinforce- 
ments, arrived before Quebec, June 26. Montcalm commanded in the 
citadel of the French king, and all through July and August, by land and 
.sea, with skirmish and bombardment, fire-ship and battery, the siege 
went on. It looked as if the cold storms of the fall and winter must 
soon come to the aid of the besieged, when Wolfe found that secret path 
which led him to his last great victory. In the darker hours of the 
dawning of September 13, 1759. he found himself with his best troops 
on the plains of Abraham, and before mid-day Montcalm had formed 
his French veterans and tried rangers for a desperate battle. Before sun- 
set the conflict was over and General Wolfe was dead on the field of battle, 
and, by the next day, Montcalm was dying of his wounds, and had practi- 
cally directed the capitulation of the city, which was almost immediately 
occupied by the English 

In 1760, the and colonists advanced upon ?kIontreal. and Be 



From Paintiug by Btnjaiitin ^yest. 

_.l:NEli.U, WULFB. 

Levi, who had essayed the recapture of Quebec, raised a hopeless siege, 
to return to the island stronghold, which De ^^audreuil on vSeptember 9th 
surrendered to General .Vmherst. French rule in Canada had come to an 
end at last and forever, and the Treaty of Paris, signed February 7, 1763, 
left her without claim to any American territory, except certain 
islets near the coast of Newfoundland, and in the West Indies, and her 
Louisiana settlements. 


In 1762, a small brigade of New Englanders under General Putnam 
aided the English to capture Havana, and, for the inost part, fell victims 
to the fevers and fluxes, which finished the work of the exposures and 
herculean toils of the siege. There were occasional petty alarms along the 
seacoast and frontier, but this was the occasion on which British regu- 
lars and the militia of the thirteen colonies moved together to battle under 
the red cross flag. 

During the reign of the Royal Governors, from the withdrawal of 
the Puritan's Charter in 1692, to the recall of Governor Hutchinson and 
the arrival of Gage in 1774, the colony of ^lassachusetts had levied for 
service, under the officers of the king for the most part, over 60,000 men, 
besides a vast number kept in active garrison, in armed vessels, and upon 
scouting duty. In nearly every case, where the colonists were left to pit 
themselves, under their own officers, against the veterans of France, 



under leaders of European reputation, and aided by the fiercest and 
wiliest warriors of the American wilderness, they were successful, and 
sometimes astonishingly so. Under English leadership in many cases, 
they raged at the insolence of tlicir commanders, and grew despondent at 
their imbecility and indolence. 

Great Britain, it is said, expended seventy million pounds sterling 
in the last Frcncli war, but she also lost the attachment of the colonists. 
who had experienced the hard rule and contemptuous carriage of the 
English governors, and of British military leaders, whom the colonial 
militia no longer deemed their superiors in military courage, skill or 
endurance. A large number liad proved their skill in arms, and naval 
seamanship, not only on the lakes, rivers and coasts of North America, 
but on the seas between Europe and the New World as well. 

In the fullness of time they had proved their strength, and tested 
the good faith of the British government, and now, having been tried in 
the crucible of the wars with Frenchman and Spaniard, the militia of 
ilassaehusetts awaited the next act of the great drama of American his- 
tory, so soon to astonish the world. 


From :ui nUi print. 



THE peace of 1763 had relieved our forefathers of great dangers, 
and a constant expenditure of life and treasure in self-defense, 
and in j^royecuting wars, whose burdens were laid upon them 
and removed at the pleasure of the British ministry. Both Pitt 
and Walpole, while at the head of imperial affairs, had wisely refused 
to add to these burdens the imposition of unjust taxation ; but on tlie 
accession of George III. to the English throne, Lord Grenville had at 
once inaugurated a policy of colonial taxation, which, in 1763, added to 
the goods already subjected to import duties; viz., rum, sugar, and 
molasses; the coffee, indigo, silks, French lawns and other goods, ex- 
ported from the West Indies. The new duties were payable in coin and 
almost prohibitory, and, at the same session of parliament, the paper 
money, issued by the colonies to defray the expenses of the war just 
ended, was declared not to be a legal tender for the payment (.)f debts. 

The general and just indignation of the injured colonists was greatly 
increased by the passage of the Stamp Act, March 22, 1765, and a little 
later, another act provided for the quartering of British troops in America, 
at the cost of the several provinces. So great was the public disaffec- 
tion, that several riototis outbreaks occurred; merchants refused to buj- 
British goods, and, largely owing to this latter fact, the Stamp Act was 

In June, 1767, duties were imposed "on glass, paper, pasteboard, 
white and red lead, painters' colors and tea," which led to the quartering 
of British troops in Boston; constant antagonism between the provincial 
assemblies, and all crown officers; the Boston Massacre; the destruction 
of the cargoes of tea-ships in Boston Harbor, and, in 1774. to the closing 
of the port of Boston to all commerce. 

General Gage, commander-in-chief in iVmerica, was made Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, and, besides the local militia, was made general- 
issimo of a constantly increasing force of British regulars. Several men- 
of-war were stationed in the harbor to support him, and he at once j^ro- 
ceeded to fortify Boston Neck, and to take possession of the provincial 
ammunition at Boston and Somerville. Other acts, showing a determina- 
tion on the part of George III. and his minLt^try, to utterly destroy the 
liberties of our forefathers; and many things wliich bespoke an equally 
settled intention to resist, on the part of the colonists, took place in 1774. 


In Massachusetts, the provincial assembly had done what it could 
to streng'then and supply the regular militia, and had, in addition, (U-gan- 
ized independent companies of "minute-men" who, as their name im- 
plied, were to be ready to act instantly, by day or night. Small stores 
of artillery, food and ammunition, were collected at various points, in- 
cluding the town of Concord, some eighteen miles distant from 

Arrangements had been made for giving warning of the approach 
of any troops sent out to seize or destroy the supplies. Relays of horse- 
men, bonfires, horns, conchs, and the discharge of musketry, were to 
spread the news of impending attack. It was strictly understood that no 
one should fire on the royal troops, except in self-defense, or in retalia- 
titm for illegal and wanton iniuries. 


On the 15th of April, 1775, it became evident that General Gage 
contemplated some movement, for the purpose of securing the arms and 
munitions stored at Concord. On April 18, the activity of a number 
of mounted British officers, patrolling the roads leading to Concord, at- 
tracted attention, and that night Paul Revere and William Dawes escaped 
finseen, and rode in haste to spread the alarm that the British troops were 
approaching. At one o'clock a.m., April 19, the militia and minnte-men of 
Lexington were summoned, and within an hoirr 130 men, commanded by 
Captain John Parker, a veteran who had served under "Wolfe at Quebec, 
were in line on the green near the meeting house, and had loaded and 
primed their guns. Later they were dismissed to warm themselves 
at the tavern, and in the neighboring houses. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, who with about 800 picked men, had 
been sent on this expedition, had scarcely passed the humble buildings of 
Harvard college before the ringing of church bells, the blowing of conch 
shells and horns, the reports of muskets and the glare of signal fires, told 
him that his march was discovered and that he would probably be attacked 
by the assembling militia. He detached six companies under ^Major 
Pitcairn of Frazer's Marines, to hasten forward and secure the bridges at 
Concord, and steadily followed, having previou,sly sent a messenger to 
Boston for reinforcements. 

At half past four, a mounted scout rode into Lexington and gave 
the alarm. The drummers beat the long roll, signal guns were fired to 
alarm the people between Lexington and Concord, and Captain Parker 
ordered his company to fall in, in two ranks, a little north of the meeting- 
house. About sixty or seventy men only had formed in line, and about 
forty spectators, armed and unarmed, had assembled, when ^lajor Pitcairn 
having perceived the Americans, halted, ordered his men "to prime and 


load." and then gave orders to advance at the double quick, leading them 
on horseback. 

There was no halt or parley, and Pitcairn seemed determined to 
"stamp out rebellion" by the greatest severity. As he galloped across the 
green he shouted, "Disperse villains! Throw down your arms! Damn 
you. why don't you disperse!" Parker had no intention of firing unless 
first attacked, and undoubtedly would have alleged, in case of a parley, 
that he was legally in command of a company formed and assembled 
under the laws of the Province, as beyond a doubt was the simple 

But there was no parley, and, as the militia did not throw down 
their arms. Major Pitcairn gave the fatal order, "Fire!" discharging one of 
his own pistols. A few scattering shots were heard, which seemed to in- 
jure no one; then followed a crashing volley and a number of men fell. 
The militia returned the fire, while on the flank, from behind a stone wall. 
and from the doorway of the tavern, a few belated minute-men joined in 
the general skirmish. On the part of the Americans, Jonas Parker. 
Robert Monroe, who had been a standard bearer at the second siege of 
Louisburg. and six others were killed, and ten were wounded. Only two 
British soldiers are reported to have been wounded in this affair. 


At Concord, the Concord and Lincoln companies were assembled, 
and while a part hastily removed and concealed the larger part of the 
munitions and stores, a detachment was sent toward Lexington to get in- 
formation, but soon retiirned, reporting that the British advance was close 
at hand. The militia and minute-men were formed in two battalions on 
an eminence back of the town, but Colonel Barrett considered the odds too 
great and retired across the river at the North Bridge, to a hill about a 
mile from the centre of the town. 

The British commander sent six companies of light infantry under 
Captain Parsons to hold the North Bridge, and to help in the search for 
stores. Captain Pole, with another detachment was assigned to hold the 
South Bridge; and Colonel Smith, with his grenadiers, and Pitcairn's 
marines, held the center of the town. Two pieces of cannon were spiked, 
about five hundred poi:nds of musket bullets were thrown into the river 
and wells, and about sixty barrels of flour were broken and wasted. 

]\leanwhile the militia of Concord and Lincoln had been re-inforced 
by companies from Carlisle, Chelmsford, Weston, Littleton and Acton, 
and as fast as they arrived had been arrayed in line of battle by Adjutant 

Captain William Smith, of Lincoln, with his minute-men led the 
advance toward the bridge, the men marching two abreast, and as they 


halted near the bridge. Captain Isaac Davis of Acton led his men up the 
road, on the left of Smith's company, in the same formation. 

Sixty years after, in a deposition taken Aiiyust 14, 1S35, his widow- 
thus told the simple story of the mustering of the Acton minute -men at 
the house and gunsmith's shop of the first martyr of "the Concord Fight." 
•■I, Hannah Leighton. of Acton, testify, that I am eighty-nine years 
of age. Isaac Davis, who was killed in the Concord Fight in 1773, was 
my husband. He was then thirty years of age. We had four children, 
the youngest about fifteen months old. They were all unwell when he 
left in the morning; some had the canker rash (scarlet fever). The alarm 
was given early in the morning, and my husband lost no time in making 
ready to go to Concord with his company. A considerable number of the 
men came to the house and made their cartridges there. The sun was 
from one to two hours high when they marched for Concord. 

"My husband said little or nothing that morning. He seemed 
serious and thoughtful, but never hesitated as to the course of his duty. 
As he led the company from the house, he turned himself round and 
seemed to have something to communicate. He only said 'Take good 
care of the children' and was soon out of sight. 

"In the afternoon he was brought back, a corpse. He was placed 
in my bedroom until the funeral. His C(mntenance was pleasant, and 
little changed. The bodies of Abner Hosmer, one of the company, 
and of James Hayward, one of the militia company, who was killed at 
Lexington, were brought by their friends to the house, where the 
funeral of the three was attended." 

Such is the simple and touching record of the devotion and death 
of a tj^pical "minute-man" of the revolutionary period, as told by the 
woman who had loved him, and who, through her tears, saw him go to 
his death. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robinson and Major John Buttrick commanded 
the detachment, and the latter being ignorant of the details of the mas- 
sacre at Lexington, told his men not to fire unless first fired upon. 

The Briti-sh light infantry at the North Bridge, retired its pickets 
across it as the militia advanced, and began to remove the planks, but 
desisted on being hailed by the Americans, who banteringly asked them 
not to do so. A few scattered shots, which seemed intended to injure no 
one, were fired by the British, but were followed by a volley, which killed 
Captain Isaac Davis of Acton and Private Hosmer of the same company. 
"Firel fellow soldiers, for God's sake fire!" shouted Major Buttrick, and, 
although reinforced, the British were obliged to retreat from the bridge 
and to fall back upon their main body, which movement was immediately 
followed by the drawing in of all the British detachments, and prepara- 
tions for a retreat to Boston. 


At noon Colonel Smith, having given his men an hour or two to 
rest, started on their retreat to Boston. In the meantime the militia and 
minute-men of Reading, Billerica and Sudbury had joined the Ameri- 
cans, and the roads to Boston, at every point of vantage, were lined with 
ambuscades and individual sharj^shooters. 

The firing began, almost with the first advance of the light in- 
fantry, and soon enveloped the British column in front and rear and on 
either flank. Brisk charges with the bayonet slowly cleared the way 
in front, but the American vollies were terribly effective, and the men 
who fled, simply left one shelter for another, and joined in the fusillade 
which was sure to decimate the advance at the next turn of the road. 
In the six miles of road between Concord and Lexington, vSmith lost so 
heavily that his men became perfectly frantic with rage, and almost 
utterly exhausted by repeated and headlong bayonet charges against an 
enemy who would not stand, and who only retreated to prepare for 
another and deadlier attack. At Lexington, Colonel Smith, to his unut- 
terable relief, was met by Lord Percy, who had marched out across Bos- 
ton Neck with three regiments of infantry, two divisions of marines, and 
two pieces of light artillery. The latter opened fire upon the Americans, 
and for a time Smith"s detachments, guarded by a hollow square of Percy's 
infantry, were allowed to rest and to prepare for the march to Boston. 
It was high time, for many were so utterly exhausted that they lay pant- 
ing upon the ground, like dogs worn out in the chase. 

Then, after a brief halt, the march was resumed; and as the guns 
limbered up and removed to the rear of the column, the fierceness of the 
fight redoubled, for the signals had passed from hill to hill and valley to 
valley; and already nearly 20,000 minute-men and militia had turned 
their faces toward Boston. As companies from the several towns came 
near the line of retreat, band after band were directed toward the rustic 
highway, along which Lord Percy and the united detachments were fight- 
ing like fiends, and struggling to gain the shelter of the English lines at 
Boston. Before Smith had begun his hurried retreat at noonday, the 
alarm had reached Worcester, and before nightfall the Hampshire yeo- 
men had received the signals, and were preparing to set out upon their 
long march to Boston. Twenty-three towns sent men to fight and to fall 
on that day, and the Danvers company, when it opened fire at Menotomy 
mow Arlington) upon Percy's shattered column, had marched sixteen 
miles in four hours, and "went into the fight as if going to a feast." 

All along the way the hated "red coats" dotted the dusty road 
with motionless or writhing splashes of scarlet, and with every mile the 
cloud of skirmishers on flank and rear grew heavier and more irresisti- 
ble, and the fire of the ambushed minute-men broke out redder, closer, 
and with a more persistent fatality as the sun went dow-n. 



At West Cambridge, Lord Percy found tliat lie could no longer 
care for his wounded, and would soon exhaust liis limited supply of am- 
munition, while his foes "seemed to have dropj^ed from the clouds," as 
they lined every stone wall and coj)i3ice with flame, and grew more des- 
perate and determined as the light waned and the night shadows gathered. 

Percy had no longer any expectation of returning by the road 
upon which he had left Boston, "with all the pride and confidence of his 
race and profession" a few hours before, and gladly turned off at Charles- 
town Neck. There, the American musketeers unwillingly melted away 
from before his advance, and fell furiously upon the decimated rear- 
guard, until the British, a defeated, humiliated, and exhausted rabble, 
flung themselves down to rest at Charlestown under the protecting guns 
of the English fleet. 

The battles of Lexington and Concord are especially worthy of the 
attention of the historian and citizen soldier; for the reason that in these con- 
flicts the Massachusetts militia, twice in one day, awaited, undismayed, the 
deadly vollies of veteran troops, preferring to sacrifice limb and life 
rather than to be the first to inaugurate rebellion and the terrors of civil 
war; and for the further reason, that when their neighbors fell beside 
them, there was no panic as the crashing platoon-firing of the regulars 
claimed its victims. 


The next day, Israel Putnam, of 
Pomfret, Connecticut, after riding one 
hundred miles in eighteen hours, met 
John Stark with the first company of 
New Hampshire militia; and Captain 
Benedict Arnold, with sixty men from 
Xew Haven, soon joined the constantly 
increasing army, which, by the end of 
the week, amounted to 16,000 men. It 
is generally believed that this force was 
poorly armed as compared with the 
British troops, but this is undoubtedly 
a mistake. The old laws of the colony 
had been enforced, and, under the 
Provincial Congress, were more rigidly 
and effectively inculcated. 

Most of the men carried muskets, 
of French or English make, furnished 
with bayonets, and as good weapons as 
those furnished the British reeulars. 
In most cases these had been improved 

I'.r.NKIlI' I' M!\iHli 


by the colonial gunsmiths, by filing and polishing the locks, adapting the 
butts to the jjcrsonal needs or taste of their several owners,' and modifying 
them in other ways calculated to make them lighter and more effective 
weapons. A large number carried long-barrelled fowling-pieces, which 
in accuracy and range, were much superior to the ordinary service mus- 
ket, and almost as formidable with a single ball, or the favorite charge of 
buckshot, as the rifles of that period. Many of these old muskets and 
fowling-pieces were still in use up to the middle of the present century, 
having been furnished with pei-cussion locks, and were often formidable 
rivals to more modern firearms. It was chiefly in tactical manoeuvres, 
and the lack of eqiaipments, field and camp equipage, artillery and food 
supply, and more than all, in financial resources to .sustain a prolonged 
campaign, that this "rustic army" was inferior to its enemies. 

There was no want of promptitude in jDrosecuting the war thus 
begun, and Benedict Arnold, receiving a colonel's commission, at once 
hurried into the Berkshire hills, to raise volunteers and capture Ticon- 
deroga. On his arrival, however, he found that Colonel Ethan Allen 
had already set out to attack the fort, and with less than loo men Arnold 
hastened to join him and, since Allen refused to serve under him, joined 
the expedition as a volunteer. Only 83 men, with Allen and Arnold, 
crossed the lake at midnight, and on May 10, 1775, surprisingthe garrison, 
captured the fort with all its cannon and ammunition. Colonel Seth 
Warner, another "\"ermonter, was equally successful in taking Crown 
Point, and a few days later Arnold, with his Berkshire men, sailed down 
Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns, with its garrison and equipment. 

On the day of the fall of Ticonderoga, the Continental Congress met 
at Philadelphia, and later, gave the force besieging Boston the name of 
the Continental Army, and on June 16, 1775, George Washington, of 
Virginia, as commander-in-chief. This army had extended its lines in a 
great semicircle reaching from Charlestown Xeck to Jamaica Plain, a 
distance of about sixteen miles; and its scoiits and foragers kept the 
British in constant alarm along the whole harbor line from Point Shirley 
on the northeast, to Boston Light. General Artemas Ward commanded 
with headqiiarters at Cambridge, and Generals Putnam, Prescott, Warren, 
Gridley, Heath and others were active subordinates. 

Governor and General Thomas Gage was a veteran soldier, who 
had served under Braddock, and been severely wounded at the time of his 
defeat, having fought side by side with Washington. He strongly forti- 
fied Boston Neck and erected batteries on the common, Copp's Hill and 
elsewhere, and skillfully bestowed floating batteries and the ships of the 
British fleet to repel an attack. On May 25, Generals Howe, Clinton and 
Burgoyne arrived, and with 10,000 veterans at his command Gage proposed 
to extend his lines to cover the heights at Charlestown and Dorchester. 




The Colonial Committee of Safety learning this, on June 17, 1775, 
paraded 1200 picked men on Cambridge common, who, after prayer had 
been offered by Dr. Langdon, president of the university, set out for 
Bunker Hill, under the command of Colonel Prescott of Pepperell, a 
veteran of the French war. Arrived at Bunker Hill, Prescott decided to 
exceed his orders and occupy Breed's Hill, within cannon shot of the 
batteries on Copp's Hill and of the English shipping. They proceeded 
to throw up a redoubt and breastworks, planned and laid out it is said by 
Colonel Richard Gridley, who served at the siege of Louisburg. It 
seems almost incredible, but day had broken before the British discovered 
the small redoubt and flanking lines of breastwork, which commanded the 
crest of Breed's Hill and the slopes that trended northward toward a 
marshy slough. A few small cannon had been brought from Cambridge, 
but they were too light for use except against bodies of men, and all but 
one were eventually captured by the enemy. 

The Lively frigate and her consorts, with the British batteries at 
Copp's Hill opened fire, and the buildings of Boston and the masts of the 
shipping in the harbor were crowded with spectators. General Putnam 
came upon the field and devoted himself to procuring reinforcements, and 
later to the erection of a second line of works on Bunker Hill. Stark, 
with his New Hampshire men, took post at the stone and rail fence which 
masked with new mown hay, formed a part of the flanking breastworks. 
General Joseph Warren and James Otis, patriot and statesman, a mere 
wreck of his former self, but still devoted to the cause of liberty, came 
musket in hand, to fight as volunteers in the first stricken field of the 
nascent republic. 

Meanwhile, during the long forenoon. Gage was preparing to con- 
vey to Moulton's Point the flower of his chosen veterans. No one knows 
how many troops were ferried over, but the Fifty-second, Forty-third and 
Forty-seventh British regiments, with eighteen companies of light infan- 
try and grenadiers, together with the First Battalion of Frazer's Marines 
under Major Pitcairn, embarked from the north battery alone, and it was 
estimated that in the morning at least 3,000 men were ferried over to 
]\Ioulton's Point, most of whom ate dinner there before the first assault. 
The artillery found that the round shot were too large for their six pounders 
and General Howe sent for additional ammunition and reinforcements, 
which were'landed on the right flank of the'Americansatthe foot of Breed's 
Hill. This latter movement rendered necessary a corresponding re-enforce- 
ment on the part of the Americans, and their advance guards were drawn 
in and posted behind the breastworks flanking the right of the redoubt. 
It was after three o'clock in the afternoon, when the preparations on both 
sides were completed, and during all this time, the works occupied by the 




r.OS'l'UN IN 1776 

Americans had been subjected to a 
furious bombardment from the British 
ships and their gun and mortar bat- 
teries at Boston. 

A very large proportion of the 
ti'oops first detailed under Colonel 
Prescott manned the redoubt, where 
Generals Warren, Pomroy, Otis and 
others fought as volunteers, and General Putnam aided during the first 
assault; and a portion of Brewster's, Nixon's, Woodbridge's and Little's 
regiments re-enforced him there. Captains Gridley and Callender with 
their artillery were stationed on the left, to defend the break between the 
breastwork and redoubt. The Connecticut troops under Knowlton, and 
those from New Hampshire under Stark and Reed, held the left behind 
their defenses of stone and rail fence. Perkins, of Little's regiment, with 
detachments under Nutting and Warner, lined the banks of the highway 
with sharpshooters, and parties of marksmen fired from the houses of 
Charlestown during the first attack. 


At about three o'clock General Howe addressed his troops, calling; 
upon them to "behave like Englishmen and good soldiers," and the lig-ht 
infantry were advanced to engage the New Hampshire skirmishers. His 
artillery, drawn by hand, was posted at the brick kilns to enfilade the 
redoiibt. and detachments were advanced to engage the musketeers in 
the suburbs of Charlestown. 

General Howe himself led the right wing of the British column, op- 
posing Stark and his associates at the north of the redoubt, and General 
Pigot commanded the grenadiers and the Forty-third and Thirty-eighth 
regiments who were to storm the main work. The artillery fire from the 
fleet and Copp's Hill slackened and cea.sed as the British advanced in heavy 
marching order, with drums beating and banners proudly displayed, albeit 
slowly on account of the deep grasses and clover, and the numerous stone 
walls and fences, which then cut up the peninsula. At least six of these 
impeded Howe's advance, necessitating frequent alignments; the miry 
ground greatly impeded a large part of his solid and unwieldly 
formation, and a still larger number of impediments hindered the stately 
progress of Pigot's grenadiers. Still the distance was short, in fact only 
about five hundred yards, and even the measured and stately military step 
of that period must have covered it in from twenty to thirty minutes at 

It was a favorite manoeuver of the British commanders of that day, 
for the front platoon or line to discharge a volley, deploying to uncover a 
second rank which immediately fired, deploying in turn and thus advanc- 
ing until the whole line was uncovered, the guns being levelled breast 
high and discharged without aim. It would seem that in the first assault 
on Bunker's Hill some such manoeuver was attempted by at least a portion 
of the British troops, although it is probable that Pigot led a very solid 
column, in the center of his line, against the eastern and southern faces of 
the redoubt. 

Prescott, Putnam, Warren, Pomeroy, and other American leaders, 
kept their men under cover as long as possible, and, with their subordi- 
nates, ordered that every man should hold his fire until the troops were 
within point blank range. Tradition still preserves their orders, which in 
many battles since then have been used by the leaders of American 

"Wait until you see the whites of their eyes." "Fire low." "Aim 
at their waist belts." "Pick off their officers." "Powder is scarce, don't 
waste it." "Aim at the handsome coats;" and the like passed from man 
to man along the line, as the splendid array, tipped with glittering bayo- 
nets, splendid with banners, and half shrouded in the flame and smoke 
of crashing vollies, swept up the slope until nearly hand to hand. 

At last eight rods, or only about one hundred and fifty feet inter- 


OF massaciiusi-:tts. 83 

vened. Each American inarksinan had long since chosen his man; and 
with the butt of his tried tireli)ck closely pressed ag-ainst his burning 
cheek, and the brown barrel moving as the British line swayed and 
recovered, had kept his sight trained on brazen breastplate, pipe-clayed 
belt, golden aiguillette or dazzling gorget. 

The word was given. A sheet of fire swcjat from the face of the 
redoubt, and the crash of 2,000 muskets was followed by that rapid and 
deadly file-firing, which is more destructive than any concerted discharge. 

Under that withering, point-blank volley, hundreds fell, and the 
advance, broken and paralyzed halted, and vainly sought, by ill-aimed dis- 
charges, to silence the American fusillade. For a moment or two the col- 
umn held its ground; then a sudden thrill of fear seemed to melt it into 
a mob of fugitives, which broke into fragments as it fled headlong down 
that fatal slope, leaving behind the corpses of the dead, and the wounded 
and dying. Howe's advance along the south bank of the ^lystic River 
was scarcely less unfortunate, for the American artillery greatly annoyed 
his light infantry, who fired with splendid .steadiness and regularity "as 
if on parade." but did little execution on the stoical Americans. Man}' 
of the latter were hunters of noted skill, and had seen service against 
the French and their .savage allies, and all awaited the order to fire, with 
the exception of a few impatient spirits, who were promptly restrained by 
their officers. When the order finally came, Howe's column was pierced 
and broken, and retreated in disorder to Moulton's Point, the present site 
of the Charle.stown navy yard. 

A second assault was at once ordered; the houses of Charlestown 
were fired by incendiary shells, and by the torches of a body of marines, 
landed from the Somerset man-of-war; and the American marksmen, who 
had impeded the first advance, were obliged to join their comrades at the 
breastworks. An easterly breeze, however, prevented the smoke of the 
doomed town from annoying the Americans, and this needless devasta- 
tion failed in any degree to screen the approach of the British who, 
tinder the same leaders, again moved to the assault. It is said that when 
the silent redoubt, lying tinder the sunlight, a low mound of newh-- 
broken turf and gravel, bordered by a line of grim faces and levelled 
guns, a second time broke into flame, less than thirty yards intervened 
between the muzzles of the British miiskets and the low parapet. 

Again the deadly jets of flame pierced the smoke cloud formed by 
the British fire, and the hoarse English cheers faltered and ceased, as the 
survivors for a second time broke and fled; many, indeed, even seeking the 
boats, from which a few hours before they had landed in utter confidence 
of easy and certain victory. Colonel Abererombie, who had sneered at 
"the cowardice of the Americans," was recognized in the attack, and. 
while trying to hold his grenadiers to their hoiaeless task, was taunted by 


some of the Americans. "Colonel Abercrombie, are the Yankees cow- 
ards?" they shouted, as they pointed their long' g-uns and tired upon 
him; but he escaped at this time. General Howe's repulse on the left 
was equally disastrous, and two of his aids and several other officers were 
killed at his side. 

But the Americans had marched to the hill with only fifteen 
rounds of loose powder and ball to the man, and the heavy fire had 
exhausted the supply. Some had only one charge remaining, and others 
at the most three or four. A few artillery cartridges were opened and 
divided, and bullets and buckshot contributed by those who had private 
supplies, and those troops having bayonets were posted at the breaks 
between the breastworks and at the points most likely to be assailed. 

General Putnam again and again attempted to bring re-enforce- 
ments across the Neck, now enfiladed by the fire of the British vessels; and 
again and again, jeering at the British fire, galloped across the narrow 
causeway. A few companies were induced to follow, but several detach- 
ments failed to come up in time, and some officers showed the white 
feather at the supreme moment. Stark and his associates at the fences 
seem to have been better supplied with ammunition, and Prescott, at the 
redoubt, held his men steadily in place. The British officers were by no 
means inclined to attempt a third assault, and several strongly remon- 
strated against a movement, which could only result fatally to every man 
who was exposed to that merciless fusillade. 

Howe was courteous but determined; the boats were at Boston or 
crossing with re-enforcements; and as the general calmly said, and many 
officers agreed; "To be forced to give up Boston, gentlemen, would be 
very disagreeable to us all." General Clinton came over to as.sist his 
comrade-in-arms, and Piteairn's marines were to move to the attack from 
the smoky ruins of Charlestown. 

The men were ordered to lay aside their knapsacks, many even 
divested themselves of their scarlet coats, and the artillery were ordered 
to advance to short range and to enfilade the breastworks with grape. The 
officers of the grenadiers and marines were ordered to hold their fire, and 
to carry the works by persistent and repeated bayonet charges. 

Still the English soldiers were depressed, exhausted, and almost 
mutinous, and in many cases had to be driven forward by the swords of 
their officers. That they were ever pushed forward to victory, was due 
rather to the failure of General Ward to re-enforce and supply the force 
engaged, than to any other cause. Prescott, perforce, held his fire at the 
redoubt where Clinton and Pigott led their grenadiers, and Pitcairn 
charged at the head of his marines. Fifty yards only separated the des- 
perate assailants and Prescotfs men; at forty yards the furious faces 
glared and grew pale at thought of the coming death; at thirty yards the 

Paintimj by rhappell. 

(lENEKM. '^l \KK. 



black muzzles menaced them as they dashed over the victims of the last 
assault; twenty yards, and the last volley, fired point blank into their very 
faces, staggered and pierced the column, and then the weak iile-iiring, 
and furious but useless (i])j)osition of untrained bayonets, musket butts, 
and rude missiles to the serried steel, and repeated vollies of the regu- 
lars, hindered but could not prevent the occupation of the low redoubt. 
Major Piteairn. who had lired the first shot at the Lexington militia, fell 
back, mortally wounded, into the arms of his son. Colonel Abercrombie, 
spared in the previous assaults, was also borne to the rear, conjuring his 
comrades to spare General Putnam, if captured. Prescott now ordered a 
retreat, cut his way through the bayonets, and escaped unhurt, with most 
of his men, as did Otis and other gentlemen volunteers; but Warren, 


shot in the brain, fell dead in the rear of the captured redoubt. 

Stark, on the left, for a time beat back Howe's desperate charges, 
and doubtless saved the pierced and broken centre from annihilation; 
but at last he, too, had to retreat, covered by Putnam and his Connecticut 
troops, who seem to have borne, almost alone, the last fierce onslaughts of 
the maddened English. At Bunker Hill Putnam tried to rally the 
Americans. "Make a stand here! We can , stop them yet. For God's 
sake form, and give them one shot more!" he cried, and taking his own 
position near a field piece, seemed resolved on a further resistance. 
Pomeroy strove to second him, but the pursuit was too close and the odds 
too great. ^len were falling fast, and there had been no preparation of 
a suitable reserve or secure line of defense. 


A single field piece was drawn off, and served somewhat to check 
the following regulars; and in the retreat many turned to fire upon their 
pursuers, as long as a kernel of powder or a cartridge remained unburned. 
At five o'clock, every American not killed, wounded, or a prisoner, had 
left the peninsula, and Howe had reformed the remnant of his forces on 
the crest of Bunker Hill. Clinton wished to push forward and attack 
the main army at Cambridge, and Colonel Prescott asked Ward for fifteen 
hundred men with bayonets, with which to recapture Bunker Hill; but 
neither Howe nor Ward were anxious to continue into the night the stern 
and fatal debate of that momentous day. 

The loss of the Americans in this battle and in their retreat, was 
finally estimated at 115 killed, 305 wounded, and 30 captured — a total of 
450 men. The loss of the British was officially reported at 226 killed 
and 82S wounded; 1054 in all; but there is little doubt that the real loss 
was nearly 1,500 men. 

Bunker Hill, while at first looked upon as a reverse to the American 
arms, was in effect a victory. It destroyed the prestige of the British 
regulars, who had previously been over-estimated even by Americans, 
and demonstrated the .superiority of American marksmanship, and the 
splendid courage of the militia of New England. British veterans who 
had fought at Fontenoy, at Minden, and on other battle-fields of the old 
world, declared that the French regulars were less to be feared than the 
colonial militia; and there is no doubt, that if the loss of Bunker Hill and 
its ultimate fortification by the English, lengthened the siege of Boston, 
it also deterred Gage and his .successor, General Howe, from attempting 
a sortie upon the continental lines, until they had become so strong that 
even Howe shrank back dismayed from attempting to carry by assault 
formidable defenses, guarded by the fire of the colonial infantry. 


After the battle, General Howe at once entrenched his troops on 
Bunker Hill, and Putnam, taking a position on Prospect Hill, is said to 
have made it almost impregnable. Winter Hill was occupied by the New 
Hamp.shire men, who constructed works even more formidable, and at 
Cambridge a redoubt near the colleges, was flanked by breastworks form- 
ing a continuous line from the Charles to the Mystic River. General 
Thomas, with two Connecticut and nine Massachusetts regiments, con- 
structed strong works at Ro.xbury and on the Dorchester road, from which 
before the close of the month, shots were thrown into Boston. 

General Washington arrived at Cambridge July 2, 1775, and at 
once entered upon his duties as commander-in-chief. He found a very 
mixed assemblage of militia, minute-men, volunteers, and civilians who 
came and went as they chose, including a considerable number of Indians 



i,i:nei:al wa^iiixi.ihn at Uui;riiEsri;ii iikr.uts. 

By Gilbert Stuart. 

and some negroes, numbering from fourteen to fifteen thousand effectives 
at the outside. Few had regular tents, but all were soon comfortably 
housed in structures of boards, stones, turf, brick, and branches of trees, 
with or without sail-cloth coverings. They were particularly weak in 
ammtxnition for small arms, having an avei'age of only nine rounds 
apiece, when Washington took command. 

General Ward commanded the right wing at Roxbury, General 
Putnam the centre, and General Lee the left wing near Charlestown. Of 
16,000 men enrolled, Massachusetts supplied 11,500. Connecticiit 2,300, 


New Hampshire 1,200, and Rhode Island 1,000 men. Late in July, 3,000 
recruits ai-rived from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, among them 
the famous Daniel Morgan, whose riflemen were soon greatly feared by 
the beleaguered regulars. 

In August, General Richard Montgomery, with 2,000 men, set out 
from Ticonderoga, and on November 12, entered Montreal in triumph. 
At about the same date, Washington gave Colonel Benedict Arnold 1,000 
New England musketeers, two companies of Pennsylvania riflemen, and 
Morgan's sharpshooters, and sent them to attack Quebec, going in boats 
and canoes to the headwaters of the Kennebec, and marching down the 
valley of the Chaudiere. After terrible hardships, Arnold and Morgan 
sat down before Quebec to await Montgomery, who joined them in De- 
cember; and early on the morning of December 30, and in a terrible 
snow-storm, the two small detachments of about 600 men each, surprised, 
and tried to carry the works by storm. Montgomery, at one gate, nearly 
forced his way in, but fell dead, pierced by three bullets; Arnold, at his 
end of the city, fell severely wounded; but Morgan stormed the battery, 
and fought his way far into the town. Had Montgomery's men been led 
with equal vigor, Quebec must have fallen; but Morgan was captured, 
and Arnold went into winter quarters to be re-enforced by Wooster and 
Sullivan in the spring. Sullivan took command; but the British were 
heavily re-enforced; the Canadians refused to take up arms against the 
British; and the Americans were forced to evacuate Montreal and retreat 
to Crown Point. 

In the meantime. General Henry Knox, tne Boston bookseller, had 
brought a great number of cannon from Ticonderoga, and in March 
Washington determined to sieze Dorchester Heights, which commanded 
Bcston and its harbor, even more effectively than Bunker Hill. Howe, 
who in October, 1875, had succeeded Gage as governor, had advanced his 
lines beyond the Neck and made Bunker Hill practically impregnable, 
birt for some reason he had never occupied this position, and Washing- 
ton had never before dared to begin a movement, which must perforce 
bring on a battle, or compel the English to evacuate the city. 

On ]\Iarch 4, 1876, 2,100 men with 300 ox-carts carrying timber and 
forage and followed by the siege guns, occupied the heights, and the 
batteries at Somerville, East Cambridge and Roxbury kept up a furious 
cannonade; breastworks were thrown up, and many of the guns placed in 
position. Lord Percy was ordered to take 3000 men and to storm the 
works. This, very unwillingly, he essayed to do, but a storm j^revented 
the landing of the troops, and the next day the American lines were de- 
clared to be impregnable. On March 17, Howe evacuated Boston, leaving 
behind him 200 cannon and an immense quantity of muskets, ammunition 
and other military stores. 



Durini^- ihis siege there wci'u many minor skirmishes, in whicli 
the Amerieans almost uniformly had the advantage. The Stoekbridge 
Indians, as early as June 2 1, 1775, had killed many sentries at the Neek, 
two of them, it is said, luiving used bows and arrows, with which silent and 
aboriginal weapons they killed four men, whose bodies they j^lundered. 
On July 2, 1775, a British olhcer wrote "Mever had the British army so 
ungenerous an enemy to oppose. They send their riflemen, five or six at 
a time, who eonceal themselves behind trees, etc., till an opportunity pi'e- 
sents itself of taking a shot at our advanced sentries, which done, they 
immediately retire." On July S, some Alassachusetts and Rhode Island 
volunteers under Majors Tupper and 
Crane, attacked Brown's house at the 
Xeck, only 300 j-ards in advance of the 
fortifications, and then occupied by the 
British advanced guard. Six Ameri- 
cans crossed the marsh and got in the 
rear of the giuard house, with orders 
to fire it if possible. The others, 
about 200 in all, secreted themselves 
in the marsh about 200 yards from the 
house. Two brass field pieces were 
drawn softly over the marsh until 
within 300 yards, and at a signal fired 
two rounds of cannon-shot through 
the wall. The regulars,' some forty- 
five or fifty men in all. rushed out of 
their quarters in confusion and ran 
for dear life to the city. The volun- 
teers burned the guard house, and 
another building nearer the city, and 
the party retired without losing a 
single man. 

The southern riflemen were no less active, and their fringed hunting 
shirts, buckskin breeches and leggings and Indian moccasins, gaudily em- 
broidered with beads and dyed porcujDine quills, deadly rifles, long knives 
and keen war-axes, inspired such terror in the British camp, that the regu- 
lars told with bated breath of "the shirt-tail men with their cursed twisted 
guns, the most fatal widow and orphan makers in the world." It is said 
that one rifleman, who had the misfortune to be taken prisoner, was 
carried to England and exhibited as a curiosity. 

After the capture of Boston some operations were carried on 
a"-ainst the British fleet from the lower islands of the harbor, but, with 
the exception of the attack on the Franklin at Point Shirley. May 

-MA.i()i'.-(;ioxEi; Ai. riiAui.ios i.kk. 



19, 1776, in which the enemy were beaten off with heavy loss, by 
Captain Mug-ford of Marblehead, who was the only American killed; it 
is believed that Boston has never been sought by a hostile force since the 
evacuation of the city on March 17, 1776. 

The number of "terms of service" furnished by each state during- 
the war of the Revolution, is taken from Hildreth's U. vS. Vol. III. folio 
441: New Hampshire, 12,497; Massachusetts, 67,907; Rhode Island, 
5,908; Connecticut, 31,939; New York, 17,781; New Jersey, 10,726; 
Pennyslvania, 25,678; Delaware, 2,386; Maryland, 13,912; Virginia, 26,678; 
North Carolina, 7,293; South Carolina, 6,417; Georgia, 2,679; a total of 


With the evacuation of Bo-ston, it becomes necessary to bid adieu 
to the militia of the Revolutionary era, at least so far as the scope of this 
article is concerned. The trials and hardships, the victories and reverses 
of the Massachusetts Line of the Continental Army, would require many 
Volumes to do them justice, and may hereafter be treated of to some extent 
in a separate article. 

Suffice it to say that there were few battles and sieges of moment, 
in which the ^lassachusetts men did not take a creditable part; and their 
ability to serve on land or water, and to act as artificers, made them most 
valuable auxiliaries of the working forces, at all times, and under the most 
trying circumstances; while their steadiness, loyalty and courage evoked 
the highest praise from General Washington. 

Under Wayne's fiery leadership, they assisted at the storming of 
Stony Point, and bore with them their wounded commander, that he might 
enjoy to the full his hardly-won victor)'. 

Under Baron Steuben, they drilled assiduously, until some of them 
are said to have attained a military steadiness and precision, which could 
not be excelled by any troops in the world. 

, , At Burgoyne's discom- 

fiture and capitulation; at the 
disastrous defeat and mas- 
terly evacuation of Long ' 
Island; in the long and 
weary marches of the Jersey 
campaign; at ^"alley Forge, 
and in the desperate winter 
attack on Trenton, and in 
the .siege, as.sault and final 
capture of Yorktown, the men 
of Alassachusetts bore a con- 
spicuous and honorable part. 




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The Recruiting Notice lierewith 
repi-oduced, was purcliased at a late 
sale of ancient furniture, bric-a-brac, 
arms, pictures, etc. , and is of interest, 
as depicting the uniform and equip- 
ments of the Continental Infantry 
and the school of the soldier at that 
period. It will be noticed that the 
old order "Load in ten motions" was 
considerably more succinct than the 
method of our Revolutionary ances- 
tors, but the other exercises vary 
very little from those of the Civil "War period. The 
uniforms are of course those in use at the time, which 
may be set at about A. D. i;;;-i78o, although there 
was much variety in the uniforms of the soldiers of 
'76; when they had any uniforms at all beyond their 
ordinary clothing, or the hunting shirt and breeches 
then largely worn, with perhaps a cockade of ribbon 
or deer's tail in their hats or hunting caps. 

The ai^peal made to the patriots of that time 
is not lacking in the peculiar strain of lofty enthusi- 
asm which is so observable in most of the patriotic 
utterances of that day, which private correspondence 
or tlie jDublic journals have rescued from oblivion, 
and which were very nearly paralleled by like de- 
liverances in iS6i-i<S63 on both sides of jNIason and 
Dixon's line. wStill we can hardly deny that it also 
shows that the appeals made to the young men of 
that day were not devoid of considerable "blarney 
and buncombe" and indeed on the whole less straight- 
forward than the inducements held out to recruits 
during the great Rebellion, and the Spanish-Ameri- 
can war. Such a notice at the present day would ex- 
cite suspicion or ridicule, and probably both, and 
would meet with little success in inducing enlist- 




By Col. William C. Capelle, Ass't Adj.-Gen'I. 

FR(^M about the year 1636, when the Train Bands of Boston, with 
matchlocks and pikes, assembled on Boston Common for their 
weekly evolutions and training, down through the Colonial and 
Revolutionary War periods, to the adoption of the Constitution 
of these United States, Massachu- 
setts had been withcnit a permanent 
office of adjutant-general. 

The fathers of the republic. 
foreseeing the necessity for armed 
force to maintain the rights and 
liberties of the people, which had 
been gained at such cost of blood 
and treasure, and to hand them 
down as a priceless heritage to 
generations yet unborn, sought to 
establish a force after the methods 
of the old world. All able-bodied 
male citizens between 18 and 45 
years of age were enrolled and 
formed into companies, regiments, 
brigades, and divisions, and were 
required to perform certain drills, 
and to be inspected from time tn 

This necessitated the creation 
of an ofifice, with a responsible head, 
to take charge of and conduct the affairs of this militia, and, as it was a 
matter of equal moment to the state and nation, the Constitution adopted 
by the Commonwealth, June 14, 1780, required and provided for the ap- 
pointment of an adjutant-general, who should enroll the militia, and make 
the annual return of the strength thereof to the general government. 

The service required of the militia was compulsory, and as 
compulsory service is not looked upon with favor by a free people, 
it grew more and more in disfavor, and soon, from the lack of the 

cm,. WILLIAM ('. (■ Ari;i,i.E. 


fostering care of the government, and the disinclination to serve, fell into 
disorganization, and was, about the year 1840, abandoned, and a voluntary- 
active militia organized, which became the nucleus of the efficient militia 
of to-day. 

The Constitution adopted provided for a commissary-general, and 
an adjutant-general, the governor being empowered to apj^oint the latter, 
prior to which there had been no permanent official as adjutant-general. 

The first adjutant-general appointed was the Honorable Ebenezer 
Bridge of Chelmsford, who had been a soldier in the struggle for inde- 
pendence, in active service as colonel of the Middlesex County regiment in 
1775-1776, and who brought to the discharge of his duties the experience 
gained in the service of his country. 

He was apparently a man of affairs, and was at the time of his pre- 
ferment, a senator from the ^Middlesex District, and as such, and during 
his term of office as adjutant-general, served on many important commis- 
sions to decide boundary lines, settle disputes between towns, and devise 
means for coast defense. 

It was his fortune to be selected to bring order out of chaos in the 
unsettled times following upon the revolutionary period, and to arrange 
an office which has continued its functions uninterruptedly to the present 

The first act for the government of the militia under the Common- 
wealth, is contained in chapter 2 i, of the Acts and Resolves of the Legis- 
lature, Approved March 3, 1781, entitled: An Act for Forming and Regu- 
lating the Militia Within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and for 
Repealing Any and All Laws Heretofore Made for That Purpose: 

Whereas, in and by the Constitution of Government ratified and established by 
the Inhabitants of this Commonwealth, it is declared that the Legislature shall, by 
standing laws, direct the time and manner of convening the electors of Militia Officers, 
and collecting votes and certifying to the Governor the Officers elected; and whereas, 
by the establishment of said Constitution of Government, it has become that elections 
should be made, and Commissions given out agreeable thereto; and whereas it is nt>t 
only the interest, but the duty of all nations to defend their lives, liberties, and prop- 
erties in that land which the Supreme Ruler of the Universe has bestowed on them, 
against the unlawful attacks and depredations of all enemies whatsoever, especially 
those who are moved by the spirit of avarice or despotism; and whereas the Laws now 
in force respecting the regulating the Militia have been found insufficient for the pur- 
pose aforesaid. It is therefore enacted by the Senate and House assembled, and by 
the authority of the same, that the several laws and several paragraphs and clauses of 
all and every of the laws of this Commonwealth, enforcing or in any ways relating to 
the regulation of the Militia be, and hereby are repealed and declared null and void. 
And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid — 

That the Governor of this Commonwealth be, and he hereby is, empowered to 
appoint a person of adequate accomplishments to the office of Adjutant-General; and 
that he be directed to make just and true Returns of the state of the Militia as afore- 


said to the Governor, or in his absence to the next commanding officer of the Militia 
within this Commonwealth, on the first Monday of July each year successively, and at 
all other times when he shall be thereunto ordered; and that he annually prefer his 
account for services done, with proper vouchers, and certificates to the General Court 
for allowance and payment. 

Thu.s came into existence the authority for establishing the office of 
the first adjtttant-general. and that General Bridge was a person of ade- 
quate accomplishments is borne out by the fact that he had been a colonel 
in 1775-1776, a senator in the years 1781, 1783, 1788 and 1789, a member 
of the Executive Council in 1790, and again senator in 1792 and 1793. 

On the 6th day of Jul}', 1782, the first step was taken toward provid- 
ing for the defense of our coast, and by a resolve of the legislature for 
raising of the Guards to be stationed at certain places on the seacoast in 
the counties of Cumberland, Essex, Plymotith and Bri.stol, and the estab- 
lishment of defensive points. 

On the 20th of September, 1782, a resolve of the Legislature was 
passed, requesting the governor to issue his order to the militia, in the 
several counties of Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, Barnstable and Worcester, 
to hold themselves in readiness to march for the defense of the fleet in the 
harbor of Boston, and to cause the forts and garrisons, in and about the 
harbor of Boston, to be properly manned, and empowering his Excellency 
to order any part of the militia to march into neighboring states, and 
there do duty for a term not exceeding one month. 

From this act it appears that the State government thus early set at 
rest the question, as to the authority to order the militia beyond State 
limits, which authority has been called in question so many times in 
recent years, and may jjerhaps still be questioned, notwithstanding that 
the following paragraphs of the United States vStatutes seem to cover the 
ground : — 

Whenever the United States are invaded or are in any imminent danger of in- 
vasion from any foreign nation or Indian tribe, or of rebellion against the authority of 
the government of the United States, it shall be lawful for the President to call forth 
such number of the militia of the state or states most convenient to the place of 
danger or scene of action as he may deem necessary to repel such invasion, or to sup- 
press such rebellion, and to issue his orders for that purpose to such officer of the 
militia as he may think proper. 

Section 1644 of the same statute is substantially as follows: 
The militia, when called into the actual service of the United States, 
for the suppression of the rebellion against and resistance to the laws of 
the United States, was subject to the same rules and articles of war as the 
United States. Section 1648: Whenever the president calls forth the 
militia of the States to be emijloyed in the service of the United States, 
he was to specify in his call the period for which such service was to be 
required, not exceeding nine months, and the militia so called, was to be 


mustered in and continue to serve during- the term so specified, unless 
sooner discliarged by command of the president. Section 1649: Every 
officer, non-commissioned officer, 01 private of the militia, who failed to 
obey the orders of the president, when he called out the militia into the 
actual service of the United States, was to forfeit oirt of his pay a sum not 
exceeding one year's pay, and not less than one month's pay, to be deter- 
mined and adjudged bj- a court martial; and such officer was to be liable 
to be cashiered by a sentence of the court martial, and be incapacitated 
from holding a commission in the militia for a term not exceeding twelve 
months; and such non-commissioned officer and private was to be liable 
to imprisonment by a like sentence, on failure to pay the fines adjudged 
against him. for one calendar month for every 82 5 of such fine. 

In July. 1784, Adjutant-General Bridge was appointed by a resolve 
of the General Court [at the request of the inhabitants of the County of 
Lincoln ) as one of a committee of three, in behalf of the towns of Newcastle. 
Walpole, Bristol, Waldoborough, Thomaston, the plantations of Ster- 
lington and Boothbay, "to repair to the said towns, view their circum- 
stances, and report a state of facts at the next session of the General Court, 
the said towns defraying the expense that shall be incurred in performing 
this business." 

It is not necessary to trace the cause for appointing this committee, 
or to search the records for the result; the mention of the fact serves to 
show that the adjutant-general was considered of adequate accomplish- 
ments to be entrusted with such important business of the State. 

In the same year the adjutant-general was appointed by the General 
Court as one of the commissioners to settle the boundaries of lands and pos- 
sessions, beginning at the head of tide-water on the Penobscot River, and 
to confer with the Indians relative to the relinquishment of any claims, 
etc. Fr(;m this service he was relieved, there already being a commission 
(Consisting of Benjamin Lincoln, Henry Knox and George Partridge) to 
inquire into the encroachments made by the subjects of the king of Great 
Britain on the territory of the Commonwealth. 

On the 1 8th of March, 1785, the Legislature directed the secretary 
to publish the Militia Laws, and to deliver to the adjutant-general seven 
hundred copies of them, in order that they ma)- be furnished to the several 
militia officers. On the petition of, and in behalf of the town of Athol. 
and the district of Orange set off from said Athol, the adjutant -general 
was again placed on a committee to hear, and finally adjust and settle, all 
existing disputes; provided, as in former cases, that the expenses of the 
adjudication should be borne by one or both of the parties, as the commit- 
tee should deem just and reasonable. 

Probably the last act of Adjutant-General Bridge, then a senator, 
was on December i. 1785. when he was appointed on a committee to wait 

I'ninliiHj I'u chaj'j'etl. 

(tLN. :>rEL'BEX ANI> CAVAl.i;^ K>t Ul; 1 . IT.^ 


on (jovernor James Bowdoin wiih an answer to His Excellency's 
speech. The report read: "The state of the militia has been attended to 
by the Legislature, and an act has been jjassed to render it respectable." 

On December iithof the same year, Israel Keith was appointed 
adjutant-general. He had been a private in 1775, a sergeant in 1776, 
a major from January to November, 1777, a lieutenant-colonel to May 3, 
1778, and aid-de-camp and deputy adjutant-general to General Heath in 

On the 24th of October, 1786, was passed the law to which the 
Legislature had given its attention "to render the militia respectable," 
and, as it so widely dil?ers from like enactments of the present day, 
the following extracts in substance are given: 

All officers and soldiers shall diligently attend divine services. 

Whosoever, non-commissioned officer or soldier, shall use any profane oath or 
execration shall incur the penalties expressed in the foregoing article, viz. : 

First time one shilling to be out of his next pay (Note these laws apply to active 
service), for the second offense not only a like sum, but be confined twenty-four hours, 
and the same for every like offense, fines to be applied for the sick soldiers of his 

If a commissioned iifficer be guilty of profane cursing or swearing he shall for- 
feit and pay for each and every offense four shillings. 

That the militia was at times needed at this early date, and was 
called out in aid of the civil power, and proved tiseful and effective, is 
shown by the following message from the governor to the Legislature, 
November 9, 1786: 

Gentlemen of the Senate and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: — 

I have this day received a letter from Major-General Cobb dated at Taunton 
the 30th of October, giving an account of his proceedings in calling forth the militia 
for the protection of the Supreme Judicial Court in their late session there. 

The condtict of the Volunteers, and of the several companies of militia that 
were called forth for that purpose, deserves great commendation, and it gives me 
pleasure to communicate the letter, that you may be informed how well and with 
what spirit they distinguished themselves on that occasion. 

The olfice of quartermaster was established in 1786, and Amasa 
Davis of Boston, who prior to this had been captain and storekeeper, was 
appointed to the office, and his pay fixed at twenty-four pounds a month. 
He continued to perform the duties of his office tmtil April, 182 i, a peri(jd 
of thirty-five years. 

Three years before his death, January 31, 1S25, the dtities of the 
quartermaster-general had been transferred to and inerged into the dutie.-; 
of the adjutant -general, who held both positions from that date until April 
19, 1 86 1, when John H. Reed of Boston was appointed. 

"Shay's rebellion" required troops for its .suppression, and, as the 
men called into service were entitled to compensation, their right thereto 


was recognized, and pay provided for by the following enactment: Resolve 
respecting the pay of non-commissioned officers, and the manner of pay- 
ment: "Sergeants 48 shillings. Corporals 44 shillings, Drummers and 
Fifers 44 shillings, and Privates 40 shillings per month." It was further 
resolved that npon the rolls being made by proper officers, and approved 
by the governor and council, "they shall be paid by the treasurer in specie, 
with all the speed that is practicable, the most effectual measures possible 
having been taken to borrow money for this purpose." 

Inasmuch as Shay's rebellion grew largely from the indebtedness 
of the people, and the depreciation of the public currency, it would ap- 
pear that it was necessary, not only to hold out great inducements as to 
pay, but also to give positive assurance that the pay would be in specie, 
and to show that great efforts were being made to procure it. 

In the same month, was established the pay of all officers and men 
in actual service, and it perhaps may be of interest to military men of the 
present day, to read the following table as taken from Chapter 50, Acts 
of the Legislature, Approved February 25, 1787. 


MAJor-Geneial. . 
Brigadier-Genenil - 




Deputy Quarteim.ister-General 





Lieutenant Colonel 
























Suri;e'.>n's Mate 


Quai termaster-Sergeant . 

Drum Major 


File Major 

























In addition to the above tlie same rations as allowed the last establishment for the Continental Army. 

On the 9th day of March, 1787, the Legislature authorized the com- 
missary-general to contract for rations, for the army called into service 
during Shay's rebellion, and established the following as the rations: 

One pound of good bread or flour, per day. 

One pound of good beef, or three-foi:rths of a pound of pork, per da}-. 

One gill of rum or brandy, per day. 

One gill of peas or vegetables, or equivalent per day. 

Two quarts of salt, to one hundred men per day. 

Two quarts of vinegar, to one hundred men per day. 

Four pounds of soap, to one hundred men per day. 

Two pounds of candles, to one hundred men per day. 
The commissary-general or deputy was empowered and directed 
to supply an equivalent of the rations, to the satisfaction of the corps of the 
army, in any other species of provisions in lieu thereof. 



The CDinmissary-gencral at this period was Ivichard Devens, and it 
was the custom to elect this official annually. After 1787, the duties of the 
commissary department were performed by the quartermaster-ijeneral and 
a deputy commissary. 

The rations having been established and contracts made, it became 
necessary to provide, in the absence of rail transportation, the transporta- 
tion of rations by carts, as they were termed. 

The following calculations were made for supplying the troojjs in 
the field, showing the number of carts required for from five hundred to ten 
thousand men, from one day to ninety days, allowing three pounds to the 
ration, and eight hundred pounds to a cartload. 







> > 

J 1 s 





















5 3 
> > 

09 VI 

10,000 Men. 
A.OOO JIpii. 
4.000 >Ifii. 





ir,n !««•■»•'>(; 


:iim :«« :!77ii4i:! l.'.L' tm'.-,2n 5C4 (;no'{;:-,s'i;7s 

7 11; 7-.ll'll2.-,'22.-.(l 3375 



7:. :m [l:; |.;j 
,; , 7.;, :,n in-, 

|:,ii V/i 
l-.'n l:l'. 

Isv -'117 ■'■'(; "4,', 'n:; ■',-;■' :;(in 
l,-,n ].;--. isn VX, L'ln -i-K, lHh 
11:; \n 1;.'. 117 i:.s V\\\ ]Si) 

:ii:i ;■;:» 

Ljj 2l'l.i 

;,-,^ :;7-, ;,(;:: 112:, 1638 

■js;,' iiiii i-,,r ! 1360 

214 2.'.:., :j:k1 676 1014 

2.(HK) Men. 
1 000 :^Ien 






38 45 
19 23 






s.; ;<n 'K Id.-. 11:: i->ii 
VJ 4". I'l ."..; '■>'. ';n 







4.50 675 
226 33!) 

.VX) Men. 




•J I 



113 171 

The above table made, allowing 3 pounds to the ration and 800 pounds to a cartload. 

On March 28. 1787, Israel Keith resigned his office by addressing to 
the governor this communication: 


My own affairs require so much of my attention, as to render it incon- 
venient for me to hold the office of adjutant-general any longer. I will therefore 
esteem it a favor if your Excellency will discharge me from that office. 
I am. Sir. Your Excellency's most humble servant. 
His Excellency Gov. Hancock. ISRAEL KEITH. 

The resignation was promptly accepted; and orders were issued 
April 3, 1787, by Governor Hancock, to the major-generals of all the divi- 
sions of the militia, appointing William Donnison, Esquire, of Boston, ad- 
jutant-general. Up to this date there was apparently little care exercised 
in the keeping of ro.sters of commissioned officers, and that there should 
be no mistake in case of this appointment, the governor, on April 3, 1788, 
communicated to the secretary the following request: 

Mr. Secretary will order a commissiim to be made out immediately fur William 
Donnison as adjutant-general, with rank of brigadier-general, and send it up as soon 
as made out. and do you sign and enter it. 

Although the militia had existed for some time, and officers had 
been commissioned therein and discharged therefrom, there existed 
in the office of the adjutant-general no complete roster of such mat- 
ters until June i, 1779. when the following order emanated from the office: 



The major-generals throughout the commonwealth are directed to make a 
return to the adjutant-general as soon as may be, of the manner, dates of commis- 
sion, and place of abode of all officers actually in commission within their respective 
divisions, together with the number and "denomination" of the corps to which they 
severally belong. Blanks will be furnished by the adjutant-general for the purpose. 









Benj. Lincoln 





Jona. Titcomh 

No return 

No return 

No return 


Jolm Brooks 





Wm. Sliepard 





Dana Cobb 





Ichabod Goodwin 

Nu return 

No return 

No return 


Jona. Warner 





Wm. Liihgrew, Jr. 

No return 

No return 

No return 


John Ashley 






i'EARS FROM 1790 












9 Divisions 



10 Divisions 



13 Divi<;ions 












9 " 



























9 " 













58 842 















47 651 
































7 ■• 54.344 








7 • 54,311 





7 " 49,560 

The jil)0ve is from actual returns; when made, ami vstimate.I rruiii thv nearest return when aiiniial returns were not inaile. 

From the returns received by and in response to the above order, 
the first roster of officers was nndoiibtedly prepared, coverinij the period 
from 1/8 1 to 1789. 

Although Israel Keith, the predecessor in office of General Don- 
nison, was discharged in ^larch, 1788, it appears from the record 
that he was not paid for his sevices at the time, but was forced to wait un- 
til this year (1790^, when it was allowed by the committee on accounts: 

"To Colonel Israel Keith, adjutant-general, for his services from 
April 25, 1787, toj'e 29, March, 1788, 66 pounds, 15 shillings." Neither 
did General Donnison receive his pay very promptly, as in March, 1790, 
we find he was granted 108 pounds, 5 shillings and 6 pence, for his ser- 
vices as ad jtttant -general in full, including office rent and sundry expen- 



ses and money advances. John lioyle's account for sundry articles ol 
stationery, supplied to the adjutant-general's office for the militia, to July 
22, 1789. amounting to 74 pounds, 4 shillings and 8 pence, was also al- 

These allowances were simply acknowledgements of the debt, as 
petitions are found later, praying that the grants made by the General Court 
may be paid, and in response, a resolve was passed, that the "Treasurer be 
directed to pay the grants out of the first monies that shall come into the 
Treasury, not already appropriated." A condition certainly not encourag- 
ing to those to whom the money was due. 

juiiN HANCOCK, (jUVEi:.nui; ur m.v.ssac uusetts. 

The Committee on Accounts allowed the adjutant-general for his from January i, 1790, to January 1, 1791, 120 pounds; for station- 
ery, 21 pounds, 18 shillings, i penny. 

From February 12, 1790,10 1792, considering that there were that 
yearnine divisions, with a strength of 13,023 officers and men, the amount 
does not seem extravagant. For 1791, the allowance w-as 125 pounds. 

March, 1792, an act was passed by the Legi.slature "that no alien 


or Quaker, so-called, shall be held to do military duty iu the militia of this 

The militia was not at this time in a satisfactory condition, for on 
February 5, 1793, the attention of the Legislature was called to its 
defects by a message from Governor Hancock, in which he said: 

I would submit for your consideration a revision of the laws respecting the 
militia of the Commonwealth. By turning your attention to this important object 
perhaps you may discover such defects as will be expedient to remedy. If the Legis- 
lature should be of that opinion, and should appoint a committee for that purpose, I 
will direct the adjutant-general to attend the committee, and to lay before them such 
information as he may be possessed of on that subject. 

That the Legislature did discover the defects which -were hinted at 
by the governor, appears from the bill passed on June 22, 1793, entitled, 
An Act for Regulating and Governing the Militia of the Commonwealth, 
and for Repealing All Laws Heretofore Made for That Purpose, which pro- 
vides: — 

There shall be one adjutant-general and one quartermaster-general for the 
whole militia. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the adjutant-general 
shall be commissioned with the rank of brigadier-general, and it shall be his duty to 
distribute all orders from the commander-in-chief of the militia to the several corps; 
to attend all public reviews, when the commander-in-chief shall review the militia, 
or any part thereof ; to obey all orders from him relative to carrying into e.xecution, 
and perfecting the system of military discipline established by this act; to superin- 
tend the annual inspection of the militia; to furnish blank forms of the different 
returns that may be required, and to explain the principles on which they should be 
made; to keep such rosters and records as are proper to be kept in his office; to 
receive from the several officers of the different corps throughout the State, returns of 
the militia under their command, reporting the actual situation of their corps, their 
arms, ammunition and accoutrements, their delinquencies, and every other thing 
which relates to the general advancement of good order and discipline; all of which 
the several officers of the Divisions, Brigades, Regiments, Battalions and Companies, 
are hereby required to make in the usual manner, or as the commander-in-chief shall 
direct, so that the said adjutant-general may be fully furnished therewith, from all 
which returns he shall make proper abstracts, and a general return of the whole mili- 
tia of the Commonwealth, and lay the same before the governor or commander-in- 
chief, and to forward a duplicate thereof to the President of the United States. 

This fully established the rank of the adjutant-general, and defined 
his ditties, and for his services this year he received the sum of 160 
pounds, an increase of 10 pounds over the previous year. 

The matter of coast defense was considered of grave importance in 
1794, as it is at the present day, and efforts were made at that time, as 
now, to induce Congress to take the necessary action to render ortr har- 
bors .safe from the encroachment of foreign foes. On April 10, 1794, 
Governor Adams addressed a communication to the governors of New 



York and Pennsylvania, requesting' their co-operation 
the desired end, a copy of which is here given: — 

hnnsrin"' about 


HosUm, April 10, 1794. 

In reviewing the political situation of the United States in their relations to 
that of Great Britain, we have reason to apprehend that the continuation of peace 
cannot be long expected, unless events shall prove more propitious than they promise 
at present. This complexion of public affairs has induced Congress to take meas- 
ures for our defence by passing an act for fortifying the harbors of several States, 
and if I may judge from accounts received through the medium of newspapers, the 
Legislature of your State, at their last session, made some provision for the same 
purpose. Having it in intention to lay the matter before the General Court of this 
Commonwealth, which will be in session in a short time, I am desirous of being able 
to inform them of the nature and extent of the views of your Legislature on the sub- 
ject, in hopes that this State may not be behind any other in the Union in making 
suitable provisions within itself for the defence of the seacoast. 

Your communication on this subject, as soon as convenient, will be very agree- 
able to your Most obedient and very humble servant, 


To Thomas Mifflin, Esq., Gov. of Pennsylvania, 

and George Clinton, Esq., Gov. of New York. 

June JJ , 1794. by Senate Resolve, the Battalions of the militia were 
furnished with colors, as per the following act: 

Resolved, that the Quartermaster-General of this Commonwealth be, and he 
hereby is, authorized to furnish each Battalion of the Militia with uniform colors 
upon which on one side shall be the Arms 
of the United States Reversed with the 
Arms of the Commonwealth, together 
with the Number of the Regiment, Bri- 
gade, and Division, at the Expense of the 
Commonwealth, not exceeding fifteen 
dollars each, and the Commanding Officer 
of the Battalion, who shall receive 
Colours, shall give duplicate Receipts for 
the same, one to be Lodged with the 
Quartermaster-General, and the other 
with the Major-General of the Division 
to which the said Commanding Officer 

That provisions were made 
for the defense of the coast will 
appear from a letter from James 
Winthrop, the owner of Governor's 
Island, who with expressions of loy- 
alty, and submission to the neces- 
sities of the government, consents to 
the use of his property, but fails not sa.muel adam.s. 


to make known that he expects to be indemnified for any damage to hia^ 
grounds in repairing the defensive works. 

General Donnison ; — Cambridge, Aug. 5, 1798. 


As I conceive it to be the duty of every good Citizen to submit to the estab- 
lished government, in plans which may seem necessary for the common defense, it is 
impossible for nie to refuse my consent that His Excellency should send laborers and 
artificers to Governor's Island (of which you justly consider me as the proprietor), for 
the purpose of repairing the works there. As damage will probably be done by these 
people travelling over the grass and in other respects, I must consider the Govern- 
ment, as engaged by your letter, to indemnify me. But you will be pleased to con- 
sider that I do not in any degree consent that a garrison be placed there till the terms 
are explicitly settled upon which I am to be compensated, and the number of soldiers 
and their limits defined as far as the case will admit 

Perhaps the course of the Fall or Winter may suspend the necessity of par- 
ticular stipulations on these points, if the Continental Government should close with 
the act of our Legislature to make it their own. As the repair of the works will 
require no more digging than is necessary to replace the dirt that has fallen down, the 
consent that I have given will not extend to digging sods and peeling the surface of 
the ground, as was done in the last war. 


On March 30, 1799. Adjutant-General Donnison issued orders from 
his office in Roxbi:ry that, "By the regulations of the Troops of the United 
States the black cockade with a small Eagle in the centre is established as 
a military badge. In conformity to the regulations the Commander-in- 
Chief orders that the .same be established as a part of the uniform of the 
Militia of this Commonwealth, and cockades of any other description are 
forbidden to be worn." 

This was the first insignia or device introduced in the militia, and 
is to-day, so far as the "Eagle" is concerned, the cap device of the regular 
and militia officer alike. 

In the absence of all official reports of the adjutant-general on the 
militia for these early years, but little is known of its discipline or effi- 
ciency, but it is apparent, from correspondence and official orders, that the 
adjutant-generals were not remiss in their efforts to maintain a proper 
military establishment; perhaps not all that could be desired, but such as 
was possible with the limited means at their command. 

In January, 1803, Adjutant-General Donnison, called upon Quarter- 
master-General Davis for cjtiarters, informing him that, "The Commander- 
in-chief having appointed a Board of General Officers to sit on Military 
Business on Monday, the 14th of February next, at 10 o'clock a. m., and 
a suitable place is wanted for them to sit in, I have thought of the 
Senate Chamber of the Old State House, now occupied by the Board of 
Health. I, however, request you to provide a place, and all such accom- 
modations as may be needed, and a subaltern (juard for the Board will be 

C1F MASSAcnusF/rrs. 


necessary. I wish to know the place immediately, in order to insert it in 
the order appointing the Board, and I on!}- wait fur the place, in order to 
send out the orders, they being all prepared." 

In 1803, when this cimference was called, the militia coiii[)rised ten 
divisions with 52,654 officers and men. In 1812 it had increased to seven- 
teen divisions, and 60,650 officers and enlisted men. 

Regarding the responsive service of the militia in the war of 1812- 
14, it may be proper to say here that the 9th, 21st and 40th Regiments 
U. S. Infantry were raised in Massachusetts proper, and the 33d, 34th and 
45th in Maine, then a province of the Commonwealth, as was also Capt. 
Rufus Mclntire"s company of artillery, and Capt. ^Vlex. Parris' company 
of artificers. Capt. Thomas Pitts' and Lieut. Bartlett's companies of ar- 


tillery were also raised at large in Alassachusetts and Maine, and thirteen 
hundred infantry and artillery were drafted for three months to man the 
forts in Boston Harbor, and were mustered into the United .States service. 
During the summer and autumn of 18 14, twenty thousand men were 
drafted at various times for periods ranging from twelve to fifteen days 
and upwards, equally proportioned between Massachusetts and Maine. 

General William Donnison resigned as adjutant -general, and was 
-discharged February 15, 18 13, and on the 23d of the same month the Hon. 
John Brooks was appointed his successor. 

General Brooks had an enviable record as a patriot and soldier. He 
appears on record as a sergeant of "Minute men," April ig, 1775; major 
in Colonel Bridge's regiment May 26, 1775; lieutenant -colonel in Jackson's 
regiment; lieutenant-colonel, commanding 7th Regiment, November 11, 
■■775; colonel 7th Regiment. 1781, and afterward major-general of the 


militia; and after serving a little more than three years as adjutant-gen- 
eral, was elected governor of the Commonwealth, and appointed Ebenezer 
Mattoon of Amherst as his successor, June 17, 18 16. 

General Mattoon had been a soldier of the Revolution. He was 
recorded as a private from May 7 to July 8, 1777. and having marched to 
re-enforce the northern army, was promoted to be a lieutenant in Nathaniel 
Wade's Regiment, Sept. i, 1778, to October 31, 1778,3 first lieutenant, 
November i, 1778, to June 1779; and at the date of his appointment a 
major-general of the JMassachusetts militia. 

During the administration of the adjutant-general's office, General 
Brooks had ijrocured legislation, which enabled him to furnish to the mili- 
tia a book of instruction, entitled "The Elements of War, etc." which he 
distributed in June, 18 13. 

On the i6th of June, 18 13, the salary of the adjutant-general was 
established at two thousand dollars annually, to continue until the close of 
the war and no longer, and was to be paid in equal quarterly payments. 

The existing condition of war again brought the defences of the 
Commonwealth into prominence, and Governor Strong approved, June 16, 
1813, a resolve of the Legislature, viz: — 

■'Resolved; that the governor, with advice of the council, be, and he is hereby 
authorized to erect such fortifications, and establish such batteries as may be deemed 
necessary for the defense and protection of such towns within this Commonwealth, as 
are most exposed to the invasion of an enemy and the casualties of war, and to pur- 
chase, mount and furnish for the use of such towns a competent number of pieces of 
ordnance with other suitable munitions of war, and to establish upon headlands, 
capes, and other convenient places, a line of signals, by which to give timely notice 
to vessels navigating along the coast of the enemy's approach. And in case the 
president of the United States should refuse or neglect to transmit to this Common- 
wealth the proportion of arms to which the same is entitled by a law of Congress 
passed April 23, 1808, then, and in that case, the governor is hereby authorized and 
empowered to purchase such number of fire-arms for the use of the Commonwealth, 
as from the returns of the militia thereof, shall appear to be necessary. And in order 
to carry into effect the purpose aforesaid, the governor is hereby authorized to employ 
one or more discreet and faithful persons, who shall be skilled in the science of engi- 
neering and gunnery, and who shall be entitled to a reasonable compensation for their 
services. .\nd the governor is hereby fully authorized to provide a sufficient guard for 
all arsenals, parks of artillery and military stores, the property of this Common- 
wealth, as the same may from time to time become necessary. 

"And the treasurer of this Commonwealth is hereby authorized and empowered 
to borrow of any bank or banks in this Commonwealth, a sum of money not exceed- 
ing one hundred thousand dollars, to be applied to the purpose aforesaid, and 
accounted for accordingly. 

"The aforesaid money to be borrowed in such sums as the governor, with advice 
of council, shall direct, and the governor is hereby authorized from time to time to 
issue his warrant upon the treasury, for such sums as may be deemed necessary for 
carrying into effect the purposes aforesaid. 



"Rest>lved,that the adjutant-general be requested to consider and report to the 
General Court at their next session, what alterations are necessary in the militia 
system of the Commonwealth, and also the best method of organizing and disciplin- 
ing a select corps of troops bearing a proportion of the whole number of the militia 
of said Commonwealth as one to five, and also the best method of organizing the 
exempts. ■■ 

That there wa.'? a neces.sity lor the above, i.s evidenced by the fact 
that on the 3d day of Sej)tember. NS14, the next year, il. M. S. "Draj^on," 
with an advance of British liyht troops (60th Regiment 1 and the naval 
force, sailed up the Penobscot, cajjtured the town of Bangor, and paroled 
Charles Hammond, and one hundred and ninety other inhabitants of that 
place, not to take up arms against the British or their allies during the 
war, unless exchanged, and extorted from the selectmen, an agreement 
with a bond of thirty thousand dollars, for the delivery to the commander 
of the British Naval force in the Penobscot River at Ca.stine, by the last 
day of October, of the vessels then on the stocks in Bangor. 

February 25, 1814, the Legislature authorized the adjutant-general 
to procure at a cost of Si. 50 each "A Treatise on Courts-Martial and Mili- 
tary Law." From and after the 3d day of May, 18 14, the apartment at 
the north-west corner of the State House, on the lower floor, was appropri- 
ated as an office for the adjutant-general, and the room adjoining the 
same under the west stairs, was used as an oifice for the quartermaster- 

An act of the Legislature, approved by Governor Strong, October 
18, 1S14, provided: that when the militia are in actual service they should 
receive the same pay and rations as allowed to the regular troops of the 
United States, and the value of the ration was to be considered at twenty 
cents, with fifty cents per month to those arming and equipping 
themselves, and keeping so armed and equipped. In addition to the 
regular pay, an allowance was made to those who furnished themselves 
with a suitable uniform and blanket: sergeants four dollars per month, 
corporals and privates three dollars and seventy-five cents per month. 
Those who did not furnish themselves, were allowed two dollars and fifty 
cents per month. When discharged from actual service, they were to be 
allowed pay and rations at the rate of fifteen miles per day. 

February 3, 1818, Fitch Hall, Esq., of Medford, who had been aid- 
de-camp to Major-General John Brooks in the militia, was appointed act- 
ing adjutant-general, and continued to perform the duties until the ap- 
pointment of General Alattoon's successor. In the month of June follow- 
ing, and later, on account of the illness of Adjutant-General Mattoon, he 
was appointed to sign orders in the same capacity from ilay 3, 18 18, to 
June i2,iSi8, when Wm. H. Sumner was appointed adjutant-general. 

February 16, 182 1, the Council ordered that "The Honorable 


Messrs. Sullivan and Greenleaf be appointed a committee to attend with 
the adjutant-general the examination of the military stores and ammuni- 
tion, and all other property of the Commonwealth then in charge of the 
quartermaster-general, preparatory to a transfer of the same to the care 
and charge of the adjutant -general, agreeably to an act of the Legisla- 
ture, passed the i6th of February, and to report to the governor and 
council the deficiency, if any, to be found in the amount of the said property, 
according to the exhibit of the same, which was to be presented by the 
quartermaster-general, and also the general condition of the property, and 
to receive the receipt of the adjutant-general for all the property which 
was transferred to him after the examination." 

Thus the duties of quartermaster-general, which had been per- 
formed since 1786 by Amasa Davis of Boston, were transferred to the 
adjutant-general, where they have continued (with the exception of war 
periods, when it was necessary to divide the duties) ever since. 

There seems to have been an occasion for stock taking about this 
time as the records show that on April27, 1821, a little morethantwo 
months later, the Senate in concurrence with the House passed the follow- 

Resolved, that His Excellency the Governor be, and he hereby is, authorized 
by and with the consent and advice of the Council, to appoint two reliable persons to 
make a full and complete inventory in kind, quantity and quality, of all public prop- 
erty now in the department of the Quartermaster-General, and to draw his warrant 
(in the treasury for the amount of their reasonablecompensation for the services which 
they may render in virtue of this resolve. 

Resolved, further, that the Adjutant-General be, and he hereby is, authorized 
and empowered to employ an additional clerk in his office until the end of the first 
session of the ne.xt General Court. 

June 23, 182 1, the adjutant-general, for the first time in his dual 
capacity, was ordered to furnish blank cartridges to the army for salutes, 
and to provide a collation at the State House as usual on the occasion of 
the celebration of the anniversary of the Independence of the United 
States, a duty which had hitherto been performed by the quarterma.ster- 

May 17, 1822, the adjutant-general, was directed to turn over the 
advanced arms and military stores which had been assigned to the new 
State of Maine, formerlya part of the Commonwealth; and on August 22, 
1822, a uniform was prescribed for the officers and men of the militia, 
which .so far as is known, was the first attempt to recover uniformity in 

June 14, 1S23, an order was issued by the Executive Council, di- 
recting the adjutant-general to turn over all papers and documents bearing 
on the expense of the militia of the Commonwealth during the late war, 



Visited linstoii ill lS2-'i. 

to Hon. George Sullivan or Josejih H. Pierce, agents, to prosecute the 
claims of the Commonwealth against the United States for expenses 
growing out of said war. That tliis was done, the receipt of this commis- 
sion plainly shows. 

Received of William H. Sumner, Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, four 
trunks marked number one, two, three, and four, and two chests containing all the 
papers and documents in his charge, pertaining to the subject of the claim of the 
Commonwealth against the United States as directed, as the said Sumner represents. 

(Signed) GEORGE SULLIVAN, Agent. 
(Signed) JOSEPH H. PIERCE, Agent. 
Boston, June 14, 1823, 

Of these original papers and documents, no retained copies were 
taken at the time, and none are found for consultation, and in after years. 


when Congress enacted laws for the payment of pensions to the survivors 
of the war or widows of the deceased soldiers, there was no evidence or 
data available in the archives of the Commonwealth, upon which to base 
or establish a claim for pensions, nor would the authorities of the United 
States furnish copies of the rolls surrendered by the Commonwealth; and 
■ until other means were devised for overcoming these objections, this 
was a serious obstacle in the proving of individual claims. 

March 4, 1862, the Council by resolve, appropriated $4,400 for the 
use of the quartermaster-general's department, for the purpose of repair- 
ing the public buildings and defraying the expense of that department; 
the governor, with the advice of the Council, to draw his warrant upon the 
treasurer for the same in favor of the adjutant-general, in such sums 
and at such periods as the public services may require, for the application 
of which he was to be accountable, and provided that no part of the ap- 
propriation should go to the expense of a collation on the Fourth of July. 

There appears to have been a deficit this year, as there was a bal- 
ance of S354.65 due the quartermaster-general, as appears from the ap- 
propriation for 1827, when $5,241.65 was appropriated for the use of this 
department; $354.65 being the balance due him in the settlement of 
accounts for the past year, the residue of the sum first mentioned to be 
used in repairs of public buildings, and for defraying the expenses of the 
department, the governor to draw his warrant in the usual manner, and 
the ad jiitant -general to be held accountable for its application. IMarch 
10, 1828, $3,989. 18 was appropriated for the building t)f four new gun 
houses, repairs on public I:)uildings, and defraying the expenses of the quar- 
termaster-general's department, and a further sum of $1,460.80. the bal- 
ance of ajjpropriation for 1827, remained on hand unexpended, making a 
total of $5,449.98. It is evident that the officers of the time kept well 
within their appropriations, and that there was a necessity for them to do 
so, but the sums then appropriated cannot be considered liberal. 

Although the last war with Great Britain had ended fifteen years 
before, its entailment of troubles had not ceased, and we find that there 
were rumors reflecting on the conduct of officers of the militia, having a 
part therein. There were matters requiring examination and accounting 
in the payment of money by delinquents, and the use of the same in the 
hiring of substitutes. 

March 5, 1830, (yovernor Lincoln approved the report of a commit- 
tee of the Legislature and the resolve thereon, which was dated February 19, 

The select committee of this House to whom was committed the report of the 
treasurer in relation to the militia fines, beg leave to represent: — That from the 
examinations made, they have good reason to believe that many fines were paid by 
delinquent soldiers to their commanding ofificers, which were never appropriated for 


the hirin,c; of substitutes; they would tlierefuro reci->niniend the adoption of t lie fol- 
lowing resolve: — 

Per order of the Coniniittee, 

ELI R, HAMILTON, Chairman. 
"Resolved. That the adiutant-i:;eneral be directed to ascertain, so far as in his 
power, to whom the militia lines were paid and not appropriated agreeably tu law, 
and give information of the same to the attorney and solicitor-general, and that the 
attorney and solicitor-general be directed to institute suits against all persons in 
whose pi)ssession the aforesaid fines may be (if such person or persons, in the opinion 
of the adjutant-general and the attorney and solicitor-general, be able to pay), pro- 
vided the same are not paid into the state treasury by the first day t)f July next." 

It appears that the adjtitant-general sought to eomply with the 
resolve of the Legislattire, by publishing ouee a week for two months in 
the "Palladittni," "Patriiit," and "Traveller," a letter asking for infi)rnia- 
tion as to the hiring of stibstittites in the late war, 181J-1814. Xothing 
eame of this inqtiiry, as no information was elieted by the advertise- 
ment in the papers, and a report "inexpedient to legislate" was made by 
Representative Kimball, ^March 15, 1S32. 

The House of Representatives of the Legislature was at this time 
apparently in a mood for investigating the state departments, as on June 
5. 1830, it ordered: "That the adjutant and quartermaster-generals lay 
before the Hottse on the first day of the next session of the General Court, 
a statement of all expense which has accrued to the Commonwealth for 
the three years, in relation to the departments of the adjutant-general 
and quartermaster-general and the militia, — stating under distinct heads, 
the salaries and compensation of the adjtitant and qttartermaster-general, 
his clerks and others appointed by him, the expense of printing, the ex- 
pense for stationery ftirnished and all other contingencies, the expense of 
coitrts martial, courts of inquiry, and all other military boards, allowan- 
ces to adjutants, brigade majors, and all other staff officers; for painting 
artillery, the expense of powder, musical instrtiments, standards and all 
other articles furnished for the militia at the charge of the Commonwealth, 
and all other expenses of his several departments." This applied to the 
years 1828, 1829 and 1830, and was followed two days later by a similar 
order for a statement of all expenses which had accrued to the Common- 
wealth of ^lassachusetts proper for the three years previous to the year 
1 82 I, Vv'hen the duties of the office of quartermaster-general were trans- 
ferred to the adjutant-general, in relation to the department (^f the adju- 
tant and acting qttartermaster-general and to the militia tinder the head- 
ings as required in the previous order. 

It appears of record that the adjtitant-general complied with the 
orders of the Legislature, and laid before the House of Representatives 
the required statement in figures, wliich was i^robably satisfactory, as no 
record is found of any further inquiry. 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Headquarters, Boston, February 5, 1833. 
General Orders; — 

William H. Sumner, Esq., having on the 20th day of Decem- 
ber last tendered his resignation of the office of adjutant-general, the duties of which 
for many years past he has faithfully performed, and having since that time continued 
in the exercise of these duties at the request of the commander-in-chief, has now 
been honorably discharged, the Hon. Henry A. S. Dearborn has been appointed by 
the Commander-in-Chief Adjutant-General of the Militia of this Commonwealth, 
and he will be respected and obeyed accordingly. 

By His Excellency's command, 


Senior Aide-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief. 




N. f. 0. ML-S. 






















•18 IC 





































































• Returns for 1.836, incoraplcle .and insufticient. .Streiifc'tli t'stimatftl .is of previous yedrs. 
t Insiiffleieiit returns, 
tt Frnni 1S40 iliitfs Ilu- present active military system. 

General Henry A. S. Dearborn had been a brigadier-general in the 
militia commanding the first brigade M. V. M. from July 21, 1814, to 
October 29, 1822, and, doubtless, from his exiDcrience in the service, was 
fully cognizant of its needs. 

Governor Davis having been elected United States Senator, resigned 
his office March 4. It was announced tt) the militia, in orders: that "His 
Excellency John Davis, having resigned the office of governor of this 
Commonwealth, the constitutional power and authority of the commander- 
in-chief of the militia devolves upon His Honor Samuel T. Armstrong, 
lieutenant-governor, etc." 

In the years 1835 and 1S36 the adjutant-general alleged, as the 
chief and most important objections to the then existing militia laws, 
that a much greater military force was provided than the exigencies re- 
quired; that they were unequal in their operation; that the term of service 
was unnecessarily long, and that the expense of arms and equipments 
with the loss of time was extremely onerous. There were also then, as 
now, objections on the part of employers to the enrollment of their employ- 
ees, parents to the enrollment of minors, and masters of their apprentices, 
and discipline had been almost entirely abolished. 

Ill- MASSAClirSlCTTS. 119 

If ihe adjutant-g'cncral was tlissatislicd willi Ihc existing conditions, 
it did not deter him from the exercise of zeal and energy as acting 
qiiartcrmastcr-general, in providing against the time when tlie militia 
should (nice more reco\-cr its stantlard and become a credit to the Common- 
wealth, as we find him this year (owing to great changes that had been 
made in the form and construction of field pieces, gun carriages, etc.,) 
drawing from the United States, gun carriages, a caisson, with implements, 
eqi:ipment and harness, and the drafts for a six-pounder brass gun, and 
entering into arrangements with a foundry in South Boston for the casting 
of several six -pounder brass guns from the drafts or plans furnished by 
the United States; and this, not frt)m a view that they would be required 
for immediate use for the common duty of the militia, but that it was im- 
portant that there should be in the vState Arsenal complete trains of field 
pieces, as well as muskets, rifles, pistols and swords, for the speedy and 
perfect armament of troops of all arms, which might be suddenly called 
into service for the enforcement of law, suppression of insurrection, or to 
repel invasion. He also recommended the sale of land at South Boston 
Point, acquired the year before, on which had been erected a temporary 
earth battery for the defense of the city, and of the powder magazine in 
Roxbury (the one on Captain's Island in Cambridge being considered suf- 
ficient for the needs of the State); that the wharf of the magazine on Cap- 
tain's Island be repaired and extended; that the gun house of the dis- 
banded Artillery Company in Danvers be sold with the land on which it 
stood; and he also sold the old magazine in Charlestown at auction for 
S300.04. At the same time he disposed of the old iron cannon, gun car- 
riages and other condemned military articles, deposited in the gun house 
in Xewburyport, for $186.14, to be appropriated for the purchase of 
artillery stores. 

In his report to the Commander-in-Chief, dated September 12, 
1S36, after stating the measures proposed for a new system for the 
militia of the entire country, and the advantages which would accrue to 
}»Iassachusetts by its adoption, he says: 

"In all governments, personal safety, the security of property, the 
preservation of the public peace, and the exemption of foreign outrage, are 
dependent upon powerful military establishments. 

"This jjrinciple has been recognized and acted upon in all ages, and 
among all nations. When, therefore, the national and state constitutions 
were formed, it became a most grave and important question, as to the 
kind of force it was most proper to establish in a republic, and after well 
matured deliberation, it was unanimously decided that it should consist 
of a well organized militia. To this Arm is not only the sword of justice 
confided, 'to execute the laws,' but on it was imjDosed the duty, 'to sup- 
press insurrection and repel invasion.' 


"How important is it, then, that a subject of such moment should 
claim the serious consideration of every citizen who wishes for the sta- 
bility, happiness and prosperity of his country! Yet, has not the great 
error of the government and the people been an utter negligence of not 
only the militia, but of all our institutions. The army and navy have 
been themes of vituperation, rather than objects of honorable attention. 
No encouragement is held out for distinguished exploits; and no reward 
for long and honorable services, either by rank, promotion, public favor 
or respect; while a more perfect organization of the militia has not re- 
ceived the least attention from the national legislature, for forty-four years; 
notwithstanding every president has earnestly recommended the subject to 
its most serious consideration. This prevalent hostility or indifference to 
military institutions has left the country unprepared to enforce the laws, 
or to prosecute war with foreign nations, or the Indian tribes within our 
borders, with that vigor and success, which the ample resources of the 
country can afford. 

"Notwithstanding the disasters of the past, and after a quarter of 
a century of peace, we were on the eve of a war last winter, without the 
means of defense or attack. 

"Our ablest and best men, from the days of Washington, have fore- 
warned us of our duty; and whether the general government fails to e.xer- 
cise the power devolved upon it by the constitution or not, Massachusetts 
should no longer delay the adoption of such measures as the exigency of 
the times requires." 

Fi-om 1830 to 1840, a period of ten years, the militia of the Com- 
monwealth, under the system which had obtained, was in a ccmdition of 
utter demoralization. It was lacking in drill and discipline, and but little 
if any attention was paid on the part of commissioned officers to the 
duties required of them, and its condition was such that, in the opinion 
of the adjutant-general, some action should be taken by Congress to 
enforce order, as all attempts made by the Legislature to remedy existing 
defects had proved unsuccessful. 

In regard to the system of drills and tactics, the following General 
Order, issued May 10, 1839, is interesting:— 

The system of instruction for infantry and light infantry adopted for the regu- 
lar army, was based on that of France, and in neither is there anything said in rela- 
tion to the manual of arms for light infantry or rifle corps, for the reason that there 
are no battalions or regiments denominated light infantry or riflemen in either ser- 
vice. There are, however, in each regiment in the army of the United States, flank 
companies, which are denominated light infantry and riflemen, but they are e.xercised 
and manoeuvred as battalion companies, except when thrown out as skirmishers to 


act as light infantry, or riflemen; at all other times they conform to the movements 
of the regiment in the same manner as the other companies. And as the manual of 
arms is only practised in close order, in contradistinction to e.xtend order, as 
skirmishers, it was not deemed necessary to make a separate manual for light infan- 
try and riflemen; but there being entire regiments composed of light infantry and 
rifle company in the militia of Massachusetts, a manual was required for them when 
on parade, other than that prescribed for the infantry of the regular army, and the 
following has been prepared by Assistant-Adjutant Cooper, as an addition to his 
system of tactics for the militia, and will be observed by those corps as a part of the 


Ry order of the Commander-in-Chief, 



General Dearborn, in transmitting to the Commander-in-Chief hi.s 
annual report for the year 1839, says: — 

■'The causes of the continued deranged and degraded condition of the militia, 
which have been repeatedly stated in former reports, have been still more lamentably 
active and deleterious in their consequences during the past year, as will appear from 
the very general dereliction of duty exhibited in the annual statement of the returns, 
and of the remarks copied from those returns, 

"By the returns of the several major-generals, it appears that in May last, no 
inspection returns were received from five entire brigades, twenty regiments of in- 
fantry, three regiments and one battalion of light infantry and riflemen, one regiment 
of cavalry, and two regiments and one battalion of artillery, embracing 177 companies 
of infantry, 32 of light infantry, 9 of rifles, 8 of artillery, and 4 of cavalry, making 
230 companies, being nearly one-half of the whole number composing the militia, 
whose returns have been taken from those of former years." It can no longer be ex- 
pected that this important arm of defense can be re-established on an efficient basis 
until there shall have matured a more acceptable and perfect system. 

"It is not to be inferred from the humiliating statements which have been 
made in relation to the present state of the militia of this Commonwealth, that there 
is any deficiency in the requisite martial elements, for there is as much of enlightened 
patriotism, and as zealous a disposition among the citizens as at any former period, 
to have the militia placed on a perfect and substantial foundation, and to elevate its 
character to as high a point of perfection as it is capable of attaining. To this end 
it is only necessary for the general government to exercise the plenary power which 
has been devolved upon it by the Constitution in such an ample manner as the emer- 
gency demands, to receive the ardent co-operation of the people in the accomplish- 
ment of that most desirable result." It is not sufficient, he says, "that laws for 
merely prescribing the manner of organization are adopted, the troops must be armed 
and disciplined at the expense of the United States." 

The act of March 24, 1840, provided that the active militia of the 
Commonwealth should consist of volunteers or companies raised at large, 
but that the whole number should not exceed ten thousand m.en, and that 
every other able-bodied white male citizen, between the ages of eighteen 
years and forty-five years (with the exception of certain exempts) should 
be enrolled by the assessors of the respective towns in which they reside, 
and that the return of such enrollment be annually transmitted to the 


adjutant-general in the months of .May or Jnne. Those enrolled were 
not to be required to supply themselves with arms or equipments as for- 
merly, and were not to be called upon to perform any duty whatever, 
unless called upon by due process of law in the event of war, invasion, 
riots, or in aid of the civil power, and in all such cases the Volunteer 
Corps were the first to be ordered into service, it being understood that 
it would never be necessary to detach any part of the reserves constitu- 
ting the enrolled, except when the country might be invaded, and even 
then it was believed that the additional force necessary could be better 
raised by voluntary enlistment. 

Under this essential change in the military system of the Common- 
wealth, an order was adopted in council on the 24th of April, in which it 
was directed that the then existing divisions, brigades, regiments, and 
companies of the infantry of the line should be disbanded, thus wiping 
out at one fell swoop all that had previously existed, and entering at once 
upon the new system, by providing that the volunteer companies be 
arranged into three divisions, six brigades, two battalions of cavalry, 
two regiments, and six battalions of artillery, eleven regiments and 
two battalions of light infantiy. This was immediately carried out, 
and it only remained for the Legislature to elect the major-generals 
to perfect the system, so far as organization was concerned, and thus 
came into existence the militia which has been handed down to the 
present time. 

The committee on the militia, to which was referred the communi- 
cation of the adjutant-general concerning the organization of the militia, 
having duly examined and considered the same, reported the following 
plan of organization of the volunteer corps of the militia in Massachu- 
setts, in conformity to the "Act in addition to the several Acts concerning 
the Militia" of March 24th, 1S40, and the twelfth chapter of the revised 
statutes: — 

The present organization to be abolished; all the divisions and 
brigades, and the regiments and companies of the infantry of the line 
disbanded and the ofiicers discharged; and the regiments, battalions, and 
companies of volunteers to be organized into three divisions, six brig- 
ades, one regiment and one battalion of cavalry, three regiments and six 
battalions of artillery, and eleven regiments and three battalions of light 
infantry, grenadiers and riflemen, as follows: — 


To comprise within its bounds the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk. 
Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable, Nantucket and Dukes, and to consist of 
the first and second brigades. 




The first brigade to comprise within its bounds the comities of 
Suffolk and Xt)rfolk and tlic town of HiiiL^liam in tiie county of Ply- 
mouth, and to consist of the following- corps: — 

First Battalion of Artillery, to include the three companies of 
artillery in Boston. 

Second Battalion of Artillery, to include the three companies of 
artillery in Roxbury, Dorchester and Weymouth. 

First Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in Boston and Chelsea. To this regiment the 
corps of Lancers in the city of Boston shall be annexed. 

Second Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry, grenadiers and riflemen in Roxbury, Dorchester, Quincy, 
Hingham, Randolph and Stoughton. 

First Battalion of Light Infantry, to include the companies of light 
infantry and riflemen in Dedham, JNIedfield, iledway, Walpole, Belling- 
ham and Needham. To this battalion the company of cavalry in Frank- 
lin and the company of artillery in Waltham shall be annexed. 


The second brigade to comprise within its bounds the counties of 
Plymouth (excepting the town of Hingham), Bristol, Barnstable, Nan- 
tucket and Dukes, and to consist of the following corps: — 

Third Battalion of Artillery, to include the three companies of 
artiller}' in Abington, Hanover and Plymouth. 

Third Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantr}', grenadiers and riflemen in Abington, Plymouth, Pem- 
broke, Hanson, Halifax, West Bridgewater, North Bridgewater, Plymp- 
ton, ^liddleborough and Wareham. 

Second Battalion of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in Attleborough, Dighton, Mansfield, Taunton 
and Fall River. To this battalion the company of artillery in Norton 
shall be annexed. 

The Divisionary Corps of Independent Cadets, in the City of Bos- 
ton, shall be attached to the first division. 

To comprise within its bounds the counties of Middlesex and 
Essex, and to consist of the third and fourth brigades. 


The third brigade to comprise within its bounds the county of 
Middlesex, and to consist of the following corps: — 

First Regiment of Artillery, to include the four companies of 
artillery in Charlestown, Watertown. Lexington and Concord. 


Fourth Re^ment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in CharlestoAvn, Cambridge, Concord, Fra- 
mingham, Maiden. South Reading, Holliston and Woburn. 

Fifth Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in Lowell, Pepperell, Townsend, Chelms- 
ford, ^larlborough and Westford. To this regiment the company of 
cavalrv in Townsend, and the company of artillery in Groton, shall be 


The fourth brigade to comprise within its bounds the county of 
Essex, and to consist of the following corps: — 

First Battalion of Cavalry, to include the two companies of cavalry 
in Georgetown and Wenham. 

Fourth Battalion of Artillery, to include the three companies of 
artillery in Salem, Lynn and Gloucester. 

Fifth Battalion of Artillery, to include the two companies of artil- 
lery in N'ewbiiryport and Andover. 

Sixth Regiment of Light Infant.y. to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in Salem. Lynn. Danvers, Marblehead, Rock- 
port, Beverly and Manchester. 

Seventh Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
lio-ht infantry and riflemen in Topsfield, Ipswich. Bradford, Haverhill. 
Boxford and Rowley. 

The Divisionary Corps of Cadets, in Salem, shall be attached to the 
Second Division. 


To comprise within its bounds the counties of Worcester. Hamp- 
den, Franklin and Berkshire, and to consist of the fifth and sixth 


The fifth brigade to comprise within its bounds the county of 
Worcester, and consist of the following corps: — 

Sixth Battalion of Artillery, to include the three companies of 
artillery in Lancaster, Leominster and Barre. 

Eio-hth Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry, grenadiers and riflemen in Worcester, ilendon. ^lilford 
and Holden. To this regiment the company of artillery in Milford shall 

be annexed. 

Ninth Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
lio-ht infantry and riflemen in Ashburnham. Barre. Fitchburg, Leo- 
minster, Princeton, Shrewsbury, Templeton and Westminster. 



The sixth brigade to comprise within its bounds the counties of 
Hampshire, Hampden, Franklin and Berkshire, and to consist of the fol- 
lowing corps: — 

First Regiment of Cavalry, to include the four comiianics in Con- 
way, Coleraine, Chesterfield and Williamsburg. 

Second Regiment of Artillery, to include the four companies of 
artillery in Springfield, Belchertown, Westfield and Alonson. 

Third Regiment of Artillery, to include the five companies of 
artillery in Northampton, Northfield, Greenfield, Buckland and Plainfield. 

Tenth Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in West Springfield, Springfield, Ware, East 
Longmeadow, Brimfield, Blandford, Ludlow and Southampton. 

Eleventh Regiment of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry and riflemen in Deerfield, Conway, Coleraine, Leverett, 
Heath, Sunderland and Montague. 

Third Battalion of Light Infantry, to include the companies of 
light infantry in Adams, Pittsfield and Lanesborough. 

As the existing companies of artillery constitute a much larger 
portion of the whole number of volunteers than is deemed necessary or 
expedient to maintain, it is desirable that at least twenty-two of those 
companies should be changed into light infantry or be disbanded; and a 
request being made for either of those purposes, by any of such com- 
panies, as may wish to avail thereof, will be favorably received, and the 
committee recommend that His Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief, be 
advised to issue his orders accordingly. 

For the Committee, 

Council Chamber. April 7, 1840. 

In Council, April 17th, 1840. 

This report is accepted, and His Excellency, the Commander-in- 
Chief, is advised to issue his orders accordingly. 

JOHN P. BIGELOW, Secretary. 

General Order No. i : — 

The Commander-in-Chief having approved the fore- 
going advice of Council, orders that the same be carried into effect, and that the 
first, second, and third divisions of volunteers be organized without delay. 

The officers of the divisions, brigades, regiments and companies, which have 
been disbanded by said order, are hereby honorably discharged. 

The officers in whose possession are the colors of the regiment of the infantry 
of the line, which have been disbanded, will cause them to be sent to the office of the 
adjutant-general, who will defray the expense of their transmission. 

The drums and fifes, or other musical instruments belonging to the Common- 
wealth, in the possession of the standing militia companies that have been disbanded, 
will be delivered by the commanders thereof to the selectmen of the towns and the 


mayors of the cities within which those companies are situated, by whom they will 
be retained until otherwise ordered, excepting those of the companies in Boston, 
which must be sent to the State Arsenal in that city. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Headquarters, Boston, April 24. 1840. 

General Order No. 2 : — 

1st. By the act, in addition to the several acts concern- 
ing the militia passed on the 24th of March last, and the general order of this date, 
which is hereto annexed, a very essential change has been made in the militia sys- 
tem, and the zealous co-operation of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and pri- 
vates of the volunteer corps, which are to constitute the active military force of the 
State, is required, and confidently relied upon by the commander-in-chief, to render 
that force as efficient in discipline, and as respectable in conduct and appearance as 
was anticipated by the Legislature when the liberal measures for accomplishing those 
important objects were adopted. 

2d. Colonels Freeman White of the second regiment of light infantry in the 
first brigade and second division, Benjamin Adams of the fifth regiment of light 
infantry in the third brigade and second division, and Charles Kimball of the ninth 
regiment of light infantry in the fifth brigade and third division of volunteers, will 
respectively assume the command of those divisions until a brigadier-general has 
been chosen and commissioned in each of them. 

3d. The Act of March 24, 1840, having increased the number and changed the 
rank of subalterns in the companies of artillery, light infantry, grenadiers and rifle- 
men, the existing officers are consequently abolished, and the present lieutenants and 
ensigns in those corps are hereby honorably discharged. The several companies of 
artillery should therefore forthwith proceed to elect one first and two second lieuten- 
ants each; and the companies of light infantry, grenadiers and riflemen, one first, 
one second, and one third lieutenant, each, in conformity to the provisions of the 
seventeenth section of the aforesaid act, which will be the twenty-second section in 
the new digest of the militia laws now being printed for distribution to all officers of 
the volunteer militia. 

4th. It being very important that the organization should be early completed, 
the commanders of divisions will immediately issue the requisite orders for filling all 
the vacancies of company, battalion, regimental and brigade officers, and cause the 
returns of the officers, which may be chosen, to be forwarded to the adjutant-general 
as soon as possible. 

5th. The company, returns, required by the general order of the 28th of 
March last, being indispensably necessary for carrying fully into effect several very 
essential provisions of the militia laws, such commanders as have not transmitted 
them will hasten to do so. 

6th. The arms which are furnished to the volunteer companies will be deliv- 
ered, on the requisition of the commanders, whenever the bond required shall be 
presented to the adjutant-general, and a certificate from the town clerk, that a suit- 
able armory, or place of deposit for such arms, has been provided by the town in 
which such companies are situated, or in some other manner. Blank forms for the 
bond will be furnished by the adjutant-general to the commander of the companies 
when applied for. As there is not a sufficient number of sabres, pistols, swords and 


rifles, for supplying: all the companies of cavalry, artillery and riflemen, they will be 
distributed by lots, and the remaining companies furnished whenever the requisite 
number shall have been received from the United States for that purpose. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 


General Order No. 3 ;— 

The following described uniform, omitting the minor details, was prescribed 
bv the commander-in-chief April 24, 1840. 

Stjij of tl.v Comiiuiidci-iii-Chii-f. 
Adjutant-General— The same uniform as that for a brigadier-general, except- 
ing that the plume will be white. 

Aides-de-Camp— The same as that of the staff of general officers, excepting 
that the plume will be yellow. 


Coat — dark blue, double-breasted, two rows of buttons, nine in each row, to be 
placed by threes, stand-up collar to meet and hook in front. Cuffs — two and one-half 
inches deep, and to button with three small buttons, to button at the under seam, 
pointed cross-flaps to the skirt, with four buttons, equally distributed, with buff turn 
backs, with a gold star on buff cloth on each skirt; two hip buttons to range with the 
lower buttons on the breast, collar, cuffs, and facings of the skirt, buff cloth ; lining, 
buff; buttons gilt, ornamented with the crest of the arms of the state. Epaulettes — 
gold, with two silver stars on the straps. Hat — cocked without binding, black ribbon 
on the two front sides, black silk cockade, ornamented with a gold loop, and a silver 
spreadeagle; tassels, gold. Plume — white and black, black tip half the length, droop- 
ing from an upright stem eight inches in length. Trousers — dark blue cloth with a 
buff stripe down the outer seam, one and a half inches wide, and welted at the edges. 
Sword — straight gilt hilt; sword knot, gold; sword belt, black patent leather; plate, 
gilt. Sash — buff, silk net. Gloves — buff. Spurs — yellow metal or gilt. 

Biigadiei -Generals. 

Dress — The same as for major-generals, excepting that the coat is to have ten 

buttons placed on the breast in pairs. Epaulettes — the same, excepting that there 

shall be one silver star on the straps. Plume— Red and white; the white tip half the 

length, drooping. 

Staff of GL-iural Offia-rs. 

Uniform — The same as that of their generals, excepting that the coat will be 

single-breasted, with a row of nine buttons placed at equal distances. The buff on 

the collar to extend four inches on each side from the front; the rest of the collar 

blue; sash, red, silk net work. 


Coat — Dark blue cloth, double-breasted, two rows of buttons, ten in each row; 
standing collar, to meet in front, with hook and eyes; two loops four inches long on 
each side of the collar, with a small button at the end of each loop. The collar edged 
all around with red ; plain round cuffs three inches deep; slashed flap on the sleeve, 
six and one-half inches long, and two and one-quarter inches wide at the points; four 
loops and four small buttons on the slashed flap on the sleeve for field and staff offi- 
cers; for captains, slash four and one-half inches long with three loops and three but- 
tons; subalterns, slash three and one-half inches long, with loops and two buttons; 
slashed flap on the skirt, with four loops and large buttons; the slashed flaps on the 
sleeves and skirts to be edged with red on the ends, and indented edge. Two 


large buttons at the waist, red turn backs and linings, gold shell and flame at the bot- 
tom of the skirt; loops on the collar and flaps to be gold lace, half an inch wide; coat 
lined with red ; buttons the same as for general officers. Epaulettes — According to 
rank and pattern, as hereafter described. Cap — Black patent leather, seven and one- 
half inches deep, ornamented in front, gilt cross cannon crest, and number of the 
regiment. Plume — Red cock feathers, falling from an upright stem ; eight inches 
long, with a gilt socket, gold cord and tassels. Sword — According to the pattern furn- 
ished by the U. S. Sword Belt — White leather two and one-half inches wide, plate, 
gilt ornamented with cross cannons. Trousers — Deep blue cloth, with a red stripe 
down the outer seam, one and one-half inches wide, and welted at the edges. Spurs 
— Gilt. Stock — Black silk. Gloves — White. Sash — Crimson silk net. and tied on the 

left hip. 

Ughl Infaiitiy. 

Dress — The same pattern as for artillery, the edging, turn backs, stripes on the 
trousers, and linings are to be white, lace, silver. Ornaments on the skirt, a silver 
bugle. Buttons, spurs, and sword-belt, plated. Sword, same as for artillery ; orna- 
ment, a silver bugle and number of regiment, silver; silver cord and tassels. Plume — 
White, tipped with red. Gloves — White. 


Uniform — The same as for infantry, except that the color of the cloth for the 

coat and trousers is to be green; and the edgings, turnbacks, linings, and stripes on 

the trousers, red. 


Uniform — The same as for infantry, except that the edgings, turn backs, lin- 
ings, and stripes on the trousers, buff. 


Dress — The same as for artillery, excepting that the color of the cloth for the 
coat is to be green, with the collar, cuffs, turn backs, linings, and stripes on the 
trousers, red. Cap — Same as for artillery; ornament, gilt cross sabres, drooping 
white horsehair pompon, with a stripe red hair to show in front. Sabre — Of the pat- 
tern furnished by the United States. 

'BadgL- of 'T>isliiictioii. 

Epaulettes — General officers, as described. Colonels — Gold bullion half an 
inch in diameter, three and a half inches long; plain lace strap, ornamented with the 
crest of the State arms. The number of the regiment within the crescent; crest and 
number to be silver when the bullion is gold, and gold when the bullion is silver. 
Lieutenant-Colonels — The sam.e as the colonel, omitting the crest. Majors — The same 
as the lieutenant-colonels, as to shape and size. The strap to be of silver lace, when 
the bullion is gold, and of gold lace when the bullion is silver. The number on the 
strap to correspond in color with the bullion, the border of the strap to be the same 
color as the bullion. Captains — Plain lace straps and solid crescents; bullion one- 
fourth of an inch in diameter, and two and a half deep. The number of the company 
on the strap, which is to be gold when the bullion is silver, and silver when the 
bullion is gold. Subaltern — The same as the captains, except that the bullion is one- 
eighth of an inch in diameter. 

All officers of a military rank to wear an epaulette on each shoulder. 

Staff Officers. General as well az regimental will be distinguished by 
aiguilettes. Aiguilettes of general staff officers twisted gold cord, with gilt tags 

OV MASS.\CHrsi-:TTS. 129 

worn on the right shoulder under the epaulette. Aiguilettes of Regimental Staff 
Officers, twisted gold and silver cord, with gilt tags, worn as by general staff offi- 

Uiii/oriii of 'J^oii-Comiiiissioiit-d Olficcrs and 'Viivatt-s. 

Sergeant Majors, Sergeant Quartermasters, Drum and Fife Majors. The same 
as established for field officers, except that of the musicians, who will substitute bind- 
ing for lace. The epaulettes to be the same pattern as that of the subalterns, except- 
ing that yellow and white worsted will be substituted for gold and silver bullion. 
Aiguilettes on the west shoulder of worsted. The color of the epaulettes, with gilt on 
silver tags, according to the color of the aiguilettes. Cap — Of the same pattern 
designated for the officers, with worsted cord and tassels. Plume — Upright hackle 
twelve inches long, and of the color of the regimental officers. Coats of the musi- 
cians of the artillery and riflemen, red, with blue edgings turnbacks, linings, and 
stripes on the trousers; of the grenadiers, buff, with green edgings, turnbacks, linings, 
with stripes on the trousers. Company Non-commissioned Officers, Musicians, and 
Privates. The skirt of the coats of company, non-commissioned officers, and musi- 
cians, and privates to extend only within seven inches of the bend of the knee. 
Epaulettes — Worsted, of sergeant corresponding in pattern with those of captains, and 
of corporals, the pattern of subalterns. Privates, worsted straps, with pad and half 
fringe, the color of the worsted to correspond with that of the officer's epaulettes. 
Caps — The same pattern as for officers, worsted cord and tassels, the ornament and 
number of the regiment to be of the color of the button of the regiment. Plumes — 
Worsted, eight inches long, of the color of those of the officers. 

From the first of May to the first of October the officers, non-commissioned 
officers, musicians, and privates may wear plain white linen or cotton trousers. 

Urtaadc Bands. 

Will wear the uniform prescribed for the company musicians in the artillery, 
excepting that the collar, cuffs, turnbacks; and stripe on the trousers will be of light 
blue cloth; the number of the cap will be that of brigade, and the plume will be red 
and white upright tackle, twelve inches long, the white tip half the length. 

The masters and deputy masters to wear worsted epaulettes; those of the 
former to be of the pattern of captains, and the latter of subalterns. Scarlet worsted 
sashes; aiguilettes on the left shoulder of yellow worsted with gilt tags. 

The brigadier-generals may make such additions in ornaments as they may 
judge proper. 

The uniform now established and worn by regimental and company officers 
may continue to be, but when other regimental officers are commissioned, and other 
companies organized, or new uniforms are to be obtained for a whole existing com- 
pany, they inust be in conformity with this order. 

A circular dated April 24, 1 840, was addressed to all commanding 
officers, enclosing orders, informing them of the disbanding of all pres- 
ent divisions, brigades, regiments and companies of infantry of the line, 
and of the reorganization of the active militia, with new divisions and 

The reorganization was carried into effect with commendable dis- 
patch, the volunteer companies co-operating with alacrity, and vieing with 
each other in perfecting the new condition. Many of them informed the 
adjutant-general of their intention to procure, without delay, the new 


uniform prescribed, biit begged permission to parade at the next in- 
spection in some plain but uniform dress, and until sufficient time was 
had to obtain the regulation uniform. To this the adjutant-general had 
no objection, and the request was referred to the Commander-in-Chief for 
the necessary permission, a custom, it would appear, even in the most 
trivial matters pertaining to the militia; as little, if anything, was under- 
taken without first obtaining the sanction and authority of the governor 
and council, but a mode of procedure which at this day would sadly ham- 
per and retard the interests of the service. The permission sought, how- 
ever, was granted, as it is found that Captain Andrew Chase, Jr., of the 
Roxbury Artillery, was informed May 14, 1840, that his command "is 
authorized to wear any neat uniform dress on the day of the inspection, 
the last Wednesday in May, but before the next common parade, it will 
be necessary that the uniform prescribed in general orders of April 24, 
should be procured by the company." It is needless to say that the com- 
pany procured its uniform in time. 

All this year General Dearborn was busy with the reorganization, 
disbanding old, and forming new companies, issuing the necessary blanks 
and orders explaining the law and the dress, and giving information on 
many matters. It is not, therefore, surprising that he should be com- 
pelled to furnish from his own private purse, compensation for an assist- 
ant to aid him in a work beyond the power of any one man, but the fact 
evidences the want of appreciation of such labor on the part of the law- 
makers, who failed to provide for the additional work entailed. 

The returns for the year show that the number of volunteers was 
7,255, and the number enrolled in the reserve 83,602, making an aggre- 
gate force of 90,857, and arms were supplied to volunteer companies 
applying, as follows : Muskets, 2,445; rifles, 120; sabres, 128; pistols, 
256; artillery swords, 160. From now on a zealous and determined spirit 
was awakened to increase the number, and to improve the appearance, 
discipline and efficiency of the new active voluntary militia, and to carry 
into successful operation the system that had been entered upon with 
such cheering prospects, relieving, as it did, 90,000 persons from loss of 
time and expense, and improving a distasteful, onerous, and unsatisfactory 

From the sales of obsolete, worn out and useless military stores, 
the adjutant-general purchased "eight pairs" six-pound field pieces, one 
twelve-pound howitzer (cast at a Soiith Boston foundry), and "five pairs" of 
field carriages with caissons, harness, and implements complete, from the 
United States, under the act for arming the militia. 

The abstracts for the year 1841 show that the militia then embraced 
6 companies of cavalry, 28 of artillery, 17 of riflemen, 54 of light 
infantry, and 2 of grenadiers — 107 companies, with an aggregate volun- 


teer force of 5,902, ;uk1 an (.'nrollnicnl of >Si,3i3, making in all, volunteer 
and enrolled, 87,215 men. 

The adjutant-general in his report for the year ventured to remark 
that from information received, he had no doubt but that the active mili- 
tia, organized under the recent law, would fully answer all the purposes 
anticipated from its establishment until a more efficient system should be 
matured and adopted by the general government. That the system, im- 
perfect though it may have been, was growing in favor, is shown by the 
increased demand for arms, as during this year 566 muskets, 1,050 
rifles, and 58 artillery swords were issued upon application from com- 

Whilst the active force was reduced by two companies of cavalry 
and one of artillery, it was, in fact, increased in the infantry arm by five 
companies, making the muster of companies 109, so that the volunteer 
militia, in 184J, numbered 6,150, according to the abstract from annual 
returns, embraced in 4 companies of cavalry, 27 of artillery, 17 of rifle- 
men, 59 of light infantry, and 2 of grenadiers — making 109 companies 
organized in 3 divisions, 6 brigades, i battalion of cavalry, 3 regiments 
and 4 battalions of artillery, and 1 1 regiments and 4 battalions of light 
infantry, and "was regarded as more complete and satisfactory than at 
any former period of its existence." 

The adjutant-general reports the number of the enrolled militia as 
returned to his department for the year 1842, to have been 80,515, and 
remarks thus on volunteer organization: — 

"During this year there has been evinced an unexampled spirit of 
emulation throughout all the various corps of the volunteer militia, to fill 
their ranks, to improve in discipline, dress and equipment, and to more 
completely fulfil all those important conditions which are necessary to 
render them as efficient as had been contemplated, in the event of their 
services being required. It is confidently believed that at no period of 
our history has there been a greater proportion of intelligent and active, 
zealous, and, in all respects, well qualified officers of every grade than 
now hold commissions in the militia." 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Headquarters, Boston, April 25, 1842. 
General orders. (Extract.) 

5th. The several companies of volunteer militia will in future 
be designated and known by letters of the alphabet, which are hereafter affixed to 
each; and in all annual inspection and election retuins, reports, letters and other mili- 
tary papers, they will be thus designated. The letter of the company is to be put on 
the straps of the epaulettes of the captains and subalterns, instead of a numerical 
character, and is to be of gold when the the bullion is silver, as in the light infantry, 
and of silver when the bullion is gold, as in the cavalry and artillery. 

13 = 



First Brigade. 


Co. commanded by Lieut. Hiram 

Davis, of Boston, A 

" commanded by Capt. Richard 

Hennessey, Boston, B 

" commanded by Capt. Eph- 

raim B. Richards, Boston. C 


Co. commanded by Capt. Andrew 

Chase, Jr., Ro.xbury, A 

" commanded by Capt. Benj. 

Stone, Jr., Dorchester, B 

" commanded by Capt. Henry 

A. Torrey. Weymouth. C 


Co. of light infantry coinmanded 
by Capt. Chas. H. Parker, 
Boston, A 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Chas. Gordon, B 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Benj. D. Baxter, C 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Charles Lambert, D 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John C. Park, E 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John F. Pray, F 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. William Washburn, G 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John Kurtz, H 

of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Gilbert Brownell. I 

To this regiment, the company of cav- 
alry called the National Lancers, com- 
manded by Capt. Peter Dunbar, will re- 
main attached. 

Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Henry Souther, 
Quincy, A 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt Wm. H. Spooner, 
Roxbury, B 

■' of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Bela S. Hersey, 
Hingham, C 

Co. of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. John Stephenson, Hing- 
ham, D 
of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Hervey Howe, Dor- 
chester. E 


Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Daniel Allen, Jr., 
Walpole, A 

of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Isaac Fiske, Med- 
field, B 

of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Pelatiah S. Bates, Bell- 
ingham, C 

of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Thomas Orr, Needham. 

Second Brigade. 

Co. commanded by Capt. Holland 

W. Noyes, Abington, A 

" commanded by Capt. Wen- 

dall Hall, Plymouth. B 

" commanded by Capt. James 

Brooks, Hanover, C 


Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Thomas Drew, Jr., 
Halifax, A 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Samuel Hollis, 
Plymouth, B 

of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Eben B. K. Gurney, 
Hanson, C 

" of light artillery commanded 
by Capt Josiah Gushing, Ab- 
ington, D 

" of grenadiers commanded by 
Lieut. Amasa F. Thompson, 
Middleboro, E 

" of grenadiers .commanded by 
Lieut. Ichabod F. .Atwood, 
Wareham, F 

" of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Nathaniel Nash, Ab- 
ington, Q. 

OF massachusi-:tts. 




Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. H. G. O. Colby, 
New Bedford. .\ 

of light infantry commanded 
by Roger L. Barstow. Ro- 
chester, H 
of riflemen commanded, by 
Capt. Ziba Cook, Taunton, C 
To this battalion, the company of ar- 
tillery in Norton commanded by Capt. 
Ira C. Coot, is attached. 

The divisionary Corps of Cadets, in 
Botson, will remain attached to the First 


Third Brigadi'. 


Co. commanded by Lieut. Ward 

D. Saflford, Concord, A 

" commanded by Capt. Jona- 
than S. Parker, Lexington, B 

■■ commanded by Capt. Horace 

Hammond, Waltham, C 

" commanded by Capt. Charles 
Tucker, Charlestown, 


Co. of light infantry commanded 

by Lieut. Chas. R. Wether- 
bee, Concord, 
■' of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. Timo. T. Sawyer, 

" of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. Tolman Willey of 

■■ of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. Francis H. Joy, 

' of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. Stephen Simpson, 

" of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. Royal Douglass, 

" of light infantry commanded 

by Capt. "Wm.. Woodbury, 

" of riflemen commanded by 

Capt. Thomas Richardson, 

South Reading, 









Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Eliab Going, Town- 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Luther T. Shat- 
tuck, Pepperell, 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. James M. Yarnum, 

■' of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Edward Beals, Low- 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Varnum Taylor, 

" of riflemen commanded by 
Lieut. Peter E. Edwards, 

" of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Daniel Pope, Marl- 
To this regiment the company of artil 
lery in Groton, commanded by Capt 
George Shattuck, will remain attached. 

Foiiiih BiisraclL'. 

Co. commanded by Capt. Stephen 
Illsley, Newburyport, 
■' commanded by Lieut. Addi- 
son Center, Gloucester, 
B " commanded by Capt. Wm. T. 
Gale, Lynn, 
'■ commanded by Capt. Caleb 
C Jones, Salem, 


D Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Samuel A. SafEord, 
Salem, -^ 

E " of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John A. Brown, 
Salem, B 

F " of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Samuel Avery, Mar- 
blehead, C 

G " of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Josiah Woodbury. 
Beverly, D 

H ■■ of light infantry commanded 





by Capt. George Jacobs, Dan- 
vers, F 

Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Lieut. Ezra Stanley, 
Manchester, G 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Timothy Munroe, 
Lynn, H 

" of riflemen commanded by 

Capt. Blaney Ingalls, Lynn, I 

" of riflemen commanded by 
Lieut. Horatio N. Houston, 
Rockport. K 


Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Jacob S. Potter, Ips- 
wich, A 
" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Elijah Clark, Jr., 
Bradford, B 
" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John K. Cate, Box- 
ford, C 
" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Lemuel H. Gould, 
Topsfield, D 
The Divisionary Corps of Cadets in 
Salem will remain attached to the Second 


Fifth 'Bngade. 

Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. William R. Bliss, 
Milford, A 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Ivers Phillips, Wor- 
cester, B 
" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. George Hobbs, Wor- 
cester, C 
To this regiment, the company of ar- 
tillery in Milford, commanded by Capt 
Artemas B. Vant, will remain attached. 


Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. John W. Mossman, 
Ashburnham, A 



Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. James Putnam, 

of riflemen commanded by 
Capt. Joseph Pierce, Leo- 

To this regiment, the company of ar- 
tillery in Leominster, commanded by 
Capt. Darwin E. Stewart, will remain at- 

Sixth Brigade. 


Co. commanded by Capt. Joseph 
Hawkes, Chesterfield, 
commanded by Capt. Fred E. 
H. Allen, Coleraine, 
commanded by Capt. Chas. A. 
Williams, Williamsburg, 


Co. commanded by Capt. Luther 
Chapin, Ashfield, 
commanded by Lieut. Daniel 
Crosby, Greenfield, 

Co. commanded by Franklin K. 
Hitchcock, of Northampton, 
commanded by Capt. Samtiel 
S. Holton, Northfield, 
" comtnanded by Lieut. Wil- 
liam H. Wilson, Plainfield, 




Co. commanded by Capt. Theo- 
dore Bridgman, Belchertown, A 
commanded by Lieut. Rufus 
M. Pease, Monson, B 

Co. of light infantry, command- 
ed by Capt. Wm. Lathrop, 
Longmeadow, A 

" of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Chas. D. Champlin, 
Ludlow, B 

of light infantry, commanded 
by Capt. Aaron Strong, Jr., 
Southampton, C 


Co. of light infantry commanded 
by Capt. Horatio Hawkes, 
Deerfield, A 

" of light infantry comtnanded 


by Lieut. Lewis M. (lardner, borouijh, • D 
Leverett. B Co, of riflemen, coniniaiuled by 
Co. of light infantry eoninianded Lieut. Andrews Shipper, Col- 
by Capt. Juna. C. Clary, Mon- eraine, E 
tague, C " riflemen cc)mnianded by 
" of rifleTuen, eommanded by Capt. Tliomas A. Arms. Con- 
Lieut. Wni. Goodnow, Lanes- way, F 

"An Act in addition to the several acts concerning the militia," having been 
passed at the recent session of the general court, and approved by the governor on 
the 3rd ultimo, copies of the same, as well as of this general order, are herewith for- 
warded to the several major-generals, in sufficient numbers, for themselves and their 
staff, and also to the brigadier-generals, for distribution to the brigade, regimental 
and battalion, field and staff officers, and for the commanding officers of all the vol- 
unteer companies. 

By order of the commander-in-chief, 

(Signed) H. A. S. DEARBORN, 


The amount cotisidered necessary by General Dearborti in the 
(quartermaster's department for the year 1843, was three thousand dollars. 

Intestine troubles in Rhode Island induced the governor of that 
state to call upon Massachusetts for the loan of arms and ammunition to 
suppress a rising insurrection; and, acting upon his judgment, Adjutant- 
General Dearborn did loan to the governor of Rhode Island, 500 muskets, 
1:20 sabres and belts, and 50 pistols, all of which were returned in good 
condition and without loss, which fact was duly reported to Governor 
Davis, September 9. 1S43. This was made a subject for politics, and was 
brought to the notice of the Legislature, in the message of Gov. Marcus 
Morton, who stated that the adjutant-general had removed state prop- 
erty beyond the limits of the state without authority and without boiid. 
The committee of the legislature, to whom the message was referred, 
reported a recomtnendation for the removal of General Dearborn from 
the oifice of adjutant-general, on the ground that he had exceeded his 
authority. When the recommendation for removal came before the leg- 
islative body, the adjutant -general was defended upon the floor of the 
House of Representatives by Rep. Park, who, according to the report 
found in the "Advertiser" and "Patriot" of the date of March 7, 1843, 
.said, "that it was not the government of Rhode Island which took up 
arms in that cotitroversy, it was the other side which resorted to that step, 
and it was when they had taken up arms and were marching directly upon 
the city of Providence to seize the spoils which had been promised them, 
that the request for assistance was made to General Dearborn. It was 
true, that strictly speaking he had done wrong, but he had exercised a 
sound judgment, and had actually prevented bloodshed, for no one could 
doubt that the force at CMiepachet would have marched on Providence, 
had they sujjposed that the people there were not sitpplied with arms." 


His opponents, however, prevailed, and on Z^Iarch 6, 1S43, was 
removed for political reasons, an official who had rendered meritorious 
service for upwards of eight years — a period fraught with more anxiet}^ 
than almost any other, and accompanied with the labor and care necessary 
to be exercised in the radical and entire change of a military system. He 
has, however, left an impress upon the militia of the Commonwealth that 
can never be effaced. 

On March 22, 1843, Josiah G. Abbott, senior aide-de-camp, 
announced in orders the appointment and commission by the commander- 
in-chief, of Joseph F. Boyd, Esq., of Charlestown, as adjutant-general of 
the Commonwealth. General Boyd had been connected with the militia 
almost constantly from August 22, 1825, when he was commissioned an 
ensign in the 5th Regiment, ist brigade, 3d division. He was promoted 
captain of the Charlestown Light Infantry, Nov. 5, 1829, discharged Jan. 
23, 1833, and again elected and commissioned captain (if Charlestown 
Light Infantry, 4th Regiment, 3d brigade, 2d division, Jan. 8, 1S37, from 
which he was discharged Feb. 11, 1841. 

The order by General Boyd was issued March 31, 1843, when 
he disbanded two companies, •■D"and "E'" of the Second Retriment of Li<j-ht 
Infantry, and the regimental organization, and ordered the formation, with 
the remaining companies, "A," Captain Henry Souther, of Quincy, "B," 
Captain. William H. Spooner of Roxbury, and "C," Lieut. Bela I. Hersey 
of Hingham, of a new battalion of light infantry, to be attached to the 
first brigade, division, M. V. 'SI. 

To show the changing and fluctuating condition of military affairs 
at this period, it is noted that the above third battalion held its organiza- 
tion less than one year, as on January i, 1844, companies "B," light 
infantry. Captain Spooner, and the rifle company. Captain Dennis, were 
transferred to the ist Infantry, their letters changed, and a new battalion 
formed by detaching companies from the regiment to form a battalion of 
rifles. Companies were constantly changing letters by reorganization of 
battalions; from falling below the minimum and consequent disbandment, 
or by the formation of new companies, all of which brought to the adjutant- 
general's office more or less labor. Notwithstanding this shifting and 
ever-changing conditicni, there was an element which held the militia 
steadily on its progressive course. No doubt the companies which had per- 
fected themselves in drill and discipline were the cause of this union, for 
many companies, some of which are now in existence, and are as old as 
the nation, still march on as examples nf all that is loyal and true, and 
are ever ready for any duty which may be required of them. 

The reviews of the year seemed to give .satisfaction to the authori- 
ties, as the order issued from the adjutant -general's office Oct. 6, 1S43, 
says : — 


"The Commander-in-Cliief had the pleasure to review the troops of 
the first, secoml, third and fourth brigades, Generals John S. Tyler, 
Henrv Dunbar, James Dana and William Sutton, and eonceives it to be 
a duiv which he owes to the trooj)s reviewed, to express his hi.^-h appro- 
bation of their appearanee and conduct on the 19th, 26th, and 27th ulti- 
mo, and on the 3d and 5th inst. At no former period within the observa- 
tion of the Commander-in-Chief, have the companies appeared with fuller 
ranks or evinced a higher state of discipline. Such deeided proofs of a 
true military spirit, alike ht)norable to the officers and privates, furnish a 
most valuable pledge of the patriotic determination of the brigades to 
sustain the character of the volunteer militia, and of their readiness in 
time of need, to j-ield that support to the laws and that protection to the 
public peace, which the citizen soldier only can afford. The Commander- 
in-Chief has the satisfaction to believe that his favorable opinion of the 
appearance of the troops is shared by Major-Generals Howe and Adams, 
commanding the first and second divisions of the volunteer militia." 

"With a change of administration, the induction into office of a new 
governor, and the retirement of General Boyd after one year's service, 
came a new adjutant -general. March 22, 1844, there came to the dis- 
charge of the duties of adjutant and quartermaster-general, Henry K. 
Oliver, of Salem, whose appointment is announced in orders by George 
Tvler Bieelow, senior aide-de-camp to the commander-in-chief. General 
Oliver had been an officer of the militia as lieutenant-colonel and colonel 
of a regiment of light infantry of the ist brigade 2d division, from August 
12, 1S35, to June 13, 1837. His first order was the calling of the aides-de- 
camp, to be present at the election of officers of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company, on Monday, June 3, 1844, when the commander- 
in-chief would in person, at headquarters, commission the officers for the 
year following the day of election. 

General Oliver required a general accounting by all commands for 
the state property in their custody, for which a blank was prepared with a 
complete schedule returnable within thirty days from June 29, 1844. A 
full and explicit statement was required from all artillery commanders in 
the .state, as to the gun-houses, where located, on whose land, condition of 
building, how occupied, if worth repair, and how much it would cost to 
repair, if the town would contribute toward a new building, etc. 

In 1844, the reserve enrollment of the militia was 81,441, and the 
active milita 6,372, making an available strength of 87,813. The 
active militia was embraced in 112 companies, but while the number of 
companies was increased, there was no corresponding increase in the 
number of men for duty, as on brigade parade for the year, it is shown 
that, although field and staff and five brigade bands were included, only 
5,471 were mustered for pay, there being 901 absentees. 


There was at this time a preponderance of artillery, 26 companies 
against 83 of infantry, each company of artillery being provided with two 
field-pieces and but one caisson, making a total of 52 field-pieces, 26 caiss- 
ons and tumbrils, and 1,491 men. Some of these companies were fairly 
well equipped, but wretchedly housed and provided, while the infantry 
armories were suitably, and many elegantly furnished; therefore it was 
recommended as a measure of economy that these artillery companies be 
broken up, or that they should be armed and instructed as infantry. To 
the inquiries sent out by the adjutant -general concerning these companies, 
some of the replies are here given briefly: — 

Lexington Artillery: "Gun-house of the company not worth re- 

Buckland Artillery: "Gun-house has stood 30 years without paint- 
ing; too small; not worth repairing; roof, sides and sills all rotten; alto- 
gether unsuitable to shelter a sled." 

- Plainfield Artillery: "After consulting six carpenters they concur 
that the gun-house is unworthy of repair; originally badly built, is damp 
and leaky, causing great injury to harness from mold." 

Concord Artillery: "Gun-house so poorly built, that the company 
has been obliged to put iron rods through the building to hold it together." 

Waltham Artillery: "The company hires and pays an annual rent 
of $30." The only instance in the state. 

Yet with all these untoward circumstances, the reviews of the year 
are commended, most of the companies of the militia being in good con- 
dition, many of them beautifully uniformed and efficiently supplied, with 
equipments in good condition and well cared for. There were, however, 
companies lacking in knowledge, with faded and worn uniforms, and 
shabby equipments, detracting from the appearance of the whole; and the 
adjutant-general ventures the remark that "the absence, rather than the 
presence of troops, so unfitted and incapable of discharging the impor- 
tant duties expected of them, would benefit the service." 

One great difficulty encountered was the want of uniformity in 
drill; while some were instructed in the then modern tactics, others had 
no comprehension of them. There was no uniformity in giving com- 
mands, and it was difficult to determine which system, if any, was fol- 
lowed. But little attention was given to battalion movements, in some 
regiments; the companies being content with light infantry movements. 
The system of tactics was "vScott's Tactics for Infantry, and Instruction 
for Field Ai'tillery. translated from the French, and arranged by Captain 
Robert Anderson, U. S. A." The rifle and light infantry tactics were 
"Cooper's," as were those of the cavalry. 

The position of adjutant-general at this time was not an easy one, 
as he filled the place of adjutant-general, quartermaster-general, store- 


keeper and clerk, and was obliged to slruji^oie with the manifold duties 
of his office and imperfect laws. He complained that in the matter of 
annual returns, pay-rolls, etc., tlic zeal of .some of the militia men led 
them to enlist and serve in two oi' more companies, and perform duty in 
all, except on May inspection; consec^iiently he had difficulty in correcting' 
the returns for duty performed; and that, as the law provides that "each 
company of light infantry, grenadiers, and riflemen, shall be furnished 
with muskets or rilles; and every company of cavalry with sabres, belts 
and pistols; and every artillery company with muskets (if applied forj and 
with swords and belts," but makes no mention of other equipments, he 
felt obliged to decline to issue eartridge-bo.Kes, bayonet scabbards, belts, 
etc. Perhaps the then law-makers were under the impression, that the old 
powder-horn was good enough, and was still in use. He also found that 
all the blanks in the office were those prepared for the old system, and 
not adapted to the new; some of them of thirty years standing, requir- 
ing labor in erasing and interlineation to fit them for use, all of which 
he was supposed to do, single-handed and alone; and he remarked that 
his predecessor appointed a clerk familiar with the work, at his own pri- 
vate cost, at a salary of S800 — an expenditure which he himself could ill 
afford. When attending brigade reviews, visiting the arsenal, or absent 
from illness or other cause, he was obliged to close his office. 

The commander-in-chief was pleased this year to compliment and 
commend the ist, 3d, 4th and 6th brigades, and to express his approba- 
tion of their appearance on the 13th, 24th and 27th of September, and on 
the 8th of October, when reviewed by him, which was duly promulgated 
in the orders of 1844. There was at this time some confusion in the 
records, and many inquiries concerning missing commissions and dis- 
charges of officers, some of which were returned by the adjutant-general 
of New York, from Albany. Changes were allowed in the dress of the 
field officers of the ist Regiment, Light Infantry, who were granted permis- 
sion to wear chapeaux instead of regulation caps on special parades, and 
Captain John Kurtz's, Co. H, ist Light Infantry, ist brigade, was permitted 
to change its uniform to a blue bell-crowned cap, trimmed with white, and 
surmounted with a white pompon tipped with red, and a blue coat and 
trousers trimmed with white. The adjutant -general of New Hampshire, 
in answer to inquiry, was informed that the expenses of the Massachusetts 
militia for the last year, 1843 (including the salary of the adjutant-general, 
Si,50o\ was in round numbers $34,000. That the amount to which each 
man who performed the whole duty required, was entitled was $6 per 
annum; that the system answered every desired purpose, and that the 
Massachusetts militia was well organized and efficient, embracing between 
6,000 and 7,000 troops, the whole uniformed and equipped in a highly 
creditable manner. 


General Oliver sought to bring about some uniformity in the tactics 
for small arms, and entered into correspondence with General Winfield - 
Scott, U. S. A., in which he set forth at length, the difficulties which were 
encountered in Massachusetts from the variety of systems in use. He 
also informed certain town officials, who had failed to make the annual 
returns of enrolled militia, that if they should fail to make the return 
within ten days, the law must take its course. This remissness on the 
part of certain towns in the Commonwealth, is a source of vexation at the 
present day. 

The entire militia, according to the returns in 1S45, was 90,807 
men, an increase over the previous year of 2,903 men. The strength of 
the active militia at the date of the May inspection was 6,069, the absent- 
ees numbering 1,280. At the autumnal inspection the number was 6,337, 
with 1,176 absentees; the oi-ganization consisting of three divisions and 
six brigades, embracing one troop of cavalry, five regiments and three 
companies of artillery, two corps of cadets, nine regiments and three bat- 
talions of light infantry. During the year five new companies of infantry 
were raised, and permission was given for three others. During the same 
period thirteen companies were disbanded, leaving a deficiency in the 
authorized force of fourteen companies and of 668 men. The Legisla- 
ture of this year adopted "Cooper's Concise System of Instruction for the 
State Militia" and authorized the expenditure of $4,000 in the rebuilding 
and repairs of gun-houses. The gun-house of the Boston Artillery (Co. 
"A," 5th Regiment) at the foot of the Common was found so damp and 
unsuitable that the quartermaster was obliged to remove the guns and 
equipment to the State Arsenal in Cambridge, until such time as proper 
accommodation might be furnished. 

Great praise was accorded by the adjutant-general to the National 
Lancers, Capt. Forristal, and to the Independent Corps of Cadets of the 
first division. Colonel Martin Brimmer, while the others, with the excep- 
tion of the First and Sixth Regiments, came in for adverse criticism. As 
a remedy for the existing defects, the appointment of an inspector-gen- 
eral, to be present at all reviews, was recommended. It was also sug- 
gested that the enrolled militia be faxed one dollar per man, per annum, 
to defray the expenses of the militia, which would, based upon the returns 
of the last year, amount to §84,470, a sum more than sufficient by $40,000. 
In contrast to the excessive attention to detail practised at this time, when 
one hour was consumed in escorting and receiving regimental colors; 
another in marching the regiment to parade ground; and perhaps another 
hour in escorting the commanding olT(>cer to the ground, besides two more 
hours in the formation of brigade line, is the fact that this duty is now 
performed in as many minutes. 

The inactive or enrolled militia in 1846. numbered 90,349, the divi- 


sion returns showing the active force to have been 5,490 men; while 
there was an increase in the whole enrollment. There was a falling off 
of S47 men in the volunteers at the autumnal parade — a loss greater 
than the number of men in either the 2nd, 4th or 6th brigades, neither of 
which contained more than sufficed for one regiment. Of the 5,490 men, 
1.345 were absent from inspections, and there was no division in the 
militia that contained more men than enough for one brigade. Battalions 
of light infantry organized in 1845, had ceased to exist; some regiments 
had become reduced to two or three companies containing but a few men, 
and the entire active force was fast fading out. But one company was 
organized this year, that of the " Boston Light Guard." Fifteen compan- 
ies were actually disbanded, and eight others were so reduced as to make 
it but a matter of a little time, when they should meet the same fate. In 
1840, there were at the time of the organization under General Order 28 
of that year, 142 companies with 7,223 men. At the close of the year 
1846. there were but 93 companies, with 5,490 men. During the period 
from 1S40 to 1S47, 29 companies had been organized and 78 disbanded. 

General Oliver sought from the commanding officers, an expression 
of oj^inion as to the causes which occasioned this falling off, and a rejDort 
from each as to the exact condition of their respective commands. The 
reports received, to say the least, were discouraging, as they showed that 
of 91 companies, 32 only were flourishing, while 21 were but fair, and 
38 depressed. The opinions given are of interest: "The absence of any 
obligation by law to do military duty; the miserable pittance allowed by 
the vState for the duty; and the want of interest in the system manifested 
bj- the commmunity generally," .said one. Others said "Many of the 
members do not feel disposed to come forward and learn the "^Manual of 
Arms', as required by the new law." — "Lack of military spirit as caused 
by the present code." — "But very few young men can be induced to 
assume a command at the present day, and the militia system has been 
sustained for several years back by old officers. These cannot last for- 
ever, and the consequence will be that, as they retire from the ranks, the 
volunteer companies will gradually disappear." There were many replies 
and many reasons were alleged, bi:t that of Col. Martin Brimmer of the 
"Independent Corps of Cadets," of which the following quotation forms 
a part, sounds the key-note. He says: "3d. The disorganized state of 
the militia, not only in this state, but throughout the United States, is, in 
a great meast:re, owing to the almost total neglect of the militia by the 
general government. The government of the L'nited States is perfectly 
willing to avail itself of the militia in all times of its extreme necessi- 
ties, and on these occasions, the militia, have been prompt to offer their 
services, and when called into the field, have performed achievements of 
which even the best friends of the militia have not deemed them capable. 



As a proof of this, it is only necessary to instance tlie battle of New 
Orleans, and the storming of Monterey. These services having been ren- 
dered, the militia is treated -with contempt and neglect." 

The militia were required to furnish their own uniforms, and bear 
the burden of expense, whilst the state and the nation looked calmly on, 
content to pay each man six dollars per annum, and to ft;rnish arms and 
equipments when they could be had; but were always ready to avail them- 
selves of the services of the militia when danger threatened. 

The various reasons given for the demoralized condition of the 
militia, as reported to the commander-in-chief by the adjutant-general, 
and his own comments thereon, throw a flood of light ujjon the service 
of the past. The war department, under the date of ^lay 19, 1S46, called 
upon the governor of Massachusetts, to cause to be enrolled, and held in 
readiness, for muster into the service of the United States, one regiment 
of infantry, and on the 26th day of May, Governor George N. Briggs 
called upon the citizen soldiers of Massachusetts, to at once enroll them- 
selves in sufficient numbers to meet this request. 

In general orders issued on the same day, it was expressly stated, 
that the regiment, when organized, would be designated and known as 
the "First Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry," it being understood, 

\I.riLLHiIbls WD IM VMin 


that it was not to be made or considered to be a part of the present Vol- 
unteer Militia, but as a corps specially raised to meet the call of the gen- 
eral government. 



Under autliority two companies of vohmteers were raised by Cap- 
tains "Webster and Coy, and two companies of the state volunteer militia 
were also accepted. As this enrollment was a measiire of j^reeaution, and 


for the purpose of having- a respectable force, ready to be called into ser- 
vice; and as the war department could not at the time foresee when, if at 
all, the services of the Massachusetts volunteers might be required, the re- 
cruitment of this regiment was for a time abandoned. It was not until 
November i6, 1846, that the war department notified the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral that the regiment would be required for immediate service; and then 
but five full companies had been raised, and two more nearly so. On 
February 3, 1847, the Adjutant-General was notified by Capt. B. Alward, 
4th United vStates Infantry, mustering officer, that he had mustered into 
the service eight companies, numbering 678 officers and men. The two 
militia companies which had offered their services were not included in 
this muster, all being raised at large. 

The strength of the active militia, as shown by the returns of the 
May, 1847, inspections, was 5,139 men, 3,549 of whom performed duty, 
and at the Fall parades, there were but 4,996 men and only 348 present. 
There was a falling off at the May parades of 380 men, and 494 at the fall 
reviews, and a total diminution in two years, of 930 at the former, and 
1,341 at the latter parades. There was also a great increase of absentees 


over the previous year, amounting to one-fourth of the whole active 
force. These statements of the adjutant -general are evidently esti- 
mated, as there could be no certain reliance placed upon the returns of the 
previous year, when negligent officers had failed to make them. That 
there were neglectful captains appears, for four captains and one brigade 
commander are reported for such neglect in this matter. The organiza- 
tion at this time was — one troop of cavalry, four regiments (i6 compan- 
ies), one battalion (3 companies), one unattached battery of artillery, nine 
regiments of infantry, (including riflemen), 63 companies, and two com- 
panies of cadets; arranged in six brigades and three divisions, or 84 com- 
panies in all. Two companies were organized this year, — viz.: a light 
infantry company in Salem, designated Company H, 6th Regiment, and 
one in Reading, Company B, 4th Regiment, light infantry, whilst the com- 
panies in Pembroke, Abington, Boxboro, Lexington, Lynn, South Read- 
ing, Shelburne and Walpole, eight in number, who were reported weak in 
1846, were disbanded between May 15 and November 30. Those in 
Norton, Danvers, Upton and Deerfield were in no better condition, and 
would have shared the fate of the eight above mentioned, but for the 
delay accorded at their request, until an effort could be made for more 
favorable legislation. Including tlie four last mentioned, there were 
fifteen companies who, according to General Oliver, "exhibit every ap- 
pearance of constmiption and decline," to which he adds the opinion 
"that the present volunteer system is a total failure." During the four 
years of General Oliver's incumbency, there had issued from his office 
1,319 commissions to officers and 764 discharges. Notwithstanding the 
despairing cry of the adjutant -general, there were companies, and good 
companies, in the militia, which called from him words of commendation, 
and some of which to-day are models of excellence in the re-organized 
militia, as then recommended. The adjutant-general closed his report 
of this year, which was his last, with the following: "I have already sig- 
nified to your Excellency, my desire to relinquish the further discharge of 
the duties of Adjutant-General; and I await the nomination of my succes- 
sor, in order to deliver into his custody the books and papers of the de- 
partment, and the public military property in the arsenal at Cambridge. 
The compensation of the office is inadequate, and although, while in com- 
mission, I felt unwilling to ask an increase, I have no such scruples on 
retiring; and in justice to my successor, I respectfully submit to the legis- 
lature the question of the propriety of restoring it to its former rate." 

The war with Mexico in 1S47-48 was unpopular in Massachu- 
setts. One regiment only was raised in the state, and as it volimteered, 
and was mustered directly into the United States service, the only record 
of the original members who left Massachusetts in its ranks, is furnished 
by the courtesy of the officers of the regiment. That it did its duty, as be- 


came tlie soldiers of a brave old coinmonwcalth, is shown by the fact that 
its valuable service was recognized by General Winfield Scott, command- 
ing the army, who presented the regiment with an embroidered silk regi- 
mental flag, as a testimonial of his appreciation of its services to the 
country, while under his command. Tliis color is now preserved at the 
state house, together with those entrusted to the volunteers from the 
commonwealth, in the struggle for the maintenance of the Union, during 
the late rebellion against the constituted authority, wherein so 
many brave lives were sacrificed. 

The unpreparedness of the nation for this war, as had lieen the 
case in all previous and subsequent times, is forcibly stated in the 
lanofuag-e of Lieutenant Ilenrv H. Whitney, United States Artillery, in an 
article in the "United Service Institution": "It is a most noteworthy fact 
that while being the most progressive nation on earth in matters civil, we 
are among the conservative in affairs military. Old ideas are re- 
garded almost as a fetish; we shrink from making new experiments. In 
1840, English troops in China demonstrated the superiority of the percus- 
sion over the flint-lock musket, yet a whole year of the Mexican War was 
fought with the latter arm against great odds. In 1848. the Prussian 
army, in the war with Denmark, used a breech-loading rifle, and proved 
that it was a much better weapon than the old one; yet we went into and 
fought the War of the Rebellion, which ended seventeen years later, with 
the muzzle-loading musket."' 

What a marked contrast with the progress made during the last 
thirty years in Japan, which country abandoning padded armor and bows 
and arrows, has emerged into a military nation, with an army modern in 
every respect, well armed and equipped, with the best arms and equip- 
ment known to the civilized world. 

The number of officers and men furnished by ^lassachusetts in the 
various wars in which the nation has been engaged, from the slaughter at 
Lexington to the close of the Mexican war, was: — 

War of the Revolution, 1775 to 1783, Continental Army, 67,907. 
militia, 20,000; 87,907. 

War of 1 8 12-18 1 5, 21,300. 

War with Mexico, 1S46-1S48, 1,057. Total, 110,264. 

Massachusetts furnished during the Revolution, in all, 31,229 men 
more than any other one .state, and to the Continental army 41,227 more; 
and in the war of 18 12 ftirnished to the United States arm)-, six regiments 
of infantry, three companies of artillery and one of artificers, in addition 
to the militia calls. 

General Oliver was succeeded as adjutant-general in 1848 by 
Georo^e }l. Devereaux, of Salem, who had been a commissioned officer in 
the militia, as ensign. First Regiment, first brigade, second division, July i o, 


1829; captain, Ajjril 11, 1834, and again commissioned captain November 
17, 1846, from which last position, he was ajDpointed adjutant-general by 
Governor Briggs, January 15, 1848. The abstracts of returns show the 
strength this year to have been — active militia 4,588, enrolled 98,076, a 
total of 102,664. The organization consisted of three divisions, six brig- 
ades, thirteen regiments, one battalion, embracing eighty companies 
while there was an increase in the ranks of 8,413 eligibles. There was 
no increase in the ranks of the active militia, which had not yet reached 
the limit of its decadence. There was a falling off by division rettirns 
of May training, S25 men; by brigade returns, fall parade, 403 men. This 
falling off is apparent only from the returns, and is explained by the 
adjutant-general as being much less then the returns show, from the fact 
that only three out of the whole number of bands are included in the 
returns; that there were many incomplete returns, and that several com- 
panies performed duty at fall parades that were absent from ^lay inspec- 
tions; others had been lingering along awaiting dissolution, and had been 
disbanded, whilst newly organized companies were not in a condition of 
forwardness to take their place; and General Devereaux remarks that "Al- 
though the returns, as regards numbers only, are not so encouraging as 
might be wished, in other respects the general condition of the volunteer 
service is highly satisfactory. Tlie companies that have sustained them- 
selves in activity, are, almost without exception, admirably equijaped and 
uniformed, and in very respectable discipline." Many of the regiments 
presented a brilliant and effective appearance, their small numbers being- 
the chief condition which militated against an otherwise favorable report. 
The company of light infantry in Upton, and the one in Hingham were 
disbanded, one company in Rochester had completed its organization, and 
two companies in Lawrence and one each in Granville, Lynn, Medford and 
Danvers were in contemplation. General Devereaux remarked in his 
first annual report to Governor Briggs, under date of December 31, 1 848 — 
"Not having as yet enjoyed an opportunity of seeing all the troops of the 
Commonwealth, I do not feel competent to make comparisons; but with- 
out suggesting any invidious distinctions, I venture to .say, that the Ninth 
Regiment of Light Infantry, with whom I spent three days of field ditty 
this fall, and the various corps that were assembled from various quarters 
in Boston on the 25th of October last, must stand a favorable comparison 
with any volunteer troops in the world, in every respect certainly, but 
that of numerical strength. In perfection and neatness of equipment, 
they are unexceptionable, and in discipline, far beyond what can rea.sonably 
be expected from the present system of drill. From the reports of officers 
in various quarters, I am led to believe these remarks to be applicable to 
all, or nearly all of the state militia." 

In this he differs from his immediate predecessor, in his report of 

IKVIS'. rn\->l , EN I l: \N' H I" .~"l 111 MIM^l.V, 


1847, and although he had had no ojjportunity to view all the troops of 
the Commonwealth, his experience had effected the conclusion that, 
although deficient in results, the present system ofmilitaiy organization is 
not to be considered a total failure. Certainly there were grave defects 
in its internal arrangements, and the drills were not efficient; there was 
not sufficient time given to it at this period, the law requiring three and a 
half days of drill per year, i.e.. one-half day for IMay inspection, two days 
of company training tinder the respective captains, and one day for fall 
review; all of which time was devoted to idle show and useless ceremon- 
ies, leaving but an hour or two each year for manoeuvres, in which little 
or no instruction had been given. The freedom with which men enlisted 
and left the ranks, by the system of enlistment and discharge which 
obtained, and the infrequency of their assembly by battalions still further 
militated against the drills, a condition under which the best system of 
drill wotild have come to naught. The old siege guns which had been for 
a long time in the arsenal yard, some dating from a time prior to the 
Revohition, were sold, foiir only being retained because they were a part 
of the armament of the forts in the harbor, when we lived under the king. 
The muskets and rifles that had acciimulated from returns by volrinteer 
companies, were put in order, and at the date of the report, the quarter- 
master-general (adjutant-general), had on hand 9,080 of these restored 
small arms, made serviceable, while there were a still greater number 
packed in boxes, which had not received attention, inany of them unser- 
A-iceable, which he had recommended to be sold. The arsenal grounds, 
buildings and contents, under the efficient care of Mr. Rayne, who had 
for many years been superintendent, were found in good condition. There 
were in the arsenal at the close of the year 184S, large stores of military 
property; twenty-seven pieces of cannon of all calibers, two eprouvettes 
I or powder testers 1 twenty-three gun carriages, four caissons and two 
mortar beds; 1,907 cannon balls for different calibers, 274,558 ball cart- 
ridges, 271,400 pounds (18 to the pound) and 3,200 (32 to the pound) of 
musket and rifle bullets, besides the small arms and artillery implements, 
harness and infantry equipments, and a large amount of material of a 
miscellaneous character. 

With the year 1849 a new era dawned upon the militia, as a change in 
the .system was effected by the legislature at its last session, which pro- 
vided for a system of encampments and for improvement in discipline and 
efficiency. It was not much of a step in advance, as two days only were 
allowed for camp duty, one of which was consumed by going into and 
breaking camp, yet it was something gained, and that little was encourag- 
ing; although economy on the part of the legislature had deprived the 
militia of one day more than had been asked for, it was sufficient to start 
the militia forward on the march of progress. The five lingering, hope- 


less companies of the year previous were disbanded, and were replaced by 
ten newly-organized, vigorous companies. While there was a decrease in 
the number of companies, there was an increase in the number of men at 
tours of duty for the year; that there was no greater increase is not charge- 
able to the want of military spirit, but to the fact that the California 
gold fever had taken large numbers of young men from the ranks, in. 
some cases froiu one-third to one-half (jf an entire company. It also 
appears that the decrease in the enrolled militia for the year was 877. 
The disbandment of the weak companies, and some of the newly formed 
companies not being in a state of forwardness sufficient for them to take 
part in the year's duty, also reduced the returns. More attention 
was given to drill and instruction. There was a discarding of gold lace, 
a shaking off of lethargic indifference, and an increasing and soldierly 
spirit of emulation; costly and useless parades and gorgeous uniforms 
were no longer to mark the crack companies, but the soldierly qualifica- 
tions of drill, discipline and effectiveness were to be the crowning laurels, 
of the future. 

The encampments of the year were marked by order and quiet, 
for the careful arrangements and the cheerful manner in which they were 
carried out by officers and men, and the adjutant-general mentions with 
pride " The City Guards of Boston," "New England Guards of Boston," 
"The Boston Light Guard," "The National Lancers," "Boston Artillery." 
and "The Roxbury Artillery." The companies from Abington, Middle- 
boro and Plympton, distinguished themselves. "The Woburn Phalanx," 
and the "Brooks Phalanx of Medford," showed soldierly bearing. The 
company from Reading was orderly and well equipped. In drill and 
equipment the 6th Regiment of the 5th brigade was second to none. The 
companies from Worcester made an unusually fine appearance, their dress 
being neat and handsome, the superb drill of the guards carrying away 
the prize. That the militia of the commonwealth had taken on a new 
life, and that old things had passed away, may best be shown by General 
Devereaux's own language: "It may be said, in general, that a very 
decided advance has been made, and is still going on, in the militia, in 
correct drill, thorough system, and perfection of equipment. If the num- 
bers of some companies could be increased, their condition would be 
highly satisfactory. This object will be promoted by the adoption of 
simple uniforms, and the avoidance of unnecessary expense in every 
form. If the charge of doing duty in the militia were less burdensome 
in this respect, a larger number of men would join the ranks. Tlie 
militia system has been passing through a period of transition, which 
has, for a time, depressed its character. The peculiar spirit, produced by 
circumstances, which formerly brought nearly our whole male population 
into its ranks, died out with the changing character of the times. 


"The old system survived its adaptation to the state and temper 
(if the eommunity long enough to bequeath to its snceessor a very unde- 
sirable inheritance of confusion, disorder and absurdity. But this load 
has been thrown off, and the new organization begins to assume its proper 
character of a select, neat, and respectable force, composed of men who 
are inclined to the duty, and both able and willing to do it well. A decent 
liberality on the part of the public, evinced by a fair and honorable con- 
sideration, as well as by a very small compensation, will satisfy all its 
demands, and inspire it with a becoming pride and a sufficient energy. 
The grotesque incongruities of past days, and the jumble of unmeaning 
evolutions with a great ignorance of tactics, have given way to a system- 
atic and regulated instruction, according to the army standard. Officers 
begin to feel their responsibility, and aim at something better than empty 
show; and men are learning to make the discipline and efficiency of their 
respective corps a matter of pride and emulation. I would here, how- 
ever, take the liberty to suggest to company officers, to dispense with the 
uncouth figures still seen on some parades under the name of pioneers. 
Such appendages are unnecessary in our peace establishm.ent; and the 
same men, properly uniformed and armed with the musket, should be 
placed in the ranks where they would add alike to efficiency and ajjpear- 

The interest- taken by officers and men in the active militia con- 
tinued unabated, and its condition was still further improved in 1850. 
The constant annual falling off in numbers had been checked, showing 
conclusively that the new law had worked advantageously, which, com- 
bined with the faithful and mei-itorious efforts of officers of every grade, 
was fast placing the service on a commendable footing. Ten new com- 
panies were raised and several more contemplated. Three companies of 
rifles were changed to infantry, and three old companies, hopelessly disor- 
ganized and approaching dissolution, were disbanded to make way for 

The various commands performed their annual tours of camp duty. 
The Cadets of the Second Division at Dunstable Springs, under Captain 
Foster, in July; the Cadets of the first division at Nahant, under Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Amory; the first brigade by regiments; Fifth Artillery. Col- 
onel Cowdin at Medford; First Infantry, Colonel Holbrook, at Newton. 
The Artillery Regiment was especially commended as deserving of honor- 
able mention for its full ranks, orderly and well conducted camp, and for 
its improvement in drill and discipline. Company A, Captain Bullock, 
and the Roxbury Artillery had attained the highest degree of excellence. 
The Roxbury Artillery bore away the palm, and Captain Bullock's com- 
pany the second award; the other companies presented an appearance 
highly creditable, and the whole command by its uniformity and neatness 


in dress and bearing, gave enc(iiTrag'ement and raised great hopes for the 
future. The encampment of the First Infantry was lacking in numbers, 
biit otherwise eood. The National Lancers came in for the full meed of 
praise, being mentioned as a "noble troop, in good numbers and high 
order, as usual," a commendation which not only reveals its normal con- 
dition of excellence in the past, as the last phrase indicates, btrt would 
seem to have been prophetic for the far future, judging by its present stan- 
dard. But the infantry companies were reported as small, some with a 
mere handful, and upon this. General Devereaux remarks: "It is a serious 
disappointment to inspecting and reviewing officers, and to all who have 
occasion to feel interest in the matter, to see such fine companies as this 
regiment can boast, represented by a corporal's guard, scarcely adequate 
to posting a chain of sentries round their tents." — "Companies that can 
and do turn out fifty or sixty privates on other occasions, superbly 
equipped, highly drilled and commanded by gentlemen of the highest 
military accomplishments and proficiency, present for inspection and 
review a muster-roll of seventeen, eighteen or twenty men in their ranks." 
. "The present .sy.stem of camp duty has not been popular in 
this corps, althot:gh it has been eagerly entered into, and sustained with 
the utmost spirit and satisfaction in every other quarter throughout the 
Commonwealth." This was an occasion of much regret on the part of the 
adjutant-general, for as this regiment had every facility to perfect itself 
in military drill and discipline, with frequent opportunities to meet for 
parade and to exercise in battalion movements, it should have been an 
example and stimulant for others, and would have aided the military 
authorities materially in their effort to protect the military system of the 
Commonwealth in accordance with the laws made and jjrovided. 

The first award in the First Light Infantry was given the Boston 
Light Guard, Captain Clark, Company D; the second to Company B, New 
England Guards, Captain Bradlee, while Company E, City Guards, Cap- 
tain ThomiDson, was considered by many, equally meritorious. The Second 
Brigade, encamped at East Bridgewater, had improved in an encouraging 
degree; the Abington Artillery was accorded the first j^lace and the 
second to the Hanover Artillery. In the Third Light Infantry Regiment the 
first award was to Company E, of Marlboro, . Captain Thomas and the 
second to the Assonet Company, Captain Pierce. The Third Brigade, 
General Wilson, encamped at Groton, and had greatly imjaroved in drill 
and discipline, and although it had several new companies, in appearance 
and strength it was admirable. In the First Artillery the honors were 
given, first to the Concord Artillery, Company A; second to the Charles- 
town Company, Company D. The Fourth Light Infantry, Colonel Winn, 
had made many changes for the better; some of the old companies had 
re-organized, re-equipped and re-uniformed themselves and presented an 


excellent appearance; the Woburn Phalanx, having recruited to the full 
limit allowed by law, with its beautiful uniform and steady movements, 
bearing favorable comparison with any company then in the service. The 
Cambridge Guards were unsurpassed in their perfect discipline and fault- 
less manual of arms. The honors were awarded in this regiment, first to 
the Cambridge City Guards, Company C; second to Woburn Phalanx, 
Company G. The Fourth Brigade encamped under the command of Col- 
onel Andrews of the Sixth Infantry at Salem. The two companies of artil- 
lery showed marked improvement as to strength, but the large number of 
recruits detracted from their drills. The infantry regiment appeared 
with some decided improvements. The Lawrence Light Infantry, Cap- 
tain Oliver, wore a new and handsome uniform, that of the French line 
with a bearskin cap. The Beverly Company was much improved. The 
Salem Light Infantry was in good drill and looked exceedingly well. The 
Salem Mechanic Infantry, in numbers and general appearance, was un- 
surpassed. The first award was to Captain Oliver's company, Company 
I; and the second to the Salem Light Infantry, Captain Endicott. In the 
Fifth Brigade mustered at Worcester, a good tour of duty was performed, 
there being manifest a spirit of generous rivalry in the commands. The 
awards for siiperior excellence in the Eighth Regiment (almost wholly new) 
were given, the first to the Worcester Guards, Company C; the second to 
the Worcester Light Infantry. All the commands of the Sixth Brigade, 
encamped at Northampton under General Cook, were reported in excel- 
lent condition. There was no competition for Honors in this brigade, owing 
to the expressed wish of the officers that there should be none. There 
was an increase in the attendance over that of the previous year of 244, 
notwithstanding that six of the newly formed companies, estimated at 350 
men, were not fully organized and disciplined to active duty, and were not 
included, which made the total increase in strength about 600; and of the 
865 absentees from tour of duty, 249 or more than one-fourth of the whole 
number were in the First Regiment of Light Infanty, yet this regiment had 
increased in attendance by eighty-three men, while its absentees had 
diminished by twenty men. The j^roportion of absentees was much smaller 
than in the previous year. 

Commenting on the results of the year, the adjutant-general 
remarked: "It seems to be an inevitable conclusion, that the law of 1849 
has produced a great and favorable change. Military men also see that 
the improvement it is bringing about in discipline is by no means its least 
valuable effect. If the legislature considers the militia system as 
deserving of encouragement and support, they should be willing to finish 
the good work by extending the camp to foi:r days, and increasing the pay 
to eight or ten dollars per annum. Under such a system, we might have 
an efficient, well-disciplined and reliable force, at very little additional 


expense. We might thus maintain a body of 5,000 active men, constantly 
ready and fit for service, at just about the cost of a battalion of 300 regu- 
lars under pay. We think no one can justly con.sider this as either an 
unnecessary or an extravagant measure of precaution . . . The 
Commonwealth has always boasted some corps, highly respectable for 
their spirit, order and general apj^earance. But it may be now said with- 
out hesitation, that never were its leading companies so highly disciplined, 
or the general mass in so good condition, as at this moment. I take pleas- 
ure in recording the opinion of an highly intelligent young officer of the 
regular army, expressed to me after the inspection of several brigades at 
their successive encampments: 'That he knew no state troops that could, 
as a whole, be comjDared with those of Massachusetts.'" 

May 6th, 185 i. Lieutenant Colonel Ebenezer W. Stone, of Roxbtiry. 
Division Inspector on the staff of Major-General Edmands, commanding 
1st division, M.V. M., was appointed by Governor Boutwell adjutant-gen- 
eral of the militia of the commonwealth. He entered upon his duties 
with vigor and determination, having had nine years experience as divi- 
sion inspector during the transition period from 1840, and was fully con- 
versant with the militia, its condition and reqtiirements. 

The service at this time consisted of an active militia of 5,237 officers 
and men, with an enrolled militia of i 14,469, making an available total 
strength of 119,706. The active or vt)lunteer forces were embraced in 
three divisions of two brigades each, and two divisionary corps of cadets. 
( )f the active, 4,983 were present, which, according to the abstract from 
returns of annual inspections in May, was an increase of 604 over 1S50, 
and, at the encampments, the rettirns made by company commanders to 
brigade inspectors, show an increase of 406 for the same period. The 
First Division was the strongest at the fall encampments, the First Brigade 
having 838 present and 247 absent. Colonel Holbrook's light infantry 
regiment was the largest, having 1 2 companies with 66 present, and the 
largest number of absentees 164. 

Fourteen new companies were organized and sixteen disbanded; 
of the disbanded, many had been a drawback and incumbrance to the 
militia for a long time, and, but for the remissness of the inspecting 
officers, would have been wiped out of existence long before. Changes 
were going on all the time, and the service was being established 
upon a firmer basis. This year there were di.scharged 124 officers of 
all grades, and 344 commissioned, leaving at the close of the year 65 
vacancies. The encampments were successful and the duty well per- 
formed, many commands calling out e.\pressions of praise, and some com- 
panies betraying elements of weakness. To one colonel was given the 
credit of executing every regimental evfilution laid down in the book. 
In giving a detailed account of the encampments, the adjutant-general 


says: "There are many excellent-aijpearing companies, well drilled and 
efficient, which I may have omitted to notice in my report," and that "he 
has endeavored to perform his delicate duty 1 as inspector-general) without 
intentionally depriving" any of their rights." 

A resolve passed at the last session of the legislature, made provi- 
sion for a committee to make arrangements, to receive with honors the 
President of the United States, should he visit the Commonwealth. On 
the 15th day of September, at the request of this committee, the governor 
directed the adjutant -general to issue his orders for calling out a 
division of volunteers, as escort to the President on September 17th. As 
this call for troops came in the afternoon, there was little time to reach 
all the commands, and the earliest promulgation was through the medium 
of the evening papers. The First Brigade, General Andrews, was or- 
dered, and a provisional brigade was made by detachments from various 
com mands, and the whole placed under the command of Major-General Ed - 
mands of the first division, who was detailed for special duty in connection 
therewith. The militia thus detailed resi^onded promptly, performed their 
duty, and were honored by a review in the afternoon, at which the presi- 
dent expressed himself as highly pleased with the soldier-like and cor- 
rect military appearance of the troops, and that the review, must not only 
be acknowledged as highly creditable to the division, brit it wotild tend 
to elevate the character of the Massachusetts volunteer militia. Many of 
the troops on this occasion came from long distances, and evidenced the 
fact that the soldiery of Massachusetts need but little preparation when 
service is required of them on the demand of the constituted authorities. 
For this service the legislature unanimously allowed the troops one dollar 
per day, and expenses to and from Boston. 

There had been no revision of the military laws since 1836, and 
owing to successive enactments by the legislature from year to year, the 
whole code had become entangled, and many previous acts had not been re- 
pealed by subsequent ones. The subject-matter of these, having been sub- 
mitted to the attorney-general, it was, in his opinion, necessary that the 
deficiencies should be supplied, the various laws harmonized, and the 
whole consolidated in a new enactment to correct conflicting statutes. 
The Adjutant-General recommended that this be done, which, with a 
change as to the duty in encampments, and pay of officers and men, he 
believed would be adapted to the exigencies of the service, meet the re- 
quirements for many years, and give satisfaction to all concerned. In 
consequence of these recommendations, he was charged with the duty of 
re-codifying the law, in which he was advised by the attorney-general. 
John H. Chfford. 

The old flint-lock muskets were called in from the militia, and ex- 
changed for those with percussion locks, and. strange to say, one of the 


reasons given for additional labor at the arsenal, was the cleaning of old 
rifles turned in, and the necessity of removing the browning or lacquer, 
from the new muskets, whose brown barrels required the tise of an 
emery wheel to make them bright. The flint-lock muskets, nearly 7,000 
in number, were reconstructed into percussion muskets at the Watertown 
Arsenal, and some 4,000 remained at the State Arsenal to be altered. 
There were in the powder magazine on Captain's Island, in the Charles 
River, 274,458 ball cartridges which had been purchased dinging the war of 
1 8 12. These were recommended to be sold, but upon examination and test 
they were found after the forty years' storage, undamaged and ser- 

The condition of the militia in 1852 did not vary in many particu- 
lars from that of 1S51. The active force numbered 5.S09, not including 13 
new companies, organized after the camps of the year had been held, 
which increased the aggregate to 6,526 men, nearly the maximum allowed 
by law. A division under the command of Major-General Edmands, 
with the Cadets of the division, were ordered for the reception ef 
Louis Kossuth. The division was made up in a similar manner to that 
ordered for the reception of the President, as before mentioned. A lot of 
old cannon and obsolete material was sold from the arsenal to the amount 
of sixty-three hundred dollars; which money was expended to erect a 
house for the superintendent of the Arsenal, for the purchase of "Scott's 
Infantry Tactics" and for repairs made on buildings, leaving a balance of 
twenty-three hundred and fifty dollars for further contingencies. The 
inventory of the militar}^ property of the Commonwealth made by the 
military committee, on the order of the Council, which was also required 
to estimate the value thereof, shows that the adjutant and quartermaster- 
general had in his custody, and in the hands of the militia, well-cared-for 
state property to the amount of 8279,254. 18. 

The strength of the active militia, according to the returns of 1853, 
was 7,125, an increase of 1,125 over the last year. The 5th Regiment, 
Colonel Benjamin F". Butler, is mentioned as one of the largest in the 
state, and as having made great improvement. All the commands were 
considered in good condition at the encampments, wliich, for the first 
time in this Commonwealth, were by divisions; the alteration in the law 
for three days tour of camp duty, instead of two, being of undoubted bene- 
fit. The adjutant-general was authorized by an act of the legislature to call 
in and remove to the State Arsenal all field-pieces and equipment in the 
gun-houses of the several cities and towns, save in those where the au- 
thorities would erect and maintain suitable buildings for their care and 
safety. The neglect to which this property had been subject, and its 
condition when received at tlie arsenal, proved the wisdom of the act. 

In A])ril. the legislature authorized one or more light artillery com- 



panics, and one was raised, for the command of which M(_)ses G. Cobb was 
selected, and as all the artillery companies had been changed to infantry, 
it was the only artillery company, drilling as such, in the service. Fifteen 
applications for the formation of new companies were refused, for the rea- 
son that the force had nearly reached the maximum allowed under the act 
of 1S41; the number under the present organization, which the state was 
liable to pay for military service, being 9,285. It had attained a standing 
never before reached by the militia, its personnel had improved, and it 
was never more free from objectionable features. 

There was no special change in the militia in 1S54, under the one 

i. 4;V 



year's administration of Governor Emory Washburn. Thirty aiJjjlica- 
tions for new companies were refused. 

In 1855, Gov. Gardner occasioned the disbandment of all companies 
composed of men of foreign birth or descent. Governor Gardner had in 
his inaugural address, delivered before the legislature in January, defined 
his policy regarding military companies composed wholly of men of for- 
eign birth; and, acting upon the report of certain military officers, by 
and with the advice of his council, as his first official act, disbanded within 
a few days of his induction into office, the following mentioned compan- 
ies; Companies B, F, and H, sth Regiment of Artillery; Co. C, of the 
Third Battali(m of light infantry; Co. A, 5th Regiment, light infantry; Co. 
G, /th Regiment, light infantry; and Co. D, Sth Regiment, light infantry. 
The adjutant-general issued General Order 12, January. 1S55, disbandino- 
said companies, discharging their officers, and demanding the return of 


all state property to the custody of the state authorities. Captain Thomas 
Cass, Co. B of the sth Regiment of Artillery was the only one to comply 
with orders, and the adjutant-general proceeded to take in charge and 
cause to be conveyed to the arsenal, all the property which had been 
issued to the disbanded companies, for which he was promptly sued by 
the officers of three of said companies, which suits were afterwards with- 
drawn. It was suggested by the adjutant-general in his report for the 
year, that the use of the terms "artillery" and "light infantry," as applied 
to militia companies be abolished, and the existing regiments and battal- 
ions be concentrated into regiments and battalions of infantry. The 
elementary drills provided for in the act of 1854 ha\'ing proved beneficial, 
he recommended that the May inspecticms be abolished, and the number 
of days for elementary drills be increased; also that the offices of 3d and 
4th lieutenant be abolished, and that the organization might more nearly 
conform to that of the regular army. It was claimed by the adjutant- 
general that "at no time since its organization has the vohinteer militia 
been held by the public in more just appreciation." j\Iany of the com- 
mands appeared at the encampment of the year, in the new regulation 
dress which had been adopted. In 1855 the militia was re-organized, 
under the plan submitted by the adjutant-general, given in General Order 
No. 4, as follows: — 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, 

February 23, 1855. 
To His Excellency Henry J. Gardner, Governor and Commander-in-Chief, 
and to the Honorable Council; — 

The undersigned would respectfully represent; — That the present organiza- 
tion and arrangement of the volunteer militia is inct>nsistent in its designation as 
"artillery" and "light infantry," inasmuch as the troops thus designated, are, by 
existing laws, required to be armed and drilled as infantry, — 

That the numerical order of the regiments has become disarranged by the 
changes which have, from time to time, been deemed necessary, — 

That the interest of the service requires the disbanding of some of the regi- 
ments, in consequence of the small number of companies, now composing said regi- 
ments; and 

That, from a concentration of the companies into a less number of regiments, 
a great pecuniary saving to the Commonwealth, say, at least, one thousand dollars 
per annum, would result. 

I would respectfully recommend that the designation of all the companies here- 
tofore known as "artillery" and "light infantry," be changed to that of "infantry," and 
that the following arrangements be made under the provisions of the law contained 
in section 15, "Digest of Militia Laws," viz: — 

Firsl Bn'ajdc. 

The First Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the First Regiment of 


That the Fifth Regiment of '•Artillery," and the Third Battalion of "Light 

Infantry," be disbanded, and the companies of both commands be organized as the 

Second Regiment of Infantry. 

Si'coiid Bri«adc. 

The Third Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the Third Regiment of 

The Second Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the Fourth Regi- 
ment of Infantry. 

Third Bi loadc. 

Disband the First Regiment of "Artillery," and the Fourth and Fifth Regiments 
of "Light Infantry," and organize the companies of "artillery" and "light infantry" in 
the following cities and towns, viz :— Charlestown, Cambridge, Somerville, Woburn, 
Winchester, Concord and Waltham, into a regiment to be known as the Fifth Regi- 
ment of Infantry. 

And organize the companies of "artillery" and "light infantry" in the follow- 
ing cities and towns, viz : — Pepperell, Groton, Acton, Lowell and Lawrence, into a 
regiment to be known as the Si.xth Regiment of Infantry. 

The company of light dragoons, in the town of Waltham, to be attached to the 

third brigade. 

Foiirlh Biiaade. 

Disband the Second Regiment of "Artillery" and the Sixth and Seventh Regi- 
ments of "Light Infantry" and organize the companies of "artillery" and "light 
infantry" in the following towns, viz: — South Reading, Stoneham, Haverhill, Chel- 
sea, and in the city of Salem, into a regiment, to be known as the Seventh Regiment 
of Infantry. 

Also, organize the companies of "artillery" and "light infantry" in the follow- 
ing cities and towns, viz : — Newburyport. Gloucester, Beverly, Lynn and Marblehead, 
into a regiment to be known as the Eighth Regiment of Infantry. 

Fifth Brigjdi'. 
The Eighth Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the Tenth Regiment 
of Infantry. 

The Ninth Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the Ninth Regiment 

of Infantry. 

Sixlh Brigade. 

The Eleventh Regiment of "Light Infantry" to be known as the Eleventh Regi- 
ment of Infantry. 

The Third Regiment of "Artillery" to be known as the Twelfth Regiment of 
Infantry; Company B to be transferred to the Eleventh Regiment, and known as 
Company G. 

The First Battalion of "Light Infantry" to be known as the First Battalion of 


I would recommend that the officers and members of the "artillery" companies, 
be permitted to wear their present uniforms until new ones may be required. 
I have the honor to be, with much respect, your obedient servant, 

EBENEZER W. STONE, Adjutant-General. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Headquarters, Boston, February 26, 1855. 
General Order No. 4. 
The Commander-in-Chief having approved the advice of Council, in relation to 


the following changes and alterations in the arrangement of the Massachusetts Vol- 
unteer Militia, orders: — 

That the First, Second and Fifth Regiments of Artillery; the Fourth, Fifth, 
Sixth and Seventh Regiments and the Third Battalion of Light Infantry be, and they 
are, hereby disbanded, and that the field and stafiE officers thereof be discharged. 

And the Commander-in-Chief further orders that all the companies now desig- 
nated as "artillery" and as "light infantry," be hereafter known as "infantry," 
and they are hereby organized into regiments, as follows: — 


First 'Brigjdi: 

The First Regiment of Light Infantry to be knovvn as the First Regiment of 

The following companies will constitute the Second Regiment of Infantry: — 

Company commanded by To be desig- Company commanded by To be desig- 
nated nated 
Capt. Thomas H. Evans, Company A Capt. Isaac S. Burrell, Company D 
Lieut. William G. Barker, " B Lieut. M. Moore, " E 
Capt. John B. Whorf, " C Capt. A. Harlow. " F 

St'coiid Urigjdc: 

The Third Regiment of Light Infantry to be known as the Third Regiment 
of Infantry. The company commanded by Captain J. B. Sanford to be incorporated 
into said regiment, and known as Company E. 

The Second Regiment of Light Infantry to be known as the Fourth Regiment 
of Infantry. The company commanded by Captain Timothy Reed, to be incorporated 
into said regiment, and known as Company E. 

Third "Brigade. 

The following companies will compose the Fifth and Sixth Regiments of In- 
fantry : — 

Fi/tb %-giiih-iit. 

Company in To be known as Company in To be known as 

Concord, Company A Winchester, Company E 

Somerville, " B Cambridge, " F 

Waltham, " C Woburn. " G 

Charlestown (commanded Charlestown (commanded 

by Captain Swan). " D, by Capt. Rogers). " H 

Sixth Regiment. 

Company in To be known as Company in To be known as 

Pepperell, Company A Lawrence (officers not elected). Company F 

Groton. " B Lowell (officers not 

Lowell (commanded by yet elected). " G 

Capt. Adams), " C Lowell (commanded 

Lowell (commanded by by Capt. Blood), " H 

Capt. Hazleton), " D Lawrence (commanded by Capt. Sar- 

Acton, " E gent). Company I 


Fotiiih HiigjJt'. 

The folUnving companies will compose the Seventh and Eighth Regiments of 
Infantry : — 

St'iviith 'T^i'giiih'iil. 

Company in To be known as Company in To be known as 

Salem (.commanded by South Reading. Company E 

Capt. Forless). Company A Chelsea, " V 

Salem (commanded by Haverhill, " G 

Capt. Flint), " B Salem (commanded by 

Stoneham, " C Capt. Hathaway), " H 
Salem (com. by Capt. Rhoades), D 

Eighth Regiment. 

Company in To be known as Company in To be known as 

Newburyport, Company A Beverly, Company E 

Marblehead (commanded Lynn (commanded by Capt. 

by Lieut Stone), " B Herbert). " F 

Marblehead (commanded Gloucester " G 

by Capt. Martin), " C Marblehead (commanded by 

Lynn (commanded by Capt. Anderson), " H 

Capt. Munroe), " D 

Fifth Brigade. 

The Eighth Regiment of Light Infantry to be known as the Tenth Regiment 
of Infantry. The company commanded by Captain L. P. Coburn, to be incoporated into 
said regiment, and known as Company H. 

The Ninth Regiment of Light Infantry to be known as the Ninth Regiment of 
Infantry. The company commanded by Captain Luther Stone, to be incorporated into 
said regiment, and known as Company A. 

Sixth Brigade. 

The Eleventh Regiment of Light Infantry to be known as the Eleventh Regi- 
ment of Infantry. 

The Third Regiment of Artillery to be known as the Twelfth Regiment of In- 
fantry. The company commanded by Captain W. F. Davis, to be transferred to the 
Eleventh Regiment, and known as Company G of said regiment. 

The First Battalion of Light Infantry to be known as the First Battalion of 


The Commander-in-Chief further orders that, whenever any regiment shall 
consist of more than eight companies, the senior company or companies, in regard to 
date of organization, shall be designated and act as flank companies, so long as such 
excess shall exist. 

The Commander-in-Chief further orders that the officers and members of com- 
panies heretofore designated as artillery, be permitted to wear their present uniforms 
until a change may be required by the commander-in-chief. 

Major-Generals William Sutton, George Hobbs. and B. F. Edmands. are 


charged with the execution of this order in their respective divisions; and they will, 
forthwith, cause the necessary orders to be given for the election of field officers. 

By command of His Excellency, 


Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 


In 1840, when the volunteer system was inaugurated, there were 
in existence 142 companies, only forty of which were in existence in 1865. 
From 1840 to that year, 119 had been organized and 155 had been dis- 
banded, leaving 106 organized in the three divisions and six brigades in 
existence at the close of the year 1S56, viz: one light battery, four light 
dragoons, one troop, ninety-two infantry, two cadets and six riflemen. 
The encamimients for the year were for three days, and as follows: The 
First Divisionary Cadets at Nahant, July 23d; Second Divisonary Cadets 
at Woburn; First Brigade at Ouincy, August 6; Fourth Brigade at 
Winter Island, vSeptember 3, and the remainder by company, battalion or 
regiment, in various sections of the Commonwealth, all of which are 
recorded as having been well conducted, and the troops as having improved 
in their various duties. Eight out of fifteen encampments of the year had 
been interrupted by rain; there were large gatherings of people to witness 
the reviews, and it was something of a novelty to see the governor and 
commander-in-chief, in uniform, review the First Battalion of Infantry. 
Colonel A. S. Briggs, which he did at the camp in Pittsfield. 

There was a loss of seven companies of infantry, and a gain of one 
light battery and two com23aniesof rifles, in 1857. The old time disorder- 
ly conduct of the visitors at the encampments had ceased, and general 
good order prevailed; few arrests were made, the mtinicipal authorities 
having exercised the power given them, under the laws, to preserve the 
peace. The weather was also propitious, the attendance good, the con- 
course of visitors great and the hospitality unlimited. It would appear, 
however, that the many reviews by the division and brigade commanders, 
as well as the usual review by the commander-in-chief, must have con- 
sumed a great part of the three days intended for instruction. 

At this time there was a popitlar idea that the militia had grown 
expensive; that it was an useless incuml^rance and shruild be abolislied, or 
at least that its cost should be lessened. As a measure of economy it was 
.suggested that the old system of a one day's encampment should be 
restored. This was a matter of considerable anxiety to General Stone, 
who had watched the progress of military events since 1840, and he at 
once caused a circular letter dated May 15, 1857, to be addressed to all the 
commanders of militia, calling for an expression of opinion as to the prob- 
able effect on tlie service of returning t<i t1ie old ])lan. The replies recci\'cd 


were all to the effect that such action would prove disastrous to the 

The Seventh Regiment of New York visited Boston on the anni- 
versar}- of the battle of Bunker Hill, and the adjutant-general, it appears, 
was much impressed with its fine appearance and ease and precision of 
movement, and expressed the hope that Massachusetts might have at 
least one regiment which should equal it in appearance, drill and discip- 
line, which might easily be done if the companies, which, when parading 
by companies, made a splendid appearance on such parades, would show 
the same interest in their regimental organizations. There was an at- 
tempt at this time, to enforce the observance of law and orders, and one 
company in the Seventh Regiment, not in the uniform prescribed by the 
regulations, was refused permission to parade in its fancy dress. 

The Legislature in May passed a law '-That no compensation shall 
be paid to any person who shall not remain in camp and perform his full 
duty, and that all roll-calls shall be made in the presence and under the 
supervision of a staff officer at all encampments." The effect of this act 
was to strike off from one company roll, the names of thirty men, who 
were returned but had rendered no duty, and in another, twenty-two names 
were .so .stricken from the pay-rolls. 

The arms of the militia at this time were mostly muskets of the 
old flint-lock pattern, altered to percussion-lock, and more dangerous to 
the soldier than to any enemy he was likely to encounter; which called 
from the adjutant-general his assurance that no effort would be spared 
on his part to effect some arrangement with the general government 
whereby a new and more effective rifle might be obtained. The quar- 
termaster-general had on hand, at the arsenal, and with the militia at this 
period, 75 pieces of ordnance, 10,590 percussion muskets, 754 rifles, and 
1, 120 pistols. 

The returns for 1858 show that the strength of the active militia 
present and absent, was: — 

First Division, - - - Present— 1,765 Absent— 426 - 2,191 

Second Division, - - - Present— 1,990 Absent— 300 - 2,290 

Third Division, - - - Present— 1,239 Absent— 163 - 1,402 

Totals, - - - - Present — 4,994 Absent — 889 - 5,883 

or 131 less than the number in 1S41, when the present active militia was 
fully organized under the volunteer system adopted in 1840. There was 
a decrease in the active force of 964, and in the enrolled militia of 3.432; 
and the companies had been reduced from 102 in the year previous to 
95. The encampments for the year were held: the .Second Division at 
Winter Island, Salem, August 25-27; the third Division at Springfield. 
September 2 1-23, and the First Division at North Bridgewater, Septem- 


ber 29 to October i, inclusive, the review being held on the last day of 
each by the Commander-in-Chief, Governor N. P. Banks. The appear- 
ance of the troops was generally good, and the performance of duty 
acceptable to the authorities, and there was less of the disturbing element 
among the numerous visitors. 

The commander-in-chief, for the first time since the organization of the 
militia, encamped for a night with the second division in the field. The 
troops of the third division were addressed by the Governor in the City 
Hall at Springfield, whither all that could be spared from camp were 

No changes in regiments or battalions were made this year. One 
section of a light battery was organized from an infantry company of the 
Seventh Infantry, (D) one comiDany, iCj of the Tenth Infantry was changed 
to a rifle company, and one (F) Third Infantry was disbanded. 

By an act of the Legislature approved March 27, 1858, the annual 
May inspection was abolished. This act also provided for the disband- 
ment of companies, when shown by the returns for duty, as having less 
than thirty-two privates present and doing duty. 

The act of 1857 requiring ofiicial supervision of roll-calls, having 
resulted in benefit to the state, was re-enacted with a further check upon 
the return of enlisted men not entitled to pay. Special effort was made 
by the adjutant-general to enforce a more strict conformity with the law 
regarding the strength of commands, and the correctness of the returns, 
and on investigation he found thirty-seven companies that were below the 
minimum and liable to the operation of the law as to disbandment. These 
companies averaged only twenty-seven privates, and in response to the 
inquiries addressed to the captains, many explanations were received. 

There was a misunderstanding of the law on the part of some, who 
had included their sergeants and corporals as privates in their returns; 
others were seeking quality rather than quantity and had begn weeding 
out the undesirable, and one who had thirty-three privates, had no non- 
commissioned officers. All, however, were seeking the advancement of 
the best interests of the service, by the restriction of poor material and the 
enlistment of good men. As the act of March 27 had fixed the limit of 
the volunteer force to five thousand officers and men, and as the number 
in the service was in excess of that number, no new companies could be 
admitted, although several applications were filed. The various compan- 
ies of the First Regiment of Infantry, parading large numbers on special 
occasions, averaged onl}^ twenty privates for state duty, and became a 
subject for attention the next year. 

There was an unmistakable effort for better discipline. One cap- 
tain in the Sixth Regiment of Infantry was court-martialed for falsifying 
returns; another in the Third Regiment of Infantry, for returning ten or 


twelve citizens of Rhode Island for pay, as members of his company, and 
one in the Fifth Regiment of Infantry the commander-in-chief caused to be 
summarily discharged, the order being executed on the field; and the 
members of his company, because of their disobedience, were not retiirned 
for pay. Many officers were disposed to banish sj^iritous liquors from 
the camps; the commanders of camps furnishing none at their headquar- 
ters this year, which examj^le was followed by many of the officers of 
various grades. A suggestion for the encampment of all the troops of 
the Commonwealth at one and the same time in the near future, was 
made by the adjutant-general in his report to the governor. The adju- 
tant-general was charged with the expenditure of §2,000, appropriated by 
the Legislature in connection with the city of Cambridge, for building an 
iron fence around the earth-works thrown up in November, 1775, during 
the investment and siege of Boston, for which the War Department fur- 
nished three cannon, and the Navy Department three gun carriages. 

The forces at tours of duty in 1859 numbered 5,739; of these 5,326 
performed service, and 413 were absent. On ]\Iarch i.the First Regi- 
ment of Infantry was disbanded. Companies A, B, and E, being de- 
tached were organized as the Second Battalion, under Major Charles O. 
Rogers, and Companies C, D, F and H were incorporated into the Second 
Regiment of Infantry, as Companies I. K, G and H. The Tenth Regiment 
of Infantry was also disbanded, and Companies A, B and G, of the same 
organized as the Third Battalion. The Eleventh and Twelfth regiments 
were also disbanded, and the live companies re-organized as the Tenth 
Regiment. Seven companies w^ere disbanded; two from failure to comply 
with law; three upon petition of Company officers; one for insubordina- 
tion, and one from failure to make the required returns. 

All the forces of the Commonwealth encamped together this year, 
September 7, S and 9, at Concord, ^lass., the troops, with the necessary 
camp equipage, being transported free by the railroads of the state. It 
was a notable encampment, and with the varied uniforms of the different 
commands, quite pictt:resque. The troops were reviewed by Major-Gen- 
eral John E. Wool, U. S. A., commanding the department, and during 
the encampment marched over the old battle-ground at Concord 
North Bridge. The bands, eighteen in number, were massed under the 
leadership of Mr. B. A. Burdette, September 8, at noon, and gave a con- 
cert, some of the pieces being accompanied by artillery. The Legisla- 
lature under the escort of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company 
visited the encampment and witnessed the review. Governors Turner of 
Rhode Island, and Goodwin of New Hampshire, were also present, as 
guests of the state, and the public who gathered on the occasion at Concord 
numbered many thoiisands. There were many complimentary speeches 
from the distinguished men present; the encampment was marked by the 


orderly conduct of the troops, the splendid appearance on review and the 
absence of accidents; and this encampment has gone into history, as the 
first of the kind in this country, and altogether successful. 

The Legislature present was addressed by the Governor as follows: 

"Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Senate :— I bid you welcome, as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Volunteer Militia of Massachusetts, to the camp, that you who 
represent the people, may here have an opportunity of witnessing the citizen solaiery 
of the state. 

"I am proud of it to-day. Not only in what has been done for the last two days 
in military evolutions, but in the decorum which has prevailed within the lines, and 
on the territory which comes properly within the control of the camp. 

"I bid yon, Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Senate, and you Mr. Speaker 
and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives, welcome to such civilities and hos- 
pitalities as the camp may afford." 

The President of the Senate, Hon. Chas. A. Phelps, said in reply: 

"I can assure you, Sir, in behalf of the members of the Legislature, that we ac- 
cept with great pleasure the invitation of your E.xcellency to visit Camp Massachu- 
setts. I doubt not that the interest which they have ever felt in the citizen soldiery 
of Massachusetts will be greatly enhanced and heightened by their visit to your camp." 

After the review the troops were formed on three sides of a square, 
and the reviewing officer was introduced to the troops by the Governor as 
the hero of Buena Vista, in the following words: 

"Fellow-Soldiers: — As Commander-in-chief of the citizen soldiery of Massachu- 
setts, I have the honor to present to you the military guest of the camp, one who has 
from his youth devoted himself to the prompt and faithful performances of military 
duty — the general now in command of the northeas'tern division of the American 
Army; who, educated to the counting-house, upon the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, left the easy paths of peaceful professions and joined the rising army of his 
country; who received his first honors in service, on the Niagara frontier at Queens- 
town and at Plattsburg; who has served his country abroad as well as at home, and 
who has won, as the crowning honor of his yet unfinished career, an imperishable 
name by his services at Buena Vista. I ask you, fellow-soldiers, to give this noble 
American soldier a hearty soldier's welcome." 

Cheers went up from the six thousand troops assembled, which 
called forth the following response from General ^^'ool: 

"Civilians and Citizen Soldiers : — I have received a welcome which I had no 
right to anticipate. I have performed no service which has entitled me to such a 
reception, as has been given me since I have been in Boston. 

"My life has been one of active service, with few opportunities for speaking in 
public; indeed, I could not make a speech if I undertook it. I can say but little more 
e.xcept to return thanks to His E.xcellency, and through him to the troops generally, — 
my cordial thanks, — for giving me an opportunity to be present at one of the finest 
military displays that it has ever been my fortune to look tipon. The fine appearance 
and martial bearing of the troops give evidence of thorough drill and most e.xcellent 
discipline, and speaks volumes in favor of the military, and of the perpetuity of our 
free institutions. Part with them and it will be but prophetic of the end. 


"But I will not detain you with any further remarks. Remember, soldiers, 
that here was the first blood of the Revolution shed. — and I do not doubt that if you 
are ever called on to defend the country and its interests, you will be ready at a mo- 
ment's call." 

The Legislature was then cheered, and honored with a .salvo from 
the light artillery. 

The camp was broken in the afternoon of Friday, and those com- 
mands which were not to remain over night, departed for their homes, 
well jjleased and satisfied with the tour of camp duty, which had been per- 
formed so orderly and quietly as to elicit high commendation from mili- 
tary men, and praise from the inhabitants of the town; some of whom, 
living within a mile of the camp, remarking "that no one at that distance 
wotild have suspected an encampment there, so .soldierly had been the 
conduct of the troops." 

Such was the militia of Jilassachusetts in 1859, ^rid such its discip- 
line, and these were the men, who, two years later, were not only ready, 
but stood awaiting the call to march forth beyond the confines of the Com- 
monwealth in defense of the union, and the salvation of the nation. As 
by the .shedding of Massachusetts blood on Lexington Green, April 19, 
1775, a nation was born; so through the baptism by blood of her sons in 
the streets of Baltimore, April 19, 1861, a nation was .saved. 

April 2, i860, William Schouler of Boston was appointed adjutant- 
general by Governor Banks. Like his predecessor, he also was from the 
militia, but had left the service some thirteen years before. He had held 
the po.sition of major in the First Regiment of Artillery, Third Brigade, 
Second Division, from ilay 16, 1843, to September 14 of the same year, 
when he was promoted to the colonelcy of his regiment, and received his 
discharge therefrom May 3, 1848. He was a soldier, journalist, editor 
and author, and with varied talents, was an able lieutenant to the great 
war governor, who re -appointed General Schouler the next year. The 
encampments for the year, with the exception of the Third Brigade, Brig- 
adier-General B. F. Butler, were by regiments and battalions. The Sec- 
ond Battalion, Major Ritchie, Jtily 23-27, at Glouce.ster. First Division- 
ary Company of Cadets, Lieutenant-Colonel Holmes, July 26-28, at Na- 
hant. Second Divisionary Cadets, August 22-24, ^t South Reading. 
First Battalion, Light Dragoons, Major White, Aitgust 29-31, at 
Newton. Fourth Regiment Infantry, Colonel Packard, August 29-3 i, at 
Quincy. Tenth Regiment Infantry, Colonel Decker, August 20-31, at 
Greenfield. Second Regiment Infantry, Colonel Cowdin, September 4-6, 
on Boston Common. Third Brigade, composed of Waltham Dragoons; 
Fifth Infantry, Colonel Lawrence; Sixth Iiifantry, Colonel Jones, and 
Second Battalion of Rifles, Major Moore, September 5-7, at North Chelms- 
ford, under command of General Butler. Third Regiment Infantrv. Col- 


onel Wardrop, and Captain Richmond's company jof Light Dragoons, 
September 5-7, at Wareham. First Battalion of Infantry, Major Briggs, 
with Captain Dennison's Company of Cavalry, September 11-13, at North 
Adams. Seventh Regiment Infantry, Colonel Dike, September 12-14, ^t 
Haverhill. Eighth Regiment Infantry, Colonel Coffin, September 11-13, 
at Newburyport. Captain ^Manning's Section of Artillery, vSeptember 
26-28. at Wenham. Ninth Regiment Infantry, Colonel Rice; Third Bat- 
talion Infantry, Major Lamb, and the Third Battalion of Rifles, Captain 
"Ward, vSeptember 26-28, at Leominster. First Battalion of Rifles, Major 
Ben Perley Poor, October S-io, at West Newbnry. The commander-in- 
chief was ncit present at these encampments, the reviews being held by 
the di\'ision and brigade commanders, except in some instances Avhen the 
adjutant-general reviewed the troops. 

This year the Prince of Wales visited the State Capitol, on invita- 
tion of Governor Banks, which was conveyed to Washington by his senior 
aide, Lieutenant-Colonel John H. Reed. The invitation was accepted, 
and on October 17 the Prince arrived in Boston, accompanied by Lieuten- 
ant-Colonels Thompson and Sargent, Aides-de-Camp to His Excellency 
the Commander-in-Chief, who had met His Highness at the State line, 
and was escorted to his quarters by Company A, First Battalion of Cav- 
alry. The next day the First Company of Cadets, stationed at the State 
House, received the Prince with the customary honors, on his arrival at 
the State headquarters. After the usual ceremony of introduction, the 
Governor and the Prince mounted, the latter on the splendid charger fur- 
nished by Colonel T. Bigelow Lawrence, and proceeded to the Common, 
Avliere a review of the First Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 
was held, at the conclusion of which the party was escorted to the State 
House by the entire division. At five o'clock His Royal Highness was 
escorted to Music Hall, and afterwards back to his quarters at the Revere 

The appearance and conduct of the troops on this occasion, with 
the exception (.)f two companies (which are mentioned in the Special 
Orders of the Adjutant-General for this year), seem to have given satisfac- 
tion to the commander-in-chief, who conveyed to them his thanks in a 
General Order. 

The rumble of the approaching storm had already reached the cars 
of this far-seeing adjutant-general, who closes his report to the chief with 
these prophetic and sagacious words: — 

"Events have transpired in some of the Southern States, and at Washington, 
which have awakened the attention of the people of Massachusetts in a remarkable 
degree, to the perpetuity of the Federal Union, and which may require the Active 
Militia of the commonwealth to be greatly augmented. Should our worst fears be 
realized, and this nation be plunged into the horrors of Civil War, upcm Massachu- 



setts may rest in no inconsiderable degree the duty of staying the effusion of blood, 
and of rolling back the black tide of anarchy and ruin. She did more than her share 
to achieve the independence of our country and establish the government under 
which we have risen to such unparalleled prosperity, and become the great Power of 
the American Continent; and she will be true to her history, her traditions and her 
fair fame. Should it become necessary to increase the number of her Active Militia 
to a war footing, the present organization offers an easy and good means. 

"Should your Excellency in view of the present state of the country, deem a 
change in the present organization of the militia necessary, or a large increase of the 
active force proper, I would respectfully suggest that a board of officers be called as 
provided in Section 163, Chapter 13, of the General Statutes, to consider and recom- 
mend such changes as their judgement shall approve and experience suggest. In the 
meantime I would suggest that a general order be issued, calling upon Commanders 
of the companies of the active force to forward to headquarters, the names of persons 
comprising their commands, also their places of residence, so that a complete roll of 
each company may be on file in this department." 

The looked-for Civil War came the next year, as anticipated, when 
the suggestions were carried out under the orders of Governor John A. 
Andrew, and the crisis at once met by Massachusetts. The troops which 
had been held in readiness, were in a few hours on the march, armed and 
equipped more completely than the troops of any other state; and only 
one day after the tocsin of war had sounded, met the enemy in conflict, 
and pushed on to the defense of the nation's capital; and from that day 
to the close of the long and bloody rebellion, the Commonwealth main- 
tained her proud and determined attitude; was lavish of her men and 
material; and stayed not her hand' until the Union was again fully and 
permanently established, and freedom triumphant. 

All honor to the State, and to the brave men who marched forth 
from her borders under the folds of her white banner, taking their lives 
in their hands, ready to die if need be, in her defense and that of the nation. 
It is not intended to dwell upon the events of the Civil War, for much 
has already been written. None but those who were actively engaged at 
headquarters, can fully realize the constant and unremitting labors of the 
adjutant-general's department, and the harrowing anxieties of those 
years. The clerical force was increased again and again as the years went 
by, new departments were formed, and additional offices created. The 
recruitment of men for the service never ceased while a man was needed. 
Companies and regiments were organized, armed and equipped, and 
hurried forward at the call of the government; provision made for the 
sick and wounded, and large sums were appropriated and expended for 
the families of the men at the front. 

The following is the list of organized, uniformed, drilled and 
equipped militia of the State of Massachusetts, that did not wait to be 
called, but were in readiness when the call came, and responded at once 
by regiments. Many of the companies composing that militia, have been 



in the State service constantly since the close of the war of the Revolu- 
tion, and some still remain in the State service, with an unbroken record 
of over a hundred years, ready now to respond to any call. This state- 
ment does not adequately show the great service rendered by the State mil- 
itia during the war of the rebellion. Many of these organizations, by 
regiments, rendered two and three terms of service, besides forming 
other regiments for three years. Many of the oldest companies entered 
at once for three years, and ujaon their return from the service after 
the war, resumed their place in the militia of the State, and now continue 
to exist, more efficient than ever, and ready for duty. 








Third Infantry 

A, B, G, II. K, 


April 10, ISIll 

6 mos. 

Company A, 1702; B, 1818. 

Fourtli Infjinlry 

A, B, C, D, E, F, O, 11, 


April 17, 1.SC1 


Company E, 1787: F, 1773. 

Fifth Infantry 

A, B, CD, E, F, (1,11,1. K, 


April 13. l.Sill 


Sixth Infantry 

A. li.Cn.E.c!, 11, 1,K, I„ 


April IG, ISOI 

Responded at 12 liiuirs' notice. 

Eighth Infantry 

A. B.C. I). E, K. <;, 11, 1. K. 




Third liattahon Rifles 

A, B.C. 1), 


April 20, l.sci 


Light Battery 





1!. D, E. 1-, C, II, 
F, G, II, 



.M:iy 2.5, l,Si;l 
.Inly — . ISCl 

3 yrs. 

Conipanirs diiting from 17S4 dnwn 

Tenth Inf^intry 

( "..niiuny r, prior service 3 nios. 

A. li. c. 11, 11, 


Jiilv 2!l, ISM 


Fourtli Battalion Rifles 

A, I!,c, II. 


May Vj, ISCI 

Served in fnrts in Boston, and was 
the nncleus of the I3th Regiment. 

A,B, C, 

A, B, C, 1), 


•Inly 2f., ISCI 
.■\lay 2(1, 1SG2 

3 yrs. 

Organized I7Sfi, 1816, 1853. 

First Corps Cailets 

< Forts ill Boston. 

.Second Corps Cadets 

A, B, 


.Inlv I, 18G2 




The number of men furnished by Massachusetts in the war of the 
Rebellion from April, iS6i, to August, 1865, was as follows: 

Three-months' Service, 1861 
Three-years' Men 

" (Recruits) 
Regular .Army, V. R. C, etc. 
Re-enlistments in State Organizations 

One-year's Men, Army 

Nine-months' Men 

One Hundre(3 Days' Men 

Ninety Days' Men 














'^ UJi\ \JL\ !■ ra| 

,\ t 




— So 


























^— c: 

o o 

: = ;-.= = = £ I 

; A i = 5 ^ g s .5 f ;3 ; 

rt ^ ;: r^ rt-r « ; 


2-?< £<< <<< 

I i 

T^c^zz rz~i 

..■ ■ oc; .fou* 

: _• >- tc - 



. J. _ Qrf — ^_ _ 

= ;t is - r' ■= - 


- M'-i 

C 1- • 

- - . - — _ o. . 

•gS3"ei-:afe«-S^aS:t;|=' 3 ; ^=5=-)" ?5 S^-> ;^-~^- .■-";:= =sS 


Just before the close of the War of the Rebellion, Dec. 7, 1864, it 
was proposed to return to the old method of organization which prevailed 
before 1840, and orders were issued to that end, dividing the state into 
249 company districts, and enrolling companies therein. A number of 
companies were thus formed, which remained unattached until the re- 
organization based on that of 1840 was restored. These district compan- 
ies were never formed into regiments, brigades, or divisions, and the plan 
was afterwards abandoned by General Order No. 17, Oct. 2, 1S65, the 
companies which had been organized being disbanded. 

Under General Order No. 11, May 18, 1866, the militia was reorgan- 
ized in one division of two brigades, to which was attached the two Cadet 
Corps, and ten separate companies. The 2nd, 7th, 9th, and loth Regi- 
ments; the 1st and 2nd Light Batteries; Company "E," unattached cavalry 
and the ist Battallion of Infantry constituted the first brigade. The 5th, 
6th, and 8th Regiments with companies temporarily attached thereto; the 
3rd and 4th Batteries of Light Artillery and "F" Troop, cavalry, con- 
stituted the second brigade. 

On June 7, 1866, Major-General Benjamin F. Butler, who had been 
elected and commissioned, was assigned to the command of the division 
by General Order No. 17, from the Adjutant General's office, and on July 11, 
1866, Col. James A. Cunningham of Gloucester was appointed and com- 
missioned as Assistant Quartermaster General. The 4th Regiment of In- 
fantry was disbanded, and a new 3rd Regiment formed by the luergingof 
some of its companies and several independent companies into the new regi- 
ment, and the remainder of the old 3d Regiment passed out of existence. 

On the 1 6th day of December, 1 866, the resignation of Gen. Schouler 
was accepted, and this amiable and accomplished gentleman, after many 
years of efficient and meritorious service, was relegated to civil life. 
He left behind him, works which will follow him, and become the incen- 
tive to emulation for those who come after, among which are the volumi- 
nous records of his office, and the history of "JMassachusetts in the Re- 
bellion," in two volumes, which are a complete and exhaustive showing of 
the part taken by Massachusetts in the great contest for the life of the 
nation. General Schouler survived but six years after his discharge; his 
death occuring on the 24th day of Oct, 1872. In announcing his death to 
the Militia and the public generally, the following order was issued by 
Governor Washburn. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Headquarters, Boston, Oct. 25, 1872. 
General Orders, No. 16: — 

It becomes the duty of the commander-in-chief to an- 
nounce the death of Major-General William Schouler, late Adjutant-General of this 
Commonwealth, which sad event occurred at his home in Jamaica Plain, on Thursday, 
the 24th inst. 

~ ^^ V ,/ ■ 



- - >» -V— >-« ^J?_P_^ ^'« ^ ■■ i'" ; ; ^' "' _ ^* _ ''^ _ ^ "' _.^_ 



His eminent services to the State and nation during all the years of the recent 
war, becoming a part of the history of the struggle, deserve, as they receive, the 
grateful recognition of the people, and will live as the most fitting monument to his 
memory, while his qualities of mind and heart will be cherished in tender recollec- 
tion by all who were associated with him. 

Military escort at the funeral will be omitted, in accordance with his desire, 
but in token of respect, the office of the adjutant-general, and other military depart- 
ments, will be closed on Saturday, 26th inst., and on the day of the funeral. 

By order of His Excellency William B. Washburn, Governor and Commander- 



In vSeptember, 1866, the numerical designation of the 10th Regi- 
ment of Infantry was changed to the ist Regiment of Infantry. On De- 
cember 17, the dtities of Assistant Quartermaster-General, recently assum- 
ed by Col. Cunningham, were transferred to Col. Samtiel E. Chain ber lain, 
as Deputy Quartermaster-General; and, on the same date, Col. Cunning- 
ham was appointed, Adjutant-General of the Commonwealth, with the 
rank of Alajor-General. 

General Ctmningham, like his predecessors in office, had held coin- 
missions in the militia. He entered the service of the United States in 
the War of the Rebellion, in the 32nd Regt. M. V. M., rendering good 
service, attaining high rank, and for upwards of thirteen years immediate- 
ly subsequent to the close of the Rebellion, continued to serve at the 
headquarters of the militia of the Commonwealth. He was succeded in 
office by Major-General A. Hun Berry, who was appointed and commis- 
sioned Adjtitant-General, January 14, 1879. 

In December, 1867, the office of Paymaster was abolished, and all 
war-bounty rolls, with books and records, were turned over to the Adju- 
tant-General. The encampments were resumed, and the United States 
system of instrtiction for all arms adopted for the militia. The 2nd and 
10th Regiments of Infantry were by General Order No. 9, November 1 1, 
1868, detached from the first brigade, and were constituted a brigade to 
be known as the third brigade. 

April 13, 1870, a salute of one hundred guns was ordered in honor 
of the 1 5tli amendment to the Constittttion of the United States, which 
accorded to all, equal rights, regardless of color, race or previous condi- 
tion of servitude; and on the 23rd day of the same month, the flags were 
displayed at half mast, and minute guns were fired on Boston Common, 
during the progress of the procession and escort at the funeral of the late 
Honorable Anson P. Burlingame at Cambridge. 

The Militia were required to perform at least four hours' duty in 
the open air, on the last Wednesday of May in each year, for parade in- 
struction and inspection, unless the weather proved inclement, in which 


case the duty mig-ht be performed under cover in armories. The com- 
panies were warned, in orders, that unless the uniform prescribed in 
previous special orders was worn, all compensation for such service 
would be withheld. 

It had come to the knowledge of the Adjutant-General, that certain 
of the regimental commanders had appointed persons, other than those 
allowed by law, to act as staff officers: had conferred upon them the rank 
and title of commissioned officers, allowing them to wear the uniform of 
the rank and grade thus improperly conferred: and had issued orders that 
such officers should be obeyed and respected accordingly. He felt it im- 
perative to issue his order (No. 6, i8;o) promulgating that such irregular 
officers would not be recognized on any duty or parade required by law. 
The entire division was mustered at Concord on the 6, 7, 8, 9, and loth of 
September, and for the second time in its history, the militia in its entirety, 
performed camp duty at the same time and place. The Adjutant-General 
reporting- upon this tour of duty, states that the several organizations ap- 
peared in full numbers; that the various duties required of them were per- 
formed ; that their bearing was soldierly and their deportment good. 

The review by the Commander-in-Chief at this encampment, was 
witnessed by thousands. The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company 
of Massachusetts was present by invitation, escorting the Legislature, 
and the plaudits of those present testified their appreciation of the efforts 
of the troops. The inspection found uniforms, arms, equipments and 
other state property in good and serviceable condition. 

The Adjutant-General recommended the purchase by the state of 
suitable permanent camp grounds, for the use of the militia, which re- 
commendation resulted during his administration, in the present well- 
adapted vState Camp Grounds, upon which the encampments are now held. 

The vSeventh Regiment of Infantry was disbanded, four of its com- 
panies being formed in a battalion known as the First Battalion of Infan- 
try, First Brigade. Company "A," of this new battalion was at the time 
commanded by the late Austin C. Wellington. 

The First Battalion of Light Artillery, was formed May 15, 1871, and 
was compo.sed of the First Battery, Capt. Langly, and the Second Battery, 
Capt. Baxter, and was attached to the ist Brigade, M. V. M. 

In June, 1873, a regular systein of enlistment and muster into the 
militia service was instituted, prescribing rules for the formal administra- 
tion of oaths, keeping complete records, and regular and e.\act returns. 

July 10, 1873, the Board of Military Examiners, established by Sec- 
tion 2 I , Chapter 313, act of 1 873, was organized for the examination of com- 
missioned officers, elected or appointed, and has rendered valuable service 
to the militia. Brig. General, W. W. Blackmar, Judge Advocate-General, 
was the first president. The board is now composed of all brigade, reo-i- 


mental and battalion commanders, and is making its impress on the ser- 

In conformity with Chapter 204. of the Acts of the year 1876, the 
Militia was again organized; Sec. 4, of the Act declaring that the com- 
missions of the general and field officers, with their respective staffs, 
expired on April 28, 1876, the date of approval of the act, and abolishing 
the May parades and inspections. This act disbanded the organizations 
of the divisions, and of the ist, 2nd, and 3rd, brigades, and placed in com- 
mand, the captains designated in orders. • All the officers of the non-com- 
missioned staff, were subsequently discharged. 

The inspections of the companies of the militia were completed, and 
as a result, thirty companies were disbanded by General Order No. 19, dated 
July 6, 1876, and the officers discharged. By General Order No. 21, of 
the same year, the remaining companies were organized in two brigades. 
The First Brigade was composed of the Second Battalion of Infantry, com- 
panies B, C, E, G, H, and I, of the old Second Infantry; the Third Bat- 
talion of Infantry, companies E, F, G, and H, of the old Third Regiment; 
The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, companies A, B, C, and D, of the 
Fourth Battalion; the Sixth Regiment of Infantry, companies A, C, D, 
E, F, G, and I, of the Sixth Infantry; the Tenth Regiment of Infantry, 
companies A, B, C, D, E, G, and K, Tenth Regiment, and Company B, 
Sixth Regiment; the First Battalion of Artillery, Battery C, and Fifth 
Battery, and Troop F, Cavalry. 

The Second Brigade, included the First Battalion of Infantry, com- 
panies A, C, D, G, and H, of the First Regiment, and Company ••I," 
Third Regiment; the Fifth Regiment, companies A, C, D, E, F, G H, 
and K, of th^Fifth Regiment; the Seventh Battalion of Infantry, com- 
panies F and I of the Eight Regiment; the Eight Regiment of Infantry, 
companies A, B, C. D, E, G, H, and K, the Ninth Battalion of Infantry, 
companies A, C, E, G, H, and K, of the Ninth Regiment, and the 
First Battalion of Cavalry, companies A, and D, First Battalion of Cavalry. 

The orders directed the commanding officers of regiments, bat- 
talions and unattached companies, to fill vacancies by the election of 
officers. The two cadet corps to remain unattached. 

The reorganization being completed, the First Brigade, Brig. Gen. 
Herbert Moore, was ordered to encamp at the State Camp Ground, Octo- 
ber 3, and the Second Brigade, Brig. General Eben Sutton, at the same 
place, Sept. 26. The First Corps of Cadets, Lieut. Col. Thomas F. Ed- 
mands, at Nahant, July 17. The Second Corps of Cadets, Major Samuel 
Dalton, at Magnolia, August 15. 

Since 1876, the encampment of the brigades have been held annu- 
ally at the State Camp Ground in South Framingham, where everything 
for the convenience of the state troops has been provided by the Common- 


wealth. With this reorganization, came a new system of enlistment, 
muster, and discharge of enlisted men; new blanks were devised to meet 
new conditions; a better system of accounting for property was instituted; 
provisions made for riiie practice and state competitions, and a change in 
the armament made from the Feabody rifle, to the Springfield rifle, 
calibre .45. 

A more thorough plan of inspections was also provided. The force 
had been reduced to sixty-six companies of all arms; the First Brigade 
having thirty-three companies, the vSecond Brigade, thirty-three com- 
panies, with the two Corps of Cadets, unattached, not included. 

vSince 1876, the organization, with a few minor changes, has remain- 
ed the same. Some regiments have been augmented by increase in the 
number of companies; inefficient companies have given place to others, 
and a Xaval Brigade, and Ambulance Corps have been formed. 

January 4, 1883, Major-General, Samuel Dalton, the present incum- 
bent, was appointed Adjutant General. General Dalton had served in the 
militia for many years, and has brought to the discharge of the duties of 
the office, the experience gained in the field, during the War of the 

The immediate predecessor of General Dalton in his last annual 
report, dated December 30, 1882, in his introdi:ctory remarks, makes use 
of the following language: — 

"I regret to say that there is not the interest taken in the subject of military 
duty, by the people of the Commonwealth, that the importance of the subject war- 
rants. The old adage, 'In time of peace prepare for war,' seems to have passed 
entirely out of the minds of the people; or it may be that all have joined that class 
of persons who believe that there will never be another war in this country, and that 
all the money spent for the training of citizens in soldierly ways is utterly wasted." 

This was the burthen of the old song before the breaking out of 
the War of the Rebellion: "The militia is an useless incumbrance, and 
should be abolished;" yet those having the interest of the service at heart, 
and foreseeing the necessity for every effort in the perfection of the only 
reliance of the country in the hour of peril, never sight nf the object 
to be attained, but continued steadily on in the discharge of their duty, 
and with the aid of the liberal appropriations by the Legislature were 
enabled to maintain an efficient body of men. 

Notwithstanding the lukewarmness of the people, General Berry 
expressed the opinion "that the Volunteer Militia of the Commonwealth 
was in far better condition than it was in 1861, and is constantly improv- 
ing, needing only encouragement from the citizens to keep up its high 
standard of attainment." This, coming from a militia officer of that time, 
and a participant in the War of the Rebellion, is worthy of note. 

The authorized strength of the Massachusetts Militia was in 1882 : — 
Active Militia; officers, 334, enlisted men, 4.436; enrolled do, 249,770. 



Of the active militici, ji6 officers and 3,7^8 men were in service at 
the close of the year, 75 per cent, of whom performed duty at spring 
drills, and /S per cent, in camp. The encampments fur the year were 
held as follows: — 

First Corps of Cadets, Lieutenant-Colonel Edmands, at Hingham, 
July II; Second Corps of Cadets, Lieutenant-Colonel Hobbs, at Magno- 
lia, August 15; Second Brigade, Brigadier-General Peach, at State Camp 
Ground, August 22, and First Brigade, Brigadier-General Wales, at State 
Camp Ground, September 12, 1882. 

Such, in brief, was the condition of the militia of the Common- 
wealth, when General Dalton assumed the duties of Adjutant General, 
and entered upon the work of his department with vigor, January 4, 1883. 

The authorized force was the same as in 1882. There was, how- 
ever, an increased attendance at tours of duty, with the average number 
of absentees, as shown by the annual report. Company H, of the Finst 
Regiment, ist Brigade, on account of number of enrollment and low 
standard of efficiency was disbanded, and a new company formed in Mai- 
den to be known as Company — , Eighth Infantry, 2nd Brigade. 

The encampments were held at the .same places and in the same 
months as in the year previous; with the exception of the Second Corps of 
Cadets, which changed its camping ground to Essex. 


First Brigade — Brigadier General Nat. Wales, Boston. 

First Ko^'iment Infaiitrv, 

12 companies, 


Austin C. ■Wellington, 


Second Iti'gJnieiit Iiiliintrv, 

8 companicK, 


Uenjamin F. liridK^s, Jr., 

South Deerfleld. 

Sixth KeyinR'iit Inl'.iiilrr. 

12 coinpiuiies, 


Hpnrv (i. (JriM-ue, 


iJatterv H. Li-rht ArtilU-r.v, 

4 guns. 


Fn-d W. WelliuKton. 


Company F. C;iv:ilry. 

_ - . - 


Sherman H. Fk-tcher, 


Second Brigade— Brigadier General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., Lynn. 

Fifth !:epiniont Infantrv, 

S companies. 


William A. Bancroft, 


Eighth Ilegnnent Intantw. 

12 companies, 


Charles L. Ayers. 


Ninth Regiment Infantry, 

8 companies. 


William M. Straclmn, 


First Battalion Artillerv, 

2 batteries, 4 guns each. 


Georgi' S. Merrill, 


First Battalion Cavalry, 

2 companies, 


Horace G. Kemp, 


CORPS OF Cadets — Unattached. 

First Corps Cadets, 
Second Corps Cadets, 

4 companies, 
2 companies. 

Lieutenant Colonel, 
Lieutenant Colonel, 

Thomas F. Edmands, 
J. Frank Dalton, 


The reports of the Inspectors General show that the encampments 
were quiet and orderly; that the system of skirmish drill and guard 
mounting, inaugurated in 1882, was productive of good results; that all 
roll calls and formations were attended by officers of the department, and 
a general oversight had of the duties incident to the camps; all of which 


were well policed, and presented a commendable neatness in all essential 
matters. Colonel A. ]\I. C. Pennington, Fourth United States Artillery, 
was the representative of the army at the camps of this year, the force 
consisting' of sixty companies of infantry, three batteries of artillery, 
three troops of cavalry, and two cadet corps. 

In 1885, the brigade, regimental and battalion organization re- 
mained the same, the changes in company organization being the disband- 
ment of Company E, Second Infantry, Company K, Sixth Infantry, Com- 
pany G, Eighth Infantry, and the formation of a company in Orange, to 
be known as Company E, Second Infantry, February 26, 1885, and one in 
Clinton, December 7, to be known as Cmnpany K, Sixth Infantry, to take 
the place of disbanded companies. The encampments were held at the 
same places as in the year previous. The annual drills were held in Jiine, 
July, August, September and October, the attendance being about the 
same as during the previous year. 

The encampments were held in June, July and August, at which 
31 1 olificers and 3,336 men performed duty, the aggregate strength of the 
militia being 319 officers and 4,119 enlisted men. Battery B, Fourth 
United States Artillery, Captain John Egan commanding, encamped with 
the 1st Brigade, and from the 6th to the 13th of June took part in all the 
drills and ceremonies of that brigade, and instructed the non-commis- 
sioned officers of artillery of both brigades in the manual of the piece 
and mounted drill. Colonel A. AI. C. Pennington, Fourth Artillery 
U. S. A., detailed to observe and report to the War Department upon 
the militia, notes great progress in drill and general duties, and in speak- 
ing of the 2nd Brigade, remarks that the policing of the camp was per- 
fect; the Eighth Regiment policing by detail, and the other commands 
being turned out entire. The whole camp was remarkable for its clean- 
liness; it was a rare thing to see even a piece of paper anywhere on the 
grounds. The sanitary conditions were well cared for by the medical 
department, and his report on the militia in its entirety, showed a com- 
mendable promptness in the discharge of duty, and a marked improve- 
ment over any previous record. 

An Ambulance Corps was created this year by Act of Legislature, 
Alay 14, 1885, one for each brigade, consisting of one commissioned 
officer, two sergeants, and thirteen privates, the commissioned officer to 
be a medical officer, appointed by brigade commanders. The organization 
of the First Corps was completed by the appointment of Samuel B. Clark, 
M. D., as ambulance officer, and it was attached to the 2nd Brigade, and 
performed duty at the brigade encampment in July. 

In 1886, a new company of infantry was organized in the City of 
Gloucester, and attached to the Eighth Regiment as Company G. Bat- 
tery C. First Battalion Light Artillery, was disbanded, and Com]:)an3' .M, 


of the Eighth Reghnent, transferred, and made a battery in its place. A 
new company was formed in Somerville and attached to the Eighth Regi- 
ment, and Company M, and Battery A, Light Artillery, were re-organized. 

The uniform of the militia, which had consisted of shako, double- 
breasted short tiinic, wide, short trousers and leggings, was changed dur- 
ing this year; fatigue caps, blouses, and long trousers and overcoats pur- 
chased, and a recommendation made for new dress coats. The uniforni 
discarded was very attractive and effective on the troops in line and in 
column; but the shako gave place to the German spiked helmet, the wide 
trousers to the long, and the leggings were done away with. Of the latter 
the United States Inspector of the previous year, in his report to the War 
Department, remarks: "It was mentioned to me that there was some 
thought of doing away with the neat, light leather leggings now worn by 
the men. These add very much to the military appearance of the men, 
and are above all very useful. It would be a mistake to discard them." 

These were, however, abolished, but were immediately adopted by 
the troops of other States; the appearance of one of the Massachusetts 
regiments in the streets of the City of New York, having directed atten- 
tion to them, for the reasons stated by the United States Inspector. 

Change was the order, and change there was — not a vestige of the 
former uniform remaining after the orders of the adjutant general were 
accomplished. Opinions, however, vary, and the successor of the United 
States Inspector of the year previous, states that "the change gives great 
satisfaction to the men." The Bill of Dress for the militia was published 
in General Orders No. 4, dated March i, icS86, and was, in fact, the uni- 
form of the United States Army, so far as possible. 

In 1S87, the militia was increased from sixty to seventy-two com- 
panies, new companies being accepted from the following mentioned 
towns: Adams, Amherst, Attleboro, Amesbury, Braintree, Greenfield, 
Hudson and Northampton, leaving vacancies for five companies of 
infantry; the total strength authorized being, commissioned officers, 384; 
enlisted men, 5,234; total, 5,618; and the actual force, commissioned 
officers, 361; enlisted men, 4,455; a total of 4,816. In September, the 
First Regiment of Infantry and the First Corps of Cadets, accompanied 
Governor Ames and the ilassachusetts delegation to the Constitu- 
tional Celebration, held in Philadelphia, where they were reviewed by the 
President of the United States on the i6th, and compared favorably 
with the best troops from the various states, and were complimented in 
General Orders by the governor. Companies B, Eighth Infantry, and G, 
Ninth Infantry, were disbanded — a new company being organized in 
Worcester, to be known as Company G, Ninth Regiment Infantry. 

In 1888, new companies were organized in Boston, Lowell, Ply- 
mouth, North Adams, Newburyport and Southbridge, completing the 


number allowed by law. The twelve new companies authorized were 
attached to the eight company regiments, making all the infantry regi- 
ments of twelve companies each. This year $77,932.38 was expended 
for dress coats and equipment, and $5,149.66 was received from the .sales 
of condemned military property; §5.045.70 of which was expended for 
haversacks and the erection of a store-house at the State camp ground. 
Some changes were made, many of them in company letters in the vari- 
ous regiments. On October 3, all the organizations of the Volunteer 
Militia were assembled in Boston for annual drill, their good conduct and 
drill calling for great praise from the public, and meeting with special 
commendation from the commander-in-chief in orders. 


First Brigade— Brigadier General Benjamin F. Bridges, Jr., South Deerfield. 

First Kcjjiment Jiifaiitrv. 

12 companies. 


Tht.mas R Mathews, 


Secoiui KfK'iiit'iit Intaiitrv, 

V2 companies. 


Embury P. Clark. 


Sixllille^iuient Iiifaiitrv. 

12 companies. 


ilt-nrv (_;. (.;reene. 


BuUt-rv 11, Lipht Artilk-ry, 

•4 jruns and 2 Catlings, 


George L. Allen, 


fctnipanv F, Cavalrv, 

_ . . - 


Horacf \V. Wiison, 


>ipnal (nips. 

- _ . - 

l-irsl Lientenant, 

Hans H.M. Uorgliardt, 


Ambiilanct; Corps, 


Set'oiul Lieutenant, 

Myles Standisl). 



Brigade— Brigadier 

General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr.. Lynn. 

Fifth lleginient Infantrv. 

12 companies. 


William A. Bancroft. 


Ei-hlh li.-jiii. nt iMtaiitrv. 

12 Companies, 


Francis A Osgood, 


Ninth l^^■l[ll.■Ilt Inlantrv, 

12 companies. 


William M. Strachan, 


First B;iltali.>u Artillery. 

2 batteries, 4 guns and 

2 Catlings each, 


Geortre S. Merrill, 


First Battalion Cavalry, 

2 companies, 


Horace G. Kemp, 



First Lieutenant, 

C. Merton Ilalev. 


Ambulance Corps, 

Second Lieutenant, 

Arthur W. Clark, 


Corps of Cadets— Unattached. 

First Corps Cndets. 
Second Corps Cadets, 

4 compatiies, 
4 companies, 

Lieutenant Colonel, 
Lieutenant Colonel, 

Thomas F. Edmands, 
J. Frank Dallon, 


From 18SS to 189S the organization has remained practically the 
same, making progress in the knowledge of duties, perfecting itself in 
the all-round requirements, so essential for the service to which it was 
so soon to be called. The average attendance at all tours of duty in 1887, 
was 88 1-2 per cent of the enrollment. 

On October 3, 1889, the troops of the 2nd Brigade were concen- 
trated at Lynn, and under instructions from the Adjutant-General of the 
.Vrmy, Captain D M. Taylor, of the Ordnance Department. U. S. A., 
was present to observe and report upon the militia there assembled, and 
in his report he makes the following statement: — 

"A feature which particularly struck me, was the presence of an assistant 
inspector-general with each regiment and battalion. They were present (mounted) 
with the regiment from the time of concentration until the men were disbanded, and 
during the parade rode habitually behind the organization, to which each was as- 
signed, moving from point to point, however, if necessary, to see all that was going 
on. As these assistant inspectors-general are all officers who have served the State 
long and well in the various organizations of the militia, their just criticisms are 
bothfeared and respected, and their praise anxiously sought for; and their services are 


most valuable. The result of their labors is shown by the condition of the troops. 

Ill fact, for all of the troops present I have only words of praise. Well 

armed, neatly and serviceably uniformed, well drilled and disciplined, they were 
an impressive sight, and reflected great credit upon their officers who have given, 
without stint, their time and exertions (and he might truthfully have said of their 
substance), to render the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia a worthy exponent of that 
military spirit, which has been conspicuous in the Bay State from the earliest days of 
the Revolution; and as it appeared was a convincing proof to any military observer, 
that, if the United States ever again has occasion to make a call to arms, that call 
will be responded to from the State of Massachusetts by a force superior in numbers, 
equipment and discipline, and not inferior in patriotic spirit, to that superb offering 
of noble men she so freely laid on the national altar in the dark days of 1861." 

'I'FICE OF (.(ILUNEL U'.M. C. (J.U'ELLL, A. A. G. 

The remarks of Captain Taylor were applicable to all the troops of 
the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, and the fulfillment of the prophesy- 
in its full significance is shown by the response made by Massachusetts to 
the call of the President of the United States in 1898. 

The Xaval Militia was created this year under chapter 366, 
approved May 17, iSSS, and comprised four companies under the com- 
mand of a lieutenant-commander, whose assimilated rank was major of 
infantry, the organization of which was completed in 1890. 


At the request of A.ssistant Adjutant-General Capelle, but with 
some misgivings as to his ability to complete so excellent a resume of 


the official history of the State forces, the editor has attempted to bring- 
this interesting history up to the date of the 1898 reports. The thanks 
of the publishers — and it would seem of everyone interested in the ^las- 
sachusetts Militia — are due to this veteran contributor, for a concise and 
yet spirited narrative of the many and laborious years of faithful depart- 
mental service, which, (aided by the enthusiasm, time, and private means 
of thousands of citizens), have evolved from the primitive trainbands of 
the past, the vigorous, disciplined, effective and splendid organizations 
which now muster under the white banner of Massachusetts, and the 
Stars and Stripes. 

In 1 89 1, the attendance at camp, exclusive of military bands, 
aggregated 5,544 against 5,229 in 1890; 5,082 in 1889; 5,090 in 1888; 
4,144 in 1887; and 3,183 in 18S6. 

In 1892, the 1st Brigade, under Brigadier-General Benjamin F. 
Bridges, encamped at South Framingham, July 9 to 14. The 2nd Brig- 
ade, Brigadier-General B. F. Peach, South Framingham, July 2 i to 25. 
The First Corps Cadets, Colonel Thomas F. Edmands, Hingham, July 14 
to 18. The Second Corps Cadets, Colonel John Hart, Essex, August 11 
to 15, inclusive. 

In 1893, General Bridges mustered his ist Brigade at South Fra- 
mingham, June 6, breaking camp on the loth; Peach's 2nd Brigade went 
out later, dwelling in tents from July 18 to 22, inclusive; Edmand's First 
Corps Cadets encamped at Hingham, July 11 to 15, and Hart's Second 
Corps Cadets at Essex, August 8 to 12, inclusive. These encampments 
were all noted as evidencing a steady improvement in enrollment, effect- 
ive strength, discipline, drill, and morale, as well as in the sanitary and 
police regulations imposed and enforced. There were few changes or 
innovations in the way of uniform or equipment, the most noticeable 
being the adoption of the light canvas leggings still in vogue. 

On January 11, two companies each of the Fifth and Ninth Regi- 
ments acted as an escort at the funeral of Major James P. Frost, and a 
few days later the death of Major-General Benjamin F. Butler claimed 
special recognition of the .services of a veteran citizen soldier, a promi- 
nent leader in the great Civil War, an eminent lawyer and politician, and 
an ex-governor of Massachusetts. On January 16, Brigadier-General 
Benjamin F. Peach and his staff of the 1st Brigade, with the Sixth 
Regiment of Infantry, Troop F, Cavalry, and Battery C, of Lawrence, 
paid the last funereal military honors to the dead veteran. 

In his report of this year, Adjutant-General Dalton acknowledges 
the liberality of the navy department in equipping and providing for the 
Naval Brigade, and thus contrasts it with the parsimonious policy of the 
government in its dealings with the National Guard. 

"I again repeat, that the navy department is most liberal in its 


allowance for a small command, appropriatintj as it does nearly one-half 
as much as is allowed for the entire military force of the State. It can 
be readily seen that this branch of the service receives care and attention 
from the general government, which thoroughly equips it, while the land 
force has not appropriation enough, as it takes the entire annual appro- 
priation to purchase one modern battery, and all of it to supply 1,000 
rifles of the kind now in use. 

"Under the present annual appropriation, the newly-adopted rifle 
cannot be supplied until years have elapsed, and by that time the arm 
will have become obsolete. Several bills have been presented to Con- 
gress for relief, but in every case without success. When it is under- 
stood that the State cannot purchase or draw arms beyond the regular 
approjDriations by Congress, and that the war department cannot sell or 
exchange, it will be seen how powerless the department is to remedy this 

"The light batteries are old and obsolete, requiring repairs, having 
been in use for many years; yet the ordnance department cannot loan or 
exchange old for new field carriages of the same pattern in its possession 
but in good condition, which have been discarded, and are stored away, 
never to be used by the army. 

"I would suggest that the attention of the congressional delegation 
be called to this subject, and their aid invited in the passage of the bill 
now before Congress, and known as House Bill No. 4291." 

In 1894, the encampments were held as usual: ist Brigade, Gen- 
eral B. F. Bridges, South Framingham, June 4 to 9; 2nd Brigade, Gen- 
eral B. F. Peach, July 16 to 21; First Corps Cadets, Colonel Thomas F. 
Edmands, Hingham, July 7, to 14; Second Corps Cadets, Colonel John 
Hart, Essex, August 6 to 11, inclusive. 

By General Order No. 6, of this year, the following "emergency 
ration" was established, which ration any oflicer, of or above the rank of 
captain, may, at his discretion, provide for his company or command 
when ordered for special duty. 

Emergency ration, for each company of sixty men, daily: Hard 
tack, sixty pounds, average, one pound per man; luncheon or corned beef, 
sixty pounds, one pound per man; coffee, eleven and a-half pounds, three 
ounces per man; sugar, fifteen pounds, four ounces per man. 

Few changes in equipments were made. The First Infantry were 
furnished with a miniature redoubt and full-.size working models of heavy 
guns and mortars, with the necessary appliances, at the Boston South 
Armory, and the Gatling guns, six in number, originally pertaining to the 
artillery, were distributed among the infantry regiments. 

General Benjamin F. Bridges and staff, with the First Battalion of 
Cavalry, and Battery A, light artillery, on vScptember 4, acted as escort at 



the obsequies of Major-General Nathaniel P. Banks, whose record as a 
statesman, politician and soldier, as well as the deep and inspiring interest 
which he displayed in the citizen soldiery of Massachusetts, richly de- 
served a much more magnificent military tribute. 

The following statistics, embodying the record of the comparative 
increase of skilled marksmen in the state forces, was thus recorded: 1882, 
2S8; 1883, 545; 1884, 795; 1885, 1,058; 1886, 1.449; 1887. 1.897; 1888, 
2,336; 1889, 2,610; 1890, 2,459; 1S91, 2,822; 1892, 3.401; 1893, 4,408. 
The attendance at drill for 1894 was 5,736 officers and men. 

In 189S, the national appropriation amounted to $13,122, and there 
was, of course, no material change in the armament of the State troops. 
The usual encampments were held, and that of the First Brigade was 
visited by Alajor General Nelson A. Miles, U. S. A., who, in a letter to 
Governor Greenhalge, expressed his approval of the camp, and the 
appearance and discipline of the brigade. The attendance at camp for 
the year was 5,607. 

Adjutant-General Samuel Dalton, in his report, again pleads for a 
supply of modern arms as follows: — 

"Efforts have been made to increase the amount of the appropria- 
tions to the states, but so far without success. It is impossible to prop- 




erly equip any state military force with the present meagre allotment. 
It would take fifteen years to equip the force with the new magazine rifle, 
and five years to equip it with the latest pattern of the Springfield rifle." 

In 1896, the chief change in equipment was the abandonment of the 
antiquated cartridge-box and belt, and the substitution of the modern 
webbing belt. The year's record is thus summed up by the adjutant- 
general : — 

"The year past has been the most .satisfactory for work and prog- 
ress I have ever known. All commands, as a whole, have been energetic; 
great advances have been made in practical work; troops have a better 
idea of what they are for, and what is expected of them by the common- 
wealth. Officers and men better realize their importance, and study and 
work have been continuous, showing excellent results. I can safely say 
that the militia, as a whole, is in a most satisfactory condition, and ready 
to perform its whole duty." 

In 1897, no changes were made in the organization of the militia, 
although, by act of the Legislature, the First Regiment of Infantry, as 
organized, was changed to the First Regiment of Heavy Artillery. The 
strength of the active militia, as organized by law, was 458 officers and 
5,896 enlisted men; total, 6,354. Total reported for service, in December 
of this year, 434 officers, 5,718 men; total, 6,152. 


The enrolled militia, as reported from towns and cities, numbered 
433,975 men, against 422,03 i in 1896 — again of 11,944 men. 

The regular encampments were held this year as usual: The First 
Brigade; with the exception of the First Regiment Heavy Artillery; under 
Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Bridges, at South Framingham, June 8 to 
12; the Second Brigade, under Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Peach, 
July 20 to 24, inclusive; the First Corps of Cadets, Colonel Thomas F. 
Edmands, July 10 to ij; the first two days, July 10 and 11, being by order 
of the colonel; July 12, the annual drill, and July 13 to 17, the live days 
of camp duty ordered by law. The Second Corps of Cadets, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Samuel A. Johnson commanding, held their annual drill at Box- 
ford, August 2, and five days of camp duty, from August 3 to 7, inclu- 
sive; the First Regiment Heavy Artillery, Colonel Charles Pfaff. at Fort 
Warren, Boston Harbor, August 7 to 14, inclusive; doing voluntary duty 
August 7 and 8. This tour of duty — the first since the regiment became 
heavy artillery — while hindered by three days of heavy weather, was very 
satisfactory, and prepared the way for its very timely and creditable ser- 
vices in the Spanish-American war of 1898. 

Other tours of duty included the presence of the First Corps of 
Cadets and Second Regiment of Infantry, in company with Governor 
Wolcott and staff, at the Grant Memorial Service, New York, April 27; 
and the services of Companies A, C, D, G, K, and L, First Infantry, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Charles L. Hovey; Companies A, B, C, D, E, H and I, 
Ninth Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel L. J. Logan; Companies B and L, 
Ninth Infantry, Companies A and H, Fifth Infantry, and Comi^any L, 
Sixth Infantry, under Major William F. Oakes, Fifth Infantry, all under 
Coloriel Frederick B. Bogan, Ninth Infantry, at the Shaw Memorial Ser- 
vices, Boston, May 31. 

Ainong the officers honorably retired in 1897 appear the names of 
two brigade commanders. Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Bridges, of 
Charlestown, long the esteemed commander of the ist Brigade M. V. M., 
was retired, with the rank of Brigadier-General, July 9, 1897. Brigadier- 
General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., of Lynn, commanding the 2nd Brigade 
M. V. M., was retired with the rank of Major-General, July 24. 

Early in January, 1898, Governor Wolcott, having previously made 
an exhaustive study of the conditions and requirements of the Massachu- 
setts militia, directed Adjutant-General Dalton to make all neces.sary prep- 
arations for war, while avoiding all action which should promote unneces- 
sary alarm and excitement; but in the language of General Dalton's 
report: "On January i, i8gS, the militia were well equipped, as a whole, 
for the field, so far as the annual appropriations of this department would 
permit;" and this condition still exists. 

The chief weakness of their equipment, and this still obtains, was 


the quality of their arms, the infantry being furnished with Springfield 
single-shot breech loading rifles, using common black powder ammuni- 
tion. As will be seen from a perusal of the history of the Second Regi- 
ment of infantry, these rifles were lacking in range, slow and ineffective 
of fire, and by creating great quantities of smoke, gave additional fatality 
to the fire of the Spanish, who were armed with magazine Alauser rifles, 
using ammunition fixed with smokeless powder, of great accuracy, low 
ti-ajectory and immense range and penetration. The light batteries had, as 
they still have, antiquated and obsolete muzzle-loading rifles and smooth- 
bore brass Napoleons, using black powder, and comparatively useless at 
ranges exceeding 1760 yards. The Heavy Artillery went to garrison 
forts, not furnished with a single modern cannon, but mounting obsolete 
Dahlgrens and rifles so sparsely provided with even such inferior ammuni- 
tion that no practice could be allowed; and the prospect of a bombard- 
ment excited the greatest apprehension in the minds of all who were 
acquainted with the actual condition of things. 

On January 15, all militia organizations were ordered to appear at 
armory inspections, equipped as if for two days' field duty. Command- 
ing officers were directed to designate the equipment to be worn, with 
proper clothing for the season, also rations, and the methods of transpor- 
tation. All the commanding officers of the force seem to have been in- 
stant "in season and out of season" to inform themselves, and to prepare 
for the anticipated crisis. In the words of General Dalton, "they should 
all be credited with an earnest desire to do their whole duty." 

He adds the following details: 

"In December, 1897, and early in January, 1898. as far as possible, supplies 
were drawn from the United States government. The reports of the inspectors 
showed the troops to be well equipped. Sufficient company uniforms, intrenching 
tools in part, cooking outfits, and general campaign equipage were on hand to equip 
the militia. It was deemed advisable to make full preparation for war should it 
come. This had to be done quickly and no appropriations for war being available, 
Colonel Harry E. Converse, assistant quartermaster general, was detailed to look up 
supplies, in order that if the emergency arose the department would be ready to act. 
As soon as war was declared, blankets (woolen and rubber), intrenching tools and 
other supplies were furnished, and the troops were supplied with the uniforms already 
in their possession. Many exchanges were made and new clothing issued. Tents 
were furnished, and under the admirable care of Brigadier-General Robert A. Blood, 
surgeon-s-eneral, all commands were furnished with hospital tents, beds, bed clothing 
and medicines." 

At an early date Colonel Henry E. Converse was made acting quar- 
termaster general, and on February 27, Adjutant-General Dalton and 
Brigadier-General Curtis Guild, Jr., were sent to Washington to confer 
with the national authorities, and to find out what could be done by Mas- 
sachusetts in case of war. A full report was made to the governor by 
these gentlemen. The report continues: 

"Prior to the declaration of war, the navy department, by letters and tele- 
grams to this office and to Captain John W. Weeks, commanding Massachusetts Naval 


Brigade, asked if the men of the Naval Brigade would volunteer without pay, trans- 
portation to be furnished, to proceed to New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia and other 
places; to man monitors and take them to designated places along the coast. A 
prompt reply was forwarded, that the details could move at once on receipt of orders. 
These detachments performed their full duty and were paid by the Commonwealth." 

On the evening of April 25, the following telegram was received: 

Washington, D. C, April 25; 1898. 
The Governor of Massachusetts, Boston, Mass. 

"The number of troops from your state under the call of the President, 
dated April 23,1898, will be four regiments of infantry and three heavy batteries of 
artillery. It is the wish of the President that the regiments of the national guard or 
state militia shall be used as far as their numbers will permit, for the reason that they 
are armed, equipped and drilled. Please wire as early as possible what equipments, 
ammunition, blankets, tents, etc., you have, and what additional you require. Please 
also state when troops are ready for muster into United States service. Details follow 
by mail. R. B. ALGER, Secretary of War. 

"To this telegram a reply was sent the same evening by Your Excellency, stat- 
ing that the troops were ready to move at once, fully armed and equipped. The 
letter of details was received on the evening of April 27, designating Springfield as 
the rendezvous, which was at once changed to the state camp ground at South Fram- 
ingham. ' 

This call was modified, and the First Regiment Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery, Colonel Charles Pfaff commanding, was accepted as 
organized, and sent to Fort Warren, Boston harbor on April 26, for eight 
days' duty of camp and annual drill. 

Later the First was mustered into the service, May 9, and served at 
Fort Warren and elsewhere along the New England coast until mustered 
out November 14, 1898. 

On April 25, by direction of Governor Wolcott, Colonel Embury P. 
Clark, Second Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry; Colonel Fred B. Bogan, 
Ninth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry; Colonel William A. Pew, Jr., 
Eighth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, and Colonel Charles F. Wood- 
ward of the Sixth Regiment, Mas,sachusetts Infantry, were designated to 
raise regiments of volunteer troops and ordered to report at once. On 
April 25, at a conference, these officers accepted their appointments, and 
proceeded at once to recruit men and prepare for active service. 

xA-ll were to rendezvous at the state camj^ ground at South Framing- 
ham, and in accordance with general orders, went into camp, at the fol- 
lowing dates: Second Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., on May 
3; Ninth Regiment, May 4; Eighth Regiment, Mays, and Sixth Regiment, 
May 6; Colonel Embury P. Clark of the Second Regiment being placed 
in command of the camp. 

There being no provision made by the United States War Depart- 
ment, the regiments rationed themselves until the federal officers could 
provide for them. All the regiments were fonnally mustered into the 
service of the United States a few days later, but their term of service 
was made to begin with the arrival of the regiment at camp. 

All the officers received their commissions from Governor Wolcott, 


having j^reviously passed a satisfactory pliysical examination. When 
ordered to the field each regiment was fully supplied with clothing, equip- 
ments, intrenching tools, tentage, ammunition and medical supplies, 
including hospital tents, beds, bed linen and appliances, and were ready 
to move several days before marching orders were received. 

At the second call of the President, May 25, the War Department 
asked for another regiment if it could be fully recruited, and immedia- 
tely equipped. Governor Wolcott wired in return, that a regiment was 
ready and fully equipped. Colonel Jophanus H. Whitney, of the Fifth 
Massachusetts Infantry, recruited his regiment to the maximtim company 
strength, and went into camp June 30. 


First Resjiment Heavy Artillery. 749 

Second Regiment Infantry, 943 

Fifth Regiment Infantry, 1,315 

Sixth Regiment Infantry, 1.327 

Eighth Regiment Infantry, 1.327 

Ninth Regiment Infantry, 1.327 

Tenth United States Signal Corps, 68 

Massachusetts Naval lirigade 414 7,470 

Enlistments in U. S. Army, 2,752 

Enlistments in U. S. Navy, 1,438 
Enlistments in U. S. Marines, 400 

Enlistments in U. S. Engineers, 165 4,755 

Total Enlistments, 12,225 

The card index, however, shows that there volttnteered from Mas- 
sachusetts for the Spanish-American war: in the army, 10,459 m^-^n, and 
in the navy and marine, 1,910 men; total, 12,369 men. This discrep- 
ancy is accounted for by the fact, that the officer who recritited the engi- 
neers made no return of the men enrolled, but records of a part of these 
soldiers have since been received from Washington. 

The apportionment to ^lassachusetts, under the first call of the 
President, April 22, 189S, was 4,554; under the second call, May 25, 1898, 
2,834 — a total of 7,388. Thus the Old Bay State furnished over and 
above her quota — 4.S37 officers and men, besides a large number of which 
at present no official computation can be made. 

At the request of General A. W. Greely, chief signal officer, U. S. 
A., for a Massachusetts corps in the signal service. Lieutenant Thomas 
F. Clark, Ninth Regiment, AI. V. M., an expert in telegraphy, was 
commissioned captain, and Lieutenant Henry W. Sprague of the 
Signal Corps Second Brigade, ]\L V. ^L, commissioned lieutenant. This 
company, known as the Tenth Company U. S. Signal Corps, served 
acceptably in Cuba and Porto Rico, and was mustered out at Boston, 
December 10, 1898. 

The services of the Naval Brigade, Captain John W. Weeks com- 


mantling', were numerous, varied, and satisfaetory, including, as tliey did 
the manning- of tlie monitors Catskill and Lehigh, the converted yacht 
Inca, converted tug Seminole and converted ferryboats East Boston and 
Governor Russell. Un April 23, a telegram was received at 1.30 p. m., 
from the assistant secretary of the navy. "Send officers and crew for the 
Prairie to New York at once," and the officers with the crew detailed, 
excepting four men, reported for duty at the New York navy yard the 
next morning. 

Two officers and forty-one enlisted men manned coast signal sta- 
tions from April 22 to August i, at Monhegan Island, and Caj^e Eliza- 
beth, Maine, Appledore Island, N. H., Cape Ann, Cape Cod and Gay 
Head, Mass., and Block Island, R. I., with headquarters on the Minnesota, 
receiving ship, Boston harbor. This work was intelligently and efficiently 
performed, receiving high praise from the officers of the navy connected 
with this important coastguard. The editor would further say that many 
officers have expressed their unstinted praise of the work done by the 
Adjutant-General Samuel Dalton, and his subordinates; the ceaseless dili- 
gence and courteous services of Captain Luke R. Landy at the state camp 
and arsenal; the untiring interest, efficiency, humanity and skill of Sur- 
geon General Blood and the whole medical staff, and indeed of the spirit 
and work of every branch of the military establishment of Massachusetts. 

Through their efforts and those of Governor Wolcott and his 
advisers and subordinates, such forces were levied and sent forth on land 
and sea, as those of which Washington spoke when he wrote to a friend 
who had reported unjust aspersions cast upon the New England soldiery. 
'Tt is painful" wrote the Father of His Country, in January 1777, "for 
me to hear such illiberal reflections upon the eastern troops, as you say 
prevail in N — . I always have said, and always shall say, that I do not 
believe any of the states produce better men. Equal injustice is done 
them in other respects; for no people fly to arms more promptly, or come 
better equipped or with more regularity into the field." 

From 1620 to 1684, during the colonial period of constant danger 
of foreign invasion and Indian alarms: in the almost constant struggles of 
the loyal provinces, for their very existence, and against the enemies of 
the King; in the wars of the Revolution; the later sea warfare against 
France; the war of 1812, the Mexican invasion, the great civil war and 
the Spanish-American war; the words of Washington may be fitly applied 
to the wisdom and prevision of the rulers of Massachusetts, and the 
courage and warlike spirit and endurance of her citizen soldiers. Long 
may it be before her people shall consent that the white state flag shall 
cease to wave over her levies, or fail to appear upon the battlefields of the 
republic; or her name cease to designate the regiments, batteries and 
squadrons raised and officered among her people. 

By Colonel Augustus N. Sampson. 

THE State Armories for militia purposes in the State of ]\lassacliu- 
setts, are nine in nimiber, and were constructed under an Act of 
the Le;4-islature, approved May i8, 1888; the full text of which, 
being' largely explanatory, is here inserted. 

Bt' il eiijclcd, as folhics: 

Section i. The governor, with the advice and consent of the council, is here- 
by authorized within si.x months from the passage of this act, to appoint three persons, 
one of whom shall be an experienced builder, who shall be designated and known as 
the armory commissioners. Said commissioners shall receive such compensation, 
while engaged in the service of the Commonwealth, as the governor and council shall 

Sect. 2. Said commissioners shall acquire for the city of Boston, by purchase or 
otherwise, two suitable lots of land in different parts of the city, and shall erect on 
each lot a suitable building for an armory capable of furnishing accommodations for 
twelve companies of infantry, for such companies of artillery, cavalry, signal corps and 
detachments of the militia and for such of the militia headquarters located in said city, 
and such rooms for company, battalion and regimental drill and for the care of state 
property as they may deem necessary, and shall, in the same manner, acquire in each 
city in which two or more companies of militia are located, a suitable lot of land, and 
erect thereon suitable building for an armory capable of furnishing accommodations for 
as many companies and militia headquarters and detachments of the militia as are loca- 
ted in such city, and such rooms for drills and care of state property as the commis- 
sioners deem necessary: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no land shall be acquired until 
the site has been approved by the governor and council; and no building shall be 
erected until the plans thereof have been so approved. 

Sect. 3. The said commissioners shall cause to be recorded in the registry of 
deeds for the county and district in which any land shall be taken under authority of 
this act lies, a description of the land as aforesaid, as certain as is required in an ordi- 
nary deed of land, with a statement, signed by the commissioners, that the same is 
taken for the city in which it is situated, under the provisions of this act; and the 
act and time of filing thereof shall be deemed to be the act and time of taking such 
land, and to be sufficient notice to all persons that the same has been so taken. The 
title to all land so taken shall vest absolutely in the city in which it is situated and its 
assigns forever. 

Sect. 4. The said commissioners may, by agreement with the owner of any 
land taken under the authority of this act, determine the value thereof, and, if they 
cannot agree, either party may have a jury to detennine such value, in the manner 
provided for the determination of damages for land taken for highways in the same 
city, on petition therefor filed in the clerk's office of the superior court for the county 
in which the land lies, within one year from the taking of the land. 


Commonwealth a statement showing the amount determined by agreement or verdict 
as the value of any property purchased or taken by said commissioners, the auditor 
shall certify such amount, and a warrant shall be made therefor, as in the case 
of other lawful payments from the treasury of the Commonwealth; and, upon the ex- 
ecution of such release or conveyence as shall be prescribed by the attorney-general, 
the treasurer shall pay to the party in interest the sum to which he is entitled, as 
aforesaid, and all sums necessary therefor are hereby appropriated. 

Sect. 6. To meet the expenses incurred under the preceding sections, the treas- 
urer and receiver-general, shall, with the approval of the governor and council, issue 
scrip or certificates of debt, in the name and behalf of the Commonwealth, and under 
its seal, to an amount not exceeding the amounts designated, as hereinafter provided 
for a term not exceeding thirty years. Said scrip or certificates of debt, shall be is- 
sued as registered bonds, or with interest coupons attached, and shall bear interest 
not exceeding four per centum per annum, payable semi-annually, on the first day of 
March and September of each year. Such scrip or certificates of debt shall be desig- 
nated on the face as Armory Loan; shall be countersigned by the governor, and shall 
be deemed a pledge of the faith and credit of the Commonwealth, redeemable at the 
time specified therein in the lawful inoney of the United States, and shall be sold and 
disposed of at public auction, or in such other mode and at such times and prices and 
in such amounts, and at such rate of interest, not exceeding four per centum per an- 
num, as the governor and council shall deem for the best interest of the state. 

Sect. 7. The treasurer and receiver-general shall, on issuing scrip or certifi- 
cates of debt, establish a sinking fund and apportion thereto, from year to year, an 
amount sufficient with its accumulations to extinguish the debt at maturity. The 
amount required each year to pay the interest and sinking fund requirements for the 
loan contracted for such armories shall be included in and made a part of the sum 
charged to the city in which such armory is located, and shall be assessed upon it in 
the apportionment and assessinent of its annual tax; and the treasurer and receiver- 
general shall in each year notify each such city of the assessment, which amount 
shall be paid by such city into the treasury of the Commonwealth at the time required 
for the payment of its state tax, and after said debt has been extinguished no rent 
shall be paid for the use of said armories by the Commonwealth. 

Sect. 8. When said armories, or any of them, have been completed, and so 
long as they are used for armories, they shall be under the exclusive control of the ad- 
jutant-general, under the orders of the Commander-in-Chief, and all expenses of the 
care, furnishing and repairs of the same shall be paid by the Commonwealth, and pro- 
vided for in the annual appropriation for the militia. 

Sect. 9. Nt) proceedings shall be had and no expense incurred for the acquiring 
of land or for the erecting of a building for an armory in any city under the forego- 
ing sections until said sections have been accepted, and the amount of the loan nec- 
essary to meet the expense of acquiring the land and erecting the armory has been de- 
signated by the city. 

Sect. 10. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Previous to the enactment of this general statute, the meeting- 
place of each body of local militia had been selected by its officers, and 
the rent was made a charge against the local corporation. As regards the 
general character of such headquarters, they were simply the largest halls 
that could be obtained in the place where the companies were located. 



A part of the First Rcyiincnl, of Uostoii, for example, drilled in 
wliat was known as the old Winslow Skating Rink, whither it had re- 
moved from Boylston Hall when the old Boylston Alarket was torn down. 
None of the eompanies of the State had partieularly fine quarters, and the 
enactment of the statute to provide armories was a general move in a long- 
needed direction. The act was introduced at the joint solicitation of City 
Solicitor Andrew J. Bailey, (who drew it up,) and i\djt. -General Samuel 
Dalton. It was passed by both houses, without any o^jposition of a formal 
character. In the July following, the Governor of Massachusetts appoint- 
ed John W.Leighton of Boston, General Jcjsiah Pickett of Worcester, and 
John N. Peterson of Salem, as com- 
missioners to carry out its jjrovi- 
sions. The Board organized July 
24, with the choice of John W. 
Leighton as chairman, and on the 
15th of the following August, Col- 
onel A. N. Sampson was made clerk 
of the Commission. The following- 
sums have been designated by the 
several cities, as the amounts they 
were willing to be assessed for the 
purpose of building an armory for 
each under the provisions of the act. 
Boston, (two armories,) $600,000; 
Worcester, $125,000; Lowell, $105,- 
000; Fitchburg, $60,000; Lawrence, 
$70,000; Lynn, $100,000; Spring- 
field, $1 10,000; Fall River, $ 1 50,000. 

The first proceeding in each 
case, was the acceptance of the Act, 
by the vote of the local common 
council and the approval of the 
Mayor. The amount to be appropriated was then discussed andjjassed on. 
The commissioners, having been notified, then made a personal visit to 
each city. Sometimes several such visits were necessary before the 
proper spot of land could be selected. As will be observed, the pro- 
visions of the Act left the acceptance of the same, wholly as a matter of 
choice to each town having two companies of militia. 

Thus Salem (for its Second Corps of Cadets) chose to build its own 
armory by private subscription, following the example of the First Corps 
of Boston, whose splendid stone building on Columbus Ave. is the finest 
armory in New England. To the first cost thereof, $120,000 has since been 
added for repairs and improvements. 

roi,. Arc. ,v 


The Act was discussed and accepted in Cambridtje, but the matter 
has remained in statu quo ever since, with a strong jirobability, that 
the necessary funds will soon be voted. In New Bedford, it was at one 
time thought probable that that city would build an armory, but the pro- 
ject has evidently been abandoned. With these exceptions, every town in 
the state possessing two companies has taken advantage of the provisions 
of the Act. The State Armories in Boston and Worcester were begun at 
about the same time. Ground was broken for each, in the early fall fol- 
lowing the passage of the Act. There were no formalities, such as lay- 
ing of corner-stones, or other special ceremonies, although all the build- 
ings were "warmed" by a rousing reception when completed. The pur- 
chase of the site for the Lowell armory, finished the third in order, was 
consummated January i, 1889. 

In completing title, the commission not only went through the 
ordinary form <:)f purchase, but entered its claim under the right of Emi- 
nent Domain, so that there could be no possible default in clear posses- 
sion. On April 12, i8go, the chairman of the commission notified the 
Governor, in accordance with the Act, that the armory located on Irving- 
ton Street, in the city of Boston, had been completed, and was ready for 
occuijancy. On ^lay lo, following, the Worcester Armory was thus 
turned over. On October 28, the Lowell Armory was ready. On March 
2^, 1891, the East Armory on East Newton and Stoughton Streets, in the 
city of Boston, was reported to His E.xcellency as completed. This was 
followed in November by the finishing of the State Armory at Fitchburg. 
The location for the armory at Lawrence was selected and submitted on 
January 25, 1892, and the building was completed in the Februarj' of the 
following year. On May 7, 1894, the city of Springfield designated Si 10,- 
000 for an armory building, and on November 27, 1S95, it was formally 
tendered to the local militia. ( )n Alay 17, 1894. tlie armory at Lynn was 
reported to His Excellency, as ready under the Act, for occupancy. On 
August 27, 1895, the plans and site selected for the Fall River Armory 
were approved, and on February 18, 1897, the building was ready for 
the local companies. On October 6, 1897, John ^^'. Leigliton, chairman of the 
commission, died. Mr. Leighton was the exj^ert builder of the commis- 
sion; a man of rare judgment, experience and skill as a building con- 
tractor; a citizen, and man of affairs of the highest repute in public and 
private life. It was the great good fortune of the state of JMassachusetts 
and of the militia, that he was spared liy jirovidence until the special 
task, to which the later years of his life were devoted, had been thor- 
oughly and well completed. 

At the commencement of the labors of the commission, the com- 
pensation of the chairman was fixed by a special Act at S2.500 per annum, 
that of the other commissioners at §2,000, and the clerk of the board at 




$5 per day, when on duty. Thi.s was paid out of the general fund of 

During- the first twi) or three years following the enaetment of the 
statute, and while several armories were in eourse of eonstruetion at one 
tin\e, the expense was not felt; but when in 1S91. the Fitchburg Armory 
was the only building in eourse of constriiction, the amount paid the com- 
mission was regarded by that eommunity as an undue burden. The 
matter was brought before trovernor Russell and Council, and after some 
discussion it was agreed that the salary of the chairman should be con- 
tinued, but the other two commissioners and the clerk have since served 
without Compensation. _ 



As regards the buildings, the only criticism that can be made as a 
matter of absolute justice to all concerned, is, that the local spirit in 
nearly every instance, was scarcely equal to the appropriation which was 
actually desirable. In Boston, for example, $600,000 was voted for two 
armories. Following the splendid example set by the militia of other 
vStates. notably the New York State, National Guard, a million dollars for 
each building would not have been excessive. There was money enough, 
however, in every instance, to build a good structure, a substantial one. 
and one that reasonably answered the requirements of the situation. The 
inspiration for the first building completed, the Irvington Street Armorj' 
in Boston, was the result of a visit of the board of commissioners, with 
the supervising architect, C. W. Cutter, of the firm of Waitt & Cutter, to 
New York City, and from the conditions studied there, the best possible 
results were afterward worked out, on a scale commenstirate with the 
approjDriation for each armory. 

The models which have influenced the general style and character 
of the ^Massachusetts State buildings were the magnificent armories of the 
.Seventh, Eighth and Twelfth Regiments of the New York State, National 
Guard, particularly the noble building of the Seventh Regiment. 

In New York, an entire armory is devoted to a single regiment. 
The regulations of the statute in this state permitted a local armory for 
every two companies of militia in a single location. 

The great central drill-rooms of the Massachusetts militia are the 

K:iviirite rirtlll'i-s. Ni). I. 

THE UULL C.VLI,, CKI.ME.V, lSJ4-.j, l\iiiiliiiij hii Elr.aWlh Tliom/.i 

South and East Armories in Boston, which are used for battalion drills by 
the militia of all the other towns on great occasions. The span of these 
buildings covers the largest unobstructed space of any hall in New 



Eng-land. These are model drill and assembly rooms, but not, as a mat- 
ter of fact, very much more. In the smaller towns, however, the armories 
have been finished up with all the modern improvements, and several of 
them have the attractive atmosphere of a club house. The state armories 

Favorite Pirtur 

■of ^lassachusetts are in all respects excellent structures of the kind. The 
appropriation was not exceeded in any instance, and the buildings were 
constructed throughout without hitch or hindrance; and are, in all ordin- 
ary details, models of what can be done in a structure for local military 
purposes within the scope of the appropriations designated. 


The Irvington Street Armory, otherwise known as the South Arm- 
ory, Boston, is divided into three sections: — the head hrtuse, on Irvington 
Street, the drill shed in the centre, and the rear shed, which is devoted 
to the uses of the Naval Battalion, with an entrance on Dartmouth street. 
The head house contains the brigade and regimental head quarters; 
company and uniform rooms for twelve companies of infantry, and 
several other rooms devoted to the signal corps, musicians, etc. The 
dimensions of the head house, are 70 by 130 feet, and it is three stories 
high, with towers and battlements, for signal purposes, in case of need. 
The main tower is 100 feet high, and the battlements extend well above 
the flat roofs, and would give excellent protection behind their walls. 
The height of the drill shed roof is sixty-four feet, and is well lighted and 
entirely free from obstructions of any kind. The floor is of maple plank, 


well adapted for the evolutions of troops. The whole building is heated 
by a steam plant of two tubular boilers, sixty inehesin diameter and six- 
teen feet long'. 

The ediliee — built of brick, sandstone and steel — conveys a strik- 
ing idea of the purposes for which it was erected. Its huge dimensions 
and remarkable height, impress even the most casual observer with a 
deep .sense of its impregnable solidity and strength. 

The main entrance on Irvington Street is a wide deep archway, ap- 
proached by massive stone steps, and barred by heavy oaken doors stud- 
ded with immense iron bolts. Immediately beyond, a large and lofty 
hall opens on commodious, and plainly though comfortably furnished 
rooms, serving as regimental, battalion, and company headquarters and 
offices, none of which display any extravagance of fitting or unust;al orna- 
mentation. Flags and other insignia of military life decorate all of them, 
but aside from these only the busts and pt)rtraits of military commanders, 
both past and present, and admirably grouped photographs of the officers 
of the regiment and of the various companies are the fitting decorations. 

A large picture of Ex-Governor Brackett and his military staff: a 
tablet in bronze of ^lajor-General Benjamin F. Butler, an excellent por- 
trait of the late Colonel Austin C. Wellington, the former Colonel of the 
First Regiment, and a small old-fashioned cannon, which was surrendered 
to General Washington, by the British, at Yorktown, and afterwards, dur- 
ing the war of the Rebellion, captured from the Confederates, by Union 
soldiers, are the principal and most interesting objects of interest and dec- 

The drill shed witli its vast proportions, and lirm yet elastic floor, 
is especially well adapted to the performance of regimental and company 
evolutions; and at times it is by no means over large, or deficient in spee- 
tactular attractions, when the friends of the several battalions, are allowed 
to witness their disciplined and soldierly exercises. 

The rear shed devoted to the use of four companies of the Naval 
Brigade, is equipped with boats, guns, cutlasses, and all other parapher- 
nalia. There is a model (jf a vessel, on which the na\'al companies are 
taught their special duties, and at the rear end of the drill shed there is an 
accurate reproducticm of a small earthwork, wherein is mounted a model of 
one of the largest breech-loading guns used in the service. In the base- 
ment, there are rifle and revolver ranges, of adequate length and arrange- 
ment. There are ten rooms on the first floor of the head house, and six- 
teen rooms on each of the other floors. The foundations and grounds 
were made firm by the dri\-ing of 3500 piles, and the land alone, cost §75,- 
000. The work was begun on the 4th of December, i.sss, and was finish- 
ed iust a year later, under the skillful supervision of Messrs. Ccmnery & 
Wentworth, masons; Ira (t. Hersey, carpenter; and of t'nc Boston Bridge 

1-Asi AK.Mi)i:v. iii:ii.i. sin;i). 


\\'orks, in those portions which required steel, 
pleted, cost the state and city. $225,000. 

The biuldinuf when com- 


The East Newton Street Armory, otherwise called the Boston East 
Armor3^ like the South Armory is divided into three sections, — the head 
house, on East Xcwton Street, the drill shed, in the centre, and another 
large shed, to the right of the main building, which is set apart for the 
use of Battery A of the artillery. The head house has t\vcnt3--six rooms, 
regimental headquarters, and company, uniform, harness, and toilet rooms, 
with apartments for the Signal and Ambulance Corps. 

FavuritL- ri,iiiii->. >.i, 


J'aiiilintf by Eliznfiflh Thompson. 

The dimensiiins of the drill shed are 12S by 300 feet, and from the 
centre rises a tower containing three rooms, capable of defense if neces- 
sary. At the rear of the head house, there is a balcony 118 feet long 
which looks down upon the drill shed, and on each side, along its whole 
length and width, are seats on raised platforms, for the use of troops not 
tinder arms, and visitors. Four Hotchkiss and one Gatling rapid-fire 
guns furnish the equipment of Battery A. 

As in the case of South Armory, there is not the slightest evidence 
anywhere, in or around the building, of any attempt at elegance or osten- 
tation. Its grim and strong exterior, its immense capacity, and simpli- 
city of finish, and the practical arrangement and furnishings of the several 
rooms reflect credit on the commissioners and architects, who planned 
and built it; and the patriotism and devotion of the citizen soldiery 
by whom it is occupied. 



The Armory at Lynn, although not so large, massive, and imposing 
as the great Boston Armory, is a stately and handsome struetnre, con- 
veniently located. The drill shed is over one hundred and twenty- 
five feet long by sixty-eight wide, and a smaller shed originally in- 
tended for the boats of the Naval Brigade, but found to be too small, is 
now used to store a rapid-fire Gatling. The entrance to the armory is 
through an arched gateway, tiled half its height with art tiles, finished in 
ivory-white, which forms an entrance twenty-five feet wide, with massive 
oaken doors, constructed in b;)lted panels. The first floor is occupied 
by Company E of the Naval Brigade, Lieutenant Henry D. Sears, Chief 
of Company. On the right, the room in the tower, occupied by the 
commissioned officers, is twenty-two feet in diameter, and circular in 
shape. Attached to it is the dressing-room of the junior commissioned 
ofiicers, containing separate lockers for the use of each. The Chief of 
Company has a private room, eight feet by twelve, leading from which 
is a fireproof storage-room, for securely keeping the books and papers, 
and containing, also, a locker for the commander's uniform. 

In the rear of this room is another, twenty-six feet wide and thirty 
feet long, used by the enlisted men for purposes of recreation. In it are 
chairs, tables, and settees, and on the walls are tastefully disposed, the 
many prizes won by the company in the several events, participated in 
by the Naval Brigade. (Jn the left of the entrance is the petty officers' 
room, corresponding to that of the commissioned officers; in the rear of 
this the janitor's room and the uniform room of the seamen, containing 
individual lockers, with a gun-rack occupying the centre of the room, the 
latter being so constructed that the openings are on the roller system 
sliding back into the case. 

On the second floor, are the rooms of Company I of the Eighth 
Regiment, Captain George N. B. Cousens, identical with those below, ex- 
cept that the room corresponditig to the janitor's is used for a repair 
room, and fitted with extra closets for surplus uniforms. The walls are 
hung with many valuable pictures, jDresented by friends, and also a 
collection of photographs of members of the C( nipany who fell in the 
late war. 

The third floor is like the second, and occupied by the old Lynn 
Light Infantry, Company D, Eighth Infantry, organized in 1812, and now 
commanded by Captain Freeman Murray. Among their many valirable 
relics of the past, is a brass cannon, of Russian make, which was raised 
from the harbor of Sebastopol, after the Crimean war, by Colonel John 
E. Gowen of the United States engineers, and presented by him to the 
company. It is the only cannon of the kind in the country, and is valued 
very highly. 



The recreation-rooms for the use of the rank and file are twenty- 
six by thirty feet, the work-rooms fifteen feet square, and the uniform- 
rooms are twenty-six by twenty feet. The corridor leading from the 
front entrance to the drill shed, is eighteen feet wide and fifty feet long, 
the stairway leading up from the left side, while a well for light and ven- 
tilation extends from the cellar to the extreme top of the building. 


The great Worcester Armory, erected in 1S89, during the adminis- 
tration of Governor Oliver Ames, is located on Grove Street, and occupies 
the entire space between two broad thoroughfares. While rugged and 
grim in its design, and on 
account of its great size, it 
is nevertheless an imposing 
and stately edifice. 

The head house fronts 
on Grove Street, with a very 
handsome entrance, and is 
72 feet in width, by 67 in 
depth. It has four floors, 
and the tower is 115 feet 
above the level of the side- 
walk. On the right of the 
vestibule is a large room, 
handsomely, heavily and 
solidly furnished, thickly 
carpeted, and having lofty 
walls, adorned with char- 
acteristic pictiires. The 
wainscoting is six feet 
high, of brown ash, and all 
rooms are trimmed in ash, 
while the hallways are 
finished in oak. A small 
mounted cannon stands in 
the chimney-place, and there are large, deep windows opening on Grove 

Adjoining the officers' large room there are two smaller ones, 
occupied by the officers of Battery B, commanded by Captain 
Joseph Bruso, Jr., the only veteran of the Civil War serving in any Wor- 
cester comj^any. These rooms, also, are furnished in excellent taste, with 
all possible conveniences necessary to their use, including large tables and 
roll-top desks, with large wash rooms and toilet rooms and all the modern 

Fiivuriti; Pictui 

;/ l^i/ E, JJ8 ^Vc-Ht77/t;. 



accessories. (Jn the left of the entrance hall, is the comiaany room of the 
battery, with the ofifices of the seryeant and armorer. The area of the 
basement is commensurate with that of the whole building', and is con- 
stantly kept in perfect condition. In front are the quartermaster's rooms, 
and tlie uniform rooms of the several companies, together with the har- 
ness room, where thirty-two sets of harness are kept on wooden horses 
in readiness for use. There is a fifty-yard rifle range located here, with 
all the modern improvements. 

The drill shed is 75 by 160 feet, with a large balcony, reached by doors 
from the head house overlooking it, and comfortable settees are ranged 
around the room. Opening into it is the gun park, containing four U. S. 
standard, steel, rifled ten-pounders, with caissons, fixed ammunition, etc., 
always ready for rtse. 

On the second floor are rooms, devoted to the officers and organ- 
izations, of Companies A, C, and H, of the Second Regiment, 'SI. V. 'SI. 
and Company G, of the Ninth Regiment. These are suitably and often 
handsomely furnished, and contain many objects of interest. The room 
occupied by the Worcester Light Infantry, abounds with relics of a past, 
associated with the proudest records of the Massachusetts ^Militia. This 
company, organized in 1S05 largely through the efforts of Levi Lincoln, af- 
terwards Governor Lincoln, has never failed since that date to have one or 
more members of the Lincoln family on its muster roll. The flag carried 
by this company in 1812, when, under Capt. John W. Lincoln, they march- 
ed from Worcester to Boston, for service at South Boston and Fort War- 
ren, is the palladium and chief ornament of their quarters, and is preser\-- 
ed under glass with great care. Above the flag hangs the drum beaten en 
the same march by Ithamar Smith, tlien a nine-year old boy. 

There is also a room occupied by the Worcester City Guards, which 
with other attractions, boasts of a large collection of prizes for athletic 
proficiency, won by members of the company. The record of this com- 
pany is intimately connected with the social, political and military history 
of the leading citizens of Worcester county from 1840 to 1899. 

On the fourth floor are large banquet-halls, and above them a flat 
roof with high ramjaarts, and towers at each corner, furnished with port- 
holes which command every part of the building, and fully covering the 
drill shed. Within this battlement, at least one hundred men can be used 
as riflemen, to ward off any attack upon the building, and rising many 
feet above it, is the large square tower, pierced for musketry and artillery 
and fltted with all other necessary means of defense. At each corner of 
the drill shed roof is a tower, with the same end in view, and, taken al- 
together, the building is an admirable example of the foresight and care 
with which the Commonwealth looks after both the comfort and the se- 
curity of her citizen soldiery. 



Tiu; l.U\\Kl.l. AUMuliV. 

The Lowell Armory was ereeted in 1889, under the administration 
of Governor Ames, and is three stories in heiglit, with a frontage of i 15 
feet, and is 200 feet in dejDth. Its architecture is ornate, although solid 
and substantial, combining an imposing and enduring appearance with 

r.OSTOX EAST .AUMi)1;Y. detail of BALCiiN'Y, ami i; Ml, INC CIN WITH CAlSSiiX. 

attractiveness to the eye. It is occupied by four companies of the M. V. 

M.: Comijanies C and G, of the vSixth Regiment, Company M. of the 

Ninth Regiment, and Company D, of the Second Corps of Cadets, all of 
which are commodiously and luxuriously quartered, each company hav- 
ino- a .suite of five rooms set apart for its separate use. 



The drill shed is one hundred and fifty feet long by sixty wide, with a 
balcony overlooking the floor built out from the head house, and measuring 
fifteen by sixty feet. The head house with twenty-nine rooms, is fin- 
ished throughout in ash, to match the inside finish of the various rooms. 
The armorer's quarters are fitted with all necessary tools and requisites 
for the care and repair of weapons. Rooms are set apart for the use of 
the first division of the Ambulance Corps. The basement contains in ad- 
dition to store-rooms, a large number of toilet-rooms, and a rifle range 
115 feet in length with three targets. The head house terminates in a 
tower, 115 feet high, suitably crenellated and pierced for rapid-fire artil- 
lery. On the third floor are gymnasiums, a band-room, and the quarters 
of the janitor. 

In the officers' room of Company C, there is a photograph of 
Luther C. Ladd, a member of the Lowell City Guards, Company D, who 
was killed in the riot at Baltimore, April 19, 1861, while marching to the 
defense of the national capital. The frame of the photograph is formed 
of shells which were picked up on Ship Island, about seventy-five miles 
fnmi New Orleans, by H. B. Ripley, a member of the same company. 

There are handsome lawns around and about the armory, which 
are always very neatly kept, and the several associations take great pride 
in adding to the attractiveness of their respective quarters. 


This edifice, although not one of the larger armories, has a very im- 
posing front elevation, and is as well finished as any in the state, and is 
kept in perfect order and condition by its janitor, ilr. E. S. Witherell, 
whose little oflice is a museum of military souvenirs and relics; and to whose 

courtesy the editor owes 
the unusually good photo- 
graph from which the view 
given was engraved. 

It fronts on How- 
ard, just off of Main St., 
and is easily accessible 
by the street cars from any 
portion of the city; situated 
as it is in the very heart of 

It is occupied by 
Company B, Second Regi- 
ment, M. V. M., (otherwise known as the Springfield City Guards, organi- 
zed August 15, 1852, and at first attached to the Third Artillery M.V. M. 
Later on, it was designated, Company B, Twelfth Regiment, 1855; Com- 

'■// /;. li.iailU 




KavoriU^ riclui" 

faintucj bij L. btlailU. 


pany F, Tenth Regiment, 1859, and on June 21, 1861, it was mustered 
into the serviee as Company F, Tenth Regiment, il. V. ]\I., and later 
attached to the Sixth CorjDs of the Army of the Potomac, where it partici- 
pated in the greatest battles of the Virginian and Pennsylvanian cam- 
paigns. Since then its record has been one of soldierly discipline and 
good marksmanship, and, 
as is told elsewhere, of 
effective serviee in the 
Santiago campaign of 1 898. 
Its company quarters, pre- 
sent m a n y interesting 
souvenirs, including a 
bronze tablet to the mem 
ory of those comrades who 
fell in Cuba, under the 
leadership of Capt. Henry 
A. McDonald, who als^ 
holds the responsible posi- 
tion of City Marshal. 

Company G, Second Regiment, M. V. M. otherwise known as the Pea- 
body Guards, dates back to 1868, being named after Col. Everett Peabody, 
the first Massachusetts colonel killed in the war, who met his death at Pitts- 
burg landing April 6, 1862. At iirst, its membership was limited to Wil- 
cox Post of the G. A. R. under whose auspices it was organized. In the 
ranks were 32 men who had held commissions in the civil war, but after- 
wards the membership was extended to veterans not members of AVilcox 
Post, and finally to all desirable recruits, the last veteran in the ranks be- 
ing Major Sessions, who resigned the captaincy in 18SS. It is command- 
ed by Capt. John J. Leonard, who has been a member of the company 
since April i i, 1877. 

The roll of membership has included many of Springfield's leading 
business and professional men, and some of the most famous marksmen of 
the world. The company has been prominent in social events; it has en- 
tertained many of the crack companies of New England, and has vi.sited 
them at their homes. 

It was among the first companies in the state who took an active 
part in rifle shooting, and from 1882 to 1889, won six prizes in State 
matches in as many different years. Its annual target shoot for the com- 
pany badges is an event of the season. In 1894. it led the regiment in the 
number of men qualified as marksmen, and in the total nimiber of credits. 
Its quarters reflect the spirit of discipline which has characterized the com- 
pany, and a bronze tablet records the names of seven men who gave 
their lives for the flag during the Spanish-American war in 1898. 



Compati}' D, Second Regiment, M. V. M., which also occupies 
quarters at the Springfield Armory, is the junior company of the regi- 
ment, having been organized May 3, 1894. Its tirst commander was 
Captain, now Colonel, Roger Morgan, of Springfield, and after his appoint- 
ment he was sricceeded by 
Captain Henry S.Warriner. 
the jDresent commanding 
officer, who led it during 
tlie Spanish American war 
and was wounded at El 
Cancy by a Spanish ^Mauser 
bullet. Comjjany K was 
the first infantry company 
in the United States to be 
mustered into the United 
State's service for the Span- 
ish-American war. and its 
captain was the senior vol- 
unteer officer on the list of 
[Massachusetts w o u n d e d 
during the war. At the 
battle of El Caney, as ajj- 
pears elsewhere, Company 
K lost one man killed and 
seven wounded, but on its 
return, after being mus- 
tered out of the United 
States service, immediately 
rejoined the Massachusetts Volunteer Alilitia, with full ranks. 

The Springfield Armory is also the headquarters of the Second 
Regiment, and of the Connecticut River division of the Naval Brigade. 
There is neither battery of artillery, troop of cavalry or independent com- 
pany of foot, to divide with these two organizations, their co,sy and hand- 
some armory, and the just esteem and admiration of the good people of 

Both organizations, while full of soldierly emulation, and desire to 
excel in all martial exercises and discipline, co-operate with each other in 
all social and public enterprises, and take a just pride in making the arm- 
ory a neat and attractive rendevous. Their social gatherings are recog- 
nized as among the most j^opular and enjoyable of the year, and the sou- 
venirs and menus issued, arc most attractive; while their high reputation 
for faithful and efficient performance of duty, however irksome or dan- 
"■erous, has relieved them from all imputation of military exclusiveness. 

SAVIM, 1111: ILAti. 



Company H, Naval Brigade, M. V. M. occupies tastefully and 
elegantly furnished quarters, whose walls are embellished with choice 
pictures, one of which is a splendid marine painting of "The Kearsarge and 
Alabama" presented by a patriotic citizen of Springfield, and valued at 
$1500. The "Sinking of the Birkenhead" a British troop ship, in which a 
British regiment awaited almost certain death while the women and 
children were being transferred to a place of safety, is another impres- 
sive lesson of soldierly devotion and discipline. The great central chande- 
lier, surmounted by a corona of naval cutlasses, is also an original and fit- 
ting ornament. A complete collection of projectiles and fixed artillery 
ammunition, very fully represents the older and more recent changes in the 
art of gunnery. 

Lieutenant commanding J. K. Dexter and his brother officers occu- 
py cosy quarters, tastefully draped, and embellished with trophies of 
arms and armor, pictures, flags, etc., etc. 

The company was organized March 6, 1893, with fifty-three men 
and five commissioned officers, viz: J. K. Dexter, lieutenant and chief; 
H. S. Grossman and F. H. Weston, lieutenants, junior grade; and W. O. 
Cohn and W. S. Barr, ensigns. Its seijvice on land and sea, as elsewhere 
detailed in the history of the Naval Brigade, is a record of good dis- 
cipline, superior marksmanship, excellent duty at sea, and a readiness for 
active service, as shown in its service during the war of 189S-99. It has 
a landing on the Connecticut River for practice with the steam launch and 
■ ship's cutter provided; and a one-pounder Hotchkiss rapid-fire gun en- 
ables the company to attain proficiency when serving the secondary bat- 
teries; now so important a part of the armament of a modern cruiser or 
battleship. Its rifle practice, as elsewhere shown, is worthy of great 


The State Armory at North Lawrence, is one of the medium class 
as to size, having an area of 67x187 feet, the head house being 67x40 
feet, the drill shed 67 x 127 feet, and the gun shed 67x20 feet in area. 
It fronts on Amesbury, between Essex and Methuen Streets, and differs 
little in appearance from the other armories of its class. It is finished in 
oak and ash, is well fitted, and kept in prime order by Armorer John P. 
Ryan, and gives its occupants every facility for comfort, convenience, 
and the acquisition of a high degree of military skill and discipline. 

It is occupied by Battery C, of Major A. N. Duchesney's First 
Battalion of Light Artillery, commanded by Captain Wm. N. Steadman, 
who occupy the lower floor of the head house, and keep in readiness four 
steel ten-pounder rifled guns, and one Gatling. 

On the second floor are the officers' and company quarters, and 
store rooms of Company F. Ninth Regiment M. V. M.. known as the 


Lawrence Light Infantry, commanded by Captain Joseph H. Joubert; and 
opposite these, the room-; of the rank and file, and commissioned 
ofl&cers, of Company L, Eiglitli Regiment, AL V. iL, Captain James M. 

Botli these infantry companies were sent to tlie West Indies during 
the Spanish-American war, and both liave suffered severely from fever 
and other tropical diseases, during their stay in Cuba and Puerto Rico, and 
since their return. 

Like their comrades in other regiments, the inmates of the Law- 
rence Armory have added to the other attractions of their quarters, choice 
engravings, etc., etc., the war pictures of Detaille, De Xeuville and Eliza- 
beth Thompsim being very much in evidence. 


The Fall River city council of 1 894 and 1 895 seriously considered 
the proposition of constructing a large and handsome armory, and on Jirne 
3, 1895, the land owned by the city at the corner of Pine and Seabm-y 
Streets, known as the Ruggles Park site, was set aside for an armory, and 
the sum of §100,000 appropriated for the erection of a suitable building 
thereon, as provided by the armory act. 

Previous to this, several sites had been discussed and favored by 
different parties, but during all the discussion there was a strong under- 
current in favor of a site on the corner of Bank and Durfee Streets, 
and at a hearing held in the council chamber July 19, 1895, on the peti- 
tion of William B. Edgar and others for an increase of the appropria- 
tion to cover the cost of this site, many prominent men advocated this 
location, and, largely owing to the tireless work of Richard P. Borden, 
Esq., an ex-officer of Company F, an additiinial appropriation of 825,000 
was made. 

On December 16, a communication was received from the Armory 
Commission, stating that after purchasing the site named, the appropria- 
tion as already authorized was insufficient for the erection of a suitable build- 
ino-. On December 26, the further sum of §25,000, asked for by the 
Armory Commission, was set apart, making the whole sum available for 
the purpose §150,000. 

The site was surveyed April 4, 1896, by Thomas Kieran, the first 
two stakes being driven by Capt. S. L. Braky and Lieut. Wm. B. Edgar. 
Three davs later, Capt. Braley turned the first shovelful of dirt of the ex- 
cavation for the foundation and thereafter the work was carried on by 
Beattie & Wilcox of Fall River, with celerity, and the massive structure 
is a lasting mmiument to their ability and skill as builders. The archi- 
tects. :\Iessrs. Waitt& Cutter of Boston, also drew the plans for the Spring- 
field Armory. 



The survey of other armories suggested many new ideas, which 
were incorporated in the plans for the Fall River edifice. The arrange- 
ment of the head house differed radically from that in other armories, and 
plans submitted by Joseph M. Darling received careful consideration and 
some of the ideas contained were incorporated in the plans of Waitt & 

The building was turned over to the State by the contractors on 
Monday, February 8, 1897, and on the uth Capt. Braley was made cus- 

Favoritc Pictures. No. 7. 

THE mvoi:.\c. 

I'aiNliNU I'll r. /l.liiill,: 

todian of the building as the senior officer occupying it. It was dedicated 
in due form Wednesday, February 34, 1897. 

The masonry work was under the supervision of Foreman Oscar 
Schult, and the carpentry work under the direction of Foreman Alfred M. 
Borden, the material used being Fall River granite, rock faced, and from 
the quarries of the contractors in the eastern part of the city. In the guise 
of a huge fortress, the castellated walls rise, in the tower eighty feet 
above the grade, and their crenellated ramparts are five feet in height, while 
the tower is nineteen feet higher than the rest of the head house, which is 
four stories high. The windows are narrow, as is fitting in a fortress, and 
are so placed as to allow an enfilading fire should the building ever be 
attacked. The head house is seventy-five feet deep with a frontage on West 


Bank Street of ninety-live feet, and is aj^proached by an incline built of 
granolithic work leading- to the arched doorway or sallyport, on either side 
of which are incandescent arc hghts of unique and appropriate pattern. 

Hig'h up on the facade of the head house, below the row of dentals 
in the top coping, is a section of finished stone bearing the inscription, 
"Armory, M. V. M." At either end of this inscription are the insignia 
of the army and navy. Below it is sculptured the coat of arms of the 

Just inside the p,)rtal is a marble tablet inscribed as follows: 

Armory Erected A. D. 1S98. 

RoEjer Wolcott. Governor. 
Samuel Dalton, Adjutant General, 
William Stedman Greene, Mayor, 
John W. Leighton, Josiah Pickett, Joseph N. Peterson, Armory Commissioners. 

-Augustus N, Sampson, Clerk. 

Waitt & Cutter, Architects. 

Louis G, Destremps. Supervising Architect. 

The main hallway, leading from the door to the drill shed, is eleven 
feet wide and fifty feet in length. On either side of this hallway are the 
suites of rooms for use of the ciaiipanies in the armory, two on each floor. 
At the present time. Company M, of the First Heavy Artillery, i.s quar- 
tered on the first floor, and Companies F and I, of the Naval Brigade, on 
the second. 

Just inside the main door^A-ay. opening from the hallway on each 
side are the rooms for the company commanders. These rooms are ten 
by fifteen feet in size. At present, the room on the right, on entering the 
building, is occupied by the armorer, Joseph Farwell. 

Beyond this is the lieutenants' room, 11x19 feet, connected by 
doorways with the commanding officer's room and with the company 
quarters. The corner of the building is occupied by the non-commissioned 
officers' room, I2.\;i6, which also opens into the company room. The 
company room is 30x32 feet, and opening from it, on the outer side of the 
building, is a large room 14x20, devoted entirely to lockers for uniforms. 
In each suite of rooms is a small toilet room, and one is connected with 
each of the commanding officers' rooms. These are all fitted with marble 
and nickel trimmings. On the north side of the company room, is a 
handsome gun rack with closets underneath for the belts and other equip- 
ments. Stairways open from the hallway on both .^ides, at the rear end, 
near the door of the drill hall. 

On the second floor, directly over the main doorway of the build- 
ing, is a small room, 10x10, used by the qtiarteruiaster of the Heavy Artil- 
lery. The head house is finished in brown ash, with wainscoting six 
feet high. The decorations are simple and plain, but lend a handsome 
effect to the rooms. 



The drill hall is 75x80 feet in area without side galleries. The roof 
is supported by a series of steel trusses with conneeting purlines. The 
ironwork and steelwork for this roof was supplied by the Boston Bridge 
Works. From the floor to the roof tree is 45 feet. The drill hall is 
supplied with three turret ventilators, and eontains two one-pounder, 
rapid-fire Hotchkiss guns, and two three-inch breech loading rifles. 

x\t the south end of the hall, opening froin the second floor, is a 
balcony or gallery 12x20 feet from which visitors may have an excellent 
view of the door. 

The building was fitted with steam heating apparatus and plumb- 
ing by Miller & Johnson. The electric lighting was put in by Edgar & 
Buflington. The company rooms are lighted by incandescent lights, and 
the drill hall is lighted by five incandescent arc lights and 72 incandes- 
cent lamps. The posts supporting the gallery rail are carried up to a 
height suitable for the support of a cluster of electric lights, there being 
four of these groups along the front of the gallery. 

The following Fall River concerns, also contributed to the com- 
pletion and decoration of this handsome armory: the painting and finish- 
ing, Josiah Lee; furniture by Frost & Atwood; the carpets by E. S. Brown 
& Company; curtains and other upholstery, Watson & Hentershee. 

Company M, of the First Heavy Artillery, now commanded by 
Captain David Fuller, was raised in 187S, by Sierra Braley, its first com- 
mander, who held that position until 1897, having enli.sted in the Third 
regiment M. V. M. in 1862, and served almost continually for nearly 
thirty-five years. The company is armed with Springfield rifles of the 
latest pattern, with rod bayonet, and in the matter of rifle practice. 
Company M has given more attention to this vital branch of military 
training than many other companies, and has become famous for profici- 
ency in the use of the rifle. Up to 1897, Company M held the right of 
the line in the regiment. By the resignation of Major Richard H. Morgan 
to take a place on the staff of the commander-in-chief, the Cape battalion 
became the third in seniority, and Company M the ninth in Hue. 

Company F, of the Massachusetts Naval Brigade, was organized 
September 30, 1892, through the efforts of First Lieutenant John D. 
Munro of the First regiment, and William B. Edgar, who now commands 
the division or company. With only the month of October left for tar- 
get practice, this company, numbering nearly sixty men, set to work so 
vigorously, and was so assiduously and skillfully coached by its officers, 
that at the close of the month every man had qualified as a marksman. 
This record immediately placed the company in a prominent position in the 
State militia, and Colonel Chase, in his report for the season, made spec- 
ial mention of the achievement as an unusual one, and one which was an 
example to the whole State force. 


This record has been followed by repeated success, and that of 
1895 was a truly remarkable one for a volunteer company. Of the 58 men 
enrolled, all but six reached the highest class, sharpshooters. That rec- 
cord, 284 out of a possible 290, won the State prize of $25 for qualifying- 
every man, and the Efficiency Cup of the Naval brigade, which trophy 
was retained in 1896, 1897 and 189S, and still decorates the handsomely 
furnished quarters of that company. It is valued at §500, and seems 
likely to become the permanent property of ComiDany F, whose Lee-Met- 
ford rifles, cased in glass, and in fine order, are ranged over against it. 

A handsome brass trophy, recently acquired, tells its own story as 

"Military and N^aval Tournament, Boston. 
Presented to Division F. N. B. 
For Proficiency in Naval Light Artillery Drill, Boston, 1899." 

A tablet in the main hallway, recalls the services and untimely 
death of Lynward French, coxswain in 1892, and chief boatswain's mate 
at the time of his death at Guantanamo in 1898. 

Division or Company I, Naval Brigade, occupies the other suite on 
the same floor, and was organized in 1898, under Lieutenant G. R. H. 
Buffington, formerly a member of Company M, First Regiment, M. V. M. 
Its record is one of active .service, in the Spanish-American war, and will 
be found at length in the pages devoted to the Naval Brigade. It is 
armed with breech-loading Springfield rifles of the obsolete pattern, 
which should in justice to a fine, and deserving body of men, be at once 
replaced by the Krag-Jorgensen or some equally effective weapon ; as 
much of the drill now learned must be un-learned when modern weapons 
are substituted. 


The Fitchburg Armory is situated on Church street, and was first 
-occupied December 21, 1891. The first cost of the building was $60,000, 
and although one of the smaller State armories, its proportions are im- 
pressive, and its castellated front, broad portal, and crenellated and em- 
battled tower and ramparts, make it an imposing and suggestive archi- 
tectural feature of the city. 

The head house covers an area of 74x43 feet, and is occupied by 
the quarters of the commissioned and non-commissioned officers, of Com- 
l^anies B and D, of the Sixth Regiment, M. V. M., the company quarters, 
and the office of the armorer. A stone escutcheon, bearing the State 
shield, with the inscription, "Armory, AI. ^'. ^L," cut in bold relief, are 
the only attempts at exterior ornamentation, with the exception of its 
bold, plain, and yet graceful mouldings, antique arched windows, and 
crosslet-pierced merlons. 

The interior of the head -house is finished in hard wood, and every 

Photo, by ./. C. Mriiillr,,,, FiUliliurg. 

THE KliClllU l:i. --lAll: . 



provision is made for the comfort and convenience of the occupants. 
The rooms are all nicely furnished and decorated, and the arm -racks and 
lockers, for uniforms and equipments, are ample and neat in appearance. 
The drill-shed has an area of 60x101 feet, and is overlooked by a 
balcony, reached from the second floor of the head-house. Unlike sev- 
eral other drill-sheds in the State, a continuous mw of seats, for the use 
of spectators and men not on duty, extends along b(jth sides of tlie liall. 



Ortranizatioii. Kent. 



Co. M, Second Infantry .• . . . 




B, Eighth 



Attleborough . 

I, Fifth 



Beverly . 

E, Eighth 



Brockton . 

Battery I. First Heavy Artillery 




Co. K, Fifth Infantry 




B, Fifth "... 




Battery B, First Heavy Artillery 



Carlisle . 

Troop F, Cavalry Detachment . 







Chelsea . 

Battery H, First Heavy Artillery 



Concord . 

Co. I, Sixth Infantry . 




K, Ninth "... 



Danvers . 

K, Eighth "... 



Framingham . 

E, Sixth "... 



Gardner . 

F, Second " ... 




L, " " ... 




G, Eighth "... 
M, Naval Brigade . 


( 1000 



F, Eighth Infantry 



Hudson . 

M, Fifth 



Holyoke . 

D, Second 




C, Eighth 



Marlborougli . 

F. Sixth 



Maiden . 

L, Fifth 



Medford . 

E, " " . . 


Arni.CMnd niil. 

Milford . 

M, Sixth 



New Bedford . 

G, Naval Brigade 




Battery E, First Heavy Artillery 



Northampton . 

Co. I, Second Infantry 



Newburyport . 

A, Eighth 




L, Naval Brigade 



Newton . 

C, Fifth Infantry . 




L, Ninth "... 




E. Second "... 




D, Fifth "... 




H, Eighth " . . . . 




H, Sixth " . . . . 




M, Eighth " . . . . 




K, Sixth " . . . . 



Taunton . 

Battery F, Heavy .Artillery 




Headquarters Sixth Infantry, 9 mos . 




Co. A. " "... 

400 1 


Waltham . 

F, Fifth Infantry .... 



Westford . 

Troop F, Cavalry Detachment 



Woburn . 

Company G, Fifth Infantry 





Besides the State armories, hitherto described and illustrated here- 
in, and built under the act of i8S8, there were in 1S98 forty-four smaller 
armories, occupied by companies and detachments, whose rent is par- 

riwlo, by J, c'. MmiUun^ tucnoitrg, 



tially or wholly paid by the Slate. Their location, occupants, rent and 
State allowance, in 1898, are given in the accompanying table. 

Besides the above, the headquarters and four companies of the 
First Corps Cadets, which occupy their Columbus avenue armory, received 
an allowance of Si, 800, and the headquarters and three companies of the 
Second Corps Cadets at Salem received Si, 000. The State also paid 
dockage amounting to Si, 1 79- 16 for the U. S. S. :\Iinnesota, the head- 
quarters and h(.)me of the Xaval Brigade at Boston. The whole amount 
returned as the cost of rent, by the cities, towns and organizations inter- 
ested, was S5o,7i 1. 10, of which amount the State liquidated $36,645.26. 

In accordance with an act of the Legislature, approved ^larch 10, 
1898, Governor Wolcott, by General Orders No. 17, A. G. O. c, s, ap- 
pointed a committee of five commissioned officers of the volunteer militia 
••to investigate and report, as to the advisability of changing the militia 
laws, so that the Commonwealth shall provide all armories, ranges, and 
a state range for the volunteer militia." These were to serve without 
pay, to be allowed Si, 000 for clerk hire and travelling expenses, and to 
report not later than January i , 1 899. 

This Board, as finally constituted, consisted of Brigadier-General, 
Thomas R. Mathews; Colonel, Richard D. Sears; Lieutenant-Colonel, 



Thomas F. Edmands; Alajor, Harry P. Ballard; and the late Captain 
Elisha H. Shaw, of Chelmsford, Troop F, Cavalry, whose fatal illness 
and untimely decease deprived the Board of the services of an esteemed 
and faithful officer. 

The Board reported at date of December 7, 1S98, that so great had 
been the change between the conditions existing at the time of the 
appointment of the Board, and those caused by the changes made during 
the service of the infantry, heavy artillery, naval brigade, and ambulance 
and signal service corps, in the Spanish-American War, that only a tenta- 
tive report, suggesting a general plan of future action, seemed possible. 

In effect, the report suggested the gradual abolition of company 
armories, and the substitution of central depots, accommodating a bat- 
talion, at least, the reasons assigned being the great gain in speedy mo- 
bilization, fewer company and local jealousies, a loftier esprit de corps, and 
greater economy in expenditure, with far better results. 

The extension and improvement of the State rifle range, and the 
purchase of several more in the different sections of the State — all allow- 

Photo, htj J. C. MouUon, Fitchburg' 


ing of "iudging-distance instruction, skirmish-firing drill, and what is 
known in the drill regulations as fire discipline," were recommended. 

The Board was very positive as to the 'necessity of changing exist- 
ing laws, so that all armories and rifle ranges should be wholly owned, or 
leased, and occupied and controlled by the State. They said: 


■'Armories and ranges should be owned or leased, and controlled solely by the 
State. They should not be used, except by the organizations of the Volunteer Militia, 
and should be restricted in their use to purely military purposes. 

"Cities and towns should not, as now, be required to provide armories and 
ranges. The State decides where they are to be located— the State should bear the 
entire expense. 

"Upon locating any portion of the militia in a given localitv, prompt measures 
could then be taken to furnish armory and range facilities and equipments; namely, 
according to the actual needs of a command, and so avoid the unmilitary situation of 
asking assistance from the civil authorities, who may be unfamiliar with, if not antag- 
onistic to, the military establishment. 

"Commanders of organizations would thus be relieved of the necessity of 
demanding such accommodation from the civil authorities— a demand which, often 
made with lack of tact, serves to raise opposition, where harmonious support is most 
important. The present method often results in a discouraging delay, or, what is, 
perhaps, worse for the military efficiency of a command, a resort to political methods 
and the creating of political obligations, in order that the civil authorities may be in- 
duced to furnish the needed armory or range. 

"So far as ranges are concerned, it would seem to be impossible for the State 
to assume this control and expense, under the present system of location. Though 
the towns or cities in which troops are located at present get an allowance for armo1-y 
rent, they get nothing for a range. They may cover its expenses bv putting it to any 
use, when it is not required for actual practice by the militia.' Should" the State 
assume control, it would be obliged to assume the expense of buildings, range-keeper, 
superintendent of pits, targets, markers, and keeping the place in order and repair." 

The committee added recommendations that the acts and resolves, 
referring- to the State militia, shotild be so amended as to allow of State 
action, assuming control of all the armories and rifie ranges in the State. 

The State armories have become an important factor in the life of 
a large number of the officers and men of the Massachusetts militia, and 
many of the rooms are attractive, well furnished, and well kept in every 
sense of the word. The social features of the life of many companies 
provide largely for the happiness of friends and relatives, and are often 
enlarged and dignified by the countenance and support of a large number 
of retired militiamen and fine members, who generally well represent the 
business and professional men of the community, many of whom have 
seen sharp service, at home or abroad. 

It is believed that there are very few armories in which eamblin"- 
and intemperance have had any countenance or encouragement. Even in 
the company rooms there seems to be an intensely military and practical 
atmosphere pervading all meetings for drill or business, and self-respect 
is seldom sacrificed, even in the hours of relaxation. There is very little 
reason to believe that any yotmg man of average character will ever dete- 
riorate morally through his armory associations. On the contrary, he 
should find therein improveinent in health, physique, and all the sterner 
and manlier virtues. 

5 a; 

\ tl^ ^ 


By Captain Luke R. Landy. 

THE importance of havin,^ a good muster field or camp ground, has 
long been recognized by the leaders of our citizen soldiery, as 
necessary "in the piping times of peace" for the instruction of 
bodies of troops in movements which cannot be executed in 
armories and. in the unhappy event 
of war, as an ample and necessary 
station or post, at which regiments 
and batteries could be organized 
and raw recruits taught the rudi- 
ments of those stern realities of 
the active life of a soldier in the 
field, which, in a few short years 
creates the war veteran. 

At the close of the civil war 
the public mind was in a state of 
apathy concerning military mat- 
ters, and for some years was little 
inclined to take any interest in the 
"pageantry of mimic war." Later 
on the idea of a suitable camp 
ground was agitated by prominent 
military men throughout the state, 
and the Adjutant-General (Major- 
General James A. Cunningham) in 
his report for the year 1870, recom- 
mended that the state should sell 
the arsenal and grounds at Cambridge, and with the proceeds pur- 
chase suitable land for a camp ground, and erect an arsenal thereon. 
This recommendation was renewed in his report for the year 1871, and 
in his inaugitral address in 1872, his Excellency, ^Villiam B. Washburn, 
recommended that action be taken to provide the militia with a per- 
manent camp ground, thereby saving a large part of the cost of hir- 
ing land, and the expense of transportation of camp equipage. 

In April, 1872, the following act was passed by both branches of 
the Legislature, and received the governor's approval: 

C.\I'T. LL'KF. H. I.AMiV. 

2 5.5 


■'An Act to authorize the purchase of kind for a Camp (Tr(_>und for 
the .Militia." 

Bi' it t'luu-tt'd, eti\ as /ol/ou's: 

Section i. The Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Council, 
may purchase in behalf of the Commonwealth, not exceeding 200 acres of land, 
at a cost of not more than $15,000, to be held and used as a camp for military or- 
ganizations of the state ; and may cause the same to be properly graded and fenced, 
and suitable buildings to be erected thereon for the storage and safe keeping of 
military property ; Provided the cost of buildings, fencing and grading shall not exceed 
the sum of |2o,ooo. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect on its passage. 

In accordance with the above act, the committee on military affair.s 
of the Governor's Council, consisting of Lieutenant Governor Thomas 
Talbot, and Councillors William L. Reed and E. B. Stoddard, examined 
parcels of land in different parts of the state, and finding none satisfac- 
tory, recommended December 26, that the matter be referred to the next 
council, btit on April 3otli, 1873, the committee recommended that several 
parcels of land in the town of Framingham, about 2 i miles from Boston, 
be purchased. The report was acceiDted and the several parcels of land 
were accordingly purchased, and otie small lot condemned, the owner re- 
fusing to sell. The price paid was $14,638.00. In 1873, additional land 
was purcha,sed at a cost of §2, i 1 5.00, making the entire $16,753.00. 
Little was done the first year to level the field, the only work done 
being the removal of several stone walls. In accordance with General 
Orders No. 5, A. G. O. Series of 1S93, the First Brigade consisting of the 

First and Third 
Regiments of Infan- 
try, the First Bat- 
talion of Artillery, 
and the First and 
Second Battalions of 
Infantry, went into 
camp for five days 
on Tuesday, August 
5, under the com- 
mand of Brigadier- 
Gen eral Isaac S. 
Burrill, and the state 
camp grt)und was 
inaugurated without 
other ceremonies. 
The possession of the grounds was appreciated by officers and men, and 
the wisdom of the innovation is now generally acknowledged. 




The Camp Cioiiud. 

The campground, consisting of 124 S-9 acres, is situated about one 
and one-half miles north of the Boston and Albany Railroad, on the road 
to Saxonville, and one mile east of the village of Framingham Centre. It 


is bounded on the north by the Worcester Turnpike, running south 
3025.19 feet; and on the east by Concord Street and running west 2124.30 
feet; about 97 acres are cleared land, the balance consisting of a wooded 
hill in the southwest corner, and about iive acres of swamp lying between 
the hill and the mu.ster field. The swamp land is of no practical value in 
its present condition, being under water eight months out of the year. 
The grounds are intersected by a ravine running east and west, the land 
on the north of the ravine being known as the muster field, and that to- 
wards the south, as the arsenal grounds. The land when purchased was in- 
tersected by stone walls, traces of which may be seen at the present day. 
The part known as the 23arade is a tri-angiilar space of about 50 acres, (out- 
side the line of tents when camp is pitched) is fairly level, some depres- 
sions varying from three to five feet being noticeable towards the west. 
The soil is light and sandy, heavy rains soaking into the ground in a very 
short time. 

The greater part of the land on the arsenal grounds is barren, 
having little or no loam to grow grass on. The hill in the southwest 
corner furnishes e.\:cellent gravel for grading. The swamp is apparently 
bottomless, sounding-rods having been inserted eighteen feet without 


strikin;^ hard bottom; form^^ the boundary of the grounds to the north- 
west; is designated on the deeds as ••meadow bottom" and it contains a few 
springs of excellent water. The muster field f(5rraerly jnelded good crops 
of grass, but the necessity of cutting it early in Alay, in order to prepare 
the field for the June encampment, renders it worthless or nearly so. In 
1875, a picket fence, five and one-half feet high, and five thousand three 
hundred and fifty feet long, to be built on the east and north sides, was con- 
tracted for, and was finished in 1876 at a cost of §5,943.13. It has eight 
(8) double gates twelve feet wide, flanked by granite posts. A fence was 
also built on the south side the same year, and the west boundary line is 
marked with stone posts, as is also the east side, at a distance varying 
from 26 to 40 feet outside the fence. 


There are, at the present writing, eighty-three buildings on the 
State camjj ground, a large proportion of which have been erected since 
the year 1883, through the energy and foresight of the present Adjutant- 
General ( ;Major General Samuel Dalton) who early saw the great saving 
that could be made to the state and its militia by erecting permanent 
.structures. The first briilding erected on the grounds, was the arsenal, 
built in 1873 at a cost of §17,200.00. It is a massive-looking building 
of brick, 40 x 100 feet, two and one-half stories high, with a seven foot 
cellar. Originally intended for a store-house and arsenal, it would do very 
well for some kinds of storage, but is not adapted to the requirements of 
an arsenal, and the adjutant general in his report for the year 1877, 
called attention to its poor con.struction. When first erected, it was used 
to store conij^any property, camp equipage, militia supplies, powder, etc., 
but it is now used chiefly for militia supplies and to store state camp 
equipage. Here are received all supplies for the militia from the various 
arsenals of the U. S. Government, and from private contractors, such as 
arms, infantry, cavalry and artillery equipments, uniforms, etc. and issued 
to the various organizations on requisitions approved by the quartermaster- 
o-eneral; as many as 600 requisitions being filled in some seasons. Here 
also rifles are repaired and other necessary work done. In 1875, the super- 
intendanfs house, the headquarter's stables, a small guard-house and a 
cook-house for brigade headquarters were erected. In 1877, the magazine 
and .store-house, at the west of the arsenal, were built. These buildings, 
like the arsenal and house, were faulty in construction, and later on re- 
quired repairs to put them in good condition. The magazine is of brick 
with thick walls, having a wooden annex in which cartridges are made. 
In 1885, the board floor was replaced by concrete, covered with hard pine. 
In 1878, a stable was built at the arsenal with stalls for three horses; in 
18S1. a guard house (now used as a prison') was erected at the north centre 


of the grounds where the hospital now stands. It was subsequently 
moved to its present loeation at the south of the main entrance. 
The great need of stables had long interested those who 
were required to use horses in eamj), and temporary structures had been 
erected and barns hired in the neighborhood, at great personal cost, and 
much inconvenience. The adjutant-generals repeatedly recommended 
that some action be taken towards properly caring for horses, but nothing 
was done until 1880, when the adjutant-general (Major General A. Hun. 
Berry,) contracted for portable barns, at an expense of $500 a year for 
three years; but these proved very unsatisfactory, the horses having 
little or no protection from the inclemency of the weather. In 1883, the 
adjutant-general contracted for the erection of three infantry stables jo x 

29 I -2 feet, with stalls for 12 horses, and a grain room; two artillery stables, 
one 30 X 112 feet with 49 stalls, and a grain room, and one 30 x 125 feet 
with 53 stalls and a grain room, and two cavalry stables, one 30 x 172 feet 
vv-ith 72 stalls and a grain room, and one 30 x 225 feet with 10 1 stalls and 
2 o-rain rooms. These stables gave ample room and good accommodation 
for all horses, until the increase of horses in the artillery, when a stable 

30 x 30 feet with stalls for 12 horses was built for the artillery headquar- 
ters, and 18 feet was also added to each of the infantry .stables, to accom- 
modate the increased number of horses at regimental headquarters. 

In this year ( 1883) a board was appointed by the Governor, con.sist- 
ing of the adjutant-general and Generals Peach and AVales, with authority 
to make improvements on the camp ground, and with power to expend all 
money received from the sale of condemned property. This board decided 
to build, besides the stables previously referred to, guard houses at the 
main entrance and permanent brigade headquarters: and also to enlarge 
the headcpiarters stable. The buildings erected were as follows : one 
building for general's headquarters, two buildings for the general's staff, 
one dining hall and one reception building, and also eleven sink buildings. 
In 1S84, a new cook house was erected at brigade headquarters, and twenty- 
three cook houses of uniform pattern were erected in the rear of camp. 
The following year these were moved to the rear 176 feet on the right, and 

31 feet on the left. In 1886, a building for the Governor's headquarters, 
with rooms for the Governor and members of his staff, and an office for 
the adjutant-general was erected. A hospital was also built at the nortli 
centre of the field, and properly equipped with bedding, etc. to care for the 
sick in camp. In 18S8, the store-house at the west of the arsenal was 
moved to the rear of the muster field and divided into 24 rooms, and an- 
other store-room building, 30 x 328 feet, was erected and divided into 64 
rooms, giving ample accommodations for each regimental lieadquarters 
and company to store camp equipage. In iS.Sq. a building was erected 
north of the Governor's building, for the accommodation of members of 


the press. Roofed horse sheds were also erected at brigade headquarters, 
but in 1894 the roofs were removed to prevent injury tu horsemen. In 
1892, a bath house was erected in rear of the camp on the right, with 10 
apartments for officers and 40 for enlisted men, with tubs and running 
water in each apartment. 

In 1894, five mess buildings were erected as follows: three build- 
ings 40x280 feet for infantry, having a seating capacity of 1008 each, and 
two buildings for artillery and cavalry 40x120 feet, having a seating 
capacity of 360 each. These buildings are substantially built and are a 
great improvement over mess tents; it is estimated that their erection 
is a saving to the state of over S2000 a year. In 1894, a veterinary hos- 
pital was erected in rear of the artillery stables, having four box stalls, an 
office for the surgeon in charge, and a store room. In 1895, another sink 
building was built at the west of the field to accommodate the cavalry 

The writer has made the plans and specificati(jns of all the build- 
ings erected since 18S2. No attempt was made at ornamentation, but 
iitility and economy were the chief jDoints looked to in their erection. It 
is a noteworthy fact that nearly all the buildings on the muster field, except 
the mess house, were jjaid for from the sale of condemned, obsolete and un- 
serviceable property. 

Fort T)jltoi!. 

The earthwork known as '-Fort Dalton," so named in honor of the 
Adjutant-General, is an earthen parapet 138 feet lung with two short 
flanks 1 1 and 16 feet long respectively, having a command (in front of the 
guns) of 47 feet and lin front of the mortars) of 91 feet. Through the 
energy of Hon. Henry L. Davis, an amendment was made to the forti- 
fication bill appropriating §5000, to have the work built; it was com- 
menced in ]\Iay, 1883, and raj^idly pushed to completion. The arma- 
ment consists of two lo-inch Rodman guns and four siege mortars. The 
interior slope of the left flank and 4" feet of the curtain are revetted with 
plank; the slopes of the parapet and the ditch are sodded; the gun plat- 
forms and mortar beds are bolted together and bedded in hydraulic 
cement, and are slightly raised above the ground. The magazine is 
placed at the right flank; the floor is six feet below the surface of the 
ground, and it is biiilt of heavy hard pine timbers, but is too damp to keep 
powder in for any length of time. Previous to the erection of the fort, 
the mortars were placed in mortar beds at the north part of the field 
and the first shots were fired into the swamp, a distance of about 500 
yards, by Captain A. F. Fessenden, Company B, of the First Regiment. 
(jcneral Morris Shaff, Inspector-General, in his report for the year 1SS2, 
calls attention to Colonel Dalton's report on the mortar practice, and says 
'•it has been through this officer's .steadfast and intelligent zeal that any 



instruction was given." Colonel Dalton was inspector of ordnance on the 
staff of (governor John D. Long. The fort occupies a space of 80x242 
feet, including the ditch, and is surrounded by an ornamental fence of 
posts, with a double set of chains. 

Rijlf Range. 

The rifle range, first instituted on the state camp ground in 1875. 
was composed of six paper targets, revolving into pits; in 1878 these ^\t^ 
were made continuous, a length of 282 feet, and eleven cast iron targets 
were erected for 200 yards. In 1891, these were replaced by twelve paper 
(sashi targets, and a 500 yard range, facing north, was built at the right 
of the 200 yard range, but the long distance range was finally abandoned. 

AT MF.SS IX r\y,V ()\.l> STYLE. 

as being dangerous. As in use at present, the rifle range has twelve paper 
targets, 16 feet ajDart. They are backed by iron targets, placed on an in- 
cline, 30 feet in the rear, for the purpose of stopjjing the bullets which 
pass through the targets. The marking is done by means of indicators, 
giving th.e number of the shot, and also by a marking plug and disc, 
placed on the target, in the hole made by the bullet. The indicators are 
manipulated by markers, who are stationed in the pit underneath the tar- 
get. As a protection against bullets going over the hill in rear of the 
range, two shields of planking and gravel have been built, extending the 
entire length of the range, the first 14 feet high, and 15 yards in front of 


the firing points, and the second 5 feet high and 80 yards in front. A 

wind dial is placed about half distance between the targets and the firing 


IVater Siipplv. 

All the water for the use of the militia while in camp, is now drawn 
from Leonard's Pond, distant about 1,200 yards. Previous to 18S9, the 
water supply was from sixteen wells, but the water in these wells finally 
became unfit for use, and by Resolve, Chapter 88, approved May 23, 1889, 
$6,500 was appropriated for a water supply. The water is drawn from 
the jDond and forced through the pipes with a No. 5 Davidson steam 
pump, worked by a 15 horse-power boiler; a 4-inch wrought iron pipe is 
laid to the right rear of the muster field; from there a 3 -inch branch runs 
the entire length of the field, in front of the cook houses, with branches 
to the bath house, wash houses and hydrant. Another 2 -inch branch runs 
north outside the fence, supplying brigade headquarters, and a stand-pipe 
is also provided for street sprinkling. The water is of good quality and 
gives general satisfaction. An iron tank, holding 15,000 gallons, is 
placed on the hill in the rear of the rifle range, giving a reserve supply 
the greater part of the year, as a protection against fire. One hydrant is 
placed near the centre of the line of buildings at the rear of camp, and a 
hose carriage with Soo feet of 2 1-2 linen hose, is kept on hand at the 
arsenal, and, during camp, at the headquarters of the centre regiment. 

It is estimated that the land, buildings, and grading, including the 
rifle range, since the land was purchased, has cost about $108,000. The 
land, originally costing $135 per acre, has increased many times in value. 
It is believed that the buildings on the muster field (with the excejjtion of 
the mess houses) have jsaid for themselves in the saving of the cost of the 
tents, which they have replaced, and the state has an excellent piece of 
property which has a good market value; but while it is generally conceded 
that the camp groiind is excellent in many respects, it is, without doubt, 
too small for the present system of drill. It is also impossible to get 
proper bathing facilities for such a large number of men as are assembled at 
a camp of either brigade, which would be easily obtainable if the camp 
was at the sea shore, or on one of the islands in the harbor. It would 
seem also that the arsenal would be more advantageously located in Bos- 
ton, where supplies could be more readily received and issued, than in its 
present isolated situation. 


By Charles W. Hall. 

Appiovid by Ihirry E. Converse, Acting Quai'teiuKistcr-General. 189S-1S39. 

THE governor and council, in the colonial period, ordinarily, per- 
formed all the various duties of raising, arming and caring for 
the military forces of the colony. The small revenues of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay. in the seventeenth century, 
seldom exceeded two thousand pounds per annum, and the necessity of 
employing special officers in times of great exigency was met by the 
establishment of a "Council of Warre," which had the power of life and 
death over the colonists, and could "impress" such property as was needed. 

These, in their turn, called upon such persons as they knew to be 
best adapted or situated to perform any given service, and "gave them 
warrant" to act for and in behalf of the county or province. That this 
system was an imperfect one, must be granted; but that the ability of the 
rulers of that day used it to good advantage is also apparent. 

The militia system of that day obliged the greater proportion of 
its soldiers to provide their own arms, and to a certain extent their own 
ammunition. Tentage, bedding, blankets, etc., etc., were provided only 
for the sick and wounded, and each man had to furnish himself as best he 
could. Artillery, extra and heavy ammunition, and in the more continu- 
ous campaigns, extra arms and the like, were supplied by authority. The 
archives at the State house contain a great number of the original war- 
rants, accounts, orders, letters and acknowledgements, which demonstrate 
most fully the merits and defects of this primitive system, and are of 
o-reat interest. The following will be found to appertain chiefly to such 
matters as are today attended to by a duly commissioned or acting quar- 
termaster general, but the commissary, whose modern metier is chiefly to 
supply food, seems to have been the head of the supply department, 
while the quartermasters were rather officers of horse, who provided food, 
forage, etc., for the troop to which they were attached. 

In Governor W'inthrop's Journal, it is recorded of the first warlike 
expedition of the Boston Colony, that on August 24, 1836, "John Ende- 
cott, Esquire, and four captains, with twenty mxcn each, sayled for Block 
Island" and that they returned September 14. All the men had corslets, 
and it is also written, "The souldiers who went were all voluntiers, and 
had only theire victual provided, but no pay. The whole charge of this 
came to about 200 pounds. The seamen had all wages." 


Billeting was early resorted to. and colonial methods are thus 
illustrated by orders of council issued in King Philip's War, and dated 
about February 14, 1675: — 

To ye Constabulary of Lynn, etc. 

These require you to take care for the billeting of the Norfolk Soldiers, Jas. 
Dickinson, Richard Currier. & Thomas Mudgett, for a few meales until they come to 
Salisbury, they having not exceeding 8d. a meal. 
By ye Council E. R. 

To Constabulary of Marlborough, Sudbury and other Townes of the Massachusetts 

These require you to take care of the billeting of the Plimouth forces, passing 
through yr seuerall bounds as their necessity requires, and for soe doing this shall be 
a sufficient order. 

By ye Council. 

EDW. RAWSON, Sec'y. 

They at first, however, chiei^y depended on their Committee of 
War. for all necessary preparations for service. 

To the Committee of Militia of Boston, Dorchester and Roxbury. 

You are hereby ordered and required to impresse what Armour, Breasts, Backs, 
and Head Pieces, yt you can find in yr respective limitts, and to cause the same to bee 
clensed and repared. and sent to Mr. Fairwether. Commissary, at Boston, to bee in a 
readiness to bee sent to the Army, by ye firste opertunity. Hereof fail not at yr 
perill. nth Jan'y 1675. E. R. 

Issued and warned accordingly E. R. 

In 1676, Lieutenant Richardson at Chelmsford, is appointed to 
receive ammunition and provisions from Major Daniel Gookin, and to send 
(.)Ut scouts, who are to receive "20s'for every scalp, and 40s for every 

The Committees of war are directed "to procure Biskett Porke & Cheese, also 
ammunition for 500 men for one month; Shoes. Stockings Shirts and Hose for Re- 
cruits; 300 bush, oats, 100 bush, barley, also fifty Basketts of Indian Corne. to bee 
parzed (parched) and beat into meale & putten in sacks for carrige, for ye use of 
horse or man. as there shall bee occasion. E. R. S. 

14th Febr. 1675. 

This "A^okake" — the Indian's chief reliance in war and hunting, 
made by rudely parching the flinty yellow corn in the hot ashes and beat- 
ing it to a coarse meal — was early adopted by the English wood-rangers 
of those days as an ideal "emergency ration," and seems to have been 
largely provided for the colonial troops, as appears further in the follow- 
ing ancient "report of committee": 

Boston February, 15. 1675. 
The Committee's estimate of what will serve 300 soldiers one month : 
Biskett. 15 cwt. ; Porke, 20 barrills; Beefe, 30 barriUs; (Some think ounly Porke, 
and said, salt.) Bacon, 10 cwt.; Cheese, 10 cwt.; Stockings and Shoes, 200 pr. each: 
Shirts and drawers. 100 of each; Westecoats, 50; Wallets, 100; 300 sm. baggs, for 
each man to carry nokake : 300 bush, oats, 100 bush, barley, 50 bush. Indian Corne, 
pjirhfdjiid hi-jtiiiloiiokake; Sackes for bread and corn, 6 bar. powder; 12 cwt. shott; 
Flints 20 hd, ; Mr. Joseph Smith. Commissary. 

Ordered that the Committee of the Army forthwith elect, etc., etc. 


It being necessary to provision Marlborough as a centre of military 
activity, the following orders were issued to the committee, or to some 
person named therein, to prepare transportation, not by wagon, but on 
pack horses. 

On Feb, 24, 1675. it was ordered "to p'vide furniture for 80 horses, now to set 
forth on their marche from Marlbury w'th ye prouisions." Warrants were also issued 
to the constables of Boston, Charlestown. Cambridge, Braintree, Watertown. and 
Woburn, demanding six horses from each town, except Woburn, which was called 
upon to furnish nine. 

March i, 1675, the council ordered "Capt. Pytt to cause ye coopers at Cam- 
bridge and Charlestowne to make so many 4 gallon Rundletts to put powder in, as 
may suffice to carry 200 wt. of powder from Marlborough to Brookfield on ye coun- 
try's service." 

The following order shows, that at that time a liquor ration was 
served when procurable. The importance of cheese, as an article of 
food, is also observable: 

Ye Cotmcill doth order yt the commissary do forthwith pr'vide 6.000 lbs. 
bread; Bacon and cheese proportionate, also to send 300 gallons Rhum, 4 gallons 
Brandy, & six Gallons Wine. May 31, 1676. 

The commissaries of those days, despite the authority conferred 
upon them, had troubles of their own. Thus John Roote, or Root, of 
Westfield, having acted as commissary for two years, had bought some 
provisions for the troops, and given a bill upon the treasurer of the 
county, or province, as directed. His customer brought him into court, 
and it cost him about twelve pounds to settle the same. In his petition 
to the cotirt for recompense, dated June 5, 1679, the hapless commissary 
complains, that he had thus far received only three jiounds for his two 
years' service. 

The following is the earliest appointment of a quartermaster, found 
by me, and, as will be seen, it is in a troop of horse, as are of those 
noted in this period. 

Mr. Samuel Partrigg of Hadley is allowed and appointed by this Court to be 
Quarterm'r for ye Troope under ye co'mand of Major Pynchon, and is to have com- 
ision accordingly. The magistrates have Passed this; their Brethren the Deputies 
thereto assenting. 

20 March, 1682. EDWARD RAWSON, sec'y. 

The Deputies consent hereto. 


In 1689, the Indian wars necessitated the re-organization of the 
troops of the colony. The regiments appear to have depended upon the 
commissaries for their supplies, but each of the troops of horse elected a 
quartermaster. Thus the Lynn Troop elected Corporal Joseph Collins to 
be their qitartermaster, and he was "approved by the Governor and Coun- 
cil" June 7, 1689. The troop of horse of Weymouth and Hingham, in 
like manner chose Corporal S. French, and the Beverly Troop, Thomas 
West, to be their quartermasters 


The following seems to have served both as commission and in- 
structions for Jonathan Remington, who for some time ajjpears to have sup- 
plied the troops at Groton. 


To Jonathan Remington, Commissary. 

Whereas the Governor and councill have appointed you Commissary for the 
headquarters at Groton, you are to take the Provisions and Am'nitions sent up for the 
supplys of the Souldiers that are, or may be quartered or rendezvoused there, into 
your Care and Charge, and Lodge the same in the most Convenient and safe Garrison 
that you can provide, there to be continued under a sufficient Guard. If the Inhabi- 
tants will billet out the Souldiers, whilst they remain there, at the Rate of Three Shill- 
ings per week as money upon the Publiek Acco't, it will be allowed them. 

You are to deliver out the Provisions in the Shares unto the Souldiers, at the 
usual and customary allowance Viz : — Bisket, one Pound ; Porke, three quarters of a 
pound; Pease, halfe a pint to each man a day, and other provisions proportionably. 
Endeavouring to be as frugal of ye Bisket whilst the Souldiers abide there as you can, 
that so it may be preserved to their march, and supply them with bread baked there 
in the towne upon the publique acco'tt. And deliuer out ye Amminition to the Soul- 
diers as they shall need it, for their Scouting there or marching out. Seeing that they 
do not waste the same, the Captains to give orders therein. You are timely to advise 
before ye Prouisions and am'nition be too neere expended, that fresh supply may be 
sent. What Cattle, Hoggs, or other prouisions are taken up, the townes are to be al- 
lowed for. Beefe at 12s., and Porke at i6s., and proportionably for less quantities, 
and carried to the publique acco'tt, for which pass bills to the treasurer. 

12 Sept. 1689. Past by the Governour and Councill. 

The following sets forth the resources of the garrison of the 
chief citadel of the colony. 


Boston 4, Sept. 1689 
Souldiers at Boston. — From Essex, Lower Regt., 85; Boston Lower Regt.. 65: 
Plymouth Lower Regiment, 150; Indians to be added, 20; Garrison Souldiers, 40; 
Total, 360 men. 

Ammunition — 5, 200 lbs. Shott. 3 cwt, lead, 2 pair moulds, 1,000 flints, 50 car- 
tridge boxes, 200 homes to make powdre (homes), i Reame of paper; (cartridge) one 
Minister, one Chirurgeon and chest fitted with Medicines, linen, flax, tow, etc. 

One hundred and fifty bush. Indian corne made into nokake, putte in casks, 
40 bush. Pease, 40 bush. Indian Corne, 10 Cwt. Bread, 2 Firkins Butter, 3 Hhds. Rum, i 
Hhd. Suger, 30 bbls. Porke, 6 hhds. Salt, 2 bbls. Flour, 5 Cwt. Tobacco, 3 Gross Pipes, 
3 doz. candles. 

One thousand yds. of Linen and Oznabriggs, 20 upper leather tanned hides.- 3 
pes. military Canvass for bags for nokake, etc., 500 needles, 12 lb. thread. 10 pes. 
trading cloth, 3 pes. white cotton, 3 pes. green cotton, coats, drawers and waystcoats, 
shoes, stockings. An able Armorer. 

Two great kittles, 2 smaller, 2 small of 2 galls, each, 20 narrow axes. Two 
do. broad. 100 hatchets, 3 doz. awls, 2 handsaws, 4 hammers, 4 lb. lod. nayles, 4 
lbs. 6d. nayles, 10 lbs. hobb and 3d. nayles. 

Two Sloops to transport ye Souldiers, and one of ye barges, 2 smaller open 
boates to attend, 6 doz. cod hooks, 3 dozen lines, 50 Fuzees, or Indian guns pr'vided to 
impress men &c. as may be needed. 

Much more could be quoted concerning the warlike operations of 
the closing decade of the seventeenth, and the French and Spanish wars 
of the eighteenth century, as showing the greater scope of the work done 
by the purveyors of food, foreign transportation, arms, etc., etc. The 
transport system enlarges its operations over highways, and even regular 
military roads, with long trains of huge wagons, or heavy sleds, instead 


of the pack-horses of the earlier settlers. The fleets of transports, num- 
ber many vessels, and the lake expeditions, vex the inland seas and rivers 
with thousands of canoes, batteaux, whaleboats, and stout galleys. Can- 
non, pateraros, or swivels, wall-pieces, boat-guns, in short, artillery of 
all kinds abound; for if the cannon of that day were small and inefficient, 
the number carried by even a small vessel must have lined her bulwarks 
with tire. 

"The committee," however, still led in overseeing the work of 
preparation, and when the War of Independence broke out "the commit- 
tee" was the head, and the commissary and quartermaster the subordi- 
nates who did their will, and cared for the daily needs of depots, regi- 
ment, troop, and battery. It woi:ld seem that the present custom of 
appointing a qtiartermaster for each regiment, was adopted late in the 
eighteenth century, and it is said that a commissary-general was first com- 
missioned in the British army in 1793. Previous to that time, the pro- 
visioning of that army was chiefly left to contractors, whose extortion 
and dishonesty in Marlborough's time are said to have destroyed more 
men than were slain by the enemy. The commission of John Rogers, 
Commissary-General of the forces besieging Boston, appears to have anti- 
dated the British creation by nearly twenty years, but the commissaries 
seem to have cared for the provision of food, etc., leaving to the quarter- 
masters the care of munitions, arms, clothes, etc., etc. 

In the first days of the revolution, there were found dealers who 
tried to enrich themselves out of the pay of the soldiers, and on report of 
their extortions, the congress ordered that the commissaries of the army 
should supply necessaries to the soldiers at cost, to an amount not ex- 
ceeding one-half their monthly wages. 

The following list of "deptity commissaries" was prepared after 
the battle of Bunker Hill, for the Congress of Massachusetts Bay," and 
is reproduced as far as may be, verbatim et literatim. 

June 29th 1775 
May it Please your Honours. 

I am told that the list of persons that I recommended and lodged in Congress 
is mislaid, for which reason I now send a coppy of said list (as underneath). A crjnsid- 
erable part of them by my own personal knowledge, I am satisfied will do, and all the 
rest come well recommended. 

Your Hon'rs Obed't & trulv devoted H'ble Servant. 

'JOHN PIGEON, (Com-y General) 

Mr. Samuel Norton, Boston, recommended by Col. Lincoln; Capt. Ebenezer 
Craft, Sturbridge, by Colonel Earned, Rev. Mr. Paine, et al ; Mr. Jedediah Estabrooks, 
Lunenburg, by Mr. Gill and Dr. Taylor; Mr. Ezekiel Cheever, Boston, and Mr. Sam- 
uel Russell Gerry, Marblehead, by myself; Mr. Ebenezer Warren. Boston, by the 
Hon'ble Com. of Supply; Mr. John Fenno, Boston, by Secretary Ward; Mr. Ale.xan- 
der Shepard. Newton, by myself; Mr. Ephraim Russell, Stowe, by Col. N. Doolittle, 
and the Postmaster-General. 

Mr. Samuel Pell, Boston, and Mr. William Molineux, Boston, recommended by 
Mr. Pitt; Mr. David Henshaw, Jr., Boston, by Dr. Church; Mr. John Checkley, Bos- 


ton, by Dr. Church & others; Mr. Jabez Brown, Stowe, by the Paymaster-General; 
Mr. Joseph Clarke, Boston, by Gen. Warren & Dr. Church; Mr. Gillam Taylor, Bos- 
ton, by Gen. Warren & others; Mr. Andrew Newell, Charlestown, by Mr. Cheever; 
Captain James Littlefield, Wells, by Colonel Scammon and others. 

Mr. Waterman Thomas, Marshfield, recommended by Gen. Thomas; Mr. Peter 
Clark, Newfoundl'd, by Dr. Powler & Son; Mr. Timothy Newell, Sturbridge, by Capt. 
Timo' Parker; Mr. John Story, Ipswitch, by Colonel Farley; Mr. Eliakam Atherton. 
Boston, by Colonel Whitcomb; Mr. William Holmes, Boston, by his father; Mr. 
Enoch Woodbridg-e, Stockbridge, by Col. Porter. 

Resolved; that the Persons within-named, be duly appointed Deputy-Com- 
missaries, agreable to the recommendations within mentioned, 

Mr. Greenleaf. 
Capt. Carpenter. 
Attest. Sam. Freeman, Sec'y. Esq. Johnson. 

Thomas Hodgkins was appointed quartermaster of Colonel Moses 
Little's regiment, at the camp at Cambridge, June 3, 1775, and others 
were appointed and commissioned in the several regiments. 

As will be seen in Chapter VI. folio 10 1, the office of state quar- 
termaster, established in 1786, was held by Amasa Davis of Boston until 
April, 1 82 1, when the duties of a quartermaster-general, were merged 
in those of the adjutant general. 

Richard Devens, commissary-general in 1787, was the last person 
formally elected to fill this office, it being in 1793, merged in those of the 
quartermaster general, who was aided by a deputy commissary. 

.Since 1S2 i there had been no commissary or quartermaster-general, 
except in time of war, btit when necessary, these offices have been revived; 
and the labors of the gentlemen chosen have always been as onerous and 
comprehensive, as the results have been honorable to the iiicum bents, and 
satisfactory to the state and the nation. 


Especially worthy of recognition were the services of Brigadier- 
General John H. Reed, of Boston, who was commissioned quartermaster- 
general. April 2, 1 86 I, and held that position through the Civil War, and 
until January 9, 1869. Acting under him, during this period, were the 
following assistant quartermasters-general; 

Colonel William Brown, of Boston, commissioned October 29, 1861, died Feb- 
ruary 16, 1863; Colonel Charles Amory, of Boston, commissioned October 7, 1861, 
resigned May 9, 1863; Colonel Charles H. Dalton, of Boston, commissioned May 23, 
1861, resigned January 5, 1866; Lieutenant-Colonel Frank E. Howe, of New York, 
State Agent, New York City, commissioned August 23, 1861, resigned January 5, 1866; 
Lieutenant William P. Lee, of Boston, commissioned June 14, 1861, resigned October 
31, 1862; Lieutenant Waldo Adams, of Boston, commissioned June 14, 1861, resigned 
January 5, 1866; Lieutenant Charles Sprague Sargent, of Brookline, commissioned 
November 3, 1862, resigned January 5, 1866; Captain John C. Hoadley, of New Bed- 
ford, commissioned September 27, 1863, resigned January 5, 1864; Major George C. 
Trumbull, of Boston, commissioned January 4, 1864, resigned January 5, 1866; Major 
George R. Preston, of Boston, commissioned January 6, 1864, died February 25, 1864; 
Lieutenant William W. Clapp, Jr., of Boston, commissioned February 20, 1864, 
resigned January 5, 1866; Captain Charles A. Dunbar, of New Bedford, commissioned 
August I, 1864, promoted major January i, 1866, resigned July 10, 1866; Lieutenant- 



Colonel Robert R. Corson, of Philadelphia, State Agent in Philadelphia, commis- 
sioned December 9, 1864, resigned January 3, 1866; Major Charles F. Blake, of Boston, 
commissioned August 7, 1862, resigned January 5, 1866; and Major Charles N. Emer- 
son, of Pittsfield, commissioned August 20. 1862, resigned January 5, 1866; were made 
Deputy Quartermasters-General. 

The tasks performed by Qtiartermaster-General Reed, his deputies 
and assistants, can never be adequately recognized by their fellow citi- 
zens. It was his and their duty to provide arms, ammunition, uniforms, 
tentage, all forms of transportation and equi23ment, for myriads of men 
(if all branches of military service, who sprung to arms, from the heart 
uf an intensely peaceful and practical population, as the fabled steel- 
clad warriors sprang up from Jason"s fateful sowing of the teeth of the 
dragon, in the field of Ares the Col- 
chian war-god. 

The pages of the Adjutant- 
General's reports of 1861-1866, inclu- 
sive, are full of details, showing the 
endless variety, immense amount, and 
enormous cost of tlie supplies thus pur- 
chased, and transportation afforded; 
and the labors and services of the 
officers and agents wlio thus faitlifu'.ly 
served the citizen-soldiery of the old 
Bay State, should be fully recognized 
and forever remembered, albeit, unlike 
the glorious deeds of the soldiery of 
that stipreme struggle, they could not 
awaken that popular enthusiasm and 
approval which was justly their due. 

Not less worthy of commenda- 
tion were the services of Commissary- 
General Colonel Elijah D. Brigham, 
of Boston, commissioned June i j, 1 S6 1 ^ 
promoted Brigadier-General May 14, 
1864, resigned January 5, 1866. At 
an early date the food supply at the State camps and detached posts of 
the volunteers was placed on an even footing with tlmse of the regular 
service, under like conditions, while the cjuality of the rations served 
was kept at a high standard of uniform excellence. 


Since the resignation of General Reed, the adjutant-general has 
performed the duties of quartermaster-general, itntil the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, added to duties already onerous, a burden which could no longer 
be carried. 

Acting' (Jiuirterniaster-Oeneral, 1S9S-99. 


Colonel Harry E. Converse, of Maiden, commissioned assistant 
quartermaster-g-eneral January 7, 189;, prior to the declaration of war 
with Spain, had been detailed to prepare for the purchase of all material 
necessary to place the troops of Massachusetts on a war footing, and 
equipped to take the field and proceed on foreign service, without delay, 
and ready for any service. Soon after war was declared he was made 
acting quartermaster-general, and was ready at once to purchase and dis- 
tribute everything needful for the thousands of men placed at the disposal 
of the president by the State of Massachusetts. 

While the volunteers were mu.stering at the State Camp at South 
Framingham, Colonel Converse was constantly on duty, directing the 
issue of supplies, taking receipts for all property taken into service, and 
giving all the aid possible to the officers of the regular service, there on 
duty; and remained at this point, or at Fort Warren, nearly all the time 
that Massachusetts troops were posted at these places. 

On the return of the volunteers, he was instructed to arrange for the 
comfort of the men, and visited Springfield and New London, making 
perfect arrangements for the swift transportation of the Second Infantry; 
and later, again w-ent to New London to receive and transport the Ninth 
Infantry, accompanying it to Boston. In these instances, his arrange- 
ments provided for relays of engines and other details, which secured the 
most perfect service. Other duties included careful and kindlv arrano-e- 
ments for the comfort of the returning sick and wounded soldiers, and the 
issue to the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association of such clothino- 
supplies, etc , as were donated by the State. 

The labor necessitated at the camp ground and arsenal was enor- 
mous, and for a long time was carried on day and night, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Luke R. Landy, superintendent of the arsenal, and the duty was 
promptly and well performed. Lists to be found in the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's Report for 1898, show the details, which include the purchase and 
issue of an average of over 5,000 each of the following articles: Rifles, 
gun-slings, belts and plates, canteens and straps, haversacks, meat-cans, 
dippers, knives and forks, spoons, felt hats, forage caps, blouses, leggings, 
overcoats, trousers, working blouses and trousers, rubber and woolen 
blankets, hat ornaments, etc. Besides these, the details of issue covered 
many thousands of articles, including 1 15,500 cartridges, 1,268 wall-tents, 
with fittings, and 3,390 knapsacks, making a total of 174,764 articles, 
excluding the cartrido^es. 


By Lieut. Austin Peters, Vet. Surg., First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M. 

THE history of the modern military veterinarian, i.s .so clo.sely asso- 
ciated with the development of the veterinary profession, as to be 
actually a part of it. 

The development of veterinary science, as a profession re- 
quiring a special stndy and train- 
ing-, dates from the establishinent 
of the first veterinary school, in 
France, in 1761, followed a few 
years later, by the fonnding of 
similar institutions in other con- 
tinental cottntries and in England. 

An important portion of the 
work carried on in most of these 
schools, has been the training of 
veterinarians for the armies of 
their resiJective countries. The 
term veterinary probably derives its 
origin from the Latin adjective 
veterinarius, meaning "relating to 
beasts of burden," and the earliest 
writers upon medicine devoted a 
portion of their energies to de- 
scribing the diseases of animals, 
and the treatment of the same. 
These writers were Aristotle, 
Hippocrates, Celstts, and many 
others of the most ancient and learned Greek and Roman physicians. 

While from the very earliest ages the diseases of animals have been 
recognized as of the utmost importance, yet there was no effort to give 
men a systematic education as veterinarians, tmtil the establishment of 
the modern veterinary colleges. Prior to that time, veterinary education 
was acquired, by those who had a taste for it, by reading the writings of 
others, and by their own observation. Of course, the earlier observers 
had no books to consult, but they recorded what they saw, and their suc- 
cessors had the benefit of these works, and added to tliem the re- 




suits of their own experience; and thus veterinary knowledge ac- 
cumulated, century after century, until the founding of the veterinary 
schools of Europe, by the various European governments. 

Before the fall of the great Roman Empire, the value of the veter- 
inarian was recognized, and he came from the same class of students 
which supplied the philosophers and doctors. Veterinarians were em- 
ployed to attend the animals used in the gladiatorial arena, and of 
them were both human and animal practitioners combined, as they at- 
tended to the surgical needs of the gladiators, as well as to the wounds of 
the quadrupeds. Veterinarii were also attached to the cavalry of the 
Roman armies, for the earlier Greek and Roman generals fully appreci- 
ated the necessity of preserving their horses and beasts of burden in a con- 
dition of health and usefulness for the purposes of war. 

As an example, the noted Greek general, Xenophon (349 to 259, 
B. C.) a famous cavalry officer and leader, wrote a treatise on horseman- 
ship, with special regard for the preservation of the health and strength 
of horse and rider, amid the hardships and exposures of war. 

After the fall of Rome, during the dark ages of the feudal period, 
and in the early glimmering of the dawn of a gradual return to civiliza- 
tion, the "Stahlmeisters," or "Masters of the Horse," to the various 
princes and barons, acted in the capacity of veterinarians to their employ- 
ers. Some of them wrote books upon the diseases and management of 
the horse, and with the advent of printing, many of the later of these 
works were printed, most of them partaking of the features of the "horse 

books" of the present time. 
The lirst veterinary 
school was founded by 
Claude Bourgelat, in the 
city of Lyons, France. 
He, through the influence 
of a friend, received per- 
mission from the French 
government, Aug. 5, 1761, 
to found a school for the 
sti:dy of the diseases of the 
domesticated animals. The 
government assisted him 
by giving the school 50,000 
livres, payable in equal 
It was opened to sttidents January 

iiiAi: iF.RJiASTF.r; s 


amounts in six consecutive years 

2, 1762, and soon acquired a continental celebrity. 

The first year there were three Danes, three Swedes, three Aus 
trians, three Prussians, three Sardinians, and ten Swiss among the stu 


dents, sent there by their respective governments to study the elements 
of the new medical cult. Many of these foreign students, upon complet- 
ing' their courses of study, returned to their own countries for the purpose 


of establishing veterinary schools under the management of their own 
o-overnments. One reason for the establishment of these veterinary col- 
leo^es by the different continental governments, was due to the recognition 
of the necessity of educated veterinarians for their armies. In nearly all 
these schools, the training of the military veterinarian, was from the very and always has been one of the most important features, and in some 
instances the most important feature. 

The most striking demonstration of this fact was the establishment 
of the Veterinary Institute at Vienna, Atrstria. Billings, in his "Relation 
of Animal Diseases to the Public Health," says: 

"The establishment of this school was preceded by the ojDening of 
a school for the treatment of the diseases of the horse, and operative 
practice, in 1764, with the consent and support of the government, by an 
Italian, named Luigi Scotti, who, in company with an apothecary, named 
Mengmann, was sent by ]\Iaria Theresa to Lyons, to study the principles 
of veterinary medicine." 

During this visit to France, Scotti received 420 gulden each year 
from the government. 


"On their return they presented the government with a proposal 
for the erection of a school, and recommended a course of study of 
two years, considering the study of anatomy as the most important sub- 
ject. They recommended that the students be chosen from such experi- 
enced smitlis of the army as could read and write, and felt confident that 
they could make competent veterinarians in the time mentioned. 

"There were but two teachers attached to the school, which was 
opened January 12, 1S67, the whole being under the supervision of a mil- 
itary official, who attended to the general order, cleanliness, and deport- 
ment of the students. The purpose of the school was limited to the edu- 
cation of better-qualified smiths for the army, and only army horses were 
treated therein. 

"The students were taken for the full two years' course, and only 
at the expiration of the same were new students taken. 

"While this horse-school was still in active operation, J. Gottlieb 
Wolstein, surgeon, and a selected military farrier, by the name of 
Schmid, were sent by the minister of war to Alfort, to carefiilly study the 
principles and practice of veterinary medicine, as there taught. (Alfort 
is another French school in the suburbs of Paris, established in 1765.) 

"Both of them were paid by the government, as well as having an 
allowance for the necessary expenses, in return for which they were 
obliged to bind themselves for life to serve the government, and on their 
return Wolstein was named as professor and Schmid as assistant. 

"Wolstein, on his return to Austria, gave the government his ideas 

^Hp'?' '^^HM^w 

^^K '^BS^^''^' 

I Ml \v\(;n\ Ty:\i\ 

with reference to the formation of a veterinary school, and on the jjd of 
July, 1777, he received 13,740 florins toward the erection of the school; 



and on the 26th of December, 1777, instructions were issued for the reg- 
ulation of the school, which was soon opened. 

■•The institution was i^laced under control of the minister of war, 
and the supervision was given to a brigadier. It was opened to both mil- 


itary and civil students. The military students came either from cav- 
alry regiments, or were selected by the school from among young smiths 
who displayed unusual ability. 

"The admittance of civil students was dependent upon the judg- 
ment of the teachers, who were made responsible for the ability and char- 
acter of the same. 

"From 1778 to 1799, 17S military, 137 civil, and 144 foreign stu- 
dents graduated at the school." 

This school has undergone very few changes in regard to the way it 
is conducted, from its foundation until the present time, having always been 
under the control of the ^Minister of War. Hence its military importance 
has been recognized as paramount to everything else. 

The same condition obtains in the other continental veterinary 
schools as in the Austrian, but to a lesser degree. At present, in most, 
if not in all of the European countries, the value of veterinary service 
to agriculture is chiefly recognized, and the veterinary schools are under 
the supervision of the Ministers of Agriculture. But even in these schools 
those students who wish to become army veterinarians, enter with that 
object in view, and are subject to a certain amount of military discipline 
and supervision, from the time of their matriculation, until they graduate 
and are assigned to their respective positions. 


In England, the veterinary colleges have more closely resembled 
those in this coiintry; always partaking to a certain extent of the character 
of private enterprises; depending for their income, chiefly upon the fees 
of their students and the receipts of their hospitals. Students do not 
matriculate with the avowed intention of entering the army, but after re- 
ceiving their degrees, the flower of the younger veterinary profession of 
Great Britain is chosen for the army, those of the greatest promise 
mentally, and of the finest physique and best appearance, being taken; 
and therefore after all, the British Army, perhaps, fares better than any 
other in the selection of veterinarians. Only members of the Royal Col- 
lege of Veterinary Surgeons are eligible, and at first have to serve a pro- 
bationary period of six months at the Army Veterinary School, at Alder- 
shot; at the expiration of which time, the candidate is rejected, if not 
adapted to his profession from a military point of view, or is assigned 
for duty. 

Although the English Government has not assumed .supervision 
of the veterinary schools of Great Britain, or accorded them pecuniary 
support as has been the case upon the continent, yet. on the other hand, 
the position of the army veterinarian in England is the best, both in rank 
and pay in any civilized nation. The veterinary department in the Brit- 
ish Army is independent in itself, and its chief has the rank of colonel; 
his subordinates holding the various lower commissions from lieutenant 
up to the grade of its chief oiificer. 

In the armies of the larger continental countries, the veterinary 
department is a separate one; but in a few of the smaller nationalities, it is 
attached to the medical department. In all the governments of Europe, 
the army veterinarian is a commissioned officer, and in very few of these 
countries does he rank lower than 2d lieutenant, with the exception of 
one or two, where the assistant veterinarian enters with the rank of ser- 
geant, but receives his commission upon being promoted from this grade. 

In the United States army, the reverse of this condition obtains. 
The veterinarians are appointed without rank, wear no uniform, and are 
neither officers, enlisted men, or civilian employees; and receive just what 
consideration commanding officers choose, or choose not, to give them. 

This is a .state of affairs that exists in no other country, which pre- 
tends to be civilized, upon the face of the earth. It is a disgrace to the 
nation; and one which, while it continues, will make it difficult, or very 
nearly impossible, to secure the services of veterinarians of ediication and 
ability for the Army of the United States. 

^Massachusetts, being tme of the older states, and ever ready to en- 
courage science and education; and having frequently before now adopted 
military reforms in her militia, that were afterward taken up in the United 
States Army; through her legislature, enacted the following law: 

OF massachusp:tts. 285 

Chapter 23:! of the Aets of the ^lassachusetts Legislature of iSgi, 

Section 4. "There shall be allowed to each of the battalions of artillery and 
cavalry, a veterinary surgeon, who shall rank as a First Lieutenant; and whenever a 
vacancy shall occur, the position of assistant surgeon shall be abolished." 

This act was approved by His Excellency, Governor Wm. B. Rus- 
sell, April 23. 1891 . 

To Captain Francis H. Appleton, of Co. A, First Corps Cadets, M. 
V. M., who was a member of the House of 1891, belongs the credit of the 
introduction and passage of this bill; and to him is due the thanks of the 
veterinary profession, for the interest he has taken in its behalf. 

Major Horace G. Kemp, ist Battalion, Cavalry. ]\I. "\". M., was at 
the time a member of the State Senate, and chairman of the joint com- 
mittee on militaiy affairs. He presided at the hearing given upon the 
bill. Among those present at the hearing and advocating the passage 
nf the bill, were Adjutant-General Dalton, Colonel Francis Peabody, Jr.. 
Colonel J. F. Wheelwright, all of Governor Russell's staff; Captain F. H. 
Appleton, First Corps of Cadets; Lieutenant William Hall, Light Battery 
A, beside several members of the veterinary profession, and others. 

The first appointment made under this law, was that of Dr. S. Gor- 
don Sawyer, at that time a student at the Harvard Veterinary School, 
who was appointed in time to attend the encampment of the ist Brigade 
in 1 89 1, and he also served at the encampment of the .same brigade in 
1892; he acting as veterinarian to the 1st Battalion of Light Artillery, 
M. V. M. 

In April, 1S93, Dr. F. H. Osgood, a graduate of the Massachusetts 
Ao-ricultural College, at Amherst, class of 1S78, and of the New Veterin- 
ary College, Edinburgh, Scotland, class of 18S1, was appointed by ]\Lajor 
Merrill as veterinary surgeon to the ist Battalion of Light Artillery, 
and reappointed by Major Duchesney, Major Merrill's successor, about 
six weeks later, and the position has since been filled by him. 

The writer was the second in order of appointment, after the pas- 
sage of this bill. Major Horace G. Kemp, ist Battalion of Cavalry, ap- 
pointed him upon his staff in the summer of 1891, his commission bear- 
ing date July i,and he has served continuously since then. Prior to 
1 89 1, the 1st Brigade consisted of three regiments of infantry, a troop of 
cavalry and a light battery, while the 2nd Brigade, in addition to three 
infantry regiments, had a battalion of cavalry and a battalion of artillery, 
thus making the 2d Brigade the larger. 

In order to equalize the two brigades, the battalion of artillery was 
transferred to the ist brigade and the light battery to the 2nd brigade. 
As there is a veterinarian on the staff of the battalion of artillery, and 


one on the staff of the battalion (.)f cavahy, this arrangement also gives 
each brigade a veterinarian. Although the veterinary surgeon is on the 
battalion commander's staff, he is at the same time expected to inspect all 
the horses used by the different organizations at the brigade encamp- 
ment, with some assistance from his colleague, and also to look after any 
horses on the field which may require his attention on account of sickness 
or accident. 

The veterinarians in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia are 
looked upon as officers of the medical department, and are responsible to 
the Surgeon-General for the proper performance of their duties, and for 
the care of property belonging to the state, issued to them from his office. 

Their equipment consists of a pocket instrument case, of the model 
furnished to the French army veterinarians, provided with a leather pouch 
with sling strap and buckle, by which to carry it; a catheter and pair of 
saddle bags, and a supply chest, stocked with such medicines and dress- 
ings as the veterinarian may send in a requisition for. Each is also sup- 
plied with necessary books of record, such as property book, daily sick 
report book, register, prescription journal, and veterinary inspection 
books, stable books, and order file. 

At the state camp ground at Framingham, there is a hospital stable 
containing four box stalls, a store-room and an office, situated conven- 
iently near the stables for the artillery and cavalry horses. This hospital 
stable is supplied with a set of slings in which a disabled horse can be 
suspended, beside a reserve supply of such medicines as cannot conven- 
iently be carried in the supply chest or saddle bags, which are used in 
common by the two veterinarians. There is also a supply of about 300 
aluminum tags with straps, to buckle around the necks of horses hired for 
state duty, when any necessity for doing so is apparent. 

It will be seen by the above, that the veterinarian has received his 
full share of help and encouragement from the medical department, in the 
performance of his work. 

The appointment of educated veterinarians as commissioned offi- 
cers in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, has not only been a fitting 
recognition of a branch of medical science requiring special ediication and 
training, but it has also been of very great importance to the good of the ser- 
vice in a number of ways. 

Prior to the appointment of veterinary officers by the comuKUi- 
wealth, if a horse, or horses, met with death, or injury, during a tour of 
duty, there was sure to be a claim for compensation before the legisla- 
tive committee on miHtary affairs, the following winter, or for damages, for 
the loss of, or serious injury to, a horse. These were frequently of an ex- 
orbitant character; and at the same time there was a dearth of particulars 
as to the nature of the disease, or the character, and extent of the injuries; 


the real age and true value of the animal in question, and also, some- 
times, a difficulty in ascertaining the extent to wliich the state was re- 
sponsible, or whether the trouble was due to the fault or carelessness of 
some indi\-iclual. 

Xow, in case a claim for the death, or injury, of a horse, is being 
made before the military committee, there is an officer, who can be sum- 
nn)ned to the hearing, who can say what the condition and value of the 
animal was; what the nature of the disease, or injury, may have been, and 
also, whether such accident, or malady, may have been unavoidable, or 
was diie to some one's lack of care. 

In this way, the state has been saved money, not only in compara- 
tive freedom from unreasonable claims, but in a decrease in the number 
of claims presented; as by having a veterinarian upon the field during 
each encampment, the loss caused by sickness, or accident, has been re- 
duced to a minimum. In fact, the loss of a horse, or serious injury to one, 
has become unusual. 

Furthermore, the service has been improved, by securing a better 
class of horses, than could formerly be obtained, as the cavalry and artil- 
lery horses are now inspected by the veterinarians, before leaving their 
home stations, and any animal unfit for military service is rejected, and 
pay is not allowed for it, so that its place must be filled by a suitable one. 

Better horses are also at present secured than formerly, as owners, 
having learned that the animals are under veterinary .supervision during 
the tour of duty, no longer hesitate about allowing their equines to be 
hired "to go to muster;" while, in years gone by, there were many stable 
keepers who would shoot a horse quite as quickly as they wotild let him 
for this purpose. 

Since the custom of racing horses up and down, at all times and 
hours, has been stopped, and horses can be used only for military duty; 
and now that their owners know that in case of sickness or injury, their 
property will receive as good care as if at home; this prejudice is dying 
out, with the resulting benefit to the service of a supply of animals, much 
superior to any that could at one time be obtained. 

In several instances, the veterinary insi^ection has undoubtedly 
prevented the spread of glanders and farcy to many stables, as on more 
than one occasion, the veterinarian of the ist Brigade encampment, has 
detected cases of this dangerous malady among horses tmder his charge, 
which have been isolated and killed, because of the loathsome disease. 

The late surgeon-general, Brigadier-General E. J. Foster, says in 
his last annual report: 

"Veterinary Officers. — These officers continue to save expense to the State, by 
a careful inspection of all horses to be used for military service, rejecting all found to 
be unsound." 



The example set by Massachusetts in issuing commissions to veter- 
inarians in the state militia, will surely be followed by the national gov- 
ernment, in appointing veterinary surgeons in the regular army, and also 
by the various states, in creating similar positions in their volunteer 

Several futile attempts have been made by the U. S. Veterinary 
Medical Association, through its military committee, to secure legislation 



from congress, giving the army veterinarians, suitable rank and position,, 
and in time these efforts will surely prevail, as in all civilized countries, 
education in every branch of science will in time secure its full recoo-- 
nition, as that special branch of learning becomes more fully developed 
and the members of a given profession increase in numbers and influence. 


By Captain Myles Standish. 

THE ambulance corps is a new-comer among military organiza- 
tions, not only in the volunteer militia, but also in the regular 
armies of the world. Its duties are first aid to the wounded; their 
transportation to field hospitals and their care within the walls 
of the hospitals, including both nursing and cooking, as well as the trans- 
portation of hospital supplies, the 
erection of tents and establishment 
of hospital posts. 

These duties, until recent 
times, have been performed, in large 
measure by men detailed from the 
line, the musicians, the convales- 
cent sick, and such others as the 
medical officers could borrow from 
the combatant arms of the service. 
In the Regulations for the 
Army of the United States, 1857, 
Art. XXXVI., Troops in Campaign, 
Par. 716. Battles, we have the fol- 
lowing: — 

"Before the action, the quarter- 
master of the division, makes all the 
necessary arrangements for the trans- 
portation of the wounded. He estab- 
lishes the ambulance depots in the rear, 
and gives his assistants the necessary 
instructions for the service of the ambu- 
lance wagons, and other means of remov- 
ing the wounded." 

719. ■•The medical director of the division, after consultation with the quar- 
termaster-general, distributes the medical officers and hospital attendants at his dis- 
posal, to the depots and active ambulances. He will send officers and attendants, 
when practicable, to the active ambulances, to relieve the wounded who require 
treatment before being removed from the ground. He will see that the depots and 
ambulances are provided with the necessary apparatus, medicines and stores. He 
will take post, and render his professional services at the principal depot." 

From this it will be seen that the wounded fell into the hands of 
men who had no training in the service required of them. 

Comniandiilfi .Vnibiilaiice L'-ups, M. V. M. 



This method of caring for the v\'ounded, and this divided responsi- 
bility between the quartermaster's department and medical department, 
with the consequent loss of life, became so notorious because of its ineffi- 
ciency, that in March, 1864, congress passed a law For the Organization of 
Ambulance Corps in the Armies of the United States, from which I make 
the following extracts: — 

"An act to establish a uniform system of ambulances in the armies of the 
United States: — Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America, in Congress assembled, that the medical director, or 
chief medical officer of each'army corps, shall, under the control of the Medical Direc- 
tor of the army to which such armj' corps belongs, have the direction and supervision 
of all ambulances, medicine and other wagons, horses, mules, harness and other fix- 
tures appertaining thereto, and of all officers and men who may be detailed or em- 
ployed to assist him in the management thereof, in the army corps in which he may 
be serving. 

Section 2. "And be it further enacted; That the commanding officer of each 
army corps shall detail officers and enlisted men for service in the ambulance corps 
of such army corps, upon the following basis, viz. : One captain, who shall be com- 
mandant of said ambulance corps; one first lieutenant for each division in such army 
corps; one second lieutenant for each brigade in such army corps; one sergeant for 
each regiment in such army corps; three privates for each ambulance, and one pri- 
vate for each wagon; and the officers and non-commissioned officers of the ambulance 
corps shall be mounted. Provided, That the officers, non-commissioned officers and 
privates so detailed for each army corps, shall be e.xamined by a board of medical 
officers of such army corps, as to their fitness for such duty, and that such as are found 
to be not qualified, shall be rejected and others detailed in their stead. 


Section 5. "And belt further enacted : That the captain shall be the com- 
mander of all ambulance, medicine and other wagons in the corps, under the immediate 
direction of the Medical Director, or chief medical officer, of the army corps to which 
the ambulance corps belongs. He shall pay special attention to the condition of the 
ambulances, wagons, horses, mules, harness and other fixtures appertaining thereto, 
and see that they are at all times in readiness for the service; that the officers and 
men of the ambulance corps are properly instntcted in their duties, and that their 



duties are performed, and that the regulations which may be prescribed by the Secre- 
tary of War, or the Surgeon General, for the government of the ambulance corps are 
strictly observed by those under his command. It shall be his duty to institute a 
drill in his corps, instructing his men m the most easy and expeditious manner of 

I.AKKl.ANI), KLA., MAY, l^9^. 

moving the sick and wounded, and to require in all cases that the sick and wounded 
shall be treated with gentleness and care, and that the ambulances and wagons are at 
all times provided with attendants, drivers, horses, mules and whatever may be 
necessary for their efficiency; and it shall be his duty also, to see that the ambulances 
are not used for any other purpose than that for which they are designed and ordered. 
It shall be the duty of the medical director, or chief medical officer of the army corps, 
previous to a march, and previous to and in time of action, or whenever it may be 
necessary to use the ambulances, to issue the proper orders to the captain for the dis- 
tribution and management of the same, for collecting the sick and wounded and con- 
veying them to their destination. And it shall be the duty of the captain faith- 
fully and dilligently to execute such orders. And the officers of the ambulance corps, 
including the medical director, shall make such report, from time to time, as may be 
required by the secretary of war, the surgeon general, the medical director of the 
army, or the commanding officer of the army corps in which they may be serving; and 
all reports to higher authority than the commanding officer of the army corps, shall be 
transmitted through the medical director of the army to which such army corps be- 

Under this law, for the first time, the medical department had con- 
trol of its own equipment and material, with men to do the work required, 



who were subject to the orders of the medical director. This corps, it 
will be noticed, was composed of officers and men detailed from the line, 
and were not enlisted for, and did not belong to, the medical department. 
vSuch instruction as they received was apparently given by a layman, — an 
officer from one of the combatant branches of the service; nevertheless, it 
was a vast improvement over any previous method of transportation for 
the sick and wounded, in that it allowed the medical department to direct 
its own affairs. This organization rendered very elficient service during 
the remainder of the War of the Rebellion, and the ambulance and field 
hospital service of the United States' armies became models f(.)r the mili- 
tary stirgeons of Europe. 

During the year in which the law was passed, creating this organi- 
zation in the United States, there met in Geneva, Switzerland, a conven- 
tion of delegates from nearly all European nations. This convention 

formulated articles 
of the sufferings of 
armies in the field, 
Geneva. August 22, 
joined this conven- 
so-called Treaty of 
subscribed to by 
civilized nations of 
the present organi- 
lance corps is based 
ment, and its bene- 

NVALI.>' EN 1 S. 

for the amelioration 
the wotmded in the 
which was signed at 

many nations have 
tion, until now the 
Geneva has been 
thirty-four of the 
the world, and as 
zation of all ambu- 
upon this agree- 
ficent results are 

iiniversally acknowledged to have greatly lessened human suffering, 
it seems to me necessary to introduce it in full; — 

Article I. "Ambulances (field hospitals) and military hospitals shall be acknow- 
ledged to be neutral; and, as such, shall be protected and respected by belligerents so 
long as any sick or wounded may be therein. Such neutrality- shall cease, if the am- 
bulances or hospitals, shall be held by a military force. 

Article II. "Persons employed in hospitals and ambulances, comprising the 
staff for superintendence, medical service, administration, transport of the wounded, 
as well as chaplains, shall participate in the benefit of neutrality while so employed, 
and so long as there remain any wounded to bring in or to succor. 

Article III. "The persons designated in the preceding article may, even after 
occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfil their duties in the hospital or ambulance 
which they serve, or may withdraw to join the corps to which they belong. Under 
such circumstances, when these persons shall cease from these functions, they shall 
be delivered by the occupying army to the outposts of the enemy. They shall have 
the special right of sending a representative to the headquarters of their respective 

Article IV. "As the equipment of military hospitals remains subject to the laws 
of war. persons attached to such hospitals cannot, in withdrawing, carry away articles 


which are not their private property. Under the same circumstances an ambulance 
shall, on the contrary, retain its equipment. 

Article V. " Inhabitants of the country who may bring help to the wounded 
shall be respected and remain free. The generals of the belligerent powers shall make 
it their care to inform the inhabitants of this appeal addressed to their humanity, and 
of the neutrality which will be the consequence of it. Any wounded man, enter- 
tained and taken care of in a house, shall be considered as a protection thereto. Any 
inhabitant, who shall have entertained wounded men in his house, shall be exempted 
from the quartering of troops as well as from the contributions of war which may be 

Article VI. "Wounded or sick soldiers, whatever their nationality, shall be 
cared for. Commanders-in-chief shall have the power to deliver immediately to the 
outposts of the enemy, soldiers who have been wounded in an engagement, when cir- 
cumstances permit this to be done, with the consent of both parties. Those who 
are recognized as incapable of serving, after they are healed, shall be sent back to 
their country. The others may also be sent back, on condition of not again bearing 
arms during the continuance of the war. Evacuations, together with the persons un- 
der whose direction they take place, shall be protected by an absolute neutrality. 

Article VII. "A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, 
ambulances and evacuated places. It must on every occasion be accompanied by the 
national flag. An arm badge — brassard — shall also be allowed for individuals neut- 
ralized, but the delivery of it shall be left to military authority. The flag and the 
arm badge shall bear a red cross on white ground. 

Article VIII. "The details of the execution of the present convention shall 
be regulated by the commander-in-chief of belligerent armies, according to the in- 
structions of their representative Governments, and in conformity with the general 
principles laid down in this convention. 

Article IX. "The high contracting powers have agreed to communicate the 
present convention to those governments which have not found it convenient to send 
plenipotentiaries to the International Convention at Geneva, with an invitation to 
accede thereto; the protocol is for that purpose left open. 

Article X. "The present convention shall be ratified and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged at Berne, in four months or sooner, if possible. 

"In witness hereof, the representative plenipotentiaries have signed the same 
and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms. 

"Done at Geneva, the 23rd day of August, 1864." 

Under the provisions of this treaty, all the great nations of Europe 
iminediately organized ambulance corps, but the ambulance corp.s organ- 
ized under the law of 1S64 in the United States, was promptly disbanded 
at the close of the war, and although the United States was a signatory 
power to the Treaty of Geneva, ten years elapsed before an organization 
was formed in the United States under this treaty. 

On September 25, 1S84, there appeared an editorial in the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal, calling attention to this omission on the part 
of the United States, and recommending that an ambulance corps be 
formed in the volunteer militia of the State of Massachusetts. This edi- 
torial was written by Dr. Herbert L. Burrell of Boston, afterwards sur- 
geon-general of the state. 


As a result of the attention drawn to the subject by this editorial, 
the following act was passed by the Great and General Court of the State 
of Massachusetts: — 

"An Act Creating the Ambulance Corps of the Massachusetts Vol- 
unteer Militia. 

Section i. "There shall be attached to each brigade of the Massachusetts Vol- 
unteer Militia, an ambulance corps, to consist of one commissioned officer with the 
rank of lieutenant, two sergeants and thirteen privates. The officers shall be medi- 
cal officers, appointed by brigade commanders and commissioned in accordance with 
existing laws; the enlisted men to be enlisted by the lieutenants of said corps, and 
mustered into service by the assistant inspector of brigades. The commissioned offi- 
cers under this act, shall receive the same pay and emoluments as now received by 
second lieutenants of cavalry, and the enlisted men shall receive the same pay as now 
paid enlisted men of infantry. The corps constituted by this act shall be instructed 
in such manner, as may from time to time be prescribed by the surgeon general. 

Section 2. "This act shall take effect upon its passage." 

(Approved May 14, 1885.) 

Brigadier-general B. F. Peach of the 2nd brigade appointed Dr. Sam- 
uel B. Clarke of Salem, ambulance officer of the 2nd brigade, his commis- 
sion dating June 10, 1885; and the first ambulance corps to be formed in 
the United States under the Treaty of Geneva, was hurriedly enlisted, prin- 
cipally from medical students of Harvard University, performing its 
tour of duty during the summer encampment of the 2nd brigade in 1885. 

The hospital corps of the United States army, which is the corres- 
ponding organization in the service of the United States, was not organ- 
ized until 1887: the Massachusetts' ambulance corps, therefore, ante-dates 
it by nearly two years. Brigadier general Nathaniel "Wales of the ist 
brigade appointed as ambulance officer. Dr. Amasa Howard of Chelmsford, 
who was commissioned April 28, 1887. 

He organized an ambulance corps under the provisions of the law, 
and their first tour of duty was at the annual encampment of the ist brig- 
ade in 1887. 

In the 2d brigade, Lietttenant Samuel B. Clarke resigned April 20, 
1886, and Dr. Oliver G. Burgess of Boston was commissioned on the same 
date. Lieutenant Burgess resigned April 21, 1887, and Dr. Clarke was 
re-commissioned on the same date. Lieut. Clarke resigned the second 
time October 24, 1889. Dr. Arthur W. Clarke of Bo.ston, then an enlisted 
man in the corps, was promoted to the lieutenancy, November 9, 1889. 
Lieutenant A. W. Clark remained until February 16, 1894, when tipon 
his resignation, Dr. William Alfred Rolfe of Boston, also an enlisted man 
in the corps, was promoted to the lieutenancy, February 21, 1894. 

In the 1st brigade, itpon the resignation of Brigadier-General 
Nathaniel Wales, Lieutenant Amasa Howard resigned as ambulance offi- 

' f 



cer, and General B. F. Bridges, who succeeded to the command of the 
brigade, appointed as his successor, Dr. Myles Standish of Boston, who 
was commissioned IMarch i, 1889. 

When these two corps were organized, as there was no model in the 
United States army to follow, much of the detail of equipment and uni- 
form had to be thought out de novo. The result has been that the equip- 
ment, drill and organization of the ambulance corps of the Massachusetts 
militia, has had an individuality, which it otherwise would not have pos- 
sessed. The most striking feature of the equipment, consists of the litter, 
which was designed by Surgeon-General Holt, with suggestions from 
Colonel William C. Capelle of the adjutant-general's office, and others. 

This litter is divided into two sections, each being encased in a 
canvas cover, when not in use, and when in use, being joined by inserting 
the ferrules of one section into the socket joints of the other, form a 
complete and practical litter, compact and easily carried, one which has 
proved its value by twelve years of use. 

This litter is now known as the Massachusetts litter. The men 
were equipped with white canvas haversacks, containing medical and 
suro-ical supplies for first aid work. The uniform determined upon, was 
the same as the uniform of the infantry soldier, except that the facings 
were olive green, and the enlisted men wore upon each arm the white 
brassard, bearing the red cross, prescribed by the Geneva convention. 
As there was no book of instructions or regulations for the use of the 
ambulance corps, the first year or two was largely experimental, consist- 
ino- principally of lectures on first aid to the injured, and some rudimen- 
tary drill with the litters. 

During the first one or two encampments, regular drill hours were 
not observed; very little was done beyond placing the litters behind the 
line at ceremonies, and caring for such accidents as happened on the field. 
The ambulance itself was far more likely to be in use as a picnic wagon, 
than for purposes of drill for the ambulance corps. 

On January i, 1S9S, the ambulance corps of the ist brigade printed 
"A manual of instruction for stretcher drill, as prepared and practised by 
the ambulance corps of the ist brigade, M. V. M." This manual was 
soon adopted by both organizations, and was used until 1894. 

In 1893, the work of the corps had attracted such favorable com- 
mendation on all sides, that a propo.sition to increase the number of en- 
listed men, and consequently the efficiency of the organization, was acted 
upon without opposition by the legislature, and the ambulance corps — by 
Section 25, Chapter 367, Acts of 1893 — was allowed twenty-five enlisted 
men in each brigade. The rank of ambulance officer was raised to that 
of first lieutenant, and the non-commissioned officers and enlisted men 
became interested in their work. 


In the following year, 1894, an act to provide for there-organiza- 
tion of the ambulance coi-ps was passed as follows: — 
"Be- it euactid, etc. 

Section i. "There shall be an ambulance corps attached to the militia, con- 
sisting of one captain, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, seven sergeants, ten 
corporals and forty-one privates. The commissioned officers shall receive the same 
pay and emoluments as a captain, first lieutenant and second lieutenant of cavalry. 
The captain and first lieutenant shall be medical officers. The commissioned officers 
shall be appointed by the commander-in-chief on the recommendation of the surgeon- 
general. Non-commissioned officers shall be appointed by the permanent commander 
of the corps. The ambulance corps shall be stationed at the State House and else- 
where as the commander-in-chief may direct, and shall be instructed in such manner 
as may from time to time be prescribed by the surgeon-general, acting under authority 
from the commander-in-chief. 

Section 2. "Upon the passage of this act the two ambulance corps now attached 
to the militia shall be consolidated, and the officers of said corps now in commission, 
shall continue to hold their present commissions until the re-organization of said 
corps under this act. 

Section 3. "All acts or parts of acts inconsistent with this act are hereby 

Section 4, "This act shall take effect upon its passage." 
(Approved April 11, 1894.) 

By this act, it will be seen that the two brigade corps were amal- 
gamated, the number of enlisted men increased to fifty-eight, and the or- 
ganization given three commis.sioned officers, viz., captain, first lieuten- 
ant and second lieutenant. Upon the passage of this act, the governor 
commissioned, as captain. First Lieutenant Myles Standish, formerly of 
the 1st brigade ambulance corps; First Lieutenant William A. Rolfe, 
formerly of the 2d brigade ambulance corps, and Second Lieutenant Rob- 
ert E. Bell of the First Corps Cadets. The fifty-eight enlisted men, viz., 
seven sergeants, ten corporals and forty-one privates, is the equivalent in 
enlisted men to a full company of infantry under the Massachusetts law. 

In spite of this large corps, it did not seem expedient to adopt the 
infantry company tactics without change, and drill the corps as if it were 
an infantry conlpan3^ and for this reason. The greater part of the actual 
work is done in detachments; a squad of four men and a corporal are or- 
dered to report to the commander of a battery for some special duty, a 
detachment of twelve men in charge of a sergeant, are sent to accompany 
a regiment in a mock battle, or a lieutenant and twenty-five men, includ- 
ing sergeants and corporals, are assigned to a brigade on its tour of duty; 
and if there is a mock battle, these men are subdivided again under ser- 
geants, and sent to attend the various regiments of the brigade. In all of 
these instances, it is evident, that the squads will be under the ultimate 
command of a non-commissioned officer, therefore it seemed necessary that 
they should be accustomed to obeying orders from their non-commis- 
sioned officers. 



Therefore the whole corps is divided iiito two divisions, each under 
the charge of a lieutenant, who is a medical officer, but for purposes of 
military drill in the armory, each division is usually given in charge of 
its senior sergeant. Each division is again divided into two sections, 
each in charge of a sergeant, and the drill is then substantially the drill 
of an infantry company, drilled in platoons, with the sergeants in the posi- 
tions of captain, and lirst and second lieutenant. The corporals act as 
right and left guides of the platoons, and as No. i men of the middle 
fours. By this organization, a detail can be made of any part of the corps, 
without its losing its accustomed formation. A division under its lieuten- 
ant and its non-commissioned officers; a section under its own sergeant, 
and a squad of four men under its own corporal. By this system, 
in an emergency, details can be made with the utmost rapidity. 

The equipment was changed at the time of the re-organization, by 
the adoption of a leather litter strap, which each man wears as a part of 
his uniform, and the substitution of a leather duty pouch for the old white 
cloth haversack. The hospital corps knife of the United States army was 
also added to the equipment. 

The advantages and disadvantages of the Massachusetts litter have 
been much discussed in medico-military circles; but the advantages for 
such work as this corps has to do, seem to the authorities of Massachu- 
setts to far outweigh the disadvantages. 

There is, first and foremost the fact, that each half of the litter 
made up in its case, can be used in the same manner as a rifle, which is a 
great aid in maintaining discipline. 

Secondly, when not in use it is much more easily transported in 
ordinary railroad trains, street cars, etc. 

Thirdly, men with kits at right shoulder, can make their way 
through crowds with great facility, where it would be next to impossible 
to go with the ordinary litter. Two men can respond to an emergency 
call on the line of march of a great parade, with the ease and alacrity 
with which the corporal of a guard goes to a call from a sentry. The 
same ease is experienced in getting quickly through a thick wood filled 
with underbrush, where it is extremely difficult to carry a long litter 

Fourthly, an advantage which has helped the corps out of many a 
tight place is, that the lowest unit for litter work is a sqiuad of two men 
with a litter, which doubles the effectiveness of the corps in an emergency: 
a decided advantage over a system of drill in which the lowest unit is 
a squad of four men with one litter : and, finally, it is light, and there 
is nothing on it which can be lost or bent. 

Moreover, it has seen many years of actual service, and has had 
some very severe tests. On one occasion, 1 15 men of the ist brigade M. 


V. M. fell prostrate with heat in fifteen minutes, and the corps had a quar- 
ter of an hour of as active work as it will probably ever see. In these 
fifteen minutes it took eighteen men to the regimental hospitals behind 
the line; and twenty-fi_ve more were carried to quarters on these litters, in 
addition to giving aid to a still further number, and determining that they 
were not unconscious, and would be able to walk back to quarters. 

Since the organization of the corps, but one of these litters has broken, 
and that did not break at the joint, but at a knot in the wood near the handles. 
Besides the litter, each man carries at the present time his litter straps, 
hospital corps knife, and his duty-pouch, which contains four triangular 
bandages; three assorted roller bandages, one of which, with a pair of 
scissors, serves for a tourniquet; one small package of corrosive sublimate 
tablets; first aid packages; one spool adhesive plaster, one and one-half inch 
round-pointed scissors; one dozen safety pins; one ounce bottle of aro- 
matic .spirit of ammonia; one ounce bottle of essence of ginger; one 
oimce bottle of whisky. 

The Manual of Stretcher Drill, heretofore referred to, continued in 
tise till 1894, when new drill regulations for the Ambulance Corps, M. V, 
M., were compiled and published by the officers of the corps, and adopted 
for purposes of drill in 1895; this was .still further revised and enlarged 
by Captain Alyles Standish, under orders from the surgeon-general, pub- 
lished by the Commonwealth, and formally adopted for the use of the 
Ambulance Corps, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. From the to 
the present time, these drills have increased in number and thoroughness, 
and lectures are now given regularly. 

The efficiency, discipline and morale of the corps have steadily in- 
creased. The general routine of drill night during the winter, is as fol- 
lows: — 

1. A ten minutes' quiz, conducted by a sergeant, upon the subject 
of the previous lecture. 

2. A lecture by the lieutenant in charge of the division upon some 
medical subject. This occupies froin twenty minutes to half an hotir. 

3. A practical demonstration of .some bandage or splint, or im- 
provised litter by a private of the corps. 

4. A military drill, including litter work, for half an hotir. 
Military courtesy and discipline are strictly maintained at all stages 

of the evening's work, and at the close of the evening, comes the business 
of the civil organization, which underlies the membership of the corps. 

In camp, in addition to the actual work, which the emergencies of 
the tour require, the drills are principally ambulance drills, with some 
original work in the woods, improvising ordinary and horse litters. 

Nor has the work of the corps been confined to service, in the care 
of the sick and wounded of the military establishment alone. 



Upon the occasion of the 1890 encampment of the Grand Army of 
of tlie Repubhc, there marched throiig;h the streets of Boston, one August 
day. sixty thousand veterans of the late war, and the streets were lined 
with a multitude of sight-seers, estimated to have been five hundred thou- 
sand people. 

On that occasion Major O. H. Marion, Surgeon of the First Infan- 
try. M. \'. M., organized a medical service for the day. The ambuhmce 
corps of the ist and 2d brigades, M. V. M., volunteered for duty. I'irst 


aid stations were placed at about two blocks apart, throughout the entire 
line of march. Each station was marked with the red cross flag, had a 
telephone, and was manned by a policeman and a detail from the ambu- 
lance, and all the police and hospital ambulances were pressed into service 
and stationed at central points. During the day, a large variety of calls 
were responded to from these stations. There were people crushed 
and trampled upon by the crowd, epileptics, broken bones and numer- 
ous causes of disability. There were fifty calls from these stations for 
ambulances, and it was a matter of pride to the medical staff of that day 
that the longest interval between the ringing of the telephone and the 
arrival of the ambulance, was not five minutes. 


At the outbreak of the Spanish war, there being no legal provision 
for an Ambulance or Hospital Corps in the Volunteer Army, the United 
States Surgeon General requested that such men of the Massachusetts 
Ambulance Corps as wished, should enlist in the Hospital Corps. U. S. A., 
to be discharged at the end of the war. Seventeen men responded to 
this request, two others went as hospital stewards in Massachusetts regi- 
ments, and First Lieutenant Robert E. Bell was commissioned acting 
assistant surgeon. On the return of the troops from Cuba, the corps served 
either under orders from the Adjutant-General, or at the reqiiest of the 
Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association, as follows: 

August 23, upon the arrival of the United States hospital ship, Olivette, forty- 
six men, under First Sergeant F. L. Gibson, removed her sick and wounded. The 
work was difficult, owing to the construction of the ship and the very feeble condition 
of the patients, most of whom were removed from the ship on litters to the ambu- 
lances. August 26, upon the request of Major Havard, of the Olivette, five men. 
including Sergeants Gibson and A. A. Blunt, went South with her. Unfortunately, at 
Fernandina, Fla., the Olivette sunk in the river, giving the crew and medical corps 
barely time to escape with their lives. August 30, orders were received at 10.30 a m. 
to send ten men to Springfield on the 12 o'clock train to meet the sick of the Second 
Regiment. Ten men were promptly secured, eight of whom, under Sergeant William 
H. Sprague. took the noon train, two more following on the next. 

September 4, twenty-one men, under Captain Standish, went on the S. S. 
Lewiston to Camp Wickoff, Montauk Point, to convey sick soldiers thence to the 
Boston hospital. On their return voyage the ship struck heavily on the Point Judith 
breakwater, prostrating many of the attendants. The men of the corps remained 
steadfastly at their posts, and followed promptly and without excitement all orders 
given them. As the boat was rapidly sinking, and in a most dangerous position, a 
breach was cut through the side of the ship on a level with the main deck, and bridges 
hastily constructed out of shutters, doors, planks, mattresses, etc., from the ship to 
the rocks, and thence to a lighter inside of the breakwater. Some sixty of the sick 
were transferred to the lighter on litters; and although the ship threatened to slip 
from the rocks at any time, there was no confusion or rough handling of the patients. 
No sick man was dropped or fell from the litter during this transfer, although the 
bridge, owing to its weakness and the motion due to the lurching of the ship, gave a 
very insecure footing. That these patients were transferred safely was due to the 
drill and discipline of the Ambulance Corps. 

September 13. thirty-four men, under Captain Standish, received the sick from 
the United States hospital ship Relief. September 19, forty six men, under Captain 
Standish, assisted in rernoving the sick of the Ninth Regiment at the railroad station. 
September 27, twenty men, under Captain Standish, unloaded the Massachusetts Vol- 
unteer Aid Association's hospital ship. Bay State; and on October 28, thirty men, 
under First Sergeant Gibson, a second time unloaded the same vessel. 

The promptness with which the corps responded for frequent and 
ardtious service, generally at very short notice, is deserving of the high- 
est praise: and in closing this account of tlie Ambulance Corps, I can do 
no better than make the following extract from the final report of the 
Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association: 

"The .\mbulance Corps rendered a service, the value of which is inestimable. 
Owing to their training in caring for sick and wounded men, they were able to per- 
form their duties with quickness, and yet with extreme care. The organization is a 
credit to Massachusetts, and its services during the months when the sick soldiers 
were returning home, deserves, and has received, cordial appreciation and hearty 



N< ) nation has made its mark in history which has not, at some jDeriod 
of its existence, been pre-eminently distinguished for its mar- 
tial spirit and proficiency in arms. As we study the jjrogress 
(if military art, and dwell in succession on the proudest day of 
each of the great nations of the earth, we learn that when this art was 
neglected, the fall of the nation was not far distant. It is none the less 
true of states, for as they advance, in civilization, progress and wealth, 
so the will and power to defend the same increases with equal pace. 

-._,^ Alassachusetts, with 

all her attributes, stands 
among the first, not only in 
literature, art and the higher 
sciences, but 
she was the 
first to put into the field 
those noble patriots and 
skilled marksmen, whose 
shots at Concord and Lex- 
ington were "heard around 
the world." and gave to the 
country the first light of 

Again, in 1861, Mass- 
achusetts fired the first shots 
at Baltimore, which were 
the re-awakening of a new 
life for the nation, and, in 
the end, the beginning of a brighter destiny for the South. 

The use of the rifle was not much heard of in those days, for the 
army was equipped with Springfield muskets, muzzle-loading, with ball 
and "ball and buck" cartridge, primed and fired by a percussion cap. 

Colonel Berdan and his sharpshooters were among the first to make 
iise of the rifle in the warfare of that epoch, and great was the execution 
which they did, while covered by stone walls, trees, or any other available 
shelter, and many officers and men fell by their unerring aim. 

The contest for supremacy and efficiency with the military rifle has 




been a decided feature of the militia training of the past few years, and 
to-day hundreds of members of the M. V. M. have made themselves not 
only proficient, but experts, with the Springfield rifle. 

By systematic and careful training in rifle practice, introduced sev- 
eral years ago, and largely through the efforts of Colonel H. T. Rock- 
well, the picked volunteer marks- 
men of ^Massachusetts increased in 
j^roficiency, until they were able, 
under his leadership, to visit Creed- 
moor, and in competition with the 
marksmen from other states, and 
the regular army, bear away the 
palm of victory. 

Later, under the leadership 
of ]\Iajor James P. Frost, a citizen 
soldier possessing indomitable 
courage and pluck, these same vol- 
unteers met in competition the 
expert riflemen of the United States 
army and volunteers at Chicago, 
where another victory crowned 
tlieir efforts. 

Having won the champion- 
ship of the United States, and the 
I liter-state championship. Major 
Frost believed he could, with the 
same team, make a creditable 
showing in competition with the 
volunteers of Great Britain. The team of riflemen was a strong one; 
all had proved reliable and steady shots, and in practice had surpassed 
every previously known record, under like conditions, in this country. 

Ha^■ing received permission from the state authorities, (and been 
duly endorsed by the national government) to take a team, armed and 
equipped, to England, Major Frost set about inaking the necessary 
arrangements — a task which would have discouraged almost any one, 
except an enthusiast like himself. The correspondence necessary to 
arrange every detail of the matches, and the transportation of a team of 
sixteen men to England and back, was voluminous and exacting; yet it 
was important, in order to make a careful estimate of the cost of the 

It was finally decided that $6,500 was enough to cover the expenses 
of the trip, in a manner worthy of the dignity and reputation of the 
state. This amount was raised by private subscription. 

I,li;ri KXANT-CllLdNKL OTIS II. JIM:l(iN, 
First HegiiiiCMt, M. V. M. 


Lavish thanks are certainly due to those gfenerous citizens who 
contributed so liberally to an enterprise which meant so much to the coun- 
try, the state and the individual; to the country, because the national ser- 
vice rifle was to be pitted against the national arms of England, under 
the same conditions: to the state, because her citizen soldiers were to wager 
their honors, reputation and prowess against the picked representatives of 
all England, and to the individual riflemen, because each felt a deep 
responsibility to acquit himself with honor and ghiry. 

The money having been raised and deposited in the hands of the 
treasurer, Mr. Asa P. Potter, and every detail for the trip arranged, the 
team which consisted of members of the M. V. M. was finally brought to- 
gether at Boston. The team was made up as follows: Major James P. 
Frost, Second Regiment, Captain; Major Charles W. Hinman, ist brigade; 
Major Otis H. Marion, Surgeon, First Regiment; Major Geo. H. Benyon, 
Adjutant, Fifth Regiment; Lieutenant Sullivan B. Newton, Quartermas- 
ter, First Cavalry; Lieutenant S. S. Bumstead, Second Regiment; Lieuten- 
ant R. B. Edes, Fifth Regiment; Sergeant-Major W. M. Merrill, 2d brig- 
ade; Sergeant W. C. Johnston, Jr., 2d brigade; Sergeant M. W. Bull, Sec- 


ond Regiment; Sergeant George Doyle, Fifth Regiment; Corporal W. D. 
Huddleson, First Regiment; Private F. R. Bull, Second Regiment; Priv- 
ate L. T. Farnsworth, Second Regiment; Sergeant W. M. Farrow, Second 

Clad in their state uniforms, and in hea^-y marching order, after 
paying their respects to the Governor of the Commonwealth and Mayor 
of Boston, and receiving their hearty good wishes and God speed, on 
June 1 8, 1889, they started in a special car for New York, arriving at 1 1.30 
p. m., at the Sturtevant House, where they were met by Captain Shep- 
hard of the National Rifle Association and other New York militiamen, 
who greeted them heartily, and after a brief but pleasant call, wished 
them bon voyage and a successful journey. On Wednesday, June ig, the 
team sailed on the steamship City of Chicago, of the Inman Line. The 
trip across the Atlantic was a very pleasant one, without accident or 
mishap, and great interest in the team and its enterprise was shown by 
the passengers. Daily exercise with setting-up drill and practice in 
sighting rifles in various positions, together with plenty of sleep and ex- 




emplary habits, kept the men in excellent condition, and although still a 
little affected by the rolling and pitching of a ten days' ocean voyage, 
they lost no time in preparing for their first match with the English 

Un June 29, the men landed at Liverpool, where they were met at 
the wharf by Captain G. F. Gratwicks, who had been detailed by the 
National Rifle Association of England, to arrange for the matches and 
look after the interests of the Massachusetts team. Thanks to the courtesy 
of the customs authorities, the members of the team were allowed to 
proceed at once to the Lime Street Station, Liverpool, where two saloon 
carriages were placed at their disposal by the London & North Western 
Railway Company, for the journey to London. The agent of the com- 
pany, Mr. Fred W. Thompson, a volunteer officer, took especial pains to 
make the trip one of extreme comfort. 

At Rugby, the party was met by :\Lajor Woolman Williams, a 
member of the Honorable Artillery Company of London, who was most 
assiduous in perfecting the arrangements for the hospitable reception of 
the. American team. On arri\-al at 
the Euston Station, London, Alajor 
Dtirrant, Major Baker, Cap- 
tain Nunn, Mr. Macke 
and other gentlemen of 
Honorable Artillery C( 
pany, were in waiting 
receive the team, and c 
veyed them in carriages 
the First Avenue Hotel, 
where, thanks to the 
hospitality of the 
Court of Assistants, 
dinner was served, 
^lajor Durrant pre- 
sided, and after din- 
ner in a few well 
chosen words, pro- 
posed the first toast "The Otieen" which was drunk witli cheers. He 
then heartily welcomed the ilassachusetts Volunteers to England, and 
expressed the pleasure which he was sure all British volunteers would ex- 
perience in meeting them. After dinner the team were the guests of 
^liss Grace Hawthorne at her theatre, "The Princess." 

On Sunday, after church time, the team was taken in charge by 
members of the Honorable Artillery Company, who took them in carriages 
to Hyde Park, Kew Gardens, and thence to Richmond, where they dined 




at the famoiis Star and Garter Inn. Theday \va.^ one round of enjoyment 
and pleasure, thanks to the eourt of assistants of the Honorable Artillery 

Monday morning, July i, found the team in eampaign uniform, simi- 
lar to the one worn by the ^I. V. ^I., 
at the present day, and ready for busi- 
ness and vietor3^ 

The team then i^roceeded to 
Xitnhead, a half-hour's ride from Lon- 
don, when the ranges were placed at 
(lur disposal for the forenoon. The 
reader must imagine for himself the 
sensation of trying to hold a rifle steady, 
with " sea legs " on and a heavy swell 
in the air. The boys found the targets, 
however, as they swung around, and 
linally nailed them in place with bullets, 
so that at the end of the fcirenoon tliey 
were doing good shooting. 

Nunhead Range is a queer little 
place, and rather dilajjidated. Back of 
the targets, which were old wooden 
frames, that had seen better days, were 
piles of faggots twenty to thirty feet 
high, as a j^i'otection to the houses in the vicinity. The pits were any- 
thing but pleasant paths and green pastures, as Quartermaster Newton 
can testify, whose amiable disposition made everything seem serene, — 
however dark and slippery the quicksands were beneath him. 

As a token of noble hospitality and encouragement, a well known 
member of the South London Rifle Club gave ten guineas, about $50.00, 
to be divided among the five making the highest scores in the forenoon 
practice. The winners of the jDrizes were: ^lajor Hinman, 31 points; 
Lieutenant Bumstead, 30 points; Lieutenant Hussey, 30 points; Sergeant 
Biill, 30 points; Private Farrow, 30 points. 

The practice at the longer ranges was not .so good, there being some 
difficulty in finding the elevation, in a very tricky " fish tail " wind. At 
2.30 p. m. the Massachusetts team found themselves lined up against the 
picked team of the Honorable Artillery Company, for the first match on 
British soil. The conditions of the match were twenty-one rounds each, 
at 200, 500 and 600 yards, seven shots at each range, to be fired from a 
standing position at 200 yards, and in any prone position at the other dis- 
tances. The ^lassachusetts team used the SiDringfield rifle; the Eng- 
lish team, the Martini-Henry rifle. 

('Oi;i:i.< r and i.xcuuueci jiMU-i.^ii .iui.itaky 




At 2 00 yards the Massachusetts team were in much better form than 
in the morning practice, while the Honorable Artillery Company's team 
were not in nearly as good form as might have been expected. 

At the close of the shooting at 200 yards, the Massachusetts team 
led their opponents thirty-nine points, and at 500 yards twenty-four points 
more were added to their score. At 600 yards the Honorable Artillery 
Company's team improved matters, and at one time it looked as if the gap 
between the two teams would be materially narrowed. However, one or 
two unfortunate shots neutralized the good .shooting of several members, 
and in the end the Massachusetts team won by fifty-four points. 

After the match, both teams were entertained at dinner at the head- 
quarters of the Honorable Artillery Company. The reception then given 
the Massachusetts team was a most hospitable and pleasant one, and will 
long be remembered by every member of the team. Following are 
the scores: 


Bumstead. Lieut. 
Bull, Sergt. . . . 
Huddleston, Corp 
Farrow, Priv . . 
Merrill, Sergt.-Maj 

Bull, Priv 

Doyle, Sergt. . . 
H in man, Major . 
Farnsworth, Priv 

Edes, Lt 

Johnston, Sergt. 
Hussey, Lieut. . 



4-4-5-4-5-5-4— 3 > 



200 Yari.s 

Gilbert, Priv 4-5-2-3-5-3-5—27 

Wood, Sergt 3-5-4-4-4-4-5—30 

Wace, Sergt. L M. ... 2-4-4-4-5-2-4—25 

Rosenthal, Priv 4-2-3-4-3-4-4—24 

Bateman, Capt 4-3-4-3-3-4-4—2 5 

Munday, Major 5-4-4-5-5-5-4—32 

Homer, Priv 4-2-3-4-5-4-2—24 

Angel, Priv 5-3-2-3-5-4-3—25 

Bookings, Sergt 4-3-3-4-4-5-4—27 

Parker,'" Priv 4-4-3-4-4-4-4—27 

Gibson, Lieut 2-5-5-3-3-4-4—26 

Payne, Priv 2-4-4-4-4-2-3—23 

-'.nil Y.viu'> 

600 Yards 
































































loi 5 


.5011 Yai:D-« 

600 Yards 






























































315 341 

Massachusetts Team won by 54 points. 

305 961 

The second match was with a team from the First Volunteer Bat- 
talion, Royal Berkshire Regiment. The match took place at Chum, about 



seventy miles from London. The Great Western Railway courteously 
attached a carriage to the mid-way express from Paddington and slipped 
it at Didcot, for the convenience of the team; and here let me say, to have 
a special coach or carriage, as they are termed in England, is considered 
a great privilege and honor. Lord Wantage and Lord Bury travelled 
with the Americans, as the team was often called, from London to the 
range. At Didcot they were met by Mr. Fidler, the captain of the Berk- 
shire team, and there was a large assemblage of spectators to witness the 

The Massachusetts team were delighted with the range, it being in 
a large, open, flat tract of land, a marksman's paradise compared with the 
enclosed tricky Xunhead range. The arrangements for the competition 
were of the most satisfactory character. Each team used two targets at 
each distance, the targets being of iron, and revolving to enable the mark- 
ers to verify the score; each range shot at having targets of a size and shaj^e 
peculiar to that distance. 

At 200 yards, the earlier marksmen on both sides did fairly well, but 
after half of 
tors on each 

through, it 
that t h c 
setts team 
and as the 
the Berkshire 
off , the Amer- 
rapidly i m - 
that at the 
the 200 yard rears<'N\ M'li'i-.nn-. 


the competi- 
side had .shot 
w a s found 
M a s s a c h u- 
was leading, 
last pairs of 
men tailed 
ican position 
proved, so 
conclusion, at 
range, they 

were thirty-seven points ahead. At 500 yards. Private \\'arwick set the 
example of a clear score of bulls' eyes, and Sergeant Kemp left the eye 
only once. Sergeant Doyle, not to be outdone by the Englishmen, put ujj 
a clean score of bulls' eyes. Only two of the Massachusetts team failed to 
reach thirty, making the average of the team at 500 points, an excellent 
(me. On commencing at 600 yards, the Massachusetts team were leading 
by sixty-three points. Doyle kept up his good shooting, making thirty- 
four, and a total at the three ranges of ninety-seven, while five others of 
the team reached a total of ninety or more. At the close of the match, 
which resulted in a victory for the Massachusetts team by ninety-two 
jjoints, both teams were entertained at luncheon by Lord Wantage, at 
the range-house near by. 

It may be of interest to know that Lord Wantage is commander of 
a brigade of English volunteers. He is one of England's largest land- 
owners, possessing a tract twenty-four miles by twenty-six miles. 


Running through this tract of land, where the range is and where 
he holds his encampments, is to be seen the old Roman road, and it was 
here that the battle of Ashendune was fought. 

After luncheon, Lord Wantage expressed, in a most courteous and 
hearty way, the delight it gave him to welcome and to meet the American 
riflemen, in friendly competition. " They were from the same stock as our- 
selves, and he could not but think that they looked upon their visit to 
England as something like coming home. At all events. Englishmen 
were glad to have them in their midst. 

The day's work done, and the victory won, we bade adieu to our 
friends and rivals at the station, and embarked fi-)r Loudon, to enjoy a 
good dinner and a pleasant evening at a theater, by special invitation. 

Following is the score in detail: 



2011 Vauls SOU Yards COfI Yards Total 

Doyle, Serpft 4-3-5.4-4-4-4_28 5-5-5-5-5-5-5—35 5-5-5-5-5.4-5- 

Hinman, Major 4-3-5-4-3-4-4—29 4-3-5-5-5-5-5— 3^ 5-4-5-5-5-4-5" 

Bull, Sergt. M. A. . . . 4-5-4-5-4-5-5—32 4.4.5-4-5-5.4—31 5-5-5-3-2-5-5- 

Bumstead, Lieut 4-5-5-4-5-4-5—32 2-5-5-5-5-5-5—32 5-5-4-3-4-3-5- 

Hussey, Lieut 4-4-2-3-5-4-4—26 5-4-5-5.4-5-5—33 ;.4_5-;_3.5-5- 

Farrow, Priv 4-4-5-5-5.4.4_3i 5-4-4.5-4.5-4—3, 5_4.4.4-3-3-5- 

Bull, Priv. F. R 3-5-4-40-5-4—25 5-3-5-5-4-5-4-3' 5-3-5-5-5-5-4- 

Merrill, Sergt. -Major . . 4.4-4-4-4-3-5 — 28 4-5-5-5.4-5-5—33 2-2-5-5-5-3-5- 

Farnsworth, Priv. . . . 4-3-4-4-4-0-4—23 5-5-4-4-5-5-5 — 33 3-3-4-4-5-5-4- 

Johnston, Sergt 3-3-4-4-4-4-5 — 27 5-4-2-4.5.5-4—29 5-2-5-5-3-4-4- 

Edes, Lieut 3-4-4-4-4-4-3—36 5-4-3-5-4-3-4—28 3-3-3-3-5-5-5- 

Huddleston, Corp. . . . 4-4-5-4-4-5-2— 2S 5.5-3-3-4-2-5-27 2-4-4-5-4-3-4- 

335 375 374 1064 

r.EiiKsiiiin; tea.m. 

2(1(1 Yai-ils .',0:1 Yanls i Yaiils 

Fidler, Priv 4-5-4-4-5-4-5—3' 2-5-4-5-4-5-5—30 5.2-4-5-4-5.4- 

Warwick, Priv—28—35 3.5-3-4-2-4-5- 

Marks, Priv 3-2-4-5-4-4-3—25—33 

Linders, Priv 4-4-4-4-5-4-4—29 4-5-4-5-3-3-5—29 3.2-5-5-5-3-5- 

Kemp, Sergt 2-4-3-3-4-4-4—24 5-4-5-5.5-5-5—34 3-3-4-4-4-4.5- 

Howe, Sergt 4-3-3-5-4-2-3—24 3-5-2-5-5-5-5—3° 3-4-5-5-5-4-4- 

Green, Corp 4-5-4-4-4-4-4—29 

Ferris, Corp 3-2-2-4-4-3.4—22 4.5-—31 

Monis, Priv 4-3-4-4-2-3-4—24—23 

Moore, Sergt 3-3-3-4-4-4-4—25 5-3-4-5-3-5-5-3° 3-4-2-3-5-2-2- 

Deacon, Sergt 4-4-4-3-3-2-0—20 2-2-3- — 25 3-5-2-4-3-5-2- 

McDonald. Sergt 0-4-2-3-4-0-4—17 2-3-5-2-4-5-4—25 5-4-2-2-3-2-4- 

2gS 349 325 972 

Massachusetts Team won by 92 points. 

The third match with the picked shots of the London Rifle Brigade 
took place on Wednesday, Jtily 3, at Rainham, in Essex, a delightful spot 
a short distance out of London. Mr. Cecil Newton, of the London, Til- 


















































bury & Southern Railway, in response to the application of Quartermas- 
ter Gratwick, kindly placed saloon carriages at the service of the teams, 
who journeyed together from Fcnchurch Station. The excursion was a 
most enjoyable one, thanks to the exertions of Captain Wilberforce, Mar- 
shal Armour, Sergeant Preston, and other members of the brigade who 
assisted them. The weather was fine, the light good, and there was very 
little wind. 

At the close of the 200-yard contest, the Massachusetts team led 
by thirty-two points. At the 300-yard targets they made one of the most 
brilliant displays of marksmanship on record. Doyle, for the third day 
in succession, made an unbroken .string of bull's eyes. The .same good 
fortune fell to Lieutenant Bumstead; and four others made thirty-three, 
and none dropped below thirty points; the average being over thirty-two 
points per man. 

Sergeant Ashley put up thirty-three for the brigade, and the ma- 
jority of the other members were in good shooting trim; but the Massa- 
chusetts marksmen were a little too miich for them, for they placed their 
lead at seventy points. At the 600 yards range the Englishmen made a 
gallant effort to score a victory at this distance, but although Private Locke 
got within one point of the possible, and Ashley, Desmond and Preston 
shot up well, yet the Americans could not be shaken off; and adding seven 
points to their previous lead, they won the event by seventy-seven points. 

In the evening, the team was sumptuously entertained by the Lon- 
don Rifle Brigade, at the Holborn Restaurant, which is .said to be the 
finest in London. During the evening the American flag and state colors 
were brought into the dining-room amid loud cheers. At this time Lord 
Clinton presented to Major Foster, as a memento of the occasion, the 
silver badge of the brigade. The .scores, which are given below, are well 
worthy the attention of either the military expert or sportsman. 


•200 Yards 

Bumstead, Lieut. . . . 5-4-4-4-5-4-5 — 31 

Huddleston, Corp. . . . 4-5-4-4-5-4-5 — 31 

Doyle, Sergt 4-4-4-4-4-3-5—28 

Hinman, Maj 4-4-5-5-5-4-5—32 

Merrill, Sergt. Maj. . . 4-4-4-3-5-4-4—28 

Farrow, Priv 4-4-3-5-4-4-4 — 28 

Bull, Sergt 4-4-3-4-5-4-5—29 

Johnston, Sergt 4-4-4-4-5-4-4 — 29 

Bull, Priv 5-4-5-4-4-5-4—31 

Farnsworth, Priv. . . . 4-4-3-2-4-4-5 — 26 

Hussey, Lieut 3-4-4-3-5-4-5—28 

Edes, Lieut 2-4-4-4-4-4-4 — 26 

347 390 347 1,084 

500 Vnnis 

(;0(i Yanl3 






5-4-5-5-5-4-5 — 33 




5-5-5-5-5-5-5 — 35 











































Elkington, Corp 5-3-4-5-5-5-4—3' 

Ashby, Priv 2-4-3-4-4-3-4—24 

Lock, Priv 4-4-4-4-2-4-3—25 

Mardell, Priv 5-3-5-3-4-5-2—28 

Preston, A. Sergt. 

Lattey, Priv 

Siegert, Priv. . . . 
Waldearrave, Earl . 



Desmond, Sergt 3-4-4-2-3-4-3—23 

Tavton, C. Sergt 4-4-4-2-4-4-3—25 

Keiliher, Priv 3-2-3-4-5-3-3—23 

Lintott, Sergt 2-4-4-4-4-3-4—15 


."lOO Yaids 














5 — j' 







4-5-5 — 32 







coo Y;irils 























340 1007 

Massachusetts team won by 77 points. 

Thursday, Jttly 4, is a day long to be remembered by the team, not 
only because it wa^ the anniversary of the day that gave America her 
independence, but also because it was the fourth victory of the team over 
the English Volunteers. The day -was a beautiful one and we had to make 
an early start, as Brighton, that delightful sea-shore resort in Sussex, is 
about two hours' ride from London. The jotirney to the coast was made 
extremely comfortable throitgh the management of the London, Brighton 
and South Coast Railway. 

On our arrival at Brighton, we were met at the station by Captain 
Cortis, captain of the Sussex team, and members of the First Sussex 

Regiment. We were 
soon seated comfortably 
in tally-ho coaches and 
driven throttgh the most 
"^^^'^^ streets of 

Brighton and around the 
world-renowned parade. 
A halt was made at the 
Aquarium at the invita- 
tion of the superinten- 
dent, who made our half 
hour's stay very pleasant 
and interesting. Leaving 
the Aquarium, we pro- 
ceeded to the Shepstone 
range on the downs. We 
were obliged to leave our coaches about three-qtiarters of a mile from the 
range and proceed on foot over a dusty, uneven path. Tired and hungry. 





A// I'ear^oii's Maijazinc. 


we reached the range, to be received by JMajor Blomfield, who introduced 
us to the Sussex team, who were quietly awaiting our arrival. After en- 
joying a hasty lunch, which had been provided by the Sussex team, the 
competitors went to 
the firing -point, which 
I may add wa.s a 
mound built up about 
fifteen to twenty feet, 
across which a 2Duffy 
and trick)- wind swept 
with intense force — 
the whole range being 
in a broad valley or 

A strong 3 
o'clock wind made it 
difiicult, from this exposed position, to make bulls-eyes; therefore outers 
and magpies frequently made their appearance. The Sussex team seemed 
at home in these conditions, and led the Massachusetts team twelve points 
at the 200-yard range. 

This was the first time that the team had been beaten at any range, 
and, of course, the Sussex men were quite delighted, and felt sure that 
victory would perch upon their banner. 

But fortune or science had decreed otherwise; for at the soo-yard 
range the Massachusetts team began to piill out the bull's-eye disc, so that 
when six men had fired, they had wiped out the debit of twelve, and were 
leading by twenty points, and on leaving this range :\Iassachusetts was 
twenty-five points ahead. 

The 600-yard range only served to oiDcn the gap wider, and swelled 
the total to seventy-eight points in favor of the Massachusetts team. 

At the conclusion of the match, both teams were driven back to the 
Royal Pavilion. This building, once the palace of George IV., is now 
used by the city of Brighton as a jjlace of public entertainment. Many of 
the furnishings remain the same as in King George's time. The teams 
were received by the Mayor and other officials of Brighton, and invited to 
sit down to a sumptuous banquet in the dining-room of George IV., the 
same room in which General Grant was so lavishly entertained when mak- 
ing a tour of the world. 

During the evening the Mayor, in behalf of the Sussex team, pre- 
sented a silver cigarette case to Lieutenant Hussey for the highest score, 
and as a memento of the occasion. 

With many courteous expressions of pleasure, gratitude, regret and 
goodby, we were escorted to the station to take the night mail for London, 


to which was attached a saloon carriage, as a special favor from the man- 
agement of the railroad. To say that the boys were tired, would, how- 
ever, but meagrely represent their physical condition, after four days of 
shooting and traveling many hundred miles, to say nothing of the loss of 
sleep. Following is a summary of the score: 



200 Yards 500 Yards 600 Yards T.ital 

Hussey, Lieut 4-4-4-4-3-4-5—28 5-3-5-4-5-5-5—32 5-4-4-4-5-5-5—32 9~ 

Edes, Lieut 4-4-4-4-4-5-4—29 5-2-3-5-5-5-5—3° 2-5-5-5-5-4-5—31 90 

Bull, Sergt 4-3-4-3-4-3-4—25 5-4-5-4-4-5-5—32 4-5-2-5-5-3-5—29 86 

Farrow, Priv 4-4-5-5-4-4-4—30 4-5-4-4-5-5-5—32 4-4-3-0-3-5-5—24 86 

Hinman, Maj 2-5-3-5-4-3-3—25 4-5-4-5-3-5-5—31 3-5-5-5-2-5-4—29 85 

Bull, Priv 4-5-4-2-4-3-5 — 27 3-5-5-3-5-5-3—29 3-5-3-5-5-2-4—27 S3 

Huddleston, Corp. . . . 4-4-4-4-5-5-4—30 3-5-3-4-5-5-4—29 2-4-3-2-4-2-5—22 Si 

Farnsworth, Priv. . . . 3-4-4-4-0-4-3—22 4-4-5-5-5-3-5-3' 2-5-2-5-4-5-3—26 79 

Bumstead, Lieut 4-4-5-4-3-3-4—27 2-3-4-4-5-3-5—26 4-2-5-4-3-3-5—26 79 

Doyle, Sergt 3-4-3-4-3-4-5—26 5-2-3-2-4-4-2—22 3-3-5-5-5-5-4—3° 78 

Merrill, S. Maj 4-3-4-5-3-4-2—25 5-4-5-5-5-°-5— 29 2-4-5-2-4-2-3—22 76 

Johnston, Sergt 4-3-4-3-4-2-2—22 3-5-4-2-0-5-5—24 3-5-5-3-5-4-2—27 73 

316 347 325 988 


200 Yards 500 Yards 600 Y"ards 

Leggett, Sergt 5-3-4-4-4-5-4—29 4-5-5-5-5-5-4—33 4-°-3-4-3-5-4— 23 85 

Tisdale, Priv 3-3-4-5-5-2-4—26 5-3-5-3-2-3-3—26 4-5-4-4-5-2-4—28 80 

Brown, Corp 4-5-4-4-4- 3-3— 27 3-3-5-2-5-3-4—25 5-5-5-5-3-2-3—28 80 

Fowler, Priv 5-4-4-3-4-4-3—27 5-5-5-3-4-3-5—3° 4-2-°-3-4-5-5— 23 80 

Cortis, Capt 4-4-4-5-4-5-3—29 2-5-5-5-4-3-5—29 0-3-3-3-3-5-4—21 79 

Barr, Priv 4-4-4-5-5-4-5—32 3-5-2-0-3-4-3—20 5-4-4-5-4-K-5— 27 7S 

Liley, Qmr 5-5-2-3-4-5-5—29 4-5-5-4-5-4-2—29 2-2-4-3-2-2-5—20 78 

Gates, Priv 4-2-4-4-4-4-3—25 3-4-5-4-2-4-3—25 5-3-2-3-4-3-3—23 73 

Donovan, Sergt 3-4-4-3-4-4-4—26 4-5-4-3-5-2-2—25 5-2-3-5-2-3-2—22 73 

Kirk, Corp 3-5-5-3-3-5-4—28 3-3-2-4-3-4-3—22 3-4-0-4-4-4-2—21 71 

Livesay, Major 4-4-0-4-4-3-5—24 4-4-2-2-4-4-4—24 5-2-2-4-0-4-3—20 6S 

Milton, Priv 5-4-4-4-4-2-4—27 3-0-4-5-3-4-5 — 24 2-2-2-4-2-2-0—14 65 

328 312 270 910 

Massachusetts Team won by 78 points. 

The fifth and last match, as arranged by Captain Gratwick, Honor- 
able Secretary to the Massachusetts team, took place at Nunhead, with a 
very strong team from the South London Rifle club, consisting of repre- 
sentatives drawn from various volunteer regiments, some of whom came 
several hundred miles to engage in the contest. The weather was bright 
and clear, with amoderateand somewhat tricky breeze from the left. 

Although very tired from a week's shooting and traveling about, 
the Massachusetts team put up the best score of the week, at 200 yards; 
averaging thirty per man, including a thirty-three by Sergeant-Major 
Merrill. The British team, in which all nationalities were represented, 
shot steadily, averaging close upon inners. 


The Massachusetts team opened at the 500 yard range with twenty- 
eight points in hand. The shooting at this range was very interesting, 
the first six men making exactly an equal number of points, and only four 
points divided the six, being in favor of the Massachusetts team. At 
this range. F. R. Bull made a clean score, and Lieutenant Craig came 
within one point of it. 

At 600 yards, the shooting was a little more difficult, but the Massa- 
chusetts team rose to the emergency, and won the match by forty-three 

In the evening, the South London Club entertained their oppo- 
nents at dinner. The occasion was one of great enjoyment, especially to 
the Massachusetts team, as it was at the triumphal conclusion of five of 
the greatest shooting matches with military rifies that ever took place in 
any country. The following is the detailed score: 



•2110 Y.irds .500 Yards GOO Yards Total 

Hinman, Maj 5-4-5-4-4-4-5—31 4-4-4-5-4-5-4—30 5-5-5-5-5-5-5—35 9^ 

Merrill, S. Maj 4-4-4-3-3-4-5—27 4-5-4-5-5-5-5—33 2-5-4-4-4-3-4—29 89 

Johnston, Sergt 3-4-4-4-4-4-4—27 5-4-3-4-5-5-2—28 4-3-5-2-5-4-2—25 89 

Bumstead, Lieut 4-4-4-4-4-5-4—29 4-5-3-5-4-5-4-3° 4-3-5-5-5-4-5— 3' 9° 

Dovle, Sergt 5-4-5-4-4-5-5—32 4-3-4-5-5-5-5—31 3-5-2-5-3-5-2—25 88 

Hiiddleston, Corp. . . . 5-5-5-5-5-4-4—33 5-2-2-5-5-5-5—29 2-3-4-4-4-3-4—24 86 

Farrow, Priv 4-4-5-4-4-4-4—29 2-3-4-5-4-5-5—28 3-3-5-5-5-4-4—29 86 

Farnsworth, Priv. . . . 5-4-4-5-4-4-5—31 5-4-5-5-5-4-5—33 4-5-4-4-5-5-2—29 93 

Edes, Lieut 5-3-3-5-4-5-5-3° 4-4-5-5-5-5-5—33 3-3-5-5-5-4-3—28 91 

Hussey, Lieut 4-5-4-4-4-4-4—29 4-4-5-5-4-5-5—32 2-0-5-4-5-5-4—25 86 

Bull, Sergt 5-4-5-5-5-4-5—33 2-4-5-5-5-5-4—3° 5-2-5-5-5-5-5—32 95 

Bull, Priv 5-4-4-4-4-4-4—29 5-5-5-5-5-5-5—35 2-3-2-5-5-4-3—24 88 

360 372 336 1,068 

200 Yards 500 Yards 600 Yards 

Craig, Lieut 5-4-4-4-4-4-4—29 4-5-5-5-5-5-5—34 5-4-5-5-5-3-5—32 95 

Trask, Sergt 4-4-5-5-5-3-4— 30 5-5-5-5-3-5-5—33 2-2-5-3-3-5-5 — 27 90 

McKerrell, Major .... 4-3-4-5-5-4-5—3° 4-4-4-4-5-4-5-3° 5-5-4-2-4-4-4—28 88 

Heath, Band Master. . . 5-5-4-4-4-4-4—30 5-5-5-5-5-5-3—33 5-4-3-2-4-5-2—25 88 

Smith, Color Sergt. . . 3-4-4-4-4-4-4—27 4-5-5-5-5-4-2—30 5-5-5-4-4-4-3—3° 87 

Coleman, Priv 4-4-4-4-5-4-4—29 4-4-4-5-5-3-5-3° 5-2-5-5-3-5-3—28 87 

Wells, Sergt 4-4-4-4-4-5-4-29 4-4-5-5-5-4-4—31 5-5-3-3-3-3-4—26 86 

Delafield, Priv 4-4-4-3-3-4-4—25 4-3-5-5-5-4-4—3° 5-5-5-3-4-3-5—3° 86 

Foster, Capt 4-4-4-3-4-5-3—27 5-5-3-4-3-5-4—29 4-4-3-3-5-5-2—26 82 

Tukes, Priv 2-2-4-3-4-2-4—21 4-3-5-4-4-5-5-3° 4-3-4-4-4-5-5—28 79, Capt 5-4-4-4-2-4-3—26 4-4-4-4-4-5-5—30 3-5-2-3-°-3-5— 21 77 

Lowe, Priv 4-4-5-4-4-4-4—29 5-3-3-4-5-3-5—28 3-4-4-2-3-4-4—24 81 

332 368 325 1025 

Massachusetts Team won by 43 points. 

Saturday morning, July 6, was not unlike the previous ones, in 
point of work and hurry, for on this day the team were to be the guests of 


Major AIcKenzie at Epping Forest, and were to try the Alartini-Henry 
rifle at Honey-Lane range. 

A most royal time we liad, and as we journeyed through the forest 
with its grand old trees, making the shade as dense at mid-day as if night- 
fall were i:pon us, our minds reverted to the days and deeds of Robin 
Hood. "A grand old place, and a most hospitable man," was the iiniversal 
verdict of the team, as we reluctantly left to return to London, where we 
arrived about four o'clock in the afternoon, to take our departure for 
Wimbledon. A tally-ho was awaiting us at the First Avenue Hotel, and 
arrayed in heavy marching order, we mounted the coach and were driven 
away amid the cheers and farewells of a throng of people, who had congre- 
grated about the hotel to see us off. The Shah of Persia was expected in 
London, and as we journeyed through the streets, we cotild hear at times 
on either hand, "Here comes the Shah!" Then, again, some patriotic 
American, seeing the dear old Stars and Stripes waving triumphantly over 
us, would give forth a cheer, such as Americans love to give under similar 
circumstances. The ride to Wimbledon was delightful, and as we neared 
the camping-ground, the clarion bugle notes of Sergeant-^Iajor Merrill 
announced our coming, and the English Volunteers, with that hearty hos- 
pitality so characteristic of true English gentlemen, met us with open 
arms, and escorted us to our quarters. 

Sunday, the first day of our stay in camp, was one of rest and quiet, 
as the camp had not fairly opened. There was very little going on except 
the work of getting things in order. The team took advantage of the day 
and kejot perfectly quiet. Our able quartermaster. Lieutenant S. B. 
Newton, had provided ample and comfortable quarters, which were laid 
out in artistic style, with flowers blooming about the flag staff, in the 
center of our parade, from which the stars and stripes floated with the state 
flag below them. 

We were quartered near the London-Scottish Regiment which by 
vote, made us honorary members of the Regimental Mess. 

The morning of July .Sth came too soon, yet the routine of camp life 
must be complied with, even by tired and weary soldiers, and consequently 
we rose up bright and early to raise our colors at the staff head. Not 
long after the band came, and saluted the flag with such airs as the Star 
Spangled Banner, Hail Columbia and others equally patriotic. 

As soon as the booths were open, in which entries were inade for the 
different matches, members of the team were on hand to take their 
chance, although they were to be won with a Martini-Henry rifle. The 
Springfield rifle with its wind-gauge and peep sights was barred; although 
in some of the individual matches the Springfield rifle with the buck-horn 
sight was allowed, making it practically the same as the Martini-Henry. 

In all the matches, in which members of the team entered, they 



came off victorious. Chief among these matches was the Steward's 
Purse. This Corporal Huddleson captured with a score of 34 — 
^^-5-5.5.5-5.5) out of a, possible 2^, winning a telescope woilh about 
§150. The various matches were '^hot for on stated days, during the two 
weeks of the encampment. 

The following members of the Team won prizes during the Wim- 
bledon meeting: Corporal W. D. Huddleson won a telescope valued at 
26 pounds and ten shillings in the Steward's match; and, in the same match. 
Private W. M. P'arrowwon 4 pounds; Sergeant M. W. Bull 3 pounds; Ser- 
geant-Major W. M. Merrill i pound; Sergeant Geo. Doyle i pound; 
Lieutenant R. B. Edes, i pound; Lieutenant S. S. Bunistead, i pound; 
^lajor C. W. Hinman, also won in the following matches in the Alexandra, 
5 pounds; in the Alfred, 5 pounds; in the All-Comer's Aggregate, 2 pounds; 

Vouneay Pearson's Matjazine. 

in the Duke of Cambridge, 3 pounds, and in the Perinet et Fils, i pound; 
W. D. Huddleson won 5 pounds in the Alfred and 2 pounds in the ^Vind- 
raill series; Sergeant AL W. Bull won 3 pounds in the Alfred; and private 
W. iL Farrow won 5 pounds in the Albert match. Total value of 
prizes won nearly 80 pounds. 

It was the good fortune of the Rifle Team to dine with many of the 
organizations, and to participate in their festivities. It was also an equal 
pleasure to give two "At Homes," at which the Massachusetts team could 
entertain, in a meager sort of way, the friends who had so lavishly enter- 
tained them. They were privileged to have as guests many very distin- 
guished persons — in all walks of life, from the nobility down to the hum- 
blest private who captured the Queen's prize — the greatest honor that 
can come to the English volunteer. Minister Lincoln and General New, 
with a host of American friends from London, made extra exertions to 
call. It was a great pleasure to entertain, as best we could, under the con- 


ditions of camp life, the officers of the National Rifle Association, and 
officers of the various organizations who had been so kind and courteous 
to us, together with many crack shots and distinguished teams. 

Sunda}' service at Wimbledon, is a particiilarly interesting ceremon}-, 
because members of all the organizations attend in frill dress uniform. 
The Massachusetts team, with their uniforms of blue and gold, made a 
striking contrast to the many-colored uniforms of the English. The 
service, conducted by the Bishop of London, was a very impressive one. 

The second week at Wimbledon was as eventful as the first, for the 
exhibition of skirmishing by the team, attracted a large throng of people, 
who witnessed with astonishment the remarkable, and to the English, won- 
derful, work of the team, and especially of Messrs. Huddleson and Doyle. 

The day was one of those characteristic of Wimbledon, made up 
of alternate rain and sunshine, leaving unmistakable pools of water all 
over the field. Between the .showers, Major Frost marched the team to 
the firing point, commencing at 600 yards, and advanced and halted them 
by bugle-call, at distances unknown to the men. They were allowed fifteen 
seconds at each halt for firing, finally advancing to 150 yards, and then 
retired in the same manner. During the two-and-one-half minutes occu- 
pied in actual firing, they made a record of hits which quite surprised the 
English officers and volunteers. Following is the score: 

SIvlllMISlI riiACTlCK Al n I11IU.F.1IOX. 

Bulls Iniicrs Magpies Outers TJits Score 

Corp. Huddleson 24 8 9 6 47 191 

Sergt. Doyle ii 11 7 25 52 166 

Major Hinman 11 9 6 7 33 123 

Lieut. Hussey 9 9 7 6 31 114 

Sergt. Bull 9 7 5 5 -6 96 

Sergt. Johnston 4 9 2 7 22 76 

Priv. Bull 5 5 4 8 22 73 

Priv. Farnsworth 6 i 3 15 25 73 

Lieut. Edes 3 5 7 8 23 72 

Lieut. Bumstead i 1 5 '5 -o 5° 

This ended the tour of duty of the ^Massachusetts Rifle Team at 
Wimbledon, and two days later, July 20, came the grand final scene at 
Wimbledon camp, A large and fashionable gathering assembled to wit- 
ness the presentation of the prizes, which were displayed on a large table, 
upon a raised dais. The London Scottish A'olunteers formed a guard of 
honor, and in addition to the muster of the prize winners, the Canadian, 
American and other teams were drawn up in line. The 276 winners re- 
ceived their prizes at the hands of Lady Wharncliffe, who graciously added 
a few words of congratulation to each recipient. The principal winners 
were loudly cheered, as were also the Massachusetts team, who "with 
their blushing honors thick upon them," were marched upon the dais to 
receive, each man, a Queen's Wimbledon badge, as a memento of their 



visit — an honor highly appreciated. As the day drew to an end, and the 
golden sun, kissing the hill-tops and the snowy tents, bade farewell to the 
closing day, and to the last camp at Wimbledon ; so did the Massachusetts 
Rifle Team, with full hearts beating 
with admiration and gratitude for 
their English friends and brothers, 
bid them farewell, but that was not 
enough. With bands of music and 

of men in martial array, they 

escorted us to our train, amid 
and farewells innumerable, 
lingering, loving glances, and 

ories for the nation 
who had treated us so 
we were on our way to 
Our stay in Paris 
pleasure and sight-see- 
Whitelaw Reid, 
minister to 
the first to wel- 
tendered them a 
days later, the 
French navy 

m e m- 
Paris . 

was given to 
France, was 
come the team, and 
receiJtion. A few 
A d m i r a 1 of the 
gave a reception in 
of the team. A 
accommodations at a 
World's exhibition 
us long for American hotels and 
American food. We had not 
long to wait, for Hon. W. F. 
Cody, "Buffalo Bill," came to 
our rescue, and saved sixteen 
men from the pangs of hunger, by invit- 
ino- us to a sumptuous dinner a la Ameri- 
cain. Our visit to the Wild West show and 
ride in the old Deadwood coach brought 
to mind days long ago, when some of the 
team had encountered the Indians on the 
great western plains. The sight of the 
American flag, and the uniform of United 
States soldiers, seemed to inspire the Indian 
to do his best, much to the pleasure of the immense audience. 

July 29 found the team back in London. On invitation of Minis- 
ter Lincoln, the team called upon him, and from his hands each member 

Courtesy Pearson's Mitgaziite. 


I'nti! recently authorizecl in Ilif riiiUHl states Army 

:inJ still a favorite witli many tiooil shots. 



received a beautiful badge, as a souvenir of the trip. The design is ex- 
ceedingly artistic. The American and English colors stand side by 
side, crossed at the top of a shield bearing the names of the English 
teams which the Massachusetts team met in competition. Under 
this is a scroll with the legend, "England 18S9." He also gave a 
sleeve badge bearing the words, "Wimbledon 1889." After this visit 
the team called upon Lord !Mayor Whitehead of London, who showed 
them every courtesy possible, conducting them through Guild Hall, the 

L'UL. W.M. F. CODY (lUI'IALO liU.L). 

library, council chamber and museum, explaining in a most clear and de- 
lightful manner the inniimerable objects of interest. He also allowed them 
to inspect the gold plate of the corporation of the city of London, after 
wliich they were invited to a substantial lunch. The next visit was to 
Consul General New, at St. Helen's Place, Bishopsgate, there to receive 
congratulations and praises for the good work done. 

July 30. by invitation, the team passed several pleasant and instruc- 
tive hours at Woolwich Arsenal, and in the evening dined with Major 


Williams, of the Honorable Artillery Company, at the Holland Restau- 
rant, closing a most enjoyable and interesting tour of duty, and at mid- 
night took the train for Liverpool, sailing on Wednesday, by the eity of 
Chicago, for New York. 

Let me add here, first of all, that the team can never be sufficiently 
thankful to the National Rifle As.sociation, of England, for detailing as 
Honorable Secretary tt) the team. Captain G. F. Gratwiek, secretary of the 
English Twenty Club, who so faithfully, fairly and courteously managed 
all the details of the matches, and personally gave every moment of his 
time to the team, from the time they landed at Liverpool until they left 
London for America. The team's appreciation of Captain Gratwiek and 
his services were but feebly expressed by the presentation to him of a 
gold watch; yet the tender love and affection, which every member of the 
team had for him. will last long after the lustre has left the gold, and the 
hands pass the meridian of life: nor can I be unmindful of the Duke of 
Cambridge, who paid us a special visit and complimented the team so 
highly for their soldierly bearing and efficient work. 

To Lord Wantage, the chairman of the council of the N. R. A.; to 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. M. P., the vice chairman; to Captain Mildmay, 
the secretary, and to the officers of the different teams which we met in 
competition, and to many others, the team is greatly indebted for the 
courtesy, consideration and pleasant entertainments given us while in 

The voyage homeward was one of quiet and rest, without any event 
worthy of note. The morning of August 10, found the steamship City 
of Chicago steaming into New York harbor, with yards of bunting float- 
ing from every available place, proclaiming to America the glorious suc- 
cess of her citizen soldiers of the Massachusetts Rifle Team. Scarcely 
had we set our feet on American soil than we were quite unexpectedly 
made the recipients of hearty and formal greetings from military men in 
New York, who received us with all the honors, and a breakfast at the 
Manhattan club. Sunday morning we arrived in Boston on the nine 
o'clock train, which was decorated with bunting and devices, represent- 
ing and symbolizing victory and success. A committee representing the 
militia, consisting of Colonel Rockwell, Colonel Mathews, Major Kemp 
and Major King, were awaiting the arrival of the team to escort them to 
Young's hotel; where they were entertained at breakfast, by and with the 
heads of the military department of the state, Adjutant-General Samuel 
Dalton presiding. The cordial greeting and pleasant meeting of many 
friends, and their congratulations upon the great success of the team, 
with their commendations of the soldierly and gentlemanly manner in 
which its members had conducted themselves while abroad, will long be 
remembered and cherished by every member. 


The following day, August 12, the City of Boston gave a breakfast 
to the team, at which many high ol^cials and enthusiasts in rifle shooting, 
together with friends, were present to extend a welcome to their fellow 
citizens, who had so honorably and successfully represented the state and 
city in England. 

A few days later. Major J. P. Frost and the rifle team were tendered 
a reception by the Boston Press Club, of which .Major Frost is a member 
and director. The occasion was one of very great enjoyment. I believe 
further that every member of the team individually, had banquets ten- 
dered him by his personal friends. These festivities closed a series of 
ovations, banquets and receptions, which were the expressions of a grate- 
ful people to Major J. P. Fi'ost, for his untiring exertions in carrying 
through from beginning to end, an enterprise which meant so much to the 
country, the state, and to the members of the rifle team who made it pos- 
sible to achieve these crowning victories. 

I think with propriety I may add a word of praise to the quarter- 
master of the team, Lieut. vS. B. Newton, whose eificient and substantial 
services were rendered at all times, as if thoughtful of others before himself, 
which is par excellence, the highest attribute of a quartermaster. To the 
adjutant of the team. Major George H. Benyon, is due the highest com- 
mendation, for the able manner in which he discharged his duties. To 
every member of the team is due just and commendable praise for the 
soldierly and gentlemanly bearing, which made its discipline perfect and 
its work easy. 

When we consider that sixteen men, taken from varii)us walks in 
life; travelling about eight thousand miles; subjected to diflicult and trying 
conditions, and entering into five team competitions, to say nothing of the 
individual matches, were landed safely at home without a mishap or injury, 
and with every man in a better physical condition than when he left, it is 
scarcely neces.sary to say that they took excellent care of themselves. 

Perhaps it may not be out oi place here to relate briefly, what 
great Britain does for her volunteers in the way of rifle shooting. The 
ancient English pastime of practicing at the butts was revived in the 
National Rifle Association of Great Britain in i860 by Lord Elcho. At 
the opening of the Wimbledon range in that year. Queen Victoria fired 
the first shot, la bull's eye) and thus inaugurated these great meetings, dur- 
ing which many thousands compete annually. 

At the first meeting in i860, only 67 prizes were offered, of the 
value of 2,238 pounds sterling. The number of prizes and aggregate 
value have increased yearly, until they reached in 1891, 3,766 prizes, val- 
ired at 12,317 pounds sterling, not including the challenge-cups and 
shields, some twenty-four in number, the value of which is not stated. 
Nearly eleven thousand jjounds of this anioimt was in money prizes. 



irclME AiiAIM. 

The prizes for each succeeding year have gradually increased over 
those given in 1891. During the thirty-three years of the National Rifle 
Association's comiJetitions at Wimbledon and Bisley, about 58,000 prizes 
have been awarded, aggregating in value about 335,500 pounds sterling or 

The number of competitors for prizes at these meetings, during the 
past few years, has averaged about 36,000 in matches, and over 35,000 at 
the pool targets. Does America offer as great inducements to hei volun- 
teers to become proficient marksmen? The volunteer foi'ceof the United 
States is the nucleus from which we must build all bulwarks of defense 
against foreign attack or domestic violence. It should, therefore, be in- 
structed in every branch of military science, and particularly in that of rifle 
shooting, for the indispensable qualification of experts in this art, is 
shooting to hit. No matter how well the school of the soldier, company 
and battalion, and other military exercises and drills are performed, they 
are only for the purpose of placing a soldier in a position where he can 
most effectively use the rifle. A fire-arm in the hands of a soldier, igno- 
rant of the principles which govern its effective use, and who stands 
in fear of its action, is more dangerous to himself and his comrades than 
to the object against which it should be directed. 

The vast expenditure of money in the maintenance of an army, the 
training of officers and the purchase of costly weapons, is futile, if this 



army is uninstructed in the proper use of the implements with which the 
enemy is to be conquered: With the introduction of magazine guns, it is 
now even more essential than ever, that the soldier should be '•fire dis- 

Experience with the demoralized French soldiers, in some of the im- 
portant battles of the Franco-Prussian war, demonstrated that excited men 
may uselessly expend in a few minutes, all the ammunition they can carry. 

The knowledge acquired on the rifle range, alone, will teach the 
soldier to husband his resources, estimate the distance of his adversary, 
cause the weapon in his hands to be extremely destructive to his enemy, 
and tend to establish a high grade of military efficieucy. 

To what extent have these international rifle matches been fraught 
with good? First of all, they have helped draw together more firmly the 
bonds of friendship of the two great English-speaking nations; they have 
also incited individuals and organizations to put forth their best efforts 
to obtain a place on the scroll of our nation's best marksmen; they have 
exemplified to the English people that good, harmonious team-work under 
a competent and energetic captain, well versed in all that pertains to rifle 
shooting, is much more successful than that of a team made up of men, 
who are looking after their own personal record, regardless of the other 
members of the team. 

They have also established the fact, that the Springfield rifle. 
America's military arm, with its fine sights and wind gauge, is superior in 
action and effectiveness, to the Martini-Henri rifle, England's military arm. 
They have also settled the question of superior marksmanship, and the 
crown of laurel falls upon America, and her little band of Massachusetts 

Cottrlesy of Pearson's Maiiazine. 



Lieutenant-Colonel Bowdoin S. Parker, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

THE Commonwealth of Massachusetts, by Chajjter 108. of the Acts 
of the year 1809, took its first step in militia organization, pur- 
suant to the Statutes of Congress, passed May 8, 1792, and on 
March 2, 1803. for the purpose of " Establishing an Uniform 
Militia throughout the United 
States." Under this act, the First 
Brieade of the Massachusetts Mili- 
tia was instituted. The system 
adopted purported to make an ac- 
tive militiaman of every able- 
bodied man, between the ages of 
seventeen and forty-five years. 
A limited number of companies 
of " Cavalry, Artillery, Light In- 
fantry and Grenadiers or Rifle- 
men," were permitted to be formed 
by special authority granted, while 
all the residue were called the 
" Standing Militia." Theoreti- 
cally, the system provided an or- 
ganization that included all men 
liable to military duty in the state. 
In Massachusetts, this sys- 
tem resulted as in other states ; it 
was nowhere a success. The fre- 
quent removals of the population 
from place to place, and from state to state ; the long periods of peace ; 
the difficulty of enforcing necessary discipline and the disinclination of 
the proper officers to make themselves unpopular by a rigid enforcement 
of the system, soon resulted in weakness, and the "Standing ]\Iilitia " 
gradually became an ill-organized force, useless from a military .stand- 
point, and an object of public ridicule. The sequel was a change in the 

Th,- 5V''«' System. 

By Chapter 92, of the Acts of the year 1S40, the present system of 
organization came into being. In brief, it divides the militia into two 



classes. First, the " Enrolled Militia," embracing all persons liable to 
military duty; and, second, the " Volunteers, '" who may or may not be 
also included in the first class. The latter constitute the only efficient and 
really available military force of the state. 

The Volunteer Militia was established on a basis of 10,000 men, 
divided into three divisions of six brigades. The brigades were num- 
bered consecutively. Thus it happens that the ist brigade has always 
been the "First," and the location and number of its units have been so 
far localized that its identity is made definite and distinct. Changes in 
the organizations composing the brigade unit have from time to time taken 
place, but there has remained a continuity of certain integral bodies, 
within it, sufficient to make a harmonious connection in the brigade history. 

The several brigades of the state were originally formed to cm- 
brace the troops within contiguous counties. The First, up to a late day, 
was the distinctive Suffolk county brigade, although containing at times 
companies from Norfolk, Plymouth and Bristol counties. 

It was at first composed of the following organizations, viz: — 

One company cavalry. I National Lancers 1. 
F'our companies. Fifth Regiment Artillery. 
Ten companies. First Regiment Infantry. 
Three companies, Battalion Infantry. 
Two companies. Third Battalicm Infantry. 

In 1857, the brigade was made up entirely of troops from Boston 
and Roxbury. 

During this period, there was little uniformity in either uniform 
or drill. Scott's and Hardee's tactics were used, with a variety of intri- 
cate combinations of both, the matter being seemingly left to the fancy or 
caprice, of the captain of each individual company. These peculiarities, or 
what would now be deemed glaring defects, were not localized in any 
particular brigade. But a few years had elapsed, when the Great Rebel- 
lion broke the quietness of peace, and the efficiency of the militia was 
brought to the test of actual service: how well it served the state and 
nation, has passed into our country's history. 

At the first alarm, organizations of the brigade, with portions of the 
militia, were summoned to the defense of the national capital : these with 
the rapid enlistment of members of the militia into volunteer regiments 
for the war, left only the skeleton of a militia force behind. Many 
organizations however, performed military duty, within the state, as at 
Fort Warren, Fort Independence, at various recruiting camps, etc. The 
six brigades were nominally retained up to near the close of the war, but 
the duties of the times were so all-absorbing, that little time was ex- 
pended up(m the militia. It was not until Appomattox ended the long 


stru'1-gle, with victory, that the militia became a.i^ain a matter of interest 
to the state. 

The new re-organization consolidated the six brigades into a two divi- 
sion formation, with ilajor General Benjamin F. Butler, commanding. 
The first brigade re-organized consisted of the Second Battalion of Infan- 
try. Colonel Robert J. Hamilton of Springfield, six companies; Third 
Battalion of Infantry, :\Iajor Daniel A. Butler, of New Bedford, four com- 
panies; Third Battalion of Infantry, Major Austin C. Wellington of Bos- 
ton, four companies; Sixth Regiment of Infantry, Colonel Melvin Beal of 
Lawrence, eight companies; Tenth Regiment of Infantry, Colonel John 
W. Kimball of Fitchburg, eight companies; First Battalion Light 
Artillery, Major George S. Merrill of Lawrence, two companies; Troop 
F, Cavalry, unattached, Captain Christopher Roby of Chelmsford. A 
total of 30 companies of infantry, 12 light batteries of artillery and one 
troop of Cavalry. 

In 187S, the third and fourth battalions were made the First Regi- 
ment of Infantry; the Tenth Regiment and Second Battalion were reduced 
to six companies and made the vSecond Battalion; and Battery A, with 
the Artillery Battalion organization transferred to the Second Brigade. 
The only changes since made, have been the transfer of Battery C and 
the Artillery Battalion organization to the First Brigade, the enlargement 
of the First and Sixth Regiments, to twelve companies each, and the 
making of the second battalion into a regiment of eight, and after- 
ward of twelve companies, with the addition of the Signal Corps — a new 

7?;/7,- Practice. 

Perhaps the most remarkable achievement in the brigade history, 
has been its wonderful record in the development of rifle shooting. 
This important branch, so far as relates to the Massachusetts militia, had 
its initial development, in the ist brigade. Prior to 1880, it had been 
little practiced, out.side of a few companies, but the next ten years saw it 
extend throughout the whole force, and the number and excellence of the 
brigade marksmen, became the popular theme throughout the United 
States and England. 

State teams, largely made up of members of the ist brigade, 
repeatedly vanquished the rifle teams of the other states and the regular 
army at "Creedmore" and other meets; nor were they satisfied with this: 
they went to England and carried off the honors at "Wimbledon," as is 
elsewhere recorded in this history. 

The new recruit is now, from the first, taught the use of the rifle, 
and in every company in the brigade, a majority of the members are quali- 
fied marksmen, while many companies make it a rule to require every 
man to become a qualified marksman of record. 


V^otahle Parjdcs. 

By numerous official reports, it is evidenced, that the brigade early 
established its reputation as an excellent military body: this reputation it 
has never lost. It has uniformly been distinguished for solidity, precis- 
ion and discipline. It has never posed as a "show brigade," but has main- 
tained its high position by soldierly bearing and attainments. 

Among the notable public occasions, in which it has taken part, 
may be mentioned, — the parade in honor of Millard Fillmore, President 
of the United States, September 17, 185 i, on which occasion, the troops 
were reviewed by the President, the governor and many distinguished 
officers; the reception of Kossuth, the year following; the reception and 
review in honor of the Prince of Wales, October 15, i860; the reception 
and review given to Henry Wilson, Vice-President of the United States, 
June 17, 1875, at which, General Sherman and staff and many public men 
were present; the reception and review in honor of Rutherford B. Hayes, 
President of the United States, the year following; the reception and 
review in honor of Chester A. Arthur, President of the United States, 
October 11, 1882; the dedication of the Soldiers' Monument, on Boston 
Common; the celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of 
Boston, etc. Upon each of these public occasions, the brigade has been 
commended in official orders and by the press for its excellent discipline 
and soldierly bearing. 


Brigadier-General Tyler was the first brigade commander, after the 
re -organization of 1840. He gave much time and attention to the duties 
of his office, and succeeded in bringing the organization into a very credit- 
able position; continuing in command until 1849. 

Gt-iitijl ELiiii.iiids. 

Brigadier-General B. F. Edmands succeeded General Tyler: he 
was, however, soon promoted to the command of the division and, conse- 
quently, had little opportunity to accomplish much as brigade commander. 

General yiiidrews. 

Brigadier-General Samuel Andrews of Roxbury, was commissioned 
and assumed command. May 13, 1850. He continued in office nearly 
eight years, and was a popular officer. A gradual improvement was 
maintained for several years; yet it was hardly sustained during the latter 
part of his administration. He was promoted to be the division com- 
mander, February 25, 1858. 

OF MASSACHUSETTS. 333 linllock. 

Brigadier-General William "W. Bullock of Cambridge, previously 
colonel of the Second Regiment of infantry, succeeded to the command. 
Pic had the honor of being at the head of the brigade at the outbreak of 
the Civil War, in iS6i. The part taken by the militia during the dark 
days that followed, has already been noted. It is enough to say that the 
brigade then did its whole duty. 

Geih'ijl Bun ill. 

After the organization of the militia at the close of the rebellion, 
Brigadier-General Isaac S. Burrell of Roxbury, was elected brigade com- 
mander, his commission bearing date July 26, 1866. General Burrell was 
an experienced officer, having served as colonel of the Forty-second Mas- 
.sachusetts Regiment in the war, and at the time of his promotion was 
lieutenant-colonel, commanding the First Regiment of Infantry. Under 
his command, the brigade was soon placed in good shape. The troops 
did not have the facilities for drill and instruction during the year, now 
possessed, but the annual encampments were, in the main, well utilized, 
and a basis was then laid, upon which subsequent commanders have built 
the present admirable structure. In 1868, the olifice of brigade-major was 
dropped, and that of assistant adjutant-general substituted, with the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. Charles W. Wilder of Boston, on General Burrell's 
staff, was the first to be commissioned to that position. General Burrell 
gave ten years' service to the brigade, and retired with a record highly 
honorable to himself, and of great benefit to the militia of the Common- 
wealth. He died at Bo.ston, September 13,1895. 

Gciu-rji Moore. 

Brigadier-General Hobart Moore, of Boston, was chosen comman- 
der, August 12, 1876. Although riot a veteran of the war, he was admit- 
tedly, one of the ablest tacticians in the state. During the war, he was 
employed as drill-master, in training and preparing recruits for service 
and in this duty, proved himself a very valuable officer. He was also 
familiar with the militia requirements of the time, having served as an 
officer for many years, and being as.sistant adjutant-general of the brigade 
on the staff of General Burrell, for the six years preceding his elevation to 
the command. General Moore was fortunate in securing Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Solomon A. Bolster, of Boston, a veteran of the war and an adminis- 
trative officer of marked ability, as his assistant adjutant-general. Gen- 
eral Moore's administration w'as not characterized by any radical changes 
or innovations, but the general affairs of the brigade were well attended 
to, and the efficiency of the force was fully maintained. By an act of the 
Legislature, limiting the terms of all officers to five years, he was honor- 


ably discharged in 1872. Of General Moore, it may well be said, that be 
had the love and commanded the respect of all who knew him; he was of 
a quiet disposition, and possessed a genial temperament. After his retire- 
ment, he continued to be the military instructor of the Boston public 
schools, la position he had filled during his service as brigade commander) 
until his death, which occurred at Boston, April 25, 1894. 

General IVales. 

At an election, held February 21, 1882, Nathaniel Wales, of Bos- 
ton, then colonel of the First Regiment of Infantry, was chosen brigade 
commander. General Wales was not only a militia officer of experience 
but had also an enviable war record. Entering the United States service 
September 6, 1861, as a member of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts 
Volunteers, in which he held the rank of first sergeant; he was, in 1862, 
promoted to be first lieutenant, in the Thirty-second Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, and the same year transferred to the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, as first lieutenant and adjutant; promoted to major in 1865, and 
discharged i\Iay 9, 1864, with the brevet ranks of lieutenant-colonel and 

He entered into his new duties with ardor. His selection of a corps 
of staff officers was most happy ; most of them were war veterans, and 
each was designated with special reference to the particular duty he was to 
perform. A school of staff instruction was organized, and continued dur- 
ing all the years he held command. In this school he acted as instructor, 
and each .staff officer was required to become thoroughly posted in the 
minutest details of the tactics, from the duties of a soldier to the evolu- 
tions of a brigade and a division. The subject of emergency or riot duty 
was made a special study, and the principal cities, especially Boston, were 
mapped and platted, with reference to a possible call ; each staff officer 
was also required to prepare military papers upon subjects given, which 
papers were read, criticised and discussed at Staff meetings ; in this way 
he soon had a staff of most efficient officers, each fully competent to as- 
sume command of a regiment or even of the brigade. It is not too much 
to say that General Wales associated and perfected the most accomplished 
and perfectly equipped .staff the brigade has ever had. Lieutenant-Col- 
onel William M. Olin of Boston, was Assistant Adjutant-General. Col- 
onel Olin had seen three years' active service dtiring the war, and resigned 
as Military Secretary of the Commander-in-Chief, with the rank of colonel, 
to accept the brigade staff position. 

General Wales was an enthusiast in everything he undertook ; no 
labor was too great, no minutiae too small, for his personal attention, if 
thereby the interest or advancement of any portion of the brigade could 
be subserved; even the social gatherings of individual companies were 


not neglected, and hardly a public parade or social occasion took place at 
which he was not personally present or represented by some of his staff. 
In this way he kept in close touch with all portions of his command, and 
was personally known to almost every man in the brigade. 

Among the more important details of his administration may be 
mentioned, the bringing together of the militia and the regular army, es- 
pecially the officers. This gave the regular officers a better understand- 
ing of the purposes, aims and standing of the militia ; it also enabled the 
militia officers to obtain many valuable points, which were used to advan- 
tage. This mingling with the " Regulars " has since so become a part of 
the usual practice, that it is now accepted as a matter of course. 

The organization of the Signal Service, upon a permanent basis, was 
due to General Wales, also, the closer association of the militia with the 
police forces of the state as an aid to the civil jjower. He was the to 
try the experiment of holding the annual encampment early in June, 
instead of September or October; which innovation has ever since been 
followed, to the acceptance of all. He encouraged rifle practice, and the 
advance made in this branch during his term of office, was marvelous; a 
new office was created, and the brigade, and each regiment, has since had 
an "Inspector of Rifle Practice" upon its staff, to attend to this important 

General Wales was ever in adopting new changes that 
promised to be of advantage; the annual encampments became practical 
schools of instruction and every suggestion, deemed of value as tending to 
interest the men in their duties, wa^ quickly utilized; field manoeuvres, 
affording instruction in methods of advance, attack, defense and retreat, 
were practised with profit, and the brigade was soon placed far in advance 
of its previous position. In the judgement of competent military author- 
ities, the brigade had no superior for all around efficiency in the militia 
or national guard of the country. 

After a most brilliant administration of about seven years. General 
Wales resigned. He was, in 1897, the only ex-commander of the brigade 
then living. 

General Hiidacs. 

Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Bridges of South Deerfield, was 
commissioned, January 5, 1889; he was an experienced militia officer, 
with a record of over twenty-eight years" service, having risen from a 
private through all the military grades from lieutenant to colonel. His 
command of the .Second Regiment of Infantry for the ten years preceding 
his last promotion, had made him thoroughly familiar with the require- 
ments and duties of the new position. As a tactical officer, he had few 
equals in the state. The brigade headquarters were retained at Boston, 


following the invariable custom of all previous commanders. The new 
staff, among whom were several who had served on the former brigade 
staff, were mostly from Boston, and were selected with care. 

Bowdoin S. Parker of Boston, was appointed assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral and chief of staff. Lieutenant-Colonel Parker was a war veteran, and 
had seen many years' service as a militia officer. He had been three 
years adjutant of the Second Regiment, while it was commanded by Gen- 
eral Bridges, and judge advocate of the brigade, for the seven years' term 
of General Wales. 

There was no marked change in general management under the 
new administration; indeed, the standard of the organization was already 
so high that the room for improvement was confined to narrow lines. 
Beyond a certain point, perfection is only reached by a close attention to 
small details, — trifles, yet all important trifles. Under the new system 
of United States Drill Regulations adopted by the militia. General Bridges 
has made a number of changes in camp rotitine, which have reduced the 
actual labor of the rank and file, without impairing efficiency. He was 
the first to introduce at camp special visiting days for the general public, 
and so well has this worked that for several years, only one day of the 
five allowed for camp duty, has been open to visitors holding general 
passes. No other organization of the militia has restricted camp passes 
to a single day. It has resulted in making the camps of the brigade more 
strictly military; it has made the duties of camp lighter for both officers 
and men, and has materially decreased the expenses attendant upon enter- 
taining the swarms of visitors, that of late years tend to overflow the 
brigade encampments at Framingham. Under present conditions, inost 
of the old-time pomp and glitter of " ye olden time " has gone; ceremo- 
nies are few; the revelry of the old " good time " is lost in a stricter dis- 
cipline, and the military spirit is everywhere apparent. The multitudi- 
nous duties of the field are performed with a regiilarity, precision and 
snajJ, never before attained in the militia. 

One important matter, has been brought to a high state of perfec- 
tion by General Bridges, and that is the embarkation, transportation and 
disembarkation of the trooiDs composing the brigade. It is a frequent re- 
mark of regular army officers, that the brigade, in this respect, is in advance 
of the United States troops. The administration of General Bridges has 
been pre-eminently noted for the great harmony existing among the officers 
of all ranks. The many encampments held since he took command, have 
been, as nearly absolutely perfect, considered from a military stand- 
point, as it is possible for a military organization to attain. The large 
number of new men which attends the annual encampments, necessitates 
much elemental work, each year. It is safe to say that the brigade has 
now attained as high a position as it will ever be possible for it to reach. 


In i.S97(rcneral liridi^-es, and those of his staff who were eligible 
■under the Statute, were plaeed upon the "Retired List," with commenda- 
tory endorsements, by the commander-in-chief, upon their several appli- 
cations for retirement. Subsequently, by special Act of the General 
Court, three members of the staff, who were veterans of the Civil War, 
were promoted one grade in rank, viz.: Bowdoin S. Parker, Assistant 
Adiutant-Crcneral, and David Clark, Medical Director, each to the rank of 
Colonel; and Thomas F. Cordis, Assistant Inspector-General of Rifle 
Practice, to the rank of Lieutenant -Colonel. 

General Bridges was appointed warden of the State Prison at 
Charlestown in 1893, and removed to Boston, where he has since resided. 

Gt'iifij/ Mathews. 

Brigadier-General Thomas R. Mathews, of Boston, succeeded to 
the command July 19, 1897. He was a veteran of the Civil War, having 
served three years in the First Regiment M. V. M. Entering the militia 
as First Lieutenant, Company D, Fir,st Regiment of Infantry, January 2 i , 
1878, he served in the First until elected brigade commander, passing 
through all the grades to colonel, which latter position he held for over 
eight years. He therefore came to the new position with a thorough 
experience in all general military requirements. 

Walter C. Hagar, of Boston, was made assistant adjutant -gen- 
eral, and a new brigade staff, with two exceptions, was commissioned, 
but as most of the work of the year had already been performed, 
nothing new was attempted in 1897. 

Early in 1898 during the Spanish War, the three regiments of 
infantry of the brigade were mustered into the United States service. 
The Second saw active field work in Cuba, and the Sixth in Puerto 
Rico, while the First was retained for heavy artillery service at Fort Warren, 
in Boston Harbor, and along the New England Coast. As only the 
batteries of light artillery, the cavalry, and signal corps remained in the 
State for duty, the mihtia, for the time being, was allowed to as 
best it might, pending the return of the infantry regiments. In 1899, these 
having been mustered out of the United States service, again took their for- 
mer places in the brigade, and the camp of this year was made notable by 
the presence of so many officers and men who had seen actual service. 

The Spanish war naturally produced many changes in the personnel 
of the organizations. The results of the war service, however, have been 
marked, and in many respects beneficial. The essentials are now better 
recognized, while the ornamental or show part is held at its real value. 

General Mathews' administration has been conscientious and prac- 
tical; the brigade in his hands will continue to hold its enviable position 
as a well-disciplined, thoroughly instructed and efficient military body, of 
which the Commonwealth may well be proud. 


By Colonel James A. Frye, I. G. R. 1'., Mass. (Late Major of the Regiment.) 


RU-M lime immemorial, the most striking characteristic of the regi- 
ment now borne on the militia register of Massachusetts as the 
First Heavy Artillery has been its healthy esprit de corps. In serv- 
ing under its colors, whether in peace or in war, the oificers and 

men of the "Old First" have ever 
had a pride peculiarly their own. 
While the space allotted to this 
sketch admits of only the briefest 
mention of the stirring events of 
many crowded years, the mere out- 
line given may at least serve to ex- 
plain and justify this regimental 

And first, it must be said 
that the men whose work resulted 
in the ultimate formation of the 
regiment, were also the men by 
whose struggles and sacrifices the 
nation was founded; for although 
its < ifficial existence dates only from 
1844, the initial steps towards its 
organization were taken long be- 
fore the close of the last century. 
To-da}' there are but fourteen regi- 
ments in our regular establish- 
ment which can lay claim to longer 
continuous service, while the regi- 
mental organizations of the National Guard, which can e\'en approximate 
its honorable record, may be reckoned on the fingers of a single hand. 

At the close of the Revolution, despite the universal military 
exhaustion following that tremendous struggle, the men of ^lassachu- 
setts, in the wisdom born of bitter experience, set themselves .sturdily to 
the task of strengthening their Commonwealth against the dangers of an 
unknown future. At this period were chartered the numerous indepen- 



dent companies of infantry and artillery — each bearing- prondly on its 
rolls the names of Revolutionary veterans — from which slowly, and at 
times almost painfully, the present armed, equipped, and efficient Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer .Militia has finally been evolved. Among these still 
vigorous commands of the olden time, three — the Roxbury Train of 
Artiller}', 1784; the Independent Boston Fusileers, 1786; and the Boston 
Light Infantry, 1798 — still answer to-day at the adjutant's call, marching 
in the regimental line of the First as D, G, and K Batteries, and keeping 
alive by their presence the traditions of the Shay Rebellion of 1787, the 
naval war with France in 1798, and the War of 18 12. Long years ago, 
these quaint designations went officially into disuse, but the regiment still 
treasures the service-record with which they were once associated. 

During an eventful half-century, regimental changes innumerable 
have taken place, for the Legislature of Massachusetts — faithfully follow- 
ing the example set by the Congress of the United States — has periodi- 
cally amused itself by military experiments. As the years have gone by, 
companies have been organized, disbanded, or transferred from regiment 
to regiment, corps designations have been varied to meet any passing 
fancy, and officers have been legislated out of, or into, commission, until 
the effect on the casual observer is most bewildering. And yet, through 
over fifty years of peace and war, of political indifference, or political in- 
ter-meddling, the "Old Regiment" has steadfastly clung to the best tradi- 
tions of patriotism; and the time is still to come when it shall fail in 
instant response to the call of authority, when danger threatens either 
Republic or Commonwealth. 

1844 — 1 86 1. 

From the close of the Revolution until well into the second third 
of the present century, the militia of Massachusetts formed two very dis- 
tinct classes: the enrolled ("corn-stalk") militia, with its four-days' train- 
ing; and the armed, uniformed, and drilled militia, comprised in the 
independent companies. It hardly need be recalled here how farcical had 
become the militia of the former class — the worthy citizen with his law- 
ful "good mufket or firelock, a fufficient bayonet and belt, two fpare 
flints, and a knapfack," showing on general muster-days an ardor at- 
tributable not only to patriotism, but also to old New England rum — but 
what really should be noted, is the fact that at this time, after long years 
of struggling to escape from the contempt into which it had fallen through 
such unfortunate associations, the organized and active militia had finally 
succeeded in compelling the legislature to recognize it, as the only mili- 
tary element worthy of consideration or support from the Commonwealth. 

In 1844, the enrolled militia having ceased to exist except on paper, 
there was decreed a general re-organization of the active establishment, 
and it was at this date that the present regiment came into being. Two 



small battalions of field artillery formerly attached to the ist Brigade, 
were consolidated into a five-company regiment, to which Colonel Chase 
was assigned as commanding officer, and the newly formed organization 
was designated officially as the Fifth Regiment of Artillery. That its 
component parts could already point to service records of no mean length, 
is shown by the militia register of that day, and the fact that four of its 
five companies were, in effect, picked commands, had much to do with 
its early reputation for efficiency. As a matter of curious record, the fol- 
lowing table showing the composition of the original regiment, is worthy 
of preservation: 


COLOXEL CH.\SE, 1844. 














Boston Artillery. 
Columbian Artillery. 
Washington Artillery. 
Roxbury Train of Artillery, 
Dorchester Artillery. 


May 7, 1783 

June 17, 179S 

May 29, 1810 

April 12, 1784 

It is a matter for regret that a complete roster of the original regi- 
ment cannot be given, but in the early days the office of the adjutant-gen- 
eral had a wholesome dread of contracting bills for printing, and the 
reports for the first fourteen years of the existence of the regiment, lack 
all minor details as to dates of commissions and discharges, even failing- 
to give the initials of regimental commanders. The first official roster of 
the militia appears in the records for 1858. 

At the time of this re-organization, the artillery arm was much in 
evidence in the Massachusetts service, for there were twenty-six compan- 
ies of field artillery, with fifty-two guns, as against only eighty-three com- 
panies of infantry. At first thought, this apparent disproportion may ap- 
pear amusing, but its explanation is not difficult. The Revolution had 
found the colonies wofully weak in artillery of every kind, while as 
nearly every able-bodied man at that time was skilled in the use of small- 
arms, the raising of efficient infantry had been a matter of comparative 
ease. Mindful of earlier experiences, the authorities of Massachusetts 
had fostered the artillery, and had liberally provided for its maintenance. 

At this time an artillery company comprised "one captain, two 
lieutenants, four fergeants, four corporals, fix gunners, fix bombardiers, 
one drummer, one fifer, and fixty-four privates or matrofses." Each 
company was provided, either by its town or by the State, with a gun- 
house, or armory, and its armament consisted of two bronze six-pounder 
field guns, with limbers, and one caisson. Six sets of harness were also 
furnished, for use on ordered duty. The ammunition supph' was fairly 


liberal, anKumtiiii;" annually to "forty round-fhot, and forty rounds of 
cannifter-fhot, with a quantity of powder not exceeding' one-hundred 
pounds, which fhall be expended on days of infpection and review, and 
in experimental gunnery." The guns, it is interesting to note, were 
identical in type with those of the regular artillery. 

At the inspection of 1845, the regiment paraded four companies — 
the Dorchester company lE) having been disbanded — with an effective 
strength of 226. In the year following, the comjjanies, while retaining 
their artillery materiel, were also armed, equipped and drilled as infantry, 
their work calling the following comment from Adjutant-General Oliver 
— "The Fifth Regiment Artillery (Suffolk and Norfolk), Colonel Chase, 
is the best in the State. Its appearance at the late review was highly ajj- 
proved by competent judges. All the companies are furnished with 
guns, carriages, and caissons of the new pattern, are all armed and 
equipped as infantr}-, and are under good discipline." Apparently the 
adjutant-general later modified this opinion, for in 1S46 he reports the 
four companies of the regiment as "one flourishing, one fair, two de- 
pressed;" — the depression doubtless being attributable to the law enacted 
in this year which directed, that but one company of each artillery regi- 
ment should retain its field guns, while the remaining commands were 
assigned to infantry duty alone. 

Colonel Chase obtained his promotion in 1847, his successor being 
Colonel Perkins, who was in command of the regiment on its first tour 
iitider the law of 1849, which allowed an annual encampment of two and 
a half days. In this year the regiment encamped under canvas at Nepon- 
set, with the ist Brigade, and Adjutant-General Devereux reported favor- 
ably upon its performance of duty. In 1850, Colonel Perkins resigned 
his commission. He was succeeded by Colonel Robert Cowdin — under 
whom later on the regiment was destined to go into active service — and the 
period of "depression" speedily came to an end. Colonel Cowdin was an 
energetic officer, with pronounced ideas on making the regiment, rather 
tlian the company, the unit of administration. Following the custom of 
the earlier days, each company up to this time had clung to its own dis- 
tinctive uniform, and the resultant regimental line had been in conse- 
quence unique, if not altogether pleasing to the eye of the martinet. 
From now on, however, a regimental uniform was adopted, minor differ- 
ences in trimmings and cap-devices ser\-ing to distinguish the companies, 
and the effect on the esprit of the command was both immediate and 
marked. The encampment of 185 1, at Medford, was a regimental one, 
and the systematic work by which it was characterised caused General 
Devereux to report — "The regiment deserves honorable mention for its 
neat and orderly and well conducted encampment, its full ranks, and its 
good discipline." 



:\Ieanwliile, the Zklexican War — in which the regiment was well 
represented by individual officers and men, who served in the single 
regiment of volunteer infantry required from Massachusetts — had done 
not a little toward stimulating interest in military affairs. A new com- 
pany {E) was raised in Boston, and served its first tour at the encamp- 
ment held at Neponset in 185 i, while in the following year, another Bos- 
ton company (F) was attached to the command. The year 185 i is marked 
in regimental annals, by the exchange of the flint-lock for the "percus- 
sion" musket, as well as by escort duty performed during the visit to 
Massachusetts of President Fillmore. In 1852, the command paraded in 
honor of Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot. Its regimental encamp- 
ment for this year was held on Boston Common — a site which would 
hardly be selected for the purpose by a commanding officer of to-day. By 
this time the command, save in name, had ceased to be artillery, general 
orders having prescribed infantry drill for all of its companies. 

In 1853 an entire division of militia went into camp at North Abington, 
the regiment reporting with two additional companies (G and H) which 
had been organized early in that year. It also served its tour at the 
division encampment held at Quincy in 1854, as an eight-company com- 

But the legislature had been growing restless, and in 1855 its mem- 
bers engineered a general re-organization of the state forces. At this 
time all artillery regiments lost their former names, and the artillery arm 
—with the exception of Cobb's Light Battery— went out of existence so 
far as concerned Massachusetts. In the general turmoil, Colonel Cowdin 
found his commission vacated, and when the astonished regiment came to 
its senses it found itself re-christened as the Second Regiment of Infantry, 
commanded by Colonel Moses H. Webber, under a commission dated 
February 26, 1855. Of its eight companies, four had been disbanded or 
transferred to other commands, though a partial recompense had been 
attempted by the assignment to the regiment of B and F companies of 
the disbanded Third Light Infantry Battalion. The appended table will 
serve to indicate in a general way the composition of the re-organized 









Capt. T. Evans. 
Lieut. W. G. Barker 
Capt. J. B. Whorf. 
Capt. I. S. Burrell. 
Lieut. M. Moore. 
Capt. A. Harlow. 


A, 5th Regiment, Artillery. 

B, 3rd Baftalion, Light Infantry. 

C, 5th Regiment, Artillery. 

D, 5th Regiment, Artillery. 

E, 5th Regiment, Artillery. 

F, 2nd Battalion, Light Infantry. 






2 1 
















Colonel \Vebber's tour in coimnission was a short one, his resigna- 
tion taking effect in 1856. He was followed in the command by Colonel 
William W. Bullock, under whom the regiment went into camp at Quincy 
in 1856, and at Chelsea in 1857. In the latter year Colonel Cowdin re- 
joined the regiment as lieutenant-colonel, and in 1S58, on the promotion 
of Colonel Bullock to the command of his brigade, he again became regi- 
mental commander. In this 
year the regiment, with its 
division, went into camp at 
North Bridgewater. 

The year 1858 was 
also marked by the re-arm- 
ing of the command with 
the Springfield rifled mus- 
ket, model of 1855. which 
had long been desired by its 
officers. An extract from 
the report of Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Stone for 1857, indicates 
the estimation in which the 
discarded arm was held: — 
"The improved musket, is- 
sued to the troojjs of the 
army, is capable of doing 
execution at from seven to 
nine hundred yards dis- 
tance, whereas the musket 
now in the hands of the 
volunteers (militia) is not 
capable of doing execution 
at one-half that distance. 
Besides, they are constantly liable to get out of order, and not imfre- 
quently bursting, causing more injury to the holder than to his enemy." 

In 1859, with a view to increased efficiency in the militia, another 
partial re-organization was ordered. The existing First Infantry was 
broken up, and four of its companies — C, D, F, ("Boston Fusileers"), and 
H — were attached to the Second, as I, K, G, and H, respectively, thus 
bringing the regiment up to its full ten-company complement. This 
proved but a momentary condition, however, for a rigid inspection 
resulted in the disbandment of Company E of the old regiment, and H and 
K of its newly acquired fractions. 

Events had now begun to move rapidly towards civil war. On 
September 7, 8, and 9, i88g, the entire militia of Alassachusetts was 



assembled by Governor Banks in the historic camp of instruction at Con- 
cord, where the regiments were inspected and reviewed by General Wool 
of the United States Army, the "Hero of Buena Vista." On this memor- 
able tour, the regimental roster bore the names of the following field 
officers and company commanders; — 

Field Officers— Colonel Robert Cowdin, Lieutenant Colonel Isaac S. Burrell, 
Major Isaac F. Shepard. 

Captains commanding— Company A. Captain Clark B. Baldwin; Company B, 
Captain Edward Pearl; Company C, Captain Walters. Sampson; Company D, Cap- 
tain Thomas L. D. Perkins; Company F, Captain Arthur Dexter; Company G, Cap- 
tain Henry A. Snow; Company I, Captain Joshua Jenkins, 

At this time the company organization in the regiment was that 
prescribed by Scott's infantry tactics, each command having a captain, 
with first, second, third and fourth lieutenants. The new Hardee drill 
regulations for infantry, however, were in process of adoption, and here- 
after vacancies occurring in the grades below that of second lieutenant 
remained unfilled. 

For the second and last time, in i860, the annual encampment was 
held on Boston Common, and the regiment performed its duty; fully real- 
izing that the near future would call for practical application of the les- 
sons learned during the long years of peace then drawing to a close. On 
October 17, i860, the regiment paraded for H. R. H., the Prince of 
Wales, on the occasion of his visit to Boston. From this time forward, 
the efforts of both officers and men were devoted to preparation for active 
service. In this work they received little aid or encouragement from 
state headquarters, for the absurd seven-company organization was still 
permitted to continue. 

THE CIVIL WAR— 1861-1865. 

It is impossible, within the limits imposed, to give anything beyond 
the lightest outline of the services rendered to the country by this com- 
mand during the dark days of the Civil War. In point of fact, the rec- 
ords of two volunteer regiments call for consideration in this connection, 
for the Second Infantry, M. V. M., was the parent organization of both 
the First and Forty-Second Regiments, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V. 
Happily for those who have entered the service in later years, the volume 
by Rev. Warren H. Cudworth, chaplain and historian, covers the opera- 
tions of the former command, while the record of the latter is fully given 
in the reports of the adjutant-general of Massachusetts for 1862-3. 

Immediately after the fall of Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861, the Sec- 
ond Infantry, through Colonel Cowdin, tendered its .services to Governor 
Andrew, in the expectation of being at once ordered to the defense of 
Washington. To the chagrin of the command, this offer was not accept- 
ed; but the regiment, nevertheless, had the honor of representation in 


the historic "March tliroiigh Baltimore" of April 19, for Captain Samj)- 
son's Company (C) of the Second had been detached and assigned (as 
Company K) to the Sixth Infantry, serving with credit during the three- 
months' campaign of that command. 

Failing to obtain orders for immediate service, Colonel Cowdin, 
without loss of time, began to prepare his regiment for a longer and 
sterner task than that which lay before the militia commands sent out 
under the first call for troops, and under his supervision the work of re- 
organizing and recruiting the regiment was speedily pushed to comple- 
tion. Of the original companies but five remained ; for C had gone out 
with the Sixth, and it was decided to leave I in the militia establishment. 
The full ten-company complement was therefore made up by consolida- 
ting, as Company A, two companies of Brookline militia, while four vol- 
unteer companies were raised — two in Boston, and one each in Chelsea 
and Roxbury — and attached to the regiment as Companies C, I, H, and K. 
At this time Captain Baldwin's company changed its letter from A to E. 
(Jn May 23, Companies A, B, G, and H, were mustered into the service of 
the United States, followed by D, F, K, and I, on May 24 ; E, on May 25 ; 
and C, with the field and staff, on May 27. The completed regiment now 
took the official designation of the First Regiment of Massachusetts In- 
fantry, United States Volunteers. 

From 2klay 25 to June i, the command was quartered in Faneuil 
Hall, from whence it marched to Fresh Pond, Cambridge, where it 
remained in camp, until ordered to the front a fortnight later. Leaving 
Boston on June 15, it reached Washington after a two-days' journey, hav- 
ing the proud distinction of being not only the first three-years' regiment 
to leave Massachusetts, but also the first armed and equipped long-term 
command to reach the national capital. Like the Sixth, it made the 
march through Baltimore, being the second command to appear in its 
streets en route to Washington. Before de-training, ball cartridges were 
issued, and the march was made with loaded and cajDped muskets. A 
mob had gathered quickly on the arrival of the regiment, but no violence 
was attempted, for the grim and business-like bearing of the regiment 
carried its own effectual warning. 

At the time of its muster into the service of the L^nited States, the 

following field officers and company commanders held commissions in the 

regiment: — 

Field Officers— Colonel Robert Cowdin, Lieutenant-Colonel George D. Wells, 
Major Charles P. Chandler. 

Captains commanding — Company A, Captain Edward A. Wild; Company B, 
Captain Edward Pearl; Company C, Captain Gardner Walker; Company D, Captain 
Ebenezer W. Stone; Company E. Captain Clark B. Baldwin; Company F, Captain 
Alfred W. Adams; Company G, Captain Henry A. Snow; Company H, Captain Sum- 
ner Carruth ; Company I, Captain Charles E. Rand; Company K, Captain Abial G. 


On reaching- Washington the regiment marched up Pennsylvania 
Avenue, passing in review before President Lincoln, and then proceeded 
to its camp of instruction at Georgetown. Until July 17, the command 
furnished details for picket duty, and saw some service m minor skir- 
mishes. On the latter date it was attached to Richardson's brigade, and 
ci-ossed the Potomac as advance guard of the Army of the Potomac. 
Two days later it went into action at Blackburn's Ford, losing several 
men — among whom was Lieut. W. H. B. Smith, the first officer killed in 
the regiment. In the action at Bull Run, July 21, the regiment was 
posted on the left flank of the Union Army, and was not seriously en- 
gaged, although it had some casualties — Lieut. E. B. Gill, Jr., being among 
the killed. In the retreat following this disastrous battle, Richardson's 
Brigade covered the Union rear, and the First sullenly withdrew from the 
field, with unbroken ranks and unshaken determination. 

On returning to the vicinity of Washington, the command was 
detailed for garrison duty in Fort Albany — a heavily-armed work in the 
outer line of defenses — where for a time it performed artillery duty, 
leaving this post August 13 to encamp at Bladensburg, where it became 
attached to Hooker's brigade. On September 7, the regiment was ordered 
on a month's march through lower Maryland, its duty being the suppres- 
sion of the spirit of disloyalty which had there become apparent. On 
October 27 it went into winter quarters at Budd's Ferry, on the lower 
Potomac, where it remained until April 5, 1S62, meanwhile having a 
number of trivial disputes with the Confederate forces entrenched on the 
opposite bank of the river. 

With the opening of the Peninsular campaign of 1862, the regi- 
ment again became involved in active operations. It was engaged in the 
siege of Yorktown, in which Companies A, H, and I, gained distinction 
for the command, by storming and destroying a Confederate out-work, 
which had greatly annoyed our forces. This desperate undertaking was 
brilliantly carried out under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Wells. The 
storming party lost heavily in its rush for the redoubt, but never faltered 
until it had swept triumphantly over the parapet. 

In the battle of Williamsburg, May 5, the regiment again .suffered 
severe losses, the records showing forty-three casualties for the day's 
work. From ilay 1 5 to June 24, the regiment was constantly on picket 
and skirmish duty, in consequence of the operations around the Chicka- 
hominy ; but it was not engaged in a general action until the battle of 
Fair Oaks, June 25, Avhen it added sixty-four names to its rapidly-grow- 
ing casualty list. In the daring change of base to the James River, it 
had the honor of acting as rear-guard. It was in action on June 29 at 
vSavage's Station, and on June 30 at Glendale, where it lost sixty-two 
officers and men. Major Chandler being among those killed in this battle. 




At ^lalvern Hill, July i, the regiment was supporting the artillery, and 
met with little loss. During the month of July, the First, with the rest 
of the army, remained inactive at Harrison's Landing; but early in Aug- 
ust it took part with Hooker's division in a reconnaisance in foree, and for 
a second time engaged at Malvern Hill, where one hundred prisoners 
were taken in a fierce charge tipon the Confederate position. Soon after 
this action, when the Federal army beo-an its retrogade movement from 
Harrison's Landing, Grover's brigade, and with it the First, again held 
the post of honor in covering the withdrawal of the forces. 

The theatre of operations now changed from the Peninsula to the 
vicinity of Washington, which was again threatened by the Confeder- 
ates. On August 21 the regiment took transports at Yorktown, disem- 
barking at Alexandria, and almost immediately starting in purstiit of 
Stonewall Jackson's corps, which had made a daring raid in that vicinity. 
The enemy was brought to action at Kettle Run (Bristow Station) on 
August 27, and after a sharp engagement was driven from his position. 
Two days later the regiment for a second time went into action on the 
Bull Run battlefield, and on September i it took part in the fight at Chan- 
tilly, the records showing seventy-three casualties for these two actions, 
Lieutenants Harris and Mandeville being among the killed. For the next 
three months the regiment was employed in garrison, picket, and provost 
duty, enjoying a hard-earned and much-needed respite from its trying 
work on the firing-line. 

At this time ^lajor-General Heintzelman, in a letter to Governor 
Andrew, wrote — "The First and Eleventh Massachusetts Regiments, 
under command of Bi-igadier-General Grover, were engaged in the siege 
of Yorktown, and in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Glendale, 
and i\Ialvern Hill, on the Peninsula, and in General Pope's army, in those 
of Kettle Run, Bull Run, and Chantilly. In all those actions these regi- 
ments behaved with distinguished success, and the State has reason to be 
proud of them. They have carried her white flag with the foremost." 

General Grover also wrote : "As an act of justice to those noble 
regiments, the First, Eleventh, and Sixteenth Massachusetts Volunteers, 
which I had the honor to command during the Peninsula Campaign, I beg 
leave to state that for soldierly bearing and bravery in the field they have 
been everywhere conspicuous, and have, on every occasion which has 
come under my notice, done honor to their State." 

Owing to its detached service, the regiment lost its chance of tak- 
ing part in the battles of South Moimtain and Antietam, but its active 
campaigning was still far from completed. On September 8, Captain 
Baldwin was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and Captain Walker to 
the majority of the regiment, and on the 26th of the same month Colonel 
Cowdin, for gallantry in action, was commissioned brigadier-general of 


volunteers. In December, having been relieved from its detached duty, 
the command rejoined its corps, and was present during the bombard- 
ment of Fredericksburg on the i ith and 12th, crossing the river on the 
following day to take an active j^art in the fighting, and adding thirty-two 
casualties to its records. On the 16th it covered the withdrawal of its 
corps, having been kept on the skirmish line for this purpose until the 
last possible minute. On this date the newly appointed regimental com- 
mander. Colonel Napoleon B. McLaughlin — captain. Sixth United States 
Cavalry — joined the First, relieving Lieutenant-Colonel Baldwin. 

After the disastrous experfment at Fredericksburg, the regiment 
went into camp for a few weeks of comparative quiet, broken only by the 
ridiculous "mud march" of January 21, 1S63, when the unsuccessful 
attempt to flank Lee was made. In February a rigid inspection of the 150 
regiments in the Army of the Potomac was held, and the First had the 
distinction of being among the eleven commands commended for perfect 
efficiency and discipline. 

With the other commands of Sickle's Third Corps, the First was 
heavily engaged at Chancellorsville, May 2-3, 1S63, having ninety-eight 
castialties to show for its efforts, with Captain C. E. Rand among its 
killed. The command has always claimed that the death of Stonewall 
Jackson resulted from a volley fired from its ranks, and — though this 
claim has been a matter for controversy — it is an established fact that this 
gallant soldier met his fate in the immediate front of the line of the First. 
In this engagement the regiment fought stubbornly and well, and its 
officers and men bitterly resented the result of the battle. 

After the campaign of Chancellorsville came another period of 
inaction, lasting until June 11, when the movements began which culmi- 
nated in the terrific struggle of July 1-3, 1863, at Gettysburg. Here the 
old First ilassachusetts, imder command of Lieutenant-Colonel Baldwin — 
Colonel McLaughlin being in the hospital — won imperishable renown by 
its stubborn fighting at Round Top, where with the Third Corps, it hurled 
back the desperate attack of the veterans of Longstreet, Anderson and 
McLaws. "Hardly a regiment in the Third Corps," writes Chaplain Cud- 
worth, "but had lost so many of its number as to render its management 
impossible. In the First, Colonel Baldwin and Adjl^tant Mudge had 
been crippled, a large number of officers and men lay scattered about, 
wounded and dead, and the rest having been forced back, Captain Mc- 
Donough took the few remaining in his immediate vicinity and pursued 
the enemy as they retired, until their scattered and discomfited ranks dis- 
appeared in the shadows of the forest. A remarkable instance of coolness 
under fire was exhibited by Lieutenant James Doherty, who, observing 
that his men were a little tremulous, ordered them to bring their guns to 
the .shoulder, and, while the rebel battle-line was all ablaze with deadly 

Coli.nel Climles Pfali', L'. S. V., C.pinmaiHlini; 

Garrison at Fori Pickering. 


volleys, and a perfect tornado of whizzing missies was flying at, over and 
among his men, pnt them through the manual of arms, as quietly as he 
would in front of their quarters in camp." Another manifestation of 
intrepidity was made by Corporal X. ^l. Allen, who, "observing that the 
color-sergeant had been shot down, and that the flag must fall into the 
hands of the enemy, who were then rapidly advancing, turned back and, 
under a shower of bullets, lifted the flag and brought it off unharmed." 
One hundred and twenty -three casualties, including Lieutenant Henry 
Hartley, killed, and nine officers wounded, are on record, to testify to the 
devotion of the regiment in this historie battle, and the regimental monu- 
ment which to-day stands on the ground so grimly held, forms a worthy 
memorial to the men of the First, who gave their lives in checking the 
wave of rebellion at its high -water mark at Gettysburg. 

After the battle, the regiment took part in the pursuit of Lee, on 
his retreat into Virginia, becoming engaged on July 23, when the enemy 
was driven from a strong position at Wapping Heights. With this action 
came a short cessation from field service, for orders were received on 
July 30, detaching the command from its corps, for duty in suppressing 
the draft riots in Xew York. Subsequently the regiment served a short 
tour at the conscript camp at Riker's Island, and then for a time guarded 
a depot for Confederate prisoners at David's Island. 

Orders to re-join its corps were received on October 17, and the 
command reached the front in time to take part in the action at Kelly's 
Ford, on the Rappahannock, on November 7, and in the battle of Locust 
Grove, on the 27th. Its losses in these actions were slight. From this 
time until early in the following spring it was called upon to take jjart 
only in minor operations. 

One of General Grant's first cares, on being assigned to command 
in the East, was the re-organization of the Army of the Potomac, and on 
March 25, 1864 — the and 3d Corps having been broken up — the regi- 
ment found itself incorporated in the 2nd Division, 4th Corps. The men 
keenly felt this change, for the services of the old 3rd Corps had already 
become historic, and common sufferings and privations had knitted its 
component parts strongly together. Oiit of respect for this sentiment, 
the regiments of the old corps were allowed to retain their original badge, 
and the First still wears the famous "White Diamond," under which it 
won distinction in years gone by. 

Though its term of office had nearly expired, the First yet entered 
sturdily upon the labors of the Wilderness Campaign, taking a worthy 
part in the terrific battles of the Wilderness on May 5 and 6. In the lat- 
ter, it held its ground in the face of Long.street's daring charge, although it 
had the misfortune of losing Lieutenant-Colonel Baldwin, who was cap- 
tured while on picket duty. On May 12, it was heavily engaged in the 


action at Spottsylvania Court House. Its casualties in this campaign 
reached an even fifty. Captain M. H. Warren being among its killed. 

But the regiment had now faithfully fought its way to the bitter 
end of its term of enlistment. On May 21 the orders, which detached it 
from its corps, were issued, and on the 25th — almost three years to a day 
after its entry into the voh:nteer service — it reached Boston, where it was 
received with a well-earned demonstration of pride and afifection. A ban- 
quet was held in Faneuil Hall, at which Governor Andrew welcomed back 
the war-worn remnant of the First, and thanked it in the name of the 
Commonwealth for its faithful service. On the 28th, the command formed 
on Boston Common for the mustering-out ceremony, and when the roll 
had been called for the last time, the men turned in their arms and tat- 
tered colors, broke ranks, and ceased to be soldiers of the United States 
volunteer army. 

Mere figures can do but little in indicating the part played by the 
First Massachusetts in the War of the Rebellion, yet a few statistics are 
worthy of preservation for convenience of reference. In its three-years' 
service the regiment was engaged in twenty general actions, besides tak- 
ing part in its due proportion of skirmishes and minor affairs. Of the 
seventy -one commissioned officers on its roster, thirteen gave their lives 
for their country — nine while serving with the regiment, and four after 
becoming attached to other commands. Of its enlisted men, one hun- 
dred and eight were killed in action or died from wounds, fifty-five died 
from disease or accident, and seven died in confinement as prisoners of 
war. The discharges for physical disability, resulting from wounds or 
the hardships of campaigning, reached the terrible aggregate of over six 
hundred. The grim fact that but four htindred and ninety-four officers 
and men, out of a total enrolment of sixteen hundred and forty-five, were 
mustered out on the return of the regiment needs no further comment. 
During its service the command marched twelve hundred and sixty-two 
miles, travelled thirteen hundred and twenty-five by rail, and seven hun- 
dred and twenty-four by transport. It gave to the Union army six gen- 
eral officers, and furnished for other regiments eight field and forty-one 
line officers. 

The full regimental roster follows; names followed by a star 
beinof those of officers who died while in the service: — 

Colonels — Robert Cowdin, Napoleon B. McLaughlin. 
Lieutenant-Colonels — George D. Wells,* Clark B. Baldwin. 
Majors — Charles P. Chandler,* Gardner Walker. 
Surgeons — Richard H. Salter, Edward A. Whiston. 

Assistant-Surgeons — Samuel A. Green, Francis LeB. Munroe, Thomas F. 
Oakes, Neil K. Gunn,* Isaiah L. Pickard,* John B. Garvie. 
Chaplain — Warren H. Cudworth. 


Captains— Edward A. Wild, Edward Pearl, Ebenezer W. Stone, Jr., Alfred W. 
.\danis, Henry A. Snow, Sumner Carruth, Cliarles F. Rand,* Abial G. Chamberlain, 
Georije H. Smith, Francis H. Ward, George E. Henry, Charles M. Jordan, Charles S. 
Kendall, William C. Johnston, Francis \V. Carruth, Miles Farewell, Henry Parkin- 
son, John McDonough, Forrester A. Pelby, Muses H, Warren,* Frank Thomas, John 
S. Clark. 

First Lieutenants— John R. Lee, William L. Candler, Joseph Hibbert, Jr., 
George H. Johnston, John L. Rogers, William H. Lawrence, Albert S. Austin, Charles 
E. Mudge, William H. Sutherland,* Charles L. Chandler,* William P. Cowie, John M. 
Mandev'ille.* Horatio Roberts, Henry Hartley,* Amos Webster, Joseph H. Dalton, 
Shadrick K. Morris, John S. Willey, George Myrick, William E. Hayward, George L. 
Lawrence, Frederic E. Dolbeare, William H. Fletcher, William P. Drury. 

Second Lieutenants— Daniel G. E. Dickinson, Oliver Wolton, 2d., Robert A. 
Saunders, Elijah B. Gill, Jr.,* William H. B. Smith,* James Doherty,* Nathaniel 
Averill, Harrison Hinckley, Rufus M. Maguire, Edward G. Tutien. 

After the First had left for the front, its place in the militia was 
not left vacant, for a skeleton organization under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Burrell, with fourteen oihcers and two hundred and sixteen men 
on the rolls of its seven companies, still kept alive the name of the Second 
Infantry. On the departure of the volunteer command, recruiting at once 
began, and on May 26, 1862, Washington being thought in danger 
after Banks had been driven from the Shenandoah Valley — the famous 
emergency order was issued by which the entire militia of Massachusetts 
was mobilized in Boston, ready for departure if required, and the Second 
Infantry responded to the call with live hundred and fifteen officers and 

When President Lincoln, on August 4, 1862, called for the services 
of 300,000 nine-months' men, the Second instantly responded, going into 
camp at Readville, where the necessary companies were raised to fill its 
regulation complement. On October 14, it was mustered into the service, 
leaving for the front on November 2 i , with thirty-nine officers and nine 
hundred and twenty-two men, under command of Colonel Burrell. vSince 
there was already a Second JMassachusetts in the Volunteer service the 
command was re-christened as the Forty-second Regiment of Massachu- 
setts Infantry, a designatioii which it retained until the re-organization of 
1866. The command bore upon its roster, on taking the field, the fol- 
lowing field officers and company commanders: — 

Field Officers — Colonel Isaac S. Burrell, Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Stedman, 
Major Frederick G. Stiles. 

Captains commanding — Company A, Captain Hiram S. Coburn; Company B, 
Captain Ira B. Cook; Company C, Captain Orville W. Leonard; Company D, Captain 
George Shreive; Company E, Captain Charles A. Pratt; Company F, Captain John D. 
Coggswell; Company G, Captain Alfred N. Proctor; Company H, Captain David W. 
Bailey; Company I, Captain Cyrus Savage; Company K, Captain George P. Davis. 

After a hazardous trip from New York, by detachments, in unsea- 
worthy transports, the regiment finally reached New Orleans, having been 
as-sio-ned to duty in the Department uf the Gulf. Here Colonel Burrell, 
with D, G and I companies, was detached and ordered to Galveston, 


Texas, which lay under the guns of our fleet but lacked a garrison. On 
January i, 1863, the covering gunboats were attacked by a Confederate 
naval force, which destroyed the "Harriet Lane," and eventually drove 
the rest of the flotilla to sea. Deprived of naval support. Colonel Burrell 
was attacked by a force of five thousand Confederates, with thirty-one 
guns, and after inflicting a loss of over two hundred upon his assailants, 
was compelled to surrender his command. 

The remainder of the regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Stedman, 
was attached to the Nineteenth Corps, and was broken up into detach- 
ments and assigned to engineer, picket, and garrison duty. Individual 
companies were in action at Port Hudson, Lafourche Crossing, and Brash- 
ear City. The enlisted men taken prisoners having been paroled, the 
regiment returned to Boston, and was mustered out August 20, 1S63. It 
had lost four men killed in action, thirty-two from death by disease, and 
it had had twenty wounded in its various engagements. 

In 1864, answering the call for 100 days' volunteers, the Forty- 
Second went into the field for a second time, being mustered in on July 
22, and at once reporting at Washington under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stedman. The regiment was stationed in the defenses at Alex- 
andria, where it was rejoined by Colonel Burrell, who had been exchanged 
in time to return with his command at the expiration of its second term 
of service. After faithfully performing this tour of garrison duty, the 
regiment returned and was mustered out November 1 1, 1864. 

On the memorable occasion of the "Return of the Colors," De- 
cember 22, 1865, both the First and Forty-Second were represented. 
The former command paraded one-hundred and fifty veterans, under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Baldwin, who jealously guarded four 
tattered flags under which they had fought from Blackburn's Ford to 
Spottsylvania, while the latter was represented by ninety veterans, under 
Colonel Burrell, who escorted two colors which told of faithful, if less 

distinguished, service. 

1S65 — 1898. 

The close of the Civil War was followed by the inevitable re- 
action, and for a time the existence of the regiment hung upon a very 
slender thread. The militia was far from being a popular institution, 
for among the able-bodied men of the State there were but few who had 
failed to obtain a taste of the realities of soldiering, and to .such men 
the routine of drill and of annual encampment seemed tame indeed. But 
the devotion of the ex-volunteer officers and men of the First, saved it 
from the fate of the many regiments whose gloriotis war records were al- 
lowed to lapse at this period. The Forty-Second, on its return from the 
volunteer service, had retained its place in the line of the militia, and 
many companies of the First, after the muster-out of the volunteer regi- 

The l."i-Incli Hnrim;ins at Fort Warnii. 

iSattalion Inspection at Fo-t M'arri'n. 

Fii:-]- i;e(.imext heavy Ai;rii,i.Ei!v, m. v m.. lais. 



ment, had maintained their organization as "tmattached" commands. 
With these tmits available, the work of re-habilitating the command was 
not difficult, and on May i8, iS66, the orders were issued for re-organiza- 
tion. With the rare lack of sentiment, characteristic of those high in 
authority, the command was designated the Tenth Regiment of Infantry, 
bnt the unanimoits protest of its officers speedily remedied this wrong, 
and the old number — under which it had fought and suffered in its years 
of campaigning — was restored. 

The following table will indicate the composition of the re-organ- 
ized command: — 







Capt. G. O. Fillebrown 

66th, unattached company 


East Boston 

" G. H. Smith 




" H. K. Thomas 




■• J. P. Jordan 

Company D.42d Infantry 


South Boston 

■■ M. E. Bigelow 

1st, unattached company 



•• J. T. Ryan 




A. N. Proctor 




J. Q. Adams 




•• E. Merrill, Jr. 

Company I, 42d Infantry 


South Boston 

■' G. H. "Johnston 

8 1st, unattached company 

Colonel Burrell, as senior officer, remained in command of the re- 
organized First until July 26, 1S66, when he received his star, and 
assumed command of the brigade. His successor was Colonel George H. 
Johnston, formerly adjutant of the "War First." At this period the 
officers of the regiment, with few exceptions, were men who had held 
volunteer commissions either in the First or the Forty-second, while a 
heavy percentage of the non-commissioned officers and men were sea- 
soned veterans. 

The first field-duty following the war was performed at the encamp- 
ment of 1 866, at Sharon, where the regiment reported with an efficient 
strength of 533. The annual camps of instruction for i867-8-9-'72, were 
held at Hull; for 1870, at Concord; for 1871, at Quincy ; for 1873-91, in- 
clusive, 1S93-S, atthe State reservation at South Framingham ; for 1892- 
4-6-7-8, at Fort Warren, Boston Harbor; and for 1899, at Fort Rodman, 
New Bedford Harbor. Almost without exception, the regiment has 
brought to these yearly tours a higher percentage of its enrolled strength 
than any other command in the Massachusetts service — which is equiva- 
lent to saying that its record is unsurpassed in the militia service of the 
United States — and the long file of inspection reports shows uniform com- 
mendation of its discipline and systematic, effective work. The records 
prove that weak companies and inefficient officers have not been allowed 
to block the progress of the command, and the remedies of disbandment 
and removal have been applied unhesitatingly in such cases. 


The regiment paraded June 22, 1867, as escort to President John- 
son, and again June 16, 1869, as escort to President Grant. In i8;o a 
new company ( L) was organized in Newton, and attached to the First. 
This company became C, on the disbandment in 1872 of the command 
which formerly had borne that letter. At the "Crreat Boston Fire" of 
1S72, the regiment was on duty for thirteen days, from November 9, 
reporting with 563 officers and men, under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Proctor, and rendering most valuable service in the protection of 
life and property. This year, also, was rendered noteworthy by the 
exchange of the muzzle-loading Springfield rifle, with which the com- 
mand had been armed since the war, for the Peabody breech -loading rifle 
(calibre .433) which had been purchased and issued by the State. In 1875, 
Companies D and G paraded with the escort to General Grant, at the 
Lexington Centennial, April 17, and on June 17, of this year the regiment, 
with the entire militia of Alassachusetts, took part in the monster military 
parade commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. On this occasion over eleven thousand men, including the Seventh 
New York, Fifth Maryland, First Rhode Island, and First and Second 
Pennsylvania, passed in review before General Sherman, commanding the 
army, and the officers of his staff. On November 29, 1875, the command 
also paraded as a funeral escort when the remains of Vice-President Wilson 
were brought to Boston. 

Meanwhile the regiment had been under command of Colonel 
Henry W. Wilson, commissioned December 12, 1872, on the resignation 
of Colonel Johnston. It was destined, however, soon to undergo another 
of the periodical re-organizations with which it had become so familiar 
through earlier experience. The legislature of 1876, in its wisdom, 
passed an act vacating the commissions of all general, field, and .staff 
officers, and followed this step by a thorough shaking up of the entire 
State force — and when the dust raised by this operation had subsided, the 
regiment emerged as the First Battalion of Infantry, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Nathaniel Wales, formerly major of the Thirty-Fifth Mas- 
sachusetts, and brevet lieutenant-colonel of volunteers. Of its ten com- 
panies, B, E, F, I, and K, had been lost through disbandment or trans- 
feral, while a new command had been attached by the transfer of Com- 
pany I, Brockton, from the disbanded Third Infantry. The First, also, 
now found itself attached to the 2nd Brigade, but this proved merely a 
temporary arrangement. 

In 1877, the Peabody rifle was replaced by the Springfield 
.45 calibre, breech-loader, and rifle-practice received a new impetus. On 
June 26 of this year the battalion paraded as escort to President Hayes; 
again turning out on the occasion of the dedication of the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument on Boston Common, September 17. 



But the legislature, with good reason, had again become dissatis- 
fied with its military handiwork. On December 3, 1878, there was 
decreed still another general re-organization, and this time, for a wonder, 
the old First was destined to benefit by the new order of things. By the 
consolidation of the First, Third, and Fourth Infantry Battalions, and by 
the organization of a new company in Fall River, there was evolved a 
really modern and effective twelve-company command, which, with some 
minor changes, has wisely been allowed to continue its existence for over 
twenty years. The new "Old First," resulting from the legislation of 
this year, was made up as follows: — 

Colonel, Nathaniel Wales; Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel A. Butler; Majors, 
Austin C. Wellington, William A. Smith, Alfred B. Hodges. 







Capt. A. S. Weld 

Co. A, ist Battalion 




L. Hawkes 

•■ B, 4th 



•• H. B. Clapp 

■• C, 4th 



■• A. W. Hersey 

•• D, I St 


New Bedford 

W. Sanders 

■• E, 3rd 



Lieut. G. F. Williams 

■' F, 3rd 



Capt. W. A. Willard 

" G, 3rd 



H. Morrissey 

•■ H, 3rd 



B. Morse 

•• I. 1st 



H. F. Knowles 

•• A, 4th 



H. Parkinson 

■■ D, 4th 


Fall River 

" S. L. Braley 

Organized Dec. 17, 


The legislation of this year is worthy of more than passing com- 
ment, for it gave an organization to the regiments of Massachusetts which 
was the envy of the regular establishment until up to the Spanish war. 
The new First instantly felt the effect of this improved system, and its 
three compact battalion.s — each under immediate command of its major — 
developed a generous rivalry which brought to the command a new lease 
of life. 

The regiment paraded on September 17, 1880, the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Boston. On February 21, 1882, 
Colonel Wales received his general's commission. His successor was 
Colonel Austin C. Wellington, under whom the regiment took its first 
steps as a coast-artillery command, the legislature of this year having as- 
signed it to this dttty. An appropriation of $5,000 was obtained from the 
general government, with which Battery Dalton, armed with two lo-inch 
Rodman guns and four 10-inch siege mortars, was erected on the reserva- 
tion at Framingham, and firing with projectiles was held here in the fall. 
On October 1 1, the command was turned out for escort duty at the visit 
of President Arthur. 


In iSSj, the First regained one of its long-lost "war" companies by 
the transfer from the Eighth Infantry of H, (Chelsea) to fill the vacancy 
caused by the disbandment of the Plymouth company, while in 1884 one 
of the Taunton companies (G) was disbanded, a new comjDany being raised 
in Natick to take its letter. In the latter year the entire regiment, on 
September 13, was enabled to have a day's gun practice at Fort Warren, 
a post with which it was destined to become familiar in later years. 

The command went to New York, August 9, 1885, to take part in 
the funeral parade for its old commander, General Grant, and won uni- 
versal commendation for its magnificent appearance. On September 4, 
it again obtained a tour of gun practice at Fort Warren, showing a marked 
advance over the firing of the previous year. By order of the legislature, 
the First was detailed as escort to Governor Ames during his visit to Phila- 
delphia on the one hundredth anniversary of the signing of the Constitu- 
tion. The tour took place on September 15, 16 and 17, 1887, and was 
a memorable one in regimental annals. The military parade was under 
the command of Lieutenant-General Sheridan, and the regiment won fresh 
laurels by its solid and soldierly bearing. 

Another company which had served with the regiment during the 
Civil War was regained in 1888, Company G, ( Natick 1 being transferred 
to the Ninth Infantry, while Company D, Fifth Infantry (the old-time 
"Fusileei-s") returned to the First to take its former letter. Since this 
event, no company changes have taken place in the command. On Sep- 
tember 18, the regiment met with a heavy loss in the death of Colonel 
Wellington, who had labored untiringly for its advancement. He was 
almost idolized by his officers and men, and the regimental parade ordered 
for his funeral proved the saddest tour ever served by the First. 

Under Colonel Thomas R. JIathews, who succeeded Colonel Wel- 
lington, the First, on October 8, took part in the general mobilization of 
1888. On November 28, 1889, at the time of the serious "Thanksgiving 
Day Fire," the Boston companies assembled at their armories in readiness 
for a call for guard duty, but their services were not required. On Feb- 
ruary 29, 1892, the regiment paraded as escort to Governor Russell at the 
ceremony of the presentation of long-service medals to the veterans of 
the militia, twenty-eight of its own officers and men receiving the coveted 
decoration at this time. This year was also marked by a week's tour of 
artillery instruction and target practice, August 7-13, at Fort Warren, 
where, under the supervision of Lieutenant-Colonel Hovey, most satisfac- 
tory work was accomplished. At the time of the disastrous "Lincoln St. 
Fire," March 10, 1893, both the Boston and out-lying companies were 
assembled to aAvait orders, but occasion for their services did not arise. 
In 1894, an appropriation of $2,500 by the legislature was devoted 
to the erection of a model gun and mortar battery in the South Armory, 


and to the purchase of instruments for the scientific study of artillery 
work. On October 9 the regiment took part in a general mobilization of 
the militia under conditions of field service. 

By act of the legislature the oificial designation of the command was 
changed, June i, 1897, to that of the First Regiment of Heavy Artillery, 
and henceforth infantry drill became a matter of minor consideration. 
On July 19, Colonel Mathews was promoted to the command of his brig- 
ade, and was succeeded by Colonel Pfaff, whose privilege it was in 1898 
to take the regiment into its .second period of war service. At the dedi- 
cation of the Shaw ^Memorial, on Beacon Hill, May 31, six companies of 
the regiment paraded under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hovey. 
^Meanwhile, by order of the war department. Lieutenant E. M. Weaver, 
Second LTnited States Artillery, had been attached to the staff of the regi- 
ment as instructor in artillery work, to which serious attention was now 

And this study was soon to find its practical application, for the 
strained relations between this country and Spain were rapidly approach- 
ing the breaking point. Step by step, events moved towards the inevit- 
able, until the destruction of the Maine, in the harbor of Havana, on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1898, at length brought the regiment face to face with the prob- 
ability of a second term in the volunteer service of the United States. 


The month of April, 1898, found the First Heavy Artillery, in 
common with the other regiments of Massachusetts, ready in every 
respect for field service, and only awaiting the call to arms. At this time 
not a little anxiety was felt for the coast towns of New England, for the 
new system of fortifications was yet far from completion, and there was 
not enough regular artillery for the garrisoning of the few posts which 
were approximately in a defensible condition. It was known that by 
April 20, Cervera's squadron, consisting of the Spanish torpedo-gunboat 
fiotilla, and the powerful cruisers Almirante Oquendo, Cristobal Colon, 
Infanta Maria Teresa, and Vizcaya, had been assembled at the Cape Verde 
Islands, and the presumption was that his objective would be some weak 
point on oiu" long, open coast-line. Lender these conditions, Governor 
Wolcott found himself overwhelmed with petitions for protection from 
the dreaded naval raids, and naturally and promptly turned to the regi- 
ment for relief in this emergency. On April 25, Congress declared a 
state of war to exist, and on the afternoon of that day came orders direct- 
ing the regiment to report at once for duty at Fort Warren. Early on 
the morning of the 26th, the regiment was mobilized at the South Armory, 
in Boston, and at noon it had arrived at its post, after marching in review 
before the governor. 


The First thus had the high honor of being the earliest militia 
regiment in the country to come to the assistance of the general govern- 
ment — for its enrohnent in the service of the United States began on this 
date — and it later had the added distinction of being the first volunteer 
regiment to complete its muster. Furthermore, it went at once on duty 
at what was thought to be the most exposed position on the coast, stand- 
ing guard at its post of danger, while the infantr}- commands of the 
National Guard were passing their first few weeks of service at inland 
camps of instruction, far removed from any possibility of contact with 
the enemy. 

The command went to the front in magnificent condition, fully 
armed, uniformed, and equipped; with rations, small-arm ammunition, 
tentage, hospital stores — even with cases of heavy shoes, for emergency 
use. Its oflicers were all men of long service in the State establishment, 
while the men in its ranks were trained militiamen, and not raw volun- 
teers. It left its home stations with 786 officers and men for duty — over 
ninety-nine per cent, of its enrolled strength — a fact which speaks vol- 
umes for its discipline. 

The following table gives the organization of the regiment as mus- 
tered into the service of the United States May 9, 1898. The sequence 
of battalions and batteries is that of the column formation, while the 
numerals indicate relative rank on the regimental roster: — 

I. Colonel Charles Pfafi. 
2. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles B. Woodman. 
Staflf. — 19, First Lieutenant Horace B. Parker. Adjutant; 21, First Lieuten- 
ant John S. Keenan, Quartermaster; 5, Major Howard S. Bearing, Surgeon; 31, First 
Lieutenant William A. Rolfe, Assistant-Surgeon; 36, First Lieutenant William S. 
Bryant, Assistant-Surgeon; 25, First Lieutenant John B. Paine, Range Officer; 35. 
First Lieutenant George S. Stockwell, Signal Officer. 


3. Major Perlie A. Dyar. 

Battery G, Station, Boston. — 11, Captain Albert B. Chick; 28, First Lieutenant 
Frank S. Wilson; 40, Second Lieutenant James H. Gowing. 

Battery H, Station, Chelsea. — 15. Captain Walter L. Pratt; 27, First Lieuten- 
ant William Renfrew ; 39, Second Lieutenant Bertie E. Grant. 

Battery A, Station, Boston. — 16, Captain John Bordman, Jr. ; 29, First Lieut- 
enant E. D wight Fullerton; 45, Second Lieutenant Sumner Paine. 

Battery L, Station, Boston. — 12, Captain Frederick M. Whiting; 26, First 
Lieutenant William L. Swan; 38, Second Lieutenant Frederick A. Cheney. 

^KCO.M) li.iTIALlON. 

4. Major George F. Quinby. 

Battery D, Station, Boston. — 8, Captain Joseph H. Frothingham; 32, First 
Lieutenant Norman P. Cormack; 44, Second Lieutenant William J. McCuUough. 

Battery C, Station, Boston. — 14, Captain Charles P. Nutter; 20, First Lieut- 
enant Charles F. Nostrom ; 46, Second Lieutenant Joseph S. Francis. 

Battery K, Station, Boston. — 17. Captain Frederic S. Howes; 30, First Lieut- 
enant P. Frank Packard; 41, Second Lieutenant Albert A. Gleason. 

Battery B. Station, Cambridge. — 13, Captain Walter E. Lombard; 22, First 
Lieutenant John E. Day; 37, Second Lieutenant Marshall Underwood. 


Tllli:l) r.ATI'Al.lllN. 

6. Major James A. Frye. 

Battery M, Station, Fall River.— 7, Captain Sierra L. Braley; 23, First Lieut- 
ant David Fuller; 42, Second Lieutenant Frederick W. Harrison. 

Battery F, Station, Taunton. — 10, Captain Norris O. Danforth ; 24, First Lieut- 
enant Ferdinand H. Phillips: 47. Second Lieutenant James E. Totten. 

Battery E, Station, New Bedford. — 18, Captain Joseph L. Gibbs; 33, First 
Lieutenant Harold C. Wing; 48, Second Lieutenant Charles H. Fuller. 

Battery I, Station, Brockton.— 9, Captain Charles Williamson; 34. First Lieut- 
enant George E. Horton ; 42, Second Lieutenant Wellington H. Nilson. 

The mustering--in ceremony was condticted by Brevet Lieutenant- 
Colonel Carle A. Woodruff, Second United States Artillery, commanding; 
defenses of Boston Harbor, and on its conclusion, for the tenth time in 
its fifty-fottr years of service, the regiment found itself officially re-chris- 
tened—this time as the First Regiment of Massachusetts Heavy Artil- 
lery, United States Volunteers. It had now bound itself to a two years' 
term in the service of the government — "unless sooner discharged." 

On May 10, the day following the muster-in, telegraphic orders 
from General Merritt detached Major Frye, with E, F, I, and M, Batter- 
ies, to report to Colonel Woodruff for dtity, with the garrison of Fort 
Warren, while the remainder of the command was directed to hold itself 
in readiness for immediate assignment to stations. On May 13, at mid- 
nio-ht, word was received from the Boston Navy Yard that the Spanish 
squadron had been sighted off Nantucket, with its cotirse laid for Boston, 
but this bit of exciting information unfortunately proved over-.sanguine. 
Governor Wolcott visited the post on May 18, reviewed the regiment — 
in which his oldest son was serving as a private — and presented to the 
officers their volimteer commissions. 

Meanwhile, orders had arrived for the breaking up and distribu- 
tion of the First and Second Battalions, and on June i Lieutenant-Colonel 
Woodman, with G and L Batteries, left for Fort Rodman, New Bedford, 
to relieve the small regular garrison there stationed. Colonel Pfaff, hav- 
ing been assigned to the command of all defenses at points on the north 
shore of ALassachusetts Bay — Fort Constitution and the other works at 
Portsmouth being later included in this command — established his head- 
quarters on June 3 at Fort Pickering, Salem, where he was joined on the 
6th by Major Dyar, with Batteries C and D. On this date, also. Battery 
A took station at Nahant, to guard the mining casemate at that point, 
while Battery H proceeded to Fort Sewall, Marblehead. On the 7th Bat- 
tery B took transport for its post in the works at Plum Island, covering 
Newburyport Harbor and the mouth of the Merrimac, and Major Quinby, 
wnth Battery K, took station at Stage Fort, Gloticester Harbor. 

At these posts the regiment remained on duty tmtil the close of 
hostilities, save in the case of Batteries A and B — the former being added 
to the garrison at Fort Pickering on July 25, the latter changing station 


from Plum Island to Forts Constitution and McClary, Portsmouth, on July 
8, and re-joining; at Fort Pickering- on August 27. Too much credit can- 
not be given to the men of the regiment for their discipline and faithful 
work while at these stations. The absolute necessity for using troops of 
the artillery arm at exposed points along the coast, deprived them of their 
opportunity for seeing any of the fighting in Cuba and Porto Rico, and 
the sudden collapse of the war cut off their final hope — that of service 
with the siege train in the expected operations for the reduction of 
Havana. Through the monotonous summer months they steadily kept 
at their engineering work and garrison duty, and returned, when their 
services no longer were needed, in the consciousness that, whatever their 
disappointment, their orders had been honorably carried out. 

In spite of efforts made to retain the command in the service 
for duty with the army of occupation, orders were received directing 
preparations to be made for its muster-out, and on September 19 the bat- 
teries re -assembled from their isolated stations and went into camp at 
South Framingham. Here the regiment remained until October 5, when 
it proceeded to Boston, passed in review before Governor Wolcott, and 
then went on furlough for thirty days. On November 4 the batteries 
reported at their home-stations, where the final papers were made out, 
and on November 14, under supervision of Lieutenant-Colonel Weaver, 
the regiment was finally mustered out of the volunteer service, turning 
in its weather-worn colors to be preserved at the State House, with the 
battle -rent flags which marked its service of over a third of a century 


The record of the regiment in the Spanish-American War was hon- 
orable in the extreme; that it was not brilliant was the fault of circum- 
stances. During its term of service there were no desertions from its 
ranks, no serious punishments had to be inflicted for offences against dis- 
cipline, and in no single instance was it found necessary to give a dishonor- 
able discharge. That the officers of the command looked closely to the 
Avelfare of their men, is shown conclusively by the fact, that but one death 
occurred in the regiment during a service of over six months. 

After its muster out. the First promptly returned to its place in the 
line of the militia, and without loss of time took up again the routine of 
the peace establishment. It is to-day in its traditional condition of efii- 
ciency, and stands ready for whatsoever orders may come to it. Its record, 
though it has been but scantily given in these pages, yet speaks most elo- 
quenUy of faithful service, ungrudgingly rendered through long and trying 
years. The regiment has deserved well of Country and of Common- 

(Copvnght hi' the author, iSgi).) 




By A. G., a Friend of the Regiment. 

EVERY good citizen must wish that the time may come, when the 
nations shall learn war and need armies no more. But that time 
has not yet arrived, and nations do still need armies, both for pre- 
serving peace at home, and for defense against foreign inva- 
sion. The motto, " To insure peace, be prepared for war," is still ap- 
propriate and timely, and often when the peace of a country would seem 
to argue that armies are unnecessary in that country, peace itself exists, 
because there is an army there to compel peace. The reason, or one rea- 
son, that an army is not needed, is often because an army exists. 

These facts are true in America, where, in recent years have arisen, 
in various localities, troubles which were ended, and which could only be 
ended by calling into action the militia of the state; and the time is yet 
fresh in the minds of many, when there arose in this country those 
gigantic disturbances of treason which only thousands and hundreds 
of thousands of soldiers could quell. 

That result was reached only by four years of hard campaigning, 
and when the veterans returned from the bloody fields, where many of 
their comrades had fallen, it was no wonder that the soldiers and their 
friends at home wished for a long respite from war. But when, in thinking 
over what had transpired in the country, they came to realize how neces- 


sary an army had been, it was no wonder that they sliould favor a mili- 
itary force, and soon after the return of the soldiers, militia companies 
si^i-ang- tip in all parts of the loyal North. Massachusetts was not be- 
hind her sister states in this regard. There were several companies or- 
ganized in the western part of the State within two years after the war 
had ceased. One of these was made tip of men from Hinsdale, Washing- 
ton, Becket and vicinity, and included among its officers Captain Francis 
E. Warren, Lieutenant Francis W. Taylor and Sergeant William Wallace 
Gleason. There were other companies formed in that region soon after 
this one; and in 1898, there were in existence in Western Massachusetts, 
four companies of militia, constituting what was then known as the " First 
Battalion of Infantry, M. V. M.," John W. Trafton, of vSpringficld, major 

These were: Company A, Captain E. E. Butler, of Enfield, 
commanding; Company B, Captain H. C. Lombard, of Springfield; Com- 
pany C, Captain Anson F. Stevens, of Worthington; Company D, Captain 
Elisha C. Tower, of Hinsdale. In this year six other companies were or- 
ganized in the same region; viz: Company E, Captain Israel C. Weller, of 
Pittsfield, commanding; Company F, Captain Joseph B. Parsons, of 
Northampton; Company G, Captain Samuel B. Spooner, of Springfield; 
Company H, Captain Marcus T. Moody, of Northampton; Company I, 
Captain George H. Knapp, of Chicopee; Company K, Captain O. S. Ttit- 
tle, of Holyoke. On November 1 1, of this year orders were issued by 
Governor Bullock, designating the ten companies as the "Second Regi- 
ment Infantry, M. V. M," and, pursuant to orders issued soon after, the 
line officers of these commands met at Springfield, December 8, to elect 
field officers, and the regimental roster was then made up as follows: 

Colonel, Joseph B. Parsons, of Northampton; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
John W. Trafton, of vSpringfield; Major, Israel C. Weller, of Pittsfield; 
Adjutant, Hubbard M.Abbot, of Northampton; Quartermaster, Eugene D. 
Capron, of Springfield; Surgeon, D. B. N. Fish, of Amherst; Assistant 
Surgeon, John F. Hurley, of Chicopee; Chaplain, P. V. Finch, of Green- 
field. The regiment, thus officered, was assigned to the Third Brigade, 
^I. V. M., General Robert H. Chamberlain commanding. 

Captaincies made vacant by the promotions at the regimental elec- 
tion, were filled by advancing lieutenants. Events in the history of the 
regiment, included the resignation the next year of Captain Spooner, of 
Company (t; and his place was filled by the promotion of First Lieuten- 
ant H. G. Gilmore, who M^as soon after promoted to be major, in place of 
I. C. Weller, who had been advanced to the lieutenant-colonelcy, on the 
resignation of Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Trafton. Captain Gilmore"s pro- 
motion was followed in his company by the election of Lieutenant PI. 
^l. Phillips to be captain. In 1869, Captain H. C. Lombard, of Company 





B, resigned, and Lieutenant John L. Knight was made captain, and about 
this time Captain O. S. Tuttle, of Company K, resigned, and Embury P. 
Clark, the second sergeant of the company, received the unanimous vote 
of his comrades for the captaincy, and was duly commissioned with that 

Captain Stevens, of the company in western Hampshire, desiring 
to go into business at the west, resigned his command, leaving Lieuten- 
ant Charles E. Underwood, of Goshen, in charge; but soon after, the com- 
pany was disbanded; and in the same year another Company C was organ- 
ized, this one in the lowlands of the district, with Fordyce A. Rust, of 
Easthampton, for Captain. This company C, also, soon ceased to exist, 
but the movement kept on spreading, reaching Amherst, where, in the 
same year of '69, the third Company C was organized, with Captain Ed- 
niund Boltwood in command. In this year Captain Tower's company of 
Berkshire men was disbanded. 

In 1S70, Company A, of Enfield, was disbanded, and a new company 
organized at Greenfield, under Captain Bowdoin S. Parker. To take the 
place of the disbanded Berkshire men, a new company was organized 
at Westfield, with Captain Andrew L. Bush as leader, and these 
two new companies were assigned to the Second. In this year Captain 
Phillips was given a place on the brigade staff, and Lieutenant Francis 
E. Gray was promoted to the captaincy of Company G. About this time 
Captain Knapp, of the Chicopee company, resigned, and Lieutenant W. 

C. Tracy was promoted. 

The history of the regiment for 1 87 1 , included the promotion of Cap- 
tain Clark, of Company K, to be major, in place of H. G. Gilmore, ad- 
vanced. Captain Parker, of Greenfield, resigned, and Anson Witliey, of 
that town, was chosen commander, and he was followed in the captaincy 
by Gorham D. Williams. Following resignations in their companies. 
Lieutenants N. E. Kellogg, of Company B; James A. Baker, of Company 
C; Lewis Day, of Company F, and Charles H. Flanders, of Company K, 
were promoted to the captaincies. In this year General Henry S. Briggs 
of Pittsfield, became captain of Company E. The Chicopee company, and 
Company H, of Northampton, ceased to exist in 1872, and a new Com- 
pany H, was organized; this one at South Deerfield, with Charles S. Bab- 
cock for captain. The letter I, which had been borne by the Chicopee 
inilitia, was given a new company, organized at Shelburne Falls, with H. 
B. Rowley for captain. The record of '72, shows R. J. Hamilton, of 
Springfield, to be captain of Company B; David McGuire, captain of Com- 
pany F, and E. A. Ramsey captain of Company K. There were no im- 
portant changes of officers in 1873, bi:t there was one fact which impar- 
tial history miist record. The uniforms of the men were nearly worn 
out, and, the legislators assembled at the state house, being unapprecia- 


tive of the militia, no appropriation could be secured, and the command 
was excused from the annual muster. 

When, in 1874, the office of regimental paymaster was established 
by legislative enactment, Lieutenant Byron Porter, of .Springfield, was 
commissioned in that capacity. This year Lieutenant Lorenzo Draper, 
of Comj^any C, was piximoted to be captain, and Lieutenant B. F. Prouty, 
of Company F, was advanced. The same year, Caintain Draper's company 
was disbanded, and still another Company C was organized, this one at 
Stockbridge, with Captain Charles E. Brace in command. In 1875, Major 
E. P. Clark was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, in place of Homer 
G. Gilmore, resigned; and Captain Andrew L. Bush, of Westfield, was ad- 
vanced to the majority. Lieutenant Phineas .Solomon being given the cap- 
taincy thus vacated. 

The Second remained at this status, with Colonel Parsons in com- 
mand, until 1876, when orders were issued from state headquarters, 
directing the re-organization of the militia, and the discharge of all gen- 
eral and field officers. In keeping with this order, the field officers of the 
Second, Parsons, Clark and Bush, were mustered out. This general order 
provided also for the inspection of the companies, with a view to disband- 
ing such of them as did not come up to the given standard of efficiency. 
The result of the inspection in the Second, was the disbanding of Com- 
panies A, of Greenfield; D, of Westfield; F, of Northampton, and K, of 
Holyoke. This left the Second witli six companies, of which Captain R. 
J. Hamilton, of Springfield, was senior line officer; and he was soon after 
elected lieutenant-colonel, and Captain B. F. Bridges, whcj had succeeded 
to the command of the .South Deerfield company, in place of Captain Bab- 
cock, was chosen major. The battalion remained thus officered until 
December, 1878. The company which had been organized at Stock- 
bridge was disbanded, and one was organized at South Adams to take its 
place. The Pittsfield company was also disbanded, and a new company 
organized at Holyoke. 

At this time two companies located in 'Worcester, and belonging to 
the old Tenth militia, were assigned to the Second, making a regiment of 
eight companies, viz.: Company A, of Worcester, Captain E. R. Slnmi- 
way commanding; Company B. of .Sjjringfield, Captain F. G. Soirthmayd; 
Company C, of Worcester, Captain Joseph P. ]\Iason; Company D, of 
Holyoke, Captain Embury P. Clark; Company E, of Shelburne Falls, 
Captain F. W. ^lerriam; Company F, of North Adams, Caj^tain F. N. 
Raj'; Company G; of Springfield, Captain G. F. Sessions; Company H, of 
South Deerfield, Captain Parcellus D. Bridges. Pursuant to orders from 
brigade headquarters, the line officers met at .Springfield, and promoted 
the two field officers above named, one rank, each, and gave (me majority 
to Captain Mason, of Worcester., and the other to Captain F. X. Ray, of 



Xorth Adams. The latter was sticceeded in his company command by 
Captain John E. Drew, and he by Captain Ricliardson. CajDtain Mason 
was succeeded by Captain T. E. Leavitt. Colonel Hamilton, however, 
(lid not assume command of the regiment, and was succeeded in August, 
1879, ^y Lieutenant-Colonel Bridges, who, on being promoted, trans- 
ferred the headquarters from Springfield to South Deerfield, where they 
remained for nearly ten years, or until the promotion of Colonel Bridges 
to be general. 

Upon the election of Colonel Bridges to the full command 
of the regiment, the line oilficers in Aiigust, 1S79, paid Captain Clark, of 
the Holyoke comjJany, the emphatic comjilimcnt of an election over 

themselves to the lieutenant-colonelcy; the full significance of this in- 
dorsement by his comrades-in-arms, appearing in the fact, that some of 
the captains insisting on his promotion were his seniors in the line. He 
was now second officer of the regiment, and, on the promotion of Colonel 
Bridges, was elected, in February, 18S9, to the colonelcy of the regi- 
nient, which position he still holds. 

3iIajor Mason, who had been a candidate for the lieutenant-colonelcy, 
continued the third ofiicer of the regiment until 18S1, when, upon his res- 
ignation, Captain ]\Ierriam, of the Shelburne Falls company, was pro- 
moted to the majority. In this he remained until his promotion to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy in February, 1889; and in this latter capacity he 
served until his retirement in 1893, with the rank of colonel; the governor 
availing himself of a provision of the law to give this well-deserved com- 


pliment for his long continued efficient service in tlie militia. Major Ray- 
resigned May 27, 1881, and was succeeded by Captain George F. Sessions, 
who remained until November, 1S83, when he left the majority to accept 
the captaincy of his old company at Springfield, and to succeed him as 
major. Captain E. R. Shumway, of Worcester, was promoted in 1884. 
The latter remained major until his promotion to the lieutenant-colonelcy 
in 1S93, which position he filled with credit. 

On the change of the law, so as to give twelve companies to a regi- 
ment, four new companies were organized for the Second, viz.: Company 
I, of Northampton, Captain C. O. Lovell commanding; Company K, of 
Amherst, Ca2Dtain H. E. Messenger; Company L, of Greenfield, Captain 
Fr. G. Fessenden; Company M, of Adams, CajDtain R. A. Whipple. With 
this change in the law, also came the provision for a major for each bat- 
talion of four companies, and the three majors of the Second were then, 
in the order named, Merriam, Shumway and P. D. Bridges. The latter 
had been promoted from the captaincy of the South Deerfield company, 
and was succeeded in the company command by Captain A. C. Boynton. 
Following the latter, this company had for commandei-s. Captain E. M. 
Roche and Captain M. D. Bridges, and was disbanded April, 1894. At 
the same time, K, of Amherst, of which the commanders had been Cajj- 
tains H. E. Messenger, Willis G. Towne and Edgar G. Thayer, was also 
disbanded. In place of the South Deerfield company, one was organized 
at Worcester, having the same letter, H, and with Captain Charles E. 
Burbank in command. He was succeeded by Captain Walter E. Hassam. 

To fill the Amherst company's place, a new Company K, 
was organized at Springfield, with Captain Roger Morgan in com- 
mand. On the disbanding of the North Adams company, and the one at 
Shelburne Falls, companies were organized in their stead at Gardner and 
Orange, with the same letters, F, and E, respectively. Captain S. T. 
Chamberlain was the first commander of the Gardner troops, and Cap- 
tain T. E. Leavitt, who had come up from Worcester, headed the Orange 
militia. The successors of Captain Chamberlain, were Captains C. N. 
Edgell and H. H. Bolles, the latter being the present commander. Cap- 
tain Leavitt, of the Orange comj^any, was succeeded by Captain Philip I. 
Barber, until 1898. Major Whipple's successor in command of the 
Adams company, was Captain E. N. Jones, who was followed by Captain 
Herbert O. Hicks. 

The later history of the present Holyoke company, includes the 
leadership of Captains Dwight O. Judd, W. J. AUyn, Charles W. Brown, 
and W. J. Crosier. The successors of Captain Spooner, in command of 
Company G, have been Captains H. G. Gilmore, H. M. Phillips, F. E. 
Gray, A. H. G. Lewis, G. F. Sessions, H. M. Coney, and J. J. Leonard, 
Captains Ciray and Sessions each serving twice, and Cajitain Leonard serv- 


ing nineteen years. Following Captains Lombard and Knight, Company 
B has been commanded by Captains N. E. Kellogg, R. J. Hamilton, W. S. 
Holbrook, F. G. Southmayd, and Henry McDonald. The latter has 
served seven years. He previously served with credit in the army and 
navy, having in the two branches of the service a combined record of 
eight years. 

In Company A, the commanders since Shumway have been 
Captains George H. Cleveland, W. D. Preston, W. A. Condy, and Edwin 
G. Barrett, while of the later Company C, i.e., the one at Worcester, the 
commanders succeeding Captains Mason and Leavitt have been Cap- 
tains Frank L. Child (who served twice), Winslow S. Lincoln, E. A. Har- 
ris, F. G. Davis, H. B. Fairbanks, and P. L. Rider. Major P. D. Bridges 
continued in office until 1895, when, as the senior of three officers, he was, 
on his own application, placed by the- governor on the retired list. The 
three battalion commanders in the regiment now are, in the order named, 
Major F. G. Southmayd, of Springfield, who received his commission 
February, 1889; ]\Iajor R. A. Whipple, of Adams, who was commissioned 
November, 1893, and Major H. B. Fairbanks, of Worcester, who was com- 
missioned in July, 1895. 

The adjutants of the Second, dating back to the early days of the 
regiment, soon after the war, have been Lieutenants H. M. Abbott, 
of Northampton; E. D. Capron, of Springfield; David McGuire, of 
Northampton; C. W. Mutell, of Springfield; Bowdoin S. Parker, 
of Greenfield; J. B. Bridges, of South Deerfield; G. H. Cleveland, 
of Worcester; C. A. Pierce, of South Deerfield; C. E. Bridges, of 
South Deerfield; J. E. Lancaster, of Worcester, and Paul R. Haw- 
kins, of Springfield. The quartermasters of the Second have been, 
Lieutenants E. D. Capron, of Springfield; J. D. Parsons and W. G. 
Mclntyre, of Northampton; William Mink, of Pittsfield, and C. D. Colson, 
of Holyoke. The latter was commissioned in 1879, ^^^^1 has served with 
efficiency during all the seventeen years. 

Of the surgeons w4io have served the Second, the list is as follows: 
Majors D. B. N. Fish, of Amherst; H. G. Stickney and David Clark, 
of Springfield, and Orland J. Brown, of North Adams. The assistant 
surgeons have been Lieutenants John F. Hurley, of Chicopee; David 
Clark, of Springfield; G. M. Read, of South Deerfield; O. J. Brown, of 
North Adams, and Joseph T. Herrick, of Springfield. Of the paymasters 
of the Second, the list runs thus: Lieutenants Byron Porter, of Spring- 
field; T. F. Cordis, of Longmeadow; Charles L. Hayden, of South Deer- 
field; E. M. Estes, of Springfield, and A. C. Edson, of Holyoke. 

There have been four inspectors of rifle practice in the Second, 
viz.: Lieutenants S. S. Bumstead, M. W. Bull and Paul R. Hawkins, of 
Springfield, and Albert E. Taylor, of Chicopee Falls. The chaplains of 


the Second have included nine clergymen of the Connecticut valley, one of 
whom, as will be seen, has twice served the regiment. The list is as follows: 
Revs. P. V. Finch, of Greenfield; C. E. Swan and J. Sturgis Pearce, of 
Xorthampton; A. H. Sweetser, of Springfield; John F. Moors and P. V. 
Finch, of Greenfield; H. W. Eldredge, of South Deerfield; C. C. Bruce, 
of Amherst, and J. W. Carney and J. W. Welwood, of Holyoke. 

In the earlier years of the history of what is now the Second, 
many of the officers and men were veterans who had done duty in 
the "war for the flag." One of these was the late General Henry S. 
Briggs, son of the old time Governor George N. Briggs, and before 
the war, captain of the Allen Guards of Pittsfield. This company 
was one of the first that responded to Lincoln's earliest call for vol- 
unteers in 1 86 1. It will be remembered that this Avas a call for 
troops, to serve for three months only. The leader of the Pittsfield 
company, and many of his men, were not content with that brief ex- 
perience, and they again entered the service, the men in various regi- 
ments going soon after, to the war, and their captain leading to the 
front the legion which became famous as the "Fighting Tenth,"' and 
winning for himself a general's stars, which honor the state empha- 
sized, after the war, by making him auditor of JMassachusetts. 

Captain H. C. Lombard of one of the Springfield companies, 
also served with credit as an officer in the Tenth, and for years after 
the war was an efficient court officer at Springfield, and was at the 
time of his death, the senior deputy sheriff of the county of Hampden, 
and, with few exceptions, the senior in the state. Colonel Gilmore's war 
record was in the Tenth; and a creditable one it was, too; while Major 
Spooner, who was captain of one of the Springfield companies of the Sec- 
ond, had served in the Forty-sixth, as senior captain; and in that legion he 
attained the majority. At the time of his captaincy of this company of 
the vSecond, the rank and file thereof were all men vho had served in the 
war. The estimation in which he is held in Springfield, is shown by the 
fact that he was twice mayor of the city; and the people of the cottnty have 
testified their appreciation of his qualities, by re-electing him to the office 
of register of probate, until he has filled that position for more than thirty 
years. His brother 'register in the adjoining connty of Hampshire, Cap- 
tain Hubbard ^l. Abbott, did well as a soldier in the old Thirty-seventh, 
in which he was sergeant-major and lieutenant. Captain Henry M. Phil- 
lips, once postmaster of Springfield, and a good one, and since then the 
state treasitrer, had an experience in the war for the Union. Captain 
Tuttle, one of the commanders of one of the Holyoke companies of the 
Second, was colonel of a Vermont regiment at the front. 

Colonel Joseph B. Parsons, was one of the sticcessors of General 
Briggs in command of the Tentli, and in that capacity well deserved for 


his bravery, the eagles that he wore, while his comrades who served with 
him in active war, and those in the home guards thereafter, cherish, to 
this day, an affectionate remembrance for "Colonel Joe" Parsons. Major 
Marcus T. Moody, who for a time commanded a company of the old Sec- 
ond, was first captain, and then Major in the Thirty-seventh, and .served 
in the war with great credit. On account of severe wounds received at 
Spottsylvania, lie resigned before his regiment came home. 

In this enumeration, no one would excuse the omission of the 
name of General Horace C. Lee, commander of one of the Springfield 
companies of home militia, who was the brave leader of the Twenty- 
seventh, heroes of Roanoke, Newbern and other fields in the "Old North 
State." He was for years after the war, postmaster of vSpringfield. Major 
Trafton, the commander of the old First Battalion, from which the Second 
Regiment grew, was an officer in the army. He was a son of the well- 
remembered 2iIethodist divine and member of Congress, Rev. Dr. Mark 
Trafton. Captain Stevens of Worthington had served as a drummer in 
the Forty-sixth, and Lieutenant Hay ward of his company of the Second 
was also a member of the Forty-sixth, serving in that regiment as a mem- 
ber of the company commanded by Captain Russell H. Conwell, now the 
famous Baptist minister of Philadelphia, who is known throughout the 
country for his platform eloquence. 

Several of the chaplains of the Second had war records. Rev. Mr. 
Sweetser served in the Thirty-first and Fifty-ninth; and Rev. P. "\'. Finch 
was chaplain of the Sixteenth Connecticut; while the record of Chaplain 
"Jack" Moors, as he was affectionately called by his comrades in arms of 
the Fifty-second, was highly creditable to him, and remains a precious 
leo-acy of remembrance to those associated with him, in that brave thou- 
sand of the defenders of the Union. 

One of the lieutenants of the first Holyoke company of the Second 
was James G. Smith, whose soldierly qualities won him high respect as 
the adjutant of the Forty-sixth. He went through the dangers of war un- 
scathed, btit met sudden death by accident at Chicopee. This tragic hap- 
pening saddened his comrades and friends, as have but few horrors in the 
local annals of the region. Who that witnessed, will ever forget, his 
bravery under fire at Gum Swamp, and in other engagements of the cam- 
paigns of the regiment. Captain Knapp of the Chicopee company of the 
Second, was a soldierly officer of a company from Chicopee, in the Forty- 
sixth. Captain Warren of the early company of eastern Berk.shire men, 
had served with bravery as a sergeant in a company of General Bartlett's 
famous Forty-ninth. Soon after his home military experience, with this 
mountain company of miHtia, he went west, and located, finally, at Chey- 
enne, Wyoming, when that smart city was but a village of tents. The 
only frame building in the village was a store, where a Berkshire man had 


begun merchandizing, and with him Captain Warren took np the life of a 
salesman; and his subsequent successes in business and in political life 
are the boast of his many friends in the west, and of those who remember 
him in New England. He was first president of the territcnial council of 
Wyoming; then territorial treasurer; twice territorial governor by presi- 
dential appointment; and the first governor, by election, of the state of 
Wyoming; and is now serving his second term in the senate of the United 
States. Sergeant Gleason has been for years, Senator Warren's business 
partner at Cheyenne, and Francis W. Taylor, the Berkshire company's 
first lieutenant, had served with credit in the old Tenth, and is an enter- 
prising business man at Springfield. Captain John L. Knight, one of the 
commanders of Springfield's Company B, had a good war record. 

Colonel John L. Rice, who was a member of Company G, and who 
afterward served Springfield as postmaster and then as cit}^ marshal, ser- 
ving in each capacity with efficiency, was an officer in the army of the 
Union. So was the late Captain E. C. Pierce, who was also a member of 
this Springfield company <if militia. Rob Roy McGregor, a long-tried 
and faithful clerk in the Springfield post-office, who was also a member of 
this company, did duty as a soldier in North Carolina. He was the sec- 
ond orderly sergeant of Company G. The first was the late Captain J. K. 
Newell, who had done brave service in the Tenth at the front, and who, 
after the war, wrote a valuable history of that regiment. Captain Peter 
S. Bailey, another member of company G, had been an officer in the 
Twenty-seventh. He has faithfully served one Springfield bank in an 
official capacity, for a quarter of a century. Still another one of this 
company G, was Captain W. P. Marsh, a former Springfield merchant, 
whose creditable war record was in the Eighth Connecticut. And yet 
another of this band of home guards was Captain H. K. Cooley, who won 
in the Twenty-seventh the right to his title, while Captain S. B. Parker, 
of the same htmdred, won distinction in the war as one of the historic 
legion known as "Duryea's Zouaves." Captain F. E. Gray, one of the 
commanders of Company G, was at the front as an officer of the Thirty- 
seventh, and helped to make the enviable record of that legion. Lieu- 
tenant C. W. Mutell, one of the adjutants of the Second, was a soldier in 
the Forty-sixth, and acquitted himself well as orderly sergeant of Com- 
pany H, of the Forty-second Regiment, in its second term of service. 
Captain Chamberlain had a creditable war record as a member of the 
Ninth Vermont, and Captain Leavitt was one of the brave Thirtieth 
i\Iaine. Captain Fr. G. Fessenden, once an officer of the Greenfield mil- 
itia, is the present able member of the superior court bench from Frank- 
lin county, his honor Judge Fr. G. Fessenden. 

Another of the Greenfield militia officers. Captain Anson AVithev. 
was an efficient postmaster of the town, while Captain Frederic E. Pierce 


now serves with credit in that capacity. Captain Gorham D. Williams, 
aforetime one of the Greenfield officers, is a worthy member of the Frank- 
lin bar. The Northampton captaincy was once held by another able law- 
yer, wlio was also a legislator of note, Senator Richard W. Irwin; while 
the present efficient commander of the Northampton company. Captain H. 
L. Williams, is one of the Hampshire city's best men. Greenheld's mem- 
ber of the superior court bench, is not the only one who has had an expe- 
rience in the militia, for his honor. Judge E. B. Maynard, of Springfield, 
once ••trained" witli Company B. It will be remembered that, before his 
appointment to the bench, his honor served Springfield as mayor, and cred- 
itably, too. So, also, did another one of Company B — Hon. William H. 
Haile, ex-senator and ex-lieutenant-governor, and one who has had much 
to do with many good causes, in which Springfield people are interested. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Shumway served well as sergeant in the Fourth Ver- 
mont, one of the legions that made up the historic army of the Potomac. 
Major Southmayd has creditably served Springfield as city marshal. Major 
Whipple, who is one of the Berkshire deputy sheriffs, served with credit 
in the Eighth Massachusetts at the front. Major Fairbanks, who well 
commands the Third Battalion of the Second, had no war experience. 
Lieutenant Hawkins, the efficient adjutant of the Second, has served in 
that capacity before, having previously served as first lieutenant of Com- 
pany B, and as Inspector of Rifle Practice on Colonel Clark's staff, one year. 
Surgeon Clark, who came years ago to Massachusetts from Ohio, served 
with credit in the Thirteenth Ohio, and in the Sixth Veteran U. S. 

Colonel Clark, the commander of the Second, was a faithful soldier 
in the Forty-sixth. A native of Buckland, and attending school at Charle- 
mont, when quite young he came with his family to Holyoke, where his 
father set up in the shoe business, and where, a few years later, the son 
enlisted with other Holyokeans, to take a hand in the contest for the flag 
of their cotrntry. Before this military experience, he had been a clerk in 
a Holyoke store, and after returning from the war, he learned the drug 
trade in the same city, where he began work in the office of the water com- 
missioners in 1876, serving there as registrar for seventeen years. Yield- 
ing to a popular demand. Colonel Clark, who had served Holyoke also as 
school committee, accepted in September, 1892, a nomination as candidate 
for the shrievalty of Hampden county; and on his election, he removed 
his residence to Springfield, the county seat, and transferred to that city 
the headquarters of the regiment from Holyoke, where they had been 
since his promotion to the colonelcy. They first occupied an office rented 
for the purpose on Elm street, but since the erection of the fine new 
armory on Howard street, that elegant structure has contained the office 
of the colonel of the Second. There, also, are the quarters of the drill 


room of the Springfield companies. A more extended description of this 
armory will be found in the article entitled "The State Armories." 

Field and Staff, iSq-j-qS. 

Colonel, Embury P. Clarke, Springfield; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edwin R. Shum- 
way, Worcester; Major, Frederick G. Southinayd, Springfield; Major, Reuben A. 
Whipple, Adams; Major, Harry B. Fairbanks, Worcester; First Lieutenant and Adju- 
tant, Paul R. Hawkins, Springfield; First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, Charles D. 
Colson, Holyoke; Major and Surgeon, Orland J. Brown, North Adams; First Lieuten- 
ant and Assistant Surgeon, Joseph T. Herrick, Springfield; First Lieutenant and Pay- 
master, Archibald C. Edson, Holyoke; First Lieutenant and Inspector Rifle Practice, 
Albert C. Taylor, Chicopee Falls; Chaplain, Rev. John C. Welwood, Holyoke. 

Noii-Cominis^ioiii'd Staff. 

Sergeant Major, Paul J. Norton, Springfield; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Melvin 
N. Snow, Holyoke; Hospital Steward, Lawrence H. Fortier, Holyoke; Drum Major, 
Dennis J. Callinan, Springfield; Paymaster Sergeant, Charles B. Hitchcock, Spring- 
field; Chief Bugler, Ralph E. Mathewson, Springfield; Color Sergeant, William L. 
Clough, Springfield; Color Sergeant, Sayward Galbraith, Springfield; Orderly, Ross 
L. Lusk. 


Company A— Captain, Edwin G. Barrett, Worcester; First Lieutenant, Moses 
H. Tisdell, Worcester; Second Lieutenant, Frederick H. Lucke, Worcester. 

Company B — Captain, Henry McDonald, Springfield; First Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam L. Yotmg, Springfield; Second Lieutenant, Harry J. Vesper, Springfield. 

Company C — Captain, Phineas L. Rider, Worcester; First Lieutenant, William 
F. Gilman, Worcester; Second Lieutenant, Frank L. Allen, Worcester. 

Company D — Captain, William J. Crosier, Holyoke; First Lieutenant, Rob- 
ert W. Hunter, Holyoke; Second Lieutenant, Francis D. Phillips, Holyoke. 

Company E — Captain, Phillip I. Barber, Orange; First Lieutenant, Frank P. 
Hosmer, Orange; Second Lieutenant, Edwin R. Gray, Orange. 

Company F — Captain, Arthur L. Stone, Gardner; First Lieutenant, Albert A. 
Fowler, Gardner; Second Lieutenant, .\lbert L. Potter, Gardner. 

Company G — Captain, John J. Leonard, Springfield; First Lieutenant, Joseph 
P. Quirk, Springfield; Second Lieutenant, Thomas A. Sweeney, Springfield. 

Company H — Captain, Walter E. Hassam, Worcester; First Lieutenant, Wright 
T. Prior, Worcester; Second Lieutenant. Edward B. Fish, Worcester. 

Company I — Captain, Henry L. Williams, Northampton ; First Lieutenant, 
Glenroy A. Thayer, Northampton; Second Lieutenant, Daniel J. Moynahan, North- 

Company K — Captain, William S. Warriner, Springfield ; First Lieutenant, 
Philip C. Powers, Springfield; Second Lieutenant, Henry H. Parkhurst, Springfield. 

Company I — Captain, Frederick L. Pierce, Greenfield; First Lieutenant, Charles 
H. Field, Greenfield; Second Lieutenant, Fayette B. Mason, Greenfield. 

Company M — Captain, Herbert O. Hicks, Adams; F'irst Lieutenant, George E. 
Simmons, Adams; Second Lieutenant. Ernest J. Laferriere, .\dams. 


IN THE si'anish-amerii:an war. 

By Coliuu-l Embury P. ('.lurk. 

WliL'U the foregoin,!;' page was penned, I had little rea.son to appre- 
hend that the Seeond Regiment would be ealled into aetive .serviee; and 
still less cause to anticipate that the redemption of Cuba, and the extinction 
of Spanish dominion in the West Indies, would be essayed by the repub- 
lic; and call my gallant comrades into serviee beyond the narrow seas. 

Without some record of our service and trials, in that brief but 
glorious campaign, the history already written would be incomplete; and 
yet, it is with some hesitation that 
I attempt to describe the great 
events, in which the regiment was 
a more or less important factor, 
since I, as its commanding officer, 
must, at best, seem to say those 
things of the regiment and my- 
self, which are best said by other 

I have chosen, therefore, to 
continue the record of the Second 
Regiment oi Infantry, M. V. M.. 
by practically repeating the lan- 
guage of the othcial report, as re- 
turned to the Adjutant-General of 
the state. It was my dtity to make 
a just, true and soldierly report, 
and I prefer to adhere closely to 
the direct, military method of 
composition, which recites facts, 
and leaves to others the province 
of criticism, and the allotment of 
praise or blame, except so far as either is meted out by a competent mili- 
tary tribunal or authority. 

The following narrative covers the operations of the Second Regi- 
ment of Infantry, M. ^'. M., from the time it was mu.stered into the ser- 
vice of the United States under the call of the President for troops, dated 
April 23, 1898, to November 23, 1898, when it was mu.stered out of the 
United .States service at Springfield, Mass., exactly six months from the 
date of its muster-in. 

On April 29, 1S98, I was designated by the Commander-in-Chief of 
the M. V. M. to recruit a regiment of volunteers for the service of the 
United States, it being provided that members of the militia should be 

coLo.NKi. F,.Mr.n:v p ( i.m;k. 


given the preference in enlistments for such regiment of volunteers, and 
that any vacancies were to be filled by the enlistment of other citizens of 
the Commonwealth. 

On April 29, 1898, the following order was issued: 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Adjutant General's Office, Boston, Mass., April 29, 1898. 
General Orders No. 45. 

The four volunteer regiments designated as the quota of the Commonwealth, 
will encamp at the state camp ground. South Framingham, Mass., as follows: 

The regiment of infantry, to be commanded by Colonel Embury P. Clark will 
report at the camp ground on Tuesday, May 3, at 12 o'clock, noon. The volunteer 
regiment to be commanded by Colonel Fred B. Bogan, will report at the camp ground 
on Wednesday, May 4, at 1 1 o'clock a. m. The volunteer regiment to be commanded 
by Colonel William A. Pew, Jr., will report at the camp ground on Thursday, May 5, 
at II o'clock, a. m. The volunteer regiment to be commanded by Colonel Charles F. 
Woodward, will report at the camp ground on Friday, May 6, at 1 1 o'clock a. m. 
Colonel E. P. Clark will assume command of the camp. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

SAMUEL DALTON, Adjutant General. 

The Second Regiment reported for duty at the state camp ground 
on May 3, at the hour designated in G. O. No. 45, and by special order 
No. 48. A. G. O., the camp became ofificially known as "Camp Dewey." 

Physical examinations of the officers and men were begun May 4, 
under the direction of Surgeon Bushnell, U. S. A. 

The roster of the regiment when it left the state, was as follows: 

Colonel, Embury P. Clark, Springfield; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edwin R. Shum- 
way, Worcester; Majors, Frederick G. Southmayd, Springfield; Reuben N. Whipple, 
Adams; Henry B.Fairbanks, Worcester; Adjutant, Paul R. Hawkins, Springfield; 
Quartermaster, Everett E. Sawtell, Springfield; Surgeon, Henry C. Bowen, Spring- 
field; Assistant Surgeons, Ernest A. Gates, Springfield; John E. Hitchcock, North- 
ampton; Chaplain, John C. Welwood, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Company A, Worcester— Captain, Edwin O.Barrett; First Lieutenant, Moses 
H. Tisdell; Second Lieutenant, William H. Plummer. 

Company B, Springfield— Captain, Henry McDonald; First Lieutenant, William 
L. Young; Second Lieutenant, Harry J. Vesper. 

Company C, Worcester — Captain, Frank L. Allen; First Lieutenant, Arthur C. 
King; Second Lieutenant, Herbert H. Warren. 

Company D, Holyoke— Captain, William J. Crosier; First Lieutenant, Robert 
W. Hunter; Second Lieutenant, Frank D. Phillips. 

Company E, Orange— Captain, Philip I. Barber; First Lieutenant, Frank D. 
Hosmer; Second Lieutenant, Oscar D. Hapgood, 

Company F, Gardner— Captain, Alonzo L. Potter; First Lieutenant, Fred A. 
Lovejoy; Second Lieutenant, Louis G. Brown. 

Company G, Springfield— Captain, John J. Leonard; First Lieutenant, William 
C. Hayes; Second Lieutenant, Edward J. Leyden. 

Company H, Worcester— Captain, Charles S. Holden ; First Lieutenant, Edwin 
B. Fish; Second Lieutenant, Harry T. Gray. 


Company I, Northampton— Captain, Henry L. Williams; First Liuntenant, 
Glenroy A. Thayer; Second Lieutenant, Daniel J. Moynahan. 

Company K, Springfield— Captain, William L. Warriner; First Lieutenant, 
Philip C. Powers; Second Lieutenant, Harry H. Parkhurst. 

Company L, Greenfield— Captain, Frederick E. Pierce; First Lieutenant, 
Charles H. Field; Second Lieutenant, Fayette B. Mason. 

Company M, .Vdams— Captain, Herbert O. Hicks; First Lieutenant, George J. 
Crosier; Second Lieutenant, Ernest J. Laferriere. 

Physical examinations of the enlisted men were concluded May 10, 
on which day the last company of the regiment was mustered into the 
United States service. 

Late on the night of Alay 12, orders were received from the war 
department, ordering the regiment to start at once for Key West, Fla. 
The uncompleted work of equipping the regiment was pushed actively, 

P.clore Saiitiai:o »lr <'iib;i. .Inly I- to Anj,'. 13, isi'S. 

and, thanks to the energetic work of the ofificers of the Adjutant-Gen- 
eraVs department, and of Caj^tain Luke R. Landy, was completed within 
a few hours after the orders had been received. Reveille was sounded at 
4 a. m. the next day, and by 8 a. m. the camp was broken, all tents 
packed, together with all baggage and equipment not worn or carried, 
and the command was in full marching order, ready to move whenever 
notified. The Governor, with members of his staff and council, state of- 
ficials and members of the general court, arrived in camp in the after- 
noon, and at 4 o'clock reviewed the regiment. 

After passing in review, the regiment was formed in hollow 
square, and the commissions of the officers were presented to them by His 
Excellency, Governor Wolcott. 

Soon after 5 o'clock the regiment, 943 strong, marched from the 



camp ground to the railway station, where it entrained for Newport, R. I. 
The special train reached Newport about lo p. m., and the regiment was 
transferred to the steamer Plymouth, of the Fall River Line that night, 
and arrived at New York early on the morning of the 14th. At New York 
the regiment was transferred to the transports Vigilancia and Saratoga. 
Both transports steamed down the harbor and anchored off Bedloe's 
Island, when orders were received directing the regiment to proceed to 
Tampa, Fla., by rail. The transports proceeded to the Pennsylvania 
railroad pier, Jersey City, where the regiment was transferred to a special 
train of three sections. We left Jersey City about 9 p. m., amid a fare- 
well demonstration by the people in the vicinity. 

The trip South was uneventful. Cordial demonstrations were given 
us all along the route, this being especially noticeable in the states south 
of Mason and Dixon's line. On the afternoon of May 18, I received 
telegraphic orders to proceed to Lakeland, Fla., instead of Tampa. We 
reached Lakeland on the evening of that day, but did not detrain until 

FIF.I.I) A\I> ^1 M F AT MF^> 
SecoTul Kigiment, JI. V. .M., Lakehuul, Fin., 1S98. 

the next morning, when the regiment went into camp at Lake :\Iorti)n. 

At this time the Second was attached to the Second Cavalry Bri- 
gade, Fifth Army Corps, General Young commanding, and composed of 
the First and Tenth Cavalry, U. S. A., the New York Vol- 
unteers, and Second Massachusetts Volunteers. 


On Alay 30, Second Lieutenant F. D. Phillips, Company D, was 
detailed as Reg;imental Commissary officer, and First Lieutenant G. A. 
Thayer, Company L as Regimental Ordnance Officer, botli under S. O. 
No. I. Both these officers creditably performed their duties throughout 

Second Kegiraeiit, M. V. .M.. .S;iriti;i^'i> ilt- Ciitju, 1S!>S. 

the campaign. Private Weslie S. Brass, Company 1, was the first mem- 
ber of the Second to give his life for his country. He was attacked with 
pneumonia on the day the regiment arrived at Lakeland, and died on the 
2 1st. At the request of his parents, I caused the body to be embalmed 
and shipped to Westfield, Mass. I notiiied His Excellency, the Governor, 
of the young man's death, and received a sympathetic mes.sage in reply. 

Our stay at Lakeland was brief, and, on the whole, a novel and 
pleasant experience. The surroundings gave a picturesque tone to our 
camp life, and the general health of the men was apparently unimpaired. 

On Monday, May 29, orders to break camp and proceed to Tampa 
were received, and in compliance the regiment jDroceeded to Tamjaa on 
the following day, where it went into camp at Ybor City, a suburb of 
Tampa. The regiment was now attached to the ist brigade, 2nd division 
of the Fifth Corps, the Brigade Commander being Colonel Van Horn, 
Eighth U. S. Infantry. The other commands of the brigade were the 
Eighth and Twenty-second Infantry, U. S. A. 

The regiment remained in camp in Ybor City until June 6th. Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, H. H. Warren was detailed as A. D. C. on the .staff of the 
Division Commander, and Private W. W. Eddy, Company C, was also de- 
tailed as messenger on the staff. 

Sergeants W. W. Ward, Company G, and W. E. Barton, Company 
C, were by S. F. O. No. i, detailed as color sergeants of the regiment. 

During the afternoon of June 6, the following order was 
received: — 


Headquarters, ist Brigade, 2nd Division, Fifth Corps. 

Tampa, Fla., June 6th, 189S. 
Commanding' Officer, Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. 

Sir; — The Brigade ComiBander directs' that you have your command ready to 
load the wagons at 9.30 o'clock this evening. Will move to-night. 

Very respectfully, 

W. H. KELL, 
Capt. Twenty-Second Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt.Gen'l. 

Under these orders the regiment broke camp in the early evening, 
and was ready to move at any time after g.30; bnt, owing to some miscal- 
cnlation we were kept waiting tmtil late in the afternoon of the following 
day, before we were provided with transportation to Port Tampa, where 
we were to go. 

The following orders were issited before leaving Tampa: — 

Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, 

Tampa, Fla., June 6th, 189S. 
The Commanding General, 2nd Division, Fifth Army Corps. 

(To be transmitted by him to Brigade Commanders for their information): 
Sir: — In order that they may have their commands in readiness for the trans- 
ports, Division Commanders will be notified as far in advance as possible. It is de- 
sired to ship complete organizations with all their baggage and rations on the same 
train, if possible a regiment to a train. As the distance is so short, men can be 
crowded in trains. Upon arival at wharf, the cotnmanding officers of regiments will 
report to Lieutenant Colonel Humphrey, who will designate the transport each regi- 
ment is to go on. 

Commanding officers will see that men and baggage are unloaded from the 
trains and loaded on the transports rapidly. Colonel Humphrey has entire control of 
loading transports and his orders must be obeyed. 

Very respectfully. 

Signed: E. J. McCLERNAKD, 

.Assistant Adjutant-General. 
Official copy respectfully furnished the commanding officer, ist Brigade. 
Official. Signed: H. H. Warren. Signed: H. C. Carbaugh, 

Aide. Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Official copy respectfully furnished the commanding officer, Second Massachu- 
setts Volunteer Infantry for his information and guidance. 

By command of Colonel Van Horn : 
W. H. KELL, 
Captain Twenty-Second Infantry, A. A. .\. G. 

In Compliance with these orders, I reported t(5 Lientenant-Colonel 
Humphrey, on our arrival at Port Tampa, and as he was imable to put us 
on a transport that night, we were compelled to bivouac on the pier. 

On the following day, the 8th, Headqitartcrs and the First Battalion 
embarked on the vS. S. Orizaba, the Second Battalion on the S. S. Seneca, 
and the Third Battalion on the S. S. Concho. The transports remained 
in the harbor until the 14th. On the 13th, Headquarters and the First 



and Third Battalions were transferred to the S. ti. Knickerbockei; known 
as Transport No. 13. Companies E and M were plaeed on the S. S. 
^lanteo, and companies L and I on tlie vS. S. Seneca. 

The Fifth Corps sailed on the 14th for Santiago de Cuba, arriving 
otf there on the 20th. The landing was begun on the 22nd, at Daiquiri, 
an anchorage about eighteen miles east of the entrance to the bay of San- 
tiago. To Company E, of Orange, Cajjtain P. I. Barber, belongs the 
honor of being the first company of the Second to land, and Second Lieu- 
tenant E. J. Laferriere, Company M, was the first officer ashore. Imme- 
diately after landing, I was directed by General Lawton, the division com- 
mander, to assume command of the First Brigade, Colonel Van Horn 
having been seriously injured the day before. As soon as the brigade 
had landed, the advance was begun, and the command marched some four 
miles into the interior and bivouacked. The Third Battalion of the vSec- 

^*^*^;' r^s-^^^^t-^T^ip*. 

- ^ /-•:"-•%' 


.sie.Lre <)f Santiago lie Culia, July, ItiiiS. 

ond Regiment had not landed at the time the advance was begun, but did 
so the next day, and joined the regiment aboirt noon. 

The advance was resumed early in the morning of the 23d, and just 
before noon we arrived at Siboney on the route to Santiago. The regi- 
ment remained here until the afternoon of the 24th. The engagement 
between the dismounted cavalry, under Generals Wheeler and Young, and 
the enemy at Las Guasimas, occurred early in the forenoon of this day, 
and by order of the division commander, I took the Eighth and Twenty- 
Second Regiments, leaving the Second Massachusetts Volunteers to guard 
Siboney, and proceeded to the battle-field, arriving just as the affair was 
over. "We returned to Siboney, and, after rations had been issued, late in 
the afternoon the advance was resumed. The march was continued until 
dark, when the regiment went into bivouac on the battle ground of Las 
Guasimas. Company G, which had been left behind at Siboney to unload 
stores from the shijjs, arrived early the next morning and the advance was 
resumed. A halt was made after proceeding about two miles, and the 
command went into camp, near what was forinerly the Sevilla plantation. 
The advance was again resumed on the 27th. and the troops went into 


camp that afternoon in a position in rear of the city of Santiago, and with- 
in sight of tlie enemy's lines. 

On the 29th, I was relieved from the command of the First Brigade 
by the arrival of Brigadier-General William Ludlow, U. S. V., and 
resumed command of the Second. 

On the afternoon of June 30, three days' rations having been 
issued, the 2nd Division began its advance upon El Caney, a strong 
Spanish outpost to the north of Santiago. The route of the i st Brigade was 
a most difficult one, owing to the narrow and slippery trail, the number of 
streams to be forded, and the fact that the greater portion of the march 
was made in the darkness. The command bivouacked about 10 o'clock, 
only a short distance from the enemy's lines. The regiment was aroused 
at 4 a. m., July i, and about 5 o'clock the advance was resumed. About 
6.30 o'clock the battle of El Caney was begun by Capron's battery, which 
opened fire on the Spanish fort on the hill. 

The 1st Brigade, to which the Second was attached, was assigned 
a position SDUth of the village of El Caney, and began the attack from that 
(luarter about 6.45 a. m. 

No regiment went into action in that battle under such unfavorable 
conditions as the Second Massachusetts. Fifty-five per cent of the men were 
recruits without training, and it was armed with an obsolete rifie using 
black powder, while all other regiments, as well as the enemy, were armed 
with small caliber, magazine rifles using smokeless powder. As soon as 
we got into action, the smoke from the black powder revealed our posi- 
tion, and we became a target for the concentrated fire of the enemy; but 

El CiiTioy, Santiagc) dp Cuba, July, 1S.18. 

owing to their poor marksmanship, we were saved from great loss of life. 

The battle terminated about 4.30 o'clock p. m., when the enemy's 
works were captiired. 

The conduct of the officers and men under fire was commended by 
our most captious critics, but, considering how we were handicapped by 



obsolete arms, black powder, and so large a percentage of recruits, I feel 
that the regiment deserves high praise for its work in this action. 

The following order, relative to the work of the ist brigade, in the 
battle of El Cancy, was issued by the brigade commander to the Eighth 

Siege, Santiago de Cuba, July, i.s;tb. 

and Twenty-second Infantry, U. S. A., and the Second Massachusetts 
A'olunteers, comprising the brigade. 

Headquarters, First Brigade, 2nd Division, Fifth Army Corps, 

In Front of Santiago de Cuba, July 3, 1898. 
General Orders. 

The Brigadier General Commanding, desires to congratulate the officers and 
men of this command, on the gallantry and fortitude displayed by them in the invest- 
ment and capture of Caney, on Friday, July ist, inst. 

Infantry attacks on fortified positions well defended, are recognized as the most 
difficult of military undertakings and are rarely successful. The defense was con- 
ducted with admirable skill behind an elaborate system of block houses, intrench- 
ments and loop holes, nevertheless, after a stubborn and bloody combat of nearly 
eight hours, the place was taken and its garrison practically annihilated. The ex- 
ploit is the more notable that the affair was entered upon and carried through by men, 
most of whom had never been under fire. The high percentage of casualties shows 
the severity of the work, fourteen per cent of loss among its officers, and eight per 
cent of the enlisted force. This action, though of relatively minor importance, will 
take its place as one of the conspicuous events in military history, by reason of its suc- 
cess under conditions of great difficulty, and all who contributed toward the achieve- 
ment have reason for present and future congratulations. 

By command of Brigadier General Ludlow, 

W. H. KELL, 
Captain, Twenty-Second Infantry. Actg. Asst. Adjt. General. 


Our loss in this action consisted of First Lieutenant, Charles H. 
Field, L Company, killed, together with Privates, Arthur H. Packard and 
George A. Richmond of G Company, Private Frank E. Moody of K Com- 
pany, and Private George A. Brooks of E Company. Privates John J. Ma- 
lone, B Company, Anatole Dugas, D Company, and Joseph W. Lanois, L 
Company, were mortally wounded, and died in the regimental hospital 
the following day. 

Lieutenant Field was instantly killed, as were Privates Packard, 
Moody and Brooks. Private Richmond lived for a very brief time after 
being wounded. Lieutenant Field was an excellent officer, and the regi- 
ment sustained a severe loss in his death. 

The officers wounded were: Captain "\V. S. Warriner, K Company, 
Second Lieutenant Daniel J. Moynahan, I Company, Secoad Lieutenant 
Oscar D. Hapgood, E. Company. All these officers were shot through the 
body, the wounds being very serious. I am glad to say that all recovered, 
and rejoined the regiment on its return to the United States. 

The enlisted men wotmded were: Corporal R. H. Coit, D Company, 
Corporal Ward Lathrop, K; Corporal Charles Hoadley, K; Corporal Fred 
Simons, M; Corporal L. L. Richardson, F; Artificer Henry E. Ariel, L; 
Wagoner F. H. Boulle, K; Wagoner A. A. Thiele, M; and Privates C. H. 
Ashley, J. F. Ferrier, H. S. Meyrick, C. J. Riordan, A. E. Rose, and W. 
B. Riopel, of B Company; Edmund Damour and Frederic Slate, of D 
Company; B. A. Bristow, Thomas Breslin, D. A. DeTour, F. A. Has- 
tings, J. A. Nolan, and L. M. Willard, of E Company; Henry Kent, F 
Company; P. J. Bresnan, and E. P. Marble, of G Company; R. A. Bark- 
man, K Comjjany, G. E. Blackmer, E. M. Cornell, G. H. DeRiviere, F. C. 
Schiller, of L Company; A. L. Carey, Walla Paradise, and John Walsh, 
of M Company. 

But little time was allowed the troops to rest after the capture of 
El Caney. Before 6 o'clock the division Avas again in motion toward the 
San Juan hills, to join the ist division. After marching until 9, the troops 
bivouacked by the roadside, and at 3 a. m. resumed the march, which, 
owing to the darkness and the difficulties of the route, was interrupted 
many times. It was not until 10 o'clock that the regiment emerged into 
the road at the El Pozo mill, and marching up this road under a heavy fire 
of sharpshooters, went into position on a hill almost at the extreme right 
of the American line. 

During the afternoon, the regiment suffered two more casualties, 
Corporal Joseph Eaton, Company D, and Private J. F. Farrell, Com- 
pany L being wounded by sharpshooters. About 10 p. m. the enemy 
opened a heavy fire, and made an attempt to break through our lines, 
but was repiilsed. Two members of the second were wounded during 
this affair. Private Robert G. Kelly, Company (r. fatally, and P. N. White 


of Compan)' A, through the left shoulder and body. Private Kelly was 
shot through the mouth, and several days later died in the Division Hos- 
jjital. Our total easualties on July ist and 2nd, were nine killed and thir- 
ty-nine wounded. 

On the afternoon of Sunday, July 3, we heard the news of the 
destruction of the vSpanish fleet. On July 4th, we again advanced to the 
right, beginning the movement to completely invest the City of Santiago 
from the land side. The brigade advanced to a .stronger position, on a 
hill which commanded the rear of the city. Here breastworks were dug, 
and the men worked zealously, although there was a deficiency of in- 
trenching tools, and knives, spoons and mess plates and cups had to be 

The command remained in this position until July 10th, when it 
was moved further to the right, and took position in some trenches for- 
merly occupied by the Cuban auxiliaries. On the afternoon of this day, 
the American forces opened fire upon the city, the enemy making only a 


feeble response. On the i itb, we were again moved to the right, and on 
the I2th, we completed the investment of the city, the right of our bri- 
gade resting on the harbor, on the north side of the city. On arrival at 
our last position, the work of digging intrenchments was begun, and 
pushed rapidly until, early on the morning of the 14th, they were com- 
pleted. At this time we were within a few hundred yards of the enemy's 

At 11.20 on the morning of the 14th, we were ordered into the 
trenches, and preparations made for action. There was no firing, how- 
ever, and soon after i p. m. a messenger from corps headquarters, an- 
nounced the surrender of the city. On the 17th, the formal surrender took 
place. At this time all the regiments were paraded in front of their 
intrenchments, and a national salute fired as our flag was raised over the pal- 
ace in the city, with the bands all playing the "Star Spangled Banner," 
and the men cheering. 

After the surrender of Santiago, the following orders were pub- 
lished to the army: — 


Headquarters Fifth Army Corps, 

Camp near Santiago de Cuba, July i6, 1898. 
General Orders, No. 24. 

The following message from the President of the United States, will be pub- 
lished to each regiment in this Army at 12 o'clock tomorrow: 

Washington, July 16, 1898. 
General Shafter; 

The President of the United States sends you and your brave army the pro- 
found thanks of the American people for the gallant achievement at Santiago, result- 
ing in the surrender of the city, and all of the Spanish troops and territory under 
General Toral. Your splendid command has endured, not only the hardships and sacri- 
fice incident to campaign and battle, but in stress of heat and weather, has triumphed 
over obstacles which would have overcome men less brave and determined. One and 
all have displayed the most conspicuous gallantry, and earned the gratitude of the 
nation. The heart of the people turns with tender sympathy to the sick and wounded. 
May the Father of Mercy protect and comfort them. 

(Signed) WM. McKINLEY. 
By command of Major General Shafter; 

E. J. McCLERNAND, Assistant Adjutant General. 
(Official) W. H. McKITTRICK, Aide. 
Commanding Officer, Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. 

Headquarters U. S. Troops in Cuba, 

Santiago de Cuba, July 19, 1898. 
General Orders, No. 26. 

The successful accomplishment of the campaign against Santiago, resulting in 
its downfall and the surrender of the Spanish Forces, the capture of large amounts of 
military stores, together with the destruction of the entire Spanish Fleet in the har- 
bor, which, upon the investment of the city, was forced to leave, is one of which this 
Army can well be proud. 

This has been accomplished through the heroic deeds of the army, and to its 
officers and men, the Major General Commanding offers his sincere thanks for their 
endurance of hardships unknown in the American army. The work you have accom- 
plished may well appeal to the pride of your countrymen, and has been rivalled upon 
but few occasions in the world's history. Landing upon an unknown coast, you faced 
danger in disembarking and overcoming obstacles, that, even in looking back, seem 
insurmountable. Seizing, with the assistance of the Navy, the towns of Daiquiri and 
Siboney, you pushed boldly forth, gallantly driving back the enemy's outposts in the 
engagement of La Guasima, and completed the concentration of the army near Se- 
villa, within sight of the Spanish stronghold at Santiago de Cuba. 

The outlook from Sevilla was one that might well have appalled the stoutest 
heart; behind you ran a narrow road, made well nigh impassable by rains, while to 
the front you looked out upon high foothills, covered with a dense tropical growth, 
which could only be traversed by bridle paths, terminating within range of the 
enemy's guns. Nothing daunted, you responded eagerly to the order to close upon 
the foe, and attacking at Caney and San Juan, drove him from work to work, until he 
took refuge within his last and strongest entrenchments immediately surrounding 
the city. 

Despite the fierce glare of a southern sun and rains that fell "in torrents," 
you valiantly withstood his attempts to drive you from the position your valor had 



won. Holding in your vice-like grip the army opposed to you, after seventeen days 
of battle and siege, you were rewarded by the surrender of nearly 24,000 prisoners, — 
12,000 being those in your immediate front, the others scattered in the various towns 
of eastern Cuba; freeing completely the eastern part of the island from Spanish 
troops. This was not done without great sacrifices. The death of 230 gallant soldiers, 
and the wounding of 1,284 others, shows but too plainly the fierce contest in which 
you were engaged. The few reported missing are undoubtedly among the dead, as no 
prisoners were lost. 

For those who have fallen in battle with you, the Commanding General sor- 
rows, and with you will ever cherish their memory. Their devotion to duty sets a 
high example of courage and patriotism to our fellow countrymen. 

All who have participated in the campaign, battle and siege of Santiago de 
Cuba, will recall with pride the grand deeds accomplished, and will hold one another 
dear for having shared great sufferings, hardships and triumphs together. All may 
well feel proud to inscribe on their banners the name of "Santiago de Cuba." 
Bv command of Major General Shafter, 


Official: J. D. MILEY, Aide. Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Commanding Officer, Second Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. 

The Second remained in its 
position in front of Santiago until Atig- 
ust 1 2th. Dnringthis period sickness, 
due to cliinatic conditions, appeared, 
and the men. weakened by the hard- 
ships and exposure incident to the 
campaign, were unable to resist it. At 
one time fully sixty-five per cent of the 
regiment was unfit for duty by reason 
of illness. 

On July 6, Major F. G. South- 
mayd was obliged to leave the regi- 
ment owing to seriotis illness. He 
obtained sick leave and went to the 
United States, rejoining the regi- 
ment at Caiup Wikoff on its arrival 
there. Captain Henry ^McDonald, Com- 
pany B, and Captain F. L. Allen, of 
Company C, were also obliged to go 
north on sick leave. 

On August 12, the regiment 
marched to Santiago, and, with the 
entire brigade, embarked on board 
the "Mobile" for the United States. 
Several deaths occurred during the 
passage, among them being Second 



At El Caney, Cuba, July, 1S9S. 


Lieutenant Harry J. Vesper, ComiJany B. His body was buried at sea 
some miles south of Cape Hatteras, with due military honors. The "Mo- 
bile" arrived at Camp Wikoff, August 19, and the regiment disembarked 
the next day and marched to the detention camp, where it remained until 
the 25th. On that day it marched to the permanent camp, and on the day 
following received a furlough of sixty days, with orders to report for 
muster out of the United States service, at South Framingham, at the ex- 
piration of that time. Later, the place of muster-out was changed to 
Springfield, and on November 3, the regiment reported at that place, and 
was mustered out of the service of the United States, by Lieutenant Col- 
onel E. M. Weaver, Fifth -Massachusetts Infantry U. S. V. 

On the day the regiment left Camp Wikoff for home, the following 
communication was sent to me: — 

Headquarters U. S. Forces 

Camp Wikoff L. I. 

August 27, 1S98. 
To the officers and soldiers of the Second Massachusetts Regiment. 

"Today you return to your homes, and you will receive the plaudits and adula- 
tion of the people of the great commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

You have cheerfully endured hardships and privations, and have bravely met 
and conquered a foreign foe in a foreign land. You have contributed your full part 
in a campaign, which has elevated this great republic to the leading position among 
the nations of the earth. You have proven yourselves worthy descendants of the 
heroes of Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill, and have taught the world that the 
same spirit which animated those who won renown in the battles of the Revolution, 
the war of 1812, the war with Mexico, and the great armed conflict of a third of a 
century ago, is to-day fresh and strong in the hearts of the people of the great state 
of Massachusetts. 

Joining you in revering and honoring your heroic dead, I bid you adieu, and 
beg you take with you my congratulations and best wishes for your future. 

(Signed) JOS. WHEELER, 

Major General, U. S. V., Commanding. 

I have to report the death of ^Lijor and Surgeon, Henry C. Bowen, 
which occurred at the Second Division Hospital, near Santiago, on August 
13, of malarial fever. JNLajor Bowen was an efficient officer, and, until 
prostrated by disease, worked unceasingly for the good of the regiment. 

From ^lay 21, to November 3, inclusive, the total number of deaths 
in the regiment from disease was eighty-nine. Nine were killed in bat- 
tle or died from wounds received, making the total casttalties to Novem- 
ber 3, i8g8, ninety-eight — a little more than ten per cent, of the total 




By Major Frederick G. Stiles. 

IT would be impossible to give a complete history of the Worces- 
ter Light Infantry from its first organization to the present date, 
(1897), in the limited space allotted to that purpose; but the 
writer has gleaned from the annals of the past, and from per- 
sonal recollections, such facts and 
reminiscences as especially deserve 
to live forever in the hearts of the 
people of the Commonwealth of 

In 1S03. at the instigation of 
a few leading citizens of the town 
of Worcester, an application was 
made to the legislature for a char- 
ter to form an infantry company, 
said application being written by 
the late Governor, Levi Lincoln, 
while lying in bed with a broken 

The charter was granted, and 
the first parade took place June 6, 
I S04, the company forming on the 
Old Common, between Main Street 
and the Old South Church. 

The officers in command 

were: Levi Thaxter, Captain; _ ^^ 

Enoch Flagg, First Lieutenant; and 

Levi Lincoln, Ensign. The latter was unable to march, not having 
recovered from his accident. The route was down Main Street, through 
Lincoln Square and Lincoln Street, to the residence of Levi Lincoln, who 
appeared at the door on crutches, and received and acknowledged the salute 
of the company. Afterwards they paraded the town, and were the lions 
of the hour. 

The captains commanding to date are recorded as follows: — 



Captain Levi Thaxter, 

1804 to 


Enoch Flagg, 

1806 to 


Wm. E. Green, 

1809 to 


Isaac Sturtevant, - - 

1811 to 


John W. Lincoln, - - 

1812 to 


Sewall Hamilton - - 

1816 to 


John Coolidge, - - - 

1820 to 


Samuel Ward, - - - 

1822 to 


Artemus Ward, 

1824 to 


John Whittemore, - 

1826 to 


Chas. A. Hamilton, - 

1828 to 


Zenas Studley, 

1831 to 


Wm. S. Lincoln, - - 

1832 to 


Charles H. Geer, - - 

1834 to 


Henry Hobbs, - - - - 


Dana H. Fitch, 

1837 to 


D. Waldo Lincoln, - 

1838 to 


Ivers Phillips, 

1 841 

Henry W. Conklin, - 


Joseph B. Ripley, - 


Edward Lamb, - - - 

1844 to 


Levi Barker, - - - - 


Edward Lamb, - - - 

1850 to 


Charles S. Childs, - 


Captain Samuel P. Russell, - 1853 to 1854 
George W. Barker, - 1854 
George F. Peck, - - 1855 

Edward Lamb, 1856 to 1859 

Harrison W. Pratt, - 1859 to 1862 
George W. Prouty, - 1862 to 1865 
James M. Drennan, - 1865 to 1869 
George H. Conklin, - 1869 to 1870 

Joel H. Prouty, 1870 to 1871 

John Callahan, - - - 1871 

John A. Lovell, 1871 to 1874 

John J. Upham, - - 1874 to 1875 
Levi Lincoln, Jr., - - 1875 to 1877 
Joseph P. Mason, - - 1877 to 1879 
Thos. E. Leavitt, - - 1879 

Frank L. Child, 1879 to 1880 

Winslow S. Lincoln, 1880 to 1883 
Edward A. Harris, - .1883 to 1889 
Frank L. Child, - - 1889 to 1890 

Fred G. Davis, 1890 to 1891 

Harry B. Fairbanks, 1891 
Phineas L. Rider, - 1895 to 1898 
Frank L. Allen, - - 1898 

The officers of the Worcester Light Infantry have always ranked 
among the representative men of the town and city; the company has 
always held an enviable position with the militia of Massachusetts, and 
in every emergency has been ready to report at the call for duty. 

In 1807, war with England was considered inevitable, and on the 
4th of Augtist, the company, then under the command of Captain Enoch 
Flagg, voted its services at a moment's notice, to James Sullivan, then 
Governor of Massachusetts; but it was not needed at that time. War with 
England, however, was only postponed, not averted, and on September 1 1, 
1814, the Worcester Light Infantry, under Captain John W. Lincoln, Sew- 
all Hamilton, First Lieutenant, and John Coolidge, Ensign, marched from 
Worcester to Boston, to repel British invasion. The company was sta- 
tioned at South Boston, and remained there until relieved from duty Octo- 
ber 31, then returning to Worcester. 

In 1846, in the war with Mexico, the company volunteered its ser- 
vices to the government, but the quota of troops from Mas.sachusetts being 
full, it was not ordered to report. 

From that date, the militia of the State was looked upon by many 
as an useless expense, and the non-resistance party succeeded in disband- 
ing several companies; but, fortunately, the Worcester Light Infantry 
was not among the number. 

For many years, also, the militia was poorly housed, and partially 



kept up by individual members and a few public -spirited citizens, who 
were wiser than their generation, and realized that the time might come 
when an armed force would be needed. 

That exigency arose in 1S61, when the first gun was fired upon 
Sumter and our flag, and it became necessary to defend the national 
honor and existence. 

Public opinion then changed, and too much could not be done for 
the man, who would become a soldier, and volunteer for the defense of the 
best government the world had ever known. 

On the evening of April 16, 186 1, the company had assembled for 
drill at the armory in Horticultural Hall. Between 10 and 11 o'clock, Col- 


onel John W. Wetherell, of Governor Andrew's staff, appeared with ver- 
bal orders for Captain Pratt, calling out the Worcester Light Infantry for 
active duty, and to report at the State House, Boston, forthwith. 

The order was received with cheers, and all were anxious to start. 
Absent members were notified, and in six hours every comrade had assem- 
bled for duty, and, as soon as transportation could be furnished by the rail- 
road corporation, were en route for Boston. It was the first company to 



leave the city, and, as a part of the "Old Sixth" Regiment, the first to 
leave the State, and in passing through Baltimore, Maryland, April 19, 
1 86 1, on their way to Washington, D. C.the regiment was assailed by the 
mob, and the first blood of the Civil War was shed. The company num- 
bered ninety-nine oificers and men, all told. The officers were: Captain, 
Harrison W. Pratt; First Lieutenant, George W. Prouty; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas S. Washburn; Third Lieutenant, J. Waldo Denny; Fourth 
Lieutenant, Dexter F. Parker; Sergeants, Thomas S- Washburn, Orderly, 
John A. Lovell, L Stewart Brown, Charles A. Stratton, and James A. 

Taylor; Corporals, Joel H. Prouty, Edward P. Stone, Brown P. Stowell, 
and ^^'illiam H. Hobbs. 

The company has had several alphabetical designations. In 1842, 
when the writer was a member, it was Company B, and that was its letter 
when ordered to Boston, but when attached to the Sixth Regiment, it 
was changed to Company G. It is now Company C, Second Regiment 
Infantry, M. V. M. 

After the return to ^Massachusetts, andmu.ster out of the Old Sixth, 
August 2, 186 1, other companies were recruited from the members, by 
officers and privates of the company who had received commissions to 




raise them. Captain J. Waldo Denny enlisted a eompany for the Twen- 
ty-Fifth Regiment, M. V. M., 1S61; Captain Harrison W. Pratt one for the 
Thirty-Fourth Regiment, M. V. M., 1861, of which regiment William S. 
Lincoln, son of Levi Lincoln, was colonel. 

Frederick G. Stiles raised a company for the Forty-Second Regi- 
ment, M. V. M.. in 1S62; George W. Pronty one for the Fifty-First Regi- 
ment, M. V. AL, in 1S62; and Augustus Ford for the Forty-Second Regi- 
ment, M. V. M., 1864. 

These companies served in the armies of the Union in the follow- 
ing States: Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, Louisiana, Texas, Miss- 
issippi and Arkansas. All these companies served until mustered out by 
expiration of term of service; giving the Worcester Light Infantry a 
record of furnishing more than 600 officers and men for the armies of the 
United States. 

Since that time, the years have come and gone; officers and men 
have been mustered in, and mustered out; yet still the company lives on; 
and officers and men have been indefatigable in their efforts, and can 
justly feel proud of the high standard of excellence in discipline and drill 
which the company has attained. 

A veteran association was formed in 1877, whose membership is re- 
cruited from the rank and file of the company; who are gladly welcomed 
when, by reason of expiration of service, or honorable discharge, they 
cease to be actives, giving them an opportunity to keep up the old as.soci- 
ations and interest, always attributes of a good soldier. 

There is also a second wing, the Honoraries; composed of some of 
our most honored citizens, who are, perhaps, a little too old to shoulder a 
mu.sket, or too busy to give the necessary time, but who take an interest 
in military affairs; and prove it by contributing to supporting, and giv- 
ing not only prestige, but valuable assistance to the company, 

A yisit to Tialtimon: 

The Worcester Light Infantry, Company C, Second Regiment In- 
fantry, M. V. M., under Captain Fred G. Davis, with Harry B. Fairbanks, 
first lieutenant; Phineas L. Rider, second lieutenant; and forty-eight ac- 
tive members; forty-three veteran and honorary members of the com- 
pany; twenty-three veterans of the "Old Sixth" Massachusetts regiment, 
and Battery B, Band, twenty-four pieces, left Worcester Saturday, April 
18, 1 89 1, by rail en route for Washington, D. C, arriving at Camden Sta- 
tion, Baltimore, Sunday, the 19th, at 3.25 o'clock p. m. Here we were 
met by the mayor, Robert C. Davidson, on the part of the city; Colonel 
William H. Love, on the part of the governor; Captain E. C. Knower, on 
the part of the L^'nited States army; Commander A.J. Pritchard, of the 
United States navy; and Lieutenant-Colonel William Howard, Fourth 



Battalion National Guard of Maryland; General William E. W. Ross; 
Colonel Robert W. Scarlett, of G. A. R. Post, No. 46; with Commander 
Daly, Colonel Theodore F. Lang- and Captain W. B. Burchinal, of the 
Department of Maryland G. A. R.; Colonel E. H. Wardwell of the resi- 
dent members of the "Old Sixth"; Colonel Francis B. Stevens, of the De- 
scendants of the Revolutionary .Soldiers; Commander W. O. Saville, of 
the Xaval ^'eteran Association, and C. A. Combs, of the Third Maine 

There were delegations also from Btirnside Post No. 22; Dodge 
Post, No. 44, Dennison Post, No. 8; Lincoln Post (colored). No. 7; G. A. R. 


and a delegation of forty from Ellsworth Camp. Sons of Veterans. 

The Fifth Alaryland Regiment, 200 strong, under command of 
Captain Frank Nolan, acted as escort, and the line was headed by the Du- 
shane Post Band and Drum Corps, twenty-three pieces. 

The route of march from the station to the hotel was up Eutaw 
Street to Franklin, to Howard, to Baltimore; down Baltimore to the 
Carrollton House, where upon their arrival, the visitors were welcomed by 
Mayor Robert C. Davidson, in a neat and loyal speech, giving the Infan- 
try and party the liberty of the city of Baltimore. 

Every attention was shown us during our stay; receptions were 



given, and every place of interest was visited; not the least of these being 
Pratt Street, which the tragedy of thirty years ago has made historical. 

Leaving Baltimore Tuesday, April 22, via. the Baltimore & Ohio 
Rail Road, the battalion arrived in Washington, D. C, leaving the cars 
at the same station at which they had arrived thirty years before. 

On their arrival. Captain Davis was met by Captains Kcllcy. ]\Iiller 
and Ebert, representatives of the Washington Light Infantry, which 
corps escorted the visiting Infantry and party to the Ebbitt House; and 
during the time of our stay in Washington, showed us every attention; 

uoia i,.siLK aixil. Ai:.\lui;V. UoUcLSiLi; Llolli imamkv koum. 

furnishing an excursion to Mount Vernon, and an escort to every other 
place of interest. 

Not the least of these courtesies was a banquet given by the 
Archons to the veterans of the "Old Sixth" Regiment, which they will 
always remember with pleasure; and the camp-fire of Kit Carson Post 
was a re-union never to be forgotton. 

On Friday, April 24, the party left Washington, en route for home, 
arriving in WcU'cester Saturday, April 25, with nothing to mar the pleas- 
ure of the trip; each member of the pai'ty voting it to be the most enjoy- 
able and satisfactory of any in the history of the company. The Worces- 
ter Lio-ht Infantry is with us now, as it was in the past, a living example 
of patriotism, and loyalty to the City, the State and the Nation. 


The Company ^Armories. 

The armories occupied by the Worcester Light Infantry since its 
formation in 1803 to 1896, many of them provided and maintained at the 
company's expense, deserve some notice. 

The first armory, or place of meeting, I am credibly informed, was 
the gun house, which stood upon the old common, near where the Bige- 
low monument now stands. It was built for the "Worcester Artillery 
Company about 17S4, which company was organized by Major William 
Treadwell, in 1782. The battery consisted of two six-pounder brass field 
pieces, taken from the British during the Revolutionary War, and said to 
have been captured by the major. 

The Worcester Light Infantry shared this building in common 
with the artillery for a time, afterward removing to the second story of a 
wooden building, which stood upon the site of the present City Hall. It 
was at this place that the company received orders to march to Boston, 
during the war of 1812-14. The building was taken down in 1823, and 
the present City Hall was built. 

The third location was a narrow room in the second story of the 
same building. When the town building was altered, about 1838, the 
company was assigned a room in the attic, directly over the one previously 
occupied, which made the fourth removal. It remained there until 1854, 
at which time it made its fifth removal, to the third story of the north 
side of the Central Exchange building on Main Street. 

The sixth armory was in the Central School building, on the west 
side of Main Street, in 1854. The company made but a short stay there, 
removing for the seventh time, 1856, to the Bliss building, corner Me- 
chanic and Norwich Streets. 

The eighth armory was Horticultural Hall, to which they removed 
in 1858, and whence they so nobly responded to the first call for troops, 
in the war of 1 861 -1865. 

In 1865, they occupied the City Hall for a short time, removing the 
same year to Brinley Hall. The company occupied these quarters in com- 
mon with the Worcester City Guards; and the hall has since become the 
headquarters of the Grand Army of the Republic. 

The eleventh migration was to Warren Hall, Pearl Street, in 1869. 
The twelfth was in 1871, to Taylor's Block. Main vStreet, where they were 
burned out, and the old records and all of the company's property was 
destroyed. The thirteenth settlement, and what it was supposed would 
be a permanent one, was in the building now used as Police Headquar- 
ters, called the New Armory, on Waldo Street, in 1875, but the building 
not being considered strong enough, the city militia was obliged to 


Their fourteenth removal was to Clark's Block, over the Boston 
Store, Main Street; the fifteenth to Piper's old theatre building, from 
which place they made the sixteenth removal, to the Chase Building, 
Front Street, in 1SS9. 

In 1890, the new armory, its seventeenth and present quarters, at 
the junction of Grove and Salisbury Streets, was made ready for the city, 
splendid accommodations being provided. And here we leave the Worces- 
ter Light Infantry, trusting that this last and best location may be a per- 
manent one for all time. 

'T)isttiigmsht-d CM embers. 

The original charter of the company bears the date of 1804, and 
has the signature of Harrison Gray Otis, speaker of the House; Caleb 
Strong, then Governor; Levi Thaxter; John Nelson, Jr., afterward Rev. 
John Nelson, D. D., of Leicester, and thirty-three others. 

i\Iany of the principal citizens of Worcester have been in the ranks 
of the company. Among these may be mentioned Joseph R. Caldwell, 
Edward D. Bangs, Secretary of the State of Massachusetts; William Lin- 
coln, the historian of Worcester; Joseph Millard, the historian of Lancas- 
ter; Hon. Isaac Davis, Hon. George W. Richardson, Hon. D. Waldo Lin- 
coln, all mayors of Worcester, and others distinguished in the civil and 
military history of the state and nation. 

%oU of Honor. 

The following members of the Worcester Light Infantry served as 
officers in the armies of the United States during the Civil War, 

William S. Lincoln, Colonel, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, Brevet Brigadier-General. 

Harrison W. Pratt, Captain, Company G, Old Sixth; Major, Thirty- 
Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

George W. Prouty, First Lieutenant, Company G, Old Sixth; Cap- 
tain Company D, Fifty-First Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Thomas S. Washburn, Second Lieutenant, Company G, Old Sixth; 
Captain Twenty-First Massachusetts Volunteers. 

J. Waldo Denny, Third Lieutenant, Company G, Old Sixth; Cap- 
tain Twenty-First Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Dexter F. Parker, Quartermaster, Couch's Division; Major, Tenth 
^Massachusetts Volunteers. 

John A. Lovell, First Lieutenant and Captain, Thirty-Fourth Mass- 
achusetts Volunteers. 

J. Stewart Brown, Adjutant, Fifty-First :Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Joel H. Prouty, Second Lieutenant, Fifty-First Massachusetts Vol- 

Brown P. Stowell, Second Lieutenant, Forty-Second Massachusetts 


A. S. Badger, vSecond Lieiitenant, Twenty-Sixth Massachusetts 
Volunteers; Captain, First Texas Cavalry. 

William Belser, Second and First Lieutenant and Captain, Thirty- 
Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Luther Capron, Jr., First Lieutenant, Company D, Fifty-First 
Massachusetts Volunteers. 

John W. Emerson, First Lieutenant and Captain, Forty-Second 
Massachusetts Volunteers. 

George F. Conklin, Lieutenant, Thirty-First Massachusetts Unat- 
tached Artillery. 

John B. Dennis, Captain, Seventh Connecticut Volunteei-s. 

Church Howe, Quartermaster-Sergeant, Old Sixth; Captain, F"if- 
teenth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Samuel O. LaForest, First Lieutenant, Twenty-First Massachusetts 
Volunteers; Captain, Company H, Forty-Seventh Massachusetts Voliin- 

J. T. M. Pierce, Commissary Department, Couch's Brigade. 

Henry M. Richter, First Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts 

Dennis M. Sheenan, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 

John W. Stiles, Second Lieutenant, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts 

Charles P. Trumbull, Quartermaster, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts 

Peter J. Turner, First Lieutenant, Fourth Rhode Island Volun- 

Tohn M. Studley, Captain, Fifteenth, and Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Fifty-First Massachusetts Volunteers. 

John F. Methuen, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army. 

Frederick G. Stiles, Captain, Company E, and Alajor, Forty-Second 
Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Dennis A. Nolan, Lieutenant, Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

Levi Lincoln, Jr., First Lieutenant, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts 

Geo. P. Johnson, Captain of Ordnance, Strong's Division. 

Ira B. Hastings, Fifteenth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

George A. Johnson, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 

Albert H. F'aster, Captain, Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts Vol- 

Augustus Ford, First Lieutenant and Captain, Forty-Second 
Massachusetts Volunteers. 

James M. Drennan, Captain, Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts Vol- 

William H. Valentine, Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant and 
Captain, Twenty-First Massachusetts Volunteers. 

A. C. Walker, First Lieutenant, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts Vol- 

J. M. Knapp, Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts Volunteers. 



R. A. Hacker, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth jMassacliusetts 

John E. Callig-an, First Lieutenant, Thirty-Fourth Massachusetts 

Charles H. Stratton, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 

Frederick Wigand, Second Lieutenant, Twenty-Fifth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 

George F. Peck, Battery E, First Michigan Artillery. 

Calvin E. Pratt, Colonel, Thirty-First New York Volunteers; Bre- 
vet Brigadier-General. 

Samuel P. Russell, Captain, Regiment of New York Volunteers. 



By Colonel Charles K. Darling and Others. 

THE Sixth Regiment, AI. V. M., will always be especially honored 
in the military annals of the Republic, as well as of the State of 
Massachusetts, for to the "Old Sixth" belongs a laurel, which 
can never be wrested from it, and which time can never fade. 
Its -'baptism of fire," when, on the 19th of Aj^ril, 1861, it fought 
its way through Baltimore, to the relief of threatened Washington, and 
its prompt response to the first 
call for volunteers, to preserve the 
unity of the republic and the free- 
dom of mankind, were the first of 
the many priceless sacrifices laid 
upon the altar of their country by 
the citizen soldiers of the War of 
the Rebellion. 

This pre-eminence cannot 
justly be ascribed solely to the 
fortune of war, or to the provi- 
dence of God, for the fact that the 
Sixth Alassachusetts was the first 
loyal regiment to prepare for the 
long-impending storm of war, is 
just as certain, as that it was the 
first armed organization to start 
for the national capital; the first 
to be attacked by a horde of armed 
traitors, and to repulse them with 
loss; the first to seal its devotion 
with the lives of four of its soldiers 
and the wounds of many more, and 
the first to enter Washington, ready and willing 
executive in its greatest peril. 

The Si.xth Regiment, at the close of the year 1S60, was composed 
of the following companies: 

Company A, of Lowell, organized in 1S55, as the "Lawrence 
Cadets," but in i860, known as the "National Greys," took the field in their 


to protect the national 


uniforms of blue frocks and pantaloons, with white crossbelts, and wearing 
tall round caps with white pompons. 

Company B. of Groton, one of the oldest organizations in the state, 
was raised in 1775. under command of Captain William Swan, and later 
attached to the Sixth Regiment of militia. Colonel Jonathan Reed com- 
manding, October 16, 1778, when Amos Farnsworth was commissioned 
"First Lieiitenant, to rank as Captain," by a majority i 15) of "the Coun- 
cil of Massachusetts Bay, in New England." For three generations, it 
had been known in Middlesex County as the "Groton Artillery," and 
until 1 86 1, always kept two brass field-pieces at its armory. It had adopted 
the dark blue frocks and light blue trousers of the U. S. infantry. 

Company C, the old "ilechanic Phalanx," of Lowell, wearing- 
grey uniforms, with yellow trimmings, was organized February 16, 1825, 
in the old town of Chelmsford, before Lowell was incorporated. 

Company D, also of Lowell, and organized September 21, 1841, as 
the "City Guards," was uniformed in grey, with buff trimmings. 

Company E, of Acton; called the "Davis Guards," in honor of Cap- 
tain Isaac Davis, of the Acton minute-men, who was killed at the North 
Bridge, Concord. April 19, 1775; was organized April 19, 185 i, and wore 
the uniform of the regular service. 

Company F. of Lawrence, or the "Warren Light Guard," named 
after General Joseph Warren, who fell at the battle of Bunker Hill, was 
organized March 3, 1855, and also wore the blue. 

Company G, of Worcester, the veteran "Worcester Light Infantry," 
organized in 1803, and later known as Company B, Third Battalion of 
Rifles, took the field, wearing ftill dress uniforms of blue. 

Company H, the "Watson Light Guards," of Lowell, organized in 
185 I, left the state wearing grey uniforms. 

Company I, of Lawrence, organized in 1849 ^^ ^^e "Lawrence 
Light Infantry," affected the dark blue frocks, jaunty kepi and red 
trousers of the French infantry. 

To these were added in 1861, when the regiment was ordered to 
Washington, the following companies: 

Company K, of Boston, the old "Washington Light Guards," organ- 
ized in 1810, as the "Washington Artillery," and long known as Company 
C of the First Regiment of Infantry, was detached to join the Sixth, and 
wore grey uniforms. 

Company L, the "Stoneham Light Infantry," was a part of the 
Seventh Regiment, but joined the Sixth, wearing the regular blue. 

Thus there was little uniformity in the dress of the regiment, and 
as many new men went forward, in their usual attire, the Sixth was uni- 
form in its regimental appearance, only when it was able to wear the gray 
overcoats which the care of the state executive had provided for all. 


During the years of their militia service, their gay uniforms, 
showy parades, joyotis re-unions and short tours of duty, had been looked 
upon by too many wiseacres as a "foolish waste of time and money," if 
not worse; and a host of philanthropists, and agitators, unable to realize 
the inevitable result of that "irrepressible conflict," which Seward had de- 
clared, and for which so many of them had labored and prayed, found, 
when the injustice and sin of ages had ripened their bitter fruit, that upon 
the "military dandies," whom they had derided, and upon the "follies" 
which they had condemned as "an useless expense," "a relic of barbar- 
ism," and "an institution unworthy of a Christian people," rested the last 
hope of the safety, the honor, and the very life of the nation. 

Fortiinately, Governor Nathaniel P. Banks had been, in fact, as 
well as in theory, Commander-in-Chief of the Massachusetts militia, 
and had not disdained to wear its uniform, to accompany it to camp, and 
to nurture and encourage that ancient and soldierly spirit, which had de- 
fended the infant colonies from savage, pirate and adventurer; swept 
Spaniard and Frenchman from the coasts and borders of the loyal col- 
onies, and had set aside the trammels of kingcraft, unbroken for cen- 
turies, and given to the world the hope of universal freedom. His exam- 
ple and encouragement had done much to revive the popularity of the state 
militia, and to prepare it for this critical period of our national history. 

The Sixth was pervaded with this revival of military spirit, and its 
officers — it would almost seem with a premonition of the great part which 
they were to play in the national tragedy, so soon to be enacted — met at 
the American House, in Lowell, on January 21, 1861; it is said, at the 
suggestion of General Benjamin F. Butler, who had been for a number of 
years, an active and honored member of the association. 

At that meeting, Alajor B. F. Watson presented the following res- 

"Resolved: That Colonel Jones be authorized and requested forthwith, to 
tender the services of the Sixth Regiment to the Commander-in-Chief and Legisla- 
ure, when such services may become desirable, for the purposes contemplated in 
General Order No. 4," 

This order, be it remarked, covered the use of the militia outside 
the limits of the state; in any case of "rebellion against the authority of 
the United States." 

This resolution passed with complete unanimity; was probably the 
first action taken by any loyal military organization which served in the 
Civil War, and was laid before the Legislature of Alassachttsetts by Gen- 
eral B. F. Butler, then a member of the state senate. ' This assurance of 
readiness, and pledge of fealty, undoubtedly decided Governor Andrew 
to select the Sixth for immediate duty, when he issued the following 


Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, April 15, 1861. 

Colonel Jones: 

Sir: I am directed by His Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief, to order you 
to muster your regiment on Boston Common forthwith, in compliance with a requisi- 
tion made by the President of the United States. The troops are to go to Washing- 
ton By order of His Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief. 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant-General. 

The order was received with the utmost enthusiasm, and by tele- 
graph and mail, by the clangor of bells, beat of drums, and hurried sum- 
mons of swift-footed messenger and galloping horseman, the citizen sol- 
diery of old Middlesex were summoned, as in the grand old days of 
Lexington and Concord. 

Companies A, C, D, and H, of Lowell, were promptly assembled 
on the morning of April 16, at Huntington Hall, where a vast multitude 
blockaded the adjacent streets, to bid them good-bye. Company B, of 
Groton, whose members were scattered through seven or eight different 
towns, was no less punctual, although the work of man and horse 
throughout the evening and night before, will long be told of from gen- 
eration to generation. No less ready were the Acton men, who, likewise, 
were summoned in the shadows of evening and the darkness of the night, 
and mustering forty men by 4 o'clock a. m., had, like Davis and his min- 
ute-men, three generations before, seen the sun rise as they bade their 
loved ones farewell, and marched to meet the foe. 

Companies E, and I, of Lawrence, left the city amid the cheers 
and hurrahs of thronging thousands, and at Lowell found still greater 
crowds, whose loyalty and enthusiasm knew no bounds. Company C, of 
Worcester, ordered late at night of April 16, to meet and join the Sixth at 
Boston, at noon of the 17th, came in promptly, with ninety-seven officers 
and men, although the men were widely scattered, and a fierce rainstorm 
was raging at the time. 

Finally, Company L, of Stoneham, last of all the companies to be 
summoned, and receiving its orders at 2 o'clock a. m. of the i/th; was 
called out, fitted for the journey, and paraded under Captain Lyman Dike 
at the State House in Boston, at 1 1 a. m. of the same day. Company K, 
of Boston, was no less prompt, and responded with seventy men. 

In January, every man of the Sixth Regiment had been notified of 
the tender of service, and the likelihood of a speedy call therefor, and 
had been asked to declare any disability or unwillingness to serve. When 
the eight companies of the Sixth an.swered to the roll-call at Boston, April 
16, they averaged about fifty-eight rank-and-file, each, beside their line 
and staff officers. 

And here it seems fitting to say that the energy and activity with 
which the officers of these companies notified their men, and the wonder- 


fill unanimity and readiness Avith which the members of every organiza- 
tion responded to the call, are in themselves remarkable proofs of the 
capabilities of the Massachusetts militia. Not since the warlike and un- 
settled days, when the war-arrow of the Anglo-Danes was broken into 
splinters and sent oiit with the mustering word to the four airts of 
heaven; not since the Gaelic "cross of fire," scorched with flame and red- 
dened with blood, sped from hamlet to hamlet, to summon the brave, have 
civilized men gathered more hastily for march and battle. There is o-reat 
reason to doubt, whether any regulars in existence would have been as 
speedily at the rendezvous under like conditions. 

Arrived in Boston, they were met at the stations by great throngs 
of people, and greeted with every possible demonstration of enthusiasm, 
pride and sympathy. They occupied quarters in Faneuil Hall, and over 
the Boylston Market, and on the 17th, having exchanged their Springfield 
muskets for rifles, received a stand of colors at the hands of Governor 
Andrews, who said with deep feeling: 

Soldiers: Summoned suddenly, with but a moment for preparation, we have 
done all that lay in the power of men to do— all that rested in the power of your state 
government to do— to prepare the citizen soldiers of Massachusetts for this service. 
We shall follow you with our benedictions and our prayers. 

Those whom you leave behind you we shall cherish in our heart of hearts. You 
carry with you our utmost faith and confidence. We know that you never will return 
until you can bring the assurances that the utmost duty has been performed, which 
brave and patriotic men can accomplish. This flag, sir, take, and bear with you. It 
is an emblem upon which all eyes will rest, reminding you always of that which you 
are bound to hold most dear. 

In reply. Colonel Edward F. Jones said, with soldierly directness 
and brevit)': 

Your Excellency, you have given to me this flag, which is the emblem of all 
that stands before you. It represents my whole command, and, so help me God, I 
will never disgrace it. 

At 7 o'clock on the evening of the 17th, the regiment was marched 
to the Boston & Albany depot, through a perfect storm of applause, and took 
the cars for Washington. All along the route the people of the towns trav- 
ersed, thronged the borders of the line, and at every center of popula- 
tion, the firing of cannon, the ringing of bells, the tempestuous cheering of 
myriads of spectators, and every possible evidence of popular enthusiasm 
and admiration, attended the pas.sage of the train. At Worcester, the 
military and fire department were in line, and saluted and cheered them; 
and at New York, the great metropolis mustered her troops and poured 
out her people by hundreds of thousands to do them honor. At noon on 
the iSth, they cros.sed the ferry to Jersey City, to receive there, 
and throughout New Jersey, a constant succession of enthusiastic and 
patriotic ovations. 

^ e 


On arriving at Philadelphia, they found the popular enthusiasm at 
fever heat, and being utterly unable to traverse the streets by platoons, 
were oblig'ed to move through the dense masses of shouting spectators, 
marching by fours. The officers were assigned quarters at the Contin- 
ental hotel, and the soldiers, tired and nearly exhausted, found repose 
at the new Girard House, where they were glad to retire at an early hour. 

They were, however, aroused shortly after midnight, to continue 
on their journey, leaving Philadelphia at i o'clock a. m.. of April 19, the 
anniversary of the English attacks on the militia at Lexington and Con- 
cord, in 1775. It was not without some misgivings that Colonel Jones had 
learned, in a conference with Brigadier-General P. S. Davis, of the ist 
Brigade, M. V. M., that in his opinion, and that of several prominent 
Philadelphians, there was much danger of an attack upon the regiment in 
its passage through Baltimore to Washington. General Davis, having 
been sent forward by Governor Andrews to provide subsistence and 
transportation, said that he would not take the responsibility of ordering 
the Sixth to proceed; or to remain at Philadeljjhia to await further infor- 
mation or orders. 

Colonel Jones promptly said, "My orders are to reach Washington 
at the earliest possible moment; and I shall go on." General Davis as 
promptly replied, "Colonel, if you go on, I shall go with you." In the 
course of this conference. Colonel Jones said that his chief fear was, that 
the train might be destroyed by an obstruction on the track, or the fall of 
a bridge, causing a wholesale slaughter of his men; for which the friends 
of the regiment might hold him responsible. He concluded, "Aly orders 
are peremptory, and, whatever maybe the consequences, I must proceed." 

Every precaution was taken. A pilot engine preceded the train, 
which was made up so as to carry the regiment with the right in front; 
the field and staff officers occupying the foremost car, and the companies 
following in their regular order. At the Havre-de-Grace ferry, Com- 
pany K, of Boston, was, by an error of the trainmen, made to change 
places with Company D, of Lawrence; and Company L, of Stoneham, was 
transferred from the right to the left wing. Naturally enough, this 
change was overlooked. 

Orders were given to the band, to j^lay no pieces which were sec- 
tional, or likely to give offense; twenty rounds of ball cartridges were 
issued to each man; the rifles were loaded and capped; and Colonel Jones 
went through the train, directing that the companies should march in sec- 
tions, while pas.sing through Baltimore. 

The railroad company, however, was accustomed to draw the cars 
across the city with horses, and six cars had started, before any 
annoyance of importance had been experienced. Major Watson, who had 
gone to the car transporting ComjDany K, supposing it to be the left flank 



company, had barely time to get no board the car before it also started after 
the others; and it was hardly under way, before it was attacked by men with 
clubs, bricks and paving-stones. Several men were injured by these mis- 
siles, and finally, when bullet-wounds were also received, Major Watson 
ordered his men to lie on the floor and load, and to rise and fire, at will, 
through the car windows. Three times the car was thrown from the 
track, but each time Major Watson got out, compelling the driver to 
assist in removing the obstructions, and to proceed with the car, and 
Company K safely rejoined the other six companies. 

Four companies, C, I, D, and L, had been left behind, and Super- 
intendent William P. Smith, of the B. & O. R. R., informed Colonel 
Jones that the tracks were so obstructed that they could not be drawn 
across. He added: "If you will send an order for them to march across, 
I will deliver it." Colonel Jones wrote the desired order, and gave it to 
Superintendent vSmith, but it was never delivered. President Garrett, of 
the B. & O. R. R., shortly after said to Colonel Jones: "Your soldiers 
are liring upon the people in the street." "Then they must have been 
fired upon first," was the reply; to which President Garrett re- 
sponded: "No, they have not." "Colonel Jones answered; "My men are 
disciplined; my orders were strict, and I believe that they have been im- 
plicitly obeyed." 

Meanwhile, the four companies, cut off from the regiment and 
unable to proceed in the cars, left them and formed in line to continue 

their journey on 
foot. The mob had 
gathered in thou- 
sands; windows, 
doors and roofs were 
thronged with spec- 
tators and foes, and 
the streets were 
crowded with an 
excited mob. Cap- 
tain A. S. Follans- 
bee, of Company C. 
took command of 
the little battalion, 
numbering about 
220 men, and gave 
the order to march. 
Thousands of men, yelling, cursing and uttering the vilest taunts, slowly 
gave way in front, and pressed on flank and rear, throwing stones and 
clubs, and finally opening a scattered fire with pistols and muskets. 

t ^ 



L-i_ J*^ 


Sn*^^ -^ , : 

^^^^^^^^Vv>-^ ' 


Siirt'. ("rile. C'upt. Barry, Gen. Garretson. Col. Woodwanl. Capt. Ham. 



CiKol'l" ON DUAUli Tllli s. S. MISSISSU'I'I. l.sSsi. 
Lieut. J.^ckson. Lieut. Thayer. Major Darling. Lieut. Draper. Lieut, Wliali-ii. 

ilarching by sections, with the regimental colors proudly displayed 
in the center, the battalion pressed forward; but many were injured by 
blows and missiles, and at last Corporal Sumner Henry Needham, nf 
Company I, fell, 
mortally wounded; a 
fate which he 
seems to have ex- 
pected, as he had 
said to a comrade as 
they left the car: 
"We shall have 
trouble to-day, and I 
shall never come out 
of it alive. Promise 
me, if I fall, that my 
body shall be sent 
home." His fall was 
followed by more 
steady and persis- 
tent file-firing, and 
the rest of the march was in every sense of the word, a mortal combat. 

A bridge had been partially stripped of its planking, and a rude 
barricade was being thrown up with planks and rubbish, but the bridge 
was crossed, the barricade carried, and the battalion kept on its way. 
Private Charles A. Taylor, of Company D, fell, and was literally stoned 
and beaten to death by the mob. Luther Crawford Ladd, of the same 
company, only seventeen years old, was mortally wounded and left to his 
fate, crying out, as the column .staggered forward, "All hail to the Stars 
and Stripes!" and so went down to death, amid what brutalities, we may 
never know. Addison Otis Whitney, another comrade, was killed about 
the same time, and Captain Dike, of Company L, Stoneham, shot through 
the thigh and crippled for life, hobbled into a public house, and was car- 
ried to a place of safety, just in time to escape death at the hands of a 
party of ruffians, who rushed into the house shortly after his exit. 

Still the survivors fought and struggled on, bearing with them sev- 
eral disabled comrades, and at last rejoined their comrades at the Wash- 
ington depot. Here there was some delay. The re-united regiment de- 
manded to be led against the mob, to avenge their dead and wounded 
comrades; and to rescue the band and those who had fallen by the way; and 
the mob with every moment was increasing in numbers, and becoming 
more and more dangerous. 

President Garrett at last said to Colonel Jones: "For God's sake. 
Colonel, "-ive your orders to start the train, or you will never get out of 


the city, for they are already tearing up the track." The colonel still felt 
unwilling to desert those left behind, but his orders were imperative, and 
the attitude and strength of the mob grew more and more alarming. The 
train started, and the rioters ran on ahead, felled telegraph poles across 
the track, and placed heavy anchors and other obstructions between the 
rails. These were removed, and then a rail was taken up, and the train 
was again stopped imtil it could be replaced; and thus, stojaping, repair- 
ing, starting, and stopping, again and again, with some desultory fighting 
and considerable activity on the part of the construction party and the 
police, the train finally reached the Relay house, and thence proceeded to 
Washington, where they arrived late in the afternoon of that memorable 
19th of April, 1 86 1, having lost four men, killed, and thirty-six officers 
and men wounded, many of them seriously. 

Th,' Civ for 'Ve)igi\iJice. 

Only those of us who lived in those stirring times, can imagine the 
tremendous storm of indignation and desire for retribution, which per- 
vaded the loyal north, and especially Massachusetts. Even the feeling of 
deep regret for the brave boys and gallant men who had met death and 
wounds, thus early, was scarcely so universal as the fierce demand that 
Baltimore should drink to the dregs, the chalice of national vengeance. 
"Through Baltimore, or over its ruins," was, at first, the jDopular senti- 
ment throughout the north, until, later, it became evident that only a 
small proportion of her people were responsible for the utterly iinpro- 
voked and treasonable outrage. 

Governor Andrew at once transmitted to George 'William Brown, 
mayor of Baltimore, the following despatch, which has become historical: 

To His Honor, the Mayor: 

I pray you to cause the bodies of our Massachusetts soldiers, dead, in Baltimore, 
to be immediately laid out, preserved in ice, and tenderly sent forward, by express, to 
me. All expenses will be paid by the Commonwealth. 

John A. Andrew, Governor of Massachusetts. 

^layor Brown responded in a vein which showed that he considered 
the passage of the Sixth through Baltimore, "as an invasion of the soil of 
Maryland"; promising, however, that the wishes of Governor Andrews, in 
regard to the dead and wounded, .should be gratified, and declaring that 
"Baltimore wotild claim it as her right to pay all expenses incurred." 

Governor Andrews responded as follows: 

I appreciate your kind attention to our wounded and our dead, and trust that 
at the earliest moment the remains of our fallen will return to us. I am overwhelmed 
with surprise that a peaceful march of American citizens, over the highway, to the 
defense of our common capital, could be deemed aggressive to Baltimore. Through 
New York, the march was triumphant. 


The T^etitri! of the First Union Dead. 
The body of Charles A. Taylor was buried in Baltimore; but Mer- 
rill S. Wright, detailed by Colonel Jones for that purpose, brought back 
the bodies of Luther Crawford Ladd and Addison Otis Whitney, of Low- 
ell, and Sumner Henry Xeedham, of Lawrence; arriving in Boston about 
5 Y>- ™-' May 2, where they were received at the Boston & Albany R. R. 
station, by (xovernor Andrews and staff, with the First Corps of Inde- 
jjendent Cadets, and the Brigade Band. Draped with American flags, 
and received with the highest tokens of military honor, the dead of tlie 
Sixth were escorted to King's Chapel, and placed for the night in the 
Vassall tomb, under the ancient church. Many of the buildings along 
the rorite, and, indeed, throughout the city, were draped in mourning, 
and thousands of flags floated at half-mast. 

On the 2d of Alay, Lawrence received the body of Needham, and 
in the draped city hall the dead militiaman lay in state, while tens of thou- 
sands poured in to view the long sleep of the volunteer; no longer, in their 
estimation, a "holiday soldier"; but a hero, patriot and martyr, worthy of 
all worship and honor. He was laid to rest in the cemetery at Law^rence, 
and over his grave the city government erected a substantial and suitable 
monument of j\Iassachusetts granite; as simple as the character of the 
dead, and as enduring as his courage and devotion. 

On Monday, May 6, Mayor Sargent and the city officials of the city 
government of Lowell, with a detachment of the Richardson Light Infan- 
try, took home the bodies of Luther C. Ladd and Addison O. Whitney. 
They were laid in funereal state in Huntington Hall, where thousands 
were unable to gain admittance. For some years they slept peacefully in 
the Lowell cemetery, where they were at first buried, but on April 28, 
1865, they were deposited in the vault under the splendid monument in 
Merrimac (now Monument) Square, erected with the joint appropriations of 
the state of Massachusetts, and city of Lowell, and dedicated in the pres- 
ence of an immense concoiirse, June 17, 1865. It bears the names of Ladd 
and Whitney, with a terse inscrijation, and the following sentiment, from 
the greatest of English poets. 

"Nothing is here for tears — nothing to wail, 
Or knock the breast; no weakness, no contempt, 
Dispraise or blame; nothing but well and fair 
And what may quiet us in a death so noble." 

Oliartered in the Ceipilol. 

The Sixth was warmly welcomed at Washington by the national 
authorities, who were daily anticijjating an assault by the enemy. As the 
first armed force to come to the relief of the capital, their arrival was a 
great relief, and they were quartered in the Senate chamber and the ad- 
•joining halls and lobbies. Temporary barricades were at once thrown 


up, with barrels of cement, building stone, iron ornaments and other ma- 
terial, and for a time the capitol became a veritable fortress. 

Colonel Jones is said to have slept fur several nights in the vice- 
president's chair, in uniform and belted with revolver and sword; his 
staff around him, and captains and lieutenants, with their men, restino- on 
the floors, which had echoed the tread of every prominent statesman and 
patriot since the days of Adams; and, alas! of many brilliant men who 
had plotted for the downfall of the republic. 

It was a weird and striking picture, when the gas jets were turned 
down until mere glimmers of light fell on the stately walls and their sleep- 
ing defenders; and no sound broke the silence, save the softened tread of 
the sentinels, or the occasional passing of the officers of the guard. 

On the 20th, the Sixth paraded Pennsylvania Avenue in columns of 
platoons, in open order and with open files, making as much show as 
possible, to give the disloyal an impression of superior force. Thereafter, 
the regiment, for a while, drilled, built ovens and stored provisions for a 
possible siege, and acted as guards until the arrival of other troops, includ- 
ing the Eighth Massachusetts and Seventh New York regiments. Thev 
were ordered to the Relay House ]May 5, and during a rather stormy sea- 
son built booths and huts on Elk Ridge Heights, and held this important 
railway junction. On May 13, they marched, under General B. F. Butler, 
to Baltimore, and under cover of night and a heavy thunder storm occu- 
pied Federal Hall, and began that occupation of Baltimore which paralyzed 
the work of secession in Maryland. 

On May 16, the Sixth returned to the Relay House, and on the 25th 
were paraded as a mark of respect to the late Colonel Ellsworth, whose 
remains were being carried north by a jjassing train. On May 29, a new 
stand of colors was presented to the regiment by Messrs. Rufus Story, 
John H. Wat.son and Henry Paret of New Jersey. On June 13, the Sixth 
was detailed, with the Thirteenth New York and Cook's Battery, to pre- 
serve order at the elections, and on June 17, paraded to receive the First 
Regiment, ^1. V. M., then on their way to Washington. On June 21, 
another banner was presented to the Sixth by some New York ladies; on 
the 26th it again encamped in Baltimore. On the 31st it guarded the 
officers who arrested Charles Howard, then president of the Board of 
Police Commissioners, and on July i, returned to the Relay House, where 
it celebrated the "glorious 4th" and was presented with a magnificent silk 
banner inscribed, "Loyal Citizens of Baltimore, to the Sixth Reo-iment, 
M. V. M., Pratt Street, April 19, 1861." 

The term of service of the regiment expired on July 22, but at 
the request of General Banks, all but twenty-one members decided to 
remain until existing fears of an impending attack on Washington were 
verified or allayed. 



The following resolution was duly engrossed on pareliment and 
sent to the commanding officer: 

Thirty-seventh Congress of the United States, at the First Session, in the House 
of Representatives, July 22, 1861. 

Resolved : That the thanks of this House are due, and are hereby tendered to 
the Sixth Regiment of the Massachusetts Volunteers, for the alacrity with which 
they responded to the call of the President, and the patriotism and bravery which 
they displayed on the 19th of April last, in fighting their way through the city of 
Baltimore, on their march to the defense of the Federal Capitol. 


Attest: Speaker of the House of Representatives. 


j\Iajor General Dix published a congratulatory order on relieving 
the regiment from duty, July 29, 1861, and on the same date the Master 
of Transportation of the B. & O. R. R. thus expressed to Colonel Jones 
his admiration for the regiment and its commander: 

"Before you leave our midst, we cannot omit to express to you our appreciation 
of the extreme courtesy and manliness which have been shown by you during our 
constant intercourse, beginning in our station at Baltimore, during the fearful morn- 
ing of the 19th of April last. While at all times rigidly performing your duty to the 
government, you have acted so as to command universal respect." 

W. P. SMITH, Master of Transportation. 

On July 29, the Sixth set out for home, reaching Baltimore to 
receive a kindly reception, and leaving for Boston at 5 p. m. via Philadel- 
phia and New York, where it arrived August i . All along the route they 
were received with the most gratifying and assiduous attentions, and on 
arriving in Boston, after enjoying a generous reception, the regiment was 
mustered out, August 2, 1861, under the following order: 

"The Sixth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Colonel Jones, has 
returned home. It was the first which went forward to the defense of the national 
capitol. It passed through Baltimore, despite the cowardly attack made upon it, and 
was the first to reach Washington. Its gallant conduct has reflected new lustre upon 
the Commonwealth, and has given new historic interest to the 19th of April. It has 
returned after more than three months of active and responsible service. It will be 
received by our people with warm hearts and generous hands. 

"The Regiment is now dismissed till further orders," 

The reception which greeted the regiment at Lowell, and those 
which at Lawrence, Groton, Acton and Stoneham, Boston and Worcester, 
were accorded to the local companies, were most generous, enthusiastic and 
impressive, fitly ending the brief but important term of service of "The 
Old Sixth." No less than four hundred of their number are recorded as 
having served thereafter in sixty-five different Massachusetts regiments 
and batteries, and many others again became loyal soldiers and sailors of 
the Union, in the organizations of other states and the regular service. 



Colonel, Edward F. Jones, Pepperell; Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin F. Wat- 
son, Lowell; Major, Josiah A. Sawtelle, Lowell; Surgeon, Norman Smith. Groton ; 
Chaplain. Charles Babbidge, Pepperrell; Adjutant, Alpha B. Farr, Lowell; Quarter- 
master, James Munroe, Cambridge; Paymaster, Rufus L. Plaisted, Lowell; Assistant 
Surgeon, Jansen T. Paine, Charlestown. 

Noii-Coiiiimssioiied Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, Samuel W. Shattuck, Groton; Quartermaster Sergeant, 
Church Howe, Worcester; Commissary Sergeant, John Dupee, Boston; Drum Major. 
Frederick K. Stafford, Lowell; Hospital Steward, William H. Gray, Acton. 

Lfm Officers. 

Company A, Lowell.— Captain, Josiah A. Sawtelle; First Lieutenant, Andrew 
S. Johnson; Second Lieutenant. Andrew C. Wright; all of Lowell. 

Company B. Groton.— Captain, Eusebius S. Clarke; First Lieutenant. George 
F. Shattuck; Second Lieutenant, Samuel G. Blood; all of Groton. 

Company C. Lowell.— Captain, A. S. FoUansbee ; First Lieutenant, Samuel D. 
Shipley; Second Lieutenant, John C. Jepson ; all of Lowell. 

Company D. Lowell.— Captain. James W. Hart; First Lieutenant, Charles _E. 
Jones; Third Lieutenant, Samuel C. Pinney; Fourth Lieutenant, Llewellyn L. Craig; 
all of Lowell. 

Company E, Acton.— Captain Daniel Tuttle; First Lieutenant, William H. 
Chapman; Second Lieutenant, George W. Rand; Third Lieutenant, Silas P. Blodgett; 
Fourth Lieutenant, Aaron L. Fletcher; all of Acton. 

Companv F, Lawrence.— Captain, Benjamin F. Chadbourne; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Melvin Beal; Third Lieutenant, Thomas J. Cate; Fourth Lieutenant, Jesse C. 
Silver; all of Lawrence. 

Companv G, Worcester.— Captain, Harrison Pratt; First Lieutenant, George 
W. Prouty; Second Lieutenant. Thomas S. Washburne; Third Lieutenant, J. Waldo 
Dennv: Fourth Lieutenant. Dexter F. Parker: all of Worcester. 

' Company H, Lowell.— Captain, John F. Noyes; Third Lieutenant, George E. 
Davis; Second Lieutenant, Andrew F. Jewett; Third Lieutenant, Benjamin W. War- 
ren; all of Lowell. 

Company I, Lawrence.— Captain, John Pickering; First Lieutenant, Daniel S. 
Yeaton; Second Lieutenant, A. Lawrence Hamilton; Third Lieutenant, Eben H. 
EUenwood; Fourth Lieutenant, Eugene J. Mason; all of Lawrence. 

Company K, Boston.— Captain Walter S. Sampson; First Lieutenant, Ansel D. 
Wass; Second "Lieutenant, Moses J. Emery; Third Lieutenant, Thomas Walworth; 
Fourth Lieutenant, John F. Dunning; all of Boston. 

Company L, Stoneham.— Captain, John H. Dike: First Lieutenant, Leander 
F. Lynde: Second Lieutenant, Darius W, Stevens; Third Lieutenant, James F. 
Rowe; Fourth Lieutenant, William B. Blaisdell; all of Stoneham. 


In 1S62, the Sixth Massachu.setts was the first regiment in the 
State to respond to the call, which required from Massachusetts seventeen 
'regiments of infantry, and a battery of hght artillery. It included seven 
of the comjaanies of its previous organization, viz., A, C, D, and H, of 
Lowell; B, of Groton; E, of Acton; and I. of Lawrence; the latter in- 
cluding a part of Company F, of Lawrence, which could not be recruited 
up to the minimtim force in time. In its place there was a new Company 
F, from Cambridge, and a Company G, from Lowell and a Company K, 
from Chelmsford, and the neighboring towns, made up the ten required. 


The old regimental organization and records were retained, and 
about seventy-five officers and men of the "Old Sixth" served in the new 


Field and Staff. 

Colonel Albert S. Follansbee, Lowell; Lieutenant-Colonel, Melvin Beal, Law- 
rence: Major, Charles .\. Stott; Surgeon, Walter Burnham, Lowell; Chaplain, John 
W. Hanson, Haverhill; Adjutant, Thomas O. Allen, Lowell; Quartermasters, William 
G. Wise, Lowell, resigned January 26, 1863; Charles H. Coburn, promoted January 29, 
1865; Assistant Surgeons, Otis M. Humphrey, Lowell; George E. Pinkham. 

N on-Commissioned Staff. 

Sergeant Major, William F. Lovrien, Lowell; Quartermaster Sergeant. Oliver 
H. Swift; Commissary Sergeants, Charles H. Coburn, and John T. Billings, both of 
Lowell; Hospital Stewards, Frank J. Milliken; Isaiah Hutchins, of Acton; Drum 
Major, Elisha L. Davis, Lowell. 

Line Officers. 

Company .\, Lowell.— Captains. Andrew C. Wright, discharged November, 
1862, Alfred J. Hall, promoted June 3, 1863; First Lieutenants, Enoch J. Foster, Lowell, 
discharged February 20, 1863. George W. Snell, Lowell, promoted February 24, 1863; 
Second^Lieutenants, Alfred J. Hall, George W. Snell, and Solomon Clark, all of 

Company B, Groton. — Captain, George F. Shattuck; First Lieutenant, Samuel 
G. Blood; Second Lieutenants, Edward D. Sawtelle, killed January 30, 1863, Joseph A. 
Bacon, promoted; all of Groton. 

Company C, Lowell. — Captain, John C. Jepson ; First Lieutenant, John W, 
Hadley: Second Lieutenant, Isaac M. Marshall; all of Lowell. 

Comjjany D, Lowell. — Captain, James W. Hart; First Lieutenant, Samuel C. 
Pinney; Second Lieutenant, Hiram C. Muzzey; all of Lowell. 

Company E, Acton. — Captain, Aaron C. Handley ; First Lieutenant, Aaron S. 
Fletcher, resigned; Second Lieutenants, George AV. Rand, promoted, George W. 
Knights ; all of Acton. 

Company F, Cambridge. — Captain, John S. Sawyer; First Lieutenants, Theo- 
dore Collamore, resigned, Calvin A. Damon, promoted ; Second Lieutenant, Lowell 
Ellison; all of Cambridge. 

Company G, Lowell. — Captain, George L. Cady; First Lieutenant, Selwyn E. 
Bickford; Second Lieutenant, .Alfred H. Pulsifer; all of Lowell. 

Company H, Lowell. — Captain, Rodney C. Person; First Lieutenant, Charles 
E. Poor; Second Lieutenant, Albert Pinder; all of Lowell. 

Company I. Lawrence. — Captain, Augustine L. Hamilton; First Lieutenant, 
Eben H. Ellenwood; Second Lieutenants, Robert H. Barr, killed, Frederic G. Tyler, 
promoted; all of Lawrence. 

Company K, Dracut, Chelmsford, Acton, Andover, Billerica, etc. — Captain, 
Charles E. A. Bartlett. Boston; First Lieutenant, William F. Wood, Acton; Second 
Lieutenant, Shapleigh Morgan, Dracut. 

On September g, 1S72, the Sixth left Camp "Wilson, near Lowell, 
and reached Boston at noon. It took an afternoon train for Providence 
to Groton, Conn., whence it proceeded, by steamer, to New York. On 
the afternoon of the loth, after a most hospitable and enthusiastic recep- 
tion, the regiment marched down Broadway to the Jersey Ferry, and took 
the cars for Philadelphia, where a like reception awaited its members. 
The journey was continued to Baltimore, which was reached too late in 
the evening for a completion of the programme of the reception commit- 
tee; but the warmth and heartiness, the kindliness and enthusiasm of the 


crowd which greeted the vSixth, evidenced the esteem in which "the Old 
Sixth" was held by the greater majority of the people of Baltimore. 

At Washington the reception accorded the Sixth was equally grati- 
fying; but after a single night in the city it was ordered to Fortress Mon- 
roe, and on arriving there was sent to Suffolk, Va., then occupied by a 
force of about 5,000 men, under General O. F. Terry. 

Here the Sixth formed a permanent camp, and at once began that 
formidable line of earthworks which for nine miles protected Suffolk, from 
the banks of the Nansemond to the flanking :norasses of the Great Dis- 
mal Swamp. 

Under General John J. Peck — who had succeeded General Terry 
in command — the regiment occupied a portion of these works; and on 
November 17, 1862, took part in a brief reconnoisance to the banks of 
the Blackwater. On December i, as part of a force of 2,300 infantry, 
800 cavalry, and the Seventh Battery, M. V. M., under Colonel vSpear, of 
the Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, the Sixth marched out to Beaver 
Dam Church, three miles from Franklin. Here the cavalry charged a 
body of horsemen and artillery, and captured some twenty prisoners and 
a section (two guns) of the celebrated Rocket Battery, of fourteen guns 
or tubes, presented to General McClellan, and lost by him in the Wilder- 
ness camjDaign. 

On December 11, the Sixth again marched out to the Blackwater, 
and at Tanner's Ford, about two miles below Zuni, found a crossing place 
covered by Confederate rifle-pits. A short skirmish ensued, in which 
Second Lieutenant Robert H. Barr, of Company I, was shot through the 
heart, while cautioning his men to keep under cover. When hit, he said, 
simply: "I am shot," attempted to continue his directions to his men, 
then staggered and fell, dying almost instantly. 

Similar demonstrations were made at the same time at Zuni, and 
near Franklin, which resulted in the expendittire of much ammunition 
and the loss of a few dozen men on either side. The movement — what- 
ever it may have been intended to be — was made in conjunction with 
Burnside's fatal attack on Fredericksburg, and Foster's dashing raid into 
North Carolina, and threatening movements near Charleston and Savan- 
nah. It is possible that nothing more was expected of General Peck than 
a demonstration along the line of the Blackwater; it is certain that it 
was not the fault of his troops that nothing more was accomplished. 

On the night of January 29, 1S63, another Blackwater exjjedition 
began, in which General Corcoran, with a part of his brigade, the Elev- 
enth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Seventh Massachusetts, and Follett's batteries, 
the Thirteenth Indiana, One Hundred and Thirtieth New York, the Mas- 
sachusetts Sixth, and other regiments, took part. General Roger A. Pryor 
commanded the enemy, with headquai'ters at the "Deserted House," about 


ten miles out on the Carrsville road. The fighting began some two miles 
from the "Deserted House," and continued by moonlight and dawn, until 
after broad daylight broke upon the scene, most of the fighting being by 
the artillery, which was pushed forward on the narrow roads, supported 
by infantry, which could seldom make a flanking movement. The affair 
was a defeat for the Confederate forces, who, however, escaped beyond 
the Blackwater. The Federal troops lost twenty-six killed, and eighty 
wounded. The Sixth lost six men — Lieutenant E. D. Sawtelle, of Com- 
pany B, Groton; George W. Blodgett, of Westford; A. Withington, of 
Townsend; B. F. Leighton, of Cambridge. Augustus Reed and Francis I. 
Howard, of Westford, both of the same company, were fatally injured, 
and died of their wounds. 

On April 9th the regiment was ordered to be ready to move, and 
it was rumored that its destination was Newbern, N. C; but on the loth 
new^s was received that General Longstreet, with 40,000 men, was advan- 
cing against Suffolk. On the nth, all women and children were ordered 
to leave Suffolk, and on the same day the investment of Suffolk was 

Long.street's works — at no time formidable — were about four miles 
from the Suffolk defenses. The siege lasted twenty-two days, until May 
3, when Longstreet, having collected everything eatable in the district, 
besides a large herd of cattle, mules, horses, etc., evacuated his works 
and retreated to join the army of Virginia. 

On May 13, the Sixth marched out to the old "Deserted House," to 
protect certain workmen in taking out the rails of the Seaboard & Roanoke 
Railroad. At Carrsville, on the 14th, while thus engaged, a rebel battery 
opened fire upon the laborers, who gave up their task. On the 15th, an 
attack with infantry and artillery was made upon the Union position, which 
was repulsed; and on the i6th there was considerable skirmishing without 
material gain to either party. 

The Sixth lost in the fighting of the 15th two men killed, and six- 
teen wounded comrades. On the i6th one man was killed and five 

On Ma.y 25, Colonel R. S. Foster commanding the brigade, issued 
a very complimentary and friendly order, bidding the regiment farewell, 
and thanking them for the services rendered. The general commanding 
issued a like order which we reproduce. 

Headquarters United States Forces, 

Suffolk, Va. May 25, 1863. 
General Orders, No, 34. 

I. The term of service of the Sixth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, 
being about to expire, the Commanding General is unwilling to let the occasion pass 
without expressing his reluctance at parting with it, and his appreciation of the ser- 
vice it has rendered. 


2. Among the earliest, if not the first, to take the field, it served its original 
term with credit and distinction. With unremitting patriotism, since the necessity of 
the country still called for brave hearts and strong arms, it again offered itself. Its 
second term has been served almost exclusively with this command. Its record is an 
honorable one. Whatever have been the demands of duty and discipline, they have 
met a cheerful response; and its steadfast and courageous demeanor before the enemy 
is witnessed by the list of its lamented and honorable dead. 

3. The Commanding General trusts that many of this veteran regiment may 
again be found rallying to the flag, whose honor they have so long and so ably con- 
tributed to sustain. 

4. In recognition of the services rendered by the Massachusetts troops, the bat- 
tery between Fort McClellan and Fort Nansemond, will be hereafter known as Bat- 
tery Massachusetts. 

By command of Major-General Peck. 

Official, CHARLES R. STIRLING, A. D. C. 

Returning home by sea, the Sixth enjoyed a pleasant voyage, and 
as formerly, received a warm greeting on their arrival in Boston, and con- 
tinued ovations in the cities and towns from which its companies had been 
recruited. Here they were soon mustered out, some returning almost im- 
mediately into the service. 


In 1864 there were many three year regiments about to be mus- 
tered out, and a large number in .process of organization not fully ready 
to take the field and to fill the gap; the government called for a number of 
regiments to serve one hundred days. Five of the Massachusetts regi- 
ments responded, the Sixth being the first accepted. The organization 
went to camp at Readville July 13, under Lieutenant-Colonel Melvin Beal, 
and were mustered in in the following order: July 14, Company K; July 
15, Companies A, I and G; July 18, Companies C, F, D and H; July 17, 
Company B; and July 19, Company E. The colonel, lieutenant-colonel, 
adjutant, surgeon and first [assistant surgeon were mustered in on the 
17th, and on the 20th the regiment left camp with thirty-six officers and 
994 enlisted men, arriving in Washington for the third time. Here, until 21, the regiment was encamped near Fort C. F. Smith on Arling- 
ton Heights, Va., but was then ordered to Fort Delaware, Del.; where 
some 9,000 confederate prisoners were imprisoned. 

The pleasantest relations existed between the Sixth and these 
prisoners, and no attempt to escape was made during their tour of duty. 
There were a few deaths from disease, but on the whole the experiences 
of the Sixth in this campaign were very pleasant. On October 19 the 
regiment was relieved and embarked for home, reaching Boston October 
21, and was mustered out at Readville October 27, 1864. 


Field and Staff. 
Colonel, Alberts. FoUansbee, Lowell; Lieutenant-Colonel, Melvin Beal, Law- 
rence; Major, Thomas C. Allen, Lowell; Surgeon, Walter Burnham, Lowell ; Assis- 


tant Surgeons, AVilliam Bass, Lowell; George Sergeant, Lawrence; Chaplain, John 
Wesley Hanson, Haverhill; Adjutant, Edmund Coleman; yuartermaster, William E. 

Nou-Commissioned Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, Samuel W. Grimes: Quartermaster-Sergeant, William H. 
Spaulding: Commissary Sergeant, Orford R. Blood; Hospital Steward, Henry S. 
Woods; all of Lowell. 

Line Officers. 

Company A, Boston.— Captain, Joseph M. Coombs; First Lieutenant, Moses 
Briggs; Second Lieutenant. George A. Chipman. 

Company B, Groton.— Captain, George F. Shattuck; First Lieutenant, Joseph 

A. Bacon; Second Lieutenant, William T. Childs. 

Company C, Lowell.— Captain, Benjamin F. Goddard ; First Lieutenant, W. 

B. McCurdy; Second Lieutenant, John A. Richardson. 

Company D, Lowell.— Captain, James W. Hart; First Lieutenant, Samuel C. 
Pinney; Second Lieutenant, Hiram C. Mussey. 

Company E, Acton.— Captain, Frank H. Whitcomb; First Lieutenant, George 
W. Knights; Second Lieutenant, Isaiah Hutchins. 

Company F, Boston.— Unattached Company known as the "Andrew Light In- 
fantry" organized in April, 1864, Captain, Henry W. Wilson; First Lieutenant, Ed- 
mund C. Colman, made Adjutant, August i, 1864, and Archelaus N. Leman; Second 
Lieutenant, Richard J. Fennelly. 

Company G, Lowell.— Captain, Nathan Taylor; First Lieutenant, Charles H. 
Bassett; Second Lieutenant, Paul Paulus. 

Company H, Boston. ^New company, raised by officers. Captain, Moses E. 
Ware; First Lieutenant, George L. Tripp; Second Lieutenant, Albert A. Chittenden. 

Company I, Salem.— The old "Salem Mechanic Light Infantry," organized 
February 22, 1807, Captain, Edmund H. Staten ; First Lieutenant, Joseph H. Glidden; 
Second Lieutenant, George M. Crowell. 

Company K, Lawrence.— New company; Captain, Edgar J. Sherman; First 
Lieutenant, Moulton Batchelder; Second Lieutenant, John D. Emerson. 


Of all the Massachusetts regiments which took the field during the 
summer of 1898, none started out with brighter prosjaects or a more hearty 
God speed from its friends than did the Sixth. It was encamped at South 
Framingham only long enough to muster in and equip the men. It went 
into Camp Dewey on May 6, and left on the evening of the 20th, under 
orders to report to the commanding general at Camp Alger, Virginia. 

Of the twelve companies which composed the regiment, only one 
company (L), which was composed entirely of colored men under colored 
officers, was from Boston. The home towns and cities of the other com- 
panies, were as follows: Company A, of Wakefield, Companies B and D of 
Fitchburg, Companies C and G of Lowell, Company E of South Framing- 
ham, Company F of Marlboro, Company H of Stonehain, Company I of 
Concord, Company K of Soiithbridge, Company M of Milford. 

The roster of the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, when mustered 
in, was as follows: — 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Charles F. Woodward: Lieutenant-Colonel, George H. Chaffin; 
Majors, George H. Taylor, Charles K. Darling, George H. Priest; Adjutant, Butler 


Ames; Quartermaster, Stanwood G. Sweetser; Chaplain, William F. Dusseault ; Sur- 
geon-Major, Otis H. Marion; Assistant-Surgeons, George F. Dow, Frederic A. 

Noii-Coiiimisstoih'c/ Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, William Hussey; Quartermaster Sergeant, Frank H. Hackett; 
Hospital Stewards, Harrie C. Hunter, Stephen E. Ryder, Edwin D. Towle; Chief 
Musicians, William R. Murphy, Frank J. Metcalf. 

Liih' Olfici'is. 

Company A, Wakefield.— Captain, Edward J. Gihon; First Lieutenant, Charles 
E. Walton; Second Lieutenant, Frank E. Gray. 

Company B, Fitchburg. — Captain, Albert R. Fellows; First Lieutenant, James 
C. Smith; Second Lieutenant, Herbert B. Allen. 

Company C, Lowell. — Captain, Alexander Greig, Jr. ; First Lieutenant, Thomas 
Livingstone; Second Lieutenant, Fred D. Costello. 

Company D, Fitchburg.— Captain, John F. McDowell; First Lieutenant, 
Andrew J. Whalen; Second Lieutenant, William L. Conrad. 

Company E, South Framingham. — Captain, John S. McNeilly; First Lieuten- 
ant, Clarence W. Coolidge; Second Lieutenant, George F. Howland. 

Company F, Marlboro.— Captain, Thomas F. Jackson; First Lieutenant, Frank- 
lin G. Taylor; Second Lieutenant, Frank E. Moore. 

Company G, Lowell. — Captain, William Fairweather; First Lieutenant, 
George S. Howard; Second Lieutenant, Lewis G. Hunton. 

Company H, Stoneham.— Captain, Warren E. Sweetser; First Lieutenant, 
George R. Barnstead; Second Lieutenant, Henry A. Thayer. 

Company I, Concord. — Captain, Cyrus H.Cook; First Lieutenant, Joseph S. 
Hart; Second Lieutenant, William N. Decker. 

Company K, Southbridge. — Captain, Ulysses A. Goodell; First Lieutenant, 
Newton E. Putney; Second Lieutenant, William P. La Croix. 

Company L, Boston. — Captain, William J. Williams; First Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam H. Jackson; Second Lieutenant, George W. Braxton. 

Company M, Milford. — Captain, John F. Barrett; First Lieutenant, Charles 
H. Kimball; Second Lieutenant, Freeman L. Smith. 

One of the pleasantest episodes in the campaign of the Sixth, 
occurred on the day after the regiment left Massachusetts. The people 
of Baltimore, wishing to do something to efface the memory of the recep- 
tion which was given the "Old Sixth" in that city in 1861, gave the new 
Sixth Massachusetts a welcome, which will always dwell in the memories 
of those who participated in the affair. From the time when the 
section of the train bearing the Bay State troops pulled into the Mount 
Royal station, until the last man left the Camden station on the other 
side of the city; there was no cessation of the cheers and enthusiasm. 

After an address of welcome by Mayor Malster at the Mount Royal 
station, and a response by Colonel Woodward, the regiment started on its 
march across the city. The line of march was made to conform as nearly 
as possible to the route over which the "Old Sixth" marched in '61, and 
many of the boys who had fathers or other relatives in the old regiment, 
felt their hearts beat faster at the thought of marching through the same 
streets where the tragedy of thirty-seven years before was enacted. 

Never before has a Mas.sachusetts, or any other regiment, received 
such an ovation away from home, and very seldom at home. The cheer- 
ing was incessant. Several times the regimental fife and drum corps 



started "Dixie" and then the crowds went wild. Men threw up their hats 
and yelled, women waved their handkerchiefs and screamed, and even the 
children caught the fever of excitement, and shouted at the top of their 
voices. Just before reaching the Camden station, as the head of the col- 
umn passed the spot where the "Old Sixth" had sustained its heaviest 
losses, the drum corps started "Dixie" again and marched into the station to 
its strains. The station was jammed with people, and the cheers and yells 
which went up from them literally shook the building. 

At nine o'clock that evening, the regiment arrived in Washington, 
not "wet, dirty and well" as Charles A. Dana once said of General Grant, 
but dirty and well, although not wet, for they had been all day on the 
cars, with the exception of the short march in Baltimore. It was too late 
for the people of Washington to turn out and welcome them, and besides, 
their coming had not been widely announced. 

When the Sixth Regiment arrived in Washington in '61, the first 
armed regiment to reach there after President Lincoln's call for troops, it 
was quartered in the hall of the House of Representatives in the Capitol. 
But no such accomodations were given in '98. When the regiment de- 
barked at the B. & O. station, Colonel Woodward formed his men and 
marched across the city to where they were to take trains on the South- 
ern Railroad for Camp Alger. 

The regiment arrived at Dun-Loring, the station nearest the camij; 
about midnight, and the men were obliged to pass the remainder of the 
night on the cars, disembarking early in the morning. They were dirty, 
stiff, and hungry, but a cup of hot coffee braced them up, and they started 
on their four-mile march to camp. Tents were soon pitched, and by night 
everything was running smoothly. 

Camp Alger was not a pleasant place. In fact, a poorer location for 
a large camp could hardly have been found. The weather was intensely 
hot, and water was very scarce and poor. Most of the streams had been so 
polluted as to render the water unfit for use, and the surgeons repeatedly 
cautioned the men against drinking it before it had been boiled. More 
tropps were arriving every day, and the water supply grew smaller and 
smaller, until finally Major-General Graham, who commanded the camp, 
appointed Adjutant Butler Ames of the Sixth as corps engineer officer, 
with instructions to devote all the time he could spare from his regimen- 
tal duties to securing a proper and adequate supply of water. Artesian 
wells were driven in various parts of the camp, the first one being near 
the camp of the Sixth, and this one alone gave a plentiful supply of good 
water for the regiments near it. 

On May 24, the Sixth was brigaded with the Sixth Illinois, and the 
Eighth Ohio, — the President's own — and, pending the arrival of a brigade 
commander. Colonel D. Jack Foster of the Sixth Illinois, the senior col- 


onel of the brigade, was placed in command. A little later, Brigadier 
General George A. Garretson of Ohio, a personal friend of President 
McKinley, was assigned to command the brigade; and this fact, together 
with the fact that the "President's own" regiment was in the brigade, 
caused the men of the Sixth to think that they would be the first to go to 
the front. 

On ^lay 28, the troops at Camp Alger were reviewed by the Presi- 
dent, and the Sixth easily took the palm for excellence in appearance and 
marching. In the reviewing party, besides the President and Mrs. McKin- 
ley, were Secretary Alger, Secretary Long, General Miles, Senator Lodge, 
and also several members of both houses of Congress. This was the 
lirst presidential review since 1865. Then President Johnson reviewed 
troops who were returning victorious from many hard-fought fields, while 
President McKinley reviewed men whose work had not yet begun, but 
who were animated by the same spirit of patriotism and love of country, 
which were manifested by the troops in the Civil War. 

In June the Ninth Massachusetts Regiment arrived at Camp Alger, 
and the men of the Sixth went over to their camp, about two miles away, 
to welcome their friends from home. The two Alassachusetts regiments 
were the best equipped of any of the regiments at Camp Alger. During 
the whole time that the Sixth remained there, it had the reputation of 
being the best drilled, best equipped, and best disciplined regiment on 
the ground. 

After the first two weeks the boys began to grow impatient. They 
wanted to move and to see some active service. They were not at all home- 
sick, for they were worked too hard for that. Hardly a day passed that 
there were not from fifty to two hundred men detailed from the command 
to build roads and bridges, and do other engineering work around the 
camp. Colonel Lusk, the corps engineer officer, remarked that the men 
of the Sixth were better fitted for that work than those of any other regi- 
ment, as a large percentage of them were skilled mechanics. In fact, 
representatives of almost every profession could be found among them. 
Lawyers, doctors, civil engineers and draughtsmen were common; and, 
besides these, there were many students from Harvard and the Institute 
of Technology. 

One of the first orders issued by Colonel Woodward was, that the men 
should not sleep on the ground, as the camp was surrounded by swamps; 
so bedsteads were built, a foot or two from the ground, and covered with 
bark or boughs. It was probably owing to his precaution, that there were 
fewer cases of malaria in the Sixth than in any other of the adjoining- 

On June 7, the recruiting detail, consisting of Majors Taylor and 
Darling, Captain Cook, and one private or non-com from each company. 


left for Boston. The regiment left Massaehusetts with 943 men, and it 
was proposed to raise it to the ftill war strength of 1,327 men, 32 recruits 
being needed for each company. 

On June 17, Bunker Hill day. there was a grand celebration by the 
Bay State boys at Camp Alger. From early morning until late at night, 
the camp resounded with the rejoicings of the Massachusetts men and 
their friends. An elaborate program of athletic sports was carried out 
during the day, and in the evening there was a band concert and refresh- 
ments in the camp of the Ninth. 

Unfortunately, about this time, there developed some feeling be- 
tween the brigade and regimental commanders, growing out of, it is 
alleged, the objection of General Garretson, then in command of the 
brigade, to having colored troops in the same regiment with white ones; 
and it was stated that Company L would be taken out of the Sixth, and 
put into the North Ohio colored battalion. This feeling was naturally 
also reflected to some extent between members of General Garretson's 
staff and Regimental officers. 

After the celebration of the 17th, things quieted down again, and 
the regular routine work was resumed. vSickness had broken out in 
the camp, and although the Sixth had a smaller number of cases than any 
other regiment, the fact that even a few of their comrades were ill, served 
to make the boys restless. On June 27, Private Leon E. Warren, of Com- 
pany H, of Stoneham, who had been ill with typhoid fever for about ten 
days, died at the Fort Myer Hospital. There were several other men at 
Fort Myer very ill, and the regimental surgeons were becoming anxious. 
To try to improve the condition of the men, practice marches were or- 
dered, and one brigade at a time would start for the Potomac River, 
about ten miles away, remaining over night and returning the next day. 

July 4, found the command still at Camp Alger, and although there 
were many rumors, no definite orders were received for its departure. 
On the afternoon of the 4th the news of the destruction of Cevera's fleet 
was received, and every regiment in the camp turned out with band and 
drum corps to celebrate the victory. 

On the next day, July 5, the long expected orders were received. 
The Sixth was to leave Dun-Loring station by train for Charleston, 
South Carolina, and to embark there on transports for Ciiba. It took only 
a very short time to break camp. The baggage was loaded on wagons, 
and at 4.30 o'clock in the afternoon the regiment left the camp for the 
station. The trip to Charleston was devoid of interest, and was very tire- 
some to the men, cooped up as they were for twenty-four hours in the 
cars. It was 9.30 o'clock on the evening of the 6th when the first section 
arrived at Charleston, and it was thought advisable to keep the men on the 
cars all night. 



Previous to leaving Camp Alger, three offieers of the regiment had 
resigned — Surgeon-]\Iajor Otis H. Alarion and Lieutenant Kimball of Com- 
pany yi, because of ill-health, and First Lieutenant Charles E. Walton of 
Company A. 

The Yale, on which the regiment was to embark, was not ready for 
them when they arrived in Charleston, and it was not until the afternoon 
of the 8th that the regiment was on board and ready to sail. Even then 
there was a delay of several hours, as orders had been received from 
Washington to hold the steamer until the arrival of General Miles and his 
staff, who were going on her. About midnight on the Stli, General Miles 
arrived on board, and in a few moments the great screws commenced to 
revolve, and the Sixth was on its way to the front. Several of the men 

were left behind in 
the hospitals of 
Charleston, among 
them being Captain 
Williams of Com- 
pany L, who had a 
serious attack of 
typhoid fever. 

There was 
much to interest the 
men cm the trip; 
and some of the 
principal objects of 
interest were the 
officers who were 
serving on the staff 
of General Miles. 
Among them were Colonel AL P. Maus,who conducted the negotiations 
with Geronimo when that famous chief surrendered; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Andrew Rowan, whose lonely ride through Cuba to communicate with 
Gomez, had made him famous; General Greenleaf , the chief surgeon of the 
army in the field, and Judge-Advocate General Claus. 

Quarters were assigned to each regiment on the deck of the Yale 
while the olificers and "non-coms" were given staterooms. It was so close 
below, however, that many of the officers preferred to sleep in their ham- 
mocks on deck. A regular routine of work was laid out for the men, but, 
owing to the crowded condition of the decks, little could be done beyond 
getting a limited amount of exercise. Ammunition in small quantities 
was once issued, and target practice held for an hour or more. All the 
men were in good spirits for the first few days, although there was 
some grumbling about the food, which was very poor and scarce. 





On the afternoon of the loth a steamer was sighted going north. 
The Yale signalled, asking news from the front, and received the reply: 
"Continuous heavy fighting in front of Santiago for the past two days." 
This stirred the men up, 
and made 

them impa- 
tient for their share of 
the work. Early the 
next m o r n i n g Cape 
^laysi was sighted, and 
during the forenoon the 
Yale passed Guantan- 
amo where the marines 
were encamped, and 
Daiquiri where the first 
landing was made. 
About noon she arrived 
off Siboney, and re- 
ported to the New York, 
Admiral Sampson's flagship, and the admiral came on board and was 
closeted with General ]Miles for some time. General Miles then went 
ashore to communicate with General Shaffer, and in a very short time 
those on board the Yale, saw that the town of Siboney was in flames. 
The surgeons had been trying to induce General Shaffer to order the 
town burnt for some time, fearing that the houses there were infected; 
but it was not until General Miles landed that it was done. One old army 
officer, when he heard that General ^liles had arrived, remarked: "Thank 
the Lord. We'll get something done now;" and that seemed to be the 
general opinion among the regulars. 

On the night of the nth a terrific rain storm came up. The rain 
fell in torrents, and every one on the deck of the Yale was wet through. 
The men were lying in three or four inches of water, and the baggage floated 
off into the scuppers. There was no shelter, so they were obliged to 
grin and bear it. They huddled together under the lee of the deckhouses 
until daylight, when there was a krll in the storm, but it soon started in 
again harder than ever. Ponchos were of no use. They were soaked 
through in five minutes, and woolen blankets and clothes were worse. 
The sun came out about noon, however, and dried things off, making 
every one feel more cheerful. 

On the I2th General Miles again went on shore, and Colonel Wood- 
ward was informed that the regiment would be landed on the shore of a 
small bay, on the west side of the city, to take the Sacopa battery, and then 
join the right wing of the army. The next morning, however, a truce 
was on, and the landing was postponed. Every day the Yale cruised up 



and down the shore, usually returning to Siboney at night. The men 
were anxious to land, and were fretful and discontented. Rations were 
short and very poor, and fresh water was scarce. A"o one was allowed to 
land unless it was absolutely neces.sary, as the quarantine regulations were 
very strict. 

On the 14th the fleet got into position to bombard the city and bat- 
teries, and the troops on the Yale prepared to land; but before the bat- 
tleships had fired a shot, the news was signalled that the city had sur- 
rendered. The Yale was up with the fleet when the news was received, 
and the Sixth joined with the sailors on the fleet in cheering the announce- 
ment. It is claimed that the Spanish General was shown the soldiers on 
the transport, who were marching about to give the impression of much 
greater numbers; and that this ruse de guerre added materially in inducing 
the surrender. 

From the 14th to the 17th, the Yale made her daily trips up the 
coast, returning to Siboney each night. <Jn the 17th came the formal 

.surrender of the city, and 
the same day the Yale 
started for Guantanamo, 
where she anchored. The 
Rita, a prize steamer, with 
the Sixth Illinois on board, 
also arrived at Guantanamo 
the same day Many of the 
oificers of the Sixth Massa- 
chusetts visited the marines 
on the hill, and inspected 
the camp and the intrenchments. The mail from the North arrived at 
Guantanamo on the 20th, and a detail was sent from the Yale to see if 
there was any mail for the Sixth. After spending the greater part of a 
day they unearthed several sacks, and for a time the boys were happy. 

While they were at Guantanamo, the men learned that the Sixth 
was to be part of the expedition against Porto Rico, which was to be 
commanded by General Miles, and on the afternoon of the 21st, the expe- 
dition got under way. It consisted of the battleship ^Massachusetts, the 
cruiser Columbia, the converted yacht Gloucester, the Yale, the Rita, and 
several other transports. There were about 3,500 men in the expedition 
— the Sixth Massachusetts, Sixth Illinois, four companies of recruits for 
the regulars, four batteries of artillery, a signal and hospital corps, and 
the teamsters and mule packers. On the morning of the 23rd, Corporal 
Charles Parker, of Company A, died, and was buried at sea the same 
day. Chaplain Dusseault read the burial service, and a squad of twelve 
men fired the customary three volleys over his ocean grave. 


Jl_!_-!.* -. " 


At daybreak on the 2Sth, land was sighted, and the little Glouces- 
ter immediately started for the entrance of the harbor of Gtianica. She 
lired a few shots, and landed several boatloads of men before any of the 
infantry were allowed to land. The transports ran in to within 200 yards 
of the shore, and the men were landed from small boats. The men from 
the Gloucester had driven back the few Spaniards who were on the beach, 
so that the landing was made without opposition. As the troops marched 
up the street of the little town, they were cordially welcomed by the 

About 9 o'clock in the evening, one of General Garretson's aides rode 
into the camp of the Sixth and reported that a company of the Sixth Illi- 
nois which had been doing outpost duty, had been fired upon and needed 
reinforcements. Lieutenant-Colonel Chaffin, who owing to the tempo- 
rary indisposition of Colonel Woodward was in command of the regi- 
ment, ordered ilajor Darling to select two companies and lead them to 
the support of the outpost. Companies L and M were chosen, and were 
marched along the road to the hill on which the Illinois company was 
posted. After looking over the ground it was decided that it would be bet- 
ter to get nearer to the Spanish troops, who were camped around a large 
hacienda about a mile distant ; so the companies of the Sixth advanced 
up the Yauco road. About midnight the Spanish opened fire, and 
although no damage was done, it was thought advisable to have help 
at hand in case an attack was attempted. Accordingly, a messenger was 
sent back to the regiment, and five companies. A, C, E, G and K, started at 
once under command of ilajor Tayl()r. They marched about three miles 
along the road leading to Yauco, to the first outpost, and it was decided 
that they should remain there until daylight. When morning came, it was 
found that it would be necessary for the Americans to make the attack, 
and preparations were made accordingly. General Garretson in his 
report of the affair says: 

"Packs were thrown off and the command formed for attack. The company of 
the Sixth Illinois remained on the hill on which the house of Ventura Quinoses is situ- 
ated, and protected our right flank. The remaining companies were collected, two 
as support and three as reserve. 

"After advancing to within 200 yards of the plain of the hacienda Santa De- 
sidera, the advance guard of our attacking force was discovered by the enemy, who 
opened fire from a position on a hill to the west. The north and east slopes of this 
hill intersect each other, forming a solid angle. It was along this angle that the 
enemy was posted. Their reserve, posted in a road leading from the hacienda to the 
east, also opened a strong fire on the road. A body of the enemy inoved against the 
company on our right. Company G, Sixth Illinois, stationed on the hill of Ventura 
Quinoses. This company had entrenched itself during the night, and, after repuls- 
ing the attacking force, directing its fire against the enemy on the hill to the west. 

"The conformation of the ground was such, that the fire of the enemy's re- 
serves and party on the left was effective in the seemingly secure hollow in which 
our reserves were posted. The heavy volumes of fire, the noise of shots striking the 
trees and on the ground, and the wounding of two men among the reserves, caused a 


momentary confusion among the troops. They were quickly rallied and placed under 
cover. The fire of the advanced party and supports was directed against the party 
of the enemy on the hill, and temporarily silenced their fire from that direction. 

"Our advanced guard of two companies, ignoring the enemy on the hill, then 
deployed mainly to the right of the road, and were led with quick and accurate mili- 
tary judgment and great personal gallantry by Lieutenant Langhorn, ist cavalrv. 
against the reserves of the enemy. The supports and one company of the reserves 
under the direction of Captain L. G. Berry, charged against the party on the west 
hill through the barbed wire fence and chaparral. 

"The reserves were deployed along the barbed wire fence running at right 
angles to the road, conducted through the fence, and brought up in the rear and to 
the left of the attacking party by Lieutenant Butler Ames of the Sixth Massachusetts. 
The enemy was driven from the hill and retired to the valley, disappearing behind 
the hacienda. The reserves of the enemy ceased firing and retired. 

"It was supposed that they had retired to the hacienda, as this house was sur- 
rounded on the sides presented to our view, with loopholed walls. The troops on 
the hill were collected along the road. A reserve of three companies was established 
at the intersection of the road to Yauca. The two companies in advance, which 
were deployed, wheeled to the left and advanced through the cornfield on our right. 
The remainder of the command deployed and advanced to the hacienda, enveloping 
it on the left. It was then discovered that the enemy had retired from the hacienda 
in the direction of Yauco, along cleverly concealed lines of retreat. 

"As the object of the expedition was considered accomplished, and, in obedi- 
ence to instructions received from Major-General Miles, no further pursuit was under- 

"The battalion of recruits of the regular army, under Captain Hubert, re- 
ported for orders, having heard the firing, but was not needed, and was returned to 

"The force of the enemy engaged in the battle consisted of battalion, 25 Patria 
of the Spanish army, and some volunteers, in all about some 600 or 700 men. 

The casualties on our side were, four slightly wounded. After the occupation 
of the Yauco, the casualties of the enemy were found to have been one lieutenant and 
one cornet killed, and 13 seriously, and 32 slightly wounded. 

"After the confusion resulting from the first unexpected fire, the conduct of 
the troops was excellent. They were speedily rallied, and afterward obeyed orders 
given through my staff officers without hesitation. 

"The following officers of the command are respectfully commended for gal- 
lantry and coolness under fire: Major C. K. Darling, Sixth Massachusetts Volunteers; 
Captain E. J. Gihon, Sixth Massachusetts Volunteers, who was painfully wounded 
early in the action, and remained in command of his company until it reached 
camp; Captain L. G. Berry A. A. G. Volunteers (First Lieutenant, Seventh United 
States Artillery;) Lieutenant G. T. Langhorn, First United States Cavalry aide; 
Lieutenant G. M. Wright, Eighth Ohio Volunteers, and Major W. C. Hayes, First 
Ohio Cavalry, acting aide. Major George W. Crile, brigade surgeon, and Major 
Frank Anthony, Sixth Illinois Volunteers, were present under fire with hospital at- 
tendants, and rendered necessary aid to the wounded." 

General Garretson also said, in his final order, issued when he 
relinquished command of the brigade on September i: "I congratulate 
the officers and men of the Sixth Massachusetts Infantry, that having 
had, to a greater extent than others of my command, an opportunity to 
show their efficiency under fire, they have not failed in the test." 

During the early part of the skirmish, Lietttenant Langhorne, of 
General Garretson's staff, called for volunteers to charge the position 
held by the Spaniards on a hill, and dislodge them. Lieutenant Frank E. 
Gray, of Company A, at once stepped forward, and with the first platoon 
of Company A, performed the required duty. On this account Lieuten- 



ant trray was afterward recommended fur promotion by General (iarret- 
son, and received Iiis captain's commission while the regiment was at 

For several days after the skirmish at Guanica, the regiment re- 
mained in camjD. On the j8th, news was received of the surrender of 
Ponee, and of the occupation of tlie town by General Miles, with-the first 
of the reinforcements from the States. On the morning of the 30th, 
orders were received to break camp, and the regiment left for Yauco, 
arriving there about two o'clock in the afternoon, the distance being about 
twelve miles. Major Priest, and Companies B and D, were left at Guan- 
ica as a garrison. The next morning the brigade started for Tallaboa, a 


distance of ten miles, leaving Company L, under Lieutenant Jackson, to 
guard Yauco. The regiment was the advance guard on this march, which 
was a very hard one. The command arrived at Tallaboa at 3 p. m., and 
camped for the night, starting early the next morning for Ponce, twelve 
miles away. Major Darling was sent back to Yauco, from Tallaboa, with 
fifty-two sick men, to take command of the post there. Here he remained 
for the next week, having under his command two companies of the 
Nineteenth United States Infantry, and a company each of the vSixth Mas- 
sachusetts and Sixth Illinois. 

The brigade arrived at Ponce in the afternoon, and marched through 
the town to a large, open field beyond, where the tents were pitched. 



While the regiment was encamped at Ponce, Colonel Woodward, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chaffin, Major Taylor, Captain Goodell and Captain 
Barrett wei'e ordered, on August 3, to appear before a board composed of 
Generals Henry, Wilson and Garretson, to be examined as to efificiency. 
Captain Barrett went before the board, and was returned to his company; 
but all the other officers preferred to tender their resignations, which 
were immediately accepted. Chaplain Dusseault, who was appointed to 
his position by Colonel Woodward, also resigned with his commanding 

The position taken by these officers is thus stated by ex-Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Chaffin, and is published in justice to them. 

Southbridge, Mass., August 19, 1899. 
To Charles W. Hall, Editor Regiments and Armories, 

Dear Sir; — Your favor of recent date inviting me to give my personal reasons 
for resigning from the office of lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Massachusetts United 
States Volunteers, August 3, 1S9S, is at hand. At that time we were in camp near 
Ponce, Porto Rico. The previous evening several officers of the regiment, including 
the Colonel and myself, received orders to appear before a board of regular army offi- 
cers to e.xamine into our efficiency, and we learned that it was a board authorized by 
a new law not to consider charges, but having power to determine upon the efficiency 
of all volunteer officers appointed by the governors of the several states. We were 
astounded to find that, under this new law, these regular army officers could become 
our accusers, and at the same time, act as judge and jury. For some time previous 


iiiUTo mco. 

to this action on their part, there had been evidences of persecution of our regiment. 
The regiment had been confined in contracted quarters on board cars and boat, with 
insufficient rations, poor in quality and limited in quantity, and then been obliged to 




march during the heat of the day in a tropical cliinate improperly clothed, while 
carrying' equipments averaging- over forty pounds each. 

Referring to my personal connection with such experiences: At the time that 
General Garretson of Ohio became commander of our brigade, lots were drawn for 

cvci.i', ( i.rr., rnM'K, imkto laro. iwis. 

seniority of rank and precedence between the officers of the Sixth Massachusetts and 
the Eighth Ohio regiments in accordance with the provisions of the U. S. Army regu- 
lations, page 2, articles X and XII. The lot determining the precedence for my rank 
fell to me and I won for the Sixth Massachusetts. The General manifested marked 
displeasure at the result, and thereafter, upon all possible occasions evinced a feeling 
of enmity. 

To further substantiate my representation of persecution to the regiment I 
refer to the statement of Colonel Woodward dated August 20, 1898, and published 
September I, 1898. However, we endured persecution and hardships, and performed 
all the duties devolving upon us to the best of our ability; even though we felt that 
more than our share of details was given us. 

On receiving the order to appear before this board we tried to ascertain if 
there were any complaints or grounds of accusation against us, and could only learn 
that there was dissatisfaction because there had been straggling upon the marches. 
Knowing, as I did, the suffering endured by the men upon these marches, and feeling 
fully assured that I had done everything, consistent with my conception of proper 
conduct of a considerate officer, to get the men along on these trying occasions, I 
could only conclude that the board ordered my appearance for the express purpose of 
securing my position for some one else. Under these circumstances, it was my privi- 
lege to resign, and receive an honorable discharge. I was satisfied that the only other 
course would be to go before a tribunal, where there would be no opportunity for de- 
fense, and receive a discharge for incompetency, by a verdict determined beforehand 
as the result of long continued plotting and intrigue. 

Moreover, from these developments, it seemed more than probable that the 
men under our command would continue to suffer uncalled-for hardships until our 
places were secured; so that consideration for the welfare of the soldiers under us also 
prompted us to act as we did, and I am rejoiced to think that from this time forth less 
severe service was required from our regiment, and better allowances made for the 
comfort of the soldiers. 


In tendering my resignation, I acted upon my own responsibility to the best of 
my judgement, being satisfied that under the circumstances, this was the only course 
for a self-respecting officer to take. 

After our resignations had been given and the matter settled as far as our con- 
nection with the service was concerned, the charge that I "remained in my tent while 
a part of my regiment was engaged; that I was within sound of the fight and did not 
assemble balance of regiment to re-enforce part engaged if it should have been 
required, and that therefore I was incompetent" came like a thunderbolt from a clear 

I absolutely deny this charge, and declare it to be false, and give account of 
myself at this time by stating the following facts. 

We landed at Guanica, Porto Rico, July 25, 1898. Colonel Woodward was ill, 
as acting commander of the regiment, I superintended and had charge of the disem- 
barking of the soldiers of my regiment, and later in the day, had charge of the camp 
near the place of landing. During the evening I received orders to send out a detail 
of two companies, which orders were obeyed, and later I executed a second order send- 
ing five companies at three o'clock in the morning of the 26th of July to relieve the 
first detachment, when they were fired upon by the enemy. The engagement lasted 
less than twenty minutes. At that time I was reclining in a hammock, strung be- 
tween two posts, out in the open field. I was aroused by the first sound of firing and 
immediately gave orders for every man in the remainder of my regiment to be ready 
to fall in for duty at a moment's notice, and anxiously waited for orders and received 

The Sixth Illinois Regiment was in camp between our location and the scene of 
the encounter, and nearer the place of engagement, and their commander did no 
more than I did, and received no censure. This was the only encounter in which the 
soldiers of my regiment had an opportunity to take part. 

The next day, July 27, I was officer of the day, had a hard day's service and 
was personally thanked for efficient discharge of duty, by General Guy V. Henry, 
Division Cpmmander. On the twenty-ninth day of July the march already spoken of 
toward Ponce was entered upon. Colonel Woodward was in command of the regi- 
ment, and I did everything to the fullest extent of my ability to render assistance and 
alleviate the intense suffering of the soldiers during their progress on this march, and 
throughout the remainder of my term, of service. 

Contemplating the situation, I feel that great injustice has been done me, in 
taking advantage of this new law, before mentioned, to deprive me of a position which 
I obtained by long and faithful service, and in which I believe I did my full duty, and 
then, after my connection with the army was ended, and there was no opportunity for 
obtaining redress, by preferring a charge of incompetency when the facts in the case 
would positively controvert such an accusation. 

Thanking you for your invitation to render this statement, having the appro- 
val of my conscience to sustain me in my present position, and feeling, that, ulti- 
mately, "right the day must win," I remain, 

Very sincerely yours, 


Late Lieutenant-Colonel Sixth Mass. U. S. V. 

A.s Major.s Darling and Priest were both ab.sent on detached service, 
the command of the regiment devolved upon Captain Cyrus H. Cook, of 
Company I, as the senior captain. Later, General Miles recom- 
mended to Governor Wolcott the appointment of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Rice, who had been serving as Inspector General on his 
personal staff, as the new colonel of the Sixth, and Governor 
Wolcott made the appointment. Adjutant Butler Ames was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant-colonel, Second Lieutenant Htmton of Company 
G, to first lieutenant, and Sergeant-Major Gardner Pierson to second lieu- 
tenant. Lieutenant Frank Gray of Company A, was appointed acting 


adjutant, and was later made captain and assigned to Company K. First 
Lieutenant C- W. Coolidge of Company E, was made adjutant. Captain 
E. J. Gihon of Company A, who was wounded at Guanica, was recom- 
mended for promotion, but the war department had decided that there 
could be, (should vacancies occur,) only two majors to a regiment of infan- 
try. He was, however, commissioned major by Governor Wolcott, and 
had command of a battalion from that time. 

On August 5 Major Darling arrived in Ponce from Yauco, with 
Company L, and preparations were made for the march across the island. 
On the /th, Krag-Jorgensen rifles were issued to the men in place of the 
old Springfields, which they had carried since leaving home, and on the 
morning of the 9th the command left Ponce. 

A few miles out on the road, they were overtaken by the new com- 
mander. Colonel Rice, and the men had a chance to see what their new 
colonel looked like. They saw a man who looked every inch a soldier, 
and, who, from his appearance, would command the respect and obedience 
of every man in the regiment. He stopped only a few minutes, however, 
and then rode on to join General Henry, and a little later the command 
went into camp for the night at a coffee plantation called Guaraguas. 
The men found sleeping places in the storehouses and drying sheds and 
the officers after taking supper with the owner of the plantation, slept on 
the veranda of the house. That evening Colonel Rice and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ames assumed their new positions, having taken the oaths of 
office. The next day's march was only four miles, as the roads were in a 
terrible condition from the rain which had been falling heavily. The 
rain seemed to fall in torrents; the blanket rolls with the woolen and rub- 
ber blankets were on bull-carts at the rear and the men ploughed along 
through the mud, soaked to the skin by the heavy downpour. When the 
camping ground was reached there was no shelter, and the men, wet, 
weary and shelterless, spent the night standing around the fires. It was 
altogether the worst night experience of the regiment. 

The next day's march to Adjuntas, where the command arrived at 
about 4 o'clock, was equally harrassing. Rain fell most of the time; the 
road was heavy and in some places dangerous; and on the way one of the 
carts containing the tentage of the Sixth fell over a precipice and the bull 
train became stalled. The original orders directed the command to march 
straight through from Adjuntas to Utuado, but the road was so bad, that 
the orders were changed and a day's march was limited to nine miles. 
An early start was made on the 13th, Major Darling's battalion being left 
to garrison Adjuntas. The distance from Adjuntas to Utuado was fifteen 
miles, but the Si.xth, instead of taking two days for the march, made it in 
eio-ht hours, and marched into Utuado about three o'clock in the afternoon. 
Here they were greeted with the news that the peace protocol had been 


signed, and that they were not to advance npon Arecibo, as had been the 
original intention. 

That day's march was one that the men will long remember. The 
road wound iip over and along the mountains, and down a long valley, 
skirting cliffs fringed and crested with tropical foliage, watered by moun- 
tain rivulets, and with bearing coffee fields on every side. The scenery 
was magnificent, and the sight of so many novel and beautiful sights 
enlivened the march, and made the men forget the discomforts of the 
preceding day. When the regiment arrived at Utuado, General Henry 
complimented the men upon their appearance, and said that they had 
made the best time of any command over that road. 

On the morning of the 14th there were white flags at all the out- 
posts, and orders came from General Miles to send teams back to Ponce 
for tents and supplies, which seemed to indicate that the regiment would 
remain in Utuado for some time. On the 17th, Major Darling, with three 
companies of his battalion rejoined the regiment, having left Company 
F, under Captain Jackson, at Adjuntas; and on the 19th this company 
also arrived, uniting the regiment again. The first camping ground of 
the Sixth was very bad, and it was not until the 24th, when four com- 
panies of the Nineteenth Infantry, U. S. A., which had been occupying 
buildings in the town, moved out, that the men had a chance to get 
under cover. These "barracks" were stores, warehouses and the like, and 
afforded at least protection from the rains. 

There were, at this time, a great many sick in the regiment, 175 
reporting for sick call on one morning. On the morning of the 26th, the 
Sixth Illinois, which had been with the Sixth Massachusetts since leaving 
Camp Alger, were ordered north; and the sight of their departing com- 
rades made the boys feel as if they, too, would like to see their homes. 
Colonel Rice did not give them much time to be homesick, however, as 
regular drills were held every day, and there was plenty of work for all. 
After the 26th of the Sixth had the town to themselves, with the 
prospect of remaining there some time. On the 2nd of September, 
Colonel Rice returned from Ponce, where he had gone to meet his wife. 
As soon as Mrs. Rice arrived she took charge of the sick, and from that 
day on she was the good angel of the regiment. 

At this time the health of the command was improving, although 
there were still many sick in the hospital. On the 14th the hospital ship. 
Bay State, sent out by the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association, 
arrived at Ponce, and on the i6th Drs. Crockett and Monahan rode into 
Utuado. The Bay State was prepared to take home 100 men, but there 
were twice that number sick. Dr. Burrell, who was in charge of the Bay 
vState, decided to sail around to Arecibo, which was the nearest port to 
Utuado, and the vessel anchored there on the afternoon of the 19th. The 



next morning eighteen wagon loads of sick men were started for Arecibo, 
and on the 22nd the Bay State sailed for Boston, where she arrived on 
the 27th, with every man safe, and improved in health, as a result of the trip. 

Dnring the early part of September, reports of depredations by the 
"Black Hand," — a name given to a band of gnerillas — began to come in 
with alarming frequency, and a company of mounted Kentuckians had 
been added to the garrison at Utuado, and had reported to Colonel Rice 
for duty. Lieutenant-Colonel Ames took charge of the civil government, 
and Company C was sent to the town of Lares to relieve the Spanish gar- 
rison, and do guard duty there. Details of from two to sixteen men were 
sent out to guard plantations within a radius of twenty-five miles, and 
thereafter a good de- 
gree of order was main- 

Company E was 
at this time doing pro- 
vost guard duty in 
Utuado, with Captain 
McNeilly acting as pro- 
vost marshal, and was 
later relieved by Com- 
pany K, Lieutenant La 
Croix succeeding Cap- 
tain McNeilly. It be- 
came necessary at dif- 
ferent times to detach 
companies from the regiment to garrison some of the smaller towns, 
and almost every company had a taste of this kind of duty. 

Company C, of Lowell, was the first company to be sent on this 
service. They left Utuado September 17, and remained at Lares, the 
post assigned them, i:ntil October 19, when orders were received to march 
to Arecibo, and board the transj^ort for home. On September 28, Captain 
Cook, of Company I, was ordered to march with his company to Camuy, 
and occupy the town. The company marched to Arecibo, and there took 
the train for Camuy, where they were met by the alcalde. After the 
Spanish garrison had been relieved, the Spanish flag was lowered, and 
the Stars and Stripes hoisted over the municipal building, and CajDtain 
Cook took formal command of the town in the name of the United States. 
The same proceeding was gone through with in all the towns occuj^ied 
by the different companies, and in every town the men were well received, 
and hospitably treated by the natives. Besides taking possession of 
Camuy, Company I also marched to Hatillo and Quebradilla, neighboring 
towns, and relieved the garrisons there. 



On October 6, Company E left to occupy Ysabella, a town about 
thirty miles from Arecibo, but were delayed by a washout on the railroad. 
While waiting at Arecibo for the damage to be repaired, a riot broke out 
in the town, and the company was ordered to report at the house of the 
British vice-consul to preserve order. They quickly dispersed a crowd 
which had gathered and no damage was done. 

Company B was ordered to Hatillo on October 8, to relieve the 
detail from Company I, v/hich was in charge of the town; and on the loth. 
Companies H, F, K, and L, under Major Darling, marched to Arecibo, 
and took possession of that place. A small detail was ordered to occi:py 
Vega Baja, the next town, and several other details were sent to the 
neighboring plantations to protect the Spanish owners from the "Black 
Hand," which was very busy in that vicinity. On October 12, Company 
K, under command of Captain Gray, left Arecibo for Barcelonita, and on 
the 13th formally took possession. During the afternoon, the people 
became excited and paraded the streets, clamoring for a new alcalde. A 
meeting of the officials of the town was held, and the alcalde tendered his 
resignation, an example which was quickly followed by other officials and 
a new alcalde was chosen. 

Colonel Rice arrived at Arecibo with Companies A and G, and the 
latter was sent to Bayamo. Major Darling was placed in charge of civil 
affairs in the district of Arecibo, and Major Priest, with Company D, was 
left at Utuado. 

On the 1 2th the Bay State again arrived at Arecibo and discharged 
her cargo of hospital .stores. She then took on board 115 sick men and 
sailed for Ponce, where she took seventeen more, and to Guanica, where she 
picked up five more, making 137 in all. She sailed for Boston, arriving 
on the 28th, having lost two men on the trip, Sergeant William E. Walters 
of Company E and Private Paul F. French of Company M. Private French 
died early on the voyage and was buried at sea, but Sergeant Walters' 
body was brought home for burial. 

Meanwhile, on October 18 the Sixth was relieved by the Sixth Regi- 
ment, U. S. Volunteer Infantry "immunes," and was ordered to proceed 
to San Juan, and embark on the transport Mississippi for home. The reo-i- 
ment went on board the transport on the 20th, and on the morning of the 
2 I St started for Boston. The Mississippi arrived in Boston harbor Octo- 
ber 27, and was met at quarantine by Governor Wolcott and his staff. As 
the governor climbed up the side of the steamer, the boys cheered until the 
noise could be plainly heard on the dock, where an immense crowd was in 

The regiment landed about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and marched 
through the crowded streets and by the State House. On dismissal the 
several companies were verbally furloughed. 


The Sixth came home 937 strong, the men brown, hearty and well. 
The men in their dingy khaki uniforms and campaign hats, caught up in 
front with Spanish rosettes, marched and looked like a regiment of regu- 
lars, and at their head rode Colonel Edmund Rice, whose care and disci- 
pline had so largely preserved them from sickness, and enabled them to 
disembark in such magnificent condition. It was the first time that the 
people of Boston had had a chance to see the new commander of the Sixth, 
and he created a great deal of interest as he rode at the head of the regi- 
ment, looking neither to the right nor left. A more soldierly looking 
man, or a more thorough soldier, never rode through the streets of Boston. 
Hehad'takena regiment, originally one of the best in the state, but dis- 
oro"anized and dispirited by unforeseen conditions, had restored its morale 
and regimental pride, and in less than three months had made it a force 
which any officer might be proud to command. Every man in the com- 
mand admired and respected him, and too much cannot be said for the 
results he accomplished. 

The roster of the regiment upon its return from the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war was as follows: 

Ftfid and Staff. 

Colonel. Edmund J. Rice; Lieutenant-Colonel, Butler Ames; Majors, Charles 
K. Darling, George H. Priest; Adjutant, Clarence W. Coolidge; Quartermaster, Stan- 
wood G. Sweetser; Chaplain. George D. Rice; Surgeon-Major, George F. Dow; Assis- 
tant Surgeons, Frederic A. Washburn, Herman W. Gross. 

Noit-Coiiiiiiissioiifd Slaff. 

Sergeant-Major, J. Victor Carey; Quartermaster-Sergeant, George G. King; 
Hospital Stewards, Stephen E. Ryder, Harrie C. Hunter, Edwin D. Towle; Chief 
Musician, Edwin G. Morse: Principal Musicians, William R. Murphy, Frank J. Medcalf. 

Liiw Otjiccrs. 

Company A — Captain, Edward J. Gihon: First Lieutenant, Louis G. Hunter; 
Second Lieutenant, Frank E. Edwards. 

Company B — Captain, Albert R. Fellows; First Lieutenant, Herbert B. .\llen; 
Second Lieutenant, James C. Smith. 

Company C — Captain, Alexander Greig, Jr. : First Lieutenant, Thomas Living- 
ston; Second Lieutenant, Fred D. Costello. 

Company D — Captain, John F. McDowell; First Lieutenant, Andrew J. 
Whelan; Second Lieutenant, William L. Conrad. 

Company E — Captain, John S. McNeiUey; First Lieutenant, George F. How- 
land; Second Lieutenant, Thomas Talbot. 

Company F — Captain, Thomas E. Jackson; First Lieutenant, Franklin G. 
Taylor; Second Lieutenant, Frank E. Moore. 

Company G — Captain, William Fairweather; First Lieutenant, George S. 
Howard; Second Lieutenant, Gardner W. Pearson. 

Company H — Captain, Warren E. Sweetser; First Lieutenant, George R. 
Barnstead; Second Lieutenant, Henry A. Thayer. 

Company I — Captain, Cyrus H. Cook; First Lieutenant, Joseph S. Hart; Second 
Lieutenant, William N. Decker. 

Company K — Captain, Frank E. Gray; First Lieutenant, Newton E. Putney; 
Second Lieutenant, William P. LaCroi.x. 

Company L— Captain, William J, Williams; First Lieutenant, William H. 
Jackson; Second Lieutenant, George W. Braxton. 

Company M — Captain, John F. Barrett; First Lieutenant, Freeman L. Smith; 
Second Lieutenant, Arthur J. Draper. 


On November 3 the men assembled at their armories and were fur- 
lotighed for sixty days, and at the end of that time were mustered out of 
the United States service. Many of the men who wished to remain in the 
service, enlisted in the regular army, and a large number were transferred 
to the other Massachusetts regiments which were encamped at various 
points in the South. 

During the summer the Sixth lost twenty-six men, a striking con- 
trast to the number of deaths in the other two regiments which saw for- 
eign service. Following is the list: 

Private Leon E. Warren, Company H, June 26, Fort Myer. 
Private Martin Welsh, Company K, July 9, Fort Myer. 
Corporal Charles F. Parker, Company A, July 23, steamship Yale. 
Private Ernest D. Marshall, Company F. July 27, steamship Lampasas. 
Private Willis H. Page, Company F, August 4, steamship Lampasas. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant George C. Wendon, Company C, August 18, steam- 
ship Relief. 
Sergeant Asa B. Trask, Company M, August 24, Adjuntas, P. R. 
Private William A. Chute, Company D, August 24, Ponce, P. R. 
Corporal Clarence H. Warren, Company E, August 26, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Corporal A. L. Wilkinson, Company M, September i, Utuado, P. R. 
Corporal Herbert D. Bellamy. Company C, September 7. Utuado, P. R. 
Private Ralph P. Hosmer, Company I, September 11, Utuado, P. R. 
Private John E. Riley, Company I, September 26, Utuado, P. R. 
Private Charles A. Hart, Company I, September 26, Utuado, P. R. 
Private Charles E. McGregor, hospital corps, October 9, South Framingham. 
Private George E. Adams. Company I, October 10, Utuado, P. R. 
Private Paul T. French, Company M, October 24, steamship Bay State. 
Sergeant William E. Walters, Company E, October 26, steamship Bay State. 
Private George Sayles, Company K, October 28, Fort Monroe. 
Private Myris H. Warren, Company A, November 24, Melrose. 
Private Patrick Kelley. Company M, November 27, Milford. 
Private John J. Delaney, Company D, December 8, Fitchburg. 
Private J. Otis Cole. Company F, December 9, Marlboro. 
Private George F. Cutting, Company B. December 12, Fitchburg. 
Private Lewis Sasseville, Company F, December 30, Marlboro. 
Private Charles E. Johnson, Company M, January 20, 1899, Milford. 

Of these, and such as these, whose supreme self-sacrifice is else- 
where recorded, it may well be said, in the words of tliegrand old Spartan 
epinicion, or "song of victory": 

"He who fights well among the foremost, if he fall, shall be sung 
among his people; or if he live, shall be in reverence in their council; old 
men shall give place to him; his tomb shall be in honor, and the children 
of his children." 



IN connection with the services of the regiments which took j^art in the 
Spanisli-American war, a great, brave and eminently nseful work was 
accomplished, in caring for the wounded, sick and convalescent, by 
the ^lassachusetts Volunteer Aid Association. Such volunteer acces- 
sories to the regular Medical Departments have long been a feature of the 
^Massachusetts way of carrying on war, and caring for its victims. It is 
only just to embody in this brief history the priceless services thus rendered 
in 1 897- 1 899 and later. 

No one, who did not see the work done during the summer of 1898 
by the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association, can have any concep- 
tion of what the Association meant to the Massachusetts soldier; and 
not to the Massachusetts soldier alone, as the men of other states can 
testify to the benefits that they received from this organization. 

No state in the Union made a more prompt and effective response 
to the call of the national government during the war with vSpain, than did 
Massachusetts. She promptly furnished her quota of the troops asked for, 
and then, for good measure, sent about 4,000 more. She sent her men to 
the front better equipped than those of any other state; and then, to cajj 
the climax, did not forget them when they were beyond her borders. In 
the camp, on the battlefield, and in the hospitals, her representatives and 
her ministrations were always with them; and the fathers, the mothers, 
the wives, and the daughters at home, never for a moment forgot the 
needs of the sons, the husbands and the brothers at the front. 

The Massachusetts Vokinteer Aid Association was formed wdth the 
simple object of furnishing to the state troops those comforts which the 
national government did not provide. Before the war was over, the asso- 
ciation found that its work had broadened until it was ministering to 
almost the whole army. What Massachusetts did for its soldiers, was soon 
a matter of comment in every regiment that went into service, and the 
remark, "I wish I was in one of the Massachusetts regiments," was often 
heard in the camps. 

To Governor Wolcott is due the credit of taking the initiative in 
forming the association, and there were plenty of people who were ready 
to take hold and carry out the work when it was once started. As Secre- 
tary Hayes said: "Those of us who were too young to go to the last war, 
and are now too old to go to this one, wish to do what we can for the men 
who must do the fighting." 


Soon after the association was formed, Dr. H. L. Burrell, formerly 
surgeon-general of the state militia, suggested the idea of fitting out a 
hospital ship, and, after some correspondence with the surgeon-general of 
the navy, this idea was adopted. The steamship Marmion was purchased 
of the Boston Fruit Company for $50,000, fitted out as a hospital ship, 
and re-named the Bay State. She made three trips to the tropics, and 
was universally conceded to be the best hospital ship of her size afloat. 
Of course a great deal of money was needed for the work, and as a 
starter. President Draper sent out a request to about twenty of his 
wealthy friends, asking them to give $1,000 each to the fund. Practi- 
cally all of them gave the amount asked for. 

The newspapers took the matter up. and the money began to pour 
in. For weeks it was impossible for the treasurer's office force to open 
the mail and enter and acknowledge the subscriptions, they came so fast. 
All in all, the people of the state contributed over $200,000 to the associa- 
tion, giving a striking demonstration of the generosity and patriotism of 
the people of the Commonwealth. 

Physicians and nurses by the score swung into line and volunteered 
their services to help the good work along. 

Each department of the vessel was taken in charge by a committee 
of physicians, and everything necessary was piiton board. It is unneces- 
sary to tell of the service rendered by the Bay State, as the people of the 
whole United States already know it. How many lives she saved can 
never be told. She made three trips to the tropics, just when .she was 
most needed, and many a soldier, who, to-day, is happy among his dear 
ones, would, but for the Bay State, have fotmd a grave in Cuba or Porto 

Not only the men, but the women of the state, were anxious for a 
chance to help. A meeting was held at the State House, attended by 
women of the state, from the Berkshires to Cape Cod, and their one cry 
was: "What can we do?" The men hardly knew what to say; and just 
then a young woman, with a natural talent for organization, came to the 
front. She was Miss Alice S. Clement, of Newton, and she was made 
secretary of the women's committee. As soon as she heard that abdomi- 
nal bands were among the things most needed, she had samples made and 
sent to the women's organizations, and within a week pledges amounting 
to 4,000 bands were received at headquarters. Letters were sent broad- 
cast, suggesting the formation of auxiliary associations, and before the 
war ended there were 320 of these societies at work. When the camp 
hospitals began to fill, letters were sent to the surgeons in charge, asking 
them to write to the association for anything needed; and as this did not 
seem to be enough, agents of the association were sent to the different 
camps, to see for themselves what was wanted. 

< 2 ' 



It was iiere tliat a traycdy fmind a place in this history. The late 
Sherman Hoar entered into this work with all his energy. From camp to 
camp, and from hospital to hospital, he went, not once but many times. In 
response to his reports to the association, food suitable for invalids, hos- 
pital stores and equipments, and clothing, were sent wherever needed. It 
was while he was engaged in this kind of work that Mr. Hoar contracted 
the disease, from the effects of which he died a few weeks later. 

By this time the contributions had so increased that a storehouse 
was hired, and young women, who had never done a day's labor in their 
lives, volunteered their services, and silent day after day unpacking large 
cases of goods, and sorting and re-packing them for shipment to the sol- 

All through the Cuban and Porto Rican campaigns, the association 
did noble work, sending supplies to the camps and hospitals, and bringing 
home on the Bay State hundreds of sick men and convalescents. 

But it was when Camp "Wikoff was established at Montauk that the 
association did its greatest work. A committee was sent to the camp to 
see what was needed, and at once reported that diet kitchens should be 
established, so that the .sick men might have nourishing and palatable 
food. Accordingly Si 0,000 was appropriated for this jaurpose, and soon 
a kitchen was in operation in connection with every hospital in the camp. 
Men from all states, to the number of 1500 or more, were fed from these 
kitchens every day. Other agents were sent down to help Dr. Prescott, 
who had charge of the work. A tug was chartered, which made two trips 
daily between the camp and New London, carrying supplies, and many a 
sick soldier did the Alert take from the camp to New London, and many 
an anxious mother and wife did she carry to the camp. When the soldiers 
reached Montauk on the transports, the first persons to greet them were 
the agents of the association, and when they left the camp, the same 
agents were the last people to say "Good- by" and see that they were made 
comfortable for the trijj to their homes. When the Massachusetts men 
arrived in Boston, the agents of the Volunteer Aid looked out for them; 
and those who came to Massachusetts for treatment, were all cared for in 
the same manner, no matter Avhere their homes were. 

Many men, who should have gone to the hospitals when they re- 
turned, wished to stay at their homes, so a force of volunteer doctors was 
organized, and for many weeks they visited the returned invalids, giving 
them the best of care and treatment. Miss Clement also arranged for a 
corps of women visitors, to call on each family and investigate their needs, 
and at one time had on her list si.xty families, who were being supplied 
with food and medicines. 

Chronologically, the principal items of interest in the history of 
the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Association, are as follows: 


May 3 — In response to an invitation issued by Governor Wolcott, 
fifty prominent gentlemen met in the execi:tive council chamber at the 
State Hotise, for the purpose of taking some action in regard to supplying 
the needs of the state troops in the field. The following executive com- 
mittee was appointed by the Governor, with power to add to their num- 
bers: Eben S. Draper, Henry L. Higginson, Elihu B. Hayes, George von 
L. Meyer, Patrick A. Collins, James Phillips, Robert M. Burnett, T. Jef- 
ferson Coolidge, Jr. This committee organized by electing Mr. Draper 
chairman, Mr. Hayes secretary, and Mr. Higgin.son treasurer. 

May 9 — The offices of the association were opened in the Common- 
wealth building, 1 1 Mt. Vernon street, and Edward C. Mansfield was ap- 
pointed assistant secretary. 

May 1 7 — A finance committee was appointed, composed of Chair- 
man Draper, Nathaniel Thayer, J. Malcolm Forbes, J. Montgomery Sears, 
Dudley Pickman, I. T. Burr and Henry Parkman. On the transportation 
committee were placed H. B. Chapin, Lucius Tuttle, Henry M. Whitney, 
A. M. Graham and Mr. IngersoU. A medical committee was established, 
consisting of Henry P. Wolcott, Herbert L. Burrell, vSamuel A. Green and 
Edward H. Bradford. 

May 19 — Mass meetings were held in the .State House by representa- 
tives of the principal women's clubs and organizations throughout the state. 

May 31 — Steamship Marmion was purchased from the Boston Fruit 
Company for $50,000, to be fitted out as a hospital ship. On this date, Miss 
Alice S. Clement began the preliminary work of providing the women of 
the state with .something definite to do for the soldiers. Surgeon Sieg- 
fried, U. S. N., having sriggested that abdominal bands are a hygienic 
necessity for troops campaigning in tropical countries, and having pro- 
vided a sample from which to work. Miss Clement set a few of her friends 
at work, with the result that sixty samples were made to be sent to 
women's clubs. 

June 23 — The hospital ship Bay State was commissioned by Presi- 
dent McKinley, and Dr. G. A. Siegfried of the navy was detailed to act as 
medical inspector of the vessel. 

June 24 — Bill appropriating $50,000 for the purchase of the Bay 
State, was signed by Governor Wolcott. 

June 2 I — The first important shipment of supplies for the Mas- 
sachusetts troops, was sent to Colonel Bogan, of the Ninth Regiment, at 
Falls Church, Va. Other large shipments to the other regiments of 
the state volunteers were sent during this month. 

July S — The first big shipment of goods to Cuba, was made on 
the converted cruiser St. Louis, Sherman Hoar taking them to Ports- 
mouth, and personally superintending their lading on the warship. The 
shipment included 17,000 pounds of canned goods, 5000 pounds of 



stimulants and liqiiids, 3,000 corncob pipes, 1000 pounds of tobacco and 
forty-six cases of wearing apj^arcl, contributed by the women's supply 
committee. All these goods were for the Second, .Sixth and Ninth 
regiments. Shipments of goods to the army camps took place nearly 
every day throughot:t July. 

July 13 — A supply committee consisting of the foUowino- o-entle- 
men: Eben D. Jordan, Edward C. Johnson, John vShepard, Herbert 
Batcheller, Harry Dutton, Louis Howe, Luther Adams, Jacob C. Bates, 
Wallace L. Pierce, Charles D. Sias, C. F. Goodridge, William J. Seaver, 
Freeman J. Doe, Elwyn G. Preston, W. B. Thomas, William S. Spald- 
ing, George V. Fletcher, Lewis D. Jackson, Si:llivan B. Newton, Jacob 
Fottler, Edward B. Newton, Edward L. Shurtleff, N. Green, J. .S. 
Badger and Andrew G. Weeks, Jr., was organized. 

July 18 — Sherman Hoar and Dr. Titcomb, of Concord, started on 
their first visit to the army camps and hospitals in the .South, to see what 
further the association could do for the soldiers. 

July 19 — Shipment of ten tons of goods to Cuba on the Harvard; 
taken to Portsmouth by Sumner Clement. 

July 25 — Shipment of forty tons of supplies to Cuba on the fruit 
steamer Dumois, in charge of Dr. E. G. Brackett, who went to act as the 
association's agent at .Santiago; followed a few days later by a ten-ton 
shipment on the Barnstable, in charge of Walter Austin. 

Aug. 4 — First detachment of nine sick soldiers brought home from 
Fort Monroe. 

Aug. 6 — Hospital ship Bay .State sailed on her first trip to Cuba, 
with the following medical and navigating staff; — 

Dr. Herbert L. Burrell, siirgeon superintendent; first surgeon. Dr. 
Eugene A. Crockett; second surgeon. Dr. J. T. Bottomly; purser, William 
H. Seabury; first assistant surgeon. Dr. T. J. Alanahan; second assistant 
surgeon. Dr. C. A. Spaulding; head nurse. Miss C. W. Cayford; ntirses, 
Miss Janet Anderson, Miss Muriel G. Gait, Miss Anna M. Blair, Miss 
Sadie Parsons, Miss Sarah Frazer; baymen, S. Hooker, F. P. Droese, L. 
L. Kemp, W. L. Lyford, Peter Salvasen, N. E. Nichols. Navigating 
department — Percival F. Butman, master; Charles Clare, first officer; 
William M. Swasey, second officer; Solomon Bateman, quartermaster; 
George A. Gridley, quartermaster; Charles Brown, boatswain; Charles 
Lindgren, chief engineer; H. Kelly, first assistant engineer; G. Ander- 
son, second assistant engineer; F. J. Leonard, steward. 

Aug. 10 — Dr. C. F. Painter sent to Montauk Point to investigate the 
needs of the camp. 

Aug. II — Second detachment of fifteen sick soldiers brought home 
from Fort Monroe. 

Aug. 16 — Dr. W. H. Prescott sent to Montauk to establish relief 


work there, and $10,000 apiDropriated by the association for diet kitchens. 

Aug. 18 — The first big shipment of supplies was sent to Montauk. 
Tug Alert, chartered to carry goods daily from New London to Montauk, 
and F. P. Wheeler sent to New London, to act as purchasing agent at that 

Aug. 23 — Arrival of hospital ship Olivette with 165 sick soldiers, 
who were provided for by the association. Grafton Gushing sent to Alon- 
tauk to assist in the diet kitchen work. W. Cameron Forbes, H. E. War- 
ner, and Dr. E. H. Bradford added to executive committee. 

Aug. 29 — T. J. McLaughlin, sent to Montauk to look out for the 
needs of the Ninth Regiment. 

Aug. 30 — The Bay State returned from her first trip, bringing nine- 
ty-nine sick soldiers of the Second and Ninth Regiments. 

Sept. 5 — Bay State sailed for Porto Rico, carrying Dr. J. Booth 
Clarkson, to act as representative of the association on the island. 

Sept. 6 — Wreck of Steamer Lewiston, on her way home from Mon- 
tauk, with 1 1 3 sick soldiers on board; every man being brought safely to 
Boston by rail, through the energetic work of Dr. T. B. Shea. 

Sept. 13 — Arrival of hospital ship Relief, with 247 sick soldiers, all 
of whom were provided for by the association. 

Sept. 14 — Eleven convalescents brought home from Montauk, by 
way of New London, in charge of Mr. Mansfield. 

Sept. 15 — Expedition sent out in charge of Dr. J. Babst Blake, 
brings nineteen men home from Chickamauga hospitals. 

Sept. 16 — Dr. C. J. Fitzgerald brings fourteen more men from 

Sept. 20 — Dr. Fitzgerald arrives with twelve more convalescents 
from Montauk. 

Sept. 27 — Arrival of Bay State from Porto Rico with ninety-nine 
sick men. 

Oct. 6 — Bay State sails again for Porto Rico with relief supplies. 

Oct. 7 — Death of vSherman Hoar, from disease contracted in army 
hospitals, while at work fm- the association. 

Oct. 18 — Treasurer Higginson authorized to sell the Bay State to 
the government, the matter having been arranged by President Draper 
and Secretary Hayes while on a trip to Washington for the purpose. 
Purchase price of $100,000 agreed upon. Of this amount, which was 
duly received, $50,000 was refunded to the state, in payment of the amount 
advanced for the purchase of the vessel from the Boston Fruit Company. 

Oct. 28 — Return of Bay State from Porto Rico, bringing 135 sick 
and convalescent .soldiers, mostly of the Sixth Regiment. 



AT the date of the settlement of Boston and Plymouth, the world 
knew nothing of what we call Light Artillery, although there was 
no lack of cannon of almost every calibre. Plymouth's fortress- 
church, and the batteries which guarded Boston Neck, and the 
harbor front, with every sea-going craft of even moderate tonnage, and the 
garrison houses of the outlying towns, all formd a place and a pretty con- 
stant necessity for artillery. Culverin, Demi-culverin, Falcon, Saker, 
Drake, Pateraro, "Chambers" (breech -loading swivels,) and huge wall- 
pieces and swivels, were not lacking for garrison defense, or sea-warfare. 
In the field, however, our ancestors seem to have relied wholly on sword, 
pike and musketry, until in later years they began to encounter the 
regular troops of the French empire. 

In the State archives there are ancient warrants, letters and 
accounts, giving the details of shipments of plain, clumsy guns of English 
iron, brass and bronze pieces from Holland, and "Bilboa of Spain," the 
spoil of French, Spanish and mongrel "privateers and pyrates," and even 
of good fighting and better booty, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, where 
Morrocco, Algiers and Tunisian pirates, harassed all Christian commerce 
which would not pay tribute to the Alussulman rulers of the African 
Coast. A certain skill in the use of cannon, was expected of every able 
seaman, and shij^'s officer, until in the present century, the right of pri- 
vate war upon the high seas, was practically abolished. It followed, of 
course, that there were few points along the coast, where some artillery 
could not be found and utilized against the public enemy, and artillery 
companies, beginning with the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany in 1637-38, were formed in every important town, and long consti- 
tuted an important branch of the active militia. 

But both colonies had lost their original charters, wh^n, in 1690, the 
great Vauban, allotted to the cannon then existing, their several places 
in the domain of the artillerist. He rated the sixteen and twenty-four 
pounders as ''siege guns," and the four, eight and twelve pounders as 
"field artillery," ignoring a vast number of the many different calibres; 
and notably many since his time prominent in the estimation of great 
generals and sea commanders, such as the six, nine and eighteen pound 

His authoritative dicta, for a while, largely reduced the number of 
calibres made and used, simpli.fied the problem of ammunition supply, and 


prepared the way for that greater mobilization of the artillery arm, which 
Frederick the Great was the first to appreciate, accomplish and profit by. 
For nearly sixty years, however, guns in the field remained only "guns of 
position." although the smaller pieces were, to some extent, used with 
considerable tactical ability, and Vauban's dicta simply meant that the 
larger pieces should never be taken on a campaign unless for the purposes, 
of a siege, or for the defense of an intrenched camp. 

To use an epigram of a prominent military writer: "Guns lived in 
magazines; were taken out as occasion required, and wei-e manoeuvered 
by men on foot, either with drag ropes, or bullocks." In Massachusetts, 
this could be truly said of the Massachusetts Artillery, nearly a century 
after Frederick the Great had demonstrated the terrible power and celerity 
of "horse artillery." During the entire eighteenth century and late into 
the nineteenth, slow oxen and over-taxed horses drew the heavy pieces, 
with their massive and uncouth tumbrils and wagons over the country 
roads, or through the wilderness, to the scene of battle. There they were 
placed in position, and if necessary, moved by men with ropes (prolonges) 
to repel an attack, and sometimes placed to enfilade an advancing 
column, or hostile line. 

In 1759, Frederick the Great, of Prussia instituted "horse artillery"; 
i. e., batteries whose guns, made as light as the German artificer and de- 
signer of that day could be brought to countenance, were accompanied 
by officers and men on horseback. The carriages were still clumsy, and 
could not be turned at a sharp corner in a narrow road, and the guns were 
cumbrous, being at least twenty-two calibres in length; but their mobility 
and effect so exceeded those of other nations, that; after great losses and 
ruinous defeats; Austria, from twenty years of disaster, learned the lesson 
taught by the Prussian king, and adopted the new artillery arm in 1779; 
France in the throes of the revolution in 1791-93, and Russia and Eng- 
land even slower to learn, in the latter year. These batteries were 
reallv mounted gunners, accompanying clumsy guns, for up to 18 16, the 
gun carriage and limber could rarely be carried through a narrow way, 
having a turn at right angles. Most of the older cannon then in use had 
double trails: were elevated by means of quoins or wooden wedges; to 
some extent were loaded with loose powder, shovelled in by a powder 
scoop, at the end of a rammer, and had no sights except grooves cut in 
the rings at the chase and breech. 

Direct shell fire was unknown; shrapnel had not been invented, and 
ricochet fire with solid shot at long range, and grape, canister and lang- 
rao-e at short distances, were the main reliance of the artillerist. The 
chief improvements made by the Prussian conqueror, had been the reduc- 
tion of the length of the piece from 22 to 18 calibres, and of its weight 
from 250 pounds of metal to the pound weight of shot to 159 pounds, les- 



sening the weight of the six-pounder from 1,500 to 900 pounds. Besides 
this, the trail was so fastened to the limber as to favor a very short turn 
to right or left. The powder wagons and tumbrils, or two-wheeled cov- 
ered carts, were still just what their name implies, heavy, clumsy, and 
easily disabled in rough ground. 

The Alassachusetts artillery arm was formerly closely modelled on 
its English prototype, and when in 1745, Sir William Pepperell invaded 
Cape Breton, to beseige Louisburg, three companies of the English 
Royal Artillery Regiment accompanied the little army. Richard Gridley, 
who had served with this force, later retired on half-pay, and settled in 
Boston. When the Revolution broke out he was made colonel of the First 
Artillery Regiment; which he organized, as had been the custom of fifty 
years before, except that he commissioned an extra major, and also two 


surgeon's mates, or as we now call them, assistant-surgeons, making two 
battalions, each commanded by a major, and having its own surgeon's 
assistant. This organization included the following officers: colonel, 
lieutenant-colonel, two majors, surgeon, two surgeon's mates, adjutant, 
quartermaster, two cadets, four conductors, one store-keeper, two clerks. 

There were ten companies, each of which consisted, when complete, 
of a captain, captain-lieutenant, first lieutenant, two second lieutenants, 
or "fire-workers," four sergeants, four corporals, six gunners, six bom- 
bardiers, and thirty-two matrosses. 

In England, the captain-lieutenant was a recognized rank until 
1S72. The "fire-worker," a military term applied to the second-lieuten- 
ant lowest in rank, was also known in the British service during the early 
part of the 19th century. 

The bombardier is an old term for an artillery man having skill in 


loading and firing shells, while tlie gunner's duties are still recognized by 
modern artillerists. "Matross" is an obsolete term, for what we now call 
a heavy artillerist, a soldier armed with a musket or rifle, who guarded 
his piece on the march, and manned it in battle. Practically, therefore, 
Gridley's First Regiment of Artillery was the prototype and model of all 
the Massachusetts artillery companies existing previous to the year 

These were generally furnished with one or two six-pounder brass 
guns, kept in the local gun house or company armory, furnished with one 
caisson, and ropes for manoeuvering. The company was generally armed 
with muskets, although a number of men, especially assigned to artillery 
duty, were sometimes equipped only with the artillery sword, a short, 
straight, heavy, sharp-pointed, double-edged weapon, with simple massive 
cross hilt, like the ancient Roman sword. These, by the way, are now 
very rare, and desirable as curiosities. 

In 1840, there were enrolled in the militia, in the First Brigade, ist 
Division, the First Battalion of Artillery, three Boston companies; Second 
Battalion, the Roxbury, Dorchester and Weymouth companies, and the 
detached Waltham company; seven companies. 

Jn the 2d Brigade, ist Division, the Third Battalion of Artillery, 
consisting of the Abington, Hanover and Plymouth companies, and the 
detached Norton company; four companies. 

In the 2d Division, 3d Brigade, the First Regiment of Artillery, of 
the Charleston, Watertown, Lexington and Concord companies, and the 
detached Groton company; four companies. 

In the 4th Brigade, the Fourth Battalion of Artillery of the Salem. 
Lynn and Gloucester companies and the Fifth Battalion of the Newbury- 
port and Andover companies; four companies. 

In the 3d Division, Fifth Brigade, the Sixth Battalion, of the Lan- 
caster, Leominster and Barre companies, and the detached Milford com- 
pany; four companies. 

In the 6th Brigade, the Second Regiment of Artillery, the Spring- 
field, Belchertown, Westfieldand Monson companies, and the Third Regi- 
ment of Artillery, the Northampton, Northfield, Greenfield, Buckland, 
and Plainfield companies; nine companies. 

Of these thirty-four companies of artillery, it was recommended 
that twenty-two be disbanded, or re -organized as infantry companies. 

In 1 84 1, there were only twenty-eight artillery companies, to fifty- 
four of infantry, seventeen of riflemen, and two of grenadiers, and the 
artillery equipment was improved by the purchase of sixteen six-pounder 
guns, one twelve-pound howitzer, and a lot of artillery swords. 

In 1844, there were twenty -six companies, with two six-pounder 
guns and one caisson each: fifty-two guns in all. Those of the Boston 





Artillery Company. Company A, Kiftli Rcyiment, were kept in a ''tjun- 
house near the foot of the common," as some readers will remember. In 
1845, there were five regiments and three detached companies of artillery: 
twenty-three companies in all, and in 1847 only twenty companies. 

None of these companies, however, bore any relation to the light 
battery of to-day. 

Soon these too, had all been swallowed up by the infantry force, 
and Washington's plan of having two field pieces with each infantry bat- 
talion, which at date of August 9, 1776, had given him seventeen brigades 
of infantry with sixty-eight three, four and six-pound field guns, besides 
the heavier pieces of the siege train, had become an obsolete idea. 

In 1808, Secretary of War Dearborn, at Washington, D. C, ordered 
certain experiments, with two six-pounders, one ammunition wagon, one 
liti-ht horse wagon carrying four men, besides the driver, and horses for 
officers, one sergeant and three men, which greatly astonished the mili- 
tary men of that day by showing that light artillery could be moved along 


the country roads "at from five to six miles an hour;" and in 1S34, Secre- 
tary Poinsett organized the first regular battery of horse artillery, each 
man being separately horsed to allow of the most rapid movement. The 
guns themselves showed considerable improvements; chiefly adopted in 
1S31; when the "brackett" or double trail was replaced by the "stock" or 
single trail; the quoin or wedge by the elevating screw% and the bare 
axles were covered bv convenient ammunition boxes. 


The batteries which so greatly aided in winning- the j^rincipal bat- 
tles of the Mexican war, were horse artillery, and their mobility and dis- 
cipline made them greatly superior to the Mexican batteries, which were 
organized and manoeuvercd in the old way. It was some years later, 
however, that the Massachusetts militia force possessed a modern light 

Battery A, Light Artillery, was organized December 29, 1S53, under 
Captain Moses G. Cobb, of Charlestown, and attached to the ist Brigade, 
1st Division, M. V. M. 

The "First Artillery" was organized by Major Edward J. Jones, 
August 2, 1862, after Battery A had been disbanded, as elsewhere recited. 
Besides this battery a section of light artillery had been formed in Salem, 
and was in 1860-61, attached to the 4th Brigade. 

The War of the Rebellion brought into the field the following light 
batteries, all of which deserve honorable mention: — 

First Light Artillery, Captain Josiah Porter, left the State, Octo- 
ber 3, 1 861; Second, Ormond F. Nims, August 8, 1861; Third, Dexter 
H. Follett, October 7, 1861; Fourth, Charles H. Manning, November 27, 
1S61; Fifth, Max Eppendorf, October 23, 1861. 

Sixth, Charles Everett, June 20, 1862; Seventh, Phineas A. Davis, 
April 20, 1861; Eighth, Asa M. Cook, June 10, 1862; Ninth, Achille de 
Vecchi, July 3. 1862; Tenth, J. Henry Sleeper, September 25, 1862, 
Eleventh, Edward J. Jones, August 25, 1864; Twelfth, Jacob Miller; 
December 8, 1862; Thirteenth, Philip H. Tyler, November 3, 1862; 
Fifteenth, Timothy Pearson, February 4, 1S63; Fourteenth, Joseph 
W. B. Wright, February 25, 1S64; Sixteenth, Henry D. Scott, March 11, 

These batteries, with scarcely an exception, were at one time or 
another, of especial service to the union forces, and it is almost invidious 
to particularize in so brief an article. The frontispiece of this volume how- 
ever, ilkustrates a cri.sis in the battle of Gettysburg, when Phillip's Fifth 
and Bigelow's Ninth Massachusetts Batteries, with three others, enfiladed 
the victorious Confederate advance, which drove back vSickle's Third 
Corps at the Peach Orchard, July 2, 1863, and forced their right wing to 
turn on the artillery, which covered the ground with their dead. One 
after another, the other batteries were safely drawn off to form a second 
line of defense, but Bigelow's Ninth covered the retreat; retired, firing 
a prolonge, for some four hundred yards, until it was checked by the angle 
of two converging stone walls, and was ordered to hold the position at all 
hazards. Here without infantry supports, and unable to use canister on 
the infantry which charged on either flank, the battery was fought, until 
Lieutenant Erickson was killed, Captain Bigelow badly wounded, and 
only two guns could be .saved from capture. Captain Bigelow, led by 


Bugler Rccd into the vortex: (if the new Hne of fire, escaped capture, and 
the Fifth Battery prevented the confederates from carrying- off the guns 
left on the field. Both of these episodes have been selected for illu.stration, 
and the results are generally commended by experienced artillerymen. 

At the Encampment held bj- the Massachusetts ]\Iilitia at Medford, 
October iS, 1865, the following batteries of light artillei'y were present. 

First (Cummings) Battery, of Boston; Second (Baxter's) Battery, 
of Boston; Third, (Ayer's) Battery, of ]\Ialden; Fottrth (Mclntire's) Bat- 
tery, of Lawrence. 

These were in 1S67 attached to the ist and 2d Brigades, the two 
Boston batteries goingtothe ist Brigade. In 1 868, Captain James B. Ayer, 
of Maiden, had been succeeded in the command of the Third Battery, by 
Edward E. Currier of the same town. In 1S69, Section A, Light Artil- 
lery, of Worcester, Lieutenant Henry W. Reed commanding, organized 
as the Fifth Battery, and was attached to the 3d Brigade, then composed 
of the Second and Tenth Infantry. 

In 1870, James B. Ayer of Maiden, again commanded the Third, 
and George S. Merrill, of Lawrence, succeeded Henry X. Mclntire as 
captain of the Fourth Battery. 

In 1871, the First Battalion of Light Artillery was formed under 
Major Dexter H. Follett, the batteries were lettered, and Battery A, for- 
merly the First, was commanded by Edwin C. Langley, of Chelsea; the 
Second, now Battery B, by Charles W. Baxter; and the Third, Captain 
Clark W. Baldwin; Fourth, Geo. S. Merrill, and Fifth. John G. Reed, 
were still independent batteries. 

In 1873, the adjutant-general ordered that "The Third Light Bat- 
tery [oi Maiden) Captain Clark G. Baldwin, and the Fourth Light Bat- 
tery (of Lawrence) Captain George S. Merrill, be designated and known 
as the Second Battalion of Light Artillery, attached to the 2d Brigade, 
and these were duly lettered C and D, the Fifth (Worcester) Battery 
being still unlettered. At this time the armament of these batteries were 
as follows: Battery A, Boston, six six-pound Napoleons; Battery B, Bos- 
ton,, six ten-pound Parrott rifles; Battery C, Maiden, four ten-pound 
Parrott rifles; Battery D, Lawrence, four twelve-pound Napoleons; Fifth 
Battery, Worcester, four ten-pound Parrott rifles. In 1875, the number 
of guns in Batteries A and B was reduced to four. 

In 1876, the legislature passed an act reducing the number of field 
batteries, in time of peace, to three; and Battery B, of Boston, Captain C. 
W. Baxter, and Battery D, of Lawrence, Captain George G. Durrell, wars 
a little the lowest in membership and efficiency, and were disbanded, leav- 
ing the force composed of Battery A, Boston, four twelve-pound brass Na- 
poleons; Battery B, of Worcester, four ten-pound Parrott rifles; and Bat- 
tery C, of Melrose four ten-pound Parrott rifles. 


In iS86, Battery C, of 2kIelrose, Captain Boyd, havin.L^ fallen below 
the required membersliip and efficiency, was disbanded. Company ^I, of 
the Eighth Regiment of Infantry, ^l. V. ]\I., was transferred to the artil- 
lery arm, and designated Battery C, ^lay lo, 1886, under the command 
of its captain, Lawrence N. Duchesney. 

In 1 891, the ten-pound Parrott rifles manned by Batteries B and C, 
were exchanged for the three-inch, ordnance, muzzle-loading rifles now in 
use, and in 1894 the six Gatling guns, which had for some years formed 
a part of the armament of the three batteries, were turned into the de- 
partment, and re-issued to the infantry regiments. 

The official record of Battery B is as follows: Organized as a sec- 
tion of artillery. First Lieutenant Henry W. Reed commanding, ilay 14, 
1869; recruited and organized as the Fifth Battery October 18, 1869. 
Captain Reed was succeeded by John G. Rice, 1S71-1877; George L. 
Allen, 18/7-1881; Henry C. Wadsworth, 1882-1883; George L. Allen, 
1 883- 1 884; Fred W. Wellington, 1884-18S7; John E. Merritt, 18S7-1889; 
George L. Allen, J8S9-1891; Lawrence G. Bigelow, 1891-1894; Joseph 
Bruso, Jr., 1894-189S; William A. Lewis, 1898-1S99; Herbert W. Haynes 
February 17, 1899. 

Battery B has always been a Worcester battery, and has uniformly 
been commended for its strength and discipline. It has formed a part of 
the First Battalion ever since 1S91, when Battery A was detached there- 
from, and left with the Second Brigade, while Battery B took its place in 
the First Battalion, which was assigned to the First Brigade. 

The official record of Battery C, which includes the infantry ser- 
vice of its original organization, is as follows: Company K, Sixth Regi- 
ment, 'SI. V. ~Sl., Captain Edgar J. Sherman, organized 1S64, and mus- 
tered into the United States service July 14, 1864, serving until October 
27, 1864. Ti'ansf erred to the Eighth Regiment of Infantry, and desig- 
nated Company AI, Captain Lawrence A^. Duchesney, December 3, 1878. 
Transferred from the Eighth Regiment of Infantry to the artillery arm, and 
designated Battery C, ^lay 10, 1886, and transferred from the Second to 
the First Brigade May 18, 1891, while still under the command of Captain 
Duchesney, who became major of the battalion May 9, 1S93, and was suc- 
ceeded by Captain W^illiam L. Stedman, of Lawrence, who still com- 
mands the battery. None of the ilas.sachusetts batteries were in the 
United States service during the Spanish- American 'War, but for some 
time they acted as a part of the First Brigade Corps of observation, cov- 
ering the coast from Telegraph Hill, Hull, to Newburyport. 


By Captain Elisha H. Shaw (deceased), and Captain Amos R. Leighton, commanding 

THIS troop Avas organized September 5. 1864, through the active 
efforts of Christopher Roby, Esq., of West Chelmsford, its first 
commander. Tlie prime cause of its formation was to assist in 

defending our northern frontier against the attacks then threatened 
from Canada, b}' Southern sympathiz- 
ers with the rebellion. Captain Roby 
raised one hundred men, and was 
elected captain, with Edgar S. Park- 
hurst, First Lieutenant; Warren C. 
Hamblet, Second Lieutenant; Samuel 
F. Dalton, Assistant Surgeon; and Her- 
bert H. Emerson, Adjutant, all resi- 
dents of Chelmsford; and the members 
of the troop belonged in the towns of 
Chelmsford, Billerica, Dracut and 

At its first encampment in West- 
ford, the troop was presented with a 
stand of colors by Colonel Charles H. 
Dalton, a grandson of Captain Noah 
Spaukling, who in earlier times com- 
manded a company of Chelmsford 
mounted men, and from whom Troop 
F received its early name — "The 

Spaulding Light Cavalry, Company F." Captain Roby remained in 
command thirteen (13) years, and in 1877 was succeeded by Captain Sher- 
man H. Fletcher, of Westford, who retained the command for eleven (in 

During Captain Fletcher's administration the several squads were 
re-organized and their location changed. The headquarters of the troop 
was moved from West Chelmsford, and squads were established at North 
Chelmsford, Carlisle, Westford, Groton and Pepperell. 

In 1888, Captain Fletcher resigned, and Horace W. Wilson, of Car- 
lisle, was elected Captain — headquarters remaining at Westford — and 


Hid Xov. ai, isa.s. 



held this office until September, 1893, when Elisha H. Shaw, of North 
Chelmsford, was chosen captain, and the headquarters were removed to 

'^ IT** S'^fi-^ .. 

North Chelmsford. The troop since its organization has been composed 
of men residing in the towns of Northern Middlesex, and most of them 
have owned their horses. 

The names of the past officers of the troop are as follows: — 

Captains — Christopher Roby, Chelmsford; Sherman H. Fletcher, 
Westford; Horace W. Wilson, Carlisle; Elisha H. vShaw, Chelmsford. 

Adjutants — Herbert H. Emerson, Chelmsford; Elijah D. Bearce, 

Assistant Surgeons — Samuel L, Dalton, Boston; Levi Howard, 
Chelmsford; Josepl^B. Heald. Westford; Walter H. Leighton, Lowell. 

laniNii Til WATICK 

Lieutenants — Edgar S. Parkhurst, Chelmsford; Warren C. Hamb- 
let, Chelmsford; Allan Cameron, Westford; Arthur H. Clement, Boston; 
James A. Davis, Dunstable; Benjamin F. Day. Westford; Nathan B. 

TiiL 111 i.i.i; I viJ. 


Laphnian. Clu-hnsfdrd; W. L. KittrcdL;-c, Wcstford; Everctl C Williams, 
Ciroton; William H. Quigley, Chelmsford. 

The present officers are: — 

Captain — Amos R. Leighton, Lowell. 
Assi.stant Surgeon — Amasa Howard, Chelmsford. 
First Lieutenant — John J. Monahan, Westford. 
Second Lieutenant — Edward tL Keyes, Chelmsford. 

The troop is now composed of four detachments, located as fol- 
lows: — 

Squad No. i — North Chelmsford; squad No. 2, Chelmsford; squad 
No. 3, Carlisle; squad No. 4, Westford. 

The following is added to the above modest statements by the 
editor: — 

At the yearly encampment of the ist Brigade, under Brigadier- 
General Thomas R. Mathews, held at the State Camp Grounds, South 
P'ramingham, during the week closing August 25, 1899, Troop F entered 
the camp with 106 officers and men, splendidly mounted, and generally 
furnishing their own horses. 

While the carbines carried were not of the most desirable pattern, 
and more liberality on the part of the State was evidently desirable in the 
matter of equij^ments, the troop made a fine appearance, and in the 
parades, review\s, manoeuvres, and all other duties of the camp, reflected 
great credit upon officers and men. 

As there has, fortunately, been no invasion of the soil of ^lassa- 
chusetts, nor any intestine riot or oittlawry requiring the use of cavalry, 
this fine body of volunteer horse, has never had an opportunity to dis- 
play its valor and endurance in the field, or its ability to act swiftly and 
effectively in the vindication of the laws of the Commonwealth. 

Notwithstanding this disadvantage, the esprit da corps of Troop F 
has never been dimmed or diminished, and its ex-members still take a 
pride in its past history and present reputation. 

It is a costly and onerous service, requiring much extra trouble and 
expenditure, as well as the training of both man and horse; but the rough 
riding displayed at Framingham, in addition to the regular cavalry exer- 
cises, demonstrated a spirit of einulation and soldierly love of equitation, 
which argues well for the future of the troop. 

It should also be said, that in the use of the rifle — albeit the car- 
bine can hardly be expected to compete on equal terms with the long ser- 
vice rifle — Troop F has always secured a high record for general efficiency 
as marksmen. 



The Record of Alarksmen, M. V. M., 1S9S, gives Troop F the fol- 
lowing official standing: — 

Four distinguished marksmen, thirty-two sharpshooters, nine 
first-class marksmen, twenty-four second-class marksmen, five third-class 


marksmen, eight unqualified members, out of a total of eighty-two men. 
At the cavalry competition at Walnut Hill, October 31, 1898, teams of 
ten. fifteen shots each, at 200 yards, possible score 750, Troop F led with 
569 points, against 504 for Troop D, and 493 points for Troop A. 

In 1S87, Troop F, with the same number of men, was credited 
with five distinguished marksmen, thirty-five sharpshooters, nine first-class 
marksmen, thirty-one second-class marksmen, two third-class marksmen; 
each and every member of the troop having qualified; a record unequalled 
by any other organization. At the cavalry competition of 1S97, the 
Troop F teams carried off the trophy, making a score of 608 points, oiit 
of a possible score of 750, against 557 for Troop D, and 527 for troop A. 

In revolver practice, the troop boasts of several first-class shots, and 
many who much exceed average proficiency, qualifying fifty-three revol- 
ver marksmen, in 1897, out of eighty -two members. 

Since 1898 the membership of Troop F has been largely increased, 
owing to the efforts of Captain Amos R. Leighton and his fellow officers, 
ably seconded by the non-commis.sioned officers and men. 



M. V. M. 


WITH the brief moiiogTuph of the late Captain Elisha H. Shaw 
on Troop F Cavalry, and the following biographies of olScers 
of the i\Ia.ssachiisetts militia, past and jaresent, ends the First 
\"oli:me of the "Regiments and Armories of ^^lassachusetts." 
Since its first inception the work has been greatly enlarged in scope 
and interest. Hundreds of illustrations have been designed, or sought out 
and reproduced. The Spanish-American war has renewed the laurels of 
the citizen soldiery of the Bay State, and, in a number of instances, 
crowned a second time the veterans of the great civil war. A foreign 
war has practically denuded the republic of its regular troops, and any 
emergency would force the national government to rely on that State Mil- 
itia, whose history this work seeks to perpetuate, while demonstrating 
the practical and laborious effort which underlies its apparently unevent- 
ful existence, and the great personal sacrifice of time and money, made 
by the men and officers who, from generation to generation, have learned 
and practiced the arts of war, that their people might enjoy prosperity and 
peace, without fear of foreign aggression or domestic anarchy. 

The Second Volume will begin with the official history of the Sec- 
ond Brigade, and the several organizations of which it is composed, and be 
followed by those of the Cadets battalions, Naval Brigade, and .Signal Ser- 
vice Corps, with a most complete and exhaustive history of State Rifle 
Practice, and another on the history of the ]\Iedical Department, which, 
in itself, will be a most interesting chapter of the history of I\Iassachu- 
setts. Short sketches of individual Regiments, Batteries, Companies, 
Veteran Associations, Societies, etc., etc., which are legitimately con- 
nected with the history of the State Militia will form a part of the 
volume, and the biographical section will continue the series of individ- 
ual histories. 

The illustrations of the Second Volume will doubtless excel those 
of the First, in number if not in interest, as there will necessarily be less 
official and historical detail therein. The co-operation of the subscribers 
to this work is earnestly requested, that this closing volume may be . an 
interesting and reliable compendium of the past history an.l present con- 
dition of the State ]\Iilitia. ilore it cannot be, for an exhaustive recital 
of the services, sufferings, achievements, successes and supreme sacrifices 
of the citizen soldiers of Massachusetts, would make a library of itself, 
and require the entire life-work of several investigators and historians to 
complete it. 


The "Regiments and Armories of Massachusetts," is the pioneer 
work in this great field, it being the first dealing with the general history 
and development of the militia of a State of the American Union. It 
has a purpose beyond that of realizing its cost and amassing profits ; for 
it also seeks to awaken a more just and generous, popular pride and ti'ust 
in the only form of military organization which can be safely fostered and 
continuously enlarged and developed by a free people. 

The citizen soldiery of a State have never degraded or enslaved it ; 
have rarely willingly aided in the degradation and enslavement of their 
neighbors, and can be made as effective and well-disciplined as any regu- 
lar troops on earth, with less expense and more safety to the .State. This 
belief and a desire to realize and perpetuate it, in a larger and even better 
disciplined Massachusetts Militia; is the main theme and inspiration of 
this volume, and will characterize its successor. 

The practical loss of the year iSgS, owing to the fact that many of 
the authors and subscribers to this work were en campaign, or engaged 
in exacting official service, has greatly delayed its completion, and at the 
same time necessitated unexpected and material additions to the original 
conception. It will be found that it is both larger and better for the un- 
avoidable delay and interruption. 

Necessarily limited to a comparatively small edition, this work 
should be promptly secured by everyone, whose associations with the 
Massachusetts Militia, either personal, hereditary, or sympathetic, make it 
desirable. Canvassers cannot long be kept in the field, and the delivery 
of the second volume will be hastened as fast as possible. The character 
and experience of its principal authors, will always make their part of the 
work a valuable and indispensable addition to every well-chosen jjublic 
and private library, in which the history of JMassachusetts is properly rep- 

Beyond these con.siderations, the biographies herein contained will, 
in the years to come, when human sorrow has long since ceased to lament 
the departed, and even bronze and stone have become meaningless re- 
minders of a long past generation, have an ever-increasing value in the eyes 
of po.sterity, and re -awaken and increase in the hearts of the men of that 
splendid future, that patriotism and unselfish devotion which dies not 
with regiment or soldier, but draws new life and power as generation after 
generation, give unselfish service, and utter self-devotion to the preserva- 
tion of just government and true freedom. 

Govi'iiiorofJIassachusetts, lSH7-'i8-!lii, Coiiimandcr-in-Chicf. M. V M. 



Roger Wolcott, now Governor of the State of ^lassachusetts, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the militia of the Commonwealth, was born in 
Boston, July 13, 1847. His remote ancestor, John Wolcott, of Tolland, 
in Somersetshire, England, was a gentleman of good birth and repute, 
and comfortable estate, whose fair acres lay in one of the many fertile, 
well-watered, and pleasant vales of one of the most beautiful counties 
of the sottth of England. His son Henry, and his wife Elizabeth, are 
thus spoken of in the "Family Chronologie," A. D., 1690: "This hap- 
pie paire were married about ye yeare 1606. He came to New Englande 
about ye yeare 1628. and in 1630 brought over his family to avoid the per- 
secutions of those tymes against the Dissenters." 

Henry Wolcott was himself in comfortable circumstances, and 
readily devoted a liberal part of his estate to the enterprise of settling 
and building New England. His name is found in the list of "freemen" 
of Boston, as early as 1630; but in less than six years later, we find him 
among the pioneer settlers of Windsor, Conn. There the English puri- 
tan and his wife lived many years, until, as the old chronicle goes on to 
say, "they dyed in hope, and ly buried under one tomb in Windsor." 

Simon, the younger son of Henry Wolcott, begot Roger Wolcott — 
a man of marked individuality and strong character, who filled several 
offices of trust, and was second in command under Sir William Pepperrell, 
in that famous expedition which resulted in the capture of Louisbourg, 
Cape Breton, in 1745. In 1750, he became Governor of Connecticut. 

His son, Oliver Wolcott, was a member of the Continental Coa- 
oress, and was one of the immortal signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. With the rank of brigadier-general, he served, in 1777, under 
General Gates, took part in the battle of Saratoga, and the siege which 
resulted in the surrender of General Burgoyne and his Hessian mer- 
cenaries. At the close of the war he was elected major-general of the 
Connecticut militia, served in both branches of the Connecticut legisla- 
ture, was for many years Jridge of Probate, and later, Chief Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas; and after serving as Lieutenairt-Governor 
for ten years was elected Governor of Connecticut, which position he 
held at the time of his death. 

Frederick Wolcott, son of the above, and fifth in the line of 
descent, graduated at Yale, first in his class, and was for forty years Judge 
of Probate, during which period, it is said, that not a single decree made 
by him was reversed on appeal. He took a deep interest in all public mat- 


tei's, and economic and social reforms, and witii his brother, Oliver Wolcott, 
did much to advance the mercantile and manufacturing interests of his 

His son, J. Huntington AVolcott, sixth in descent, entered the old 
and reputable house of A. & A. Lawrence & Co., Boston — a leading firm 
in manufacturing and mercantile circles. He was a gentleman of great 
energy, sagacity, and probity, in the estimation of his contemporaries, 
and married Cornelia, daughter of Samuel Frothingham, Esq. Of this 
union was born the subject of this sketch; but his mother died in 1850, 
when he was little more than three years old. 

Roger Wolcott received most of his early education in a private 
school in Boston, and later, graduated at Harvard College in the class of 
1870, which elected him class orator. His oration on Commencement 
Day on "The Early Franciscans," was highly commended. He chose 
the legal profession; but, as a rule, did not practice in the courts. 

He was a member of the Common Council of Boston from 1877 to 
1879; served in the House of Representatives from 1882 to 1884; was 
elected Lieutenant-Governor in 1892, 1893, and 1894, and by the death of 
Governor Greenhalge in 1896, became acting governor of the State, since 
which time, by the choice of the peoj^le, he has filled the Governor's chair 
to date. 

He was married September 2, 1S74, to Edith, grand-daughter of 
William H. Prescott, the historian, himself the grandson of Colonel 
William Prescott, of Pepperrell, the fearless leader of the militiamen at 
Bunker Hill. Of this union were born Huntington F., who died in 
infancy, Roger, William Prescott, S. Hi:ntington, Cornelia F.,and Oliver. 
Roger, after having served as private in Battery A, First Heavy Artil- 
lery, during the Spanish war, is now second lieutenant of Battery L, in the 
same regiment. 

Governor Wolcott has a brief but creditable militia record in the 
Massachusetts militia, of which he is now the commander-in-chief, having 
served as private and sergeant in the Second Regiment Infantry, M. V. M. 
His chief work in this regard is a part of the history of the splendid 
services of the State of ^Massachusetts during the Spanish-American war 
of 1S98-99, whose imminence he early realized. Always ready and 
anxious to advance the interests of the militia of the State, he was at 
once the head and co-laborer of the staff of military officials, whose 
foresight and preparation made the Massachusetts Volunteers the best 
equipped and provided of all the militia who took the field. 

He was no less anxious for their welfare and comfort when cam- 
paigning abroad, and sick or disabled, and his record as a War-Governor 
adds another chapter to the already noble record of the intelligent, faith- 
ful, and humane labors of the war-rulers of Massachusetts. 

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Frederick T. Greenhalge was born in Clitheroe, near Lancaster, 
Eno-land, July 19, 1842. While he was still a boy his parents moved to 
this country, and in 1854 took up their residence in Lowell, where their 
son entered the public schools of that city, and in due time gradtiated 
from the high school with marked honors. 

He entered Harvard in 1859, and was obliged to leave the univer- 
sity because of the death of his father. In 1S62, he taught school, study- 
in"- law in his spare moments. In 1863, he offered to enlist in the army, 
but could not pass the medical examination. He went to Newbern, N. C, 
hoping to get a position in a colored regiment. He afterward summed 
up his own experience in the following words: "I got neither commis- 
sion, pension, nor record — nothing but malaria." 

Mr. Greenhalge's home life was an exceptionally happy one. He 
married, in 1872, Miss Isabel Nesmith. Of that union there are three 
children — Frederick B., Harriet Nesmith, and Richard Spalding. 

Mr. Greenhalge was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 1865. In 
1 86 8, his official career began with his election to the Common Council of 
Lowell, serving in that body for two years, and in 1871 and 1S72, on the 
school board. 

He was elected Mayor of Lowell in 1880 and 1S81, making one of 
the most thoroughly business-like mayors the city ever had. 

In 1885, he represented his city in the lower branch of the legisla- 
ture. In 1888, he was elected to Congress, and at once leaped into prom- 
inence, his speeches receiving attention all over the country. 

Again in 1890, he was a candidate for Congress, but was defeated 
by the Democratic nominee. 

In 1893, Mr. Greenhalge was elected Governor of Massachusetts 
by a large majority. In his inat:gural address January 4, 1894, Governor 
Greenhalge advised retrenchments in State expenditure, a correspond- 
ino- reduction of taxes, and an incidental equitable adjustment of the 
public burden. He also advocated especial generosity in dealing with 
State charities. 

His courage and consistency in following out a course, once decided 
upon as the right one, were shown by his unqualified opposition to the 
proposition to abolish the executive council, notwithstanding the fact that 
that body several times refused to confirm his appointments, and thus, to 
some extent, opposed a barrier to the execution of his plans. 

In 1S94, Governor Greenhalge was, however, re-nominated and 
re-elected, and his course, as a whole, needed no better vindication. 


In November, 1895, he was again elected, by the largest plural- 
ity of any of the three years, in opposition to Hon. George Fred Wil- 
liams, after a campaign remarkable alike for a most stirring canvass, and 
the utmost courtesy and respect which existed between the nominees. 

Late in November, 1895, the Governor went to the Atlanta Expo- 
sition, accompanied by several members of his staif. At Atlanta he made 
two noteworthy addresses — one on Massachusetts day, and the other on 
Kentucky day. They were models of oratory, and made a profound 
impression, which must be the deeper for the fact that they were among 
the last that he made. 

The effect of the hard work, and the worry of the last campaign, 
was the beginning of the end. His health began to break under the 
enormous strain, and before the election he was obliged to cancel several 
engagements to speak. 

On Saturday afternoon, February 29, Governor Greenhalge suf- 
fered a partial shock of paralysis, as a result of his physical ailments. 
Then began a brave fight for life, but a losing one, for the sapper and 
miner had been at work for some months, and the patient's constitution 
had been wrecked, and on Wednesday night, March 4, 1896, Governor 
Greenhalge passed away, to the universal regret of the people of Mas- 

His generous opponent in his last great campaign thus uttered his 
Ijest and noblest eulogy: "Few men in public life were so well beloved, 
personally, and few men had a more i;nswerving purpose to do the right. 
I know of no higher tribute that can be paid to the memory of any public 
man Massachusetts has lost in a generation." 

Governor Greenhalge, at the time of the inception of this history, 
was the commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts militia, and as such 
was interested in the successful completion of the work. Witli no per- 
sonal military record or experience, he ever showed himself a friend of 
the State service, and during his incumbency, many important improve- 
ments, for the comfort and convenience of the militia, and arrangements 
for promoting its efficiency, were projected or completed. 

It does not detract from the credit already given to those officers, 
whose experience and enthusiasm directed the necessary operations, to 
say that the late governor was always mindful of those military duties 
and responsibilities which every governor of Massachusetts has assumed, 
from the days of Winthrop and Winsli.nv to the present day, and that in 
this regard he is entitled to a like meed of such praise as his chivalrous, 
political antagonist offered to his memory, when, in the prime of his 
powers, and leading in the race for honorable success, he was called 
hence into that peace from which mortal praise or blame can no longer 
awake him. 




Samuel Dalton, Adjutant General of the 
State of Massachusetts; son of Joseph A. 
and Mary (Fairfield) Dalton, was born at 
Salom, Mass., June 25, 1840. His father, 
Joseph A. Dalton, served during the Civil 
War as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Forty- 
Ninth Regiment, M. V. M., and later was 
always interested in the preservation and 
encouragement of the old New England 
military spirit and traditions, being the 
commander of the Salem Veteran Associa- 
tion at the time of his death in 1898. 

Samuel Dalton received his education 
in the public schools of Salem, graduating 
from the high school in 1856. He first 
entered the employment of his father, 
then engaged in the leather trade ; but 
soon after came to Boston and became a 
clerk in the house of Gore Bros., and still 
later became a salesman with the firm of 
E. B. Hall & Co. 

The military spirit of his family and 
ancestors early impelled young Dalton to 
join the State militia, and, in 1858, he en- 
listed in the Second Corps Cadets, and re- 
mained a member thereof until the out- 
break of the great Civil War. In 1861 he 
enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment, M. 
Y. M., which at date of June i, 1862, was 
merged into the First Regiment of 
Heavy Artillery, M. V. M., and stationed 
on the fortified lines about Washington 
and Alexandria. He was early made ser- 
geant; on February 15, 1862, commis- 
sioned second lieutenant, and at date of 
June 7, 1862, promoted to first lieutenant ; 
which grade he retained until the regi- 
ment was mustered out at the expiration 
<jf its term of service. 

For over two years, the regiment, con- 
sisting of two strong battalions of eight 
companies each, was employed in con- 
structing defenses and lines of communi- 
cation, which formed part of the formida- 
ble fortifications around Washington, and 
in garrisoning the same. Thev were a 
splendid body of men physically, and 
moved out in perfect order and with ex- 
quisite precision, when in 1864 they were 
summoned to take the field. 

On May 19, 1864, on the Fredericks- 
burg Road, on the way to Spottsylvania 
Court House, they encountered Rhode's 
Division of Ewell's Army Corps, and for 
several hours held in check this entire 
force, until they were re-enforced and re- 
lieved. The regiment, mustering for 
duty at morning 181 7 officers and men, 
lost in this splendid fight, 2 officers killed 

and 15 wounded: 56 enlisted men killed, 
297 wounded, and 27 missing, a total of 
397 casualties in this single engagement. 

Between May 5 and December 16, 1S64, 
the regiment was engaged — and at some 
points several times — at Fredericksburg 
Road, North Anna River, Tolopotomy, 
Petersburg, Deep Bottom, Petersburg 
Mine, Poplar Grove, Boydton Plank Road, 
and the Weldon R. R. In these engage- 
ments the casualties amounted to 919 

On his return from the war Lieutenant 
Dalton entered business in Boston, under 
the firm name of Nichols & Dalton. and a 
little later, April 6, 1866, rejoined the Sec- 
ond Corps Cadets, as captain of his for- 


mer company. He was promoted major 
April 3, 1874; discharged April 28, 1876; 
re-elected major May 2, 1876; elected 
lieutenant-colonel, March 14, 1877; ap- 
pointed colonel and inspector of ordnance 
on the staff of Governor John D. Long, 
December 10, 1881, which position he re- 
signed January 3, 1883. 

On January 4, 1883, he was appointed, 
by Governor Benjamin F. Butler, Adju- 
tant General of Massachusetts, which po- 
sition he has held under each succeeding 
governor for nearly seventeen years. 
The rank of brigadier general, attained 
by him at the date of his appointment, 
has since been superseded by the rank of 



During his long service tlie active 
militia of the State has increased over 
50 per cent., and the condition of the force 
and its effectiveness for duty ; the armory 
and camp accommodations; and skill 
in rifle practice and naval' exercises, have 
been extraordinarily improved. With 
these gains, the weight of responsibility 
thrown upon the adjutant general has 
been correspondingly increased, notwith- 
standing the willing and efficient co-op- 
eration of his subordinate officers of the 
staff, field and line. 

In 1S98, the Spanish-American War 
brought to the supreme test of sudden and 
urgent summons, and hasty mobilization, 
the militia as organized and fostered 
under General Dalton's administration. 
That not even the regular army troops 
were more prompt to answer the call; 
went more completely equipped to camp 
or transport ; or were cared for in hospital 
or transport with more tender and effi- 
cient helpfulness, has become a matter of 
history, established by universal con- 
temporary consent. 

Only in one respect were the men of 
Massachusetts wanting — the possession of 
arms of equal effectiveness and range with 
those of the troops of Spain— and this 
defect Adjutant General Dalton had for 
years labored and desired earnestly to 
cure. Had the siege of Santiago been 
followed by that of Havana, the losses 
from this remarkable weakness of equip- 
ment would have terribly vindicated the 
warnings and fears of General Dalton. 

General Dalton was married at Salem, 
Mass., March 9, 1891, to Hannah F., 
daughter of W. F, and Abigail Nichols, 
of that city. Their family consists of a 
daughter, Edith R., and a son, R. Osborne 


Charles Winslow Hall, editor of "Regi- 
ments and Armories of Massachusetts," 
the eldest son of Isaac Clark and Susan- 
nah (Ryder) Hall, was born at Chelsea, 
Mass., November 2, 1843. His father was 
descended from John Hall, born at Cov- 
entry, England in 1609, who settled at 
Yarmouth, Mass., dying there in 1696, 
and on the maternal side from Kenelnm 
Winslow, brother of Edward Winslow, the 
first governor of Plymouth. On his 
mother's side Mr. Hall is descended 
from Samuel Rider, one of the original 
proprietors of the town of Yarmouth, 
1638-39, born in Plymouth, England, A. 
D. 1601, who was a lieutenant under 

Captain Myles Standish, and one of those 
in charge of the defences of Yarmouth, 
and died there December 22, 1679. 

Charles Winslow Hall studied in the 
public schools of Chelsea until 1854, when 
the family removed to Winthrop. Then 
he attended the old Chapman Hall 
school, and later went to Williston Acad- 
emy, Easthampton, Mass., and the old 
Pierce Academy, Middleboro. 

He was attending school at the Paul 
Wing Academy, Springhill, East Sand- 
wich, when the war broke out in 1861, 
but his parents refused to allow him to 
enlist, and he returned to Prince Edward 

In 1862 he enlisted in Company H, 
Forty-third Regiment, M. V. M., Colonel 


Charles M. Hjlbrook commanding; which 
regiment was sent to Newbern, N. C. His 
personal military experience was closed 
by the mustering-out of the regiment at 
Readville, July 30, 1863. During this 
time Private Hall had been under fire at 
Kinston, N. C, December 14, 1S62; twice 
at Whitehall, N. C, December 16, 1862, 
where, under a heavy fire, he cut down a 
tree, which had become locked between 
the wheels of a caisson on the right flank 
of the regiment; and again at Blount's 
Creek, N. C, April 9, 1863, when General 
Spinola attempted to relieve Major-Gen- 
eral John G. Foster, then besieged in 
Little Washington, N. C. Later he was 
one of those who volunteered to run the 



blockade of the Tar River in open boats, 
to carry food and ammunition, but was 
not accepted, as the skilled boatmen of 
Cape Cod and the South Shore were very 
properly chosen for the service, which 
they most gallantly and successfully per- 

Mr. Hall, on his return from this ser- 
vice, was attacked by a severe throat dis- 
temper, and barely recovered. During 
his convalescence, he for some time aided 
in teaching the blacks, at a school organ- 
ized by the chaplain, the late Reverend 
Jacob M. Manning, of the Old South 
Church ; and on his return voyage to 
Massachusetts, in the steamer "Convoy." 
volunteered as nurse, to aid in caring for 
the hundreds of sick and wounded on 
board. The "Convoy" went ashore south 
of Minot's Ledge, off Cohasset, Mass., 
and Private Hall vohtnte