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i^^OA.^^^ ^' 0<1^ ^-Z/CA-iU. 

Regiments and Armories 
OF Massachusetts 


Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 

With Portraits and Biographii£s of Officers Past and Present 


l.4;J Regiment, M. V. M.) 


Brig.-Gen. Charles Coffin Fry (deceased) Winthrop Packard and others 


Maj.-Gen: Benj. F. Peach 
Maj -Gen. A Hun Berry 

Col jAftiES A. Frye 


Lieut -Col. John R. Farrell Surg.-Gen. Robert Allen Blood 

LiEiiT.-COL. Wm. H. Devine and others 

Capt. Isaac P. Gragg 

Capt. Nathan Appleton 


LiEUT.-CoL. J Frank Dalton Maj -Gen. Fred W. Wellington 



9 1 Bedford Street 


Copyright, 1901, 




To the Qodly and Brave Founders of Boston and Plymouth, and the filassa- 
chusetts Jlfilitia : To the Myriads of Brave Jlfen who from (feneration 
to feneration have Jilustered with the Battalions of Jilassachusetts 
in Peace and carried her jStainless Banner to plonorable Vic- 
tory or Defeat in War: yind to every son of the Old 
Bay jState who believes that Freedom, Justice and 
Jiome are Best Defended by those who Jlfost 
Prize these Blessings, This Jdistory of 
Patriots, fieroes and Jl'fartyrs 






























2 2 ^ 






Surrender of the War Flags to the State of Massachusetts, at the Close of the 

Spanish-American War, "Dewey Day", October 14, 1899 . . Frontispiece 

Governor W. Murray Crane, Commander-in-Chief and Staff, Reviewing the 

Second Brigade, M. V. M., 1900. 'Photo by Marr .... facing 12 

Brigadier-General Benj. F. Peach, Second Brigade, M.V.M., and Staff, 1897 .facing 14 

Brigadier-General Charles C. Fry (retired) 15 

Brigadier-General William A. Bancroft, Second Brigade, M. V. M., and Staff, 

in Fatigue Uniform, August 6, 1899 ....... facing 16 

Brigadier-General William A. Bancroft, Second Brigade, M. V. M., and Staff. 

1900. Pboio by Marr .......... facing 18 

Detachment of Troops A and D, First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M., State Camp, 

South Framingham, April, 1898 ......... 19 

Colonel Jophanus H. Whitney .......... 21 

Fifth Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., Camp Wetherell, Greenville, S. C. Regi- 

mentinColumn, Company Front. Vholo loanedbv Elwin L.House, Chaplain . facing 22 
Headquarters Guard, Camp Wetherell, S. C, After the February Gale, 1899 facing 24 
Ambulance Duty, Camp Meade, Pa., Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, 

U. S. v., 1898-99 facing 24 

Regimental Guard and Bath Houses, Camp Wetherell .... facing 32 

Mule Corral, Camp Wetherell, Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., 

1898-99 ............. facing 32 

Fifth Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., Camp Wetherell, Greenville, S. C, 

Funeral services, Chaplin Elwin L. House officiating . . facing 34 

The Eighth Regiment Infantry, M. V. M., 1900. Review Second Brigade, 

M. V. M., South Framingham. Photo by Marr ..... facing 36 

Major-General Benjamin F. Peach ......... 39 

Departure of the Lynn Light Infantry (Company D, Eighth Regiment. M. V. M.) 

For the Defense of Washington, April 16, 1861 ..... facing 40 

Major-General A. Hun Berry ........... 41 

Eighth Regiment, M. V. M., Near Fort Totten, Newbern, N. C, 1863. Drawn 

by C. IV. Reed from Crayon by E. Biick, 18b) ...... facing 46 

The Buglers of the Eighth, Chickamauga, Ga. ...... facing 52 

Marching Through Georgia, Camp Gilman, Americus, Ga. .... facing 52 

Officers' Street, Matanzas, Cuba ......... facing 56 

Camp Eighth Regiment Infantry, U. S. V., Lexington, Ky. . . . facing 56 

Camp Eighth Regiment, Line Officers' Street, Americus, Ga. . . . facing 58 

Review Eighth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., at Matanzas, Cuba, 
1899. Inspected by Major-General Breckenridge and Generals Wilson 
and Sanger ............ facing 58 

Scenes in the Service of the Eighth Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., Headquar- 
ters, Americus, Ga. Ten Miles from Chickamauga. Company Street, 
Chickamauga. General Gomez at the Rifle Range, Matanzas, Cuba .facing 60 
Eighth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., Passing the State House, 

April 9, 1899. Photo by Marr . ....... facing 62 

Eighth Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Y. The Last Evening Parade, 

Boston Common. April 18, 1899. Photo by Marr ..... facing 64 

Lieutenant-Colonel John R. Farrell ......... 6; 

Ninth Regiment, M. V. M., on Review, 1900, Encampment Second Brigade, 

M. V. M., South Framingham, Mass. Photo by Man ..... 67 

Statue of Colonel Thomas Cass, Ninth Regiment Infantry, Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, 1861-62, Public Gardens, Boston, Mass., 1000. Photo br Marr . 71 

The Night March 74 

Headquarters at Siboney ........... 75 


Generals Garcia and Castillo of the Cuban Army 77 

At the Fords 78 

In the Trenches ."..'.'.' 79 

■'Borrowes' Pet." the Dynamite Gun. Graves of Rough Riders, Las Guasimas 81 

Cuban Infantry at Santiago 83 

Rapid-Fire Gun Before Santiago '. 84 

Coast Line Railroad, Santiago .......... 85 

Leaving for Home, Santiago . 87 

Ancient Spanish Cannon, Santiago 87 

"Spain Warred on the Defenceless; America Gave Her Best and Bravest That 

These Might Live." 92 

Headquarters Battery A, Captain Nathan Appleton Commanding, 1877-79 ■ 93 

Captain Nathan Appleton ........... 95 

Battery A, Left Platoon in Battery, Swampscott, 1898 99 

The Guidon Bearer ............ loi 

Battery A, Guard Detail ........... 102 

Battery A, "Leading Out" 103 

Battery A, State Camp, South Framingham, .\ugust, 1899 105 

Battery A, After Ammunition .......... 107 

Massachusetts Artillery at Gettysburg, July 2, 1763. Bigelow's Ninth Battery 

and Phillips' Fifth Battery at the Peach Orchard. Dramiig bj' C. IV.T^eed 109 

Battery A, ".Aim" . . . . . . . 112 

Battery A, "Fire" . ..... ....... 115 

First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M., 1892. Company A in Front, Company D 

Marching in the Rear. Photo by IV. H. Partridge ..... facing 140 

National Lancers, Annual Parade, Boston Common, 1851 143 

Boston National Lancers, Boston Common, 1881. Br Permission Holhvid &■ T{oherts 145 
National Lancers, Company A, First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M., Encampment 

Second Brigade, M. V. M., South Framingham, Mass., 1900. Photobv Marr 149 

The Ro.xbury Horse Guards in Dress Uniform. Photo by U\ H. Partridge . facing 154 
Roxbury Horse Guards (Company D, First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M.) An- 
nual Encampment Second Brigade, M. V. M., South Framingham, Mass., 

1900. Photo bji OAcirr . . ......... . 1 59 

U. S. Volunteers in the Philippines. Ancient Forts on the River. Uti-Uti 

Village. San Rafael Village and San Anton Village, Manila . . . 163 
John Hancock, Colonel of the Cadets, Receiving General Gage, Long Wharf, ;- 

Boston, May 13, 1774. Painting bv Copetand . .... .-" 167 

.\rms of the First Corps Cadets 169 

Cadet, Full Dress Uniform 170 

Cadet, wfith Overcoat ... 171 

Cadet, Undress Uniform ........... 173 

Cadet, Service Uniform ............ 174 

Armory First Corps Cadets. Columbus Avenue, Boston, Mass. . . . facing 174 

Seal of the First Corps Cadets ...... .... 175 

Camp of First Corps Cadets, Hingham, Mass. ....... 177 

First Corps Cadets, Camp Guard .......... 181 

First Corps Cadets, Firing Points at Hingham ....... 185 

Second Corps Cadets, Battalion Headquarters . . . . . . . 189 

Colonel J. Frank Dalton ........... 191 

Armory Secon I Corps Cadets, Salem, Mass. ...... facing 192 

Six Corps Cadet Commanders. Second Corps Cadets, Boxford, Mass. . facing 194 

Banquet Hall, Salem Ca ets Armory ..... .... 196 

Second Corps Cadets, M. V. M., Camp Ground, Boxford, Mass. On Parade. 

"Parade Rest" ........... facing 202 

Second Corps Cadets, M. V. M., Camp Ground, Boxford, Mass. . . facing 204 

Lieutenant-Colonel Walter F. Peck ......... 205 

Second Corps Cadets. Fort Miller, Marblehead, Mass. At the Tents, Off Duty. 

Pi.t the Mess Tables .......... facing 206 

Winthrop Packard, Naval Brigade, M. V. M. 208 

The Naval Brigade, Captain John W. Weeks Commanding, Boston Common, 

(Dewey Day) October 14, 1899 209 

Camp of the Naval Brigade, Lovell's Island, Boston Harbor . . . . 211 


Naval Brigade. At the Main Battery 

State Armory, Springfield, Mass., Quarters of Company H, Naval 
M. V. M 

. fac 


Won by the 

Naval Brigade. Boat Practice ..... 

Captain John A. Weeks . ..... 

The Naval Brigade. U. S. S. "Columbia" . 

The Naval Brigade. Gunnery Practice .... 

Naval Brigade at Mess ....... 

Gunnery Practice 12-inch Dahlgren Pivot-Gun, Old Style 
The Naval Brigade. Recreation ..... 

A Big Steamer in Trouble ...... 

The Torpedo Boat "Cushing", U. S. N. ... 

U. S. S. "Prairie" on the Cuban Blockade, 1898 

U. S. S. Monitor "Jason", 1898 

U. S. S. "Aileen", 1898 

The Wimbledon Cup ....... 

At the Walnut Hill Range, 1S99 

Walnut Hill Range, Off Hand, "Hip Rest" . 

Walnut Hill Range, Off Hand, "Full Arm" . 

Walnut Hill Range, Long Distance, Regular Prone Position 

The Hilton Trophy, Won by the Massachusetts Militia, 1886-87-8 

Walnut Hill Range, Long Distance, "Texas Grip" 

Bronze Statue, "The Soldier of Marathon," Interstate Trophy 

Massachusetts Militia, 1886-87-88-89 . 
Brigadier-General Robert A. Blood, Surgeon-General M. V. M., 1896-1900 
Field Hospital and Ambulance Corps, 1900. Field Manoeuvres, ist Brigade, 

M. V. M., South Framingham, Mass. ....... facing 

A Field Hospital at Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. From the Cyclorama of 

Bunker Hill 

Portraits Surgeon-General William J. Dale, Assistant Surgeon-General Anson 

P. Hooker, Assistant Surgeon-General Joshua B. Treadwell . . facing 
Surgeon-General Orran G. Cilley . . . . . 

Surgeon-General Alfred F. Holt .......... 

."Vmbulance Corps E.xhibit, Emergency Splints for Leg .... facing 

Surgeon-General Thomas J. Kittredge . . ....... 

Surgeon-General Herbert L. Burrell ......... 

Surgeon-General Edward J. Forster ......... 

Ambulance Corps Exhibit, Emergency Splints for Arm .... facing 

Office of Surgeon-General Blood ......... facing 

Signal Corps, ist Brigade, M. V. M. Flag Station on Stand-Pipe at Arlington 

Heights, Mass. ......... ... 

Signal Corps, ist Brigade, M. V. M., 1895. Flag Station at Reservoir, 

Lincoln, Mass. ............ 

Signal Corps, ist Brigade, M. V. M., 1895. Flag Station, Granary Hill, Oak 

Mount, Lexington, Mass. .......... 

Signal Corps, ist Brigade, M.V.M. Flag Station, Prospect Hill, Waltham Mass. 

The Field Telephone, 1 898-1 899 

Private Jones, B. L. I., 1861 

Certificate of membership ........... 

Captain's Commission, 1698 ........... 

Captain's Commission, 1734 ........... 

Washington Before the Battle of Monmouth. Tjinimg by Cbappel 
Enlisted on the Quota of Massachusetts, 1863-65. Contraband of War. 

United States Volunteers. Painted *>■ IVood 

Map of the Philippines .......... 

Village of Corregidor, Manila Bay . . ..... 

La Escolta, the Principal Street of Manila 

Filipinos Awaiting a Charge facing 

Filipino Prisoners Brought into Camp facing 

Volunteers and their Chinese Carriers ........ facing 

Battery Knoll, Manila. Memorial Day, 1899 facing 

Caloocan, Where the War with the Fillipinos Began 

ng 212 

In the 
. facing 
. facing 
. facing 
. facing 
















Major-General Joseph Hooker 344 

Executive Committee of the Hooker Guards Committee .... facing 344 

Executive Committee of the Hooker Guards Committee .... facing 348 

Captains of Companies, Hooker Guards Brigade facing 350 

General Officer, 1610-1690 .......... facing 353 

Match-lock and Wheel-tock '. ! '• . 354 

262d Anniversary Parade, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, 1900 

Governor's Reception Parade, Beacon Hill facing 354 

French Pikemen, 1594-1690 . . 355 

Arquebusier in Armor, With Sword and Wheel-lock ...... 356 

French Musketeers, 1494- 1690 ■-........ 357 

Cannon and Pateraros, 1600 ........... 358 

Battalion of Musketeers and Pikemen, 1 592-1690 361 

Advance at the Battle of Dreux, 1562 363 

A Carbineer, 1600-1690 ............ 365 

Bayonets, 1562, 1688, 1700, 1800-1900 369 

The Storming of the Narragansett Swamp Fort, December 19, 1675. From a 

Tainting by C. IV. %'ed facing 376 

Under General Pepperell at Louisburg, 1745. Painted by IVjgcman . .facing 384 
With General Wayne at Stony Point, July 15, 1779. Tjiniing by Chapp,-! . facing 388 
Governor W. Murray Crane Commissioning the Officers Elect, 262d Anniver- 
sary Ancient and Honorable Artillery, 1900 facing 394 

Grenadier, 1804- 1820 ............ 399 

With Taylor in Mexico. Painting by Chappet 403 

■'For the Builders, Every One Had His Sword by His Side and so Builded." 

Drawn by IVhorf ............. 405 

The Eighth Regiment. M. V. M., on the March to Washington, 1861 . . . 407 

The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts, Windsor 

Castle, England, July, 1896. Thoto loaned by Colonel J. Tayson Bradley facing 410 
Uniforms of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 1876. By Termission of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel J. R. Farrell . . . . . . . . . . .|7 

The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. Presentation 
to Her Majesty Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. Photo loaned by Colonel 

J. Payion Bradley facing 432 

H. R. H. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, Under the Stars and Stripes. 
Taken at His Special Request at Aldershot, England, July, 1896. 

Thoto loaned by J. l^ayson 'Bradley ........ facing 436 

Massachusetts Infantry and Artillery, 1900. Company D, Second Corps Cadets, 
Captain F. P. Packard. First Battalion, Light Artillery, Field Manoeu- 
vres, I St Brigade. Photo by Marr ........ facing 446 

Portrait Brigadier-General Fred W. Wellington, Commissary-General, Massa- 
chusetts facing 450 

Bill of Fare, 2d Brigade, M. V. M 454 

The Open Market at Beaufort, S. C, 1862-1863. Federal Foragers Raiding the 

Sea Islands. From Old-Time War Sketches facing 454 

Daily Company Ration Return 455 

Daily Consolidated Regimental Return ........ 457 

Commissariat, Eighth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V., 1898. 
"Fall in for Dinner," Americus, Ga. The Crack Team at Chicka- 

mauga facing 458 

In the Philippines. Yankee Foragers. The Commissariat Guard . . . 463 

Captain J. Levi Newton, Worcester City Guards 464 

Worcester City Guards, First Parade, 1840 facing 464 

Company Street, Worcester City Guards. Camp Fifth Regiment, M. V. M., 

Leominster, Mass., i860 .......... 467 

Headquarters Worcester City Guards. Camp of Fifth Brigade, M. V. M., 

Leominster, Mass., i860 .......... 468 

Worcester City Guards, Parade in White Uniform, 185 1 . . . .facing 468 

Field and Stafi, 5th Brigade, M V. M. Camp at Leominster, Mass., i860 facing 469 

The Old Worcester City Guards . . • 475 

Encampment Second Regiment Infantry. Field Manoeuvres, First Brigade, 

M. V. M., 1900 ^go 


Officers Worcester Continentals .....'.. 

Roxbury City Guards' Seal, Vignette ....... 

Portrait Major John Jones Spooner ....... 

Original Charter, Roxbury City Guards ...... 

Infantry Cap, 1855, Company D, Second Regiment Infantry 
Infantry Cap, 1859, Company D, Second Regiment Infantry 
Artillery Caps, Roxbury Artillery Train and City Guards . 
Portrait Capt. Ebenezer W. Stone. ....... 

D Company Street, First Massachusetts Volunteers, Brandy Station, 

1863-64. Dr Jiang by Cjfitjin Isaac P. Gragg ..... 
Encampment First Brigade, M. V. M., Neponset, Dorchester, Brigadier 

eral B. F. Edmands Commanding, August 8-9, 1849 . 
Portrait, Brigadier-General Isaac S. Burrell ...... 

Fort Pickering, Salem, 1898 ......... 

Battery D, Headquarters, 1898 ........ 

The Peabody Trophy, Presented by the Providence Tool Company . 
Battery D, Company Street, 1898 ........ 

Officers Battery D, First Heavy Artillery, M. V. M,, 1901 . 







By Brigadier-General Charles C. Fry (Retired). 

AT the close of the War of the Rebellion, in 1865, the Massachu- 
setts Militia, every organization of which had at different times 
during the war served with credit to themselves and to the Com- 
monwealth, was without organization. Some of the regiments 
had preserved their organization, but there being no brigade or division 
formation, the legislature of 1866 provided that the militia should be or- 
ganized as a division, and by General Orders No. 11, A. G. O., dated 
May 18, 1866, the following named organizations were assigned to con- 
stitute the Second Brigade: 


Fifth Regiment Infantry, Colonel George H. Pierson. 
Sixth Regiment Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Melvin Beal. 
Eighth Regiment Infantry, Colonel Benjamin F. Peach. 
Third Battery, Light Artillery, Captain James B. Ayer. 
Fourth Battery Light Artillery, Captain Henry M. Mclntire. 
Company F, Cavalry, Captain Christopher Roby. 

With the exception of the consolidation of the Third and Fourth 
Batteries, July 29, 1873, as the Second Battalion, Light Artillery, under 
command of Major George S. Merrill, the brigade remained as above or- 
ganized until April 29, 1876, when by Act of Legislature, approved April 
28, 1876, "to reduce the expenses and increase the efficiency of the 
Militia," "the commissions of all general and field officers with their re- 
spective staffs with the exception of the staff of the Commander-in- 
Chief," expired, and the militia, with the exception of the two corps of 
Cadets, was reorganized into brigades, and. by General Orders No. 21, A. 
G. O.. dated July 14, 1876, the following named organizations were as- 
signed to constitute the Second Brigade: 


First Battalion Infantry, 6 companies, Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel Wales. 

Fifth Regiment Infantry, 8 companies. Colonel Ezra J. Trull. 

Seventh Battalion Infantry, 2 companies. Major Charles C. Fry. 

Eighth Regiment Infantry, 8 companies, Colonel Benjamin F. Peach, Jr. 

Ninth Battalion Infantry, 6 companies, Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. M. Strachan. 

First Battalion Cavalry, 2 companies. Major Dexter H. Follett. 

Battery A, Light Artillery, Captain Edwin C. Langley. 


The next change in the formation of the brigade occurred in 1878, 
when, in accordance with Chapter 265 of the Acts of 1878, and General 
Orders No. 7, A. G. O., dated Dec. 3, the brigade was constituted as fol- 


Fifth Regiment Infantry, 8 companies. Colonel Ezra J. Trull. 
Eighth Regiment Infantry, 12 companies. Colonel Benjamin F. Peach, Jr. 
Ninth Regiment Infantry, 8 companies. Colonel William M. Strachan. 
First Battalion Light Artillery, 2 companies. Major George S. Merrill. 
First Battalion Cavalry, 2 companies. Major Dexter H. Follett. 

In 1885, the brigade was increased by the addition of a Signal and of 
an Ambulance Corps; in 1 887 by the addition of three companies to the Fiftli 
Regiment; and in 1888, by the addition of one company to the Fifth Regi- 
ment and four companies to the Ninth Regiment, making each regiment 
to consist of twelve companies. 

In accordance with General Orders No. 9, A. G. O., dated May 18, 
1891, "for the purpose of equalizing the brigades," the First Battalion 
Light Artillery, with the exception of Battery A, was transferred to the 
1st Brigade, and in 1894, in accordance with General Orders No. 9, A. 
G. O., April 14, the brigade was further reduced by the consolidation of 
the ambulance corps of both brigades, as an independent corps directly 
under the authority of the commander-in-chief. 

The brigade at the end of the year 1S99 was constituted as follows: 

SECOND EI!IG.\DE, 1899. 

Fifth Regiment Infantry, 12 companies. Colonel Jophanus H. Whitney. 
Eighth Regiment Infantry, 11 companies. Colonel William A. Pew. 
Ninth Regiment Infantry, 12 companies, Colonel William H. Donovan. 
Battery A. Light Artillery, Captain Samuel D. Parker. 
First Battalion Cavalry, 2 companies, Major William A. Perrins. 
Signal Corps, Lieutenant Henry W. Sprague. 

The first commander of the brigade, Colonel George H. Pierson, was 
commissioned brigadier-general July 26, 1866, being succeeded in the 
command of the Fifth Regiment by Colonel William T. Grammer. Gen- 
eral Pierson remained in command of the brigade until the reorganiza- 
tion of the militia in 1876, being succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Eben 
Sutton, who was commissioned brigadier-general August 12, 1876. The 
decision of the Supreme Court announced in General Orders No. 2, A. G. 
O., dated January 11, 1882, having vacated the commission of General 
Sutton, he was succeeded by Colonel Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., who was 
commissioned brigadier-general February 18, 1882, and remained in com- 
mand of the brigade until July 24, 1897, when, by Act of the Legisla- 
ture, "relative to the term of office of brigadier-general," approved IMay 
26, 1897, and by General Orders No. 12, A. G. O., dated July 24, 1897, 



he was placed upon the retired list with the rank of major-general, 
being succeeded by Colonel William A. Bancroft, commissioned brigadier- 
general July 30, 1897, who now commands the brigade. A brief notice 
of the several brigade commanders seems desirable at this point : 

The first commander, Brigadier-General Pierson, had long and 
honorably served his state and country. Enlisting in 1834 in the Seventh 
Regiment, he retained his connection with it until 1853, when he was 
commissioned paymaster in the 
Sixth Regiment. In 1855 he was 
commissioned third lieutenant in 
Company B, Seventh Regiment; 
first lieutenant in 1856, and made 
captain in 1857. He entered the ser- 
vice of the United States in the 
three months' campaign of 1861, as 
captain of Company A, Fifth Regi- 
ment, M. V. M., and on July i, 
1 86 1, was elected lieiitenant-colonel 
of the regiment. He was elected 
colonel, June 26, 1862, and on Oc- 
tober 8, 1862, again entered the ser- 
vice of the United States and served 
with his regiment with distinction 
in and about Newbern, N. C, dur- 
ing the nine months' campaign of 

1862 and 1S63. Under his com- uKiciAiiiEn-oESERAL cuarles c. fky (Heiirej). 
mand the brigade made encourag- 
ing and satisfactory progress, its 
from the traditional grumbling soldier who, having served well his coun- 
try in its time of peril, looked almost with disdain upon what he called 
"playing soldier," toa'^bodyof earnest and intelligent militia; ready again, 
if need there should be, to offer their services at their country's call. 

The second commander of the brigade, Brigadier-General Sutton, 
also brought to the service of the state an experience acquired by long and 
honorable service. Previous to the War of the Rebellion he had served as 
fourth lieutenant in the Salem Cadets, and as major on the staff of the 
2d Division; and had occupied upon the staff of General Pierson the posi- 
tions of engineer, assistant inspector-general and assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral. Following in the footsteps of his predecessor, the brigade, under 
his command, ably maintained the high standard which had characterized 
it under its first commander. 

The third commander of the brigade, Brigadier-General Peach, 
also entered upon the duties of his office after many years of active 

membership gradually changing 


service in war and peace. lie first enlisted in the Massachusetts militia 
in Company C, Sixth Regiment, afterward the Eighth Regiment, in 1854, 
at the age of fourteen years; was appointed sergeant in 1857 and first ser- 
geant in 1858, in which position he entered the service of the United 
States, April 30, 1861 and served during the three months' campaign. 

In ^larch, 1862, he was elected first lieutenant, was appointed adju- 
tant of the Eighth Regiment in September, 1862, and in that position 
again entered the service of the United States November 7, 1862, and 
served in and about Newbern, N. C, and with the army of the Potomac in 
Maryland and Virginia, during the nine months' campaign of 1862 and 
1863. He was elected colonel of the Eighth Regiment, July 22, 1864, and 
four days later, for the third time, entered the service of the United States, 
serving as colonel of the Eighth Regiment in and about Baltimore, Md., 
during the one hundred days' campaign of 1864. With the exception of 
short intervals caused by legislative action in 1878, and the Supreme Court 
decision in 18S2, he retained his connection with the Eighth Regiment as 
its commander until his election as brigadier-general in 1882. During his 
long service in the Massachusetts militia great changes had been wrought 
in the discipline, elficiency and conduct in camp of its members, and he 
entered upon his duties with a thorough knowledge of the requirements 
and responsibilities of his command; and diiring the many years of his 
continiiance in office he received the strong and active support of his sub- 
ordinate officers. The last day of his active service in the Massachusetts 
militia, July 24, 1897, was marked by evidences of the love and esteem 
not only of the officers but of the enlisted men of his command, and when 
for the last time, as commander of the 2d Brigade, he stood with uncovered 
head, amid his staff, and saw that flag lowered which had for inany years 
denoted his military authority, he must have thought, as did others, that 
the new rank which for the balance of his life was his, was fairly and hon- 
estly earned by a lifetime of .sacrifice and devotion to the best interests of 
the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. 

The following order which he issued upon his retirement expresses 
the sentiments existing between him and the members of his command: 



Camp at Framingham, July 24, 1897. 
General Orders, No. 4. 

Upon retiring from the active militia of this Commonwealth, the Brigade Com- 
mander desires to e.xpress to the members of his command his deep appreciation of 
the efforts of every officer and enlisted man of the 2d Brigade to make this, their com- 
mander's last tour of duty, the most successful encampment in the history of the Mas- 
sachusetts Volunteer Militia. Deeply sensible of the personal sacrifices which must 
in many cases have been made in order that the attendance might be of phenomenal 


strength, and impressed with the evidences of the esteem and love of all, who by 
their exertions have contributed towards the remarkable success of the tour of duty 
now drawing to a close, he thanks most sincerely every member of his command, hop- 
ing and believing that, although he may no longer participate in the active duties of 
the volunteer militia, he may often meet in the fraternal manner which has been so 
characteristic of the past, the many officers with whom he has been so long associated, 
and the enlisted men upon whom the safety of our Commonwealth depends. Fore- 
most as does now stand the militia of this state, he sincerely hopes that with a new 
commander there may be greater progress, and that to him, as commander of the 2d 
Brigade, may be extended that active, strong and intelligent support which it has been 
his privilege and honor to receive for a period of more than fifteen years. 

May God bless and preserve the militia of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

By command of 

CHARLES C. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

The present commander, Brigadier-General Bancroft, also entered 
upon his duties eminently fitted by nature, education and experience to 
perform them. He enli.sted in Company K, Fifth Regiment, in 1875; was 
appointed corporal in 1876, and sergeant in Company B, in 1877; commis- 
sioned second lieutenant in the same company April 16, 1877, first lieu- 
tenant, September 2, 1878, and captain March 31, 1879; and was elected 
colonel of the Fifth Regiment, February 7, 1882, remaining in that posi- 
tion until his election as brigadier-general in 1897. During the Spanish- 
American war in 1898, he was appointed brigadier-general of United 
States volunteers and served from May 27 until August 17. During his 
absence the brigade was commanded by Colonel J. H. Whitney and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel William H. Oakes. The brigade is well oilicered and 
equipped, and under its present commander will ttndoubtedly make that 
progress which is so essentially necessary for the welfare of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia. 

The parades of the brigade, outside the state camp grounds, have 
been as follows: At the reception of President Grant at Boston, Jttne 16, 
1869; 3-t the celebration of the one hundreth anniversary of the battle of 
Bunker Hill at Boston, Jtine 17, 1875; at the reception of President Hayes 
at Boston, June 26, 1877; on the occasion of the dedication of the Army 
and Navy Monument at Boston, September 17, 1S77; as a portion of the 
escort of the procession of "societies and trades" at the celebration of the 
2 50th"anniversary of the settlement of Boston, September 17, 1880; at the 
reception of President Arthur at Boston, October 11, 1882; at Boston, 
October 3, 1888, as a portion of the entire state militia; at Lynn, October 
3, 1889, when the brigade exemplified street riot work; at the mobiliza- 
tion of the entire militia of the state at Boston, October 9, 1894; the brig- 
ade then being in command of Colonel Bancroft, the division being under 
command of General Peach. On that occasion the brigade assembled in 


vSomerville, and marched into Boston throngh Cambridge and over Har- 
vard Bridge, and after a short march passed in review before the com- 

The first encampment of the brigade occurred on September i8, 
19, 20, j866, at North Andover, followed in 1867 by an encampment of 
five days at Swampscott; in 1868 at Newburyport; in 1869 at Boxford; and 
in 1870 (division encampment) at Concord. In 1871 and 1872, the several 
organizations encamped separately, but in 1873 the full brigade encamped 
for the first time on the .state camp ground at South Framingham, and 
has since, with the following exceptions, performed the annual tour of 
duty as a brigade and upon the state camp ground: 

In 1876, the Eighth Regiment and Seventh Battalion encamped at 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. In 1881, the Xinth Regiment encamped 
at Yorktown, Virginia. In 1898, the Fifth, Eighth and Ninth Regiments 
being in the service of the United States, no brigade encampment was 

The members of the staffs of the several commanders of the brig- 
ade have been conspicuous for pre-eminence in their respective offices; 
and of late years, the commissioned and non-commissioned staff of the 
Second Brigade has been a recruiting ground for filling many higher or 
more important stations, and in no case has the judgment of the selec- 
tion been at fault. 

The following named persons have held commissions on the staff 
of the commanders of the second brigade. The years, with the exception 
of 1900, denote the date of commission and discharge: 

Harcourt Aniory, captain'and engineer, 1881-1882; Robert Amory, lieutenant- 
colonel and medical director, 1876-81 ; Hugh Bancroft, captain and engineer, 1897-1900; 
Francis R. Bangs, captain and judge advocate, 1895-1900; Frederick P. Barnes, captain 
and brigade quartermaster, 1897-1900; George H. Benyon, lieutenant-colonel and 
assistant adjutant-general, 1 897-1900; Hugh Cochrane, captain and engineer, 
1873-76; also major and assistant inspector-general, 1876-79; Harry E. Converse, 
captain and brigade quartermaster, 1888-93; Charles Currier, captain and brigade 
quartermaster, 1866; Edward E. Currier, captain and engineer, 1882-83; Rob- 
erts. Daniels, major and brigade inspector, i865, also lieutenant-colonel and assis- 
tant adjutant-general, 1867-1873; William H. Devine, lieutenant-colonel and medical 
director, 1897-1900; Gordon Dexter, captain and provost marshal, 1893-97; Robert B. 
Edes, major and assistant inspector -general of rifle practice, 1897- 1900; A. Lawrence 
Edmands, captain and aide-de-camp, 1876-80; Edward N. Fenno, captain and aide- 
de-camp, 1876-79, also major and assistant inspector-general, 1880; Charles C. 
Fry, lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, 1882-1897; James P. Frost, 
major and assistant inspector-general of rifle practice, 1887-93; George P.Gardner, 
captain and aide-de-camp, 1881-82; Elijah George, captain and judge advocate, 1882- 
94, also major and assistant inspector-general of rifle practice, 1894-97; William H. 
Goff, major and assistant inspector-general, 1897-1900; Wendell Goodwin, captain and 
provost marshal, 1881-82 ; Aaron A. Hall, captain and provost marshal, 1882-91, also 



major and assistant inspector-general, 1891-97; Freeman C. Hersey, lieutenant-colo- 
nel and medical director, 1891-97; John W. Hudson, captain and judge advocate, 
1868-71; Joseph A. Ingalls, captain and quartermaster, 1867-68, aide-de-camp, 
1869-73, major and assistant inspector-general, 1873-76 and 1882-91; William 
Ingalls. lieutenant-colonel and medical director, 1867 to 1876; Edward J. Jones, 
captain and judge advocate, 1876; George A. Keeler, captain and aide-de-camp, 1889; 
John Kent, captain and aide-de-camp, 1866-69 and 1875; Thomas Kittredge, lieuten- 
ant-colonel and medical director, 1882-90; Charles W. Knapp, captain and brigade 
quartermaster, 1882-85; William T. Lambert, captain and engineer, 1884-91; also aide- 
de-camp, 1891-97; Abbott Lawrence, Jr., captain and engineer, 1876-77; also aide-de- 
camp, 1880-82; Daniel W. Lawrence, captain and quartermaster, 1869-72, and 1873-82; 
Francis W. Lawrence, captain and provost marshal, 1876-80, lieutenant-colonel and 
assistant adjutant-general, 1881-82; Lester Leland, captain and provost-marshal, 
1898-1900; Arthur Lincoln, captain and judge advocate, 1877-82; Philip Little, captain 



and engineer, 1891-94, aide-de-camp, 1894-96; David W. Low, captain and provost 
marshal, 1874-76; Winthrop M.Merrill, captain and engineer, 1896-97; Loring W. 
Muzzey, captain and engineer, 1868-73, aide-de-camp, 1873-76; Francis S. Parker, cap- 
tain and engineer, 1894-96, aide-de-camp, 1896-97; J. Brooks Parker, captain and aide- 
de-camp, 1887-88; George A. Pierce, captain and provost-marshal, 1891-93; George W. 
Preston, captain and brigade quartermaster, 1885-88; Augustus N. Rantoul, captain 
and brigade quartermaster, 1893-1900; Henry N. Richards, captain and provost mar- 
shal, 1897-98; Augustus N. Sampson, captain and aide-de-camp, 1882-87; Horace. Bin - 
ney Sargent, Jr., captain and engineer, 1877-80, assistant inspector-general, 1881-82; 
Robert G. Shaw, lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, 1876-81; Eben Sut- 
ton, captain and engineer, 1866, major and assistant inspector-general, 1867-73; lieu- 
tenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, 1873-76; Newell A. Thompson, captain 
and aide-de-camp, 1886-94; Ezra J. Trull, captain and aide-de-camp, 1882-86; Charles 
H. Williams, lieutenant-colonel and medical director, 1881-82. 

The non-commissioned staff has also comprised among its mem- 
bers many who have been and are now ably filling positions of great 
honor and responsibility in the Massachtisetts militia. 


To one who has been associated with the Second Brigade during 
nearly all the years since its organization in 1866, the name is hallowed 
by blessed memories. The first camp at South Andover, upon which, 
during the three days" tour of duty, the sun never shone, is still fresh in 
the mind with all its discomforts and pleasures. The war just closed had 
eliminated from the mind of the real soldier all but the absolute necessities; 
and what at that time were considered comforts, and even luxuries, would 
seem to the modern militiaman hardships far exceeding the discomforts 
of actual service. During succeeding encampments, great progress has 
been made in ensuring the health and comfort of the troops, so that the 
camps of to-day combine in a large degree not only great opportunities for 
learning the tactical duties of the soldier, but also, what is of equal bene- 
fit, every provision for the preservation of his health. 

Step by step, always forward, has moved the Massachusetts Volun- 
teer Militia, and in the front rank has stood, equal at least with others, 
the Second Brigade. Through its many changes in organization, arms 
and drill, and under its several commanders, its discipline, morale and 
efficiency have never suffered; and it stands to-day, as in the past, a fit- 
ting representative of that perfection of organization which can result 
only from a careful, intelligent and honest endeavor to apply to the ser- 
vice of the Commonwealth the best talents and efforts of its members. 


(Approved by a Committee of Officers of the Fifth.) 

THE records of the State of Massachusetts show that as early as 
1800 there was a regiment in the State known as the Fifth Regi- 
ment of Light Infantry, and that the companies came from prac- 
tically the same localities as those which recruited the regiment 
at the time of the beginning of the Civil War. In 1840 the militia was 
re-organized, and the number of 
the regiment was changed, it being 
known as the Fourth Regiment of 
Light Infantry, and the new Fifth 
was raised in the towns and cities 
around Lowell. In 1846 there was 
another re-organization, and four 
companies of the Fourth were dis- 
banded "on account of reduction 
in numbers and inefficient condi- 
tion." These four were companies 
E of Maiden, B and C of Charles- 
town, and H of South Reading. 
In 1855 a movement was made to 
repeal all the then-existing militia 
laws, but it was defeated in the 
Legislature after a hard battle. It 
resulted, however, in disbanding 
the Fourth and Fifth, and in the 
organization of a new Fifth from 
the cities of Charlestown, Cam- 
bridge, Somerville, Woburn, Win- 
chester, Waltham and Concord. J. 

Durrell Green, who was colonel from 185 1 to 1855, was elected colonel of 
the new regiment, but he refused to qualify, and Charles B. Rogers was 
elected, and received his commission July 7, 1855. 

The commanding officers of the Fourth, from 1841 to 1S55, were as 
follows: Charles Carter, from August, 1 841, to September, 1844. Royal 
Douglass, from October, 1844, to May, 1847. Samuel Blanchard, from 
July to September, 1848. Moses F. Winn, from September 1848, to May, 
1850. J. Durrell (rreen, from January, 1851, to February, 1S55. 



When Colonel Rogers took command, the companies of the regi- 
ment were enlisted from the following towns: Company A, Concord, Cap- 
tain Thomas Heald; Company B, Somerville, Captain G. O. Brastow; 
Company C, Waltham; Company D, Charlestown, Captain J. M. Robert- 
son; Company E, Winchester, Captain F. O. Prince; Company F, Cam- 
bridge, Captain J. D. Green; Company G, W^obnrn, Captain S. B. White; 
Company H, Charlestown, Captain G. P. Sanger. 

When the first call for troops in the Civil W^ar was issued, the Fifth 
Massachusetts Regiment was not among those who went out. A meeting 
of the regiment was held on the 15th of April, 1S61, and the services of 
the command were tendered to the government; and on the 17th, when 
the first troops left for the front, the Fifth was ordered to hold itself in 
readiness. On the 19th, after the attack upon the Sixth Regiment in Bal- 
timore, the Fifth was ordered to report for duty. The regiment was mo- 
bilized in Boston, and headquarters were established in Faneuil Hall until 
the morning of the 21st, when it started for Washington. 

The roster of the regiment was as follows: — 

Field and Staff. • 

Colonel, Samuel C. Lawrence of Medford; lieutenant-colonel, J. Durrell Green 
of Cambridge; major, Hamlin W. Keyes of Boston; adjutant, Thomas O. Barri of 
Cambridge; quartermaster, Joseph E. Billings of Boston; surgeon, Samuel H. Hurd 
of Charlestown; assistant surgeon, Henry W. Mitchell of East Bridgewater; chaplain, 
Benjamin F. De Costa of Charlestown; paymaster, George F. Hodges of Roxbury. 

U^oti-Comiiiissioni'd Staff. 

Sergeant-major, Henry A. Quincy; quartermaster sergeant, Samuel C. Hunt of 
Charlestown; hospital steward, Nathan D. Parker of Reading; drum major, Charles 
Foster of Charlestown. 

Line Officers. 

Company A, (Mechanic Light Infantry of Salem) — Captain. George H. Peirson; 
first lieutenant, Edward H. Staten ; second lieutenant, Lewis E. Wentworth. 

Company B, (Richardson Light Guard of Reading) — Captain, John W. Locke; 
first lieutenant, Charles H. Shepard ; second lieutenant, James D. Draper. 

Company C, (Charlestown Artillery) — Captain, William R. Swan of Chelsea; 
first lieutenant, Phineas H. Tibbetts of Charlestown; second lieutenant, John W. Rose 
of Boston; third lieutenant, Hannibal D. Norton of Chelsea; fourth lieutenant, George 
H. Marden, Jr., of Charlestown. 

Company D. (Haverhill Light Infantry) — Captain, Carlos P. Messer; first lieu- 
tenant, George J. Dean; second lieutenant, Daniel F. Smith; third lieutenant, Charles 
H. P. Palmer; fourth lieutenant, Thomas F. Salter. 

Company E, (Lawrence Light Guard of Medford) — Captain, John Hutchins; 
first lieutenant, John G. Chambers; second lieutenant. Perry Colman; third lieuten- 
ant, William H. Pattee of West Cambridge. 

Company F, (Wardwell Tigers) — Captain, David K. Wardwell ; first lieutenant, 
Jacob H. Sleeper of Boston ; second lieutenant, George G. Stoddard of F^rookline; 
third lieutenant, Horace P. Williams of Brookline; fourth lieutenant, Horatio N. Hol- 
brook of Boston. 

Company G, (Concord Artillery) — Captain, George L. Prescott; first lieutenant, 
Joseph Derby. Jr. : second lieutenant, Humphrey H. Buttrick ; third lieutenant, Charles 

Company H, (Salem City Guards) — Captain, Henry F. Danforth of Salem; first 
lieutenant, Kirk Stark; second lieutenant, William F. Sumner; third lieutenant, 
George H. Wiley; fourth lieutenant, John E. Stone; all of South Danvers. 


Company I, (Somerville Light Infantry) — Captain, George O. Brastow; first 
lieutenant, William E, Robinson; second lieutenant, Frederick R. Kingsley. 

Company K, (Charlestown City Guard) — Captain, John T. Boyd ; first lieuten- 
ant, John B. Norton ; second lieutenant, Caleb Drew ; third lieutenant, Walter Everett. 

Of the ten companies in the regiment, one was taken from the 
First and four from the Seventh regiment, to make up the complement of 
the Fifth. The regiment arrived in New York on the evening of the 21st 
and embarked on the steamers De Soto and Ariel for Annapolis, arriving 
there on the morning of the 24th. The next day it started for Washing- 
ton, four companies going by rail from Annapolis, and the others march- 
ing to Annapolis Junction. At Washington, the regiment was quartered 
in the treasury building, and on May i the command was mustered 
into the United States service. For some time the regiment remained in 
Washington, and May 25, received marching orders and crossed the Long 
Bridge into Virginia, going into camp a short distance from Alexandria. 
The camp was near Shuter's Hill, and was named Camp Andrew in honor 
of the governor of Massachusetts. 

On June 25, Lieutenant-Colonel Green, Major Keyes and Adjutant 
Barri were transferred to the regular army, and their places were filled by 
other officers of the regiment. Captain Pierson was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Captain Boyd became major, and Lieutenant Chambers, 
adjutant. The Fifth took no active part in the war until the battle of 
Bull Run. At that time it was a part of the First Brigade, Third Division, 
of General McDowell's command. In the brigade with the Fifth were the 
Eleventh Massachusetts, Fourth Pennsylvania and First Minnesota regi- 
ments, and Rickett's Battery I of the First U. S. Artillery. The divis- 
ion was commanded by Colonel Heintzelman, and the brigade by 
Colonel W. B. Franklin. 

On July 16, the brigade broke camp and marched toward Center- 
ville, arriving at Sangster's Station on the Orange and Alexandria R. R. 
on the 17th. Here it remained until the night of the 20th, when the 
march was resuined to the battlefield. The battle was well under way 
when the brigade arrived, and it at once went into action. Rickett's 
battery was engaged, and for some time kept up a long range fire, sup- 
ported by the infantry, but was soon ordered to an advanced position, 
where the enemy's fire was so severe that the six guns had to be aban- 
doned. Several efforts were made to recapture them, but all were unsuc- 
cessfitl, and the LTnion forces were obliged to retreat in confusion. The 
Fifth suffered considerable loss, having had nine killed, two wounded, 
one of whom was Colonel Lawrence, and twenty-two prisoners taken. 
The prisoners were sent south and were not exchanged until ten months 
later. The regiment retreated to Centerville and from thence to Washing- 
ton. Its time of service had expired and it returned to Massachusetts, 
and on July 29, was mustered out of the United States service. 



On August 14, 1862, after the call for troops for nine months' ser- 
vice had been made, the Fifth again offered its services to the govern- 
ment, and the offer was accepted. Only five of the old companies came 
into the new regiment, and comi^anies A, C, E, G, and I were recruited 
to raise the command to the maximum strength. This, of course, necessi- 
tated some change in the roster, and a new colonel, George H. Pierson of 
Salem, who was captain and afterward lieutenant-colonel in the old organ- 
ization, was placed in command. The other members of the field and staff 
were as follows: Lieutenant-Colonel John T. Boyd of Charlestown; major, 
William E. C. Worcester of Marlboro; adjutant, William T. Eustis, 3d, 
of Charlestown; quartermaster, George A. Norton of Bo.ston; surgeon, 
Wm. Ingalls of Winchester; assistant surgeon, Dixie C. Hoyt of Milford; 
chaplain, William F. Snow of Somerville. 

While the regiment was being recruited, it was in camp at Camp 
Lander, Wenham, and on October 3 orders were received, notifying it to 
be ready for service in North Carolina, under General Foster. On the 
22d the command sailed on the Mississippi for Beaufort, arriving there 
on the 26th. The next day it landed and took the train for Newbern, 
where it went into camp, and was attached to the brigade, commanded by 
Colonel Horace C. Lee. The brigade was made up of the Fifth, Twenty- 
seventh, and Forty-sixth Massachusetts Regiments, and the Ninth New 
Jersey, which was exchanged later in the year for the Twenty-fifth Mas- 
sachusetts, making an entire Massachusetts brigade. 

On December i the brigade broke camp and joined what was called 
the "Goldsboro expedition." The Fifth had the left of the line, and 
acted as guard to the wagon train. On the I4tli the battle of Kingston 
was fought, and the Fifth was split up into small detachments and or- 
dered to guard the roads on the flanks and rear. The next morning the 
command marched twenty-three miles to Whitehall, where an engagement 
was fought, and the Fifth had three men wounded. 

The brigade camped that night near Goldsboro, and the next day 
marched to the Neuse river, destroying the bridge, and also the railroad 
tracks and telegraph wires. During this time Company D was on the 
skirmish line, and Company H guarded the working parties. 

After the work of destruction had been completed, the retreat 
began, Lee's brigade being the rear guard. When a short distance from 
the river, the rear guard was attacked by a force of the enemy in close col- 
umn by division, massed, and composed of at least two regiments. 

Morrison's Battery opened at once. Belger's Battery was or- 
dered into position, and the F'ifth was ordered to support it. The 
rebels advanced rapidly, and when within 500 yards, Belger's battery 
opened fire, checking the advance. A second time they came on, and 


when within 300 yards a heavy cross fire from the batteries and infant- 
ry caused them to fall back again in disorder, and seek shelter behind a 
rail fence. From the fence they retreated to the woods, where they 
attempted to form for a third charge, but the rear guard kept up such a 
heavy fire that they were obliged to retire. Just before the final repulse 
of the enemy, a rebel battery opened fire from the woods on the left, the 
fire being mainly directed against the Fifth. For two hours the regiment 
stood the fire without flinching, until the battery was silenced. After 
the engagement, the brigade continued its march to Newbern, reaching 
there on the 21st, having marched about 180 miles and taken part in three 
engagements during its absence. In the three engagements the Fifth 
had eight wounded: three at Whitehall — W. W. Anderson, of Company 
B; Peter Conlin, of Company D; and William Eldridge, of Company E; 
and five at Goldsboro, G. W. Burroughs and G. W. Barnes, of Company 
B; W. A. Hardy and D. O. Williams, of Company D; and H. O. Babcock, 
of Company I. 

In general orders, dated January 15, 1863, the regiments and bat- 
teries which accompanied the expedition were directed to inscribe on 
their banners the names and dates of the three engagements: Kingston, 
December 14, 1862; Whitehall, December 16, 1862; Goldsboro, Decem- 
ber 17, 1862. 

During January, 1863, the regiment was ordered to fortify its camp, 
and in two weeks an earthwork was thrown up, which was called Fort 
Pierson, in honor of the colonel of the Fifth who had had charge of the 
work. On February 2 i, Company H was detailed as a garrison for Forts 
Hatteras and Clark, at Clark's Inlet, where it remained until the regiment 
returned home. Company D was at the same time ordered to Plymouth 
as a garrison, and remained there until the early part of May. 

With the exception of a skirmish at Deep Gully, near Newbern on 
March 14, the regiment remained inactive until April 4, when it went on 
board transports, as a part of an expedition for the relief of General Fos- 
ter, who was besieged at Little Washington; but the Confederate intrench- 
ments at Hill's Point were so strong that the force was compelled to return 
to Newbern, arriving on the 7th. On the 8th the regiment joined an over- 
land expedition bound for the same place under command of General 
Spinola, but encountered the enemy entrenched beyond Blount's Creek, 
and, as on the first expedition, the Confederate position was so strong that 
it was thought best to retire, and the command returned to camp on the 
10th. The third attempt to reach Little Washington was successful, and 
on the 20th the column entered the town, the enemy retiring to Green- 
ville. The Fifth only remained a day in the town, however, and on the 
22nd was at Fort Peirson again. 

On the 27th, the regiment formed part of another column under 


General Palmer, which started for Kinston. The command went to 
Batchelder's Creek by train, and marched twelve miles further to Core 
Creek, where the Fifth remained for two days on picket duty. Colonel 
Pierson was ordered to reconnoitre the enemy's position on Alosely Creek, 
and while performing this duty, the regiment had a sharp skirmish with 
the Confederate outposts, whom they drove back. 

The next day the command returned to Newbern, and three weeks 
later, the brigade with three troops of cavalry and three guns, started to 
capture the works which Colonel Pierson had located on Mosely Creek. 
The command was divided, and the attack made from the front and rear 
at the same time. The Confederates, finding themselves in a tight place, 
fied, leaving 200 prisoners and all their arms and camp equipage. The 
fortifications were destroyed and the column started to return. On the 
return march the command was attacked by a strong party of the enemy, 
but succeeded in beating them off, and reached camp on j\Iay 24. 

On June 20, orders were received to start for Boston, and on the 
22nd, the regiment left camp and took the train to Morehead City, where 
it embarked on the steamer Guide. The regiment reached Boston late on 
the 25th, and debarked the next day at Battery wharf, and on July 2 was 
mustered out at Camp Lander. 


When, in the fall of 1864, the call was issued for men to take the 
field for 100 days, the Fifth for the third time responded. Many changes 
had taken place in the regiment. Colonel Pierson being the only ofircer 
of the field or staff retaining his rank, and several of the companies were 
entirely different. The last company of the regiment was mustered in 
July 28, and it started the same day for Washington, 938 strong. 

The first camp was made four miles from Baltimore; but the com- 
mand was soon ordered to Fort McHenry, which was then commanded by 
by General Morris. Colonel Pierson, with three companies for a garrison, 
were ordered to Fort Marshall, and Lieutenant-Colonel Worcester was 
stationed at Federal Hill, in Baltimore. Other companies and detach- 
ments did duty at various points, and guarded the polls at the autumn 
elections when trouble was feared. The regiment returned to Massachu- 
setts early in November, and were mustered out at Readville, November 
16, 1884. 

The final roster of the field and staff was as follows: Colonel, George 
H. Pierson; Lieutenant-Colonel, William E. C. Worcester; major, William 
T. Grammer; adjutant, Edwin F. Wyer; quartermaster, Charles Currier; 
surgeon, Joshua B. Treadwell; assistant-surgeon, George H. Jones; ser- 
geant-major, William H. Hurd; quartermaster-sergeant, Daniel W. Law- 
rence; commissary-sergeant, Thomas T. Ferguson; hospital steward, M. 
Augustus Fuller. 




Company A, Boston -.—Captain, George H. Homer: first lieutenant, Charles J. 
Craibe, Jr.; second lieutenant, Edward P. Jackson. 

Company B, Somerville : — Captain, John N. Coffin; first lieutenant, Charles T. 
Robinson; second lieutenant, Granville W. Daniels. 

Company C— Captain, George F. Barnes; first lieutenant, William L. Thomp- 
son ; second lieutenant, Benjamin F. Southwick. 

Company D, Charlestown : — Captain, George H. Harden Jr.; first lieutenant, 
Charles P. Whittle; second lieutenant, George W. Kilham. 

Company E, Marlboro; — Captain, David L. Brown; first lieutenant, George L. 
Crosby; second lieutenant, William B. Rice. 

Company F, Boston; — Captain Philip J. Cootey ; first lieutenant, William C. 
Goff; second lieutenant, Walter S. Fowler. 

Company G, Woburn: — Captain, Charles S, Converse; first lieutenant, Charles 

E. Fuller; second lieutenant, Montressor Seeley. 

Company H, Charlestown: — Captain, Daniel W. Davis; first lieutenant, Wil- 
liam Spaulding; second lieutenant, Andrew J. Bailey. 

Company I, — Captain, Andrew W. Powers; first lieutenant, William S. Frost; 
second lieutenant, Luther H. Farnsworth. 

Company K, Stoneham : — Captain, Francis M. Sweetser; first lieutenant, Mar- 
shall P. Sweetser; second lieutenant, Moses Downs, Jr. 

Ill May, 1866, the regiment.s of the state were again re-organized, 
and the number of men in each company was reduced from 10 1 to 60. 
There were many changes in the Fifth, .some of the officers resigning or 
receiving promotion, and their places being filled by new men. Colonel 
Pierson was promoted to be brigadier-general, and William T. Grammer 
was chosen colonel in his place. The other officers were as follows: Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, George A. Meachain; major, George H. Harden, Jr.; ad- 
jutant, Walter Everett; quartermaster, D. W. Lawrence. 

The companies were from the following towns and cities: Company 
A, Charlestown, Captain George F. Chapin; Company B, Somerville, 
Captain G. W. Daniels. Company C, Cambridge. Company D, Charles- 
town. Company E, Aledford, Captain Isaac F. R. Hosea. Company F, 
Medford, Captain Godfrey Ryder, Jr. Company G, Woburn, Captain 
Cyrus Tay. Company H, Charlestown, Captain D. W. Davis, dnnpany 
I, Marlboro, Captain A. A. Powers. Company K, Cambridge, Captain C. 

F. Harrington. Companies C, E, F, and K, which had only been raised 
for the 100 days service, were disbanded. 

From 1866 until 1878, there were several more re-organizations, 
and finally, in 1878, the sixty companies in the .state were formed into six 
regiments, the Fifth being in the 2nd Brigade. Up to the time of the 
breaking out of the Spanish-American war, there were several changes 
in the roster of the command. Colonel Grammer remained in command 
until 1868, when George A. Meacham was chosen to succeed him. In 
1871, Walter Everett became colonel, and in 1875 he was succeeded by 
Ezra J. Trull. In 1882, William A. Bancroft took command of the regi- 
ment and held it for fifteen years. On his promotion in 1897, Jophanus 
H. Whitney, of Medford, was chosen to succeed him, and had command 
of the regiment all through the late war. 



The Fifth Massachusetts regiment went into camp at South Fram- 
ingham on the second call for troops in the spring of 1898, the different 
companies assembling in Post Office Square, Boston, on June 30, and 
leaving the same day for the camp. On July 2 the regiment was mus- 
tered into the United States volunteer service by Lieutenant Weaver, 
who later became the lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth. The regiment 
remained at the state camp grounds for a little more than two months, 
most of the time being spent in perfecting it in the various duties re- 
quired, particularly in extended order drill. 


Field jiui Staff. 
Colonel, Jophanus H. Whitney; Lieutenant-Colonel, William H. Oakes; Majors, 
Harry P. Ballard, Walter E. Morrison, Murray D. Clement; Adjutant, Elmore E. 
Locke; Quartermaster, James M. Ramsay; Surgeon, Charles C. Foster; Assistant 
Surgeon, H. Lincoln Chase; Paymaster, Albert C. Warren; Inspector Rifle Practice, 
Herbert A. Clark; Chaplain, Elwin Lincoln House. 

Li}ic Officers- 
Company A, Charlestown — Captain, Willis W. Stover; First Lieutenant, Wil- 
liam S. Tolman ; Second Lieutenant, Rowland W. Bray. 

Company B, Cambridge — Captain, Edward E. Mason; First Lieutenant, Charles 
W. Facey. 

Company C, Newton — Captain, Ernest R. Springer; First Lieutenant, Harry 

B. Inman; Second Lieutenant, Robert W. Dailey. 

Company D, Plymouth — Captain, Willard C. Butler; First Lieutenant, Arthur 
E. Lewis; Second Lieutenant, Edwin A. Dunton. 

Company E, Medford — Captain, James C. D. Clark; First Lieutenant, Otto J. 

C. Neilson; Second Lieutenant, Orville J. Whitney. 

Company F, Waltham — Captain, Louis R. Gindrat; First Lieutenant, Clifford 
E. Hamilton; Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Stearns. 

Company G, Woburn — Captain, Linwood E. Hanson; First Lieutenant, 
Thomas McCarthy ; Second Lieutenant, George S. Cutler. 

Company H, Charlestown — Captain, Francis Meredith, Jr.; First Lieutenant, 
Fred McDonald; Second Lieutenant, Henry Y. Gilson. 

Company I, Attleboro — Captain, George H. Sykes; First Lieutenant, Charles 
A. Richardson; Second Lieutenant, Edward P. Coleman. 

Company K, Braintree— Captain, Harry L. Kincaide; First Lieutenant, William 
H. Whitney; Second Lieutenant, Charles F. Spear. 

Company L, Maiden — Captain, Frank F. Cutting; First Lieutenant, James H. 
Mann; Second Lietttenant, Clarence A. Perkins. 

Company M. Hudson— Captain, James P. Clare; First Lieutenant, Henry B. 
Whitcomb; Second Lieutenant, Frank Taylor. 

When peace was declared, the regiment had its choice as to whether 
it would remain in the service or not, and an unofficial canvass among the 
men, showed that seventy per cent of them were willing and even anxious to 
remain. On August 11, the Fifth Regiment paraded as escort at the 
funeral of Colonel Bogan, of the Ninth Regiment, and on August 29, 
the first battalion furnished the escort for the funerals of Majors Grady 
and O'Connor of the same regiment. 

Orders having been received to proceed to Camp Meade, at 
Middletown, Penn., the regiment broke camp on September 11, and 
went by rail to that place, arriving on the 12th, and was assigned by 


Major-General Graham, who commanded the Second Army Corps, to 
the second brigade of the second division. 

The regimental camp of the Fifth was one of the best at Camp 
Meade, and the men worked hard to keep it looking well. The spot 
was a beautiful one, overlooking the Susquehanna river, the ground was 
high, and there was usually a good breeze from the river. The health 
of the command at this time was excellent, there being but very few 
.sick in the regiment, and none seriously. 

During the early part of the stay of the Fifth at Camp Meade, 
there was a great deal of talk about the scarcity of food, and Colonel 
Whitney wrote to the newspapers at home, emphatically denying the 
statement. Surgeon General Robert A. Blood was sent in October to 
investigate these charges, and at that date found the following condi- 
tions to exist. 

"I consulted the officers and men as to the food furnished them. 
They all agreed that the rations were of good quality and sufficient in 
quantity, and I heard no complaint from any one that they were not well 
supplied with food. In fact, the quality of the food, especially the meats, 
was most excellent, and I saw no reason to criticise, except perhaps the 
cooking. The cooks were detailed men and not experts; therefore the 
food was not as palatable as it would have been had it been prepared by 
thoroughly trained cooks." He added very sensibly, and the advice should 
be heeded in the regular service as well. "This was the thing that could 
have been improved upon. I believe this to be one of the principal faults 
to be found in the training of our Massachusetts militia. Each company 
should be taught to prepare its own food in a satisfactory manner." 

There is little doubt, however, that in the early part of the war, 
supplies were furnished by contractors, which were inferior in quality, 
although purchased at prices which would have insured any grocer, first 
class goods. It is by no means improbable that the complaints made by 
the men of the Fifth were to some extent justified. 

Some of the men, who did not like the way they were being treated, 
deserted in September, and started for home. They were soon caught 
and taken back to camp, however, and were made to realize that desertion 
from the United States service was quite a different thing from remain- 
ing away from a militia camp in the state. 

The men, as a rule, passed the time at Camp Meade pleasantly 
enough. The regimental band, which had become quite proficient, gave 
frequent concerts, and glee clubs were organized in the different compa- 
nies. The regiment had an enviable reputation at Camp Meade for being 
one of the neatest and commands in camp, and in drill 
and discipline they were second to none. 

On September 29, Lieutenant-Colonel Weaver visited the regiment, 


but he was not allowed to remain long, as the government needed his 
services elsewhere, and he did not join permanently tuitil about Decem- 
ber. In common with all regiments, which were at any of the different 
camps in the South during the summer of 1S98, the Fifth heard many 
rumors about moving. One day the regiment was to be ordered to 
another camp further South, and the next it was to go to Cuba as a garri- 
son for some town. At Camp ]\Ieade it remained, however, for over two 
months, and camp life became more and more monotonous every day. 
The men had many ways of enjoying themselves when not doing camp 
duty. Baseball and football teams were organized, the canal and a creek 
were handy for swimming, and all kinds of games were started. 

On October 27 there was a review of the whole 2nd Corps by Gen- 
eral Graham and Governor Hastings of Pennsylvania, and the Fifth 
again carried off the honors of the day for marching and general appear- 
ance, being highly complimented after the review. 

About the middle of October, Chaplain House tendered his resig- 
nation; but owing to the request of Colonel Whitney, and the strong pres- 
sure brought to bear in other quarters, it was not accepted by the War 
Department, and the chaplain remained with the command. He was one 
of the most popular officers in the regiment, and every member of it was 
pleased when it was known that he would not leave. 

On October 24 death took its first victim from the ranks of the 
Fifth. Private Emile J, Pickard, of Company D, died at the Women's 
Hospital in Philadelphia, of typhoid fever, and the death saddened the 
entire command. 

The ne.xt day the 3rd Battalion was ordered to leave for Philadel- 
phia, to take part in the jubilee celebration there. The men did excellent 
work, and the battalion was highly complimented upon its return to camp. 

On November i twelve commissioned officers and seventy-two non- 
commissioned officers and privates left Camp Meade for Greenville, S. C, to 
prepare the new camp for the Fifth; and the time of departure was eager- 
ly awaited by the men, who were by this time heartily sick of Camp 
Meade. The troops began to leave for the South during the early part of 
November, and on the i6th the Fifth broke camp and boarded the train 
for Greenville, arriving there on the night of the 17th. The regiment 
received a hearty welcome from the citizens and officials of the town, and 
passed in review before the mayor and city officials on the morning after 
it arrived. 

The regiment then marched out to the camp, which was about two 
miles from the town, and soon had tents pitched, and everything in good 
order. The new camp was a very pleasant one, and the warm weather 
and brio-ht sun, which the men enjoyed for the few days, made them 
feel contented again. Considering the large number of rainy days that 


• ^ 



the command had experienced during the latter part of its stay at Camp 
Meade, the health of the men was wonderfully good, only nine men being 
in the hospital on the ist of December. 

Later, during the early part of December, the weather was very 
bad, rain falling almost every day, and the nights were cold and damp. 
The camp was then a perfect mudhole, the men being obliged to wade 
through several inches of mud in getting around the camp, and when 
going into the city. At night roaring fires were kept up, and two or three 
blankets were necessary for comfort. To make matters worse, rations 
became insufficient, and finally the men appealed to the officers. A meet- 
ing of the officers was held, and an imperative demand for full rations 
for the command made upon the commissary department. The men were 
worked hard, building mess houses, digging trenches and banking up the 
tents, in order to make the camp more comfortable, because, although it 
was rumored almost every day that the regiment was to go to Cuba, very 
few of the men believed it, and the majority expected to stay at Green- 
ville imtil .spring. 

The residents of Greenville were most hospitable to the soldiers at 
the camp, and many were the entertainments given for their amusement. 
Any and all of the officers, and many of the men, were welcome at the 
homes of the citizens, and there was nothing that the residents would not 
do for the comfort of the members of the Fifth. 

While the command was at Greenville, a good many of the officers 
and men applied for their discharges, as they thought that the Fifth would 
not see any active service, and they wished to return to their homes and 
business. In the majority of cases, these applications were refused, and 
only when there was very good reason for the discharge, was it granted. 
On December 20, Major Clement was honorably discharged on the ground 
of ill-health, as he was not able to perform his duties with the regiment. 
Several others in the regiment were discharged about the same time, all 
on account of poor health. 

Christmas Day was a holiday all over the camp. A long program 
of athletic sports had been arranged, and there was a football game be- 
tween teams from the Fifth Massachusetts and the Fourth Missouri, which 
resulted in a tie. Many boxes of good things were received from home, 
and one or two of the companies had Christmas trees in their quarters. 
At the celebration in the evening, a good deal of excitement was created 
by the contest for the colors, which were nailed on a pole about fifteen 
feet high. Eleven companies sent eight men each to contest for the 
colors, and at a signal from the colonel, the rush commenced. For fifteen 
minutes the mass of men surged back and forth around the pole, none 
being able to gain any advantage. As one of the officers said: "It looked 
like the exercises at the tree at Harvard, only on a smaller scale. Final- 


ly, by a concerted movement, the men of Company B carried off the jarize, 
and then there was ahnost a free fio-ht; the men becominir so excited that 
the officers were obliged to take a hand, and Colonel Whitney interfered 
to prevent any of the men getting hurt. 

An entertainment was given in the tent of the Christian Army 
Commission in the evening, all the talent being provided by the men. 
Several of the companies held banqtrets, and the band held one of their 
own at the Mansion House in Greenville. All in all, it was as pleasant 
and cheerful a Christmas as the men could have spent anywhere, away 
from home and friends, and every man in the regiment thoroughly en- 
joyed the day. 

New Year's Day found the regiment in excellent health and spirits. 
There were the same old rumors of orders expected every day for the 
command to start for some point in Cuba, probably Havana, to form jDart 
of the garrison there; but day after day passed and no orders came. The 
weather during the early part of January was most depressing. Almost 
every day there was a cold, northeast storm, making drill impossible, so 
that schools of instruction were held in the tents and mess houses. On 
January 12 the first battalion under Major ■Morrison marched to Green- 
ville to do provost duty for ten days, while the other two battalions 
remained at camp and tried to get satisfaction by expressing their opinions 
about the weather, the administration, and various other matters which 
did not suit them; for the men of the Fifth had, by this time, learned one 
of the privileges of a regular soldier — the right to grumble when things 
did not suit them, and to find in their grumbling a sensible relief. 

On January 18 several promotions were announced in the regiment; 
CajDtain Hanson, of Company G, was promoted to be major, and Lieuten- 
ant Gow of iledford promoted to be first lieutenant of Company B; Second 
Lieutenant SjDear to be first lieutenant of Company M, and Sergeants 
Wheeler, Williams and Gustafson received notice of their appointments 
as second lieutenants. 

Ab(.)ut the last of January the boys saw the first snow they had seen 
that winter, and had a glorious time with it while it lasted, which was not 
very long. A day or two after the snow storm, came the ball of the non- 
coms of the second battalion, which was a great success; many of the 
leading society people of Greenville being present. The music was 
furnished by the band of the regiment, which also gave a concert before 
the dancing commenced. 

Early in February, Lieutenant-Colonel Weaver rejoined the regi- 
ment, and the men welcomed him heartily. At this time all drills had 
been suspended on account of the cold weather, and many of the men 
were complaining, although the general liealth of the command was still 
very good. The surgeons were indefatigable in their efforts to keep the 

liKGIAilCXTAI, OUAKll ANU I'.ATII HOUSE, CAMP W l/ll lEIi r.1,1., S. C. 




boys feeling well, and practice marches of five or six miles were taken 
every day or two, to provide plenty of exercise for them. On February 
12 about five inches of snow fell. The weather was very cold, and the 
men were obliged to keep moving to keep themselves warm. The night 
of the nth was the coldest of the winter, the mercury dropping to four 
below zero, and large fires were kept up all night. Guard mount and all 
drills were omitted, and the men huddled around the fires wrapped in 
their blankets, and wondered who invented the name of "Sunny South" 
for the country around Greenville. The men on guard suffered the most, 
and the colonel cut down the number of posts and the hours of duty, so 
that a man was on guard one hour, and off five hours. This reduced the 
hardships of guard duty and was much appreciated by the men. 

On February 2 i the Fifth received the news that all the regular volun- 
teer regiments in the southern camps were to be mustered out of the ser- 
vice, and there was great rejoicing at the tidings. The men were per- 
fectly willing to stay in the service, if the government would send them 
to Cuba or Porto Rico; but the long siege of camp life had become weari- 
some, and if there was no foreign service to be performed, they wanted 
to go to their homes. A few days later the muster-out blanks were re- 
ceived, and orders were issued that no furloughs or leaves of absence 
would be granted. 

The health of the command was rapidly growing worse, and it was 
found necessary to open an annex to the regimental hospital to properly 
accommodate the sick men. The weather was warmer, but it seemed 
that the warmth only brought to the surface the effects of the suffering 
and exposure during the stormy season. The surgeons were kept very 
busy attending to the increasing number reporting at sick call, and the 
nurses and hospital stewards worked day and night for the comfort of the 

Early in March the regiment learned that the muster-out would 
take place on March 31. The epidemic of sickness seemed to have 
passed, and all the men in the hospitals were improving rapidly. In spite 
of all that could be done, ten men had died in as many days. Then, as if 
the regiment had not suffered enough, measles broke out in the camp, and 
for several days the surgeons were much disturbed for fear that there 
would be an epidemic. Colonel Whitney was quite ill with fever, and 
his condition was such that it was thought best to remove him from the 
camp to some place where he could have better care. The camp of the 
Fifth was practically in quarantine on account of the measles, although 
no orders were issued to that effect. The Christian commission tent was 
closed; no visitors were allowed in the camp; and the regiment was split 
up, the 3rd Battalion being moved to the old camp-ground of the Fourth 
Missouri, to prevent the spread of the disease. This state of affairs lasted 


only a few days, however, as the progress of the disease was soon checked, 
and the quarantine was removed. 

During the latter part of ^ISIarch the men were busy packing up, 
preparatory to their return home. The work of mustering out was prac- 
tically completed, so far as the officers and clerks were concerned, and 
the regiment was only waiting for the rolls to be returned by the pay- 

On March 27, the last dress parade of the regiment was held, and 
the men, knowing it to be their last appearance as United States volun- 
teers, did their best, so that the parade and exercises were excellent. 
The rifles were turned over to the government, and orders were issued 
that no more drills of any kind would be held. The quartermaster turned 
over his supplies, and the final statements of the officers were handed in 
to the mustering officer, Captain Beckurts. The tents were all turned in, 
the men sleeping in the mess hoitses, and all useless impedimenta was 
burnt in the company streets. 

Early on the morning of the 31st, the work of mustering out and 
paying off was begun, and by noon every man had received his money 
and his discharge. The citizens of the town were very sorr}^ to have the 
regiment leave, as it had gained a warm place in their hearts by the good 
behavior and gentlemanly condttct of the men. On the morning of the 
muster-out, the Greenville Daily News printed a highly complimentary 
editorial on the regiment, saying that it was a credit to the state from 
which it came, and expressing the regret which the people of the town 
felt at its departure. 

Although the men were not subject to orders from their officers after 
the muster-out, it was decided that the entire command should return to 
Massachusetts 'as a regiment. The trains which were to take the men 
north, left Greenville about three o'clock on the afternoon of the 31st, 
and the next morning arrived at Danville, A'irginia. Washington was 
reached the same evening, and the men remained there until midnight. 
They arrived in New York the next morning, and left that evening on 
the steamer for Fall River. The trains left Fall River early on the morn- 
ing of April 3. arriving in Boston shortly after 9 o'clock. 

At the South Station, the regiment fell into line, and started on its 
march across the city. An immense crowd was in waiting at the station, 
and the men were wildly cheered as they appeared. Dewey Square was 
black with people. They crowded the entire space between the build- 
ings, crowded in the windows and stood on top of the cabs and hacks which 
were in the square. One feature of the reception given to the regiment, 
was the offer of the British Guards Band — playing in Boston at the time 
— to meet the regiment at the station and escort it on its march across 
the city. Frequently along the line of march, delegations from the towns 


from which the companies came, fell in behind the boys and marched over 
the route with them. Governor Wolcott was waiting for the command in 
front of the State House, and the regiment halted there while the colors 
were delivered, and the Governor congratulated the men on their return. 
Then the regiment marched to the Common to break ranks. 

During the campaign of the Fifth, it lost thirteen men by death 
from various causes, as follows: — 

Emile C. Pickard, of Plymouth, private, Company D, October 24, 1898. 

Edward Billingsly, of Woburn, private. Company G, November 10, 1898. 

N. A. Kiley, of West Medford, wagoner, Company E, December 9, 1898. 

W. A. Smith, of Medford, corporal, Company A, February 4, 1899. 

John Denning, of Newtonville, private. Company C, February 25, 1899, 

John D. Penderghast, of Nonantum, private. Company C, February 25, 1899. 

Thomas Burnett, of Newton Lower Falls, private. Company C, Feb. 26, 1899. 

Charles H. Roberts, of Jefferson, N. H., private. Company H, Feb. 27, 1899. 

John A. Chisholm, of Revere, private. Company A, February 28, 1899. 

Leslie F. Hunting, of Lowell, hospital steward, March 6, 1899. 

Horace Tinkham, private. Company D, March 7, 1899. 

Michael Murphy, of Charlestown, private. Company C, March 18, 1899. 

Charles-Homer, of Plymouth, private. Company D, March 22, 1899. 

When the Fifth left the state in September, 1898, it had 1327 offi- 
cers and men. With deaths, discharges and sick leaves, the command 
numbered 1083 men and 46 officers when it was mustered out, and about 
1000 returned to Boston with the regiment. It was in the service 271 
days. Two of the deaths occurred at Camp Meade, and the others during 
the siege of bad weather which the command underwent at Greenville. 
The following are the important dates in the service of the regiment: 

June 30, 1898. Arrived at Camp Dalton, South Framingham. 
July 2. Mustered into the United States service. 
September 1 1. Left Camp Dalton for Camp Meade. 
October 28. Furnished detail at Peace Jubilee parade in Phila- 

November 16. Left Camp Meade for Greenville, S. C. 

November 17. Arrived at Greenville. 

March i, 1899. Order issued for muster-out. 

March 3 1 . Regiment mustered out of United States service. 

April 3. Regiment arrived in Boston. 

June 30, 1898, to March 31, 1898. 

Colonel, Jophanus H. Whitney, Medford; lieutenant-colonel. Erasmus M. Wea- 
ver, U.S.A. ; majors: Walter E. Morrison, Braintree; Murray B. Clement, Waltham ; (re- 
signed Nov. 29,1898) Linwood E. Hanson, Woburn, (from Jan. 7,1899); adjutants, rank 
first lieutenant, Hugh Bancroft, Cambridge, (resigned Aug. 26, 1898); Fred T. Austin, 
Boston, (from Sept. 25, 1898); quartermasters, rank first lieutenant; Herbert .\. Clark, 
Attleborough, (resigned Sept. 8, 1898): Charles B. Cabot, Cambridgeport. (from Sept. 
22, 1898, assigned to Co. D as first lieutenant, Oct. 18, 1898); George P. Buechner. 
Worcester, (from Oct. 14, 1898); Surgeons, rank of major; Charles C. Foster. Cam- 
bridge, (resigned Oct. 3, 1898); Frederic W. Pearl, Boston, (from Oct. 6, 1898); assis- 
tant surgeons, rank of lieutenant: Frank E. Bateman, Charlestown, (resigned Sept. 


23, 1898); Frederic W. Pearl, Boston, (promoted major and surgeon, Oct. 6, 1898); 
Wm. E. McPherson, Charlestown, (from Oct. 6, 1898); Charles N. Barney, Boston, 
from Oct, 14, 189S); Chaplain, Elwin L. House, Attleborough. 

Line Officers. 

Company A— Captain, Willis W. Stover, Charlestown; first lieutenants. William S. 

Tolman, Charlestown, (resigned Jan. 24, 1899); Rowland W. Bray, Charlestown; 

second lieutinants: Rowland W. Bray, (promoted first lieutenant, March 2, 1S99); 

Maurice A. Colbert, South Braintree, (from March 3, 1899). 
Company B — Captain, Charles W. Facey, Cambridge; first lieutenant, Fred T. Austin, 

Boston, (appointed adjutant, Sept. 25, 1898); Charles R. Gow, Medford, (from 

January 7, 1899); second lieutenant, Patrick J. McNamara, Cambridge. 
Compmy C — Captain, Ernest R. Springer, Newton; first lieutenant, Robert W. Daley, 

Newton; second lieutenant, Lester Leland, Maiden, (resigned Aug. 20, 1898); 

Sheldon L. Howard, Taunton, (Sept. 22, 1898). 
Company D — Captain, Willard C. Butler, Plymouth; first lieutenant, Arthur E. Lewis, 

Plymouth, (resigned Sept. 12, 1898;) Charles B. Cabot, Cambridgeport, (from Oct 8, 

1898); second lieutenant, Edwin A, Dunton, Plymouth, (resigned January 25, 

1S98); Garrett E. Barry, Medford, (from March 3, 1899). 
Company E — Captain, James C. D. Clark, Medford; first lieutenant. Otto J. C. Neilson, 

Medford, (promoted captain Co. K, Oct. 16, 1898); Orville J. Whitney. Medford, 

(from Oct. 14, 1898); second lieutenant, Orville J. Whitney, (promoted); Eldridge L. 

Sweetser, Everett, (from Oct. 14, 1898). 

Company F — Captain, Louis R. Gindrat, Waltham; first lieutenant, Clifford E. Hamil- 
ton, Waltham; second lieutenant, Charles E. Stearns, Waltham, (resij;ned (Jet. 
12, 1898); Joseph H. Williams, Attleborough, (from Jan. 7, 1899.) 

Company G — Captain, Linwood E.Hanson, Woburn, (promoted major Jan. 7, 1899); 
Thomas McCarthy, Stoneham, (from March 3, 1899); first lieutenant, Thomas 
McCarthy, (promoted) ; Homer B. Grant, Woburn, (from March 3, 1899); second 
lieutenant. Homer B. Grant, (promoted); Charles H. Robbins, Plymouth, (from 
March 3, 1899). 

Company H — Captain, Fred McDonald, Charlestown; first lieutenant, Henry Y. Gil- 
son, Somerville; second lieutenant, Charles R. Gow, Medford, (July 9-25, 1898); 
Francis S. Parker, Boston, (resigned August 20, 1898); George P. Buechner, 
(appointed quartermaster, Oct 18, 1898); Charles J. Kindler, Cambridge, (from 
Oct. 14, 1898). 

Company I, Attleborough: — Captain, George H. Sykes, Attleborough; first lieuten- 
ant, Charles A. Richardson, Attleborough; second lieutenant, Edward P. Cole- 
man, Taunton. 

Company K — Captain, Henry L. Kincaide, Quincy, (resigned Sept. 9, 1898); Otto 
J. C. Neilson, (from Oct. 14, 1898); first lieutenant, William H. Whitney, Quincy; 
second lieutenant, Charles F. Spear, (promoted first lieutenant); Adolphus G. 
Gustafson, Cambridge; (from January 7, 1899). 

Company L — Captain, Frank F. Cutting, Maiden; first lieutenant, James H. Mann, 
Maiden; second lieutenant, Clarence A. Perkins, Maiden. 

Company M — Captain James P. Clare, Hudson; first lieutenants, Morland Carter, 
Brookline; Charles F. Spear, Weymouth, (from January 7, 1899); second lieuten- 
ant, Charles R. Gow, Medford, (July .'5, 1898, to Jan. 7, 1899); Benjamin Wheeler, 
Attleborough, (from January 7, 1899). 





By Major-General Benjamin F. Peach (retired), and Major-General A. Hun Berry. 

BY General 'Orders, No. 4, dated February 26, 1855, the companies 
of the Militia of the Commonwealth which had been known as 
artillery, infantry and light infantry, were re-organized as infan- 
try, and the following companies were assigned as the Eighth 
Regiment, 4th Brigade and 2d Division, M. V. M. 

Company A, Newbiiryport, organized 1775 ; Company B, Marblehead, organized 
1825; Company C, Marblehead, organized 1809; Company D, Lynn, organized 1852; 
Company E, Beverly, organized 1814; Company F, Lynn, organized 1852; Company 
G, Gloucester, organized 1852; Company H, Marblehead, organized 1852. 

Rt'giiik'ntal Rosttr, Fiiid and Staff. 

Colonel, Frederick J. Coffin, Newburyport; lieutenant-colonel, Roland G. 
Usher, Lynn ; major, John F. Brown, Marblehead : adjutant, Nehemiah Flanders, 
Newburyport; quartermaster, Samuel T. Payson, Newburyport ;•( surgeon, John Ren- 
ton, Lynn ; surgeon's mate, William F. Buckley, Lynn; Paymaster, Francis Foster, 

Line Officers. 

Company A — Captain, John E. Remick; first lieutenant, John G. Johnson; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Daniel C. Bachelder; third lieutenant, Albert W. Bartlett ; fourth 
lieutenant, George H. Lyford, all of Newburyport. 

Company B — Captain, Simon A.Stone, Marblehead; first lieutenant, Thomas 
Brown, Jr., Danvers; second lieutenant, Daniel L. Preston, Danvers; third lieuten- 
ant, Franklin Knight, and fourth lieutenant, George R. Church, of Marblehead. 

Company C — Captain, Knott V. Martin; first lieutenant, Richard Bessom ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Lewis R. Cruff; third lieutenant, Benjamin G. Doliber; fourth lieut- 
enant, John Stevens, 2d, all of Marblehead. 

Company D — Captain, Timothy Monroe; first lieutenant, William A. Eraser; 
second lieutenant, George Winn; third lieutenant, Jaazaniah C. Pierce; fourth lieut- 
enant, Elliot C. Pierce, all of Lynn. 

Company E — Captain, Israel W. Wallis; first lieutenant, Joseph T. Haskell; 
second lieutenant, Francis E.Porter; third lieutenant, John W. Raymond; fourth 
lieutenant, George H. Hildreth, all of Beverly. 

Company F — Captain, Thomas Herbert; first lieutenant, Peter F. Cox; second 
lieutenant, A. Augustus Oliver; third lieutenant, William G. Brown ; fourth lieuten- 
ant, Joseph F. Hay, all of Lynn. 

Company G — Captain, Jeremiah R. Cook; first lieutenant, Andrew Elwell; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Charles Gardner; third lieutenant, Charles Swift; fourth lieutenant, 
Robert R. Fears, all of Gloucester. 

Company H — Captain, John M. Anderson; first lieutenant, Francis Boardman ; 
second lieutenant, John I. Center; third lieutenant, Henry M. Osborne; fourth lieut- 
enant, George W. Homans, all of Marblehead. 

The rank and file of each company consisted of one first sergeant, 
four sergeants, four corporals, four musicians and sixty-four privates. 


which organization continued withoiit much change until 1861. Officers 
and men provided their own uniforms, and each company was allowed its 
choice as to the color and style, with the result that no two companies 
in the regiment were uniformed alike. 

An act of the legislature passed May 27, 1858, provided, that com- 
panies found upon inspection to be below a proper standard of efficiency 
should be disbanded, and thirty-eight companies were found below such 
standard. Every company of the Eighth successfully passed the ordeal; 
— it was the only regiment in the state that did not lose a company. 

The regular tours of duty at this time were performed in six days, 
distributed through the year as follows: On the last Wednesday in May 
the companies were required to assemble in their armories for inspection. 
Three days in autumn the troops went into camp and performed the 
duties incident to camp life. Between May inspection and the fall encamp- 
ment, two days were set apart for the instruction of commissioned and 
non-commissioned officers, and known as "elementary drills." 

These tours of duty were always creditably performed by the regi- 
ment and were well attended. It is especially noted in the adjutant- 
general's reports, that at the fall encampments of 1855-56-57-58, the 
Eighth paraded with a larger number of men than any other organization. 

When the attack upon Fort Sumter precijDitated the great conflict 
so long impending; and on April 15, 1 861, Governor Andrew received 
from President Lincoln a requisition for twenty companies of infantry 
for the protection of the Capital; he immediately issued orders for four 
regiments to assemble at Boston the next day. 

All the latent patriotism at once burst forth, and the promulgation 
of the order for troops, which was generally transmitted, by messengers, 
caused the most intense excitement among the people. There was a 
great emulation among the Volunteer Alilitia and their friends to respond 
promptly and efficiently to the requisition, and the historic remark of 
Captain Knott V. Martin of Company C, Marblehead, inviting the pig which 
he had just killed to cut itself up and deposit itself in the brine, as he 
was going to war; together with the telegram of Captain Hudson of Com- 
pany F, of Lynn: "We have more men than uniforms, what shall we 
do?" give some idea of the excitement and enthusiasm under which all 

April 16, opened with a violent storm of sleet and snow, yet the 
companies of the Eighth rallied with great promptness, and reported at 
Faneuil Hall, Boston, in the following order: 

Company C, of Marblehead, Captain Knott V. Martin ; Company H, of 
Marblehead, Captain Francis Boardman ; Company B, of Marblehead, Captain Rich- 
ard Phillips; Company D, of Lynn, Captain George T. Newhall ; Com.pany F, of 
Lynn, Captain James Hudson, Jr. ; Company A, of Newburyport, Captain Albert W. 



Bartlett; Company E, of Beverly, Captain, Francis E. Porter, and Company G, 
of Gloucester, Captain Addison Center. 

Company C, of Marblehead wa.s the first company, not only of the 
regiment, but of the entire state militia, to report for duty under the 
orders. The regiment expected to leave Boston the same day, but Col- 
onel Coffin had sometime previously resigned, although his discharge 
had not yet been received by him, and an election on the 17th resulted 
in the election of Captain Timothy Munroe of Company D, as colonel. 

The wise forethought of Governor Andrew had induced the Legis- 
lature to provide overcoats, and they 
were scarcely ready when urgently 
needed. Their issue caused addi- 
tional delay, but on the iSth the men 
were furnished with overcoats, and 
partially with knapsacks and haver- 
sacks; Governor Andrew, with an im- 
pressive speech, presented the regi- 
mental colors, and the regiment the 
same day left for Washington. 

To complete the organization 
of the regiment ten companies were 
required by the regular United States 
Army standard, and Company A, 
Seventh Regiment of Infantry, of 
Salem, Captain Arthur F. Devereux, 
organized in 1S05, and Company A, 
First Battalion of Infantry, Pittsfield, 
Captain Henry S. Briggs, organized 
in i860, were assigned, and desig- 
nated as Companies J and K, respectively. The latter company joined 
the regiment at Springfield, on the way to Washington. 

The completed regimental organization was officered as follows: 


Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Timothy Monroe, Lynn; lieutenant-colonel, Edward W. Hinks, 
Lynn; major, Andrew Elwell, Gloucester ; adjutant, George Creasey, Newburyport; 
quartermaster, Ephraim A. Ingalls, Lynn ; paymaster, Roland G. Usher, Lynn ; sur- 
geon. Bowman B. Breed, Lynn; assistant-surgeon, Warren Tapley, Lynn ; chaplain, 
Gilbert Haven, Jr., Maiden. 

Line Officers. 

Company A— Captain, Albert W. Bartlett, Newburyport; first lieutenant, 
George Barker; second lieutenant, Gamaliel Hodges; third lieutenant, Nathan W. 
Collins; fourth lieutenant, Edward L. Noyes, all of Newburyport. 

Company B— Captain, Richard Phillips; first lieutenant, Abiel S. Roads ; sec- 
ond lieutenant, William S. Roads; third lieutenant, William Cash, all of Marblehead. 

Company C— Captain Knott V. Martin; first lieutenant, Samuel C. Graves; 


second lieutenant, Lorenzo F. Linnell; third lieutenant, John H. Haskell, all of 

Company D — Captain, George T. Newhall ; first lieutenant, Thomas H. Berry; 
second lieutenant, Elbridge Z. Saunderson ; fourth lieutenant, Charles M. Merritt, all 
of Lynn. 

Company E — Captain, Francis E. Porter; first lieutenant, John W. Raymond; 
second lieutenant, Eleazer Giles; third lieutenant, Albert Wallis ; fovirth lieutenant, 
Moses S. Herrick, all of Beverly. 

Company F — Captain, James Hudson, Jr. ; first lietitenant, Edward A. Chand- 
ler; second lieutenant, Henry Stone; third lieutenant, Matthias N. Snow, all of Lynn. 

Company G — Captain, Addison Center; first lieutenant, David W. Low; second 
lieutenant, Edward A. Story; third lieutenant, Harry Clark, all of Gloucester. 

Company H — Captain, Francis Boardman; first lieutenant, Thomas Russell; 
second lieutenant, Nicholas Bowden; third lieutenant, Joseph S. Caswell, all of 

Company J — Captain, Arthur F. Devereux; first lieutenant, George F. Austin, 
second lieutenant, Nathan A. P. Brewster; third lieutenant, George D. Putnam, all 
of Salem. 

Company K — Captain, Henry S. Briggs; first lieutenant, Henry H. Richardson; 
second lieutenant, Robert Bache, all of Pittsfield. 

From the arrival of the companies in Boston to their departure 
from Philadelphia, the excitement and enthusiasm of the people along the 
entire route was intense. At the depot in Boston, thousands of people 
congregated to see them off, crowding every avenue to its approach. At 
Worcester, a great multitude assembled to welcome the regiment, and to 
encourage with their cheers and shouts the officers and men in the per- 
formance of this patriotic duty. At Springfield they received a grand 
ovation. Fully five thousand people had assembled, including military 
and fire companies. Although it was quite late in the evening when the 
train arrived, the regiment was ushered into the city amid the ringing of 
bells, the blazing of bonfires, firing of cannon and the in.spiring music of 

New York was reached at 6 a. m., and after breakfast at the Astor 
and the La Farge House, the Eighth, attended by immense throngs, pro- 
ceeded to Jersey City, where A. W. Grisvvold, Esq., a former resident of 
Boston, presented it with a magnificent silk American flag mounted on a 
massive hickory staff. The passage through New Jersey was but a repe- 
tition of what had been witnessed since leaving home; but on arriving at 
Philadelphia on the evening of April 19, the news that the Sixth Massa- 
chusetts had been attacked in Baltimore, and compelled to fight its way 
through the city, gave new energy and enthusiasm to the men, and made 
them more eager to reach their destination. 

The reception of the troops here was more exciting than any they 
had yet experienced. The crowds were so dense that the regiment could 
scarcely march through the broad streets. Supper was furnished at the 
Continental Hotel, and quarters at the Girard House; and active prepara- 
tions were made for pushing on to Baltimore. 

A corps of .sappers and miners was organized under Lieutenant 

: i 

.tlij^. iiiaPT :«t^ ..,;;djii 



Thomas H. Berry, of Company D, and the detail for this duty was as fol- 
lows: William H. Berry, O. H. Clement, J. Foye, E. O. Hixon, Alonzo 
W. Bartlett, D. Lambert, A. D. Remick, F. M. Smith, L. Tuttle, and 
Henry Williams, of Company D, of Lynn; P. A. Babson, George C. Carle- 
ton, William F. Carleton, Edward Cookson, C. A. Hall, J. Hinsch, M. M. 
Jennison, J. W. Johnson, C. S. Littlefield, J. W. Lovejoy, J. P. Ober, C. 
H. Orr, C. S. Stevens, F. Stokes, Henry Walker, J. W. Witham, and 
Harry Clark, of Company G, of Gloucester; Charles Davenport, George 
Campbell, C. O. Harridan, M. Kimball, J. E. Ellis, AL Luscomb, J. W. 
Murray, and Alexander Norris, of 
Company F, of Lynn; and B. F. 
Herrick, of Company E, of Beverly. 

They were picked men, and 
.supplied with axes, picTis, crowbars, 
shovels, etc., for the purpose of re- 
moving barricades or other obstruc- 
tions in the streets. 

It was supposed that the 
Seventh Regiment of New York, 
which had arrived during the night, 
would accompany the Eighth Massa- 
chusetts, in an attempt to get 
through Baltimore, but its colonel 
declined. At first the Eighth pro- 
posed to try it alone; but at the 
earnest solicitation of Samuel M. 
Felton, Esquire, president of the 
Philadelphia and Baltimore Railway, 
the project was abandoned, and it 
was decided to proceed to Washing- 
ton via Annapolis. About noon, the regiment took the cars, as was sup- 
posed, for Baltimore, but when a short distance from Perryville it dis- 
embarked. Companies J and K, with the sappers and miners, under 
Lieutenant Berry, took the advance supported by the regiment. All had 
been supplied with ten rounds of ammunition, expecting to meet with 
resistance in taking possession of the Maryland, a large ferry-boat used 
to convey railroad trains across the Susquehanna river, and it was re- 
ported that 1 ,600 men from Baltimore were ready to dispute the passage of 
the regiment, as they had that of a brigade of Pennsylvania troops under 
General Small the daybefore. 

At Perryville, a large crowd had assembled, but without firing a 
shot, the Eighth seized the Maryland and started down the river, arriving 
off Annapolis before daybreak Sunday. April 2 ist. 



The sappers and miners, with other details from the regiment, were 
ordered on board the frigate Constitution, the most famous ship in the 
navy, then serving as a school-ship, and lying at anchor near the Naval 
Academy. They remained on board, and, as many were sailors, assisted 
in getting the ship ready for sea, while Companies J and K were detailed 
to protect the ship from attack; for it was hourly expected that an attempt 
would be made to capture her. April 22, Company K was released from 
duty on the Constitution, but Company J remained with her until she 
reached New York, and with the .sappers and miners rejoined the regi- 
ment at Washington in May. 

Captain Blake, her commander, not having a sufficient crew to work 
or defend the Constitution, had made preparations to blow her up, if 
unable to prevent her falling into the hands of the enemy. A sailor was 
stationed at the magazine, which contained sixty thousand pounds of 
powder, with a slow match, ready to apply it at a moment's notice. The 
arrival of the Eighth at Annapolis, without doubt saved the Constitution 
from capture or destruction. 

While endeavoring to leave the harbor, both the Constitution and 
the Maryland got aground. Cars were run overboard from the Maryland, 
and heavy guns were transferred to her from the Constitution; but the 
Eighth did not land until Tuesday morning, and then in spite of the 
pathetic and threatening protests of Governor Hicks and the mayor of 

Neither vessel floated until Tuesday morning, when the S. S. Bos- 
ton, which had brought the New York Seventh from Philadelphia, towed 
the Constitution into the stream. After spending two days in bending 
sails and making ready for sea, "Old Ironsides" sailed for New York, 
where she arrived April 28. 

Upon leaving the .ship at New York, the ft)llowing letter was given 
to Lieutenant Berry, commanding the sappers and miners: 

U. S. Frigate Constitution. 

Brooklyn Navy Yard, May i, 1861. 
Captain Berry, Commander, 

Dear Sir: I perceive by a lettter, which appears in the New York Herald of 
this date, speaking of the services rendered this ship in her late passage from An- 
napolis to New York by Massachusetts Volunteers, that your company and that of the 
.\llen Guard are quite ignored. As the executive officer of the ship, I am unwilling that 
such injustice should be done those, who, perhaps from the nature of their previous 
calling, were able to render the most efficient service. 

The officers commanding the gun divisions spoke with great praise of the will- 
ingness and efficiency of your men, and I have occasion myself to notice them aloft 
in reefing, etc., etc. Indeed, any distinction made between the different companies 
which were asked for by the navy authorities at Annapolis, would be invidious in 
the extreme. 

With much respect, 

I am your Obdt. Servt. 
(Signed) J. H. UPSHUR, Lieutenant U. S. Navy. 


The grounding of the Maryland was then attributed to the treachery 
of the engineers or pilots, but probably it was accidental. To guard 
against further possible treachery, men were detailed from the Eighth 
to assist and watch the engineers of the boat, and a call for engineers 
resulted in twenty reporting for this duty, from whom those needed were 
selected. Later, it was clearly demonstrated that when anything was 
needed in the way of skill or handicraft, it was only necessary to make 
known what was wanted and scores would respond, as there were men of 
all trades and professions in the regiment. 

On Monday, April 22, Company K, Captain Briggs, was sent on a 
tug to reinforce the small garrison of Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, 
as fears of an attack were entertained. When within a few miles of the 
fort, they were informed that a small government steamer had been seized 
by the Secessionists in the neighborhood. They proceeded, and finding 
the U. S. S. Alleghany at her moorings, without a sufficient crew to prevent 
capture, took possession, placed her under the guns of Fort McHenry, and 
remained at the fort until May 16, when they rejoined the regiment. 

Immediately after the landing at Annapolis, Companies C, Captain 
Martin and D, Captain Newhall, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hinks, were ordered forward to seize the station and rolling stock of the 
Annapolis & Elk Ridge Railroad, which was effected with some opposi- 
tion, but without much trouble. An inventory of the property seized was 
at once made, and forwarded to General Butler. The only locomotive at 
the station was found to be disabled, and details were immediately made 
to repair it. One of the men detailed — Charles Homans, of Company E — 
discovered that he had assisted in building it. He had but little difficulty 
in putting the engine in running order before night, and was installed as 
engineer, with a guard to protect him and his engine. 

Company C advanced on the railroad several miles and found the 
track torn up in several places; falling back at dark to a corn-field within 
about a mile of the station, where they remained all night, resuming the 
advance the next day. The situation, both here and at the railroad station 
at Annapolis during the night, was most exciting, and little sleep could be 
had at either place. Although no attack was made, occasional reports of 
guns were heard, which kept the troops constantly on the alert. In the 
afternoon or early evening, the garrison at the station was reinforced by 
a detail under command of Lieutenant Low, of Company G. 

Next morning, Wednesday, April 24, the regiment left Annapolis 
for the "Junction." Their progress was slow, and delayed by halts to 
repair and relay the track, which had been torn up, and to rebuild bridges, 
destroyed to prevent the passage of the troops. This was accomplished 
with much difficulty, for while there were men in the regiment who under- 
stood the work, rails had been carried away or secreted to make the work 


of destruction complete. One rail, an odd length, had been thrown into 
a creek, and Private Frank Pierce, of Company C, who found it by diving, 
made a rope fast to it, by which it was recovered. 

All this labor was performed on the 24th, on an intensely hot day, 
with nothing to eat from early morning until nearly dark, when the 
Seventh New York Regiment kindly shared what little they had in the 
way of eatables with their less fortunate brothers of the Eighth Massa- 

Meanwhile the anxiety in Washington was intense; the necessity 
for troops was great, as an attack was momentarily expected. Communi- 
cation with the North was cut off, and while the Eighth was expected via 
Annapolis, the cause of the delay was not known. 

The troops pushed on during the night, and reached the never-to- 
be-forgotten "Annapolis Junction" at dawn of the 25th. Here the men 
dropped down to sleep as if they had been shot, awaking to find them- 
selves suffering terribly with hunger, but without food. But few people 
inhabited this rough region, and these had fled at the approach of the 
troops, and sufficient food for only a small portion of the command could 
be obtained. 

At Annapolis most of the people were in sympathy with the South, 
and the few Union men there were overawed and dejected. A complete 
reign of terror dominated the little city. Many of the citizens had fled, 
and those who remained, even when loyal, locked up their sympathies as 
well as their stores, and refused to give or sell anything; although at best 
there could not have been miich of a supply in the place. It seems almost 
incredible that such difficulties could be encountered within twenty miles 
of the capital of the nation. 

About noon, Friday, April 26, the Eighth reached Washington, and 
after passing in review before President Lincoln, proceeded to their quar- 
ters in the rotunda and House of Representatives at the Capitol. 

We quote from the "National Intelligencer" of the next day: "We 
doubt whether any other single regiment in the country could furnish 
such a ready contingent to reconstruct a steam engine, lay a rail-track and 
bend the sails of a man-of-war." 

Before leaving Philadelphia, what was considered a sufficient sup- 
ply of food to last until the regiment should arrive at Washington was 
taken. Three days, however, elapsed before it landed at Annapolis, and 
nearly four days more before it reached Washington, eight days after 
leaving Boston. Even after arriving at Washington the commissary de- 
partment was found to be inefficient, and the men were on short allow- 
ance for a number of days. 

The supply of food was finally made ample, but not imtil the New 
York Seventh Regiment — then quartered in another part of the building 


— had again shown their generosity by providing a bounteous repast at 
their private expense — which act of unexpected hospitality was appropri- 
ately acknowledged by the Eighth. 

On April 27, the attention of President Lincoln was called to the 
condition of the uniforms of the regiment, which the rough usage of the 
few days past had rendered unfit for further service, with the request that 
the men be supplied with fatigue uniforms similar to those worn by the 
regular army. 

Answer was immediately received as follows: 

Executive Mansion, April 27, 1861. 
Colonel Timothy Munroe, commanding Eighth Regiment, M. V. M. 

Sir: Yours of this day in regard to fatigue dress for your command has been 
received and sent to the war department with the expression of my wish that your 
request be complied with. 

Allow me now to express to you, and through you to the officers and men under 
your command, my sincere thanks for your zeal, energy, and gallantry, and especially 
for the great efficiency in opening up the communication between the North and this 
city, displayed by you and them. Yours truly, 


The uniforms, which consisted of blue blouses, trousers and forage 
caps, were issued to the men within a few days. 

On Tuesday, May 14, the Eighth was ordered to the Relay House, 
about nine miles from Baltimore. Here the B. & O. R. R., then the only 
direct northern communication with Washington branches, passed over a 
massive stone viaduct, the destruction of which, in the absence of a vigi- 
lant guard, might easily have been accomplished, and have proved a seri- 
ous inconvenience to the government. While the regiment remained 
here, scarcely a day passed but from 3,000 to 5,000 troops were carried 
over the road to Washington. Night alarms were frequent at this point, 
but the Eighth was always ready for duty, and very prompt in getting 
into line at the summons of the "long roll." 

On May 16, 1861, Colonel Munroe having resigned on account of 
disability, Lieutenant-Colonel Hinks was promoted colonel; Major Elwell 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and Major Ben Perley Poore was chosen 
major. On June 20, the Eighth received a magnificent silk flag from the 
lady friends of the New York Seventh, and on June 27, the right wing of 
the regiment was ordered to Baltimore, the left wing doing double guard 
and picket duty. 

On July 2, the right wing went to the eastern shore of Maryland, 
to arrest Captain Tilghman, a noted secessionist, and commander of a 
mixed battalion of cavalry and infantry. The expedition was successful, 
and the captain was placed in confinement at Fort McHenry. The left 
wing was ordered to Baltimore July 3, encamped at Stewart's Wood, in the 
westerly suburbs of the city, and was joined by the right wing the same 
evening. On July 4 the Manchester Cornet Band joined the regiment, the 


expense of its services being borne by the officers and men . On July 5 . a 
garrison flag, from the ladies of Lynn, was presented to the regiment, and 
later in July, another handsome flag was presented by the loyal citizens of 
Baltimore, making the fourth flag presented since starting from Boston. 
Company F, of Lynn, was also the recipient of a silk American flag from 
some of its friends in that city. 

The regiment was stationed at Baltimore July 2 i, the day of the 
defeat of our forces at the first battle of Bull Run, and at once offered to 
remain in service after the expiration of its term of enlistment, in case 
the Government desired it. This was not desired, and on Monday, July 
29, the tents were struck and at about midnight the regiment was in line 
of march, homeward bound, and was cordially saluted by the people as 
it marched from its late camp to the cars. 

Arriving at Jersey City about midnight, Tuesday, July 30, it re- 
mained in the depot until about 7 a. m., seeking what repose could begot 
on the "soft side of pine planks." Arriving at New York, it was met at 
Cortlandt street by a committee of the "Sons of Massachusetts," and es- 
corted to the Park Barracks, where a substantial repast was provided, after 
which, under escort of the New York Seventh Regiment, the First Chas- 
seurs and the Sons of Massachusetts, it marched up Broadway to Madison 
Square. There it was once more hospitably taken charge of by the 
Seventh, after which the march was resumed for the East River, where 
amid the hearty adieus of the companions of their march to Annapolis 
Junction, and the cheers of the crowd, it embarked on the steamer Bay 
State for Fall River, arriving at that city the next morning. There it 
enjoyed a substantial breakfast, which the generous thoughtfulness of the 
citizens had provided, and left for Boston, where it arrived about noon, 
Thursday, August i . 

At the depot the congratulations of the friends gathered at the station 
to welcome their return caused quite a delay in the formation, and made 
the military reception which awaited them seem of little importance. 
Escorted by the Second Battalion of Infantry, the Eighth proceeded to 
the Common, amid the cheering of the crowds that thronged the line of 
march. After partaking of a lunch provided by the city, the regiment exe- 
cuted various battalion movements, which were enthusiastically applauded 
by the assembled thousands. Having passed in review before Mayor 
Wightman, the regiment formed square and listened to the farewell ad- 
dress of its commander, and a few appropriate remarks from the mayor. 
after which it was mustered out of service, and the companies departed 
for their homes; where, in every town and city, amid the ringing of bells 
and the firing of cannon, each was heartily welcomed. 

In addition to the great service rendered the country in opening up the 
route to Washington via Annapolis, the Eighth Regiment acquired great 


proficiency in drill; furnished instructors for other organizations; did 
much guard and picket duty, and was the means of preventing large 
amounts of stores, supplies and ammunition, from being sent into the 
south from Baltimore. It is only justice to say that these services were 
of inestimable value to the Union. 

The men had, almost at a moment's warning, left their families 
unprovided for and their affairs unarranged; trusting to the patriotic hu- 
manity of their fellow citizens and of the State, to make all needful pro- 
visions for any immediate or final contingency. They had started in. the 
midst of a pelting storm for the first rendezvous, not even properly clad; 
and thence, not fully equipped, had pushed forward on their perilous 

It is true they did not have, as they expected, an opportunity of 
meeting the enemy, although they evinced every disposition to do so; but 
in the faithful performance of many active and responsible duties re- 
quired of them, they rendered the cause most efficient service, and are 
worthy of an honorable page in their country's history. 

Congress has not been unmindful of their services. On July 30, 
the following resolution, offered by Mr. Lovejoy, of Illinois, unanimously 
passed the House of Representatives: 

"T^esohvii: That the thanks of this House are hereby presented to the Eighth 
Regfiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia for their alacrity in responding to the 
call of the President, and for the energy and patriotism displayed by them in sur- 
mounting obstacles, upon sea or land, which traitors had interposed to impede their 
progress to the defence of the National Capital." 

The Massachusetts men of April, '75, rushed to Lexington to dis- 
pute the progress of the invader, and, if possible, to drive him from their 
soil. The Massachusetts men of April, '61, poorly equipped, left that 
.soil and rushed forward, through a hostile state, to the relief of the dis- 
tant, threatened and beleaguered capital, and the work of the men of '61 
saved it when shadows, clouds and darkness hung over it. 

To other Massachusetts regiments, is due the honor of having sealed 
with their blood their devotion to their country, during their three months' 
term of service at the outbreak of the Rebellion; but while it was not the 
fortune of the Eighth to be thus honored, to it will ever be ascribed the 
honor of having opened a route and provided a way for other troops to 
respond promptly to the call of the President, securing the safety of the 
national capital, and allaying the fears of the government, besides sav- 
ing from possible loss, the frigate Constitution, the "Old Ironsides" of 
the War of 18 12. 

Many of the officers and men immediately re-entered the service, 
and a large number became officers of high rank. 

Notwithstanding the depletion of the regiment, by officers and men 


constantly leaving for the field, the organization of the regiment was kept 
intact. Colonel E. W. Hinks having been commissioned colonel of the 
Nineteenth Regiment, M. V.; Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Elwell, as 
major of the Twenty-Third, and Major Ben. Perley Poore having resigned, 
the regiment for the time was commanded by its senior captain, Francis 
Boardman, of Company H, of Marblehead. 

On May 19, 1862, Captain Boardman issued orders for a meeting of 
officers, at Salem, on the 29th, for the election of field officers, but the 
morning papers of the 29th contained the following: 


Headquarters, Boston, May 26, 1862. 
"Men of Massachusetts, the wily and barbarous horde of traitors to the People, 
the Government, to our Country and Liberty, menace the National Capital. 

"They have advanced and routed Major-General Banks, and are advancing on 
Harper's Ferry and are marching on to Washington. 

"The President calls on Massachusetts to rise once more for its rescue and de- 
fence. The whole active militia will be summoned by a general order issued from the 
office of the Adjutant-General to report on Boston Common to-morrow. 

"They will march to relieve and avenge their brethren and friends, to oppose 
with fiery zeal and courageous patriotism the progress of the foe. 

"May God encourage their hearts and strengthen their arms, and may He in- 
spire the Government and all the people. 

"Given at headquarters in Boston at 1 1 o'clock of this Sunday evening, May 
25. A. D. 1862. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
General Orders No. 4. 

"Commanders of regiments, battalions of infantry, and riflemen of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, are hereby ordered to report with their commands to 
Major-General Andrews on Boston Common forthwith for active service in pursuance 
of orders from the President of the United States. 

This order will be executed without waiting for the u'Sual forms of transmission. 
By command of His Excellency, 

JOHN A. ANDREW, Governor and Command-in-Chief 
WILLIAM B. BROWN, Asst.-Adjt. Genl." 

Although without field officers the men responded promptly, and 
with more officers and men than any other organization, as follows: 

Company A, Newburyport, Captain A. \V. Bartlett, 105 men. 
Company B, Marblehead, Lieutenant B. Mitchell, 49 men. 
Company C, Marblehead, Captain S. C. Graves, 78 men. 
Company D. Lynn, Captain G. T. Newhall, 89 men. 
Company E, Beverly, Captain F. E. Porter, 75 men. 
Company F, Lynn, Captain James Hudson, Jr.. 87 men. 
Company G, Gloucester, Captain D. W. Low, 59 men. 
Company H, Marblehead, Lieutenant Thomas Cloon, 51 men. 
Company L Lynn, Captain Thomas Herbert, 96 men. 
Total, 686 officers and men. 

The regiment remained two nights in Boston, when the election of 
field officers, ordered for the 29th, took place. Colonel Frederick J. Cof- 


fin, of Newburyport; Lieutenant-Colonel Ben. Perley Poore, of Newbury, 
and Major Israel Wallis, of Beverly, were elected. Later a telegram was 
received from the War Department, stating that "concentrations of our 
forces having been effected will render the employment of the militia 
unnecessary." The troops which, in response to the Governor's order, 
had assembled in Boston, to the number of 4,000, were relieved from 
duty, and they returned to their homes. 

The annual elementary drills of the officers and non-commissioned 
officers took place at Ipswich on July 9, 14 and 15, 1862. In the mean- 
while, the governor directed careful examination of the company rolls to 
the end that those not ready to respond to any call for duty in the service 
of the Government might be discharged, and their places filled by men 
ready for service, and that the companies be recruited to the maximum. 
The difficulties in the way were not many but were serious. These com- 
panies were schools of recruits for the army, and a company hardly 
reached the maximum ere its best men were enlisted in some three years' 
regiment, and a new enrollment had to be made. 

On August 13, in obedience to orders, Colonel Coffin issued orders 
for the usual three days of camp duty, to commence September 4. On 
the same day the Governor issued an order that "any corps of the State 
militia in progress of recruitment, preparatory to entering the service of 
the United States, may be excused from participating in any brigade or 
regiment encampment." Another order announced that "The VolUTiteer 
Militia will be accepted for nine months' service if seasonably offered, 
filled to the maximum of the United States regulations." This same day 
also the officers of the regiment met at Ipswich, and voted that "the Colonel 
offer the service of the regiment to the Governor for nine months' service." 

On August 15, the Colonel stated in orders, that he had "reported 
the regiment ready for service, but the Governor had stated that it could 
only be accepted when recruited to the United States standard." The 
order goes on to state that "The regiment is now fuller than it was when 
mustered into service in April, 1861, or when it responded to His Excel- 
lency's order in May last; but officers and men have been and are almost 
daily being enlisted from it to fill the three years' regiments, and active 
exertions will be necessary to raise every company to the regulation stand- 
ard." Company H was disbanded; two companies formerly assigned to 
the regiment had ceased to be a portion of the command, and but seven 
were left of those in the three months' service in 1861. These, with 
Company I, of Lynn, organized as a drill club in August, i860, and 
assigned to the regiment in April, 1862, comprised the eight companies of 
the regiment. 

Recruiting progressed favorably. The first company reported at 
camp in Boxford, September 10; the second company on the iith, and 


on the 15th the companies began to be mustered into service. Company 
K, recruited in Danvers, was assigned to the regiment while in camp; but 
considerable delay was experienced in securing a tenth company. Mean- 
while the Eighth was ordered to Camp Lander, at Wenham, and marched 
thither from Boxford. The last Company, H, having been assigned, the 
field and staff officers were mustered into service November 7, 1862, com- 
pleting the organization of the regiment, which numbered forty-five of- 
ficers and 939 men, a total of 984. 

Toaster, Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Frederick J. Coffin, Newburyport; lieutenant-colonel, James Hudson, 
Jr., Lynn; major, Israel W. Wallis, Beverly; adjutant, Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., Mar- 
blehead; quartermaster, Ephraim A. Ingalls, Lynn; surgeon, Charles Haddock, Bev- 
erly; assistant-surgeon, John L. Robinson, Wenham; chaplain, John C. Kimball. 

Line Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Stephen D. Gardiner; first lieutenant, Joseph L. John- 
son; second lieutenant, Eben P. Cutter, all of Newburyport. 

Company B — Captain, Richard Phillips; first lieutenant, Benjamin Mitchell; 
second lieutenant, Stuart F. McClearn, all of Marblehead. 

Company C — Captain, Samuel C. Graves, first lieutenant, Lorenzo F. Linnell; 
second lieutenant, Samuel Roads, all of Marblehead. 

Company D — Captain, George T. Newhall; first lieutenant, Thomas H. Berry; 
second lieutenant, William H. Merritt, all of Lynn. 

Company E — Captain, Francis E. Porter; first lieutenant, Hugh J. Munsey; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Eleazer Giles, all of Beverly. 

Company F — Captain, Henry Stone; first lieutenant, Matthias N. Snow ; second 
lieutenant, George Watts, all of Lynn. 

Company G — Captain, David W. Low; first lieutenant, Edward L. Rowe; sec- 
ond lieutenant, Samuel Fears, all of Gloucester. 

Company H — Captain, George R. Davis; first lieutenant, William J. Landon; 
second lieutenant, Christopher J. Plaisted, all of Springfield. 

Company I — Captain, Thomas Herbert; first lieutenant, Charles B. Saunderson ; 
second lieutenant, Jeremiah C. Bacheller, all of Lynn. 

Company K — Captain, Albert C. Allen; first lieutenant, Edwin Bailey; second 
lieutenant, Benjamin E. Newhall, all of Danvers. 

On Thursday, November 8, marching orders were received, the 
destination being New Berne, N. C. Final orders came for leaving on 
the 25th, and early on that morning preparations were made for breaking 
camp. About 3.30 p. m. the regiment arrived in Boston, and marching 
directly to the wharf, embarked on the transport Mississippi. Thursday 
was Thanksgiving Day in Massachusetts, but was passed by the regiment 
in mid ocean, and on soldier's fare — "salt beef and hard tack" — washed 
down with coffee, minus sweetening. The passage was stormy, but on 
the 29th the Mississippi anchored off Beaufort, waiting for a favorable 
tide over the bar. 

The regiment disembarked at Morehead City, N. C, November 30, 
and on a train of platform cars, started for New Berne, forty miles dis- 
tant. Here the Eighth occupied the former camp of the Tenth Connec- 
ticut, north of the city, near the Neuse River, and was assigned to the 


2d Brigade ist Division, iSth Army Corps. Colonel Thomas G. Steven- 
son commanded the brigade which included his own regiment, the Twen- 
ty-Fourth Massachusetts, with the Tenth Connecticut, Forty-Fourth Mas- 
sachusetts, and Fifth Rhode Island. 

On December 4, Companies A and E were detached for duty at 
Roanoke Island, and were absent from the regiment until they rejoined 
it at Maryland Heights, July 12, 1863. On the 9th, on the eve of the 
Goldsboro campaign, the Eighth was detailed for garrison duty in New 
Berne, and Colonel Coffin was assigned to the command of the post. On 
the 28th the regiment, previously transferred to Colonel Amory's brig- 
ade, composed of the Seventeenth, Forty-Third, Forty-Fifth, and Forty- 
Sixth Regiments, M. V. M., was again transferred; this time to the ist 
Brigade, 2d Division, under Brigadier-General Heckman, comprising the 
Ninth New Jersey, and the Third and Twenty-Third Massachusetts Regi- 
ments. On December 31, the regiment was mustered and inspected by 
Captain Abell, A. A. G., of General Heckman's brigade. The arms were 
condemned and the regiment detached. In parting with the Eighth, 
General Heckman sent to Colonel Coffin the following letter: 

Headquarters, ist Brigade, Naglee's Division. 

New Berne, January 12, 1863. 

Colonel: In the report of my assistant-adjutant general, who inspected and 

mustered your regiment last muster, the arms you now have were condemned. I have 

made every effort since to have them changed, to retain you in my brigade, but time 

would not permit. 

Another regiment has been assigned. Accept my regrets that your regiment 
was not in a position to remain as regard equipments. 

The soldierly appearance and conduct of your officers and men have made a 
favorable impression, and I part from you with reluctance. 

Very respectfully yours, 

C. A. HECKMAN, Brigadier-General. 

Colonel Coffin had at the start objected to the Austrian rifles with 
which the regiment was armed, but being told at the State House that 
they were the best to be had, replied that "the regiment would go with 
clubs, if it was ordered to;" and little better than clubs did they prove to 
be in service. Fully one-third of them would miss fire the first time, and 
many failed at the fourth and fifth trials. 

On Jan. 1 1, the regiment found itself in the 3d Brigade, 5th Divi- 
sion, Colonel James Jourdan, 158th New York Volunteers, commanding, 
the other regiments being the i32d and the 158th New York, and the 
Third Massachusetts. January 25, the regiment changed camps, from the 
north to the west side of the city, in rear of Fort Totten and a short dis- 
tance from the Trent River. The fort was the largest of the defenses of 
New Berne; covered about three acres of ground, mounted twenty-five 
guns, and commanded the approaches to the westerly side of the city. 
Companies G and K were detailed in the fort for garrison duty. On Feb- 


ruary2, Companies A and E, with two days' rations, proceeded from 
Roanoke Island, on the steamer Halifax, np Currituck Sound, for the pur- 
pose of destroying salt works and capturing guerillas. Getting fast in 
the ice, they were delayed sevei^al days and suffered much for want of ra- 
tions. They returned on the 8th, having accomplished the object of the 
expedition, with the loss of but two men wounded. 

On February 7, Companies B and F, under Major Wallis, were or- 
dered to Roanoke Island to reinforce the garrison there. One of the 
many rumors current in New Berne, was that the rebels had threatened 
to retake the city before the anniversary of the battle by which they had 
lost it (March 14, 1862), and the expected attack under the rebel general, 
D. H. Hill, began on the west of the city on the 13th, the rebels having 
driven in the pickets on that side. Early on the morning of the 15th, an 
attack was made on a small, unfinished fort, called Fort Anderson, on the 
north side of the city, at Barrington's Ferry, but, with the assistance of 
the gunboats, the enemy was repulsed. On the 15th, the regiment with 
others comprising the 5th Division, under General Prince, moved out on 
the Trent road as far as PoUocksville. General Prince, in his report of 
the i6th, says, "satisfied that the enemy was beyond reach, and that no 
troops were left in that vicinity, I marched my command back to its quar- 
ters at New Berne." March 17, Colonel Coffin was ordered to the com- 
mand of the brigade, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hudson assumed command 
of the regiment. 

On April 8, the Eighth marched with a force, attempting the relief 
t)f General Foster, commanding the Department of North Carolina, who 
with parts of the Twenty-Seventh and Forty-Fourth Massachusetts, two 
companies of North Carolina troops, a company of cavalry and one of ar- 
tillery, was besieged in Washington, N. C. The relief expedition under 
command of General .Spinola, proceeded as far as Ruff's Mills on Blount's 
Creek, where it encountered the enemy, strongly fortified. After an ar- 
tillery duel of about an hour's duration, a retreat was ordered, and 
the troops returned to New Berne. The distance marched on the day of 
action was estimated to be thirty miles. 

On April 16, the Eighth joined a force under General Prince, to 
reconnoiter in the vicinity of the enemy's outpost near Core Creek; they 
were absent six days, and captured many prisoners. This, combined with 
the operations of another column north of the Neuse River, and the re- 
inforcements received by General Foster, caused the rebels to evacuate 
their works in front of Washington, N. C, releasing General Foster and 
his garrison from their uncomfortable position. 

Four companies were on picket the first ten days of May; after that 
a period of quietness prevailed, and on the i8th the regiment again re- 
moved from Fort Totten to the former camp of the Forty-Sixth Massa- 




chusetts, nearer New Berne, where it was occupied in constructing and 
strengthening^ intrenchments on the western side of the city. 

On May 23, orders were received to remove down the Neuse River, 
about seven miles below the city, and to reconstruct and occupy Fort 
Thompson, formerly built by the enemy to command the river and the 
approaches to New Berne. On arriving there, the orders for recon- 
struction seem to have been countermanded, but the regiment remained 
until June 12, when it returned to the city, and occupied the camp of the 
Third Massachusetts, which had just left for home, to be mustered out of 

The advance of Lee's army into the States of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania, which later led to the battle of Gettysbtirg, had begun, and 
troops were hurried forward to interpose between the enemy and Wash- 
ington. On June 20, General Foster wrote to General Halleck, chief of 
staff at Washington, that he had learned from newspapers of the iSth of 
Lee's advance towards Pennsylvania, and could send ten regiments of 
nine months' men, whose terms of service had nearly expired, either to 
Baltimore or Fortress Munroe. "Six of the regiments," he says, "are 
from Massachusetts, well drilled, and all good fighting men." He was at 
once ordered to send the troops to Fortress Munroe, to report for further 
orders. Orders to move came on the 24th, and in the afternoon the 
Eighth embarked and dropped down the river. On the 27th it reached 
Fortress Munroe, and received orders to report to General Dix, at the 
"White House" on the Pamunkey River. 

Rumors as to its final destination were various; but after lying two 
days off the fort the regiment .sailed for Baltimore, where it remained 
doing guard duty in the city until July 6, when, in light marching order, 
it reported to Brigadier-General Henry S. Briggs, who in April, 1861, had 
commanded Company K, and to whose brigade it was now assigned. It 
proceeded over the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Monocacy Junction, 
where it was detached, and ordered to march to Frederick and report to 
General French. Reporting there, it was ordered to march back and 
rejoin the brigade, which then had orders to proceed to Sandy Hook, 
Md., and occupy and hold Maryland Heights. Stirring events had taken 
place since the regiment left New Berne. The Army of the Potomac, 
under Hooker, was following the Army of Northern Virginia under Lee. 

Suddenly a change of commanders in the Army of the Potomac was 
ordered by the President. Hooker being relieved by Meade, the latter 
ordered what the former had vainly asked permission to do, that the 
troops garrisoning Maryland Heights should join the Army of the Poto- 
mac, then following after Lee, who was well into Pennsylvania, and 
threatened Harrisburg. Gettysburg followed, and as the defeated troops 
of Lee hurried across the Potomac, the government at Washington tried 


its best to rush troops forward to Meade to effect the capture of the 
enemy. Point after point, which had been abandoned by the Union 
troops were being re-occupied, and the Eighth was selected to lead the 
advance of the brigade sent to re-occupy Maryland Heights. The night 
of July 7, 1863, was one long to be remembered. Rain began to fall 
before the regiment left Sandy Hook, and as the darkness came on the 
storm increased in severity. Leading the brigade, the regiment started 
on its weary march up the Heights, over a dirt road. In the muddy ruts the 
water ran in torrents; on the ridges between, the men vainly endeavored 
to walk, fearful of falling over the precipitous side of the road, and land- 
ing they knew not where. 

With skirmishers ahead, the regiment toiled up the rugged way, to 
find whether the heights were occupied by the enemy. Pushing on, the 
summit was gained, and among the empty ammunition boxes and other 
abandoned ordnance stores in Fort Duncan, the regiment was permitted 
to get what rest was possible, with the rain still beating down on the 
shelterless troops. 

At earliest daybreak, some of the restless spirits to be found in all 
companies apprised their captains that there were barracks not far away; 
these were soon occupied, and proved a welcome shelter to the regiment; 
whose "light marching orders," being misunderstood, had been only too 
literally obeyed, for now, at the beginning of its most important and 
longest campaign, many of the men were without blankets, and, in some 
cases, lacked haversacks and canteens also. 

A week of guard and picket duty now followed, when orders came 
to join the Army of the Potomac. Starting Sunday afternoon, as the sun 
was sinking behind the summits of the Blue Ridge, the regiment 
marched, passing through to Boonsboro, where it took the Hagerstown 
turnpike, and reached Funkstown Monday, about 3 o'clock p. m.; having 
halted but an hour or two for breakfast, and to refresh the horses 
of the cavalry and artillery accompanying the brigade. Distance marched, 
about thirty miles. At Funkstown, the brigade comprising the Thirty- 
Ninth, M. v., and Eighth, Forty-Sixth and Fifty-First Regiments, M. 
V. M., was assigned to the 2d Division of the ist Army Corps, General 
John Newton commanding. 

Being without tents, the bivouac was rather primitive, but the few 
who possessed rubber blankets stretched them on poles or guns, and made 
a partial shelter from the rain which fell in smart showers through the 
night. At noon the 2d Division was under way, and marched under an 
intensely hot sun to Williamsport. On the 15th, Lee having crossed 
the Potomac, the army again began its march toward Virginia, and the 
Eighth marched on toward Berlin, on the northern side of the Potomac, 
where it was to cross into Virginia, passing through Keedysville and 


Crampton's Gap, where it encamped for the night, and thence next day- 
advanced through Brukittsville to Berlin. 

The 17th was passed in bivouac, the rain coming down in torrents 
all day. Many of the men thought when they left New Berne, that the 
shoes they had would last to the end of their term of service, but the hard 
marching since leaving Baltimore told on the footwear, and many were 
barefooted; even tire officers suffered. The pontoon bridges being laid, 
the army began to cross the Potomac; and, just as the regiment was about 
to cross the bridge, it saw the Forty-vSixth Massachusetts wheel out of col- 
umn and halt, preparatory to going home. The Fifty-first Massachusetts 
had left the brigade for home the day before, leaving only the Thirty- 
Ninth and Eighth. Some regrets were expressed, but the discipline of 
the regiment had always been good, and the hope of more active service 
lent its aid to stifle envy. 

A march of twelve miles into Virginia brought the Eighth to 
Waterford. Sunday, the 19th, found the regiment by 10 o'clock at Ham- 
ilton, where 'it spent the rest of the day in camp. By 5 o'clock a. m., 
July 20, the regiment was on its way, and marched twenty miles to biv- 
ouac at ]\Iiddleburg, where it went on picket duty July 2 i. 

Orders for the ist Corps to "move to White Plains, prepared to 
move to the support of the 3d or sth Corps," necessitated a night march 
on the 22nd. White Plains was reached, after a tramp of twelve miles, 
at 3 a. m., July 23, when the regiment marched ten miles more to War- 
renton, and was ordered to support a battery two miles outside the town. 

"Nine miles to the junction" — an old cry of the regiment in 1861 — 
was brought forcibly to mind, when the march to Warrenton Junction, 
nine miles distant, was taken up, and a halt made there at i p. m. 

At 7 o'clock p. m. the Eighth marched for Bealton, distant ten 
miles. This proved to be the worst march of all, and was a fitting close 
to this campaign of the Eighth. Soon after starting, one of those south- 
ern showers set in, and midway to Bealton, thunder and lightning lent 
their accompaniment to the rain. Plunging in the darkness, through the 
mud, which the artillery preceding the regiment had stirred \\p nearly 
knee deep, Bealton was reached about midnight; a detail for picket was 
made, which went to the Rappahannock a few miles in advance, while 
those not detailed sought what rest could be obtained on the wet ground 
with the clouds for a covering. But Sunday morning, July 21, broke 
warm and cloudless, and orders were received for the Eighth to proceed 
to Boston to be mustered out of service. Amid much rejoicing, prepara- 
tions were made for the homeward march, which began at i p. m. 

Cars were taken at Warrenton Junction, and the train started at 10 
o'clock p. m. Baltimore was reached late in the afternoon of the 27th, 
the regiment having been for three weeks away from its baggage without 



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a change of clothing, or blankets, and in many cases without haversacks or 
canteens; although these articles had been, in a great measure, supplied 
on the route from those cast away by tired and footsore soldiers of other 
regiments in the hot and dusty days from Funkstown onward. Ragged 
and almost shoeless, the regiment presented anything but a soldierly 

Its forlorn-looking condition can best be summarized in the words 
of a dirty urchin in Baltimore, who, trotting beside the captain who most 
prided himself on his neat appearance exclaimed: "Say, mister, where'd 
you git so dirty at.?" The captain and his look of disgust have passed 
into history. 

Stopping at Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York; 
where the regiment was conducted to those "Soldiers Retreats" which 
were so generously supported by citizens to supply food to the hungry 
soldiers passing through; it reached Boston July 29, and was dismissed to 
meet at the old camp at Wenham on August 7, to be mustered out of ser- 
vice. In addition to the various expeditions in which it took part, the 
Eighth performed its full share of outpost and picket duty, and construc- 
tion of works, and furnished many men for detached service, who received 
the commendation of superiors for duty faithfully performed. 

On July 6, 1864, the Secretary of War again called for the services 
of the state militia. 

Company A, of Newburyport, had been assigned to the Sixtieth 
Regiment; Company B had been disbanded; Companies E and I detached 
for service on coast defences, and Companies H and K of the nine months' 
service, had been disbanded. To the Eighth were assigned two com- 
panies from Springfield, one from Adams, one from South Reading, one 
from Boston, and one company from Pittsfield. 

The regiment was fully organized by the muster into service of 
the field and staff July 26, 1864, and on the same day left camp at Read- 
ville with orders to report at Washington. D. C, officered as follows: 

Toaster. Fidd and Staff. 

Colonel, Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., Marblehead; lieutenant-colonel, Christopher 
T. Hanley, Boston ; major, David W. Low, Gloucester; adjutant, A. Hun Berry, Lynn; 
quartermaster, Joseph A. Ingalls, Swampscott ; surgeon, John L. Robinson, Wenham; 
assistant-surgeon, Ebenezer Hunt, Danvers ; chaplain, John S. Sewell, Wenham, 

Line Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Lewi.s A. Tifft; first lieutenant, Gideon Wells; second 
lieutenant, Chauncy Hickox ; all of Springfield. 

Company B — Captain, Henry M. Lyon; first lieutenant, Eugene B. Richardson; 
second lieutenant, Fred W. Champney ; all of Adams. 

Company C — Captain, Samuel C. Graves; first lieutenant, William Goodwin, 
3d.; second lieutenant, Samuel Roads; all of Marblehead. 

Company D — Captain, William H. Merritt; first lieutenant, George E. Palmer; 
second lieutenant, William H. Keene; all of Lynn. 


Company E— Captain, Samuel T. Littlefield ; first lieutenant, Jason H. Knight 
second lieutenant, James A. Burditt; allot' South Reading. 

Company F.— Captain, Henry Stone; first lieutenant, Matthias N. Snow; sec 
ond lieutenant, Josiah F. Kimball; all of Lynn. 

Company G— Captain, Edward L. Rowe; first lieutenant, George L. Fears 
second lieutenant, Isaac N. Story; all of Gloucester. 

Company H— Captain, William J. Landen; first lieutenant, Charles L. Wood 
second lieutenant, John Thayer; all of Springfield. 

Company I — Captain, Henry S. Shelton; first lieutenant, Thomas J. Hanley 
second lieutenant, Andrew C. McKenna; all of Boston. 

Company K— Captain, Lafayette Butler; first lieutenant, William D. Reed 
second lieutenant, James Kittle ; all of Pittsfield. 

On arriving at Baltimore, the regiment received orders to go into 
camp on the otttskirts of the city. It did service in Maryland; part of the 
time along the line of the Northern Central R.R., to protect the road and 
the vicinity of Baltimore from the raids of Harry Gilmore and his follow- 
ers; in garrison at Camp Bradford, a draft rendezvous and conscript camp 
for the states of Maryland and Delaware; city provost duty in Baltimore, 
and duties of a similar nature during its entire term of service, receiving 
the commendations of both brigade and division commanders for prompt- 
ness and efficiency. At the conclusion of its term of service, the regiment 
returned to Massachusetts, and was mustered out of service November 
lo, 1864. 

The Eighth, not being uniformed, performed no duty in 1865. On 
May 18, 1866, the Legislature passed an act for the reorganization of the 
militia, and orders were isstted assigning the following companies to the 
Eighth Regiment. 

Company A, Newburyport, Captain Joseph L. Johnson. 
Company B. Newbtiryport, Captain Charles L. Ayers. 
Company C. Marblehead, Captain Knott V. Martin. 
Company D, Lynn, Captain Thomas H. Berry. 
Company E, Beverly, Captain Francis E. Porter. 
Company F, Lynn, Captain Henry Stone. 
Company G, Gloticester, Captain Edward L. Rowe. 
Company H, Salem, 

Company L Lynn, Captain Jeremiah C, Bacheller. 
Company K, Salem, Captain Joseph H. Glidden. 

All these companies, with the exception of B and K, had been con- 
nected with the Eighth during its service in the war. Company B had 
served as the Third Unattached Company, on coast defence, and Com- 
pany K, as Company A of the Fifth Regiment, three months' service. The 
Fourth Unattached Company of Infantry, of Chelsea, Captain J. Q. 
Adams, was temporarily assigned to the regiment. 

From 1866 to the present time, the regiment has performed the reg- 
ular tours of state duty required of it; all, with the exception of the years 
1870, 1872 and 1876, in brigade camp. In 1870, the entire division en- 


camped at Concord. In 1872, the Eighth encamped at Hamilton, and in 
1876, at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa., having then present for duty- 
all but thirty-four enlisted men. 

Special duty has been performed as follows: June 16, 1869, in 
Boston as a portion of the escort to President U. S. Grant. June 17, 
1875, the entire division was reviewed by the governor, and paraded as 
escort to the procession in honor of the Centennial anniversary of the 
Declaration of Independence. June 26, 1877, in Boston, as a portion of 
the escort to President Rutherford B. Hayes. September 17, 1877, as a 
portion of the escort of the procession, at the dedication of the Army and 
Navy Monument in Boston. September 17, 1880, in Boston, as a portion 
of the escort of the procession of trades and societies, at the celebration 
of the 250th Anniversary of the Settlement of Boston. October 1 1, 1882, 
in Boston, as a portion of the escort to President Chester A. Arthur. 
July 4, 1888, at Amesbury, as escort to the procession at the unveiling 
of the Bartlett statue. In 18S9, visited Washington and took part in the 
parade at the inauguration of President Benjamin Harrison. May 18, 
1890, at Marblehead, at the funeral of its colonel, Francis A. Osgood. 

On the election of Colonel Pew to the command, June 28, 1895, it 
was evident that past troubles must be ignored, and everyone do his 
best to put the command in the front rank or step aside and let others do it. 

Newer methods of instruction were begun, and Kriegspiel, the 
German war game, was introduced to the officers at a two days' meeting; 
where under the direction of Major Livermore U. S. A., author of the 
American game, the theory of the defense of a village by a small force 
against a larger one, was exemplified on maps provided for the occasion. 

On the fall field day of 1896 the game was put into practice, being 
the first attempt to carry out the details of attack and defense of a town 
where officers were left to themselves to work out the problem under the 
rules laid down. 

A leading newspaper had this to say of the regiment: "The fall 
field days are over and, as at the close of last year, the Eighth and Second 
lead the line, because they have sought to exemplify real tactics, and the 
practical experience of the command were there bullets firing rather than 
paper wads." 

Colonel Pew trained his men in the matter of proper protection, 
as if ordered out into an open country to meet an invading force. 
There was a purpose in everything. Needless exposure resulted in the 
retirement of such men as stood in the open in face of repeated concen- 
trated volleys, as they would be retired, dead or wounded, in an actual 

The state duty of the years 1 895 , '96, and '97, had been creditably per- 
formed; the camps of the regiment were models of neatness, and sanitary 


conditions were of the best. Promptness and accuracy in all details char- 
acterized the organization, so that, at the opening of the year 1898, the 
regiment was in good condition, olhcers were conversant with their duties, 
discipline was good and enrolment practically full. 

This preparation came none too soon. Early in the year 1898, the 
disaster to the United States battleship "Alaine" in the harbor of Havana 
caused animated discussion of the probabilities of war with Spain, and 
companies were rapidly recruited to the maxiinum allowed by the state. 
A rigid examination was made of all officers and men, as to their readiness 
to enter the United States service, and their physical qualifications there- 
for. Many of the members of the regiment were men with families, and 
others had business connections which would be seriously interfered with 
by an absence of two years, for which term troops were to be called. 

These examinations greatly reduced the number of well drilled 
men, and subsequently, when the call came for troops, the Eighth, as well 
as the other Massachusetts regiments who volunteered for service as 
United States Volunteers, had a large percentage of recruits, which 
later became larger when the maximum was raised to 106 to a company. 

The method of calling for troops by the general government dif- 
fered from that of 1 86 1, in that volunteers were called for, preference 
being given to members of the Volunteer Militia. 

Under this call, by General Orders from Headquarters, Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, the Eighth was one of the "four infantry regi- 
ments offered the privilege of volunteering." 

The regiment went into camp at South Framingham May 5, 1898, 
and was mustered into the United States service on the i ith, leaving May 
16 for Camp Thomas, a general rendezvous of troops at Chickamauga, Ga. 

The strength of the regiment, as reported, was 47 officers and 896 
men; again the largest regiment, as it had been so many times before. 

Arriving at Camp Thomas, Chickamauga, it was assigned to the 2d 
Brigade, 3d Division, ist Army Corps; Colonel Pew as senior colonel com- 
manding the brigade. 

June 7, officers detailed to recruit the companies to 106 men left 
camp; and in due season returned with the desired number. 

Colonel Pew returned to the regiment after being in command of 
the brigade a month and a half, and the usual rumors of marching followed. 

Constant drilling in all movements incident to tactics and strategy 
occupied the regiment, and careful attention to sanitary regulations 
kept the health of the regiment good, while all about it in the great camp 
much sickness prevailed. 

A correspondent with the command wrote that "The Eighth has 
become an exceptionally healthy and hardy regiment, although there has 
been no cessation of routine work since the command pitched its camp 

2; ^ 

3 E- 

2 M 

3 u 


here. It is fully equipped for the field, and has elsewhere been compli- 
mented for high eificiency, a very rare merit." 

The depression of spirits caused by the increasing prevalence of sick- 
ness, was beginning to have its effect on the Eighth when, on the 25th of 
September, the regiment moved camp from Chickamauga Park to Lexing- 
ton, Ky., where the more bracing air of the blue grass region gave 
renewed health and strength to the command as the altered tone of 
correspondence showed. 

In the latter part of October, Colonel Pew received permission from 
the War Department to enlist a band which added much to the happiness 
of the regiment. 

November 10, the command left Lexington for Americus, Ga., and 
there exchanged the Springfield rifle for the new Krag-Jorgensen. 

While at this camp, it was visited by one of the most efficient colo- 
nels who served in the War of the Rebellion, who, on his return to Massa- 
chusetts, wrote of the Eighth to the governor. "I did not see the regi- 
ment on parade, but what is very much better, I saw quite thoroughly 
the quarters and examined everything as to the corral. I also saw the 
mess and the quality of the rations. The regiment is in most excellent 
condition and is such a credit to the state, that it is a very great pleasure 
to make such a report to you." 

On the 30th of December came the long expected orders for the 
regiment to hold itself in readiness for transportation to Cuba, and on the 
6th of January, 1899, it left camp for Savannah whence on the 8th the first 
battalion of the regiment sailed on the transport Obdam for Matanzas, 
the other battalions following the next day on the transport Michigan. 

Here garrison duty was performed until the first of April, when the 
regiment sailed for Boston on board the transport Meade, arriving there 
on Sunday, April 9th. 

A furlough of forty-eight hours was granted the men, and arrange- 
ments were made for special trains which quickly transferred the com- 
panies to their homes. Later, receptions were given to the returned sol- 
diers, by the several towns in which the companies were located, and on 
April 28, the command was mustered out of the United States service, 
1327 men having been with the regiment. 

Colonel Pew in speaking of the success of the Eighth, says that it 
was due to keeping always in mind the idea promulgated by the English 
Field Marshal, Lord Roberts, that "parade grounds are simply useful for 
drill and preliminary instruction, and as soon as the rudiments of a sol- 
dier's education have been learned, the troops should leave their nursery 
and try as far as possible to practice in peace what they would have to do 
in war." 

During the war with Spain, the colonel said he had two ideas to 


carry out: first, "To keep the men well, and teach them to be kind to 
themselves, so as to bring them into the presence of the enemy in their 
best possible condition; and second, to teach them what and how to do 
when they met the enemy." Ideas simple enough to express, but difficult 
to put in practice. How well they were carried out, the reports of the 
committee on the investigation of the War Department, the reports of the 
surgeon-general, and the inspector-general of the army show. 

The commissioner's report says: "The intelligent and watchful 
supervision on the part of the surgeon and regimental officers, and the 
observance of the well established rules of camjD sanitation, shown by the 
record of the Eighth Massachusetts Infantry Volunteers at Camp Thomas 
is very commendable. This regiment was for many weeks very healthy, 
while much sickness was occurring in regiments near by, although the 
site, water and drill were practically the same." 

Colonel Pew's discipline was strict and impartial, and the health of 
his troops consequently of the best, and it is with pride that the fact is. 
chronicled, that no other regiment in the whole American Army of V^olun- 
teers is similarly favored in the commissioners' report. 

On page 174 of the report of the surgeon-general to the secretary- 
of war for the year 1898, he refers to the character of troops at Chicamau- 
ga, saying: "The dirty camps are the sickly camps, here as elsewhere. 
But discipline and intelligence have their reward also. Without specify- 
ing instances low in the scale, attention is invited to the Eighth ^Massa- 
chusetts, already cited, where the positive enforcement of orders, by puni- 
tive measures when necessary, has resulted in the actual use of only boiled 
water for drinking, with exemption from typhoid fever and a low sick 
rate as a possible consequence." 

As to the colonel's second idea, the inspector-general of the army 
in his report for the year 1898, on page fifty-one, in speaking of Matan- 
zas infantry camps as a model, says, "These same troops had a perfect 
camp also at Lexington, Ky. Such seasoned, well instructed soldiers as 
the best of these, like the Eighth Massachusetts, Twelfth New York and 
Third Engineers, and such handsome, healthful camps wrung from 
adverse nature, are gratifying to all who ever commanded them." 

A letter from Major-General Wilson, who commanded the ist Army 
Corps in the Spanish war, writing of the regiment says, "All officers 
together with the enlisted men, displayed from the first a high state of 
discipline and efficiency. The regiment upon all occa.sions, proved itself 
in every way worthy of the state of Massachusetts, and of the army of the 
United States." 

In Washington, it is stated that the books of the regiment were fuller 
and better kept than those of any other regiment in service. With all 
these commendations, we hardly need the further statement of the corps. 





commander that he was "Sure if the regiment had served in the presence 
of the enemy it would have given a good account of itself, and could not 
have failed to gain a reputation for gallant and soldierly conduct " Dur- 
ing this term of service, details were made of thirty-two officers for vari- 
ous responsible positions away from the regiment. 

The writer of this watched carefully the returning soldiers of the 
state, and from an experience of over twenty years in the Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia, part of which was in the United States service during 
the Rebellion, can truthfully say that no more soldierly men returned to 
the state from the volunteer service of 1898 than the members of the Old 
Eighth Regiment. 

The roster of otficers in the vSpanish war, at the muster out of the 
regiment, was as follows: 

Field and Staff. 
Colonel, Wm. A. Pew, Jr., Salem; lieutenant-colonel, Wm. Stopford, Beverly, 
major, Frank A. Graves, Marblehead; major, Edward H. Eldredge, Boston; adjutant, 
Thomas Barroll, Boston; surgeon-major, Wm. Cogswell, Boston; assistant-surgeon. 
Lieutenant Frank P. T. Logan, Gloucester; assistant-surgeon. Lieutenant Horace B. 
Frost, Boston; quartermaster, Chas. F. Wonson, Gloucester; chaplain, Geo. D. San- 
ders, Gloucester. 

N on- commissioned Staff. 
Sergeant-major, John R. Sanborn, Haverhill; quartermaster-sergeant, Chas. F. 
Perkins, Salem; hospital steward, Chas. L. Spaulding, Salem; hospital steward, Geo. 
A. Wood, Salem; hospital steward, E. Bennett Burnham, Salem; chief musician. 
Walter H. Thomas, Haverhill. 

Line Officers. 

Company A, Newburyport — Captain, Alexander G. Perkins; first lieutenant, 
Geo. W. Langdon ; second lieutenant, Geo. H. Dow; all of Newburyport. 

Company B, Amesbury — Captain, Horace S. Bean, Amesbury; first lieutenant, 
Frank Stinson, Amesbury; second lieutenant, James W. Jackman, Topsfield. 

Company C, Marblehead — Captain, John M. Pettingill, Amesbury ; first lieuten- 
ant, Frederick P. Smith, Dedham; second lieutenant, Edgar T. Whelpley, Salem. 

Company D, Lynn — Captain, Chas. T. Hilliker, Lynn; first lieutenant, T. J. 
Cobey, Lynn; second lieutenant, Wm. F. Mason, Gloucester. 

Company E, Beverly — Captain, Frederick W. Stopford, Beverly; first lieutenant, 
C. H. Farnham, Beverly; second lieutenant, L.J. Harvey, Lynn. 

Company F, Haverhill — Captain, Wm. C. Dow, Haverhill; first lieutenant, Per 
Justus, Valdeman Svanberg, of Amesbury; second lieutenant, Ale.xander Robertson, 

Company G, Gloucester — Edward J. Horton, Gloucester; first lieutenant. 
Chas. M. Mclsaac, Gloucester; second lieutenant, Chas. R. Warner, Lynn. 

Company H, Salem — Captain, .Augustus G. Reynolds, Salem; first lieutenant, 
Wm. F. Young, Lynn; second lieutenant, Thos. O. H. Pineau, Salem. 

Company I, Lynn — Captain, John E. Williams, Lynn; first lieutenant, Francisco 
A. De Sousa, Beverly; second lieutenant, Wm. H. Perry, Lynn. 

Company K. Danvers — Captain, A. Preston Chase, Danvers; first lieutenant. 
David E. Jewell, Haverhill; second lieutenant. David F. Whittier, Haverhill. 


Company L, Lawrence— Captain, James Forbes, Lawrence; first lieutenant. 
Jas. H. Craig, Boston; second lieutenant, W. H. Glendenin, Somerville. 

Company M, Somerville — Captain Herbert W. Whitten, Somerville; first lieu- 
tenant, Geo. I. Canfield, Somerville ; second lieutenant, Frederick W. Pierce, Somerville. 

One officer, First Lieutenant Frank H. Downey, of Company I, 
Lynn, died during the campaign, and the following officers resigned, 
owing to various causes: Lieutenant-Colonel Edwin W. M. Bailey, 
Assistant vSurgeon Thos. L.Jenkins. Company C: Captain Frank B. Den- 
ning, First Lieutenant Linville H. Wardwell. Company G: Second 
Lieutenant James C. Nutt. Company H: Captain Walter P. Nichols, 
Captain Jacob C. R. Peabody, First Lieutenant George N. Jewett. 
Company K: First Lieutenant Henry W. French, Second Lieutenant 
Stephen N. Bond. Company L: Second Lieutenant Roland H. Sherman. 

Much speculation was indulged in by the newspapers of the day. 
as to the probability of the Eighth appearing at the annual encampment 
at South Framingham in 1899, but on the 3d of August the regiment re- 
ported at camp, small in number, to be sure, but its work was of the best. 

While the external dissensions remain, the internal harmony 
continues, and the Eighth is still on its way to be the monitor of what the 
citizen soldier should be: a well drilled but better disciplined man. 


Annual drills have been held by the command, principally as a 
separate organization. In 1888, a portion of this duty, was a parade in 
Boston with the entire State force; in 1881, with the brigade at Lynn, in 
1892 and 1893, at Framingham, the day previous to the annual camp. In 
1894, the forenoon was spent in movements in the vicinity of Boston, fol- 
lowed by a parade of the entire State force. 

Chapter 204, of the Acts of 1876, passed April 28, reduced the in- 
fantry companies to sixty-one men. After rigid in,spections, the most 
efficient were retained. Although twenty-six companies were disbanded, 
the Eighth Regiment retained all its companies, having a second time 
passed the ordeal of inspection without loss. The same act provided 
that eight companies should constitute a regiment. Companies F and I 
were detached and organized as the Seventh Battalion of Infantry. By 
Chapter 265, Acts of 1878, Companies I, Seventh Battalion; H, First 
Battalion, and F and K, Sixth Regiment, were assigned to it, making three 
battalions of four companies each the present organization. Since 1855, 
it has been commanded as follows: 

Colonels Frederick J. Coffin, June 9, 1855. to April 20, 1859, and June 9, 1859, to 
April II, 1861; Timothy Munroe, April 18, to May 15, 1861; Edward W. Hinks, May 
16, 1861, to August 3, 1861; Frederick J. Coffin, May 26, 1862, to July 18, 1864; Ben- 
jamin F. Peach, Jr., July 22, 1864, to January 18, 1882; Charles L. Ayers, March 13. 
1882, to December 4, 1885; Francis A. Osgood, January 5, 1886, to May 15, 1890; J. 
Albert Mills, June 10, 1890, to January 20, 1893; Charles L. Dodge, October 6, 1893, to 
June 15, 1895; William A. Pew, Jr., June 28, 1895, present commander. 









>• H 


By Colonel John R. Farrell and Others. 

THE origin of the Ninth Regiment of Mas.sachusetts Infantry, the 
famous "lighting Ninth" of the Civil War, and the " Ninth" 
at all times, may be traced back nearly a century. It found its 
inspiration in that spirit of homogeneity, which is, perhaps, more 
characteristic of the Irish race in a foreign land than of any other; ex- 
cept, perhaps, the Scotch people; 
and the natural valor and patriotic 
spirit which have on so many bloody 
fields attested at once the courage 
and love of liberty of the "Sons of 
Erin." The Columbian Guards of 
Boston, organized in 1798, was one 
of the first American companies 
which embodied the spirit of pat- 
riotism as transferred by the Irish 
immigrant to his new home in 
America. It was an association of 
men of Hibernian descent, most of 
them still young, for the promotion 
of a patriotic, social, and military 
spirit, and continued to be one of 
the more honored and ' popular 
military organizations of Massa- 
chusetts up to the end of the war 
for the Union. 

One of the most notable offshoots of the Columbian Guards was 
the famous "Boston Montgomery Guards," organized in the early half of 
the nineteenth century, and named in honor and commemoration of Gen- 
eral Philip Montgomery, the Revolutionary patriot, who fell in 1776 at 
the gates of Quebec. For a decade, the Montgomery Guards were famous 
as the crack drill company of the whole country. After defeating all 
competitors at home, they were challenged to visit New York, Phila- 
delphia, and other large cities, and almost invariably carried off the 
trophy of victory. Their reputation was indeed national. 

When the first call to arms came from President Lincoln, the Mont- 
gomery Guards went to the front as Company I of the Ninth Regiment, 



M. V. M., and the influence of their character and achievements in com- 
pany drill and evolutions and the manual of arms, gave tone to the whole 
regiment, and to a great extent promoted its prompt enlistment and 

The history of the Ninth Regiment, as a part of the National 
Guard of Massachusetts, is inseparably connected with that of the Colum- 
bian Guards, and of the Ninth Massachusetts of the great Civil "War. 

In the beginning of the year iS6i, the Legislature of the State of 
Massachusetts (Chapter 49, Statutes of Massachusetts), repealed all laws 
heretofore enacted that limited the numbers of the militia, and bestowed 
authority upon the commander-in-chief to organize as many companies 
of the militia as he might think proper. Such companies were to be held 
in readiness at all times to respond to the direct call of the President of 
the United States, the time being the troublous period of the opening 
days of the Rebellion. This act was made a law February 15th, 1861, 
and on the 3rd of April following, a resolve (Chapter 67), was passed, 
authorizing the adjutant-general of this State, under direction of the 
governor and council, "to provide either by contract or otherwise a suffi- 
cient number of overcoats, blankets, and such other articles of equij)- 
ment as may be necessary to furnish two thousand troops for active 
service." Twenty-five thousand dollars was appropriated for this purpose. 

The foregoing was a sweeping repeal of the several acts of the Legis- 
lature relating to the militia, from 1836, when the Revised Statutes were 
adopted, down to 1861, when the General Statutes superseded them. The 
thirteenth chapter of the General Statutes contained the whole body of 
the militia laws in force in the Commonwealth in the year 1861, and down 
to the passage of the law of 1864 (Chapter 238). 

Under the law of 1 861, the Columbian Artillery — an organization 
of young Irishmen for social and military purposes, commanded by Cap- 
tain Thomas Cass, and one of the oldest organizations in the State — offered 
its services for "three or thirty years," was recruited as the Ninth Regi- 
ment, M. V. M., and was mustered into the service of the United States 
for three years, June 11, 186 1. It is a simple statement of fact that its 
record, both of officers and men, is now a matter of brilliant history. 

After the departure of the regiment, the Columbian Artillery con- 
tinued, as an organization, to recruit many new men, who were sent out to 
join the ranks of the Ninth at the front. 

The Ninth Regiment was mustered out of this glorious and mo- 
mentous period of service, within ten days of the completed period of 
enlistment, viz: June 21, 1864, at Washington, D. C. The regiment took 
part in the two great battles of the peninsula — Gaines' Mill and Malvern 
Hill; at Gaines' Mill the regiment lost eighty-one men in killed alone; 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Mine Run, The Wilderness, Spottsyl- 


vania, North Anna, Po River, Bethesda Church, Shady Oak and Coal Har- 
bor — certainly a noble list. The regiment was composed chiefly of men 
of Irish blood and extraction, and, as a matter of actual statistics, ninety 
per cent, of them were born on Irish soil. It was a most excellent organ- 
ization, particularly distinguished in active service, and reflected great 
credit on the State and nation. 


The law of October, 1864, already referred to, had meanwhile so 
changed the face of things military, that the Columbian Artillery (or 
Association, as was the more proper name), found itself unable to receive 
back again into its bosom the returning Ninth. After a short interval 
a company was recruited from its former ranks, formally organized on 
February 8, 1865, and was known as the 40th Unattached Company, M. 
V. M. This was soon followed by the formation of other organizations 
composed of men of Irish birth and extraction. When the time had 
developed for the consolidation of these into a regiment, the old Ninth 
was, by courtesy of Adjutant-General William Schouler, given the oppor- 
unity to continue its history in the field, and its traditions and associations 
as a fighting organization. On May 18, 1866, the following named unat- 
tached companies, M. V. M., were named to constitute a regiment to be 
known as the Ninth Regiment of Infantry: — 

Company A, forty men — Captain, John R. Farrell, Boston; First Lieutenant, 
Joseph Coogan, Boston; Second Lieutenant, William J. Flynn. 

Company B, fifty-two men — Captain, James McArdle, Boston; First Lieuten- 
ant, William J. Faulkner, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Eugene McCarthy, Boston. 

Company C, fifty-three men — Captain, John McGuire, Chelsea; First Lieuten- 
ant, John Mulloy, Chelsea; Second Lieutenant, Thomas Scanlan, Chelsea. 

Company D, fifty-five men — Captain, Michael Scanlan, Boston; First Lieuten- 
ant, Lawrence Logan, Boston. 

Company E, fifty-si.x men — Captain, John M. Tobin, Boston; First Lieutenant, 
John F. Doherty, Boston; Second Lieutenant, William D. Cunningham, Boston. 

Company F, fifty-seven men — Captain, Patrick F. Logan, Boston; First Lieu- 
tenant, Hugh McDevitt, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Henry P. Kelly, Boston. 

Company G, fifty-nine men — Captain, James White, Charlestown: First Lieu- 
tenant, Matthew Welsh, Charlestown: Second Lieutenant, , Charles- 

Company H. sixty men — Captain, Peter A. Sinnott, Boston; First Lieutenant, 
Simon S. Rankin, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Patrick McDonough, Boston. 

Company I, fifty-six men — Captain, Timothy A. Hurley, Boston; First Lieu- 
tenant, Bernard A. Finan, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Hugh A. Maddox, Boston. 

Company K, sixty-three men — Captain, Robert A. Miller, Boston; First Lieu- 
tenant, James Dailey, Boston; Second Lieutenant, William Barry, Boston. 

An order was issued and an election was held at the Columbian 
Armory, 47 Hanover Street, on May 29, 1866, at which the following 
officers were elected, and the organization completed as part of the First 
Brigade of Infantry: — 

Colonel, Patrick J. Guiney, Roxbury; Lieutenant-Colonel, John R. Farrell, 
Boston; Major, James Mc.^rdle, Boston; Adjutant and First Lieutenant, Bernard F. 


Finan, Boston; Quartermaster and Second Lieutenant, James J. Flynn, Boston; 
Surgeon and Major, Patrick A. O'Connell, Boston; Assistant Surgeon and First Lieu- 
tenant, Thomas B. Flatley, Boston; Chaplain and First Lieutenant, Joseph B. O'Ha- 
gan, Boston. 

The new regiment was ordered into the camp at Sharon, Septem- 
ber II, 1866, where they had the honor of being inspected and reviewed 
by Major-General B. F. Butler, and were by him highly complimented 
for the proficiency already attained as an organization in drill and dis- 

The roster of the Ninth Regiment at this time was as follows: — 

Company A — Captain, Timothy Teaffe, Boston; First Lieutenant, John Mc- 
Grath, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Henry P. Teaffe, Boston. 

Company B — Captain, Eugene McCarthy, Boston; First Lieutenant, Francis 
Rorke, Boston; Second Lieutenant, John A. Daley, Boston. 

Company C — Captain, John McGuire, Chelsea; First Lieutenant, John MuUoy, 
Chelsea; Second Lieutenant, Thomas Scanlon, Chelsea. 

Company D — Captain, Michael Scanlon, Boston; First Lieutenant, Lawrence 
Logan, Boston ; Second Lieutenant, James Scott, Boston. 

Company E — Captain John F. Doherty, Boston; First Lieutenant, Lawrence 
McGrath, Boston; Second Lieutenant. , Boston. 

Company F — Captain Patrick F. Logan, Boston; First Lieutenant, Hugh 
McDevitt, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Henry P. Kelly, Boston. 

Company G — Captain James White, Charlestown; First Lieutenant, Matthew 
Welsh, Charlestown; Second Lieutenant, James H. Potts, Charlestown. 

Company H — Captain, Simon S. Rankin, Charlestown; First Lieutenant, 
, Charlestown; Second Lieutenant, Peter F. Rourke, Charlestown. 

Company I — Captain, Timothy A. Hurley, Charlestown; First Lieutenant, 
Hugh A. Madden, Charlestown; Second Lieutenant, Dennis A. Collins, Charlestown. 

Company K — Captain, Rc>bert A. Miller, Charlestown; First Lieutenant, 
James Dailey, Charlestown; Second Lieutenant, William Barry, Charlestown. 

Too much credit can hardly be given the officers and men of the 
old Ninth, who were instrumental at this time in the organization of the 
new Ninth. The old regiment deserved perpetuation on account of the 
manner in which it had upheld, on many a field of the Rebellion, the 
traditions of valor; and the organization thus formed has been kept or- 
derly, intact and growing, down to the present time. 

It is only fitting in this connection to call general attention to the 
circumstance, that the meinory of Colonel B. F. Finan is kept green in 
the hearts of the regiment, which still includes a number of his surviving 
comrades of the bloody field, especially on account of his efforts in 
placing the new Ninth in the proud position it has now held for a third of 
a century. And here is the place to add that to the family of fame, the 
"fighting Ninth" has contributed one member of undisputed credentials, 
in the person of Colonel Thomas Cass, of whose career all Bostonians 
are reminded, whenever they cross that beautiful urban domain known as 
the City Park. 

By the Editor — Since the above was written, the stone statue of Colonel Cass 
has been replaced by a more enduring and statelier monument of bronze. 




Captain Cass, who in 1861 commanded the Columbian Association, 
raised an Irish regiment for three years, was elected colonel, and soon 
moulded it into an effective fighting body. The regiment encamped 
in May at Long Island and embarked for Washington on June 24, 
1861. Shortly after the battle of Bull Run, the Ninth, hitherto in gar- 
rison, encamped at Arlington, near the Potomac. Here they received 
from the boys of the Eliot School the national flag which led them into 
every battle on the peninsula, beside the green flag of Ireland, neither of 
which ever was lowered, and in defence of which many a brave fellow 
fell. At the Grand Review, where nearly one hundred thousand men 
passed before General McClellan, they were complimented on their 
appearance. After Yorktown was evacuated the Union troops, march- 
ing day and night, encamped near Richmond. At Hanover Court House 
the Ninth engaged the enemy about three o'clock p. m., charged them 
with savage cheers, in one long, unwavering line, and after a hand-to- 
hand contest the enemy broke and fled. From Gaines' Mills, the Ninth in 
June moved to Mechanicsville, and repulsed the enemy, returning again the 
next day to Gaines' Mills. Here the Ninth showed indomitable firmness, 
holding the rebels in check; but they finally retreated to Porter's main 
line. They were then ordered forward to hold Mill Creek, together with 
two other regiments. These never advanced, but the Ninth, solitary and 
alone, held the position, fighting a vastly superior force until General 
Grifiin, learning that the other two regiments failed to co-operate, ordered 
the Ninth back. 

The Ninth was posted in the woods, under the crest of a hill ; all 
organized Union forces had disappeared. Frantic efforts were being 
made in the valley to collect the scattered troops, and between them 
and the enemy the Ninth alone stood, solid and fast in line. Disaster 
seemed to overwhelm all others, and ofiicers were rushing madly about, 
vainly striving to collect the remnants of their commands. The Ninth 
stood among their dead, but no support came. A rebel brigade charged 
their position. Lieutenant-Colonel Guiney ordered the colors forward, 
"Men, follow your colors"; the Ninth delivered a galling fire, came to the 
charge, dashed upon the enemy, broke their lines, chased and routed them. 
Time and again this was done, and finally, decimated so by shot and shell, 
after eight hours of consecutive fighting without food or drink, they were 
forced to fall back. With sullen determination, they rallied again, and 
nine successive times did they meet their astonished enemies in terrific 
encounter. The enemy was held in check until darkness, when they 
withdrew, leaving the Ninth possessors of the field. 

It was at Malvern Hill, that death claimed their gallant leader. 
Here the Ninth again confronted the enemy, who were in a line of battle 


in a dense wood, forming a semicircle around the Union troops. The 
Confederate troops were advancing. Colonel Cass gave the command 
"Charge!" the enemy hesitated, halted, wavered, then broke, turned and 
fled to the woods, but Colonel Cass fell, mortally wounded. The charges 
continued, first one side and then the other, until night-fall closed the battle. 

Colonel Cass was sought out by his devoted wife, who had him ten- 
derly removed to his home at Boston. Everything was done that art or 
affection could suggest, but he died August 12, 1862, having received his 
wound July i. He was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel P. A. Guiney, 
whose courage and ability were universally recognized. Under Colonel 
Guiney, in September, they marched one hundred miles in four days, 
and on the 17th were engaged in the battle of Antietam, and there valor- 
ously fought as of yore. 

At Fredericksburg a Pennsylvania colonel, who commanded the 
brigade, halted the Ninth in an open plain, facing a tempest of bullets 
and shells. The regiment charged up a hill and awaited orders to 
charge Ewell's division, which was doing fearful execution, being pro- 
tected by a stone wall. Darkness came on, but the order to advance 
came not. Lee was wellnigh impregnable. All day vSunday nothing was 
gained. The Union forces that night fell back: the great sacrifice of life 
had been in vain. 

At Gettysburg, the first day, the regiment did picket duty, but 
the second day maintained a position of immense importance on the left, 
opposite Lee's right. It was thought many times that the rebels would 
disperse or annihilate the Ninth; but notwithstanding the terrible 
onslaughts of the enemy, the position was maintained. The regiment 
returned to Virginia, encamping at Warrenton and Beverley Fort. 
At Rappahannock Station, a battle took place at night, in which the 
rebels were driven into the river in hopeless confusion. At Mine Run 
the regiment was held in reserve, greatly exposed. It was in mid- 
winter, and the men had to lie quietly on the cold ground; ice formed on 
the stream, and many men were frozen to death. The Ninth then went 
into winter quarters and remained until the spring of 1864. 

In the Wilderness the Ninth would have won a victory, but, not 
being supported by the regiments on their flank, were compelled to 
retreat; but the ground was fiercely contested. Their noble efforts at 
Spottsylvania, Shady Oak, and Cold Harbor, and many other places, sus- 
tained their reputation for valor and fidelity to the Union. 

The Ninth Regiment, on the loth of June, 1864, left for Washing- 
ton, their time having expired, and met in Boston a hearty reception, 
and on June 21 were mustered out of the service of the United States. 
Thus ended the Civil War record of the Old Ninth Regiment ; a record 
of valiant deeds and heavy losses of brave men. 




By F. T. Pope. 

With the reputation of the glorious Fighting Ninth of '6i to 
sustain, and with the memory of the record made by their fathers 
at Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Antietam, and Malvern Hill, in 
their hearts, the Ninth Regiment, M. V. M., as one man, 
responded to President McKinley's call for volunteers, and left 
home and loved ones to battle for the honor of their country and the Old 
Bay State. It is seldom that the people of New England are permitted 
to see a finer looking body of men than that which marched to the station 
from the East Armory in Boston, on the morning of May 4, 1898. 

The Ninth left for Framingham under the following ofificers: — 

Fteld and Staff. 

Colonel, Fred B. Bogan, Boston; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lawrence J. Logan, South 
Boston; Major, Patrick J. Grady, East Boston; Major, William H. Donovan. Law- 
rence; Major, Michael J. O'Connor, South Boston; Adjutant, Joseph J. Kelley, South 
Boston; Quartermaster, Jeremiah G. Fennessey, Boston; Chaplain, P. B. Murphy, 
Saxonville; Surgeon, Francis T. L. Magurn, Charlestown ; Assistant-Surgeon, William 
H. Devine, South Boston; Assistant-Surgeon, Cornelius J. McGillicuddy, Revere. 

U^on-Cotnmissioned Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, Edward J. Logan, South Boston; Qtiartermaster-Sergeant, 
John A. O'Connor, Charlestown; Chief Musician, James E. Sullivan, Dorchester; 
Principal Musician, Henry J. Althe, Roxbury; Principal Musician, Peter F. Sullivan, 
Worcester; Hospital Steward, John F. Riley, South Boston; Hospital Steward, Half- 
dan Rye Breiner, Jamaica Plain; Hospital Steward, Peter Shea, Framingham. 

Line Officers. 

Company A, Boston— Captain, Daniel J. Keefe, Cambridge; First Lieutenant, 
George M. Rogers, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Timothy J. Sullivan, Boston. 

Company B, Boston — Captain, George Murray, South Boston ; First Lieuten- 
ant, James F. Walsh, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Michael S. Desmond, South Boston. 

Company C, Boston— Captain, Thomas F. Quinlan, Boston; First Lieutenant, 
Henry Crane, Boston; Second Lieutenant, Joseph J. Foley, Boston. 

Company D, Charlestown — Captain, David P. Sawyer; First Lieutenant. John 
J. Dwyer; Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Brines. 

Company E, Boston— Captain, J. J. Sullivan; First Lieutenant, John J. Barry; 
Second Lieutenant, Thomas Devane. 

Company F, Lawrence — Captain, Joseph H. Joubert; First Lieutenant, Patrick 
A. Sands; Second Lieutenant, Michael S. Boles. 

Company G, Worcester — Captain, Jeremiah Moynihan-, First Lieutenant, John 
F. Hurley; Second Lieutenant, William E. McCann. 

Company H, Boston — Captain, John J. Hayes; First Lieutenant, Benjamin J. 
Flanagan; Second Lieutenant, Thomas F. Clark. 

Company I, Boston— Captain, John H. Dunn; First Lieutenant, W. J. Casey; 
Second Lieutenant. James A. Cully. 

Company K, Clinton— Captain, Peter J. Cannon; First Lieutenant, M. J. 
Healey; Second Lieutenant, John J. Boyle. 

Company L, Natick— Captain, Michael E. Morris; First Lieutenant, Daniel J. 
Murphy; Second Lieutenant, Philip Connealy. 

Company M, Lowell — Captain, .Anthony D. Mitten; First Lieutenant, J. S. 
Gillow ; Second Lieutenant, Philip McNulty. 




Seven, out 
of the twelve 
companies of 
the Ninth, 
were enlisted 
in Boston; 
the other five 
coming from the sur- 
rounding towns. As the 
seven companies imder 
command of their gallant col- 
onel, Fred B. Bogan, marched 
through the streets of Boston, they were 
loudly cheered by the throngs of people 
along the route. Many an eye was wet 
with unshed tears, and many a mother's heart 
was aching, but all knew the necessity of bidding 
their boys God-speed with a cheerful countenance, 
and with the fortitude which animated the Spartans in 
ancient days, said "Farewell" with a smile, although their 
hearts were nigh to breaking. On arriving at camp they found every- 
thing prepared for their reception, and at once devoted themselves'to per- 
sistent drill and preparation. 

For four weeks the regiment was encamped at Camp Dewey at 
South Framingham, and during that period they were several times 
ordered to be ready to leave for the front, but were disappointed at the 
last moment. Finally, on May 30, definite orders were received for the 
regiment to report to the commanding general at Camp Alger, near Falls 
Church, Virginia, and on the evening of the 31st the command started, 
the last sounds heard being the farewell cheers of thousands of their 

Hardly had the trains left South Framingham, when the run of ill- 
fortune, which seemed to follow the Ninth throughout the war, com- 
menced. At Westboro, Massachusetts, private Charles J. Doherty, of 
Company I, while leaning out of the car window, struck his head against 
an iron standpipe at the side of the track and was fatally injured. He 
was at once taken to the City Hospital in Boston and died the same 

Late in the afternoon of June i, the Ninth arrived at Alger, and as 
they marched into the camp bearing, side by side, the national colors, 
the State flag of Massachusetts and the green banner and golden harp of 
old Ireland, they were greeted by the hearty cheers of the "Old Irish 
Seventh" of Illinois. Not content with giving the Bay State boys a glorious 



-welcome, the men of the Seventh immediately extended an invitation to 
the regiment to take supper with them, and carried them off by com- 
panies to their own camp a short distance away. 

The regiment left Massachusetts with a complement of 943 men, 
and during the month of June enough recruits were sent down from 
Massachusetts to raise it to the full war strength of 1327 men. From 
June I until June 24, the command remained at Camp Alger. Although 
camp life was rather monotonous, the men were by no means idle during 
the time. The Massachusetts troops were, without exception, the best 
equipped volunteer regiments to take the field, but at the same time they 
were far from having everything necessary to their welfare in an active 
campaign. During their stay at Camp Alger all deficiencies in equipment 
were supplied, and the practice in drill and discipline did them a world of 
good. They were placed in what was then called the "Provisional Bri- 
gade of the Second Army Corps." Colonel F. B. Bogan being the senior 
commander of the three regiments in the brigade, the Ninth Massachu- 
setts, Thirty-Third and Thirty-Fourth Michigan, was in command for a 



time. Later, however, Brigadier-General Duffield, a personal friend of 
Secretary Alger, was assigned to the command of the brigade. 

On the evening of June 23, the long-looked for orders were re- 
ceived, and on the afternoon of June 24, the Ninth with drums beating 
and colors flying, marched out of the camp amid the cheers of their less 
fortunate comrades in other regiments, and at last were fairly on their 
way to the front. The next morning they were in Newport News, Vir- 
ginia, where they were to take the transport for Ci:ba, and in the after- 
noon were transferred to the Harvard by means of two of the small coast 
steamers. With the Ninth, were two battalions of the Thirty-Fourth 
Michigan; the Thirty-Third Michigan and the other battalion of the 
Thirty- Fourth having preceded them on the Yale. The next morning 
sailing orders were received, and before many hours had passed, the 
shores of the United States had faded from the view of the Bay State 
boys, many of whom were fated never to see them again. 

The voyage to Cuba was devoid of any special interest, and on the 
morning of July i, the Harvard dropped anchor off Siboney, and by six 
o'clock the same evening the troops were landed and encamped on the 
beach. They were hardly on shore when an aid arrived from the Gen- 
eral Shafter's headquarters, with orders for Colonel Bogan to have his 
command in readiness to move at midnight. Supper was at once served 
out to the men, and was hardly finished when a fresh order arrived, coun- 
termanding the previous one, and instructing the regiment to drop every- 
thing and start at once, as there was heavy fighting going on at the front, 
and it was badly needed. 

Then came that terrible night march, the memory of which will 
remain in the minds of those who made it as long as they have life. 
Three days" rations were issued, and at 6.30 o'clock at night, carrying 
nothing but rifles, ammunition, canteens and haversacks, the regiment 
started over the trail for the firing line. The distance to be covered was 
about 16 miles. There were hills to climb, swamps to cross, and rivers 
to ford. All night they dragged themselves wearily on. Hungry, wet, 
tired and dirty, their spirits never flagged, and their behavior during the 
whole time showed that the indomitable spirit of their fathers in the 
"Old Ninth" was still alive in the sons. 

Colonel Bogan was too ill to go, so at about 10 p. m. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Logan took command, with the understanding that great haste 
was requested, and that, at the suggestion of General Shafter's aid, the 
blankets and tentage was to be left behind. There were no horses, and 
the officers were obliged to march with the men. When they started the 
moon was shining brightly, but as soon as they got away from the beach 
and back among the hills, the trail was so shadowed by the trees and 
chapparal on either hand, that hardly a glimmer of light shone on the 



paths. As one of themen said: — "We used to complain of the rough roads 
around Camp Alger, but they were asphalted boulevards compared with 
the one from Siboney to Bloody Hill." 

Roots and stumps stuck up in the road, and the rain during the 
day had covered the ground with several inches of soft, sticky mud. 
Every few minutes some man would trip over a root or step into a hole, 
and down he would go on his face, his rifle pitching into the mud ahead 
of him. The darkness was impenetrable, and many times those at the 


head of the column would discover that they had left the trail and were 
entangled in the underbrush. In many places the trail was blocked by 
wagons carrying ammunition to the front, and taking wounded to the 
rear, and over these wagons the men were obliged to clamber. For the 
first two hours they were in good spirits, cracking jokes and laughing 
good-naturedly at each other's misfortunes; but as time went on, and 
they became more and more weary, all talk and laughter ceased, each one 
being too much distracted by his own discomfort and misery to give a 
thought to his comrades, or to the fact that there might be Spanish sharp- 
shooters in the trees along the road. 



Many wounded were coming from the front on their way to the 
hospital at Siboney, some in wagons and ambulances, and some on foot, 
dragging themselves wearily along. By questioning them, the men of the 


Ninth learned that there had been hard fighting all day, but that our 
troops had had the best of it, and that the Spaniards had been forced to 
fall back. They also learned of the terrible charge at El Caney, and the 
boys looked wonderingly at the men who told the story, as they stood with 
bandaged heads and arms, almost every one smoking, and apparently as 
contented and cheerful as if they had just come from an evening's enter- 
tainment. The road grew worse and worse the farther they went. There 
was no attempt to keep any regular order in marching, as the trail was so 
narrow in many places that the men were obliged to march in single file. 
Several streams were crossed which had been so swollen by the recent 
rains that they were oftentimes up to the shoulders of the men. Fre- 
quent halts were called, and the men would drop in the mud and doze off 
until the order "Forward!" brought them to their feet again. 

When day broke the sun shone on a most forlorn set of men. Un- 
washed, unkempt, and with uniforms covered with miid, they looked as if 
they had passed throiigh a hard campaign. At five o'clock they were 
halted for a short rest, and at seven all were awakened and started on 

By this time they were so close to the firing line that they could 
hear the sound of the firing, and the bullets flew "zipping" over their heads. 



making a strange, whistling noise, which was not particularly pleasant for 
green troops to hear. A little later a shell screamed overhead, and burst 
just beyond them. It was the first experience the boys had had with that 
sort of thing, and many of them ducked involuntarily, while some dropped 
flat on the ground. A laugh went up from the regiment, and those who had 
dropped, picked themselves up looking rather sheepish, although it was a 
perfectly natural act. Just before reaching San Juan hill the road forked, 
and the Ninth bearing to the left, skirted the base of the hill and halted 
just behind it for a short rest. 

Our troops were in the trenches on the top of the hill, blazing away 
at the Spaniards in their intrenchments across the valley. The firing was 
incessant, and long lines of wounded were coming to the rear, many of 
them on rude litters, or helped by a comrade. Again the Ninth moved 
on towards the left of the line, and, after two or three more short halts, 
were placed on the extreme left, next to the Twentieth Regiment of regu- 
lars. Several times before they reached this position they were obliged 
to cross exposed spots. Through these gaps between the hills they could 
catch glimpses across the valley of the white walls and red roofs of the 
City of Santiago. While crossing one of these open spots. Private Dono- 
van was struck on the hand by a fragment of a shell — being the first man 
wounded in the command. 






.* M^' ^',_ 

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l.N lin; TllENCHES. 


The Ninth was placed in a sunken road which afforded some pro- 
tection from the bullets which were coming thick and fast, and in this 
position they lay all day. About dusk, in response to an order from Gen- 
eral Bates, companies C and I. imder command of Captain Dunn, were 
sent to re-enforce the Tenth Infantry, but lost their way, and finally found 
themselves near the position held by the Second Infantry, which was also 
in need of re-enforcements, and where they were held. A little later, 
another request was received from the Tenth, and companies G and K 
were sent. The other eight companies remained in the sunken road, 
having added to the protection it afforded them by scooping out trenches 
with their bayonets and spoons. Their sleep that night was not peaceful, 
for about ten o'clock all were awakened by the sound of firing, and were 
on their feet in an instant, making hasty preparations for the fight they 
were sure was at hand. The Spaniards had made an attack on our lines, 
hoping for a surprise in the darkness, and to recover the ground lost dur- 
ing the day; but they found the Americans awake and ready for them, and 
after an hour's hard fighting, they were forced to fall back, leaving many 
dead and wounded. The remainder of the night passed quietly, with the 
exception of a few scattering shots, and the next morning a truce was de- 
clared, to last until five o'clock on the afternoon of the 5th. 

About four o'clock on the afternoon of the 4th, a number of the 
men of Company B, under Captain Murray, who were on outpost duty 
near the San Juan river, captured a Spanish sharpshooter who was trying 
to enter the American lines before the truce expired. He was sent under 
guard to General Bates' headquarters, and from thence to General Shafter's. 

The truce continued by frequent renewals until July 10, and on 
that day the firing commenced at 4.30 in the afternoon and continued 
until 3.30 on the afternoon of the i ith, when a truce was again declared. 
The Ninth took no part in the firing on the loth and i ith, as it had been 
moved a short distance to the rear, to a position formerly occupied by the 
Third Infantry, and the Third took the place of the Ninth in the trenches. 
The new camp of the Ninth was on a little ridge, and here they remained 
until the iSth, the day after the formal surrender of the city. 

When the regiment left Siboney on the night of the first of July, 
a detail of forty men, under command of Quartermaster J. G. Fennessy, 
was left behind to remove the baggage and other stores from the Har- 
vard. Some of the baggage was taken on shore on the 2nd, and the work 
was to have been continued on the morning of the third. On that morn- 
ing, however, Cevera made his bold dash for liberty out of Santiago har- 
bor, and the Harvard, with the men of the Ninth on board, steamed up 
the coast to render the fleet any assistance in her power. After the last 
Spanish vessel had been silenced. Captain Cotton, of the Harvard, was 
ordered to take on board some 672 prisoners who had reached the shore. 









These prisoners were from the Infanta Maria Teresa and the Almirante 
Oquendo, which had been beached a short distance west of the mouth of 
the harbor. Fearing an attack by a party of Cubans which was near the 
beach, the Spaniards claimed the protection of the American flag, and the 
little Gloucester, under Commander Wainwright, ran in close to the 
shore, and her crew took charge of the prisoners. Late in the evening 
they were all on board the Harvard, and were placed in an enclosure 
which had been roped off aft. The force of marines was small, and the 
men of the Ninth were ordered to assist in guarding the prisoners. Just 
before midnight on the 4th, one of the prisoners got into a quarrel with 
one of the sentries, and the sentry was knocked down. As if by a pre- 


concerted signal, fully two-thirds of the Spaniards at once broke throtigh 
the rope and ran forward on both sides of the vessel. The guards had 
been told that the rope was the dead line, and that none of the prisoners 
except the officers' servants should be allowed to pass it; so, as soon as 
the rope fell, one of the guards fired. Other shots followed, and although 
Sergeant O'Sullivan, who was in charge of the guard, tried to stop the 
firing, it was several minutes before it ceased. 

In less than five minutes, however, the trouble was over, and the 
Spaniards were back in the enclosure, thoroughly cowed. They suffered 
some loss, however, as six were killed and twelve wounded, one of whom 
died the next day. A complaint was made later by the Spanish govern- 
ment as to the shooting of these men, it being claimed that it was entirely 
unnecessary, but an investigation justified the action. On July 17, San- 



tiago was formally surrendered, and the N^inth took part in the ceremo- 
nies, and planted the white State flag on the walls of the city. 

On July 19, the day after the formal surrender of Santiago, the 
Ninth received orders to move towards the right of the line and went into 
camp in a swampy country about four miles out of the city, near General 
Wheeler's headquarters, where they remained until August ist. On that 
date the regiment moved again, and established a camp on a hill near the 
road to Santiago. 

The climate and the scarcity of food had begun to tell on the men, 
an J many of them were sickening. Hardly a day passed without some of 
them being taken to the hospital at the foot of the hill, sick with typhoid 
fever or malaria. Stout, strong men were becoming veritable living 
skeletons, and were weak as children, so that when the fever came upon 
them they could not throw it off, and had not enough vitality to fight for 
their lives. Both food and water were very poor, most of the streams 
being polluted by men bathing and washing their clothes in them. 

On July 25, Lieutenant-Colonel Logan and Captain Dunn, who were 
b )th very ill with fever, left for Tampa on the Santiago, reaching Boston 
0.1 August 15. 

Colonel Bogan was very ill, and had been ordered by the surgeons 
to leave Cuba. He protested strongly, but was finally convinced that' 
his life depended upon it, and decided to go. Arrangements were made 
for his xleparture on July 30, and on that very day Major Grady died. 
His death was a severe blow to the whole regiment, as no officer was more 
universally beloved, or did more for the good of his men. 

KAl-IU lUili l.L N i;l.l"l:l. :-AMlAL,u 



On the afternoon of the 30th, Colonel Bogan, accompanied by his 
•orderly, Private Anderson, left Cuba for home. Colonel Bogan was 
quite ill on the trip, but on his arrival at New York, at once took the 
train for Boston, arriving there on August 5. Friends met him at the 
station, and he was driven to his home in Charlestown. Everything 
possible was done to restore him to health, but all efforts were in vain. 
Little by little he sank, and on the morning of the 9th breathed his last. 
The Ninth Regiment will always feel his loss deeply. No one ever had a 
better or a truer friend than Colonel Fred Bogan, and it will be hard to 
find any one who can take his place in the hearts of his men. 

On the 12th, with a volley fired over his grave by his comrades in 
arms, he was laid to rest in Holy Cross cemetery in Aialden. He was 
buried as a soldier and a Christian, and the tributes due a hero were 
accorded to his memory. The highe,st dignitaries of state and city testi- 
fied by their presence, not only their personal sympathy, but the sym- 
pathy of the entire commonwealth and municipality as well. Military 
officers from all over the state came to pay their tribute of respect to their 
<lead brother in arms, while the streets over which the funeral procession 
passed were fringed with sorrowing thousands. 

But death was still to claim other victims among the officers 
of the Ninth. On August 6, the day after Colonel Bogan's arrival in 
Boston, Major O'Connor died. He was one of the most popular and 
efficient officers in the state militia, and was always ready to sacrifice his 


own preferences, to do anything that would benefit his own or any other 
regiment. Colonel Bogan, and Majors Grady and O'Connor were all 
brave and efficient officers, true gentlemen, and true friends, and their loss 
will be long felt, not only in military circles but by all who knew them. 

It was not only the officers who were taken, however, as many of 
the men sickened and died from fever and exposure. Every day during 
the latter part of July, and all through August, men were taken to the 
hospitals; many of them never to return. Almost every morning new 
names were added to the already appalling list of deaths. The men were 
surrounded by swamps, and the dampness and heavy rains played havoc 
with them. They were short of doctors, medicine, food and even pure 
water, and there was hardly a man in the entire command who did not 
have an attack of sickness of some sort. 

On August i6, a party of Boston men rode into the camp of the 
Ninth. There were three in the party, and they had made the trip from 
Massachusetts to Cuba for the purpose of recovering, and removing to the 
United States, the bodies of Alajors Grady and O'Connor, Corporal Joseph 
Lane and Private Frank Carey. After a great deal of trouble and hard 
work, the bodies were disinterred, and made ready for shipment. Major 
Grady's body was the only one which was in a coffin; Lieutenant Flana- 
gan having torn up his tent floor to make the rude box in which his com- 
mander was laid to rest. The caskets containing the four bodies were 
placed on the transport Santiago, which sailed from Cuba on August 20, 
arriving off Montauk on the 26th. A special permit was obtained the 
next day, and the remains were removed from the steamer and taken to 
Boston by a party of friends. 

On the 1 2th, Major Grady, Corporal Lane and Private Carey were 
buried, and the city of Boston never before witnessed such a funeral. 
They died as soldiers, and they received a soldier's burial. It was a worthy 
tribute to their faithful service amid many perils and hardships; the dan- 
ger of bullets, fever, semi-starvation, weariness, thirst, and even 
death, under the burning sun of a foreign clime, far from home and kin- 
dred. The streets were thronged with tens of thousands of people, and 
as the solemn procession moved slowly along, the three hearses with 
their black trappings, side by side, there was hardly a dry eye in the 
multitude, and the universal baring of heads was a tribute more thrilling 
and more impressive than the cheers of millions. 

On the next day all that was mortal of Major O'Connor was borne to 
its last resting place. As on the previous day, the streets were crowded 
with people to do honor to one who had played well his part in life, and 
who in death had earned his reward. Many of those who saw the hearse 
with its four black horses and sombre trappings, and the riderless 
charger led behind, had never known the dead man, but they honored 





him because he had honored 
and died for the flag. It 
was not idle curiosity that 
drew this immense con- 
course of people from their 
homes, and which brout^ht 
moisture to so many eyes 
when the flag-covered casket 
passed; it was a genuine 
tribute to courage displayed, 
to honor maintained, to pat- 
riotism demonstrated. 

All this time the regi- 
ment remained in its pest 
camp, and although promises were often made that the men should be sent 
home, no definite orders were received for their departure. Almost the 
entire regiment was on the sick list, and "sick call" was omitted, as those 
who were ill were too weak to drag themselves to the surgeon's tent. 
Many were sent home on the hospital ships, and many died and were 
buried in the trenches, but still no relief came. Not only in the Ninth, 
but in all the other regiments, men were dying fast, and throughout the 
day and evening the three volleys fired over the graves, and the mournful 
call of "taps," could be heard from the different camps. 

Finally, orders were issued from headquarters that the three vol- 
leys and the bugle calls should be discontinued at the burials, as they had 
a bad effect on the nerves of the sick. The men seemed to be in a 
comatose state, not caring to eat or talk; passing most of the time lying 
on their blankets in the shade of their tents. The only desire they 
expressed was to go home and be able to die among friends, and not in 

a foreign country. They 
expected to die, and seemed 
absolutely indifferent as to 
how soon death came. All 
were pitiably weak, and 
broke down and cried like 
children over their misery. 
The welcome order 
came at last, on August 23, 
for the Ninth to embark at 
the wharf in Santiago for 
home. Even this news 
failed to arouse the men. 
ANCIENT t^i'AMsii CANNON, sANTiAKo. Alcchanically they packed 


the few articles they wished to carry with them, and started for the 
steamer. Only eight companies went on the first transport, the Allegheny, 
the others remaining in camp until two days later, when two companies 
went on board the Panther, and two on the Roumanian. The Allegheny 
sailed on the 24th, arriving at Alontauk on the 31st; the Panther left two 
days later, but being a much faster vessel, arrived at Camp Wikoff only 
a few hours behind the Allegheny. The Roumanian sailed on the 29th, 
and reached Montauk on September 5. The men on the Panther and 
Roumanian had a comparatively easy time ; but on the Allegheny the 
state of affairs was horrible. Fully two-thirds of the men were sick and 
unable to help themselves, and the balance were obliged to act as nurses 
and care for their comrades. 

Fifteen men died on the voyage, all but one being buried at sea. 
The fifteenth was Private Daly, of Company A, who died while being 
taken from the transport to the shore at Alontauk, and the body was 
shipped home for burial. The transport was overcrowded, and the men 
were obliged to sleep between decks in hammocks, swung closely together, 
and the foul air made many of them worse. The Allegheny was origi- 
nally a cattle steamer, and had no accommodations for carrying passen- 
gers. She was never thoroughly cleaned on the trip, as the crew would 
not, and the men of the Ninth could not, perform the work. There were 
three deaths on the Roumanian and one on the Panther, and about forty 
sick were landed from these two vessels. When the Allegheny arrived, 
175 sick were taken to the hospitals, and the remainder were so weak that 
they were hardly able to crawl down the gang-plank to the wharf. On 
the Panther, the men were not overcrowded, as the officers of the vessel 
would not allow it, and besides having regular rations, the sailors shared 
their food with the soldiers, while on the Allegheny only army rations 
were served out, and even these were none too plentiful. The Rouma- 
nian had been fitted to carry sick men, and the troops, sick and well, were 
fed from the hospital stores. In addition, the Massachusetts Volunteer 
Aid Association had placed a stock of provisions on board for their use. 

When the regiment arrived at Montauk, it was at once ordered to 
the detention camp, to prevent the spread of any disease which the men 
might have contracted in Cuba. General Wheeler, who was then in com- 
mand of the camp, promised that they should not be kept at Camp Wikoff 
any longer than the three days required by the health regulations. Alajor 
Donovan, who was in command of the regiment, and who came with the 
first detachment, decided to wait until the remainder of the command 
arrived before starting for Boston, so that the main body of the regiment 
were quartered at Montauk for eight days. There were several hundred 
of the men in the hospitals, and there were a large number of deaths- 
during that time. 


On September 8, three days after the arrival of the last two com- 
panies on the Roumanian, orders were received for the regiment to start 
for home. Three days previous to the departure of the regiment, all of 
the sick who were able to be moved were placed on board the steamer 
Lewiston, which had been fitted upas a hospital ship, en route for Boston. 
These men had rather a hard experience, as the Lewiston was wrecked 
on Point Judith breakwater, and the .sick were taken on barges to New- 
port, and brought to Boston by train. The regiment left Montauk about 
3 o'clock on the steamer Vigilant, and sailed across Long Island Sound to 
New London, where a special train of parlor cars was in waiting. The 
train arrived in Boston at 10.45 P- ^-I-' ^^d was met at the station by thou- 
sands of people, anxious to welcome the boys home. The warm welcome 
they received was too much for some of the men in their weakened condi- 
dition, and many of them had to be helped to the carriages which were 
in waiting. Oi the 943 strong, healthy men who left South Framingham 
in May, there were only 343 who returned that night, and they were mere 
wrecks of humanity. 


Camp Wikoflf, L. I., September 5. 1898. 
Colonel Lawrence J. Logan. Ninth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. 

To the officers and soldiers of the Ninth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry: — 
By direction of the Secretary of War, you are to proceed at once to your homes, where 
you will receive the heart-felt welcome and generous plaudits of the people of the 
great State of Massachusetts. 

You were prompt to answer the call of your country. You eagerly sought to 
meet your country's foes upon a far distant foreign soil. You braved deadly disease 
in a tropical land. You did your full duty in a war, which has won for us the highest 
place among the nations of the earth. 

In bidding you adieu, I wish you God speed, and may health, prosperity and 
honor be showered upon you. . 

JOSEPH WHEELER, Major General, U. S. V. 

On November 26, the regiment was mustered out of the United 
States service at the armories. It had been in the service for a little 
more than six months, and remained longer in Cuba than any other vol- 
unteer regiment. It lost a larger percentage of men than any other Mas- 
sachusetts regiment. The Second regiment lost ten per cent, of the men 
who were at the front; the Sixth lost two per cent; but the Ninth lost 
thirteen per cent. Not one man of the Ninth was killed in battle, all the 
dead being victims of disease, while the Second had nine killed, and sev- 
eral who died from the effects of wounds. 

Since the return of the regiment there have been many changes in 
the list of officers. 

The colonels, lieutenant-colonels and majors of the Ninth Regi- 
ment since its organization in 1861, are as follows: 

Colonels. — Thomas Cass, June, 1861-July, '62; Patrick R. Guiney, July ■62-'68; 
Patrick A. O'Connell, '68 '69; Bernard F. Finan, '6i)-'j6\ William M. Strachan, '76-'92; 
Fred B. Bogan, '92-August 9, '98; William H. Donovan, March 30. '99. 


Lieutenant-Colonels. — C. G. Rowell, June, ■6i-October, '6i; Robert Peard, 
October, '6i-January, '62; P. R. Guiney, January, '62-JuIy, 62; P. T. Hanley, July, 
'62-'64; John R. Farrel'l, '66-'68; James McArdle, ■6S-'72; William M. Strachan, '72- 
'76; Lawrence J. Logan, '79-'89, Nov. 6, '99. 

Majors. — Robert Peard, June, '6i-October, '61; P. A. Guiney, October '61 -Janu- 
ary, '62; P. T. Hanley, January, '62^July, '62; George W. Dutton, August, ■62-March, 
'63; John W. Mahan, March ■63-'64; James McArdle, '66-'68; Patrick A. Murphy, '68- 
'72; Lawrence J. Logan, '72-76, '79-'89, '98; George A. J. Colgan, '76-'82; Daniel 
J. Sweeney, '79-'8o; Patrick J. Grady, '8i-July, 30, 98; Fred B. Bogan, '92; William 
H. Donovan, 'SS-'gS; Michael J. O'Connor, '92-August 6, '98; Geo. F. H. Murray, John 
J. Sullivan, Joseph J. Kelly, March 30, '99. 

Roster of the Ninth Regiment when mustered out November26, 1898: 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel, Lawrence J. Logan; Lieutenant-Colonel, William H. Donovan; Majors, 
George F. H. Murray, John J. Sullivan, Joseph J. Kelly; Adjutant. Benj. J. Flana- 
gan; Quartermaster, Jeremiah G. Fennessey; Chaplain, Fr. Patrick B. Murphy; 
Surgeon-Major, Francis Magurn; Assistant-Surgeons, Peter O. Shea, Cornelius J. 

Non-Commissioned Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, Edward L, Logan; Quartermaster-Sergeant, John A. O'Con- 
nor; Hospital Stewards, David F. Hickey, (chief), John F. Riley; Chief Musician, 
James E. Sullivan; principal Musicians, Henry Alther, Peter F. Sullivan. 

Line Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Daniel J. Keefe; First Lieutenant, George M. Rogers; 
Second Lieutenant. Timothy J. Sullivan. 

Company B — Captain, James F. Walsh; First Lieutenant, Michael J. Desmond; 
Second Lieutenant, William J. White. 

Company C — Captain, Thomas F. Quinlan ; First Lieutenant, Henry Crane; 
Second Lieutenant, Joseph J. Foley. 

Company D — Captain, David P. Sawyer; First Lieutenant, John J. Dwyer; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, Charles E. Brines. 

Company E — Captain, John J. Barry; First Lieutenant, Thomas Devane; 
Second Lieutenant, Daniel P. Sullivan. 

Company F — Captain, J. H. Joubert; First Lieutenant, Patrick A. Sands; 
Second Lieutenant, Michael S. Boles. 

Company G — Captain, Jeremiah Moynihan; First Lieutenant John F. Hurley; 
Second Lieutenant, William E. McCann. 

Company H — Captain, John J. Hayes; First Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Flana- 
gan; Second Lieutenant, Patrick F. Sullivan. 

Company I — Captain, John H. Dunn; First Lieutenant, William J. Casey; 
Second Lieutenant James A. Cully. 

Company K — Captain, Peter J. Cannon; First Lieutenant, Martin J. Healey; 
Second Lieutenant, John J. Boyle. 

Company L — Captain, Michael E. Morris; First Lieutenant, Daniel J. Murphy; 
Second Lieutenant, Joseph B. Hall. 

Company M — Captain, Anthony D. Mitten; First Lieutenant, Joseph S. Gillow ; 
Second Lieutenant, Philip McNulty. 


Regimental Officers— Colonel, Fred B. Bogan, August 9, Charlestown ; Major, 
Patrick J.^Grady, July 30, Santiago; Major, Michael J. (■)'C(.)nnor August 6, Santiago. 

Company A, Boston— Privates, William H. Brown, September 19, Montauk; 
John Connor, September 26, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; John F. Daly, August 31, S. S. Alle- 
gheny; Edward J. Donegan, September 10, Montauk; John J. Hurney, October 21, 
Boston; Eugene B. McLaughlin, August 16, Santiago; John J. Murphy, August 22, 

Company B, Boston— Quartermaster-Sergeant, Louis C. Fanning, September 
25, Boston; Corporal, Thomas D. McLeod, August 12, New York; Privates, James A. 


Conroy, August 29, S. S. Allegheny; Joseph A. Donovan, August 30, S. S. Allegheny; 
Michael F. Gaughran, August 27, S. S. Allegheny; William A. Lyons, September 3, 
Montauk; William F. Mason, September 11, Montauk ; George P. McLaughlin, August 
6, Santiago; John J. Peard, September 9, South Boston; William G. Saunders, Aug- 
ust 3, Santiago; William Kingston, November 25, Boston. 

Company C, Boston — Corporals, Samuel P. Wiley, September 11, Montauk; 
William G. Rodway, October 18, New York; Artificer Leo J. Brady, August 23, S. S. 
Bay State; Privates, Austin Dunbar. August 30, S. S. Allegheny; James T. Dunn, 
August 31, S. S. Allegheny; Michael F. Leonard, September 20, Boston; Charles H. 
Mc.4leer, September 9, Newton; John J. O'Toole, September 17, Boston; John Spillane, 
September 27, Boston. 

Company D, Boston — Privates, James B. Boyle, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; John J. Calla- 
han, September i, Fort Myer, Va. ; Leonard Collins, September 30, Boston; William 
F. Hassett, July 30, Fort Myer; Walter C. Henze, September 13, Charlestown; James 
H. Kelly. September 10, Brooklyn; Willis S. Marrison, September 26, Santiago; 
Charles E. Powers, Boston; Joseph E. Sullivan, September i, Fort Myer. 

Company E, Boston — Artificer, Joseph F. Mueser, October 18, Montauk; 
Wagoner. Daniel F. Connors, September 1, Montauk; Privates, John A. Boyd, August 
29, Fort Myer; Henry S. Driscoll, September 8, Montauk; Patrick J. Foley, Septem- 
ber 12, Boston; John H. Hagan, September 14, Boston; Michael J. Lynch, October 5, 
Boston; James D. Moriarty, August 17, Santiago; Patrick F. Moriarty, September 6. 
Montauk; John J. Murphy, September 4, Fort Myer; William A. Scrivener, August 
25, S. S. Bay State. 

Company F, Lawrence — Artificer, Stephen J. Ryan, August 28, S. S. Allegheny; 
Privates, Patrick S. Hollihan, September 19, Lawrence; Walter S. Manahan, Septem- 
ber 6, Montauk; James E. Toomey, October 31, Lawrence. 

Company G, Worcester — Corporals, John D. McSweeney, August 31, Fort 
Myer; John F. Horan, September 9, Montauk; Privates, Henry Sullivan, July 23, 
Santiago; George W. Brosnahan. July 23. Egmont Key. Fla. ; Edward F. Sullivan. 
August 27, S. S. Allegheny; Charles F. McMann, August 30, S. S. Allegheny; Michael 
J. Healy, August 31, S. S. Allegheny; Joseph N. Coffee, September 5, Camp Meade; 
James F. McTiernan, September 11, Montauk; John F. Keagan, September 9, Mon- 
tauk; John J. Creaven, September 26, Montauk. 

Company H, Boston — Corporal, Thomas A. Costello, August 28, Santiago; 
Privates, Michael W. Burke. August 30, Boston; Francis W. Cary, August 5, Santiago; 
Patrick J. Donahue. August 31, S. S. Allegheny ; Joseph S. Donahue, October 19, 
Montauk; Robert F. Flint, Jr., August 28, S. S. Allegheny; Thomas A. Fulham, Sep- 
tember 14, East Boston; James F. Farrell, July 25, Siboney; Elden P. Keene, Mon- 
tauk; Gustave Knauth, November 7, Brooklyn; William J. Montgomery, September 
12, Boston; Thomas J. Murphy. August 27. S. S. Allegheny; Thomas L. Rourke. Sep- 
tember 8, Montauk; Timothy J. Tehan, September 5, Boston; John O'Brien, Fram- 

Company L Boston — Quarterm aster-Sergeant. Stephen D. Murphy, October 12, 
Framingham ; Corporal, Jos. D. Lane, August 10, Santiago; Musician, Peter A. Bowler, 
September 3, Boston; Privates, Charles J. Doherty, May 31. Boston; Thomas F. Fen- 
ton, September 3. Boston; Ragner Mellen, August 7, Santiago; Michael H. Nelliga. 
September 2. Boston; John J. Shea, October 14. Boston. 

Company K. Clinton — Sergeants, Joseph Newell, September 13, Montauk; 
James V. Welsh, September 10, Brooklyn; Wagoner, Patrick Garvey, September 18. 
Clinton; Privates, Henry J. Jennings, August 12, Santiago; Henry M. Broderick, Sep- 
tember 2. S. S. Roumania; Thomas F. Gibbons. September 14, Montauk; William 
Gorman, September 20, Framingham; John J. McGann, July 27, S. S. Concho; Henry 
J. McMinn, September 28, Boston; John M. McNamara, August 13. Santiago; Michael 
F. O'Malley. August 30, Santiago; Timothy O'Malley, September 2, S. S. Roumanian; 
Austin L. O'Toole, September 29, Clinton; James P. O'Toole, September 14, Clinton; 
Michael F. O'Toole, September 14, Clinton; Fred Trimble, September 9, Brooklyn; 
Thomas Welch, September 10, Montauk. 

Company L. Natick — Lieutenant, Philip Connealy, September ig. New Lon- 
don, Conn. ; Corporals, John D. Canty. September 27. Framingham; Charles W, Jones, 
October 4, Natick; John W. Kyte. August 8, Santiago; Privates, Michael J. Desmond, 
August 15, Santiago; Thomas A. Welch, August 13, Santiago; George F. Gleason, 
September 12, Montauk; Thomas J. Egan, September 27, Framingham; Edward J. 



Davis, September 30, Brooklyn; Charles F. H. Cousins, October 4, Natick ; Albert S. 
Marston, September 19, Lancaster, Pa. 

Company M, Lowell — Sergeant, Ralph B. Walker, August 23, Santiago; Pri- 
vates, Joseph L. Wallace, August 19, Santiago; Chester F. Cummings, September 27, 
New York ; John H. Marshall, September 26, Boston; Charles H. Braden, August 29, 
S. S. Panther; George A. Pitcher, August 24, S. S. Bay State; John E. Connor, August 
28, S. S. Allegheny; Walter Small, "August 27, S. S. Allegheny; Walter J. Tilton, 
August 26, S. S. Allegheny; Hospital Steward, Halfdan Rye Breiner, August 10. 



By Captain Nathan Appleton. 

IT is asserted that the visits of Bragg's Battery of Newport, R. I., 
Captain T. W. Sherman, to Boston in 1850, and a little later of the 
Marine Artillery of Providence, R. I., stimulated the ambition of our 
citizens to form a battery of light artillery; that the American Rifles 
retired from the Mechanic Rifles, and while some of them formed the 
First Battalion, Light Dragoons, 
organized March 5, 1852, under Cap- 
tain Isaac Hull Wright, the rest or- 
ganized the Boston Light Artillery. 
Adjutant-General Ebenezer 
W. Stone, in his annual report of 
December 31, 1852, recommended 
that authority be given to organize 
one or more light batteries, to be 
drilled as such, adding that the only 
additional expense to the state would 
be that incurred for the use of 
horses, as all the equipments that 
would be required in the battery 
could be secured from the general 
government. The Hon. C. M. Con- 
rad, secretary of war, in his last 
annual report, had recommended 
that the artillery tactics be furnished 
by the general government to the 
several states for the use of the 

By the provisions of a legislative act of the State of Massachusetts, 
April 23, 1853, the formation of one or more companies of "foot artillery" 
was authorized, as designated by the War Department March 6, 1845, and 
the following action was taken by the Governor's Council and the Adju- 
tant General. 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Council Chamber, November i, 1853. 
The committee on the militia respectfully advise the organization of a Com- 
pany of Light Artillery under the act passed April 23, 1853, and that the petition of 
Nathaniel h' . Stevens, and forty-nine others, to be enrolled and incorporated as such 
company, be granted. For the Committee, 

In Council November i, 1853. 

Report accepted and petition granted. 

(Signed) E. M. WRIGHT, Secretary. 

Secretary's Office, Boston, November 2, 1853. 
A true copy. Attest: (Signed) E. M. WRIGHT, 

Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

Headquarters, Boston, November 17, 1853. 
Special Order No. 38. 

The Commander-in-Chief, having approved the foregoing advice of Council, 
orders that the same be carried into effect, agreeably to the order of the War Depart- 
ment, dated March 6, 1845. 

And the Commander-in-Chief further orders that when said company is duly 
organized, it constitute a part of the First Brigade, ist Division. M. V. M. 

Major-General B, F. Edmands, commanding ist Division, is charged with car- 
rying the above order into effect. 

By command of His Excellency, John H Clifford, Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief. EBENEZER \V. STONE, Adjutant-General. 

This company would be the only fie'd artillery company, acting as 
such, in the state, all the companies organized as artillery — at that time 
twenty-five in number — having been required by the i jth section, chapter 
218, acts of 1849 (Mass.), to drill as light infantry companies. All they 
could do, as artillery, was to fire salutes at reviews, etc., as they had no 
field equipment. They were armed and eqixipped as infantry. 

As the result of an election, presided over by Brigadier-General 
Samuel Andrews, the returns of which were forwarded to Major-General 
B. F. Edmands, December 29, 1853, Battery A, Light Artillery, was formed 
and attached to the ist Brigade, ist Division, of the Volunteer Militia of 

THE FlltSr Ol'FR'KKS. 

Moses G. Cobb, of Charlestown, who was said to be the best adapt- 
ed of any officer in the state to drill this arm of the service, was commis- 
sioned Captain. December 28, 1853, resigned and discharged, December 
23. 1^5/"; Joseph Hale, of Boston, commissioned First Lieutenant, Decem- 
ber 28, 1853, resigned and discharged, December 23, 1857; Caleb Page, of 
Somerville, commissioned Second Lieutenant, December 28, 1853, resigned 
and discharged, June 8, 1855; Nathaniel F. Stevens, of Boston, commis- 
sioned Third Lieutenant. December 28, 1853, promoted Second Lieuten- 
ant, June II, 1855, First Lieutenant, February 2, 1858, resigned and dis- 
charged. May 21. 1859; Charles R. Morse, of Charlestown, commis.sioned 
P'ourth Lieutenant, December 28, 1853, resigned and discharged, Septem- 
ber 13. 1854; George vS. Holt, of Boston, was commissioned Fottrth Lieu- 


tenant, October 5, 1854, promoted to Third Lieutenant, June 11, 1S55, re- 
signed and discharged December 23, 1S57. 

Copy of a warrant of a Chief of Piece, loaned, to be thus repro- 
duced, by Lieutenant George S. Holt: — 


Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

To Mr. George S. Holt of Boston, Greeting: 

IVhereas, on the fifteenth day of May, A. D., 1854, you were appointed a Chief 
of Piece of Company A, Light Artillery, of the First Brigade, ist Division of the 
Volunteer Militia of Massachusetts. I do, by these presents, by virtue of the power 
vested in me, grant you this warrant. You will, therefore, with vigilance and fidelity, 
discharge the duty of a Chief of Piece in said Company, according 10 the Rules and 
Regulations established by law for the Government and Discipline of the militia of 
this Commonwealth. You will also observe and follow such orders and instructions 
as you shall from time to time receive from your superior officers. 

Given under my hand, at Headquarters of said First Brigade, at Boston, the 
twenty-seventh day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four. 

S. ANDREWS, Brigadier-General. 


October 5, 1854. 
His Excellency, Emory Washburn, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. 
To George S. Holt, of Boston, Gentleman, Greeting: 

IVhereas. on the Fifth day of October, .\. D., one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-four, you were elected Fourth Lieutenant of Company of Light Artillery in the 
First Brigade and ist Division of the militia of the Commonwealth, I do, by these 
presents, reposing special trust and confidence in your ability, courage, and good con- 
duct. Commission you accordingly. You will, therefore, with honor and fidelity, dis- 
charge the duties of said office, according to the Laws of this Commonwealth, and to 
military Rule and Discipline. And all inferior officers and soldiers are hereby com- 
manded to obey you in your said capacity, and you will yourself observe and follow 
such orders and instructions as you shall, from time to time, receive from the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, or others, your superior officers. 

Given under my hand and the seal of the Commonwealth, the seventeenth day 
of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, and in 
the seventy-ninth year of the Independence of the United States of America. 

Secretary or the Commonwealth. 
By His Excellency the Governor. 

By His Excellency Henry J. Gardner, commissioned Third Lieutenant of Com- 
pany of Light Artillery in the First Brigade and ist Division, on the eleventh day of 
June, 1855. Discharged December 23, 1S57. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Headquarters, Boston, December 23, 1857. 
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief has accepted the Resignation of George 
S. Holt, Third Lieutenant of Company of Light .\rtillery in the First Brigade and ist 
Division of the militia of this Commonwealth ; and he is hereby honorably discharged, 
at his own request, from the office of Third Lieutenant of the company aforesaid. 
By His Excellency's command, 



At the May inspection, 1854, Company Light Artillery, Captain 
Moses G. Cobb, thirty-eight members were present, twenty-two absent; 
at the fall encampment there were eighty-four present, eleven absent. 



The company was called out with the militia at the rendition of 
Anthony Burns, a slave, owned by Colonel Charles T. Suttle, of Vir- 
ginia, who escaped fi'om Richmond in February, 1852, came to Boston, 
and was employed in a clothing store on Brattle Street. On May 24, 1854, 
he was arrested, and after trial was returned to his owner by the United 
States courts, according to the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Law. 
The company had not received its held battery, and the cannon which 
was used to guard Court Square, and formed part of the procession which 
conveyed Burns to the wharf, was a brass field-piece belonging to the 
United States troops, the guard of the United States marshal throughout 
the trial. 

In the published diary of Richard H. Dana, edited by Charles 
Francis Adams, is the following account of the action of the Massachu- 
setts militia on this occasion: — 

"The mayor having given General Edmands discretionary orders 
to preserve peace and enforce the laws. General Edmands gave orders to 
each commander of a post to fire on the people, whenever they passed 
the line marked by the police, in a manner he should consider turbulent 
and disorderly. In one case — that of Captain Evans, of the Boston xA.r- 
tillery — the first two orders were actually given, and in a second more the 
company would have fired but for the fortunate intervention of Colonel 
Boyd, w-ho ordered their guns to shoulder. . . . Professor Wyman 
says, that Captain Young, of the artillery at the head of Franklin 
Avenue, presented his pistol at every man that came to the alley. 
The militia, who had been called out, were posted along Court Street and 
State Street, from the Court House to the wharf. Court Square was held 
by the regular artillery and their cannon. The militia were drawn up 
across every street or alley that led to or from Court or State street, at a 
little distance up the street or alley, so that the people should be kept 
back, and there should be no access to the route of the procession. The 
marshal's guard formed immediately about Burns — in front, behind, and 
on each side. They no longer concealed their weapons, but each man 
wore a short Roman sword and a revolver. Within the hollow square 
were the marshal and Burns. Before them were the cavalry and a part of 
the regulars, and, behind, another portion of the regttlars with their can- 


This company received its field battery on June 17, 1854. On this 
day a detachment of men went to the arsenal at Cambridge — how no 
longer in existence — to take two guns to Boston. They had with them 
Sergeant Nims, and next in rank Sergeant Holt. The horses came from 
Boston, and the guns, when taken from the arsenal, were brought down to 

■ 1 

1 H 'Si 

If > < 


the "Washington Elm," where, on July2, 1775, General Washington took 
command of the armies of the Revolutionary patriots. 

From that place, — a quarter of a mile from the arsenal — they 
started to Boston, and went to their temporary armory in Travers street, 
next to the old National Theatre. The guns were then dismounted and 
taken up one story, where for some time they had drills of the piece. 
They were drilled a few days by an officer of the United States army. 

Later, two more guns were added to the battery, and they were 
properly established in the Cooper street armory. 

In accordance with the recommendation of Adjutant-General E. W. 
Stone, on February 23, 1855, representing that "the present organization 
and arrangement of the vol- 
unteer militia was inconsis- 
tent in its designation as 
'Artillery,' and 'Light In- 
fantry' ; the designation of 
all the companies heretofore 
known as 'Artillery' and 
as 'Light Infantry' was 
changed to that of 'Infan- 
try.' Thus, in the process 
of re-organization on the 
new plan, the artillery regi- 
ments ceased to exist, and 
the artillery arm of the ser- 
vice was formed into bat- 
teries and battalions. In 

1856, while still under Cap- 
tain Cobb, this company had 
the reputation of being one 
of the best Volunteer Light Batteries 
United States. 

Ormond F. Nims, of Boston, was commissioned fourth lieutenant 
of this company, still the only battery in the State militia, and designated 
as "Company of Light Artillery annexed to First Brigade," February 6, 

1857, and promoted captain, February 2, 1858. 

The act of the legislature abolishing May training took effect in 
March, 1858. 

Soon after the resignation of Captain Cobb, June i , i S60, his office 
was abolished by section 27, chapter 13, of the General vStatutes, which 
provided: "that to each company of foot artillery attached to a brigade, 
and organized as designated by the War Department of the United 
States, the 6th day of March, 1845, there should be one major to be elected 


-if not the very best — in the 


in the manner provided for captains and subalterns, four lieutenants, six 
chiefs of pieces, six gunners, two musicians, etc., etc. 


At the fall encampments, previous to that of 1859, the several or- 
ganizations had met at separate places of rendezvous; but on the 7th, 8th, 
and 9th of September of that year, at the great muster at "Loring's 
Crossing," Concord, Mass., on the land now occupied by the State Prison^ 
all the troops of the State were assembled to the nimiber of 5,333 officers 
and men. It was called "Camp Massachusetts.'" By invitation of the 
Governor Nathaniel P. Banks, Major-General Wool, of the United States 
Army, was present with his staff at the concert and review. Eighteen 
bands united in a grand concert on the 8th. The opening piece — "Hail 
Columbia'" — was played with an accompaniment by the Light Artillery, 
Captain Ormond F. Nims. 

The legislature being in session, both branches accepted an invita- 
tion to visit the camp on the 9th; also General Wool and staff, the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery, and many distinguished persons from 
abroad. At the close of Governor Banks" speech, introducing General 
Wool, nine cheers were given for "the hero of Buena Vista," by 6,000 
people, accompanied by the gims of the Light Artillery. The same with 

a salvo were given for the 

Captain Nims wa.s 
commissioned major June 
18,1860. On the Fourth of 
July, i860, the battery was. 
paraded on Boston Common. 


At a review of the 
State troops on the occasion 
of the visit of the Prince of 
Wales, October 18, i860, the 
Company of Artillery turned 
out — Major, Ormond F. 
Nims; Adjutant, Dexter H. 
Follett; Surgeon, John P. 
O r d w a y; Quartermaster. 
Thomas J. Foss. The pro- 
cession moved at i o'clock. 
The Light Artillery executed various evolutions after the parade was over. 
The Prince was in Boston from Wednesday, the 17th, to Saturday, 
and on his departure for Portland, Me., at 10 o'clock Saturday morning 
from the Eastern Depot, a salute wa-^ fired by a detachment of the Bos- 




ton Light Artillery, on the grounds of the Eastern Railroad coinpany. 

In his valedictory of that year, Governor N. P. Banks, referring 
to this review, in his remarks relative to the military expenditures of the 
year, said: — 

"There is, however, an extraordinary charge in this department 
for which I am responsible. 
This was the only 
ovation in honor of the 
Prince, in which the people 
generally participated. No 
expenses were incurred, ex- 
cept for compensation to the 
troops, which amounted to 
$2,271. Number of troops 
present, 2,558." 


Major Nims resigned 
and was discharged Novem- 
ber 30, i860. He recruited, 
for three years or the war, 
the Second Battery, known 
as Cobb's Battery, mustered 
in at Camp Wollaston, 
Quincy, July 31, 1861. 

On August 2, he received an order from headquarters at the State 
House, to detail one gun and a sufficient number of men to fire a salute 
on Boston Common, upon the arrival of Major Asa M. Cook's Battery — 
which went out May 18, 1 861, (three months' men), on the call of the 
President for the militia — their term of service having expired on that 

The battery commanded by Major Nims was ordered to the seat of 
war, August 8, 1861, serving in Virginia and in the Department of the 
Gulf (New Orleans.) 

Edward J. Jones was commissioned Fourth Lieutenant of Battery 
A, February 2, 1858; resigned and was discharged April 19, 1858; com- 
missioned First Lieutenant, February 28, 1862; promoted Captain, May i, 
1862, the organization being then known as the "First Battery." 


By a special order (No. loi), on May 27, 1862, this battery was 
disbanded. A call had been issued on the previous day for troops to 
march immediately to the defense of the national capital. So urgent was 
the apparent necessity for haste, that the general order from headquarters 



at Boston, by the command of His Excellency, John A. Andrew, Gov- 
ernor and Commander-in-Chief, signed William Brown, Assistant Adju- 
tant-General, was executed without waiting for the usual forms of trans- 
mission. Four thousand men reported for duty on Boston Common — 
among them the First Battery ("Battery A"), eighty-seven men. Taking 
for granted, without special inquiry, that they were ordered out for three 
months, a large proportion of this number, including Battery A, were not 
prepared for the intelligence that, in accordance with an act of Congress, 
passed in July, 1861, they might be held for a term longer than three 
months, or until sixty days after the meeting of the next session of Con- 
gress, or, if Congress should so provide, for an indefinite period. Adju- 
tant-General William Schouler, in his report for 1862, says he went round 
to the halls where the troops were quartered and explained to them the 
new law, and about one-half was ready to proceed, law or no law; every one 
was ready and anxious to go for three months. The Governor telegraphed 
to the War Department for authority to order them to be mustered in for 
three months, and received a reply that the President directed the militia 
to be released — "concentration of forces having been effected which 
would render their employment unnecessary," and directing enlistments 
to be made in Massachusetts for three years, as heretofore, in the volun- 
teer service. At this time, General Schouler says, that while he was visiting 
the different companies, the despatch was received from the President 
directing them to be released. With reference to the disbandment of the 
company of Light Artillery, recruited by Major Edward J. Jones, Gen- 
eral Schouler says: "I thought then, and I think now (December 3 1, 
1862), that the order to disband this splendid company was just and 
proper. Yet, upon reflection, I think the men had good cause for com- 
plaint. Most of them were mechanics who had families depending upon 
them for support, and it was natural that before they would take the oath 
to serve, they should know definitely how long a period they were to be 
absent. The chief blame for all this trouble and difficulty, is in the law 
passed by Congress, which was evidently passed in haste and without due 
consideration of its effects. Subsequently, when the call for nine months 
volunteers was issued, Captain Jones was among the first to offer his ser- 
vices to recruit a battery. His offer was accepted, and in a very short 
time he had his company ready, comprising a great part of the men who 
had been members of the disbanded company, and they are now (Decem- 
ber 31, 1862), at the seat of war, serving their country on the battlefield." 


Immediately on the disbandment of Battery A, May 27, 1862, a 
general order, bearing the same date, authorized Major Asa M. Cook to 
enlist a company of Light Artillery in Boston and vicinity for the United 





States service for the term of six months; and this went out under the 
next government call for troops, requiring this State to furnish thirty com- 
panies of Infantry to serve for three years, and one company of Light 
Artillery for six months. This company was designated as the Eighth 
Battery Light Artillery, M. V. M., Asa AL Cook, captain. They were 
mustered in June 10, 1862, received their marching orders June 30, pro- 
ceeded to Washington, served six months, and were commended for brav- 
ery and fidelity at the battle of Antietam. Their term expired Novem- 
ber 29, 1862. 


In the meantime the petition of Major Edward J. Jones and sev- 
enty-seven others, dated August 2, 1862, was granted for the organization 
of a company of Light Artil- 
lery, and Major Jones was 
commissioned captain of the 
"First Artillery" — "New 
Company" — August 6, 1862. 
On August 25,1 862 , the bat- 
tery was mustered into the 
United States service as the 
Eleventh Battery Light Ar- 
tillery, M. V. M., (nine 
months'), and on October i, 
was ordered to proceed to 
Washington and report to 
the Adjutant-General of the 
United States. At the ex- 
piration of their term of ser- 
vice — May 25, 1863 — they 
received the thanks of the 
Commander-in-Chief, Gov- 
ernor Andrew, "for their good conduct, bravery, and soldierly bearing, 
while serving in distant fields, which were alike honorable to them- 
selves and to the Commonwealth." 


Battery A saw active service in Boston, at the time of the "Cooper 
Street Draft Riot," July 14, 1863. 

From the annual report of the adjutant -general of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts (William Schouler), for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1863, the following in relation to the draft riot is taken: — 

" The law of Congress, authorizing the raising of troops by draft, 
was put in operation in this Commonwealth in the months of June and 
July (1863.) 



"Major Clark, U. S. A., was appointed provost-marslial-general for 
the State headquarters, Boston. Assistant provost marshals were ap- 
pointed for the several congressional districts. These appointments were 
made in Washington. 

"A Board was also established to make an enrollment of all persons 
in the Commonwealth, between the ages of twenty and forty-five years. 
The persons thus enrolled were to be divided into two classes, to be called 
the first and second classes. 

"The number of persons thus enrolled in the first class was 107,386. 
in the second class, 56,792. Total of both classes, 164,178. 

"The whole number of names of persons drafted in the several 
districts was 32,077; of these 6,690 were held to serve, and of these only 
743 joined the service; 2,325 (who) procured siibstitutes (are not included 
in this number), 22,343 were exempted; 3,044 failed to report; 3,623 
(who) paid commutation (also not included), which amounted to $1,085,800 
(one million, eighty-five thousand eight hundred dollars.) Battery A at 
that time belonged to the First Brigade, ist division, and was called 
the Eleventh Company Light Artillery. 

"A disgraceful riot having broken out in the city of New York, 
early in July, 1863, instigated by persons who were opposed to the draft, 
and the defection having spread to Boston, preparations were made on 
the afternoon of the 14th to prevent any disturbance here. Verbal orders 
were given to Captain Jones, to notify his company to assemble at their 
armory in Cooper street, and to hold them subject to orders. All avail- 
able troops in the forts and volunteer camps were called upon to be in 
readiness, the Heavy Artillery at Fort Warren among them." 

Colonel Henry Lee, then on Governor John A. Andrew's staff, 
says, in his "Recollections," contributed to the Boston Journal, June 14, 
1896: — 

"It was on Commencement Day, in 1863, we received notice that 
there was going to be trouble. Adjutant-General Schouler and I went to 
find the Lancers, who had escorted the Governor to Cambridge, to hasten 
them back to town. Major Stephen Cabot came up with two companies 
of artillery from Fort Warren, and we had the Forty-fourth and Forty- 
fifth Regiments just returned; also some recruits from other regiments. 
We guarded the bridges into Boston, and took all possible precautions." 


Headquarters, Boston, July 14. 1863. 
(Special Orders 376.) 

Major Cabot First Battalion, First Regiment, Heavy Artillery, Massachusetts 
Volunteers, having with great expedition reported for duty from Fort Warren, in 
response to a request by His Excellency the Governor, has, with his command, the 
thanks of His Excellency. 

Major Cabot will report for orders to His Honor Frederick W. Lincoln, Jr., 
Mayor of Boston. It is the wish of His Excellency, that a portion of Major Cabot's 





command be ordered for duty at the armory of the Eleventh Battery, Light Artillery, 
in Cooper street, to support the section of Light Artillery now there. 
By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

WM. SCHOULER, Adjutant-General. 

The "section" of Light Artillery, which Major Cabot wa.s ordered 
to support, was under the command of Captain Edward J. Jones. Two 
pieces — then called a section, are now called a "platoon." This change 
was made by the War Department at Washington, July 17, 1873, when 
new tactics were issued for all the branches of the service, to be appli- 
cable to the United States Army and the militia of all the States. 

The building in Cooper street is now (1899) a school house. After 
the panels of the door had been broken in, by a joist plied from the out- 
side, a shot was fired through the opening, killing one of the guards. 
One cannon, double shotted with canister, finished the trouble. They 
fired into the mob, and it was never known how many were killed and 
wounded. In the confusion and excitement of the moment it was impos- 
sible to determine who first gave the order to fire, as it was "halloed out" by 
many at the same time. 

Major Jones continued captain of this battery till he created a new 
battery — the three years, Eleventh Battery, in January, 1 864 — when Lucius 
Cummings was made captain of the Light Artillery, First Brigade, ist 
Division, vice Edward J. Jones, in the LTnited States service. 


From the camp of the Fifth Massachusetts Battery at Rappahan- 
nock Station, January 14, 1864, I wrote the following letter: — 

Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, 

Sir: Ever since the Rebellion has existed, the Light Artillery of Massachu- 
setts has been organized as so many independent batteries, each commanded by a 

The Governor and senators of Massachusetts, I am informed, and some of the 
artillery officers of the State, have interested themselves in the plan of having the 
batteries united in a regiment, with the appointment of field officers. I consider that 
it personally concerns all those connected with the Massachusetts Light .-Xrtillery ; 
and 1 lately received a communication on the subject from one of Governor Andrews 
staff, who said that a request from General Sykes — Captain Martin, Third Massa- 
chusetts Battery, is the Chief of Artillery of the Fifth Corps — or from General Meade, 
to the Secretary of War, might have the desired effect. 

This, at best, places the matter in uncertainty, and is an embassy which it 
would scarcely be becoming for one so young as myself to undertake, unJess so ordered, 
and I thought that I would write to you and express freely my opinion on the subject. 

That Massachusetts should have field officers of Light Artillery, seems to me a 
right which she deserves, not merely in connection with other states that have regi- 
mental organizations — and I believe that most of the States having flight Artillery 
enough to warrant it are so arranged — but also in connection with her cavalry and 
infantry. For now there is a dead stop to promotion in Light Artillery, and some of 
the oldest and best tried officers of the State, who have served since the beginning of 
the war. and who do not wish to leave their favorite branch of the service, cannot 
get higher up the ladder than two bars. 

But, sir, there is another consideration: The artillery brigade of our corps is 
commanded by a captain of Massachusetts. In the brigade there are captains belong- 


ing to states having regimental organizations. In case of their promotion to field 
appointments in their regiments, the Massachusetts captain would be ousted from his 

I think that the subject of artillery in the field is one about which little is prac- 
tically known, and one about which little can be known, except from actual experi- 

A brigade of infantry must generally act together; but it is not so with artil- 
lery, for it has to do its work for the whole corps. Some guns have to be put in one 
place, some in another; some rushed to the front, some kept in reserve; and the cais- 
sons must be put in some sheltered spot. This must be all personally attended to by 
the Chief of Artillery, and, in addition, the position of everything remembered, while 
he is responsible for everything. 

A brigade of infantry is commanded by a brigadier-general or a colonel; a 
brigade of artillery often by a captain. 

It seems to me that a man commanding 150 men, 100 odd horses, six guns and 
six caissons — in all about $50,000 worth of United States property, and who has an 
independent comnand, should rank higher than one commanding loo men and 100 
muskets, and who is under the direct command of another. 

Why cannot the artillery be re-organized, and the chiefs of artillery be com- 
missioned by the President, and the old plan of calling a battery a company, be 

Is not a battery of six guns as responsible a command as that which a major of 
infantry generally has? For while regiments are constantly thinned, a battery must 
be kept full to a certain complement, or its guns are worse than useless. 

And, finally, is Massachusetts to be forgotten? 

It may seem to you, sir, unbecoming for one so young as myself to write thus 
on this matter; but I thinK that, in a democracy, one cannot overrate the good or bad 
which he can individually perform, and I consider it the bounden duty of any one who 
has ideas which he thinks may accomplish good, to present them to those in places 
of authority. 

I have the honor to be, most respectfully yours, 

Second Lieutenant, Fifth Massachusetts Battery. 
Hon. Edwin M. Stanton. 

The very contingency mentioned in the above letter occurred when 
General Grant came in person to command the Army of the Potomac, and 
consolidated the corps. When the 3rd Corps was united to the 5th, 
its chief of artillery was Colonel Charles S. Wainwright of the First New 
York Regiment of Light Artillery, and as he ranked Captain A. P. Alar- 
tin, he naturally assumed command of the artillery brigade. I was on 
his staff later, as I had been on that of Captain Martin. 


Fifth Massachusetts Battery. 

Rappahannock, Va., April 23, 1864. 
To Hon. Alexander H. Rice, M. C, 

My Dear Sir: You are, undoubtedly, aware of the fact that for some time the 
executive of our state has been strenuously endeavoring to have the batteries of 
light artillery formed into a regimental organization with the appointment of field 

Senator Wilson has promised to bring the matter before the Senate, that some 
uniform system may be adopted, and that either all or none of the states shall have 
this regimental organization. 

I, as an officer of the Massachusetts Light Artillery, am personally interested in 
the matter, as well as the feelings which I have in common with others, for the welfare 
of our State, and I have taken the liberty of writing to you, desiring that if any bill 


to accomplish this needed reform should be brought before Congress, you may give 
it your hearty co-operation. 

There is no need of repeating any of the hackneyed arguments for the necessity 
of field oflicers of Light Artillery, well known as they are. 1 believe that a bill soon 
comes before Congress in relation to the re-organization of the Regular Artillery, and 
it would be but natural for that of the Volunteer Artillery to follow it. Hoping that 
some result favorable to our State may be accomplished. 
I remain most respectfully yours, 

Second Lieutenant, Fifth Massachusetts Battery. 


On April lO, 1865, the day of rejoicing over the surrender of Gen- 
eral Robert E. Lee, commanding the Confederate States Army, to the forces 
of the United States under 
General U. S. Grant, Mayor 
F. W. Lincoln ordered "a 
salute of 100 guns to be 
fired from the Common by 
Captain Cummings' Battery, 
and the bells of the city to 
be rung at twelve o'clock." 

At the State House, 
Governor Andrew ordered 
"a salute of 200 gtms to be 
fired from the Common — 
100 by the Boston Light 
Artillery, Captain Cum- 
mings, and 100 by the 
Franklin Light Battery, 
Captain Warren French." 

There were proces- 
sions during the day in Bos- 
ton and adjoining cities, 4,000 Navy Yard workmen forming one which 
passed by the State House, and in the evening there was a grand turn-out 
of the military and fire department, and a general illumination of busi- 
ness places and residences. 


Then nine days later, April 19, 1865, the funeral of our lamented 
President Lincoln was observed in Boston by an entire suspension of 
business, and services in the churches. Between the hours of twelve and 
two, the trains on the railroads, and horse-cars through the streets, 
stopped running. Emblems of mourning were displayed everywhere. 
By order of the Adjutant-General, a detachment of Captain Cummings' 
Light Battery fired minute guns on the Common from twelve till two. 
In Cambridge, guns were fired at the same hotir. The British steamer 


Europa, at East Boston, displayed flags at half-mast, and minute guns 
were fired by order of Captain Hockley. The church bells of the city 
were tolled for an hour, commencing at two o'clock. In Brighton the 
bells were tolled from two to three p. m., and 120 guns were fired by a 
section of the Boston Light Artillery. 


June 2, 1S65, the day appointed by President Johnson as a National 
Fast Day, was observed in Boston by solemn services at Music Hall, com- 
memorative of the virtues of the late Abraham Lincoln, with a funeral ora- 
tion by the Hon. Charles Sumner, and an imposing military and civic 
procession, composed of eight divisions. The escort was under the com- 
mand of Brigadier-General W. F. Bartlett, and included the First Light 
Artillery. 120 men. Captain Cummings; the Second Light Artillery, 120 
men. Captain French. The military were thirty-four minutes in pas.sing 
a given point on the route, which was a long one, covering all the princi- 
pal streets in the business district of the city, the West End, and through 
Commonwealth Avenue to Arlington street and the South End. 


At the formal transfer of the historic battle-flags of Massachusetts 
batteries and regiments, December 22, 1865, from the care of the United 
States mustering officer to the state authorities, nearly all the regiments 
of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, were represented. The headcjuarters 
of the commanding general, Alajor-General Darius N. Couch, were on 
Boston Common. Here the colors were brought at 9.45 a. m. by Brevet- 
Colonel Francis N. Clark, U. S. A., and transferred to General Couch. 
A procession was then formed, and marched through the principal streets 
to the State House. I acted as aide-de-camp on the staff of General A. 
P. Martin, who, as senior battery captain, was in command of the Light 
Artillery. The weather was cold and the trees were covered with ice and 
snow. At some points of the route residents provided hot coffee for the 
veterans; but few of these carried muskets, and not more than half wore 
uniforms. Flags were displayed on public and private buildings, and in 
several instances were hung across the street. The arrival of the head 
of the procession at the State House was announced by a salute from 
Battery A, commanded by Captain Nash. As the regiments and batteries 
arrived in front of the State House, the color-bearers left the ranks and 
marched into the passage-way leading to the capitol, and arranged them- 
selves in order on the steps, forming a forest of tattered flags. During 
this movement (rilmore's band performed continually. The enclosures 
on either side were filled with .soldiers, grouped around the statues of 
Webster and Horace Mann. At 1.30, while the band played. Governor 
Andrew descended the steps, attended by his staff, the state officials, of- 


ficers of the army and navy stationed here, and other invited guests, to 
meet the color-bearers. Adjutant-General Schouler called upon the Rev. 
Dr. Lothrop to offer prayer. Then j\Iajor-General Couch, in behalf of 
the Massachusetts Volunteers, presented the colors, closing his speech 
with the words: "Alay it please Your E.xcellency. The colors of the 
Massachusetts Volunteers are returned to the State!" 

Governor Andrew, on receiving them, gave the pledge of the peo- 
ple and the government, that these relics should be "preserved and cher- 
ished amid all the vicissitudes of the future." They were escorted into 
Doric Hall, fitted into places around the pillars, and the procession was 
dismissed. Since the rebuilding of the State House they have been 
arranged in the illumi- 
nated crypts of Memorial 
Hall, in the centre of the 


President Johnson 
visited Boston at the dedi- 
cation of the Masonic Tem- 
ple, corner of Boylston and 
Tremont streets, in June, 
1867. Brigadier - General 
John H. Reed, of Governor 
Bullock's staff, with mem- 
bers of the Boston City 
Council, and of the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts, 
and other officials, met the 
President, Secretarj^ Will- 
iam H. Seward, General 
Rousseau, General Granger, the Washington Commandery of Knights 
Templars and the Marine Band, at Springfield, on Saturday the 22d, and 
offered the military escort which the Governor had ordered to receive 
him on his approach to the capital of the commonwealth. The special 
car and locomotive drawing the train for the Presidential party, were dec- 
orated with flags and flowers. On their arrival at the Cottage Farm Sta- 
tion on the Boston and Albany Railroad at five o'clock, the distinguished 
visitors were received first by the First Battalion of Cavalry, about 400 
men, under Major Lucius Slade, and a detachment of the First Light 
Battery, detailed for the purpose by Captain Cummings, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Hall, fired a salute of twenty-one guns as the train 
rolled in. The procession moved down Essex Avenue, through Long- 
wood, Brookline. vSalutes were fired from Parker's Hill by a section of 



Battery B, Ca<ptain Baxter, which set all the church bells to ringing, and 
they continued to ring until the procession reached the Boston line at 6.45. 
Here the President was met by the Mayor and an escort of infantry 
drawn up in line. The President and Mayor exchanged their respective 
carriages for the elegant barouche drawn by six bay horses, provided for 
the use of the President while in the city, and the party moved down the 
infantry line, drawn up on the east side of the street. The militia then 
passed in review, after which the procession, consisting of the escort of 
infantry, a battalion of marines from the Navy Yard, and the First Bat- 
talion of Cavalry, in all about 3,000 men, marched through the streets of 
Boston. The route ended at the Tremont House, shortly after 8 p. m., 
amid a dense crowd of spectators. As the procession passed through 
Boylston street, a salute of twenty-one guns was tired upon the Common, 
by the second section of Battery A, under charge of Lieutenant Libby, 
and continued until nearly the time of the arrival at the Tremont House. 
Here Governor Bullock received the Presidential party at 10 p. m.; there 
was a reception of the city government in the parlors of the hotel; at 1 1 
o'clock a serenade by Gilmore's band of 60 pieces, and later President John- 
son and Secretary Seward addressed the crowd. On Sunday the Presi- 
dent, accompanied by members of his party and General Banks, visited 
the school ship George M. Barnard, where Sabbath services were con- 
ducted by Collector Russell, according to the Episcopal liturgy. Remarks 
were made by General Banks and Father Taylor, and Mme. Parepa Rosa 
sang "Ave Maria," accompanied by Signor Rosa on the violin. In the 
afternoon the President visited Mount Auburn, and was entertained in 
Watertown by Mr. Alvin Adams. This was the first Presidential visit to 
Boston in sixteen years. The next day, June 24, St. John's Day, the 
President participated in the dedication of the Masonic Temple. The 
great Masonic procession, which formed the grand feature of the day, 
was two hours in passing a given point. A piece in charge of Battery B, 
Captain Baxter, gave the signal at .1 1 a. m. for the start. On the 25th, 
the President, Secretary Seward and Postmaster General Randall had a 
reception at the State House, a visit to Bunker Hill and the Charlestown 
Navy Yard, a trip down the harbor, a reception at the Tremont House in 
the evening, and left on the morning of the 26th for Hartford, escorted 
to the Worcester depot by the Knights Templars. 


Between October, 1S67, and March, 1S6S, General Sheridan visited 
various sections of the country on a recreative tour, and arrived in Boston 
October 7. On the way from Newport to Boston, he was met at Stough- 
ton by members of the Governor's staff, whose duty it was to express 
the cordial welcome of the executive. At Savin Hill, Dorchester, 


where the General left the gaily decorated train, the station and all 
adjacent buildings were hung with bunting, the national colors were visi- 
ble in all directions, and at a short distance stood a great triumphal arch 
of evergreens. The Roxbury Horse Guards, 112 sabres, under com- 
mand of Captain Curtis, acted as escort to the party which accompanied 
the General in carriages. As soon as the procession moved, detachments 
of Batteries A and B, which were stationed on the hill, fired a Major- 
Creneral's salute of thirteen guns. The route was through Dudley and 
Washington streets to the Boston line, where they were met by Mayor 
Norcross and members of the city government, and the right of the escort 
which extended as far down Washington street as Oak street. The vari- 
ous bodies of troops honored General Sheridan with a major-general's 
salute as they passed. He rode in the barouche with his head uncov- 
ered. Mayor Norcross seated beside him. At Pine street, the carriages 
made a detour to Harrison Avenue, and thence through Oak street to 
Washington, and there awaited the passing of the troops in review. The 
chief marshal was Major-General J. A. Cunningham. The procession 
was composed of two brigades, infantry, cavalry, and artillery. In the 
First Brigade was Battery A, eighty men. Captain Lucius Cummings, Bos- 
ton; Battery B, 100 men. Captain Charles W. Baxter; also in the proces- 
sion were Battery C, of Maiden, sixty men. Captain James B. Ayer, First 
Lieutenants Edward E. Currier and George H. Johnson; Battery D, of 
Lawrence, sixty men, Captain Henry M. Mclntire, First Lieutenants 
Frank Annan and George G. Durrell; Eleventh Battery Association, fifty 
men, Captain Warren French, preceded by Captain O. F. Nims, bearing 
the flag of the Second Battery; other veteran officers and associations. 
In addition to the salutes, General Sheridan received many rousing cheers 
and "tigers." Stores were closed, and business generally was suspended. 
The Union Club in Park street was elaborately decorated, and there was 
a very patriotic display of flags, bunting, and appropriate mottoes. The 
carriages containing the General and party arrived at the Revere House 
at 1.45 p. m. The troops did not halt in Bowdoin Square, which held a 
dense and intensely enthusiastic mass of people. The First Brigade went 
down Cambridge street and around that way to the Common, while the 
Second Brigade passed through Green street to Causeway street. Most 
of the military organizations had collations at their armories, and those 
from abroad returned to their homes that night. The General was obliged 
to submit to a reception at once in the parlors of the Revere House, meet- 
ing among other former comrades General Banks, General Butler, and 
Hon. Henry Wilson, and about one hundred members of the Veteran Sol- 
diers and Sailors' Association. After visiting the dining-hall, where a 
collation was in waiting for a large company, he retired to a private room 
and dined with members of his staff and a few friends. At 4 o'clock His 


Excellency Governor Bullock, with other state officials, called upon him 
and welcomed him in behalf of the whole people of Massachusetts. 

In the evening there was a procession of 700 torches, composed of 
Grand Army Posts from New Bedford, Taunton, Lynn, Boston and Cam- 
bridge, who, after parading the principal streets, came to a rest in Bow- 
doin Square to join in the demonstrations of popular regard. Fireworks 
were displayed during the march, and many houses were illuminated. At 
8 p. m. there was a reception at the Revere House, during which it was 
affirmed the General was obliged, from fatigue, to change from the right 
to the left hand in salutation. It was specially noted that he greeted the 
officers of the colored battalion very cordially. Many distinguished civil- 
ians and officers of the army and navy were present. A platform was 
erected in front of the ladies' drawing-room, with a row of gas-lights at 
the foot, and a circle of lights overhead. The large hotels and public 
buildings in the square were illuminated, and blue lights and Roman can- 
dles were frequently discharged above a closely-packed mass of humani- 
ty. It was estimated that not less than 20,000 persons were in the square 
and vicinity, and Gilmore's full band, led by P. S. Gilmore, played patri- 
otic songs and quicksteps. Mayor Norcross presented General Sheridan, 
who made a short speech, remaining on the balcony for several minutes 

On the 8th he visited Cambridge and Charlestown, and at i o'clock 
went to Lowell on a special train, as the guest of General Butler. 
Returning to Boston in the evening, at 9.45 he was present at a banquet 
at the L^nion Club, participated in by two hundred guests, and the next 
morning took a special train for Albany, the city and state officials accom- 
jDanying him as far as Framingham. 


On January 5, 1869, Butler Libby, of East Cambridge, was com- 
missioned captain, having served as First Lieutenant, commissioned May 
7, 1967. Other officers were: First Lieutenants, Ira C. Foster, of Boston, 
and Charles F. Wisner, Grantville; Second Lieutenant, George A. Sawin, 
of Boston; all commissioned January 5, 1869. Benjamin F. White, of 
Cambridge, was commissioned adjutant, with the rank of First Lieuten- 
ant, January 19, 1869. 


At the first jubilee — the National Peace Jubilee of 1869 — Battery 
A did not do any of the firing at the concerts, but turned out 106 men, 
under command of Captain Butler Libby, on June 16, the second day, to 
take part in the review by President U. S. Grant. 

The right of the line rested at the Providence depot, in the High- 
land district, the left at the corner of Berkeley and Tremont streets. 
The troops were under command of General Benjamin F. Butler. It was 


generally said that all the batteries were in good trim and made a fine 
display. Buildings were decorated, and there was great enthusiasm. 
President Grant attended the concert at the Jubilee in the morning, the 
parade in the afternoon, a banquet at the Revere House in the evening, 
and went to Groton that night with Secretary Boutwell. 


Captain Libby resigned, and was discharged March 14, 1871, and 
Edwin C. Langley was elected captain, May 9, 1S71. George A. Sawin, 
Second Lieutenant, resigned, and was discharged December 13, 1870. 
Adjutant Benjamin F. White had resigned, and been discharged June 23, 
1870, and on May 29, 1871, Dr. J. Russell Little, of West Roxbury, com- 
inissioned Assistant Surgeon, with the rank of First Lieutenant, January 
13, 1869, resigned, and was discharged. 


By General Order No. 3, June 15, 1871, the First Light Battery, 
Captain Edwin C. Langley, and the vSecond Light Battery, Captain Charles 
W. Baxter, were designated as the Third Battalion of Light Artillery, 
attached to the First Brigade, M. V. M. The battery commanded by 
Captain Langley was lettered and known as "Battery A," and that by 
Captain Baxter as "Battery B," of said battalion. Major-General B. F. 
Butler promulgated the order, and Dexter H. Follett was commissioned 
major of the battalion, December 4, 1871. 


Monday, June 17, ushered in the International Musical Festival of 
1872. It was held in the new "Coliseum" building, erected for the ptir- 
pose on the Back Bay; 550 feet long, 350 feet wide, with a seating capacity 
of 60,000 persons. There were present 165 choral societies, and 829 in- 
struments in the orchestra; foreign bands aggregating 258 instruments, 
and United States bands, 860. The opening prayer was made by the Rev. 
Phillips Brooks; address of welcome, by Mayor William Gaston; and the 
inaugural oration by General Nathaniel P. Banks. Johann Strauss was 
here with his grand orchestra, playing "The Beautiful Blue Danube"; 
Daniel Godfrey, with the English Grenadier Guards Band; France sent 
The Garde Republicaine Band; Prussia, the Kaiser Franz Garde Grena- 
dier Band; and Ireland the Irish National Band. 

The most popular pieces, and those longest remembered, were the 
"Star Spangled Banner," the "Anvil Chorus" in the Grand Scena from 
"II Trovatore," the oldhymn "Hamburg," the "Marseillaise," and "Auld 
Lang Syne." The "Star Spangled Banner,", Mrs. Julia Houston West, 
soloist, was sung by the full chorus, accompanied by organ, orchestra, 
drum corps, fire alarm bells, one hundred anvils played upon by mem- 


bers of the fire department, and Batteries A and B, of the First Battalion, 
with ten lo-pounder Parrotts, and six Napoleons. 

Major Dexter H. Follett, who commanded the Battalion, told me 
January 19, 1897, that both batteries were there and added to the noise. 
He had arranged a price with Patrick Gilmore for every shot fired, and it 
was done by electricity. Alajor Follett was outside of the building with 
the batteries, and I learn from Lieutenant Murray, that John C. Mullaly, 
now leader of the orchestra at the Boston Museum, sitting by the side of 
Gilmore and watching his baton, gave the signal to Major Follett. There 
was immense enthusiasm on the second day, when the English band 
played the "Star Spangled Banner." On the third day, when "Ham- 
burg" was played — "Kingdoms and thrones to God belong" — it was said 
that the cannon were introduced with a completeness of effect that had 
not been reached in any other piece. 

The discharges came in with surprising correctness as to time, and 
at the close of the hymn there was a grand salvo. The fourth day — the 
day the "Marseillaise" was played — it was said that in the afternoon per- 
formances, the cannoneers discharged their pieces about 250 times; eigh- 
ty-eight reports in the first performance of the "Anvil Chorus." The 
cannon were placed 100 feet from the northeastern end of the building. 

President U. S. Grant was present on the 25th, with his secretaries 
of state, treasury, army and navy. 

The Jubilee closed on the Fourth of July — a rainy day. National 
salutes were fired at sunrise, noon and, sunset, on the Common, at .South 
Boston, East Boston, the Highlands, and Dorchester, by Batteries A and 
B, and at the afternoon concert at the Coliseum, during a furious storm, 
they sustained their part in the performance. 


Two pieces of Artillery from Battery A, under command of Cap- 
tain E. C. Langley, left Boston the night of April i8, 1875, to manage 
the salute firing at Concord. Two other pieces, under command of Lieu- 
tenant John F. Murray, were sent to Cambridge to fire a salute, when the 
organizations should start to march over the old route to Lexington. From 
the tent where the exercises were held a procession, nearly two miles in 
length, moved at 1 o'clock, and proceeded to the battle ground. The first 
military organization in the escort was the Ancient and Honorable Artil- 
lery Company, Captain Dexter H. Follett, 350 men. The chief marshal 
was William A. Tower. President Grant, escorted by the "Lancers," rode 
in the rear of the Salem Cadets, and Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of 
State, was seated by him in the carriage. 


In the magnificent display of citizen soldiery, visiting organiza- 
tions, G. A. R., Loyal Legion, and civic societies, which formed the pro- 


cession on June 17, 1S75, the centennial of the Battle of Bunker Hill, 
Battery A formed part of the First Battalion of the First Brigade, and 
was commanded by Captain Edwin C. Langley, First Lieutenants John 
F. Murray and Isaac Chase, and Second Lieutenant Joseph W. Smith. I 
rode in the escort, as aide on the staff of the chief marshal, General Fran- 
cis A. Osborne. It was said that Batteries A and B "worked splendidly, 
and covered themselves with honor." Battery A had seventy-five, and 
Battery B sixty-eight men present for duty. 


The funeral obsequies of Vice-President Henry Wilson, whose 
remains, escorted by a detachment of United States marines, and of the 
Fifth Maryland Regiment, were on the way from Washington to Natick, 
Mass., were held in the Representative's Hall of the State House at 1 1.30 
a. m., on November 29, 1875. When the procession, a mile and a-half in 
length, of carriages in double lines; the militia, including the Twenty- 
Second Regiment; members of the Grand Army of the Republic, civic 
organizations and citizens, moved at 2.30 p. m., from the State House 
entrance, the First Regiment band played a dirge, the fire bells rang, and 
minute guns were fired by Battery A. The procession passed down 
Beacon street, over the Mill Dam, and arrived at the Cottage Farm Sta- 
tion, on the Boston and Albany railroad at 3.40 p. m. 

John F. Murray, of East Cambridge, was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant of Battery A, ist Brigade Division, July 27, 1870; elected 
First Lieutenant, November 7, 1871 — an office he continued to hold after 
the battery was re -organized and attached to the 2nd Brigade by General 
Order No. 21, July 14, 1876, in the general re-organization of the militia, 
under chapter 204, Acts of 1876, James A. Cunningham, Adjutant-Gen- 
eral. This act was to reduce the expenses and increase the efficiency of 
the militia, and by it companies, exclusive of the Cadet Corps, were 
arranged into regiments of eight companies each, and battalions of two 
or more companies each, and formed into two brigades. 

Battery A, of the 2nd Brigade, retained its captain — Edwin C. 
Langley, of Cambridge — whose commission dated from May 9, 1871, until 
March 28, 1877, when he resigned and was discharged. Lieutenant Mur- 
ray resigned and was discharged April 21, 1879. 

John F. Murray had been a good soldier in the Fifth Massachu- 
setts Battery during the four years of the war. He was one of the 
youngest in it, having enlisted when he was about sixteen years of age. 
After the war he entered Battery A. I imagine that he had much to do 
in selecting me to be its captain, when Captain Langley was to retire in 
1877. I was asked if I would like to accept the position by Colonel 
Robert G. Shaw, then on the staff of General Eben Sutton, who com- 


manded the brigade to which the battery belonged. He was a young 
man, a graduate of Harvard, 1869, who entered the militia too young to 
have taken part in the War of the Rebellion. Colonel Robert G. Shaw, 
of the Fifty- Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers (colored), who was killed at 
Fort Wagner, had identically the same name. 

After some talk with vShaw, Murray, and others, I decided to have 
my name offered for election. At the meeting held in the Wareham street 
Armory, a complimentary vote was passed for Murray, and then, as he 
declined the position, I was elected on a red ticket, of which I still have 
a sample. His own ticket was nearly the same color. In the summer 
of 1878, when I went to Europe on various important matters, I had 
leave of absence, and turned the battery over to Murray, who still re- 
mained Senior First Lieutenant. I was glad that he could have the oppor- 
tunity of taking the battery to camp at Framingham, and to act as cap- 
tain, which he did, for he was surely entitled to this distinction, and at the 
same time he did not have the responsibilities, which would have devolved 
upon him, if actually commissioned and mustered in as captain. When 
the battery was in camp I happened to be at Hamburg, Germany, and 
sent the boys a cablegram of greeting and good wishes. 

John F. Murray has for years been a captain in the police force of 
East Cambridge, now ( 1897) the second precinct, Cambridgeport. 

William F. Hall, then the First Sergeant, was always known as 
"Billy" Hall. He was later First Lieutenant under Captain (Major) Dex- 
ter Follett, and always took the deepest interest in the fortunes of Bat- 
tery A. He told me that he it was who, as a boy, or very young man, 
pulled the lanyard that discharged the piece, during the riot at the old 
Cooper street Armory', in July, 1863. 


Record of Proceedings had in Boston on the 9th day of May, 1877, 
for the choice of captain. Battery A of 2nd Brigade. 

John F. Murray had forty-seven votes on the first ballot, and was 
elected captain in the place of Edwin C. Langley, resigned. 

Nathan Appleton had forty-eight votes on the second ballot, and 
was elected captain, John F. Miu-ray declining to serve. 

The Record of Election is signed Eben Sutton, Brigadier-General 
and presiding officer; Edward N. Fenno, captain and A. D. C, witness. 


Battery A was composed of Boston men. Its uniform comprised a 
dark-blue short frock coat, with three rows of buttons, slashed with red 
on the breast, and with red shoulder-knots; light-blue trousers, with red 
cords. While I was captain, I arranged to have them wear what was 
known as the "Busby" hat, of English origin, made of black Astrachan 


fur, with red cloth on the top; a straight, red plume, or pompon, on one 
side, and a gilt cord hanging down in front. These hats had been dis- 
carded by the Twelfth Regiment of Infantry, and I was able to procure 
enough of Messrs. Bent & Bush for the battery. They are very hand- 
some for light artillery, and more comfortable than the helmet. 

At the camp of the 2nd Brigade at Framingham, August 21, 22, 
2^, 24, 1877, Battery A mustered four officers and sixty-five enlisted men. 


Boston, May 28, 1877. 

Captain Nathan Appleton, Commanding Battery A, M. V. M., 

Sir: First Lieutenant Murray informed me of my appointment as your adju- 
tant, and I accept the position, appreciating the honor which you have done me, and 
shall earnestly and strenuously second your endeavors to make the battery the first in 
the State. 

In accordance with instructions from you, I have prepared a roll of the bat- 
tery, containing each man's name and the date of his muster in. and find that the 
term of service of three men expires September i, viz.. Sergeant Hugh Dunn, Private 
Charles Raskins, and Charles F. Whipple. The remainder of the men have at least a 
year to serve. The roll I will hand to you Monday evening. I have the honor to be. 
Captain, Your obedient servant, 


George B. Cartwright, Jr., was commissioned adjutant of Battery 
A, with the rank of First Lieutenant, May 22, 1877, and discharged De- 
cember 3, 1878, when, to carry into effect the law of 1878, changes were 
made in the organization of the militia, and Battery A was attached to 
the First Battalion Light Artillery; Second Lieutenant, January 13, 1880; 
First Lieutenant, December 12, 1882; resigned and discharged, October 
31, 1883. 


I received the following order: — 

Headquarters Second Brigade, Boston, June 12, 1877. 
Captain Nathan Appleton, Commanding Battery A, Artillery, M. V. M., 

Sir; An important meeting of field officers will be held at brigade headquar- 
ters, at 2 p. m., Wednesday, June 13, to make arrangements for escort to President 
Hayes. General Sutton desires your presence. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Lieutenant-Colonel and A. A. G. 

President Rutherford B. Hayes came, at the invitation of the gov- 
ernment of Harvard College, to attend the graduation of his son from the 
Law Department of that university. The hospitalities of the State were 
extended to him during his visit. He arrived at the Dudley street (Rox- 
bury) Station of the New York and New England Railroad at 10.15 a. m., 
on June 26, 1877. Mrs. Hayes, Secretaries Evarts and Devens, and Post- 
master-General Key, Hon. Richard McCormickand Mrs. McCormick, were 
of the Presidential party. They were met at the station by Governor 
Rice and staff; the cavalry battalion, Major Dexter H. Follett; members of 
the Governor's Council, the vSecretary of State, and heads of departments. 


and escorted to the city limits. On the arrival of the train the customary 
Presidential salute of twenty-one guns was fired by Battery C, of Mel- 
rose, Captain Baldwin, First Battalion of Light Artillery, detailed by 
Major Merrill. Houses were decorated, and flags hung across the street. 

The State militia took charge of the party at the Roxbury line. 
The right rested on Arnold street, and the line was formed on the west 
side of Washington street, extending as far north as Franklin Square. 
The President and party moved down the line, escorted by Chief of Police 
Savage and a detail of mounted police, and proceeded to the left of the 
2nd Brigade, which had already passed through Chester Park. Battery 
A, in this brigade, mustered seventy-five men. This was the first time I 
had been out with the battery. In the ist Brigade was the First Bat- 
talion, Major Merrill, Batteries B and C, 150 men. 

The route of the procession was down Washington street, passing 
the City Hall and State House, to the Hotel Brunswick; 3,500 men were 
in the ranks. The balcony of the State House was canopied and carpeted 
for the ladies of the Presidential party, and the procession was hailed 
with cheers from the dense mass of people about the State House, and by 
the members of the Somerset Club at their club house on Beacon street. 

The President arrived at the Hotel Brunswick at 2 o'clock, and, with 
the officers of the army and navy stationed in Boston, took his place on 
the reviewing stand. The review lasted three-quarters of an hour. A 
public reception was held in Faneuil Hall, from 4 to 5 o'clock. The 
President and party attended a complimentary concert by the Apollo Club 
at Music Hall in the evening, and at 10. i 5 p. m. a reception and collation 
at Young's Hotel, by the Loyal Legion, of which Attorney-General 
Charles Devens was commander. 

On the 27th, the- President attended the commencement exercises, 
a banquet by the city of Boston at the Brunswick at 6 o'clock, and a Fes- 
tival concert at the "Tabernacle" in the evening. 

In a note from Adjutant Cartwright, dated June 2^ , 1877, enclosing 
a receipt for eighteen saddles, requiring my signatiire, he wrote: "On 
all sides I hear congratulatory accounts about the appearance of the bat- 
tery yesterday, and I can safely say that never since the war has it made 
so fine an appearance." 

IN I!EL.\TIO.\ TO lilXS. 

Fort Independence, Mass., (Boston Harbor), July 9, 1877. 
Captain Nathan Appleton, Conimanding: Battery A, M. V. M.. Bostun, Mass., 

Dear Sir: The commandint; officer directs me to acknowledge the receipt of 
your note of the 7th inst., and to state that the t^uns and equipments you desire to use 
on the nth inst. will be at your disposal, but that it will not be possible for him to 
furnish ammunition as you request. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

First Lieutenant Light ,\rtillery. I'ost Adjutant. 



Boston, July 10, 1877. 
Nathan Appleton, Esq., Boston. 

Dear Sir: We caTinot jjet the "projectiles" for to-morrow. Our friends in New 
York telegraph that they can furnish them fi.xed and ready with cartridge bag and 
powder — three-inch percussion shell — at I2.35 each, but that the express will not take 
them, and they can only be shipped by outside steamer, which sails to-morrow, and 
reaches this port on Friday morning. If you should conclude to defer your parade, 
we shall be pleased to order them on for you, and remain. 

Yours truly, 



"July 24, 1877. See Mayor, Governor, Adjutant-General, and 
others, about Battery A, and the possibility of riots. Drill at Armory." 

The riots of laboring men, connected with the railroads at Pitts- 
burg, Penn., in July, 1877, had been very seriotts, and the State militia had 
not been able to quell them promptly. From thence they extended west 
to Chicago, and there was even some slight trouble at Albany. There 
was, of course, a possibility of disturbance in Boston. 

I went to the State House to see the adjutant-general, and find out 
if I could have some fixed ammunition. There was none available in the 
State; and, consequently, I was given an order on William Read & Sons 
for six rounds, which I dtily received. At the State House I met Colonel 
T. B. Edmands, of the Cadets, on a similar errand. I had been passing 
a few days at Ipswich, and came at once to Boston, hearing that there 
might be some riot. It was announced that there was to be a meeting 
and speaking at Park Square, in the evening of that day, but on repair- 
ing to the spot I found only a few persons, and nothing very incendiary 
in their remarks. Later on, going to the armory of Battery A, in Ware- 
ham street, I found First Sergeant William F. Hall, and several of the 
men, on duty, and ready for the possible emergency, but there was not 
the slightest possible disturbance of the peace in Boston. 


I received the following letter dated August 8, 1877, at Lawrence, 

My Dear Captain : I must thank you for your kind invitation just received, of 
which myself and staff will certainly avail ourselves during your coming encampment. 
I thank you the more in that, believing in the utmost cordiality and good feeling in the 
militia, this is the first invitation to the officers of the First, or old Second Battalion, 
received from Battery A. Sincerely yours. 

Captain Appleton. GEORGE S. MERRILL. 

The "old Second Battalion" was composed of "Battery C," Mel- 
rose, Clark B. Baldwin of Melrose, Captain, and Battery D, Lawrence, 
(xcorge G. Durrell, of Lawrence, Captain. Major Merrill was not con- 
nected with the militia prior to the Civil War. In 1862, he assisted in 
raising a company for the L^nion service, of which he *-as chosen lieu- 
tenant, and afterwards captain, which position he held until mustered out. 


In 1866, he became adjutant of the .Sixth regiment Volunteer Militia of 
Massachusetts, serving three years, being in 1869 elected captain of the 
Fourth Light Battery ("Battery D"), which he commanded until 1872, 
when he was chosen major of one of the battalions of Light Artillery in 
the State's service, holding this position continuously for twenty-one years 
— until he tendered his resignation in 1893. He was iirst commander of 
Post 39 of the Grand Army of the Republic of Lawrence, and subse- 
quently commander of the Department of ilassachusetts, and in 1881, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic 'of the United 
States. He has been senior vice-commander of the Massachusetts com- 
mandery of the Loyal Legion, and captain of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company. 


From my Diary: "August 20, 1877, went to camp at Framing- 
ham. Rode out with Battery A." 

August 23: "Admiral Steadman called at camp, and I gave him a 
salute, also to my predecessor Past Captain Edwan C. Langley." 


August 23, 1S77. 
My Dear Captain; Your favor of invitation to visit your camp cordially 
acknowledged by the members of my family, including Lieutenant Commander Mc- 
Calla, U. S. N. who is much obliged to you. I regret my own inability to come, but 
have requested the A. A. G. of the G. A. R. to extend your kind invitation to the staff 
of the G. A. R. department. 

I hope you will have a charming visit and tour of duty. 

Truly yours, 


From my Diary, August 25, 1S77: "Return to Boston tired out." 


September 16, 1877: "Call on General McClellan. Dine at Ober's 
with General John C. Robinson, Commander-in-Chief G. A. R.. General 
Horace Binney Sargent, Massachusetts Commander G. A. R., and Colonel 
Solomon Hovey, Jr., at the city's expense — entertaining fund. Call at 
headquarters. General A. P. Martin, Chief Marshal." 

September 17: "Dedication of Soldiers and Sailors Monument on 
Boston Common. I turn out with Battery A." 

On the city's birthday the monument was dedicated. The proces- 
sion was an imposing jjageant, and consisted of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, Department of Massachusetts, and visiting Posts, the entire 
militia of the State, veteran organizations with their old regimental colors. 
Masonic lodges. Odd Fellows, and other civil societies — making one of the 
largest processions ever seen in the city of Boston. 

The general escort to the parade comprised both brigades of state 
militia, commanded by the commander-in-chief, Governor Rice, inclu- 
ding Battery A, which mustered eighty men. The roster of the battery 


was as follows: Captain, Nathan Appleton; First Lieutenant, George B. 
Cartwright, Jr., Adjutant; Assistant-Surgeon, First Lieutenant, William 
Appleton; First Lieutenant, John F. Murray; First Lieutenant, Joseph 
W. Smith; Second Lieutenant, George W. Brooks. 


October 30, 1887, while commander of Battery A, I wrote an open 
letter to Major-General James A. Cunningham, then Adjutant-General of 
the State of Massachusetts — afterwards superintendent of the Massachu- 
setts Soldiers and Sailors Home in Chelsea — containing the following rec- 
ommendations: — 

Having been asked by yourself and others, to give my views in relation to the 
Light Artillery service of the State, and make any suggestions which may be of pos- 
sible use in the future, I avail myself of the opportunity thus offered me of so doing, 
by an open letter to yourself, of which I send the original to Brigadier-General Sutton, 
commanding the brigade to which I belong, with the request that he will duly forward 
it to you. The additional tactics prepared by Colonel E. G. Stevens for the formation 
of a battalion of mounted artillery, the formation of brigade line for drill, dress pa- 
rade and review, and the ceremony of inspection, were all forwarded to me last summer 
by the committee in charge, and should have been acknowledged before. I congratu- 
late Colonel Stevens upon the excellence of his work, which provides in a very thor- 
ough manner for the different movements of artillery. I have here one suggestion to 
make, as the result of personal observation, which is that in the brigade line for dress 
parade or review, the command, "Action front," be given some time before that of 
"Guides, posts," by the brigade adjutant-general, instead of after, as now; because the 
manoeuvre is one which must, necessarily, take some little time to be done properly, 
and have the alignment correct ; and during this time the entire brigade, with the 
general and staff are kept waiting. 

I think that at the annual brigade encampment, there is certainly, so far as 
concerns the artillery, too much parade and review, and not enough battery drill. 

During the time 1 was in the United States volunteer service — eleven months 
in the field — all of which were with the light artillery — about nine months with a 
mounted battery, and the rest on the artillery brigade staff of a corps — the only re- 
view in which I ever participated, was that of the Army of the Potomac in Washing- 
ton at the end of the war. 

In the field, we occasionally had brigade drills of several batteries, but never 
anything that could be called a dress parade. This ceremony, while very beautiful 
and useful for infantry, either by regiment or brigade, is, to my mind, of little or no 
importance to light artillery. 

Afternoon guard mounting, at the time of retreat, was made, in the battery of 
which I was an officer, something of a ceremony, as being the only one that could be 
advantageously performed. I would, theretore, respectfully recommend that, during 
the week at camp, the batteries be only ordered out once or twice for dress parade, 
as part of the brigade line. On the other hand, they need two or three hours' steady 
battery drill. The battery should not be harnessed and turned out more than once 
a day, as the time and work of harnessing and hitching, and the necessary cleaning 
before and after, are greater, for the general run of men in the militia and with green 
horses, than one who does not know from experience would suppose. 

A good battery drill one-half of the day, and a drill at the manual of the piece, 
including mounting and dismounting the guns, carriages, etc., or instructions in prop- 
erly harnessing the horses at another part of the day , when added to the ordinary 
life and duties at camp, are quite enough for artillery soldiers. 

I believe that the State would find it to its advantage to put up stabling accom- 
modations at the camp grounds at Framingham for the horses of the artillery and 
cavalry, as this expense is one that should not be borne by the mounted organiza- 
tions. It is very important that horses, taken out of the stables to which they are ac- 
customed for this special use at camp, should have some sort of good shelter provided 


for them. During the time I was at camp the horses would have suffered terribly 
from the heat by day, had they been standing at the picket lines, and severe showers 
are at any time to be expected at that season of the year, from which horses would 
be liable to take cold. As it was, the e.xpense of the stable had to be paid by the 
battery. It is a pity that the camp ground is not larger. It now is hardly of suffi- 
cient size to drill one battery of artillery properly — an inconvenience which becomes 
very serious when other troops are on the ground at the same time. Perhaps at 
some future time it may be enlarged, but until then we must do the best we can in the 
present limited space. 

I have recently inet the committee on armories, of the city government, and 
the superintendent of public buildings, in relation to matters connected with the 
armory of Battery A, on Wareham street, Boston. They have agreed to attend to 
certain necessary repairs at once, while others of less importance can be delayed until 
spring. I have recommended to them that the original plan of the armory, or one 
more or less like it, be carried out if possible, so that the building shall have two full 
stories and a proper roof; my idea being that one of the upper stories should be given 
to a regiment or battalion of infantry for their armory. The city of Boston is now so 
large, that there ought to be one building in it capable of holding all the material 
needed to cjuell any disturbance which might occur, and for this the Armory of Bat- 
tery A could easily be arranged. Should the expense be too great for the city to 
undertake it alone, it might agree to contribute a certain share, while the State would 
also furnish something. Should this not be enough, I would advise that a subscrip- 
tion be circulated among the business men, and other citizens of Boston, to make up 
the remainder, simply for the protection of their own property, in case of any disturb- 
ance arising. The building should then be connected by telegraph with the State 
House, brigade headquarters, police and fire departments at the City Hall — any or all 
of them, as might be deemed best, and could thus be made of real use in case of 

I wouL1 also recommend, that one or two Gatling guns, with carriages and 
limbers complete, be added to Battery A, and that the complement of men be raised 
to loo. The best Gatling gun for street service is that of calibre 45-inch, with ten 
barrels. The cost of this is $1,000; that of the carriage and limber, I280; while fifty 
feed cases can be had for $11 2. 50; making in all, for one Gatling gun, complete, 11,392.- 
50. The limber of a twelve-pounder Napoleon is not suitable for a Gatling gun. Two 
horses, or even one, suffice to draw the gun, and it can be worked by two men, though 
it is always better to have more at hand. 

It would be a good thing, in my opinion, if the State would allow each battery 
one-half day for drill and inspection, some time during the spring. The expense would 
be slight, and more than warranted by the good effect it would have in keeping up 
the efficiency and prestige of the commands. For Battery A, I would ask an afternoon 
drill on Boston Common, with firing omitted, some time in May or June. 

These, sir, are all the suggestions I have now to make; and, in offering them to 
your consideration, I desire to thank you for the interest you have always taken in 
Battery A, since it has been my privilege to be its captain, and the courtesy I have 
received from you and other members of the military staff of the State. 

A similar acknowledgment, I wish to make to my Brigade Commander Briga- 
dier-General Eben Sutton, and the members of his staff. 
Believe me, sir, very respectfully yours, 


Captain Battery A, M. V. M. 

Subsequently the battery moved into a fine armory, and two Gatling 
guns were added. 


This letter called forth some comment from the newspapers, and 
from individuals interviewed by newspaper reporters. That there was 
altogether too mttch parade and review, and not enough battery drill at 
the annual encampments, was the universal opinion; but the stiggestion 
that the l)attery should not be harnessed and turned otit more than once 


a day, was not so favorably regarded. It was agreed that, as tht: artillery 
are allowed horses only at camp, the full benefit of them should be 
secured, especially as the drivers need the drill full as much, if not more, 
than the cannoneers, and drills at the manual of the piece can be had in 
the armories, just as well as in camp. 

All were agreed, that the State ought to provide stabling accommo- 
dations at the camp ground for the horses of the artillery and cavalry. 
As regards the size of the camp-ground, most of the gentlemen inter- 
viewed thought it plenty large enough for the manoeuvres of a single 
battery, and even for a battalion of two batteries. There appeared to be 
a strong feeling, however, that the artillery should go into camp by itself, 
and be entirely divorced from the infantry; and it was agreed that the 
artillery is of no benefit to the infantry, seldom participating in a brigade 
drill, and only serving to weary the infantry at brigade dress parade. 

Some thought the location of the annory bad for an infantry organ- 
ization, and not particularly good for artillery. 

Regarding a half-day of battery drill and inspection each spring, 
it was thought that a whole day would be much better, and ccjst but a 
trifle more; and it was also suggested that, instead of omitting firing, it 
would "be better to take one gun down the harbor and practice target 

The correspondence relating to the armory, held with the city 
•officials, is here appended: — 


Office of the Clerk of Committees, City Hall. 

Boston, September 29, 1877. 
Nathan Appleton, 

Dear Sir: Yours has been received, and the attention of Mr. Tucker, Superin- 
tendent of Public Buildings, was called to it as long ago as August i, and he still has 
the matter under consideration As the building is a public building, the committee 
on that department alone have the charge of it, and the alterations must be made by 
them. I have called the attention of Mr. Tucker again to the matter, and hope that 
something will be done. Have called a meeting of the Armory Committee on Satur- 
day next at 1 1 a. m., and, if you will be present, will also notify Mr. Tucker to be there. 
and then we can see if anything can be done immediately. 

Yours truly, 

(Afterwards Mayor of Boston.) 

M.^.JOl! KDWAllD .1. .loXKS. 

November 3, 1877, Major E. J. Jones presented Battery A with a 
gold medal. The occasion was one of unusual interest. It took place in 
the evening, and, after calling the assembly to order, I had the honor of 
introducing Major Jones as one of the most distinguished representatives 
•of the artillery service in the vState. 

The major, in response, said he proposed to speak to the company 
on the origin of the light artillery service, the organization of Battery A, 
and the use of the several kinds of fixed ammunition furnished this arm 


of the service. He sketched, in an interesting way, the development of 
the light artillery as an arm of the service, showing that in 1 842 the first 
French battery was organized, and that in 1845 the United States Army 
first had this style of artillery. 

After some details of the history of Battery A, Major Jones took 
from its case a very handsome gold medal, which was, in 1857, presented 
to this battery by the commander and staft" of that time, to be worn each 
year by the member making the best shot at the annual target practice. 
It was received by Major Jones in i860, when he won the record of being 
the best shot, and had, from a variety of circumstances, remained in his 
hands until then. It was in the form of a shield, about two and a-half 
by two inches at its extreme point, and had the battery's motto, "aut 
viiicere atit iuon\'' and other suitable inscriptions upon it, including the 
names of four successive recipients of it previous to 1861. I received 
the medal on behalf of the battery, and promised to care for it, and see 
that it was properly used, in accordance with the desire of Major Jones 
and the original donors. 

After the presentation. Major Jones continued his address, refer- 
ring, in an interesting manner, to the construction, power, range, and use 
of the several projectiles used by a light battery in active service, illus- 
trating his remarks by specimens of the various kinds. He also exhibited 
specimens of the various means used for firing the guns of a battery, and 
explained the several improvements made since the introduction of artil- 
lery as a means of warfare. 

The address was eminently practical, full of facts and suggestions 
of the most importance to the artillerymen, and all who were present 
gave the closest attention throughout. 

Battery A was in fine condition, and the events of the evening 
roused the members to make additional exertions to sustain the reputation 
of the battery. 


(Of Fuller's Light Battery, organized in 1874. Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor of Vermont 1886; brevetted colonel in 1887, for long and merito- 
rious service in the Vermont National Guard; Governor of Vermont 1892- 
1894; died October 10, 1896, aged 55.) 

, Fuller's Light Battery. 

Brattleboro, Vt., November 9, 1877. 
Captain Appleton, 

Your letter to General Cunningham prompts me to send you a little book on 
our recent celebration at Bennington, and containing a short account of our own bat- 
tery. I do not wish lo meddle with affairs outside of my own command, but I must 
Commend some of the points taken by you, as gained from my own experience. 

A battery needs all the solid work that it can get in a week's muster, both at 
manual of the piece and battery drill. Almost any battery can march on the road if 


you give it time and room enough, but nothing short of severe and continuous work 
will give it precision and efficiency. 

I am, captain, your most obedient servant, 

Captain Fuller's Light Battery, N. G., Vt. 


I received the following, dated Aldie, Penn., December 15, 1877: — 

In reply to your kind note I hasten to tell you that it will give me great pleas- 
ure to comply with your gratifying request. I regret to say that I have no likeness in 
uniform of Mr. Lawrence; the one that was taken being thought very poor; but I 
have an excellent photograph in citizen's dress, taken at Whipple's during the war, 
which I shall have copied and sent to you. I well remember the deep interest Mr. 
Lawrence took in the battery of which you are now the commander. With kindest 
regards, Believe me, very cordially yours, 


This was the widow of T. Bigelow Lawrence, son of Hon. Abbott 
Lawrence, who was United States Consul-General at Florence when I was 
there in 1864. 


The annual ball of Battery A, which took place December 17, 1877, 
in the armory on Wareham street, was a very successful and brilliant 

Colonel Beal, the veteran decorator, had transformed the drill room 
into a beautiful hall, adorned with the trophies of war and emblems 
of peace. A prominent feature of the decorations was a fort with 
mounted guns on either side, with the national ensign, surmounted by a 
glory of national flags, which occupied the end of the armory towards 
Wareham .street. Overhead was an arch of gas jets, beneath which was 
a column surmounted by an eagle, with sabres arranged at the base. 

A temporary balcony at the opposite end accommodated the mem- 
bers of Edmand's Quadrille Band, T. O. Edmands, leader. The bunting, 
festooned from the ceiling, and the flags, state seals, and other devices on 
the walls, produced a very striking and brilliant effect. 

The order of dances included twenty numbers, ten of which pre- 
ceded the supper, which was served about midnight. A promenade con- 
cert preceded the grand march, which began at 9 o'clock, shortly after 
the arrival of tlie Governor and his party. 

Aly associates on the reception committee were: Adjtttant, George 
B. Cartwright, Jr.; Assistant-Surgeon, William Appleton; First Lieuten- 
ant, John F. Murray; First Lieutenant, Joseph W. Smith; and Second 
Lieutenant, George W. Brooks. A large assembly of military and civic 
dignitaries graced the occasion. There were present His Excellency 
Governor xllexander H. Rice, attended by General Blackmar and Colonels 
Rice, Hutchings, Lyman and Campbell, of his staff, and ^Liyor Frederick 
G. Prince; General Eben Sutton, with members of his staff, and several 


non-commissioned officers; Major George S. Merrill, of the First Bat- 
talion Artillery, attended by nearly all the members of his staff, as was 
also Major Dexter FoUett of the First Battalion of Cavalry. 

Colonel John L. Stevenson, commander of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery, also attended, with many officers of his command, it was 
said, as a mark of courtesy to Captain Appleton. Every officer of rank 
in the State militia was there, as well as many individual members of their 
commands, numbering in all between two and three hundred couples. 
The brilliant uniforms, combined with the toilets of the ladies, rendered 
the scene very attractive. The most general satisfaction was expressed 
with the arrangements, and the manner in which they had been carried 
out. I thought it would be well to have the names of the various com- 
manders of the battery, with the dates of their taking and leaving the 
command, arranged in the armory where they could be seen by every 
one there. This was done by Lieutenant George W. Brooks, who pre- 
sented the battery with shields, on which were painted the names and the 
dates. They made a fine appearance fastened along the walls, and re- 
mained there until destroyed by the fire. 


At the inspection of Battery A, by Brigadier-General Sutton and 
staff, there was a large number of invited guests, including members of 
the city government. The men mustered fifty strong, and their drill, 
when the disadvantages of cramped space and the absence of horses was 
considered, was creditable to the organization, which included many new 

After the drill, I called the company to order in an adjoining room, 
and, in behalf of the members of my command, presented to General 
Sutton a beautiful silver cigar case. 

General Sutton expressed his thanks in a few complimentary re- 
marks, and I then explained my views on the impi'ovement of the artillery 
branch of the service. In pursuance of this idea of perfect efficiency, I 
suggested that the building the battery now occupied be raised and im- 
proved, so that an infantry company might be quartered in the second 
story, the battery furnished with horses, etc., and the building connected 
with the City Hall, etc., by telegraph, as previously suggested. I also 
recommended some minor improvements, such as shutters to the win- 
dows, etc. The inspecting officers examined the upper stories of the 
building, and seemed to coincide with me in my views. 


In April, 1878, the battery numbered four commissioned officers 
and about forty enlisted men. The men took a very lively interest in 
the battery, and each month showed an improvement. Many old artiller- 



ists wished to join it. At the annual inspection of June 15, the battery 
mustered sixty-five men and six officers, with the full complement of 
field pieces and horses. After a parade at the South End, the battery 
reached the Common at 10 o'clock. 

The Natick band volunteered its services, and performed excellent 
music during the parade, and on the Common. An hour was devoted to 
drill, and at 12 o'clock the officers and men took dinner under a marquee. 
After dinner the battery paraded through the usual down-town streets. 

The inspection, conducted by Inspector-General Brigadier-General 
Cornelius G. Atwood, Assistant Inspector-Generals Colonel Edward G. 
Stevens, and Lieutenant-Colonel A. Hun Berry, took place at 2 o'clock on 
the Common. 

There was much adverse criticism in the newspapers, but the mili- 
tary editor of one prominent journal did us the honor to say that "The 
ranks made a very neat display, and showed the result of much valuable 
practice since they were last out for parade." As no horses were allowed 
the artificers and wagoners, they paraded with the detachment with 
which they drilled. There was a large assembly of spectators in and 
about the mall (on the Common), during the afternoon, including many 
infantry, cavalry, and artillery men; also several members of General 
Sutton's staff. 

After the tactics and drill, a number of appointments were con- 

On July 4, 187S, Battery A fired the usual salutes, a half-hour at 
sunrise, 12 o'clock noon, and at sunset. 

Battery A encamped at Framingham September 24 to 28, 1878, 
and of this inspection General Cornelius G. Atwood is quoted in the adju- 
tant-general's report as saying: "The artillery battalion is deserving of 
great praise; the drills and other exercises witnessed were very credit- 
able, especially the inspection by the brigade inspector. Great and 
marked improvement was visible, and discipline and personal appearance 
were far better than before." 

With relation to the changes I thought desirable for the armory of 
Battery A, I received a letter from General Henry Sturgis Russell, in 
1897, Fire Commissioner, who was brevet Brigadier-General and Colonel 
of the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, First Lieutenant and Captain Second Massachusetts 
Infantry, during the war, and at that time chairman of the Boston Police 
Commission — dated November 4, 1878. 

Dear Sir: I will gladly take hold of the matter treated of in yours of the ist 
inst., and do all in my power to effect whatever may seem best. 

Captain Nathan Appleton. H. S. RUSSELL. 


To carry into effect the arrangement of the Massachusetts Volun- 
teer Militia law, as provided by the statute of 1878, Battery A was at- 
tached to the First Battalion Light Artillery, and I was directed to report 
by letter to Major George S. Merrill, commanding the First Battalion, by 
(reneral Order No. 7, December 3, 1878; existing companies transferred, 
and the new companies assigned, as therein indicated. 


While in command of Battery A, I received the following letter, 
dated December 6, 1878, from General Martin: 

My Dear Captain: At your suggestion I have directed Mr. J. W. Black to make 
and frame a copy of one of my large-size photographs in military uniform, — an order 
for which I herewith enclose — which I desire to have you present to your command as 
a token of my appreciation of the value of a well-organized militia, as well as the 
great interest I feel in the success of an organization with which I was connected for 
seven years previous to the late war, and an arm of the service with which you and I 
were identified in the Rebellion. 

With my best wishes for the success of your battery in the future, 

I remain, yours truly, 

To Captain Nathan Appleton, commanding Battery A, Light Artillery, 

P. S. I enclose, herewith, cabinet size for yourself. A. P. M. 

Augustus P. Martin was present as an enlisted man in Battery A, 
Light Artillery, ist Brigade, ist Division, M. V. M.. at the annual en-' 
campment. Attgust 8, 9. and 10, 1S54; at inspection May jo, and encamp- 
ment August 25, 26. and 27, 1855; at inspection May 2S, and encampment 6, 7, and 8, 1856. 

He was present as Third Sergeant at inspection May 2/, and en- 
campment August 28, 29, and 30, 1857. 

Prior to May 4, 1858, he was for some time clerk of the company, 
and on that date was commissioned Third Lieutenant, vice John Reed; 
promoted First Lieutenant, January 7, 1859, '^'ice N. F. Stevens. Re- 
signed, and was discharged, December 13, 1859. 


I recall from personal recollections of John H. Reed, the fol- 
lowi ng : 

He was at one time a member of the New England Guards. He 
was on the staff of Major-General B. F. Edmands, Major and Division 
Engineer. Resigned and joined the Boston Light Artillery, Major Cobb 
as adjutant; A. D. C. to Governor Banks, rank of Lieutenant-Colonel; 
Quartermaster-General on the staff of Governor Andrew, with the rank 
of Brigadier-General. He was captain of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company in 1866. 


In February, 1S79, an effort was made to re-organize Battery A, 
and place it where it ought to be— at the head of the Light Artillery of 


the State. A list was opened on the iSth inst. for the signatures of all 
persons who would like to join the renovated battery, and it was announced 
that from the names thus obtained, would be selected the best men who 
could attend the meetings and drills of the company. There was a 
prospect that there would soon be vacancies among the commissioned 
ofhcers, and, consequently, a chance of speedy promotion for good men. 
On January 13, 1880, Joseph W. Smith, of Cambridge, was com- 
missioned captain of Battery A. He had served as Second Lieutenant, 
commissioned December 8, 1873, and First Lieutenant, September 4, 
1876. Other officers were Lieutenants William Aj^pleton and George W. 
Brooks, both of Bo.ston, commissioned January 13, 1S80; also Second 
Lieutenant George B. Cartwright, commissioned on the same day, pro- 
moted First Lieutenant, December 12, 1882. 

Lieutenant Appleton resigned and was discharged October 28, 1882, 
Lieutenant Cartwright, October 31, i8S3,and Lieutenant Brooks, vSeptem- 
ber 3, 1884. Albert W. Carlton, of Boston, was commissioned First 
Lieutenant November 30, 1883, resigned and was discharged Sej^tember 
3, 1884. On ilay 22, 1885, John C. Potter, of Boston, was commissioned 
captain. He had been Second Lieutenant, commissioned November 30, 

Other officers were James R. ^lurray and Charles D. White, First 
Lieutenants, both of Boston, commissioned May 22, 1885; also on the 
same day, Alfred A. Mercier, of Boston, Second Lieutenant. Lieutenant 
Murray resigned and was discharged December 2, 1885, Second Lieuten- 
ant Mercier, December 16, 1885. 

On December 23, 1885, Dexter H. FoUett, of Boston, was elected 
Captain of Battery A; July 8, 1886, Charles L. Smith, of Boston, was 
commissioned First Lieutenant, and Dr. William H. Ruddick, of South 
Boston, was commissioned vSecond Lieutenant; Frank H. Mudge, of Bos- 
ton, was commissioned .Second Lieutenant, September 6, 1886. 

In the course of time my desire for better quarters for Battery A 
was fulfilled, and on ^larch 14, 1887, Major Follett wrote me the follow- 
ing letter from 192 Dartmouth street, Boston: 

November 4, 1878. 
Captain Nathan .Appleton, 

My Dear Sir: I send herewith an invitation to our opening reception of the 
new Armory to-morrow, Tuesday evening, and hope that you will be present (Newton 
street corner of Newland.) I also enclose a list of our fine members, and hope that I 
may have the honor of adding you. The assessment is $5 annually, in advance. You 
will be glad to know that the battery is doing first rate. A full complement of 212 
men, and twenty-five on the waiting list. 

Very truly yours, 


Subsequently, at a drill at the armory, at which I was present, I 
was elected an honorary member. 


Captain Dexter H. Follett had been in the State service, as an 
officer in the militia, infantry, cavalry, and artillery, with intervals of a 
few years, since 1851. He recruited the Third Light Battery for the war, 
and was in the United States service as captain of that organization, from 
September 5, to November 27, 1861. Since his election as captain of 
Battery A, December 23, 1885, he had served continuously in that office 
up to the time the foregoing note was written, and continued to discharge 
its duties until April 25, 1895, when the battery was disbanded. May 25, 
1887, Lieutenant Smith resigned and was discharged, and Second Lieu- 
tenant Ruddick was promoted to First Lieutenant June 7, 1887. On the 
same day Fred L Clayton, of Boston, was commissioned Second Lieuten- 
ant. Lieutenant Mudge resigned, and was discharged, November 4, 1887, 
and John C. Grouse, of Nahant, was commissioned .Second Lreutenant on 
November 21, 1887; and John E. Brayman, of Boston, was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant May 21, 1S8S. Lieutenant Charles D. White resigned 
and was discharged October i, 1888, and Second Lieutenant Clayton was 
promoted to First Lieutenant November 12, 18S8, and commissioned 
adjutant of the Eighth Infantry January 22, 1890. William F. Hall was 
commissioned First Lieutenant March 3, 1890; vSecond Lieutenant John 
C. Grouse resigned and was discharged April 23, and Henry G. Jordan, 
of Boston, was commissioned vSecond Lieutenant June 9; resigned and 
was discharged March 7, 1891. 

By General Order No. 9, May 18, 1891, for the purpose of equali- 
zation of brigades. Battery A was detached from the First Battalion 
Light Artillery, and Battery B was attached, and the battalion was trans- 
ferred to the 1st Brigade, and Battery A remained attached to the 2nd 

Captain Dexter H. Follett, commanding Battery A, was ordered 
to report by letter to Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., com- 
manding 2nd Brigade. Major George vS. Merrill, commanding the First 
Battalion, Battery B, of Worcester, and C, of Lawrence, reported to 
Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Bridges, Jr., commanding ist Brigade. 
Major Merrill resigned and was discharged May 9, 1893. 

May 18, 1891, Dr. William T. Souther, of Worcester, was commis- 
sioned surgeon, and on June 29, 1891, William P. Davis, of Cambridge, 
was commissioned Second Lieutenant. Dr. Souther resigned and was 
discharged March 30, 1892, and Dr. John T. Hovey, of Boston, was com- 
missioned assistant surgeon March 31, 1892; promoted surgeon May 26, 


On June 28, 1893, a bronze statue, by Henry Hudson Kitson, of 
Admiral David Glasgow Farragut, erected by the city of Boston in the 
Marine Park at South Boston, was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies. 


The parade at 2.40 p. m. through the principal streets of South Boston, 
was under the direction of Dr. William H. Ruddick, chief marshal. In 
the procession, which was composed of eight divisions, were officers from 
Russian, and other visiting war vessels. Two companies from the 
Charlestown Navy Yard, two battalions of sailors from U. S. S. San 
Francisco, and three companies of naval cadets from San Francisco, with 
Carter's Band, twenty-five pieces, acted as escort to Chief Marshal Rud- 
dick. In the 2nd Division, composed of the naval brigade, naval cadets 
from the Massachusetts training ship Enterprise, and a battalion from 
the Ninth Regiment, was a mounted platoon of forty men from Light 
Battery A, Lieutenant J. E. Brayman commanding. 

The honorary staff was composed of many distinguished members 
of naval organizations and veteran associations from New York, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maine. In the procession were 
members of the G. A. R., the Sons of Veterans, and many carriages con- 
taining invited guests, among them ex-Mayor Frederick W. Lincoln, Rear 
Admiral A. E. K. Benham, Captain (in 1897, Rear Admiral), Thomas 
O. Selfridge, Jr., commandant of the Navy Yard, other officers of the 
San Francisco and Vesuvius, and of the Russian cruisers, Dimitry 
Donskoi, and Rynda. 

An address was delivered by ex-Governor Alexander H. Rice, from 
a stand erected in the Park near the statue, followed by a speech from 
Captain N. Zelony, commander of the Russian cruiser Dimitry Donskoi, 
referring to Admiral Farragut's visit to Russia in 1867. The guns of 
Battery A were stationed on the slope of a hill near by, and performed 
their appropriate part at the unveiling of the statue. 

By virtue of General Order No. 8, April 6, 1894, the Gatling guns 
were turned over to the infantry. On April 18, 1894, Second Lieutenant 
William P. Davis resigned and was discharged on account of the reduc- 
tion of the battery, and on July 24, 1894, Lieutenant William F. Hall 
resigned and was discharged. 

On April 23, 1895, a petition, signed by fifty-three names, led by 
Colonel William D. Ewing, was presented to His Excellency, Governor 
Frederic T. Greenhalge, Governor and Commander-in-Chief, in the fol- 
lowing terms: 

"The undersigned being desirous of being associated together as a company of 
the mounted arm of the Volunteer Militia of the Commonwealth, respectfully peti- 
tion to be allowed to organize a Troop of Cavalry or a Battery of Light Artillery, in 
the event of a vacancy being created, or a new company being needed. 


"If this petition be accepted, there are a number of additional names that can be 
obtained, but it is not deemed advisable to give more than the minimum number 
required, thus leaving time to fill up the required number with the most desirable 


Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Adjutant-General's Office, Executive Department, 

Boston, April 24, 1895. 
General Order, No. 4. 

Paragraph III. In consideration of the report of the inspectors' department, 
and the evidence adduced at the rt;cent hearing, under orders by the judge advocate- 
general, it appearing that Battery A, Light Artillery, Second Brigade, M. V. M,, has, 
from lack of harmony and dissensions, fallen below the required standard of efficiency; 
let an order be issued disbanding said Battery A, and immediate measures caused to 
be taken for the recovery and care of the military property heretofore in charge of 
disbanded battery. 


Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 

IV. Battery A, Light Artillery, Second Brigade, M. V. M., is hereby disbanded. 
Honorable discharges for officers and enlisted men will issue from this office. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Executive Department, Boston, April 24, 1895. 
The petition of W. D. Ewing, of Boston, and others, for permission to forma 
company, with a view to its being attached to the Massachusetts (Volunteer) Militia, 
is hereby granted. 


Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 

V. Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., commanding. Second Brigade, 
M. V. M., will make the necessary arrangements to organize the before-mentioned 
petitioners, and enlistments will be commenced on the date of this order. The 
company, when organized, will be designated as Battery A, Light Artillery, M. V. M., 
and will be attached to the Second Brigade, and, as the direct successor of the 
battery disbanded by this order, will continue the service record of that organization. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 



April 25, 1895, First" Lieutenant William H. Ruddick, and Second 
Lieutenant John E. Brayman, resigned and were discharged on accoitnt 
of the disbandment of the battery. 

May 8, 1895, the battery was mustered in at the East Armory, East 
Newton street, by Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Peach, Jr., commander 
of the 2nd Brigade, and William D. Ewing was commissioned Captain; 
Jacob C. R. Peabody, of Danvers, Senior First Lieittenant; Richard F. 
Parker, of Lynn, Junior First Lieutenant; and Amory D. Wainwright, of 
Brookline, Second Lieutenant. William A. Brooks, of Boston, was com- 
missioned Assistant Surgeon j\Lay 23, 1895; First Lieutenant Parker 
resigned and was discharged March 14, 1896, and was succeeded by Butler 
Ames, of Lowell, grandson of General B. F. Btitler, and son of Crcneral 
Adelbert Ames, March 2t,, 1896. 

On October 29, 1S96, the battery took possession of its new quar- 
ters in the South Armory, h-vington street, Boston. 


On November 16 and 17. 1S96, details from Batteries A, B, and C, 
practised firing with shot and shell at Fort Warren, in Boston Harbor. 
( Jnly the officers and non-commissioned officers of the batteries went down. 
Two guns were taken to the fort — one twelve-pounder brass Napoleon, 
belonging to Battery A, and the other a three-inch iron muzzle-loading 
rifled gun — the same as used by the Fifth ilassachusetts Battery during 
the war — from Battery C, of Lawrence. 

Lieut, and Brevet Capt. Fifth Mass. Battery, U. S. V., 
Capt. Battery A, M. V. M., 1877-79. 

By the Editur. — 

On March 17, 1897, J. C. R. Peabody, of Danvers, was commis- 
sioned Captain, and Samuel D. Parker, of Boston, Junior First Lieutenant. 
At the yearly encampment of the Second Brigade, held at Framingham, 
July 19-24, 1S97, Battery A, under Captain Peabody, came into camp, 100 
strong, about midnight, Saturday, July 17, having marched from Boston 
on Friday, and bivouacked the previous night at Wellesley. General 
Peach thus speaks of this action on the part of the battery: 

"This organization, by its generosity, has inaugurated a custom 
which the brigade commander has recommended for a number of years, 
and which, if generally adopted, would result in great advantage to the 
force, giving to the State practically fifty per cent, more duty than can be 
realized under the ordinary requirements for camp duty. I believe that 
if the troops could receive pay for six days camp duty, all would take 
advantage of the opportunity to report for duty on Saturday, and remain 
on duty until the following Saturday.'" 

At this camp. Battery A, together with the Eighth Regiment, re- 
ceived the following "distinguished mention" for the elegance and neat- 
ness of their quarters. "Both were noted for having their entire camp 
strictly uniformly arranged, and models of neatness. Never in my long 
experience have I witnessed a camp of regulars or militia that excelled 
either. The other organizations, while being clean and neat at all times, 
did not have the uniformity throughout that prevailed in the before-men- 
tioned organizations." 

Captain Jacob C. R. Peabody, of Danvers, resigned July 2, 1898, 
having been commissioned Captain of Company C Eighth Regiment of 
Massachusetts, L'nited States Volunteers, June 28, 1S98. He was suc- 
ceeded by Junior First Lieutenant, Samuel D. Parker, commissioned July 
18, 1898. First Lieutenants Harry S. Blake and William Amory, 2nd, 
both of Boston, were promoted from their sergeantcies, and commissioned 
July 18, 1898, as was also Second Lieutenant Charles S. Dole, of Newton- 


ville, previously Sergeant-Major. Second Lieutenant Amory D. Wain- 
wright, of Boston, resigned May 9, 1898. 

First Lieutenant Butler Ames, of Lowell, resigned March 14, 1898, 
to be commissioned Adjutant of the Sixth Regiment of Massachusetts 
Infantry, United States Volunteers, May 14, 1898; and eventually became 
its Lieutenant-Colonel Augtist 6, 1898, while on active service in Porto Rico. 

Under Special Orders, No. 53, A. G. O., dated May 9, 1898, part of 
the Fifth Regiment, First and Second Corps Cadets, First Battalion, and 
Battery A, Light Artillery, and the Signal Corps, were detailed to guard 
the coast from Plum Island, off Newburyport, to Telegraph Hill, Hull. 
Brigadier-General Thomas R. Mathews commanded this force until Sat- 
urday, May 21, at 6 p. m., when he was relieved by Brigadier-General 
William A. Bancroft. Only one platoon of Battery A, with two pieces, 
served at a time, and this was stationed at Galloupe's Point, Swampscott, 
Mass. While the services of Battery A during the Spanish-American 
war did not bring it into any special danger or prominence, they were 
highly appreciated at the time when they were rendered, and when a large 
part of our population seemed determined to over-estimate Spanish re- 
sources, enterprise, and daring, and to undervalue the strength of our 
navy, and the warlike ability of our own people. 

It is doubtless true that the artillery of Massachusetts, furnished 
as they were with obsolete guns, and compelled to rely on an antiquated 
drill, of absolutely no value as applied to modern field artillery, would 
have suffered severely had any modern torpedo boat or small cruiser made 
a descent on their leaguer. 

In such case, however, there is no rea.son to doubt that the guns of 
Battery A would have been fought to the last extremity, and to such pur- 
pose as their minimum of range and power would allow. It is fortunate 
for all that that long, and, to many of those in authority, anxious coast- 
watch, was not rewarded by the approach of even a single light-armed 
cruiser of the enemy. 

Battery A, and also the First Battalion of Artillery, through the 
efforts of Adjutant-General Dalton, Major L. N. Duchesney and Captain 
S. D. Parker, who in 1899 visited Washington for the purpose, secured in 
1900, three batteries of 3 2-10 inch breech-loading rifled guns of the 
present field pattern. 



THE First Battalion Cavalry. M. V. M., was formerly designated 
the First Battalion of Light Dragoons, organized October 5, 1852, 
and received its present designation by S. O. No. 315, March 27, 
1865. Cavalry were organized at an early date in both the Mas- 
sachusetts and Plymouth colonies, as soon in fact as the supply of horses 
became adequate for the equipment of videttes, dragoons and mounted 
infantry, the latter forming a very considerable part of the forces which 
drove King Philip from his own territories and those of his allies, the 
Nipmucks, in 1675-76. Their troopers were generally light-armed, wearing 
a morion or open helmet, with or without an adjustable iron bar in front 
of the nose to protect the face from branches as well as from sword 
strokes. The gorget and cuirass with heavy boots and long thick gloves, 
completed the defensive armor then generally worn, although even this 
was largely replaced by the buff -coat of thick leather, then coming into 
common use. The Plymouth horse carried swords and petronels, or 
large, long barreled, heavy-butted, large-bored pistols, but the carbine or 
short musketoon, was their main reliance in actual combat. 

In the later French wars, infantry and artillery became the chief 
reliance of both contestants, but small bodies of mounted men patrolled 
frontiers and carried swift succor to threatened points. The southern 
and middle states supplied most of the troopers and light horse of the 
Revolution, and, as is elsewhere told, the infantry or so-called artillery 
company, armed with muskets, yet possessing one or more field pieces, 
became the favorite arm in Massachusetts during the earlier decades of 
the nineteenth centiiry. In 1839, o^t of 230 companies then enrolled in 
the state militia there were only four companies of cavalry in the state. 

In 1840, the re-organization of the militia assigned to the ist Brig- 
ade "the company of cavalry in Franklin;" to the 3d Brigade "the First 
Battalion of Cavalry, to include the two companies of cavalry in George- 
town and Wenham;" and to the 6th Brigade -'the First Regiment of Cav- 
alry, to include the four companies of cavalry in Conway, Coleraine, Ches- 
terfield and Williamsburg." The National Lancers were then an independ- 
ent company and not assigned. The companies assigned were to wear 
preen coats with red collars, cuffs and turnbacks, blue trousers with red 
stripes, a tall, black leather cap with cross sabres and a white horsehair 
pompom, showing a red stripe in front, and carried long pistols and a very 
broad bladed and heavy sabre. 


In 1842, the Franklin, Townsend, Georgetown, Conway and Wen- 
ham companies of cavalry had been disbanded, and the National Lancers, 
Captain Peter Dunbar, was attached to the First Regiment of Light Infan- 
try, while companies A of Chesterfield, Captain Joseph Hawkes; B of 
Coleraine, Captain Fred E. H. Allen; and C of Williamsburg, Captain 
Chas. A. Williams, composed the First Regiment of Cavalry. 

At this time the great highway leading from Boston to Albany, now 
paralleled by the Fitchburg railroad, was traversed by large numbers of 
heavy wagons, and travellers by stage and private equipages. The coun- 
try taverns along this route were nightly crowded with guests of high and 
low degree, and it is of record that the wilder parts of the country still 
furnished much game, including the wild turkey and black bear. But the 
railroad was beginning to replace the ancient methods of transportation 
and to increase the population and prosperity of the inland towns and 
villages. By these, and constant legislative changes, the formation of a 
mounted militia was discouraged, and in 1845 only one troop of cavalry, 
the National Lancers, Captain Ezra Forristall, was present at the autimi- 
nal inspection. 

The Springfield Cavalry, Captain Erasmus D. Beach, was organ- 
ized in August, 1849, and in 1850 attached to the Sixth Brigade, and on 
March 8, 1852, Company B, of Boston, Captain Isaac Hull Wright, was 
organized, and with Company A, the National Lancers, Captain Jonas C. 
Gipson, designated as the First Battalion of Light Dragoons, M. V. M., 
Major T.J. Pierce commanding, and attached to the First Brigade. 

On June 8, 1853, the North Bridgewater Light Dragoons, Lieuten- 
ant R. A. Stoddard commanding, was assigned to the Second Brigade, 
and in 1854 was commanded by Captain Joel F. Ellis. On July 19, 1853, 
the Waltham Light Dragoons, Captain Gideon Haynes, was organized, 
and assigned to the Third Brigade. 

The civil war of 1861-65 practically wiped out the Springfield Cav- 
alry, and the North Bridgewater and Waltham companies, whose members 
largely recruited the ist Massachusetts Cavalry in 1861-62. In 1864, Troop 
F, of Chelmsford, Captain Christopher Roby. was recruited, and in 1865, 
Company C, of Charleston, was organized, and with the Roxbury Horse 
Guards, Captain Richard Holmes, as Company D, added to the First Bat- 
talion of Cavalry, which replaced the two company Battalion of Light 
Dragoons, by virtue of Special Order No. 315, March 27, 1865. Com- 
pany E, Unattached Cavalry, organized in New Bedford, was attached 
to the First Brigade in 1866. 

The First Battalion of Cavalry thus organized endured until 1876, 
when under a system of rigid inspections, thirty companies of infantry, 
artillery and cavalry were disbanded by G. O. No. 19, 1876. Among these 
were numbered Companies B, of Boston, and C, of Charlestown. 



The First Battalion of Cavalry, thus reduced to Company A, of 
Boston, and Company D, of Roxbury, was assigned to the Second Bri- 
gade, and Troop F, of Chelmsford, to the First. Since that date there 
has been no material change in the fortunes and standing of the brigade, 
except that it has steadily retained and increased its prestige, discipline 
and prosperity. 

As an organization it has no war record, although during the re- 
bellion it furnished many officers and recruits to the Union cause, and re- 
cruited a number of companies for the cavalry service. The biographies 
of its past and present members, however, bear honorable testimony to 
the value of its services to the state and nation. 



The National Lancers are associated with the earliest recollections 
of the oldest inhabitants of Boston, and are equally popular with the pres- 
ent active and rising generations. Their gay uniforms and pennoned 
lances still lend color and "the pomp and circumstance of glorious war" 
to occasional parades and processions, although when on duty they pre- 
sent the compact and grimly practical appearance, which the exigencies 
of modern warfare have exacted. 

Originally an independent company; for at that day the Bay State 
encouraged military organizations and private ownership of the soldiers' 
weapons; it was organized 
November i, 1836, at the 
suggestion of the Hon. Ed- 
ward Everett, then governor 
of Massachusetts. Captain 
Thomas Davis, First Lieu- 
tenant Lewis Dennis and 
Second Lieutenant Peter 
Dunbar were commissioned 
December 8, 1836, and Third 
Lieutenant Lewis Munroe 
and Fourth Lieutenant Eras- 
tus Coleman were elected in the following spring. Samuel K. Bailey 
was made orderly sergeant and later adjutant. They were attached to 
the Second Regiment of Infantry, 3d Brigade, ist Division, M. V. M., 
April 13, 1837. 

Their first appearance in public was on duty at the now almost for- 
gotten Broad Street Riot of June 1 1, 1837. Broad street was at that time 



a residence street, whose houses, once respectable mansions with well kept 
gardens, had become tenements chiefly occupied by Irish laborers. A 
bitter feeling, which later found expression in the "Know Nothing" cam- 
paign, had already led to numerous personal encounters between Ameri- 
can born workmen and "the foreigners." Fire Engine Company, No. 20, 
of the Fort Hill district had returned from a fire, and several of its mem- 
bers had an altercation with some Irishmen who had gathered to attend a 
funeral. The firemen were worsted, retreated to the engine house and 
rang the fire bell to summon assistance. Engine No. 9 responded, and on 
Summer street near High, encountered the funeral procession through 
which they attempted to pass. The mourners resisted and a general free 
fight ensued. Men poured in from the markets, docks, wharves, ship- 
yards and factories, and the Irish retreated to Broad street which the mob 
invaded, and finally destroyed a large part of the household goods of the 
tenants. The mayor ordered "the bells to ring backward" and the militia 
assembled at Faneuil Hall, whence, led by the Lancers, they paraded 
down State and through Broad street, which they promptly cleared. 
The city was however still greatly excited and men were coming in from 
all the surrounding country. The Lancers, with the rest of the militia, 
were under arms all night, but there was no further call for their services. 

On June 14, 1837, they paraded for the first time with lances and in 
full uniform fifty-eight strong, and had their first banquet at Concert 
Hall. Governor Everett and suite, the adjutant-general, brigadier gen- 
eral and staff and the mayor and aldermen of Boston were present among 
the invited guests. Each anniversary of this occasion has been invariably 
celebrated by a luxurious banquet to the present day. Wednesday, 
August 30, they escorted Governor Everett to the commencement exer- 
cises at Harvard, and were presented by him with an elegant standard 
designed and painted by Charles Hubbard and costing $1000, which is 
still preserved by the corps. Friday, September 22, they escorted Gover- 
nor Everett to Salem to attend a review. October 30, 1837, they escorted 
a deputation of some thirty chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes and twenty of 
the lowas and Sioux, who visited Boston. Keokuk, then chief of the 
lowas, seems to have created a great impressi(jn by his manly bearing 
and native eloquence. 

Under Captain Peter Dunbar, elected July 30, 1S39, the Lancers 
with nineteen other independent companies paraded Thursday, April 
22, 1841, in honor of the late President William Henry Harrison. 
Rufus Choate delivered the oration at Faneuil Hall. On January 19, 
20 and 21, 1842, Elder Knapp, a Baptist revivalist, preaching at the Bow- 
doin Square Tabernacle, was exposed to mob violence, and on the 2 ist 
the Lancers turned out, "their line reaching from Hanover Street to Bow- 
doin S([uare." The mob dispersed, but the preaching was discontinued. 





Captain Joseph Smith, April 23, 1843. The Lancers escorted Pres- 
ident John Tyler on his visit to Boston, and at the dedication of the Bun- 
ker Hill Monument, June 16 and 17, 1843. 

Captain Ezra Forristall, March 26, 1845. The corps adopted the 
red coats and blue pants now worn. The Lancers paraded in the funeral 
procession in honor of President Jackson, July 9, 1845; presented a flag 
to the First Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, Colonel Caleb Gushing, 
then departing for Mexico, February 22, 1S47; escorted President James 
K. Polk, visiting Boston June 27, 1847, and received and escorted the re- 
mains of President John Q. Adams, March 10, 1848. 

Captain Albert Guild, March 21, 1848. The Lancers received and 
escorted the First Massachusetts Volunteers, Colonel J. H. Wright, re- 
turned from the Mexican war, July 22, and escorted the Boston City Gov- 
ernment at the formal opening of the Lake Cochituate water service, 
October 25, 1848. Captain William F. White elected, March 23, 1849. 

Captain Thomas J. Pierce, May 13, 1850. Received the Seventh 
Regiment of New York, July 11, 1850; paraded August 15 in the funeral 
procession in honor of President Taylor; on October 7, visited New 
York with ninety-three men, and were entertained four days by the Sev- 
enth Regiment and Washington Greys Troop of New York City, and the 
Washington Horse Guard and the Ringgold Guards, of Brooklyn. On 
May 12, 185 1, a delegation presented the Seventh New York with a 
standard and each company with a marker's lance and pennon. On Sep- 
tember 17, 185 1, the Lancers received and escorted President Willard 
Fillmore, and on the 19th escorted the city government at the great 
railway celebration. 

Captain Jonas C. Gipson, March 18, 1852. Escorted Louis Kos- 
suth, then visiting Boston, April 27, and Daniel Webster, July 9. Received 
and entertained the Fifth Company of the New York Seventh, July 13-16; 
escorted the regiment of Marine Artillery, U. S. A., leaving Boston Aug- 
ust 28; and took part in the funeral cortege of Daniel Webster, Novem- 
ber 30, 1852. 

Captain Seth Wilmarth, November 14, 1853. Had the unpleasant 
duty of forming a part of the armed force which escorted Anthony Burns 
from the old Court House to T wharf, thence to be returned into slavery. 
Anthony Burns, the slave of Charles Suttle, of Virginia, had escaped to 
Boston and was employed by Coffin Pitts, a colored clothes dealer in Brat- 
tle Street. He was arrested by order of Watson Freeman, IJ. S. mar- 
shal, Wednesday evening. May 25, 1854, and on Thursday morning 
brought before U. S. Commissioner Edward G. Loring, who adjourned 
the case to allow of the employment of counsel. Marshal Tukey, then 
the head of the Boston police, had an extra force of constables on duty, 
and Burns was confined in the upper story of the Court House. There 


was great popular indignation; the gun stores sold great numbers of guns 
and pistols, and the city filled up with visitors from all parts of the state. 
On Friday evening, May 27, a crowded meeting at Faneuil Hall was ad- 
dressed by Samuel E. Sewell, who presided; Frank W. Bird, of Walpole; 
John L. Swift, Wendell Phillips, Dr. Howe and Theodore Parker, all of 
whom advocated the rescue of Burns, by force, if necessary. There is no 
doubt that this course would have been adopted by an adequate force, but 
the meeting was brought to a sudden close by the tidings that a rescue 
had been attempted and had failed. The western door of the Court House 
had been beaten in with an improvised battering ram, and in the light 
which ensued, James Bachelder, a teamster in the employ of Peter Dun- 
bar (captain 1839-43), was fatally stabbed while resisting the assailants, 
who were finally repulsed. 

At the hearing Commissioner Loring adhered strictly to the pro- 
visions of the Fugitive Slave Law, which was so framed that any man 
presumably "held to service" in another state could be extradited on the 
ex parte oath of two citizens of that state, and taken there to await the 
final judgment of the courts of that state. His course, which appears to 
have been strictly legal, resulted in a decision directing the return of 
Burns to Virginia, and on June 2, 1854, the U. S. revenue cutter Morris 
awaited him under the guns of Fort Independence. The steamer John 
Taylor, with steam up, lay at T wharf. 

Major General Edmands commanded the militia, consisting of the 
First Battalion of Light Dragoons; the Fifth Regiment of Artillery, eight 
companies. Colonel Cowdin; the Fifth Regiment of Light Infantry, eight 
companies. Colonel Charles L. Holbrook; the Third Battalion of Light 
Infantry, three companies. Major Robert I. Burbank; and the First 
Corps Cadets, Colonel Thomas C. Amory. The infantry and artillery 
companies held the crossings of every street and alley from Court Square 
to the wharf, and the cavalry filed along the gutters on either side of the 
procession, which consisted of a hollow square composed of 120 special 
officers armed with swords and revolvers under Captain Peter Dunbar, 
who naturally bitterly resented the death of Bachelder. In the center of 
the square were the United States marshal with his deputies and the pris- 
oner. Before the square marched detachments of U. S. Artillery and 
marines, a loaded field piece and six men of the 4th U. S. Artillery, and 
behind it a rear guard of marines. 

Funeral emblems draped several of the neighboring buildings; 
yells, hisses and execrations were heard on all sides; papers of cayenne 
pepper and it is said bottles of sulphuric acid were hurled at the troops, 
and, in one instance at least, it is said that a fatal volley at close range was 
just about to be poured into the crowd, and barely averted. John M. 
Clark of Vermont received a sabre wound on the head, and the horse of a 


Lancer was fatally stabbed on Commercial street, but the force was too 
strong, and Marshal Freeman and his men with Burns in charge were 
safely placed upon the John Taylor. 

It is not just, at this day, to attribute anything but a soldierly obed- 
ience to orders, and constituted authority, to the militia engaged in this 
humiliating task. As one of them, now an aged man, lately observed, 
"We obeyed the law, and when the Southerners forgot our example and 
rose against the law, we were just as ready to vindicate it." Cowdin 
and Holbrook, who both commanded on that day, led Massachusetts 
regiments in the Civil war, and many then in the ranks, and less honored 
but no less devoted, fought and died for the Union and the laws. 

Captain Charles A. Kimball, November 15, 1854. Commanded the 
Lancers at the dedication of the Franklin statue, November 17, 1854. 

Captain Axel Dearborn, December 31, 1856. Entertained the 
Seventh New York, paraded at the unveiling of the Warren statue 
on Bunker Hill, June 17, 1847. 

Captain Michael C. Kenny, November 24, 1857. Died while in 
command, December 15, 1859. 

Captain John H. Fellows, February 7, i860. The Lancers acted as 
escort for the Prince of Wales during his visit to Boston, October 17, 18, 
19 and 20, and on November 13, escorted Governor Andrew at the dedica- 
tion of the Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Captain Lucius Slade, March 26, 1861. Under him the Lancers 
recruited companies C and D, First Regiment Cavalry, M. V. M., and 
one of the Second; all for three years. They escorted the First Cavalry 
when leaving for the war, December 19, 1861; received and escorted 
General Corcoran, August 29,1862; escorted General N. P. Banks and the 
Forty-first Massachusetts Regiment at departing, November 5, 1862; 
received the California Cavalry which arrived at Boston, January 14, the 
Light Artillery, May 28, and the Fifth Regiment, June 26, 1863, on their 
return from service. 

The Lancers had 125 men constantly on service during the Boston 
Draft Riots, July 14-23, 1863, and on the 14th was ordered by Alayor F. 
W. Lincoln to clear Dock Square then held by an excited crowd. The in- 
fantry opened to right and left, and the Lancers riding through cleared 
Dock Square and the streets surrounding Faneuil Hall, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Cooper street, then filled with riotors. Here the Lancers 
cleared the street and escorted the cannon, taken from the armory, to 
Haymarket Square, where they were posted to command the approaches. 

On June 23, 1864, they entertained Company D, First Massachu- 
setts Cavalry, then on furlough; in February they entertained the Ells- 
worth Zouaves; escorted the Independent Battalion, Massachusetts Cav- 
alry, received and entertained the First Massachusetts Cavalry on its 


return home, October 31, 1864, and especially companies C and D, which 
they had recruited. They also escorted the city government at the 
inauguration of the Mystic water service at Charlestown, November 29, 
1864. On January 19, 1865, they acted as escort at the funeral of Ex-Gov- 
ernor Edward Everett, who had proposed and encouraged their organiza- 
tion in 1836; acted as escort to a city procession June i, and on October 
17, left Boston 100 strong, and accompanied by the Chelsea Brass Band of 
eighteen pieces, to visit Chicago, where the Ellsworth Zouaves and Dear- 
born Light Battery entertained them, October 20-24. On their return 
they paraded at Detroit and were entertained by General Lewis Cass and 
his son; paraded at Niagara Falls, and arrived home October 28, 1865, to 
be received by 160 Lancers, the Prescott Light Guards and Cummings' 

Captain A. S. Sanborn, January 30, 1866. The corps escorted the 
city government when General W. T. Sherman visited Boston, June 13, 
1866; escorted the governor to Arlington, when the town was formally 
organized, June 17, 1867; and escorted President Andrew Johnson, June 
22 and General P. H. Sheridan, October 7, 1867. 

Captain Barney Hull, March 24, 1S68. The corps escorted the Cam- 
bridge city government at the reception of the Hon. Anson Burlingame 
and the Chinese Embassy, August 24, and entertained the Washington 
Greys Troop, August 26, 1868. 

Captain George E. Richardson, March 15, 1870. The Lancers 
escorted the governor to Cambridge, and paraded at the dedication of the 
Soldier's Monument, July 13. On October 6, 1870, escorted the governor 
at the founding of Memorial Hall, Harvard University. 

Captain O. H. P. Smith, March 28, 1871. Escorted Boston city 
government at the founding of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Sep- 
tember 18; President Grant and the city government at the founding of 
the Boston Post Office, October 16, and the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia 
on arriving at Boston, December 8, 1871. In 1872 they escorted Presi- 
dent Grant at the opening of the Peace Jubilee, June 25; performed 
patrol duty five days after the great Boston fire, November 10-15, and 
celebrated the dedication of their present armory by a grand military 
ball, December 18, 1872. In 1873 they left 130 strong for Washington. 
March i; paraded at the inauguration of President Grant, March 4; 
arrived in New York on the 7th; were escorted to the Astor House by the 
Old Guard of New York, and arrived home March 8, 1873. 

Captain Thomas W. Neal. April 8, 1873. The corps entertained 
the First Battalion of Light Artillery, on their return from a visit to New 

Captain Cyrus C. Emery, July 28, 1874. Received, August 4, at 
Oakland Beach, R. L, by the Providence and Pawtucket Horse Guards. 


April ig. 1S75, escorted the governor and President Grant to the centen- 
nial celebration of the battle of Lexington. June 17, did escort duty at the 
centennial anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill. November 29, 1875, 
escort at the funeral of Vice-President Henry Wilson. May 8, 1876, left 
Boston for the Centennial at Philadelphia, iio strong, with the Chelsea 
Brass Band; arrived May g. With the First Corps Cadets, escorted Gov- 
ernor Rice, May lO; returned home May 12. Was inspected June 7, 
1876, on Boston Common, and retained as one of the three companies 
which qualified under the new law. 

Captain George S. Holt, April 3, 1877. Paraded at the reception 
of President Hayes, June 26, and at the dedication of the Soldier's Monu- 
ment, September 17, 1877. 

Captain Charles F. Thurston, April 30, 1878. Excursion to Ban- 
gor, Me., October 7; received by the Jameson Guards and city govern- 
ment; given a grand ball, and returned home October 10. 

Captain Aaron F. Nettleton, May 7, 1879. Received and enter- 
tained the Continental Guards, of New Orleans, La., Jime 16- ig. Paraded 
on the 250th anniversary of the settlement of Boston, September 17, 1880. 

Captain Benjamin W. Dean, January 24, 18S1. Corps, eighty- 
.seven strong, started for New Orleans, February 17; received at Chicago, 
111., by the Illinois Guards, and at New Orleans, La., were for nine days 
the guests of the Continental Guards. Escorted the French guests of 
the City of Boston, November 2, 1881, and paraded at the reception of 
President Arthur, October 11, 1882. Entertained the Continental Guards 
of New Orleans, June 13-21, 1883. 

Captain Horace G. Kemp, July 24, 1883. Escorted the governor 
at the opening of the World's Fair in Boston, September 5, 1883. 

Captain Henry D. Andrews, April 22, 1884. Entertained Captain 
William H. Beanham, with members of Battery B, Louisiana Field Ar- 
tillery, of New Orleans, June 24; and served as escort of G. A. R. at the 
memorial services to General Grant, August 8, 1885. On Southern excur- 
sion, February 15, 1866, was entertained by the National Rifles of Wash- 
ington, D. C; by the German Artillery, and Washington Light Infantry, of 
Charleston, S. C, and by the Stuart Cavalry and Governor Fitz-Hugh Lee 
at Richmond Va.; arriving home February 22, 1886. 

Captain Isaac H. Allard, September 14, 18S6. The First Battalion 
of Cavalry escorted President Cleveland November 8, 1886. The Lan- 
cers celebrated their fiftieth anniversary, June 14, 1887; escorted the R. E. 
Lee Post of Confederate Veterans, of Richmond, Va., June 16, 18S7, and 
entertained the National Rifles, of Washington, D. C, July 25-26, 1888. 

Captain Edward B. Wadsworth, November 27, 18S8. The corps 
performed escort duty for President Benj. F. Harrison, August 7, 1889, 
and again on August 11, 1890. 


Captain Addison D. Nichols, January 27, 1891. Corps made ex- 
cursion to Washington, D. C, October 26, 1891, and were entertained by 
the National Rifles for three days. 

Captain Daniel K. Emerson, February 21, 1893. The Lancers 
made an excursion to New Orleans, La., February i, 1894, and were the 
guests of the Continental Guards for ten days. On September 4, 1894, 
the battalion paraded at the funeral of General N. P. Banks, at Waltham, 

Captain Oscar A. Jones, May 7, 1895. A detachment formed escort 
at the funeral of General Coggswell, at Salem, May 24. Battalion paraded 
at the mobilization of the state militia at Boston, September 4. Paraded 
at funeral of Major (ex-captain) Cyrus C. Emery, February 18, 1896, and 
that of D. H. Thurston, March 4, 1896. Visited New York April 26-28, 
1897, and formed part of the escort at the dedication of the Grant mauso- 
leum, April 27. 

Captain Doris A. Young, June 22, 1897. Besides the annual din- 
ner; parade omitted; July 14, 1897; escorted the governor to Harvard Com- 
mencement June 29; rode in from state camp at Framingham, and 
escorted the crews of U. S. warships, September 3, 1898, and escorted 
funeral of Major-General George L. Andrews, U. S. A., April 7, 1899. 

Captain Frank K. Neal, January 16, 1900, son of Captain Thomas 
W. Neal, April 8, 1873, is the present commander. The corps has first | 
and last, borne on its rolls about 3500 men. 



The Roxbury Horse Guard, like the National Lancers, was origin- 
ally an independent company of horse, raised in the city of Roxbury, now 
a district of the Greater Boston of to-day. 

At the beginning of the Civil War, a coterie of public spirited 
citizens of Roxbury decided to organize such a company to act with the 
authorities to repress disorder or insurrection at home: to aid in repelling 
invasion from any source, and to assist in recruiting, organizing and 
training troops for service in the second states. 

The first meeting was held at the residence of Colonel Almon D. 
Hodges, on April 22, 1861, less than two weeks after the bombardment 
of Fort Sumter, and the gentlemen who attended decided that the pro- 
posed company should be a troop of horse. 

It was easy to enroll members, and on April 25, Colonel Hodges, 
who had long served in the Rhode Lsland militia, was chosen drill mas- 



ter, and at once began the training of the new company. Neither the 
state nor the national government could furnish arms, equipments or uni- 
forms, so the members promptly purchased these, and were soon equipped 
for home service. On May 16, 1861. Colonel Hodges was formally 
elected the first commander of the new company, which was called the 
Roxbury Horse Guard, and speedily became an active and efficient troop 
of cavalry, and a public spirited and efficient organization for patriotic 
and charitable effort. Among its organizers, early members and patrons, 
were numbered Roland Worthington, publisher of the "Boston Traveler," 
Dr. Milbrey Green, destined later to become famous as an artillerist, 
Rev. John O. Means, Dr. John S. Flint, Richard Holmes, George Curtis, 
A. P. Calder, Captain John A. Scott, Robert Molineaux, Thomas Decatur 
and many other prominent men of Roxbury and vicinity. 

Its ranks were always kept open to all desirable recruits who were 
anxious to perfect themselves in the rudiments of cavalry service; and 
many such availed themselves of the privilege, and afterwards served 
under the great cavalry leaders of the republic. The Guard was also 
largely helpful in raising the Hodges Light Guard, Captain W. W. 
Graham, and another company of infantry commanded by Captain, later 
Colonel, John L. Swift, both of which have a record of gallant and effec- 
tive war service. Its services in this regard, and in the draft riot of 1863 
were thus acknowledged by Mayor Lewis of Roxbury: 

"City of Roxbury, November 9th, 1863. 
Colonel Hodges, Commander of the Roxbury Horse Guard. 
My Dear Sir; 

"In behalf of the City Council, I acknowledge the receipt of your note accom- 
panying a vote of the Roxbury Horse Guard, tendering their services to assist the 
authorities to enlist the quota of this city, under the recent call of the President of 
the United States; and also for duty as a militia or police force in case of any emer- 

"Will you please signify to the members of your command that the City Coun- 
cil thankfully accepts their services in their labor of enlisting the quota of this city, 
and also, should the occasion demand, that the authorities will avail themselves of 
the offer of the Horse Guard to serve in the capacity of police officers. 

"Please also convey to the gentlemen of the Roxbury Horse Guard, the thanks 
of the City Council for the invaluable services rendered by the company in filling the 
quota of Roxbury under the former calls for volunteers, and also in assisting the 
authorities in preserving the public peace. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect 

Your obedient servant, 

George Lewis, Mayor." 


On July 14, 1863, the Roxbury Horse Guard had reported for duty 
during the Boston Draft Riots, together with the Roxbury Reserve Guard 
and other independent companies, and was relieved from duty bv the fol- 
lowing: order: 


Headquarters, Boston, July 14, 1S63. 
Special Order, No. 404. 

"The companies in Roxbury on duty under orders from this Headquarters are 
relieved from duty until further orders. The companies for their prompt and 
patriotic response to the call of duty, have the thanks of His Excellency and the 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant-General." 

On the next day, however, by Special Order, No. 405, the Rox- 
bury Horse Guard and the Roxbury Reserve Guard, with other independ- 
ent organizations, were "required to assemble at their armories or at 
some central rendezvous, at 7 o'clock p. m., and report by orderly at this 
headquarters." For nearly a week thereafter the Horse Guard awaited 
orders at their armory, ready for instant service. 

The complete repulse of the rioters while attacking Cooper Street 
armory on the evening of July 14, had, however, broken their spirits, and 
the stern, swift lesson never had to be repeated in Boston. 

In 1894, the troop was re-organized and made a part of the state 
militia, as Troop D, of the First Battalion of Cavalry, which designation 
it still retains. 

The original agreement as signed by the leaders of the organiza- 
tion ran as follows: 

"We, the subscribers, residents of the city of Roxbury, believing it important as 
well as necessary for the maintainance of the law and good order, to have a military 
organization, do here associate ourselves as a corps of cavalry, duly enrolled in the 
military force of the Commonwealth under the name of the Roxbury Horse Guard, 
and to form a more perfect union, and promote our common welfare, pledge ourselves 
to the faithful performance of the following articles, forming the Constitution and By- 
laws for the government of the company." 

The following officers were elected July 2, 1864, when the organi- 
zation was completed: 

Captain, Richard Holmes; First Lieutenant, George W. Houghton; 
Second Lieutenant, Thomas Decatur; Treasurer, Robert W. Molineaux; 
Clerk, George H. Pike; Surgeon, Benjamin H. Mann; Chaplain, Rev. G. 
C. Means; Orderly-Sergeant, Joseph Ham; Quartermaster-Sergeant, 
Joseph S. Ropes; Commissary-Sergeant, Corisander Knight. 

Under Captain Holmes, the troop held its first camp at Medford, 
September 5, 1865, with seventy-four officers and men present, only a ser- 
geant and five men failing to appear. At the second encampment at 
Sharon, August 22-25, 1S66, seventy-seven members were present and 
one absent on the last day of the tour of duty. The Guard was inspected 
and reviewed by Major-General Benjamin F. Butler, then commanding the 
division, and were by him commended. At this time they were armed 
with cavalry sabres only. 

Under Captain George Curtis, elected December 5. 1866, the annual 
encampment was held at Hull, August 25, 1S67. Of a total force of 100 


men, 87 were present and 13 absent. With the other companies of the 
First Battalion, the Guard escorted President Andrew Johnson when 
visiting- Boston June 22, 1867. It encamped at Hull, August 4-8, 1868, 
with 95 rank and file present out of 103 members. It encamped at the 
same place August 10-14, 1869; and, with loi rank and file in the 
saddle, escorted Governor William Claflin to Cambridge on the occa- 
sion of the inauguration of the president of Harvard University, Octo- 
ber iS, 1869. 

Under Captain Aug. P. Calder of Boston, elected July 14, 1870, the 
Guard took part in the division encampment at Concord, September 6-10, 
with 93 rank and file out of 103 members. During this tour of duty the bat- 
talion escorted General Butler and staff, on that memorable ride to Acton 
and back, long known as "Butler's dusty ride." At the annual encamp- 
ment at Quincy, August 8-12, 1871, the attendance was poor, showing 
only 66 present out of 103 members. The special duties of this year 
included escort duty, with the battalion, in honor of President Grant at 
the founding of the Post Office and treasury building, October 16, and al- 
so at the reception of Alexis, Grand Duke of Russia, December 8, 

Under Captain Thomas Decatur, commissioned in 1872, no special 
duty was performed. His successor. Captain John A. Scott, of Boston, 
elected August 5, 1872, mustered 70 out of 102 members at the annual en- 
campment at Weymouth, August 20-24, and the battalion was of great ser- 
vice at the great Boston fire of the same year. At the height of this terrible 
conflagration, it was announced that the mob had assembled in the street 
and was awaiting the blowing up of the jewelry establishment of Shreve, 
Crump & Low in order to loot the treasures held in stock. The crowd 
resisted the advance of the Guard, which finally arranged itself across 
Winter street and backed its horses into the rioters who were forced from 
their position. Many men were badly injured, including it is said, four- 
teen who received fractures of the legs and arms. The encampment of 
August 5-9, 1873, showed a weak troop of 50 out of 59 men, armed with 
sabres and Remington revolvers, the latter having been issued since the 
last encampment. 

In I 874, the annual encampment, originally set for August 18, was 
postponed by Governor Thomas Talbot to Tuesday, September i, to 
enable the troops to receive new uniforms. The attendance was laro-er, 
numbering 76 out of 81 rank and file. 

Captain Aaron A. Hall, elected February 18, 1875, led the Guard at the 
Centennial Anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1875, when 
Major General Butler commanded a division of 43 i officers, 5563 enlisted 
men and 306 musicians, in all 6300 men, besides visiting militia and regu- 
lars with a strength of 3,178, and semi-military and independent organiza- 


tions which swelled the total to 1 1,038 men. At the annual encampment 
at Framingham, August 3-7, 1875, the Guard was commended for its 
soldierly appearance by the inspecting officer. At the 1876 encampment 
of the 2d Brigade, Brigadier General Hobart Moore, commanding, the 
battalion had been reduced to two companies; Troop B (Boston Light 
Dragoons) and Company C ( Prescott Light Guard) having been disbanded. 
On October 3, the last day of the encampment, the reorganized battalion, 
by special permission, paraded in their brilliant special uniforms, the 
Guard having 67 out of 80 present. At the State encampment, August 2 1-24, 
1877, out of 79 members, 68 were present, armed with sabers only. The 
special duties of the year called out the battalion to escort president Hayes 
on his arrival at Boston, September 16, and at the dedication of the Army 
and Navy Alonument September 17, 1877. 

At the state encampment, September 10, 1878, 64 men were present 
out of 80 rank and file, and at the state camp, September 29, to October 
14, 1879, the attendance was about the same. 

Captain William B. Ferrier, elected January 28, 1S80, commanded at 
the annual inspection and drill on Boston Common; at the annual encamp- 
ment August 31, and at escort duty with the battalion on the 250th anni- 
versary of the settlement of Boston, September 17, 1880. 

Captain Charles A. Young, elected January 24, 1881, commanded at 
the annual encampment, September S-12, 1881. He was later elected 
major commanding the First Battalion Cavalry. 

Captain Francis H. Goss, elected February 16, 1882, led the troop in 
the parade in honor of President Arthur, on the occasion of his visit to 
Marshfield to attend the centennial anniversary of the birthday of Daniel 
Webster, and at the annual encampment of August 22-26, 1882. 
' Captain John Thomas, elected March 28,1883, commanded at the 

annual encampment August 14-18. In 1S84, the troops received the Spring- 
field carbines, which they have carried ever since, and made a good show- 
ing in the returns of rifle practice of that year; private, now Captain 
Perrins, Jr., leading the score. There was no special duty. 

Captain Lamont G. Burnham, elected February 10, 1885, commanded 
the troop at the annual encampment of July 21-25, ^nd at that of July 20, 
1886. The First Battalion and Troop F, also escorted President Grover 
Cleveland to Harvard University, while visiting Boston November 8, 

Captain David F. Henderson, elected March 2, 1887, commanded at 
the annual encampment July 19-23. The rifle practice of the troop team 
showed decided improvement. The 1888 encampment began at Framing- 
ham July 10, and that of 1889 was held 13-17 inclusive. The 2d 
Brigade was mobilized at Lynn, October 3. In 1890, camp duty was 
performed July 23-26. The battalion escorted President Harrison at Bos- 


ton, August 1 1, and the annual drill and inspection took place on Boston 
Common, October 2, 1890. 

Captain Stillman B. King of Boston, elected March 7, 1 891, com- 
manded at camp, July 21-15 and at that of June 7-1 1, 1892. Captain King 
died while in office December 7, and was paid the last military honors b}- 
his command, December 10, 1S62. 

Captain George F. Henderson, elected December 23, 1892, marched 
Troop D from Boston to Framingham to attend the annual encampment 
held July 17-21, 1893; and at like dates in 1894; paraded with the battal- 
ion as escort at the funeral of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks at Wal- 
tham September 4, 1894, and took part in the mobilization of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia at Boston, October 4. He resigned December 
27. 1S94. 

Captain William A. Perrins, elected January 16, 1895, marched his 
troop, Monday, July 22, 1895, from Boston to South Framingham to attend 
the annual encampment, July 13-27. The camp of 1896 was held July 
21-25, at which the battalion reported 153 present out of 168 rank and 

At the following encampment, July 17-24, 1897, the battalion 
marched from Boston to South Framingham and returned, 175 members 
present, Troop D having every man on the rolls ready for duty. Captain 
Perrins was elected major commanding the battalion, December 23, 1S97. 
Captain John Perrins, Jr., elected January 5,1898, commanded at the annual 
encampment August 27 to September 3. On this occasion, the First Bat- 
talion and Troop F, marched to the camp at South Framingham, and 
were the only state troops at camp. All the infantry were in the United 
States' service, and the artillery, cadet, signal and ambulance corps had 
found special duties in connection with the existing vSpanish-American 
War. Every endeavor had been made to induce the war department to 
accept these troops, but, although states which had never maintained a 
troop of cavalry were called upon for mounted regiments and batteries, 
the claims of the cavalry and artillery of Massachusetts were ignored. 
Sixty-two men, most of them past or present members of Troop D, had 
expressed their willingness to serve as cavalry, and nearly two hundred 
men stood ready to volunteer if wanted. Details from Troop A and D 
acted as a cavalry guard and patrol at Camp Dewey, Framingham, 
in April, 1898. 

On Saturday, September 3, camp was broken at Framingham at 
8.30 A.M. and the entire command set out for Boston to take part in the 
Naval parade of the U. S. sailors and marines. The column arrived in Bos- 
ton and joined the parade at the foot of State street at 1.50 P.M., and 
under the command of Captain Elisha H. Shaw of Troop F, since de- 
ceased, escorted the procession. 


On February i6, 1899, President McKinley, then the guest of the 
city of Boston, was escorted by the 1st Battalion, which during the re- 
mainder of his stay, furnished details from Troops A and D, which 
formed a guard of honor at his quarters, and escorts for the presidential 

The annual encampment of the 2d Brigade was held at the state camp 
ground at South Framingham, August 3-9 inclusive. The ist Battalion 
on this occasion marched from Boston, each man carrying his equipment as 
if on campaign, and for the first time dispensed wholly with civilian 

The annual drill, originally appointed for an earlier date, was by com- 
mon consent of the Massachusetts militia postponed to October 14, 1899, 
known as "Dewey Day." On this occasion Troop D, turned out nearly 
every man of its eighty rank and file, and received many encomiums for 
its discipline and soldierly appearance. 

The annual cavalry competition at Walnut Hill, for the first time 
in ten years resulted favorably to Troop D, whose guidons now bear the 
coveted yellow ribbon. During the winter of 1899- 1900 the troop has ex- 
pended a great deal of time and money, in the riding-school, in which the 
severe training of the regular cavalry service is carried out as nearly as 
possible. Recent demonstrations in the Transvaal war, of the necessity 
of rapid mobilization, would seem to indicate the desirability of a more 
liberal provision for eqiiestrian exercises. 

Troop D, while it still retains the traditions of its prototype, the 
Roxbury Horse Guard, and delights in the kindly and honorable memo- 
ries perpetuated by its veteran organization, is in the highest sense of the 
word a military body, whose members desire most and first of all, to be- 
come good marksmen, skillful sabreurs, accomplished horsemen, and 
well-disciplined cavalrymen. 

r z 

•s I 



ONLY one military organization in Massachusetts — the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery Company — boasts of a more ancient 
oris4:in than the First Corps Cadets. Their privileges, their re- 
sources, their Armory, their special insignia, and snowy uni- 
forms — for they are "The White Company" of the Massachusetts National 
Guard — and above all the honorable and devoted service of hundreds of 
cadets who have given to their country the military skill, soldierly cour- 
tesy and discipline, and lofty purpose inculcated and learned in this 
ancient battalion— have long made it and its Salem associate battalion 
striking features of the State militia of Massachusetts. 

The history of the First Corps Cadets dates back to 1741, the year 
in which Governor Jonathan Belcher was succeeded in office by William 

ter of English 
some years re- 
On his accession, 
the "Governor's 
Cadets," as it was 
organized to act 
for the governor, 
fense to the town 
especially open to 
squadrons and pri- 
with whom Eng- 
war — and the 
fleets of France, 
ally at peace with 
Its first cap- 
mi n Pollard, a pro - 

Shirley, a barris- 
birth, who had for 
sided in Boston. 
or shortly after, 
Company of 
then called, was 
as a formal guard 
and also as a de- 
of Boston, then 
attack from the 
vateers of vSpain — 
land was then at 
more formidable 
then only nomin- 
the English, 
tain was Benja- 


Superimposed on Arms of the United States. Carried on 

the Corps Flag, (reverse). 

minent citizen of Boston, whose commission, dated October 16, 1741, and 
signed by Governor William vShirley, is still carefully preserved by the 
corps, and virtually is its charter, conferring privileges which succeeding 
governments and legislatures have never materially attacked or diminished. 
Three of its commissioned officers ranked as field officers, the gov- 
ernor being its honorary colonel, and the captain ranking as lieutenant- 
colonel — a distinction probably conferred because of like privileges 
enjoyed by certain company officers of the troops of the royal household 
in England, and in other kingdoms of Europe. One of the first duties 



of the Cadets was to act as escort for Governor Shirley to the boundary 
of Rhode Island, when he visited that province in 1741; and from that 
date until 1774, it acted as a body guard to the royal governors. In 1741 
the Cadets took part in that premature triumph which drove staid Boston 
almost wild over the news of Lord Vernon's capture of the harbor de- 
fenses of Cartagena, where the Massachusetts levies, under Captains 

Prescott, Stuart, Goffe, Phillips, and 
Winslow, were fighting beside the 
British Grenadiers of the line, and 
the veterans of the English Foot 
Guards. Their volleyed musketry, 
after the fashion of those days, then 
crashed in front of the Council Cham- 
ber, or, as it is now called, "old 
State House," as it did later on in 
1 745, when the news of the fall of 
Louisbourg came to gladden the peo- 
ple of Massachusetts, and to promise 
Governor Shirley the meed of knight- 
hood for the astonishing results of his 
daring yet successful projects. 

They were doubtless the nuc- 
leus and flower of that militia force 
of ten thousand men, who, in 1746, 
awaited anxiously, if not in fear, the 
coming of that vast but doomed 
French Armada, which, under the 
Due D'Anville, sailed from Brest, to 
retake Louisbourg, gather the tribes 
of the Abenaquis and the partisans 
of Canada and Acadia, and capture 
or lay waste every English settlement 
from the Straits of Canseau to Savan- 
nah; but was scattered by storms, 
decimated by disease, and harassed 
in its ignoble retreat by English 

They served the royal gover- 
nors and the king, until Lord Loudon, 
Amherst, and Wolfe, had won and 
lost in the iron game which gave Can- 
ada and Acadia to the Saxon race. 
Colonel Pollard, their first comman- 




der, died in 1756, and was suc- 
ceeded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Leonard Jarvis; and he in 
turn was followed by Colonel 
Joseph Scott, who eventually 
became a Tory, was pro- 
scribed and left the country. 
Lieutenant Colonel John Han- 
cock commanded the Cadets 
when General Thomas Gage, 
as Royal Governor of the pre- 
sumably loyal Province of 
Massachusetts Bay, but more 
especially as the vindicator of 
the royal claims and authority, 
landed at Boston May 13, 
1774. The Cadets met him 
at "the Long Wharf," and re- 
ceived him with all the honors, 
escorting him up King street 
to the Council Chamber, where 
now "the old State House" 
recalls the traditions of an 
overthrown empire, and an 
established republic. 

There was no lack of 
due respect and military cour- 
tesy on the part of the Cadets 
or their leader, and for a time 
the usual relations between 
the ruling Governor and his 
"body-guard," remained un- 
impaired. General Gage, in 
due time complied with the 
custom of his predecessors, 
who had each presented to the 
Cadets a banner emblazoned 
with the arms of the Province, and bearing on the reverse the heraldic 
blazonry of the donor. The banner was made, presented and accepted, in 
due and ancient form, and apparently in mutual amity and respect; but 
the progress of events soon estranged the royal governor and his fearless 
and outspoken lieutenant-colonel. This estrangement ended in the dis- 
missal of Lieutenant-Colonel Hancock from his command in August, 




1774; the letter sent by Gage — which is still in existence, and in the 
possession of the corps — being needlessly discourteous and abrupt. 

The Cadets were so incensed at the cavalier dismissal of their com- 
mander, that they at once formally returned their new standard to Gov- 
ernor Gage, informing him that they considered his dismissal of Colonel 
Hancock as equivalent to a disband ment of the Corps; and that they no 
longer considered themselves "the Governor's Independent Company of 
Cadets." Governor Gage took back the standard, with the remark that Han- 
cock "had used him ill, refusing him proper respect," and stated that had 
the intentions of the company been known to him sooner, he would have 
anticipated their action by disbanding them himself. 

Thus, after an honorable service of thirty-three years; during 
which time the Cadets had not only escorted the royal governors of the 
colony on all occasions of ceremony and public rejoicing, but had restored 
order and kept the peace on many occasions of popular revolt against the 
men and measures of the British crown, such as the Stamp Act riots, and 
the attack on the mansion of ex-Governor Hutchinson; this ancient mili- 
tary body for the time became dormant, out of its love for a patriotic 
commander, and its devotion to the spirit of American liberty. 

There followed a significant correspondence between Colonel Han- 
cock and his company, in which the strongest sentiments of sympathy, 
confidence, and mutual esteem, were embodied, and also much which 
indicated a belief in impending changes which would re -unite them under 
more auspicious conditions. Colonel Hancock thus said of his abrupt 
and discourteous dismissal: "I shall ever be ready to appear in a public 
station whenever the humor or interest of the community calls me, but 
shall prefer the retirement of a private station to being a tool in the hands 
of power to oppress my countrymen." 

Having refused to remain the "Praetorian guard" of General Gage, 
the Cadets, as a body, seem to have taken no part in the stirring events 
which so rapidly followed, until after the evacuation of Boston in 1776, 
when, under circumstances much resembling those existing when the 
corps was founded in 1741, many of the old members, and others, united 
to form a military organization known as the "Independent Company." 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Jack.son was the first executive officer, but two 
years later, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hichborn, the corps marched to 
Rhode Island and became part of the continental forces. Their old com- 
mander, John Hancock, although president of the Continental Congress, 
was also colonel of this Independent Company, thus making the executive 
officer a Lieutenant-Colonel, and preserving the English custom of an 
"Honorary Colonel." For some years, at least, the word Cadet was not 
used in the official name of the company; but in contemporaneous jour- 
nals and correspondence, it is constantly spoken of as "the Cadets." 



The peace of 1783 ended a war 
which had impoverished the coun- 
try, and nearly exhausted the military 
resources and spirit of our fathers. 
For a year or two no militia musters 
or parades appear to have taken 
place, and the American people were 
apparently content to trust to Provi- 
dence, and to the forbearance of other 
nations, for their safety. In 1786 it 
was proposed to revive the name and 
privileges of the "Governor's Com- 
pany of Cadets," and twenty-three 
members of the "Independent Com- 
pany" signed an agreement July 20, 
1786, in accordance with which all the 
signers but two met at the Ameri- 
can Coffee House, July 27, and elected 
Samuel Bradford commander. 

By August 7 their number had 
increased to thirty-six, and they then 
chose the rest of their officers, and 
adopted a uniform similar to that worn 
by the corps previous to the American 
Revolution. As the coat was of scar- 
let cloth, and as such abhorrent in the 
eyes of the people of New England, 
the first vote was re-considered, and 
a white uniform, faced with scarlet, 
was chosen in honor of the French 
troops, who had been our allies. 

On August 17, sixty muskets 
and bayonets were secured at Provi- 
dence, and the company decided to 
meet for drill at Faneuil Hall, every 
Monday and Thursday evening. 

The first parade took place on 
"Cornwallis Day," October 19, 1786. 
missions of the officers were confirmed 
by the following resolutions: 

"Resolved. That the Governor be, and he hereby is, authorized and empowered to 
commissionate the officers of the Independent Company of Cadets in Boston, with the 
following rank, namely: The captain with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and the 
lieutenant and ensign each with the rank of Major. 


On the previous day the com- 
, under the authority conferred 



"Resolved, That the said Company of Cadets be, and they hereby are, entitled to 
an Adjutant, and that the Governor be, and he hereby is, authorized and empowered 
to commissionate the said Adjutant with the rank of Captain." 

The first of these resolves revived the custom, as to the command- 
ing officers' rank, existing prior to the time when John Hancock was 
made Colonel in an honorary office. The State Government had now 
been estabhshed; the Governor, exoffliio, became the Honorary Colonel, 

and every governor since has been 
so considered. The commissions of 
Colonel Bradford, and Majors William 
ScoUay and Samuel Cabot, were dated 
August 2 1, and of Adjutant Martin 
Brimmer Sohier, September 2 i . The 
creation of the Adjutant was an in- 
novation, followed, in 1803, by the 
addition of a surgeon. 

No change was made in the 
number or rank of the officers until 
1S54, when a quartermaster, with the 
rank of first lieutenant, was added, 
and the Governor was empowered to 
give commissions to such company 
officers, not above the rank of first 
lieutenant, as he might deem expe- 
dient. Under this authority six first 
lieutenants were created, the corps 
being then practically a battalion. 

At the close of the Civil War, 
the rank of adjutant was reduced to 
that of a first lieutenant, and in 1874 
all constructive rank was abolished. 
The commander became a lieutenant- 
colonel; there could be only one 
major, but he was "entitled to all the 
privileges and emoluments of his 
rank;" and the staff was further made 
up of a surgeon, ranking as major, 
a paymaster ranking as captain, and 
an adjutant and quartermaster, each 
ranking as a first lieutenant. The 
paymaster, also, has since been re- 
duced to the rank of a first lieutenant. 
The line officers were limited to four 



'-MIS'' " ' f , ! 




captains, four first lieutenants, and four second lieutenants, to be commis- 
sioned at the discretion of the Governor, who commissioned all the officers 
except the second lieutenants, who were allowed the corps in 1S93. The 
corps is therefore, practically, a battalion of infantry, of four companies, 
and has since added to its staff in 1877, an assistant surgeon and an 
inspector of rifle practice, each ranking as a first lieutenant. A chaplain 
was allowed by the Militia Act of 1878. 

Soon after their organization in 1786, the Cadets were called into 
service during the popular disturbances known as "Shay's Rebellion," 
which had then become widespread and formidable enough in some 
sections to prevent the holding of the county courts, the detention of cer- 
tain classes of prisoners, and the collection of debts and taxes. By the 
end of 1786, the insurgents had proceeded to actual violence; and on Jan- 
uary 25, 1787, an attack was made on the Arsenal at Springfield, which 
was repulsed, with loss by the cannon of General Shepard. The slaying 
of four or five misguided men, practically ended this rebellion, and 
although several of the leaders were sentenced to death, none were exe- 

cuted; and shortly after 

to all but one, who served 

at hard labor for seven 

During this time 

Showing Arms of (jovemors Shir- 
ley and Bowdoin, Impaled. 

a full pardon was granted 
out a sentence in the jail 

the Cadets looked sharply 
James Bowdoin, whose 
dened with undeserved 
Governor Bowdoin recip- 
fidelity, and presented the 
of its first parade, Octo- 
dard bearing in chief, the 
six-pointed star, with the 

to the safety of Governor 
magistracy was thus bur- 
cares and responsibilities. 
rocated their esteem and 
corps, upon the occasion 
ber 19, 1786, with a stan- 
arms of the corps, viz.: a 
motto, "Monstrat viam," "It shows the way;" and on the obverse side, 
the family arms of Governor Bowdoin, according to the traditions of 
the corps, and the custom of the "Royal Governors." John Hancock 
succeeded Governor Bowdoin in 1787, and when established in office, 
ordered that all family arms should be expunged from the standards of 
the militia. The arms of the State of Massachusetts were, therefore, 
painted over the Bowdoin arms. 

Notwithstanding this order of Hancock's — which it is said was dic- 
tated by a personal feeling against Bowdoin — the family arms of the lat- 
ter "impaled" or painted side by side, with those of Governor Shirley, their 
first colonel, were kept and worn by the corps, and are still used and 
worn as a seal, and as an ornament with the dress uniform. The First 
Corps Cadets also treasures to this day the dress sword of Governor James 

The Cadets, as re-established under the State Government in 1786, 


possessed the following privileges: first, that of being the Guard of 
Honor to the Governor; second, that (without its own assent) it could not 
be attached to the corhmand of any officer below the rank of major-gen- 
eral; and, third, that its officers held special and peculiar rank. These 
peculiar rights have been, to some extent, questioned and assailed in times 

These privileges were placed under the protection of United States 
law, when, the Constiti:tion having taken effect in 1789, Congress, under 
its authority, passed on the 9th of May, 1792, "An Act more effectually 
to provide for the National defence, by establishing a Uniform Militia 
throughout the United States," from which the following extracts are 

Sect. 7. And be it further enacted. That the system of discipline and field ex- 
ercise which is and shall be ordered to be observed by the Regular Army of the United 
States, in the different corps of infantry, artillery, and riflemen, shall also be observed 
by the militia in the exercises and discipline of the said corps, respectively, through- 
out the United States. 

And whereas sundry corps of artillery, cavalry, and infantry, now exist in sev- 
eral of the States, which by the laws, customs, or usages thereof have not been incor- 
porated with, or subject to, the general regulations of the militia. 

Sect. II. Be it further enacted. That such corps retain their accustomed privi- 
leges, subject, nevertheless, to all the other duties required by this act, in like manner 
as the other militia. 

This protection was shared by the company of Cadets in Salem, 
now known as the Second Corps Cadets, and these two corps are the 
only organizations at present in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, in 
being when the Constitution of the United States went into effect, which 
have since had an uninterrupted existence. 

The corps was attached to a division November 13, 1799, but does 
not seem to have been officially designated as a divisionary corps until 
April 24, 1840. The word "Independent" was then dropped from the 
official title, although generally used by the corps itself; it was restored 
in 1S54, and was retained until after the War of the Rebellion. That the 
significant title "Independent" was first used soon after the Declaration of 
Independence, and was continued after there-organization under the vState 
government in 1786, seems to indicate that its significance rests more in 
the general spirit of the revolution, then pervading the people of Massachu- 
setts, than to any claim of military privilege or independence. 

The titles borne by the corps, at the various periods of its exist- 
ence, show considerable variation. Beginning with "The Governor's 
Company of Cadets" in 1741, and so known until 1774- it was known dur- 
ing the Revolution as the "Independent Company," "Independent 
Corps"; and later, was called the "Independent Cadets," "Independent 
Company of Cadets," "Independent Corps of Cadets," "Divisionary 
Corps of Independent Cadets," and "First Company of Cadets," until 


in, and since, 1874, its official title was the "First Corps of Cadets," and 
this has finally been shortened to "First Corps Cadets." Originally a 
part of the enrolled militia, the corps, since 1840, has been included in 
the Volunteer Militia of the State, and has been called upon for all kinds 
of duty, from its escort of the State Executive (which it has performed, 
almost without interruption, for over a century), and the escorts to Presi- 
dent Washington and other presidents, and many distinguished persons, 
who have received a public reception at Boston, to the sterner duty of 
guarding life and property, and maintaining quiet and good order in times 
of public peril and disturbance. It has always been a reliable body of 
gentlemen, who would endure hardship without complaint, and do their 
duty conscientiously, to the best of their knowledge and ability. 

Along these less pleasant lines of action was its service in Shay's 
Rebellion, already alluded to; and there were days of imperative but unpop- 
ular duty during the war of 18 12, and at the time of the rendition of An- 
thony Burns in 1854. 

During the Civil War the Corps was in the United States service 
for a short period (about six weeks) in 1862, at Fort Warren, Boston Har- 
bor; but it was on duty during the draft disturbances of 1863, and always 
ready for any sudden call in case of emergencies, which often threatened, 
but, happily, never materialized. Its greatest service was to furnish to 
the Union armies over 150 men, trained in its ranks, and most of them 
honored with commissions. 

While the members of the First Corps of Cadets, who received 
commissions, were to be found pretty generally distributed among the 
various organizations of the Massachusetts Volunteers, three infantry 
regiments of the three-year troops, the Second, Twentieth, and Twenty- 
fourth, and one regiment of the nine-months troops, the Forty-fifth, con- 
tained many Cadets. Thus, the greater part of the officers of the Second 
Regiment of Infantry, M. V. M., called by high authority outside this 
State "the best officered regiment of volunteers in the army," were from 
the Cadets. They also furnished several officers to the Twentieth Regi- 
ment; the others largely came from the New England Guards. The 
Twenty-fourth was mainly officered from the Guards, but contained sev- 
eral who had been trained in the Cadets. The officers of the Forty-fifth 
were Cadets, with scarcely an exception; and this fine regiment, which 
suffered heavily at Kinston and Whitehall, N. C, December 14 and 16, 
1862, was generally known in the department as "The Cadet Regiment." 

Since the Civil War, the services of the Corps have been required 
in an emergency but once — in 1872, at the time of the great fire in Bos- 
ton; but it has participated in many notable military events, in and out of 
Massachusetts. So far as is now known, the first time it left the State 
was in 1876, when it escorted the Governor to and from, and in, Phila- 



delphia, at the opening of the Centennial Exhibition; it went to Benning- 
ton, Vermont, with the Governor, in 1877; to Yorktown, Virginia, with 
the Governor, in 1881; to Philadelphia again, with the Governor, in 1887; 
and to New York with the Governor, in 1889 and 1897. In all of these 
tours it added to the duties of an escort, the representation of the militia 
of the Commonwealth, sharing that duty in 1887 with the First Regi- 
ment, in 1889 with the Fifth Regiment and the Second Corps of Cadets, 
and in 1897 with the Second Regiment. 

The Corps has always been quartered in Boston, first in the attic of 
Faneuil Hall, then in the two upper stories of a building at 94 Tremont 
street, and is now in its own Armory on Columbus Avenue, at the corner 
of Ferdinand street. The title to this building and to the camp-ground 
at Hingham is held by the alumni of the Corps, its Veteran Association. 

This armory, a massive, imposing and handsome edifice of Quincy 
granite, although apparently finished, is not yet completed, as to its 
outer ornamentation and inner decoration and fittings. The tower has an 
altitude of 128 feet, and the ramparts of the head-house are 80 feet high. 
The whole structure is pierced and crenellated for rifle-fire and the use of 
quick-firing guns, and light, but strong bridges of steel, give access to 
the clear-story windows of the great drill hall. 

The great Drill Hall is 200 feet long by 100 feet wide, and is sur- 
rounded by a balcony. In the sexagonal room in front are the headquar- 
ters of the Corps, and between it and the Drill Hall, the Corps Room. 
In the basement are dressing-rooms, for the officers of the staff, line, and 
non-commissioned staff, the billiard and reading-room, the armorer's 
office, engine and boiler rooms, coal bunker, store rooms, baths and lav- 
atories, great rows and tiers of lockers, a well-equipped kitchen, and a 
mess-room, which also serves as a rifle and pistol range. 

The upper story of the Head House is devoted to the display and 
preservation of the numerous military weapons, etc., which have become 
the property of the Corps, and is also occupied by the Military Historical 
Society of Massachusetts, whose library and collections have already 
added much to the resources of the lover of colonial and provincial 

The Corps, not being a corporation, cannot hold real estate; conse- 
quently, its past members, like the ahimni of a college, are incorporated 
into a Veteran Association, which, through trustees, holds the title to the 
armory in Boston, and the camp ground in Hingham. 

By a special law these properties are exempt from taxation, so long 
as they are used for military purposes by the organization of the volun- 
teer militia, now known as the First Corps of Cadets, and its successors. 

The present debt is a mortgage of $200,000 on the armory in Bos- 
ton, all other indebtedness having been liquidated. 


The Commonwealth of Massachusetts furnishes the arms and the 
colors carried by the battalion, as it does to all the militia of the State; 
but the Corps does not accept State clothing or equipments, preferring to 
own these articles as personal property, like the furniture, books, pic- 
tures, and relics in the armory, and the general equipment of the camp 

With other organizations of the militia, except the Second Corps 
of Cadets in Salem, it is customary to occupy public armories or rented 
quarters, and to encamp on the state ground at South Framingham. The 
First Corps of Cadets, like the Second, owns its camp ground as well as 
its armory. 

The laws and By-Laws of.the Corps require that every officer and 
soldier shall perform duty or pay the specified fines for its non-perform- 
ance, unless exempted or excused. Absence from annual drill costs $4.; 
camp duty, (^seven days') §28.; regular drill Si.; special duty, $2 per day. 

To defray the heavy expenses of creating and maintaining this 
immense establishment, both the active and fine members are assessed, 
the latter at the rate of ten dollars each, yearly. The active members 
are thus advised of their position and contingent liabilities: — 

"The annual assessment is so arranged, that, while ordinarily it is 
limited to twenty dollars, it may be increased by the action of the Finance 
Committee to a maximum of thirty-five dollars, in case the number of 
fine members, contributing to the support of the Corps, is so reduced that 
the twenty-dollar assessment will not defray current expenses plus inter- 
est on the armory loan. 

"So long as the Corps can keep not less than 350 active members 
on its rolls, and a list of not less than 1,000 fine members, it can not only 
be assured that the annual assessments of its active members will not 
exceed twenty dollars each, but it can be sure that its current expenses 
will be amply provided for, besides the establishment of a sinking fund 
for the liquidation of the mortgage debt on the armory.'" 

In addition to this payment, each active member must have made 
to order, by firms designated by the commanding ofiicer, fhrough the 
adjutant, the following outfit: 

The articles of uniform which every member of the Corps must 
own, are a dress coat, an undress coat, a pair of trousers, a dress hat, an 
undress cap, a campaign hat, a suit of brown canvas, and a rubber blan- 
ket. Members are also recommended to own their overcoats; but where 
this is inconvenient, the overcoat may be hired from the Corps at a rental 
of five dollars a year. 

Uniforms are procured under direction of the quartermaster, all 
work of this description being done under contract at about the following 

1 84 




1 1 










. . 2 








Dress Coat (white) 

Undress Coat (dark blue) 

Trousers (same for dress and undress) 

Overcoat (if purchased outright) 

Canvas Suit 

Shako (dress hat) 

Undress Cap . 

Campaign. Hat 

Rubber Blanket 

Total . 


The title to the camp ground used by the Corps, vests in its Vet- 
eran Association. 

The field is pleasantly situated in the town of Hingham, Mass., 
near the sea, upon high ground, with a gentle slope which secures natural 
drainage. On this ground are a mess-hall, a kitchen, a storehouse, for- 
merly a stable, with a loft for the sleeping-quarters of the mess-hall ser- 
vants; sinks, bath-houses, one for the officers, one for the enlisted men of 
the Corps, one for the band, and one for the servants, with running water 
introduced through pipes connected with the town mains; a small build- 
ing where lamps are stored and cleaned, and a building called the work- 
shop, in which are the quarters of the armorer, barber, and bootblack. 
These buildings are conveniently grouped, uniformly painted, and give 
the camp the appearance of a permanent post. 

The Corps quarters in tents. The body of the camp comprises the 
tents of the companies and band, pitched in streets laid out at a right 
angle with the color-line — an imaginary line running through the parade, 
parallel to the general direction of its length, a little in front of the body 
of the camp. 

A short distance in rear of the body of the camp and facing toward 
it, are the tents of the company officers, pitched parallel with the color- 
line; in rear of them are the tents of the field and staff officers, parallel 
with them and facing in the same direction; in rear of these arc the tents 
of the non-commissioned staff officers, the hospital, and the tents for the 
storage of bedding, one for each company and one for the band, the bed- 
tents facing to the rear, and others to the front, also servants' quarters. 

The tents of each company are pitched in two lines, facing inward, 
upon a street about forty feet in width, except the centre street, which is 
slightly wider. The tents of adjacent companies back closely upon each 
other, with an interval of about three feet. 

The distance between the rear ends of the company streets and the 
line officers' tents is about equal to the width of the centre street; a con- 



venient distance is left between the line officers' and the field officers' 
tents, also between the field officers' and the rear line of tents. 

All the tents are of uniform pattern and size, and are pitched upon 
wooden stanchions firmly fixed in the ground, with wooden cross-rails to 
which the guy-lines are secured. Each tent has a fly, a board floor with a 
back-board on hinges, an arm-rack, and a hanging shelf. In the centre 
of the field and staff line is a larger tent called the headquarter marquee. 

The camp is u.sually pitched by a party sent to the groimd a few 
days in advance. The property is stowed in the mess-hall by the Corps 
at the close of its tour of duty, and unless the tents are wet, they are 
struck at the same time. 

The rifle practice of the Corps has always been a source of just 
pride to the officers and men of the battalion, and the report of the In- 
spector-General for 1897, shows an average of 98.57 in 1896, and of 99.67 
in 1897; in 1898, owing to the war, no statistical comparison was made, 
but the Corps maintained its high average of the previous year. 

During the Spanish-American War of 1898- 1899, the services of 
the First Corps Cadets were thus reported: 

May 9, to May 16, inclusive, a detachment of 131 men was stationed as fol- 

At Hull, forty-six men, at Eastern Point, Nahant, sixty men, and at 
Bailey's Hill, twenty-three men. 

May 17, the detachment was relieved by a detachment of 126 men, 
which remained on duty until May 24, distributed as follows: 

At Hull, forty-five men, at Eastern Point, Nahant, fifty-eight men, and at 
Bailey's Hill, twenty-three men. 

]\Iay 25, the above detachment was relieved by a detachment of 1 19 
men, who remained on duty until June 2, distributed as follows: 

.■\t Hull, forty-six men, at Eastern Point. Nahant, forty-nine men, and at 
Bailey's Hill, twenty-four men. 

These posts were discontinued June 2, except the one at Eastern 
Point, where thirty-three men were placed on duty until June 6, when 
they were relieved by a detachment from the First Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Heavy Artillery United States Volunteers. 

Headquarters were established at Eastern Point, Nahant. The 
field officers divided the duty of superintending the duty at Nahant and 
at Hull. The food consisted as nearly as possible of the usual army 

The quarters at Eastern Point, Nahant, were furnished on private 
grounds, and through the kindness of the owners. The quarters at Bailey's 
Hill were in a hired house, converted into temporary barracks. At Hull, 
the men were quartered in tents on land hired for the puroose. At East- 
ern Point, the duty consisted in guarding the cables and observation tents 


connected with the mine field, established by the United States engi- 
neers for the defense of Boston and Lynn harbors. At Bailey's Hill, the 
detachments were employed in constructing an epaulement for two guns, 
behind a portion of the said mine-field. At Hull, the detachment guarded 
the range-finding station, appertaining to the batteries at Fort Warren, 
Long Island, and Winthrop Head. 

It was a great disappointment to the Corps that it could be given 
no opportunity to furnish the officers and non-commissioned officers for a 
volunteer regiment in the service of the United States, according to 
repeated requests made on its behalf to the commander-in-chief, that it 
should be allowed to do so, thus carrying out one of the chief objects for 
which the corps exists, and has been carefully trained. 

For other duty, outside of its rifle practice, the Corps was 
called upon but three times during the year 1898, by volunteer 
detachment, after it had become known that such duty was in accordance 
with the wishes of the commander-in-chief, as follows: 

August II and 12, a detachment of thirty men acted as a guard 
of honor, previous to the funeral of the late Colonel Bogan, of the Ninth 
Regiment Infantry. 

In like manner, on August 27 and 28, thirty men performed a 
similar duty previous to the funerals of Majors O'Connor and Grady, 
of the Ninth Regiment Infantry. 

September 3, a detachment of 145 men acted as escort to the sailors 
and marines, landed from the naval squadron in the harbor. 

The report of the Inspector of Rifle Practice, forwarded here- 
with, shows that the Corps, although it was unable to qualify quite so large 
a percentage of its men as in the previous year, was, nevertheless faith- 
ful to its obligations in keeping its men in practice, .so that its percentage 
of marksmen was satisfactory. 


By Colonel J. Frank Daltim. 

THE "Salem Cadets" came into existence one hundred and thirteen 
years ago, and have maintained their organization uninterruptedly 
ever since. The existence here referred to, is not the officially re- 
cognized beginning, but the real starting point of the companywhich 
is now organized as a four-company battalion. A combination of causes led 
to the formation of the Corps. In 
the first place, from the very nature 
of the circumstances pertaining to 
the settlement of the colonies, the 
use of arms was a recognized neces- 
sity. The Indian troubles made it 
necessary to organize and preserve 
the militia. The events which 
preceded and led to the Revolution, 
operated for the further encourage- 
ment of giving organized force to 
that "right to bear arms," which 
is handed down as a part of the 
fundamental law, on which our 
political system rests. For a long 
series of years we had old militia 
organizations, which were made in 
conformity with the requirements 
of the law, and were kept up to a 
period which is within the memory 
of many now living. All male citi- 
zens of the arms-bearing age were 

The companies used to parade on stated occasions without uni- 
forms, and with almost any sort of accoutrements which would keep the 
utensils of war in place. These things simply show the military spirit 
which has always been maintained in Massachusetts, and which is further 
illustrated in the emblematical character of our State coat of arms. 


At the time of the formation of the "Salem Cadets," the peace of 
the commonwealth was disturbed and threatened. There was a spirit of 



discontent abroad, and several popular outbreaks. The causes of this 
condition of affairs were the depreciation of the currency, the heavy tax- 
ation to which all were subjected, the extent of public and private in- 
debtedness, and the legal efforts made for the collection of claims. The 
famous "Shay's Rebellion" was an outcome of the spirit of discontent 
which prevailed; and as the rebellious state of this period \vas one of the 
causes which led to the formation of the "Cadets," the services of the 
company were tendered to aid in suppressing this rebellion, but they were 
not required. 

The first meeting to take measures to form the company was held 
in December, 1785, at the tavern known as the "Bunch of Grapes," at the 
head of what is now Central street, Salem. There is no record of the 
meeting. A short time previously the Legislature had passed a law to 
encourage the formation of such companies, as "promotive of military 


As a result of the meeting, the following officers were elected and 
commissioned, July 10, 1786: 

Stephen Abbot, Captain Commandant; William Lefavour, Captain 
Lieutenant; William Gray, First Lieutenant; Richard Downing, Second 
Lieutenant; William Chandler, Ensign. 

There appears to have been another election December 6, of the 
same year, and the following officers were chosen, being commissioned 
December 21, 1786: 

Stephen Abbot, Captain Commandant; John Jenks, Captain Lieu- 
tenant; John Saunders, First Lieutenant; Jonathan Hodges, Jr., Second 
Lieutenant; Abel Lawrence, Ensign. 

The first parade of the Corps in full uniform was on April 19, 1787, 
at which time a daughter of Major Abbot presented a standard to the 
company. It was of crimson silk, and bore on one side a shield inscribed 
with the name of the company, held by the figure of Mars, seated on a 
cloud, who, with his spear, directs to the glory above. Motto: "Si rede 
fades." On the reverse side was a crown of laurel in a field surrounded 
with trophies. Motto: "Sic itur ad astra." In the quarter were thirteen 
Federal stripes. 


In all these years the Cadets have worn a scarlet coat, except once, 
when the adoption of a gray coat almost broke up the company, and it 
was abandoned. The following is from Dr. Browne's compilation: 

The first uniform consisted of a scarlet coat with long skirts, shoul- 
der straps and white cassimere fronts, so worn as to display a vest of white 
dimity, and ruffles to the shirt bosom and at the wrist. The small clothes 
were of white dimity, with a black band below the knee; the stockings 



were white with black gaiters. The old-fashioned three-cornered cocked 
hat, with a scarlet plume, tipped with white, was worn; and the hair was 
worn braided and powdered in the fashion of that day. 

In 1803, the cut of the coat was changed, and the dimity small 
clothes were superseded by white cassimere pants, welted with red. The 
wrist ruffles were abandoned, and the cocked hat gave way to the chapeau. 

In 1 8 14, a complete renovation was made, the waning interest in the 
corps having been revived. The coats were made shorter, the cross belts 
were changed to roundabouts, and patent leather caps superseded the cha- 
peaux. Short boots, worn outside of very tight-fitting pants, were orna- 
mented with double rows of bell buttons of white metal and cross-lacings 
of red cord. 

In 1822, another general innovation was made, after much working 
for and against, and for a year .the scarlet coat was discarded, many mem- 
bers leaving the company in consequence. The new uniform consisted of 
a short, gray coat, with gold lace trimmings, and three rows of brass but- 
tons, buttoning at the neck; a patent leather cap trimmed with yellow, 
having a gilt chain and tassel at the side, and a black plume twenty inches 
long. The pants were of white drill, full in the legs, and worn over the 
boots; the roundabout belts were of black patent leather. 

The following year the gray coats were sold to the South Reading 
Rifle Company, and a return was made to the favorite scarlet, while the 
other feati:res of the old uniform were retained. 

Fourteen different uniforms worn by the Cadets are thus and more 
briefly described. 

1. Continental suit — white cotton vest and breeches, black gait- 
ers, wig, ruffles, three-cornered cocked hat, white cross belts. Date, 1785. 

2. Continental suit — white cassimere vest and breeches, black 
gaiters, wig, no ruffles, fan chapeau, white cross-belts. Date, 1801. 

3. White-breasted red dress coat, white cassimere pants, short 
boots, white waist belt, leather bell-crowned hat. Date, 1814. (For a 
short time — 1 82 2 -2 3 — a gray coat was worn.) 

4. Red dress coat, three rows bell buttons, black cap, tall black 
plume, white cotton pants, black waist belt. Date, 1823. 

5. Single-breasted red dress-coat, white leather hat, red and 
white fountain plume, white cotton pants, white cross-belts and waist- 
belt. Date, 1835. 

6. Modern dress coat, black bell-crowned hat, white and red pom- 
pon. Date, 1845. 

7. Same coat, dog-skin hat, white pompon, black pants, silver 
lace. Date, 1848. 

8. Same coat, blue shako, black pants with white and red stripes, 
black belts. Date, 1852. 


9. Same coat, chapeau, same pants. Date, 1854. 

10. United States Army. Date, 1862. 

1 1. Red dress coat, black trimmings, French cap with white pom- 
pon, or horse-hair plume, pants black and white stripe. Date, 1868. 

12. Single-breasted red frock, etc. Date 1874. 

13. Double-breasted red frock and helmet. Date, 1883. 

14. Double-breasted red frock coat with dark-blue facings, trou- 
sers same color, black equipments, with brass breastplate bearing the 
corps shield and motto, French shako with white and red pompon. Date, 
1889 and present. 


When the Salem Cadets were first enrolled, there was a disagree- 
ment about the organization, some preferring an infantry and some an 
artillery company. When a decision was made in favor of the former, 
the dissatisfied members withdrew and formed the Salem Artillery, making 
their first appearance in public May 23, 1787. 

The Cadets were formed under a law passed November 29, 1785, 
in which it was provided that such companies when raised and organized, 
"shall be under the command of the Major-General of the Division" in 
which they are formed. The militia law did not provide for more than 
three officers to a company; and on July 6, 1876, a special resolve was 
passed by the General Court, authorizing the governor to commission "one 
captain, one captain-lieutenant, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, 
and one ensign, to every Cadet company which shall be raised within this 

Under the circumstances of their organization, the Cadets always 
claimed certain privileges pertaining to an independent divisionary corps; 
but repeated attempts were made by other militia companies, to deprive 
them of these privileges. The question in dispute was never finally set- 
tled upon a definite and enduring basis, till many years afterwards. 

As early as September (possibly April) 1789, Colonel John Fiske, 
commanding the brigade, ordered the company of Cadets to parade on 
October 6. Finding no reference to the major-general. Captain Saunders 
returned the order; but wishing to promote harmony, and having received 
a polite invitation from Colonel Stephen Abbot to march to the Common 
and be reviewed by the major-general. Captain Saunders said he should 
cheerfully comply with the Colonel's request, and feel honored in paying 
General Fiske every mark of respect due to his rank. 

Colonel Abbot was elected Brigadier-General in 1792. The Cadets 
voluntarily appeared with his brigade, and continued to have their orders 
transmitted through the Brigadier-General till 1834. This fact was often 
relied upon to prove that the Cadets' claims were not well founded. On 
the other hand, it was asserted in their behalf, that their original appear- 



on « 


! Q S 




ance with, and subordination to, General Abbot's brigade, was entirely 
voluntary, and out of respect to him, their first captain. It was further 
claimed that, during much of the long period when they were practically 
subordinate to the Brigadier-General, the Cadets were not in a flourishing 
condition, their parades were infrequent, and proper persons could not be 
found to fill and accept the offices they were entitled to fill; but this did 
not impair their legal rights. 

In 1834, the State militia was re-organized, and the Cadets were 
annexed to the newly-formed regiment of Light Infantry. A remon- 
strance, signed by Rufus Choate and others, was sent to the Governor and 
Council. The result was that the judgment was reversed and the action 
regarding the Cadets countermanded. The company officers of the regi- 
ment afterwards met to organize, but cast blanks. A committee of regi- 
mental officers requested a re-hearing on the Cadet matter, and a new 
military committee went into an examination of the matter in 1835; the 
final result being that the standing of the Cadets as a divisionary corps 
was confirmed. Ever since that time they have filled their five commis- 

In 1854, the legislature took action confirmatory of the claims of 
the Cadets. The Committee on Military Affairs made an examination of 
the subject. They referred to the act of 1785, under which the Cadets 
and other companies were organized, and said the object apparently was 
to establish in each division one or more schools for military instruction 
and discipline. They also referred to the act of Congress of MayS, 1792, 
as confirming rights of the companies existing previous to that time by spe- 
cial legislative authority. This law is entitled "An act more effectually 
to provide for the national defense by establishing a uniform militia sys- 
tem throughout the United States." It contains the following provision: 
"And whereas, sundry corps of artillery, cavalrymen, and infantry, now 
exist in several of said States, which, by the laws, customs, or usages 
thereof, have not been incorporated with, or subject to, the general regu- 
lations of the militia: be it further enacted, that such corps retain their 
accustomed privileges, subject nevertheless, to all other duties required 
by this act, in like manner with the other militia." 

The resolve of 1854 "authorizes and empowers" the governor to 
commission the officers of the Cadets with the following ranks: "the cap- 
tain-commandant with the rank of major; the captain-lieutenant with 
the rank of captain; and the ensign with the rank of third lieutenant, 
and the additional number of company officers to run a battalion. Sub- 
sequent legislation raised the rank of the commanding officer to lieuten- 
ant colonel; and the rank is now adjusted according to the present roster as 
elsewhere presented. 

Whatever any person may have thought, or may still think, regard- 


ing the rightfulness of the Cadets' claims, they are, at any rate, settled in 
conformity with their own views, and the decision seems to have been 
pretty uniformly that way whenever the question has come before the 
highest State authority. It will probably never again be re-opened, and 
it is doubtful if a single person could be found in Salem to-day who 
would desire to re-open it. 


The independent character of the Cadets' organization quite fre- 
quently led to jealousies and conflicts of authority. By what immedi- 
ately precedes, it is shown that, as early as 1789, this trouble began to 
break out. It was, of course, intensified when a political element 
entered into the strife, and when the period of chronic rivalry began. 
The Salem Light Infantry took the lead in this rivalry, and, from the 
natural circiimstances of the case, had the sympathy of the Mechanic 
Light Infantry and other regimental companies. "The possession of the 
right of the line" was the great question in later years. 

On October 9, 1832, there was trouble on Salem Common between 
some of the companies of Colonel Avery's regiment and the Cadets, both 
being ordered for inspection and review on that day. According to the 
"Salem Gazette" of that period, the Cadets, which as a brigade corps 
claimed exemption from the orders of the colonel, "offered the use of 
their marquee, and themselves as a guard of honor, to the field officers 
of the day." The offer, as we understand it, was at first accepted by Colo- 
nel Avery; but the officers of the light companies in the regiment having 
objected to this arrangement, on the ground that Captain Miller, of the 
Cadets, was the junior of all of them in commission, and that they were, 
therefore, by military usage, entitled to precedence, it was afterwards 

The Cadets, however, were upon the alert, and early in the morn- 
ing marched upon the then vacant Common, and pitched their tents upon 
the place usually deemed the right of the field. After the line was 
formed, an order was sent by the colonel for the Cadets to remove their 
encampment, but they refused obedience, on the ground that they were 
not under his jurisdiction. The Mechanic Light Infantry and the Salem 
Light Infantry, seeing that the objectionable arrangement was not 
altered, moved off the field, under their sergeants, leaving their officers 
on the ground. The light companies remaining, were the Beverly Light 
Infantry, under Captain Stevens, the Marblehead Light Infantry, under 
Lieutenant Homans, and the Marblehead Lafayette Guards, under Cap 
tain Brown. These three companies the colonel marched on to the right 
of the Cadet encampment, "not without some oppugnation, it is said, on 
the part of their guard, when he attempted to pass their lines." 


"In the afternoon, however, the affair was settled by an order from 
the brigadier-general, directing the commander of the Cadets to obey no 
order issuing from Colonel Avery. The Cadets marched off the ground, 
and the review proceeded with such troops as remained on the field." The 
"Salem Register," in its account, says that, in addition to Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Newhall's order not to receive any order from the colonel of the regi- 
ment, he also ordered the Cadets to appear in front of his headquarters 
at the La Fayette Coffee House at three o'clock for review. "The colo- 
nel, soon after, sent a message to Captain Miller, stating, as it had been 
established, that he had no authority to order the Cadets, and as their 
encampment would interfere with the intended manoeuvres of his troops 
in the afternoon, he requested Captain Miller, as a favor, to remove his 
tents. This request was promptly complied with by Captain Miller, the 
tents were struck, and the Cadets marched from the field." 

The conflict does not appear to have been a very bloody one; but it 
resulted in preventing anything from being done in the forenoon but the 
inspection of the troops; while, in the afternoon, it put an end to the military 
manoeuvres that were contemplated, to the disappointment of "all the 
wondering boys and girls"; and "all the gorgeous show vanished into 
thin air." These were the words of the "Gazette" on the Friday follow- 
ing the difficulty. 


Stephen Abbot, 1786-8. Born August 12, 1749; died August 9, 1813, 
aged 64; was born in Andover, served as a soldier in the 
Revolution, and was commissioned by Washington, major by 
brevet. He went to Bennington as lieutenant in 1777. In our 
early militia service he was colonel of the Salem regiment, and 
afterwards major general of the division. Dr. Bentley says that he 
was "deservedly beloved" and that "under his judicious patronage 
the militia of Salem became respectable." 

John Saunders, 1788-93. Died June 19, 1845, aged 85; was at one time a 
merchant in Salem. He afterwards went to New York, where he 
engaged in business and subsequently returned to Salem. He was 
the first cashier of the Merchants' Bank, and later Surveyor of the 
port, and afterwards town clerk. When the Salem Light Infantry 
was formed, in 1805, he became the first commander of that com- 
pany, but the late Dr. Browne, in his brief biography, says, "his 
heart always warmed to the Cadets till the last." 

Jonathan Hodges, 1793-95. Died May 23, 1837, aged 7y, a son of Gama- 
liel Hodges, and was born March i, 1764. He was in early life a 
merchant, and owned and carried on a distillery in Neptune street. 
He was for some years cashier of the Salem Bank, and later the town 


Abel Lawrence, 1795-1802. Died December 6, 1822, aged 68; was a 
native of Groton, Mass., but came to Salem in early life, and was 
married in the year when Independence was declared. He was a 
distiller, a man of respectability of character, modest and retiring- 
manners, and was often placed in positions of trust and honor. 

Israel Williams, 1802-4. Died December 9, 1831, aged 60; was a sea 
captain. At the re-organization of the Salem Regiment in 1801, he 
was chosen captain of one of the militia companies, and he was after- 
wards chosen captain of the Cadets, which company he brought up to 
a high state of excellence. He was elected commander of the Essex 
Guards, organized in Salem in the war of 1812. He was a man who 
stood high in every relation of life. 

Joseph Winn, 1804-8. Died November 3, 1839, aged 78; he was a native 
of Burlington, Mass.; was a butcher and also had an extensive com- 
mercial business in connection with his slaughtering and packing. 
He accumulated a handsome property, and died suddenly in the South 

Ebenezer Bowditch, 1808-13. Died July 23, 1830, aged 63; he was a silver- 
smith in "Old Paved Street." He was an honest and upright man, 
of ardent temperament and firm convictions. When he took com- 
mand the Cadets were divided, and distracted by differences in poli- 
tics. Being a Republican himself, the Federal members of the com- 
pany gave him anything but an enthusiastic support. The "Cadet 
Rebellion" took place during his captaincy. During one parade of 
troops, when he was so lame that it was supposed the company would 
be under the command of a lieutenant, the other companies exulted 
over the prospect that the Cadets would lose the right of the line; 
but his loyalty to the company was such that he came out and took 
command, when his lameness was so bad that it was necessary for him 
to receive assistance in mounting his horse. 

Stephen White, 1813-18. Died August lo, 1814, aged 54; he was a 
nephew of Captain Joseph White, who was murdered in 1S30. and 
was educated in his uncle's counting-room. He afterwards went to 

John Dodge, 18 18- 19. Died June 12, 1S20, aged 36; was the son of 
Joshua Dodge and his mother was a Crowninshield. He was edu- 
cated to mercantile pursuits, made several voyages as supercargo and 
factor, and then commenced business on his own account. He was a 
very worthy man, but not conspicuous for the possession of military 

Franklin H. Story, 1819-23. Died February 13, 1871, aged 76; was the 
son of Dr. Elisha Story of Marblehead. He was very popular with 
the company, not only as its captain, but previously as sergeant and 



ensign. He was one of the best commanders the Cadets ever had, 
and was a remarkably fine looking- man, and one of pleasing presence 
and polished manners. In his later years he lived in Boston, and was 
treasurer of one or more manufacturing companies. 

John Winn, Jr., 1823-25. Died April 12, 1858; aged 62; was a son of 
Joseph Winn, former captain of the Cadets, and carried on the busi- 
ness of a candle-maker, in connection with commercial business. As 
a commander he was not successful, not because he lacked capacity, 
but because his business would not allow of that attention to company 
matters which was essential to military success. He was president of 
an insurance company in Salem, and afterwards removed to Bangor, 
where he engaged in the lumber business. 

Benjamin F. Browne, 1825-28. Died November 23, 1873, aged 80; joined 
the company in July, 18 18, with the name of Benjamin Browne 3d, 
having taken his later name with the authority of the Legislature. 
He was a well-known apothecary, and built the present Browne block. 
He engaged in privateering during the war of 1812, sailing as sur- 
geon, and was one of the Dartmoor prisoners. Dr. Browne was a 
leading, influential and respected member of the Democratic party, 
and was appointed postmaster by John Tyler, after the death of Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, succeeding Caleb Foote in that office. He was 
loyal to the country under all circumstances, and after the breaking 
out of the rebellion acted with the Republican party, as did thou- 
sands of other Democrats, whose loyalty was so far above all mere 
party considerations, that they gave their active support to the party 
charged with the duty of subduing the rebellion and upholding the 
national honor. Dr. Browne, (as he was more familiarly known) 
occupied much of his time in the closing years of his life with pre- 
paring local and other reminiscences. His manuscript book of nearly 
490 pages, which he presented to the Cadets, is one which contains 
much valuable information pertaining not only to that corps, but to 
the military history of Salem. 

Joseph A. Frothingham, 1828-30. Died September 22, 1880, aged 76; 
was a son of Stephen Frothingham, a merchant of Newburyport. 
Later he commenced business as a druggist for himself, and re- 
turned to Newburyport, where he engaged in the dry goods business. 

Francis B. Crowninshield, 1830- 1832. Died May 8, 1877, aged 68; was 
a son of the Hon. Benjamin W. Crowninshield, Secretary of the 
Navy under Presidents Madison and Monroe. A year or two after 
his election he removed to Boston with his father. He was a lawyer 
in that city, and a member of the Massachusetts Peace Commission 
at Washington in 186 1. 


Ephraim F. Miller, 1832-36. Died August 7, 1875, aged 68; was a son of 
General James Miller, the "hero of Lundy's Lane," whose service 
during the war of 181 1 is well known. Ephraim, the son, read law in 
vSalem, and commenced practice in Ipswich. He was afterwards 
Deputy Collector and subsequently Collector of the port of Salem. 

William Sutton, 1836-41. Died April 18, 1882, aged 82. General Sut- 
ton joined the Cadets in 18 17, filled many military stations, and 
finally became Major-General . He was for a long time President of 
the Commercial (now First National) Bank of Salem, and through life 
was distinguished for his liberality towards military and other public 

Stephen Osborne, 1841-42. Died November 23, 1869, aged 65. Captain 
Osborne for many years kept a well-known hat, cap and fur store on 
the corner of Essex and Central streets. He was a very interesting 
man, as his intimate acquintances would all testify, and a man of 
intelligence and keen-powers of observation. He had a philosophi- 
cal turn of mind, and there was generally a perceptible streak of 
good sense and quiet humor running through his conversation. He 
was recognized as one of the old standard traders "on the street." 

John vS. Williams, 1842-44. Died September ii; 1848, aged 42; was a 
member of the bar of Essex county and aready and eloquent speaker. 

Ephraim F. Miller, 1844-47. This was his second election as captain, and 
his name is above referred to. 

Samuel B. Foster, 1847-61; died March 13, 1872, aged 52; was a son of 
the late Isaac P. Foster, who carried on the grocery business at the 
head of Derby Wharf. His term of service as commander of the 
Cadets, covering a period of fourteen years, is good evidence of his 
value to that corps. During his management the company prospered, 
and attained a high degree of perfection. He took great interest in 
military affairs, particularly in all that related to tactics and disci- 
pline. If he could be considered as fairly open to criticism upon any 
point, such criticism would arise from his over-punctilious exactness 
in the minor details of military movements. During the time he 
held command, his superiority was so freely acknowledged that the 
question was often raised whether his place could really be filled. It 
is but fair to his successors to say that subsequent experiences have 
proved that there was no occasion for solicitude in this particular 
direction; and this may truthfully be said without the least disparage- 
ment to the subject of this notice. 

J. Louis Marks, 1861-64; removed and went into business in Topeka, Kan- 
sas. He commanded the Cadets at Fort Warren during the Civil War. 

Thomas H. Johnson, 1864-65. Became secretary and treasurer of the 


Holyoke Mutual Fire Insurance Company. His methodical mind and 
habits were of great value to the business interests of the Cadets. 

A. Parker Browne, 1865-77. He is still in business in Boston. He well 
maintained the excellence of the Cadets, and was a popular com- 

Samuel Dalton, 1877-82. He is the present Adjutant-General of the 
State. He came from Cadet "stock" — the Dalton family being, in 
the past, members of this organization. Joseph A. Dalton, who 
commanded the Salem Veterans, was his father. 

Edward Hobbs, 1882-84, does business in Boston. His two years of ser- 
vice gave satisfaction. 

J. Frank Dalton, 1884, author of this sketch, is a brother of General Sam- 
uel, and son of Joseph A. Dalton. 

John W. Hart, 1890. 

Samuel A Johnson, 1895. 

Walter F. Peck, 1899. 


A great deal could be written about the numerous reviews, 
parades, and public observances, in which the Cadets have participated 
during all these years. But we have space for only the briefest mention. 
The Cadets participated in the reception extended to Lafayette when he 
visited Salem, and in every public reception given to the Presidents who 
have visited us, including that of General Washington; and have taken 
part in a multitude of special and historic observances. In common with 
other military organizations, the Cadets paraded June 23, 1788, in honor 
of the adoption of the Constitution of the United States. 

The "Salem Mercury" (now "Salem Gazette") of Tuesday, Novem- 
ber 3, 1789, is pretty well filled with an account of Washington's tour. 
He left Boston and came to Salem on the Thursday previous, having vis- 
ited Alarblehead in the forenoon. The inhabitants assembled in Court 
street to receive him and formed a procession, the Cadets being at the 
head of it. The "Mercury" says "the President appeared to be perfectly 
satisfied with everything which took place." He spoke handsomely of 
the militia, "and passed some very flattering compliments on the Cadets 
(which is, undoubtedly, the best disciplined light corps in the United 
States), who acted as his escort, and were, therefore, more immediately 
under his observation." 

For a long series of years the Cadets made some sort of an observ- 
ance of Washington's birthday, the 22nd of February. The Cadet Ball, 
on the night of that day, was for a great while a local event that was on . 
the lips of all the ladies for weeks in advance, and the preparations were 


of the most elaborate character. The consummation was always brilliant 
and successful. 

Though the Cadet corps, from the character of its organization, 
could not well have been called into the general service during the war, 
as were the regiments of State militia, they nevertheless, as an organiza- 
tion, did service at Fort Warren, to the relief of the garrison of United 
States troops there. They were at Fort Warren, under Major Marks, 
from May 26, 1862, to October 1 1 , of the same year. Besides this, they 
furnished, from their active membership, many who went into the service 
— the First Heavy Artillery, being largely recruited under the Cadet 
auspices and from the Cadet ranks. We believe it has been ascertained 
that no less than 160 Cadets held commissions in the national service dur- 
ing the war for the suppression of the Rebellion. 

The record of the corps has certainly been a creditable one; and 
we hope its next hundred years may be as successful as the last have been. 


For a long time after the formation of the Cadets, each soldier kept 
his musket and accoutrements at home and acted as his own armorer. 
The business meetings were held at one of the taverns, and the rendez- 
vous for parade until 18 14, was on the area of the Court House. During 
1 8 14, '15, '16 and part of 18 17, and until an armory was procured large 
enough for the purpose, that hall was the place of meeting for drills and 

About 1823, or perhaps somewhat earlier, a small room was hired 
in the Derby building, near the Town Hall, about twenty feet square, 
which scarcely held some forty muskets and accoutrements. The tents 
and camp equipage were deposited in the garret above. The company 
then procured the services of Charles Boden as armorer. This little room 
sufficed for several years, when a removal was made to a larger one in the 
Central building. 

Afterwards, more spacious and commodious rooms were procured 
in the chambers of a wooden building on Washington street, about where 
W. G. Webber & Co.'s store now stands. These rooms were large 
enough to contain all the arms, accoutrements, tents and camp 
equipage, with sufficient space for squad drills and company meetings, 
and was the rendezvous on parade days. For one or two winters, 
lectures on various subjects were delivered here by members of the 

The armory was at one time in Bowker's building, and perhaps else- 
where, previous to its removal to Franklin building. It was also for a 
time in a room or rooms under Washington Hall, now occupied by H. W. 
Thurston, Washington street. 



The armory in Franklin building was formally opened with a ball. 
February 22, 1855, and was acknowledged to be the most spacious, com- 
modioxis and elegant one in the state. It was destroyed by fire on the 
morning of the 21st of October, i860, with all the arms, accoutrements, 
camp equipage, most of the tents, piano, and all the records and docu- 
ments of the company. The loss to the companies was about $5,000 in 
value and the insurance was $2,000. Oil portraits of General Abbot and 
Major Foster, with some minor articles were all that were saved. Mus- 
kets of a new pattern, worth about $1,400, the property of the State, were 

Dr. Browne draws mainly from recollection in the above. 

Bowker's Building is on the site of the mansion house which 
belonged to William Browne (son of Samuel) who married a daughter of 
Governor Burnett. He brought her to Salem in a coach, with a pair of 
horses. This was such an unusual sight in those days that the people 
turned out ^n masse to see them. Some doggerel rhymes, written on the 
occasion, ran thus: 

"Billy Brown has come to town, with his lady fair; 

To make a dash, he spent his cash upon a coach and pair." 

The site of the Franklin building was, in the early times of the 
then colony, the property of Colonel John Higginson, son of the Rev. 
John, and grandson of the Rev. 
Francis Higginson, the first minis- 
ter of Salem. Colonel Higginson, 
1675, built on the site an elegant 
mansion, which continued until 
1809, when the estate was sold by 
John Gardner to Colonel Samuel 
Archer. The trustees of Colonel 
Archer sold the property to Josiah 
Dow, in 18 10, having on it the 
Franklin building, which Colonel 
Archer had caused to be erected. 
Dow sold it, in iSii, to Captain 
Thomas Perkins, a retired mer- 
chant, who caused the hall, which 
was afterwards the Cadet armory, 
to be finished. It was used occasion- 
ally for balls, dancing parties, ex- 
hibitions, etc., until it was hired by 
the Cadets and fitted for their ar- 
mory. Captain Perkins bequeathed liectesant-colon-el Walter f. peck. 


the estate to the vSalem Marine Society, the income to be applied to the 
relief of indigent members. 

The record of the Cadets, reaches back, as has been here shown, to 
the close of the Revolution. From that time forward it is most honor- 
able. In the war of 1861-65 their record is as brilliant as glory itself — 
illumined as it is by the gallant and heroic deaths of many of their num- 
ber. At the outbreak of the Rebellion, the two Corps Cadets (Boston 
and Salem) were not sent to the front — the general government being 
unwilling to muster in other than regimental organizations; but in May, 
1862, they were mustered into the United States service and were sent to 
Fort Warren, in Boston Harbor, where for six months they did garrison 
duty, and guarded the commissioned officers of the rebel army, who were 
confined there as prisoners of war. One hundred and sixty-four Salem 
Cadets were commissioned officers of the Union Army, scattered through 
every army corps in the service. The late General Cogswell entered the 
army as a Salem Cadet, commanding a company of the Second Massachu- 
setts Regiment, advancing grade by grade, until he received "promotion 
on the field," and was placed in command of a brigade. 

While there are no official data fixing the number of vSalem Cadet 
members who enlisted or served as officers during the war, a fair estimate 
would place the number at 500. 

In 1889, the corps took part in the celebration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of the adoption of the United States Constitution at New 
York, being a part of the escort to His Excellency Governor Oliver 
Ames, the First Corps Cadets and Fifth Massachusetts Regiment, also, 

In 1890, the corps entered upon the work of securing better armory 
accommodations, and supplemented the efforts which had been com- 
menced by the commanding officer and quietly pursued by him for several 
years. A desirable opportunity presenting itself, the property on Essex 
street, known as the former residence of Francis Peabody, Esq., and 
which was the site of Governor Bradstreet's house, was purchased, and 
a corporation was formed under the laws of the State, and took the name 
of the "Stephen Abbot Associates," in honor of the first commander of 
the corps. The house was handsomely furnished, and a large drill hall 
was built on the rear land; and the Cadet Armory is now one of the many 
points of interest visited by the thousands who come to Salem annually 
to view anything connected with its early history. 

The roster of the Corps in 1898 was as follows: 

Fifld and Staff. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Samuel A. Johnson, Salem; Major, Walter F. Peck, Salem; 
Surgeon, James E. Simpson, Salem; Assistant Surgeon, J. William Voss, Peabody; 




Adjutant, Andrew Fitz, Salem; Quartermaster, David M. Little, Salem; Paymaster, 
Edward A. Maloon, Beverly; Inspector of Rifle Practice, Charles S. Tuckerraan, Salem'; 
Chaplain, Rev. Elvin G. Prescott, Salem. 

U^oii-Commissimied Staff. 

Sergeant-Major, Harry F. Dalton ; Quartermaster Sergeant, Frank T. Chase; 
Hospital Steward, Howard L. Horton; Drum Major, Augustus D. Coule. 

Line Officers. 

Company A— Captain, Philip Little, Salem; First Lieutenant, George E. 
Symonds, Salem; Second Lieutenant, Edward T. Graham, Salem. 

Company B— Captain, Reuben W. Ropes, Salem ; First Lieutenant, Arthur N. 
Webb, Salem; Second Lieutenant, Frank S. Perkins, Salem. 

Company C— Captain, John E. Spencer, Salem; First Lieutenant, Charles F. 
Ropes, Salem; Second Lieutenant, F. Ernest Clark, Lynn. 

Company D— Captain, George D. Kimball; First Lieutenant, George E. Worthen. 


At the first rumor of impending hostilities, the services of the 
Corps were promptly tendered by Lieutenant-Colonel S. A. Johnson, 
then commanding ; but owing to its battalion formation, it was not accepted. 

Special Order No 51, A. G. O., issued May 6, 1898, assigned the 
Corps to service at Fort Miller, Naugus Head, Marblehead. 

May 9, the first detachment, consisting of Company A, Captain 
Philip Little, with Lieutenants George E. Symonds and F. Ernest Clark, 
reported at the fort for duty. On May 12, rapid-fire guns were 
received and mounted. On May 17, Company A was relieved by 
Companies Band D, Captain Frank S. Horton commanding, with Lieuten- 
ants John E. Spencer and George E. Worthen, who garrisoned the fort until 
relieved May 24, by Company B, Captain Reuben W. Ropes, with Lieuten- 
ants Arthur N. Webb and Harry F. Dalton. The fort, pursuant to 
orders, was abandoned June i, and the property turned over to the U. S. 

The Second Cadets garrisoned the fort at a time, when every one 
expected that New England would be harassed by the Spanish fleet, and 
much work was done to prepare the fort for any attack. 

Besides garrisoning Fort Miller, the Cadets escorted Company H, 
Eighth regiment, U. S. V., on its departure for and return from the war; 
turned out as an organization at the funerals of Corporal Nichols and 
Privates Deasy and Saunders in Salem, and furnished escorts and firing 
parties at eleven other funerals. 

Some thirty members enlisted in the Eighth Regiment and other 
organizations, serving with credit. Most of these were mu.stered out as 
non-comissioned oflicers, and one rose to the rank of second lieutenant. 

While the Cadets held Fort Miller, the commander, major and 
adjutant were on duty at battalion headquarters at the Salem armory. 
Colonel S. A. Johnson was appointed a member of the State Advisory 
Board, just previous to the breaking out of the war. 


By Winthrop Packard and others. 

THE naval reserve has been called "Uncle Sam's Land Marines;" 
and, to a certain extent, the name fits. The idea of the origi- 
nator of the scheme, Commander John C. Soley, U. S. N. (re- 
tired), was the formation of a force which should be a naval 
adjunct of the land militia, men able to fill acceptably positions on a war- 
ship, and still trained and eflScient as 
land forces, ready to serve either as 
Jack tars, marines, or ordinary infan- 
try and artillery. The first company 
of naval volunteers was formed March 
25, 1890, Massachusetts leading the 
way, and the organization was extend- 
ed until, at the outbreak of the war, 
it was represented in every section 
of the country, being established in 
seventeen states, forming twenty- 
three battalions, and having a total 
enrollment of 427 officers, and 4,501 

The tactics adopted were the 
same for all organizations. The infan- 
try drill of the United States regulars 
was learned in its entirety, although 
it could not, of course, be brought to 
the same perfection, being but a sin- 
gle branch of duty; but if the naval 
militiaman is sent ashore, he is ex- 
pected, and may be trusted, to make a very fair infantry soldier. The artil- 
lery drill comprises thorough practice with navy field mounts, or guns taken 
ashore to do service as land artillery; the "secondary battery," or small 
guns used on deck and in the boats during a light attack; and finally, pro- 
ficiency in heavy battery drill, which means the ability to handle the 
heaviest guns Uncle Sam has afloat. The whole idea of the naval militia 
summed up in a word, is that each man is at least well acquainted with 




21 I 

every part of a line-of-battleship, and every means of attack or defense 
which she carries, as soon as he steps aboard of her. With opportunities 
for field and shore practice at Salem and Marblehead in the summer, with 
a chance now and then to man, wholly or in part, the big cruisers, and on 
one occasion the battleship "Massachusetts," for a week, when visiting 
this port, the Massachusetts Naval Brigade long ago attained this 
standard of general efficiency, and proceeded to turn its attention to the 
development of a standard of perfection in special branches of the service. 
Thus an engineer division of twenty- five men has been organized, 
which is competent to handle a first class battleship in an emergency. 
There is also a torpedo division, every man of whom is of the highest prac- 
tical value on ves.sels carrying torpedoes. A single direction in which the 
whole brigade has attained the most remarkable efficiency is marksman- 
ship. Every man of the entire double battalion, officers and men, is a 
qualified marksman under State rules. Nor does the brigade stop here. 
It succeeded in 1896, in raising an entire division to the grade of sharp- 
shooters, an honor up to that time attained by no single company of land 
militia in the United States. That there are some remarkable records at 
target practice by the organization goes without special record here; and 
many of these have been made with the heavy guns of the "Massachusetts" 
and the "Columbia." 


To give an idea of a practical experience, which no militia in time 
of peace can hope to achieve, the first two " tours of duty" of a week in 
summer, of the first battalion of the Massachusetts boys were made on the 
old "Wabash," anchored then, as now, in the waters of Charlestown navy 
yard, in connection with the vessels of war of our own navy, then lying in 
the harbor. In 1893, the "San Francisco" and the "Miantonomah" camu 


here and sent ashore as many of their men as possible to make room for 
the force of enlisted men then in the battalion. The men have lived the 
life of men-of-warsmen, on men-of-war, for one week every summer since 
the organization of the brigade. 



Such practice has alternated with camp duty ashore. The force is 
transformed into a landing party, field pieces are set up, and sham fight- 
ing takes place. 

When the old frigate "Passaic" was finally loaned by the govern- 
ment, a few summers ago, the men were delighted. They went to work 
with a will, scraped her sides, cleaned her bottom, and painted her from 
stem to stern. With one of her trips down the harbor that year a flo- 
tilla of small boats was sent along, each with a gun in its bows, which at a 
signal attacked the frigate, and a sham battle at sea was fought. Under 
such unexceptionable circumstances for practice duty as these, the eiE- 
ciency of the Massachusetts battalion; and equally good accounts have come 
from New York and other States; was proved at once when they were 
called on for active service in the war with Spain in 1898. 

To preserve the esprit Ju corps of the Massachusetts brigade, and to 
keep the men together in the present struggle, was the especial work of Cap- 
tain Weeks, who made a visit to Washington for that purpose. As will 
be seen by this hasty glance at the organization, the requirements in the 
Naval Militia cover more ground than that of any other service in the 
army or navy. Every enlisted man in the Massachusetts brigade is to- 
day a qualified marksman; knows his rifle, barrel and bayonet; and has 
been well drilled as infantry. Every man is ready to serve light artillery 
on land or sea, and knows something practical about the great guns. The 
Mas.sachusetts Naval Brigade has developed a thoroughly well-equipped 
and drilled signal squad; an efficient torpedo division; and an engineer 
corps of twenty-five men, capable of manning the engines of any .ship in 
the service. They can board any vessel of war, and man any part of her; 

and yet they are only a 
militia formation, organ- 
ized primarily as a second 
line of coast defense. 

The spirit of the 
organization in Massa- 
chusetts has always been 
kept at a very high stan- 
dard. As a detail, the ex- 
amination for petty offi- 
cers of the various grades^ 
includes a line of ques- 
tions which, it is stated on 
the highest authority^ 
many a man who has been 
on a "man-of-war" all his 





The personnel of the Massachusetts brigade, as intimated at the 
opening of this article, is much higher than that of the average militia 
organization. The roster of the divisions includes among the seamen 

, -\''m;j 


(privates) the names of many men who are engaged in important busi- 
ness avocations — a large percentage of them employer.s — in Boston. 
Twenty-five of the men who went out to man the Catskill, the Lehigh, 
and the Prairie, had received the fresh diploma of Harvard College, 
granted in advance by the Alma Mater. The four "crack" organizations 
of the United States Naval Militia, are those of Massachusetts, New York, 
Maryland and Michigan, and these have been almost wholly drafted for 
service on deep sea ships. 

It will be seen that the requirements for membership are of the 
most exacting character, and cover the widest range of duty known to 
any service. 

In Massachusetts, the original form of the organization contemplated 
two battalions of 208 men each, under a lieutenant commander. The 
headquarters staff, consisting of a paymaster, surgeon, adjutant, equip- 
ment officer, ordnance officer, and petty staff, bringing the total battalion 
number up to about 225. The Second Battalion, recruited and organ- 
ized in 1893, consisted of volunteers from towns outside of Boston; Lynn, 
Fall River, New Bedford, and Springfield. 

In April, 1898, the organization was under the command of 
Captain John W. Weeks, a graduate of Annapolis, who had seen regular 
sea-service in the navy, with headquarters on the Minnesota. The 
Minnesota was an old style steam frigate, whose most glorious service 
was in the Civil War, in the engagement between the Monitor and Mer- 


rimac at Hampton Roads, in which she fired 202 shells, and 247 solid shot, 
and received serious damage from the Confederate guns. She lay at the 
Congress street bridge in Boston Harbor, and it was there that the en- 
tire force rendezvoused, and from her the various details went out. 

The first actual .service rendered was the putting in readiness of the 
monitors Lehigh and Catskill, which lay at the Mare Island navy yard, 
Philadelphia, a detail of officers and men being sent on April 2, 1898, for 
this purpose. On April 17, full crews for these monitors went on board, 
and, with few exceptions, served without change during the war, the 

Catskill being commanded 
by Lieutenant Martin E. 
Hall, and the Lehigh by 
Lieutenant R. G. Peck, both 
regulars. On July 17, Lieu- 
tenants Hall and Peck were 
succeeded by Lieutenants 
James O. Porter and A. B. 
Denny, of the naval brigade, 
who held their commands 
until the close of the war. 

These monitors were 
of the well-known civil war 
type, had a speed under their 
own .steam of five or six 
knots an hour, carried a sin- 
gle heavily-armored turret, 
and mounted two fifteen- 
inch smooth bore gims of the 
obsolete type of 1862. After 
being thoroughly put in re- 
pair, they were stationed at 
President Roads and at 
Provincetown, where the 
crews were drilled, and a 
watch kept for Spanish ships. 
As watch-dogs of the harbor, these boats served their purpose in 
allaying the fears of those citizens who had real, if needless, expectation 
of Spanish invasion. Of the bravery and efficiency of the men there can 
be no doubt. What would have been the outcome of putting these slow- 
moving and obsolete tubs of vessels, with their old, smooth bores, into 
action against the rifled guns of a modern warship, can, of course, only 
be conjectured. 

Fortunately the Spanish fleet did not seek the New England coast. 

Comin.intling offlcrr of tht- first naval brigade formed in the L'nited States. 




and there was no opportunity given for a display of heroism against tre- 
mendous odds. In addition to these two vessels, the following auxiliaries 
were commissioned: the Inca, Seminole, Governor Russell, and East 
Boston; the first being a converted yacht, the second a converted tug, and 
the last two converted ferry-boats. The Governor Russell and East Bos- 
ton were subsequently detached and added to the regular navy. These 
vessels were well and efficiently manned by men of the Massachusetts 
Naval Reserve. The Inca was commanded by Lieutenant McKay, U. S. 
N.; the Seminole, by Lieutenant J. H. Dillaway, Jr.; the Governor Rus- 
sell, by Lieutenant J. K. Dexter of Springfield. Most of the crew of the 
Seminole, were from the Connecticut Naval Reserve. 

The largest and most important ship, both in equipment and actual 
service, manned by the reserve, was 
the United States Steamer Prairie. 
The Prairie was one of the four Mor- 
gan liners, purchased by the govern- 
ment at the outbreak of the war, and 
named for the four great sections of 
the country, the Yankee, the Dixie, the 
Prairie, and the Yosemite, the Prairie 
having previously been registered as 
the El Sol. She was an iron ship of 
nearly 5,000 tons burden, 410 feet the naval bkioade. gunneky rnACTicE. 



over all, having a record of highest speed of about eighteen knots. 
She carried an armament of ten six-inch, rapid iire guns, six six- 
pounders, and two Colt automatic machine guns. Her crew, which should 
have consisted of at least 250 men, was composed of a bare hundred 
and fifty naval reserve men, reinforced by about thirty volunteers from 
other sources. In spite of their small number, these men proved them- 
selves entirely efficient and capable, and received the approbation of their 
commanding officer and of the navy department, each man, before his 
discharge, winning at least one rating higher than that held at his en- 

On April 23 the assistant secretary of the navy telegraphed to Cap- 
tain Weeks, aboard the Alinnesota: "Send officers and crew for the Prairie 


at once." This despatch was received at 1.30 p. m., and at 9 o'clock the 
next morning a detail reported at the Brooklyn Navy Yard fully officered 
and equipped for duty. The ship, however, was not ready for service, 
and the crew was at once employed in the work of preparation, being 
joined May 2 , by another and larger detail, making the crew complete. This 
detail could have gone at the first call, had it been needed. On Friday. 
May 13, the ship, fully equipped, passed out of New York Harbor to 
deafening .salutes from every steam whistle available, and was attached 
to the New England Coast Patrol; its beat being from Nantucket, South 
Shoals, to a point on the Maine Coast, meeting the San Francisco, flagship 
of the patrol squadron, off Provincetown, daily, for mail and orders. 

In this service the ship remained until the latter part of June, the 


crew being "licked into shape" by the vigorous discipline of Commander 
C. J. Train and Lieutenant Stoney. bluff old sea-dogs, and Executive 
Officer Osterhause, formerly of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, a rigid 
disciplinarian, and, indeed, something of a martinet. During this time 
white-handed clerks and students first learned the work of stevedores, in 
coaling ship and handling ballast — of sailors, in standing watch and work- 
ing a ship at sea, and were faithfully drilled in their already acquired 
knowledge of gunnery and tactics. So well was this breaking-in done, 
that the survivors went South for sterner business — "fit" in all respects 
for the work before them. During the latter part of June the Prairie was 
ordered to New York, where she lay at the Tompkinsville anchorage 
nearly ten days, coaling ship, putting in all the soft coal that could be 
heaped in bunkers and hold; the crew working from reveille at 5 a. m., 
imtil 6 p. m., and all Sun- 
day and Sunday night; 
thus putting in nearly 
eighteen hours at a 
stretch, after an exhaust- 
ing week's work. The 
work was done willingly, 
however, for orders had 
come that all mail was to 
be received at Key West 
until further notice. At 
midnight, Sunday, the 
last lump was in bunkers 
and the hold ran over, and 
the crew dropped amid 
coal dust, barrows and 
baskets, and slept, too ™^ ^^'■■''^ brigade, kecreation. 

utterly weary to get into their hammocks. Reveille, at 5 o'clock the 
next morning, found them there, black and grotesque heaps upon a 
grimy deck. 

Five days later found the ship — the most active cruiser on the 
Havana blockade — lying directly off Morro Castle, and for part of the 
time, the flagship of the squadron. Here the monotony of a long period 
of watching and inaction, with an occasional flurry of excitement over a 
possible blockade-runner, were broken by an action on July 5. 

Except for the national salute which ran down the long line of 
ships in clouds and thunder, and sent the artillerymen on shore to their 
guns in expectation of a bombardment, the anniversary of the Fourth was 
as uneventful as the preceding ones; but during the night a blockade-run- 
ner, a huge steam.ship, showed up through the gloom, attempted to pass, 


but failed, and was lost in the rush of a tropic thunderstorm. Toward 
morning the same vessel was sighted by the Hawk and Castine — smaller 
boats then lying nearer the shore — and driven down the coast. At dawn 
the ship — which proved to be the Spanish liner Alphonso XII — attempted 
to make the Port of Mariel, and grounded on a bar off the mouth of the 

Here a boat from the Hawk attempted to board her, but was re- 
pulsed by a machine gun, and the Castine's attack upon her was answered 
by shore batteries. 

A report of the action was sent to the Prairie, and she made the 
twenty-five mile run in a little over an hour, bringing her ten six-inch 
guns to bear upon the ship and shore batteries with telling effect, and 
soon silencing a return fire which was weak and singularly inaccurate. 
At a distance of at least three miles, great holes were blown through the 
big blockade-runner, and she was soon a mass of burning wreckage. A 
single shot from one of the six-inch guns sunk a gunboat that came 
steaming boldly out of the mouth of the harbor, firing and flying the 
Spanish flag astern. After being about two hours in action the order, 
"Cease firing," was given, and the ship returned to her post on the block- 
ade, untouched by the Spanish fire, and with no accidents. The crew 
behaved with the utmost coolness and courage, and showed great preci- 
sion in gunnery. The Alphonso XII, was loaded with arms, ammunition, 
and supplies, which were destroyed. Those on board escaped to the 
shore, presumably uninjured. 

Four or five days later the Prairie proceeded along the north 
coast of the island, and blockaded the port of Gibara, where there was a 
good harbor, a fort, and a Spanish garrison. The Prairie had at the 



■ \i\ 


.. hi 

1 • I^""^^ — 




— 1 




A l;lG STKAMEl: l.\ lltULULE. 

time strict orders not to attack or fire upon the place unless she was her- 
self fired upon. Hence, for two weeks or so, an amusing series of man- 
oeuvres was indulged in which kept the garrison "guessing." A favorite 


manoeuvre was to head the ship, under a full head of steam, directly tow- 
ard the fort. Troops would pour from the barracks, man and point the 
guns, and in evident excitement await the unexpected attack. When 

llli; JnlclLiHI l;UAl LI .MIING, I . .->. ,N. 

within a short distance the ship would sheer off and run down the coast, 
only to repeat the manoeuvre, perhaps, the next day. The end of this 
comedy of bluff was the withdrawal of the garrison to the interior, leav- 
ing the town deserted, and the surrender of the latter by the civil author- 
ities, who came out in a small ti:g, with a very large white flag, to con- 
duct the negotiations, and who exhibited an amusing mixture of dignity 
and sea-sickness. That same day the Stars and Stripes were planted 
over Gibara, and the protection of the United States was extended to the 
inhabitants, who lived in great fear of a raid by the outlaws who in- 
fested the hills round about them. 

At daybreak the next morning a despatch boat appeared, ordering 
the Prairie to Guantanamo, and she steamed hurriedly eastward, leaving 
the Gibarians to their new flag, and whatsoever fate might go with it. As 
the ship approached the bay of Nipe, further down the coast the smoke 
of a considerable conflict was seen, heavy cannonading was heard, and 
the mast-head look-out could distinguish the flash of guns and see troops 
marching upon the shore, where batteries were replying to several of our 
gunboats in the bay. 

For reasons, perhaps, best known to himself. Captain Train did 
not enter the bay and join the conflict, but contented himself with lying 
off the entrance until the cannonading ceased and the Topeka and Dupont 


steamed out. The ship was then put on her eastward course, and rounded 
Cape Alaysi with no further incident. It is needless to say that "the 
men behind the guns" were bitterly disappointed at this failure to get 
under fire after their long weeks of inaction. 

Guantanamo was as populous as Gibara had been lonely. As we 
rounded the headland, battleship after battleship swung into view. There 
lay, the Oregon, the Massachusetts, the Indiana, the Iowa; the Texas, 
bulldog of the Santiago fight; the Brooklyn, her armor dented and her 
smoke-stack perforated by Spanish shells; the New York; the Vesuvius, 
"thrower of earthquakes"; the Vulcan, a floating machine-shop, within 
whose bulk were machinery and material almost equal to the making of 
a battleship; and a host of cruisers, supply ships, and the largest schoon- 
ers afloat, laden to the eyes with coal for the fleet. 

Here the crew, who had been living for weeks on hard tack and 
canned "beef," got their first taste of fresh meat from the refrigerator 
ships, hauling it, frozen stiff, from the holds, where snow fell under the 
glare of the midsummer tropics. Here, too, they coaled ship alongside 
the huge schooner Frank M. Palmer, with the crew of the Yankee coal- 
ing on the other side, working equal watches with them. By the way, in 
the same time the Prairie, with little more than half the working gang, 
put in much more coal than her sister vessel — a trifling incident, perhaps, 
but showing the stamina of the Massachusetts men; for coaling ship, day 
and night, watch and watch, for five days in a Cuban July, is no trifle. 
With re-filled bunkers and fatter mess chests, the ship sailed away to join 
the Yosemite and San Francisco, north of Porto Rico, on the blockade of 
San Juan. Here she transferred ammunition to the New Orleans, ferry- 
ing it in small boats in a jumping sea, that tried the seamanship and re- 
sources of the crew to the uttermost, the feat being accomplished without 
accident or the loss of a shell. 

The presence of Spanish torpedo boats in the harbor of San Juan 
made the blockade a period of constant watchfulness for fear of night 
attacks, the crews of the six-pounders sleeping by them, with gunners 
constantly on the watch throughout the night, and when the order came 
to proceed to Ponce on the southern side of the island, it was welcomed. 

Arriving at Ponce about the first of August, the Prairie's crew, in 
the weeks that followed, performed a most important service, and work 
that was, perhaps, the most arduous of their eventful cruise. The bay 
was already beginning to fill with transports, and troops under General 
Miles were forcing their way northward toward San Juan. Daily more 
transports arrived, and one of these, the Massachusetts, a big 6,000 ton 
liner, ran aground on a shifting sand bar at the mouth of the harbor. 
She was loaded to her fullest capacity with cavalry, whose presence ashore 
was greatly desired, and her troopers were transferred to the Prairie over 


night, and thence ferried ashore in the ship's boats. Meanwhile the 
horses were being transferred to lighters, and the work continued night 
and day until finished. The Prairie, with a hold full of hawsers, witli 
her heavy bitts and powerful engines, was the most available ship for 
getting this transport off the bar, and she was accordingly ordered to the 
work. It was an arduous and dangerous duty, involving, as it did,- the 
constant running of great hawsers that snapped like twine under the tug 
of the engines, and had to be replaced with ceaseless and herculean labor, 
and it was continued, with no let up, for nearly a week, when the trans- 
port slipped off the bar and anchored, uninjured, safely within the bay. 

Twenty-four hours afterward the Manitoba, a similar ship similarly 
loaded, steamed in, and, despite all warning, grounded in the same place. 
Again the Prairie's crew bent to the work of rescue, this time with the 
as.sistance of the Saturn — a big steam collier. The first hawser which 
the latter put aboard snapped, and sent her ashore on the bar in a far 
worse position than the other. After another week of labor, day and 
night, the Prairie, with the assistance of a small tug, got the Manitoba 
safely within the bay, and shortly after the .Saturn, with most of her coal 
thrown overboard, and much racked and strained by the seas, was res- 
cued from her perilous position, and the Prairie steamed proudly back to 
her anchorage amid the toots of steam whistles, which voiced the con- 
gratulations of the great fleet. 

This work, promptly and successfully done, was of great value to 
the expedition, and reflected great credit on the energy and resourceful- 
ness of Lieutenant Stoney, who had entire charge of it, as well as upon 
the pluck and persistency of the crew. 

The strain upon the latter was shown by the increase of illness 
among them, nearly a fourth of the whole crew being at one time on the 
sick list. The illness of two of these — Boatswain's mate Lynward 
French, and Coxswain Downey, both of Fall River — became so serious 
that they were put aboard the St. Paul to be sent home. French died on 
the way, and was buried with the marines who fell at Camp McCalla, 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Downey reached the hospital at New York, 
and eventually recovered. 

The Prairie remained at San Juan until the news of the signing of 
the peace protocol was received, and toward the end of the month was 
ordered to Santiago, where she took aboard a part of the Seventh Color- 
ado Regiment, and brought them to Camp Wickoff, on Long Lsland. 

After a considerable stay at Tomkinsville, N. Y., the Prairie was 
ordered to League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, where she was laid up 
in ordinary, and the crew shipped to Charlestown Navy Yard, and there 
discharged from the service, thus ending a five months cruise, in which 
the-ship had logged some 16,000 miles, traversed the coast from Maine to 


Key West, and thence to the uttermost limit of the then Spanish West 

Two coast defense vessels, manned chiefly by the New York Naval Reserves, 
were commanded by officers of the Massachusetts Naval Brigade. 

The "Aileen" was employed in watching the mine fields of New York Harbor. 
Her commander, Lieut. Walter R. Addicks, commissioned to the junior grade August 
19, 1897, was ordered, April 22, 1898, by Capt. J. W. Weeks, to report for duty to Lieut. - 
Commander H. G. V. Colby, U. S. N., to command a torpedo boat. He reported 
April 23, reported for physical examination May 28, and on June 13 was ordered by 
Rear Admiral Erben, U. S. N., to report for examination at the Boston Navy Yard, 
where, on June 20, he was duly examined by the Board, and on June 21 discharged 
from duty by Commander Allen D. Brown, U. S. N. On July 2, 1898, he was appointed 
lieutenant, U. S. N., at once forwarded his acceptance, and on July 5 was ordered to 
command the "Aileen" in New York Harbor. On August 11 he was detached to com- 
mand the U. S. S.S. "Huntress." On August 23 he was ordered back to the "Aileen" ; 
but this order was countermanded the same day, and on the 25th he was ordered to 
proceed with the "Huntress" to Brooklyn Navy Yard and go out of commission, which 
he did the next day, and was ordered home. The "Huntress" went out of commission 
.■\ugust 30, 1898, and Lieutenant Addicks was honorably discharged from the United 
States Navy September 6, 1898. He returned to duty with the Naval Brigade, was 
commissioned lieutenant chief of Co. A, April 11, 1889, and honorably discharged 
August 31, 1S99. 

Lieut. Gardner I. Jones, on April 21, 1898, reported to Lieut. -Commander H. 
G. V. Colby, U. S. N., commanding the Mosquito Fleet, of the Second District, for 
duty as commanding officer of a gun vessel. Was assigned to the "Governor Russell," 
and made plans and blue prints for converting the ferry boat into a gun vessel. On 
May 12, he reported to Lieut. Robert E. Peck, U. S. N., commanding U. S. monitor 
"Lehigh", as navigator and watch officer. On July 3, having passed written examina- 
tions at the Charlestown Navy Yard, he was commissioned lieutenant, senior grade, 
U. S. N., and ordered to report at New London, Ct., to command the U. S. monitor 
"Jason", then stationed at the entrance of Long Island Sound, off Fisher's Island, as 
a coast defense vessel for the protection of the shores of Long Island Sound, and 
attached to the Third District of the Auxiliary Coast Defense, under command of 
Lieut. -Commander J. N. Miller, U. S. N. On August 25, he was ordered to proceed 
to Fort Pond Bay, at Montauk Point, Long Island, and on August 29 left Fort Pond 
Bay for League Island Navy Yard, where he arrived on August 31. On September 3, 
the "Jason" was put out of commission, Lieut. Jones was detached and ordered home, 
and on September 10, received an honorable discharge from the United States naval 

Four new companies were authorized by the Legislature in 1898: I, of Fall 
River, Lieutenant William B. Edgar: K, of Boston, Lieutenant Pelham Dodd ; L, of 
Newburyport, Lieutenant Edward G. Moody; M, of Gloucester, Lieutenant William 
G. O'Brien, were organized and officered. Thirty-three men of Company K served in 
the Signal Corps, and on the "Catskill", "Inca", "Governor Russell" and "East Bos- 
ton." Company M, of Gloucester, was disbanded in 1899. 

With a few exceptions the first of October saw the entire Massachu- 
setts Naval Reserve discharged from the service, in which they had won 
honors in diverse and difficult fields of operation. 

Leiictli, 200 fet't; beam, 4^ iVrt; ilrait, U foet, 6 inches; (llsplacement, 1875 tuns; coal capacity, 150 tons; indicated horse- 
power, (^TUSB l)Op|H'i-) fii-ine, 340 ln^rsepower, at t; knots per hi>ur. Protection: armour belts and si'U-s, 5 1-iuch plates; 
turret, 11 inches. Armament: Tivo IG-incli smnoth-tiore muzzle-loading, Dahlgrens. Complement: 10 officers and 101 men, 
of the Hrooklyn and Rochester, N. Y. Naval lU-serves. 

U. S. S. "AlLEfcLN," 1SU8. 

Was formerly owned by R. Stevens, N.Y. Designed by Gardner A; Cox, built by Roach, at Chester, Pa,, in 1896, of 7-S-inch 
steel, 140 feet over all; load line, 115 feet; beam, 20 feet; depth, 13 feet; dnmylit, 8.75 feet; burthen, ISG tons; engines, triple 
expansion; coil ijoiler, speed, 13 knots. Armament: 1 3-pouuder senii-autouiatic Maxim; '2 1 ponnder automatic Maxims; 
2 G m.m. automatic Colt quick-firing guns. 




By Colonel James A. Frye, Inspector-General of Rifle Practice. 

UT little more than twenty-five years 

ago, the story of rifle practice in the 

Massachusetts Volunteer Militia might 

have been told with a small expendi- 

of words — for at that time, to state facts 

briefly and yet explicitly, there was no such 

thing as rifle practice. And, furthermore, the 

conditions existing in Massachusetts were 

those which were to be found not only among 

the troops of all the other States, but even in 

the regular army itself. 

In the quarter-century now drawing to 
a close, more of time, more of money, and more of systematic effort have 
been devoted to practical military training than in all the other peaceful 
years combined since the founding of the Republic, and that the results 
achieved have amply made good the outlay, cannot be questioned . Per- 
haps the most marked advance towards real service efficiency has been 
that made in the department of small-arms training. 

Many commissioned officers now in the service can readily recall 
the period when the majority of good Americans, both in and out of Con- 
gress and State legislatures, clung tenaciously to the comforting delusion 
that ours was a nation of natural riflemen. The stories of Lexington, of 
Bunker Hill, of New Orleans — reinforced by brilliant, if apocryphal, 
anecdotes, culled from all of our wars from 1812 to 1861 — did yeoman 
service in defeating many an honest attempt at military reform. Propo- 
sitions looking towards the adoption of a national system of training in 
the actual use of small-arms, were met with ridicule, and then dismissed 
with splendid contempt. For, while there were to be found legislators 
and citizens willing to concede that some familiarity with marching 
manoeuvres and some cleverness at the manual of arms might be essen- 
tial to the making of the soldier, there were few or none prepared to 
admit that skill in marksmanship was not an inherent quality — a national 
characteristic, which, without further worry or thought, might be reck- 
oned as a ready asset in our military stock-taking. 


Unfortunately for the theories of the people and their law-makers, 
it still remained a fact that marksmen are made rather than born. Skill 
with arms ever has been, and ever will be, an acquirement, and not an 
inheritance. While it indisputably is true that the Americans, as a nation, 
always have possessed the military instinct, it is yet equally true that 
blind reliance on this martial spirit, coupled with an utter disregard for 
that systematic training which alone could made it effective, has on more 
than one occasion led the way perilously near to di.saster. We are wont, 
with an optimism thoroughly American, to forget our blunders. In con- 
sulting the records of the past, we rapidly turn the pages which tell the 
story of national negligence, and linger over those which appeal to our 
vanity by their recital of our ultimate — though too dearly bought — suc- 
cesses. And to this trait must be ascribed our neglect, for nearly a cen- 
tury, to give anything like intelligent attention, to field-firing with service 

The twin stock assertions of the politician — that ours was a nation 
of marksmen, and that the rifle was the national arm — did untold harm 
in the decades immediately preceding and following the Civil War. It is 
true that in the early days, when anti-expansionists were unknown, when 
the frontier slowly but surely was being pushed westward by our fighting 
pioneers, and when our armed strength alone prevented aggression from 
beyond the seas, there were few able-bodied citizens incapable of using 
firearms with effect. The flint-lock and powder-horn then hung in the 
place of honor in every dwelling: the bullet-mould was an indispensable 
article of household furniture. But by the middle of the present century 
these primitive conditions had passed away forever. Almost uncon- 
sciously, we had become a nation of city-dwellers, and even the farming 
population — with the passing of the Indian and the disappearance of big 
game — had lost its early skill in shooting. 

The belief that the rifle was the American national arm has been 
based, until recent years, upon a most unsubstantial foundation. The 
traditionary deeds of Morgan's riflemen in the Revolution, of Jackson's 
at New Orleans, and of the innumerable scouts and hunters who won 
fame in the early frontier days — all have contributed towards strengthen- 
ing this long-cherished, popular delusion. But the stubborn fact remains 
that, up til 1 86 1, in every war fought on this continent, the troops of the 
line, by whom must be decided the final issue of any war, have been 
armed simply and solely with the smooth-bore musket. From 1635 until 
1830- — when the percussion cap and lock were adopted — the troops of the 
colonies, and later of the Republic, were sent into the field with the cum- 
bersome flint-lock, and it was not until 1854, well after the close of the 
Mexican War, that the issue of muzzle-loading rifles to the regular army 
was beo-un. The well-known Springfield breech-loading rifle dates from 



1868, while the most recent weapon, the Krag-Jorgenson, was issued 
in 1895. 

At the time of the Civil War, we, indeed, approached the condition 
of a nation of riflemen; for in the two contending armies over three mil- 
lions of men found themselves called upon to handle this weapon. But 
that we developed into a nation of marksmen in this stern schooling may 
well be doubted. It has been too readily forgotten that regiment after 
regiment of raw troops was rushed headlong to the front, to obtain its 
first experience with its untried weapons in the turmoil and stress of 
action. That lines of battle not infrequently became engaged at ranges 
of one hundred yards, and in many instances at even closer quarters, is a 


matter of official record; that utter annihilation of one or the other of 
the contending forces failed to result from fighting under such conditions, 
must afford illuminating testimony to the utter lack of marksmanship on 
the part of the combatants. The struggle of 1861-65 — the most stub- 
born and bloody of modern times — was fought to its bitter conclusion by 
men practically devoid of musketry training, and the Union owes its 
preservation to the grim determination of its defenders, rather than to 
their efficiency as riflemen. 

With the close of the Rebellion the nation threw aside its arms 
and devoted all its energies to the repair of the havoc wrought by four 



long years of fighting. It was enough that the cause of the Union had 
triumphed: the lessons learned in the rough school of experience were 
speedily forgotten. Here and there patriotic men were found to protest 
against the general disregard for things military; but the mass of the 
people, through their representatives in the legislative bodies, impatiently 
refused to concern themselves with measures looking towards preparation 
for war in times of peace. 

ileanwhile England — though at peace with all the world — had been 
quietly strengthening her national defense. Slowly but systematically 
her magnificent volunteer establishment had been organized and trained 
as a reserve for the regular army, and in i860 — in recognition of the 
axiom that "the man who cannot shoot is useless, and an encumbrance to 
his battalion" — the National Rifle Association of Great Britain was 

formed, for the encourage- 
ment and direction of vol- 
unteer rifle practice, and the 
famous range at Wimble- 
don was dedicated. It was 
not until thirteen years later 
that the example set by Eng- 
land was to be followed in 
this country. 

In 1 87 1, after long 
agitation of the matter, the 
leading military authorities 
of New York, aided by civi- 
lian riflemen, incorporated 
the National Rifle Associa- 
tion, and in 1873 the range 
at Creedmoor, Long Island, 
was thrown open. From this 
time dates the era of system- 
atic rifle instruction in 
America. The regular army, 
up to this time, had paid no 
attention whatever to this 
essential part of the soldier's 
training, and it is worthy of 
note that to militiamen and 
civilians is due the credit 
for the improved conditions at once apparent in the military establish- 
ment. A paragraph from an order by General Ord, of the regular army, 
issued in 1873, furnishes a grim commentary on the methods in vogue at 





the time: — "Post commanders will direct the issue of any lumber which 
may be needed for targets. Recent campaigns against Indians have 
demonstrated that it is better to expend lumber for targets than for coffins. " 

In 1875, following the 
lead of New York, the Massa- 
chusetts Rifle Association, 
which is still in a flourishing 
condition, was organized by 
a number of civilians inter- 
ested in the sport, and in the 
same year the Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia Rifle Asso- 
ciation was formed by a body 
of officers who had at heart 
the advancement of the ser- 
vice. The Commonwealth 
had as yet refused to recog- 
nize rifle practice as essen- 
tial, although on the purchase 
of the camp reservation at 
Framingham, in 1873, Adju- 
tant-General Cunningham 
had written: — " I earnestly 
recommend the building of 
target signals and bulkheads, 
and making all necessary 
preparations for successful 
target practice; that officers 
and men of the active militia 

Photo, by J. E. Clements. 



be allowed transportation to 

and from the grounds, once each year, for the purpose of target practice; 
also that the Quartermaster-General be authorized to issue a reasonable 
amount of ammunition, to be expended in such target practice." 

The first militia competition held in the State was shot at South 
Framingham, under the auspices of the M. V. M. R. A., on November 17, 
1875. -^^ '^hi-'' time forty-one of the sixty companies of infantry in the 
militia establishment were armed with the Springfield muzzle-loading rifle, 
calibre .58, while the remainder had the Peabody breech-loading rifle, 
calibre .43. Twenty-three company teams, eighteen of which shot with, 
the Peabody, entered this match. Each team consisted of five men, firing 
five shots, at 200 yards, off-hand, giving a possible team total of 125. The 
trophy was won by Company C, First Infantry, on a score of 81 points, or 
but 64 per cent of the possible aggregate. 


In 1876 began the issue of the Springfield breech-loading rifle, cali- 
bre .45, and by the following year the infantry was fully equipped with 
this arm. Annual competitions were held under the direction of the 
M. V. M. R. A. until 1880, when the State assumed the responsibility, and 
the association, having effected its purpose, went out of existence. To 
the officers by whose enthusiasm the State system of rifle practice was 
inaugurated, too much credit cannot be given; their unselfish work has 
borne fruit in the unquestioned rifle efficiency of the Massachusetts troops 
of to-day. 

Asa matter of record, the statistics of the annual State competitions 
are given below, from that of 1S75, when the winning team of five men 
scored but 64 per cent, of the possible total, to that of 1899, when the tro- 
phy was won by a regimental team of fifteen men, attaining 87 per cent, 
of the possible score, at two ranges. In 1898, the First Heavy Artillery, 
Second, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth and Xinth Infantry, with the Xaval Brigade, 
being in the volunteer service of the United States for the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, no competition was held. Since 1882, the regiment or battalion 
represented by the winning team, has carried the " Tri-Color " on its 
standard during the ensuing year. 

1875. — Company teams of five men, firing five shots each at 200 
yards. Twenty-three teams competing. Won by Company C, First 
Infantry. Score, Si points out of a possible 125. 

1S76. — Same conditions as in 1875. Nineteen teams competing. 
Won by Company A, First Corps Cadets. Score, 85 points. 

1877. — Same conditions as in 1875. Twenty -two teams competing. 
Won by Company A, Fifth Infantry. Score, 80 points. 

1878. — Same conditions as in 1875. Seventeen teams competing. 
Won by Company D, First Corps Cadets. Score, 87 points. 

1879. — Same conditions as in 1875. Nine teams competing. Won 
by Company A, Sixth Infantry. Score, 103 points. 

1880. — Massachusetts Volunteer Militia Rifle Association relieved 
of supervision, and competition held under .State orders. Company teams 
of five men, firing ten shots each at 200 yards. Four teams competing. 
Won by Company D, First Infantry. Score, 189 points out of a possible 2 50. 

1 88 1. — Same conditions as in 1880. Company D, First Infantry, 
was the only command complying with orders as to preliminary practice, 
and was awarded the prize without competition. 

1882. — Same conditions as in 1880. Fifteen teams competing. Won 
by Company D, First Infantry. Score, 190 points. In this competition 
for the first time the "Tri-Color" was awarded to the regiment or battal- 
ion having the winning team. 

1883. Same conditions as in 1880. Thirty-seven teams compet- 
ing. Won by Company G, Second Infantry. Score, 196 points. 


1884. — Company teams of seven men, firing seven shots each at 200 
yards. Fifty-four teams competing. Won by Company E, First Infantiy. 
Score, 176 points out of a possible 245. 

1885. — Same conditions as in 1884. Fifty-six teams competing. 
Won by Company D, First Infantry. Score, 184 points. 

1886. — Same conditions as in 1884. Sixty-six teams competing. 
Won by Company D, First Corps Cadets. Score, 193 points. 

1887. — vSame conditions as in 1884. Sixty-six teams competing. 
Won by Company B, Second Infantry. Score, 197 points. 

1888. — Same conditions as in 1884. Seventy-eight teams compet- 
ing. Won by Company B, Second Infantry. Score 200 points. 

1889. — Same conditions as in 1884. Seventy-four teams competing. 
Won by Company A, Sixth Infantry. Score, 201 points. 

i8go. — Regimental or battalion teams of twelve men, firing ten 
shots each at 200 yards. From this year the State General Competition 
was contested by nine teams, representing the six regiments of the line, 
the two Corps of Cadets, and the Naval Brigade. Company teams shot 
their matches in special regimental and battalion competitions. Won by 
the Second Infantry. Score, 492 points out of a possible 600. 

i8gi. — Regimental and battalion teams of twelve men, firing seven 
shots each at 200 and 500 yards. Won by the Second Infantry. Score at 
200 yards, 340 points out of a possible 420; at 500 yards, 328 points out of 
a possible 420; aggregate, 668 points out of a possible 840. 

1892. — Same conditions as in 1 89 1. Won by First Infantry. Score 
at 200 yards, 341 points ; at 500 yards, S57 points ; aggregate, 678 points. 

1893. — Same conditions as in 1 89 1. Won by Sixth Infantry. Score 
at 200 yards, 329 points ; at 500 yards, 349 points ; aggregate 678 points. 

1894. — Same conditions as in 1891. Won by First Infantry. Score 
at 200 yards, 353 points; at 500 yards, 352 points; aggregate, 705 points. 

1895. — Regimental and battalion teams of fifteen men, firing ten 
shots each at 200 and 500 yards. Won by Sixth Infantry. Score at 200 
yards, 647 points out of a possible 750; at 500 yards, 604 points out of a 
possible 750; aggregate, 1251 points out of a pos.sible 1500. 

i8g6. — Same conditions as in 1895. Won by Sixth Infantry. Score 
at 200 yards, 643 points; at 500 yards, 630 points; aggregate score, 1273 

1897. — Same conditions as in 1895. Won by Fifth Infantry. Score 
at 200 yards, 649 points; at 500 yards, 659 points; aggregate 1308 points. 

1898. — State General Competition abandoned owing to absence of 
Massachusetts troops in volunteer service of United States. 

1899 — Same conditions as in 1895. Won by First Heavy Artillery, 
formerly First Infantry. Score at 200 yards, 659 points; at 500 yards. 
645 points; aggregate, 1304 points. 



It must not for an instant be thought that match-firing has been the 
sole end of rifle practice in the Massachusetts militia. Far from this, it 
has simply been regarded as the means for stimulating the interest of in- 
dividuals in the work in hand. The real labor of the department has been 
devoted to the qualifying of the men in the ranks for effective shooting 
under field conditions, and not to the development of a mere handful of 
expert shots. As early as 1 88c, marksmanship badges were issued for scores 
made under easy conditions, and since that year the efforts to make effi- 
cient every officer and man of the combatant arms of the service have never 

The standards for marksmanship have varied from year to year, 
and, since they are necessary to an intelligent study of the progress made, 
they are given below. 

18S0-82 — One score of 17 out of a possible 25, at 200 yards. 

1883 — First Class: One score of 20 out of a possible 25, at 200 
yards; one score of 17 out of a possible 25, at 300 yards; one score of 17 
out of a possible 25, at 500 yards. Second class: One score of 20 out of 
a possible 25, at 200 yards. Third class: One score of 17 out of a pos- 
sible 25, at 200 yards. 

1884-85 — First Class: One score of 20 out of a possible 25, at 200 
yards; one score of 20 out of a possible 25, at 300 yards; one score of 20 

Photo, f'l/ ■/. Ernest Clt^meiits. 


out of a possible 25, at 500 yards. Second and third classes, unchanged. 
1886-89 — Sharpshooter: One score of 43 out of a possible 50, at 



500 yards; one score of 43 out of a possible 50, at 600 yards; one score of 
43 out of a possible 50, at 800 yards. First class. One score of 40 out of 
a possible 50, at 200 yards; one score of 40 out of a possible 50, at 500 
yards. Second and third classes, unchanged. 

1890 — Distinguished Marksman: A sharpshooter of record, whi 

has won an indi- 
competition under 
been mentioned in 
a position on the 
has represented 
orders, at a nation- 
changes in the re- 
this class have 
its inception. 
Three scores of 
ble 25, at 200 yards; 
out of a possible 
three scores of 22 
25, at 600 yards. 
scores of 2 i out of 
200 yards; three 
a possible 25, at 

THE UII.IciN lltcirHY. 
WOD liy the Massachusetts .Militia, 1S86-7-8-9, 

vidual prize in any 
State auspices, has 
orders as winning 
"State Team," or 
the State, under 
al competition. No 
quirements for 
been made since 
22 out of a possi- 
three scores of 22 
25, at 500 yards; 
(jut of a possible 
First class: Three 
a possible 25, at 
scores of 2 i out of 
500 yards. Second 
of 18 out of a pos- 
Three scores of 16 out of a 

class: Three scores 

sible 25, at 200 yards. Third class: 

possible 25, at 200 yards. 

1891-96 — Sharpshooter: Two scores of 22 out of a possible 25, at 
200 yards; two scores of 24 out of a possible 25, at 500 yards; two scores 
of 23 out of a possible 25, at 600 yards. First class: Two scores of 21 
out of a possible 25, at 200 yards; two scores of 21 out of a possible 25, 
at 500 yards. Second class: Two scores of 18 out of a possible 25, at 
200 yards. Third class: Two scores of 15 out of a possible 25, at 200 

1897-98 — Sharpshooter: Two scores of 22 out of a possible 25, at 
200 yards; two scores of 23 out of a possible 25, at 500 yards; two scores 
of 23 out of a possible 25, at 600 yards. First, second, and third classes, 

1899 — Sharpshooter: Two scores of 22 out of a possible 25, at 200 
yards; two scores of 23 out of a possible 25, at 500 yards; two scores of 
21 out of a possible 25, at 600 yards. First, second, and third classes, 

While minor alterations have been made from time to time in the 
conditions governing qualifications, the policy by which the department 
has been guided has never varied. For nearly a quarter of a century the 



officers charged with its administration have labored untiringly to encour- 
age the rank and file of the militia, not only in acquiring a serviceable 
familiarity with the rifle and carbine, but also in inciting a genuine liking 
for practice with these weapons. Through their efforts, legislation has 
been procured compelling cities and towns wherein troops are stationed 
to provide proper facilities for range practice; ample provision has been 
made for the issue of marksmanship decorations, to encourage qualifica- 
tions; grants of money have been made for rifle efficiency; and ammu- 
nition and transportation have been provided to further the work. Since 
1894, the annual vState appropriation for the expenses of the department 
has been not less than $1 5,000— and even this large sum at times has been 
found inadequate for the work in hand. 

And that this incessant effort has not been in vain, becomes evident 
on a glance at the results obtained. The following table will show the 
steady growth of the militia in rifle efficiency, from 1880, when decora- 
tions first were issued for qualifications, until 1897 — the latest year of 
routine work. It should be borne in mind that the column showing the 
total active strength, includes not only the infantry, cavalry, and naval 
brigade men, but also the light artillery, ambulance and signal corps, and 
others not required to qualify with small-arms. In view of the results 
attained in recent years, there need be no wonder that in the late war 
with vSpain the authorities of Massachusetts felt nothing but pride in 
sending her troops into the service of the General Government. 






4. '35 
































6, 152 


Massac 1 





























3. 40' 












n volunte 

er service of U. S. 

Aside from the excellent showing made in the matches shot under 
vState auspices, many brilliant successes have been scored by military 
teams from Massachusetts on ranges outside the Commonwealth. For 
seven years the militia sent teams to compete for the "Inter-State" cham- 



pionship at Creedmoor, winning fifth position in 1878, with a score of 
722 points; third in 1879, score 928; second in 1885, score 959; and the 
coveted first place in 1886, 1887, 1888, and 1889, with the splendid scores 
of 1,024, 1,014, 1,047, and 1,045 points respectively. These victories 
brought, temporarily, into the custody of the State the beautiful bronze 
trophy known to all riflemen as the "Soldier of Marathon." 

From 1886 to 1889, the Hilton Challenge Trophy, emblematic of 
the military shooting supre- 
macy of the world, was F" ■ 
handsomely won by the 
Massachusetts team, with the 
record-breaking scores of 
1,044, 1.096, 1,080, and 1,057 
points. Since the latter year, 
however, no teams have com- 
peted for the trophy under 
State orders, owing to a feel- 
ing that lack of interest on 
the part of other countries, 
as well as among our own 
States, had robbed the con- 
test of its original signifi- 

In 1887a team often 
officers and men competed 
at Chicago, defeating teams 
from the regular army and 
many of the Western States. 
In 1S89 a carefully selected 
team, under command of the 
late Major J. P. Frost, A. I. 
G. R. P., invaded England 
and defeated the representa- 
tives of the Honorable Ar- 
tillery Company of London, 
the Royal Berkshire Regi- 
ment, the London Rifle Brigade, the Sussex County Volunteers, and 
the South London Rifle Association. The story of this peaceful cam- 
paign, which did much to promote good fellowship between the riflemen 
of the two countries, has been told at length in another part of this 

It is impossible to give in detail the victories won by individual 
oflicers and men of the militia, but it should be said that the men from 

Photo, by J. Fnii'^t C'/emenls. 



Massachusetts have always been found among the prize winners at every 
meeting of importance held during the last twenty years. In 1S82, 
Major C. W. Hinman — then private in the First Infantry — shot on the 
American team which met Sir Henry Halford's British riflemen at Creed- 
moor, and in the following year, with Privates Rabbeth, First Infantry, 
and Bull, Second Infantry, he accompanied the American team to shoot 
the return match at Wimbledon. In 1896, at the Olympic Games at 
Athens, the world's military revolver championship was won by Lieuten- 
ant J. B. Paine, I. R. P., First Infantry, -while Lieutenant Sumner Paine, 
of the same regiment, won the "any revolver" championship at this his- 
toric meeting. 

The officers and men who have upheld the honor of Massachusetts 
at the Creedmoor contests, are the following: Sergeant J. P. Andrews, 
First Infantry; Private F. D. Bartlett, First Cadets; Lieutenant L. H. 
Bateman, Fifth Infantry; Colonel M. Beal, Sixth Infantry; Private A. L. 
Brackett, First Infantry; Private F. C. Brownell, First Infantry; Private 
F. R. Bull, Second Infantry; Private M. W. Bull, Second Infantry; Lieu- 
tenant S. S. Bumstead, Second Infantry; Private M. Daulton, First 
Infantry; Private C. S. Dole, First Cadets; Sergeant G. Doyle, Second 
Infantry; Private L. Eddy, First Infantry; Lieutenant R. B. Edes, Fifth 
Infantry; Corporal G. E. Everett, First Infantry; Private L. T. Farns- 
worth. Second Infantry; Private W. M. Farrow, Second Infantry; Private 
C. C. Foster, First Cadets; Major J. P. Frost, A. I. G. R. P.; Private H. 
C. Gardner, First Infantry; Sergeant I. P. Gragg, First Infantry; Private 
L. Grant, First Cadets; Major C. W. Hinman, A. I. G. R. P.; Major E. 
Hobbs, Second Cadets; Sergeant L. L. Hubbard, First Infantry; Cor- 
poral W. D. Huddleson, First Infantry; Lieutenant W. G. Hussey, 
Eighth Infantry; Sergeant W. C. Johnston, Second Brigade; Corporal W. 
W. Kellett, Second Cadets; Corporal W. M. Lithgow, First Infantry; 
Sergeant W. M. Merrill, Second Brigade; Lieutenant W. H. Merritt, 
Second Cadets; Captain J. B. Osborn, First Brigade; Sergeant C. A. 
Parker, First Cadets; Private F. W. Perkins, Eighth Infantry; Private 
N. A. Putnam, First Infantry; Lieutenant H. T. Rockwell, First Infan- 
try; Private E. C. Spofford, Second Cadets; Sergeant C. C. Wemyss, 
Fifth Infantry; Private A. C. White, Second Infantry; Lieutenant H. 
White, First Infantry; Private L. M. Wiswell, Fifth Infantry. It is 
worthy of note that on the Creedmoor team for 1878 was detailed, as 
substitute, Private William E. Russell, Company D, First Corps of Ca- 
dets, who later was destined to become Governor of Massachusetts and 
Commander-in-Chief of its militia. 

Since 1890* the following marksmen have been mentioned in orders 
for their performances at the State General Competitions, such mention 

• Up to and IncluUine 1S98. 


carrying with it eligibility to positions on the "State Team," annually 
placed on record: Gunner's Mate G. T. Adams, Naval Brigade; Lieuten- 
ant F. A. Bardwell, Second Infantry; Lieutenant T. D. Barroll, Eighth 
Infantry; Sergeant E. E. Baudoin, First Infantry; Private W. H. Bean, 
Second Cadets; Sergeant J. W. Blake, First Infantry; Lieutenant J. 
Bordman, Jr., First Infantry; Private G. G. Bradford, Cadets; Cor- 
poral T. H. Bradley, First Infantry; Sergeant D. M. Bruce, Second 
Cadets; Lieutenant :\I. W. Bull, Second Infantry; Lieutenant S. S. Bum- 
stead, Second Infantry; Private J. C. Cadigan, Second Infantry; Private 
H. N. Conn, First Cadets; Sergeant W. W. Cooke, Fifth Infantry; Ser- 
geant G. P. Cooley, First Infantry; Lieutenant H. S. Grossman, Naval 
Brigade; Private C. Delaney, Second Infantry; Private B. Dimock, Eighth 
Infantry; Private G. F. Draper, Eighth Infantry; Private G. Durward, 
Fifth Infantry; Lieutenant R. B. Edes, Fifth Infantry; Lieutenant F. B. 
Felton, Second Infantry; Sergeant F. T. Fischer, Sixth Infantry; Lieu- 
tenant J. L. Gibbs, First Infantry; Lieutenant E. J. Gihon, Sixth In- 
fantry; Seaman F. C. Graves, Naval Brigade; Sergeant F. E. Gray, Sixth 
Infantry; Lieutenant C. E. Hamilton, Fifth Infantry; Sergeant F. G. 
Harden, Eighth Infantry; Musician A. E. Harlow, First Infantry; Lieu- 
tenant H. O. Hicks, Second Infantry; Sergeant N. Hill, Jr., Second 
Cadets; Lieutenant C. T. Hilliker, Eighth Infantry; Private C. A. Hinds, 
Second Infantry; Major C. W. Hinman, First Brigade; Private C. E. 
Horton, Sixth Infantry; Corporal R. Howard, Sixth Infantry; Color 
Sergeant W. D. Huddleson, First Infantry; Sergeant A. F. Hull, Second 
Cadets; Private W. G. Hussey, Second Cadets; Private W. B. Jackson, 
Fifth Infantry; Private H. Johnson, Second Infantry; Musician J. H. 
Keough, Sixth Infantry; Musician P. S. Killam, Sixth Infantry; Private 
P. A. Mansfield, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant T. McCarthy, Fifth Infantry; 
Lieutenant W. H. Merritt, Second Cadets; Sergeant J. J. Monahan, 
Troop F, Cavalry; Captain M. E. Morris, Ninth Infantry; Private G. H. 
Nason, Fifth Infantry; Private R. M. Neidel, Second Infantry; Captain C. 
P. Nutter, First Infantry; Lieutenant J. B. Paine, First Infantry; Ser- 
geant-Major V. C. Pond, First Cadets; Private J. P. Reardon, Ninth 
Infantry; Coxswain J. B. Richards, Naval Brigade; Sergeant W. S. Rip- 
ley, Signal Corps. First Brigade; Paymaster Sergeant G. R. Russell, First 
Infantry; Sergeant H. J. Smith, Second Infantry; Private S. G. Smith, 
Fifth Infantry; Major F. G. Southmayd, Second Infantry; Sergeant E. T. 
Stephens, Second Infantry; Captain W. E. Sweetser, Sixth Infantry; 
Sergeant G. E. .Symonds, Second Cadets; Corporal G. L. Tabbut, Sixth 
Infantry; Private J. D. Upton, First Cadets; Sergeant-Major H. C. Wells, 
First Cadets; Captain R. A. Whipple, Second Infantry; Sergeant G. E. 
Worthen, Second Cadets; Private G. E. Worthen, Jr., Second Cadets. 

The following officers and men have won ratings as Distinguished 


Marksmen since that grade was instituted in 1890. The roll includes 
nearly all the winners of individual decorations during that period: — 
Private W. T. Abbott, Eighth Infantry; Gunner's Mate G. T. Adams, 
Naval Brigade; Private T. Anderton, First Heavy Artillery; Captain C.J. 
Baker, Second Cadets; Lieutenant F. A. Bardwell, Second Infantry; Pri- 
vate T. D. Barroll, First Cadets; Sergeant O. B. Battles, First Infantry; 
Sergeant E. E. Baudoin, First Infantry; Captain W. H. Bean, Sixth In- 
fantry; Major G. H. Benyon, Fifth Infantry; Private E. F. Bergholtz, 
Second Cadets; Private J. W. Blake, First Infantry; Lieutenant J. Bord- 
man, Jr., First Infantry; Corporal R. H. Booth, First Infantry; Private 
S. Bowker, Ninth Infantry; Private G. G. Bradford. First Cadets; Corpo- 
ral T. H. Bradley, First Infantry; Lieutenant J. Breen, Ninth Infantry; 
Sergeant D. M. Bruce, Second Cadets; Sergeant M. W. Bull, First Brigade; 
Lieutenant S. S. Bumstead, Second Infantry; Private J. E. Burns, Sixth 
Infantry; Private J. C. Cadigan, Second Infantry; Private W. Carrl, 
Troop F, Cavalry; Colonel W. L. Chase, I. G. R. P.; Major D. Clark, Sec- 
ond Infantry; Private H. N. Conn, First Cadets; Trooper C. F. Cook, First 
Cavalry; Corporal W. E. Cook, First Heavy Artillery; Sergeant W. W. 
Cooke, Fifth Infantry; Sergeant G. P. Cooley, First Infantry; Sergeant 
F. M. Crittenden, Second Infantry; Lieutenant H. S. Cros.sman, Naval 
Brigade; Captain F. C. Damon, Eighth Infantry; Private A. Davis, Sixth 
Infantry; Private C. Delaney, Second Infantry; Private W. P. Dickson, 
Fifth Infantry; Private B. Dimock, Eighth Infantry; Private G. F. Dra- 
per, Eighth Infantry; Private G. Durward, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant R. B. 
Edes, Fifth Infantry; Capt. C. N. Edgell, Second Infantry; Private S. D. 
Edwards, Second Cadets; Private E. C. B. Erickson, Fifth Infantry; Cor- 
poral G. Faber, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant C. W. Facey, Fifth Infantry; 
Lieutenant F. B. Felton, Second Infantry; Sergeant L. E. Felton, Fifth 
Infantry; Sergeant F. T. Fischer, Sixth Infantry; Major C. C. Foster, 
Fifth Infantry; Private W. M. Foster, Sixth Infantry; Private C. Ester- 
brook, Ninth Infantry; Private W. F. Fowle, Fifth. Infantry; Major J. P. 
Frost, Second Brigade; Lieutenant J. A. Frye, First Infantry; Corporal 
P. D. Gambell, Fifth Infantry; Private W. C. Gannon, Sixth Infantry; 
Corporal J. L. Gibbs, First Infantry; Private C. E. Gillette, First Infan- 
try; Lieutenant E. J. Gihon, Sixth Infantry; Seaman F. C. Graves, Naval 
Brigade; Sergeant F. E. Gray, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant C. E. Hamil- 
ton, Fifth Infantry; Sergeant O. D. Hapgood, Second Infantry; Sergeant 
F. G. Harden, Eighth Infantry; Musician A. E. Harlow, First Infantry; 
Private J. P. Hickey, Second Cadets; Lieutenant H. O. Hicks, Second 
Infantry; Sergeant M. S. Higgins, Eighth Infantry; Sergeant N. Hill, Jr., 
Second Cadets; Lieutenant C. T. Hilliker, Eighth Infantry; Corporal S. A. 
Hinckley, Eighth Infantry; Private C. A. Hinds, Second Infantry; Major 
C. W. Hinman, First Brigade; Private C. E. Horton, Sixth Infantry; Pri- 


vate R. Howard, Sixth Infantry; Corporal W. D. Huddleson, First Infan- 
try; Sergeant A. F. Hull, Second Cadets; Lieutenant W. G. Hussey, Eighth 
Infantry; Corporal W. B. Jackson, Fifth Infantry; Sergeant C. J. Jeffers, 
Eighth Infantry; Private A. D. Jefferson, Second Infantry; Private H. 
Johnson, Second Infantry; Private J. M. Johnson, Second Infantry; Ser- 
geant W. C. Johnson, Jr., Second Brigade; Captain J. H. Joubert, Ninth 
Infantry; Private J. H. Keough, Sixth Infantry; Corporal E. H. Keyes, 
Troop F, Cavalry; Private P. S. Killam, Sixth Infantry; Captain S. T. 
Kirk, Eighth Infantry; Corporal J. V. Lawler, Fifth Infantry; Private 
P. A. Mansfield, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant T. McCarthy, Fifth Infan- 
try; Captain H. McDonald, Second Infantry; Sergeant W. M. Merrill, 
Second Brigade; Lieutenant W. H. Merritt, Second Cadets; Sergeant 
C. W. Mills, Sixth Infantry; Sergeant J. J. Monahan, Troop F, Cavalry; 
Captain M. E. Morris, Ninth Infantry; Lieutenant D. J. Moynihan, Sec- 
ond Infantry; Private G. H. Nason, Fifth Infantry; Private R. M. Nei- 
del. Second Infantry; Lieutenant C. P. Nutter, First Infantry; Lieutenant 
E. C. Osgood, Fifth Infantry; Lieutenant J. B. Paine, First Infantry; 
Sergeant C. A. Parker, First Cadets; Trooper L. J. Parkhurst, Troop F, 
Cavalry; Private L. W. Patten, Fifth Infantry; Seaman A. J. Perkins, 
Naval Brigade; Corporal F. W. Pierce, Eighth Infantry; Sergeant Major 
V. C. Pond, First Cadets; Private J. P. Reardon, Ninth Infantry; Coxs- 
wain J. B. Richards, Naval Brigade; Lieutenant C. A. Richardson, Fifth 
Infantry; Colonel H. T. Rockwell, I. G. R. P.; Captain R. W. Ropes, 
Second Cadets; Sergeant C. R. Russell, First Infantry; Private W. C. 
Sanborn, Second Cadets; Private A. R. Schultze, First Heavy Artillery; 
Private F. W. Scott, Fifth Infantry; Corporal A. R. Sedgerly, Sixth In- 
fantry; Sergeant A. H. Sisson, Eighth Infantry; Captain E. H. Shaw, 
Troop F, Cavalry; Seaman E. M. Slocum, Naval Brigade; Private F. P. 
Smith, First Cadets; Sergeant H.J. Smith, Second Infantry; Private S. G. 
Smith, Fifth Infantry; Sergeant W. E. Smith, vSecond Cadets; Major F. G. 
Southmayd, Second Infantry; Sergeant E. T. Stephens, Second Infantry; 
Lieutenant J. A. Sterling, Second Infantry; Corporal E. W. Sweetser, 
Troop F, Cavalry; Sergeant W. E. Sweetser, Sixth Infantry; Sergeant 
G. E. Symonds, Second Cadets, Corporal G. L. Tabbut, Sixth Infantry; 
Sergeant W. N. Tolman, Signal Corps, First Brigade; Sergeant A. T. 
Tornrose, First Infantry; Private J. D. Upton, First Cadets; Sergeant 
Major H. C. Wells, First Cadets; Captain C. Williamson, First Infantry; 
Captain R. A. Whipple, Second Infantry; Lieutenant H. W. Whitten, 
Eighth Infantry; Captain H. E. Whiting, Sixth Infantry; Lieutenant G. E. 
Worthen, Sixth Infantry; Private G. E. Worthen, Jr., Second Cadets. 

As an officially recognized bureau of the State government, the 
department of rifle practice in Massachusetts has had an existence of but 
fifteen years, but during that short period its record has been most hon- 



orable. Since 1884, over twelve thousand marksmen, trained under its. 
supervision, have served their term in the militia, and have been dis- 
charged, to return to civil life. It is safe to assert that to-day, aside from 
the active militia, there exists in the State a reserve of riflemen, still of 
military age, of over eight thousand effectives. The value of this tre- 
mendous military factor has never received full appreciation. That it 
has more than repaid the outlay required in its creation cannot be 

vSince the organization of the department, it lias had but five regu- 
larly commissioned chiefs. In 1884, Col. Horace T. Rockwell, then assis- 

tant inspector-gen- 
to duty as inspec- 
practice, acting in 
til 1887, when the 
mally recognized, 
sioned accordingly, 
to any other one 
credit for the re- 
done in Massachu- 
knowledge of the 
shooting, joined to 
perience, executive 
itable perseverance, 
accomplish the re- 
State to-day so just- 
1S90, Colonel Will- 
commissioned as 
Rockwell, and on 


Won by the Massacliusetts Militia, l,SSi;-7-8-9. 

eral, was assigned 
tor-general of rifle 
that capacity un- 
position w a s for- 
and he was commis- 
To him, more than 
officer, is due the 
markable work 
setts. His thorough 
science of rifle- 
a long military e.x- 
ability, and indom- 
made it possible to 
suits on which the 
ly prides itself. In 
iam L. Chase was 
assistant to Colonel 
the resignation of 

the latter officer, in 1 891, he took his place at the head of the department. 
He was succeeded in 1894 by Colonel George F. Hall, who met with 
unqualified success in his efforts to maintain the prestige of the 
department. In 1897, Colonel Hall received a well-merited promotion as 
brigadier general, and turned over the duties of his office to Brigadier- 
General Curtis Guild, Jr., with whom was appointed Colonel James A. 
Frye, as assistant inspector-general. Under General Guild's administra- 
tion all records for qualification were broken, and the outbreak of the 
Spanish-American War found the militia in the best of condition for field 
service. General Guild and Colonel Frye having resigned to accept vol- 
unteer commissions in the United States service. Colonel Richard D. 
Sears, assistant adjutant-general, was detailed as acting inspector-general, 
serving until the spring of 1899, when he was relieved by Colonel James 
T. Soutter, who acted as chief of the department until Colonel Frye re- 
ceived his appointment on July 6, 1899. 


Brigadier-General Robert Allen Blood, Surgeon-General, M. V. M. 

THE record of American military surgery as naturally divides 
itself into the colonial, provincial, revolutionary and national eras, 
as does our military and political histories, but on the whole, 
covers the most humane and enlightened practice of the healing 
art in dealing with the terrible wounds and fatal diseases incident to mili- 
tary operations. 

The most savage peoples have had some rude knowledge of surgery 
and physic, and the myths of the 
most ancient nations embody in 
tradition and fable references to 
the great healei's of a remote past. 
The restraining and protective ban- 
dage; the cooling embrocation, and 
emollient salve or pla.ster; the use 
of lancet, acupuncture, cupping, 
blister and cautery, and of rude 
anodynes, soporifics, carminatives, 
purges, etc., etc., are indicated in 
the dimmest traditions of the past, 
and are known to a greater or less 
extent among the rudest savages of 
the present era. 

Cyrus the Great had a train 
of skilled surgeons and physicians, 
and made of conquered Babylon a 
great depot of surgical and medical 
supplies; Alexander was equally 
solicitous for the welfare of his 
troops; and the priests of Israel and 
Egypt went with their armies both to heal and to bless. Caesar's Com- 
mentaries tell of the careful removal of his sick and wounded legionaries 
to neighboring towns, when the war trumpets called to march and battle, 
and details the location of the hospital in the Roman camps of his day. 

The Christian era did not at first particularly tend to the regular 
and systematic relief of large bodies of sufferers, and, however much the 

Surgeon-General, M. V. M., 1S%-19U0. 


charities of the early Christians may have done for the individual, pil- 
grims and soldiers must have suffered woefully at times. The term 
"exercitus medicus" is with difficulty traced back to the third century, 
and the establishment of regular hospitals at Rome is first ascribed to the 
Lady Fabiola, a convert of St. Jerome. Later, another lady convert, 
Paula, built one at Bethlem, and others were located at various points in 
western Europe and in Asia Minor, for the benefit of pilgrims to the Holy 

In the sixth century, the emperor, Mauritius, attached to his forces a 
corps of "Dispotatoi" or "drink givers" to succor and remove the wounded 
in battle. Their saddles were furnished with two stirrups on the left 
side, and probably had a kind of pad or pillion on which the patient was 
expected to sit sideways, as women were often carried. 

In the ninth century, the emperor, Leo VI., expressly mentions 
these assistants in his work on "Tactics," and says that they were fur- 
nished with medicines and other aids to the wounded. 

In the twelfth centiiry the princess-historian, Anna Commena, 
gives some account of the medical service as established by her father 
Alexis Commenus; head of the later Greek and Roman empire. His own 
knights, like those of the west and north of Europe, seem to have 
assumed most of the care of their wounded followers and comrades, and 
to have prided themselves much on their skill in compounding vulnerary 
salves, elixirs, balsams, etc. This practice is satirized by Cervantes in 
Don Quixote, and is again and again depicted in the romances of knight- 
errantry. Unholy and holy spells, exorcisms and ceremonies abounded, 
and even the careful cleansing, anointing and cooling of the weapon with 
which the wound was inflicted was considered of great efficacy, and 
probably did allow wounds to heal by first intention, which would have 
been fatal if treated according to the prevailing practice. 

There is still extant a curious letter from Sir Kenelm Digby to 
Governor Winthrop, alluding to his recent experiments with this sympa- 
thetic mode of treatment, and the use of a solution of vitriol, (sulphate of 
iron) as the best embrocation. 

In the fifteenth century, the military surgeon had become a person 
of some note, was duly recognized as a non-combatant, and yet was some- 
times obliged to furnish armed men and allowed to share in the proceeds 
of lawful plunder and the ransom of prisoners. Thus Nicholas Colnet, 
the field surgeon of King Henry V. of England, received a salary of forty 
marks yearly, with a share in all plunder, but if the latter exceeded 
twenty pounds yearly, one-third of the surplus was to go to his majesty. 
He was also obliged to furnish a guard of three archers, and served but 
one year under these conditions. Alerstede, who succeeded him, and was 
made chief of twelve assistant surgeons, received thirty-six pounds per 



annum and was furnished a guard of three archers, for whose subsistence 
he was allowed twelve pennies daily. 

Under Queen Elizabeth the medical service was at a low ebb. The 
surgeon received the same pay and allowances as the sergeant, drummer 
and fifer, viz; "five shillings weekly with an allowance of two shillings 
weekly for apparel." For years thereafter, the military surgeon and 
"ship's doctor" were poorly paid and hard-worked, besides being considered 
as scarcely entitled to be treated as "gentlemen and soldiers." 

The settlement of New England took place at a time when the 
use of the bow, cross-bow, pike, sword, war-axe and defensive armor was 
still advocated by many military men, though rapidly being discredited by 
the adoption of fire-arms. The terrible wounds inflicted by the latter 
upon the wealthy possessors of costly armor, undoubtedly inured to the 
increased prestige and improvement of the medical service. 

The horror and fear inspired in the hearts of the hardiest warriors, 
when they were first exposed to field artillery and realized the new con- 
ditions of warfare, is well expressed in Monro's "Account of the Worthy 
Scots Regiment, called McKay's Regiment, levied in August, 1626;" six 
years later than the landing at Plymouth. 

"It is thought the invention of cannon was found at Nuremberg, for 
the ruin of man; being at first, for a long time, used for battering down 
of walls and cities, and for counter-batteries, till at last they were used in 
the field to break the squadrons and battailes of horse and foote: some 
carrying pieces called Spingardes, of four foote and a half long, that shot 
manie bulletts at once no bigger than walnuts; and how soon the trumpets 
did sound, the enemy were thundered on with these as with showers of 
hailstones, so that the enemie were cruelly affrighted with them, men of 
valor being suddenly taken away who before were wonted to fight val- 
iently and long with sworde and lance; more for ye honor of victorie than 
for any shedding of bloude. But now men were martyrized and cutte 
downe at more than half a mile of distance, by those fiirious and thunder- 
ing engines of great cannon that sometimes shoote fiery bulletts able to 
burn whole cities, castles, houses or bridges where they chanced to falle, 
and if they happen to lighte within walls, or amongst a brigadd of foote 
or horse, as they did at Leipsigh, on the (Land) grave Von Torne his 
brigadd they spoyle a number at once as doubtless the devilish invention 
did within Valenstine." 

To the apprehensions of men, who could no longer trust to skill in 
fence and defensive armor, was added the belief that bullet and shell 
burned the wound and deposited a poison within it; and it was long years 
before the surgeon, in most cases, abandoned the use of corrosive drugs, 
the cauterizing iron, and even the pouring in of boiling oil to counteract 
the supposed venemous and poisonous depo.sits. 


Henry IV. of France established field hospitals at the siege of 
Amiens, and his grateful soldiers in recognition of the unheard of com- 
fort and aid given the sick and wounded, termed their service here, "The 
Velvet Campaign." In 1536 his surgeon and trusted counsellor, Ambrose 
Pare, began those humane labors which so greatly banished from French 
surgery the crude severities which had hitherto tortured the patient. 
His humanity also saved from abandonment many of the desperately 
wounded, who had hitherto been callously abandoned to certain robbery 
and death. So great was the confidence of the soldiery in his skill and 
humanity, that when Metz was besieged by Charles V. with 100,000 men, 
the garrison desired as a special favor that Pare should be sent to join 
them. An Italian captain, for a great bribe, smuggled him into the city, 
and when he appeared upon the ramparts the soldiers went wild with joy, 
shouting: "We shall not die, even if wounded. Pare is with us!" The 
successful defence of this city, "the bulwark of France," is ascribed 
largely to the cheerfulness and confidence inspired by the presence and 
labors of Pare. 

Despite the reforms which he initiated, however, the practice of 
surgery remained burdened with many criidities and errors at the time 
of the settlement of New England. The surgeon's instruments were 
few, and generally rudely designed and constructed, and, as will be seen 
later, the wounded were subjected to a long and tedious treatment, in 
which salves, balsams, corrosive powders, bulky tents, and strong com- 
presses, sear cloth, and even the actual cautery needlessly irritated the 
injured tissues, assured suppurations, and equally delayed the healing 
action of nature. 

The enlargement, dilatation and scarification of wounds; the resort 
to copious bleeding, and crude methods of amputation were also in vogue 
at this period. Still, the early surgeons of Massachusetts were probably 
as skilful, humane and di.screet as the most of their profession in Europe, 
and decidedly the superior of the average military or naval practitioner 
of their generation. 


In the colonial period there does not appear to have been any 
official recognition of the medical needs of the people, troops and mariners 
(if the colony, and nothing permanent in the way of surgeons, hospitals, 
hygienic precautions, or the like, seems to have been attempted for many 
years. If there were epidemics far more disastrous and dangerous than 
usual, (and this meant a mortality such as to-day would leave our cities 
almost deserted) a "pest house" might be prepared, and public fumiga- 
tions with sulphur, tar and the like might be ordered, and a certain amount 
of treatment and nursing given to the poorest victims. Thereafter the 
charitable physician could j^etition the governor and council for remuner- 


ation, and in most instances the claim seems to have been received with 
partial, although seldom complete recognition. 

Thus, it is on record in the Archives of the State of Massachusetts. 
that such petitions were filed, and met with a more or less liberal recep- 
tion and payment. 

Drs. Samuel Oliver and Lot Bridges of Boston, 1645, were "paid 
for services and medicines to poor patients." October, 1667, Henry Tay- 
lor, Chirurgeon, was "paid for attendance and medicines." John Endicott, 
Chyrurgeon, of Boston, 1667, was "paid for attendance and medicines." 
The list of medicines furnished includes "boluses, elixirs, conserves, 
electuaries, purges, diaphoretics, etc. etc." 

On September 19, 1684, William Hawkins, Chyrurgeon, of Boston, 
was paid his bill for "Dressing and curing ye broken thigh of Nicholas 

On June 20, 1710, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, of Boston, was "paid 
twenty pounds on a claim of fifty-one pounds, fourteen shilling and six 
pence for services rendered the distressed people of the "Mary Lynn." 

On June 28, 1727, Dr. Aaron Bourne, of Marblehead. was finally 
paid III pounds, six pence, for attendance on a poor sailor who had been 
landed there. The doctor had previously been indicted by the town 
authorities for relieving this man, and had incurred heavy costs, about 
twenty-two pounds. 

In times of emergency, as in King Philip's war, the authorities 
did not hesitate to seize or "impress" anybody or anything which could 
be of use to the Commonwealth. If "chyrurgeon" or "phisitian" was 
wanted, the governor and council gave their orders, and Edward Rawson, 
the secretary, issued his warrant to the constable, who forthwith seized 
upon man, beast, goods, provisions, armor, weapons or whatsoever else 
the warrant called for. After the service was done, or the goods, etc., 
expended, a claim in the form of a petition was usually justly considered 
by the council. A few examples of the working of this system follow. 

In King Philip's war an attack was made on the English near 
Chelmsford, and Dr. David Middleton, of Boston, was "impressed," and 
furnished with an "impressed horse" to go there with the post who had 
come in with the news. The following letter tells for itself the nature 
of the "medical service" of that period: 

Chelmsford, N. E., March ye 20, 167;. 

I bless God I am safely hither, but was much troubled with a jadish horse 

who tyred by that time we got to Cambridge. We had much adoo to get him to 

Woburn. I am in very good quarters, and the sergt. is very kind to me, and e.xtraor- 

dinary civil. The young man that was shott in the Belly dyed about two of the clocke 

this morning. He was mortally wounded for his bowells were punctured with ye 

shott. I took out a piece about four or five inches long, and did dress his wounds. 


Dear Sir, I humbly intreat you to pray the Council to grant us a stronger guard, for 
we expect the Indians any hour to fall upon us, and if they come we shall all be cut 
offe. Sir, I would desire you to send me a payre of forceps, and a probe, with an In- 
cision Knife, and hoping you will grant my request, for without those instruments 
I can do nothing. I remain, in haste having not time to inlarge at present. Sir, 

Your Obliged Servant, 


The following form of warrant was issued and served on a Boston 
surgeon when the Indians were especially active: 
"To the constable of Boston, 

"These require you forwith to impress in His Majesty's name, Mr. William Haw- 
kins, Chyrurgeon, to immediately prepare himself with materials as Chirurgeon, to 
dispatch to Marlborough to Captain Moseley, and attend his souldiers at Groton and 
elsewhere. For which end you are to impress an able horse, suitable for him to go 
to his post. 

"Dated at Boston, 17th August, 1675. making return hereof to the secretary. 

EDW. RAWSON, Sec'y." 

That this method sometimes bore very hardly on some of its victims 
appears from the petition of Samuel Holman, surgeon, of Boston. 

"To ye Right Honorable, the Governor and Council, now sitting in Boston, April 5, 1676, 
"The Petition of Samuel Holman Humbly sheweth, that your petitioner's ser- 
vant went out to mount guard under the command of Captain Mosely. Afterwards, 
the constables Prest some of his instruments for Chirurgeonry for Captain Moseley's 
Chirurgeon, and soon after his horse was Prest for the use of the county. Then, by 
order from the Council, the Constable Prest a whole box of Instruments for Dr. 
Nichols when he went to Narragansett, which Instruments were delivered to Dr. 
Gerrish now with the army. And about two months since, your Petitioner was prest 
to go out to Naragansett under the command of Captain Wadsworth, and having been 
Prest in ye forenoon, was commanded to march the next morning, so that he had no 
opportunity for applying himself to your Honors for relief (the councell that day being 
at Cambridge) and he being very sickly and infirm of body, was forced to compound 
with them, and sending his servant in his room, which servant cost ye petitioner 
fourteen pounds in money. And when Captain Wadsworth was dismissed at Marl- 
borough, ye petitioner's servant was put with Captain Turner's, who is now in the 
army, and since that, ye clerk of ye company to which he appertains, has prest his 
musket for ye use of the county, and not withstanding, ye petitioner is ordered out to 
watch and work on ye fortifications. Whereby he accounts that very hard measure is 
dealt out to him, especially considering that he hath no real estate to live upon, and 
nothing but his calling to procure a maintenance for his family." 

Petitioner went on to ask for the release of his servant, William 
Sampson. Later he was ordered compensation for the following list of 
instruments "taken from him for the use of the county: The Dismem- 
bering Saw, two catheters, large and small, a Speculum, a Dilator, 4 
Catiterising Irons, a large Probe, a Head Saw, a large pair of Forceps, a 
Seton Instrument, a large Spatula, a Dutch Billy, etc." 

March 23, 1678, Dr. Barton, of Salem, files with the clerk of the 
c(Hincil the certificate of three citizens that his claim for services is just. 


r It says "He had spent several medicines upon ye wounded men, and 
assisted in dressing seventeen days." 

September 2, 1676, Dr. William Locke of Hadley, petitions for 
pay "for his services as Chirurgeon at Mt. Hope, and in the Narrangansett 
country with Captain Mosely, in the Nipmuck county with Captain 
Henchman, with Mosely at Quaboag, and with Captains Lathrop and 
Pyncheon at other places." 

Regular bargains were at times made with surgeons, who were to 
go out and stay with the troops. Thus, in 1645, it was, "Ordered: That 
Mr. Loyal, Chirurgeon, be employed in the present campaign." Palsgrave 
Wellington, of Boston, was appointed by Major-General Daniel Gookin, 
June 24, 1676, "to attend the souldiers of the country as a Chirurgeon for 
the troops," and is notified, November 16, that "he is to be ready at one- 
half hour's warning." February 5, 1698, Dr. John Eads, contracted for 
a term with Captain Mould, offers depositions to show that the captain, 
at or near the close of his contracted term, "promised to see him paid if 
he staid." 

The form of warrant to press Dr. David Middleton of Boston for 
an expedition to Maine, seems to indicate that no contract was made in 
his case, unless the concluding sentence indicates a reward beyond the 

"To Mr. David Middleton, Chyurgeon : 

You are hereby ordered to address yourself to Captain Samuel 
Hunting, now going out on the country's service to the Eastward, with him to go as 
Chirurgeon, His directions to attend as a diligent attendant and using your best skill 
and improvements of the Emplaistors and other medicaments delivered to you 
by the said Captain Hunting for the best and special relief of all sick and wounded 
souldiers, looking up to God for blessing for your endeavors." 
Dated at Boston 2nd April, 1677. 

By order of the Governor and Council. 


Any rebellion against these summary methods seems to have been 
promptly punished, as is seen in the following sentence of a drumhead 
court martial on a recalcitrant sitrgeon. 

"Dr. David Bennett to be thrust out of the army and all place and service there- 
in, and after that he shall by the loss of his wages bear ye damage which his rebel- 
lious spirit hath put the country to, in the sending up of Mr, Hawkins. 


November 10, 1675. JONATHAN POOLE. 

In many cases, however, the frontier militia were compelled to pay 
for their own medical attendance, or rely on the charity or public spirit 
of their local physicians, who had no legal claim on the colony for re- 


Thus, in 1695, Captain Stephen Greenleaf of Newbury, while inter- 
cepting a band of Indians, trying to get beyond the Merrimac with cer- 
tain prisoners, who later were rescued, was shot in the wrist and side, and 
for his service and sufferings received a grant of forty pounds. Dr. 
Humphrey's bill for attendance follows: 

To Captain Greenleaf. In the yeare 1695. 

Visits, Balsams, Emplaistors, Tinctures, Unguents, Searcloth and 
Dressings. From 8th of October to last of January, unto the parfecting of the cure of 
a large gun-shot wound in the side and wrist: Major and minor fractures, nerves 
and tendons lacerated, also a large wound under his side, with a laceration of the 
muscle. For the cure to me, 12; 06; 00. 


In June, 1695, Dr. Nathaniel Hall of Yarmouth, tavern keeper, 
petitions, showing that in the Naragansett campaigns, he lost an arm, 
and that his pension of five pounds per year had not been paid for nine 
years. Also that having been engaged by .Sir William Phips to go on the 
Pemaquid expedition, he had not been paid in full. His claim was sixty- 
three pounds. He was voted fifty pounds, and a continuation of his 

After the close of the French war, 1748, "William Rand, Phisitian," 
petitions for payment for medical attendance, medicines and a nurse for 
Andrew Dtimesne or Dumeneys, a "French prisoner, from June 7, 1746, 
to April 29, 1747." William Shirley was then governor, and his bill was 

Francis LeBaron, surgeon of a French privateer from Bordeaux, 
which was shipwrecked in Buzzard's Bay in 1696, was induced to settle at 
Plymouth, and became noted as a surgeon there. He died at Plymouth 
in 1704. 

John Lloyd, born in 1728, returned to America in 1752, and was 
made surgeon at Castle William, Boston Harbor. It is believed that he 
was the first surgeon in America to substitute the ligation of arteries for 
the actual cautery. 

Matthew Fuller, of Plymouth, born in 1640, removed to Barnstable in 
1650, and died in 1678. Was appointed surgeon -general of the Plymouth 
forces is 1673, and styled "captain" in 1675. 

Ammi Ruhamah Cutler, born at Cambridge, 1705, went as captain 
in Moulton's Regiment on the Louisburg expedition of 1745-46, and was 
placed in charge of the fortified rendezvous at Canso. Later he was 
made chief surgeon of the hospital at Louisburg, Cape Breton, where he 
died in the line of duty in March, 1746. 

Dr. George Stuart or Stewart of Boston, descended from a noble Scot- 
tish house, married Ruth, daughter of Dr. John Cutler of Boston, and in 
1740 raised one of the five companies sent from Boston to take part in Lord 


Vernon's fatal expedition against Cartagena, vSouth America. He acted 
as a volunteer surgeon from his arrival at the rendezvous at Port Royal, 
Jamaica, until his death, hastened by his humane but exhausting labors 
in the harbor of Cartagena, in May, 1741. He left a son Walter, whose 
son became John, Baronet Stewart, residing in London, England. 


Surgeons were liberally provided by the Provincial Congress, 
which sat at Watertown during the siege of Boston. The following 
excerpts from their proceedings may be of interest: "Resolved: That the 
persons recommended by the Commanding Officers of the Several Regi- 
ments be appointed as surgeons to their several Regiments, Provided they 
appear to be duly qualified upon examination. May 8, 1775." 

Previous to the action of these officers, however, congress found it 
necessary to provide hospitals for the troops, and the following form of 
commission was issued: 

"The Congress of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. 
To Isaac Foster, Esq., Greeting; 

Being informed of your skill in surgery, and reposing especial Trust and con- 
fidence in your Ability and good conduct, do by these presents constitute and appoint 
you, the said Isaac Foster, to be Surgeon of the Hospital at Cambridge, appointed for 
the sick and wounded soldiers of the Colonial Army. You are therefore carefully and 
diligently to discharge the duty of a Surgeon in said Hospital in all things pertaining 
thereto. Observing such orders and instructions as you shall from time to time 
receive from any of your superior officers in the said army, according to Military 
Rules and Discipline established by the Congress, for which this is your sufficient 
warrant. By the Order of Congress. 

Watertown, June 28, 1775. 

At the same date, a like commission was issued to Dr. Isaac Rand, 
only differing in the addition of the words "and Medicine" after "sur- 
gery," and making him ".Surgeon and Phisitian to the Hospital at Cam- 
bridge, appointed by the Congress for the reception of such officers and 
soldiers of the Colony as may be infected with the smallpox." 

The following lists of surgeons and "surgeon's mates," as they were 
then, and long afterward called, were prepared by a "committy" whose 
medical experience probably far exceeded their skill in spelling, as shown 
in the following report: 

Watertown, June i, 1775. 
"A Liste of Surgeons and Mates examined and approved by a Coiumittyof Congress. 

Dr. David Jones, Surgeon of Colonel Gerrish's regiment. 

Samuel Blanchard, Mate to Jones. 

Dr. Joseph Hunt, mate to Dr. Joseph Foster in the Cambridge Hospital. 

Dr. Jacob Bacon, as Mate in Colonel Scammon's Regiment. 

Dr. Harris Clay Fudges, as mate. 

Dr. Edward Durrant, as Surgeon in Colonel Mansfield's Regiment. 

Dr. Josiah Harvey, as mate in Colonel Fellows' Regiment. 


Dr. Abram Watson, Surgeon of Colonel Gardner's Regiment. 
Dr. William Vinall, as Mate in Colonel Gardner's Regiment. 
Dr. John Georges, as mate in General Heath's Regiment. 
Dr. Isaac Spoflford, Surgeon in Colonel Nixon's Regiment. 
Dr. John Crocker, Surgeon in Colonel Scammon's Regiment. 
Dr. Walter Hastings, Surgeon in Colonel Bridges' Regiment. 
Dr. Timo' Child, Surgeon of Colonel Patterson's Regiment. 
Dr. Levi Willard, Surgeon of Colonel Reed's Regiment. 
Dr. Daniel Parker, Surgeon of Colonel Walker's Regiment. 
Dr. Thomas Kittredge, Surgeon of Colonel Frye's Regiment." 

■•July 7, 1775. 
A list of Surgeons this day examined and approved by the committy appointed for 
that purpose, viz. : 

Dr. John Warren, Surgeon to Cambridge Hospital. 

Dr. James Thatcher, his mate. 

Dr. James Hart, Surgeon to Colonel Prescott's Regiment. 

Dr. Enoch Dale, Surgeon to Colonel Doolittle's Regiment. 

Dr. Absalom Russell, his mate. 

Dr. Samuel Adams, Surgeon to Colonel Fellows' Regiment. 

Dr. Edward Flint, Surgeon to Colonel Ward's Regiment. 

Dr. William Dexter, his Mate. 

Dr. Parker Cleaveland, Surgeon to Colonel Sergent's Regiment. 

Dr. William Aspinwall, Surgeon to Roxbury Hospital. 

Dr. Samuel Whitwell, Mate to Dr. Howard in the Roxbury Horspittel. 

Dr. Joseph Holt, Mate Dr. Cleaveland. 

Dr. Moses Barnad, Mate to Dr. Dunsmore in Colonel Whitcomb's Regiment." 

"Watertown, July 12, 1775. 
This day the Committy appointed to examine surgeons for the army examined and 

Dr. David Turnbull, Surgeon in Colonel Brewer's Regiment. 

Dr. William Eustis, Surgeon in Colonel Gridley's Regiment. 

Dr. Stephen Swett, Surgeon to Colonel Phinney's Regiment. 

Dr. Josiah Lord, Surgeon's Mate in Colonel Little's Regiment. 

Dr. Nehemiah Hind, Surgeon's Mate to Colonel Woodbridge's Regiment. 

Dr. Eliphalet Downer, Surgeon to General Heath's Regiment. 

Dr Elisha Howatt, Surgeon to Colonel Little's Regiment. 

Dr. Josiah Langdon, Surgeon to Colonel Nixon's Regiment. 

It is related that after the evacuation of Boston, Dr. John Warren, 
brother of General Joseph Warren, and surgeon in the Continental Army, 
visited the old town workhouse, a large brick structure, whitewashed, 
and surrounded by a high board fence, which then stood on the north 
side of what is now Park street, and had been used as a hospital by the 
British garrison. Dr. Warren visited the hospital and inspected some of 
the medicines left behind in the hurry of the enforced evacuation. 

In an affidavit made April 9, 1776, and attested before James Otis, 
Esquire, Justice of the Peace, he recounts the fact that he visited the said 
hospital and inspected these medicines, and then continues: "They 
consisted chiefly of the kinds mostly in demand. I observed small quan- 


titles of what I supposed was white and yellow arsenic intermixed, and 
then received information from Dr. Daniel Scott, that he had taken a 
large quantity of arsenic from amongst the medicines. I viewed it, and 
judged it to be about 12 or 15 pounds. I did not use the medicines." 

It is probable that this was the work of some subordinate officer, and 
not done with the knowledge of the British general commanding. It is, 
however, only too indicative of the cruelty, hatred and cowardice which 
animated many British officers in their dealings with our sires, whom 
they counted only as "rebels and traitors" and without the pale of mercy 
or humanity. 

The following brief biographical notices of Massachusetts surgeons, 
who served in the Revolutionary War, have been deemed worthy of in- 
sertion here: 

Samuel Adams, son of John Adams, born at Boston, October ly, 
175 I, graduated at Harvard 1770. Reserved as surgeon after the battles 
of Lexington and Bunker Hill, and in the Continental Army after the 
siege of Boston. The hardships of the Revolutionary War broke his con- 
stitution, and he died at Quincy, Alass., June 17, 1788. 

William Aspinwall, born at Brookline, Mass., May 23, 1743, gradu- 
ated at Harvard College 1764. During the retreat of the British from 
Lexington, he fought as a volunteer, and carried off the field the body of 
Captain Isaac Gardiner, which had been pierced by twelve bullets. He 
sought a commission in the Continental Army, but was dissuaded from 
serving as a soldier by General Joseph Warren, and became surgeon of 
General Heath's brigade, and later deputy director of the Roxbury Hos- 
pital. He married a daughter of Captain Gardiner, and built up a splendid 
practice. He was especially skilful in inoculating for the smallpox, but 
welcomed vaccination as a great boon to humanity. Died April 16, 1823. 

Josiah Bartlett, born at Charlestown, Mass., in 1759, was a pupil 
of Isaac Foster, and aided him in the general hospital at Cambridge in 
1775. He was made surgeon's mate; served in the Continental Army 
until 1780, and later served for two years on American cruisers. Died 
March 3, 1820. 

John Brooks, born at Medford, Mass., 1752, studied under Simon 
Tufts of Medford, and had for a fellow student the famous Count Rum- 
ford. In 1775 he raised a company of minutemen, and led it to answer 
the Concord alarm. He; was present as a volunteer at Bunker Hill, and 
was sent by Prescott of Pepperrell to General Ward to demand re-en- 
forcements. He became a major in the Continental Army; was lieuten- 
ant-colonel in 1777; led the charge on Burgoyne's entrenchments at Sara- 
toga, and was adjutant-general at the battle of Monmouth. He was 
elected governor of Massachusetts in 18 16, and was for some time a 
major-general of the State militia. He died ]\Iarch 8, 1825. 


Timothy Childs, born at Deerfield, Mass., in February, 174S, was 
commissioned captain of minutemen in 1774, and marched his company 
to Cambridg-e in 1775. He was made surgeon of Patterson's Regiment, 
accompanied it to New York, and later to Montreal. He retired in 1777, 
was elected to the Massachusetts legislature in 1792, and died February 
25, 182 I. 

John Cuming was a son of Robert Cuming, who left Scotland 
after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, and settled and died at Concord, 
Mass. John left college and went against the French and Indians in 
1755, and later became a colonel of militia, and was offered a general's 

William Eustis, born at Boston, June 10, 1753, graduated at Harvard 
in 1772, was a student under Dr. Joseph Warren, and assisted in caring 
for the wounded after the battles of Lexington and Concord. He was 
appointed surgeon of Gridley's Artillery Regiment, and accompanied it 
in the New York campaign. He was made hospital surgeon, and was 
offered the position of lieutenant-colonel of artillery by General Knox. 
He became secretaiy of war under President Madison, and later was 
elected governor of Alassachusetts. 

Parker Cleaveland of Rowley, Mass., born in 1760, was the son of 
Rev. John Cleaveland of Essex, Mass. He became assistant surgeon in 
Sergeant's Massachusetts Regiment, 1775. 

Dr. David Cobb, burn at Attleboro, Mass., in 1748, was a surgeon 
at the siege of Boston in 1775, but became lieutenant-colonel of Jackson's 
Regiment, and was discharged as colonel and brevet brigadier-general. 
He was made major-general of the Massachusetts militia in 1786; elected 
lieutenant-governor in 1809; '^^-s again major-general, ist Division, 
Massachusetts militia, in 18 12, and died April 17, 1830. 

Oliver Fiske, born at Brookfield, Mass., September 2, 1762, volun- 
teered in 1780, when 18 years old, to serve in the Continental Army, 
and was stationed at West Point at the time of Arnold's treachery. He 
died at Boston in 1836. 

Joshua Fiske, born at Dedham, Mass., in May, 1749, graduated at 
Harvard, 1763, and served as surgeon of militia. He died at Beverly, 
Mass., in March, 1833. 

John Hart, born at Ipswich, Mass., October, 175 1, joined Pres- 
cott's Regiment at Cambridge in 1775; and when Prescott disbanded in 
New York, 1776, served as surgeon of Bailey's Second Massachusetts 
Regiment until 1783, and in Jacksons' Reserve Regiment until 1784; in all 
nine years and three months. 

Amos Holbrook, born at Bellingham, Mass., January 23, 1754, was 
made surgeon's mate in Colonel John Greaton's Regiment in 1775, and 
surgeon in 1776. He was transferred to Joseph Vose's Regiment, went 


to New Jersey, and was discharged in i///- He died at Boston in 1842, 
aged 88 years. 

Dr. Pardon Haye was born at New London, Conn., February 2, 
1762, had moved to Hoosac, Mass., when fifteen and served for some time 
in the Continental Army. He was captain of the Rowe company under 
Governors Hancock and Adams. Died December 26, 1833. 

Thomas Kittredge, born at Andover, Mass., July, 1746, studied at 
Dummer Academy, Byfield, and under Dr. Sawyer of Newburyport. He 
aided the wounded after the battle of Bunker Hill, and served in the 
Continental Army. He died in October, 18 18. 

John Manning, son of Joseph Manning, born at Ipswich, Mass., 
1737, commenced to practice there in 1760. He aided in treating the 
wounded at Cambridge, 1775, and served in the Rhode Island and Long 
Island campaigns. 

Oliver Prescott, born in Groton, Mass., April 27, 1731, graduated 
at Harvard College, 1750. He served as major, lieutenant-colonel and 
colonel in the Massachusetts militia. Was a brigadier-general in 1775-76 
and made a major-general in 1781. 

William Spooner, born at Boston, November 24, 1760, was surgeon 
of the Boston Regiment in Shay's Rebellion, 1787. Dr. Spooner was a 
member of the board of Overseers of Harvard College. 

Marshall Spring of Watertown, Mass., graduated at Harvard, 1762, 
was a Tory in sentiment, but cared for the Americans wounded in the 
battle of Lexington, and remained in the state until his death in 18 18. 

John Barnard Swett of Marblehead was born June i, 1752. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1767, and joined the American army in 1778 as 
surgeon in Greene's Rhode Island campaign. Later, he went on the dis- 
astrous Penobscot expedition and barely escaped capture. 

Samuel Tenney of Rowley, Mass., entered Harvard in 1768. He 
joined the American army on the day of the battle of Bunker Hill, and 
although much fatigued, cared for the wounded, and was made surgeon's 
mate under Dr. Eustis of the Massachusetts line. Later he was made 
surgeon of a Rhode Island regiment, and was present at the surrenders of 
Generals Burgoyne and Cornwallis. He was elected to Congress in 1800, 
and died at Exeter, N. H., in 18 16. 

Dr. James Thacher was born at Barnstable, Mass., in 1754; studied 
under Dr. Abner Henry of that town, and in 1775 was made surgeon's 
mate under Dr. John Warren at the Provincial hospital at Cambridge. 
Later he was made surgeon's mate under Surgeon David Townsend in 
Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment. He was stationed at West Point at 
the time of Arnold's treachery in 1780, and was present at the execution 
of Major Andre and the surrender of Cornwallis. He died at Barnstable 
in 1844, when over ninety years old. 


John Thomas, Jr., was born at Plymouth, Mass., April i, 1758. 
His father, of the same name, was a surgeon at the capture of Louisburg, 
1745-46, and became surgeon in the Massachusetts line in 1775, with his 
son as surgeon's mate, but resigned in 1776. His son succeeded him as 
surgeon and served to the close of the war, in which three of his brothers 
were also engaged, one as captain of artillery. Later he settled in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., and died there in 18 18. 

Joseph Warren, born at Roxbury, Mass., graduated at Harvard in 
'759- practiced under Dr. Lloyd and delivered a famous oration in the 
Old South church on the anniversary of the Boston Massacre on March 5, 
1775. He was a leader in the events which culminated in the Revolution; 
fought among and inspired his fellow countrymen on the day of Concord 
and Lexington, and was made major-general June 14, 1775. He served 
as a volunteer at the battle of Bunker Hill, June ig, 1775, and was killed 
during the retreat near the captured redoubt. 

William Stoddard Williams, born at Deerfield, Mass., October 11, 
1762, held the position of surgeon of the Second Regiment, 2d Brigade, 
4th Division, M. V. M., from 1794 to 1810. He died January 8, 1828. 

During the Alexican War the medical staff of the regular army had 
full control of the hygienic precautions and surgical and medical treat- 
ment, which were rendered necessary by the siege of Vera Cruz and the 
advance upon the city of Mexico. In this campaign, all necessary allow- 
ances being made for the imperfect methods of the surgery and treat- 
ment of that era, the death rate of the invading army was very low, and 
indeed, was in strong contrast to the terrible losses of the allied English 
and French armies, in eastern Turkey and the Crimea, in 1854 and 1855. 

At the beginning of the Civil War in 1 86 1 , there was no State 
medical department such as exists to-day, and, on the 13th of June, Dr. 
William J. Dale was commissioned the first surgeon-general of Massachu- 
setts. He thus records the previously existing conditions, under which 
the first levies were examined, cared for and supplied for service in the 

"The duties of this ofiice were assumed by me on the i6th day of 
June last. Prior to that time, from the i6th day of April, the medical 
supervision of the volunteer regiments was under the direction of an in- 
formal medical board, assisted by an advisory commission of physicians 
and surgeons, who represented the state as a board of examining surgeons. 

"No contracts have (yet) been made by this department, as the 
orders for the construction of ambulances, tents, mess chests and other 
supplies for a movable hospital were made prior to the date of my com- 
mission. The three months' volunteers were furnished with tlieir sup- 
plies, on the order of your Excellency, through the adjutant-general." 

The regiments mustered into the service of the United States 


were supplied by the order of the Military Committee of the honorable 
Council; the regulation supply of the army for three months' field ser- 
vice being the standard, with such variations as the medical department 
thought advisable. 

Only medical supplies and surgical instruments, dressings, etc., 
were furnished the regiments first sent forward. These were valued as 
follows: Third Regiment, $446.78; Fourth Regiment, $407.40; Fifth 
Regiment, $415.65; Sixth Regiment. $386.40; Eighth Regiment, $353.78; 
and of these supplies, a considerable portion were unused and turned 
over to the United States for the Massachusetts authorities. The First, 
Second, Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Four- 
teenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, 
Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, Twenty- 
Fifth, Twenty-Sixth and Twenty-Seventh Regiments of Infantry, and 
First Regiment of Cavalry, each received from six to twenty iron beds 
with bed and pillow ticks, cases, sheets, towels, blankets, nettings, litters, 
hospital knapsacks, mess chests, stores, etc., etc.; the total expenditures 
for the year 1861 being $22,441.60. 

Of this total, $1,862.07 represented the entire expenditure for all 
the regiments while encamped in the State, from April 16, to November 
7, 1861; $8,719.29 the outfits of the three months' regiments, and $12,- 
102.40 the outfits of the three years' regiments, etc. It should be said that 
many recruits were received and cared for by the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, prescribed for by the State apothecary at the State House, or 
attended without charge at their own homes by medical advisors of their 
own choosing. There was no limit to the patriotism of the medical fra- 
ternity of Massachusetts of that generation. 

Surgeon-General Dale goes on to say: "Prior to the first of July, 
with the exception of a special detail made by order of your Excellency 
for the county of Worcester, the services of the inspecting surgeons in 
the examination of recruits throughout the state were a gratuitous and 
patriotic offering, and no class has made a more generous and cheerful 
sacrifice than the medical profession of this Commonwealth. The whole 
amount, to the first of November, paid for the examination of recruits and 
medical attendance is $1,732.05. 

"Amid all the distresses incident to the war, it is a cause for 
thankfulness that our regiments, in camp, at home and at the seat of war, 
have been so generally exempt from the diseases incident to armies. 
This result is owing somewhat to the generally healthy character of the 
season — the prudent oversight in the selection of camps — the faithfulness 
and efficiency of the commissariat — the general intelligence which charac- 
terized the material of our volunteer force; but mainly to the untiring 
watchfulness and fidelity of the regimental surgeons, and their care and 


vigilance in all matters pertaining to the hygienic and sanitary condition 
of the camps." 

The report at the close of 1862 showed that the Thirty-second, 
Thirty-third and Thirty- fourth Regiments of Infantry had been supplied 
with medical stores by the state authorities at a cost of $3008.02. The 
regiments thereafter sent out were supplied under the direction of Sur- 
geon Satterlee, U. S. A., medical purveyor, New York City, and the sup- 
plies charged to the United States. 

The medical staff, surgeons and surgeon's mates, of the Third, 
Fourth, Fifth, and Eighth Regiments of Infantry, Third Battalion of 
Riflemen and Cook's Battery of Light Artillery were appointed by the 
colonel or other commanding officer of each organization; no medical 
examination was required or provided for, and it is a grateful task to 
chronicle of the gentlemen thus appointed, in the words of Surgeon-Gen- 
eral Dale: 

"These surgeons responded promptly and patriotically to regi- 
mental orders and discharged their new and untried duties with faithful- 
ness and ability." The following medical officers were commissioned under 
these conditions: 


Third Regiment, Infantry, M. V.M. : Surgeon, Alexander R. Holmes, New Bedford, mus- 
tered out July 22, 1S61 ; surgeon's mate, Johnson Clarke, New Bedford. Dr. Johnson 
Clarke was later detailed by Major-General Benjamin F. Butler as surgeon of the 
Massachusetts Battalion at Fortress Monroe, and died in the service at his post. 
"He was greatly esteemed as a conscientious and devoted officer" says the report. 

Fourth Regiment Infantry, M. V. M. : Surgeon, Henry M. Saville, Quincy; surgeon's 
mate, William L. Fa.xon, Quincy; both mustered out July 22, 1861. 

Fifth Regiment, Infantry, M. V. M. : Surgeon, Samuel W. Hurd, Charlestown, mus- 
tered out July 22, 1861; surgeon's mates, Henry H. Mitchell, Bridgewater and 
William W. Keene, Jr., Charlestown, mustered out July 22, 1861. Dr. Hurd 
later served as volunteer surgeon in the army of the Potomac, and Dr. Mitchell 
was commissioned assistant surgeon and transferred to the New York Zouaves 
July I, I 861. 

Sixth Regiment, Infantry, M. V. M. : Surgeon, Norman Smith, Groton; surgeon's 
mate, Jansen T. Paine, Charlestown; both mustered out Aug. 2, 1861. Dr. Paine 
was afterward assistant surgeon of the Thirty-First. 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry, M. V. M. : Surgeon, Bowman B. Breed, Lynn; surgeon's 
mate, Warren Tapley, Lynn; both mustered out Aug. i, 1861. Dr. Breed became 
a surgeon of U. S. Vols. 

Third Battalion of Rifles: Surgeon, Oramel Martin, Worcester, mustered out Aug. 
3, 1 861. 

Cook's Battery, Light Artillery: Surgeon, John P. Ordway, Boston; surgeon's mate, 
F. LeBaron Munroe, Boston; both mustered out Aug. 2, 1861. Dr. Munroe be- 
came assistant surgeon of the ist Regt. 

At an early date, however, in answer to a memorial signed by Drs. 
James Jackson, George Hayward and S. D. Townsend, Governor Andrew 
appointed a medical commission consisting of the following physicians 
and surgeons: Dr. George Hayward, Dr. vS. D. Townsend, Dr. John Ware, 


Dr. Samuel S. G. Howe, Dr. J. AIa.son Warren, Dr. vS. Cabot, Jr., Dr. R. 
M. Hodges, Dr. George H. Lyman and Surgeon-General William J. Dale. 

Dr. Samuel G. Howe was shortly after appointed a commissioner 
to examine the condition of our troops at the seat of war, and resigned. 
Dr. George H. Lyman was made brigade surgeon and later medical direc- 
tor of Fitz-John Porter's division, Army of the Potomac, and later still. 
medical inspector and assigned to duty in the west. Dr. George H. Gay 
was appointed on the commission in his place. 

Upon the call for troops. May 3, 186 1, authority was vested in the 
governor of the state to appoint all regimental surgeons, the candidates 
having previously passed the examinations of a duly qualified board of 
examiners. The Medical Commission of Massachusetts was at once con- 
stituted a Board of Examining vSurgeons, and in accordance with its decis- 
ions, candidates for the medical staff were appointed as follows: 


First Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Richard H. Salter, Boston, discharged Feb. 10, 
1863; Edward A. Whiston, Framingham, mustered out May 28, 1864. Assistant 
surgeons, Samuel A. Green, Boston, promoted surgeon 24th Mass., Sept. 2, [861 ; 
Francis LeBaron Munroe, Medway, promoted' surgeon 15th Mass., Dec. 29, 1862; 
Thomas F. Oakes, Dartmouth, promoted surgeon 56th Mass., July 31, 1863: Neil 
K. Gunn, Boston, died in hospital June 3, 1863; Isaiah L. Pickard, Littleton, mus- 
tered out May 28, 1874; John B. Garvie, Boston. 

Second Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Lucius M. Sargent, Jr., Boston, commissioned 
captain Co. H, ist Mass. Cavalry, Oct. 9, 1861, killed at Bellfield, Va., Dec. 9, 
1864; Francis Leland, Milford, honorably discharged Oct. 24, 1862; Lincoln R. 
Stone, Salem, surgeon 54th Mass., April 21, 1863; surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet lieu- 
tenant-colonel: William H. Heath, Stoneham, died Aug. 28, 1864, in line of duty; 
William Nichols, Jr., Boston, declined promotion, served term and became sur- 
geon 3d Heavy Artillery: Curtis E. Munn, Westfield, mustered out July 14. 1865. 
Assistant surgeons, L. R. Stone, promoted surgeon Nov. 7, 1862; William Nichols 
promoted surgeon 3d Heavy Artillery, Sept. 27, 1864; William H. Heath, pro- 
moted surgeon April 24, 1863: James Wightman, Boston, died at Washington, 
June 15, 1863; George P. Peck, Boston, mustered out July 14, 1865. 

Seventh Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, S. Atherton Holman, Taunton, appointed 
surgeon U. S. Vols., Sept, 22, 1864, brevet colonel; Henry W. Lincoln, Hubbard- 
ston, mustered out 1864. Assistant surgeons, Z. Boylston Adams, Boston, promoted 
surgeon 32d Regt., May 26, 1862; Henry W. Lincoln, promoted surgeon Sept. 10. 
1863: Arthur W. Cowdrey, Stow, promoted surgeon 37th Regt. U. S. Colored 
Troops, Oct. 26, 1863. 

Ninth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, Peter Peneo, Boston, promoted brigade sur- 
geon, U. S. .^.; Stephen W. Drew, Woburn, honorably discharged Dec. 6, 1862; 
James F. Sullivan, Boston, mustered out June 21, 1864. Assistant surgeons, 
Patrick A. O'Connel, Boston, honorably discharged Sept. 12, 1861, surgeon U. S. 
Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel: Francis M. Lincoln, Boston, honorably discharged 
July 12, 1861, appointed surgeon 35th Regt. ; James F. Sullivan, promoted surgeon 
Dec. 16, 1862; James W. Fitzpatrick, Boston, promoted surgeon, U.S. Vols., 
March 29, 1862; John Ryan, Boston, mustered out June 21, 1864. 

Tenth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeons, Cyrus N. Chamberlain, Northampton, com- 
missioned surgeon, U. S. Vols., May 14, 1863, brevet lieutenant-colonel; Albert B. 
Robinson, Holden, mustered out July i, 1864; Assistant surgeons, William Hol- 
brook. Palmer, commissioned surgeon i8th Regt., Jan. 13, 1862; George Jewett, 
Fitchburg, discharged November 17, 1862, afterwards surgeon 51st Regt.; Albert 
B. Robinson, commissioned surgeon May 15, 1863; John H. Gilman, Lowell, 
mustered out July i, 1864. 


Eleventh Regiment, Infantry. Surgeons, Luther V. Bell, Somerville, promoted brig- 
ade surgeon and died in the service, Feb. ii, 1762: Ira Russell, Natick, promoted 
brigade surgeon May 14, 1863, brevet lieutenant-colonel; John W. Foye, Boston, 
promoted surgeon U. S. Vols., March 26, 1863, brevet lieutenant-colonel; John A. 
Douglas, Waltham, honorably discharged Oct. 11, 1864; George F. Thompson, 
Belchertown, declined promoiion; Cyrus B. Smith, Granby, mustered out July 14, 
1865, promoted from 34th Kegt. ; assistant surgeons, John W. Foye, promoted sur- 
geon April 22, 1863; Alfred G. Williams, Athol, honorably discharged Aug. 8, 
1862; John A. Douglas, promoted surgeon May 15, 1863; Samuel C. Whittier, Bos- 
ton, discharged May 27, 1864, promoted surgeon 23d Regt. ; Thomas Crozier, Jr., 
Charlestown, transferred from i6th Regt. July 11, 1864, mustered out July 14, 1865. 

Twelfth Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, Jedediah H. Baxter, Boston, promoted brig- 
ade surgeon April 17, 1862, surgeon U. S. Vols.; John McLean Hayward, Boston, 
honorably discharged April 23, 1863; William H. W. Hinds, Boston, mustered out 
July 8, 1864; assistant surgeons, John McLean Hayward, promoted surgeon, April 
29, 1862; Albert A. Kendall, Newton, killed in action Sept. 17, 1862; John H. 
McGregor, Boston, honorably discharged Sept. 2, 1863; Charles A. Wheeler, West 
Boylston, mustered out July 8, 1864. 

Thirteenth Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, AUston M. Whitney, Boston, mustered out 
Aug. I, 1864; assistant surgeons, J. Theodore Heard, Boston, promoted brigade 
surgeon, U. S? Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; William W. Claflin, Marlborough, 
honorably discharged Dec. i, 1862; Jaines L. Harriman, Marlborough, honorably 
discharged Jan. 30, 1863; Lloyd W. Hixon, Lowell, mustered out Aug. i, 1864; 
Edgar Parker, Bridgewater, honorably discharged Sept. 8, 1863. 

Fourteenth Regiment, Infantry: See First Heavy Artillery. 

Fifteenth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeons, Joseph N. Bates, Worcester, discharged 
July 17, 1862; Samuel Foster Haven, Jr., killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862; F. LeBaron Monroe, Medway, mustered out July 27, 1863; assistant sur- 
geons, S. Foster Haven, Jr., Worcester, promoted surgeon July 21, 1862; Henry 
Rockwood, Westford; Theodore O. Cornish, Millbury, mustered out July 29, 1864. 

Sixteenth Regiment, Infantry ; Surgeon, Charles C. Jewett, HoUiston, mustered out 
July 27, 1864; assistant surgeons, Edward A. Whiston, Framingham, promoted 
surgeon, ist Regt., March 5, 1863; George King, Franklin, promoted surgeon, 29th 
Regt., May 21, 1864; Thomas Crozier, Jr., Charlestown, transferred to iith Regt. 
July 1 1, 1864. 

Seventeenth Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, Isaac F. Galloupe, Lynn, mustered out 
Aug. 3, 1864; Daniel S. Allen, Gloucester, mustered out July 11, 1865; assistant 
surgeons, William H. W. Hinds, Boston, promoted surgeon 12th Regt. May 26, 
1863; Charles G. A. Eayrs, Lowell, mustered out Aug. 3, 1864; George W. Clarke, 
Boston, mustered out Aug. 3, 1864. 

Eighteenth Regiment, Infantry ; Surgeons, David P. Smith, Springfield, promoted 
brigade surgeon, surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; William Holbrook, 
Palmer, mustered out Sept. 2, 1 864 ; assistant surgeons, Orlando Brown, Wren- 
tham, promoted surgeon 29th Regt. Dec. 14, 1861; Abial Nelson, honorably dis- 
charged July 31, 1862; Edwin F. Silcox, Springfield, dismissed Jan. 5, 1863; Joseph 
W. Merriam, Boston, appointed assistant surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet major; 
Joseph G. Wilbur, Boston, honorably discharged Nov. 14, 1863; Benjamin F. Hast- 
ings, Boston, mustered out at expiration of service. 

Nineteenth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, J. Franklin Dyer, Rockport, mustered 
out Aug., 1864; Gustavus P. Pratt, Cohasset, mustered out June 30, 1865; assist- 
ant surgeons, Josiah N. Willard, Boston, promoted surgeon 14th Regt., Nov. 10, 
1862; John E. Hill, Charlestown, died of wounds at Georgetown, D. C, Sept. 11, 
1862; Vertulan R. Stone, Boston, honorably discharged May 11, 1863; Benjamin 
F. Taft, Blackstone, honorably discharged March 14, 1863; William D. Knapp, 
Boston, dismissed 1863; Gustavus P. Pratt, Cohasset, promoted surgeon Nov. 23, 
1861 ; Daniel W. Fulton, Boston, mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Twentieth Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, Henry Bryant, Boston, promoted brigade 
surgeon Sept. 10, 1861 ; Nathan Hayward, Roxbury, mustered out Sept., 1864; 
Fred W. Mercer, Boston, honorably discharged April 13. 1865; Murdock McGregor, 
Boston, promoted from 33d Regt., mustered out July 16, 1865; assistant surgeons. 

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Nathan Hayward, promoted surgeon Sept. 10, 1861 ; Edward H. H. Revere, Bos- 
ton, killed at Antietam. Sept. 17, 1862; Benjamin F. Taft, Blackstone, transferred 
to 19th Regt., Jan. 17, 1863; John G. Perry, Boston, honorably discharged Aug 10, 
1864; Geo. R. Dinsmore, Keene, N. H., mustered out July 16, 1865; C. E. Inches, 
Boston, transferred from 37th Regt., mustered out July 16, 1865. 

Twenty-First Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Calvin Cutter, Warren, honorably dis- 
charged May 17, 1864; James Oliver, Athol, mustered out Aug, 30, 1864; assistant 
surgeons, Orrin Warren, West Newbury, promoted surgeon 33d Regt., June 23, 
1862; Joseph W. Hastings, Warren, promoted surgeon 33d Regt., May 26, 1863; 
James Oliver, Athol, promoted surgeon May 26, 1864; John Wesley Mitchell. 
Avon, Me., mustered out Aug. 30, 1864; Edgar L. Carr, Pittsfield, N. H., mustered 
out Aug. 30, 1864. 

Twenty-Second Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Edward L. Warren, Weymouth, 
honorably discharged June 10, 1862 ; Frederick L. Ainsworth, Boston, appointed 
surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; Marshall E. Simonds, Marion, 
honorably discharged Aug. 27, 1863; Isaac H. Stearns, Stoughton, mustered out 
Oct. 17, 1864; assistant surgeons, James P. Prince, Lynn, promoted surgeon 36th 
Regt., Aug. 13, 1862; Marshall E. Simmons, promoted surgeon Dec. 29, 1862; 
Isaac H. Stearns, promoted surgeon Aug. 28, 1863; George T. Perkins, Boston, 
appointed assistant surgeon 32d Regt., Oct. 17, 1864. 

Twenty-Third Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, George Derby, Boston, appointed sur- 
geon U. S. Vols. June 2, 1864, brevet'lieutenant-colonel ; Samuel C. Whittier, Bos- 
ton, mustered out June 25, 1865; assistant surgeons, Silas E. Stone, Walpole, 
honorably discharged Sept. 2, 1862; James A. Emmerton, Salem, discharged to be 
surgeon 2d Regt., Heavy Artillery; Jacob Roberts, Boston, honorably discharged 
July I, 1863; Edward P. Cummings, E.xeter, N. H., mustered out Oct. 13, 1864. 

Twenty-Fourth Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, Samuel A. Green, Boston, mustered 
out; Edward R. Wheeler, Spencer; assistant surgeons. Hall Curtis, Boston, pro- 
moted surgeon 2d Regt., Heavy Artillery, June 18, 1863; Charles E. Briggs, Bos- 
ton, promoted surgeon 54th Regt., Infantry Nov. 24, 1863; William S. Tremaine, 
Boston, promoted surgeon colored troops; Edward R. Wheeler, promoted surgeon 
Nov. ID, 1854; John W. Parsons, Boston, mustered out. 

Twenty-Fifth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, J. Marcus Rice, Worcester, honorably 
discharged Oct. 20, 1864; assistant surgeons, Theron Temple, Belchertown, honor- 
ably discharged March 27, 1862; Joseph C. Batchelder, Templeton, honorably dis- 
charged Aug. 19, 1862; Samuel Flagg, Worcester, honorably discharged Aug. 9, 
1863; Horace Mecomey, Worcester, honorably discharged July 13, 1863; Samuel E. 
Shantz, Boston, honorably discharged Dec. 16, 1863 ; Alpheus E. Hoyt, Milford, 
promoted surgeon, April 21, 1865, mustered out July 13, 1865. 

Twenty-Sixth Regiment, Infantrv: Surgeons, Anson P. Hooker, Cambridge, honor- 
ably discharged June 18, 1862, commissioned assistant surgeon-general of Mass. 
May 26, 1863; James G. Bradt, Lowell, mustered out; George T. Perkins, Boston, 
mustered out Sept. 26, 1865; assistant surgeons, James G. Bradt, Lowell, promoted 
surgeon July 14, 1862; Samuel M. Willis, Lynn, promoted surgeon ist Louisiana 
Vols. ; Edward Russell, Quincy, assistant surgeon 4th Cavalry, Feb. 3, 1864; Isaac 
Smith, Foxborough, honorably discharged Nov. 7, 1864; John C. Rogers, Pem- 
broke, Me., not mustered in. 

Twenty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, George A. Otis, Springfield, honor- 
ably discharged June 28, 1864, surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; D. 
B. Nelson Fish, Amherst, mustered out June 26, 1865; assistant surgeons, Samuel 
Camp, Great Barrington, discharged March 27, 1862; Peter E. Hubon, Worcester, 
promoted surgeon 28th Regt. May 27, 1863; Franklin L.Hunt. West Boylston, 
killed by guerillas near Washington, N. C, Nov. 18, 1862; D. B. N. Fish, promoted 
surgeon Sept. 20, 1864; Curtis E. Mann, Westfield, promoted surgeon 2d Regt. Dec. 
5, 1864. 

Twenty-Eighth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Patrick A. O'Connell, Boston, 
appointed surgeon U. S. Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; Peter E. Hubon, Wor- 
cester, mustered out June 30, 1865; assistant surgeons, George W. Snow, Chelsea, 
promoted surgeon 35th Regt., March 31, 1863; James T. Rood, Rutland, resigned; 
John C. Barrington, Chelsea, honorably discharged June 17, 1864; John E. Par- 


sons, Charlestown, honorably di,;charged July 30, 1863; A. A. Chase, Meredith, 
N. H., mustered out June 30, 1865. 
Twenty-Ninth Regiment, Infantry ; Surgeons, Orlando Brown, Wrentham, resigned 
Aug. 6, 1862; Geo. B. Cogswell, Easton, honorably discharged March 15, 1864; Geo. 
King, Franklin, honorably discharged May 15, 1865; Robt. E. Jameson, Woburn, 
mustered out July 29, 1865; assistant surgeons, George B. Cogswell, promoted 
surgeon Aug. 7, 1862; Albert Wood, Tewksbury, promoted surgeon, ist Cavalry, 
July 6, 1853; James C. Bassett, Charlestown, discharged Feb. 27, 1863; Robt. E. 
Jameson, promoted surgeon May 27, 1865; Gustavus P. Pratt, Cohassett, not mus- 
tered, promoted surgeon 19th Regiment; Edgar L. Carr, Pittsfield, N. H., trans- 
ferred from 35th Regt., mustered out July 29, 1865. 

Thirtieth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Samuel K. Towle, Haverhill, honorably 
discharged; Samuel A. Davis, Charlestown; assistant surgeons, Alfred F. Holt, 
Cambridge, surgeon ist Texas Cavalry; Samuel A. Davis, promoted surgeon Dec. 
27, 1864; Francis C. Greene, Northampton, honorably discharged April i, 1864; 
C. S. Jackson, Plymouth. 

Thirty-First Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Eben Kimball Sanborn, Rutland, Vt., 
died in the service, April 3, 1862; Edwin C. Bidwell, Middlefield, mustered out 
Sept. 9, 1865; assistant surgeons, Edwin C. Bidwell, promoted surgeon April 29, 
1862; James T. Paine, Charlestown, promoted surgeon Louisiana Vols., surgeon 
U. S. Vols. ; Henry W. Brown, Medway, promoted surgeon 4th Corps d'Afrique 
Sept. 10, 1863; Flower G. Kittredge, Harvard, discharged Jan. 28, 1864; Cyrus S. 
Mann, Newton, honorably discharged March 25, 1864: Elisha P. Clarke, Milford, 
honorably discharged Sept. 9, 1865. 

Thirty-Second Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Z. Boylston Adams, Boston, honorably 
discharged Aug. 4, 1863; William L. Fa.xon, Quincy, honorably discharged May 31, 
1865; Samuel W. Fletcher, Pepperrell, mustered out June 27, 1865; assistant sur- 
geons, Wm. L. Faxon, promoted surgeon Aug. 25, 1863; Windsor H. Bigelow, 
Boston, honorably discharged Jan. 6, 1863; Samuel L. Young, Boston, honorably 
discharged April 12, 1863; Samuel W. Fletcher, promoted surgeon Jan. i, 1865; 
George T. Perkins, Boston, promoted surgeon 26th Regt., Dec. 21, 1864; John H. 
McGregor, Needham, mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Thirty-Third Regiment, Infantry : Surgeons, Grin Warren, West Newbury, honor- 
ably discharged April i, 1863, Joseph W. Hastings, Warren, mustered out June 11, 
1865; assistant surgeons, William S. Brown, Boston, promoted surgeon 55th 
Regt., May 15, 1863; Daniel P. Gage, Lowell, honorably discharged Feb. 22, 1863; 
Murdock McGregor, Boston, promoted surgeon 20th Regt., May 16, 1865; Mel- 
ville E. Webb, Saco, Me., mustered out June 11, 1865. 

Thirty-Fourth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeons, Rouse R. Clarke, Northbridge, mus- 
tered out July 8, 1865; assistant surgeons, Cyrus B. Smith, Granby, promoted 
surgeon iith Regt., Nov. 28, 1864; William Thorndike, Beverly, promoted sur- 
geon 39th Regt., Jan. 22, 1864; Charles G. Allen, Barre, mustered out July 8, 
1865; Henry J. Millard, North Adams, mustered out July 8, 1865. 

Thirty-Fifth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons. Francis M. Lincoln, Boston, honorably 
discharged March 10, 1863; George W. Snow, Chelsea, honorably discharged June 
9, 1865; assistant surgeons, George N. Munsell, Harwich, honorably discharged 
April 24, 1863; Albert W. Clark, Woburn, honorably discharged May i, 1863; 
Edward Paul Roche, Boston, honorably discharged June 9, 1865; Benjamin 
Coburn, Fredericton, N. B., not mustered; Edgar L. Carr, Pittsfield, N. H., 
transferred to 29th Regt. 

Thirty-Sixth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, James P. Prince, Lynn, appointed sur- 
geon U. S. Vols., May 3, 1865, brevet lieutenant-colonel; Albert H. Bryant, 
Natick, mustered out June 11, 1865; assistant surgeons, Warren Tyler, No. Brook- 
field, honorably discharged Oct. 22, 1863; Albert H. Bryant, promoted surgeon. 
May I, 1865. 

Thirty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry; Surgeons, Chas. F. Crehore, Boston, honorably 
discharged Dec. 4, 1864; Elisha M. White, Boston, mustered out June 22, 1865; 
assistant surgeons, Thomas C. Lawton, Sheffield, honorably discharged Feb. 23, 
1864; Joshua's. Ellis, died at Newport, R. I.; Albert L. Mitchell, Boston, dis- 


missed Dec. 26, 1863; Elisha M. White, promoted surgeon Dec. 21, 1864; C. E. 
Inches, Boston, transferred to 20th Regt. , June 20, 1S65. 
Thirty-Eighth Regiment. Infantry: Surgeons, Samuel C. Hartwell, Southbridge, 
honorably discharged March 2, 1864; Edwin F. Ward, Enfield, mustered out June 
30, 1865; assistant surgeons, Edwin F. Ward, promoted surgeon March 3. 1864; 
Geo. E. Thomson, Belchertown, promoted surgeon nth Battalion, Oct. 19, 1864. 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Calvin G. Page, honorably discharged 
Nov. 12, 1863; William Thorndike, Beverly, mustered out June 3, 1865; assistant 
surgeons, James L. Chipman, Milford, honorably discharged May 23, 1864; Henry 
H. Mitchell, E. Bridgewater, surgeon 36th Regt. U. S. colored troops Nov. i, 1863; 
John F. Butler, Chesterfield, N. H., mustered out June 3, 1865. 

Fortieth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Oliver H, Brewster, Pittsfield, honorably dis- 
charged Oct, 3, 1863; Andrew Smith, Williamstown, honorably discharged March 
I, 1864; Samuel L. Dutton, Chelmsford, honorably discharged May 11, 1865; 
Charles F. P. Hildreth, Concord. N. H., honorably discharged June 16, 1865 ; assist- 
ant surgeons, Andrew Smith, promoted surgeon Oct. 4, 1863; Jonathan Cass, 
Great Barrington, honorably discharged July 27, 1863; Paul C. Garvin, Boston, 
promoted surgeon 4th cavalry April 26, 1864; Ephraim C. Merriam, Lunenburg, 
honorably discharged, July 7, 1864; Chas. F. P. Hildreth, promoted surgeon May 
14, 1865. 

Forty-First Regiment, Infantry: Became 3d Regt. Cavalry. 

Fifty-Fourth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Lincoln R. Stone, Salem, promoted sur- 
geon U. S. Vols., brevet lieutenant-colonel; Charles E. Briggs, Boston, mustered 
out Aug. 21, 1865; assistant surgeons, Charles B. Bridgham, Buckfield, Me., honor- 
ably discharged, July 16, 1864, re-commissioned; Louis D. Radzinsky, Switzerland, 
promoted surgeon 104th Regt. U. S. colored troops; Joshua B. Treadwell, Boston, 
mustered out Aug. 21, 1865. 

Fifty-Fifth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeons, W. Symington Brown, Boston, honorably 
discharged July 2, 1865; Burt G. Wilder, Newton, mustered out Aug. 29, 1865; 
assistant surgeons, Burt G. Wilder, promoted surgeon July 11, 1865; Warren M. 
Babbitt, Braintree, promoted 103d U. S. colored troops; W. H. Lothrop, Boston, 
mustered out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Fifty-Sixth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, T. Fletcher Oakes, Dartmouth, mustered 
out July 13, 1865 ; assistant surgeons, Horatio S. Soule, Winthrop, mustered out 
July 12, 1865; Jerome E. Robert, Springfield, discharged Sept. 22, 1863. 

Fifty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Whitman V. White, Stockbridge, mus- 
tered out July 30, 1865; assistant surgeons, Chas. E. Heath, Monterey, discharged 
Jan. 28, 1865; Charles O. Carpenter, Holyoke, discharged Jan. 30, 1865; Warren 
Tyler, No. Brookfield, not mustered; M. F. Gavin, Boston, mustered out July 30, 
1865; David S. Clarke, Derry, N. H., transferred from 59th Regt., mustered out 
July 30, 1865. 

Fifty-Eighth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Alfred A. Stocker, Cambridge, dis- 
charged Aug. I, 1864; Alfred H. Bryant, Natick, not mustered, see 36th Regt.; 
Frank Whitman, Roxbury, N. H., mustered out Jtily 14, 1865; assistant surgeons, 
Frank Whitman, promoted surgeon April 14, 1865; Thomas Dawson, Boston, 
mustered out July 14, 1865. 

Fifty-Ninth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, William Ingalls, Winchester, mustered out 
Sept. 14, 1865 ; Edward W. Nortoni, Blandford, honorably discharged Jan. 28. 1865 ; 
David S. Clark, Derry, N. H., transferred to 57th Regt. May 26, 1865. 

First Regiment, Cavalry: Surgeons, James Holland, Westfield, honorably discharged 
June 26, 1863; Albert Wood, Westfield, honorably discharged Nov. i, 1864, U. S. 
Hospital, City Point, Nov. 1, 1864, staff surgeon tj. S. A. Jan. i, 1865; Frederick 
W. Mercer, Boston, made surgeon 4th Regt. Mass. Cavalry Sept. 3, 1863; Samuel 
W. Abbott, Woburn, acting brigade surgeon Feb. and Mar., 1865, mustered out 
June 26, 1865 ; assistant surgeons, Oscar C. DeWolfe, Chester, promoted surgeon 
2d Cavalry Nov. 17, 1862; Albert R. Rice, Springfield, assistant surgeon 49th 
Regt. Nov. 21, 1862; Homer H. Warner, Springfield, discharged Aug. 20, 1864; 
George S. Osborne, Danvers, promoted surgeon 5th Cavalry Dec. 30, 1863; Samuel 
W. Abbott, promoted surgeon Nov. 2, 1864. 


Second Regiment, Cavalry : Surgeons, Oscar C. DeWolfe, Chester, honorably din- 
charged Feb. 4, 1865; Eldredge M. Johnson, Agawam, mustered out July 20, 1865; 
assistant surgeons, Harlow Gamwell, Huntington, promoted surgeon 5th Cavalry 
May 7, 1864; Eldredge M. Johnson, promoted surgeon Feb. 8, 1865; Alvan F. Buck- 
man, mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Third Regiment, Cavalry: Surgeons, Albert H. Blanchard, from 41st Regt. Infantry, 
honorably discharged, Feb. 29, 1864; Daniel F. Leavitt, So. Danvers, honorably dis- 
charged July 21, 1865 ; George G. Tarbell, Lincoln, mustered out July 20, 1865 : assist- 
ant surgeons, John Blackmer, Somerville, from 41st Regt. Infantry, promoted sur- 
geon 47th Regt. Nov. 4, 1862; Daniel F. Leavitt, 41st Regt., promoted surgeon 
March 1,1864: Daniel S. Allen, Gloucester, promoted surgeon 17th Regt. Feb. 20, 
1865; George G. Tarbell, promoted surgeon Aug. 9, 1865. 

Fourth Regiment, Cavalry: Surgeons, Frederick W. Mercer, Boston, honorably dis- 
charged April 7, 1864, afterwards surgeon 60th Regt. ; Paul C.Garvin, Boston, 
mustered out; assistant surgeons, Edward S. Russell, Quincy, mustered out; 
John H. McGregor, Needham, honorably discharged April 23, 1864; Edward K. 
Hill, Newbury, Me., discharged Dec. 20, 1864; Julius Weber, Lynn, honorably 
discharged June 12, 1865. 

Fifth Regiment, Cavalry: Surgeons, George S. Osborne, Danvers, honorably dis- 
charged May 7, 1864: Harlow Gamwell, Huntington, honorably discharged Feb. 8, 
1865; Frederick G. Parker, East Corinth, Me., mustered out Nov., 1865: assistant 
surgeons, Samuel Ingalls, Melrose, honorably discharged April 20, 1864 : Frederick 
G. Parker, promoted surgeon Feb. 16, 1865; Isaac S. Cushman, Newburyport, 
honorablv discharged May 31, 1865; Oliver F. Wadsworth, Boston, mustered out 
Nov., 1865. 

First Regiment, Heavy Artillery, formerly Fourteenth Regiment Infantry : Surgeons, 
David Dana, Reading, honorably discharged Oct. 30, 1862; Josiah N.Willard, Bos- 
ton, honorably discharged Oct. 13, 1864; Edward R. Cutler, Sudbury, mustered out 
July 31, 1865; assistant surgeons, Samuel K. Towle. Haverhill, promoted surgeon 
30th Regt. Feb. 28, 1862; Edward B. Mason, Boston, honorably discharged Aug. i, 
1863, deceased; Samuel L. Dutton, Chelmsford, promoted surgeon 40th Regt. Mar. 
I, 1864; Edward R. Cutler, promoted surgeon Dec. 5, 1864; George H. Larrabee, 
Edgartown, honorably discharged Mar. 14, 1864; George E. Mason, Providence, 
R. I., mustered out July 31, 1865. 

Second Regiment, Heavy Artillery : Surgeons, Hall Curtis, Boston, honorably dis- 
charged May 10, 1864; James Emmerton, Salem, mustered out Sept. 3, 1865 ; assist- 
ant surgeons, Dixi C. Hoyt, Milford, died during yellow fever epidemic at New- 
bern, N. C, Nov. i, 1864; James Henry Denny, I5oston, mtistered out Sept. 3, 
1865: John C. Barrington, Chelsea, mustered out Sept. 3, 1865. 

Third Regiment, Heavy Artillery: Surgeon, William Nichols, Jr., Boston, mustered 
out Sept. 18, 1865; assistant surgeon, George E. Pinkham, Farmington, N. H., 
mustered out Sept. 18, 1865. 

Fourth Regiment, Heavy Artillery : Svirgeon, John Stearns, Boston, mustered out 
June 17, 1865; assistant surgeon, John F. Saville, Quincy, mustered out June 17, 


Sixty-First Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, James Oliver, Athol, mustered out July 16, 
1865 ; assistant surgeons, James Oliver, promoted surgeon Oct. 18, 1864; Rufus A. 
Olloque, Boston, mustered out July 16, 1865. 

In the nine months' regiments the colonels appointed the surgeons 
and assistant surgeons, the candidates having first been examined and 
approved by the medical commission. Surgeon Dale commented txn- 
favorably on this condition of affairs, but says in closing: "I am happy ta 
add that thus far, in the nine months' regiments, no other motive than the 
desire to secure the most competent stirgeons has influenced the officers^ 
and they have been fi)rtnnate in securing faitliful and experienced men." 



Third Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Alfred A. Stocker, Cambridge, honorably dis- 
charged, commissioned surgeon 58th Regt. Oct. 16, 1863; assistant surgeon. Wood- 
bridge C. Howe, Mattapoisett, mustered out June 26, 1863. 

Fourth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, James Waldock, Roxbury, mustered out Aug. 28, 
1863 ; assistant surgeons, Edward Nortoni, Blandford, mustered out, commissioned 
assistant surgeon 59th Regt. Jan. 13, 1864; Joseph F. Gould, Boston, mustered out 
Aug. 28, 1863. 

Fifth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, William Ingalls, Winchester, mustered out Aug. 
28, 1863, commissioned surgeon 59th Regt. 0"ct. 13. 1864; assistant surgeon, Dixi 
C. Hoyt, Milford, mustered out and commissioned assistant surgeon 2d Heavy 
Artillery, Aug. 24, 1863. 

Sixth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Walter Burnham, Lowell, mustered out June 3, 
1863; assistant surgeons, Otis W. Humphrey and George E. Pinkham, Lowell, 
mustered out June 3, 1863. 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Charles Haddock, Beverly; assistant surgeon, 
John L. Robinson, Wenham, mustered out August 17, 1863. 

Forty-Second Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, Ariel I. Cummings, Roxbury, died in 
rebel prison, Texas; assistant surgeons, Thomas B. Hitchcock, Newton, discharged 
July 22, 1864; R. B. Heintzleman, Philadelphia, Pa., mustered out Aug. 20, 1863. 

Forty-Third Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, A. Carter Webber, Cambridge, mustered 
out July 30. '863; assistant surgeons, Augustus Mason, Brighton, resigned; Henry 
O. Marcy, Cambridge, mustered out July 30, 1863. 

Forty-Fourth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Robert Ware, Boston, died at Newbern, 
N. C, April 10, 1863; Theodore W. Fisher, Medway, mustered out June 18, 1865; 
assistant surgeons, Theodore W. Fisher, promoted surgeon April 10, 1863; Dan- 
iel McPhee, Boston, mustered out June 18, 1863. 

Forty-Fifth Regiment Infantry: Surgeon, Samuel Kneeland; assistant surgeons, 
Joshua B. Treadwelland Daniel McLean, all of Boston, mustered out July 7, 1863. 

Forty-Sixth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, James H. Waterman, Westfield, mustered 
out July 29, 1863; assistant surgeon, Thomas Gilfillan, Cummington, assistant 
surgeon 59th Regt., Dec. 12, 1863. 

Forty-Seventh Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, John Blackmer, Somerville, mustered 
out Sept. I, 1863; assistant surgeons, Frederick W.Mercer, Boston, commissioned 
surgeon 4th Regiment, Cavalry, Sept. 3, 1863; Charles F. Barnard, Boston, mus- 
tered out Sept. I, 1863. 

Forty-Eighth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Yorick G. Hurd, Amesbury; assistant 
surgeon, Francis F. Brown, Sudbury, mustered out Sept. 3, 1863. 

Forty-Ninth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Frederick Winsor, Boston; assistant sur- 
geons, Albert P. Rice, Springfield, and Joseph B. Reynolds, Concord, all mustered 
out Sept. I, 1863. 

Fiftieth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, William Cogswell, Bradford, mustered out 
Aug. 24, 1863; assistant surgeons, Nathaniel W. French, Concord, N. H., died of 
typhoid at Baton Rouge, La., April 21, 1863; John Hancock, Pawtucket, R. I., 
mustered out Aug. 24, 1863. 

Fifty-First Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, George Jewett, Fitchburg, mustered out 
July 27, 1863: assistant surgeon, Paul C. Garvin, commissioned assistant surgeon, 
40th Regt., Oct. 6, 1863. 

Fifty-Second Regiment, Infantry: Surgeons, Frederick A. Sawyer, Greenfield; assis- 
tant surgeons, John M. Richardson, Chesterfield, and Henry M. Sabin, Lenox, all 
mustered out Aug. 14, 1863. 

Fifty-Third Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, J. Q. A. McCollester, Groton, mustered 
out Sept. 2, 1863; assistant surgeons, William M. Barrett, Fitchburg, discharged 
Sept. 8. 1863; William L. Bond, Charlestown, mustered out Sept. 2, 1863. 



Fifth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Joshua B. Treadwell, Boston; assistant surgeon, 

George H. Jones, Boston, mustered out Nov. 16, 1864. 
Sixth Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon, Walter BurnhaiTi, Lowell : assistant surgeons, 

William Bass, Lowell, and George W. Sargent, Lawrence, mustered out Oct. 27, 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon. John L. Robinson, Wenham; assistant sur- 
geon, Ebenezer Hunt. Danvers. mustered out Nov. 10, 1864. 
Forty-Second Regiment, Infantry : Surgeon. Albert B. Robinson, Holden, mustered 

out Nov. 1 1, 1864. 
Sixtieth Regiment, Infantry: Surgeon, Frederick W. Mercer, mustered out Nov. 30, 

I S64, commissioned surgeon 20th Regt., Dec. 7, 1864; assistant surgeon, George 

H. Bowers, Boston, mustered out Nov. 30, 1864. 

Among these, several took a more active part in the campaigns of 
the republic. Lucius Manlius Sargent. Jr., bornat Boston, September 15, 
1S26, was commissioned surgeon of the Second Regiment, Massachusetts 
Vols., May 28, 1861. He was commissioned captain, First Massachusetts 
Cavalry, October 31, 1861, and served near Charleston, S. C. until August 
19, 1862, when eight companies were detailed to join the army of the Poto- 
mac. During the succeeding campaigns he was engaged with his commands 
at Kelly's Fort, Sulphur Springs, Stephensburg and Aldie Station, and at 
the latter place was left for dead on the field, but was only wounded, a 
rifle ball having glanced around the ribs under the skin for nearly one 
half of the circumference of the body. He was promoted major January 
2, 1864, and commissioned lieutenant -colonel of his regiment September 
30, but was killed by a shell at Bellfield, Va.. December 9th of the same 
year, while in the act of recalling a detachment exposed to the fire of a 
strong fieldwork. 

Dr. Horatio S. Soule, of Winthrop, Mass., commissioned assistant 
surgeon of the Fifty-Sixth Regiment, Infantrj-, Xovember 3, 1863, not 
only served faithfully his whole term of service, but during the fighting 
in the Wilderness, for several days commanded a detachment of light 
artillery, which had lost its officers, and repeatedly carried his guns into 

In 1S62 the Massachusetts Medical Commission addressed to Briga- 
dier-General Wm. A. Hammond. Surgeon-General U. S. A., a remon- 
strance against the great abuses incident to the employment of inexperi- 
enced surgeons, "many of whom, in common with the rest of mankind, 
labored under the delusion that the main business of the surgeon is to 
perform operations instead of preventing them." 

They therefore "recommend that the surgeon-general, U. S A., 
be respectfully requested to appoint a sufficient number of surgeons, 
whose duty should be a general supervision of the wounded in examining 
personally so far as can be done — and to decide as to the primary surgi- 
cal treatment in the case presented, and if any operation is deemed 


necessary, to direct a suitable person to perform it, and at the proper 
time etc., etc." 

A communication was at the same time addressed to Hon. E. M. 
Stanton, secretary of war, advising him of the submission of this remon- 

A very courteous reply from Surgeon-General Hammond acknow- 
ledged the existence of the evils referred to, and assured the commission 
of his hearty co-operation, but also stated, "that first class surgeons had 
not come forward for field service with the alacrity which is to be de- 
sired, and I am sorry to see so little stress, in many of the states, upon the 
qualifications of regimental medical officers." 

There is no doubt that eventually many gallant soldiers were saved 
from death or needless mutilation by reforms thus initiated. 

In 1862, the following civilian surgeons were sent to the front and 
rendered efiicient service: February 2, Dr. Albert Hitchcock to Roanoke 
Island, and on May 2 and September 19, to other posts. March 3, Dr. J. 
B. Upham, Samuel Kneeland, Boston; J. C. Batchelder, Templeton; and 
R. R. Clarke, Northbridge, to Newbern, N. C; April 10, Drs. Samuel 
Cabot, George H. Gay, R. M. Hodges, Luther Parke, Jr., and S. C. 
Hartwell, Jr., to aid Massachusetts troops near Yorktown, Va.; also Dr. 
William G. Breck to assist those wounded at the battle of Corinth, Miss., 
and Dr. William Nichols, Jr., to Fortress Munroe. April 29, Dr. James 
M. Newell of Sutton to North Carolina. He was afterwards detailed as 
acting surgeon 48th Pennsylvania Vols., and was drowned while endeavor- 
ing to save some women and children from a sinking transport laden with 
convalescents under his charge. May i, Drs. Henry Shaw, J. R. Bronson, 
A. R. Becker; May 9, Dr. Benj. J. Cushing to Fortress Monroe. May 12, 
Drs. A. B. Hall, William H. Page and Stephen Mighell to the Army of 
the Potomac. May 16, Drs. Josiah D. Wilber and John G. Perry to assist 
Dr. Cushing at Fortress Monroe. May 20, Dr. A. R. Rice to the First 
Massachusetts Cavalry, Hilton Head, N. C. May 21, upon a requisition 
from Surgeon Tripler, medical director, U. S. A., Drs. Joseph Sargent, 
William Mack, A. LeBaron Munroe, Frederick Ainsworth, William H. 
Thorndike, Joel Seaverns; A. J. Cummings, William D. Lamb, J. H. 
Morse, B. Carpenter, F. A. Howe, Benj. T. Crocker, Jona. Brown, H. H. 
Fuller, J. S. G. Hitchcock, J. O. A. AlcCollester, Wm. R. Fletcher, D. D. 
Seymour, B. F. Campbell, A. A. Stocker, Asa Alillett, Joseph Underwood, 
F. C. Green and A. D. Blanchard, twenty-five in all, were sent to the 
assistance of the Army of Potomac, then near Williamsburg, Va. 

On June 2, Dr. Henry J. Bigelow was detailed, and was later em- 
ployed on special service by the secretary of war. 

July I, 3, 7 and 8, on the requisition of the surgeon-general of the 
United States, Drs. E. G. Pierce, Charles L. Swasey, Benjamin F. Burgess, 


Seneca Sargent, E. B. Allen, R. Cresson Stiles, S. H. Hurd, J. E. Whi- 
ting, Ira Perry, Isaac H. Stearns, John W. Hinkley, Frederick Winsor 
and Joseph W. Clift were detailed to assist the Army of the Potomac. 

August 31, on an order from the secretary of war, Drs. \V. G. 
Breck and Alfred Lambert of Springfield; Foster Hooper, R. T. Davis, 
Joseph W. Heartley and William C. Bennett of Fall River; J. L. Miller, 
Timothy Childs, F. A. Cady, D. B. Nelson, J. H. Manning, A. M. Smith, 
and E. H. Sexton of Pittsfield; C. C. Holcombe of Lee; and George H. 
Gay, C. H. Stedman, H. G. Clark, J. H. Dix, H. J. Bowditch, C. E. Buck- 
ingham, G. F. Bigelow, J. H. Blake, William H. Page, A. Ruppaner, S. 
H. Carney, A. P. Barker, J. S. Flint, H. A. Alartin, D. B. Morse, J. H. 
Warren, D. McB. Thaxter, James W^aldock, B. F. Wing, Wm. S. Coffin, 
J. G. Arnold, H. L. Shaw, J. Green, P. P. Ingalls and R. J. Goodwin of 
Boston and vicinity were detailed under the direction of Dr. George H. 
Gay, and reported to Surgeon-General Hammond, U. S. A. They carried 
with them, and on separate trains, over a hundred tons of supplies con- 
tributed by the surgeons and charitable associations of Massachusetts, and 
finally received the following order: 

Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, September 2, 1862. 
The bearer. Dr. George H. Gay, and twenty-eight others, have permission to 
visit Centerville and Fairfax Stations, to report for duty to Medical Inspector Coolidge, 
U. S. A., or Dr. J. C. McKee, U. S. A. They are entitled to transportation and sub- 
sistence. By authority of the Secretary of War. 


Surgeon-General U. S. A. 

Dr. Gay applied to the quartermaster at Alexandria for transporta- 
tion, and was informed "that transportation to the places had been forbid- 
den by superior officers only two hours previous." His report goes on to 

"Members of our party then strolled about the city and visited dif- 
ferent hospitals. Reports were made by different parties that the medi- 
cal staff was amply supplied, although many sick and wounded were seen 
lying about on the sidewalks, upon the steps of the hospitals, and hotels 
unattended, to some of whom all care was refused by stibordinates 
connected with the hospitals, imtil the individual efforts of certain mem- 
bers of our party compelled attention to the needs of the sufferers. 

"Meeting with no co-operation here, Dr. Buckingham was detailed 
early on Wednesday, September 3, to report to the surgeon -general and 
await his instructions. Dr. Buckingham returned in the afternoon, and 
reported that the surgeon-general had no further need of our services." 

The party returned to Washington and decided to make details to 
visit each and every hospital, in and around the capital, and to find out 
and visit every Massachusetts soldier and relieve his wants. This wa5i 


done very systematicar.y and thoroug-hly, and the articles needed 
delivered directly to each patient. The report of .several examiners 
showed a generally favorable condition of the patients in these hospitals. 
There was an almost universal want of clean underclothes, etc., which 
were promptly supplied by Dr. Gay and his assistants. 

On Friday. September 3, Surgeon-General Hammond asked for 
two surgeons to proceed to a spot between Fairfax Court House and Cen- 
treville, where "many soldiers lay wounded and starving." Drs. C. H. 
Stedman and H. I. Bowditch of Boston volunteered their services, and 
started at 11 p. m. with a train of ambulances. The distance (twenty- 
two miles) was covered in about six hours, the horses being allowed to 
walk most of the way, although the night was cool and the loads very 
light. Dr. Stedman's report goes on to say "On arriving at our place of 
destination, lying about on the grass, or in an old house and its outhouses, 
we found one hundred and fifty soldiers suffering from gunshot wounds 
of every description, inflicted five or six days before. Two had been shot 
in the lungs; one through both thighs and the scrotum; some through the 
abdomen; in short, no portion of the body had escaped. Five surgeons of 
the army were in attendance, but for want of food and sleep these were 
nearly exhausted, and being able to perform but little duty, they 
requested me to remove some limbs, which operations were necessary to 
the more favorable transportation of the wounded to Washington." 

Having performed these operations, dressed many wounds and 
visited a Confederate hospital some four miles away, to remove Captain 
Kelton of the Twenty-First Massachusetts, who had lost a leg; the ambu- 
lances were filled with the wounded and returned to Washington. Both 
surgeons testified to the kindness and skill of "Assistant Surgeon Joseph 
W. Harding of the Twenty-First Massachusetts and his associates, who 
had worn themselves out in their vain attempts to adequately relieve the 
sufferings of their comrades." 

Both also testified to the utter incompetence, brutality and selfish- 
ness of the wagon-masters and drivers of the ambulance trains, then 
wholly in the hands of the quartermaster's department. This abuse was 
later in the course of the war largely remedied. 

On Saturday, September 6, the First, Eleventh and Sixteenth 
Massachusetts Regiments were visited and supplied with underclothing, 
and arrangements were made for supplying the Thirteenth Regiment. 

Most of the supplies not distributed were finally divided between 
the vSanitary Commission and the Association for the Relief of Massachu- 
setts Soldiers, and the party returned to Massachusetts. 

The extraordinary conduct of the medical and military authorities 
in refusing the aid of these skilful and patriotic surgeons, is thus com- 
mented upon by Surgeon-General Dale: "These surgeons left the state 


under the direction of Dr. George H. Gay; they were detailed by your 
Excellency on the order of the honorable secretary of war; and it has not 
yet been satisfactorily ascertained why their services, which might have 
been invaluable, were not accepted by the authority to whom they were 
directed to report." 

Drs. E. G. Pierce of Holyoke and J. H. Morse of Lawrence, 
detailed at earlier dates to the Army of the Potomac, never recovered 
from the exposures and hardships of their service, and died of disease 
then contracted, after their return home. 

Ninety-five physicians and surgeons were appointed in this year for 
the several counties to examine such enrolled citizens as claimed exemp- 
tion from draft by reason of disability. Their names, and the commenda- 
tions bestowed on them for discreet performance of this unpleasant duty, 
will be found in Surgeon-General Dale's report of December 31, 1862. 

On May, 26, 1863, Dr. Anson P. Hooker, surgeon of the Twenty- 
Sixth Regiment, Masssachusetts Volunteers, was commissioned assistant 
surgeon-general of Massachusetts. The only medical supplies purchased 
this year were for the state camps, and from December i, 1862, to October 
I, 1863, amounted to only Si, 086. 13. 

The Medical Commission this year lost by death. Dr. George Hay- 
ward, the distinguished and honored head of the Board, and by resigna- 
tion Dr. John Ware. Drs. John C. Dalton and Samuel Abbott of Boston 
were appointed to fill the vacancies. 

In 1864, Surgeon-General Dale calls special attention to the loss of 
Dr. William H. Heath of Stoneham, surgeon Second Massachusetts Infan- 
try, who at date of August 14, 1S64, "died from fever contracted in the 
arduous discharge of duty during the march of General Sherman from 
Atlanta. The respect shown to his memory by those with whom he had 
long been associated attests how deeply the loss of this lamented and 
faithful surgeon was felt." 

Of Dr. Dixi C. Hoyt of Milford, assistant surgeon of the Fifth 
Massachusetts Volunteers, (nine months' regiment) and later of the 
Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, who died of yellow fever at New- 
bern, N. C, November 4, 1864, he says: "Dr. Hoyt, humane and skil- 
ful in his profession, fell a victim to the prevailing epidemic at Newbern, 
the sufferings consequent upon which he fearlessly and faithfully en- 
deavored to mitigate by unceasing toil and self-sacrifice." 

During 1864, the following details were made on the call of the 
surgeon-general, U. S. A: May 8, 1854, Drs. Alfred Hitchcock, Fitch- 
burg; A. H. Blanchard, Sherborn; Frederick Winsor, Cambridge; J. C. 
Harris, West Cambridge; J. B. Taylor, East Cambridge; George T. Bige- 
low, John P. Ordway, J. B. Treadwell, Wm. H. Page, M. C. Green and 
Algeron Coolidge of Boston. May 12, Drs. Francis Leland, Milford; 


W'm. D. Lamb, Lawrence; O. O. Davis, North Andover; Asa Millet, 
Bridgewater; R. J. P. Goodwin, Milford. June 5, Drs. John C. Warren, 
Edward Wigglesworth, James P. Brewster and B. A. Sawyer, of Boston. 
June 7, Drs. C. A. Ahern and C. G. Coleman, Boston. June 11, Drs. 
James Holland, Westfield, and H. H. F. Whittemore of Marblehead. 

Of the services rendered by these gentlemen General Dale says: 
"The unremitting and skilful service of the above surgeons obtained 
from the medical directors of the corps to which they were assigned, an 
acknowledgement of their great indebtedness to them in the emergency 
requiring their assistance." 

In February, Surgeon-General Dale took charge of the Massachu- 
setts agents, viz: Lieutenant-Colonel Tufts at Washington; William Rob- 
inson, Esq., at Baltimore; Lieutenant-Colonel Robert R. Corson at Phila- 
delphia; Colonel Frank E. Howe at New York and A. L. Stimson at Hil- 
ton Head, S. C. Colonel How served gratuitously this year, and Mr. 
Stimson resigned before its close. Their duties were: First to visit, by 
agent or deputy, all trains or transports conveying sick or wounded sol- 
diers, and to see that every Massachusetts man "received every attention 
which it was their right to claim from government, or their privilege to 
claim from private munificence." Second, to make weekly returns of all 
arrivals with the regiment, company, residence and condition of each sol- 
dier, and the particular hospital to which he was transferred. Third, to 
make similar weekly returns of all remaining in the general hospitals, 
adding an account of all deaths and departures; giving, in short, "a full 
statement of what becomes of every man who may fall under the agent's 
notice." Fourth, to give attention to the statements of di.scharged soldiers 
who may fall into distress, secure their admission into the public hospitals, 
and otherwise provide gratuitously for such cases as appear mei-itorious 
till the state can be communicated with; and to procure from the military 
authorities the papers necessary to forward soldiers to their homes, and 
generally to render such service as any exigency not contemplated may 
call for. 

The above statements, however, give but a very meagre idea of the 
scope of humanitarian work carried on by the medical department of 
Massachusetts in the Civil War. Military couriers were sent to meet and 
accompany parties of invalid soldiers; supplies forwarded and distributed 
in the field; the private correspondence of the soldiers and their friends 
facilitated; news procured of those still in the rebel hospitals or prisons; 
and in short, everything was done which could assist the living, care for 
the heroic dead or console the afflicted. 

The following brief resume of the work of these agents in 1863 may 
give some idea of the invaluable service rendered in this way during the 


Colonel Frank E. Howe, New York: "Soldiers visited in hospitals, 
registered and aided, 5.164; soldiers lodged and otherwise aided at the 
New England Soldier's Relief Association, 5,393, of which number five 
died and were decently cared for. Ntimber of families given state aid 41; 
total 10,598. These figures do not include regiments and detachments 
passing through the city, or a large number of miscellaneous calls for 
assistance or information which were duly attended to." 

Agent William Robinson at Baltimore: "Soldiers visited in the hos- 
pitals, 1,000; transportation furnished to 150 persons; expenses and dis- 
bursements, $1,074.06." 

Gardner Tufts, Washington, D. C: "Soldiers visited in hospitals, 
6,588; died, 540; bodies sent home, 90; number of names reported from 
other sections, 11, 428. Pay collected for 640; assisted from stores of 
this department, 6,473; siipplied outside, 4,000; letters written and copied, 
6,272; telegrams sent, 610; recommendations for passes given, 1,000; 
number supplied with Thanksgiving dinner, 22,000; soldiers' tickets sold, 
1,700; total number of soldiers visited, supplied and reported, 18,877; 
articles specially distributed, 33.547." 

The agency paid out for expenses, $11,556.99; of relief fund, 
!|>3525.26; sending home bodies, $5,412.50; soldiers' tickets, $13,600; paid 
out bounties, (recruiting department) 890,000.00; Thanksgiving dinner, 
$3,433.00; pay collected and disbursed, $95,962.00; aggregate of money 
transactions, $213,752.59. 

The Thanksgiving dinner above referred to was proposed by S. 
B. Stebbins, Esq., of the Union City Committee of Boston, Mass., on 
November 18, 1864. It was tendered to all the soldiers in Washington, 
irrespective of their states. Fifteen and three-quarter tons of poultry, 
pies, etc., were distributed to i 8,000 patients in thirty-six different hos- 
pitals, and also to the men of twenty-six companies of the Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery, Sixteenth Light Battery, and other scattered detachments. 

The Baltimore agency was closed May 31, 1865; that at Philadel- 
phia, July 31, and that at New York, November i. The agency at Wash- 
ton, under Lieutenant-Colonel Tufts was continued through the year. 

In this year "the decease of Dr. John C. Dalton, appointed on the 
medical commission in 1863, ended a long, honorable and patriotic career, 
whose closing efforts were devoted to the service of his state and country. 
He was succeeded on the board by Dr. R. W. Hooper." 

In accordance with G. O. No. i, A. G. O., January 6, 1865, a 
register was established in the office of the surgeon-general, wherein dis- 
abled officers and soldiers seeking employment, could register their 
names, ages, former occupations, occupations sought, dates and places of 
enlistment, terms of service, character of disabilities, references and 
present addresses. 


The number of applicants in 1865 was 2,132, including all who 
had lost a limb, 8^ otherwise wounded and 247 more or less disabled by 
disease contracted in the service. Number furnished employment, 701; 
of whom 91 had lost a limb, 25 suffered from wounds and 106 were more 
or less disabled by disease. Registered but unemployed, 1,431; of whom 
220 had lost a limb, 58 were otherwise wounded and 41 were disabled by 
disease. The total expense to the state was $2,051.68, including $738.08 
expended in organizing the Soldier's Messenger Corps. Probably most of 
the undisabled officers and soldiers registered obtained employment for 

An association of returned officers under Colonel H. S. Russell, 
aided this work greatly with funds and by personal exertion. The street 
railroad companies, places of public amusement, private charity and a 
host of municipal and social organizations began to aid those who no 
longer had a legal claim on the state or national government. 

In closing his report of the last year of the great Civil War, Sur- 
geon-General Dale, in chronicling the measures active or proposed for the 
assistance of discharged soldiers, said: 

"I venture to remark, however, that this committee will cheerfully 
bear record, that such of our soldiers as were born or reared in New Eng- 
land, together with those of our adopted citizens who understood the 
magnitude of the issues at stake, entered the service from a love of coun- 
try, and with a full knowledge of its perils. Accepting the responsibili- 
ties of war, with its hardships and sacrifices, they served as good soldiers, 
and most of those who escaped its dangers, on their return to the peace- 
ful pursuits of their former occupations, are now good citizens, with the 
record of a full service and an honorable discharge. Of this class, there 
are but few who claim or ask any consideration from the state, .save that 
recognition which is due the patriotic citizen and the brave soldier. The 
exceptions, are those who will carry to the grave the disabilities they 
incurred in the line of their duty, and who are cut off by the character of 
these disabilities from all means of support. 

"To such, Massachusetts will deal out no niggard charity, nor will 
she forget the families of those who fell in defence of her ritj-hts. 

"The Commonwealth will not cease to remember the proud encom- 
ium she has won. 'All the world has seen during the war, that wherever a 
Massachusetts column passes a great people follow it, not only to stimu- 
late the living to fight, endure and conquer, but to place beneath the 
suffering the great arm of support and consolation, and to whisper in the 
ear of the dying of the brightness of eternal anticipation for the brave and 
good who die for their country.' " 

Surgeon-General Dale's duties in 1866 included, beside the purchase 
of medical supplies for the state militia, an exhaustive statement of the 


services rendered to the disabled veterans of the war, and to the heirs and 
families of those deceased in the service. The military hospital at Rains- 
ford Island was discontinued, and during this year Surgeon Edward R. 
Wheeler and Assistant Surgeon John W. Parsons of the Twenty-Fourth 
Regiment and Surgeon Samuel A. Davis and Assistant Surgeon Cornelius 
S. Jackson of the Thirtieth were mustered out with their respective 
regiments, thus releasing from duty the last Massachusetts surgeon of 
the Civil War. 

The following excerpts from reports of Massachusetts surgeons who 
served in the Civil War will be of interest: 

Assistant Surgeon W. W. Keene Jr., Fifth Massachusetts Volun- 

"The Fifth Massachusetts Infantry left Alexandria July 16, 1851, 
in the brigade of Colonel Ambrose E. Burnside. Our supply of medical 
stores was amply sufficient, but we had no means of transporting them, 
and they had to be left with the teams of the quartermaster to be for- 
warded from Alexandria. The iirst hospital I was at during the battle 
(First Bull Run) was at a spring about half a mile beyond Sedley Church, 
near which our brigade crossed Bull Run. Here we had instruments and 
dressings, water and a canteen of brandy. Afterwards, I went, by order, to 
the church, and so far as I know of, there was no other detail made to 
attend to the fatigue duties at this hospital, such as removing wounded, 
preparing food, bringing water, etc. I left this hospital between four and 
five o'clock in the afternoon, on the approach of the Confederates, with 
Colonel Lawrence, who was wounded. The wounded were exposed that 
night to rain, but it was not uncomfortably cold. The operations I saw 
were all amputations, or extractions of balls, but the main thing done 
was to apply primary water dressings. There were many cases where 
simple cerate was unwisely used. It is proper to state, in extenuation of 
the faults observed, that they were mostly, in my opinion, due to the utter 
lack of experience on the part of medical officers, and I by no means 
exclude myself, of both the mode of obtaining supplies and the proper 
persons to apply to." 

Surgeon Daniel P. Smith, Eighteenth Massachusetts, made brigade 
surgeon December, 1861, was sent January 23, 1862, to General G. H. 
Thomas, whose victory over Zollicoffer at Fish Creek, had just been 
reported at Louisville. "Although only seventy-five miles, a wagon was 
often a week on the road. Reached Somerset, (ten miles from the field) 
on the 29th. I found the little village crowded with sick and wounded. 
Churches and the farmhouses had been pressed into service. . . The 
roads were of such a wretched description, that, taking into account the 
continuous rain, it was wonderful that transportation of them to Somer- 
set had been effected." 


After Shiloh, "on the part of General Grant's army, there appeared 
to be a want of foresight in providing for the probable wants of the 
wounded. The most painful feature, however, that I encountered was 
the inhumanity of the state agents. One steamboat captain, I remember, 
who came from Cincinnati with a steamboat finely fitted out with every 
hospital convenience, iiatly refused to receive any but Ohio wounded 
upon his boat, and entirely ignored the authority of any medical officer." 

Charles S. Tripler, medical director, U. S. A., in "Operations Medi- 
cal Department, Army of the Potomac, U. S. A., July 1861 to July 1862," 
says: "On April i6th, six civilian surgeons deputed by the governor of 
Massachusetts, by authority of the secretary of war, arrived in camp and 
offered their services. They were particularly charged to look after the 
Massachusetts Volunteers, but with a zeal as creditable as it was rare, 
and a patriotism as conspicuous as it was disinterested, they expressed 
their readiness and their desire to render their services wherever they 
could be most useful. The party consisted of Drs. Cabot, Lodge, 
Gay, Parke, Hartwell and Homans. Some of these gentlemen were 
assigned to the Massachusetts troops in Sumner's corps; the others 
fitted up a portion of the tents on the Ship Point road as a field 
hospital for regulars. They had precisely the same supplies as the 
other surgeons. With these means they were soon at the head of a 
model establishment for the field. After the evacuation of Yorktown, and 
the battle of Williamsburg, they repaired promptly to the town and there 
rendered important services to the wounded. . . . Here I was joined 
by a party of able and distinguished surgeons from New York, consisting 
of Drs. James R. Wood, Daniel L. Rogers. Kruchowitzer, Sonte, Ayers 
and others. Drs. Cabot, Hitchcock and Bronson of Massachusetts were 
also promptly on the ground. The hospitals were distributed among these 
gentlemen, and I need scarcely say that the wounded received at their 
hands the prompt and skilful attention." 

On May 24tli. "I then inspected the hospital at White House, 
made contracts with nineteen physicians from Massachusetts, sent 
promptly by Srirgeon-General W. J. Dale, in answer to a telegram from 
me; placed eight of them on duty at White House, and sent the remainder 
to Yorktown to relieve as many regimental olificers as were forthwith 
ordered to their regiments." 

Assistant Surgeon John W. Foye, Eleventh Massachusetts, July 2 r, 
i86i,Bull Run: "In the afternoon, a medical officer of rank visited the 
hospital at Sedley's Ford and left it optional to go to the rear or remain. 
Surgeon Luther V. Bell, Eleventh Massachusetts, Dr. Curtis, a civilian 
surgeon, and Chaplain Parker, Second New Hampshire Volunteers, 
remained until all the wounded capable of being moved had been sent to 
the rear." 


Medical Director Letterman says of Assistant Surgeon A. A. Ken- 
dall of the Twelfth Massachusetts Volunteers, who was killed by the 
enemy while with his regiment in an engagement. "He was a faithful and 
efficient officer, active and zealous in his duty to which he fell a victim in 
the midst of battle." 

Manassas, second Bull Run. John W. Foye, surgeon U. S. Volun- 
teers, on August 26, 1862 started on a freight train from Warrenton Junction, 
Va., for Alexandria to secure sitpplies, but near Bristow Station the train 
received the fire of two companies of Stuart's cavalry deployed as skir- 
mishers, and five Louisiana regiments in line of battle. The train was 
hurled from the track while going at full speed and during the night des- 
troyed by fire. Of seven passengers, five were killed by the enemy's fire. 
At 8 a. m. the next morning, Wednesday, August 27th, a company of the 
Twelfth Pennsylvania Cavalry, which had been out, were returning to 
Bristow but ran upon the enemy before they were aware of their presence. 
A section of artillery opened up on them at five hundred yards, and they 
were utterly routed. 

Surgeon Foye says: "I asked for and obtained permission from 
Major Wheat, provost marshal of Jackson's command, to attend the 
wounded captured in this affair, but the want of appliances limited my 
treatment. In the fight which followed that day at Bristow's Station, the 
number of Union prisoners was augumented, although the Confederate 
troops were gradually forced back to Manassas. Such of them as were 
wotinded were turned over to my care, but at sunset, unable to hold the 
field, they paroled the wounded, taking officers and uninjured men to 

"At 3 p. m., August 28th, prisoners followed the main body of 
Jackson's force towards Centerville, crossing Bull Run at Blackburn's Ford, 
and going across the country in circuitous routes to Sedley Church, which 
they reached at 5 p. m. The privates were then paroled, but the officers 
were retained. About sunset a brisk skirmish took place, in which thirty 
Confederates were wounded. Sedley church was filled up by Surgeon Ma- 
Guire, medical director of Jackson's command, and I obtained permission 
to treat any of our wounded that should come in. 

"Monday, August 29th. Second battle at Manassas. Church filled 
with wounded. At 10 a. m. the enemy having been steadily forced back, 
the church became untenable; the woiinded were hastily moved back 
across the ford and the enemies' wagons, thirteen in number, started for 
Aldie, the prisoners, myself included, following under a strong guard. 
Returned on Sunday, 31, to Sedley's Ford. 

"Monday, September i. Joined by 30 officers and 1,250 privates 
captured Aiigtist 26 and 29. Privates paroled, officers taken to Richmond 
September 2 . Foye released, evening of September i , accompanied paroled 


raen to Saltillo farm, near Chantilly, where the men were ordered back to 
Centerville and Surgeon Foye was allowed to go to Chantilly to look out 
for the wounded with a surgeon of the Brooklyn Zouaves. Foye there got 
a pass from Fitz-Hugh Lee, and started for Washington via Fairfax. On 
September 4, he rejoined his regiment near Alexandria. It had fought at 
Bristow Station August 27, Manassas August 29, Chantilly September i, 
and out of 400 effectives, had lost thirteen killed and seventy wounded." 

Later Foye, at Fredericksburg, says that the'-e were good arrange- 
ments for the care of the wounded, and at Chancellorsville that the ambu- 
lance corps was efficient. 

Brigade Surgeon W. H. Church, U. S. Volunteers, says in his 
report of the attack on Roanoke Island, February 7, 1862: "Surgeon J. 
N. Marcus Rice of the Twenty-Fifth Massachusetts Volunteers was 
wounded in the midst of his very arduous duties. The ball grazed his 
side, fortunately without inflicting a severe wound. . . The largest 
hospital at the north end of the island I have placed in charge of Surgeon 
S. A. Green of the Twenty-Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers, and Surgeon 
George A. Otis of the Twenty-Seventh Massachusetts has the manage- 
ment of the two hospitals near the fort in the center of the island." 

Of the battle of Newbern, N. C.hesays: "The conduct of Surgeon 
George Derby and Assistant Surgeon S. E. Stone of the Twenty-Third 
Massachusetts Volunteers is deserving of special mention. Before the 
action opened, I located them at a point which proved to be in the 
immediate range of the enemy's fire. They must have remained there 
two hours before I thought of their position, where I found them quietly 
performing their operations with the balls flying thick and fast. I 
immediately ordered Dr. Derby to remove his wounded to a house in a 
more protected position. Drs. Upham, Kneeland, Batchelder and Clarke 
joined us at Hatteras Inlet and were of great assistance both in field and 
hospital. Dr. Bowman B. Breed, Surgeon of the Eighth, was after- 
wards medical director at Newbern." 

Assistant Surgeon-General Colonel Anson P. Hooker was retired 
from duty on July i, 1866. The medical staff of the active militia was 
chiefly composed of men who had served in the field. The report of this 
year received a significant interest, from the embodiment therein of a list 
of 2,123 names of men and officers who had died in rebel prisons. 

In 1 868, the Surgeon-General's duties were chiefly connected with the 
care of disabled soldiers, and the presentation of claims for arrears of 
pay, bounty, pensions, etc., due from the general government to Massa- 
chusetts soldiers of the war. 

His annual report of 1869 shows that the camp ground at Hull had 
been supplied with pure water through tubular wells, and that the camps 
at Boxford and Springfield showed a great degree of improvement in 


sanitary arrangements. He suggested innovations in the supply of hos- 
pitals, tentage, etc., and "a vigorous physical examination by the proper 
medical officers" of all recruits. 

On December 31, 1873, died Colonel Anson P. Hooker, assistant 
surgeon-general of Massachusetts during the Civil War. Surgeon-Gen- 
eral Dale in his report for that year pays his memory the tribute of a 
brief but impressive obituary. He says in the report for that year: 

"On December i, 1874, the Medical Commission of Massachusetts 
instituted by Governor Andrew on the order of the secretary of war — a 
board of civil surgeons for the examination of candidates for the medical 
staff of the volunteer force of the state, during the war and since — were 
relieved from duty. 

"The long, honorable and patriotic services of this board, voluntary 
and without pay, were gratefully acknowledged by your Honor on behalf 
of the Commonwealth." 

General Order No. 35, A. G. O., Mass., dated December i, 1874, 
designated a board of surgeons from the volunteer force of the state, for 
the examination of candidates for the medical staff of the militia. 

Surgeon B. Joy Jeffries, of the First Corps Cadets, furnished the 
following physical statistics gathered from the examination of seventy- 
two cadets, made at Camp Palfrey, Nahant, July 21-25, 1874: 

"Born in Boston, 44; other parts of Massachusetts, 16; New Hamp- 
shire, 4; Maine, 3; New Brunswick, i; New Orleans, i; Washington, i; 
Philadelphia, i; England, i. Occupation: Medicine, 4; law, 6; architects, 
2; professional students, 6; in business, 41; clerks, 12; farmer, i. Weight: 
Heaviest, 2 19; lightest, 114; average, 148. Height: Tallest, 6 feet i 1-2 
inches, shortest, 5 feet 2 1-2 inches; average, 5 feet 8 inches. Age: Old- 
est, 52 years; youngest, 21 years; average 30 years." 

In his report for 1875, Surgeon-General Dale includes notes ot 
similar physical statistics by Surgeon Wm. F. Southard, of 114 men of 
the Second Corps Cadets: 

"Born in Salem, 65; other parts of Massachusetts, 17; Maine, 4; 
New Hampshire, i; Rhode Island, i; New York, 3; Virginia, i; Connecti- 
cut, I. Occupation: Medicine, i; law, 3; clerks, 40; farmers, 4; in business 
66. Weight: Heaviest, 215 pounds; lightest, 129; average, 141. Height: 
Tallest, 6 feet; shortest, 5 feet 3 inches; average, 5 feet 7 inches. Age: 
Oldest, 55 years; youngest, 19 years; average, 28 years." 

In 1876, the report shows that "on the reorganization of the mili- 
tia, G. O. No. 24, series of 1876, A. G. O., announced the following offi- 
cers as detailed for service on the board of medical officers for the examin- 
ation of appointees for the medical staff, viz: Colonel Jo.shua B. Tread- 
well, assistant surgeon-general, president; Lieutenant-Colonel Robert 
Amory, medical director ist Brigade; Lieutenant-Colonel John L. Hil- 



dreth, medical director 2d Brigade; Major Edward J. Foster, surgeon 
Fifth Regiment Infantry; Major Daniel Dana, surgeon 1st Battalion, 
Heavy Artillery." 

In 1878, the books, records and papers relating to the prosecution 
of soldiers' claims against the general government were turned over to 
the adjutant-general of the Commonwealth. 

The report of this year in regard to the sanitary, hygienic and 
meteorological conditions at the yearly encampment, shows a most credit- 
able and intelligent appreciation and performance of duty by the medical 

In 1880, there was reported considerable intestinal disease from the 
use of well water at the state camp at South Framingham. 

On Tuesday, September 5, 1SS2, during the encampment of the 
2d Brigade at Framingham, the sky was completely overcast with a yellow 
haze, which caused it to be styled for years afterward the "yellow day." 
Medical Director Charles H. Williams thus describes this phenomenon: 

"The whole sky was covered with a uniform yellow haze, probably 
resulting from the forest fires. The day was quite dark, and was so filled 
with the yellow tints, that it quite cut off the yellow rays from all objects, 
causing the grass to appear a bluish 
green, and giving to any lamp or 
candle a whitish look like an elec- 
tric light. This appearance lasted 
only one day, and was followed by 
a day of excessive heat." 

In the report for 1882, the 
formation of an ambulance corps 
is for the first time suggested. 

The death, after arriving 
home, of Major J. A. Fleming of 
the Ninth Regiment Infantry, 
taken sick at camp, is reported in 
1883 by Surgeon-General Orran 
Geo. Cilley, who succeeded Sur- 
geon-General Dale January 4, 1883. 
General Cilley had previously 
served as surgeon of the First Bat- 
talion Cavalry, M.V. M., from Feb- 
ruary I, 1873, to April 28, 1876. 

The report of Surgeon-Gen- 
eral Alfred F. Holt, who was ap- 
pointed January 3, 1884, recommends strongly the formation of an ambu- 
lance corps, and the building of a permanent hospital. It also announced 





the decease of Surgeon N. S. Chamberlain of the Sixth Regiment Infantry. 
General Holt had served in the Civil War in Company C, Third Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Infantry, from April 17 to July 21, 1861, as private 
and hospital steward; was made assistant surgeon Thirtieth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers, February 20, 1862; promoted surgeon First Texas Cav- 
alry, December i, 1862; and he became major December, 1863, and colonel 
in January, 1865. 

In 1885, he chronicles the legislation which authorized an ambu- 
lance corps, and its initiation at the annual encampment of tlie2d Brigade 
by Lieutenant Samuel B. Clark, its first commander. Its uniforms, equip- 
ments, stretchers, etc., are described and were practically identical with 
those now in use. 

In 1889, the camp ground at South Framingham liad been supplied 
with a regular water service from a pond in the vicinity. During the 
early winter of this year, prizes were offered to the members of the Ambu- 
lance Corps to encourage them to learn to apply such material as can 
readily be found near a battlefield, as temporary splints for broken 

limbs. The prizes were as follows: 
"To the soldier making and 
applying the neatest and best, tem- 
porary, long splint for a broken 
thigh, ten dollars. 

"To the soldier making the 
neatest and best, temporary splint 
for a leg broken below the knee, or 
for an arm broken above the elbow, 
five dollars. 

"These splints may be made 
of straw, brush, pieces of boards, 
or such other material as would 
probably be found in the vicinity 
of a battlefield. The material must, 
of course, be obtained outside of 
the armories, but the work of pre- 
paring the splints and their appli- 
cations to the plaster form, (if these 
are used) must be done in the 
armories, and under the super- 
vision of the ambulance officers or 
the sergeants of the corps. Furthermore, these splints must be made with 
the knives, scissors, bandages, etc., supplied by the state, except that an 
axe or a hatchet may be used." 

The prizes were awarded Thursday, November 28, there being 





1 1 






"• *^ I -■** 


Xo. 1. WitlRS and Muss. 

No. 2. liark. 

Xo. 3, Sword iiiid Sheath. 

No. 4. Rope-Bound Withes. Xo. 5. Bark. Xo. 6. Spliced Splints and Straps. 




eighteen samples submitted, "applied to plaster forms furnished for the 

purpose. All the contestants had fully complied with the terms of the 

circulars, and the material used in preparing these temporary dressings 

was such as would be found anywhere, consisting of bark, twigs, pieces of 

wood, straw, table knives, etc., etc. 

Many of the dressings showed 

marked ingenuity and skill, in both 

the conception and application, and 

all of them gave practical evidence 

of careful and thoughtful work, 

showing a general knowledge of 

the reason for such appliances, and 

the purpose for which they were 


Photographs of these samples, 
shown to surgeons in other states 
and in Europe, have always elicited 
approval and surprise, and even 
incredulity, when the examiners 
were informed that they were the 
work of enlisted men of the Massa- 
chusetts militia. 

The report for 1891 was sub- 
mitted by Surgeon-General Kitt- 
redge. who succeeded General Holt 
January 8, 1891. His previous 
military service was as assistant surgeon of the Second Battalion Artil- 
lery April 27 to September 14, 1875; assistant surgeon Eighth Regiment, 
M.V. M., August 21, 1878; surgeon August 10, 1881, and medical director 
2d Brigade staff March 7, 1882. He called attention to the imperfect con- 
dition of the field, operating and pocket cases, medicine chests, and "old, 
obsolete field companions" then in use; and also announced a return to 
the old method of having one firm purvey all the medical and surgical 

In ] 892, General Kittredge strongly recommended "that every officer 
and man before being accepted for the military service of the state, be 
given a thorough physical examination." He also recommended the 
establishment of a "systematic course of athletic exercises to improve 
their physique"; "the adoption of a working suit of duck, or other suitable 
material for drill and fatigue duty"; "a change in the knapsacks then in 
use; " the use of ' 'fixed rations for all organizations, to be prepared after the 
most approved military methods", and the establishment of an "emer- 
gency ration." 





New orderly pouches were provided, and with the aid of Major 
William L. Richardson, surgeon First Corps Cadets; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Herbert L. Burrell, medical director ist Brigade; Major David Clark, sur- 
geon Second Regiment Infantry, and Major Charles H. Cogswell, surgeon 
First Battalion Cavalry, the details of the new outfit and a fixed and uni- 
form supply table were agreed upon. 

Desiring to furnish the ambulance corps opportunities for active 
and beneficial practice. Surgeon- General Kittredge offered their services 
to the superintendents of the Boston & Maine, Old Colony, New York & 
New England, and Boston & Albany railroad companies. The superin- 
tendent of the Boston & Elaine re- 
fused the offer with scant courtesy, 
but the other lines accepted it with 

His report for 1893 showed 
improvement in nearly ev^ery de- 
partment and detail of the state 
medical service. 

Surgeon-General Kittredge 
was succeeded Jamiary 4, 1894, by 
General Herbert L. Burrell, who 
was commissioned assistant sur- 
geon. First Battalion Cavalry, M. 
V. M., August 3, 1882; transferred 
to First Regiment Infantry, March 
10, 1883, resigning April 15, to be 
commissioned surgeon of the First 
Battalion Cavalry. This position 
he resigned May 26, 1886, and was 
made medical director, ist Brigade, 
M. V. M., February 20, 18S9. He 
continued to improve upon the very 
effective service established by his predecessors. An emergency chest, 
capable of being transformed into an operating table was this year de- 
vised, "first, to supply at camps and on tours of duty, such extraordinary 
and surgical supplies as might at any time be needed; second, that this 
emergency chest should serve as a part of the equipment of the Ambu- 
lance Corps to meet any public calamity. It is kept at the State House, 
and is issued on requisition to the senior surgeon on duty there." 

He recommended in closing, the provision of certain instruments 
for the emergency chest; a revision of the medical officer's orderly pouch; 
an increase in the number of veterinary surgeons and veterinary hospitals 
for the isolation of infectious cases, etc.; the physical examination of all 





recruits by paid officers; the desig-nation of qualified soldiers as company 
bearers, who were to wear red brassards; better bathing facilities at the 
state camp grounds; state to furnish all food at camps; exclusion of all 
spirituous liquors from the quarters of the officers and men; spe- 
cial inquiry into the causes of men falling while in line of march or on 
parade; the provision of standard fatigue service uniforms for rough work 
and hot weather, and the transfer of the state hospital to some other part 
of the camp grounds. 

Surgeon-General Burrell, owing to the increased demands upon 
his time and effort, imposed by his duties as assistant professor of clini- 
cal surgery at Harvard University, tendered his resignation, April 22, 


Edward Jacob Forster, then medical director on the staff of Briga- 
dier-General Benjamin F. Bridges, First Brigade, M. V. M., was commis- 
sioned in his place April 23, 1895. 
He had served many years in the 
militia, having been private and 
corporal in the Twenty-Sixth Un- 
attached Company, later Company 
C, Fifth Regiment Infantry, from 
September 30, 1864, to October i, 
1866. He was commissioned sur- 
geon of the Fifth Regiment, May 
19, 1 871; discharged April 28, 1876; 
reappointed July 26, 1876, and dis- 
charged by reason of expiration of 
term of service January 11, 1892. 
He was commissioned medical 
director of the First Brigade, M. 
V. M., January 12, 1894. His first 
report deals with his attendance as 
official delegate at the fifth annual 
meeting of the Association of Mili- 
tary Surgeons of the United States 
at Buffalo, N. Y.; as medical offi- 
cer with Governor Greenhalge and 
others at the dedication of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Park; and in the same capacity, with the governor and his coun- 
cil, at the Cotton States International Exposition, Atlanta, Ga. He 
chronicles certain changes in the field equipment, and especially the pre- 
paration of an orderly pouch, distended by an aluminum basket or skeleton 
tray, and the revision and issuance of complete supplies for both pouches 
and medicine chests. The Ambulance Corps is kindly and practically 

STKliEilN-iiENKH M. Kmi \nit 


considered, receiving due praise and many timely suggestions as to more 
perfect service. 

In General Orders No. 6, company officers were directed to con- 
sult with the senior medical officer of their command, and to appoint four 
litter bearers, to be instructed in removing and giving first aid to the 
wounded, an innovation proposed by Surgeon-General Burrell. The work 
of the veterinarian department was commended, and recommendations 
made for perfecting the sanitary condition of the State camp ground, and 
instituting a .State ration to be cooked and furnished to the troops while in 
camp. He also recommended that examinations of all recruits be manda- 
tory; chronicled additions to the office library, and the good work of the 
school for medical officers, presided over by Major Wm. H. Devine, surgeon 
of the Ninth Infantry, and suggested that each battalion should have a med- 
ical officer, giving each regiment of infantry an extra assistant surgeon, 
with one to each battalion of artillery and cavalry. He also advocated 
the appointment of medical officers to the lowest grade only, promotion 
from which was to be earned only by good behavior and efficient service. 
His heart was in his work, and undoubtedly most of these recommenda- 
tions would have ripened into active reforms under his care, had he lived, 
to serve another year. 

Surgeon-General Forster died suddenly of cerebral hemorrhage in 
New York, May 16, 1896. He had just attended the sixth annual meet- 
ing of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United vStates.and was 
returning home when the fatal rupture ended his life and labors. 

Born at Charlestown, Mass., July 9, 1846, he received his diploma 
at Harvard in 1868, and continued his studies at Paris and Berlin before 
settling down to acquire a practice under the shadow of Bunker Hill mon- 
ument. The committee on necrology, of the Association of Military Sur- 
geons, U. S. A., thus paid tribute to the dead surgeon-general: 

"In his medical work he was from the beginning conscientious, 
painstaking, tireless and sympathetic. For many years he was visiting 
phy.sician to the Boston City Hospital, in connection with which he was also 
for some years secretary of the medical staff. He was active in the pro- 
motion of the movement to secure a State medical registration law, and 
when the movement finally culminated in the law of 1894, he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Board of Registration, and became the secretary. 

"He was a power in medical society work, and both the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society and the Obstetrical Society of Boston, will per- 
manently bear the impress of the judicious and zealous administration of 
the various offices, to which he was elected by them. In 1891 he was 
made treasurer of the former, and immediately set himself not only to 
simplifying and improving the system of accounts, but he devoted an 
enormous amount of time and labor to the preparation of a complete cata- 


logue of the society, from its foundation in 178 i, which will ever remain 
an enduring memorial of Dr. Forster's zeal and efficiency in office. 

"He was in the habit of seeking recreation in natural history, and 
was an interested student of the habits and ways of the bees, while in 
botany, his interest was manifested by the production of a valuable work 
on the identification of edible mushrooms. 

"General For.ster's social, patriotic, charitable and scientific inclin- 
ations found vent in numerous societies of which he was a member, in 
which his sterling qualities always made his presence felt." 

Dr. C. M. Green, then assistant-surgeon First Corps Cadets, M. V. 
M., gracefully said: 

"The record of his years of devotion is written in the grateful 
memory of his patients. To medical charities he gave a large part of his 
time; in his earlier life to the poor of Charlestown; and for many years 
past as one of the visiting physicians of the Boston City Hospital." 

Robert Allen Blood succeeded Surgeon-General Forster, of whose 
decease his report in 1896 says: "His death was a great shock to me, 
he being an old and true friend. I have been intimately acquainted with 
him for more than thirty years." 

Surgeon-General Blood, commissioned May 28, 1896, was born in 
New London, N. H. During the Civil War he served as a corporal in 
the Eleventh Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry. He had 
succeeded Forster as medical director of the First Brigade, M. V. M., 
May 2, 1895, and upon his death was promptly commissioned in his place. 
His first report, 1896, says: 

"On assuming the duties of surgeon-general, .... I beg to 
report that everything pertaining to the medical department was found to 
be in the most admirable shape. Nearly all the medical supplies had 
been forwarded to the various commands. The medical chests not already 
sent, were filled and ready for shipment. All the details of the office had 
been carried forward up to the departure of General Forster for Philadel- 
phia, where he had been ordered to attend the meeting of the Society of 
Military Surgeons, May 11, 1896." 

The report goes on to announce that: "The supply or reserve 
medical chest has been furnished to the several organizations. Mattresses, 
blankets and furniture for sick bay (ship hospital ward) have been pro- 
cured and sent to the Naval Brigade. 

"The Ambulance Corps is in good working condition. This was 
to have been expected. With accomplished officers and a fine body of men, 
I shall look for even better work in the coming years than in the past. 

"I would recommend that every recruit have a physical examina- 
tion at the time of enlistment, or as soon after as practicable. 

"I believe, for the benefit of the service, Lieutenant Frederick F. 


Osgood, veterinary surgeon, First Battalion Light Artillery, and Lieuten- 
ant Austin Peters, First Cavalry, should be promoted to the rank of cap- 
tain and attached to brigade headquarters, and I so recommend." 

In his report of 1897, the following points may be recalled: 

"All hospital stewards are registered pharmacists, with the excep- 
tion of Hospital Steward Knight, First Corps Cadets. He has degrees 
from Harvard of A. M. and AL D. 

"Since my last report the Ambulance Corps has been furnished 
with four new brown duck tents and flies, . . Captain Standish and 
the officers and men of this corps, I am proud to say, are a command second 
to none in the country, and are worthy of all praise. 

"I now come to the most important subject of which I have to treat 
in this report. That a physical e.xamination of every recruit, who would 
enter the service of the State as a soldier, should be mandatory, is I 
think fully recognized by all our surgeons. I believe this to be 
absolutely necessary, before the militia, of which we are so proud, 
can become as efficient as we could wish, or as the people, who pay for all 
this, would expect, were the militia called into active service. 

"I do not believe that the State should be called upon to educate 
men for soldiers, who are not physically able to do the work of soldiers 
when educated. I am fully convinced that some method can be provided, 
whereby every man who enlists can have a proper physical examination, 
and I so recommend." 

Surgeon-General Blood called upon his assistants in March, 1898, 
to prepare a list of papers and subjects for treatment and discussion by 
medical officers of the State militia, at a medical school to be held 
April 26. Medical Directors Otis H. Marion of the First, and William 
H. Devine of the Second Brigade, aided greatly in the preliminary work 
of selecting subjects, and assigning them to the several surgeons and 
assistant surgeons. The meeting was quite largely attended, and the 
papers prepared and read dealt in a practical and exhaustive way with 
military surgery, camp sanitation, and other subjects relating to the 
conservation of good health in field and camp, and to the cure of wounds 
and diseases incident to active service. The surgeon-general felt that the 
meeting had been a success, not only in its ordinary and official sense, but 
in the assurance of deep interest in and ability to deal with, the vital 
and grave duties which were then seen to be impending. 

On April i the service medical chests, then in the hands of the sur- 
geons of the several organizations, were called in to be replenished and 
refitted, and these were promptly prepared for immediate service in the 
field. All medical supplies were put in good order, extra medicines, etc. 
purchased, and a contract prepared, by the tenns of which Messrs. Buzzell 
and Ball bound themselves to furnish at a few hours' notice all the 


Splints, bandages, etc., etc., which might be needed in case of a great 
emergency. The old-style chests were also replaced by others of 
lighter weight and better pattern. 

When war with Spain was actually declared, all the regiments 
accepted from Massachusetts were furnished with their regular peace 
establishment outfit, and thereafter with anything which the several sur- 
geons could reasonably demand, and would receipt for. While in some 
doubt as to whether the United States government would reimburse 
Massachusetts for medical supplies furnished them after they were 
sworn into the U. S. service, he "felt it his duty to furnish each regi- 
ment with medicines until it could be supplied from the surgeon-general 
U. S. A., as I thought there was nothing too good for Massachusetts 
troops that were going to the front for active service." 

Later on, Surgeon-General Sternberg, U. S. A., at his request, gave 
him a letter of instructions, conferring sufficient authority to furnish 
everything needed. General Blood's letter and Surgeon-General Stern- 
berg's reply, which show very clearly the services performed by the State 
medical department, follow: 


Surgeon-General's office, Boston, May 23, 1898. 
Col. C. H. Alden, Assistant Surgeon-General, U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: Your letter of May 20, was received this morning. In reply will 
say: Up to the present time I have furnished a complete medical outfit, hospital 
tents, medical chests, (complete in every way), hospital clothing, such as blankets, 
mattresses, sheets, etc., to the First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, U. S. Volun- 
teers; Second Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Volunteers; Sixth Regiment, 
Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Volunteers; Eighth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers. 

The Eighth Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, and the 
Second Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, have been ordered 
away, leaving the First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and the Ninth Regiment, 
Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, here to be provided for. 

I can supply these regiments with everything they may need in the way of 
medicine and medical supplies as long as they stay in Massachusetts; if you wish me 
to do so. Very Respectfully, 

ROBERT A. BLOOD, Surgeon-General. 

On May 25, General Blood received the following reply from 
Deputy Surgeon-General Alden at Washington, D. C: 

Surgeon-General Robert A. Blood, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: The Surgeon-General directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of May 20, and say in reply, that we would be very glad if you could let the 
Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and the Ninth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, con- 
tinue to use the State field medical equipment until they can be supplied with the 
United States outfit, which will be very shortly. 

Yours respectfully, 

C. H. ALDEN, Assistant-Surgeon, U. S. A. 


Surgeon-General Blood further says in his 1898 report: "Each 
regiment, on leaving the State, took quite a large supply of medicines, 
hospital tents, beds and bed clothing — such as cots, mattresses, blankets, 
sheets and pillow cases — in fact, everything supplied to regimental hospi- 
tals during muster at South Framingham, only in much larger quantities. 

"All the regiments, except the First, took into the field two hospital 
tents. In 1897 Captain Myles Standish had four hospital tents made for 
the Ambulance Corps, from colored canvas, with the idea of protecting 
the eyes of the occupants of those tents. They were nicely gotten up 
and rather expensive. The surgeons that were going to the front were 
offered those tents, if they preferred them to the usual white ones. 
Three of these tents were issued to the various commands. 

"For a list of the medicines, medical supplies, instruments, etc., 
issued to the Massachusetts troops, I refer to schedule to be found in this 
report, (see page 61, A. G. Report 1898.) It is not claimed that this 
medical outfit was the best possible one, but I would say that it was a 
very fair supply for what was expected would be needed. Had I known 
that the medicines furnished to our troops were to be used in other than 
regimental hospitals, and that this supply was all that would be used in divi- 
sion hospitals for several weeks, the medicines would have been supplied 
in much larger quantities. I am told that much suffering was alleviated 
by the medicines taken to the front by our surgeons, (for regimental use) 
and used in division hospitals. 

"In March, 1898, I received instructions from Your Excellency to 
have all private soldiers of the Massachusetts militia receive a physical 
examination. This had been recommended by Surgeon-General Burrell, 
also by Surgeon-General Forster, and by myself in my last annual report. 

"On receiving your instructions I at once proceeded to have them 
carried into effect. Surgeons were ordered to examine their various 
commands; they were advised as to the proper severity of the examina- 
tion, and inquiries made of the regular army surgeons as to their mode 
of procedure in such examinations, and all authorities at hand were con- 
sulted as to the matter. 

"The declaration of war between the United States and Spain 
found our troops undergoing a physical examination by our surgeons. In 
most of the regiments this examination was not finished before the 
declaration of war came. The physical examination made by our sur- 
geons was more or less severe, and a percentage of the troops examined 
were unable to pass. According to reports from these officers, in the 
First Heavy Artillery, thirty men were rejected; in the Second Regiment, 
out of three companies, eleven men were rejected; in five companies of 
the Sixth Regiment seventy-five men were rejected; in the Ninth Regi- 
ment, out of ten companies, seventy-three men were rejected. Up to this 


time no report of the physical examination of troops has been received 
from the surgeons of the Fifth or Eighth Regiments at this office. 

"The loss of these two regiments from this physical examination, 
I know to be larger than the reported losses of the other regiments men- 
tioned; so that of the original enrolment of all the regiments, a percen- 
tage of well-trained troops was lost to them, and in the filling up of these 
regiments to 1300 or more, there must have been added thirty to forty 
percent of new recruits who had received no military training whatever. 

"The regiments of the Massachusetts militia called into the ser- 
vice, again had to undergo a physical examination by the surgeon of the 
regular army and his assistants. Quite a large percentage (I have no 
means of knowing how large) were rejected by him. Had all the pri- 
vates and officers of the Massachusetts militia received a physical examin- 
ation at the time of muster into the service of the State, this thing would 
not have happened. A great many men were thrown out by this exam- 
ination who had received years of training to fit them as soldiers. 

"I have always been of the opinion that no man who is not physically 
strong, who has not a good constitution, and is not in good health, should 
be accepted and mustered into the service of the State or of the nation. 
When a man is once in the service, and has received three or five years' 
military training and desires to re-enlist, I would make the examination 
less severe, and allow the military training to offset some physical defect, 
the examining surgeon being allowed to use his judgment in regard to 
these things. (It may be doubted, however, if the regular army sur- 
geons took long service at all into consideration in their examination of 
the Massachusetts infantry). 

' ' For a history of the Ambulance Corps' work during the past year, I 
respectfully refer you to the full report of Captain Standish, commander 
of the corps. In my visits to the various camps of regulars at Montauk, 
volunteers at Camp Hamilton, Ky., and Camp Meade, Pa., I was pri- 
vileged to see hospital corps men, and become familiar with their work; 
and I do not hesitate to say that during those visits I saw no similar body 
of men, either in the regular army, or in the volunteer army, that would 
compare in intelligence, drill and general makeup, with the men of our 
Ambulance Corps. 

"On May i, the surgeon-general was made a member and chair- 
man of a medical board, consisting of Major William N. Richardson, 
surgeon First Corps Cadets, Captain Burrell, U. S. A., and himself. 
This board, like its predecessor in the Civil War, examined all the medi- 
cal officers who sought service in the field with the U. S. Volunteers of 
the M. V. M." The following gentlemen received commissions, having 
been appointed by this board: 


First Regiment, Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, U. S. V. : Surgeon, Major Howard 
S. Bearing, Boston, mustered out Jan. 28, 1899; assistant surgeons, Wil- 
liam A. Rolfe, Boston, honorably discharged on account of sickness, July 13, 1898; 
William S. Bryant, Cohasset, promoted brigade surgeon, U. S. Vols., July 8, 1898. 
Remarks: The First had very little sickness during its term of service, 

largely owing, no doubt, to the constant watchfulness and care of Major Dearing and 

his assistants. 

Second Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V. : Surgeon, Major Henry C. 
Bowen, Springfield, died at Santiago de Cuba, August 13. 1898; Ernest A. Gates, 
Springfield, mustered out Dec. 7, 1898; assistant surgeons, Ernest A. Gates, pro- 
moted surgeon Oct. 24, 1898; John S. Hitchcock, Northampton, mustered out Jan. 
23, 1899. 

Remarks: Major Henry C. Bowen, surgeon of the Second Massachusetts 
Infantry, U. S. V., died of malarial fever at the Second Division General Hospital, near 
Santiago de Cuba, Aug. 13. "He gave his life for his country; no man could do more." 
To use the simple encomium of Colonel Clarke, "Major Bowen was an efficient officer, 
and, until prostrated by disease, worked unceasingly for the good of the regiment." 
Assistant Surgeon John S. Hitchcock, who succeeded Dr. Gates, promoted surgeon, 
was also prostrated by illness after faithful and efficient service. 

Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V.: Surgeon, Major Charles C. Fos- 
ter, Cambridge, resigned Oct. 3, 1898; Frederick W. Pearl, Boston, mustered 
out in 1899; assistant surgeons, Frederick W. Pearl, promoted surgeon Oct. 6, 
1898; Frank E. Bateman, honorably discharged Sept. 23, 1898; William E. McPher- 
son, Charlestown, Charles Norton Barney, Boston, mustered out April 3, 1899. 
Remarks: The Fifth saw no foreign service, but while under canvas in the 
winter and spring of 1898-99, was exposed to hardships and epidemics which resulted 
in much sickness and a number of deaths. That the fatal results were comparatively 
few was no doubt largely due to the care and good judgment of the commanding and 
medical officers of the Fifth. 

Sixth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V. : Surgeon, Major Otis H. Marion, 
Boston, resigned July 2, 1898; George Farwell Dow, Reading, mustered out Jan. 
21, 1899; assistant surgeons, George Farwell Dow, promoted major and surgeon, 
July 4, 1898; Frederick A. Washburn, Jr., mustered out Jan. 21, 1899; Herman W. 
Gross, Brookline, mustered out Jan. 21, 1899. 

Remarks: Major Otis H. Marion acted as medical director most of the time 
while connected with the regiment. Major Dow and his assistants received great 
praise for their arduous services with the regiment and its detachments while reduc- 
ing and occupying Porto Rico. 

Eighth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V.; Surgeon, Major William Cogs- 
well, mustered out April 28, 1899, and promoted surgeon Forty-Si.xth Regiment, 
U. S. Vols., now serving in Manila; assistant surgeons, Thomas L. Jenkins, 
Topsfield. honorably discharged July 11, 1898; Frank P. T. Logan, Gloucester, 
mustered out April 28, 1899; Horace Bird Frost, Boston, commissioned Aug. 26. 
1898, mustered out April 28, 1899. 

Remarks: Major Cogswell made an enviable reputation during the Spanish- 
American War, at Chickamauga, Tenn., and Lexington, Ky., and later at Matanzas, 
Cuba. The medical staff of the Eighth received the highest praise in the reports of 
the commissionersof the war department, and the surgeon-general and inspector-gen- 
erals of the United States for 1898-99. 

Ninth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry, U. S. V.; Surgeon, Francis T. L. Magurn. 
Boston, mustered out January 23, 1899; assistant surgeons, William H. Devine, 
South Boston, promoted major and brigade surgeon, ist Brigade, ist Division, 
2d Army Corps, U. S. Vols., June 8, 1898; lieutenant-colonel and chief surgeon 
2d Division, 2d Army Corps, Aug. 26, 1898; honorably discharged Sept. 26, 
1898; Cornelius J. McGillicuddy, Revere, mustered out Nov. 26, 1S98; Peter O. 
Shea, Worcester, mustered out Nov. 26, 1898. 

Remarks: Major Magurn, surgeon of the Ninth during the entire service of 
his regiment, which suffered most heavily from tropical diseases, did everything in 


his power to alleviate the sufferings of his comrades, performing his whole duty without 
sparing himself. Assistant Surgeon McGillicuddy was detailed upon hospital service, 
while Assistant Surgeon Peter O. Shea remained with the regiment; both gentlemen 
served faithfully and with credit to the State. 

Lieutenant-Commander Gardner W. Allen, surgeon of the Naval Brigade. M.V. 
M., served with the rank of P. A. surgeon on the S. S. "Prairie." Assistant Surgeon 
Richard F. O'Neil was stationed on the monitor "Catskill," and Bayman S. Virgil Mer- 
ritt, held a like rank on the monitor "Lehigh." 

In the same report, General Blood felt that due credit should be 
given Ex-Surgeon-General Burrell, Dr. Robert Bradford, and others asso- 
ciated with them on the hospital ship "Bay State", for their splendid ser- 
vices in caring for the sick and wounded of the Massachusetts troops at 
Santiago and Porto Rico, and added the following tribute to the general 
faithfulness and efficiency of the medical staff: 

"Finer or better equipped surgeons, were not to be found in 
the regular or volunteer army. Patriotic, devoted to duty, conscien- 
tious, well educated men, they are worthy of all praise. No com- 
plaint of these men has ever reached me, and here I desire to express my 
hearty appreciation of their good work, and to thank them for that work. 
The Commonwealth has always been fortunate in having good men go 
forward when needed to serve their country and State, and was never 
more fortunate in this respect than in the war with Spain." 

The history of the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Asssociation has 
been given elsewhere in this work. Early in May, Surgeon-General Blood, 
agreeably to the instructions of Governor Wolcott, formulated a plan for 
the organization of such an association, assisted by Commissary-General 
Francis H. Appleton and Colonel William H. Sohier, A. D. C. A list of 
names of many prominent men was prepared, officers designated, and a 
name chosen for the organization; all of which were practically adopted 
when the delegates summoned met at the State House for organization. 

In June, Surgeon -General Blood, Dr. Myles Standish and Dr. Mor- 
ton Prince were made a committee of medical inspection of camps, and 
for the distribution of supplies to troops, to represent the association. 
Dr. Prince visited Camp Alger, Va., and his report was duly commented 
upon and forwarded by the committee. By a committee on medical supplies, 
on which General Blood was associated with Major Wm. A. Richardson 
and Charles A. Clough, P. H. G., suitable lists of medical and surgical 
supplies were prepared, and the "Bay State" furnished with one of the 
State medical chests and a reserve chest, completely fitted, and in addition 
twenty-six Massachusetts pattern stretchers, such as are used by the 
Ambulance Corps. 

On May 8, under instructions from Adjutant-General Dalton, to take 
measures for raising a hospital corps, in answer to a telegram from 
Surgeon-General Sternberg, Surgeon-General Blood requested Captain 


Standish of the Ambulance Corps, to raise a hospital corps of 135 men, 
with six hospital stewards and six assistants, which he proceeded to do. 
On May 9, Surgeon-General Sternberg, U. S. A., stated that the order for 
raising a hospital corps was a mistake, and there was no authority 
therefor. Over an hundred men who had enlisted were informed that 
their services were not wanted, and there is no doubt that a grave mis- 
take was made, either through lack of authority to take obviously needed 
action, or to some less worthy cause. The sad lack of bearers and assis- 
tants at the Montauk Hospital would have been wholly obviated had there 
been an adequate Ambulance Corps. 

The failure to provide a sufficient number of trained hospital corps 
men and nurses was considered one of the principal defects in the man- 
agement of the hospital at Montauk. A sufficient number of both nurses 
and men could have been furnished from Boston. The nurses, (Mrs. 
Doctor Hughes and her assistants) who were finally allowed to go to 
Montauk from Boston, did most excellent work. 

Some hundreds of furloughed volunteers, sick and wounded, were 
at home in Massachusetts, many of whom greatly npeded better medical 
care and nursing than they were able to afford. On July 25, the follow- 
ing letter was sent to General Sternberg: 

Brigadier-General George M. Sternberg, Surgeon-General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 
Sir: Has any provision been made by the medical department. U. S. Army, 
providing treatment for sick and wounded soldiers, who are home on furlough and 
need such treatment? Respectfully yours, 


Surgeon-General Massachusetts. 

The emaciated and suffering victims of the Santiago campaign were 
now taxing the resources of the government to the utmost, and many 
deaths, and a terrible sick list, demonstrated the necessity of prompt 
action, if the lives of many deserving soldiers were to be saved. Having 
received no answer to this enquiry, Surgeon- General Blood wrote 
again, July 30, as follows: 

Brigadier-General George M. Sternberg, Surgeon-General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. 
Sir: Will you kindly give me authority, if necessary, to care for the sick and 
wounded soldiers, brought here from the front. We can furnish beds in our hospi- 
tals for a large number of patients, and, should the occasion call, could fit a hospital 
expressly for the use of the sick and wounded men. Any information you can give 
me in regard to our duties in the matter will be thankfully received. 

Respectfully yours, 

Surgeon-General Massachusetts. 

Ten days later, on August 9, the following reply was received: 


Surgeon-General Robert A. Blood, Surgeon-General Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Boston, Mass. 

Sir: In reply to your letter of the 30th ultimo, regarding authority to care for 
the sick and wounded soldiers, brought to Massachusetts from the front, and tender- 
ing the facilities of your hospitals for the soldiers, I thank you for your gracious and 
patriotic offer, and inform you that at present we are not in need of additional hospi- 
tal accommodations for our sick and wounded soldiers. 

Your letters have been placed on file, for future reference in case of need. 

Yours respectfully, 


Surgeon-General U. S. Army. 

On 18 General Blood went to Camp Wyckoff, Montauk 
Point, L. I., to meet the Mas.sachusetts Volunteers, then due from Santi- 
ago. He says: "the next day after my arrival the Second Massachusetts 
Regiment, U. S. V. was landed from the ship 'Mobile.' This was a sad 
sight. Never have I seen so many men of one regiment who were so 
generally used up and sick. . . . The ship 'Mobile' was in bad sani- 
tary condition. I was told she was in fairly good shape when sailing 
from Santiago, but certainly there were not suitable accommodations for 
the sick had it been stormy weather. The sick bay was a sorry-looking 

He procured, through the Massachusetts Volunteer Aid Associa- 
tion, a large supply of milk and eggs for the Second, and remained until 
the regiment left for home, with most of its men considerably recuper- 

On August 1 3, he again visited Montauk, under orders from Gover- 
nor Wolcott as follows: 

Surgeon-General Robert A. Blood, Boston, Mass. 

My Dear Sir: You are hereby directed to return at your earliest convenience 
to Montauk Point, and are hereby authorized to purchase whatever food or supplies 
may in your opinion be necessary, to promote the comfort and speedy recovery of the 
men of the Second and Ninth Massachusetts Regiments, U. S. V. 

It is my desire that no precaution or expense may be omitted, tending to 
restore to health the men of these gallant commands. 

Very truly yours, 


He returned to Montauk and says: "I was present when the Ninth 

Regiment landed This regiment was in a very debilitated 

condition; many of the men were sick; only about three hundred were 
able to go into camp. Out of this three hundred few men were in good 
health." .... 

When the Ninth was ordered home, General Blood directed Major 
Donovan to secure palace cars at New London for the use of his men. In 
company with Colonel James T. Soutter, assistant inspector-general, 


he remained at Montauk for some time. He concluded that on the whole, 
the hospital camp was well chosen, and, after the first two weeks admir- 
ably conducted. 

In October a visit was made to the Fifth Regiment, then at Camp 
Meade, near Harrisburg, Pa. He says: 

"I gave this regiment a careful inspection, as to their sanitary con- 
dition, food, healthfulness of the men, medical outfit, etc.; in fact I 
inquired into everything as regarded the oiificers and men of this command. 
I think, from a sanitary standpoint, the camp was well located. The sinks 
were well policed and in admirable shape. There was very little sickness 
at the time of my visit 

"The cooks were detailed men and not experts; therefore the food was 
not as palatable as it would have been had it been prepared by thoroughly 
trained cooks. This was the thing that could have been improved upon. 
I believe this to be one of the principal faults to be found in the training 
of our Massachusetts militia. Each company should be taught to pre- 
pare its own food in a satisfactory manner. . . . The Fifth Massa- 
chusetts Infantry, U. S. V., as I saw it at Camp Meade, was one of the 
best regiments I have ever seen." 

Later he says of a visit to the Eighth Regiment: "I found the 
camp of the Eighth Regiment about four or five miles out from Lexing- 
ton, and in the heart of the blue grass country. This was a most delight- 
ful situation, and I think one of the finest locations for a camp I have 
ever seen. 

"I saw no regiment at Camp Hamilton that seemed so thoroughly 
up to all that goes to make a good regiment as the Eighth. The men 
were soldierly in their bearing, the grounds were kept in perfect condi- 
tion, tents were all in order and scrupulously clean. . . . Altogether, 
this was perhaps the cleanest regiment, excepting the Fifth Massachu- 
setts, that I saw in all my visits to soldiers in the field. I saw almost 
nothing in the sanitary arrangements of this regiment to criticise. The 
only thing, as with the Fifth Regiment, which I think could be improved, 
is the cooking. Of course this will improve in time. 

"Of the nearly 9000 troops, at one time or another, encamped at 
Framingham during the summer, only one serious case of illness 
occurred. This seems a remarkable record, in view of the great amount 
of sickness in camps of the U. S. Volunteer soldiers, at Camp Alger, Va., 
Thomas, in Tennessee, and the camps in Florida. This, I believe, can 
only be accounted for by the supposition that the sanitary conditions were 
better at Framingham than at the other camps mentioned, and that there 
was a better supply of pure water; this was probably true. 

"The good sanitary condition of the camp at Framingham, was to a 
great extent due to the watchful oversight of General Dalton. He had 


the cleanliness of this camp constantly in view, and notwithstanding that 
the troops who were stationed there had been mustered into the volunteer 
service of the United States Army, he continued to exercise this care, 
and prevent the camp from being anything but a most cleanly one." 

Surgeon -General Blood closed the report of 1898 with the follow- 
ing recommendations: 

"I would recommend that each regiment of infantry, M. V. M. 
have one surgeon, with the rank of major, and two assistant surgeons 
with the rank of first lieutenant." 

This recommendation would give to each battalion of four com- 
panies a medical officer, when detached from the regiment. 

"I would also recommend that veterinary surgeons Austin Peters 
and Frederick H. Osgood be made captains, and detailed, one on the staff 
of the First Brigade and the other on the staff of the Second Brigade." 

At present, these officers, whose duties are most important, and 
cover the inspection and care of all the horses of a brigade, are not 
assigned to the brigade staff, nor given the rank which their valuable 
services and personal merit deserve. 

"I also recommend that two additional veterinary surgeons be 
appointed with the rank of first lieutenant." 

vSurgeon-General Blood's report for 1899 contains the following 
matters of interest: 

"The six regiments which served in the Spanish war of 1898, took 
a complete medical outfit into the volunteer service. Upon leaving the 
service, all the medicines and medical supplies then in their hands were 
turned over to the government. This necessitated a refitting of those 
six regiments with medicines and medical supplies, such as tents, chests, 
both field and reserve, operating instruments, orderly pouches, etc., etc. 
In fact, everything that is supplied to our regiments was purchased. 
The chests, tents, instruments and pouches were made to order. The 
tents, eight in number, each had a complete outfit, four beds, four mat- 
tresses, sheets, etc. This required much time. 

"These duties, with the examination for military aid of soldiers 
who were in the old war, and those who served in the Spanish-American 
War, details, and the like, were performed up to the inspections of camp 
in the summer. 

"In April, all the surgeons of the various commands who were not 
in the Spanish war, were requested to forward their medical chests to 
this office, where they were overhauled, refitted and then returned the 
same as last year. All the supplies we carry in this office were put in 
working shape. The number of examinations for military aid during the 
year was 246. 

"The Second Brigade camp was held August 3 to 9, (at vSouth 


Framingham,) and inspected August 5. The sanitary condition of this 
camp, as a whole, was found to be good; with the exception of sinks, 
excellent. These sinks were not kept in as good condition as I could 
wish. This was, in part, due to the use of the camp, by nearly 10,000 
troops in 1898. The regimental hospitals were models in every way; I 
have never found them better. 

"The First Brigade, whose camp was held later, August 19 to 25, 
was inspected August 21. As in the Second Brigade, the principal thing 
to be criticized was the condition in which I found the sinks; they were 
in bad shape. With plenty of lime, copperas and earth, it was barely pos- 
sible to keep them from being a nuisance; but they required a good deal 
of looking after. 

"In the inspection of the First Corps of Cadets (at Hingham,) I have 
but little criticism to make. The sanitary condition of their camp, as 
a whole, was first-class. The only thing I should mention would pos- 
sibly be their sinks, which might be improved. The condition of this 
camp was a credit to the corps. 

"The sanitary condition of the camp of the Second Corps of Cadets 
(at Boxford, Mass.,) was found to be good. The water supply was appar- 
ently pure. The water comes from springs, on the shore of the lake 
near the camp. 

"The inspection of the First Regiment, Heavy Artillery was made 
August 17, (at Fort Warren, Boston Harbor.) This is a splendid regi- 
ment. The hospital tent and tent equipage were found in good condi- 
tion. . . . There was but little sickness. This was a good camp. 

"Very little sickness was found in any of the camps. This I con- 
sidered due to the excellent quality of the men composing our various 
commands, and to the intelligent care and forethought of the commanding 
officers and surgeons. 

"The details of the work done by the medical department on the 
mobilization of the Massachusetts militia, October 14, when we had the 
honor of escorting Admiral Dewey, was left entirely in the hands of the 
medical directors. Colonels Marion and Devine. A hospital, complete in 
every way, was established for each brigade on the Common, where any 
one who needed surgical or medical assistance could be attended to at 
once. Two ambulance wagons were hired, one following the First and 
the other the Second Brigade on their march." 

(The details given in the report of Medical Director Marion of the 
First Brigade, show that two school children, three ladies and one citizen 
were cared for at the First Brigade hospital, beside eleven enlisted men, 
most of them suffering from exhaustion or slight ailments. Trooper 
Nichols of Troop F, thrown from his horse, was attended at the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital. Medical Director Devine, in charge of the 


Second Brigade hospital, treated thirteen enlisted men and several civil- 
ians and school children. There were no serious ailments or injuries 

"Blanks for the medical examination of all recruits have been furn- 
ished to the surgeons of the several commands in sufficient amount, the 
number being more than 15,000. Examinations of all recruits have been 
going on during the year, and returns made at this office. This much- 
needed examination, when fully organized, will be a complete success. 

"The pay of the surgeons and assistant surgeons for this duty 
should be ample. It requires the surgeons at times to travel long dis- 
tances, and be away from their homes and business for a day or more. I 
believe this service should receive suitable compensation, and, in my 
opinion, special duty pay is not a suitable compensation. 

"The Board of Medical Officers at present consists of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Otis H. Marion, president; Lieutenant-Colonel William H. 
Devine and Major Charles C. Foster, recorder. The duties of this board 
during the past year have been arduous, as all officers of the militia have 
to undergo a careful physical examination. Number of meetings held, 
28; number of officers examined: medical 13, militia 155. I believe this 
board should receive at least, per diem pay, according to rank." 

In the same report General Blood recommended additional safe- 
guards to the water supply at the State camp ground; a more perfect 
drainage or sewerage system for the cook houses, and better facilities for 
bathing. In addition he strongly recommended that the use of a regular 
ration, and better methods of appetizingly cooking the same, should be 
made a feature of camp life, and further: 

"I would recommend that every regiment of infantry have a sur- 
geon and two assistant surgeons, and the artillery and cavalry battalions 
to have the same proportion of medical officers; the surgeon to rank as 
major, and the assistant surgeons to rank as first lieutenant, and after 
five years of continuous service to rank as captains. 

"I would also recommend that two additional veterinary surgeons 
be appointed with the rank of first lieutenant. 

"I would also recommend that every company of infantry in the 
Massachusetts militia be empowered to enlist a good soldier as cook, and 
give him the rank of corporal. . 

"In closing, I would say that the Spanish- American War fully 
tested the medical service of the Massachusetts militia, whose regiments 
went fully equipped into the field, and, had they been at first allowed to 
have their own regimental hospitals, would undoubtedly have cared 
better for their own men than was done by the overburdened division 
hospitals of the regular service. I believe the abolishment of the regi- 
mental hospital for a time, by the medical department, was a grave 


mistake. As to the military surgery and practice which came under 
my observation, I must say that, while war is a terrible thing, even 
at its best, the small arms now used, generally inflict far less shock, 
and wounds easier to heal, than the large calibred rifles of 1 861 -1865. 
Aseptic precautions in operating and dressing, have almost averted 
the intense inflammations and gangrenes, which latter often became epi- 
demic in the Federal hospitals of the last war. 

"With the assistance of the editor, Mr. Charles W. Hall, I have 
tried to set before the people of Massachusetts, the plain facts which 
show that in every generation, from the first settlement at Plymouth, the 
medical men of Massachusetts have been as ready in war as in peace to 
do their whole duty as patriotic citizens, and as worthy representatives of 
that almost divine art 'whose mission is to heal.' 

"I have lived to see the chief desires of my predecessors real- 
ized, for to-day every oflficer and enlisted man of the Massachusetts 
line undergoes a physical examination as rigid as that of any regular ser- 
vice, when men are needed in the field. This year (1900) I have also 
seen the food and cooking of the brigades and regiments in camp wonder- 
fully simplified and improved through the energy and plans of Assistant 
Inspector-General Colonel F. W. Wellington. An almost perfect ambu- 
lance corps now supplements a hospital system, which to my best 
knowledge has no superiors, and until modern surgery and medicine 
make new discoveries, the field and hospital supplies cannot be greatly 
improved. Sanitary precautions have reduced the sickness at annual 
encampments to its minimum, and the best skill of the State is placed at 
the service of the humblest soldier. 

"More than all else, the enterprise, humanity and patriotism of the 
officers who have led in these reforms has permeated all classes, so that 
from the general to the enlisted man, almost everyone takes a personal 
pride and interest in all that tends to make the State militia healthy and 
happy in peace, and fit for the sternest trials and perils of war." 


THE Signal Service of the Massachusetts Militia was authorized by 
a rather peculiarly worded provision, of Section 4, Chapter 230, 
of the Acts of the Legislature for 1S84, quoted in full as follows: 
"Section 3. To each brigade there shall be one brigadier- 
general, whose staff shall consist of one assistant adjutant-general, one 
medical director, each with the rank of lieutenant-colonel; one assistant 
inspector-general, with the rank of major, who shall be paymaster and 
mustering officer for unattached companies of such brigade; one brigade 
quartermaster, one engineer, one judge advocate, one provost-marshal 
and two aides-de-camp, each with the rank of captain. There shall also 
be allowed to each brigade the following non-commissioned staff officers; 
viz., one brigade sergeant-major, one brigade quartermaster-sergeant, one 
brigade hospital steward, one brigade provost-marshal, one brigade 
bugler, one brigade color-bearer, and two brigade clerks, and a signal 
corps, to consist of one first lieutenant, one first sergeant, four sergeants 
and twenty privates. The first lieutenant shall be appointed, and the 
men enlisted, mustered, and non-commissioned officers warranted by 
brigade commanders." 

Brigadier-General Nathaniel Wales, then commanding the ist 
Brigade, M. V. M., established the First Brigade vSignal Corps, in 1884, 
appointing First Lieutenant Charles H. Cutler, of Cambridge, its first 
commander. Lieutenant Cutler, commissioned December 12, 1884, had 
a long military record, beginning with his enlistment in Company A, 
First Battalion Infantry, in 1S70, and closing with his resignation as cap- 
tain in 1883. Nearly twenty years earlier he had served as sergeant in 
the signal service, in 1864. 

Major A. C. M. Pennington, Brevet Colonel Fourth Artillery, U. 
S. A., ordered to inspect the camps of the Massachusetts militia in 1884, 
thus remarks upon the first tour of duty of the Signal Corps of the First 
Brigade at South Framingham, June 19, 1884: 

"A signal corps has been added to the ist Brigade, consisting of 
an officer and twenty-five enlisted men. Not more than one-third of 
these, however, were present. They were encamped separate from the 
rest of the brigade, and near brigade headquarters. They were employed 
in flagging the record of shots at mortar practice, and showed consider- 
able proficiency. Flagging, and drilling with kits took place daily, and a 
meteorological record was kept." 


It appears from the official report made to Assistant Adjutant- 
General William L. Olin, by First Lieutenant Henry E. Warner, who 
temporarily commanded the corps, that it was organized only two weeks 
before the encampment, and had been unable to secure the full number 
of men. The smallest number present daily was seven, and the maxi- 
mum eleven. Very few of the men had ever signalled before, and atten- 
tion was chiefly paid to instruction in the signal code, and in flagging, 
with the simpler company movements. The men were interested and 
intelligent, and at the close of the encampment could signal and read 
with a good degree of quickness. 

In addition, the corps did some practical work in connection with 
the mortar practice of the First Regiment, one squad being located at the 
Fort, and another on the hill near the target, which reported the position 
of each shell as it fell. 

Only six kits, out of the ten supplied by the State, had torches, 
but there was a sufficient number of flags for day signalling. A meteor- 
ological record was kept by Private Walter G. Chase. 

In 1885, the Signal Corps of the 2d Brigade was organized, 
equipped, and attended the yearly encampment, having sixteen men pres- 
ent out of twenty-four, under the command of First Lieutenant C. Merton 
Haley, of Boston, commissioned March 10, 1885. 

Major Pennington, U. S. A., who this year again inspected the 
Massachusetts militia at the annual encampment, commented on this corps 
as follows: 

"The Signal Corps, composed of students from the Institute of 
Technology, were drilled in flagging; and at night, signalling with torches 
and the electric light took place. For the latter, the Trouve battery was 
used, a small incandescent light being attached to the side of the jar, which 
was placed between the feet, and another on the end of a light rod, and 
connected with the battery by light flexible wires. The light was suffi- 
ciently intense to be seen distinctly for at least a mile. In case of a 
necessity arising for signalling from roofs of houses in cities, it appears 
to me that this method would be preferable to the ordinary torch signal- 
ling, as there is always danger of fire from the leakage of the illuminat- 
ing fluid." 

The .Signal Corps, ist Brigade, went into camp with twenty- five 
men, under the command of Lieutenant Charles H. Cutler, who says in 
his report: 

"So far as possible the regular hours of drill were followed. Set- 
tino- up drill and balance step every morning before breakfast, and dur- 
ing the hours for company and battalion drills, company movements, flag 
drills, manual of the kit, and flagging from stations. On Wednesday 
and Thursday nights, about three to five hours were spent in flagging 



from stations, by means of torches, with very satisfactory results. On 
account of an insufficient number of kits, we were able to work but 
three stations; two more kits should be provided to enable us to work 
our full complement. The State should also provide turpentine for use 
in the torches. 

"On Wednesday, Captain Strong. Battery B, Fourth United States 
Artillery, did us the honor to call, and spent several hours with us, and 
we received much valuable information from him. At the time of his 
visit, we were working the heliographs. On examining the instruments, 



This station tstablistieii cotntnunicatioii with Lincoln, ]>exingtoii anil Waltliam. 

he advised me to discontinue at once the working of them, as they were 
imperfect instruments, had been condemned by the United States govern- 
ment, and would interfere with our working better instruments, should 
we ever obtain them." 

The attendance at camp duty in 1887 was complete, each brigade 
signal corps having twenty-five men in camp, and their attendance at 
drill was only surpassed by the men of the ambulance service. Lieuten- 
ant Charles H. Cutler of the First Brigade Signal Corps, resigned Decem- 
ber 19, 1887. having served three years, and was succeeded October 23, 


1888, by Charles D. Lyford of Cambridge, who had served in the corps 
two years as private and sergeant. 

In 1888 this corps was complimented by Inspector-General Dalton 
for good attendance at camp. 

On October 3, 1889, the 2d Brigade visited Lynn, and among their 
exercises gave an exhibition of street fighting, in the course of which 
they attacked and carried a strong barricade, and afterwards cleared the 
streets beyond. Captain D. Morgan Taylor, U. S. A., who inspected and 
reported this demonstration, says: "The signal corps was brought into 
operation here, using for the first time, as I was informed, the new Morse 
code, and finding it a decided improvement upon the former one." 

On April 3, 1889, Lieutenant Hans H. M. Borghardt was commis- 
sioned to succeed Lieutenant Lyford, commanding the First Brigade 
Signal Corps. 

In 1890 the corps took part in the field movements of the several 
regiments of infantry, which, with or without detachments of artillery 
and cavalry, carried on mimic warfare over rough country, or essayed the 
attack and defense of towns. For this service the signal corps detailed 
men who were generally commended for their efiiciency. 

In 1891 Captain H. M. Kendall, Sixth Cavalry, U. S. A., inspected 
the camp of the 2d Brigade, and among other things reported: "There 
were two daily drills of the Signal Corps during the encampment. The 
men are well instructed in signalling, and take the greatest interest in 
their duties." 

Lieutenant Borghardt resigned the command of the First Brigade 
Signal Corps, January 3, 1891, and was succeeded February 27, 1891, by 
First Lieutenant John A. Hunneman of Boston. Henry W. Sprague of 
Boston, who had been a member of the Signal Corps of the 2d Brigade 
since 1886, was commissioned lieutenant commanding, April 20, 1891, 
which position he retains at the present writing. 

In 1893 Colonel William L. Chase, acting inspector-general, in an 
exhaustive report, said of the Signal Corps, which, without especially 
encouraging surroundings, had kept up a creditable strength and diici- 
pline for nine years: 

"The work of the Signal Corps in their distinctive sphere has shown 
decided progress. Their equipment is far from what it should be. 
Beyond the defects in their signalling outfit, it would seem to me desir- 
able to arm them with carbines. In any active service the position of a 
signal man may be far to the front, and efficiency consists quite as much 
in reporting on what he sees of the enemy, as in merely transmitting 
messages between integral parts of a command. In such work he is 
likely to run across the advance scouts of the enemy. He should be 
assured the chance to report this information to the main body. With 



the present aggressive weapons of a flag or a leaking oil can, he is some- 
what handicapped. With the keenness developed by signalmen, and 
their acute and instructive observation, with the carbine, they should be a 
match for the occasional scout or patrol encountered. 

"Certainly some arm of defense is desirable. The carbine is the 
weapon, because there are times when the signal-man will be mounted, or 


should be. Again, it is more than likely that bicycles will be introduced 
in the vSignal Corps as a ready means of rapid transportation." 

In 1894 Inspector-General Dalton said of the signal corps: 

"With indifferent equipments, which cannot be improved, except 
by the national government, these corps have well performed their work; 
but unless better facilities be given, with proper equipments for signalling, 
the work should be turned over to regiments, and the corps consolidated 
as an engineer corps." 

In 1895 Inspector-general Dalton reported: 

"Attendance good. Both commands performed their duty well. 
On account of the limited equipment which can be procured from the 
general government, the question of transferring signal duty to regi- 
ments, and making each of the signal corps, an engineer and pioneer 


corps, or consolidating them into one organization of engineers, is worthy 
of consideration." 

Lieutenant-Colonel M. P. Miller, U. S. A., detailed to inspect the 
Massachusetts troops, reported this year as follows: 

"The corps practiced twice daily at flag signalling, and at night at 
lantern and torch drill. I watched it considerably, and was much pleased 
at the rapid flagging and apparent efficiency in that respect. At night 
its torch signalling was firm, of an easy, even motion, and plain of dis- 
cernment. I should pronounce it very efficient." 

Lieutenant John A. Hunneman of the First Brigade Signal Corps, 
resigned February 16, 1894, and was succeeded on the same date by Wil- 
liam M. Tolman of Concord, who had served in the Sixth Infantry from 
1888 to 1S91, and from the latter year in the corps. 

In 1896 Inspector-General Dalton said of the force: 

"Signal Corps, Brigade: This corps performed its duty well, 
and added some field engineering to its other duties. 

"Signal Corps, 2d Brigade: This corps performed an excellent tour 
of duty, and its field engineering work was creditable. In addition to 
gabions and fascines, it constructed a bridge at the camp ground, which 
was well made, showing study and application." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Kline, U. S. A., this year reported of the 
Signal Corps, ist Brigade: 

"Signalling was carried on with the flag at Fort Warren by the 
First Regiment Infantry. The equipment on hand is: six signal kits. 
U. S., ten signal lanterns, two heliographs, six signal haversacks, six 
signal canteens. The men were expert and received messages by flag 
and torch with commendable celerity." 

In 1897 Inspector-General James L. Carter again called attention 
to the Signal Corps by saying: 

"These two corps have suffered from neglect and want of proper 
equipment. They are well officered and of excellent personnel, and show 
an earnest desire to excel in their work, in spite of the fact that, up to the 
present time, they have usually been overlooked in the brigade camps and 
made but little use of." 

At the annual encampment of the 2d Brigade, the Signal Corps, 
under Lieutenant Henry W. Sprague, had twenty-five present out of a 
total force of twenty-six officers and men. 

In the 1st Brigade the Signal Corps appeared under the command 
of First Lieutenant George E. Lovett of Boston, commissioned March 27, 
1897, in place of First Lieutenant William N. Tolman, resigned March 
27, 1897. Lieutenant Lovett, who has ever since commanded the corps, 
began his service in Company B, Fifth Regiment, M. V. M., March 20, 
1865, and later, in several terms of service, finally attained the rank of 



captain of Company K, First Regiment Infantry, M. V. M., 1892, which 
position he resigned in 1896. 


On May 10, 1898, both signal corps became for a time a part of 
that provisional brigade, which under the command of Brigadier-General 
Thomas R. Mathews, occupied the coastline of Massachusetts, with posts 
of observation at Plum Island, Newburyport, and intermediate points to 
Telegraph Hill at Hull. On May 21, General Wm. A. Bancroft, of the 
2d Brigade, relieved General Mathews, the tour of duty ending for the 



Signal Corps of the ist Brigade on May 26, and for the Signal Corps of 
the 2d Brigade on June i. It being evident that Spain was too weak to 
make reprisals on the American coast, the evident value of the Signal 
Service, M. V. M., resulted in the formation of a company for foreign 
service, as thus narrated by Adjutant-General Dalton in his report for 

"On the request of General A. W. Greeley, chief signal officer, U. 
S. A., he being desirous of having Massachusetts represented in the 
Signal Corps of the United States : this department recommended Lieu- 
tenant Thomas F. Clark. Ninth Regiment, M. V. M., he being an expert 


at telegraphy, and Lieutenant Henry W. vSprague of the Signal Corps, ad 
Brigade, M. V. M., for commissions in the Signal Corps. Lieutenant 
Clark was commissioned captain and ordered to recruit a company of sig- 
nal men at Boston." 

Captain Clark's report of the Tenth Company, U. S. V., Signal 
Corps recruited in Boston and vicinity, may be read in extenso on page 
214, A. G. Report for 1898, and in effect recites, that, having been pro- 
moted from second lieutenant. Company K, Ninth Regiment, M. V. M., 
then at Camp Alger, he proceded to Boston to recruit sixty-five men to 
form the Tenth Company, Signal Corps, U. S. V. 

"It required a great deal of careful sifting to secure the right men 
in the right places, and I think it my duty to my late command to say 
that they were the pick of their respective professions. Among them 
were telegraphers, linemen, electricians, cablemen and operators, 
mechanical experts and several whose attainments were limited only by 
the opportunities which might present themselves." 

Lieutenant Henry W. Sprague joined the command, which was 
furnished with canvas suits, and on July 27 started for Washington, being 
the only signal corps which entered Washington wearing uniforms. 

The company occupied Wa.shington barracks until July 11, and 
during its stay had two men transferred to Captain Lamar's Fifth Com- 
pany, U. S. v.. Signal Corps, and nine to Lieutenant Campbell's Balloon 
Corps, receiving one man in return from Captain Lamar. 

On July II, the command left Washington for Santiago, Cuba, via 
Tampa, Fla. At the latter port, the men were supplied with khaki uni- 
forms and were drilled daily. On July 22, the command sailed on the 
U. S. transport "Victor" for Santiago, Cuba, numbering fifty-five enlisted 
men beside Captain Thomas F. Clark, First Lieutenants Henry W. 
Sprague and C. H. Martin and Second Lieutenant Don A. Palmer. 

On July 27, they reached Santiago, and Captain Clark reported 
the arrival of his company to General vShafter, commanding the Fifth 
Corps with headquarters at the palace of the late Spanish commandant. 
The general informed him that, owing to the prevalence of yellow fever, 
his men would not be allowed to land, greatly to the disappointment of Cap- 
tain Clark and his command, and the unmitigated disgust of the chief 
signal officer at Washington, who had chosen the Tenth Company for this 
work, on account of their special fitness for line construction and opera- 

On June 31, the command was transferred to the transport "Segur- 
anca," aboiit to sail with 159 sick and wounded for the United States. 
There being an utter lack of medical attendance on board, the entire 
command volunteered to aid in caring for these unfortunates. 

On August 4, the "Seguranca" arrived at quarantine off Egmont 



Key, Fla., and on the 7th, Captain Clark was ordered to proceed to Porto 
Rico with two officers and twenty-four men. Lieutenant Sprague with 
twenty-nine men sailed for New York on the "Seguranca." 

On August IS, however, Captain Clark was ordered to Huntsville, 
Ala., where the company was joined by the balance of the command 
with the exception of Lieutenant Sprague, then on sick furlough, and one 
man discharged in New York. Here the company constructed a complete 
telegraph and telephone line and connections, which was so thoroughly 






r ' "*n-^ 



k:..^ ^^Bi 

.SIGNAL. CUUr.S, lal UliR.ADE, 11. \ M, I'l'io FLAi, SJ \1IUN KT PKOSI'ECT HILL, 


done that not one delay in the transmission of messages was reported 
during the stay of the corps at Huntsville. 

Sickness, said by the doctors to be due to long confinement on the 
transports, and the putrid water furnished, became prevalent. 

"While at Huntsville, the company lost, by transfer and discharge 
fourteen members, including Lieutenant ^lartin. On October 3, 1898, it 
was ordered to Boston, arriving on the fifth instant. The men were fur- 
loughed for sixty days, and on December 10, 1898, were mustered out. 

Captain Clark's mild expressions of regret at the failure to use 
this effective command, have a deeper meaning to those who read 
between the lines: 

"It is not meet for me in any way, to attack the actions of my 



superiors, but when I think of the wasted efforts of my company, and the 
numberless opportunities which were to be grasped had iny superiors but 
said the word, I feel deeply for my men. The courage, loyalty, and 
ability were all there, but the opportunity was lacking — aye, more, at 
Santiago, it was denied. With a few exceptions, the men were residents 
of Boston and vicinity, and I think that Boston and Massachusetts have 
every reason to be proud of their Signal Corps as men and soldiers. 

"I am proud to know that such 
men as my three officers were as- 
signed to my command. Lieutenant 
Sprague of this state is an able offi- 
cer, and we were more than fortunate 
when Illinois and Minnesota tempor- 
arily lost to us Lieutenants Martin and 
Palmer. I wish to thank them, and 
my entire company, for their unflag- 
ging attention to duty, and to join with 
them in saying that our country's call 
will again find us in her service." 

It is said that during the early 
part of the Spanish-American War it 
was realized that the Signal Corps was 
of too great, and indeed critical impor- 
tance to be longer left with ancient, 
insufficient and obsolete equipment, 
and that a strong effort was made to 
supply the deficient outfits, with which 
its patient and ambitious members 
have struggled from the very organ- 
ization of the service. 

Why this commendable effort 
came to naught it is needless to en- 
quire, but that a well-equipped signal 
service is indispensable to any force 
in the field, or any coast threatened 
with attack from the sea, is indispu- 
table. In the Civil War, the cavalry 
vidette and the skirmish line could do effective work in locating an 
enemy and averting an useless waste of life, but even then the signal 
service was invaluable, and often perceived and signalled unseen dangers, 
and advices which were in the highest degree conducive to safety and 

That to-day such a force is even more indispensable no one denies, 



for the immense range of modern arms of precision, and the terrible hail 
of projectiles now directed and sustained on any force in sight, covers an 
immense belt between hostile forces, in which an individual is safe from 
capture, if not from death. In this zone the signal officer by means of 
heliograph, flag, torch, telephone or telegraph, must hereafter play a 
most honorable and valuable part; full of danger, but of the first impor- 
tance to iiis superiors. 

A very practical suggestion of Inspector-General Carter is em- 
bodied in his report of 1898: 

"The suggestions made in the annual report of this department 
last year, that the two signal corps which are now attached to headquar 
ters of brigades, should be consolidated into a single corps with an or- 
ganization similar to the Ambulance Corps, is renewed. Under the 
present arrangement uniformity in instruction and administration is im- 
possible; besides, if the corps were consolidated, many costly articles of 
equipment, which signalmen must have to be efficient, would not need 
to be duplicated, as is the case under the present organization." 

In 1899, the attendance at camp of the First Brigade Signal Corps 
was twenty-five officers and men, the whole number enrolled. The 
Second Brigade Signal Corps also made a good showing, and Brigadier- 
General Bancroft has recommended that they be suitably equipped and 
include a number of skilled electricians. 

At the last annual encampment of the ist Brigade, the Signal Corps, 
under Lieutenant George E. Lovett, wired the camp and established per- 
fect telephone communication between brigade headquarters, the hospi- 
tal, and the adjutants of the several commands. Less than fifty dollars, 
and the trained skill and labor of the experts of the neglected Signal 
Corps, perfected this improvement, which, in the opinion of every officer, 
was worth ten times its cost. 

The art of scientific warfare is to-day a study of all the arts of 
peace, as well as those of destruction; and this study, when perfected, is 
a liberal education, such as few men in social or business life may enjoy. 
The Massachusetts militia, possessing as it does a personnel unrivalled 
in its intelligence and economic and industrial ability, should not fail to 
carry into the higher branches of its service that perfection in organiza- 
tion and equipment which is necessary to the highest success and most 
enthusiastic esprit de corps. 



UNDER the laws of the colonies, of the loyal province, and of the 
state of Massachusetts, until the abolition of the rule that all men 
of the proper age, and not expressly exempt, must do military 
duty, there was little uniformity in the methods of enlistment and 
promotion in the active militia and independent military companies of 
earlier days. A petition for the necessary authorization of a new com- 
pany was signed by such men as the gen- 
tlemen in charge invited and induced to 
become members, and these, when duly 
mustered in, became a kind of socio-mili- 
tary club, which by a majority of votes 
accepted or rejected later candidates for 
membership. There was no physical exam- 
ination of a proposed or accepted recruit, 
unless an application for discharge was 
made when every man was needed for imme- 
diate service, and then this was generally 
sought by the applicant to justify his with- 
drawal, rather than exacted by military 
usage or the forms of law. 

To-day, the Massachusetts Volun- 
teer Milita, is as exacting and formal in 
its recruiting service, as any regular army 
can be when men are actually needed. 

One who wishes to join a certain 
company, troop, battery, independent corps 
or the like, will do well first to interview 
some officer of the body which he wishes to 
join, preferably the commander, and inform him of his desire. This is 
not required by the law, but the methods of to-day have practically made it 
impossible, in some commands, to secure membership against the wishes 
of the commanding officer. In other bodies, the old ri:le that the mem- 
bers shall decide as to the moral and social qualities of a recruit, is still 
in full force and effect. In any event, the candidate must secure the good 
offices of some member of the corps, who will endorse and present a 
document, which in all material points, duplicates the following: 

PRIVATE JONES, B. L. I., 1861. 



Boston, April 1, 1901. 
To the Officers and Members of Company J, Tenth Regiment Infantry, 
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia: 

I Hereby Declare, That it is my desire to become a Member of your Company, 
and to that end have authorized Richard Roe to propose my name as a Candidate for 
Membership; I am a citizen of the United States, and a native of Hackensack, 
N. J. ; I am twenty years of age; my height is 5 feet, 10 inches; and my occupation 
is a printer. If admitted to membership I will perform all the duties required by the 
Laws and Regulations for the government of the Militia of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, and the By-Laws of your Regiment and Company. I will obey the orders of 
my superior officers, and endeavor to become a good and efficient soldier. I have (1) 
been previously in the military service, as follows: (2) private Company D, 4th Battalion 
of Infantry New Jersey National Guard, 1898-1899, discharged on account of removal 
from the State. That the above is a full and complete statement of any and all service 
rendered by me and I have only served as stated. 

Name, John Doe. 
Residence, Chelsea. Place of Business, 14 Federal St., Boston. 

Signed in the presence of Richard Roe. 

I Hereby Present the name of John Doe as a Candidate for membership in this 

Company, believing that he is morally and physically qualilied to discharge the duties of 

Membership, and that he will make a good and efticient member. 

Name, Richard Roe. 

Residence, Chelsea. Place of Business, 14 Federal St. 

Place, Boston, Mass. 

Date, April 1, 1001. 

1. Or never. 2. Here state what. If any, service in ttte Militia of tliis or anyother State of tlie United States, 
witti cause of discharge from each. If no service has been rendered a line will be drawn through. 

Having thus applied and been vouched for, the company, under 
the direction of some commissioned officer, votes to accept or reject the 
applicant. When accepted, he signs the enlistment roll or book, giving 
his name, age, residence, date of enlistment, and the number of years for 
which he voluntarily enlists. The officer present fills out the roll by 
signing under the head "By Whom Enlisted," and prepares a Muster-in 
Roll, showing the result of the election just held. This document is 

"Muster-in Roll of recruits for Company J, in the Tenth Regiment 
of Infantry, 3d Brigade, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia." 

Then follows the list of recruits elected, giving their names in 
alphabetical order, Christian name in full, rank, age, residence, occupa- 
tion, when enlisted and for what period, with such remarks upon each 
recruit as seem necessary to further inform the mustering-in officer con- 
cerning the character or desirability of each. These Muster-in Rolls are 
made in triplicate by the recruiting officer (the first Christian name of 
each man being written in full) and forwarded to regimental headquar- 
ters, with a request that the recruits therein named be mustered in. The 
mustering-in officer, at the time of mustering in the recruits, compares 
the rolls with the enlistment book, and musters no man who has not 


signed that book. The recruiting ofificer then endorses the triplicate roll 
as follows: 

"I certify on honor, That this muster roll exhibits the true state of 
recruits for Company J, Tenth Regiment of Infantry in the 3d Brigade, 
M. V. M.; that each man answers to his own proper name in person; and 
that the remarks set opposite each name are accurate and just. 

IRA COE, Captain. 
Date: April i, 1901. Station: Boston." 

As, however, the later laws make officers holding the rank of cap- 
tain mustering-in officers, the captain of the company, after the recruit 
has passed the physical examination, generally proceeds to administer the 
following oath: 

(The mustering officer directs each man to stand upright, hold up 
his right hand and repeat the following oath:) 

"I, John Doe, do solemnly swear, that I will bear true faith and 
allegiance to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and will support the 
Constitution thereof; and I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully observe 
and obey all laws and regulations for the government of the Volunteer 
Militia of said Commonwealth, and the orders of all officers elected or 
appointed over me. I do solemnly swear that I will support the Consti- 
tution of the United States. So help me God." 

The officer then makes his final endorsement as follows: 

"I certify on honor. That I have carefiilly examined the men whose 
names are borne on this roll, and have this day administered to them the 
oath prescribed by law, and accepted them into the service of the State, 
for the period set against their names: 

IRA COE, Captain, Company J, Tenth Regt., M.V. M. 
Mustering Officer. 
Date: April i, 1901. Station: Boston." 

The muster having been completed, and the rolls properly sworn to, 
the mustering officer forwards one copy direct to the adjutant-general, 
delivers one copy to the recruiting officer, and the third is placed in the 
files of the regimental or battalion paymaster. 

All terms of service commence at noon on the day of enlistment, if 
the enlisted man is mustered in within thirty days after his enlistment; 
otherwise at noon on the day of muster-in. 

Under the old regime each member received a certificate of mem- 
bership, which was often carefully framed and proudly displayed for gen- 
eral inspection. Some of these were quite ornate, as will be seen from 
the illustrations of this article. 

Should the candidate be absent when elected, or for any reason fail 
to be mustered in forthwith, he can at any time within thirty days after 
his election present himself for muster. After the thirty days have 
elapsed he forfeits his right and must seek a re-election. 




The physical examination of a recruit must be completed before 
he is mustered into the state service; and it is the intent of the law that 
he shall be fully up to the physical standard prescribed by the com- 
mander-in-chief, and inculcated by the surgeon-general. 

This examination, as generally conducted to-day, is as exhaustive 
and thorough as that of the United States regular army, when a state 






of war exists, and men are really wanted in the field. So far as a soldier 
fit for active service, can be picked out by a standard of height, weight, 
sound viscera, strong and supple limbs and general symmetry and due pro- 
portion, the present practice gives the Massachusetts Militia a splendid 
set of men. Sedentary occupations, intemperance in eating and drinking, 
late hours and dissipations more or less vicious, here and there sap this 
primal strength and unfit a fairly trained soldier for active service in the 
field; but it is not too much to say that over ninety per cent of the men 
in the service to-day, if put into the field and judiciously hardened by 
degrees, would bear campaigning with any troops in the world. 




The earlier commissions were written and sealed, not with the 
seal of the province, but the "seal at arms" of the governor or lieutenant- 
governor. The samples given are also printed in full: 


WILLIAM STOUGHTON, Esq., Lieutenant Governor and Commander in chief, 
in and over his Ma'ty Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England— to James 
Fry, Gent. Greeting. Reposing special Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage 
and Good Conduct, I do by these presents constitute and appoint you to be Captain of a 
Company of Souldiers, consisting mostly of Foot, with some Horse attached for His 
Maj'ty's Service, for the Repelling and Subdueing of the Indian Enemy and Rebels, 
and such others as shall joyne with them in committing or attempting any acts of hos- 
tility, upon or against any of his Maj'ty's Subjects. You are thereby carefully and 
dilligently to discharge the duty of a Captain by leading, ordering and exercising the 
sd company (both Horse and Foot) in Armes, keeping them in good Order and Disci- 
pline, Commandmg them to obey you as their Captain, and yourself, together with 
your Company, diligently to intend his Ma'ty's Service in giving Succor, aid and assis- 
tance unto His Ma'ty's Subjects in any town or place, whatsoever, which shall be 
attacked by the Indian Enemy and Rebels, and for the repelling, prosecuting, pursue- 
ing, taking, subdueing, killing or destroying of them, with such others as shall joyne 
with them, or any of them in perpetrating or attempting any acts of Hostility as 
afores'd. And to observe and follow such orders and Directions as you shall from 
time to time receive from my Selfe, or other your Superior Officer for His Ma'ty's 


i'lf-'/jm:' ^:yf. 

>7)^> ^/hP'/t^efM^jQ ^^rr^^fi^^ 

1^ ^fj]:njlif^ 

service, pursuant to the Trust reposed in you. GIVEN under my Hand and Seal at 
Armes,' at Boston the Fifteenth day of June, 1698, in the tenth year of the Reign of 
our Sovereign Lord, William the Third of England, &c. King— 

By Command of the Lieut. Govern. J AS. ADDINGTON, Sec'y. 

In the 1 8th century, commissions in printed forms were introduced, 

one of which is also illustrated, and runs as follows: 



Province of the Massachusetts Bay. 

JONATHAN BELCHER, ESQ.. Captain General and Governor in Chief , in 
and over His Majesties Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, &c. To 
Abraham Harding, Gent, Greeting. 

By Virtue of the Power and Authority, in and by His Majesties Royal Commis- 
sion, to Me Granted, to be Captain General, &c. over this. His Majesties Province of 

'"^'t^ieusZi Captain General & G O V E R N O U R 
in Chief in and over His Majcltics Province 
., o{ihc Majjachufetts-BaymNcw-England,^c. 

N To , .Jr., -J,', ^'<„.,y Y-.y- Greeting. 

YVirtuedtihe Povet nnd^fcboiuy, i„ jnjln \\.s .Mijcftics Royal Commimon rr, 
Mc QjMlfW, to be C3pc.',iw(6Jto.-l.,A-f nv.rthis His Maftllns Ptlivincc of the 
MtHmfim-it} i{olchid: 1 JoTT'yCurc Pitknts"! Tfurt»aiid 
Confidence in yout Loyjliy, Courage and gi.od Condufl, Conllitiitc and Appoint 
you the faid ./.;„,<.,„^ nj:it,^ ' to lie ,'..,. 

You are therefore carefully and diligently to difcharge the Duty of a /^/. ' / - 
tp Leading, Ordering and Fiercifing laid ^.-yi"./ . . in Atifls. iioth Infcriour (IfKccrt and 

Soldiers; and to keep them in good Order and Difciplinc ; hereby Commandmg them to Obey yon 
M their (^y/,. , — .. andyour Self to obllrve and follow luch OidcTs and Inlbudions, -i 

you-fhall from time to time teccive from Mc,or the Commander in CbicI, for the Time being, or Other 
your Soperioui Oflic«rs, for His Majeilics Service, according to Milinry Rulc5 and Difciplinc. 
rorfmnt co the Trull Rcpofed in you. 

gnn utdtr M] Hind tnJ SiJ <i Arm, It Bollon, i& " • ■/ T)v tf 

'-'. / In the t,„ of tbt Rfip, of Hu Myth King 

G E O K Cx h 1^ Stcond. Annoque DomiQi, 17;'/. 

* ^ ** O' • 

\ ~ " 

By His Ezcellency's ^ Si 

Coi^imand, t ' - 

the Massachusetts Bay, aforesaid, I do (by these Presents) Reposing especial Trust 
and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage and Good Conduct, Constitute and Appoint 
you, the said Abraham Harding, to be Captain of the Foot Company in Medfield, 
whereof John Dwight, Gent, was late Captain, in the First Regiment of Militia, 
within the county of Suffolk. Whereof Joseph Heath, Esquire, is Colonel. You are 
therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a Captain in Leading, Order- 
ing and Exercising said Company in Armes, both Inferior officers and Souldiers; and 
to keep them in good Order and discipline; hereby Commanding them to Obey you as 
their Captain, and yourself to observe and follow such Orders and instructions as 
you shall from time to time receive from Me, or the Commander in Chief, for the 
Time being, or Other your Superiour Officers, for His Majesties Service, according to 
Military Rules and Discipline, Pursuant to the Trust reposed in you. 

Given under My Hand and Seal at Arms, at Boston, the Twenty-second day of 
May, In the Seventh Year of the Reign of His Majesty King, George the Second. 
Annoque Domini, 1734. J. BELCHER. 

By His Excellency's Command, J. WILLARD, Sec'y. 

The recruit, although enlLsted at first for three years, is from the 
very date of his endorsement of the rolls in the line of promotion, 


and may aspire to any elective or appointive position. The commander- 
in-chief, alone, holds his high rank and great responsibilities by the vote 
of a majority or plurality of the people of the Commonwealth. He 
appoints all the members of his staff, each of whom holds office until 
his successor is appointed by the governor, or his successor in office. In 
default of re-appointment, these officials resign or, if qualified, are 
retired, with or without a higher brevet rank than that appertaining 
to their service position. 

Generals of brigade are elected by the field officers of the several 
commands forming the brigade, subject however to the approval of the 
commander-in-chief. A brigadier-general appoints all the commissioned 
and non-commissioned officers and attaches of his staff. 

Colonels, lieutenant-colonels and majors, when commanding officers 
of regiments, independent corps and battalions, are elected by the line 
officers of their commands, subject of course to the final decision of the 
commander-in-chief, and hold office until removed by legislative action, 
dismissed for cause, or their own resignation. The colonel, lieutenant-col- 
onel or major commanding appoints his staff , which also includes both 
commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The latest circular treat- 
ing on this subject and issued by the adjutant-general's office, sets forth 
Section 26 of Chapter 367 of the Acts of the Legislature, 1893, as amended 
by the legislature of 1899- 1900, which now delimits the personnel of the 
several bodies constituting the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia as follows: 

Section 26. To each regiment of infantry there shall be one colo- 
nel, one lieutenant-colonel, three majors, and a staff, to consist of one sur- 
geon, with the rank of major; one regimental adjutant, one quartermaster, 
one paymaster, who shall be the mustering officer, and one assistant sur- 
geon, each with the rank of captain; one assistant surgeon, one inspector 
of rifle practice, one commissary of subsistence, and three battalion adju- 
tants, each with the rank of first lieutenant; and one chaplain. There 
shall also be a non-commissioned staff, as follows: — One regimental ser- 
geant major, one quartermaster sergeant, one commissary sergeant, one 
paymaster sergeant, one hospital steward, one drum major, one chief 
bugler, and three battalion sergeant majors, who shall hold the same 
relative rank attached to similar positions in the United States army. 
There shall also be allowed to each regiment: two color sergeants, one 
orderly, to rank as private, and sixteen drummers, to be enlisted and 
mustered as drummers. To each separate battalion of cavalry there shall 
be one major, and a staff to consist of one surgeon, with the rank of 
major, one adjutant, one quartermaster, one paymaster, who shall be the 
mustering officer, one inspector of rifle practice and one assistant surgeon, 
one veterinary surgeon, each with the rank of first lieutenant, and one 
chaplain. There shall also be a non-commissioned staff, as follows: — 
One sergeant major, one quartermaster sergeant, one hospital steward, 
one chief bugler, and two guidon sergeants. To each separate battalion of 
artillery there shall be one major, and a staff to consist of one surgeon 









with the rank of major, one adjutant, one quartermaster, one paymaster, 
who shall be the mustering officer, and one assistant surgeon, one veterin- 
nary surgeon, each with the rank of first lieutenant, and one chaplain, 
and whenever a vacancy shall occur in the position of assistant surgeon 
of the battalion of artillery or the battalion of cavalry, the office of said 
assistant surgeon shall be abolished. There shall also be a non-commis- 
sioned staff, as follows: — One sergeant major, one quartermaster sergeant, 
one hospital steward, one chief bugler and two guidon sergeants. 

Section 2. To each regiment of heavy artillery there shall be one 
colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, three majors, and the staff, non-commis- 
sioned staff, headquarter attaches and drummers prescribed for a regi- 
ment of infantry, except that in addition to the staff and non-commis- 
sioned staff officers specified in section one of this act there shall be 
allowed to each regiment of heavy artillery the additional staff officers 
provided for in section five of chapter three hundred and forty-eight of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight. 

Section 3. There shall be allowed to each company of infantry, bat- 
tery of heavy artillery, battery of light artillery, troop of cavalry, signal 
and ambulance corps, in addition to the officers and men now provided 
for by law, one quartermaster sergeant, wherever one is not already pre- 
scribed, to rank next after the first sergeant, and one chief cook, to rank 
as corporal, and to each company of the naval brigade one cook, first 
class. Company quartermaster sergeants and chief cooks shall be 
appointed and reduced as prescribed by law for other non-commissioned 
officers, and all chief cooks shall be examined as to their qualifications for 
the position, in such manner as the commander-in-chief shall direct, 
before receiving their warrants. 

Section 4. There shall be allowed and paid to the chief cooks, and 
in the naval brigade to cooks, first class, for the duty required in sections 
ninety-eight, ninety-nine, one hundred and six, one hundred and seven 
and one hundred and fourteen of chapter three hundred and sixty-seven 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-three, the sum of four 
dollars per day: provided, however, that it shall be certified and made to 
appear, in such form as the commander-in-chief shall prescribe, that in 
each case the duty of superintending and assisting in the preparation of 
the food of the company was actually performed by the chief cook in per- 
son, during the tour of duty or day of duty for which he is returned for 
pay; otherwise he shall receive the pay prescribed for other enlisted men 
of like grade. For duty, other than that hereinbefore mentioned, a chief 
cook shall receive the pay and allowances prescribed for other enlisted 
men of like grade. 

Section 5. Officers designated in section fifty-eight of chapter 
three hundred and sixty-seven of the acts of the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-three, as recruiting officers of the several corps and commands 
of the volunteer militia shall also be competent mustering officers for 
mustering in and administering the prescribed oath of enlistment to all 
soldiers enlisted by them. Mustering officers shall forward to the com- 
mander-in-chief, through the proper military channels, the returns of the 
enlistment and muster in of soldiers as soon as practicable, and not later 


than ten days thereafter. Said returns shall be in such form, and accom- 
panied by such certificates, descriptive lists and other information relat- 
tive to the recruit, as may be required by law or prescribed in orders by 
the commander-in-chief. But no recruit shall be knowingly and inten- 
tionally accepted who is not eligible for enlistment under the law, or who 
is physically or otherwise below the standard prescribed by the com- 
mander-in-chief; and no recruit shall be accepted contrary to the provis- 
ions of section sixty-one of the act cited at the beginning of this section; 
and no recruit, having been accepted shall be mustered into the service 
until all the requirements of the statute law, of the militia regulations, 
and of all proper orders relating to the enlistment and muster in of sol- 
diers have been complied with. 

Section 6. First sergeants shall be appointed by the permanent 
company, battery, troop or corps commanders, without reference to higher 
authority, from the diity sergeants of their respective organizations, and 
may be by said permanent company, battery, troop or corps commanders, 
returned to the grade of duty sergeant at any time without the restric- 
tions imposed by section six of chapter four hundred and forty-eight of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven. First sergeants 
shall be appointed and returned to the grade of duty sergeant by a com- 
pany order, a copy of which shall be forwarded at once to regimental 
headquarters; and the relative seniority of first sergeants shall be deter- 
mined by the dates of the orders appointing them. Section fifty-five of 
chapter three hundred and sixty-seven of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-three, and other acts and parts of acts now in force 
relating to the appointment and reduction of non-commissioned officers of 
the volunteer militia, are hereby repealed in so far as they relate to the 
appointment and reduction or removal of first sergeants and are incon- 
sistent with this act. 

Section 7. This act shall take effect upon its passage. (Approved 
April 3, 1900., By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 



The newly enli.sted private, for all enlistments must be made to 
the ranks, is supposed to receive promotion by appointment of the col- 
onel, lieutenant-colonel or major commanding his regiment or battalion, 
on the written recommendation of his captain. Generally speaking, good 
attendance, a neat dress, courteous manner, and capacity for drilling men 
and handling a relief on guard duty, are pretty certain to secure a cor- 
poralcy. A large proportion of non-commissioned officers, sergeants 
included, are picked out by captains without special reference to the equal 
fitness of other soldiers. Some commanding officers, however, have 
encouraged all enlisted men to compete for these offices, holding a series 
of examinations in which written questions are to be answered in writing, 
and competitions in which every candidate is given a squad to drill, place 
on guard, relieve, etc., etc. Results are duly marked according to an 




established standard, and the best percentage in all regards takes the 
coveted promotion. Sergeants are of course presumed to know more, and 
are generally taken from among the corporals. From among the sergeants 
the captain chooses the first or orderly sergeant, and can at will reduce 
him to the grade of ordinary sergeant. With this exception, no corporal 
or sergeant can be reduced in grade, or to the ranks, except by the decis- 
ion of a court martial, or after a hearing before the colonel and other field 
officers, at which the defendant must be present and allowed a full defence. 

Any private, corporal or sergeant may, however, run for any com- 
missioned position in the company, and it has frequently happened that 
a formal enlistment has been made, merely as a basis for election to the 
captaincy. Every captaincy and lieutenantcy is supposed to be filled as 
soon as possible after the discharge, resignation or retirement of its pos- 
sessor, and the commanding officer must order an election within a reason- 
able time after such vacancy. 

Personal, verbal or written notice must be given each voter four 
days before the election, or written notice left at his last known regular 
place of business or residence. On the other hand, an utter neglect or 
refiTsal to hold such election and elect officers to fill the vacancies will be 
strongly resented at headquarters, and, if it occurs twice in succession, may 
be punished with the disbandment of the company. 

The "Record of Proceedings" at the election of any officer is very 
carefully made and returned to the officer ordering the election. It is 
made on a special form which in the case of the election of John Doe to 
the office of second lieutenant would read as follows: 

Record of Proceedings at an election of second lieutenant. Company 
J, Tenth Regiment Infantry, 3d Brigade, M. V. M., October i, 1901, 
under Order No. 10, September i, 1901, Headquarters 3d Brigade. 

Names of (_'ain]idales. First Ballot. 

John Doe 28 

Richard Roe 20 

John vSmith 2 

Whole number of votes 50. Necessary to a choice 26. 

Candidate elected, John Doe. 

Captain and Presiding Officer. 

In case of a failure to elect on the first ballot, others are taken, the 
result of each being recorded in the same manner. If two or more vacan- 
cies are to be filled a separate ballot and record must be shown. The 
result of each ballot is announced before another is called. The mem- 
bers vote in regular order, the roster being called at each ballot. 

An "Election Return of officers in Company J, Tenth Regiment 
Infantry, 3d Brigade, M. V. M.," gives the full Christian name of each 


officer elected, with his new rank, residence, former rank if any, and the 
name and cause of discharge of the officer succeeded. 
This return is thus endorsed: 

I certify, on honor, that the above is a correct return, made from the record 
of proceedings in each case, of an election held at Boston on the first day of October, 
1901. IRA COE, 

Captain and Presiding Officer. 

The successful candidate is at once sent this "Notice of Election." 

Sir: In accordance with Section 48, Chapter 367 of the Acts of 1893. I have 
the honor to notify you that you were this day elected to be second lieutenant of In- 
fantry. Your acceptance or declination of that office must be signified to me on the 
enclosed form within six days from this date. 

Very respectfully, 

IRA COE, Captain, 
Presiding Officer. 
To John Doe, Chelsea, Mass. Address, Brookline Mass. 

The enclosure is a "Notice of Acceptance" which would read as 


Chelsea, October, 3, 1901. 
Sir : I have the honor to notify you that I accept the office of second lieutenant 
of infantry, to which I was elected on the first day of October, 1901. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
To Captain Ira Coe, Brookline, Mass. Address, Chelsea, Mass. 

This notice sent by the person elected or appointed, within three 
days of the date of election or appointment, to the presiding or appoint- 
ing officer is forwarded with the return of election or appointment, to the 
adjutant general. With it is also forwarded a form showing the military 
record of the officer elected or appointed. This gives his name in full, 
place of birth, age, residence, present rank, date of present commission, 
and a statement of service in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. Under 
the last head the officer elect must detail his service as an enlisted man, 
in what organizations he served, what rank he held in each, when and for 
what reason discharged. 

He must also give a detailed account of any service in the militia 
of any other state or in the United States, the period served, rank held, 
and cause of discharge. 

His service, if any, during the war of the rebellion, and attendance 
at any educational instittition affording military instruction, must also be 
fully reported and thus certified: 

I certify on honor that the above is a full and correct statement of service 
rendered by me, and that I am a citizen of the United States. 



In due time the following "Notice of Commission" is received by 
the candidate and would read as follows: 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Adjutant-General's Office, 

Boston, October 20, 1901. 
Sir: — Yourcommission, as second lieutenant of infantry, has been sent to the office 
of the Examining Board for officers of the militia, before which I am directed to instruct 
you to appear without delay, for qualification and examination. The Examining 
Board will meet at the State House, Boston, on the fourth Wednesday of each month, 
at 10 o'clock a. m., until further orders. 

Under Sections 42 and 54, Chapter 367 of the acts of 1893, you cannot enter 
upon the duties of your office or exercise any command, until you shall have received 
notice from this office that you have satisfactorily passed your examination ; failing to 
present yourself for examination within forty days after notice of the date of your 
election (or appointment) you will be discharged. Four cents per mile for travel to 
and from the place of examination is allowed. 

Very respectfully, 

To John Doe, Chelsea, Mass. Adjutant-General. 

At the same time the president of the Board of Examiners is thus 

notified: ^ 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Adjutant-General's Office. 

Boston, October 20, 1901. 
To the President of the Board of Examiners: 

Sir; — I am directed to inform you that the following commission has been 
issued by the Commander-in-Chief, and the officer has been ordered to appear before 
your board for examination. 

John Doe, Second Lieutenant, Company J, Tenth Regiment Infantry. 

Respectfully yours, 

SAMUEL DALTON, Adjutant-General. 

The Board of Examiners, whose decision must confirm or reverse 
all the proceedings thus far taken, courteously receives the newly elected 
officer, and seats him at a big table, in a commodious and comfortable 
apartment of the State House. Each candidate is furnished with a list of 
questions, which is one of many such lists previously prepared and already 
aggregating thousands of questions. 

In the case of John Doe, only such lists as contain questions fairly 
relative to the duties of a second lieutenant of infantry will be given him. 
Inasmuch, however, as in case of the absence of one or more of these 
officers, their duties may devolve upon him, questions concerning some of 
the duties of the first lieutenant and captain, will naturally be presented. 
Details of setting-up drill, the manual of arms, squad and company move- 
ments, the most effective methods in rifle practice, camp guard, outpost 
and police duty, and possibly something of the use of the Colt or Gatling 
gun, furnish suggestions for a vast number of questions, to .say nothing 
of those connected with the records of expenditures, and care of public 
property, which must be studied by every officer. 


To be able to pass this examination successfully, the candidate 
should carefully read the basic laws and text books of his service. Where 
the legislature of Massachusetts, or the adjutant-general's office has 
decided a question or prescribed a military text book for general use, the 
written answer must conform to the rule thus established. Further 
study should next attack the text books adopted by the United States 
army, giving of course the most attention to those dealing with the can- 
didate's special arm of the service. It is not desirable that the subaltern, 
unless he possesses an extraordinary talent and love for military science, 
should greatly extend the scope of his reading for an impending examin- 
ation, beyond what he is justly expected to know in the office to which 
he aspires or has been elected. 

What he must know, and is likely to practice as a second lieutenant, 
should receive his close attention and become clear, easy and natural in 
his mind, so that when he attempts to write an answer, his words are only 
a plain statement of what he has seen done, and knows to have been cor- 
rectly performed. 

If, however, a soldier determines to secure promotion to still 
higher rank, the recent developments of military science require courses 
of reading and study, necessitating many textbooks, and a comprehension 
of the powers and duties of every other branch of the service. The cavalry- 
man of to-day must be a mounted rifleman, and the infantry of any army 
may at any time be forced to become horsemen, artillerists, signal men, 
bicyclists, boatmen, tram and construction men, etc., etc. A very com- 
pletely practical knowledge of sanitation, field and camp cooking, judg- 
ment of distances and ranges, and a host of details connected with the 
care of men, and their sustenance and direction in active service, must also 
be acquired by the modern officer who would rank high in his profession. 

When John Doe has filled out the answers to the list of questions 
allotted him, the examination papers are filed and passed upon at a later 
meeting of the board. If he has answered a certain percentage correctly, 
the board reports favorably to the adjutant-general, and he is assigned 
to duty. If he has failed, he is notified of the adverse decision of the 
board, and informed that he has ten days within which he may appeal to 
the commander-in-chief from their decision. Such appeals have been 
taken, but no one thus far has ever succeeded in obtaining a reversion of 
the decision of the board. 

In such case, John Doe will do well to study hard, and drill with 
greater perseverance for six months longer, when, if physically qualified, 
he can seek another election to be again examined, and it is to be hoped, 

Each additional promotion entails a physical and professional 
examination, the latter becoming more extended, and varied as he rises 



in rank. No mere personal popularity will help him after he has secured 
the votes of his associates or subordinates, for only merit and a good con- 
stitution, "a sane mind in a sound body" can now secure promotion in 
the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. His commanding othcer cannot sit 
on the Board of Examiners, to aid or injure him, and beyond the imper- 
fection of all human judgment, a just and practical decision is assured. 

Beyond a doubt, the methods of physical and written examination, 
now established and conducted, ensure as good results and secure as good 
officers as are turned out in any service, within certain limitations. They 
cannot, it is true, enjoy the comprehensive education bestowed upon the 
students of West Point and other military colleges, and are therefore 
generally competent in one branch of the service only, and in that branch, 
and especially the cavalry and artillery, handicapped by a lack of practice, 
which should be more liberally provided for. But they are inestimably 
better qualified and taught than those militia officers of the Civil War, 
who, in their several metiers became leaders of infantry, cavalry, artil- 
lerists and engineers, whom the world has never surpassed, and whose 
descendants have not lost the sterling qualities which more than compen- 
sate for the lack of merely theoretical knowledge. 

Where rank is bestowed by appointment, the following form is 
substituted for the record of election: 


Headquarters Third Brigade, April i, 1901. 
General: I have the honor to report that I have this day appointed John Doe 
of Chelsea, Mass., (second lieutenant of infantry) as adjutant, with the rank of first 
lieutenant, on the staff of this regiment, in place of James Low, resigned at date of 
March 20, 1901, and request that he be commissioned in that office. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Colonel Tenth Regiment, Infantry, M. V. M. 
To the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, Boston. 


Any enlisted man in the Massachusetts militia may apply for 
transfer to any other company, troop or battery in which he may prefer 
to serve. His application must set forth some valid reason for his trans- 
fer, although a preference for another arm of the service; or desire to 
learn more than is practiced in his own organization, or to secure better 
facilities for attending drill and the like, if sincerely alleged, are gener- 
ally accepted. This application, made to his captain or lieutenant com- 
manding, must be by him approved or disapproved, and forwarded to the 
commanding officer of the corps. He, in return, will endorse it favorably 
or unfavorably, and forward it to the office of the adjutant-general. If 
all these officers have approved the transfer, it is then forwarded to the 
commanding officer of the organization to which transfer is sought, with 
a request that he "will take action according to custom, in regard to 


recruits, and if the soldier is decided to be eligible to admission, will 
endorse the fact upon this application and return direct to this office." 

If the application is returned to the adjutant-general's office, 
endorsed "with the request that the transfer be granted" a special order 
is issued, authorizing the transfer. 

It will be seen that at every step, the rights of the soldier to secure 
more favorable conditions, and the right of every company to exclude 
undesirable recruits is carefully safe -guarded. In practice there are few 
refusals to desirable men. 

The Massachusetts Volunteer Militia is strongly held together, 
chiefly by its esprit de corps and the sense of honor of its officers and 
enlisted men, and the experience of many vicissitudes of peace and war 
has shown that severity of punishment is not necessary to deter men 
from desertion and disobedience. The call to arms has always met with 
a ready response from the greater proportion of those actually in the ser- 
vice, and their retired and discharged comrades have eagerly pressed for- 
ward to recruit company and regiment to the maximum war footing. 

Practically, there is no deterrent punishment for desertion, or such 
neglect or refusal of duty as amounts thereto, in this service; beyond the 
disgrace of a dishonorable discharge, and the loss of respect of one's com- 
rades and friends. The report of the judge advocate general for 1898, 
thus bears testimony to the extraordinary loyalty and discipline of the 
State militia. 

Judge Advocate General's Office, Worcester, Mass., December 18, 1899. 
Major-general Samuel Dalton, adjutant-general. State House, Boston. 

General: I have the honor to submit my report for the current year. Such 
matters as have been referred to me for examination I have duly reported upon, and 
my opinions are now on your files. 

The year has been unusually free from any court-martial cases, sent to me for 
review. It seems as if an effect of the late war with Spain was to purify the militia 
from any such imperfections, and to leave the organizations filled with officers and 
men who have been inspired by a conscientious desire to do their duty, and maintain 
the high honor that our volunteers won when our regiments went into the United 
States service. Very respectfully 

ROCKWOOD HOAR, Judge Advocate General. 

Three enlisted men only, were court-martialed and dishonorably 
di.scharged in 1899. 

This showing is one which deserves more than passing attention, 
inasmuch as it demonstrates that in this service a very high degree of 
discipline and affectiveness is maintained among a force, which at its full 
strength consists of 476 officers, and 6,116 enlisted men, and last year 
sent to camp and naval practice over 5,500 men and officers. 

Under the provisions of Section 68, Chapter 359, of the Acts of the 
Legislattxre for 1898, "No enlisted man can be discharged before the 
expiration of his term of service, except by order of the commander- 
in-chief, and for the following reasons: To accept promotion bycommis- 


sion; upon removal of residence from the State, or out of the bounds of the 
command to which he belongs, to so great a distance, that in the opinion 
of his commanding officer he cannot properly perform his military duty; 
upon disability, established by the certificate of a medical officer; upon 
conviction of a felony in a civil court; when in the opinion of the com- 
mander-in-chief the interests of the service demand such discharge; to 
carry out the sentence of a court-martial; upon application to his com- 
manding officer, approved by superior commanders." 

Section 69. "Dishonorable discharges, or discharges in such form 
as to forbid re-enlistment, shall be given only in accordance with sentences 
of courts-martial." 

Section 70. "Every soldier discharged from the service of the 
Commonwealth shall be furnished with a certificate of discharge, which 
shall set forth his rank, and state clearly the reason for such discharge." 

Whenever neglect of duty, incompetence, or personal ways and 
acts satisfy a commanding officer that an enlisted man should be dis- 
charged for the good of the service, he may so represent to the com- 
manding officer. Recommendations for the discharge of several men are 
often made on the same form, as follows: 

Company J, Tenth Regiment, 3d Brigade, M. V. M. 

Boston, December 20, 1901. 
To the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts. 

Sir: I have the honor to make application for the discharge of the 
following enlisted men of my command, for the reasons given in each 


Expiration of term of service. 
Removal beyond limits of 

Selmar Brown, Private, " " 1900, Expiration of term of service. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

IRA COE, Captain. 

This form is duly endorsed and forwarded to the commanding 
officer at headquarters, who may approve or disapprove any or all of the 
discharges requested. If approved by him, and later endorsed and 
approved by the general of the brigade, the discharges are usually 
granted, and a special order of the commander-in-chief relieves them 
from further service. If any injustice is done, by or through any officer 
who has procured or approved a discharge, he is liable to be called before 
a court-martial for his abuse of discretion. 

In 1899, 2,290 enlisted men were discharged by order, 1 15 by pro- 
motion and 2 I by death; in all, 2,426 enlisted men. Besides this, the pro- 
visional militia were disbanded, losing 1407 by order of discharge, and 66 
by promotion; in all, 1.473, making a total of 3,899 men. In 1898 the 




Date of muster-in. 

Thomas Reamer, 


Dec. 20, 1898, 

John Jones, 


" " " 


militia lost by discharge, i.iu; by promotion 47, and by death 107; in 
all, 1,266 men, besides 174 lost to the provisional militia; a total of 1,440 
men. In 1S97 there were discharged on order 1,415 enlisted men; for 
promotion 55. and by death 17; a total of 1,487 men. It will be seen 
that the yearly loss to the service from these causes approximates thirty per 
cent of the actual force. 

"A commissioned officer may be discharged upon the order of the 
commander-in-chief, upon either an address of both houses of the legis- 
lature, or to carry out the sentence of a court-martial, after a fair trial, 
pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth, and the regulations for the 
government of the militia for the time," or; 

"An officer who, in the opinion of his commanding officer, is 
incompetent, or is impairing the efficiency of the organization to which 
he is attached, by mismanagement, neglect or misconduct in civil life, 
for which he is not amenable to a court-martial, may, upon the request of 
his commanding officer, be ordered to appear before a board of exam- 
iners, to consist of not less than three, nor more than seven officers, none 
of whom shall be of less rank than the officer under investigation." 
This board, having been organized with due regard for the rights of 
challenge of the officer investigated, must proceed according to the gen- 
eral practice of a court-martial, but with less formality, giving the 
accused every right and privilege necessary to secure him a fair hearing. 
The report of this board may result in an order that the officer charged 
be brought before a court-martial, or quietly discharged from the service, 
but does not amount to a conviction or acqxiittal of any offence. 

Every officer may tender his resignation at any time, when not on 
duty, but he remains at the service of the State until this is accepted, 
and he is formally notified thereof. Resignations between May i and 
November i are discouraged, as that is the period of active duty in camp 
and elsewhere; but as a general rule the resignation of a lax and ineffi- 
cient officer is welcomed at any time. On the other hand, the resignation 
of a good and faithful soldier is accepted with hesitation and regret, but 
will seldom be refused or delayed, if the best interests of the officer 
demand his retirement from the service. 

In 1897 commissioned officers, who had rendered continuous ser- 
vice for periods of ten years and upwards in the Volunteer Militia of the 
Commonwealth, were privileged, upon their own applications, to be placed 
on the retired list. In 1899 this privilege was further extended to every 
commissioned officer "who was in the militia service on the first day of 
July, in the year of 1897, and who served in the army or navy of the 
United States at any time during the War of the Rebellion, and was 
honorably discharged . " Officers thus retired are privileged to wear the uni- 
forms of their rank, and may be called into service without further com- 

I IH'jT *■ T IM* 

■~ *■■ *rJ?P.^^. "^"'J *■ Mlir.f V irar^'u w OCa- » ij'Ui'.f i 


mission, as they continue to hold their old rank, and in some cases were 
retired with promotion to a still higher grade. Sixty-six officers, the larger 
number of whom had seen service in the Civil War, had availed them- 
selves of this privilege at the close of the year 1S99. 

The civilian reader will understand from the foregoing article, 
that the strict and formal machinery of the administration and organiza- 
tion of the Massachusetts militia, has, in peace, no penalty of fine, impri- 
sonment or corporal punishment to sustain its discipline, or hold together 
its thousands of officers and enlisted men. Patriotism, honor, an innate 
love of military life, and a generous emulation for deserved promotion 
and command, are the subtle, but efficient mainsprings of individual 
behavior and action, which have for nearly three centuries made the 
Massachusetts militia a source of just pride in peace, and her sure depen- 
dence in times of internal disorder, and civil and foreign war. 

• « • • • 

It has been suggested by various officers that a list of military and 
naval text-books, and works for collateral reading and reference would 
be of great use to members of the militia who are really anxious for 
advancement; who, in fact, wish not only to obtain promotion, but to 
attain a broad and comprehensive knowledge of the art military. Such a 
list has been prepared by Lieutenant Robinson, military instructor at 
Harvard College, and additions to his list have been suggested by other 
officers, and the result will be found at the end of this volume. 

It is hardly necessary to state that candidates for immediate exam- 
ination should closely limit their reading to the regulations and manuals 
affecting the school of the soldier, company and regiment, in that arm of 
the service in which they propose to serve. But for the man who has an 
innate taste and desire for military knowledge, this list, long as it is, 
cannot and does not cover all which must be learned in a profession, 
which requires not only courage, strength and military discipline, but a 
profound and comprehensive knowledge of all the interests and develop- 
ments of human life and effort, and all the varied conditions affecting 
the same. 


THE enrolled militia of Massachusetts, have from the earliest settle- 
ment of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, been liable to be called 
to the defense of the state, and nation. None are exempt, except 
those specially relieved from military duty by law, and in the last 
resort, even these may be compelled by special legislation to serve against 
the common enemy, or repress riot and rebellion. The active militia are, 
and of course always have been, liable to be called into active service, within 
the limits of the state, and may be placed at the disposal of the general 
government to serve outside the state for a limited period. 

In case of a foreign war, it has always been the practice to raise 
soldiers by volunteering, or, if necessary, by draft, whose company, 
line and staff oihcers are commissioned by the executive, after which the 
regiment, battalion or battery is mu.stered into the service of the nation. 
Such was the custom during British domination, under the royal gover- 
nors, although sometimes departed from by the British army officers, and 
such has been the custom unto this day. 

To a very great extent the active militia, which turns out into priv- 
ate life from twenty to twenty-five per cent of its rank and file yearly; is 
the basis of the earlier levies, and later on the nucleus of new organiza- 
tions, so that during the rebellion a single militia company has sent two 
and even three companies into the service, chiefly composed of past and 
present members of the parent organization and their friends. 

At an early date in the Spanish-American War, the whole infantry 
force of the State of Massachusetts, had either entered the volunteer ser- 
vice of the United States, or was preparing to do so. To furnish an 
equal number, ready to repel invasion at home, or to reinforce their com- 
rades abroad, the legislative and executive action embodied in the fol- 
lowing General Order, was taken: 


Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, May 18, 1898. 
General Orders No. 8. 

I. In accordance with Chapter 428 of the Acts of the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture, approved May 13, 1898, all commissioned officers of the Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia entering the military or naval service of the United States subsequently to 
the 20th day of April, 1898, are hereby granted leave of absence until thirty (30) days 
after their discharge from said service. 

II. All enlisted men of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia entering the mili- 
tary or naval service as above, are granted furloughs until not later than thirty (30) 
days after their discharge therefrom, or until such time as their service in the militia 


shall have expired, if such terms shall expire at an earlier date than their discharge as 

III. All officers and enlisted men in the First Regiment, Heavy Artillery and 
the Second, Sixth, Eighth and Ninth Regiments of Infantry and Naval Brigade, Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, excepting the paymasters and paymaster's sergeants, who 
have not entered the service of the United States under the recent call, are relieved 
from duty until further orders. 

IV. Under Section 6, Chapter 428 of the Acts of the Legislature, approved 
May 14, 1898, it is ordered that provisional companies be raised at the discretion of 
the Commander-in-Chief, which may be assigned to provisional battalions or regiments, 
to receive such designations as may hereafter be directed. Enlistments into these 
companies shall be for a period not longer than, thirty (30) days after the declaration 
of peace, and the commissions of all officers elected or appointed for such provisional 
organizations shall expire not later than thirty (30) days after the close of the war. 

V. Officers and men relieved by the provisions of Paragraph III. of this order 
may elect to enter the Massachusetts Provisional Militia. 

VI. By Section 8 of the Act already referred to, the formation of companies of 
the Provisional Militia is authorized only in cities and towns in which are situated the 
armories of companies of the active militia entering the service of the United States. 
The recruitment and organization will be under the rules and regulations governing 
the militia of the Commonwealth, the equipment of the same to be determined later. 

VII. Blank enrolment lists will be forwarded to authorized persons in said 
cities and towns on application to the adjutant-general. 

VIII. Officers and men of the companies entering the Provisional Militia will 
be subject to physical examinations (the officers before being commissioned, and the 
enlisted men before being mustered into the service of the Commonwealth), and no 
company will be mustered in until it is recruited to its maximum of fifty-eight (58) 
enlisted men ready for muster. 

IX. Brigadier-General James L. Carter, Inspector-General, is charged with 
the supervision of the inspection and muster of the provisional companies under this 
order, and of the four (4) permanent companies for the Naval Brigade authorized by 
law. He will report the organizations when completed and mustered, and will request 
orders for the elections of officers. 

X. The armories in cities and towns, vacated by the companies entering the 
service of the United States will be used by the companies of Provisional Militia for 
recruitment and muster, and will be occupied by them during their term of service 
unless otherwise ordered. 

XI. Petitions for raising companies under this order may be forwarded to 
His Excellency the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and, as required by the statutes, 
must be accompanied by the approval of the mayor and aldermen of cities or the 
selectmen of towns in which a majority of the petitioners reside. 

Brigadier-General James L. Carter, Inspector-General, M. V. M. 
hastened to raise these companies and found a large number of patriotic 
and effective helpers. Within ten days after the signing of this order; 
G. O., No. 9, dated May 28, 1898, contained the following announcement: 


Executive Department, Boston, May 28, 1898. 
Upon the recommendation of the inspector-general's and adjutant-general's 
departments the following-mentioned petition for a company is hereby approved, and 
the same will be mustered into the military service of the state, viz : 

Charles E. Beals. and others of Stoneham, Mass. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 



An order of even date approved the petition and ordered the mus- 
ter of a company raised by Wm. J. Howard and others, of Stoneham, Mass. 

Following these were sundry orders, among yhich appear the 

III. Brigadier-General James L. Carter, Inspector-General, will arrange for the 
muster-in of the company at Stoneham named in the petition of Charles E. Beals. If 
notice is waived, he will hold an election for officers. He will assign the company at 
Stoneham to the armory recently occupied by Company H, Sixth Regiment of Infan- 
try, M. V. M., first obtaining the approval of the selectmen of Stoneham. This com- 
pany will be known as the First Company of Infantry, Provisional Militia. 

IV. Brigadier-General, James L. Carter, Inspector-General, will arrange for 
the muster-in of the company named in the petition of William J. Howard. If notice 
is waived, he will hold an election for officers and will assign the company to the 
armory recently occupied by Company I, First Regiment, Heavy Artillery, M. V. M., 
first obtaining the approval of the mayor of Brockton. This company will be known 
as the Second Company of Infantry, Provisional Militia. 

Other orders followed announcing the approval, and directing the 
muster of like companies until August i8, 1898, when it was announced 
in General Order No 16: 

V. No further petitions for the organization of companies for the Provisional 
Militia will be received. Such companies as have been accepted and mustered into 
the militia of the Commonwealth will continue to occupy the armories assigned them 
until further orders, and they will be supplied with arms and equipments upon the 
recommendation of the inspector-general. 

VI. All enlistments in the Provisional Militia will cease from this date in com- 
panies already mustered as well as those accepted and not mustered. 

The following petitions had been received and acted upon in the 
following order: . 



1 1. 

Charles E. Beals and others of Stone- 

William J. Howard and others of 

Henry W. Pitman and others of Som- 

Benj. H. Jellison, Haverhill. 

Robert Treat Paine. Jr., Boston. 

Samuel H. Borofsky. Boston. 

Isaac H. Marshall, South Framing- 

Edwin R. Gray, Orange. 

Geo. L. Fowler, Lowell. 

Clement G. Morgan, Boston. 

Valentine T. Sellers, Lawrence. 

John Breen, Lawrence. 

John D. Munroe, Fall River. 

Horace E. Whitney, Milford. 

George E. Garity, Lowell. 







John M. Cotter, Boston. 
Charles L. Young, Springfield. 
A. E. Perry, New Bedford. 
A. Edward Crombie, Beverly. 
Charles E. Story, Gloucester. 
Frederick Childs, Holyoke. 
John H. Harding, Lowell. 
William E. Gray, Wakefield. 
Egbert I. Clapp, Northampton. 
David M. Crotty, Boston. 
Charles H. Cutler, Cambridge. 
Thomas F. Cordis, Springfield. 
David W. Colburn, Fitchburg. 
Arthur A. Hall, Adams. 
Horace N. Conn, Woburn. 
Daniel A. Hazen, Boston. 
William W. Cann, Lynn. 
William H. Winship, Maiden. 
S. F. Pratt, Braintree. 

On June 23, 1898, General Orders No. 12, A. G. O., assigned the 
First, Second, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Companies of Infantry, Provis- 




ional Militia, to the ist Brigade, M. V. M., Brigadier-General Tiaos. R. 
Mathews commanding, and the Third Company of Infantry, Provisional 
Militia, to the 2d Brigade, Colonel Jonas H. Whitney commanding. 

On August 18, iSgS, General Orders, No. 16, A. G. O., assigned 
the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Seventeenth, Eiglit- 
teenth. Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second; Twenty-third, Twenty- 
fourth and Twenty-seventh Companies of Infantry, Provisional Militia, to 
the 1st Brigade, M. V. M., Brigadier-General Thomas R. Mathews com- 
manding; and the Fourth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Nineteenth, 
Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Companies of Infantry, Provisional Mili- 
tia, to the 2d Brigade, M. V. M., Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Oakes 

On July 18, the recommendations of the inspector-general and 
adjutant-general as to the Twentieth Company, Charles E. Story and 
others of Gloucester, Mass., were revoked and a company raised by Alexis 
E. Frye and others of Boston took its place. On August 10, 1898, Com- 
pany Eleven, Valentine T. Sellers and others of Lawrence, Mass., was 
replaced by a company organized by Thomas L. Comstock and others of 

On July 20. 189S, Inspector-General Carter was "authorized to 
assign staff officers of the istand 2d Brigades, M. V. M., for the inspec- 
tion and muster of provisional companies," and "to notify brigade com- 
manders when such assignments are made." 

By the same order, the directions formerly given "brigade com- 
manders to detail medical officers for the physical examination of recruits 
for provisional companies" was rescinded, and in lieu thereof it was ordered 
that "Recruits will furnish mustering officers with certificates from, reput- 
able physicians of their physical ability to perform military duty." 

It will be seen by the above orders and details, that thirty-four 
companies were duly recruited, examined, organized, officered and mus- 
tered into the service of the state between May 28 and the end of August, 
1898. That these companies were recruited to the militia maximum from 
men who for the most part were subjected to severe physical examination, 
and that the officers passed a like physical examination, and the usual 
written examination to which all officers of the Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia are subjected. 

In the numerous towns and cities where no regular state armories 
had been erected, it was ordered (General Orders No. 13) that: 

"Allowance of rent will cease July i, 1898, where companies have entered the 
United States service. Any city or town which has provided an armory for a pro- 
visional company will have the rent continued. Any city or town providing an 
armory after July i, 1898, for a provisional company, if the company is located 
therein before August i, 1898, will have rent of armory continued." 

V. "Officers and enlisted men of the militia, who have not volunteered, cannot 


claim to occupy the armories after July i, 1898, or after the armory has been assigned 
by the city or town to a provisional company. Officers and enlisted men left in the 
militia, whose commands have gone into the United States service, will govern them- 
selves accordingly." 

It is not so generally known that the larger part of these officers 
had previously seen long service in the state militia, or in the regular army 
of the United States or some other power, and that the men had largely 
profited by like service, or instruction in public or private institutions of 
lear.ning, where military drill and discipline were effectively taught. 

It should also be said that most of the companies when enlisted, 
fully expected to take the field on foreign or sea coast service against the 
Spaniard, and that, when the prospect of realizing this patriotic purpose 
grew dim, large numbers withdrew from the Provisional Militia and enlisted 
when the companies of the volunteer regiments were recruited to the war 
standard of 106 men. Nearly three full regiments were thus replaced by 
volunteers whose officers and men can be best judged by the following 
statements made by gentlemen commanding several of the companies. 


Captain Henry W. Pitman of Somerviile, who headed the petition 
for enlistment, says: 

"Seventy-five men responded, meeting at the armory of Company M, Eighth 
Regiment, M. V. M., and signed the petition. Many hoped to have their services re- 
quired (on active service) and when it was determined that the state militia should fur- 
nish the whole quota, many of the petitioners individually enlisted in Company M, 
Eighth Regiment ; Company B, First Heavy Artillery ; Companies B and H, Fifth Regi- 
ment, and other volunteer organizations. Thus twenty-seven men were lost from our 
muster-roll. Nevertheless, the regular organization was perfected June 14, 1898, when 
forty-seven enlisted men were inspected by Inspector-General James L. Carter assisted 
by Colonel James T. Soutter, A. I. G., the men having previously passed a rigid physi- 
cal examination under Major George W. Mills, surgeon First Battalion Cavalry, M. V. 
M. The morale, as well as the physical condition of the command was of a high order. 

"The officers elected had all had military training in the state militia. Captain 
Henry W. Pitman had been a member of Company M, Eighth Regiment. M. V. M., at 
its organization in 1886, when he was elected first lieutenant, and commanded it from 
1888 to 1889. First Lieutenant Arthur W. Furlong, had served first in Company B, 
Fifth Regiment, M. V. M., and afterwards as corporal and sergeant in Company M, 
Eighth Regiment. Second Lieutenant Corril E. Bridges had served in the Second 
Infantry, and later, from 1 894 to i 897, as captai n and aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen- 
eral Benjamin F. Bridges commanding the i st Brigade, M. V. M. 

"Over forty new members later joined those duly mustered in, and took part in 
all matters relating to the company, but nineteen men eventually joined the regiments 
in the field. It was a matter of some regret that there was not that degree of encour- 
agement from the office of the adjutant-general which the members had been led to 
expect, but the Third fared better than most of its associates and was furnished rifles 
and equipments early in September. Drills were maintained on Monday and Thurs- 
day evenings of each week, and considerable social interest was kept up through the 
fall and winter. 


"Beyond the formal approval of the company and its occupancy of the armory, 
the city of Somerville took no immediate interest in the company, nor did any civil- 
ians actively promote its welfare. Its officers and men, however, were resolved to do 
all in their power to have a strong organization. At the funerals of two of the volun- 
teers of the Spanish-American war the company acted as escort, and later paraded at 
the welcome extended to Cotnpany M, Eighth Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry, 
U. S. v., on its return from Cuba. After the disbandment of the Third Provisional 
Company many of its members enlisted in Company M." 

Very truly, 

HENRY W. PITMAN, Captain. 


Captain Isaac N. Marshall of the Seventh Provisional Company 
says : 

"I recruited the Seventh Company, M. P. M., in Framingham. I had solicited 
recruits previously to receiving papers from the inspector-general, so that when ready, 
enlistment was made at once. May 31, 1898. Headquarters were established in the 
armory of Company E, Si.xth Regiment. Isaac N. Marshall, who was elected captain, 
had seen military service in Company C, Sixth Regiment, in the three months' cam- 
paign of 1 86 1 as corporal, and in the nine months' campaign of 1862-63 as lieutenant. 
He was captain of Company E, Sixth Regiment, M. 'V. M., 1897-98; captain of the 
Seventh Company, M. P. M., in 1898, was commissioned captain of Sixth Regiment, 
M. V. M., 1899-1900, and is now a major in the Sixth Regiment. In business he was 
connected with the Boston & Lowell, Boston, Clinton & Fitchburg, Old Colony and 
New York, New Haven & Hartford railroads since 1863, and has been superintendent 
of division since 1885. 

"Herbert O. Benner, elected first lieutenant, had no previous military experi- 
ence except as an enlisted man for some months. He is a practicing physician in 

"William E. Reed, medical student, elected second lieutenant, had had some pre- 
vious military experience at Chauncy Hall School, and on the training school ship 

"Of seventy-six men enlisted, sixty-four appeared on the day of examination; 
sixty-one passed examination, fifty-eight appeared on notice June 21, 1898, and were 
mustered in by General J. L. Carter, inspector-general. All were of American birth, 
and their physical and moral characteristics were of the highest character. All were 
students, clerks or professional men. More than twenty-five per cent had seen ser- 
vice in the State militia, many others had received military instruction in the public 
schools, and probably twenty-five per cent had had no previous military instruction. 

"No uniforms were furnished. We were provided with arms and equipments 
and had regular drills each Monday evening. The company had obtained a good 
degree of proficiency, both in the manual of arms and in marching movements, when 
relieved from duty. 

"The municipality of Framingham was ready at all times to furnish any aid 
required. The business men were also very favorably disposed toward the company. 
Two weeks before the close of the rifle season I found that my command would be 
allowed under the law to qualify as marksmen, and in the two weeks twenty-seven 
men were thus qualified. 

"When the Sixth Regiment, U. S. V., sent recruiting officers home to recruit 


these companies to the full number allowed by law, four men of the Seventh Com- 
pany enlisted in Company D, and are still members of that company." 

Respectfully yours, 



The Eighteenth Provisional Company, accepted by G. O. No. ii, 
June i8, 1S98, was recruited by Major Arthur E. Perry (retired) of the 
law firm of Knowlton & Perry, New Bedford, Mass., who says: 

"As a rule the men were all Yankees and had either been formerly connected 
with the militia, or had served in the local High School Cadets and were an unusually 
good class of men, socially rather above the average of militiamen and of good size 
and morals. 

"The men were furnished with caps, roundabouts and rifles, had drills regu- 
larly once a week, took a great deal of interest in the company and attended very 
regularly at drills. While no actual aid was received from the city, or from any par- 
ticular organization, yet we had the goodwill of the city government; were furnished 
with an armory, heating, lighting, etc., by it, and we were assured by a number of 
individual citizens that if we needed any personal aid we could have all we wanted. 

"Captain Arthur E. Perry enlisted in Company E, First Regiment, Infantry, 
M. V. M., in March 1886, was elected second lieutenant in May, 1886, promoted first 
lieutenant, April, 1889, and made captain in March, 1891. He was retired with the 
rank of major June 2, 1896. 

"Zaccheus C. Dunham was chosen first and Edmund E. Baudoin second lieuten- 
ant, all these being residents of New Bedford. The Eighteenth was assigned to the 
ist Brigade August 10, 1898, and relieved from further duty November 10, 1898." 


This organization was recruited in Beverly, Mass., by A. Edward 
Crombie and others, whose petition was prepared in the latter part of 
May, 1898. The Thorndike Street Armory, just vacated by Company E, 
of the Eighth Regiment, was made headquarters, being turned over to 
Mr. Crombie by the joint standing committee on public property, Hon. 
Asa F. Lee chairman. A full company, whose members were for the 
most part of American birth, and possessing a high standard of physical, 
mental and moral ability, was recruited. About one-half the entire force 
had previously served in the State militia. 

Out of seventy signers only five failed to pass the physical exam- 
ination conducted by Assistant Surgeon Charles Green of the Second 
Corps Cadets, and the official inspection in June by Colonel Soutter, 
assistant inspector-general, was favorable to the acceptance of the organi- 
zation as the Nineteenth Company of Infantry, M. P. M. On June 22, 
Inspector-General James L. Carter mustered the greater part of the com- 
pany into the State service. 

The following officers were elected: — Captain, A. Edward Crombie, 
had served about seven years in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia as 
private, non-commissioned and commissioned officer. Was also connected 




with the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knight of Pythias, Knights of the Golden 
Eagle, etc. First lieutenant, Charles M. Titcomb, had served about four 
years in Company B, Eighth Regiment, M. V. M., two years as sergeant. 
Second lieutenant, Fred H. Lowe, had served six years in Company E, 
Eighth Regiment, M. V. M., as private and corporal. 

Weekly drills were held every Tuesday evening, and later twice a 
week, when rifles and equipments were eventually furnished by the State. 
Colonel Gordon Dexter, A. I. G., of Governor Wolcott's staff, inspected 
and favorably reported upon the company in August. Although the time 
was brief, fifty-three men qualified at the rifle range as sharpshooters, etc. 
At an early date the company was tendered the governor for service in 
the field, and was one of the few reserved to serve until April 15, 1899. 
The Beverly city government, local press and many citizens took a 
strong interest in the welfare of the company. 


9 Concord Sq., Boston, Mass., June 22, 1900. 
Mr. C. W. Hall, Editor, 91 Bedford St. 

Dear Sir: In response to your communication of June 15th, I submit the fol- 
lowing account of Company No. 20, Provisional Militia. 

In response to a circular sent out by three members of the Park Street Club, a 
young men's debating club of this city, to its members and friends, a number of us 
met early in July and decided to form a company. The men were e.xamined July 19, 
1898. and mustered in, July 20, 1898, by Colonel Gordon Dexter (then assistant inspec- 

Our headquarters were the rooms of Battery K, First Regiment Heavy Artil- 
lery, M. V. M., (then in the United States service,) in the South (or Irvington St.) 
Armory, Boston. The following officers were elected : 

Captain Alexis Everett Frye was formerly captain of a company at San Bernar- 
dino, Cal., and later military instructor of the Harvard College companies in the 
spring of 1898. After the war he was commissioned a lieutenant in Company K, First 
Regiment, Heavy Artillery, M. V. M., but was placed in charge of the United States 
school system in Cuba, which he is now organizing and promoting. His national rep- 
utation was first established by the publication and introduction of Frye's Geography 
and other educational works. 

First Lieutenant James Alexander Stetson was trained in the Boston High 
School Battalion and that of the Institute of Technology. Second Lieutenant, William 
Everett Smith. The roster showed three commissioned officers and fifty-seven enlisted 

The company was composed of first class material in all respects, due largely, 
as I think, to the influence of the aforesaid Park Street Club. Nearly all the members 
were young and prominent business men in Boston, and most of them had had some 
previous military training in school, college, or the volunteer militia, including several 
members of the old Battery K, First Regiment. 

The company drilled every Monday night and successfully passed inspection 
preparatory to the issuance of arms; but the return of the Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia to its quarters put an end to the organization. 

Very truly yours, 




"The war fever that swept over the country as a result of the destruction of the 
battleship 'Maine', struck in forcibly at Northampton, and on February 25, ten days 
after that terrible catastrophe, City Clerk E. I. Clapp called for volunteers to serve in 
the impending struggle. There was an enthusiastic response, and on February 28, Mr. 
Clapp sent to Governor Wolcott this telegram : — 'Have enrolled over fifty volunteers 
who will respond if their services are necessary in Spanish war." This gave North- 
ampton the distinction of leading the state in offering men for the nation's defense. 
The enrolment continued until 130 names were on the list, including youths and 
Civil War veterans, and men who had served as United States regulars or in the British 
army. They were organized as the Nonotuck Guards on April 6, and later these 
officers were chosen: Captain, Harry A. Moulton; first lieutenant, Clinton F. Smith; 
surgeon, Dr. C. S. Cutler. Drills were held regularly in Father Matthew Hall. 

"In the latter part of May, City Clerk Clapp began enlisting men for a company 
to be organized under the act of the Legislature creating a provisional militia, and 
quickly secured the desired number of volunteers. On July 2, Mr. Clapp's company 
was accepted, and was designated the Twenty-fourth Company of Infantry, Massachu- 
setts Provisional Militia. It took possession of the armory and drilled regularly until 
Company I was mustered out of the United States service. In accordance with the 
special act that created it, the Provisional Militia was disbanded April 15, 1899, immedi- 
ately after the treaty of peace was signed. 

"The officers were as follows: Captain, Egbert I. Clapp; served through the 
Civil War from 1861 to 1865, enlisted as a private, afterward commissioned second 
lieutenant in Thirty-first Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry ; took part in 
all the campaigns in the Gulf department, including the captures of Fort Jackson and 
Saint Philip, the La Teche and Red River campaigns, the siege of Port Hudson, Miss., 
and the siege of Mobile, Ala. ; and has been city clerk of Northampton, Mass., for 
seventeen years past. First Lieutenant, Harry A. Moulton ; was formerly for several 
years first lieutenant of Company I, Second Regiment, M. V. M. Second Lieutenant, 
Clinton F.Smith; was formerly second lieutenant. Company I, Second Regiment. 
M. V. M. 

"The whole number of men enlisted in the Twenty-fourth Company, M. P. M., 
was seventy-two. With but four exceptions, the company was composed of men of 
some trade or profession; they were of good education and character and exception- 
ally strong physically. 

"The petition for acceptance of the company was forwarded to General James 
L. Carter, inspector-general, on June 13, 1898; the company was inspected on June 
22, 1898, by Colonel F. W. Wellington, assistant inspector-general, and accepted July 
2, 1898. 

"Every man who signed the enlistment roll did so understanding that he was 
to go to the front and into the United States service if needed ; otherwise he was not 
accepted by the promoter. About one-third of the organization are now in the regu- 
lar army, and many of them in the Philippine Islands. 

"The company was drilled twice weekly, from August 3 to November 14. inclu- 
sive. Arms and equipments were recommended furnished by General Carter on Aug- 
ust 30, though the order was not carried out through failure of the State government 
to furnish the same. 

"The company had no assistance in organizing or in meeting their necessary 
expenses outside of their own membership. Neither the city nor its inhabitants 
contributed one dollar to that end." EGBERT I. CLAPP, 

Late Captain Twenty-fourth Company. M. P. M. 



The enlistment of this company was begun at Fitchburg by David 
W. Colburn and others August 2, 1898. Forty-live men were enlisted, 
and after passing a rigid physical examination, were mustered into the 
State service and occupied the State armory at Fitchburg, drilling once a 

The officers elected had all seen service in the militia as follows: 
Captain David W. Colburn, commissioned August 20, 1898, had held 
commissions in the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia since 1885. First 
lieutenant Edward A. Bruce, enlisted in 1885, had served twelve years. 
Second lieutenant H. Nelson Lawrence, enlisted 1886, and had served 
eight years. 

Several citizens of Fitchburg aided materially the work of raising 
this company, which was relieved from duty by G. O. No. 18, A. G. O., 
dated November 10, 1898. 


Captain William H. Winship of Maiden, Mass., says in effect: 

"Began enlistments June 18, 1898. Our headquarters were the armory on 
Mountain Avenue vacated by Company L, Fifth Regiment, M. V. M. 

"The officers were elected August 9, 1898; Captain William Henry Winship, 
bookkeeper and salesman, Maiden, Mass., was second lieutenant. Maiden High School 
Cadets in 1884-85, captain 1885-86, major and organizer, Maiden High School Battalion 
1886-87. First lieutenant, Andrew H. Breen, buyer. Maiden, was second lieutenant. Mai- 
den High School Battalion 1892-93. Second lieutenant, Trueman R. Hawley, Harvard 
student, Maiden, sergeant school battalion 1894; resigned commission to become princi- 
pal of the High School of Dartmouth, Mass. Edward S. Stevens was elected acting 
second lieutenant, but the state failed to order a legal election and he was not com- 
missioned; also of school battalion 1894. 

"Eighty-seven men signed the original enlistment list. Their moral and physi- 
cal character was first class. Forty-two had attended the Maiden High School and 
three others the Institute of Technology, three the Boston Latin High School, three 
Harvard and one Bowdoin College. Two were doctors, two sons of ex-mayors of 
Maiden, and eight were ex-members of Company L, Fifth Regiment, M. V. M. The 
highest age given was 34, and the lowest 16, the average being 22 years and 3 months. 
The avocations given included thirty-one clerks and salesmen, twenty-five students, 
three doctors, one printer, one nurseryman, one surveyor, one civil engineer, one me- 
chanical engineer, three machinists, two teamsters, one motorman, etc. 

"On July 27, Colonel Frank L. Locke, assistant inspector-general, inspected 
the company and made a favorable report of its members, who on August i were ex- 
amined physically by Major John F. Harvey, surgeon of the First Battalion of Cavalry, 
M. V. M., who accepted over forty recruits. On August 7, Colonel Locke mustered 
forty-seven officers and men into the service of the State. 

"The company drilled every Monday night, wholly under its own officers, in 
setting-up drill, school of the soldier, manual of arms, the bayonet exercise and com- 
pany movements. The state officers failed to physically examine and muster in many 
recruits, who, however, presented themselves at drill and served faithfully; and were 


finally, by direction of the adjutant-general, physically examined by Dr. Carroll C. 
Burpee of Maiden, a member of the company. 

"The city government of Maiden permitted the company to use the muskets 
formerly belonging to the High School Battalion, paid the salary of the armorer, and 
in other ways aided and encouraged the company, which received neither arms nor 
uniforms from the state. The sum of $63.20 was however paid by the state, which on 
the return of Company L, of the Fifth Regiment of Infantry, Massachusetts Volun- 
teers and its re-absorbtion into the militia, was voted to and paid over to that com- 
pany toward the purchase of a piano for the armory. 

"The commissioned and non-commissioned officers of the Thirty-third Com- 
pany, Massachusetts Provisional Militia, formed the staff for F. E. Benjamin, marshal 
of the parade which welcomed home Company L, of the Fifth Regiment, April 3, 
1899, Captain Winship acting as chief of staff. The Thirty-third was discharged from 
the service of the state April 10, 1899. 

"Past members now serving in various organizations : Second sergeant, W. E. 
Brown, first sergeant Company B, Eighth Regiment, M. V. M. ; Privates, J. C. Jacobs, F. 
C. Pickering, W. E. Mitchell, Benj. O. Dawes, D. M. Sarkesian,W. D. Clark and A. F. 
Pearson, C migany L, Fifth Regiment, M. V. M. ; corporal H. E. Smith is now quar- 
termaster's sertreant, Company I, Forty-Third Regiment, United States Volunteers, 
serving in the Philippines. Jacobs is now sergeant and Pickering and Mitchell corporals." 

Other companies presented features of interest, and indications of 
that readiness to exchange the arts of peace for the perils of war, which 
has always been characteristic of the people of New England, when the 
cause for which they muster commends itself to their sense of right and 

The First Company was raised and commanded by Rev. Charles 
E. Beals of Stoneham, since chosen chaplain of the Fifth Regiment Infan- 
try, M. V. M. The Fifth was raised by Robert Treat Paine, Jr., of 
Boston, a well known member of the Suffolk bar, who had during the last 
of May raised 120 men in three days at his recruiting office, No. 14 Mer- 
chants Row, taking no man who measured less than five feet, seven inches, 
and securing many men and officers who had served in the English, Ger- 
man and American regular and marine service, the Canadian mounted 
police, etc. These expected to be taken for active service, and when in 
June this hope was gone, many went into the regiments in the field. 
The Fifth were furnished qtiarters in the South Armory, were armed with 
Springfields and attained good proficiency in drill. Captain Paine had 
served in the First Corps Cadets, M. V. M., and Lieutenant Henry 
A. Ballon in the Sixth Regiment and the United States Marine Corps. 

The Sixth Company was recruited by Samtiel H. Borofsky, from 
among the Hebrew population of Boston, and was composed wholly of Jews. 
Some of them had served in European armies, but most of the members 
had acquired their knowledge of military drill in the school battalions of 

The Tenth Company, Captain Robert C. Wilson, was' a colored 




company, and included descendants of men who had first become soldiers 
in the Civil War, and the years of freer thought and action which 
immediately followed it. It numbered fifty-eight enlisted men and three 
officers. Captain Wilson had served six years in Company L, Sixth Regi- 
ment Infantry, M. V. M. First Lieutenant Wm. A. Lewis, a native of 
Virginia, and a lawyer, had had some military training at Amherst. 
Second Lieutenant Robert I. Teamoh, a journalist on the staff of the Bos- 
ton "Globe," had also served in Company L, of the Sixth, as had about one- 
third of the enlisted men. The physique of the men was notably excel- 
lent, and there were very few who could not claim more than usual pro- 
ficiency in useful callings, and well-paid lawyers, doctors, dentists, steno- 
graphers, journalists, reporters, chemists, caterers, clerks, salesmen, bar- 
bers, etc., etc., were found in the ranks. The company occupied the 
armory of Company L, Sixth Regiment, received Springfield rifles, and 
drilled every Friday evening. 

On November 10, 1S98, General Orders, No. 18, thus practically 
ended the existence of the Massachusetts Provisional Militia: 

III. The First, Second, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, 
Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, 
Twentieth, Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, Twenty- 
Fifth, Twenty-Seventh, Twenty-Eighth, Twenty-Ninth and Thirty-First companies of 
the Provisional Militia are hereby relieved from further duty until mustered out of 
the service as required by law. Company commanders will at once apply by letter 
to this department for orders to turn over all United States or State property in their 

IV. The Acts of the Legislature require the discharge of all provisional com- 
panies of the militia when peace is declared. Certificates of discharge will be issued 
to provisional companies at that time; but any officer or enlisted man desiring to be 
discharged before that time, can be by resignation of officer, or application for dis- 
charge to company commanders by enlisted man. The Commander-in-Chief desires 
to thank the officers and men of the Provisional Militia for their prompt response to 
duty in an emergency. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 



The Third, Nineteenth, Thirtieth, Thirty-Second and Thirty- 
Fourth companies awaited until a later date the return of those companies 
still in the fields, whose armories they had occupied, and with a soldierly 
spirit continued to perform duties, which no longer promised to lead to 
martial service, or even a continuance in the State militia. They saw the 
administration, foiled in its attempt to substitute a great standing army 
for its militia volunteers, compromise upon a corps of United States Vol- 
unteers, with no State traditions or influences to make it anything more 
or less than a regular force, enlisted for a briefer period; and felt that 
their labors and sacrifices had been almost wholly in vain. 

They had raised nearly three full regiments of officers and men, 
all of whom passed the usual tests of physical and military fitness, at a 


time when each recruit knew that he was almost sure to face the perils of 
a foreign campaign, and fatal pestilences which had already claimed as 
their victims numbers of his friends or fellow citizens. Public aiaprehcn- 
sion and the military experts of the day anticipated foreign difficulties, if 
not invasion and pillage, and this they prepared to meet with weapons 
and resources, which were already known to be utterly inadequate, and in 
many things hopelessly obsolete. Many proved their genuine military 
ardor by later enlistments and service, in which some have died for the 
flag; and others have wrought nobly in the work of regenerating our new 
territories. Of their merit and true patriotism there is no more doubt 
than of that of the bravest company, which under the State flag fought in 
Cuba or Porto Rico. 

Therefore this chapter seeks to keep in remembrance their labors 
and faithful services, as well as those of the officers, who so quickly and 
thoroughly organized a strong and reliable reserve, ready to serve the 
State at home, and the nation abroad. The following roster of company 
officers is taken from the adjutant-general's report of 1898-99: 


First Company— Captain, Chas. E. Beals; first lieutenant, Sidney F. Hodge; 
second lieutenant, James Alfred Patch, all of Stoneham. 

Second Company— Captain, William J. Howard of Whitman; first lieutenant, 
Joseph Hewitt; second lieutenant, Henry S. Saville, both of Brockton. 

Third Company — Captain, Henry W. Pitman; first lieutenant, Arthur W. Fur- 
long; second lieutenant, Corril E. Bridges, all of Somerville. 

Fourth Company— Second lieutenant, Carlos E. Palmer, Haverhill. 

Fifth Company — Captain, Robert Treat Paine, Jr. ; first lieutenant, Henry A. 
Ballou ; second lieutenant, Edmund Billings, all of Boston. 

Si.xth Company — Captain, Samuel H. Borofsky ; first lieutenant, William Morris ; 
second lieutenant, Morris Silverstein, all of Boston. 

Seventh Company — Captain, Isaac N. Marshall, of South Framingham; first 
lieutenant, Herbert O. Benner, of South Framingham; second lieutenant, William E. 
Reed, of Saxonville. 

Eighth Company— Captain, Edwin R. Gray; first lieutenant, Fred S. Wey- 
mouth; second lieutenant, Willie B. Smith, all of Orange. 

Ninth Company— Captain, George E. Worthen, Lowell ; first lieutenant, Arthur 

D. Colby, Lowell; second lieutenant, George L. Fowler, Jr., Lynn. 

Tenth Company— Captain, Robert C. Wilson; first lieutenatn, Wm. H. Lewis; 
second lieutenant, Robert T. Teamoh, all of Boston. 

Eleventh Company— Captain, Thos. L. Comstock; first lieutenant, Frederick 
B. Felton ; second lieutenant, Henry H. Cutter, all of Greenfield. 

Twelfth Company— Captain, John Breen ; first lieutenant, Eugene A. McCarthy ; 
second lieutenant, Thos. H. Redmond, all of Lawrence. 

Thirteenth Company— Captain, first lieutenant, James 

T. Cummings; second lieutenant, Chas. E. Chace, all of Fall River. 

Fourteenth Company— Captain, first lieutenant, 

Edward H. Ingrain; second lieutenant, John J. Welsinger, both of Hopedale. 

Fifteenth Company— Captain, Geo. E. Garity; first lieutenant, Frederick A. 
Estes; second lieutenant, Patrick J. McDermott, all of Lowell. 

Sixteenth Company— Captain, John Mitchell Cotter; first lieutenant, Wm. F. 
Henderson; second lieutenant, Patrick J. Smith, all of Boston. 

Seventeenth Company— Captain, first lieutenant, Wm. 

E. Moses; second lieutenant, Wm. G. Adams, both of Springfield. 



Eighteenth Company — Captain, Arthur E. Perry, first lieutenant, Zaccheus C. 
Dunham; second lieutenant, Edmond E. Baudoin, all of New Bedford. 

Nineteenth Company — Captain, A. Edward Crombie; first lieutenant, Chas. M. 
Titcomb ; second lieutenant, Frederick H. Lowe, all of Beverly. 

Twentieth Company — Captain, Alexis E. Frye, Boston; first lieutenant, James 
A. Stetson, New Bedford; second lieutenant, William E. Swift of Boston. 

Twenty-First Company — Captain, Thos. Rae, Jr., of Holyoke. 

Twenty-Second Company — Captain, George D. Kimball; second lieutenant. 
Burton W. Farnham, both of Lowell. 

Twenty-Third Company — Captain, Wm. E. Gray, Reading; first lieutenant, 
John L. Orr; second lieutenant, Arthur E. Stone, both of Wakefield. 

Twenty-Fourth Company — Captain, Egbert I. Clapp; first lieutenant, Harry 
A. Moulton; second lieutenant, Clinton F. Smith, all of Northampton. 

Twenty-Fifth Company — Captain, David M. Crotty; first lieutenant, James V. 
O'Hara; second lieutenant, James B. Goggin, all of Charlestown. 

Twenty-Si.xth Company — Captain, Chas. H. Cutler; first lieutenant, John E. 
Winslow, both of Cambridge. 

Twenty-Seventh Company — Captain, Thomas F. Cordis, Longmeadow; first 
lieutenant, Paul J. Norton; second lieutenant, Sayward Galbraith, both of Springfield. 

Twenty-Eighth Company — Captain, David W. Colburn ; first lieutenant, 
Edward A. Bruce; second lieutenant, H. Nelson Lawrence; all of Fitchburg. 

Twenty-Ninth Companv — Captain, Arthur A. Hall; first lieutenant, Fred F. 
Busby; second lieutenant, Frank E. McNulty, all of Adams. 

Thirtieth Company — Captain, John M. Portal, Woburn ; first lieutenant, Arthur 
C. Wyer, Woburn; second lieutenant, James C. Hanson of Boston. 

Thirty-First Company — Captain, Daniel .\. Hazen, Medford; first lieutenant, 
John F. Currie; second lieutenant, Chas. H. Tibbetts, both of Boston. 

Thirty-Second Company — Captain, Henry B. Goodridge ; first lieutenant, Wm. 
W. Cann; second lieutenant, Warren L Chase, all of Lynn. 

Thirty-Third Company— Captain, Wm. H. Winship; first lieutenant, Andrew 
H. Brown, both of Maiden. 

Thirty-Fourth Company— Captain, Lyman W. Morrison; first lieutenant, Chas. 
H. Rice; second lieutenant, Wm. J. Buckley, all of Braintree. 



"They also serve w'.io only staiui and wait." 

THE martial and patriotic spirit, called forth by the announcement of 
war with Spain, and consequent call for troops by the President 
was universal throughout the country, and Massachusetts stood in 
the front rank in that respect, true to her past record. Offers to 
raise companies and regiments came thick and fast from various societies 
and individuals in different sections of the .state, but upon the announce- 
ment that no authority could be given for raising 
troops in anticipation of actual calls, all such 
movements but one subsided, or were held in 
abeyance, and that one, which resulted in what 
was known as the "Hooker Guards Regiment," 
alone materialized into the actual organization 
and drilling of companies. As many of the prin- 
cipal movers were past officers and members of 
the Massachusetts militia, it would seem appro- 
priate that a short sketch of this unofficial organi- 
zation should be included in this work. 

Weeks before the declaration of war, the 
veterans were eagerly propounding to each 
other the query "What ought we to do for Uncle 
Sam in case of war?" A group of these in 
Boston and vicinity decided that they ought to 
prepare to organize a regiment which should represent them, and, at 
the request of many comrades, Captain Lsaac P. Gragg, on March 8, 
1898, filed with Governor Wolcott a request for authority to raise a regi- 
ment of infantry. Early in April plans were well under way for rais- 
ing companies under the auspices of the Regimental Associations of 
the, Eleventh and Sixteenth Massachusetts Volunteers, formerly of 
General Hooker's brigade of the 3d Army Corps, and several posts of the 
Grand Army of the Republic; a public call was prepared and held awaiting 
the action of Congress, so that when the wires on the 19th of April 
flashed the tidings that the die was cast for war, all that remained 
to be done was to send to the Boston newspapers copies of the following 
notice for a meeting of the veterans of Hooker's Brigade, to give their 
sanction for baptizing the movement as the "Hooker Guards Regiment." 





Wednesday, April 20, 1898. 
The following call has been mailed to the surviving members of the First, 
Eleventh and Sixteenth Massachusetts Volunteers that formed a part of the brigade 
commanded by General Joseph Hooker during the late war. 

Boston, April 19, 1898. 

Comrades: While the great majority of the veterans of 1861-65 are incapaci- 
tated by age or infirmities from active service in the impending war with Spain, the 
nation fully appreciates that their hearts are as loyal and their desire to be of service 
to the country as keen as it was in the old days. 

In demonstration of these sentiments and at the request of a large number of 
comrades, the survivors of Hooker's Old Brigade are requested to meet at the Ameri- 
can House, Boston, on Friday evening, April 22, at 7.30 o'clock, to indorse a plan for 
raising a regiment of volunteer infantry for the war, to be known as the "Hooker 

The proposition is to raise a regiment to be composed entirely of young men, 
physically fitted for arduous service in the field, between 20 and 30 years of age, field 
officers to be selected by the governor; the regiment to be raised under the auspices 
of Hooker's veterans, assisted by the G. A. R. organizations in the localities where 
the several companies are to be raised. 

The following basis of organization has been suggested, and meets the approval 
of many comrades and other military men: 

Company A, Richardson Rifles, Cambridgeport. In honor of Lieut. -Col. Sam- 
uel W. Richardson, Sixteenth Mass. Vols. 

Company B, Lawrence Rifles, East Boston. In honor of Brevet Brig.-Gen. Wm. 
Lawrence, aide to Gen. Hooker. 

Company C, Blaisdell Rifles, Boston. In honor of Brevet Brig.-Gen. Wm. 
Blaisdell, Eleventh Mass. Vols., killed at Petersburg, Va., June 23, 1864. 

Company D, Warren Rifles, Roxbury. In honor of Capt. Moses H. Warren, 
First Mass. Vols., killed at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 12, 1864. 

Company E, Kelren Rifles. South Boston. In honor of Color Sergt. Wm. Kel- 
ren. First Mass. Vols., killed at Gettyburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 

Company F. Cowdin Rifles, Boston. In honor of Brig.-Gen. Robert Cowdin, 
colonel First Mass. Vols. 

Company G, Forest Rifles, Boston. In honor of Sergt. Gordon Forest, First 
Mass. Vols., killed at Blackburn's Ford, Va., July 18, 1861. 

Company H, Mandeville Rifles, Chelsea. In honor of First Sergt. John D. 
Mandeville, First Mass. Vols., killed at Second Bull Run, Va., Aug. 26, 1862. 

Company I, Rand Rifles. Boston. In honor of Capt. Charles E. Rand, First 
Mass. Vols., killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 1863. 

Company K, Stone Rifles, Dorchester. In honor of Capt. Benj. Stone, Jr., 
Eleventh Mass. Vols., mortally wounded at Second Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29, 1862. 

Company L, Chandler Rifles, West Roxbury and Brookline. In honor of Major 
Charles P. Chandler, First Mass. Vols., killed at Glendale, Va., June 30, 1862. 

Company M, Wyman Rifles, Boston. In honor of Col. Powell T. Wyman, Six- 
teenth Mass., killed at Glendale, Va., June 30. 1862. 

Turn out with full ranks in honor of the flag, the Commonwealth and Fighting 
Joe Hooker! Young men desirous of joining the proposed regiment are also invited 
to be present. ISAAC P. GRAGG. 


The meeting of April 22 was a large and enthusiastic one, the 
project was favorably received and unanimously indorsed. It was voted 
to organize a central committee, consisting of five from each organization 
participating; resolutions were adopted sustaining President McKinley in 
his course; and a committee consisting of Colonel Charles C. Rivers, Cap- 
tain Isaac P. Gragg, Major Jonas F. Capelle, Major George E. Henry, 
Captain William H. Brown, Major William A. Smith and Henry C. Hall 
were appointed to wait on Governor Wolcott and tender the services of 
the veterans of Hooker's brigade in support of Captain Gragg's previous 

Headquarters were opened at the American House the next morn- 
ing, and a few days afterward the general committee was organized by the 
selection of Captain Isaac P. Gragg as chairman, Captain L. Edward Jen- 
kins, secretary; Alfred D. Chandler, Esq., treasurer; and an executive 
committee of one from each organization. Formal action to raise com- 
panies was taken as follows: April 18, Post 26, Roxbury, Company D; 
April 20, Post 68, Dorchester, Company K; April 21, Post 30, Cambridge- 
port, Company A, and Post 35, Chelsea, Company H; April 26, Post 23, 
East Boston, Company B; April 29, Post 2, South Boston, Company E; 
May 2, Post 92, Brighton, Company AI; May 3, Post 143, Brookline, Com- 
pany L; May 5, Command 9, U. V. U., Boston, Company C; May 6, Post 
15, Boston, Company I; May 25, First Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry 
Association, Boston, Companies F and G. Recruiting officers were sel- 
ected to take charge of the enrollment and drilling of recruits; public 
meetings were held in several localities, at which Mayor Quincy of Boston, 
Mayor Littlefield of Chelsea, the selectmen of Brookline and other pro- 
minent citizens participated, and Mayor Sortwell, in a communication to the 
Cambridge city government, announced the prompt formation of Com- 
pany A. 

The several companies held regular drills in citizen's dress, with- 
out arms, at the post halls and in ward rooms. The men passed a physi- 
cal examination at the hands of competent local physicians, who volun- 
teered their services; company officers received temporary appointments, 
pending official action; frequent meetings of the Veterans' Committee and 
company officers held at the American House, and as much progress made 
as was possible under the circumstances, toward putting the regiment 
into shape for promptly responding to any call for troops in which they 
should be included. In addition to the representation of five on the Cen- 
tral Committee, most of the local organizations increased their recruiting 
committees to ten or more members, including many prominent civilians. 
Several companies attended Memorial Day church services with the 
G. A. R. posts. 

Although the general committee and his own Post had voted reso- 


lutions favoring Captain Gragg for colonel of the regiment, the commit- 
tee, at his request, adhered to the original plan of leaving the governor 
untrammeled in selecting the field officers in case the regiment was called 
for. The veterans, from their own past experience, realized the great 
responsibility they were taking in raising the organization; many of their 
sons were enrolled in it, and in several cases more than one son had signed 
the rolls, and for their sakes and the welfare of all the men, they were 
resolved that personal ambitions should at least pass the scrutiny of merit 
and ability. 

It is, however, but justice to Captain Gragg to state that immedi- 
ately preceding the call for troops by President McKinley, on April 26, 
wherein was expressed a preference for the organized militia, the military 
advisers of Governor Wolcott had furnished him with a list of six persons 
whom they recommended as competent to command a regiment, from 
which he was to select three to organize three regiments of volunteers 
and that Captain Gragg's name was included in the list submitted. Com- 
munications recommending his appointment were received by the gover- 
nor from Major-General Daniel E. Sickles, Major-General Daniel Butter- 
field, Brigadier-General N. A. M. Dudley, Brevet Brigadier-General 
Henry S. Russell, Brevet Brigadier-General Thomas Sherwin, Hon. John 
Conness and others. 

Massachusetts' quota on both the first and second call for troops 
having been filled by the militia regiments, reorganized as volunteers, 
Captain Gragg forwarded to the war department a request to have the 
regiment accepted as United States volunteers, and again offered it for 
service in the Philippines. On July i the Executive Committee, accom- 
panied by the recruiting officers of the companies, waited on Governor 
Wolcott and renewed their request for active service, offering to go into 
camp pending the uncertainty of a third call. Meanwhile, most of the 
companies had recruited 125 to 150 men, and, as the prospect for immedi- 
ate service seemed uncertain, several hundred men had withdrawn and 
enlisted in other organizations, principally in the Seventh U. S. Infantry, 
Second U. S. Artillery, Fifth and Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, with 
scattering men in many other organizations; so that as a preliminary school 
for discipline, setting up drill and company movements, something was 
contributed toward the general service, and this patriotic work was fully 
appreciated at state headquarters and by the authorities at Washington. 
In all, some 1600 men were enrolled in the Hooker Guards, and a number 
of its original members were included among the killed, wounded, and 
those who died in Cuba. 

Finally, on July 29, the general committee held a meeting, at 
which it was admitted that the prospect for being needed was slim, but 
while leaving with each company the matter of continuing drills, they 


decided not to disband the organization until peace was assured, and not 
until August 17, when the preliminary peace protocol had been signed 
and hostilities suspended, was it voted to dismiss the companies and the 
central organization dissolved, the veterans feeling that President Mc- 
Kinley's apt quotation, "They also serve who only stand and wait," could 
honorably be claimed as part of the record of the Hooker Guards. The 
following editorial in the Boston Journal of August 18 was about their 
only public recognition for duty well performed, but they were not looking 
for reward. The veterans were conscious that once more they had stood 
true to "Old Glory," and the members of the regiment had done all they 
could in offering to risk their lives and health in the service of their 


There was no chance for the Hooker Guards — peace came too soon and no 
more troops were needed — but the patriotic zeal of the organizers of this Massachu- 
setts volunteer command, which has just been disbanded, will not pass without recog- 
nition by their fellow-citizens. 

The Committee of Arrangements, which has had the affairs of the regiment in 
charge, was composed of representatives of nine Grand Army posts of Boston and its 
suburbs, of the Union Veterans and of Hooker's old brigade of the Army of the Poto- 
mac. They were far-seeing men, were these old soldiers, and even before the war 
broke out they had their preparations well in hand. Captain Isaac P. Gragg, the 
energetic chairman of the committee, made prompt offer of his volunteers at the 
State House and a full regiment was quickly raised. Although it could not go on the 
first call nor yet on the second, because the organized militia of the state was not yet 
exhausted, the command was held together in readiness until now, giving free and 
generous discharge meanwhile to all of its men who wished to enter the volunteer or 
regular service. 

The public spirit which has animated Captain Gragg and his comrades is 
admirable. Fortunate events have unexpectedly shortened the war, but these gentle- 
men are none the less deserving of gratitude. Their regiment was a good one. It had 
a large number of the sons of veterans of 1861-65 within its ranks, and their fighting 
blood would have told if the Hooker Guards had ever had an opportunity. 

Execiiliie CoiiiiiiiltiW 

Isaac P. Gragg, chairman; L. Edward Jenkins, secretary; Alfred D. Chandler, 
treasurer; William G. Bird, William H. Brown, James Nicol, George H. Innis, James 
F. McKenzie, Andrew P. Fisher, John E. Gilman, George S. Evans, William A. Pres- 
cott, Francis H. Dove, Austin Bigelow, Charles E. Hapgood, William A. Smith. 

Finance CommiUce. 

Isaac P. Gragg, George S. Evans, William A. Smith, George H. Innis, Andrew 
P. Fisher. 

Geiwral Committee. 
(N. It. Length of Service Nott-il Rulers to Militia Only.) 


George E. Henry — Captain ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry, brevet major U. S. Vols., 
first lieutenant and adjutant V. R. C. Militia; private, sergeant Co. F, 2d Regt. 
Infantry, M. V. M. Three years. 

p. N. S. V. C. (iEO. H. INNIS, 
Post 2, G. A. K. 

Post 15, G. A. K. 

COM. ANUICEW r, l-|s[lKli, 
Post 23, G. A. U. 










r. I>. f. JOHN E. (ilL.MAN, 
I'.ist -Jli, (I. A. K. 

P. D. C. GEOIillE M. EVAN'S, 
Post 3(1, (;. A. K. 

Post 35, G. A. R. 

Post 6.S, G. A. K. 

Post 92, i;. .\. K. 

Pnst 143, G. A. K. 



Joseph H. Dalton — First lieutenant ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

Isaac P. Gragg — Corporal ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry ; first lieutenant 61 st Regt. 
Mass. Vol. Infantry; brevet captain U. S. Vols. Militia: private, sergeant, cap- 
tain, Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Thirteen years. 

William G. Bird — Private ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: private, corporal, 
sergeant Co. A, ist Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M. Twenty-eight years. 

L. Edward Jenkins — Sergeant ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; first lieutenant 2d Regt. 
Mass. Vol. Heavy Artillery. Militia: private Co. B, 2d Regt, Infantry, M. V. M. ; 
first sergeant Co. H, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Four years. 


William H. Brown — Captain nth Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

Peter F. Rourke— First sergeant i ith Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: first lieuten- 
ant gth Infantry, M. V. M. Five years. 

Allan P. Mason — Private ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; sergeant, second lieutenant, 
nth Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

John L. Parker — First lieutenant iith Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

Frank W. Thompson — Private nth Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 


Jonas F. Capelle— Captain i6th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; brevet major U. S. Vol. 

Militia: private Co. A, ist Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M. Nine years. 
James Nicol — Sergeant i6th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
Henry C. Hall — Private i6th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
James R. Harrison — Corporal i6th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
Henry E. Wright— Private i6th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 


Commander Fredolin Kramer — Landsman U. S. S. "Pontoosuc." 

P. C, J. Payson Bradley — Bugler ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Heavy Artillery. Militia: chief 
bugler, sergeant major, ist Battalion Artillery, M. V. M. ; sergeant-major, adjutant 
ist Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M. ; sergeant, color bearer, adjutant, commander 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery ; colonel staff of Governor Wolcott. ' 
Twenty-eight years. 

N. S. V. C, George H. Innis — Private loth Mass. Vol Light Battery. Militia: first lieu- 
tenant Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 

P. C, Henry S. Treadwell— Private 53d Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 

P. C, Charles S. Clerke— Private 5th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 


Commander Charles W. Robbins — First sergeant Battery E, Rhode Island Vol. 

Light Artillery. 
John Loughrey — Private 62d Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
Albert Fitzmeyer — Private 62d Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry ; private 2d Mass. Light 

Battery, M. V. M. 
James F. McKenzie — Private ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: first sergeant, 

second lieutenant, first lieutenant Co. A, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; adjutant 

Battery A, Light Artillery, M. V. M. 
James A. Penfield— Lieutenant-colonel 5th Regt. New York Vol. Cavalry. 


Commander Andrew P. Fisher — Private 29th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

Joseph H. Barnes — Lieutenant-Colonel 29th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; brevet briga- 
dier-general U. S. Vols. Militia: sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant Co. 
H, 1st Regt. Infantry, M. V. M., and Co. B, 3d Battalion Infantry, M. V. M. 
Four years. 

Edward Preble — Corporal 13th Regt., Maine Vol. Infantry. 

Michael Killion — Private 6th Regt., Penn. Vol. Cavalry. 

Ainsley R. Hooper — Private 40th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 


Commander Frank H. Bell — Private 19th Mass. Vol. Infantry. 


P. C, William M. Olin — Private 36th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: colonel gov- 
ernor's staff ; lieutenant-colonel ist Brigade staff, M. V. M. Nine and one-half 

P. D. C, John E. Oilman — Private 12th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Lost right arm at 
Gettysburg, Va. 

P. C, David L. Jones — Sergeant 22d Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

P. C, Edwin R. Jenness — Corporal 13th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia; private, 
corporal, sergeant, first sergeant, second lieutenant, Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry, 
M. V. M. Five years. 

WILI.I.^M H. SM.VKT POST 30, G. A. R. 

P. D. C, George S. Evans — Private 56th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: private 
Co. B, 4th Battalion Infantry, M. V. M. Three years. 

P. C, Benjamin F. Hastings — Private 38th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: ser- 
geant Co. B, 4th Battalion Infantry, M. V. M. Two years. 

P. C, Horace J. Gray — Seaman U. S. Navy, U. S. S. "Sagamore." 

P. C, Eben W. Pike — Musician 22d Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry ; first sergeant 56th Regt. 
Mass. Vol. Infantry; sergeant 7th U. S. Cavalry. 

P. C, George A. Dietz — Private 8th Regt. Kansas Vol. Infantry. 


P. D. C, Joseph W. Thayer, Private 12th Regt, Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: Private 
Co. H, ist Regt. Infantry. M. V. M. Three years. 

P. C William P. Drury — First lieutenant ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; captain 6ist 
Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: private Co. F, 7th Regt. Infantry, M. \'. M. 
One year. 

P. C, Henry T. Holmes — First lieutenant 50th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Militia: pri- 
vate, 4th lieutenant, first lieutenant Co. F, 7th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; first 
lieutenant Co. H, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Eight years. 

P. C, William A. Prescott — Master's mate, ensign U. S. Navy U. S. S. Port Royal, 
Arizona, New London. 

John M. Mason — First class fireman U. S. Navy, U. S. S. "Nipsic." 


Commander Francis H. Dove — Private ist Regt.; Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: pri- 
vate, corporal, Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry M. V. M. Three years. 
Thomas W. Shapleigh — Private 45th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 
George E. Wood — Private 42d Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 
Winthrop B. Robinson — Private 2d Regt. Mass. Vol. Heavy Artillery. 
Franklin T. Prince — Corporal ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Cavalry. 


P. C, Austin Bigelow — Corporal ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

P. C, Samuel H. Mitchell — Corporal 39th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 

P. C, .\rchibald B. Collier — Corporal 23d Regt. New York Infantry; Corporal loth 

Regt. New York Vol. Cavalry. 
George F. Gordon — Private ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
P. C, Josiah Rhodes — 127th Regt. New York Vol. Infantry; 54th Regt. New York 

Vol. Infantry. 


Commander Elward F. Allen — Private 13th Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry. 
Charles E. Hapgood, P. C. — Colonel 5th Regt. New Hampshire Vol. Infantry. 
Jacob P. Bates — Corporal 4th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 
Nathaniel Conant — Civilian. 
William G. Nash — Civilian. 

(This post appointed two civilians on its committee.) 


Commander Charles P. Battelle — Private 50th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; sergeant 59th 
Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry ; lost left leg at Fort Stedman, Petersburg, 'V'a. ; Mili- 
tia : Private Co. C, ist Battalion Cavalry, M. V. M. Three years. 

Dennis Linnehan — Sergeant 28th Regt., Mass. Vol. Infantry; lost left arm at Ream's 
Station, Va. 



Thomas W. H. Kelley — Private 3rd Regt., Rhode Island Vol. Heavy Artillery. 
P. C, William A. Smith — Corporal ist Regt. Mass. Vol. Infantry; captain 40th Regt. 

Mass. Vol. Infantry. Militia: Private Co. F, 7th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; captain Co. 

D, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M.; major ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Five years. 

Thomas E. Ross— Private 6th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. 

Toaster of Company Officers. 

Company A — Captain, Paul D. Shepard, private, corporal, sergeant, first sergeant Co. 
B, 4th Battalion Infantry, M. V. M.; private Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; 
private Co. B, Mass. Naval Brigade ; sharpshooter. Total service ten years. First 
Lieutenant, Henry S. Keyes, private, corporal, sergeant, first sergeant Co. B, ist 
Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; color sergeant ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; sergeant 
major ist Regt. Heavy Artillery, M. V. M. : first sergeant Battery A, M. V. M. 
Total service nine years. Second lieutenant, Henry J. Stackhouse, private Co. B, 
5th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M., four years; private Co. F, Fifth Regt., Mass. Vol. 
Infantry in war with Spain. 

Company B — Captain, Joseph H. Barnes, Jr., second lieutenant Boston High School 
Regt. First lieutenant, Constantine D. Tutein, ensign, junior lieutenant Co. A, 
Naval Brigade, M. V. M. Total service two years, four months. Second lieuten- 
ant, Thomas H. Dalton, second lieutenant Boston High School Regt. 

Company C — Captain, Humphrey J. Sullivan, cadet U. S. Military Academy. Two 
years. First lieutenant, Otis E. Dunham, lieutenant Hyde Park High School Bat- 
talion. Second lieutenant, Timothy J. McCarthy, lieutenant Dorchester High 
School Battalion. 

Company D — Captain, Oliver D. Greene, private, corporal, first sergeant, first lieuten- 
ant Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; private Co. A, ist Battalion Cavalry, M. 
V. M. ; private, corporal, sergeant, first sergeant Co. D, ist Battalion Cavalry, M. 
V. M. Total service fourteen years. First lieutenant, James W. Dana, private 
Co. B, ist Battalion Infantry, M. V. M. ; private, corporal, sergeant, first sergeant, 
second lieutenant Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry and ist Regt. Heavy Artillery, M. V. 
M. Total service twelve years, three months. Second lieutenant, Frederick W. 
Karcher, private, corporal, sergeant Co. D, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; private 
Co. D, ist Regt. Heavy Artillery, M. V. M. Total service eight years, three months. 

Company E — Officers not appointed. 

Company F — Captain, Winthrop M. Merrill, private, corporal, Co. D, ist Battalion 
Cavalry, M. V. M. ; bugler 2d Brigade, M. V. M. ; sergeant-major, captain and 
engineer, staff 2d Brigade, M. V. M. ; sharpshooter ; member Mass. Rifle Team in 
England. Total service thirteen years. First lieutenant, Charles H. Swanton, 
private ist Corps Cadets, M. V. M. Nine years. Second lieutenant, Benjamin 
D. Hyde, private ist Corps Cadets, M. V. M. Three years. 

Company G — Officers not appointed. 

Company H — Captain, John Duncan, private Co. H, 8th Regt. M. V. M. ; private, cor- 
poral, sergeant, first sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant Co. H, ist Regt. 
Infantry, M. V. M. Total service eight years, four months. First lieutenant, 
Henry T. Parsons, private, Co. H, 8th Regt. M. V. M. ; private, corporal, sergeant, 
first sergeant, second lieutenant Co. H, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Total ser- 
vice eight years. Second lieutenant, Edward F. Putnam, private Co, K, ist Regt. 
Infantry, M. V. M. Two years. 

Company I — Captain William L. Fox, musician Co. I, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M.; 
musician, private, sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, captain Co. B, 4th 
Battalion and ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; first sergeant, first lieutenant, cap- 
tain Co. G, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. (Natick) ; captain Co. H, 5th Regt. Infan- 
try, M. V. M. Total service sixteen years, one month. First lieutenant, Samuel 
W. Mendum, lieutenant Boston Latin School Battalion ; military instructor Wo- 
burn High School. Second lieutenant, Phillip J. Flanders, private, corporal, ser- 
geant, first sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant Co. A, 6th Regt. Infantry, 
M. V. M. Total service fourteen years, eight months. 


Company K — Captain, Franklin A. Shaw, Private ist Corps Cadets. M. V. M. ; ist 
lieut. Co. L, ist Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; private A. and H. Artillery Co. ; private 
Old Guard. New York City; captain staff Albany Burgess Corps; sharpshooter M. 
V. M. ; held highest score offhand M. V. M., two years; held for six years highest 
score for 200 consecutive shots U. S. A. or any State militia. Ten years. First 
lietttenant Charles H. Stevens. Second lieutenant. Cyrus H. Stowell, sergeant and 
sergeant-major Dorchester High School Battalion; private Battery D, ist Regt. 
Heavy Artillery, M. V. M. 

Company L — Captain, Sumner H. Foster, captain Brookline School Battalion; ser- 
geant-major Mass. Institute Technology Battalion. Militia: Private and cor- 
poral ist Corps Cadets, M. V. M. Four years. First lieutenant, Harry D. Cor- 
nierais. private, corporal Co. B. 5th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. ; quartermaster ser- 
geant 5th Regt. Infantry, M. V. M. Four years. Second lieutenant, Harold L. 
Pope, captain Peekskill Military Academy Battalion. 

Company M — Captain. Edward H. Cowan, sergeant and first lieutenant University of 
Maine Battalion. Militia: Sergeant 20th Co. Prov. Militia; private Battery K, ist 
Regt. Heavy Artillery, M. Y. M. First lieutenant, John J. Hannon, Captain 
Brighton High School Battalion. Second lieutenant, Edward W. Raymond, first 
lieutenant Boston High School Battalion. Militia: Private Co. A, 5th Regt. 
Infantry, M. V. M. ; sergeant 20th Co. Prov. Militia; corporal Battery K, ist 
Regt. Heavy Artillery, M. V. M. Four years. 

At the last meeting of the committee it was voted to give every 
member of the regiment a certificate showing that he had volunteered 
to go to the war, and following the disbandment several of the veter- 
an organizations gave complimentary dinners in honor of the company 
they had organized. The following letters were among many received 
in commendation of the organization of the regiment: 

Executive Mansion, Washington, April 26, 1898. 
Dear Sir: I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23rd instant, 
embodying a copy of resolutions adopted at a recent meeting of the survivors of 
Hooker's Old Brigade, tendering their military services, and to state that it has had 
the President's attention. 

By the President's directions your communication has been forwarded for the 
consideration of the Secretary of War. 

Very truly yours. 
JOHN ADDISON PORTER, Secretary to the President. 
MR. CHARLES C. RIVERS, Chairman, &c., Boston, Mass. 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. May 10, 1898. 
My Dear Sir : I have received your letter and read with great interest your 
account of the organization of the Hooker Guards Regiment. At the present 
moment of course our quota is full and the government can accept no more men, but 
if more men should be needed it is an admirable thing to have organizations like the 
Hooker Guards all prepared to come forward in answer to the call. Such an organiza- 
tion is a strong proof of the patriotic spirit in which we all rejoice at this time. 

Very truly yours, 



THE members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company 
are not a part of the Alassachusetts Volunteer Militia, nor does the 
company appear at any time in its history to have taken the field 
as a part of the colonial, provincial or state troops. But it is the 
oldest military society in the United States, and 
epitomizes in its history every important inci- 
dent of the wars, weapons, armor, uniforms, 
personnel and achievements of the Massachu- 
setts militia. It is impossible in the brief 
space allotted to this history to give anything 
like that complete record of this ancient and 
honored society, which Whitman in 1820 and 
1842, and Roberts in later days have illuminated 
with such a wealth of biographical and histori- 
cal incident. It will be necessary to recite cer- 
tain leading facts in these lines, but it will be 
the chief purpose of this article to demonstrate, 
through the history of this association, the 
principal changes in the tactics, equipment, 
weapons, armor, uniforms of the Massachusetts 
militia, and the more important parts taken by 
individual officers and members of the company 
in the war record of Massachusetts. 

The company was, so far as can be 
known, projected by certain of the colonists 
who had been members of that still more 
ancient society, "The Honourable Artillery" 
of London, England: founded by Henry VIII. 
of uxorious and cruel memory, who on August 25, 1537, chartered cer- 
tain members of the "Fraternity of St. George" as "a Guylde of Artillery, 
For the better encrease of the defense of this Realme, and mayntenance 
of the Science and Feate of Shoteing with Longbowes, Crosbowes and 

With unusual liberality they were permitted to choose and admit 
their own members; to elect officers; to have a common seal and establish 
by-laws; and were given perpetual license to shoot with the longbow, 


Wore a butlcoat for defensive armor, and 

carried a leading-start and sword. 



crossbow and handgun, not only in London and its suburbs, but in any 
part of the "Realme of England, Ireland, Calais and Wales." Their 
chief officers were excused from all inquest or jury duty, and, without 
their consent, no other association could be chartered with like duties and 

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, many leading citizens of 
London became members, and the training they received enabled the 
authorities, during the perils of the Spanish Armada to organize and 
exercise those formidable trainbands of London, whose numbers, equip- 
ment and discipline astonished the military critics of that era. 

At the the time of its formation, as its charter shows, the associa- 
tion made great use of the longbow, at all times between the Norman 
Conquest and the general adoption of firearms, the special weapon of the 
English soldiery. With a minimum of cost, the skilled English archer 
brought into the field a weapon, whose shafts were effective at 400 yards, 
and very destructive to horse and foot at 240 yards. Each archer carried 
twelve arrows or more, and many of these were recovered after a victori- 
ous battle or foray. An expert could easily loose six shafts in a minute; 
and at long range a thousand bowmen could shoot at once, without dan- 
ger to the archers in the foremost ranks. For over an hundred years the 
English company used the longbow, for the London Gazette of Novem- 
ber 2, 1670, in describing a great pageant, which traversed the principal 
streets of London on October 29, 1670, speaks of the "brave appearance 
of the company of archers to the number of 350, armed with longbows, 
and halfpikes, under the command of Sir Robert Peyton Knight, then 


Matchlock with rest, 
match cocked and liglited. 
Used 1500-1676. 

Wheel-lock with wheel 
revolving ajfalnst a flint; 
butt was placed against 
the mailed breast of the 
soldier when discharged. 
Used 1617-1675. 

captain." Clad in buff coats, with white plumes in morion and bascinet, 
the Honourable Artillery, probably for the last time, paraded as a body of 
archers "in effeir of war." 

Still, only twenty-seven years earlier, Bariffe's "Young Artillery 
Man" had advocated the continued employment of soldiers armed witli 
bow and pike, and later still, one Neade had warmly urged the use of his 



FKENCH PIKEMEN, 1591-1690. 
The cut illustrates the following orders ; 1st. Take your pike by the point. 2d. Present your pike, palming it. 
, 3d. Place your pike against the right foot, and draw your sword. 

"double-armed man," carrying a long pike to which a longbow was 
looped, so that "a stand of pikes" could at once receive a charge of 
horse on a hedge of steel and mow them down with flights of clothyard 
arrows. Montrose, only six years before, in his wonderful invasion of 
Scotland, had employed some hundreds of archers, and it seems with good 
effect. But the longbow in Western Europe was doomed, although the 
Finnlanders, Turks and Tartars of Eastern Europe continued to employ 
archers until the middle of the eighteenth century. The arbalist or 
crossbow, with its wooden stock and steel bow, which no man could bend 
without a lever or a combination of windlass and metallic pulleys, could 
send its quarrels or short heavy arrows through mail, armor plate and 
shields with fatal effect. The more powerful ones launched arrows, 
weighted with "wild fire" and balls of fiercely burning combustibles, on 
the roofs of besieged cities and the sails and upper works of hostile 
fleets, and as late as 1630 were a part of the equipment of English garri- 
sons, armies and fleets. 

The handgun had already passed the test of military use. At 
first, a round bar of bronze or iron, rudely bored out and fitted with a vent 



to which a live coal or rude match was applied, it had been from time to 
time improved, until in 1537 the matchlock, with which the Spanish had 
defeated Francois I. at Pavia in 1525, had been adopted by every consid- 
erable military power of Europe. Its barrel, four and a half to five feet 
long, carried a ball of from eight to sixteen to the pound, propelled by 
a handful of coarse powder, at first so poor and weak that two ounces 
were measured out for an ounce ball. Each charge of powder was 
usually carried in a separate case of tin or wood, covered with leather and 
tiglitly stoppered, twelve of which were attached by leather thongs to a 
broad shoulder belt; with a priming box or flask of very fine powder for 
priming, a priming wire and other small implements of the musqueteer's 
calling. A long rest or staff, forked at the top, and sharply shod with 
steel, sustained the cumbrous weapon, which at first had a short stock 
which was braced against the breastplate when fired. No special aim 
was taken, the soldier being trained to level his piece breast high, and 
discharge it in as soldierly and erect an attitude as possible. About six 

feet of match was carried between the fingers of 
the left hand, both ends being lighted when going 
into action. One of these ends, when loosely 
confined in the jaws of "the dog," or what is now 
the hammer of the piece, was brought down at 
the touch of the "tricker" or trigger into the pan, 
and discharged the musket. 

In 15 17 the Germans had invented the 
"snaphaunce" or wheel-lock, discharged by a 
wheel of steel, forming a part of the pan, and 
wound up with a key or "spanner," and bearing 
its milled edge against a flint, cornelian or other 
fire stone set in a hammer. The wheel was re- 
volved and the flint brought against it by two 
springs, which were simultaneously released by 
the action of the trigger, and the sparks flew 
directly into the powder. This gun, of smaller 
size and calibre, was at first given out to the 
cavalry, or owned by wealthy officers or the "sol- 
diers of fortune" or mercenaries, who then formed 
a considerable part of the armies of Europe. For 
a century or more the matchlock was the chief 
weapon of the old world "artillerist." In 1623 
the Honourable Artillery of London had their 
armory rebuilt, and fastened on its walls, with more ancient weapons, 
500 stands of splendid arms; all of which disappeared in the vortex of 
the Civil War. 

With sworil and wheel-lock, 15S9-1690. 



With these weapons, then, the English company taught its mem- 
bers and new recruits, as they in turn taught the trainbands and auxili- 
ary regiments of London and the surrounding counties. Archer, arbal- 


The cut illustrates the folluwing orders : 1st. Open the charge with your teeth. 2d. Draw your scouring stick 

In three motions. 3d. Give Are! 

estrier and musketeer, each carried a sword and generally a dagger, with 
iron-pointed staves to set in the ground when a charge of horse was 
imminent. But it was also necessary in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries to teach every officer the use and discipline of the pikeman, then 
the chief arbiter of stricken fields, when arrow and missile had done their 
worst, and armies joined in the final struggle for victory. 

A pikeman wore half armor and an open morion, with plumes or 
gay ribbons, and carried a sword and a pike of from five to seven yards 
long, whose staff for some four feet below the keen head was guarded with 
steel plates, against the edge of sword and war axe. He was generally 
chosen for stature and strength, according to William Garrard's rule, who 
in 1567 wrote: "To a tall man, a pike; to a meane stature, a halberd, and 
to a little, nimble person, a peece; " a rule evidently in force when Sir John 
Falstaff ordered Bardolph to furnish Wart with a caliver, that is, a light 
matchlock suitable for a small man. 

The proper ordonnance of pikemen and musketeers in each company, 
battalion and regiment, was of the first importance in an age when the 
weak fire of the musketeer could not penetrate first class armor at over 
thirty to sixty yards, and he had no bayonet to avert the headlong charge 



of mailclad horse or the stern and serried array of the enemy's pikes. On 
the other hand, the pikeman was helpless under the fire of archery and 
musketry, unless the musketeers were ready to take post in front and rear 
and on either flank, to return it. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the armament and tactics of that age 
rendered it necessary that the governors and officers of the "Artillery 
Garden" should teach the use of these weapons, and the involved and arti- 
ficial tactics of a military practice much less simple than that of the pres- 
ent day. 

In addition to these portable arms, the Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany, in later generations, took up, to some extent, the study and practice 
of that more modern arm, field artillery. In the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, and indeed well into the eighteenth, the cannon used in 
battle were pieces of position; long, heavy, slow of motion and utterly 
helpless against an attack in flank or rear. Round shot at long, bar and 
chain shot at medium, and grape and langrage at short ranges were 
employed, but shell were only used in mortars, and schrapnel was unknown; 
although there were curious and ingenious attempts which came 
very near solving the problem of direct shell-fire, even as there were breech- 
loading, double and triple cannon, revolving guns or swivels, and rude 
mitrailleuses made of many musket-barrels. Certainly the most beauti- 

A. Cannon and carriage. 
A. do. with extra wheels on the trail, 
A. do. Long culverin mounted for trans- 

li. Three pateraros or breech-loading swivels. 
The ball, or bag of pebbles, or musket 
balls, etc.. is first inserted, then the 
breechpiece, loaded with powder and fas- 
tened with an iron key. The swivel is 
aimed with the left hand, and the right 
applies the match. 

CC. A curious Portuguese 54-lb. howitzer; bore 
18-in. deep: charge, 10 lbs. of powder; 
vent in the rear of the piece. 
Note the loose ammunition, and extra 
"chambers" or breech-pieces. 

ful cannon ever made were cast in those ancient days, and their extreme 
length, long considered a weakness, is strikingly revived and even 
exceeded in the most modern guns of to-day. Under Louis XIII. of 
France, culverins thirty-five feet long, found among the artillery cast 
in former reigns, were sent to the royal foundries. 

In 1598, the Honourable Artillery Company was 600 strong, and 
bore on its rolls the names of the commanders and commissioned ofiicers 
of the London train bands and auxiliaries. In 1637, the New England 


colonists began to prepare themselves for an Indian war, the ravages of 
pirates and privateers, and the even greater danger of formal invasion 
and conquest. They had already armed themselves with the various 
weapons above described, including a fair proportion of artillery, but 
most of their men were untrained to war, and especially in field evolu- 
tions. Among them, however, were several who had served in the 
Artillery Garden of London, and who naturally thought it wise to found 
in the new world a military society, which in time might prove as great 
a school of warlike discipline and science as its English prototype. Robert 
Keayne, a merchant of considerable means who emigrated from London 
in 1635, was one of the most active in organizing a society of which Gov- 
ernor Winthrop writes in his diary as follows: "Divers gentlemen and 
others, being joined in a military company, desired to be made a corpor- 
ation, but the council considering, from the example of the Praetorian 
Band among the Romans, and the Templars in Europe, how dangerous it 
might be to erect a standing authority of military men, which might easily 
in time overthrow the civil power, thought it best to stop it betimes; yet 
they were allowed to be a company, but subordinate to all authority." 
But these fears were futile, and on March 17, 1638 it was "Ordered: that 
the military company of Boston may present two or three (names) to the 
council to chose a captain therefrom." It is also recorded later that 
"Captain Keayne and the military company have power to exercise where 
they please, and to make use of so many of the common arms as they 
need, and a warrant from any of the Council is sufficient for the delivery 
of them unto Captain Keayne or such as he shall appoint." 

Previously, on March 13, 1638, the charter of the new company had 
been granted, and runs as follows: 

"Orders for the Military Company, made by the Governor and Council! and con- 
firmed by the General Court : Whereas divers Gentlemen and others, out of their care 
for the public weal and safety, by the advancement of the military art and exercise 
of arms, have desired license of the Court to join themselves in one company, and to 
have the liberty to exercise themselves as their occasions will best permit; and that 
such liberties and privileges might be granted them as the Court should think meet 
for their better encouragement and furtherance in so useful an employment; 
which request of theirs, being referred unto us of the Standing Councill: 

"We have thought fit upon serious consideration, and conference with divers of 
the principal of them, to set down and order herein as followeth: 

"Imprimis. We do order that Robert Keayne, Nathaniel Duncan, Robert Sedg- 
wick and William Spencer, Gentlemen ; and such as they shall from time to time take 
unto their Company, shall be called the Military Company of Massachusetts. 

"2ndly. They or the greater number of them, shall have liberty to choose 
their Captain, Lieutenant and all other ofificers. Their Captain and Lieutenant to be 
such as the Court or Councill shall allow of; and no officer to be put upon them, but 
of their own choice. 



"3rdly. The First Monday in every montli is appointed for their meeting and 
exercise, and to the end that they may not be hindered from coming together, we do 
hereby order that no other training in the particular towns, nor other town meetings 
shall be appointed on that day ; and if that day prove unseasonable for the exercise of 
their arms, then the sixth (day) of the same week is appointed for supply. This not 
to extend to Salem or the towns beyond, nor to Hingham, Weymouth, Dedham nor 

"4thly. They have liberty and power to make orders amongst themselves for 
the better managing of their military aflairs (which orders are to be of force when 
they shall be allowed by the Court or Council), and they may appoint an officer to levy 
any fines or forfeitures, which they shall impose upon any of their own company, for 
the breach of any such order; so as the same exceed not twenty shillings, for any 
one offence. 

"ithly. The said Military Company are to have one thousand acres of land 
(in some place as may not be prejudicial to any plantation) to be granted by the Court 
to some of the said Company for the use of the present Company, and such as shall 


Sixteen companies, 50 strong, liave eacli 13 pikemen and -38 musketeers, formed in eight ranks, two companies front ; the 24 
pikemeri forming tiie centre, with 38 musketeers on either hand. On the right wing the 17th company (grenadiers) is ranged in 
ranks of six men each. 

succeed in the same : To be improved within a time convenient, for providing neces- 
saries for their military exercises, and defraying of other charges, which may arise by 
occasion thereof. 

"6thly. The said Company shall have liberty at the time appointed to assemble 
themselves for their military exercises, in any town within their jurisdiction, at their 
own pleasure. Provided Always; that this order, or grant, or anything therein con- 
tained shall not extend to free the said Company, their persons or estates, from the 
Civil Government and Jurisdiction here established." 

The comiJany thtis chartered, was organized on the first Monday 
of June, 163S, by the election of the following officers: Commander, 



Captain Robert Keayne, of Boston; lieutenant, Captain Daniel Haugh or 
Howe, of Lynn, and ensign, Joseph Weld of Roxbury. 

A glance at the military science of that period and the condition of 
the Colonial militia will aid us in comprehending the arms and history of 
the company. 

There were then fifteen towns in the patent, viz: Boston, Charles- 
town, Dorchester, Roxbury, Hingham, Weymouth, Concord, Dedham, 
Saugus or Lynn, Watertown, Newton, Cambridge, Ipswich, Salem and 
Newbury, most of which had a "train band" like those organized in Lon- 
don and other English cities. They mustered every man able to bear 
arms, one-third of whom were armed with pikes, and, if able to purchase 

:^?^ J^-' 

Showing bodies of musketeers aud piliemen aud tlie immovaDIe artillery of that era. 

it, wore armor, generally of the plain "black" finish and consisting of a 
morion or open helmet, gorget, breast and back pieces and pistol proof 
tasletts covering the front of the thighs. There was by no means that 
utter lack of military display of crimson or white plumes, white linen 
bands and ruffs, gold fringed colors, etc., which is generally ascribed to 
our Puritan ancestors, but, compared with some of the illustrations given, 
their array was very plain and even severe in tone. 

The musketeers were principally armed with the heavy matchlock 
above described, and wore armor or the heavy buff coats then slowly com- 
ing into use. A few of the better class probably owned "snaphaunces" 
or wheel-locks, and the bandolier was the military way of carrying ammu- 


nition, although the flask and bullet-bag were used by those who mus- 
tered with long fowling pieces, carbines or pistols. When the train-band 
was in line the pikemen formed the center of the array, with an equal num- 
ber of files of musketeers on their right and left. In the wars of Europe 
the infantry, for the most part, formed in masses much like the "close 
column by division" much favored by tacticians in the Civil War. Great 
leaders prided themselves on their ability to form perfect squares, and the 
"leading staff" or "baton," which was then a special insignia of high rank, 
was often embossed or engraved with plain figures, showing at a glance 
the proper arrangement of any number of men likely to be formed in any 
"battle" or battalion. 

In beginning a battle, the musketeers opened fire and the pikemen 
endured the return fire as best they might. If the horse of the enemy or 
his pikemen charged, the pikemen formed a hollow square within which 
the musketeers took refuge. 

Girolamo Colanso, who wrote about 1584, says that a pikeman 
required seven feet of space when using his long spear, viz: three feet in 
front, three behind him, one to stand on, and two feet between his shoul- 
ders and those of his comrades on either side. His armor was supposed to 
be musket-proof at ten or twelve score feet, and besides his pike of fifteen 
to twenty-two feet long, he carried a sword, often a dagger, and some- 
times a "dag" or short pistol. A leather thong aided him to carry and 
steady his pike, which in marching was generally balanced across his 

In attack, pikemen moved inclose order from four to six files deep, 
gripping their pikes with both hands, the rearward files advancing their 
pikes over the right shoulders of the men before them. Sometimes the 
battalion was eight to sixteen files deep and the point was not always the 
pikeman's chief dependence. One Montluc, a famous leader of pikemen, 
said to his followers just before a charge which won the battle of Ceri- 
soles, in 1544: "Comrades! If we use the pike at full length depending 
on the reach of the point, we shall be defeated, for the German pikemen 
are more dexterous than we are at that game. Take then your pikes by 
the middle, like the Swiss pikemen, and strike them on the head to con- 
fuse and drive them before us." 

When awaiting a charge of horse or foot, pikemen stood from four 
to six files deep, the front rank kneeling, the second stooping, and the 
others standing upright, each with the left foot advanced, the butt of the 
lance against his right foot and its shaft over the right shoulder of the 
man in front of him ; the sword was often drawn at the same time. 

Until Vauban introduced the ring bayonet in 1670, the musketeer and 
pikeman were inseparable parts of one harmonious whole, each necessary 
to the other and almost helpless when separated in battle. As said Will- 



iam Garrard in his "Arte of Warre," published in 1567, and afterwards 
re-published in effect as Davies' "England's Trainings" in 1619: 

"Wherefore, a Souldier must either accustom himself to bear a peece or a pyke. 
If he beare a peece, then must he learne to hold the same ; to accommodate his matche 
between his two foremost fingers and his thumbe, and to plant ye greate ende on hys 


The French pi&emen Bhetter their musketeers in the centre and keep at bay the Huguenot dragoons and pistoliers, who seek to 
break their ranks. The French pikemen and musketeers, in the right hand upper corner, advance to succor their comrades. 

breste with a gallant souldier-like grace; and, being ignorant, let him acquainte him- 
self firste with the fireing of tutch powder in his pan, and soe by degrees, both to shoote 
off, to bo we and bear uppe hys bodye, and so consequently to attaine to the levell and 
practyse of an assured and serviceable shot; readily to charge and, with a comely 
couch, discharge, making choyse at the same instante of his marke with a quicke and 
vigilant eye. 

"Hys flaske and tutch-boxe must keepe hys powder ; his purse and mouthe hys 
buUetts; in skyrmysh, hys lefte hande must hold hys match and peece, and the righte 
hande use the office of charging and dischargyng. 

"Being against the enemy, whether withe an indented (irregular) course he 
dothe traverse his playne (level) grounde, or else takes advantage of his place and 
invasion, as under the safe-guard of a trench, the backe of a ditche. olde wall, tree or 
such lyke, let him ever fyrste loade hys peece with powder out of his flaske. then with 
hys buUett and laste with amuring (wadding) and tutch powder, foreseeing ever that 
the panne is clear, the cover close, and the tutch-hole wide, or else well proyned, 
(cleared with a priming pin or wire). So that still observing modest order in hys trav- 
erse; neither too slow nor over-speedy, to the intent he become not each man's marke 
through his sluggishnesse, nor run himselfe out of breath throughe his owne rash- 


nesse, for the moste parte keeping hys side towards the enemy. Let hym discharge 
going, but never standyng; so shalle he the better shunne the enemies' shot, and 
chuse hys assured advantage. 

"A Souldier ought to be carefull that hys furniture be good, substantial! and 
staunch from raine ; the charge for hys fiaske juste for hys peece, and the spring quicke 
and sharpe; the pipe of his tutch-boxe somewhat wide that the powder may have free 
passage, which otherwise woulde choake up. 

"In tynie of marching and travailing by the waye, let him keepe a paper in the 
panne and tutch hoale, and in wette weather have a case for hys peece somewhat port- 
able, or else of necessitie he must keepe the same from wette tender his arm-hoale or 
cassocke, or by some other invention, free of damage from the weather, and hys 
matche in hys pocket, only except that he burnes, and that lykewise so close in the hol- 
low of hys hande, or some artificial pipe of pewter hanging at hys girdle, as the coale 

by wette or water go not out. 

* * * 

"If the stocke of hys peece be crooked hee ought to place the ende (butt) preste 
before (and) above hys left pappe; if long and straight as the Spaniards use them, 
then upon the point of his right shoulder, using a stately, upright pace in discharge. 

"The musket is to be used in all respects lyke unto the harquebuse, save that 
in respect he (the musket) carries a dotible buUett, and is much more weighty. He 
useth a staff breast-high; in the one ende a pyke to pytch in the grounde, and in the 
other an iron forke to reste hys peece uppon, and (with) a hoale a little beneath the 
same in the staffe, whereunto he doth add a string which tyed and wrapp'd aboute hys 
wrest yields hym commoditie to traine hys forke or staffe after hym, whilest he in 
skyrmish dothe charge hys musket afresh with powder and buUett. 

"Both the harquebussier and pykeman must wear a short rapier and asmall poin- 
ardo (poignard or dagger)." 

The halberds of the sergeants and the halfpikes, (literally half 
length pikes) of the captains and lieutenants were used in fight like the 
weapons of "the meaner sort." Indeed, officers in that day were trained 
to "act the man" like that brave Lord Willottghby, who in the old ballad 

says : 

"Stand to it noble pikeiiieii 
And look you all about: 
And shoot you right yon bowmen, 
And we will keep them out. 
You ninsquet and caliver men 
Do you prove true to me: 
I'll be the foremost man in light," 
Says brave Lord Willougbby. 

The most dangerous enemy of the combined arms were the horse- 
men, most of whom had given up the lance for the long, heavy, straight 
sword, with pistols, dragon or blunderbuss, hackbut or carabine. The 
pistols used by the Plymouth Colony Horse and those of the Bay Towns 
probably measured from twenty-eight to thirty-four inches long and 
carried balls of twenty to twenty-four to the pound. They were dis- 
charged by wheel-locks, and were rather formidable weapons. 



The "Commentaries'" of Sir Francis de Vere record that, in 1579, 
"at the battle of Tournehoult, the pistoliers charged the enemies' pike- 
men; not breaking through them at the first push, as it was anciently used 
by the men-at-arms with their barded horses; but as the longe pistols, 
delivered at hande had made the ranks thinner, so thereupon the rest of 
the horse got within them." 

The blunderbuss, or dragon, was much used by the Dutch, but the 
carabine or carbine, caliver, hackbut, and other short small-arms, with 
wheel-locks, were given out to the cavalry, because a matchlock could not 
be effectively used on horseback. The 
carbine had a small bore and was often 
rifled, or at least furnished with straight 
grooves, which made it easier to force 
the close-fitting ball down upon the 

It was the purpose of the founders 
of the ^lilitary Company of Massachu- 
setts to learn and practice these and 
like methods of drill and tactics, fitting 
the nascent armies of the English colo- 
nies to meet the trained soldiers of 
France, Spain and Holland; who at 
any time might make war upon the 
mother country and seek to invade the 
colonies. There were few Spanish, 
French and Dutch or Portuguese colo- 
nies which had not been attacked by 
English musketeers and pikemen; it was not to be expected that Boston 
should escape reprisals on the part of these ancient foemen. 

So the Military Company of Massachusetts, in 1638, gathered at 
Boston many of the officers of the outlying train bands; Lieutenant Na- 
thaniel Duncan and Ensign John Holman, of Dorchester; Captain William 
Jennison of Watertown; Captain George Cooke and Lieutenant William 
Spenser of Newton; Ensign Richard Walker, of Saugus; Lieutenant Rich- 
ard Davenport, of Ipswich; Captain John Underbill, Lieutenant Edward 
Gibbons and Ensign Robert Hardinge of the great Boston train band, and 
other worthies, "divers gentlemen and others," merchants, landed pro- 
prietors and the like. 

They were allowed to use the armor, pikes, halberds, half-pikes and 
matchlock muskets of the colony to furnish forth their array, but most of 
the members came in their half armor or buff coats, with weapons of 
price, not a few of which had a record of good service in late and ancient 
wars. Especially noticeable were the swords, for a good blade in those 

A CAKBINEER. 1600 1690. 


days was a precious possession, and all the more precious to its owner that 
stern and bloody work had notched its blade, and worn smooth the lighter 
ornamentation of hilt and pommel. There are records which show that 
in that age $2,500 was paid for a single sword. "There is no direct 
record that the company ever drilled with pikes," says Roberts in his his- 
tory, but there is every evidence that pikemen were not only a third part 
of the foot soldiers of the colony, but that they were sent on the first mili- 
tary expeditions. 

Thus pikemen went with the force sent under Endicott to Block 
Island, in 1636, and doubtless were a part of the 200 men raised for ser- 
vice against the Dutch under Generals Sedgewick and Leverett in 1654. 
Isaac Marvell, or Morrill, of Dorchester (1638), left, at his death, a mus- 
ket, fowling-piece, three swords, a pike, half-pike, a corslet and two 
bands of bandoliers. The Salem Light Infantry, (Company H, Eighth 
Regiment Infantry, M. V. M.) still display in their armory over sixty 
pikes, which have been handed down from ancient times and undoubtedly 
belonged to the "Salem train band." Even in the valley of the Connecti- 
cut, the prevailing military fashion, and the necessity of compliance with 
the militia law, in supplying arms for servants and apprentices, made the 
pike a popular weapon, as shown by the account books of the Pynchon 
estate, 1656-1683, in which the following prices are charged: a pikehead, 
three shillings; a powder-flask, five shillings; do. horn, eight pence; a 
musket, twenty to thirty shillings; a fowling-piece, twenty-five shillings; 
match, from twopence to sixpence per fathom; flints, so much for a certain 
weight or number not specified. 

Until 1666, therefore, the train bands of Massachusetts differed little 
from those of Europe, and the laws provided that two-thirds of each com- 
pany should be musketeers, each of whom should have a musket with 
priming-wire, worm, scourer and a mold for bullets; a sword, rest, bando- 
liers, one pound of powder, twenty bullets and two fathoms of match. 
The pikemen were to furnish themselves with "a pike, corslet, head -piece, 
sword and snapsack." Later, in 1666, each pikeman was allowed his 
choice of defensive armor, and might wear either a steel corslet or a buff 
coat or quilted coat, which would turn arrow-point or sword-.stroke, but 
not bullets. 

Old prints of the battle of Dreux, fought December 19, 1562, be- 
tween the Huguenots under Admiral de Coligny and the Catholic French 
commanded by the Constable de Montmorency, show in the first, two hos- 
tile armies in time of battle, with their cumbrous cannon in position, their 
mixed battalions of musketeers and pikemen, and their only mobile forces 
of heavy and light horse. In the second scene, at the height of the melee, 
the military reader will note the useless artillery, the attempts of the 
Huguenot horse to break the French pikemen, the unbroken battalions 


of Montmorenci advancing to their assistance and the general confusion of 
a field in which the foot and artillery were unable to move rapidly and 
support each other. 

Such were the conditions of civilized and scientific warfare for a 
hundred years later, and the military experts and amateur warriors who 
founded and joined the Military Company of Massachusetts, studied the 
same text-books and sought to solve the same problems as did Henry of 
Navarre, Turenne, Cromwell, Richelieu, Monk and other great leaders of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

In 1637, the company had but twenty-four members, but under the 
new charter of 1638 fifty-seven more were secured. Twenty-one joined 
in 1639, twenty-four in 1640 and twenty-two in 1641; 148 members in the 
first five years. 

Among these were many whose soldierly record links closely 
together the military history of the old and new world. Deputy Gover- 
nor Thomas Dudley, who signed the charter and never joined the com- 
pany, but was its friend and well-wisher, had been captain of an English 
company of musketeers and pikemen in the army of Henry of Navarre at 
the siege of Amiens, in 1592 

Of those joining in 1637, Thomas Hutchins or Hucken removed to Barnstable, 
but returned into England before the Civil War, and became ensign of Rainsborough's 
Regiment of Horse under Cromwell. 

Israel Stoughton, first captain of the Dorchester train band, went to England 
in 1642, was made lieutenant-colonel of Rainsborough's Horse, but died at London 
July 17, 1644. 

Major Thomas Savage, one of the incorporators, went against King Philip in 
1666 as next in rank to Major-General Dennison, and had under his special leadership 
the companies of Captains Paige, Henchman, Moseley and Prentiss. War was barely 
averted at this time, but in 1675-76 he again served against King Philip. 

John Underbill, an English soldier of fortune, served in the Netherlands. He 
was hired to train the forces of the colony, but was not in touch with the religious and 
social strictness of life around him. He removed to Stamford, Connecticut, in 1643, 
defeated with great slaughter a large number of Indians at Greenwich in 1644, and 
died at Oyster Bay, L. I., in 1672. 

William Rainsburrow, or Rainsborough, (1639) of Charlestown, returned into 
England before the Civil War, and was made colonel of a regiment of horse, serving 
against King Charles I. Israel Stoughton, (1637) was lieutenant-colonel: Nehemiah 
Bourne, (1638) major; John Leverett (1639) captain, and Thomas Hutchins, (1637) 
ensign. He commanded a brigade at the storming of Bristol, was made one of the 
commissioners to receive the surrender of the city, and later put on a commission sent 
to treat with King Charles I. Later, he was admiral of a parliamentary squadron, but 
the sailors mutinied and set their officers ashore. He was assigned a command in 
Yorkshire with headquarters at Doncaster, near Pomfret. A Captain Paulden, in the 
Royalist service, with twenty-four picked horsemen, made his way at night into his 
lines, and with four troopers arrested Rainsborough in his own tent, brought him out 
and ordered him to mount a led horse. He hesitated for a moment, and then tried to 
fight his way through to liberty. A lieutenant and sentinel were killed in defending 
him and at last he, too, was run through the body and slain, October 29, 1648. 

Richard Morris, of Roxbury, (1637) had also served in the Netherlands, but 
does not appear to have been engaged in active service thereafter. 

Nehemiah Bourne (1638) went to England in 1643-44 and became a major of 


horse under Rainsborough. After Stoughton's death in 1644 he returned to Boston, 
but in 1646 went back in a ship built here and heavily armed. In 1646 he commanded 
a frigate on the Woolwich station, was promoted in 1650 to the frigate "Speaker" of 
52 guns and 270 men, and in 1652 was made rear admiral of the Commonwealth's fleet, 
commanding the ship "St. Andrew" of sixty guns. In 1652 he became a commissioner 
of the navy and held a command in the Kent Militia. After the Restoration he fled 
to the continent but later returned to London, where he died in 1691. 

Captain Thomas Hawkes, Dorchester, helped De La Tour against D'Aulnay in 
1643. In 1645, he built the "great ship Seafort of 400 tons, with much ordnance and 
ornamentation," in which he sailed for England, but was cast away on the coast of 
Spain. After another shipwreck in a chartered vessel, he returned home and died in 1 648. 

Edward Hutchinson (1638) was mortally wounded by Indians near Brookfield, 
and died at Marlboro August 19, 1675. 

Benjamin Keayne, Jr., (1638) the son of the projector and first captain of the 
company, returned to England in 1644, and became major of Stephen Winthrop's Regi- 
ment of Horse, serving under the Earl of Manchester. He died in England in 1668. 

Richard Davenport (1639) was the ensign of the Salem train band in October, 
1634, when Captain John Endicott cut the cross of St. George out of the colors with 
his sword. Davenport so approved the action that he named a little daughter "True- 
cross," in memory of the event. He went with Endicott on the Block Island e.xpedi- 
tion to avenge the death of Mr. Oldham, and with Mason and Traverse against the 
Pequots in 1637, and was wounded in the battle. He was made commander of the fort 
at Castle Island, and killed therein by lightning on Jtily 15, 1639. 

John Leverett (1639) captain of the company in 1652, 1663 and 1670 went to 
England in 1644-45 and was made captain of a troop of horse under Rainsborough, 
returned to America, but again went to England and was a captain of cavalry under 
Cromwell in 1656. After the Restoration, he regained the favor of Charles II., who 
knighted him in 1676, but this was not known in America until after his death, March 
16, 1678. He was major-general of the colonial militia and was buried with great state 
and formality March 25, 1678, his armor being carried in the funeral procession by 
friends chosen from among the principal men of the colony. 

Herbert Pelham, of Cambridge, (1639) returned to England, and became a mem- 
ber of Parliament. He died in 1673. 

Wentworth Day (1640) returned to England and became one of the "Fifth Mon- 
archy Men" who looked for the establishment of God's Kingdom on earth, preceded 
by the battle of Armageddon, and like trials of the people of God. 

Thomas Marshall, of Lynn (1640) went to England and received a captain's 
commission under the parliament. He returned and was captain of a Lynn company 
in King Philip's War, 1675. He died December 23, 1689. 

James Oliver (1640) served against King Philip and was in the Great Swamp 
fight of December 19, 1675. He died in 1682. 

Samuel Shepherd, of Cambridge, (1640) was a colonel under Cromwell. He sur- 
vived the perils of the Restoration and died in 1673. 

Colonel Stephen AVinthrop, (1640) fourth son of Governor Winthrop, became a 
colonel of horse under Cromwell, who held him in great esteem, and would have made 
him major-general in place of Major-General Harrison, but for his decease in 1656. 

Robert Selling, Watertown, (1642) who was a lieutenant in the Pequot war, 
led the New Hampshire Grant forces raised to accompany the expedition of Generals 
Sedgwick and Leverett against the Dutch, and was probably killed a generation later 
in King Philip's War. 

John Plympton, Dedham, (1643) removed to Deerfield in 1673, and became cap- 
tain of the local train band. On September 19, 1677, he was taken alive by tne Indians 
and carried toward Canada. Tradition says he was burned alive at the stake near 
Chambly in 1677. 

William Phillips, Charlestown, (1644) removed to Saco, Maine, where he became 
magistrate and captain. In 1675, he beat off an attack by the Tarratine Indians, but 
lost by fire nearly everything he possessed. 

Joshua Hobart, Hingham, (1641 ) was captain of a troop of horse in 1680, and is 
said to have been a captain in King Philip's War. He died July 28, 1680. 




1C8S. 1700. 

During this period other military associations of like nature were 
projected. In 1645, "certain gentlemen and others of Middlesex" peti- 
tioned for the privilege of forming a military company. Another peti- 
tion from "gentlemen of Ipswich, Row- 
ley, Newbury, Salisbury and Hamp- 
ton," was received the same year. 
Both petitions were granted, and on 
Alay 19, 1662, the "Artillery Company 
of Middlesex" petitione J that 1000 acres 
of land might be granted them. 

Many of the earlier members of 
the Boston "Military Company of the 
Massachusetts" were also officers of 
horse, which since 15 17, when the Ger- 
mans invented the snaphaunce or 
wheel-lock, had steadily regained its 
ancient prestige in the field. Pistols, invented as some say at Pistoia, 
Italy, but according to others so called because the bore would receive a 
silver pistole, were at one time "a fad" with continental horsemen, of 
whom Henri Estienne wrote "They are not contented to carry as many as 
.six or eight pistols about their saddles, but they stuff with them their 
clothes and boots." The colony cavalry were content to carry a single 
brace, but these were long, heavy and of large calibre, almost musket-bore 
in fact. 

It was not until September 7, 1657 that the first bylaws of the com- 
pany were formally approved by the General Council, and it was thirteen 
years later that the tract of land granted to the company by its charter 
was finally delimited, and specially granted September 11, 1670. 

In 1670, the matchlock musket had become practically obsolete 
abroad. France only, in spite of severe defeat at the hands of the Span- 
ish infantry, who carried straight -stocked snaphaunces fired from the 
shoulder, kept her infantry armed with the clumsy matchlock until 1676. 
The pike, still used in Europe, had lost ground greatly although 
veteran soldiers still strongly expressed their preference for "the white 
weapon." As early as 1646-48 the military world had heard of the bayo- 
net, or, as our fathers called it, "baggonet", said to have first been made 
at Bayonne, in France. The first made were pike heads or knife blades; 
furnished with a tapering wooden handle, to be inserted in the muzzle of 
the musket. Marshal Puysegur, in his "Art of War," probably describes 
the earliest improvement of this crude device: "Before the siege of Nimeg- 
uen (1652), I had seen a regiment which carried swords that had only a 
hilt and a ring of leather in place of the guard, with another at the pom- 
mel, which rings they passed over the barrel of the fusil and held it firm." 


The flintlock had also made its appearance, and was probably in the pos- 
session of some of the richer colonists at this period. Cartridges were 
used in 1670 to some extent, especially by the horse, but the powder-horn 
and bullet-pouch were the cheapest and probably the most common equip- 
ments of the suburban militia. 

In 1665 Major-General John Leverett, appointed to reconstruct 
the fortifications of Boston, reported that besides the works at Castle 
Island, then being improved, the Sconce or South battery at Fort Hill, 
(near present site of Rowe's Wharf, ) mounted thirteen guns, presumably 
of heavy metal for those days, and was "the compleatest work in Amer- 
ica." At Merry's Point, (near Battery Wharf,) there was an earthwork 
faced with logs, mounting seven guns, and at the Neck the narrow cause- 
way was barred by two strong gates, one for vehicles and the other a 
wicket for foot passengers, flanked by brick walls, which were pierced for 
several sakers or small guns, and guarded day and night. In 1671 
Roger Clap (1646) was made commander of the "new castle", which was 
of stone with four bastions, mounting thirty-eight guns and sixteen 
culverins of larger calibre, and a small water battery of six guns covered 
the lower part of the islet and its approaches. There are records which 
indicate that the Artillery Company visited the castle and other works and 
exercised and discharged their cannon; but in the first century of its 
existence there is nothing to show that the company had any cannon, 
big or little, under its exclusive or even general control. 

The most that can be inferred from the records is, that the Artillery 
Company, like the First Heavy Artillery Regiment of the present day, 
had the privilege of using the great guns of the several forts when they 
chose to practice that part of their military exercises. This, however, 
was but natural in an age when the soldier was, at the caprice of his 
superiors, given a command of foot, the leadership of a cavalry regiment, a 
vessel or squadron, or the conduct of the siege of a strong fortress or city. 

An officer sent by the English government in 1675 thus reported 
the military strength and defensive preparations of the colony: "There 
are men able to bear arms, between thirty and forty thousand, and in the 
town of Boston about four thousand. Their trained bands are twelve 
troops of horse and six thousand foot. Each troop consists of sixty 
horses besides officers; all are well mounted and completely armed with 
back, breast, headpiece, buffcoat, sword, carbine and pistols; each troop 
distinguished by their coats. 

"The foot are also well furnished with swords, musket and ban- 
doliers. There are nopikemen, they being of no use in the wars with the 
Indians. The governor, Mr. Leverett, is the only old soldier in the col- 
ony; he served in the late rebellion under the usurper, Oliver Cromwell, 
as a captain of horse." 


He goes on to describe the Castle, also "the South Fort, two tier of 
guns, six in each," and the "North Fort of five demi-culverins and some 
smaller guns." He reports that there is a powder mill at Dorchester, and 
that the powder made is equal in quality to the best English powder; that 
saltpetre is made in great quantities from the guano taken from outlying 
islets on the coast, and from under the great pigeon-roosts in the swamps. 
He also tells of the iron works and of the excellent quality of the iron 

Two years previous, in 1673, the general court had empowered 
^Ir. Hezekiah Usher to purchase in England "500 new snaphances or fire- 
lock muskets." There was reason for this purchase, for it is recorded 
that the Indians were generally armed with wheel-lock, and even firelock 
or flintlock muskets which they procured of the Dutch and French, and 
also of the English freetraders. It was ordered (September 17, 1673) 
"that parties who have correspondence in Bilbao and the trade, shall, 
and hereby are desired to write their correspondents to procure and pur- 
chase thirty or forty great guns, whole culverins, demy culverins and 

Later it was further provided: "As an addition and explanation 
of ye order hereunto affixed, referring to great artillery, the Deputies' 
judgment is that instead of thirty or forty guns there be sixty sent for, 
and yt ye denomination of ye said guns be as follows, viz: 12 whole 
ciilverins, 12 demy-culverins, 20 demy-culverins (cutts), 16 sakers; or as 
near these proportions as can be provided. Thirty or forty shots (round) 
proportionable to guns (to) be also sent for." On April 5, 1675, the 
by-laws of the Artillery Company were for the first time formally ap- 
proved by the council. 

The comparatively peaceful period of Massachusetts settlement 
and development was ended, and thereafter in every generation the roll 
of the Artillery Company was a record of m.any names of veterans who 
served in the great struggle between the confederated Indian tribes of 
New England and the colonists, known as King Philip's War. 

This began in the usual way in which Indian wars have generally 
been initiated; by the insolent and probably unauthorized raid of a small 
body of Wampanoags on the little settlement of Swanzy or Swansea, in 
the south-western border of the Plymouth colony, June 21, 1675. Insults 
and menaces were followed by the killing of cattle in the fields and the 
plundering of undefended farm-houses. At last a settler killed one of the 
marauders, and in the affray and massacre which followed eight colonists 
were killed and much property destroyed. 

Governor Leverett, informed by Governor Winslow, of Plymouth, 
of the new peril June 24, at once ordered that aid should be sent direct to 
the beleaguered town. A company of mounted musketeers and troop of 


horse under the supreme command of Gen. Daniel Dennison, ( 1660) were to 
rendezvous at the market-place, now the head of State street, where stood 
the new town hall, market and armory of the artillery company. 

Here, on the evening of the 25th, Captain Henchman, (1638) mus- 
tered 100 mounted musketeers, made up of small detachments from the 
train bands of Boston, Charlestown, Cambridge, Watertown, Roxbury, Dor- 
chester, Braintree, Weymouth, Hingham and Maiden. They wore armor 
or buff coats, and were undoubtedly largely armed with the new firelocks 
lately purchased by the colony or owned by themselves. Captain Thomas 
Prentiss or Prentice commanded the troop of horse made up of detach- 
ments from his own Middlesex county troop, Captain William Davis' Suf- 
folk county troop. Captain George Corwin's Essex county troop and 
possibly the Independent county troop raised in Suffolk, Essex and Mid- 
dlesex, then commanded by Lieut. William Hasey, (1652). Some Indians 
from Natick and Punkapoag were in these detachments. 

Without delay Dennison led his little army out across the causeway 
and through Dedham to the Neponset river, where they halted for an 
hour, refreshed themselves and their horses, and marched through moon- 
lit forest roads to "Woodcock's Garrison," on the present site of Attleboro, 
arriving at Swanzy early on the morning of June 27. 

Captain Samuel Moseley, (1672) of Charlestown, a cooper by trade, 
had previously sailed to Jamaica, where it was rumored he had made 
some money in privateering, and gained the reputation of being a brave 
and resolute man. This reputation he had just increased by going down 
to the coast of Maine with the armed ship "Antohny" and the ketches 
"Salisbury" and "Swallow," and capturing certain Dutch "pyrates" who 
in the ship "Edward and Thomas" and the shallops "Penobscot" and 
"Philip," were carrying on private war against fisherman and settler. He 
had entered Boston harbor with his prizes April 2, 1675, and although 
the condemnation to death of the five principal men was never carried 
out, and the amount of prize money was not large, he was at that time at 
the flood-tide of popularity. He held no military rank, but the masses 
admired and believed in him, and so when he began to beat up for 
recruits to march against the Indians the roll of his drums called together 
a motley but athletic throng. There were many of his recent crew, 
amphibious New England coastmen, at once farmers, fishermen and mari- 
ners, dead shots with their long Spanish ducking guns, and equally at 
home in the forest and on the ocean ; adventurous young colonists; stout 
apprentices, glad to get a holiday; purchased servants, the unhappy prison- 
ers of England's civil Scotch and Irish wars; grim Cromwellian veterans 
and Fifth Monarchy men, who longed once more to cry their ancient war- 
cry "The sword of the Lord and of Gideon;" low-voiced and light-footed 
rangers of the inland forests, with their trained hounds, best of scouts for 


ambushed Indians. They gathered at the summons as men to a feast, 
and in three short hours Moseley found himself at the head of i lo men 
arrayed for war and ready for the march. Before midnight he, too, was 
leading his men through the moon-lit wood-paths to the southward, and 
joined Henchman and Dennison on the afternoon of the 27th. That same 
night the whole force marched upon vSwanzy, joining on the 28th the Ply- 
mouth forces there encamped under i\Iajor Cudworth. 

That the war had really begun was but too evident. Beyond the 
river, spanned by a rude bridge, the bank, bordered with tangled foliage, 
was lined with Indian marksmen, whose bullets flew into the camp and 
against the walls of Milton's garrisoned log house. A dozen of Prentice's 
horse, under Quartermaster Joseph Belcher and Corporal Gill, volunteered 
to drive them off, and guided by one Willis Hammond and accompanied 
by Benjamin Church of Plymouth and another civilian, the little squadron 
cantered down to the bridge and at a gallop charged across it watched 
with anxious interest by their commander and comrades. A volley broke 
from vine-hung stump and bramble-hidden boulder, and with fatal effect. 
Belcher's horse, shot through the vitals, faltered in his stride and then 
rolled over dead. His rider lay with a wounded knee beside Hammond, 
the guide, who pitched forward shot through the head. Gill also fell, 
knocked out of his saddle by the bullet which, thanks to a stout buff 
coat and several thicknesses of paper under it, had failed to draw blood. 
One volley was sufficient to send the little party to the right about carry- 
ing the dead and wounded, while the Indians, just out of gun shot, cele- 
brated with fierce yells and obscene and insulting gestures their little 

Major Thomas Savage, (1637) started from Boston on the 27th, with 
instructions to act as second in command to General Dennison. He was 
escorted by Captain Nicholas Paige (1693) with a body of horse, and 
arrived at Swanzy during the night of the 28th. 

The advance was begun on the 29th by Prentice's Horse, supported 
by the fire and charge of Moseley's volunteers. The Indians fled, making 
almost no resistance, and for a long summer's day the Massachusetts and 
Plymoiith musketeers drove the quiet woods of the Neck without seeing 
a single foe. This futile scouting was continued until July 5, when Colo- 
nel Hutchinson came express from Boston, ordering the Massachusetts 
troops to march into the Narragansett country. This they found almost 
deserted, meeting only a few ancient chiefs, who, with bland diplomacy, 
negotiated a treaty of peace, which Canonchet contemptuously repudiated 
a few weeks later. 

Meanwhile the Plymouth troops had discovered that Philip had 
retreated to the Pocasset swamps, which, surrounded on three sides by the 
sea, was easily guarded on the land side by a comparatively small force. 


On the return of the Massachusetts troops, July i8, they attempted at 
nightfall to enter the swamp, but an tinexpected volley killed five and 
wounded seven men, and the undergrowth and mud were so impassable 
that they were glad to abandon this mode of attack. 

It was then agreed that all the iMassachusetts troops should return 
to Boston except Captain Henchman and his mounted musketeers. Major 
Savage, with Paige's troop, and Mosely's volunteers took the nearest road, 
while Prentice scouted toward Mendon but found no enemy. The force 
left at Pocasset to starve Philip into a surrender had completed a garri- 
son-house called Fort Leverett, when, on July 29, they learned that 
Philip, with all his fighting men and most of his people had escaped by 
water, how, no one knew. Pursuit was made and conducted far into the 
Narragansett country, but no considerable number of Indians was found, 
and early in August Captain Henchman was recalled to Boston. 

Meanwhile, on the western frontier, Captain Ephriam Curtis had 
visited the disaffected Nipmuck Indians with apparently good results. 
Later, Captain Edward Hutchinson, (1638) escorted by Captain Thomas 
Wheeler, of Concord, commanding a troop of horse, went with Curtis from 
Sudbury July 28, marched nearly to New Norwich and returned to Brook- 
field August I . Here they learned that the Nipmucks had gathered in a 
dense swamp eight or ten miles away, and Curtis and others went on an 
errand of peace to the Indian chief, who met them with little civility but 
finally agreed to hold a conference at a certain place the next day. 
Hutchinson and his party found no one at the rendezvous, and determined, 
against the remonstrances of their Indian guides, to visit the swamp, biit 
at a narrow pass were ambuscaded. Eight men were killed outright and 
five wounded, including Hutchinson and Captain Wheeler, whose son 
saved his father's life at the cost of being twice wounded. 

Hardly had the survivors reached Brookfield and given the alarm, 
when the pursuing Indians came in sight. All the settlers and soldiers 
were gathered in one garrison, which with great difficulty they made good 
against hundreds of painted and yelling savages. On the night of August 
4th the Indians were trying to burn the house by means of a kind of long- 
handled wheelbarrow made of a barrel and long poles loaded with dry hay, 
shavings and pine knots, but were prevented from setting fire to the gar- 
rison by a tremendous thunder storm which extinguished and drenched 
the combustibles, and by its incessant lightning revealed the Indians as 
they glided about the beleaguered house. At the height of the storm the 
veteran major, vSimon Willard, of Cambridge, then in his seventieth year, 
broke through the besiegers to the garrison and was admitted. On the 
morning of August 5th, the Nipmucks, warned of the near approach of 
other relieving forces, raised the siege and departed, leaving Brookfield 
in ashes and taking with them great booty of goods and cattle. 


Later, Captain Thomas Lathrop, of Beverly, Richard Beers, of 
Watertown, and Moseley with sixty drajjoons came into Brookfield to be 
joined by Henchman's Mounted Infantry, the Connecticut Dragoons of 
Captain Thomas Watts and a body of twenty-seven horse and ten Indians 
under Lieutenant Thomas Cooper of Springfield. Then followed con- 
stant and wearisome scouting for several weeks, in which an occasional 
petty skirmish alone indicated the menacing presence of unseen foes, 
although again and again they struck heavily at the outlying frontier 
towns. On September i, at Deerfield, every house but one was plundered 
and burned, and on September 2, the Northfield farmers, busy at their 
harvest, were attacked and many massacred in the fields and as they lied 
to the garrisons. 

On September 3, Captain Richard Beers, of Watertown, started 
from Deerfield with thirty-six men to bring off the Northfield garrison 
and people. Knowing nothing of the attack of the day before, he was 
ambushed September 4, at Sawmill Creek, and was slain with over half liis 

On September 18, Captain Thomas Lathrop of Beverly, set out from 
Deerfield for Hadley with a number of carts loaded with Indian corn. 
Careful scouting the day before had failed to discover any Indians, and they 
went along the narrow road, in fatal security. They had scarcely 
marched five miles when they were ambushed at "Bloody Brook" near 
what is now South Deerfield. Lathrop and most of his men were slain or 
carried off to die by torture. The names of nearly seventy soldiers and 
teamsters, who were cut off in this surprise, have been preserved. 

Captain Moseley heard the firing and came down swiftly upon the 
assailants, but too late to save his comrades. He struck the Indians in 
flank and rear and "charged them through and through" several times, 
driving them seven miles, but too far at last for his own safety. His men 
were getting weary, and the reinforced Indians became more numerous 
and persistent in their attacks. Gradually Moseley, in turn, was forced 
back and being surrounded, when Major Treat's Connecticut Horse and 
friendly Indians broke through and brought them safely off, having lost 
but two men killed and eight or nine wounded. 

Still, these severe defeats and losses depressed the colonists, and 
when, early in October, Springfield was attacked and nearly destroyed, it 
was determined to stand on the defensive until winter made it possible to 
.attack the principal villages of the hostile tribes. The Narragansetts, for 
their winter stronghold, had fortified an island of five acres or more in the 
heart of a deep swamp, near the present site of Kingston, R. I. Through 
friendly Indians it was learned that it was strongly fortified after the 
Indian manner; surrounded by deep water and treacherous bogs, passable 
only by a bridge formed of a single fallen tree. Five hundred lodges 


were within its defenses, besides great stores of corn, dried meats, ammu- 
nition, etc., etc. 

The United Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth and Connec- 
ticut agreed to send an army to reduce this fortress. Massachusetts mus- 
tered on Dedham Plain, Major Samuel Appleton's Ipswich Company of Foot, 
Moseley's Volunteers, two Salem companies under Captains Joseph Gardi- 
ner and Nathaniel Davenport, and Captain James Oliver's Boston 
Company; 465 musketeers in all, with Captain Prentice's Troop of (seventy- 
three) Horse; 538 picked men. 

General Josiah Winslow, governor of Plymouth and commander-in- 
chief of the allied troops, took command and marched from Dedham late 
in the afternoon of December 9, 1675, to Woodcock's Garrison, arriving at 
Seekonk, R. I., on the evening of the loth. Here Major Richard Smith, 
commanding a garrison at Wickford, R. I., was waiting with a vessel, and 
took Moseley's company thither in advance of the main force which joined 
by Major William Bradford's and Captain John Gorham's Plymouth com- 
panies, were ferried over to Providence, December 11. After two days of 
scouting and marching, to little purpose, the army reached Wickford, 
where they found that Moseley, Oliver, Benjamin Church and others had 
burned many wigwams and captured a number of Indians whom they sold 
to proiit. "Stonewall," or "Stonelayer John," a half -civilized Narragan- 
sett, at this point, had the address to pretend to negotiate a treaty, until a 
sufficient force of Narragansetts were ready to throw off the mask and 
observe and annoy the advance. 

The last halt before the attack on the fort was to be made at Petti- 
squamscott, or Tower Hill, now South Kingston, R. I., where "Jireh" or 
Jerry Bull held a strong stone garrison. Captain Prentice with his horse 
sent forward December 16, to prepare Bull for Winslow's arrival, reached 
Pettisquamscott only to find the garrison a smoking ruin, and the ghastly 
remains of fifteen of its occupants. On Friday, December 17, the Con- 
necticut force under Major Treat arrived at Pettisquamscott, bringing the 
companies of Captains Seely, Marshall, Gallop, Mason and Watts; in all 
about 300 English and 150 Mohegans and Pequot Indians. On Saturday 
evening, December 18, General Winslow also arrived from Wickford, and 
the united forces, about 1,000 fighting men in all, encamped around the 
ruins of Bull's garrison. 

The army was thus constituted and officered: 

Commander-in-Chief — General Josiah Winslow, governor of Plymouth Colony. 
Staff — Daniel Weld, Salem, surgeon; Joseph Dudley, Boston, Chaplain; Benjamin 
Church, Little Compton, R. I., A. D. C. 


Major Samuel Appleton, Ipswich, commanding. 

Staff — Richard Knott, Marblehead, surgeon; Samuel Nowell, Boston, Chaplain; John 
Morse, Ipswich, commissary. 


First Company — Captain, Samuel Appleton ; lieutenant, Jeremiah Swan ; first sergeant, 

Ezekiel Woodward. 
Second Company — Captain, Samuel Moseley; lieutenant, Perez Savage. 
Third Company — Captain, Isaac Johnson; lieutenant, Phineas Upham ; ensign, Henry 

Fourth Company — Captain, James Oliver. 
Fifth Company — Captain, Nathaniel Davenport; lieutenant, Edward Tyng; ensign, 

John Drury. 
Sixth Company — Captain Joseph Gardiner; lieutenant, William Hawthorne; ensign, 

Benjamin Sweet; first sergeant, Jeremiah Neal. 
Horse — Captain, Thomas Prentice; lieutenant, 


Major William Bradford, Marshfield, commanding. 

Staff — Dr. Matthew Fuller, Barnstable, surgeon; Thomas Huckins, do, coinmissary. 
First Company — Captain, William Bradford; lieutenant, Robert L. Barker, Du.xbury. 
Second Company — Captain, John Gorham, Barnstable; lieutenant, Jonathan Sparrow, 
Eastham ; first sergeant, William Wetherell. 


Major Robert Treat, Milford, commanding. 

Staff — Rev. Gershom Bulkeley, surgeon; Rev. Nicholas Noyes, chaplain; Stephen 

Bartlett, commissary. 
First Company — Captain, John Gallop, Stonington. 
Second Company — Captain, Samuel Marshall, Windsor. 
Third Company — Captain, Nathaniel Seeley, Stratford. 
Fourth Company — Captain, Thomas Watts, Hartford. 
Fifth Company — Captain, John Mason, Norwich. 

Accompanying the expedition, or sent later to care for the disabled, 
were the following physicians and surgeons: Jacob Willard of Newton, 
John Cutler of Hingham, and John Clarke and William Hawkins of Boston. 

A severe snow storm raged all night, and amid great discomfort and 
mitch suffering the colonists awaited the coming of the earliest light. 

On Sunday, December 19. 1675, the army started at daybreak on its 
march of between fifteen and eighteen miles, through from two to three 
feet of newly fallen snow. They arrived at the great swamp at about 6 
o'clock p. m., and at once moved to the attack. The fort consisted of a 
low, clay wall protected by a kind of natural hedge averaging a rod in 
width. The face of this wall was broken on the north, and the gap was 
filled only by the trunk of a great tree, supported several feet above the 
ground and covered by a rude but substantial blockhouse. On either 
flank rude blockhouses or breastworks of logs gave shelter to the Indian 
musketeers whose fire was to rake the face of the long breastwork. They 
were armed with wheel -locks or firelocks, and shot slugs or buckshot in 
preference to bullets. The engineer of this nearly impregnable position 
was probably Joshua Teffe, or Triste, who helped to defend it, and was 
taken and slain after its capture. 

Captains Davenport and Johnson led their companies to the attack, 
and without waiting to fire repeated volleys, charged, with sword and mus- 


ket butt. The fire was too deadly, and they gave way to Moseley and 
Gardiner, who nearly carried the barricade, but were compelled to fall 
back or throw themselves on their faces to escape the vortex of that deadly 
fusillade. Alajor Appleton and Captain Oliver, following close behind, 
formed a solid phalanx twelve files deep, which carried everything before 
it, drove across the ice-covered fosse, passed the great tree-breastwork 
and falling upon the Indians in the left-hand flanker, filled it with mus- 
keteers who opened a furious fire on the Narragansetts in the blockhoitse 
and opposite flanker. 

Captain Davenport, pierced by three balls, fell in the assault, and 
calling to his lieutenant, Edward Tyng, (1668) gave him charge of his 
company, adjured him to give his gun to the person of whom he pre- 
viously had spoken, and so died. 

Captain Isaac Johnson ( 1645) fell at the head of his Roxbury mus- 
keteers, as they tried to carry the same fatal approach, and his lieutenant, 
Uphani, succeeding to the command, was badly wounded just as he entered 
the fort. 

General Winslow now ordered Major Treat with his Connecticut 
companies to supjDort the others, and with great loss they succeeded in 
crossing the bridge and parapet. Once within the fort the battle raged 
with redoubled fury, for the Indians fought like fiends in the uncaptured 
flanker, and hundreds of lodges, which nearly impervious to musketry, 
were occupied not only by the aged and feeble, but by many warriors, gave 
the Narragansetts a great advantage. Well within the fort. Captain 
Gardiner was instantly killed and many were wounded, until after three 
hours of fierce fighting it was decided to fire the wigwams as fast as they 
were taken. 

This was done ; and to the constant roll of musketry, the hoarse 
cheers and horrid yells and warwhoops of the combatants, were added the 
crackle of burning bark and poles, the roar of flames driven by the north- 
east wind, the screams and groans of hundreds of victims consumed alive 
in the flames. Under the great cedars the red flames rolled onward, 
above a horror of war and conflagration such as the world has seldom 
equalled in ancient or modern history. Alercy could not be shown, for 
when night came and the last warrior fell amid the ashes of his home and 
the blackened corpses of his loved ones, the victors felt little exaltation 
when they realized the perils and hardships of their own condition. 

Three of the Massachusetts companies had lost their captains, for 
Davenport lay dead at the first barrier, and Johnson and Gardner before 
the burning block-house. Four lieutenants, Upham, Savage, Swan and 
Tyng, after rude surgery, were awaiting the terrible journey back to the 
harbors of the Sound. Major Treat of Connecticut had lost four out of 
five captains, for Gallop, Marshall and Seely had been killed outright, 


and John Mason lay between life and death, with a wound which ended 
his career within the twelvemonth. 

Nearly one-third of the English were dead, or wounded and with- 
out shelter; for since the fort and its lodges were now destroyed they 
could not remain oi:t in the snow storm, which had already shrouded the 
dead in its smothering poUiferie. The Mohegan Indians from Connecticut, 
who had done little besides surrounding the swamp, and keeping up a 
desultory and ineffectual fire, told of large bodies of gathering warriors 
close at hand, and no man cared to face the chances of being shut in by 
snow-drifts and raging savages, with the desolation and death which they 
had wrought. 

So preceded by scouting Indians and horse; taking another way 
through the trackless snows to avoid being ambuscaded on the broad 
trail of the advance; urging along hundreds of fettered warriors, and 
trembling women and children, doomed to a hasty trial and military exe- 
cution, or at best to slavery remediless; with wagons and horse litters 
freighted with their dead and wounded, and themselves utterly weary, 
foot-sore, frost-bitten, and falling sick by the way, the victorious colon- 
ists started on their return: Major Treat, it is said, being the last man to 
leave the still-burning fortress. 

The column reached Pettisquamscott about 2 o'clock Monday morn- 
ing, December 20, having marched and scouted from thirty to thirty-five 
miles in a driving snowstorm, besides taking the fort. Twenty-two men 
died of their wounds on the way, and thirty-four were buried under one 
tree near the blackened ruins of Bull's garrison. 

At Warwick, R.I. every endeavor was made to remove the wounded 
to places of comfort and safety, and to rest and recruit the forces for 
further service. The Rev. Joseph Dudley, whose letters to the Massa- 
chusetts Council proved that the chaplain was an important member of 
the "board of strategy" in that era, wrote to demand, in addition to 
recruits, "blunderbusses and hand granados (grenades,) and armor if 
may be, and two armorers to mend arms," broken by opposing the butts 
of the English musket to the war club, tomahawk and lance. 

The order of the council "to the Committee of Militia of Boston, 
Dorchester and Roxbury," dated January 11, 1675, (page 270, Vol. i.) 
shows that this order to procure armor for the troops was carried out as 
far as possible. The Indian fire had been too fatal to be borne by men 
in buffcoats. 

About a month was spent in preparations for another advance, and 
in useless parleyings with the now utterly implacable Narragansetts. Gen- 
eral Winslow at last made a long march into the Nipmuck country, his 
men suffering from the inclement weather and insufficient food, and 
unable to overtake their light-footed foes. On February 6, General Win- 


slow arrived in Boston with the remnant of the Massachusetts contingent, 
of which over one-fifth had been killed or wounded. 

Both parties prepared for a fierce stri;ggle, which the Indians ini- 
tiated February 10, 1676, by the destruction of the larger part of Lancas- 
ter. On April 18, Marlborough, already partially destroyed, was again 
attacked. On the same day. Captain William Wadsworth marched from 
Boston with about seventy men, and passed through Sudbury on the even- 
ing of the 20th, and although a great number of Indians were on the war- 
path near-by, reached the lower garrison at Marlborough Sunday night, 
left some boys and exhausted men, and with Captain Brocklebank of Row- 
ley, who bad leave to return home, set out with about eighty men for 
Sudbury. They were ambuscaded, but retiring to a wooded hill, held out 
for several hours, until the Indians set fire to the woods and drove them 
from their cover. None escaped with life save thirteen, who got to Noyes' 
Mill and held it until rescued by Captain Thomas Prentice, who with his 
troop of horse and forty Praying Indians, charged the Indians and 
rescued them. 

Lieutenant Richard Jacob, of the Sudbury garrison, also surprised 
some of the hostiles sleeping by their fires, and killed several. 

On March 8, Northampton was unexpectedly recruited by Major 
Treat's Connecticut musketeers and Mohegan Indians, and in the early 
morning of the 14th was attacked by the allied tribes, who were defeated 
with heavy loss. After this the Indians retreated in great numbers to the 
upper falls of the Connecticut, where they were acci:stomed to gather in 
the spring for the purpose of catching shad, salmon and other fish then 
ascending the river to spawn. 

Captain William Turner, of Dorchester, one of the founders of the 
First Baptist Church of that town, had been imprisoned as a schismatic in 
1670, but had borne persecution manfully and had been finally made a 
captain of foot. He had long held Hatfield with his conapany. Samuel 
Holyoke was his lieutenant, and with them were Ensigns Isaiah Tay or 
Toy and John Lyman. Turner was ill, had left his family in poor circum- 
stances, and his men, like himself, lacked pay and sufficient food and rai- 
ment ; but he decided that a surprise at "the Falls" would be fatal to the 
savages; as a failure to surprise them would be ruin to himself. A suc- 
cessful raid on the live stock of the Hadley settlers. May 12, 1676, which 
drove of? seventy head of kine and oxen, decided him to attempt this dar- 
ing enterprise. 

He marched from Hatfield, May 18, with about 150 men guided by 
Experience Hinsdell and Benjamin Waite ; passing through the woods and 
along the roads where Beers' Plain and Bloody Brook reminded his men 
of two great disasters of the year before; through ruined Deerfield, and 
crossed the Connecticut in a heavy thunder storm at Sheldon's Brook, 


above the usual ford. Thence they silently traversed the Greenfield mea- 
dows, forded Green river east of Ash Swamp Brook, worked around the 
Great Swamp in the darkness, and just before daylight reached the high- 
land south of Mount Adams. Turner crossed Fall river, and creeping up 
a steep hill saw before him the Indian camp, in which, gorged with a great 
feast of milk and beef and fat salmon, hundreds of hostile Indians slept 
unguarded. Neither sentinel nor dog alarmed the doomed sleepers, and 
the muskets of the English were fired point blank into the very doors of 
the lodges and the bodies of their inmates. Those who fled sprang into 
their canoes, but, half asleep and without paddles, many were swept over 
the falls; and so great was the slaughter that Lieutenant Holyoke is 
recorded to have killed five with his own hand. Only one Englishman 
was killed outright, and he fell by the mistake of a comrade, and the 
few wounded were able to keep the saddle, when the enemy, mustering 
on all sides, warned Turner that he must retreat at once to Hatfield, which 
after destroying many canoes and lodges, with food and ammunition, he 
essayed to do. 

Hundreds of warriors waylaid their path and beset them on flank 
and rear. Captain Turner was killed while crossing Green river, and Lieu- 
tenant Holyoke, who by constant fighting finally brought his command into 
Hatfield, left forty-six men on the road, of whom forty never returned. 
This blow at the Indian fishing rendezvous, where they considered them- 
selves too strong to be attacked, greatly discouraged the Indians, who, 
however, made a furious attack on Hadley, June 12, intending to utterly 
destroy the settlement and its defenders. Fortunately, on the night of 
the nth. Major Talcott, with 500 English and Indians, had reinforced the 
several garrisons, and when the Indians attacked they were repulsed with 
great loss. He followed them down into the Narragansett country, and 
on July 2, came upon a large company in a swamp which he almost 

With the death of the Wampanoag, Queen Weetamoo, and the slay- 
ing of King Philip, August 12, this great Indian war ended, although its 
embers now and again blazed up on the frontiers, especially in New 
Hampshire and Maine, for years thereafter. 

In 1678, Rev. Samuel Nowell, who had himself taken part in the 
Swamp Fight, preached the annual election sermon ; his subject being 
"Abraham in Armes." In 1679, Samuel, afterwards Judge Sewall, David 
Waterhouse, one of the captorsof Governor Andros in 1689, and in 16S0, 
John Nelson, who led the humiliated governor from his captured strong- 
hold at Fort Hill, were admitted. In 168 i. Captain John Cutler of Hing- 
ham, who served in King Philip's war, and Joseph Lynde, who in 1695 
pursued the Indian assailants of Billerica, became members, with Rich- 
ard Sprague captain, of an armed vessel in "the Dutch War" of 1674. In 


1682, Captain John Jacobs of Hingham, who served in 1675, and lost a 
son in the Swamp Fight, was admitted. 

In 1683, certain measures were taken by the council relating to the 
colony militia. The Indian war, following the short period of unfriend- 
liness with the Dutch in 1674, had shown the colonists that the traders of 
Holland and France had supplied the Indians with the most modern fire- 
locks, ammunition and flints, and that France at least, countenanced the 
Indians in raiding the New England frontiers. Also, in France, the pike 
had been formally suppressed. In October, 1675, the council had ordered 
that all troopers should furnish themselves with carbines, (firelocks) and 
all pikemen with fire arms. The locks of many of the better class of 
match-locks were changed to new devices, as the firelock was changed to 
percussion in the nineteenth century. 

Despite bitter prejudice, it was also realized that the author- 
ity and countenance of the English nation must be maintained and 
recognized. Therefore, in 1683, it was ordered "that captains of com- 
panies should provide a flag for their re.spective commands, the field or 
flight thereof to be green, with a red cross with a white field in the angle, 
according to the ancient custom of our English nation, and the English 
plantations in America, and our own practice in our ships and other ves- 
sels." Judge Sewall, like other pious protestants of his time, still con- 
sidered the cross in the flag a symbol of idolatrous worship. His diary 
of August 20, 1686, recites: "Read tenth Jeremiah; was in great exer- 
cise about the cross to be put in the colonies' flag, and afraid if I should 
have a hand in it, whether it may not hinder my entrance into the Holy 
Land." Owing to this doubt, he resigned his commission November i i, 
1686, "on account of an order to put the cross in the colours." 

In April, 1689, John Winslow (1692) brought news of the landing of 
William of Orange at Torbay, and his proclamation to the English people. 
Governor Andros, having demanded a copy and been refused, imprisoned 
Winslow, "for bringing into the country a traitorous and treasonable 
libel." The drums were beaten, the train bands and troops assembled, 
and the Artillery Company, then comparatively dormant as an association, 
was well represented among the citizens who took up arms. The captain 
of the frigate "Rose" was taken prisoner. Capt. James Hill, (i 677) escorted 
the venerable Bradstreet and Danforth to the Town House, where they 
drew up and sent to Andros a summons to surrender the government and 
fortifications. Of the fifteen principal citizens who signed it John Rich- 
ards (1644), Isaac Addington (1652), John Foster (1679), David Water- 
house (1679), Adam Winthrop {1642), John Nelson (1680), Wait Winthrop 
(1692), and Samuel Shrimpton (1670), were members of the Artillery 
Company. John Nelson (1680) served this summons, April 20, 1689, 
and backed by the forces of the colony, arrested Governor Andros and con- 


fined him in the house of Colonel John Usher (1673). Having added 
twenty-two others to the first fifteen, these were made "a council for the 
safety of the people and conservation of the peace," whereof Bradstreet 
was president; John Foster and Adam Winthrop, treasurers; Wait Win- 
throp, commander-in-chief and Isaac Addington, clerk. 

A ship arrived from England, May 26, 1689, with an order "to the 
authorities on the spot" to proclaim the accession of King William and 
Queen Mary to the English throne. This was done with great pomp and 
rejoicing ; a cavalcade of the authorities and chief citizens, escorted by 
the trainbands and troops of horse, went to a banquet at the townhouse, 
and wine was freely distributed among the militia and the populace. 

The company re-established its field day on Monday, April 7, 1691, 
and this anniversary was unbrokenly observed until the Revolution in 
1775, with the exception of 1721, when the town was ravaged by the 

In the unfortunate expedition of Sir William Phips against Quebec, 
in 1690, sailed Major John Walley ( 167 1 ), as commander-in-chief of the 
land forces. The colonies sent 2,000 men on this fatal enterprise, which 
defeated by both storm and battle, resulted in the loss of several vessels 
and at least 300 men. 

In 1693, Nicholas Paige, captain of a troop of horse in King Philip's 
war was received into the company. On September 2, 1700, the company 
revised the by-laws of 1657, and in this year the Council discussed the 
matter of making "baggonets" a part of a soldier's equipment. 

In 1 70 1, the General Court ordered that the Boston Regiment 
should be furnished with "a goose-necked bayonet, with a socket, instead 
of a sword or cutlass." The sword, however, was still carried by infantry- 
men for over a hundred years after, for the fashion of carrying "the 
knightly sword" died hard, and still lingers in the retention of the light, 
straight sword of the orderly sergeant. On the other hand, the carrying 
of a light fusil, carbine or rifle in place of the esponton or half-pike 
was common among olhcers at this date, when on service. 

The substitution of the bayonet for the pike greatly simplified the 
martial array of company and regiment, as the pikemen were no longer 
changing ground to be by turns defended by the musketeers from tlie 
enemy's shot, or to defend their marksmen from a charge of horse or 
foot. But the old fashion of heavy lines of battle from four to six and 
eight files deep, and of massing regiments into solid squares or columns 
of men, was little changed; and this military legacy of the old days of pike 
and matchlock has in every war since that day survived, to needlessly 
waste life and courage in the senseless exposure of men to a musketry 
and artillery fire, which has with every generation increased its scope of 


The grenadiers, soldiers chosen for height and strength, who carried 
a bag containing from ten to fifteen small iron shells, fitted with a suitable 
fuse, had for some years been found useful, in attacks on field works, the 
assault of fortified places, and other defenses. These grenades, the fuse 
being first lighted, were thrown by hand, or by a kind of holder which 
acted on the principle of a sling, and gave a longer range of action. 
Their effect when exploded in a dense body of men was immensely de- 
structive, as well as demoralizing. Until late in the 17th century the 
grenadier had had no other arms except sword, dagger or pistol, but about 
this time he was given a light fusil to be carried by a sling when using 
his grenades. 

The weight and cumbrousness of all hand weapons were greatly 
decreased with the growing disuse of armor, and the adoption of more 
active tactics in general. These and like military innovations were 
naturally of interest to the Company at this era. 

In 1702, the first French war, known as Queen Anne's war, was 
declared. William Dummer, later made Governor in 1729, was made a 
member of the company, which, under Samuel Sewall, then captain, had 
target practice on the common, the mark being the effigy of a man. Charles 
Hobby ( 1702) and William Tailler (17 12) were made colonels of the two 
Massachusetts Regiments sent to capture Port Royal, and Hobby was 
made deputy-governor of the town, re-christened Annapolis-Royal. 

In 171 1, nearly all the officers of the militia were, or had been, in 
the Artillery Company, and Colonel Giles Dyer (16S0) and Captain Fran- 
cis Clarke (1702) were in the committee in charge of the Neck fortifica- 
tions then re-constructed. 

In 17 12, Daniel (loffe, merchant, joined. His son, Daniel, in 1740, 
raised a company for service at the siege of Cartagena under Admiral 
Vernon. He escaped with life here, but went on the expedition toGuan- 
tanamo, Cuba, in 1742, and died there. Also Colonel William Tailler of 
Dorchester, who was lieutenant-governor from 171 1 to 1715, when he 
became acting governor. 

On March 10, 1728-29, Hon. Thomas Fitch, of Boston, notified the 
people in town-meeting assembled, "That he did Present to the T6wn Two 
Hundred and Fifteen Firelocks, with Bayonets fitted to them, to be for 
the Use of the town forces." Elisha Cooke (1699), Wait Winthrop (1692), 
and John Baker (1703) were deputed to convey to Mr. Fitch the thanks of 
the town. The use of the bayonet became general before the siege 
of Louisburg (1744-46), and it is claimed that Colonel Benj. Pollard ( 1726) 
first fiirnished the Cadets with bayonets when he commanded the corps, 
in 1 74 1. 

Captain Caleb Lyman (1732), of Boston, had, in 1702, raided with 
five friendly Indians a camp of hostile Indians on the upper waters of the 



Connecticut, killing and wounding eight of their number. Joseph Gold- 
thwait was adjutant of the Second Massachusetts Regiment at the siege 
of Louisburg. Captain Samuel Watts (1733), of Boston, figured prominently 
in fortifying Boston during the first Louisburg expedition. Joseph 
Dwight, of Hatfield, lawyer and judge, (1734), was elected colonel of the 
Artillery Train in 1744, and brigadier-general under Shirley against Louis- 
burg (1745). He led a brigade in 1756 to reduce Ticonderoga, and con- 
structed Fort Massachusetts. 

In 1739, John Storer, of Charlestown, lieutenant-colonel, and cap- 
tain of the Third Company, and William Warren, captain of the Second 
Company, First Massachusetts Regiment, of the Louisburg expedition, 
were elected members. 

In 1740, Benj. Goldthwait, Captain Fourth Company, Third Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, and Jonathan Carey, Captain Ninth Company, Seventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, at the siege of Louisburg, were made inemljers. 

On July 2, 1745, the authorities at Boston learned of the wonderful 
success of the expedition against Louisburg. This was publicly announced 
on the morning of the 3d "by three volleys of musketry fired by the 
Boston trainbands, banqiiets, artillery salutes, bonfires and illumination." 
The following additional members of the Artillery Company took part in 
this great achievement: 

First Mass. Regt., John Butler (1745), lieutenant Second Company; John Bridge 
(1751), ensign Ninth Company Second Mass. Regt.; Christopher Marshall (1724), 
captain Third Company; Estes Hatch (171 1), captain Tenth Company Fifth Mass. 
Regt. ; Benjamin White (1722), adjutant Eighth Mass. Regt. ; William Williams (1733), 
lieutenant-colonel and captain Second Company ; Nathaniel Thwing (1736 and 1761), 
major and captain Third Company; Ninth Mass. Regt., Samuel Jackson (1733), 
ensign, artillery; Joseph Dwight (1734), colonel ; Joseph Sherburne (1745), store- 
keeper of ordnance; Dr. William Rand (1732), surgeon. Construction Department; 
Matthew Barnard, gentleman, (1734), captain. Volunteers, John Adams (1740), Third 
Company; William Moor, (1749), sergeant Fifth Company, First Mass. Regt. 

Governor Shirley returned from the scene of his triumph to Boston, 
November 8, 1745, and was received with great enthusiasm, although the 
siege had cost Massachusetts some three thousand men and exhausted 
her resources. In September, 1764, the British government repaid this 
and other expenditures, by delivering 215 chests and 100 casks containino- 
silver coin to the value of 183,649 pounds, 2 shillings and seven and one- 
half pence sterling. 

In 1746, an expedition to reduce Canada fell through, owing to the 
failure of England to send ships and men, and 2,000 militia were kept 
■under arms until October, 1747, at a cost of 68,000 pounds sterlino-. 
D'Anville's armada sent to destroy the English colonies excited o-reat 
alarm, and at one time all the colony forces from 8,000 to 10,000 men 
were summoned to defend Boston, except the Essex trainbands, which 
rendezvoused at Salem. The Brookfield company made the seventy miles' 


march in two days, each man bringing on his shoulders from forty to fifty 
pounds of food. Samuel Hendley, distiller, of Charlestown, a colonel of 
foot in the Revolution, joined this year, as did Samuel Swift, a lawyer, of 
Boston, who planned a general rising against General Gage in 1774. 

In 1747, Josiah Waters, painter, Boston: served as a captain in the 
siege of 1775. In 1748, a Boston town meeting was held on the regular 
field day of the Artillery Company, but declared void as infringing its 
charter. Dr. Samuel Dunbar, of Stoughton, who delivered the election 
sermon this year, had served as chaplain in the Stony Point expedition. 

In 1749, was admitted William Moor, Boston, sergeant in the First 
Massachusetts Regiment at Louisburg, 1745, lieutenant-colonel in Cranes' 
Regiment through the Revolutionary War, commanded in the United 
States Army, 1787, and died in the service in 1791. All property of the 
Ancient and Honourable Artillery was formally released from taxation 
this year. In 1750, Isaac Royal, merchant of Medford, later founder of the 
Royal Professorship of Law at Harvard, commissioned brigadier-general 
(the first American of that rank) in 1761, later Tory and refugee in 1775, 
was admitted. This year the last Massachusetts troops returned from 

In 1752 was adopted the Gregorian Calendar, beginning the year 
on January i, instead of the Julian, which dated from March 26. The 
change was made by counting September 3, 1752, as September 14, giving 
the month of September, 1752, but nineteen days, the shortest month in 
history. All dates to this point of this history are "old style." 

War was declared with France in 1754, and in the several expedi- 
tions against France in 1755,1756, and 1758, from four to seven thousand 
Massachusetts men took part. In 1759, eight companies went against 
Quebec. In 1761 and 1762, several thousands served in the final opera- 
tions, which resulted in the conquest of Canada in 1763. In 1762, a force 
under General Israel Putnam took part in the reduction of Havana, Cuba. 

David Mason (1754), painter, Boston, lieutenant in French War, 
commanded a battery when Fort William Henry was taken by the French; 
removed to vSalem, and in 1775 had seventeen cannon belonging to the 
provincial army in course of repair. He concealed them when Colonel 
Leslie with 300 men marched from Boston to seize them, became lieuten- 
ant-colonel of Knox's Artillery Regiment in 1775, was wounded at Dor- 
chester Heights, and founded the Springfield Arsenal in 1778. 

In 1755, came news of Braddock's defeat. Two thousand stand of 
arms were received at Boston from England, and the Acadians were for- 
cibly expelled from Nova Scotia. Isaac De Coster (1755) served at the 
second siege of Louisburg, 1755-56. 

William Bell (1756). bricklayer, Boston, presented the company 
with two espontons, or spontoons, as they were called in the British ser- 


vice. These, after the Revolution, were carried by the captain and lieu- 
tenant instead of the half-pike. The only remnant of defensive armor 
now worn in the colonial service was the gorget, heavily gilt, worn below 
the throat, one of which is still in the possession of the company. Ben- 
jamin Brown (1756), tanner, Boston, served (as colonel) in the Revolution, 
as did Edward Pr.octor, merchant, active in the Boston Tea Party demon- 

In 1758, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, with his fleet and army, rendezvoused 
at Boston and began the campaign which insured the conquest of Canada. 
In 1759, Joseph Gale, tin-plate worker, Boston, joined; later he was cap- 
tain of Parsons' Sixth Connecticut Regiment at the siege of Bo.ston. In 1 760, 
Benjamin Edes, printer, journalist, patriot and publisher of the "Boston 
Gazette," was admitted. In 1775, he escaped in a boat with his press and 
type to Watertown, where he continued its publication. In 176 1-2, all the 
officers of the Boston Regiment except two lieutenants and two ensigns, 
were or had been officers of the Artillery Company. Thomas Marshall, 
tailor, colonel of the Tenth Massachusetts Regiment in 1776, served 
through the war; Joseph Webb, ship chandler, lieutenant-colonel of the 
Boston Regiment in 1781; Caleb Champney, Dorchester, who served in the 
Revolution, and Adino Paddock, who in 1762 transplanted the "Paddock 
Elms," joined this year. Rev. Thomas Balch, who preached the election 
sermon, (1763), was a chaplain in the Louisburg expedition of 1744-46. 

In 1764, John Winslow, yeoman, of Marshfield, colonel in the 
expedition to Nova Scotia in 1755, and the unwilling captor and exiler of 
the Acadians, joined. He was in 1740 one of the captains who went on 
Vernon's disastrous expedition to Cartagena, and was on duty at Fort 
William Henry in 1756. He was made a major-general in the British service 
and died at Hingham, Mass. in 1774. In 1765, Thomas Crafts, painter, who 
became active in preparing to defend Boston in 1777, and rendered other 
services in the Revolution; Zephaniah Hartt, one of the founders of 
Hartt's shipyard, where the grand old frigates "Boston" and "Constitu- 
tion" were constructed, and William Heath, yeoman, of Roxbury, 
appointed major-general by the Provinces, 1765, fought at Lexington, in 
New York, was made major-general by Congress in 1775, and was general of 
the day when Washington took command at Cambridge and when he bade 
farewell to his army at the close of the war. He died at Roxbury, January 
24, 1814. Also Christopher Marshall, Boston, minuteman at Bunker Hill, 
later captain in Colonel Thomas Marshall's regiment, present at Andre's 
e.KCCution, and served seven years. William Perkins, Boston, in Callen- 
der's Artillery Company at Bunker Hill, served in Knox's and Crane's 
regiments, was made major and held important commands, having charo-e 
at Castle Island until ceded to the United States in 1798. Samuel Searle, 
tailor, Boston, served as lieutenant in Crafts' Regiment in the Revolu- 


tion. Jonathan vStoddard, another member, and John Stutson also 
became captains in the Revolution. 

This year the Stamp Act was passed, and the jjopular indignation ran 
very high. In 1766 it was repealed, but a feeling of distrust remained, and 
the Ancient and Honourable Artillery was pretty nearly divided against 
itself. There was a strong, wealthy and intolerant clique of conservative 
members who cried "treason" and "disloyalty" at every expression of 
opinion on the policy of the king, and a large number of adverse, inde- 
pendent and active patriots. John Popkin, Jr., tailor, Boston, who was 
received this year, became a captain in Gridley's Artillery, was at the 
battle of Bunker Hill, later was made lieutenant-colonel of Crane's Artil- 
lery, and fought through the Revolution. 

In 1768, Boston was occupied by the Fourteenth and Twenty-Ninth 
Regiments of the British Army. The uniform of the Fourteenth at this 
time was a scarlet coat, facings and cuffs of yellow, with white lace, scar- 
let waistcoats and breeches, white garters and cravats, and buff belts and 
pouches. The drummers wore buff and scarlet. Their grenadiers wore 
cloth caps with the king's cipher and crown in front, the White Horse of 
Hanover and the motto "Nee Aspera Terrent" on the flap, and the number 
of the regiment behind. 

The brigantine "Abigail" brought out for Major Paddock's artil- 
lery train two brass guns, recast in London, and later to be known as the 
"Hancock" and "Adams." William Dawes, Jr., farmer, of Boston, later a 
very active patriot who divided with Paul Revere the honors and dangers 
of the "Lexington Alarm," and afterward fought at Bunker Hill, joined 
this year. 

In 1769, John Boyle, a Boston bookseller, later a colonel in the 
Revolution, became a member, as did Joseph Pierce, merchant and 
founder of a Provincial Grenadier Corps and its second captain, and John 
Simpkins, of the Revolutionary "Committee of Correspondence." In 
1772, John Hinkley, auctioneer, captain and major in the Revolution; 
Abraham Hunt, merchant, member of the Boston Tea Party, adjutant of 
Colonel Vose's Regiment at Ticonderoga, and later agent of Captain Hay- 
.sted Hacker's letter of marque "Buckaneer;" Edward Kneeland, captain; 
John Spear, blacksmith and patriot, and Obadiah Wetherell, miller, a 
major in the war for liberty, were admitted. 

The uniform of the Artillery Company, as adopted this year, was a 
blue coat with wide lapels and yellow buttons, and cocked hats, the wig 
or hair to be clubbed and powdered. The muskets must have iron ram- 
rods and leather slings for carriage, in the old French fashion. The Bos- 
ton Regiment and Major Paddock's Artillery Train rehearsed a most real- 
istic sham battle on Boston Common, this summer. A detachment of 
each organization tinder Captain Jabez Hatch, with two brass guns and a 




-tV^ -r'-fj'v^-'^:^^ 

i^ ^. 



mortar, displayed French colors from Fox Hill near the south-west bound- 
ary. The Boston Regiment and Paddock's guns attacked these with a 
furious fire, ending with an assault preceded by a heavy discharge of 
toy grenades. 

During the years from 1740 to 1770, English uniforms, arms and 
equipments were at times quite largely furnished to American levies, and 
certain regiments of the regular army were principally recruited amongst 
and named after the "Loyal" and "Royal" Americans. On the other 
hand, the militia when levied in large numbers, preferred their own long 
ducking guns, rifles and weapons taken from Spaniard, Frenchman and 
Indian, with powderhorn and bullet bag, to the cumbrous and generally 
inferior arms and equipments sent out from the royal arsenals. 

As a result, the levies which fought at Louisburg, Quebec, Ticon- 
deroga and other sieges and battles in the French wars, were generally 
lacking in uniform garb, arms and equipments, and presented to the 
military critic a very unsatisfactory spectacle. Their weapons, however, 
except that they often lacked bayonets, were as a rule of superior efficiency^ 
their morale and endurance of a more sterling and lasting character, and 
their knowledge of the war of the wilderness, self-reliance and deadly 
skill with firearms altogether superior. In general, the art of war had 
seen little change during this generation, but as we have seen, a great num- 
ber of officers and men from Massachusetts and also the other "loyal 
provinces" had fought against the best troops and generals of France and 
Spain, under British commanders of high rank and in some cases acknowl- 
edged military genius, and had proved every resource of scientific military 
operations, and every device and "deviltry" of savage warfare. No ser- 
vice in the world had given the officer and soldier such trying, varied and 
valuable experience, as had during this generation prepared a large num- 
ber of our forefathers to resolutely withstand the haughty courage and 
exquisitely perfect discipline of the selected and veteran levies of the 
British Crown. 

Indeed the fatal obstinacy of Braddock, the vaporings, arrogance 
and inefficiency of Lord Loudon, the foolish pride and insolence of many 
subordinate English officers, and the slavish subserviency and lack of self- 
reliance displayed by the rank and file, had given the provincial cam- 
paigners as great a contempt for "the reg'lar," as the regular had for his 
sober garb and homely equipments. 

This feeling was aggravated by that insensate policy which im- 
pelled the British government to decree for the officers of her regular 
service, a superior rank to any militia officer, whatsoever may have been 
their rank, achievements or social position. It was an error, which, un- 
fortunately, has not yet been eliminated from the official mind, either in 
monarchies or republics, to ignore the increasing value of individual skill 


in arms, and strategy in modern warfare, as compared with machine-like 
precision, and the acquisition of fine spun theories and exquisitely correct 
mathematical conclusions. It undoubtedly threw many swords into the 
scale for liberty and against the king, whose owners, had they been treated 
and rewarded according to their deserts, would have remained loyal at 
whatever cost. 

But the wars of the Succession, and the conquest of Canada, had 
sown among the Colonial levies the dragon's teeth of military prepara- 
tion, which were to array against their ancient allies, and even neighbors 
and friends, myriads of men who were by no means novices in modern 
warfare, and were in many things the best infantry on earth. Nothing, 
but the lack of arms, munitions and supplies at critical periods of the 
Revolutionary struggle, ever reduced the Continental forces to the terrible 
reverses and helpless suffering, which at times threatened to defeat the 
hopes of our fathers. 

In 1773, the Boston Tea Party emphasized the unalterable determi- 
nation of the people of Massachusetts to live and die free men. Ten 
members of the company, it is claimed, took part in the destruction of 
the cargoes. Among them was Joseph Eaton, a hatter of Boston, who 
joined this year, as did William Walker, of Milton, a soldier of the Revo- 
lution. On June 17, Paddock's Artillery had target practice on the Com- 
mon, and "made many excellent shots." 

In 1774, the Boston Port Bill was enforced. The regular meetings 
of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery were discontinued until, in 1782, 
near the close of the Revolutionary struggle. The British troops, including 
the Fifty-Ninth, Forty-Third, Fifth, and Thirty-Eighth Regiments of 
Foot and the Welsh Fusileers held the city, tinder General Gage, and 
Governor Hutchinson, having failed in his treacherous policy, left for Eng- 
land, receiving the loyal regrets of one hundred and twenty-four Boston 
merchants and twenty-four lawyers, — a significant commentary on the 
traditional conservatism of men of these callings. This year Nathaniel 
Coll, carpenter, later captain of pioneers, and Joseph Spear, Jr., captain in 
Craft's Regiment, were added to the company. 

In 1776, Boston had in the Continental service 535, in the State ser- 
vice 206, and the sea service 166 men ; in all 907 men. Of 269 men raised 
by conscription, 38 belonged to the company. 

In 1782, Colonel Edward Proctor (1756) notified the men on the 
"Alarm List " of Boston that each man must be provided as follows: "i. 
A good firearm, with steel or iron ramrod, and a spring to retain the same. 
2. A worm, priming wire, and brush. 3. A bayonet, fitted to the gun, a 
scabbard and belt, a pouch holding not less than fifteen rounds cartridges, 
six flints, one pound powder, forty lead balls fitted to his gun, a knapsack 
and blanket, a canteen or wooden bottle holding one quart." 

J'aiiKed hy <'/i't/'/>/e. 

WITH (iF.NKItAI. W.VYNl-: AT STONV FulNf, JUIA' l.-i, 1779. 


In 1785 the military spirit, for a season dormant after an exhaust- 
ing war, revived in Boston. On x\ugust 3, a "company of Independent 
Cadets, comprised chiefly of young gentlemen in the mercantile line," had 
been formed, and on August 25, a company of grenadiers and a troop of 
light dragoons were organized at the American Coffee House. In 17S6, 
the •■Independent Light Infantry," afterward the famous "Independent 
Boston Fusiliers," began active drill. A less pleasant condition was the 
general discontent which finally resulted in vShay's Rebellion and its 
repression. Major Bell ( 1760), commanding the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery, and Captain Otis, of the Independent Light Infantry, offered 
the services of their respective corps to the government, as did the Inde- 
pendent Cadets. On Tuesday, October 31, the governor reviewed at 
■Cambridge the Ancient Artillery Company, Major Bell ; the Independent 
Cadets, Lieutenant-Colonel Bradford ; the Light Infantry, Captain Otis ; 
Major Gibb's Light Horse, Major Spooner's Roxbury and Colonel Bad- 
lam's Dorchester Artillery. New members in 1786 were: 

Ebenezer Battelle, Jr., who served at Bunker Hill and elsewhere in the Revoh:- 
tion; John Brooks, physician, of Medford, captain of the Reading Minute-men at Lex- 
ington, later lieutenant-colonel of Jackson's Regiment, the Eighth Massachusetts, and 
in 1789 major-general of the Middlesex Division of the Massachusetts Militia, and 
governor of Massachusetts from i 816-1823; Robert Davis, merchant, a Son of Liberty, 
member of the Boston Tea Party, and an officer in Colonel Craft's Artillery Regiment 
•during the siege of Boston; Samuel Gore, brother of Governor Christopher Gore, 
one of the tea destroyers, who helped to save the guns of the artillery train for Wash- 
ington's army; Francis Green, glazier, served in Paterson's and Vose's Regiments in 
the Revolution, 1777-1783; Zechariah Hicks, saddler, Boston, was a soldier of the 
Revolution; John Johnson, portrait painter, Boston, lieutenant in Gridley's and 
Knox's Artillery Regiments, wounded and taken prisoner on Long Island, discharged 
'777; Benjamin Lincoln, yeoman, Hingham. the celebrated General Lincoln who 
received the surrender of the British arms after the fall of Yorktown. (When in 1788 he 
introduced into the militia laws of the United States the clause to preserve the ancient 
privileges and customs of such independent corps as were then created by charter or 
otherwise. General Blount of South Carolina, a member of the committee, opposed 
the proposition vehemently. When General Lincoln stated the origin and claims of 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, Blount sneeringly asked: "And pray, 
who in h— 1 commands this Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company?" General 
Lincoln calmly replied : "Your very humble servant," after which there was no fur- 
ther opposition). Also John Lucas, baker, who, in 1784, raised money to improve the com- 
mon and plant trees upon it; John May, colonel of the Boston Regiment in 1784, had 
risen from the rank of adjutant and saw service under Rochambeau at Rhode Island; 
Henry Prentiss, merchant, was a spectator of the Boston Massacre and a captain in 
the ^Revolutionary army; Thomas Wells, wine merchant, served as second lieutenant 
in Knox's and a captain in Crane's Artillery Regiments, and was discharged in 1780, 
having served over five years; John Winslow, "merchant, Boston, was a lieutenant 
under Montgomery in the disastrous assault on Quebec, captain of artillery at Sara- 
toga, served at Ticonderoga, and filled many military and civil offices of trust with 
zeal and fidelity; Dr. John Warren, brother of General Joseph Warren, was made the 
first surgeon of the company this year. 

On April 7, 1787, an independent company of cavalry, called "The 
Governor's Horse Guards," was formed. Colonel James Swan, their first 
■captain, paraded them June 17, 1787, in scarlet uniforms faced with blue. 
Dr. John Bartlett (1769) paraded his "Republican Volunteers " for the 


first time May 25. Their uniforms were scarlet with black facings. This 
company dissolved Nov. 17, 1789. 

In January, the following report on uniforms was presented and 
adopted : 

"The committee appointed to consider what, in their opinion, would be the 
most proper uniform for the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, having 
attended to that duty, beg leave to report : First, the coats to be made of deep blue 
cloth and faced with buff, lapelled and straps on the shoulders to secure the belts, with 
hooks and eyes at the skirts, the buttons plain, yellow, double-washed; second, buff 
vest and breeches, buttons uniform with the coats; third, a plain, black hat, with a 
black button, loop and cockade, cocked soldier-like and uniform as possible; fourth, 
white linen spatterdashes to fasten under the foot and come part up to the thigh, with 
black buttons and black dashes to buckle below the knee; fifth, white stock; sixth, 
bayonet and pouch belts — white — two and a half inches wide, to be worn over the 
shoulders; seventh, the pouches to be uniform; eighth, the hair to be clubbed; ninth, 
the guns to be as nigh uniform as possible; tenth, white ruffled shirts at wrists and 
bosom; eleventh, your committee recommends that our standard have a device and 
motto, and that a committee be appointed for that purpose; twelfth, that the drum's 
and fife's uniforms be the same as the company coats reversed." 

On April 19, Major Otis paraded his Independent Light Infantry, 
and on July 24, a corps formed of former non-commissioned officers of the 
old Boston Regiment appeared in uniform for the first time. 

In 17S8, the company was very largely represented in the militia. 
On February 12, in obedience to the orders of General Benjamin Lincoln, 
commanding the First Division of Massachusetts Militia, the independent 
Boston companies formed a battalion to celebrate the ratification of the 
Federal Constitution. The line was formed from right to left, as follows: 
Captain Tyler's Horse, of Roxbury, Otis's Independent Light Infantry, 
Spooner's Roxbury Artillery, the Independent Cadets, Boston Fusileers, 
Republican Volunteers, Boston Artillery, Boston Light Infantry, all under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bradford. 

Among many new members were John Bray, founder of the North End or 
"Columbian Artillery;" Joseph Hall, Jr., lawyer, who, when a boy, went out to Ro.x- 
bury to warn General Warren of the Lexington and Concord raid; William Hull, law- 
yer, Newton, served through the Revolution, being discharged as colonel in 1805, 
was governor of Michigan Territory, and in 18 12, being over-persuaded, took com- 
mand on the frontier, and later surrendered Detroit to the English, for which he was 
court-martialed and sentenced to death, but was pardoned by Madison and in later 
years was more leniently judged; Joseph Loring, jeweler, served as a captain in the 
Revolution; Benjamin Russell, printer, Boston, as a boy, followed Lord Percy's troops 
across the Neck when he marched to relieve the British at Lexington, and was later 
in the Continental army, but from 1776 to 1783 was principally connected with the 
quartermaster's department ; Ebenezer Thayer, yeoman, Braintree, active in the Revo- 
lution and became major-general of militia February 21, 1792. 

In 1789, the chief event of the year was the reception of President 
Washington in October. One new member, Jonas S. Bass, tanner, Bos- 
ton, was a private in the Rhode Island expedition in the Revolution. 


In 1790, the day of the Annual Election being inclement, Governor 
Hancock directed Lieutenant-Governor Adams to receive the insignia of 
the retiring officers and to present them to those newly elected. Captain 
Robert Jenkins (1756) respectfully refused to allow of the substitution, 
and finally Governor Hancock received the company at his house and in- 
stalled the officers in due and ancient form. 

In 1792, was admitted Daniel Messinger, hatter, Boston, founder of 
the Winslow Blues, and their first commander, and one of the original 
members of the Massachusetts Charitable Association. 

On October 14, 1793, the company took part in the great funeral 
procession of Governor John Hancock. Joseph Loring, merchant, Boston, 
who joined this year, became colonel of the Fortieth Regiment of Infantry, 
U.S.A., in 18 1 3, and served until the close of the war. 

In 1795, joined William Alexander, cabinetmaker, Boston, a soldier 
of the Revolution. 

In August, 1797, the Boston and Chelsea militia companies were 
organized as a "legion," a term time-honored on account of its frequent 
use during the revolutionary period, but sometimes also called a 
"legionary brigade." The nine companies of the First Boston Regiment 
had increased to sixteen, and four of these companies formed a "sub- 
legion," each commanded by a Major. The commander of the legion 
had the rank of lieutenant-colonel. The Boston Light Infantry made 
its first public parade this year under Captain Daniel Sargent, Jr. The 
company voted this year to admit candidates on trial by ballot, putting 
them on probation before final and complete admission to membership ; 
to furnish themselves with knapsacks duly lettered, with canteens pain- 
ted blue with buff hoops, and with a priming wire and brush suspended 
by a chain, which latter seem to have been a novelty. 

On May 28, 1799, the Company visited President Adams at his 
home in Braintree ; a visit returned in due form at the annual election 
of 1800. On Saturday evening, January 14, 1800. the company at a spec- 
ial meeting, expressed the universal sorrow which followed the decease 
of General George Washington. It was unanimously "voted, That in 
testimony of the high respect, and veneration of the character of 
the ilhistrious deceased. General Washington, the Company will appear 
upon their parade- days and all special occasions upon which they may 
be on duty during the present year, and their officers on Sundays during 
that time, with the usual badge of mourning." 

In 1 80 1, John Binney, a merchant of Boston, became a member. He 
was captain of the North End Artillery Company, in 1806- 1808, when he 
became lieutenant. Fourth Regiment Infantry U. S. A., commanded the 
forts at Wiscasset, Me., and in 1813, was engaged in several skirmishes 
on the Vermont frontier. 


This year the regulations were amended, each member being 
required to be armed and equipped with "a good musket and a suffi- 
cient bayonet, a cartridge box, priming wire and brush, twenty-four 
round of cartridges and two flints." The sergeants were to have yellow 
silk shoulder- knots and sashes worn around the waist, and to carry hal- 
berds, and "hangers" or short swords, worn in white shoulder belts. 
Cocked hats, with gold loops, uniform buttons, and a black ribbon cockade 
with an eagle in the centre ; a deep blue broadcloth coat with buff fac- 
ings and trimmings, and blue straps to hold the belt, with single 
breasted waistcoat, and knee breeches of buff cassimere, was the uni- 
form prescribed. 

In April, 1802, Generals Heath (1765), Lincoln (1786), Brooks (178G), 
and Hull ( 17S8) at the request of the Secretary of War, inspected Fort 
Independence and reported its condition and the repairs needed. 

On Jiily 7, 1803, General Elliott issued an order authorizing the 
Washington Light Infantry, and Joseph Loring, Jr. ( 1793), was made its 
first captain. On July 18, the company appointed a committee to report 
on the expense of fitting up the loft of Faneuil Hall for an armory. This 
was estimated to cost S77.67, and was, with the consent of the selectmen, 
effected. Rev. Jedidiah Morse, author of the first school geography pub- 
lished in this country, preached the election sermon. 

On Tuesday, October 30, 1804, the "Legionary Brigade," commanded 
by General John Winslow (^1786), was reviewed on Boston Common. The 
line from left to right was composed of Purkett's Troop of Horse, a sub- 
legion of light infantry, under Captain John Bray (1788), the Winslow 
Blues, Captain Daniel Messinger ( 1792), the Boston Light Infantry, Cap- 
tain Davis, the Boston Fusileers, Lieutenant John Howe, Jr. (1792), and 
the Washington Light Infantry, Captain Joseph Loring, Jr. i 1793 1. Three 
sublegions of four companies each were commanded by Major Peter Os- 
good (1797), Major Stearns, and Captain Charles Clements 117951. 

In 1806, Faneuil Hall was enlarged to its present dimensions, and 
the company was admitted to a more commodious armory. 

It admitted this year William Bowman, hatter, Boston (1806), served as ensign 
in 1812, particularly distinguishing himself at Fort Erie and Bridgewater, and was 
promoted captain in Mill's Regiment ; Thomas Dean, printer, Boston, served as a major 
in the war of 1812-14. 

In 1810, Hon. Josiah Quincy exerted himself to organize and equip 
the Boston Hussars, of which he was the first captain. His splendid uni- 
form, imposing presence, and milk white charger, "Bayard," filled the 
Boston of that day with admiration, and were talked of long after the 
Hussars were disbanded. Bayard was later sent to Hayti, where he be- 
came the favorite horse of King Christophe. 

The Hussars numbered about fifty officers and men, j^rincipally 


drawn from the elite of Boston, every one of whom was to provide, and 
if possible own, a horse not less than 14 1-2 hands high, with sad- 
dle, saddle cloth, holsters with bearskin covers, curb-bridle, etc., etc. 
His arms were a Prussian sabre and pair of horsemen's pistols; those of 
Captain Phelps, preserved at the Old State House, are brass-barrelled. 
His uniform, also there shown, consisted of greyish-brown riding 
breeches, embroidered with sage green and pale brown silk, tucked into 
heavy horsemen's boots. A green jacket, embroidered with gold, was 
covered by a gold embroidered Hussar's pelisse, or riding jacket of crim- 
son, trimmed with black fur, worn on parade only on the right arm and 
held in place by a silk cord tied at the neck. His tall cap was of black 
cloth, bell-crowned, gold-laced, and having a panache or flat plume of 
green feathers, covered by a black cockade over a brass centre plate, the 
vizor was brass bound, and the chin strap defended by over-lapping brass 

Yellow cord was substituted for gold lace on the uniforms of the pri- 
vate soldiers, and green overalls were worn with the service suit, when the 
gay pelisse was for the time discarded. Officers' outfits in this corps are said 
to have cost as high as one thousand dollars. Every endeavor was made to 
organize a corps equal to the elite of the Prussian Hussars, after which 
they were patterned, and Hon. William Phillips, uncle of Captain Josiah 
Quincy, gave the company a splendid standard painted by John M. Penni- 
man. It was not until iSii that they were ready to parade, and at an 
early date the political prejudices of the day became a caiise of dissension 
in the new company. Although many in the company were strong 
Federalists, a majority voted to offer to escort Governor Elbridge Gerry, 
a violent Anti-Federalist, on his official journey from Cambridge to Boston. 
Captain Quincy resigned and Captain Charles Porter Phelps succeeded to 
the command. 

In 18 12 the Hussars offered their services, and were on duty at 
Boston, ready to take the field. In July, 18 17, the corps, with the Boston 
Dragoons, under Major Phelps, received President Monroe at Boston Neck 
with drawn sabres and a flourish of trumpets. They appeared once more 
under Major Phelps July 6, 18 17, on Boston Common. This was his last 
appearance, and the Hussars did not long survive his resignation, dis- 
banding in the winter of 18 17- 18. 

In 1810 were admitted : William King, hatter, Boston, wasa subaltern and later 
captain in the United States army in the War of 181 2; Zachariah Gardner Whitman, 
lawyer, Boston, took an active part in the financial administration of the company, 
and was its first historian. His first history, published in 1820, was made by him the 
basis of a much larger and more valuable revision, which, after his death in 1840, was 
given by his widow, Asenath Jones Gardner, to the company. A donation of one hun- 
dred silver dollars was presented in return. This was published in 1842, and is a 
valuable and somewhat rare work. 

This year a new uniform was adopted, — red facings and white lin- 


ingsforthe blue coat, with a diamond traced on each skirt, and white con. 

vex buttons bearing the arms of the State and the word "Commonwealth." 

A white Marseilles single-breasted waistcoat with a standing collar, white 

cassimere knee breeches with silver buttons at the knee, and white linen 

gaiters reaching to the kneepan, with black velvet knee straps and black 

buttons, completed a striking costume. Laced low-quartered shoes were 

worn, the long hair was braided, turned up, and powdered, and surmounted 

hy a. chapeau de bras, set forth with a silk cockade, silver loop and button, 

and a full black plume eighteen inches long. 

Robert Clarke (1811), merchant, Boston, became a subaltern in the United 
States army, and died in service during the War of 1812. 

In 18 12, the inclosed square in which the election ceremonies have 
ever since been protected from public intrusion was first set up. This year 
the company made an effort to secure some light guns for artillery drill, 
but for some reason the project was abandoned. 

Asa Tisdale (1814), hatter, Boston; was in 18 15, as a practical joke, 
elected on the same day to the captaincy of the Ann Street company and 
the ensigncy of the Federal Street company of the Boston Regiment. He 
set up a dozen of wine for both delegations, but held on to the captaincy 
of the Ann Street company for many years. 

On September 18, the company, knowing that the coast cities were 
threatened by English fleets, had been strongly re-enforced by its active 
and even veteran members who volunteered to serve. They paraded in 
fatigue imiform ; viz , blue or black coats, pantaloons tucked into long 
boots, with round hats bearing only the company's cockade. Maltby's 
"Elements of War " was adopted as the standard of drill, and a very large 
proportion of the then active militia officers about Boston were members 
of the company. 

September 25 and 26, 1816, witnessed a very impressive review of 

three regiments of infantry, besides cavalry and artillery, commanded by 

Brigadier-General Thomas Wells (181 1). 

In 1817 was admitted Ebenezer Mattoon, yeoman, Amherst, with three other 
students at Dartmouth, in 1775-76 joined the Canadian expedition, servinia: in a New 
Hampshire Regiment, was made adjutant and saw much hard service. He was ap- 
pointed adjutant-general of Massachusetts in 1816. James Monroe. President of the 
United States, was made an honorary member June 39, while on a visit to Boston. 

According to the reqitest of the company. Governor Brooks, July 
12, directed the quartermaster-general to furnish the company with 
two si.x pound cannon, it being imderstood that the "Adams" and 
"Hancock" formerly owned by Paddock's Artillery Train, and later used 
in many battles of the Revolution should be selected. On Friday, May 
8, the company, with the guns with which they had paraded a generation 
before, practiced both infantry and artillery drill, and firing, on the 


In 1 8 19, joined Elijah Crane, farmer and inn-holder, Canton; born in 
1754. He marched at the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775, and was Major 
General, First Division, of Massachusetts Militia, 1809- 1827. An officer 
despairing of promotion, is said to have proposed the following toast at a 
public banquet "Major-General Crane. May he be eternally rewarded in 
Heaven for his everlasting services on earth." It was at the Dedham 
camp, under his command in 1826, that the celebrated "striped pig" 
showman evaded his order, that no liquor should be sold in the camp. 

Monday Sept. 16, the Company honored with a marching salute 
seventeen gentlemen who had been members previous to the revolu- 
tion. Major Thomas Bumstead (1764) invited these, with all the mem- 
bers of the company to a collation, and the great Burgoyne punch-bowl, 
which held ten gallons and had paid Adino Paddock's bet with Bumstead, 
that Burgoyne had not surrendered, was filled and drained in honor of 
the occasion. Major Bumstead (1764), 79 years old ; Captain Joseph Pierce 
(1764), 74 years; Samuel Belknap (1773), 68 years; Captain William 
Todd (1773), 72 years; Lieutenant William Homes (1766), 78 years; Cap- 
tain John Simpkins (17691, 79 years; Captain Joseph Eaton (1773), 70 
years; and Captain Nathaniel Call (1774), 74 years, took part in the fes- 

The contract for the anniversary dinner in 1820, furnished by a Mr. 
Forster at Concord Hall, is somewhat Homeric as measured by nnxlern 
standards of "a good spread." "Six rounds of a la mode beef, 120 lbs.; 
six rumps, four second cuts beef roasted, 150 lbs.; six fillets of veal stuffed 
and roasted, 70 lbs.; five hams boiled five do roasted, 120 lbs.; fifteen pigs, 
iSo lbs.; salpetred beef, 25 lbs.; salmon boiled, 100 lbs.; tongues boiled, 
175 lbs.; total, 940 lbs.;" besides forty puddings, potatoes, asparagus, 
gravies, rolls, brick-loaves, crackers, cheese, butter, radishes, salads and 
condiments were to be provided. 

On July I, the following companies met under arms in the Faneuil 
Hall armory: Ancient and Honourable Artillery, 64 guns; Cadets, 70 
guns; Fusileers, 45 giins ; Boston Light Infantry, jt, guns; Washington 
Light Infantry. 40 guns ; Winslow Blues, 40 guns ; "Soul of the Soldiery," 
40 guns; Rangers, 64 guns; New England Guards, 100 guns; nine 
organizations and 532 guns. 

On September 6, 1820, it was voted that officers of the militia should 

henceforth be allowed to wear their militia uniforms while on duty with 

the company. A large number of new members were secured thereby. 

On Monday, October 2, while at practice in South Boston, the "Adams" 

six pounder burst, happily without accident to the gunners. 

In 1821 were admitted; William Adams, yeoman, North Chelmsford, enlisted at 
sixteen and served fourteen months in the Revolution, and witnessed the execution of 
Major Andre at West Point, New York; Winslow Lewis (1821), merchant, was owner 
of the Boston privateer "Abalieno," commissioned by Madison, December 10, 1814. 


During the war he was taken prisoner by the British, and later he commanded the 
Boston Sea Fencibles. 

This year the company suppressed the office of ensign, electing 
instead a third lieutenant, and also permitted the wearing of black stocks 
instead of white, and the disuse of powder on the hair. At the annual 
election lOO muskets and i6 artillery men paraded. Of those on duty 92 
were or had been officers of the militia. August 7, the company, with 
Captain Thomas J. Lobdell's (1821) Boston Artillery, escorted the select- 
men to the Neck and fired salutes in honor of the West Point Cadets. 
On September 10, through a contract to secure military music at fair rates, 
the company, with other corps, secured the formation of Fillebrown's 
Boston Brigade Band. In 1835 it combined with the "Green Dragon" 
Band, becoming Edward Kendall's Boston Brass Band, which, under Eben 
Flagg, was dissolved in 1S61. 

William L. Foster, 1822, Boston, was second lieutenant. Ninth Regt., U. S. Infan- 
try, in 1812, promoted first lieutenant and captain in 1813, and was severely wounded 
at Lundy's Lane, July 25, 1814. 

In 1822, a third lieutenant was elected, the rank of ensign havinsjf 
become obsolete in the land service. Russia leather was substituted for 
the white belt and military slings hitherto in use. At the annual elec- 
tion 192 members, including 23 artillerists, armed with short Roman 
sw(jrds, were in line. 

In 1824-25, the visit of General Lafayette was duly honored by the 
association, but his numberless engagements did not permit him to meet 
with the company. At the banquet of October 3, 1825, three veteran 
members. Captain John Simpkins (1769), aged 85 years, Captain Nathan- 
iel Call ( 1774), aged 80 years, and Mr. Thomas S. Boardman ( 1774), aged 
80 years, were present, and with manly energy and enthusiasm told " of 
great old houses, and fights fought long ago " under the banners of the 
Continental Congress and the red-cross flag of the ancient province of 
Massachusetts Bay. 

In 1827, Samuel Chandler, innkeeper, Lexington, an ensign on the 
frontier in the War of 18 12, joined. In 1828, applicants were few, and 
for a year the fee was reduced to five dollars. Citizen members were 
allowed to parade in ordinary dress with uniform hats and cockades, and 
only three drills per year were made obligatory. Rev. John Pierpont, 
who preached the election sermon, became the first chaplain of the 
Twenty-Second Massachtisetts Volunteers in 1861. 

In 1829 was admitted : John C. Park, lawyer, Boston, became active in enlisting 
men in 1861-62, joined the Roxbury Reserve Guard, and was on duty six days during 
the Draft Riots of 1864. 

In 1830 was admitted : Judah Alden, yeoman, Duxbury, born Oct. 3, 1750, was 
ensign and lieutenant in Cotton's Regiment, 1775, captain in Bailey's Regiment, 1776, 
discharged as brevet-major, 1783, and died March 2, 1845, aged 94 years. 



In 1832-33 were admitted; Joseph Porter, carpenter, Dorchester, removed to 
Maine and commanded nearly 1,000 volunteers on the Aroostook River, in the North- 
eastern Boundary troubles, February, 1839; Richard Sullivan Fay, lawyer, Boston, 
raised and equipped a company (the Fay Guards), Thirty-Eighth Mass. Vols., in 1861- 
■62; John McNeill, surveyor, Boston, as brevet lieutenant-colonel led the Eleventh 
Regt., U. S. Infantry in the bayonet charge which decided the day at the battle of 
Chippewa, July 5, 1814, was severely wounded at 
Lundy's Lane, but became colonel of the First Regt., 
U. S. Infantry, resigning in 1830. ^^^ 

In 1835: William S. Lincoln, lawyer, Worces- 
ter, lieutenant-colonel 34th Mass. Vols., was wounded 
and captured at Newmarket, Va., May 15, 1864, but 
escaped, was promoted colonel Oct. 4, and dis- 
charged as brevet brigadier-general, June 16, 1865. 

On August 3, of this year the company, 
eighty-four strong, visited Worcester as 
quests of the Worcester Light Infantry. 

In 1836 was admitted : Edward Everett, divine, 
■scholar, diplomatist, statesman and orator, was 
governor of Massachusetts 1 835-1 838, minister to 
England in 1840, president of Harvard College, 1846- 
1849, secretary of state, 1853, and United Stales 
senator. He died in 1865. Also, Levi Hawkes, Cam- 
bridge, served in 1861-65 in the 5th, 3d and 18th 
Mass. Regts., taking part in most of the great battles 
■of the Army of the Potomac. (See biography. Vol. 
I., page 537.) 

In 1837, were admitted Robert Cowdin. lum- 
ber dealer, Boston, colonel First Regt. Mass. Vols., 
1861-62. Promoted "for gallant and meritorious 
■conduct at the battle of Williamsburg, Va.," Octo- 
ber I, 1863; died, July 9, 1874. Joseph Holbrook, 
Boston, served on the privateer "Reindeer" in 181 2. 

In 1839, was admitted William Sutton, mer- 
chant. Salem. As senior major-general M. V. M.. in 
1861, he had charge of the rendezvous at Faneuil 
Hall, and in 1862, with Dr. Winslow Lewis (1862), 
made a tour of inspection of camps and hospitals in 
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, etc., in the interest of Massachusetts soldiers. 

In 1840, was admitted John B. Dale, naval officer. Harvard, who served on the 
"Vincennes," brig "Consort," sloop "Cyane," and frigate "Constitution." He died at 
Beirout, Syria, in 1848. Zachariah Gardner Whitman (1820), lawyer, Boston, and for 
many years the clerk and historian of the company, died this year. 


On April 20, 1841, the company fifty strong paraded in the great 
funeral procession in honor of President William Henry Harrison. The 
first rank was composed of its oldest members, two of whom had served 
over fifty years. On the October Field Day, Comrade Jarvis Braman ( 1 837) 
wore a Continental tmiform, consisting of "a Washington coat, blue, faced 
with buff, buff small clothes, black gaiters with metal buttons, and a cocked 
hat." This was adopted as the infantry uniform, the artillery men con- 
tinuing to wear dark coats and white pantaloons as heretofore. 

On Sept. 16, 1842, Captain Samuel A. Lawrence (1842) paraded for 
the first time his " Washington Light Guards," forty-three guns, all 
•" Washingtonians," as the teetotallers of that day were called. 


In 1843 joined Charles L. Holbrook, commission merchant, Boston, later served 
long in the militia, and as colonel 43d Regt. M. V. M., in North Carolina, in 1862-63, 
died Sept. 13, 1887, aged 71 years; Henry L. M. Whitman, merchant, Boston, served 
in Caleb Cushing's Mass. Vols, in the Mexican War. On June 7, the company led the 
fourth division of the great parade at the dedication of the Bunker Hill Monument. 

Many members joined in 1844, including Joseph Andrews, cashier, Boston, 
who became brigadier-general in the State Militia and long had charge of the troops 
at the recruiting rendezvous of Fort Warren, in 1861. 

In 1845 were admitted Thos. E. Chickering, pianomaker, Boston, became col- 
onel of the 41st Regt., Mass. Vols., later 3d Mass. Cavalry in the Department of the 
Gulf, 1862-1864; Nathan A. M. Dudley, Lexington, commissioned lieutenant 9th Regt. 
U. S. Infantry, 1855, was colonel 30th Regt. Mass. Vols, at New Orleans, 1862, com- 
manded the Fourth Brigade Cook's Division, in the Red River Campaign, served in the 
Armies of the Potomac and Cumberland, and was retired as colonel of the First U. S. 
Cavalry in 1889; Joseph A. Goldthwait, Salem, lieutenant 23d Mass. Vols., in 1861, 
became Gen. Foster's chief commissary of subsistence in N.C., was promoted captain, 
discharged August 15, 1865; Thomas Herbert, Lynn, was captain Co. I, 8th Regt. M. 
V. M. 1862-63, and in the 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery 1863-1865; Francis J. Parker, Bos- 
ton, was lieutenant-colonel 32d Regt. Mass. Vols., promoted colonel August 6, dis- 
charged Dec. 27, 1862. 

In 1846 was admitted Charles R. Train, lawyer, Framingham, volunteered in 
1862 on the staff of General Gordon, and served at the battle of Antietam, Md. 

On May iS of this year the Company visited the great State Camp 
at Concord, and held an impressive service at the Battle Monument. 

In 1847 were admitted; Colonel George Clarke, Jr., Boston, indefatigable in 
preparing and inspecting volunteers in 1861, was colonel 1 1 th Regt., Mass. Vols., 
from May 11 to Oct. 14, 1861 ; John A. Felt, served as captain in Cushing's Regiment 
in the Mexican War, died in Mexico and was buried by the company Nov. 18, 1847; 
Albert E. Proctor, Boston, was lieutenant in the 42a Regt., M. V. M., 1862-63, ^nd 
served in various capacities of trust until the close of the Rebellion; Isaac Hull Wright, 
who was Cushing's lieutenant-colonel in the Mexican War, succeeded to the colonelcy, 
and served through the war. 

In 1848 were admitted; Ben Perley Poore, editor, author, politician and patriot, 
was a remarkably enthusiastic friend of the State militia, organizing and command- 
ing the famous ist Rifle Battalion, which was the first organization to offer its ser- 
vices to President Lincoln, and was major and later colonel of the 6th Regt., M. V. M., 
in 1861 ; William Schouler, editor, Boston, was adjutant-general of Massachusetts, 1860- 
1866, author of "Massachusetts in the Civil War," and needs no eulogy, as an 
efficient and tireless patriot and friend of the soldier. 

In 1849 were admitted: Henry Merritt, watchmaker, Boston, lieutenant-colonel 
of the 23d Regt., Mass. Vols., was killed at the taking of Newbern, N. C March 14, 
1862; William B. Oliver, clerk, Boston, served in the 40th Regt., Mass. Vols., and died 
of mortal wounds at Whitehouse Landing, Va., June 10, 1864. Edwin L. Bird, coach- 
painter, Boston, was a captain in the 47th Regt., M.V. M., 1862-63 ; William W. Bullock, 
served as lieutenant-colonel of the 30th Regt., Mass. Vols., 1862-63. 

In 1850 Dr. Frederick S. Ainsworth ; served as surgeon of the 22d Regt. Mass. 
Vols., was made first colonel U. S. Vols, and discharged July 27, 1865; Jeflford M. 
Decker, hotel proprietor, adjutant 42d Regt. M. V. M. in Louisiana 1862-63; John W. 
Fletcher, Chelsea, lieutenant 43d Regt. M. V. M., i 862-1 863. captain 36th Regt. U. S. 
Colored Vols., 1863-64; Oliver Hapgood, orderly sergeant 19th Regt. Mass. Vols., 1861, 
killed at Glendale, Va.,June 30,1862 ; William W. McKim, merchant, Boston, served with 
the greatest ability in the quartermaster's department, holding the most onerous 
positions, and handling many millions' worth of government property from August 3, 
1861, to March 8, 1866; George A, Meacham, Jr., lieut. -colonel i6th Regt. Mass. Vols. 
1861-1862; George H. Pierson, blacksmith, Salem, served in Civil War, as lieut. -col. 
5th Regt. M. V. M. 1861, colonel 1862-63, and again in 1864; Renj. B. G.Stone, Boston, 
second lieut. ist Regt. Mass. Vols. 1862-63; Edward A.Thwing, painter, Boston, lieut. in 
Cushing's Mass. Vols., Mexican War 1847-1848; John B. Whorf, bookbinder, Boston, 
captain Co. G 22d Regt. Mass. Vols., wounded and captured at Gaines' Mills, Va., re. 
signed in 1862. 



At the invitation of the Town of Concord and other municipalities, 
the company joined in celebrating the anniversary of the battle of April 
19th, 1775. The occasion was one of great enthusiasm and interest. 
August 6, it paraded at the funeral procession in memory of the late 
President Zachary Taylor, in New Bedford. The fall field day was held 
at Cambridge, October 7, with the usual target and drill practice. 

New members in 1851, included: Frederick J. Coffin, Newburyport, col. 8th 
Regt. M. V. M., 1862-63, in North Carolina; Caleb Cushin^, lawyer, judge, soldier, 
diplomat and politician, minister to China 1843-45, judge Mass. Supreme Court 1845, 
U. S. attorney general 1853-57, U. S. counsel Geneva Award 1873, minister to Spain 
1874-77; col. Mass. Vols, in Mexican War, June 
15. 1847, brigadier-general April 14 to July 20, 
1848, died Jaimary 5, 1879; Albert S. Follansbee, 
Salem, 'captain Co. G 6th Mass., commanded the 
four companies attacked in Baltimore, Md., April 
19, 1 861, lost 4 killed and 36 wounded, colonel 6th 
Mass. 1 862-63 in East Virginia, and for three 
months in 1864; Charles W. Fuller, Lawrence, 
served in Cushing's Regt. Mexican War; Abel H. 
Pope, Feltonville, first lieutenant and captain 13th 
Mass. July 16, 1861, to Oct. 5, 1864: George F. 
Tileston, clerk, Boston, iith Mass., major June 13, 
1861, colonel Oct. 13, 1861, killed at Second Bull 
Run, Aug. 29, 1862; David K. Wardwell, painter, 
Boston, Cushing's Regt., Mexican War 1847-48, 
captain 5th Mass. and 22d Mass. 1861, major and 
lieutenant-colonel 38th Mass. 1862, resigned June 
24, 1863. George M. Whipple, Salem, captain Com- 
pany F, 23d Mass. Vols. Oct. 8, 1861. served in 
North Carolina, discharged May 2, 1863. 

On January 23, 185 1, the company 
voted to petition the legislature to exempt 
its members from jury duty, to secure 
modern field artillery, and to hold a mili- 
tary ball ; all of which were ultimately 

The 213th anniversary was memor- 
able for the presence of Major-General 
John E. Wool, U. S. A., who reviewed the Company. On June 30, 
General Caleb Cushing splendidly entertained the company at New- 
buryport. At the October parade the Hon. Daniel Webster was .saluted 
by the company at the Revere House, and addressed the members. 

In 1852, among many new recruits were : Dexter H. Follett.Jr. merchant, Boston, 
captain 3d Mass. Light Battery, Sept. 5 to Nov. 7, 1861 ; Jonas H. French, recruited 
30th Mass. Regt.. and was acting lieutenant-colonel Nov. i, 1861, to March 27, 1862, on 
staff of Generals Butler and Banks at New Orleans, as provost-marshal, and under 
Governor Shepley as provost-marshal general; William Gibbs, Waltham, ist Mass. 
Cavalry, captain, Oct. 21, 1861, to Feb. 3, 1 862 , Ebenezer W. Pierce, farmer, Freeland,' 
brigadier-general in Virginia in 1861, colonel 29th Mass. Regt., Dec. 31, 1861, lost 
right arm and was captured at White Oak Swamp, Va., June 30, 1862, but escaped; 
mustered out, Nov. 18, 1864. 

In 1853, Faneuil Hall was enlarged, the rooms above being des- 

H.UsGER, 1S3>. 


troyed to make room for galleries, and the companies using them as 
armories were notified to vacate them. The Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company strongly remonstrated against being deprived of quar- 
ters, which were, in some sense, their inheritance. They were given the 
rooms then occupied by the New England Guards and Washington Light 
Infantry, since then greatly improved and refitted. 

In this year (1853) were recruited: Benjamin F. Butler, lawyer, soldier, and 
statesman, one of the most striking figures in the public life of his century. As a briga- 
dier-general of the Massachusetts militia in 1861, he was assigned to command at 
Annapolis, Md., occupied Baltimore and was made major-general, department of East- 
ern Virginia, occupied New Orleans May i, 1862, and defended it against attack from 
foreign intrigues and pestilence, was retired by General Banks, and Nov. 2, 1863, com- 
manded the Department of Eastern Virginia and North Carolina until Jan. 7, 1865; 
was a member of Congress from 1866 to 1875, and again from 1877 to 1879, and gover- 
nor of Massachusetts in 1882; Andrew Elwell, Gloucester, lieutenant-colonel and colo- 
nel 8th Mass. Regt., April 30 to Aug. i, 1861, lieutenant-colonel and colonel 23d Mass. 
Regt., Oct. 24, 1862, to Sept. 20, 1864; David A. Granger, civil engineer, Boston, nth 
Mass. Regt., second lieutenant, first lieutenant, captain, Sept. 20, 1861 to Oct. 27, 
1864, at which date he died of wounds received at Hatcher's Run, Va. 

The fall parade, October 2, 1853, included an excursion to Bellow's 
Falls, Vt., where the company received a most hospitable reception. 

On March 30, 1854, the remains of Jonathan Harrington, the last 

survivor of the men who were in arms at the Lexington fight, were borne 

to an honored grave by a vast concourse. A detail of the company, with 

its commissioned officers in full tmiform, took part i:i the burial of the 

last Minute-man. 

In 1854 the following members were admitted: James G. Miller, builder, Bos- 
ton, quartermaster-sergeant ist Mass. Regt., May 25, 1862. 27th U. S. Vols., captain 
and colonel Oct. 19, 1863, to Nov. 22, 1864; Samuel N. Neat, trunks, Boston, 13th 
Mass. Regt., first lieutenant July 16, 1861, captain, June 28, 1862, to Feb. i, 1863, died 
Oct. 5, 1866; John X. Nye, druggist, Boston, 13th Mass. Regt., July 16, 1861, captain 
79th U. S. v., colored, mustered out July 28, 1864; Isaac F. Shepard, bank treasurer, 
Boston, assistant adjutant-general, Missouri, 1861, on staff of Generals Sweeny and 
Lyon, was severely wounded at Wilson's Creek, lieutenant-colonel 19th Missouri Regt., 
Aug. 30, 1861, colonel 3d Missouri Regt., Jan. 19, 1862, colonel 57th U. S. Vols., 
colored. May 8, 1863, brigadier-general Oct. 27, 1863, died at Bellingham, Mass., Aug. 
25, 1889; "Dan" Simpson, born Sept. 29. 1790, the veteran drummer of the company, 
drummed for Captain Spencer's Company in Windsor, Me., in 1800, went with the 
New England Guards on coast defence in 1812, only drummer marching with the 
troops in the Broad Street Riot. 1836; drummed continuously for the New England 
Guards over fifty years, kept the Green Dragon Tavern, and died July 8, 1886, when 
nearly ninety-six years old. George A. Batchelder, Boston, 22d Mass. Regt., lieuten- 
ant and captain Oct. i, 1861, to Oct. 17, 1864, paymaster, with rank of major, U. S. 
Vols., March 7, 1865, to Oct. 5, 1865, died May, 1875; Joseph A. Dalton, tanner, 
Salem, 40th Mass. Regt., major, Aug. 20, lieutenant-colonel Sept. 2, 1862, discharged 
Jan. 25, 1864; Edward W. Hinks, painter, Cambridge, 8th Mass. Regt., lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel 1861. colonel 19th Mass Regt., 1861, brigadier-general Nov. 19, 
1862, brevet major-general U. S. Vols.. March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war. resigned June 30, 1865. lieutenant-colonel 40th U. S. Infantry 
July 28, i865, breveted colonel and brigadier-general. U. S. A., and retired Dec. 15, 
1870, having been actively engaged in fourteen battles and wounded four times, died 
Feb. 14,1894; John G. Hovey, Boston. 13th Mass. Regt., first lieutenant and captain, 
July 16, 1861, to Jan. 7, 1864; Edward F. Jones, manufacturer, Binghampton, N. Y.. 
colonel 6th Mass. Regt., led the march t 1 Washington, through Baltimore, April 19, 
I 861, raised 26th Mass. Regt., colonel Aug. 28, 1861, to July 27, 1865, breveted briga- 



dier-general U. S. Vols., March 13, 1865; Josiah F. Kennison, merchant, Boston, ?8th 
Mass. Regt., lieutenant Aug. 9, 1862, to Oct. 12, 1863, engaged in ten great battles, 
Army of the Potomac. 

In 1S54, twenty members volunteered to serve the new artillery 
jiieces, which were completely furnished with limbers and caissons. They 
were armed with the short Roman sword of the United States Artillery, 
and wore a dark coat, pantaloons, and uniform hat. The new armory 

Painted by Chappie. 


Front ait oLl cngraviitg. 

rooms were occupied on April 10. Oa the 216th anniversary there were 
forty-four men on parade besides the artillery department. 

In 1855, these recruits were secured: Moses G. Cobb, lawyer, Charlestown, 
raised Cobb's (2d Mass.) Light Battery in 1861. He was succeeded by Ormond F. 
Nims, druggist, Boston, captain 2d Mass. Battery, July 31, 1861, to Jan. 7, 1865. 
Through the efforts of General B. F. Butler his splendid services in the Department 
of the Gulf were recognized, and Captain Nims was promoted (1866-67) major, lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and colonel, U. S. Vols., "for gallant and meritorious services during the 
war"; James A. Fox, 13th Mass., captain, July 29, 1861, to Aug. 14, 1842 ; Edwaid J. 
Jones, lawyer, Boston, nth Mass. Battery, captain, 1861-65, brevetted major "for con- 
spicuous gallantry " at Fort Stedman, Va., March 25, 1865; Forrester A. Pelby, Bos- 
ton, sergeant, lieutenant, captain, ist Mass. May 24, 1861, to Sept. 25, 1863; Eben P. 
Stanwood, 48th Mass., captain, Sept. 12, 1862, lieutenant-colonel, July 2 to Sept. 3, 
1863; Moses P. S'anwood, West Newbury, 19th Mass., captain, Aug. 22 to Oct. 21, 1861; 
Charles B. Stevens, Cambridge, 47th Mass., lieutenant, Oct. 27, 1862, discharged, Sept. 
I, 1863, died, Dec. 30, 1896; Porter D. Tripp, Eastern SS. Co., Boston, lith Mas's.. 
captain, June 13, 1861, major, Oct. 11, lieutenant-colonel, Aug. 30, 1862, mustered 
out, June 24, 1864. 

At the 317th annual election, June 4, 1855, seventy-five members 
paraded, including the " Light Artillery Detachment." 

In 1856, these were elected members: Hawkes Fearing, Jr., clothing, Boston, 
lieutenant colonel 4th Regt. M.V.M., in 1861, was colonel 8th N. H., Sept. 24, 1861, to 
Jan. 18, 1S65, wounded at Bisland, La., in April, 1863: Atherton H. Stevens, Jr., grocer. 


Boston, ist Mass. Cavalry, captain, major, Sept. i6, 1861, to May 7, 1865, served on 
staff under Generals Terry and Weitzel, received the formal surrender of Richmond, 
Va., from Major Mayo, and raised his company's guidons as the first national colors 
flown after its capture, April 3, 1865, died, Nov. 12, 1872. 

The 2 1 8th anntial election and anniversary was celebrated in due 
and ancient form June 2, 1856. Tlie original ode, composed by Thomas 
Parsons, Jr. (iS6i), was especially imbued with the spirit of the founders 
of the company, and was based on the following texts of Scripture: 

'• For the btiilJers everyone had his sword by his side ami so buiUed." — Nelie- 

•■ Except the Lord build the hjiise, they labor in vain that build it.'' — Psalms. 

"Ancient of Days! at thy command 
Our fathers girded on their swords; 
And so, with armor nigh at hand, 
Builded the fabric they had planned. 
And the fair fabric was the Lord's. 

"Oh, may New England never need 
Those armed architects again! 
We pray for peace. But if to lead 
Again be ours where thousands bleed. 
Ancient of Days! be with us then. 

"To us, as to our fathers, be, 
O God ! a buckler and a spear. 
Thou who hast made us great and free. 
Still keep us strong, still true to Thee. 
Give us the faith which knows not fear. 

"Go from God's dwelling-place in peace, 
Ancient and honorable band. 
But ever till the last release, 
When man's and nature's strife shall cease. 
Go! with your armor close at hand." 

The inauguration of the Franklin statue in front of the City Hall, 
Boston, September 17, 1856, was attended by sixty members, with side- 
arms only, acting as escort to the city government. 

In 1857 were admitted : J. Franklin Bates, painter, Boston, 99th New York, cap- 
tain, major, Jan. 17, 1862, to 1864; Joseph H. Bennett, Boston, loth Mass., lieutenant, 
June 22, 1861, to Nov. 25, 1862; David H. Bradlee, clerk, Boston, 13th Mass., adjutant, 
May 30, 1862, to Aug. i, 1864; James C. How, M.D., Haverhill, surgeon of Kentucky 
Cavalry, 1861, 3d N. Y. Heavy Artillery, 1862-65, who was wonderfully beloved by his 
comrades, both officers and men, throughout the entire regiment, died Oct. 6, 1888; 
Carlos P. Messer, grocer, Haverhill, captain, served three months in 1861 in 50th Mass., 
colonel, 7th Mass., July i, 1862, colonel, 50th Mass., Nov. 7, 1862-63; Abner B. Packard, 
Quincy, 4th Mass., colonel, April to July 22, 1861; Daniel J. Preston, Danvers, 35th 
Mass., lieutenant, captain, Aug. 12, 1862, to Dec. 6, 1863, major, 36th U. S. 'V., (colored) 
tn Aug. 29, 1864; Samuel K. Williams, Jr., merchant, Boston, 22d Ohio, lieutenant, 
Aug. 22, 1861, 43d Ohio, lieutenant, June 21, 1862, 2d Independent Bat. Ohio Cavalry, 
captain, Nov. 12 to Aug. i, 1864, captain, 8th 'Veteran Reserves. Discharged on 
account of wounds received in action, April 18, 1865. 

The company bylaws were again revised and adopted, April 29, 




The 219th anniversary was held June i, 1857. Commander Mar- 
shall P. Wilder had addressed a letter to the Prince Consort Albert, then 
caiDtain-general of the Royal Artillery Company of London, setting forth 
the foundation and brief history of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery, 
and asking for any facts which would demonstrate the ancient connection 
between the two Companies. This letter, and Prince Albert's courteous 
reply were read at the annual banquet, by Commander Wilder, who con- 
cluded by offering the following toast: 

"The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, of Boston, to the 
Honourable Artillery Company, of London, sendeth greeting. Filial .salu- 


— Nebemiah. tv.. i8. 

tations and regards, pledges of fidelity and endeavors to honor the high 
prerogative of our birth. Prosperity to the present Company and its 
Royal Commander." 

Amid the applause which greeted the adoption of this sentiment, 
the venerable General John S. Tyler (1822), proposed "That the present 
commander of the Honoitrable Artillery Company of the city of London, 
H. R. H. Prince Albert (then captain-general) be constituted an honorary 
member of this Company." This resolution was carried by acclamation, 
and the greatest enthusiasm, and Prince Albert was duly notified of the 


action of the Company. It added to an already honorable roll the name 
of a prince, whose integrity and wisdom were in strong cont