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Full text of "Regulations of the Virginia Military Institute"

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REGULATIONS 



VA. MILITARY INSTITUTE, 



LEXINGTON, VIRQINIA. 



AN APPENDIX, 

CONTAIKINCr 

EXTRACTS FROM THE GENERAL REGULATIONS OP THE 
ARMY. 



RICHMOND : 

MACFAEXANE & PERaUSSOK. 
1854. 



(i)tktB. 



Virginia Military Institute, ) 
July m, 18.-4. \ 

The following revised Regulations having been pre- 
pared by the Board of Visitors under the authority vested 
in them by law, is directed that they shall be in force 
from and after the 1st day of September next. 

By command of the Board of Visitors, 

FRANCIS H. SMITH. 

Superintendent V. M. I. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Article 1. Organization ...... 23 

II. Admissiox of Cadets .... 27 

III. Uniform, Furniture, &c . . . .31 

IV. Accounts. ...... 32 

V. Course of Instruction. . . . , . 33 

VI. Classification of Cadets and Manner of 

Instruction 37 

VII. General Examinations . . . .38 

VIII. aiERiT Rolls 39 

IX. Leaves of Absence . . . .42 

X, Library . . . . . . 43 

XI. Discipline 44 

XII. Miscellaneous 50 

XIII. Regulations for the Interior Police and 

Discipline of the Institute . . 52 

APPENDIX. — Extracts from the General Regulations 

of the U. S. Army ... 73 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA, 

Inspector (Ex-Ofpicio.) 



BOARD OP VISITORS. 

Col. Wm. B. Taliaferro, President, Gloucester. 

Gen. Wm. H. Richardson, Adj. Genej-al, Richmond. 

Gen. D. B. Latne, .... Alleghany- 

Wm. Seymour, Esq Hardy. 

James Barbour, Esq Culpeper. 

Benj. F. Garrett, Esq. . . . Halifax. 

Col. Benj. R. Floyd, .... Wythe. 

0. W. Langfitt, Esq, , . . . Brooke. 



ACADEMIC STAFF. 

Col. Francis H. Smith, A. M., Superintendent and Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics. 

Maj. J. T. L. Preston, A. M., Professor of Languages 
and English Literature. 

Maj. T. H. Williamson, Professor of Engineering, Ar- 
chitecture and Drawing. 

Maj. Wm. Gilliam, A. M., Professor of Chemistry, In- 
structor of Infantry Tactics and Com't of Cadets. 

Maj. Thomas J. Jackson, Professor of Natural and Ex- 
perimental Philosophy and Instructor of Artillery. 

Maj. R. E. Colston, Professor of French Language. 

Capt. J. W. Allen, Assistant Professor of Mathematics 
and Infantry Tactics. 

Lieut. Daniel Truehart, do. do. do. 

Lieut. Henry A. Whiting, Assistant Professor of Lan- 
guages and Infantry Tactics. 



8 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

A LIST, 

Showing the members of each Board of Visiters to the 
Virginia Military Institute, since its organization 
in 1839. 



1839-40. 

C. Cro7et, President. C. P. Dorman, 

P. C. Johnston, Alfred Leyburn, 

Bernard Peyton, Jld. Genl. James McDowell, 
Thomas H. Botts, Hugh Barclay, 

John F. Wiley, John T. L. Preston, 

1840-41, 

C. Crozet, Prest. C. P. Dorman, 

P. C. Jtjhnston, Alfred Leyburn, 

Bernard Peyton, Ad. Genl. James McDowell, 
Thor'.as H. Botts, Hugh Barclay, 

William Ligon, George H. Lee. 



C. Crozet, Prest., 
P. C. Johnston, 
Thomas H. Botts, 
William Ligon, 
C. P. Dorman, 



C. Crozet, Prest., 
P. C. Johnston, 
Thomas H. Botts, 
William Ligon, 
C. P. Dorman, 



C. Crozet, Prest., 
P. C. Johnston, 



1841-42, 

A. Leyburn, 

John McDowell, 

H. Barclay, 

George H. Lee, 

Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. Gl. 

1342-43. 

, A. Leyburn, 
James McDowell, 
George H. Lee, 
Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. Gl. 
John N. Tazewell. 

1843-44. 

A. Leyburn, 
George H. Lee. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 



9 



Thomas H. Botts. 
William Ligon, 
C. P. Dorm an, 



Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. Gl. 
John N. Tazewell, 
John W. Brockenbrougli, 



C. Crozet, Presi. 
P. C. Johnston, 
Thomas H. Botts, 
William Ligon, 
C. P. Dorman, 



3.84€-'S;5. 



A. Leyburn, 

George H. Lee, 

Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. GL 

John W. Brockenbrough' 

Charles Dimmock. 



1845-6. 

P. C. Johnston, Prest., Robert Wallace, 

C. P. Dorman, Jas. McD. Taylor, vice Lee, 

A. Leyburn, Corbin Braxton, 

George H. Lee, William Daniel, 

Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. G/.George W. Munford, vice 

Dimmock. 
John W. Brockenbrough, W. H. Caruthers, vice 

Brockenbrough. 
C. Dimmock, J. G. Paxton, vice 

Caruthers, 

1346-45'. 

P. C. Johnston, P. St. George Cocke, 

C. P. Dorman, R. A. Thompson, 

Wm H. Richardson, Ad. G/.Inman Horner, 
Corbin Braxton, Presi,, Robert Johnston, 
George W. Munford, John Jordan. 



P. C. Johnston, P. St. George Cocke, 

C. P. Dorman, Robert Johnston, 

Wm. H. Richardson, Ad. Gl.G. Cuthbert Powell, 
Corbin Braxton, Prest., P. H. Steenbergen, 
George W. Munford, W. P. Tunstall. 



10 ' VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 

1848-49. 

W. H. Richardson, Jid. GL, J. B. Floyd, declined, 

Corbin Braxton, Prest.. Geo. W. Thompson, 

Geo. W. Munford, Ed. P. Scott, 

P. St. Geo. Cocke, Wm. H. Terrill, 

P. H. Steenbergen, P. C. Johnston, vice Floyd. 

C. J. Faulkner, 

2.849-50. 

W. H. Richardson, ^d. GL, John S. Barbour, Sr., 

Corbin Braxton, Prest., D. B. Layne, 

P. St. Geo. Cocke, Jno. M. Daniel, declined, 

P. H. Steenbergen. Harvey George, 

C. J. Faulkner, W. W. Crump, vice Daniel. 

E. P. Scott, 

1850-51. 

W. H. Richardson, Ad. GL, Douglas B. Layne, 
Corbin Braxton, Harvey George, 

P. St. Geo. Cocke, Prest., W. W. Crump, 
P. H. Steenbergen, E. C. Robiuson. 

C. J. Faulkner, 

1851-52. 

W. H. Richardson, Ad. GL, Geo. Blow, Jr., 
P. St. Geo. Cocke, Prest., Robt. W. Baylor, 

D. B. Layne, P. Henry Aylett, 

W. W. Crump, W. A. Street, rice Crump, 

A. J. O'Bannon, J. G. Stringer. 

1852-53. 

W. H. Richardson, »/?rf. GL, J. F. Snodgrass, declined, 

D. B. Layne, Sam. V. Fulkerson, 

W. B. Taliaferro, Rob. A. Gray, 

W. A. Streit, Saml. F. Hays, vice Snod- 

Fran. M. Boykin, [grass. 

Geo. W. Brent, 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 11 

1853-54, 

W. H. Richardson, Ad. Gl. Sam. F. Hays, 
D. B. Layne, W. Seymour, 

W. B. Taliaferro, James Barbour, 

F. M. Boykin, Prest., Benj. F. Garrett, 

Sam. V. Fulkerson, 

1854-55. 

W. H. Richardson, M. Gl. W. Seymour, 

D. B. Layne, James Barbour, 

W. B. Taliaferro, Prest., B. F. Garrett, 

F. M. Boykin, B. R. Floyd, 

Sam. F. Hays, 0. W. Langfitt, vice Hays. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE COURSE OF STUDIES 



AT THE 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE 







STUDIES. 


TEXT BOOKS. 




to 


Arithmetic. 


Smith and Duke. 




->! 


Algebra and Geometry. 


Smith, Legendre. 


1st. year. 


o 


English Grammar. 


Bullion. 




a 


Geography. 


Mitchell. 






French. 


Levizac, Gil Bias. 






Trigonometry. 


Legendre. 






Analytical Geometry. 


Smith's Biot. 




CO 


Descriptive Geometry. 


Davies. 




^ 


Shades, Shadows and Perspective. 


Lectures. 


2d. year. 




Differential and Integral Calculus. 


Church. 




Q 


French. 


Gil Bias and Picot. 




CO 


Latin. 

Drawing, Landscape. 


Cffisarand Virgil. 




05 


Mechanics, Optics, and Astronomy 


Bartlett. 


3d. year. 




Chemistry. 
Latin. 


Rogers, Turner. 
Horace, I^ivy, Terence. 




C4 


Drawing, Topography and Linear. 








Geology and Mineralogy. 


Hitchcock and Dana. 






Military and Civil Engineering. 


Mahan and Williamson. 




m 


Rhetoric. 


Blair, Whateley and Lectures. 




1^ 


English Literature. 


Chambers. 


4th. year. 


u 


Infantry Tactics. 


Scott. 




H 


Artillery Tactics. 


Army and Kingsbury. 




■-I 


Agricultural Chemistry. 


Norton and Lectures. 






Moral Philosophy. 


Paley. 



Cadets are assigned to classes, according to their previous 
preparation, except that no cadet can enter a higher class than 
the second. 

The cadets are daily practised in military exercises, at such 
hours as shall not interfere with their regular studies. 



CODE OF VIRGINIA. 

CHAPTER XXXIT. 

MILITARY SCHOOL AND LEXINGTON ARSENAL. 



1. The Military School established in the county of 
Rockbridge, near the town of Lexington, shall be contin- 
ued under the name of " The Virginia Military Institute," 
and for the support of the said school, the sura of seven 
thousand seven hundred and ten dollars shall be annually 
paid out of the public treasury, and in addition thereto, 
fifteen hundred dollars shall be paid out of the surplus 
revenue of the Literary Fund, as directed by the sixth 
section of the seventy-ninth chapter. 

2. There shall be a Board of Visitors for the Institution 
composed of the Adjutant .General and eight other per- 
sons, two of whom shall be, annually, appointed by the 
Governor of each Grand Division of the State. 

3. The Board shall meet at the Institution. A meet- 
ing shall be held, annually, at such time as may have been 
designated for their annual meeting in their last resolution 
on the subject. A meeting may also be called at any 
time by the Adjutant General, or by the Superintendent 
of the Institution, when either may deem it advisable. 
And the Board may adjourn from time to time. 

4. Any vacancy in the Board of Visitors shall be com- 
municated by the Adjutant General to the Governor, who 
shall forthwith supply the same. 

5. Such reasonable expenses as the Visitors may incur 
in the discharge of their duties, shall be allowed by the 
Governor, and paid by warrant on the treasury. 

6. The Board may make by-laws and regulations, not 
inconsistent with the laws of the State, for their own 



16 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

government and the management of the affairs of the 
Institution, and may, for the purpose of transacting such 
business as in its opinion can be properly transacted, by 
a less number than the majority, authorize not less than 
four members to constitute a quorum. 

7. The Arsenal and all its grounds and buildings shall 
be considered as belonging to the Institution, and the 
Board shall cause the same and all the arms and other 
property therein, or belonging thereto, to be guared and 
preserved. 

8. They may expend, annually, a sum not exceeding 
five hundred dollars in erecting, altering, or repairing 
buildings, so as to have such as maybe suitable and pro- 
per for the Military School. 

9. The Board shall, annually, appoint a Treasurer, who 
shall give bond, vi^ilh sufficient sureties, in the penalty of 
fifteen thousand dollars, payable to the Commonwealth, 
conditioned for the performance of the duties of his of- 
fice ; which bond, being approved by the Board, and 
entered at large upon its journal, shall be transmitted to 
the first Auditor and remain filed in his office. 

10. The Treasurer shall, annually, on or before the 
first day of December, in each year, make a detailed re- 
port of his accounts to the Board of the Literary Fund, 
to be by them reported to the General Assembly. The 
Board of Visitors shall cause a careful examination of 
the accounts, and a full settlement thereof to be made 
at least once a year. 

11. The Board of Visitors shall appoint Professors to 
give instruction in Military Science, and in such other 
branches of knowledge as they may deem proper ; shall 
fix the salaries of the Professors, and may remove them 
for good cause ; but no order for the removal of a Pro- 
fessor shall be made without the concurrence therein of 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 17 

a majority of the whole number of Visitors; and the 
Board shall forthwith communicate to the Governor a 
full statement of the reasons on which the removal was 
made. 

12. They shall prescribe the terms upon which Cadets 
may be admitted, their number, the course of their in- 
struction, the nature of their service, and the duration 
thereof, which shall not be less than two nor more than 
five years. All so admitted shall make full compensation, 
except such as are provided for in the following section. 

13. They shall admit as State Cadets, free of charge 
for board and tuition, upon evidence of fair moral char- 
acter, not less than thirty-two young men, who shall 
not be less than sixteen, nor more than twenty-five 
years of age. [n their admission strict regard shall be 
had to the proportionate population of each of the four 
Grand Divisions of the State, taking in the first place 
one from each senatorial district offering a suitable per- 
son. In event of any division not furnishing its propor- 
tion, the Board of Visitors, after giving due notice of 
such deficiency, may fill the vacancy from any other 
division. 

14. The Board may enter into an arrangement with 
the Trustees of the Washington College, by which the 
Cadets at the Military School, and the Students at the 
College, may respectively be admitted to the advantages 
of instruction provided at either place. 

15. Any commissioned officer of the militia of this 
State, may become a student at the Institute for a period 
of time not exceeding ten months, and receive instruc- 
tion in any or all of the departments of military science 
taught therein, without being required to pay any fee or 
charge for tuition. 

16. The Cadets shall be a military corps under the 



18 VIRGINIA MILITARY IlfSTITUTE. 

command of the Superintendent, and constitute the 
Guard of the Institution. 

17. The Superintendent shall, from time to time, in- 
spect the arms at the arsenal ; cause the same to be kept 
safe and clean ; give receipts for such arms as may be 
brought there to be deposited, and obey such orders for 
the delivery of arms therefrom as he may receive from 
the Governor, as directed by the twenty-seventh chapter. 

18. The Superintendent shall, annually, by the fii*st 
day of October, make a return to the Adjutant General, 
showing the names, and the number of the officers and 
Cadets at the Institute, distinguishing those between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five, and showing also the 
public arms, ordnance, equipments, and accoutrements 
at the Arsenal, and under the charge of the same corps. 

19. The Governor of the State, and the Board of 
Visitors, and Faculty of the Institute, may confer the 
degree of graduate upon any Cadet found qualified to 
receive it, after examination upon all the branches of the 
arts and sciences and literature taught at the Institute. 

20. Every Cadet who, since the eighth day of March, 
eighteen hundred and forty-two, has been, or hereafter 
shall be, received on State account, and shall have re- 
mained in the Institution during the period of two years 
or more, shall act in the capacity of teacher in some 
school within the State, for two years after leaving the 
Institution, unless excused by the Board of Visitors ; 
but this section shall not be construed so as to deprive 
such Cadet of any of the compensation which he may 
be able to obtain for teaching. 

21. The Board of Visitors shall, annually, inspect the 
public arms and other property at the Arsenal, and make 
a report of their condition and of the condition of the 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 19 

school to the Governor, to be by him laid before the 
General Assembly. 

22. Commissions shall be issued to the Superinten- 
dent, Professor, and Assistant Professor of Tactics at the 
Institute, corresponding with those of Colonel, Major, 
and Captain of the United States Corps of Engineers. 
Such commission shall confer no rank in the Militia, nor 
entitle any person holding the same, to any pay or emol- 
ument by reason thereof. 

23. There shall be enlisted in the public guard a Ser- 
geant to serve as an Ordnance or Quartermaster Sergeant 
at the Institute ; he shall be borne on the roll of the 
guard, paid as other soldiers of the guard are paid, and 
when in service at the Institute, be under the control of 
the officers thereof. 

24. The Superintendent of the Institute may enlist 
musicians for service at the post, to be paid out of the 
annual appropriation heretofore provided. 



1* 



REGULATIONS 



VIRGINIA MIHTAEY INSTITUTE. 



REGULATIONS 



VIRGINIA MILITAEY INSTITUTE, 



ARTICLE I. 

ORGANIZATION. 

L A permanent Superintendent, appointed by the Board of 
Visitors will have the immediate government of the Institution, 
and be held responsible for its correct management. He will 
direct the Academic duties and field exercises ; and all profes- 
sors, Academic officers. Instructors and Cadets, shall be under 
his conunand. He vrill render all estimates and communica- 
tions to the Board of Visitors, and ■will report to the Adjutant 
General on or before the 1st of October in each year, the num- 
ber of officers, cadets and other persons on duty at the Institu- 
tion, vrith a full return of the number, and condition of the 
public arms on deposite in the State Arsenal. 

2. The Superintendent will be required to give to the Board 
of Visitors sis months previous notice before resignation, and 
other professors and teachers three months. 

3. The Professors and teachers shall receive every mark of 
respect, to which their rank and office may entitle them, respec- 
tively ; but no Professor, Assistant Professor, or Teacher, shall 
receive any fee, present or reward from any Cadet of the Insti- 
tute. 

4. The Professors shall rank according to date of academic 
appointment in all academic details and duties, and according 
to military grade in all details for military duty. 

5. All the pupils shall be styled Cadets. The Superintendent 
is authorized to detail m many Cadets to act as Assistant Pro- 



24 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

fessors as may be required, and the appointment shall he con- 
sidered an honorable distinction. 

6. An Academic Board for the transaction of business shall 
be constituted as follows, — the Superintendent and the Profes- 
sors of each separate department, of Trhich Board the Superin- 
tendent shall be President. 

7. During the examination of any C'las.s or Section, the im- 
mediate instrvictor shall act as a member of the Board. 

8. Any member of the Academic Staff, not a member of the 
Board, may be required by the Superintendent in the name of 
the Board to attend its meetings and to give information, or to 
express an opinion, but not to rote in the decisions of the Aca- 
demic Board. 

9. A member of the Academicf Stafi" shall Ije designated l)y 
the Superintendent as Secretary of the Academic Board, 1)V 
whom its proceedings shall be fully and fairly transcribed. 

10. It shall be the duty of the Academic Board to designate 
the Class Book to be used in each department of instruction, to 
recommend for pvirchase all such books, maps, models, and ap- 
paratus as may be required for purposes of instruction ; to ex- 
amine cadets and decide on their merits, and recommend to the 
Board of Visitors such as are qualified to receive diplomas. 

11. It shaU be the duty -of each member of the Academic 
Board to keep a note of the Examination of each Cadet, and 
vote upon the merits of every Cadet, when the Class standing 
is assigned. 

12. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent at each annual 
examination to lay before the Board of Visitors a table shewing 
the Class marks and number of absences from recitation of each 
Cadet in each department of instruction, indicating in such 
table the names of those cadets deemed by their Professor of 
doubtful proficiency. Any of those Cadets passing an unsatis- 
factory examination shall be pronounced deficient. 

13. No member of the 1st Class pronounced deficient by the 
Academic Board shall receive a diploma. 

14. A Treasurer shall annually be appointed b}* the Board of 
Visitors with such compensation as they may deem sufficient, 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 25 

who shall give bond and security for the faithful performance 
of his duty. All funds lielonging to the Institute, and all de- 
posits made on account of tlie Cadets, shall he deposited in the 
Lexington Savings' Institirfion to the credit of the Treasurer of 
the Institute, the certificates of deposit Ijeing filed in the Superin- 
tendent's office. The Treasurer shall keep separate accounts 
\Yith the various departments of the Institute and Cadets, and 
all debts and credits to these accounts shall be made upon the 
order of the Superintendent. Xo money shall be drawn from 
the funds of the Institute or from the deposits of the Cadets 1;>ut 
upon the order of the Superintendent, and a check drawn by 
the Treasurer and countersigned by the Superintendent. The 
Treasurer's account shall be subject to the revisal and approval 
of the Superintendent. lie-shall make a monthly balance sheet 
showing the condition of the Treasury for the xise of the Super- 
intendent. He shall make an abstract of all cash payments 
made on account of the Cadets for the use of the officers charged 
with keeping the check books of the Cadets. He shall return 
to the Superintendent on the 15tli of June, annually, all re- 
ceipts for payments made on account of Cadets. He shall make 
annuallj- a detailed report, to be laid before the Superintendent 
setting forth all payments and receipts on account of the Insti- 
tute, separating, in distinct accounts, those belonging to the 
Institute proper, the Quarter master. Commissary, &c., with the 
necessary vouchers, and make such a consolidated exhibit as 
shall show the actual condition of the public funds. 

15. TJie Quarter Masta-, who shall be appointed annually by 
the Board shall have in charge the supplies furnished to the 
Cadets and shall issue them upon orders given by the Superin- 
tendent at prices fixed by the Board of Visitors. He shall keep 
correct accounts of all supplies which he may receive and of all 
articles furnished to the cadets, separating in both accounts, the 
several species of articles. He shall keep an account against 
the Treasurer, in which he shall charge that officer with all the 
articles delivered to the Cadets at their proper prices and shall 
enter therein all proper credits to the Treasurer which may 
arise in the department. He shall annually prepare a detailed 



26 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

report of his transactions for the preceding year, together Tvith 
an inventory of the property remaining in his hands and its 
cost, to be laid before the Board of Visitors by the Superintendent. 

16. A Commissary of Subsistence, shall be annually appoint- 
ed by the Board of Visitors, vrith such compensation as they 
may deem sufficient, Avhose duty it shall be to receive all sup- 
plies of provisions, &c., furnished for the Steward's department, 
issue them upon requisition made hj the Steward and counter- 
signed l)y the Superintendent. He shall keep accurate accounts 
of all expenses of the Steward's department and make a quar- 
terly statement thereof to the Superintendent. He shall annu- 
ally make a detailed report of the operations of his department 
for the preceding year to be laid before the Board of Visitors 
by the Superintendent, together with an inventory of the prop- 
erty on hand and its value. 

17. A Steward shall be annually appointed by the Board of 
Visitors with such compensation as they may deem sufficient ; 
whose duty it shall be to see that the provisions furnished by 
the Commissai'y of Subsistence are properly cooked and served 
up. He shall make weekly requisitions upon the Commissar}- 
for the necessary supplies for the Mess Hall and be held accoun- 
table for them. He shall be responsible for the public property 
belonging to the Mess HaU, see that the servants attached 
thereto discharge their duties and keep the Mess Hali and its 
appurtenances at all times in a thorough state of police. Should 
any provisions furnished by the Commissary be imsound or unfit 
for use, he shall immediately report the fact to the Board of 
Survey. He shall report all violations of the ^Mess Hall regu- 
lations coming under his observations and control to the Com- 
mandant of Cadets. 

18. Three senior officers next in rank to the Superintendent, 
shall constitute a Board of Survc)/, whose duty it shall be to 
inspect all provisions reported unsound h\ the Steward, make 
regular visitations of the Mess Hall, by a detail of one of its 
members, and report to the Superintendent such modifications 
in the existing regulations as experience may dictate fiir the 
order of the Hall and for the comfort of the Cadets. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 27 

19. The Superintendent shall keep a register, in Avhich shall 
be recorded the name of every Cadet, as soon as he shall enter 
the Institute, with his age and height and the County, Senato- 
rial District and Constitutional Division of the State from whicli 
he may come ; a transcript of vrhich so far as may relate to tho 
Cadets for the time being, shall be transmitted to the Adjutant 
General with a Report of the Semi- Annual examination to be 
held before the Governor. 

20. A Sibrgeon shall be appointed for the Institute by tii? 
Board of Visitors at their annual meeting. He shall hold his 
oflBce one year ; shall be subject to removal for cause at any 
time by the Board ; and in this case the Board so removing, 
shall appoint another for the residue of his term ; he shall 
promptly and faithfully attend in person upon the Cadets, at 
the Institute, whenever called upon professionally for that pur- 
pose by any of the officers of the Institute ; shall, at the requi- 
sition of the Commanding officer, make careful examination into, 
and report in writing upon the health of any Cadet, who, com- 
plaining of sickness, may ask on that account to be relieved 
from any of his duties ; and he shall generally do whatsoever 
is proper to be done by him as health officer of the Institution. 
For the services so rendered in person, unless himself sick, and 
then by some competent physician at his expense, he shall re- 
ceive in full compensation the payment provided by the Board. 



AETICLE II. 

ADMISSION OF CADETS. 

21. All applications for admission into the Virginia Military 
Institute, as Cadets, shall be addressed to the Superintendent, 
accompanied by wi'itten testimonials of fair moral character, and 
of the claims and other qualifications of the applicant, on or 
before the 20th of June in each year ; and the candidates selec- 
ted by the Board will be required to repair to Lexington forth- 
ivith and report themselves to the Superintendent. 

22. Admissions will not be allowed at any other time except 

2 



38 HEOrLATIONS rOR THE 

to fill vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, or dismissal, 
or vrhen tlio candidate nia}^ have been prevented by sickness or 
other unavoidable cause from reporting himself at the time 
mentioned in the previous regulation ; in vrhich case he shall 
be examined as soon after he has so reported himself as may be 
convenient. 

23. Each candidate before he is admitted into the Institute, 
as a Cadet, or Student, must be able to read and write well, and 
to perform with facility and accuracy the various operations of 
the four ground rules of Arithmetic, of reduction, of simple 
and compound proportion, and of vulgar and decimal fractions. 

24. Candidates for admission will be examined by the Aca- 
demic Board, and assigned to such Class as their proficiency in 
their studies shall warrant. 

25. No Cadet shall be admitted who is less than sixteen or 
more than twenty-five years of age, or who is below five feet in 
height, or deformed, or afflicted with any disease or infirmity 
which Avould render him unfit for military service ; or who may 
bring with him at the time of presenting himself any disorder 
of an infectious or immoral character. 

26. The term of service of the State Cadets shall noi be less 
than three years, except in those cases in which from previous 
preparation, he may be able to graduate in two years : for other 
Cadets, not less than two years ; but no Cadet shall remain lon- 
ger than five years ; and each Cadet when ho enters the Insti- 
tute shall subscribe in a book to be kept for that purpose, the 
following matriculation promise: — " I hereby engage fo sen's as 
a Cadet in ike Virginia Military Insiitute for tJie term for icJiich 
I have entered, and I promise on honor, white I continue a mem- 
ber thereof to obey all legal orders of the constituted authorities 
of the Institute and to discharge all my duties as Cadet iciih reg- 
ularity and fidelity" And if a State Cadet : — " I further prom.- 
ise to serve in the capacity of a teacher in some one of the Schools 
of the Comviomcealth, for the term of two years, after finishing 
my course at the Institute, uJiless excused by the Board of Visi- 
tors." 

27. Whenever vacancies shall occur in the corps of Cadots. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 39 

whether by resignation or otherwise, or when any uf the Con- 
stitutional Divisions shall not furnish their full proportions of 
State Cadets, the Senatorial District or Districts entitled to sup- 
ply such vacancy or deficiency, shall have due notification of 
the fact, and if within sixty days no application shall be recei- 
ved from such district or districts, then appointments shall be 
made from the State at large. 

28. In the admission of Cadets other than State Cadets, a 
strict regard shall be had to the proportionate population of the 
four great Constitutional Divisions of the State, taking in the 
first place one from each Senatorial District offering one ; but, 
in the event that any of these Constitutional Divisions shall not 
furnish their duo proportion of such Cadets, the full number 
that may be received at the Institute may be made up by the 
Board of Visitors from the applications from any other of such 
Constitutional Divisions, provided that public notice shall have 
been previously given by advertisement of the probable number 
of vacancies. 

29. If, after the appointment of a State Cadet, it should ap- 
pear that his parent or guardian is able to support him as a pay 
Cadet, he shall be immediately transferred to this Class of Ca- 
dets, and his vacancy filled in accordance vsith the Regulations. 

30. No Cadet discharged from the Institute shall be reap- 
pointed or restored under any circumstances, unless application 
is made to the Board of Visitors to reconsider his case, and it 
can be clearly shown that his case was misunderstood. 

31. No Student under sentence of suspension, dismission or 
espulsion from any other Institution, shall be received as a 
Cadet or Student of the Institute ; unless in such cases as may 
seem to the Board of Visitors to form proper exceptions to this 
rule. 

32. "When an applicant shall be selected for admission, his 
selection shall be immediately communicated to him by the 
President of the Board of Visitors, together with such of the 
regulations as relate to admission. 

33. No married person will be appointed a Cadet at the Mil- 
itary Institute ; and if any cadet shall be married while there. 



lid REGULATIONS FOR THE 

such marriage shall be considered as equivalent to a resignation 
and he will leave the Institute. 

34. Each selected candidate vdll be required to bring -vs-ith 
him, or provide before his admission, the following articles : 

2 pairs Monroe Shoes. 

2 pairs white Berlin Gloves. 

7 Shirts. 

7 pairs yarn or worsted Socks. 

7 pairs cotton Socks. 

4 Pocket Handkerchiefs. 

6 Towels. 

1 Clothes Bag made of ticking. 

1 Clothes Brush. 

1 Hair Brush. 

1 Comb. 

2 Pillow Cases. 

2 pairs Sheets for single bed. 

1 pairs Blankets for single bed. 

1 Comfort for bed. 

6 pairs white Pantaloons — canvass drilling. 

35. The board, washing, fuel, lights, beds and mathematical 
instruments vdll be furnished by the Institute. 

36. Cadets, other than State Cadets, shall defray their own 
espenses, and in addition shall pay annually in advance for in- 
struction in the Institute the sum of S50. 

37. Each Cadet will be required to deposit semi-annually in 
advance with the Treasurer, a sum sufficient to cover his expen- 
ses for 6 months ; and upon the failure of any Cadet to make 
the deposits above mentioned, for the space of six weeks after 
the time required, such Cadet shall be required to withdra,w, at 
the discretion of the Superintendent. 

38. The Superintendent shall make all contracts on behalf of 
the Board of Visitors, and for the Cadets, for supplying the 
Cadets with board, fuel, candles, washing, and other necessary 
articles ; and in no case will it be allowable for a Pay Cadet io 
pay a larger sum for boarding than is paid for the State Cadets. 

39. All moneys for the use of the Cadets must be remitted 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 31 

directly to the Superintendent. Any Cadet who shall violate 
this regulation, or whose parent or guardian shall pay any debt 
contracted by him during Ins connexion with the Institute, and 
in violation of its Rules, shall be subject to immediate discharge. 
40. For all expenses, except the fees for tuition and medical 
attendance, every Cadet leaving the Institute, before the expi- 
ration of the period for which he has made an advance, shall 
receive the unexpended balance. 



ARTICLE III. 

UNIFORM, FURNITURE, &C. 

41. Each Cadet shall keep himself supplied at all times, in 
addition to the articles of clothing which he is required to bring 
with him, with the following, viz : 

42. One light gray cloth Coatee, single breasted, with three 
rows of eight gilt convex buttons in front, impressed with the 
arms of the State of Virginia, and blind button holes of black 
silk cord in the herring bone form, with a festoon turned at the 
back end ; a standing collar trimmed with black silk braid to 
fit the neck and to hook in front, and a yellow Virginia button 
on each side — mth a blind button hole like the foregoing — cuffs 
four inches wide, to be indented mth three buttons, and cord- 
holes likewise on each sleeve, in the centre of which is to be in- 
serted the lower button — the bottom of the breast and hip but- 
tons to range — similar cord holes to proceed from three buttons 
placed lengthways on the skirts, with three buttons down the 
plaits. 

One Surtout Coat of grey cloth, of the same color with that 
for the coatee, and of such pattern, as shall be prescribed by the 
Superintendent. 

43. One grey cloth Vest for winter, of the same color with 
the coatee, single breasted, flat gilt buttons, trimmed with black 
silk lace and standing collar. 

44. Two white Vests for summer, of the same pattern. Two 



32 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

pairs of grey cloth Pantaloons for winter, with a black cloth 
stripe one and a half inches wide, do-wn the outer seam. 

45. Four pairs of plain white Russian drilling Pantaloons for 
summer, without trimmings. 

46. One fatigue Jacket of imbleachcd Russian drilling, ^^ith 
a stand collar, one flat gilt button on each side of the collar, 
half ail inch in diameter, and eight similar buttons down the 
front. 

47. One dress and one forage Cap, to be made by a pattern 
directed by the Superintendent. 

48. One black Stock — two sets white Belts, two inches wide — 
and one Account Book. 

49. The dress of the Superintendent, and Professors, which 
shall be always worn when on dutj', will conform to that of the 
corps of Engineers of the United States' Army, except the but- 
ton, which shall be the same with that prescribed for the INIilitia 
of the State. 

50. All articles of uniform, clothing, and equipments, shall 
be made in strict conformity to patterns and of materials ap- 
proved by the Superintendent. 

51. No other dress than that which is prescribed, shall be 
worn by the Cadets or kept in their possession. 

52. Each Cadet will unite with his room-mates in purchasing, 
for their common use, necessary room furniture. 

53. Every Cadet is prohibited to sell or otherwise dispose of 
his clothing, books, or anj^ other article which he may have 
purchased for his ovrai use, without permission. 



ARTICLE IV. 

ACCOUNTS. 



54. No Cadet shall contract any debt without permission of 
the Superintendent. 

55. Every Cadet shall keep a book, in which shall be charged 
every article he may purchase. This book shall be examined 
by the Superintendent. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 33 

56. No Cadet shall obtain from the Superintendent an order 
for goods or money, unless there be a balance due to the said 
Cadet, in the hands of the Treasurer, equal to the amount of 
such order. 

57. The Treasurer shall keep an account open with each Ca- 
det for whom money shall have been deposited in his hands, in 
which he shall be credited, with the sum so deposited and 
charged with the sums paid to his creditors and for such dis- 
bursements proper receipts shall be taken by the Treasurer and 
kept on file in his office. 

58. Any Cadet will be permitted to inspect his accounts and 
the public records on application for that purpose during office 
hours. 



ARTICLE V. 

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. 

59. The studies which shall be pursued and the instruction 
which shall be given at the Military Institute, are comprised 
under the following heads : 

1st. Infantry Tactics and Military Police. 

2nd. Mathematics. 

3rd. The French Language. 

4th. The Latin Language. 

5th. Drawing. 

6th. Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology. 

7th. Natural and Experimental Philosophy. 

8th. English Language and Literature, Logic, &c. 

9th. Artillery Tactics, the science of Gunnery, and the duties 
of a IMilitary Labaratory. 

10th. Military and Civil Engineering and Civil Architecture 

11th. Geography. 

INFANTRV TACTICS AND iMILITARY POLICE. 

60. This course will conform to the system of Infantry Tac- 
tics and Military Police established for the government of the 



34 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

Army, and will embrace the schools of the soldier, company, 
and battalion, the evolutions of the line, the manual exercises, 
and manoeuvres, of Light Infantry and Kiflemen together with 

the police of camp and garrison. 

MATHEMATICS. 

Gl. This course vrill comprehend Algebra, Plane and Solid 
Geometry, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Mensuration, De- 
scriptive Geometry with its application to Shades, Shadows, and 
Perspective, Analytical Geometry, Differential and Integral Cal- 
cnlus. 

THE FREXCH LANGUAGE. 

62. French Grammar, reading French with a correct pronun- 
ciation and translating French into English and English into 
French accurately. 

THE LATIN LANGUAGE. 

63. Latin Grammar, Etymology, — construction of the lan- 
guage, prosody, — oral and written translations. 

DRAWING. 

64. Embracing instruction in topography, delineating the face 
of a country for the purposes of both military and Civil Engi- 
neering, pencil and pen topography for daily use, and Colored 
Topography for Bureaus Maps. 

Industrial Drawing, explains to the artisan all the details of 
the various works of Enginearing, Architecture, and the In- 
dustrial Arts. These drawings are colored for the purpose of 
distinguishing the various materials used in construction, wood, 
iron, stone, &c. 

Pencil Draiving, embraces instruction in Landscape sketch- 
ing — the Human figures and animals. 

CIIEIIISTRY MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. 

65. Chemical Philosophy, including the theory and practice 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 35 

of analysis and the Examination of Vegetable and Animal pro- 
ductions, Electricity and Galvanism. 

Application of Chemistry to the arts of agriculture, tanning, 
dyeing, hleacliing, gilding, pyroteclmy, &c. 

Mineralogy and Geology, viz : Classification and description 
of mineral substances ; general structure and classification of 
rocks, analysis and use of minerals ; view of the different sys- 
tems of geology and mineralogy, and an account of the miner- 
als and Geology of the United States. 

XATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. 

06, Mechanics, embracing Statics, Dynamics, Hydrostatics. 
Hydrodynamics and Hydrostatics. 
Acoustics. 
Optics. 
Electro Dynamics — embracing magnetism and electro-mag- 
netism, vrith the construction and use of the instruments neces- 
sary to illustrate their principles. 
Astronomy. 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 40. 

67. This course will embrace: 

English Grammar, comprising Orthography, Etymology, Syn- 
tax, and Prosody, with instruction in Com^wsition and Decla- 
mation ; Philosophic Grammar. 

Mental Philosophy, Constitution of the Mind, &c. 

Moral Philosophy, comprising an enquiry into the nature and 
grounds of virtue and moral obligation — our relation to God — 
and duties flowing therefrom, the duties of patriotism, the chief 
relations of mankind to each other, and duties thence arising — 
personal duties, &c. 

Political Science, comprising constitutional laAV of the United 
States and that of the State of Virginia. 

ARTILLERY TACTICS, SCIENCE OF GUNNERY, iC. 

68. Nomenclaiure. and description of the different kinds and 



36 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

parts of artillery ; exercise of the field piece, of mortar, &c., 
manoeuvres of field battery. 

Crunnery — Theory of Gunnery, target practice, with various 
artillery arms. 

Pyrotechny — Manufacture of implements of war. 

JXILITARY AND CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

69. Military Engineering comprehends all that relates to field 
fortification, laying out and constructing forts, lines and other 
entrenchments ; obstacles, ditch defenses, block houses, and to 
the crossing of marshes and rivers, Military bridges, Tvith a 
sketch of the attack and defense of permanent works. 

Civil Engineering, embraces materials, the mechanical prin- 
ciples and the details of construction, in Masonry, Carpentry, 
Foundation in Land and in Water, Bridges, Centres, Roads, 
Drainage, Locomotives, Canals, &c. 

Architecture, continues Masonry and Carpentry, in the con- 
struction of -walls, arches, floors, roofs, &c., and teaches details 
and characteristic forms, -which distinguish the various styles of 
Architecture, Egyptian. Greek, Romanesque and Gothic. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

70. Physical, Descriptive, and Political Geography, Drawing 
of Maps, &c. 

71. During the months of July and August, the Cadets shall 
be encamped, and the instruction shall be eschisively military. 
During the remaining ten months of the year insti-uction shall 
be given in all the courses. 

72. The order of instruction in the several branches of each 
course, and the time to be employed in each branch, shall be 
determined by the Academic Board, under the guidance of ex- 
perience and a just regard to the objects of the Institution. 

73. A detailed programme of the course of instruction in 
each of the foregoing ])ranches, shall be drawn up by the Aca- 
demic Board, and submitted to the Board of Visitors, and when 
approved by them shall regulate the course of instruction in 
which no changes shall be made without their authority. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 37 

ARTICLE VI. 

CLASSIFICATION OF CADETS, AND MANNER OF INSTRUCTION. 

74. The Cadets shall be arranged in four distinct classes, cor- 
responding with the four years of study. The Cadets employed 
in the first year's course, will constitute the Fourth class ; those 
in the second year's course, the Third Class ; those in the third 
year's course, the Second Class, and those in the fourth year's 
course, the First Class. 

75. The Class shall be considered as taking their Commence- 
ment on the 1st July, annually, and at no other time shall a 
Cadet be advanced or transferred from one Class to another, 
unless prevented by sickness or authorized absence from atten- 
ding the annual examination, in which case a special examina- 
tion shall be granted him ; but in no case shall a Cadet be pass- 
ed from one Class to another without a previous examination 
by the Academic Board. 

76. Each Professor and Instructor at the head of a separate 
department, shall be the judge of the proper mode of conveying 
instruction in his o-svn department, and shall be held responsi- 
ble for the correctness of that mode. 

77. Each Instructor having immediate charge of a Class or 
Section of Class, for instruction, shall keep daily notes of its 
progress, and the relative merit of the Students ; and at the 
end of each week he shall report thereon to the Superintendent, 
according to such form as he may prescribe. 

78. The scale of marking daily recitations shall be : for a 
perfect recitation, 3 ; for a total failure, ; intermediate merit 
being indicated by intermediate numbers expressed in tenths. 

79. In preparing his Class reports, each instructor will take 
the greatest number of days that any individual of the section 
has recited, this number multiplied by 3, will be the maximum 
for the week. The total of any individual who has recited the 
greatest number of days, wiU be the sum of his daily marks. 
To obtain the total of any one who has recited a less number 
of days, make the following proportion ; as the number of days 



38 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

he has recited, is to the greatest number of clays, so is the sum 
of his daily marks, to the required total. 

80. From the weekly class reports of each month, a consoli- 
dated report of progress will he made out, quarterly, and an 
abstract thereof forwarded by the Superintendent to the parent 
or guardian of each Cadet, exhibiting his standing for that 
quarter, his health, his deposits with the Treasurer, his debits 
with the Treasurer, the cash on hand or the amount due, as the 
case may be, and the remittance required, if any, to pay ar- 
rears, and for the expenses of the next quarter. 



ARTICLE VII. 

GEXERAL EXAMIXATIOXS. 

81 An annual examination of all the classes, preparatory to 
their advancement, will commence in June of each year ; at 
which time the Cadets shall be examined by the Academic 
Board, in the presence of the Board of Visitors and such other 
literary and scientific gentlemen as may be invited to attend, 
and any others who may choose to be present. 

82. Any Cadet found deficient at the annual examination in 
the studies of his Class, shall not be advanced to the next higher 
class ; and if, in the opinion of the Faculty, his deficiency is to be 
attributed to utter incapacity, or habitual want of application, 
or his conduct be grossly- or generally immoral or improper, his 
case shall be reported to the Board of Visitors, to the end that 
he may be discharged. 

83. A semi-annual examination shall be held by the Aca- 
demic Board, in the presence of such members of the Board of 
Visitors as may attend, commencing on the first IMonday in 
January in each year. 

84. Immediately after each semi-annual examination, the 
Superintendent shall report to the Board of Visitors, who will 
hold a special meeting for the purpose of receiving and acting 
on such report, the names of all such Cadets as shall have 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. * 39 

shown utter incapacity, or whose conduct has been grossly, or 
generally improper or immoral, and whom he may deem it ad- 
visable to discharge. 

85. The Board of Visitors in conjunction with the Superin- 
tendent will, annually, immediately after the General examina- 
tion, select for special report to the Governor the names of such 
Cadets as have most distinguished themselves in the examina- 
tion, not exceeding two in each class, and will specify the stu- 
dies in which they particularly excel ; and the standing both 
for conduct and scholarship of each Cadet shall also be at the 
same time communicated by them to their parents or guardians. 

86. Whenever a Cadet shall be found deficient in any one of 
his studies for two successive years, he shall stand ipso facto 
dismissed. 

87. After the annual examination, a diploma signed by the 
Governor of Virginia, and the Visitors and Faculty of the In- 
stitute, shall be granted to each Cadet of the First Class desi- 
ring it, who shall be found to have deserved it, as well by his 
moral deportment as his proficiency in his studies. Each Cadet 
receiving a diploma, shall be required to pay S5 therefor. 



ARTICLE VIII. 

MERIT ROLLS. 

88. At every January examination the Academic Board will 
form rolls, in which the names of Cadets shall be arranged in 
their respective classes, in the order of their merit or proficien- 
cy in each branch of instruction upon which they are examined. 

89. At every July examination, the Academic Board will, in 
addition to rolls, similar to those described in the preceding 
paragraph, form others, in which the merit . of each Cadet in 
each branch of instruction upon which he is examined, shall 
be denoted by a number proportional to his proficiency and to 
the importance of the subject; and in which the names of the 
Cadets shall be arranged in {heir respective classes in the order 
of aggregate merit, as determined for each, by the addition of 



40 * REGULATIONS FOR THE 

the numbers expressing his merit in each particular branch ; 
but in forming the final merit roll of the first class, the result 
of the final examination shall be incorporated Tvith the results 
of former examinations. 

90. The relative weight to be given to the different subjects 
in forming the general merit roll of each class, by the foUotv- 
ing numbers : 

Engineering, - - - 300 

Mathematics, - - - ' 300 

Natural Philosophy, &c. - - 300 

Conduct, - - - , 300 

Infantry Tactics, - - - 200 

Chemistry, ... 200 

Mineralogy and Geology, - - 100 

Artillery, - - - - 100 

English Studies and Literature, - 200 

French and Latin, - - - 100 each. 

Drawing, - - - - 100 

Geography, - - - 100 

History, ' - - - - 100 

Composition and Declamation, - 50 each. 
Constitutional Law and INIoral Philosophy, 100 

91. The minimum mark in any subject shall be J the maxi- 
mum, intermediate merit being represented by the terms of an 
arithmetical series, the extremes of which are the highest and 
lowest marks, and the number of terms, the number of the 
Class. 

92. The maximum conduct mark for the 1st Class, shall be 
300, minimum being 100. If one fourth the total demerit of a 
member of the 1st Class be taken from 300, the result will giro 
his conduct mark. 

93. The maximum conduct mark fur the 2nd, ord and -ith 
Classes, shall bo 100, the minimum being 33. 3. If one third tlic 
demerit of any Cadet for the year be taken from 100. the result 
will give the conduct mark for these classes. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 41 

CONDUCT ROLLS. 

94. KoUs exhibiting the relative merit of the Cadets in con- 
duct, shall be formed by the Academic Board, from the register 
of delinquencies at the July examination, for the whole of the 
academic year, in the following manner, viz : 

1st. All the recorded delinquencies of the Cadets shall be 
arranged in Seven Classes, each of which shall comprise those 
of nearly the same degree of criminality. 

2nd. The degree of criminality of an offence of each of the 
Classes so formed, shall be expressed as follows : 
Offences of the First Class by 10. 
" " Second " " 8. 
- " Third " " 5. 
•' Fourth " •' 4. 
^' " Fifth " " 3. 
" •' Sixth " " 2. 
" " " Seventh " 1. 
For each year, (after the first year,) that a Cadet may be a 
member of the Institution, his offences shall be made to count 
more, by adding to the number expressing the degree of crimi- 
nality of each offence, one sixth for the Third Class, one third 
for the Second Class and one half for the First Class. 

3rd. The total demerit of each Cadet will be expressed by 
the sum of the products of the number of offences of each class, 
divided by the number which expresses the criminality of one 
offence of that class. 

4th. The names will be arranged throughout in the order of 
demerit, those of the least degree being placed first. 

95. When any Cadet shall have a number expressing his de- 
merit in the general conduct roll, greater than 100 by the 1st of 
January, or 200 for any one year, such Cadet shall be declared 
deficient in c<mduct, and be forth-v\-ith sent to his home by the 
Superintendent. 

96. Copies of all merit rolls, will be reported to the Board of 
Visitors at their annual meeting, and the rolls will also be copied 
into the register of merit at the Institute, and an abstract shall 
be sent to the parent or guardian of each Cadet. 



46 REGtfLATIONS FOR THE 



ARTICLE IX. 

LEAVES OF ABSENCE. 

97. The Superintendent is authorized to grantleaves of absence 
to Cadets, at the request of their parents or guardians, during 
the entire period of the encampment ; provided that each Ca- 
det so permitted to be absent shall have been present at least 
two encampments, and provided further, that no cadet shall 
have such leave of absence against whom has been recorded, 
during the year then just terminated, demerit to the number 
of 150. 

98. Every Cadet on leave of absence for the time of the en- 
campment shall, before his departure, collect his books, bedding 
and room furniture, and deposite them properly labelled in 
charge of the Quartermaster Sergeant — and he shall leave with 
the Commandant of Cadets the names of those with whom he 
wishes to room during the nest term. 

99. Every Cadet who shall overstay his leave of absence, will 
subject himself to bo tried, unless he shall produce a certificate 
satisfactory to the Superintendent on his return, of his having 
been prevented from returning by sickness or some other una- 
voidable cause. 

100. Any Cadet who shall wilfully absent himself from the 
Institute, without leave, for a period of twenty-four hours, shall 
be dismissed. 

101. Every Cadet on returning from leave of absence shall 
immediately report himself to the Superintendent, the Com- 
mandant of Cadets, and the First Sergeant of his Company. 

102. No Professor shall absent himself from the Institute for 
a longer time than ten days, without the permission of the 
Board of Visitors ; nor shall any Professor or Officer be absent 
from his diity at any time, without the assent of the Superin- 
tendent. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 43 



ARTICLE X: 



103. A member of the Institute shall act as Librarian, who 
shall be responsible for the property in his charge ; he shall 
attend at the Library at such hours, and under such by-laws as 
shall be prescribed by the Superintendent. 

104. No book shall be taken from the Library, without the 
knowledge and presence of the Librarian. 

105. No persons, except members of the Institute, shall be 
allowed to draw books from the Library. 

106. For every book dx-awn from the Library, a receipt shall 
be given. 

107. No officer shall be allowed to have in his possession, at 
one time, more than four volumes ; and no Cadeb more than 
one, with accompanying plates, except by the special permission 
of the Superintendent. 

108. No person shall lend any book drawn from the Library. 

109. No person shall keep any book more than two weeks : 
and all violations of this regulation will be reported by the 
Librarian to the Superintendent. 

110. All persons drawing iDooks from the Library, shall be 
responsible for any damage done to them ; the amount of which 
shall be estimated by the Librarian, and reported weekly to the 
Supei'intendent. 

111. No persons shall be allowed to draw books from the 
Library while a fine remains unpaid, or while books, previously 
drawn, are retained beyond the prescribed time, unless they 
shall be so retained by the permission of the Superintendent. 

112. All books draAvn from the Librarj' shall be returned by 
the 1st of June, and none shall be afterwards taken out by any 
Cadet until the 1st of September following, without the wi'itten 
permission of the Superintendent. 



44 REGULATIONS FOR THE 



iM 



TICLE XI 



DISCIPLINE. 

113. The Cadets of the Institute shall constitute a Military 
Corps, and be subject to Military discipline, under the immedi- 
ate command of the Commandant of Cadets. 

114. The punislinients to which a Cadet shall be liable, are 
comprised in the three folloTring classes : • 

1st. Privation of recreation, &c. ; extra tours of duty, repri- 
mand. 

2nd. Arrest or confinement in his room or tent. 

3rd. Dismission, with the privilege of resigning ; public dis- 
mission. The punishment of the first and second classes, men- 
tioned in the preceding paragraph, may be inflicted by the Su- 
perintendent, or with his approbation ; those of the third class 
after a trial by court martial, except in cases of a cadet ex- 
ceeding the limit of demerit, being wilfully and culpably negli- 
gent of his duties or studies — or manifesting a disposition and 
determination to resist the authorities of the Institute, in which 
cases, the Superintendent is authorized to dismiss, without the 
intervention of a court-martial. 

115. In cases of irregularitj^ or insubordination on the part 
of Cadets, requiring in the opinion of the Superintendent the 
infliction of the 3rd class of punishment, the Superintendent 
may convene by public orders a Garrison Court Martial, to 
consist of not less than three, nor more than five members, and 
in case it consists of three members, then two oflicers of the In- 
stitute and one Cadet officer of the 1st Class shall be detailed on 
the Court, provided that no officer preferring the charges, or 
interested pei-sonally in them, shall be competent to sit upon 
the Court, whose duty it shall be to try the Cadet upon the 
charges preferred, and make a finding upon the testimony ad- 
duced. 

116. The senior officer of the Court shall act as President of 
the Court, and the duties of the Judge Advocate will devolve 
upon the junior member. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 45 

117. The mode of proceeding in such Courts, shall conform 
as far as practicable to the rules for the government of Courts 
Martial in the United States Military Service. 

118. The proceedings of the Court, properly authenticated, 
shall be laid before the Superintendent, and if approved by him 
shall be promulgated in orders. 

119. A right of appeal from the decision of the Court is re- 
served to the Cadet ; in which case he shall immediately notify 
the Superintendent of the same, with a copy of his appeal, 
vrhose duty it shall be to forward a copy of the proceedings of 
the Court to the President of the Board, accompanied by the 
appeal of the Cadet, with his own remarks thereon. Should 
the case, in the opinion of the President of the Board, require 
reinvestigation, the President may direct the original proceed- 
ings to be svispended, and refer the same to a meeting of the 
Board of Visitors, to be called by the President for that pur- 
pose ; otherwise the sentence of the Court shall go into effect, 

120. As obedience and subordination are essential to the pur- 
poses of this Institution, any Cadet who shall disobey a com- 
mand of the Superintendent, or any Professor, Teacher, In- 
structor, or other superior ofEicer, or behave himself in a refrac- 
tory or disrespectful manner to the constituted authorities of 
the Institute, shall be dismissed, or less severely punished, ac- 
cording to the nature and degree of his offence. 

121. No Cadet shall drink, or bring, or cavise to be brought, 
within the Cadets' limits, or have in his room, tent, or other- 
wise ill his possession, wine, porter, or any spirituous, or intox- 
icating liquors, brandied fruits, or viands, upou pain of being 
dismissed. 

122. No Cadet shall, without permission, go to any inn, pub- 
lic house, or place where wine, porter, or any spirituous or 
intoxicating liquors, brandied fruits or viands are sold, upon 
pain of being dismissed. No Cadet shall visit any Public Hotel 
without permission. 

123. Any Cadet found drunk, or under the influence of wine, 
porter, or any spirituous or intoxicating liquor, brandied fruits or 
viands, shall be dismissed. 



46 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

124. Cadets who have been dismissed from the Institute shall 

forthwith leave the premises. 

125. Xo Cadet shall play at Cards, or any other game of 
chance, or bring or cause to be brought upon the premises of 
the Institute, or have in his room, or otherwise in his possession, 
the cards or other materials used in these games, on pain of 
being dismissed or otherwise less severely punished. 

12G. No Cadet shall in any way use tobacco, nor bring it, or 
cause it to be brought into either barracks or camp, nor have it 
in his room, or othervrise in his possession. 

127. No Cadet shall cook or prepare food in either barracks 
or in camp, nor have cooked provisions in his room, nor give 
an entertainment there or elsewhere, without permission. 

128. No Cadet shall be allowed to keep a waiter, horse or dog. 

129. Any Cadet who shall wantonly damage any quarters, or 
their appurtenances shall, besides making good such damages. 
be otherwise punished, according to the nature of his offence. 

130. Each Cadet before he leaves the Institute, shall ftirnish 
to the Sitperintendent a certificate from the Quartermaster and 
other proper officers, that he has returned all property charged 
to him in good order, or made good any deficiency. 

131. Any Cadet who shall lose, damage, destroy, sell or other- 
wise dispose of the arms, accotitrements, books, instruments, or 
other public property in his possession, shall, besides paying 
for the same, be otherwise punished, according to the nature of 
his. offence. 

132. No Cadet shall gu beyond the limits of the Institute, or 
such other limits as the Superintendent may prescribe without 
his permission : nor shall any permission to be aljscnt from the 
Institute at night bo granted, unless upon a special invitation 
to visit in private families, or to attend divine worship, or upon 
such occasions, as shall be deemed proper exceptions to this 
regulation by the Superintendent. 

133. Any Cadet who shall insult a sentinel by Avurds or ges- 
ture, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less severely punished. 

134. Anv Cadet who shall answer for another at anv roll call. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 47 

or who shall engage any other Cadet to answer for him, shall 
be dismissed or otherwise less severely punished. 

135. No Cadet shall visit during the hours of study, or be- 
tween tatto and reveille, nor be absent from his room at those 
times for any purpose, without permission from the proper au- 
thority. 

136. Any Cadet who shall absent himself from his room at 
night between tatto and reveille, for a longer time than half an 
hour, on any one occasion, or from the post at any time without 
leave, and shall fail to satisfy the Superintendent or Board of 
\''isitors that he did not so absent himself for any immoral pur- 
pose, and that he did not, Avhilst so absent, go to any house of 
entertainment, or any other place without the limits prescribed 
to the Cadets, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severely 
punished. 

137. Duties appropriate for the Sabbath, including attendance 
upon DiAdne service, which shall be imperative, shall be pre- 
scribed by the Superintendent, and each Cadet shall be required 
to conform thereto. 

138. Any Cadet who shall behave indecently, or irreverently 
while attending Divine Service, or shall use any profane oath, 
or execration, or profane the Sabbath, shall be dismissed or 
otherwise less severely punished. 

139. The Cadets arc not only required to abstain from all 
vicious, immoral, or irregular conduct, but they are enjoined on 
every occasion to conduct themselves with the propriety and 
decorum of gentlemen. 

140. Any Cadet who shall be guilty of conduct unbecoming 
an officer and a gentleman, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less 
severely punished. 

141. No Cadet shall send or accept a challenge to fight, nor 
be the bearer of such challenge, written or verbal ; nor in any 
way, directly or indirectly, countenance or promote a duel, noi' 
upbraid another for declining to fight, on pain of being dis- 
missed. 

142. Every Cadet who knows that a challenge to fight has 
been, or is about to be sent or accepted by any other Cadet, 



48 



REGULATIONS FOR THE 



shall, without delay, give information thereof to the Superin- 
tendent. 

143. No Cadet shall use any rejaroachful or provoking speeches 
or gestures to another. 

144. Any Cadet who shall hj any means whatever traduce 
or defame another, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severely 
punished — according to the nature of his offence. 

145. Any Cadet who shall strike, or in any manner offer vio- 
lence to another, shall be punished in like manner. 

146. Any Cadet who shall beat, or otherwise maltreat any 
citizen, shall, besides being amenable to the law, be otherwise 
punished according to the nature of the offence. 

147. Any Cadet who shall wantonly abuse the person of any 
Cadet, by playing unjustifiable tricks upon him, shall be dis- 
missed, or otherwise less severely punished, according to the 
degree of the offence. 

148. No Cadet shall sign any certificate or statements relative 
to personal altercation between members of the Institute, or to 
any transaction of a private or personal nature, without per- 
mission from the Superintendent. 

149. All Cadets who shall combine or agree together to hold 
no friendly or social intercourse with another, and any Cadet 
who shall endeavour to persuade othei's to enter into such com- 
bination or agreement, shall be dismissed or otherwise severely 
punished. 

150. All combinations under any pretext whatever, are strictly 
pi'ohibited. Any Cadet who, in concert with others, shall adopt 
any measure under pretence of procuring redress of grievances, 
or sign any paper, or enter into any written or verlial agreement 
with a view to violate or evade any regulation of the Institute, 
or to do any act contrary to the rules of good order and sub- 
ordination, or who shall endeavour to persitade others to do the 
same, shall be dismissed. 

151. Any Cadet who shall manifest an insubordinate or re- 
fractory spirit — evincing a disposition to resist the authorities 
of the Institute, thereby disturbing its peace and order, shall 
be forthwith sent to his home by the Superintendent — but such 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 43 

Cadet shall after such dismissal, . have the right of appeal to 
the Board of Visitors from the decision of the Superintendent. 

152. If any Cadet shall consider himself ■wronged by ano- 
ther, or by any officer, he is to complain thereof to the Super- 
intendent, who is hereby required to examine into the said 
complaint, and to take the proper measures for redressing the 
wrong complained of. Should the party complaining be refu- 
sed redress, he may appeal to the Board of Visitors for their 
examination and order on the case. 

153. All communications to the Board of Visitors, from any 
person or persons belonging to the Institute, shall be made 
through the Superintendent, whose duty it shall be to forward 
them to the Board, with such remarks as he may think proper. 

154. All publications relative to the Institute, or to transac- 
tions at the Institute, are strictly prohibited. Any Professor, 
Assistant Professor, Teacher, Academic Officer, or Cadet there- 
fore, who shall be at all concerned in writing or publishing any 
article of such character in any newspaper or pamphlet, or in 
writing or publishing any handbill, shall be dismissed, or other- 
wise severely punished. 

155. No Cadet shall apply for, or receive money from his 
parents, or from any person whomsoever, without permission 
from the Superintendent : any infraction or violation of which 
will be considered a positive disobedience of orders and pun- 
ished accordinglj'. 

156. The strictest attention to study and all other duties will 
be required. Every Cadet, therefore, who shall absent himself 
from duty of any kind, and fail to render a satisfactory excuse 
in writing for such absence, shall be reprimanded, put upon 
extra duty, or confined, according to the circumstances of the 
case. 

157. Any Cadet who shall evince a culpable neglect of his 
studies or duties, shall be required to return to his home by the 
Superintendent. 

158. The Professors, Assistant Professors and Teachers, will 
be held accountable for the regular and orderly conduct of thtir 



50 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

respective classes or sections while under their immediate in- 
struction. 

159. It shall be the duty of every Professor, Teacher and 
Assistant Professor, who is knowing to any violation of the 
rules and regulations, or to any crime, irregularity, neglect or 
other improper conduct of which a cadet has been guilty, to 
report the same without delay to the Superintendent. 

IGO. All immoralities, disorders, misbehaviour, or neglect, of 
which Cadets may be guilty, to the prejudice of good order and 
military discipline, though not herein expressly mentioned, are 
to be punished according to the nature and degree of the of- 
fence. 

161. In all details of military duty, the rules and regulations 
for the government of the army of the United States are to be 
observed so far as they are applicable to, and do not conflict 
with the regulations adopted for the government of the Institute. 



ARTICLE XII. 

MISCELLAXEOUS. 

162. Each Professor and Instructor, at the head of a separate 
department, will have charge of, and be accountable for, the 
instruments and apparatus supplied for the use of the depart- 
ment. 

163. No Professor, Assistant Professor, or Teacher, sliall give 
a certificate or make any statement or report relating to the 
qualifications, standing, conduct, or character of any Cadet, or 
of any person having been a Cadet, or concerning the exami- 
nation of any candidate for admission, unless required so to do 
by the special direction of the Superintendent. 

164. No Cadet will tender his resignation unless impelled 
thereto by urgent reasons which must be fully set forth in his 
letter of resignation ; such letter must be accompanied by the 
written consent of his parent or guardian. 

165. The Superintendent is avtthorized to accept the resigna- 
tion of Cadets in the following cases only : 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 51 

lat. Ill health, to be ascertained by the Surgeon's certificate. 

2nd. Deficiency of funds, which haa arisen since the Cadet's 
admission. 

3rd. The removal of the parent of the Cadet from the State. 

In such cases, the resignation of a Cadet must be tendered 
to the Superintendent, who may take such action thereon as he 
may think proper, subject at the instance of the Cadet to the 
revision of the Board of Visitors ; in all other cases resignation 
must be tendered to the Board of Visitors. 

166. The Superintendent, and in his absence the oflicer in 
command, shall have power to arrest any Professor, or subor- 
dinate Of&cer, for mutiny, disobedience of orders, unofficerlike 
conduct, or other offences, prohibited by the rules and regula- 
tions prescribed for the government of this Institution ; and ou 
such arrest, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent, or other 
officer, making the same, to appoint a day for the trial of said 
Professor, or other subordinate officer, not less than ten, nor 
more than thirty days from the date of such arrest, and imme- 
diately notify the several members of the Board of Visitors that 
said arrest has been made, and shall also furnish the person 
arrested with a copy of the charges preferred against him. 

167. Upon the application of any Professor or subordinate 
officer, it shall be competent for any two or more of the Board 
of Visitors to arrest the Superintendent, for unofficerlike con- 
duct, or other ofiences prohibited by the rules and regulations 
for the government of this Institute, and upon such arrest, it 
shall be the duty of the members making the same, to furnish 
the Superintendent with a copy of the charge or charges upon 
which the arrest was made, and furthermore, to fix a day for 
his trial not less than ten, nor more than thirty days from the 
date of the arrest, and also to notify the several meml)crs of 
the Board thereof. 

168. No Cadet shall be admitted into the Institute until he 
has been inspected by the Surgeon, whose duty it shall be to 
make a report to the Superintendent of the Institute, stating 
the bodily condition of each, and if any of said Cadets be pos- 
sessed of any disease, seriously impairing their physical capa- 

3 



53 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

city to discharge military duty, or calculated to infect others, 
the Superintendent shall either reject or provide that the dis- 
ease shall not be communicated to others. 

169. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent to cause the 
Regulations of the Institute to be read upon parade from time 
to time, provided that all the Regulations be published to the 
Cadets at least once each year. 



ARTICLE XIII. 

REGULATIONS TOR THE INTERIOR POLICE AND DISCIPLINE OF THE 
VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 

170. The Cadets shall be organized into one or more compa- 
nies according to number, and the officers shall be appointed by 
the Superintendent. The selection shall be made from those 
Cadets who have been most active and soldier-like in the per- 
formance of their duties, and most exemplary in their general 
deportment. In general the officers will be taken from the first 
class, and the non-commissioned officers from the second and 
third classes. 

171. From the 1st of March to the 1st of December, there 
shall be an infantry or artillery drill every day when the wea- 
ther is favourable, (Saturdays and Sundays excepted), at such 
regular hour of the day as the Commandant of Cadets may 
appoint, and for the residue of the year at his discretion. 

172. There shall be a dress parade every evening, when the 
weather permits. 

173. There shall be an inspection of the Cadets under arms 
every Saturday morning when the weather permits. 

174. No Cadet shall be absent from any duty whatever, witli- 
out permission from the Superintendent, or upon the recom- 
mendation of the Surgeon. When a Cadet considers himself 
too unwell to attend his recitation or other duties, he shall 
apply to the Superintendent, to be placed upon the sick list. 

DRESS. 

175. No Cadet shall, without permission, retain in his quar- 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 53 

tere any article of dress, other than the uniform for the Cadets 
prescribed by the regulations. 

176. The overcoat shall not be worn between the 1st of April 
and the 1st of October, except in rainy weather, or in quarters 
at any time during study hours. 

177. The fatigue jacket shall only be worn in quarters or 
camp within the limits of the chain of sentinels, or at military 
exercises when directed. 

178. Every Cadet shall be neatly attired whenever his room 
is visited by an officer. 

179. The hair to be short, or what is generally termed crop- 
ped ; whiskers and mustaches shall not be worn. 

BADGES OF DISTINCTION, 

180. Cadets acting as officers and non-commissioned officers, 
shall be distinguished by the following badges. 

Captains, chevrons of four bars of single lace on each arm, 
above the elboAV, points up. 

Lieutenants, chevrons of three bars of single lace on each 
arm, above the elbow, points up. 

Adjutants. — The Lieutenant's chevron, with an arc. 

Quartermaster. — The Lieutenant's chevron, with a horizontal 
bar. 

First Sergeant. — Chevrons of two bars of single lace, on each 
arm, above the elbow, points up — with a lozenge. 

Sergeants. — Che^orons of two bars of single lace on each arm, 
above the elbow — points up. 

Sergeant-Major. — The Sergeant's chevron, with an arc. 

Quartermaster- Sergeant. — The Sergeant's chevron, with a hor- 
izontal bar. 

Color-Bearer. — The Sergeant's chevron, with a Star. 

Corporals. — Chevrons of two bars of single lace on each arm, 
below the elbow — points up. 

Corporals of the Color Guard. — The Corporal's chevron, with 
a star. 

Cadets appointed acting Assistant Professors, will wear upon 
their Coats three rows of fourteen buttons in front. 



54 REGULATIONS FOR THE 



181. No Cadet shall lend or exchange his arms or accoutre- 
ments or use those of any other Cadet. 

182. The arms issued to Cadets -mil not be taken from their 
quarters except for duty. 

183. No Cadet shall alter his musket, hy scraping, filing or 
vai'nishing the stock, barrel, or any other pai"t of it ; nor shall 
the lock be removed, or taken apart, -without the permission of 
the officer having charge of the same. 

184. Cadets are prohibited from having in their possession 
any description of fire-arms, or other weapon, not issued to 
them by proper authority. 

POLICE OF QUARTERS. 

185. No Cadet shall remove from the room assigned to him, 
without permission of the Commander of Cadets. 

186. Every Cadet, on rising in the morning, shall roll up his 
mattress, with the bed-clothes neatly folded in it, put it into the 
bed-sack and strap it. He shall hang up his extra clothing, 
put such articles in the clothes bag as it is intended to contain, 
and arrange all his effects in the prescribed order. 

187. Every Cadet shall attend to the good order and ar- 
rangement of his own arms, accoutrements, clothing, and 
their effects ; the Orderly shall attend to the general police of 
the room, and shall require each occupant to discharge his 
proper duty. 

188. Cadets shall prepare their clothes for the laundress im- 
mediately after reveille on INIondays and Thursdays. 

189. No Cadet shall throw water from any room in the bar- 
racks upon the gallery. 

190. No Cadet shall throw anything from the windows, doors 
or galleries of the barracks. 

191. No Cadet shall have in his room any article of furniture 
not prescribed. 

192. No Cadet shall keep a light after taps at night, unless he 
be the officer of the day, Superintendent of sub-division, Adju- 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 55 

tant, Quartermaster, or Assistant Professor ; but all lights ex- 
cept that of the oflficer of the day, shall be extinguished at 11 
o'clock. 

193. No Cadet shall play on any musical instrument on Sun- 
day, nor in study hours on any other day. 

194. No Cadet shall play any game with cards, nor at any 
other game but chess or back-gammon, and these only in re- 
creation hours, with the permission of the Superintendent, and 
shall in no case bet or wager any sum of money or other thing. 

195. Cadets shall walk the halls and galleries of the barracks 
and pass up and down stairs in study hours, with as little noise 
as possible ; running, loud talking, scuffling, or u.nnecessary 
noise in barracks, are strictly prohibited at all times. 

196. Every Cadet leaving his room on a necessary occasion, 
or for water, when the sentinels are on post, shall report his 
departure and retiu"n to every sentinel he passes, and shall be 
absent as short a time as possible. If his absence occurs after 
taps, he shall report to the officer of the guard, whose duty it 
shall be to pass him out and in, and to report the names of all 
individuals thus passed. 

197. No Cadet shall enter or stop at the guard room during 
study hours. 

198. Whenever a Cadet receives permission to be absent from 
his quarters during study hours, or from any duty, he shall 
show his permit to the officer in charge, and the Superintendent 
of his division, and shall leave it vnth the officer of the day. 

199. No Cadet shall post any placard or notice upon any of 
the public buildings, or affix to the walls of his room any map, 
picture, or piece of writing, or drive a nail in the walls or tim- 
bers of the barracks, without the permission of the Comman- 
dant of Cadets. 

200. No Cadet shall mark, cut, or in any manner deface or 
injure the public buildings. 

201. No Cadet shall throw missiles or stones of any descrip- 
tion in the vicinity of the barracks or other buildings. 

202. No Cadet shall introduce a citizen into the barracks dur- 
ing study hours, upon any pretence whatever. 



56 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

ORDERLIES OF ROOMS. 

203. There shall be an Orderly detailed for each room occu- 
pied by the Cadets, who shall perform the duties until he is 
relieved by the proper officer. 

204. The Orderly shall see that the names of his room-mates 
are on the orderly board, his own name being the first or upper 
name on the board. 

205. He shall be held responsible for the preservation of all 
public property attached to the room, for the common use of its 
occupants. 

206. He shall be held responsible for the cleanliness of the 
room, the proper arrangement of its contents, and for the strict 
observance of regulations and orders therein. 

207. Every morning, immediately after reveille, he shall 
thoroughly sweep every part of the floor of his room, brush the 
dust from the furniture, &c., and sweep the dirt collected out of 
the room, but shall not sweep dirt into the halls of the barracks 
during the remainder of the day. 

208. He shall see that a light is in his room within ten min- 
utes after the evening call to quarters. 

209. Every night after tattoo, and before taps, he shall cause 
all the lights in the rooms to be carefully extinguished. 

210. He shall answer promptly and fully to every question 
put to him by an Officer or by a Cadet on duty. 

SUPERINTENDENTS OF DIVISIONS. 

211. Each of the Instructors of Infantry Tactics shall super- 
intend a company of Cadets and its company quarters, and 
shall see that the regulations are duly observed therein. He 
shall superintend, or instruct at the military exercise of his 
company, and be responsible for the proper observance of all 
parades and roll calls. 

212. He shall inspect the rooms of his division three times 
between reveille and tattoo. He shall also frequently inspect 
between tattoo and reveille. 

213. He shall after his inspection on Sunday morning, direct 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 57 

the Orderlies of such rooms as are not in good order, to be con- 
tinued for the same duty for the ensuing week. 

214. He shall, every morning, make to the Commandant of 
Cadets a report in writing of all delinquencies that may have 
come to his knowledge since his last report, and of the condi- 
tion of each room with regard to police. Specifying those in 
the best, and those in the worst order, and the names of the 
Orderlies. 

SUPERINTENDENTS OF SUB-DIVISIONS. 

215. Each division of quarters under the superintendence of 
an Assistant Instructor of Tactics, shall be sub-divided, and 
each sub-division shall be placed under the superintendence of 
one of the officers of the corps, who shall be charged with the 
immediate care of its police, and the preservation of general 
good order therein. 

216. The Superintendent of a sub-division of quarters, in 
case of any noise and scuffling, or other improper conduct in any 
room, hall or gallery under his charge, shall repair instantly to 
the spot and suppress the irregularity, order the parties to their 
rooms, and forthwith report the circumstances to the Superin- 
tendent of his division, or to the officer in charge. 

217. He shall keep a roster of the occupants of each room of 
his subdivision, and shall, every Sunday morning, personally 
direct those whose turn it is to enter upon their duties as Order- 
lies for the ensuing week, except in cases otherwise directed by 
the Superintendent of division. 

218. He shall communicate to the occupants of rooms under 
his charge, such orders as may be given by the Superintendent 
of division, relative to the police, and shall cause them to be 
strictly observed. 

219. He shall visit every room in his sub-division immedi- 
ately after taps at night, and shall ascertain, by minute inspec- 
tion, whether the duties of the Orderly have been properly per* 
formed, and whether the occupants of the room are all present 
and in bed. He shall cause the Orderlies and others, in every 
case of neglect observed at this visit, to comply strictly with 



58 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

the regulations, and shall report the result of his inspection to 
the officer in charge. 

220. He "will see by personal inspection that the gas-burner 
is closed in each room. 

221. He shall also visitand thoroughly inspect all rooms under 
his charge thirty minutes after reveille, immediately after -which 
he shall make a report in -wi-iting to the Superintendent of his 
division, subjoining thereto the word " certified" -with his sig- 
nature. 

" COMIIAXDANT OF CADETS." 

222. The Commandant of Cadets shall make a minute in- 
spection of the rooms, furniture, &c., of -the Cadets, at least 
once a week, and will make a special report thereon to the Su- 
perintendent. 

223. He will also make occasional inspections of quarters 
after taps. 

224. He shall prescribe the order in which the furniture, bed- 
ding, books, clothing, equipments, &e., shall be arranged through- 
out the barracks. 

225. He shall make a report to the Superintendent every 
morning between 8 and 9 o'clock, A. M., of the condition of the 
barracks and of the discipline of the Cadets, noting specially 
such matters as may require his consideration and action. 

226. He shall be responsible for the safe keeping and good 
order of all arms, accoutrements and other public property in 
use by the Cadets. 

OFFICEK IX CHARGE. 

227. Each of the Assistant Instructors of Tactics shall be 
detailed in turn as officer in charge for the day : his tour to 
commence at Guard mounting. 

228. He shall superintend the performance of all the duties 
of the day which do not require the presence of the Comman- 
dant, and see that they arc performed according to regulations 
and orders. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 59 

229. He shall promptly correct all irregularities which may 
occur in the barracks, or in their vicinity, and shall be in the 
barracks yard at taps to receive the reports of Inspectors. 

230. He shall be present at class parades and roll calls, dur- 
ing his tour ; and shall not absent himself from the barracks 
or their vicinity, except at meal times, vrithout the approbation 
of the Commandant of Cadets. 

" OFFICER OF THE DAY." 

231. The Officer of the day shall be detailed generally from 
the roster of Cadets acting as officers, but every Cadet of the 
First Class shall be detailed to perform this duty once. 

232. He shall, after receiving his guard, report for orders to 
the Commandant of Cadets, and shall receive and obey such 
orders as may be given him dui-ing his tour by the officer in 
charge. 

233. He shall give the guard the orders of the day, regulate 
the reliefs, and have such of the guard dismissed as are not re- 
quired for duty. 

234. He shall cause the sentinels to be posted at proper times, 
shall -vasit them ten minutes after they are posted, and see that 
they are properly instructed in their duties. 

235. He shall cause all academic signals to be sounded at the 
proper times. 

236. He shall superintend the formation of the classes and 
sections, require the marchers to report the absentees, and to 
preserve good order on parade, and while marching to and from 
the Institute, and shall not leave the parade grovmd until all 
the sections have reached their recitation rooms. 

237. He shall then immediately seek all who have been re- 
ported to him as absent, (except those properly excused), and 
order them to repair forthwith to their respective recitation 
rooms, or wherever their duty may require their presence : 
whenever they are found absent he will report the fact. He 
shall report to the officer in charge all whom he does not find, 
and all such as fail to obey his orders. 

238. He shall take prompt and effectual measures for sup- 



60 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

pressing all irregularities and disturbances that may occur in 
or near the barracks. 

239. He shall station himself in or near the guard-room, be- 
tween reveille and taps, constantly, except when absent on duty 
or at meals, 

240. He shall be held responsible for all public property de- 
posited in the guard-room. 

241. He shall report to the officer in charge for orders, imme- 
diately after taps. He shall then immediately, (unless other- 
wise ordered,) visit the rooms of all Cadets who are reported 
absent, and he shall repeat his visits at intervals of fifteen min- 
utes to the room of each absentee till his return. 

242. On the back of his guard report, he shall note all viola- 
tions of the regulations which may have come to his knowledge 
during his tour, stating the name of each delinquent, with a 
clear and precise description of his offence, and the circumstan- 
ces of time and place, when they are not necessarily under- 
stood ; he shall also state, particularly, the orders given him by 
any authorized officer, and the time at which each absentee at 
taps returned to his room ; and he will subjoin to his report 
the word " certified" with his signature. 

SENTINELS. 

243. There being perhaps no better test of soldiership, and 
the discipline of a command than the manner in which the 
duties of sentinels are performed, Cadets should understand the 
honor and responsibility of a soldier on post. 

244. All persons of whatever rank are required to observe 
the greatest respect towards sentinels, and no officer or other 
person shall make use of any expression, language or gesture 
to a Cadet on post. 

245. Every sentinel shall obey the orders of the Superinten- 
dent, Commandant of Cadets, Superintendent of Division, Offi- 
cer in charge, Officer of the day, and the Officers and non-com- 
missioned officers of the guard, 

246. At evening parade each First Sergeant shall warn the 
Cadets of his company, who are detailed to mount guard the 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 61 

ensuing day, always taking those for this duty first who have 
been the longest off. The guard thus detailed, shall bo on duty 
all night, at least one sentinel being on post at a time. 

247. Every Cadet of the guard shall appear at guard mount- 
ing in perfect order. 

248. Cadets detailed for guai-d shall wear their side arms 
when not on post, and shall not, during their tour, leave the 
Institute. 

249. As soon as a sentinel is posted in the barracks, he shall 
visit every room under his charge, see that all the occupants are 
present, and order (if it be in study hours) every Cadet whom 
he may find visiting to go to his room. If he' fail to obey the 
order, he shall forthwith call the Sergeant of the guard and re- 
port his disobedience. 

250. Every sentinel on post, when the call " to quarters" is 
sounded, shall visit the rooms under his charge ten minutes 
after such call, and report those Cadets who shall not have 
obeyed the call. 

251. No sentinel shall permit a violation of the regulations 
to take place within the limits of his post, without taking proper 
measures to prevent it ; nor shall he fail in any case to call for 
the Corporal of the Guard, and report to him immediately every 
such violation which comes within his observation or knowledge 
while on post, and the name of every Cadet who, during his 
tour, shall have been absent from his room, in study hours, lon- 
ger than ten minutes. 

252. Any Cadet who shall neglect his guard duty, by desert- 
ing or sleeping on his post, or in any manner impair the secu- 
rity of the public property, by the neglect of the duties devol- 
ving upon the guard, by laws, shall be dismissed or otherwise 
less severely punished. 

253. Any non-commissioned officer of the guard who shall 
fail to post his relief at the prescribed hour, or hours, after taps, 
shall be subject to the penalty attached to the neglect of duty 
of a sentinel under paragraph 252. 

254. The Sergeant of the guard shall parade and inspect 
every relief at the proper time. 



62 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

255. In all cases not provided for in the foregoing paragraphs, 
the service of the guard shall be performed as prescribed in the 
general regulations of the Army of the United States. 

ARRESTS. 

256 The Superintendent and the Commandant of Cadets alone 
have the power to arrest a Cadet, except in cases of mutiny, 
direct disobedience of orders, or gross disrespect to a superior 
officer, in which cases offenders may be arrested : but all such 
arrests shall be promptly reported, through the Commandant 
of Cadets to the Superintendent for his approbation. 

257. Every Cadet arrested shall confine himself forthwith to 
his quarters until released, (unless otherwise specially ordered,) 
except when required to be absent therefrom for the perform- 
ance of some of his academic or military duties, (to all of which, 
except those on guard, he shall strictly attend,) and except on 
a necessary occasion, and for the purpose of going to the mess 
hall for his meals. 

258. Every Cadet charged with a breach of arrest, shall be 
tried, and if found guilty, shall be dismissed. 

259. When a Cadet is confined to the limits of Barracks, 
Camp, or the Institute, any breach of such confinement will sub- 
ject him to the penalty prescribed by paragraph 258 for breach 
of arrest. 

260. When a Cadet is under arrest or confinement to his 
room, barracks, camp, or the Institute grounds, he will not ap- 
ply for any permission to go beyond such limits, unless impelled 
thereto by strong emergency, and when thus impelled, he will 
make personal application to the Superintendent in writing, 
setting forth in such application that he is under arrest, and 
the reasons for which he desires the permission which he asks. 

261. No general permit granted to Cadets to go beyond the 
limits of the Institute, will be valid to any Cadet under arrest 
or confinement — except for attendance at Church in the morn- 
ing and afternoon services on the Sabbath, and any Cadet who 
shall go beyond the limits for other purposes, when under arrest 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 63 

or confinement upon such general permit, will subject himself 
to the penalty of the 258th paragraph. 



262. The sick Cadets who remain in quarters, shall not leave 
their rooms, except for the purpose of performing some duty, 
or of taking exercise at such times as the Surgeon may have 
prescribed, with the approbation of the Superintendent ; but 
no such Cadet shall, for any purpose Avhatever, be absent from 
his room during any drill, parade, or roll call, from which he 
may have been excused on account of indisposition. 

263. Every Cadet excused on account of sickness, from all 
duties, shall be sent to the hospital. 

264. The sick in hospital, shall obey all orders of the Sur- 
geon, and all such police regulations as he may prescribe, with 
the approbation of the Superintendent. 

265. No patient shall leave the hospital without permission 
from the Surgeon. 

266. No patient shall go beyond the hospital yard without a 
written permission, signed by the Surgeon, and approved by the 
Superintendent. 

267. No Cadet shall go to the hospital, unless previously ex- 
amined and sent there by the Surgeon. 

268.' No Cadet shall visit any patient in the hospital, without 
a written permission, signed by the Surgeon and approved by 
the Superintendent. 

269. When a Cadet is too unwell to attend to duty, he wiU 
report himself in person to the Superintendent, at his first office 
hours, and if he requires medical advice, he will forthwith re- 
port to the Superintendent. 

•• coiiiioxs.' ' 

270. The Commandant of Cadets is Inspector of the Com- 
mons, and will report to the Superintendent all irregularities 
in the Hall, and every infraction of the mess regulations. 

271. The Inspector of the Commons shall appoint from the 



64 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

officers of the corps, a Superintendent of the mess-hall, and as 
many assistant Superintendents as he may deem necessary. 

272. The Cadets shall be divided into as many squads as 
there are tables in the mess-hall, and the Inspector shall appoint 
a first and second carver to each squad. Every carver shall 
cause the regulations to be observed by those at the table -^vhere 
he presides, and shall report all violations of the same to the 
Superintendent of the mess-hall, "svho shall transmit such re- 
ports to the Inspector. 

273. At the signal for breakfast, dinner and supper, the 
squads shall be formed in front of the barracks by the first car- 
vers, acting as squad marchers, under the direction of the Su- 
perintendent of the mess-hall, -who shall march the Tvhole to the 
Hall. 

274. The second carver shall act as squad-marcher in the ab- 
sence of the first ; in other cases, he shall march in ranks at the 
head of his squad. 

275. Every Cadet shall march to meals, except the officer of 
the day, and the senior corporal of the guard, not immediately 
on duty ; the latter shall precede the corps to the mess-hall, 
shall report any Cadet who may enter the hall before the corps, 
and shall remain vmtil the relief arrives. 

276. Each Cadet shall have the particular place at the table 
to which his place in the ranks corresponds ; such place shall 
not be changed vfithout the permission of the Superintendent 
of the mess-hall. 

277. All unnecessary talking at table is prohibited — the car- 
vers alone shall call on the waiters. 

278. "Wasting or taking from the mess-haU provisions or mess- 
furniture of any kind, is strictly forbidden. 

279. The Superintendent of the mess-hall shall see that every 
Cadet leaves the hall at the command " Rise." 

280. The officer or non-commissioned officer, commanding the 
guard of Cadets, shall march such of his guard as have been 
detained on duty to the mess-hall immediate^ after the corps 
has returned. He shall preside at tlie table of the guard, and 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 65 

see that the mess regulations are observed, all violations of 
which he shall report to the Inspector of Commons. 

281. No Cadet shall go to the Commons, or approach the 
building occupied by the Steward, except on duty, at any other 
time or in any other manner than is above prescribed. 

282. If any Cadet shall consider any article of the fare pro- 
vided at his table to be tainted, or otherwise unsuitable for use, 
he may report the fact to the Superintendent of the hall, who 
shall communicate the report, (with a sample of the provisions 
complained of,) to the Commandant of Cadets. 

"excuses." 

283. Any Cadet reported for a delinquency, and having a 
satisfactory excuse, shall express his excuse in writing, in the 
form prescribed, and hand it to the Commandant of Cadets (to 
be submitted to the Superintendent,) within his first orderly 
hour, after the publication of the report on parade. No excuse 
shall be made by any Cadet in any other manner, nor at any 
other time than is here prescribed, unless he is unavoidably 
prevented from complying with the above direction, in which 
case the cause of delay shall be annexed to the excuse, for the 
consideration of the Commandant of Cadets ; but no such ex- 
cuse shall be handed in at a later period than one week after 
the unavoidable cause of delay shall have been removed. 

284. Any Cadet who shall present a false excuse shall be dis- 
missed ; and any Cadet who shall present a disrespectful excuse 
shall be punished according to the degree of the offence, and 
the report for which such excuse shall have been presented shall 
not be removed. 

285. No Cadet shall address an Officer or Cadet who has re- 
ported him for a delinquency, on the subject of such report 
unless specially permitted by the Superintendent or Comman- 
dant of Cadets ; and every Officer or Cadet having made such 
report against a Cadet, shall hold no conversation with him re- 
lating to it, unless referred to with the proper permission. 

286. "When a Cadet is reported absent from quarters, or from 
any duty, he shall be required to render an excuse or explana- 



66 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

tion for the same, and when it is not stated that he was at the 
time in the Barracks, or within the Cadets' limits, he will be 
considered as having been beyond the said limits, and liable to 
be punished accordingly. 

287. All absences from quarters at night, which are imau- 
thorized, and without excuse, will be considered as involving 
special penalty. 

288. Appeals to the Superintendent for a reconsideration of 
reports for delinquencies, will not be entertained except during 
the week on which said reports are recorded, except in cases 
when it is impracticable to apply for a reconsideration within 
that time. Such appeals must be made in writing. 

289. Cadets having over 175 demerit for the year, will be 
considered on probation for the next year, and the limits of 
their demerit for that year wiU be fixed at 175. Any Cadet on 
probation exceeding 175 demerit within the year, will be *' ijjso 
facto" dismissed. 

290. Any Cadet Officer having 50 demerit for any one quarter, 
will be forthvdth reduced to the ranks. 

291. FOEM OF EXCUSE FOR DELINQUENCY. 

(Date) , 18 

Report, 

Excuse, 

Respectfully submitted: 

Cadet, 

To Commandant of Cadets. 

(Endorsement for the above excuse, on the reverse, and at 
the top, the whole not to extend more than three inches below 
the top.) 

(Date,) ■ 

Cadet, 

Excuse, ■ 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE.. 67 

All excuses shall be written un paper susceptible of being 
tiled to a uniform size, and shall Ije, when delivered to their 
address, of the size of a sheet of letter paper, folded in three 
equal parts ; no such communication being made on a piece of 
paper of a less size than one of such parts, or the one-sixth of 
a sheet of letter paper. 

KECITATIOXS. 

292. The class sections shall assemble at their respectve hours 
of recitation, in front of the barracks, except in bad weather, 
when they shall assemble in the lovrer gallery. 

293. Silence and soldier-like deportment are enjoined on all 
Cadets while on class parade, and while marching to and from 
their recitation rooms. No Cadet shall have his book open in 
ranks. 

294. Every Cadet, unless he be an Assistant Professor, or ex- 
cused, shall assemble and march with his section. 

295. No Cadet shall go to his quarters during the attendance 
of his section in the recitation room, unless in case of sickness, 
when he must immediately report to the proper officer. 

296. No Cadet shall leave his class room without the permis- 
sion of his instructor, nor shall request such permission until 
one hour from his entrance has elapsed, nor then except on a 
necessary occasion. 

297. Every Cadet permitted to leave the class-room shall re- 
turn as quickly as pos.sible. Any one who remains out more 
than ten minutes, shall be reported by the Instructor in his 
weekly class report.^ 

SECTION MARCHERS. 

298. The Cadet whose name stands first on the roll, shall be 
the marcher of his section. 

299. The marcher, as soon as the signal is given, shall form 
his section at tire place of assembling in two ranks. 

300. He shall then call the roll, and note each absentee, whose 
name he shall give to the officer of the day. 

301. He shall march his section to the lecture-room, under ths 

3* 



68 REGULATIONS FOR THE 

direction of the officer of the day, in an orderly and soldier-like 
manner. 

302. He shall cause the Cadets of his Section to take seats in 
the lecture-room in the order of their names on the roll. 

303. While a section is under the charge of the marcher, he 
shall be responsible, in the absence of the Professor, or Instruc- 
tor of the section, for any injury done to the public buildings, 
or other public property, and for the good order of bis section. 

304. When dismissed by the Instructor, he shall form his sec- 
tion as before, and march it in like manner to the place -where 
it assembled, and there dismiss it. 

305. He shall report in writing to the officer in charge, every 
violation of the regulations ■^'hich has been committed by any 
member of the section of which he is marcher while in the reci- 
tation-room, or while marching to or from it. 

306. Whenever a marcher is not present with his section, the 
next highest on the roll shall perform the diities of marcher and 
shall be obeyed as such. 

INSTRUCTORS. 

307. Every Instructor shall note in his weekly class report 
the name of each Cadet of the section under his immediate 
charge, who has been delinquent, with the time and description 
of his offence. 

308. He will also state in his report, the progress made dur- 
ing the week by his section, and the particular subject on which 
it has been engaged. 

309. He will hand his weekly report to the Superintendent 
on Friday, between 4 and 4^ P. M. 

310. The Assistant Professors shall present their class reports 
to their respective Principal Professors, by whom they shall be 
transmitted to the Superintendent. 

311. No instructor will dismiss his section before the proper 
signal is made without mentioning the same, with his reasons 
for so doing on his weekly report, nor shall he detain his sec- 
tion after the signal to dismiss it has been sounded. 



VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE, 69 

SOCIETIES, &C. 

312. No Society shall be organized among the Cadets without 
a special license from the Superintendent ; nor shall any assem- 
bly of Cadets be held for this or any other purpose, without his 
express permission, promulgated in orders. 

TEMPORARY REGULATION. 

313. The Superintendent is authorized to prescribe tempora- 
rily such regulations of discipline or police as may be omitted 
and experience may show to be necessary, which shall be re- 
ported to the Board of Visitors at its next meeting, and when 
approved by them, shall be permanent. 

COMPLIMENTS. 

314. Cadets shall at all times salute all the officers of the In- 
stitute whether in uniform or not, the Governor of the State, 
and the members of the Board of Visitors. 

"order op ATTENDING CHURCHES." 

315. The Cadets will be marched to Church every Sunday 
morning, (weather permitting,) and will attend the several 
churches in the following order : 

A. Comijany. B. Company. 
1st Sunday in the month, Presbyterian. Baptist. 

2nd. " " " Episcopal. Presbyterian. 

3d. " " " Baptist. Methodist. 

4th. " " " Methodist. Episcopal. 

5th. " at the discretion of the officers commanding compa- 
nies. The staff will always attend one of the churches attend- 
ed by the companies. 

316. As no preference is given to any religious sect or denom- 
ination in the Institute, officers commanding companies will be 
held accountable for their faithful compliance with the order 
in paragraph 315 — that the principle of the Institution may not 
be violated by their negl«ct or caprice. 



70 VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE. 

KESPOXSIBILITV OF CADETS OX LEAYES OF ABSEXCE, &C. 

317. Cadets, on leaves of absence, are not exempted from a 
conformity to all those regulations whicli prescribe proprietj- of 
conduct on the part of a Cadet, but -will in all cases be liable to 
punishment according to the nature of the offence. 

318. Should the Superintendent have cause to know that the 
conduct of any Cadet, while on leave of absence, has been 
grossly immoral or improper, he v/ill immediately notify the 
parent or guardian of such Cadet, of the same, to the end that 
he do not return to the Institute. 

319. A Cadet on leave of absence will report for duty by 
" guard mounting" on the morning after the date on which his 
leave expires. . 

320. No Cadet on leave of absence shall remain in the vicin- 
ity of the Institute, (except when the parent or guardian resides 
there,) unless specially au.thorized to do so. 

321. A Cadet returning from leave of absence before said 
leave has expired, Avill report for duty by "guard mounting" 
on the morning after his return. 

REGULATIOXS. 

322. A copy of these Regulations will be deposited in each 
room of the Barracks, for the safe keeping of which the Orderly 
will be held responsible, and it is made the duty of the Inspec- 
tor of Divisions and Commandant of Cadets, to see that this 
regulation is complied Avith. 



APPENDIX. 



EXTRACTS 



FROM THE 



GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ARMV 



UNITED STATES 



EXTRACTS FROM THE GENERAL REGULA- 
TIONS FOR THE ARMY. 



AETICLE XXXVI. 

DAILY DETAILS AND DUTIES. 

384. The daily duties must be announced in orders, and the 
officers to perform it are to be detailed according to the rules of 
the roster. 

385. The number and rank of the officers for daily duty, are 
to be regulated by the strength and circumstances of the camp 
or garrison. 

386. Independently of the officers detailed for guard duty, 
the officers for daily duty will be as follows : 

387. In large camps there will be a general officer of ilie day 
for each division ; a field officer of the day for each brigade ; a 
Captain of the day for each regiment ; and such general and 
regimental staff officers of the day as may be necessary to at- 
tend to the various details, and to receive and execute orders, 
according to their respective stations. In every regiment and 
garrison, besides the officer of the day, there wdll be detailed 
daily, if the strength of the garrison will permit, a subaltern, 
four non-commissioned officers, a drummer and such fatigue 
parties as circumstances may require for the police of regiment 
or garrison. In small commands, subalterns may be detailed 
for duty as officers of the day, and they will also discharge the 



74 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

duties of officers of police. The officers thus detailed are to 
remain in camp or garrison during their tours of duty. 

388. The General of the day is to superintend the reg-ularity 
and discipline of the camp in every particular ; he is to visit 
the guards of the camps and the outposts : he is to call out and 
inspect the inlying pickets as often and at such times as he 
thinks proper ; he is to receive all reports in camp, and make 
immediate communication of any extraordinary circumstance 
to the General-in-Chief. 

389. The Field Officer of the day has the immediate superin- 
tendance of the camp of the brigade ; he is to be present at the 
mounting and dismounting of all the brigade guard, particu- 
larly of the inlying pickets Avhich are always considered under 
his command ; he is to call them out to inspect them, to order 
such patrols from them as he may judge necessary to insure the 
regularity and order of the camp : and in the event of the in- 
lying pickets being ordered to march he is to march with them. 

390. The Cajyiaiii or Subaltern of the day, of each regiment, 
superintends the cleanliness and regularity of the camp or 
quarters of the regiment : he attends the parading of all regi- 
mental guards, and orders the roll to be called frequently, and 
at unexpected periods, and reports every thing extraordinary to 
the commanding officer ; he is to visit the hospital at various 
hours, and make a report of its state to the commanding officer 
of the regiment or garrison. 

391. The Adjutant of the day, of the brigade, is to assist the 
general staff officer of the day in the various details of it, and, 
in his absence, to perform his duty as such and attend for or- 
ders at head quarters. 

392. The officer of police, under the direction of the officer 
of the day, is to make a general inspection into the cleanlinesg 
of the camp or garrison. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 75 

ARTICLE XXXVII. 

" HONORS TO BE PAID BY THE TROOPS." 

395. The President is to be saluted with the highest honors — 
all standards and colours dropping, officers saluting arms, beat- 
ing and trumpets sounding. 

396. The same compliments Avill be paid to the Vice-President. 

397. A Major General commanding-in-chief, is to be received 
by cavalry, vidth swords drawn, trumpets sounding the march, 
and all the officers saluting, standards dropping ; by infantry, 
with drums beating the march, colors dropping, officers saluting, 
and arms presented. 

398. A Major General is to be received, by cavalry, with 
swords drawn, trumpets sounding twice the trumpet flourish, 
and officers saluting ; by infantry with three ruffles, colors drop- 
ping, officers saluting, and arms presented. 

399. A Brigadier General is to be received, by cavalry, with 
SAvords dravsTQ, trumpets sounding once the trumpet flourish, 
and officers saluting ; by infantry, with two ruffles, colors drop- 
ping, officers saluting, and arms presented. 

400. An Adjutant General, or Inspector General, if under the 
rank of a general officer, is to be received at a review, or in- 
spection of the troops under arms — by cavalry, with swords 
drawn, officers saluting ; by infantry, officers saluting, and arms 
presented. The same honors to be paid to any field officer, au- 
thorized to review and inspect the troops. When the inspecting 
officer is junior in rank to the officer on the parade, and in the 
command of the troops to be inspected, no compliments will be 
paid : he will be received only with swords drawn and arms 
shouldered. 

401. All guards are to turn out and present arms to general 
officers as often as they pass them, except the personal guards 
of general officers, which turn out only to the Generals whose 
guards they are, and to officers of superior rank. 

402. To Colonels, the guards of their own regiments turn out 
, and present arms once a day ; after which, they turn out with 

shouldered arms. 
4 



76 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

403. To Lieutenant Colonels and Majors, their own guards 
lurn out •vrith shouldered arms once a day : at other times with 
ordered arms. 

404. When the command of a regiment devolves on a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, or Major, the regimental guards will pay him 
the same compliment as is ordered for the Colonel. 

405 . Officers in command of forts or garrison, have a right to 
the complimentary honors from the troops under their com- 
mand, which are due to the rank, one degree higher than the 
rank they actually hold in the line of the army. 

406. To the Secretary of State, Treasury, War, and Navy De- 
partments, and other members of the Cabinet, to the Chief Jus- 
tice, tlie President ])ro. tempore of tlie Senate, and Speaker of the 
House of Representatives of the United States : and to Govern- 
ors loithin their respective States and Territories, the same honors 
will be paid as are specified for a Major General commanding- 
in-chief. 

407. Officers belonging to any foreign service, who may call 
at any camp or garrison, by invitation from the commander of 
the camp or garrison, may be complimented -with the honors 
due to their rank or qualit3^ 

408. American and Foreign Envoys or Ministers will be re- 
ceived with the compliments due to a Major General. 

409. The colors of a regiment passing a guard, are to be sa- 
luted with the utmost respect — the trumpet sounding, and the 
drums beating a march. 

410. Where two regiments meet on their march, the regi- 
ment inferior in rank is to halt, and form in parade order, and 
salute the other regiment, which proceeds on its march, with 
swords drawn and bayonets fixed, trumpets sounding or drums 
beating, standards or colors flying until it has cleared the front 
of the regiment Avhich has halted. 

411. Where guards present their arms, the officers, on all oc- 
casions, salute with their swords. 

412. Where General oflicers, or persons entitled to salute, pass 
in the rear of a guard, the officer is only to make his men stand 
shouldered, and not to face his guard about, or beat his drum. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 77 

413. Where General officers, or persons entitled to a salute, 
pass guards, while in the act of relieving, both guards are to 
salute, receiving the word of command from the senior officer 
of the vrhole. 

414. All guards are to be under arms -when armed parties 
approach their posts : and to parties commanded by commis- 
sioned officers, they are to present their arms, drums beating a 
march, and officers saluting. 

415. No compliments by guards or sentinels will be paid be- 
tween retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for grand rounds. 

416. All guards and sentinels are to pay the same compli- 
ments to the officers of the navy, marines and militia in the 
service of the United States, as are directed to be paid to the 
officers of the army, according to their relative ranks. 

417. It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers and 
soldiers, at all times and in all situations to pay the proper com- 
pliments to officers of the navy and marines, and to officers 
of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers of their ovni 
particular regiments and corps. 

418. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discip- 
line. The good or the brave officer or soldier is always respect- 
ful towards superiors. His respect will not be confined to mar- 
tial obedience, but will be extended to other occasions. Thus 
it is always the duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first, 
the customary salutation, and of the superior to return such 
complimentary notice. 

419. Sergeants with swords drawn, will salute by bringing 
them to a recover, — with muskets, by bringing the left-hand 
across the body, so as to strike the musket near the right shoul- 
der. Corporals out of the ranks will carry their muskets at a 
shoulder as Sergeants, and salute in like manner. 

420. When a soldier without arms, or with side arms onlj-, 
meets an officer, he will continue to move on, but he is to raise 
his hand to his cap, looking at the same time in a respectful and 
soldier like manner at the officer, who Avill make a suitable 
acknowledgement to the compliment thus offered. 

421. A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated and 



78 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an 
officer, and make the customary salutation. If standing, it 
would be proper to turn towards the officer for the same pur- 
pose. If the parties remain in the same place or on the same 
ground, such compliments would not in general be repeated. 

" SALUTES." 

422. The national salute is determined by the number of 
States composing the Union, at the rate of one gun for each 
State. 

423. The President of the United States alone is to receive a 
salute of twenty-one guns. 

424. The Vice President is to receive a salute of seventeen 
guns. 

425. The Heads of the great Execittive Departments oftlie Na- 
tional Government ; the Major General commanding the army ; 
the Governors of States and Territories within their respective 
jurisdictions fifteen guns. 

426. A Major General, thirteen guns. 

427. A Brigadier General, eleven guns. 

428. Foreign Ships of War will be saluted in return for a 
similar compliment, gun for gun, on notice being officially re- 
ceived of such intention. If there be several posts in sight of, 
or vnthin six miles of each other, the principal only shall re- 
ciprocate compliments with ships passing. 

429. Officers of the navy will be saluted according to relative 
rank. 

430. Foreign officers invited to visit a fort or post, may be 
saluted according to their relative rank. 

431. Envoys and Ministers of the United States and foreign 
powers are to be saluted with thirteen gims. 

432. All officers of the army having rank above that of Colo- 
nel, whether of the line or staff, by brevet or otherwise, will be 
complimented, on official visits, b_y salutes according to their 
highest rank ; provided they l)e senior to the officer in command 
where the visit is made. 

433. A General officer will be saluted but once in a vear at 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 79 

each post, and only when notice of his intention to visit the 
post has been given. 

434. Salutes to individuals are to he fired on their arrival 
only. 

435. A national salute will be fired at meridian, on the anni- 
versary of the Independence of the United States, at each mili- 
tary post and camp. 

ESCORTS OF HONOR. 

436. Escorts of honor may be composed of cavalry or infan- 
try, or both, according to circumstances. They are guards of 
honor, for the purpose of receiving and escorting personages of 
high rank, civil or military. The troops for this purpose will 
be selected for their soldierly appearance and superior dis- 
cipline. 

437. The manner of receiving and escorting the personage is 
as follows : 

438. The escort will be drawn up in line, the centre opposite 
to the place where the personage presents himself with an in- 
terval between the wings to receive the personage and his reti- 
nue. On his appearance he will be received with the honors 
due to his rank. When he has taken his place in the line, the 
whole will be wheeled into platoons or companies, as the case 
may be, and take up the march. The same ceremony will be 
observed, and the same honors paid on his leaving the escort. 

439. When the position of the escort is at a considerable dis- 
tance from the point where the personage is expected to be re- 
ceived, as for instance where a court-yard or wharf intervenes, a 
double line of sentinels will be posted from that point to the es- 
cort, facing inwards, and the sentinels will successively salute 
as the personage passes. 

440. An officer wiU be appointed to attend the personage es- 
corted, to bear such communications as he may have to make to 
the commander of the escort. 

FUNERAL HONORS. 

441. On the receipt of official intelligence of the death of the 



■80 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

President of the United States, at any post or camp the com- 
manding officer shall, on the following day, cause a gun to be 
fired at every half hour, beginning at sunrise and ending at sun- 
set. When posts are contiguous, the firing -n-ill take place at 
the post only commanded by the superior officer. 

442. On the day of the interment of a Major General com- 
manding in chief, a gvm Avill be fired at every half hour, until 
the procession moves, beginning at sunrise. 

443. The funeral escort of a Major General commanding-in- 
chief shall consist of a regiment of infantry, a sqiiadi'on of cav- 
alry, and six pieces of artillery. 

444. That of a Major General, a regiment of infantry, a squad- 
ron of cavalry, and four pieces of artiller}-. 

445. Th2ii oi & Brigadier General, a regiment of infantry, one 
company of cavalry, and tvro pieces of artillery. 

446. That of a Colonel, a regiment. 

447. That of a Lieutenant Colonel, six companies. 

448. That of a Major, four companies. 

449. That of a Captain, one company. 

450. That of a Subaltern, half a company. 

451. The funeral escort shall always be commanded by an 
officer of the same rank with the deceased, or if none such be 
present, by one of the next inferior grade. 

452. The funeral escort of a non-commissioned staff officer, 
shall consist of sixteen rank and file, commanded by a Sergeant. 

453. That of a Sergeant, of fourteen rank and file, commanded 
by a Sergeant. 

454. That of a Corporal, of twelve rank and file, commanded 
by a Corporal ; and 

455. That of a private, of eight rank and file, commanded by 
a Corporal. 

456. The escort will be formed in two ranks, opposite to the 
quarters or tent of deceased, with shouldered arms and bayonets 
fixed, the artillery and cavalry on the right of the infantry. 

457. On the appearance of the corpse the officer commanding 
the escort will command. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 81 

Present — Arms ! 

when the honors due to the deceased -will be paid by the drums 
and trumpets. The music will then play an appropriate air, 
and the coffin will then be taken to the right, where it will be 
halted. The commander will next order, 

1. Shoulder — Arms! 2. By companij, [or platoon,) left loheel. 
3. March ! 4. Column foncard. 5. Guide rigid. 6. March. 

458. The column will be marched, in common time, to appro- 
priate music ; and on reaching the grave, will take a direction 
so as that the guides shall be next to the grave. When the 
centre of the column is opposite the grave, the commander will 
order, 

1. Column. 2. Halt! 3. Right into line, wheel. 4. March! 

The coffin is then brought along the front to the opposite side 
of the grave, and the commander than orders. 

Present — Arms ! 

And when the coffin reaches the grave, he adds, 

1. Shoulder — Arms ! 2. Order — Arms ! 3. Parade — Rest ! 

459. After the funeral service is performed and the coffin is 
lowered into the grave, the commander will order, 

1. Attention, com])any ! 2. Shoidder — Arms! S. Load at will. 
4. Load ! 

When three rounds of small arms will be fired by the escort, 
taking care to elevate the pieces. 

460. This being done, the commander will order, 

1. By company, {or platoon,) right loheel. 2. March! 3. Col- 
umn forward. 4. Guide left. 5. Quick March ! 

The music will not begin to play until the escort is clear of 
the enclosure. 



82 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

461. The pall-bearers, six in number, will be selected from 
the grade of the deceased, or from the grade or grades next 
above or below it. 

462. At the funeral of an officer, as many in commission, of 
the army, division, brigade, or regiment, according to the rank 
of the deceased, as can conveniently be spared from other duties, 
will join in procession in uniform and with side arms. The 
funeral of a non-commissioned officer or private will be attended 
in like manner, by the non-commissioned officers or privates of 
the regiment or company, according to the rank of the deceased, 
with side arms only, 

463. Persons joining in the procession, fullow the coffin in the 
inverse order of their rank. 

464. The usual badge of military mourning is a piece of black 
crape around the left arm, and also upon the sword hilt ; and 
will be worn Avhen in full or in undress. 

465. As family mourning, crape will be worn by officers, 
(when in uniform) only around the left arm. 

466. The drums of a funeral escort will be covered with black 
crape or thin black serge. 

467. Funeral honors will be paid to deceased officers, without 
military rank, according to their assimilated grades. 



ARTICLE XXXVIII. 

■ IHrSPECTIOXS OF THE TSOOPS. 

468. The inspection of troops as a division, regiment, or other 
body composing a garrison or command, not less than a com- 
pany, will generally be preceded by a review. 

469. There will be certain periodical inspections, to wit : — 

1. The commanders of regiments and posts will make an in- 
spection of their commands on the last day of every month. 

2. Captains will inspect their companies every Sunday morn- 
ing ; and Lieutenants will inspect their squads every Wednes- 
day morning. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 83 

3. Medical officers having charge of hospitals, -will also make 
a thorough inspection of them every Sunday morning. 

4. Inspection when troops are mustered for payment. 

470. Besides these inspections, frequent visits will be made 
by the commanding officer, company, and medical officers, during 
the month, to the men's quarters, the hospital, guard house, &c. 

FORM OF INSPECTION. 

471. The present example embraces a battalion of infantry. 
The inspecting officer, and the field officers and staff officers, will 
be on foot. 

472. The battalion being in the order of battle, the Colonel 
will cause it to break into open column of companies, right in 
front. He will next order the ranks to be opened, when the 
color-rank and color-guard, under the direction of the Adjutant, 
will take post ten paces in front, and the band ten paces in rear 
of the column. 

473. The Colonel seeing the ranks aligned will command, 

1. Officers and Sergeants. 2. To the front of your companies. 
3. March! 

The officers will form themselves in one rank, eight paces, and 
the non-commissioned officers in one rank, six paces, in ad- 
vance, along the whole fronts of their respective companies, from 
right to left, in the order of seniority ; the pioneers and music 
of each company in one rank two paces behind the non-com- 
missioned officers. 

474. The Colonel will next command, 

1. Field and staff. 2. To the front— Ma-rch ! 

The commissioned officers thus designated will form themselves 
in one rank, six paces in front of the colors, from right to left, 
in the order of seniority ; and the non-commissioned staff, in a 
similar manner, two paces in rear of the preceding rank. The 
Colonel seeing the movement executed, will take post on the 
right of the Lieutenant-Colonel, and wait the approach of the 



84 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

inspecting officer. But such of the field officers as may be su- 
perior in rank to the inspector Trill not take post in front of the 
battalion. 

475. The inspection vrill commence in front. After inspect- 
ing the dress and general appearance of the field, and commis- 
sioned staff under arms, the Inspector, accompanied by these 
officers, will pass down the open column, looking at every rank 
in front and rear. 

476. The Colonel will noAv command, 

1. Order arms. 2. Rest ! 

when the Inspector will proceed to make a minute inspection 
of the several ranks or divisions, in succession, commencing in 
front. 

477. As the Inspector approaches the non-commissioned staff, 
color-rank, the color-guard and the band, the Adjutant will give 
the necessary orders for the inspection of arms, boxes and knap- 
sacks. The colors will be planted firm in the ground, to enable 
the color bearers to display the contents of their knapsacks. 
The non-commissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as in- 
spected ; but the color-rank and color-guard will remain xmtil 
the colors are to be escorted to the place from which they were 
taken. 

478. As the Inspector successively approaches the compa- 
nies, the Captains will command, 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Inspection of arms. 

The inspecting officer will then go through the whole company 
and minutely inspect the arms, accoutrements, and dress of 
each soldier. After this is done, the Captain will command. 

Open — Boxes ! 
when the ammunition and the boxes ■yvill be examined. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 85 

479. The Captain will then command, 

1. Shoulder Arms ! C. lb the rear, open order. 

2. Close order. 7. March ! 

3. March! 8. Front rani-, about face. 

4. Order — Arms ! 9. Unsling hnapsacJcs. 

5. Stack — Arms ! 10. Open Icnapsacks. 

480. The Sergeants will face inward and close upon the cen- 
tre at the 2d and 3d commands, and will stack their arms at the 
5th command ; at the 6th and 7th commands, they will face out- 
ward, and resume their positions. When the ranks are closed, 
preparatory to tal^e arms, the Sergeants will also close upon 
the centre, and at the word, take their arms, and resume their 
places. 

481. The knapsacks will he placed at the feet of the men, the 
flaps from" them, with the great coats on the flaps, and the 
knapsacks leaning on the great coats. In this position the In- 
spector will examine their contents, or so many of them as he 
may think necessary, commencing with the non-commissioned 
officers, the men standing at attention. 

482. When the Inspector has passed through the company, 
the captain will command, 

Repack — Knapsacks. 
when each soldier will repack, and buckle up his knapsack, 
leaving it on the ground, the number upwards, turned from him, 
and then stand at rest. 

483. The Captain will then command, 

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3 Sling — Knapsacks. 

At the word sling, each soldier will take his knapsack, holding 
it by the inner straps, and stand erect ; at the last word, he will 
replace it on his back. The Captain will continue, 

4. Front rank, cdyoiit face ! 8. Shoulder — Arms! 

5. Close order. 9. Officers and Sergeants, to 

6. March! your posts. 

7. Take—km^l 10. March! 



86 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

and will cause the company to file off to their tents or quarters 
except the company that is to re-escort the colors, "which will 
await the further orders of the Colonel. 

484. In an extensive column, some of the rearmost companies 
may, after the inspection of dress, and general appearance be 
permitted to stack arms, until just before the Inspector ap- 
proaches them, when they will be directed to take arms and re- 
sume their position. 

485. The inspection of the troops being ended, the field and 
staff will next accompany the Inspector to the hospital, maga- 
zine, arsenal, quarters, sutler's shop, guard house, and such 
other places as he may think proper to inspect. The captains 
and subalterns will precede him in his visits to their companies 
and sections respectively. • 

486. The hospital being at all times an object of particular 
interest, it will be critically and minutely inspected. 

487. The men will be formed in the company quarters in 
front of their respective bunks, and on the entrance of the In- 
spector the word Attention ! will be given by the senior non- 
commissioned officer present, when the whole will salute with 
the hand, without uncovering. 

488. The Inspector will examine the general arrangement of 
the interior of the quarters, the bunks, bedding, cooking and 
table utensils, and such other objects as may present themselves; 
and afterwards the exterior. 

489. The Adjutant will exhibit to the Inspector the regimen- 
tal books and papers, including those relating to the transac- 
tions of the Council of Administrations. The company books, 
and papers will also be exhibited, the whole together, generally 
at the Adjutant's office, and in the presence of the officers not 
otherwise particularly engaged. 

490. The inspection of cavalry and artillery will conform to 
the principles laid down in the foregoing paragraphs, regard 
being had to the system of instruction for those arms of service 
respectively. , 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 87 

ARTICLE XL. 

FORMS OF PARADE. 

500. On all parades of ceremony, such as Reviews, Guard- 
mounting, at Troop or Retreat parades, instead of the word 
"Sesf," which allows the men to move or change the position of 
their bodies, the command will be, " Parade — Rest I" At the 
last word of this command, the soldier will carry the right foot 
six inches in rear of the left heel, the left knee slightly bent, 
the body upright upon the right leg ; the musket resting against 
the hollow of the right shoulder, the hands crossed in front, the 
backs of them outward, and the left hand uppermost. At the 
word "Attention!'^ the soldier will resume the correct position 
at ordered arms. In the positions here indicated, the soldier 
will remain silent and motionless ; and it is particularly en- 
joined upon all officers to cause the commands above given, on 
the part of the soldier, to be execvited with great briskness and 
spirit. 

501. Officers on all duties under arms, are to have their swords 
drawn, without waiting for any words of command for that 
purpose. 

" I. DRESS parade." 

502. There shall be daily at least one dress parade, which may 
be at troop or retreat, as the commanding officer may direct, or at 
both beats should he think proper so to order. 

The parade at troop will be termed the morning parade, and 
that at retreat, the evening parade. In either case it will be con- 
ducted as follows : 

503. A signal will be beat, or sounded, half an hour before 
troop or retreat, for the music to assemble on the regimental 
parade. At the same time each company will turn out under 
arms, on its own parade, for roll-call and inspection by its own 
officers. ' 

504. Ten minutes after that signal the Adjutant's call will be 
given, when the companies will be marched, (the band playing) 



88 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

to the regimental parade, where they will be formed in their 
relative positions in the order of battle, arms ordered and at a 
rest, the officers at their post on foot with swords drawn, the 
Adjutant on the right of the line. The music will be formed in 
two ranks on the right of the Adjutant, and from the Adjutant's 
call to troop or retreat, the band will play. The senior officer 
present will take command of the parade, and will take post at 
a suitable distance in front, opposite the centre, facing the 
line. 

505. Ten minutes after the Adjutant's call, the Adjutant will 
order the music to heat off, when it will commence on the right, 
beat in front of the line to the left and back to its place on the 
right. 

506. When the music has ceased, the Adjutant will step two 
paces to the front, face the line, and command, 

I. Attention! 2. Battalion. 3. Shoulder — Arms! 4. Prepare 

to open ranks. 5. To tlie rear, open order! 

6. Maech ! 7. RicjM — Dress ! 

At the sixth command, the ranks will be opened according to 
the system laid down in the Infantry Tactics, the commissioned 
officers marching to the front, the company officers four paces, 
field officers sis paces, opposite to their positions in the order of 
battle, where they will halt and dress. The Adjutant seeing 
the ranks alligned will command, 

Front ! 

and march along the front to the centre, face to tlie right, and 
pass the line of company officers eight or ten paces, where he 
will come to the right-about and giA'e the wtn-d. 

Present — Arj[s I 

when arms will be presented, officers saluting. 

507. Seeing this executed, he will face about to the command- 
ing officer, salute, and report, " Sir, the parade is fornted." The 
Adjutant will then, on intimation to that effect, take his station 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 89 

three paces on the left of the commanding officer, one pace re- 
tired, passing round his rear. 

508. The commanding officer having acknowledged the salute 
of the line, by touching his hat, will, after the Adjutant has 
taken his post, draw his sword, and command, 

1. BattaJlon. 2. SJiouldcr — Arms! 

and add such exercises as he may think proper, concluding 
with, 

Order — Arms ! 

509. The Adjutant Avill now pass round the right of the com- 
manding officer, advance upon the line, halt midway between 
him and the line of company officers and command, 

1. First Sergeants, to tlie front and centre. 2. March! 

At the first word they will shoulder arms as Sergeants, march 
two paces to the front and face inwards. At the second word, 
they will march to the centre and halt. The Adjutant will then 
order, 

1. Front — Face! 2. Report. 

At the last word, each in succession, beginning on the right, will 
salute, by bringing the left hand smartly across the breast to 
the right shoulder, and report the result of the roll-call, previ- 
ously made on the company parade. 

510. The Adjutant again commands, 

1. First Sergeants, outward — Face! 2. To your posts— 'Marcs. \ 

when they will resume their places and order arms. The Ad- 
jutant will now face to the commanding officer, salute, and give 
the result of the First Sergeant's reports. The commanding of- 
ficer will next direct the orders to be read, when the x\djutant 
will face about and announce, 

Attention to Orders. 
He will then read the orders. 



90 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

511. The orders having been read, the Adjutant will face to 
the commanding officer, salute, and report ; when, on an intima- 
tion from the commander, he will face again to the line and an- 
nounce, 

llie Parade is dismissed. 

All officers will now return their swords, face inwards, and close 
on the Adjutant, he having taken position in their line, the 
field officers on the flanks. The Adjutant gives the word, 

1. Front — Face! 2. Foricard — JIarch ! 

when they wUl march forward, dressing on the centre, the music 
playing, and when within six paces of the commander, the Ad- 
jutant will give the word, 

Halt! 

The officers will then salute the commanding officer by raising 
the hand to the cap, and there remain until he shall have com- 
municated to them such instructions as he may have to give, or 
intimates that the ceremony is finished. As the officers disperse, 
the First Sergeants will close the ranks of their respective com- 
panies, and march them to the company parades, where they 
will be dismissed, the band continuing to play until the compa- 
nies clear the regimental parade. 

512. All company officers and men will be present at dress 
parades, unless especially excused, or on some duty incompati- 
ble with such attendance. 

513. The dress parade being essential to ensure the complete 
equipment and neatness of the troops, as well as to exhibit them 
under arms, at least once a day, commanding officers will be 
held responsible that they are not dispensed with, except on ex- 
traordinary and urgent occasions. 

ir. REVIEW. 

514. Preparatory to a review, the Adjutant will cause a camp- 
color to be placed 80 or 100 paces, or more, accoMing to the 
length of the line, in front of, and opposite to where, the cen- 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 91 

tre of the battalion will rest, where the reviewing officer is sup- 
posed to take his station ; and although he may choose to quit 
that position, still the color is to he considered as the point to 
which all the movements and formations are relative. 

515. The Adjutant will also cause points to be marked, at 
suitable distances, for the wheelings of the division ; so that 
their right flanks, in marching past, shall only be about four 
paces from the camp-color, where it is supposed the reviewing 
officer places himself to receive the salute. 

516. The battalion being formed in the order of battle, at slwiil- 
(lered arms, the Colonel will command, 

1. Battalion prepare for revieiv ! 2. To ihe rear, open order ! 
3. March! 

At the word March ! the field and staff officers dismount ; the 
company officers and the color rank advance four paces in front 
of the front rank, and place themselves opposite to their respec- 
tive places, in the order of battle. The staff officers place them- 
selves, according to rank, three paces on the right of the rank of 
company officers, and one pace from each other ; the music ad- 
vances through the centre and forms in two ranks, (the band in 
front,) between the colors and the line ; the color-guard replace 
the color-rank ; the Sergeant-Major and the Quarter-master-Ser- 
geant take post one pace from each other, and three paces on 
the right of the front rank of the battalion. 

517. When the ranks are aligned, the Colonel will command, 

Front ! 

and place himself eight paces, and the Lieutenant Colonel and 
Major will place themselves two paces in front of the rank of 
company officers, and opposite to their respective places in the 
order of battle, all facing to the front. 

518. When the reviewing officer presents himself before the 
centre, and is fifty or sixty paces distant, the Colonel will face 
about, and command, 

4* 



92 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

Present — Arsis ! 

and resume his front. The men present arms, and the officers 
salute, 90 as to drop their swords with the last motion of the 
firelock. The non-commissioned staff salute by bringing the 
sword to a poise, the hilt resting on the breast, the blade in 
front of the face, inclining a little outward. 

The music will play, and all the drums beat, according to the 
rank of the reviewing officer. The colors only salute such per- 
sons as, from their rank, and by regulation, (see Art. ^LKXYII,) 
are entitled to that honor. If the reviewing officer be junior in 
rank to the commandant of parade, no compliment will be paid 
to him, but he will be received with arms carried. 

519. The reviewing officer having halted, and acknowledged 
the salute of the line, by touching or raising his cap or hat, the 
Colonel will face about and command, 

Shoulder — Arms ! 

when the men shoulder their pieces ; the officers and non-com- 
missioned staff recover their swords, with the last motion, and 
the Colonel faces to the front. 

520. The reviewing officer will then go towards the right, the 
whole remaining perfectly steady, without paying any further 
compliment, while he passes along the front of the battalion, 
and proceeds round the left flank, and along the rear of the 
file-closers to the right. While the reviewing officer is going 
round the battalion, the band will play, and will cease when he 
has returned to the right flank of the troops. 

521. When the reviewing officer turns off to place himself by 
the camp-color in front, the Colonel will face to the line and 
command, 

1. Close Order. 2. March ! 

At the first command, the field and company officers will face 
to the right about, and at the second command, all persons, ex- 
cept the Colonel, will resume their places in the order of battle ; 
the field and staff officers mount. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 93 

522. The reviewing officer having taken his position near the 
camp color, the Colonel will command, 

1. By company, right lolieel. 2. Quick — March ! 3. Pass in 
revieiv. 4. Column, forward. 5. Guide right. 6. March! 

The battalion, in column of company, right in front, will then, 
in common time, and at shouldered arms, be put in motion ; the 
Colonel four paces in front of the Captain of the leading Com- 
pany ; the Lieutenant Colonel on a line with the leading com- 
pany ; the Major on a line with the rear company ; the Adju- 
tant on a line with the second company ; the Sergeant Major on 
a line with the company next preceding the rear, — each six 
paces from the flank (left) opposite to the reviewing officer ; the 
staff officers in one rank, according to the order of precedency, 
from the right, four paces in rear of the column ; the music 
preceded by the principal musician, six paces before the Colo- 
nel ; the pioneers preceded by a Corporal, four paces before the 
principal musician ; and the Quartermaster Sergeant two paces 
from the side opposite to the guides, and in line with the pio- 
neers. 

523. All other officers and non-commissioned officers vdll 
march past in the places prescribed for them in the march of 
an open column. The guides and soldiers will keep their heads 
steady to the front in passing in review. 

524. The color-bearer will remain in ranks while passing and 
saluting. 

525. The music will begin to play just after the leading com- 
pany has completed the second wheel, taking particular care 
that they play in the same time, or cadence, as that in which 
the column is marching, and wheel to the left out of the col- 
umn, and take a position opposite to, and facing the reviewing 
officer ; and wiU continue to play until the rear of the column 
shall have passed him, when it will cease and follow in the rear 
of the battalion, unless the battalion is to pass in quick time 
also, in which case it will keep its position. (See paragraph 
531.) 

526. The officers will salute the reviewing officer when they 



94 EXTRACTS PROM THE 

arrive within six paces of him, and recover their swords when 
six paces past him. All officers in saluting will cast their eyes 
towards the reviewing officer. 

527. The Colonel, when he has saluted, at the head of the 
battalion, will place himself near the reviewing officer, and will 
remain there until the rear has passed, when he will rejoin the 
battalion. 

528. The colors will salute the reviewing officer when within 
six paces of him, and be raised when they have passed by him 
an equal distance. The drums will beat a march or ruffle, ac- 
cording to the rank of the reviewing officer, at the same time 
that the colors salute. 

529. When the rear of the column has passed the reviewing 
officer, the Colonel will command, 

1. Battalion. 2. Guide left ! 
and the column will be directed, by turning to the left, to the 
ground which it previously occupied, when the Colonel will 
command, 

1. Cohimn. 2. Halt. 3. Left, into line, wheel. 4. March ! 

530. When the line is formed in order of battle, the Colonel 
will cause the ranks to be opened, the officers taking post in 
front, and the Review will terminate by the whole sakiting, as 
at the beginning. 

531. If, however, instructions have been pre-^iously given to 
march the troops past in quick time also, the Colonel will, in- 
stead of halting the column and wheeling it into, line as above 
directed, give the command, 

1. Quick time. 2. March! 

At which command, the column will change the ii?ne of march- 
ing and pass by the reviewing officer, either at shouldered, or at 
support arms ; and no salute will be offered by either officers 
or men. The music will have kept its position opposite the re- 
viewing officer, and will commence playing at the same time as 
is directed, when the battalion passes in common time : and as 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 95 

tlie column approaches, will place itself in front of, and march 
oflf with the column, and continue to play, until the battalion is 
halted on its original ground of formation. The Review Avill 
terminate in the same manner as prescribed above. 

532. The Colonel will afterwards cause the troops to perform 
such exercises and manoeuvres as the reviewing officer may 
direct. 

533. When two or more battalions are to be reviewed, they 
will be formed in parade order, with the proper intervals, and 
will also perform the same movements that are laid down for a 
single battalion, observing the additional directions that are 
given for such movements when applied to the line. The Bri- 
gadier, and his staff, on foot, will place themselves opposite the 
centre of the brigade : the Brigadier two paces in front of the 
rank of Golonels ; his Aids two paces on his right, and one re- 
tired ; and the other brigade staff oflBcers those ha-\dng the rank 
of field officers, in the rank, of Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors ; 
and those below that rank in the rank of company officers. 

534. In passing in review, a Major General will be four paces 
in front of the Colonel of the leading battalion of his division ; 
and the Brigadiers will be on the right of the Colonels of the 
leading battalions of their brigades ; staff officers on the left of 
their Generals. 

535. Upon occasions when the line exceeds two battalions, 
the reviewing officer may, at his option, to save time, cause 
them to march past in quick time. In such cases the mounted 
officers only will salute. 

536. A number of companies less than a battalion will be 
reviewed as a battalion, and a single company as if it were with 
the battalion. In the latter case, the company may pass in col- 
umn of platoons. 

537. If several brigades are to be reviewed together, or in 
one line, this further difference will be observed ; the review- 
ing personage, joined by the General of the division, on the 
right of his division, will proceed down the line, parallel to its 
front, and when near the Brigadiers respectively, will be salu- 
ted by their brigades in succession. The music of each, after 



96 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

the prescribed salute, will play while the reviewing personage 
is in front, or in rear of it, and only then. 

538. The battalions will take, in marching, intervals between 
them of forty paces. 

539. In marching in review, with several battalions, ia com- 
mon time, the music of each succeeding battalion will com- 
mence to play Avhen the music of the preceding one has ceased, 
in order to follow its battalion. When marching in quick time, 
the music will begin to play when the rear company of the 
preceding battalion has passed the reviewing officer. 

540. The reviewing officer or personage will acknowledge the 
salute, by raising, or taking off his cap, or hat, when the com- 
mander of the troops salutes him ; and also when the colors 
pass. The remainder of the time occupied by the passage of 
the troops he will be covered. 

541. The review of Cavalry and Artillery will be conducted 
on similar principles, and according to the systems of instruc- 
tions for those arms of service. 

III. " GUARD MOrNTIXG." 

542. Camp and garrison guards will be relieved every twenty- 
four hours. The guards at outposts will ordinarily be relieved 
in the same manner, but this must depend on their distances 
from camp, or other circumstances, which may sometimes re- 
quire their continuing on duty several days. In such cases 
they must be previously notified to provide themselves accord- 
ingly. 

543. Thirty minutes before guard mounting, a call wiU be 
sounded for the men warned for duty, to turn out on their com- 
pany parades for inspection by the First Sergeants, sitperinten- 
tended by a commissioned officer of each company. Ten minutes 
after, a second call will be sounded for the duty men to repair 
to the regimental or garrison, parade conducted by the First 
Sergeants. Each detachment as it arrives will, under tlie direc- 
tion of the Adjutant, take post on the left of the one that pre- 
ceded it, in open order, arms shouldered, and bayonets fixed : 
the supernumeraries five paces in the rear of the men of their 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 97 

respective companies. If the guards are intended for the grand 
parade, they will take post in the order prescribed above, under 
the direction of the general staff officers, or his assistant, the 
Adjutant of the day. 

544. The following regulations respecting mounting guards, 
are drawn up, with reference to the grand parade ; with a few 
obvious variations, they will equally apply to regimental or 
garrison parade. 

545. The ranks being opened and aligned, the officers of 
guards will at the word ''J-roni" take post twelve paces in front 
of the centre, in one line, according to rank, and vsdth swords 
drawn : the Sergeants in one rank, four paces in the rear of the 
officers ; and the Corporals in one rank, four paces in the rear 
of the Sergeants ; the whole facing to the front. 

546. The Adjutant of the day will dress the lines, count the 
files, verify the details by reference to the written orders, and 
tell off the guards, whilst the general staff officer appoints the 
officers and non-commissioned officers to the several guards, and 
designates the post which they are to occupy. 

547. The staff officer will then command, 

1. Officers and non-commissioned officers. 2. About — -face. 
3. Inspect your guards — March! 

The commander of each guard then commands, 

1. Order arms 2. Inspection of arms. 

The two highest in rank of each guard will divide the ranks 
between them, accompanied by the other officers, and inspect 
accordingly, during the inspection the band will play. 

548. The inspection ended, the officers, and non-commissioned 
officers will take post in their respective guards, as though each 
guard were a company of a battalion, in open order, under review; 
at which time, also, the officers of the day will take post in front of 
the centre of the guards, the old officer of the day on the right 
of the new officer of the day, one pace retired. 



98 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

549. The staff officer will now command, 

I. Parade— Bed! 2. Trooj)— Beat off ! 

when the music, beginning on the right, will beat down the 
line in front of the officers of the guards to the left, and back 
to its place on the right, where it will cease to play. 

550. the staff officer continues, 

1. Atieniion! 2. Shoidcler — Arms! 3. Close order — March! 

At the word " close order" the officers will face about ; at 
" march," resume their posts in line. The officers haying taken 
their posts in line, the staff officer will command. 

Present — Arms ! 

At which he will face to the new officer of the day, salute and 
report, " Sir, tlie guards are formed." The new officer of the day. 
after acknowledging the salute, will give the necessary instruc- 
tions to the staff officer, AA'ho will cause the same to be executed, 
the staff officer giving the word of command. But if the staff 
officer should be senior to the officer of the day, he would report 
without saluting with the sword, and immmediately retire. In 
this case the Adjutant of the day would be instructed to give 
the orders, in the following paragraph, or the officer of the day 
would give them himself. 

551. The guard having shouldered arms, and performed such 
exercises as may be required by the officer of the day, the staff 
officer will again command, 

1. By guard [or 2}latoon) right U'liecL 2. jMarch I 3. Pass in 
review. 4. Cohimnfonvard. 5. Guide riglit. 6. ^Iarch ! 

when the whole will march past the officer of the day accord- 
ing to the order of review, conducted by the staff officer, march- 
ing on the left of the first division ; the Adjutant of the day on 
the left of the last division. 

652. When the column has passed the officer of the day, the 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 99 

guards will break off under their respective commanders, and 
take the route to the several posts assigned them, the staff oiE- 
cers breaking off at the same time ; the music for the parade, 
which has wheeled out of column, and taken post opposite the 
officer of the day, will cease, and the old officer of the day 
salute, and give the old or standing orders to the new officer of 
the day. The supernumeraries, at the same time, will be 
marched by the First Sergeants to their respective company 
parades, and dismissed. 

553. Guards which are assigned to new posts, will be conduc- 
ted to, and established in them by the officer of the day, and 
the staff officer detached from head quarters for the purpose. 
. 554. In bad weather, the ceremony of turning off guards on 
the usual parades may be dispensed with by the officer of the day, 
and the inspection be made under shelter. Also, in case of guards 
which may have to mount in the night, or at the close of the 
day, after fatiguing marches, the ceremony of turning off may 
be dispensed with; but never that of inspection. 

555. The officer of the day will always be present at guard 
mounting. No other officer, except a general officer, will inter- 
fere with, or give any order on the parade to the staff officer on 
duty there. The commander of the troops or garrison, though 
under the rank of General, is of course an exception to this 
rule. 

556. The regiment that furnishes the Adjutant of the day, 
will also furnish the music for the grand parade. 

557. The guards are to move in the greatest order to their 
respective posts, marching by platoons when the road will per- 
mit. 

. 558. The officer of the old guard having his guard paraded, 
on the approach of the new guard, commands, 

Present — Arsis ! 

559. The new guard will march, in quick time, past the old 
. guard, at shouldered arms, officers saluting, and take post three 
or four paces on its right, where, being aligned with it, its com- 
mander will order, 
5 



100 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

Present — Arks ! 

The two of&cers -will then approach each other, and the relieving 
officer take his orders from the relieved. Both officers -will then 
return to their respective guards and command, 

1. Shoulder — Arms ! 2. Order — Arms I 

560. The officer of the new guard -vnll now direct his Ser- 
geant to make a list of the guard, dividing them into three re- 
liefs, and placing the most steady and experienced at the body 
of the guard, and at the remote and responsible posts ; and will 
himself proceed to take possession of the guard-house or 
guard-tent and the articles and prisoners in charge of the 
guard. 

561. During the time of relieving the sentinels, and of call- 
ing in the small posts, the commanders of the two guards, will, 
when near the enemy, visit the avenues leading to the post, the 
old commander giving to the new all the information he may 
possess relative to the enemy. 

562. The detachments and sentinels from the old guard hav- 
ing come in, it will be marched at sTioiddered arms along the 
front of the new guard, in quick time, the new guard standing 
%i presented arms ; officers saluting, and the music of both guards 
beating, except at the outposts, where it is prohibited. 

563. On arriving at the camp, or post, the commander will 
send the detachments composing it under the charge of an offi- 
cer or non-commissioned officer, to their respective regiments, 
unless the officer of the day should be present to inspect the old 
guard, when he will cause the same to be done under their 
proper officers. Before the men are dismissed, their pieces will 
be drawn, or discharged at a target, on rejoining their compa- 
nies, the chiefs of squads will examine the arms, &c., of their 
men, and cause the whole to be put away in good order. 

564. When the old guard has marched off fifty paces, the 
officer of the new guard will order his men to stack their 
arms, or place them in the arm-racks. 

565. The commander of the guard will then make himself 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 101 

acquainted with all the instructions for his post, visit the sen- 
tinels, and question them, the officers and non-commissioned 
officers, relative to the instructions they may have received 
from other persons of the old guard. 

IV. RELIEVING SENTINELS. 

566. Sentinels vpill be relieved every two hours, unless the 
state of the weather, or other causes, should make it proper or 
necessary, that it be done at shorter or longer intervals. 

567. The first relief having been designated, and ordered two 
paces to the front, the Corporal of the new Guard will take 
charge of it, and go to relieve the sentinels, accompanied by the 
Corporal of the old guard, who will take command of the old 
sentinels, when the whole are relieved. 

568. If the sentinels are numerous, the Sergeants are to be 
employed, as well as the Corporals, in relieving them. 

569. The relief, with arms at a support, in two ranks, will 
march by a flank, conducted by the Corporal on the side of the 
leading front rank man : and the men will be numbered alter- 
nately in the front and rear rank, the man on the right of the 
front rank being No. 1. Should an officer approach, the Corpo- 
ral will command, carry arms, and resume the support arms 
when the officer is passed. 

570. The sentinels at the guard house, or guard tent, will 
be the first relieved and left behind, the one most distant vnll 
be the next relieved, and the others in succession, as the relief 
returns to the guard. 

571. When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he will 
halt and face to it with his arms at a shoulder. At six paces 
the Corporal will command, 

1. Relief. 2. Halt ! 

when the relief will halt and carry arms. The Corporal will 
then add, "No. 1," or "No. 2," or "No. 3," according to the 
number of the post. 

Arms — Port ! 



102 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

The two sentinels -mil, with arms at port, then approach each 
other, when the old sentinel under the direction of the corpo- 
ral, and in his hearing, will whisper the instructions to the new 
sentinel. This done, the two sentinels shoulder arms, and the 
old sentinel will pass, in quick time, to his place, in rear of the 
relief The corporal will then command, 

1. Belief. 2. Support — Arms ! 3. Forward. 4. March ! 

and the relief proceeds in the same manner, until the whole are 
relieved. 

572. A relief is always to be marched in the greatest order 
and the Corporals will be answerable that the sentinels, when 
relieving, perform their motions with spirit and exactness. 

Y. RECEPTION OF THE OFFICER OF THE DAY BY THE GUARD. 

573. AVhen the sentry before the Guard perceives the officer 
of the day approach, he will call, " Turn out the guard, officer 
of the day ;" when the guard will be paraded, and salute him 
vrith presented arms. 

574. When the officer of the day approaches the sentry, be- 
fore the guard, at night, the latter will challenge, " Who cones 
there;" and the first vrill answer, " Officer of the day." The 
sentinelwillreply, "Halt; turn outihe guard ; officer of tlie day !" 
The guard will be paraded, and the commander of it will direct 
the Sergeant to advance, who will. say, "Advance officer of the 
day, with the countersign. The officer of the day will give the 
countersign, when the Sergeant, turning to the officer of the 
guard, says, " The countersign is right." The officer of the 
guard will then say, " Advance, officer of the day." He may 
also demand the parole if he thinks necessary. The guard 
will stand at shouldered arms. 

575. The officer of the day Avill examine the guard ; see that 
they are vigilant ; that none arc absent : and that their arms 
and accoutrements are in order ; that the officers and non-com- 
missioned officers are acquainted with their duty ; and that the 
sentinels are properly posted, and have received proper orders. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 103 

TI. GRAXD ROUXDS. 

576. The officer of the day, wishing to make his rounds, 
will direct an escort of a non-commissioned officer and two 
men to accompany him. 

577. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the Ser- 
geant will answer, " Grand-^'oxinds !" and the sentinel will 
reply, "Halt, grand-rounds." Advance, Sergeant, with the 
countersign !" Upon which, the Sergeant advances and gives 
the countersign. The sentinel will then cry, " Advance, rounds .'" 
and stand at a shoulder until they have passed. 

578. When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is 
answered " Qrand-rounds," he will reply, " Halt, grand- 
rounds!" Turn out the guard ; grand-rounds!" Upon which 
the guard will turn out, and be drawn up in good order, at 
shouldered arms, the officers taking their posts. The officer 
commanding the guard will then order a Sergeant and two men 
to advance towards the rounds, and challenge. When within 
ten paces, the Sergeant will halt, and challenge briskly. The 
Sergeant of the grand-rounds will answer, " Gh'and-rounds!" 
The Sergeant of the guard replies, "Stand, Ch'and-n-ounds !" 
" Advance Sergeant loith the countersign!" The Sergeant of 
the rounds advances alone, and having given the countersign 
returns to his round. The Sergeant of the guard calls to his 
officer, "The Countersign is right!" on which the officer of 
the guard calls, " Advance, rounds." The officer of the rounds 
then advances alone ; the guard standing at shouldered arms. 
The officer of the rounds passes along the front of the guard 
immediately to the officer, Avho keeps his post on the right, and 
gives him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders 
back his escort, and, demanding a new one, proceeds in the 
same manner to other guards. 

579. All material instructions given to a sentinel on post by 
persons entitled to make grand-rounds, ought to be promptly 
notified to the commander of the guard. 

580. All General officers, as well as the commander of the 
post or garrison, may visit the guards, and go the grand- 



104 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

rounds, and be received in the same manner as prescribed for 
the officer of the day. 



ARTICLE XLI. 

OFFICER OF THE DAT. 

622. As soon as the new guard has been marched off, the offi- 
cer of the day will repair to the quarters of the commanding 
officer, and report himself, and receive such further instructions 
as may be necessary. 

623. The officer of the day must see that the officer of the 
guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before re- 
treat. 

624. The officer of the day will visit the guards frequently 
during the day, at such times as he may deem necessary ; and 
will also make his rounds, when he visits the guard at night, 
which must be done after 12 o'clock. 

625. Upon being relieved, the officer of the day will make 
such remarks, in the report of the officer of the guard, as cir- 
cumstances require, and present the same at head quarters. 

OFFICER OF THE GUARD. 

626. It is the duty of officers on all guards to inspect all re- 
liefs of sentinels, both when they go on, and come off their 
posts ; to call the rolls frequently, and by every means in their 
power, to keep the men under their command in the most 
perfect state of vigilance and preparation. They will be res- 
ponsible for the security of the prisoners, and property com- 
mitted to their charge ; it will be their duty to suppress all 
riots and disorders, and in case of fire to give the alarm, and be 
instrumental in extinguishing it. They are also watchfully to 
superintend the conduct of the non-commissioned officers, taking 
care that they are correct in the performance of their duty : that 
they maintain a proper authority, and prevent every species of 
irregularity among the men. They must particularly ascertain 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 105 

that the Corporals themselves are well informed with respect 
to the orders they are to deliver to the several sentinels, whom 
they must frequently visit, to be assured that they know their 
duty, and have received the proper instructions. 

627. Officers commanding guards, when going to visit their 
sentinels, are to mention their intention, and the probable time 
of their absence, to the next officer in command. 

628. The officers are to remain constantly at their guards, ex- 
cept while visiting their sentinels ; nor are they to enter any 
house or place of public amusement. 

629. Neither officers nor soldiers are, on any account, to take 
off their clothing or accoutrements while they are on guard, but 
are always to be in their uniform, fully equipped for the ser- 
vice. 

630. The officer who mounts the camp guard, must give or- 
ders to the sentinels not to suffer any person to pass in or out 
of camp, except by one of the guards ; nor then, till the officer 
of the guard has examined him. 

631. The officer of the guard must see that the countersign 
is duly communicated to the sentinels a little before twi- 
light. 

632. In case one of the guard desert, the officer of the guard 
must immediately change the countersign, and send notice 
thereof to the officer of the day, who is to communicate the 
same to the other guards, and to head-quarters. 

634. The officer of the guard will send to the officer of the 
day at guard mounting, by a non-commissioned officer, a report 
of his tour of service, according to the following form ; a 
copy of which will be left with the officer who relieves him : 



106 



EXTRACTS FROM THE 



Report of a Guard mounted at — , on the — , and relieved on the — . 


PAROLE. 


m 


m 


m 














ARTICLES IN CHARGE 








B 




a 


i.^B 














COUNTERSIGN. 


3 




o 

s- 

o 


II 

Oh S 


o 
— 












Detail 




List of the Guard. 




RELIEFS, AND AVHEN POSTED 






, 








POSTED. 




1 


1st Relief. 


2d Relief. 


3d Relie 


/•• 












This column will contain the 










remarks of the oflScer of the; 


2 










guard ; such as : — the time 










the guard was visited by the 


3 










officers of the daj'; and an 










account of everj' material cir- 


4 










cumstance that has transpi- 








red during his tour. Also a 


5 








note of any damage done to 








guard-house or tent. 


List of Prisoners. 










Confined. 










Names. 


' 


• 




Charges. 


Sentences. 




6 


S 
o 


"be 

P<3 


When. 


3y whom.] 

1 




1 










1 






2 
















3 


















A. B. 


Lieut, of Regiment of . 


Commanding the Guard. 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 107 



DUTIES OF SENTINELS. 

636. Sentinels will not allow themselves to be relieved, ex- 
cept by an officer or non-commissioned officer of their guard or 
party ; nor will they receive orders from any other than such per- 
sons, or the commanding officer, or the officer of the day ; which 
orders will be immediately notified to the commander of the 
guard, by the officer giving them. 

637. Orders or instructions to sentinels, will be given in the 
most distinct manner, and they will be held strictly accounta- 
ble that all rules or regulations depending upon their vigilance 
and attention be punctually observed, or that breaches of tliem 
be immediately reported. 

638. Sentinels must take the greatest care not to be sur- 
prised. They must keep themselves on the alert, observing 
every thing that takes place vrithin sight and hearing, and will 
habitually walk their posts briskly to and fro. They will carry 
their arms at support, or on either shoulder, but vdU never quit 
them, or bring them to an order. In wet weather, if there be 
no sentry bos, they will secure arms. 

639. For a sentinel to quit his post without leave, is one of the 
most serious military offences. It is also forbidden to sentinels 
to hold conversation with any person, when not necessary for 
the proper discharge of their duty. 

640. During the day sentinels on the outposts must stop every 
party of men whether armed or not, until they have been exam- 
ined by the officer of the guard. 

641. A sentinel placed over the colors or arms, must suffer 
no person to touch them, except by order of some officer, or a 
non-commissioned officer of the guard. If placed over a maga- 
zine or arsenal, or over supplies of any kind, he will call for 
the " Corporal of the Guard,'' if any person under the rank 
of officer wishes to enter or touch them. Placed over prison- 
ers, he must suffer no person except an officer, or a non-com- 
missioned officer of his guard, to converse with them ; nor must 
he permit the prisoners to leave their place of confinement. 

642. In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out, " the 



108 EXTRACTS FROM THE 

guard," and if a fii-e take place, he must cry '^'Jire!" adding 
the number of liis post. If in either case the danger be great 
he must discharge his firelock before calling out. 

643. It is the duty of sentinels to repeat all caUs mad© from 
posts more distant from the main body of the guard than their 
own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard 
by the guard, either dii'ectly or through other sentinels. 

644. Sentinels will present arms to general and field officers, 
to the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of the 
post. To all other officers they will carry arms. 

645. When a sentinel in his sentry box sees an officer ap- 
proaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes, 
will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the mus- 
ket, as high as the right shoulder. 

646. The sentinel at the guard house, or guard-tent, when he 
sees any body of troops, or an officer entitled to complinent 
approach must call, — " turn out ilie guard!" 

647. Though the regulations dispense with guards turning 
out as a matter of compliment after sunset, yet sentinels will, 
when officers in uniform approach their posts, pay them proper 
attention, by facing to their proper front, and standing steady 
shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is 
so far advanced, that the sentinels begin challenging. 

648. Immediately after receiving the countersign, and untU 
reveille, sentinels must challenge all who approach them. They 
must not sufi"er any person to advance nearer than the point of 
their bayonet, until they have received the countersign, placing 
themselves in the position of " arms port" for that purpose. 

649. A sentinel in challenging will call out, — " wJio comes 
there ?" If answered — "friend loith the countersign,'" and he be 
instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will reply, 
" advancefriend witMlie countersign !" If answered "friends !" 
he will reply — " halt friends, advance one icitJi tJie countersign!" 
If answered — "relief," "patrol" or " grand rounds !" he will 
reply — halt ! advance sergeant (or corporal) icith the counter- 
sign !" and satisfy himself the party is what it represents itself 
to be. If he have no authority to pass persons with the coun- 



GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE ARMY. 109 

tersign, if the wrong countersign be given, or if persons hare 
not the countersign, he will cause them to stand and call — " Cor- 
poral of the guard !" 

650. All persons of whatever rank in the service are required 
to observe the greatest respect towards sentinels ; and no officer 
or other person shall make use of any opprobrious terms to- 
wards a soldier on his post, or attempt to maltreat him, in any 
manner, under pain of being punished for a breach of disci- 
pline. 



ARTICLE LV. 

ORDERS. 

902. Orders are either general or special. General orders, 
issued from the Head Quarters of the army, are styled Genercfl 
Oi'ders ; from other head quarters, they are simply styled Ch^- 
ders. They are the orders of the day, and are published as 
circumstances may render it necessary. They announce the 
orderly hours at head quarters ; the times and places of the dis- 
tributions of supplies ; the time and order of march ; the hours 
of the different beats and signals, of guard mounting, and the 
assembling of detachments ; the regulations of police ; the 
strength and composition of guards, and the periods of their 
relief; the number and grades of Orderlies, the acts of Con- 
gress, and the regulations of the "War Department, which have 
reference to the troops, and with which they ought to be made 
acquainted ; the appointing of General Courts Martial, Courts 
of Inquiry, Boards of officers, and their sentences and opinions ; 
the commendations or animadversions which the conduct of the 
troops may elicit, as well as exhortations suitable to particular 
occasions ; and in general every occurrence proper to be com- 
municated to the troops, or others interested. 

903. Special orders are such orders as do not relate to the 
service in general. They have reference to particular objects 



110 EXTRACT FROM O'BRIEN ON COURTS MARTIAL. 

and individuals only. They need not, therefore, be published 
to the whole army, or to the whole command of the officer 
who issues them. Besides the particular individual to whom 
such orders may be sent direct, they are to be communicated as 
a matter of course to Colonels, or other commanders whom they 

interest. 

^ * * * * * *• 

907. The parole, and countersign, or iDatchword, are issued 
from the head quarters of the highest in command. They are 
in the nature of orders, but are neither general nor special. 

908. The head of the order will indicate the source from 
which it emanates, as well as the place, and date, and the foot 
of the order will cite the name of the commander who gives 
the order. 



EXTRACT FROM O'BRIEN ON COURTS MARTIAL. 

ON BREACHES OF ARREST. > 

"The breach of arrest described in the ai-ticle, has always 
been held as a very heinous crime and been severely punished. 
It is looked upon as a violation of honor, pledged either express- 
ly, or tacitly, by the accused party. It is considered that his 
arrest is one on honor and that he is freed from the pain of impris- 
onment, only because his word is understood to be given that 
he will conform to the restraint imposed. The offence is 
deemed similar to that of a prisoner of war who violates his 
parole. The breach of arrest may consist either in transgres- 
sing the limits prescribed or in violating the particular condi- 
tions implied or expressly stipulated in the arrest." 



i 



I 



I