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JANUARY, 1917 


New Year Greetings 

From the Relief Society Presidency. 

Isobers New Year Dinner 

Diana Parrish. 

Home Science Department 

Macaroni as a Substitute for Meat. 
Janette A. Hyde. 

Relief Society Calendar 

Watchman, What of the Year? 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church 

of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Room 29, Bishop's Bldg.,Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year — Single Copy 10c 

Vol. IV. 





—the Quality Standard 

The high 6ttrwdard which we set 
for Utah-Idaho Sugar is maintained 
every day in the year. By strict 
adherence to this standard, Utah- 
Idaho Sugar has won its way into 
most of the homes of these moun- 
tain 6tates. 

If by chance you have not tried 
Utah-Idaho Sugar, we urge you to 
do so. We are confident if you 
once try it, you will continue to 
use it. Call your grocer today, 
and ask him to send you a sack of 

Utah-Idaho Sugar 



THOS. P CUTLER, ViCB-Pnss. and Gin • l Man. 


Family Record of Temple Work for 
the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instructions for properly re- 
cording this work. 

L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in a 
most desirable and concise form, im- 
portant events in the lives of the mem- 
bers of the Church. These books are 
sold at $1.25 each. 

Deseret News Book Store 


When WE Make Your Por- 
traits, YOU get the Correct 
Style, Excellence and 

The Thomas 

Phone Was. 3491 44MainSt. 

E«tabli.hcd 1877 

Phone Wa». 1370 



35 P. O. PLACE 


Have You Read The Women of The Bible, ^SSSW If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

F " s t, Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JANUARY, 1917. 

Relief Society Calendar 1 

General Board of the Relief Society 2 

New Year Epistle 3 

Mrs. Alice Merrill Home 10 

Life's Wintry Way Marie Jenesn 11 

A Forceful Business Venture Ida Stewart Peay 14 

Isobel Gives a New Year's Dinner Diana Parrish 16 

Mothers in Israel Mary A. S. Winters 21 

Mother Alfred Lambourne 23 

Home Evening Entertainment Morg 24 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 26 

Notes from the Field Amy Brown Lyman 30 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 34 

Editorial : A Call to the Women of the Church 36 

High Cost of Living 39 

Guide Lessons 41 


Pa.ronize those who advertise with us 

BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE CO., Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 45 Main St., Salt Lake City. 


Temple Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Lake City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City. 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City. 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 


Bank Here 


Many women are availing 
themselves of the conveniences 
ami efficient service of this 
hank. They like the human at- 
mosphere, the sunshine that 
pours through the big plate 
gl>88 windows, the courteous 
treatment and the absolute se- 
curity of doing business with 
this strong bank. 

We solicit your checking or 
savings account or both. Four 
per cent on savings. 

"The Bank with a Personality" 

Merchant's Bank 

Capital $250,000. Member of 

Salt Lake Clearing House. 

Jolin Pingree, Prest.; O. P. 

Soule, V. P.; Moroni Helner, 

V. P.; Radcllffe Q. Cannon, L. 

J. Hays, Asst. Cashiers. 

Cor. Main and Third South, 
Salt Lake City, I tali 




Paper Binding 25c Postpaid 

Deseret Sunday School Union Book Store 

44 East on South Tbmple 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 




Mrs. Emma J. Sanders 

278 South Main Street 
Schramm-Johnton No. 5 

Phone Wasatch 2815 

Salt Lake City. - Utah 


The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by the paymnt of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


Beneficial Life Insurance Company 

Relief Society Department 




of this Bank at all 
times to render help- 
ful service and make 
the handling of your 
banking business sat- 
isfactory and pleasant. 


Your Account is Cordially Invited 
Joseph F. Smith, Pres. 

Established I860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Embalmers 

Successors to 

Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the West 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Efficient Service, Modern Methods 
Complete Equipment 

Relief Society Calendar. 

JUnuary 1917 

SunJ1on.TueWedThu.Fn. Sat 

I 23456 
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April 1917 

SuaMonTueWedThu Fri. Sat. 

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2930 ^^ 



I 23456 
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October 1917 

SuaMonTueWedThu Fri Sat 

1 23456 
75 910111213 

February 1917 

Sun.Mon.Tue.WedThu.Fri. Sal- 

1 23 
I1 121314151617 

March 1917 

Sun.MoaTueWedThu.Frt Sat. 

I 23 

I1 121314151617 




September 1917 

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November 1917 

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December 1917 

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Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. JANUARY, 1917. No. 1. 

New Year Epistle 

Of the Presidency and General Board of the Relief 
Society, to Officers and Members Everywhere. 

We offer to you our sincere greetings and congratulations at 
this auspicious season, for the arduous and useful work we have 
been enabled to perform during the past year; while we render 
thanks and gratitude to our Father in heaven that he has given us 
the opportunity, strength and time to accomplish this labor. The 
ward and stake branches of the Relief Society throughout the 
Church have been active and diligent. No complaints reach us 
of indifference and inactivity, while every report received 
breathes a spirit of good cheer, hope and faith. It therefore be- 
hooves us at this time to felicitate ourselves and you upon the 
peaceful close of the year, 1916, and the hopeful opening of the 
year 1917. 


The. members of the General Board have been very active 
in visiting the 71 stakes throughout the Church. Like the stake 
officers who perform a similar task in their own district, our sis- 
ters are happy in the sacrifices of time, strength and absence 
from home, because of the good accomplished and the love and 
companionship offered to the officers by the members who wel- 
come our general and stake visitors with open arms. We rejoice 
in the spirit of hospitality which everwhere obtains in this So- 
ciety, and feel to bless those who open their homes and minister 
to the general and stake officers at sundry times and places. 
President Emmeline B. Wells herself visited ten stakes last year 
and is still able to travel comfortably and profitably. Among 


the visits paid by our General Board members was that under- 
taken by our General Secretary, Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman, our 
General Treasurer, Mrs. Emma A. Empey, and the Business 
Manager of our Magazine, Mrs. Janette A. Hyde. These sis- 
ters were accompanied by the Misses Emily and Edith Smith, the 
two lovely daughters of President and Mrs. Julina L. Smith. 
They visited the Relief Society of the Eastern States Mission 
and its branches in Philadelphia, Boston, New York, Toronto, 
and other places; the Northern States Mission Society in Chi- 
cago, and branches of the Society of that mission; the Society of 
the Central States Mission, located at Independence, Mo., and 
the Society of the Western States Mission, in Denver. These 
sisters also visited the historic scenes connected with our early 
Church history, and while they brought home much valuable in- 
formation and inspiration, they also left with the sisters where 
they visited, the good spirit of hope, faith and trust in our heav- 
enly Father. 


The organization of the Society is complete, so far as we 
know. There have been many changes in ward and stake of- 
ficers, and while we have said good-by reluctantly to those who 
have passed out and passed on, we welcome the new comers into 
our official ranks. The missions have never been in such splen- 
did working order as they are today. Particularly active is the 
Northern and Central States and the California Missions. Here 
cur lesson work, Magazine, genealogy and general Relief Society 
interests have been actively carried forward for a long period. 
The Eastern States Mission recently reorganized, and the West- 
ern and Southern States Society with the Northwestern 
States, all of them organized in later years, are forging rap- 
idly ahead in every line of Relief endeavor. The growth of the 
Society in the European Mission has been phenomenal. jWe are 
exceedingly proud and grateful for the work done in that war- 
swept land of Europe, by our sisters, presided over until this 
summer by Sister Ida B. Smith, wife of President Hyrum M. 
Smith. The European Relief Society was engaged during tin- 
past year principally in the preparation of clothing and food 
materials for the destitute families of the soldiers in the trenches 
in the various nations which are at war, and where our branches 
are located. 


Our School of Obstetrics and Nursing is successfully going 
forward in this city, and a course in invalid cookery has been 


added to the other courses. We recommend our stake and ward 
officers to increase the scope of this work by sending to us prop- 
erly qualified students each year, so that the wards and towns can 
be supplied with Relief Society nurses, who are now such a 
necessary part of our social organization. 


Closely associated with this work has been the activity man- 
ifested in our public health department. It was thought advis- 
able to associate our efforts in Salt Lake with the city Board of 
Health in assisting to supply the milk depots with Relief Society 
nurses and matrons for these stations. Great good has thus been 

our "magazine." 

Our Relief Society Magazine has succeeded beyond our ut- 
most expectations. We thank you for your generous support, 
and suggest that you increase your efforts to make this Magazine 
the best possible official organ and medium of communication 
between your general officers, stake and ward Relief Societies. 
We increased the size of our Magazine 16 pages, during the past 
year, and so rapidly did our subscriptions pour in during the 
first three months that we were obliged to issue hundreds of 
copies more than we had at first planned for. The editorial policy 
of the Magazine has been to supply clean, wholesome, cheerful 
and helpful articles, consisting of the various departments found 
there, with the addition of the lesson work which occupies the 
most important part of our Magazine. We are greatly en- 
couraged with the good reports which come from all parts of our 
Relief Society concerning the Magazine and feel that it has been 
a worthy successor to the noble Woman's Exponent which was 
so long and ably conducted and edited by our General President. 
Emmeline B. Wells. The increased expense of paper for this 
year, and of all other matters incurred in our publication, has 
been a serious problem, but we hope to make no changes in our 
subscription price and the other features of our Magazine. By 
strict economv of the management, and your own generous sup- 
port, we shall reach the end of the year successfully and satis- 


The efforts put forth in the study of genealogy and in the 
taking of excursions to the various temples by the members of 
this Societvare worthv of the highest commendation. The First 


Presidency of the Church and the General Board of the Gen- 
ealogical Society of Utah, together with the Presidents of the 
various temples have expressed commendation and appreciation 
of the work done by the sisters in this matter. We should not 
slacken our efforts, for this work lies at the foundation of our 
spiritual life. Other temples are building, and others still will 
be built, in the near future, provided the Saints continue their 
activities in this direction. We suggest to you all the motto 
adopted by the Genealogical Committee of our General Board in 
regard to every phase of this genealogical and temple work. "I .v\ 
us provoke the brethren to good works, and not provoke the 
brethren while we are doing the work." We suggest the continu- 
ance of primary genealogical lessons in the various wards, and that 
each member of the Society shall attend one day in a temple dur- 
ing the year 1 ( )17. or arrange for a substitute. Excursions on regu- 
lar days to the Temples should be undertaken, always with the 
sanction and approval of the presiding priesthood. We hope you 
\'ill prepare the index cards which have been partially distributed, 
and send them back to this office as soon as you have completed 
your task. More can be furnished on application to this office. 


The Theological lessons will be supplemented this year by 
suggested chapters for reading the Scriptures. We are very 
desirous of having our members devote a portion of each day 
to the reading of the Scriptures. In the rush and hurry of 
modern life this pleasing pioneer custom has been considerably 
neglected and we are. therefore, giving a series of chapter read 
ings which will illustrate and supplement our Theological les- 
sons. The Lite] rv lessons will appeal to all of our members, 
for they will 'cip us to understand the written page and to 
develop a taste for good literature which otherwise is likely to 
be swept out of existence, in the flood of cheap papers and mag- 
azines which come to our homes. We congratulate ourselves 
upon this new study, and trust you will find it but a supplementary 
key added to the splendid lessons on Art and ArchitecUire which 
have been given during the past two years. , 


The General Board have united forces with the President of 
the Agricultural College of Utah and his associate teachers, in the 
presentation of our Home Science lessons. The study of Do- 
mestic Science and Art with associated studies in Sanitation and 
the care of children, has become a home necessity everywhere. 


We have felt, therefore, the wisdom of taking advantage of the 
Smith-Lever provision which enables any organized body of 
women to receive trained help from the Agricultural Colleges, in 
the United States, through the College Extension Division, in 
any line of domestic problems. Our lessons which are prepared 
by experts, under the charge of the Agricultural College of Utah, 
will provide material, while their teachers can be invited to visit 
your wards and towns to lecture on these subjects whenever you 
are disposed to ask for their services. We would suggest that 
you assist in establishing this work on a firm foundation, and 
congratulate you on the pleasing results already obtained. Ar- 
rangements have been completed so that free scholarships in the 
District Round-Ups and in the Agricultural College itself are 
offered to our Relief Society chosen delegates. 


The Penny Subscription Fund which was very modestly un- 
dertaken and which was heartily approved by the First Presi- 
dency of the Church and the Presiding Bishopric, has resulted in 
a contribution which already exceeds our fondest hopes. Every 
woman who thus contributes of her means and teaches her chil- 
dren and grandchildren the beauty of this expression of sweet 
philanthropic emotions, will both benefit the temples in receiving 
the funds, and herself and family in the enlarged sympathies and 
spiritual understanding which will result through the exercise 
of this voluntary contribution. 


The department of clothing for the dead, conducted in- this 
city has grown to substantial proportions. The clothing pre- 
pared under the supervision of Counselor Julina L. Smith is of 
the best materials obtainable, and the workmanship thereof is 
exquisite in design and beautiful in execution. All prices are 
arranged to suit the varying needs of individuals whose loved 
ones are to be clothed and laid away. In due time the labor and 
advantages of this department will extend in scope into the 
various stakes. With larger quarters in this city and more ex- 
tended opportunities for growth, we shall hope to make this de- 
partment of great value to every member of this Society and 
this Church. 


Our home for women and girls is crowded all the time and 
we could wish for larger quarters, but prudence dictates a modest 


and economical adjustment of our resources and we, therefore, 
have not as yet suggested any change in our present admirable 
an 1 cofortable home. 


We invite the sisters to investigate and to accept of this 
excellent means of insuring themselves a decent and modest 
burial as well as the other forms of domestic insurance opened 
i i us. Capitalized at home, every dollar paid in to this fund 
builds up our home state and our own people, thus preventing 
the outflow of money which is now pouring out of this state 
to eastern insurance centers. This department should be patron- 
ized liberally by all. as it is here at headquarters. 


The two conferences of the year were highly successful and 
productive of great good. Especially was the Teachers' Conven- 
tion, during the October conference, full of suggestions and hints 
to the great body of women who form our teachers' quorums. 
The topics suggested for the teachers to use will assist them in 
the furtherance of their good work. The Exchange I.ureau. in 
the Presiding Bishop's Office, should be patronized by all our 
members who have any need for it. We are always glad to 
welcome representatives from our stakes at these general con- 
ferences, and we feel that all of us need them as a source of mu- 
tual assistance and inspiration. 


We rejoice in the continued activity of our charitable works 
anil realize that it is largely through the continuous efforts of our 
sisters that there is so little poverty and suffering amongst this 
people. I et this always be the foundation stone of our Relief 
Society structure. 

Again, we would suggest the emphasis which should be 
placed upon our Testimony Meetings. These are the means of 
inspiring testimonies in those who have them not. of strengthen- 
in:; the faith in the hearts of those who have already been con- 
verte rl, and of encouraging and blessing the sisters everywhere. 
Center your efforts and give the best of your loving devotion, 
after your home duties have been accomplished satisfactorily, to 
the buildjng up and developing of the Relief Society, not "strew- 
ing our ways to stranger-.' - as the Bible phrases it, not giving our 
ti<-st love to wordlv pursuits and associations; but let us confine 


cur labor chiefly within our own ranks and amongst the people 
of God. 



The First Presidency have called upon our Society to unite 
with the Young Ladies and Primary Associations in a reform 
movement, and the General Committees from these three Boards 
are actively engaged in the formulation of plans and resolutions 
which will be key-notes to us all in our conduct for the year 
1917. We are in the world, but we should not partake of the 
evils thereof. Modesty in dress, restraint of appetite, observance 
of the Sabbath Day, and of the Word of Wisdom, decorum and 
dignity in our public worship and amusments should character- 
ize the conduct and habits of every member of this Society. We 
are responsible, in great measure, for the good or bad conduct 
of our sons and daughters. With our long experience and train- 
ing, with good words and good work, we feel secure in offering 
an assurance to the Presiding Authorities of the Church that 
this Society and all its members will actively engage in carrying 
out their counsels to the very letter. 

We offer to you, dear sisters, the hand of fellowship and 
biessing for the year 1917, the testimony of the General Presi- 
dent, Emmeline B. Wells, her close association with the Prophet 
Joseph Smith and the founding of this Society, and with all the 
subsequent leaders thereof, her unquestioned integrity to the 
truth, her keen intelligence and her wise adaptation to constantly 
developing conditions, constitute her the leading voice and pres- 
ence amongst our sex today. The testimony of her Counselors 
and her Board joins with hers in the happy announcement to 
you and to the world at large, that as the mothers and wives of 
the sons of men who hold the Priesthood in this day and genera- 
tion, we will stand shoulder to shoulder with them in establishing 
righteousness upon this earth, that peace may come to all men 
of good will, and to the end that Christ's Kingdom may reign 
upon earth as it does in heaven. 

Emmeline B. Wells. President. 

Clarissa S. Williams, First Counselor. 

Tulina L. Smith, Second Counselor. 

Mrs. Alice Merrill Home. 

The officers and members of the Relief Society 
will be surprised to learn of the release of Sister 
Alice Merrill Home, grand-daughter of our late 
beloved and honored President Bathsheba 
W. Smith, who felt it best to relax her 
arduous labors by leaving the General Board, 
for wise and sufficient reasons. Sister Home 
has been a power for good during the long years 
she has been associated with the General Board 
of this Society. Particularly efficient has been 
->, her labor in the realm of Art, for she is keenly 

susceptible to the beautiful in nature and to 
man's expressions of beauty in every form. 
Her book Devotees and Their Shrines has been widely cir- 
culated, and has reached thousands of women who have been 
lifted up by its teachings into the realm of harmony and loveliness, 
unable to attend to their board duties. 

Mrs. Home has been equally efficient and active in her labors 
as chairman of the Public Health committee. She has performed 
a very unique task during the past summer in the milk stations, 
which have been under her charge, associated with the city au- 
thorities. All forms of sanitation and private and public health 
are vitally important to this public-spirited worker, and the Gen- 
eral Board will miss her labors in this and many other directions. 
While we greatly regret parting with Sister Home, we ad- 
mire the courage and wisdom of her decision to sever her con- 
nection with the Board when she found it impossible to do justice 
to both her public and private labors. We would commend her 
example to others of our sisters who occupy positions in our vari- 
ous boards, but who are unable to perform their labors there. An 
honorable release from such positions would be of advantage to 
both the individual who had the wisdom to ask for it, and to the 
organization who would thus be relieved of members who are 
unable to atend to their board duties. 

The General Board tendered to Sister Home a complimentary 
luncheon Thursday, November 25, in their own rooms, on which 
occasion everything was as merry as a marriage bell. The hon- 
ored guest herself was a beam of sunshine, while the committee 
on the luncheon and program, consisting of Mrs. Elizabeth C. 
McCune, Mrs. Emily S.Richards. Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas, and Mrs. 
Janette A. Hyde, were distinctly joyous, not to say hilarious in 
the discharge of their immediate functions. President Wells and 
her counselors laughed and said witty and pleasant things in full 


sympathy with the pleasant occasion. The following lines were 
read by a member of the Board : 


Whenever there's a meeting, there's a parting- by the way, 
And so we meet to part again, on this auspicious day. 
Of all the meetings and the partings, since ever I was born, 
This is the oddest parting with our gifted Alice Home. 

She's helped us with our Guide work ; she's done her active part, 

In making every meeting a little work of art. 

She's planned, she's worked, she's run about to teach the mothers 

To get the babies' pure milk right from a healthy cow. 

She's helped us see the beauty in a daisy by the brook, 
And made the world more lovely in the pages of her book, 
She's striven for the bright things, and tried to help us find 
That life is not all drudgery, if we have an open mind. 

And so we'll miss our Alice, but wherever she may go, 
She'll take with her our blessing, and a lot of love also. 
We know that she will daily strive to do her fullest duty, 
Still bringing to the world a love of Nature and of beauty. 


Hand in hand two lovers wandered 

In a storm, one wintry day, 
Laughing gaily at the snowflakes 

Which were falling every way. 
Isn't life, she gaily whispered. 

One great day of sweet content? 
And if we'd seek for God's own beauty, 

We'd rejoice whate'er He sent. 

Thus they spoke because there lingered 

In their hearts a thrill of love 
Given early in life's morning 

When they left their home above. 
But as years, with trial and crosses, 

Came to change and chill their hearts, 
They let care drive out the pleasures 

Which once seemed of their lives a part. 


Once again we find them wandering, 

Aged and bent one wintry day, 
Mid the storms of life together 

Toiling slowly on their way. 
Life is changed for these two lovers, 

They have found it cold and stern. 
O how gladly they would change it, 

If their youth would but return. 

Youth comes but once to mortals. 

Old age, with frost and snow, 
Sets seal forever on them 

As they wander here below. 
Though hopes of youth lay blighted, 

Their dead beneath their feet, 
They learned sweet faith from trials 

And the bitter grew more sweet. 

To those who now are living 

With sorrow day by clay, 
You're learning faith and patience, 

For love points out the way. 
There is beauty in the future, 

There is youth for you again ; 
Pray and cling to God's own promise, 

Life's struggle's not in vaiji. 

'Tis the path ordained by Father, 

You are treading here on earth, 
And if you His pathway follow, 

He will test and prove your worth. 
In His furnace He will try you 

Till you' soar above life's ill; 
So rejoice in tribulation. 

Row in meekness to His will. 

Tho' your youth has long since vanished, 
Let your hopes be ever young ; 
' Gladly take what He will send you, 

Sing I lis praise with heart and tongue. 
Though the future now is hidden 

'Xeath the snowflakes falling fast, 
These will vanish with the sunshine 
Which the Lord will send at last. 
Basalt, Idaho. Marie Jensen. 

A Forced Business Venture. 


Ida Stewart Peay. 

It is a tragedy for a man with a family to be "laid off," or. 
at least, I felt it so when in the first five years of our married life, 
my husband was out of work six different times. Once eleven 
weeks elapsed before he could again secure a job, and such trying 
times were intensified by the knowledge that three bright, hearty 
children looked to us for proper care. 

I knew my husband was not an unsatisfactory workman. 
Hundreds of other men, moderately capable, as well as entirely 
honest and industrious, who also hired out their services by the 
day at unskilled labor, suffered a like experience. Their engage- 
ments depended, apparently, upon the rush periods of the various 
business concerns of the city. 

One day when my companion came home "laid off" again, I 
bitterly deplored conditions which made it practically impossible 
for a father, able and anxious to earn a livelihood, to secure con- 
tinuous employment. It seemed as if I could hardly bear the 
thought of want and deprivation the words "laid off" conjured. 
They were a tragedy to me as, no doubt, they were and still are 
to thousands of others ; yet I felt obliged to admit, upon reflection, 
there was, obviously, no other course for the "day laborer" but to 
work or idle at the pleasure and convenience of the "managers" 
of the world's affairs. 

Then I asked my husband seriously, if he could not go into 
business for himself, and be one of the "managers." As he was 
only a common "day laborer" without a trade or any special train- 
ing or education, without capital, and moreover involved to the 
extent of a thousand dollars for our little home, the idea looked 
preposterous. Nevertheless, because of our desperate predicament, 
we talked over all the possibilites, finally evolving a plan that 
?ctually appeared feasible, and the trial was decided upon. 

In our home town, a western city of some ten thousand in- 
habitants, my husband had worked most of the time at a big 
foundry and machine shop, where he evidenced considerable na- 
tive mechanical ability, and acquired a good deal of knowledge and 
skill in iron work. He was never "fired" from this place, merely 
being "laid off." from time to time, as were most comparatively 
new hands in dull seasons. He now approached a fellow workman 
at the foundry, who Mas well acquainted with all kinds of iron 


welding, and suggested to him that they form a partnership and 
open a blacksmith and general repair shop. The man had never 
thought of such a course, but he felt satisfied that with their 
combined experience they could take care of that kind of business. 
A l=o, he. too. was eager to become more independent, ami after 
due consideration, the partnership was effected. 

The new firm first found and bought a piece of property, 
forty feet front by twelve rods back on the center or main street 
of the city. The price was seven hundred dollars, making a debt 
of three hundred fifty for each man to shoulder, and each, there- 
upon, agreed to pay $5 a month until the principal and interest, 
which latter was charged at the rate of eight per cent, were paid 

Next my husband proposed to put up the building, if his as- 
sociate in the venture would furnish sufficient tools with which to 
begin work. This being accepted, the shop was built of corrugated 
iron with rubberoid roofing, the cost reaching something over one 
hundred dollars. A lumber company furnished the material 
promising to take shop work for one-half of the amount, and $2 
per month for the other half, until the debt was liquidated. The 
partner made a similar arrangement to obtain the tools, and thus, 
within" fourteen days after the first inception of the plan, the 
two laborers, with a neat sign painted on the front of the red 
building, began to do business for themselves. 

Their troubles, however, were by no means over. Several 
days passed without the appearance of even one customer. A 
few Job's comforters poked their heads in at the door to sniff and 
say they didn't know when these fellows had learned the black- 
smith trade, but hoped they'd do all right. Those were dark 
hours fraught with discouraging possibilities. I sought out the 
wife of my husband's partner, and we made it up between us 
that our homes should abound with such mottes as, "Never give 
up." "Keei) smiling." "All things come to those who t work and) 
wait," etc. The men caught the spirit and became more deter- 
mined to succeed. They studied "blacksmith" magazines and jour- 
nals at night, built fires in their forges, and hammered on their 
anvils at practice work all day. They made simple tools, repaired 
everything about their own premises and appeared to be mighty 

At last their patience was rewarded by a few customers, 
though at the tm\ of the first month only $15 a piece had been 
earned. All the same, we women were hopeful, and pointed out 
the undeniable fact that $15 was more than they made when "laid 
off," so we urged them to "keep hammering." 

The second month $30 for each man was secured, which 
seemed encouraging, even if it wasn't a living wage. To be sure, 


we had no luxuries in those days, but we were very happy for all 
that, finding a wealth of pleasure in working towards the accom- 
plishment of an end. The partners vied with each other in devis- 
ing new and economical business methods ; while we wives were 
enthusiastically trying to see which could contrive and serve the 
cheapest, yet the most wholesome and tasty meals. We ransacked 
old chests for clothes to remodel, became acquainted with dyes, 
found the remnant and bargain counters, and tried our hands at 
millinery. We joked and laughed away many difficulties, and 
struggled on. Better still, the new "managers" "kept hammering," 
and became more proficient daily in their chosen vocation. 

The end of the first year found them realizing $50 per month 
each. This sum was as much as either had received as wages at 
the Foundry, and being constant, proved quite satisfactory. 

But happily their success did not stop at this point. Instead, 
the business of the little firm continued to grow rapidly and stead- 
ily until their respective salaries crept up to $75 per month and 
finally after ten years to $100, and is still on the upward move. 
All because they dared to venture, risked everything, then sacri- 
ficed, schemed and labored diligently and persistently to "make 
good." . . 

The moderate prosperity that rewarded their honest efforts 
has brought these two bread-winners a pride and contentment that 
is inspiring to witness. They now boast a splendid shop equip- 
ment, their property has doubled in value, they occupy a place of 
usefulness in the community, their firm name is known for re- 
liability, and best of all, they can never again be "laid off." 


We are busy folks in a busy world. Too busy to take a walk in the 
Madly rushing to and fro. woods 

There are so many things to be With the dear one who lon & s 
, to go. 

e ' Too busy to write a letter of love 

So many places to go, To the mother aged and slow; 

That we haven't time to really live, Too busy to visit a friend who is ill 

So we put it off, with a sigh Who has almost forgotten to 

And we dream of the wonderful smile; 

things we'll do Too busy to do a thousand things 

In the beautiful by and by. That would be really worth while. 

Too busy to think of a cheery word 

To pass to a comrade who's sad. 
Too busy to kiss the face of a child 

That its little heart might be glad. 
Too busy to rest, too busy to pray, 

Too busy to laugh or to smile, 
Too busy doing the lesser things — 

To make life really worth while. 

Mrs. Parley Nelson, 
manti, utah. 

Isobel Gives a New Year's Dinner 

And Brings Mother to the Rescue. 
By Diana Farrish. 

Fate seemed to be against Tom's and Isobel's New Year's 
Eve dinner party from the start. The very day itself began with 
a blinding storm, which made one feel disagreeable. It was so 
dark that she and Tom were half an hour late in getting up. The 
baby waked and hindered them with a peevish fretting so that 
Tom was three-quarters of an hour later than usual, when he 
dashed off the porch to catch a car for the office without kissing 
Isobel goodbye. Both of them were annoyed that he should be 
late for work on the very day that he was going to bring his man- 
ager and his wife home for dinner. It looked as if he were mak- 
ing extraordinary preparations. Tom wanted the dinner to be 
without pretense — just the usual sort of dinner that they had 
every night. 

Isobel watched Tom from the door with her lace cap awry. 
Indeed it came dangerously near covering completely one eye. In 
her dismay at not being kissed goodbye, she scarcely noticed it. 
Then suddenly bethinking herself • of the task before her she 
wheeled about. A puff of smoke from the chafing-dish met her 
eye. Her nose told her that the electric current under it had not 
been turned off and that the remains of the scrambled eggs from 
breakfast had been burned into abominable-smelling gas. She 
switched off the current and carried the blackened pan to the 
kitchen. The burnt eggs struck her as being a bad omen. 

Isobel gathered the dishes into the sink, busily planning the 
while the best procedure for the day. The pastry must be made 
immediately after the dishes were finished. The thought of mak- 
ing pastry on the day of company was rather disturbing. Indeed, 
Isobel was conscious of a feeling of guilt when she recalled that 
she had spent the two days before in shopping and at parties in- 
stead of beginning preparations for the dinner for Mr. Benson 
and his wife. She wondered if she could not omit the pastry 
from her menu, but she remembered that Tom had asked especially 
to have green pea patties, as he had told Mr. Benson about the 
delicious ones Isobel could make and had promised to let him 
sample them. No, Tom should not be disappointed, and Isobel 
splashed into the dishes so that she could make good her promise. 

As she dried the first plate she heard a faint sound of crying 
from the bedroom. In her deep absorption she had forgotten to 


feed and dress the baby. She listened again. The cries grew 
stronger and she hastened in. 

"Darling! Did oo's muver forget oo?" she gurgled. 

Tommie howled the louder, no doubt to show appreciation 
of his mother's attention. 

"There, there," she soothed with queer little twists of the 
voice which we like to use on infants. But the infant could not 
be soothed and while he was being bathed, dressed and fed, he 
cried fretfully. Poor Isobel was nearly distracted when she 
finally got him into his little bed asleep. 

"Mercy! it's half past eleven," she screamed, glancing at the 
clock, "and I haven't done one thing!" 

Isobel pondered. Better to give up the idea of pastry — but 
Tom's promise to Mr. Benson. Why, oh why, had the boy prom- 
ised to give the "boss" a taste of his wife's pastry? Again Isobel 
resolved that her husband should not be disappointed. Leaving 
the dishes unfinished, she began on the pastry, in order to get it 
into the ice-chest to chill properly. Carefully she measured the 
ingredients for the wonderful paste. A pound of flour, and a 
pound of butter. Sift the flour, then work in part of the butter. 
Add sufficient ice-water to make a dough of the right consistency. 
Isobel proceeded slowly with the intricate folding in of the re- 
maining butter. How queer the butter seemed today. It was 
impossible to get it right. The flour seemed to stick to it in large 
lumps. Some of the flour was full of butter and some of it was 
totally without. She worked the paste round and round. In her 
anxiety she worked it too long, and the paste formed into a sticky 
mass, instead of crisp-looking dough. In desperation, she added 
a little more flour, hoping to get the right results. But it was no 
use. With disturbing visions beginning to haunt her, she pushed 
the stuff into the refrigerator. Then she turned hastily to her 

As she put her hands into the dish pan, she glanced nervously 
at the clock. She was shocked to see the fingers pointing to half- 
past one. She had spent two hours with the wretched paste! 
Horrified, she considered again. The mayonnaise must be made 
that very minute, if they were to have salad. It also must be 
chilled thoroughly. Isobel brought olive oil from the refrigerator 
and broke the yolks of two eggs into a bowl. She beat the eggs 
hurriedly, mentally chiding herself the while for so foolishly leav- 
ing her preparation until the last day. She added a pinch of salt 
to thicken the yolks, and beat on and on. Then a drop of oil 
into the eggs, beating slowly and carefully. A little more oil, 
more beating and the dressing was beautifully thick and yellow. 
Now a spoonful of lemon juice and then the oil again. The rest 
was easy. The mayonnaise being well started, the oil could be 
poured in more rapidly. She turned in a thin stream, which 


thickened up quickly under the beater. She lifted the can again. 
A thin stream started slowly out and ended in drops. Isobel sank 
into a chair in consternation. The oil can was empty. With a 
sinking- heart she realized that it was Wednesday afternoon and 
the grocery stores were all closed. She also painfully remem- 
bered that the Bensons disliked any sort of boiled salad dressing. 

Isobel pulled herself together sharply. There was not a 
minute to be lost. Banishing the disturbing thoughts of the 
dishes and the untidy house, she brought in the chickens. She 
cut the string from the parcel and turned out two big, fat chickens 
in a fresh bed of parsley. Joe, the Italian poultryman, had kept 
his word very well. 

"I clean him very good, madam. I clean him very good." 

Encouraged by the appearance of the poultry, Isobel made 
haste with the stuffing, which was to be made with nothing less 
delectable than chestnuts. She opened the bag of nuts and after 
determined and painful effort succeeded in tearing them from 
their shells. Nothing daunted, she proceeded according to the 
directions of the cook-book, and poured boiling water over The 
wonderful nuts. Yes, Isobel was making chestnut stuffing for 
the first time. She was going against the oldest maxim her 
mother possessed — "Never try a new dish for company." 

It seemed as if the boiling water created an immediate 
affinity between those nuts and their tough brown skins. Isobel 
gingerly pulled one of them out and tried to peel off the skin. 
It stuck like the proverbial paper on the wall. She tried another 
— and another — and another — she cut her finger with the sharp 
little knife. Then she tried another — 

At that moment the telephone rang frantically. It was a 
shock to Isobel. It woke Tommie up and started him crying. 
The bell kept on ringing. Isobel rushed to answer it. 

"Hello," she shrieked, "hello !" 

"Number please," cooed the cool, honey-sweet voice of the 
telephone operator. 

"Number!" screamed Isobel; "didn't you just ring here?" 

"Wrong number," floated over the wire and the telephone 
switch clicked in Isobel's ear. 

She hung up the receiver and started toward the bedroom 
Taking up the baby, she walked the floor with him. It was not 
scientific to do such a thing, "but for that matter the latest authori- 
ties on baby-raising disapproved of picking the child up at all. 
He should be left to cry until he stopped. Any way, she was not 
in a mood for science, so she patted the baby and bounced him 
about as she fretted over the dinner. 

"I was silly to leave all these things until today. And I 
should have done what Tom told me to — get Bessie to tend the 
baby. I—" 


A dreadful squall from Tommie cut short her reflection. 
"What ever is the matter with this child ?" 

She walked hurriedly to and fro swinging and swaying her 
son. She undid his clothes and made an exhaustive examination 
for any stray pins which are the terror of the young mother's life. 
And still the child cried. Isobel was trembling now. She was 
terrified by the violent screams. Back and forth, back and forth 
she paced utterly, helpless to know what to do. Should she tele- 
phone Tom? Tom was probably busy with Mr. Benson. It 
might mean a disturbance. Should she telephone her mother? 
She didn't like to bother her mother — anyway who would hold the 
baby while she did telephone? Back and forth, back and forth. 
At length she dropped into a chair exhausted by the excitement 
and worry. Tears rolled down her cheeks and mingled with those 
of the howling baby. 

Just then there was a slight tap at the door, and mother, 
smiling brightly, pushed in. 

"You poor dear," began mother, totally ignoring the appear- 
ance of the house, "the baker-boy told me he heard your baby 
crying, so I came over." 

Isobel could not speak. She weakly handed the baby to her 

Mother felt the child, examined his clothes and then laying 
him face downward over her arm, she walked into the kitchen. 

"About what I thought," she murmured to herself as she 
poured boiling water over the powdered catnip leaves which she 
had ventured to bring along. While the tea steeped, she tried to 
soothe the child who seemingly affected by her very presence, 
quieted down to fitful squeaks. A little cream and a little sugar 
in the tea and then between squeals Tommie was fed his "catnip 
tea," mother's faithful "cure-all." 

"Will he be all right?" asked the frightened daughter, fol- 
lowing her mother into the kitchen. 

"Quite," answered mother. 

The very relief seemed to unnerve Isobel further. She wept 
unrestrainedly, meanwhile telling mother of her distress. 

"I should have done the pastry yesterday, all the things for 
that matter. Today everything I touched went wrong. The 
paste is a complete failure, and all my butter is gone except what 
1 need for the table. My oil was gone and I did not know it until 
too late. And I couldn't skin the horrid chestnuts," spluttered 
Isobel between sobs. 

Mother's eyebrows went up at the word "chestnuts." Wisely 
she refrained from asking questions. She tip-toed into the bed- 
room and laid the* sleeping baby down. 

"Now about dinner." 


She came back into the kitchen and glanced at the clock. 
Three o'clock. Without scruple mother rolled up the sleeves of 
her best afternoon blouse. She tied an apron round her waist. 
"How would it be to serve the asparagus hot with butter and 
serve plain letttuce as a salad with that old Spanish dressing made 
of cream?" Isobel nodded acquiescence. "You run along and 
straighten these rooms, and lay the table. I'll get these things 

In the face of disaster mother was the seasoned soldier — 
Isohel the raw recruit. The way mother whiped into that dinner 
was something to glory in. Under her swift fingers, a little flour, 
lard, salt and water become crisp crinkling patties of a perfect 
brown. Under her skilful hands, bread crumbs, a little butter, 
finely minced onion ana seasoning became the savory filling that 
sent a tempting fragrance from the kitchen when the chickens 
went into the oven. A little whipped cream thinned with a few 
drops of vinegar, sweetened with sugar and toned up with paprika 
developed into a salad dressing fit to grace a king's table. 

Isobel came into the kitchen and found the transformation. 
She knew what wizard deeds her mother could do, but it seemed 
to her they had never been so magical before. 

"Now you get into your dinner dress, dear. You will have 
time for a little rest. I'll take baby home with me and send 
Beatrice over to help you." 

Isobel choked up again. 

"How can you be so wonderful, mother? How can I thank 
you or return the kindness? And however did you know how 
to manage the baby ?" 

Mother rolled down her sleeves slowly. 

"Wait till you have seven." 

And she smiled her knowing little smile. 

On the cultivation of the minds of women depends the wis- 
dom of men. 

A woman is the equal of man — when she is. — Elbert Hub- 

Mothers in Israel. 

Mary Ann Stearns Winters. 


[We give in this number another of the vivid sketches written by 
that gifted pioneer mother, Mrs. Winters. These articles began in 
our last volume, and are given exactly as prepared by the author. No 
historical connecting links have been supplied, as our Church teems 
with such material. These sketches, fragmentary as they are, cast a 
food of light on those past, stormy days. — Editor.] 

On August 29, 1839, we left Commerce in a covered wagon 
with two horses, and traveled across the country toward the great 
lakes. Besides Brother Pratt and my mother there were the two 
little boys, Parley and Nathan, and myself ; and also accompany- 
ing us were Brother Orson Pratt and Hyrum Clark, but they soon 
left us and went preaching through the country as they passed 
along. The first days of the journey I enjoyed very much as we 
were traveling over flower-decked prairies, and through beautiful 
groves. Best of all, we were again free and happy — not afraid 
of mobs and violence — in a land of friendliness, meeting sym- 
pathy on every hand. Brother Pratt was again at liberty — our 
protector was with us — he had started on a mission and was 
preaching wherever we stopped, the Saints received us joyfully 
and with open arms and hearts, asking innumerable questions of 
our trials and troubles in Missouri, and we little children who 
had been in the prison received no small share of their attention. 
love and sympathy. And the little Parley, the child of promise, 
was caressed and with tearful eyes hugged to the hearts of the 
motherly sisters who entertained us. And these people were all 
settled in comfortable homes with plenty around them — and after 
all that we had suffered and passed through, this journey seemed 
to me like a triumphal march through the land of promise. 

In a few days I took the ague and was very sick. When the 
fever came on, I suffered greatly with the jolting of the wagon, 
and thought I could not possibly endure it ; but mother would 
encourage and comfort me, and as the hours rolled on, my fever 
would get lower and by the time we came to a stopping place, I 
would be able to get up and join with the other children. In 
about two weeks the chills left me, and by the time we arrived at 
Brother Anson Pratt's at Detroit, Michigan, I had fully recovered 
my health and could enjoy the company of Brother Pratt's chil- 
dren. The friendships then formed between us have continued 
through all our lives. Sister Pratt was a kind, motherly woman. 


and gained the love and respect of her acquaintances ; but I never 
saw her after, and when I again met my little friends they were 
motherless. After our happy visit with them for two or three 
weeks, we took a boat to cross the lake, and while on the boat a 
little incident occurred that made a lasting impression on my 
mind. Mother had bought some candy before starting — had 
given some to us children, and we were not to have any more for 
the present, but the hand-bag was in plain sight, and my love for 
candy overcame my obedience. I reached and took out a very 
few pieces. They were coriander seeds coated with sugar, about 
the size of a pill, and very rough. I walked away a few steps 
to eat my forbidden fruit, feeling very guilty, then gave a little 
hop to ease my conscience, when one of the pieces went the wrong 
way and I choked very badly and thought I would surely die, but 
someone caught me and began pounding me on the back when 
out came the candy and rolled across the floor, and I was relieve;! 
both in body and mind, for now mother knew about it, and I 
would not have to worry under a hidden guilt. When all was 
quiet again, mother drew me to her and talked very seriously to 
me about the sin of disobedience, and that -there was always a 
penalty for wrong-doing, and that this act of mine might have 
cost me my life — that things done in secret were always brought 
to light, and in some cases were to be proclaimed upon the house- 
top. All this made a very deep impression on my mind, for I felt 
that I had been very severely punished for what I had done ; and 
in all the long years since then, I have seen her words verified 
in thousands of incidents. Nothing of importance occurred to me 
during the remainder of the journey, and we arrived in New 
York to find a large branch of the Church enjoying the faith of 
the gospel, and the meeting was a joyous one with the friends we 
had left two years before, as also with the new converts that 
flocked to meet us. We soon took up our abode in Mott street. 
and Sister Eliza Nelson provided the furniture to furnish the 
house and came to live with us. 

Oh, what more holy than a mother's love, 
That which endures all other ties above? 
That love which falters not when others fail, 
A lamp in life, a lamp o'er death's own vale! 
Though to the world we naked are and poor, 
Yet there a temple where we dwell secure. 
There is the sacred lamp, which burns for aye, 
Most steadfast love that dwells in mortal clay. 
There is the gift all pure of selfish aim, 
The mother's love, the one exhaustless flame! 
In mother's love, whatever else our lot, 
Oh, there the love which gives and wearies not! 
If life's one hope becomes but hope that's been, 
Yet on a mother's love the soul may lean. 
Though all forsake us, hers a love to save, 
Her love is from our cradle to her grave. 

Alfred Lambourne. 

Home Evening Entertainment. 

By Morg. 

It was Friday evening, and the Arbor family were gathered 
around the fire in their comfortable living room. The family con- 
sisted of Henry Arbor, who was a successful business man and 
farmer; his wife Jean; Mara, the eldest, a quiet, gentle home 
girl ; Charlie, the tall son who was his father's right hand ; Lottie 
and Ella, the twins, who were attending the county high school ; 
Harold, aged fourteen ; Jemima, usually called "Jim," and the 
last one dearly loved by all whose name was Lilian. 

"Tonight is our home evening," said Lottie, "and it's mother's 
turn to take charge." 

"Goody," said Jim, "we will sure have a dandy time, for 
mother has been baking something all day. Oh, I nearly told," 
laughed the happy girl. 

A knock sounded at the door, and old Sister McDonald was 
brought in, followed closely by Brother Sandy McNab, the black- 
smith, who lived near by. 

"It's a braw nicht the nicht," said he as he drew up a com- 
fortable chair near the fire. 

"I know what we are going to have tonight," cried Ella. 
"Something Scotch!" she continued. "Mother has had on her 
far-away look all day." 

"Thinking of the bonny heather hills, and the Scotch blue- 
bells, mother?" queried Charlie. , 

"Yes," answered his mother with a smile, "and as tonight is 
the 25th of January, and the anniversary of Robert Burns, the 
poet, we are going to have a 'Burns' nicht' program." 

"Ah, now we know why you invited Sister McDonald," said 
Mara, "she was born near the poet's birthplace, and can tell us 
all about the Banks and Braes o' Bonny Doon." 

"We will have our evening worship first," announced father 

After their scripture reading and hymn, the family knelt for 
prayer which was offered reverently by brother Charlie. 

"We will first sing 'Sweet Afton,' " said mother. "Harold, 
pass around those copies you made for me yesterday on your type- 

The tune was quickly found in the Sunday School book, page 
224, and all joined in singing the dear old song. Mara then read 
a brief sketch of the life of the poet Burns, and Sister McDonald 
told of the humble cot on the banks of the Doon where the poet 
was born. 


"Now pa, it's your turn," said mother, and father read "The 
Cotter's Saturday Night." 

"It's my turn now," said Lottie. "I'll play my new piece, 
'Tarn o'Shanter's Ride,' " and the lively girl danced over to the 
piano and played it vigorously. 

"I will tell you about Tarn o'Shanter," said Harold. "We 
had it in our school books," and the boy told something of the 
ride of Tarn o'Shanter and his old mare Meg. 

A tub of apples swimming in water was next brought in and 
they spent a noisy half hour ducking for them. 

Brother McNab next took the floor and entertained them 
with a number of old songs. 

"There was a lad was born in Kyle." 

"Scots wha hae," etc., piped the quavering old voice. 

"Let's all sing 'Comin' Thro' the Rye,'" said Jim, and the 
jolly crowd gathered around the piano again. 

After the song Brother McNab brought out some picture 
postals, and a pleasant half hour was spent among the Banks and 
Braes o'Bonny Scotland. 

Refreshments were then served by mother assisted by Mara. 
Dainty squares of gingerbread, shortbread, scones and currant 
mead were passed around. 

The evening's pleasure was brought to an end by singing 
"Auld Lang Syne." The company formed a circle, crossed and 
then joined hands, and circled round and round while singing. 

"I like that," lisped baby Lilian as she danced round in glee. 

"Bobby Burns is all right," echoed the twins and, "we had a 
fine time. Next month it will be our turn and we will have a 
patriotic evening for it's Lincoln's and Washington's birthday." 

"And Valentine day, too," said Jim sleepily. 

"Good nicht, and God's blessings on ye for your kindly hos- 
pitality," said the visitors as they left the happy family group. 


Add sugar, nutmeg and currants to any good biscuit dough 
and bake either on griddle or in the oven. 


To one quart boiling water, add juice of two lemons, one 
tumbler of currant jelly, and a little cinnamon or nutmeg. Stir 
until jelly is well mixed. If not sweet enough add sugar. (Ex- 
cellent for colds.) 

"Morg" will be pleased to help you with your programs for 
home entertainment parties, socials, etc. Address, Entertainment 
Editor, Relief Society Magazine. Enclose a stamped, ad- 
dressed envelope. 

Home Science Department. 

By Janette A. Hyde. 

Macaroni as Meat. 

In these times of high cost of living, it is quite necessary for 
the good housewife to understand the value of foods, so that in 
serving a meal, she may get good, nourishing foods, without buy- 
ing the most expensive. 

When serving a pound of macaroni, we may be assured of 
having a much larger amount of nutriment than in a pound of 
beef steak, and feel also assured that we are saving money as 
well. We may feel, too, another satisfaction from its use in this, 
that we are helping to sustain home industry, as we have a splen- 
did grade of macaroni made here at home. A fine variety of 
spaghetti is also manufactured in Utah, and serves for many 
useful dishes. Macaroni is a very convenient and easily prepared 
article of food, and while it is somewhat the same as our bread, it 
is cooked and served so differently, that it furnishes us a great 
variety of food. 

Macaroni should always be cooked in boiling hot, salt water 
fiom 30 to 40 minutes before it is used; and, combined with 
other articles of food, such as grated or sliced cheese, tomatoes, 
milk, oysters, fish, corn, etc., it makes a delicious dish. 

We give here a few tested macaroni recipes : 

Escalloped macaroni zvith corn. 
% package macaroni. 

1 pt. corn. 
1^2 cups milk. 

2 tablespoons butter. 

Break macaroni into one inch lengths. Boil 40 minutes in salt 
water, throw into cold water and drain. Season the corn with 
salt and pepper, add milk and butter, mix with macaroni, and 
bake in oven until brown. Cheese may be added for variety, or a 
little chopped parsley. 

Macaroni Italienne. 

2 lbs. beef. 

3 strips of salt pork. 
2 sliced onions. 

l /i cup mushrooms. 

1 quart tomatoes. 

Yi lb. macaroni. 

4f tablespoons grated cheese. 

Dash cayenne pepper and salt. 


Cut up beef, salt pork and onions. Place in kettle on the 
back of stove to cook about Y hour. Then add tomatoes, mush- 
rooms, and simmer for about two hours. Cook macaroni in boil- 
ing- water 30 minutes, and drain. Put in buttered baking dish, 
and add all the other ingredients, then season with salt and pepper, 
and add a layer of grated cheese on top. This is most excellent; 
try it. 

To spaghetti which has been boiled in salt water twenty 
minutes, add one can of tomatoes which have been strained. Cut 
one green pepper, one red pepper, and take three tablepsoonfuls 
of sugar. Salt to taste. 

Add spaghetti to juice of tomatoes, then add 4 tablespoons 
olive oil or sweet butter just before serving. 

Boil one-half package of macaroni, drain, and put one layer 
of macaroni, and alternate with grated cheese in a baking dish, 
until all the macaroni is used up. Place on top a thick layer of 
cheese, cover with milk, season with salt and pepper, and bake 
one-half hour in quick oven. 

Cold fish may be used with macaroni, instead of the cheese, 
thus forming another variety of macaroni dishes to be enjoyed 
by the family. 

Macaroni and oysters. 

Y\ lb. macaroni. 

1 can oysters or about 3 dozen fresh oysters. 

Yi cup cream sauce. 

Yz cup of cream. 

*/2Cup grated cheese. 

^tablespoon chopped green pepper. 

Boil macaroni 40 minutes, drain liquor from oysters. Boil 
and season with salt and pepper. Put in baking dish, placing a 
layer of macaroni, then oysters ; alternate until all has been used. 
Then sprinkle with chopped pepper, cover with the liquor from 
the oysters, and cream sauce. Add cheese last, and bake for about 
25 minutes. 



If the testimony of the Sicilian Citrus Chamber is given due 
consideration in determining the status of a lemon, it deserves an 
important place in the list of first aids. According to the author- 
ity mentioned, the lemon aids are chiefly medicinal and hygienic. 
Its juice is of value in treating diphtheria and gout. For ordinary 
colds, it is a great specific. It will cure slight wounds and chil- 
blains. The juice of several lemons taken every day will help to 



cure rheumatism and prove an antidote for diabetes; small slices 
applied to corns will ease the'pain. 

As a cleansing agent and beautifier, the reputation of the 
Union soars still higher. The juice whitens the hands, improves 
the complexion, helps, if anything can, to remove freckles. In the 
culinary department, it ranks with salt and sugar in general use- 
fulness, and as a furniture polish its oil is beyond reproach. 

And yet to be dubbed "a lemon" is considered uncompli- 
mentary ! 

A Quickly made Silver-Plating Poivder. 
A good silver-plating power can be made of chloride of sil- 
ver, 3 oz. ; salt of tartar. 6, oz. ; prepared chalk, 2 oz. ; common 
salt, 3 oz. Mix well. 


Science is doing so much for the woman in her house labors 
that it would seem impossible to offer any new short-cut in time or 
in domestic work, and yet, this is exactly what has been done 
through the invention of one of our Utah boys. , 

He has devised a cold water washer which will take any or- 
dinary clothes, and especially babies soiled napkins and handker- 



chiefs, and whirling them about, without paddle or heat, cleanse 
them perfectly. The invention is a simple galvanized tin affair 
in which the water is forced on a tangent from the water tap and 
the force thus generated whirls the clothes round and round and 
round, till they are thoroughly cleansed. Dirty clothing, such as 
underwear and bed linen, needs boiling, but the young inventor 
declares, and really proves, that such clothing may be dropped 
dry into boiling suds, left for 20 minutes and then dipped into 
this machine without wringing, when the clothing is perfectly 
cleansed of dirt and suds and comes out immaculately clean and 
spotless. Only one wringing is needed and that the last- process 
of all. The clothes are dipped into the boiler without wringing, 
dipped out without wringing, out of the machine and then wrung 
once and hung on the line. 

Women of long experience who are using the machine and 
who recommend it heartily, are : Mrs. Julina L. Smith, Mrs. 
Janette A. Hyde, Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune, Mrs. Augusta W. 
Grant, Mrs. Leah D. Widtsoe. who all declare that washing has 
lost its terrors. A child can use the contrivance, and the whole 
washing can be done in the bath room over the bath-tub when the 
clothes are not sufficiently soiled to need boiling. 

We are glad to recommend any labor-saving device to our 
readers, and any one who wishes further information may address 
The Gates Manufacturing Co.. 672 North First West Street, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 


In sending in new lists please write names of old subscribers 
as they were sent in last year, and as they appear on the margin 
of their Magazine. Also state on lists whether they are old or 
new subscribers. 

Notes from the Field. 

By Amy Brown Lyman, General Secretary. 

Northwestern States Mission. 

This picture of the Spokane Relief Society was taken after 
a work-day meeting - held at the home of Mrs. Amelia Guff, 
President of the Society. Mrs. Guff and her first counselor, 
Florence Stadelmann, both recently resigned on account of ill 
health, and Mrs. Julia Miller has been appointed president, with 
Mrs. Mary Sorenson and Mrs. Pauline Van Cleave as counselors. 
Mrs. Cora Guff is the secretary, and Mrs. Nellie Kinrade is 

Mrs. Mattie J. Ballard, President of the Northwestern States 
Relief Society, reports a very successful convention held in the 
Montana Conference at Butte. The following interesting items 
were among those reported : In the Butte Society there are four- 
teen members enrolled, all of whom are subscribers to the Relief 
Society Magaizine, which makes a l(XKr ward in that respect. 
The average attendance is eight. In Anaconda, 50% of the 
members are subscribers of the Magazine. 

The Great Falls Society, organized on April 24th. has a 
membership of five and has a good attendance at the weekly 


The Helena Society has a membership of eight, average at- 
tendance of five. 

The Dillon branch has, during the year, made eleven quilts 
and eleven articles of clothing. 

The Lima Society, just organized, has held only three meet- 
ings and has four subscriptions for the Magazine. 

Eastern States Mission. 

Sunday, September 24th, was observed in all the branches of 
the Eastern. States Mission as Genealogical Day. This observ- 
ance was greatly appreciated by the Relief Society in the Mission, 
and gave a new impetus to its work. 

The New York and Brooklyn Relief Societies have been 
combined into one society, with the following officers : President, 
Mrs. Bertha Eccles Wright; First Counselor, Mrs. Leona Mon- 
son ; Second Counselor, Carmen Benson; Secretary, Janetle 

A branch of the Relief Society has recently been organized 
in Albany, New York. The members are taking great interest 
in their Guide work, and are making use of the splendid genea- 
logical library in the Educational Building of that city. This 
branch is the infant organization of the Mission, and is. composed 
of a mere handful of members, but they are very energetic, and 
are determined to make a success of their Society. 

The Pittsburg, Pa., Relief Society recently held a bazaar, at 
which they sold quilts, aprons, and art needle work. During 
the day, two meals were served. The total receipts were $73.00. 
After the expenses, which amounted to $15, were taken out, the 
Society had a balance of $58.00. This is an excellent showing, 
and especially when we take into consideration that this Society 
was organized last May, and has an organization of only fifteen 

The West Virginia Society has devoted most of the summer 
to the making of quilts, and children's dresses for those who 
suffered the loss of home and property in the spring floods in 
that locality. 
Northern States Mission. 

The Detroit Branch of the Northern States Mission reports 
some interesting items connected with their summer work. Dur- 
ing the months of July and August, a special reading course was 
provided by the eight members, fifteen books and 335 articles 
being read by them. Most of this reading was done at home, 
and was reported and discussed at the meetings. Among the 
books and articles read were Elias, by O. F. Whitney ; Ra- 
tional Theology, by John A. Widtsoe, and The Other Wise Man, 
by Van Dyke, and such articles as Senator Reed Smoot's 
article on "Home Economics," Bulletins on Parental Care, Meats, 


Canned Fruits, and Jellies, Food for the Young, Infantile Par- 
alysis, etc. 

In a letter from this Mission, we learn that a Mrs. Nogle of 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, has sent in for Temple purposes $15.00, 
which she earned picking cucumbers on shares. 

Mrs. Flora F. Brinkerhoff, President of the Munsey, Ind., 
Society, writes of a little plan adopted by her organization to raise 
funds. Each member donated ten cents, and was asked to take 
the ten cents and make what she could with it in a given length 
of time. For example, one woman bought one and one- fourth 
vards of light calico, made three dust-caps and sold each for ten 
cents, netting thirty cents. She took ten cents of this money and 
bought one yard of heavy, unbleached Tnuslin, and made a clothes- 
pin apron, which she sold for twenty cents. Thus, in a short 
time, she had made forty cents with the original ten cents as 

Mrs. Brinkerhoff states that every page of the Maga&ixe is 
appreciated, and that the contents meet all their needs. 

Mrs. Georgiana Willard, of Peoria, 111., writes that the MAG- 
AZINE is one of the best papers ever offered for the development 
of women, adding that the second year is an improvement over 
the first. 

Mrs. Bertha Lynday of Indianapolis, Ind., writes appre- 
ciatingly of the Theological lessons taken up during the year*. 
She says, "Our own ideals of true womanhood have been elevate ! 
by the study of these noble women of the Bible who have only 
too often been underestimated bv the sectarian ministers of to- 

] Vest em States Mission. 

Mrs. Annie C. Hansen, President of the Boulder, Colorado. 
Relief Society writes: "We enjoy studying the lessons outlined 
it-, the Magazine very much. There is a great deal of valuable 
matter in them. The Magazine, as a whole, is very interesting 
— so much so. that men are often seen scanning its pages care- 

Snozuflake Stake. The Wilford Ward Relief Society has re- 
cently sustained a severe loss in the death of their Secretary — 
Mrs. Adeline H. Savage, a faithful and energetic worker in the 

Mrs. E. St. Clair Thomas, field secretary of the Congres- 
sional Union of the United States, has been in Arizona for some 
time, soliciting the support of the women of Arizona in the in- 
terest of the Susan B. Anthony Amendment. 

Benson Stake. From one small ward in the Benson stake. 
$25.00 was raised in one month for the Penny Subscription Fund. 

Paroivan Stake. In some of the wards in the Parowan stake 


where it has been impossible to get competent teachers for gene- 
alogy,- the brethren have assisted with the class work. 

Curlezu Stake. On July 12th, Curlew stake made an excur- 
sion to the Logan Temple, taking 64 Relief Society workers. 

Raft River Stake. In one of the wards in this stake, a Re- 
lief Society member has taken care of a family of seven for five 
months. This family had just emigrated to this country, and 
was without a home. They were given this kind care until they 
could get located. 

Bannock Stake. The hospital at Soda Springs is visited 
every day by at least one Relief Society member. 

In Thatcher First ward, a sister who was sick eleven weeks, 
was taken care of night and day by Relief Society workers. 

Pocatello Stake. In a recent Temple excursion from this 
far-away stake, 20 members visited the Logan Temple. In addi- 
tion to this visit, a fund of $103.00 was left for work to be hired. 

Special Donation. Ten dollars was recently sent to the Gen- 
eral Board, with the following note attached: "For the Poor." 
As there was no signature it has been impossible to acknowledge 
the receipt of the same. The General Board takes this method 
of expressing gratitude and appreciation for this gift. 

Genealogy. Senator Reed Smoot recently wrote us that he 
had sent for the Director of the Census — Mr. Samuel L. Rogers 
— and had explained to him the necessity of changing the present 
census to contain the names of the individual's parents, date, and 
place of birth, in accordance with suggestions made by Mr. 
Duncan McAllister, late Chief Recorder of the Salt Lake Temple. 
Mr. Rogers was much interested, and promised to take the matter 
up at once, adding that this could be done without much extra 
expense. Mr. Rogers will write to Dr. Alvin Plummer, of San 
Francisco, head of the Public Records Committee of the Interna- 
tional Genealogical Federation with that end in view. The Sen- 
ator explained to Mr. Rogers that our people are very much in- 
terested in genealogy, and thus won the instant sympathy and 
interest of the director. 

Reports. The report forms of 1916 and the Teachers' Books 
for 1917, have been sent out to the stake presidents for distribu- 
tion to the wards. The Stake Secretaries have been asked to re- 
turn the compiled stake reports to the General Office by Tanuarv 

Teachers' Books. The Teachers' Books are larger and more 
complete than they were last year. Because they have been en- 
larged and because of the increase of the price of paper, the books 
will cost the wards, delivered — 10c each. We especially request 
the teachers to use the books according to the printed instructions 

Current Topics. 

James H. Anderson. 

Rumaina, having entered the European war field against 
the Teutonic allies, has been subjected to the grinding process 
which crushed Servia. 

German gains in the Balkans, with the exception of those 
in Macedonia, and about equal German losses on the western 
front, are the sum of European war progress the past month. 

Federal control of railways in the United States is being 
discussed in Congressional circles, with some prospect that ac- 
tion to that end mav become an administration program. 

Peace advocates are becoming urgent for a settlement of 
the Old World embroilment, but the present outlook is that 1917 
will not see the end of the great conflict there. 

More massacres of Armenians are reported in Turkey. 
From the accounts given, there would seem to be but few of 
that class of religionists left in the sultan's dominions. 

Francis Joseph, emperor of Austria-Hungary for within 
two weeks of sixty-eight years, died on Nov. 21. and is suc- 
ceeded by his grand-nephew, Charles Joseph, who takes the title 
of Charles I. The national policies will be along practically the 
same lines as heretofore. 

Simon Bamberger, a well known Utah citizen of Jewish 
lineage, was elected governor of the State of Utah. It is gener- 
ally understood that his ability as a business man and as one of 
the builders of the State will be directed toward giving the peo- 
ple a strictly business administration. 

Three women were executed in Mexico, during the last 
week in November, on the charge of having conspired against 
officials of the Carranza government; and thousands of other 
women have met death through the regime inaugurated by that 
government since it came into power. 

The tax amendment proposed to be made to the Utah 
State constitution was defeated by a decisive vote of the people, 
who became convinced that its promoters were making a false 
pretense in the argument that the amendment was directed chiefly 
at the mining industry. 


Arabia has broken away from Turkish rule and a new king- 
dom has been established there, under Hussein Ben Ali, with the 
national capital at Mecca. Thus the children of Ishmael have 
been freed from the governmental domination of the Turkish 
descendants of Japheth. 

The Church administration building in Salt Lake City will 
be ready for occupancy early in the year. For its evident con- 
venience, its beautiful appearance, stability, and the commendable 
use of Utah materials as far as practicable in its construction, the 
edifice is a source of satisfaction to the thousands who visit it. 

Mrs. Inez Mulholland Boissevain, who ranked as one of 
the great equal suffrage workers, although comparatively 
a young woman, died at Los Angeles just before Thanks- 
giving. She had become noted both for her womanly graces and 
her intelligent and forceful yet gentle and determined activity 
in the cause of woman's political enfranchisement. 

Vulgar displays in picture shows and illegal resorts in 
Salt Lake City have received a setback through the arousing of 
public indignation on the part of the moral portion of the com- 
munity. It is greatly to the discredit of the oresent municipal 
and other authorities that they did not act in proper enforce- 
ment of law until an outraged public sentiment compelled them to 
do so. There is in the minds of most people a feeling that even 
now it is spasmodic and not real nor lasting. 

Miss Jeanette Rankin has been elected to Congress from 
Montana — the first woman member of the national House of Rep- 
resentatives. As indicated by her name, the young lady is of 
Scottish descent, and is said to possess the characteristic per- 
sistence and logic in argument of that race, with a very pleas- 
ing personality which makes friends of many of the intelligent 
among her antagonists. Her election is a decided advance to- 
ward abolishing unequal suffrage, and if Miss Rankin does as 
well as may be reasonably expected of her from her exemplary 
career, further forward steps in that direction cannot be far 

Two "Mormon" missionaries, one in Germany and the 
other in New Zealand, have been released from military service 
in those countries, to return to Utah, after nearly two years; the 
one in Germany having been in several battles on the Verdun 
front. For a long time they were unable to get a hearing on their 
American citizenship. , 


Entered at second class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mas. RuMtLiNt B. Wells President 

Mas. Clarissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mas. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Bbown Lyman General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Mis9 Sarah Eddington 
Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. JANUARY, 1917. No. 1. 


We call upon our officers and members throughout the 
Church to give serious consideration to the following letter, re- 
cently addressed by the Presidency of the Church to the General 
Boards of Relief Society, Young Ladies' _ Mutual Improvement 
Association, and Primary Association. 
Dear Sisters: 

We feel that there exists a pressing need of improvement 
and reform among our young people, specifically in the matter 
of dress and in their social customs and practices. Our women 
are prone to follow the demoralizing fashions of the world ; and 
some of the daughters of Zion appear to vie with one another in 
exhibitions of immodesty and of actual indecency in their attire, 
wholly forgetful of the precepts of the Lord and the counsels of 
his servants, and seemingly oblivious in this respect to the prompt- 
ings and duties of true womanhood. Many of our youth of both 
sexes are fast approaching a state of depravity in dancing, and 
in their feverish pursuit of frivolous and dissipating pleasures. 

We are grateful in knowing that only a fraction of our peo- 
ple are seriously affected by the deadly contagion of Babylon ; 
but those already infected among the Latter-day Saints are all 
too many. The conditions call for prompt, determined, and per- 


sistent action, lest the standard of morality and spiritual health 
in our community be further impaired. 

We call upon you. as the chief officers of a great and in- 
fluential auxiliary within the Church, to give this matter immedi- 
ate consideration, and to make it the subject of specific effort and 
systematic missionary labor among the members of your organ- 
ization and with the people generally throughout the Church. 
See that your own officers first, and then that your members show 
by their own example the sincerity of their efforts toward the ac- 
complishment of the purposes of this special mission to which we 
call you. 

We advise that you work in harmony with the officers of our 
other auxiliary organizations ; and with this co-operative course 
in mind, we are sending this appointment concurrently to the 
General Boards of the Relief Society, the Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Association, and the Primary Association. For the 
information of the General Boards of the Sunday School, the 
Y. M. M. I. A., and the Religion Class, a copy of this letter 
will be sent to each of those Boards with the request that they 
do all within their power to assist in the correction of the evils 
herein referred to. 

Inasmuch as one of the most important phases of this re- 
formatory labor has to do with our girls and women, we advise 
that for the present the General Boards that are composed of 
women work together as a co-operative unit. You are requested 
therefore to appoint three of your number as members of a 
committee ; and this committee, consisting of nine memhers. 
should straightway set about preparing a plan for effective op- 
eration. Let the General Board of the Relief Society determine 
upon and notify the other organizations of the time and place 
of the first meeting of the committee, at which first meeting the 
committee may organize itself by electing a chairman and other 
necessary officers. We desire to be kept informed of your pro- 
gress in operating under this appointment. 

With prayerful wishes that the Lord will give you in full 
measure the spirit of this ministry, and that joy through success 
will attend your efforts, we are, 

Your Brethren, 

Joseph F. Smith, 
Anthon H. Lund, 
Charles W. Penrose. 

In accordance with the instructions given in this letter, a 
committee was at once appointed, three members from each 
Board, who should, under the direction of the Boards, put into 
operation measures leading to improvement along the lines men- 


tioned. An organization was effected, a Chairman, Vice-chair- 
man, Secretary, and Assistant Secretary appointed, and a name 
selected — that of "Social Advisory Committee." 

These sisters first gave their attention to the subject of dress, 
as one in which the women and girls of our organizations are 
vitally concerned. Acting upon the suggestion that our "own of- 
ficers first, and then that our members show by their example the 
sincerity of their efforts," a resolution was prepared and unani- 
mously adopted by the three Women's Boards. This resolu- 
tion was to the effect that each member should be willing to live 
in harmony with the teachings of the Church in the matter of 
properly clothing the body. 

We now earnestly solicit the co-operation of all our women 
officers and members in this important movement. The responsi- 
bility for conditions in our midst which make necessary these 
instructions from the First Presidency rests upon every women 
in the Church. No one can evade it. Officers first, and then 
members should show by example and precept that they gladly 
join hands with the Authorities of the Church in the endeavor to 
overcome the evils which exist. 

The gospel of Jesus Christ offers so much to its recipients 
that all Latter-day Saints should delight to conform their lives 
to its teachings. Its requirements are not harsh and should not 
be irksome. Our women who have been privileged to enter the 
House of the Lord have received incomparable blessings — bless- 
ings which are a source of joy and comfort here on the earth, 
and which shall endure throughout eternity. Does any woman 
in Zion undervalue these rich privileges? Will she not gladly 
make any sacrifice to be worthy of them? 

Our young women and girls should strive to understand the 
teachings of the gospel with regard to dress and conduct, and to 
live in accordance therewith. In the guise of fashion, many false 
ideas of beauty have come among us, and the habit of "being in 
the style" has caught and carried many of us much farther than 
we realized. Let us remember that the body is a gift from God 
and that it should be kept sacred. Our girls should be instructed 
and helped to recognize the value of, and the protection that comes 
with modesty in dress and conduct. Not one of them can afford 
to sacrifice such protection for the sake of fashion. 

We recommend to stake and local officers that this editorial 
be read in the meetings of our organizations throughout the 

Social Advisory Committee of 

Relief Society, 

Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association, 

Primary Association. 



This high-cost-of-living talk has its limits. 
Hew Prices When you see women's clubs and men's 

Are Boosted. civic bodies, and even Congress making a 
tremendous fuss about the price of eggs and 
flour, while they say nothing whatever about the shoes and 
gloves, you get a bit angry — if your sympathies run with the 
farmers, and that is where Utah's sympathies should be. Here 
starts a man or a firm to raise prices- — on paper say ; for that 
was one of the first big interests to deliberately take advantage 
of the war to raise prices and thus rake in a few millions of 
money — and that raise made printer's ink get a rise — then oil, 
gasoline, lumber, leather, rubber, tin, coal, iron, copper, and, in 
fact, every conceivable commodity was hoisted up in price 
to meet the original speculation. 

Miles behind the other speculators come the 
The Farmer food stuff's, meat and farmers' products, and 

Trails Behind, they accommodated themselves to the gen- 
eral rise in prices and lo, everybody gets mad 
at once. To think that milk and eggs and butter can dare to 
advance in price — O it's awful. There's a cry about high 
prices that shakes the foundations of the earth. 

Of course, we all know that the middlemen 
The get the big benefits out of this rise in eggs 

Middleman. and food stuffs — well so they do from coal 

and leather. The way society is now organ- 
ized, the middleman is a necessity, and he has to live and get 
rich if he can. But the farmer gets better and steadier prices 
because of the middleman, and the farmer knows it. Of couis^, 
the farmer can cut out the middleman, and live on his own 
produce. But he won't, the modern farmer is too shrewd for 

I don't notice the club women crying out 
What Do about the rise in feathers and hats. Nor do 

Women Do I see them wearing any cheaper hats because 

About High of the unprecedented rise in all fancy goods. 

Priced No, no! My lady goes more richly clad, and 

Millinery? gives more luxurious entertainments than 

ever before. Then she gets together with 
her kind and shouts and resolutes and gets raving mad in 
the papers — getting publicity at the same time — and calls the 
egg man names and raises her hands in horror over the price 
of flour and sugar. O woman — and O man! 


Don't we all know enough of the primary 
The Sensible principles of political economy to know that 
View of The when prices are high, wages are correspond- 
Present ingly high and money is easy while pros- 

Situation, perity reigns everywhere. That's the law of 

supply and demand. It's only silly folks who 
expect wages to rise and prices to fall at one and the same 
time. The sensible thing for you and me, my dear, is just 
to institute the severest economy we are capable of, refuse to 
go in debt, save all we can, wear last year's dresses and hats, 
use as few eggs as may be. and let the pseudo-reformers go 
their gait. This talk will all die. down, you know. Congress 
and clubs will spend uselessly a few dollars of money in investi- 
gating, and things will end up just where they began. 

It is. after all, purely a personal matter. If we will each 
economize and be ready for the crash that is sure to follow, 
at the close of the war, we can afford to forget all the talk 
and resolutions while we wait quietly upon the god of war 
and consequent high prices. 


Our General Historian desires to secure the names, sketches 
and pictures of all women who were milliners, dressmakers, school 
teachers, music teachers or midwives in Kirtland, Missouri or 
Nauvoo. Decsendants who write such sketches will please include 
the genealogy and pedigrees of the persons described. These 
sketches will be published in the Deseret News Genealogical De- 
partment, while the names will appear in the list of historic 
women living in the early days of Church history. Kindly ad- 
dress : General Historian, Relief Society Headquarters, Room 29 
Bishop's Building. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in February. 

According to Taine, a noted French critic, there are three 
different things which produce the "elementary moral state" of a 
people : race, surroundings, and epoch. 

By race he means the "internal structure" of a people, that 
inherent nature and disposition "which man brings with him into 
the world," and which makes the different kinds of men we see 
all around us. "There is a natural variety of men, as of oxen 
and horses, some brave and intelligent, some timid and depend- 
ent, some capable of superior conceptions and creations, some 
reduced to rudimentary ideas and inventions." 

By surroundings Taine means whatever goes to influence a 
people from without. "The profound differences which are 
manifest between the German races, on the one side, and the 
Latin and the Greek, on the other side, arise for the most part 
from the differences between the countries in which they are set- 
tled: some in cold, moist lands, deep in rugged, marshy forests 
or on the shores of a wild ocean, beset by melancholy or violent 
sensations, prone to drunkenness and gluttony, bent on a fighting, 
blood-spilling life ; others, again, within the loveliest landscapes, 
on a bright and pleasant sea-coast, enticed to navigation and com- 
merce, exempt from gross cravings of the stomach, inclined from 
the beginning to social ways, to a settled organization of the 
state, to feelings and dispositions such as develop the art of 
oratory, the talent for enjoyment, the inventions, letters, arts." 
By epochs he means whatever happens to a race in its environ- 

Now, in Abraham and Sarah the Lord chose a man and a 
woman through whom to begin a new people or nation. Abra- 
ham, we are told, was one of "the noble and great ones," among 
the pre-existent intelligences; and, no doubt. Sarah was a fii 
helpmate for such a man. The Hebrew race had therefore the 
"inherent' structure" necessary for a great people. 

But the Lord did more than choose a worthy foundation for 
a great people. He took Abraham and Sarah out of their native 


home and established them in a new land, a land favorable to the 
development of their descendants along the lines marked out for 
them by Jehovah. 

Palestine is a tract of extremely fertile land, about four hun- 
dred miles long, and from seventy to one hundred miles wide, 
lying between the Arabian Desert and the eastern coast of the 
Lavant. "Syria," says Professor George Adam Smith, (in 
which is Palestine), "lies between two continents — Asia and 
Africa : between two primeval homes of men — the valley of the 
Euphrates and the Nile ; between two great centers of empire — 
Western Asia and Egypt; between all these, representing the 
Eastern and ancient world, and the Mediterranean, which is the 
gateway to the Western and modern world." 

In this central location Palestine became not only the "battle 
ground of empires," but also and particularly the "highway of 
nations." In the former respect it resembled the Belgium of 
modern history, and in the latter respect it was much like our own 
Salt Lake City, through which people pass from the East to the 
Pacific coast. By reason of its peculiar position, therefore, the 
Holy Land was isolated from the other nations, enjoying the 
consequent opportunity for development along the lines of its 
own racial possibilities. At the same time there was deposited 
on its national soil the sediment of civilization of the upper and 
lower peoples of the ancient world. 

Besides all this, Palestine is one of the richest countries of 
the world in its natural resources. Palestine "reproduces climates 
and zones which, in other countries, are separated by many hun- 
dred miles." "Within the extent of a single landscape, there is 
every climate, from the cold of northern Europe to the heat of 
India. The oak, the pine, the walnut, the maple, the juniper, the 
alder, the poplar, the willow, the ash, the ivy, and the hawthorn, 
grow luxuriously on the heights of Hermon, Basham, and Galilee. 
Hence the traveler from the more northerly temperate lands finds 
himself in some parts, surrounded by the trees and vegetation 
of his own country. ***** The traveler from the more 
southern countries is no less at home ; for from whatever part he 
come, be it sunny Spain or Western India, he will recognize well- 
known forms in one or the other of such a list as the carob, the 
oleander and willow, skirting the streams and water-courses ; the 
sycamore, the fig, the olive, the date-palm, the pride of India, 
the pistachio, the tamerick, the acacia, and the tall tropical grasses 
and reeds, or in such fruits as the date, the pomegranate, the 
vine, the orange, the shaddock, the lime, the banana, the almond, 
and the prickly pear." 

Palestine, at the time of Abraham, was occupied by Caanan- 
itish tribes, barbaric peoples. Abraham and Sarah had come 


thither, obeying a command of God, from Chaldea. The people 
in their old home were idolators and offered up human beings as 
sacrifices, men, women, and children. In the Book of Abraham 
v/e are told that the priest was about to offer up the young man 
Abraham on the altar. In their new home the chosen pair dwelt 
from the call to the end of their lives, with the exception of short 
residences in Egypt. 

Whenever we think of Abraham and Sarah in Palestine we 
must not think of them as we sometimes do, in the midst of 
modern conditions. They did not live in a vast and wealthy 
kingdom. The "kings" mentioned in Genesis were but chiefs of 
tribes. Abraham with his "trained men born in his house, three 
hundred and eighteen," is represented as pursuing a number of 
these rebellious kings "as far as Dan," smiting them and their 
followers right and left. "And he brought back all the goods 
(Avhich they had stolen from Lot, his brother's son), and also 
brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women 
also, and the people." In those days a man's wealth was meas- 
ured by the things which he possessed. Pharaoh "had sheep, 
and oxen, and he-asses, and menservants, and maidservants, and 
she-asses, and camels." Abraham too "was very rich in cattle, 
in silver, and in gold." Lot "had flocks, and herds, and tents." 
Sarah's household duties, if we may use the term "house" at Vil, 
were confined to the tent. For when the angel appeared to 
Abraham just before the destruction of the wicked cities, the 
patriarch was sitting "in his tent door in the heat of the day," 
under "the oaks of Mamre." Moreover, they did more or less 
wandering from place to place, after the manner of herdsmen in 
those remote days. Abraham and Sarah lived a more or less 
nomadic life. 

In this wonderful land, under these conditions, the Hebrew 
race began its long and splendid career. We shall see in later 
articles how it was that this environment was used and modified 
to suit their growing needs. 


What has environment to do with the development of a race? 
Of an individual? 

Show that Palestine is so situated and is of such a character 
as to contribute to the isolation and development of the Jews. 

What may have been the Lord's purposes in establishing the 
Israelites in Palestine? 

Describe Palestine. 

Describe customs in the days of Abraham. 

What differences do you find in religion, in occupations, and 
in general manners then and now? Prove your statements. 


Either before or after reading this lesson, study carefully 
the account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Gen- 
esis, chapters 18 and 19. 


"They received the word with all readiness of mind and 
searched the Scriptures daily." 

1. Pearl of Great Price, Abraham, Chapter 1. 

2. Pearl of Great Price, Abraham, Chapter 2. 

3. Pearl of Great Price, Abraham, Chapter 3. 

4. Pearl of Great Price, Abraham, Chapter 4. 

5. Pearl of Great Price, Abraham, Chapter 5. 

6. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 11. 

7. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 12. 

8. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 13. 

9. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 14. 

10. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 15. 

11. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 16. 

12. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 17. 

13. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 18. 

14. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 19. 

15. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 20. 

16. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 21. 

17. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 22. 

18. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 23. 

19. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 24. 

20. Bible, Genesis, Chapter 25. 

21. Bible, Hebrews, Chapter 11. 

22. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 1. 

23. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 2. 

24. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 3. 

25. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 4. 

26. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 5. 

27. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 6. 

28. Doc. & Cov., Lecture on Faith, Chapter 7. 

Suggestive list to guide parents in their buying of books 


"Baby Days," CenUiry ; "Peter Rabbit," Potter; "Merry Ani- 
mal Tales," Bingham; "New Baby World," Dodge; "Nursery 
Rhyme Rook," Lang. 



"That's Why Stories," Bryce; "Rhymes and Stories," Lan- 
sing; "Classic Fables" (Selected), Chas. E. Merrill; "Each and 
All," Andrews; "Half a Hundred Stories for Little Folks." 


"Fifty Famous Stories," Baldwin ; "Fifty Famous Peoph," 
Baldwin; "Story of Roland," Baldwin; "Story of Siegfried," 
Baldwin; "Stories of Brave Dogs," St. Nicholas; "Stories of 
Cats," St. Nicholas ; "A Child's Garden of Verses," Stevenson. 


"Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood," Pyle; "Lu:le 
Men," Alcott; "Little Women," Alcott; "Under the Lilacs," Al- 
cott; "Wonderful Adventures 'of Nils," Lagerloef ; "King Arthur 
and His Knights," Radford ; "Arabian Nights ;" "Tom Sawyer," 
Mark Twain ; "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," Carroll. 


"Robinson Crusoe," De Foe; "Swiss Family Robinson," 
Wyss ;"Anne of Green Gagles,"M^ontgomery ; "Reecbca of Sunny- 
brook Farm," Wiggin ; "Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come," 
Fox ; "Last of the Mohicans," Cooper ; "Boy's Life of Lincoln," 
Nicolay; "Story of My Life," Keller; "Ivanhoe," Scott; "David 
Copperfield," Dickens ; "John Halifax, Gentleman," Craik ; "Scot- 
tish Chiefs," Porter; "Life of Kit Carson," Abbott; "Book of 
Golden Deeds," Yonge ; "Old Fashioned Girl," Alcott; "Man 
Without a Country," Hale ; "Plutarch's Lives." 

We suggest the following books from our own writers as 
Christmas gifts: 

Book of Mormon ; "Musings and Memories," Emmeline B. 
Wells; "Mr. Durant of Salt Lake City, 'That Mormon'," Ben 
E. Rich ; "Added Upon," Nephi Anderson ; "Women of the 
Bible," Willard Done ; "History of the Prophet Joseph Smith," 
revised by Geo. A. Smith and Elias Smith ; "Joseph Smith as 
Scientist," Dr. John A. Widtsoe ; "Mother Stories of the Book 
of Mormon," Wm. A. Morton ; "John Stevens' Courtship ;" 
"Sketches of Missionary Life." E. F. Parry ; "From Kirtland to 
Salt Lake," Jas. A. Little; "Forty Years Among the Indians," 
Daniel W. Jones ; "Leaves from My Journal," President Wil- 
ford Woodruff; "Jacob Hamblin ;" "Fragments of Experience;" 


"President Heber C. Kimball's Journal;" "The Life of Nephi," 
Geo. Q. Cannon ; "The Myth of the Manuscript Found, or The 
Absurdities of the Spaulding Story," Geo. Reynolds ; "Helpful 
Visions." Thos. A. Shreeve ; "Lydia Knight's History," Susa 
Young Gates; "Heroines of Mormondom," Susa Young Gates; 
"Works of Josephus ;" "Devotees and their Shrines," Alice Mer- 
rill Home; "Book of Mormon Stories" (illustrated), 

As a choice reminder of family records : "L. D. S. Family 
and Individual Record," prepared by D. M. McAllister; "Gene- 
alogical Family and Individual Record," prepared by D. M. Mc- 


Work and Business. 

Second Week in February. 

Genealogy and Literature. 

Third Week in February. 

When the English people, as they had begun to call them- 
selves, after William the Conqueror's day, really decided to adopt 
surnames, some of them fell naturally into the habit of calling 
themselves by their trades, or professions, or offices. This would 
come natural, as : William the tailor would soon be William 
Taylor ; John the clerk would soon become John Clerk or Clark ; 
and Richard the gardner would soon become Richard Gardner. 

It may clarify this lesson if we say a little more about the 
Domesday Book and the census made by William the Conqueror, 
in 1086. William found it impossible to decide just who held 
deeds to certain properties, nor did he know how many men he 
had under him, nor how much property was in the kingdom. 
Partly to take a census, and partly to find out how much taxable 
property there was, and partly to fasten his yoke more securely 
upon the necks of the conquered Angles, Saxons and Danes, he 
sent heralds all through the kingdom, and these heralds wrote 
the results of their census, taken in a very fine hand and, in a 
very crowded manner, upon a medium-sized manuscript book, 
which was called The Domesday Book, and which is now in the 
f fall of Records, under a glass case in London. 


Baring-Gould says : "Commissioners were sent into the 
shires, who took evidence on oath from the sheriffs, the parish 
priests, the reeves, and the men generally, French and English 
alike, in every lordship. They were to report who had held the 
land in the time of Edward the Confessor, and who held it then ; 
also as to how many lived on it, what was their quality and what 
was the value of the soil, and whether there was any prospect 
of the value being raised. 

"The Chronicle says : 'He sent over all England, into every 
shire, his men to find out how many hundred hides were in the 
shire, and what the King himself had of land and cattle in the 
land. Also what rights he ought to have in the twelve months 
in the shire. Also he let enquire how much land his Archbishops 
had, and his Bishops, and his Abbots, and his Earls, and though 
T tell it at more length, what and how much every man had that 
was a land-holder in England, in land or in cattle, and how much 
fee it was worth. So very narrowly did he let the investigation 
be carried out, that there was not a single hide, nor a yard of 
land, not so much as — it is a shame to tell it, and he thought it 
no shame to do it — not an ox nor a cow, nor a swine, was left that 
was not set in his writ. And all the writs were brought to him.' 

"The taking of this inquisition roused great dissatisfaction 
that broke out in tumults, and some blood was shed. Hitherto 
the landholders, with a little shuffling and some bribing, had 
been able to assess their lands lower than their actual value. This 
would now be impossible, and they looked to the hard hand of 
the tax-gatherer coming down on them and remorselessly squeez- 
ing out the due for every acre, whether in cultivation or fallow. 
From Domesday we learn what were the several classes among 
the English who were now under the heel of the Norman. 

"The old Thegns, or land-holders, were no longer great men ; 
they had to bow their necks under the yoke, and see their land 
taken from them and their influence and authority gone. Some, 
luckily, remained on as tenants on the land where they had been 
freeholders, and in remembrance of the past still called them- 
selves Thegns, or Theins, and continued to be so called. Hence 
it comes that we have the surname of Thynne. 

"The Freemen, freeholders, held their land after the Con- 
quest no longer as freemen, but subject to military service, and 
were taxable. Their representatives later were the yeomen. They 
have contributed to our nomenclature the names Freeman and 
Free. Freebody signified a freeholder of a little wooden cot. 
Fry as a surname comes thence as well. 

"Radmen were socmen, possessed of a greater amount of 
freedom than_others. Hence the surname Redman. 

"Socmen, inferior landowners who held their lands in the 


soc, or franchise, of a great lord. Hence Suckerman, Suckman. 

"Franklyn was much the same as the Freeman." 

The surnames which grew out of the offices held by the 
village proprietors were: 

Bonder. The old Norse bonde was the man in highest posi- 
tion under the Earl. He was the freeholder, responsible to none 
save the Earl. 

Burs or Geburs were workmen giving a certain number of 
days' work in the fieb's, and a small money payment to the Lord 
of the Manor. 

Bordars, a poor but numerous class, tenants of land which, 
their lord kept expressly for the maintenance of his table, the 
rental being paid in kind. 

Cottars and Cottrels, also Cotmens, Coscets. The cottar 
could hold nothing of his own, nor acquire anything without the 
consent of his lord. The Cottrell was in no better position. 

Villeins were men in the servitude of the Lord of the Manor, 
who held the folkland, by which they supported themselves and 
their families. They stood somewhat higher than the serfs. They 
were also designated as knaves. The odium attaching to a class 
so low has stood in the way of the name passing into our family 
nomenclature, at all events in its Norman-French form. But it 
remains as Churl for Ceorl. *• * * * Carl signifies a man 
generally. Charles is rarely found as a Christian name in Eng- 
land before the time of Charles I. The surnames Charles, Char- 
It v. and Caroll, from the Latin form Carolus, remain with us — 
the last in the LTnited States. 

Serf, the poor wretch who owned nothing of his own but his 
wife and his children, is only recognizable in family names as 
Server, Sewer. Servant became Sergeant, and rose to be an 

Thrall was given the surname Thrale. 

Akerman occurs repeatedly in the Hundred Rolls, and seems 
to mean a plowman. (Aker-field, hence man of the field.) 

Man, in Latin, homo, occurs in almost every page of the 
Pomesday Survey, and included every kind of deutero tenant. 

Badger, properly a Bagger. "Up to the seventeenth century 
an ordinary term for one who had a special license to purchase 
com from farmers at the provincial markets and fairs, and then 
dispose of it again elsewhere, without the penalties of engross- 
ing." — fBardsley.") 

Barker, the man who barks for the tanner ; Barkis is "at the 

Bercher or Berger, a shepherd. A Norman-French name is 
little used, yet surviving as a surname. 

Bcemaster. Occurs in Domesday as Apium Custos. An 


important man before the introduction of sugar, as honey was 
employed not only for the making of honey-cakes, but also in the 
brewing of matheglin or hydromel, and the wax was needed for 
candles. We have the Beemaster contributing to nomenclature 
in Beamster and Honeyman, or simply as Honey. 

Beecher, a spademan ; from the Norman-French beche. 

Bolter, the bolter of flour, a servant of the miller. Surname 

Bullman, the bull-herdsman. Hence Pullman ; also in some 
cases Bu'ller. 

Carpenter, in country and town alike. In Domesday Car- 

Carter comes to us in many forms as a surname — e. g., Car- 
ter, Cartman. 

Cartwright, the maker of carts. 

Cramer or Creamer, a huckster ; hence Crammer. 

Driver, the driftman ; on moors the man employed to sweep 
together colts and horses and cattle and sheep sent out on the 
commons, to a centre where the owners may claim them, and 
such as have no rights to send their beasts on the commons are 

Farmer remains on the land, and has contributed to our no- 
menclature. Also Fermor. 

Farrer and Farrier, the man who shoes horses. Fearon is a 
smith ; also Ferrier. 

Fowler is a common surname, and explains its origin. This 
is sometimes contracted to Fowles and Fowle ; also Vowler. 

Hayman or Hayward was the village official whose duty it 
was to guard the cattle that grazed on the village common, that 
they did not trespass on the ground where was the grass grown 
for hay during the winter. Until hedges became common, the 
hayward had to keep a sharp lookout on the cattle committed to 
his charge. 

Husband, the man who cultivated the portion of soil which 
derived from him the name of husband-land, a measure known in 
the Merse and Lothian. Hence the surname Younghusband — 
i. e., (John) Young the Husband (land-holder). 

Sawyer, also Sagar and Sayer. 

Shepherd, spelled as a surname also Shepherd and Sheppard. 

Woodman, Woodreve, as a surname Woodrow, Woodward, 

Wright, either a wainwright or a wheelwright — the former 
synonymous with a Cartwright. 

In the castle there were many officials and after the Con- 
queror's time they were all of foreign blood. Below the upper line 
cf retainers there were villeins, boors, cotters, and churles. The 


official class was very large, and many surnames have come 
down to us from the titles of these foreign Norman office hold- 
ers. These were : 

Assayer, a taster, to assure the lord at table that the food 
and drink had not been poisoned. The names Saver, Savers, Saer. 
come hence. 

Bailiff, the same as reeve or steward. Bower and Bqwers, 
an indoor servant, attendant on the ladies. Also Bowerman and 

Chamberlain, one of the most intimate servants in a seig- 
neurial house. The surname from the office is sometimes short- 
ened to Chambers. 

Cook or Le Coq, a very important functionary. Tlis name en- 
ters into numerous combinations, as Babcock (Bartholomew le 
coq), Wilcox (Will le coq), Hancock (John le coq). The entry 
"Robert, fil, Coci" in the Hungred Rolls shows them some Cooks' 
sons were so designated whose fathers had no recognized sur- 
names. Also Kitchen and Kitchener. 

Esquire. The place of shield-bearer and attendant on a 
noble or knight was much sought after by the sons of men in 
good position as it was an admirable apprenticeship for war. 

Forester, a very important officer charged with the super- 
vision of the royal forests. From these officers, when the offices 
became hereditary, came the surnames of Forester, Forster, 

Gardener. The name is French. The surname often spelled 
Gardiner and Gardner, also Jardine. 

Gaoler, a French name, showing that no Englishman could 
be trusted by a Norman with the keys of the prison. The sur- 
names from the office are Gayler, Gale, and Jelly, perhaps. 

Granger, one who occupies the grange of the lord, secular or 
ecclesiastical, in which the corn "grain" was stored. 

Harper. Most large castles had in them a harper. Hart- 
man, the officer who looked after the harts in the chase. The 
surname from it may be Hardman, and sometimes only Hart. 

Hind, the man who looked after his master's affairs in the 
home-farm. Hence the surnames Hynde and Hyne. 

Huntsman. As Hunter, the name of the office remains a 
surname. Shortened also to Hunt. 

Knight, by no means invariably, means one who has re- 
ceived knighthood. A knight is a knecht, a servant. The sur- 
name Midnight, perhaps, means the "mead-knight, the man who 
poured out the mead. 

Jackman, a man-at-arms in a coat of mail, or jacket, and 
wearing jack-boots. 


Marshall, originally the horse-groom. He 'rose into consider- 
ation and became a regulator of ceremonies. 

Miller. The Mill belonged to the lord of the manor, and 
the tenants were not allowed to grind their corn at any other 
Hence Milner and Milward (Anglo-Saxon for a miller), Mill- 

Page; of this Paget is the diminutive. 

Parker, the official in charge of the deerpark. Hence Park- 
man, Parkes. 

Porter, the gatekeeper. The family of Porter of Saltash is 
one of hereditary gatekeepers of Trematon Castle. The English 
of Porter is Durward. 

Ranger, a keeper. 

Reve, from Gerefa. Woodkeepers, whence the surnames 
Woodward, Woodrow, and Woodruff. 

Rider. The Barons maintained German mercenaries as 
horsemen. These were the Reiter, or, as the English called them. 
Reuters. They soon, however, changed Reuter into Rider and 

Sewer is simply a server, a waiter. The "Boke of Servynge" 
says : "The server must serve, and from the borde convey all 
manner of pottages, metes, and sauces." As a surname it has be- 
come Sour and Shower. 


Who were the Celts? (See history). 

Describe again the Domesday Book and its purpose. (See 
any encyclopaedia). 

What value is this Book to genealogists? 

What surnames grew out of professions? 

How did officials in castles or manors get surnames ? 

Give a list of official surnames. 

What surnames are there in your class that are of this char- 


Third Meeting in February. 


Literature that lives is born alive. The writer must put his 
heart into his work, must feel what he says ; otherwise, though 
he "speak with the tongue of men and of angels," his words will 
be but "sounding brass and tinkling cymbal." 

A little story told of Bret Harte, the California writer, il- 
lustrates beautifully this point. It is said that one of his poems 
once found its way into a San Francisco paper. A certain lady 


was so charmed with it that she went to the writer and said en- 

"Why, Mr. llarte, that is the best thing you ever wrote; I 
actually cried when I read it." 

"That is not at all strange," replied he, — "not at all strange. 
I cried when I wrote it." 

Sincerity is the soul of literature. The author, stirred by an 
emotion, or burning with some message, expresses himself to 
share with others, his thoughts and feelings, or to relieve his own 
soul. If his words ring true, they thrill the hearts that hear or 
read them. 

This message may be given in the form of a sermon, or a 
song, or a story. Most of our literature grouped under 
these three general types. Different writers choose one or an- 
other of these ways of reaching their audiences. A striking 
illustration of this is found in the literary work of a certain 
American family. 

When the question of slavery was paramount in our nation, 
the people were naturally very much aroused. Among those who 
were ardent workers for the freedom of the slaves, were mem- 
bers of the Beecher family. From his famous pulpit in Brooklyn, 
Henry Ward Beecher was thundering his sermons against the 
evil ; while Harriet Beecher Stowe, his sister, was writing her 
famous story, Uncle Tom's Cabin ; and about the same time Julia 
Ward Howe, their cousin, created that greatest of civil war songs, 
"The Battle Hymn of the Republic," the last stanza of which 
reads as follows : 

"In the beauty of the lilies, Christ was born across the sea. 
With a glory in his bosom that transfigures you and me, — 
As he died to make men holy, let us die to make men free, 
While God is marching on." 

The same end was thus reached by three different literary 
paths: the sermon, the song, and the story. And these famous 
authors were splendidly successful because their words rang with 
sincerity. Indeed, some feel that in their earnestness, they were 
carried a little beyond the bounds of strict fairness, as is fre- 
quently the case when one grows over-zealous for any cause. 
But, ' nevertheless, literature, without fire, can hardly light the 
minds of men and stir them to action. 

The sermon and the story may both be written, either in 
form of verse or prose. The song, being more musical in effect, 
is written only in verse. This is not to say, however, that prose 
is necessarily unmusical. Prose has its rhythm as well as does 
verse. What then is the difference? Mainly this : The rythm. 
or musical movement, of verse is measured. It moves with 


regular cadence, having regularly accented syllables ; one can beat 
trme to it ; as, 

Life is real, life is earnest, 

And the grave is not its goal : 
Dust thou art, to dust returnest 

Was not spoken of the soul." 

— -Longfellow. 

Prose which is literature or which contains the elements of 
beauty on the other hand, has a freer rythm. Its movement is not 
regular ; but it is musical, just the same. Listen to any choice 
selection in prose ; listen to even the freest conversation, and ob- 
serve that words fall naturally into a kind of musical grouping. 
The rythm of prose is more like the music of the mountain stream. 
Now it leaps, now it eddies, now it babbles, now it flows quietly ; 
one can hardly guess what next it may do. The music of verse 
may be compared to that of the waves of lake or sea, breaking 
with rythmic cadence upon the shore. 

Prose, however, in its most eloquent forms, sometimes moves 
with almost the rythmic swing of verse. For illustration : 

"Union and liberty, now and forever, one and inseparable." 

— Webster. 

"Peace on earth, good will towards men." 

— St. Luke. 
"How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord, 
Is laid for your faith in his excellent word." 

— Kirkham. 

Have some good reader voice this touchingly beautiful letter 
also, and listen to the musical flow of its lines : 

Dear Madam: November 21, 186-1. 

I have been shown, in the files of the War Department, a 
statement from the Adjutant General of Massachusetts, that you 
are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field 
of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of 
mine which should attempt to beguile you from a loss so over- 
whelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the con- 
solation that may be found in the thanks of a Republic they died 
to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the 
anguish of your bereavement and leave you only the cherished 
memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that must be 
yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom. 
Yours very sincerely and respectfully, 

Abraham Lincoln. 
To Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Mass. 


Prose may be very formal or very free. Verse likewise may 
move with stately step, as in Milton's Paradise Lost, or it may 
be trippingly light as in a Mother Goose Rhyme. The nature of 
the verse or prose is always dependent on the kind of thought or 
emotion to be expressed. Writers try to make the language fori 
in which their thought is clothed fitting, true to the spirit of the 
message or picture of life they are trying to give. 

Most of the literature produced today comes in prose form. 
In earlier days, practically all of it was in verse. Prose, beh\g 
freer, expresses best the spirit of freedom of this age. The song, 
or lyric, of course, must always be written in verge. 

It is interesting to know and well to remember that there 
are three great types of verse : 1. The Classic, or rhymed verse, 
created by the Greek poets ; 2. The Biblical, or parallel verse, 
given to the world by the Hebrews ; 3. The Blank, or unrhymed 
verse, first produced by the English poets of the time of Queen 

Each of these types comes in a variety of forms ; but one 
can readily recognize to which type a poem belongs, by remem- 
bering the chief characteristic of the type. For example: The 
Classic type is written in rhymes ; as, 

"As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form 
Swells from the vale and midway leaves the storm. 
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head." 

From "The Deserted Village." — Goldsmith. 

Biblical verse does not rhyme, but the thought it expresses 
is repeated in other words in parallel lines : as, 

"Intreat me not to leave thee, 

And to return from following after thee ; 

Eor whither thou goest, I will go ; 

And where thou lodgest, I will lodge; 

Thy people shall be my people, 

And thy God niy God ; 

Where thou diest, will I die, 

And there will I be buried ; 

The Lord do so to me, 

And more also, 

If aught but death part thee and me." 

From "Ruth" 1 :16-17. 

Note that every other line might be omitted, ami still the full 
thought would be kept. This is the simplest form of P.iblical 


verse. Many variations from this simple form are made. The 
Bible contains a great many poems in parallel verse. We are not 
sc likely to recognize them, however, since in the King James 
translation these poems are not given in their literary form. But 
read the Psalms, or many of the Proverbs, and note their par- 
allel structure. It is comparatively easy to write them in verse 
form, as has been done with the little lyric given from Ruth. 

Blank Verse does not rhyme ; but it is regularly rhythmic ; 

"The quality of mercy is not strained ; 
It droppeth as the gentle dew from heaven 
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blessed ; 
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes." 

— From "Merchant of Venice"— Shakespeare. 

All of Shakespeare's plays are done in blank verse ; so is 
"Paradise Lost" by Milton; and Tennyson's "Idyls of the King," 
as well as the poems of many other writers. It is a stately kind 
of verse, well fitted to express great thoughts, as well as stirring 

Yet, as was said in the beginning, it is the life of the selec- 
tion that counts most, not the form. The soul is more than the 
body in literature as in life. 

In selecting books for the home, mothers should try to 
choose those that are alive, that are sincere, that have a pure soul. 
Only such literature gives a spiritual uplift. 


1. What do these words from the apostle mean to you? — 
"Though I speak with the tongue of men and of angels, and have 
not charity, I am as a sounding brass and tinkling cymbal." Apply 
this saying to the work of the author. 

2. What three different forms does the literary production 
generally take? 

3. Let each be prepared to give some quotation from the 
sermon type of literature. Use the Sermon on the Mount, or other 
sayings of the Savior, or give a choice proverb from the Bible, 
or some passage from the Book of Mormon or Doctrine and 
Covenants, or from the speeches from our leaders. The quota- 
tion should be only a line or two in length ; as, "Neither do I con- 
demn thee ; go and sin no more." 

4. Name some story in verse, in prose. ~~ 

5. What is the essential difference between verse and prose? 1 

6. Let each class member be prepared to give a choice quo- 
tation from some poem in rhymed verse ; as, 


"Tis always morning somewhere, and above 
The awakening continents, from shore to shore 
Somewhere the birds are singing ever moic."- -Longfellow. 

Students may use the hymn book, or any collection of poems 
tor this purpose. 

"God moves in a mysterious way, his wonders to perform; 
He. plants his footsteps in the sea, and rides upon the storm." 

7. Find, in one of the Psalms, or elsewhere in the Bible, 
two or more lines that illustrate parallel verse; as, 

"It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, 
And to sin- praises unto thv name, O Most High." 

—Psalm 92. 

8. From the plays of Shakespeare or from some other Eng- 
lish poet, give a brief example of unrhymed, or blank verse; as, 

"This above all : to thine ownself be true, 
\nd it must follow, as the night the day. 
Thou canst not then be false to any man." 

— -'From "Hamlet" — Shakespeare. 

9. What second guiding principle for parents in selecting 
literature for the home would you give? 


Home Economics 

Fourth Week in February. 


Perhaps a larger percentage of trouble in infants is due to 
improper nursing habits than from any other cause. It is diffi- 
cult to impress upon mothers the necessity of regularity in the 
feeding of their babies. If you will just stop to consider the fact 
that a baby's digestive apparatus requires rest just as much as 
does the adult it will help you to realize the necessity for correct 
habits of nursing. At least one-half of the cases of colic duri'lg 
the first three months of life, with restlessness at night and in 
manv cases imperfect development, are due to a failure upon the 


part of the mother to observe regular periods in the nursing of 
her baby. Doctors vary as to the proper interval.' The condition 
of the child should determine the interval that should be adopted. 
A baby that is undernourished at birth, that is deficient in its 
physical development, should be put upon the two hour interval. 
Very frequently, however, mothers through their over-anxiety 
for their babies will attempt to do too much for them so that the. 
mother is not always the best judge as to whether a child is poorly 
nourished or not. The normal child — and by normal I mean the 
child that everages seven and one-half pounds at birth, and makes 
a steady gain of from four to six ounces a week — should be put 
upon the three hour interval. If this is adopted as a rule mothers 
will save themselves lots of sleepless nights and save their babies 
a great deal of colic. The four hour interval is of value in case-" 
where there is excessive vomiting or where colic and green stooi? 
do not clear up on the three hour interval. Very frequently moth- 
ers tell me that they are regular in their nursing intervals, but 
upon close inquiry I find that they are guessing at the intervals. 
This should not be attempted. Nursing intervals should be reg- 
ulated by the clock. The rule for the normal infant is 6, 9, 12 a.m., 
3, 6, and 9 p. m. Prior to four months of age only one nursing at 
night. These nursing hours should be the same for every day — 
not 6 o'clock one morning and 7 o'clock the next. Tram the child 
early to form regular habits and he will soon awaken regularly 
at the nursing period and fall off to sleep again immediately after 
nursing. I cannot be too emphatic in impressing this point upon 
mothers. Many children are raised successfully on the irregular 
nursing periods, but that does not necessarily mean that tl.ey 
would not have done better if they had been on the regular 

The question often arises in the mind of the mother as to 
whether or not her baby is getting enough milk. There is only 
one way to determine this, and that is by the scales. Frequently 
a mother will call up a doctor with the complaint that her baby 
is not getting enough to eat. It is the doctor's place to insist on 
a careful observation of the baby's weight, taken immediately be- 
fore and after nursing for every nursing period through twenty- 
four hours. This gives us in ounces the total amount of milk 
that the baby obtains in that period. If the baby gets sufficient 
quantity the quality of the milk can be determined onlv by an 
observation of the daily gain in weight over a period of from one 
to two weeks. A normal gain of from four to six ounces per week 
is pretty conclusive that the quality of the milk is all right, other 
things being equal. The idea of sending the milk to the doctor for 
analysis is not reliable for the reason that no doctor is prepared 
to make a complete analysis of the milk. Only an expert chemist 
could accomplish that analysis. The fat content of the milk can 


be determined approximately by the doctor through a simple 
test, but to analyze the milk is out of the question, the scales being 
the only practical method of determining not only the quantity of 
milk the baby is receiving, but the quality of the milk. 

The mother's nipples should be cleansed at all times before 
the baby is allowed to nurse. This protects the child against the 
entrance into the mouth of any infection. The routine washing 
of the baby's mouth with boric acid solution is a practice that 
should be condemned for the reason that more or less of that 
solution enters the child's stomach and without doubt in time will 
produce digestive disturbances. Plain warm water is practically 
of as much value as the boric acid when used over long periods 
of time. 

The widespread use of the pacifier to quiet the baby should 
be condemned because of the danger of infection. It is prac- 
tically impossible to keep it clean. Germs accumulate around the 
base of the nacifier that are readily introduced into the mouth of 
the child. Dysentery, "the great captain of death" in infancy, is 
frequently due to this. In occasional cases the pacifier does have 
its uses, but the habit of using it with every baby is to be un- 
qualifiedly condemned. 

C. Weaning the Baby. 

The average child should be weaned from nine to twelve 
months of age. Mother's milk is deficient in some of the mineral 
salts, particularly iron. During the first year of the child's life 
there is enough of this iron stored up in the baby's tissues to sup- 
ply the demand of the body. This supply becomes depleted by the 
end of the first year, and if the baby is nursed beyond that time, 
although he mav be fat : the tissues will be flabby, and his devel- 
opment will be handicapped. The vitality is thus lowered and 
babv is more susceptible to all of the acute infections. Frequently 
mothers assume the responsibility of weaning the child prior to 
the nine months because of their fear that the baby is not getting 
enough from the breast. No mother should assume this respon- 
sibility. The conditions in which mother's milk is deficient as a 
food for the infant are so rare that they really need not be con- 
sidered. The mother's milk is the ideal food. We cannot pos- 
sibly duplicate it. and to deprive your baby of that food prior to 
the nine months is to interfere with his physical development. 
Usually the mother's diet can be modified to suit the needs of 
the developing infant. This should always be attempted under the 
direction of a competent physician before weaning is ever con- 
sidered. The baby should be weaned gradually. The, appearance 
of teeth is nature's signal for the introduction of other foods. 


Normally the first teeth appear at six months of age. If the 
mother begins to introduce a crust of dry bread at this time, 
with later on small amounts of the gruels well cooked, by the 
time the baby is nine or ten months of age weaning would be a 
very small matter. A very good plan is to accustom the child to 
take one bottle of modified milk daily, so that when the breast is 
withheld the child will take to the bottle without any trouble. 

What has been your experience in regulating the intervals of 
the baby's feedings? 

Discuss the advisability of eliminating the night feeding by 
the time the baby is three months old. 

How many mothers have made use of the scales in the raising 
of their babies ? 

What do you think about the pacifier? 

Does it influence in any way the development of the bones of 
the face? 

Have you in your experience found it difficult to keep the 
pacifier clean? 

Have you noticed the pallor and flabby condition of the babies 
that have been nursed beyond the first year? 

In a previous lesson we learned what the diet of the nursing 
mother should be. Bearing this in mind, how would you proceed 
to modify the breast milk through the mother's diet? 


C. L. McFaul. 

Have you gazed on naked grandeur, where there's nothing else 
to gaze on, 
Set pieces and drop curtain scenes galore, 
Big mountains, heaved to heaven, which the blinding sunsets 
Black canyons where the rapids rip and roar? 

Have you seen God in his splendors, heard the tetx that nature 
You'll never hear it from the family pew, 
The simple things, the true things, the silent men who do things. 
Then listen to the Wset, it's calling you. 

— Robert W. Service. 



We are delighted to give place to the following clear and 
exact statement by Dr. E. G. Peterson, President of the Agri- 
cultural College of Utah, as it outlines our views and defines 
our own position, with clearness and precision. We heartily 
agree with Dr. Peterson in the following open letter which he 
has written : 

"It is the policy of the college to avoid forming organiza- 
tions of women for the study of home economics wherever exist 
ing organizations are prepared to go ahead with the work. For 
that reason it is not recommended by the college that the women 
form home economic associations if, in the opinion of the women 
and their leaders, the Relief Society home economics section, 
meeting once each month, will be sufficient to do the work. It 
is my opinion that as far as possible extra organizations should 
be avoided. 

"At the same time there are many communities where home 
economics associations, separate and distinct, will probably be 
necessary. This is a question for the women to decide among 
themselves. It is strongly urged, however, that anything in the 
nature of competitive organizations be avoided. Two organi/a 
tions with the same purpose in view in the same locality should 
be avoided. It is strongly suggested that by all means the work 
should be united. 

"The college looks upon the education of women in home 
economics as one of the greatest educational opportunities of our 
day. There is more wastage of life and labor and wealth due to 
lack of understanding of the home and of the family than from 
any other cause. 

"I am told that in America every year 400,000 babies and 
young children die, and that 200,000 of these deaths are prevent 
able. What an opportunity for enlightened motherhood. What 
a privilege it is to teach these things of modern science and art, 
that means so much to the human race. Utah women, already 
known for their devotion and their high idealism, have an op- 
portunity to develop this great science and art as it is develop* I 
nowhere else. 

"All Relief Society workers will be interested in the new 
course in 'mothercraft' being given at the Agricultural College jot 
Utah, for the first time by any educational institution in Amer- 
ica. In these courses the girls are definitely trained for the re- 
sponsibilities of motherhood by caring for children a- a part of 
their work. Many letters of inquiry and congratulation from all 
parts of the country indicate among other things, the unusual 
interest in this subject. The niothercraft' work is part of the 
course in home economics, and promises to become one of the 
most poptdar fields in our education." 


Hazel Washburn. 

What is so sad as the "might have been?" 
Fruit of our vanity, folly, and sin, 
Heartache and care we might never have known 
But for the seed that our hands have sown. 
Seeds we have sown at such infinite cost, 
Now yearning and pining for "Paradise Lost." 

Oft in the stillness and quiet of night, 
Sweet angel faces, so happy and bright, 
Come to my bedside and whisper to me, 
"We are the children who were to be." 
Fame, wealth, or pleasure, our once empty boast, 
Where are your glories to "Paradise Lost?" 

Ye who have babes that have lived and died, 
What is your heartache and suff'ring beside 
The woe of one who has wasted her life, 
Holding alone to the title of "wife," 
Refusing that gift — -surpassed by no other — 
God's holiest gift — the crown of a mother? 

Your beautiful babies will greet you once more 
With pleasure untold, at Eternity's door, 
But can Time or Eternity ever return 
Opportunities lost, hated and spurned? 
Shipwrecked sailor, windswept and tossed, 
Where is thy salvage for "Paradise Lost?" 


Relief Society Magazine 


If you don't get your name in early you may fail to receive 
the first numbers, as happened last year when our supply was 
exhausted. Be prompt, and your reward is sure. 


will contain: 

POEMS AND SHORT STORIES by Lula Greene Richards, Hazel 
Washburn, Lucy Burnham, Annie D. Palmer, Maud Baggar- 
ley, Lucy Wright Snow, Lucy May Greene, Ruth Moench Bell, 
Elsie C. Carroll, Ida S. Peay, Diana Parrish, Laura M. Jenkins, 
Edna Coray, and others. 
There will be the usual valuable departments, and the Guide Les- 
sons will be better and more useful than ever before. 




S CEREAL FOOD Cffi&fffi 

"Contains the Strength 
of the Hills" 

One Dish Invites 

Sunripe Rolled Oats are so 
good — so different. The large 
creamy flakes have a flavor 
that tempts the daintiest ap- 


is a concentrated food. Each 
oat is matured and contains 
the highest nutritive value. 
Builds and strengthens the 
body and mind. You'll like 
"Sunripe" — it's better. 

Sunripe Koffee-et is a re- 
freshing grain drink. A fa- 
vorite of both old and young. 

Utah Cereal Food Co. 


"Vlth'i M*3t fl/ll«r 



This fine 



brand-new, lat- 
est model, with 
20 fine selec- 
tions, delivered 
to your home 
on fi v e-d ays' 
No C. 0. D. No 
Money Down. 

Daynes-Beebe Music Co., Salt Lake. 

Please send me particulars of your 
FREE TRIAL OFFER mentioned in 
the Relief Society Magazine. 



J w-so~i>^ »«•■ *S rsrAtlllHID 1960 J 


English and American 


Is in Mrs. Home's Art Book, "Dev- 
otees and Their Shrines." Send to 
this office or to Mrs. Alice Merrill 
Home, 4 Ostlers Court, Salt Lake City, 
for this hook from which the lessons 
on Architecture for 1916 are assigned. 

Price $1.25 Postpaid 

Z. C. M. I. 

School Shoes 

For Boys 

Are made for service — 
they will keep the boys' 
feet warm and dry. 

Z. C. M. I. 


are the ideal 
play garment 
for boys and 
girls. Cheap, 

Travel MoretLocally 

F" 33 — \ 

#ZittleCost % 

# ws: % 

f Ore gon Shor t Line 

# half fare sundays- % 

# slightly more % 

# satitrdays^monhays. % 

M <Ask yoxtrJtgeni for Derails % 

mmwmmmmwmmmmim ^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiii 


Mothers, educate your daughters — and sons — to become invaluable 
assets to the State and to the Nation. 

Girls, prepare yourselves for ideal wives and mothers, by securing 
an education in Housekeeping and Home-making at The Agricultural 
College of the State of Utah. 

Bead Neck Chains 75c to $300. 

Come in and look at them. If you live out of town write about 
them. We show them in Imitation Pearls, Real Pearl, Jet, Amber, 
Coral and Gold. Bead Chains are always appropriate, always 
in good taste. 

McCONAHAY the Jeweler 

64 Main Street, Salt Lake City 







Special Excursions 

December 20, 23, 29. Other Round Trips on Sale Daily 

No Smoke — No Dust — No Cinders 

For information enquire 


District Passenger Agent 

203 Walker Bank Building 

Phone Was. 6610 










Francis Marion Lyman 

Heber J. Grant 
Alice Louise Reynolds 

President Emmeline B. Wells, 
Our Lovely Human Heritage 

Susa Young Gates 

The Relief Society in its Attitude 
to Dress and Social Customs 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church 

of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Room 29, Bishop's Bldg.,Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year — Single Copy 10c 



"Bring Your 
Own Sugar" 

Sugar is a food, the import- 
ance of which you would appre- 
ciate more if you tried to get 
along without it a week. 

A postscript on invitations re- 
cently sent out by a London 
Society Lady for a tea, request- 
ed that the guests bring their 
own sugar. 

While we are feeling sorry 
that there's such a sugar scarc- 
ity in Europe, let's be glad 
there's an abundance of pure, 
white, sparkling Utah-Idaho 
Sugar to be enjoyed here. 

Utah Idaho Sugar 



JOSEPH F. SMITH. Pumioimt 
THOI. R. CUTLER. Vicb-Phm. »mo tin Man. 


Family Record of Temple Work for 
the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instructions for properly re- 
cording this work. 

L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in ■ 
most desirable and concise form, im- 
portant events in the lives of the mem- 
hers of the Church. These books are 
sold at $1.25 each. 

Deseret News Book Store 


When WE Make Your Por- 
traits, YOU get the Correct 
Style, Excellence and 

The Thomas 

Phone Was. 3491 4 T MainSt. 

Established 1677 

Phone Was. 1370 



35 P. O. PLACE 


Have You Read The Women of The Bible, SlKdone If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

For Sale 

tj Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Ortned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


FEBRUARY, 1917. 

Things Worth While Jessie Sundwall 61 


Francis Marion Lyman. President Heber J. Grant 63 

Francis Marion Lyman Alice Louise Reynolds 65 

Birth Control 68 

Our Lovely Human Heritage. . .President Emmeline B.Wells 74 

Mothers in Israel Mary A. S. Winters 77 

An Incident of Faith 83 

Washington's Vision 84 

February Entertainment Morag 88 

Too Busy Mrs. Parley Nelson 90 

Notes from the Field Amy Brown Lyman 91 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 97 

Memories Marie Jensen 98 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 99 

Editorial : The Relief Society in Its Attitude to Dress and 

and Social Customs 101 

Guide Lessons 104 


Patronize those who advertise with us.. 

BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE CO.; Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 45 Main St., Salt Lake City. 


Temple Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Lake City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City, 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City. 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 

f >i 

Save a 

Little This Year 

Every mother should teach 
her children, not merely by 
precept, but by example, the 
importance of 6aving part of 
their income. 

One dollar at the Merchants 
Bank is all that is necessary to 
open a savings account. That 
dollar may be saved in one of 
the dime banks we are giving 
to the children. The first dime 
should be brought to this bank 
— we deposit its equivalent in 
the bank we give you. We add 
4 per cent interest as earned. 

"The Bank with a Personality" 

Merchant's Bank 

Capital $250,000. Member of 

Salt Lake Clearing: House. 

John Pingree, Preat.; O. P. 

Soule, V. P.; Moroni Helner, 

V. P.; Radcliffe Q. Cannon. L. 

J. Hays, Asst. Cashiers. 

Cor. Main and Third South, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 




Paper Binding 25c Postpaid 

Deseret Sunday School Union Book Store 

44 East on South Timplh 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 



Mrs. Emma J. Sanders 

278 South Main Street 
Schramm -J oknton No. 5 

Phone Wasatch 2815 
Salt Lake City. - Utah 


The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by the payment of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


Beneficial Life Insurance Company 
Relief Society Department 




of this Bank at all 
times to render help- 
ful service and make 
the handling of your 
banking business sat- 
isfactory and pleasant. 


Your Account is Cordially Invited 
Joseph F. Smith, Pres. 

Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Embalmers 

Successors to 

Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the West 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Efficient Service, Modern Methods 

Complete Equipment 

Fuirview, Utah. 


Why are you sad, my friend, today ? 

Cheer up, the world is bright, 
And life is full of pleasant things, 

If you look at it right. 
The Lord is watching over you, 

His prophet points the way. 
Get in and nobly do your part, 

Too soon will pass the day. 

Reach out a helping hand to one 

Less fortunate than you; 
And get the joy that follows, 

If a kindly act you do. 
There's nothing gained in brooding, dear ; 

Of self have not a thought, 
You may not think you're gaining much 

Until the battle's fought. 

But if you make a sacrifice 

That seems so hard to do, 
Forget not that the Savior gave 

His very life for you. 
And when you see a look of love 

In someone's tear-filled eyes, 
You'll then be glad, and you will feel 

The power that in you lies. 

And oh, be full of sympathy 

For those who are in need. 
It fills the heart brim full of joy 

The hungry poor to feed. 
And if you never fail to pray, 

Dark clouds will pass you by. 
Love and cheer will fill your heart 

And bright will be the sky. 

This life is full of joy and love; 

And if you wish to find 
The way to peace and happiness, 

Be generous and kind. 
Have charity and sympathy, 

And always wear a smile, 
And then I'm sure you'll say with me, 

"These things are all worth while." 

Jessie Sundwall, 

> u 


— *> 

< - 


•J g 

- c 


J3 O 






Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. FEBRUARY, 1917. No. 2. 

Francis Marion Lyman. 

A Tribute from President Heber J. Grant. 

Francis M. Lyman, in my opinion, was the' greatest individual 
reformer of men of any of the leading officials of the Church 
with whom I have ever been acquainted. He was a natural-born 
teacher. There have been and are hundreds of men in the Church 
who started on the downward road, around whom, figura- 
tively speaking, he put his arm, and, lifting them out of the broad 
way into the straight and narrow path, planted their feet firmly 
in the way which leads to life eternal. Many men who subse- 
quently became prominent among leading stake officials, were on 
the high road to destruction, and owe their reformation and suc- 
cess in life, after all signs pointed to failure, to the wonderfully 
inspiring and reforming ability of Francis M. Lyman. He had a 
capacity to give himself to those who were in need, a service which 
far exceeds the giving of money. 

I learned as a young man presiding over the Tooele stake 
that his very presence was an inspiration and an encouragement. 
More than once when the labors of the Stake President seemed 
difficult because of my youth and lack of experience, and had 
almost discouraged me, I would ask Brother Lyman on such 
occasions to remain in Tooele for a week or two at a time and 
visit the various wards with me. I did not tell him that I was 
somewhat disheartened, but after two or three weeks' visit to the 
different wards, and riding day after day with him, I gathered 
new strength and determination to press on in my labors as well 
as gaining an added love of my work. I never knew a man who 
seemed more to love to work without ceasing in the Church than 
did Francis M. Lyman. 

I will relate an incident told by President Frank Y. Taylor: 

"I had with me, on one of my missionary trips, a young man 
who stated that he owed his manhood and spiritual life to Presi- 



dent Francis M. Lyman. He said : 'When a boy I was rough, 
and did nearly everything wrong that a boy could do, and had 
no desire to do right. Francis M. Lyman came to our settle- 
ment, hunted me up, put his arm around me, and did all he could 
to encourage me to lead a better life. I refused, on his first ap- 
peal, and on many subsequent appeals. He visited our settlement 
during his trips to southern Utah, and I think every time he 
cjme, he hunted me up and poured into my soul the oil of glad- 
ness. For twenty long years he did this, and finally won my 
heart. I turned over a new leaf, resolved to do that which was 
right, was called on a mission, and performed it honorably, all 
due to the kind and persistent efforts of President Lyman. All 
that I am in character and in spiritual life, I owe to that man ; 
and I think so much of him for his faith and kindness and good- 
ness to me, that I would go through fire for him or even give 
my life for him if needed.' " 

An influential citizen in one of the stakes of Zion, had made 
a wreck of his life through drink. Brother Lyman reformed him. 
and he subsequently became president of the stake and he fre- 
quently stated to me that he would give his life for President 

Such then was and is the character and spirit of President 
Francis M. Lyman ! 

Upper row: Levi Edgar Young. Joseph J. Cannon. 
Front row: John C. Lyman, President Francis M. Lyman, WillarH 


Francis Marion Lyman. 

An Appreciation by Alice Louise Reynolds. 

For many years I have lived in the home of one of Francis 
M. Lyman's relatives. I have met many members of the family, 
particularly from the south of the state. As often as I have met 
them I have heard them say, "Uncle Marion says this or thinks 
that" about a given matter. I often wondered how in his busy 
life he could come to know their affairs so intimately; but early 
concluded that God had made him a mighty counselor in Israel. 

I was sixteen years of age when I first met President Francis 
M. Lyman. He looked down at me over his glasses in his kindly, 
never-to-be-forgotten manner and said some things both appre- 
ciative and directive to me, every word of which I remember even 
to this hour. After that first meeting no matter what the circum- 
stances, President Lyman always had time to say something to 
me ; and nearly always had time to say something genuinely help- 
ful. I fancied that because of very intimate association with 
members of his family that I was especially favored. I have 
never relinquished the thought that I was especially favored, only 
I have grown to know that I was but one of a very large class, 
and that there were tens of thousands of other persons in that 
favored group. This certainly is a quality that set him apart 
from most other men, for it is nothing short of marvelous that 
any one person could come in contact with such a host of people 
in the kindly sympathetic and intimate way that Francis M. Ly- 
man did. 

To him surely will come that reward promised to those who 
seek above all else to save the souls of men, for he did strive 
with all his might early and late for the salvation of mankind. 
Whatever the offense committed, whether of major or minor char- 
acter, he would be found nestling close to the offender seeking 
to have him see the error of his way. Face to face with one who 
was walking in by ways and crooked paths he did not palliate the 
offense but sought to have the offender realize the gravity of it ; 
nevertheless he did not leave the offender dismayed, but hopeful 
and encouraged. Face to face President Lyman made his cor- 
rections. It was his wont to correct in private, not in public. 

President Lyman did everything in his power to encourage 
people in well doing; everything to let them know their good 
deeds were not unnoted. He once said to a young man of my 
acquaintance, "I hear you have a well ordered home and I am 
glad to hear it." "How did you hear it?" asked the young man 


in astonishment. "I heard it," replied President Lyman, "from a 
mutual friend : a nurse in my family who has done service in your 

Duty was once the watchword of society. Francis M. Lyman 
was of that school. It is part of his life's history that during the 
thirty-seven years that he was a member of the Council of 
Twelve, he never missed his quorum meeting', if he could reach 
the place of meeting in a "lay's travel. 

The one exception to this rule, so far as is known, was the 
Thursday before his death occurred. Just as he was leaving his 
office to go home for the last time, Harold G. Reynolds met him 
with the remark: "I am glad to meet you. Brother Lyman, I 
have some missionaries in the Seventies office to be set apart." 
He replied : "I have never before refused to set missionaries 
apart, but I feel very ill and I must go home and go to bed." 
This was two days before his demise. 

His devotion to his family was one of his marked character 
istics. I have often noted with what tenderness he would em- 
brace and kiss his daughters. His genial nature is very largely 
reflected in his children, for as a ride they are most cheerfid in 
their natures. 

The kindliest humor possible pervaded President Lyman's 
conversation in his home and in his general association with peo- 
ple. It relieved tension and serious and embarrassing situations. 
Tt was not two-edged but kindly. Tt is said that the American 
appreciates the humor in Mark Twain, and that the German ap- 
preciates the philosophy lurking there. There was much of 
philosophy in Brother Lyman's humor. A story in point was 
*old me by a member of his family. 

At one time one of his sons went to him considerably 
wrought up. Somewhat excited he said, "Father, if I had your 
influence, if I had your position in the Church, I would do so and 
so, and so and so, and I would do it quickly and with force, I can 
t?l! you." Putting his hand quietly upon the young man's knee, 
his father said, "My son, I am very much afraid, indeed, that if 
you had my influence you would not keep it long." 

President Lyman appreciated the good works of all people 
no matter who they might be, nor from whence they might come. 
His interest was in the achievement, in the main, not in the person 
who had accomplished the task. As he associated with people he 
gained his own impressions of the worth of men and women, 
and of their lack of worth. After a conviction had come home 
to him on a subject, or in relation to people, other persons were 
usually without influence either to change or modify that con- 

Especially impressive to me have been President Lyman's 


sermons on the Sacrament and at funeral services. It was the 
practice of his life to partake of the Sacrament each Sabbath day. 
I doubt if many persons can be found anywhere who have 
preached as many funeral sermons as did he. It was the way in 
which he spoke of death that appealed to me. "Death," he would 
frequently say, "is just as natural as birth." We mourn at the 
departure of our loved ones and call it death ; ,but doubtless there 
is rejoicing behind" the veil, such rejoicing as we feel at a birth. 

I began this article by telling of the host of persons who have 
felt President Lyman's personal influence in their lives, and of 
his desire that all men should be righteous and do the works of 
lighteousness. I shall conclude by calling to your mind such 
matter as combines both characteristics. For years I have seen 
missionaries go to him anywhere, everywhere and report that they 
were keeping the faith. One nearby might hear them say, "You 
know, President Lyman, you told us, while in the mission field, to 
come and report to you whenever we see you." Then one would 
see him look straight into their eyes and catechise them in relation 
to their lives. 

A missionary from Great Britain told me this story with the 
utmost feeling. A man came into the Liverpool office who was 
unknown to the other elders. He sat there for a number of hours 
looking very lonely. Finally President Lyman came in. The 
elder approached him saying, "My name is Anderson. I come 
from Grantsville." "What," said President Lyman, "my old 
friend Anderson of Grantsville who did so much good work 
among the Indians?" "Yes,''' said the elder. President Lyman 
put his arms around the man and hugged him hard, and the man's 
heart overflowed and he wept. What a father in Israel he was, 
only the intimate thousands who loved him for just such help may 
testify! He has gone to his reward — how great it will be! 


The passing of President Francis M. Lyman brings to the 
Presidency of the Quorum of the Twelve no less an inspirer of 
youth, a lover of men, and an apostle of purity and probity of 
character. President Heber J. Grant now enters upon a more 
extended mission of usefulness. His ringing testimonies, his de- 
termined conquest of self, his mastery of business principles, will 
contribute to his successful leadership and ministry. This Church 
has much that commands the thoughtful consideration of the 
world ; in nothing is the Church so rich as in the pure and noble 
character and strong and practical abilities of its leading men. 
We welcome the administration of President Heber J. Grant. 

Birth Control 

The articles on birth control printed in the July and August 
numbers of the Relief Society Magazine have attracted national 
attention to our Society and to the Magazine. So widely 
distributed has been the interest and the inquiries concerning this 
article that the editor felt it imperative to inquire of the First 
Presidency of the Church if they approved in full of the state- 
ments made by the members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apos- 
tles, and especially Elder Joseph F. Smith, Jr., who treated the 
matter authoritatively, and if all said was in harmony with the 
views of the First Presidency. We are pleased to present the 
following answer from them : 

Office of the First Presidency of 

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
Salt Lake City, Utah, December 13, 1916. 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates, 

Editor Relief Society Magazine, 


Dear Sister: The July and August numbers of the Re- 
lief Society Magazine contained brief articles by some of the 
promiment elders of the Church on the subject of birth control, 
and in view of the importance of the subject and the attention it 
is receiving throughout the nation, you desire an expression from 
us in writing in regard to the attitude taken by the writers thereof, 
together with the soundness of the doctrine contained therein, 
with special reference to the article by Elder Joseph F. Smith, Jr. 
We give our unqualified endorsement to these articles, in- 
cluding that of Elder Joseph F. Smith, Jr.. and commend the senti- 
ments contained therein to members and non-members of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints everywhere. 

Your Brethern. 

(Signed) Joseph F. Smith, 
Antiion H. Lund, W. Penrose, 

First Presidency. 

Officers, members of the Relief Society, herein you have the 
word of the Lord, on this subject. Can anything be clearer or 
more emphatic? Tt is a very strange thing that people can believe 


that the Lord of Life could countenance for one moment, the re- 
fusal of his children to comply with the first commandment given 
to Adam and Eve. It is so easy to avoid parenthood, if people 
wish to do so, and that, too, innocently, even if selfishly. Men 
and women can remain unmarried. That is all there is to it. 
It may be interesting to our readers to peruse some of the 
comments made upon these articles by the contemporary press. 
Here follows the article given in the Journal of Heredity: 


"Antagonism of the Roman Catholic Church toward the 'birth 
control' movement is well known. This antagonism is based on theo- 
logical grounds, but it has frequently been pointed out that the result, 
whether the church has the fact in mind or not, will be to give the 
church a slowly increasing preponderance in numbers, in any com- 
munity where the population is made up in part of Catholics and in 
part of Protestants. 

"The Church of Latter-day Saints of Jesus Christ, popularly known 
as the 'Mormon' Church, has taken a similarly antagonistic stand on 
birth control. Theological objections are raised against it; but in 
this case what may be called the eugenic aspect, the problem of alter- 
ing the relative proportions of different classes in a population, is 
clearly seen and acknowledged. 

"In the July issue of the Relief Society Magazine, an official publi- 
cation issued at Salt Lake City, five of the twelve elders who make 
up the supreme council of the organization state their views on birth 
control. Elder Rudger Clawson says that it is sinful to restrict the 
number of children in a family, continuing: 

" 'Woman is so constituted that, ordinarily, she is capable of bear- 
ing, during the years of her greatest strength and physical vigor, from 
eight to ten children, and in exceptional cases a larger number than 
that. The law of her nature so ordered it, and God's command, while 
it did not specify the exact number of children alloted to woman, 
simply implied that she should exercise the sacred power of pro- 
creation to its utmost limit.' 

"Elder George F. Richards writes: 'My wife has borne to me 
fifteen children. Anything short of this would have been less than 
her duty and privilege.' 

"The eugenic view of the subject is most clearly seen by elder 
Joseph F. Smith., Jr., who points out: 

" 'The first great commandment given both to man and beast by 
the Creator was to be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth; 
and I have not learned that this commandment was ever repealed. 
Those who attempt to pervert the ways of the Lord, and to prevent 
their offspring from coming into the world in obedience to this great 
command, are guilty of one of the most heinous crimes in the 
category. There is no promise of eternal salvation and exaltation for 
such as they, for by their acts they prove their unworthiness for exal- 
tation and unfitness for a kingdom where the crowning glory is the 
continuation of the family union and eternal increase which have been 
promised to all those who obey the law of the Lord. It is just as much 
n.urder to destroy life before as it is after birth, although man-made 


laws may not so consider it; but there is One who does take notice, 
and His justice and judgment is sure. 

" 'I feel only the greatest contempt for those who, because of a 
little worldly learning or a feeling of their own superiority over others, 
advocate and endeavor to control the so-called "lower classes" from 
what they are pleased to call "indiscriminate breeding." 

" 'The old Colonial stock that one or two centuries ago laid 
the foundation of our great nation, is rapidly being replaced by an- 
other people, due to the practice of this erroneous doctrine of 'small 
families.' According to statistics gathered by a leading magazine 
published in New York, a year or two ago, the average number of 
children to a family among the descendants of the old American 
• stock in the New England States, is only two and a fraction.' 

"It is unquestionable that the number of births has been much 
limited in the economically most efficient sections of the population 
of the United States, and very little limited in the least efficient sec- 

"It is also unquestionable that the spread of the birth control 
propoganda in the 'lower classes' is at the present time very, very 
rapid. Whether or not one approve of that spread, it is certain that 
the birth-rate of those classes is likely to fall, thus checking the very 
serious differential nature of the present birth-rate. 

"If, at the same time, eugenics can succeed to some extent in in- 
creasing the birth-rate among the socially most valuable sections of 
the community, then the present demonstrable deterioration of the 
American stock, as a whole, will gradually become less menacing." 

The Literary Digest also commented at some length on the 
articles. Not long since the editor of this Magazine received a 
Letter from the Medical Journal of New York asking for copies 
of our Magazine. Very recently the following letter from the 
Birth Control Review came to this office : 


Margaret Sanger, Editor; Frederick A. Blossom, Managing Editor; 
Elizabeth Stuyvesant, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Dedicated to the principle of intelligent and voluntary motherhood. 

December 2, 1916. 
The Relief Society Magazine, 
Salt Lake City, Utah, 
Please send me the copy of your magazine for July, 1916, which 
opposes Birth Control and what other material you have on the 

We respect an honest expression of conviction and want to know 
your attitude. Any courtesy you may show us will be appreciated . 

Sincerely yours, 

The Birth Control Review, 
By Frank V. Anderson, 

Assistant Editor. 

We add here some passages taken from that quaint, old, re- 
cently discovered Book of lasher, and you will see from this that 


the crime of race-suicide, or, as the milder term now has it, birth 
control, was one of the contributing causes of the flood which 
swept over the earth in the days of Noah. It is easy to under- 
stand how people who do not believe in life before they came to 
this earth, and in life after death — it is easy to understand how 
such people can justify themselves in prevention of offspring, but 
it is incomprehensible that anyone should assume to be a Christian 
and make of marriage a mockery in this modern fashion. 

Chapter 2, Pages 3, 4 and 5. 

3. And it was in the days of Enosh (or Enoch) that the 
sons of men continued to rebel and transgress against God, to 
increase the anger of the Lord against the sons of men. 

4. And the sons of men went and they served other gods, 
and they forgot the Lord who had created them in the earth : and 
in those days the sons of men made images of brass and iron, 
wood and stone, and they bowed down and served them. 

9. And it was when men continued to rebel and transgress 
against God, and to corrupt their ways, that the earth also became 

17. And Lamech, the son of Methusael, became related to 
Cninan by marriage, and he took his two daughters for his wives, 
and Adah conceived and bare a son to Lamech, and she called 
his name Jabel. 

18. And she again conceived and bare a son, and called his 
name Jubal; and Zillah, her sister, was barren in those days and 
had no offspring. 

19. For in those days the sons of men began to trespass 
against God, and to transgress the commandments which he had 
commanded to Adam, to be fruitful and multiply in the earth. 

20. And some of the sons of men would render them 
barren, in order that they might retain their figures and whereby 
their beautiful appearance might not fade. 

21. And when the sons of men caused some of their wives 
to drink, Zillah drank with them. 

And the child-bearing women appeared abominable in 

the sight of their husbands, as widows, whilst their husbands 

lived, for to the barren ones only they were attached. 

* * * *'* * * * * 

And Noah found grace in the sight of the Lord, and the 
Lord chose him and his children to raise up seed from them 
upon the face of the whole earth. 

Sisters, readers, members of the Relief Society, every 
where be warned, watch your conversation, guard your lips, and 


see that you do not permit our young people to be infected with 
this dreadful marital heresy through your careless words or 
thoughtless agreement with this modern evil. 

We are happy to close this article with a clear exposition of 
the case by F.i i>i:r George Albert Smith, of the Council of the 
Twelve : 

"Multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it" was the 
first great commandment. Since which time the prophets of the 
Lord have spoken in commendation of the large family. From 
the beginning until now the women who willingly became the 
mothers of legitimate children have been respected and honored 
bv good men. 

Children are an heritage from the Lord, and those who re- 
fuse the responsibility of bringing them into the world] and 
caring for them are usually prompted ,by selfish motives, and the 
result is that they suffer the penalty of selfishness throughout 
erernity. There is no excuse for members of our Church adopt- 
ing the custom of the world to either limit the size of the family 
<>r have none at all. We have been better taught than they. The 
desire to gain an exaltation in the Celestial Kingdom should 
prompt us to take advantpge of every o- <-v, and one op- 

portunity for happiness, there, is the as .ociation with the chil- 
dren the Lord offers us to be our eternal companions. 

The small families in New England have made it to some 
extent the home of the alien. The devil deceived many excellent 
people, causing them to believe they would be happier without 
children or with only one or two. This resulted in the gradual 
dwindling of many families until names that were held in honor a 
century ago now have no living representative. Their talent has 
been buried. How will they feel when they arise in the morning 
of the resurrection and learn that they violated the law of the 
Lord and yielded to the temptation of the evil one and closed the 
door to eternal happiness? They may plead that they knew no 
better. But what will be the condition of the Latter-day Saints, 
for we have been taught the truth? When we refuse to assume 
the responsibility of parenthood it is with the knowledge that we 
are displeasing our Creator. What is more beautiful in life than 
a home in which father and mother are surrounded by a large 
family of children and grandchildren! Compare it with the wil- 
fully childless home. One typifies the eternal spring time of life, 
the other the eternal winter of death. One of the tricks of the 
adversary is to suggest that the fewer children in the home the 
better the chances for education, etc., and the contribution to 
society will be more worthy. If the parents had the choosing 
of the intellects coming into their homes they might successfully 


discard the weaklings, but they haven't. If they reduce the num- 
ber born to them by prevention of conception, etc., they may de- 
prive themselves of the honor and eternal happiness of bringing 
into the world a genius that will add lustre to their names 
throughout eternity. Many of the world's greatest characters 
were born in large families. The small family tends to selfish- 
ness, the large family to generosity. One child or two are likely 
to be pampered and spoiled, but where there are a number of 
children, each learns to divide with the others the favors be- 
stowed upon him, each learns to serve part of the time instead 
of always expecting to be waited upon. Each learns the rights of 
the other and that those rights must be considered. 

The gospel teaches that our happiness depends largely upon 
cur posterity which, being true, should inspire us to desire a 
large and honorable family of children who by reason of being 
properly born will be heirs of the choicest blessings of the Lord. 

When we go from this sphere of existence we .will not take 
any of the wealth of this world that we have been stewards over. 
It is only loaned to us for our development. But the children 
born to us under the new and everlasting covenant are ours for 
eternity, and no one can take them from us. They are a gift of 
a loving heavenly Father to us, and our happiness here and here- 
after will be greatly enhanced by their companionship and love. 

Let the Latter-day Saints understand this and not exchange 
this eternal blessing for the folly and fashion of the world. 

(Signed) George Albert Smith. 

By Christopher Morley. 

We have so many Congressmen 
Whose ways are dark and shady — 

How joyfully we welcome then 
The coming Congresslady ! 

I wonder, is she old and stout 
Or is she young and pretty? 

How long the members will stay out 
Who are on her committee ! 

We'll hear no more of shabbiness 

Among our legislators — 
She'll make them formal in their dress; 

They'll wear boiled shirts and gaiters. 

1 ler maiden speeches will be known 
For charm and grace of manner ; 

Buo who on earth will chaperon 
The member from Montana? 



Our Lovely Human Heritage 

President Emmeline B. Wells. 

Out of the storm and stress of the pioneer days 
in Nauvoo, and across the trackless plains — out of 
the struggle and toil which laid the foundation pil- 
lars of Utah — out of the purging force of woman's 
pioneer achievements, looms the delicate tracery 
i»nd gentle face and form heaven-preserved to the 
present generation: Our beloved President Emme- 
line B. Wells who is among the most precious hu- 
man possessions of the Relief Society today. Much 
that moderns think about and wonder about and 
study about concerning the past, she knows — she is 
ihe past; and her slender hands, fashioning each 
day's link with patient solicitude, have woven about 
her fragile personality the very essence and inspira- 
tion of the Relief Society and of the women of the 

Each morning when the office force at head- 
quarters gather about their duties and daily toils, 
they watch with deep affection for the Morning Mir- 
acle. She comes — our little, delicate, great-minded 
President, walking softly, yet with fierce independ- 
ence into the rooms, and the Miracle is born again 
for the new day. She hears our complaints; she 
comforts our griefs; she counsels our doubts; and 
over them all breathes the ineffable spirit of her 
own fixed integrity to the truth. Her gentle refine- 
ment of face and form with its appealing charm is 
like the gentle, tender innocence of childhood, 
but it does not make us forget the power and ma- 
jesty of her spirit which shines from the age- 
dimmed eyes, or sometimes flames from her pas- 
sionate denunciation of wrong. 





This month is her birth month and once more 
we joy in the glad Providence which gave us a leap- 
year day and a baby born on that day, eighty-nine 
years ago. Her sensitively pure spirit embodies, for 
us, lovely dignity, while that gracious concourse of 
women of whom she is the last and lingering relic 
gather about her in our memory. Her sorrows and 
her joys have traced upon her sensitive features the 
image of resignation and trust in God. 

Her memory is like a carven casket, for which 
she wisely keeps the key, unless you are fortunate 
enough to win a golden hour from her still occu- 
pied life, and then she may sit down with you, still 
erect, and spurning soft-cushions or easy chairs. 
She balances like a bird upon the brink of a foun- 
tain, and slowly, carefully unlocks the cover of her 
memory-casket. As she withdraws the jeweled 
strands of fact or faith, you sit entranced, and listen 
to the clear music of her voice while she visual- 
izes the truths which fall one by one from her 
precious lips. 

Today, tonight, and yet another today — for 
this little queen is like the lingering sunset on our 
snow-capped Ensign Peak — the golden glow kisses 
the snowy crown, and we yearn and yearn to pro- 
long the lingering flame of light. She has known so 
many of our heroes— she knows so much of the for- 
gotten past — she has done so much for women 
everywhere — she has suffered so keenly — she has 
stood like a mountain peak in the midst of her val- 
leys of affliction, that we cry out silently: "0 
Lord, do Thou let the sunset linger yet a little while 
around us. Take not Thou away this light, this 
tender faithful glow, until we drink our fill of light 
and of her sweet presence." This then closes the 
evening orison. Susa Young Gates. 




Mothers in Israel. 


By Mary Ann Stearns Winters. 

Note. — We give this month a vivid picture of conditions in Nau- 
voo, at the time of the Exodus, that in striking simplicity and pellucid 
description might well be a companion piece of Colonel Thomas L. 
Kane's masterpiece on the same subject. 

The main body of the Church had left Nauvoo in February, 
1846, and for a time peace and quiet reigned in the city, with a 
lively hope in the hearts of those still remaining to soon follow the 
advance company of friends and relatives. Our star of hope was 
westward bound, and all thoughts were turned in that direction. 
The Lion of the Lord and his strong ones were in the lead, and 
like the needle to the pole — every faithful heart was irresistibly 
drawn that way. We, individually, were waiting for our house to 
be sold that we might have means to pursue our journey and over- 
take our friends who had started earlier in the season. During 
the summer the mob element of Illinois became impatient at the 
slowness of the "remnant" in vacating their homes in the beauti- 
ful and beloved city, and began persecuting, and driving those 
on the outskirts, the story of which has been told often, and well, 
in the histories and magazines of the Church. Finally after many 
threats and annoyances they gathered their forces to besiege the 
city. They were advancing and constantly giving out reports of 
what they were going to do, though they seemed quite undecided 
as to the point of attack. 

The brethren had fortified the places most liable for their 
entrance, and the night before — on the 10th of September, 1846 — 
they had erected breastworks at the head of Mulholland Street, 
and about sunrise on the morning of the fatal day, Brother 
Anson Pratt came to our part of the town and called for all the 
cooked food that the sisters were in possession of — saying, the 
brethren had been working all night, and were tired and hungry 
and half famished, as many of them had not gone off duty to get 
their suppers. Our breakfast was just ready and after making 
a big pot of warm drink my mother packed up every morsel she 
had, and joyfully sent it to the weary workers. And it was very 
interesting to hear the experiences of the sisters in the way the 
call found them — many were like us, gave away all their cooked 
food to the guards, and then went cheerfully to work and soon 
had another breakfast prepared and eaten. Brother Pratt had 


asked the women to bake all the bread they possibly could, to 
last through the crisis, so mother and sister Charlotte Higbee, our 
nearest neighbor, set salt rising, and baked two big brick ovens 
full. Brother Iligbee was Bishop and had a little flour on hand, 
or it could not have been done, for our bin contained only a few 

Our home was only one block from the Temple and we 
could hear the reports given out by the sentinel on the tower, to 
the guards on the grounds below. Day after day we had listene 1 
to the words of weal or woe. as they came from the sentinel's 
lips, and our hope and courage rose and fell accordingly, but oh. 
foi words to tell of the emotions of our hearts as the sound came 
forth, "The mob are advancing slowly, they are within one block 
of the breastworks." This was about one o'clock. The mob 
seemed undecided — they halted — their courage faltered, they 
seemed to feel the power of the determined force in front of 
them. Then came the word, "They have retreated a little and are 
partly under cover." The brave Captain Anderson, Colonels 
Fulmer and Picket with their spartan band were waiting, if not 
with open arms, at least with ready arms, to receive them. L. O. 
Littlefield with his company of infantry were stationed in a corn- 
field, a little south of the blacksmith shop, where many had pre- 
pared themselves for the encounter. In Captain Littlefield's com- 
pany was Oscar Winters, then a young man of 21. The last 
few nights before the battle, the sisters whose husbands were on 
guard duty, brought their little children and camped at our 
house, for we all seemed to feel that under the shadow of the 
Temple was the safest place. And it was then that my mother 
said, "It was the first time she could look with pleasure on the 
graves of her little children that were buried in the lot, near 
the house, for they were safe from all harm — and she knew not 
what would be the fate of the others." Our Prophet and Patriarch 
had been martyred, and what could we expect from those blood- 
thirsty creatures. At two o'clock the little group of watchers 
on the porch of our house were startled by the boom of a cannon, 
and the sentry on the Temple announced that the enemy had 
opened fire. Some one remarked, "That is the first, but who 
can tell of the last, and what will take place between." We had 
not long to wait for the second report, and they came at short 
intervals until I had counted 32, and then the small arms were 
used and they all came in such rapid succession that I could 
keep count no longer. The conflict was fierce, but not of very 
long duration, for it seems that the defenders' weapons carried 
disaster as well as the enemies', and the mob seemed willing to 
cease their hostilities and wait for another day. 

During that time a treaty was made, that if the "Mormons" 


would all leave the city within three days, they would not molest 
them farther, and they might go in peace. It was also agreed that 
a committee, and their families, might remain to take charge of 
the property belonging to the banished citizens. These were 
Almon W. Babbitt, Joseph L. Heywood and John S. Fullmer. 
Not long after the firing commenced, a courier came to the 
Temple and brought the sad tidings that three of our brethren 
had lost their lives in the conflict, Captain William Anderson and 
his son Augustus and — . 

But while this message brought sorrow to every soul, it also 
brought relief to the hearts of the waiting sisters whose hus- 
bands and sons were at the front, to know that they still lived. 
But the anguish and suspense of those dreadful hours can never 
be told in words. And I will never forget the unflinching faith 
and courage of that devoted band of women. They never thought 
of fleeing or turning away, but "stand still and see the salvation 
of the Lord." As the firing lulled and the strain relaxed, my chills 
returned, and as the fever rose I became somewhat delirious and, 
therefore, oblivious to all except my own misery. Through that 
long night I tossed and moaned, and longed for rest. But when 
morning came my fever had gone, and I was able to get up, and 
again realize the situation we were in. The word had gone 
forth that we were to leave in three days. But how were we to 
go, and where — my mother had three helpless children, for 
Brother Pratt was at the front and we were without kith or kin 
to look to for help or aid in any way. The promise had gone 
out that all would be rescued from that hostile band, so we waited 
patiently, though anxiously for our turn to come. 

Hour after hour we watched the teams carrying the families, 
as they wended their way to the river to be ferried over to Iewa, 
a place of peace and safety.. The end of the second day was 
drawing to a close — we were nearly alone, but the guards sta- 
tioned at the Temple gave us a little sense of security, though 
we passed a lonely night and were truly thankful as the morning 
of the third day dawned upon us. 

About ten o'clock a message came that we would be taken 
to the river soon after dinner. So, after partaking of an early 
lunch we prepared to leave our comfortable home with a knowl- 
edge in our hearts that we were never to return to it again. The 
stove on the hearth — the furniture standing round — the pictures 
on the wall — all were given a parting look, and then my mother, 
taking her little children repaired to the graves of our loved ones 
from which we were so soon to be parted forever, till the Resur- 
rection Morn, or till we went to meet them in their happy Home 
above. I know that the fervent prayers she uttered for the pres- 
ervation of those precious relics have been heard, and answered 


up to the present time. Farewell, our loved home, farewell, our 
cherished dead — farewell, the beautiful Nauvoo. Ere long thy 
waste places will be built up, and thy beauty shine with renewed 
thrift and splendor. 

After some delay our conveyance arrived. Our things that 
we could take with us had been packed for many days, and were 
soon placed in the wagon, and about four o'clock we were de- 
posited on the bank of the Mississippi River opposite Montrose, 
waiting to cross over. The bank was lined with people, all in 
the same condition, driven from home, but oh, it was joy to be so 
closely associated with those faithful ones, and many were the 
words of cheer and comfort that passed from one to another in 
that trying hour. The sand in that particular place was quite 
deep, and would not hold the tent pins, so we piled up the 
trunks and boxes a little way apart and laid the tent poles across, 
and by spreading the tent over these, and mother making our bed 
underneath we were quite comfortable for the night, hoping that 
on the morrow we would reach a place of friends and safety. 

About six o'clock, while we were busy with our preparations 
for the night we heard a martial band playing, and all stopped to 
listen. Some one on higher ground reported it to be "a company 
of the mob marching this way." This was not expected, and as 
we did not know their purpose it caused another wave of anxiety 
to pass over the hearts of the people, but it was soon ascertained 
that the company were about to disband and go home, and they 
were just coming to take a last look at their victims and see if 
they were making sufficient haste in leaving the state. They were 
not soldiers, but dressed, some in citizens' clothes, and some 
in country garb, but all were volunteers banded together to drive 
out the "Mormons." 

Just as they were opposite our camp they halted, an instant, 
and the Captain shouted, "You're a d — d pretty looking set, ain't 
you?" This caused the women to be very indignant. My mother 
took a step forward and replied, "Gentlemen, it is your day now, 
but it will be ours by and by." He called back, "Shut up that, or 
we will have you under guard." She returned, "I do not fear you, 
sir," just as they were passing on. 

Two or three lingered behind to talk to the people, seeming 
touched in their hearts by what they beheld. One, a well dressed, 
kindly looking man, stopped near us, and calling my five-year old 
little sister, Olivia, to him, patted her curly head and asked her 
many questions. I drew near enough to hear what was said. He 
inquired what her name was, and her father's, and in reply to 
where he was now, she said he had gone to California. When 
asked where she was going, she said, "We are going to California, 


The man seemed much affected — she said he was crying as 
he took from his pocket, a bit — twelve and a half cents, and hand- 
ed it to her. She drew back, unwilling to receive it, but he said, 
"Yes, take it, it will pay your passage across the river anyhow." 
He soon arose and passed on — brushing away the tears, and no 
doubt, conscience-smitten at the part he had taken. 

We slept as best we could under the circumstances, that last 
flight in our dear Nauvoo. In the morning we crossed the river 
to Iowa, and made one camp about a mile above Montrose. Here 
our tent, (that my mother, with her New England forethought, 
had purchased early in the summer, and had it- water-proofed 
by Brother Arthur Smith) was pitched, and made a very com- 
modious shelter for us with room for four beds, with space for 
a walk in between. 

During the day Brothers Anson and William Pratt, with 
grandmother Pratt and their families, arrived and took up quar- 
ters with us in the tent, for the time being. My chills had not 
returned — I was feeling well again and enjoying the company of 
the girls, Sariah and Jane Elizabeth Pratt. The men made their 
camp on the outside of the tent, and the women and children were 
very comfortable on the inside. 

Our supply of provisions was getting low, but the quails 
came, and Ami Shumway, son of Sister William Pratt, went out 
to help capture them, and we girls took them to the river, a few 
feet distant, and picked and dressed them ready for use. When 
the good people of St. Louis heard the condition the Saints 
were in they sent a boat-load of provisions to relieve their wants. 
The people were counted, and given so many pounds each, accord- 
ing to the number of their family. There was flour and corn 
meal, from which to take your choice, sugar and coffee, rice, dried 
apples and bacon. 

My baby brother, Moroni, not quite two years old, was sick 
with chills, so it fell to my lot to go for our share of the supplies. 
The water was low, and the boat could not get above Montrose, so 
all had to go there for their rations, i, in company with others, 
went down and received ours, dealt out from the bow of the boat, 
and joyfully took it — shall I say home with me? Yes, for it is 
always home where mother is. 

The sojourn on the bank of the river was only temporary, and 
all those whose wagons and teams were nearly ready, soon yoked 
up their teams and started westward. Of the others, some went 
down the river to St. Louis, others up the river to Burlington, 
and intermediate points, and there were some not willing to turn 
to the right or the left, but wanted someone to haul them a few 
miles out in the country where they could get work and obtain 
means to take them still farther on their westward march. 

Brother Anson Pratt had helped with the distribution of the 


relief supply. an<l when the boat returned, he and family took 
passage for St. Louis. He hired two skiffs at Montrose to come 
up for his family, in which they soon embarked and were floating 
down the river amid waving of handkerchiefs, and good-bys from 
those on the shore. As grandmother Pratt went with them, that 
took seven from our company, and while we were glad to know 
they were going to a place of plenty, as well as peace, their going 
left a lonely feeling in our hearts. And thus the end of the first 
week found us, and the second was a sorrowful one in our little 

Little Martha Pratt, four years old, had suffered with chills 
for a number of weeks and though her condition did not seem 
alarming, still she did not get better, and one morning her mother 
noticed a change — she continued to grow worse all day. and when 
Sister Pratt took her in her arms to prepare her for the night 
she could see that the end was near, and in a short time she 
passed peacefully away. But oh, the agony of that loving moth- 
er's heart, to lose her beautiful, blue-eyed darling, in such a place 
and at such a time, and she cried out, "Oh, I can never leave her 
in this lonelv place." But mother tried to comfort her by telling 
her that perhaps we could take her over to Nauvoo and lay her by 
the side of our love f l ones and then it would not seem so terrible. 
So in the morning P>rother Pratt went over to see if it could be 
accomplished, and found there was nothing to hinder — the city 
was as still as death, and the few persons seen on the streets 
moved around as if at a funeral. A little red pine coffin was pro- 
cured at Montrose and about one o'clock we started on our mourn- 
ful iourney. Mother could not leave her sick baby, so I was sent 
to tell them where the graves were, and show them the place 
mother thought best for their little one to be buried. 

During the summer, mother had. in anticipation of our leav- 
ing the home, obtained stones from the Temple yard and now she 
had the initials cut on them, and then after making a chart of the 
graves from the corner of the house, Brother Silcox dug down 
at the head of each grave and placed the stones down almost to 
the coffins, then covered all over and ring up the rose trees we had 
planted there, and smoothed off the ground, and no stranger could 
tell where they were. 

We did not go by the ferry, but had a large skiff and landed 
in a secluded place on the other side where a team was waiting 
and we were soon conveved to our destination. Three of the 
brethren accompanied Brother Pratt across the river, and with the 
driver, the little grave was soon ready, an'' the little pilgrim was 
laid to rest till the Resurrection Morn. This ma fT e six graves in 
all. as Brother Orson Pratt had lost an infant daughter, though 
she was buried on their side of the- fence, but she lay In a line with 
ours. Requicscat in pace! 

An Incident of Faith. 

A touching incident of the faith manifested by converts to 
the gospel and of the answer to prayer, is related by Sister M. 
Eirdie Langston, a widow, in a letter to President Joseph F. 

This sister speaks of her husband who recently died without 
having heard the gospel. His passing was peaceful and he bore 
testimony to his family shortly before his death, that all of the 
churches were man-made, and he preferred that none of his sons' 
names should be set down in a church book. 

This sister's sons, and she has several, have been trained in 
the right way, for they never use whiskey, tobacco, tea, coffee, 
nor bad language. Although none of them are at present con- 
verted, their faithful mother hopes that day is not far distant. 
The circumstance related by Sister Langston is as follows : 

For some reason, one of her sons hid her Book of Mormon 
and Doctrine and Covenants, and although she felt sure he had 
done it, he refused to tell anything about it. Some weeks after, 
the mother, while in fervent prayer, was inspired to get up from 
her bed and go at once to the hiding place of the books. She 
hastened to her sons to tell them she had found the books, but 
still they denied having hid them. Weeks later the son acknowl- 
edged that he had placed the books where they were, and that his 
mother had passed them many times without seeing them. 

This sister bore her testimony to her friends and a visiting 
minister, who tried to persuade her that she had been dreaming, 
but her son himself bore testimony to the fact and its miraculous 
accomplishment. , 

Our hearts go out in sympathy and love to our struggling 
sisters, and in our sheltered life in Zion we often wonder how 
they bear their trials and afflictions. May God bless Sister 

"Life is real, life is earnest, 

And the grave is not its goal ; 
Dn<=t thou art to dust returnest. 

Was not spoken of the soul." 

— Longfellow. 

Washington's Vision. 

What the Father of His Country Saw of its Weal and Woe, More 

than a Century Ago. 

(Copied from an Old Newspaper.) 

The last time I ever saw Anthony Sherman was on the 4th 
of July, 1849, in Independence Square. He was then ninety-one 
and becoming- very feeble ; but though so old, his dimming eyes 
rekindled as he looked at Independence Hall, which he said he 
had come to gaze upon once more before he was gathered home. 

"What time is it?" said he, raising his trembling eyes to the 
ciock in the steeple and endeavoring to shade the former with a 
trembling hand. 

"What time is it? I can't see so well as I used to." 

"Half past three." 

"Come, then," he continued, "let us go into the hall ; I want 
to tell you an incident in Washington's life — one which no one 
alive knows of except myself ; and if you live you will before long 
see it verified. Mark me. I am not superstitious, but you will 
see it verified." 

Reaching the visitor's room, in which the sacred relics of 
our country are preserved, we sat down upon one of the old- 
fashioned wooden benches, and my venerable friend related to me 
the following narrative, which from the peculiarity of our national 
;i flairs at the present time, I have been induced to give to the 
world. I give it as nearly as possible in his own words : 

When the bold action of our Congress, in asserting the inde- 
pendence of the colonies, became known in the world, we were 
lnughed at and scoffed at as silly, presumptuous rebels, whom the 
British grenadier would tame into submission ; but, undauntedly, 
we prepared to make good what we said. The keen encounter 
came and the world knows the result. It is easy and pleasant for 
those of the present generation to talk and write of the days of 
76, but they little know, neither can they imagine, the trials and 
sufferings of those fearful days. 

And there is one thing I much fear, and that is, that the 
American people do not properly appreciate the boon of freedom. 
Party spirit is becoming stronger, and unless it is checked, will. 
at no distant day, undermine and tumble into ruin the noble spirit 
of the Republic. But let me hasten to my narrative. 

From the opening of the revolution we experienced all phases 
of fortune — now good and now ill ; at one time victorious, at 
another conquered. 

The darkest period we had, however, was, I think, when 
Washington, after several reverses, retreated to Valley Forge. 


where he resolved to pass the winter of 76. Ah! I have often 
seen the tears coursing down our dear commander's care-worn 
cheek, as he would ,be conversing with a confidential officer about 
the condition of his poor soldiers. You have doubtless heard the 
story of Washington going into the thicket to pray. Well, it is 
not only true, but he used often to pray in secret for aid and 
comfort from God, the interposition of whose divine providence 
brought us safely through these dark days of tribulation. 

One day — I remember well — the chilly wind whistled and 
howled through the leafless trees, though the sky was cloudless 
*nd the sun shining brightly, he remained in his quarters nearly 
the whole of the afternoon alone. When he came out I noticed 
that his face was a shade paler than usual, and that there seemed 
to be something on his mind of more than ordinary importance. 
Returning just before dark he dispatched an orderly to the quar- 
teis of the officer I mentioned, who was presently in attendance. 

After a preliminary conversation which lasted some half an 
hour, Washington, gazing upon his companion with a strange 
look of dignity, which he alone could command, said to the latter : 

"I do not know whether it was owing to the anxiety of my 
mind or what, but this afternoon as I was sitting at this very 
table, engaged in preparing a dispatch, something in the apart- 
ment seemed to disturb me. 

"Looking up, I beheld standing exactly opposite me, a sin- 
gularly beautiful figure. So astonished was I — for I had given 
strict orders not to be disturbed — that it was some moments before 
I found language to enquire the cause of her presence. A second, 
third, and fourth time did I repeat the question, but received no 
answer from my mysterious visitor. I began to feel as one 
dying, or rather to experience the sensation which I have some- 
times imagined accompanied dissolution. I did not think, reason, 
or move ; all were alike impossible. I was only conscious of gaz- 
ing fixedly, vacantly at my companion. 

"Presently I- heard a voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look 
and learn !' while at the same time my visitor extended her arm 
and forefinger eastwardly. I now beheld a heavy white vapor 
at some distance rising fold upon fold. This gradually disap- 
peared, and I looked upon a strange scene. Before me lay 
stretched out in one vast plain all the countries of the world — 
Europe, Asia, Africa and America; I saw rolling and tossing 
between Europe and America, the billows of the Atlantic, and be- 
tween Asia and America lay the Pacific. 

" 'Son of the Republic,' said the same mysterious voice as 
before, 'look and learn ! A century cometh — look and learn !' 

At that moment I beheld a dark, shadowy being like an angel, 
standing, or rather floating in mid air between Europe and 


"Dipping water out of the ocean in the hollow of his hana 
he sprinkled some water on America with his right hand, while he 
cast some upon England with his left. Immediately a dark cloud 
arose from each of these countries, and joined in mid-ocean. For 
a while it remained stationary, and then moved to the westward, 
until it enveloped America in its murky folds. Sharp flashes of 
lightning now gleamed through it at intervals, and I heard the 
smothered groan of the American people. 

"A second time the angel dipped from the ocean, and sprin- 
kled it out as before. The dark cloud was then drawn to the 
ocean, into whose heaving waves it sunk from view. A third 
time I heard the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, 
look and learn.' 

"I cast my eyes upon America, and beheld villages, towns 
and cities springing up one after another, until the whole land 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific was dotted with them. 

"At this the shadowy angel turned his face southward, and 
from Africa I saw an ill-omened spectre approaching our land. 
It flitted slowly and heavily over every village, town and city of 
the latter, the inhabitants of which set themselves in battle array, 
one against the other. As I continued looking I saw a bright 
angel on whose brow rested a crown of light, on which was traced 
the word Union bearing the American flag, which he placed be- 
tween the divided nations, and said, 'Remember ! ye are brethren !' 

"Instantly the inhabitants, casting forth their weapons, be- 
came friends once more and united around the national standard. 
And again I heard the mysterious voice, 'Son of the Republic, the 
second part is passed — look and learn !' 

"And I beheld the villages and cities of America increase in 
size and number, till at last they covered all the land from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and their inhabitants became as countless 
as the stars in heaven, or the sand upon the sea shore. 

"And again I heard the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the 
Republic — the end of a century cometh — look and learn.' 

"At this the dark and shadowy angel placed a trumpet to his 
mouth and blew three distinct blasts, and taking water from the 
ocean, sprinkled it out upon Europe, Asia and Africa. 

"Then my eyes looked upon a fearful scene ! From each of 
these countries arose thick black clouds, which soon joined into 
one; and through this mass gleamed a dark, red light, by which 
1 saw hordes of armed men who, moving with the cloud, marched 
by land and sailed by the sea to America, which country was pres- 
ently enveloped in the volume of the cloud. And I dimly saw 
these vast armies devastate the whole country, and pillage and 
burn the villages, cities and towns which I had beheld springing 
up. As my ear listened to the thundering of cannon, clashing of 


swords, and shouts and cries of the millions in mortal combat, I 
again heard the mysterious voice saying — 'Son of the Republic, 
look and learn.' When the voice ceased, the dark, shadowy angel 
placed his trumpet once more to his mouth, and blew a long and 
fearful blast. 

"Instantly, light, as from a thousand suns, shone down from 
above me, and pierced and broke into fragments the dark cloud 
which enveloped America. At the same moment I saw the angel 
upon whose forehead still shone the word Union, and who bore 
our national flag in one hand, and a sword in the other, descend 
from heaven, attended by legions of bright spirits. These imme- 
diately joined the inhabitants of America, who seemed to take 
courage, again closed up their ranks and renewed the battle. 
Again, amid the fearful noise of the conflict, I heard a mysterious 
voice saying, — 'Son of the Republic, look and learn.' 

"As the voice ceased, the shadowy angel, for the last time, 
(iipped water from the ocean and sprinkled it upon America. In- 
stantly the dark cloud rolled back, together with the armies it had 
brought, leaving the inhabitants of the land victorious. 

"Then once more I beheld the villages, towns and cities 
springing up where they had been before, while the bright angel, 
planting the azure standard he had brought in the midst of them, 
cried in a loud voice to_the inhabitants — 'While the stars remain 
and the heavens send down dew upon the earth, so long shall the 
Republic last.' 

"And taking from his brow the crown, on which blazed the 
word Union, he placed it upon the standard, while all the people, 
kneeling down, said 'Amen!' 

"The scene instantly began to fade and dissolve ; and I saw 
nothing but the rising, curling white vapor I had first beheld. 
This also disappearing, I found myself once more gazing upon 
my mysterious visitor, who in the same mysterious voice I had 
heard before, said : 

" 'Son of the Republic, what you have seen is thus in- 
terpreted : Three perils will come upon the Republic. The most 
fearful is the second, passing which the whole world united shall 
never be able to prevail against her. Let every child of the Re- 
public learn to live for his God, his land and Union.' 

"With these words the figure vanished. I started from my 
seat, and felt that I had been shown the birth, progress and destiny 
of the Republic of the United States. Disunion would be her 

Such, my friends, were the words I heard from Washington's 
own lips, and America will do well to profit by them. Let her 
remember that in Union she has strength, in disunion is her de- 

February Entertainment. 

By Morag. 

"We gladly indite you this note, and invite you 

On Washington's birthday to come 
And join in a hearty, patriotic party, 

With friends who will make you at home." 

Signed, Lottie and Ella Arbor. 

The boys found this note in their mail, on their return from 

"A jolly invitation," said Ernest Plackett to his chum and 
room-mate Fred Parker. "Shall we go?" he continued. 

"Sure we will," returned Fred. "Mrs. Arbor is the lovliest 
mother I know, and makes a fellow feel right at home at once. 
My mother died years ago, and I always think of her whenever 
1 see Ella's mother — while Ella — she is such a jolly girl friend. 
Lottie suits me O. K.," said Ernest, "so it's settled, we'll go." 

The Arbor home was ablaze with light and flags, as the boys 
left the suburban car and took the short-cut across the fiel Is. Ar- 
riving, they were welcomed by the girls and introduced to the as- 
sembled company. Each member of the family had invited one 
friend and they were all busy. Old Major Pursell, a civil war 
veteran, was relating some of his experiences, while in a corner his 
wife, and mother Arbor, were reminding each other of the happy 
days when they were girls. 

Mara and her lover John Strange were sitting on the broad 
\\ indow seat. Harold was busy showing his collection of flags to 
his boy chum, while Jim and baby Lilian romped in the dining 
room with two of their cousins. Only Charlie seemed alone — 
his thoughts were far away in the Hawaiian Islands where a fair- 
haired maiden was engaged in missionary work along with her 

"Cheer up, Chad.," said the lively Jim. "Nora will soon come 
home. You know her father expects his release as soon as school 
term is over, and then — " 

"Ah then—" sighed Charlie. 

"Yes, then," returned Jim, "it will be welcome parties, an- 
nouncement affairs, showers and a wedding. I'm to be her 
bridesmaid, too," Jim continued, throwing back her curls, "am I 

"Now. children," said father, "our entertainment will cor* 
mence." And in a short fervent prayer Henry Arbor returned 


thanks to the gracious Heavenly Father for the glorious priv- 
ileges they enjoyed in the land of the free, and for the inspired 
constitution of the country, and for the great men who labored 
and died to bring freedom and liberty to the people. 

The twins then played some patriotic airs, and all present sang 
the national anthem. 

Major Purcell then gave reminiscences of the war, and this 
was followed by a reading by Mara, of Lincoln's favorite poem, 
"Oh why should the Spirit of Mortal be Proud?" written by 

"It's Ernest's turn now," said Lottie, with a coaxing glance 
at the broad-shouldered boy. "Give us a story, Era., tell us that 
one you related at devotional last week at school, 'A Perfect 
Tribute.' " 

Thus encouraged the boy told the pathetic story of the great 
Lincoln and the dying soldier. 

"I know that Gettysburg speech, too," remarked Harold 
when Ernest concluded. 

"Tell me a 'tory, muvver," lisped baby Lilian. "There 
was a little boy, an' his fa'ver had a cherry tree, and he cut it all 
down wif his little hatchet," she said. 

"Bring in the cherry tree," cried Jim. and a large, paper 
cherry tree was brought in and pinned on the wall. Each one 
was given a paper hatchet, and, blindfolded, tried in turn to chop 
it down. 

A number of other games followed, interspread with patri- 
otic songs, and then at 10:30 refreshments were served consisting 
of cherry pie, cake and sherbet. 

Raising their water glasses high Mr. Arbor proposed the 
following toast : 

"Here's to the tree and the cherries it bore. 
Here's to the hatchet that smote it full sore. 
Here's to the lad that was honest and true, 
Here's to his colors, the red, white and blue. 
Here's to his sword with the laurel entwined. 
Here's to the hero in all hearts enshrined." 
— Washington, 

Arthur Guiterman. 

Patriotic Salad, No. I. 

Scoop out Jonathan apples, make salad of chopped celery, 
nuts and apples. Serve on blue plates with small, white paper 
doilies in the red apple oups. 


Patriotic Salad No. 2. 
Ripe tojnatoes may be used instead of apples. 
Entertainment Notes. 

Dickens' birthday occurs in February, and a Dickens' evening 
could be arranged — either a costume character party, a literary 
evening, or a series of tableaux. 

February 27 is Longfellow's birthday, and a similar affair 
might be arranged from his works, tableaux, readings and songs. 

Valentine Dayparties are very popular. 


We are busy folks in a busy world, 

Madly rushing to and fro, 
There are so many things to be done, 

So many places to go. 
That we haven't time to really live, 

So we put things off, with a sigh, 
And we dream of the wonderful things we'll do, 

In the beautiful by and by. 

Too busy to take a walk in the woods. 

With the dear one who longs to go. 
Too busy to write a letter of love 

To the mother aged and slow ; 
Too busy to visit a friend who is ill. 

Who has almost forgotten to smile ; 
Too busy to do a thousand things 

That I'm sure would be really worth while. 

Too busy to think of a cheery word, 

To pass to a comrade who's sad. 
Too busy to kiss the face of a child 

That its little heart might be glad. 
Too busy to rest, too busy to pray, 

Too busy to laugh, or to smile, 
Too busy doing the lesser things — 

Too busy to make life worth while. 
Manti, Utah. Mrs. Parley Nelson. 

Notes from the Field. 

By the General Secretary, Amy Brown Lyman. 


Northern States Mission. 

The St. Paul Relief Society is a very flourishing organization 
composed. of energetic and industrious women. There are thir- 
teen members in the Society, every one of whom has a McAllister 
Record in her home. This Society has sent one hundred and 
forty-six names to the Temple. 

Sunday, September 24, was set apart as Genealogical Day in 
Ihe Northern States Mission. Meetings have been reported from 
the following branches: Indianapolis, Evansville, and Bicknell, 
Indiana ; Springfield and Peoria, Illinois ; Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; 
Grand Rapids, Michigan; Minneapolis, Minnesota. At these 
meetings a great deal of enthusiasm was manifested and following 
are some of the subjects discussed : "History of Genealogy." 
"Genealogy Explained," "Temple Building," "Temple Work," 
"Testimonies of Ancient and Modern Prophets," and "Ancient 
Prophecies Concerning Genealogy." 


Nurse School. 

The Relief Society School of Nursing and Obstetrics began 
the school year on Monday, September 19, with an enrollment of 
twenty-two. At the present time we have twenty-seven students, 
fourteen taking the Nurse course and thirteen taking both Ob- 
stetrics and Nursing. The course in Invalid Cooking was opened 
on December 4 with Mrs. Anna Grant Midgley as instructor, 
and much interest is manifested in this department. The school 
recently purchased a maniken or hospital doll, to be used as a 
practical substitute for the human subject in teaching nursing and 
care of the body. The doll is five feet in length, weighs twenty 
pounds and is built according to the measurements of an adult 
body. It lends itself admirably to demonstrations of all sorts 
such as, bandaging, bed-making, bathing, etc., and is thus a very 
important and valuable piece of apparatus for our school. 

Liberty Stake. 

In connection with the Teachers' Department, the Liberty 
siake has done a great deal of what they have termed "Home 
Round Work." This work consists of making special visits to 
tiiose who are confined to their homes on account of sickness or 
old-age, and are thus unable to attend their meetings or services 
of any sort. The object of this work is to take good cheer, hope, 
and spiritual uplift to those who are lonely and weary. A special 
committee consisting of twelve members has this work in charge, 
■>:m\ during the last year, friendly visits have been made to 368 
poor sufferers, and in the two months that have just gone, eighty- 
two persons have thus been cared for — all this in addi- 
tion to the regular monthly visits of the teachers. Dur- 
ing the year the Liberty stake has been very active in 
genealogical and temple work and has proceeded very system- 
atically in all phases of the same. On the stake days 1,144 visits 
in all have been made to the "Temple. It is reported that one 
hundred temple workers have been made ready for ordinance 
work, one hundred and thirty-nine family records have been 
placed, and forty family organizations have been formed. 


Curlew Stake. 

The Curlew Stake Relief Society was reorganized November 
4th. Mrs. Mary E. Bennett, the President, resigned her position 
on account of a change of residence, and Sister Rebecca N. Cutler 
was appointed to take her place. Sister Bennett had held this 
position only two years, since the new Curlew Stake was organ- 
ircd. and during this short time has exerted herself early and late 


to lay the foundation in this new Stake for a vigorous Relief 
Society. The new Stake officers are as follows : 

Mrs. Rebecca M. Cutler, President ; Mrs. Annie Daley, First 
Counselor; Mrs. Mabel Z. Larkin, Second Counselor; Miss Ann 
Hurd, Secretary ; Miss Rhoda B. Larkin, Treasurer ; Mrs. Ila 
Cottam, Organist ; Mrs. Mary A. Arbon, Chorister. 

Board Members : Mrs. Maggie Bowen, Mrs. Lucy Roe. 
Mrs. Christina Harris, Mrs. A. M. Seeley, Mrs. Ella Lund, Mrs. 
Melissa Smith. 

Wasatch Stake. 

The Wasatch Stake has recently been reorganized. Mrs. 
Joannah E. Jensen, one of the most capable of our Presidents was 
forced to resign on account of ill-health. Mrs. Jensen has per- 
formed her duties in connection with this office faithfully and ef- 
ficiently and has always been alert and progressive. At the time 
the Relief Society Magazine was first launched and the stake 
presidents were personally obtaining subscriptions, Mrs. Jensen's 
first subscription list contained 92 names. This is but one in- 
stance of the energy and earnestness with which she went about 
her labors. 

Although Mrs. Jensen has seen fit to lay aside her work in 
the Stake Presidency, we feel sure she will lend her interest and 
support to Relief Society work in general. 

Fanguitch Stake. 

Mrs. Hannah A. Crosby has resigned -as President of the 
Fanguitch Stake Relief Society on account of change of resi- 
dence to St. George where she expects to devote her time to 
temple work. 

Mrs. Crosby has long been a faithful worker in the Relief 
Society and because of her spirituality, integrity and devotion to 
duty she has made an enviable record. Mrs. Crosby's sweet per- 
sonality and unselfishness have made her exceedingly popular 
throughout her stake and wherever she is known. Following are 
the new officers in the Panguitch Stake : 

Sarah E. Cameron, President ; Geske Henrie, First Coun- 
i dor; Matilda Sargent, Second Counselor; Sarah D. Syrett, Sec- 
retary; Sarah A. Houston, Treasurer; Minnie B. Gardener, Or- 
ganist; Annie M. Houston, Chorister. 

Board Members: Martha E. Church, Sarah E. Tpson. 
Thurza R. Lister, Lavinah E. Allen. 

Northzvestern States Mission. 

During the year of 1916, the Northwestern States Mission 
ha" more than doubled its membership, as well as its number of 


branches. The report of December, 1915, showed 10 branches. 
There are now 24 branches, with the prospects of 5 or 6 new ones 
being added at the beginning of the new year. 

The Portland Relief Society has just closed one of the most 
successful bazaars in its history. 

Idaho Stake. 

A new stake has been added to our list, to be known as the 
Tdaho Stake. This organization came alwnit as a result of the di- 
vision of Bannock Stake. Mrs. Sarah M. McClellan of Bancroft, 
[■'alio has been appointed President of this new stake. 

St. Joseph Stake. 

In the early autumn, the Relief Societies of the St. Joseph 
Stake were called upon by President Andrew G. Kimball to fur- 
nish for the boys of the Arizona National Guard, who were en- 
camped on the Mexican Border, comfort bags, containing toilet 
articles, socks, towels, pins, needles, thread, and other useful ac- 
cessories. It is unnecessary to add that this call was responded to 
in a whole-souled fashion. 

". ire Teachers Officers?" 

The question often arises among our workers as to whether 
or not teachers are officers. The question was discussed recently 
in connection with the plans for the general teachers' conven- 
tion, and it was decided to continue to abide by the established rule 
— that teachers be not counted as officers. Teachers have a dis- 
tinct and unique work of particular importance to perform, and 
this work puts them in a class by themselves. 

Special Donation to Manti Temple. 

The Ma"ti Temple recentlv received a donation of 170 yards 
of carpet. 80 yar's from the North Sanpete stake and 90 yards 
from the South Sanpete stake 

Slake Organization. 

The appeal often comes into the office for suggestions on 
Stake Organization and as the Utah stake is so well organized, 
we. are giving their plan and explanatory notes with the thought 
that other stakes may take suggestions from it. Officers : Presi- 
dent. First Counselor, Second Counselor, Secretary, Assistant Sec- 
retary, Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer. 

Following are the stake committees, the membership of which 
is all made up from the stake board: 

Associate Committee: Chairman, Assistant Chairman, two 
other members. 


Teachers' Committee : Chairman, Assistant Chairman, six 
other members. 

Genealogical Committee: Chairman, Assistant Chairman, 
two other members. 

Home Economics Committee : Chairman, Assistant Chair- 
man, three other members. 

Literary Committee : Chairman, Assistant Chairman, three 
other members. 

"The office of our associate committee is to interest them- 
selves in the moral welfare of our young people ; to co-operate 
with the schools, city officials, and young peoples' auxilliaries, for 
their good in whatever direction may be necessary. 

"Once each month all the committees meet as a board to at- 
tend to regular stake work. At this meeting, each committee 
reports the progress of its special work. 

"Immediately following this meeting all ward committees in 
the stake meet with their respective stake committee who present 
the lesson as outlined in the Magazine, enlarging upon the same 
and provoking discussion that will be helpful when reproduced. 

"On this same day the local officers and teachers meet with 
the stake teachers' committee, at which meeting one of the stake 
presidency of Relief Society presides. In this section one of the 
local bishops presents the teachers' topic. This same topic is 
presented again in the ward societies by a society member. In this 
way the teachers may become familiar with the topic. 

"In short all of the outlined work is familiarized and pre- 
sented by stake committees and reproduced in wards by ward 

"This meeting at which the ward officers, teachers, and com- 
mittees assemble for their instruction and outlined work occurs 
on Union Sunday when all the quorums and auxiliaries of the 
stake assemble for their month's work. All committees meet 

California Mission. 

The Relief Society in San Bernardino, California, has taken 
up all the lessons outlined in the years' course, but has been espe- 
cially interested in the Women of the Bible. The members have 
made and distributed a great deal of childrens' clothing among 
those in need. 

The San Diego Relief Society has a membership of 26. an 
average attendance of 10, and reports 7 subscribers to the Relief 
Society Magazine. 

The Binghampton, Arizona. Relief Society has a membership 
of 42, and an average attendance of 20. The members are all 


devoted to the Society work, and are ready to make personal sac- 
rifices to carry it forward. The Binghampton Relief Society is 
located a few miles out of Tucson. 

Sevier Stake. 

In the death of Mrs. Mary Ann Nickerson, of Salina, Utah, 
the Relief Society loses another of the few remaining women who 
lived in Nauvoo. Mrs. Nickerson was borne in Pennsylvania in 
1822, joined the Church in 1837. and was a resident of Nauvoo at 
the time of the martyrdom. With her young husband, she left 
with one of the early companies of pioneers for the west, driving 
a team herself, the whole distance across the plains to Salt Lake 
Valley. They arrived in Utah in 1850. Mrs. Nickerson was the 
mother of six children, twenty-six grandchildren, and fifty-eight 
great grandchildren. 

Suggestions to Officers. 

At the last General Officers' meeting, it was recomdmended 
that the stakes have official stationery printed for correspondence, 
and many of the stakes have adopted the suggestion, and are using 
neat letterheads. This action on the part of the stakes is especially 
appreciated at the General Office, where letters are classified and 
filed for reference. 

Another valuable suggestion to stake officers is that they in- 
vest in a small letter file, in which they may file and preserve all 
important letters for future reference. Letters of instructions 
are often sent out from the General Office, and should be kept 
for reference. Alphabetically arranged letter-files can be had at 
the book stores for 50 cents each. 


The General Board of the Relief Society have established a 
Home Economics department for the members of the Society, 
associating their work with the Utah Agricultural College, and 
thus securing skilled teachers and lecturers from the Government 
school. We recommend all our .members to throw the weight 
and influence of their presence and numbers into our own de- 
partmental work, as we aim to provide them with every up-to- 
date method and instruction obtainable. We suggest to officers 
that they invite, not only our own members to join these classes, 
but any non-members who may desire to participate in the benefits 
of this department. They will be welcome. Let us be loyal to 
our own Society first, last and all the time. 

Home Science Department. 

By Janette A. Hyde. 

During the early settlement of Utah, one of the first prin- 
ciples taught the Latter-day Saint women, was the conservation 
of food by way of drying fruits and vegetables. Many of the sons 
and daughters of these days will recall, with scented memory, the 
strings of pumpkin which hung in the kitchen to be dried for 
winter use, the sacks of dried fruit and corn that were put away 
to be used very sparingly later in the season. No such luxuries 
as are found on the tables today were ever dreamed of then. 
Molasses, peach preserves, honey dew plums and sweet preserved 
apples, with stick cinnamon for flavoring were used only on com- 
pany days, birthday parties, or for the family holidays, and other 
social entertainments. One must be reminded of the past of our 
own people, and their days of hardship, in order to appreciate and 
sympathize with the present situation of the countries at war. 

We note that Berlin has in operation drying plants to enable 
the people to conserve the surplus vegetables grown during the 
productive seasons, that not one atom of food shall be wasted. 
Such foods as carrots, cabbages, potatoes, and kale are found 
suitable for drying. 

These plants are operated in connection with great gas plants 
of the City where an abundance of cheap fuel is obtained from the 
gas retorts and coal cars. This method has proved wonderfully 
successful inasmuch as it furnishes cheap food for those housed 
in charitable institutions, as well as creating work for several 
hundreds of women and children. 

We suggest that those of our people who are blessed with 
facilities to produce food materials, see to it that not one particle 
of food shall go to waste. We have urged, from time to time. 
that corn be dried, also apples, peaches, pears, and other fruits, 
as Salt Lake City affords a splendid market for the disposition of 
all such products, if properly prepared. Our stores are filled with 
evaporated fruits, shipped in for sale, while in this inter-mountain 
country, hundreds of bushels of fruit have at times dried on the 
trees, or have been left to rot upon the ground. Let us confess 
to an indifference and departure from the early teachings of our 
pioneer fathers and mothers, and set about at once to mend our 
ways, and go back to some of the good, old-fashioned, sensible 
things, taught to us by those sturdy men and women of worth and 
good example. And while city housekeepers are pleased that we 
are blessed and prospered in many ways which makes life easier 


for us, and the necessities of life more easily obtained, we still 
can put into operation, with profit and pleasure, many of the ex- 
examples of thrift and industry of the great men and women of 
our Church and state. 

We urge upon all our sisters who have received the appoint- 
ment through the Relief Society for the correspondence extension 
course, provided by the Agricultural College, to be very prompt 
with the written work required of them, that it shall be handed in 
on scheduled time, so that our Home Science Cause may not be 
retarded in any way. We also recommend that whenever there 
is a roundup or convention held in the different counties in their 
respective states, that our teachers and all members attend as far 
as their time will permit. We feel it is a great privilege to have 
special instructions and specially outlined courses for all our 
Relief Society women, with similar blessings to all Utah women 
and special privileges to none. So let us make the best of this 
great opportunity by attending whenever possible 


IJasalt, Idaho. 

O they come to me so tenderly, 

Sweet thoughts of long ago ; 
When I a maiden merrily 

Tho't all this world aglow. 
Sweet dreams of future happiness 

Were daily, hourly, mine. 
They've come in stern reality, 

But thorns with them I find. 

But why should I the roses pluck 

Without the thorn to feel ; 
Why should I hope to dream life's dreams, 

Unless I make them real. 
In every joy there is a pain, 

A sigh will follow song; 
God gives us all a cherished life, 

To earth we all belong. 

Marie Jensen. 

Current Topics. 

By James H. Anderson. 

Seven dollars a ton for beets in 1917 is good for the grow- 
ers, but affords no promise of cheaper sugar to the consumer. 

Wheat acreage in the United States is considerably greater 
for 1917 than it was for 1916 — a much needed condition. 

Radium as a cancer cure has been found to be ineffective, 
thus shattering the hopes of many sufferers from the terrible 

Americans in Turkey are to be permitted to leave, at Ger- 
many's request, after a request therefor by the United States had 
been denied. 

The Utah State Fair will be held in September this year, 
thus giving good prospect for fair weather which heretofore 
usually has been denied at the later season. 

Irish prisoners to the number of nearly 600, who took part in 
the recent Sein Fein uprising in Ireland, have been released from 
prison in Great Britain. 

Mexico has ad" 1 ed two revolutions the past month, one in 
the state of Jalisco and the other in Oaxaca. Surely peace is yet 
far off in our southern neighbor's domain. 

Utah Battery A has returned from the Mexican border. 
A cordial reception was given the returned batterymen on their 
arrival in Salt Lake City. 

Military authorities in the United States now declare in 
favor of universal military training. They have learned that the 
United States is utterly unprepared for even a defensive war. 

Retiring State officers who have had to do with finances 
in Utah uniformly recommended ways of increasing the State's 
income by various methods of further heavy taxation, but none 
suggested the needed economy in every branch of the State's 

The Ford Motor Co., to relieve the railway car shortage 


complained of, closed down for a week in December, at the same 
time relieving its workmen of $1,400,000 in wages through the 
enforced idleness. 

Absolute prohibition of alcoholic liquors in the District of 
Columbia was defeated in the United States Senate by a vote of 
61 to 8. The provision in its favor was introduced by Senator 
Smoot, of Utah. 

The Union Pacific Railway, at the close of 1916, paid to 
22,000 employees whose salary is under $4,000 each per year, a 
bonus amounting- to $1,500,000 — something surely substantial in 
that Christmas gift. 

Five nations engaged in war changed all or part of their 
cabinet officers the past month — Austria, Russia, Japan, France 
and Great Britain ; each of them with a view to more intense 

Jewish magnanimity toward the Hebrew race received an 
illustration at a meeting held in New York the week before Christ- 
mas, when nearly $2,500,000 was raised by those present to aid 
Jewish sufferers from the European war. 

The new 640 acre homestead law requires seven months' 
residence on the land. Under this provision, there yet remains 
millions of acres of the public domain in the west that must con- 
tinue in government ownership. 

Germany has announced a willingness to make peace, but 
no terms are given. Great Britain also expresses a similar wish, 
but states no terms. It is understood, however, that each side is 
so far from the other's view of what should be that peace is im- 
possible for many months to come. 

Roumania has been practically overrun by the Teutonic 
armies. The fighting ability of the Roumanians was greatly over- 
rated, the result being a decided disadvantage to the Entente al- 
lies, both from a moral and a military standpoint. 

Utah school teachers assembled in convention in Salt 
Lake City passed a resolution to take the office of State Superin- 
tendent of public instruction out of politics by making that of- 
ficial appointive. As there is proportionately more political jug- 
glery connected with appointive than with elective officers, the 
teachers have something to learn. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mbs. Eumeline B. Wells President 

Mm. Clarissa S. Willi ami First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman Genera) Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Erldinirton 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. FEBRUARY*, 1917. No. 2. 


The First Presidency of the Church have paid 
The the high compliment of asking this Society to 

Presidency lead out in a general movement looking to a 
Issues a Call, change in some of the prevalent modes of 

dress, dancing, and of general behavior among 
the young and old people. Old — for the young will never in- 
dulge in unseemly conduct unless their elders wink at it in 
the initial stages of its development. 

We are not disposed to begin this movement 
We Will. Go too hastily, nor with overmuch zeal. When in- 
Carefully. dividuals or the public are sick, your curative 

doses must not be too heavy, at first, lest pros- 
tration result. But sickness — which is a physical body out of 
harmony with the laws of nature — needs curative remedies. 
And the public generally, which includes the majority of per- 
sons, is certainly sick. When our girls and women go into 
public places with their dresses three inches shorter than their 
shoe-tops, with nothing to cover their bodies from arm-pits 
and corset rim, to chin, except transparent muslin — when they 
go in bathing clothed in tiny trunks and shoes only — with 


mothers complacently looking on, and fathers and brothers al- 
lowing such exposures, and with moral standards gradually 
lowering to accommodate these lapses — there is something 
certainly "rotten in Utah." Mothers who have persistently 
violated modesty and their own covenants by wearing short 
sieeves and half-low necks, who have been card-players, break- 
ers of the Word of Wisdom, and of the Sabbath Day — these 
mothers would naturally view with entire complacency the 
half naked condition of their daughters in public places. But 
when these examples spread, and we hear good Latter-day 
Saint mothers defending such looseness on the ground of ex- 
pediency, or common custom, it is time for public teachers and 
watchers upon the towers of Zion to arise and cry out a warn- 
ing note. 

What can we do, then, women and sisters. 
Our members and officers in this Relief Society? 

Great We can guard our own conduct. Any little 

Opportunity, lapse from the strict rules of modesty in dress, 

speech, or behavior, of which we may have 
been guilty must be reformed before we can expect a change 
in greater lapses on the part of our daughters or grand- 

We can refuse to countenance by word or 
Watch thought the immodesty shown by our children 

Ourselves. or grand-children. If they are grown or mar- 
ried, and they will indulge in these things, at 
least we may not smile at it nor treat it as a light matter. 
Don't be deceived — Satan fools a good many people with that 
phrase, "be easy on the young people." Be as easy as you 
will on the young person, but never, under any circumstances, 
be easy on her folly or violation of moral decencies. 

We can refuse to. read or buy books and mag- 
Let Us azines that exploit adultery and loose moral 
Reform standards. We can remain away from theaters 
Ourselves. and picture shows that portray vice and sin in 
glittering colors and suggestive references. A 
p'av recently produced in this city was so vile in action, word, 
and reference, that good people who inadvertently attended it, 
suffered for davs from a sense of personal humiliation; yet the 
play was beautifully staged, and presented by a first-class com- 
pany. Such evident decadence of public, moral standards fills 
the mind with disgust, and a horror of the future for this na- 
t:on and other nations Tike this one. Mothers and fathers can't 
afford to be seen at such places. When absent they can con- 
sistently advise their children not to attend. 


We can refuse to buy or to make clothing for 
More ourselves and our daughters which exposes the 

Chances body and is indecently immodest. If girls earn 

To Help. their own money, at least a mother may advise 

and assist her daughter to choose wisely. If 
mother's word is insufficient, let father be called into the 
council. Don't worry over that old gag about the stern parent 
driving away the wild son or daughter by harshness. Ninety 
children go wrong from over-indulgence and weakness where 
ten go wrong from harshness and severity. This is the age 
of obedient parents, you know. 

Finally, which is the wisest preventive of all, 
The Safe we can devote our days and nights to con^ 

Preventive. triving ways and means to keep our young peo- 
ple constantly engaged and employed in inter- 
esting work and clean amusements of all kinds, so that their 
minds and hands are not left idle. Drive out evil with good. 
Here endeth the first lesson! 


The General Board, the Stake and Ward officers, and every 
member of the Relief Society join in loving congratulations to 
our honored President, Emmeline B. Wells, on her birthday. She 
will be eighty-nine years young on the last day of February. Woe 
to the wight who calls her old, feeble, or grandmother. She is 
our lovable and honored President, Emmeline B. Wells. 

Guide Lessons. 

Second Week in March. 

(Reading: Genesis Twenty-Fourth.) 

Seeking a wife in marriage, from the very beginning, has 
been one of man's chief and most delightful interests: But there 
are ways and ways of doing this necessary thing. One of these 
ways we shall discover in the case of Rebecca's winning by Isaac. 

This is quite a suggestive romance, when you stop to think 
of it — that affair of this interesting couple. Getting down under 
the surface of the details presented to us in Genesis and in Jo- 
sephus, we disclose some foundational ideas in the affairs of 
marriage, and also some customs in vogue during those ancient 
times which it would be by no means to our discredit to imitate. 

But let us get some other, and less important, matters off our 
hands first. 

In those days, as in these, people lived in what we call the 
country and the city. Isaac's home was in the country ; Rebecca's 
in the city. It must ,be remembered, however, that the city of 
those ancient times was very different from ours. What Nahor, 
the town where Rebecca lived, was like can be surmised from 
the following description : 

This pastoral region was to become so distinctively the home of 
that portion of the race which remained on the far side of the Eu- 
phrates, that it became known as the "town of Nahor." 

A vast limestone plateau, seamed by deep ravines, extends east 
and northeast of Corfu, but sinks into an alluvial plain to the south. 
On the slope of a low hill in the midst of this lies Haran, looking 
out over a wide and richly fertile level, of more than twenty square 
miles in extent. A circle of low volanic hills shuts in the view 
and marks the character of the landscape towards the Euphrates. 
Small brooks appear after rains, but they soon disappear, and leave 
the open expanse to the fierce heat of the sun. In winter the temper- 
ature is low, but in summer the heat is intolerable, especially when 
the wind blows from the Southern Arabian desert. October and 
November see all traces of vegetation burnt up, except on the edge 
of any trickle of water; but, as soon as rain falls, all nature revives, 
though only to be speedily withered by the winter winds. Spring 
alone covers the soil with a comparatively more abiding carpet of 
grass, varied by countless flowers of every color, and offering every 
attraction of form and height. It is, however, as a whole, far from 
being what we should think a desirable climate. The change to sum- 
mer is as rapid as that which ushers in the spring. The verdure of 


the plains perishes in a day. Hot winds from the desert burn up and 
carry away the shrubs; nights of locusts, darkening the air, destroy 
the few patches of cultivation, and complete the havoc begun by the 
heat of the sun, which soon grows over the face of the country, and 
can be seen advancing from the desert, carrying with them clouds of 
sand and dust. Almost utter darkness prevails during their passage, 
which lasts, generally, about an hour, and nothing can resist their 
fury. The Arabs strike their black tents and live during these hot 
months in sheds of reeds and grass, on the banks of the river: if they 
can find a spot furnishing the materials for such shelters. The ther- 
mometer ranges from 112 to 115, or even 117 degrees; and hot winds 
sweep, like blasts from a furnace, over the desert during the day, 
while they drive away sleep by night. Compared with such a home 
Canaan was a paradise. 

In the town itself, the ruins of an ancient stronghold, built of 
large blocks of basalt, still attest the military importance of the posi- 
tion. Nor was it less favorably placed for commerce. Four roads 
passed through it from the earliest times: to Assyria, on the east; 
to Babylon and the Persian Gulf on the southeast; towards Asia Minor 
on the north, and to Syria on the southwest. 

At the foot of the slope which is crowned by the ruins of tht 
fortress, are nestled the beehive-shaped huts of the Bedouin popu- 
lation, who thus, like the inhabitants of the many villages of the 
open plain, still use dwellings exactly similar to those seen on ancient 
Assyrian slabs; scarcity, or rather warit, of timber, forcing them to 
adopt this singular style of building. Bare stone walls raised without 
cement into the shape of a sugar loaf, with a hole at the top for light, 
have in all ages been characteristic of the neighborhood. Every- 
where in the plain one meets traces of ancient canals of irrigation, 
by which the waters of the Belik were utilised to spread fertility 
throughout the year on all sides. But the traveler is especially at- 
tracted by the "Wells of Rebecca," where Eliezer met the future wife 
of Isaac, and where Sarah had certainly often been, long before her. 
Even now, the flocks of Haran gather round them each morning, 
and the women still come to them to dra*w water for the day's use. 

The fullest description of this temporary home of Abraham, which 
became the permanent center of the eastern branch of his race, is 
given by Dr. Malan. He approached it from the north, where "the 
green slopes of the lower hills of Armenia" have sunk into a rolling 
level as the traveler advances from Edessa, or Corfa, the hills on 
the right hand and on the left of the plain recede farther and farther, 
until you find yourself fairly launched on the desert ocean; a bound- 
less plain, strewed at times with patches of the brightest flowers, at 
other times with rich and green pastures, covered with flocks of 
sheep and goats feeding together; here and there a few camels, and 
the son or daughter of their owner tending them. One can quite 
understand that the sons of this open country, the Bedouin, love it, 
and cannot leave it; no other soil would suit them. The air is so 
fresh, the horizon is so far, and man feels so free, that it seems made 
for those whose life is to roam at pleasure and who owe allegiance 
to none but themselves. The ruins of the castle surmounting a 
mound makes Haran a landmark plainly visible from every part of 
the plain. That same day I walked at even to the well I had passed 
in the afternoon, coming from Corfu; the well of this, the city of 
Nahor, "at the time of the evening — the time when women go out 
to draw water." There was a group of them filling, no longer their 
pitchers, since the steps down which Rebecca went to fetch the water 


are now blocked up — but rilling their waterskins, by drawing water 
at the well's mouth. Everything around that well bears signs of 
age and of the wear of time; for, as it is the only well of drinkable 
water there, it is much resorted to. Other wells are only for watering 
tlie Flocks. There we find the troughs of various height, for camels, 
lor sheep, and for goats, for kids and for lambs; there the women 
wear nose-rings, and bracelets on their arms, some of gold or of 
silver, and others of brass, or even of glass. One of these was seen 
in the distance, bringing to water her flock of fine patriarchal sheep: 
ere she reached the well, shepherds, more civil than their brethren 
of Horeb, had filled the troughs with water for her sheep. She was 
the sheik's daughter, the "beautiful and well-favored Sadheefeh." As 
the shadows of the grass and of the low shrubs around the well length- 
ened and grew dim, and the sun sank below the horizon, the women 
left in small groups; the shepherds followed them, and I was left alone 
in this vast solitude." — Geikie, "Hours with the Bible," Vol. I, Chap. 14. 

Rebecca was like the Sheik's daughter. When Abraham's 
seivant came to the well at Nahor, he asked more than Laban's 
sister for a drink, though they all refused, and only Rebecca took 
clown her jug and quenched his thirst and that of his camels. 
This custom of women doing heavy work is characteristic of all 
primitive peoples. Indeed, some of the more civilized peoples 
of Europe today have not entirely gotten over this habit. As a rule, 
Americans treat their women better than most other peoples. 

Oriental travel in those far-away days was accomplished al- 
most altogether by means of the camel. This animal was the most 
serviceable for the purpose, largely because he could go a long 
time without water. Those were not the days of the automobile, 
the steam railway, the electric line, or even the horse-carriage. 

It is in the matter of marriage, however, that we see the 
greatest contrast with our own times. 

Marriage with Abraham was a very solemn affair. So it 
was with his people after him. He and they, as do the Latter- 
day Saints today, enshrined it in the sanctities of religion. Listen 
to that well-known conversation between the Patriarch and his 
servant : 

"And Abraham said unto the eldest servant of his house, 
that ruled over all that he had, 'Put, I pray theee, thy hand under 
mv thigh ; and I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of 
heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife 
unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom 
I I'well. But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, 
and take a wife unto my son Isaac' 

"And the servant said unto him, 'Perad venture the woman 
will not be willing to follow me into this land, must I needs 
bring thy son again unto the land from whence, thou earnest?' 

"And Abraham said unto him, 'Beware thou that thou bring 
not my son thither again. The Lord God of heaven, which took 


me from my father's house, and from the land of my kindred, 
and which spake unto me, and that sware unto me, saying, "Unto 
thy seed will I give this land" — he shall send his angel before thee, 
and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from thence. And if the 
woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be 
clear from this my oath. Only, bring not my son thither again.' 

"And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham 
his master, and sware to him concerning that matter." 

From this passage it is clear that Abraham hell a marriage 
between his son and a Canaanitish woman in utter abhorrence. 
There was only one thing he would not rather see happen — the 
return of the family to the land from which he had been called by 
the voice 6i Jehovah. So he made his most trustworthy servant 
swear in the most solemn manner and in the name of God that he 
would do his best to turn aside such an evil chance. Why? 
Because Abraham had been given a sacred promise by the Lord 
concerning "the seed." It thus became his duty — there is no 
higher word — to preserve the purity of this seed. In the marriage 
of Isaac, therefore, the Patriarch appears to have been thinking 
of his remote posterity rather than of the personal happiness of 
his son. In terms of our own day, race was with him the prime 
consideration in marriage. 

Coupled very closely with this idea is the Abrahamic con- 
ception of the purpose of marriage. And this conception, as we 
shall see over and over again, was held to with great tenacity by 
his descendants. It was, that marriage is chiefly racial, rather 
than individual, in its aims and purposes. That Sarah was barren 
appears to have given Abraham more or less concern. Today alas 
barrenness is often assiduously cultivated in certain quarters of 
worldly society. 

It followed naturally from this ideal of marriage that the 
contracting parties, being young and inexperienced, should not 
have the final say in the matter of the mating. Indeed, they ap- 
pear to have had no say in the matter at all. And this was true at 
the time of which we are speaking, not only in the case of Isaac, 
but of others as well. Abraham seems to have taken the initi- 
ative ; the servant chose the young lady ; and Isaac did not see 
her till she was brought home to him "engaged." Nor does it 
appear that she was consulted in the matter. For, according to 
Josephus, she told the servant at the well that her brother Laban 
was "the guardian of her virginity." Moreover, the question 
which the Bible account says was put to her in the words, "Wilt 
thou go with this man?" was really intended to ascertain whether 
she would go before ten days or abide with her family for a time. 
How different, this, from the independent attitude of young peo- 
ple today, with their ideas of individual happiness, who look upon 


the slightest hint from their parents that so-and-so will not do 
for them, as an unwarrantable interference with their personal 
rights and liberty ! And yet how reasonable is the thought that 
God could as easily inspire the wise parents to choose rightly, 
as He could the immature young people, often guided only by 

There is present in this incident the thought that God di- 
rects all matters. ''Behold," says the servant, "I stand here by 
the well of water, and the daughters of the men of the city come 
out to draw water. And let it come to pass that the damsel to 
whom I shall say. 'Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may 
drink;' and she shall say. 'Drink, and I will give thy camels drink- 
also' — let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy servant 
Isaac." And when this very thing happened, he took it for a sign 
that the hand of the Lord was guiding him. Abraham himself 
had already promised the servant that the Lord would "send his 
angel before thee." 

Marriage, therefore, among this rising people, whatever it 
may have been among other peoples of the age, was an institution 
established for purposes of race perpetuation, which ought to be 
guided, not by the personal whims, caprices, and fancies of young, 
inexperienced persons, but rather by the matured wisdom of such 
elders as have posterity in mind and know what is good for pos- 

There seems to be even in the outside world a veering of 
sentiments respecting marriage, back, in some respects, to this 
ancient conception we have been speaking of. It is coming to 
be more and more believed among wise men of the world that 
marriage is after all a social or communal institution and that 
therefore society should have the direction of it in its own hands. 
Of this fact recent marriage laws in various states are an attesta- 
tion. Collective man is endeavoring more than ever to say who 
shall and who shall not marry and to prescribe the conditions that 
shall obtain in the rearing of children. The Latter-day Saints 
teach, and have always taught, that those entering the marriage 
relation should seek divine guidance in the selection of a compan- 
ion "for time and for eternity." 


1. Give some of the conditions under which people lived at 
the time of Rebecca. 2. How was long-distance travel accom- 
plished in those days? 3. State the substance of the conversa- 
tion between Abraham and his servant concerning Isaac. 4. Why 
die Abraham hold in such abhorrence a marriage between his 
son and a Canaanitish woman? 5. Is there any matrimonial al- 


liance which he' would avoid for his son today, if he were living 
here? 6. What do you think of the practice of those times of 
not consulting the contracting parties in their marriage? Would 
such an idea work today? Why? 7. Why should the state have 
something to say in the matter of who should marry and the 
conditions of child-rearing? How much should the state have? 
8. What, in your opinion, are some things that should prevent 
the marriage of certain persons, or classes of persons? 


"Oh how I love thy law ! It is my meditation all the day." 

Bible, Genesis. Chapters 26; 27; 28. 

Psalms, Chapters 12 ; 13 ; 14; 15 ; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 
23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30. 

Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9; 
10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18. 


Work and Business. 

Second Week in March. 

Genealogy and Literature. 

Third Week in March. 


In the middle ages all over Europe people who engaged in 
trades occupied a very respectable and responsible position in 
society. Especially was this true in Great Britain and among the 
Germanic people. The trades united together in guilds much in 
1 he same way as we have trades unions amongst us todav. There 
was a guild of tailors, of haberdashers, of shoemakers, of cord- 
wainers, of carpenters, of cartwrights and cobblers. The clerks 
and the coopers, the turners and the sextons all were bound up 
into separate guilds. So powerful did these guilds become that 
the professionals like the musicians or minstrels, the painters and 
architects, finally joined to each other in separate guilds and be- 
came so aggressive that they dictated the policy of the reigning 
families through their representatives. The Guild Hall in Lon- 


don today is one of the most ancient and elaborate public build- 
ings in that great city. 

These guilds took great pride in the products of the guild. 
The council examined specimens of workmanship, passed upon 
the qualifications necessary for apprentices who aspired to be- 
come masters, and in short formulated rules of conduct and by- 
laws to govern the body. 

They held great feasts and had public days when their pa- 
geants passed through the streets of the town or city in brilliant 
array. The survival of these ancient customs is found today in 
the Fourth of July and other public holiday festivals, such as the 
Wizard of the Wasatch festival during the past summer in Salt 
Lake City. 

The guilds frequently sent an apprentice who had completed 
hi., course, out upon his travels, both in his own country and in 
foreign lands. Letters of introduction would be given him to 
fellow guilds in other countries, thus opening the door for him 
into his own class of society where he traveled. 

A singular feature of these guilds was their choice of totems 
or emblems which represented the guild. The symbol of the trade 
would be surrounded by a wreath and placed upon a banner. If 
they had a crown above the emblem it signified that Royalty had 
acknowledged the guild. Moreover, the crown expressed the 
high esteem in which the workers held their own trade. The 
members considered themselves ennobled by their toil and that 
they merited a coronet as truly as does any baron or earl. In 
their annual festivities each trade marched its own particular 
guild, bearing its banner aloft on a wonderfully carved gilt pole, 
surmounted by a figure of the patron saint of the trade — Crispin 
for the shoemaker, Blaize for the woolcombers, Barbara for the 
armourers, and so on — between two flickering tapers. 

Almost every guild had its own band, each its chapel in the 
great church, its guildhall, its special coffer, and its particular 
symbol of the trade. 

To the present day, in many English villages, a man is spoken 
of by his trade, as Millard, Carpenter, Mason, Cobbler, with the 
Christian name attached and the surname ignored, as John Mil- 
lard, Joe Carpenter. Mason Bill, and Cobbler Dick. 


Adam, a gaoler ("Comedy of Errors," IV:iii). 

Archer, a bowman. Every town, every village, had its archer. 
And the Butts were outside the town for common practice. The 
Butts as well as the Archer have provided family names. Baker. 
The feminine form of Bagster or Baxter. The French Boulanger 


furnished the surnames Bullinger and Pullinger.- The French 
word Fournier has also furnished the surname Furner. Banister, 
the keeper of the bath; from the French bain. Barber. Till the 
jear 1745 every surgeon was a member of the Barbers' Company. 
The surname Surgeon is not often met with, but that of Barber 
is very common. Blacksmith. This trade has constituted the 
surname Black and Smith, Smyth, Smeyt, Smijth, as well as 
Faber, Fabricius, Ferrier, Ferrers, Fervour, Fearon. 

Caird, a tinker. Carpenter needs no explanation. Cart- 
wright, maker of carts. Chandler, candle-maker. Chapman, a 
traveling merchant. Cheap-Jack takes his name from the word, 
so does Cheapside. Chaucer, from Chausseur, a shoemaker. 
Clerk, one who could read, and plead the benefit of the clergy. 
Hence Clark and Clarke. Cobbler, a mender of boots and shoes. 
Collier, although originally a charcoal-burner, the name came to 
be used for the dealer in the town in charcoal and in sea-coal. 
Cook enters into many combinations, as in Norman-French LeCoc, 
Badcock (Bartholomew the Cook), Hancock (John the Cook), 
Wilcox (William le Coq), etc. Cooper, a maker of vats and bar- 
rels. Cpwper or Couper, a maker of cups. Cryer, a town bell- 
man. Currier, the curer of skins ; hence Curry. Cutter, a cutter 
of cloth for the tailor. Cutler, properly Scutler, a shield-maker, 
from the Latin Scutum. 

Dyer or Dister, also Dexter, Dwyer. 

Flaxman, dealer in flax. Fletcher, an arrowsmith ; French 
fleche. Fuller, already described. 

Girdler, a maker of girdles. 

Holder, an upholsterer, or stuffer of mattresses, bed, and 
cushions. Hooker, a maker of crooks. Hooper, a maker of 
hoops for casks. 

Launder or Lavender, a washerman. Layman, lagman or 
lawyer. Lorimer, maker of straps, bits, and girths. 

Malster, for Malster. Merchant, also Marchant, from the 
French, in place of English "monger." 

Ostler, hence Oastler and Hostler ; but Oseler, as already 
said, is a birdcatcher. 

Packer, a woolpacker; also Pack as a surname. Painter, 
often as a surname Paynter. Platner, a maker of dishes and 
plates. Surname Piatt. Plumber remains in surname as Plumer 
and Plummer. Potter, maker of common pots. The name re- 
mains both as Potter and Potts. 

Quiller, also Keeler, the dresser of quilled ruffs and collars, 
such as were worn in the reign of Elizabeth. 

' Salter, also Saltman, as salt-boiler. Sawyer, self-explana- 
tory Sexton, also as Saxton, for Sacristan. Skinner, one who 


prepared skins for the tanyard. As a surname. Skiner. Smith, 
a general term. There were Whitesmiths, i. e.. Tinmen, Gold- 
smiths, Brownsmiths, Blacksmiths. Arrowsmiths, Spearsmjths, 
Nailsmiths, etc. Spooner. maker of spoons in wood and horn# 
Sreyner, the maker of steenes, or stone jars, out of white clay. 
The surname remains as Steyner or Stayner. 

Tailor, variously spelled as a surname, in the vain hope to 
disguise its humble and somewhat despised origin. Tanner 
needs no explanation. Tapiser. a tapistry worker, contracted to 
Tapster. Turner, spelled as a surname also Tumour. Tyler, 
tilemaker ; sometimes Tittler. 

Walker. Cloth before the introduction of the roller had to 
be trodden underfoot. In Wyckliffe's version of the transfigura- 
tion he describes Christs' raiment as shining so as no "fullers or 
walkers of cloth" could whiten. Wayte, a watchman (Old 
French, guet), hence the surnames Wade, Gates, Yates, and 
Wakeman. Weaver, came as Webber, and Webster. Whittier. 
a white Tawier ; one who prepares the finer skins for gloves. 

Third Week in March. 

the song or lyric. 

A song or lyric is an expression of emotion in musical words. 
It usually bursts forth when "the heart is so full that a drop 
overfills it." At such times, one is most likely to pour out one's 
feelmgs in a song of joy or sorrow, according to the emotion 
that fills the heart. 

Most of us depend on others to create for us the songs we 
sing, but few persons like Bobbie Burns and Stephen Foster, or 
our own Eliza R. Snow, Chas. W. Penrose, Emily Hill Wood- 
mansee, Emmeline B. Wells, Parley P. Pratt, Orson F. Whitney, 
Henry W. Naisbitt, John Jacques, and Evan Stephens, have the 
gift to sing like the meadowlark, their own feelings in their own 
way. Such gifted persons become a voice for all, expressing 
the emotions of others, stirring their souls, and shaping their 
sentiments. It is truly a wonderful gift — this art of song writ- 
ing, and it is one that may be used for good or for ill. 

Three things characterize the best songs : music, feeling, 
and word beauty. In our choicest lyrics, the words seem to flow 
like liquid silver. 

Read aloud these lines and listen : 


"Soft o'er the fountains, 

Lingering falls the southern moon, 

While o'er the mountains 
Breaks the day too soon." 

— From Juanita. 

And to these : 

"O my Father, thou that dwellest 
In that high and glorious place, 

When shall I regain thy presence 
And again behold thy face?" 

Voice these songs in full, or take other sweet songs, such as 
"Annie Laurie," "O awake, my slumbering minstrel," "O ye 
mountains high," "Down on the Suwanee River," "Love at 
Home," and observe how the words melt into one another, as the 
beautiful sentiments and pictures of life are expressed. 

The true song does not tell a story. It simply sings. Never- 
theless, a story is usually suggested by the song. For example, 
in "My Old Kentucky Home" are these lines : 

"Bimeby hard times comes a knockin' at de door, 
Den my old Kentucky Home, goodnight. 

Weep no more, my lady, 
Oh weep no more today, 

We will sing one song for my old Kentucky Home, 
For my old Kentucky Home far away." 

No story is told here, yet between the lines one can read the 
tale common to the times of slavery, when the negroes were sold 
from a happy home and sent far away down the river. In their 
song, they are trying to console their mistress. 


In some songs the story is even plainer than this. It is 
sketched for us. Such songs are called ballads. The ballad is 
a song story, or a story told in song. In earlier times, the ballad 
was very popular. Many of our old legends like those about 
Robin Hood have been brought down to us in the form of ballads. 
A fairly good illustration of the ballad is the old song, "Mistletoe 
Bough" or "Nellie Gray," beginning, "Oh my darling Nellie 
Gray, they have taken her away," etc. But whether the story is 
sketched, as in the ballad, or merely suggested as in other songs, 
this seems true : Back of every song there lies a story. It may 
be so hidden that one cannot easily find it, nevertheless, it is there. 
Some incident of life, some train of events, generally leads up to 
the writing of a song. Instances to illustrate this point are 


We feel the pathos and the pain of renunciation as well as 
the calm of death expressed in the exquisite hymn of Henry W. 
Xaisbitt — written on the death of his close friend, President 
Joseph Young : 

Rest for the weary soul, 

Rest for the aching head. 
Rest, on the hillside, rest, 

With the great uncounted dead. 

When Cardinal Newman was once returning from a visit to 
the Holy Land, he lay on his cot one night on the deck of the 
steamer as it was plowing its way through the Mediterranean sea. 
The good man had been distressed with religious doubt and un- 
certainty ; he was now ill of body. As he lay there tossing in 
discomfort, he saw off through the gloom a little star towards 
which the vessel seemed to be going. As he watched it, a feeling 
of sweet calm came over his soul, and out of it came this beau- 
tiful expression : 

"Lead, kindly light, lead thou me on, 
The night is dark, and I am far from home, 
Lead thou me on." 

Find the remainder of these two great songs and enjoy them 
with the story just told to help enrich the meaning of its musical 

One gets an added beauty with any song when one knows 
something of the story that lies back of it. Our appreciation of 
"Home, Sweet Home" is enhanced when we know that John 
Howard Payne wrote the song while he was wandering alone in 
a foreign land. We get a keener thrill from the stirring lines of 
the "Star Spangled Banner," when we realize that the author, 
Francis Scott Key, wrote them while he was a prisoner on the 
deck of a British warship. He had watched all night with 
anxious heart the fate of the battle that was raging around him. 
When the morning broke to show the old "red, white and blue" 
still waving above the ramparts, he drew from his pocket a let- 
ter, and on this he penned the words that have thrilled the hearts 
of true Americans ever since. The beautiful stories that lie back 
of many of our own hymns give them new light and meaning 
"Come, Come, ye Saints" was written by William Clayton, at the 
request of the great Prophet-leader, President Young, as a song 
of cheer to shorten the weary stretches of the plains, and to give 
added courage to those hearts to dare the hardships of that desert 
march. The soul-stirring history of the Latter-day Saints is 
easily read in their hymn book, when one learns how to read the 
story that is between the lines of their songs. 

So, too, may we hear the heart beats of the Hebrews of old 


in the songs that enspirit the Bible. When Moses, for example, 
had delivered Israel from bondage, when Pharaoh and his host 
had been destroyed, the people, under the leadership of Moses, 
broke into an anthem of praise and repoicing beginning thus : 

"I will, sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously, 
The horse and the rider hath he thrown into the sea." 

— Exodus. 

When Hannah is given a son, in answer to her pleadings 
with the Lord, she breaks forth into a song of rejoicing and 
praise. David, too, when Saul and Jonathan are slain, expresses 
rus grief in a great song of sorrow. And Deborah sings her 
martial strain of victory while Mary voices motherhood for all 
time in her Magnificat. All through the Holy Book are found 
other songs that reveal the feelings of the people. 

"Our sweetest songs," says Shelley, "are those that tell of 
saddest thought." There is much of truth in what the poet says. 
Songs like "Old Black Joe," "Way Down Upon the Suwanee 
River," and many others of our most beautiful songs are sugges- 
tive of sorrow. We love to sing these sadly sweet songs ; but 
there are many other songs we should also sing that are not at all 
sorrowful — songs like "The Lord is my Shepherd" and "O my 
Father" are sublimely beautiful and full of comfort. 

We need more pure songs of good cheer. A rollicking song 
of innocent fun is a tonic to the weary heart. The trouble with 
our so-called funny songs too often is this : they are suggestive 
of evil and are sometimes vulgar. Such songs are out of place 
anywhere; yet, they frequently find their way into our homes, 
where they sow their poisoned thoughts and false sentiments. 
There is no more important work before the parents than that of 
selecting the music that goes into their homes. In these days 
when the choicest songs are available, there is no excuse for 
feeding our hearts on any but the purest and the best. 

In choosing the songs for our homes, we should always put 
them to this test: What pictures of life, what sentiments, do they 
bring to our minds and hearts? Music may lead us to heaven or 
to evil places ; it depends upon the music. "Give me the privilege 
of writing the songs of a people, and I care not who makes their 
laws" — a saying of one great philosopher. Let this be our third 
guiding principle : The songs that find their way into our homes 
mast suggest pure stories and uplifting sentiments. 


1. What is a song? 

2. Why may the song-writer be called "a voice for all ?" 

3. Who among our own people have earned this title by 


creating beautiful songs? Name some of these poets and tell 
what are their most popular songs. 

4. What characterizes the words of a beautiful song? Illus- 
trate by quoting a line or two from some song you love. 

5. What is meant by this remark? "Back of the song 
there lies a story." Illustrate by telling the story that some song 
suggests to you, or by telling how some author came to write a 
certain song. For example, what story is suggested by "School 
thy Feelings," and "Oh, say what is Truth," and "Hail to the 

6. How does it help a song to know the story that is con- 
nected with it? 

7. Show how the history of the Latter-day Saints is re- 
flected in some of their hymns. 

8. Show how the song is used in the Bible to express the 
feelings of the people of Israel at certain times. 

9. What is the danger in many of the songs that are being 
sung today? Where do they come from? 

10. What practical steps can be taken to get purer, more 
uplifting songs in our homes? 


Home Economics. 

Fourth Week in March. 

A. Bottle-fed Babies. 

In the preceding lesson I emphasized the necessity of 
maintaining the baby on the breast during the first year of life. 
In the Great Ormond Street Hospital of London, England, sta- 
tistics taken over a long period of time show the death rate from 
dysentery during the hot summer months to be ninety-six per 
cent in bottle-fed babies. These same statistics will be borne out in 
all congested districts. The treatment of dysentery in breast-fed 
babies is a comparatively simple proposition, but with the bottle- 
fed babies the physician is taxed to his utmost ingenuity. Moth- 
er's milk is the natural food. It contains unknown elements which 
we cannot analyze and, therefore, cannot duplicate in any of our 
milk modifications. Perhaps the principal source of trouble with 
bottle babies comes from the frequent contamination of the food. 
In spite of the most extreme care exercised on the part of the 
mother in the preparation of the food, bacteria will find their way 
into the milk and produce subsequent trouble. A bottle of milk 
allowed to stand in the sun for one hour will develop millions of 


organisms which will cause dysentery or other intestinal disorders. 
Mothers frequently make complaint at the extreme caution en- 
forced by the physician in the. preparation of food for the babies 
if they will just keep in mind this rapid development of bacteria 
they will realize the necessity for the greatest of care. 

In order to avoid contamination as much as possible the 
food for the entire twenty-four hours should be prepared at one 
time. Six or seven bottles should be obtained, preferably the 
narrow neck bottles, for reasons that will be seen later. The food 
should be prepared and put in the bottles and then placed on ice 
and kept there until feeding - time. They should then be placed 
in hot water to bring them to the proper temperature, and fed im- 
mediately. If these directions are followed there will only be 
necessity for handling the milk once, thus lessening the danger of 
contamination. A plug of sterile absorbent cotton should be 
placed in the neck of the bottle to serve as a cork. This keeps 
out bacteria but allows the entrance of air. The large neck bot- 
tles are easier to be kept clean than the narrow neck but you 
crnnot properly cover them with absorbent cotton and are com- 
pelled to pour your food from a large container into the bottle 
at each feeding. The bottles should be scalded thoroughly each 
morning before filling with the food and rinsed out with a solu- 
tion of borax water. Nipples should be scalded every day and 
kept in boric acid solution. If these directions are followed out 
carefully in the preparation of the bottles and the nipples the 
danger of contamination is reduced to a minimum and the death 
rate from dysentery would be greatly reduced. 

B. Modification of Covtfs Milk: 

When the baby has reached proper age for weaning, or when 
•from any cause your physician deems it necessary to wean from 
the breast, nothing but a modified cow's milk mixture should 
be considered. The child's food should contain in proper propor- 
tion all of the good elements — carbo-hydrates, fats, salts, proteins 
and water. If any one of these food elements is neglected, al- 
though the child may apparently- be well, he will, in time, show- 
signs of trouble to the experienced eye. Fixed formulas for the 
modification of milk are impossible because every child has 
to be fed according to its weight and condition of nutrition. 
Guess work in the feeding of babies is responsible for more deaths 
than the infectious diseases. A careful estimation should be made 
by the physician as to the exact number, of calories of food the 
child requires during the twenty-four hours and the formula 
should be worked out from this basis. The condition of nutrition 
must be considered carefully, otherwise, one is very apt to in- 
clude in the formula too much or too little of one" of the food 


elements — for example, a fat, flabby baby, slow in teething, slow 
in walking, yet of over-weight for its age, should not receive as 
much fat in its food as the child that is thin and emaciated and 
under-weight. The reason why mothers so frequently have dif- 
ficulty in feeding their babies is because the formula is not 
worked out along these lines and the result is that they try every 
food that is recommended. For a delicate babe they modify 
cow's milk ; they try Eskay's, Mellan's. Horlicks and all of the 
rest of the proprietary infant foods until finally the child reaches 
a stage where the physician has to take the case in hand, and 
there is no more difficult case in medicine than the feeding of 
such a child. Rickets and scurvy, the common diseases of the 
second year of childhood — the causes of lowered vitality — are 
the results of these errors in feeding. 

A few simple rules will help mothers with normal children. 
The child should be fed from one to two ounces more than its 
age in months at each feeding. With the minimum of three 
ounces and the maximum of eight to the feeding — for example, a 
child three months old should be given from three and one-half 
to four ounces of food every three hours ; a child six months old 
should be given from six to eight ounces of food every three 
burs. The younger the child the greater the dilution of the 
milk should be. With babies under four months of age I usually 
begin with the two-thirds milk and one-third water mixture. As 
the child increases in age the strength of the milk can be in- 
creased until at the age of one year the child is getting all milk 
without any modification. The sugar to be used should be some 
form of malt, since it is much more easily digested than any other 
form of sugar. Milk-sugar has been too widely recommended and 
used. It is very frequently the cause of severe nutritional dis- 
orders in childhood. Dextrimaltose is a very excellent form and 
is most easily assimilated by babies. For the average child from 
one to one and one-half ounces of sugar should be given in 
twenty-four hours. Other than these few points no definite rules 
can be given. A careful record of the weekly gain in weight 
should be kept with all bottle-fed babies since the scales are the 
most reliable guide as to when the baby is getting enough or when 
we are over-feeding. 

C. Proprietory Foods: 

There is no doubt but that the proprietary foods play a part 
in infant feeding. By proprietary food, I mean Mellen's, Hor- 
lick's Malted Milk, Denno's, Eskay's, Nestles, Eagle Brand Con- 
densed Milk and the numerous other prepared foods on the 
market. These foods are all standardized to meet the require- 
ments of babies in general. Since each child must be fed in- 


dividually according to its actual bodily requirements, the impos- 
sibility of successfully feeding all babies on these foods can be 
readily seen. Babies' have a higher tolerance for carbo-hydrate 
than for any of the other food elements. As a result, these pro- 
prietary foods contain in excessive amounts this ingredient at 
the expense of the others. Occasionally we see a perfectly nor- 
mal baby that has been fed on one of these foods, but in that 
case it was just the food that was adapted to that individual con- 
dition. Mothers must not feel that because their babies get fat 
and look well on these foods that they are well. Invariably de- 
fects in development can be found. I often have a baby brought 
to me with the mother boasting that it is a baby reared on pro- 
prietary food — careful examination invariably reveals defects of 
physical development which lower the child's vitality. And I 
might add here, that the most obstinate cases of dysentery that 
a doctor is ever called upon to handle are those that have been 
raised upon the proprietary foods. We get a one-sided develop- 
ment from a one-sided food. In feeding them we shape the baby 
to meet the requirements of the food instead of shaping the food 
to meet the requirements of the baby. Look at the pictures of the 
babies in the literature that you have received from these proprie- 
tary food concerns. They are fat babies with large heads, large 
abdomens, large joints, and almost invariably they have slight 
deformities of the chest, are slow to walk, slow in teething, and 
in the second year of life are the first ones to contract the in- 
fectious diseases upon exposure. For these reasons the neces- 
sity for careful modification of cow's milk can be readily seen, 
where it is absolutely impossible to secure mother's milk. A 
wet nurse will often save a child's life. 


1. What is the reason for the higher death rate amongst 
bottle-fed babes than breast-fed babies? 

2. How would you proceed to prevent contamination of the 
food prepared for your baby? 

3. Take an imaginery case of a baby six months old, weigh- 
ing fourteen pounds. Discuss in detail how you would prepare 

his food. 

4. What has been your experience with tne proprietary 

foods? . 

5. Have you noticed that the teeth decay early in babies 
that have been fed on the proprietary foods? Have you noticed 
that they are slow in walking ; that their teeth are slow in appear- 
ing ; that they have large abdomens, with very frequently naval 


6. Do you not think the proverbial difficulty of getting the 
baby through the second summer is often due to these mistakes 
in diet? 

7. Let some mother study up the different food ingredients 
— carbo-hydrates, fats, proteins, salts and water and conduct a 

By Miss Leah Brozvn. 

Are you lonely in your cottage, 

Little home so dear to you? 
Are you lonely, as you think of 

How in love 'twas built for two? 
Now, in death, you two have parted 

And have left the cottage here, 
For one alone to love and cherish 

Thinking of her mate elsewhere. 


Lonely heart, some day you'll meet him. 

On a distant silver shore. 
Lonely heart, when you shall meet him. 

He will greet his love once more. 
He will take you to a cottage 

He is building there for you ; 
Built of gold and precious jewels, 

Just a cottage built for two. 

In the solemn twilight hours. 

When the long day's work is done, 
Do you sit down by the fireside 

Thinking of the days now gone? 
How you stood there, in the doorway, 

Holding out your hand to one 
Who came home so gay and joyous 

When his own day's work was done? 

Lonely heart, your days of longing 

For the tender, thoughtful care 
Will be met in fullest measure 

When you meet him over there. 
He is eagerly awaiting 

For that glorious, happy time 
When his arms can close enfold you, 

In that perfect, heavenly clime. 


Finding that the book on Surnames by Baring-Gould is out 
of print, our Genealogical Committee have decided to print a 
book on Surnames, under the auspices of the Genealogical Society 
of Utah. We are working very hard to get this out in a month 
or six weeks. We ask your patience until then. 

Susa Young Gates, 
Amy Brown Lyman, 
Lillian Cameron. 
Committee on Surname Book. 


Kindly add the name of your stake to your lists. It saves 
much work in our office. 


Relief Society Magazine 


Bead Neck Chains 75c to $300. 

Come in and look at them. If you live out of town write about 
them. We show them in Imitation Pearls, Real Pearl, Jet, Amber, 
Coral and Gold. Bead Chains are always appropriate, always 
in good taste. 

McCONAHAY the Jeweler 

64 Main Street, Salt Lake City 

Z. C. M. I. 

School Shoes 

For Boys 

Are made for service — 
they will keep the boys' 
feet warm and dry. 

Z. C. M. I. 


are the ideal 
play garment 
for boys and 
girls. Cheap, 


,f at % 

ilAti\eCost % 

# 1 % 

^ Oregon Short Lin^ 

Jm i 




jisk your.4g*>ni fbr Details 






They RE-CREATE Music 
Catalog Free, write for prices & terms 

,JO "**»/ DAYASSJ ^PMStOCTfr CAPfT+U. '*so t oo % oo 


English and American 


Is in Mrs. Home's Art Book, "Dev- 
otees and Their Shrines" Send to 
this office or to Mrs. Alice Merrill 
Home, 4 Ostlers Court, Salt Lake City, 
for this book from which the lessons 
on Architecture for 1916 are assigned. 

Price $1.25 Postpaid 

"Civilization begins and ends with the plow." — Roberts. 

Utah Agricultural College 


Devoted to the ideal of extending the blessings of edu- 
cation to every fireside. 

Firm in the conviction that a favorable home life is the 
Nations greatest asset. 





The College offers work in all the branches of Home 

Further information furnished on request. 

Address: The President, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 


Garment Wearer's Attention 

A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 
all L. D. S. "Temple Brand" garments. Be sure it is in those you buy. If your 
leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, select your wants from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

Cotton, bleached, gauze weight 1.35 

Cotton, bleached, medium weight 1.50 

Cotton, bleached, medium heavy 1.75 

Cotton, unbleached, heavy weight 1.75 

Lisle, bleached, gauze weight 2.00 

Lisle, bleached, light weight 1.75 

Fleeced cotton, bleached, heavy 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, light weight 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, medium weight 3.00 

Wash-shrunk wool, medium weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk wool, heavy weight 3.00 

Silk and wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, heavy weight „ 6.00 






The Sierras 



Sale Dates from Utah, January 31 

From Idaho, January 30 

From Montana, January 24 

For information enquire 


District Passenger Agent 

203 Walker Bank Building 

Phone Was. 6610 








MARCH, 1917 


An Interesting Outgrowth of the 
Relief Society in Nauvoo 

J. M. Monroe 

From Times and Seasons. 

Anniversary Day Programs 

The Relief Society Ward 

Annie Wells Cannon 


a— ■ 


When you order sugar, be 
particular to specify that 
"made by the Utah-Idaho 
Sugar Co." These words are 
stamped on each bag for 
your protection. 

You want the purest, whit- 
est and sweetest sugar pro- 


Table and Preserving Sugar 

ABSOuynrsiLY pmbs 

is the standard of 6ugar per- 
fection. Order it by the bag 
—10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds. 
We also put up a 48 pound 
bag for parcel post orders. 
Order from your dealer. 



JOSEPH F. SMITH. Prhioknt 


Family Record of Temple Work for 
the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instructions for properly re- 
cording this work. 

L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in a 
most desirable and concise form, im- 
portant events in the lives of the mem- 
bers of the Church. These books are 
sold at $1.25 each. 

Deseret News Book Store 

When WE Make Your Por- 
traits, YOU get the Correct 
Style, Excellence and 

The Thomas 

Phone Was. 3491 44 Main St. 

Established 1877 

Phone Was. 1370 



35 P. O. PLACE 


Have You Read The Women of The Bible, ^SPrddone If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

F " S 'J; Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


MARCH, 1917. 

The Relief Society Sisters Maud Baggarley 121 

Frontispiece (Nauvoo) 122 

An Interesting Outgrowth of the Relief Society in Nauvoo. . 

J. M. Monroe 123 

Home of Heber C. Kimball, Nauvoo 128 

Mothers in Israel Mary Ann Stearns Winters 131 

An Interesting Occurrence in Canada Edward J. Wood 135 

A Morning Reverie Annie D. S. Palmer 138 

Anniversary Day Programs 140 

Home Evening Entertainment Morag 145 

The Music Page 146 

Admiral George Dewey and Homer Davenport 

Alice Louise Reynolds 147 

The Relief Society Ward President. . . .Annie Wells Cannon 149 

Notes From the Field Amy Brown Lyman 151 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 156 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 158 

Editorial : Our Annual Day 160 

Guide Lessons 164 


Patronize those who advertise with us 

BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE CO., Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 45 Main St., Salt Lake City. 


Temple Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Lake City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City. 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City. 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 

t \ 

The Bank 
With a Heart 

It doe>n"t take >ou long to 

find out win the "Merchant's™ 
i- everybody's hank after you 
get inside. The officers ami 
employes are there to seiTC 
you, cheerfully but in a busi- 
m — like manner. 

There's no t-h illy coldness. 
It's a bank with a heart. The 
kind of a hank for every wom- 
an's account. 4 per cent on 

"The Bank uith a Personality" 

Merchant's Bank 

Capital $250,000. Member of 

Salt Lake Clearing House. 

John Plngree, Prest. ; O. P. 

Soule, V. P.; Moroni Helner, 

V. P.; Radcllffe Q. Cannon, L. 

J. Hays, Asst. Cashiers. 

Cor. Main and Third South, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 




Paper Binding 25c Postpaid 

Deseret Sunday School Union Book Store 

44 East on South Timplb 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 


Mrs. Emma J. Sanders 

278 South Main Street 

Schramm -Johnson No. 5 

Phone Wasatch 2815 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 


The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by the payment of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


Beneficial Life Insurance Company 

Relief Society Department 


"Banking Perfection 
under U. S. Inspection " 

One of the largest 
banking institutions of 
the West with ample 
resources and unfxce 





lied facilities. 


Joseph 1". Smith, President 
Heber J. Grant, Vice-President 
Rodney T. Badger, Vice I' 
Henry T. McEwan, Cashier. 
George II. Butler, Asst. Cashier 

Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Embalmers 

Successors to 

Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the West 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Efficient Service, Modern Methods 
Complete Equipment 


By Maud Baggarlcy. 

The Call. 

The world is thine, O woman, 

Fare forth from thy narrow walls, 
There are many fields of labor, 

Come — for the Master calls. 

From thy nest hath flown the fledglings, 

So strong and fleet of wing, 
Thou cherished and guarded and nourished 

And sent them forth to sing. 

And now that thy home is empty, 

Step without thy door, 
See the hands that trembling beckon 

Beseeching thee evermore, 
To pity and succor, O woman ; 

Hasten, their need is" sore ! 

The Answer. 

From shack, and cottage, and mansion 

The willing workers came — 
''God needs us," they softly whispered, 

And in His holy name 
Went forth on errands of mercy 

And asked neither gold nor fame. 

Now the stars look down on them toiling 
For their work is never done. 

But the sick and dying bless them, 
And many a soul is now 

'Gainst the Lord's triumphant coming. 

• Silent and unassuming. 

Serene and calm of face, 
Like the ocean tide in-coming, 

Resistless their power and grace. 
Tho' they seek no crown of laurel. 

When the small and great shall 'rise 
Jehovah Himself shall bless them 

For their work beneath the skies. 






Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. MARCH, 1917. No. 3 

An Interesting Outgrowth of the 
Relief Society in Nauvoo. 

It is not generally known that there was an organization 
for young people in the early days of Nauvoo, nor that the or- 
ganization was an outgrowth of our Relief Society. Our readers 
will enjoy the following account of that event, and especially the 
words spoken by our great Prophet-leader, Joseph Smith: 


One evening in the latter part of January last, a few young 
people having assembled at the house of Elder H. C. Kimball, the 
follies of youth, and the temptations to which they are exposed 
generally, but more especially in our city, became the topic of 
conversation. The company were lamenting the loose style of 
their morals — the frivolous manner in which they spent their time 
— and their too frequent attendance at balls, parties, etc., etc., 
when Elder Kimball proposed that an appointment should be 
given out expressly for the young ladies and gentlemen, and he 
would give them such instruction and advice as the Spirit of the 
lord might suggest to him; which, if followed, would doubtless 
lead to a" reformation in the conduct of his young friends. This 
proposition was received with delight, and acted upon with 

An appointment having been given out. a number of the 
voung people assembled at the house of Elder Billings, when 
Elder Kimball addressed them for some time upon the duties of 

'"■Times and Seasons, Wednesday, April 1, 1843, page 154. 


children to their parents, to society, and to their God; exhorting 
them to lay aside their vanity, light-mindedness, pride, and frivol- 
ity : and endeavor to show themselves worthy of the religion 
which they had embraced ; advising mem to shun evil company 
(for by an individual's company is his character estimated), and 
to he obedient to their parents, for this is the first commandment 
with promise. 

This address was so well received by the assembled congre- 
gation, that it was voted, almost by acclamation, that a similar 
meeting should he held on the ensuing week. An appointment 
was accordingly circulated for the next Wednesday evening at 
Brother Farr's schoolroom, as Elder Billings' house was too small 

t<> contain the assemblage. 

On the appointed evening, the room was filled to overflowing. 
Flder Kimball addressed the crowded, hut silent and attentive 
congregation, for the space of an hour, in that plain, simple, and 
affectionate manner, which goes directly to the heart, and which 
is so natural to the speaker. He first explained the duty which 
the youth owed to themselves and the manner in which they might 
obtain honor and respect, viz., by applying their minds with de- 
termined perseverance to all the studies commonly deemed neces- 
sary to fit them for active life, and polish them for society; also 
to the study of the Scriptures, the Rook of Mormon, the l>ook 
of Doctrine and Covenants, and the theological work of their 
most talented elders. By pursuing this course, said he. "you will 
be enabled to give a reason for the hope and the joy which exists 
within you — you will always he prepared to explain the doctrine 
in which you believe — you will ever he ready to prove and defend 
your religion — you will he well received in company, and will he 
esteemed by all wise and good men. We who have borne the 
heat and burden of the day, will soon go the way of all the earth. 
and give place to you, my young brethren. You will soon come 
upon the stage of action, and be called upon to carry the glad 
tidings of the new and everlasting covenant to the remotest parts 
of the earth, and proclaim the news of gospel grace to a lost and 
ruined world. Strive, therefore, to show yourselves worthy of 
your calling; he dutiful, be humble, be faithful, be obedient, and 
acquit yourselves like men. and women of God." He concluded his 
interesting discourse with a general exhortation to keep all of 
the commandments of God, to associate with none but the wise 
and virtuous, and lastly to keep themselves pure and unspotted 
from the world. This discourse like the preceding one. was re- 
ceived with delight by all the hearers. 

Brother Farr then made a few short hut pertinent remarks. 
when a vote was taken whether the meetings should be continued, 
which was carried unanimously in the affirmative. This room 


being' also too small, the next appointment was made for the 
meeting- to be held at the house of President Smith. 

Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather the house 
was completely filled at an early hour, and numbers were obliged 
to depart for want of room. The assembly were as usual ad- 
dressed by Elder Kimball who, in* -a solemn and impressive man- 
ner, warned the young people against the evils to which they were 
exposed, and the temptations to which they were peculiarly sub- 
ject; not only from their youth and inexperience, but also from 
their sanguine and excitable temperament. He exhorted them 
to be guided by the voice of reason and judgment, and pav strict 
attention to the advice and command of their parents who, being 
of. maturer years, and a longer experience, are much better calcu- 
lated to guide the pathway of youth, than they themselves. He 
warned them against giving' heed to their passions, which he said 
would lead them into many snares, and difficulties. He advised 
them never to be forward in company, for "a wise head keeps a 
silent tongue ;" to be condescending to their inferiors, kind and 
conciliating to their equals, and deferential but not slavish to their 
superiors. He warned them against frequenting balls and such 
places, which, he said, would generally lead to many evil prac- 
tices, and would draw away the mind from more innocent amuse- 
ments, and from their duty to their parents. He said he had not 
now, nor ever had, any objections to having young people meet 
together in social parties, or indulging in any rational amuse- 
ment ; but. he strongly opposed carrying" it to extremes, as it 
generally was. He concluded this address by exhorting them to 
give heed to his advice, for it was according to the holy Scrip- 
tures, and "to live by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth 
of God." 

The house being .still too small, the next meeting was ap- 
pointed at the lodge-room over President Smith's store. 

At the appointed time this large room was filled to over- 
flowing, and the great number which assembled, testified to the 
increasing interest, in which these meetings were held by the 
youth of the city. Again Elder Kimball addressed them and gave 
them such advice as would be useful to them at the present time 
and also in their future lives. 

At the next meeting President Smith was present and ad- 
dressed the young gentlemen and ladies for some time. He ex- 
pressed his ^gratitude to Elder Kimball in the strongest terms, for 
having commenced and carried on in so masterly a manner the 
good and glorious work he had undertaken. He said it would 
be the means of doing a great deal of good, and of benefiting his 
young friends more than they were aware of : that the .gratitude 
of all good men, and of the young people whom he had so much 


benefited, would follow him through life and "when gray hairs 
should his temples adorn." he could look back with pleasure upon 
the winter of 1843, when he was engaged in promoting the cause 
of benevolence, and preparing his young friends for the glorious 
career which awaited them. 

He said that he stood before them with more embarrassment. 
than he would before kings, nobles, and great men of the earth, 
for he knew the crimes of which the latter were guilty, and knew 
precisely how to address them ; but his young friends before 
whom he now stood were guilty of none of these crimes, and he 
hardly knew what to say. He said he had never in his life seen 
Mich a large company of young people assembled together, pay 
such strict attention, listen with such profound silence, and keep 
such good order, as the assembly now before him. He praised 
their good conduct, and taught them how to behave in all places, 
explained to them their duty, and advised them to organize them- 
selves into a society for the relief of the poor. 

As a commencement to their benevolent efforts, he offered a 
petition from an English brother by the name of Modesley, who 
was lame, and who wished them to build him a house, that he 
might have a home among the Saints. This worthy brother had 
lathered together a few materials for this purpose, but was unable 
to use them ; and, now, relying upon the active benevolence of the 
young people of Nauvoo, he sends this petition that this gathering 
might act upon it as it deems proper. President Smith advised 
them to choose a committee to collect funds for diis purpose, and 
to perform the charitable work as soon as the weather became 
suitable. He ^ave them much good advice, to guide their con- 
duct through life and prepare them for a glorious eternity. He 
said he was very much pleased with the course Elder Kimball had 
taken, and hoped he would continue his meetings and that the 
young people would follow his teachings. 

A meeting was appointed for the young men to take these 
things into consideration, but owing to the appointment not being 
generally circulated, many of the young gentlemen were not 
present. The meeting was however called to oHcr. William 
Cutler was chosen president, and Marcellus L. Rates, clerk. An- 
drew Cahoon, C. V. Spencer and Stephen Perry were appointed 
as a committee to draft a constitution for the government of the 
?ociety. After hearing several speeches the meeting adjourned 
till the evening of the 23rd of March. 

At the next public meeting we were addressed by Elders 
Kimball and Roundy, and as usual received much good instruc- 
tion. Elder Kimball advised us to choose our wisest young men, 
as officers of the society, and appoint a committee to wait upon 
the young ladies, as well as gentlemen, and obtain their subscrip- 


tion; for, said he, "they are as full of benevolence, and as ready 
to assist in relieving the poor, as are the young- gentlemen." He 
also advised that no one be excluded from the society, of what- 
ever sect or denomination he might be, and that all be given an 
opportunity of doing all the good in their power. 

On this evening the storm was raging tremendously, and the 
cold north wind was blowing in a most searching manner ; yet, 
contrary to the expectations of every one, the house was almost 
filled, not only with young men and boys, but with the tender, 
lovely and beautiful women of our city. They seemed deter- 
mined to brave every extremity of the weather, rather than be 
absent from the place where they received such good instructions. 
This showed the good effects which had already been produced 
by these meetings, and cheered on the spirits of him who had 
first begun them, and had since been their chief promoter. In- 
stead of the young people spending their evenings at parties, 
balls, etc., they would now leave all, and attend their meeting. 
Instead of hearing about this party and that party, this dance and 
that dance, in different parts of the city, the Young People's 
Meetings became the chief topic of conversation. 

Pursuant to adjournment, the young men convened together 
on the 21st of March. The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved, and the same officers appointed to preside as on 
the former evening. The report of the committee was then 
called for, which was as follows : 

Whereas, The young gentlemen and ladies, citizens of the 
city of Nauvoo, are desirous of aiding and ameliorating the con- 
dition of the poor and of carrying out the principles of charity 
and benevolence, as taught in the holy Scriptures, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we form ourselves into a society to be styled 
the "Young Gentlemen and Ladies' Relief Society of Nauvoo," 
and that we be governed by the following articles, to-wit : 

1st. There shall annually be elected ,by the society, on J:he 
last Tuesday in March, a president, vice president, treasurer and 

2nd. It shall be the duty of the president to preside over all 
meetings of the society. 

3rd. It shall be the duty of the vice president to preside 
over all meetings in the absence of the president. 

4th. It shall be the duty of the treasurer to receive all funds 
of the society, and to keep a correct record of all the receipts and 
disbursements, also from whom received, and to whose benefit 
appropriated, and make a report of the same, as often as required 
by the society. 

It shall further be the duty of the said treasurer, before en- 
tering into office, to give bonds to the amount of one thousand 



dollars to the society, for the faithful discharge of all duties in- 
cumbehl upon him, which shall be lodged in the hands of the 
i rustee-in-Trust 

5th. It shall be the duty <>f the secretary to keep a record 
ct' all the proceedings of the society. 

6th. There shall annually be chosen a committee of vigil- 
ance, consisting of five persons, whose duties it shall be to search 
out the poor of our city, and make known to the society the wants 
of those whom they, in their judgment, shall consider most tie- 
serving" of our a>>i>tance. 

7th. The society shall meet on the last Tuesday in each 
month, at (> o'clock p. m. 

8th. A special meeting of the society can he called by a 
petition of twelve of the members, to the secretary, whose duty it 
shall be to give notice of the same, by posting up a written notice 
in at least three of the most public places in the city, at least 
three days previous to said meeting. 

9th. This constitution shall be lodged in the hands of the 
secretary, whose duty it shall be to present it at each meeting to 
the society, and receive the names of all persons wishing to be- 


Where the preliminary meeting of the* Young Gentlemen's and 

Ladies' Relief Society was held. 


come members, under thirty years of age, who can sustain a good 
moral character, and who are willing- to support this constitution. 

10th. Any person being a member of this society, and being 
found guilty of any disorderly conduct, or refusing to comply 
with the rules of the society, can be expelled at any regular meet- 
ing of the same, by a vote of the majority of the members present. 

11th. In the event of a removal, by death, or prolonged 
absence of either of the officers, it shall be the prerogative of the 
society to appoint another in his stead. 

12th. This constitution shall be subject to an amendment 
at any regular meeting of the society, by the voice of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

This report was unanimously adopted, and the meeting then 
proceeded to choose their officers. William Walker was chosen 
president ; William Cutler, vice president ; Lorin Walker, treas- 
urer, and James M. Monroe, secretary. Stephen Perry, Marcel- 
lus L. Bates, E. A. Aired, Wm. H. Kimball, and Garrett Ivans, 
were appointed as a committee of vigilance. After some discus- 
sion the meeting adjourned until the next Tuesday evening. 

At the next public meeting, the large and crowded assembly 
were addressed at considerable length, by Elders Jedediah Grant, 
Brigham Young, and Heber C. Kimball. The addresses were 
\ery interesting and highly instructive, as the breathless silence 
and deep attention of the audience attested. 

This is in short, a history of the rise of this society, which 
bids fair to be one of the most useful and benevolent societies in 
the Union. Throughout all the meetings, the most profound 
silence and the best of order was kept continually. If the youth 
throughout our land would follow this good example and form 
themselves into such societies, there would be much less sin, 
iniquity, misery, and degradation among the young people than 
there is at the present day ; there would not be as many suffering 
poor, neither would there be as much immorality among the peo- 
ple. But on the contrary, peace, good order, happiness, cheerful- 
ness and plenty, would reign in the land, the Lord would look 
down from His holy habitation and smile upon us, and bless us all. 

J. M. Monroe, Secretary. 

Mothers in Israel. 

Mary Ann Stearns Winters. 


With the close of January, 1852, all dances, festivities and 
amusements ceased, and our hearts and labors were turned to 
the preparation for our journey to the valleys of the Great Salt 
Lake. We had no idea how we were going to make the journey, 
but all were told to get ready, with the promise that the Lord 
would help, when they had done the best for themselves that they 
could. I think our hope must have been even greater than our 
faith, for there was not the least chance in sight for us to make 
the journey. What we needed was a wagon, team, provisions to 
last three months and a driver, and where they were to come from 
was the mystery before us. We had clothing to carry us through 
for a year without suffering, but that was a small part in com- 
parison with what was still needed for the outfit. 

Early in the spring, as the California emigrants (gold seek- 
ers) came along we baked bread for them, sliced it, and dried it 
in the oven, so they could have something to eat when it was 
not convenient for them to cook. In this way we earned some- 
thing to keep up our food supply, and also to buy a few articles, 
(thread, pins, needles, etc.), that would be so much needed in the 
new land we were to go to. We also made cotton floursacks for 
the emigrants to put their provisions in, at 75c a hundred, but 
, sewing by hand was rather slow work. Brother Joseph E. John- 
' son was taking a company of Indians to Washington to talk with 
the great White Father, and we made shirts for them, out of 
orange and blue calico, with ruffles at the neck and wrists. I did 
not see the Indians, but they must have looked quite stylish when 
dressed in their new clothes. One bright Monday morning in the 
early days of May, the Honorable A. W. Babbitt called at our 
door, and said, "Sister Pratt, I am just starting for the Valley, and 
shall expect to meet you on my return journey, in some of the 
companies that are going out this year." After wishing him a 
safe and prosperous journey she hoped it would be our good for- 
tune to go this season. He then said, "I have put a hundred dol- 
lars in the emigration fund with the express purpose that you 
have a good, substantial, comfortable wagon to make the journey 
in across the plains, and I want you to be sure that you get it." 
She thanked him very sincerely for his kind thoughtfulness in our 
behalf, and he was off, on his long journey to the westward. 


We looked at each other in astonishment, mother and I, for 
this promised help and blessing had seemed to drop right down 
from heaven in our behalf. There was the wagon in our mental 
view, hut it couldn't move without a team and a driver — still the 
thought of this home on wheels raised our spirits and hopes 
many degrees, and oh, how we did work and plan and pray. 

A steam-boat had just arrived with a large company of 
Saints from St. Louis with their goods and wagons, anxious to 
continue their journey overland to the peaceful valleys of 
Ephraim. AH was hustle and animation, with joys and hopes and 
fears and anxieties, that none hut those who participated in those 
times can fully understand. Some had sent money ahead of them 
to purchase their teams, and those who still had to buy were busy 
looking for bargains to suit their needs. But through it all was 
a spirit of buoyancy that seemed to lift upward, and press on- 
ward all who had put their hands to the task of preparation for 
the journey. In this company were many of our dear friends of 
England, Nauvoo and St. Louis, and we all rejoiced together in 
the fond hope of soon joining the earlier pioneers, and with them, 
making happy and peaceful homes in the tops of the mountains 
of the fair valleys of Ephraim. Two days after Brother bab- 
bitt's departure. Brother Joseph A. Kelting called to say good -by. 
as he was going back east to Philadelphia to visit his old home, 
and to buy goods for his store, and would not cross the plains 
for another year or two. He said to mother, "Sister Pratt, I have 
put one hundred dollars in the emigration fund with the express 
understanding that you have a suitable and comfortable outfit for 
the long and tiresome journey that lies between us and our friends 
in the Salt Lake Valley. Tt is there for your benefit, and I want 
you to have it." 

While we only got a small portion of this hundred dollars, 
the way was provided for us to have plenty for the journey, and 
a few days' rations left when we arrived in Salt Lake City. 
Words failed to express our gratitude to this Nauvoo friend and 
kind brother, in the help offered in this our time of great need. 
Brother Kelting went on the returning boat that had brought the 
company of Saints to Council Bluffs. 

We had been living by faith, and now the substance was 
growing large in our sight, and we marveled at the providences 
of our Ileavenly Father in our favor. During the days of this 
same week one of the Emigration Committee called to inquire 
.-•bout our prospects for the journey — what we had and what we 
were still in need of, and he told mother that there was a wagon 
at one of the shops that was intended for her use that it soon 
would be finished, and brought to her door. And he also told' 
her that if she would go and get it herself she could have ten 


dollars' worth of provisions from Mr. Hawks' store, (now this is 
the same Mr. Hawks that gave my brother the sugar barrels to 
scrape out). It was explained to mother that when the Com- 
mittee had solicited subscriptions from the merchants in behalf 
of the widows and destitute. Mr. Hawks had said. "No; I will not 
subscribe anything to you, but if widow Pratt is of a mind to 
come herself, I will give her ten dollars" worth o'f provisions to 
help on your cause." Mother replied that she had never been 
in Mr. Hawks' store as they sold liquor there as well as grocer- 
ies, but the brother told her she would better go, for it was a gift 
not to be slighted, and no one could get it but her. He directed 
further that when she had obtained these groceries, whatever else 
we lacked of provisions would be made up out of the fund. 

Mother -and I thought as the brother did, that it was a gift 
not to be lightly passed by — and we felt that it was another chan- 
nel of help that the Lord had opened up for our good. So the 
next day, just after dinner, mother and I went to the store and 
she explained to Mr. Hawks what she had come for and told him 
that we had been driven from our home in Illinois or we would 
not be in such destitute circumstances and needing help of this 
kind, that she accepted the gift with a grateful heart, and ex- 
pressed the hope that he would be abundantly rewarded for his 
kindness and g - ood gifts. I believe that down deep in his heart 
he was glad to give something to help the poor, persecuted, driven 
people. Right here I would like to say that / have remembered 
this good man in our holy temple, and I trust that some one has 
preached to him in the spirit world and that he will receive the 
benefit of the ordinances that have been performed in his be- 
balf. The articles we got from the store were corn-meal, bacon, 
cod-fish, rice and other groceries with soap and some dried fruit, 
and true they were a great blessing and benefit to us. 

We had been buying our butter of Sister Ellison, who lived 
on the other side of town, and as we were then needing some, 
mother proposed that we take our sewing and visit Sister Ellison, 
as she had often asked us to do, for an hour or two and get the 
butter to bring home with us. After the greetings were over 
Sister Ellison began to inquire about our prospects for the jour- 
ney (for that was the main topic among the Saints), and mother 
told her we -had the promise of a wagon and thought we would 
have plenty of provisions to last us, but she did not know where 
a learn and driver were coming from. Sister Ellison turned from 
her work and raised up her hands saying, "Well, I can tell you 
about that right now. There is a brother boarding with me who 
has been working all winter to get his team, and he wants to go 
in some one's wagon and drive this team. He will furnish his 
own provisions and would desire to have his washing done in 


return for his services. He has a large yoke of oxen and two 
yoke of cows. Two of the cows are giving a good mess of milk 
now. At the end of the journey he would want each party to 
have his own property. He has been yoking them up and training 
them for a week or two and they are doing fine. He will be up to 
supper at six o'clock and you must stay and see him, for I believe 
it is just the right chance for both of you." Accordingly, at sup- 
per partial arrangements were made to be continued as prepara- 
tions were advanced in the matter. All these opportunities had 
come to us in the short space of about one week. 

It was now getting to be the last days of May. One morning 
we heard a team at the door, and on looking out to see who had 
come, Brother Hyrum Winters stepped to the door saying, "Good 
morning. Sister Pratt — I have brought you a good wagon that I 
think will take you safely to the Valleys of the mountains. It 
is one of the best that has been made in our shop. It has a good 
double cover that will keep out the storms — there is a full bucket 
of tar under the seat ; it is all ready to load and hitch onto for 
your company. May the Lord bless and prosper you and take you 
safely through." Tears of joy and gratitude filled our eyes as 
she thanked him in behalf of all who had helped to do this kind 

In a day or two we commenced loading our wagon and in 
one week after it stopped at our door, it started on its long 
journey westward. Just as the team was being hitched to the 
wagon, Sister Julia Babbitt, who lived on the hill just beyond us, 
came over to bid us good-by — she looked in the wagon and 
thought we could make out comfortably in that wagon, 'but," 
said she, "I see you haven't any tent, and you will need one, I 
have a little one that will be just right for you — it is one that 
I took out last year when we went and returned, h lid me good 
service, and you will find it very useful, and you are welcome to 
it, for I shall not need it. The hired man is coming with it and 
the table board. If you will send the little boys for the tern poles 
these can go right in the bows of the wagon and will not take up 
any extra room, and the table board will slip right in by the side 
of the wagon box." The dear soul, had them all neatly arranged 
by the time she was telling it. She had crossed the plains twice 
and she knew what to do. As she kissed mother good-by. she 
slipped a pretty ring from her hand and placed it on mother's 
finger saying, "Accept this as a token of my love and friendship 
for you. and I will remember you and pray for you on your jour- 
ney." That was the last time we ever saw the dear, loving wom- 
an. She was good to everybody — white people and Indians — 
every want that she saw had her sympathy and help. Her trials 
have been great, but her reward is sure. 

An Interesting Occurrence in Canada. 

The following remarkable story was Related by Edward J. Wood, 

President of the Alberta Stake, at Conference in 

Salt Lake, October 3, 1915. 

The story is of today, an event which happened recently. A 
tribe of Indians came to our country, called the Kree Indians. 
They were headed by a man named "Yellow Face." He said that 
he was a member of a council of five who lived in the eastern 
part of Saskatchewan, the province to the east of Alberta. They 
spend their time in winter in hunting and fishing. They roam 
around the country for that purpose and then go back again in 
the spring. They are the wards of the British Government and 
are a superior trie. This man and his one hundred twenty-eight 
families came into our country, and camped in the woo: 1 s by a 
river, right where the road led from two of our wards. We did 
not know anything of their business. They went about hunting 
and fishing. One day this man, "Yellow Face," sent to a ward 
for the "high chief" of that ward, as he called him (we call them 
bishops), and wanted him to come to his tent and have a visit with 
him. Their people had visited us, we had asked them into our 
meetings. They had come to our entertainments and we had be- 
come interested in them. They are a very well educated people, 
are the Kree nation, — not like the Indians here. They dress as 
we do and are educated. They have a written language of their 
own, not made by white men, according to signs and sounds, 
but composed of hieroglyphics, which appear to be a scientific 

This man sent for our bishop and when he came he found a 
large tent with the heads of these one hundred twenty-eight 
families there, sitting in a circle, and "Yellow Face" was sitting 
right in front with one Indian woman. "Yellow Face" said to 
this bishop, "We want you to talk to us. We have been to your 
meetings. We have been to your parties. You have asked us to 
dine with you. Now we return the compliment. We want you 
to come and visit us." He was led to the center of the circle. 

Bishop Parker did not know what to say. He had never been 
on a mission, wasn't prepared to preach the gospel, but he was 
struck with the sincerity he saw in the people's faces as they sat 
in the circle. They were pleased to see him, so he told them 
about the restoration of the gospel and about our work of coloniz- 
ing in that country. They did not seem much interested in 
that. After he got through they said, "Is that all you know about 


your gospel?" He thought and said, "Well, T believe T have told 
yen all T know." "Well." "Yellow Face" said, "don't you have 
any books that you talk about?" "O yes," and Brother Parker 
then thought of the Book of Mormon. "Well, tell us about 
that book." Brother Parker told all he could. It did not take 
very long and when he got through the chief said, "That is all," 
and Brother Parker went home. 

About a week later the chief sent for the bishop again. 
Brother Parker did not know this time what would be expected 
of him. But be went and found the same crowd there. This 
time "Yellow Face" said to Brother Parker. "When you were 
here before. I sat there and you stood here. This time I'll stand 
here and you sit there," and so he related the following story to 
Brother Parker : 

'Two years ago the High Chief of our c mncil bad a vision," 
(mind you, this man' never knew anything about our gospel, never 
knew there was such a thing as visions or heavenly manifesta- 
tions). "Our High Chief, the great chief of the Kree Nation had 
a messenger eoire to him that be never knew, and be told this chief, 
\ou are going to die, but you won't die all over. When you die 
I do not want you to be buried until you get cold all over. So the 
chief said, all right ; and later be went with this messenger, so that 
they all thought be died. All the other chiefs thought he was dead, 
but he had told his nearest associates previously to watch his 
body when he went cold, from the extremities of his fingers to his 
toes, and to bury him if his body was cold all over, but if they 
found a warm spot over his heart not to bury him. So he was 
watched for five days and only above his heart was there a small 
warm place. On the end of the fifth day he came to. and he 
called all his council together and told them he had been into a 
country where he saw his forefathers, walked with them, talked 
with them ; and they told him he would not yet die, for he would 
come back to the earth and that he was to send all over the coun- 
try until he found a people who had a book in which was re- 
corded the history of the many people he had been with in the 
spirit world ; and he said I will give unto you four signs by 
which you may know the people. First, they will not drive you 
out of their country. Second, you can turn your horses loose, 
they won't steal them. Third, they will go through your village 
and thev won't rob the virtue of your maiden women. Fourth, 
they will let you bunt and fish on their domain." So he said to 
P»rother Parker. "With my family for two years we have hunted 
for such a people. You invited us into your meetings. We sat 
at the table with you in your picnic parties. You have come 
through our village ; you have not molested our women. We 
arc fishing and hunting- today on your Church land. So I tried 


you, I watched you ; we have watched your old men, your young- 
men ; we have watched every action of all your people. When I 
heard you speak it sounded like good music to me and when you 
said that that was all, you had to tell I thought again, I am dis- 
appointed. So I asked you if you had a book. You told me you 
had and told me of your Book of Mormon. That is our book. 
That is our history, not yours. We want it." 

So Brother Parker went and got the Book of Mormon and 
brought it back to the Indians. The Indians took it, gave it to 
the interpreter and had him sit down and read it by the hour, and 
when he got through the Indian Chief kept the book — to take 
back to the High Chief who was waiting for them — he did not 
think he had to buy it. He had said, "It is our book, our his- 
tory," and drew out a beautifully embroidered envelope of leather 
and wrapped it up and took it away. They have visited us several 
tunes since, telling us other wonderful things. They are a very 
fine people, and only the Lord knows what this visit may portend. 
Not all that was related can be related here as it pertains to a 
sacred prophecy. It will come true in due time. 


So young, so gentle, so exceeding fair, 
With pleasant ways almost beyond compare, 

No wonder you have gone where angels dwell. 
But oh, your absence is so hard to bear, 

Sweet girl, dear Alice, you were loved so well ! 

You were so wanted, here and everywhere ; 
And Heaven gained you ; you are radiant there. 

Come often, then, and cheer your friends below 
With your sweet influence — heed this longing prayer, 

Ask God to send you — Mother loves you so ! 

L. Lula Greene Richards. 

A Morning Reverie. 

By Annie D. S. Palmer. 

I awoke early this morning, but I did not arise early. 1 
needs must think this morning of my friend, of my Relief So- 
ciety President, of Tena Jensen. 

Thinking of Sister Jensen took me in spirit into the homes 
where Relief Society work is done, the homes where sickness 
and pain are found, where want and hunger dwell, where sin has 
entered, where the hush of death has fallen. Into these homes she 
and her noble associates go bravely, seeking to know the aid that 
may be given, administering the relief that human power can 

Thinking of Sister Jensen led me into the assemblies of 
earnest, busy women — the aged, where beautiful song and story 
are appreciated, where faith grows, where motherhood is hon- 

Thinking of her revealed to me the embodiment of devotion, 
of hope, of courage, of energy, of charity that never faileth. 

Thinking thus, I dreamed, and in my mind hurried ; and, 
with almost the quickness of thought, I was carried some seventy- 
five or a hundred years into the sunlight of future joy. Seeking, 
T found Sister Jensen, silent and unknown, and followed her to 
note what she was doing. As she paused and knocked at a door 
that was closed, the thought of sickness and sorrow came to me — 
it was at such places she used most to visit. Not so at this home. 
The door was opened by a beautiful woman, white appareled, 
who threw her arms about Sister Jensen with such a cry of 
gladness that the whole household came to see and extend their 

"See," the woman said, indicating the family group and 
their surroundings, "this glorious, heavenly home is ours because 
of the help you gave to us while we were upon the earth. You 
encouraged us in the hour of temptation, you succored us in the 
moment of despair. And now, ah. there is no want, and sor- 
row is unknown. Yes, all our children are here, ten of them. 
How lonely we should feel in this great home with only two or 

Sister Jensen freed herself from the loving embrace and 
went on. As we drew near to another mansion, a grim, gaunt 
figure approached whom I knew as Death. From the splendid 
house came two sisters hurrying down the path and laughing as 
they ran. These, too. clasped Sister Jensen in fond embrace. 


"We feared yon apparition once," said the younger woman, 
"and well we might. Do you remember the night he carried sister 
away? I shudder even now as I think of the cruel poverty, and 
the agonizing pain. But you comforted sister for the lonely jour- 
ney and cared for me when she was gone. He has no power 
here ; we laugh at his weakness. 'Oh grave, where is thy vic- 
tory;' oh death, where is thy sting?'" 

Sister Jensen seemed to be looking for something special to 
do, so she hurried on. In the cool shade of a grove of palm 
trees a group of women sat in council. These espied the well- 
known figure afar off and sent a messenger to bring her. 

"Noble Tena," the messenger said approaching, "we hold 
converse concerning the greatness of God's love, and how we may 
best show appreciation and let your voice be heard in the council 
of heaven's priestesses and queens." 

For a time she whom I followed was lost to me amid the 
throng of happy, whiterobed women who surrounded her ; but I 
knew she was worthy of the honor they gave and that she would 
bear her part in the discussions of heavenly love even as she had 
shown wisdom in the affairs of earth. 

I now began to feel a great desire to draw near to her, to 
speak to her, to have her tell me of her life and of the full meas- 
ure of her joy. With this desire I waited a full hour for her to 
quit the queenly council. 

She met me with the same glad smile, the same cheery wel- 
come that I had always known. I had opportunity now to note 
the brightness of her eyes, the silky coils of hair, the smoothness 
of her skin, and the exquisite texture of her snowy robe. 

"I am so perfectly happy," she said. "There is always some- 
thing to do, just as there used to be, but I never get tired now, 
and Father's work is so grand! There is so much joy in it! I 
often wonder why we ever thought it hard when on the earth. 
I am going now to meet a sweet old sister who is dreading to die. 
The dear old soul has suffered so_ much and is so weary of life 
— oh, she will be so glad when it is over!" 

Then I awoke to a realization of the fact that Sister Jensen, 
our Relief Society President, is still with us, that it was meeting 
day, and that I, too, had my part of the work to perform. 

Suggestive Programs for Anniversary 



Darkness, hymn. "Dark is the Human Mind when Bound," 

Psalmody No. 2. 

Restoration, hymn. "An Angel from on High," Psalmody No. 187. 
The Open Door, reading, "Instructions of the Prophet Joseph," 

March, 1915. Relief Society Magazine. 
Poem, "The Relief Society," March, 1915, Young Woman's 

Solo, "The Lord is My Light." 
Reading - . Doctrine and Covenants, Section 25. 
Hymn. "We Thank Thee. O God. for a Prophet." 

ITymn. "Ye Simple Souls Who Stray," Psalmody No. 186. 


Hymn, "The Happy Day has Rolled On," Psalmody No. 1. 

Bible Reading, Isaiah, chapter 60. 

Recitation. "The Genesis of the Relief Society," March. 1915. 

Relief Society Magazine. 
Solo. "The Seer," Psalmody No. 314. 
Reading, "Report of Nauvoo Relief Society," March, 1915. Relief 

Society Magazine. 
Address, "The Objects of the Relief Society." 
Hymn, "How Blest was the Day," Psafrnody No. 429. 

"aunt em." 

Hymn. "Our Mountain Home so Dear." 

Roll Call, Sentiments from "Aunt Em." 

Bible Reading, "The Virtuous Woman," Proverbs, chapter 31. 
Reading, "Mothers in Israel." February, 1916. 7?. S. Magazine. 
Sing or read "Sing we of a Home Immortal." Hymn Book, 423. 
Reading. "Aunt Em." March. 1915, Young Woman's Journal. 
Read Selections from Musings and Memories. 
Poem, "At Evening," March, 1915, Young Woman's Journal: 
September, 1916, R. S. Magazine. 


Hymn, " 'Mid Scenes of Confusion," Psalmody 286. 


Hymn, "Welcome, Best of all Good Meetings," Psalmody 225. 


Reading, "My Testimony Concerning Temple Work," February, 

1916, R. S. Magazine. 
Solo, "My Faith in Thee." 

Reading, " ATestimony," February, 1916, R. S. Magazine. 
Subject of Testimonies, "How being a Relief Society worker has 

made me a better Latter-day Saint." 
Hymn, "O Jesus, the Giver of All We Enjoy," Hymn Book, 22. 
Reading, Editorial' in March, 1916, Relief Society Magazine. 


Singing, "Oh, Blessed was the Day," Psalmody 429. 


Story of the First Organization, Stake Officer. 

Tableau, 1. Charity in Act, Ward 1. 

2. Charity in Word, Ward 2: 

3. To gain Knowledge (higher development), Ward 3. 
Song, "Hymn of Praise," S. S. Song Book, page 186, Stake 


Story of Wheat Saving, March, 1915, Relief Society Magazine, 
Stake Officer. 

Tableau, "Harvest Scene," Ward. 

Tableau, Genealogy, Ward. 

Song, "Make the World Brighter," S. S. Song Book, page 197, 

Story, "Relief Society Nurse Work," with demonstrations. 

Tableau, "Women of the Bible," Ward presiding; Madonna, 
Ruth, Rebecca, Esther, Dorcas and others. 

Tableau, "A Modern Relief Society at Work, or The Work Meet- 
ing," Ward. 

Musical Tableau, "The Teachers," Slake Choir. 

Dramatize the Song, "The Relief Society," October, 1915, R. S. 

Art Tableau, "The Three Graces." 

Song, "Scatter Sunshine." 

Refreshments to be served by the Home Economics Section. 


Decorations to be green and white, as the 17th of March is 
cJso St. Patrick's Day. 

The menu may be simple or elaborate, but keep the color 
scheme in mind. Meats may be garnished with watercress, celery 
tops, and green peas. Cakes may be iced in white and green, and 
the ices and candy must also bain keeping. 


Toast Program. 

Silent Toast, "Our Prophet." (All standing.) 

- "Hail to the Prophet ascended to heaven, 
Traitors and tyrants now fight him in vain ;* 
Mingling with Gods he can plan for his brethren. 
Death cannot conquer that hero again." 

"The Relief Society." 
"Here's to the virtue that directs our action with respect 
to ourselves; justice to those with whom we deal; mercy, 
love and charity to all mankind." 

"Our Husbands." 
"Creatures not too bright or good x 

For human nature's simple food, 
For transient sorrows, simple wiles. 
Praise, blame, love, kisses, tears and smiles.'' 

— Wordsworth. 



"As the bow unto the cord is 
So unto the man is woman. 
Tho' she bends him, she obeys him ; 
Tho' she draws him, yet she follows ; 
Useless each without the other." 

— Longfelloiv. 

"A link from the chain that angels wear." 
R< sponse. 

"Smile awhile ; when you smile, another smiles 
And soon there's miles, and miles of smiles. 
And life's worth while, because you smile." 

"To All of Us." 
"Here's t < » all of us. for there's so much good in the 
worst of us, and so much bad in the best of us. that it hardlv 
behooves anv of us. tn talk about the rest of us/' 

The banquet may be followed, by dancing. 



Suggestive Program for Stake Choir. 

1. Eliza R. Snow, Brief Biography. 

Song, "Tho' Deepening Trails," "O, My Father." 

2. Emily Hill Woodmansee, Biography. 
Song, "Providence is Over All." 

3. Lulu Greene Richards, Read "Similitude," December, 1916, 

R. S. Magazine. 
Song, "My Friend," September, 1916, R. S. Magazine. 
Song, "Let Us Treat Each Other Kindly," S. S. Song Book, 

page 146. 

4. Lillie T. Freeze, Read from old copies of Young Woman's 

Song, "Hymn of Praise," S. S. Song Book, page 186. 

5. Hannah Cornaby. 

Song, "Who's on the Lord's Side, Who?" 

6. Emmeline B. Wells. 

Read, "Sing We of a Home Immortal." 
Song, "Our Mountain Home so Dear." 
Subject of Address, "Latter-day Saint Hymnology." 


For the Home Evening. (Use Bibles and Concordances.) 
"Seek and ye shall find." 
Preparing the Supper: 

1. "And upon the table * * they shall spread a cloth of blue 

and put thereon the dishes, and the spoons, and the 
bowls and the continual bread shall be thereon." 

2. "Salt without proscribing how much." 

3. "The bright shining of a candle doth give thee light." 
4.' "Behold I have prepared my dinner. Come." 

The Blessing: 
Oh give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good, for His mercy 
endureth forever. 
Soup : 

5. "Pour out the broth." 

6. "Eat what thou findest, eat this roll." 


7. "We remember the fish." 

8. "And they gave him a piece of broiled fish." 

Meats : 

9. "Two young pigeons." 

10. "Fowls ye may eat." 

11. "Chickens." 


Vegetables : 
1_\ "Beans and Lentils." 
13 "The cucumbers * and the leeks and the onions and 

the garlic." 
14: "Olives." 

15. "The full corn in the ear." 

Dessert : 

16. "Cheese." 

17. "A basket of summer fruit." 

IS. "A cluster of grapes * * pomegranates, and of the fi^s." 
1'). "And the melons." 

20. "Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink, for I am thirsty. 

And she opened a bottle of drink, and gave him drink." 

21. "Thou shalt drink also water * * from time to time shalt 

thou drink." 

22. After dinner "Sing unto the Lord, Oh ye Saints of His, and 

gfive thanks." 



Numbers 4 :7. 


Ezekiel 4 :9. 


Ezra 7 :22. 


Numbers 1 1 



Luke 1 1 :36. 


Micah 6:15. 


Matthew 22 :4. 


Mark 4:28. 

niessing. Psalm 


.1.' 16. 

I Samuel 17 



Judges 6:20. 


Amos 8:1. 


Ezekiel 3:1. 


Numbers 13 


/ . 

X umbers 11 :5. 


Numbers 11 



Luke 24:42. 


Judges 4:19. 

Leviticus 5 :7. 


Ezekiel 4:11 

1 <!. 

Deuteronomv 14 



Psalms 30 :4 


Matthew 23:37. 


Select perfect fruit. One dozen oranges, 2 large lemons. 
Wash in hot water, then throw in cold water for a few minutes. 
Do not peel, but cut the fruit in very thin slices. Cut the slices 
across two or three times, discarding nothing but the seeds and 
cores. Measure fruit, adding 3 cups of water to one cup of fruit. 
Stand over night in an earthenware vessel. Next morning boil 
ten minutes only. Stand over another night. On the second 
morning add pint for pint of sugar and boil steadily till the juice 

Note: This is the best season of the year for making this 
delicious dainty. 

Home Evening Entertainment. 

st. Patrick's day party. 
By Morag. 

The March hostess often observes the "Seventeenth of Ire- 
land," as it is often called, by giving an Irish party. Here is the 
invitation : 

"The favor of yer prisince is riquisted at a party in honour 
of St. Patrick, to be held at the home of Mrs. Blank, on the 
seventeenth of Ireland. Please wear a thrifle o' grane to ixtin- 
guish yerself from the others." 

This request will be taken literally, of course, and much mer- 
riment will result, for the boys will wear green ties, bows, garters, 
sox, etc., and the girls will wear green waists, caps, bows, etc. 

Decorate the rooms with paper shamrocks, harps, and em- 
blems of Ireland. 

Partners may be found by matching halves of paper harps 
which have been cut into two and drawn from a basket. 

Sing some of the old Irish songs : "Last Rose of Summer," 
"Bendermeer's Stream," "Believe Me," "Minstrel Boy," "The 
Harp that once through Tara's halls." 

A jolly game is as follows: 
Prepare a sheet of paper for each guest present. Draw the 
outline of a large snake, and inside the snake write words such as, 
snakes, toads, bogs, drove, St. Patrick, banished, varmint, etc. 

The guests will then fill in a story in a given time, using the 
words already written as they appear in the various lines. 

The stories are then read aloud and a prize awarded to the 
funniest story. 

Irish jokes and witticisms may be indulged in, and some of 
John McCormack's songs may be put on the victrola. 

Other songs: "Mother Machree," "When Irish Eyes are 
Smiling," "Where the River Shannon Flows," may be sung and 
a merry dance finish the evening. 

Refreshments may be: 
Murphy Salad: 

(Potato salad served in potato skins.) 
Tipperary Sandwiches : 

(Minced ham and watercress.) 
Shamrocks : 

(Small cakes cut in shamrock form and iced green.) 
Irish Sherbet: 

(Fruit sherbet, colored green with vegetable coloring.) 

The Music Page. 

Question — How shall we arrange a Stake Relief Society 
Choir?— H. L. 

First. Be sure you have made a good selection in choosing 
your stake chorister and organist. They should be women of 
strong personality, full of enthusiasm, tact, perseverance, and 
patience, as well as being women of musical ability. This also 
applies to the sisters who act in these positions in the various 

The stake chorister after her appointment should call together 
her local choristers, and organists, ward choir members, and any 
others who care to join. 

A regular day each month should be chosen for rehearsals, 
and some simple music adapted to the ability of the women's 
voices should be selected. Do not attempt to sing grand opera 
choruses, but choose some of the simple and beautiful music writ- 
ten by our home authors, music full of the spirit and genius of 
our work. What is lacking in musical ability in our Relief choir 
work may be made up in love, devotion, and enthusiasm. 

We need quality, of course, and we also need quantity, sing- 
ers with influence, and enthusiasm. 

Get all the trained singers that are available, those sweet, true 
voices which have had some cultivation as well as those of good 
native ability, who are able to sing a solo if needed or to take the 
lead in duet or quartet singing. 

Of quantity — these make up the rank and file of a choir of 
no great talent, but whose hearts are in the work and who love tc 
do their part in the service of praise. 

Be sure and include those rare souls whose sweet influence 
will bring others along, whose quiet assistance will do much to 
bring new members and keep up the interest of the others, even 
though they be not extra good singers. 

1^ stakes where wards- are scattered, the stake chorister 
might select a few hymns or songs and give them tq her local 
choristers to be learned between conferences ; then an hour's prac- 
tice of the combined choirs before the stake conference opens 
would result in a good stake choir. 

Sing the songs of Zion, and those of our gifted women 
writers. Where you have few opportunities to sing as a stake 
choir, arrange to sing for the old folks and the "shut-ins ;" also 
have an occasional social with a concert program at least once a 

Admiral George Dewey and 
Homer Davenport. ■ 

By Alice Louise Reynolds. 

Homer Davenport, the cartoonist, greatly enriched one of 
his public addresses with the following story of Mr. Dewey: 

In gratitude to Admiral Dewey for his services at Manila 
Bay, the people of the United States presented him with a home 
in Washington, D. C. He very promptly put the deeds of the home 
in his wife's name. 

This seemed to displease many Americans and the press 
was not slow in voicing this displeasure. About this time Mr. 
Davenport had a chance meeting with Richard Harding Davis. 
Mr. Davis said to him, /'Davenport, what do you think of all this 
'hubbub' that is going on over Dewey's deeding his home to his 

"I think it is a great shame," replied Davenport. 

"Then why don't you say so with a cartoon ?" responded Mr. 

Davenport argued the point with Mr. Davis, insisting that 
he should say the thing that needed to be said in a short story. 

"No," said the novelist, ''it must be done at once with a car- 
toon in one of our great daily newspapers ; clearly that is your 
job, Davenport." 

On Mr. Davis' suggestion, said Mr. Davenport, I made a 
cartoon. I placed Dewey standing on a Man-of-war in Manila 
Bay. At a distance I placed Uncle Sam peering through field 
glasses at him, his very expression bespeaking pride and satis- 
faction. Into Uncle Sam's mouth I put the following words : "If 
he'd give his old shoes away, he's still the hero of Manila Bay." 

Sometime after, I visited Washington. In my mail I found 
a most urgent invitation from Admiral and Mrs. Dewey to call 
on them. I did so and was amazed on entering their drawing 
room to find hanging on the wall, in a frame, my cartoon. The 
old Admiral noted the look of surprise on my face, and said : 
"Mr. Davenport, that is just why we urged this visit. Do you 
know that in a nation where the men are noted for their gallantry 
as they are in the United States, I fancied that the thing I did 
would meet with popular approval. I was astonished beyond 
measure at the abuse it brought forth. Indeed, Mrs. Dewey and 
myself were so disheartened that we seriously contemplated mov- 


ing to some remote village in France until the storm blew over. 
In the garret at this moment there is a trunk partly packed for 
that purpose. 

"You turned the tide. For days the most abusive letters ha 1 
been coming to us from all parts of the United States. One 
morning we opened an envelope containing your cartoon. At- 
tached to it was a note saying: 'These are our sentiments.' Day 
after day the mail brought letters of approval pinned to your 
cartoon. Then we began to know what the other half thought. 
So we gave up the contemplated trip abroad, and Mrs. Dewey 
teased packing trunks." 


By Lucy May Green. 

Dedicated to President Emmeline B. Wells on her Eighty-ninth 


For many years our President's voice has sounded: 

Tnto the storehouse, bring the golden grain, 
Soon famine dire, and sorrow will o'crtake you, 
Prepare! be ready for these days of pain, 
1 Tepare, Prepare ! 
Garner the golden harvest, 

The summer is nearly done, 
Bring in the grain to the storehouse, 
The night will surely come. 

Throughout the world the voice of God is speaking 

In earthquake's violence, with fire and sword, 

Dread war's alarm, and oceans' bondage breaking. 

Prepare ! oh, nations, soon to meet your Lord. 

Prepare, Prepare ! 

Now is the time accepted, 

Soon will your day be done; 
Repent, receive the gospel 

Through Jesus Christ, the Son. 

"Now is the time," the* still small voice is pleading, 

"My Saints, be faithful, hear the living Word, 
Your dead redeem. Salvation's message heeding — 
Be ready to receive your coming Lord. 
Prepare, Prepare ! 
Send forth the glorious gospel, 

Pray for the happy day 
When Jesus with His people 
Shall reign eternally." 

The Relief Society Ward President. 

By Annie Wells Cannon. 

There is, in my opinion, no Church officer to whom I would 
prefer to render tribute than that kind, forceful, and generous 
woman who has the task and the privilege to preside over a ward 
Relief Society. 

It is quite interesting to note the inspiration that seems to be 
given those in authority in the selection of women to hold this 
arduous position. Inspiration it certainly has to be, when one 
knows the many qualifications and requirements the office de- 

How can a bishop and stake officer tell, even though they 
may have intimate acquaintance with the woman they select, that 
she will prove equal to the test ! 

A successful president must combine many graces, besides 
the devotion of much time and energy. Therefore, one would 
fancy that the choice would fall upon an educated, capable woman, 
so well provided with earthly goods that she could afford to give 
time and means and thought to her position. On the contrary, 
the majority of ward Relief Society presidents — and they number 
nearly a thousand — are the busiest women in the community, 
known perhaps more for the capable way they are serving their 
large families than anything else. And why not? When one 
finds a successful Latter-day Saint mother, immediately may one 
know that such a woman has ability for other things, and will so 
manage her time that she can perform any task allotted her. 

The requirements for a Relief Society president combine 
many virtues — executive ability, faith, wisdom, patience, sincerity, 
and most of all charity, in its very broa'lest sense. Virtues which 
adorn anv woman, not alone in the home, but any place she may 
h-ippen to be, either socially or officially. King Solomon said, 
''Find me a virtuous woman for her price is far above rubies." 
Among our Relief Society workers such women are numerous and 
their value is beyond calculation. Where can be found greater 
problems than come before the social service worker? How to uro- 
vide for the needy: how to comfort the sorrowful; how to raise 
the poor in heart: how to serve and wait upon the sick: how to 
enter the house of mourning and prepare the dead for burial, at 
the same time comfort and cheer the mourners: how to seek out 
the poor, and the sorrowful, and provide for their wants; the 
task, too, to help the erring one, both by gentle admonition and a 


needed lift along the. way. These are a few of the problems that 
come in the way of the ward president and her duty is to solve 
them all. That she is successful in her mission the thousands 
whom she has served will testify. 

Relief Society work, like all good thh>gs, carries with it a 
beautiful blessing, and though one may feel sometimes the strain 
of the work, at the same time one cannot help but recognize the 
wonderful help the work gives the worker. It is an education in 
the biggest, broadest sense. Not only development of mind, and 
strength of purpose, biU that finer, richer education of the heart, 
which broadens the powers for good, which brings discernment. 
judgment and the most beautiful graces to the human soul. T 
have seen uncultivated, uneducated women of the poorer, hard- 
working class, develop all these graces under the work of the 
Relief Society and become most efficient and capable ward presi- 
dents. The woman may make the office splendid, but at the 
same time, the office makes the woman splendid. While we give 
a tribute of praise and love to those great women, the ward 
presidents of the Relief Society, let us also praise our Heavenly 
Father for the opportunities of Relief Society work. 


Only duly appointed agents for the Relief Society Magazine 
are entitled to the agents' discount of 10%. Agents are fur- 
uished with subscription blanks and receipt books from the Mag- 
azine office. They will please deduct discount before sending in 
subscription lists — otherwise the discount will not be allowed. 

We are sorry to announce that the January number of the 
Magazine is exhausted. All late subscribers will necessarily be- 
gin with the February number. 

The heavy storms have so greatly interfered with traffic that 
the February number was late in reaching subscribers, a matter 
which is greatly regretted at the General Office. 

Notes from the Field. 

Amy Brown Lyman, General Secretary. 


The stakes in and about Salt Lake City make a feature of 
special charity work at Christmas time. Following are some 
details of their labors : 

Pioneer Stake. 

According to the usual custom, the different wards of Pioneer 
stake sent out a large number of Christmas baskets, besides small 
presents of money, soft slippers, handkerchiefs, comforts, etc., to 
the aged. There were 284 baskets sent out, ranging in value 
from $3 to $6 each. The Relief Society also distributed several 
tons of coal. 

Cottonzvood Stake. 

In the Cottonwood stake $318.07 in cash and produce and 
300 pounds of sugar were distributed on Christmas day to the 
poor. Each member of the Stake Board donated one quilt for 
distribution, making 18 quilts in all. 

I iberty Stake. 

In this stake, the following donations were given : Liberty 
ward sent 20 baskets, value $4 each ; the Eighth ward, six baskets, 
value $3 each, and also $36 in cash ; LeGrande ward, 46 bas- 
kets, value $4 to $5 each ; Thirty-third ward, one ton of coal to 
each widow and needy family; Ninth ward, 12 families were each 
given $1 in cash; Second ward, 46 baskets. In the Tenth and 
Thirty-third wards, the bishoprics took full charge of the charity 

Salt Lake Stake. 

The Fourteenth ward distributed 27 baskets containing mer- 
chandise and $1 in cash ; Fifteenth ward Relief Society assisted 
the bishop in sending out 36 baskets. The Relief Society do- 
nated the following articles to be added to the baskets: 3 quilts, 
30 aprons, 2 kimonas, 2 underskirts, 12 pairs of ladies' hose, 6 
pairs men's socks, 4 union suits, 1 pair slippers. 3 rag rugs three 
yards long, and $15 in cash. / 

In the Seventeenth ward $350 was collected by the Relief 
Society in cash and merchandise. Sixty baskets were sent out 


containing meat, potatoes, sugar, butter, fruit, and canned vege- 
tables. From $1 to $5 was added to the baskets, according to 
tlie needs of the families. To the sick and aged, a plant or a 
hunch of cut flowers was sent. 

The bishop of the Nineteenth ward took charge of the Christ- 
mas donations. The Relief Society prepared a hot dinner, and 
cnterained about twenty of the needy and aged. 

Tn the Twenty-second ward 24 baskets containing merchand 
ise were distributed. Cash was collected and used to buy coal 
which was sent to those in need. Thirteen baskets were distrih 
utcd, each containing merchandise and $1.50 in cash. 

The Twenty-fourth ward M. T. A. boy scouts assisted the 
sisters in the ward to distribute 30 baskets containing cash and 

In the Twenty^eighth ward, the bishop took full charge of 
the charity work. The Relief Society sent ten old ladies $1 each. 
and on the first Tuesday in January, they entertained their ward 
teachers and the old folks. 

The Twenty-ninth ward Relief Society sisters assisted the 
bishop in sending out 16 baskets of merchandise; $2 in cash was 
-cut each widow; S48.50 in all were distributed. 

The Center ward distributed $14.80 in cash and merchandise, 
most of this going to four families. 

In the North Point ward there is no needy, and the Relief 
Society donated $5 to a ward entertainment for the children. 

Ensign Stake. 

The Eleventh ward distributed 70 baskets filled with gro- 
ceries which consisted of sugar, canned peas, tomatoes, corn, meat; 
etc., and from 50 cents to $1 in cash ; $40 in cash was sent out 
in this ward. 

The Twelfth-Thirteenth ward sent out 68 boxes. These 
boxes each contained a chicken, potatoes, groceries of all kinds, 
including one can of cocoa for each family and a hag of candy. 
end cash from $1.50 to $2.50. according to the size of the family : 
$50 in cash was distributed in this ward. Money was collected 
for the groceries and they were purchased wholesale by the 
bishop. The potatoes were brought in by members of the Relief 
Society, each one bringing three. Tn addition to this, flour and 
potatoes were given to many other families. The Ensign ward 
collected and distributed $27.46. 

In the Twenty-first ward, the officers of the Relief Society 
visited every home and received $221 in donations. They sent 
baskets to forty-two families, a sack of potatoes, a sack of apples 


and $1.50 to $2 in cash to each of them. Thirteen sacks of flour 
were also sent out. 

In the Twentieth ward, forty-seven baskets, at a value of 
from $1.50 to $2 each, were distributed. One of the residents of 
the ward donated $15, with which to buy toys for poor children. 
The Twenty-seventh ward distributed twelve baskets and several 
tons of coal. 

In the Eighteenth ward the bishopric and Relief Society 
worked tog-ether in collecting and distributing charity funds. On 
Christmas day, $401.75 was distributed to the worthy poor and 
widows ; $100 was sent to the missionaries, making a total dis- 
bursement for Christmas of $501.75. 

Granite Stake. 

The Granite stake Relief Society, in September and October, 
1916, inaugurated a Food Preparedness Campaign, when Relief 
Society teachers visited the homes of the people — both Latter-day 
Saints and non-members — in the various wards of the stake, and 
solicited a special "free will donation," consisting of one pound 
of flour, sugar, rice, beans, peas, etc., which could be stored away 
for a time of emergency or special need among the working poor. 
On October 27, entertainments were given in the ward meeting 
houses, in the afternoon for the children, who paid for -admission 
in coal and potatoes, and in the evening for adults, who paid ad- 
mission in pounds, if they so desired. The movement was at- 
tended with gratifying success, as is attested by the following 
figures: Collected in cash, $680.86; pounds, 6,l60y 2 ; bottled 
fruit, 91 quarts ; canned goods, 426; packages, 116; coal, 12 sacks ; 
potatoes, 8 sacks ; soap, 36 bars. 

The people, generally, entered into the spirit of the campaign 
wtih such manifest enthusiasm that it is hoped to make it an 
annual affair. 

President Lorilla L. Home, of the Granite stake Primary 
Association, with her officers and the workers of the several 
wards, pleasantly surprised the Relief Society sisters in their 
various January work and business meetings. These Primary 
workers assisted in the sewing, and afterwards served delicious 
refreshments. In one of the wards a complete layette was made 
for an expectant mother. 

The old folks of the County Infirmary were given the cus- 
tomary musical and dramatic treat during the Christmas holidays. 
Stake Chorister Lucy M. Green, and the Relief Society choir, paid 
them a visit and discoursed sweet music, and the members of the 
Miller ward Relief Society presented a play for their amusement 
and pleasure. Both of the entertainments were greatly enjoyed 
and highly appreciated. 


Swiss and German Mission. 

Mrs. Rose Ellen Bywater Valentine, who with her husband 
Mr. H. W. Valentine, late President of the Swiss and German 
Mission, has just returned from Europe, and was a recent visitor 
at Relief Society headquarters. We were delighted to receive 
Mrs. Valentine and to hear her interesting account concerning the 
people with whom she has been associated, in the old world. 

Mrs. Valentine was for three and one-half years president of 
the Relief Societies in Germany and Switzerland. She was set 
apart for this special work in March, 1913, by Elder Rudger 
Clawson, who was at that time President of the European Mis- 
sion, and she continued in this position until her release in the 
late fall of 1916. 

There are at present 17 branches of the Relief Society in this 
mission, 13 in Germany and four in Switzerland, and a total mem- 
bership of 600. The German societies are located in Berlin, Dres- 
den, Chemnitz, Hamburg, Konigsburg, Stettin, Karlsruhe, 
Zwickau, Gerlitz, Frankfurt, Nurnberg, Breslau, and Spandau ; 
and the Swiss branches are located in Berne, Basle, St. Gallen, 
and Zurich. 

Mrs. Valentine reports that weekly meetings are held in most 
of these societies, and that the average attendance throughout the 
Mission is 7S%. 

For class work, outlines were prepared and printed in German 
at the Mission headquarters, consisting of lessons on the life of 
Joseph Smith and on the subject "Salvation possible for all man- 
kind," the latter subject being studied with the special object of 
leading up to the study of Genealogy. 

The Swiss branches, all recently visited by the President, 
were found to be in good working condition, half of the meeting 
days being given up to study and the other half to sewing and 
hand work. 

Mrs. Valentine was not able to visit the German societies 
after the outbreak of the war in 1914; but from the excellent re- 
ports sent her, she learned that the faithful sisters in these 
branches are more earnest than ever before in their Relief Society 
work, and in all the duties connected with it. Many of them 
have sustained severe losses, and their tender and aching hearts 
are filled with only one desire — that of doing good. 

Many Germans who were living in Switzerland at the out- 
break of the war, enlisted immediately for service in Germany — 
the city of Basle, furnishing 1.500 men at the outset. Fourteen 
of the members of the Relief Society in this city were thus left 
without support of any kind while their husbands were hurriedly 
taken off to the German front. 

The Swiss government has also called many of its citizens 


into service on the border, and, as a result of their continued ab- 
sence from home, there is much suffering 1 among their families in 
Switzerland and much opportunity is afforded for relief work. 

Of the donation sent to the European Mission by our Church 
for relief work, $340 or $20 for each Society in the Swiss and 
German Mission, was sent to President Valentine for distribution. 
This money was joyfully received by the organizations and, with 
their wonderful thrift and economy, the members were able to 
make turns that furnished relief to many who were in need. 

The Swiss and German women are such careful planners and 
are so economical that very few families were found to be in 
need of clothing. Mrs. Valentine says it is invariably the case 
that they are found with sufficient clothing and sufficient bed and 
table linen on hand to last them for several years. She says 
American housewives might, with profit, go to these foreign 
sifters to learn economy. 

Cassia Stake. 

At the January stake and local officers' meeting of the Cassia 
stake, the entire time was devoted to an introduction of the new 
literary lessons, and it proved to be one of the most profitable and 
enjoyable sessions ever held. 

The first lesson in the course was given by a capable teacher, 
and was thoroughly discussed. Attention was drawn to the 
literary productions of our own authors. At the close of the 
lesson, "My Dear Old Garden," by "Aunt Em" Wells, was read 
by one of the most gifted readers, and "O Ye Mountains High," 
by President Charles W. Penrose, was sung in an impressive way 
by one of the most talented singers. 

The stake and ward officers of the Y. L". M. I. A. attended 
the session as special guests of the Relief Society. 

During the holiday season, President Emmeline B. Wells re- 
ceived dozens of letters and cards from Relief Society workers 
throughout the Church — all expressing love and good wishes for 
the coming year. 

For these messages of greeting and for the loving thoughts 
that prompted them, "our beloved President desires to express, 
thron,gh the Magazine, her gratitude and appreciation. 

California Mission. 

Late in December a Relief Society was organized at Sparks, 
Nevada, with the following officers : Artie E. Vanderhoof, Pres- 
ident; Linnie C. Rossiter, First Counselor; Bertha M. Anderson. 
Second Counselor ; Gladys Huyke, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Home Science Department. 

By J and I c A. Hyde. 

In the Bible bread is called the ""staff of life." It has been 
used so long that no one can tell exactly who the first bread eaters 
were. We have record of its use in ancient times. When the city 
of Pompeii was uncovered, mills for grinding wheat, and ovens 
containing loaves of bread were found. We also find on the pyra- 
mids and tombs in Egypt, hieroglyphics showing men reaping and 
crushing wheat. From this we know that the raising of wheat 
was an occupation on the Nile. Among the Chinese there is a 
tradition that wheat originally came from heaven. It has been 
grown for thousands of years in China. The ( i reeks and Romans 
worshiped Ceres, the goddess of the grain and of the harvest. 
From this ancient goddess we have derived the word "cereal," 
which applies to varieties of grain, among which are the follow 
ing important ones : wheat, corn, oats, rye. barley and rice. 

No more important food stuff exists than wheat, for it fur- 
nishes the principal food product for civilized man. It is gratifying 
to know that this nation raises more wheat than any other nation, 
and more corn than all the rest of the world put together. In 
order to fully appreciate the flour industry, one should go to 
Minneapolis, the chief flour-making city in the world, though by 
no means the only milling center in our country. 

Wheat is of many varieties, each of which requires certain 
climatic conditions for perfect development. Among the most 
important kinds are spring and winter wheat. Spring wheat is 
excellent for bread-making, producing more bread to the barrel 
of flour than winter wheat. Winter wheat contains more starch. 
It makes good bread and is particularly desirable for pastry. 

In order to produce the best flour wheat must pass through 
several processes in the grinding. 1 f flour is used which has not 
been thus treated, the difference wonld soon be discovered. Whole 
wheat flour is much like graham except that in this flour the outer 
skin or husk is removed before grinding, leaving it not as coarse 
as graham. Standard patent is the flour rflost used in the United 
States. It makes the most digestible bread, whole wheat comes 
second, and graham last. The patent process was grst used about 

There are two general methods of bread-making in vogue, 
one producing unleavened and the other leavened bread. Be- 
cause of the lack of knowledge of elements that would leaven 
bread, the unleavend bread was mainly used by ancient people. 


It is made by mixing flour and water into a hard dough and bak- 
ing it. The bread used by the Jews at their Passover, and also 
the English crackers, arc unleavened bread. Both are hard to 
masticate, but nevertheless, healthful and nutritious. Leavened 
bread is made of flour, with yeast, baking-soda or baking-powder 
as leavening agencies, and with sufficient liquid to form a dough. 

Bread is a great heat and energy producing food. It pro- 
duces also a moderate amount of muscle mineral, but little fat. 

Corn, a native product of America and Mexico, is used very 
extensively for bread in some parts of the United States. Colum- 
bus found the Indians using for bread, corn meal crushed by 
means of rocks. They made it into a batter with water and baked 
it on hot rocks. The Indians called it "mahiz," from which our 
word "maize" is derived. They not only. made corn meal into 
plain bread, but also combined it with nut meats, pumpkins, ber- 
ries, corn and beans. Corn is a typically American food. 

Many varieties of bread are made from corn meal. For in- 
stance, the corn bread, hoe cake, Boston brown bread, griddle 
cakes, Johnny cake, corn muffins and corn meal gems. All these 
varieties are found on the American table. The people of the 
South consume more corn bread than those of the North, for the 
reason that the flavor of the meal made in the South is more ap- 
petizing and delicious than that made in the North. This flavor 
is due to the fact that it is made from ground corn, from which 
the indigestible hulls only have been removed by bolting. In the 
North the mills remove, in addition to the hulls, a portion of the 
kernel which contains the fat and mineral — this process taking 
away most of the flavor of the corn. The food value of the corn 
is thus reduced. Americans have meekly submitted to this be- 
cause the facts are not generally known. However, it is to be 
hoped that they will refuse to buy corn meal from which most of 
the flour has been eliminated. Personally, I think corn bread more 
tasty than wheat bread. The only advantage wheat bread has 
over corn bread is the fact that it can be made into a lighter loaf. 
But this difference can be overcome by baking corn bread in thin 


Two cups of milk, two eggs, two tablespoonsful butter fat, 
one tablespoonful sugar, on molasses, one saltspoon ,of salt, one 
tablespoon baking powder, two cups of corn meal (yellow or 
white), and one cup of flour. 

Put all dry ingredients together. Mix thoroughly, add 
melted butter fat to milk and eggs, make into a soft batter, and 
bake in moderate oven. 

Ground up cracklings may be used instead of the butter fat. 

Current Topics. 

James H. Anderson. 

American troops have been withdrawn from Mexico; but 
Villa is not yet captured or killed. 

A German war vessel sank fifteen freight ships in the South 
Atlantic in December, whereupon a British squadron was sent 
in search of the raider. 

German war successes continued in Rumania during the past 
month. On the other war fronts there was little change in the 
situation from the previous month. 

Switzerland fears being forced into actual war in the great 
European conflict, and has mobilized all her available military 

Utah Guardsmen were withdrawn from the Mexican border 
the last week in January. All the Utah troops are back home, 
and glad of it. 

A Temple for the Latter-day Saints is heing talked of for 
Mesa, Arizona, and may be an assured fact within a few years. 

A sugar factory has been decided upon for Cornish, in 
Cache county, Utah, and the West Cache Sugar Company organ- 
ized to build it. 

Nudity in moving picture shows has been condemned by the 
National board of censors, and none too soon to restrict the 
coarseness which produced such exhibitions. 

President Wilson addressed the United States Senate on a 
universal peace plan on January 22; but the United States could 
not display sufficient strength to enforce such a plan, and uni- 
versal peace is not in sight by any human means yet devised. 

Cold and stormy weather for the longest period Utah has 
experienced in more than thirty years has been the record for 
December and January. After such a winter, spring is doubly 


A Mormon Battalion monument to cost $200,000 is pro- 
posed, and the State has been asked to contribute half the sum 
necessary, upon the other half being- raised by popular subscrip- 

Two AViATOfiS of the United States army lost their way on 
a flight eastward from California in January, and landed in 
Lower California, whence they were rescued when almost dead 
from exhaustion. They claim the compass went wrong. 

The word "sex," as an addition in the fifteenth amendment 
to the National Constitution, has been proposed in Congress. Its 
adoption would admit women to the elective franchise all over the 

Admiral George Dewey, who won lasting fame by his bril- 
liant exploit at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, during the Spanish- 
American war, died 16th January, in the eightieth year of his 
age. The great western scout, William F. Cody, popularlv known 
as "Buffalo Bill," died on January 10. 

Peace terms were named by the Entente Allies in reply to 
the German note stating a willingness to conclude peace ; but 
Germany made no counter-proposition further than to declare 
for a more vigorous war policy. 

Coal shortage in Utah became very acute during the month 
nf January. The public blames the railway, because of its failure 
to deliver shipments of coal earlier in the season, when partial 
storage of a winter supply could have been made. 

The Utah Legislature has an abundance of legislation be- 
fore it at the present session, some good and some bad. 

Increased revenues for the State is the call of many office- 
holders' schemes before the Utah Legislature ; but it is notable 
that there is no scheme of increased revenue for or a saving of 
expense to the common taxpayer. 

The Mann white slave act has been held by the United 
States Supreme Court to cover all interstate transportation of 
women for immoral purposes. As mi,ght be expected, men who 
justify personal immorality are not pleased with the broad scope 
of the decision. 


Entered as second class matter at the Poit Office, Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mas. Emmeline B. Wells President 

Mis. Claiissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mas. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mas. Amy Bbown Lyman GeneraJ Secretary 

Mas. Suia Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mas. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 
Mrs. Phebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. MARCH, 1917. No. 


It was a happy thought, that of commemorat- 
A Happy ing the organization of the Relief Society by 

Thought. celebration, in speech, in retrospect and in 

general rejoicing. This day is so full of 
wonders and possibilities; and yet, our human memories are so 
treacherous — human life is so transient — that we would forget 
friends, teachers, parents, prophets, leaders, and all great worl 1 
events, were it not for memorial days, history hooks, portraits or 
Ftatues. Out of our lives these would fade and out of the world's 
great hall of fame they would all pass away hut for some natural 
and human devised methods of preserving their memory for pos- 
terity. The results of great events and lives would live — true — 
hut not the human recollection of them. And so, it is good to 
meet on this day and to remind ourselves of the organization of 
this, the first duly organized hody of women in modern times. 
I et us hear ahout it, read about it, think about it. with gratitude 
and with much of awe and reverence. 

There have been groups of Catholic women 
The Pioneer shul up in convents for nearly two thousand 
and Pathmaker. years, hut these were under the control "I 

the priests; there was no effort at self-expres- 
sion nor self-government among the women. They were doing 


violence to every call and demand of nature, but one — benev- 
olence. The bishop or priests made the rules of their order and 
controlled the property of the order. The women were — in 
short — recluses, living without any human ties, most of them for- 
ever forbidden intercourse with friends or family. Many de- 
voted women thus immolated themselves on the altar of sacrifice 
—they left the world in order to escape the snares of the world. 
Here and there in modern times a woman had risen — a Mary 
Wollstonecroft, an Abigail Adams, a Mary Lyon, crying out the 
need for greater freedom of thought and action for women ; but 
not until that day in March. 1842, had women gathered to or- 
ganize or to be organized into an independent self-governing 
body for cultural and benevolent purposes. Six years after that, 
in 1848, at Seneca Falls, there gathered that brave group of three 
women who named themselves, "The Woman's Rights Associa- 
tion." Others and still others followed in quick and bewildering 
succession. But the Relief Society, organized by the Prophet 
Joseph Smith, was the pioneer, the pathmaker, the foundation- 
stone of woman's modern evolution. 

What vast interests for the betterment of 
Benefits women, children, of humanity in general 

Resulting. have grown out of that meeting seventy-five 

years ago. The Society itself has developed 
its charitable and benevolent functions, into mammoth propor- 
tions. Nursing the sick as a neighborhood activity, training 
nurses and midwives, co-operative enterprises, the raising and 
manufacture of silk, equal suffrage. Young Ladies and Young 
Men's Improvement Associations, Primary Associations for the 
children, a Home for Women, a magazine owned, managed and 
edited by women, books written and printed for women and chil- 
dren, correspondence courses in literature, art, home science, in 
genealogy, with great genealogical conventions, libraries, com- 
modious offices as headquarters for all three of the women's 
organizations, elaborate and effective organization houses, great 
stores of grain for times of famine, lands, stocks, bonds, prop- 
erties — all these are among the many blessings and benefits which 
have resulted directly and indirectly to the "Mormon" women as 
the outgrowth of that meeting seventy-five years ago. 

Great organizations and councils of women 
Light and have developed among the women of the 

Privilege world until these club and council move- 

for Women. ments well-nigh cover the earth as the 

waters cover the mighty deep. Truth — once 
revealed to the world, may and often does become — the common 
property of men in various parts of the earth. So when the 
Prophet "turned the key for women," in that wondrous March 


meeting, the door was opened, and an increasing flood of light 
and privilege for women issued therefrom. The light of sex- 
freedom was in the world and it was freely offered to the women 
of this Church while the women of the world found and still do 
find it necessary to strive and struggle and sacrifice to obtain that 
which is our free gift. 

Did the Prophet see all this with the sure 
A Wondrous vision? No doubt he did ; his words presage 
Day. that. And above all — dear and earnest sis- 

ters and readers — this has all been done with- 
out one shadow of sex-antagonism. The Savior asked the Father 
for His disciples in His last earthly prayer, "I pray not that thou 
shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep 
them from the evil" (John 17:15). So indeed, has it been with 
the women of this Society. They have not set aside nor neg- 
lected their daily toils, nor precious home duties ; but, through 
enlargement of soul and sphere, they have found time and oppor- 
tunity to mother the ward, the town, the community. They are 
still women and wives and mothers — they are also human, and 
world movers. What a wondrous day was that — the seventeenth 
of March, 1842. Let us recall it in song and story, while we 
rejoice that we are women and members of the Relief Society of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


Elder Stephen L. Richards has been chosen and ordained an 
Apostle to fill the vacancy in the quorum which was caused by 
the death of President Francis M. Lyman. 

Elder Richards is a young man of intellectual and physical 
vigor, and is not only a power for good in his own community, 
but in every quarter where his influence is felt. He was born 
June 18, 1879, and is the son of Dr. Stephen Longstroth and Louise 
Slayner Richards. He is the grandson of Willard Richards who 
was a prisoner in Carthage jail with the Prophet and Patriarch 
when these two were murdered by a mob. He received his early 
education in the public schools of Salt Lake City and later at- 
tended the University of Utah and the University of Chicago, 
being graduated from the law department of the latter institution 
in 1904. Since that time he has been successfully engaged in the 
practice of law in Salt Lake City. 

Elder Richards has held many positions of importance in the 
various auxilliary organizations of the Church, and in 1007 was 
appointed a member of the General Board of the Deseret Sunday 
School Union. Two years later he was made Second Assistant 
to the General Superintendent of Sunday Schools, President 


Joseph F. Smith. He is also a member of the General Board of 
the Religion Class and a member of the General Priesthood Com- 

In February, 1900, Elder Richards was married to Irene W. 
Merrill, a granddaughter of the late beloved President of the 
Relief Society, Bathsheba W. Smith. There are six beautiful 
children in the Richards home. 

By Lena C, Stephens. 

Dear little sad-hearted mother, 

Your heart is broken today; 
For one you have loved and cherished 

Has gone from your earth-home away. 

One of the flowers God sent you 
To bloom in your garden of love 

Has finished its measure of earth-life, 
And gone to His garden above. 

How lonely you feel little mother, 
How dreary and broken and sad, 

Because you are given this trial — 
The hardest one you've ever had. 

Don't you see, dear — life's pathway is thorny, 
It has brambles and briars and stones; 

How often we're hurt on life's journey; 
How often there are tears, cries, and moans. 

But look! all around us are blessings, 
There are joys, if we seek, we shall find, 

Great gifts from our Father's rich storehouse, 
Gifts of spirit and wisdom of mind. 

There is always a kind hand to help us, 

There are friends and companions who care; 

And God watching ever above us, 
His wisdom will bring us safe there. 

Cheer up, little mother, find comfort. 

You have blessings still left in rich store; 

Let them fill your whole soul with thanksgiving 
Let your spirit rejoice evermore. 

You have many to love and to cheer you, 
Be consoled and love one another; 

For beyond in the home that awaits you, 
There's an angel who calls you dear mother. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 
FiHSr Week in April. 


(Reading - : Chapters 37-47 of Genesis, omitting Chapter 38.) 

Marriage cuts a very wide swath in all primitive society, but 
it cuts an especially wide one in the early days of Israelitish his- 
tory, on account of the promises made to Abraham concerning 
"the seed." This is why so much of the biblical account of the 
first patriarchs is occupied with the matrimonial affairs of those 
who comprise the direct line to Christ, like Isaac and Jacob. But 
the wooing of Rebecca and that of Rachel were essentially dif- 
ferent, although each is characteristic of the times in which it 
took place. 

Jacob, like his father, was a shepherd. But his brother Esau 
was a hunter. These were the principal occupations in those early 
times. And, if we may judge by the characters of the two men. 
they chose their callings wisely. Indeed, Rachael herself, and 
perhaps Leah, may be called a shepherdess, for when Jacob came 
to the home of his ancestors first he found his future wife taking- 
care of sheep. Josephus notes that he met "with shepherds in 
the suburbs" of Haran, "boys grown up, and maidens sitting 
about a certain well," Rachel being apparently among the num- 

Isaac, seemingly, and Rebecca were imbued with the same 
idea which Abraham had — that no marriages should be con- 
tracted between the Chosen People and their Canaanitish neigh- 
bors. This pair, especially Tsaac with whom the hairy Edomite 
was a favorite, found great offense in Esau's marriage with two 
Canaanitish women, one of whom was the daughter of "a great 
lord," such as lords went in those days. Esau realized this, for 
he afterward took another wife who he thought would please 
his father. And Jacob might not have done any better if it had 
not been for the forethought of his shrewd mother. It was she 
who suggested, when the rupture over the mess of potage oc- 
curred between the two sons, that Jacob should go to the land 
of her nativity to marry him a wife — a suggestion to which Isaac 
readily agreed. 


As in the days of Abraham, so in those of Jacob, children 
were something like property in the hands of their parents, as 
long as the parents were living. We do not read of the slightest 
objection on the part of Jacob, although he was past forty, to 
the proposal that he go to Mesopotamia for a wife. Josephus has 
a curious passage in this connection as affecting Esau. He tells 
us that Esau, "now come to the age of forty," when he married 
the Canaanitish women already referred to, did so "without so 
much as asking the advice of his father ; for had Isaac been the 
arbitrator, he had not given him leave to marry thus, for he was 
not pleased with contracting any alliance with the people of that 
country; but not caring to be uneasy to his son, by commanding 
him to put away these wives, he resolved to be silent." The same 
unquestioning obedience to parental advice is observed also in the 
case of Leah and Rachel. Although Rachel must have known of 
Jacob's love for her and of the request he had made her father 
for her hand and although she must therefore have looked for- 
ward for seven long years to the union, she nevertheless had 
nothing to say apparently when her father unceremoniously sub- 
stituted her sister for her on the night of the marriage. Im- 
plicit obedience was exacted by parents in ancient times, not only 
of children but of grown sons and daughters as well. 

Whatever view we take of this marriage of Jacob, much de- 
pended upon it. Jacob, by reason of his purchase of the birth- 
right, was heir to the family promises. Moreover, he had re- 
ceived the blessing belonging to the heir. When Isaac's sight had 
failed him to the point where he could no longer attend properly 
to the customary sacrifice, he asked Esau to prepare him some 
venison. This was not, most likely, an ordinary meal. Rather it 
\\ as a sacrificial feast of some sort. The aged patriarch expected 
>m this occasion, it would seem, a manifestation from heaven 
which would enable him to give his son an inspired blessing. This 
blessing, however, Jacob received by anticipating his brothers' 
offering. It was through him, therefore, that the promised Seed 
should come. Hence the importance that attached to his mar- 

There are two customs connected with marriage in those 
days which are thrown into sight in the biblical narrative of the 
events we have been considering. One of these is that the daugh- 
ters were married off according to their age, the eldest first, in- 
stead of according to their success in attracting the attention of 
the male. Or was this merely a ruse to deceive the unwary Jacob 
into remaining another seven years? For Laban was a tricky 
man by nature. When he saw that in his proposed son-in-law 
he had an exceptional person, he professed to be absolutely op- 
opposed to having Rachel go to the strange land which had lured 


his sister Rebecca. At all events, Jacob seems not to have known 
anything about this custom — if such it was. Another custom, 
it appears, was to veil the bride on entering the bridal chamber. 
This fact — if we reject the explanation of Josephus that Jacob was 
"in drink as well as in the dark" — would account for Jacob's 
not recognizing Leah till next morning. 

Polygamy, it would appear, was common in those times, 
not only in the chosen family but also among the nations sur- 
rounding them. Isaac, it seems, had but one wife, although Ins 
father Abraham had more than one. Jacob was a polygamist by 
compulsion. He was forced into plural marriage first by his 
crafty father-in-law and afterward by the rivalry of Leah and 
Rachel. If he had had his own way, doubtless, he would have 
been content with his first Love. But then the course of history 
would have taken a different direction, so that, after all, the 
Lord may have been using Laban and his two daughters to bring 
about His great purposes. Esau, as we have already seen, took 
two Canaanitish women to be his wives. We are told all these 
details in such a way as to leave us the inevitable inference that 
this custom was a common practice in that age. 

Religion appears to have figured very largely in the daily 
lives of the group of persons we are considering. Rebecca, as we 
have seen, sought the Lord just prior to the birth of her famous 
"twin sons." Josephus tells us that Isaac appealed to Him for 
guidance in this important event — whether in connection with his 
wife or alone, we do not know. Visions and dreams play an im- 
portant part in the daily lives of these people. Jacob, while on 
his way from the home of his father, saw that famous ladder 
"reaching up into heaven, on which the angels were ascending 
and descending." Even Laban was warned in a dream, or vision, 
that if he attacked Jacob, when the latter was fleeing from his 
iather-in-law, the Lord would fight Israel's battles for him. And 
again, just before Jacob met his brother Esau, the angel of the 
Lord appeared to him and told him not to fear the Edomite. 
Joseph also was "a dreamer." Before he was sold into Egypt, 
he had his two dreams of the sheaves of grain and the sun and 
the moon, which symbolized the relation he would sustain to his 
lather and his brothers in the dim future. And then there are 
the dreams he interpreted in Egypt, through which he was ele- 
vated to the second place in that great nation. 

It was doubtless religion that gave these people such a high 
ideal of chastity. When Dinah, Jacob's daughter, was violated, 
as the family was on its way back to the Promised Land, we are 
informed just how virtue was looked upon in woman. Although 
the defiler was the son of a "king" and although it appears that 
the act was performed in order to bring about a marriage between 


the pair, still, when Jacob's sons learned of the affair, they fell 
upon the whole town where the offense had been committed, and 
slaughtered every grown male therein. As to how virtue was 
looked upon in the man in those days, perhaps the best example 
is to he found in Joseph, the son of Rachel and Jacob. After 
his arrival in the valley of the Nile, he entered the household of 
Potiphar. He was an unusually handsome young man, it seems, 
and the lady of the house fell in love with him. Now, in those 
days immorality was extremely prevalent in Egypt ; society was 
corrupt. And most likely Joseph came in contact with this form 
of corruption. But he preferred to keep his virtue, even though 
in doing so he ran the risk of imprisonment or death. 

Rachel and Leah, it appears from the biblical narrative, were 
accustomed to a species of idolatry in their father's house. There 
were household gods in the family, which had been handed down 
from generation to generation. Josephus represents Laban as 
saying, on the occasion that he follows Jacob in search of the 
gods which Rachel had stolen : "Thou hast treated me as an 
enemy, by driving away my cattle ; and by persuading my daugh- 
ters to run away from their father ; and by carrying home those 
sacred paternal images which were worshiped by my forefathers, 
and have been honored with the like worship which they paid 
them, by myself." Jacob, we are told by this same historian, 
"had taught Rachel to despise the worship of those gods." 


1. Why is marriage given so much prominence in the ac- 
count of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob? 2.What were 
the chief occupations in those times? 3. What did Rachel and 
Isaac think of a marriage between their children and the Canaan- 
ites? 4. Show from actual citations what was the relation be- 
tween children and parents. Is that condition preferable to ours? 
Why do you think so? 5. Why did such importance attach to 
the marriage of Jacob? 6. Tell of some customs connected with 
marriage then. 7. Show that plural marriage was common at 
that time. 8. Explain the importance of religion in those days. 
9. How was chastity looked upon ,by the Israelites of that day? 
By the Egyptians? Did the Israelites have a single or a double 
standard of morality? Justify your views. 


"And take * * * the Sword of the Spirit which is the 
Word of God." 


1. Bible. Genesis, Chapter 37 

2. Bible, Genesis, chapter 38. 

3. Bible. Exodus, Chapter 2. 

4. Bible. Exodus, Chapter 3. 

5. Bible. Exodus; Chapter <>. 

6. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 20. 

7. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 21. 

8. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 22. 

9. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 23. 

10. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 24. 

11. Doctrine and Covenants. Section 19. 

12. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 18. 

13. Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 15, 16, 17. 

14. Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 13. 14. 

15. Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 11, 12. 

16. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 10. 

17. Doctrine and Covenants. Sections S. 9. 
IS. Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 6, 7. 
1". Doctrine and Covenants, Sections 4, 5. 

20. Doctrine and Covenants. Sections 2,3. 

21. Doctrine and Covenants, Section 1. 

22. Bible, Exodus, Chapter 15. 

23. Bible, Exodus, Chapter 18. 
2-1. Bible, Exodus, Chapter 1''. 
25. Bible. Exodus, Chapter 20. 
26 Bible, Psalm 30. 

27. Bible. Psalm. 31. 

28. Bible, Psalm, 32. 
2<>. Bible, Psalm, 33. 
30. Bible. Psalm, 34. 


Work and Business. 

Si co.\i> W'kkk ix April. 

Genealogy and Literature. 
Tui ui) Week ix April. 


It is not surprising that many people all over Europe adopte 1 
the easy custom of surnaming themselves after states, or farms. 
or towns, or any dwelling place where they resided permanently. 


The ^Frenchman retains to this day, the little preposition "de" 
which means of attached to his surname and even to his title. 
For instance, D'Arcy, and PeVesci are' still famous French 
names. DeRudeville is another. DePomeroy is still another name 
which was transplanted to England. These names simply meant 
that William DePomeroy or John D'Arcy once Heed or owned 
estates which bore the name Arcy and Pomeroy. In England 
these names were very quickly Englishized. It soon came about 
that men who owned large estates would be spoken of as John of 
Dean. If he lived near a church he might be called William of 
Eccles. If he was a toll-gate keeper he might be called Gates or 
Yates, the • Gate-keeper. On the other hand if he lived near a 
hill or boundary, he might be called Lynch, the Anglo-Saxon spell- 
ing of which was Fflinch. 

Mr. Lower who wrote a book about surnames tells us : 

"The Saxons and Angles called places after their names. 
Wright, in his History of Ludlow, says: "Many of th'e names 
are compounded of those of Anglo-Saxon possessors, or culti- 
vators, and the original forms of such words are readily discovered 
by a reference to Domesday Book. * * * Names of places 
having ing in the middle are generally formed from patronymics, 
which in Anglo-Saxon had this termination. Thus, a son of 
Alfred was yElfreding; his descendants in general were yElfred- 
ings or ^Elfredingas. These patronymics are generally com- 
pounded with ham, tun, etc., and whenever we can find the name 
of a place in pure Saxon documents, we have the patronymic in 
the genitive case plural. Thus, Birmingham was Boerm-inge- 
ham, the home or residence of the sons and descendants of 

In the old Anglo-Saxon "hus" was house ; cot is well known ; 
"burh' was a fortified place from which came Canterbury, Salis- 
bury, Amesbury, Shaftesbury. 

Acre always meant the cornland, ploughed or sown. It enters 
into many combinations: Goodacrc, Oldacre, Longacrc, Witacre. 

Angle, a corner. Atten-Angle has given us Nangle. John 
de Angulo, was in the 1273 (Hundred Rolls"). 

Barrow (A. S., Beam'), a wooded hill fit for pasturing swine. 

Beck is an Old English name for a high pasture or shelving 
piece of moorland ; thence the names Broadbend and Bentlcy. 

Both (A. S.). a. booth or wooden house. Also Celtic bodd, 
a settlement, as Bodmin, the monastic settlement; Freebody, and 
other names ending in bod and body. 

Bottle (A. S. BotI), a diminutive of both. In the High- 
lands a bothie is so used ; in German we have W olfen-buttel. It 


occurs in Harbottle (the highly-situated bottle), Newbottle, 
Bolton is the tun containing a bottle ; Dothzvell and Claypole, the 
bottle in the clay. 

Bottom (A. S. botn), the head of a valley. 

Burg (A. S. burh, in O. N. bjorg, D. borg, G. burg). 

Brook, originally a morass, then a stream, was a very com- 
mon name. It occurs over and over again in the Hundred Rolls. 

By (O. N. barr, byr; Danish by, a farm), originally a single 
house, then came to be employed of a group of houses. 

Cot (A. S.), a thatched cottage, with mud walls. Draycott 
is the dry cottage. 

Dingle, a depth of wood. 

Eccles (German), was a church: Egloskerry, Egloshayle, 
Fccles in Norfolk and Lancashire, Ecclesfield in Yorkshire, and 

Field is properly a clearing, where trees have been felled. 

Ford (Celtic fordd; Anglo-Saxon ford), a way; only in a 
s-econdary sense signifies a ford across a river. 

Garth (A. S.), an enclosed place; hence garden, yard. 

Gate may mean a road, as Bishopsgate ; but also a barrier. 
Sometimes corrupted to yat: Ramsgate, Margate, Westgate ; sur- 
names Gates and Yates, Ycatman (the gatekeeper). 

Hatch and Hacket, a gate or bar thrown across a gap. 

Hall and Heal (A. S.), a slope. 

Ham (A. S.), has two significations — with the a long it sig- 
nifies home ; with the a short it signifies a field enclosed. Burn- 
ham is the enclosure by the brook. 

Hay, a hedge to an enclosure ; often a small park. From this 
simple root we have the surnames Hay, Hayes, Haigh, and Hawis 
and Hazves, and in combination Haywood, Hazvorth, Haughton. 

Holm (O. N.),a flat island. 

Holt is the same as the German Holz, a wood or copse. 

House (A. S., and O. N.), often contracted in us, as Alus 
(the old house), Malthus (the malt-house), Loftus (the house 
with a loft). 

Hurst (A. S.), a wood, very common in Sussex. 

Ing (O. N. eng), a meadow by the river. 

Lane. On the Hundred Rolls are numerous entries such as 
these: Cecilia in the Lane, Emma a la Lane, John de la Lane, 
Phillippa atte Lane, Thomas super Lane ; so that, although a Nor- 
man family of L'Ane came over with the Conqueror, we cannot 
set down all the Lanes as his descendants. 

Lee, Legh, Leigh, Ley, Lea (A. S. leah, m.), a fallow pastur- 

Pitt, a sawpit, coalpit, or pitfall. 

Piatt, low-lying ground. 


Ros (C. rhos), a heath: Roskelly, Penrose, Rosedue. 

Royd (O. N.), a clearing in a wood. 

Shaw (O. N. skog) is — (1) A small wood or coppice; (2) 
a flat at the foot of a hill; (3) a boggy place by a river. 

Stead (A. S.), a home. 

Thrope (A. S. ; Danish torp; German dorf), a. hamlet. 

Tun (O. N), the enclosure about a farm, enters into many 
combinations, as ton and town. Brighton is Brighthelmstron, 
Wolverhampton is Wolfardes-home-field. 

Wick, Wyke, Week (Lat. vicus), a settlement: Warwick, 
Greenwich, Berwick, Germansweek, Week St. Mary, Hardwick, 
Norwich, and many others come from this root. 

With (O. N. vioi), a wood: Beckwith, Skipwith. 

Wood becomes sometimes in combination Hood, sometimes 

Yat, for Gate, a still common pronunciation; hence the sur- 
name Yates. 

Third Week in April. 


Most of the poetry we have for children has been written dur- 
ing very recent times. Before about fifty years ago, indeed, 
authors paid little attention to child life. In Shakespeare's plays, 
for example, there are almost no child characters. But within 
the last half century much poetry has been written for children. It 
should be our effort to study this literature and make choice se- 
lections from it for reading in our homes. 

In saying that children's poetry i? of very recent origin, we 
must not overlook our Mother Goose melodies, which are really 
about as old as the race. No one knows exactly when such non- 
sense jingles as "This little pig went to market," "Hey diddle 
diddle," "Sing a song of sixpence," "Rockaby baby up in the tree 
top," and the other nursery rhymes were first sung to amuse the 
little folk. These harmless nonsense songs have been heard by 
babes of every generation for hundreds of years, and they will 
probably continue to be sung as long as there are babies to play 
with and rock to sleep. These are the child's first poetry. 

Some of the Mother Goose rhymes, such as "King William was 
King James's son," "London's bridge is falling down," and the 
old counting out rhymes used in "hide-and-seek," were created 
for plays and games. In earlier times, young and old would 
romp together over the village green, making up their own 
music for their folk games and dances. 


The nursery jingles were followed years afterward by rhymes 
written to teach morals and manner's. These seem to have sprung 

chilly from Puritan source-. Parents and preacher- then were 
rightly very anxious to "train up the child in the way he should 
'They therefore gave him little lessons of life in rhymes, 
which made them easy t<» get and hard to forget. For illustra- 
tion : 

"Let dogs delighl to hark and bite, 

For 'tis their nature to ; 
But, children, yon should never let 

Yonr angry passions rise, 

Your little hand- were never made 
To tear each other's eyes." 

"Little drops of water. 

Little grains of sand. 
Make tlie mighty ocean 

And the pleasant land. 

"Little <\ve<\^ of kindness. 

Little words of love, 
Make the earth an Eden 

Like the heaven above." 

Snch wholesome rhymes serve a very good purpose. Strictly 
speaking, however, they are hardly child rhymes; hecanse the 
child dors not naturally moralize. He simply enjoys life. Nev- 
ertheless, these little life lessons, done up in easy-to-carry pack- 
ages, are good for him to take with his Mother Goose melodies. 

When the poets of later days, chiefly of our own time, began 
to pay attention to children, they wrote of them from an adult 
viewpoint. Their poems were about children, not for them. 
Whittier's "Barefoot Boy," pictures the poet remembering the 
joys of his own boyhood. It is an old man patting a boy on the 
head — a beautiful picture, but not so much for boys as grownups. 
Longfellow'- "Children's Hour." and Lowell's "First Snowfall" 
are likewise poems for older folk. Such poems may bring some 
enjoyment to children : but truly speaking, they arc not child 

Among the earliest poets who really made an effort to write 
from the child's viewpoint are Alice and Phoebe Cary. These 
sisters produced a good many little poems that are wholesome 
and childlike. Among them are "The Leak in the Dike." "An' 
Order for a Picture." "Three Little Bugs in a Basket." and "Sup- 
pose." The last named begins as follows: 


"Suppose, my little lady. 

Your doll should break its head, 
Could you make it well by crying 
Till your eyes and nose were red ?" 

The poems by the'Cary sisters, always teach a moral. 

Charles and Mary Lamb also wrote a few little poems for 
little folk. They were very prim little English rhymes, intended 
to help children to act very properly. 

From this type of poetry, there has been a gradual develop- 
ment into the real child rhymes of today. Among the first of the 
poems that reallv reflect the child spirit was 


"Mary had a little lamb, 

Its fleece was white as snow, 
And everywhere that Mary went. 

The lamb was sure to go. 

"It followed her to school one day, 

Which was against the rule. 
It made the children laugh and play 

To see a lamb in school. 

"And then the teacher turned it out. 

But still it lingered near. 
And waited patiently about 

Till Mary did appear. 

" 'What makes the lamb love Mary so?' 

The eager children cry, 
'Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know,' 

The teacher did reply." 

There has been some doubt as to the authorship of this poem ; 
but recent investigations have practically proved that it was writ- 
ten by a Mr. Coulson, and that the incident on which the poem 
is based is true. It happened one day when this gentleman was 
visiting a country school. On returning home, he wrote the 

"Mary and Her Lamb" is a true type of child's poetry. It 
reflects child-life from the child's viewpoint. A sweet little les- 
son is suggested in the last stanza ; but there is no moralizing 
nor preaching about it. 

"Twinkle. Twinkle, Little Star" is another beautiful poem, 
produced in earlier days for children. 


From these beginnings toward the right kind of verse for 
little folk, we have developed rather rapidly until now we have 
a good many beautiful poems for children. Among those who 
have helped to produce such literature is Mary Mapes Dodge, 
for many years editor of the St. Nicholas Magazine. She deserves 
first mention, not because she wrote much children's literature 
herself — though she did write some very good stories and poems 
— but bcause she inspired a host of others to write ; and she gave 
them opportunity to publish their writings in her magazine. Mary 
Mapes Dodge may be called the mother of writers for children. 

Other special names that should be remembered here are 
Lucy Larcom, Jane Taylor, Celia Thaxter, Eliza Follen, Edward 
Lear, Frank D. Sherman, Christina Rosetti, and Emilie Pouls- 
son. These all have given us bright and beautiful verse for 
children. As an illustration, take this first stanza of Sir Robin, 
a delightful bird lyric, from the pen of Lucy Larcom : 

"Rollicking robin is here again, 
What does he care for the April rain ? 
Care for it ! Glad of it ! Doesn't he know 
That the April rain carries off the snow 
And coaxes out leaves to shelter his nest. 
And washes his pretty red Easter vest, 
And makes the juice of the cherry sweet, 
For the hungry little robins to eat ! 
'Ha, ha, ha,' hear the jolly bird laugh, 
That isn't the best of the story, by half." 

Among all our children's poets, however, these three names 
stand out : Robert Louis Stevenson, Eugene Field, and James 
Whitcomb Riley. 

Stevenson has given us a charming little volume called A 
Child's Garden of Verses, filled with poems that reflect the heart 
of the chlidren. This great writer never forgot his childhood 
days in bonnie Scotland. "The Shadow," "Foreign Children," 
"Windy Nights," "The Swing," all of his child poems show 
clearly that he was a child at heart. 

Eugene Field, likewise, kept the rollicking spirit of youth. 
His Love Songs of Childhood and With Trumpet and Drum are 
two little volumes full of choice lyrics of child life. 

Of James W. Riley a volume might be written. On his 
seventieth birthday the children of his birthtown strewed his way 
with roses as he rode along its streets in an automobile with the 
"happy little cripple boy," whom he has immortalized in one of 
his poems. Riley's verse is written artistically in child dialect. 


It is full of sweet humor and pathos, and always reflects truly 
the spirit of the little folk. Space forbids our giving further 
illustrations ; but the following books containing these and other 
child verse can be readily obtained. We commend them to our 
mothers for the home library : 

Nursing Rhymes, Welsh, D. C. Heath & Co. 
Rhymes and Stories, Lansing, Ginn & Co. 
Pinafore Palace, Wiggin, McClure Co. 
The Posy Ring, Wiggin, McClure Co. 
Child's Calendar Beautiful, Beeson, Scribner's. 
Little Folk Lyrics, Sherman, Houghton Mifflin Co. 
Child's Garden of Verses, Stevenson, Rand McNally. 
The Eugene Field Book, Field, Scribners. 
Child Rhymes, Riley, Bobbs-Merrill. 
The Ritey Reader, Riley, Bobbs-Merrill. 
Mothers may also find in the readers used in school much 
beautiful poetry for children. 


1. During what time has most of the poetry we have for 
children been created? 

2. , What kind of verse for little folks has come from very 
early times? 

3. For what purpose mainly were the Mother Goose melo- 
dies created ? Illustrate. 

4. Let each class member be ready to give a little "moral 
rhyme" intended to teach a lesson to children. 

• 5. What characterizes the poetry that Longfellow, Whit- 
tier and other poets of their time wrote concerning children. Il- 
lustrate by reading "The Village Blacksmith," or some other 

6. Find some child poem written bv Alice or Phoebe Cary, 
or by the other children's poets named herein and read it to 

7. What qualities does the true child's poem possess? 

8. What three children's poets have gained greatest prom- 
inence? Let poems from each of these be read. 

9. Find in The Juvenile Instructor, The Children's Friend, 
and other Church magazines ; or in our song book, some poem 
that you feel is true to the spirit of child life. 



Home Economics 

[NTR< >DUCTI< >.\ < >F S< ILID I < >< >DS. 

Fourth Week in April. 

The weaning of the child with the subsequent introduction 
of solid foods is oik- of the most difficult problems in medicine. 
I ']-, to the time of weaning, the child has been receiving the per- 
fect food, the mother's milk. Our problem now is to introduce 
in their proper proportion the different food ingredients in a form 
that can he easily handled by the child. The same care must be 
exercised here in the selection of foods that we would exercise in 
the modification of cow's milk. The proprietary foods have been 
condemned because they did not contain a proper proportion of 
all of the food ingredients. We must exercise care that we are 
nol guilty of the same fault in the feeding of the child during the 
second year of life, fl has been said that 40 per tent of all 
children in their second year are anemic, by that, \ mean that 
there is a deficiency of iron and other mineral salts in the blood. 
This is entirely due to mistakes in diet. A common saying 
amongst mothers is that the second summer is the most difficult 
foi the child to pass through. This is clearly due to the fact 
that we do not make a proper choice of foods for the child. 
During the first year of life babies are 1 peculiarly immune to the 
infectious diseases. ( mly where the mother's health is poor with 
the subsequent production of poor milk do we find babies that 
contract the infectious diseases. If the problem of diet could he 
carefully worked out I Feel certain that the reason for this im- 
munity would he found to he due to the fact that the child is 
getting perfect food. This immunity then could he prolonged 
through the second year of life and throughout life if we could 
properly nourish the body. Within the human organism are all 
the possibilities for developing substances that protect us against 
the inroads of disease. Perfect physical health which would fol- 
low the proper nourishment of the body would give to us abund- 
ance of all of these protective forces and our fear of contagious 
diseases would he very much lessened. Disease can only make 
headway where the vitality is lowered, and in the vast majority 
of cases our vitality is lowere 1 through mistakes in diet and 
errors in hygiene. 

The baby's teeth should appear at six months of acre, this 
is nature's signal to begin the introduction of outside foo Is. A 
crust of stale bread given at this time serves to satisfv the child'- 


craving for other foods as w,ell as to assist in breaking the way 
of the teeth through the gums. As the child gets older the cereals, 
oat meal, cream of wheat or other cereals cooked three hours in 
a double boiler so as to thoroughly dissolve the starch granules, 
with a little cream or milk, and sugar in small quantities, should 
be also introduced at this time. Sugar, however, is usually a 
dangerous food because the child forms a liking for the sugar 
and will not take any food unless it is sweetened excessivelv. 
Sugar plays an important part in the diet of the child, but in 
cases where there are any indications of indigestion or malnutri- 
tion the cereal foods should be given without sugar. T have found 
no difficulty in getting babies to take the cereals without sugar. 
Their liking for sugar comes only as the result of its long con- 
tinued use. If the baby's teeth are slow in appearing it is some- 
times necessary towards the end of the first year to allow half of 
a soft-boiled egg, some fruit in the form of orange juice, stewei 
or baked apples, stewed prunes and some of the vegetables ; pure? 
of peas, string beans, asparagus tips and carrots cooked until they 
mash readily with a fork, prepared preferably in milk gravy. Oc- 
casionally the mother may notice that particles of vegetables 
come through the intestine apparently undigested. Unless these 
food particles set up an irritation with the subsequent diarrhea no 
attention should be paid to this since the mineral salts are absorbed 
even though nature does not extract all of the food value from 
them. Cow's milk should be allowed with a normal child in a 
dilution of two-thirds milk and one-third water. Tf the child be- 
gins to vomit or there is trouble with the bowels the milk can 
be diluted still more. Gradually, however, the milk should be in- 
creased in amount until by the end of the first year the child shoul 1 
be getting the whole milk. As the time for weaning approaches, 
the mother can introduce one bottle a day of this modified cow's 
milk, gradually increasing the number of feedings with cow's 
milk and decreasing the breast feedings. In this way the child 
will be made to wean itself within a very short time and with no 
trouble whatever. Only in exceptional cases should the child be 
weaned suddenly. There is generally no necessity for this sudden 
breaking awav from the breast feedings. 

In introducing new foods to the child one important point 
should alwavs be born in mind, that every food introduced is new 
to the child's digestive apparatus. It is necessary, therefore, to 
adopt these foods gradually. A tolerance must be formed for 
every food that is given. In other words educate the digestive 
tract to handle these foods. Beginning with small quantities in- 
crease the amounts until a normal diet is reached. 

Very frequently mothers ask why it is that their children are 
unhealthy in spite of the fact that they exercise every precaution 


o- diet within their power, whereas, Mrs. Smith's babies are 
never sick and yet are allowed to eat everything that is on the 
table. The reason for this is apparent, the careful mother goes 
to the extreme in depriving her child of foods that it should have 
while the careless mother permits the child's appetite to be its own 
guide. As a result it gets those foods that nature calls for. The 
instinct for self-preservation manifests itself here very clearly. 
Animals will go for miles and lick up the dirt in their search for 
certain of the minerals. The same is true with children, guided 
by nature they take those foods that their system is demanding. 
Often I am consulted to know why children eat dirt. In some 
cases babies have picked large holes in the plaster in the wall and 
eaten it. This illustrates the necessity for a well balanced diet 
= ince nature will go to the extreme of leading the child to eat 
dirt and plaster in its efforts to obtain mineral salts. 

The points then to be remembered in the introduction of 
solid foods, is to be sure to get that variety of foods that will 
insure an abundant supply of all of the food elements. The 
following diet is merely suggestive but will give mothers an idea 
cf what children should have during the second year. 


Oat meal. 

Cream of wheat. 

Corn meal. 


Cooked three hours. They should be cooked the evening be- 
fore serving and warmed up for breakfast in the morning. 


Soft boiled or Poached. 

In some cases this should be given daily particularly if the 
child is poorly nourished, slow in walking and slow in teething. 


Scraped rare beef. 

This is an extremely valuable food at this period, in all cases 
where there is malnutrition or any symptoms of rickets. It is 
best prepared by broiling a thick steak over red hot coals until 
thoroughly heated through, then sliced longitudinallv with a sharp 
knife and the juice and pulp scraped out with a table spoon. 
Spread this on bread or on a cracker with a little salt and allow 
the child to eat the rare beef. 




These may be allowed at this time. 






Strained stewed tomatoes. 


Mashed cauliflower. 

String beans. 


Baked potato, may be permitted. 

All of these vegetables with the exception of the potato are 
rich in the mineral salts and should not be neglected. 



Scraped apple. 

Stewed or baked apple. 

Stewed prunes. 

Stewed figs. 

Fresh bottled fruits are permissible. 


Small amounts of ice cream. 



If the child is constipated, graham bread should be used ex- 
clusively A small dish of stewed figs given before breakfast 
and before going to bed will usually suffice to overcome this con- 
stipation. Where the diet is well balanced constipation will not 


1 When should the first teeth appear? 

2 What is the appearance of the teeth the signal for? _ 
3. Why should so much care be exercised in the choice 

of foods during the second year? 


4. Why does the child experience difficulty in getting 
through the second summer? 

5. What care should he exercised in the introduction of the 
solid foods? 

6. What are the symptoms of an exclusive milk diet during 
the second year? (This can he found in the previous lesson). 

7. What foods should he emphasized in a child that shows 
symptoms of rickets or scurvy? 

8. How would you proceed to overcome constipation? 


The painstaking historian, ( )rson F. Whitney, and the Des- 
eret News Publishing house, have united in contributing one of 
the most useful and handsome books ever put upon the local 
market, in the new one volume. Popular History of Utah. The 
history itself has practically every important fact treated briefly 
and vividly, vet without bias or prejudice. The information is 
tabulated and arranged in the best modern style which makes 
it a handy reference work to keep at the student's elbow. The 
mechanical part is unquestionably superior and pleasing to the 
eve. We congratulate both author and publisher, 

As women we might have wished a chapter devoted to the 
very noble humanitarian work performed by the first Relief 
Society, the Young Ladies' Association, and the Primary Associ- 
ation of this Church. The club movement has also helped make 
1 tali history in various directions. There is a little mention of 
woman's suffrage which movement was but one of the many utili- 
tarian efforts put forth by the intelligent organizers and state 
builders amongst the women of this state. However, it may be 
expecting too much for women to ask recognition at the hands 
of our men writers. Notwithstanding this little defect, we cheer- 
fully recommend the book to all our societies and suggest that all 
ward societies should come into possession of one. 

To Genealogical Class Leaders. 

Finding- it impossible to secure the Baring-Gould Surname 
book, a Committee was appointed to prepare a Surname book of 
our own. It was hoped that this book could be published this 
winter, but the task is too great, the results too important for a 
hasty preparation. We therefore ask our students to do the best 
they can with our Guide lessons, and we hope to have the book all 
ready for next season's fuller and more complete study. 

Susa Young Gates, 
Amy Brown Lyman, 
Lillian Cameron,. 

Surname Book Commitee. 


Relief Society Magazine 


Wedding Rings 

The wedding ring that's just right should be narrow, perfect oval 
(not flat), hardened to withstand wear, one piece of solid 18 karat 
gold, the kind we sell. We can make your old broad one over 
into the modern kind, using your old gold for $3.00 — write about 
it, or come in and talk it over. 

McCONAHAY the Jeweler 


Z. C. M. I. 

School Shoes 

For Boys 

Are made for service — 
they will keep the boys' 
feet warm and dry. 

Z. C. M. I. 


are the ideal 
play garment 
for boyi and 
girls. Cheap, 


# littleCost % 

# via. % 

^ Oregon Short Xjcut^, 



A*k your.4geni fbr /><?•« i Is % 


English and American 


Is in Mrs. Home's Art Book, "Dev- 
otees and Their Shrines." Send to 
this office or to Mrs. Alice Merrill 
Home, 4 Ostlers Court, Salt Lake City, 
for this book from which the lessons 
on Architecture for 1916 are assigned. 

Price $1.25 Postpaid 

"Civilization begins and ends with the plow."— Roberts. 

Utah Agricultural College 


Devoted to the ideal of extending the blessings of edu- 
cation to every fireside. 

Firm in the conviction that a favorable home life is the 
Nations greatest asset. 




The College offers work in all the branches of Home 

Further information furnished on request. 

Address: The President, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 


Garment Wearer's Attention 

A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 

all L. D. S. "Temple Brand" garments. Be sure it is in those you buy. If your 

leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, select your wants from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

Cotton, bleached, gauze weight 1.35 

Cotton, bleached, medium weight 1.50 

Cotton, bleached, medium heavy 1.75 

Cotton, unbleached, heavy weight 1.75 

Lisle, bleached, gauze weight 2.00 

Lisle, bleached, light weight 1.75 

Fleeced cotton, bleached, heavy 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, light weight 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, medium weight 3.00 

Wash-shrunk wool, medium weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk wool, heavy weight 3.00 

Silk and wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, heavy weight i _ 6.00 





American River 



Plan your summer vacation NOW. 

We can show you how greatest value for money spent can 
be obtained by a 


Make your summer trip include 


Write for details now. n- 

District Passenger Agent» 

203 Walker Bank Bldg. 











We have five Temples, one 
destroyed, two building 

A picture of a Nephite Temple 

President Emmeline B. Wells 
is 89 years old, 75 years bap- 

Water-cress is the only cheap 

Social work is the need of to- 

Conference is Coming? Are 
you Coming? 


Try a 

Ten Pound Bag 

Extra Fine Table and Pre- 
serving Sugar stands for pur- 
ity and quality. Try a 10 
pound bag and prove its 
goodness. Wben ordering, 
please say — 

Table and Preserving Sugar 

Then the next time you will 
buy a 100 pound bag. This 
sugar may also be had in 25 
and 50 pound bags. For par- 
cel post delivery we have a 
special 48 pound bag. See 
that you get Extra Fine Ta- 
ble and Preserving Sugar 
made by — 



Family Record of Temple Work for 
the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instructions for properly re- 
cording this work. 

L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in a 
most desirable and concise form, im- 
portant events in the lives of tV mem- 
bers of the Church. These books are 
sold at $1.25 each. 

Deseret News Book Store 

When WE Make Your Por- 
traits, YOU get the Correct 
Style, Excellence and « 

The Thomas 

Phone Was. 3491 44 Main St. 

Established 1877 

Phone Was. 1370 



35 P. O. PLACE 


Have You Read The Women of The Bible, &S8§?done If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one (or yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

F " s t, Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


APRIL, 1917. 

April Lucy May Green 

Pont for the Hawaiian Temple. — Avard Fairbanks. .Frontispiece 

Latter-day Temples 183 

Birthday Celebration of our Honored President 200 

Our New Board Member 201 

Winning the Man's Mother Ida Stewart Peay 202 

April Entertainment Morag 211 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 214 

Notes from the Field Amy Brown Lyman 217 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 220 

Social Work 222 

On the Way • Mrs. Parley Nelson 227 

Editorial : Spiritual Manifestations 228 

Guide Lessons • 230 


Patronize those who advertise with us.. 

BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE CO., Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 45 Main St., Salt Lake City. 


Temple Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Lake City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City. 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City. 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 

/ — 

Importance of 


The thrift habit has been the 
foundation of most business 
successes. Are you giving your 
children a start, and encourag- 
ing them in this direction? 

They'll like coming to the 
"Merchants" to make their de- 
posits. Get one of our dime 
banks for them. 4 per cent in- 
terest is added to savings here. 

"The Bank with a Personality" 

Merchant's Bank 

Capital $260,000. Member of 

Salt Lake Clearing House. 

John Plngree, Prest. ; O. P. 

Soule, V. P.; Moroni Helner, 

V. P.; Radcllffe Q. Cannon, L. 

J. Hays, Asst. Cashiers. 




Paper Binding 25c Postpaid 

Deseret Sunday School Union Book Storo 

44 East on South Timplb 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 

Cor. Main and Third South, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 




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278 South Main Street 

Schramm-Johnion No. 5 

Phone Wasatch 2815 
Salt Lake City. - Utah 


The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by the payment of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


Beneficial Life Insurance Company 
Relief Society Department 


utah state | 



"Banking Perfection 
under U. S. Inspection" 

One of the largest 
banking institutions of 
the West with ample 
resources and unexcelled facilities 


Joseph F. Smith, President 
Heber J. Grant, Vice-President 
Rodney T. Badger, Vice-Prest. 
Henry T. McEwan, Cashier. 
George H. Butler, Asst. Cashier 

Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Embalmers 

Successors to 

Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the West 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Efficient Service, Modern Methods 
Complete Equipment 

To President Emmeline B. Wells 

On Her Eighty-Ninth Birthday and Her Recovery From a Grave 


By Kate Thomas. 


Little s : lver mother, don't you hear the call o' spring 
Coaxing you and teasing you to come out in the sun 

That's splashing down its color on the budding crocus bed 
And gilding new the glad hearts of the daisies one by one? 

Little silver mother, don't you hear the blackbird trill? 

It says, "Come out, come out, come out and play at tag with 
The wide brown fields are greening and the ladyslipper's red, 

And I saw a bluebird flashing in the old bark-maple tree. 

Little silver mother with your heart so full of spring, 

'Tis God has been the wondrous sun that made yon garden 
Life's tempests could not drown the sweet forgetmenots outspread 
Because His warmth gold-tipped them with a never-fading 

Little silver mother, you're a flower of His own, 
A flower full of flowers that has made the world more fair. 

That has made the fresh breeze sweeter by the perfumes it has 
And your conquest is: His blessing and our prayer. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. APRIL, 1917. No. 4. 

Latter-day Temples 

History discloses somewhat freely the underlying reasons 
for temple building among the ancients. Both the Hebrews 
from their earliest history as well as the Egyptians, Babyloni- 
ans. Assyrians, Hindus and Chinese built temples in which to 
perform sacrificial rites and to administer ritual services to neo- 
phytes, and to store the records and sacred works of the various 
peoples who built these sacred houses to their gods. The He- 
brews alone tolerated no images and accepted no human sacri- 
fices. The rituals or ceremonies of initiation for the priestly 
candidates were all performed in that sacred secrecy which 
guarded the rites by penalties of destruction and divine wrath. 
For this reason only vague tradition and veiled allusions in 
the Scriptures, permit the modern student a glimpse of the hid- 
den mysteries of the temples. 

The pagan temples were similar in ideals and in some cases 
similar in construction to the great original Hebrew and Sem- 
itic holy houses. Indeed, all of the great original structures and 
ceremonies are but a corrupted remnant of the great original and 
divine plan which was revealed to the ancient prophets from 
Adam down to Noah, from Noah to Moses, to David and to the 
Savior Himself. These mysteries and sacrifices had for their 
root or foundation, the great atonement of our Lord and Savior. 
With the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem these things 
passed away and went with the Bride into the Wildernesss, where 
they were hidden from the memory of man. Only the Masonic 
ceremonies remained as a fragment of the truth bequeathed from 
an alien source from the days of Solomon down through the ages. 

When the Prophet Joseph Smith was commissioned of God 
the Father and His Son Jesus Christ to restore the everlasting 
gospel to the inhabitants of the earth, the revelations which were 
given him included as the final crown the ceremonies and rituals 
of baptism for the living and the dead and those keys and bless- 



ings which alone unlock the door to the Kingdom of God for 
such candidates as are privileged to enter there. 

the kirtland temple. (Still standing.) 

The first temlpe built by the Prophet Joseph Smith, the cor- 
ner stones of which were laid July 23, 1833, was accepted by our 
Father in a series of glorious manifestations and levelations 
which are thrilling in their intensity and power on the printed 
pages of the Doctrine and Covenants, Section 109. 

Here Elijah visited the Prophet as Malachi prophesied he 
would do and committed, through Joseph, the keys of salvation 
for the dead which turned the hearts of the fathers to the chil- 
dren and the hearts of the children to the fathers. The cere- 
monies administered in this temple, however, were but prelimin- 
ary to the final blessings which were to be revealed and insti- 
tuted in the temple at Nauvoo. 

On the banks of the Mississippi River, April 30, 1846, the 
Nauvoo Temple was dedicated privately and later publicly on 



May 2 and 3, and the Saints received their endowments before 
leaving there. The corner stones of this temple were laid by the 
Prophet Joseph Smith April 6, 1841. Built under the most stren- 
uous circumstances, the glass and nails costing over $2,000 was 
contributed by the sisters of Nauvoo in that donation known as 
the Sisters' Penny Subscription Fund. The font was dedicated 
by the Prophet himself for baptisms for the living and the dead 
on November 8, 1841, and the main structure sufficiently com- 
pleted, in 1846, for the full ceremonies of the endowment. These 
were to be given after the pattern laid down by the Prophet Jos- 
eph Smith who had revealed and taught them to the Twelve and 
their wives with other leading brethren and sisters. These cer- 
emonies were given under his direction in the upper room or 
hall over the Nauvoo store. The temple at Nauvoo saw the en- 
trance of thousands of eager Saints after the martyrdom, who 
knew that they were about to be driven into the trackless west, 
away from their city and temple. Many baptisms for the dead 
were also performed. 

The writer has often heard President Bathsheba W. Smith re- 
fer to her experiences at this period, and she related how she her- 
self and other women with her received their preliminary bless- 
ings under the hands of the Prophet's wife, Emma Hale Smith ; 

the nauvoo temple. (Destroyed in 1846. Cost $1,000,000.) 



and then how they joined with their husbands in the completion 
of the ceremonies, led and taught as the company was by the 
Prophet himself who explained and enlarged wonderfully upon 
every point as they passed along the way. The testimony of our 
present President. F.mmeline B. Wells, will also be interesting 
and valuable at this point. She has recorded in the pages of one 
of the old numbers of the Exponent the names of the men and 
women who hail their endowments under the hands of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

The Nauvoo Temple ceremonies were presided over, after 
the death "t the Prophet, by Brigham Young, President of the 
Twelve Apostles. Me was assisted by Heber C. Kimball and 
Willard Richards and others of the Twelve, while some of the 
sisters who labored in that temple were: Mary Fielding Smith, 
Eliza R. Snow. Elizabeth Ann Whitney. Mercy R. Thompson, 
Desdamona Fulmer, Leonora Taylor, and Bathsheba W. Smith. 

The Temple was destroyed on the evacuation of Nauvoo, 
in 1846. 





After the Saints arrived in Salt Lake City, the first official 
act of President Brigham Young was to indicate by the voice of 
inspiration the spot where the temple of the Lord should be 
erected. Forty years were consumed in the building of a $4,000- 
000 structure which is the wonder and admiration of every visl- 
itor and tourist, while it is the object of love and veneration in 
the hearts of all Latter-day Saints. Unique in its architecture, 
supremely grand in its simplicity, it is the symbol of the eternal 
faith and hope of a people who believe in God and in the mis- 
sion of the Savior of the world. This temple was completed and 
dedicated April 6, 1893, and has seen the redemption of hun- 
dreds of thousands of the dead kindred of the Saints as well as 
the marriage of tens of thousands of the children of this people. 
Beautiful without and within, it is a shrine for which the people 

Long before the completion of the Salt Lake Temple the St. 
George Temple rose white and stainless in its embrasure of green 





shrubbery and its background of the black and red-gold hills 
which rim the picture. The St. George Temple was costly in the 
extreme because of the care which went into its construction. 
Exquisitely simple in all its appointments, it is still a retreat for 
the weary and an open door to the imprisoned dead. It was com- 
pleted and dedicated by President Rrigham Young, January 1. 
1877, and its doors have never closed since that dav. 


The Logan Temple was begun on September 17, 1877. Sit- 
uated upon a commanding hillside, the Logan Temple looks out 
upon a valley of verdure and exceeding richness. Seen from 
every point of that valley it is a stately, white sentinel of guard- 
ianship ami peace. It is the mecca for all the Saints dwelling in 
the northern portion of the Church and has been always filled 
with the spirit of tender sympathy and companionship for those 
who enter its doors. 

The Manti Temple, the ground for which was broken by 
President I Ingham Young April 30, 1877, was dedicated by Pres- 
ident Wilford Woodruff, May 21, 1888. Cost, $1,000,000. 



In this temple has been witnessed many glorious manifes- 
tations, both at its dedication and at subsequent periods. The 
benign influence of President Daniel H. Wells, and, later, Pres- 
ident Anthon H. Lund, and now President Lewis Anderson per- 
meates these sacred courts and enfolds all who enter with the ben- 
ediction of peace. 


It is not too much to say that the women of the Latter-day 
Saints during the last ten years have done a great deal through 
their labors and their writings to renew the spirit of temple work 
in the midst of this people. Classes have been established and 
conventions held in many of the stakes of Zion for the study and 
practice of genealogy. During the last two years every mem- 
ber of the 41,000 women of the Relief Society has been required 
to attend the temple in her district once a year in person, or to 
send a substitute. It is really impossible to estimate the force 
and power which the women of the Relief Society through their 
united efforts have set in operation. It is like a stone cast into 
the sea — small though it may be, the waves set in motion thereby 
will never cease until their circles reach the shores of eternity. 

A new phase of their labor in this connection was inaugu- 
rated last September in what is known as the Sisters' Penny Sub- 
scription Fund, and the readers of this article will be interested 
to learn that through the modest and quiet efforts of this fund 


considerably over $3,000 has been sent in to the General Board 
Office for the six months' term ending- with January 1,1917. It 
seems almost unbelievable that such a thing could be when so little 
has been said and almost no preaching has been done on the sub- 
ject. It creates a feeling of awe to contemplate the power pos- 
sessed by this organization known as the Relief Society. 

The Prophet Joseph Smith was the pioneer temple builder. 
He laid down the pattern, he revealed the principle, he established 
the covenant. Two temples were built under his direction. The 
ceremonies of marriage and endowment, of baptism for the 
dead, and ordinance work for the dead, were revealed and es- 
tablished by him and taught to the people in Kirtland and Nau- 
voo. His last labors and teachings centered in the temple work, 
and he told the people that this was the most important respon- 
sibility resting upon their shoulders. He said that those Saints 
who neglect this work in behalf of their deceased relatives, do 
it at the peril of their own salvation. 

Following him came President Brigham Young who also 
was a temple builder. He planned and built the temple in St. 
George, planned and laid the foundations of the temples in 
Logan, Manti, and Salt Lake City. Like his file leader, the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, his thoughts dwelt solemnly upon the 
necessity of this work, and his last years were dedicated to the 
preparation of the people for a millennium of temple building and 
temple work. 

With his death and the subsequent persecutions and prose- 
cutions of the leaders of this people by their enemies, the work 
was somewhat delayed and hindered. President John Taylor 
dedicated the temple in Logan, and President Wilford Wood- 
ruff the temples in Manti and Salt Lake City, while President 
Lorenzo Snow was president of the Salt Lake Temple during his 
brief presidency. 

President Joseph F. Smith is our third great temple builder. 
He has dedicated the ground for the temples in Canada and 
Hawaii, and will under the blessing of the Lord, dedicate them 
both, and, we hope, break ground and dedicate other temples 
in other parts of Zion. It is under his administration and through 
his sympathetic leadership that temple work has grown and de- 
veloped until every town and hamlet in this Church feels the 
stirring impetus of this crowning labor of the Latter-day Saints. 
We may well offer up our prayers that he shall be with us to lay 
the foundation of the temple in Jackson County. 

No more cheering news could be given to the Latter-day 
Saints than the announcement that a temple would be erected in 
Canada for the Saints living in that portion of this land. The 
active labors of President Edward J. Wood in encouraging gen- 



ealogical activities, and the pleasant situation of Cardston, deter- 
mined the choice, no doubt, of the sightly hill upon which the 
Canadian temple is now being erected. The cost of this temple 
has far exceeded the estimates, as native stone has been chosen 
with which to build it, and war times have necessarily increased 
greatly the cost of material and labor which is going into this 


beautiful edifice. It is a comforting thought that every penny 
contributed by the sisters of the Relief Society may help to buy 
the glass and nails for this temple in far-off Canada, even as 
their pennies purchased the glass and nails for the temple in Nau- 
voo. We shall have a claim upon the blessings which will be 
given in this temple at its completion. It is an interesting phase 
of the situation here to know that President John Taylor and the 
martyred Patriarch Hyrum Smith's wife, Mary Fielding Smith, 
mother of President Joseph F. Smith, accepted the gospel^ in 
eastern Canada along with Elder Joseph Home and his wife, 
M. Isabella Home. Lydia Goldthwaite Knight, Amos Fielding 
and other noted pioneers in the Church. 

The last temple site chosen and dedicated by President Jos- 
eph F. Smith is that situated at Laie on the island' of Oahu, Sand- 
wich Islands on the Church plantation. President Samuel E. 
Woolley has long maintained the fact that the Lord inspired his 
servants to build a temple for the ocean-girt isolated people of 
Hawaii. President Joseph F. Smith dedicated this ground on 
Tune 1, 1915, and that temple is nearly completed. It will be a 
"small temple, comparatively speaking, accommodating but fifty 
in a company, but beautiful for situation and comely within and 
without. The singular prophecy made by President Brigham 



Young at the laying of the corner stone of the Salt Lake Temple, 
when he told the people that temples would be built in the future 



containing flower gardens and fish ponds upon the roof thereof, 
seems likely to be fulfilled in the plans made by President Wool- 



ley for such adornments on the Hawaiian temple. This temple 
will, no doubt, be ready for dedication during the early summer 
months, and it is anticipated that 10,000 Hawaiian Saints will 
be in attendance at this service, thus disappointing somewhat the 
hopes of some of our Saints in Utah who have been attracted by 
the thought of a possible excursion at the dedication time, to this 
"paradise of the Pacific." All in good time these things will 
come, and when the Hawaiians themselves measurably satisfy 
their own righteous desires in temple labors we may hope to have 
an opportunity of some future visit and labor in this beautiful 

In connection with the labors of the Saints to redeem their 
dead in the temples, the study and practice of genealogy is an 
absolute necessity. We are a kingdom of priests and priestesses 
and among the wonderful privileges and responsibilities that 
accompany the priestly office is the art and science of recording 
the genealogy of the living and the dead. The Levitical Priest- 
hood in Moses' time and the Priesthood long before his time were 
trained in this science. It is given now as a great honor to every 
member of this Church to become his own genealogist and the 
genealogist of his or her family. It will be impossible — it has 
been and ever will be impossible — to perform work for our dead 
kindred unless we have their records, and these records properly 
prepared in books suited to temple purposes, so that the pre- 
paration of genealogies lies at the root of all temple labor. 

We have been furnished with an account of the pioneer gen- 




ealogical class held in Hawaii by Mrs. Leah D. Widtsoe on a 
recent visit to those islands. She says: 


"The Temple in Hawaii is fast nearing completion. Tt is 
planned to accomodate fifty people, and it is hoped that draw- 
ing as it will from all the Polynesian group of islands, it will 
he occupied most of the time. 

"The question often asked is: 'Will the people have their 
genealogies in such shape that they can make full use of the tem- 
ple when it is dedicated?' To one who never sees beyond the 
mere accomplishment of man's power, the question must be an- 
swered decidedly in the negative, because, while the people them- 
selves have kept their family records only by tradition, even the 
ruling families have been very remiss in this respect. 

"During a recent visit there. I was much impressed with 
the necessity of the Hawaiian .Saints, generally and individu- 
ally making a systematic beginning in this great field, so thai 
there will be work for them to do from the beginning. In con- 
versation with President S. E. Woolley 1 asked if he had any 
objection to my urging this upon the Saints publicly, if I had a 
chance. He gave his consent, so when the Relief Society of Hon- 




olulu asked me to be present at their meeting and speak to tHem, 
I chose as my theme, the necessity of gathering genealogy. 

About a week later at a meeting of the Relief Society, at 
Laie, the same theme was chosen, and the sisters became every 
much interested- — so much so that they insisted upon having a 
class formed for study upon this subject. 

"I talked with President Woolley and assured him of my 
willingness to help them make the right start in this direction. 
But since I had not come with any special commission from the 
genealogical authorities and also, of course, because I was not 
familiar with their language, I could not take them very far. 

"I explained to the Saints in general that Inasmuch as the 
Lord never required His children to perform any task unlesss the 
way was made clear, nevertheless, His children had to put forth 
their own effort and use their own intelligence or the Lord's help 
would be useless. And while the gathering of genealogy in Ha- 
waii may seem hopeless to many, there was a very simple begin- 
ning to make — and we could never climb any mountan, be it high 
or low, except by taking one step at a time. The first step in 
gathering genealogy is to start with the living. 

"I had with me the guide book of the Relief Society and 
used the simple instructions there for beginners, adding some 
things from my own experience. 




The first class met at Laie in June, 1916, in the large mis- 
sion home, Lani Hull, and consisted of the following: President 
Samuel E. Woolly; Sisters Ivy K. Apuakehau, Violet Meyer, 
Kanoe Kekauoha, Kapili Luahiua, Makanoe Makakao, Rel,*cca 
Bridges, I alia Cummings, Ellen C. Cole. 


"President Woolley was invited to be present and a very 
good start \va- made. Another class was called for one week 
later and the sisters were asked to come with the names and 
oates of their own families, as far as they were able to gather 
them in one week. One of the best lessons learned from the 
entire course was that it is no light thing to gather the records 
of one's own immediate family, unless careful records have been 
kept, and that it is a vital thing to keep these records for the 

"The points that were brought out in these classes was the 
sacredhess of these records, and that some place in the home 
should be chosen, even though a box or a drawer, where these 
records would be safe; and that as far as possible no record 
rhould be taken on loose leaves. A few of these preliminary 
instructions were emphasized and the Saints urged to make the 
work as near correct as possible from the beginning, thus saving 
much time and the many mistakes made by our home people 
before we knew bow to do this work correctly. 

"The system of numbering the individual names was taught, 
as also the grouping of the names into families. Also some gen- 
eral instructions regarding the keeping of the note book and the 
copying and care of the larger Family Temple Records. 

"They were urged to use some form of family record book 



for their own living families, so that records may be correctly 
kept now for future generations. 

"Sister Ivy Kekuku, President Laie Primary Association, 
arranged a picnic party for the Primary officers and a few friends 
on the 24th of July. We were glad to be in the party. One of 
the most beautiful summer resorts on the islands, belonging to 
a wealthy family of Hawaiians, is not far from Laie and permis- 
sion was obtained to spend the day there. While resting and en- 
joying the beauties of the place, some one suggested that a picture 
be taken of the first genealogical class in Hawaii. All of the 
sisters of the class were not present at the picnic, but a snap shot 
was taken of the few who were present and a copy of the result 
illustrates these notes. 

"The Hawaiians are truly a branch of the House of Israel 
and the Lord certainly is mindful of them. President Woolley's 
remark must come to pass : 'The Lord has made it possible to 
build a temple here. And will the Saints be able to gather enough 
genealogies to keep it busy? Of course they will. The Lord 
has never yet required anything impossible of His children. He 
will open the way.' 


"He surely will ; but, dear Saints, we will have to 'walk in 
the way.' The Lord has never yet done for his children what 
they may do for themselves. We must be up and doing, fill our 
lamps, trim our wicks so that when the cry goes forth, 'Lo, the 



o . 



O c 

o u 

— HM 

o 3 

w ft, 

3 s 

— — 







Temple is finished,' we may not be kept on the outside because 
we preferred ease to effort, and let our lamps burn too low. 

"May the Lord bless the efforts of his children in this far 
off land !" 

In connection with temple building amongst this people there 
is a very remarkable circumstance to which we call attention as 
the closing thought in this article. We have read in the Book of 
Mormon of the temples built by the descendants of Lehi and 
Nephi. Ruins have been scattered here and there, especially in 
South and Central America. The Central American ruins have 
been described and illustrated by a number of discoverers. Over 
eighty years ago a gentleman by the name of Lord Kingsborough 
published in a costly set of books, the result of his discoveries 
in Yucatan and other parts of Central America. Apostle Orson 
Pratt paid $500 for this set of books and these are now stored 
in the Historian's Office of this city. One of these large volumes 
contains beautiful engravings of the ruins there discovered ; 
among them is the picture of a building found engraved upon a 
large box lid, and we reproduce it here as a most curious illus- 
tration of the temple built by the Nephites. If such a thing were 
possible one would think that the Prophet Joseph Smith might 
have chosen this des-'gn upon which to pattern the temples in 
Kirtland and Nauvoo, and more particularly does it resemble the 
outlines of our Salt Lake Temple. We commend this similarity 
of temple design and structure to the skeptically minded who need 
confirmation, as well as to the sacred and serious contemplation of 
those who love the work of the Lord. 

How wonderful are Thy works, oh Lord — how perfect are 
Thy designs — how harmonious are Thy laws ! Under the shadow 
of the Temple walls we dedicate to Thee anew, our best efforts to 
save the living and to redeem the dead. 


There will be a meeting held at 4:30, April 7th, 1917, in 
the beautiful new class room of the Genealogical Library quar- 
ters of the palatial Church offices. All invited. Topics to be 
treated : Reports and Problems. 


All subscribtions to magazines must begin with the March 
number. Other numbers exhausted. 

Birthday Celebration of our Honored 


President Emmeline B. Wells was eighty-nine years old 
somewhere between the striking of midnight on the 28th of Feb- 
ruary and the 1st of March, and as the first of March was the 
anniversary of her baptism seventy-five years ago, the General 
Board of the Relief Society celebrated both days appropriately. 

On Wednesday, the 28th, the Board tendered her a beautiful 
complimentary luncheon in the Hotel Utah. The menu included 
roast turkey, for Aunt Em relates the story of her first real birth- 
day anniversary, when she was four years old. She was sent to 
bring her grandfather to the dinner and she trotted along by his 
side until they reached the old home. He spent the time at the 
party in reminiscences of his Revolutionary experiences. The 
principal item of the feast was a turkey, roasted on a spit before 
the open fire. 

At the luncheon various wise and otherwise remarks were made 
by the members of the Board in honor of the occasion. Our 
President herself responded to these gracious sentiments of love 
and appreciation in her usual happy way. 

The next day a public reception was given in the Bishop's 
Building where a program was given as follows: 

Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox read one of Aunt Em's poems; 
Prof. Willard Wiehe, accompanied by Prof. J. J. McClellan ren- 
dered two exquisite solos ; Mrs. Nellie Druce Pugsley sang, "The 
Last Rose of Summer." and Horace S. Ensign sang, "Give Me 
the Sunshine of Your Smile," in his best voice ; our Chorister. 
Lizzie Thomas Edward rendered "The Swallows," in a delightful 
manner. The meeting was opened by Elder Hyrum M. Smith 
and remarks were made by President Heber J. Grant. 

Other leaders who were present were : Elder Rudger 
Clawson, Orson F. Whitnev, Elder T. Golden Kimball, Bishops 
O. P. Miller and David A.' Smith. 

One of the delightful features of the occasion was t'ne 
charming tribute paid by Mr. H. G. Whitney to the guest of 
honor which was both touching and witty. 

Counselor Clarissa Smith Williams presided on the occasion 
with dignity and grace. 

In her response President Wells said she was glad her an- 
cestors had been soldiers in the Revolution and in the French and 
Indian wars, and that her mother had danced with Lafayette. She 
herself had known many great men, but the greatest of them all 
was the Prophet Joseph Smith. She bore a strong testimony 
ro his life and mission and to the many stirring events associated 


with Nauvoo and the martyrdom. She remembered when the 
Temple was built in Nauvoo, how honored she felt to assist in 
preparing dinner every day, in the upper floor of Parley P. Pratt's 
partially finished house, for nine of the twelve apostles. She 
thought and still thinks that no greater earthly honor could be 
given socially to any person, and it seemed almost as remarkable 
as dining with the Savior. Now-a-days it seemed to her that our 
\oung people dine with the Presidency and Twelve Apostles with- 
out any sense of reverence or real appreciation of the honor they 
enjoy. She closed with her blessing upon all and a strong testi- 
mony to the truth. 

The meeting was dismissed by Elder Rtidger Clawson, and 
a beautiful souvenir card was given to all present. 

Our New Board Member 


The members of the Relief Society will 
be interested to know that we have a talented 
young worker added to our General Board. 

Miss Lillian Cameron is the daughter of 
David and Sarah A. Childs Cameron. She is 
of the third generation in the Church on her 
father's and the fourth on her mother's side. 
Her father was born in Scotland and her 
mother in England. She was born in Utah. 
She has been a teacher in the Sunday Schools, 
in all the grades, and in the Y. L. M. I. A., 
Laving acted as First and Second Counselor in the Eleventh Ward 
Mutual. Her best public work, however, has been done in the 
Genealogical Office. She went into the Historian's Office in 1008, 
and in 1909 she went into the Genealogical Office. Very shortly 
thereafter she became Assistant Librarian, which position she 
still occupies. She is one of the most expert workers in the 
Scandinavian pedigrees in the Church, that is, she is able to follow 
out the intricate tables and reduce them to the standardized 
American form for temple purposes. 

She has acted as stake chairman of the Temple work in the 
Ensign Stake Board Relief Society, giving splendid satisfaction 
by her labors. 

She is naturally refined, intellectual, and her expert knowl 
edge of genealogy, as well as other educational topics, makes her 
an invaluable help to the General Board. We welcome her to 
our circle. 

Winning the Man's Mother. 

By Ida Ipswich. 

"Did you order that chicken for tomorrow, Jim?" Lucy 
Mackson imprisoned her big-boy husband in the corner of the 
kitchen by the baking table, where he had slipped to playfully 
piltcr some of the cake dough she was assiduously stirring. 

"Tastes just like it used to when mother would turn her back, 
and I was barely tall enough to jab a spoon into the jar or gouge 
out a mouthful with my dirty finger," laughed the man, evading 
her question and teasingly smacking his lips over another sip of 
the golden mixture. 

"Here!" cried the wife with mock severity, "you'll eat it all 
up so I won't have any angel food for tomorrow. But you did 
not answer my question, now confess your sins — did you forget 
the chicken ?" There was the tender light of young love in her 
eyes but she held an egg-beater over his head menacingly. 

The youthful husband pretended to quake under such a 
deadly weapon and hastened to declare that he had remembered 
the pesky fowl — the troubled look did not come into his eyes until 
the happy little wife turned away. 

"Lucky thing for you that you did as you were told for once," 
she chimed sweetly. "You know — " turning to the neighbor 
woman and close friend who had just dropped in for a moment's 
chat — "I've invited Jim's mother up for dinner tomorrow — hence 
all this pastry. Oh, I'm going to have a fancy spread, all right. 
Here, laddie," she ordered with naive charm, "you may crack the 
nuts for the salad." 

Standing behind his wife the man's expression was one of 
dejection and anxiety. Her jolly enthusiasm smote him to the 
heart, but he affected a careless note, as, not being able to let 
her chatter on this way, he burst out. 

"Oh, ah, — a — by — the — way, Louie, I forgot to tell you, I 
went around to see mother and — and, by George, as luck will 
have it she'd just put a quilt on the frames — right in the living 
room where it couldn't be left, you know — and it will take her all 
'lay tomorrow to get it off — she's doing it alone and its fine, she 
told me. So, you see, it will be quite impossible for her to — a — 
get here. But we'll have the spread just the same," he worked 
himeslf into a lively manner — "and invite your mother over." 

"Not coming!" there was painful disappointment in the am- 
ateur cook's ejaculation and heedless of his last suggestion she 


cried again with incredulous astonishment, "your mother isn't 

"Why no, you see, Louie, she couldn't leave the quilt that 
way — " 

"But" — a gravely puzzled look through which the gleam of 
a new discovery was slowly struggling, showed plainly in the 
mobile face of the slender matron, "but — a — " she protested re- 
calling something — "your mother had just put a quilt on the last 
time I sent for her and also, now I come to think of it, the time 
before and the time before that it was, let me see, something she 
couldn't leave — I forget now. And, really, she hasn't been here 
since — a — why, since you went into business for yourself, Jim — " 
Lucy Mackson searched her husband's face with awakening per- 
ception — "I wonder if she's — " then remembering the guest in the 
room and that this was a family affair she ended vaguely — "if 
anything's wrong," though her eyes kept on questioning. 

"O no, of course not," Jim assured her, a quality of positive- 
ness in his tone that was clearly forced. "Everything is all right, 
and say, I'll scamper over and engage your mother for the mor- 
row's guest of honor, what do you say?" but without waiting for 
her assent or the contrary, he took the kitchen steps at a bound 
and fled through the garden to the next house. His wife gazed 
absently after him, a deepening suspicion gradually replacing her 
mystified amazement. 

The unwitting caller, to relieve the tension and having jumped 
at an obvious conclusion, vouchsafed a little sympathy. 

"It's a good thing your mother lives near you, if your hus- 
band's people are going to treat you so coldly." 

Lucy Mackson's fresh flushed face showed no sign of having 
heard 'mis remark. She seemed lost in curious speculation. Her 
friend threw out another line. 

"I'm sure you've been splendid to Jim's folks. You've had 
dinners and dinners for them and entertained them royally" — 
she warmed to her subject — "especially his mother. And now for 
her to act like this ! I've noticed none of them have been near 
you for ages." She waited a moment but as her hostess still ig- 
nored the bait to unburden her wrongs, persisted, "Oh, I know 
these mother's-in-law — had one myself. / was like you, I took 
Harry's folks right into my arms, you know, and for a time we 
got along famously. But Harry's mother wanted to manage 
our affairs and when we deliberately started on a course she did 
not approve she began to act queer. I didn't pay any attention to 
it for a long time. At last she wouldn't come to our house any 
more and treated me cooler than frost when I went to see her. 
To cap the climax she turned all the family against me, then 
my patience gave out and I broke diplomatic relations with the 



pack of them." She gurgled amusedly at the recollection then 
added. "We haven't visited with Harry's mother for three years, 
and after all those strivings, snubs, disappointments and heart- 
aches, I tell you, it seems good." 

Mrs. Mackson was listening intently, now, astonishment and 
wonder in her sensitive face. 

"But doesn't Harry miss his mother awfully?" she marveled 
in a calamity stricken tone. 

"Well, mayhe he does, hut it can't be helped. We've got to 
live our lives in our own way, and if it doesn't suit her why we 
can't be blamed. She cannot expect to direct me nor Harry 
either. Then we have my mother." 

"Yes, that is lovely for you — but what must it mean to a man 
to be estranged from the old home with its memories and associ- 
ations and particularly from the love of his dear, faithful mother? 
And she must be dreadfully unhappy never to see her boy!" Lucy 
M ickson seemed pondering aloud, her face a study in sym- 
pathetic abstraction. 

"It's her own fault," sighed the neighbor woman. "I did my 
best. And my advice to you is the sooner you give up trying 
to get along with them now they are set against you — which is 
plain to everybody — the better for your peace of mind." 

They talked on for a few minutes then the visitor took her 
leave and Mrs. Mackson, her joyous preparation at a standstill, 
stood in perturbed, puzzled, idleness for a long time. Pres- 
ently there was a faint sound somewhere in the interior of the 
little bungalow that roused her. She hastily washed her hands 
and tripped out of the kitchen, her young face illuminated by 
such a smile of glorious anticipation one would have thought her 
going to meet a lover — except that she did not stop before the 
mirror to smooth her hair. In a trice she was bending over a 
daintily draped basket from which now issued the soft, velvety 
cooing of a little babe. 

"Mother's idol !" breathed the woman rapturously, lifting 
the pink and white morsel lovingly to her breast. "Mother's 
precious idol !" 

"That's a new one," laughed the husband over her shoulder 
having tiptoed in to surprise her. "Mary calls her infant 'lamb- 
kin' ; Allie says 'honey' ; Vera, 'lovey' ; Eva, 'pet' ; and oh, I've 
heard many others but 'precious idol' is a new one. Trust my 
Louie for being original," he laughed softly and put his arm 
r-rotectingly around the new mother and their first born. 

"But isn't he precious!" cried the wife as the baby just old 
enough to recognize them held out his chubby arms and jumped 
gaily from one adoring parent to the other, claiming their whole 
attention. "Tust think, dearest," there was a touch of sentiment 


in the woman's voice, "you were once a little baby — love like 
thi s — your mother's joy! Think of all you have been to her — 
and she to you. And now you have left her — " 

"It's life," defended the man philosophically, but his memory 
flew back with a sense of pleasure to the old home and the never- 
to-be-forgotten companionship of his devoted mother. 

"But you can be all in all to her still, a wonderful comfort 
in her riper year if — oh. I don't ever want any woman to take 
my son away from me," emotionalized the new mother almost 
tearfully as she clasped her baby boy tightly to her. 

"You want him to marry, don't you?" asked Jim still on the 

"Certainly, but I want to make room in my heart for a 
daughter, if she will come in, and so keep my boy." 

"Sure," murmured young Mackson, but with no assurance 
and the depressed look stole over his face again. 

"Now, Jim," began Lucy, when the husband encsonced in 
the big rocker had pulled both mother and babe tenderly down 
upon his knee, "Tell me— what is the matter with your mother? 
And what is wrong with your sisters? Now I come to go over 
things in my mind, I realize not one in your family have been 
here for ever such a long time. What is the matter? 

"O, nothing, nothing is wrong, Lome, that I know of," he 
replied rather lamely while the dejection in his face deepened. 
Lucy questioned and questioned but Jim would not admit any 
trouble. He just could not bring himself to tell his loving little 
wife about the storm of protest that was brewing among his 
people over their financial ventures. He was well aware that 
the whole family blamed Lucy for the initiative or for having 
driven their own favorite lad into debt and its burdens. He also 
knew they had determined to have nothing more to do with her. 

"Let me see, if I remember correctly, none of your folks have 
been here since before Arbor Day, right after that you went into 
business for yourself," Lucy began to formulate a theory detec- 
tive-wise, "I wonder if your mother is worrying about us not 
accomplishing what we 'have undertaken," she guessed with 
womanlike intuition pinning Jim down. 

"Well, she may be— some," the husband admitted slowly. 

"Poor dear!" 

"But, of course," the man meditated aloud a trifle^ sorrow- 
fully, "we have to plan for ourselves, now, mother can't expect 

to—" „ . 

"N-no, not exacth — " interrupted the wife, also meditating. 

"She really hasn't any right — " 

"She has a right to be happy and comfortable about her boy," 
Mrs. Mackson broke in again this time spiritedly while she pressed 


her own child closer. "O, Jim, it's a shame to have your dear 
mother fretting about you and thinking you are going to fail." 
Then springing to her feet with sudden decision she exclaimed. 
"1 have a plan — er — did mother say she would come over?" 

"No, she wasn't at home." 

"Then we'll have her some other time. Tomorrow you must 
get your mother over here." 

"Dearie," Jim spoke sadly, "I don't see how it is — why it is — 
I don't understand — but I know for a certainty that she positively 
will not come." 

"Not under ordinary circumstances," allowed the wife, "but 
you must bring her. anyway. Use strategy, anything, but bring 
her. Now I'll leave that part with you, so prove your resourceful- 
ness. I'll take care of the rest." 

Thus put upon his mettle the young husband determined to 
carry out his commission if such a thing were possible. He be- 
gan to rack his brains for a feasible device to kidnap his aposta- 
tizing parent for he knew, having tried sympathetically for three 
months, he could never overcome her prejudice sufficiently to get 
her to willingly visit the daughter-in-law who was held in such 
gross disfavor. 

It was twelve o'clock the next day, just a half an hour in ad- 
vance of the time set for the dinner, before he really hit upon an 
acceptable course, even then he was in serious doubt. However, 
as the whistles shrilled for noon he rushed out of his new grocery 
store — the innocent cause of such offense — hired a taxi and 
dashed up to his mother's door in tremendous haste. 

The elder Mrs. Mackson was sitting before the fire in the 
living room thoughtfully knitting — there was no quilt on the 
frames. Her son burst in breathlessly. It did not require any 
a cling for him to appear agitated for it was with real trepidation 
that he began, 

"Mother, I wonder if I can get you to do me a favor?" 
Throwing an arm about her shoulders he kissed her with genu- 
ine emotion. 

"Why, my son," exclaimed the devoted and anxious parent 
in tremulous concern, "whatever is it?" The question was super- 
fluous. As a matter of fact she knew the crisis had arrived, the 
crisis she had been dreading and fully anticipating. James had 
come to ask her to help him some way to save his credit, or home, 
or business, or all three. His striving wife with her million dol- 
lar ideas had brought him to ruin this soon. Poor boy! 

"Whatever is it, James, my son? You know I will do any- 
thing on earth for you," she cried returning his embrance with 
the tenderest sympathy. 


Jim felt like a cad. But, was it not to keep this loved one in 
his life that he was practicing such deception? 

"Why, mother dear, it isn't anything serious," he assured her 
looking the picture of anxiety and glancing hastily around as 
though hunting for something— "I— I haven't time to explain 
now but will you get on your wraps and come with me ? Here" 
—his searching eye discovered her old grey shawl, the old grey 
shawl of childhood memories he held out— "this and a fascinator 
will do— no one will see you, I have a closed car outside. Will 

vou come?" 

"Of course, I'll come," vowed the dear soul, trembling like an 
aspen leaf, while her son— kicking himself for a scoundrel- 
hustled her into the closed conveyance. The chauffeur drove 
like mad and before there was time for the exchange of a. dozen 
words the short distance was covered and they stopped in front 
of the little bungalow. Expecting some crushing shock the lady 
followed her son into the very presence of the vexatious daughter- 
in-law. -ii 

That dainty little creature was in the act of putting the last 
of a steaming and savory meal on the dining table. 

"Ah, we're just in time," cried Jim while his wife ran up and 
embraced the elder woman heartily. 

"Oh, how good it is to have you here again, Mother Mack- 
son. We haven't seen you for so long we are starving^ for a visit 
with you. Now sit right up and have dinner with us." 

"But James," the deluded woman had a notion to act out- 
raged and to decline ungraciously. She even thought of speaking 
her mind on the spot. 

"Mother, will you do me the favor to eat with us?" Jim 
coaxed, a boyish mother-hunger in his eyes that was responsible 
for a relunctant capitulation. With unsmiling face she permitted 
Lucy to take the old grey shawl and scarf while Jim put her lov- 
ingly down at the head of the table. During the meal the man 
and wife kept up a steady flow of light conversation. They were 
jolly and mischievous and told such funny little jokes that the 
elder Mrs. Mackson could not possibly freeze up but instead actu- 
ally indulged in a few unwilling chuckles. 

Jim persuaded her to acknowledge his wife a remarkable 
band at roasting fowl and Lucy reminiscenced about the good 
things Jim's "mother to used to make" and of which she had par- 
taken with such pleasure when visiting at Jim's old home. 

When the repast was over the man hustled around evidently 
preparing to go back to work. His mother stiffened slightly and 
looked about for her things. 

"Well, James," she said in the manner of one announcing 
readiness for some solemn proceedure. 


Jim looked at her in enquiring surprise. 

"You said you wished me to do you a favor, I'm ready — " 

"Oh," said her son as though suddenly enlightened, "sure, 
sure I did — I wanted you to break bread with my wife and 
me, and you can not imagine how much good it has done us. Now 
I'm going to leave you to visit with Louie and Jim Junior this 
afternoon and after a while I'm coming around with an automo- 
bile to take you home. You musn't leave on any account until I 
jjet back." With this rapid-fire explanation he gained the door 
and in another second dashed out, shaking his head doubtfully 
when out of sight over the greater task to be undertaken by the 
little unapproved helpmate. 

Yes, it was the wife's turn now and her heart, too. sank with 
misgivings as she preceived the renewed uncompromising man- 
ner of her mother-in-law. The elder Mrs. Mackson was, indeed, 
dumb-founded and stood angrily staring first at the door which 
had closed behind her son and then at the flushed face of his 
young wife. At last she managed to speak. 

"If you'll get my shawl — James wouldn't wait for me to 
find anything else — I'll be going. T can't stay today," her tone was 

Lucy had to think quick. "Oh, please don't burr/. Mother 
Mackson," she pleaded. "I had a bit of news I wanted to tell 
you. You remember Vira Grey, don't you? Here, have this 
rocker, baby and I will sit on this stool beside you. You know 
Yira married Jack Neiber — well, thev've just had the worst 

"Gone to the wall — I knew they would," was the mother-in- 
law's mental comment but she said nothing aloud, just premitted 
Lucy to put her into the easy chair where she sat interestedly 
listening in spite of herself but maintaining a very stern counte- 

"Yes, they have failed utterly — everything is gone," the host- 
ess hastened on. "You know, he had as much as ten thousand 
dollars worth of property from his uncle when he married Vira 
but they have gone through it." The mother-in-law's ire and in- 
dignation rose almost to the point of boiling water over this 
revelation, but she was thinking of her own extravagant daugh- 
ter-in-law instead of Yira Neiber. She winked hard to keep back 
the angry tears. Lucy proceeded. 

"I know just how it happened. Yira and T have been life 
long friends, you know — " At this remark Mrs. Mackson, the 
elder, unconsciously nodded (these two girls had been friends, 
also the town belles and were alike in that both had been reared 
in considerable luxury). "You see" — Lucy chattered on — "after 
Yira and Jack were married they went right in for pleasure and 


social leadership. First they spent three idle months on a honey 
moon trip. Then, Vira would have a much finer home than their 
means warranted. Next they went to the Exposition and squand- 
ered a lot of money. Since then they have entertained lavishly, 
they have a car, a box at the theater, and Vira has dressed ex- 
quisitely. Jack told us that from the first they had spent a good 
deal more every month than he earned and he had to borrow and 
so had mortgaged all his possessions. He was working for a 
salary, a large one, to be sure, but last week he lost his position 
because of neglecting his duties for auto trips, hunting excursions 
and other society calls, and now they haven't anything — not even 
a baby," the new mother's voice was gentle with compassion as 
she tenderly hugged her little one. "Another sad thing about it 
is that they cannot be comforted by the love and sympathy of 
Jack's mother as they have become estranged from her, that 
leaves her, too, to grieve over her boy's failure alone and discon- 
solate. Isn't it all too bad?" 

This last deliberate parallel of her case with Jack Neiber's 
mother was almost too much for the abducted guest, she allowed 
herself no comment but her face was convulsed with the pain of 
self pity. 

"Now Jim and I — " Lucy began her real plea — "are trying 
to lay a foundation for sound financial strength." The first Mrs. 
Mackson gasped at such audacity then swallowed the very gall of 
bitterness, her nose turned up, the corners of her mouth down, 
and her eyes burned with contemptuous unbelief. The younger 
woman went on. "When we were first married we didn't take a 
trip but reserved Jim's savings to buy our furniture. Then as 
Jim was making $90.00 per month we decided we could build this 
little house. It costs us $22.00 a month to live here and having 
borrowed from a building society the place will be paid for in the 
next eight years. That left us $68.00 each month for living ex- 
penses and by being economical we have managed nicely." Mrs. 
Mackson senior's lip curled more scornfully but with sweet ob- 
livion Lucy continued, "But Jim's position at Baker & Co. was 
precarious. As their trade expanded Jim's work doubled, he was 
really being imposed upon, and if he complained he would be 
fired. Anyway, Baker's son-in-law was qualifying for the place 
and Jim knew it was only a matter of time until he would be 
hunting another job. The poor boy was just sick to be more inde- 
pendent ! Well, since he had worked for Baker's eight years and 
had held every position from delivery boy to head bookkeeper he 
felt that he knew the grocery business pretty thoroughly and 
when he talked of starting a store of his own I encouraged 
him — I tell you, I believe in Jim. To be sure, we hadn't any 
capital and were in debt for our home but because he was ac- 


quainted with the methods of that particular business and be- 
cause he's a pusher and able to save, I knew he'd make good. I 
told him to go ahead and borrow the money to start on and I 
would not spend a cent above necessities until it was all paid." 

In spite of the mother-in-law's fortified prejudice Lucy's com- 
mon sense talk and earnest manner had mollified her consider- 

"But borrowed capital — " she muttered ominously. 

"Mother Mackson. do you remember the Hudson boys?" said 
the little wife. "Emery Hudson made a fortune by understand- 
ing the economic exactions of a certain trade. Then not realiz- 
ing himself what was at the bottom of his success he spent his en- 
tire savings setting his three sons up in business. Having such 
a good start he expected they would far exceed what he had 
done. They everyone failed. Why? Perhaps, from two pri- 
mary causes. First, they had not been schooled in the various in- 
tricacies of the business they elected ; second, the capital or money 
that comes easy goes easy. In other words a 'foot of climb is 
worth a mile of boost.' 

"Jim and I are working to a plan. From what he makes we 
pay the $22.C0 on our home, a certain amount of the principal and 
interest of our debt and live on the rest, be it much or little. Isn't 
that a safe basis? I've been wanting to tell you our intentions 
and working management for ever so long and get your approval 
and blessing. The fact is we need you. We want you to enter 
with us into our schemes and enjoy with us the expectations and 
realizations of all our hopes. If disaster should come, by some 
evil chance, how much easier we could all face it with our love and 
confidence in each other unshaken. But of course we expect to 
succeed. We believe in ourselves. We are going to make good, 
Mather Mackson. now you watch us!" The fire, determination 
and faith of the youthful helpmate penetrated the armor of the 
mother-in-law. hope came into her eyes and with it good will and 
— tears. 

"Well. I believe you will. Lucy," she breathed, startled at her 
own words but determined to be game when fairly won. 

When Jim returned he found the two women he loved best 
on earth talking and laughing and crying together and Jim Junior 
crowing happily over the victory. 


We have extra copies — ten cents a dozen — of "Spring," 
"Hushed was the Evening Hymn." and the "Hawaiian Temple 
Song." Address Amy Brown Lyman, General Secretary. 

April Entertainment. 

By Morag. 


Now that Annual Day is over, it would be a good thing to 
recruit some new members for the local Relief Societies, and on 
the fifth Tuesday in April an "Acquaintance meeting" might be 
held. At the Sunday meetings during the month, a committee 
might greet all the strangers and hand them an invitation to at- 
tend the Acquaintance Social. Each member of the Society 
failing to bring a stranger or non-member to the meeting should 
be fined five cents. This feature will induce members to hunt up 
strangers. A folded sheet of notepaper is handed to each mem- 
ber to be filled with autographs of those present. These may be 
kept as souvenirs. Have a short, breezy program with demon- 
strations from the various departments of Relief Society, activi- 
ties, some music, and some light refreshments. Try this, and 
see if good will not result from your effort. 

This same idea might be used as a ward affair and held in 

the evening. At this party, sealed envelopes might be handed to 

the guests. These to contain the following, or similar requests : 

"See that no one near you is left alone without a word of 


"See that all are properly seated." 
"See that each speaker is properly thanked." 
"Introduce strangers to bishop and ward officers." 
'"'See that the room is well ventilated." 

"If the room is too warm or too cold, speak to the janitor." 
"Talk to people who seem timid and lonely." 
"Dance with the chaperons and wall-flowers." 
Commence dancing with a Spiral Hand-shake. All present 
form in one spiral line; this may extend several times around 
the hall. The bishop may be stationed at the inside end of the 
line. At a given signal he starts to shake hands all along the line. 
The one next to him follows, and so on until no one is left in 
line. When this is over every one present will have shaken hands 
with every one else, the ice will be broken and all will feel at 
home. Try this, and see if it is not worth while. 


For the rural communities, a seed exchange may prove a 
good idea for a social. Each guest is to bring a bulb, slip, root, 
or seeds, each to be done up in a quaint package with full direc- 


tions for the growing of the contents and the disposal of the har- 
vest. Curiosity will be aroused from this, first as the people try 
to find what the various packages contain. At a given signal 
the parcels are exchanged and opened secretly. Then rcwrapped 
and exchanged again. Five minutes may be allowed for each 

The seed exchange social should open and close with singing 
and prayer, and the following hymns from the S. S. Book are 
suggested : 

"We are Sowing. Daily Sowing." 

"What Shall the Harvest be?" 

"Scatter Seeds of Kindness." 

Refreshments suggested are: Seed cake (caraway), and 

The tenth exchange is to be announced as the last one, the 
package then becomes the property of the one who has just re- 
ceived it. Packages of flower seeds may have the direction, "To 
be used to decorate the church in August," or, "To be used for 
the hospital." 

With vegetable seeds, "To market and give the proceeds to 
the bishop for ward fund." 

With a bundle of tomato plants, "Grow, sell, and use for your 
Church magazine subscriptions." 

Try this seed social, and see if it does not create a friendly 
feeling in your community. 

Spring music for Relief Society meetings: 

"The Opening Buds of Springtime," No. 72, S. S. Book. 

"God is Love," No. 75, S. S. Book. 

"There is Beauty all Around," No. 46, S. S. Book. 

"The World is Full of Beauty," No. 123, S. S. Book. 

"Easter Morning," No. 250, S. S. Book. 

"Arbor Morning Bright and Fair," No. 129, S. S. Book. 

"Seeds of Kindness," No. 195, S. S. Book. 
-"Spring," Relief Society Magazine, April, 1915. 


Here is a Kitchen shower. 

A merry crowd of young matrons made a shower for one of 
their girl friends as follow^ : 

They made the funniest figure they could think of out of the 
articles contributed. When all had assembled, the quaint figure 
was divested of her clothes while the following rhyme was read : 


"I am a bride, not bride to be, 

And that I'm useful you'll agree. 

Of kitchen utensils I am made, 

From the ten-cent store, the highest grade. 

Behold my face, 'tis but a fake, 

But comes in fine for making cake. 

My hair you'll think an ugly crop, 

In fact 'tis only a nice dish mop. 

Last and not least, my draperies white 

For drying dishes will prove right; 

Therefore, as bride I come to you, 

I'll prove your faithful servant too." 

Other showers are, Spoon, Pin, Handkerchief, Basket, 
Hosiery, Cap, Bag, Pansy, Flower. 

Another idea for the shower party would be for each guest 
present to bring a potted plant, (pots of hyacinths, daffodils are 
cheap at this time). After spending a happy hour with music 
and floral games the plants could be delivered by the guests to the 
shut-ins of the neighborhoods or to the hospital wards. 

Missionary showers should be popular with us when books, 
handkerchiefs, bags, etc., might be given. 

For literary people, a Shakespeare evening may be arranged 
on April 23, which is the natal day of the great bard of Avon. 

The Easter time brings many social affairs, and lilies, rabbits 
and eggs are used for decorations. 


The sixth of April is an important date in the history of the 
world. Many will be at conference, but for those who desire a 
program for home evening, the following is suggested : 

Hymn, "Far, Far Away on Judea's Plains." 

Reading of Section 20, Doctrine and Covenants. 

Story of the Birth of Christ (Luke 1. 2, 3). 

Important events which occurred in April. 

Coming of Spring Typical of The Resurrection. 

The Gospel Restored and the Organization of the Church of 
Christ, Preparatory to the Second Coming of Christ and the 
Great Resurrection. 

Hymn, "We Thank Thee, O God, for a Prophet." 

Remember and observe Arbor Day. Plant trees, shrubs and 
flowers, and don't forget to make one or two bird boxes. 

The Entertainment Editor will gladly help you with your 
programs, social affairs, if you will write her enclosing stamped 
addressed envelope. Address care Relief Society Magazine. 

Home Science Department. 

By Janette A. Hyde. 

Now, with war. food shortage, high prices and possible 
famine staring us in the face, let every Relief Society woman 
plant a vegetable garden and grow potatoes and onions in every 
available foot of ground. No danger but what all will be needed 
and used. Altogether now, one, two, three, dig! Dig early 
and late and all the spring. Aunt Em has been warning us about 
the times of famine — let us be prepared! 

With stormy March just ushered in, and the ground still 
covered with snow, and badly frozen, we may still be in order if 
we suggest preparations for th : s season's kitchen garden. Prob- 
ably many of you already have your gardens laid out or planned 
on paper — at least this is what we have been coaxing our sisters 
to do for the last three years. We hope you have sent for reliable 
catalogues and seed books. They are free and contain a store of 
useful information. 

Just when the gardening should begin, depends upon the 
part of the country in which you live. The first step in gardening 
is to get the ground in proper condition. If it has been fertilized 
in the fall, the fertilizer should be turned under, and the ground 
thoroughly spaded and' raked. The boys or men should do this 
heavy work, after which, the women will be able to plant the 
?eeds, and when the time comes, transplant such slips as have 
been raised in the kitchen windows, or hot beds, outside. That 
women are capable of even making their own hot beds, was dem- 
onstrated to us at Shoshone Idaho by one of our sisters, who 
showed us a fine bed of lettuce, onions and radishes, produced 
under a glass frame in her back yard, during the early spring 
months, when it was impossible for vegetables to grow in the 
open ground. 

Now a word as to what to plant: Many of the most useful 
vegetables are neglected and forgotten in the selection of kitchen 
gardening. A few roots of English chives, okara, summer chard, 
Brussels sprouts, and Scotch kale, are little known, and yet are 
easy to grow, and these, with the usual varieties, furnish us a 
great many changes for salads, decorations, and table vegetables. 

There are the standard varieties, such as carrots, cabbage, 
corn, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, celery, peas, radishes, turnips, 
beets, etc. These should find a prominent place in every home 


garden. Do not confine yourselves to one or two kinds, because 
they bring a good price, but choose a variety, from the fact that 
a variety stands a better chance of not over-doing the market in 
any one or two kinds of food. Plan to raise more than you can 
use, thus creating a market, and supplying those who are not in 
a position to raise their own garden truck. Interest the boys and 
girls so that they will be anxious to become producers, helping 
them to earn enough to. begin a bank account and buy clothes 
and books to commence the winter's school. Call their attention to 
the price of potatoes and onions, this year, and by so doing, they 
may be induced to plant a few bushels in some of the vacant lots or 
pieces of ground in the cities and towns where they live, thereby 
doing good to themselves, and helping to clean up and beautify 
the city, creating an atmosphere of thrift and industry among 
their friends, besides starting a career of usefulness, which, after 
all, is the foundation of permanent manhood and strength. 

With all of our Relief Society mothers co-operating in this 
one movement, alone, we will be able to assist, in greatly reducing 
the high cost of vegetables which should form the greater portion 
of our family meal. 

For seed circular, ask the Utah Agricultural College to mail 
you No. 16, of 1916, which is very useful in helping you to de- 
termine the best kind of seeds. 


Nuts and Cress Salad. 
1 tb. minced cress. 
1 tb. minced nuts. 

3 tb. creamed cheese. 

4 tb. French dressing. 

Moisten to a paste with the French dressing and spread on 
thin slices of buttered bread. 

Cress with Lemon Juice. 

Cleanse thoroughly freshly picked cress leaves, put in cold 
place, or on the ice. When ready to serve, sprinkle with sal;, 
lemon juice, a little paprika, and powdered sugar. Very delicious, 
served with chops, steak, or game. If the sprays are pulled apart, 
they make an excellent nest for birds' nest salad. 

Cheese and Cress Sandwiches. 
1 cup rrild cheese grated. 
}/2 cup cream : 
4 tb : French dressing. 
1 cup shredded cress leaves. 


Whip cream to stiff froth, add cheese, season with salt and 
pepper, moisten cress with dressing, put all together, and spread 
on thinly buttered slices of bread. Crackers may be used instead 
of bread, which, sometimes, is mine convenient and really 
furnishes a very crisp sandwich. 

Tomato and Cress Salad: 

Select firm, ripe tomatoes, plunge into boiling hot water, and 
then into cold, skin off the outside, put on the ice until ready to 
use. Take a sharp knife and cut a thin slice from the end of each 
tomato, scoop out the inside, filling the cavity with minced cress, 
cover with fluffy French dressing, and serve on beds of cress. All 
ingredients should be thoroughly chilled. 

Cress is about the only product of food, the price of wh ; ch 
has not been affected by the war. 

Those who live in the country, may go to the near-bv streams 
and brooks, and gather, free of charge, this delicious cress, which 
furnishes us a foundation for many excellent salads, sand- 
wiches, etc. Those who live in cities can purchase it on the mark- 
ets at a very reasonable price, usually two bunches for \\\2 cents. 
It is a real tonic for the liver, and very appetizing when properly 

French Dressing. 

3 tablespoons of weak vinegar or lemon juice. 

2 tablespoons of sugar. 

1 teaspoon of salt. 

1 teaspoon of paprika (sweet red pepper) stirred well to- 
gether. Add slowly 5 tablespoons of olive oil, and beat hard. 
1 his can be mixed at the table — it is always offered in hotels 
for table mixing — and it also keeps in a cool place after mixing; 
beat hard before serving, if it has stood over. 


The Home Science Department have arranged three demon- 
strations during the Relief Society Conference days for the benefit 
and interest of our members and visitors : 

Fireless Cooking by electric stove. Wednesday, April 4th, 
A :30 p. m. Fourth Floor, Bishop's Building. 

Fireless Cooking by gas stove: Thursday, April 5th, 4:30 
p. m. Fourth Floor, Bishop's Building. 

Milk Demonstration. Food for babes and young children: 
5 :30 p. m. Fourth Floor. Bishop's Building. 

Notes from the Field. 

Bx the General Secretary, Amy Brown Lyman. 

Relief Society Conference. 

The Annual Conference of the Relief Society will be held 
on Wednesday and Thursday, April 4th and 5th, 1917. Two 
general session? will be held in the Assembly Hall, on Wednes- 
day, April 4th, at 10:00 A. M.. and 2:00 P. M. 

All officers and Relief Society workers are invited to be in 

Two officers' meetings will be held on Thursday at 10 00 
A. M., and 2:00 P. M., in the Auditorium on the fourth door of 
the Bishop's Building. 

The officers' meetings will be limited to stake officers, stake 
board members, and stake representatives. 


Woodruff Stake. The Woodruff stake Relief Society was 
reorganized on January 28th, 1917. Mrs. Phebe A. Brough and 
her counselors who have labored faithfully for so many years, 
were honorably released, and the following sisters were selected 
to take their places: President, Zina Taggart ; 1st Counselor, 
Evelyn Starkey, 2nd Counselor, Ida Fowkes. 

Boise Stake. In a letter from Heber O. Hale, we learn of 
the reorganization of the Boise stake Relief Society. On account 
of the failing health of Mrs. Mary A. Rawson. it was deemed 
advisable to relieve her of her duties as stake president. Mrs. 
Rawson has labored zealously during the three years that she has 
held this position, traveling on an average of 5,000 miles a year 
to visit the numerous branches in this large and scattered stake. 
From a beginning of 7 societies, she had built up 17 active or- 
ganizations in the stake. Mrs. Rawson is, at present, in Cali- 
fornia, where she has gone in the hope of regaining her health. 

Mrs. Laura J. Adamson, who has been one of the most 
capable and intelligent stake secretaries in the Relief Society, 
has been chosen to take the place of Mrs. Rawson. Following is 
a complete list of the new stake officers : President, Laura J. 
Adamson ; 1st Counselor, Mrs. E. Pearl Adamson ; 2nd Coun- 
selor, Mrs. Charlottie B. Smith; Secretary. Jennie Thomas; Asst. 
Secretary, Mrs. Minnie Rowe ; Treasurer, Mrs. Elna L. Stan- 
ford; Genealogical Committee, Mrs. Bessie G. Hale and Mrs. 
Ida Fleming ; other Board members. Mrs. Hariette Sparks, Mrs. 


Mary A. Hellewell, Mrs. Helena Jensen, and Mrs. Matilda Inge- 

Bingham Stake. At Idaho Falls, Sunday, February 25th, a 
reorganization of the stake Relief Society took place. Mrs. El- 
vira C. Steel was honorably released as president of the Relief 
Society in this stake, and Mrs. Mamie Harris Laird of Idaho 
Falls was selected to fill the vacancy. The reports from Bingham 
stake, have acquainted us with the splendid work done by Sister 
Steele and her officers. They have been always ready and willing 
to respond to any call that has been made upon the society. Dur- 
ing the year of 1915, the Relief Society collected and donated 
$513.30 for electric light fixtures for the new Latter-day Saint 
Auditorium at Idaho Falls. 

Southern States. In the report recently received from the 
Southern States, we learn that during the year, five new branches 
have been organized, with the following officers : Catauba, S. C. 
Mrs. Lucy J. Starnes, President ; Lamison, Ala., Lila Sealy, 
President ; Raytown, Miss., Dora Ray. President ; Society Hill. 
N. C, Evalene Wenberg. President ; Xenia. Ohio, Lydia A. 
Schultz, President. 

The Lamanite sisters in Catauba Indian nation, have been 
organized into a society, and are very diligent in visiting the sick 
and caring for the poor. 

In many of the branches, the Relief Society members have 
raised funds through the sale of quilts and other articles with 
which they have purchased sacrament sets for the Church. 

Western States Mission. 

An interesting letter has come to us from Mrs. Jane W. 
Herrick, who was recently appointed President of the Relief 
Society in the Western States Mission. Two societies have lately 
been organized — one at Trinidad, Colorado, and the other at 
Omaha, Nebraska. This makes five societies, in all, in this mis- 
sion, the other three being located at Denver, Pueblo, and Ala- 
mosa. Mrs. Herrick has visited all the branches during the last 

From the size of the subscription list sent in, we judge that 
ojt Colorado members are very much interested in the Magazine. 

In Memoriam. 

Provo City, Utah : At the close of the last year Mrs. 
Joanna Holister Patten of Provo Cty, Utah, was called to the 
great beyond. Mrs. Patten was born March 18, 1833, in Caroline, 
Tompkins Co., N. Y. Her life has been full of interesting ex- 
periences as she has been closely identified with the Church since 


her family settled in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1835. She attended the 
dedication of the Kirtland Temple as a child with her parents 
in 1836. In 1842 she removed with her family to Nauvoo where 
si e remained for ten years, witnessing the rapid growth of this 
city. She was present at the dedication of the Nauvoo Temple in 
1846, and in 1852 she came to Utah. Mrs. Patten was personaUv 
acquainted with the Prophet Joseph Smith. She was the mother 
of ten children. 

Providence, Utah : In the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Mat- 
thews of Providence, Cache Co., Utah, we lose another of the 
sturdy pioneer women who played such an important part in the 
development of the great West. Mrs. Matthews was the daugh- 
ter of a pioneer and was a pioneer herself, crossing the plains as 
a little girl with the handcart company and suffering with others, 
untold hardships. She was one of the early settlers of Cache 
Valley and understood from experience what it means to over- 
come the barren and stubborn soil of a new country. These 
hardships born of patience, courage and fortitude developed a 
strength of character which made Mrs. Matthews a leader among 
her associates, and because of her perennial smile, her sterling 
honesty, her unselfish devotion to friends and duty, she was be- 
loved by all with whom she came in contact. 

Mesa, Arizona : Mrs. Rachel Noble of Mesa, Arizona, died 
very suddenly on January 20, 1917. She was 63 years of age and 
was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, where she was married to 
P3enjamin Noble. Thirty-two years ago with her husband she 
left Utah and was one of the pioneers of Arizona, settling in 
Mesa where she has resided continuously since that time. She 
was greatly beloved by all her acquaintances for her many admir- 
able qualities. She was broad-minded and sympathetic and was 
especially devoted to the charitable and philanthropic work of the 
Relief Society. Mrs. Noble was the mother of a large family. 
One of her daughters, Mrs. Mamie Clark is, at the present time, 
President of the Mesa Stake Relief Society. 

Provo : Sister Agnes Strong Farrar passed from this life 
22 Feb., 1917, at her home in Provo. Her youthful spirit, and 
the sweet contagion of her sympathetic nature endeared her to all, 
friends and strangers alike. She was a typical pioneer, walking 
across the plains and wading every river but one. She was the 
mother of eight children, eighteen grandchildren, and three 
great-grandchildren. From 1870 she was a faithful R. S. Worker, 
especially gifted in song and choir leading. May her work go 
singing on its way through the eternities. 

Current Topics. 

By James H. Anderson. 

Forty persons, mostly children, were killed by a gas main 
explosion in Chicago in February. 

Prohibition by legislative enactment is now accomplished 
in Utah; the next move is to secure it by constitutional provision. 

A Cuban rebellion in February threatened to require Amer- 
ican intervention, but finally was suppressed without this be- 
coming necessary. 

An Ogden Boy, Leroy Leishman, has invented a process for 
transmitting- photographic reproductions over telegraph lines. 

Foodstuffs continue to go up in price, potatoes reaching the 
figure of six cents a pound, in Salt Lake City, in March. 

Intermountain railway traffic was effectually blocked for 
several days in February in and around Salt Lake City, steam and 
electric roads being tied up by snowdrifts. 

Armenia has lost by death one-third of its population during 
the present war, and the remaining two-thirds have been reduced 
to the verge of starvation. 

Utah troopers near Arivaca, Arizona, were attacked by 
Mexican bandits in February, but drove them off after a sharp 
fight lasting several hours. None of the troopers were injured. 

Two States out of Idaho is a question to be put up to the 
voters there at the next election. West Virginia voters have a 
similar proposition to deal with. 

A labor agitator named Mooney has been convicted in San 
Francisco, in connection with the bomb explosion at a prepared- 
ness parade there last summer, when ten persons were killed and 
forty injured. 

Munition factory explosions occurred in England and 
Germany in February. The heaviest loss of life was at a Ger- 
man factory, where over 1.000 women and girls were killed. 


German officials are now denouncing America as, next to 
England, the worst enemy of Germany. Evidently there is some 
irritation there at the patience of this country in having its rights 
trampled on. 

Neutral nations have been aroused to an intense feeling 
against what they unanimously term Germany's barbarism in un- 
restricted submarine war in attacking and sinking without warn- 
ing unarmed passenger ships, and destroying the lives of men. 
women and children of nations not at war with the Teutons. 

Mormon colonists in Mexico have chiefly left that coun- 
try, abandoning their homes there to Mexican bandits. Three 
Mormon colonists were seized at Hachita, New Mexico, carried 
over into Mexico and murdered, by Mexicans. 

King Alfonso of Spain was the victim of an attempted as- 
sasination in February, by an effort to wreck the train on which 
he was traveling. The obstruction placed on the track was dis- 
covered, however, in time to prevent disaster. 

Food-riots, owing to high prices which many people were 
unable to pay, occurred in New York, Philadelphia and Chicago 
in February. This is a beginning of troubles, as the food ques- 
tion in America promises to overshadow the war problem. 

Turkish troops at Kut-El-Amara, Mesopotamia, suffered 
a disastrous .defeat at the hands of the British during the last 
days of February. This, with the assembling of large English 
and French forces in Greece, foreshadows an attempted grinding 
process about to begin for Turkey. 

Three Hundred American sailors, taken from various 
ships by German raiders, are held as prisoners in Germany, de- 
spite the requests of this country for their release. This, under 
international law, is an act of war against the United States. 

The "Laconia," one of the largest ocean-going steamships, 
was sunk without warning on the night of February 26, while en 
route from New York to Great Britain, by a German submarine. 
Thirteen lives were lost, among them being ten Americans, two of 
these being women passengers. This inexcusable breach of in- 
ternational law is an act of war on the part of Germany against 
the United States, and hastened the request of President Wilson 
that Congress give him the power to protect the lives of Amer- 
icans on the high seas. 

Social Work. 


To All Women Officers and Teachers in the Church. 

Dear Sisters: Some months ago the Presidency of the 
Church addressed a letter to the General Boards of the Relief 
Society, Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association, and 
Primary Association, calling attention to present conditions of 
immodesty in dress and social conduct, and asking that these 
organizations take up the matter with the women of the Church. 
The communication of the Presidency on these subjects was pub- 
lished in the editorials of the January (1917) issue of the Relief 
Society Magazine, the Young Woman's Journal, and The Chil- 
dren's Friend. We trust that if you have not already done so, 
you will give these editorials careful consideration. We call your 
attention, also, to the editorial on this subject, by President 
Joseph F. Smith, in the Improvement Era for December, 1916. 

Acting in accordance with the instructions therein given the 
General Boards of the three women's organizations prepared and 
adopted a resolution on dress. 

This resolution was sent to the Priesthood authorities in 
each stake, and to all women stake officers. The latter have sig- 
nified their willingness to adopt the same. 

The first part of the resolution applies to our sisters who 
have been through the Temple. These sisters have •received 
special instructions from those in authority ; therefore, they 
know their duty in regard to the proper wearing of their cloth- 

The last clause of the resolution applies to those of our girls 
and women who have not been through the Temple, many of 
whom feel that they are under no restrictions in the matter of 
dress. They thoughtlessly follow the "fads" of fashion. Many of 
them wear sleeveless gowns and such extremely low-cut bodices 
and short skirts at evening parties as to bring the blush of em- 
barrassment to the check of the truly modest man or woman. 
Whi 1 e the custom of wearing such gowns may be thought proper 
in some circle* of fashionable society, it is unfitting that the daugh- 
ters of the Latter-day Saints should be thus attired. 

An evening* dress may be beautiful and becoming to the 
wearer and yet be free from objectionable features. The dress 
should be made to cover the shoulder and upper arm : the round 
c: V nerk should not be extreme ; and the skirt not immodestly 


short. Very sheer material, while beautiful in itself, is not in 
good taste unless worn with underclothing which properly covers 
the body. 

Inappropriate street and afternoon costumes are frequently 
worn. Extremely short skirts and blouses with low-cut V's are 
manifestations of poor taste and indicate a lack of modesty on the 
part of the wearer. Blouses made of georgette crepe or other 
transparent materials are not considered in good form by the 
best authorities on dress unless worn with a suitable underslip. 
It is pleasing to note that many of the latest under bodices are 
made with a prettily-designed short sleeve. 

The desired result in these matters will be difficult to accom- 
plish without the co-operation of the dress-maker and home seam- 
stress who have much influence in determining the styles to be 
worn in any community. Their assistance should therefore be 
sought in bringing about these necessary improvements. 

It is surprising that many young women adopt extreme 
methods of dressing, under the mistaken impression that such 
will add to their attractiveness. Good men the world over admire 
the decently dressed girl or woman. At the officers' meeting of 
the Y. L. M. I. A. June conference, 1916, President Joseph F. 
Smith made the following statement: "I do not think there is 
a decent man in this city nor in the world who would not give 
his decision unqualifiedly in favor of the lady who was modestly 
and neatly dressed in apparel designed to shield rather than to 
expose hereslf to public gaze, as against those who go about the 
streets half clad. I give that as my belief. I judge men by my- 
self, to some extent, at least." 

Thinking men and women everywhere are giving the matter 
of dress serious consideration. Ideals of true modesty are being 
revived. At a recent gathering of women in New York City, 
dress was one of the principal topics treated. Among others 
these sentiments were expressed: "Are you — a woman — willing 
to go before your Maker and be judged in the clothes you have 
on? Do the fathomless V of your blouse, and the little girl skirt, 
most important symbol in the shorthand fashions of the hour, ex- 
press your character ? Do the gown and the hat you wear at this 
moment indicate your thoughtful intelligence? * * * * * 
Good women should have fashions of their own. (We) don't 
believe in appearing dowdy or queer, but (we) do insist that a 
woman's clothes should express her character — not her lack of 

Latter-day Saint women should be leaders in this move- 
ment. Officers, especially, should set the example. Upon each 
officer and teacher rests an individual responsibility to manifest 


her willingness to dress according; to proper ideals. Each one 
should ask herself: Am I measuring up, in this respect, to the 
highest standards of modesty and to my professions as a mem- 
ber of the Church of Christ. 


By request of the General Authorities of the Church, the 
General Boards of the auxiliary organizations have unitedly pre- 
pared the following instructions on social work. These have 
been approved by the hirst Presidency and are now submitted 
to Presidents of Stakes, Bishops of Wards, and auxiliary organ- 
izations, with the request that they be adopted in the stakes and 
wards throughout the Church. 


1. ORGANIZATION. — In stakes and wards social commit- 
tees composed of men and women shall be appointed by presidents 
of stakes and bishops of wards to take charge of all social activ- 
ities. The members of these committees should be selected with 
a view to their particular fitness for social work, it being sug- 
gested for the consideration of the authorities in the appoint- 
ment of stake and ward committees that it might be well to 
have the auxiliary organizations represented on such committees. 
These committee^ should act in harmony with the Priesthood 
and cany out their wishes. All social gatherings should be un- 
der their direct supervision. 

2. Meetings and Order of Business. — All committees 
having social work in charge shall have definite times of meet- 
in--. The following order of business for these meetings is sug- 
gested : 

la) Prayer. 

i l.i Roll call. 

(c) Reports of work previously assigned. 

(tl) Consideration of general regulatory suggestions re- 

I e i Consideration of local social problems, and determina- 
tion upon definite ways and means of their solution. 

i fi Definite assignments of members of the commith. to 
the execution and supervision of the plans agreed upon. 

( g ) benediction. 


All decisions reached by the social committees should be ap- 
proved bv the presiding authorities in the stakes and wards. The 


co-operation of all Priesthood and auxiliary organizations, and 
of all other helpful sources, should be earnestly sought. 

The decisions should then be brought before the general 
public with a view to creating sentiment in their favor. It must 
always be understood that no plan of action can be successful 
unless supported by public sentiment. Therefore, opportunity 
must be sought to present the work of the committee in the pub- 
lic gatherings with a view to enlisting support. 


1. The Hall. — The committee shall see that the hall is 
clean, comfortable, well lighted, and ventilated. Where possible, 
separate cloak rooms for ladies and gentlemen should be pro- 

2. Time of Opening and Closing. — All parties should 
begin not later than 8 :30 and close not later than 1 1 :30 p. m. 
The frequent practice of playing the "Home, Sweet Home" med- 
ley should be dispensed with. 

3. Prayers. — All parties should be opened and closed by 
brief, appropriate prayers. . 

4. Director of the Dance. — A competent man, who is 
tactful, and has influence among the young people, shall be se- 
lected by the committee as director of the dance ; if not already 
a member of the committee, he shall be made a member. During 
the dance the director shall have supervision of the hall, orchestra 
and program, and shall be the constituted judge as to what is 
proper and improper in dancing and deportment. When deemed 
advisable, he may be compensated for his service, such compen- 
sation to be charged as part of the expense of the dance. Where 
conditions require, the director of the dance should have such 
assistants as may be necessary. It is suggested that these assist- 
ants be young men congenial with the young people, and familiar 
with dances and dancing. 

5. Duties of Director. — Among the duties of the director 
are these : 

(a.) To consult with the musicians prior to the evening 
of the dance upon the fitness of the music for the dances deter- 
mined upon, and arrange that only proper music shall be played. 
High class music is conducive to good deportment and refined 
dancing. Great care should be exercised in the choice of music 
for the dance, and the orchestra should not be permitted to play 
objectionable selections. 

(b) To be on hand promptly in order that the dance may 
begin at the appointed time ; also to see that the musicians and 
reception committee are present on time. 


(c) To follow the program, preserving the identity of the 
dance. Dances should be announced by placard, program, or 
otherwise. Allowance should be made for some variety in moth 
ods of dancing, provided the different interpretations are sim- 
ilar enough not to be objectionable. 

i (1 i To insist upon correct position. 

(e) To exclude, tactfully but courageously, undesirable 
persons, and to see that the use of tobacco, liquor, and bad lan- 
guage is not permitted in or about the building. 

(f) To see that all present receive proper introductions. 
Great care should be exercised in introducing young people to 
strangers. No young man or young woman should be intro- 
duced unless tlu' person making the introduction can stand 
sponsor for his or her worthiness. Much harm has resulted from 
indiscriminate introductions. 

6. Patrons and Ciiaperones. — Patrons and chaperones 
lend "tone" and an atmosphere of conservatism much to be de- 
sired, and also add an element of real safety. Young people 
should be instructed that chaperonage is rather for protection 
than for restraint. 

Social committees should make it their special duty to see that 
bishops and other leading members of the Priesthood, as well 
as parents, receive personal invitations to, and are encouraged 
to attend, the dances of the young people. Arrangements should 
be made to insure the attendance at each dance of at least three 
parent couples, free of charge. Frequent changes in the per- 
sonnel of patrons are desirable. Attention to these details will 
solve manv of the problems connected with social life. 

7. Children Under Age. — Boys and girls under fourteen 
years of age, unaccompanied by parents, sin mid be discouraged 
from attending evening parties. 

8. Escorts. — Young ladies may attend without gentlemen 
courts, if properly chaoeroned. but should not accept company 
h< me i ther than that with which they came. 

9. PARTNERS. — Young men should bring partners, and their 
coming without should be strongly discouraged if not forbidden. 

10. Position. — Dancers should take such free and open 
position as will permit them to execute the dance gracefully, pre- 
senting a pleasing appearance. Most of the recent criticism of 
dancing is occasioned by the improper positions assumed in the 
modern dance. Any position which encroaches in the slightest 
degree upon modesty and refinement should not be permitted. " 

11. Square Dances. — Square and line dances give variety 
and develop the spirit of sociability. Manv have the idea that 
these dances are to be engaged in with much noise and stamping 


and at a whirlwind rate. This is not so. As much grace and 
dignity are required in square as in round dances. 

12. No Special Dances Approved. — The Church authori- 
ties do not express approval of any particular dance. They expect 
all dances to be characterized by modesty and refinement. 

13. Special Attention. — In putting the foregoing instruc- 
tions into effect, special emphasis should be laid upon the follow- 
ing : 

fa) Organization of committees. 

(b) Appointment of director of the dance. 

(c) Chaperonage. 

(d) Proper position. 

Contiguous stakes may unite in formulating plans for car- 
rying out these regulations, and for perfecting other details to 
suit local conditions. 

The General Board of Relief Society. 

The General Board Deseret Sunday School Union. 

The General Board Y. M. M. I. A. 

The General Board Y. L. M. I. A. 

The General Board Primary Associations. 

The General Board of Religion Classes. 

The General Church Board of Education. 



Spring is comin'. 

Think I hear the bees a hummin' ; 
Caught a glimpse of bluebird's wing, 
Heard a speckled med'lark sing, 
Felt a touch of balmy breeze, 
Heard it whisperin' to the trees, 
"Spring is comin'." 

Spring is comin'. 
Hear the wood-pecker drummin' ; 
See the green blades peepin' thru, 
And a blue-eyed violet too ! 
Hark, I hear a robin's song! 
Makes me happy all day long, 
Spring is comin'. 

Mrs. Parley Nelson. 



Entered as second class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Failetli. 


Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Eddington 
Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. APRIL, 1917 No. 4. 


There is a great longing in the human heart 
Getting Away to get out and away from the sordid and 
From sorrowful cares and burdens of daily life — 

Daily Cares. out into the green fields of nature, into the 

halls of pleasure or into the fascinating vistas 
of the imagination. Worldly people seek diversion in thea- 
ters, auto rides, or social festivities. Religious people reach 
out rather for the green fields of spiritual desire, and enter 
longingly into the golden promises of the spirit as portrayed 
by dreams, visions, prophecies and other spiritual gifts. 
This longing is natural, is human. It is right for us to gratify 
it — in reason and sanity. But — there is a danger lurking near 
— always the danger of excess. 

The use of any gift, power or force rests 
The Law of upon law. Any person who seeks after 

Equilibrium. pleasure — in excess — pays the price of that 

excess. Unless he complies with the law 
which balances up his life-forces, he will be destroyed by the 
law. So, too, people who seek after spiritual gifts and mani- 
festations — in excess — will pay the price of that broken law. 


The recent publication of a so-called vision 
The Danger of of Washington in these pages — which was 
Pinning Faith printed solely as a curious old document — 
to Unauthorized has brought forcibly to us the existence of 
Sayings. this eager longing of the human heart for 

spiritual dreams and visions with which to 
vary the usual monotony of life — and the attendant danger of 
placing reliance on anything but the standard revelations and 
visions contained in the Bible and the other books of the 
Church and those that may be given as revelation by the living 
oracles of God. We have a wealth of prophecy and vision 
given us in the ancient and modern Scripture, and command- 
ments many by the living servants of the Lord. Why not 
search the Scriptures and the counsels of the authorized ser- 
vants of God for our enlightenment? Why put excessive 
stress on the dreams and prophecies of unauthorized indi- 
viduals while we neglect the study of the revealed word and 
the counsels of the Priesthood? Even then, wisdom must 
guide our course. One of the brightest women of the Church 
became so carried away with the prophecies of Daniel and 
St. John, with the confusing estimates of "times, times, and 
half-times," that she finally drifted out of the Church alto- 
gether, because people would not sympathize with her and 
partake of her excessive enthusiasm. 

Balance, poise — these are the keynotes of 
Cultivate Poise, sanity and wisdom. Our heads must not 
soar so far in the clouds that we cannot find 
our feet firmly fixed on the earth. While we are here we must 
observe the laws of spiritual as well as material gravitation, 
or we will be destroyed. 

Our condition, today, in the nation and in the 
Be Sane. world, is sufficiently serious, and the ap- 

proach of the world's end is sufficiently near 
to demand our supreme effort at self-control and self-poise. 
Sisters, do not be deceived by over-zealous people who have 
this direful dream to relate or that hazy vision to whisper 
in your ear. Just keep your eye on your file-leader — be pru- 
dent — attend to your daily duty better and more faithfully 
than ever before — read the Scriptures, attend your Relief 
Society and Sacrament meetings, look well after the children, 
redeem your dead, take sufficient time off for regular recrea- 
tion, don't be excited nor over-zealous, but be wise, be poised, 
be Relief Society women in whom your husbands, sons, and 
the angels can trust to all eternity. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in May. 

the days of the judges. 
(Readings: Judges. Chapters 4 and 5.) 

Two periods are involved in this lesson — the sojourn in the 
wilderness and the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. We 
shall deal with each separately. 

\ i'Ut the death of Rachel, and probably of Leah also, came 
the famine in the land of Palestine and the relief of his father's 
family by Joseph, who had been sold to the Ishmaelites. Jacob 
then went to Egypt with h : s household to the number of seventy 
persons, counting Joseph and his two sons. Here Israel died. 

Then his descendants, till a ruler arose "who knew not 
Joseph," entered upon their four hundred years of "bondage" to 
the Egyptians. Towards the end of this period their burdens 
became unbearable, so much so that they cried to the God of their 
fathers for deliverance. Jehovah heard their prayers and set 
them free. Through a rapid succession of events — the birth and 
rise of Moses, the revelations of the Lord to him, the plagues 
upon their oppressors, and their flight from the Nile banks — the 
children of Israel escaped beyond the power of the enemy into 
the wilderness. 

Their wanderings in the wilderness continued till almost 
every man died, who had come out of Egypt, and a new genera- 
tion had grown up. Moses, "the most exalted figure in the 
ancient world." was their leader in both temporal and spiritual 
matters. Meantime they had dissensions within their ranks and 
fierce battles with their enemies without. The generation of 
Israelites that came out of Egypt is often characterized in the 
biblical narrative as "stiff-necked." And they were — if we are to 
judge by their actions. Even Moses, one of the meekest of men, 
at times became impatient with them, and gave them the rebukes 
they richly deserved. This stiff-neckedness it was that impelled 
the Lord to "cut off" the generation that crossed the Red sea. 
As for the opposition the Israelites encountered from the tribes 
along the way, the chosen people were generally successful in 
battle. On the death of Moses, Joshua took command of the 


Israelites, and led them presently into the land of Canaan, which 
he conquered for their "inheritance and possession" and which he 
divided off for them. 

After Joshua had "taken the Promised Land" and given it 
to the children of Israel, there were still many Canaanites left 
in cities here and there in the "inheritance" of certain tribes. 
These were "left by the Lord," we are told, "to prove Israel by 
them." The tribe of Benjamin, for instance, "did not drive out 
the Jebusites, nor Manasseh the inhabitants of Beth-shean and 
her towns ;" and this same statement is made by the sacred his- 
torian concerning the tribes of Ephraim, Zebulun, Asher, and 
Naphtali. And hereby hangs a tale. For whenever the Israel- 
ites left off serving the Lord for a time, as they did at frequent 
intervals during these years, these Canaanitish people became a 
source of great trouble to them. "I will not drive them out from 
before you," said the Lord, referring to the first inhabitants of 
the land, "but they shall be as thorns in your sides, and their gods 
shall be a snare unto you." 

During the leadership of Joshua, the Israelites "served the 
Lord all his days." But when that generation "were gathered 
unto their fathers" and when another arose "which knew not the 
Lord nor yet the works which he had done for Israel," they "did 
evil in the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim. And they for- 
sook the Lord God of their fathers, which brought them out of 
the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, the gods of the 
people that were round about them." 

They were brought back to the service of the Lord only 
through suffering and bondage — as who is not ? Sometimes their 
deliverance was wrought through the treachery of one of their 
number, as in the case of Ehud, who "made him a dagger which 
had two edges, of a cubit length," who "did gird it under his 
raiment upon his right thigh," who thereupon went on a personal 
visit to Eglon, "a very fat man" and the king of Israel's oppres- 
sors, and who "put forth his left hand and took the dagger from 
his right thigh and thrust it into the king," blade and haft and all, 
till the king was dead. Sometimes this deliverance was wrought 
out by means of the direct valor of such persons as Barak and 
Deborah, who with ten thousand men of war wrested the freedom 
of their people from the hands of those who oppressed them. 

Josephus has a passage concerning this very time which 
allows us to look at the general condition of the Israelites during 
one of these lapses. "The Israelites grew so indolent and un- 
ready of taking pains," he says, "that misfortunes came heavier 
upon them, which also proceeded in part from their contempt of 
the divine worship ; for when they had once fallen off from the 
regularity of their political government, they indulged themselves 


further in living according to their own pleasure, and according 
to their own will, till they were full of the evil doings that were 
common among the Canaanites. God therefore was angry with 
them and they lost that happy state which they had obtained by 
their innumerable labors, by their luxury ; for when Chusan, king 
of the Assyrians, had made war against them, they lost many 
of their soldiers in the battle, and when they were besieged, they 
were taken by force ; nay, there were some who, out of fear, 
\oluntarily submitted to him, and though the tribute laid upon 
them was more than they could bear, yet did they pay it, and 
underwent all sort of oppression for eight years." 

The plain truth, however, is that the temptation to forsake 
the worship of the true God for that of the gods served all around 
them was very great, considering that human nature is as it is. 
The religious rites of the Israelites were extremely strict, and 
there were many of them. The command respecting the observ- 
ance of the Sabbath, for instance, allowed, if not directed, the 
.'toning of any one who broke this law. Jehovah was "a jealous 
God." On the other hand, the worship of the heathen nations 
in Palestine, although strict in some of its requirements, made 
a powerful appeal to the natural indolence of human nature. 
And this appeal to the Israelites was the greater because they 
had no king and the splendors of kingship, while the heathen 
nations had both. Then, too, whereas the Israelites were appar- 
ently "intolerant," these other peoples' worship permitted other 
gods than their own. 


1. What two periods are involved in this lesson? 

2. What happened to Israel after the death of Rachel? 

3. Who was Joseph? What did he do for his father's 

4. What difference existed between the Israelites and their 
neighbors? What is the significance of these? 

5. What happened to Israel after the death of Joshua? 
How do. you account for the success of Joshua in keeping his 
people true? 

6. Why did the Israelites so often fall away from the true 
worship? In this respect compare them with the Nephites on 
this continent. 

7. What conditions do we have today, if any, that are sim- 
ilar to those of the Israelites at this time? 

Note : We recommend our students to buy Smith's Old 
Testament History, $1.50, Deseret Sunday School Book Store or 
Deseret News. 



Work and Business. 

Second Week in May. 


Genealogy and Literature 

Third Week in May. 
nick and descriptive names. 

One of the earliest forms of surnames was that known as a 
nick name. The custom of shortening a child's name has re- 
mained to this day. Margaret as Maggie, Mary as May, Eliz- 
abeth as Betty, or Lizzie, and Catherine as Kate. William is 
contracted to Bill, Harry to Hal, Richard to Dick, and Robert to 
Bob. Not only are Christian names thus changed, but children 
receive such nick names as Tug, Bud, Tag, Punk, Nab, Carrots, 
Ginger, Dot, Bunchy, Nosey, Goggles, and Bat. It is almost 
impossible for a child thus nick-named to lose the pretty or ugly 
addition ; and these nick names sometimes became surnames for 
the descendants of the individual. 

Baring-Gould says: 

"Among the English kings nicknames were common, as 
Ethelred, 'the Unready,' Edmund 'Ironside,' Harold 'Harefoot,' 
Henry 'Beauclerk,' Richard 'Cceur de Lion,' John 'Lackland,' 
Edward 'Longshanks,' and Richard 'Crookback.' The Welsh 
princes sometimes had descriptive epithets attached to their 
names, as Calcfynedd 'the Whitewashes' Leuhir 'Longhand,' 
Mynfaur 'the Courteous.' Sometimes a nickname displaced a 
baptismal .name. Thus, Brendon the Coyager was christened 
'Mobi ;' but, because there was an auroral display at his birth, 
he was known through life as 'Brenain.' St. Patrick had four 
names, of which Succat, Cothraigh, and Magonius were the 
others. Cadoc's real name was Cathmael. 

"When and how nicknames as well as other names became 
hereditary is decided by Baring-Gould to be about 1538 but Lower 
and Cadman give the date as the twelfth century. The word 
"alias" was often slipped in between the Christian name and the 
nickname as — Jones alias Ballence, and Gilbert alias Webber. 


Again we quote from Baring-Gould : 

"That the term 'Bastard' should have been accepted without 
demur as a surname is not so surprising as might appear. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror in his charters did not shrink from describ- 
ing himself as William 'the Bastard.' The name Bastard has 
been borne by an ancient and honorable family in the West of 
England. 'Liefchild' is a love-child, a provincialism for one 
that is illegitimate. 'Parish' was a name often given to a child 
that was a foundling, and brought up by the community in a vil- 
lage. 'Parsons' may designate the child of the parish priest be- 
fore the marriage of the clergy was suffered, or even when it was 
a new thing, and not relished by the people. But in most cases 
it is a corruption of Pierson, or Peter's son. The name Burrell 
comes from the Old English word employed by Chaucer for a 
layman. But why one layman out of all the parish should assume 
this title to himself is due to this: that Burrell is a contraction 
for Boreclerk, a lay clerk in a cathedral or collegiate church." 

As an instance of nicknames, one will find persons named 
summer, winter, day, Monday, Sunday, Noal, Paschal, and 
Easter. We have in this state of Utah a gentleman by the name 
cf Bytheway ; another by the name of Startup — which gentleman, 
by-the-way, married a Miss Startin. 

The few nicknames that eixst in the Essex record are Coup- 
gorge, Besta (that is doubtful), Dieudonne, Foot, Fox, Gambon, 
Kene, Maidgood, Maloysel, Merrey, Peticrue, Rake, Short, Swift, 
Tryst, Whitehead, Wolf, and Young. 

Others were liarfoot, Crookshanks, Sheepshanks, Half- 
penny, etc. : but many were French sobriquets applied by French 
men-at-arms and domestics to Englishmen with whom they were 
brought in contact, and accepted without any comprehension as 
to the meaning. Thus we have the surname of Bunker from 
Boncceur, Bunting from Bonnetin, Petti fer is Pied-de-fer, and 
Firebrace is Ferrebras. Joseph Centlivre was cook to Queen 
Anne; but the name, translated into Ilundredpounds, occurs in 
1417, when a William of that name was Mayor of Lynn. Pos- 
sibly enough the original name Centlivre was a mistake for St. 
Livaire, who is venerated at Metz. We should look to every 
other source for the interpretation of a grotesque surname be- 
fore accepting it as a genuine nickname." 


1. What is a nickname? 

2. What can you say about nicknames in general? 

3. How many in this class arc called by a nickname? 

4. Are there any here whose surname is a nickname? 



Third Week in May. 

true stories. 

Once there was a little boy, who, like all the little boys, was 
very fond of play. He liked mischief, too ; indeed, he was so full 
of it that his mother could hardly do her work for watching him. 
Finally, to keep him within bounds, she made a long apron string 
and tied him to it. 

Tommy did not mind this so much at first. But after a while 
he became very tired of tagging his mother about the house 
while she did her work ; and once when she was not looking, he 
seized the scissors, clipped the apron string, and slipped out of 

Oh, how good it seemed to feel free again ! He skipped and 
chased about through the lot and out into the open fields. He 
began to pluck the flowers and chase the butterflies. Away and 
away he went until he came to the hillside. And up the slope 
he climbed after more wild flowers. Finally he came to a cliff. 
On the edge of it was the most beautiful cluster of blossoms he 
had ever seen. He must have them, so he climbed out towards 
the tempting flowers, but just as he got near enough to reach and 
pluck them, his foot slipped and he went tumbling down to the 
edge of the cliff. Suddenly something caught and held him. He 
lay a moment on the dizzy brink and then clambered slowly back 
to safety. He had been saved by his mother's apron string. 

Is this story true ? 

This question is constantly coming from our children. With 
respect to the story just given, how shall we answer them? It is 
not a true-to-fact story ; it was created for us by Laura E. 
Richards ; but is the story not true ? Does it not carry a great 
lesson of life? How many wayward boys and girls have been 
held from being plunged over a precipice by some golden string 
of love tied to their young lives by an anxious mother? 

A story, as we learned in our first study, may be true to life 
a. id true to truth without being true to fact. Such stories, if 
they are wholesome, as this one certainly is, may do great good 
to one who hears it. To be limited to only such tales as those 
that really happened, would be to deny ourselves some of the 
best literature the world has produced. 

Hawthorne's "Great Stone Face" is another good example 
of a story that is true to truth. The little boy, Ernest, in this 
tale, sees a great face of stone on the mountainside. His mother 
tells him that there will one day come a man who will be like 


the Great Stone Face. This starts the thoughtful boy wondering 
what kind of man will come. He studies the noble features of 
the face on the mountain. He dreams about the splendid at- 
tributes he reads in it. He admires the character that he pictures 
the Great Stone Face to represent. 

A great general comes to live in the town ; the people hail 
this warrior as the image of the Great Stone Face ; but Ernest 
can see no likeness between this man of blood and the noble face 
on the mountain. Then a great financier comes, and he is wel- 
comed as the man of prophecy, but the boy shakes his head. The 
great one who is to be like the Great Stone Face must be more 
than a miserly money-maker. Ernest dreams on and lives the 
noble things he dreams until he h : mself, becomes the man that 
the people have said would come. 

This is a created story, of course ; but it brings home to the 
reader's heart the great truth that we unconsciously acquire those 
qualities that wc admire — a life lesson that should be impressed 
on every soul. 

Another story that carries a fine lesson is this: A certain 
man was about to die. Just before he passed away he called to 
his s : de his three sons and said to them : 

"My boys. I am going to meet my Maker. I have nothing to 
leave to you but my blessing, my good name, and the old farm. 
The land is not very valuable, but there is hidden in it a pot of 
gold. You may have this treasure if you can find it." 

When the father had died and was buried honorably, his 
sons began to dig in the old field to find the pot of gold. They 
upturned every bit of the soil a foot deep. No gold was found. 
Again they went over the ground, this time digging two feet 
deep; but no money was unearthed. Discouraged, but not dis- 
heartend they tried again, going down three feet. And still they 
failed to find the treasure. 

"Father must have deceived us," suggested one of the boys ; 
"but it is very unlike him to do so." 

"Well, it is no use to dig any more," said another, "but we 
might plant the field to corn, and not lose all our labor." 

This suggestion was followed. The result was that they 
raised three times as much corn as ever they had produced. 

"I see now," remarked one of the brothers, "what father 
meant by the 'pot of gold.' " 

Stories of this kind are certainly worth while even though 
they may not be true to fact. 

Fairy tales often symbolize life. They may be compared 
with a trellis of blossoming roses. The flowers running over the 
latticework are in themselves beautiful ; but they get an added 


beauty as one looks through the openings in the bushes and sees 
(he sky beyond. 

Our effort should be to find stories that are true and whole- 
some, stories that carry sweet lessons of life, that give not only 
pleasure, but a spiritual viewpoint. Such stories may be true to fact 
like those of Nephi and Alma, of David and Moses, of the child 
Jesus and his cousin John. Also of Washington, of Lincoln, of 
our own Pioneers ; or they may be only true to life and truth as 
those herein suggested, and many others that have been created 
for us. If they leave us nobler and better for having read them, 
if they make us love the good and beautiful and the true, they 
are surely worth while. We can hardly give ourselves and our 
children too much of such wholesome mental and spiritual food. 
Yet let Latter-day Saint mothers spend most of their story-telling 
time in relating the beautiful and inspiring stories from the Bible, 
tne Book of Mormon, and the faith-promoting books of our 
Church. Other stories will do occasionally, but true stories are 
always the best and most .desirable. 


1. In what three senses may a story be true ? Explain. 

2. What story, not true-to-fact but true-to-truth, has im- 
pressed you? Be ready to give some such good short story. 

3. What was the chief purpose of the Savior in creating 
hi? wonderful parables? What truth has one of these brought 
strongly to your life? Relate a parable. 

4. What fairy tale have you read that teaches some great 

5. The following created stories are suggested as good ex- 
amples of true and wholesome stories to supplement occasionally 
the sacred stories for the home library. It will be well to have 
one appointed to read one or more of them and give a brief sketch 
of the story: 

Moni the Great Boy (Spyri), Ginn & Company. 

Birds' Christmas Carol (Wiggin), Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Little Women (Alcott), Little, Brown Co. 

King of Golden River. 

Pilgrim's Progress. 

The Other Wise man. 

6. Give some good true-to-fact story about one of our pio- 
neers or some other of the heroes of our country. 



Home Economics. 
Fourth Week in May. 


Care of the diet should not cease with the first few years of 
a child's life. The hoys and girls trooping off to school every 
mcrning have not progressed so very far along the path of 
physical development which extends through a period of nearly a 
quarter of a century. It is true that the years when the rate of 
growth is most rapid and the digestive tract most sensitive have 
passed, hut it is a grave mistake to relax the vigilant caVe of the 
chdd's food, leaving him more or less to his own devices in regard 
to the food he selects. 

Building materials of many kinds are needed, the most im- 
portant elements being nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and calcium. 
Nitrogen is obtained exclusively from protein, a kind of foodstuff 
found in large amounts in milk, eggs, meat, fish, dried peas, beans, 
and lentils. Milk is rich in all kinds of building material but 
iron, and contains these substances for growth in the most readily 
used form. It should constitute the chief part of the diet 
throughout childhood, and in the later years of growth should 
still be freely supplied. Egg yolks are rich in iron which milk 
lacks, and also in nitrogen and phosphorus. Green vegetables, 
dried peas and beans, cereals fespec ; ally from the whole grain) 
are very valuable for their building materials and some of these 
foods should be included in every day's menu. 

The first consideration in the school child's program is his 
Ireakfast. He should never be permitted to go off without it as 
no reserve of fuel is carried in the tissues as we find in the case 
of adults. A grown man can go three or four days without food 
and no important tissue or organ will suffer harm, but a growing 
child needs his proper amount of food at proper intervals every 
day or he runs the risk of malnutrition. Too much emphasis 
cannot be put upon the importance of establishing a regular meal 
schedule. Irregularity is one of the commonest errors in child 
feeding. The precise form of this meal will depend somewhat 
upon the age of the child, for those from five to eight years of 
age it will consist of the following in the homes of the well-to-do : 

A mild fruit, as orange, baked apple, stewed prunes. 

A well cooked cereal (oatmeal and cornmeal having the pref- 


crence). Wheatena, cream of wheat to give variety, a ready to 
cat cereal occasionally. All of these served with a liberal supply 
of milk but not with rich cream or sugar, will satisfy and not 
satiate the children. 

Some form of dry, hard bread. This helps to develop chew- 
ing habits and also to bring blood and exercise to the jaws and 
lay the foundation for strong teeth. 

Milk to drink, either whole or skimmed. 

A certain amount of native fat, butter and cream. 

For the older children there may be more variety in fruits, 
choosing the more mildly acid ones. To increase the amount of 
fuel, an egg or some meat may be added. The main changes in 
the meal will be in amount, not in kind. 

Dinners, served at noon rather than at night, for children 
from five to eight years will serve with little modification as 
luncheon or dinner for the older ones. It may consist of: 1. A 
soup, made with milk, a vegetable juice or pulp. 2. An egg, 
dropped or poached, made into an omelet, or scrambled, never 
fried. 3. A green vegetable. 4. Baked potatoes or boiled rice. 
5. A very simple dessert, as junket, baked custard, blanc mange, 
rice, or other cereal pudding. 

Milk to drink. This may be omitted if a milk soup is served. 

When the noon meal cannot be taken at home the problem 
of a suitable school lunch must be met. If the lunch is carried 
from home the advantages of warm food in promoting easy 
digestion is lost and their minds are not so clear for the afternoon 
work. They are also more likely to bolt their food when not 
eating at a table with other people. Consequently special care 
needs to be taken that the foods are suitable in kind and amount 
and appetizing when the box is opened. Three or four foods are 
enough to provide at a time. 

1. Sandwiches, which form the best staple, made of bread 
twenty-four hours old and filled with finely chopped boiled eggs ; 
a nut paste ; chopped dates or figs ; for the older children, chopped 
meats, cheese, jellies, and jams. 

2. Fruit, is appetizing and carries well. Not only fresh 
fruit but apple sauce, sliced peaches, pears. Tomatoes may take 
the place of other fruit when liked. 

3. A sweet, baked custard, plain cookies, dates rolled in 

4. Milk or fruit juice, if it can be carried. 

The evening meal should be simple for the younger children 
and not taken later than six o'clock. Bread and milk, milk toast, 
cereals with milk, or thick soup with bread, and stewed fruit ac- 
companied by a plain cookie or sponge cake will make an adequate 


meal. For the older children, the evening meal should be about 
as substantial as the noon meal including a small serving of meat 
and simple salad, fresh fruit or vegetable, preferably with French 
dressing. There should be plenty of bread and butter ; a variety 
of breadstuff will increase the attractiveness of the modest menus 
of the period of growth. There may be changes in shape as in 
bread sticks and twists ; of flavoring, as in sprinkling cinnamon 
and sugar on top of the loaf; or baking nuts, dates or raisins in 
it : and by the use of different kinds of flour. No fried food, 
pastries, tea or coffee, rich sauces and gravies, should be per- 
mitted. Always remember that only a free out-of-door life can 
tone up the system so as to enable it to dispose of food without 


1. What can you say about food for growing children? 

2. When can children be permitted to eat meat? 

3. What may be a wise breakfast menu for children under 
ten years of age? 

4. What do your children eat for dinner? 

5. What about school lunches? 


Salt Lake City. We are pained to record the death of Mrs. 
Laura Hyde Merrill, :i very active member of the Granite Stake 
Relief Society. Mrs. Merrill was the daughter of the late Alonzo 
E. and Annie Taylor Hyde, the latter serving for many years as 
First Counselor to our late beloved President, Bathsheba W. 
Smith. Mrs. Merrill was the grand-daughter of President John 
Taylor and also the grand-daughter of Apostle Orson Hyde 
I ighteen years ago she was married to Dr. Joseph F. Merrill, 
Director of the School of Mines of the University of Utah, and 
son of the late Apostle Mariner W. Merrill. Seven beautiful 
children have blessed this union. 

Mrs. Merrill was a woman of broad education and rare gifts 
and was always ready and willing to use her knowledge for the 
benefit of others. She has been an active worker in the Sunday 
School, Y. L. M. I. A., Relief Society, and in the Society of the 
Daughters of the Pioneers, serving the latter organization very 
abiy as President. She has also been interested in civic work and 
in organizations which have for their object, the betterment of 

Mrs. Merrill was optimistic and courageous throughout her 
long illness and her sweet resignation to God's will was a lesson 
in faith to all of her associates. 


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We can arrange terms. 



CARTS, Etc. 


Co-op. Furniture 

COmpany Salt Lake Cty, Utah 
W. N. WILLIAMS, Supt. 


Relief Society Magazine 


'Ring the Bell! 

You furnish the "BELLE" and 
we'll supply the RING 

McCONAHAY the Jeweler 


Z. C. M. I. 

School Shoes 

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Are made for service — 
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Gentlemen: — Please send catalogs with 
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English and American 


Is in Mrs. Home's Art Book, "Dev- 
otees and Their Shrines" Send to 
this office or to Mrs. Alice Merrill 
Home, 4 Ostlers Court, Salt Lake City, 
for this book from which the lessons 
on Architecture for 1916 are assigned. 

Price $1.25 Postpaid 

"Civilization begins and ends with the plow" — Roberts. 

Utah Agricultural College 


Devoted to the ideal of extending the blessings of edu- 
cation to every fireside. 

Firm in the conviction that a favorable home life is the 
Nations greatest asset. 





The College offers work in all the branches of Home 

Further information furnished on request. 

Address: The President, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 


Garment Wearer's Attention 

A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 
all L. D. S. "Temple Brand" garments. Be sure it is in those you buy. If your 
leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, select your wants from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

Cotton, bleached, gauze weight 1.35 

Cotton, bleached, medium weight 1.50 

Cotton, bleached, medium heavy 1.75 

Cotton, unbleached, heavy weight 1.75 

Lisle, bleached, gauze weight 2.00 

Lisle, bleached, light weight 1.75 

Fleeced cotton, bleached, heavy 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, light weight 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, medium weight 3.00 

Wash-shrunk wool, medium weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk wool, heavy weight 3.00 

Silk and wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, heavy weight 6.00 



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The Pioneer Journey across the plains 
was not without its modes! romance. 

Death is often the open door for labor 
among imprisoned spirits. 

Rice is the only valuable food stuff 
not raised in price. 

War with Germany means greater 
economy, increased patriotism, and deep- 
er devotion to the Gospel. 

Our Annual Report shows the won- 
derful growth of this Society in the past 


Try a 
Ten Pound Bag 

Extra Fine Table and Pre- 
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please say — 

Table and Preserving Sugar 

Then the next time you will 
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sugar may also be had in 25 
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the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instruction! for properly re- 
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L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in a 
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Have You Read The Women of The Bible, ^l^done If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

F " s *.!; Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


MAY, 1917. 

My Masterpiece Elsie C. Carroll 241 

Council Bluffs Ferry, 1853 Frontispiece 

Mothers in Israel 243 

Departed Spirits Laura Moench Jenkins 255 

Children's Problems Lucy Wright Snow 259 

May Entertainments Morag. 262 

A Brave Friend 266 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 268 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 271 

Notes from the Field \my Brown Lyman 274 

Editorial : War is Upon Us 284 

Guide Lessons 286 


Patronize those who advertise with us. 

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KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Like City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City. 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City. 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 


Importance of 

The thrift habit ha* been the 
foundation of most business 
successes. Are you giving your 
children a start, and encourag- 
ing them in this direction? 

They'll like coming to the 
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The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient 6um for proper burial by the payment of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


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oft through my soul there comes fleeting 
Dreamy visions of consummate art ; 

A statue, a picture, a poem, — 

And there wakes somewhere in my heart 
A longing to carve the fair image, 

To color the picture sublime, 
To sing for the world the sweet poem, 

To create a great masterpiece, mine. 

But e'en as I reach for my chisel 

Or palette and brush, or my pen, 
And open the .door to fancy, 

I'm brought to the present again. 
An echoing laugh may recall me ; 

A shrill cry of pain or of fear ; 
A small grimy hand on my elbow ; 

A sweet lisped word in my ear. 

And away go my visions awinging 

Back to the fount whence they sprung; 

Before me untouched is my marble ; 

My canvas is white ; my song is unsung. 

And I turn to the needs of my baby ; 
And, gazing into his dear eyes, 

1 sense with a sweet thrill of wonder : 
In his future, my masterpiece lies. 



Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. 

MAY, 1917. 

No. 5. 

Mothers in Israel. 

(Continuation of M. A. Stearns- Winters Narrative.) 

Mother had hired a boy with a steady yoke of oxen to hitch 
on the lead of our team to help us up to the ferry' on the Missouri 
river, about eight miles distant, so just before two o'clock on 
the 5th of June, 1852, we started on our long journey toward the 
new Zion of the Saints. The wagon with four yoke of cattle and 
two drivers — the little boy on the lead, and Brother Murie, with 
a long rope attached to the wheel team, gave an appearance of 
strength suitable to any occasion. Then came the passengers — 
foot passengers, of course — -mother, Olivia, Roney and Jimmie 
Murie, with myself bringing up the rear, thus our outfit making 
quite a long train of itself. Mother kept as near to the wagon 
as safety would permit, to look after the numerous things that 
were tied to the outside. 



We were all the travelers on the road at that time, as the 
others had started out earlier in the day, so we had the right of 
way all to ourselves. When we had gone two or three miles we 
came to Pigeon Hollow where some of the Saints had built houses 
and were striving to get means to take them the rest of their 
journey. They all came out to see who the travelers were, and 
among them was grandma Johnson, Sister Babbitt's mother. She 
had been our next door neighbor at Kanesville, but was up here 
visiting some of her children. They had been gathering wild 
strawberries that day and she brought out a few for us to taste, 
with some bread and butter and a drink of milk and said, "You 
will need it before you get to the camp ground ;" and she also 
said, "I have been drying some of the seeds to plant, and I will 
give you some to take with you. If you will plant them when 
you get to the Valley you will have all the strawberries you need." 
Here was another friendly surprise to cheer us on our way. 

Some of the experienced brethren of the settlement gave an 
opinion that our load was too heavy and that we would hardly 
be able to get through without lightening it up a little, but Brother 
Mnrie was more optimistic, and thought we could go on all right. 
As we proceeded on our way, however, we all began to take 
notice, and by the time we reached the first camp ground five miles 
from Kanesville we were all fully convinced that our load was 
too heavy — and visions of breaking down on the way or losing 
our cattle were anything but encouraging. Something must be 
left and what would it be. Brother Murie had just needful cloth- 
ing, a light feather bed and his provisions — nothing could be 
spared from these. Our clothing we must have, our provisions 
must go, and our bedding we could not do without. There was 
a stove, a nice No. 2 step stove that mother had brought from 
St. Louis on purpose to take with us to the Valley — we could live 
without that, and that must be the sacrifice ; but to leave it by 
the roadside when we would need it so much at the end of our 
journey was not very pleasant to think of. If we had only sold 
it before we started it wouldn't have seemed so bad. There was a 
company of Welsh Saints, of fifty wagons, camped near us. They 
were an independent company and reported to be quite well off. 
so mother went over there to see if any of them wanted to buy 
a stove. She found a young family that were not heavily loaded, 
and were just regretting that they had not taken a stove along 
with them, and they bought our stove with all the furniture, and 
paid ten dollars in money for it. Tt would be worth one hundred 
dollars to them when they arrived in the Valley with it. Then 
we were left without anything to cook in or a boiler to do wash- 
ing with. 

The next dav 1 went hark to Kanesville, with a buggy that 

sp * k I ii 


was going that way — to get us a sheet iron camp stove, and a 
big brass kettle to do our washing with. At the tin shop they 
had been so busy filling orders that they didn't have a stove fin- 
ished, but thought they would have one ready by the next day, 
and as the buggy was going back again, I had the opportunity 
of going back the second time, and oh, how I did appreciate the 
privilege of seeing our neighbors and friends once again after 
bidding them goodby for the second time. The stove was ready, 
bat the brass kettles had not arrived and I was under the neces- 
sity of going back the third time before I could get all we were 
in need of. As those three journeys to Kanesville were in the 
company of Brother Oscar Winters and were the beginning of 
the friendship and love that lasted through life and to be renewed 
in Eternity, I cannot pass it by unmentioned. 

We had joined Bishop Cutler's fifty and were the twelfth 
company organized for that year's journey. Part of them had 
crossed the river — some of them were at the ferry — and our ten 
still at the first camp ground, but all ready to start on the next 
morning. Our team was considered too light for the journey, 
and another yoke of oxen was furnished us from the company's 
cattle, but they were young and had not been worked much and 
there was still the problem of managing an unruly team. Brother 
Murie proposed that we get a very early start the next morning, 
and trust to those following us for any help we might be in need 
of — and we did not fail to be ready. He let three teams lead 
out to be encouragement for ours, and then he drove into line 
and the team walked up quite straight and lively and our hopes 
rose accordingly till we could seem to hear the greetings of our 
friends at the other end of the journey, but presently they stoppe<l 
still in the road as if their eyes plainly told that they didn't want 
to go any farther. The team behind had to stop too, and the 
driver, a stranger, enquired what was the matter; his team was 
quiet and gentle. His wife and children sat in the front of the 
wagon looking contented and happy, but all anxious to continue 
on their way. 

Soon our team gave a start, went a few rods and turned 
clear out of the road. This was a good chance — and three teams 
passed us without comment, but the fourth man came and helped 
us drive back into the road again and the team went on for a longer 
distance than at any time previous. We were now coming to 
the open ground and the cattle saw the opportunity, started on the 
run and made a b : g circle like a race track and looked as though 
they were bound to take the prize. Rrother Murie was still 
holding on to the long rope and running to keep up with them, 
with mother /olio wing as best she could to look after the things 
that kept dropping from the wagon in its wild flight, and I fol- 


lowing her, for fear she would be hurt or that she would get sick 
from her long- walk, and the hot rays of the sun. O, the agony 
of those hours, words would fail me to depict. Sometimes mother 
would hold the rope and Brother Murie try to get the oxen back 
into the road again, and once in wheeling, they wheeled around 
and came near crushing her between their bodies and the wagon, 
Brother Murie all the while trying to send us far away from the 
dangers of the situation. But which way should we turn? We 
had left the place we called home, and were adrift with strong 
head winds to encounter, but I will not say we were blown back, 
for with every lunge of the cattle we made a little progress and 
the next move they wheeled into the road as if by magic and just 
missed by a hair's breadth, running off a little bridge over a 
ravine. After going a few lengths they stopped stock still right 
in the middle of the road, and refused to stir another foot. Mother 
advised that we stop right where we were till some one should 
come along and we would hire them to help us into camp, and then 
we would have to make some other arrangements before we tried 
to go any further. It was then about two o'clock in the afternoon 
— we had been on the move since early morning, were very tired, 
arid glad of a little relaxation from our strenuous exertions. 
Bi other Murie still stood at his post of duty near the head of the 
team while the rest of us sought a little shelter from the sun at 
the back of the wagon, all watching the road in both directions, 
for signs of the help we were so much in need of. 

After a time mother decried a horseman coming toward us — 
and while this did not portend very promising help, still we waited 
hopefully to see. The traveler proved to he Brother Winters, 
and after enquiring- what the difficulty was, he .dismounted, asked 
Brother Murie for the whip, and with a gentle whoa-haw. the 
team started up, and with a little toss of the horns bent their 
necks to the yoke and walked off in quite a respectable manner. 
This last stop was about a mile and a quarter from the river, and 
ffter the team had gone about three-quarters of a mile in this 
peaceful manner, mother said to Brother Winters, "I believe we 
can get to the camp now. and will not detain you from vour 
journey any lon,ger." He replied, "I am not going any farther 
today, and can just as well drive as not." We were soon at the 
ex]ge of camp, when he returned the whip to Brother Murie and 
said, "Now, I think they will go all right, and you can drive your 
wagon to a place that suits you best for camping." It was four 
o'clock p. m. when we halted on the bank. Of course, being so 
late we had to take our place at the foot of the line and be the 
last to cross the ferry, but we were glad to reach there at all. and 
thankful for the needful rest we could now have. 

It was the afternoon of the next day when it came our turn 


to cross the river, and as they had gentle teams to place the 
wagons on the boat we got along as well as other people at the 
ferry and we camped a few rods from the landing, that night, 
on the west side of the Mississippi river. The next day was 
Saturday and all were counseled to move to the higher land a 
few miles west, to camp over Sunday. It was cholera times and 
great caution was needed to protect the health of the emigrants. 
Our company moved onto a beautiful grassy bluff with trees 
sufficient for shade, and there passed a peaceful, quiet, restful 
Sabbath day. Here was to take place the final organization of 
the company, and after we left this point it would not be safe 
to travel except in large companies. Mother's strength was fail- 
ing, she felt that she could not go on as we were doing. Our 
team had sobered down a little, and with the help of those back 
and in front of us, managed to get the road some way, but mother 
could not ride and she was not able to walk and, therefore, de- 
cided to hire a team to take us back and try and make a new 
start under more favorable circumstances. There were several 
buggies, one horse, and light wagons in the company, and mother 
tried to hire one to ride in till our team would become steady so 
she could ride in the wagons, but all were needed by the people 
who owned them, and could not be spared upon any consideration, 
but just at the last minute before the start Monday morning, 
through the intercession of a friend, we obtained the hire of a 
horse and buggy to take us on the way. We had walked thus far, 
some of the time in a steady rain, but now the sun was shining, 
the day was fair and bright, and the thought of going onward 
filled our hearts with joy supreme, and our souls with gratitude 
to the Father who had again opened the way before us, and 
smoothed our pathway. Our team behaved a little better every 
day, following in the train, and we will not condemn them, nor 
yet find fault with the driver, for all were unused to the labor 
they had to perform. Brother Murie being a native of Scotland, 
was not used to oxen from his boyhood up as were most of the 
other men in our company, and as the team were to be our com- 
panions on the journey, perhaps it will not be out of place to 
introduce them by name. Die and Darby were their names when 
they were purchased — Buck and Bright were handed over with 
their love for the journey. And Brother Murie called the cows 
Lady Blackie, Lady Milky, and Cherry, and the one that was so 
very vicious he said Lady Lucifer was the proper name for her, 
and those were the names they were called by everybody all the 
way over. It took us two days to reach the ferry at the Elk Horn 
river, and as we were going up the bank on the west side we saw 
two graves, one was little Henry Beers about five years old who 
was drowned on the pioneer journey three years previous, and 


the other a young: man of 19 who lost his life trying to save the 
little boy. 

We had been intimately acquainted with Sister Beers in 
Nauvoo and Winter Quarters, and the sight of the graves cause<l 
a wave of sadness in our hearts, and also caused us to keep watch 
over my little brother Moroni. We made a nice camp that night 
— pitched the tent which Brother Murie and James had all to 
themselves and we retired with the prospect of a good night's 
rest, but in the night a thunderstorm arose and it rained and light- 
ning and blew a small hurricane, and as the storm increase<l 



mother proposed that we should be ready for any emergency. 
Our wagon stood broadside to the wind and with every fresh 
gust it seemed as if the bows would snap in spite of us. 
We tried to hold against the wind, but our strength was puny. 
Brother Murie had taken the same precaution that we had — was 
up and dressed and holding on to the tent to keep it to its fas- 
tenings. Jimmie, covered up in bed, was still asleep as were our 
children in the wagon. As the ground was sandy some of the 
pins pulled loose, and the tent collapsed and buried them in its 
wet folds. This aroused Jimmie and he scrambled round but 
could not find his clothes, and it was with difficulty they could 
get out from under the heavy, wet tent. Mother handed out a 
big shawl to wrap Jimmie in and they climbed into the wagon, 
and with our united efforts we pressed against the bows till the 
storm subsided. Mother fixed a place on the foot of the bed for 


Jimmie and covered him with some extra bedding- and the rest 
of us sat and nodded until daylight, thankful that the Lord had 
preserved us from the destroying power of the elements. The 
sun came out warm and smiling as if nothing had ever hap- 
pened to disturb our peace. The things in the wagon were com- 
paratively dry, and the dripping tent and bedding were ready for 
the next night's use, not much the worse for their drenching. 
We moved on up to the Loup Fork and crossed with the rope 
ferry. In the afternoon we had a chance to straighten and ar- 
range our things a little better, and do some cooking. It took all 
the next day for the wagons to cross over and as there were not 
many in camp that were used to working a rope ferry, those who 
did know had to work very hard. Brother Robison and Brother 
Winters had worked all day and drank freely of the warm river 
water, and at night Brother Robison became very sick with 
cholera, and Brother Winters was the first to call for a dose of 
the medicine. Before leaving Kanesville, Brother Winters had 
gone to the drug store and handed the druggist five dollars and 
told him he wanted some of his best cholera remedies to take 
with him on the plains — all had been advised to provide them- 
selves with cholera medicine, and mother had a good portion 
along with her, among other things a quantity of pulverized, 
sifted charcoal. The day" before we arrived at Loup Fork, 
Brother Winters brought his box of medicine to mother and said 
she would know mow to use it better than he did. She told him 
we had brought plenty with us and he had better keep it himself, 
but he said, "No, you take it and deal it out to whoever needs it 
first as long as it lasts." And that night Brother Winters was 
the first to call for a dose of the medicine he had so recently 
handed to mother. He knocked at our wagon in the early part 
of the night and in response to the question, what is wanted, said, 
"Brother Robison is very sick with cholera, and if you will pre- 
pare something I will take it to him for he is in great need and 
I am going to stay with him through the night." Mother's prep- 
aration consisted of charcoal and molasses, laudanum or pare- 
goric, camphor and a little cayenne pepper, with as much raw 
Hour as charcoal — and it proved to be a good remedy, for all that 
took it recovered except Brother Robison, and he passed away 
after two days' suffering, and was buried near the banks of the 
Loup Fork where he had so faithfully labored to help assist his 
brethren and sisters to cross that river. Soon after the first call 
for medicine we heard groaning in a wagon near by, and as there 
were voices on the outside, mother called to them to know what 
was the matter and if she could be of any help to them. A young 
man came over and said, "Sister Pratt, for God's sake, if you 
have got anything that will help my mother I wish you would 


let me have it — she is very sick and I am afraid she will die." 
She was a widow and he her only child. The medicine was soon 
1 eady and it had good effect on her, for she got easy before morn- 
ing and soon recovered. Just after midnight two more calls 
came, they were strangers, but soon found out where there was 
a prospect of help for their sick ones. All were supplied and 
got well. Just before daylight Brother Winters made another 
call for medicine and said, "This time it is for myself. I have 
been sick for several hours and keep getting worse all the time." 
He took his portion to his wagon, and by afternoon was much 
better. There had been quite a scare at the sudden breaking out 
of the disease in camp but we were relieved that it was checked 
up so favorably, with all but Brother Rob'son. The heavy rains 
had made it very wet and swampy near the river, and many 
thought that the cause of the sickness and were anxious to move 
on to higher ground, so twenty wagons including ours started on 
that afternoon, and camped in a beautiful place to wait for the 
rest to come up. About two o'clock the next day some of the 
horses broke from the herd and ran off and the herdsman could 
not get them, and Brother Winters and some others whose horses 
were still there took them and started after the others. Brother 
Winters was repeatedly cautioned not to go, but thought they 
would soon overtake the horses, but instead they went many 
miles and did not get back till dark with the runaways. The 
exertion caused a relapse and Brother Winters was much worse 
than when he had the first attack. A number of others in camp 
were ailing, but not so severe as the first that were stricken, and 
many predicted that if we did not move on all would be sick. 
Brother Murie was of that opinion, so we with the twenty wagons 
proceeded on the next day, and at night camped where there was 
sufficient water, bounteous grass, but no fuel. Mother had a few 
pieces of kindling in the wagon and a piece or two of wood she 
had picked up on the road and when we stopped she told me to 
look around and see if I could find anything to help make a fire 
and she would make a large kettle of porridge — we could have- 
some for our supper and there would be enough for all the sick 
folks at night and morning to have a warm drink. I searched 
faithfully, but could not find even a twig or a straw or a dry 
blade of grass, and from that day to this if there is anything 
burnable to be had I can find it, no matter how small it is. This 
was a very discouraging time. The prospect was for the whole 
camp to go to bed with a cold supper if they were so fortunate as 
to have anything cooked. But the sick folks — it was too bad for 
them not to have something warm after the long drive, so we 
brought out the sheet iron camp stove, determined to do what 
we could in the cause. Just then a sister came along and ques- 


tioned, "Where did you find anything to make a fire of in this 
barren place?'* And when mother told her she replied, "Well. 
T've got a few pieces in my wagon — not enough to do anything 
with, but added to yours will help some." This was quite en- 
couraging, so we got everything ready, the thickening stirred and 
placed on the back of the stove to warm a l'ttle, set the kettle of 
water on the stove, hung something around to save the heat, and 
touched a match to the kindlings, then oh. how we watched and 
w.-.ited and prayed that the kettle would boil, and there would be 
heat enough to cook the porridge. As soon as a drop or two of 
the thickening woul 1 swim around in the water we put it all in, 
stirred it up good, put the cover on, threw something over it to 
keep the heat in and left it for a few minutes, with a hope that 
it would cook "done." Mother called round to speak to the sick- 
ones, and see how many there were, and found many of them 
very *veak and dejected and discouraged. When we opened up 
the porridge it had stopped boiling, but proved to be well done, 
was piping hot, and after adding sufficient milk we started on our 
lounds of distribution. There were seven that accepted it joy- 
fully, and I believe the surprise, under the discouraging circum- 
stances, did them as much good as the refreshment. And others 
that we took it to said, "Oh. ('on't give it to us for I guess there 
i< some in camp that need it more than we do," but mother as- 
sured them there was plenty for all of them that were ailing. We 
had a little of the porridge or gruel and with bread and butter 
made us a very comfortable supper. And right here I will say 
that the little sheet iron stove proved the greatest blessing to us 
on this night of any time on the journey. 

The next morning mother was awake early — she had saved a 
portion of the gruel an 1 covered it away carefully, but now it 
was cold so she took our l'ttle fish oil lamp and began the task of 
warming it for the sick ones. She had taken a table cloth folded 
inside a larger one and place 1 it on the projection^ of the wagon 
and placed the cups of gruel in the folds, not in cold storage, but 
in warm storage as it were, as fast as she got them warm till 
they were all ready. Then she roused me up to take them to 
the people — these were mostly sisters — only two of the men folks 
of this camp had been taken sick. This was a greater surprise 
than the night before, and tears filled some of their eyes as they 
enquired how it had happened, and some of them afterwards told 
mother that they believed that those warm drinks were the means 
of helping to save their lives. Now this had been a sick, a sad 
and a sorry time in our little camp, but T am glad to say that all 
recovered, and after that there was not a day's sickness of that 
kind during the rest of the journey. 

( To be concluded. ) 

(Note: The illustrations used are taken from The Route 
from Liverpool to Salt Lake City, printed in 1853.) 

Departed Spirits. 

By Laura Moench Jenkins. 

Softly the vesper bells, ringing at eve, 
Call'd the fair spirit daughters to prayer. 

Silently glided each form to its place, 
Joining sweetly the requiem there. 

"Stay daughter Magdalena ! Why art thou downcast?" in- 
quired Mother Barbara as they two followed the retiring throng 
from the vesper hall. Tears sprang to Magdalena's eyes at the 
sympathetic words of the aged matron. 

"Nay, speak out, daughter. Dost thou yearn for freedom 
from this prison home, or cravest thou the companionship of thy 
husband and sons?" 

"O Mother Barbara!" sighed the unhappy woman. "How 
many many years we have been incarcerated here; waiting, 
watching, and pleading with our heavenly Father for deliverance. 
While upon earth, observed we not the laws of God to the best 
of the knowledge we had received? 

"At my knee, my little ones I taught to lisp their tiny prayers. 
They grew up to be Christian men and women, devout and just. 
One of my descendants, I have been told, has entered into the 
waters of baptism and become a member of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, which is now established upon the 
earth. He is a learned man and has accomplished a great work 
among that people. He has also labored in the holy Temples of 
earth for his departed kindred, and now that he has been gathered 
to his fathers, he is teaching them the gospel of Christ. Many 
have accepted his teachings and, as the work is .done for them 
by proxy in the temples of earth, they were liberated from their 
prisons and are waiting for their wives and daughters to join 
them. Oh, when shall this opportunity come to us, Mother Bar- 
bara? I long to be clasped to the bosom of my husband and 
meet my noble sons and have my family reunited." 

In her hands, Magdalena buried her face and wept. 
"Weep not, daughter," comfortingly spoke the motherly 
voice at her side. "Today, I have received good tidings for our 
race. This night, a woman is to be called from the World of 
Mortality, to teach this same gospel to her kindred womenfolk in 
this prison home. 

"I, too, have heard of the descendant of whom you have been 
speaking. His earthly name is Louis Frederick Hess and he is 
a Patriarch to our race. This woman is his daughter. Her 


earthly career has prepared her for the mission she is to fill in 
the World of Spirits. Tonight thou mayst join the party earth- 
ward bound to meet our returning kinswoman. Make ready 
quickly, the hour of departure draws nigh. 

"Patriarch Hess, by authority of the holy Priesthood which 
he holds, is commissioned to release the spirit of his daughter and 
guide her safely to the land of Paradise. 

"Louise Hess Arlvn is the name by which this woman has 
been known on earth. 

"The western gate leading earthward is appointed as the 
place of meeting, and the time, the third bell of the night." 

Then softly whispering pass words in her ear, she bade her 
Godspeed and the two women separated. 

Down the long corridor slowly glided Mother Barbara until 
she stood at the door of her own chamber ; silently she passed 
within and closed the door behind her. That she also carried a 
grief she would fain conceal, her tightly pressed lips and hands 
clasped over her heart gave evidence. 

Long years she had spent in this prison home breathing 
comfort to the daughters of her race, but hiding ever from all the 
gi ief of her own heart. 

A tale was sometimes told, among the more confidential 
spirits, of how. in the far* back ages of the dimly remembered 
past, her faithful husband — while in the prime of his early man- 
hood — had died a martyr for Christianity. 

Alone she had struggled through these terrible days to rear 
tiieir family and train them to be God-fearing men and women. 
When her life on earth was finished she had come to dwell in 
this haven of spirits. In time her daughters had followed her, 
but from the husband of her choice she was separated ; death had 
annulled their marriage vows and "they neither marry nor are 
given in marriage" in the Land of Spirits. 

A moment she stood lost in meditation. Through the long 
period of her waiting she had learned, when her burden of sorrow 
became greater than she could bear, to carry it to the Mercy Seat. 
Slowly she bowed her knees and silently appealed to her Creator. 
When she arose a calm tranquility o'erspread her patient coun- 
tenance — she had received the comfort she desired. 

Magdalena hastened to her apartments and prepared herself 
for her journey. At the gate she was joined by Patriarch Hess 
and his wife Esther, the faithful parents of the woman whose 
spirit they were permitted to guide to the land of Paradise. 

Traveling at a velocity incomprehensible to mortality, they 
quickly arrived at their place of destination. Silently they hov- 
ered over the bed on which Louise Hess Arlvn lav, racked with 


pain and burning with fever. By her bedside sat her husband, 
worn with sorrow and anxiety. Her husband bent above her 
and a nurse gently smoothed her pillow, then both drew back to 
permit two elders to place their hands upon her head and plead 
with God in her behalf. Her husband joined in the ordinance. 
But their mortal eyes beheld not the personages in that room and 
they saw not the hands of the departed Patriarch placed also on. 
his daughter's head. They only knew they could not ask God 
to give her life, and they prayed that her spirit might depart in 

Their prayers were quickly answered. The flushed face of 
the sufferer became pale and still and the calmness of death fell 
over her. 

Around her lifeless form gathered the grief-stricken family. 

Not theirs to behold her beautiful spirit take its natural form, 
freed from all bodily pains ; not theirs to behold the loved ones 
and the happy meeting taking place so near them. Could their 
eyes for one moment have penetrated the veil — death would have 
lost its victory. 

"O my father and mother ! Am I really with you ? How 
happy I am ! My suffering is gone and I am as free as the 
zephyrs of a gladsome day." 

Fondly both parents embraced their daughter and with the 
joy brought only by long separation, she returned their caresses. 

"This is a grandmother in our ancestral line, my daughter," 
explained the father as the wondering eyes of Louise fell on 
Magdalena. "She, too, has come to welcome you to your home 
in Paradise." 

Lovingiy the two women greeted each other. 

"Our time is limited and our stay must be short," cautioned 
the Patriarch. 

The words caused Louise to turn a farewell glance at her 
body lying quiet and motionless on her bed. Her gaze was in- 
stantly riveted on the group of loved ones gathered around it. 

"O my husband and my precious children !" she cried. "They 
are grieving for me. Stay, father ! I cannot leave them — I must 
return to life — I am needed on the earth." 

Gently Esther placed her arm around her daughter. "We 
must all pass through such scenes as this," she whispered. 

"Louise, thy mission on earth is finished and the Father hath 
called thy spirit home," calmly spoke the voice of Patriarch Hess. 
"The God who heareth the raven's cry will provide for those you 
are leaving behind ; He will bind up their wounds and comfort 
their hearts. 

"Thy going before shall be as a light set afar in the darkness, 
guiding their wandering feet to the land in which you await their 


coming. This parting will be of short duration. Thou wert 
given to thy husband by one having authority to bind on earth 
and in heaven. Death doth not annul thy marriage vows and 
thy children will be thine throughout the countless ages of 
eternity. Thy sudden demise will arouse other members of our 
family to greater diligence in this work of redemption of our 
departed kindred. It is necessary that they be awakened from 
their lethargy, they are spending too much time at that which 
pertains to mortality only. Any house whose duty to its dead 
remains undone shall be smitten with a curse, for God will not 
accept us without our dead. 

"Thou art called to teach the gospel of Christ to the women 
of thy race, who, for centuries past, have been praying for deliv- 
erance. Their families are separated and they cannot advance, 
until they receive the gospel in the spirit and the work is done 
for them by proxy in the holy temples of earth. 

"The dead, must be judged according to men in the flesh, but 
live according to God in the spirit. In their prison home thou- 
sands are awaiting thy coming with joyful anticipation." 

Louise turned from the weeping group beneath her and met 
the silent, appealing look in Magdalena's wistful countenance. 
A longing filled her heart for power to speak and explain to her 
loved ones why she was leaving them, but she found herself no 
longer able to commune with those of the material world. Her 
mother's voice aroused her from her reverie. 

"Daughter, we can no longer delay. The family are already 
leaving this room and the sisters of the Relief Society are here 
to care for your body." 

Louise saw the door of the death chamber close on those 
she loved most on earth. Then she turned for one last look at 
the body which the years of mortality had so endeared to her, 
with a sigh — almost a sob — she whispered: "I am ready.-' 

I'nobserved by mortal eyes, the little party had entered the 
room and unobserved they took their departure. 

Onward they sped o'er waves of ethereal blue until once 
more they stood before the ancient gates of Paradise. 

Passwords were exchanged with its aged keeper, and the 
Great White Gates swung open to admit them to the Land of 
Departed Spirits. 

Little three-year-old Lucy sat upon her grandfather's knee 
in the late spring twilight. 

"Po you hear the crickets, Lucy?" said grandfather. "They 
say, go to bed, Lucy, go to bed, go to bed." 

"Let them talk," calmly replied Lucy. 

Children's Problems. 


By Lucy Wright Snow. 

The subject of what to say to children in telling the story of 
life's renewal, is so big and of such vast importance, that the only 
way to do justice to it, is to treat it religiously. Let the eternal 
Father of all our spirits be as he is the great Cause, and this 
mortal body, one of the effects of that great Cause. 

A noted educator once said : "If you have a big problem in 
mathematics that you can't work out, think of a little one just 
like it. The principle of the greater will be made plain by the 
solving of the lesser problem." By this method, great principles 
may be brought before even a child mind, and his reasoning power 
gradually developed. 

There can be no definite time given as to when the story of 
life should be told. The mother must consider conditions and be 
guided by the child's degree of intelligence and needs; his ques- 
tions are the best guide to his mental capacity. There probably 
will be no two children that can be approached on this subject in 
just the same manner, or at a given age. A very opportune time 
for the mother to tell the story of life is just previous to the 
birth of another child, as the final consummation of her prophetic 
words will inspire a lasting confidence in the child to whom this 
great truth is being unfolded, and also impress him with the 
sacredness of the subject, for sacred indeed it is. The study of 
the origin of our mortal body leads us to the very foundation of 
the plan of salvation, and if parents have a proper knowledge of 
the subject, Jesus' great plan can be presented in a simple way 
to a child of tender years and be understood by him. It requires 
a clear knowledge of the subject, to tell it in simple story form, 
but the child will be so impressed with its truth that there will 
be no place in his mind for untruths or imperfect guidance, and 
his whole after-life will be infused with the joy of living. 

Many mothers shrink from talking on this subject, fearing 
to fill the child's mind with substance unfit for him. The truth 
is the child's inheritance : lie came here with God-given craving 
for it, and he had better be told life's origin truthfully by his 
mother who knows something of it, and who has the privilege 
of being inspired by God. than to be told shocking or distorted 
things by one who knows neither the truth nor the child. 


Mothers fear to reveal something shocking to the child that 
he should not know, but in reality, he should know the story of 
his existence at the earliest age that he is able to understand it. 
The danger lies, not in telling, but in withholding, this important 
truth from him. 

Of course, there arc- as many ways to tell the story of life 
as there are mothers to tell it. It would not be wise to tell this 
story in glaring, ordinary language. The Savior offered some 
of his most important teachings in parable, but remember, a 
parable embraces a truth and in this subject as in all other sub- 
jects pertaining to proper guidance of children, truth should be 
our motto ; avoid such stories as the stork or the doctor stories. 
You will later be called to account for telling an untruth, and your 
child w : ll have lost some of bis confidence in you. Tt must be 
remembered that a child just approaching the age of reasoning 
(about four years) can not receive whole truths, no matter how 
plainly they may be told ; he must, at this age. call upon his im- 
agination to complete bis stories, therefore, this story should be 
told at first not as a glaring fact, but as a truth veiled. 

To the mothers who ask, "How shall T begin?" here follows 
one pretty way based on Andrea Puoudfoot's story of life, bul 
it may be revised as the mother may see fit. 

Choose a quiet time when you are not likely to be inter- 
rupted, preferably when the child has asked for a story. Lead 
him to ask for a true story and then introduce the subject by 

"I will tell you the story of YOU, but before I tell it, you 
must know that every mother loves to tell this story to her own 
children. Therefore, you must never repeat it to any other child ; 
besides, it is sacred, and even when you speak about it to your 
own mother, just whisper." 

Then begin : 

"A few months before you were born, I dreamed a won- 
derful dream; I dreamed that you were coming. 1 awoke and 
told your father and we together knew that the dream was true 
and that you were coming. Soon I could feel you under my 
heart and you began to grow, and as you grew my mother heart 
leaped for joy in the knowledge that you were coming. And so, 
you lived and grew under my heart, just as we all live and grow 
in the hearts of our Heavenly Parents. 

"How your father loved me! And how T longed for the 
time to come when I might see you and hold you in my arms; 
and how he longed to see and to hold you. 

"The Father in heaven knew that at last the time had come 
when I was able to take care of you, and so you were born, and 
I cried tears of iov as 1 held you in my arms the first time on that 


beautiful June morning, and your father gave us both a blessing. 
You had no teeth and could not eat such food as you need now, 
and so the Lord in his wisdom, caused sweet mother milk to come 
into my breasts for you, and you grew and grew ; and the most 
wonderful thing of it all is, that while I now have you in my 
arms, you are still in my heart too." 

A five-year-old boy once asked his mother, "How did the 
bones come inside of me?" 

The mother took him to the door and showed him the work- 
men building a house, opposite their home. 

"The Lord made a little chamber in a mother's body, where 
her children grow. The blood carries little tiny, tiny bricks or 
bone-bits or atoms, we call them, and the bone atoms are laid 
one on top of another, by the blood, which is the master-work- 
man ; and then the eyes are made, like those windows over there ; 
and the mouth is like the door, and the bones are covered with 
flesh, and finally God says the word, and the chamber door opens 
and out you came — right out into the world. And that's our 
sacred secret, son. See?" 

The story will make a life-long impression upon the child, if 
told in this way, for the mother will, before the end, be shedding 
glorious tears that will add to the sacredness of the moment. 
And when it is finished, let the child understand that it is finished, 
and that it is so sacred as to be not a subject for common con- 

If this story be told with earnestness and the sacredness that 
belongs to it, there need be no fear that it will ever be counter- 
acted or discounted by distorted or incorrect stories on the subject, 
that might later be brought to the child's attention, therefore, we 
cnnnot emphasize too strongly the importance of the mother or 
guardian telling it early enough, before any other person might 
plant seeds of doubt or distrust in the innocent mind of the child. 

The implanting of a truth has already taken place ; the child's 
mind is content on the greatest subject in the world and mis- 
information will find no place in his mind. 

Books to read on the subject : 

Learn and be able to tell in pretty words, the, story of the 
Council in Heaven; Book of Moses, Pearl of Great Price. 

Elias, an Epic of the Ages, by O. F. Whitney. 

Sermon on the Origin of Woman, by John Taylor, found in 
Sacredness of Parenthood. 

Mothers' Ideals, by Andrea Proudfoot. 

Story of Life's Rencival, by Margaret Morely. 

May Entertainments. 

By Morag. 


In most of the countries of the world the first day of May is 
celebrated as a holiday, to welcome the returning spring, and is 
especially enjoyed by the children. The feature of the day is the 
wreathing of the Maypole, and the choosing of the May Queen. 
Some of our towns observe this as a community holiday, and 
when the weather permits, it is a practice to be commended. The 
spring hostess may use this as a suggestion for a children's party, 
and a Maypole may be set up on the lawn. 

Have Tennyson's poem, "The May Queen." rea I. 

Outdoor games and dances are in order, and for refreshments 
serve sandwiches, lemonade, cookies, fruit, and stick candy, 

Another of our holidays is Decoration Day. At one of your 
home evenings, talk over the significance of the day, and how it 
originated. Take every opportunity to instil into the hearts of 
the youth the lessons of patriotism. On the day itself visit the 
cemeteries, decorate the graves of the loved ones, attend the 
patriotic exercises whenever it is possible : display ''Old Glorv" 
and hold family reunions. 


Opening hymn, "Love at Home." 

Sing or read hymn, page -117 L. D. S. Hymn Book. 
Song, "The White Carnation." 

Recitation, "Give Them the Flowers Now," Heart Throbs. 
page 40. 

Address, "Motherhood." 

Lullaby, "Sweet and Low" (Tennyson), Ladies' Quartette 

Reading, "Mother's Boys." Heart Throbs, page 243. 

Song, "Mother Machree." 

Read, "My Mother's Bible." Heart Throbs, page 136 or 102. 

Song, "Songs My Mother Used to S'ng." 

Song, "The White Carnation." (Tune. 258 Psalmody.) 

Oh white carnation chosen 

For purity, for light. 
For sweetness, for endurance 

Of love bevond our sight. 



Oh white carnation blessed, 
When worn on loyal breast 

Of son or daughter telling 
Of love the highest, best. 


Song, "Come Dearest Lord, Descend and Dwell," Psalmody 
No. 22. 


Hymn, " 'Mid Scenes of Confusion." 

Scripture Reading, I Samuel 2:1-10; 3:1-21. 

Solo, "Hushed was the Evening Hymn." 

Address, "Mothers in Israel." ' (Ancient Days.) 

Read Story, "Mother's Day," July, 1916, R. S. Magazine. 

Organ Solo, "Andantino," (to my wife), Lemare. 

Song, "Mother o' Mine." 

Address, "Modern Mothers in Israel." 

Collection of flowers. 


It may be requested that all bring bouquets of flowers to the 
service. These may later be sent to the hospital or infirmaries, or 
to the shut-ins. 


To Mother, at Set of Sun. 

As once you stroked my thin and silver hair, 
So I stroke yours now at the set of sun. 
I watch your tottering mind, its day's work done, 

As once you watched, with forward looking care, 

My tottering feet. I love you as I should, 
Stay with me, lean on me, I'll make no sign 
I was your child, now time makes you mine, 

Stay with me yet a while at home and do me good. 

L. J. Dickenson. 

I love old mothers — mothers with white hair 
And kindly eyes, and lips grown softly sweet 
With murmured blessings over sleeping babes. 
There is something in their quiet grace 
That speaks the calm of Sabbath afternoons ; 
A knowledge in their deep, unfaltering eyes 
That far outreaches all philosophy. 
Time, with caressing touch, about them weaves 
The silver-threaded fairy shawl of age, 
While all the echoes of forgotten songs 


Seem joined to lend a sweetness to their speech. 
Old mothers! As they pass with slow-timed step, 
Their trembling hands cling- gently to youth's strength. 
Sweet mothers ! As they pass, one sees again 
Old garden walks, old roses and old loves. 

Charles S. Ross. 


Let each lady costume as a flower, looking her prettiest, 
while each partner on the evening of the entertainment pays 
twenty-five cents to purchase a posy. This entitles him to the 
first and tenth dances with his chosen flower. Or, if a comic 
plan is preferred, let each lady represent a different item from 
the seedman's catalogue. Each man buys a packet of seed (an 
envelope with name of seed enclosed). He then must search for 
his flower or vegetable, and recognize her by her costume ; the 
vegetables inspire very novel and pretty dresses, by the way. To 
further add to the proceeds of the evening appetizing suppers 
packed in new flower pots or May baskets may be sold for 
twenty-five cents each. 

Sentiment (for odd corner) : "Mine own happiness is some- 
thing to desire, and yet I know that I must win it, by forgetting 
it in ministry to others." 

mother's day in arborvtlle. 

An air of mystery had pervaded the little town all the week, 
following the announcement of "Mother's Day" exercises for the 
following Sunday afternoon. It had been rumored that there 
would be something special this year, and it was well known that 
the local florist had received a large order for crimson carna- 
tions, a departure from the usual custom. None of the men were 
anxious to go to the meeting, but deep in his heart every one 
of them knew that they would be present. The Sabbath dawned 
bright and sunny, and a large congregation wended their way to 
the little church. A surprise awaited the men, for as they en- 
tered the vestibule they were received by a group of happy ma- 
trons, each wearing the white carnation badge of motherhood, 
who pinned on each black coat a beautiful crimson carna- 
tion and escorted the wearer to a seat of honor in the center of 
the building. The meeting commenced with "Home, Sweet 
Home," sung by the congregation. After the usual opening ex- 
ercises the presiding officer introduced the speaker of the day, a 
charming elderly woman whose earnest efforts in the cause of 


charitable work were well known throughout the country. She 
commenced her address with the following sentiment from Kate 
Douglass Wiggin, "Most of the beautiful things in life come by 
twos and threes, by dozens and hundreds, plenty of roses, stars, 
sunsets, rainbows, brothers and sisters, aunts and cousins, but 
only one mother in all the world." Stepping over to a large flag- 
draped easel, and pulling a cord she revealed to view the benign 
features of the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

"Everybody named but father," she continued. Then the 
audience knew. The mothers had turned the tables and were 
keeping Father's Day. In an earnest, forceful address the speaker 
reverently spoke of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood 
of man, and related incidents from the lives of many of the great 
fathers who have lived in the various ages of the world, closing 
her address with an eloquent tribute to the Pioneer fathers of our 
State who had conquered the desert and made possible the many 
blessings enjoyed today. 

This was followed by the anthem, "Praise ye the Father," 
r.nd the inspired hymn, "O My Father," after which the beautiful 
story of the Father love was read, "The Prodigal Son," Luke 15. 

A recitation followed, "Tell Her so," Heart Throbs. 

In a few concluding remarks the presiding officer paid an 
eloquent tribute to the loving, faithful devotion of the fathers and 
mothers of this people and urged the congregation to unite as 
one in raising the standard of higher ideals of parenthood and 
home life. 

The congregation then repeated the Lord's prayer, and the 
singing of the Doxology brought to an end one of the most 
memorable gatherings ever held in Arborville. 


For an Apple Blossom wedding party, decorate the rooms 
with a profusion of the lovely pink and white blossoms. The 
bride in her soft plain silk gown can carry a shower bouquet of 
ferns and cherry blossoms. Her bridesmaids may wear white 
rnulle or organdy over pink slips, and carry bouquets of peach or 
crabapple blossoms. 

The refreshments may be served from a table with white 
lace cloth over pink, and may consist of chicken sandwiches or tiny 
chicken pies, a fruit salad, small cakes iced pink and white, with 
strawberry ice cream. Pink lemonade or sherbet may be served 
during the evening. 

Try this if you would like a very beautiful and inexpensive 

A Brave Friend 

It is not often that a distinguished puhlicist, an international 
educator and an editor of a powerful publication takes his life 
and reputation in hand to speak up in meeting in defense of Utah's 
misunderstood and often maligned people. When such a famous 
man does speak, all "Mormondom" owes him a debt of gratitude 
and reverence. 

Read what Dr. A. E. Winship, editor of the Journal of Edu- 
cation, of Boston, one of America's most popular writers and 
lecturers, has to say — not only of Utah's people a^ a whole, but 
of our beloved Relief Society in particular. 

(From October 26, ion. Journal of Education.) 
"indecent exploitation. 

"Any one who knows Utah, even though he has no disposi- 
tion to regard the Saints as uniformly saintly, can but feel out- 
raged at the style of treatment of this people in magazines that 
should have some regard for decency. We have known Utah 
for thirty-six years ; we knew it in the days of Brigham Young 
and Orson Pratt. We knew it when the Gentile element was of 
no account, and we knew it when the Federal government was 
enforcing its laws. We have known Salt Lake City and Provo, 
and a score of lesser places, far and near. We knew Utah and its 
people when there was no fear of outside interference, and we 
know the state as it is today, and we know how outrageous it is 
to hold up to the present generation the people of that section in 
such a way as to have the truth lie, and to have lies pass for truth. 
We hold no brief from them, but we believe that the way in which 
this people is sensationally exploited in the magazines is as inde- 
fensible as anything that has ever been launched upon the public." 

(Journal of Education, March 1st.) 

"women's noble work for women. 

"One of the most brilliant achievements in women's work 
for women has, strangely enough, had all too little recognition. 
We refer to a women's organization known as the General Relief 
Society, with headquarters in Salt Lake City, organized seventy- 
five years ago in Illinois. There are a thousand local branches 
scattered over various states and countries with a total member- 
ship of 40,000, each member paying the slight membership fee 
of twenty-five cents a year. The members are classified in small 
groups of about twelve families each. Two members in each 
district are designated as visitors and every month of the year 
these two women make a call together upon each of the families 
of the group. The special object of these falls is to make sure 
that no family is in need of any aid in case of sickness or adver- 
sitv or is in anv trouble that cheer and ri^i^tance will relieve. 


"The second object is to receive from them in case of pros- 
perity any contribution for those in need among the 40,000 mem- 
bers. One of the weekly meetings each month is devoted to hear- 
ing reports of each family from the visitors. Absolute want is 
thus impossible, as is neglect in case of sickness, and no one can 
feel that she personally is friendless in the world. Relief is al- 
ways at hand. 

"All collections are local, all relief is local, and the collections 
are retained locally, and not one penny of these contributions is 
used in the distribution. Every penny given in charity goes to 

"An exact and audited account is kept of all receipts and 
reliefs. An annual report is made in detail to the general office 
in Salt Lake City, and when surpluses are created locally they 
may be, and frequently are, sent to the general office for emer- 
gencies on a large scale which may arise. 

"This Women's Relief Society is always among the first 
organizations to come to the relief of the needy in case of a great 
catastrophe of any kind. They have money in abundance, and 
there is no annoying red tape to hinder prompt action. In the case 
of San Francisco in 1906. of the Galveston flood, of the Indian- 
apolis flood, the Belgian sufferers, et al., this society was the first, 
or near the first, in supplying urgent needs. The aid is as abund- 
ant as it is prompt. In the case of the San Francisco conflagration 
their aid was literally the first, and in the case of Belgium one 
little branch of thirty members at Bear Lake promptly raised $137 
for the relief fund. 

"Last year the 'Women's Mites' collected from 40.000 mem- 
bers, without a pennv being taken therefrom for expenses, 
$70,125. Of this. $56,967 was paid out for genuine local relief, 
and $13,158 was the surplus. This relief went to 6.516 different 
families, and was always paid out locally upon the recommenda- 
tion of the local visitors and was reported upon each month and 
reported also to the general office at the end of the year, so that 
both the local books and headquarters show the exact status. 

"The local branches, in looking after their own sick last year 
made 78,500 calls, of which 22,797 were full days or nights in at- 
tendance, watching by night or nursing by day. 

"All administration expense is borne from the twenty-five 
cent membership fee and much of this fee-fund goes to the charitv 
fund or its surplus, which in the seventv-five years, mostly from 
recent years, is now half a million dollars. What other Women's 
Relief Society has any such record, either of service or of accumu- 
lated surplus ? 

"Such an achievement of women for women would ordinarlv 
be heralded far and wide by a publicity agency of great efficiency, 
lint so far as we know this is the first general recognition it has 

Current Topics. 

By James H. Anderson. 

Count Zeppelin, German inventor of the dirigible airship, 
died in March, in Germany. 

The American navy, by call of President Wilson, is to be 
recruited to its full strength, for war. 

FRANCISCO Villa, Mexican bandit and revolutionist, has 
begun a new campaign for 1917. More trouble for Americans. 

A snow avalanche near Hailey, Idaho, in the latter part of 
February, killed 15 men and injured 15 others. 

The Jews in Russia have been granted the privilege of free 
speech and other reforms, by the new government there. 

China has broken diplomatic relations with Germany, and 
is arrayed on the side of the Entente Allies, so far as sympathy 
is concerned. 

On. Fields in Wyoming are reported to have yielded 60,- 
000,000 barrels of oil during the past twelve months. 

Winter, long and severe, has exacted a heavy toll in losses 
of animals in the intermountain region, this year, through lack 
of food. 

The "MoEWE,"a German auxiliary cruiser.has made another 
successful raid in the Atlantic, returning home after destroying 
27 merchant ships. 

Germ \n SUBMARINES sank 368 ships at sea during February. 
Tn March they were less successful, and a number of the sub- 
mersibjes were sunk or captured. 

INFANTILE PARALYSIS is said to be checked materially by 
washing the throat and nostrils with warm water in which a lit- 
tle table salt has been dissolved, according to a recent discovery. 

Poisonous belladonna plant, rooked and eaten in mistake 
with spinach, caused the death of Samuel P. Richards, his wife 
and three children, and a hired man. at Carey, Tdaho. in March 


Cuba suffers by the recent revolution there to the extent 
that the sugar production of the island for 1917 will be less than 
two-thirds of that for 1916. 

Wheat found in the cliff dwellings in Utah and planted at 
Hagerman, Idaho, is said to have been grown successfully, and 
to produce kernels about double the size of the ordinary grain. 

Russia changed its form of government in a single day, in 
March, and with the loss of only a few hundred lives. Emperor 
Nicholas was deposed, the Grand Duke Michael appointed a 
regent, and a republic put under way. 

Carranza, the Mexican president, sent a note to the United 
States, advising this government how to stop the war in Europe. 
The advice was declined with thanks— a suggestion that the Mex- 
ican president might try his hand at home. 

Submarine chasers, light and swiftly-moving craft, are be- 
ing used with good effect against the heretofore successful sub- 
mersibles, and the United States has ordered the building of a 
large fleet of those little vessels, for defense. 

The United States' is at war with Germany by the latter's 
action in killing American citizens on the high seas. The Teu- 
tonic operations caused President Wilson to change the date of 
the special session of Congress from April 16 to April 2. 

A disastrous storm at Newcastle, Ind., on March 10, caused 
the death of 23 persons and injured more than 150 others. A sim- 
ilar storm at New Albany, in the same State, on March 23, re- 
sulted in the death of 33 persons and the injury of 100 others. 

* A rah road strike of the four brotherhoods of trainmen was 
called for March 17, then deferred to March 19. On the latter 
date the United States Supreme Court declared the Adamson law 
valid, giving the trainmen all they asked, hence there was no 

Mexico at war with the United States is rendered possible 
in the near future by the presence in that nation of more than 
10 000 Germans who have seen military service, and who are said 
to have been connected with the German spy system m the United 
States for two years past. 

Veterans of Indian wars in Utah have been recognized by 

the United States government, in being granted pensions. The 


Utah delegation in Congress has worked dilgently for this the 
past twelve years, at last being rewarded with success. 

Mecca and Medina having been taken from Turkey by the 
new kingdom of Arabia, and Bagdad having been captured bv 
the British army, all the great cities of Islam in Asia, except 
Constantinople, have been wrested from Turkey. 

Danger to industrial plants, railway tunnels and bridges, etc., 
in the United States, from German plots and spies, was consid- 
ered by President Wilson with being so great that on March 24 
and 26 he called out the national guards of the several states to 
afford necessary protection. 

The European war lines underwent considerable change in 
March, the Germans being compelled to retire from about 1,000 
square miles of French territory on the west front, which they had 
occupied for two and a half years ; while in Asia the Turks were 
defeated and driven back long distances by both British and 
Russian forces. 

Abdication of Kaiser Wh helm as a possibility has brought 
out, in discussion, the statement from German sources that the 
crown prince of Germany, and not the kaiser, actually is responsi- 
ble for Germany engaging in the great war, and is especially 
chargeable with having caused the adoption of the ruthless sub- 
marine warfare which brought the break with the United States. 

A British army captured the citv of Bagdad from the 
Turks in March, and made a considerable advance northward in 
Mesopotamia, while in Western Palestine another British army 
advanced to within 40 miles of Jerusalem. There now remains 
to be made a connection between these two forces ami the Eng- 
lish naval and land forces at Cyprus, and the Turkish coast there, 
upon the accomplishment of which the Turk will be no longer in 
control of any part of the Holy Land or country adjacent thereto ; 
while Britain will have a great overland route from the Mediter- 
ranean coast to India, as well as the route via the Suez canal — 
which seems to be the object of the Mesopotamia!! and Syrian 
expeditions, and may have still other and more far-reaching con- 

Home Science Department. 

By Janette A. Hyde. 


A large proportion of the inhabitants of the earth use rice 
as their staple food. The Chinese and Japanese use no other grain 
for ordinary diet purposes. They use rice with fish or with a little 
meat and bamboo shoots made into chop suey or as a straight 
vegetable. It is incredible to witness the feats performed by 
husky rice-eating Chinese laborers. Chinamen can lift four times 
the weight that the ordinary white man could lift and run for 
miles with such weights on their shoulders. The Chinese acrobats, 
and the Japanese soldiers acquire a wonderful physique through 
their simple rice diet and rigid physical culture methods. It is 
true, however, that the grains which are indigenous to the coun- 
try in which people live usually form the best and most logical 
food stuffs for the inhabitants. Rice is an ideal food for tropical 
countries and it is a very fine substitute for bread and vegetables 
in temperate climates under certain conditions ; while it is de- 
licious as a varient of the ordinary diet. Just now rice is cheaper 
in proportion to its nutritive qualities than potatoes and many 
other vegetables. As a summer substitute for breakfast mushes it 
is invaluable. Children soon love rice which should be served 
without sugar and with the whole milk only. 

Grocers offer rice at different prices, but housekeepers should 
beware of rice that has been too vigorously cleansed from the 
outer coating for much of the nutriment lies next to the covering 
as it does in wheat. The cheaper grades of rice are, therefore, 
more desirable for ordinary use than the more highly cleansed 

It is better where possible to purchase rice in quantities as 
there is very little deterioration and the difference in price is 
worth while. 

Rice keeps well indefinitely, if closely covered so that insects 
cannot reach it. Rice has the least fat in it of any of the grains. 
It is good as a heat giver and, therefore, can be used by working 
people advantageously. 


Much of the unpopularity of rice is the result of extremely 
poor methods of cooking. Where rice is put on the stove in warm 
water and stirred all the time it is boiling, it comes out a sticky 
mass that is unpleasant to the eye and to the taste. There are two 
ways of cooking rice perfectly : 


Chinese method : Wash rice thoroughly ; put one pint of rice 
into one gallon of boiling salted water; boil vigorously one-half 
an hour without stirring; pour the rice in a colander and rinse it 
thoroughly in the colander from the hot-water tap ; put the rice in 
the colander hack over boiling water; cover the colaiv'er and let 
it dry and steam a little. 

Second method : To one pint of washed rice add two pints 
of cold water ; set in a covered vessel on a moderate heat and 
leave it there for one hour and a. half, being careful that the last 
half hour the r : ce does not stick and burn from too hot a stove. 

Ways of Serving. 

Rice may be served as a vegetable — plain — and when cov- 
ered with meat gravy it is very delicious. 

Rice or Hominy Drop Cakes. 

One cup of boiling hominy or rice, and one c^p;. If the 
honrny be cold, heat in a farina kettle with one tablespoonful of 
water, and stir till it is softened. Beat yolk and white separately : 
add one saltspoonful of salt. Drop in tablespoon fuls on a well- 
buttered pan, and bake brown in a hot oven. 

Plain Rice Pudding. 

Half a cup of well-washed rice, half a cup of sugar, a little 
salt, and one quart of milk. Soak half an hour. Bake about two 
hours, slowly at first till the rice has softened and thickened the 
milk ; then let it brown slightly. This is creamy and delicious, 
though it is often called Poor Man's Pudding. Serve hot or cold. 

No. 2. Three tablespoonfuls of rice, a little salt, three table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, one quart of milk, and three sour apples, 
pared and quartered, or one cup of small, whole raisins. Put all 
.nto a deep pudding-dish, well buttered. Cover, and bake slowly 
four or five hours, till the milk is all absorbed and the rice is red 
or colored. Serve hot with butter. 

Rice and Fruit Pudding. 

Steam one scant cup of rice in two cups of boiling water, in 
the double boiler, thirty minutes. Add, while hot, one tablespoon- 
ful of butter, one scant teaspoon ful of salt, one beaten e^q;, and 
half a cup of sugar. Cook five minutes. Butter a plain pudding- 
mould, sprinkle it with bread crumbs, or line with macaroons. 
Put in a laver of rice half an inch thick, then a layer of apricots or 
peaches or pineapple, then rice, fruit, etc.. till the mould is full, 
having crumbs on the top. Bake twenty minutes in a moderate 
even. Turn out on a platter and serve with boiled custard flavored 
with vanilla, or with an apricot sauce. 


Rice Custard. 

Soak half a cup of cold cooked rice in one pint of hot milk 
till every grain is distinct. Add the yolks of two eggs, beaten with 
a quarter of a cup of sugar and a pinch of salt, and cook like 
soft custard. While still hot, stir in the whites, beaten stiff, and 
set away to cool. Or turn the hot custard into a dish, and when 
cool cover with a meringue of the whites. Brown slightly, and 
serve cold. 

Curry Sauce (for Curried Eggs, Chicken, etc). 

Cook one tablespoonful of chopped onion in one tablespoonful 
of butter five minutes. Be careful not to burn it. Mix one table- 
spoonful of curry powder with two tablespoonfuls of flour and 
stir it into the butter. Add one pint of hot milk gradually, or one 
pint of gravy from meat or chicken. Bits of cold chicken or of 
cold veal may be cut up and added to this gravy. This is served 
over rice and with the addition of a teaspoonful of paprika forms 
the East Indian favorite dish, Curried Rice. 

Rice as a Diet for Pregnant Women. 

Dr. Alice B. Stockham. in Tokology, recommends strongly 
aw exclusive diet ot rice, vegetables and fruits with a little lean 
meat for pregnant women. No bread, no grain food of any kind 
is allowed in this dietry. The results of this diet have been most 
remarkable. Women who have suffered with varicose veins and 
other billions affections have found almost instant relief from this 
rice diet. Babies born, after the rice diet, have been vigorous, 
healthy and large of frame. 

Rice for Reducing Flesh. 

It is absurd in this day of enlightened dietries for fat women 
to remain over-fat. There are many healthy ways of reducing 
flesh. A certain woman in this city who weighed over 200 pounds 
and was given but six months to live by the doctors because of 
heart trouble and other serious ailments, tried the rice diet. She 
ate all the rice and skim milk she wanted for three months, eating 
a little fruit occasionally. At the end of that time her figure was 
trim and her diseases had practically left her. That is five years 
ago, and she is still healthy and happv. 

Rice Crusts. (Miss Ward.) 

Cook one cup of cold boiled rice in the double boiler in milk 
enough to make a thin mixture, and until the rice is very soft. 
Add one tablespoonful of sugar, a little salt, one egg, and flour 
enough to make it hold together. Spread on the pan, having the 
mixture one-third of an inch thick. Bake in a hot oven. Split 
and eat with syrup. 

Notes from the Field. 

By General Secretary Amy Brozvn Lyman. 


The Relief Society stake conferences appointed for May, 
June and July will be held in connection with the stake quarterly 
conferences; those appointed for November will be held inde- 

Conference Dates. 

May 5th and 6th — Curlew, Alberta, San Luis, Boise, St. 
Johns, South Sanpete, Wayne. 

May 12th and 13th — Emery, Millard, Juab, Taylor, Snow- 

May 19th and 20th — Young, Shelley, Bannock, Teton, Big- 
horn, Maricopa, Malad. Blackfoot. 

May 26th and 27th — Bingham, Portneuf, St. Joseph, Poca- 
tello, Rigby, Panguitch. 

June 2nd and 3rd — Uintah, Kanab. Morgan, Oneida, San 

June 16th and 17th — St. George. North Sanpete, Moapa, 
Star Valley, Union, Parowan. 

June 23rd and 24th — Sevier, Fremont, Bear Lake, Deseret. 

June 30th and July 1st — Tooele. 

July 21st and 22nd — Benson, Beaver, Hyrum, Raft River. 

July 28th and 29th— Wasatch, Woodruff, Idaho, Cassia, Yel- 

November (dates to be arranged later) — Alpine, Bear River. 
Box Elder, Cache, Carbon, Cottonwood, South Davis, Ensign, 
Granite, Jordan, Liberty, Nebo, North Davis, North Weber. 
Ogden. Pioneer, Salt Lake, Summit, Utah. Weber 


For stakes holding conferences in connection with quarterh con 
ferences : 

First Session. Officers' Meeting. Saturday, 4:00 p.m. 
Report bv Stake President. 
Guide Work. Member of the General Board. 

Second Session. Officers' Meeting. Sunday, 9 to 10:30 a.m. 
Relief Society Activities — Member of General Board 

Third Session. Public Session. Sunday, 10:30 a.m. 
1 Fnder direction of Stake Authorities. 
Remarks hy Member of General Board. 



The annual report shows a growth in all departments and 
an increase in the resources of the Society. With the exception 
of the membership dues, all the funds and property of the Society 
are held and controlled in the various local or ward branches. 
The means are collected and distributed without commission or 
salary. Every cent donated is used for the purpose for which it 
was given. The membership dues are sent to the general offices 
for the maintenance of Relief Society headquarters, for traveling 
expenses, and for printing and clerical hire. 


Balance on hand Dec. 31. 1916, all funds $119,129.83 

Value of wheat on hand 216,397.81 

Value of real estate, buildings, furniture 241,452.84 

Value of invested funds 23,407.67 

Other resources 8,361.97 

Total $608,750.12 


Indebtedness $ 2,722.53 

Balance net resources 606,027.59 

Total $608,750.12 



Wheat on hand Jan. 1, 1916. . . . 12,201,004 lbs. 

Wheat donated during 1916. . . . 218,774 " 

Wheat purchased 309,932 " 

Other wheat receipts 193,887 " 

Total ~~ 12,923,597 lbs. 

Or 215.393 1 7 60 bus. 

Wheat on deposit with Presiding 

Bishop's Office 5,532,292 lbs. 

Wheat in local R. S. granaries. . 4.616,216 •" 

Wheat in other granaries 1,385,817 " 

Other wheat deposits 279,704 " 

Wheat sold 1.045,652 " 

Shrinkage, waste and loss 63,916 " 

Total 12.923,597 lbs. 

Or 215.393 1 7„ n bus. 



Membership January 1. 1916: 

Officers ' 6.436 

Teachers 12,706 

Members . . : 23.150 

Admitted to membership 5,816 

Total 48,108 

Removed or resigned 3,670 

Died 544 

Membership December 31. 1916: 

Officers 6,430 

Teachers 13,392 

Members 24,072 

(Present Membership) (43,894) 

Total 48,108 

Number of meetings held 35,375 

Average attendance at meetings 13.786 

Nnumber of Relief Society organizations 1,191 

Number of Relief Society Magazines taken 0.026 

Number of Relief Society ward organizations taking Mag- 
azine 42 

Number of books in libraries 5,456 


Paid for charitable purposes $56,162.25 

Days spent with sick 21,985 

Special visits to sick 88,140 

Families helped 6,803 

Bodies prepared for burial 2,193 

Burial clothing prepared 1,516 

Number of visits by stake officers 9,682 

Number of days spent in temple work 26,201 

Assistance to missionaries or their families $ 2,735.35 

Funds raised for special work $15,041.04 


1914 1915 1916 

Balance net resources $510,536.05 $534,04 r.88 $606,027.59 

Wheat on hand (bushels). 193,805 210,050y 3 215,393 ,7 / O0 

Paid for charitable purposes 48,482.12 56,967.31 56,162.25 

Membership 37,S2C> 41,274 43,894 

Days spent with sick 22,797 21,985 

Special visits to sick 78,500 88,140 

No. of visits by stake officers 4,722 9,682 

No. of days spent in Temple work. . . . 16.889 26,201 


Tahiti an Mission. 

The following very unique and interesting report and letter 
with the accompanying picture has just been received by the 
General Board from the distant Society Islands: 


Paid for charitable purposes $ 78.37 

Days spent with the sick 135 

Special visits to the sick 217 

Families helped 2 

Bodies prepared for burial 2 

Burial clothes prepared 4 

Number of visits of Mission Officers 40 

Assistance to Missionaries $ 36.00 

Funds raised for special work $ 102.37 

Membership : 

Officers 14 

Members • •....• 71 

Total 85 

Admitted to membership during the year 18 

Died 1 

Number of meetings held 173 

Average attendance '. 67 

Percentage attendance 80 

Number of Relief Society organizations 4 

Papeete, Tahiti, Jan. 3, 1917. 

Dear Sisters : A report of the Relief Society work done 
in the Tahitian M : ssion has never before been compiled, but after 
reading the annual report for the year 1915, in the Relief Society 
Magazine, I determined I would collect what material I could, 
so that the small part of the work done by us would help swell 
the report for the year 1916. 

It is a very difficult matter to get a report of the work done 
by the organizations in this field, due to the fact that many of 
the members are unable to keep a record and also on account of 
the scattered condition of the people of the islands and the very 
uncertain boat service here. A boat calls at some of these islands 
perhaps once or twice during the year. 

The lady missionaries of this field have never before visited 
the islands of the Tuamotu Group, where most of our branches 
are, on account of these conditions, and consequently have never 
really become acquainted with the work being done there, except- 
ing" what thev have learned from the Elders. 

Mrs. I 'cutis R. Rossiter and the Relief Society members in attend- 
ance at October Conference in Hikuere, S. I. 

I have made it a point since coming to this mission to at- 
tend all of the semi-annual conferences in order that I might 
meet all of the sisters personally and instruct them in the. nature 
of their work. And I assure you it has been with no small effort 
and personal discomfort. However, the experiences I have had 
besides being unique and intensely interesting which could not 
have been gained in any other way, have been extremely beneficial 
to me and are such that I shall never forget them. For instance, 
in going a distance of three hundred and fifty miles to our last 
April conference, we were twenty days at sea on a tiny trading 
schooner that had no accommodations for passengers, and we 
were obliged to lie .on the deck floor, night and day unsheltered 
either from the burning tropical sun or downpour of rain ; we had 
the alternative of crowding down in the small, dark, ill-smelling 
hold with as many natives and Chinese as the place could contain. 
Many times Sister Margaret Compton, the only other lady mis- 
sionary in this field, and I have lain all night on the deck floor 
unsheltered in a downpour of rain, and in several inches of 
water. We also ate the coarse ship food we were able to get with 
our fingers from the tin plates off the dirty deck floor. 

Although the accompanying report is small and not entirely 
complete it will give you an idea of the work being done in the 
Tahitian mission and the difficult circumstances under which we 
have to labor. 

At Papeete which is our headquarters we have no organized 
Society as there are very few Saints here, but Sister Compton 


and I have become members of a sewing circle conducted by the 
chief Mayor's wife, and we devote one day a week sewing articles 
of clothing for the Tahitian soldiers' families. 

I am sending you a picture of myself and part of our Relief 
Society sisters, taken at our October conference in Hikuere, 
thinking perhaps it would interest you. 

Thanking you kindly for remembering us each month with 
a copy of the Relief Society Magazine, 

I remain sincerely. 

Your sister in the Gospel, 

Venus R. Rossiter. 
Hawaiian Mission. 

We are delighted to receive the following information from 
President Samuel E. Wooley, regarding the work of the Rekef 
Society in the Hawaiian Mission : 

"1 hope that you will pardon me for not writing to you before 
as I- promised I would, but I have had so many things on hand 
that I have not had time to write to my own folks as I ought to 
have done. This has been a very busy year and there have been 
so many things that have required my personal attention, that I 
have just about run down at times, but I have not forgotten that 
I ought to tell you that we are alive here in the mission and that 
the Relief Societies are doing something. I have not been able 
to get out in the conferences as I hoped that I would, neither have 
1 been able to write to them ; we have been so short-handed in the 
office. I have to plug along with my writng in the old fashioned 
way, and do the most of it after others have finished for the day. 
No one can quite appreciate this unless he has been in the same 
position or has been here and has seen things as they are. I may 
be slow and incompetent, but I am at it for all that is in me. 
Now, dear sister, I will call your attention to a few items from 
our report ending 1916: 

Number of branches in Hawaiian Mission 28 

Membership , 964 

Donations. 1916 $1,095.45 

Paid for charitable purposes . 642.33 

Resources 2,818.32 

No indebtedness. 

Days spent with sick 439 

Special visits to sick 396 

"To raise the funds they have donated, the Relief Society 
members have made qudts and mats, fans, and all kinds of handy 
work, and have taken up a subscription among their own mem- 
bers. Besides what they are doing in a financial way. they are 



doing a lot of good for the cause, and they look after the sick 
and the poor, as well as take an active part in the general work 
of the Church. They are interested in Temple work now that 
it is at their very door. They are studying the principles of the 
gospel and what it takes to become good Latter-day Saints. We 
are getting along very well with the building, but have been held 
up of late on account of the strike at the coast cities, and now 
that it is settled there is so much freight piled up on the wharfs 
at San Francisco that the steamers take that most needed for food 
and feed for animals, so that we may be delayed a little from time 
to time on things that we cannot help. We feel happy in our 
work and hope to go on faithfully to the end. 

"Oh yes, by the way, it is twenty-one years since I landed at 
Honolulu with my wife and four children to take charge of this 
Mission under the direction of the First Presidency. I am just as 
willing and happy over it as 1 was then ; true. I wish conditions 
were so" that I could have my family with me, but that seems out 

Relief Society of Honolulu Marching in Parade on Katnahaha 


of the question at present. I have never asked, nor do I want to, 
"How much longer, oh Lord?" for I know that the Lord does 
things well if we are willing- — we have been that so far. thank the 
Lord. What little has been accomplished during these twenty- 
one years I give the praise to the Lord in whose hands we 
all are. 



"May the Lord bless Zion, for we on Hawaii are a part of it. 
I feel that the next great step will be to make this one of the 
Stakes of Zion. Truly Zion is growing. 

"Peace be with you in your good work, I am, 
"Your brother in the gospel, 

"Samuel E. Wooley." 

Honolulu Relief Society Laying Floral Wreaths or Leis on Kama- 
haha's Monument. 

Sunday School Nursery Department. 

The Sunday School of the Second ward of the Liberty stake, 
vSalt Lake City, has introduced an innovation in the form of a 
Nursery Department. 

The object of this department is to care for babies in arms 
and to furnish entertainment for children up to the time they are 
able to enter the Kindergarten Department, thus leaving the 
parents free to attend the Parents' Class and to take an active 
part in the Sunday School in general. 

These babies and young children are cared for by competent 
nurses and assistants and they enjoy the hours spent in their own 
comfortable little department as much as their parents enjoy the 
profitable discussions in the Parents' Class. 

It will be seen by the illustrations accompanying that the 
nursery room is large and airy and well equipped for the enter- 
tainment and amusement of children. 

Sunday School Nursery I^cpartmcnt of the Second Ward, Liberty 
Stake. Sunday School 


The equipment consists of small beds and cradles, walking- 
chairs, swings, dolls, balls, story books, small rocking- and straight 
back chairs, etc. Pillow slips and bed linen are changed weekly, 
and everything is kept strictly sanitary. All furniture is painted 
with white enamel and a suitable carpet covers the floor — all ap- 
pointments tending to make it an inviting playroom where the 
children feel at home. 

The Superintendency of the Sunday School make it a special 
point to invite the mothers of babes and young children to attend 
the Parents' Class and to place their children for care in this cozy 
nursery — and it must be gratifying to these officers to see how 
many there are who take advantage of this opportunity. 

The Bishop of this enterprising ward is Elder Heber C. 
Iverson and the members of the Sunday School Superintendency 
are: Charles E. Rose, Superintendent; David Athay, First As- 
sistant ; H. B. Elder, Second Assistant. 

This original and progressive idea, we feel sure, will appeal 
to the officers of our ward Relief Societies and to the members 
who are mothers of small children, as very practical, and it opens 
to view a new field of possibilities in the way of increasing our 
Relief Society membership. We need the young women in the 
Relief Society work and the young women need the Relief So- 
ciety work. Is it not possible that this plan, which works so suc- 
cessfully in a Sunday School might be introduced into ward 
Relief Societies? 

In the event of this or a similar scheme being adopted in a 
ward organization, and in case young girls could not be procured 
to care for the children, the mothers themselves might, with profit 
to all concerned, alternate in performing this service. Two mem- 
bers could easily attend to a dozen or more children and leave the 
rest of the members free to enjoy the meeting. 

Think this over, ward workers. 

Change of Address. 

The mission headquarters of the Eastern States Mission has 
been removed from 33 West 126th Street, New York City, to 1140 
Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. 

All correspondence and Relief Society matters connected with 
this mission will please take notice of this change. 

Miss Margaret Edward, 

President Eastern States Mission 
Relief Society. 


Entered as second class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells President 

Mas. Clarissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Eddington 
Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager • Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Vol. IV. MAY, 1917. No. 5. 


* Out of the East came a cloud and spread up- 
War, ward and noonward. We were all so busy 

with eating and drinking, marrying and giv- 
ing in marriage that we did not remember that as it was in 
the days of Noah so shall it be in the days of the coming of 
the Son of Man. We knew there were fierce storms raging 
over there in the far eastern horizon beyond the waters of the 
great deep, but the sun had shone for us from childhood and 
clouds were but temporary matters. So the cloud spread. Out 
there in the far-away lands darkness is covering the earth, but 
having the Light we are inclined to waste our hours in play. 
Men have been wasting life and treasure out there in pungent 
streams — who can tell, women may yet join in active conflict 
side by side, with these blood-crazed, blind-folded men, as they 
did in the days of Mormon and Moroni. Why not? Life is 
counted cheap, parenthood is scorned, virtue a weakness of 
the poor, and faith a superstition. How naturally the war 
clouds have settled — spread — and are even now covering the 
whole earth. 

Here we face war's indirect problems. This 
In Utah. time next year we may be too war-stricken 

to talk about it. Twisted heartstrings give 
forth no sound. Death is dumb. Our present problems — yes 


— just the same old questions of daily duties. Add a pinch of 
economy, a fresh sprinkling of prayer, a dash of humor, and 
there you are. 

Have you a bit of ground around your house, 
War - five hundred or not more than fifty feet? 

Preparation Plant it into vegetables. Put in succulent 

For Women. roots, all kinds of growing things that will 
contribute life to yourselves and your fam- 
ilies. No spot of ground which can be made to yield should 
be left vacant this war-year. Not an hour of time, an ounce of 
strength, or a crust of bread should be wasted during this 
critical period. 

The clouds are gathering — have we a right 
The Laws to shelter in the pavilion of Infinite Love 

of God. and Divine Law? God loves His war- 

ring sons under the European war clouds ; 
but even He must let them reap the harvest of hate, dis- 
obedience and corruption which most of them have sown. 
If we would be protected by the Divine Law we must set 
our lives in tune with its mandates. And as the strength 
of a chain is its weakest link, so do this people rise 
and fall together — each lifted a little by the law-keepers or 
pulled down a little by the law-breakers. 

War may exact its toll from your household 
We Shall and mine — but when this Government calls 

Be Loyal. on Utah mothers and daughters, we shall 

know no allegiance except to God and the 
United States of America, and we will fling our starry banners 
to the breeze, and if need be fashion and clothe our sons for 
war, and with our last kiss whisper the trenchant words of 
Brigham Young to the boys he sent out into the borderland 
of conflict in pioneer days, — "Say your prayes, and keep your 
powder dry." Come, sisters, let us get our own powder in 

We are all Latter-day Saints, we wives and 
All Are mothers of the Relief Society, all American 

Americans. citizens. We know no English, Dutch, Scan- 

dinavian, nor German — we are voting units 
of Utah and of the United States of America. Therefore, we 
will work together, we English — Dutch — Scandinavian — Ger- 
man women patriots, born or adopted American, as we will 
all kneel together, whispering prayers for our loved ones, and 
yet asking God to abolish autocracy all over this sad earth, 
giving liberty to the people and hastening the day when He 
shall come to rule whose right it is to reign over the whole earth. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in April. 

Reading : The Book of Ruth. References : Kitta's Pales- 
tine. Part III, and McCurdy's History, Prophecy, and the Monu- 
ments, Chapter II, Smith's Old Testament History, Geikie's Hours 
With the Bible. 

The general conditions that prevailed in Palestine at the 
time of Ruth, the Moabitish maiden, are what we shall be con- 
cerned with in this lesson. 

Israel was then ruled by judges. There was therefore no 
centralized political government, with a single recognized head. 
If we may accept the statement of Josephus on this point, Eli was 
the religious head of the Israelites at the time of Ruth. Later, 
this part of their being kingless whereas all the surrounding na- 
tions had kings, was a source of an unworthy embarrassment to 
the people, and as Samuel, who came after Eli, gave them a king. 
But in the prophet, who constituted their religious head, the de- 
scendants of Jacob had a strong centralized religious power to 
which they all looked for guidance. We have something like this 
in our day in the fact that, looking at the matter in a religious light 
merely, Latter-day Saints who live in the various states of the 
I'nion, the European countries, and the ocean isles all look to 
President Joseph F. Smith for spiritual direction. 

The Children of Israel were not alone in Palestine. It is 
true that on the west of the Jordan river they occupied the greater 
[•art of the country from Dan on the north to Beersheba on the 
south— a territory of about one hundred and seventy-five miles 
olng by about fifty miles wide. Even here, however, there were 
Canaanitish towns the inhabitants of which they either could not or 
did not expel. But on the east of Jordan were the Moabites and 
the Ammonites, descendants of Lot and his two daughters. Before 
and after the time of Ruth, it seems, there existed considerable 
bitterness of feeling between these peoples and the Jews. But 
at the time of which we are now speaking it would appear that 
the two were on friendly relations. 

Palestinean towns do not appear to have been large during 
this period, although they are called "cities. "Cities" in those 


days were like the early Bible "kings" — small and of little conse- 
quence. Canaanitish towns, which were later occupied by the 
conquering Israelites, were walled, and this fact accounts for the 
difficulty the latter had in taking them. These walled towns alone 
were secure in those troubulous times of war. "The streets of 
Eastern towns are always exceedingly narrow, that the shadow of 
the houses may keep them cool ; and the appearance of these 
streets is dull and uninviting, as the houses do not front the road." 
None of the streets in Jewish towns at this time were paved. 
The towns of this period, from an absence of public buildings, 
must have been rather mean in appearance. Public transactions 
often took place at the gates of towns. 

In Abrahamic times tents were the only habitations we read 
of as permanent dwellings. There is an occasional refernce, how- 
ever, to huts, or booths, "small dwellings made of green or dry 
branches of trees intertwined, and sometimes plastered with mud." 
On entering the Land of Canaan, the Israelites almost of necessity 
occupied the houses from which they had .driven out their inhabit- 
ants. "These appear for a long time to have been poor and low, 
and built either of sun-dried mud or unhewn stones ; timber for 
building being scarce in that country ; and hence the employment 
of it in large quantities, as in some of Solomon's buildings, was a 
sign of costliness and magnificence." There was no glass in the 
windows ; they were latticed to give free passage to air and a de- 
gree of light, at the same time excluding birds and bats. "In 
winter the cold was kept out by thin veils over the windows, or by 
shutters with holes in them sufficient to admit the light. No 
ancient houses had chimneys." Articles of furniture were few and 
simple, because of the fact that the people in Palestine spent much 
of their time out of .doors. They sat mainly on mats, crosslegged, 
although raised seats were not unknown. "The beds consisted of 
mattresses and quilted coverlets, laid upon the floor at night, and 
stowed away in a recess by day. Sheets, blankets, and bedsteads 
are not known in the East." Every family ground its own corn, 
using for this purpose two stones, the upper of which was turned 
round and had a hold to allow the grain to be put through. 

Like most Eastern people, the Israelites were plain and 
simple in their food, which consisted chefly of bread, vegetables, 
fruits (green and preserved), honey, milk, curds, cream, butter, 
and cheese. Meat could hardly be called an ordinary article of 
food, except among the higher classes of the people dwelling in 
towns. The use of animal food was, indeed, restricted in some 
degree by the law, which allowed the flesh of no beasts to be 
eaten but such as chewed the cud and parted the hoof, nor any 
fish but such as had both fins and gills. These restrictions ren- 
dered it difficult for a strict Jew to eat with a heathen. The hog 


was not forbidden more especially # than many other animals; but 
being the only unclean beast the flesh of which was usually and 
commonly eaten, its absence from the diet of the Jews attracted 
more attention than any other prohibition. Poultry was but 
sparingly used. The only domestic birds kept were pigeons and 
the common fowl. Bread was baked, not in loaves as with us, 
but in rolls or flat cakes. There were no knives or forks used in 
those days, the food being conveyed from the dish to the mouth 
by the right hand. This is why the hands had to be wased before 
eating. The principal meal was after the labors of the day were 
over, although "a kind of lunch, consisting of bread, milk, cheese, 
etc., was taken in the forenoon." When the Hebrews "ate from a 
table, they used seats; but when they sat on the ground, the meal 
was laid on a cloth spread on the floor, with a large piece of 
leather under it, to prevent mats or carpets from being soiled." It 
was only after the captivity that the Jews learned from the Per- 
sians the art of reclining at the dining table. Wine, though 
greatly diluted, was commonly drunk during meals, as the cistern 
water often became polluted and unfit to drink. Feasts and en- 
tertainments were frequent, at which the guests were anointed 
with precious, perfumed oil wh'l ejests. riddles, singing, music, 
dancing, and story-telling were indulged in. 

On account of the divine prohibition against painting, draw- 
ing, or carving the image of anything, we have less accurate in- 
formation concerning the dress of the Israelites than of anything 
eise in their social life. But "we may conceive the figure of a 
Jew, viewed that of a fullbearded man, clad in a long 
and loose garment with large sleeves, which was confined to the 
person by a girdle about the loins ; the neck bare, the feet pro- 
tected by a piece of leather strapped to the sole, and the head 
cither bare (as it seems very often to have been), or covered, 
among the higher classes, by a kind of turban, and among the 
common people, by a piece of cloth thrown over the head, and 
confined by a fillet around the brows." In action, the "arm was 
made bare." and "the loins were girded" by drawing up the skirts. 
The appearance of the Jew. however, varied with circumstances, 
'•'as when a large, loose, shapeless garment was thrown, like a 
cloak, over the dress which has been described." On the four 
corners of this article of clothing it was common to have "a 
fringe with a piece of blue tape,' 'to remind them that they were 
a peculiar people. All these dresses, excepting this outer garment, 
were of linen or cotton, this latter being of wool and hair. Stock- 
ings and socks were not in use. Most persons went entirely bare 
foot, except in winter or upon a journey. The wealthier classes 
wore sandals out of doors, except during mourning. The Israel- 
ites allowed the hair and beard to grow. "Baldness in men not 


old was rare. The hair was dressed and anointed with much 
care, especially at festivals. 

"Women appear to have enjoyed considerably more freedom 
among the Jews than is now allowed them in Western Asia, al- 
though in other respects their condition and employment seem to 
have been dissimilar." In Ruth we read of women eating with 
men — the only instance of this kind in the Bible. Daughters, In 
Abrahamic times, as we have seen, tended their father's flocks. 
The first task of the day usually was to grind corn and to bake. 
Peasant women gathered fuel and carried water from the wells, 
which were usually on the outskirts of town. The clothes used 
by the family were made by the women members, as also were 
the tapestries for bed-coverings. Among the women of the poorer 
classes the dress "was probably coarse and simple, and not ma- 
terially different from that which we now see among the Bedouin 
women, and the female peasantry of Syria. This consists of 
drawers, and a long and loose gown of coarse blue linen, with 
some ornamental bordering wrought with the needle, in another 
color, about the neck and bosom. The head is covered with a 
kind of turban, connected with which behind, is a veil which 
ovrces the neck, back, and bosom. We may presume, with still 
greater certainty, that women of superior condition wore, over 
their inner dress, a frock or tunic like that of the men, but more 
closely fitting the person, with a girdle formed by an unfolded 
kerchief. The hair was worn long and, as at present, braided into 
numerous tresses, with trinkets and ribbons." Ear-rings were 
also worn, and nose-jewels of gold or silver, and bracelets and 

Marriage and the rearing of children were extremely import- 
ant among the Israelites. Engagements were contracted by Hie 
fathers. If a man died, his widow was given to his brother or 
nearest of kin, and the firstborn son belonged to the deceased. 
Divorce was not allowed by Moses except for adultery, which 
sin was to be punished by stoning the offender to death. Plural 
marriage, despite the assertions of some Biblical scholars to the 
contrary, was not only permitted but enjoyed by the divine law. 
To be barren was "a reproach." Children were "the heritage of 
the Lord," and "blessed" was he who had his "quiver full." 
The child remained with the mother till it was five years old, when 
it was delivered over to the care of the father to be taught the 
Law. Often the well-to-do employed the services of a private 

The Israelites, like all Orientals, were marked in the ex- 
pression of their varying moods by outer signs. The men when 
equals, kissed one another's beards. The kiss of respect or 
homage was on the brow. Kissing the feet of the person rev- 


erenced was common. "The Lord bless thee," was a familiar 
greeting, as in Ruth. The Jewish modes of showing insult ap- 
pear to us childish, as for instance, spitting upon the beard, or 
plucking off the hair, or putting a man to do a woman's work, or 
clapping the hands, kissing, thrusting out the tongue and making 
a wry mouth, or crunching the teeth and wagging the head. The 
most intolerable insult, however, was to cast contempt upon a 
man's mother. 


1. What kind of political government did Israel have at 
the time of Ruth? 

2. Were there any other people in Palestine besides Israel- 
ites? Explain. 

3. Tel labout Israelitish towns. 

4. Describe the houses of the people in those days. 

5. What and how did they eat? 

6. Why do we not know more about the dress of those 
people? Describe their dress. 

7. Describe some of their marriage customs ; the care of 

8. Tell of some of the ways the Israelites had of expressing 


"Sanctify them through thy truth. Thy word is truth." 
Doctrine and Covenants, Section 21 — 57. 


Work and Business. 

Second Week in June. 

Genealogy and Literature. 

Third Week in June. 


Many surnames were formed with the addition of the little 
preposition which preceded place names or followed place names 
in a qualifying sense. 

A prefix means something added before and a suffix means 


something added after. For instance, atte is an Anglo-Saxon 
prefix meaning at the; Atte-Oak would mean at the oak. The 
Anglo-Saxon den or denn meant a cave or hole; so Oak-Den 
would mean a cave near an oak. 

Norman prefixes often consisted of the French de or le, de 
meaning of; de always preceded the name of a place whence the 
Norman came, and where he had a castle or an earthwork crowned 
by a wooden structure, in which he and his family lived. At the 
time of the Conquest very few nobles and knights had stone 
dwellings. It sufficed him to throw up a trench — in French motte 
— and to crown it with a house built of wood, reached by a lad- 
der, little better than a hen-roost. In instances where a place- 
name began with a vowel, the middle e would be dropped and 
the de would be fastened right on to the name like, Danvers 
(D'Anvers), Deveux, Daubigny, Darcy, and Dawney. The Ger- 
man used von with the same meaning. 

The Le introduced by the Normans was the prefix before a 
descriptive name of a trade or else of a functionary, or expressing 
some personal characteristic: Le Roux, he of the ruddy com- 
plexion or with red hair ; Le Portier, the doorward. L'Estranger 
had become Stranger. With its tail cut off it is Strange. Le also 
preceded the .designation of a man from foreign parts, as Le 
Brabazon, Le Breton or the man from Breton. The prefix de 
was changed later to the and with the lapse of centuries the 
Saxon the and the Norman de were both dropped by English- 
men. Adam the page and Phillip the cook became, with the in- 
coming Normans, Adam le Page and Phillip le Cook. Then the 
articles were dropped altogether and the surname would simply 
be Page and Cook. The same thing happened with de : Richard 
de Berry and Elias de Oxbridge meant Richard of Berry and 
Elias of Oxbridge. Both de and le totally disappeared from 
the English records after 1535. Richard le Spicer and William 
de Dean were simply known as Richard Spicer and William 
Dean. In the same manner the Anglo-Saxon atte was dropped 
and men who had been called John Atte Ford, William Atte Hay 
and David Atte Stone found themselves after that time called 
simply John Ford, William Hay and David Stone. In a few 
instances, however, the atte remained as in Atwell, Atwood and 
Aston. A man might be called William the Long, or le Long; 
John le Young, or John the Young ; Richard le Barber, or Richard 
the Barber; Robert the Cook, Adam the Page. Thomas the Spen- 
cer, or Henry le Walleys (the Welshman). 

The Welsh have ap, as a prefix ; in the course of surname 
changes ap Rice has become Price, ap Einion has become Bunyan. 
ap Ewan has become Bevan, and ap Owen has become Bowen. 


Among the prefixes and suffixes which indicated place names 

de (of) 

le (the) 

atte (at the) 

ing (son of) 

heah (high) Hemstead 

hits (house) etc. 

cot (cottage) 

bothy (log-hut) 

ham (home, an enclosure) 

burh (a fortified place) bury 

kin or kyn, as a suffix is a diminutive 

cock (diminutive) 

et (diminutive) 

ell (a measure) 

y or e, ye, same as the 

lin, linn, lyn, a waterfall, precipiece or ravine 

by (from, near, beside) 

thorp or torp, a cottage, a little farm or field 
Compound Names. 

Sometimes surnames are a compound, not so often in Amer- 
ica as in England and on the continent. Especially is this true of 
noble families who keep several surnames to indicate their various 
lines. The author of "The Story of Family Names," Barring- 
Gould is an illustration of a compound name. It is thought to 
be very fine and cultured in England for people to have these 
double surnames. An amusing instance occurred in recent years 
when Mr. Ernest Seton-Thompson came over to America to lec- 
ture. His name was simply Ernest Seton, but his managers per- 
suaded him that a compound name would sound more enticing to 
American ears, so he thoughtlessly assumed the name of Thomp- 
son, calling himself Ernest Seton-Thompson, and Ernest Seton- 
Thompson he was to people on the eastern coast ; but when he 
started on his American travels the breezy, hurried westerner 
hailed him simply as Mr. Thompson. They had no time nor in- 
clination to spend breath on two names. The consequent irrita- 
tion to this gentleman's sensitive nerves was so great that he ap- 
pealed to the press everywhere to change his name about and call 
him Thompson-Seton or to leave the Thompson out altogether as 
nature had done and make him simply Ernest Seton. Tt was no 
use — reporters juggled with the name, tossing it up one way to 
have it fall back in a bewildering variety of contortions. He was 
Tom Seton and Se Thompson, and now you see. and now you 


don't see Tom. Mr. Seton finally decided that it was much easier 
to take a name than to get rid of it and resigned himself dog- 
gedly to endure the burden he had himself prepared. Lord Bolton 
is an Orde-Powlett ; Viscount Boyne is a Hamilton-Russel, and 
Baron Brabourne a Knatchbull-Hugessen. The Duke of Port- 
land is a Cavendish-Bentinck. The Sari of Ilchester's family 
name is Fox-Strangevvays. Viscount Canterberry is a Manners- 
Sutton, Lord Londonderry a Vance-Tempest, Lord Eversley a 
Shaw-Lefevre, Lord Sudeley a Hanbury-Leigh, Lord Wentworth 
a Noel-Milbanke. 
Changed Names. 

It happens not infrequently that men wish to change their 
names, sometimes because they dislike the name itself, sometimes 
because some odium is attached to it, sometimes because they wish 
to hide their identity, and sometimes adopted children have their 
names changed. All of these changes are confusing and mislead- 
ing to genealogists. It is much better to keep the surname evils 
we may have than to flee to those we know not of. 

A very famous Welshman named Morgan, in 1500, married 
the only daughter and heiress of William Young. He assumed 
the name of Young as did many other Englishmen under similar 
circumstances. Any one who was searching for either Youngs 
or Morgans would be entirely lost unless they received some in- 
formation concerning this change. Several families in Utah 
have changed their surnames while many .deliberately changed the 
spelling thereof. The changing of a surname is regulated by law, 
in all civilized countries, so vital a matter is it considered to be by 
governments. Few genealogists go back any distance on family 
lines without finding instances of these changed names. 

Note. — This lesson closes the season's study in Genealogy 
We regret the fact that we were unable to secure enough surname 
books to supply our students. However, the results may be very 
advantageous to us. We hope to have our own surname book 
ready for use when we open our classes in September, and we 
shall take our lessons from that book. It has been a difficult task 
for the genealogical class teachers to prepare the lessons this year, 
and all will, no doubt be glad to cover the same ground again 
next year with very much better facilities and a lesson book of 
our own to work with. We congratulate all who have made any 
sort of success this year and feel to sympathize with those who 
have failed in any sense ; but we are all working together with 
the best wisdom we have and our mistakes and failures will but 
teach us the better way. 


What can you say of prefixes? 
What is the meaning of a suffix? 


Give instances of both suffixes and prefixes. 

What is a compound name? 

Why have they been used ? 

What would you think of a compound name, especially for 
married women? 

Why should governments object to people changing their 

Will you explain to the class by what process of law a person 
could change his name' (Consult a lawyer for an answer to this 


Third Week in May. 

old time tales. 

From the great cliffs that make our craggy canyon walls. 
mugh pieces of stone are constantly being broken by the frost and 
other elements. These rock fragments, falling down the moun- 
tain side, frequently reach the stream below. Such as do are 
washed and tumbled along by the water, and ground against other 
stones in the creek bed until they become smoothed and polished 
boulders, which are often scattered over the valley floor. 

In some such way as this, have old tales been carried down 
the stream of time to us. In days of long a,go people used to sit 
around their campfires and hearthstones and tell stories to enter- 
tain one another. These stories, no doubt, were at first crude — 
tough-hewn in style; but many of them were interesting enough 
to be remembered and passed from father to son, and son to 
grandson down the ages. In being thus told and retold, they 
were often changed and polished into charming tales. 

Literature is full of these old stories. No one knows who 
first told them; but such story-tellers as /Esop and the Grimm 
brothers have made collections of them; authors like Shake- 
speare, Scott, Irving, Tennyson, and many others have woven 
them into their choicest tales. In most of our writings are allu- 
sions to them. It is, therefore, quite impossible to understand 
literature fully without knowing something about this literary 
heritage of the past. 

Old time tales come to us in many different forms ; but for 
purpose of studv thev mav be classified as follows : 

1. Nursery Tales; 2. Fairy Tales; 3. Fables: 4. Parabks ; 
5. Myths ; 6. Legends. 

The Nursery Tale is familiar to most mothers. Such stones 
as "The Three Little Pigs." "The L : ttle Red Hen." "The Ginger- 


bread Man," and "Three Billy Goats Gruff," belong to this group. 
They might be called "repetition tales," since certain parts in them 
are constantly repeated. The nursery tale is a simple little tale 
created mainly to amuse children, generally it is harmless and 
usually very interesting for little folk. 

Fairy tales are also well known. These are fanciful crea- 
tions, having in them fairies, elves, and other supernatural char- 
acters that work in magic ways to help or harm human folk. 
Cinderella is one of the best illustrations. "Jad* and the Bean- 
stalk" is another fairy tale. The fairy in this story represents the 
boy's ambition. The giant, whom Jack outwits and finally over- 
comes, typifies brute force. Many a lad like Jack has conquered 
by skill and intelligence some such giant. 

The fairy tale generally carries some hidden meaning ; but 
its chief appeal to the young lies in the charm of the story itself. 

The fable is a story told to point a moral. Its chief char- 
acters are usually animals personified. A good example of this 
sort of tale is found in 


A conceited hare, as you remember, once challenged a tortoise 
to a race. The tortoise accepted and they started. Of course, 
the swift hare bounded easily ahead of his slow rival ; but when 
half way to the goal, the hare, thinking that the race was easily 
his, lay down to rest. He fell asleep, while the tortoise, plodding 
steadily on, finally overtook and passed the foolish hare. When 
ihe sleeper awoke, he found the old tortoise at the goal. The 
moral is plain : Slozv and steady wins the race. 

Usually the meaning of the fable can be put like this, in the 
form of a proverb. 

The parable differs from the fable in that it seldom, if ever, 
has animal characters ; and its meaning cannot so readily be given 
as a maxim. Some spiritual truth, some lesson of life, is illum- 
inated or explained by the parable. The illustration at the begin- 
ning of this lesson, wherein the stones in the stream are com- 
pared with old time tales, is a kind of parable. 

The following interesting parable is one which Benjamin 
Franklin was very fond of telling to his friends. It is called 


"And it came to pass after these things, that Abraham sat 
in the door of his tent, about the going down of the sun. 

"And behold, a man. bowed with age, came from the way of 
the wilderness, leaning on a staff. 

"And Abraham arose and met him, and said unto him, 'Turn 


in I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry the night, and thou 
shalt arise early on the morrow, and go on thy way.' 

"But the man said. 'Nay, tor I will abide under this tree.' 

"And Abraham pressed him greatly : so he turned, and they 
went into the tent, and Abraham baked unleavened bread, and 
they did eat. 

"And when Abraham blessed not God. he said unto him. 
'Wherefore dost thou not worship the most high God?' 

"And the man answered and said. 'I do not worship the God 
thou speakest of. neither do I call upon his name ; for I have 
made to myself a god, which abideth in my house, and provideth 
me with all things.' 

"And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man. and he 
arose and fell upon him, and drove him forth into the wilderness. 

"And at midnight God called unto Abraham, saying, 'Abra- 
ham, where is the stranger?' 

"And Abraham answered and said, 'Lord, he would not wor- 
ship thee, neither would he call upon thy name; therefore have I 
driven him out.' 

"And God said, 'Have I borne with him these hundred ninety 
and eight years, and nourished him and clothed him notwith 
standing his rebellion against me; and couldst not thou, that art 
thyself a sinner, bear with him one night?' " 

Where Franklin obtained this interesting parable is not 
known. It sounds very much like a Biblical story, but it is not 
found in the Bible. 

The myth is a fanciful story dealing with nature, which is 
often personified in the form of gods and goddesses, and other 
supernatural beings. A good illustration of this story is 


Cyltie was a little sea nymph who would often come to the 
top <>f the waves and ride over them in her sea-shell chariot. 

One day Cyltie saw Apollo, the sun god. coming out of his 
beautiful home, curtained by clouds, to make his daily trip across 
the sky. 

Clytie was so charmed with the sun god that she stood on 
the shore gazing all day in admiration. 

When the sun sank behind the clouds in the west, Clytie 
turned to go back to her sea-cave home ; but she could not move. 
Tier little toes had turned into tiny brown rootlets, her dress was 
changed to green leaves, her pretty round face was sunburnt from 
gazing at the sun so long; and her golden curls were changed to 
the golden petals of the sunflower. 

Clvtie's sunflower children, may still be seen gazing upward 


at Apollo the sun god, as he drives his fiery chariot across 
the sky. 

Such fanciful old tales seem strange or even foolish to us 
today; yet they often have a charm about them, especially when 
one sees the beauties of nature through them. 

In days of long ago, before the Bible came with its higher 
truths, these myths were believed. People worshiped Apollo, the 
sun god, Diana, the moon goddess, and the other deities about 
which such myths were told. 

It is necessary to know something of the myths in order to 
interpret clearly many Bible sayings, such as, "Thou shalt have 
no other gods before me." 

The legend is a traditional tale in which fact is mixed with 
fancy. It often deals with historical characters. The story of 
Robert Bruce and the spider, and of Washington and his hatchet, 
are good examples of the legendary story. The "Tales of the 
Wayside Inn," by Longfellow, is made up largely of legends. One 
of the stories to be found there is called 


It tells of a monk who went to the top of the church tower to 
pray. In the midst of his fervent devotions he was blessed with 
a vision of the Savior. As he was gazing in adoration on the 
heavenly personage, the poor and the sick people began to knock 
and call down at the convent gate for the monk to come and min- 
ister to their needs. 

He hesitated a moment, undecided whether to go and do his 
daily work, or remain and worship his Lord. But his sense of 
duty made him forego the blessed privilege, and he rose and went 
to help the needy. When he returned, the Savior, still there 
awaiting his return, said to him, "Hadst thou staved I must have 

The poet reinforced the lesson of the legend by adding these 
lines : 

"Do thy duty, that is best, 
Leave unto the Lord the rest." 

Out of these old time tales comes many a beautiful truth. They 
are often charming in their interest. The best of them should 
find place in our lives. 


1. Explain how the old time tales have been produced and 
brought down to us. 

2. Name six different kinds of folk tales. 

3. Read in some primary book used by school children, a 
nursery tale, a fairy tale, and a fable. 


4. Be ready to tell some parable from the Bible. 

5. Find, if you can, the myth of Persephone the Goddess 
of spring', and show how it reflects nature. 

6. In Baldwin's ''Fifty Famous Stones" are some charming 
legends. Read from it the tale of "Androches and the Lion," 
or "Damocles and His Sword," "The Bell of Atri," and be ready 
to tell one of them. 


Home Economics 

Fourth Week in June. 

One of the most important factors in digestion is the condi- 
tion of the nervous system. Change of scene, open-air life, drop- 
ping the little frets and worries, taking time to look over the day's 
work before plunging into it, remembering that nothing matters 
greatly after all, making time for recreation and during that time 
letting go of work, working steadily but avoiding hurry, and 
finally sleeping enough, are all aids in keeping the nerves toned. 
The acme of good digestion is to provide plain, well-cooked, pal- 
atable fare, eat with appetite born of fresh air and exercise, and 
forget that there are such things as organs of digestion. With 
the very young the main idea is to start good eating habits to 
such an extent that they will become fixed. Your April lesson 
shows plainly how to form these habits and will have additional 
force if the book by Dr. Mary L. Rose of Clumbia, entitled "Feed- 
ing the Family" is used; (publishers, Macmillan Company, Chi- 
cago, $2 by mail ; order from Sunday School Book Store, or Des- 
eret News Book Store ). In this book diets according to age and 
occupation are worked out in such manner as to be of practical 
use to every mother. Another source of information is the recent 
bulletin No. 808 put out by the Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. This is the first of a series giving suggestions on 
how to select foods so as to obtain the most nutrition for the 
money expended. 

Elimination plays an important part in nutrition. Foods 
have certain waste matters such as seed coats of receals. and there 
are certain products of digestion that finally collect in the large 
intestine. There is in the normal individual an automate call for 
the removal of these waste matters, which if not attended to re- 
sults in constipation. Young children should be taught to form 


regular habits and as they grow older should be constantly re- 
minded and educated by parents and warned of the dangers which 
result in neglecting this important duty. Waste matters in the 
intestine are attacked by bacteria and finally putrefy and cause a 
poisoning of the blood. Headache, heaviness, sallowness and 
lowered vitality constitute a condition open to taking cold and 
disease is the result. Tell your girls that no matter haw fair the 
exterior, neglect of this function makes the body like a town with 
a clogged sewer. I would add also that the inconvenience of the 
outdoor toilet and the uncleanly condition in which it is often 
kept, are sometimes factors in forming careless habits. Work 
then to obtain indoor conveniences as a matter of health and 

Dress and carriage influence digestion of food. A stooping 
position while eating is not good, while tight dress, impeding the 
circulation, is a serious factor. Insufficient clothing causing chill 
will impede digestion. 

Regularity of service of meals, especially in the case of chil- 
dren, is a necessity. The body is mechanical in action and too 
long a wait for a meal may result in their getting too hungry and 
overeating, and is productive of headache and nervousness. Plenty 
of time for the partaking of a meal should be allowed. It is good 
training for children to understand that they cannot leave the table 
until all are through. Time between school sessions should be of 
sufficient length to allow for an unhurried noon lunch. Educa- 
tion consists of something more than books, and the care of the 
body should be a big factor in that education. 

Mastication largely depends upon an absence of a rushed 
feeling and the formation of the deliberate eating habit. Parents 
are often to blame by saying at table "Now hurry, don't be all day 
eating." A difference should be made between a child playing 
with his food or starting to eat when everyone else is through, 
and the time required for thorough mastication of each mouthful. 
The old country custom of not allowing any child to leave the 
table until the meal was really through, seemed a hardship at 
times but had good results. Perhaps a better suggestion would 
be the plan adopted by a family who at the principal meal of the 
day made it a rule that each member of the family should con- 
tribute something of interest to the conversation, shop talk of 
course being prohibited. The hurried, silent "feeding time" 
Which our family meal too often suggests gave way to easy inter- 
change of thought, and made the meal a time of pleasure. 

Palatability of foods is another factor depending somewhat 
upon individual taste, preparation of food and service. There are 
children to whom some foods will always be distasteful and it is a 
foolish thing to try to force them to partake thereof. However, 


children are very imitative and tlie making of adverse remarks 
regarding the food does a great deal towards shaping a child's 
likes and dislikes. Often the dislike of greens, salads, and vege- 
tables begins with the feeling aroused by hearing father say "No. 
thanks, I don't care for any fodder. I'm a man, not stock." 
Again, some of the food points in child nutrition taught in this 
year's lessons will be entirely lost unless there is co-operation be- 
tween parents on this subject. Both must realize the importance 
of not only providing the right kind of food for growth, but also 
of avoiding such foods as will retard growth, and must get over 
the idea that to refuse what the child asks for is stingy or unkind. 
1 lemember well the case of a little girl who had her own way in 
regard to everything but the question of what she should eat. 
The wonder was that the extreme docility with which she accepted 
her parents' decisions in such matters did not give them the key 
to the best method of dealing with her in other things, namely, 
a firm, unchanging but kind refusal. 

The mental condition of the individual has much to do with 
case of digestion. The digestive juices are affected by worry, 
overwork, fear, anger, and similarly by joy, in the absence of 
undue excitement, happiness and a feeling of rest and good cheer 
ure serious factors to be considered. The meal time is no occa- 
sion for scolding, complaining or airing of troubles. 

But the crux of the whole matter, young mothers, lies in be- 
ginning as you mean to go on and that beginning must be made 
fiist with the father himself who may have been poorly trained 
in food habits. Do not say as so many young home-makers do, 
"It is no use cooking any green vegetables for I have to eat them 
olone. John does not like any vegetable but potatoes." Just go 
right on preparing all vegetables in various palatable ways and 
he will join you by and by, and even if he doesn't you will insure 
their presence at your table when your first child is ready to eat 
with you. A little thought in these matters when starting a new 
home avoids trouble in the future. 


1. Give suggestions of methods for insuring good habits in 
elimination in children from one year up to school age. 

2. Discuss how this may be controlled in children of school 

3. Discuss the possibility of arranging farm work so as to 
alow of better meals in relation to time and regularity. 

4. Name some foods that your children will not eat. Dis- 
cuss different ways in which they may be prepared or methods 
used to induce them to trv same. 


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"Civilization begins and ends with the plow." — Roberts. 

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Firm in the conviction that a favorable home life is the 
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The College offers work in all the branches of Home 

Further information furnished on request. 

Address: The President, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 


Garment Wearer's Attention 

A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 
all L. D. S. "Temple Brand" garments. Be sure it i6 in those you buy. If your 
leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, select your wants from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

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Have You Read The Women of The Bible, V^done If not, Why not? 

The book will help you in your 1 heology Lessons, it will give you 
a greater insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also 
make you glad that you are a woman and a sister to these good and 
glorious women who lived and loved and suffered even as we do today. 
Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. 

PRICE, 75c 

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The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JUNE, 1017. 

The Star-Spangled Banner f 301 

A Widowed Mother to her Son Alfred Lamhourne 303 

Another Widowed. Mother 304 

General Conference of the Relief Society 

Amy Brown Lyman 305 

The Disease Germ in Utah 331 

June Entertainments Morag 333 

Pin Money Suggestions Morag 335 

Evolution of the American Elag A..B. L. 337 

Common Sense 339 

1 lome Science Department Janette A. Hyde 340 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 347 

Editorials Our Conference 349 

Guide Lessons 351 


Patronize those who advertise with us, 

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MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
RELIEF SOCIETY BURIAL CLOTHES, Beehive House, Salt Lake City. 
GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, 60 East South Temple. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
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THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
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"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
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Your Son 

What does the future hold 
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The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
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O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, 

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, 

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight, 
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? 

And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, 

Gave proof, through the night, that our flag was still there. 


O say, does that Star-spangled Banner yet wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? 

.On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, 

Where the foe's haughty host in .dread silence reposes, 
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, 

As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now discloses? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam. 
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream ; 


Tis the Star-spangled Banner ; O long may it wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave ! 

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore 
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion 

A home and a country should leave us no more? 

Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution. 

No refuge could save the hireling and slave 

From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave ; 


And the Star-spangled Banner in triumph doth wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand 

Between their loved homes and the war's desolation ! 

Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land 
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation ! 

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just ; 

And this be our motto : "In God is our trust !" 


And the Star-spangled Banner in triumph shall wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

Francis Scott Key. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. 

JUNE, 1917. 

No. 6 

A Widow Mother to Her Son 

When He Told Her He Would Enlist 
(A True Incident) 

My son, O listen to these words I speak — 
Nor shame is mine that tears bedew my cheek — 
Tho' deep the anguish in thy mother's heart, 
She knows that duty bids us now to part. 

Ah! fathomless that love a mother feels, 
Divine, unselfish, soul to soul it seals; 
My son, thou art my One, thou art my All, 
Yet through my love I hear our country call. 

A prayer for thee shall be my every breath — 
spare my son, and give him not to death — 
Yet must thou die that man be not a slave, 
Still go, be true, ami fill a hero's grave! 

Alfred Lambournc. 

Another Widowed Mother. 

(Note) The exquisitely beautiful poem which opens this Mag- 

iicine was already in the hands of the printers, when the following 

letter was received by Prof. Richard R. Lyman, husband of Amy 

Brown Lyman, written by one of our faithful Relief Society presidents 

Mrs. Mary M. Lyman, of Deseret Stake. 

While in attendance at the recent Relief Society conference, she 
stated that she felt that she would be unpatriotic if she refused to 
allow her sons to enlist in the army, adding. "If my country needfl 
my sons, it will have them, and it will yet them as volunteers." 

The son referred to in the letter, a bright and vigorous boy of 19, 
is now at Fori Scott in San Francisco, in the COUntr/s service. 


Delta, Utah, April 14, 1917. 
My Darling Loved Richard, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

My boasted patriotism is now put to the severest test. 1 
have been weighed in the balance, but not found wanting, although 
the tears will come and the pain in my heart is all that I can bear 

Rich has enlisted and will start for Salt Lake at 11:19 
Sunday night. But through all the smart and tears T thank the 
Lord I have not raised a coward. 

You told me once what an ordeal it was to you when Jean 
Driggs requested you to arrange his affairs before going to the 
Rorder. You can imagine the feelings of a poor widowed mother 
going through the same ordeal. 

Love to Amy and the children. 

Richard, pray for your sorrow-burdened aunt, 

Mary M. Lyman. 

General Conference of the Relief 

Amy Brown Lyman 

The Annual Conference of the Relief Society was held in 
Salt Lake City, Wednesday and Thursday, April 4 and 5, 1917. 
Two public sessions were held, Wednesday, April 4, in the Salt 
Lake Assembly Hall, and two sessions for stake officers were held 
Thursday, April 5, in the Assembly Hall of the Bishop's building. 

The Home Economics Department held two demonstrations 
during the conference at which gas and electric stoves with fireless 
ovens were demonstrated. This department also held a special 
meeting in the interest of pure milk, with Prof. Fred W. Merrill, 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota, as the speaker. 

A special meeting was held for secretaries and treasurers 
during the noon recess, on April 5, at which time methods for 
compiling reports, were discussed. 

A genealogical meeting was held Saturday, at the Salt Lake 
Assembly Hall at 4:30 p. m. This meeting was held in connec- 
tion with and under the direction of the Genealogical Society of 

On Thursday evening a brilliant reception was held at the 
home of Counselor Julina L. Smith — Bee-hive House — at which 
the members of the General Board of the Relief Society were 
hostesses to the General Boards of the Y. L. M. I. A. and Pri- 
mary Associations and the official representatives of the Relief 
Society ; 350 women called during the hours from eight to 

Thursday noon, luncheon was served to the 390 stake officers 
who were in attendance at the officers' meeting. 

The attendance at the conference was larger than ever be- 
fore. At the morning session of the public meeting 1,545 were 
in attendance, and at the afternoon meeting the number was 
swelled to 1,946. 

At the two officers' meetings which were limited to stake 
officers there were present 390. 

The representation at the officers' meetings was as follows : 

General Board members, 19 ; stake representatives, 58 — 42 
by stake presidents and 16 by other officers; missions represented, 
1. Total number of officers present, 390. 

The mission represented was the Western States, by the 
President, Mrs. Jane W. Herrick. 



The attendance of stake presidents was larger than ever 
before in the history of the Relief Society, the number, 42. being 
the largest so far recorded. There were 51 stake counselors pres- 
ent., 12 -take- secretaries, and 5 stake treasurers. 

There was a large attendance of stake hoard members, in 
s »me of the near-by stakes the per cent of attendance being 100. 

The Relief Society choir, under the able direction of Mrs. 
Lizzie Thomas Edward, furnished the singing for the general ses- 
sion of the conference, and our General Organist, Miss Edna 
Coray, furnished artistic accompaniments and voluntaries. Two 
special numbers were given, one by the male quartette— Samuel 
1). Winters. Charles Parsons, Verne Arnold and Frank Parsons — 
and the other, a tenor solo, by Dr. W. R. Worley. 

At the officers - meetings, Mrs. Edward led in congregational 

President Emmeline B. Wells presided at the meetings of 
the conference In her opening address, she extended cordial greet- 


ings to the large assemblage. She expressed her appreciation to 
her heavenly Father that her life had been spared and that she 
was permitted to enjoy another General Conference of the Relief 
Society. Referring to the national crisis. President Wells said 
that perilous tiiue^ have come among us, probably sooner than 
most of us imagined they would. Our hearts are filled with grief 
and. sorrow over the loss of life incident to the great world war. 
and our sympathy and love go out to those who are so sorely af- 


flicted and bereft. The prophecies are being fulfilled which de- 
clare that it will hardly be possible to endure the things that arc 
to come in the last days, that the hearts of men will tremble with 
fear and that men and women will come to Zion to be fed. 
Mrs. Wells urged her hearers to prepare themselves for the tests 
that are to come, by being frugal and saving, prayerful and faith- 
ful, and by cultivating a spirit of love and charity for all man- 
kind. She emphasized the importance of conservation of all re- 
sources and the need of being provident not only in the matter of 

Taken at celebration, March 17th. 

storing grain, but all other food supplies as well. Mrs. Wells 
spoke of the early days of the Church, at Nauvoo, and of her own 
testimony that the Prophet Joseph Smith had been sent to build 
up a Church that would endure till the coming of Christ. She 
closed by asking God's blessings on our country and all her peo- 
ple. She prayed especially for the youth of Zion, that they might 
turn to God for guidance and protection that their hearts might 
be stimulated with the desire to do deeds of valor and honor, of 
kindness and of charity and love. 

Mrs. Aggie Herrick Stevens, President of the Weber stake 
Relief Society, in a response to the welcome extended by President 
Wells, spoke with appreciation of the work of the General Board. 
She stated that the great body of workers in the Relief Society 



look to the General Board for spiritual refreshment and practical 
instruction as the weary traveler in the desert looks to the oasis. 
She felt that the General Board is composed of women of faith, 
charitv. efficiency and refinement, and that they are instrumental 
in aiding the Relief Society women to become better home man- 
agers, better mothers, and more loyal wives. She spoke very 
feelingly of her love, and of the love of every member of our 
great Society, for our beloved president, whom she characterized 
as a woman of gifts and graces and of the highest spiritual nature 
and moral strength. Mrs. Stevens referred to the Relief Society 


Magazine as a messenger of light, which is filled with in- 
spiration and instruction, and goes over land and over sea, bear- 
ing tidings of joy and love to the remotest branches of the Society 
and uniting them all in a strong bond of common interest. Mrs. 
Stevens reviewed the work of the organization along lines of 
theology, genealogy, literature and home economics, and said 
that it is only after severe mental discipline, study and prayer 
that we can obtain success along these lines. 

She spoke of the beautiful charity work of the organization, 
stating that other things are more important than ourselves, and 
if we forget ourselves in service to others our lives will be en- 
riched beyond measure. The three laws of Christ are, love, ser- 
vice, and sacrifice, and our observance of these laws will bring 
rich reward and supreme happiness. 

Mrs. Jane W. Herrick, president of the Relief Society in the 


Western States Mission, reported the work in her field of labor. 
She expressed her delight in looking into the honest faces before 
her — faces of women who are looking to another life, and con- 
trasted them with the vain masses of women who are wasting 
their efforts in fighting for lost youth. Mrs. Herrick spoke of 
the co-operation of the Denver Society with the charity organiza- 
tions of that city. The twenty-one charity societies there are ac- 
complishing a wonderful work, and not a little assistance has been 
given by the local "Mormon" women. She contrasted the sal- 
aried charity workers of other organizations with the unpaid Re- 
lief Society workers, and explained a few details of the work. 
The Denver branch recently raised $84.18 for their own purposes 

Twins born several weeks after the father had fallen in the battlefield. 

The mother is Mrs. Elizabeth Hofer, president of the 

Relief Society, Frankfurt, Germany. 

and collected $400.00 for the United Charity Organization of 
Denver. One year ago there was not a Relief Society in the 
whole Western States Mission, two having been disorganized sev- 
eral years ago. At the present time there are five societies with 
two more ready for organization. The branches are located in 
Denver, Alamosa, Omaha, Trinidad and Pueblo. The total mem- 
bership in the mission is 127. They report 100 per cent subscrip- 
tion to the Magazine, and 100 per cent membership dues. 

Glimpses of Relief Society mission work abroad were vividly 
pictured by Mrs. Rose B. Valentine — until recently president of 
the Swiss-German Mission. With her husband, Mrs. Valentine 
entered this mission in 1911. She found that during the last 
twenty-five years there have been sporadic Relief Society organ- 
izations at various places. In 1911 there were only two in actual 
operation — those in Zurich and Konigsberg. At present there are 



seventeen branches, all of them doing regular work at the 
outbreak of the war. Mrs. Valentine held the deepest interest of 
her audience a^ she related pathetic incidents of the war. and she 
stated that while the routine work of the mission had been inter- 
fered with, the hearts of the masses are being turned from the 
passing tilings of the world to the higher spiritual truths. Four 
hundred members of the Church, Mrs. Valentine stated, had gone 
to the war, and their places had heen taken bravely by the women 
left behind. These soldiers had taken with them to the trenches 

their missionary work, and 
the mission paper forwarded 
them by those at home free of 
charge had heen read to com- 
rades on the battle-field. She 
described one church service 
on the battle-field, conducted 
by a member of the Church in 
a little chapel in a forest when 
his audience, the soldiers at 
the front, listened with in- 
tense interest to the young 
"Mormon." I 'leas for mis- 
si inafies had been received 
from Russia, and Mrs. Valen- 
tine entertained the hope that 
the present freeing of the 
200.000,000 people there 
might mean the opening of 
the country for the gospel. 
The speaker explained the 
outline work taken up by the 
societies and the deep interest 
of the Swiss and German 
women in their study. She 
told <if the humble beginnings of the charity work of these women, 
of their small contributions of 8 cents and 10 cents a month, of 
their great joy on receiving from Utah $20 for each Society for 
relief work. These women are not only carrying on their usual 
duties in their homes and for the Church, but are working eve- 
nings patching and knitting for the aid of those more needy than 
themselves. The speaker closed by making a strong plea for 
economy as practiced throughout Europe. She deprecated 
American waste and extravagance, and declared it to be a re- 
proach on the people of the whole country. 

Mrs. Rebecca N. Nibley, of the General Board, spoke on the 
importance of testimony bearing, and of our regular testimony 

Three Women from Budapest; the 
only Members <>f the Church there. 


meetings ; of the strength that comes to those who, having been 
helped and sustained through sore trials, sickness and death, are 
ready and willing to testify of God's blessings and mercies to 
them. Such testimony gives encouragement and hope to others, 
and spiritual development and growth to those who glorify God 
by testifying of his goodness to them. 

Intellectual and spiritual adjustment was the subject spoken 
upon by Mrs. Ida Smoot Dusenberry. Mrs. Dusenberry said that 
many vital things are overlooked and unappreciated in our scheme 
of education — that the real experiences of life are more valuable 

educationally than mere men- 
tal application, and those who 
have passed through rich ex- 
periences and have made these 
experiences a part of their de- 
velopment are the truly edu- 
cated. Jesus said : "Love one 
another," "Judge not that ye 
be not judged," "Forgive that 
ye may be forgiven." These 
are simple teachings, yet they 
embody the noblest thought* 
of God. 

The humble beginning 
of the "great latter-day work 
by a young boy of 14, who 
had plenty to do but no 
chance for education, grows 
more astonishing as time goes 
on. It was his spiritual crav- 
ing that led to his spiritual 
enlightenment, and his faith 
in the passage : "If any of you 
lack wisdom, let him ask of 
God," which brought the rich 
The times are such now that we go to bed at night pray- 
ing to God and wake up to find in the morning some wonderful 
fulfilment of prophecy made by the boy the world thought so 
ignorant. Mrs. Dusenberry called attention to the great efforts 
of the 'Mormon" people along educational lines, with the early 
beginnings in Utah, when a schoolhouse was among the first build- 
ings erected in the territory. She felt that their struggle for edu- 
cation, together with their rich experiences in temporal and spir- 
iual things had developed them into a sane, a practical and a 
helpful people. There are. however, with us, as with all the 
world, some vital things which have been overlooked. The fact 
of the existence of cripples, blind people, imbeciles and prisons 

L. D. 


S. Church Headquarters 
Basel, Switzerland. 



containing people who have no purpose in life, prove that a sys- 
tematic effort should be made all over the world for enlighten- 
ment along these lines. The mothers who would bring into the 
world healthy and normal children must themselves have health 
and strength, and brain power, the latter of which comes through 
health and strength. 

We meet daily on the streets people with set faces, tense 
bodies, and strained eyes, who are living on a nervous strain, burn- 
ing the candle at both ends — .people who are being undermined 
with the poison of fatigue. 

Mrs. Dusenberry urged the women to take care of their 
health — for it is the nervous, tired women who become the moth- 
ers of deficient children, imbeciles and feeble-minded. The indus- 
trial world is studying this problem today. It proclaims that 
fatigue and nervous exhaustion are the root of ill-health and are 
responsible for the tragic disease of helplessness. 

Mrs. Dusenberry also made a plea for more sensible dress 
among women and girls, and heavily scored the free lorn of the 
movies in picturing stories that would have no place in the or- 
dinary home. She declared there should be a state censorship 
over moving pictures. Some 50.000,000 adolescent boys over the 
country arc in daily attendance at the film theatres, and the dol- 
lars spent at such shows if placed side by side would stretch 
around the world, she said. All the school children of the United 
States going to the film theatres daily, if marching in single file, 
would take nineteen days to pass a given point. The picture-show 
has come to stay, she maintained, and it can be made a factor in 
education — a factor for good if it can be properly controlled. 

At the Wednesday afternoon meeting remarks were made by 
Miss Lillian Cameron, and addresses were given by Counselors 
Clarissa S. Williams, Julina L. Smith, by President Joseph F. 
Smith and Bishop Charles W. Nibley. 

Miss Cameron was introduced as the newest member of the 
General Board of the Relief Society, her appointment to this po- 
sition having been made since the last regular conference. Miss 
Cameron expressed herself as feeling highly honored in being 
chosen to serve on the Board and asked for the sympathy and 
support of the members in her behalf. She spoke especially on 
the charity work of the organization, stating that all men and 
women need help and support, and that we should seek to cover 
up the faults and failings of each other rather than to expose them. 

Counselor Clarissa S. Williams expressed her appreciation 
for the splendid addresses that had been given during the sessions 
of the conference. She stated that it i^ a wondrous mission to 
save -"ids and that a mother should begin at her own fireside by 
setting an example to her own children and to the neighborhood. 

The mission of the Relief Socictv woman is so broad and so 


elastic that it embraces every good thing in the world, and rich 
rewards are in store for those faithful ones who have lived lives 
of devotion to this cause. More than often the woman who has 
given the greatest service is the woman with the largest family, 
and because she does one line of work well she is the better pre- 
pared to accomplish other labors. 

Mrs. Williams stated that the Relief Society is always ready 
to take up new thoughts and new work and that in connection 
with the other auxiliary organizations, we are now called upon 
to work for improvement in dress and social work. She urged 
that all Relief Society women stand as a unit in carrying out the 
instructions of the First Presidency in this matter, and in follow- 
ing closely the recommendations which have been sent out to the 
various stakes and wards. The general and stake officers have 
pledged themeslves to show by their own example their sincerity 
in this matter, and to use their efforts toward the accomplish- 
ment of the purposes of this special mission. The speaker held 
that the love of dress is an inherent quality in women and it is 
right that they should love beautiful things provided they are 
modest and not extravagant, but she felt that the women of Amer- 
ica are going dress and fashion crazy. She urged the mothers 
to teach modesty and the sacredness of the human body to their 
children, and stated that mothers themselves are often to blame 
for the immodest dress of their daughters. 

In the old days Brigham Young called upon the women of 
the Church to retrench and reform in the matter of dress, and if 
the people had in all these years lived up to this teaching there 
would be no need now for President Smith to make this special 
^all on the women of today. 

Mrs. Williams said that no other thing that we have compares 
with the sacred heritage of children, and that parents should set 
the right example, should be companions to their boys and girls, if 
they would have proper influence with them. She asked God's 
blessings on the mothers in Israel, that they may have faith, cour- 
age and enlightenment and that they may be inspired to carry on 
the work they are from time to time called upon to do. 

Counselor Julina L. Smith spoke of the work of the old 
Retrenchment Society, in the days of Brigham Young, of the suc- 
cess of that organization along the lines of improvement in dress. 
She denounced vigorously the prevailing immodesty in dress, 
and asked the mothers to carry out the instructions of the First 
Presidency by working unitedly for reform and improvement. 
Mrs. Smith also condemned race suicide — speaking of it as one 
of the great curses of the age. She stated that if girls do not de- 
sire to take up the burden of motherhood they should not marry. 
The lack of wealth is no excuse for limiting the family. She de- 
clared that if the women of the Church desire to endure faithful 


to the end they must live up to their knowledge of the things 
of God. She said we have received the word of the Lord from the 
head of the Church, and there is only one man on earth at a 
time qualified to give that authoritative word; women need not 
run to any man or listen to old woman's dreams and revela- 
tions, for the word of the Lord comes only through His author- 
ized servant. 

President Joseph F. Smith then addressed the congregation 
a- follows : 


I would very much prefer to listen to some of the good sisters 
talk to the sisters, and I hardly know what the spirit of the 
meeting calls for, or what necessities there are for me to say any- 
thing. I am very grateful for the privilege of being here with 
you. I think it is a great privilege for me to live in these last days, 
and 1 exceedingly enjoy the multiplicity of blessings that the Lord 
has mercifully bestowed upon me and mine throughout all my 
life. And vet T cannot say, nor boast, that the experiences of my 
life have all been just what 1 would have liked them to be: and I 
have been required, a portion of my time at least, to pass through 
some of the "narrows" incident to the early settlement in the 
valleys of the Great Salt Lake. I had the experience in my youth 
of traversing the plains. I had an experience as a herd boy and as 
a farmer, a sheep man and a stock grower, on a small scale. We 
in ver entered into these matters of business extensively, but to a 
degree necessary to keep the wolf from the door, and to provide 
for tlu' necessities of a considerable family. 1 have bad experience 
in all of these things, which 1 appreciate more than T can tell. 
Jn my travels in later years I have seen conditions wlrch existe 1 
among our communities that needed correction and advice; and 
through the experiences that 1 had gained in early life T was 
enabled to give advice an 1 counsel many times to our people that 
I think was beneficial to them. 1 remember on one occasion \ 
visited one of our new settlements in the northern part of our 
country, where the valley was high and the warm season of the 
year was extremely short, and all the heat and moisture that could 
be had was necessary to produce crops. T witnessed the fact that 
the whole valley was extremely well watered. This was in the 
month of August. T believe, and 1 observed that the water in large 
streams was running through the farms, and the grain was look- 
ing green and beautiful. 1 spoke at the conference meeting that 
convened, and took the liberty to advise the good people of that 
valley to turn the water from their crops and give them a chance 
in dry out a little and to ripen, to gather a little warmth. That 
was quite a number of years a go. The Bishop, who was a much 


older man than I was, announced after my advice, that "Brother 
Joseph might know something about preaching the gospel, but he 
did not know very much about farming." I stayed with a kins- 
man of mine that evening, and I advised him to go at once and 
turn the water away from his crops. I said if that is not done they 
will be green when the frost comes and you will lose your grain. 
He accepted my counsel, and did as I said, and he was about the 
only man in the settlement'that had ripened grain that fall, or that 
harvested good crops at least. So, I gained that experience 
in my youth. It is a good thing today. But what has that to do 
with the sisters? Why, bless your soul, I have taken a great deal 
of pleasure in reading the report of the Relief Society's collection 
of grain, the storing of grain throughout the country, amounting 
to millions of pounds, and to hundreds and thousands of bushels 
of grain. Now frost is still in the ground this the fourth day 
of April, and in some parts of our country there is a foot of snow 
yet lying all over the farms. How long it may take the sun to 
melt this snow and put the ground in condition to be cultivated 
1 do not know ; but it is possible that we will have an early 
fall after a very short season this year, and if our grain crop is 
extremely light it may be that the sisters will not be able to lay 
up as much grain as they would like to. And I want to say to you 
that we approve very heartily the idea of having a little breadstuff 
on hand which, if we do not need ourselves, we can impart to 
those who do need or will need it in the future. It may be very 
highly necessary for us to help our neighbors to live, and I think 
W£ ought to be careful, industrious, frugal and saving with the 
materials that the Lord has so bountifully blessed us with hitherto, 
?nd we sincerely hope that we will be worthy of his continued 

Now, my sisters, as I have expressed my feelings many 
times, I will again say that I think the Relief Society organization 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is one of the 
most important and necessary and blessed organizations that has 
been devised since the organization of the Church itself. It is 
a helpful organization, not only in those things that help to make 
up the material life, but essential in those things which are of 
more importance really to the immortal soul than those things 
which perish and which are confined solely to the necessities of 
mortal life. I believe that the authority and the influence of this 
organization should be exerted in behalf of the spiritual welfare 
and upbuilding of the daughters of Zion and of your sisters 
throughout all the world, so far as your influence can possibly 
extend. I think that no women in all the world should be better 
qualified to live aright than the women who have membership in 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and who have 
the privilege of being associated with this Woman's Relief Society. 


I think that the best mothers in the world should be found, and 
d nsistently found, among- the Latter-day Saints. I believe the 
best wives in all the world are found among the Latter-day Saints 
I do not know of any other women in the worl 1 that have the 
same conception of wifehood and motherhood that the Latter- 
t'ay Saints possess. Our associations are not exclusively in- 
tended for this life, for time, as we distinguish it from eternity. 
We live for time and for eternity. We" form associations and re 
lations for time and all eternity. Our affections and our desires 
are found fitted and prepared to endure not only throughout the 
temporal or, mortal life, but through all eternity. Women in 
the world do not contemplate such a tiling as this; they do not 
believe in it. They long for it, no doubt; they hope that such 
things do or may exist. But who, aside from the Latter-day 
Saints, have an established religion revealed from God which is 
i 'tended to so fix these principles in the minds and in the hearts of 
ihc sons and daughters of ( rod in a manner that will help them to 
shape their lives now so that they will be prepared to continue the 
ties they form here in the eternities that are to come ? I do not be- 
lieve that a woman or man who has not the same conception that 
we have with reference to the object of life and with reference to 
the future of our lives, can possibly value life as we do. I do not 
think any one other than those who possess the faith and the 
doctrines that we do can entertain the same affection for one 
.■mother that we do. or that will strive so diligently and so earnestl) 
to make things pleasant for ourselves and for those who are 
; ssociated with us in life, wih a view that we may continue our 
desirable relations together in t : me and in all eternity. Who are 
there besides the Latter-day Saints who contemplate the thought 
that beyond the grave we will continue in the family organization ? 
the father, the mother, the children recognizing each other in 
the relations which they owe to each other and in which they stand 
to each other? this family organization being a unit in the great 
and perfect organization of God's work, and all destined to con- 
tinue throughout time and eternity? 

My sisters, we have something to hope for, something to 
live for, something to awaken our desire for that which is better 
and nobler and more exalting. We are living for eternity and not 
merely for the moment. Death does not part us from one another. 
if we have entered into sacred relationships with each other by 
virtue of the authority that God has revealed to the children 
of men. Our relationships are formed for eternity. We are 
immortal beings, and we are looking forward to the growth 
that is to be attained in an exalted life after we have proved 
ourselves faithful and true to the covenants that we have entered 
into here, and then we will receive a fulness of joV. I most 
sincerely hope that the mothers of Israel will guard very zealously 


and very carefully the lives of their daughters and of their sons. 
1 would if I had it in my power make it possible for all mothers 
to have the joy and the unspeakable satisfaction of rearing their 
sons and their daughters above the reproach of men and above 
the power of sin. I would that all Latter-day Saints could live 
so that their example would be so potent in the lives of their 
families that forever after their children would rise up and call 
them blessed, and thank God for their relationship to their 
parents, and honor their parents for their worthy example and 
for the lives that they gave them, and for the virtues and purity 
of life that were inculcated in their being. I would like to see 
our young people honor the aged. I would like to see children 
honor their parents and respect and love them, and be obedient 
to their counsel. Who can counsel a child with greater solicitude 
for the benefit and wellbeing and happiness of that child better 
than can the father and the mother? No one. No one can love 
our children just as we love them, if we are possessed of our 
talents, if we understand our destiny aright and the calling to 
which we are called as we should understand it. No one can 
understand our children better than we. No one can have 
greater solicitude for their happiness than we have. And so the 
children ought to honor their parents and hearken to their counsel. 
And a man and woman who have embraced the gospel of Jesus 
Christ and w ho have begun life together, should be able by their 
power, example and influence to cause their children to emulate 
them in lives of virtue, honor and in integrity to the kingdom 
of God which will redound to their own interest and salvation. 
No one can advise my children with greater earnestness and solici- 
tude for their happiness and salvation than I can do myself. 
Nobody has more interest in the welfare of my own children than 
I have. I cannot be satisfied without them. They are part of me. 
They are mine ; God has given them to me, and I want them to 
live, and I want them to be honorable. I want them to be humble 
and submissive to the requirements of the gospel. I want them 
to do right, and to be right in every particular so that they will 
be worthy of the distinction that the Lord has given them in 
being numbered among his covenant people who are choice above 
all other people, because they have made sacrifice for their own 
salvation in the truth. 

Speaking of the fashions of the world, I do not care to say 
very much on the subject, but I do think that we live in an age 
the very trend of which is to vice and wickedness. I believe that 
to a very large extent the fashion? of the day, and especially 
the fashions of women, have a tendency to evil and not to virtue 
or modesty, and I deplore that evident fact, for you see it on every 
hand. I deplore the fact that our young women as well as some 
of our young men — and I don't know whether I would be justi- 


Red in making any distinction between the young men and the 
young women wih reference to this matter are loath to enter 
into the relationships of husband and wife until they get to be a 

great deal older than I was when 1 began life in that way. and 
considerably older than my wives were when they entered into 
that relationship with me. Young men want to get homes that 
are palatial, that are as fine in all their appointments and as 
modern as anybody else's hefore they will pet married. T think 
it is a mistake. I think that young men and young women, too, 
should he willing, even at this day and in the present condition 
< f things, to enter the sacred bonds of marriage together and 
fight their way together to success, meet their obstacles and their 
difficulties, and cleave together and co-operate in their temporal 
affairs, so that they shall succeed. Then they will learn to love 
one another better, and will be more united throughout their 
lives, and the Lord will bless them more abundantly. I regret, I 
think it is a crying evil, that there should exist a sentiment 
or a feeling among any members of the Church to curtail the 
birth of their children. T think that is a crime wherever it occurs, 
where husband and wife are in possession of health and vigor 
and are free from impurities that would be entailed upon their 
posterity. I believe that where people undertake to curtail or 
prevent the birth of their children that they are going to reap 
disappointment by and by. I have no hesitancy in saying that 
T believe this is one of the grea'test crimes of the world today, this 
evil practice. 

Xow, I would rather some of the sisters would talk about 
these things. They can do it better than I can, for they under- 
stand them quite as well as T do, although I am a man 
cf some little experience in family matters; the Lord has 
given me some forty-five children of my own, and I have had 
the pleasure and joy of rearing most of them to manhood and 
womanhood, and some of them are still growing in that direction. 
The mothers of my children who have been the most blessed 
with a multiplicity of children are the healthiest, strongest and 
most able bodied women that I know of. They have never .deteri- 
orated through the observance of the principles of life and of 
natural increase. Now I think I ought to let the sisters talk about 
these things to you, my sisters; but I am mighty thankful that 
the mothers of my children have borne me all the way from 
seven to eleven or twelve children apiece, and they are not sorry 
for it either. We have not had any too many; in fact, we had 
to take other people's children, because we did not feel that we 
had done our duty altogether, and we have raised other children 
besides our own. and adopted them, and have been for long years 
grandfathers and grandmothers, and great grandfathers and great 
grandmothers to their children. Rut T have no occasion to boast 


particularly of that. I am thankful for the blessings of life which 
we enjoy; and, sisters, let me say to you, that one of the great 
tlv'ngs that should be looked into carefully by all mothers to whom 
is entrusted the care and the rearing of their children, is. the 
great and glorious truth that the Lord Almighty is doing this 
work, and not man. God is at the helm. The Lord has laid the 
foundation of this work through the instrumentality of His ser- 
vants whom He has raised up for that purpose, and He has never 
submitted to the dictation of man since the first revelation to 
the Prophet Joseph Smith to this day. The Lord Almighty has 
never left the dictation of His work, nor the personal guidance 
and direction of His work, to any man that has ever stood at 
the head, or ever will stand at the head of this great work. I 
believe that those who have stood at the head of this work have 
invariably and without exception been guided in all their lives in 
relation to the advancement of the cause of Zion, by the power 
of God in them and not by their own wisdom and strength. If we 
could teach our children this ; if we could get this principle em- 
bodied in their hearts, it would be well. All our children ought to 
know that it is the Lord's work, that it is not Joseph F. Smith's, 
it is not President Anthon H. Lund's, nor President Charles W. 
Penrose's ; it is not the work of John Taylor, nor Wilford Wood- 
ruff, nor Lorenzo Snow, nor Brigham Young, nor Joseph Smith 
the Prophet. We honor these men in the positions that they 
have occupied ; we love them for their integrity and their stability 
in their calling and their faitfulness. We love them for it, and 
we will always hold them in veneration for the faithfulness and 
trust that were imposed in them. But when we take into considera- 
tion the cause of the work, the purposes of the work, its pro- 
gress, its increase in the midst of the earth against all the opposi- 
tions that have been arrayed against it in the world, we must 
consider that the work is God's and not man's. If we could 
only get that into our hearts and into the hearts of our children, 
they would not be easily led into by-paths, they would not easily 
be deceived, they would not easily turn away from the right 
path, because they would realize that they would be turning 
away from God, not from President Smith or President Young. 
Some men have apostatized because they got into a little dif- 
ference with President Young, or with President Taylor, or per- 
haps with President Smith or whoever it may have been as the 
head of the Church, or perhaps the Bishop. Some people I have 
known, have denied the faith, and have gone away from the gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ because they got angry at the Bishop, or 
thought the Bishop was not doing his duty. What foolishness! 
Can you conceive of anything more nonsensical than that -a man 
or a woman whose salvation depends upon his or her own fidelity 
in the cause of Zion turning away from his or her hopes of hap- 


piness because somelxxly cist- fails to do right, or they think 
somebody else fails to do the right thing. I never heard of any- 
thing more foolish in my life than that a man should be offended 
before God and should turn away from the love of God in whom 
there is no shadow of variableness nor turning, because he gets 
offended at some of his brethren. Now I have made up my 
mind long years ago that it doesn't make any difference, or would 
not make any difference to me, who did right or who did wrong 
in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. That is not 
my business. My business is to see to it that 1 do right, that I 
maintain my standing in t lie Church, that I am devoted to prin- 
ciple myself, and I have no determination, nor wish, nor thought, 
that is not and may not be seconded by the blessing of the Lord. 
T know that I could not do anything without His blessing, without 
His favor, wihout His mercy. I do not expect to be able to 
stand, any more than I have ever been able to stand, in the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints without the help of the 
Lord, and I do not like to see men nor women get so strong 
within themselves that they think that they could stand by them- 
selves and of themselves. They cannot do it. We must have the 
Spirit of the Lord with us, mothers and sisters, in order that we 
may be enabled to endure the temptation and trials and anxieties 
of life and stand the test to the end. 

\<>w T am infringing upon your time. I am pleased to see 
so many of us here. 1 certainly feel that my whole soul goes out 
in love, in appreciation and blessing to the mothers in Israel, those 
who are associated with this glorious, great organization, the 
Womens' Relief Society. T feel in my heart to bless you, mothers 
and sisters, with all my heart and with all the power and right 
that I possess in the priesthood which is after the order of the 
Son of I rod. I hold the power and the right to pronounce patri- 
iarchal blessings. I have the right and the authority in the priest- 
hood to bless Israel, and to bless those who are faithful, espe 
daily ; and T feel in my heart to say T bless you. May God bless 
you, which is greater than all. But if I bless you in the spirit 
of righteousness and in the Spirit of God and in the true love 
of the gospel of Jesus Christ, and of the doctrines of Zion, Go I 
will bless you, too, for He will recognize and acknowledge the 
blessing that is pronounced by His faithful servants when those 
blessings are given in the spirit of the gospel and in the love of 
the people of God. The Lord bless you. Here is our dear Aunt 
Fm, who has the honor to stand as the President of the board of 
directors of this great organization in Zion. The Lord has pre- 
served her life till she is past eighty-nine years, still possessing 
her faculties, her memory and her intellect, and a wonderful 
amount of physical energy for one of her extreme age. I am 
proud and thankful that the Lord is so merciful to her and to 


those who are associated with her in this great organization, and 
I pray that the same blessings may be extended unto all those 
who are called to presiding positions in the various organizations 
of the Relief Society throughout the Church in all lands, which 
may God grant, I humbly pray in the name of Jesus. Amen. 

At the close of the address of President Smith, Bishop 
Charles W. Nibley made the following remarks : 


I will detain you, my dear sisters, but a moment or two, as the 
time has already expired for closing your meeting. I endorse 
heartily the words that have been spoken by our President. They 
are the words of eternal life. They are given by the same spirit 
that the Savior enjoyed when Peter said, "Lord, if we turn from 
thee, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life." 
There is salvation in the counsel and advice of the servants of 
the Lord who give their best efforts, — the best efforts of their 
lives — to their labors in the ministry. 

I am proud of this organization. I speak of it wherever I 
go among strangers. It is my chief theme, I may say, in connec- 
tion with the gospel work. I refer to the wonderful service that 
these sisters, these organizations are giving to the Church, and the 
wonderful and magnificent examples that they are showing to 
the world. They are as a city set upon a hill, whose light cannot 
be hid. Men note it, marvel at it, and thoughtful men say at 
once, "Well, there is something wonderful in it!" 

As has been stated, we are living in the most wonderful age 
of all the history of this world. Things are transpiring, matters 
are coming to pass, not only with respect to this little handful of 
people, but with respect to the millions of people in the world. 
Events are transpiring, in such a way and in such rapid succession, 
that we see clearly that the Lord is cutting his great work short 
in righteousness. He will not do that which is unrighteous, but 
so far as He can cut it short in righteousness, that is, .do it in a 
righteous, just manner, He will do it. He said He would cut it 
short in righteousness. Now we see these things are coming to 
pass. You are custodians, in a way, of some of His purposes and 
a certain amount of His work. You have in charge, certainly, the 
greatest work given to any women in all the history of the world. 
I believe I am perfectly safe in saying that, to you is given the 
leadership among the women of all the world. Is not that worth 
something? "Though the great and the wise," as Brother Pen- 
rose's song has it. "all thy beauties despise, to the humble and 
pure thou art dear." The principles that you have are grand, 
the lives that you are permitted to lead, the blessings that you 


bestow, the helpfulness that you give, the service that you render 
to the Church and to the world are magnificent. Your work is 
Morions. I believe with all my heart and soul that it is approved 
of the Lord. I feel sure it is. That being so, the blessing of the 
Lord will follow you. The blessing of the President of the high 
priesthood of His Church is upon you and upon your work. Is 
not that a great and splendid thing in every way? I do not see 
how you could be more blessed. 

1 endorse most thoroughly the expression of President Smith 
in that the Lord can use me or you, every one of us, if we allow 
Him to do it. and if we will keep humble. lie cannot use the 
haughty. He cannot use the person who sets himself or herself 
up to be a great big something above everybody else ; but the 
bumble, the meek, the lowly of heart, the strong also, the resolute 
and determined — these He can use and He will make them the 
leading spirits in His Church. He is doing it, and has done it. 
The Lord is blessing you wonderfully. The work that you have 
done, the work that you are doing, I say again, is marvelous, it is 
grand. Continue in it. my dear sisters. Be faithful in it. Be de- 
voted to it. Persevere, have courage, fear not, and God will be 
with you. You will be blessed more abundantly than ever, and 
you will be set even upon a higher bill, so to speak, before all the 
world, and all the world will yet glorify the name of our God 
because of your good works. Amen. 

At the close of the afternoon session, Mrs. Susa Young 
Gates presented the following resolutions on Birth Control and 
moved their adoption. Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth seconded the 
motion, and it was enthusiastically carried by the vast assem- 
blage : 






APRILS. 1017, 


]Vhereas, Many of the men and women, clubs and papers 
r.f the United States arc uniting in an effort to violate the laws 
of God and nature by urging the use of the contraceptive devices 
to prevent child-bearing, thus giving greater license to abandoned 
men and women, while making of marriage a mockery in the sigh) 
of God, and 

JVhereas. This birth-prevention movement has become na- 
tion-wide with a "Birth Control League" which publishes a paper 


and which has affiliated with similar organizations in England, 
Holland, Germany, France, Spain, Belgium, Switzerland, Bo- 
hemia, Austria, Portugal, Brazil, Cuba, Sweden, Italy and Africa ; 
with United States branches in Ann Arbor, Michigan; Boston, 
Massachusetts; Cleveland, Ohio; Denver, Colorado; Detroit. 
Michigan ; Indianapolis, Indiana ; Los Angeles, California ; 
Minneapolis, Minnesota ; New York : The Birth Control League 
of New York ; The Committee of One Thousand ; The Mother's 
Birth Control League of Brownsville, Brooklyn ; The National 
Birth Control League ; The Woman's Committee of One Hun- 
dred ; Painesville, Ohio ; Paterson, New Jersey ; Pittsburg, Pen- 
nsylvania ; Portland, Oregon; Rochester, New York; St. Louis, 
Missouri ; St. Paul, Minnesota ; The Minnesota State Birth Con- 
trol League ; The Birth Control League of San Francisco ; The 
Seattle Birth Control League ; Spokane, Washington ; Washing- 
ton, D. C, The Birth Control League of Washington. 

Whereas, Clubs such as the New York City Club and similar 
clubs in other cities are actively engaged in petitioning legislatures 
to pass laws protecting these nefarious practices by demanding 
the repeal of anti-birth-control laws, supported in part by the 
medical and journalistic profession, and 

Whereas, We desire to manifest our faith in God's laws by 
a movement for better babies and as many of them as virtuous 
marriage, and the decrees of a just and merciful Father will per- 
mit the parents of this people to bear ; 

Therefore be it Resolved: That we call upon the Latter- 
ter-day Saint women everywhere to repel this pernicious doctrine 
both in private conversation, in public talks, in our own homes 
and families ; and to pass similar resolutions in all our stake and 
ward organizations, and then to live up to them. 

Resolved: That we sever all connections with any club, so- 
ciety, or associates who advocate and practice birth-control or race 
suicide. That we refuse to sustain papers, magazines, publishers 
and writers who teach this doctrine. 

Resolved: That we sustain by our voice and vote all laws 
and law-makers who advocate and maintain laws prohibiting 
every unnatural and immoral birth-control propaganda. And be it 

Resolved, in conclusion, that we invite the co-operation and 
support of the Priesthood quorums and auxiliary organizations 
of the Church in this effort to maintain our high and holy ideals 
and principles. 


Morning Session. — At the opening of the officers' meeting. 
Counselor Clarissa S. Williams explained that the two officers' 
meetings had been limited to stake officers because the room 


would not accommodate both stake and ward officers. She recom- 
mended that the stake officers pay the strictest attention to all mat- 
ters of business, taking notes of the imporant items in order 
that they might take hack to the societies the instructions that 
were given. 

After the roll call the annual financial and statistical general 
report of the Society was read by the General Secretary. Amy 
Brown Lyman, and was listened to with the closest attention by 
all officers present. The stake officers all being familiar with their 
( wn respective reports listened with the greatest of interest for 
the final totals of the general report. 

The report showed the Society to he growing in all depart- 
ments of its work. The balance net resources at the present time 
are $606,087.57. and the wheat on hand 215,393^ bushels— all 
property being held in the respective wards. The shrinkage and 
waste in wheat is less this year than any previous year, due to the 
fact that better wheat is being stored and better methods of stor- 
ing are being employed. Comment was made on the fact that 
wheat had reached a very high market price and satistaction was 
felt over the priceless value of grain so patiently stored by the 
Relief Society women. The report showed the present member- 
ship of the Society to be 43.894 and the number of branches. 
1.191. These figures include the various missions of the Church. 
The amount paid for charitable purposes for the vear 1916 was 

Mrs. Lyman praised the work of the stake secretaries in com- 
piling the stake reports, stating that their work had shown re- 
markable intelligence and ability on their part. The reports from 
the following stakes were pronounced perfect: Alpine. Black- 
foot. Boise. Box Elder. Cottonwood, No. Weber, Ogden. Salt 
Lake, Shelley. Snowflake, Young. Central States Mission, Euro- 
pean Mission. Hawaiian Mission and Southern States Mission. 
The following stakes had very slight errors: Bingham. Cache. 
Granite. Jordan. Liberty. Maricopa. Pioneer, St. Joseph, Sevier, 
So. Davis, So. Sanpete; Western States Mission, Eastern States 
Mission, California Mission. The following reports were pro- 
nounced as good reports: Alberta, Bear Lake. Deseret. Ensign. 
ITvrum, Malad, No. Davis, No. Sanpete, Oneida, Panguitch. Raft 
River, St. George, St. Johns, San Juan, San Luis, Tooele, Union, 

Mrs. Lyman reported the following changes in stake organ- 
izations : Bannock Stake. President Gwen H. Redford in place 
of Julia A. Pond, resigned. 

Bingham Stake, Mayme H. Laird. President, in place of 
Elvira C. Steele, resigned. 

Boise Stake, Laura J. Adamson, President, in place of Mary 
A. Rawson, resigned. 



Curlew Stake, Rebecca N. Cutler, President, in place of 
Mary E. Bennett, resigned. 

No. Weber Stake, Lucy A. Steers, President, in place of 
Georgina G. Marriott, resigned. 

Oneida Stake, Nellie P. Head, President, in place of Lousia 
B. Benson, resigned. 

Panguitch Stake. Sarah E. Cameron, President, in place of 
Hannah A. Crosby, resigned. 

Wasatch stake, Sophia G. Luke, President, in place of Jo- 
hannah Jensen, resigned. 

Woodruff Stake, Zina Taggart, President in place of Phoebe 
Brough, resigned. 

One new stake has been reported organized during the year— 
the Idaho stake, Sarah M. McClellan, president. 

Attention was called to the fact that there are now in the 
Society three Lamanite branches located as follows : Wolf Point, 
Northwestern States Mission, membership, 35; Catawba, South- 
ern States Mission, membership, 16: Papago Ward, Maricopa 
Stake, membership, 22. The women in these Societies are espe- 
cially interested in visiting and caring for the sick. Attention was 
also called to the report that a Relief Society has been organized 
in the Tahitian Mission, with a membership of 84. 

The remainder of the morning session was turned over to a 
dicussion of Relief Society problems. The discussion was led by 
Counselor Clarissa S. Williams and participated in by the whole 
body of officers. 

Afternoon Session. At the afternoon session remarks were 
made by Mrs. Susa Young Gates, Mrs. Lucy May Green, Mrs. 
Emily S. Richards and Mrs. Janette A. Hyde. 

Mrs. Gates gave a brief report of the Genealogical work and 
made some suggestions for the future. She felt gratified with 
the results of the Society in their work on living record sheets, 
index cards, and in the numerous excursions to the temple. The 
annual report shows that 26,201 days have been spent in temple 
work, an increase of 9,312 over the number of days reported for 
last year. Mrs. Gates regretted that it had been impossible to 
furnish the books that were suggested at the beginning of the 
year, and because of the great disappointment in this matter the 
Genealogical Society of Utah decided to compile a book on 
surnames for the use of all organizations interested in Genealogi- 
cal research. Material for this book is now ready for the printers, 
and the book will be out in time for our fall work. The speaker 
stated that all genealogical questions in the wards should be re- 
ferred to the stake president. 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards, who had just returned from an ex- 


ccutive session of the National Woman's Suffrage Association, 
where she went as a -delegate from the Utah Suffrage Association, 
reported that .preparedness was the watch ward throughout the 
women's organization of the East. This meeting which she had 
just attended was called to devise some plan of assistance to the 
Nation during the present war crisis. 

Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, president of the association, said 
it is not enough in the face of the present situation for women 
to make mere protestations of loyalty to the Government, but 
that they should devise some plan of assisting which would be 
definite in scope and practical in character and wh'ch the women 
should guarantee to perform. 

Practically the whole country was represented at that meet- 
ing, and the women assembled pledged themselves to wage a 
campaign for increasing the food supply by encouraging thrift 
and economy and by the elimination of waste. 

Mrs. Richards reported that one thousand women have en- 
rolled themselves in a national service school at Washington, D. C, 
for a course of five weeks' encampment, during which time they 
will live under military discipline and receive instructions from 
men — commissioned officers of the Army and Navy. The uni- 
form for the women taking this course is an olive drab coat and 
skirt, one army blouse, olive necktie, high laced tan boots and 
campaign hat and olive cord. Personal baggage is limited to one 
suit case and a hand bag. Jewelry and vanity boxes are abso- 
lutely barred. Stringent health regulations are to be observed, and 
no one will be admitted without a health certificate showing that 
the applicant can endure camp routine. 

While it is not intended to place women aboard ships they 
may be utilized for shore duty as stenographers, book-keepers, 
general clerks, etc., and it is felt that the discipline and training 
teceived in this camp will make them more efficient for service. 

Mrs. Richards stated that in connection with the National 
Council, to which the Relief Society belongs, the Suffrage Asso- 
ciation expects to register the powers and resources of the women 
of the organization. 

Mrs. Lucy May Green, Chorister of the Granite stake Re- 
lief Society choir read a paper on "Music in the Relief Society." 
This paper contained many practical hints and suggestions. We 
give the following excerpts : 

"In the brief glimpses given us in the scriptures of our pie- 
existent state, we learn that music has formed a part of the wor- 
ship of God since before the dawn of creation. The first account 
we have on record is 'when the foundations of the earth were 
laid, when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of 
God shouted for joy.' Music is the only art wh : ch is mentioned 


in the scriptures as a part of heaven itself. We read of the music 
of the angels, also of the song of the redeemed, of the new song 
which will be sung by them, songs of everlasting joy. In Sec- 
tion 84 of the Doctrine and Covenants, we have the words given 
of a beautiful anthem which will be sung by the Saints at the 
redemption of Zlon. While the Israelites were in captivity in 
Babylon, they were often required, by the Chaldeans, to 'sing 
the songs of Zion.' The Prophet Joseph dearly loved music, and 
made it a part of all the gatherings of this Church. His suc- 
cessors in office have encouraged 'this art, and the fame of our 
great organ and Tabernacle Choir has gone abroad throughout 
the world. The Lord set the seal of his divine approval on the 
song of praise when he commanded that Emma Smith should 
make a selection of sacred hymns to be used in the Church. 

"One of the objects of the organization of the Relief Society 
was for women to gain knowledge and to develop along higher 
lines. We have progressed rapidly in many directions : in charit- 
able work, in storing wheat, in the fields of home nursing, in 
theology, literature, "and art. Until recent years, however, we 
have paid very little attention to music in this Society. We have 
been quite content to sing without instrumenal support, often 
without a leader, and still more often without books. The time 
has come when we should wake up musically and do our part 
in this department of the service of the Lord. It is an inspiration 
and will lift the soul above the trials of life and bring comfort 
and hope. Hand in hand with the preaching of the gospel should 
,eo the music of the gospel. The success of the great evangelist 
Moody was largely due to the sweet singing of his wonderful 
musical companion, Ira D. Sankey. 

"The hymn sung by John Taylor, 'A Poor Wayfaring Man 
of Grief,' gave the Prophet Joseph the courage and strength to 
bear the last hours in Carthage Jail, and the song 'Come, Come, 
Ye Saints' cheered the Pioneers on their weary march across the 

"Let us make music an important part of our gatherings. 
First in every stake and ward we should choose a good chorister 
and organist. Wherever it is possible to do so, stake and ward 
choirs should be organized. Relief Society choirs should lead 
the singing in all of onr Relief Society gatherings. It would 
be a good" thing if the presidents would allow the chorister a 
half hour occasionally to practice with the Society, that new 
hymns and songs might be learned. This mi,ght be possible on 
I tome Economics day. 

"Membership in stake Relief Society choirs should consist 
of all ward choristers, assistants, organists and local choir mem- 
bers. There are many who used to sing in girlhood days who 


would be glad to sing again ; and others, especially those from 
foreign lands, deem it a .privilege to take an active part in the 
worship of praise. In stakes where the wards are scattered it 
night be advisable to meet before the regular monthly officers' 
meetin,g. Other practices might be announced aside from the 
regular monthly practice. It is not wise to confine your choir to 
all young people ; there are many good vo : ces among the elderly 
women, who with a little experience will do really good work. 

"A competent organist is a necessity, and where it is possible 
to use the piano as well as the organ, so much the better. Be sure 
and have plenty of alto. It is rarely possible to sing four part 
music owing to the inability of gettuig good second sopranos, and 
second altos but there are many beautiful duets and trios which 
can be sun,g. Have plenty of congregational singing; learn some 
of the hvmns that are rarely sung, and sing them often. You 
will find many of them in the Sunday School Song Book, The 
Psalmody, and some of our earlier anthem books, and there are 
many beautiful songs in Parks' Concert Quart etts. New hymns 
o f ten appear in our various Church magazines. 

"Tn choosing soloists and members of quartets, use judgment 
;u (1 change your singers at times: have no favorites. The secret 
of success is work. Set your standard as high as possible, but 
remember that what a Relief Society choir may lack in musical 
ability, may be more than made up in love of the work, in faith- 
fulness and willing service. 

"In conclusion let me express the hope that sometime soon 
the General Board will publish for us a Relief Society song book, 
a collection of songs, hymns, duets, trios and choruses set to music 
especially arranged for women's voices. Until that t : me arrives. 
let us choose the best music available, and use all that expresses 
the spirit and genius of the Relief Society work." 

Mrs. Janette A. Hyde, business manager of the Relief So- 
ciety Magazine, gave some instructions to officers and Magazine 
agents with regard to proper methods of carrying on business 
in connection with the General Office. Mrs. Hyde made the fol- 
lowing suggestions: 

1. All Magazine agents should use for subscriptions the 
proper printed forms that are supplied by the General Office. All 
lists sent in by agents are filed for future reference, and when 
names come in on papers of all shapes and sizes great incon- 
venience is encountered in looking up and checking names. All 
lists should contain the date when sent. 

2. Agents should keep duplicate copies of all lists sent to 
the General Office so that when questions arise as to names and 
addresses the agent may refer to her own copy. Agents should 
give individual receipts to subscribers, using the receipt books 


furnished by the General Office. All receipts should contain the 
date when issued. 

3. All names should be written plainly with addresses com- 
plete. In many instances Magazines have been lost because the 
box number or the R. F. D. has been left off by agents in sending 
in addresses, and the mistake is not discovered until several 
Magazines have miscarried. 

4. All Magazine letters and subscription lists should be ad- 
dressed to the Relief Society Magazine, except articles and ma- 
terial for the editor, and not to any individual. All money orders 
and checks sent in for Magazine subscriptions should be made 
payable to the Relief Society Magazine, and not to any individual. 

5. Nothing but Magazine orders and letters pertaining to 
Magazine work should come to the Relief Society Magazine. All 
other communications should be addressed to the General Secre- 
tary, Amy Brown Lyman. 

Mrs. Hyde expressed her great interest in the business end 
(if the Magazine work, and asked for the co-operat : on of all 
Magazine agents in working for greater efficiency along business 
lines. She took the opportunity to thank all the stake officers 
present for their hearty support of the Magazine which has been 
greatly appreciated in the General Office. 

Counselor Clarissa S. Williams reported that the National 
Council of Women has recently held an executive session in 
Washington. D. C. to consider the advisability of offering the 
help of the women of the Council to the Government in connec- 
tion with the war. She stated that Miss Margaret Edward, Pres- 
ident of the Relief Society in the Eastern States Mission, had 
represented very ably the General Board of the Rel'ef Society 
at this meeting where it was decided to register and tabulate the 
powers and resources of the women of all organizations belonging 
to the Council. Mrs. Williams further explained that the Relief 
Society itself felt that a tabulation of the powers and resources 
of the women of the organization would be excellent informaton 
for our own files, and to this end letters on this subject with 
proper blank forms will soon be sent to all stake presidents with 
instructions as to the information to be tabulated. 

The Baby Week campa : gn was explained by the speaker. 
She stated that the General Boards of the auxiliary organizations 
of the Church, in connection with other organizations are doing 
what they can to further the work of saving the babies. Baby 
Week this year has been set for May 1st to May 6th. The purpose 
of the campaign in general is educational, the desire being to give 
the parents of the community the opportunity of learning the 
facts with regard to the care of their babies and the need of con- 
stant effort and permanent work for their welfare and protection. 
Stake officers were instructed to ask their ward officers to join 


with other auxiliary organizations to co-operate in making plans 
for this week. It is recommended that in arranging for meet- 
ings the local officers should secure capable and enthusiastic 
speakers who will be able to give intelligent and authentic advice 
with regard to the care of children. Mrs. Williams said that 
letters on this subject would be sent out immediately to stake 

Mrs. Williams reported a very successful year for the Relief 
Society School of Obstetrics and Nursing. Seven students from 
the Obstetrics class took the State Medical Board examination and 
all passed successfully and will receive certificates from the Utah 
Medical Board which will entitle them to practice Obstetrics in 
I rtah. 

The School of Obstetrics and Nursing for next year will 
cpen in September. 1017, to continue for eight months. It was 
explained that an effort will be made during the next year to give 
the students in this school opporunity for some pracical experience 
in nursing by having each one spend a few hours a week in the 
sirk room. 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman announced that circulars on Dress 
and Dancing would be sent to all the women officers in the Church 
in a very short time, that those going to stake officers would l>e 
sent to stake presidents, an I those going to ward officers would 
be sent through the Presiding Bishop's Office to the ward bishops 
for delivery to ward officers. Mrs. Lyman announced that the 
Relief Society stake conferences which are held in connection 
with the quarterly conferences would begin in May and continue 
throughout May. June and July. Such conferences as are held 
independent of stake conferences, (in the near-by stakes) would 
be held in November. She stated that conference dates with sug- 
gestive programs would be mailed out immediately to stake pres- 

Mrs. W. W. Riter was given a few minutes to speak upon 
the work of the Red Cross. She urged all members to assist the 
movement by joining the Sorely, and explained that the follow- 
ing day had been set apart by the Re 1 Cross for soliciting mem- 
berships on the street. 

President Emmelinc B. Wells made a few closing remarks 
asking Cod's blessing on the work of the Relief Society, that all 
the members might be prospered in the work which thev were 
railed to do. and that if any should be called to the other side 
before another conference, they would die in the Lord. 

After the benediction bv Mrs. Elizabeth C. Wilcox, the con- 
ference was adjourned for six months. 

The General "Board of the Relief Society is verv grateful 
for the splendid services of the very capable ushers from the 
Liberty stake who were instrumental in making everybodv com- 
fortable, and in handling the large crowds so efficiently. 

The Disease Germ in Utah. 

Dr. Ellen W. Osier had spent an hour lecturing to our Relief 
Society on "disease germs." Indeed, she had explained every 
phase of the subject so vividly that every woman in the room felt 
a creepy sensation up and down her spinal column. 

We now know better than to use cream with our breakfast 
cereals, unless we are certain the milk has been placed on the 
stove and heated to 60 degrees C. for twenty minutes before set- 
ting away. In fact we feel that milk, cream and butter should 
henceforth be cancelled from our menus. It seems hard, how- 
ever, to discard good, cool, fresh water, and use only the sickly 
stuff previously boiled, but, if we are to live to the age of a tree, 
we know we shall be obliged to do so. 

We had learned that it is positively unsafe to breathe the 
air with any other person in the room. To tell the truth, we were 
all somewhat anxious to get out of meeting, for, we feared even 
then we were inhaling millions of tiny bugs that would multiply 
and increase in our internal mechanisms and cut short our mortal 

You should have seen the look of terror in Myra Fehringer's 
eyes, and how she drew the shawl right over her baby's face when 
old Sister Bently gave an influenzical sneeze. 

Well, Dr. Osier finished her enlightening discourse, excused 
herself on the plea of another appointment and rustled out. 

When the door had closed on her retreating figure. Aunt 
Matilda Peterson rose slowly to her feet. 

"Sisters." she said. "I am happy to say that I arrived in Utah 
before the disease germ. That is why, I suppose, I have enjoyed 
more than seventy years of good health. I have been permitted to 
bring into this world eleven robust sons and daughters, all of 
whom also arrived in Utah before the deadly disease germ. Con- 
sequently they have all had need of appendixes and tonsils and 
have never found it necessary to dispense with either. 

"As you know, I was one of the number who walked across 
the plains to Utah and helped draw a handcart most of the way. 
in which was stored our clothing, bedding and eatables. This 
miscellaneous freight would now he considered unsairtary, but 
being before the disease germ (lay. we suffered no harm. 

"I was young in Utah when girls could chew each other's 
gum with no premonition of ('anger. It was customary to borrow 
or loan a delectable chew until recess, in my school days ; but re- 
member, there were then no disease germs in these beautiful 
mountain vales. 

"But gum as well as flour was scarce in those days. 


"Our lecture this afternoon has brought to my mind an inci- 
dent I should like to relate. 

"Among the articles of wearing apparel stored away m one 
of the handcarts our family drew across the plains, was a pair of 
rubbers belonging to myself. 

"These proved quite a luxury, the winter following our ar- 
rival in Utah, for they were the only pair in the settlement in 
which we lived. 

"One stormy morning I wore them to school. On entering 
the building I took them off and placed them near the door. At 
the noon intermission, when I went to get my rubbers, one was 
missing. I looked all around but was unable to find it and so 
wore only one rubber home to dinner. 

"Of course, my mother felt somewhat annoyed at my loss as 
mothers usually do, especially under our circumstances. But I 
promised to make a thorough search through the afternoon and 
hurriedly ate my dinner and rushed back to school. 

"T looked through our l'ttle schoolroom inside and out. but 
found no trace of the missing rubber. 

"At length the noon bell summoned us all to our places again 
rrd T was obliged to relinquish the search. Through the after- 
noon I noticed all the boys and girls around me chewing some- 
thing that had the appearance of gum ; had I been less nrserable 
over my loss, I might have observed the merry side-glances being 
cast in my direction. 

"At recess I enquired where the supply of gum had come 

"A big, awkward fellow, who was in the habit of showing me 
extra courtesies, answered my question by slipping his hand into 
his pocket and drawing out a piece of rubber, which he generously 
offered to me. 

"It flashed across mv mind in a moment, my schoolmates 
were chewing my rubber ! 

"Yes. it was true ! My precious rubber had been cut in 
pieces and was now serving my companions for gum. 

"I have been thinking this afternoon, had this occurred in 
this enlightened age. all the lads and lasses would certainly have 
suffered from some fatal epidemic. 

"But, fortunately it happened before the arrival of the disease 
rerm in Utah, and no one suffered anv inconvenience." 



1. Modesty in Dress and Dancing. 

2. Thrift and Economy for Home and Country. 

3. Spirituality in Teaching. 

June Entertainment. 

By Morag. 


"The earth and the air are in perfect attune 
Singing- to welcome thee, beautiful June." 

June is the month of brides, roses, strawberries, and many 
other beautiful things, and one of the prettiest functions imagi- 
nable is a rose luncheon and musical. 

Decorate the rooms with the lovely flowers, and for a table 
centerpiece use a basket of roses, with a longstemmed rose with 
name card attached at each place. The lunch menu may consist 

Spring salad Creamed chicken in pastry shells 

Green peas New potatoes Tiny biscuits 

Strawberries and cream with lady fingers, macaroons or wafers. 

Have a program of "rose" music. Some songs may be "My 
Love is Like a Red, Red Rose," "My Wild Irish Rose," "Garden 
of Roses," "Roses and Lilies," "Last Rose of Summer," "My 
Rosary," "To a Wild Rose," etc. 


Prepare a list for each guest. 

Answers are names of roses. 


Never seen on a 



A vegetable. 



A country. 


Blooms on a girl's cheek. 


One American's honor. 


An aspiring rose. 


A spicy rose. 


A wanderer. 


A beautiful linen. 


A beverage. 


A perfume. 


Like a popular book. 


A brave general. 


What you would do 
burned yourself. 

if you 


An Irish Rose. 







Mar 1 en Blush. 


La France. 




American Beauty. 














Yellow (Yell oh). 


Marechal Neil. 



One of our newer holidays occurs on June 14, and is cele- 
brated as Flag Day. On this day Old Glory is displayed on all 
public buildings and schools, and in many places patriotic exer- 
cises are held. The hostess who entertains on this occasion can 
use a red, white and blue color scheme with our beloved stars and 
stripes in evidence among the decorations. Flower combinations 
are red. white and blue sweet peas or scarlet geraniums, with 
blue and white larkspur. It is a good time to hold a children's 
party. It may be held on a flag decorated porch, or on the lawn. 
Make the children realize what the flag means to them. Let some 
one tell the story of Betsy Ross and the first American Flag, and 
of Barbara Fritchie. 

A good story to relate is 'The Man Without a Country," by 
Edward Everett Hale. Have a program of patriotic songs, chil- 
dren love to sing them. Have a flag race. This is like the old 
potato race, using flags instead of potatoes. The prize may be 
a silk flag to be hung in the room of the winner. 

Serve ice cream with a flag stuck in the center and small 

Here is the oath or pledge of allegiance used in the public 
schools. Stand at salute and repeat : 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag and to the Republic for which 
it stands, one nation indivisible — with libertv and justice for all." 

In this month the great outdoor beckons us, and lawn parties, 
picnics, auto rides, canyon and lake trips are in order. Remember 
to have these affairs properly chaperoned, or, better still, go in 
family groups. For a change try a sunrise party, meet at five a. 
ni., watch the sunrise, listen to the song of the early birds, then 
serve a dainty breakfast on the screened porch. 

For the Home Evening there are two special events which 
may be celebrated. One occurs on June 1st when the great 
leader of modern Israel. Brigham Young, was born. 

An evening might be spent in considering his wonderful 
life and achievements. 

On June 27 the anniversary of the martyrdom of the Prophet 
Joseph and his brother Ilyrum. On this evening a program de- 
voted to the lives and labors of these great leaders may be ar- 

Pin Money Suggestions. 

By Morag. 

A woman who wishes to make money at home should first 
consider her aptitude for certain lines of work, her strength, the 
amount of time she can spare from her home duties, also her 
surroundings and the needs and purses of her neighbors. In these 
•days, when living expenses are so high, many of our women would 
gladly earn a little pin money and supplement the family income 
or make possible a course of study, a much desired trip, or .do 
some of the many little things which bring so much pleasure into 
our daily lives. To the woman who lives in the city or large 
town there are many ways of adding to the family expense fund. 
Home cooking always pays and the woman who likes to cook has 
the path to success open before her. Among the things which 
would find a ready market are whole wheat bread, nut brown 
bread, raisin bread, doughnuts, cakes of various kinds, potato 
chips, orange marmalade, and many others. 

If you live near a factory or large office building, fifteen and 
twenty-five cent lunches might be served. 

A really good cook can usually find a ready market for cook- 
ing, if she will let it be known that it is for sale. Home made 
candy and confectionery are also in demand. Many women who 
are fond of fancy work do not care for plain sewing, and a 
woman with a genius for plain sewing could earn a good living 
by making tailored shirt waists, large aprons, rompers for chil- 
dren and plain dresses and aprons for school girls, also middy 

Materials must be purchased wholesale and several garments 
cut at one time. 

A nice little sum may be earned in making complete infants 
layettes. Making sunbonnets, and boudoir and sweeping caps is 
another practical suggestion. 

If you own a good vacuum cleaner you can rent it to your 
neighbors at so much per .day. 

Shopping on commission for one's friends in the country 
might bring in a little. You can take advantage of all special 
sales, etc. A holiday sale of Christmas presents would be suc- 
cessful if you make practical things, such as dainty corset covers, 
kimonas, bags of various kinds, bureau scarfs and trimmings, 
also handkerchiefs. Invite your friends, serve chocolate and small 
cakes ; arrange your things to the best possible advantage and you 
will find a ready sale. The women of rural communities have 


many opportunities for earning some pin money. Some farm 
women make a good living by supplying their city friends with 
vegetables, fruit, and eggs sent by parcel post. Dried fruit and 
corn is in great demand, also home made jams, jellies, and pickles. 
There is also quite a demand in early spring for day old chicks ; 
many people in town prefer to buy them that way, and if you are 
succcessful in running an incubator and are careful in packing, 
and shipping the chicks you can earn a reasonable profit. If you 
are the fortunate owner of a small greenhouse or a few good hot- 
beds, raise tomato, cabbage and celery plants, also some flowers 
such as stocks, asters, verbenas, snapdragons, and'others. Among 
the cut flowers which find a quick sale, are peonies and Iris (for 
Decoration day), asters, gladioli, and sweet peas. These should 
all be picked overnight and kept in water before they are sold or 
packed for shipment. If you are successful in raising house 
plants you might root cuttings of geranium, begonia and others 
in small pots in the late fall. These will sell readily in the early 
spring for fifteen cents each. Other choice varieties may be raised 
from seed as asparagus, plumose, cineraria, coleus and primroses. 

If you have a good warm cellar start a number of bulbs, 
hyacinths, narcissus, Easter lilies, tulips and daffodils. 

These are planted during October and November and are 
kept in the cellar from eight to twelve weeks, then brought gradu- 
ally to the light. They will find a ready sale in early spring. A 
large number of dry bulbs may be sold in early fall among your 
friends and a small profit made. 

Christmas greens find a good market in the city and these 
may be gathered and kept for some weeks beforehand. There are 
many other ways of earning money on the farm which will 
readily suggest themselves, as raising chickens, squabs, turkeys, 
ducks and geese as well as home cured meat and honey. 

We all like to earn and spend our own money, and as we 
need so much extra at some times of the year when our Magazine 
and Journal subscriptions fall due, with Christmas coming and 
lots of extra things to buy, so the writer hopes that among these 
suggestions you may find one which will prove a benefit to you, 
and wishes you all success in whatever vou undertake. 


"I will mediate in thy precepts. I will not forget thy word." 
For the thirtv-one davs read: Doctrine and Covenants, Sec- 
tions 58-98. 

Evolution of the American Flag 

By A. B. L. 

The idea of a national flag is, by no means, a modern one. 
The primitive peoples of the earth all had symbols or emblems of 
some sort, which they chose for sentimental reasons, and which 
they raised aloft in time of festivity, and in times of war. Each 
tribe had its own emblem, just as each nation of today has its 
own flag; and before the manufacture of cloth, these standards 
consisted of carved wooden objects attached to poles or staves. 

America was colonized under several flags. Each group of 
settlers used the flag of its mother country, and from the various 
colonies might have been seen, waving in the breeze, the English, 
Swedish, Dutch and Spanish flags, respectively. 

The majority of the early settlers of America were English, 
and for many years, the English flag (a red flag with the union 
jack in the corner) was used by them. However, as the colonists 
grew apart from the mother country, modifications of the English 
flag appeared here and there, and when the Stamp Act was passed 
by the English government, in 1765, there was a general outbreak 
of special flags. 

These special flags were patterned after the British flag. 
They were red and white in color, and most of them contained the 
cross of St. George, but special devices or features were added 
to them. The New England colonists used a pine tree, the South 
ern colonists a rattle snake, and Rhode Island, an anchor. Many 
of the flags contained mottoes expressing the indignation of 
the colonists. 

There was no attempt in the very beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary war to adopt a uniform flag, and these various devices 
were used ; but after a few months of the war, it was decided 
that a uniform flag was not only desirable, but was also necessary. 

In December, 1775, a committee was appointed, with Ben- 
jamin Franklin as chairman, to look after several matters pertain- 
ing to the war, among which was the consideration of the adop- 
tion of a uniform flag. In the report from this committee, no 
mention was made of the flag, but there must have been some 
recommendation with regard to it, for in January, 1776, General 
Washington hoisted over his headquarters, in Cambridge, the new 
continental flag. This new flag was very much like the British 
ensign; it had the union jack in the corner, but instead of the 
solid red of the English flag, red and white stripes were used, 
^he thirteen stripes represented the thirteen colonies, but the 
union jack recognized the sovereignty of England. 


The origin of the stripes is not agreed upon — there arc two 
theories: First, that the idea was borrowed from the Dutch 
flag ; second, that it was taken from the coat of arms of the Wash 
ington family! The continental flag was used about one and one 
half years. 

In June, 177<>. six months alter the Continental flag was first 
used, it ua> decided that in view of the impending Declaration 
of Independence, a change should be made in the flag. The reso- 
lution which was passed, making the change .possible, was as fol- 
lows : 

Resolved: That the flag of the United States be thirteen 
stripes, alternated red and white, that the union be thirteen stars 
■—white, in a blue field, representing the new constellation. 

In June. 1777. this flag was adopted by the Continental con- 

The credit of making the first American flag, combining the 
Stars and stripes, is uniformly given to Mrs. Betsey Ros . of 
Philadelphia. Mrs. Ross was a young widow, whose husband 
had been killed in an accidental explosion of military stores. She- 
was a fine seamstress, and when it was learned by her friends 
that she had decided to take up sewing as a vocation, she was 
eagerly sought after by those who desired to have expert needle 
work done. Mrs. Ross sewed for the Washington family, and 
for George Washington, personally, making his fine shirts and 
embroidered ruffles. It was, therefore, only natural that when 
General Washington was looking for some one to put together 
the first flag, he should turn to Betsey Ross. 

According to the story, General Washington rode up to Mrs. 
Ross's modest little house, on horseback, and presented to her a 
rough drawing of the flag, which he explained to her. Mrs. Ross 
objected to the six pointed star in the design, and suggested that 
it be changed to five pointed star. She folded up a piece of paper, 
and with a single cl : p of her scissors, produced a perfect five 
pointed star. Her suggestion was accepted, and the sketch was 
redrawn by Washington. „ 

Mrs. Ross was employed a number of years making flags for 
the government, and after her death, her daughter continued in 
the business. 

The little house in Philadelphia, where the first flag was 
made, has been purchased by an association known as the Betsey 
Ross Memorial Association. Funds were raised for the purpose 
by soliciting from donors — only ten cents each. Subscriptions 
came in from every state in the Union, and from many foreign 
countries. The building has been turned over to the Federal 
Government, as a historical shrine, and all visitors to Philadelphia 
make it a point to call at this very interesting house, and to sit 


in the dingy back room where it is supposed that Betsey Ross sat 
while doing this piece of very important work. 

The stars in the first flag were placed in a circle, but as the 
number of states increased, they were placed in rows. At the 
present time, there are six rows of stars, with eight in each row — 
forty-eight in all, to represent the forty-eight states of our great 

Thus, we see that the American flag of today is a growth 
rather than a creation. 

In a toast on the American flag, given by George Washing- 
ton, at the time of its adoption, he said : "We take the stars from 
Heaven, the red from our Mother Country, separating it by white 
stripes, thus showing that we have separated from her, and the 
white stripes- shall go down to posterity, representing liberty." 

Salute to the Flag: / pledge my allegiance to the Hag and 
lo the Republic for which it stands — one Nation indivisible, zvith 
liberty and justice for all. 


Longfellow could take a worthless piece of paper, write a 
poem on it and make it worth sixty-five dollars — that's genius. 

There are some men who could write a few words on a piece 
of paper and make it worth eight million dollars — that's capital. 

The United States can take an ounce and a quarter of gold 
and can make it worthy twenty dollars — that's money. 

A mechanic can take material worth five dollars, and make 
it into watch-springs worth one thousand dollars — that's skill. 

There is a man in Boston who can take a fifty-cent piece of 
canvas, paint a picture on it and make it worth one thousand dol- 
lars — that's art. 

A tinsmith can take an article worth seventy-five cents and 
sell it for one dollar — that's business. 

A woman could purchase a hat for seventy-five cents, but 
prefers one worth twenty-seven dollars — that's foolishness. 

A ditch-digger handles several tons of earth for one dollar 
and fifty cents a day — that's labor. 

The author of this can write a check for nine million dollars 
but it wouldn't be worth a dime — that's rough. 

There are people who will tell you that other magazines are 
as good as this — that's nerve. 

You can take a sheet of paper, sign your name and send it 
to us for a subscription — that's common sense, 

Home Science Department. 

By Janette A. Hyde. 


Women have been chained so long to kitchen stoves with 
ball attachment to the pantry and dining room, half a mile distant, 
that habit and tradition have made slaves of them in very 
deed to cooking and cleaning; but here and there a woman rises 
up in meeting and asks science and discovery to free her from 
her age-long shackles. The answer has been a long while in 
coming, but it is arriving on the electric train. 

With a view of ascertaining the availability and desirability 
of the new methods of cookery now devised by both the electric- 
companies and the gas compames of this region, the editor and 
business manager of the Magazine agreed to test the new electric 
stove with a fireless cooker oven attachment, and the gas stove 
also with a fireless cooker attachment, in their own homes. More- 
over, the Home Science department arranged demonstrations al 
the late conference where the representatives of this Society 
might see for themselves what could be done when men set their 
wits to work for women. The result was highly satisfactory in 
both cases. 


The editor of the Magazine replaced an excellent gas stove 
for an electric stove, about two months ago. She had used for 
over eight years the fireless cooker with the iron discs for sup- 
plementary cooking, and found it very excellent indeed ; only the 
discs had always to be heated up; so that the electric stove which 
carried a fireless cooker made an instant appeal to her. With a 
sincere desire to persuade all women that their time and strength 
are financial assets in the business of home making, the editor has 
undertaken manv tests with her new electric stove. She reports. 



Extreme simplicity of arrangement. 






Fireless Cooker Oven. 
The cost. 

Simplicity. — The ease with which the switch is turned and 
the heat generated does away even with the slight labor of strik- 



ing a match. All of the surface burners which are used for boil- 
ing or frying have three heat degrees : hot, medium and low 
heats. The central disc which has extra coils, fries meat per- 
fectly — indeed too rapidly, unless watched very carefully. A turn 
of the switch, however, reduces the heat. The clock attachment 
foi the ovens is most admirable in its simplicity. Meat, bread, 
puddings and cereals can be set in the oven hours before needed, 
and the clock set at the hour when the food is to begin cooking. 
The clock starts the oven to heating at the proper time and then 
when the heat of the oven has reached a certain point it is at once 
turned off automatically and the heat is retained in the oven 
for hours, through the fireless cooker principle. 

Cleanliness. — The cleanliness of the stove is beyond re- 


proach, — no soot, grease nor black accumulations ; sauce pans are 
as clean outside as inside after two months' use ; no soot accumu- 
lates on the walls, and the stove is always clean, unless food is 
spilled over it. 

Frying. — Frying may be done rapidly either in the oven 
or on top of the stove. Fish and griddle-cakes which require a 
lower temperature can be cooked with the medium heat without 
burning at all. 

Boiling. — You can boil rapidly, or stew, or keep things just 
nicely hot on these upper discs. A steam cooker can be placed 
on the disc and the water kept at boiling point all day without 
watching or replenishing through regulation of the switch. 

Baking and Roasting. — The baking oven is as near perfect 



as human ingenuity can devise. A thermometer regulates the 
exact heat to be attained for the baking of bread or the baking 
of roast meat or the baking of biscuits, and if directions are fol- 
lowed each article comes out absolutely perfect as to crust and 
quality. Meat baked in this way loses none of its juice and flavor 
and the crisp, brown crust formed over the meat is attractive to 
the eye and delicious to the taste. So long does the oven retain 
heat that you can roast your meat and potatoes, then put in your 
bread ; with one extra degree of heat added your bread will bake 
and when that comes out you can put in cereal with the same 
heat which will be found cooked in the morning and still warm. 

The Firelcss Cooker Oven. — Some of the stoves — the editor's 
in particular — have small ovens which are designed for slow boil- 
ing. All kinds of vegetables can be cooked perfectly in these 
ovens. Meat can be stewed, and dried fruit is cooked to a mellow 
consistency without breaking the fruit or loosing the flavor. 

The Cost. — Special wires are put into the house for the stove 
and to this can be attached the flatiron and toaster and thus the 
cost of lighting the house and cooking is considerably less than 
lighting the bouse and cooking with gas. Of course, in most «)f 



homes cooking is done on a range which heats the water jacket 
and warms the kitchen, but with a small stove which can be pur- 
chased for about $12 to heat the water jacket and warm the 
kitchen, the electric stove can be used perfectly all winter long, 
for the little kitchen stove will d,o most of the boiling and the 
electric stove can be set up in the pantry, thus making a kitchen- 
ette and then turn the dreaded kitchen into the family sitting 
room. All in all, the electric stove is an absolute necessity to the 
woman who would save time and strength to spend in acquiring 
knowledge, working in the temple, and in preparing herself for 
larger usefulness at home and abroad. 

I have found in the newly constructed gas cooker, the very 
thing- for which I have been searching for the past ten years — 
namely, a device self-heated, without the ordeal of creating some 
kind of extra heat for making ready the discs used in the ordi- 
nary fireless cooker. Every one knows the value of a good gas 
stove. The new stove has a fireless cooker oven and it is of 
this feature that I speak. 


The oven is one of the most economical labor saving devices 
used in the kitchen, today. The Gas Fireless Oven, with its as- 
bestos and mineral wool-lined walls covered with enameled metal 
surface is practically rust proof as well as holding the heat for 
from 9 to 15 hours, sufficiently long to cook the toughest meat, 
and render it delicious and tender. 

The range is beautifully constructed and very easy to keep 
dean, and is as ornamental as it is useful. On account of the 
thickness of the walls and the lining, it may require a greater 
amount of time for heating than the thin sheet metal, old style gas 



stoves, but it also has the great advantage of holding the heat 
to almost a triple amount of time that the thinner grades of 
ranges do. 

Time-Saver. — The greatest advantage to be gained by the 
use of the Gas Fireless Cooker is the time, as well as the extra 
heat saved in the preparation of a meal. For instance, if you wish 
to bake bread at the noon hour, while getting your lunch, it may 
he placed in the oven with the meat, vegetables, pudding or any 


desert desired for the noon meal, and all is cooked with the same 
beat that would be required to bake the bread or cook any one 
article of food which is used in the ordinary lunch course. 

Heat Conserved. — The heat is turned on and left to reach 
the point of about 450 degrees, which is indicated on the oven by 
a heat dial on the outside. The food, having been prepared, is 
placed in the oven ; at the same time, the heat is turned off, and 
the food is left to cook itself without burning or being spoiled in 
any way. It is so simple to operate that after a child has been 
instructed how to use this Fireless Cooker, she can do so without 
the least bit of danger or fear. 

On one occasion, I baked five loaves of bread, a nice pan of 
poato au gratin, a bread pudding, and creamed cabbage all with 
the same heat. After the gas was turned off, T went down town 


and stayed for four hours, and returned home to find everything 
perfectly cooked — not over-cooked — and steaming hot — just ready 
to be served. It seems to me that the great problem of the 
house-wife has been solved ; she can go and do her errands, do 
her shopping, and attend to Relief Society meeting, while her 
meal cooks perfectly at home,' and she can feel upon her ar- 
rival, just about meal time, that all of the hungry mouths wait- 
ing at home to be fed can be just as well taken care of and sup- 
plied with properly cooked food, as if she had been there stir- 
ring, mixing, shoveling coal, and watching over things, as must 
be done with the ordinary coal stove or range. 

I hope the day will come, when the women of our Church 
and nation will seize the opportunity to use the new inventions 
and appliances, such as electric and gas stoves and irons, that they 
may have more time for educational and cultural purposes. 
Wherever there is gas in a community, we trust that the sisters 
will seize the opportunity to have the same installed in their 
homes, that they may receive the benefit of this perfect heat and 
light system. Afer all, it serves another purpose, it is much 
cleaner and not so expensive as a coal range. We find it so in 
our locality here in Salt Lake City. 

Hence, we recommend a thorough investigation, as well as a 
liberal trial of this quicker, cleaner, cheaper heat and light fuel. 



Cream of Corn Soup. By" Louise Palmer Weber. 

1 cup corn. 
1 tablespoon butter. 
1 teaspoon salt. 
1 teaspoon sugar. 
1 tablespoon minced onion. 
]/% teaspoon pepper. 

1 quart of milk. 

Place butter in steaw pan — aluminum or enameled, and when 
melted, ad.d onion, then corn and seasonings. When well heated, 
add milk. Serve when the boiling point is reached. 

Escallop ed potatoes. 

6 medium-sized potatoes. 
3 onions. 

2 tablespoons flour, salt, pepper or paprika, enough milk to 

Slice the potatoes and onions, then butter a baking dish or 
a casserole well. Place a layer of sliced potatoes, a layer of sliced 


onion, sprinkle a little Hour, salt, pepper, then the potatoes, 
etc., again, until all are used. Pour milk over and hake in a h<»i 
oven about 45 minutes <>r an hour. 

Broiled Steak. 

Select a T-hone steak or a "3rd cut" sirloin. Turn on hoth 
burners of gas range oven and place steak in hroiler. When a 
light "gray" in color, turn, and when this side is "gray" turn 
again ; lower the steak in hroiler and turn from time to time, 
lower the flame after the first six minutes. A three pound steak- 
will broil perfectly in is minutes. 
Cabbage Salad. 

Cream dressing — shred cabbage and a small onion. Place hoth 
cabbage and onion in a large howl, add 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 
teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon paprika, 1 teaspoon celery seed. 
Combine well and add the following dressing: 1 cup cream. 1 
tablespoon sugar. 1 tablespoon vinegar, yolk of one egg. 

Beat the egg yolk until thick and lemon colored. Add sugar 
then cream and vinegar last. Combine with cabbage. Serve in 
green pepper "cases" or orange baskets, or with a slice of orange 
as a garnish. 
Tea Biscuits. 

Cream one-eighth pound butter, add 1 tablespoon sugar, 1 
tablespoon salt, and alternately 3-4 cup of milk and 3 cups of 
flour, having sifted 2 teaspoons of baking powder with the flour. 
Mix well; turn on a floured board, pat, and cut with a small 
biscuit cutter. Brush the top of each biscuit with milk or place a 
small piece of butter on each one — a little salt may be added to the 
top of each biscuit. Bake in a hot oven. These biscuits may be 
cut in squares or in "fingers," and may be used as a basis for any 
of the fruit short cakes. 
Wonder Pudding. 

Whites of 6 eggs beaten stiff and dry, add one anil one- 
fourth cups granulated sugar. Continue beating with dover 
beater, add one tablespoon gelatine, dissolved first in cold water, 
then liquified over hot water. Separate into three parts — flavor 
each and color — add chopped pecan meats to one candied fruit 
chopped to another — and sprinkle chopped nuts over the top of 
pudding. Mold in a well buttered mold, and cut with a knife 
when ready to serve. The coloring, nuts, and candied fruits may 
be omitted if desired. 
Toad in the Hole. 

Place carrots, well scraped and quartered, in the bottom of 
a large casserole, place a layer of parsnips on the carrots, then 
turnips, then onions, lastly cakes of Hamburg steak, well sea- 
soned. Add salt, pepper, and sprig of water cress. Cover tightly 
and hake in medium oven about two hours. 

Current Topics. 

James H. Anderson. 

In Russia, under the new form of government; women and 
>men are to have equal elective franchise privileges. 

119 ships in American ports were taken over by the United 
States at the breaking' off of relations with Germany and Austria, 
in April. 

Aliens from either Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Turkey, 
in the United States, have been required to surrender all war 
weapons until peace is declared. 

Congress passed a law for a seven-billion dollar bond issue, 
and the same week the U. S. Government loaned Great Britain 
two hundred million dollars to aid in the war. 

Austria, then Turkey, broke with the United States when 
the latter announced a state of war with Germany, though there 
was no real necessity therefor except to comply with German 

Special commissions of high dignitaries came from Great 
Britain, France and Italy to the United States, during April, to 
confer with the administration here relative to the conduct of 
the war. 

The first U-slrmarine sunk by an American boat was that 
to which one shot from the Mongolia, an armed freight ship, 
brought final disaster, while the submarine was maneuvering to 
torpedo the great liner. 

The U. S. agricultural department has issued a series of 
bulletins on "how to grow potatoes," while numbers of farmers 
have replied, asking the experts to demonstrate their theories 
by actual farm work. 

Bread prices in Salt Lake City in April reached fifteen cents 
per pound-and-a-qnarter loaf, or twelve cents per pound ; in Lon- 
don, England, it was lid. per four-pound loaf, or five and one- 
half cents per pound — both loaves made from American flour. 


Mexico might have been a good base for Germany to make 
<;n advance into the United States, if it were not the fact that the 
British fleet prevents the Germans from getting into Mexico with 
any considerable force. 

An incendiary fire and explosion at Eddystone, Pa., caused 
the destruction of a big munitions plant there, the loss of 112 
lives and the injury of 121 other persons, in April, as the first 
5-erious event in this country following the declaration of war 
with Germany. 

Norway fears to cease selling nickel to Germany lest the 
latter will make an attack on the basis of Norway's being un- 
neutral. At the same time, the nickel is used in making torpedoes 
with which 420 Norwegian ships already have been sunk and 450 
Norwegian sailors killed. 

Conscription of youths between 19 and 25, for the U. S. 
army, has been the great war question in Congress. The objec- 
tion to the system is that it takes for army training mere youths, 
at a time when their moral characer is more liable to injury from 
the associations there than at any other period in life. 

Equal suffrage for women with men in Great Britain, has 
been promised by the British premier. David Lloyd George. He 
assumes this attitude on the question by reason of the patriotic 
services of the women there during the great war, and not because 
of any suffragist agitation. 

The V-roat policy of Germany has been a success in at 
least one respect — that of bringing a declaration of war from the 
V. S. on the morning of April 6, this being followed by similar 
action on the part of Brazil, Cuba, and other heretofore neutral 

In Palestine the British forces have made notable advances 
west of Jerusalem ; and the Mesopotamian expedition has ad- 
vanced 100 miles beyond Bagdad. This makes it appear that the 
redemption of the Holv Land from Turkish rule mav be an event 
of 1917. 

The European war has undergone considerable change on 
the western front, by British and French successes in great battles 
during April. But the Germans have an even stronger line than 
now, along the Meuse in France and Belgium, if they should 
be driven back to it ; therefore these successes by no means indi- 
cate a near ending of the war. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey «. Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Eddington 
Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hydk 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. JUNE, 1917. No. 6 


The Annual Conference of the Relief Society, 
President in April, 1917, was blessed with the presence 

Joseph F. Smith and teachings of our beloved leader and 
Speaks. president, Joseph F. Smith ; and no less im- 

portant were his exhortations and blessings 
pronounced in our own conference than those wondrous texts 
he delivered at the opening session of the General Conference. 
Read his remarks in these pages; note how practically he deals 
with our wheat and conservation questions; his tender solici- 
tude for the youth and the necessity of parents training them 
in the spiritual things of the kingdom ; and withal, reverence 
for the aged and parents should develop with the growth of 

The fashions of the day received careful at- 
Modesty tention — not only by his inspired utterances 

In Dress. but also in the addresses of our counselors, 

Clarissa S. Williams and Julina L. Smith. 
The folly of youth needs checking in these extreme times. 
Early marriages were advocated by the President, and he gave 
leaves from his own rich experiences to garnish this advice. 

The remarks of our general president, Em- 
Our Own incline B. Wells, were remarkable in clear- 

President Wells ness and pertinency. She dwelt on the loyal 
on Loyalty. attitude of the members of this Society to 

the Church and to our Countrv. She again 


lifted up licr voice in testimony of the Prophet Joseph's mis- 
sion, and referred in moving tones to her commission to urge 
the sisters to store grain as given by President Brigham 
Young. Strange, is it not, that this solitary historic figure 
should be left on the earth to see the actual fulfilment of her 
divinely appointed mission! How rarely Moses enters the 
promised land. 

The practice of so-called birth-control or 
Birth Control race-suicide was pronounced a crime by 
Denounced. I 'resident Smith and Counselor Julina L. 

Smith. Latter-day Saints who indulge in 
this will not be blood-guiltless. The resolutions afterwards 
presented to the conference were sustained by the hearty vote 
of the President and the Presiding Bishop as well as by the 
whole conference. Ceasing to bear children or limiting off- 
spring would not make right wrong, nor cleanse the earth 
from sin. To make of marriage a licensed debauchery could 
never eliminate criminals nor the feeble-minded; rather would 
it tend to increase all the fruits of selfishness and sin. 

The concluding thought given by President 
Christ Stands Smith is one that we shall do well to ponder: 
at the Head of God, not man. is at the head of this work. 
His Church. Not the President, nor any of his predeces- 

sors in office — not the Prophet himself is at 
the head of this work — but God stands at the head; Christ is 
the possessor of all authority, power, honor and glory. 

When men and women seek glory, fame, and 
Give Glory honors, when their feet hurry after the flat- 

to God. tery of men and their souls are unsatisfied 

with the meek gifts of silent service, then 
should they pause and consider well this parting exhortation. 
For it applies to our Relief Society in supreme measure. Not 
[oseph Smith who organized this Society, in 1842: not Brig- 
ham Young who reorganized it, in 1866; not Joseph F. Smith 
who regulated and gave life and the spirit and genius of growth 
and progress to its weakened and debilitated forces, in 1911; 
no. nor Eliza R. Snow, Mary Fielding Smith, Zina D. Young, 
Bathsheba W. Smith, Sarah M. Kimball, M. Isabella Home, 
nor Emmeline B. Wells — not any nor all of these have im- 
parted the creative life and inspired development of this great 
original Relief Society. It is the Relief Society of the Church 
..f Jesus Christ of Patter-day Saints of which Christ stands at 
the head. His is the work, the spirit, the power and the in- 
spiration. Men and women who have sought to follow His 
guidance, all give Him the honor and the glory. How good 
it is to serve Him and how sweet are His teachings! 

Guide Lessons. 


Home Economics 


Note. — These lessons may be subdivided and arranged for 
four meeting's. 


It is the patriotic duty of every American citizen to help in 
every way possible in the production and conservation of our food 
products/ One of the very best ways of doing this is to economize 
in food waste. To waste anything is a crime. Women and girls 
can help in this important matter by canning and putting up for 
next winter fruits, vegetables, meats, soups, anything and every- 
thing that will have a food value. The lr'gh cost of living, the 
shortage of food supplies, have made it necessary to urge this mat- 
ter very earnestly. 

Not only can fruits be canned successfully and economically 
in glass and tin, but so also can all kinds of fresh vegetables, all 
kinds of meats and soup stocks. This will enable us to have on 
hand at a moment's notice any and all of the necessaries of life. 
Since canning is a means of preserving food from bacteria, 
it is well to know something of their characteristics. First, they 
are so small that they are invisible except under a powerful lens. 
On this account, people either don't believe in them, or forget 
about them. 

Second, the air, the dust and all objects are covered with 

Third, temperature affects them. Cold, even to freezing point, 
does not kill them, but only prevents their growth. - Sunshine and 
scalding heat applied a certain length of time, destroys them. 
Moderate heat or normal body temperature is the best possible 
medium for their growth. 

Fourth, some bacteria form a spore or small seed which is 
covered with a hard coat. When the seed bursts through the 
covering, another germ is formed. These spores are not easily 
killed even by intense heat. Fifth, meats, sugars and starches are 
spoiled when exposed to the germ-laden air and dust. Excess 


of sugar, as in preserving fruits, kills germ life. Acid fruits are 
not readily attacked, and an excess, as in pickling vegetables 
or meats, destroys them. 


To render an article sterile is to treat it in such a manner 
that germ life is entirely killed, and to keep the article under such 
conditions that germs cannot gain access to it. 

The first is accomplished by exposing articles to direct sun- 
light, heat, wet or dry, and the application of acids, salts 01 
spices : the second by sealing the articles in air-tight sterile con- 


( 1 ) Cleanliness of person, equipment and surroundings is 
necessary to insure success. 

(2) Small utensils such as forks, knives and spoons should 
be kept in a pan of boiling water when not in use. Rubbers should 
be dipped in boiling water. Jars and lids should be placed in cool 
water, allowed to come to a boil and kept boiling until needed fin- 

(3) Vegetable-- and fruits should be gathered as soon be 
fore canning as possible. Peas are particularly liable to infec- 

(4) Seal jars while hot. If necessary to steam the second 
day on account of the possible presence of spores, do not loosen 
the lid. If it is desired to add anything to a jar that has been 
scaled and cooled, steam again as a precaution. 

(5) Handle materials and utensils as little as possible. Do 
not touch the interior of jars with the fingers. Use a long- 
handled fork or spoon to remove them from the boiling water. 

(6) Label, giving date, variety of vegetable and fruit, 
method and time used in process. This will add in standardizing 
the work. 

(7) Never use chemical powders to preserve food. If 
they are strong enough to destroy germs and spores, they are 
likely to have an injurious effect on human beings sooner or later. 



Place fruit or vegetable to be dried in a dripper and set in a 
moderately hot oven. Allow to steam for an hour. Put on 
racks made of fine screening, cover with a cloth to protect from 
flies and other dirt and allow to remain in direct sunlight for a 
day, turning often. 


Heat-Smoking or Curing (applied to meat). 

Make a brine solution as follows : To each 100 lbs. meat, 8 
tc 12 lbs. common salt, 3 lbs. brown sugar, 3 ounces salt petre, 
6 gallons water. Boil all together gently for one hour in a clean 
vessel. Cook before using. 

Trim meat to proper shape and size. Lay in barrel, meat 
side up, placing heavy weights on top of pieces. Cover with cold 
brine at least two inches above the top piece. Keep meat con- 
tinually covered with brine. Time for keeping meat in the brine : 
small pieces, three to four weeks ; large pieces, about eight weeks. 

The meat should be smoked after it is taken from the brine 
or it is liable to spoil in warm weather. Time for smoking meat : 
three to four days. 

Sacking the meat : After the meat is cooled, protect it by 
placing in strong flour sacks, tied tightly and painted on the 
outside with the following : 

For 100 pounds ham or bacon — 3.0 pounds of bartyes 
(barium sulphate), .06 pounds of glue, .08 pounds of chrome yel- 
low (lead chromate), .40 pounds of flour. Fill a 3- to 4-gallon 
bucket one-half full of water. Mix in flour. Dissolve the lead 
chromate in one quart water in a separate vessel. Add this solu- 
tion and the glue to the flour and water. Bring to a boil, and 
while boiling, add the barium sulphate slowly, stirring constantly. 

The painting of the sack keeps the meat moist by rendering 
it impervious to the air. 

Pickling is accomplished by the use of salt, vinegar, spice 
and oil. 


Open Kettle. 

The food is cooked completely and then poured into jars 
previously sterilized. In order to avoid possible infection, it is 
safest to place the filled jars in a boiler and steam for at least 
twenty minutes. 

Cold Pack. 

The food is packed into sterilized jars, with or without liquid, 
and capped loosely. The jars are placed in a receptacle contain- 
ing water, and steamed. For length of process see table. The 
receptacles that may be used are as follows : 

(a) Wash Boiler. The boiler should be fitted with a piece 
of wood, wire screening or some device to keep the bottles from 
touching the bottom. A cloth should be placed over the top and 
the lid pressed tightly down to keep in the steam. 

(b) The Oven. A number of jars can be handled at once. 
An asbestos mat or a pan containing water in which to set the 


jars is necessary. The oven should be hot at first. Allow at 
leasl <»ik- hour a Iditional lime for this method. 
The Pressure Looker. 

The use of the pressure cooker is recommended wherever 
it is possible to secure one, as it saves time, energy and fuel. 
The same methods exactly are used as with other outfits such as 
the wash boiler, excepting that only one-third to one-fourth of 
the time is required to perfectly sterilize the products. 

[f the tin cans are u-e<l. secure the enameled or lacquered 
sanitary cans. It would be well also to secure a small self -sealing 
outfit so that the cans can be sealed without solder and aci I. < me 
of those outfits costs but little and can be used by the entire com- 

1 would suggest that a number of families unite and form a 
canning club, buy a steam pressure outfit ami also a self-sealer 
outfit. The total cost of these outfits need not exceed $35. It 
seven families unite on this it will he $5 for each fanrly. which 
amount can he saved three or four times over by the use of them. 
i?i time, energy, fuel and kindly feelings or disposition. 

All of the fruits and vegetables may he divided into two 
greal classes a- follows : 

Protein Foods. Corn, beans, peas and other vegetables with 
a large protein content are best canned with a water seal or steam 
outfit. Protein :s a favorable medium for the growth of bacteria, 
and such vegetables require a high degree of heat and a longer 
period of sterilization. 

Moisture also i- favorable to the growth of bacteria, and free 
water serves as a medium to carry the developing spores to other 
parts of the can. Tt is therefore believed that the drier these 
foods are packed the les> likely they are to spoil. 

Acid Products. Tomatoes, rhubarb, gooseberries and other 
fruits or vegetables with a high percentage of acid keep most 
easily. Such fruits and vegetables shrink most in canning. 

Blackberries, red raspberries, and some other of the more 
acid products should be canned in glass or lacquered tin, as they 
lose color easily. 

Pumpkin and squash should always be canned in glass or 
in lacquered tin. 

Rhubarb should always he canned in glass. 
Apples and blackberries deteriorate with keeping and should 
not be kept over from year to year. It is best to market these 
products soon after canning. 


For convenience the fruits may be classified into four distinct 
groups, or classes, such as soft fruits, sour berry fruits, hard 
fruits, and citrus fruits. 


1. Soft fruits, such as strawberries, blackberries, dewber- 
ries, sweet cherries, blueberries, peaches, apricots, etc. 

Recipe for canning soft fruits. Can the same day fruit is 
picked. Grade and rinse the fruit by pouring- water over it 
through a strainer. Cull, seed, and stem. Pack immediately in 
glass jars or tincans. Add boiling hot syrup of 18 per cent 
density (thin). Place rubber and top in place. Partially tighten. 
(Seal tin cans.) Sterilize in hot water bath outfit 20 minutes; 
in water-seal outfit, 15 minutes; steam pressure outfit under 5 
pounds steam, 10 minutes ; in aluminum pressure cooker, with 10 
pounds of steam, 7 minutes. Remove. Tighten covers. Inven. 
to cool and test joints. Wrap glass jars in paper to prevent 
bleaching ; then store. 

2. Sour berry fruits, such as currants, gooseberries, cran- 
berries, and sour cherries. 

Recipe for canning sour berry fruits. Can same day picked. 
Stem, hull, and clean. Blanch in hot water one minute. Remove 
and dip quickly in cold water. Pack berries closely in container. 
Add hot syrup of 28 per cent density until full. Place rubber and 
cap in place. Seal partially, not tight. (Seal tin cans.) Ster- 
ilize in hot-water bath outfit 20 minutes; in water-seal outfit, 15 
minutes; in 5-pound steam pressure outfit, 12 minutes; in alum- 
inum pressure-cooker outfit under 15 pounds of steam, 8 minutes. 
Remove jars. Tighten covers and invert to cool and test joints. 
Wrap in paper and store. 

3. Hard fruits, such as apples, pears, quinces, etc. 
Recipe for canning hard fruits. Grade, blanch 1*4 minutes, 

and plunge quickly in cold water. Core, pit, or remove skins, if 
necessary. Pack whole, quartered, or sliced as desired. Add 
boiling-hot syrup of from 18 to 28 per cent density (medium 
thin). Place rubbers and tops in position. Partially tighten. 
(Seal tin cans.) Sterilize 25 minutes in hot water bath outfit; 
18 minutes in water-seal outfit; 12 minutes under 5 pounds steam 
in steam-pressure outfit ; minutes in aluminum pressure-cooker 
under 15 pounds pressure. Remove jars. Tighten covers and 
invert to cool and test joints. Wrap glass jars in paper to pre- 
vent bleaching, and store. 

We are presenting to our readers, the signed statements 
verifying an egg preservative which is sold by Mrs. Sarah Rey- 
nolds, No. 976 Belmont Ave., Salt Lake City, Utah, which we 
take pleasure in recommending to our sisters, or those desiring 
to preserve eggs whenever the time presents itself for so-doin,g. 
We hope the sisters will study carefully the lesson prepared for 
the proper canning of vegetables and fruits, as they are 
thoroughly rehable. We also recommend the pressure cooker, 


which is so frequently mentioned in the lesson on canning, etc.. 
and feel that the suggestions offered for forming community clubs 
is one of the best ways possible to. obtain a cooker for use during 
the strenuous time of putting up the winter's supply of food. 

The following are names and addresses where the above 
mentioned articles may be obtained. We hope at least you will 
accept the recommendation for sending for catalogue, etc. 

The National Home Outfit, the Northwestern Steel and Iron 
Works, Eau Claire, Wisconsin — price $10.00 will handle over one 
hundred quarts a day. Send for circular and recipe book. In- 
valuable for use in community canning and for large amounts. 

The Denver Pressure Cooker Company, Denver, Colorado, 
aluminum cooker, the fifteen dollar size holds six quarts. Good 
for use of small families. 

The steam cookers have great advantages for canning pur- 
poses. They save fuel, time, and, all things being equal, insure 
success and therefore safety. They are also economical in cook- 
ery, since the food value is retained. Green beans requiring four 
hours steaming, may be bottled in forty minutes. Dried beans re- 
quiring eight to ten hours' cooking, may be prepared in fifty 
minutes. Tf requiring three hours' cooking, may be prepared in 
one hour. Pot roast, requiring one to two hours, may be ready to 
serve in one hour's time. 


Last winter I started to use eggs preserved by Mrs. Reynolds 
and I have continued to use them since because they taste just 
as fresh as fresh eggs, and are much cheaper. With me it is a 
question of good business in housekeep'ng economy. 

Mrs. M. J. Pickering, 
319 K Street, Salt Lake City. 

April 12, 1917. 
To whom it may concern: This is to testify that I had occa- 
sion during the past winter to use some of the eggs preserved by 
a process used by Mrs. Sarah Reynolds, which conserves the 
natural flavor of the e^ and prevents the usual stale taste found 
in storage eggs. 

Yours very truly, 

Mrs. A. S. Worswick. 

In February, 1 () 17, I bought and used some eggs preserved 
bv Mrs. Reynolds. During May of the preceding year. T found 
the eggs to be strictly fresh and can highly recommend this 
method of preserving eggs. 

Mrs. Jessie L. Maxwell, 

1126 Fourth Avenue. 


Vegetable greens, both wild and cultivated. 

Recipe for canning vegetable greens. 

Prepare and can the day picked. Sort and clean. Blanch in a 
vessel with a little water under false bottom or in a regular 
steamer, 15 to 20 minutes. Remove. Plunge quickly into cold 
water. Cut in convenient lengths. Pack tight in jar or container 
and season to taste ; add a little chipped beef, olive oil, etc. Add 
hot water to fill crevices, and a level teaspoon ful of salt to each 
quart. If using glass jars place rubber and top in position, par- 
tially seal ; if using tin cans, cap and tip completely. Sterilize 
110 minutes in hot- water bath outfit; 75 minutes in water-seal ; 60 
minutes in steam-pressure outfit under 5 pounds of steam ; 30 
minutes in aluminum pressure-cooker outfit at 15 pounds of 
steam. Remove from canner. Tighten covers. Invert to cool 
and test joints. Wrap in paper to prevent bleaching and store. 

For greens use any of the following: 

Cabbage sprouts, turnip tops, spinach, beet tops, pepper cress, 
dandelion, wild mustard, milkweed (tender sprouts and young 

2. Root and tuber vegetables, such as carrots, parsnips, 
beets, turnips, sweet potatoes, .etc. 

Recipe for canning root and tuber vegetables. 

Grade for size, color, and degree of ripeness. Wash 
thoroughly. Use vegetable brush. Scald in boiling hot water 
sufficiently to loosen skin. Plunge quickly in cold water. Scrape 
or pare to remove skin. Pack whole or cut in sections or cubes, 
as required by the home or market standard. Add boiling hot 
water and one level teaspoon ful of salt to the quart. Place rub- 
bers and tops in pos : tion. Partially seal, but not tight. (Seal 
tin cans.) Sterilize 110 minutes in hot- water bath outfit; 20 
minutes in water-seal outfit ; 75 minutes in steam-pressure outfit 
under 5 pounds of steam ; 45 minutes in aluminum pressure- 
cooker under 20 pounds of steam. 

Special vegetables. Tomatoes and corn. 

Recipe for canning tomatoes. — Grade for size, ripeness, 
and color. Scald in hot water enough to loosen skins. Plunge 
quickly in cold water. Remove. Core and skin. Pack whole. Fill 
container with whole tomatoes only. Add one level teaspoonful 
of salt to each quart. Place rubber and cap in position. Par- 
tially seal, but not tight. (Tin cans should be sealed.) Sterilize 


25 minutes in hot-water bath outfit; 22 minutes in water-seal out- 
fit; 18 minutes in steam-pressure oufit under 5 pounds steam; 12 
minutes in alumnium pressure cooker under 20 pounds steam. 
Remove jars. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test joints. 
Wrap jars. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test joints. Wrap 
jars in paper and store. 

Recipe for canning sweet corn on the cob. — Can corn the 
same day picked. Remove husks, silks, and grade for size. 
Blanch on the col) in boiling water 5 to 15 minutes. Plunge 
quickly in cold water. Pack ears, alternating butts and tips, in 
half gallon glass jars or golden tin cans. Pour over boiling hot 
water and add 2 level teaspoonfuls of salt to each gallon. Place 
rubbers and tops in position. Seal partially but not tight. (Seal 
tin cans.") Sterilize in hot water bath outfit 220 minutes, one 
period; 40 minutes in water-seal outfit; 75 minutes in steam- 
pressure outfit under 5 pounds steam; 45 minutes in aluminum 
pressure cooker under 20 pounds steam. Remove jars. Tighten 
covers. Tnvert to cool and test joints. Wrap glass jars with 
paper and store. 

Note. — When sweet corn is taken from jar or tin can for 
table use. remove ears as soon as jar or can is opened. I Teat corn, 
slightly buttered, in steamer. Do not allow ears to stand in 
water or to be boiled in water the second time. 

Recipe for canning sweet corn cut from cob. — Can the same 
day as picked. Remove husks and silks. Planch on the cob 
in boiling hot water 5 to 15 minutes. Plunge quickly in cold 
water. Cut the corn from the cob with a thin, sbarp-bladed 
knife. Pack corn in jar tightly until full. Add one level tea- 
spoonful of salt to each quart and sufficent hot water to fill. Place 
rubber and top in position ; seal partially but not tight. ( Seal tin 
cans.") Sterilize 220 minutes in hot-water outfit; 110 minutes in 
water-seal outfit; 75 minutes in steam-pressure outfit under 5 
pounds of steam; 45 minutes in aluminum pressure cooker under 
20 pounds of steam. Remove jars. Tighten covers. Tnvert to 
cool and test joints. Wrap with paper and store. 

Other vegetables, such as Lima beans, string beans, peas, okra. etc. 

Recipe for canning. — Can same day veletables are picked. 
Cull, string, and grade. Planch in boiling hot water for 2 to 5 
minutes. Remove and plunge quickly in cold water. Pack in 
container until full. Add boding hot water to fill crevices. Add 
one level teaspoon ful of salt to each quart. Place rubbers and 
tops in position. Partially seal, but not tight. (Seal tin cans.) 
Sterilize in hot-water bath outfit one period of 145 minutes; 110 
minutes in water-seal outfit : 75 minutes in steam-pressure outfit 
under 5 pounds steam ; 50 minutes in aluminum pressure cooker 


under 20 pounds of steam. Remove jars. Tighten covers and 
invert to cool. Wrap jars in paper and store. 

Pumpkin and squash. 

Recipe for canning pie filling". — Cut up into convenient sec- 
tions. Core and remove skins. Cook for 30 minutes to reduce 
to pulp. Pack in glass jars or tin cans. Add 1 cup of sugar 
and 1 teaspoon ful of salt to each quart of pulp. Place rubber 
and top in position. Partially seal, but not tight. Sterilize 75 
minutes in hot-water bath outfit; 60 minutes in water-seal outfit; 
50 minutes in steam-pressure outfit under 5 pounds of steam ; 40 
minutes in aluminum pressure cooker under 20 pounds of steam. 
Remove. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test joints. Wrap 
in paper and store. 

Recipe for canning for special dishes fried, creamed, 
baked. — Cut pumpkin or squash into small, uniform size cubes. 
Blanch in boiling water for 10 minutes. Plunge quickly in cold 
v/ater. Pack in jar until full. Add boiling hot water and 1 level 
tcaspoonful of salt to the quart. Place rubbers and caps in posi- 
tion, but not tight. Sterilize 75 minutes in hot-water bath outfit ; 
55 minutes in water-seal outfit; 40 minutes in steam-pressure out- 
fit under 5 pounds steam ; 30 minutes in aluminum pressure 
cooker under 15 pounds of steam. 


Remove the skin of the eggplant and slice across the fruit. 
Make slices about one-half or three-fourths of an inch tlrck. 
Blanch 3 minutes in boiling water to which has been added a 
tablespoon ful of salt per quart. Plunge into cold water and pack 
in glass jars. Fill with boiling hot water and add a level tea- 
spoonful of salt per quart. Put rubber and cap in position, not 
tight. (Cap and tip if using enameled tin cans.) If using a hot- 
water bath outfit, sterilize 60 minutes; if using a water-seal outfit 
or a 5 pound steam-pressure outfit, sterilize 45 minutes ; or if 
using an aluminum pressure-cooker outfit, sterilize 30 minutes. 
Remove jars. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and test the joints. 
Wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching and store. 


Use the flowered portion. Blanch 3 minutes. Plunge into 
cold brine (one-half salt to 12 quarts water.) Allow cauliflower 
to remain in this brine for 12 hours. Pack in glass jars or 
enameled tin cans.' Fill with boiling water and level teaspoonful 
of salt per quart. Put rubber and cap in position, not tight. (Cap 
and tip if using enameled tin cans.) If using a hot- water bath 


outfit, sterilize 45 minutes ; if using; a water-seal outfit, sterilize 
35 minutes; if using a 5-pound steam-pressure outfit, sterilize 30 
minutes; or if using an aluminum pressure-cooker outfit, sterilize 
20 minutes. Remove jars. Tighten covers. Invert to cool and 
test the joints. Wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching and 

The use of tin cans. 

The use of tin cans is regarded as entirely practical for the 
home canning of surplus fruits and vegetables of the farm. Their 
use for this purpose is recommended because it simplifies the can- 
ning operation. The use of tin cans for the canning of surplus 
fruit and vegetables has the further advantage that products so 
.packed are easily handled in transportation and storage. 

In the canning of green vegetables, meats, fish, rhubarb, ber- 
ries, pumpkins, squash, beets, etc., however, the lacquered (en- 
ameled) can should be used because these products may contain 
substances which dissolve the tin of the ordinary cans, and thus 
the food may be rendered harmful to health. 

Canning fruit juices. 

In order to can fruit juices, the first important thing to pro- 
vide is a fruit press, cider mill, or some kind of contrivance or 
device which will make it easy and practicable to press the juice 
from the fruit. 

In most cases the canning of fruit juices or sterilization can 
be accomplished in very much the same way as the canning of 
the fruit itself, except in preliminary steps and in the methods 
of rinsing, scalding, and peeling the fruit before pressing and in 
a slight difference in the amount of time required. Fruit juices 
?.s a rule will not stand as much cooking or as high a temperature 
during the sterilization period without the danger of destroying 
the natural fruit flavor. 


Wash stalks clean. Cut into pieces three-fourths of an inch 
in length. (Do not remove skin.) Blanch 2 minutes. Cold dip. 
Pack in glass jars. (Do not use tin cans.) Pour on thick syrup, 
boiling. Put rubber and cap in position, not tight. (Cap and tip 
if using enameled tin cans.) Tf using a hot-water bath outfit, 
sterilize 20 minutes; if using a water-seal outfit or a 5-pound 
steam-pressure outfit, sterilize 10 minutes. Remove jars. Tighten 
covers. Invert to cool and test the joints. Wrap jars with paper 
t< prevent bleaching and store. 


and Double Disc 

The mechanism, style, finish and 
every detail of the COLUMBIA 
products are as near perfection as 
possible. Let us send you cata- 
logue of Machines and Records. 
We can arrange terms. 





Co-op. Furniture 

COinpany Salt Lake Gty, Ulah 
W. N. WILLIAMS. Supt. 


Relief Society Magazine 


"Ring the Bell! 

You furnish the "BELLE" and 
we'll supply the RING 

McCONAHAY the Jeweler 


Z. C. M. I. 

M \M'f A' I I' 


The "LEADER" and OVER- 


For the long hike there is no shoe 

Cheap, Comfortable, Serviceable 

Z. C. M. I. Overalls 

are Honestly Made and 
Guaranteed t< r Wear 

Our Combination 
Suit is especially 
suitable for Farm- 
ers, Laborers, 
Mechanics, En- 
gineers, Automo- 
bilists, etc. . . . 

Travel More Locally 

7 — zi — % 

/Utile Cost % 

i ^** \ 

^ Oregon Short Dne% 



jtak yourjtgani for Details 

»em for uuiiM-MBa % 


Enjoy a 


at Our Expense 

Send for our l>i^ FREE Catalog, 
and set' Just which style you 
want. Choose your records from 
a list of thousands. We'll send 
the outfit on FREE TRIAL- NQ, 
MONEY DOWN. Return it 
after i rial ii m>i satisfactory. 
EASY TERMS if you keep it 
Mention thin paper when you it-rite 



Salt Lake City, Utah 


When you think of marriage, think 

of us, we will gladly 

send san pies 

Prices range from 
$6.75 per 100 up 

Sait Lake 

"Civilization begins and ends with the plow." — Robert*. 

Utah Agricultural College 


Devoted to the ideal of extending the blessings of edu- 
cation to every fireside. 

Firm in the conviction that a favorable home life is the 
Nations greatest asset. 





The College offers work in all the branches of Home 

Further information furnished on request. 

Address: The President, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 


Garment Wearer's Attention 


A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 
all L. D. S. "Ten pie Brand" garments. Be sure it i& in those you buy. If your 
leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, 6elect your v/ants from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

Cotton, bleached, gauze weight 1-35 

Cotton, bleached, medium weight 1.50 

Cotton, bleached, medium heavy 1.75 

Cotton, unbleached, heavy weight 1.75 

Lisle, blesched, gauze weight 2.00 

Lisle, bleached, light weight 1.75 

Fleeced cotton, bleached, heavy 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, light weight 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, medium weight 3.00 

Wash-shrunk wool, medium weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk wool, heavy weight 3.00 

Silk and wooL medium weight „ 3.50 

Australian wool, medium weight „ 3.50 

Australian wool, heavy weight — 6.00 



American River 


Spend your vacation in 


Visit Lake Tahoe ('"Killarney" 
of America) 



Let me arrange your Itinerary and Res- 

District Passenger Agent, 
203 Walker Bank Bldg. 

Wasatch 6610 





JULY, 1917 

Have You Planted Corn and Beans? 

How Much can You Save This Year? 

Have You Ordered Your Pressure 

Arn't You Proud of the Relief Society 
Red Cross Donation? 

Now for a Patriotic, Sane Fourth 
and Twenty-Fourth. 


Pure Beet Sugar 

Does it pay to buy foreign 
sugar, shipped to the west, 
when we produce perfect 
sugar here? You'll always 

ISnrm F0K1I 

Jihk and Preserving Sugar 

as pure, as white and as sweet 
as any sugar made. Be loyal 
to home industry while you 
are being loyal to your own 
interests, and insist on this 
sugar of quality. 

Made by 


Joseph F. Smith, President 

Thos. R. Cutler, 
Vice-President and Gen'l Mgr. 


Family Record of Temple Work jor 
the Dead. A simplified form, with 
complete instructions for properly re- 
cording this work. 

L. D. S. Family and Individual Record 
Arranged specially for recording in a 
most desirable and concise form, im- 
portant events in the lives of the mem- 
bers of the Church. These books are 
sold at $1.25 each. 

Deseret News Book Store 

When WE make your Portaits, 
YOU get the correct style, ex- 
cellence and satisfaction 

The Thomas 

Phone Was. 3491 44 Main St. 

Established 1877 

Phone Was. 1370 



35 P. 0. PLACE 




// not, why not? 

The book will help you in your Theology Lessons, it will give you a greater 
insight and love for the Bible characters, and will also make you glad that you 
are a woman and a sister to these good and glorious women who lived and 
loved and suffered even as we do today. 

Buy one for yourself, your mother, daughter or friend. Price, 75c. 
For sale by 

Deseret News Book Store 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JULY, 1917 

In Memory of 1347 Hazel Washburn 361 

Epistle to the Relief Society Concerning these War Times. 363 

First Winter in Salt Lake City, 1847. .Diantha Loivry Reid 366 

What Women Can Do in Canning - . . 369 

Mothers in Israel Mary A. S. W inters 371 

Object, Origin an:l Destiny of Women. .Prest. John Taylor 377 

Are We Wise? Grace Jacobson 379 

Mother Entertains Diantha Parrish 380 

How to Make a Homemade Fireless Cooker 386 

The Iceless Refrigerator 387 

Home Entertainments Morag 388 

President Joseph F. Smith on Card Playing 390 

Current Topics James H. Anderson 392 

Home Science Department Janette A. Hyde 395 

Notes from the Field Amy Brown Lyman 399 

Editorial 405 

Guide Lessons 409 


Patronize those who advertise with us. 


BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE CO., Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City. 


CO-OP. FURNITURE CO., Salt Lake City. 

DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 45 Main St, Salt Lake City. 


Temple Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
KEELEY ICE CREAM CO., 55 Main, 260 State Streets, Salt Lake City. 
MERCHANTS' BANK, Third South and Main Streets, Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, THE JEWELER, 64 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 30 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 
SANDERS, MRS. EMMA J., Florist, 278 So. Main St., Salt Lake City. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC RY., Second Floor, Walker Bk. Bldg., Salt Lake City. 
THOMAS STUDIO, Photographs, 44 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 E. First So. St., Salt Lake City 
"WOMEN OF THE BIBLE," by Willard Done. 
Z. C. M. I„ Salt Lake City. 


: % 


It's *o handy to step into the 
Merchants Bank; right on your 
way. Located on one of the 
busiest corners in Salt Lake — 
Main and Broadway. Easily 
reached from any part of the 

With this convenience, you re- 
ceive courteous service. Our 
officers consider it a part of 
their days work to give depos- 
itors the attention and service 
they need. 

You will feel at home in this 
open-hearted institution. 

"77ie Bank with a Personality" 

Merchant's Bank 

Capital, $250,000 

Member of Salt Lake Clearing House 

John Pingree, President; O. P. 

Soule, V. P.; Moroni Heiner, V. P. ; 

Radcliffe Q. Cannon, L. J. Hays, 

ant Cas" ' 



Corner Main and Third .south, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

V J 




Paper Binding 25c Postpaid 

Deseret Sunday School Union Book Ston 

44 East on South Temple 
Salt Lake City, - Utah 


Mrs. Emma J. Sanders 

278 South Main Street 

Schramm- Johnion No. 5 

Phone Watatch 2815 
Salt Lake City. - Utah 


The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by the payment of a small monthly amount. 
The moment you sign you policy your burial expenses are assured without 
burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY 


Beneficial Life Insurance Company 
Relief Society Department 





"Banking Perfection 
under U. S. Inspection" 

One of the largest 
banking institutions of 
the West with ample 
resources and unexcelled facilities 


Joteph F. Smith, President 
Heber J. Grant, Vice-President 
Rodney T. Badger, Vice-Prest. 
Henry T. McEwan, Cashier. 
Georte H. Butler. Aftt. Cashier 

Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 

S.M. TAYLOR & Co. 

Undertakers and Embalmerp 

Successors to 

Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the Vest 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

Efficient Service, Modern Methods 
Complete Equipment 


O come with me a little way — 

We'll turn time's pages back again, 
And gaze as at a long lost scroll. 

(Tis scarcely three-score years and ten). 

Dost see that stretch of sage-brush land? 

How grim, forbidding it appears ; 
How dead and changeless it must be, 

Deserted lain, for countless years. 

And note the soil, the hard backed clay, 
'"Twas never done, 'twill never be." 
"It can't be done," the doubters say. 
Their leaders answer, "Wait and see." 

Now look again, the scene is changed, 

And far and near on every side 
The valley teeming with full life 

Where Israel's chosen ones reside. 

Gone are those dauntless pioneers 

'Who builded better than they knew. 
Their children reap w : th love and tears, 
Yet, let us hope, with hearts as true. 

Hazel Washburn. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. IV. JULY, 1917. No. 7. 

Epistle to the Relief Society Con- 
cerning these War Times. 

Dear Sisters: It is natural that our hearts and emotions are 
stirred to the utmost in this crucial time of the world's history. 

At present our country is at war with another great and 
powerful nation. We would invite your strict attention to the 
remarks made by President Joseph F. Smith in our last confer- 
ence : 

"the spirit which the latter-day saints should manifest 


"Speaking of the posibility of conflict, of war, I exhort my 
friends, the people of our country, especially in this intermount- 
ain region, to maintam above all other things the spirit of hu- 
manity, of love, and of peace-making, that even though they may 
be called into action they will not demolish, override and destroy 
the principles which we believe in, which we have tried to incul- 
cate, and which we are exhorted to maintain ; peace and good 
will toward all mankind, though we may be brought into action 
w'th the enemy. I want to say to the Latter-day Saints who may 
enlist, and whose services the country mav require, that when they 
become soldiers of the State and of the Nation that they will not 
forget that they are also soldiers of the Cross, that they are min- 
isters of life and not of death ; and when they go forth, they 
may go forth in the spirit of defending the liberties of mankind 
rather than for the purpose of destroying the enemy. If we could 
convert them to peaceful ways and to the love of peace without 
destroying them, we would become saviors of men. And it is 
abominable that men who engage in the great and grand and 
necessary duty of protecting and guarding our Nation from the 
encroachments of wicked enemies, cruel and destructive foes, 
should not maintain among themselves lives of honor, virtue, pu- 
rity and of immunity from sin and crime of every kind. It is a 
disgraceful thought that a man to become a soldier should be- 
come a rake and abandon himself to cr'me and wickedness. Let 


the soldiers that go out from Utah be and remain men of honor. 
And when they are called obey the call, and manfully meet the 
duty, the dangers, or the labor, that may he required of them, or 
that they may he set to do; hut to do it with an eye single to the 
accomplishment of the good that is aimed to be accomplished, 
and not with the blood-thirsty desire to kill and destroy." 

If our sons are called to go to the front, it is in this spirit 
that we want them to accept the call, and we shall remain at home 
in faith and with courage that they shall be .preserved in life or 
in death in the faith of the gospel." 

'We urgently advise all our sisters to keep the even tenor of 
their ways, making homes clean, comfortable and peaceful; ad- 
minister in the spirit of love and patience to your husbands and to 
your children; guard the little ones; do not permit them to im- 
bibe the spirit of intolerance or hatred to any nation or to any 
people; keep firearms out of their hands; do not allow them to 
play at war nor to find amusement in imitating death in battle ; 
inculcate the spirit of loyalty to country and flag, but help them to 
feel that they are soldiers of the Cross and that if they must needs 
take up arms in the defense of liberty, of country and homes they 
shall do so without rancor or bitterness. 

Avoid all discussions of a political and war-time nature in 
ycur meetings and in the homes. Instruct teachers not to enter 
into discussions concerning the war, especially in homes where 
naturalized foreigners live. Teach the peaceable things of the 
kingdom. Keep cool ; cultivate the spirit of calmness, love and 
peace. Do not lose your head, for a distracted person has neither 
sense nor sanity. 

Look after the needy more diligently than ever. In these 
times of raised prices and inflated food values we fear that there 
are those who may suffer in silence for want of a helping hand. 
Y<>ur duty lies first to these in your locality. Remember the aged 
and care for the orphans and widows. So long have the women 
of thi< Society been trained in the kindly virtues of generosity 
and noble charity that we have little fear concerning your attitude 
in this crisis. Our only fear is lest some of our more generous 
members allow themselves to become over-zealous and over-en- 
thusiastic, thus wasting strength, time and means. 

Many questions come to us concerning our attitude towards 
national and local patriotic organizations. The General Board 
have appointed a "War Relief Committee, with Mrs. Clarissa Smith- 
Williams as chairman of that Committee. All of our efforts to 
assist with means, with clothing, or food supplies, indeed any and 
every phase of loyal assistance to our government, will be placed 
under the direct charge of this committee. Proper instructions, 
with all necessary details will be forwarded in good time to our 
stake presidents. Meanwhile, the important thing is to be patient 


and calm. We don't want to knit np quantities of wristers and 
socks which may prove unsatisfactory or unnecessary, because of 
haste and lack of concerted action. When we move, we want to 
move as a solid unit. This is our greatest world opportunity to 
prove the superiority of our methods, our ideals and our long 
training. We have long been told we should lead the world — 
let us not forget that leaders are wise — leaders are never stam- 
peded, leaders are obedient to law. Above all, we want to so clar- 
ify our plans and unify our action that whatever we accomplish 
shall glorify this Societv and the Church through supreme effi- 
ciency and concerted action. 

Be assured that the woman who plants and reaps this year, 
who saves and economizes, is rendering her country her greatest 
possible service. An army travels on its stomach. Potatoes are 
needed more than wristers, beans more than socks. Millions of 
city women can and will knit for the soldiers and sailors, but only 
women in agricultural districts may help to avert the famine and 
want which is likely to sweep the whole world. 

We are gratified to notice in the telegraphic dispatches that 
the Woman's National Defense Committee, appointed by Presi- 
dent Wilson, of which Dr. Anna Howard Shaw is president, and 
which organization stands at the head of all the societies, clubs, 
and associations of women in the United States, named Mrs. Clar- 
issa S. Williams as Utah chairman. We rejoice in the enlarged 
opportunity this offers, and feel sure that results will prove to the 
headquarters in Washington, as well as to our own members, the 
wisdom of this choice. 

Mrs. Janette A. Hyde has also been chosen by the Governor 
to act upon the Utah State Food Conservation Committee. This 
action permits the wider scope of our associations with the Agri- 
cultural College at Logan and with the food question generally 
throughout the State. Our Committee have all plans matured for 
demonstrations in canning and drying vegetables and fruits, to be 
held in every stake during the summer season. 

In all our labors, however, we desire to keep closely to- 
gether, under the banner of the Relief Society, not diverting our 
resources or scattering- our energies by joining with this and that 
movement and organization. There is plenty of scope and oppor- 
tunity for every gift, talent, and effort of the women of this people 
in the Relief Society, and we would always invite your loyal 
devotion to the interests and objects of this great organization. 


Prest. Smith said further : 

"Charity, or love, is the greatest principle in existence. If 
we can lend a "helping hand to the oppressed, if we can aid those 
who are despondent and in sorrow, if we can uplift and ameli- 


orate the condition of mankind, it is onr mission to do it. it is 
an essential part of our religion to do it. And I say to our friends 
present that we have an organization in the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints that is perfect in its operation, by 
which we may call today to almost the whole Church, for aid, and 
tomorrow we will receive returns with the generous contributions 
that are freely given for a good cause, and it will cost nobody 
a cent. Every dime contributed for the benefit of the poor goes 
to the poor, and is not consumed by charitable organizations, 
who collect and handle means intended for the poor, and are 
paid for their services, thus absorbing a large percentage of the 
means contributed for the benefit of the poor, by those who are 
not poor. I wish to announce that to our friends. The Latter-day 
Saints know this, they understand it. They have recollection of 
recent events in which, within twenty-four hours or thereabouts, 
the people of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
contributed somewhere near $35,OCO. and it was sent to the 
afflicted people of Europe that were suffering; in consequence of 
war. and it was put into hands who would distribute it wisely tj 
those who needed, without cost to anybody; and a portion of that 
fund, which was not distributed, remains to be dealt out to those 
who are really in need as their circumstances require." 

We close this epistle with another extract from the inspired 
discourse of President Smith, at our last conference. Let this be 
onr watchword and let these sentiments animate every woman in 
the Relief Society : 

"We admonish, we beseech our brothers and s : sters in the 
gospel of Jesus Christ, not only to honor themselves by a proper 
course of living, but also to honor and love and be charitable to 
your neighbors, every one of you. We admonish you not only to 
keep the greatest of all the commandments that has ever been 
given of God to man, to love the Lord your God, with all your 
heart and mind and strength, but we exhort you al^o to observe 
that second law. next unto it. to love your neighbors as your- 
selves ; return good for evil, do not revile others because you 
arc or may be reviled. YVe have no need to tear .down the houses 
of other people (using this expression as a symbol). We are per- 
fectly willing that they should live in the homes they have erected 
for themselves, and we will try to show them a better way. While 
we will not condemn that which thev love and cherish above all 
other things in the world, we will endeavor to show them a better 
way and build them a better home and then invite them kindly, 
in the spirit of Christ, of true Christianity, to enter the better 
dwelling. That is the principle, and T wish to impress it upon 
you." Emmeline P. Wells, Pres : dent, 

Clarissa S. Williams, 1st counselor, 
Julina L. Smith, 2nd counselor 

First Winter in Salt Lake City, 1847 

By Diantha Lowry Reid. 

Conditions of the Pioneers in Salt Lake Valley during the 
winter of '47 were anything but pleasant. The fort which they 
had built was surrounded on the north, west, and south sides by 
an adobe wall, while log-houses formed the south side. These 
houses were built with the front facing the inside of the fort, but 
each one had a look-out in the east side from which to watch- 
Lorenzo D. Young's house being the only one built outside the 
fort. It stood where the Beehive house was afterwards built. 

The first part of the winter was somewhat mild, still there 
was rain and snow which, however, melted and came through 
the roofs of the houses much the same as if there had been no 
roof at all, and the women would often have to do their work 
while holding an umbrella over them. 

Mice of a large size gave them much trouble ; also bed-bugs, 
which had been brought from the mountains in the green timber. 
The Indians were numerous, though they did not give the pioneers 
much trouble, other than begging, but they fought among them- 


The year 1847 had been such an eventful year to this little 
band of Pioneers ; they had left their comfortable homes, crossed 
the trackless plains, reached this region inhabited only by the red 
man and wild animals, to make their new homes. Arriving in 
July, they had some little time to build before the winter came 
upon them ; but the year was swiftly drawing to its close, it was 
New Year's eve; Christmas day was not celebrated in the early 
Pioneer days. The arduous work of the day was done — for they 
were a busy people— they had laid the : r tired bodies down to rest 
with their minds filled with the events of the past year— the com- 
fortable homes, the pleasant scenes they had been compelled to 
leave, with doubts and fears and hopes for the coming year. 
But in their hearts was peace, for they knew that the hand of God 
v/as over all, and had led them here, and could still protect them. 

Snow had fallen during the day, but in the evening the clouds 
disappeared, and the stars shone forth. Darkness silently spread 
ner shroud over the earth, and night in her glory reigned su- 
preme. There in the midst of that broad valley, by the side of 
the frozen stream, stood that humble little fort, like a speck upon 
a vast plain. To the north and east were the towering mountains, 
like sentinels still, as the ages past and gone— true to their 
vidls over all that nestled at their feet. The valley stretched 


away to the south in an even, unbroken plain, while far to the 
west — spreading itself over miles and miles, lay that wonderful 
salt sea, its waters shimmering, sparkling in the pale light of the 
new moon as it slowly settled itself to rest behind the western 
horizon; and over all this scene lay the soft mantle of newly 
fallen snow. We may imagine that from the flag staff on 
Ensign peak, hung the emblem of peace, and ever and anon 
unfolded itself to the breezes, as a silent reminder to 
that little hand that the Stars and Stripes still waved over 
the homes of the brave. In their dreams, they heard thr 
church-bells tolling a solemn dirge as they hade fare- 
well to the parting year, gone, gone forever, to add one more 
scene to old Father Time. Now they peel forth their welcome 
to the birth of the New Year ; they hear the merry jests of the 
dancers as their feet keep time to the music that floats out upon 
the night air, as they dance the old year out, and the New Year in. 
This is a dream of the past, for in reality the scenes that sur- 
rounded our pioneers were far different. In the distance, along 
the creek, to the east, scattered here and there, is the wigwam of 
the red man, and as their fires, which are never allowed to go out, 
burn low. a dusky form appears to replenish their store of fuel. 
The blaze casts its fitful glare out over the snow-covered earth, 
causing the shadows of root-lxwnd objects to rise and fall like 
the forms of some marauder trying to escape in the darkness. 

The silence is suddenly disturbed by a succession of quick, 
sharp barks, with a prolonged, weird howl of some lonesome 
wolf; its mate some distance off catches up the note, and passes 
it on to the next of its kind, until there are hundreds chanting 
their hideous yells, which make the hdls and valley echo, and 
re-echo with their unwanted discord. Night wanes, and the morn- 
ing dawns bright and clear. Within that little fort, there is the 
hustle of life as friend greets friend with the old familiar wish, — 
"Happy New Year." During the day, they gather together in 
worship, and praise their God from whom all blessings flow. 
Another year has sprung into existence, and they wonder what 
:tc. harvest will bring. 


A suit case or valise that is allowed to be knocked about in 
rutomobiles and stages soon becomes shabby if not disreputable. 
Buy a couple of yards of duck or linen, or some strong, dark- 
colored material: set in two pieces at each en 1 of the folded 
pieces: bind and sew buttons on to fasten over valise. 

Wnat Women Can Do in Canning. 


When on a recent visit to the St. Johns and Snowflake 
stakes of Zion, Sister Empey and the Editor were filled with 
sympathy for the struggles of the people there, and with admira- 
tion for the courage and initiative with which the women of those 
stakes have met the terrible reverses and losses through alternate 
food and .drought which have afflicted them in the last three 

While in St. Johns we were entertained at the home of 
Sister Udall and, notwithstanding the many trials these worthy 
people have endured, we found that brave and resourceful wom- 
an with a beautifully furnished home and a comfortable larder. 
The canned vegetables, especially the canned string-beans served 
at her table, filled our minds with admiration and our inner man 
with satisfying suppers. The name of the string-beans which 
she and others of this town had put up we give here so that all 
our readers may know the name of the very best string-beans we 
have ever eaten. They were the Kentucky Wonder and we 
scoured the town for seed beans to bring home and plant in our 
city gardens. 

What can be done by a woman of brains and resource was 
•demonstrated fully to us in our last dinner eaten in St. Joseph 
City. The President of the Relief Society, Sister Porter, took 
all of our party out to her new home on the outskirts of the tiny 
city in her son's automobile. Here we found a small farm only 
three years old, but enclosed by a good fence, with a neat two- 
story house on it. The father and mother lived in half of the 
house while the son and his wife occupied the other portion of the 
house. The young married Mrs. Porter, we were happv to 
learn, is one of our Relief Society nurses, and she is certainly 
a woman of superior intelligence. Her generous mother-in-law 
gave her the credit for the many admirable and wonderful things 
which we found in this home. Here we found a cellar, very 
small, but very clean, cement lined and filled even now with 
canned vegetables and fruit. There were beans, peas, corn, to- 
matoes, cabbage, asparagus, eggplant, squash, cauliflower, and 
bottles and bottes of canned beef and mutton ; while the fruits, 
such as peaches, apricots, etc., helped to line the shelves with de- 
licious food stuffs. 

Talk about war times or food shortage ! These people had 
grown every one of the vegetables and fruits we saw, and instead 


of letting anything- go to waste they bottled it. Full of resources, 
this young woman could have found it possible to have put these 

ables into five-gallon cans if she could not have obtained 
sufficient bottles, as we used to do in the old times ; opening the 
cans in the middle of the winter, rescalding the contents and 
nutting them into quart bottles, which had by that time been 

This was not all — outside the door was a canvas home-made 
refrigerator, kept wet from a pan of water on top. The milk 
and butter inside were cool and fresh as if they were in the cellar. 
Xot only that, but beside this stood a home-made fireless cooker 
which served its purpose just as well as an expensive one bought 
from the stores. And again. — inside the sitting-room was an 
incubator and brooder where both eggs and chicks attracted the 
interested gaze of the visitors. 

What has been done by one woman can be done by any 
other woman. Every article of food which we had on our loaded 
dinner table, except the sugar, was raised on this small, new 
Arizona farm. Rest assured we got far more than our dinner in 
this progressive, up-to-date and lovely home. We came away 
filled with resolves, new motives and heavenly inspiration to 
"go and do likewise." What about you dear reader? Can't you 
join this up-to-date club of Relief Society workers and grow and 
bottle all vour food stuffs for next winter? 


When ink has been allowed to dry into cloth, it is often dif- 
ficult to remove. The following method can be relied on to take 
out every trace of stain and will not hurt the goods if care is 
taken. A careless worker, however, can leave the material so 
poorly rinsed that it will soon become full of holes. First, apply 
a strong solution of bichloride of lime to the stain and wash out 
immediately in soft, cold water. The spot will have turned a 
brownish yellow; repeat the process two or three times if neces- 
sary, to remove all the black from the stain. Then apply a strong 
solution of oxalic acid. The druggist will tell you the proper 
proportion of water to use in this bleach. Immediately after dip- 
ping in the acid, rinse well, which means time after time, till 
every trace of the acid is gone. The rinse water should be soft 
and cold. 

Mothers in Israel. 

(Continuation of M. D. Stearns-Winters Narrative.) 

The camp we left never caught up with us, and we traveled 
oil day after day making good progress and prospering as well 
as people on that journey could do. The teams had all settled 
down to good work, had become used to traveling, were easy to 
handle, there was an abundance of grass and we went on our 
way rejoicing that all was so well with us. I think there were 
twenty teams besides the buggy we had. Brother Joseph Russell 
had five wagons, a carriage and a buggy. Part of the wagons 
were loaded with the machinery for the first L T tah sugar factory 
that Brother Russell had largely helped to purchase. And he was 
also bringing material to help in building a home in the far off 
valleys of Ephraim. He and his wife were aged, and rather in- 
firm and not used to the rough life they were experiencing. Their 
son Archie, a young man of twenty-two years, was an invalid, with 
consumption, and died one month after reaching Salt Lake City. 
Brother Winters had charge of all their teams and drivers and 
was termed, in the parlance of the plains, their wagon master. 
He had a horse of his own and could go here and there to help 
wherever it was needed. Brother Bradshaw, the one who drove 
their carriage, was also cook for the teamsters at camping time. 
There was a young girl with them to help Sister Russell, and 
their numbers were about one-third of our little train. 

Others of our company were Brother Milliam, wife, daughter 
and son. Brother Frodsham, wife and three children, another 
family with four children and two wagons ; the others were 
couples without children. We had no captain or special or- 
ganization, but moved along peacefully and harmoniously, each 
striving to do his best for speed and progress. We were just 
beginning to enjoy the journey. Mother's health had improved 
greatly, she was gaining strength every day. Our team had be- 
come steady, we could get in the wagon whenever we needed to, 
the strain we had been under so long had given way to peace and 
comparative rest. We now began to find messages quite fre- 
quently from the companies ahead of us and found we were not 
far behind some of the later ones. They were large companies 
and often delayed for different reasons, and before many days we 
caught up with the eleventh company and traveled a few days 
near them, but our teamsters found that the larger the company 
the more obstacles there were to encounter, to make camp at night 
or to get started in the morning. The only trouble we were liable 


to encounter in that mode of traveling was the Indians, and as 
Brother Murie said, "We will go in faith that they will not trouble 
us," and I know that the blessing of the Lord was with us, for 
we saw very few Indians on the way, and nothing to harm or 
molest us. There was not an accident happened to any that were 
with us, nor a serious break of any kind. We never traveled on 
Sundays, but improved the rest of the time to the best advantage. 
We could now knit or sew comfortably, as the teams were jog- 
ging along on the level ground, and I made us some heavy skirts 
to use when the cool weather should come-, and knit some cotton 
stockings to weir as we were going along. We had a new wooden 
tub and we would put some cold water in it in the morning and 
set out butter and other things in it. cover it thickly and it an- 
swered quite a good purpose as a refrigerator — not making the 
butter exactly ice cold, but better than melted butter. Our morn- 
ing's milk we put in our new tea kettle, placed a cloth under the 
cover, put a cork in the spout and tied a cloth over that and tied 
it to the reach under the wagon; and no matter how hot the day 
was, the draft under the wagon made it very comfortable too 
for our dinner, for there was a piece of butter the size oi a 
teaspoon bowl, which was very fresh and sweet and the children 
took turns having it on bread. 

And so we plodded on day after day, sometimes making 
a fifteen-mile drive, but oftener twenty — no hurry — you could nol 
change the gait of the oxen, but had to wait patiently their mo- 
tion. No danger of getting left — most anyone can walk as fast as 
a yoke of oxen can travel. 

One day after a long forenoon drive our company concluded 
to camp for the night, and rest the teams for the longer journey 
of the next day. There were some little repairs to be attended 
to and mother and I thought this a good opportunity for us 
to clean house, or more correctly speaking, straighten up our 
wagon. Brother Murie and Brother Jones had gone with the 
herd, it being their turn to attend to that duty. Olivia and Moroni 
were there to help and we proceeded with much energy to the task 
before us. Mother handed out the things, the children and I 
carried them into the tent and we soon had the wagon cleaned to 
our entire satisfaction. The things were nearly all replaced, in 
order and convenience. The sky had clouded over, but the shade 
\ as so agreeable to us that we had failed to note how near the 
storm was aproaching till a vivid flash of b'ghtning and a tre- 
mendous clap of thunder told it had come. The children scamp- 
ered into the wagon, I ran into the tent to get another armful. 
but mother called. "Don't bring them out in the rain." so I was 
shut in the tent by myself. That terrible clap had seemed to rend 
the heavens asunder, and the water poured down in torrents and 
for hours we remamed in that situation — we could not hear each 



other speak or know what condition either was in. It thundered 
and it lightened till the flashes were hot in my face. And oh, how 
I did wish I was in with the others that we might all share the 
same fate. Mother had her watch, and the storm lasted just two 
hours, and stopped about as suddenly as it started and was much 
like the one at Loup Fork, except the wind. Our things were not 
much wet. The sun soon came out bright and warm and we were 
soon as well off as usual. 

I was about the first one out from shelter and I stepped 
1o a nearby wagon to inquire how they had fared in the storm. 
^nd when they spoke I raised the corner of the cover and the 
man said, harshly, 'Here, put that down, you will let the water in !" 

I did put it down quickly and ran into the tent and cried and 
cried and cried — it nearly broke my heart, for I was not use 1 to 
being spoken to in that way, but I forgave him long ago ami do 
not think of him as Mr. Crosspatch any longer, for I thought if 
his folks had to endure that kind of temper all the time I could 
surely put up with it for once ; but I did not go near that wagon 
again the whole journey though the women folks and I were very 
good friends. 

The next day we made a long drive and came to Wood 
River which was quite high on account of recent storm, and all 
hoped the river would be lower by morning. We went to sleep 
that night wishing we were on the other side and wondering 
how we would succeed in getting there. Three teams had crossed 
over and reported that the water had run into their wagon boxes, 




so the rest put blocks under their boxes and raised them up a few 
inches. The first wagons were loaded with machinery and wet- 
ting would not hurt as they would soon dry again, but the pro- 
visions would be spoiled by getting wet. Brother Winters on 
horse back rode at the lower side of the teams to keep them from 
turning down stream, and with help on either shore the teamsters 
waded in and landed safely on the other side. ( )ur team was the 
fourth to cross, and mother with the two children, drove in with 
the buggy, right behind them, she preferring to go that 
v/ay, and they made the voyage in safety. 1 went over 
in the carriage, and in the deepest place it floated a 
few feet, but the wheels soon struck the gravel again and 
we reached the other shore without harm. Each profited by 
the other's experience and the rest made the crossing with but 
little difficulty. The only article we lost on the journey was our 
Ratiron at this place. We had been using it and left it to cool till 
the last minute. Mother put it on the projections in the front of 
the wagon, thinking to go in and place it farther back, but they 
were ready to start and there was not time. The banks were 
steep and when they went down the iron slipped into the water. 
We heard the splash and Brother Murie tried to find it. but it was 
"gone beyond recall" and we had to borrow for the rest of the 

We went on much the same till we came to the Platte River, 
where we traveled along the north banks for over three weeks. 
Grass up to the wagon tracks, and each camp ground seemed 
the same as the night before, with the hot sun pouring down upon 
us all day, but we knew we were gaining miles on our journey 
and that made up for the discomforts attending it. That surely 
was "Plains" part of the jourrey, level as a field all the way, and 
if one lay down in the wagon for a sleep they never knew when to 
wake up for the jogging of the wagon would keep them sleeping 
all day. Our hands were so tanned that if we held them up at 
night one could count the white nails without a light. 

There was one thing that we enjoyed very much, and that was 
a bath in the river. The men of the camp found a convenient 
place down the river and had their swim in the day time. We 
could always tell, when they came into camp looking so fresh 
and clean, for most of the time they were a dusty looking lot. 
And the sisters each procured a bathing suit of some k : nd and we 
took our baths by starlight. We were afraid to go far from the 
shore on account of the quicksands. We would make a line from 
the nearest to the shore and the farthest ones out could get a good 
ducking without much danger. We were very still about it all, 
for we never could tell when Indians might be lurk:ng around, 
and we slipped into our beds as quiet as kittens, greatly refreshed 
and thankful for the opportunity. 


One night there came up a big wind storm, not rain, but a 
dry, hard wind, and it seemed to me that it blew harder and 
harder with every gust all night. Our wagon was just a few feet 
from the top of the bank and it was twenty feet down to the 
water, and 1 was on the side next to the river, and oh, how ! did 
suffer with fear that night. 1 thought 1 could feel the wagon 
tipping many times. Mother tried to comfort me, telling me of 
the many times the Lord had brought us through trying scenes in 
the past, and that His hand was still over us to protect and save. 
About daylight the wind began to abate and by sunrise it was a 
calm, still day again and we traveled on as usual. 

In a day or two some one discovered that there was some 
nice timber on the other side of the river — saplings that would 
make good whip stocks, and for some other things useful in camp, 
and a number started to go over and see what was to be found. 
My little brother with other little boys were down at the river 
having' a swim and he wanted to go over the river too, so one 
of the teamster boys told him if he would carry his clothes for 
him he might swim over on his back, but my brother did not take 
his own clothes and was there in the hot sun for several hours 
and when he got back his face looked very red and had a pe- 
culiar expression. He told mother he had been over the river, 
but as he was safely back again she did not censure him, but 
thought she would talk to him another time. She gave him 
something to eat and still the distressed look was on his face. 
She asked him if he was sick, but he said, "No," then she asked 
him if he had been hurt in any way and he said, "No," to that 
also. She told him he had better lie clown and rest, but he said 
he couldn't for his back hurt him, and when she looked, his back 
was as red as his face with numerous blisters all over it. She un- 
dressed him and applied a generous dose of cream and sweet 
oil and covered it with cotton batting, and he had to lie on his 
face to rest, for a number of days, and always remembered 
that the sun could make blisters. 

We had overtaken and passed several other companies, and 
cue day we came up w'th a company of Oregon emigrants and 
camped with them. They seemed quite well-to-do people and our 
company bought some provisions of them — some got flour and 
some dried fruit or whatever they had a surplus of. In the even- 
ing' one came over to talk with mother and she inquired if there 
was anyone that had some asafoetida that she could get. She 
had been in the habit of using it before she left home and had 
brought a quantity with her, but it was all gone and she was 
very miserable without it. Mother told her we had a piece some- 
where, but she didn't know whether she could find it. She re- 
plied, "O you must find it, I cannot be this near to it and not 
get some." She was over early the next morning, and mother 


hunted until she found it. (It was some we had at Kancsville 
■n the small-pox epidemic and the children had little bags with 
some of it hung round their necks), and it was strange the effect 
it had on her, for she said, "Now 1 will be all right," and she took 
it so caressingly in her hands saying, "Oh, 1 am so glad to get it 
and will pay you anything you ask." Mother told her she was 
perfectly welcome to it and was glad if it wouLd do her so much 
good, and she went back to her wagon a very happy looking 
woman. In a little while she came over again bringing a basin of 
beans and asked if we liked beans and could make use of them, re- 
marking that they were tired of them and had more than they 
C« uld use anyway. As we were Yankees we were as glad of the 
beans as she was of the asafoetida, and we had used what we 
had brought with us and were glad to have some more. Then 
mother told her we would be glad to buy whatever she had to 
spare, so she bought back a peck, charging fifty cents which she 
thought a very good price, as they were very cheap where she 
had lived, and their load would be that much ligther. They were 
just getting ready to leave camp, but as it was Sunday we were 
going to rest over, and when they commenced hitching on their 
teams the swearing began, and of all the oaths ever poured from 
mortal throats that beat all — for it was impossible to be any 
worse, and the nineteen year old step-son of the woman I have 
mentioned seemed to be past master of all the bad language in the 
universe, and it was said that all the company were about alike in 
that respect. We- were awe-struck and silent and felt like holding 
our breath till they got out of our hearing. And mother re- 
marked that if that young man's requests were heard and an- 
swered they would not be likely to get very far on their jour- 
ney. The father had died just before starting, but as there were 
ether relatives in the company the family had desired to go along. 
And now an event occurred which changed the current of 
life for me. 

Note. Here ends the clear and lovely recital penned by the 
hand of Mrs. Mary Ann Stearns Winters. The embodiment of 
modesty she ended her narrative where her marriage brought 
herself into the limelight. She could wfite of others and of 
childish falls and incidents — but not about her deepest mature 
emotions and experiences. The event she refers to was her mar- 
riage to the brave young teamster and pioneer, Oscar Winters, 
referred to in her story. On the 16 Aug., 1852, just before enter- 
ing the Valley the young couple were married by President 
Lorenzo Snow, who was on his return voyage from his mission 
to Italy. 

(to be concluded.) 

Object, Origin and Destiny of 

The following is taken from The Mormon, published in New 
York City by the late President John Taylor, of August 29, 1857, 
the paper containing it being furnished us by Robert Mann, of 
Plain City : 

The Latter-day Saints have often been ridiculed on account 
of their belief in the pre-existence of spirits and in marrying for 
time and for all eternity, both being Bible doctrines. We have 
often been requested to give our views in relation to these prin- 
ciples, but considered the things of the kingdom belonged to the 
children of the kingdom, therefore, not meet to give them to 
those without. 

But being very politely requested by a lady a few days since 
(a member of the Church) to answer the following questions, we 
could not consistently refuse; — viz., "Where did I come from? 
What is my origin? What am I doing here? Whither am I 
going? and, What is my destiny, after having obeyed the truth, 
if faithful to the end?" 

For her benefit and all others concerned we will endeavor to 
answer the questions in brief, as we understand them. 

The reason will be apparent for our belief in the pre-exist- 
ence of spirits, and in marrying for time and for all eternity. 

Lady — whence comest thou ? Thine origin ? What art thou 
doing here? Whither art thou going, and what is thy .destiny? 
Declare unto me if thou hast understanding? Knowest thou not. 
that thou art a spark of Deity, struck from the fire of His eternal 
blaze, and brought forth in the midst of eternal burnings? 

Knowest thou not that eternises ago, thy spirit, pure and 
holy, dwelt in thy Heavenly Father's bosom, and in His presence, 
and with thy mother, one of the queens of heaven, surrounded by 
thy brother and sister spirits in the spirit world, among the gods? 
That as thy spirit beheld the scenes transpiring there, and thou 
growing in intell : gence, thou sawest worlds organized and peopled 
with thy kindred spirits, took upon them tabernacles, died, were 
resurrected, and received their exaltation on the redeemed .worlds 
they once dwelt upon. Thou being willing and anxious to imitate 
them, waiting and .desirous to obtain a body, a resurrection and 
exaltation also, and having obtained permission, thou made a 
co\enant with one of thy kindred spirits to be thy guardian angel 
while in mortality, also with two others, male and female spirits, 
that thou wouldst come and take a tabernacle through their line- 
age, and become one of their offspring. Thou also chose a kin- 


dred spirit whom you loved in the spirit world, (and had per- 
mission to come to this planet and take a tahernacle ) to be your 
head, stay, husband and protection on the earth and to exalt you 
in the eternal worlds. All these were arranged, likewise the 
spirit that should tabernacle through lineage. Thou Longed, 
thou .sighed, and thou prayed to the Heavenly lather for the 
time to arrive when thou couldst come to this earth, which had 
fled and fallen from where it was first organized, near the planet 
Kolob ; leave thy father and mother's bosoms and all thy kindred 
spirits, come to earth, take a tabernacle, and imitate the deeds 
of those you had seen exalted before you. 

At length the time arrived and thou heard the voice of thy 
Father, saying, go daughter to yonder lower world, and take 
upon thee a tabernacle and work out thy probation with fear and 
trembling and rise to exaltation. But daughter, remember you 
go on this condition, that is, that you are to forget all things 
you ever saw, or knew to be transacted in the spirit world ; you 
ure not to know or remember anything concerning the same that 
you have seen transpire here ; but you must go and become 
one of the most helpless of all beings that I have created, while 
in your infancy; subject to sickness, pain, tears, mourning, sor- 
row and death. But when truth shall touch the cords of your 
heart they will vibrate; intelligence shall illumine your mind, 
and shed its lustre in your stud, and you shall begin to under- 
stand the things you once knew, but which had gone from you ; 
you shall then begin to understand and know the object of your 
creation. Daughter, go. and be faithful in your second estate, 
keep it as faithful as thou hast thy first estate. 

Thy spirit filled with joy and thanksgiving, rejoiced in thy 
lather, and rendered praise to his holy name, and the spirit 
world resounded in anthems of praise and rejoicing to the Father 
of spirits. 

Thou bade bather and mother and all farewell, and along 
with thy guardian angel, thou came on this terraqueous globe. 
The spirits thou had chosen to come and tabernacle through their 
lineage, and your head having left the spirit world some years 
previous, thou came a spirit pure and holy; thou hast taken upon 
thyself a tabernacle, thou hast obeyed the truth, and thy guardian 
angel ministers unto thee and watches over thee. 

Thou hast chosen him who loved thee in the spirit to l>e thy 
companion. Now crowns, thrones, exaltations and dominions are 
in reserve for thee in eternal worlds, and the way is opened for 
thee to return back into the presence of thy Heavenly bather, if 
thou wilt only abide by and walk in a celestial law. fill the designs 
of thy creation and hold out to the end. 

That when mortality is laid in the tomb, you may go down 
to your grave in peace, arise in glory, and receive your everlast- 

ARE W E WISE? 379 

ing reward in the resurrection of the just, along with thy head 
and husband. Thou wilt be permitted to pass by the gods anft 
angels who guard the gates, and onward, upward to thy exaltation 
in a celestial world among the gods. To be a priestess queen 
unto thy Heavenly Father, and a glory to thy husband and off- 
spring, to bear the souls of men, to people other worlds, (as thou 
( 1 idst bear their tabernacles in mortality) while eternity goes and 
eternity comes ; and if you will receive it, lady, this is eternal 
l'fe. And herein is the saying of the Apostle Paul fulfilled, "that 
man is not without the woman in the Lord, neither is the. woman 
without the man in the Lord." "That man is the head of the 
woman, and the glory of the man is the woman." Hence thine 
origin, the object of thy creation, and thy ultimate .destiny, if 
faithful. Lady, the cup is within thy reach, drink then the 
heavenly draught, and live. 

By Mrs. Grace Jacob sen. 

Are "we loving and kind to each other? 

Do we speak of each virtue and good 
That every one has in a measure? 

Do we treat every one as we should ? 

Do we magnify details, and clamor 
About the mistakes others make? 

Sit in judgment of others' intentions? 
If we do, then our love's a mistake. 

Do I watch for a chance at my neighbor 

To give him a cut, or a rap 
With my tongue, when I envy his .praises? 

If I do, my love's not worth a snap. 

The love that is true will not wound me. 
Nor harpoon my name at my back, 

And then when I meet yon. how pleasant! 
For loving and peace there's no lack. 

We should try, as we travel life's upland. 
To separate gold from the dross, 

And hold to the sunlight of true love 
The glittering dew in the moss. 

Mother Entertains 

By Diana Parrish. 
[sobel read in a flutter the letter which mother handed to her. 

"Wellington, New Zealand, July 3rd, 1915. 
"My Dear Mrs. Hartley: — Your friend Mrs. Wilson, whom 
I had the honor of meeting recently, has kindly given me your 
address. She assures me that you will not think it too great bur- 
den to show me about your city when I visit the United States. I 
am looking forward to my visit in your quaint city and trust that 
my presumption in asking to meet you and your family will not 
in any way discommode you. T expect to arrive there on the 
morning of August 1st. 

"Faithfully yours, 

"Edmund Benton, Bart." 

"Think of receiving a letter from a real baronet and in his 
own handwriting!" burst from the girl as she finished. "And 
look at the coat of arms embossed in colors. How lovely. 'Facta 
Non Verba.' I've forgotten all my Latin, but I believe it means 
'Deeds, Not Words.' Tsn't it wonderful, mother? We're going 
to entertain nobility." 

Mother smiled at her daughter's excitability and at the 
recollection of her own romantic ideas in her younger days. 

"My dear child, do you realize that we must have Sir Ed- 
mund for dinner? My chief worry at the present moment is 
that he arrives on the first of August, the worst of the 'dog days.' 
What in the world can we have that will be nice and cool ?" 

Tsobel looked up sharply from her close scrutiny of the 
baronet's letter. 

"Mother! You don't mean — you don't mean to ^ay you 
are going to serve a cold dinner ! Why, everybody knows that 
the proper English dinner always includes soup, prime roast 
beef with Yorkshire pudding, with plum pudding as the dessert. 

Mother paused. This difficulty had flashed through her 
own mind. 

"Our customs are not English, Isobel," said mother, finally, 
"I have decided that we will serve our usual dinner and put on 
no frills or fine feathers which would prove unbecoming. We 
don't want to be caught like jays with borrowed plumage." 

"Very well, if you feel that way about it. After all, it's 
your dinner. But I'd do it differently for a baronet — it's the 


chance of a life-time, and our ways are so awfully plain com- 
pared to things they are used to." 

"Can't you and Tom come around this evening? We'll talk it 
over then." 

"Yes, we can come. We'll be over early." >sobel rose and 
started home, brightening at the thought that perhaps she could 
persuade her mother to change her decision and give a dinner 
worthy of the occasion. 

Evening found the Hartley household seated around the 
library table earnestly discussing the entertainment of Sir Ed- 

"We'll have to say 'cawn't' and 'shawn't' won't we. mother? 
There's an English girl in my class at school and she always pro- 
nounces that way. She says that it isn't proper to speak with a 
yankee twang." Viola gravely made this important comment. 
While doing so. however, she could not resist the temptation of 
watching herself in the mirror and fluffing up her hair. 

"Oh. yes. and Beatrice must wear her hair down in curls 
with a big bow of ribbon at the back. A lot of English girls 
wear their hair down until they are seventeen. I've seen pictures 
of them." volunteered Mignon, eaeer that no detail likely to add 
to the glory of the occasion should pass unnoticed. 

"And we'll have to call mother 'mater' and father 'pater.' T 
see it that way in a lot of English stories T read." urged Viola. 
"We'd better begin to practice for there's only five davs before 
his lordship or whatever he is, comes. Pater, you'll have to 
have your mustache cut short in the middle with Ion? ends and 
then wax the ends into stiff points like spears. The Sundav 
paper fashion notes say that's the latest English style for men." 

"Yes. and get out that gray suit you put away, because it 
was too tight for you. All the skin-tight clothes the dudes are 
wearing about town are called the 'latest English stvles'." laughed 

Eather lost his serene countenance quicklv at the mention of 
his petted moustache. He frowned in recollection of the dis- 
carded suit which had proved so irritating to a man whose 
motto was first and last "solid comfort." 

"What's this, what's this?" he cried, affecting a fierce growl. 
"Is my liberty to be interfered with for this Sir Somebody? I'm 
a plain man used to plain ways and I must not be disturbed." 
Eather glared in mock ferocity at each member of the family and 
then resumed his reading. 

"Let's quit joking and get down to business. What shall we 
have for dinner? T thought T would begin with sliced fruit in 
place of soup — " 

Tsobel interruoted mother. "Can't T persuade you. mother, to 
serve a proper English dinner? Look, here's what T would sug- 


gest. I've written out a menu from an English cook hook 1 
found at the library — I just hod to run down there and hunt for 
something 1 after I left you. for we do want this dinner to he a 
grand affair. Think what it means? You, Mr>. Hartley, arc 
going to entertain Sir Edmund Benton !" The girl thrusl the 
written menu into her mother's hands. 

Even father put down his paper as mother read: 

Soup — Mulligatawny 

h'ish — Fried snapper 

Entree — Scrambled calves' brains 

Joint — Prime roast beef with Yorkshire pudding 

Vegetables — Raked potatoes, cauliflower and French beans 

/•"<>7i7 — Roast chicken with bread sauce 

Sweets — Raspberry tart 

Savory — Grilled sardines 

Biscuits and cheese — Fruits — Nuts 

Cafe Noir 

As mother finished, the family sat aghast. fsobel hastened 
to explain her plan. 

"We'll hire a waitress for the day and can easily manage 
everything then. Before hand one of the girls must act as the 
waitress and we must all practice being served from the lefthand 
side. Father must brush up on his carving, and mother must 
practice serving the vegetables when the maid brings her the 
plates on which father has put the meat. Sir Edmund will never 
know but what we do this all the time. To make the thing com- 
plete, before dinner, father must ask Sir Edmund if he wishes a 
whisky and soda and we must have wine for the dinner." 

Isobel's suggestions of coffee, of whisky and soda and wine 
came as quite a shock to the Hartleys, even though she assured 
them that her reference book had declared the liquor necessary. 

"I think it would make my head swim." confided Viola," and 
I wouldn't know what I was doing." 

"Nonsense," argued Isobel ; "you can't afford to be a little 
green-horn all your life. All the society people do it. and I'm 
sure Sir Edmund will expect it. I dare say he'd be insulted if you 
offered him water." 

"The wine wouldn't be so bad because we could mix water 
with it. like they do in France." Ilea commented. To her roman- 
tic young mind the idea of a fashionable dinner such as she read 
of in the "best -filers" was most fascinating. At last the family 
was to depart from the simple home dining which she considered 
most prosaic. They were to wine and dine somewhat after the 
fashion of royalty. 

"What do you think, father? Shall we lav aside our tern- 


perance rules this time in honor of our guest?" asked mother, 

"I'll leave the decision to you, mother, since it's in your de- 
partment, so to speak. I'm quite willing to abide your conclu- 

Mother glanced again over the astonishing menu. Then she 

"Well, since it's left to me, T shall decide to stay with our 
usual ways. We have never used stimulants because we consider 
them harmful. In my opinion it would be foolish to forsake our 
principles for fear of being thought queer. We ought to be will- 
ing to stay by them in spite of any one, be he prince or pauper. 
As to the English dinner, that, too, seems to me to be in poor 
taste, since it is summer, and the foods included are much too hot. 
You must not be offended, Isobel, because I do not follow your 
suggestions. You understand my position, don't you, dear?" 

"It's quite all right, mother. No doubt you know best," re- 
plied the daughter huskily. Deep down in her heart, however, 
she thought her mother was making a great mistake and would 
suffer the consequent disgrace before the noble and elegant per- 
sonage of Sir Edmund Benton, Bart. 

The day of Sir Edmund's arrival "dawned bright and clear" 
as the story books say. Judging from the red rays of the sun 
which blazed up behind the mountains at five in the morning, it 
would indeed be a "dog day." At six o'clock the family was astir. 
Mother came down stairs and spent an hour watering the flowers 
while she mentally reviewed her preparations. Father was down 
half an hour before her, putting the finishing touches to the newly- 
cut lawn and edges which were his pride and joy. Beatrice was 
bustling about to get a seven o'clock breakfast in order to have 
the kitchen cleared so that there would be no flurry over the din- 
ner preparations. Mignon was cutting exquisite roses still glow- 
ing under their pearls of dew. As she put them in the bowls she 
indulged in dreams of modern knights and lords who come to 
America in search of wives, and boldly snatch away lovely Amer- 
ican girls, the same acts being heralded as international alliances. 
The particular knight on whom her mind focused was named "Sir 
Edmund" and the beautiful American's name was "Mignon." 

By eleven o'clock the house was in order and the dinner well 
under way. Bob drove round in his car to take father to the sta- 
tion and Isobel arrived to lay the table. 

"How many places, mother?" she asked brightly. 


Isobel's face doubled in length. "Mother! surely you're not 
going to have the entire family! It's too many. It looks funny." 

"You surprise me, my dear," said mother, gently. 


"But it's such a crowd! The hoys have to work, so why nol 
lei them, and don't ask their wives. That way we'll only have 
seven sit down. Then have the others come later in the afternoon 
and introduce them gradually one by one and it won't be such a 
shock. I told Tom not to come until late. \ big family excites 
so much comment and especially with a nobleman. It's simply 
not being- done, nowadays, mother, it's simply not being done!" 

"I won't take offense at what you say, my dear," said mother, 
after a long pause. "I know you often speak before yon think. 
Lay the table for the entire family, and telephone Tom to be 
here by one o'clock for dinner." 

Mother went up-stairs to dress. 

Vs the time wore on the girls became more and more excited 
over the coming guest. 

"What do you think he will be like, Bea?" questioned Viola. 

"I hardly know, but I imagine he will be tall and slim, with 
wavy hair and face that looks as if it had been cut in ivory by a 
master hand." Bea let slip a love-sick sigh. 

"Yes, I think he will he tall, too," chipped in Mignon, "but 
he will have rosy checks and black hair and glorious eyes, more 
like the Irish." 

She gazed dreamily out the window. 

"How do you think he will be dressed?" demanded Bea. 

"A Prince Albert broadcloth suit." urged Isobel. 

" \ satin cut-a-way coat and knee breeches with diamond gar 
ters. T saw a picture of one in the Telegraph," interposed Viola 

"Like Lord Byron, with an open collar to show his beauti- 
ful throat." argued Mignon. 

Fanny and Geraldine appearing at that moment could not 
<|uite decide how they thought he would be dressed. 

"I rather think—" 

"Here he is now," whispered Bea, wildly. All rushed to the 
window to peek through the curtains. 

From the machine stepped a man of seventy. He was a trifle 
more than six feet tall, and to the surprised girls at the curtains 
appeared to be almost as many feel broad. His red face was cov- 
ered with a scragglv grav beard above which his mcrrv blue eve- 
roved and twinkled. Instead of the black satin court suit fancied 
by Bea, he luxuriated in a baggy tweed suit of the most conserv- 
ative style, which loosely hung to his gigantic frame. A battered 
felt hat set off his gray hair, which could not even by the wildest 
Fancy, have been called Byronic lock-. As if to make the picture 
more grotesque the noble visitor carried in one hand a dusty 
steamer rug rolled up firmly with great mysterious knobs poking 
out. knobs which no amount of firm rolling could disguise. In 
the other hand he clutched a huge, round, tin hat box painted yel- 


low, which looked so much like the tin cake box in the pantry that 
the girls plainly saw C-A-K-E printed across the front in bold 

Behind Sir Edmund, father, looking astonishingly fashion- 
able, heaved at a big wicker telescope-basket, extended to the 
last possible notch. Bob struggled smilingly under a brown 
canvas sea bag stuffed so full that it threatened to burst off the 
staunch padlock that held the steel rings around the top together. 

The girls never could remember how they greeted Sir Ed- 
mund when mother introduced them. The hour before dinner 
was always a trifle hazy. To Isobel. however, the sitting down 
at the table was painfully engraved in her memory. The noble 
visitor found himself face to face with fourteen, all one family. 

After grace was said the family began cautiously on the 
sliced fruit which stood at each place. Isobel fairly held her 
breath as Sir Edmund tasted his. She was dumbfounded to note 
that he appeared to eat it with pleasure. She watched his face 
as the girls brought in the chicken and the vegetables. If he 
missed his soup, he was too well-bred to show it. And he ate his 
salad with positive relish. Not only that, but he drank two glasses 
of water without making a face. As he accepted a second serv- 
ing of ice cream (quite as if he had never heard of plum pudding) 
he chatted in a fascinating manner of his work for the British 
government which carried him to every quarter of the globe. 

"The after-dinner coffee is the test.'' worried Isobel. "Mother 
might have given in on that score and saved the dinner." She was 
miserable as mother and father folded their napkins and their 
guest, watching them, laid his on the table. 

Suddenly Sir Edmund spoke again : 

"Mrs. Hartley, as my hostess, I am going to take the liberty 
of congratulating you on your dinner, even at the risk of appear- 
ing rude. From my point of view it was ideal, for I have been a 
seeker after health for years and have had to abide by certain 
rules, none of which have I had to break today in order not to 
offend my hosts. I could not begin to fill my state responsibili- 
ties and social obligations, if I did not live simply. We are bring- 
ing up our eight sons in the same way." 

Mother blushed in happy confusion. "Thank you, Sir Ed- 

Isobel wilted into her chair. 

How to Make a Homemade Fireless Cooker 

I he materials needed arc a box, or some other outside con- 
tainer, some good packing- material, a kettle for holding the food, 
a container for the kettle or a lining for the nest in which the 
kettle is to he placed, and a cushion or pad of insulating material 
to cover the top of the kettle. 

For the outside container a tightly built wooden box, an old 
trunk or small harrel may he used. The box should have a hinged 
cover, and at the front side a hook and staple or some device for 
holding the cover down. The container must be large enough for 
at least 4 inches of packing material all around the nest in which 
the kettle is placed. 

Kettle used for cooking should he durable and free from 
seams or crevices; should have perpendicular sides, and the 
covers should be as flat as possible and provided with a deep 
rim shutting well down into the kettle to retain the steam. The 
size of the kettle should he determined by the quantity of food to 
he cooked. 

As an extra source of heat a piece of soapstone. brick, or a 
stove lid may he used. This is heated and placed in the nest under 
the cooking vessel. In case these are used there must he a metal 
lining to the nest to prevent fire. 

For the packing and insulating material, ashestos and mineral 
wool are the hest. Ground cork, hay, excelsior, wool, and crump- 
led paper, are satisfactory. Crumpled paper is probably the hest 
of the last named materials. 

To pack the conta'ner with paper, crush single sheets of 
newspaper hetween the hands. Tack a layer at least 4 inches 
deep over the t»ottom of the outside container, tramping or 
pounding it in. Stand the container for the cooking vessel, or 
the lining for the nest, in the center of this layer and pack 
more crushed paper alxntt it as solidly as possible. When an 
extra source of heat is to he used, it is much safer to pack the 
fucless cooker with some non inflammable material. If fireproof 
I acking is not used line the nest with asbestos paper. Packing 
material should come to the top of the container for the kettle. 
,-nd the box should lack about 4 inches of being full. Make a 
cushion or pad to fill completely the space hetween the top of the 
packing and the cover of the hox after the hot kettles are put in 
place. Make this of heavy goods, such as denim, and stuffed with 
cotton, crumpled paper, or excelsior. 

The Iceless Refrigerator. 

Prepared by U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

This refrigerator consists of a wooden frame covered with 
Canton flannel, burlap, or heavy duck. It is desirable that the 
frame be screened, although this is not necessary. Wicks, made 
of the same material as the covering, resting in a pan of water on 
.top of the cooler conduct the water over the sides and ends of the 
pan and allow it to seep down the sides of the box. The evapora- 
tion from this moistened covering causes a lower temperature in- 
side. On dry, hot days a temperature of 50 degrees has been 
known to be obtained in the cooler. This is the way to build it : 

Make a screened case 3 T / 2 feet high with the other dimensions 
12 by 15 inches. If a solid top is used, simply place the water pan 
on this. Otherwise fit the pan closely into the opening of the top 
frame and support it by 1-inch cleats fastened to the inside of the 
frame. Place two movable shelves in the frame 12 to 15 inches 
apart. Use a biscuit pan 12 by 14 inches on the top to hold the 
water, and where the refrigerator is to be used indoors have the 
whole thing standing in a large pan to catch any drip. The pans 
and case may be painted white, allowed to dry, and then enameled. 
A covering of white Canton flannel should be made to fit the 
frame. Have the smooth side out and button the covering on the 
frame with buggy or automobile curtain hooks and eyes arranged 
so that the door may be opened without unfastening these hooks. 
Two double strips one-half the width of each side should be sewed 
on the top of each side covering and allowed to extend over about 
2j4 or 3 inches in the pan of water. The bottom of the covering 
should extend into the lower pan. 


Rancid butter is unfit for use. even for cooking purposes. 
But one can restore it to some degree of its original sweetness, 
vnd thereby render it fit for cooking, at least. Melt the butter. 
and stir into it a pinch of baking soda ; remove from the fire and 
drop into it a piece of toasted bread. Keep the butter for ten 
or fifteen minutes where it will not harden, remove the bread an 1 
vou will be surprised at the difference in the taste of the butter. 

July Entertainment 

By Morag. 

The Fourth of July should be observed as a community holi- 
day and .patriotic exercises held. 

Every home should display "Old Glory." In view of the 
existing- conditions in the country, this must be strictly a sane 
Fourth. Organize a community choir and sing the national songSi 

If a parade is held, let each organization represent some 
historical event in the history of our nation. If your ward or 
community desire to make some money, nothing would be pret- 
tier than to hold an army fair, with its tents, flags, and aides 
in brilliant costume. 

Tents may be pitched on the lawn or park. The tents take 
the place of booths or stalls. In front of each tent is a placard 
which gives in military parlance the name of the stall. 

The articles sold are appropriate to the name found at the 

Tn the commissariat all kinds of food supplies are sold. The 
refreshment tent is the mess room, and soft drinks and ice cream 
may be sold in the canteen. 

In the hospital tent, which is decorated with the Red Cross. 
all kinds of toilet supplies, home remedies and various articles 
for the sick room may be found. The aides may be dressed as 
Red Cross nurses. Here during the day practical demonstrations 
of first aid to the injured may be given. 

Devote one booth or tent to the sale of flags. Let the boy 
scouts patrol the grounds, and during the day, have some drilk 
and a program of national songs, by the community choir an 1 

Pop corn balls may be sold by the young ladies dressed in 
the national colors. Conclude with band concert and dancing on 
the green. 


Put 1 cup brown sugar. 1 enp white, l /i cup molasses. 1 cup 
water, 1 tablespoon vinegar into well buttered pan. Cook with- 
out stirring until a hard ball will form when tried in water. 
Then add 1 tablespoon butter. Remove from fire, add pinch of 
soda and pour quickly over four quarts of freshly popped corn. 
Chill the hands in cold writer and shape the balls quickly. These 


may be wrapped in waxed paper and will sell readily for five 
cents each. 


This, also, is a community holiday and should be celebrated 
by all of our people. Pagentry, parades, patriotic exercises are 
in order here. Be sure and sing our state song, "Utah We Love 
Thee." A similar affair as that suggested for the Fourth might 
be held, only have a country fair instead of an army one. 

Many of our people will spend the day in the mountains, and 
this is a very nice way to enjoy the day. Go as family parties. 
;is neighbors, or in ward groups, old and young together and 
a very happy day may be spent. 

Many of the worlds' greatest events have taken place on or 
near the mountains, and the thought suggested itself for a home 
evening exercise. 


The Mountains of the Scriptures. 

Assign to each member of the family one or more of the^c 
mountains; let them search the scriptures, and read from the 
Bible, or relate the incidents connected with Mount Ararat. S : nai. 
Nebo, Horeb, Lebanon, Moriah. Hermon. Mount of Olives, 
Calvary, Mountain of the Lord's House. Book of Mormon, 
"High Mountain" Ramah, (Cumorah), Zerin. Songs: "Flee as a 
Bird." "Home to our Mountains," "Lift Thine Eyes," "For the 
Strength of the Hills," etc. In some of Ruskin's books there are 
manv wonderful word pictures of mountains. See Modern Paint- 
ers. For Nebo, read "The Burial of Moses." 

Sister Angela Packer, of Riverdale, Oneida stake, writes tint 
she enjoyed the Bible menu recently published and has sent us a 
rec'pe for Scripture cake. Thanks. I am sure we will all enjoy 
trving it: 

Take AY* cups of I Kings 4:22, 1 cup of Judges. 5 :25, 2 cup^ 
Jeremiah 6:2, 2 cups of T Samuel 30:12, 2 cups of Nahum 3:12. 
2 cups of Numbers 17:8, pinch of Lev. 2:13, 3 teaspoons of 1 
Samuel 14:25, of Jeremiah 17:11, J A cup of Judges 4:19. 2 tea- 
spoons of Amos 4:56. Season to taste with 2 Chronicles ° :9. 


"His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in His law doth 
he meditate day and night." 

Doctrine and Covenants. Sections 99-131. 
Bible, Ruth. Chapters 1-4. 

President Joseph F. Smith on Card 

(From the Improvement Era.) 

A correspondent has sent a request that \vc say something of 
the position we take on card-playing. I leretofore, I have written 
upon it, both in this magazine and others, and spoken of it many 
times before the congregations of the Saints. Personally, and al- 
ways I am positively and insistently opposed to the Latter-day 
Saints playing cards, either at home, in private circles, in public, 
at socials or at any other gathering of the people. Our corre- 
spondent further states that he wishes to know how to meet the 
argument of a number of young ladies in his settlement who are 
or should be workers in the Sunday School and other organiza- 
tions of the ward, who insist on playing cards "in their private 
parties or gatherings, of three or four, and so on, when they get 
together for an evening's visit." They argue that they just play 
among themselves and enjoy it : they do not plav for money; thev 
play in their own homes, 50 they are not, as they claim, setting 
anyone else an example outside of their own circle of friends, and 
for that reason cannot see where they are doing any harm. They 
feel, also, and have so expressed it, that "anyone who opposes 
them is interfering with their personal liberty." They say fur- 
ther "that certain persons in high standing in the community 
have their card parties ; they nevertheless, go to meeting, and are 
treated as the best of people ;" so that, "if it is right for these peo- 
ple to play cards in social parties, it can not be wrong for us in 
our private parties." 

Our correspondent further states that he has even heard of 
"certain high priests who play cards when they ought to be in 
meeting on Sunday." He wishes us to tell him how to meet the 
arguments of the young ladies. If there is any truth in what he 
says he has heard about "certain high priests," they should be 
dealt with for their fellowship. 

Tt appears to me a very simple matter to meet such argu- 
ments. It is just as >inful in the sight of the Lord to do an evil 
secretly or in the home, as it is to do one publicly, and it has 
practically the same effect upon the person who does the evil act. 
although the evil results may not be so far-reaching as if done 
in public. No person can play cards, or smoke, or drink, or do 
any other forbidden thing, in his home. 1>\ himself or among his 
personal friends, without being guilty of wrong doing just as 


much as if he did all these things in public. We cannot be hypo- 
crites, and whatever we do should be worthy, of course, of being 
done openely and above board, if we would be effective teachers. 
No young lady can teach children in the Sabbath School the evils 
of card-playing, who plays cards in her home society, or with her 
personal friends. The teachings of such will have no good effect, 
because her heart will not be in it, and example and habit are 
stronger than words. The same may be said of every other person 
including "h ; gh priests," and "certain persons in high standing." 
I have stated heretofore why I hold that card-plaving is 
wrong. In the first place, it results in the useless waste of valu- 
able time ; secondly, the practice leads to the public card table, 
thence to the saloon, to gambling, and to ruin and shame. These 
facts can be easily demonstrated by the history of men who have 
time and pleasure in their private homes ; but who have gradu- 
ally become infatuated — crazed — with it, and left the home, and 
taken up with companions who have easily led them from card- 
playing for fun or amusement, to playing cards for money and 
intoxicating drink, which, of course, most certainly leads to de- 
struction. I am absolutely opposed to playing cards in homes, in 
social gatherings, privately or publicly, and this applies as much 
to those our correspondent calls "certain persons in high stand- 
ing," as it does to the young lady or the young man who is or 
should be teaching in the Sabbath Schools even in the remotest 
village or community in the Church. 

By Morag. 

Here is a hint I should like to pass on. The sisters of one 
of our large famdies have set aside one day a week on which 
they meet at the home of one of their number and sew. In this 
way a great deal is accomplished, for one has a talent for plain 
sewing, another a knack in embroidery and fancy work while 
another is a genius for making over, and one has that dainty 
milliner's touch. 

The hostess of the day furnishes the refreshments and the 
work, and as many hands make light work, very happy results 
follow. The sisters keep in close, lov : ng touch with each other, 
are well dressed, avoid large dressmakers' bills, help one another, 
and keep alive that interest in each other's welfare th?t should 
exist amongst us. A group of friends or schoolmates, 01 as in 
one group T know, of cousins, or even neighbors, might try this 
plan to good advantage. 

Current Topics. 

By James H. Anderson. 

Russia, under its new form of government, is yet in a con- 
dition bordering on anarchv. 

Fire at Atlanta, Ga.. in May, destroyed 3.000 houses and 
made 100.000 people homeless, temporarily. 

Fifty-one nations are represented in the foreign legion 
fighting in France against the Teutonic armies. 

Crop reports for 1917 look well in figures, but disastrous 
storms make the prospect appear different. 

Over one hundred thousand prisoners were taken by th< 
French. British and Italian armies during the month of Maw 

At Mainz, Germany, in a food riot early in May, eight 
persons were killed and 500 others arrested and imprsoned. 

Thirteen German and Austrian submarines were sunk by 
Ttnlian war vessels during the third week in May. 

Coal miners to the number of 120 were killed by a mine 
explosion at Hastings. Colo., in May. 

The Turkish campaign of Great Rritain continues to rec- 
ord successes for the British in Palestine. 

Txe Jews are being driven from Palestine by the Turk-, 
but the latter's turn for retirement is nearine: fast. 

Amf.ricax war VESSELS already arc rendering effective ser- 
vice in Furopean waters, in coping with German submarines. 

Fconomy is being urged upon the people generallv: but ex- 
travagance and oppression yet seem to be the watchword with the 
f; ax-gatherer. 

Great Britaix proposes to enfranchise all women over 30 
vears of age. The high limit is objectionable :n that unmarried 
females will be slow to confess to such advanced experience. 

Tttf Temple beinq- built bv the Latter-dav Saints in the 


Hawaiian Islands is practically completed so far as the outside 
work is concerned, but will not be ready for dedication until 
October, and there will not be a general excursion as rumored 
from Utah to the Islands on the occasion of the dedication. 

"The Kaiser must go," is a .demand sent by Socialists in 
America to Germany. But the German people have the right 
to choose their own form of government. 

In Greece, a large portion of the people have voted to depose 
the king ; but Constantine still holds on in Athens, the capital. 

King George of England is said to be cultivating a garden 
p?tch at Windsor Castle. "He did that same thing when he was a 
bov. Will he ever be in the Czar's position? 

France wants Col. Roosevelt on the fighting line there. Un- 
doubtedly the ex-president has a magic for enthusing courageous 
and skilful fighters. But some are jealous of that popularity. 

Reliable statistics show that in the present European war 
at least seven million soldiers have been killed and that forty-five 
million people have lost their lives. 

Italy, as well as France and Great Britain, has registered 
considerable headway against the Teutonic allies during the 
month of May. 

The first U-boat sunk by Americans in the war with Ger- 
many was the submarine destroyed by the armed merchant vessel 
Mongolia, when the enemy approached the latter. 

Mothers wearing high-heeled shoes is given as a more pro- 
lific cause of physical deformities in young Americans rejected 
for military service than is anv other source of difficulty. 

Coal prices are mounting higher and higher in Utah, and at 
the same time the coal is being shipped out of the State to the 
great inconvenience and even injury of the people. 

100,000 people are said to be starving in northern Syria, yet 
no aid can be given them because of the German submarine men- 
ace, which prevents the transportation thither of food supplies. 

Utah did well her part in buying Liberty bonds, in the regis- 
tration of her youths for selective conscription, and in answermg 
the call of the Red Cross. 


Great Britain, France and Italy sent missions of dis- 
tinguished diplomats to the United States in May. They were 
well received, and made partial arrangements for harmonious 
participation of the United States in the war in Europe. 

American troops are being sent to the front in France. It 
is stated that, with the 25.000 regulars now ordered there, at 
least 100.000 Americans srKtn will he on the battle line. 

Austria appears to have heen selected by the Entente allies 
a the place through which to pierce the Teutonic lines, now that 
the Germans are being held in check in France. 

Tornadoes in Illinois. Kansas, Indiana. Kentucky, Georgia, 
and other States, during the last week in May. took a toll of over 
300 lives, with five times that number of people injured and mil- 
lions of dollars in damage. 

War revenue taxes are being protested in all parts of the 
country on the basis that the amount sought to he raised in the 
United States is hevond that necessary at the present time, and 
will promote official extravagance and waste. 

Submarines sank a number of troop and hospital ships dur- 
ing May, as well as manv merchant vessels. Yet the loss in this 
line is decreasing, and shows that the Entente allies are meeting 
successfully the German submarine menace. 

Food control is urged upon the national Congress. Tf th : s 
means actual government distribution, the American people soon 
will find it both costly and unsatisfactory. "Regulation of the 
traffic in food stuffs is necessary and sufficient, without an offi- 
cial army of grocers and butchers. 

Canning vegetables and fnrts is being taught in the ladies' 
clubs in the intermountain country. This is not so great an inno- 
vation as may seem to some, since most of the womenfolk in this 
nart of the country, young and the more mature, have had proc- 
tical home experience in that line The "Relief Soc : etv, alwavs in 
the lead, instituted such courses, with home gardening vears ago. 

Home Science Department. 

By Jancitc A. Hyde. 

In the lesson work prepared for the summer months, we 
have given very simple and practical methods for the preparation 
and care of vegetables and fruit. We recommend these sug- 
gestions to the careful consideration of all our readers, as we 
feel assured of successful results from carrying out these ideas. 

In Ogden stake, we saw the practical demonstration of the 
winter possibilities of bottled chicken, asparagus tips, beans, 
peas, and strawberries. Even the homely dandelion had been 
bottled for table use, and looked as edible and delicious as any of 
the other vegetables, and by far, the cheapest of any on display. 
(Let the children gather the dandelions from the lawns, fields, 
and sidewalks, and" clean them thoroughly for mother to put up 
in jars). Dandelions contain more iron than spinach. 

We feel that in these times of real need of conservation, that 
our sisters will not be found wanting in their duty; it is a na- 
tional call for us, now, to help in every way possible. The eyes 
of the whole world are turned toward the women of this nation, 
with anxious waiting, to see if we will measure up to the high 
standard which the" American women have always held. We 
will be compared to the brave and resourceful, courageous women 
of Belgium, France, and England, who have given so much to as- 
sist their countries at war, and who have so far proved equal 
to every emergency and task. Not only have they given up hus- 
bands and sons, but many have gone into the battle field, as 
nurses, cooks, helpers in real army life, beside assaying the civic 
and public duties, hitherto undertaken by men only. If called 
upon, are we prepared to meet such demands, w : th as much 
honor as these women have done? We feel in our hearts, that 
we can hear vou all answer, "Yes," and know that in this hour 
of need, we are preparing for the great emergencies which await 
us. The first duty. then, for our women, is to study the food 
problems, conserve food resources, and get every ounce of nutri- 
ment from the food prepared. Make the study of food your 
sacred duty, that vou may understand a properly balanced meal. 
Prepare the food 'in such a way, that there shall be no waste; 
serve only the amount necessary for each individual. Make all 
left-overs into appetizing and nutritious dishes. Put the word 
save on everybodv's lips— not miserly saving, but wise and dis- 
creet economy. We must see to it that more food is produced, 
as well as saved, that those countries depending upon us, shall 
be supplied, and not want because of our neglect or waste. 


We arc told by those who know, that millions of children 
have been underfed, and are slowly starving, that the tables of 
many moderately well-to-do, and successful people have been 
lacking in the varieties of food that growing- children need, in 
arder that they may properly develop. Medical experts are send- 
ing out these words of warning, and the people must give heed, 
and render every assistance possible. This is the first duty of 
every woman, and those who refuse to accept this call are lack- 
ing in patriotism, just as much as the man who refuses to enlist 
and serve his country's cause. We hear the questions asked, 
"What does it all mean?" and "How shall we begin?" Professor 
O. S. Morgan, chairman of food and agriculture in Columbia 
University, tells us in a professional way, just what to do. He 
says that under the present milling standard, that seventy-two per 
sent of wheat grained is contained in the flour, the rest is wasted. 
That if the women would all agree that their families should eat 
nothing but bread made of whole-wheat Hour, instead of the high- 
patent flour, the percentage of grain contained in flour, would be 
increased ninety per cent ; and four bushels of wheat would pro- 
duce as much flour as is now produced with five bushels. That 
if the housewife will cook the potatoes with their skins on, in- 
stead of paring away the best part of them, from twelve to fifteen 
per cent of the food value will be saved. Then, too, if the Amer- 
ican housewife will can more fruit and vegetables at home, in- 
stead of buying from the stores, they would save twenty-five per 
cent of the cost of living. Especially does he ask this of the 
farmer's wife, who could produce on plots of ground now vacant 
and idle, thus supplying the home with the necessary provisions 
to be stored for future use, as well as producing for those who 
cannot do so. This is the time to correct the unpardonable fault 
of wasting food. Suggest also to your farmer husbands that they 
take care of their farm implements. 

A feiv hints for gardening: 

Don't try to grow too much in a small space. 

You may be assured of a steady supply of vegetables in such 
crops as peas, beans, and lettuce, if planted every three or four 
weeks, whenever the space is available. 

The quickest crops to mature are turmps, lettuce, peas, 
beets, and beans — these usually require from six to nine weeks. 

Blossom time of peaches and plums, etc., is a guide time 
for sowing in the open ground. 

Spinach heads the list of prolific greens. It is the most pop- 
ular of all garden plants grown for greens. It requires cool, damp 
weather. Spinach planted for fall use, does not interfere with 
garden space for summer gardens. It supplies an abundance of 


greens for the average family for early autumn. Spinach is a 

good body builder — it contains iron. 

Planting sweet corn. 

Begin as soon as the soil is warm — successive plantings may 
be made every two or three weeks until late summer. Another 
method of prolonging the supply, is to plant early, medium and 
late varieties. The seed should be planted about two inches deep 
in rows three feet apart, and thinned to a single stalk, every ten 
to fourteen inches. Don't plant poor varieties. 

Salsify or Oyster Plant. 

This is a splendid vegetable for winter use. Don't forget 
to plant some for this season. It is an all season crop ; it grows 
slowly and is ready for use in late fall and winter. 

Keep posted on insects, and be prepared to fight them. Get 
an early start, it is very important. 

Tomato Plants. 

In setting out tomato plants, .do not crowd them, give plenty 
of room. 


It is still time and always time to plant beans ; no garden soil 
is too rich. Good drainage is also necessary. 

The scarcity of potash puts wood-ashes to the fore. The 
potash found in wood-ashes, is one of the best forms for the use 
of plants. The unleached is better than the leached, as it con- 
tains from four to seven per cent more potash than the leached. 
Beside containing potash, wood-ashes contain about two per cent 
of nitrogen and twenty per cent lime. 


Plants most affected by certain forms of blight are potatoes, 
cucumbers, celery, egg-plant, and tomatoes. Bordeux mixture 
sprayed on these plants will help to prevent or check the develop- 
ment of this disease. 


The Conservation and Home Economics Committee of the 
General Board have arranged for enough A. C. teachers to visit 
every stake Relief Society in Utah during the fruit and vegeta- 
ble season to give a public demonstration on canning and drying. 
In connection with this, we have secured a wholesale price on 
pressure cookers, $1.00 laid dow at your town, on a cooker of 
200 or 400 quart capacity a day, that retails for $18.00. Each 


ward should take one of these for community use, and to loan 
about to members. The Consolidated Wagon & Machine Com- 
pany of this city have opened their warerooms to store them. 
l>tails have been furnished stake presidents in the circular letter 
already sent out. 


We urgently request the chairman of the Home Economics 
to keep in touch with the condition and development of the veg- 
etables and fruits in her own district, that she may be prepared 
to telegraph or telephone to the Agricultural College about ten 
days or a week before maturing all such crops — the expense of 
telegram to be borne by the Agricultural College, notifying them 
when the women of her section will be ready for a demonstration. 


We also recommend the Home Economic leaders to investi- 
gate the desire of the women in their societies, for the ownership 
of the fruit pressers which can be purchased at from $2.00 to 
$2.50, at any of the hardware stores. 


The Agricultural College is demonstrating the practicability 
of fruit and vegetable evaporators and dryers which we hope to 
be able to recommend to our societies in our next issue. 


We ask the presidents to make a survey of their societies and 
ascertain how many fruit jars and enameled tin cans may be 
needed for use in the putting up of vegetables and fruits in the 
coming season. Wire Dr. E. G. Peterson, Agricultural College. 
Logan, the number needed. By so doing, we think we can also 
get a great reduction on the price of these two articles by order- 
ing in carload lots. 

Notes from the Field. 

By Amy Brozvn Lyman, General Secretary. 

Cottonwood Stake. 

In the interest of production, conservation and preservation 
of food supplies, and following the example of the Presiding 
Bishopric of the Church, the Cottonwood stake Relief Society 
is offering" to its wards prizes for the greatest amount of canned 
and dried fruits and vegetables ; $70 is the amount of money set 
apart for this purpose and it is to be given in prizes as follows : 
To the wards drying the greatest amount of fruit; 1st prize, $10; 
2nd prize, $5 ; and 3rd prize, $2.50. The same amounts will be 
given in prizes for the greatest amounts of .dried vegetables and 
canned corn. 

Bear River Stake. 

The Relief Society of Bear River Stake observed Baby Day 
in a very interesting way. At the Garland tabernacle, on May 
23, demostrations were given on "Preparation of Milk for the 
Bottle-fed Baby;" "The Baby's Bed and Bath," with an exhib : t 
of a line of the "most approved clothing for infants." Devices 
for the care and clothing of children, were also presented in 
comparison. Lectures were given on "The Care of Children and 
Instructions to Fathers." Professor C. E. Smith, principal of the 
Garland High School, gave a talk on "Play and Playgrounds." 
Appropriate musical selections were also given. 

As a special feature of food production, the individual mem- 
bers of the Bear River stake Relief Society have been requested 
by President Margaret W. Manning to plant beans in order that 
each member may 'donate one pound of dried beans to the Stake 
Relief Society. To those who cannot produce beans, the equiv- 
alent in money is asked for. These beans will be stored for a time 
of need. 

Salt Lake Stake. — Reorganisation. 

The Salt Lake Stake was reorganized May 5, 1017. Mrs. 
Harriet C. Jensen who has for many years been counselor, then 
president of this organization found it necessary to tender her 
resignation on account of her change of residence from Salt Lake 


( )ity to Los Angeles. Mrs. Jensen, who is especially fitted both 
by nature and educational training for the posit : on which she 
has occupied, has been zealous, devoted and energetic in her la- 
bors in the Relief Society cause and will be greatly missed by her 
associates in the work as well as by the general organization as 
a whole. 

The First Counselor. Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford, equally able 
and equally energetic, was chosen president. The Second Coun- 
selor. Mrs. Jessie Penrose Jones was made first counselor. Miss 
Vilate N. Bennion. Supervisor of Home Economics, was made 
second counselor. 

Mrs. Bradford is a woman of education and broad exper- 
ience. She is the wife of Professor Robert Bradford, of the 
University of Utah. 

The other stake officers are: Mrs. Amy Ball Davis, secre- 
tary; and Mrs. Rachel L. Folland, treasurer. 

North Weber Stake. 

The Metropolis. Nevada. Relief Society had a very suc- 
cessful entertainment on the 17th of March when the initial meet- 
ing of the Relief Society was dramatized. The setting and cos- 
ttmies were all in keeping with the spirit of the occasion. 

Pioneer Stake. 

The Stake Board of the Pioneer stake Relief Society, al- 
ways forehanded, have some time since inaugurated public dem- 
onstrations in canning and fruit preserving, assisted by the ex- 
pert from the A. C. Many of the wards have put in small and 
large plots of ground to beans or grain, thus showing what even 
c'ty people can do when the women take a hand in conservation. 

Cent entile. 

As a means of raising funds the Centerville Relief Society 
recently presented a one-act play. "How a Woman Keeps a Se 
cret." The play was supplemented with a minstrel show and a 
colonial dance by eight ladies in colonial costumes. So intereste I 
was the community in this entertainment that the house was 
packed, and many were unable to gain entrance. Tt was neces- 
sary, therefore, to repeat the performance. After all expenses 
were paid, $70 was cleared. 

Cassia Stake. 

Six wards in the Cassia stake are entering the potato con- 
test and three the wheat contest. Other wards that were unable 
to enter the contest arc planting bean^. 


Duchesne Stake. 

The Relief Society of Duchesne stake has decided to put 
forth efforts to raise a large crop of beans. Each member will be 
expected to plant one quart of seed and harvest them. The beans 
thus ra"sed will be given to the Relief Society to be used for the 
benefit of the wives and children of our men who have enlisted 
for service in the Army. The Stake Board has offered a prize 
of $5 to be given to the Society whose members will dry the 
most peas, corn and beans for their own families. 

Malad Stake. 

The Anniversary Day of the Relief Soc'ety of Malad stake 
was celebrated with a meeting which was held at the Malad 
First Ward tabernacle, on March 17. The program consisted 
of an address of welcome given by Pres. Eliza A. Hall, a brief 
sketch of the Relief Society, by Bishop Conley. of Portage, and 
several musical numbers. A delightful luncheon was served to 
400 guests at the close of the meeting. 

Yellowstone Stake. 

Mrs. Mary J. Miller of Parker. Idaho, first counselor to Julia 
E. Miller, was released early in the year from her position in the 
stake Relief Society, on account of being called, with her husband, 
to do missionary work in Australia. Before leaving for her new- 
field of work, the Stake Board gave a complimentary luncheon to 
Mrs. Miller, and presented her with a token of remembrance. 
Mrs. Miller who has before this, arrived in Australia, is no doubt 
taking up, actively, the Relief Society work in that distant mis- 

Tear River Stake. 

From the Bear River stake comes the announcement of the 
death of Sarah Ann Nish, a devoted Relief Society worker, of 
Plymouth. Utah. Mrs. Nish was borne May 4, 1862, in Weh's 
ville. Utah. Her many noble qualities and faithful work in the 
Relief Society have endeared her to her friends and co-workers, 
and they all join in expressions of sorrow and regret that sh^ has 
been called from their midst. 

North Davis Stake. 

A Relief Society was recently organized at Sunset, Utah. 
Mrs. Mary Bowman who was appointed President is only twenty- 
four years of age, and is probably the youngest ward president 
in the organization. 

.Mpine Stake. 

The four wards of American Fork celebrated the 17th of 
March at the Stake tabernacle, the program consisting of songs 


and tableaus. The tableaus wire arranged to represent the dif- 
ferent activities of Relief Society work. One interesting feature 
was the representation of President Emmeline P>. Wells, by Mrs. 
Sarah P>. Chipman. The makeup of Sister Chipman so resembled 
onr President, that many thought it was Mrs. Wells. 

St. George Stake. 

The women of St. George, Santa Clara and Washington Re- 
lief Societies, celebrated the organization of the Relief Society on 
the 17th of March, by going to the St. George temple to do 
ordinance work. This was the largest number of women in the 
temple in one day. in thirty-five years. 

Biographical Outline. 

To promote interest in genealogy. c....i to aid those who de- 
sire to make biographical and autobiographical sketches, the St. 
George stake has arranged the following plan or biographical 
outline: The English Department in the St. George Academy 
is using this plan as a basis for theme writing: 
T. Ancestor's Nationality. 

a — (Father) 1 — Political Affiliation, 
b — (Mother) 2 — Religious Affiliations. 
IT. Joining the Church. 

1 — First members of the family to join. 
2 — Were you born before your parents joined? 
ITT. Journey to Utah (Parents or self, date, company, impres- 
TV. Your Childhood. 
1 — Pirthplace. 
2 — Environment. 

3 — Childhood memories — reminiscences. 
V. Education. 
YT. Religious life. 

1 — First church joined. Dates. 
2 — Eater church affiliation. Dates. 
YTT. Residences — places — length of time. 

1 — Circumstance of journey to Utah and early life in 
VIII. Life's work. 

1 — What it has been? 

2— Has it satisfied the ideal of your childhood? 
3 — What things have most influenced your life? 
A — Public positions held. 
5 — Occupation. 
IX. Present work, if living. 

1 — Work engaged in at time of death, if desired. 
X. Personal impression of biographer. 


California Mission — San Bernardino and Bisbce. 

The Relief Society of San Bernardino was reorganized early 
in May. Mrs. M. E. Patterson resigned her position as president 
on account of changing' her residence from California to Arizona. 
Mrs. Louisa Nickerson was appointed president. The change 
was made at a meeting which was attended by President and 
Mrs. Joseph E. Robinson," Mrs. Emily S. Richards, and Mrs. 
Elizabeth C. Wilcox, of the General Board. During the same 
month a new Relief Society was organized at Bisbee with Mrs. 
Harriet Maxwell as president and Mrs. Edna Sessions as secre- 

Utah Stake. 

In a little pamphlet The Teacher published by the Priesthood 
Presidency of the Utah stake, we find the following article on 
Relief Society work, signed by Mrs. Martha A. Keeler, Inez K. 
Allen, Susie Poulson, Relief Society presidency. It contains help- 
ful suggestions on Relief Society work that may be suggested to 
other organizations: 

"The Relief Society organization is for all women of the 
Latter-day Saints who desire to become members and for others 
who are' friendly, and certainly any woman who lets the oppor- 
tunity of becoming a member pass will lose much that is enjoyable 
and uplifting. 

"We hope the teachers of the Priesthood will explain the 
advantage of this organization in the homes of the Saints, and 
some of the things which over one thousand women are doing 
weekly in each of their respective wards. 

"Tuesday of each week throughout the year a regular ses- 
sion is held, carrying out a definite plan and program. The first 
Tuesday of the month is devoted to the study of literature and 
some of the best books extant have been read and reviewed. Be- 
sides the literary work the teachers monthly topic is .discussed, so 
that when our lady teachers go into the homes of the Saints they 
are more or less prepared to talk on some special line and present- 
hour subject. Our teachers have a message of love and good will 
to all. When these visits are made contributions are received for 
the poor. 

"The second Tuesday session is a meeting for work, sewing 
and other handwork ; as, making articles of clothing, bedding, etc.. 
for the need v. or making articles to sell, and the proceeds of 
Seles to go to the poor. Business matters that may need attemio.i 
are also attended to at the work meeting : and not least of import- 
ance are the social benefits enjoyed. 


"Theology, religion, and genealogical subjects claim atten- 
tion on the third Tuesday. Religion, and the exercise of the mind 
in spiritual things, make life more full, and such things give zest 
to our relief work. Studying the lives of women of me Bible 
is just now the theme before us. We love and care for the h\ ing ; 
we also remember our dead. Genealogy and home-record mak- 
ing keep us happily engaged in these sessions. 

"The fourth Tuesday is set apart for home economics — home 
keeping, home making, home adornment, helpful, satisfying. 

"When a fifth Tuesday comes around, the members meet, 
then divide into groups, and go where love and charity leads to 
visit the sick, the aged, the lonely, and others who, because of 
controlling circumstances cannot leave their homes — not forget- 
ting, either, the new-comer into the ward. 

"We also have committees of public service women who are 
ready and most willing to act as chaperones to young girls, who 
have no other partners, and want to attend parties or other places 
of wholesome entertainment. 

"And there are many, many other things — little and great — 
which are among the activities of this organization. Come, then. 
mothers and daughters and be one of our happy band." 


It is interesting to know that the activities of our "Mormon" 
women are appreciated in various parts of the world. 

Mrs. Leah I). Widtsoe, wife of Dr. John A. Widtsoc, is 
known nationally as a trained worker in domestic economics. Her 
lesson which was used in the February, 1916, number of the Re- 
hef Society Magazine, has been copied in the Journal of Home 
Economics, for January, 1917. She published, while associated 
with the Agricultural College of Utah, a bulletin on "Better 
Household Equipment," and not long since a letter came clear 
from Upper Egypt where the bulletin had gone. The correspond- 
ent writes : 

"West Engineering Office, 

"Minia, Upper Egypt, 

"July 25, 1916. 

"A very good American has recently presented me with a 
°opy of a booklet entitled Labor Saving Devices for the Farm 
Home, by Mrs. Leah D. Widtsoe, and published by your com- 

"Indeed, I found it a very useful booklet. 

"I regret that at present I have not U. S. stamps to send 
\ou for reply. 

"Please send me a full catalogue of your publications for 
re ference. "Yours truly. 

(Signed) "Larid Barsum." 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Motto — Charity Never Faileth. 


Mas. Eumkline B. Wells President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Treasurer 

*irs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Miss Edna May Davis 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Priscilla P. Jennings Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Mrs. Julia M. P. Farnsworth Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Sarah Eddington 
Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. IV. JULY, 1917. No. 7 

The great war that is upon the face of the 
War. whole earth has long been predicted. The 

Savior was very explicit in his delineation 
of the events in the last days to his disciples as recorded in the 
twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, and in the twenty-first 
chapter of Luke. In the forty-fifth section of the Doctrine 
and Covenants the same things are treated at length. Let us 
quote from this wonderful revelation : 

"Ye say that ye know that the end of the world cometh; 
ye say also that ye know that the heavens and the earth shall 
pass away; and in this ye say truly, for so it is; but these 
things which I have told you shall not pass away until all 
shall be fulfilled. And this I have told you concerning Jeru- 
salem, and when that day shall come, shall a remnant be scat- 
tered among all nations; but they shall be gathered again but 
they shall remain until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. 
And in that day ahull be heard of wars and rumors of wars, 
and the whole earth shall be in commotion, and men's hearts 
shall fail them, and they shall say that Christ delayeth his com- 
ing until the end of the earth. And the love of men shall wax 
cold, and iniquity shall abound; and when the times of the 
Gentiles is come in, a light shall break forth among them that 
pit in darkness, and it shall be the fullness of my gospel; but 
they receive it not, for they perceive not the light and they 
turn their hearts from me because of the precepts of men ; 


* * * And there shall be earthquakes also in divers places, 
and many desolations; yet men will harden their hearts against 
me, and they will take up the sword, one against another, and 
they will kill one another." 

The Lord then indicates the events that are 
The Jews. today transpiring in Jerusalem. The British 

forces are marching steadily and surely to- 
wards the city of David. Bagdad has fallen — the Turks are 
retreating from stronghold to stronghold. The American 
Jews are holding a great convention as we go to press de- 
manding liberty and autonomy for the Jews in Jerusalem, 
listen to what the Savior says: 

"Then shall the arm of the Lord fall upon the nations. 
And then shall the Lord set his foot upon this mount, and it 
shall cleave in twain, and the earth shall tremble, and reel to 
and fro, and the heavens also shall shake. And the Lord 
shall utter his voice, and all the ends of the earth shall hear 
it. and the nations of the earth shall mourn, and they that have 
laughed shall see their foil}-. And calamity shall cover the 
mocker, and the scorner shall be consumed, and they that have 
watched for iniquity shall be hewn down and cast into the 
fire. And then shall the Jews look upon me and say. What 
are these wounds in thine hands and in thy feet? Then shall 
they know that I am the Lord ; for 1 will say unto them, These 
wounds are the wounds with which I was wounded in the 
house of my friends. I am he who was lifted up. I am Jesus 
that was crucified. I am the Son of God. And then shall they 
weep because of their iniquities; then shall they lament be- 
cause they persecuted their King. And then shall the heathen 
rations be redeemed, and they that knew no law shall have 
part in the first resurrection ; and it shall be tolerable for them ; 
"And Satan shall be bound that he shall have no place in 
the hearts of the children of men. And at that day. when i 
shall come in my glory, shall the parable be fulfilled which 1 
spake concerning the ten virgins; for they that are wise and 
have received the truth, and have taken the Holy Spirit for 
their guide, and have not been deceived ; verily I say unto 
yon, they shall not be hewn down and cast into the fire, but 
shall abide the day. And the earth shall be given unto them 
for an inheritance; and they shall multiply and wax strong. 
and their children shall grow up without sin unto salvation. 
For the Lord shall be in their midst, and his glory shall be 
upon them, and he will be their king and their Lawgiver." 

Russia — that land where many of the de- 
A Nation Born scendants of the Ten Tribes are found— has 
ir a Day. put the key of revolution in the door of lib- 

ertv. Mine. Mountford's declarations con- 


corning the secret groups of Ephraimites in the terror-ridden 
hind will now have opportunity for public demonstration, and 
the way will no doubt be opened to preach the gospel in this 
hitherto hermetically sealed kingdom. 

The heathen is astir. Note the unbelievable 
The Pagan changes in China since the recent astounding 

Nations. revolution there. Many of our people wonder if 

all the pagans must be preached to before the 
coming of the Savior. Read what the Lord says in this section : 
"And then shall the heathen nations be redeemed, and they that 
knew no law shall be tolerable for them." 

Again, we call your studious attention to the 
What the Lord panorama of events prophesied of in this rev- 
Says About elation written 86 years ago : "For verily 
These Wars. I say unto you, that great things await you; 

Ye hear of wars in foreign lands, but, behold, 
I say unto you, they are nigh, even at your doors, and not 
many years hence ye shall hear of wars in your own lands. 
Wherefore I, the Lord, have said, gather ye out from the 
eastern lands, assemble ye yourselves together ye elders of 
my church; go ye forth into the western countries, call upon 
the inhabitants to repent and inasmuch as they do repent, 
build up churches unto me ; and with one heart and with one 
mind, gather up your riches that ye may purchase inheritance 
which shall hereafter be appointed unto you. And it shall be 
called the New Jerusalem, a land of peace, a city of refuge, 
and a place of safety for the saints of the most High God; and 
the glory of the Lord shall be there, and the terror of the 
Lord also shall be there, insomuch that the wicked will not 
come into it, and it shall be called Zion. And it shall come to 
pass, among the wicked, that every man that will not take his 
sword against his neighbor, must needs flee unto Zion for 
safety. And there shall be gathered unto it out of every na- 
tion under heaven ; and it shall be the only people that shall 
not be at war one with another. And it shall be said among 
.the wicked. Let us not go up to battle against Zion. for the 
inhabitants of Zion are terrible; wherefore we cannot stand. 
And it shall come to pass that the righteous shall be gathered 
out from among all nations, and shall come to Zion, singing 
with songs of everlasting joy." 

Now, the question arises: When are these 
When? events to take place. Note these words of 

the same revelation : "And there shall be 
men standing in that generation, that shall not pass, until they 
see an overflowing scourge; for a desolating sickness shall 
cover the land." 


"Yea, the word of the Lord concerning his church, estab- 
lished in the last days for the restoration of his people, 
a> he has spoken by the month of his prophets, and for the 
gathering of his saints to stand upon Mount Zion, which shall 
be the city of New Jerusalem, 

"Which city shall be built, beginning at the temple lot, 
which is appointed by the finger of the Lord in the western 
boundaries of the state of Missouri, and dedicated by the 
hand of Joseph Smith, Jr., and others with whom the Lord 
was well pleased. Verily this is the word of the Lord, that the 
city New Jerusalem shall be built by the gathering of the 
saints beginning at this place, even the place <>f the temple, 
which temple shall be reared in this generation; for verily, 
this generation shall not all pass away until an house shall be 
built unto the Lord, and a cloud shall rest upon it, which cloud 
shall l>e even the glory of the Lord, which shall fill the house." 
Where Shall What then will be our condition? Hear what 

We Be Safe? tnc '-" n ' savs : "But my disciples shall stand 

in holy places and shall not be moved; but 
among the wicked, men shall life up their voices, curse God 
and die." 

We may safely conclude that we are in the midst of the 
most stirring scenes ever enacted upon this earth, and that 
every effort we put forth to build up righteousness and to 
keep our feet fixed on the rock of revelation will help the 
Savior that much in this final upheaval of world events. This 
war may quiet down for a time, but the events prophesied 
will just as surely all be fulfilled as have been those already 
taking place. Those who stand in holy places will have the 
spirit of calm reliance upon God, and peace shall be in their 
souls. Xn matter how the storms rage about us. When our sons 
go to war they will go with our blessings and prayers. Should 
the) give up their lives in defense of God and country, we shall 
still praise God and wait calmly the happy reunion on the other 
side. Meanwhile we will study the Scriptures, take care of our 
homes, attend to Relief Society duties, and visit the temples — 
those holy places — whenever we can. Thus fortified we shall 
take our own places in the world's history and do our modest 
"bit," to further the fulfilment of prophecy. 

Guide Lessons. 


Home Economics 



The canning of vegetable soups, purees, and consommes is 
thoroughly practical, and should be a part of our economy work. 
It will be a delight next winter to be able to reach to a shelf 
for a home-canned jar of soup, open it, heat it, and serve within 
a few minutes' time. 

We are accused of being a wasteful people, wasting much of 
the products of garden and farm. The bones that are often dis- 
carded when meat is being packed for winter use contain valu- 
able food. Let us develop, through soup making and soup can- 
ning, habits of economy and education in thrift. The bones from 
beef and chicken are by far the most common, though others can 
be used. 


Soup Stock. 

Secure twenty-five pounds of beef hocks, joints, and bones 
containing marrow. Strip off the fat and meat and crack bones 
with a hatchet or cleaver. Put the broken bones in a thin cloth 
sack and place them in a large kettle conta'ning five gallons of 
cold water. Simmer (do not boil) for six or seven hours. Do not 
salt while simmering. Skim off all fat. This should make about 
five gallons of stock. Pack hot in glass jars, bottles, or enamel 
or lacquered tin cans. Partially seal glass jars. (Seal tin cans.) 
Sterilize fifty minutes if using a hot-water bath outfit ; fortv min- 
utes if using a water-seal or a five pound steam-pressure outfit; 
thirty minutes if using a pressure-cooker outfit. 

(Check list of supplies to be provided before beginning work.) 

25 pounds of beef bones. 

5 gallons of water. 

/ 'cgctable Soup. 

Soak Y\ pound lima or navy beans and 1 pound rice for 12 
hours. Cook y 2 pound pearl barley for 2 hours. Blanch 1 poun'l 
carrots, 1 pound onions, 1 medium-sized potato, and 1 red pepper 
for 3 minutes and blanch. Prepare the vegetables and cut into 
small cubes. Mix thoroughly lima or navy beans, rice, barlev. 
cf.rrots, onions, potatoes, red pepper. Fill glass jars or the en- 


ameled tin cans three-fourths full of the above mixture of vege- 
tables and cereals. Make a smooth paste of one-half pound of 
wheat flour and blend in 5 gallons of soup stock. Boil 3 minutes 
and add 4 ounces salt. Pour this stock over vegetables and fill 
cans. Partially seal glass jars. (Seal tin cans.) Sterilize 110 
minutes if using- the hot-water bath outfit; 90 minutes if using a 
water-seal or a 5-pound steam pressure outfit; 55 minutes if 
using a pressure-cooker outfit. 

(Check list of necessary supplies.) 
'i pound lima or navy beans. 
1 pound rice. 
Yz pound pearl barley. 
1 pound carrots. 
1 pound onions. 
1 medium-sized potato. 
1 red pepper. 
' ■ pound Hour. 

1 ounces salt. 

5 gallons soup stock. 

Bean So tip. 

Soak 3 pounds of beans 12 hours in cold water. Cut 2 
pounds of ham meat into % inch cubes and place in a small 
sack. Place the beans, ham, and 4 gallons of water in a kettle 
and boil slowly until the beans are very soft. Remove the ham 
and beans from the liquor and mash the beans fine. Return the 
bam and mashed beans to the liquor and add 5 gallons of soup 
stock and seasoning, and bring to boil. Fill into glass jars and 
tin cans while hot. Partially seal glass jars. (Seal tin cans.) 
Process — 2 hours if using a hot-water bath outfit: 110 minutes 
if using a water-seal outfit ; 90 minutes if using a 5-pound steam- 
pressure outfit; 70 minutes if using a pressure-cooker outfit. 

(Check list.) 

5 gallons stock. 

3 pounds beans. 

2 poiuv's lean ham. 

4 gallons water. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Tomato Pulp for Cream of Tomato Soup. 

Place tomatoes in a wire basket or piece of cheesecloth and 
plunge into boiling water from 1 to 3 minutes. Plunge into cold 
water. Remove the skin and core. Place tomatoes in a kettle 
and boil 30 minutes. Pass the tomato pulp through a sieve. Pack 
in glass jars and tin cans while hot, and add a level teaspoonful 


of salt per quart. Partially seal the glass jars. (Seal tin cans.) 
Sterilize 25 minutes if using a hot-water bath outfit ; 20 minutes if 
using a water-seal or a 5-pound steam-pressure outfit ; 18 minutes 
if using a pressure-cooker outfit. 

Cream of Tomato Soup from Canned Tomato Pulp. 

Place 1 quart of tomato pulp in a kettle. Add one-eighth 
teaspoon ful of baking soda, pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoon- 
fuls of granulated sugar. Boil for 7 minutes. Place 1 quart of 
mi}k and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in another kettle and simmer 
for 7 minutes. Add the contents of the tomato kettle to the con- 
tents of the milk kettle and boil for 5 minutes. The product is 
then ready to serve. 

(Check list.) 

1 quart can tomato pulp. 

T /« teaspoon ful baking soda. 

2 teaspoonf uls granulated sugar. 

1 quart milk. 

2 tablespoonfuls butter. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Chicken-Soup Stock. 

Place 30 pounds chicken in 10 gallons of cold water and 
simmer for 5 hours. Remove meat and bones, then stra : n. Add 
sufficient water to make 10 gallons of stock. Fill glass jars or tin 
cans with the hot stock. Partially seal glass jars. (Seal tin 
cans.) Process — 110 minutes if using a hot-water bath outfit; 
90 minutes if using a water-seal outfit ; 70 minutes if using a 5- 
pound steam-pressure outfit ; 55 minutes if using a pressure-cooker 
outfit. This stock is used to make soup where the term "chicken- 
soup stock" is employed. 

(Check list.) 
30 pounds chicken. 
10 gallons water. 

Vegetables (Mixed) without Stock. 

Many people would like vegetable soup during the winter 
season, but find it impracticable to secure the soup stock during 
the summer season when the vegetables are so abundant that they 
are rotting in the garden. It is suggested that the vegetable portion 
of the soup be canned during the summer and made available 
when the soup stock is prepared during the winter. It makes the 
preparation of the soup a simple matter whenever the stock is 

Soak 6 pounds of lima or navy beans and 4 pounds of dry 
peas over night. Boil each l / 2 hour. Blanch 16 pounds of car- 
rots, 6 pounds of cabbage, 3 pounds of celery, 6 pounds of 


turnips, 4 pounds of okra, 1 pound of onions, and 4 pounds of 
parsley for 3 minutes and dip in cold water quickly. Prepare the 
vegetables and chip them into small cubes. Chop the onions and 
celery extra fine. .Mix all of the vegetables together thoroughly 
and season to taste. Tack in glass jars or tin cans. Fill with boil- 
in water. Partially seal glass jars. (Seal tin cans.) Process — 
110 minutes if using a hot-water bath outfit: 75 minutes if using 
a water-seal outfit or a 5-pound steam-pressure outfit: 55 minutes 
ii using a pressure-cooker outfit. 

(Check list.) 
16 pounds carrots (small.) 
6 pounds cabbage. 

3 pounds celery i stems and leaves.) 
T> pounds turnips. 

C) pounds lima or navy beans. 

4 pounds okra. 
1 pound onions. 

4 pounds parsley. 

4 pounds dry peas. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 


Poultry and Game. 

Recipe No. 1 — Kill fowl and draw at once; wash carefully 
and cool; cut into convenient sections. Place in wire basket or 
cheesecloth and boil until meat can be removed from bones. Re- 
move from boiling liquid and remove meat from bones; pack 
closely into glass jars: fill jars with pot liquid, after it has been 
concentrated one-half; add level teaspoonful of salt per quart of 
meat, for seasoning; put rubber and cap in position, not tight: 
sterilize the length of time given below for the one particular 
type of outfit you are using: 

Water bath, homemade or commerc'al 4'^ hrs 

Water seal. 214° 4 

5 pounds steam pressure 3 

10-15 pounds steam pressure 1 T 4 " 

Remove jars ; tighten covers : invert to cool and test the joint : 
wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching. 

Recipe No. 2 — Kill fowl and draw at once; wash carefully 
and cool ; cut into convenient sections and pack at once into glass 
jars: fill with boiling water; add level teaspoonful of salt per 
quart ; put rubber and cap in position, not tight, and sterilize the 
length of time given below for the one particular type of outfit 
you are using: 


Water bath, homemade or commercial 4]A hrs. 

Water seal, 214° \y A " 

5 pounds steam pressure 4 " 

10-15 pounds steam pressure \y^ " 

Remove jars ; tighten covers ; invert to cool and test the 
joint; wrap with paper to prevent bleaching. 

Fresh Beef. 

As soon as beef has been killed, cook quickly and keep cool 
for about 24 hours. Cut the beef into convenient pieces for 
handling-, about three-fourths pound in weight, and roast or boil 
slowly for one-half hour. Cut into small pieces, remove gristle, 
bone, and excessive fat, and pack directly into glass jars ; fill 
with gravy from the roasting- pan, or pot liquid, concentrated to 
one-half its volume ; put rubber and cap in position, not tight, 
and sterilize the length of time given below for the one particular 
type of outfit you are using: 

Water bath, homemade or commercial A l / 2 hrs. 

Water seal, 214° \y 2 " 

5 pounds steam pressure 4J4 " 

10-15 pounds steam pressure 2 

Remove jars ; tighten covers ; invert to cool and test the joint ; 
wrap jars with paper to prevent bleaching. 



The points to consider in all remodeling and remaking are : 
(1) Is the article worth remodeling? (It does not always pay 
to make over old clothes). (2) If can : t be done with 
the least expenditure of time and money? 

If an article is not very much out of date it can often be 
rendered wearable by the addition of a new yoke, new sleeves, 
fresh collar and cuffs, or the lengthening of a skirt. Nothing in 
styles changes more rapidly than the sleeve, and often altering 
sleeves or adding new ones is all that is necessary to bring a dress 
up to date. 

Common alterations are : 

(1) Changing style of sleeve. To make sleeves smaller, use 
a smaller pattern and cut over. To make larger add an underarm 
or a piece under a tuck, or put a piece of trimming lengthwise 
ever the seam. If you do the latter, bring the seam in upper part 
of sleeve near back of arm. At the present time sleeves are often 


made of a different material than the rest of the dress and so 
new sleeves may easily be added. 

Sleeves may he lengthened by the addition of a cuff, or the 
lower part of sleeve may he joined to the upper just below elbow 
with a tuck or band of trimming. 

(2) Lengthening skirt. Put a false hem on. or if more 
length is desired baste a tuck, in bottom of skirt and set lower 
part under, stitching tuck and piece to skirt at the same time. 
Very often a hem of different material may be added, serving as 
a trimming as well as lengthening the skirt. Garments of wash 
material may be lengthened by bands of insertion or bra'd. 

(3) Narrowing a skirt. Decide how many inches are to be 
taken out and at what places it can best be done. Take from the 
back edge of gores running off to seam ( if skirt is fitted at bins | 
six inches below hip line. Full skirts may be recut into narrow 

(4) Altering waists. A waist may be lengthened by a 'ding a 
belt between waist and skirt. Wash waists which have become 
worn alxnit collar or wrists and are not worth a new collar or 
cuffs can be utilized by cutting away torn parts and wearing 
with a Dutch collar in summer. Sit eves can be cut short if de 
sired and finished with a suitable edge. When waists are worn 
underneath the arm and are worth it. rip the sleeves at armhole 
and underarm seams and replace with new p'eces. 


If a garment is decidedly out of style, the best thing to do is 
to rip it. mend if necessary, clean and press thoroughly and re- 
make. When overskirts are popular and dresses are made of a 
combination of materials as at present, old dresses can readily 
be made into up-to-date ones. Half worn clothing can very often 
be made into dresses, suits and coats for small boys and girls. 
Very often the materials in such garments will be much better 
grade than one can afford to buy for children. It is important 
that all materials be thoroughly cleaned l>efore beinq: remade. 
Discarded clothing of no other value can be washed, cut in 
strips and woven into rugs, or given to the ward Relief Society. 


Ruskin says. ''Clothes carefully cared for and rightly worn, 
show a balance of mind and self-respect." 

The girl who wishes to appear well dressed and properly 
gowned will not neglect the little things that a'd to the freshness 
and durability of her clothing. The little attentions, such as re- 
placing a hook, fastening a button, removing spots, brushing care- 


fully, pressing, hanging on hangers adapted to the article, re- 
placing" soiled collars and cuffs by fresh ones, airing and folding 
along seams as near as possible, take but a few m : nutes if done 
promptly, and keep the wardrobe in good order. 


Keep coats, waists, and dresses, on coat hangers, and skirts 
on the kind that will keep the bands straight. Air clothing when 
it is removed at night, and wear a different set to sleep in. If 
moist clothing is thrown around in heaps or tossed into a .dark 
corner of a closet or trunk, it can never appear fresh again unless 
it can be laundered. The wearing of clothes is not what tells 
so sadly upon them, but the manner in which they are cared 
for. A few garments nicely made, well fitted and properly cared 
for are preferable to twice the number of inferior quality and 
make. Waists in reserve may be kept ; n bureau drawers or boxes. 
They should first be carefully fol 1 ed and if fancy, the sleeves 
and bows stuffed with tissue paper. Good gowns if hung in 
dosets should have cover bags slipped over them. Skirts and 
coats with bias seams are not improved by hanging, as the bias 
part are apt to stretch out of place. All steel pins should be re- 
moved from clothing, even if it is put away for just one night, as 
the least dampness may cause rust spots. Pressing adds much to 
the appearance and durability of a suit or skirt, as well as to 
the comfort of the wearer. Press with a hot iron and damp cloth 
on the right side over a thick pad until nearly dry ; then turn the 
garment on the wrong side and press dry- Woolen goods will 
mark or shine if pressed without a cloth, and the texture of silk 
materials will be injured if the iron is permitted to get too hot. 


Care of shoes and rubbers. — It is better to have two pairs 
of shoes and alternate in wearing them. The pair not in use 
should be kept on shoe trees or something improvised to keep 
them stretched. A good' polish keeps the shoes looking neat an I 
preserves the leather. When shoes get wet the thread rots and 
soles separate ; rubbers will protect them. These will last a long- 
time with a little care. Wash them promtlv after wearing. Do 
not let mud dry on them nor leave them in direct sunlight or near 
heaters, as heat spoils and mud rots them. Soft paper stuffed 
into heels and toes keens them in good shape. Adhesive plaster 
or a few stitches will help if they become torn or split at the sides. 


1 Care of clothing between seasons. — All clothing for the sea- 
son should be carefully brushed, cleaned, repaired and put away 


in tight cotton bags, boxes or packages. If these are plainly 
labeled with their contents, time will be saved when they are 
needed. Woolen articles should receive a goad sun bath and 
careful inspection for possible traces of moths. Gum camphor, 
black pepper, tobacco leaves and tar paper are some of the modi 
preventatives that can be used in packing clothes away. Garments 
that are outgrown should be disposed of. In folding lay the 
articles on a flat, large surface and fold on the seams if possible. 
paying particular attention to sleeves and collars. Coat lapels 
should be turned to lie flat, collars turned up, and the coat folded 
through the center seam. Summer clothing should be clean an I 
-monthly folded. Blue tissue paper is said to prevent white ma- 
terials from turning yellow. 


Care of Colored Clothes Before Hashing. — It pays to set col- 
ors before laundering. For blue, use one-half cup of vinegar and 
one tablespoonful of salt to a pail of cold water. Lavenders may be 
set with a tablespoonful of sugar of lead to a pail of cold water. 
I'inks and blacks may be treated with salt, two cups to a pail of 
cold water, rinks, lavenders, reds, creams, yellows, in fact nearly 
ai' colored materials should be allowed to soak several hours bc- 
fc/e washing. 

Renovating and Cleaning of Clothing. — Never attempt to 
make over and clean clothes unless the material is qr>od enough to 
make :t worth while to do the work well. Faded materials may 
he freshened by cleaning and dyein,g, but directions should be 
carefully followed in the selection of dyes and the process in- 


Stains may be removed easily while fresh. Fruit stains may 
be removed by pouring boiling water from a height of a foot or 
two through the fabric stretched over a basin. Ink stains may be 
remove 1 by squeezing the cloth out of milk, treating with javal 
water, or with a paste of uncooked starch and milk. Iron rust 
may be removed from linen and cotton by using lemon juice and 
salt. Grease spots may be removed with a good soap and hot 
water, or if the material will not stand laundering, it may be 
treated with absorbents such as French chalk, magnesia powder, 
or blotting paper and a hot iron. If the iron affects the goods, 
it should be held above it, not permitted to come in direct contact. 
Blood stains may be removed by making a paste of starch an 1 
applying it to the spot. It may be necessary to repeat the process 
several times. When solvents arc used they should be the purest 
and best. Use enough to thoroughly cleanse the article. Benzine. 

line, naptha and the explosive solvents should be kept away 


from the fire. Turpentine is good for removing grass and paint 


Since materials can be produced so cheap, mending is be- 
coming a lost art. However, no one .disputes the utility of mending. 
A well made garment should not be discarded when a patch neatly 
put in will prolong its usefulness. Children, especially, should 
not be allowed to wear garments out of repair for it has a de- 
moralizing influence upon the : r characters. "A stitch in time 
saves nine." This is particularly true of knitted materials that 
frequently come to pieces before you are aware. Darning the 
thin places before the hole comes through is true economy of time 
pud effort. Net may be helpful in repairing large holes. The size 
of the thread used in darning should correspond to that of the 

In mending the knees of boys' trousers, set in a piece large 
enough to be taken into the seams and the patch will not be so 
noticeable. Bodices worn out under the arm may be best mended 
by setting in a new underarm piece. To lengthen garments, let 
down the hem of the skirt and face ; t, or apply a false hem or let 
cut tucks. Facings may be applied to neck and sleeves. 


Velvet. — Velvet may be freshened and wrinkles removed by 
steaming. To steam, put a wet cloth over a hot iron and draw the 
velvet back and forth through the steam, having the wrong side 
of the velvet next to cloth. Brush with a soft bristle brush to raise 
the pile. 

Spots may be removed from velvet and plush by sponging 
with chloroform (never use in a closed room.) Chlorform will 
often restore color to faded materials. 

Felt. — Felt of any color may be cleaned with sandpaper. 
Cover a small wooden block with No. 00 sandpaper and use the 
block as a brush. Begin at center top of hat and proceed in a 
circular direction until the whole hat has been cleaned. Remove 
the sandpaper, cover the block with velvet and go over the hat 
as before. The velvet will smooth down the felt. If the velvet 
block is rubbed on a hot iron and then on a block of paraffin wax- 
it will be still more effective. 

White felts may be cleaned by rubbing with French chalk, 
powdered borax, or cornmeal. 

Natural Colored Straw. — TTats of milan, leghorn, etc., in 
natural color may be cleaned with a paste of the juice of one 
lemon and two tablespoonfuls of sulphur. Rub the hat thoroughly 
with this paste and when dry brush off the powder. 


White Straw. — White straw hats including panamas may be 
cleaned with a weak solution of oxalic acid water. Dissolve a 
tablespoon of oxalic acid in one pint of water. Scrub the hat 
quickly with the solution using a stiff brush. (Do not put the 
hands in the acid.) After the hat has been cleaned rinse the acid 
off by going over the hat with a cloth wet in clear water. Avoid 
getting the straw too wet as this causes the hat to lose its shape. 
When nearly dry the hat may be pressed lightly tinder a damp 
cloth. Prepared cleaners for white straw may be purchased at 
the drug stores. 

Panama. — Panamas may also be cleaned by washing in soap 
and water. 

Colored Straws. — Colored straws, if not faded, may be 
freshened by washing with a sponge wet in wood alcohol. This 
method is very good for black straws. Wood alcohol being poi- 
sonous should be kept away from children. 

To Renew Faded Straw Hats. — Badly faded or soiled shapes 
can be dyed the same or a darker shade with one of the several 
reliable hat dyes for sale at drug stores. When carefully applied 
the hat may be made to look like new. 

To Stiffen Strazv. — Shapes which have lost their stiffness 
may be stiffened by pressing lightly under a damp cloth. Never 
press directly on any straw : have a cloth between the straw and 
the iron. 

To Change the Shape. — To change the shape of a straw hat 
dampen the hat and while soft and pliable, bend into desired shape. 
Catch up brim where desired with strong thread. Leave until drv. 

To Make a Prim Droop. — Hold the hat up and press a bit 
of the under brim at a time. The movement should be sideways 
from the crown outward. 

Lace. — Silk laces should be dry cleaned or washed in gasoline. 
Cotton laces can be washed in soap and water. Fill a fruit jar 
half full of warm soap suds or borax water. Put lace in jar and 
fasten top securely. Shake well until lace is thoroughly washed. 
Refill jar with rinse water and rinse by shaking the lace in the 
jar. Take out the lace and spread it on a drv cloth pulbng the 
scallops into shape. When dry. the lace may be pressed lightly. 
Tn washing any kird of lace the main point to remember is to 
avoid rubbing. 

Ribbon. — Ribbons may be cleaned by sponging with dena 
lured alcohol. Good ribbons may be washed in soap and water. 
Uwavs press between cloths or paper. 

Feathers. — White or colored feathers may be washed in a 
thin paste of gasoline and flour, or gasoline and plaster of paris. 
To one pint of gasoline ad.d two tablespoons of flour or plaster 
m" paris. Clean the feather by putting it in the paste and rubbing 
it from the stem to the tips of the flues. Do not rub the flues back 


and forth but move the fingers always in the same direction. When 
the feather is clean, draw it through the tightly closed hand to 
squeeze out the gasoline. Shake a few minutes ; then finish drying 
in cornstarch. Spread the cornstarch on a piece of tissue paper 
and rub the feather lightly in the starch until dry. Shake the 
starch out and the feather will be found to be clean and fluffy. 

Washing a White Plume. — When a white or light plume be- 
comes badly soiled it can be washed with soap and water, the dis- 
advantage of this method being that the feather must be recurled. 
Make a suds of ivory soap and warm water. Let the feather soak 
in this an hour or two. Then wash by drawing through the hand. 
When clean rinse the feather first in clear water and then in wood 
alcohol. After squeezing out the alcohol dry the feather in corn- 
starch. Recurl, using a silver knife. 

Black or Dark Colored Feathers. — Black or dark feathers 
may be cleaned by washing in wood alcohol. Shake the feather 
until .dry. 

Fur. — Fur may be cleaned by brushing thoroughly with very 
hot bran. Use a stiff brush. Have the fur stretched firmly to the 
ironing board. After brushing, shake the fur to remove the bran. 
Th : s not only cleans the fur but also makes it glossy. 

Flowers. — Soiled flowers become freshened and stiffened by 
shaking them over a steaming cloth. Faded flowers can be dippe 1 
into a tinting preparation or they can be touched up with a small 
paint brush and usually look like new. To make the tinting prep- 
aration, dissolve oil paint in gasoline. The oil paint can be bought 
in small tubes in a great variety of colors. Such things as chiffons, 
thin silks, malines and feathers can also be tinted in gasoline and 
oil paint. Tinting is different from dyeing, and only light shades 
can be produced, — red paint tinting pink, etc, Tinting should 
never be done near a fire or in a closed room. Always test a 
sample before putting in the article to be colored. 


The kitchen table is made very handy by covering the top 
with zinc. Have that part of the table which extends out from 
the frame sawed off to within one inch of the frame, then cover 
with zinc, using small nails to fasten the edges neatly under the 
top of the table. Hot dishes from the oven can be set on this 
without harm to the table, and for various other purposes it will 
be found very useful. 

£iin nun in i ill iii 111 1 111 nun iii 111 1 ii i ii mi n iiniuiuiuiiuinuiiuiuiuiuiiiinininiiuiiuiiiuiiniuniniluiuulluliuuiuiulluuiuuiuniuiiuniinuiiniuinuulllllllllliuii'i 


The Utah State Defense Council, aided by 
Agricultural College, Logan, have made it possible 
to offer the different Ward organizations in Utah 
and Idaho at cost a limited number of 

National Steam Pressure Canning Outfits 

A CARLOAD of Junior No. 1 Outfits with a 
capacity of 200 to 400 ens daily is expected in 

SALT LAKE CITY, About JULY la, 1917. 

The Consolidated Wagon and Machine Company 
have been requested to distribute these goods. 

1 Address Orders to 



Orders must be accompanied by cash in 
registered mail, money order or bank check, in 
amounts of $1 5.00 for each outfit, and as the sup- 
ply at this price is limited, quick action is necessary. 


| Of the Committee on Food Supply and Conservation, f 

Capitol 'Building 

I 0-16-1917 I 

Fill >>tl<lll 11 Ill till 1 1 1 1 1 II M 1 1 1 1 1 1 III III Ml II I M 1 1 1 lit II 1 1 1 1 1 1 II I III 111 II I tlllll )l III III 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 It 1 1 ^= 


and Double Disc 

The mechanism, style, finish and 
every detail of the COLUMBIA 
products are as near perfection as 
possible. Let us send you cata- 
logue of Machines and Records. 
We can arrange terms. 


Co-op. Furniture 
Company s a u Lake G ty , u ta h 

W. N. WILLIAMS. Supt. 


Relief Society Magazine 


When Tou Buy the Wedding Ring 

Buy the sensible, practical, lasting kind, the old English 
(sometimes called Tiffany). It is made of one-piece solid 
18-k gold. Thick to withstand wear. Narrrow to permit its 
being worn conveniently with another ring. See them in our 


McCONAHAY the Jeweler 


Z. C. M. I. 

Facial Massages 
Hair Dressing 

Hair and Fcalp Treatments 

Nell C Brown 

Hair and Scalp Specialist, 
in charge 

Consultation Free 

1 1 : ' ■ i ' r f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i ■ ■ ■ i ■ i r 1 1 1 mill inn mil mi minimi in ;i imr 


you liv.< m tin BtalM, u. -ii 
^i'Di] j on t li i s world - famous 
GRAP0N01 I with the true 
"Tune of I.,'' " thai r.WT 
CHOICE -.f rvonda fan ■ 
list of thousand Enjoy lat 

outfit as your own for oilay*. 
Tli. -it if you are not perfectly 
deligntod-aad sure you want 

to itt'»'|i it-v>'ii<i u baoi 8nd 

for big FHEE nUloga tad 
full particular* of P It E E 
obligation in writing. 

DAl m:s-ki:i:im: mi sic co. 

Gl-3-5 Main St., Sail Lake. Utah. 

inimnmi minim in mi ii in in in m minimum;:.; j .n ; u i u i n i hiiiimiiiiiiiih. 


F"-^ — % 

/little Cost % 
J w^ \ 

Oregon Short Iincf% 




-4sk your.4ii*ni fbr~ Details 



When you think of marriage, think 

of us, we will gladly 

send san pies 

Prices range from 
$6.75 per 100 up 

Sait Lake 





The Agricultural College by Federal and State Law is designated to supply 


as well as in times of peace. 

OFFICERS FOR THE UNITED STATES ARMY— It now has established a 
unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, which is designed to prepare 
officers for the United States Army. 

FOOD PRODUCERS — To successfully prosecute the war, food must be pro- 
duced and conserved under scientific supervision in order to reach a 
maximum production and minimize the waste. 

ENGINEERS — Expert training, on the part of large numbers of men, in sur- 
veying, construction, machine work, automobile care and repair, hydraulics, 
irrigation and drainage engineering, architecture, wood, iron, and steel 
work, farm machinery, is necessary to National efficiency and National 

LEADERS IN HOME LIFE— Ignorance is mankind's greatest enemy. Yearly 
it invades the United States and steals away 200,000 infants. Learning 
and wisdom in relation to child-rearing and home management is made 
obvious by this dreadful mortality. Science must take hold of the gov- 
erning of the American home. 

Write for catalogue of the Utah Agricultural College. 

Address: The President. 

Garment Wearer's Attention 

A label like the above is found below the Temple brand in the neck of 
all L. D. S. "Temple Brand" garments. Be sure it is in those you buy. If your 

leading dealer does not have the garment you desire, select your vauts from 
this list and send us the order. We will pay postage to any part of the United 
States. Samples submitted on request. 

Cotton, bleached, light weight $1.00 

Cotton, bleached, gauze weight 1.35 

Cotton, bleached, medium weight 1.50 

Cotton, bleached, medium heavy 1.75 

Cotton, unbleached, heavy weight 1.75 

Lisle, bleached, gauze weight 2.00 

Lisle, bleached, light weight 1.75 

Fleeced cotton, bleached, heavy 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, light weight 2.00 

Mercerized cotton, medium weight 3.00 

Wash-shrunk wool, medium weight 2.50 

Wash-shrunk wool, heavy weight 3.00 

Silk and wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, medium weight 3.50 

Australian wool, heavy weight _ 6.00 



American River 


Spend your vacation in 


Visit Lake Tahoe ("Killarney" 
of America) 



Let me arrange your Itinerary and Res- 

District Passenger Agent, 
203 Walker Bank Bldg. 

Waiatch 6610 







Wf 1 ^ ■-■ 


AUGUST, 1917 

Have You Read the Pioneer Classic 
by M. A. S. Winters? 

Do You Save Bread Crumbs? 

Are You Interested in Mission Field 

In the Midst of War's Alarms, Let Us 
Not Forget Home, Friends, Nor the 
Regular Work of the Relief Society. 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church 

of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

No. 29, Bishop's Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Copy 10c 

Vol. IV. 



Better, Cheaper 

In your cooking do not hesi- 
tate to use a liberal amount of 
pure sugar, as it is one of the 
cheapest foods today; and plenty 
of good sugar makes things more 

extra ran 

Table and Preserving Sugar 

No sugar can be purer, whiter 
nor sweeter than this perfect sugar. 
Order it by name and see that it is 
' marked — 

Made by 


Joseph F. Smith, President 

Thos. R. Cutler, 
Vice-President and Qen'l Mgr. 


The "Silent Smith" typewriter is equally 
efficient, whether the work is specialized 
or diversified 

Modern business demands typewriting, 
not only for correspondence, but for more 
complex work- — billing, stencil writing, check 
writing, tabulating, label writing, card in- 
dex work, filling in ruled forms. 

The "Silent" models of the L. C. Smith 
& Bros, typewri