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Read by President Heher J. Grant at 
President Smith's funeral 

Thou dost not weep to weep alone; 
The hroad bereavement seems to fall 
Unheeded and unfelt by none: 
He was beloved, beloved by all. 

But lo! what joy salutes our grief! 
Bright rainbows crown the tearful gloom, 
Hope, hope eternal, brings relief; 
Faith sounds a triumph o'er the tomb. 

Vain are the trophies wealth can give! 
His memory needs no sculptor's art; 
He's left a name — his virtues live. 
Graved on the tablets of the heart. ' 
Eliza R. Snow. 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

No. 29 Bishop's Bldg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Copy 10c 


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The Relief Society Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JANUARY, 1919 

"Thou Dost Not Weep to Weep Alone" 1 

President Joseph Fielding Smith Frontispiece 

In Memoriam : President Joseph F. Smith 3 

Sentiments from the Presidency and General Board of the Relief 

Society 13 

Appreciation from the Three Leading Women of the Church 14 

Vision of the Redemption of the Dead 16 

General John J. Pershing Mary Foster Gibbs 22 

To the Departed Year 1918 Mrs. Parley Nelson 23 

Lines to a Tree in Winter 24 

Heart of the Household Ruth Moench Bell 25 

Conservatioin Cook Book 32 

Our Indian Cousins C. L. Christensen 33 

Humility Emily Hill Woodmansee 37 

The Home Coming L. Lula Greene Richaids 39 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home. . . . Janette A. Hyde 40 

Official Round Table. . . .Clarissa S. Williams, Amy Brown Lyman 40 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 45 

Editorial 49 

Guide Lessons 52 


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Efficient Service, Modem Methods 

Complete Equipment 

My Friend, Maud Ellen Baggarley 

A Tribute 
By Grace Ingles Frost. 

She has passed beyond. Comparatively youthful in years, 
she has yet entered into her rest as does the sheaf of wheat which 
is fully ripe. Her life was given to the Master's service and her 
works live and will live in the hearts of all who knew her person- 
ally, as a beautiful memorial of her divine spirit, g-ifts and edu- 

Though so richly endowed, she was always modest and even 
retiring in her manner. Few persons knew the full capabilities 
of her wonderful mind. Some there were whom she admitted 
to the sacred precincts of her soul, and they recognized in her a 
great and sublime spirit. Hers was a spirit of meekness, charity, 
love and perfect truth. When affliction walked in the guise of 
illness she ministered with a gentle hand, and in the time of death 
she was ever present to ofifer sympathy and cheerfully perform 
any task, it mattered not how menial. 

To the poor and needy she ministered, giving herself with the 
gift, and letting not her left hand know what the right dispensed. 
Many there are who call her name blessed who were strangers 
within our gates. 

Dissimulation had no place in her character. The clasp of 
her hand assured one at once of her integrity. She never pre- 
tended what she did not feel. She was a friend in all respects to 
her friends. Unto those whom she felt called upon to rebuke, 
her words came firm and forceful, but devoid of malice. In de- 
fense of the Gospel her words went forth as keen as a two-edged 
sword, for she had laid her all upon its altar. 

Israel has cause to mourn the loss of Sister Baggarley. Many 
will watch for her cheery smile and will grieve because they see 
it no more. 

Much more might be said concerning this our gifted sister 
whom the Father has called home, much more by me, for I knew 
her as probably no other person, and my heart is empty, woefully 
empty now that she has passed beyond. Oh ! Maudie, my friend 
and sister! 

You taught me what the gift of friendship meant 

In its most perfect sense. 
And your bright smile and beauteous spirit lent 

A wondrous strength and armor of defense 
Against mv weaker self from day to day. 

President Joseph Fielding Smith 
Born IS November, 1838. Died ig November, igi8. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol VI. JANUARY, 1919. No. 1 

In Memoriam: 
President Joseph F. Smith. 

The Church and the world have bidden a temporary farewell 
to the kingly spirit of President Joseph F. Smith. He passed be- 
yond Nov. 19, 1918. Born in extreme privation and exile, No- 
vember 13, 1838, at Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, while 

his father was in prison with 
the Prophet Joseph, and his 
mother's bed was protected 
from the pouring rain by ves- 
sels held up under the mud 
roof, he experienced trouble 
enough to begin with. As he 
grew, however, his sturdy 
frame and powerful constitu- 
tion thrived in the midst of 
mobbings and drivings, while 
his spirit took on added force, 
and only reacted the more 
generously to trouble and sor- 
row in others because of his 
early privations. His mother, 
Mary Fielding Smith, was his 
ideal and his guiding star all 
his life. Her courage and loy- 
alty to the truth, her gracious 
courtesy and sympathetic ten- 
derness, softened his natural 
stern and rigorous tempera- 
ment. With what vividness he 
recalled his mother's historic crossing of the plains in 1848, under 
the most trying and forbidding circumstances ! With what faith- 
ful reverence did he enshrine her memory ' 

Pres. Smith in 1876. 


He recalled with circumstantiality his brief childish experi- 
ences in Nauvoo, when he was intimately and lovingly associ- 
ated with his father and his adored uncle, the Prophet Joseph 
Smith. He drove one of his mother's ox teams across 
the plains and entered with her into this valley Sep- 
tember 23, 1848. Plowing, harvesting and wood-chopping 
hardened his muscles and taught him resourcefulness and 
initiative. From herdboy to farmer, he graduated into the 
-university of mission life, spending many years at that, returning 
to take his spiritual post-graduate preparation in the Historian's 
Office under the liberal education and tutelage of his "uncle," 

President George A. Smith, 
for years the Church His- 
torian and Counselor to Presi- 
dent Brigham Young. He was 
an active participant in the 
labors of the Endowment 
House, during his early man- 
hood. He filled three missions 
on the Sandwich Islands, his 
first undertaken when he was 
fifteen years of age, and 
paid several visits there at va- 
rious periods, early acquiring 
the most perfect control of the 
Hawaiian tongue vouchsafed 
to any Utah missionary, and 
winning the ardent and con- 
stant devotion of those .dusky 
natives, such as no man had 
ever done before or has ever 
done since. Two missions to 
Great Britain, in the second of which he was president of the 
European Mission, taught him, among many other things, life's 
balance between man-made churches and divinely revealed re- 

Not only did he serve his Church assiduously, but he was an 
active member of the Salt Lake municipal council for several 
terms and urged the dedication of Liberty Park to the city, and 
later Pioneer Square was also purchased through his eflForts. 

He served in the legislative assembly, and during a portion 
of the time, he acted as the president of that body. He also was 
president of the constitutional convention held in 1882. 

He served in every capacity in his own Church, from a dea- 
con to the President of the Church, and was counselor to the 
First Presidency in the administration of both President Wood- 

Pres. Smith in 1884 


ruff and President Snow. The years of his own administration 
were most fruitful in constructive measures. School buildings 
and churches, both at home and abroad, were built under his 
policy. Land was purchased, meeting houses bought or built, 
not only in all our intermountain states and Utah, but also in 
Chicago, the Eastern States, Southern States, California, Sand- 
wich Islands, Europe and Mexico. He chose the sites and dedi- 
cated them for the erection of the temples in Cardston, Canada 
and in Laic, Sandwich Islands. 

He was a patron of the arts and sciences and was devoted to 
the cause of education for the young. Home industry claimed his 
deep allegiance. He rigidly sustained all forms of home indus- 
try, and encouraged home manufacture in every sense of the word. 

Among other public utilities which he fostered are our great 
heating plant and lighting system, the street car service and the 
splendid gymnasium, built for both Church schools in this city 
and for those in other parts of the Church. His wise, conserva- 
tive financial policy was demonstrated in the successful banks, 
stores and institutions of which he was the head. He was a foe 
to debt and obligations of all kinds. Among the activities of his. 
administration the Hotel Utah will be a monument to his liberal 
views ; the beautiful Church office building, unsurpassed for de- 
sign and construction in the west; the L. D. S. Hospital, and other 
public structures, all testify to his constructive powers. 

President Smith was by nature a happy mixture of pro- 
gressivism and conservatism. His great reverence for authority 
and precedent made him an ideal leader and state builder. 

His wives, Julina Lambson, Sarah Richards, Edna Lamb- 
son, Alice Kimball and Mary Schwartz, are well known women 
in this community. Each is a queen in her own right. They have 
been and are as faithful and fond wives, as true and wise mothers 
as ever lived upon the earth. Each has borne a galaxy of chil- 

Much and deserved credit is accorded to President Smith for 
the remarkable family of children which he honored by his fath- 
erhood, but at the same time it must be said that the five noble 
and high-principled "mothers of his children" — as he loved to call 
them — deserve and should receive equal share in the credit for 
the beneficent training and careful nurture given to their families. 

President Smith himself would be loath to see this article 
appear in the leading women's Magazine, in the Church, without 
due affectionate notice given to the women who have helped to 
mold his own character and that of his children. 



His mother is little known in our historical annals — chiefly 
because of her retiring dignity which enveloped her personal 
character with a delicate veil of reserve. She it was, however, 
who started the Penny Subscription Fund, in Nauvoo, prior to 
the organization of this Society ; and she, of all the women be- 
longing to the families of the Prophet and Patriarch, remained 
faithful to the body of the Church, coming out to Utah with the 
early pioneers. Her untimely death, in 1852, left her motherless 
children to mature with the inspiring memory of her rigid do- 
mestic virtues and her loyalty to truth. 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith, who has acted for years as the Second 
Counselor' in our Relief Society presidency, is amply qualified by 
her own native housewifely and social abilities, her broad sym- 
pathy and just understanding of the sacred principle of celestial 
marriage, to stand at the head of her great husband's kingdom. 
She said when looking into the coffin of her adored husband, "I 
am grateful beyond my power to express that 'papa' has 'Aunt 
Sarah' 'over there' to comfort and take care of him now." _ What 
tribute could be greater to two noble women, the living wife and 
the dead! The devotion of the members of this Relief Society 

and of the women everywhere 
in the Church to this sweet- 
natured, fond wife, faithful 
mother and loyal friend, has 
deeper sources than mere hu- 
man limitations. For we per- 
ceive on reflection what her 
unassuming, modest worth 
means to womanhood and to 
humanity by a careful guess 
as to what an opposite influ- 
ence would have meant in her 
husband's family and in this 
Church itself. The sisters 
love her because she loves us, 
and always has been so ready 
to serve and help in any place 
or time. She is indeed a saint. 
She is the mother of Presi- 
dent Smith's noble represen- 
tative sons, Joseph F. Smith, 
Jr., Bishop David A. Smith, George and Wesley Smith, while her 
handsome and faithful daughters are worthy of their high par- 
entage. Her children are her best testimonial. 

Mrs. Sarah Richards Smith, daughter of President Willard 

Pres. Smith in 1891 

On their Golden Wedding Day, May 5. 1916. 


Richards, now dead, was beautiful, courteous and extremely in- 
tellig-ent. All her life wag guided by high principle, and no 
mean or ignoble word or act marred the gentle standard of her 
fine character. She bore a family of re'fined, noble sons and 
daughters. Her son Richards, the President's oldest son, is a 
man, just and righteous. He lives religion rather than preaches 
theology. His tender respect and reverence for his father's wives 
and children — each and all — is an ensample to all Israel. "Nonie," 
Sarah's oldest daughter, now dead, was always referred to by 
her father as the living representative of his own adored mother. 
Sarah's second son, Willard, is as fine and true a man as can be 
found in all Israel. Sarah died March 22, 1915, leaving a whole 
family in tears and deep mourning at her departure. 

Mrs. Edna L. Smith presides over the sisters in the Salt Lake 
Temple. She is like a lightning flash, instant in speech, strenuous 
in activity, yet she is an ardent lover of deep spiritual truths. 
Her diversion is reading the Scriptures, and she tolerates no de- 
partures from the rigid code of morals and conduct which guides 
her own activities. The sister workers in the Temple who know 
her best give quick and willing service under her swift, directing 
hand, and love her for the sterling virtues which buttress her 
character with unyielding fortitude and strength. In return, she 
mothers them all, jealously guarding their rights and privileges, 
allowing no one to attack or decry her treasured band. She has 
suffered many blows from destiny's hammer during the recent 
past — the death of her prized daughter, Zina ; then her eloquent 
and promising son. Apostle Hyrum M. ; then his wife, Mrs. Ida 
Bowman Smith, and now her husband has gone, and she is left. 
But the first opportunity which offered she gave faithful greetings 
to President Heber J. Grant with the characteristic remark, "This 
is the Church of the Christ, not of my husband or of any other 
man. You are His chosen representative on earth, President 
Grant, and you have my faith and prayers." 

Mrs. Alice Kimball Smith, daughter of a prophet, wife of a 
prophet, is a lovely, sensitive, highly spiritualized character. De- 
voted to her home and its constant needs, she has yet found time 
and strength to act as General Treasurer of the Y. L. M. I. A. for 
years. She has traveled much, and everywhere has lifted her 
eloquent and appealing voice in warning hope, and sure testimony, 
of the Gospel. She inherits her father's keen, incisive humor, 
his dignity, and many of his seeric gifts. She is a most devoted 
wife and fond mother, giving her wealth of passionate service 
without personal regard, or at times without self-protection. In 
recent years she has been sorely afflicted. Nothing mortal 
would daunt her courage or still her vivid testimony. Her 
husband and children are her fortress, and he who would at- 
tack or even ignore her rights must reckon with sharp and 

Top row: Julina L. Smith, Sarah R. Smith 
Center: Mary Fielding Smith. 
Lower row: Edna L. Smith, Alice K. Smith. Mary S. Smith 


vigorous counterattack; disloyalty to her family would merit 
eternal severance of friendly ties and affections. Practically her 
whole family were prostrated with the influenza plague at the 
time of her husband's passing, and but for the kindly ministrations 
of her friend, Mrs. Zina Y. Card, sad indeed might have been the 
results. As it was, the wife was not present at the deathbed, but 
came, stricken and pallid, upheld by her indomitable courage and 
will to attend the obsequies. 

Mrs. Mary Schwartz Smith, niece of President John Taylor 
and mother of five stalwart and exemplary boys, was a beautiful 
bride, and has proved a loyal and devoted wife. She has be- 
queathed to her children the quick intelligence, the love of literary 
and educational pursuits, which she, too, inherited from superior 
ancestry. She has not disdained, however, to take up a farm 
and to lead her sons by precept and example to love Mother Earth 
in all her changing bestowals. Homely toil has dignified their 
ideals, solidified their natural gifts, and today her family testify 
in their response to our country's need, in their fine and scholarly 
promise, to the value of her teachings and example. 


The words of Bishop Charles W. Nibley, spoken at the 
funeral services over the grave of the President, express elo- 
quently the feelings and views of the people concerning President 
Smith : 

"Surely it is a great honor to be asked to say a few words at 
the grave of our dear President, one whom we all loved so much. 
Difificult though the task may be, yet I feel that I should make 
the effort, for a few moments, and if I can master my feelings, 
say what I can in respect to him. 

"I have known President Smith most intimately for more 
than forty years. I have traveled more with him and have been 
his companion more than any one in the world outside of the 
members of his immediate family, so that I know him better, per- 
haps, than any man living. I can testify to you that here lies the 
body of a great man, a good man, a virtuou^, clean man — clean 
as any man, or woman either, who ever walked the earth. At this 
separation, this parting, my heart has been saddened beyond any- 
thing that has ever come to me; but I think of the great rejoicing 
in the meeting with his father, with his uncle, the Prophet, with 
that precious and blessed mother of his, with Aunt Sarah 
and the children, his own children — Hyrum, and Nonie and Zina 
and Allie and others who have gone before. What a glorious, 
and happy and blessed reunion there! For he loved his family. 
He honored the very memory and name of his mother and his 
father. He was great in all these qualities. He did not set him- 






^ > 

5 o 


self up to be great; for he was so simple, so urtostentatious, so 
gentle, loving and kind ; and yet, when his spirit was roused at 
any indignity, at any insult, no man could or would more fiercely 
or more quickly resent it; but his life was gentle, and he was a 
man such as we seldom see. I say, from my point of view, here 
lies the body of the greatest man and the best man in all the world. 

"The Church, seventeen years ago, was gready in debt. The 
work that he has done in managing its affairs, as Trustee-in- 
Trust, speaks for itself. The Church never was in better con- 
dition, financially, spiritually, or numerically — never was stronger 
than now. His was the guiding, steadying hand of it all, under 
the blessing and favor of the Almighty, which he, more than any 
one else, always and on every occasion acknowledged. How often 
have we heard him ,say, 'It is not I that is doing this, it is the Lord 
who is guiding and directing and blessing it all.' 

"It would be unwise to try to go into any extended remarks 
at this time and place, concerning his virtues, his greatness, the 
purity and blessedness of his life, in every way ; but I will say 
this, that with all the greatness that you know of, and his goodness 
also, the greatest work of all is his magnificent family, this large 
family, the largest in all Christendom, and no better in the world. 
Here is the work of a man indeed ! Nay, is it not more like the 
work of a God ? For what work is there that we do in this world 
that is so godlike as the rearing of a family; and in this large 
family there is not one 'black sheep,' not one renegade, not one 
that is not a good citizen — clean and upright. What a magnifi- 
cent, noble and splendid work for a man to do. Why, it shall 
live forever. It was his glory, and honor and the pride of his 
life ; and it is the greatest work that any man can ever do. 

"Now, my brethren and sisters, and friends, what of the 
future? We could not keep him always. I am glad to know 
that he stayed with us as long as he did, that he was a blessing 
to us for so many years, giving guidance and direction to the 
affairs of the Church of Christ. We could not keep him always. 
What of the future? While we have life and health and strength 
given us, it is our duty to work to build up the kingdom of God. 
If he were to speak to us now, his voice, his instruction would be 
for us to sustain the administration of President Grant, as we 
have sustained his administration, and try to make it as splendid 
and glorious, and even more so, if possible, for we should progress 
and learn more and more as we go on in this work to make us 
better and accomplish more than we have ever done hitherto. 
This would be his word — his word of counsel and advice — to us. 
This was always his counsel, his instruction to stand by the 
kingdom of God, to sustain it, magnify it, and make it great; not 
to the honor of Joseph F. Smith, particularly, and yet he was the 
instrument in the hands of God, whom we honored, and whom 


God honored, but it is not for man's honor or glory or credit that 
we work, but for the honor, and glory, and credit, and renown of 
our God and His Christ, forever. Amen." 

The friends of President Joseph F. Smith, whose death oc- 
curred November 19, 1918, encompass the membership of the 
Church, but do not stop there ; men everywhere who knew him 
honored and revered him for his integrity, his breadth of vision, 
his charity, his loyalty to truth. We are fortunate in possessing 
in this Church so many of his deserving and promising descend- 
ants and we joy in the fact that they do have and will have in- 
creasing opportunities of service in the Church in the various 
organizations, and quorums of the priesthood. His first wife, 
Julina, is President Emmeline B. Wells' Counselor, and his 
daughter, Donnette Smith Kesler, is our latest General Board 
member. The Relief Society have every reason to mourn the 
present loss of President Joseph F. Smith, and to prepare them- 
selves as members for future associations with him and his. 

Sentiments from the Presidency and General 
Board of the Relief Society. 

Inasmuch as it has pleased the Lord in His justice and mercy 
to release our dearly beloved and deeply revered President Joseph 
F. Smith, while our heavenly Father has taken to Himself that 
noble .spirit, whose labors now will broaden into boundless 
divinity ; 

Knowing that no one human factor in recent years has done 
so much to enhance the sphere and to quicken the possibilities of 
this organization, appreciating as he did the spirit and genius of 
the Relief Society work ; 

Realizing that his spirit of grace, of justice, of keen percep- 
tion of all spiritual values, and his breadth of vision, have en- 
larged the understanding of other men concerning the rights and 
liberties, the duties and responsibilities, of the Relief Society and 
of womanhood in this Church ; 

Privileged as we were to witness his tender associations with 
his own family, his quick courtesy to womanhood, his fond and 
overshadowing care for little children, which has modified and 
mellowed all who were in any way blessed with his friendship 
and example ; 

And keenly sensible, as we are, that we are deprived for a 
season of his counsel and help ; 

Therefore : We, the General Board, officers and members of 
the Relief Society, do hereby express our love and gratitude for 
all he has done for this Society and for all women, and we rest 
in the sure hope of a renewal of happy associations in higher 
spheres, both as individuals and as a Society. 


Appreciation from the Three Leading 
Women of the Church. 


President Joseph F. Smith was to me the embodiment of 
greatness and goodness. I knew him from his childhood, through 
his youth and into his great maturity — knew him intimately and 
well and noted ever the strength of his character, and the onward 
and upward progress of his destiny. 

Surely no greater man has lived in this dispensation, save 
it were his uncle, the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

As I have been permitted to live through the long years, and 
see the many changes of the past century, I have noted not only 
the progress of the times, with its wonderful changes in industry. 
art, literature, invention and discovery, but also have I noted the 
advance of man, and I feel today, in thinking of the past, and the 
great men and women I have known, that among the leaders of the 
Latter-day Saints have been the purest, and brightest men and 
women of the age, and none of these excel our great leader who 
has just departed. Surely "A great man has fallen in Israel 

With all his strength and dignity President Smith was as 
tender as a little child. He loved children and was never happier 
than in their company, participating in their games or watching 
them at play. 

No one could be a more loyal friend, and to possess his 
friendship was truly a rich and treasured blessing. 

To his family he was not only a father, but a king, whom 
they adored with such reverence as is seldom shown to man, nor 
was this great fatherhood entirely confined to his immediate 
family, but enjoyed by the whole Church. 

I loved President Smith from his boyhood to the great age 
he attained. 

Through all the years he lived as true, as fine, as honest a 
life as befits the man destined to be a prophet, seer and revelator. 

His many gifts and graces endeared him to us all, and come 
what may, my heart will ever hold for him a lasting and endur- 
ing affection, through time and all eternity. 

Emmeline B. Wells, 
President of the General Board of the Relief Society. 



President Joseph F. Smith — the soul of honor, unflinching 
in integrity, fearless for the right, strong as a lion in defense 
of truth, yet humble as a little child in obeying the Will of God, 
patient through trial, kind and considerate of the aged and 
afflicted, he was indeed a noble example of true manhood. 

"An honest man is the noblest work of God." President 
Smith was worthy of the title. All honor to his memory. His 
life work is ended, but he will live forever in the hearts of those 
who knew and loved him. 

"His words are bonds, his oaths are oracles, his heart as 
far from fraud as heaven from earth." 

Martha Horne Tingey, 
President of the General Board of the Y. L. M. I. A. 


All who have known President Joseph F. Smith have been 
impressed with the generous impulses which bestowed kindness 
and tempered his judgment of the weak and unfortunate. 

His love for his family sets him as an ideal for emulation. 

For all children he "had the keenest and tenderest regard 
and interest, he could scarcely pass a little one without the be- 
stowal of a loving touch or word. Children in his presence were 
always considered and respected. 

As a worker among children it has been my pleasure to ask 
advice and receive help in the conduct of the Primary associations 
of the Church, and it gives me great pleasure to record that every 
effort put forth to benefit the children met with his heartiest 
approval and support. 

At one time the General Board was impressed with the idea 
that the Primary associations could create a fund to be used for 
such unfortunate children as might need hospital and. surgical 
assistance and which would react in ethical value to each child 
who voluntarily donated to such a worthy cause. The idea was 
taken to President Joseph F. Smith and it received the warmest 
sympathy, commendation and approval, and we know that he re- 
joiced with us when the idea became a fact, and as a result chil- 
dren were placed in the L. D. S. Hospital where with proper 
treatment they were restored to physical health. 

It may not be amiss to speak of a personal experience which 
gave me knowledge of this father-love we have all so much ad- 
mired. In 1883 when my husband was away on amission, two of 
the little ones in the family were afflicted with typhoid fever. 


and lay apparently at the point of death. The elders in the ward 
came repeatedly to administer to our children, but to the great 
grief of the two mothers there was little reason to believe that 
mortal power could preserve the lives of our dear ones. 

One night, a very anxious one in the family, there was being 
held in the old Social Hall a gathering at which was present our 
beloved President, Joseph F. Smith. He overheard some re- 
mark about the family of Elder Joseph H. Felt being seriously 
ill; lie knew the father was on a mission and immediately the 
thought came, "They have no father to help them." He called 
some of the brethren to him and invited them to accompany him. 
Leaving the party they went over a mile to give a blessing. His 
words of inspiration and love brought relief and joy to the 
anguished family, and to this day he is remembered as the instru- 
ment in the hands of the. Lord in restoring to life our children. 

I have always been proud and grateful for my acquaintance 
with this noble man and that it has been my personal pleasure to 
know how wide and deep was the father-love that delighted to 
bless his own and his neighbors' children. 

Louie B. Felt, 
President of the General Board of the Primary Association. 

Vision of the Redemption of the Dead. 

On the third of October, in the year nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, I sat in my room pondering over the Scriptures and 
reflecting upon the great atoning sacrifice that was made by the 
Son of God for the redemption of the world, and the great and 
wonderful love made manifesc by the Father and the Son in 
the coming of the Redeemer into the world, that through His 
Atonement and by obedience to the principles of the gospel, 
mankind might be saved. 

While I was thus engaged, my mind reverted to the writings 
of the Apostle Peter to the primitive saints scattered abroad 
through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and other parts of 
Asia where the gospel had been preached after the crucifixion 
of the Lord. I opened the Bible and read the third and fourth 
chapters of the first epistle of Peter, and as I read I was greatly 
impressed, more than I had ever been before, with the follow- 
ing passages : 


For Christ also hath once suflfered for sins, the just for the unjust, 
that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but 
quickened by the Spirit: 

By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; 

Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsufifering 
cf God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, 
wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. (1 Peter 3:18- 

For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are 
dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but 
live according to God in the spirit. (1 Peter 4:6.) 

As I pondered over these things which are written, the eyes 
of my understanding were opened, and the Spirit of the Lord 
rested upon me, and I saw the ho.sts of the dead, both small and 
great. And there were gathered together in one place an in- 
numerable company of the spirits of the just, who had been 
faithful in the testimony of Jesus while they lived in mortality, 
and who had offered sacrifice in the similitude of the great sac- 
rifice of the Son of God, and had suffered tribulation in their 
Redeemer's name. All these had departed the mortal life, firm 
in the hope of a glorious resurrection, through the grace of God 
the Father and his Only Begotten Son, Jesus Christ. 

I beheld' that they were filled with joy and gladness, and 
were rejoicing together because the day of their deliverance 
was at hand. They were assembled awaiting the advent of the 
iSon of God into the spirit world, to declare their redemption 
from the bands of death. Their sleeping dust was to be re- 
stored unto its perfect frame, bone to his bone, and the sinews 
and the flesh upon them, the spirit and the body to be united 
never again to be divided, that they might receive a fulness of 

While this vast multitude waited and conversed, rejoicing 
in the hour of their deliverance from the chains of death, the 
Son of God appeared, declaring liberty to the captives who had 
been faithful, and there he preached to them the everlasting 
gospel, the doctrine of the resurrection and the redemption of 
mankind from the fall, and from individual sins on conditions 
of repentance. But unto the wicked he did not go, and among 
the ungodly and the unrepentant who had defiled themselves 


while in the flesh, his voice was not raised, neither did the re- 
bellious who rejected the testimonies and the warnings of the 
ancient prophets behold his presence, nor look upon his face. 
Where these were, darkness reigned, but among the righteous 
there was peace, and the saints rejoiced in their redemption, 
and bowed the knee and acknowledged the Son of God as their 
Redeemer and Deliverer from death and the chains of hell. 
Their countenances shone and the radiance from the presence 
of the Lord rested upon them and they sang praises unto his 
holy Name. 

I marveled, for I understood that the Savior spent about 
three years in his ministry among the Jews and those of the 
house of Israel, endeavoring to teach them the everlasting gos- 
pel and call them unto repentance; and yet, notwithstanding his 
mighty works and miracles and proclamation of the truth in 
great power and authority, there were but few who hearkened 
to his voice and rejoiced in his presence and received salvation 
at his hands. But his ministry among those who were dead was 
limited to the brief time intervening between the crucifixion and 
his resurrection ; and I wondered at the words of Peter wherein 
he said that the Son of God preached unto the spirits in prison 
who sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering 
of God waited in the days of Noah, and how it wa's .possible for 
liim to preach to those spirits and perform the necessary labor 
among them in so short a time. 

And as I wondered, my eyes were opened, and my under- 
standing quickened, and I perceived that the Lord went not 
ii' person among the wicked and the disobedient who had re- 
jected the truth, to teach them ; but behold, from among the 
righteous he organized his forces and appointed messengers, 
clothed with power and authority, and commissioned them to 
go forth and carry the light of the gospel to them that were 
in darkness, even to all the spirits of men. And thus was 
the gospel preached to the dead. And the chosen messengers 
went forth to declare the acceptable day of the Lord, and pro- 
claim liberty to the captives who were bound ; even unto all who 
would repent of their sins and receive the gospel. Thus was the 
gospel preached to those who had died in their sins, without 
a knowledge of the truth, or in transgression, having rejected 


the prophets. These were taught faith in God, repentance from 
sin, vicarious baptism for the remission of sins, the gift of the 
Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, and all other principles 
of the gospel that were necessary for them to know in order 
to qualify themselves that they might be judged according to 
men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit. 

And so it was made known among the dead, both small and 
great, the unrighteous as well as the faithful, that redemption 
had been wrought through the sacrifice of the Son of God upon 
the q-oss. Thus was it made known that our Redeemer spent 
his time during his sojourn in the world of spirits, instructing 
and .preparing the faithful spirits of the prophets who had testi- 
fied of him in the flesh, that they might carry the message of 
redemption unto all the dead unto whom he could not go per- 
sonally because of their rebellion and transgression, that they 
through the ministration of his servants might also hear his 

Among the great and mighty ones who were assembled in 
this vast congregation of the righteous, were Father Adam, the 
Ancient of Days and father of all, and our glorious Mother 
Eve, with many of her faithful daughters who had lived through 
the ages and worshiped the true and living God. Abel, the first 
martyr, was there, and his brother Seth, one of the mighty ones, 
who was in the express image of his father Adam. Noah, who 
gave warning of the flood ; Shem, the great High Priest ; Abra- 
ham, the father of the faithful; Isaac, Jacob, and Moses, the 
great law-giver of Israel ; Isaiah, who declared by prophecy that 
the Redeemer was anointed to bind up the broken hearted, to 
proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison 
to them that were bound, were also there. 

Moreover, Ezekiel, who was shown in vision the great val- 
ley of dry bones which were to be clothed, upon with flesh to 
come forth again in the resurrection of the dead, living souls ; 
Daniel, who foresaw and foretold the establishment of the king- 
dom of God in the latter days, never again to be destroyed nor 
given to other people : Elias, who was with Moses on the Mount 
of Transfiguration, and Malachi, the prophet who testified of 
the coming of Elijah — of whom also Moroni spake to the Proph- 
et Joseph Smith — declaring that he should come before the 


ushering in of the great and dreadful day of the Lord, were 
also there. The prophet Elijah was to plant in the hearts of the 
children the promises made to their fathers, foreshadowing the 
great work to be done in the temples of the Lord in the Dis- 
pensation of the Fulness of Times, for the redemption of the 
dead and the sealing of the children to their parents, lest ^the 
whole earth be smitten with a curse and utterly wasted at his 

All these and many more, even the prophets who dwelt 
among the Nephites and testified of the coming of the Son of 
God, mingled in the vast assembly and waited for their deliver- 
ance, for the dead had looked upon the long absence of their 
spirits from their bodies as a bondage. These the Lord taught, 
and gave them power to come forth, after his resurrection from 
the dead, to enter into his Father's kingdom, there to be crowned 
with immortality and eternal life, and continue thenceforth their 
labors as had been promised by the Lord, and be partakers of 
all blessings which were held in reserve for them that love him. 

The Prophet Joseph Smith, and my father, Hyrum Smith, 
Brigham Young, John Taylor, Wilford WoodruflF, and other 
choice spirits, who were reserved to come forth in the fulness 
of times to take part in laying the foundations of the 
great Latter-day work, including the building of temples and the 
performance of ordinances therein for the redemption of the 
dead, were also in the spirit world. I observed that they were 
also among the noble and great ones who were chosen in the 
beginning to be rulers in the Church of God. Even before they 
were born, they, with many others, received their first lessons 
in the world of spirits, and were prepared to come forth in the 
due time of the Lord to labor in his vineyard for the salvation 
of the souls of men. 

I beheld that the faithful elders of this dispensation, when 
they depart from mortal life, continue their labors in the preach- 
ing of the gospel of repentance and redemption, through the 
sacrifice of the Only Begotten Son of God, among those who 
are in darkness and under the bondage of sin in the great world 
of the spirits of the dead. The dead who repent will be re- 
deemed, through obedience to the ordinances of the house of 
God, and after they have paid the penalty of their transgressions. 


and are washed clean, shall receive a reward according to their 
works, for they are heirs of salvation. 

Thus was the vision of the redemption of the dead revealed 
to me, and I bear record, and I know that this record is true, 
through the blessing of our Lord and Savior. Jesus Christ, even 
so. Amen. Joseph F. Smith. 

Several points in this heavenly revelation appeal at once to 
the student. Women are naturally comforted with the ref- 
erence to our "glorious Mother Eve and many of her faithful 
daughters" referred to as assisting in the work of preparing the 
spirits of the dead to receive the Gospel. This is unusual — the 
mention of women's labors on the Other Side — while the direct 
view of them associated with the ancient and modern prophets 
and elders confirms the noble standard of equality between the 
sexes which has always been a feature of this Church. 

The Vision's principal message to this people is a clarion 
call for them to awake to the immediate necessity of looking after 
their dead. How happy are the members of the Relief Society 
in the remembrance of their recent great activities and studies 
in genealogy as the necessary adjunct to temple work. And be- 
yond all, in what humility we thank our heavenly Father that the 
heavens are open, the vision is to his mouthpiece to whom he has 
declared such truths must come. What a marvelous close to 
the long and extraordinary labors of President Smith this vision 
marks. May the people, and especially our sisters, rise to the 
measure of fulness in response to this heavenly manifestation! 






% li 






General John J. Pershing. 

Mary Foster Gibbs. 

While in the office of a prominent Democrat, a short time 
ago, the writer was saluted with the question : "Would you like 
to see the next president of the United States?" and the picture 
of the forceful and brave leader of the American army was 
handed out. The talk ran upon his many qualifications and gifts 
and finally two interesting stories were related, told originally by 
the man who participated in them, Apostle Anthony W. Ivins : 

"Two years ago," so the story runs, "Apostle Ivins was in 
Mexico trying to straighten up the conditions between the Mexi- 
can soldiery and our "Mormon" colonists, and he was invited by 
General Pershing to visit him at army headquarters. 

As the party were at last arranged around the officers' di- 
ning table. General Pershing turned to our Utah representative, 
who sat at his right hand, and said : "Mr. Ivins, before we begin 
I would like you to thank the Lord for the food we are about to 
partake of." This was certainly an unusual and graceful compli- 
ment to pay a religionist, who was also a high official of the 
"Mormon" Church. 


After dinner was over the General had arranged a moving 
picture of army scenes and other views to entertain the battalion 
of United States soldiery gathered upon Mexican soil. 

After the performance had proceeded a short time. General 
Pershing invited Elder Ivins to stand upon a drygoods box, and 
then, giving the signal to stop the pictures, he invited Elder Ivins 
to address the soldiers. Those present declared they had never 
heard Elder Ivins speak with greater freedom of the Good 
Spirit and with more eloquent appeal than on that occasion. He 
was familiar — more familiar perhaps than the soldiers them- 
selves — with the reasons for their being there, while he was also 
intimately connected with every phase of the Mexican situation in 
all its ramifications. He certainly reached the -hearts of those 
men, and was rewarded by hearing a soldier remark to his com- 
panion, as they moved away and the moving pictures were re- 
sumed : "I wish they would stop off those pictures and let that 
old man talk, for we certainly learn something, and I never en- 
joyed anything more in my life." 

Utahns present were both gratified ami amused at the kindly 
generosity shown by General Pershing, and the interest mani- 
fested by his men. Certainly the Republican party would have 
considerable chance of success in two years from now, provided 
they were wise enough to all get together behind so admirable a 
leader as General Pershing. 

To the Departed YearLil918. 

By Mrs. Parley Nelson. 

Your birth was heralded 'mid clouds of gloom, 
So dark, we scarce dared think of happiness ; 
Famine and Death stalked broadcast o'er the earth, 
While millions mourned in sorrow and distress. 
Oppression's cruel hand was at our throat, 
The tyrant's power threatened land and sea, 
But Right prevailed against the power of Might ! 
O, glorious year, you brought the \ ictory. 

Lines to a Tree in Winter. 

Lucy S. Burnhain. 

How lonely you look, dear old tree, 

This winter morn. 
Your looks forlorn. 

Seems mocked by the laughter gay. 
Of the youth who played 

In 3^our pleasant shade. 

Ah, but 'twas springtime then, 

The month of May. 
Your branches gay 

•Decked with the fairest flowers. 
Danced in the breeze 

To the hum of the bees. 

The summer passed, autumn came. 

And gave you a dress of gold, 
And the wind so cold 

Came moaning and shrieking by, 
Shook your gold mantle down 

An.d left one of brown. 

Your beauty has gone, dear old tree, 

But the youth who played 
Tn your pleasant shade 

Lovingly stops 'neath your branches bare 
To cheer your days. 

A lesson you taught, dear old tree. 

Good seeds to sow 
That flourish and grow. 

Should life leave me old and alone 
Youth will lovingly stay 

To cheer mv lone wav. 

Heart of the Household. 

By Ruth Moench Bell. 

"There now, eat it !" Mrs. Badger exclaimed irritably, as she 
flung on to the table a queer, sodden mass. 

"What is it?" Zeph Badger inquired, as he poked it cau- 
tiously with his knife. 

"Bread," his wife retorted scornfully, "War-bread." 

"Bread !" Zeph Jr. looked alarmed. "Let's join the army, 
father," he implored dolefully. "Shrapnel couldn't be more 
deadly. Besides, we are not required to eat shrapnel. We are 
supposed to dodge it." 

"Coward," Marjory observed, fearlessly cutting into the loaf. 
"You'd look brave in a uniform. Why it's war-bread ! 
Only it stood too long and the oven wasnt' hot enough when it 
was put in. It should be mixed and put into loaves at once. It 
should be kept very warm so it will rise in one hour and then it 
should be put in a very hot oven. It was mixed too firm, too." 

"Too firm," Mrs. Badger exclaimed irritably, "you said the 
potato bread was mixed too loose." 

"Oh, it was mother mixed that potato bread I found in the 
chicken-coop!" Bobbie crowed tactlessly. 

"Yes, and wasted two whole sieves full of good white flour," 
Mrs. Badger gloomed. 

"Why not have Marjory mix the war-breads if they are 
teaching the girls at high school," Zeph suggested. 

"Marjory mix the war-breads!" The insult was too gross. 
Mrs. Badger drew herself up. Marjory mix the bread! Every in the town had come to her for the first .start of yeast and 
final instructions in bread-making. And such pufify, white loaves 
and rolls they had made under her tuition. And now her own 
husband had suggested that their fourteen-year-old daughter 
should mix the bread ! 

"These new war-breads are so different," Zeph added sooth- 

"Well named," Bobbie sang out. "War-breads! Thev 
surely raise a war every time they are mentioned in this house." 

"Well, you needn't have found that potato bread and come 
lugging it into the house," Marjory reproached, eager to pro- 
pitiate her mother and only making matters worse. 

"Oh, by the way," Zeph remarked. "The ladies want you 
to help in the gauze rooms two or three mornings a week." 

"Well, if that isn't the end of the limit," Mrs. Badger fumed. 


slipping into her small boy's vernacular. "What .does ails them !'' 

Zeph grinned behind his newspaper. He delighted in these 
odd expressions of his wife's, particularly her 'darn your picture 
of you' which Bobbie sometimes provoked. 

"I'm so tired every night I could die. And now to take 
three mornings a week for extra work ! When will I get 

"I don't know how these women manage it," Zeph puzzled. 
"Elinor Westfield walks down with Jim nearly every morning 
and home again with him at noon. And Jennie Grantly is just 
ahead of me about three afternoons a week. They trip off as 
jauntily as girls. Weren't they in our set?'" 

"No, their set was a little older, just about two years older," 
Mrs. Badger answered wearily. "It's easy enough for Elinor. 
She has no young children. And the whole family take a hand 
after work. I saw Jim frying the steak while she was setting 
the table, one time when I passed. And another time Jim was 
washing the dishes while she wiped and the youngest boy ran the 
vacuum cleaner. But I really wonder how Jennie manages with 
all her family of young children." 

"I know," Marjory volunteered. "They all rise one hour 
earlier. Mildred gets something ready for lunch and puts it in 
the fireless cooker before she goes to high school. Rhea and 
Max wash and wipe the dishes. Each one has some task or two 
to help out. Mildred even made a middle for Rhea the other 
day. And my, but she is proud of it ! And Mildred makes all 
the — I mean she mixes all the — that is, ,she — " 

"Call it Victory Bread, Marj," Zeph Jr. laughed. "Then 
mother won't mind so much." 

"Call it whatever you please," Mrs. Badger observed testily. 
"Somebody else will have to make it if I must go down to those 
gauze rooms. It's either war-bread, or thrift stamps, or liberty 
bonds or Red Cross — " 

"Or desolation, destitution and death, spiritually and phys- 
ically," Zeph finished solemnly. 

Mrs. Badger did not reply. The meal was over and she 
must clear up and see that the children picked up their things and 
brushed their teetli before they went to bed. She was the efficient 
housewife and usually attended to every detail. But tonight she 
was too tired and out of sorts to do anything but step around 
the toys, let the teeth go and sit down with her mending basket. 
Zeph glanced at her once or twice and looked away again. He 
wanted to talk but his wife's countenance was gloomy and un- 
responsive. He wondered, too, why some women's hair made 
a fringe behind the ears and at the back of the head and other 
women's hair looked so pretty. Marjory also glanced at her 


mother from time to time. They had learned so many interesting 
things at high school. She did so long to talk them over with 
her mother. Mrs. Badger could feel their eyes upon her and 
knew that her face was forbidding, but what could a woman do 
more than she was doing. 

The younger children had a crying match and were finally 
subdued and put to bed. And Mrs. Badger dragged herself off 
to rest. The day had been a succession of humiliating failures. 
She could see that she was getting to be an over-driven drudge 
instead of the serene soul of her home. The reflection in her 
mirror was a thing to turn away from. And she turned from 
it as her husband and daughter had done. That unsightly bob, 
vdiich Kipling dubbed the "badge of Mormondom" was unbe- 
coming and made no concession to the straggling locks by her 
ears and at the back of her head. Marjory had often beggeJ 
to do it up in a pretty style she wanted to try but the mother had 
no time to sit .down. 

However, night was not the time for reflections. Something 
must be done but her good habit, of relaxing her body and com- 
posing her features for repose, was not to be .sacrificed. She 
slept and left the problem till the morrow. 

And on the morrow a letter from her baby brother now in 
the training canip offered the solution. He enjoyed the discipline 
and the sense of resi)ons'lnlity. He took a pride in doing things 
in a given time. "The training was great, the meals scientific and 
tip-top." His enthusiasm was unbounded. And this was the boy 
who had been a spendthrift, a pool-hall devotee and a cigar con- 
noisseur and aimed at nothing higher. Mrs. Badger went about 
her work with a new light in her eyes. It was plain to see that 
she was making plans. 

"I guess if General Pershing cooked and washed dishes and 
made beds and swept barracks and ordered foods and darned and 
mended and picked up after the soldiers, he would have little 
time or thought or strength for the great moves of the war. 
And the Prussians would win as far as America was concerned," 
Mrs. Badger thought to herself. "And we'd have a badly disci- 
plined lot of soldiers instead of enthusiastic men writing home 
about their share of responsibility and the great jov they took 
in it." 

"Mother, may I have a thrift stamp?" four-year-old Jerry 
begged. Mrs. Badger was taking up ashes but she also took 
time to take up Jerry and squeeze him. 

"Mama has a new plan," she said. "Jerry must earn his 
thrift stamps. His salary is to be one penny a day. And his 
work is to take up the ashes carefully and bring in the wood and 
help with the dusting. He must also keep his barracks neat." 


"What's barracks?" Jerry asked, thrilled to the core with 
the new word and it's soldier connections. 

"Goodie, goodie," he danced after mama had explained. 

"Mayn't I earn one, too?" Jerry's twin, Geraldine urged. 

"Geraldine is to wash dishes for mama to wipe. She must 
also dust and pick up her own toys," the mother explained. "And 
Geraldine is to have one penny a day for thrift stamps if she 
does her work nicely." 

"Don't I get any?" Marjory inquired whimsically. 

"You are to have a chance to put into practice everything 
they have taught you in high school in cooking and sewing," the 
mother smiled as she held her daughter tenderly to her. "The 
soldiers are boasting about their scientific feeding. If you have 
learned this new art let us have the benefit. Your salary is to 
be somewhat larger, but out of it you must manage to clothe your- 
self and buy your thrift stamps." 

In her joy, Marjory caught her mother about the waist and 
danced her about. 

"Oh, mother, I'm so glad. I'm so eager to begin. We've 
been studying foods how to select and balance a meal and how 
to prepare the food to be most wholesome and to properly nourish 
the body. May I plan the meals, too?" 

"Take it all over to day, if you wish, dear," and the mother's 
heart smote her as she thoug-ht of her own smalln««s and jealousy 
that had kept this enthusiastic lieutenant from her aid. Mrs. 
Badger drew Marjory to a chair beside her. 

"I'm going to have lots of fruits and 'fresh vegetables," Mar- 
jory went on. "They are so important for their mineral salts. 
And we learned to make such good crackers and cookies with 
v/hole-wheat and oatmeal. If we would grind all the wheat as 
our grandparents did, instead of taking out the best part for the 
cows and pigs, we would be more healthful and have stronger 
teeth and live longer, and besides, would have plenty of grain for 
ourselves and our allies, without trying to crowd these substitutes 
into yeast bread. 

"Why, just think, mother, the average American lives only 
33 years. The average Russian lives 55. And the chief differ- 
ence in the food is that the Russian grinds all his wheat and corn 
a"d uses it that way. We rob our bodies of the vitamins he 
furnishes his." 

"^^'hy, it is the Word of Wisdom, Marjory, 'Wheat for man.' 
It doesn't say just the starch out of the wheat. 'Fruits in their 
season,' fruits of the vine as well as fruits of the tree, of course, 
and 'eat sparingly of meat.' " 

"I know it, mother, our Word of Wisdom is just what the 
government is asking of us right now. One of the girls showed 


it to the teacher, who is not a Mormon. She was so surprised. 
She thought all it said was to abstain from drinking- tea and 
coffee. And she thought that was wonc^erful enoug;h because 
the latest scientific discovery is to the effect that hot drinks an^l 
foods are one of the most frequent causes of cancer of the mouth 
and stomach." 

"My darHng" daughter." the mother sighed, "'we had these 
things first in that God-given document. Many of us failed to 
heed. Now that science has discovered what God long ago re- 
vealed to our prophet. I suppose we will pay more attention. 
And you have known these things all this time and never toll 
me?" '' *: <^ ' 

"You seemed always so tired and busy, mother, I thought 
}'ou would not want me to interfere. Some of the girls were 
going to get married so they could try their hands at housekeep- 
ing because their mothers wouldn't let them muss about in their 
kitchens at home." 

"I suppose there are natural housekeepers who can scarcely 
wait to play at housekeeping." the mother smiled, remembering 
her own girlhood. "And I know you would prefer to be alone 
with your first meal, so I will go to town and do the shopping 
and surprise your father by walking home with him for luncli. 
Do you mind if we call for grandma and bring her along also?" 

"No. I'll try something easy today." 

Something easy seemed to appeal to every taste around the 
table when they all excitedly tried Marjory's first luncheon. 

"What dandy soup, jNfarj," Zeph Jr. remarked. 

IMarjory flushed happilv. "A warm soup is good for us. 
too," IMarjory observed. "I just took the bone and scraps from 
yesterday's roast and added the potato water and water from the 
carrots, I cooked, the outer leaves of the cabbage and lettuce and 
the tough stalks of the asparagus. In this way we get the iron 
and mineral salts we so much need." 

Zeph smiled proudly at his daughter. "Here! Here!" he 
cheered. "This salad wins my heart, too." 

"That is the best way to serve the raw green stuffs we need 
for roughage." IMarjory was as pleased as punch. 

"I think these thin, crisp, whole wheat crackers are better 
to the taste and better for the teeth and stomach than that sogg'v 
yeast bread I have been turning out lately." Mrs. Badger praised 

"We used to make some a little like these for the boys when 
they went back to the states," Grandma observed. "I don't know 
so much about these mineral salts and vitamins and roughage 
we hear so much about. But I do believe you are right about 
them. Every spring, I remember, we used to be sadly in need of 


Ayer's sarsaparilla. or sassafras tea. What we really needed, 
I have no doubt, was these very mineral salts and roughage in 
the raw, green vegetables and fresh fruits. They are the only 
things our winter diet had lacked." 

"Why, that's so," Zeph Jr. corroborated. "They've found 
out they can't keep the soldiers in the trenches well without green 
vegetables while they are in their prime, before they get big and 
as roughage for the stock and green stuffs for the chickens." 

"Now that you have learned ways of saving most of these 
vegetables while they are in their prime before they get big and 
pulpy. I shouldn't wonder if you would come through the winter 
without the slightest need of sassafras tea or sarsaparilla," 
Grandma added. "All this talk of the high cost of living amuses 
me. Why, if every back yard and front yard, too. for that matter, 
was as it used to be, no one would need to notice the high cost 
of anything but clothes and the luxuries. Why, every home had 
its cow and pig and chickens and bee-hives, as well as its vege- 
table garden, fruit trees and berry vines. President Young used 
to tell us to grow and manufacture in this state everything this 
people needed. I notice government begs us to do this now, as 
much as possible to help out on the transportation .problem." 

"We ought to have a bee-hive in our clover patch," Zeph Jr. 
suggested. "Then the high cost of honey and the scarcity of 
sugAr wouldn't concern us. What do vou say to two hives, 

"Just the thing." the father agreed. "And you might plant 
more vegetables for Marjory to store away for the winter." 

"Yes. Marjory is mother's first lieutenant," the mother spoke 

"Lieutenant !" The word caught Bob's fancy. "Let's have 
a training camp, mother, and promotions and all the rest. Zeph 
could be captain of the garden." 

"\^'ell said." Zeph agreed, "and when you have hoed enough 
weeds and shown 3^o.ur skill and good discipline you could be 
made a corporal." 

"Father could be the general! Mother the major-general, 
isn't that the next rank?" IMarjory asked. 

"And each of us are privates," Bob supplemented. "Father 
will have to play a reveille on his cornet for us to rise by. And 
I can play taps on my drum for us to go to bed at night." 

"But we will only have fifteen minutes in which to dress and 
wash and comb and brush our teeth in the morning. And in 
fifteen minutes after taps at night we must be undressed and in 
bed and each article of clothing carefully arranged for quick 
dressing in the morning," Marjory sighed, wondering what kind 
of soldiers girls would make if they were timed in this way. 


"How about littering barracks," Zeph grinned, remembering 
his uncle's experience. "We will have to clean barracks for a 
week or help in the kitchen." 

"Great!" Marjory laughed. "And each one must learn to 
make his own bed and make it right. And keep his own quarters 
neat. And if an officer offends," here she looked hard at Zeph 
Jr., "he loses his little captainship." 

"Right-o !" Zeph agreed, "or her little lieutenancy." 

"How about a major-general who descends to the menial tasks 
of mess sergeant," the father inquired mischievously. 

"She'd be court-martialed," Marjory declared, "for usurping 
my authority. I'm mess sergeant now." 

"Before we actually assume office," the mother laughed, "I 
wonder how it would be for the general and captain to put some 
hooks low in the closet — " 

"Barracks, mother," Bob corrected. 

"Very well, barracks, so the three privates could have hooks 
they could reach to put their things on." Visions of unnecessary 
penalties rose in the wise mother's mind. "And make a chest of 
drawers for each to put his things in — " 

"His camp kit," Bob supplemented. He was a stickler for 

"And paint each ,set white," Marjory suggested, so they will 
look nice in their — " 

"Barracks," Jerry crowded, proud of having caught the right 

"Fine idea !" the father agreed. "Each soldier has a place 
for everything, and must keep everything in its place." 

"I'll write to Uncle Harold for more information," Zeph Jr. 

"Well, if this sort of discipline is good for the soldiers, it is 
good for us and we cannot begin too soon," the father pronounced 
heartily. "And take it from me, children, your mother is- the 
very one to follow up a good idea like this until the habit is 

"You may tell the ladies I can assist in the Red Cross rooms,'-' 
Mrs. Badger smiled, "if all I have to do is direct, inspect and 
manage and impose penalties and award rewards and promotions, 
I shall have plenty of time." 

"That is the very best feature of it all," the father said, "the 
mother will be what she should b#: the heart of the household 
instead of what she has been trying to be, the stomach, liver, 
lungs, kidneys, and every other organ." 

"Lots of women will learn to manage so," Grandma declared, 
"it is just one more benefit of the war. We are going to learn 
to eat and have better health. There will be fewer dentist bills, 


diseased tonsils and appendices, when we learn to eat hard, whole 
wheat crackers instead of soft breads and follow the plan of 
eating plenty of green stuffs for roughage to scour the teeth and 
tonsils and sweep the bowels clean." 

"We are going to think more of our religion, too," the father 
spoke with conviction. "Uncle Harold writes home that a good 
many of the boys have quit smoking and refuse to go into build- 
ings where smoking is going on, if they can help it, because it 
has been found that the carbon in the smoke is sharp as needles 
and punctures the lungs, preparing them for pneumonia more 
deadly than bullets." 

"I notice, too," Mrs. Badger spoke, "that people that scoffed 
at the idea of visions, particularly the visions of the Prophet 
Joseph, now read them with serious attention. 

"God moves in a mysterious way, sometimes, His wonders to 
.perform."' Grandma added reverently. "He did not order it, but 
He suffers it to be for our proving." 


Recently the Utah Stake Relief Society generously presented 
to the General Board enough copies of their very excellent and 
modern Conservation Cook Book, prepared by them, to distrib- 
ute to a portion of the nearby stakes. 

The recipes w^ere prepared and adapted by actual demonstra- 
tion to the needs and conditions of Utah and the West. 

Mrs. Josephine Bagley, Home Demonstrator, and Mrs. Mar- 
garet Eastniond, of the Brigham Young University, assisted the 
Utah Stake Home Economics Committee in preparing this book. 

The editor and compiler of this work is Mrs. Jennie Knight 
Mangum, while many people have contributed recipes and sug- 

These books will be distributed by the Food Administrator 
to the stakes in Utah, as he has no franking privileges outside 
o*" the State. 

Our Indian Cousins. 

In the October number of our Magazine we presented to our 
readers the modern conditions surrounding" our Lamanite 
cousins. Very little lias been said in recent years con- 
cerning this promised people. There is no lack of interest, how- 
ever, in the past, present and future, of this promised seed o'f 
Israel. Our children must not fail to inbibe the spiritual antici- 
pation of what the future holds for the Latter-day Saints, the Jews 
and the Lamanites. Since this Church was organized, great prom- 
ises have been made concerning the cfusky descendants of Lehi— - sons Laman and Lemuel— upon the two American conti- 
nents. Quietly the Indians are preparing for their destiny ; quietly 
they have entered the Church in gradually increasing numbers ; • 
and quietly, yet earnestly, such Indians as are in the Church look 
forward with joyous anticipation to the fulfilment of the prom- 
ises made to their fathers in the Book of Mormon. 

One of the recent converts from this people, himself an edu- 
cated half-breed Indian who has inherited the best traditions and 
sterling qualities of his Scotch father, John Galbraith, and his 
Indian mother, has recently undertaken and carried forward sig- 
nificant experiments in sociology and in the presentation, both 
directly and indirectly, of the truths of the gospel to his mother's 
people. In future issues we shall speak more of him and his 
beautiful wife in their palatial home on the Blackfoot Reserva- 
tion. From him we have received some photographs showing 
ancient tribal customs, with which we are illustrating this and 
other articles. 

We now present to our readers the graphic story told by one 
of L'tah's famous scouts and Indian interpreters : 


C. L. Christcnsen, the Pioneer Indian Scout. 

Part I. 

In January, 1876, President Young called on two-hundred 
men to go down and colonize the Little Colorado river, in Ari- 
zona, under the direction of President Lot Smith, W. C. Allen, 
George Lake, and Brother Ballinger, from Springfield. There 
were four companies of fifty each. These were divided into 
bands of tens. I was called from Ephraim. Sanpete county, with 
four others, and left home on January 12, 1876, landed on the 
Little Colorado river. April 4, after a very hard journey . On 
our way out, at Navajo Wells, I met Jacob Hamblin and John 



R. Young who had been out negotiating with the Indians for 
our settlement in their country. They reported they had had a 
good time, and eyerything was satisfactory when President) 
Young's presentation of our colonizing scheme was laid before 
them. I had been but a little while in Ballinger's Camp when a 
number of prominent Indian Chiefs, from the Navajo nation, 
visited us, and I learned many of their words in that first meeting. 
I learned the language very rapidly, and finally was invited to take 
a trip in company with President Lot Smith, August Wilkin, 
Harry Hatch, W. M. Tenney and Brother Wakefield. 

\\'e went to the INIoquis villa^-es and spent several Jays 
with them, telling them our object in being in their country. Lot 
Smith invited them to go down the Little Colorado and we would 
assist them in raising some wheat. Sixty-five of them went with 
us down the river and raised good crops, during the summer, 
v/hich pleased them very much. After a few days Brothers 
"Smith, Wilkin and Tenney returned home, leaving Brother 
Harry Hatch, Brother Wakefield and myself there. 

When we reached the camps the Indians were having their 
Big Spring Dance, which they held every year, generally in 
March. This dance represented the first man and woman, the 
creation of God. The woman oomes from the North country 
with a great burden on her back, and a strap around her fore- 
head indicating that her burden is hard to bear. The man comes 
from the South where fruit grows spontaneously, and he doe?^- 
not have to labor for his living. Finally the two meet in the 
center of a great plaza. He hails her, asking her what she is, as 
he has never seen anything so beautiful before. She replies 



that she is a woman. He tells her he has seen all kinds of things, 
beautiful animals, birds and beasts, but never anything so beauti- 
ful as she is. She tells him that she has seen all kinds of animals 
in her life, but never any she oould subdue and who would help 
her bear her burden as maybe he would do. Then they hear -i 
voice declaring that they were made for each other. After this 
four characters representing four supreme personages announce 
to the public the necessity of marriage and of procreation, of 
filling the earth with people. 

Then twenty-four high priests come forth, dressed in their 
unique costumes, masked until you would not know they were hu- 
man. The leading character is dressed with a gourd on his head, 
and one under his jaw, connected together, the gourd being as 
long as an arm and filled with teeth underneath and above. He 
represents one of the sons who is a very wicked man and who in- 
troduced murder, war and bloodshed into the world. This man 
goes around the village demanding a sacrifice, contributions of 
corn, meat and other things to make the occasion a feast. The 
children are compelled to hand him all these contributions. They 
shrink from his presence in terror, because of the cruelty attri- 
buted to him. He has become wicked through the laws of dis- 
obedience. One of the chiefs refuses to give him anything-. H"; 
goes into the house and drags the chief out by the hair of the 
head, and in sight of all the people gets the chiefs head inside 
of his gourd beak as if to swallow him. His friends plead for 
him and buy oiT his life by paying four-fold. He is then set 
free, and the chief gives a great lecture on the consequences of 
disobedience of children to parents and leading men. 

This wicked personage is now called The Giant, and the 
clown explaius that at one time he required a daily sacrifice of a 
human being; sometimes they would give an old man, other 
times a child ; but one day they were contending about which was 
the useful for the community ; the aged man with expe- 
rience and wisdom, or the child who might grow up to be more 
useful with the prospect of a long life before him. While they 
were thus contending they found that a beautiful boy who ba 1 
dropped down from heaven was lying on the place of sacrifice. 
When the Giant saw his willingness to die for the people the 
Giant hesitated and took an extra circle around him. The young 
man from heaven had a weapon concealed with which he wounded 
the Giant, and hastened away. The young man fhus wounded 
the dragon, and the young man will yet conquer him. and over- 
come all wickedness. 

After this service other events took place representing- the 
first people who came into their country, that is, the Mexicans 
A man and woman gorgeously dressed, representing the Mexican 
people, comes to visit them. He has a canteen of whiskey on his 


shoulder ; he gives it to them and the clown becomes desperately 
iiitoxicated and gives the man and woman a severe thrashing, 
and ill treat them. The man picks up a pole about thirty feet 
long and tries to kill a number of them, telling them what a 
powerful nation he represents. They are terror-striken over the 
speech. He goes out and gets assistance, returns with a number 
of children and creates a great disturbance by carrying off some 
of their young women, stealing and plundering, and throwing 
the village into great mourning. The whole day's performance 
ends with a great feast. 

The next day they had a big ,snake dance. Reptiles had been 
gathered in for a month, fed and cared for and prepared for this 
event. A rope was stretched around a circle in which the magic- 
ians performed all kinds of feats with these reptiles, taking snakes 
in their mouths, throwing them up in the air and letting them 
rain down upon them and coiling the snakes around their necks 
and bodies. This was to show that at one time there was no 
enmity between men and beasts. Man, through his transgression, 
brought about the animosities that exist between man and animal. 
Then they carried the snakes back to where they found them and 
distributed them in the rocks for future use. One old rattlesnake 
I saw had a blue ribbon around his neck ; it was said that this 
was the twelfth time he had been on exhibition. One of the 
charmers got bit on the little finger. He took some substance out 
of his medicine bag and put it in the wound and took no hurt. 
These Indians are expert in the use of medical herbs for various 

We then attended what to them is the most sacred dance 
they have, called the "Migiumptuwa," meaning the gift from God. 
This is held in one of their best wickiups with a veil stretched 
across a portion of it. There are three persons behind the veil 
giving the instructions and the people dance and perform accord- 
ing to their directions. The Evil One is represented concealed 
in a large vessel made in a telescojpic fashion standing nearby. 
Whenever the candidates are going away from the veil the Evil 
One pops up his head, to use his influence for evil among the 
people. Whenever the people are going toward the veil he ducks 
down out of sight. This ceremony is kept up sometimes for days, 
to show their patience and faith and determination to obtain suc- 
cess in pleasing their Creator. Those who persist obtain the bless- 
ing and rewatd. 

(To be continued.) 


Emily Hill IVoodmansee. 

V.erily I say unto you, whosoever shall not receive the Kingdom 
of God as a little child, shall in no wise enter therein (Luke 18:17). 

Oh, wherefore is thy kingdom small, 
Great founder of the universe? 
Did not thy power create us all. 
Should not' the world thy praise rehearse? 
And if the world should call thee sire, 
The world we must account our kin. 
Make the way broad, that each, that all 
May to thy kingdom enter in. 
Thy mercy, Lord, is boundless, too. 
Thou wilt not read our thoughts amiss. 
It seems ungenerous that so few 
Should tread the narrow way to bliss. 

Poor mortal! know the gate is low. 

'Twas ever thus, it must be so. 

Obedience is the only key, 

The portal is humility. 

Were not the gate thus small and straight. 

More than the just would enter in. 

Then sin and strife and evils rife. 

Would mar the heaven the pure shall win. 

The way is narrow, but for those 

So puffed with power or pride or care, 

A broader way they needs must choose; 

They cannot stoop to enter there. 

Pride ever leads the soul astray, 

Ambition often doth ensnare, 

And shining riches strew the way 

Of selfish mortals unaware. 

Offenses block the path of some 

Who start for the celestial road. 

But woe to them by whom the}- come ; 

They ne'er shall see My blest abode. 

Unto the pure all things are pure. 

The wise are faithful to the end. 

Great peace have they who love My law ; 

Yea! nothing shall their souls offend. 

How many men are v/orldly wise, 

So deep their thought, so proud their soul ; 

The holy priesthood they .despise. 

And scorn to brook its just control. 


At such the very Gods do laugh ; 

For who so great a fool as him 

Who prates of knowledge, yet will quaff 

The cup of folly from the brim. 

Poor fools ! and blind those men of mind 

Who would the loving God defy. 

Themselves atone, as wise they own, 

Themselves alone they glorify. 

But humbly, as a little child 
My kingdom shall the poor receive ; 
The faith so pure and undefiled. 
None but the humble will believe. 
A mustard seed is small indeed. 
Yet with My kingdom 'twould compare. 
But it shall grow till every soul 
That's honest, finds a shelter there. 
The vile would part the pure of heart. 
The wicked plan my peoples fall. 
But I will rend their foes apart, 
I, even I, the Lord of all. 

Yet even as I love the world. 

So even now I would relent 

And spare e'en those, my bitterest foes. 

If happily now they would repent. 

For surely thus the Scripture saith 

God waiteth ever to forgive ; 

He willeth not the sinners death. 

But would that such should turn and live. 

The world that owe their life to me 

My law and love .shall ransorae still. 

But those alone my face shall see 

Who serve me with a steadfast will. 

For those who fear my name divine, 
I will reserve celestial things. 
The sun of righteousness shall shine 
For them with healing in his wings. 
My yoke is easy to be borne. 
My burthen to the pure is light. 
My spirit comforts those who mourn. 
My law is every saint's delight. 
My grace I to the lowly give. 
My substance to the meek and mild. 
My kingdom none shall e'er receive 
Excepting as a little child. 


E'en as a child ! a little child : 
And must we then so humble be? 
And must we thus the truth receive, 
E'er we our Father's face can see? 
Oh ! if the gate is small and straight, 
We in the dust our pride should fling. 
Alas ! how few shall enter through 
And reign with the eternal King. 
E'en as a child : no other way, 
No better broader road than this, 
Can lead to realms of perfect day 
Or reach the goal of highest bliss. 
Great God ; must we so lowly be? 
Teach thou my soul humility ! 


By L. Lnia Greene Richards. 

'Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." 

Hark ! the sound of returning steps we hear, 

And in it the ring of victory's cheer. 
Our soldiers, our heroes, are coming home 

From battle front, over the ocean's foam. 
In the cause of liberty, truth and right 

They bravely enlisted, and won the fight ; 
But — Lord, Thou gavest them power divine — 
• The honor, the triumph, the praise are Thine, 
And humbly and gratefully they return 

To loved ones, still praying, whose hearts still yearn. 
They have given answer to freedom's call. 

And they come — they come — but they come not all ! 

Now, oh, Thou Beloved ! Who was lifted up 

And drank to the dregs that bitter cup — 
Thou art the great Comforter, be Thou near 

The lonely bereft ones to soothe and cheer. 
Make easy the yoke, and their burdens light — 

Theirs have but followed with Thee in the fight. 
As oft to the faithful Thou didst appear. 

Let these feel the joy of their loved ones near. 
Cut short Thy work, and may all who must- wait 

Feel that even now they participate. 
And draw from the measureless source above 

The glory of Faith and the strength of Loye, 

Construction ->ANb 


The^ Home. 


Janette A. Hyde. 

This year our Home department will take up a novel and, we 
hope, a popular and useful feature : the making- and remaking of 
clothing, especially dresses. So few women are skilled seam- 
stresses, so many follow the old beaten paths mother used to tread. 
We have covered quite extensively the field of cookery and gar- 
dening in this department and in our Guide Lessons. Modern 
science has done quite as much in helping woman with her needles 
and sewing-machine as with her cookstove and pantry-shelf. 
So we shall invoke this up-to-date agency for home-improvement 
and see what practical help we can give our friends in fashioning 
new and remaking old clothes. 

Few know the value of a good dress form, and fewer are 
skilled in the adaptation of tissue patterns and even in the use of 
the old-fashioned models. Sleeves puzzle the home dressmaker, 
while the set of a well-made collar is an Egyptian mystery -to most 
amateur fitters. How to combine colors, what is economy in the 
use of material ; all these and similar items will receive considera- 


By Mrs. Parley Nelson. 

Dear heart, don't worry tho' things may go wrong. 

Each life has its burdens of care, 

Instead of a sigh, lift your voice on a song, 

'Twill help you your trials to bear ; 

Not alone are you treading a pathwav of gloom. 

Keep your face firmly turned to the light : 

Bear bravely each sorrow, have faith in the morrow. 

In the end everv wrong will come risrht. 


. Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa Smith Williams and 
Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman. 


The peace armistice has measurably halted our strenuous 
war activities, and certainly it has quieted and comforted many 
anxious hearts, but the Relief Society workers will not cease their 
efforts and loyal labors until our Government gives the word that 
we are entirely released. We have still one or more Liberty 
Joans to finance in order to close up the extensive war preparra- 
tions, while the Red Cross will also expect support from our 
patriotic Society. 

The National Council of Women issued a call for an 
executive session at the home of the president, Mrs. Eva Perry 
Moore, in St. Louis, on December 12 and 13. Reconstruction 
questions were considered at this convention. 

Our General Secretar}^, Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman, has been 
.s.pending a month in Denver studying" social service methods in 
the headquarters of the Civic Service division there. This Society 
v/ants to have all the knowledge and improved methods possible 
to obtain from the experience and study of that work. Mrs. 
Lyman will absorb every truth and fact while on this notable 
mission. She also attended the Council sessions in St. Louis and 
brings excellent reports of the work done there. 

We received an appeal from the National Suffrage Asso- 
ciation to join with them in memorializing President Wilson 
to add at least one woman to the Peace Corhmission, as women's 
and children's interests demand recognition at the hands of men 
who aire to settle the affairs of the world. If women are capable 
of filling every vacancy left by departed soldiers, of voting and 
legislating on public questions in Nations, states and territories, 


surely they are competent and really necessary when the final ad- 
justment of world affairs is completed at Versailles, France. Our 
Society named Mrs. Eva Perry Moore, Mrs. Carrie Chapman 
Catt, and Mrs. Kate Waller Barrett as possible candidates for 
this position. 

The chairman of the National Council of Defense 
or the State, Mrs. Clarissa Smith Williams, received an 
ajipeal in common with all similar officials in the United 
States, from the German National Council of Women, asking the 
women of the United States to interfere with the peace arrange- 
ments and make better terms for Germany. Naturally Mrs. Wil- 
liams refused to meddle in matters wh'ch belong only to Presi- 
dent Wilson and his representatives and the Allies. Afterwards 
we learned that the French women agreed with us on this point, 
for they, too had been appealed to in the same manner and refused 
much more peremptorily than even the U. S. women would do. 

We have been deprived of all assemblies and therefore our 
General Board meetings have not been held for the past month 
or six weeks. However, the office force has continued in active 
seryice. Two office Bulletins were sent out to the Board, giving 
news items during our enforced separation. 

Some comment has been roused concerning the extravagant 
use of flowers at funerals, and while the General Board do not 
approve of anything like extravagance, or foolish displays at 
funerals, it is also felt that a modest and kindly remembrance of 
friends and loved ones stricken by the loss of relatives and fam- 
ilies might well be allowed. 

Recently the following letter was sent out by President Wells 
and her counselors to about a dozen old friends who, it was 
thought, were in possession of the old prized Exponents: 

"The General Board of the Relief Society are exceedingly 
anxious to secure a complete set of the Woman's Exponent. The 
only two sets which we know of in existence belong to the His- 
torian's Office and to President Emmeline B. Wells herself. 
Neither of these are available for our daily use and reference. 

"It will be understood that the Exponent contained all of 
the reports and historical data of the Society for forty years. The 
General Secretary has not received or been able to secure any 
back reports and data except of very recent years. No doubt many 
of the stakes and general officers, felt that when information was 
printed in the Exponent there was no further need to preserve 
it. This condition makes it exceedingly awkward for the General 


Secretary to compile data, and especially is the General Historian 
hampered for lack of intelligent information on many points re- 
quired concerning- the history of the Society. 

"Would it be possible to secure from you any back numbers 
of the Exponent f Or do you know of any one of your acquaint- 
ances who possesses back numbers, which they will be willing to 
part with?" 

So generous was the result that the Board are now in posses- 
sion of 27 full volumes ; the following omissions would complete 
the set: Vol. 6. Nos. 1, 21, 22; Vol. 9, Nos. 15. 16, 17, 18. 19. 20, 
21 ; Vol. 10, Nos. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ; Vol. 28, Nos. 1, 6, 7, 8, 9 : 
Vol. 27, Nos. 15, 21 ; Vol. 35, No. 6; Vol. 36, Nos. 6, 10; Vol. 37, 
Nos. 1, 2, 5; Vol. 39, Nos. 1, 5, 10; Vol. 40, No. 10; Vol. 41. 
No. 10. 

Besides these we have nearly as complete a set of duplicates. 
These precious volumes came principally from the Kanab Relief 
Society, sent by President Artimesia S. Seegmiller; from Mrs. 
Melissa Thompson, sent by Mrs. Martha B. Keeler; from Dr. 
Romania B. Penrose, and from Elders Andrew Jenson and A. 
William Lund, of the Historian's Office. We hope to fully com- 
plete our two sets. Take good care of your Magazine, sisters. 

A rare relic came recently to the Historian's Office : a book 
of minutes and reports kept in 1854, by Mrs. Matilda Dudley- 
Busby, sent in by her son George Busby. Elder Andrew Jenson 
loaned the book to us and we have had every word of this his- 
toric record copied, membership, lists, donations and minutes. 
The Society was styled the "Indian Relief Society" of the Thir- 
teenth Ward, and many historic names appear on the membership 
lists. Clothing was made for the Indians, and needed relief in 
other ways was given to the dusky aborigines. A party was held, 
the sum of $1.50 paid for tickets, in produce usually, and $20 was 
paid for music. That, too, in 1854! 

Juarez Stake. 

Although sugar is $2S a sack in Juarez stake, the Relief 
Society members have managed to put up thousands of bottles of 
fruit. In a recent letter from the Secretary, it was learned thai; 
six Mexican women, who have just joined the Church, sent annual 
dues to the General Board. 

Nurse School 

During the influenza epidemic the Nurse School of Salt 
Lake Citv has been closed. Five of the students have been afflicted 


with influenza. Eight of the members of the class have been 
nursing- for the Red Cross. Mrs. Maria Rogers, of Blanding, Utah, 
gave some service at the Judge Mercy Hospital, and the other 
members of the class to assist in ,stricken homes were : Miss Hulda 
T. Barnhurst, of Hatch, Utah, Miss Corley Coombs, of Salt Lake 
City ; Miss Jessie V. De Friez, of St. Johns, Arizona ; Mrs. Sena 
Fredricksen, of Gunnison, Utah ; Mrs. Nellie Muir, of Salt Lake 
City ; Miss Rosa Tillack, of Lethbridge, Canada ; Mrs. Mary Tru- 
man of Enterprise, Utah, and Miss Emma Williams, of Murrav, 

Cottonwood Stake. 

Each of the twelve wards in the Cottonwood stake recently 
donated one quilt to the Lund Home for Boys. The gift of 
twelve quilts was very greatly appreciated. 

Surname Book and Racial History. 

Our Surname Book has been received by eastern, western 
and European libraries with considerable acclaim. Five book- 
sellers have asked to include it in their next published catalogs ; 
genealogical departments in newspapers have given exhaustive 
notices. The Boston Transcript published the most of the Preface 
and Introduction to the book, giving over a column of space 
therefor, while the editor of the book, Mrs. Susa Young Gates, 
has been invited by the Transcript to send an article on the im- 
plied association between the first baptisms for the dead by the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, in 1842, and the organization of the first 
genealogical society, the New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety, in Boston, in October, 1844. This article was accordingly 
prepared and sent. 


We have delayed issuing this January number because of 
the epidemic condition which have prevented our agents from 
securing their lists. Our sisters don't want to miss this opening 
number nor do we wish them to ; but economy compels us, dur- 
ing these costly printing-times to issue only as many Maga.zines 
as we have subscribers in sight. Hence the delay. 

Oh ThE!MtchJo)HER 

James H. Anderson. 

The fifth Liberty loan is set for April, 1919, and is to be 
for eight billion dollars. 

American troops made their first formal entry into Germany 
on November 20. 

Mexico continued its record of banditti warfare under 
Pancho Villa durinsr the month of November. 

Oklahoma carried and Louisiana defeated woman suffrage 
in those states respectively, at the November election. 

Transcontinental air mail service was being tested in the 
United States in November, with fair pros.pect of success. 

The Peace convention will meet in Versailles, France, in 
December ; at present there is no knowing how or when it will 

Austria surrendered to the entente allies on Nov. 3, and 
Italian troops occupied a considerable section of former Austrian 

American army casualties in Europe up to November 11 
totalled 236.117, including killed, died of disease, wounded, and 
prisoners. . 

Germany surrendered to the entente allies on the latter's 
armistice terms on Nov. 11. and allied occupation of Germany 
b-esran on Nov. 23. 


Kaiser William of Germany and the crown prince found 
a refuge in Holland upon the sig"ning of the armistice with the 
entente allies on Nov. 11. 

Food is so scare in Europe that the necessity of supplying the 
people there probabb; will cause a food shortage in the United 
States in 1919. 

In Belgium, on November 22, the former government was 
re-established by the formal entry of the king and queen into 
Brussels, the capital. 

W. G. McAdoo, U. S. secretary of the treasury, director of 
railways, and son-in-law of President Wilson, resigned the first 
two positions on Novem.ber 22. 

In Petrograd, Russia, it is said that food is so scarce that 
men and dogs have been seen battling in the streets for the flesh 
of horses which have died. 

Deaths from influenza in the United States up to Novem- 
ber 30, 1918, were practically double the number of American sol- 
diers killed in the war in Europe. 

Hungary has requested the entente allies to hasten peace 
negotiations lest all central and eastern Europe be ablaze with 
anarchy before control can be exercised. 

The German naval fleet, to the number of 131 vessels, 
surrendered ofif the coast of Scotland on Nov. 21 — the greatest 
naval event of the kind in the world's history. 

Masks for public use as a preventive of the spread of influ- 
enza are held by the Utah state board of health to be inefifective, 
judging by the experience in other states. 

Utah soldiers to the number of more than 300 had lost their 
lives either in battle or by disease, up to November 30, while in 
the United States armv in the great war. 

Prohibition in the United States becomes effective July 1, 
1919, and continues until the American army is demobilized, ac- 
cording to an act of Congress passed in November. 

Many American soldiers in France already have married 
French girls, and it is estimated that about quarter of a million 
of them will do ,so while the American army is there. 


Gen. J. J. Pershing, commander of the American armies in 
France and Germany, is being- urged by Republicans in Ohio, his 
home state, to be a candidate for the presidency in 1920. 

Palestine is being speedily rehabilitated, and is receiving 
special attention in the view of welcoming Jews who migrate 
thither, of whom there will be many thousands from Europe. 

Influenza continued throughout November to be a severe 
pestilence in Utah, and on Nov. 22 the state board of health 
adopted further stringent restriction to combat the disease. 

The number of killed in the great war already are shown 
by assembled statistics to be in excess of 7,000,000, exclusive of 
the millions who have died from starvation and from disease. 

Political conditions in Germany and Austria became so 
chaotic during the latter part of November, that there is grave 
danger of anarchy there unless the entente allies' armies prevent 

The Presidency of the Church, as organized on November 
23, after the funeral of President Joseph F. Smith, is : Heber J. 
Grant, president ; Anthon H. Lund and Charles W. Penrose, 

The election in November resulted in the Democrats elect- 
ing state and congressional nominees in Utah, while in Idaho the 
Republicans carried all these offices except for the short term for 
U. S. senator. 

Bolsheviki continue their murderous regime in Russia, and 
in the latter part of November were making efforts to gain con- 
trol in Germany and Austria, with the certainty of causing serious 
trouble there. 

Flour probably will be available in quantities to families in 
the United States for a few months after January 1, 1919, when 
the summer and increased shipping facilities to Europe will cause 
another scarcity. 

Turkey surrendered to Great Britain and France on Novem- 
ber 1, this being the "last straw" which compelled the Teutonic 
empires to give way, bringing the fighting period of the war 
practically to a close ten days later. 

The Utah regiment, the 145th U. S. field artillery, will 


not be a part of the army of occupation in Europe, hence will be 
allowed soon to return home. Outside of this regiment, about 
14,000 Utah men are still in the army. 

Congress will be Republican in politics after March 4, 1919, 
notwithstanding President Wilson's appeal to elect a Democratic 
Congress. In the House the Republicans have 235 as against 200 
opposed, and in the Senate 49 as against 47. 

"Blond Eskimos" is the name given by explorers V. Steffan- 
son and W. J. Bower to a tribe of white aborigines in Victoria 
Land, in the Arctic regions. They are said to resemble the 
European Scandinavian stock. 

Celebrationis for the virtual close of the. war on Nov. 11 
were held in all the entente allied countries on that date. In the 
United States, the drafting of troops ceased, and preparations 
were begun for demoblizing the American army as far as circum- 
stances justify it. 

Government monopoly of inter-oceanic cables, established 
by President Wilson since the close of the war, is being bitterly 
opposed in and out of Congress, on the ground that such monopoly 
is a menace to the republican form of government in the United 

Mr. Gompers, of the American Federation of Labor, says 
there must be no decrease in wages or increase in the eight-hour 
working day, after the war ; while the farmers announce that 
they will not work sixteen hours a day to pay high wages. There 
seems to be an internal conflict looming on the horizon. 

Whether or not the present epidemic of influenza has at- 
tained the proportions of a pestilence in the LTnited States may 
be ascertained by these figures, which are typical of the rest of 
the country : For one year previous to the coming of the epidemic, 
the average number of deaths per week in the large city of 
Philadelphia was 550 ; during four and a half weeks there, while 
the epidemic was at its height, the average number of deaths was 
over 3600, or nearly seven times the normal rate. A census of 
40 cities in the U. S. during the last of November showed a total 
of 78,000 deaths. What would the whole nation show, cities and 
rural districts ? While the war took only 78,000 in all of our U. 
S. soldier boys. Truly, "sword, pestilence, and famine," are 
frightful judgments of the present period, as a result of che 
wickedness of human kind. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office. Salt Lake City, Utah 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth 


Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams - - - - - First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey - - - - - . - - Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 

Mrs. Phoebe Y. B'eatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler ' 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 
Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor ........ SusA Young Gates 

Business Manager ...... Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol VI. JANUARY, 1919. ■ No. 1 


From the Presidency and General Board to the Relief Society of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Dearly beloved Sisters : The year 1918, which is just clos- 
ing, has been a most eventful and stupendous period, not only in 
the history of the whole world, but as well in the events which 
have crowded upon the members of this great and growing organ- 

War and its attendant horrors and sacrifices have called into 
feverish activity every atom of reserve power in the ranks of 
our members. Individuals and ward units, stake and general 
officers, have each filled up to the brimming point their measure 
of labor and usefulness. The manifestations of loyalty to our 
Country, made by this Society as a whole, and by each and every 
member thereof, are a source of honest pride to us, and we feel 
that the heavens rejoiced over the tireless labors and sometimes 
heartbreaking sacrifices made in our Country's cause by the 
mothers in Zion. 

Our hearts are heavy with sympathy for those of our mothers 
and sisters who have participated in the supreme life-sacrifice ren- 
dered by a few of our soldier-boys in this dreadful conflict. God 
comfort the sorrowing parents and friends. 


No less do we rejoice in the fact of swift-arriving peace, and 
the near return of our various home battalions. We are happy 
also in the knowledge that our well-brought-up boys will not par- 
take of the dreaded restlessness and dissatisfaction usual to the 
returned soldier ; but we are blessed in the assurance that our 
dear boys will return gladly to farm and field and school, well 
knowing that their life-ideals are founded in the gospel of Christ 
and that Zion contains all possibilities for continued service and 
life-development which any man may wish or require. We would 
suggest in this connection that mothers constantly advise their 
sons to keep free of secret societies and demoralizing union- 
groups. The testing time for men's souls is not far away. 

We have all grieved and mourned over the passing of our 
beloved and revered President Joseph F. Smith. He was a true 
friend to women and a generous and just adviser to this organ- 
ization. At the reorganization of the General Board, seven years 
ago, he at once assumed and always maintained a profound 
fatherly interest and personal -direction in the great and small 
matters connected with the Board and the Society. Many of 
our recent activities are the result of his plans and advice. His 
death marks an epoch in the history of this organization. 

The First Presidency of the Church, recently organized, gives 
us great joy and hope that a renewal of interest and personal con- 
cern for our welfare as a Society will mark the loyal and generous 
administration of Presidents Heber J. Grant, Anthon H. Lund and 
Charles W. Penrose. We bespeak from every .sister in the Church 
and especially in this Society the loving faith and prayerful sup- 
port for President Grant and his associate leaders of the Church. 
This Church is led by our Savior through His inspired servants, 
and we love and honor them one and all, teaching our children 
and children's children to do likewise. 

The dreaded epidemic which has spread its pall over our 
communities has taken its heavy toll from our homes. More 
deaths have resulted in Utah and in the United States from this 
later-day plague than has resulted from the war. Not the least be- 
loved of those who have gone from us is the genial and gifted 
young business man, Edwin F. Parry, Jr., who has had charge of 
the mailing department of our Magazine. Not only his family and 
friends, but our whole office force miss sadly the cheerful presence 
and faithful labors of Brother Parry. 

In common with you all, the counselors and the General 
Board rejoice in the continued life and measurable vigor of 
our own honored leader. President Emmeline B. Wells. She 
attends her office duties daily, and takes the same vital interest in 
all Relief Society matters which has characterized her associa- 
tions with the Board and the organization from her youth up. 

The future holds much constructive and reconstructive labor 


for us all. There is strength in struggle and joy in toil with in- 
finite spiritual hope smiling at us from the promising face of the 
new year. We shall not fail in fulfilment nor falter in allegiance. 
¥ox no matter what comes to us and ours, to the Society and the 
Church, or to the trembling multitudes of the world whose 
hearts are failing them for fear, our feet are set in holy places, 
and we have the promise of our Redeemer that we shall not be 

Emmeline B. Wells, 
Clarissa Smith Williams, 
JuLiNA L. Smith, 


Members of the General Board. 


On the 23rd of November, 1918, the First Council of the 
Church was reorganized with Heber J. Grant as President, 
Anthon H. Lund as First Counselor and Charles W. Penrose as 
Second Counselor. 

Some of the Auxiliary organizations were also reorganized on 
the 27th as follows: Y. M. M. I. A. with Anthony W. Ivins as 
Superintendent, Brigham H. Roberts as First Assistant, and Rich- 
ard R. Lyman as Second Assistant ; Sunday Schools, David O. 
McKay, Superintendent; Stephen L. Richards, First Assistant; 
George D. Pyper, Second Assistant ; John S. Bennett, Treasurer ; 
George D. Pyper, General Secretary ; T. Albert Hooper, Business 

Our February number will contain articles and pictures of 
President Heber J. Grant and Counselors, with appreciations by 
friends and associates of these three leaders in Israel. Our read- 
ers will, therefore, wait upon us patiently while we prepare suit- 
ably to meet this new situation in Israel. 

Guide Lessons. 



Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in February. 


Our lesson in the March issue, 1918, considered the prophecy 
inllNephi 10:10-14: 

"But behold, this land, saith God, shall be a land of thine 
inheritance, and the Gentiles shall be blessed upon this land, 

"And this land shall be a land of liberty unto the Gentiles, 
and there shall be no kings upon this land who shall raise up unto 
the Gentiles ; 

"And I will fortify this land against all other nations; 

"And he that fighteth against Zion shall perish, saith God ; 

"And he that raiseth up a king against me shall perish, for I, 
the Lord, the king of heaven, will be their king, and I will be a 
light unto them forever, that hear my words." 

In the March, 1918, lesson we told the story of Maximillian, 
the Austrian archduke, who attempted to found an empire in 
Mexico. We made record of the fact that Maximillian was the 
victim of a revolution that finally resulted in his execution, and 
that Napoleon III, of France, who inspired and sustained Maxi- 
millian, was forced to abdicate after the French defeat at Sedan. 

It is scarcely nine months since that lesson was published, yet 
once again we stand face to face with the fulfilment of this very 
remarkable, and to the Latter-day Saints, this most heartening, 
prophecy during all these dark days of the present war. 

A period of some 270 days only has elapsed, and yet it has 
been sufficient time for us to witness the overthrow of another 
combination which has sought to dictate and dominate policies in 
the new world — the land our heavenly Father designated as a 
Land of Promise. And this brings us to the special theme of 
today's lesson. 

Francis Joseph, the brother of Maximilian, who touched the 
button that set into motion the military forces of Central Europe, 
died before the end of the war came ; his throne tottered under the 
weight of a myriad of .discontents of the many peoples who formed 
his empire, and the added sorrows of war. 


The Austrian throne could not fall to Francis Joseph's son, 
for his son had met a tragic death ; it could not fall to his brother's 
son, for he, too, had been the victim of a tragedy; it came perforce 
to his unfortunate grand-nephew. 

No pomp nor ceremony marked his entry into place ; one 
course only, his — "to take arms against a sea of troubles, and by 
opposing," seek to "end them." 

The recent surrender of Austria to the Allied forces saw the 
once proud Austrian empire, that in her supreme hour had dom- 
inated Europe, break in pieces. It saw its Emperor, Charles I of 
Austria, the last of the Hapsburgs, a reigning house for 900 years, 
flee from the capital city with bag and baggage. A few days later, 
he returned to abdicate, and to beg to be allowed to live as a pri- 
vate citizen in Vienna. Yet this boon, poor as it is, may not be 

The collapse of the German empire followed that of the Aus- 
trian empire with amazing rapidity. On the 9th of November came 
the announcement that Kaiser William the II and Crown Prince 
Frederick William had abdicated. The 10th of November marked 
the flight of the former Emperor into Holland, and on the 11th. 
the signing of the armistice that marked the conclusion of hos- 
tilities between Germany and the Allies. Although William has 
sought refuge in Holland he must be ill at ease, and he appears to 
be a most unwelcome guest. 

It is related that soon after William's accession to the throne 
he paid a visit to Oscar, king of Sweden. Oscar's chamberlain 
asked him later what he thought of the new monarch. The reply 
came, "He is a second Nero." Since the outbreak of the present 
war, William has often been compared with Atilla, the terrible 
Hun. A writer in the Nezv York Times says, "Genius or par- 
anoiac, the most hated ruler of modern times." 

Thousands of people are clamoring today not that he be ban- 
ished to St. Helena, as was Napoleon the Great, but that he be 
tried before a military tribunal, condemned and executed for his 
high crimes against justice and humanity. 

The editor of a New York daily pays respect to Charles the I 
pt Austria, and William the II of Germany, in the following lan- 
guage : 

"A.s the Hapsburg vanishes, what regret, what good word 
can be called forth from anybody? Of the Hapsburg as of the 
Hohenzollern, his accomplice and master, master no longer, 
Shakespeare's Richard III is the best interpreter : 

"My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, 
And every tongue brings in a several tale, 
And every tale condemns me for a villian. 


Perjury, perjury, in the highest degree, 
Throng to the bar, crying all 'Guilty ! guilty !' 
I shall despair, there is no creature loves me; 
And if I die, no soul will pity me ; 
Pray, wherefor should they? since that I myself 
Find in myself no pity to myself." 

And so once again are the sacred words of the Book of Mor- 
mon made to triumph. 

"And I will fortify this land against all other nations: 
"And he that fighteth against Zion shall perish, saith God." 
We close this lesson with a sentence borrowed from our 
March lesson, 1918: "How sure are the prophecies of God, how 
complete their fulfilment !" 


1. Tell in brief the story of the fall of Archduke Maximil- 
lian. The Relief Society Magazine, March, 1918, gives a much 
more complete account than is given in this lesson. 

2. In what way have the Central Powers, for over four 
years at war with the Allied powers, sought to impair the liberties 
of America? 

3. To what does the word Hapsburg refer? 

4. How many centuries have the Hapsburgs been on thrones 
in Europe? 

5. What Hapsburg monarch died during the present war? 

6. How came it that his grand-nephew ascended to the 
throne ? 

7. To what does the name Hohenzollern refer ? 

8. Tell the story of the fall of the last of the Hapsburgs. 

9. Tell the story of the fall of Emperor William II, of Ger- 

10. What traits of character in William II have led people to 
class him with Nero? 

11. Show how the collapse of the Central powers, and the 
victory of the Allied Powers has again fulfilled Book of Mormon 

12. What is socialism? 

13. How does socialism compare with Bolshivekism ? 

14. What is the United Order ? 

15. What can you say about the United Order as set forth 
in the Book of Mormon? 



Work and Business. 

Fourth Week in February. 


(See Chapter 20, Surname Book). 

Teachers* Outlines. 

L Scotch and Irish are branches of the Celtic tribes. 

2. Tribal formations. 

(a) The Clan. 

(b) Sub-Clan or Septs. 

(c) Highlanders, Lowlanders. 

3. Clans all bore same tribal name, with Mac added. 

4. Irish Clan customs same as Scotch. 

6. Some Irish Clans adapted an additional surname to the 
Clan name in the 15th century. 

5. In 1485 an act of Parliament was passed regulating the 
Surname of the Irish. 

We learned in former lessons that the Scotch and Irish were 
descendants of the Celtic tribes. Some authorities claim the 
Celts as a part of the Teutonic family, others assert they are a 
distinct race. Elder George Reynolds and several other Latter- 
day Saint scholars are inclined to the view that all of them are 
mixed descendants of the en tribes. 

However this may be, Ireland was settled up by the Celtic 
tribes, who, later crossed the channel into Scotland, and by the 
sixth century they had settled largely in Caledonia. Ireland had 
been visited before this by the Christians, and an Irish Catholic 
priest named Columbo went over to Scotland and built a monas- 
tery in the island of lona. He succeeded in converting the Picts 
and introduced primitive Christianity with its attendant social 
changes into the Highlands of Scotland. 

The Celts were grouped in tribes, and their habits and cus- 
toms followed those of the Teutonic races, with this exception : 
they retained their patriarchal form of government many cen- 
turies after the other races had abandoned the custom. A clan or 
Tribe was composed of the descendants of a common ancestor, 
and as they lived in a small compass and did not move about, they 
kept up their ancient customs for many centuries. 


The Clans were divided up into sub-clans, or Septs, as they 
were called. There were seven sub-clans of the Clan Alpine, 
while others were equally as prolific. Not all of these clans and 
sub-clans were blood descendants. Men who married into the 
clan, captives who were taken in war, and sometimes adopted 
children, all were mixed up in the clan or tribe. 

The Highlanders were exceedingly exclusive and very much 
opposed to the Lowlanders. The Lowlanders intermixed with 
the English people and these were intermixed and intermarried 
with those of Danish and Norse blood, peoples who came across 
the North Channel. 

The clan adopted the personal name of the head of the tribe 
or clan, who founded the same, and each member of the clan was 
called by that name with the addition of Mac which simply means, 
belonging to. For instance, MacGregor meant a man belonging 
to the tribe of Gregor. Macintosh meant one belonging to the 
tribe of Intosh. The sub-tribe carried on the same custom. 

Irish customs were the same as Scotch customs. Like the 
Scotch people, there were two classes of the Irish race, those in the 
north and those in the south. In later centuries the settlers in 
northern Ireland were mixed very largely with the Scotch Cove- 
nanters many of whom were sent over in James the First's time 
after the seige of Londonderry to settle up Ulster and Donegal 

The tribes had each a tribal name handed down from the 
founder of the tribe. Then others had nicknames attached to the 
personal and tribal name ; for instance, Mac Dermot Roe was the 
red Mac Dermot ; Mac Dermot Gull was the anglicized Mac Der- 
mot. For a long time these additional names were kept up. Irish 
families who intermarried with the English people used English 
customs and assumed English surnames. 

In 1485 Parliament passed an act compelling all Irishmen 
to adopt English surnames, and confusion, indeed, was the result. 
Some Irishmen simply Englished their Irish names, others took 
trade names such as Smiths, Carpenters, and Cooks. It is much 
more difficult to follow an Irish surname to its original source 
than a Scotch or English surname. Yet care and patience will 
unravel even this difficulty. 


Who are the Scotch? 

What can you say about the Celtic tribes? 

Why were the clans formed? 

The ,sub-clans and Septs ? 


What is the difference between the Highlanders and Ivow- 
landers ? 

How did the clans choose their clan name? 

Invite someone of Scotch decent to give the history of her 

What two Irish customs resemble Scotch customs ? 

What can you say of the Act of 1485, passed by Parliament 
concerning the Irish? 


Home Courses. 

Fourth Week in February. 


Maternal care and the making of a home are to be traced 
in numerous types of life besides that of human beings. Interest- 
ing illustrations might be drawn from fish and insects, birds and 
mammals to show three, among other important, points, in the 
growth of parenthood : 

(1) Without prolonged parental care, the destruction of life 
is so enormous that a very large number of offspring must be 
produced to perpetuate the species. Is it not a serious reflection 
upon the Twentieth century that hundreds of thousands of infants 
die annually within a few weeks of birth from no other cause 
than want of care, to the serious impoverishment of civilization? 
The conditions fatal to these infants damage the survivors 
more or less permanently, reducing individual capacity ani 
national efficiency. 

(2) Valuable lessons are to be learned from observations 
on the varied forms of care in lowly types of life, where instinct 
directs the right preparation for the birth of the young and for 
their protection until they are self supporting. But under the 
complex conditions of modern civilization, trained intelligence 
must replace uneducated instinct, if young human life is to be 
safe guarded. 

(3) As life rises to a higher level of mental and social ca- 
pacity, we note that the cooperation of two parents becomes essen- 
tial to its production and protection. 

A dim recognition by primitive parents of such forms of per- 
sonal responsibility may have led to the formation of the first hu- 
man home as a means of shelter or protection. It paid to keep 
the children alive and well. Their motives were not purely unsel- 
fish ; rather they were impressed with the thought of benefits to be 
derived from the help of intelligent and vigorous sons and daugh- 


ters, who would assist in home duties, in hunting, in enemy attacks 
and especially, who would care for the parents when they became 
sick or feeble ; this fact is perhaps the most forcible reason for the 
existence of family life. 

A less generally recognized purpose of family life is the 
maintenance of a fine racial standard. History reveals the fact 
that where family life deteriorated, so also did national efficiency. 
Therefore, upon the parents of today, upon their methods of 
bringing up their families, hinges the future of this nation. In 
order to furnish the country with a right-minded, self-supporting 
vigorous population, high standards of health and noble ideals 
of conduct must be fostered in home life. The surroundings, 
moral and physical, among which a child passes the first eight or 
ten years of its existence, color the whole of its future, and are re- 
sponsible for the standard of civic worth it will attain in maturity. 

Consequently modern family life must fulfil four main func- 
tions : 

( 1 ) Protection during infancy, and childhood, and again in 
old age. 

(2) Education, or systematic intelligent training in useful 
habits, and in ability to benefit from the experience of the past. 

(3) Development of bodies and minds, by play and work, 
food, rest, clothing, and care, suited to the age of each member of 
a household. 

(4) Social training, through the give and take of home 
life, and by the practice of mutual love, patience, service, courtesy 
and self control, which constitute essential preparation for the 
national responsibilities of maturity. 

Direct responsibility for the selection and support of a suit- 
able home devolves upon the parents, but indirectly this is shared 
by the nation. There are numerous external considerations to 
be taken into account, such as, location, cleanliness of neighbors, 
freedom from dirt, bad odors, or from unnecessary industrial 
noise, which are largely dependent upon community standards, 
and the efficiency of the state and local boards of health. 

A good home must furnish means for rest and recreation as 
v/ell as food, warmth, cleanliness and general comfort. The space 
surrounding the home should be ample for healthful activities, 
such as gardening, or games. The existing slight value placed 
on home recreation is actually a national concern, when we real- 
ise the far-reaching results of the growing tendency of young 
people to seek amusement outside the home, and of their craving 
for abnormal excitement, and exaggerated stimulation, such as is 
sought, for example, in the popular "movies." Among these re- 
sults are premature nervous exhaustion, discontent with the quiet 
routine of normal life, and increased incentive to juvenile crime. 


(A good standard for judging moving pictures is given on page 
20, of The Civics Hand Book, published by the National Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs.) 

Formerly it was thought that the care of children was a purely 
parental affair, but one outgrowth of this century is the recogni- 
tion that the quality of a nation depends on the material reared in 
the homes ; therefore, the state must now concern itself not only 
with the cultivation of a sound public opinion on this matter, but 
must ensure that normal children shall be reared in normal homes 
through the provision of good conditions for life, including whole- 
some recreation. Last, but by no means least, comes the recogni- 
tion that parenthood is a profession, for which training must be 
provided, that the process of development in young human beings 
is very prolonged, and that each individual suffers throughout 
life if this process is not adequately safeguarded. 

The elasticity and adaptability of young human nature are 
so great that the results to the children of parental ignorance are 
often deferred for many years. These effects may not show them- 
selves until the individual is exposed to the stress of heavy anxiety 
or over-work, or of maternity in later life. Then, instead of re- 
sponding with elasticity to the strain, there is a collapse or a period 
of prolonged ill health. Results are thus separated by years from 
their real causes, and the connection is unfortunately overlooked. 
Unless the "physical condition of the youth of the nation is passed 
in review, as was the case last year ; then the nation is startled 
out of its misplaced confidence in parental capacity, and demands 
more intelligent home care of its youthful citizens in the interests 
of national prosperity. 

Care to secure a high standard in child life should begin 
even before marriage, for it is now known that sound health in 
the offspring is associated with the character and physique of 
prospective parents, and depends upon their education for their 
responsibilities, as well as upon the skilled care of expectant 
n)others. Among the agencies for such preparation for Parent- 
hood may be included : — 

(1) Opportunities for study, of the subject in high school 
and college. 

(2) Classes and lectures for the general public, supported 
by special newspaper articles and exhibits. 

The question of Child Labor and Education should constitute 
other vital parental interests. What is usually described as edu- 
cation, that is, the few hours out of the twenty-four spent daily 
in the school room, cannot produce as enduring results as do the 
social and moral standards founded on education in the home. 
The necesssity for legal safeguards in respect of child labor is 
unfortunately urgent, and should engage the attention of all 


parents. How comparatively few parents, appreciate the necessity 
for the study of individual child nature ! Too often, for instance, 
precocity is stimulated instead of regulated, or ignorance allows 
the development of physical and mental handicaps, which could 
be controlled by early and judicious treatment; or undue repres- 
sion or extreme indulgence results in juvenile delinquency. Yet 
such failure of parental care, burdens the nation with more or less 
defective citizens — not necessarily of criminal tendencies, but un- 
able to contribute their full quota of efficient service to the national 

Nevertheless, there are hopeful signs of a slow awakening on 
the part of the public, which is, after all, largely composed of 
parents. The Children's Year Campaign "To save 100,000 babies 
and get a .square deal for children" opened on April 6th, with the 
beginning of the nation-wide weighing and measuring test of 
young children. This work, inaugurated by the National Council 
of Defence on behalf of children has been approved by President 
Wilson, who expresses the hope that "the work may so success- 
fully develop as to set up certain irreducible minimum standards 
for the health, education, and work of the American child." It 
depends upon the homes of the country to attain and maintain 
such standards. 


Children's Year Working Program, Bui. No. 40, Leaflet, No. 
3. U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Child Care, The Prescholl Age, part 1, by Mrs. Max West, 
(pages 7-11). U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Infant Care, Series No. 2. Pub. No. 8, by Mrs. Max West, 
(pages 9-19). U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Infant Mortality, by Raphael S. Olsen. Bui. No. 1, (pages 
13, 14, 21-32). University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


1. What are the special functions of a home? 

2. Give three illustrations from lower types of life of in- 
stkict guidance in birth preparations and protection of the young. 

3. What are the essentials in the maintenance of high racial 
standard ? 

4. How would you purpose preparing the youth of the 
country for the responsibilities of parenthood ? 

5. What is the relation between national efficiency and home 

6. Why has it been necessary to organize the Children's 
Year Campaign? 

A Labor of Love. 

Martha Wilcox Hacking. 

The dark winter night came on bitterly cold. 

The face by the fireside looked haggard and old 

From the burden of care which seemed greater to her 
Than her frail form could bear. Now the great tear would 

^iLu°^^' *^"^^^ '^^^^' ^^ ^^^ ^^^ed on her child 

Who returned not her gaze, but, with eyes staring wild 

Kaved m the delirium of fever and pain. 

Till the soft mother hand soothed her quiet again. 

"Papa ! Bring papa," the poor child would say 

But papa at that time was far, far away ; 
Unable to come to his darling one's call ; 

Though had he but known, he'd have gladly left all 
And so, alone in this strange land, this mother and child 

Were battling with death, the storm raging wild 
And the cold world about them seemed cruel indeed— 

Not a loved one was near in this hour of great need. 

A sister had heard, so she said, on the street. 

Of a case of real suffering— ''right here on our beat 
And as teachers and sisters. Let's go now and see 

If some comfort or help to them we may be • 
I feel quite impressed that we're needed down 'there " 

And so, after offering a few words of prayer 
They set out on their way— led by Him who would send 

1 o the helpless and suffering a sister and friend. 

^if ^\ !ff "^o^"^"§^ came, and the bright ,sun arose, 

1 he child lay sleeping in quiet repose, 
And the mother, refreshed by her hours of rest 

Bade good-bye to the sisters who had her home blessed 
Her eyes overflowing with glad, grateful tears, 

bhe prayed for the sisters who had calmed all her fears 
Inasmuch as ye gave to the least of them all, 

Ye did it for Me, and I came at your call " ' 

Ctris^tmag Greetings 
to 0nv Jatronsi antr 
^gent£i fcpto t^be trone 
go mutf) for tije siuc= 
tesisi of tfte l^elief 
^otietp jlaga^ine. 

Magazine Editorial and 
Management Staff 

Z. C. M. I. Factory School Shoes 

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'*Home Magnet" catalog furnished on request. 

55-59 West South Temple, Salt Lake CUy, Utah 

Beautifully illustrated 

Specials for Xmas ! 

Approved L. D. S. Garments 


No. VANCE Price 

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200 Lt. wt., bleached cotton 1.50 

600 Med'm wt., unbleached cotton 1.60 
220 Medium wt., bleached cotton 1.75 

240 Heavy wt. bleached cotton 3.35 

900 Heavy wt., unbleached cotton 2.25 

700 Lt. wt., lisle, bleached 2.50 

500 Medium wt., lisle, bleached.... 2.75 
100 Medium wt. wool mix., fleeced 2.50 
160 Heavy wt. wool mix., fleeced 3.25 
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Your husband complains of the size of the Grocery 

You just can't keep within, your allowance-^ 
You know you are umsting food but don't know how 
to stop it — 

Take a Course in Household Management at the 


and select other vital work from the following list: 


Food Economics 



Designing and Modeling 

Children's Diet 


Home Nursing 

House Furnishing 

Home Construction and Sanitation 



Art Needlework 

Costume History and Design 


Write for the Beautiful Art Booklet issued every summer by the Institution. 

Send now and have your name listed to insure delivery. 
Address Desk E4, President's Office, UTAH AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 

Logan, Utah. 







You will find in this number arti- 
cles about: 

Presidents Heber J. Grant, An- 
thon H. Lund, Charles W. Penrose 
and Rudger Clawson, written by 
close friends. 

The new Sunday School Superin- 

The new Y. M. M. I. A. Superin- 

A little more about Our Indian 

Mrs. Lyman's labors in Denver 
arid St. Louis are outlined in the 
Official Round Table. 

And so on — and on — particularly 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Chnrch of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

No. 29 Bishop's Bldg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Copy 10c 

Vol. VI No. 2 






I Prepaid Parcel Post to any part of the United States; 15c extra | 

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I We manufacture the approved Temple Garments to measurements i 

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I No. 20 light weight bleached cotton 1.60 i 

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The Relief Society Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


FEBRUARY, 1919. 

President Heber J. Grant Frontispiece 

My Work Maud Baggarley 63 

A Business Man's Appreciation of 

President Heber J. Grant Horace G. Whitney 65 

President Anthon H. Lund John A. Widtsoe 67 

President Charles W. Penrose Joseph F. Smith 71 

Elder Rudger Clawson 74 

Be Ye of Good Cheer Elsie E. Barrett 76 

The New General Superintendency of Sunday Schools 

William A. Morton 77 

The New General Superintendency of the Y. M. M- I. A 

Moroni Snow 79 

To a Sleeping Child A. B. Christenson 81 

Our Indian Cousins C. L. Christensen 82 

The Blessedness of Pure Young Love ..L. Lula Greene Richards 91 

For Time and Eternity Lucy May Green 92 

Lines to a Mother in Israel Alice Foutz 95 

Stick to Your Ideals Elizabeth McKay Hill 96 

The Official Round Table 

Clarissa Smith Williams and Amy Brown Lyman 98 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home Jannette A. Hyde 104 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 108 

Editorial 112 

Guide Lessons 1 14- 


Patronize those who patronize us 

AMUNDSEN STUDIO, 249 Main St., Salt Lake City. 
BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDBR CO., Billiard Tables, 55-59 W. South 

Temple St., Salt Lake City. 
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S. S. DICKINSON & CO., 680 E. Second South, Salt Lake City. 
EARDLEY BROS. COl, Everything for Electricity, Salt Lake City. 

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ROYAL BAKING CO., Salt Lake City. 
STAR LAUNDRY, 902 Jefferson St., Salt Lake City. 

Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 East First South Salt Lake City. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 

2000 Gospel Quotations 

By Henry H. Rolapp 

We have orders from all direc- 
tions for this valuable Book of 
Reference. The Elders in the 
mission field hail it as a work 
that they have long looked for. 
Members of Quorums and stu- 
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find it the most complete work 
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Handsomely bound In cloth, 
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6 Main St., Salt Lake Olty 

Our service will please you 
"Free Delivery" 


Highest Quality 

Meats and Groceries 

Hyland 60, 61 and 62 

While there are no meetings 
is a good time to read 

"Love and The Light" 

By O. F. Whitney 

$1.25 at the 


The B$»k Store •/ Salt Lake City 
44 East on South Temple Street 


Relief Society General Board 
furnishes complete 


Address: — 


67 East South Temple Street 
Phone W. 1752 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


in the 

Beneficial Life Insurance 

The women of the Relief Society 
have now the opportunity of securing 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by 
the payment of a small monthly 
amount. The moment you sign your 
policy your burial expenses are as- 
sured without burdening your chil- 
dren. Talk to us about this. RELIEF 



Relief Society Department 

Home Office: Vermont Building 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

THE — 





The Utah State 
National Bank fea- 
tures quick and ef- 
ficient service. 
One feature is 
the Unit System, which greatly 
simplifies transactions. 

Heber J. Grant, President 

Henry T. McEwan, Cashier 

George H. Butler, Asst. Casliier 


Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Emhahners 
SucceBsors to Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the Weat 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East Firet South Street 


Efficient Service, Modem Metkodf 

Complete Equipment 


Maud Baggarley. 

h,^ My goal is nearly won — 

If death be the goal of life — 
My work but begun. 
^ Yet impotent and vain 

p|i Is the thought 

That I may achieve 
, Success, and cheat the pain 
, That would rob me of breath ; 

■ ^ Steal my spring blossoms 

* , And give me to Death 

To thrust in his dungeon. 

But what is my work 

That now I should rue it? 

Help me, oh. Father, 

You sent me to do it ; 

Turn my eyes from the hues of the sky- 

(Tho' not to forget them) 

If I must needs die 

Let me come home 

As a bird to its nest, 

Thro' dim glory fly swiftly 

To safety and rest. 



Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. VI. FEBRUARY, 1919. No. 2. 

President Heber J. Grant and his 


Horace G. Whitney 

In compliance with your request that I write a few words 
relative to the life and character of our new President, I am re- 
minded that today, December 1st, is an anniversary of deep inter- 
est both to his family and mine, one that has often been com- 
mented on by both of us. It was on December 1, 1856, sixty-two 
years ago, that the wedding of my father and mother was being 
celebrated in a little social party in this city. While the festivi- 
ties were at their height, some one opened the door and gravely 
announced, "Jeddy is dead." The party broke up at once. "Jeddy" 
was the familiar name by which Heber J. Grant's father was 
known over the width and breadth of the state. He was as active 
a figure in the religious and business life of the community as his 
son is today, and his sudden death plunged all circles into deepest 

Heber was then only nine days old. All his life thus has 
been passed without a father. But he had a mother who gave 
him a care and training of the most devoted nature. As long as 
she remained on earth, the tie between her and her son was mar- 
velous in its beauty and strength. In boyhood days, our little circle 
of boys were greatly given to visiting each other's homes. It is a 
fine memory with all of us to recall how our mothers interested 
themselves in the companions of their sons. I well remember how 
Heber J. Grant's associates loved "Aunt Rachel" for her angelic 
disposition, and respected Heber J. for his devotion to her. 

That is the strongest impression I retain of our early boy- 
hood association. Another is the old school days in the University 


of Deseret, then conducted by Dr. John R. Park in the Council 
House which stood on the Deseret News corner. Most of us had 
but a brief scholastic career — life was too exigent in those days 
to allow much time for the acquirement of an education, — but 
Heber J. Grant's associates of 11, 12, 13 and 14 years of age, such 
as Orson F. Whitney, Richard W. Young, Feramorz Young, 
Heber M. Wells, B. S. Young, Alonzo Young and myself (to 
name only the closest intimates) knew what it was to "plug" day 
and night to reach their goals. The dominant characteristics of 
Heber J. Grant in those days were ceaseless perseverance and 
intense application to his tasks, and to one task in particular, that 
of becoming an expert penman. How well he succeeded is well 
known to his business associates, and the skill he developed in rare 
penmanship enabled him to earn many a dollar to assist his wid- 
owed mother. The same intensity was applied to other pursuits, 
even to the favorite sport of the day, baseball. He made up his 
mind to become an expert first baseman, and the astonishing 
amount of time he devoted to practicing for that position was the 
admiration of all his companions. Later he became one of the 
famous "Red Stockings" which vanquished the state champions, 
the "Deserets," and rose to the foremost pinnacle of fame in the 
local sporting world. 

Those were the achievements of boyhood days, but they all 
aided in laying the foundation for the wider career and the greater 
responsibilities that came with manhood. Heber J. Grant's re- 
ligious activities are too well known to need describing. More 
than any of his boyhood companions, he followed serious and 
religious pursuits, and as a boy he was always active in Church 
affairs. His appointment as President of Tooele stake came when 
he was only 23 years of age, and he was chosen an Apostle under 
President John Taylor before he was 26. Since that time, he has 
been an indefatigable toiler for his Church, and has spent many 
years in the foreign service, opening the mission to Japan, and 
presiding over the European mission. 

My principal connection with him has been in the business 
world, where he has been as active and unwearying a worker as 
in the religious field. As founder of the Utah Home Fire Insur- 
ance Company, organizer of the State Bank of Utah, and one of 
the fathers of the Consolidated Wagon & Machine Company, 
three of the state's most successful institutions today (to say noth- 
ing of the other prosperous concerns with which he is connected) 
he evinced the keen discernment, the broad judgment and the en- 
terprising spirit which were always his characteristics. His labors 
in organizing the first sugar company in Utah are well known in 
the business world. He took a leading part in raising the capital 
for that institution, and has always remained one of its most 


loyal supporters. In the conduct of the old Salt Lake Herald, 
when it was the organ of the People's Party, and when the late 
Byron Groo and myself were associated with him, he showed the 
same ze'al, with the result that that period stands out as probably 
the only one in the checkered career of that publication, when it 
was in the dividend-paying- class. His energy extended even to 
the editorial columns, and (what is not generally known) he 
often furnished the ideas and sometimes the articles themselves 
which appeared as the "leaders" in that journal. 

From the association of those times, reaching back nearly 
thirty-five years and extending do\yn to the present, I can say un- 
reservedly that the big reason iof President Grant's success has 
been his observance of the rule^'sbf the square deal, and his fair 
and generous treatment of friei]^ and opponent alike. If he has 
a fault, it is his inordinate genibrosity to those he loves — a trait 
that alone has kept him from Hecoming a man of wealth. But I 
never knew a man who cared less for money, and the only times I 
have ever heard him regret mat he had so little was when he 
wished to lead out and set th| example to others in some of the 
many charitable enterprises He was called on to promote. His 
name was never lacking in ^y good cause, and whether it was 
saving a financial institutior| to preserve the good name of his 
friends, starting a Liberty Loan drive, or keeping some poor 
widow's roof over her head fa chapter alone might be devoted to 
that subject), the signature of Heber J. Grant, like the name, of 
Abou Ben Adhem, "led all the rest." 

I have every confidence that in assuming the high and re- 
sponsible position to which he has been called, he will exercise 
the breadth of judgment, the keenness, the liberality, and the inde- 
fatigable industry which have always distinguished himi and 
which are bound to make his administration a success. 


John A. Widtsoe. 

President Anthon H. Lund is unusually well fitted by tem- 
perament, training and experience for the work required of the 
first counselor in the First Presidency of the Church, and of the 
President of the Quorum of the Twelve. The choice of President 
Lund as of President Penrose for continued membership in the 
First Presidency is generally looked upon by the people as an- 
other evidence that the administration of President Heber J. 
Grant will be guided by inspired wisdom. In the First Presi- 
^dency as now constituted the members of the Church repose their 
full confidence. Friends of God and of men are at the helm. 


The life of President Anthon H. Lund, a beautiful, encourag- 
ing story to all who love the well-balanced, sincere life, explains 
in part at least, the attainment by President Lund of his present 
high position in the hearts of the people and among the authori- 
ties of the Church. On May 15th, 1844, he was born in Aalborg. 
Denmark, and among the restful people and satisfying nature of 
his native country he spent the £rst eighteen years of his life, 
and learned well the lessons in social progress and successful 
government in which Denmark even today is preeminent among 
the nations. In 1862 he sailed across the Atlantic, toiled across 
the plains, and entered Salt Lake City on September 23. Since 
that day, whether at home or abroad, his labors have been for 
Utah and her people. 

President Lund is essentially of the scholarly type. From 
hi?! earliest childhood he has been devoted to intellectual pur- 
suits. At four years of age he was sent to a private school, and 
at seven years of age entered the public schools of Aalborg. 
meanwhile receiving private lessons in English, French and Ger- 
man. At the age of eleven he won the first place for scholarship 
in the schools of Aalborg, and that in face of the opposition di- 
rected towards him because he already favored "Mormon" doc- 
trine. In addition to his education in school, he read much and 
v/idely. His learning and 'devotion to study were early recognized 
and used by his associates. As a young man of 18 he was made 
custodian and dispenser of medicines when an epidemic of sickness 
broke out on the slow-sailing vessel that brought him to America. 
V/hen he reached Utah, and settled in Sanpete county, one of 
his early employments was to act as private tutor in the family 
of John Barton. Later, when President Young built the first 
telegraph line in the territory, he was one of the young men 
called to go to Salt Lake City to learn telegraphy; and in fact 
Brother Lund had charge at one time of the telegraph office at 
Mt. Pleasant. In later life, as a member of the territorial leg- 
islature, he drafted the law which created the Agricultural Col- 
lege. The scholarly disposition and attainments of President 
Lund have been recognized in many ways. At present he is a 
member of the Church Board of Education and a Regent of the 
University of Utah. 

Early in his life, also, President Lund manifested a strong 
love for spiritual matters. The Bible was taught him in his 
early childhood by his grandmother, by whom he was reared, as 
his mother had died when he was about three and a half years 
old. When he learned to read, the Bible was his favorite book. 
When the boy was only six years old, in 1850, Apostle Erastus 
Snow opened the mission in Denmark, Brother Lund's uncle, 



Jens Anderson, was one of the first converts, and his grand- 
mother joined the Church shortly afterwards. Thus, the boy 
was practically brought up in the Church ; though he was not 
baptized until May 15, 1856, when he was twelve years old. 
Before that time, however, he had been counted as a "Mormon" 
and had endured much bitter persecution and cruel ostracism be- 
cause of his connection with a despised people. 

Up to this time he had been a defender, as needed, of the 
strange faith of the "Mormons ;" but about a year after his bap- 
tism he was called to -devote his time to missionary work in be- 
half of the Church. The first assignment of the thirteen-year- 
old missionary was to teach English to the emigrating saints, 
and if he had more time, to distribute tracts and to help the el- 
ders. When he gave the first report of his labors, the late Presi- 
dent Fjeldsted lifted him to the speakers' table so that the con- 
ference might see him. The man who occupies the second place 
in the Church today, began his work early. Perhaps one of 
the most valuable services of the young missionary was his trans- . 
lation of the Millennial Star to the truth-hungry saints. Brother 
Lun-d served as a missionary for about five years, and during that 
time traveled without purse or scrip. At the age of 16 he was 
ordained an elder, and for about two years afterward, served 
as president of the Aalborg branch. 

He took an active part in Church affairs from his arrival in 
Utah. In 1865 he helped organize the first Sunday school in 
Mt. Pleasant ; in 1871 he went on a mission to Scandinavia ; in 
1874, he became a Stake High Counselor ; in 1877, Stake Clerk ; 
in 1878, Superintendent of Ephraim Sunday schools; in 1883 he 
went on another mission to Scandinavia, this time as president of 
the mission; in 1888 he became the vice-president of the Manti 
Temple ; in 1889 he was chosen an apostle ; in 1891 he became the 
president of the Manti Temple; in 1893, he was called to pre- 
side over the European mission ; in 1897 he was sent on a mission 
to Syria and Palestine; in 1900 became superintendent of the 
Religion Classes of the Church and also Church Historian; in 
1901 he was chosen a member of the First Presidency. More- 
over he has filled many other responsible positions in the Church. 
President Lund's life has been one of ceaseless labor for the 
upbuilding of God's kingdom. 

In addition to his labors in behalf of education and the 
Church, President Lund has had long and successful experience 
in the more temporal affairs of life. When he first reached 
Utah he did whatever labor was at hand for his support. In 
1864 he was Church teamster to bring emigrants across the 
plains. At one time he had charge of a photograph gallery. He 


was the business manager of the mission office on his first mission. 
The successful operation of the Ephraim Co-op Store was largely 
due to his wise management. At present he is director of the 
Z. C. M. I., Zion's Saving Bank and Trust Co., Beneficial Life 
Insurance Co., and President of The Amalgamated Sugar Co., 
and connected with many other successful business enterprises. 

In the political life of the community, President Lund has 
also taken an active part. He served early in the Mt. Pleasant 
City Council. Twice he was elected to the legislature. At various 
times he has held important State positions, notable among them 
membership on the State Capitol Commission. 

President Lund speaks with ease and with a beautifully 
simple language easily understood. His public addresses are full 
of information and simple, direct exhortations to righteousness. 
His faith is clear and unbounded; his testimony convincing; his 
interpretations of the Gospel sound. His life is unblemished; 
and all who know him feel safe in following in his footsteps. 
His wisdom is acknowledged ; and many seek his counsel, 
courage in behalf has never wavered. 

The life and character of President Lund justify in the eyes 
of man the high position that he occupies. However, the love 
which tens of thousands bear to President Lund rests largely up- 
on his understanding of the human heart. The hopes and fears, 
the strength and weakness, the secret longings of earthly man 
find a ready response in President Lund. With charity he reaches 
out his hand to lift and to guide into a richer life those who come 
within his reach. For this human understanding of humanity he 
has won the enduring affection of the people which he has served 
from childhood. It is wonderful to win the love and confidence 
of a people. 

Joseph F. Smith. 

A wonderful character is President Charles W. Penrose. 
Although eighty-seven years of age, he is just as keen of intel- 
lect and quick of wit as he was in the days of his youth. At least 
so I judge, for I did not know him in the days of his early man- 
hood, and he is old enough to be my grandfather. This I do 
know, however, that there is little that escapes his attention, and 
he is always ready to give a good sound reason on any subject 
which he may .discuss. Never does he ramble nor lose sight of the 
point of discussion, but with the great power of concentration 
which he possesses tenaciously holds on and uses no unnecessary 


His power of perception and ability to analyze and arrange 
facts in order has been a marvel to me. This is due both to inher- 
ent ability and to a long training in the world of journalism and 
the mission field. In his early youth he spent ten years in ihe 
British mission as a traveling elder, preaching the gospel, organ- 
izing branches, and giving his time to the ministry, with a devo- 
tion that was admirable in the fullest degree. After emigrating to 
Zion his time was spent in various pursuits, but after a three years 
mission he was called into the field of journalism, where many 
of the best years of his life have been spent. And who in Zion has 
not profited by his writings? His forceful editorials and writ- 
ings on gospel themes have left their imprint on the lives of thou- 
sands. Well do I remember while laboring in the mission field 
the convincing power of his series of terse, plain and impressive 
Rays of Living Light, which were used universally by the elders. 
He possesses a power of directness and clearness of thought 
in his speech that is unsurpassed which has caused me to marvel 
and to wish that I could follow his example. When he stands 
before a congregation all who are acquainted with him know, 
before a word is spoken, that they will be edified by hearing the 
gospel preached in clearness and power, and that he will drive 
home with telling force the truth he wishes to convey. His 
services in the Legislature as Representative, stand on record to 
his lasting credit and renown. 

His knowledge of the scriptures has greatly impressed me, 
and his understanding of the gospel is deep and broad. Though 
strong in his convictions and, like the proverbial Highlander, 
hard to turn when once he gets going, yet when shown the better 
way he is willing to change his view ; yet rare, indeed, is the occa- 
sion for such a change. When he knows he is right no power 
on earth can turn him from his purpose. His conviction of the 
gospel has passed from belief to knowledge, and is so firmly fixed 
that it is everlasting. 

As a poet and as a writer of prose, he ranks among the great. 
The hymn, "Zion" — "Oh ye mountains high," may be placed 
among the foremost of our poems. Scarcely does a Sabbath pass 
when this hymn is not sung in one or more places throughout the 
Church. Yet it was written before the author ever looked upon 
the "vales of the free" with the natural eye. "School thy feelings, 
O my brother," is another hymn whose beauty and depth of sen- 
timent make it universal in its appeal and charm. These are 
not all, for there are many more such poetic gems. The strik- 
ing feature in his poems, as I see them, is their expressions of 
love and loyalty for Zion and her cause. "Beautiful Zion for 
me," "Blow gently, ye wild winds," "O wouldst thou from bond- 
age and strife be free," "Should solemn covenants be forgot," 


and "Up, awake, ye defenders of Zion!" are examples of this 

It is no easy task for a man to leave father, mother and all 
that is dear in the world for the gospel's sake. The Lord has 
said that "he that loveth father or mother more than me is not 
worthy of me. * * * And he that taketh not his cross, and 
followeth after me, is not worthy of me." All this President Pen- 
rose was called upon to do. In his youth, when the light of the 
gospel came to him, he received it gladly. His soul was con- 
verted to its truth. It was what he had been looking for, and the 
Spirit of the Lord bore witness with convincing power to him 
that he had found the way to eternal life ; but in following in the 
way, he was forced to stand alone, forsaken by all his house. He 
was an outcast for the truth. Strange it is, that the message of 
eternal salvation, so plain and simple that he who runs may read, 
falls on deaf ears that cannot understand. The fact that he could 
come out of Babylon, forsaken by all that was dear to him in the 
world, because the Lord had spoken, calls forth my greatest ad- 
miration. "He that findeth his life shall lose it ; and he that los- 
eth his life for my sake," said the Master, "shall find it." So 
it is, and so shall it be, with Charles W. Penrose. The Lord has 
seen the integrity of his heart and has blessed him with an hun- 
dred fold in this life and his meed of glory in the eternal life here- 
after is sure to come. 



The labor performed by Elder Rudger Clawson in the build- 
ing up of this Church and kingdom is known best by specialists 
like himself who toil in the quiet paths. 

Essentially industrious and painstaking, Elder Clawson early 
acquired a good business education. The natural bent of his 
mind was towards system and order in all phases of life. 

As a youth he became intimately acquainted with President 
Lorenzo Snow while both were confined in the penitentiary for 
conscience' sake. He was chosen President of the Box Elder 
Stake of Zion, immediately following his release from confinement. 
Dec. 2, 1887. His labors in that Stake were productive of 
much good. In October, 1898, Elder Clawson was ordained an 
apostle, and became a member of the Council of Twelve. 

At this time, a special work was intrusted to his charge by 
President Snow, that of systematizing and unifying the accounts 
of the Church. There was great need for such expert and intelli- 
gent modernizing of these matters, and Elder Clawson was happy 


in his delegated task. Books long continued in open accounts 
were properly closed. 

Meanwhile, President George Q. Cannon died, and President 
Snow, October 4, 1901, chose Joseph F. Smith as his first, and 
Rudger Clawson as his second counselor. Six days later, Presi- 
dent Snow himself passed away. 

Elder Clawson continued his labors on the Church books, and 
when completed, the signatures of President Joseph F. Smith 

and his counselors were written across the final sheet in grateful 
approval. Thus the foundation of our present complete and ad- 
mirable system of Church accounts was laid. When Elder Claw- 
son went to Europe as President of the European mission his 


first care was to clarify and unify the financial records of that 
mission with those already established at home. 

Two of Elder Clawson's close friends and associates speak 
of his character and attainments in warm terms. Bishop John 
Wells refers to his long and faithful presidency of the Priesthood 
Committee, of his dependable and conservative attributes which 
mark his associations with the brethren of that committee. Elder 
Clawson insists on getting to the bottom of facts and problems, but 
is never dogmatic nor overbearing in expressing opinions or in 
giving counsel. Always ready to discuss points and problems he is 
as ready to adjust differences with a nice sense of others' point of 
view, which is both agreeable and wise. He wins his way with 
kindly patience rather than vociferous insistence, exercising ever 
a large tolerance of others. His friendship is wide and his watch- 
ful care of the interests of the people is universal in application. 

Another friend and long-time associate, Elder Arthur Winter, 
speaks affectionately of the democratic and approachable manners 
of Elder Clawson. No toiler is forgotten, no associate is slighted, 
as he passes along his kindly way. In fact no class distinction 
mars the character of Elder Clawson. His close attention to de- 
tails and to system impels accuracy in his private as well as his 
public labors ; while his scrupulous honesty and integrity inspire 
confidence and admiration in all who know him. With it all he 
possesses a dry, quaint humor that plays fitfully over his every- 
day associations and which fortunately makes for that sanity and 
poise so necessary in leaders of men. Elder Clawson is best es- 
teemed by those who know him best. 

Be Ye of Good Cheer. 

Elsie E. Barrett. 

War, famine, pestilence ! God seems to be scourging the earth ! 

Good, bad and indifferent, none exempt. 

We can see preparation for a New World's birth. 

Visions, dreams, prophecies, from seers of ages gone, 

Are fast coming true, causing sorrow ; 

Soon we'll see the glow of Millennial dawn. 

Courage, faith, calmness for the world's aching heart, — 

Out of the chaos, peace, rest 

We shall see, if we fearlessly do our part. 




The New General Superintendency 
of Sunday Schools. 

William A. Morton of the General Sunday School Board. 

When the announcement was made that Elder David O. 
McKay, of the Council of Twelve, had been chosen to succeed the 
late President Joseph F. Smith as General Superintendent of the 
Sunday Schools of the Church, expressions of hearty approval 
were heard on every hand. No better selection could have been 
made, for, apart from his calling as an apostle of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, Elder McKay is, above all else, a Sunday School man. 
He was cradled in the Sunday School ; in his childhood it was his 
nursery; in his youth his guiding star. His love for the cause, 
his long years of devoted service to it, the great experience he had 
acquired as an officer and also as assistant to President Joseph 
F. Smith, fully qualified him for the exalted position to which he 
has been called. His love for little children is unbounded, and 
he possesses the rare gift of being "able to reach them." We have 
seen hundreds of little ones sit spell-bound while he taught them 
the ways of the Lord, and told them about the blessings which 
he as an individual had received from his heavenly Father. In 
Superintendent McKay, the youth of Zion have a father and a 
friend. Around the neck of many a wayward boy his big, broth- 
erly arm has been placed while he pleaded with the erring one to 
forsake the paths of sin and to turn his feet into the ways of 
righteousness. He has been the means in the hands of the Lord 
of bringing peace to many a troubled conscience, joy to many an 
aching heart, and sunshine into many a home that had been dark- 
ened for years. He is loved and honored by all who know him, 
and their name is legion. He has the faith and prayers of all 


Israel that the Lord may continue to bless him and give him much 
joy and success in the work to which he has consecrated his life. 

As might have been expected, when Elder McKay was chosen 
General Superintendent, Elder Stephen L. Richards, also of the 
Council of the Twelve, was chosen as his first assistant. The .souls 
of these two men are knit as closely together as were the souls 
of David and Jonathan and Joseph and Hyrum. We know of no 
tetter team of Church workers. Elder Richards, like his file 
leader, has had many yeiars of experience in Sunday School work. 
He is. a man of good, sound judgment, and .during the years he 
has been in the Superintendency he has assisted materially in 
.bringing the Sunday School work up to its present high ,state 
of perfection. He-is a man of sterling character, and his life is 
an inspiration to all Church workers. His presence at Sunday 
School conventions and conferences is always hailed with delight, 
for officers and teachers know that they will receive from him the 
help they need in order to make their labors more successful. We 
extend to Elder Richards our hearty congratulations, and wish 
him continued success in his ministry. 

With the elevation of Elder Stephen L. Richards to the office 
of First Assistant Superintendent, the genial Secretary of the 
Deseret Sunday School Union Board, Elder George D. Pyper, 
also received well-earned recognition, he having been chosen to 
fill the office of Second Assistant Superintendent. This appoint- 
ment has also met with universal favor. His experience of many 
years as General Secretary of the Union Board has made Brother 
Pyper familiar with Sunday School work, and has thoroughly 
qualified him for his new position. He is beloved by all who know 
him for his breadth of vision, his soulful music, his cheerfulness, 
his kindness, his wide sympathy, his brotherly love, and many 
other virtues. In him the Sunday Schools of the Church have a 
valuable asset. Long may he live to put sunshine into the souls 
of his fellow-mortals, and to point out to the young, in song and 
story, the way to a still higher and a better life. 

Educators in this state tell us that nearly half of our children 
do not receive a high school education. This is unfortunate for 
the child, as it is a handicap throughout life ; for the parents, who 
lose the trained help and resulting joy from the full preparation 
of their children to face life ; and most of all, it is a loss to^ the 
state and to our Church, who are thus deprived of fully trained 
intelligences to develop and carry forward the upbuilding of civil 
and religious righteousness. 

Mothers can help in this matter by exercising a little more 
self-sacrifice and in encouraging sons and daughters to make 
greater efforts to pass through high schools and colleges. Men 
cannot be saved in ignorance, now or ever. 




The New General Superintendency 
of the Y. M.M.I. A. 

Moroni Snow, General Secretary. 

Complying with your request for an expression of my feel- 
ings in relation to the recent change in the General Superintend- 
ency of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of 
the Church, I wish to say that I have had much joy and satisfac- 
tion in my associations for many years past with the former su- 
perintendency and, of course, felt the loss in common with all 
Israel when our beloved head, President Joseph F. Smith, was 
taken from us by death. I have greatly appreciated the cordial 
relations that have existed in my associations with President Heber 
J. Grant, but knowing his often-expressed feelings that the head 
of the Church should be relieved of the immediate charge as 
head of the auxiliary associations, I was not surprised when the 
change in the General Superintendency of the Young Men's Mu- 
tual Improvement Associations was made. 

While regretting the loss of the immediate and active service 
of President Grant in connection with our General Board, I rec- 
ognize the wisdom of the move, and I am glad that this detail will 
now devolve upon others. In the selection of Elder Anthony W. 
Ivins as the new head of our organization, I was especially well 
pleased, knowing, as I do, his eminent fitness for the position, 
through my life-long associations with him. As a boy I had great 
respect for him, he being my senior by a few years, but later this 
difference in ages seemed to be bridged, and we grew more and 
more into each other's lives, having many kindred tastes and 


aspirations. We were closely associated, in Church, political and 
social life. In the Church, we were connected with the late James 
G. Bleak in charge of one of the earliest theological classes in St. 
George, and both passed through the school of experience as of- 
ficers of the Young Men's Mutuals. I had the pleasure of serv- 
ing as one of his assistants in the superintendency of the St. 
George stake, and later succeeded him as stake superintendent, 
when he was called as a counselor to President D. D. McArthur 
in the stake presidency. We were associated in various city and 
county official positions, and in our dramatic and social entertain- 
ments we were also united. In all these associations and activities 
I learned to love him as a friend and brother, and can testify to 
the sterling qualities that have made him what he is, a man 
among men. 

He is preeminently, a boy's man, and his heart and sympathies 
ever go out to them. In sunshine or sorrow, success or apparent 
failure, under all circumstances, boys felt they had a friend in 
Anthony W. Ivins, and none could fall so low that he could not 
feel for him and extend a helping hand. He enjoyed the confi- 
dence and esteem of all the young men with whom he came in 
contact. He was also the friend and counselor of the Indians 
throughout southern Utah, who all looked up to him with respect 
and confidence, as he always dealt with them with scrupulous 
honesty and fairness. He is a natural born teacher and as such 
will, I am confident, measure up to every requirement that may 
be made of him as the head of our organization. May God bless 
him in these labors. 

Elder Brigham H. Roberts is too well known as a man of the 
people to need any commendation from me. He has well earned 
the title of "defender of the faith," which has been accorded to 
him by those who best know him. My personal associations with 
Elder Roberts have been somewhat limited, but I have learned to 
respect him as a staunch champion of freedom and the rights of 
the common people. In his present position as chaplain of the 
145th Regiment (Utah) Field Artillery, he has won the love and 
esteem of every soldier of the regiment, and those qualities which 
naturally appeal to the boy will have abundant opportunity to man- 
ifest themselves in the future as they have in the past as First 
Assistant General Superintendent. 

As to Elder Richard R. Lyman, the Second Assistant to Elder 
Ivins, my personal relations with him have also been limited, but 
I have known his eminent father, the late President Francis M. 
Lyman, since boyhood, and loved and honored him as a man of 
God and a close friend of my own father. If the son inherits the 
noble qualities of the father, as I feel assured he does, he will 
prove worthy in every respect in his high and holy calling. He is 
one of the younger generation, but has graduated in Mutual work 


and will be of the greatest help to our great Mutual cause, and I 
feel we are to be congratulated on his selection as one of our 

Under the guidance and loving care of such men as these, 
laboring under the inspiration of our Father in heaven, and with 
the help of such men as now constitute the General Board, the 
great work of building character, and of implanting a testimony 
of the gospel in the hearts of the youth of Israel, must succed. 

A. B. Christ enson. 

Sweet spirit from a brighter sphere. 

In mould of earthly sod ; 
What mysteries of life lie here ! 

Still point to heaven and God ; 
Descended, yes ! through tangled chains 

Of mundane pain and strife ; 
Yet, in thy cherub-form there reigns 

Divine, a higher life. 

'Tis sleep that gives thee glimpses fair 

Of scenes in worlds above, 
Communion with the angels there, 

And heavens of pristine love ; 
Thy slumbers are like timely rain 

And sunshine in green bowers ; 
They warm and cheer to life again 

The drooping buds and flowers. 

Our Indian Cousins. 

C. L. Christ ensen. 

(Concluded from last month.) 


In talking with the Navajos on religion, we find that they 
believe there are three great personages who created and organ- 
ized this earth. One who created all the animals except the 
mule, and that was the white man's invention. After they had 
created the earth they found that the heavens and earth were so 
close together that man could not walk erect, so they commanded 
the heavens to go up, and placed the rainbow to designate the 
distance between the heaven and the earth. Then man was 
created and placed in a beautiful garden, and also in ,some myster- 
ious way a woman was created. They told the man that man's 
time was not God's time, and that he must arrange his own time 
according to an earthly calendar. 

These parents had many children, and finally the Great Son 
was born to them, and they had high hopes for him. He had 
great power from on high. He controlled lightnings and ele- 
ments, and he slew his brother. He became the father of lies, 
war, bloodshed and contention. The first man and the first wo- discovered that they had done something wrong when they 
found they were naked. They had only squirrel skins to cover 
their nakedness. The woman was influenced by a serpent, so 
that she brought forth good and bad children, and the Indians 
believe in that to this day. They wear their breech-clouts in 
memory of the temptation of their first parents. After this the 
children multiplied excessively upon the earth. The wicked were 
about to overcome the good and the Creator sent a flood upon 
the earth ; He showed them a very high mountain and all who 
wished might go up and be saved ; however, only few of them 
went. The animals went up in pairs. All of them took heed with 
the exception of the turkey gobbler who stood stuttering and gob- 
bling, but the Lord needed him so He sent a wave of the sea 
which took him up to the top of the mountain leaving a white 
foam around the feathers of his tail and he is called the "incline 
bird" and the "sign of the flood," because of his stupidity. 
Scraps only of the history is left in the world ; much has been lost. 

The Navajos believe that their great forefathers came from 
beyond the great waters, in great vessels which were stolen from 


them by cunning" men who made others like them and then de- 
parted out over the water with hosts of their people, and nothing 
has been heard from them since. In memory of their first 
father, all Navajo chiefs are called "Totosones from beyond the 
Great Waters," no matter what their names had been before. 

This first father had four sons. The oldest son tampered 
with the rainbow, shot an arrow into the air defying the powers 
of the Creator, thereby cutting off all communication between 
heaven and earth and putting the people in a humble, downcast 
attitude. The youngest son was called "The Fox," indicating 
that he was shrewd, wise and cunning; he took the records and 
their wisdom from them and departed out of the land. After 
this there were wars and great calamities in the land for hundreds 
of years. The Indians believe that their only hope of regaining 
their power lies in the good news that a boy had in some mysteri- 
ous way dropped from heaven. He was given to a very wise and 
beautiful woman to raise. She reared him successfully, although 
all nations gathered for his destruction. She often had to hide 
him under the hearth-stone, or again, to wrap him in a blanket 
and, in a flash, flee to other parts for her preservation. He 
finally became a man with much power and good influence. He 
healed the sick and settled the difficulties of his people, where- 
upon they rejoiced. He .said he was one who assisted in the crea- 
tion of the earth. This brought the disfavor of the people and 
they would not have him in their midst any longer. They gam- 
bled with him for the earth, and through treachery they received 
it for an everlasting inheritance. He became angry at them, 
confounded their languages and divided them up into different 
tribes, which are now extant upon the land. He then got on a 
streak of lightning and went up into the air and was seen no 
more. The people discovered their mistake and mourned exceed- 
inglv over it, bowing their heads in "The Vallev of Supplication" 
(Nah ho Ko Ki). He inclined his ear and answered them saying, 
"I have left twelve in my stead and when they are united to- 
gether they have the same power that I manifested unto you." 
Then, for a number of years, they had a time of reioicing; 
things were pleasant and the earth was beautiful to dwell upon. 
Finally the people became wicked and the Twelve departed out 
of the land, three going east, three west, three north and three 
south, taking all their blessings and promises from the people. 

Then followed calamities and earthquakes, thunder and light- 
nings. Many cities were sunk in the depths of the earth and great 
waters came up in places where there were none before. The 
rivers changed their courses, and total darkness prevailed upon 
the earth for a time. Fire came down from heaven and consumed 
many people, especially the Mound-builders. There were only 


two of them left: male and female. They were a white people, 
said by them to be the protectors of the Albinos, who were a 
white people. They had many difficulties after these calamities, 
famine, pestilence and still wars. They were scattered and 
driven to every land. They inquired what had become of the 
woman who had reared the "wonderful boy" and they found that 
she was called "Es tun Et lah," the woman who reunites the 
spirit and the body, or Resurrection. For her conduct she was 
given a city with twelve pearly gates, and it was taken off from 
where the Gulf of Mexico now stands, and detached from the 
land and was placed off in the Pacific Ocean somewhere. 

Death is called "going over." You have to pass through a 
twelve-mile canyon, very narrow and crooked, in which you have 
to remain a thousand years. Possibly the years will kill the 
horrors of the place. But warriors take their weapons of war 
with them so they may be successful in getting through to the 
"happy hunting ground." 

The young man who wishes to obtain a wife negotiates with 
the uncle, the mother's brother. He usually has to pay ten or 
fifteen head of horses for the girl, according to her beauty and 
ability as a blanket-maker and usefulness as a housekeeper. If 
the young lady agrees to the arrangement, ,she sends back half as 
much property of her own to him. They are then engaged. The 
woman is held in more esteem and considered more valuable than 
the man. After this arrangement they prepare a nice house to 
dwell in and the medicine men come in and dedicate the house, 
pronouncing a blessing on it. They take the young lady in and 
hide her in the north side of the house, under some blankets. The 
young man comes. They ask him what he wishes, and he replies, 
"a wife." They strike him. To have a wife is the grandest 
blessing and privilege a man can have. They ask him if he will 
sustain, support, feed and fight for her, if necessary; to which he 
agrees. The woman is then brought forward and they partake of 
a whole meal proflfered by one of the medicine men. The mother- 
in-law then brings out a beautiful belt, which is girded about his 
loins as a certificate of marriage. They then agree that if ever 
any separation should occur she .shall take all the children, all 
the property and cut the belt in two, each taking half. The 
mother-in-law then departs. It is considered unholy for them to 
behold each other's face again. 

Here is a story told in connection with this, something like 
the laws of Moses in the Bible : The dedicators say of the marriage 
home before dismissing the young people, that the young people 
agree that if any unclean thing enters the house (meaning death 
or contagious diseases from the destroying Indian), they will 
cause the house to be burned down and everything cremated, in- 
cluding the bed. 



The young man announces to the village that he is going to 
marry a girl. He defies all the people to break them up, if they 
can, considering the girl of no use if influence can be brought to 
bear to separate them. He raises a crop of cotton during the 
summer and they usually marry in the fall. A great preparation 
is made during the day, the young girls in particular grinding the 
corn. They take corn in their mouths, chew it and spit it into a 
vessel; this is put into a pudding and it is considered a favor to 
do this for the young couple for them to partake of it. Two 
great white robes are made from the cotton he has raised in the 
summer, and after the day's festivities they go into a room and 
wash each other and pronounce each other clean. Then they 
slip into the robes. These robes are afterwards laid away until 
death, when the two are buried in them. At death they wall 
these robes up around the bodies like a well, and a large .stone 
is put on top of the well, which in turn is topped by a stick from 
which flutters a white flag. Corn, meat and other eatables are 
placed over the grave for a number of days. Young people and 
unmarried people are buried in the crevices of rocks ; they are 
rolled in a blanket, and the women do all the burying. There are 
no attendants except the four women who dispose of the dead. 


After several days' visit among the Moquis, Brother Hatch. 
Brother Wakefield and myself went to the Navajos. We found that 
they had thirty-six historians, divided into quorums of twelve each 
The first twelve are the custodians of the language and customs 
handed down from their fathers. They have not commenced 
their record and they calculate the time by the calamities and 

Any new thing that comes into their country is given a 
name, and it is always referred to the authority of the first Twelve. 
The second Twelve are botanists or medicine men and are experts 
in medicines, herbs and other medical things. The third Twelve 
are astronomers and keep track of the time and the seasons. They 
have their equinoctial day, the same as we have. One might 
spend a month or more studying either of these sub-divisions and 
then would not learn all they know and pass upon. 

In the ancient time, when they lived according to their own 
law,s and were not interfered with by the government, adultery 
was punished for the man by death. The woman was allowed to 
live but her ears were split, that they might know she was a 
fallen woman. Fornication was forgiven by paying a ransom for 


the unfortunate girl. If one killed another accidentally or other- 
wise he fled to the refuge city, and if the pursuers didn't over- 
take him his friends had an opportunity to settle the matter 
and the offender would be allowed to return to his people by 
paying a big ransom. 

We spent the balance of the year 1876 building forts and 
•dams, and in general improvements. The Apaches were very bad 
that season and we stood guard all night, and the animals had 
to be guarded. Scores of men were killed by the Apaches while 
carrying the mail from Santa Fe to Prescott. The roads were 
dotted with graves every few miles along the Sunset mail route. 
A small, lively and interesting Dutchman, a mail driver, passed 
through our town one noon. The brethren cautioned him of 
the danger. He had an old gun and four or five cartridges and 
thought he was able to defend himself, but when he had gone 
twelve miles on his journey he was killed, without a chance to use 
his wonderful weapon. It was impossible to get mail carriers to 
undertake the journey unless it was some unfortunate foreigner 
who did not sense the danger. 

There were several teams and buckboards lost in the cross- 
ing to the Little Colorado, as it was a perfect sand-bed over a 
treacherous stream. The team would drown and the man narrowly 
escape with his life. 

The people built four forts : Brigham City, named after 
Apostle Young; and Sunset, on the east side of the river, where 
Lot Smith presided. Twenty-five miles up the river was St. 
Joseph. On the south side of the river was Obed, presided over by 
Bishop George Lake. The fort was built entirely of rock, even 
to the roofing which was made by long, thin slabs of rock almost 
twelve feet long, as the country abounded in this kind of stone. 
This latter place was abandoned because of its swampy and un- 
healthy condition. Thousands of dollars' worth of dams were 
constructed in the river, which were torn out and destroyed by 
the overflow and heavy floods caused by the immense drainage 
of that river. 

In the spring of 1877, I went to St. George to the dedication 
of the temple, and on the 9th of April I was called and set apart 
by President Brigham Young, John W. Young and Charles C. 
Rich to act as an Indian missionary. President Young instructed 
me to learn the Navajo language thoroughly, "for," said he, "our 
older brethren have had to learn to talk a good many pieces of 
languages of other Indian tribes and failed to become thorough 
in any one language. If you can learn anything more, study 
Spanish, for that will be the most profitable language for young 
men who go South." 

After doing some temple work. I returned home to Arizona, 


and in June Jacob Hamblin came along and I went with him on 
a mission. The second night out we camped at Stedson ranch, 
where Snowflake now stands. The third night we camped at the 
home of Mr. Cooley, a non-"]\Iormon," who was a very prom- 
inent man among the Apaches. He had two Apache women for 
wives. We told him we were travehng to preach peace and re- 
pentance among the different Indians. He treated us very kindly 
and told us that it was a necessary undertaking because of the 
troublous conditions that existed ampng the different tribes, 
meaning war. We traveled several days among the Apaches, tell- 
ing them to 'live peaceful lives ; that all Indians were brethren, 
and should not war with each other. 

We then went over to the Zuni villages and had a pleasant 
visit with the Indians there. Brother Jacob told them many good 
things. We went from there to Fort Wingate. Brother Jacob 
rehearsed to them all the different visits he had made to them in 
years gone by, their trials and difficulties, and reminded them 
of the different conditions then and now, as our people were leav- 
ing another country and would prove to them we were their 
friends, and that we bore tidings of great joy. 

Brother Hamblin and I, and Brother Tenney, traveled as far 
as Fort Defiance, an old fort now abandoned, where there had 
been many a war, struggle, and bloodshed in years gone by. We 
traveled about twenty miles further west, when Brother HambHn 
and Brother Tenney returned. They left me alone in the center 
of the Navajo nation. They left me some flour, which the Indians 
readily enjoyed as they were unused to flour, corn-meal being 
their food. I lived on their food altogether, which was very hard 
on me, as they only eat one kind of food at a time. We would 
have one meal of horse-meat, boiled or roasted; with nothing else 
for the meal. Then mush for dinner, and goat-milk and gruel for 
supper. I grew very thin and weak after a time. 

I sheared several hundred sheep for them. President Young 
sent forty pairs of shears out to them, on learning from Brother 
Jacob that they had none ; they sheared their sheep with a butcher 
knife and hoop-iron from a barrel with a rag wrapped around 
it, and they could only shear five or six a day, cutting only half of 
the wool. When I sheared some sheep nice and clean, and the 
sheep leaped about, it delighted the Indians very much. They 
thought sheep-shearing was a wonderful invention. As fast as 
they learned to use the shears I distributed these tools among 
them. It hurt their wrists, so that they broke the shears in two, 
and used them in the old way, but now they can all shear sheep 
with shears. 

After three months I had an opportunity to come home, once 
riding a little pony ninety miles in one day, bare-back, and by 


following the mail carrier to Keem's Canyon. This was the 
hardest day I ever experienced in my life. After resting^ several 
days with Mr. William Keems, who was a noted Indian trader, 
he took me home to Brig-ham City, sixty-five miles, remaining with 
us over the Sabbath day. He was asked to speak in our services 
in Sunday school. He picked up the Book of Mormon ; bore his 
testimony that it was true, having read it some time before. He 
said he had two Navajo wives and had lived with the Indians for 
forty years, and from their traditions he knew the book was a 
true account of that people. He said he did not have the stamina 
to embrace the gospel because of persecution by the law, and 
because of his standing in society. He always proved a true friend 
to the "Mormon" missionaries. He fed them and gave them 
clothes, and treated them kindly. 

William Keems died in a peculiar manner. He was a great 
blasphemer. We cautioned him about this. While on a journey 
to Fort Wingate with a companion he got angry at his team, 
kneeled down and challenged the Almighty to a duel, saying 
many vicious things. His companion cautioned him to stop talk- 
ing that way and left him. A streak of lightning struck Mr. 
Keems and paralyzed him. He was taken to Fort Wingate, 
placed under the care of a military surgeon, but died at the expira- 
tion of twenty days. The last words he .said were, "Tell my 
friend Mr. Christensen to tell all men that he comes in contact 
with, never to blaspheme or talk lightly of sacred things, as it 
is dans^erous. Whether a believer or an unbeliever, respect the 
great Creator." 

I would like, if it were possible, to write a book to give .due 
credit to Jacob Hamblin, Harry Hatch, John R. Young, and scores 
of other good men, who .did a great work to establish peace 
among those uncivilized people. Their names will go down to 
future generations as men of indomitable courage to do good for 
the benefit of their fellow men. I have done but little in compari- 
son to them, having just followed up what they so nobly beg'an. 
However, I think I have been a most fortunate man in learn- 
ing the Indian languages, and becoming their recognized friend 
and adviser through the many .perilous periods of their history, 
by keeping them from war and rebelling against the government 
and otherwise leaving themselves liable to utter annihilation. A 
day will come when the government will acknowledge that the 
"Mormon" elders have been great peacemakers and benefactors 
to a fallen race. Through our instrumentality schools have been 
established on the reservation. Instead of taking their children 
hundreds of miles away by force to school, some never returning 
to their people, schools have now .been provided at their home 
communities. The white man is beginning to appreciate that the 


Indians love their children as intensely as other people, and it is 
no wonder that they have rebelled at times over their treatment. 
However, they have cast their weapons aside and do not desire 
war any more and are patiently submitting to the outcome of 
civilization as introduced among- them. They are hopeful, look- 
ing" for the twelve great men, of whom we have spoken, to return 
to them soon and restore to them all their former greatness and 
blessings, as promised them by their forefathers. 

Today you would not find three Indians in the whole Navajo 
nation who could inform you on the customs and habits and tra- 
ditions of the Indians as herein described. The younger genera- 
tion do not believe in the traditions of their forefathers, and the 
government has interfered with their former practices and their 
own laws have been abandoned practically for twenty-five years. 
All those great chiefs and historical characters who were 
acquainted with President Young, their great benefactor, have 
passed beyond, but whatever may hereafter be found by historians 
and other searchers after truth will not discredit the account here- 
in contained. This narrative will only help to establish the truth 
more firmly. 


A man takes his son by the hand and leads in worship and 
the son repeats after him. 

Worship of the Sun.—O thou Great King of Day! Agam 
thou art on thy way. Thou who planted the first garden eastward 
and made the grass to grow, trees and flowers and food for man ! 
Not man art thou, but the Great Creator ; and thou. Sun Ray of 
Light, who shone on our fathers from the beginning, cease not 
to shine on us, thy children, and cause vegetation to grow. Man 
cannot endure without thee ; we ask thy light for the good and 
the bad, for thou dost not distinguish between them. We love 
the Moon and the lesser lights, but the Moon is often obscured 
by darkness and fills us with fear that the end of Man will come 
before the Moon rises. When morning comes, thou Sun, dispel 
our fears and let hope, not despair, fill our bosoms with deep de- 
votion, for thou art the dispenser of peace and blessings. (Re- 
peated three times daily.) 


After stretching over the water some holy eagle feathers at- 
tached to some white cotton yarn, the Moquis say, "Peace, be 
still !" 


"Let thy angry bosom not swallow us and hide us from our 
loved ones. It is a disgrace to die in a watery grave, or to be hung 
by the neck with a rope. Oh, thou Great River, from which our 
fathers drank and in which they bathed their heated brows while 
fleeing from their enemies, remember us, their children, though 
less worthy than the mighty men of old. Thou knowest our 
humility and helplessness in contending against the elements, fire, 
water, and the thunders that roar overhead, controlled only by 
the Great Creator. 

"Peace, peace, be still !" 

In 1884 a delegation of representatives from Washington, 
D. C., came amongst the Navajos to inform them that there was 
a law against having more than one family. The Indians had 
large families, and according to their own laws they could have 
as many wives as they could support. Each family had to have 
2,000 head of sheep and goats, enough to make them self-sup- 
porting. The Indians said they had been commanded to raise up 
a righteous branch at one time when their tribe was sorely dimin- 
ished through their long wars, etc. The delegation gave them 
a talk about love at home with one wife, etc., and the impossibil- 
ity of the love being sufficient for so many. Many more things 
were said with much pomp and flattery. They wished the Indians 
to dispense with these families of their own free will, and if not, 
by force. 

If the reader could have seen the frowns, the scorn, and the 
utter contempt depicted in the faces of those women and children 
as they listened to these unwelcome remarks ! There was deep 
silence, and wonder what would be the answer of the Great War 
Chief and Lieutenant, and hero of many battles, Co mah ee yassy 
(The fiery wolf's young one). He had six wives and forty-two 
living children. I will now give his speech, in part : 

"You talk like children, you who live in the holy nation under 
the blessing of the Great Creator. You talk with the tongues of 
lightning. You use the wire and the paper, and all those won- 
derful things the white man is able to use so cunningly as tools 
against us. Have you left off your reasoning powers as men, 
have you no home nor loved ones? If you have not, you have 
no business here to enlighten us with that which fills our heart 
with aching and despair and a more abiding hatred for our white 
friends. Have you so soon forgotten the first man who came and 
discovered this, our goodly land, who with his vessels as agile as 
the swan, touched our shores near the rising Sun, and he and his 
men bowed down before our Great Chiefs, and begged for bread, 
and for a resting place until he could return to his own people. 
Our fathers granted it, and what has been the consequences? 
He soon returned with many and powerful armies. The armies 


increased until they drove us toward the setting sun, and the 
end is not yet in sight. Do you pretend to say that we do not love 
our wives and children? They love us, let this be our answer. 
You may cut our throats from ear to ear, and send us over to the 
Great Beyond, there is room enough for all where our forefathers 
dwell in peace and happiness. You go! Tell the great white 
Chief — whether he is a man or a beast I know not — that we love 
our wives and children, and they love us ; for them we live, and 
for them we die." 

Here he knelt down and kissed the earth and pulled his hair 
to show his reverence for the Creation of God, his love for his 
family, by the kiss, and his desperate and intense feeling under 
the strain of his present mood, by pulling his hair. His speech 
lasted over one hour. He told them of the Indian's disadvantages 
in the matter of arms, which was always in favor of the whites, 
and how they had taught them, the Indians, to drink whisky, and 
gave them horrible diseases which the Indians did not do nor have 
in their wars before that time, etc. 

The Blessedness of Pure Young Love. 

L. Lula Greene Richards. 

Do you know, dear young friends, that you help in a measure 

To give to the whole world much sunshine and pleasure? 

By thus giving heed to that first great command 

That Adam and Eve should go forth, hand in hand. 

And replenish the earth, have dominion and rule? 

Do you know, as you enter that wonderful school. 

That the light of pure love, which abounds in your hearts. 

To everything 'round you its brightness imparts, 

And from one to another it radiates so 

That you bless the whole world with the warmth of its glow? 

This is true ; and in turn 'tis our wish most sincere 

That your light of pure love may be strengthened each year. 

There is nothing more natural, more lovely and good. 

Than young people marrying just when they should. 

As you are now doing. May blessings increase, 

And with you abide the sweet angel of peace. 

Rear soldiers and nurses the war to help win 

'Gainst selfishness, greed, and all manner of sin. 

To each other be true ; and wherever you go, 

Help make the world bright with Love's hallowed glow. 

For Time and Eternity. 

Lucy May Green. 

"I cannot go to the temple, Ronald. Mother has set her 
heart on a home wedding for us, and she has planned such an 
elaborate reception ! We are to be married by our old Bishop, 
in the alcove in the drawing-room, standing under a big floral 
horseshoe, for luck, you know. And my dress, wh|r it's a perfect 
dream with a low neck and real lace! sleeves. Itp an exquisite 
evening gown, Ron, and will come in so handy for the theater and 
parties !" And the happy girl smiled at her lovej. "My trous- 
seau, too, you just can't imagine how lovely the tmngs are which 
mother and the girls have made for me — all tattilg and crochet, 
such laces and embroidery ! I shall want to wef r chiffons and 
crape all my life, just to show them off." 

"But Edith dear," replied tj^ie man, "there Ire other things 
to think of besides crepe dresses and embroiAry. Our love 
should be the greatest thing in a^l the world justlnow. We want 
to be married in the temple ! we; don't want to bl united for time 
alone, but for all eternity ; and,- dearest, I do i|bt care so much 
for your many fine clothes ; you always look w^l dressed to me. 
But there is one article we must both wear andlcherish, and you 
know what that is." 

"Oh," pouted the girl, "I don't want to weat long sleeves and 
high necks, for they are so hot and uncomfortable. My dresses 
are almost all made with elbow or shorter sleeves and no collars, 
and I won't be able to wear any of my pretty yokes. Let's wait 
awhile, Ron ; there will be plenty of time later- on to do temple 
work. I want to have a good time, now." 

"Dearest," returned her lover sadly, "we hiust begin right. 
Many years ago I received the Priesthood. I have lived a clean 
and true life, have respected my calling and have looked forward 
with joy to the time when I might be ordained to the higher ofiice, 
and in the House of the Lord receive the woman who was my 
true mate. You have ever been my ideal woman, Edith ; do not 
fail me now. I love you, dear, not only until death does Us part, 
but for time and all eternity." 

"If you loved me like that," flashed the girl, "you would let 
me get married in my own way. I'm willing to go to the temple 
some day — in a year or two, after we've had a good time in society 
for awhile. You must go now, Ron, for I hear the dressmaker 
coming for a fitting. Good-bye, Ron ; time enough for serious 
things in ten years from now," smiled the ^MflBIP'^ §^irl, as she 


eluded Ron's good-bye kiss, and disappeared into the sewing room. 

"How I love her," thought the man, as he walked through 
the quiet streets to his home, where he sought the silent solitude 
of his own room. 

"Father in heaven, open her eyes," he cried, as he knelt in 
prayer. "Take from her heart the desire for worldly things. 
Open up the way that my heart's dearest wishes may be speedily 
realized, if it be thy will," he prayed earnestly. 

Ronald Lancaster and Edith Arvor had been playmates in 
early childhood, friends through school days, and lately their 
friendship had ripened into love. A legacy recently received by 
Edith's mother had made an elaborate trousseau possible, and 
Edith's head had Seen slightly turned by the many attentions paid 
her by the sociaf leaders of the town, and through the allurement 
of the fine clothing she had been able to obtain. 

A few days later Edith attended an afternoon musicale given 
by Mrs. Vandercort, who was one of the local society leaders, in 
honor of a visiting musician, a contralto of widcrepute. 

"Our singer went for a ride through the canyon this morning 
and has not yet returned," announced the hostesS to her assembled 
guests. "Just visit and amuse yourselves fo/ a little while. I 
think I hear hef auto returning now." ■ 

Edith joined a group of friends on the spacious veranda, and 
a hum of conversation, broken at times with the click of knitting 
needles, soon ensued. 

"What exquisite tatting that lady is wearing, and did you 
ever see such a pretty yoke," remarked one of her companions to 
Edith in an .^t^tj^ whisper. "She is a 'Mormon,' too," she 

"How can you tell that?" queried Edith. 

"I can see the outline of her underwear," replied the girl. 
"Do you know," she continued, "I believe in all the principles of 
the Church, but I just can't stand the underwear. I have to wear 
it, of course, but I tuck in the neck and roll up the sleeves, and" 
— whisper — "I have one pair I fixed up to wear with evening 
dresses — •" 

"Girls," the lady of the tatting said ^.ently, "I could not help 
hearing your remarks, and it griqved m/ soul to hear you speak 
slightingly of sacxed things. May I t^l you a story?" 

T\\^0^igg//fll^\rh blushed an;d' r;iurmured an apology, and 
the lady coitTihued : ^ 

"Twenty years ago Ruth Aiatpn was the belle of our little 
village, an exquisite needlewomlm. Ruth's dresses and under- 
wear were elaborately trimmec^with embroidery and lace, the 
work of her own hands. In th;^ late nineties the girls wore sheer 
organdy dresses with many n|ffles, These were made over col- 



ored slips, often of pink or flesh color. Sleeves were omitted and 
the tops were cut low so that dimpled arms and necks could 
show through the sheer organdy of the dress. Ruth was engaged 
to a young civil engineer who was surveying some Government 
land in our neighborhood. He was a recent convert to Our faith, 
and full of enthusiasm. He desired to receive the Priesthood 
and to be married in the temple, but Ruth discouraged this. She 
had set her heart on having an organdy wedding dress, with six 
bridesmaids, flower girls, with an elaborate ceremony in her 
home. Ruth's slightest wish became law with her future hus- 
band, and — it was a very imposing wedding. Everywhere was 
pink and white roses, and Ruth the bonniest rose of them all, in 
her organdy dress and white veil ; but my heart ached for them, 
for I knew they had not made the right start. 

"Years passed. Ruth and her husband prospered. Five 
lovely children blessed their union. Later the family moved to 
Boston, where John Enright, Ruth's husband, occupied an im- 
portant position in Government service. Ruth was received into 
society and became an ardent worker in club circles and suffrage 

"A subject of great interest, studied by one of the clubs, was 
ancestry. Some of the members proudly traced their pedigrees 
back to the Pilgrim fathers. Ruth became intensely fascinated 
in this line of work, and took a course of study at the genealogical 

"One day she discovered a book for sale at an old book store, 
The History of the Alstones. She purchased it and found it to 
contain a direct pedigree of her father's ancestors, going back for 
many generations. 

"About this time reorganization of the branch of the Church 
in Bo.ston took place, and Ruth found herself president of the 
Relief Society there. The course of study in genealogy and sal- 
vation for the dead was then in its earlier stages, but in preparing 
the lessons to give to her sisters of the Relief Society Ruth, for 
the first time in her life, received a testimony of the truth of the 
gospel, and with that testimony came an ardent desire to return 
home where she could obtain the privileges of the House of the 
Lord for herself and labor in behalf of her kindred dead. Her 
husband caught her enthusiasm, and as soon as he could obtain 
a transfer to the Western division, they gave up their home in the 
East and turned their faces home to the mountains of the Lord's 
House. Then — the accident occurred. A train collision took 
place and many people were injured. Ruth was pinned beneath 
a seat on the train by a falling piece of timber and when she was 
released and later discharged from the hospital and returned 
home, she was a helpless cripple who could never walk again." 


"And could she not go to the temple?" queried Edith, while 
her companion sobbed ^10^""^ 

"Yes," the gentle voice continued, "a special chair was made 
for her, and she had that great privilege once, but the effort 
almost cost her her life, so that now she has to be content to stay 
at home while others do the temple work. She has copied hun- 
dreds of names from her book on to temple sheets, and she is still 
an expert fancy worker. She makes crochet and tatted yokes for 
sale. This of mine was a present from her." 

A few bars of opening music, and a glorious contralto voice 
came through the open window, "I will rejoice greatly in the 
Lord, for He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation ; He 
hath covered me with the robe of righteousness. Arise, put on thy 
beautiful garments, oh daughter of Zion." 

A thoroughly repentant and chastened Edith hastened home 
at the close of the musicale, and when Ronald called that evening 
he found that his earnest prayer had indeed been answerd, and 
la^^^over the altar in the Lord's House they pledged thir troth 
for time and all eternity. 

Lines to a Mother in Israel. 

Alice Foutz. 

It is the soul's celestial grace 

That shines from out her gentle face ; 

It is the charm of heart and mind 

That in her presence are combined, — 

A saintly wife and mother true, 

A "Mary Magdalene," through and through. 

She knows and does her duty well. 
Had I the gift, to you I'd tell 
How she in her sweet, quiet way 
Doth bless and comfort, day by day ; 
Her beauty, goodness and gentle mein 
Befit her in her sphere to reign. 

The many souls she's fed and feeds. 

The noble life she's led and leads, 

Has lent her grace and strength of mind 

To reign a queen among her kind; 

Whilst Thou canst spare her from Thy side, 

Dear Lord, may she with us abide. 

Stick to Your Ideals. 

Elisabeth McKay Hill, Dean of Women, Utah Agricultural College 

We are passing through one of the most critical periods of 
the world's history — that of complete readjustment. Govern- 
ments of the world are being reconstructed; the largest arma- 
ments ever known are being demobilized; the greatest number 
of human beings are being fed ; the world of industry is being 
reorganized ; the social atmosphere of the world needs purifying. 
What are we, or what have we to contribute to make us fit to live 
at such a time? 

What are our ideals? Are they those of the early pioneers 
who were willing to sacrifice everything, including life itself, for 
honor? If they are, then "stick to them," for those ideals were 
founded on truth, and in proportion as our lives are in harmony 
with truth, in that proportion can we render valuable service in 
the solution of the world's problems, which today, more than ever, 
are our individual problems. 

How many of us as individuals, or how many children are 
being taught "to allow every one the liberty of conscience" or 
that "the Constitution of the United States is a glorious standard ; 
it is founded in the wisdom of God?" Why not, as families, turn 
part of our loyal enthusiasm to the studying of the Constitution 
of our Government, so that we may better serve as citizens, and 
so that the generation under our care may be stronger to cope 
with the problems of government that when the time comes that 
the "Constitution will be held as by a silken thread" there may be 
those trained to defend it intelligently? 

The men who are being demobilized today are coming home 
bigger, broader and better citizens — they have learned the true 
meaning of democracy — to recognize the man for what he is, not 
what fortune might have bestowed upon him. What are we as 
women doing to open our eyes of understanding so that we might 
recognize true character even though it be garbed in rags ? 

"Save, save, save," not of that part which we should give to 
the neighbor, but of that part which we consume and waste need- 
lessly. Our crops are plentiful, but we have never known the 
time when we were not told to be prepared to feed the stranger 
and that preparation can be made daily. Since the withdrawal of 
food regulations fear has been expressed that there would be un- 
necessary consumption, we as a people, if we are true to our ideals, 
ought not to need "food regulations." Carefully store that which 
our neighbors across the water do not need and which we can 
just as well get along without. 


The teaching of " '47" was, "Those who don't work, don't 
eat." A great deal of our social unrest is due to the fact that 
there are those among all classes of men who fail to do their 
share of the every-day things of life — daughters in the home, sons 
on the farm, women in society, men in every walk in life fail to 
appreciate that "he who is greatest among you serves most." 

What do we know of the labor problem as we face it today? 
And in what measure can we help solve it ? We know the teach- 
ing that has come to us from past generations, the plan of having 
all things in common, but we also know for that plan to succeed 
each individual — that means me, and that means you — must co- 
operate unselfishly and must work unceasingly. Are we any less 
selfish today than we were yesterday ? If not, are we prepared to 
help solve the industrial problem ? 

We have always maintained a single standard of purity, and 
the time was that a man's Hfe paid the price of a woman's chas- 
tity, and so long as such standards were maintained the safety of 
a nation was secure. We cannot compromise with sin and not 
strike at the home, the very foundation of a nation's safety. Let 
us teach our girls and our boys that virtue is dearer than life itself 
and that "the wages of sin is death." 


Grace Ingles Frost. 

Just to take whate'er shall come of rain or shine, 

• Graciously, 
As part of God's great will divine. 

Unto me ; 
To walk the way He leadeth me along, 

With smiling lips, 
Thro' comradship with pain grown brave and strong, 
That they in after years whose feet may press 

The selfsame wood. 
Shall find their soul's distress. 

Their irksome load. 
Diminished by the blossoms strewn before, 
And seeing, travel on and doubt no more. 


Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa Smith Williams and Mrs. Amy Brozvn 



In common with all stake and ward officers the General Board 
of the Relief Society will be happy indeed to meet once again 
around our Official Table to discuss problems, weigh events, pro- 
pose measures to improve and constantly accelerate the work of 
this great organization. It may be that now the war is practically 
over, there will be somewhat of a relaxation along Relief Society 
lines, as well as in other forms of social life in the world at large. 
Yet, after all, we know that the source of life and growth is at 
the root of this organization, and we do not need constant excite- 
ment nor the stimulus of popular favor to keep us alive and grow- 
ing. The General Board unites with all the stake boards, and 
they with the ward boards, in loving congratulations to the mem- 
bers of the Society in the resumption of our activities during the 
year 1919. 

After spending six weeks in the Denver City Charity Office, 
Mrs. Lyman has returned to Salt Lake City. During this time she 
was studying methods of relief and family rehabilitation, and 
doing practical work along these lines. 

In connection with a Red Cross Home Service course taken 
a year ago, Mrs. Lyman did her field work in the Denver City 
Charity Office, and became so much impressed with the efficacy 
of the work done there that she went back this year to supple- 
ment her former work and study. In this office every effort is 
put forth to study carefully each family situation with a view of 
removing the causes which have produced dependency and its 
handicaps, and then of giving the family a fair opportunity and as 
far as possible an equal chance in life with those families which 
are more fortunate. If a family can be helped to recover itself 
and be made self-supporting without money relief, all the better. 
Any self-respecting family or individual in distress prefers to be 


given assistance that will preclude money relief, if possible, be- 
cause there is a strength in every individual and in every family, 
which comes from the feeling of being independent. 

To give relief without knowing the family situation is regard- 
ed as very dangerous to the family. No mo-dern physician would 
think of prescribing the same remedy for all ailments, and only 
after a careful diagnosis does he prescribe at all. In helping fam- 
ilies along charity lines a careful going into the situation is con- 
sidered just as necessary as is the diagnosis of the physician. 
Health, sanitation, employment, education, recreation, and re- 
ligion are all important factors in rehabilitating a family. In 
many instances these are more important than money relief. How- 
ever, whenever relief is really necessary, it is given adequately but 
under close supervision. 

Another feature in the Denver office is the strictly confidential 
nature of the work. No worker is considered properly equipped 
who cannot absolutely keep the confidence of the clients. 

Whenever relief is really necessary it is given adequately un- 
der close supervision. 

Before returning home, Mrs. Lyman, in company with Mrs. 
Ruth May Fox, of the General Board of the Y. M. M. I. A., at- 
tended the meeting of the board of directors of the National Coun- 
cil of Women, at St. Louis. The National Council of Women is 
the American branch of the International Council of Women. On 
account of the influenza epidemic the meetings were held at the 
home of the President, Mrs. Philip N. Moore. 

The business of the meeting included recommendations of 
the chairman of standing and special committees, budgets for the 
chairman, place for the next biennial meeting, plans for work in 
which the National Council is interested, and the selection of del- 
egates to attend the International Council of Women, which is to 
be held in Christiania, Norway, October, 1-919. 

Four new organizations were admitted to membership as fol- 
lows : the Woodman Circle, the National League of Women 
Workers, the Children of American Loyalty League, and the Na- 
tional Women's Republic Association. This makes twenty-eight 
organizations now belonging to the National Council. 

It was decided to hold the next biennial meeting of the Coun- 
cil in St. Louis, in November or December, 1919. 

It was also decided that delegates be sent to the International 
meeting in Christiania, the delegates to be chosen by the executive 
committee. It was recommended that an International Committee 
be formed in each nation to be composed of all the members of the 
National Council, and individuals interested in the work. 

A great many matters regarding peace and reconstruction 
work were brought up, but in view of the unsettled conditions in 


the world at present, it was felt that the time was not ripe for a 
definite reconstruction program to be outlined. However, a re- 
construction committee was appointed to which all matters will 
be referred during the year, the committee to confer with the pres- 
ident and make known to the affiliated organizations from time 
to time all matters of consideration. 

Madam St. Croix, a member of the National Council of 
France, was in attendance at the meetings and gave a very inter- 
esting report of the work of the French women. She stated that 
the National Council in France is made up of one hundred and 
fifty organizations, and during the war they have worked as one 
unit. In all the war and reconstruction work the women have 
been recognized by being placed on all committees where matters 
relating to the welfare of women and children have been con- 

Nineteen delegates were in attendance at the meetings and 
Mrs. Moore gave a luncheon at her home in their honor. 

The subscriptions to the Magazine are coming in with their 
usual force and frequency at this crowded period of Magazine 
activity. Our managers, Mrs. Jannette A. Hyde and Mrs. Amy 
Brown Lyman, decided to publish a few extra numbers of the 
January Magazine, as the "flu" conditions have made agents' 
work so difficult and impracticable that we dread to disappoint 
our numerous readers with failure to receive the January number. 
It might be added, however, that if any of you are not able 
to .subscribe in January, it is quite convenient to subscribe in any 
month following, and as the subscription is for one year, your 
name will be carried over into the month in which you subscribe, 
giving you twelve numbers in all. Stamps of large denominations 
are not available for exchange. Send money, checks, or P. O. 

A call has reached this office from the missions for help in 
learning how to make use of genealogical books and genealogical 
libraries. In response to this desire the Genealogical Committee 
of the General Board have prepared a set of twelve lessons under 
the following titles : "Genealogy — A Foundation Stone of Tem- 
ple Work;" "The Study of Genealogy;" "The Utah Genealogical 
Library is the Clearing House for Latter-day Saint Students ;" 
"Libraries;" "Genealogical Libraries;" "Indexes and Indexing;" 
"Genealogical Books Found in Libraries — European and Ameri- 
can ;" "Necessary Materials ;" "Transcribing Information in Note 
Books ;" "Following a Surname Through a Library ;" and "Cor- 
respondence as First Aid to the Genealogist." These will be fur- 
nished to such of the mission presidents as may desire to use them. 


These lessons would not supercede the regular genealogical les- 
sons, but could be used in connection with them. Many of our 
Saints living in great cities like New York, Boston, Philadelphia, 
Washington and Chicago, are not informed concerning the vast 
stores of genealogical information which are found in these cities 
Even if they know of the libraries they do not know how to make 
the best use of them, nor how to begin or to pursue a search for 
genealogical information when they do reach the library. These 
lessons are designed to assist such inquirers. 

The birthday of our President, Emmeline B. Wells, occurs 
in this month, and we all join in congratulations and loving wishes 
for our honored President. 

• Our General Treasurer reports that our Societies everywhere 
have been as loyal and active in the matter of dues during this 
past year as in any year in our history. This is wonderful when 
we consider the many claims made upon all of us through the dis- 
tressing period of war through which this country has passed. 
The sisters of the Relief Society, however, have not faltered in 
their allegiance to each other, to the Society, and to the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We all congratulate each other 
on this happy testimonial of our mutual worth and integrity. 


Reorganisations. — Young stake. In October, 1918, the 
Young stake was reorganized. Sister Mary M. Halls, of Mancos, 
Colo., who had served faithfully in the capacity of president for 
several years was honorably released, and Mrs. Florence Dean, of 
Redmesa, Colo., was appointed to take her position. Mrs. Dean's 
counselors are: Mrs. Clara M. Taylor and Mrs. Clair Roberts. 
The Stake Secretary is Mrs. Minnie Wheeler. The other officers 
and board members have not been selected. 

Eastern States Mission. — Miss Elizabeth Thomas, who for 
the past year has presided over the Relief Society work of the 
Eastern States mission, was honorably released from service in 
November to return to her home. Miss Marie Haselman, for- 
merly a very able worker in the Bureau of Information, in Salt 
Lake City, was appointed to take her place. Miss Haselman is 
capable and earnest and will no doubt succeed in keeping the 
Relief Society work in the Eastern States mission up to its present 
high standard of efficiency. 

The Nezv York City Relief Society was reorganized in No- 
vember, and the following officers appointed : Mrs. Addie Cannon 



Howells, president; Mrs. T. A. Beal, and Mrs. Loraine Fletcher, 
counselors ; Miss Lucile Midgley, secretary and treasurer ; and 
Mrs. Marie Sheranean, class leader. 

A Relief Society was organized in Portland, Maine, on the 
1st of December. Miss Jeanette Hatch is the president; Miss 
Cora M. Burk and Miss Etta M. Drowns are the counselors; 
Miss Marion McDufif is the secretary and treasurer; Miss Ath- 
aline Northrey, organist; and Miss Irene Edmunds, class leader. 

A Society has also been organized in New Bedford, Mass., 
with Miss Ruth Glazier as president. 

Northern States Mission. — When twelve thousand earnest 
Red Cross workers marched down Michigan Boulevard, Chicago, 



and into the famous U. S. War Exposition, in honor of their 
national chairman, a company which attracted considerable atten- 



tion was Auxiliary 615, representing the National Women's Re- 
lief Society of Chicago. 

The Northern States mission has twenty-four other Relief 
Society auxiliaries, all actively engaged in Red Cross work. 


Capitol Heights, Md. — IMrs. Lillian Babcock of Capitol 
Heights, Md., eight miles from Washington, D. C, writes the 
office that a Relief Society has recently been organized at that 
place. A new church has been erected, and under the direction of 
Presiding Elder Milton Babcock, various activities are being or- 

Sandziich Islands.- — A Relief Society has recently been or- 
ganized in W^ailuku, Maui, with twenty-seven members, who are 
meeting regularly. In addition, these members are meeting 
Thursdavs to do Red Cross work. 

Construction -^nd 


The^ Home. 

Jannette A. Hyde. 

Note : — These lessons are planned to give help to the women 
who -do their own sewing at home, and the suggestions given are 
based upon experience among home sewers and a knowledge of 
the common mistakes made by them for want of more profes- 
sional knowledge along these lines. Beautiful materials are often 
completely ruined in shape and workmanship. The questions 
asked by many women who would like to be more successful is, 
"How shall I proceed? And what shall I do first?" 

Note : — The designs and instructions of this department have 
been provided by Mrs. Lucille Young MacAllister, Home Dem- 
onstrator, of the B. Y. U., of the Box Elder High School, and 
in the Government Extension work of the U. A. C. 

The Form as an Aid in Dressmaking. 

Learning to use a form for fitting and drafting is the only 
solution to the difficult question of fitting oneself. It .does away 
with the tedious, discouraging attempts to correct faults in the 
garment in places where you can. neither see nor reach. If the 
dress form used is exactly like your own figure, you need scarcely 
to try the dress on until it is finished. 

If mothers, who wish their daughters to sew for themselves, 
would provide the girls with forms to use while they are learning, 
they would not be so easily discouraged, as so many are, because 
they realize that they are not entirely successful and their results 
are not all that the fastidious tastes of the up-to-date young lady 

How to Make the Form. 

Purchase three or three and a half yards of grey cambric lin- 
ing. Out of this cut a French basque to the waistline, a circular 



piece or peplin to fit from the waist line to six or seven inches 
below the hip line, a plain two-piece sleeve, and a four inch bias 
piece for the stand-up collar. Basque patterns may be bought 
in any standard make of patterns. 

Figure I. The Dress Form. 

The above illustration shows a dress form constructed and 
padded according- to the method described on the opposite page. 

It will be necessary to secure the assistance of someone with 
experience in fitting, to fit this lining until it is perfect in shape. 
The better the fit of the lining the more satisfactory the form 
will be when completed. Note 'the lines showing where the collar 
and peplin are fitted. 

After the fitting of the lining has been carefully completed, 
trim the seams to an even distance from the basting and mark all 



joining- points with notching or with chalk 82. If this trimming 
and marking is very carefully done, the lining may be taken apart 
without danger of losing the shape. By taking all the seams 
apart you will be able to cut a pattern from this fitted lining, 
which will calculable in your cutting and which may be used as 
a foundation for cutting all styles of waists, sleeves and skirts, 
as will be shown later. The use of cloth for the pattern will be 
found to be far more satisfactory than paper. Cloth patterns 
are durable and more easily folded for changes in cutting. 

Fisure II. The Pattern. 

The top row shows the pieces of half of the French basque. 
The bottom row shows half the peplin and the two pieces of 
the tight sleeve. Note the notches on all pieces of the pattern. 

When the pattern has been cut, put the pieces of the lining 
carefully tog-ether again, first basting, then sewing the seams on 
the machine. Use hook and eye tape for fastening .down the 


center of the front. It is now ready to place on the foundation. 

The best foundation obtainable is a regular dress form or a 
discarded corset display for one or two sizes smaller than your 
bust measure calls for. Then the lining will fit the form loose 
enough to allow for all small peculiarities of your own figure. 
Next pad the lining out until there are no wrinkles or bumps but 
a perfectly smooth surface. The padding must be stuffed in tight 
enough to give firmness, for if it is loose and slips from place 
to place the form will never be satisfactory. As material for 
padding, one may use discarded paper patterns or even well 
crumpled newspaper, cotton and fine excelsior are also good. The 
arm eye may be covered with cloth as shown in Fig. 1. 

If you are unable to secure a form to use for a foundation, 
it is possible to use a strip of wood about two inches square, 
placed upright and several inches longer than the lining. Seven 
or eight inches below the upper arm securely fasten a cross piece 
as a foundation for the shoulders. A shorter cross piece can 
be used in the waistline and one lower down in the hipline. The 
length and distance apart of the three crosspieces must be govern- 
ed by proportions of the figure to be duplicated. When the cross 
pieces are adjusted, stuff the entire lining with excelsior. An 
oval shaped board placed in the bottom and fastened to the up- 
right will help to keep the shape. In following this latter method 
of making a form, it is necessary to use a heavier lining than the 

The fitted sleeve pattern is only for use in cutting. The 
waist pattern should be notched where the inseam of the sleeve 
should come, and several notches over the upper part of the 
armeye in both sleeve and waist will greatly assist in setting the 
sleeve in properly and will be especially helpful to amateurs. 

Where there are a number of women in the family one form 
as a foundation may be made to suffice for all, by providing each 
one with a fitted lining and having the form small enough for 
the smallest one. The larger ones will, of course, require more 

Have a fitted pattern, if not a form. Women who, for some 
reason, are unable to construct the form can at least have a fitted 
pattern consisting of the pieces shown in Fig. II. In the follow- 
ing issue the use of this basque pattern, as a foundation for cut- 
ting waists, will be treated. 




James H. Anderson. 

The more notable topics of public discussion in December 
were: 1st — Spanish influenza, wherein the re-breathing under 
masks is held by physicians to offset in harm the protection 
given; vaccination is reported from a test of 1500 cases in Bos- 
ton to be of little value, since the disease does not render the 
person immune from a re-attack and consequently the vaccine 
cannot do so ; strict quarantine and complete isolation are the 
most effective measures yet demonstrated. 2nd — Peace nego- 
tiations, in which President Wilson's views have been broadened 
by his visit to Europe, where his "fourteen points" received 
typical characterization by Premier Clemenceau of France : "Too 
many; the good Lord gave but ten." 3rd — Control of all rail- 
ways, cable, telegraph and telephone lines by the government to 
the extent of dictating all lines of communication and transpor- 
tation, which is not favored by Great Britain, as shown in that 
jgovernment's reply to Canada that such a thing would not be 
submitted to for lines landing on British soil ; and which also 
is strenuously opposed in this country as it would be a suppres- 
sion of correct information and of the freedom of the press and 
of speech in the United States. These three topics disclose 
such a pronounced difference of opinion as to suggest that "peace 
on earth" even within nations, not to say among all nations, is 
still far distant. At the same time, the prospective opening to 
full religious liberty of the South American republics, of Pales- 
tine and other parts of Asia, and of all the European nations in 
due time, is indicative of the approach of a period when Elders 
of Israel shall "preach the gospel of the kingdom in all the world 
for a witness before the end shall come" to world disputes and 


Gen. Allenby and a British army entered Aleppo in 
December, thus relieving all of Mesopotamia and Syria from 
Turkish control. 

A United States of the World is being advocated by the 
Non-Partisan League in the United States, but is not due to 
attainment just yet. 

Women knitters for the Red Cross received orders on 
December 28 to quit the work; many household needs in that 
line now may get attention. 

Aerial flight across the Atlantic, from Canada, with a 2000 
horse-power airplane carrying four men, is scheduled for Jan- 
uary by a Canadian aviator. 

Bolshevism in Russia is still carrying on its reign of terror, 
although little new.s thereof is permitted to reach the public in 
other countries. 

The American battle fleet, comprising most of the 
American warships which have been in European waters, returned 
to New York in December, and there received a srreat ovation. 

Nearly 500,000 enemy aliens in the United States were re- 
leased by order of President Wilson in December, the necessity 
for their internment no long-er existinsf- 

Berlin has been the scene of severe rioting and fighting sev- 
eral times during the month of December — an indication that Ger- 
man unity may have to stand the test of another revolution. 

Jewish government in Palestine under British suzerainty is 
now sought by the leaders in the Jewish Zion movement, with ex- 
cellent success in prospect for that solution of the problem. 

Austria suflFered less in December than in November, from 
internal disturbances, the people there seeming to realize that it is 
better to go to work and produce food than to fight and starve. 

Portugal, although a republic in Europe, did not escape the 
assassin's hand in December, the president of the republic having 
been murdered as he was about to board a railwav train. 

Food regulations in the United States were modified on Jan- 
uary 1st, with the effect that flour took a small rise in price, the 
prospect for a scarcity in 1919 not having disappeared. 


Judge W. M. McCarthy of the Utah Supreme Court died 
during December. He had been a member of that court for six- 
teen years, and stood high as an upright, conscientious judge. 

Hasty marriages to young soldiers are netting a large crop 
of deserted wives in the United States, making it necessary for 
new army regulations to prevent such unions. 

Emperor William H of Germany abdicated in December, 
and he and his friends engaged in an effort to prove that he was 
not personally responsible for starting the great European war. 

Control of operation of all means of transportation and of 
communication by wire is being sought by national government 
officials in the United States, and is meeting with strenuous op- 

Ireland proclaimed an Irish republic on Christmas day; 
many thinking people outside of Great Britain feel that Irish 
independence is an unsuccessful experiment under existing cir- 

The Peace Conference in Paris, although scheduled for 
January, is likely to carry its deliberations through February, there 
being twenty-seven nations represented at the coilference. 

State control of practically everything is being urged by 
certain theorists until it looks as if the next stage of government 
in the United States will be an official autocracy and popular 

Women candidates for the House of Commons in Great 
Britain all were defeated in the December elections there, the chief 
reason being that those candidates had aligned themselves with 
the laborite party. 

Mexico's Carranza government is headed for an early disso- 
lution, according to reports received at the close of December. 
There will be neither disappointment nor weeping in this country 
at such an outcome. 

Brigadier-General Richard W. Young, of Utah, made a 
short visit to his home State on his return from France, January 1. 
Brigadier-General Frank L. Hines, also of Utah, made a short 
visit at Christmas. 


Influenza claimed over six million victims by death in the 
last four months of 1918, according to statistics gathered in Lon- 
don ; and the pestilence is in the world yet. The total deaths re- 
ported in all armies during the war is just under six millions. 

Turkey now asks the Entente allies to aid in reorganizing 
that country. This assistance probably will take from Turkey all 
of Syria and Mesopotamia on the east, and all European territory, 
which includes Constantinople, on the west. 

Conscription for the United States in raising armies is the 
plan of a measure introduced into Congress. The British premier 
David Lloyd George says the only way to secure peace in Europe 
is to abolish conscription everywhere. 

Asleep for twenty-one days is the experience of a five-year- 
old daughter of Robert L Moyes, of Ogden, Utah, in December, 
following an attack of influenza. At the close of December the 
child had awakened, and there seemed a fair prospect of recovery 
from the illness. 

In the British elections in December, the ministry of 
David Lloyd George received overwhelming endorsement from the 
people of Great Britain, men and women voters. This will give 
the British premier especial strength in the peace negotiations, his 
people being almost unanimously behind him in policy. 

At Chicago, in December, professors of high rank in the 
educational world testified in a sedition case on trial that the most 
dangerous faddists in the country had an abundant membership in 
the ischool-teaching profession. Utah people may some day 
awaken to a sense of that same fact. 

President Wilson was received in Europe, in his visit there 
in December, with the cordial welcome befitting that due to the 
great nation which did so much to bring to a successful close the 
war that for so long threatened the destruction of popular govern- 
ment. He also has obtained much first-hand knowledge of what 
the nations of western Europe have had to suffer. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto— Charity Never Faileth 

Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells --.... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon ■ Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas ' Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. B'eatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 
Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor SusA Young Gates 

Business Manager . . - - . . Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. VI. FEBRUARY, 1919. No. 2. 


This month President, Emmeline B. Wells, 
Honor to will be ninety and one years old. We cannot 

Our President, allow this notable occasion to pass without 

laying at the feet of our President a rose of 
sweet remembrance. W.e voice the sentiments of the General 
Board of this Society, of each Stake Board, and of every mem- 
ber thereof, in congratulating our President on this happy and 
auspicious occasion. 

We honor President Wells, not only because 
Why We of her extremely long and constantly active 

Honor Her. service, great as that may be ; nor because of 

her gifted mind, her facile pen, her generos- 
ity and her sympathy with womanhood everywhere ; her un- 
selfish devotion to children, and to friends ; her integrity to the 
truth, her love of the gospel, her loyalty to the presiding priest- 
hood ; all these merit and claim our respect and reverence ; but, be- 
yond this, and with all this, there lies another potent reason why 
we honor our leader. God and his servants chose her out of all 


the women of this Church to be the Elect Lady. And, living 
worthy of this great calling, she commands our respect and 

That is a keynote principle. Not persons, not 
A Standard individuals, but causes. Great aims, noble ob- 
Bearer. jects, these must form the ultimate elements 

of our thoughts and aspirations. Yet, we may 
well stop by the wayside occasionally on our difficult daily 
climb, and salute the leaders of our cause, the banner-bearers 
of our Society. They have not chosen themselves, but have 
been called by inspiration, and set apart by the presiding 
authority. She has been in the Church 77 years on her birthday 
this year. 

That, too, is one of the lessons we learn from 
Her Good daily association with our President ; reverence 

Example. and obedience to proper authority. She is quick 

to hear the whisper of the Good Shepherd's voice, 
and her swift feet run out to meet and worship the Lord and to 
obey her leaders. In this we shall do well to consider her example. 
May the peace she has sought, the comfort she has earned, 
the devotion she has desired, veil and enshroud her remaining 
days and years. And may the light of her quick intellect re- 
main undimmed, shining out from the windows of her soul to 
the end. 


The appointment of Elder Melvin J. Ballard to the apostle- 
ship undoubtedly will meet with universal approval throughout the 

Elder Ballard is a native of Logan, and is the son of Henry 
and Margaret McNeal Ballard. As a youth and a man, he was 
industrious and successful. Popular and magnetic, capable and 
energetic, he moved always in a circle of friends. Gifted with 
an extremely beautiful voice, his welcome was assured in any 
assembly. He has filled m.any positions of responsibility in a civil, 
religious and economic way in his town and stake ; and when he 
was called to preside over the Northwestern States Mission, in 
1909, his absence was felt in Logan and Cache stake. He is greatly 
beloved by elders. Saints and converts in the Northwestern States 
Mission, and his presence and services in that mission will be 
greatly missed. 

• His eloquence and simple, modest dignity make him an ideal 
preacher and exhorter. Those who heard him speak in the recent 
conferences of the Church will not soon forget his moving ap- 
peals and his enlightening utterances. The work of the Lord will 
be advanced through the ministry of this good and gifted man. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in March. 


After the terrors of thunder and lightning and earthquake 
had subsided, Jesus came in the midst of his people and began 
to feed them with the bread of life. 

He taught them many important doctrines, but finally he per- 
ceived that they needed a period of rest and preparation of spirit 
before he could venture further with his instructions. 

Nevertheless, as he gazed upon them and witnessed their 
tears, his bowels were filled with compassion, and he felt for 
them infinite mercy, yea, their mute appeals so touched him that 
he said : 

"Have ye any that are sick among you, bring them hither? 
Have ye any that are lame, or blind, or halt, or maimed, or lep- 
rous, or that are withered, or that are deaf, or that are afflicted in 
any manner? bring them hither, and I will heal them, for I have 
compassion upon you ; my bowels are full with mercy ; 

"For I perceive that ye desire that I should show unto you 
what I have done unto your brethren at Jerusalem, for I .see that 
your faith is sufficient that I should heal you. 

"And it came to pass that when he had thus spoken, all the 
multitude, with one accord, did go forth with their sick, and their 
afflicted, and their lame, and with their blind, and with their 
dumb, and with all they that were afflicted in any manner; and 
he did heal them every one as they were brought forth unto 

Continuing, in the words of the Story of the Book of Mor- 

"And they did all, both they who had been healed and they 
who were whole, bowed at his feet and did worship him; and 


as many as could come for the multitude did kiss his feet, inso- 
much that they did bathe his feet with their tears." 

Surely this was a glorious day for the people of this conti- 
nent. Surely it was a day towards which the inhabitants of this 
earth might truly yearn. 

Think of our world today with its tens of thousands of halt, 
and lame, and blind ; a rough estimate of the fatalities in the late 
war is ten million, and the wounded will, in all probability, equal 
or surpass this estimate. Think of all the boasted skill of the 
twentieth century striving to make the lame to walk and the 
blind to see after the horrors of war. Think of the French^ 
whose achievement has been ,so widely proclaimed, sitting in their 
art studios, day after day, striving to make the soldier made 
unsightly and repellent by the ravages of war, comely and natural. 
This they seek to do by means of a thin flesh colored mask, which 
attempts to imitate the man's photograph when he was whole and 
sound. Call to mind the hundreds and thousands whom shell 
shock has made deaf, and those whose blindness is beyond that 
of the most skilled physician, and others whose sovereign reason 
is like sweet bells jangled out of tune. Think of us now in the 
clutches of an epidemic that is baffling the medical profession, 
and making orphans of htmdreds and thosuands of children. It 
is only by keeping in mind our own very sorry plight that we 
realize the difference in these two pictures. 

In the one we have the Savior of the world standing in the 
midst of his people, with his .soul full of love and his bowels full 
of compassion, saying, "I perceive that your faith is sufficient, 
bring unto me all that are lame, and halt, and blind, and I will 
heal them ;" and they brought all their sick and afflicted and every 
one was made whole. 

On the other hand we have a world strong in its own 
strength, wise in its own conceit, self-seeking and unlovely in 
many of its practices, reaping according to that which it has 

Note the utter completeness of the work of the Great Healer. 
He did not make wooden legs for the lame, nor amputate the 
hands of those whose hands were withered, or make masks for 
those whose faces bore unsightly scars ; nor did He say. Take away 
your lepers, your blind and insane, for I can do nothing for them ; 
but all their sick were made whole. In the light of this knowledge 
may we not rejoice and be made glad that he has promised io 
come again with healing in his wings ? 

Then he commanded them to bring their little children arid 
place them near him; after they had complied with his request. 


he commanded them to kneel, and when they had knelt he 
prayed in their midst, and the multitude bore record of this prayer 
and this is the record they bore: that "the eye hath never seen, 
neither hath the ear heard, before, so great and marvelous things 
as we saw and heard Jesus speak unto the Father ; 

"And no tongue can speak, neither can there be written by 
any man, neither can the hearts of men conceive so great and 
marvelous things as we both saw and heard Jesus speak; and no 
one can conceive of the joy which filled our souls at the time we 
heard him pray for us unto the Father." 

And then Jesus arose and bade the multitude arise, and lie 
wept for joy. Afterwards He blessed their children ; but that 
story is part of another lesson. 

What we wish to draw special attention to is their record in 
relation to His marvelous prayer, the power of which is beyond 
mortal comprehension. 


- 1. After the terrors of thunder and lightning had passed, 
what did Christ do in the midst of his people? 

2. What does Christ sav about "other sheep," in IH Nephi 

3. What did Jesus teach the people in relation to the sacra- 
ment? HI Nephi 18. 

4. In HI Nephi 21, Jesus gave instructions concerning the 
naming of the Church. What did he tell the people in relation 
to this matter ? 

5. What mighty works did Jesus perform among this people, 
like unto the mighty works He performed among the Jews at Jeru- 
salem ? 

6. Were any afflicted exempt from his ministrations ? Com- 
pare the divine way of overcoming sickness with the human way. 

7. After commanding the little children to be brought un- 
to him, what did Jesus command the people to do ? What did he 
himself do ? 

8. What have the people told us in relation to this prayer? 

9. Are their comments upon this prayer what we should 
naturally expect? Why? 



Work and Business. 

Second Week in March. 


Third Week in March. 


Teacher's Outlines. 

Teutonic names were generally compound words. (Illustra- 

Name customs were sometimes founded on social habits and 
religious impulses by Saxons. 

Anglo-Saxons were warriors and pagans. 

Children were named for their pagan deities. 

Children were often surnamed from father's trade. 

Angla-Saxon names were included in William's survey re- 
corded in Domesday. These were the small land-holders. Thi 
upper class named there were all Normans. 


We learned in our history lessons that Great Britain was 
inhabited first by semi-savages — with the Britons. They wor- 
shiped Nature and natural phenomena and built homes in the 
forests and woods. The Celts, who were almost as uncivilized 
as the Britons came into Ireland and then over into Scotland and 
Wales particularly, conquering the Britons. Welsh people, how- 
ever, claim descent from the original Britons. The Irish and 
Scotch came from the Celts. Then came the Teutonic tribes of 
Angles and Saxons and they conquered and settled up England 
driving the Britons into the Welsh mountains and keeping the 
Celts confined in Scotland and Ireland for some centuries. 

Neither the Britons nor Celts built cities or even villages, 
They lived in the most primitive huts and dugouts, fighting 
each other and living by hunting and fishing. 

When the Anglo-Saxons came in they grouped themselves in 


little villages and founded a primitive sort of government, pat- 
terned after the Teutonic customs of their Scandinavian fore- 

Now when men lived apart from each other it mattered little 
what names they chose for themselves and their scattered families 
and friends, but just as soon as a community gathers into village 
life it is necessary to select names for children (provided they 
are to be called by only one name), which shall not conflict with 
the names given to others in the village, else confusion arises 
when two or more have the same name. 

The Anglo-Saxons were* pagans. They worshiped Thor who 
was the Scandinavian god of war, thunder, and agriculture, the 
benefactor of men; and Woden or Odin, chief of the gods, the 
god of war and founder of art and culture; and Frigga, the 
goddess of marriage, from whom Friday is named — wife of 
Odin; or Frey, the son of Njord, the god of rain and sunshinC; 
and specifically of fruitf ulness and prosperity ; or Freya, the god- 
ess of love, daughter of Njord and sister of Frey. They namedtheir 
children very frequently after the deities which they worshiped 
and sometimes they would add an epithet to the name, like Thor- 
Wold ; Thor is the god of war, thunder and agriculture, the bene- 
factor of men, and Wold is a down or forest. 

The Anglo-Saxons sometimes named their chidren because of 
some peculiar circumstance at birth or some peculiarity of the 
child, or from complexion or characteristic. Names are frequently 
changed too. Children are sometimes named from the father's 
trade. They were also sometimes given nicknames. They were 
often given the father's name with son added to it, but no Anglo- 
Saxon child had a surname as we understand the term. 

After several centuries the Celts in Scotland, who were now 
called Picts and Scots, made a great deal of warfare and trouble 
for the Anglo-Saxons ; and too the Danes and Norsemen came 
over from Scandinavia in great numbers in their piratical boats 
and the Anglo-Saxons became alarmed for their final safety. 
So they invited another branch of their race called the Norsemen 
to come over and help them conquer the Danes and Scots. 

Thus it was that the Norman king William came over in 
1066 and he conquered the whole lot of them and remained in 
England with the title of William the Conqueror. 


Who were the first people in Great Britain? 
Where did the Celts come from? 
Where did they settle in Great Britain? 


Who were the Anglo-Saxons? 

Where did they come from? 

What different habits had they from the Britons ? 

How did the Anglo-Saxons give names to their children ? 

Name some of the Anglo-Saxon pagan deities. 

Who were the Normans? 

Where did they live 

Tell what you know about William the Conqueror. 

Note. — Let the class discover as many Anglo-Saxon personal 
names and surnames as they can. Extend the inquiry into the 
ward and classify Anglo-Saxon personal names and surnames, 
giving their definition. 


Home Courses. 

Fourth Week in March. 

Most people are so accustomed to see their children grow 
that they do not trouble themselves with the details of the process, 
nor consider in what way this may be promoted or retarded. 
Growth in human life is the series of changes associated with in- 
crease in number, size, and complexity of the different parts of 
the body, and our knowledge of growth should include informa- 
tion relating to the varying development of all the organs, the sig- 
nificant changes in their mode of carrying on their work from 
birth to old age, the possible deviations from the normal, and 
the degree of resistance to the various diseases peculiar to the 
characteristics of different age periods. 

Mental growth continues to increase in complexity through 
life, actual physical growth ceases at about the twenty-fifth year ; 
though slow growth in height continues in some individuals until 
thirty ; and increase in chest girth goes on until fifty. During the 
first seven years, child development takes place most obviously 
in respect of size ; while later, it seems to be more directly associ- 
ated with the elaboration, or increase in the complexity of the tis- 
sues — thus growth may be said to have a two-fold character : ( 1 ) 
increase in size and substance; and (2) development of capacity 
to perform more complicated activities. 

Children may normally vary one to two years from the aver- 
age, and height especially is always influenced by race and fam- 
ily predisposition. Until recent times, the opinion was held that 


when rapid growth of body ceased for a time, the child's mind 
seemed to expand more quickly, though inore recent authorities 
affirm that increase in height, weight, strength and mental devel- 
opment coincide ; as, for instance, the child tall for its age is also 
more mentally proficient and suffers if deprived of suitable educa- 
tional opportunity. 

Different parts of the body do not grow in the same time 
nor in the same proportion ; for example, the mass of the brain in- 
creases from two to three fold in the first year of life; whereas, 
there is an increase of but 10 per cent in the second year, and the 
actual size of the brain is little increased after the eighth year. 
The annual growth in size of the heart is about 8 per cent be- 
tween seven and fourteen, but in the year of puberty, it is 20 
per cent. 

Rate of growth can be computed by three methods : chron- 
ological, physiological, and psychological. To an increasing de- 
gree, judgment of a child's progress by the actual years it has 
lived is giving place to the much more accurate estimate based 
upon the stage of physiological development it has reached. Dif- 
ferences in physiological age may amount to as much as three 
years among a group of children all of the same chronological 
age ; hence the need for varying treatment of children who are too 
liable to be all placed in the same class. Physiological age refers 
to the relative development of organs, bones, weight, height, sex 
maturity, etc. ; psychological age, to mental ability and maturity. 

There is reason to believe that growth of all kinds follows cer- 
tain laws, though these are not as yet thoroughly understood. 
They have, however, a rhythmic tendency : that is to. say, we ob- 
serve periodic alternations of greater or less activity — thus growth 
in weight is more marked in the fall ; growth in height more no- 
ticeable in the spring. Growth in weight is more variable than 
growth in height, and is much affected by the health and nurture 
of the child. The weight at a given age may be above the ave- 
rage and yet the child may be flabby, anaemc, and of poor con- 
stitution. However, one or all forms of normal growth may be 
retarded, and often checked by illness, repressive discipline, un- 
suitable diet, unsanitary environment, loss of sleep, premature re- 
sponsibility, or excessive pampering. A comparison of the growth 
curves for girls and boys shows considerable difference between 
the sexes. Girls reach their maximum adolescent rate about three 
years earlier than boys. 

Although the transition from one stage to another in the dif- 
ferent periods of growth is very gradual, certain marked charac- 
teristics admit of the following classifications: (1) Prenatal, or 
a period of very rapid growth, during which all the organs are 
formed but the development is immature, to which fact is due the 


helplessness and plasticity of a baby at birth. During the nine 
months preceding birth, weight increases nearly a billion fold and 
the ovum develops from a diameter of 1-125 of an inch to a length 
of twenty-one inches. 

(2) Infancy is also a period of extreme rapidity but relative 
simplicity of growth. Digestive system is the weakest link in an 
infant's chain of life, hence the great importance of maternal feed- 
ing. Infantile powers are chiefly receptive and obviously imma- 
ture, so that this might be described as a vegetative period, during 
which body and mind are nourished and strengthened under the 
influence of warmth, quiet, absolute regularity, suitable food and 
adequate exercise (taken by the infant on its mother's knee during 
its daily toilet). 

(3) Early childhood is a stage characterized by restless ac- 
tivity, alternating with prolonged, profound sleep. Awakening 
curiosity demands the reasons why for all observations, associ- 
ated with a vivid imagination, which finds difficulty in distinguish- 
ing fact from fancy. Much attention should be given to the for- 
mation of established habits in regularity of daily routine, and in 
the care of the body. Small children are very susceptible to 
infection, to which actual mental arrest may often be attributed. 
Alimicry is at its height, and life long habits are formed chiefly by 
the imitation of adult manners and standards. 

(4) Later childhood is the most active health period of life. 
The evidences of external growth are less obvious, but ability for 
muscular coordination has vastly increased. All forms of activity 
are desirable, such as, skipping, climbing, drawing, swimming, 
swinging, etc. A systematic education should be directed to the 
formation of good habits, to the training of eye and ear to observe 
accurately and cooperate with body and mind, rather than to ex- 
aggerated reliance upon the printed page. During the period of 
second dentition there is often a temporary "fall back" due to dif- 
ficulty of mastication and instability from rapid brain and muscle 
development, etc. This is sometimes called by doctors the "fa- 
tigue period." The characteristics of adolescence will follow in a 
later lesson. 

Suitable, regular, well masticated food ; abundant sleep under 
good but not self-indulgent conditions, scrupulous cleanliness, ade- 
quate clothing; sufficient exercise; joy and pride in work — these 
constitute the hygienic creed of youth during its apprenticeship 
to life. Why then is the world filled with delicate people, or with 
those defective in some form or other of physical or mental devel- 
opment? Because of the failure to recognize how variable are 
conditions at every phase of growth, and that the hours of sleep, 
the quality and quantity of food, the kind and duration of exercise, 
even the form of play — all demand adjustment as the child passes 


from infancy to adolescence. The essential study might be made 
from books, but there must be careful regulation of practice ac- 
companied by the spirit of devotion, willing to make personal sac- 
rifices for the child's needs. There must also be a revision of 
many false standards which, for example set care of the house 
above care of the child. 


Child Care — The Preschool Age; Infant Care, Series 2. By 
Mrs. Max West, U. S. Dept. of Labor, Children's Bureau, Wash., 
D. C. 

Child Life. By Alice Ravenhill, Utah Agricultural College, 
Logan, Utah. 

The Hygiene of a Child. By Lewis Terman. Houghton 
Mifflin Co., Chicago, 111. 

The Individual in the Making. By E. Kirkpatrick. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., Chicago, 111. 


1. What is growth? 

2. What are its characteristics? 

3. What is the usual division of its phases, and why? 

4. What difficulties are there in meeting the apparently sim- 
ple requirements of childhood? 

5. Give illustrations of how these requirements vary at dif- 
ferent age periods. 

6. By what influences is growth most affected ? 


Now that our meetings are discontinued once more, we sug- 
gest to the sisters everywhere to take up a detailed labor in the 
genealogy of the family ,both for the husband's and the wife's lines. 
Make out your living records to the latest generation. Then 
make a card index of the names. Next, get out all the family 
temple records, and see that every name is rightly written and all 
possible work done. Write to relatives and to the Genealogical 
Society of Utah for more data ; write to parish clerks and to old 
friends for further information. Sisters, spend a little time daily 
making up good and suitable temple clothing. Any and all such 
labors will be both profitabe and pleasant. 

Let us Plant a Garden Eastward 
from Eden. 



The words have magic in their sound, a magic which can 
hardly be explained. The instinct to work in the soil is an in- 
herited one, for are we not, one and all, descendants of the orig- 
inal tiller of the soil? 

We read : "The Lord God planted a garden eastward in 
Eden, * * * and the Lord God took the man and put him 
in the Garden of Eden to dress it and keep it." Gardening is 
therefore the oldest profession in the world. 

We emerge from the mud-pie stage of childhood only to 
learn to make more beautiful mud pies with frostings of per- 
fumed color, and these we call garden. 

One flower lover says, "God breathed the breath of life into 
the soil, and it smiled back at its Creator in the form of a flower." 

The making of a garden is much like the formation of char- 
acter; the loveliest mature characters are often the results of 
earlier mistakes. 

The fact that the garden is a matter of growth makes it 
worth while, and for every moment spent in gardening, there are 
many compensations. To be able to produce, by our own physical 
efiforts, so much beauty to feed the soul, and all the vegetables and 
fruit to feed the body, would seem the natural ideal of living. 
And it is quite posisble for us to reach this ideal, even if we only 
do it as a side issue or recreation from our real life work. We 
can do, in a garden, the thing for which we were intended — 
create beauty, find health and happiness, have joy. 

Flowers bring consolation ; this is the secret of their hold on 
mankind. They exhale peace as they breathe perfume. The 
greatest gift of a garden is the restoration of the five senses. The 
air is attuned to the varying tones of bird melody, the chirp of 
the insect and the hum of the bee. The eye can feast on all the 
wealth of color and form in all the glorious beauty of God's great 

The delicacy of touch comes gradually by tending injured 
birdlings, by the handling of fragile, infant plants, and acquaint- 
ance with tiny seeds and various leaf textures, while the sense 
of taste is gratified by a diet of fresh, home-grown, unwilted veg- 
etables and the fruits in their season, and to the nose is revealed 
all the secrets of earth-incense,the whole gamut of flower perfume. 


No one can remain evil and associate daily with flowers, for flow- 
ers have such an Irish way, with their "blarney" of beauty, of 
leading one's thoughts to the simple, real and abiding things of 
life. Once a gardener, always a gardener, for there is no happier 
creature in the world than the soil and flower lover. So whether 
the owner of vast acres, a small cottage home, a city back yard, 
or even a sunny porch and some broad window sills — let's make 
a garden. 


During this month, plan your garden on paper, send for some 
seed catalogs, carefully select the seed desired, and send for it 
while the stocks are fresh, and the seed man has plenty of time to 
attend to your order; if you wait until late March or April you 
may be disappointed, as stocks will be depleted and you may 
have to take substitutes or inferior seeds. Towards the end of 
the month the hot-bed should be made ready and the seeds planted. 

Plant the seeds about six weeks before the end of the frost 
time, for if sown earlier the plants grow so tall and spindling, and 
are too weak to be a perfect success. 

Sow as many flower seeds, perennial and annual, as you have 
room for. On very cold nights cover the frames with an old 
quilt or some sacks. Place a small stone under one of the sacks 
every day, for an hour or so, that the plants may receive ventila- 
tion, and on warm, sunny days give the little plants a regular 
airing. Never leave the glass up later than 4 p. m., even in late 
April. Sprinkle with luke-warm water whenever the soil seems 
drying, using a sprinkling-can with fine nozzle. Keep the soil 
loose and free from weeds. Some favorite flowers are coreopsis 
(annual and perennial), nicotiana, petunias, phlox, drummondi, 
snapdragons, delphiniums, hardy phlox, canterbury bells, gyp- 
sophila (bay breath), cosmos, oriental poppies. 

During February, bring the potted bulbs, hyacinths, lilies, 
narcissi, tulips, etc, from the cellar, and bring gradually to the 
light. In a few weeks these will burst into gorgeous beauty in 
the window garden. Take good care of plants received on Val- 
entine day; do not be disappointed if they lose a few leaves or 
flowers — the transition from the moist, humid air of the green- 
house to the dry, hot air of our furnace-heated homes is not ac- 
complished without some loss of foliage. Water regularly, but not 
profusely. If used as table decorations, place in a sunny window 
occasionally. Place all house plants in kitchen sink or bathtub 
and spray foliage with luke-warm water about once in two weeks 
during the winter. Isolate all plants infected with green lice, 
aphis, red spider. If you cannot eradicate these pests with soap- 
suds or tobacco solution, it is better to discard the infected plant 

Z. C. M. I. Factory School Shoes 

Made on the Munson Army Last 
or the EngHsh Toed School Shoes 




KEISTER Ladies' Tailoring College 

Our Simplified System of Cutting, Fitting, 


Will give yon au occupation or fit you for home duties in that line. 

Information Free. Visitors Welcome 

291 Center Street SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



I LET EARDLEr BROS. DO IT |J:|^^Lc.ty ^°^ \ 

I 37 East First South • - Salt Lake City, Utah § 


Free Consultation And Examination 


Office Phone Was. 5394 Residence Phone Hyl. 950J 


Your Photographs Should Come From 

AMUNDSEN'S V^^-.'^tll^^^'' 


Better Work Became 'Better Equipment 

For Distinctive Work 



902 Jefferson Street 

Salt Lake City 


Carom and Pocket-billiard Tables for the home. Beautifully illustrated 
**Home Magnet** catalog furnished on request. 

SS-59 West South Temple, Salt Lake CUy, Utah 



I ii 


I Written for Young People by I 


I Price, postpaid, 75c | 

I Send Orders to E. P. PARRY, JR. | 

I 217 Templeton Building Salt Lake City, Utah | 



Established 1877 

Phone, Was. 1370 

r> r* 




35 P. O. PLACE 



WASTE RUNS RIOT '"^.srera'""' 


Your husband complains of the size of the Grocery 

You just can't keep within your allotoance — 
You know you are wasting food but don't know how 

to stop it — 

Take a Course in Household Management at the 


and select other vital work from the following list: 


Food Economics 



Designing and Modeling 

Children's Diet 


Home Nursing 

House Furnishing 

Home Construction and Sanitation 



Art Needlework 

Costume History and Design 


Write for the Beautiful Art Booklet issued every summer by the Institution. 

Send now and have your name listed to insure delivery. 
Address Desk E4, President's Office, UTAH AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 

Logan, Utah. 




MARCH, 1919 


He then made a promise in the 
name of the Lord, saying that that 
soul who was righteous enough to 
ask God in a secret place for life, 
every day of his life, shall live to 
three score years and ten. We must 
walk uprightly all the days of our 

—Nauvso Tlelief Society Minutes, June 9, 1842. 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

No. 29 Bishop's Bldg.. Salt Lake City. tJtah 

$1.00 a Year—Single Copy 10c 

Vol. VI 

•^' "•"" " " • 1 T"Tiiitiiiiimiiiiii[iiftiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiif _ 



I Prepaid Parcel Post to any part of the United States; 15c extra | 

i to Canada and Mexico. | 

I We manufacture the approved Temple Garments to measurements | 

I furnished us by yourself. Send your order now. | 

I Price Each | 

I No. 11 light weight unbleached cotton. $1.50 I 

I No. 20 light weight bleached cotton 1.60 | 

I ^ No. 60 medium weight ui'bleached cotton 1.70 | 

I No. 22 medium weight bleached cotton 1.95 | 

I No. 24 heavy weight bleached cotton 2.50 i 

I • No. 90 heavy weight unbleached cotton 2.35 | 

I No. 70 light weight mercerized ; 2.75 | 

I No. SO medium weight mercerized 3.00 i 

I No. 10 medium weight wool mixed, fleeced 2.75 | 

I No. 16 heavy weight wool mixed, fleeced 3.50 | 

I Garments made with double bkcks 25c extra each. | 

I Sizes 34-44 any length desired. Over 44 bust, each additional size, | 

I 20c extra. , | 



I Phone Hy. 516. | 

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I Daughter, 

I Ask Your Mother 

I If, during the thirty years we have | 

I been in business in Utah, she ever | 

I knew of a single instance wherein | 

I better bread than I 


The bread that made | "SI*''! 
mother stop baldnq 

I was sold in this State. We nse | 

I only the best flours and other pure | 

I materials. Our bakers are skilled | 

I breadmakers, and the bakery itself I 

I is a model of cleanliness and sci- | 

I entific construction. Yon will find I 

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$15.00 Cash and 
$ 7.00 a Month 


The Relief Society Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


MARCH, 1919. 

Masonic Lodge, Nauvoo Frontispiece 

In the Prison Houses Maze! Gardner Pancake 125 

Story of the Organization of the Relief Society 127 

Our Indian Cousins Melvin J. Ballard 143 

Bending the Twig Elsie C. Carroll 148 

The Inner Light Lucy May Green 1,52 

Two Faith-Promoting Incidents Annie G. Lauritzen 153 

At the Temple Gates Mary Foster Gibbs 156 

The Years Grace Ingles Frost 159 

Let's Make a Garden Morag 160 

Suggestions for Anniversary Day 162 

The Official Round Table 

Clarissa Smith Williams and Amy Brown Lyman 163 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home. . Janette A. Hyde 169 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 173 

Editorial 176 

Guide Lessons 179 


Patronize those who patronize us 

AMUNDSEN STUDIO, 249 Main St., Salt Lake City. 
BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER CO., Billiard Tables, 55-59 W. South 

Temple St., Salt Lake City. 
DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO. 61-3-5 Main St., Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
S, S. DICKINSON & CO., 680 E. Second South, Salt Lake City. 
EARDLEY BROS. COt, Everything for Electricity, Salt Lake City. 

MODEL KNITTING WORKS, 657 Iverson St., Salt Lake City. 
ROYAL BAKING CO., Salt Lake City. 
STAR LAUNDRY, 902 Jefferson St., Salt Lake City. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 35 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 

Salt Lake City. 
TAYLOR, S. M. & CO., Undertakers, 251-257 East First South Salt Lake City. 
Z. C. M. I, Salt Lake City. 

A Great Work noxr in Press 


Selections from the Sermons and 
Writings o£ 

Joseph Fielding Smith 

Sixtli President of tUe CUurcli of 
Jesus Clirist of Latter-day Saints. 

Adopted as a TEXT BOOK for tlie 
To contain about 800 pages. Bound 
in olotli — $1.50. 

News Building 6 Main St. 

The Clean Store 

S. S. Dickinson 


Meats and Groceries 

Hyland 60, 61 and 62 
680 East 2nd South Street 

While there are no meetings 
is a good time to read 

"Love and The Light" 

By O. F. Whitney 

$1.25 at the 


The Book Store of Salt Lake City 
44 E«»t on South Temple Street 


Relief Society General Board 
furnishes complete 


Address: — 


67 East South Temple Street 
Phone W. 1752 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


in the 

Beneficial Life Insurance 

The women of the Relief Society 
have now the opportunity of seeming 
a sufficient sum for proper burial by 
the payment of a small monthly 
amount. The moment you sign your 
policy your burial expenses are as- 
sured without burdening your chil- 
dren. Talk to us about this. RELIEF 



Relief Society Department 

Home Office: Vermont Building 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

THE —- 



The Utah State 
National Bank fea- 
tures quick and ef- 
ficient service. 
One feature is 
the Unit System, which greatly 
simplifies transactions. 

Heber J. Grant, President 

Henry T. McEwan, Cashier 

George H. Butler, Asst. Cashier 

Established 1860 Incorporated 1908 


Undertakers and Emhahners 
Successors to Joseph E. Taylor 

The Pioneer Undertaker of the Wett 
Fifty-three years in one location — 

251-257 East First South Street 


Efficient Service, Modem Metkodt 

Complete Equipment 

Mazel Ga'dner Pancake. 

Dead, where art thou? 

Why canst thou not speak? 
That I may find thy name, 

That which I most seek. 

That you may Hve and dwell with Christ, 

Who reig'ns in courts above ; 
He made the plan that man might be. 

And live forever in His love. 

That you, as I, be born again, 

That we may go therein ; 
Go down into the watery grave, 

Which cleanseth from all sin. 

Where the Relief Society was Organized, March 17, 1842. 

This building was originally three stories high. The Masonic 
Lodge room or hall was in the third story. The original windows in 
the lower story were square, as if arranged for a store. The steps, 
now on the right side, were originally in the center, and a large dou- 
ble door faced them. The half circle window tops now on the low-r 
story, were taken from the third story windows. 

Picture furnished by Mr. Rheimbold, Proprietor Oriental Hotel, 
Nauvoo, 111. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. VI. MARCH, 1919. No. 3. 

Story of the Organization of the 
Relief Society 

The month of March calls to our minds the organization of 
our beloved Society. We have printed brief outlines of the organ- 
ization ; but frequent calls come to the office for more data, for 
fuller details. So, this month, we are publishing the fourth 
chapter from our history which gives the full and complete 
story of how this Society came into existence : 

The erection of a temple — of which the foundation stones 
were laid April 6th, 1841, inspired the Saints in Nauvoo and 
vicinity with the livliest impulses to put forth their utmost efforts 
in both spiritual and material matters. The temporary font for 
baptisms for the .dead was completed in November of the same 
year. The proposal to erect a House of the Lord naturally made 
a profound impression, for the revelations on salvation for the dead 
had alread}'- been received by the Prophet, and the wide view of 
eternal justice there shown, thrilled the Saints with glorious hope. 
According to a description given in the S^er, the temple should be 
"two stories in the clear and two half stories in the recesses over 
the arches, four tiers of windows, two^ gothic and two round, with 
the two great halls which were to have two pulpits, one at each 
end, to accommodate the Melchizedek and Aaronic priesthoods ; 
and there were to be thirty hewn stone pilasters which would cost 
$3,000 apiece, the steeple thereof to be 200 feet high ;" the cost 
of the whole to be between $100,000 and $200,000. A Captain 
Brown of Tobasco, Central America, which was a town near 
the ruins of Palenque, who came up the river and saw the Tem- 
ple in process of construction, remarked, 'Tt will look the nearest 
like the splendid remains of antiquity in Central America of 
anything I have ever seen, though of course, not half so large." 

To know that this remarkable edifice was to crown the 



summit of the highest eminence in the vicinity, erected in the 
wilderness by men and women who had, but two years before, 
settled down in destitution and poverty upon this western out- 
post, inspired the highest emotions of their human hearts. 
Men toiled as never before ; women .sacrificed and smiled over 
their domestic deprivations and machinations as women had not 
smiled since the days of Solomon. Many of the women were 
eager to do their share in this great enterprise. We read in Lucy 
Mack Smith's history of the Prophet, concerning the labors of the 
women in Kirtland when the Temple there was in process of 
erection : 

"Mary Bailey and Agnes Coolbirth were then boarding with 
me; they devoted their time to making and mending clothes for 

::,ii:ll! I I I I I 

lllllllllif III I 

Ruins of Nauvoo Temple 1857; the Temple in 1846. 

the men who were employed on the Temple. There was but 
one mainspring to all our thoughts and actions, and that was, the 
building of the Lord's house." 

Meanwhile we may note that somewhere in the reflex action 
of the inspired mind of the Prophet there mtist have dwelt for 
a long time the thought of unlocking the ancient door of domestic 
limitations for the women of the latter day. That thought was 
slowly gathering accretions to itself from the universe which was 


to result in one supreme upheaval for womanhood. 

Some of the women ,of Nauvoo were especially anxious to 
'do their part. The labors of Mary and Mercy Fielding- Smith 
in establishing the Temple Penny Subscription Fund were 
noted in a previous chapter. This work was still proceeding 
diligently, yet the women wished to do still more and more. 

Among the many intelligent and superior women of the 
Church was Mrs. Sarah M. Kimball, born in Ontario Co., New 
York, in 1818, and married to Hyrum Kimball, in 1840. She and 
many other intellectually aggressive women greatly desired to 
assist in the erection of the temple. Her own relation of what took 
place will tell the simple, yet dramatic story better than any 
words of ours : 

"In the .spring of 1842, a maiden lady (Miss Cook) was 
seamstress for me, and the subject of combining our efforts for 
assisting the Temple hands came up in conversation. She desired 
to be helpful but had no means to furnish. I told her I would 
furnish material if she would make some shirts for the workmen. 
It was then suggested that some of the neighbors might wish 
to combine means and efforts with ours, and we decided to in- 
vite a few to come and consult with us on the subject of forming 
a Ladies' Society. The neighboring sisters met in my parlor and 
decided to organize. I was delegated to call on Sister Eliza R. 
Snow and ask her to write for us a constitution and by-laws and 
submit them to President Joseph Smith prior to our next Thurs- 
day's meeting. She cheerfully responded, and when she read 
them to him he replied that the constitution and by-laws were the 
best he had ever seen. 'But,' he said, 'this is not what you want. 
Tell the sisters their offering is accepted of the Lord, and He 
has something better for them than a written constitution. In- 
vite them all to meet me and a few of the brethren in the Ma- 
sonic Hall over my store next Thursday afternoon, and I will 
organize the sisters under the priesthood after a pattern of' the 
priesthood.' He further said, 'The Church was never perfectly 
organized until the women were thus organized.' " 

We may not question the fact that there were many qualified 
women in Nauvoo who were not present at the initial meeting 
of our great organization, but as there were 18 women invited 
by the Prophet to attend, a number of them no doubt Sister Kim- 
ball's friends who had already met with her, these eighteen 
women were thus honored and it is a pleasure to record their 
names faithfully in this history. 

What emotions arise in our souls when we contemplate that 
gathering in the upper room of the Masonic Lodge. We see, in 
fancy, these eager women completing their household tasks in 



order to reach the rendezvous at the appointed time. Always 
thrilled with inspiration and tender emotion when listening to 
their Prophet's voice, they were now surcharged with surprised 
anticipation, for they themselves were to be lifted out of the rut 
,of time and set upon the hillside of public life, to encompass 
strange, new functions and to receive revelation concerning their 
own sphere and activity. What did it all portend ? 

We see them in our mind's eye rustling softly and modestly, 
yet with dignity and grace into the meeting chamber of the Lodge ; 
for they were ladies — those lovely pioneer women— real, old- 
fashioned, dignified ladies! Here was the wife of the Prophet, 

Emma Smith, a woman of 
large proportions and with l 
dominant presence. Near her 
sat her friend, Mrs. Cleve- 
land, gracious, refined and 
persuasive ; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Ann Whitney, benign, tender- 
hearted and spiritual ; not far 
away was the poetess, Eliza 
R. Snow, supreme in intellect, 
fastidious in personal integ- 
rity, with rare creative powers 
and powerful in testimony ; 
Bathsheba W. Smith, grace- 
ful and composed ; Leonora 
Taylor, gracious, stately and 
modest ; Sarah M. Kimball, 
alert, studious and proud. 
We miss the presence of 
the Prophet's mother, Lucy 
Mack Smith, first of living 
modern women, and of Mary 
Fielding Smith, charming and 
MRS. EMMA HALE SMITH. dignified wife of the Patriarch 
Hyrum Smith. We miss Zina D. H. Young, Prescinda Buel 
Kimball and M. Isabella Home — who were then in and about 
Nauvoo and who were later very active in this work, both in 
Nauvoo and in Utah. The historian lingers lovingly over 
that scene of all scenes for the modern women. We, 
too, are silent with the other eighteen women whose alert attention 
was instantly given when the Prophet Joseph Smith, majestic 
and magnetic, entered the room with two other great leaders. 
Elders John Taylor and Willard Richards. The Prophet was al- 
ways as the ,sun in any human imiverse wherein he entered. 
From him radiated light, warmth and life to the utmost recesses 


of surrounding- space. We see him seated with his associates on 
the platform at the upper end of the room. The subsiding flutter 
of excitement and anticipation settled into rapt attention as he 
arose to his feet and addressed that chosen circle of women. 

We will now present to you the minutes in full of that meet- 
ing-, as they were taken by the Secretary, pro. tern., Elder Willard 
Richards. We give them in their own quaint phraseology and 
clear expression : 


Nauvoo Lodge Room, March 17, 1842. 

Present : President Joseph Smith, John Taylor, Willard Rich- 
ards, Emma Smith, and others. 

Elder John Taylor was called to the chair by President Smith, 
and Elder Willard Richards appointed Secretary. 

Meeting commenced by singing, "The Spirit of ,God Like a 
Fire is Burning ;" prayer by Elder John Taylor. 

It was moved by President Smith, and seconded by Mrs. 
Cleveland, that a vote be taken to know if all are satisfied with 
each female present, and are willing to acknowledge them in full 
fellowship, and admit them to the privileges of the Association 
about to be formed. 

The names of those present were then taken as follows : 

Mrs. Emma Smith, Mrs. Sarah M. Cleveland, Phebe Ann 
Hawkes, Elizabeth Jones, Sophia Packard, Phillinda Merrick, 
Martha Knight, Desdemona Fullmer, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, 
Bathsheba W. Smith, Phebe M. Wheeelr, Elvira A. Coles, Mar- 
garet A. Cook, Sarah M. Kimball, Eliza R. Snow, Sophia Rob- 
inson, Leonora Taylor, Sophia R. Marks. 

President Smith and Elders Taylor and Richards withdrew 
while the sisters went into an investigation of the motion and de- 
cided that all present be admitted according to the motion ; and 
that Mrs. Sarah Higbee, Thirza Cahoon, Kesia A. Morrison, Ma- 
rinda N. Hyde, Abigail Allred, Mary Snider, Sarah Granger, 
should be admitted, whose names were presented by President 
Emma Smith. 

President Joseph Smith and Elders Taylor and Richards re- 
turned and the meeting was addressed by President Joseph Smith 
to illustrate the objects of the society — that the society of sisters 
might provoke the brethren to good works in looking to the wants 
of the poor, searching after objects of charity and administering 
to their wants, to assist by correcting the morals and strengthen- 
ing the virtues of the community, and save the elders the trouble 
of rebuking; that they may give their time to other duties, etc., 
in their public teaching. 



President Smith further remarked, "that an organizatian to 
show them how to go to work would be .sufficient." He proposed 
that the sisters elect a presiding officer to preside over them, and 
let the presiding officer choose two counselors to assist in the 
duties of her office,^ — that he would ordain them to preside over 
the society, and let them preside just as the presidency preside 
over the Church ; and if they needed his instructions, ask him, he 
will give it from time to time. "Let the Presidency serve as a 
constitution — all their decisions be considered law, and acted up- 
on as such. If any officers are wanted to carry out the designs of 

the Institution, let them be ap- 
pointed and set apart, as Dea- 
cons, Teachers, etc., are among 

"The minutes of your 
meetings will be precedent for 
you to act upon — your consti- 
tution and laws." 

He then suggested the 
propriety of electing a presi- 
dency to continue in office 
during good behavior, or so 
long as they shall continue to 
fill the office with dignity, etc., 
like the First Presidency of 
the Church. 

Motioned by Sister Whit- 
ney, and seconded by Sister 
Packard that Mrs. Emma 
Smith be chosen President. 
Passed unanimously. 

Moved by President Jo- 
seph Smith that Mrs. Smith 
MRS. ELIZABETH ANN wiiiTNEY. proceed to choosc her coun- 
selors ; that they may be ordained to preside over this society 
in taking care of the poor, administering to their wants, and at- 
tending to the various afifairs of this institution. 

The president-elect then made choice of Mrs. Sarah M. 
Cleveland and Mrs. EHzabeth Ann Whitney for counselors. 

President Joseph Smith read the revelation to Emma Smith 
from the book of Doctrine and Covenants; and stated that 
she was ordained at the time the revelation was given, to ex- 
pound the Scriptures to all ; and to teach the female part of the 
community; and that not she alone, but others, may attain to 
the same blessing. 

The second Epistle of John, first verse, was then read to 


show that respect was there had to the same thing ; and that was 
why she was called an elect lady, is because she was elected to 

Elder Taylor was then appointed to ordain the counselors ; 
he laid his hands on the head of Mrs. Cleveland and ordained 
her to be a counselor to the elect lady, even ]\Irs. Emma Smith. 
to counsel and assist her in all things pertaining to her office, etc. 

Elder Taylor then laid his hands on the head of Mrs. Whit- 
ney and ordained her to be a counselor to Mrs. Smith, the Pres- 
ident of the Institution, with all the blessings pertaining to the 
office, etc. 

He then laid his hands on the head of Mrs. Smith and blessed 
her and confirmed upon her all the blessings which had been 
conferred upon her that she might be a mother in Israel and 
look to the wants of the needy and be a pattern of virtue and pos- 
sess all the qualifications necessary for her to stand and preside 
and dignify her office, to teach the females those principles reqnui- 
site for their future usefulness. 

President Smith then resumed his remarks, and gave instruc- 
tions how to govern themselves in their meetings ; when one 
wishes to speak, address the chair — and the chairman responds 
to the address. 

Should two speak at once, the chair shall decide who speaks 
first — if anyone is dissatisfied, she appeals to the house. 

When one has the floor she occupies it as long as she pleases. 
The proper manner of address is: Mrs. Chairman or President 
and not Mr. Chairman, etc. A question can never be put until it 
has a second. 

When the subject for discussion has been fairly investigated, 
the chairman will say : Are you ready for the question ? 

Whatever the majority of the house decide upon, becomes a 
law to the society. 

President Smith proceeded to give counsel: "Do not 
injure the character of anyone; if members of the society shall 
conduct themselves improperly, deal with them, and keep all your 
doings within your own bosoms and hold all characters sacred." 

It was then proposed that Elder Taylor vacate the chair. 

President Emma Smith and her counselors took the chair — 
and Elder Taylor moved — seconded by President J. Smith — that 
we go into an investigation respecting what this Society shall be 
called, which was carried unanimously. 

President Smith continued instructions to the chair to sug- 
gest to the members anything the chair might wish, and which 
it might not be proper for the Chair to put, or move, etc. 

Moved by Counselor Cleveland and seconded by Counselor 
Whitney, that this Society be called the Nauvoo Female Relief 


Elder Taylor offered an amendment, that it be called the 
Nauvoo Female Benevolent Society, which would give a more 
definite and extended idea of the Institution — that Relief be struck 
out and Benevolent inserted. 

President Joseph Smith offered instructions on votes. 

The motion was seconded by Counselor Cleveland and unan- 
imously carried, on the amendment by Elder Taylor. 

The President then suggested that she would like an argu- 
ment with Elder Taylor on the words Relief and Benevolent. 

President Joseph Smith moved that the vote for amendment 
be recinded, which was carried. 

Motion for adjournment by Elder Richards was objected to 
by President J. Smith. 

President Joseph Smith — Benevolent is a popular term and 
the term Relief is not known among the popular societies. Re- 
lief is more extended in its signification than Benevolent and 
might extend the liberation of the culprit — and might be 
wrongly construed by our enemies to say that the society is to 
relieve criminals from punishment, etc., — ^to relieve a murderer 
would not be a benevolent act. 

President Emma Smith said the popularity of the word 
Benevolent is one great objection — no person can think of the 
word as associated with public institutions without thinking of 
the Washington Benevolent Society which was one of the most 
corrupt institutions — 'do not wish to have it called after other soci- 
eties in the world. 

President Joseph Smith arose to state that he had no objec- 
tion to the word Relief — that on question they ought to deliberate 
candidly and investigate all subjects thoroughly. 

Counselor Cleveland arose to remark concerning the ques- 
tion before the house that we should not regard the idle speech 
of our enemies — we design to act in the name of the Lord — to 
relieve the wants of he distressed, and do all the good we can. 

Eliza R. Snow arose and said she felt to concur with the 
President in regard to the word Benevolent, that many societies 
with which it had been associated were corrupt — that the popular 
institutions of the day should not be our guide — that as daughters 
of Zion we should set an example for all the world, rather than 
confine ourselves to the course which had been heretofore pur- 
sued. One objection to the word Relief, is, that the idea associ- 
ated with it is that of some great calamity — that we intend ap- 
propriating on some extraordinary occasion instead of meeting the 
common occurrences. 

President Emma Smith remarked — We are going to do some- 
thing extraordinary. When a boat is struck on the rapids with a 
multitude of "Mormons" on board, we shall consider that a loud 



call for relief; we expect extraordinary occasions and pressing 

Elder Taylor arose and said — I shall have to concede the 
point, your arguments are so potent that I cannot stand before 
them — I shall have to give way. 

President Joseph Smith said — ^I also shall have to concede 
the point. All I have to give to the poor I shall give to this 

Counselor Whitney moved that this Society be called The 
Nauvoo Female Relief Society, seconded by Sister Qeveland. 

Eliza R. Snow offered an amendment by way of transposi- 
tion of words ; instead of the Nauvoo Female Relief Society, it shall 
be called The Female Relief 
Society of Nauvoo. Seconded 
by President Joseph Smith 
and carried. 

The previous question 
was then put — Shall this So- 
ciety be called the Female Re- 
lief Society of Nauvoo — car- 
ried unanimously. 

President Joseph Smith 
— I now declare this Society 
organized with president and 
counselors, etc., according to 
parliamentary usages — and all 
who shall hereafter be admit- 
ted to this society must be free 
from censure and be received 
by vote. 

President Joseph Smith 
offered a $5.00 gold piece to 
commence the funds of the in- 

President Emma Smith 
suggested that the gentlemen 
withdraw before they pro- 
ceed to the choice of secretary 
and treasurer, as was moved 
by President Smith. 

WiLLARD Richards, Secretary. 

The gentlemen withdrew when it was motioned and seconded 
and unanimously passed that Eliza R. Snow be appointed secre- 
tary, and Phebe M. Wheeler, assistant secretary. 

Motion seconded and carried unanimously that Elvira R. 
Coles be appointed treasurer. 

President Emma Smith then arose and proceeded to make 



appropriate remarks on the object of the Society — its duties to 
others, also its relative duties to each other, viz., to seek out and 
reheve the distressed ; that each member should be ambitious to 
do good. The members should deal frankly with each other and 
should watch over the morals and be very careful of the char- 
acter and reputation of the members of the institution, etc. 

Phebe A. Hawkes — question — What shall we reply to inter- 
rogations relative to the object of this Society? 

President Emma Smith replied — For charitable purposes. 

Moved and passed that Cynthia Ann Eldredge be admitted 
as a member of the Society. 

Counselor Sarah M. Cleveland donated to the fund of the 
Society 12 cents, Sarah M. Kimball $1, President Emma Smith $1, 
Counselor Elizabeth Ann Whitney, 50 cents. 

President Emma Smith said that Mrs. Merrick was a widow 
■ — is industrious— performs her work well — therefore, she rec- 
ommended her to the patronage of such as wish to hire needle- 
work — those who hire widows must be prompt to pay as some 
have defrauded the laboring widow of her wages ; we must be 
upright and deal justly. 

The business of the society concluded — the gentlemen before 
mentioned returned. 

Elder Richards appropriated to the funds of the Society, the 
sum of $1, Elder Taylor $2. 

Elder Taylor arose and addressed the Society by saying that 
he was much gratified in seeing a meeting of this kind in Nauvoo 
— his heart rejoiced when he saw the most distinguished charac- 
ters stepping forth in such a cause, which is calculated to bring in- 
to exercise every virtue and give scope to the benevolent feelings 
of the female heart — he rejoiced to see this institution organized 
according to the law of heaven — according to a revelation pre- 
viously given to Mrs. Emma Smith appointing her to this most 
important calling — and to see all things moving forward in such 
a glorious manner — his prayer is that the blessing of God and 
the peace of Heaven may rest on this institution henceforth. 

The choir then sang, "Come Let Us Rejoice in the Day of 

Motioned that this meeting be adjourned to next week, 
Thursday, ten o'clock a. m. 

The meeting then arose and was dismissed by prayer by 
Elder Taylor. 

The Prophet Joseph Smith, in his office journal, has this to 
say concerning the momentous organization which had just taken 
place : 

'T assisted in commencing the organization of 'The Female 
Relief Society of Nauvoo,' in the Lodge Room, Sister Emma 


Smith, President, and Sisters Elizabeth Ann Whitney and Sarah 
M. Cleveland, Counselors. I gave much instruction, read in the 
New Testament, and Book of Doctrine and Covenants concern- 
ing the Elect Lady, and showed that elect meant to be elected to 
a certain work, etc., and that the revelation was then fulfilled by 
Sister Emma's election to the Presidency of the Society, she hav- 
ing previously been ordained to expound the Scriptures. Emma 
was blessed, and her counselors were ordained by Elder John 

. There was no hesitancy in the manner and conduct of the 
Prophet in organizing the women that day. He knew exactly 
what should be done and he taught them in precise language what 
to do and how to do it. He called Elder John Taylor to the 
chair so that he himself might be permitted to discuss the ques- 
tions at issue. He then moved that a vote be taken concerning 
the eligibility of each woman present for membership or full fel- 
lowship in the Society. There was no question as to age or social 
standing, relationship, or intellectual qualifications ; yet each wom- 
an present must be in harmony and fellowship with all others 
present or she is not properly qualified to a place in the Society. 
Women were not asked if they were interested in one certain 
"cause" or "movement," or intellectual pursuit, but the fact of 
their respectability and standing in the community at large was 
the point at issue. 

Note the first lesson in self-government taught by the 
Prophet : 

As soon as the question of membership had been laid before 
those present. President Joseph Smith and companions withdrew 
whilt: the sisters investigated the motion, and agreed upon a uni- 
versal acceptance of all present. 

Then, following strictly parliamentary usage, the Prophet 
stated the objects of the Society. The limitless foundation upon 
which they were to build their organization was stated succinctly. 
He proceeded then to outline their present and future possibilities, 
stating clearly that all he expected to do was to give them the 
pattern and leave them to work out their own destiny. He stated 
the number and kind of officers with which they were to begin 
their organization, but told them they were to elect their own offi- 
cers and choose others to accommodate their developing needs. He 
stood ready to give help and instructions from time to time if they 
required them. He deprecated the forming of a constitution — 
that rock upon which so many modern social organizations have 
split, giving the women of the Relief Society that elastic and 
inspired rule of action which permits their decisions to be con- 
sidered as law. The minutes of meetings to be the precedent and 
substitute for a constitution and by-laws. Leaving the women 


present to name their own officers, his wife Emma Hale Smith 
was proposed as President and she chose her counselors. After 
some instructions and the reading of that marvelous revelation 
to Emma Smith from the book of Doctrine and Covenants, the 
Prophet and his companions blessed and set apart the three 
women who had been chosen to preside over the Society. 


"Nauvoo, 111., Thursday, March 24, 1842. 

"I attended by request, the Female Relief Society, whose 
object is the relief of the poor, the destitute, the widow and the 
orphan, and for the exercise of all benevolent purposes. Its or- 
ganization was completed this day. Mrs. Emma Smith takes the 
presidential chair; Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Whitney, and Sarah M. 
Cleveland are her counselors; Miss Elvira Cole is treasurer, and 
our well-known and talented poetess, Miss Eliza R. Snow, secre- 
tary. There was a very numerous attendance at the organiza- 
tion of the Society, and also at the subsequent meetings, of some 
of our most intelligent, humane, philanthropic and respectable la- 
dies ; and we are well assured from a knowledge of those pure 
principles of benevolence that flow spontaneously from their hu- 
mane and philanthropic bosoms, that with the resources they will 
have at command, they will fly to the relief of the stranger ; they 
will pour in oil and wine to the wounded heart of the distressed ; 
they will dry up the tears of the orphan, and make the widow's 
heart to rejoice. Our women have always been signalized for 
their acts of benevolence and kindness ; but the cruel usage that 
they receive from the barbarians of Missouri, has hitherto pre- 
vented their extending the hand of charity in a conspicuous man- 
ner; yet in the midst of their persecution, when the bread has been 
torn from their helpless offspring by their cruel oppressors, they 
have always been ready to open their doors to the weary traveler, 
to divide their scant pittance with the hungry, and from their rob- 
bed and impoverished wardrobes, to divide with the more needy 
and destitute ; and now that they are living upon a more genial soil, 
and among a less barbarous people, and possess facilities that they 
have not heretofore enjoyed, we feel convinced that with their 
concentrated efforts, the condition of the suffering poor, of the 
stranger and the fatherless will be ameliorated. We had the 
privilege of being present at their organization, and were much 
pleased with their modus operandi, and the good order that pre- 
vailed. They are strictly parliamentary in their proceedings." 
{History of the Church, March 24, 1842, p. 567. Vol. 4.) 

How joyously the heart of woman beats when we contem- 
plate this pregnant occasion. The first time certainly in this day 
and age when women were blessed and set apart by the laying on 


of hands for public activity. Woman's sphere, hitherto confined 
expressly within the four walls of her home, was now to be lim- 
ited only by the confines of the Kingdom of God itself. Later 
she was to be ordained as priestess and high priestess in the 
sacred courts, to minister in the Temple of the living God ; but 
tins, of course, was not then known. 

It niav be well here to add a qualifying word concerning the 
use of the word "ordain" which is found in these minutes as also 
in the Doctrine and Covenants and the History of the Church. 
The Latter-day Saints have broadened or- narrowed the use of 
words in their Church history as occasion and the matter in hand 
might seem to warrant. We have the word presidency applied to 
three presiding officers instead of using it only as a noun de- 
scriptive of an office held by one man. The meaning of the 
word "ordain" as used at that time was to be appointed to a duty 
or an office. The ecclesiastical meaning of the word, however, 
is "to invest with ministerial and sacerdotal functions, to introduce 
into the office of the Christian ministry by the laying on of hands, 
to set apart by the ceremony of ordination." In more recent years 
there has been quite a distinction made among our people between 
"ordination" to the priesthood and "the setting apart" of any per- 
son to act in any one of its offices ; so that we use today the term 
"set apart" in speaking of the ceremony which was then and is 
now used for officers in the Relief Society. 

Consider the possibility of the spiritual functions named by 
Elder John Taylor in blessing Emma Smith ! She was to be a 
mother in Israel, a pattern of virtue, to look to the wants of the 
needy and to possess all the qualifications necessary to stand and 
preside and dignify her office, teach the "females" those princi- 
ples requisite for their future usefulness. 

Contrast this calm and dignified beginning for women's or- 
ganizations in the world with the record left us of the excited 
and tremulous efforts made by the few brave women led by 
Lucretia Mott, six years later, at Seneca Falls, when they set 
about forming the first organization of non-"Mormon" women 
known to modern times — "The Woman's Rights Convention." 
We are told in the History of JVoman Suffrage : 

"To write a Declaration and Resolutions, to make a speech, 
and debate, had taxed their powers to the uttermost ; and now, 
with such feeble voices and timid manners, without the slightest 
knowledge of Cushing's Manual, or the least experience in public 
meetings, how could a woman preside ? They were on the verge 
of leaving the Convention in disgust, but Amy Post and Rhoda 
De Garmo assured them that by the same power by which they 
had resolved, declared, discussed, debated, they could also preside 
at a public meeting, if they would but make the experiment." 
(History of Woman's Suffrage, Stanton-Anthony-Gage, p. 75.) 


In the organization of the Rehef Society the jProphet 
proceeded to broaden forever the scope of action and inquiry 
which should be made into the character of future candidates. 
Recall his words : 

"Do not injure the character of anyone; if members of the 
Society shall conduct themselves improperly, deal with them, and 
keep all your doings within your own bosoms and hold all char- 
acters sacred." 

Not content with verbal instructions, the Prophet next pro- 
posed that the President of the Society and her counselors should 
occupy the chair of the meeting. There was native dignity and 
presence of mind exhibited by Emma Smith in thus presiding 
in this historic meeting. Every line of the minutes proves her 
to be composed, cheerful, and exceedingly sure of herself at a time 
and place when the character and inspired teachings of her hus- 
band are awe-compelling. She takes her place, by right, at his 
side, filling her sphere and its newly acquired honors with all the 
aplomb which could be expected from the companion and mate 
of her kingly husband. The lively dissension which took place 
as to the name by which the movement should be designated is 
both amusing and enlightening. When Elder Taylor proposed 
that the Society should be called the Nauvoo Benevolent Soci- 
ety, President Emma Smith asks for his purpose in substituting 
the word "Benevolent" for "Relief." The strictures of Sister 
Eliza R. Snow regarding the Benevolent Society are not without 
foundation. "The Washington Benevolent Society," referred to, 
as described by Benson J. Lossing, was "organized in 1812, com- 
posed wholly of men, to perpetuate the principle of Washington 
as set forth in his farewell address. The society had its origin 
in an effort to promote the waning fortunes of the old, now ex- 
tinct, Federalist Party, under the guise of a social and benevolent 
organization. The internal graft and corruption became a public 
scandal and the vigorous but unpopular opposition to the War of 
1812 nurtured by this society brought such a storm of indignation 
from the loyal and triumphant party of Jefiferson that the society 
was entirely swept out of existence." This, no doubt, explains 
the antagonism felt by the patriotic "Mormon" women whose 
fathers and brothers had, many of them, fought in the War of 
1812. Peace at any price was not popular with these brave and 
loyal American citizens. 

The keynote of this incident was struck by Elder John Tay- 
lor who said courteously to President Emma Smith, "I shall have 
to concede the point ; your arguments are so potent that I cannot 
stand before them. I shall have to give way," to which the 
Prophet readily agreed. Here we have the very first instance, 
and one might say, about the last, of a public difference of opinion 
a title, but a far subtler point, that women were not only to have 
opinions on public questions and express them, but these opinions 


were to be considered and when reasonable and just they were to 
obtain. In all the discussion, however, there was the utmost 
courtesy extended and perfect order maintained. One notices 
also in this incident the dominant spirit of President Emma Smith 
and her unwillingness to concede a point. When the will, how- 
ever strong and dominant, is made subservient to reason and 
justice what a weapon for good it becomes. But how close to 
the precipice of self-destruction does such a will often lead its 
possessor ! The heart must seek counsel of the head or the re- 
sult is disaster. 

Another significant fact recorded in these first minutes is that 
the Society was declared organized by a Prophet of the living 
God, with a president, counselors and other governing officers. 
Thus, upon the foundation of revelation and of the authority of 
the Priesthood, was this first of all woman's organized institu- 
tions founded in modern times. 

The Prophet offered a five dollar gold piece with which to 
commence the charity funds of the Society, stating that hereafter 
all he gave to the poor should go through the channels of the Soci- 

What unusual thoughts must have filled the hearts of those 
women when that meeting closed and they looked into each other's 
eyes and realized that however inadequately or feebly, they were 
the humble instruments chosen to begin a wonderful work for 
women, greater, more comprehensive and more awe-inspiring 
than any previous sex movement in the world's history. Seen 
through the reflected vision of their Prophet, some of them must 
have guessed at the varied scope and marvelous activities for 
womankind which would grow out of this great movement. 

To summarize the results it may be noted that not only were 
the worthy emotions of benevolence and charity and love which 
are, after all, so much a part of the normal woman's heart, to be 
cultivated and given expression, but women were also to learn 
how to govern in a public capacity through governing themselves. 
They were to acquaint themselves with the best rules of public pro- 
cedure and to conduct all of their assemblies according to parlia- 
mentary usage, vivified by the divine inspiration which would 
come with the time and the place. They were to learn through 
these public activities that wider balance and poise, of judgment 
and decision which had only been granted them in the narrow 
confines of their home life. Hitherto unused faculties were to be 
discovered and set in operation by the women of the Church. 
Household machinery must be adjusted to permit these public 
activities to continue weekly and sometimes daily in their demands 
between the Priesthood and the presiding officer of the Relief 
Society ; yet it was a point which involved not only the choice of 
upon the Society members. Husbands, fathers, and children were 


to learn that wives, mothers and daughters were individuals and 
were to be counted in the social system as intricate parts of the 
body politic. They were to achieve opinions not based upon per- 
sonal bias nor upon individual affection. Their voice would un- 
questionably be heard upon matters of public moment ; not the 
voice of one woman, but the voice of an organized body who con- 
sidered matters and formed intelligent opinions concerning public 
activities. The women of the Church had done this incidentally, 
now they were to do it collectively and under authority. Who 
should study the science of government if not a woman who 
governs all men until they are able, through growth and maturity, 
to govern themselves and each other? The mother sits as judge 
and jury in every domestic trial, the husband and father acting 
usually as the supreme court of appeals, only when cases are 
beyond her ability and jurisdiction; so that she of all others in 
the world should study the science of that which is her daily 
practice and through so much of which she stumbles unwittingly 
until experience teaches her wisdom through bitter lessons. And 
this science of government was now to be hers not only in its 
limited domestic sense, but in that broader world-field which 
would permit her to sit as queen of a world by the side of her 
husband when he became the Adam and king of that world which 
would be theirs to create and fill with their spirit-children. Im- 
possible to conceive with our mortal limitations all that this pros- 
pect opened before the human vision, but there on the 17th of 
March, 1842, the first duly organized body composed only of 
women, in modern times, and in ancient times so far as we know, 
was founded and completely equipped to begin official and public 
life for womanhood in this generation by that Prophet, Seer and 
Revelator, Joseph Smith. All honor to his name ! 

Babe of Mine. 

Lucy Wright Snoiv. 

Oh. babe of mine, let me draw near to thee; 

Let me inhale the perfume of thy purity ; 
Thou art a gift. Oh, gift divine, 

A part of heaven — sweet babe of mine. 
Thou art a gift from Him that giveth all ; 

Oh, blessed gift! God-given with Adam's fall. 
And in my hour of weariness and strife, 

The power of thy sweet innocence doth 
soothe and bless my life. 
'Tis like I hear the Savior say anew — 

God's Kingdom is made up of such as you. 

Our Indian Cousins 

[The 'editor has had a long time promise from our new apostle, 
Elder Melvin J. Ballard, for some account of the wonderful mani- 
festations witnessed by our elders amongst the Indians in his 
missionary diocese : and having- just received the following inter- 
esting recital, we are happy to present it, feeling sure it will both 
interest and instruct our many readers.] 

Melvin J. Ballard, of the Council of the Twelve. 

Missionary work was commenced among the Indians on the 
Fort Peck Reservation, in Northeastern Montana, about eight 
years ago. Several missionaries have been assigned to that terri- 
tory, have found many willing to listen to their message, and 
have distributed a number of copies of the Book of Mormon. 
Some of the believers had been baptized before the writer visited 
the reservation. The occasion of the visit was at a midsummer 
celebration, when there were some twelve hundred Indians pres- 
ent. They were encamped on a hundred-acre tract of ground, 
with their tents making almost a complete circle around the en- 
tire hundred acres. One day was spent in going from tent to 
tent, shaking hands with the Indians, and administering to their 
sick, the report of the beneficial results of the ministrations of the 
elders, in the sacred ordinance of the Gospel, having spread 
over the reservation. J\Iany had received blessings at the hands of 
the elders, and when the people came to this celebration, they 
brought their sick with them. 

It was an occasion long to be remembered by those mission- 
aries who participated in it, for we have seen nothing like it in 
our missionary life. It was our privilege to administer to the 
blind, the lame, to consumptives, and in fact to those sufifering 
from all kinds of ailments ; but those who sought these blessings 
came with unquestioning faith, believing that if the elders of 
the Church should annoint their sick and pray over them, that the 
sick would be healed. W'e have not seen such faith among peo- 
ple anywhere in our misionary experiences, as we saw among 
those Indians. The results were that we saw their blind re- 
stored to sight ; their lame made to walk, and the consumptives 
healed of their infirmities. 

One striking instance occurred during this visit, when an old 
s^entleman about seventv vears of age, after shaking hands with 



the writer, recogniziCd in him some one whom he had seen be- 
fore, and began talking in his Indian tongue while the tears 
coursed down his cheeks. The interpreter who was with the 
party, explained that this old man had seen the writer in a dream 
some three years previous ; saw him come to the reservation, and 
heard him preach the only true gospel. Needless to say that not 
only the poor old Indian was now in tears, but also we grateful 
missionaries were weeping, thankful to the Lord that he had given 
us such a testimony. It was an evidence to us that we were en- 
gaged in the right work and that the Lord was cooperating with 
us. This elderly Lamanite was baptized as were many others. 

It was our privilege to speak to some five hundred of them 
in one of these gatherings, where they listened intently to the 
story of their forefathers, and the promised blessings on condi- 
tion of repentance and obedience. From time to time, since then, 
we have noted the growing faith of those who have received the 


gospel, and the blessings attending the administrations to the 
sick continue to this day. The cases are so numerous that we do 
not pretend to give them in this brief article. The Lord has 
wonderfully blessed this people during the present epidemic. 
While many have been stricken, they have called for the elders, 
and so far as we know, in no single case where the elders have 
administered to those stricken with influenza, have their lives been 
taken, and we rejoice in this goodness of the Lord. Evidently 
the adversary has also been very much disturbed over the success 
of our work, for we have built a comfortable church and mission 


home, and have been condueting a school, through the assistance 
of our faithful missionaries. 

A few months ago, two families became somewhat disturbed 
in their faith, and criticized some of their brethren, to the extent 
that they were about to withdraw from the Church, when the 
following remarkable circumstance occurred in the case of one of 
these sisters : Two weeks after the criticism referred to, she 
came into her room one day, and on entering heard a voice call- 
ing her by name. She could see no one, and after looking in all 
parts of the room — for she lived in a one-room house, she heard 
the voice again. Upon looking up, she declares that the whole 
roof disappeared, and that there was standing in the air above 
her, a personage dressed in white, who had a long beard which 
she said looked like white pearls. Addressing her, he stated 
that she "must repent of her sins and listen to the 'Mormon' 
Elders, for they had delivered to her the word of God, and that 
if she would gain salvation, she obey what they had said, 
and remain faithful." She lived about a quarter of a mile from 
the mission headquarters. Immediately she started for the mission 
home, came through the field, and arrived in a breathless con- 
dition, and at once asked if she had been cut off from the Church. 
When she was informed that she had not, she fell to her knees 
and began thanking the Lord, and begged forgiveness for the 
course which she had taken, and was overjoyed with the glad 
welcome which was extended by the Saints and the elders. 

The writer heard her relate this testimony, and from her 
steadfast course since then, is convinced that she received a gen- 
uine manifestation from the Lord. 

One other instance : We had not talked much about temple 
work to the Indians, for we had all we could do for the present 
to instruct the living in the course which they should take ; but 
one of the Indians had a dream in which he saw the interior of 
the Salt Lake temple ; at least the description tallied exactly with 
both the exterior and the interior of that building. He had a 
good description of all the rooms including the baptismal font. 
He said in that room was a great pool of iron resting on the backs 
of iron oxen, containing water, and that when he entered the 
room he found it full of the spirits of his forefathers. They told 
him that they had been waiting for him for a long time, and that 
he must now do something for them. After relating his scory, 
he asked us what it was that he could do for 'his forefathers. 
When we explained to him baptism for the dead, and told hrm 
that he had received a view of the interior of the Salt Lake temple, 
his heart was overjoyed, and we felt that it was another additional 
witness to us that we should teach, not only salvation for the 
living, but also redemption for the dead, and the spirit of this 


work has been upon the Indians ever since. So far as they can, 
they are gathering up the genealogy of their dead, preparatory 
to entering the Canadian temple when it is completed, to do this 

These very remarkable circumstances are convincing proofs 
to our missionaries that the time for the conversion of the La- 
manite has come, and that the Lord is cooperating for their en- 
lightenment in a wonderful way. 

The work has already begun on a number of other reserva- 
tions, and from present conditions it will be extended to all parts 
of the mission ; it will not be long until successful missions will 
be established for each reservation. We feel that this is only 
the beginning of the good work that will yet be accomplished. 

I .desire to add to my own testimony as given above, the 
following from two of our faithful missionaries, Elders Joseph 
A. Packer and Clarence F. Riddle. Elder Riddle is still laboring 
on the reservation : 

"According to your request, we are sending you some articles 
from our diary in regard to the many marvelous manifestations of 
healings manifested among the Indians on the Fort Peck Reserva- 

"In the winter of 1913, when Arley Marshal and myself 
were sent out together, we were called in to administer to Brother 
Bear Skin, who was blind. We did so, and when we removed our 
hands from his head, he remarked in the Indian tongue, "Now 
I see !" and he has seen ever since. Just recently in our fast meet- 
ing, he bore a strong testimony, remarking about the great power 
of healing enjoyed among our people here. 

"That same winter, in company with Brother Nimrod Davis 
and Elder Marshal, while traveling through the Reservation, we 
came to a home where a girl nineteen years old had been sick for 
nine years, apparently suffering with leakage of the heart. She 
was administered to that night and the next morning, and then 
we didn't see her again until the midsummer celebration. When 
we met her there, she was strong and healthy. 

"The next summer Elder George J. Henderson was my com- 
panion, and we were called to administer to .several Indians. On 
one particular occasion we called on one whose feet and legs 
were swollen so bad that he could not stand up. We anointed 
his legs and adgiinistered to him. The next time we saw him was 
at the midsummer celebration, dancing the war dance. 

"Another instance was of a young man who had been brought 
thirty miles to be administered to. He was very low with con- 
sumption. We met him while in company with President Melvin 
J. Ballard at the midsummer celebration, and were requested to 



administer to him. We did so, and have been informed that 
he has recovered his health. 

"Since my return to the reservation, we have experienced 
many similar manifestations of healing. One instance in particu- 
lar : Elder Marvin W. Jones and I were called in to a neighbor's, 


to administer to a little boy who was very sick. As we entered 
the room the mother said, 'Look here, Elders, his feet have al- 
ready turned purple.' We administered to him, and when we 
looked over there the next morning, we saw the little boy out 

"I am afraid I am taking too much space. Suffice it to say 
that Elder Riddle and myself are experiencing similar manifesta- 
tions. We often have Indians come from Canada and North 
Dakota to be administered to." 


In "Our Indian Cousins," in the February Magadne, the 
name of Ira D. Hatch was wrongly given as Harry Hatch. His 
numerous friends wish this typographical error made right. 

Bending the Twig 

Elsie C. Carroll 

At the click of the gate Janet Culmer looked up. The 
snowy dish-towel she was hemming dropped into her lap and 
she removed her thimble and slipped it into the pocket of her 
sewing apron. It was Mandy Boyd coming up the walk, and 
something in her strong, resolute strides and the ,set of her 
thin lips reminded Mrs. Culmer of that morning nineteen years 
ago when Mandy had come to tell her about John. No one 
else in the village had had the courage to bring the news to the 
girl-wife that she was a widow. 

Not that Mandy Boyd was a gossip who reveled in carrying 
news about the town. Far from it. However, she was a woman 
who never shirked a duty. For that reason she had come to be noi 
only much respected in Norville, but also at times at least a 
little dreaded. It was she who had been sent to inform the 
Goldstein family that the Relief Society could no longer con- 
tribute money to feed and clothe the children so long as the head 
of the family persisted in exchanging their contributions for 
beer. It was she who had been sent to warn parsimonious old 
Judge Hinmarsh that his name would be published as a slacker 
unless he came through with some Liberty Bonds. In short, such 
unpleasant tasks had been thrust upon Mandy for so many years 
that gradually she had come to assume their responsibilities as 
a matter of course, and when she observed anything which in her 
mind needed adjusting, whether it was an afifair of public in- 
terest or of a private one she took it upon herself to see that it was 

"Good afternoon, Mandy. Come in." Janet held the screen 
door open for her guest with one hand, while with the other 
she waved the dish-towel at imaginary flies. At the same time 
she was endeavoring to quell the unpleasant foreboding Mandy's 
appearance had given her. 

"Good afternoon, Janet." There was no relaxation of 
Mandy's set jaws. She took the stiff, upholstered chair Janet 
set out for her and removed her sun-bonnet. Mrs. Culmer re- 
sumed her seat near the window and picked up her sewing again. 

"It's a beautiful day, isn't it?" she ventured, hoping to es- 
tablish the relations of an informal call. Mandy made no reply. 
Instead she sat studying Janet's face with a critical detachnient 
so extremely characteristic when .she had an unpleasant subject 
to broach, that Janet felt fairly cold. 


"It's about your Jack, I came," Mandy spoke abruptly. She 
never beat about the bush. "No, don't be frightened. It ain't 
bad news. Anyhow not the kind you're thinking of. I just came 
to see if you knew he's the talk of the town the way he's running 
about with that Turley girl?" Janet breathed easier but the 
startled, anxious look remained in her face. 

"That Turley girl — and Jack? I don't understand." 

"I knew you didn't. That's what I told them over to 
Mariar Allen's quilting. I said, 'I'm sure Janet doesn't know 
a thing about it,' and that it wasn't right you shouldn't when 
everybody else is talking about it. So I came right over to tell 
you. Yes Jack and Bernice Turley's the talk of the town. It 
isn't that there's anything wrong with the girl as far as I can 
see. To my mind she'.s a sweet, pretty little thing in spite of her 
mother's carelessness and if I had a son I'd a whole lot sooner 
he'd marry a girl like Bernice Turley than one of these con- 
ventionalized butterflies some mothers pick out for their boys. 
But that ain't saying that you would. We all know what good 
housekeeping and proper training mean to you. That it's the 
religion of your life. And we all know how your every thought 
is centered in Jack and how you've brought him up on standards 
exactly opposite to the slipshod ways of Molly Turley. Jack's 
been raised on order and system of the strictest type, while the 
only system Molly Turley ever used was letting her children 
grow up just as they happened to. To my mind there's disad- 
vantages to both ways, but the women over to Mariar's .seemed 
to think that the biggest calamity that could happen to you would 
be to have Jack take up with that girl so, as I said, I just ran over 
to tell you. There's nothing like nipping such a thing in the 
bud you know." 

"But Jack hasn't taken Bernice Turley anywhere." Jariet 
persisted gropingly. "You know he's keeping company with 
Alice Warner over in Melford. Why, he and Alice have been 
sweethearts ever since they were children. Clara Warner and 
I used to be chums you know." Mandy chuckled dryly. 

"Well, maybe he's keeping company with Alice but he's 
spending most of his time with Bernice. She walks to the office 
with him every morning on her way to her uncle's farm. She 
pretends to go out to help her Aunt Lucy every day. At noon 
he goes out and eats his lunch with her in that pine grove this 
side of John's and Lucy's. Sarah Watkins says her George 
passes them on his way home from the field. And every after- 
noon he goes out and walks home with her and spends an hour or 
so playing tennis or volley ball with her and the rest of the Tur- 
ley children in their back yard. It's been going on nearly ever 


since Jack got back from school. That's about three weeks ain't 

The new.s had made Janet speechless with surprise. Mandy 
got to her feet. Adjusting her bonnet she walked to the door. 

'T just thought I'd let you know," she repeated. "Not that 
I have anything against the Turley girl, remember. It's just 
that two twigs bent in such opposite directions might not ever 
be able to grow in the same direction — and I thought you ought to 

"Thank you. Mandy," Janet managed to say as the ,screen 
closed and her visitor walked back down the path. Half way 
to the gate Mandy stopped. Janet was still standing in the door. 

"There is such a thing as bending a twig too far," Mandy 
said tersely, "so far it either breaks or flips back the other way." 
Thus relieved she walked out onto the sidewalk. 

For a long time Janet sat gazing out of the window. Her 
sewing lay unnoticed in her lap, and she toyed with her. thimble 
absently. She looked back over the years of her boy's life. 

She remembered how she had gathered his warm little body 
into her arms that morning nineteen years ago when she had 
realized she must be both father and mother to him. She had 
registered a vow that his training should be the one great ob- 
ject of her life. She had the moulding of a man in her hands 
and no pains should be spared in the moulding. 

Later she had formulated some rigid standards to guide her, 
fearing she mig-ht naturally be too lenient, and had conscien- 
tiously striven toward them. One of the rules had been sug- 
gested by Jack's father a few days before his death. In speak- 
ing of a certain young man of their acquaintance who had 
conspicuously failed in life, he had remarked : "That boy's fail- 
ure is due to the slip-shod way in which he has been brought up. 
He has never learned the importance of little things. It is right 
habits in little things that make for success in the big things. We 
must remember that in training our boy, Jennie." 

Those words had stood out as a guiding star before her dur- 
ing all the years of Jack's childhood and adolescence. It had 
often been hard to enforce the rules she deemed necessary to 
gain her end, but she had never faltered. And now Jack had 
rewarded her ! Always he had been pointed out as a model by 
the parents of his companions. 

He had finished his education with credit, and was now 
entering the business world with a bright future before him. 
Was the failure to come after all this? 

She had never dreamed of his taking up with a girl so un- 
like himself as Bernice Turlev. The mere thought made her 


wince. To her, order and regularity were supreme doctrines. 
Molly Turley's creed was exactly opposite. She believed in 
absolute freedom and spontaneity. Accordingly, to the disgust 
of Norville's fastidious housewives, the Turley children had not 
been brought up at all, they had simply grown up as they chose. 

The more Janet thought over Mandy's news the more 
serious it loomed up before her. Yes, as Mandy had suggested, 
this undesirable association must be nipped in the bud. But 
how was it to be done? Janet had not been a boy's mother for 
twenty-one years without discovering that the nipping process 
requires all the tact and skill a mother has power to summon. 

She must think out what would be best to do. Presently 
she decided to take a walk. Perhaps she could think better out 
of doors. Besides it would soon be time for Jack's coming. She 
did not want to see him until she had decided upon some mode 
of action. 

She selected the path along the foothills instead of the pub- 
lic road for her walk. After a half hour she turned from the path 
and walked a short distance up the sidehill east of the village. 
The valley lay peacefully before her, and all about the foliage 
showed the first gay tints of early fall. She sat down on a 
large bowlder and closed her eyes, trying to let the silence of 
the surroundings calm the anxious tumult in her heart. 

Presently she was aroused by the sound of voices. She 
started up then sank back upon the rock. One of the voices was 
Jack's; the other belonged to Bernice Turley. The two had 
come from the opposite direction and had seaterl themselves on 
a fallen log near the path. A clump of willows hid them from 
the mother's view, but their words came distinctly to her ears. 

'Tt must be jolly to. live like you folks do," Jack was .saying 
when Janet first heard them. "Your house is the 'comfiest' place 
I was ever in. I like to see your Dad with his feet upon the 
radiator and Ned's cap down in the corner back of the sofa just 
where it happened to light, and your books and magazines and 
music strung around like they had all been used. You don't 
seem to be all tied down by petty little rules, such as 'a place for 
everything and everything in its place' and you are not pinched in- 
to machines by the habit of doing the same thing at the same 
time every day. Now, I wouldn't say a thing against my mother ; 
she's the best in the world, but oh you know she'd never get over 
it if I'd do some of the jolly things your brother Ned does. You 
see, father died when I was a little chap, and, well, she doesn't 
know what really counts in a boy's life." Part of the ,sting with 
which those words pierced Janet Culmer's heart was soothed by 
Bernice Turley's reply. 


"Oh, you don't know how I've always admired your mother ! 
I'd give anything in the world if Mama kept house like she does. 
They say she has certain days for doing every bit of work. I'd 
Icve to live like that. We never know what we are going to do 
tomorrow and everything is so — so messy and uncertain that 
sometime I feel that I can't endure it." 

Mrs. Culmer slipped away unseen. As she walked home- 
ward slowly, she was wondering with a growing conviction if it 
were possible that she had made a mistake — as big a mistake, 
perhaps as Molly Turley. 

What was it Mandy had said about bending a twig so far 
it would either break or flip back the other way? She would go 
and talk it over with Mandy. 

The Inner Light. 

Lucy May Green. 

Jesus said, "I am the light of the world : he that foUoweth 
me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" 
(John 8:12). 

There is an inner light that never fades ; 

'Tis sunshine to the soul. What is this ray 
That gleams across our path by night and day? 

The Holy Spirit's light. 

What can make home a blessed, hallowed spot 
In palace fair or e'en the humblest cot, 

Tho' toil and pain and sorrow be our lot? 
The Holy Spirit's light. 

Amid earth's dross it beams like living gold, 

A hidden treasury of wealth untold. 
New hopes, new joys, new comfort it unfolds: 

The Holy Spirit's light. 

So may we worthy live, from day to day. 
Still o'er our path that warm effulgent ray 

May brighter shine until the "Perfect Day." 
The Holy Spirit's light. 

Two Faith-Promoting Incidents. 

Annie G. Laiiritzen 


'Twas as if to impress upon my mind the great lesson of 
obedience and faith as well as to show me the arm on which I 
must lean in all future years that I had the following remarkable 
experience in my early married life. 

My first child was a little over one year old when she was 
taken with dysentery. For a time I doctored her with castoria, 
rhubarb, castor oil/ and many different, well-known household 
remedies, but although I received many testimonies of healing 
in my childhood and youth, it .seemed now that I was too stupid 
to think of exercising any faith in her behalf ; so she grew worse 
and worse, and although I worried myself nearly to death, I 
entirely forgot to call directly upon our dear, good Lord. 

One day a neighbor told me that she had heard of putting 
cold water cloths on the stomach to draw out inflammation, which 
I promptly tried with most disastrous results. The child was 
already weak and faint with the bloody discharge from the 
bowels, and as I placed the cold application to her .stomach she 
suddenly went cold and numb, apparently lifeless ; her eyes were 
closed as if in death. I was just within a few weeks of my second 
confinement and was alone, as I thought, with a dead child and 
a little girl— Martha Zoolig. She ran out for help while I held 
the child, screaming meanwhile, "O, I've killed her, I've killed 
her, I've killed my darling babe." Then I grew more rational 
as i heard the still small voice within me saying, as if m reply 
to my words : "No, you haven't killed her, you've done all you 
could with earthly means, now try to call upon the Lord! Rub 
her stomach with the consecrated oil and then pray !" I did as 
directed, and she soon revived, to my unbounded joy ; recovering 
rapidly she steadily grew in health and strength. She is now 
nearly 28 years of age and has four lovely children of her own. 
Since then I've had hundreds of testimonies, but that was the 
greatest of all and the very best one. 


The doctor had said, "I can give you no hope that she will 
live." I need not tell you how I felt— you have all seen loved 
ones pass away. 


Yes, this was an idolized child and I felt as if I should go 
raving mad. I had no power to reason ; all I could do was to 
run back and forth wringing" my hands and moaning piteously. 
The hour was midnight. I frantically handed the child to my hus- 
band and ran out of the door. I gazed round at the peaceful, 
silent stars that seemed to whisper to my distracted soul that 
God was taking our darling for a purpose, known best to Him — 
a certain mission, the nature of which I will not here disclose. 
In answer to my anguished pleadings the Father revealed to me, 
by the still small whisperings of His Holy Spirit what it was to 
be : and so returning to the house and throwing my arms about 
the neck of my dear sister I said in a calm and rational, almost 
firm voice, "Father, thy will be done, not mine ; not mine, but 

And then and there came stealing into my heart the pure, 
white- winged dove of peace, and a joy came into my soul that 
I cannot express. It was as if the home was filled suddenly with 
a concourse of angels. I never felt any happier in my life, for 
the Lord had ,sent his Holy Spirit to comfort my distracted soul. 
This Holy presence can supply the loss of loved ones and make 
the future years of absence seem as a fleeting moment. Almost 
twenty years had passed with their train of joys and sorrows — 
and I was seated in the St. George temple, clothed in the robes 
of that holy house, when the following poem came into my mind 
and I ran upstairs and wrote it down : 

"thy will, o lord, not mine be done." 

"Thy will, O Lord, not mine be done," 

So spake the Lord in agony, 
While in that dark and deep despair, 

Alone in drear Gethsemane, 
Repeated o'er upon the cross 

Of cruel bleak Mount Calvary. 

Come unto me, thou gift divine. 

Of faith in God, that I may see 
The wisdom of the Father's love. 

Who loves while yet he chastens me, 
That understanding him while here 

Prepares me for eternity. 

O give me light thy will to know, 

O give me strength thy will to do, 
. That I may merit here below 

Thine approbation pure and true. 
That I may rise from living death. 

To walk in life forever new. 


Thy loving care is infinite, 

Extended to us every one ; 
Oh help us each to understand 

And ne'er thy godly wisdom shun ; 
There'll be no fear nor sorrow when 

We learn to say, "Thy will be done." 


Personal Hygiene and Home Nursing, a Practical Text 
for Girls and Women for Home and School Use, by Louisa C. 
Lippitt, R. N.. Assistant Professor of Correction Exercises, 
University of Wisconsin (In New-World Science Series, edited 
by Professor John W. Ritchie). Illustrated. Cloth. vii-|-256 
pages. Price $1.28. Published by World Book Companly, 
Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York. 

The purpose of Miss Lippitt's textbook is to explain the 
means by which girls and women may attain health and happi- 
ness in the present, and lay the foundations for sane and vig- 
orous lives in after years. In clearest terms it lays down practi- 
cal instructions for the conduct of their daily lives. Not only 
are the rules set out, but the reasons which underlie them are 
made clear. Directions are given for preventing the spread of 
infection from cases of communicable disease; and instruc- 
tions are furnished for the care of oneself and one's family in 
cases of accident or sickness. 



Some people who have printed books containing genealogical 
records, take names from the books merely placing checks against 
the names and perhaps penciling dates. This will inevitably lead 
to confusion and will be an expensive los.s, in the future, to the 
family genealogist, as duplications are bound to occur. 

We suggest to all those who have printed books, that this 
winter, when our meetings are adjourned, such owners of books 
could profitably spend a portion of the Sabbath day in copying- 
all printed information, first into note books and then into proper 
family records for temple use. Note sheets should be drawn off 
from printed books or penciled note books. All should be copied 
properly, first into pencil note books, and then in ink into the 
family temple record ; and then sheets may be drawn off from 
that temple record. Thus the family relations are established, 
and sealings and adoptions will follow naturally and clearly. 

Sisters, have you a printed family book? If so. take this ad- 
vice from a friend. 

At the Temple Gates 

Mary Foster Gibbs 

It was a sparkling afternoon, the sun picking out countless 
diamonds on the snowy surface inside the temple gates. At 
the gate-house we sat watching the endless procession of faith- 
ful devotees who went within to receive their promised bless- 

Early Thursday morning, not many months ago, a handsome, 
dark-eyed soldier, in his trim khaki, opened the gate and ushered 
within a tall, blond girl whose blue eyes lingered hungrily in 
their gaze at her soldier escort. Two matronly women accom- 
panied the attractive couple, and one of them — the mother of 
the soldier — stopped to question me as the others passed along 
the sunny pathway: 

"My son came down from the Fort this morning to get 
married, and although he had permission of his sergeant, the 
v/hole matter was so hurried that he didn't wait for the permis- 
sion of some higher officers." 

"So," I replied, "and what may follow?" 

"That is what I am worrying about," replied the anxious 
mother. "I dreamed it all out last night, and I have told him this 
morning that unless he gets full permission from all concerned 
he will be imprisoned for his act. I saw it all in my dream." 

The mother hurried after the others and I remained lost in 
thought, yet constantly engaged in the passing of the crowds who 
daily enter the portals of our .sacred temple. Here an aged 
couple with whitened hair and bent shoulders go quietly onward, 
bent upon their holy task of redeeming their dead. Behind them 
comes a father with his wife and half-grown family of children 
to receive the long-waited-for blessing denied them because they 
were wedded in distant lands and only now have reached Zion 
and may make their vows over the altar of God's holy house. 
Young girls, timid and half afraid, cling to the arm of mother or 
father or elder sister as they hurry past the prospective bride- 
groom bringing up the rear laden with his valises and bundles 
which always accompany the workers within these sacred walls. 
Hundreds of vicarious workers pass my watching eyes, going 
within to labor for their dead. 

It is five minutes to the hour of nine, and the doors of the 
temple will .soon be closed. Suddenly a small detachment of 
soldiers file through the gate, and the Captain salutes me as he 
requests the presence of a deserter from his company. 


"Name?" I ask. 

"John Morton," answers my visitant. "Did he pass this 

"Perhaps," I answer, .seeking to gain time. "Many pass this 
way w^hose names I know not." 

"Then I must go within. In the name of the United States 
Government I demand entrance to seek John Morton." 

Instantly recalling my fine, up-standing soldier bridgegroom, 
I offered to go at once in search of the required man, and begged 
the company to await my return, promising that if he was within 
he should certainly return with me. It required a little time to 
find my sought-for soldier, and when found he was somewhat 
rebellious and resentful. 

"Do you know that this means court-martial and perhaps 
imprisonment for a term of years?" I asked. 

"I don't care what it means," answered my soldier boy, look- 
ing me squarely between the eyes. "I got permission of my 
Sergeant yesterday, but could not reach the Captain himself 
I told the Sergeant how it was, that I wished to be married to 
day, for our company leaves tonight — and really leaves I guess — 
although we have had many feints at departure in the last few 
weeks. We have marched down to the depot a number of times 
and then back to the Fort again. Tonight, I dare say, we are 
really leaving." 

"And couldn't you find your Captain to get permission for a 
day in which to get married?" I ventured in surprise. 

"No," answered the soldier shortly. "The Sergeant tried 
and I tried. The Sergeant suggested that I be married by the 
law of the land, and said that would be easy to arrange." 

"And then?" I queried. 

"Then," he shrugged and paused, "I told him I would not 
answer reveille. I put it up to him as man to man. I told him 
that my sweetheart deserved to be married in the right way, and 
I proposed to marry her according to the laws of God and not 
of man." 

"And now," I assured him, "you will make an unhappy 
scene, both for your bride and everybody else, in case the Captain 
objects when he hears of this and if you persist in remaining 
here ; for if the soldiers are sent, they will demand entrance and 
carry you oflF, no matter how just your claim may be, nor how 
invincible your own courage. Be persuaded, my son. The sol- 
dier who accepts his country's discipline cheerfully m.akes the 
best soldier of the Cross. Go quietly back with your Captain. 
Appeal your case, and beg for clemency and permission to re- 


turn later in the day. There is still another chance if you are 
here at noon today." 

Our eyes battled for a moment, and then I added, "The bless- 
mg of God will go with you, my boy. Be not doubtful, but trust 
in Him." 

He turned, and without another word marched straight out 
of the temple doors, and I followed him and saw that he saluted 
his officer, and, with but few words exchanged they fell into 
step and withdrew from the temple grounds. 

The sunny hours of that winter's morning dragged slowly 
on, not only for the little bride who could neither rest nor sit 
within the temple, but who stood in the outer vestibule with 
hanging arms and fingers twining- in nervous clasping and un- 
clasping, while her eyes were anon bright with hope crowded 
with fear or filled with unavailing tears. Her mother sought 
occasionally to assuage her grief or strengthen l\er faith, while 
the mother of the soldier bridgegroom paced restlessly up and 
down, her mixed emotions chasing in panoramic rapidity over 
her mobile features. On the steps of the gateway I watched and 
waited and listened for the clang of the soldiers' measured 

Twelve o'clock struck — half past — and again I went within 
the temple courts to assure the little bride that if it was right, and 
God willed to have it so, her groom woud get permission and all 
would yet be well. She said nothing. In all that fateful day I 
heard but one word pass her lips. Her eyes told her story. 

The gate flew open. My soldier bridegroom strode 
quickly by with one brief salute to me as he passed. I followed 
him with my eyes and in my sympathetic old heart I saw him 
meet and greet the little sweetheart he had dared so much to claim 
as his v/ife over the sacred altar. And then I visioned them robed 
in white, passing from court to court, receiving and making their 
promises and vows as they ascended from glory to glory. 

Shortly before three o'clock an auto purred swiftly in front 
of my gateway, and a middle-aged man flung himself hastily out 
and asked me as I stood up to receive him : 

'Ts the company through? May I find my son? He is the 
soldier lad, and his commanding officer gave him permission to 
come here and receive his bride in marriage, if he would be at 
the station to go with his troop on the 3 :30 train for Los- 

"Why man," I replied, "it is nearly three o'clock now. It 
is next to impossible for him to get out in that time." 


"Well," replied the father, "it looks like John would surely 
be subject to court martial and imjDrisonment yet." 

"Come with me," I said, for this man was an officer in the 
army of Christ and bore his priestly credentials always with him. 

Within the sacred walls I bade the father tell his story to 
the Chief Recorder of the temple, and he took the message and 
passed it on from room to room while we stood in the corridors 
without breathless an.d in prayer. 

Ten minutes, fifteen minutes, each moment an hour, and yet 
they flew on lig-htning- wings. Three o'clock, a quarter past, 
twenty minutes beyond, and five minutes more. The father paced 
the halls with guarded swiftness. At last, with floating draperies 
of white, the girl flew down the winding stairway and behind 
her came her two mothers. A moment's change of apparel, a' 
swift word of gratitude, and I took them by the hands, leaving 
the father to follow with his soldier son. Breathless, the little 
bride stood beside the auto and watched the soldiers tramp, 
tramp past the monument, the last one lost to view as they 
marched below to the station. Deliberately the young soldier 
arranged his clothing, fastened neatly his puttees, and then with 
that silent air of determination which makes brave men and 
dauntless soldiers, he raised his hand in the familiar salute and 
shutting the door upon the bridal party as he leaped within, I saw 
them roll swiftly away, and knew that bridegroom had. won out, 
had won his wife, had won his point, had won the right to live, 
no matter what battle charge he faces, for he was true to principle, 
to bride and to his God. 

The Years. 

By Grace Ingles Frost. 

My soul tonight goes groping through the years, 

The years that mark the way which forms the past, 
With mingling of its laughter, love and tears, 
Its sunshine which was merged in shade at last. 

Forth from its quest my soul grown strong returns 
From conflict with the bygone years, to find 

With sympathy and love more brightly burns 
Its altar-fires for struggling human kind. 

O years long past, O years that yet must be. 
And you, today, that link which lies between. 

Which maketh of the past and future one, 

Ye are but stepping-stones 'twixt heaven and me 

Let's Make a Garden 

By Morag. 

"For lo, the winter is past, the rain is over. 
"The flowers appear on the earth, the time of singing of 
birds is come" (Song of Solomon). 

To grow flowers successfully one thing above all others is 
necessary, that is plain, ordinary common sense. It is a pretty 
fancy to say that flowers will grow for those who love them — 
one might as well say that good bread or preserves are the pro- 
ducts of affection rather than of skill. 

As in everything else, there is a certain knack in growing 
flowers. The closer you study nature, the better gardener you 
will become. 

Use the head and hands as well as the heart. Study the 
various classes of flowers and their habits. "Annuals," as the 
name implies, are plants of a year. Born in the spring, they 
bloom and seed in the summer and .die with the frosts of autumn. 
Among the more familiar annuals are asters, stock, marigolds, 
mignonette, sweetpeas, cosmos, larkspur, petunias, nasturtiums, 
centaurea, and many others. 

Biennials, among which are canterbury bells, snapdragons, 
sweet Williams, hollyhock and forget-me-not, bloom in their 
second summer, then see^ and die ; hence the need of sowing 
some seed each year, that flowers for the following season may 
be assured. 

If you want a garden that will bloom for you year after 
year, you must plant a goodly assortment of perennials. These 
may be grown from seeds sown in early summer, from slips or 
cuttings from root or stem, or by root divisions, which should 
be made after the flowering season is over, or in early spring 
when danger of frost is over. Some of the best perennials are 
chrysanthemums, bleeding heart, delphiniums, coreopsis, peonies, 
Gaillardia, shasta daisies, poppies, primrose, phlox, and a variety 
of other old favorites. 

Then the glorious array of bulbous rooted flowers, from 
the tiny snowdrop, all through the narcissi family, the tulips, 
hyacinths and other spring beauties, lilies in all their varieties, 
gladiolus, dahlias, cannas, etc. 

Next the roses, climbing, bush and standard, the deciduous 
shrubs, lilacs, svringas, snowball, altheas ; and the vines which 


so quickly change an old building into a bower of beauty, the 
morning glories, gourds, wild cucumber, beans, etc. Their 
number is legion and there are flowers suited to almost every 
kind of climate and condition. 

It is not luck with flowers that counts, it is intelligent labor, 
Study the flower catalogs, which usually contain much com- 
prehensive instructions. Learn the variety of plants that require 
full sun and those which grow better in shady nooks, so that you 
will not plant sunflowers six inches apart on the shady side of 
your house and violets two feet apart in the blazing sunshine. 

See that your garden plot is .deeply plowed or dug and well 
fertilized. Avoid attempting too many varieties at first. Begin 
with a few of the well known hardy plants, and when your toil 
is rewarded with an array of loveliness, share your flowers with 
your less fortunate neighbors. Save your seeds and exchange 
with your friends. Profit by their and your own experience, 
for as in all other good things of life, "Of all the joys of garden- 
ing, sharing is the best." 


Plow or spade the garden as soon as the soil is dry enough 
and dig in some fertilizer. 

Plant peas, lettuce and spinach as soon as the ground can 
be worked. 

Rake off the asparagus bed and dress with bone meal or 

Place a headless barrell or tub over the rhubarb plants and 
throw fresh manure around, if you want some early pie-plant. 

Prune all the dead wood from the rose bushes and climbing 
roses. (Wear gloves) Sharpen garden tools. 

Order seeds, tools and garden supplies. 

Plant sweet peas. 

Make a trench about six inches deep in rich, mellow soil, 
and plant the seed thinly in the bottom. Cover with finely sifted 
soil and a little well rotted manure. When the seedlings are 
about five inches high, fill up trench and furnish some support 
for the vines. Brush or chicken wire makes a good support. 
Water freely; cultivate or hoe often. Lawn clippings make a 
good mulch during the hotter months. 

Pick flowers daily. Do not allow seeds to form or flowers 
will stop blooming. 

Questions on Floriculture will be answered through the 
Magazine. Address : Garden Department, Relief Society Maga- 

Suggestions for Anniversary Day. 

A "Victory" Celebration. 

Hymn, "Behold a Royal Army," Sundav School Song Book, 
p. 242. 

Invocation by oldest member present. 

Hymn, "Battle Hymn of the Republic." 

Reading, Instructions from the Prophet Joseph. (First Min- 
utes. ) 

Solo, "Freedom for all Forever." 

Reading-, "Annual Greetings," January Relief Society Maga- 

Three minute talks. "What the ReHef Society has done to 
Help Win the War." 

"Our boys," Conservation. Relief Society Wheat, War Gar- 
dens, Home Service. Better Babies, Red Cross Work, Liberty 
Loans, War Savings, Victory Singing. 

Solo, "Ring Out, Sweet Bells of Peace." 

Hymn, "God of Our Fathers, Known of Old," Sunday School 
Song Book, p. 283. 


Hvmn, "The World's lubilee," Sundav School Song Book, 
p %. ' 

Invocation in concert. (Prayer for Peace). 
Hymn, "Sweet is the Peace the Gospel Brings." 
Extracts from First Minutes of Relief Society. 
Solo, "Ring Out Sweet Bells of Peace." 
Address, "Peace on Earth, Good Will Towards Men." 
Hymn, "Come, O Thou King of Kings." 
Reading, "Vision of the Redemption of the Dead," Jan., 
1919, Relief Society Magazine. 

Brief talks on Relief Society Activities. 

Theology and Testimony. 

Genealogy and Temple Work. 

Home Making and Parenthood. 
Doxology, followed by light refreshments. 


Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa Stmth Williams and Mrs. Amy 
Brozvn Lyman. 


The following- incident, sent to us from New York by Mrs. 
Stella Paul Bradford, will interest our readers : 

"In New York harbor stands the Knickerbocker, a large 
mine sweeper, resting after the long fight with the treacherous 
'U" boats. During the siege, it moved up and down through the 
danger zone, catching the mines in strong nets and rendering them 
harmless. Above sailed the airships to help detect the enemy, and 
one day a great observation balloon was seen floating on the water 
and was picked up by the crew. The pilot was never found, so 
no clue to the trouble it had been through was known. 

"When the beautiful soft rubber was brought aboard the ship, 
the men immediately claimed it for souvenirs and Brother Axel 
Lubbers, a Utah man, who was in service aboard the Knicker- 
bocker, conceived the brilliant idea of making a novelty apron for 
the Brooklyn Relief Society bazaar from parts of the balloon. 

"He used the inner skin of soft, gray rubber, with bands 
of the outer covering, for a border. A unique design was made 
from the dull red, white and blue trimmings and glued to the 
center. It was a most artistic piece of work, and upon examining 
It, the motif was found to be Utah's emblem, the bee-hive, with 
a real bee on the side. A bee flew into the engine room at 
Brother Lubber'.s feet, and was such an unusual occurrence that hf 
immediately thought of using it. A most life-like, full-blown 
sego lily, made from the white rubber, formed the lower part, 
and the whole was enclosed in narrow bandings of the national 
colors with which the balloon had declared its country. 

"At the bazaar, the apron was sold for a good price as a 
war relic, and that money, with what was realized from the sale 
of other articles, is being used by the Society in furnishing their 
room, and for war relief work." 

From the Annual Report of the Director General of Rail- 


roads, W. G. McAdoo, 1918, we glean some startling facts. Few 
people know that women have been engaged in any numbers as 
railroad employees, with the exception, of course, as stenograph- 
ers and clerical assistants. 

There were 101,296 women employed in railroad labor in 

"The greater number, as might be expected, are employed in 
the clerical and semi-clerical occupations. Of the 101,296 em- 
ployed October 1, 1918, 73,285 were working as clerks of all 
kinds, stenographers, accountants, comptometer operators, etc. 
In this class are employed for the first time numerous ticket sell- 
ers and bureau of information clerks. They were found well 
fitted for this type of work, and special instruction agencies were 
opened by the Government in several cities to give them the 
necessary training. 

"The next largest group of 5,555 appeared in woman's tra- 
ditional occupation of cleaning. They clean stations, offices, etc., 
and are employed in the yards to clean coaches and Pullman cars, 
both inside and outside. For the first time, beginning about a 
year and a half ago, they were engaged to do the heavier work 
of wiping locomotives in the roundhouse. These engine wipers 
increased from 215 in January to 881 in October. Roundhouse 
work of all kinds employed 354 January 1 and 1,365 October 1. 

"In railroad shops, women entered the greatest variety of 
new occupations. Approximately 5,000 were employed, ranging 
from common laborers to skilled mechanics, earning the ma- 
chinist's or carmen's rate of pay. 

"Only 100 women were found in actual train service. 

"The organization of a woman's service section, first brought 
to light, and then set to work to correct, some extremely unfavor- 
able conditions connected with women's labors. Not only were 
the women employed deprived, in many instances, of anything 
like a rest room or wash room, they were not given toilet facil- 
ities within reasonable walking distance. Sometimes they were 
obliged to cross busy tracks or mount flights of steps in order to 
reach a toilet. Night work possessed hazardous features for the 
women employed, and the report of the Director of the Woman's 
Service makes this clear in detailed fashion. This branch of the 
service on one railroad which employed more than 2,000 women, 
223 employed as laborers and 193 employed as truckers were 
transferred to other jobs or dismissed. Another railroad which 
in August employed 145 truckers has now entirely given up this 
form of work for women. The full cooperation of the railroad 
officials has been secured in making these important changes." 

It is evident from this report that in every instance where 
women have been employed, if suitable women were chosen, they 


have given satisfaction and have surprised themselves, the sex and 
the railroad officials generally. 

It may, in general, be said that a fine class of women have 
been secured. In most cases they have received wages higher than 
any previously earned by women except in positions of much re- 
sponsibility or those requiring special skill. The women are eager 
to remain with the railroads, as they have shown by their anxiety 
to retain their positions and share in all the privileges of the 
service. They appreciate the recognition given by the Govern- 
ment to the labor of women, especially the equality of wages 
assured to them. 

At last a majority of the legislatures of the states have rati- 
fied the Prohibition bill, which makes national prohibition assured 
beginning July 1, 1919. This is a moral triumph not to be weighed 
in words, and the decent element all over the world unite in con- 
gratulations to the United States for this progressive decision. 
The Czar of Russia — poor fellow — did at least one splendid thing 
when he put a ban upon vodka in Russia, as his act makes Russia 
the first nation to veto liquor. It is true that the revolutionists 
have restored the vodka traffic, but at least we may give credit 
to the Czar for this act. 

We are told that brewers and distillers are arranging for a 
line of establishments for the manufacture and distribution of 
liquors along the whole length of the Mexican border, but at least 
the United States has rid its skirts of this curse of modern times. 

The French League of Rights for Women has sent to the 
French parliament a proclamation demanding that French women 
be given the franchise. The proclamation declares that the right 
of women to vote is recognized in enemy and allied countries, 
and instances England and the United States. We trust the 
French women will succeed. 

Woman Diplomatist. — Denmark has sent a woman to take 
a diplomatic post at Washington. She is Miss Gerda Andersen, 
who has arrived in this country to take up the duties of the second 
secretary of the Danish legation. She previously held a similar 
post in Petrograd. 

Teacher-Training for Relief Society Officers and Class 
Teachers. — The General Board of Relief Society is pleased to 
announce that all arrangements have been completed by the Cor- 
relation Committee of the auxiliary organizations for the estab- 
lishment of teacher-training classes in every ward in the Church. 
The Bishopric will take the initiative in calling together all the 
teachers in all of the auxihary organizations in the Ward in order 


that a class may be organized to study the simple rudiments of 
teaching. The immediate supervision of the class will be under 
the direction of the Superintendency of the Sunday School. The 
person in the ward best qualified will be selected as the class 
teacher. The day and hour best suited to the majority will be 
chosen and any other details arranged that may be necessary to 
produce the best results. Wherever possible it is recommended 
that the class meet on Sunday morning at 9 a. m. 

Professor Howard R. Driggs has written a text book, "The 
Art of Teaching." for the use of this class. Out of his long ex- 
periences as a teacher in the Church, in public schools and the 
State University of Utah, this manual on teaching has been pre- 
pared to suit the special needs of Latter-day Saints who are called 
to be teachers, without any preparation for so important an un- 
dertaking. The book is written by a Latter-day Saint to Latter- 
day Saints, and many experiences of the people in the Church 
are used as illustrations in the development of the lessons. 

This course will furnish class-teachers throughout the Relief 
Society a splendid opportunity to learn the best methods of class 
teaching, and great good will come to the Relief Society through 
the establishment of this course, which has the hearty endorse- 
ment of our General Board. 

The Art of Teaching, is ready for distribution and may 
be obtained from the Sunday School Union Book Store. Price, 
50 cents each, postpaid ; no discount on quantities. 


Nurse Survey. — Early in November the Stake Relief Soci- 
eties of Salt Lake county were asked to conduct a registration 
for nurses for the Salt Lake county chapter of the Red Cross. 
The Relief Society stake presidents responded as usital. The 
survey was conducted by the ward presidents through the teachers 
department and included a visit to the homes of all the residents 
in the county. A Red Cross band was worn by one of each pair 
of teachers. The survey was completed in a short time to the sat- 
isfaction of all concerned. Mr. Robert J. Shields, manager of 
the county chapter, was especially grateful for the work done. 

Fruit for Hospitals. — Dliring the early winter months the 
Salt Lake county stakes and the Davis county .stakes under 
the direction of the General Board, made a collection of fruit for 
the Reconstruction Hospital at Fort Douglas, and other hos- 
pitals and welfare institutions in Salt Lake City. Hundreds of 
quarts of fruit and jelly were brought to Relief Society heardquar- 
ters in the Bishop's Building, where it was sorted and labeled. 

On Thanksgiving 250 quarts of assorted fruit and 2 cartons 


of jelly were sent to the Reconstruction Hospital at Fort Douglas, 
and on Christmas the following distribution was made : 

Fort Douglas — 250 quarts assorted fruits, 20 cartons of jelly. 

L. D. S. Hospital — 250 quarts assorted fruits, 20 cartons of 

County^' Hospital — 150 quarts assorted fruits, 10 cartons of 

Sarah Daft Home — 50 quarts assorted fruits, 10 cartons of 

Neighborhood House — 50 quarts assorted fruits. 

Orphan's Home and Day Nursery — 50 quarts assorted fruits. 

Another consignment will be made to the reconstruction 
hospital at an early date. The stakes which so generously con- 
tributed this fruit are Pioneer, Granite, Cottonwood, Ensign, 
Liberty, Jordan, Salt Lake, North and South Davis. 

Vegetable Cowtest. — Readers of the Relief Society Magazine 
will be delighted to know that in the war vegetable contest for 
Salt Lake county our own Mrs. Janette A. Hyde, General Board 
member and business manager of the Magazine, won the $25 
prize of War Savings Stamps with a national certificate, awarded 
by the National War Garden Commission for the best preserved 
and most attractive appearing vegetables. Mrs. E. G. Hughes of 
the first ward in Provo won first prize for Utah county. 

Millard Stake. — Through the courtesy of Mrs. Susan Thomp- 
son, President of Millard Stake Relief Society, we are publish- 
ing the conservation report of that stake for the year of 1918. 
This report includes but four of the five wards. On account of the 
influenza epidemic the Scipio ward was unable to get a report to- 
gether. Families reporting, 235 ; value of gardening, $7712.35 ; 
chickens hatched, 8,459 ; canned fruit, 50,068 quarts ; dried fruit, 
3,048 pounds; canned vegetables, 3,338 quarts; dried vegetables, 
3,543 pounds; canned meat, 886 quarts; pickles, 1,103 quarts. 

Red Cross work in the Holden ward has been very success- 
ful : $154.09 was collected as a fund for the Red Cross and in 
addition to this the following articles were made by the society : 
bed socks, 10; socks, 120 pairs; knitted wash rags, 31 ; handker- 
chiefs, 72; bed tray cloths, 10; napkins, 9 ; bed shirts, 80; pajama 
suits, 25; bandages, 131; pillows, 22; comfort pillows, 4; sweat- 
ers, 10; children's dresses, 85; chemise, 65; sheets, 6; towels, 48. 

Stake Reports. — The influenza epidemic has prevented many 
of the stakes from getting their reports in early. In many in- 
stances stake and ward secretaries themselves have been ill and 
unable to compile their own reports and it has been necessary to 
have them done by people comparatively unfamiliar with the 


work. This condition has caused a great deal of anxiety among 
our faithful secretaries, who are anxious to have their reports 
compiled as soon as possible after the close of the year. If the 
situation could have been foreseen the regular time for receiving 
these reports might have been extended. 

In spite of all difficulties, however, two reports reached tKe 
office on January 14th from Sevier and Ogden stakes. Tintic and 
Wasatch were received on January 16th, South Davis and Tooele 
January 17th, Snowflake and South Sanpete, January 20th, Mont- 
pelier, January 21st, Raft River and Uintah, January 23rd, and 
Oneida on January 24th. 

Sevier Stake. — The Red Cross work in the Sevier stake has 
apparently been very successful. The following articles are re- 
ported: Surgical dressings, 1832; hospital -garments, 1222; 
number of knitted articles, 3220; refugee garments, 1224; arti- 
cles collected for Belgian relief, 10,055. The ward societies pur- 
chased $700.00 worth of Liberty Bonds and Relief Society indi- 
viduals $1750.00. The report indicates that the class work in the 
stake is regular. There are only two instances where all of the 
subjects outHned have not been taken up and in most of the 
wards current events are being discussed weekly. 

Ogden Stake. — Every ward in Ogden stake has taken up 
the regular outlined work and all but one are preceding the les- 
sons with discussions of current events. Throughout the epi- 
demic an effort has been made in this stake to keep in touch with 
the sick, 1548 special visits to the sick are reported, in addition 
to 5774 regular visits by the teachers ; $600.00 worth of Liberty 
Bonds were purchased by the ward societies, and in addition 
$6750.00 was invested in bonds by Relief Society members indi- 
vidually. A large amount of Red Cross work in all departments 
has been done and 2283 articles collected for Belgian relief. 

Tintic Stake. — Tintic stake, although but a few years old, is 
very active and up-to-date in all its departments. Nearly half of 
all of the enrolled members in the stake are subscribers to the 
Relief Society Magazine. This record is very much better than 
that of some of the larger and older stakes. In the last year 
membership has increased from 230 to 248. All of the wards are 
taking up the outlines including current events. The sick have 
been well cared for here, 944 special visits being reported, in ad- 
dition to 593 whole days spent with the sick. Four of the five 
wards each purchased a $50.00 Liberty Bond, and the fifth a 
$100.00 bond. Individual members of the Relief Society pur- 
chased in all $15,250.00 worth of bonds, a remarkable record. In 
addition to all the regular work, the women in this stake have 
done their share in Red Cross work. 

Construction -^nd 


Janette A. Hyde. 

In so far as the actual phyical combat of war is concerned 
it is all over ; but we women are now facing new conditions in 
our homes and with ourselves as to whether we who have won 
the war in the spirit of conservation, are now ready to meet the 
stern and .self-denying- needs of readjustment and rehabilitation. 

We are presenting our friends with these articles on con- 
struction and reconstruction in the home because this department 
is anxious to assist at this critical period in every possible way. 
Inasmuch as the clothing of the family is an important item of 
expense and often much wastage occurs, through lack of knowl- 
edge as to suitable material for the garments in course of con- 
struction and proper making up of such material, as well as ihe 
adapatability of the finished product, we are offering assistance 
to those who are interested in this subject. 

There are three general rules to be considered before the 
purchasing of material begins. 

1. Price of material. 

2. Suitability of material — occasions requiring same. 

3. Material and .styles that are suitable for making over, 
with or without the addition of new materials. 



Figures A and B show the position in which the pieces of 
the basque pattern are placed for a perfectly plain blouse. Note 
the small space betwen the pieces at the shoulder, which should 
be from 1/4 to 1/2 inch. This is always necessary and will 
guard against the possibility of your waists being tight when com- 
pleted, as a basque is fitted much tighter than a blouse should be. 

The front line of the basque is generally curved ; so the front 
line of the blouse, which is always straight, is taken from that 




portion of the line which comes above the bust and fits over the 
chest. This is shown in Fig. A. 

The extra amount added below the waist line is for looseness, 
but does not allow enough for Mousing. Where an extremely 
loose effect is desired at the bottom of the waist, as much as 
three inches should be allowed. Very young girls often wear 
this last mentioned effect. 

The allowance down the center front in Fig A is for lapping 
and still more must be added for a hem. Many of the new 
waists fasten in the back in which case place the center of the 
front, without this allowance, on the fold of the goods. Then in 
cutting the backs allow the same amount in the center of the back. 

Many of the popular styles of waists do not have the 
common regulation shoulder seam, but the .seam is one or two 
inches toward the front. Fig. C shows how this can be easily 
accomplished. Place the front and back shoulder of your pattern 
together. You may add to the back and take off the front and 
place your seams wherever you desire, but you must not change 
the shape of the neck or armeye. 

Figure C also shows where to fold back the pattern, if a low 
neck is desired. When the shoulder seam is brought forward, 
there is generally some fulness in the front. This may be allowed, 
as shown in Fig. D. Separate the two front pieces, but be sure 
that the points marked H and I are even on a straight line. This 
throws the line of the shoulder uneven, and to correct this, draw 
a line between the two outsi-de points marked J and K. The 
amount of fullness desired can only be determined by the effect 
desired. The fullnes may be gathered, tucked, smocked or treated 
in any way desired. Often smocking and tucking are done before 
cutting the waist. If j^ou do this, take the precaution to see 
that the fullness does not spread at the bottom when the pattern 
is placed on the cloth, but have it come within the same space at 
the bottom of the waist as it does at the shoulder. 

Correcting and Changing of Patterns. 

Very often one wishes to use a pattern which is a little larger 
all over, or smaller all over. This often happens when a mother 
is sewing for children of different sizes. All patterns, bought or 
otherwise, may be changed on the dotted lines in Figs. E and F. 
To reduce the pattern, make a fold from the shoulder to the bot- 
tom, through the chest and crosswise below the bust line, in both 
front and back. To make the pattern larger, cut the pattern on the 
dotted lines and separate the pieces so as to allow the necessary 
amount. This will bring extra size in the proper places. 

Fig. G shows how to correct a line on a pattern that has 


been reduced by folding out some material. All lines changed 
by enlarging, may be corrected and straightened as the shoulder 
seam in Fig. D has been treated. 


Underwear and hosiery can be used for making wash cloths, 
dusters, dustless mops, and braid rugs. Badly worn sheets and 
pillowcases may be carefully laundered, then torn and rolled into 
bandages and dressings for first-aid chest. Old tablecloths may 
be cut into luncheon cloths, napkins and doilies. Worn towels 
make wash cloths and holders. Scraps of new cloth pieced to- 
gether on the sewing-machine may be used as a comfort cover. 
Save every usable part of cast-ofif textiles in the house. 


Old stockings worn at the kness can be cut off and hemmed. 
These make good extra socks for small children in the summer. 
New feet can be cut from old uppers and used. New stockings 
should be reinforced at the tops to keep the supporters from 
cutting through. Old stocking tops folded make good kitchen 
holders. The edges should be overcast or loosely buttonholed. 
Closely woven tops make warm wristlets for children. Old 
stockings can be made into good mittens for outdoor work. Tops, 
white and black are often used to make stocking caps for small 
children. White stocking tops may be used to piece out sleeves 
and legs for winter underwear or for patches. Stocking legs make 
good sleeve protectors. "Hopeless" stockings make good mops 
when cut open. Old silk stockings are fine dust cloths. 


Washing rugs. — The cleaning of large rugs or carpets pre- 
sents difficulties to the housekeeper, yet the presence of dust in 
floor coverings is recognized as one of the greatest enemies to 
good health in the home. A rather easy way to remove dust and 
germs from the rugs is to first sweep thoroughly with sweeper 
or vacuum cleaner. (One should always wear a gauze mask when 
sweeping, by the way). The rug should then be washed with 
a lather made as follows : Two quarts of hot water made into 
a lather with Ivory or Naphtha or some other good soap. Add 
to this two tablespoonfuls of household ammonia and a cupful of 
gasoline. Use one-half the mixture at a time and scrub the rug 
with a clean scrubbing brush. Use old stocking legs or other 
clean absorbent cloths to immediately wipe off the excess moisture. 
It takes about 20 minutes to go over a 9 bv 12 rug in this way, 
and if it is properly done the nap stands up firmly and the original 
colors are restored, the rug haying all its original freshness. 

Oh Th^WatchIower 

James H. Anderson 

Berlin, Vienna and Petrograd all were scenes of fighting in 
January, with a long list of casualties. 

Ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II probably will be tried for capital of- 
fenses, the court to be selected from neutral nations. 

Territorial claims of the Entente allies occasioned consider- 
able dispute at the peace conference in Paris, in January. 

Prohibition is now a part of the United States Constitution, 
and goes into effect thereunder on January 16, 1920. 

Palestine, as well as Mesopotamia and Arabia, probably 
will have a government of its own, under modified British protec- 

German radicals were defeated in the elections in Germany 
in January, the majority Socialists being the chiefly successful po- 
litical party. 

The 145th light field artillery, known as "the Utah regi- 
ment" of the U. S. army, was mustered out of service at Logan, 
Utah, January 21 to 24. 

An Irish Republic was proclaimed in January, and British 
troops were demanded to be removed from Ireland. There was 
no such moving. 

Peace is receiving earnest and urgent discussion at the con- 
ference in Paris; civil war prevailing in Russia, Germany and 
Austria, meanwhile. 

Germany continues actively at war, notwithstanding the arm- 
istice ; this is required because of the attacks of Polish and Bolshe- 
vik armies on Germany's eastern borders. 

Numbers of English girls have become wives of American 


soldiers in Europe ; and numbers of English girls are married to 
Americans in this country. 

Portugal joined with the Entente Allies hi the "fight for 
democracy," and in January proceeded with a possibly successful 
revolution to restore the monarchy in that nation. 

Bolshevik troops were defeated by the allied troops in north- 
ern Russia in the early part of January, but were victorious over 
the allies in a battle in the latter part of January. 

Melvin J. Ballard, made a member of the Council of Apos- 
tles in January, has been an able and humble teacher of right- 
eousness from his youth. He is a native of Logan, Utah. 

Extended government control of railroads in the United 
States met with such general opposition in January that it would 
seem the people already have had enough of the experiment. 

Industrial disturbances, in the way of serious strikes, 
caused much uneasiness in England, Scotland, Ireland, the Ar- 
gentine Republic, parts of the United States, and other places, in 

Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt, than whom the people 
of Utah and other Rocky Mountain States never had a better 
friend in the White House, died at his home at Oyster Bay on 
January 6. 

Injustice in army trials and methods received considerable 
airing in the United States in January, and the movement for re- 
form therein gains impetus as soldiers are being demobilized and 
permitted to reveal true conditions. 

Women took part in the discussions of the Republican nation- 
al committee in the United States, in January, for the first time in 
history. One woman represented New York on the Atlantic coast 
and another Washington on the Pacific coast. 

Unionizing schoolteachers for higher wages is being at- 
tempted in Utah. Already the demand of the profession for more 
money and greater power of supervision over the youth make it 
look like a combination to "get power and gain." 

Church services among the Latter-day Saints in the inter- 
mountain region were suspended after the October conference, 
except on the first Sundays in January and February, until the 


second Sunday in the latter month, when they were resumed, the 
epidemic of influenza having abated considrably. 

The workmen's and soldiers' government in Russia has 
decided to furnish husbands to all unmarried women there be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 45 years, and to have the state take 
control of the children of such relationships. Ugh ! 

Another war within fifty yars, is the warning sent to Amer- 
icans unless Germans is permanently crippled by the peace confer- 
ence. The likelihood of another war within that time is by no 
means uncertain, but not on the same lines of cleavage as that 
now closing. 

The ninety-first division of the United States army, still 
in France, composed of men from the Rocky Mountain and Pacific 
Coast States, saw some of the hardest fighting of the war, has in 
it more "Mormons" than has any other army division, and includes 
the 362nd Infantry, which has a larger membership of "Mor- 
mons" than any other regiment in the division, and also shows a 
larger casualty list than any other of those regiments. 

Germany has been deservedly censured for its destructive 
vandalism in France during the war. In Barnes' General History, 
telling of the war of the Second Coalition, 1688-1697, this is what 
is recorded of the armies of France when these were in the Ger- 
man territory between the rivers Moselle and Rhine, now occu- 
pied by American and French troops : "The French army, unable 
to hold its conquests, destroyed over forty cities and villages. 
Houses were blown up; vineyards and orchards were cut down. 
Palaces, churches and universities shared a common fate. Even 
the cemeteries were profaned, and the ashes of the dead scattered 
to the winds. A cry of execration went up from the civilized 
world." War still is war. 

American women have something to think of in Mile. 
Yvonne Galli's publicly given reasons for saying, in January, that 
probably 250,000 American soldiers in France will marry French 
wives; here they are: "Our girls are perhaps not as clever as 
yours, but they are more lovable, more appealing to the heart of a 
brave, good man. Here is the difference : The French girl fol- 
lows her husband; the American girl wants to lead him. The 
French girl is happy in doing for the one she loves ; the Amer- 
ican girl demands he serve her. French wives are helpmeets to 
their husbands ; not their slave drivers. French daughters obey 
their parents ; do not dictate to them. French mothers are teach- 
ers of their children, not their servants." 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman - - - • - General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recordine Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward. Music Director 
Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor ........ Susa Young Gates 

Business Manager ...... Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. VI. MARCH, 1919. No. 3. 


The world is in commotion and everywhere men's hearts 
are failing- them for fear. Kings upon their thrones — few 
though there be left — are no more disturbed and anxious than 
are the national representatives of republican governments 
everywhere in the earth ; for the great mass of working people 
have awakened to the democratic fact that men should be equal- 
ized in environment and opportunity. There are not in any sec- 
tion of country in this wide world of ours, with the exception 
perhaps among the faithful Latter-day Saints in this Church 
and kingdom, any people who have the right ideals and the experi- 
ence to make those ideals practicable. And even we have per- 
n:itted ourselves to partake of the spirit of worldiness to a de- 
gree which would imperil our existence, as a Church, unless we 
take warning from the conditions in the outside world, and re- 
pent and prepare to do better. The Lord, who created the earth 
and the fulness thereof, sent His children here, as President 
Daniel H. Wells used to say, "to overcome, to serve and to 
endure." The gifts He gave to man, He intended for use in 
the service of one for the other, but the inborn selfishness, 


which is the largest part of our earth inheritance, prompts man 
to serve himself and his immediate family, leaving the rest of 
the world to get along as best it may. 

The Prophet Joseph Smith gave the revelation which we 
call the United Order, or the Order of Enoch, and which would, 
if followed, provide a perfect system of civil and social govern- 
ment. Brigham Young, in the last decade of his life, struggled 
hard to introduce that system amongst this people, but because 
he was unable to convert his own immediate associates, and 
because, too, of his ,sudden death, his plans were only partly 
developed and partially acted upon. He said, at the dedicatory 
services of the St. George Temple, that the people themselves 
were better prepared and more willing to try out this com- 
munity plan of life than were their leaders. He added that he 
had found the worst obstacles to his plans amongst his own 
associated brethren. "And," he added, "if they and this people 
will not try to adopt and carry out the principles of the United 
Order, I don't want to live to see the kind of United Order which 
will come upon this world." If Brigham Young could look abroad 
today, he would realize that the spurious form of the United 
Order, which he feared, is now sweeping over the earth in place of 
the pure principles of unselfish brotherhood which were taught 
in the Order of Enoch. For that form of united interests which 
is now abroad on the face of the whole earth is robbed of the di- 
vine essence of inspiration, and only the husks and covering 
of the golden grain of truth is left for the children of men to 
feed upon. How his great heart would sorrow to know of the 
troubles that are already upon the earth and which unquestion- 
ably will increase in virulence and misery until the destruction 
of the wicked is complete. Men know that something is wrong 
with existing governments, but they do not know how to correct 
the evils. 

The intelligent observer does not so much blame the work- 
ing people who combine into socialistic groups, for they have 
cause enough to . be weary and disgusted with the selfish rule 
of kings and selfishly made millionaires who flaunt riches and 
power in the faces of weaker men, and who oppress and abuse 
the families of those who lack the gift to achieve and acquire 
wealth. Gifts and money both should be and must be held as a 
sacred trust from God Almighty, with which to assist and bless 
mankind ere we can hope to be ready for the dawning of the 
Millennium. Granted that there are faults — and grievous ones 
— on the side of the Socialists, so there are faults — and grievous 
ones — on the side of the rich and the powerful ; all of them 
need the leveling influences of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 


Without that neither side can hope to understand and sympathize 
with those of opposite beHef. 

And we Latter-day Saints — are we free from this canker 
spot in our own midst ? Who are you that read these Hnes ? My 
dear sister, does your husband own his houses and lands, farms 
and automobile? And how do you act towards your dependents 
and towards those who are poor and struggling around you? 
Do you help them with friendship, not pity, and with constructive 
opportunity, not destructive alms? And you, my dear, struggling 
sister, without a home and perhaps dependent upon the charity 
of others for your maintenance — ido you resent your condition 
and hate those who are more fortunate than you, through cir- 
cumstances or inheritance? You see, dear sisters, all this is a 
double-edged sword and cuts both ways. What are you doing, 
and what am I doing towards bringing about the pure social- 
istic conditions which are embodied in the United Order? I 
mean, what are you doing in your own home and in your own 
neighborhood? Suppose you ask yourself. But be assured that 
no matter what the answer be, this world is on the verge of a 
maelstrom of destruction — the war of the classes and masses is 
at our doors. The winding up scenes are coming swiftly into 
view and the saints should be warned and prepare themselves to 
take a sane, conservative and inspired attitude in the midst of 
the trying .scenes which will grow in intensity from day to day, 
from month to month and from year to year. 

"And it shall come to pass, among the wicked, that every 
man that will not take his sword against his neighbor, must needs 
flee to Zion for safety. And there shall be gathered unto it 
out of every nation under heaven ; and it shall be the only people 
that shall not be at war one with another. And it shall be said 
among the wicked, Let us not go up to battle against Zion, for 
the inhabitants of Zion are terrible; wherefore we cannot stand. 
And it shall come to pass that the righteous shall be gathered 
out from among all nations, and shall come to Zion, singing with 
songs of everlasting joy." (D. '& C. 45:68-71.) 

People in Zion must first prepare themselves by overcoming 
selfishness, through serving each other, achieve calm endurance 
in the midst of these preliminary trials, so that we may be pre- 
pared to receive the hosts of stricken refugees who will come to 
Zion for safety, and to serve them with love and unselfish min- 
istry. The end is not far off. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in April. 

In our January lesson we asked that the UnitedOrder be dis- 
cussed. This was by way of introduction to the lesson of today, 
which brings us to a time when the Nephites were living in this 
holy order ; for so fruitful had been the ministrations and teach- 
ing of Christ among them that they were able to make this most 
advanced social order known to the children of men the rule of 
their lives. 

Rarely have people attained such social advancement ; but 
always a certain school of statesmen and economists, as well as 
poets and prophets, have been looking toward the day when such 
a system would be the governing social system of the world. 

The city of Enoch, translated, had attained this happy, heavenly 
state. The early Christians, of the old M^orld, arrived at ir, as did 
also the Nephites after the advent of the Lord of glory upon 
this continent. 

A few citations will serve to .show that time and time again 
the idea of sharing all things in common, has come to the fore, in 
the history of the race. 

Plato and Lycurgus, among the Greeks, had this idea. Sir 
Thomas More, among the British, advocated in his Uptopia that 
all rank and caste should be abolished, that all the inhabitants 
should work, even the prince and chief magistrate, and that all 
things .should be shared in common. 

He proposed that people dine in public, and that six hours 
should be an allotted day's work. Everyone, women as well as 
men, should know something of agriculture. There were to be 
no lawyers in Utopia, for where everything is common there is 
no occasion for disputes of possession or legal interference. 
There are no alms houses, because there are no poor. 

At a later time our attention has been called to these ideas 
in such books as Henry George's Progress and Poverty, Edward 
Bellamy's Looking Backivard, and in the Brook's Farm Experi- 
ment which drew to its support such celebrities as Hawthorne 
and Emerson. 


Turning- to the Book of Mormon we have the following 
most gratifying account, beginning with IV Nephi, 1 :2, 3 : 

"And it came to pass in the thirty and sixth year, the people 
were all converted unto the Lord, upon all the face of the land, 
both Nephites and Lamanites, and there were no contentions and 
disputations among them, and every man did deal justly one 
with another. 

"And . they had all things common among them, therefore 
they were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all 
made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift." 

And even after a hundred years had passed away since the 
advent of Christ among them, all was love and good will. Again, 
to employ the language of the Book of Mormon itself: 

"And it came to pass that there was no contention in the 
land, because of the love of God which did dwell in the hearts 
of the people. 

"And there were no envyings, nor strifes, nor tumults, nor 
whoredoms, nor lyings, nor murders, nor any manner of las- 
civiousness ; and surely there could not be a happier people a- 
mong all the people who had been created by the hand of God ; 

"There were no robbers, no murderers, neither were there 
Lamanites, nor any manner of ites ; but they were in one the 
children of Christ, and heirs to the kingdom of God: 

"And how blessed were they, for the Lord did bless them 
in all their doings ; yea, even they were blessed and prospered, 
until an hundred and ten years had passed away ; and the first 
generation from Christ has passed away, and there was no con- 
tention in all the land" (IV Nephi 1:15-18). 

Thus we learn what is possible and practical where people 
actually serve the Lord in spirit and in truth. 

In this latter dispensation the Lord has revealed His will 
in this matter, as it effects the Latter-day Saints. Surely the 
experience of the Nephites looms big with promises for us, when 
we shall have arrived at that state of righteousness that we may 
be partakers of God's glorious blessings. 

No questions are more pressing at the present time than 
these same social questions. Much of Europe is in a chaotic con- 
dition, and it is taxing the best minds and the best blood of the 
nations to find a way to bring order out of this chaos. Js not the 
world terrified, at this very hour, with the thought that at any 
moment labor troubles of the most serious character may break 
out and plunge us into immeasurable confusion and misery? 

Surely in that day, when the temple shall be reared in the 
center stake, and His Zion builded, we also, like the Nephites of 
old, shall be living God's higher social law. 



1. What demand does the United Order make in relation 
to the distribution of property? • 

2. How would the United Order settle the discontent and 
controversy always raging between capital and labor? 

3. How would it tend to abolish police officials? Alms- 
houses, etc? 

4. Why would it make the profession of law a superfluous 
profession ? 

5. What peoples have attained to this state of social per- 
fection under the direction of the priesthood? 

6. Tell some provisions More's Utopia made as a remedy 
for social ills? 

7. What are the things that make the strongest appeal to 
you in the Book of Mormon account of the establishment of the 
United Order? 

8. Do you think that any such social organization, apart 
from the priesthood, will succeed in the world? 

9. Do the Latter-day Saints believe that they will some day 
live this law, and participate in all its benefits? Why? 

10. Read, or better, sing the hymn, "Glorious Things are 
Sung of Zion." 


Work and Business. 

OECoNjj VV t-lixv .ln /\±-i<IL. 



Third Week in April. 


Teacher's Outlines. 

Many of the Anglo-Saxons were owners of small farms or 
home-places, so they were often surnamed from their places of 

Surnames derived from : 

(a) A town. 

(b) A river. 

(c) A street or wood. 

(d) Near a church or field, gate, hill, meadow or stream, 



As we have seen, the original civilized settlers of England 
were Anglo-Saxons. They had conquered the Celts and Britons 
in England at least and had settled down to several centuries of 
more or less peaceful ownership of their lands and small villages. 
They lived like all their races and tribes, carrying on the tribal cus- 
toms which they had inherited from their forefathers. 

The Anglo-Saxons lived in settled communities, unlike the 
semi-barbarous tribes of the north who warred with each other 
constantly. The Angles or English built little villages, planted 
and sowed their crops, and conducted their public affairs through 
a council of elders of the village. This council met in the open 
space which was a gathering place for the villagers where they 
held sports or contests of skill; There were no classes amongst 
them except the captives taken in battle, and all were pretty 
much on the same plane of living. 

All this was changed when the Normans came in, seized their 
lands, made serfs and bondsmen of the Anglo-Saxons, putting 
them under financial tribute to the baron who built a castle on 
some commanding hillside and who spent his time inside his 
castle walls with his soldiers drinking and rioting and making 
occasional excursions over to some other baron's holdings, 
amusing himself and his followers by having a pitched battle. 

The Anglo-Saxons were the tillers of the soil or the agri- 
culturists and thr jt^?^"^ nponle ; ve^ '"ib'tf ^Iv ^Nort^r- --°r^ 
or'igmally Anglo-Saxons themseves or Scandinavians, they had 
adopted the aristocratic customs of the French or Gauls in Nor- 
mandy in their centuries of residence there ; and now they lorded 
it over their Anglo-Saxon tribal connections in quite the aristo- 
cratic way. 

Therefore, when the surname custom became general, first 
the Normans took surnames and soon it became very fashionable to 
have surnames. Everybody likes to follow the fashion, and, in- 
deed, it was a convenient custom in all legal and civil matters. 

When the Anglo-Saxons began taking up surnames they fre- 
quently named themselves from the places where they lived, 
from their trades, as well as from nicknames and sire names. 

Place names are derived from: (a) a town; (b) a river; 
(c) a street or wood; and (d) near a church or field, gate, hill, 
meadow or stream, etc. The names of the rivers and towns of 
England are Anglo-Saxon names and these were incorporated in 
the names of the Anglo-Saxons themselves. 



How did the Ang-lo-Sascons live in their villages ? 
Who were the Norman barons? 
Can you tell any surnames derived from towns? 
Give a list of surnames derived from a river, a wood, a 

What is the meaning of Eccles? 

What surnames have you in your ward derived from places ? 


We are pleased to acquaint our genealogical students with the 
fact that Elder George Milton Babcock, Capitol Heights, Mary- 
land, (a suburb of Washington, D. C), has decided to offer his 
services to the Saints who wish research work done in the won- 
derful genealogical archives found in the Congressional Library 
at Washington, D. C. 

Elder Babcock has had a great deal of experience in this 
work, and he has lived here in Utah and knows our conditions. 
He is also associated with the Genealogical Society of Utah, and 
no doubt will keep in touch with the Librarian there, so that he 
will not duplicate information which can be obtained from our 
own library sources. We recommend him to our sisters every- 

His card contains the following suggestion : 

"Write me, through the Genealogical Society of Utah, giving 
an outline of the genealogy you desire. I shall then ascertain the 
data available, writing you and stating the cost of compilation. 
Fee, for preliminary investigation, of $1 must accom'pany inquiry." 


Home Courses. 

Fourth Week in April. 

Practical, trained Child Study has now become a world-wide, 
organized movement, and this close, skilled, systematic observa- 
tion of children has resulted in a broader insight and better un- 
derstanding of the essentials of normal, healthy child-life ; but the 
abundant literature published on the subject has so far inspired 
relatively few parents to give more sympathetic consideration to 
the details of their children's development, though it has stimu- 
lated many teachers to undertake individual study of their pupils. 

Many efforts have been made to classify children into groups, 
in order to assist in this analysis of their characteristics, and, if 


not too sharply defined or closely pressed these are undoubtedly 
helpful. Such efforts date back to r*mote periods of history, and 
testify to the long- existent desire to understand some of the lead- 
ing features which distinguish different phases of childhood. Two 
accepted classifications by recent authorities are here given as il- 
lustrations of such efforts. 

Classification No. 1 of Child Nature. 

1. Normal. 

a. Unemotional — (Impassive, of mediocre intelligence). 

b. Emotional. 

(1) Restrained. 

(a) Self controlled and progressive, the finest type 
of human being. 

(2) Unrestrained. 

(a) Gifted, but unstable. (Liable to mental insta- 

2. Abnormal. 

a. Neurotic. 

b. StoHd. 
Classification No. 2. 

(a) Motor — (vivacious and very active) ; (b) Sensory — 
(sensitive, quiet, and often reserved) (c) Neurotic (a fine tem- 
perament if properly trained) (d) Precocious — (unbalanced, 
calling for special treatment) (e) Backward, or subnormal — 
(conditions which must not be confused, for they are due to quite 
different causes.) 

There are two methods of direct child study: (1) Individual, 
v/hich records the development of a particular child. (2) Collec- 
tive ; which utilizes an accumulation of data from the examina- 
tion of a large number of children. Both have their place. 
Usually, for example, a complexity of reasons exists for a single 
manifestation, such as pallor, fatigue or irritability, all of which 
demand consideration if the true cause is to be treated. Hence 
the assistance of observations based on large numbers. Where 
experience is limited, the tendency is either to over emphasize or 
to under estimate one or other possible cause and probably to 
overlook the real source of the trouble. 

Does a child look dull or pale? The mother must .seek the 
answer through a reviev/ of that child's life for several previous 
days. Pallor may be caused by fatigue, over-excitement, great 
heat, nervous exhaustion as a result of want of sleep or overwork, 
fright, chronic malnutrition from defective or deficient diet, 
anaemia or debility from recent illness. Obviously, the weight 
to he attached to the pallor and the treatment depend upon its 
cause. Not slight, hourly variations in appearance, which are 


natural, must be taken into account, but the duration of the 
changes and their degree of intensity. 

How few mothers pause to consider whether volunteered 
advice as to treatment is applicable to the particular case. "They 
say" is too seldom reliable ; and serious harm may be done by 
giving drugs of which parents do not know the actual dose, pos- 
sible effect or suitability to the case. Nature's own methods — 
rest, warmth, quiet and plenty of water to drink, are now ever 
more and more employed as effective and safe remedies for most 

Information derived from reliable child study is based on 
observations of the general pose, movements and face. Family 
likeness is chiefly revealed when the face is in repose ; when alert 
and interested, the same face reflects the individual characteris- 
tics of its owner ; the face also throws light on the nutrition of 
the individual ; though it is well to remember that especially in 
childhood, the face may be round and plump, yet the body may 
be thin and ill-nourished. 

Authorities recommend the study of a face in three zones : 
(1) The upper third, which includes the hair and brow. Here 
attention should be given to the general appearance, form and 
condition of the head. Hair should be bright and vigorous in 
growth. If dry, dull and scanty, the usual cause is malnutrition. 
The forehead should be upright and even in contour : The skin, 
pink, smooth, and free from blemish or furrows. 

(2) The middle zone includes the eyes, nose, cheeks and 
ears. Eyes should be bright and their gaze steady. Wandering 
eyes may characterize highly nervous children, when training 
will control them ; or mentally defective children, when this is not 
possible, all over-action of any part is as undesirable as lethargy. 
Red rims, sticky secretion, scanty eyelashes, indicate eye strain 
and call for immediate attention from an occulist. Most so called 
"bilious attacks" or sick headaches are due to unsuspected eye 
strain. Bagginess or dark circles under the eyes are evidences 
of fatigue, debility or dyspepsia, and call for correct treatment. 
Apple cheeks are no longer considered a sign of redundant health. 
Such bright color is caused by want of nerve control of the blood 
vessels in the skin, and is associated with some nervous instability. 
Such children need an open air life, plenty of sleep and suitable 
diet, with no excess of sugar or starch food. The development 
and form of nose and ears are in their turn indexes to normal or 
abnormal conditions, which should be understood by all parents. 

(3) The mouth and chin constitute the third zone. A firm, 
well closed mouth is a great asset; a slack, loose, open mouth 
suggests not only adenoid growths, but a slack, loose character. 


Teeth are specially to be noted ; diseased teeth at any age seriously 
undermine the health and permit the access to the body of serious 
infections, such as tuberculosis. 

A student of posture notes if a child stands fair and square, 
or if the shoulders are round and one lower than the other, which 
means contracted lungs and constrained activity of the digestive 
organs. A .slight swaying is normal when standing; if noticeable 
or over emphasized, the child is to some extent unbalanced, 
physiologically or mentally. Great care should be given to train- 
ing in a good sitting posture, to ensure free movements of the 
lungs and digestive organs ; all children require to have spines 
and feet properly supported, or bad habits of posture are sure to 

Many lessons can be learned from observation on hand pos- 
ture, most of which can be made in the form of play, which ren- 
ders the child unsuspicious and natural. Suggest raising both 
arms to shoulder level — are they at the same level, which is the 
lower, are the hands stretched straight, do the thumbs droop, or 
are they in the same plane as the fingers? Dropped thumbs, for 
example, mean fatigue and the child is unfit for any kind of strain 
that day. Hands and their posture are typical of a neurotic or 
energetic temperament, or of fright, debility, low mentality or ill- 

This brief outline will suffice to indicate how broad is the 
field and how valuable are the results of an Intelligent Study of 
Children, and at the .same time, it should testify to the urgent need 
for more general attention to so important a subject. 


Hygiene of the School Child — Termn, chapts. 7, 8, 11, 12, etc. 

Individual in the Making — Kirkpatrick, chapts V, VI, etc. 
— Houghton, Mifflin Co., Chicago, 111. 

Child Life — Its Development and Care — Ravenhill — Utah 
Agricultural College, Logan, Utah. Page 33, etc. 


1. What do you understand by Child Study ? 

2. By what methods can this study he carried on? 

3. What types of children have you observed? 

4. What lessons can we learn from a child's face? 

5. How does posture influence health? 

6. Give some observations you have made bearing on the 
subject of this lesson. 

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APRIL, 1919 


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Relief Society Department 

Home Office: Vermont Building 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

The Relief Societv Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


APRIL, 1919. 

General Allenby Entering Jerusalem Frontispiece 

The Last Days Maud Beggarley 187 

The Passover and the Lord's Supper Mary Foster Gibbs 189 

Little Son Bessie Van Wagenen 210 

The Funny-Bone Route Ruth Moench Bell 211 

Our Indian Cousins 218 

Planting Trees this Spring 222 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home . . Janette A. Hyde 225 

The Official Round Table 

Clarissa Smith Williams and Amy Brown Lyman 229 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 235 

Editorial 238 

Guide Lessons 240 


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The spring, like dawn embodied, 

Trailed her robes afar; 

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That I caught my breath in awe 

Enraptured at the beauty and the splendor 

That I saw. 

A divine and wonderous radiance 

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Fulfilment of his plan. 

Paradisiacal is the glory that is clothing 

Land and sea ! 

Look about, behold the vision ! 

Who hath eyes then let him see ! 

© Underwood & Underwood, New York 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. VI 

APRIL, 1919. 

No. 4. 

The Passover and the Lord's Supper 

Alary Foster Gibbs. 

The release of Jerusalem and Palestine from the Gentile 
rule of the Turk has turned the mind and thoughts of the Latter- 
day Saints to the many predictions and hopes of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith and his associates as well to the prophecies of the 
ancient Hebrew seers. Particularly are our thoughts turned back 
to the historic visit of Apostle Orson Hyde, in 1841, to Jerusa- 
lem and the dedicatory prayer 
which he voiced on the Mount 
of Olives. We give in the 
following pages this prayer 
as it was printed many years 
ago under his own direction. 
It should be read and pre- 
served by the Latter-day 
Saints as marking an epoch in 
the history of this people and 
the history of the world itself. 
It is an item of surpass- 
ing interest to know that when 
Madam Lydia Mountford was 
here lecturing, twenty-five 
years ago, her first words 
were of joy and gratitude that 
she could at last mingle with 
the people about whom she 
had heard her father speak 
many times. She stated that 
her father was a Russian 
refugee banished from his na- 
ELDER ORSON HYDE. tive ^ couutry because he 

taught a religion which he and eleven others called an Ephraimitic 
relig^ion, and when so banished he chose to go to Jarusal«« 


where our Savior had lived, preached and been crucified. 
There he kept open house for the rare European travelers who 
visited that ancient city in those early days, and there, too, he 
entertained Elder Orson Hyde and heard his story about the 
young man with the golden Bible, and often spoke of it to his 
children as a marvelous religious possibility. Poor Madam 
Mountford was a baptized member of this Church, but she could 
not quite bring her will and purposes to accept of the common 
sacrificial lot which accompanies the convert in his entrance 
publicly into the fold of Christ. She died in Florida in February, 
two years ago, and, therefore, did not live to know of the 
delivery of her beloved Jerusalem from the oppressive Turk who 
had ruled that land so long. President Lund, on his visit to 
Jerusalem, received many courtesies at the hands of Madam 
Mountford, and declared on his return that ,she was a person of 
the greatest importance and distinction in her native land. The 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, v/ho received President Lund, called her 
"the daughter of Jerusalem." No doubt her spirit rejoices in the 
release of her native land and in the near approach of the fulfil- 
ment of the prophecies. 

It is an interesting and unique circumstance that a grand- 
nephew of Apostle Orson Hyde was in General Allenby's com- 
pany when the English entered Jerusalem and took po,ssession 
of the city. His name is Cecil Reginald Talbot Joyce, and he is 
the son of Major Thomas Talbot Joyce and Mrs. Genevieve 
Price Joyce. She was the niece of Apostle Orson Hyde, whose 
wife, Mary Ann Price was the sister of the late Bishop William 
Price of Goshen, Utah. 

Cecil Joyce, was a lieutenant in the British army when the 
war broke out, and after three and a half years service in France 
he was transferred to Egypt. 

He was present at the taking of Jerusalem and made 
the march over the awful Tyrian desert from that city to Damas- 
cus, being attached to Allenby's cavalry. 

He entered Damascus with General Allenby's forces. Un- 
der date of October 2, 1918, he wrote his mother as follows : 

"My darling Mother: Have only time to send a few lines. 
The most remarkable, sweeping, swift advance of our cavalry, 
the world has ever known, landed us in Damascus, a glorious city, 
a paradise, especially to us after treking over miles of lava des- 
ert. The scenes we have passed through baffle description ; wild 
Arab tribes. King Hedjas' troops, fleeing Turks, ,sulky Germans ; 
thirst, hunger, cold and heat ; and to cap it all an earth-quake 
nearly 'did us in' while we were smashing the Ottoman Empire 
in Palestine and Syria. So you will quite understand, dearest 


© Underwood &■ Underwood, New York 

mother, that I have had a thrilHng time and wonderful adven- 
tures." * * * 

He states that the Turkish officers, whipped to their knees, 
gave their gold watches and chains to the English Tommies for 
their water bottles filled with muddy water. King Hedjas and 
his Arab troops flooded Damascus with English gold. There 
were mad, joyous celebrations. The liberated people fell on 
their knees and showered men and officers with roses, wreaths 
and kisses. Dancing went on day and night. The hill people all 
came to see the celebrations. The bazaars were gay and the 
whole place was paved with English gold. The Union Jack and 
the French triclolor floated from every window ; camels and 
caravans from the desert, on their way to Jerusalem, camped 
there, every one wearing the English and French flags, the em- 



blems of their emancipation from the Turks, slavery and cruelty. 
It was a thrilling" sight, picturesque and wonderful. 


On Sunday morning, October 24th, 1841, a good while be- 
fore day, I arose from sleep, and went out of the city (Jerusalem) 
as soon as the gates were opened, crossed the brook Cedron, and 
went upon the Mount of Olives, and there in .solemn silence, with 
pen, ink, and paper, just as I saw in the vision, offered up the 
following prayer to him who lives forever and ever : 

"O Thou ! who art from everlasting to everlasting, eternally 
and unchangeably the san:e, even the God who rules in the heav- 
ens above, and controls the destinies of men on the earth, wilt 
Thou not condescend, through thine infinite goo^^ness and royal 
favor, to listen to the prayer of Thy servant which he this day 
offers up unto Thee in the name of Thy holy child Jesus, upon 
this land, where the Sun of Righteousness sat in blood, and thine 
Anointed One expired. 

"Be pleased, O Lord, to forgive all the follies, weaknesses, 
vanities, and sins of Thy servant, and strengthen him to resist all 
future temptations. Give him prudence and discernment that he 
may avoid the evil, and a heart to choose the good ; give him 
fortitude to bear up under trying and adverse circumstances, and 
grace to endure all things for Thy name's sake, until the end shall 
come, when all the Saints shall rest in peace. 

"Now, O Lord ! Thy servant has been obedient to the heav- 
enly vision which Thou gavest him in his native land ; and under 
the shadow of Thine outstretched arm, he has safely arrived in 
this place to dedicate and consecrate this land unto Thee, for the 
gathering together of Judah's scattered remnants, according to 
the predictions of the holy prophets — for the building up of Jeru- 
salem again after it has been trodden down by the Gentiles so 
long, and for rearing a temple in honor of Thy name. Everlast- 
ing thanks be ascribed unto Thee. O Father, Lord of heaven and 


earth, that Thou hast preserved Thy servant from the dangers of 
the seas, and from the plague and pestilence which have caused the 
land to mourn. The violence of man has also been restrained, 
and Thy providential care by night and by day has been exercised 
over Thine unworthy servant. Accept therefore, O Lord, the 
tribute of a grateful heart for all past favors, and be pleased to 
continue Thy kindness and mercy towards a needy worm of the 

"O Thou, Who didst covenant with Abraham, Thy friend, 
and Who didst renew that c6venant with Isaac, and confirm the 
same with Jacob with an oath, that Thou wouldst not only give 
them this land for an everlasting inheritance, but that Thou 
wouldst also remember their seed forever. Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob have long .since closed their eyes in death, and made the 
grave their resting place. Their children are scattered and dis- 
persed abroad among the nations of the Gentiles like sheep that 
have no shepherd, and are still looking forward to the fulfilment 
of those promises which Thou didst make concerning them ; and 
even this land, which once poured forth nature's richest bounty, 
and flowed, as it were, with milk and honey, has, to a certain 
extent, been smitten with barreness and sterility since it drank 
from murderous hands the blood of Him who never sinned. 

"Grant, therefore, O Lord, in the name of Thy well-beloved 
Son, Jesus Christ, to remove the barrenness and sterility of this 
land, and let springs of living water break forth to water its 
thirsty soil. Let the vine and the olive produce in their strength, 
and the fig-tree bloom and flourish. Let the land become abund- 
antly fruitful when possessed by its rightful heirs ; let it again 
flow with plenty to feed the returning prodigals who come home 
with a spirit of grace and supplication ; upon it let the clouds dis- 
til virtue and richness, and let the fields smile with plenty. Let 
the flocks and the herds greatly increase and multiply upon the 
mountains and the hills ; and let Thy great kindness conquer and 
subdue the unbelief of Thy people. Do Thou take from them their 
stony heart, and give them a heart of flesh; and may the Sun of 
Thy favor dispel the cold mists of darkness which have beclouded 
their atmosphere. Incline them to gather in tipon this land ac- 
cording to Thy word. Let them come like clouds and like doves 
to their windows. Let the large ships of the nations bring them 
from the distant isles ; and let kings become their nursing fathers, 
and queens with motherly fondness wipe the tear of sorrow from 
their eye. 

"Thou. O Lord, did once move upon the heart of Cyrus to 
show favor unto Jerusalem and her children. Do Thou now also 
be pleased to inspire the hearts of kings and the powers of the 
earth to look with a friendly eye towards this place, and with a 


desire to see Thy righteous purposes executed in relation there- 
to. Let them know that it is Thy good pleasure to restore the 
Kingdom unto Israel — raise up Jerusalem as its capital, and con- 
.stitute her people as a distinct nation and government, with David 
Thy servant, even a descendant from the loins of ancient David to 
be their king. 

"Let that nation or that people who shall take an active part 
in behalf of Abraham's children, and in the raising up of Jerusa- 
lem, find favor in Thy sight. Let not their enemies prevail against 
them, neither let pestilence or famine overcome them, but let the 
glory of Israel overshadow them, and the power of the Highest 
protect them; while that nation or kingdom that will not serve 
Thee in this glorious work must perish, according to Thy word — 
'Yea, those nations shall be utterly wasted.' 

"Though Thy servant is now far from his home, and from 
the land bedewed with his earliest tear, yet he remembers, O 
Lord, his friends who are there, and family, whom for Thy sake 
he has left. Though poverty and privation be our earthly lot, 
yet, oh ! do Thou richly endow us with an inheritance where moth 
and rust do not corrupt, and where thieves do not break through 
and steal. 

"The hands that have fed, clothed, or shown favor unto the 
family of Thy servant in his absence, or that shall hereafter do 
so, let them not lose their reward, but let a special blessing rest 
upon them, and in Thy kingdom let them have an inheritance 
when Thou shalt come to be glorified in this society. 

"Do Thou also look with favor upon all those through whose 
liberality I have been enabled to come to this land ; and in the 
day when Thou shalt reward all people according to their works, 
let these also not be past by or forgotten, but in time let them be 
in readiness to enjoy the glory of those mansions which Jesus 
has gone to prepare. Particularly do Thou bless the stranger in 
Philadelphia, whom I never saw, but who sent me gold, with a 
request that I should pray for him in Jerusalem. Now, O Lord, 
let blessings come upon him from an unexpected quarter, and 
let his basket be filled, and his storehouse abound with plenty, and 
let not the good things of the earth be his only portion, but let 
him be found among those to whom it shall be said, 'Thou hast 
been faithful over a few things, and I will make thee ruler over 

"O my Father in heaven ! I now ask Thee in the name of 
Jesus to remember Zion, with all her Stakes, and with all her as- 
semblies. She has been grievously afflicted and smitten ; she has 
mourned ; she has wept ; her enemies have triumphed, and have 
said, 'Ah, where is thy God?' Her Priests and Prophets have 
groaned in chains and fetters within the gloomy walls of prisons, 


while many were slain, and now sleep in the arms of death. How 
long, O Lord, shall iniquity triumph, and sin go unpunished? 

"Do Thou arise in the majesiy of Thy strength, and make 
bare Thine arm in behalf of Thy people. Redress their wrongs, 
and turn their sorrow into joy. Pour the spirit of light and knowl- 
edge, grace and wisdom, into the hearts of her Prophets, and 
clothe her Priests with salvation. Let light and knowledge march 
forth through the empires of darkness, and may the honest in 
heart flow to their standard, and join in the march to go forth to 
meet the Bridegroom. 

"Let a peculiar blessing rest upon the Presidency of Thy 
Church, for at them are the arrows of the enemy directed. Be 
Thou to them a sun and shield, their strong tower and hiding 
place ; and in time of distress or danger be Thou near to deliver. 
Also the quorum of the Twelve, do Thou be pleased to stand by. 
for Thou knowest the obstacles which they have to encounter, the 
temptations to which they are exposed, and the privations which 
they must suffer. Give us (the Twelve), therefore, strength ac- 
cording to our day, and help us to bear a faithful testimony of 
Jesus and his Gospel, and to finish with fidelity and honor the 
work which Thou hast given us to do, and then give us a place 
in Thy glorious kingdom. And let this blessing rest upon every 
faithful officer and member in Thy Church. And all the glory 
and honor will we ascribe unto God and the Lamb for ever and 
ever. Amen." 

On the top of Mount Olives I erected a pile of stones as a 
witness according to the ancient custom. On what was anciently 
called Mount Moriah, where the temple stood, I erected another, 
and used the rod according to the prediction on my head. 

Let us add here an extract from a letter of Elder Orson 
Hyde written at "Trieste, Januarv 1 and 18. 184!^" see Millennial 
Star, Vol. n, pages 166-169. 

"highly interesting from JERUSALEM. 

"We have lately received two lengthy and highly interest- 
ing communications from Elder Orson Hyde, dated at Trieste, 
January 1st, 18th, containing a sketch of his voyage and travels 
in the East, his visit to Jerusalem, a description of ancient Zion, 
the pool of Siloam, and many other places famous in holy writ, 
with several illustrations of the manners and customs of the 
East, as appHcable to Scripture texts, and several conversations 
held betw^een himself and some of the Jews, missionaries, etc., 
in Jerusalem, together with the masterly description of a terrible 
tempest and thunder storm at sea, with a variety of miscellaneous 
reflections and remarks, all written in an easy, elegant, and 


masterly style, partaking of the eloquent and sublime, and breath- 
ing a tone of that deep feeling, tenderness and affection so char- 
acteristic of his mission and the spirit of his holy and sacred 

"Elder Hyde has by the grace of God been the first pro- 
claimer of the fulness of the Gospel both on the continent of 
Europe and in far off Asia, among the nations of the East. In 
Germany, Turkey (Constantinople), Egypt, and Jerusalem. He 
has reared as it were the ensign of the latter-day glory, and 
sounded the trump of truth, calling upon the people of those re- 
gions to awake from their thousand years' slumber, and to make 
ready for their returning Lord. 

■'In his travels he has suffered much, and has been exposed 
to toils and dangers, to hunger, pestilence and war. He has been 
in perils by land and sea, in perils among robbers, in perils among 
heathens, Turks, Arabs, and Egyptians ; but out of all these 
things the Lord hath delivered him, and hath restored him in 
safety to the .shores of Europe, were he is tarrying for a little 
season, for the purpose of publishing the Truth in the German 
language, having already published it in French and English in 
the various countries of the East, and we humbly trust that his 
labors will be a lasting blessing to Jew and Gentile. 

"We publish the following extract of his communication, and 
we shall soon issue the whole from the press in pamphlet form. 
It will, no doubt, meet with a ready sale ; and we purpose devoting 
the profits to his benefit, to assist him in his mission. 

" 'Mrs. Whiting told me that there had been four Jewish 
people in Jerusalem converted and baptized by the English min- 
ister, and four only; and that a part of the ground for an English 
church had been purchased there. It was by political power and 
influence that the Jewish nation was broken dozvn, and her sub- 
jects dispersed abroad; and I tvill hazard the opinion, that by 
political power and influence they will be gathered and built up; 
and further, that England is destined in the wisdom and economy 
of heaven to stretch forth the arm of political power, and ad- 
vance in the front ranks of this glorious enterprise. The Lord 
once raised up a Cyrus to restore the Jews, but that was not evi- 
dence that He owned the religion of the Persians. This opinion 
I submit, however, to your superior wisdom to correct if you 
shall find it wrong. 

" 'There is an increasing anxiety in Europe for the restora- 
tion of that people (the Jews) ; and this anxiety is not confined 
to the pale of any religious community, but it has found its way 
to the courts of kings. Special ambassadors have been sent, and 
consuls and consular agents have been appointed. The rigorous 



> ■;?• 

O c- 

■ c; 



policy which has hitherto characterized the course of other na- 
tions towards them now begins to be softened by the oil of friend- 
ship, and modified by the balm of humanity. The sufferings and 
privations under which they have groaned for so many centuries 
have at length touched the main-springs of Gentile power and 
sympathy; and may the God of their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, fan the flame by celestial breezes, until Israel's banner, 
sanctified by a Savior's blood, shall float on the walls of old 
Jerusalem, and the mountains and valleys of Judea reverberate 
with their songs of praise and thanksgiving to the Lamb that 
was slain. 

'The imperial consul of Austria, at Galatz near the mouth 
of the Danube, to whom I had a letter of introduction from his 
cousin in Vienna, told me that in consequence of so many of their 
Jewish subjects being inclined, of late, to remove to Syria and Pal- 
estine, his government had established a general consul at Beyroot 
for their protection. There are many Jews who care nothing about 
Jerusalem, and have no regard for God. Their money is the god 
they worship, yet there are many of the most pious and devout 
among them who look towards Jerusalem as the tender and 
affectionate mother looks upon the home wherfe she left her lovely 
little babe." ' {History of the Church, Vol. IV, pages 495-6, 8, 9.) 

When that temple is built in Jerusalem, we have often won- 
dered if the Jews now living would be able to perform the' bap- 
tisms for their dead ; they could not unless records of their an- 
cestors had been kept. When the Temple was destroyed in 70 
A. D., by Titus it has been thought the wonderful Jewish pedi- 
grees kept for centuries were destroyed at the same time. Con- 
siderable effort has been made to learn something concerning 
Jewish pedigrees in modern times. 

A new and interesting point concerning the genealogy kept 
by the modern Jews is from a letter received from Mr. L. F. 
Strauss of Boston, Massachusetts, from which we quote the fol- 

"Orthodox Jews— which division still includes three-fourths 
of the Jewish people as a whole, although only one-tenth of the 
Jewish people in the United States — keep a record of their gen- 
ealogy. Every religious Jew knows the tribe to which he belongs. 
I, for example, on my mother's side, am a Levite — a descend- 
ant of Aaron ; on my father's side, I sprang from the tribe of 

"Any Jew with a name of Kahn, Cohen, Cohn, is a descend- 
ant of Aaron. Any Jew with the name of Levi is a Levite; but 
not all the descendants of Aaron have the name of Kahn or 
Cohen, nor do all Levites today have the name of Levi. 

"Any religious Jew necessarily knows his tribe, for on the 


Sabbath, during the reading of the law, the members of the con- 
gregation are called up in the order of the tribe to which they 
belong. Priests and Levites have special functions in Jewish ri- 

How glorious will be the day when "the sons of Levi do 
offer again an offering unto the Lord in righteousness." 
Doc. and Cov. Sec. 13. 


There are so many remarkable events connected with the 
Passover season which occurs always in the early spring, that at- 
tention is here called to some of them with the hope that the 
spiritual significance connected therewith may sink deep into the 
hearts of the readers of the Magazine. 

The Passover was instituted by Moses ; in Egypt at the last 
of the plagues and that fateful night he instructed the Hebrew peo- 
ple to kill a white lamb which was to be the firstling of the flock, 
a male and without spot or blemish ; it was to be killed and roasted 
whole in the oven, a pomegranate wooden cross holding it dur- 
ing the roasting process. It was to be eaten by the family, who 
were to be dressed ready for flight, and it must be accompanied 
with bitter herbs and unleavened bread. The blood of this lamb 
was to be sprinkled, by each householder or patriarch of each 
family, on the lintels of the door so that the angel of death, in 
passing over Egypt to slay the first born male child in every fam- 
ily, would see the sprinkled blood of the sacrificial lamb and pass 
over that household. At midnight, immediately after the con- 
clusion of the Passover supper, the Hebrews took their flight into 
the wilderness, released by Pharaoh. 

This Passover service was perpetuated through divine law, 
and exact details are given in Exodus 12; 13:1-10; Leviticus 23: 
4-8; Numbers 9:1-14, and Deuteronomy 16:1-8. 

All down the centuries the Jews observed this great, early 
spring festival with pomp and ceremony. Every Jewish family 
was to be represented by practically all of its members in the city 
of Jerusalem, during the week of this greatest of all the feasts and 
fasts enjoined upon the covenant people of the Lord. Modification 
necessarily crept in : for instance, a whole lamb was sometimes too 
large for one family and other related families might join to- 
gether and eat of the supper. Also, since the destruction of Jeru- 
salem the orthodox Jews who still religiously observe the festi- 
val use a shoulder roast of lamb. Women were not legally 
obliged to go up to Jerusalem, yet we know from Scripture, and 
from the rules laid down by Jewish authorities, that such was 



a common practice. The Passover week was a joyous time for 
all Israel. From all parts of the land and from foreign coun- 
tries the festive pilgrims went up in bands, singing their 
pilgrim psalms, and bringing with them burnt and peace-offer- 
ings, according as the Lord had blessed them ; for none might 
appear empty before Him. How large the number of worshipers 
was, may be gathered from Josephus. who records that, when 
Cestius requested the high-priest to make a census, in order to 
convince Nero of the importance of Jerusalem and of the Jewish 
nation, the number of lambs slain was found to be 256,500, which, 
at the lowest computation of ten persons of every sacrificial lamb, 
would give a population of 2,700,200 persons, while on an earlier 
occasion, (A. D. 65) he computes the number present at not 
fewer than three millions. Of course, many of these pilgrims must 
have camped outside the walls. Those who lodged within the walls 

© Underwood & Underwood, New York 


were gratuitously accommodated, and in return left to their hosts 
the skins of the Passover lambs and the vessels which they had 
used in their sacred services. 

This service was observed, then, for hundreds of years, few, 
if any of those who partook of it realizing that every part and 
portion of it was directly symbolic of the Master's great aton- 
ing sacrifice. 

Another important feature of the Passover supper was the 
unleavened bread which must form a principal portion of the 
feast. So particular did this matter become in later centuries that 
the head of the household made a ceremony of searching the 
house to^the remotest corner for any bit of leaven that might have 
been left, or for any bit of bread that contained leaven. 

Leaven, it must be remembered, is yeast, and the yeast plant 
of the orientals was first scraped from the skin of the grapes, 
and the culture made in something the same manner that it is 
today; but the Jewish women kept a little piece of the dough 
from baking day to baking day and raised the bread with this 
piece of leavened dough put into the middle of the new batch of 
flour, kneading it in ; this was rather a common custom among 
the old New England families. Because of this, the bread was 
always a little bit sour ; the same custom is followed in Northern 
Europe, and accounts for the little acid flavor in much of the 
black bread there found. The yeast plant is the lowest form of 
life and is, therefore, significant in that it was forbidden to be 
used in this symbolic feast which typifies the crucifixion of the 
Savior. The unleavened cakes, which were the only bread usecl 
during the feast, might be made of either wheat, barley, oats or 
rye, but they must be prepared and baked quickly before fermen- 
tation had begun. They were to be mixed with water and not 
with fruit liquor. 

The ceremony in the temple at the Paschal season was in- 
teresting. In the lower courts they had many shambles where 
cattle and doves were kept. It was against the very profitable 
traffic in all such offerings carried on by the priests in the temple 
courts that the Lord Jesus cried out, only a few days before his 
death, when he overthrew the table and the money changers, much 
to the astonishment and indignation of the priests who had al- 
ways thus made a generous if irregular fortune. (Matt. 21 :12, 13 ; 
John 2:13-18.) 

Before the evening incense was burned or the lamps were 
trimmed, the general Paschal sacrifice had to be offered in the tem- 
ple courts, for the priests themselves had to offer this sacrifice 
as well as all the Jewish households. The householders who took 
the lambs to the Temple to be slain were divided into companies 
of thirty and as many as the great courts could hold at a time 


crowded into the lower courts, and immediately the massive gates 
were closed behind them. The priests sounded a three-fold blast 
on their silver trumpets just as the Passover lambs were slain. In 
the two upper courts stood the priests in two rows, one row 
holding each a golden bowl and the other row a silver bowl. Into 
these golden bowls the blood of the Paschal lambs, was quickly 
poured, then handed to the next priest with the silver 
bowl; and so the bowls with the blood were passed up to 
the priests at the altar who jerked the contents of each cup in one 
jet at the base of the altar. All this time a solemn hymn of praise 
was sung, the Levites leading and the people responding in much 
the same way as the ritual services are now rendered in the 
Catholic and Episcopalian churches. Every first line of the 
Psalm was repeated by the people, while to each of the others 
they responded by a "Hallelujah," or "Praise ye the Lord." 

Following this service in the temple, the head of each house- 
hold retired with his lamb to his own home to prepare the feast 
for his family, and then other companies were admitted into the 
temple enclosure, as long as the evening hours would permit. 

During the eating of the Passover feast another interesting 
ceremony occurred. It will be remembered that the Jews, indeed 
nc ancient people, had printed books nor had they access to great 
masses of records and books such as we have today. The only 
way to carry on the religious ceremonies from generation to gen- 
eration, to teach history and to impress principles upon the minds 
of growing youth was through oral tradition. Moses arranged, 
therefore, that after the first portion of the feast had been par- 
taken of, the oldest or the youngest son shall arise and ask these 
questions : 

"Why is this night distinguished from all other nights? For 
on all other nights we eat leavened or unleavened bread, but on 
this night only unleavened bread? On all other nights we eat 
any kind of herbs, but on this night only bitter herbs? On all 
other nights we eat meat roasted, stewed, or boiled, but on this 
night only roasted? On all other nights we dip (the herbs) only 
once, but on this night twice?" 

"Then the father instructs his child according to the 
capacity of his knowledge, beginning with onr disgrace 
and ending with our glory, and expounding to him from, 'A 
Syrian, ready to perish, was my father,' till he has explained all 
through, to the end of the whole section" (Deut. 26:5-11). In 
other words, the head of the house was to relate the whole national 
history, commencing with Terah, Abraham's father, and telling 
of his idolatry, and continuing, in due order, the story of Israel 
up to their deliverance from Egypt and the giving of the Law ; 
and the more fully he explained it all, the better. 


The Passover feast began usually about nine o'clock in the 
evening and continued till midnight or after. 

"Jewish writers state that, the family or families having per- 
formed the required purifications, John 11 :55, and being assembled 
at the table, the master of the feast took a cup of wine mixed with 
water and blessed God for the fruit of the vine, of which all then 
drank. After a washing of hands the passover was brought in, 
with unleavened cakes, bitter herbs, and a vinegar or fruit sauce, 
into which morsels of the food were to be dipped, Matt. 26:23; 
John 13:26. The father then blessed God for the fruits of the 
earth, and made the prescribed explanations, Exod. 12:26, 27. 
After a second cup and washing of hands, an unleavened cake 
was broken and distributed, and a blessing was pronounced upon 
the Giver of bread. When all had eaten of the passover a third 
cup, of thanksgiving for deliverance from Egypt and the gift of 
the law, was blessed and partaken of, Matt. 26:27; 1 Cor. 10:16; 
it was called 'the cup of blessing.' The repast was usually closed 
by a fourth cup and psalms of praise; Psalms 115-118 were sung 
here and Psalms 113 and 114 earher in the feast. The whole 
week of the feast was one of rejoicing. (Deut. 27:17. Diction- 
ary of the Holy Bible.) 

The fact .should be noted that the thin, sour wine which 
was used in this and other feasts was at. certain seasons of the 
year the only safe liquid to drink. Water was kept in cisterns 
there, and sometimes under the tropic sun, it became putrid and 
unfit for drinking purposes. Hence it was often mixed with the 
weak, acid native wines. 

Bear in mind the fact that although the bitter herbs typify 
their sorrow in Egypt, and the unleavened bread the lack of leaven 
in the Jewish households, as they were leaving for their flight 
from Pharoah; while the blood of the sacrificial lamb, sprinkled 
upon the lintels and door-posts of the Jewish households, signified 
the covenanted homes where the first born was to be spared, all 
of these symbols were to receive a new meaning during the Last 
Supper of our Lord in Jerusalem. When our Lord partook of 
this Passover, he tried to convince his disciples of the sublime 
significance of the v/hole symbolic service. He was the Paschal 
Lamb, the first male of his Father's flock, without spot or blemish, 
and he was to die upon the cross. His blood was the sacrificial 
blood which should appear over the threshold of every householder 
that acknowledged him and his divine mission. As he took the 
bread and passed it he said, "Take, eat ; this is my body. And he 
took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, Drink 
ye all of it ; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is 
shed for many for the remission of sins" (Matt. 26:26-28). 


But, alas, the disciples could not see the significance which 
he endeavored to give to this solemn Last Supper. His betrayal 
followed immediately upon that supper, and he was hung upon 
the cross for the period prophesied of. Taken down on the Sab- 
bath day and resurrected on the first day of the week, which we 
now observe as the Sabbath .day, his disciples for generations ate 
the Lord's Supper in memory of him. Sometimes they were 
obliged to hold their services in the catacombs at Rome and in 
the caves and dens of the earth ; and at last apostasy and corrup- 
tion caused the last principle of light to fade away, and "the bride 
went into the wilderness," and the great apostasy spoken of by 
John took place. The radical modification made by the Catholic 
church, which still administers the sacrament, and which puts forth 
the superstitious theory that through a miracle the unleavened 
wafer is changed into the very flesh of the Savior and the wine 
becomes his very blood — which is eaten and drunk therefore by 
the priests and the few communicants — appals the mind of the 
outsider and fulfils the prophecy of John concerning the general 
apostasy and the changing of the ordinances. This doctrine of 
the Catholic church is called transubstantiation. 

When the Lord again revealed himself to his children in mod- 
ern times, he instructed the Prophet Joseph Smith that leavened 
bread, strangely symbolic of His own resurrected body with life 
therein, might be used in the modern sacrament ; and that water 
was also permitted in place of wine. Today we celebrate, every 
Sabbath day, the Lord's Supper in simplicity and in remembrance 
of his body and spilt blood. 

The significance attaching to the Paschal season belongs, of 
necessity, to this subject and we desire here to present some of 
these points to our readers. 


Great and momentous events have occurred on this earth 
during the few days which are celebrated by the Jews as their 
Paschal week. The death and resurrection of our Savior occurred 
during this period, as is amply indicated in the records preserved 
in the New Testament. He was the great sacrificial Lamb, and 
at the very hour when he stood before Pontius Pilate, in the gate- 
way of the tower of Antonio overlooking the temple courts, the 
priests were offering up the sacrificial lamb, on the second day 
of the Paschal week. 

The modern Christians have, for centuries, celebrated this 
Passover week, although there has been considerable dispute con- 
cerning the fixing of the date. This period is called the Easter 


season, and Easter Sunday moves up and down our own calendar 
of days between about March 21 and April 21, exactly as .does 
the Passover day. The Christians follow the Jewish calendar in 
fixing their Easter time. 

When was the Savior born ? What has been and is the exact 
day of the Passover? 

The Jewish calendar is and has been so uncertain that the 
most abstruce Jewish scholar is unable to fix definitely on the 
exact time of this Paschal service. The Jewish year is governed 
by the moon ; while if the Paschal night should occur on Sunday 
they set it back. The Jews still maintain the lunar year calendar in 
their religious festivals. Because of this fact there is published, 
from time to time, various descriptions of the calendar. We find 
this in the Jezvish Encyclopedia : 

Copyright, Underwood &■ Underwood, New York 


"The conviction reached by Hippolytus is that Jesus's life 
from conception, or annunciation, was precisely thirty-three years 
and that both events occurred March 25th. * * * 

"The uncertainty of all the data discredits the computation. 
There is no historical evidence that our Lord's birthday v^^as 
celebrated during the apostolic or early post-apostolic times. The 
uncertainty that existed at the beginning- of the third century in 
the minds of Hippolytus and others — Hippolytus earlier favored 
Jan. 2, Clement of Alexandria (Strom., i. 21) 'the 25th day of 
Pachon' (May 20), while others, according to Clement, fixed tipon 
April 18 or 19 and March 28 — proves that no Christmas festival 
had been established much before the middle of the century." 

It may be asserted with considerable degree of assurance, that 
the birth of the Savior occurred during the Paschal week while the 
organization of the Church in modern times also occurred on that 
day. Latter-day Saints have the revelation of the Lord Jesus 
Christ on this matter as follows : 

(Revelation on Church government, given through Joseph 
the Prophet, in April, 1830. Doc. & Cov. 20.) 

1. "The rise of the Church of Christ in these last days, being 
one thousand eight-hundred and thirty years since the coming of 
our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in the flesh, it being regularly 
organized and established agreeable to the laws of our country, 
by the will and commandments of God, in the fourth month, and 
on the sixth day of the month which is called April." 

Recognizing the fact that the Jewish calendar moved the 
Passover week back and forth on our own calendar dates, the 
question is pertinent at once : When did the 6th day of April, 
1830, occur? Was it near the Passover day according to the 
reckoning of the Jews? 

The writer has communicated with a number of Jewish 
scholars concerning this matter, and a book called A Jewish Cal- 
endar, and published in London, in 1838, was ,secured from a 
London bookseller ; but, alas, the calendar began with 1838. Fur- 
ther correspondence ensued, and at last our friendly correspond- 
ent, Mr. George Harding, 64 Great Russell Street, London, W. C. 
1, England, secured the two dates, for which we had especially 
written, from Rabbi Gerald Friedlander, 30 London Square, W. 
C. 1, London, England. Strange to say, the Passover night be- 
gan, in 1830, Wednesday evening, April 7 ; so that on April 6, 
1830, the Jews everywhere had ,secured their Paschal lamb and 
were ready to offer up the same on the next day. 
The Church was organized upon the day, one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty years before the Savior himself was 


bom into the world, while his crucifixion occurred 33 years 
after, on the second day of the Paschal week. 

Other less striking yet marvelous events occurred upon this 
Paschal day and time. Abraham offered up Isaac on that day; 
at that season also Abraham entertained the angels ; Sodom was 
destroyed on the second day of the Paschal week, and Lot escaped. 
On that date the walls of Jericho fell before the Lord. It was 
then that the "cake of barley bread," seen in a dream, led to the 
destruction of Midian's hosts on the second day of the "feast of 
unleavened bread." It was during this Passover week that "the 
captains of Sennacherib and the King of Assyria, who tarried at 
Nob, were overtaken by the hand of God. At the Paschal time 
also the mysterious handwriting appeared on the wall to declare 
Babylon's doom, and again at the Passover, Esther and the Jews 
fasted, "and wicked Haman perished." The Jews, according to 
Edersheim, believed that "also in the last days it would be the 
Paschal night when the final, judgments should come upon 'Edom,' 
and the glorious deliverance of Israel take place." 

When you remember that Edom is the Turkish nation des- 
cended from Esau, the significance of this prophecy is understood ; 
moreover, we all vividly recall the fact that 'the United States 
entered the terrible war on April 6, 1917, and that particular 
Friday, fell on the day of the Paschal ceremony. 

Among the most remarkable circumstances, however, con- 
nected with this Paschal week we note the following related by 
Edersheim : "To this day, in every Jewish home, at a certain part 
of the Paschal service — just after the 'third cup,' or the 'cup of 
blessing,' has been drunk — the door is opened to admit Elijah the 
prophet as forerunner of the Messiah, while appropriate passages 
are at the same time read which foretell the destruction of all 
heathen nations. Psa. 79:6; 69:25; Lament 3:66. It is a 
remarkable coincidence that, in instituting his own Supper, 
the Lord Jesus connected the symbol, not of judgment, 
but of his dying love, with this 'third cup.' But, in 
general, it may be interesting to know that no other service con- 
tains within the same space the like ardent aspirations after a 
return to Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the Temple, nor so 
many allusions to the Messianic hope, as the liturgy for the night 
of the Passover now^ in use among the Jews." 

Let us see what significance attaches to the symbolic open- 
ing of the door for the entrance of Elijah in the Jewish house- 
holds of the present age. It will be remembered that there is 
twenty-four hours' diflference in time encircling the globe, but let 
us ask the question : Has the long-expected and eagerly watched- 
for Elijah visited the earth? Has he come to prepare the way for 
the great and dreadful day of the Lord? If so, where did he 



Copyright, Underwood &■ Underwood, New York 


come, whom did he visit, and was his visit timed to the symbolic 
opening- of the door by the Jews in every land at their Paschal 
season? Both the questions and the answers thereto constitute 
one of the most thrilling episodes of the writer's experience. " 

We answer : Yes, the Prophet Elijah came ! He came to the 
Prophet Joseph Smith in a Temple of the Lord, built to the name 
of Jesus Christ, in Kirtland, Ohio. He came on the 3rd day of 
April, 1836, which day was the Christian Sabbath. The question 
now arises: When did the Paschal week begin in 1836? The 
British Rabbi, Gerald Friedlander, gives us the anwser: "The 
Passover night began in 1836, Friday evening, April 1st." There- 
fore, the next day the Jews prepared their lamb of sacrifice and 
that night, Saturday night, ate the sacrificial or Paschal lamb. 
At midnight they opened the door for the entrance of Elijah — 
midnight in Jerusalem, Saturday night, April 2nd, would occur 
sometime in the day on the other side of the earth where Kirt- 
land lay in Ohio, in the United States. Let us now quote from 
the History of the Church : 

"Sunday, Apr. 3. — Attended meeting in the Lord's House, 
and assisted the other Presidents of the Church in seating the con- 
gregation, and then became an attentive listener to the preaching 
from the stand. Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten spoke 
in the forenoon to an attentive audience of about one thousand 
persons. In the afternoon, I assisted the other Presidents in dis- 
tributing the Lord's Supper to the Church, receiving- it from the 
Twelve, whose privilege it was to officiate at the sacred desk this 
day. After having performed this service to my brethren, I re- 
tired to the pulpit, the veils being dropped, and bowed myself, 
with Oliver Cowdery, in solemn and silent prayer. After rising 
from prayer, the following vision was opened to both of us. 

"Vision manifested to Joseph the Seer and Oliver Cowdery: 
(Doc. & Cov. Sec. 110.) 

* * * 

"After this vision had closed, another great and glorious 
vision burst upon us, for Elijah the Prophet, who was taken to 
heaven without tasting death stood before us, and said — 

"Behold, the time has fully come, which was spoken of by 
the mouth of Malachi, testifying that he (Elijah) should be sent 
before the great and dreadful day of the Lord come. 

"To turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the 
children to the fathers, lest the whole earth be smitten with a 

"Therefore the keys of this dispensation are committed into 
your hands, and by this ye may know that the great and dreadful 
day of the Lord is near, even at the doors" (History of the Church 
Vol. n, pages 435-6). 


Intimately associated with the message of EHjah is the labor 
going on in the temples built to the name of Jehovah in this gen- 
eration. The Latter-day Saints are the only people on earth to 
whom such a mission could be committed, and they are the only 
people on earth who are carrying on the message and mission 
given by the Prophet Elijah to the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

Are the mothers in Israel spiritually cognizant of the signs 
of the times and of the events which have and are transpiring 
preparatory to the winding up scene? Let us give thanks during 
the Paschal season this year, and recall the marvelous events 
which have occurred and which will hereafter occur .during this 
symbolic season of the year. The 6th day of April is and should 
be a sacred day to the Mothers of Israel. 


By Bessie Van Wagenen. 

O ! how I miss you, baby boy. 

Thy tiny body pressed against my breast. 

The little rosebud mouth. 

The glossy curls. 

The chubby little neck I loved to kiss, 

Thine eyes, deep, dark, like pools, — 

All these, sweet little love boy, how I miss ! 

They say your mission here on earth is done. 

Ah ! well I know now what thy mission was. 

It was to turn me from the shallow path of life 

Into the path that leads to paradise ; 

And make me wake and realize 

That life is nothing after all 

L^nless I live so as to gain eternal life. 

They say your mission here on earth is done. 
Ah, little boy, I could not call you back 
Into this world of sorrow and of strife ; 
But, little spirit baby, hover ; 
Help me to say, "My Father's will be done." 
Help me to live the Father's laws so well 
That when my work is finished here on earth 
That I may meet our Father and my son. 

The Funny- Bone Route. 

By Ruth Moench Bell. 

"I'll have to get the raiment for the 'Little White Bird.' 
Edith Sherrill spoke diffidently, well knowing how Arch would 
take it. "I've put it off till the last minute. There is so much 
hand work. And hand embroidery is so much more beautiful 
and inexpensive than lace or embroidery one can buy." 

"Oh, cotton goods are so high just now. Better wait a 
few weeks." Arch dismissed the matter easily. "Peace is here. 
No more cotton for munitions. It's bound to drop." 

Archie Sherrill had a comfortable masculine assumption 
that the time to face any difficulty was when the difficulty was 
actually upon one. No preparedness for him! No crossing 
bridges before the bridge loomed up in sight. No cutting 
kindlings the night before or saving for a rainy day. Such 
care-free, take-no-thought- for-the-morrow existence resulted in 
an easy good nature that made Eidth almost envious of her 
big, jolly husband. 

And yet there are matters that cannot be postponed, as 
Edith very well knew. The quick tears sprang to her eyes after 
her husband had kissed her good-bye and hastened to his -daily 

"What 'little white bird,' mother?" Archie Junior enquired 
Edith caught him to her heart. "It's a wonderful little white 
soul that flutters down from heaven into the arms of some mother 
waiting to receive it," she exclaimed. 

"And why does it need — " 

"Raiment?" she supplied. 

"I thought birds had feathers and wings." 

"Little White Birds have to give up their feathers and 
wings when they come to the waiting mothers," Edith explained. 

"Else would they fly back to heavenly Father?" Archie 
Junior asked. 

"I'm afraid they would, dear," the mother clasped her five 
year old boy close with that passion of tenderness an expectant 
mother feels for her brood. 

Scarce three months and the Little White Bird would flutter 
into its nest. And there wasn't even a tiny shirt to put on her. 
Edith was sure it would be her. Archie did so need a small 
sister. And Archie, boy fashion, had gone through every frag- 
m.ent of clothing she had provided for him so there was not even 
a left-over. 


Edith looked into her purse. Nothing there except the 
change she had "forgotten" to hand back to Arch when trades- 
men had presented their bills, as they had a habit of doing, 
just at meal time. Tradesmen are quick to discern which carries 
the purse, and present their bills accordingly. Edith had suf- 
ficient perspicacity to know why bills came when her husband 
was at home, and it was as humiliating as it was to turn to her 
husband for change in the stores. But what could she do when 
Arch took such a boyish delight in slipping his hand into his 
pocket as though the pile of coins there had fathomless depths, 
and handing out the money with a Squire Bountiful air that 
was truly remarkable considering how little there actually was 
in that pocket. 

"If I could only have my position back for one month," 
Edith sighed, "sixty-five dollars a month for a few hours a day 
of stenography and type-writing seems wondrous wealth now." 

It was almost as much as Archie's eighty dollars is worth. In 
fact, sixty-five dollars for one was considerably more than eighty 
dollars for three. Still eighty dollars would 'have done if only 
Arch had not assumed the sole right to spend it. 

"Sixty-five dollars! Just one sixty-five dollars would give 
enough for the layette and several incidental expenses besides. 
To earn it, I would have to leave Archie, Jr., with some one else 
all day," she reflected. 

Leave Archie, Jr., all day ! Edith caught him to her jealously. 
Let some one else tie up his precious fingers when they got 
cut! Some one else kiss his bruises and hear his marvelous plans 
and adventures ! Why just one hour with him was worth several 
thousand sixty-five-^dollar checks. And besides, no one would 
engage her as stenographer now! It was just as well! She was 
not asking any one ! 

Still, somehow, the layette must be purchased. And noth- 
ing would jolt Arch out of his complacence save a sale or the 
arrival of the tiny creature. 

Evening came and with it Arch, his arms full of parcels, his 
face beaming like a Santa Claus. He did so enjoy spending like a 
prince. One glance at his face and arms and Edith's resent- 
ment vanished. It always did. How she loved his big hands and 
broad shoulders and strong arms and his unquenchable good- 

"Something to .surprise you," he exclaimed giving her a 
hearty kiss in which personal satisfaction and anticipation of 
her pleasure were the chief factors. 

"I swept up the whole counter at Longbecks. They had a 
sale on ready-to-wear children's clothes and I made them a lump 


price on the lot. There must be loads of stuff you could make 
over for Archie, Jr." 

Edith viewed the parcels with dismay. Arch's last purchase 
had been a pair of rompers for which he had paid $1.85. She 
could have bought better goods and made them for one third of 
that amount. The rompers had faded in the first wash and had 
not been good to look at before that. 

Then there was her kimona when she had the automobile 
accident and had to be taken to the hospital. Arch had brought 
it to her with glowing eyes and no one but a man could possibly 
have selected it. Edith had got Arch's sister, Meg, to exchange 
it without Arch's knowledge. And how Arch had adored her in 
the dainty garment that he never suspected was not his own 
choice. Part of his adoration had been his pride in himself for 
his generosity in anticipating her need and buying unasked ! And 
then the compliment to his selection ! She certainly did look 
squeezable in it. 

And Edith, well how could a woman be vexed with a big, 
good-natured, over-grown boy like that? Hence, her eyes 
beamed into his. What matter how or why he arrived at his 
love? He loved her, that was all that really counted. "Carry 
all your domestic troubles over the 'funny-bone route,' " had 
been her grandmother's parting laugh. "A woman's wit and 
sense of humor will always solve her love troubles and help her 
to keep them love troubles." 

"Well, it was easy this time," Edith reflected, trying not to 
laugh, determined not to cry, as she saw parcel after parcel un- 
folded, Arch proudly displaying his remarkable purchase. Al- 
most enough money to have bought the layette had bought those 
same bargains. And, aside from one linen coat which Archie, 
Jr., might wear the next summer, every item would have to go 
to The Relief Society Extension committee who might find some 
one destitute enough and desperate enough to make use of it. 

And the hole it made in the week's wages ! How closely they 
m.ust economize till next pay day ! 

After a desperate attempt to rejoice with Arch, Edith served 
the evening meal, put Archie, Jr., to bed and sat down with the 
table-cover she was embroidering. 

"Some embroidery," Arch admired as he noted it grow. 
"It will be worth a neat little sum of money when it is finished, 
won't it? How much, say?" 

"About fifteen dollars," Edith responded. She would have 
preferred to be embroidering little slips for the small fairy who 
was to brighten their home. 

"It will look great on our table. I'll sure be proud to show 
it to our friends," Arch concluded. 


Then suddenly, without warning, Edith began to laugh. 

"What's the joke?" Arch laughed. 

"Oh, something just got over my funny-bone," Edith 
smiled. "By the way, were there any sales on white goods today?" 

"I didn't notice any," Arch sobered. "But they'll come. 

"I hope, in time," Edith smiled demurely. 

"Sure bet," Arch declared. 

"Then we'll wait even if the little white bird doesn't," Edith 

She was smiling far into the night as she sat alone embroid- 
ering the table cover. i\nd she hadn't lost the smile as she still 
embroidered at the sewing circle the next day. 

Whatever occasioned the smile was interrupted by an ex- 
clamation from Nancy Jackson, when Helen Smith entered in an 
elegant new set of furs. 

"Such war-time extravagance!" Nancy chided. 

"Not at all," Helen laughed. "These are a penitential check 
from my husband." 

"In other words, you had 'words,' " commented the out- 
spoken Nancy. "And you looked aggrieved and unhappy so the 
poor man wrote out a check to appease his offended goddess. 
And like as not the goddess provoked the quarrel on purpose to 
get the furs." 

"Wonderful guess," Helen applauded. "And likewise some- 
thing of a confession." 

"Not at all," Nancy confessed. "I've seen it worked. Every 
woman has her method. I happen to be blessed with a husband 
v/hose memory is short. Hence I explain my financial shortness 
by ringing in the same items over and over. One month, for 
instance, I must buy a certain thing and the next month I must 
pay for it. And thus I manage to subtract enough to get what 
I want." 

"How shocking!" Freda Houston remonstrated. "How can 
you love your husband and — well, work him that way?" 

"A bride of a month has much to learn," Nancy laughed. 

"Why, even the wealthiest men are somewhat near with 
cash," ]\Irs. Farnham interposed. "I have a cousin who is mar- 
ried to a man whose income is up in the thousands. He simply 
lavishes gifts on friends and spends like a millionaire, but his 
wife has to keep the change when the tradesmen present their 
bills as they always do at meal-times. She manages to have 
guests at the table most of the time so he won't dare ask for 
the change." 

Edith's face went crimson. Did every one have that opinion 
of her husband also? 

"How can she keep from hating her husband 'when he is so 


unjust to her?" Freda pursued. "And besides, such methods must 
be harmful to the children." 

"But what is a woman to do?" Nancy enquired. 'It is even 
worse if a woman earns after her marriage. Then she has no 
excuse for asking for a cent. It almost separated Tom and 
Norma. I've heard him tell her 'to dig up for the gasoline,' if 
she wanted a ride in the car he bought, because she was support- 
ing the home with her earnings. If their eldest daughter hadn't 
run away with a pedler, while her mother was clerking, and 
nearly married him, and so shocked thenn and brought them to- 
gether, they'd have been divorced long ago." 

"But I thought all homes were run now on the budget sys- 
tem," Freda protested. "Dick and I talked it over long before we 
were married and decided the amount we should save each week, 
the sum each should have for pergonal expenditures. The table, 
clothing, amusements, charities, education, etc., each has its own 
fund. It really is fun to go over our accounts every pay-day," 
Freda blushed, "pay-day is reckoning and dividing day with us. 
And really, it is so sweet to share and consider each other and 
go over it all , together." 

Edith looked up gratefully to the wise little bride, who be- 
lieved in her husband, and had not built her home on the treach- 
erous sands of deceit .and beggary. • 

"It would be better if a couple started out that way," Nancy 
agreed, "but it would be frightfully hard to get around to it 
afterward. And really it is the rock on which half the matri- 
monial barques go down. A woman feels so resentful when her 
husband doles out charity pennies to her, and flings dollars about 
for himself." 

"Yes, and it takes all the joy out of life if a woman can not 
plan and save for personal desires and ambitions for the home 
and children," Helen added. "But as Nancy says, what can we 
do if we get started wrong?" 

"There is always the funny-bone route," Edith laughed. 
"The way to a man's heart is by means of his stomach, and the 
way to his pocket-book is over the fuiiny-bone route. Every man 
fias a sense of humor, and enjoys being out-witted by his wife. 
Grandma always said." 

Edrth was wondering if the funny-bone route was going 
to succeed for her, as she worked on the table-cover as though 
her life depended on it. And indeed her eye-sight did depend on 
it, long before it was finished. Arch's concern was not alone 
for his pocket-book, ^hough the occulist relieved him of some- 
thing like twenty-five dollars before Edith was successfully fitted 
with glasses. Arch had always admired his wife's beautiful 
eyes. And now to gaze at their luminous depths always aglow 


with love for him, through blinds, as he called the obscuring lens, 
was almost more than he could bear. The one grain of comfort 
was the occulist's assurance that after the effects of the strain 
had been overcome she would again be able to do without them. 

"Any sales yet?" Edith would ask demurely, whenever she 
saw that Arch was taking the glasses too seriously. At which 
Arch would wince but assure her doggedly that they would come. 

And come they did. But the little white bird came first. 

"What are we to do?" Arch exclaimed in dismay after he 
had phoned for the doctor. "Haven't you any clothes whatever 
for him — her — it?" 

"There are some little shirts and two diapers that Archie 
left," Edith assured him. 

"Well don't let the nurse know. Just have her wrap him — ■ 
her — it in my bath-robe till I can get into a store." 

"What shall I get first," Arch whispered after his new 
•daughter had been snugly wrapped in his bath-robe and the 
mother had been made comfortable. Edith suppressed a smile 
through her pain. 

"Nighties," she whispered back. 

Soon he was back his face beaming. The nurse discreetly 
left the room guessing by his expression that he wanted to be 
alone with his wife. 

"Here are some beauties," he proclaimed proudly. "You'll 
really be glad you waited. They are knitted." And he displayed 
them with a flourish. 

"Lovely," Edith exclaimed. "How much?" 

"Two dollars apiece." Arch replied. 

"Oh, Arch ! But we need four of them, at least. That would 
be eight dollars just for nighties. Tt is almost enough to buy the 
entire outfit." 

Arch's enthusiasm dwindled. 

"Take them back. dear, and tell the clerk they won't do." 
Edith advised. 

"But the girls were giggling before," Arch deplored. "They'll 
guy the life out of me this time." 

"But we really can't afford to keep them, dear," Edith re- 
plied gently. "There are so many necessary expenses." 

It was an Arch that had dropped considerably in spirits that 
returned presently with another bundle. 

"I found just the ticket," he exclaimed, albeit somewhat 
dubiously. "An entire lavette, if that's what you call it, only nine 

Edith fingered the garments trying not to wound his feel- 
ings, but unable to admire the cheap materials and cheaper laces. 
Then there was such a medley of non-essentials and a meager 


supply of essentials. And everything was so impersonal and un- 
worthy of her beautiful daughter. 

"I'll get Meg to take them back, dear," she sighed. "You can 
see that it sometimes is necessary to prepare in advance." 

"Yes, and there are some things it is better to let a woman 
buy," Arch conceded, very much relieved that he did not have 
to face those giggling shop-girls again. "Wouldn't it be better if 
we divided bur small income between us some way?" 
"We might try the budget system," Edith suggested. 

"The very thing," Arch agreed. "All modern families are run 
that way. Then we can tell exactly where we are all the time." 

Arch stole a penitential glance at Edith. It was so sweet of 
her to forgive him so easily and harbor no ill-will, in fact not 
even to lecture him. In response Edith reached up her arms and 
drew his head down for a kiss. "Bring over the hamper with the 
blue bow on it," she whispered. 

Arch brought the basket and lifted the lid as Edith directed. 

A dainty display of baby garments greeted his eyes. Everything 

a baby could need was there in fine materials and beautifully 

made. A mother's brooding love was woven into each tiny item. 

' "How did you do it?" Arch puzzled. 

"I sold the table-cover," Edith replied. 

Arch closed the lid and the quick tears sprang to his eyes. 
"You ruined your eyes to make that table-cover and then sold 
it and — " 

"Got fifteen dollars," Edith finished. "And we paid the 
occulist twenty-five." 

Arch laughed mirthlessly. "And every time I look at you 
I have to look through those windows." 

"I hated to do it, dear," Edith breathed. "And hated most 
of all to deceive you, but I couldn't let us spoil our lives over a 
few miserable dollars. And I had to find some way to do so I 
took Grandmother's advice and tried the funny-bone route." 

Arch caught her hands and kissed them. "Any other woman 
would have hated me forever," he exclaimed, folding her ten- 
derly in his arms. 

Numbers of Woman's Exponent Missing To Complete Original 


Vol. 6, numbers 21 and 23 ; Vol 7, numbers 3 ; Vol 11, num- 
bers 6, 7. 8 and 16; Vol. 15 numbers 24; Vol. 17, number 7; 
Vol. 20, numbers 11 and 23; Vol. 21, number 12: Vol. 41. num- 
ber 10. 

Our Indian Cousins 

Our Lamanite sisters on the Catawba Indian Reservation 
are imbued with the spirit of Relief Society work. In addition 
to other good works they have purchased an individual sacrament 
set, and have donated also to the Red Cross. They are spiritual- 
minded, and their faith forms a strong bond between them and 
the Lord. Recently, Sister Grace E. Callis visited this Relief 
Society. She was welcomed with much joy by these devoted 


A local newspaper paid the following well deserved tribute 
to the war activities of the Indian Relief Society members : 


"The women of the Catawba Indian Reservation are show- 
ing their loyalty to their country by doing knitting for the Red 
Cross and rendering any service they can. 

"On Saturday morning they brought in $8.00 in cash that 
had been raised by the Relief Society of the Church of Latter- 
day Saints at that place, and turned it over to the local Red Cross 

"There are four boys from the Reservation now in service. 



with one or more already in France. Xettie Owl, one of the 
tribe, has a daughter whq is a trained nurse who has just been 
called into the service of the Armv Red Cross." 


S a moan Mission. 

The following excellent letter has just been received from 
Elder Wood, Apia. Samoa : 

I noticed in one of the recent issue of the Relief Society 
Maga::'ine accounts of the work being done in the islands and 
other far-away missions and I felt very sorry that there was noth- 
ing about Samoa. I decided then and there that I would write 
you and let you know what we are doing ; that you all may know 
— even if we are small and insignificant in the eyes of the big 
v.'Orld — that Samoa is "on the map." 

I am herewith taking the liberty of enclosing a picture of 
the Upolu Conference Relief Society, taken at our last October 
conference. The picture was taken at the adjournment of the 
Relief Society session, v.'hich was held in the large tin-roof house 
in the back-ground. The meeting of the sisters is the last, the 
longest, and generally proclaimed the best of all our conference 
sessions. Unlike many of our good sisters at home, these 
staunch Saints of the gentler sex delight in preaching and often 
feel slighted when not called upon. 

W'e have a fine native sister. Mrs. David Fiauu Kenison. at 



the head of the organization on this island. She spent twelve 
years in the colony of losepa, in western Utah, and talks English 
very well. She came down here "chuck full' of ideas of the way 
we do things at home, and she certainly makes use of them. She, 
together with her two able assistants, Viga and Lupe, make a 
strong head in leading and encouraging their sisters. 

We have six organized branches of the Relief Society on 
this island of Upolu, besides several small ones not fully organ- 
ized, with an enrollment of about seventy-five members. The 
work is also established on the other two islands of Tutuila and 
Savaii. Meetings are held weekly in each branch, and in ad- 
dition the sisters meet one day a week in the larger branches to 
work. They weave mats, visit the sick, help to thatch houses, 
and work in their taro patches. The mats are sold, and contract 
work done in the various pursuits enumerated above, in order 
to raise funds to help along the work of the Relief Society. Re- 
cently one branch donated £12, (sixty dollars) to help buy an 
organ for their chapel. The President, Fiauu, has also started 
"basket parties" like we have at home. All the women and girls 
in the villages make little baskets and bring them filled with 
lunch. The men and boys then buy them for a shilling (25c) 
apiece. This idea was entirely new to the natives, but they seem 
to enjoy the parties immensely. As much as $25 has been col- 
lected at one such party. This money is used to help the poor 
and needy and to furnish the missionaries' homes. The sisters of 
one branch (Sauniatu) are now planning to buy a community 
medicine chest. They are in hopes also of doing something to 
help out the great work caused by the war. 



The Relief Society sisters also aid in preaching the gospel, 
They journey around the island holding meetings and preaching 
and explaining the gospel wherever they get an opportunity. 
Much good has been done in this way. Many boys and girls 
have been induced to attend our schools through these journeys 
and later have made some of our best Church members. It is 
quite a novelty to the outsiders to see women standing up in the 
pulpit. They are taught that all a woman is good for is to stay 
at home and slave for her husband, taking care of the children and 
waiting on him. When they see our sisters preaching, there- 
fore, they become interested and want to know more about a 
Church which gives its women such liberty and freedom. Our 
Relief Society .sisters are also well dressed and most of them talk 
a little English, especially the younger ones. These things also 
draw forth admiration and create a desire to investigate. 

The natives do like to hear their president translate and read 
for them articles from your splendid little Magazine. They can 
hardly realize that they have sisters like themselves engaged in 
the same work in nearly every nation in the world. They are 
greatly surprised when we tell them of the grand and noble work 
the "Au-Alosa" (Relief Societies) of other countries are doing 
and they ask, "Why can't we help, too?" They are a brave little 
band, true to the callings that are made of them, and often, as is 
true at home, outshine the men. in faithfulness. 

We all enjoy reading- the Relief Society Magazine, and ap- 
preciate the efforts which are being put forth month by month by 
its editors to make it successful in fulfiling the ends for which 
it was established. 

Your brother in the work, 
Ray G. Wood, Mission Secretary. 
Apia, Samoa, Nov. 2, 1918. 


As it will be several weeks before the Relief Society Song 
Books are ready for sale, we would suggest that stakes and wards 
hold their orders for the present. As soon as the book is ready, 
announcement will be made in the Relief Society Magazine, 
when orders may be forwarded. Orders which have been sent 
in will be held until such time as the books are ready to be 

Planting Trees This Spring. 


"I will .sing- of the bounty of the big trees, 

They are the green tents of the Almighty. 
He hath set them up for comfort and for shelter. 

"He that planteth a tree is a servant of God, 

He provi'deth a kindness for many generations, 
And faces that he hath not seen shall bless him." 

— Henry Van Dyke. 

One of our American holidays that is growing more popular 
every year is Arbor Day, or tree-planting day. It should be 
celebrated in every community throughout this land of ours. The 
government and state officials advise us each year to plant trees, 
and more trees, to add to the beauty and attractiveness of our 
towns and public highways. Trees in the garden and about the 
home place will not only provide us with fruit and so help re- 
duce our living expenses, but will also enrich the soul, lend in- 
terest and color to life, and kindle a new community pride in 
those who live amongst and beneath them. Trees planted on our 
mountain sides, will save the soil from destructive erosion, our 
valleys from floods, and our wells and springs from serious 
shortage during the dry months of the year. 

It has been suggested that memorial trees be planted in honor 
of our fallen heroes who will not come back. Truly this would 
be a splendid way to keep their memory "green." Another plan 
is to plant birthday trees. We are also advised to plant peace 
trees. Let; there be a peace, indeed, and let us commemorate it 
by planting more trees in God's great out-of-doors. 

Parley J. Hill, our State Horticulturist, advises us to plant 
the elm, ash and sycamore ; others might be the linden, beech, 
native and English walnut, chestnut, European mountain ash, 
and evergreen. 

Bulletins from the United States Department of Agricultural 
available. Write for them : United States Bulletin, No. 5 ; and 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 173 and No. 358. 

Arbor Day Program. 

Sing. — "Arbor Morning," Sunday School Book, page 195. 
Address. — Subjects: Familiar Trees, Orchard, Nut, Shade 


and Evergreens; or strange trees as Redwoods of California, 
Cedars of Lebanon. Mahogany and Teakwood ; or trees famed 
in literature, Charter Oak, Washington Elm, King Arthur's Oak. 

Readings.— "A Paslm of Friendly Trees," Henry Van Dyke. 
"The Forest Primeval" (Evangeline), Longfellozv. "The Trees 
and the Master," Sidney Lanier. 

A Forest Hymn. — "Planting of the Apple Tree," Byrant. 
"Pictures of Memory," Alice Carey. 

Typical Trees. 

For genealogists — The Date; For gouty people — Acorn; 
For schoolboys — Birch; For conjurers — Palm; For farmers- 
Plantain; For winter wear — Firs; For hoarders — (H)Ash; For 
lovers (sigh press) Cypress; For dandies— Spruce ; For your 
Vv'ife (her) — Willow; For young ladies — Mango written for 
Yew ; For engaged folks— Pear ; For actors — Poplar ; For seam- 
stress — Hemlock. 

The Garden in April. 

Plants growing in greenhouse, cold frame, or windows, will 
require increased ventilation and water this month, as they wih 
be growing rapidly. Shift house plants into larger pots, if 

Plant seeds of the hardy vegetables, as beets, cauliflower, 
lettuce, spinach, peas, parsnips, chard^ radishes, turnips and 
onions. Thin out the cabbage, tomato, eggplant, etc., in the hot 
bed. If plants are crowded they will grow spindling and weak. 

Remove all covering from the asparagus bed and hoe or dig 
lightly. The same applies to rhubarb and strawberries, but be 
reasonably sure that danger from frost is all over. 

The planting of all hardy shrubs, bushes, climbers and herb- 
aceous perennials, may now be done in the flower garden. 

Shrubs, which should find a place in every garden, are haw- 
thorn (red and white), lilac, laburnum, spireas, bridal wreath, 
syringas, flowering almond, snowballs, honeysuckle, hydrangeas, 
altheas (rose of Sharon) ; climbers include, ampelopsis (Virginia 
creepers and Boston ivy), English ivy, honeysuckle, trumpet vine, 
wisteria, clematis, and the various climbing and rambler roses. 

Chrysanthemum roots may be divided and cuttings taken; 
these, if properly cared for, will produce splendid blooming plants 
by fall. 

Some perennials which are not so well known are : foxglove, 
perennial candvtuft, lupin, phlox, .scarlet lichen, forget-me-not. 


cowslip, Woodruff valerian, tritoma (red hot poker), pyrethrum, 
and others. 

All of these are of easy culture and perfectly hardy and 
once established will quickly spread, last for years and become as 
popular as golden glow, coreopsis, etc. All may be grown from 
seed, but quicker success is assured by root division. 

Plant the seeds of all hardy annuals this month in the open 
ground. The soil should be enriched by fertilizer, thoroughly 
dug and raked level and smooth. Seed is usually sown in rows 
from six to twenty-four inches apart. Very fine seed, such as 
petunias and poppies, should be mixed with a little fine sand be- 
fore sowing. xA.fter seed is ,s.own, sift over it a little fine soil 
sufficient to covei" the seeds, lighter or heavier, according to the 
size of the seeds, and then smooth over with a board or back of the 
spade. Label the rows and carefully pull weeds. After the plants 
come up, they should be thinned out, leaving the stronger plants. 
Provide support, if necessary. 

Gladioli may be planted now. With a sharp pointed stick 
make a hole about six inches deep and plant bulb (right side up) 
at the bottom, fill with earth. Plant six or eight bulbs in a 
group, or in rows for a background. Gladioli may be planted 
every two weeks until the middle of July, if a succession of 
flowers are desired. Separate dahlia bulbs and be sure to leave 
a portion of the stem with each clump, or the bulbs will not 
produce shoots and flowers. 

Dahlias need plenty of room and should be cared for like 
the potato. Cuttings from geraniums, marguerites, fibrous be- 
gonias, etc., should be taken and placed in the sand box or a 
corner of the cold frame, where they can make roots and be 
ready for the window boxes, or ornamental beds, when they 
are needed, about June. 

For a small garden, where there are no trees or bushes, 
plant castor oil bean and tall sunflowers. These will grow tall 
and provide some quick shade and quite a tropical effect, es- 
pecially if you grow datura, colens, cannae, Joseph's coat, and 
other plants with highly colored ornamental leaves. 


All the numbers of the Magazine for January, 1919, are 
sold. Extra numbers are wanted at the office, Bishop's Bldg., 
Salt lake City. 

Construction -ano 

Hit- ffOME^ 

Janette A. Hyde and Lucile Young McAllister. 

The Lingerie Waist. 

For wearing with a suit there is nothing to take the place 
of a dainty waist. There are many beautiful, fine materials in 
lawns, voiles, silks and crepes, but most beautiful and most popular 
among these is the georgette crepe. So, far practicality's .sake, 
we will make the georgette crepe waist the subject of this lesson. 

Just a word, in passing, on the material itself. Many people 
condemn the use of georgette crepe because it is extremely sheer 
and transparent, and often garments made from it are immodest. 
This stand is not well taken, for a well made garment from this 
material could not be otherwise than beautiful, but the under- 
clothing worn beneath it is at fault. The very qualities of sheer- 
ness, transparency and softness are the secrets of its beauty. Let 
me suggest then that in planning a crepe waist you also plan an 
underwaist of India ,silk, crepe de chene or wash satin, and be 
sure it sufficiently covers the body. For women wearing the 
L. D. S. garments, I would suggest long sleeves and high neck so 
that none of the knitted material is visible. I have found it very 
practical to use old waists of crepe de chene or wash satin in this 
connection. White waists, a little yellow from laundering, can 
be tinted. 

In the new waists of this spring there are some decidedly 
new points to be seen. Some of them are : the back fastening, the 
round neck, the peplins and panels below the waist and the em- 
broidery of wool in oriental colors. 

How to proceed with the waist. 

After choosing the style and color very carefully, lay your 
pattern on the material preparatory to cutting, but be mindful of 
the following suggestions, which seem unimportant but which 
will have everything to do with the success of your waist : Do not 
try to cut on a table where there are other articles. Clear your 
table of everything save your material, which must be perfectly 
straight to begin with. You cannot cut georgette crepe with dull 
scissors, for every time you attempt to cut with dull ones you 
will pull the crepe out of place and lose the shape of your waist. 

The suggestions on the use of the pattern given in the last 


number should be carefully considered. If you .desire a back 
fastening, place the center front of the pattern on the fold of the 
material, and the allowance for lapping and fastening should be 
made in the center of the back. Do not allow any fullness in the 
center of the front, but leave that space plain if you desire to em- 
broider the front. All crepe waists are better with fullness, but 
make the allowance from the shoulder, as shown before. 

Allow wide seams. This is very important with the crepe 
and all other materials which lack body, for the following rea- 
sons : the waist must be made large — it will neither wear or look 
well if it is too tight ; then you must have plenty of material to 
make a good seam. It is impossible to make a smooth seam and 
work near the edge of the crepe. The difficulty some people ex- 
perience in making these waists can be attributed to too small 
an allowance for seams. You will not find georgette crepe dif- 
ficult to handle if you work back from the edge. 

Baste the waist together carefully and use silk of the same 
shade for basting on the seams which are to be hemstitched. I ad- 
vise this because after the hemstitching is done it is sometimes 
impossible to remove the basting, and where silk of the same shade 
is used it is not necessary to remove it. Baste the shoulder 
seam by placing the back over the front after first gathering the 
front, and baste from the top. See Fig. 1. 

After fitting the waist, French-seam the under-arm seam and 
the sleeve. The sleeve should only be sewed as far as the elbow, 
if there is hemstitching to be done on the cuff. The seam can 
be sewed on down after the hemstitching is done. 

The parts of the waist which are generally hemstitched are 
as follows: the shoulder seam, the armeye seam, the joining of 
the collar to the waist, bottoms of the sleeves and edges of collars. 
In the case of the last two, the edge is cut away so as to leave a 
pic.ot edge. See Fig. 2. Seams should be very firmly basted. This 
will enable the hemstitcher to do better work for you. Where 
you desire the picot edge, mark the exact place where you wish 
the edge to be with a basting thread. This will serve as a guide 
in the hemstitching. See Fig. 3. 

For the benefit of women who live in small towns and places 
where there are no hemstitching machines, I would advise you 
to mail it to the Hemstitching Department of any of the following 
stores : Z. C. M. I., Singer Sewing Machine Company, or other 
large department stores. 

Enclose a paper stating clearly where you wish hemstitching 
done and also send money enough to cover the cost of the work 
and return postage. The work is now done at the rate of fifteen 
cents a yard on silk and ten cents a yard on cotton. You can 




■J-^ '.^ 




-. <:.■': '"" !r^ V- 


measure the amount of hemstitching on your waist with a tape 
measure and calculate the exact cost. 

Hand Trimming of the Waist. 

Where you trim your waist will depend entirely on the design 
of the waist, but one must be careful not to overdo the trimming. 
Do not spread the work too much over the waist, but center it in 
one place. A much more artistic effect can be obtained in this way. 
We find the waists this year trimmed in beads, silk and wool. In 
the wool especially do we find the designs and colors tending to- 
ward the oriental. The colors are bright and the majority of the 
designs are simple, straight line designs. The two most popular 
stitches are the satin stitch and French knots placed close enough 
to give an effect similar to Turkish toweling. 

The georgette crepe may be easily embroidered in the follow- 
ing manner : Place your design on white paper ; if possible do 
not use a carbon sheet to transfer it to the paper, as it often rubs 
off on to the material. Have the design drawn in ink. Baste the 
paper with the design and about six thicknesses of newspaper 
under the crepe. Small stitches must be used to hold the crepe 
firm. The design shov/s plainly through the crepe and can be 
worked from the top. 

Fig. 4. — Design for front of Waist, should be worked in wool 
in oriental colors, such as red, blue and green ; or orange, blue 
and black. The lines show the direction of the stitches. 

Fig. 5. — A design for band trimming. The figures should be 
v/orked in outline stitch,* while the dotted background is worked 
in beads. A waist of tan or grey georgette crepe with these mo- 
tifs worked out in delf blue and coral would be very effective. 
The portion of the motif marked "a" could be worked in two 
shades of blue, and the portion marked "b" in two shades of 
coral ; beads of white or grey might be used for the background. 

Fig. 6. — This design should be outlined with a line of beads 
with the dots worked solid in the satin stitch. 

Note. — If help is needed in making designs write to the 
Editor of this department. Correspondence solicited on any point 
in these articles. 


Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa Smith Williams and Mrs. Amy 
Brown Lyman. 


The resolutions prepared by the auxihary organizations as 
an expression of love and respect to the memory of President 
Joseph F. Smith were beautifully written and embellished with 
an artistic title page and bound in soft leather. Five of them were 
thus prepared, one for each of the families of President Joseph 
F. Smith. A committee, representing each Auxiliary Board, who 
took the booklets to the homes of our late President's families, 
were received graciously and a pleasant, profitable half-hour at 
each home was spent. The committee consisted of: Edward H. 
Anderson for the Y. M. M. I. A., Wm. A. Morton for the Sun- 
day Schogl and Religion Class, President Emmeline B. Wells and 
Mrs. Susa Young Gates for the Relief Society, Mrs. May Booth 
Talmage for the Y. L. M. I. A., President Louie B. Felt and 
Mrs. Zina Young Card for the Primary Association. 

The ninety and first birthday, or what should be the birthday 
of President Emmeline B. Wells, was celebrated as usual this 
year. The General Board held a comforting testimony meeting 
Friday afternoon, February 28, in their headquarters, with a few 
invited guests as follows : President Martha H. Tingey of the 
Y. L. M. L A., President Louie B. Felt of the Primary Associa- 
tion, Mrs. Edna L. Smith of the Salt Lake Temple, Mrs. Mary 
Alice Lambert, Mrs. Susan West Smith, Mrs. Susan A. Wells, 
Mrs. Isabel Whitney Sears, Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon, Mrs. Zina 
Young Card, Mrs. Alice Merrill Home and Miss Kate Wells. On 
Saturday, March 1, a public reception was held at the Hotel, Utah, 
on the mezzanine floor, between the hours of 4 and 6 p. m. Music 
for the occasion was furnished by an orchestra under the direc- 
tion of Miss Romania Hyde. A most delightful time was enjoyed 
by all who were present. Our President looked particularly 
graceful and benign in her lovely blue silk dress, which was pre- 


sented to her many years ago by a group of friends. Flowers were 
sent in profusion, and congratulations were showered upon this 
remarkable and justly-celebrated woman. She is almost the last 
living link between the past, which centered around Nauvoo and 
Winter Quarters, and the present, which encompasses the world. 

The visit of Mrs. Eva Perry Moore, who is the President of 
the National Council of Women of the United States, to Salt Lakq 
City on February 22, was made a gala occasion of by the women 
of the city. Mrs. Moore accompanied ex-President Taft's party 
who have been traveling in the West in the interest of the League 
to Enforce Peace. The Relief Society and Y. L. M. I. A., being 
members of the National Council, invited the President of the 
Federated Clubs in Utah, and representatives of ten other affili- 
ated societies, as they, too, are joined to the Council, to cooperate 
in one great public luncheon and reception in honor of the dis- 
tinguished lady. Our own Counselor. Mrs. Clarissa Smith Wil- 
liams, was appointed chairman of the committee on arrange- 
ments, with Mrs. E. O. Leatherwood, who is the president of the 
Utah Federated Clubs, as secretary of the committee. The Hotel 
Utah dining-room, at noon on Saturday, was literally crowded 
to the doors, for four hundred women were seated in every avail- 
able space around the tables of that great dining hall. Mrs. Wil- 
liams presided and introduced President Emmeline B. Wells as 
the most historic figure in the West, herself having called the 
first peace meeting in Utah, twenty-odd years ago. President 
Wells was in a happy mood, and paid a graceful tribute to Mrs. 
Moore in introducing the guest of honor to the large assembly. 
Mrs. Moore spoke of the part taken by women in the late war, 
and of the need of unity of action in the conservation of child-life 
in the United States. At the close of her pleasing address, Mrs. 
W. F. Adams, chairman of the luncheon committee, presented 
the lady with a boquet of red, white and blue flowers to symbolize 
her loyalty and patriotism. The occasion was a brilliant one, and 
reflected great credit upon all who had the matter in charge. 

Recently the Salt Lake Herald asked for a brief sketch of 
the Society, with the addresses of the General Board, to use in a 
coming directory, which is to be published in that paper, and then 
in a later booklet for distribution. The following account was sent 
the Herald: 


The Relief Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints was organized through revelation by the Prophet 
Joseph Smith with eighteen women members on March 17, 1842, 


in Nauvoo, 111. The Society is now national and international in 
scope, with a membership of 50,598, including 19, 906 officers and 
teachers. There are over one thousand ward organizations or 
branches located in every state in the Union and in Mexico, Can- 
ada, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, Japan, 100 in Europe, 
scattered in the British Isles and in Switzerland, Denmark, Swe- 
den, Norway, Germany and in the Hawaiian Territory, The ob- 
jects of the Society are philanthropic and cultural. Neighborhood 
visiting, including charitable help in times of need, was inaug- 
urated in Nauvoo, and still remains the dominant feature of the 
Society. Extension courses in social and public hygiene, litera- 
ture, genealogy, home science, and especially in theology, furnish 
programs of study at weekly meetings. The activities of the 
Society outside of the long established charitable and social service 
work embraces the Relief Society Home ; the publishing of occa- 
sional text books, such as Art Studies, Lessons in Genealogy, and 
a Music Book for Relief Society choirs ; a Burial Clothes Depart- 
ment ; a School of Obstetrics and Nursing, which was begun as a 
nurse class in the old Fort in 1848, continued intermittently until 
1872, when it was reorganized and carried on under graduate 
lady physicians until the Woman's Hospital was opened in 1882, 
with Dr. Romania B. Penrose, who was the first graduate woman 
physician in the West. This hospital operated until 1902. For 
twenty years the School of Nursing and Obstetrics has been car- 
ried' on by the General Board of the Relief Society. Nurses who 
have taken this practical course number into the thousands and are 
scattered all over the West. The Relief Society owns, edits and 
publishes its own Magazine, with a paid-up yearly subscription of 
15,000, is out of debt and has money in the bank. The saving 
and storing of grain was inaugurated by President Brigham 
Young, when he named Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells as chairman of 
the Central Committe on the Storing of Grain in 1875. Millions 
of bushels have been saved since that time ; a carload was sent to 
the Mississippi sufferers ; another carload to the San Francisco 
earthquake sufferers, fifty tons to China ; and last summer over 
two hundred thousand bushels of wheat was turned over to our 
Government by the Society. As an illustration of annual activi- 
ties, these figures are interesting: The Society received $55,904.41 
for charitable purposes in 1917, and paid out for the same object 
$53,883.37; there were 36,581 days spent with the sick in that 
period, with 78,066 special visits. Families helped, 5,868; bodies 
prepared for burial, 2,311 ; wheat raised by ward Relief Societies, 
4,691 bushels ; potatoes raised by Ward Relief Societies, 88,347 
bushels; fruit and jelly canned by Ward Relief Societies, 42,650 
bushels ; dried fruit conserved by Ward Relief Societies, 12,375 
pounds ; dried vegetables conserved by Ward Relief Societies, 
21,097 pounds; fruit and jellies canned by individual members of 


the Relief Society for family use, 3,264,804 quarts ; dried vege- 
tables conserved by individual members of the Relief Society for 
family use, 199,910 pounds. Paid for Liberty Bonds, $24,855.61 ; 
others items such as remodeling clothing, making quilts, etc. — 
number of articles, 44,643 ; number Red Cross memberships taken 
by Relief Society members, 14,078 ; number articles made for Red 
Cross by Relief Society members, 49,569. The Society possesses 
as perfect and as close-knit organization as may be found on earth. 
In twenty-four hours every member who can be reached by tele- 
phone or telegram may be advised as to any event or desired 
movement. Independent in scope, complete in its living and grow- 
ing organization, noble in its purpose and aim, the Relief Society 
stands first in history, first in social service methods, and first in 
its endeavor to be worthy of its origin and its development. 

The United States government has undertaken the hygienic 
education for all citizens. This particular work is under the charge 
of Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, James H. Moyle. He is 
prosecuting this work with vigor and great wisdom. Much in- 
formation in the form of pamphlets and placards have been pre- 
pared and distributed throughout the army camps and now are 
being circulated in all the states of the Union. The local work is 
under the charge of state and city boards of health, but recently 
we received a letter from Assistant Secretary Moyle, inviting the 
General Board of the Relief Society to cooperate with him in 
this active propaganda to educate the young women and men as 
to the moral safety and physical happiness which comes from a 
chaste and upright life. This people are fortunate in the fact 
that a single standard of virtue has been and always will be the 
foundation stone of our religious home life. Men who break the 
law of chastity are under greater condemnation in this Church and 
kingdom, if it be possible, than our women. But ignorance is 
not always a protection for innocence. 

We shall have a series of sex hygiene lesson? prc|)ared for 
the summer months, during our recess period. Dr. ! f 'a r.ccbe 
has been lecturing in some portions of the state on this .-Mliivcr 
and her talk was excellently prepared and modestly deliveie>l 
She spoke before the General Boards of the Relief Society and 
Y. L. M. I. A., Thursday, February 6. 

Notice. Mrs. Annie P. Hepworth, Grover, Wyoming, is 
anxious to communicate with anyone having a good quality of 
the following dried vegetables for sale : Corn, peas, string beans 


The Salt Lake Stake Relief Society sisters have developed 
a unique and suggestive feature : During the past year the sis- 


ters of that stake have met on Monday in the Bishop's Building, 
to sew for the Red Cross. Since war work has been given up 
the sisters conceived the idea of meeting on Monday and sewing 
for the needy and work-worn women of the stake. They accept 
gifts of cloth or old clothing from charitable people, and make 
this up for the worthy poor ; or to sell to busy mothers of growing 
families, at a nominal sum. Anything from a baby's bib to a 
quilt is made and sold at actual cost, if not given away to the 
poor. One mother who is about to take a long journey, and who 
has a large family of small children, brought her cloth and pat- 
terns to the sisters, and they are making up the wardrobe for her. 
This is real Relief Society work, and we pass the suggestion on to 
other like-minded and broad-minded Relief Society officers. 

Montpelier Stake.— The Montpelier Stake is in excellent con- 
dition. The stake officers have found time to visit the wards, not 
only once and twice, but all of them have been visited three times 
during the past season. The teachers' convention, held last year, 
was most successful and will be an incentive for future efforts! 
Like all the other stakes, the work has been postponed during the 
visitation of the epidemic. 

Snowflake Stake.— Dm mg the prevalence of the influenza in 
Snowflake stake, a valuable worker in the Society, Mrs. Ada P. 
Ownes of Sholow, Arizona, fell a victim to the plague. Gener- 
ally speaking, however, the people of that stake have escaped the 
dread disease with a comparatively few deaths. The temple work 
in this stake, although far distant from any temple, has been pros- 
ecuted with vigor. The sisters have donated $148.75, and thus 
have redeemed 239 souls. 

Pioneer Stake.— The sisters in the Pioneer stake have done 
some ongmal and stirring work during the war requirements 
Classes were formed in surgical dressing in most of the wards of 
this stake. The surprising total of 32,123 dressings were pre- 
pared. "During the Belgian relief drive. 30 to 40 sisters assisted 
in sorting over the clothing, a number of them going several 
days. A complete record has not been kept of articles collected 
for the Belgians, for in some wards the teachers canvassed their 
blocks and wagon loads of clothing, shoes, etc., were sent into 
the receiving places. The sisters have been faithful in caring 
for the sick and poor. Many of them were out days at a time 
nursing those with influenza, and in one ward, a sister, when not 
out nursing, brought to her home and cared for many small chil- 
dren of mothers who were in the hospital. At Christmas 224 
baskets or bo:jtes, valued at over $1186.00, were distributed to the 
poor. Saltair Branch was reorganized Feb. 11, 1918, with Sister 


Pauline Peterson as president. This Society has been disorgan- 
ized for several months. Garfield Ward was reorganized June 
16, 1918, with Sister Elnora Day as president, Sister Olive Pen- 
dleton having resigned. The stake as a whole is in an excellent 
condition. The president of this stake, Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 
non, has many problems on her hands, as here are located many 
of the smelters with mixed groups of laborers; but the Relief 
Society sisters minister to the sick and needy without discrim- 
ination. The spirit of unity prevails throughout the stake. 

Big Horn Stake. 

On September 29, 1918, at the Stake Priesthood meeting, the 
Presidency of the Relief Society in the Big Horn Stake was 
released. Mrs. Elizabeth L. Snell, who had served faithfully as 
the Stake President, found it impossible on account of failing 
health to continue in this capacity. Mrs. Helen B. Croft, who 
had served as a counselor to Mrs. Snell, was made the Presi- 
dent, with Mrs. Mary L. Welch as First Counselor, Mrs. 
Frances Crosby, Second Counselor and Mrs. Mary E. Meeks 
as Stake Secretary. 

The American Spirit, a Basis for World Democracy. 
Edited by Paul Monroe, Columbia University, and Irving E. 
Miller, Bellingham State Normal School. World Book Com- 
pany, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York. Cloth, xv-1-336 pages. 
Price $1.00. 

A well chosen and timely list of selections in prose and verse 
designed to give systematic instruction in practical American 
ideals and to focus attention upon the constructive aspect of 
patriotism. Believing that instruction in patriotism should not 
be left to chance, the editors have brought together the best 
thought and most inspiring utterances of American leaders from 
the colonial period to the present day with the purpose of giving 
the reader a wholesome regard for our own country and making 
him conscious of the rights of other nations. 

This book is a reasoned and practical symposium, not a 
collection of emotional, patriotic literature. While it includes 
much that inspires true patriotism by appealing to the emotions. 
it also ishows definitely the solid basis for democracy. It deals 
with facts as well as feelings. 

This book has an especial value in cities and towns with a 
large foreign population, because it explains how American 
democracy came to be what it is, , 

Oh TH&/ATCHlomR 


The two subjects of chief general interest in public dis- 
cussion during February were industrial unrest and the league 
of nations. The industrial situation was growing more complex 
and unsatisfactory, not only in the defeated powers of the Teu- 
tonic alliance, but in both Great Britain and the United States ; in 
the former nation, labor disputes became so critical that the Brit- 
ish premier announced to parliament that the very existence of 
the British empire was endangered ; and in the United States the 
spreading of strikes and the announced inability of employers 
to meet the demands for high wages presented an increasingly 
threatening condition of affairs. As to the league of nations, up- 
on his return from France President Wilson stated that the league 
proposed would not prevent war but would tend to minimize the 
probability of war ; the disputations in the United States over 
details has assumed a form of abusive criticism of leading men 
who are discussing the plan to an extent that is seemingly forget- 
ful of the fact that converts are not made by calling hard names. 

Famine continued to spread in western Asia and eastern 
Europe during February. 

A "Victory Loan" of five billion dollars is to be asked from 
the American people in April. 

A SIX-BILLION annual tax bill was passed bv the United 
States Congress in February. 

President Wilson returned from France on February 24, 
and started back to Paris on March 5. 

Typhus Fever is the most recent disease that is spreading 
death among the people of eastern Europe. 

Kurt Eisner, Bavarian premier, and two of his ministers 
were assassinated in Munich, Bavaria, in February. 


The armistice with Germany was again extended in Feb- 
ruary, pending peace negotiations. 

Army discipline amounting to gross cruelty has been un- 
covered by a congressional investigation during February. 

Severe blizzards tied up traffic between the Missouri river 
and the Rocky Mountains in the middle and latter parts of 

Premier Clemenceau of France was shot in February, by a 
French anarchist named Emilie Cottin, but fortunately the wound 
was not fatal. 

The influenza epidemic broke out anew in Spain in Feb- 
ruary; this is the country from which the disease spread over 
the earth in 1918. 

Railway operation by the United States government is 
likely to continue through 1921, by announcement from Washing- 
ton on February 28. 

Women are to be admitted to membership on some of the 
committees at the Paris peace conference, for the purpose of con- 
sidering subjects dealing with women and children. 

Frau Ernestine Lutz, of Dresden, Germany, says that 
women can give a nation better government than the soldiers' 
and workmen's councils are striving for, and she isn't far wrong. 

The woman suffrage amendment to the national Constitu- 
tion was defeated in the United States Senate in February, by a 
vote of 55 ayes to 29 noes — -one less than the necessary two-thirds 

British Day was observed in Utah on Feb. 16, when the 
work of Great Britain as a great nation, for the period culminat- 
ing at the end of 1918, was called to the attention of hundreds of 

John M. Browning, of Ogden, Utah, who received one 
million dollars from the United States government for his gun 
inventions, is required to pay $700,000 of it back to the govern- 
ment as taxes. 

"No beer, no work," is the slogan of about 250,000 union 
workmen who have decided to go on strike in New York on 


July 1. Much beer and little work has been the prevailing condi- 
tion heretofore. 

The cost of the war is to be paid by Germany, according 
to the declaration of the Entente Allies ; but how to arrive at the 
figures of the cost is now the puzzle. 

Frederick Ebert, whom the Kaiser Wilhelm II left in 
charge of the German government upon abdication, has been 
elected president of the German republic. 

Utah's legislature was not able to avoid all "freak legisla- 
tion," as the people will have the opportunity of ascertaining 
when the enforcement of some new laws is applied. 

Health conditions for American troops at Brest, France, 
were a subject of much discussion in Congress in February, the 
conclusion reached being that they were both bad and good, as 
the investigators looked at thinsfs. 

Senator Lodge, Republican leader in the United States Sen- 
ate, stated in a speech on February 28 that the present plan out- 
lined for a league of nations needed revision to safeguard the 
rights of America from European domination. 

Cardinal Gibbons, of the Church of Rome, introduced and 
had passed in a big mass meeting in New York on February 22, a 
resolution insisting that the United States demand independent 
government for Ireland. This has the appearance of the first gun 
fired by the Romish church in a war for the dismemberment of 
Protestant Great Britain. 

The League of Nations as at present outlined is claimed 
by many of its supporters to be an assurance of world-peace, if 
adopted. For centuries past, men have been seeking a substitute 
for the true Church of Christ as the dominating factor in estab- 
lishing universal peace ; and the question now agitating the minds 
of many people is whether or not such substitute has been found 
at last. 

Secretary Tumulty, for the President, made public an- 
nouncement on February 27 that a report asserting that President 
Wilson had said that the matter of Irish national independence 
was outside the purview of the Paris peace conference was a false- 
hood, to which several members of the Senate committee who 
were present at the White House dinner responded that the Pres- 
ident did make the statement referred to. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post OflSce, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Emfey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 
Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


|,<i'*.o«" ,, SusA YouKG Gates 

Business Manager - . - . . . Janktte A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. VI. APRIL, 1919. No. 4. 


One of the startling and unhappy results of life in army 
camps is the acquirement of the smoking habit by a limited pro- 
portion of our own boys. We may try to account for this deplor- 
able condition by referring to the weak character of the youths 
who thus offend ; or perhaps, to the breaking of the Word of Wis- 
dom by their parents, or to the lack of proper training and envi- 
ronment in their youth. It may well be that the young man's 
unfortunate habit was framed in the camps or fields where he 
had tobacco and cigarets pushed on him by the cruel kindness of 
sentimental women, and even through Red Cross and Y. M. C. 
A. agencies to which our own people contributed liberally, little 
realizing the harm which would result to their own sons from 
the misplaced sympathy of worldly-minded people. Any or all 
of these causes, or none of them, may have started the youth on 
the wrong path, but we mothers have the situation to face, and 
what can we do about it? 

First, let us consider the problem fairly and squarely, instead 
of pushing it out of mind with evasive excuses for ourselves and 
for the young man. He has acquired a spiritual disease with a vic- 
ious physical appetite and needs curative help. If it were a bodily 
disease only, we would dose him up with home remedies or hurry 


after a doctor. Yet far more dangerous to his life here and here- 
after is this deadly habit, because it enslav«-s the will. Therefore, 
our first duty is to face the situation and try to remedy it. If 
we have broken the Word of Wisdom, if only occasionally, let 
us cease at once to offer this stumbling-block to our son's reform. 
If the young man's environment has been at fault, then let us 
study how to remedy the defect. And if it is a weakness in his 
own character, then let us add strength and faith from our own 
prayer-sought fountain of hope and help. 

Scolding, or fault-finding, is about the most deadly hindrance 
to the work of reformation known to mortals. Yet at the same 
time, there must be a calm, firm line of conduct and thought, which 
permits us to show love and tolerance for the oflFender, but which 
allows no sort of tolerance for the offense itself. If the mother, 
in her eagerness to show her love and sympathy for her boy, al- 
lows him perfect and unbridled license to smoke all about the 
place while she excuses it to her younger children or the neigh- 
l3ors, she is but fastening the chains of bondage more firmly about 
the soul of her erring son. If the youth cannot cease his smok- 
ing habit, he ought at least to have sufficient respect for his par- 
ents to refrain from smoking in their presence. Don't be de- 
ceived by the specious argument that it is dishonest to hide one's 
wrongdoing. If you must do wrong, I beseech you not to do 
your evil before the innocent eyes of my growing and undeveloped 
children. There is no virtue in open sin. Example is the devil's 
best weapon. 

Smoking dulls the intellect and often produces heart disease 
or cancer. This is, however, not the worst result of this deadly 
habit ; the moral sense is deadened, and the light of the spirit 
quenched. It is doubtful if a tobacco-user can obtain or retain 
that fixed and full testimony and communion with the Spirit of 
God necessary to keep a man in full fellowship in the Church. 

What, therefore, may the mothers of such sons do to help? 
Two things may turn the tobacco user from his deadly habit. One 
is the conviction, by the victim, that the habit is a menace to life 
or health. The other, and by far the stronger incentive to re- 
form, is the spiritual conversion of the victim to the divine mes- 
sage of the Word of Wisdom. In other words, the only one 
who can reform a tobacco user is himself. You may help a little, 
through love, and especially through prayer ; but, after all, it is 
the grace of God which helps men and women to reform, and 
never in the history of the world has there existed a greater need 
for the preaching of the gospel than on this year of our Lord — 
1919! The gospel of Jesus Christ is the only key to health, hap- 
piness, and progress, here or hereafter. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in May 

We frequently hear it said that woman's hour has struck. 
True as this is of the woman, it is equally true of the child. If 
women have been ignored in the past, so, too, have children. To- 
day the child commands an important place in educational and 
social philosophy. In her fight for political recognition, woman 
has always put forth the fact that her wish for political power is 
based, in no small measure, on her desire to protect the child from 
the crushing wheels of industrial tyranny. 

We doubt if life holds anything more truly attractive and 
more distinctly charming than the child, and yet we had to wait 
for the advent of Charles Dickens to have the little child really 
magnified in literary art. To be sure, the Mother Goose melo- 
dies and such stories as "Little Red Riding Hood" did not ignore 
the child, but the class of literature has grown with the race 
and, consequently, is no deliberate effort to recognize it ; Charles 
Dickens was deliberate in his portrayal of child life ; in his novels 
he sought to arouse the public conscience against many abuses 
then borne by children. 

In the Bible, three children stand out prominently : Samuel, 
David, and Jesus of Nazareth. Something specific is known con- 
cerning the individual life of each of these children. Let us see 
if it is possible to find anything specific about the individual lives 
of the children of the Book of Mormon. It may be a matter of 
passing interest to know that the words hoy and girl were never 
found to be necessary to translate the Book of Mormon. 

To be sure, Nephi, the son of Lehi, was very young when 
he played the important role he did in Nephite history; still we 
can scarcely regard him as a child. He had certainly reached 
that stage when he would be styled a youth, even as the boy 
prophet, Joseph Smith, is styled a youth. 

Again, we have Lehi speaking to Jacob and saying, "In thy 
childhood thou suffered much affliction and much sorrow because 
of the rudeness of thy brethren," yet that appears to be the one 


sentence that throws Hght on his childhood. Nearer the point 
is the record we find in Mormon 1 :2-4 : 

"And about the time that Animaron hid up the records unto 
the Lord, he came unto me (I being- about ten years of age; and 
I began to be learned somewhat after the manner of the learning 
of my people), and Ammaron said unto me, I perceive that thou 
art a sober child, and art quick to observe ; 

"Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old, I 
would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed 
concerning this people ; and when ye are o fthat age, go to the land 
Antum, unto a hill, which shall be called Shim ; and there have I 
deposited unto the Lord, all the sacred engravings concerning this 

"And behold, ye shall take the plates of Nephi unto yourself, 
and the remainder shall ye leave in the place where they are ; and 
ye shall engrave on the plates of Nephi, all the things that ye have 
observed concerning this people." 

A truly wonderful commission to give to a boy of ten, was 
it not? 

So much for the very little information we are in possession 
of in regard to the individual child. A large part of the very 
meagre material that we have concerning the children of the 
Book of Mormon effects the child in group or in mass. 

There is considerable evidence that both the fathers and the 
mothers were greatly exercised over the children in time of war 
and famine. In such particulars human nature suffers no change. 
In the terrible war through which we have just passed, the chil- 
dren of Poland, Servia, Belgium, and France, have often called 
for our deepest sympathy. Women in the large cities of the 
world are terrified at the slightest indication of labor trouble, lest 
the children may be deprived of milk, and thus deprived, sicken 
and die. The women of the Book of IMormon were, no doubt, 
victims of the same fears and misgivings, through all the trying 
scenes through which they were called to pass. 

In the heart-sickening account given of the last struggle of 
the Jaredites, we read : 

"And it came to pass that when they were all gathered to- 
gether, every one to the army which he would, with their wives 
and the'r children ; both men, women and children being armed 
with weapons of war, having shields, and breast-plates, and head- 
plates, and being clothed after the manner of war, they did 
mnrch forth one against another, to battle ; and they fought all 
that day, and conquered not." 

Fortunate it is that we are not compelled to close our lesson 
with the revolting picture of little children, armed and fighting in 
a great battle, destined to destroy their race, but that, like Shake- 


speare, we may say, "Look on this picture and on that" (Ether 

The picture we close with is that which followed the great 
day of healing, when, in their gratitude, the people gathered 
about the Son and bathed his feet with their tears : 

"And it came to pass that he commanded that their little chil- 
dren should be brought. 

"So they brought their little children and sat them down 
upon the ground round about him, and Jesus stood in the midst ; 
and the multitude gave way till they had all been brought unto 

"And it came to pass that when they had all been brought, 
and Jesus stood in the midst, he commanded the multitude that 
they should kneel down upon the ground. 

"And it came to pass that when they had knelt upon the 
ground, Jesus groaned within himself, and saith, Father, I am 
troubled because of the wickedness of the people of the house of 

"And when he had said these words, he himself also knelt 
upon the earth ; and behold he prayed unto the Father, and the 
things which he prayed cannot be written, and the multitude did 
bear record who heard him. 

"And after this manner do they bear record : the eye hath 
never seen, neither hath the ear heard, before, so great and mar- 
vlous things as we saw and heard Jesus speak unto the Father." 

And so. upon this continent, even as in the land of his nativ- 
ity, did Jesus bless and exalt little children. No matter how 
grossly they may have been neglected by historians, philosophers, 
and men of letters, in the past, the Son of Man did not neglect 
them. He told of their purity, and how they were without sin, 
and redeemed from the fall through his atonement. The Church 
possesses no clearer and plainer doctrine in all its literature than 
that found in the Book of Moroni, chapter 8, concerning the re- 
demption of little children, wherein he tells us that, "little chil- 
dren are alive in Christ, even from the foundation of the world ; 
if not so, God is a partial God, and also a changeable God, and a 
respecter to persons; for how many little children have died 
without baptism." 

"Wherefore, if little children could not be saved without bap- 
tism, these must have gone to an endless hell. 

"Behold I say unto you, That he that supposeth that little 
children need baptism, is in the gall of bitterness, and in the bonds 
of iniquity." 

Christ's tenderness and compassion for little children comes 
ringing through the ages, in his immortal words, "Suffer little 
children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven." 



1. What are some of the abuses little children suffer, in 
modern times, that make child welfare associations necessary? 

2. How old must a child be in Utah before it is permitted 
to work in a factory? 

3. Give some reasons for women and children receiving 
such scant recognition in the histories of the past. 

4. How does the child Mormon compare with any boy or 
boys you have known of ten years of age? 

5. Why are little children frequently the greatest sufferers 
in all disasters that overtake civilization? 

6. Read the 8th chapter of Moroni in class, beginning with 
paragraph 10. 

7. How did the doctrine of the salvation of little children, as 
set forth by Moroni, differ from the teachings of Christian 
churches at the time the gospel was revealed? 

8. What abominable practice, in relation to children, did the 
Jaredites resort to in their last struggle? 

9. Read the account of Christ's blessing little children, 
when he was with the Jews. 

10. Read or sing the Sunday School song, ''Suffer Little 
Children to Come Unto Me." 


Work and Business. 

Second Week in May. 



Third Week in May. 


Teachers' Outlines. 

(See Chap. 16, Surname Book.) 

The Norman barons who came over with William the Con- 
queror appropriated all the court offices and paying professions. 
Hence such surnames usually derive from Norman stock. 

Surnames derived from : 


(a) Military offices. 

(b) Church officials. 

(c) Landed barons and their retainers. 

(d) Civil and legal professional names. 

(e) Forestry office-holdings. 

Lesson Statement. 

The Norman barons who came over with William the Con- 
queror appropriated all the court offices and paying professions. 
Indeed, it would be quite truthful to say that William and his 
nobles invented court offices and professions of all kinds so as to 
derive salaries from the government and also to acquire titles 
to satisfy their vanity and pride. Then they used their 
titles and offices and social positions to oppress and humiliate the 
conquered Anglo-Saxons. In other words, the Anglo-Saxons 
were the hewers of wood and the drawers of water, while the 
Norman professionals, officials and nobles, were the classified no- 
bility and gentry who ruled England under their king. 

The king himself multiplied officers and flunkies in every 
conceivable direction in his several castles and palaces. The man 
who tasted his food, the man who cooked it, the man who served 
it, the man who purchased it, and all the men who sat by him 
and ate it received titles of greater or lesser degrees according to 
their condition and the favor of the king himself. 

First of all there were military offices. The soldiery were 
the noblest of the noble, and barons and knights, lords and earls, 
dukes and counts were bearers of arms under the king. From all 
of these, surnames have been derived. 

Next came church officials, arch-bishops and bishops. Priests 
and ministers received a more or less sumptuous living as the gifts 
of the king, and although celibacy is a fixed tenet of the Catholic 
Church the offices borne by priests who were sometimes fathers 
outside of marriage gave surnames to descendants. 

Next were the officials in civil and legal forms of social 
life. Clerks and lawyers, doctors and apothecaries, all helped to 
swell the list of surnames through descendants carrying on per- 
manently the ancestor's profession tacked onto his original name. 

The English nobility, that is the Norman English nobility, 
have always been extremely fond of hunting, so that great 
stretches of forest were kept intact on estates where wild animals 
might roam and serve their royal masters as prey in a "chase." 
Officials who kept the forest or the toll-gate and who looked after 
the dogs and the horses and who rode to the hunt or to the tourna- 
ment — all these furnished some surnames am.ongst the English 


It must also be stated that what the king did in his more mag- 
nificent homes and estates was imitated by all his under lords, 
barons and knights. They had their officials and flunkies with titles 
and offices in close imitation of their royal masters. 


Who were the Norman barons ? 

Why did the Normans appropriate the court offices and pay- 
ing professions? 

Name some military offices which have furnished surnames. 

What can you say of church dignitaries and surnames derived 

Name some church surnames. 

What is the difference between civil and legal professions? 

What surnames derive therefrom? 

What is the meaning of Woodreeve? 

Describe an English chase. 

Name some officials connected with hunting. 

Relate the manners and customs as well as you can of an 
English baron in the middle ages. 

Why would the knights and barons copy the manners and cus- 
toms of the king? 

Who were the aristocrats in England at that time ? 

What is an aristc ^rat ? 


Home Courses. 

Fourth Week in May. 

The actual duration of the period of adolescence extends up to 
the twentieth year, during which certain substances, secreted by 
various glands, circulate in the blood and stimulate remarkable 
developments. Adolescence may be defined as the process of grow- 
ing up from childhood to manhood and womanhood. It generally 
extends in the life of a boy from about 11 to 24 or 25 years, and 
that of a girl from about 12 to 21 or 22 years of age, but there 
are considerable individual variations. 

Too often the term of adolescence is confined to the period 
of puberty, which is but one stage in the process of adolescent 
growth. Each phase must be lived through, if maturity is to be 
complete; should normal processes be arrested, warped or over- 
stimulated, development is unbalanced and maturity is con- 
sequently incomplete. The actual incidence of puberty is much 


influenced by race, climate, nutrition and type of environment; 
for instance, this period is hastened by overstimulating diet, heat, 
and abnormal excitement associated with life in a city or town. 

There is no closely defined age law for this stage of .develop- 
ment; in fact, it may vary with individuals all the way from the 
age of 12 up to that of 17 or 18, and yet be normal at these differ- 
ent age periods. For example, a boy or girl may be immature at 
17, while another will reach puberty at the age of 13. Thus in- 
dividuals, though externally similar, are actually widely differ- 
ent in capacity for self control, concentration, endurance and ex- 
ertion ; qualities much strengthened after this stage has been at- 
tained. Dr. Ward Crampton's Tables show that, at the same 
chronological age, the mature boy is more than ZZ percent heavier, 
10 percent taller, and 33 percent stronger than the immature ; that 
is, than his companions who have not yet arrived at puberty. 

Adolescence may be divided into three periods, described by 
their distinguishing characteristics as follows : ( 1 ) Consolidation, 

(I) Consolidation, or the age of adjustment, extending from 
about the 10th to the 14th year. This period is marked by a steady 
growth, increased muscular coordination, good health and a re- 
ceptive memory, which makes the child peculiarly adaptable to the 
formation of habits that will prove of IJfelong benefit. Good build- 
ing stones in the platform of Adolescence are similar to those for 
earlier childhood, namely: (1) Regular schooling, (2) Muscular 
exercise, (3) Varied surroundings, (4) Good food, (5) Abundant 

(II) Crisis, or puberty, is the second period in adolescence, 
and covers the interim between fourteen and eighteen, in which 
growth is extremely rapid ; there is a considerable amount of 
mental perturbation combined with a tendency to certain physio- 
logical disturbances. The process of transition from girlhood 
to puberty is of greater complexity than in the case of boys, there- 
fore, while it is beneficial for the latter to be abundantly accive 
and constantly occupied, girls need more leisure and repose, 
sufficient but supervised exercise, and precautions against com- 
petitive exertion, mental or physical. 

Full as it is of contradiction and exaggerations, with inevi- 
table instability, this phase has been nevertheless described as a 
physiological second birth. It is the golden age of life in healthy 
natures. Feelings are intense, though usually short lived ; a crav- 
ing for sympathy is accompanied by corresponding reserve ; lines 
of development take new directions and changes are very sudden 
both in body and mind. Some of these normal changes may be 
briefly enumerated : 

(1) Physical developments at Puberty. 

(a) Greater blood pressure consequent on rapid growth in 


size of the heart, (b) Shght rise in body temperature; (c) In- 
crease of red blood corpuscles; (d) Bust development and rapid 
growth of hip bones in girls; (e) Change of features, etc. There 
is often .perversity in respect of judicious care of health in both 
sexes at this age and fanciful fads in appetite. Weak points, such 
as eye strain, lung delicacy, etc., may manifest themselves, ^often 
the deferred results of early mismanagement, hitherto unper- 
ceived, or tendencies inherited from ancestors. 

(2) Mental developments of Puberty. 

(a) All the senses become more acute. It is (b) the Period 
of hero worship and ideals; of (c) Resentment against authority, 
of (d) Intense but short lived selfishness; of (e) Sudden growth 
in sense of responsibility; of (f) Religious emotion, of (g) Love 
of solitude, of (h) Self consciousness; which phases . alternate 
and continue for varying periods, often causing great perplexity 
and tension to parents, teachers or employers. 

(Ill) Construction is the third period, one as little popularly 
recognized as the first, but of immense importance. This period 
extends until physical growth is complete, and should be distin- 
quished by steady development of the controlling capacity of the 
brain. Between the years of 18 and 23 or 24, there should be a 
m.arked development of self control in every relation. This quality 
must be stimulated and regulated along right lines, to dififuse 
high moral standards and a universal sense of civic duty. Sel- 
fishness is anti-social and barbaric. The brain faculty of most 
life long importance is control of self ; this calls for special train- 
ing in these years or the results are serious to men and women, 
who become mature in respect of animal passions, but remain 
at childhood's level in regard to self control. 

The tendency to release young people prematurely from all 
physical control must be checked. Implicit obedience of course 
can no longer be imposed, but should be superseded by sympa- 
thetic suggestion ; and unrecognized but nevertheless constant 
supervision. The undesirable is sometimes attractive because of 
narrow experience. More experienced elders must divert atten- 
tion to the desirable, through well considered substitutions of the 
safe for the questionably safe. A patient study of adolescence 
actions often reveals them to be the logical outcome of limited 
knowledge. The natural craving for companionship should be 
guided to its satisfaction rather in out door sports and hobbies 
than in a preponderance of social fimctions. Late hours and as- 
sociated excitements stimulate along lines better unemphasized 
at this period of life. Opportunities for wider and more responsi- 
ble duties must be gradually introduced, always with the aim in 
view of producing the efficient adult, rather than the proficient 



The hygiene of sex must be properly taught, and the instinct 
to perpetuate life carefully trained. This power is the greatest gift 
to mankind ; curiosity as to its use should be satisfied truthfully and 
gradually as it arises ; and physical passion should be associated 
with the higher emotions of love, honor, chivalry, and self respect. 
A sense of responsibility for parenthood should be aroused and 
provision made for the necessary training of both boys and girls, 
for the duty of rearing healthy families devolves equally on father 
and mother, and skilled cooperation of efifort is necessary to safe- 
guard child life in the homes of the nation. 


Hygiene of the School Child, Terman. Chapts. 16-20-21. 

Individual in the Making, Kirkpatrick, Chapts. 8-9. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin Co., Chicago, 111. 

Child Life — Its Development and Care, A. Ravenhill, page 
72, etc., Utah Agricultural College, Logan Utah. 


1. Into what periods may adolescence be divided and how 
are these distinguished? 

2. What are the special physical requirements of young peo- 
ple during this process of development ? 

3. How does the period of puberty effect the national prob- 
lem of Child Labor? 

4. What is necessary to the development of self control in 

5. Give an outline of the course of training for parenthood 
which you consider appropriate. 

The picture of Mrs. Vilate Kimball in the March number, 
in "The History of the Organization of the Relief Society," was 
named as Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Whitney. 

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Mothers in Israel: — 

The Relief Society Magazine greets 
you : not so much for what you have 
done as for what you are. Not only 
for your motherhood, great and glo- 
rious as that has heen, but also for 
your wifehood and womanhood. 
Continue in your simple way of be- 
ing and doing, for in that way lies 
the path to the kingdom of heaven. 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Chnrch of 

Jesns Christ of Latter-day Saints 

No. 29 Bishop's Bldg^ Salt Lake City. Utah 

$1.00 a Y,ear— Single Copy lOe 







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i 20 — ^Light weight cotton, bleached 1.70 = 

i 60 — Medium weight cotton 1.85 | 

i 22 — Medium weight cotton, bleached 2.00 = 

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BacK of every Victory Liberty Bond stands 
the Treasury of the United States — the untold 
v/ealth of a vast and po-werful nation. That 
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Bach, of every Victory Liberty Bond is the 
clarion call of duty. TKat makes it patriotic! 

Bach of every Victory Liberty Bond is 
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Buy to your Itmtt — today. 

The Relief Society Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


MAY, 1919. 

Portrait of Margaret Judd Clawson Frontispiece 

Mother Joseph H. Smart 249 

The Month of Mothers 251 

Mothers of Our Leaders . : 257 

Golden Wedding of Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Nibley . . 264 
Lines for a Golden Wedding Day . . Mary Foster Gibbs 266 
Municipal Kitchens in England .... Joseph A. West 267 

A Lover of Grape Vines Frank R. Arnold 272 

Guidance of Children — Family Organization 

\ Lucy Wright Snow 275 

Real Economy in the Home Clara Fagangren 279 

Rainbows on War Clouds .... Col. James L. Hughes 281 

The Garden in May Morag 283 

The Angel Azrael Sarah L. Tenny 285 

The Official Round Table : . 

Clarissa Smith Williams and Amy Brown Lyman 287 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home 293 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 297 

Editorial — Modern' Superstition 301 


Patronize those who 'patronize us 
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By Joseph H. Smart. 

The sweetest, grandest, noblest word of all, 

That man with all his weaknesses is proud to speak ; 
The word that moved men to their greatest deeds withal, 
And in its praise, e'en poets' sweetest words are weak — 
That word is "Mother." 

There is a name more sacred far to me 

Than power or fame or even sweetheart's love ; 

That name I'll love through all eternity. 
It is God's greatest blessing from above, 
That name is "Mother." 

What pain or woe would she not bear for me? 

With courage strong and love that's stronger still ; 
Great mental doubts and spirit pangs bore she. 

Yet slander could not move her changeless will, 
My loving Mother. 

What may I do in part as payment here below. 

To Mother who has done so much for me? 
O, Surely, 'tis a life-long debt I owe ; 

And will I shirk responsibility? 

No, no, my prayerful Mother. 

That spotless name and honor that you gave to me, 

I'll keep as pure and spotless as I can ; 
And all the stains from which your love hath saved me, 
I'll hold far from me, for I'm now a man, 
My pure and gentle Mother. 

*The Editor of Relief Society Magazine, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

My dear Editor: — I am enclosing a "Mother's Day'' contribution, 
which you may see fit to use in your Society publication. 

It is not much of a poem, I know that, but perhaps a little help 
from you will make it presentable. 

It was written when I was only 16 years old — in the summer of 
1917, for the dearest mother in the world. I^had been going through 
a particularly trying period — a period of femptation and wildness 
common to many boys, and my mother, with her loving cheer and 
enduring faith in her boy's possibilities, came to my rescue as only 
a true mother can, and understood me and sympathized with me 
when I needed it most. The verses were a spontaneous tribute to 
my mother, Mrs. Wm. H. Smart, of Roosevelt, Utah. 

Your paper is a source of inspiration and material aid to the sis- 
ters in our conference, and therefore a great help to the elders. You 
have my hearty wishes and prayers for success. 

Sincerely your brother, 

Elder Jos. H. Smart. 
Box 417, Chattanooga, Tenn., Mar. 28, 1919. 

Mother of President Rudger Clawson. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol VI. MAY, 1919. No. 5. 

The Month for Mothers. 

May has come into popularity as the month in which we 
should think of our mothers, remembering them, if alive, with 
flowers, and speaking of them, if dead, to our children and chil- 
dren's children. While it is perhaps not wise to'^over-emphasize 
children's loyalty to either parent as distinguished from the other, 
it is still permissible for men especially to speak tenderly of their 
mothers every month in the year ; for men usually inherit much 
of the mother's temperament and character, while every gentle 
emotion of loyalty and love kept awake in their hearts for a 
good mother, blesses and cheers humanity through that enlarged 
loyalty and devotion of sons for mothers. We present this 
month the written testimonals of four of our Church leaders 
for their mothers, and these glorify all motherhood in the Church 
because of this public expression. 

Margaret Judd Clawson. 

My mother, Margaret Judd Clawson. was a woman of 
sterling integrity, of cheerful, optimistic disposition, of supreme 
faith in the gospel of Jesus Christ. As I look back on her long 
and beautiful life, I remember that she was always bright, vivid 
in personality, and a close companion to all of her children. She 
never brooded, nor was she pessimistic. Her family inherited 
the Yankee trait of humor. My uncle, Riley Judd, bubbled over 
with jokes and laughter ; and while my mother inherited also 
the keen sense of humor which lifted the clouds of sorrow from 
many a toilsome task, large sacrifice, and her daily heavy labor, 
still she possessed also a quiet dignity and a modest natural 
humility which gave her admirable poise and charm. 

She was a woman of great faith, which she -demonstrated 
by entering the celestial order of marriage as the second wife of 
my father, Hyrum B. Clawson. I may be pardoned for referring 
to the fact, which is well known to all old pioneers, that my 


mother and her sister Phoebe were old-time belles of Great 
Salt Lake City; and when my mother turned aside from other 
distinguished .suitors, refusing young and gallant lovers to marry 
my father, she proved both her own good judgment and her im- 
plicit faith in the teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

She was sympathetic and adaptable, which made her, of 
course, popular in her wide circle of friends. This trait, how- 
ever, was not superficial but extended to her loving charity for 
the poor and unfortunate wherever she found them. What she 
did in this regard was done without ostentation and unknown to 
those about her. She was thrifty and restlessly industrious; 
M'^ork was her panacea for trouble and sorrow. She was never 
extravagant, and at her death we found that she had not only 
provided an ample sum for her funeral expenses and the up-keep 
of her grave, but there was also a little property left to each one 
of her children. 

Mother was always respectful to my father. She taught her 
children to reverence him and to obey his counsel unquestioningly. 
We imbibed the teachings of faith and reverence from our earliest 
years, both through her example and through her stern refusal 
to listen to complaints which might arise upon our lips in the 
natural course of events. I never heard my mother gossip ; she 
lived above tittle-tattle and laughed away slander. She was 
gifted, as the pioneers know, with unusual dramatic ability. This 
enabled her, undoubtedly, to put herself always in the other 
person's place and thus to visualize the difficulties of her asso- 
ciates, and even her opposites. She did not expect my father to 
wait upon her and do the family chores ; she treated him with 
the same dignity that she exacted in our behavior to her. 

During the later years of my mother's life, she once ex- 
pressed a fear to me that she was losing her old-time vigor, and 
dreaded lest she might not die in the harness. I suggested to her 
that there was a beautiful way in which she could round out the 
course of her life and continue in the most active possible service 
to the Lord and to the Church: I referred to the labor in the 
temple, calling her attention to the fact that her dead were await- 
ing her ministrations and that no matter how many years she 
might be spared, the results would be glorious. She expressed 
to me, in the closing months of her life, that this temple work was 
the crowning joy of her life's activities. She had not realized 
the happiness and comfort which were hers through that unsel- 
fish labor ; and therefore for the last few years of her life, in- 
stead of sitting around idle, or measurably so, in the homes of 
her children, or shutting herself up and dabbling over the neces- 
sary labor for her own few and simple wants, she devoted three 
days of every week to the temple work. 


These few and insufficient facts concerning my honored 
mother will perhaps indicate her faith, her integrity, and the value 
of her life to her family and to humanity. Her children are, 
perhaps, the best exponents of her life and teachings. 


Christeen Golden Kimball. 

You ask me about my mother, and I am honored in replying 
to your query. 

Our mother's name was Christeen Golden. She was born 
in Hopewell, Mercer county, New Jersey, September 12, 1822. 
Our mother died, January 30, 1896. At the age of 20 her parents 
sent her to Philidelphia to learn a vocation as a seamstress or 
dressmaker. A girl friend invited her to attend a "Mormon" 
meeting, and at this meeting, Elder Jedediah M. Grant was the 
speaker. Christeen Golden at once accepted the truth. She pur- 
chased the Church works and, with a glad heart, returned to her 
parents and placed before them these Church books, explaining 
that she had accepted the gospel. Her people were honest 
Christians, but they rejected their daughter's testimony, and she 
forsook her father, mother, brother and sisters for the gospel's 
sake and accompanied Elder Grant and wife to Nauvoo. She is 
the only member of her immediate race that ever joined the 
"Mormon" Church. 

She married President Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo 
temple and emigrated to Salt Lake City, in 1848. Mother 
.should be numbered among the pioneers. In the '70's she ac- 
companied her children to Bear Lake, and for the second time, 
became a pioneer. Thus she made her way into the wilderness, 
slept in the open, and fought her way through the gates of pain. 
Through adversity and hardship, she developed her noble char- 
acteristics. She was able to choose for herself as well as hav- 
ing courage to act for herself. She then gave ample proof of 
her unfaltering faith in God and his Son Jesus Christ, and in 
the gospel. She proved her faith by her works. She was hand- 
some, proud, dignified and ambitions, but her greatness was not 
in riches or in her achievements but it was by her modesty, her 
humility, and her service to others that she became a successful 
servant and followed in the steps of the Master. 

Christeen Golden Kimball faced the problems of life with 
unfaltering faith in God and in the promises set forth in the gospel 
of Jesus Christ. She had the courage and strength of her con- 
victions, and never faltered, wavered, whined or bemoaned her 
lot, but "learned obedience through the things which she sufifered," 
and forgot self and selfishness. She had a vision of the future. 
Though her labors were onerous, she was never a slave to duty, 


but performed her labors as a Christian duty, feeling always 
that "it is more blessed to give than to receive." She was true 
to her God, her religion, her husband, her covenants and her 
children. The closing days of her life were spent in the temple 
of God, and in doing work for her parents, brothers, sisters and 
relatives who had passed into the spirit world ; and by doing this 
work, she became a savior to her race. 

Our mother's influence developed character in her children, 
because of her frankness, truthfulness and honesty, her modesty, 
humility and service to all, both rich and poor, bond and free. 
These were the great lessons of a real life that has thus far 
developed the characteristics of her children's lives. She was our 
great teacher, not in words, but in the Christian life she actually 
lived. Together with my brother Elias, and my .sister May M. 
Moffet, we revere her memory, honor her name, and are ready 
and willing, with gratitude in our hearts, to bow at her shrine 
with love and reverence in our hearts. 

As one of her sons, I pay this slight tribute of love and 
respect we have for our mother, whose life was one of sacrifice 
and service, not only to her children, but to all who came her way, 
and to her honored husband. 

You have this heart-felt expression of our mother, Crystalize 
these thoughts, and melt them down, but do not lose the thought, 
so poorly expressed, for it isn't a tithe of what could be said. 
We, one and all, thank you for the chance to openly express our 
love for mother, as at no time in her life did she have public 
notice. She lived and died, "true to the faith," and humbly 
served God, unnoticed by men. 

Again thanking you, I am as ever, a true friend and advocate 
of the Relief Society, who are angels of mercy to sufifering hu- 
manity. It was the kind hands of Relief Society workers and 
friends that cared for our mother at the time of her demise. 

God bless you all : your brother and friend, 

J. Golden Kimball. 


I gladly answer the questions you ask concerning my dear 
mother. I take your questions and answer them seriatim ad 

Mother's characteristics were patience, fortitude, undaunted 

Her love for the gospel, her faith and confidence in God's 
holy Prophet, her never failing testimony of the divinity of the 
Book of Mormon, are complete answer to the question of how she 
faced life's problems. 


Her patient endurance, her uncomplaining- spirit under the 
most adverse circumstances, and her making the best of every- 
thing, were always inspirations to me. 

Her attitude toward my father was one of unbounded love 
and confidence; and to the principles of the gospel, unyielding 
faith. And now permit me to quote lines by Louisa May Alcott 
on the death of her mother: 

The great, deep heart that was a home for all, 

Just eloquent and strong in protest againsit wrong. 

Wide charity that knew no fall. 

The Spartan Spirit that made life so grand, 

Meeting poor, daily needs with heroic deeds. 

That wrested happiness from fate's hard hand. 
We thought to weep, but sing for joy instead, 

"Full of the grateful peace that followed her release, 
For nothing but the weary dust lies dead." 

Oh, noble woman, never more a queen 
Than in the laying down of Scepter and of crown, 
To win a greater kingdom, yet unseen. 
Teaching us how to reach the highest goal. 
To earn the true success, to live, to love, to bless, 
And make death proud to release a royal soul. 

Seymour B. Young. 

Sabina Shied-Hart. 

The characteristics of my mother, Sabina Sheid-Hart, were 
unswerving and unbounded faith in God and his restored gos- 
pel and Church. Her family of nine children (seven of whom 
were reared to maturity) were born and reared without any 
medical help, faith and reliance being placed absolutely in the 
blessings of the Lord. My mother was unassuming to the extent 
of being retiring in her disposition, but exercising influence for 
good not alone in her family but with all others with whom she 
came in contact. She was high-minded yet very humble; and in- 
tegrity and devotion to duty were passions with her. She had 
profound respect and honor for God's priesthood and taught her 
children likewise. 

She faced life's problems with unfaltering faith in God's 
providences and with sublime courage that he would look after 
and protect her and her family. The gospel transplanted her from 
a luxurious life in the most fashionable part of the largest city 
in the world, to the harshest and humblest of pioneer conditions 


in the Bear Lake country in the early days of its settlement. 
Upon being called by President Brigham Young with her hus- 
band, James H. Hart, to Bear Lake Valley, to begin with, she 
lived in a dirt-covered, one-roomed log house with straw for a 
floor and without windows or doors, and took up life's labors 
in rearing her family without murmur or discontent. 

Her greatest influence upon myself and other members of 
her family was by reason of her simple and sublime faith, her 
confidence in the gospel, the priesthood and Church, her pride 
of ancestry, uncompromising honor and integrity and devotion 
to duty. She was a woman of literary tastes and accomplish- 
ments and had a remarkable memory. One of the great services 
performed for her family was in the use of her knowledge of 
literature in keeping her children about her, reading good and 
suitable books, or listening to her read thern, particularly at night, 
when other allurements might have taken them from the hearth- 

Her attitude towards my father was that of helpfulness. She 
was intelligently submissive to his position as head of the family, 
having entire confidence that his judgment would be for the best 
good of the family. His duties in the ministry took him away from 
home much of the time and placed the responsibility and burden 
of the care of the family upon her, but I never heard her murmur 
at this during all the many years of my father's life and active 

Charles H. Hart. 


If you think you are beaten, you are. 
If you think you dare not, you don't. 
If you like to win, but think you can't, 
It's almost a cinch you won't. 
If you think you'll lose, you're lost. 
For out of the world we find 
Success begins with a fellow's will — 
It's all in the state of mind. 
If you think you're outclassed, you are. 
You've got to think high to rise. 
You've got to be sure of yourself 
Before you can win a prize. 
Life's battles don't always go 
To the stronger or faster man. 
But sooner or later the man who wins 
Is the man with faith he can. 

Mothers' of Our Leaders. 

The story told by Sister Clawson is as vivid and delightful 
as was her own cheery personality. She was greatly admired in 
her youth, and greatly loved in her later life. She was a charm- 
ing local actress and her name was a popular household name in 
early pioneer days. Her simple dramatic pictures of Nauvoo 
and pioneer Utah life, especially the scenes on the plains, are 
unsurpassed in home literature for graphic power. They will 
be enjoyed by all. Sister Clawson died Feb. 10, 1912: 


I was born on the 6th day of September, 1831, in what was 
then called North Crosby, District of Johnstown, County of 
Leeds, Upper Canada, now Westport. My father's name was 
Thomas Alfred Judd; my mother's name was Teresa Hastings. 
My paternal grandfather's name was Joel Judd', paternal grand- 
mother, Phebe Smith. My maternal grandfather was George 
Washington Hastings ; maternal grandmother, Margaret Gay. 
I was the eldest of six children, namely, Margaret Gay, William 
Riley, Rosalie, Phebe Teresa, George Thomas, and Alfred Hast- 

My parents and grandparents were all living in Canada when 
I was born, but not one of them was born or reared under the 
English government, and they were always loyal to their native 
land, the United States. They were both born in the state of 
New York. In looking over father's papers since his death, I 
find the following: "I, Thomas Alfred Judd, married Teresa 
Hastings, December 27, 1830, in Canada West, County Leeds, 
District of Johnstown, by Esquire Denney. Here we embraced 
the gospel and were baptized by John E. Page, July 26, 1836. 
In 1838, we sold our farm and removed in February to the 
States, in order to gather with the Saints. My wife and myself 
were the first two baptized in that branch of the Church." 

When my father's family arrived in the States, they stopped 
in a place called Hammond. They were preparing to go to 
Missouri with a company of Saints that were going that summer, 
but mother had gone on a farewell visit to her parents and rela- 
tives in Canada when the company of Saints passed through, 
and that was the only reason that saved us from being mobbed 
out of Missouri with the rest of the Saints. 

I was a little girl at the time, but I remember hearing a 
lady say to mother : "Sister Judd, aren't you glad you did not get 


to Missouri?" Mother said, with considerable warmth, "No, 
indeed; I wish I had been there with the Saints," and anybody 
knowing mother knew she meant what she said. I have heard 
mother tell what a sorrowful scene it was — the last parting with 
her family. They were a very affectionate family, and mother 
the most tender-hearted woman I ever knew. She was her 
father's idol. To leave them all and go far, far away, where she 
might never see or hear from them again in this world was a 
dreadful trial. It seemed to them all that she was going to the 
ends of the earth. Her mother said : 

"Oh, Teresa, how can you be the first one to break the 
family link?" It rent mother's heart, for she loved her family 
dearly, but she was parting from them for the gospel's sake, and 
she would have made a thousand times greater sacrifice. 

What a fearless, courageous woman mother was! She had 
the courage of a lion and the gentleness of a lamb. How few 
there are like her. I cannot do justice to her greatness and 
goodness. She was a born pioneer, for nothing daunted her. 

After leaving Hammond, they moved to a village called 
Bonville, Oneida county, not far from Utica, and very near 
the Erie Canal, which was then being built. After that they went 
to another little place. They were all the time preparing to go to 
Nauvoo, Illinois. It took the strictest economy for poor people 
to make that long journey, and in their own conveyances. 

Father went back to Montreal, Canada, to buy horses for the 
trip ; they were cheaper in Canada, and were said to be the best 
and hardiest animals for traveling. How delighted Brother 
Riley was with the ponies ! These ponies proved very good ones 
and when we had reached the end of the journey, father said 
that they were just as good as when we started. 

Our journey was like all such journeys — it had its pleasant 
side, and its unpleasant side. When the sun was shining and the 
roads were good, we trotted along feeling that we would soon be 
at our destination, but when the rain poured down and the roads 
were so bad that we could not travel — then that was the other 
side. Another man and his family traveled with us. His name 
was Chauncey Noble. A better, pleasanter and more agreeable 
man never lived, but his wife was just the opposite — always 
grumbling, fault-finding and wanting to go back. She never 
would camp out with the rest of us. Her husband always had 
to get a bed for her at some farmhouse along the way. How 
often it happens that good, kind men get vixens for wives, and 
amiable women get brutes for husbands. So it is, and always 
will be. 

What a pleasant trip it all was for us children. Nothing to 
worry us ; that part of it was all left for our parents. Oh, why 
can't children appreciate the happy, careless life they have be- 


fore coming to the years of responsibility ! Trifling things make 
deep impression on children's minds. I remember today a sight 
I witnessed on our journey. After traveling all day, we camped 
just before sun-down in a nice place, not far from a farm-house. 
When mother commenced to get supper, she gave me a little tin 
pail and told me to run across the way for some water. When I 
got to the well-^urb, there was a man sitting close to it, and 
looking right at me. He had no eyelids, no nose nor lips. Well, 
it didn't take me long to get back to mother, without any water, 
either, but almost scared to death. If mother had not gone for 
the water herself, she never would have believed that I had 
good reason to be frightened. He certainly was an awful sight. 
Those staring eyes ! Those grinning teeth ! That noseless face ! 
He haunted me for nights. Father afterwards learned that this 
poor man had had an accident, while making potash, that burned 
his flesh off. 

On the road to Nauvoo, we passed through Kirtland, and 
camped not far from the temple, and we were given permission 
to go through it. I well remember with what awe we entered it. 
My parents looked very serious, and spoke quite low and cau- 
tioned us children not to speak at all. The impression remains 
with me today. 

I don't remember what time we started on our journey West, 
but I do remember in the fall we came to a little place in Illinois 
called Walnut Grove. There were several "Mormon" families 
living there and they pursuaded father to stop over a while, and 
thus get better prepared to go to Nauvoo. They told him he could 
get higher wages in Walnut Grove, for the times were very hard 
in Nauvoo, so mother very reluctantly consented to stop. From 
the time she joined the Church her whole mind and thoughts 
were to get to the body of the Church. 

The greatest recollection I have of the little place was the 
big watermelons, and the great amount of black walnuts that 
grew there. Riley and myself went one day with father and 
gathered up a heaping wagonload of them. We put them in the 
garret of the log house we then lived in, and feasted on them 
all that winter. 

The next move we made was to a little town called La 
Harpe, twenty-five miles from Nauvoo. There was a pork- 
packing house there, and quite a demand for barrels. As one of 
father's trades was that of cooper, he could get plenty of work 
there at fair wages. He was anxious to lay in a good stock of 
provisions before going to Nauvoo, as they were very scarce 
and high there. Mother would have gone right on without a 
loaf of bread, she was so anxious to be where she could see and 
hear the Prophet. 

I was about ten years old at that time, and can only re- 


member what made an impression on me. My first great sorrow 
was then. Our next door neighbor had a little girl my own 
age; we were very intimate and quite inseparable. She was 
taken seriously sick and died very suddenly, and when I was 
told that Alice Carlisle was dead, I felt that there was nothing 
on earth for me to live for. I was inconsolable and refused to 
be comforted. Mother had to coax me to eat and sister Phebe 
offered me her doll and play things. Oh, I thought, how could 
I ever play again ! But time, the great healer, did for me what 
it does for others, and I became reconciled to my loss. And 
then my sister Phebe wouldn't let me keep her doll after that, 
when I got so I could eat without being coaxed. 

I recall another incident which happened there. One day, 
I was looking out of the window and saw several people run- 
ning, so, of course, I ran too. One of the largest buildings in 
town was on fire. The lower room was a store and the upper used 
a3 a school, while a little room in the back was occupied by a 
widow and her two little girls. As at all fires, there was great 
excitement — people throwing books and furniture out of the up- 
per room, and dragging the goods out of the lower part. 

During this excitement, the widow who lived at the back 
came running and screaming out of the house. She said that 
her little two-year old girl was in there. They tore her clothes 
nearly all off her trying to keep her out of the burning building, 
in her frantic efforts to get her baby. After the fire had burned 
itsef out and the walls had collapsed, the men and boys -Worked 
heroically to find the child. I was there when they took the 
little corps out of the ruins. It was a gruesome sight — one half 
of it seemed to be parboilded, the other half burned to a crisp. 
In getting it out they had pulled both of its feet off. For months 
I could not get that sight out of my mind. What it must have 
been for a mother to see ! It seems that the fire started in her 
room where her youngest child was sleeping on the bed. She 
had taken the other one with her to. visit her sister and have a 
neighborly chat. She often went out, and left her children 
asleep alone. It was probable that some of the school children 
had gone into her room to get a drink, or something else, and 
that the draft had drawn the bed curtain into the fire place. The 
bed was standing quite near the fire place. The fire was dis- 
covered about two o'clock and she was almost the last one to 
hear the alarm. This poor woman was then Mrs. Eanis ; her 
maiden name was Mary Steadwell. She was the girl who was 
shot through the hand by the mob in Missouri. When the bul- 
let struck her she fell over a big log and the mob thought her 
dead and left her, but she lived to have this great trouble, and 
many more, for she married the second time very unh'appily. 

At last, in the spring of 1841, we went to Nauvoo. How 


happy mother was ! She was a devoted Latter-day Saint, and 
her one thought from the day she was baptized was to gather 
with the Church, and finally she was in their midst. Well, when 
we arrived there, Brother Noble, who had gone right through, 
found us and insisted on our family sharing part of his home 
until we could get a place of our own. He said his house was 
larger than they needed. Houses were very scarce, but mother 
had her misgivings, for she knew Mrs. Noble too well to believe 
they could live in peace together. But as "Necessity knows no 
law," my parents accepted his (Brother Noble',s) kind oflfer, and 
things went along pleasantly for a little while, but the lady of the 
house soon began to show the cloven foot; she did not belong to 
the Church herself, and was as bitter as gall, and very quarrel- 
some. She never let an opportunity pass without saying some- 
thing disagreeable about the Church, and especially about the 
Prophet. All the apostate lies she could hear she took great 
pleasure in making mother listen to ; but mother had made up her 
mind that she would not quarrel with her. It was pretty hard 
to have to hear her sneers, insinuations and abuse continually. I 
remember once mother had me sit down and read the Book 
of Mormon. That was too much ! She took a cup of water and 
dashed it over me and the book. 

Well, things went from bad to worse until mother could 
stand it no longer. In the meantime, father had bought a lot, so 
he got some lumber and built a shanty and mother was delighted 
to get out of a comfortable house with contention in it, into all 
the discomforts of a shanty, where, when the sun shone, it was 
hot, and when it rained, it was wet, yet where there was peace ; 
mother never uttered one word of complaint. Not even that 
horrid woman could keep her from enjoying her religion. 

My parents were faithful attendants at the meetings in the 
grove to hear the Prophet Jo.seph preach, and I have seen and 
heard him many times. Strange as it may seem, in about a year, 
that good Brother Noble took his wife back to the state of New 
York, where they came from, and never returned to Nauvoo ; al- 
though before he came he had sold out everything with the 
firm determination of spending the rest of his life with the 
Church, yet her everlasting fault-finding and complaining had 
the desired eflfect at last, and the old adage, "A continued drop- 
ping will wear a stone," was verified. 

Soon after we got to Nauvoo my brother Riley was taken 
with a white swelling on his knee. Poor boy, how he suffered! 
Mother used to be up with him night after night, working so 
hord trying to relieve his sufiferings, but nothing seemed to do 
hiri any good, so she decided to have him baptized in the font. 
Before going she told him that the Lord could heal him, and he 
went with greatest confidence. When they got there mother 


lifted him out of the wagon and carried him to the font, where 
an Elder took him in his arms and carried him down into the 
water. He could not take a step or put his foot to the ground 
without the most excruciating pain, but after he had been bap- 
tized and was carried to the steps where mother was waiting to 
take him in her arms, he called out, "Oh, mother, I can walk," 
and .sure enough, he walked right up the steps, and from that 
time he had no more pain in his knee. The swelling gradually 
went down, and he was soon running and jumping with his 
playmates as usual, and never had any more trouble with his 
leg. How little I could then appreciate mother's feeling at the 
miraculous healing, for there never lived a more tender and de- 
voted mother. 

Mother was a natural born nurse, and well did she magnify 
that gift. There was a great deal of sickness in Nauvoo at that 
time. Often and often ,she would go around among her sick 
neighbors, nursing and helping them, and more than that, she 
made me go with her. I was only a little girl, but I could give 
a drink of water to the poor people burning with fever, also wash 
dishes and do many other little chores. Not inheriting any of 
mother's gift as a nurse, it was a great hardship to me. How I 
did hate it ! Wasn't it bad enough to wash dishes at home but have 
to go to the neighbors to wash up all theirs? When any of them 
got well, I was delighted, yet it was only because I knew that I 
would not have to go there any more. Oh, the selfishness of 
human nature, even in children ! 

Father was working very hard at that time getting material 
to build us a house. He used to go to an island in the Mississippi 
rl\er to get lumber. He would go Monday morning and stay 
until Saturday evening, getting out what was called shakes. Our 
house and many othere were made of this material. It was an 
all summer's job getting out enough to build a little two-room 
house. I think our place was about a mile east of the grove — 
a nice location, on what was called the Bluffs. The Flats were 
down by the river. What a beautiful view there was from the 
Bluffs with the ever interesting sight of steamboats passing up 
and down the Mississippi ; right on the Bluff was Joseph's home, 
the Mansion House, which was the center of attraction. 
(To he continued.) 


By Grace Ingles Frost. 

The hills are ablush from the kiss of Aurora, 
Blithe feathered folk are caroling o'erhead, 

Bright crocus buds have broken from the prison 
That held them fast since last year's blossoms fled'. 

A greening grass is carpeting the meadow, 
In wake of busy plow, the gull flies low. 

The laughing breeze is redolent with fragrance, 
Of flowers erstwhile blown beneath the snow. 

On every hand is wrought the springtime's magic. 
From teeming loam to every budding tree, 

Yet throbs no thrill responsive in my heart, love. 
Because you are not longer here to see. 


Hulda A. Holmes, grand-daughter; tlla Rohlhapp, daughter; Donnett Rheess, great- 
grand-daughter. Front row: Minerva Wade Hickman, 98 years old; 
Baby Iris Rheess, great-great-grand-daughter. 

Golden Wedding of Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles W. Nibley. 

Presiding Bishop Charles W. Nibley and his wife Rebecca 
Neibaur Nibley celebrated their golden wedding anniversary, 
v/hich fell on Sunday, March 30, with a reception at the Hotel 
Utah on Saturday evening, March 29. While many invitations 
were sent out for the affair, the bishop and his wife publicly in- 
vited friends who missed receiving one for the informal celebra- 
tion of the passing of the 50th milestone in their married life. 
Music and refreshments accompanied the general festivities. 

Bishop and Mrs. Nibley were married March 30, 1869, in the 
old Endowment House, President Daniel H. Wells performing 
the ceremony. The Bishop was but 20 years of age and his wife 
had just turned 18 on the day of their marriage. As days of 
taxicabs and cars had not yet arrived, the pioneer youth and 
maiden walked, through eight inches of snow, from the bride's 
home on Second East street to be married. 

Alexander Neibaur, father of the bride and a well-known 
local Hebrew poet and scholar, and Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon, 
then Miss Cain, the bride's closest girl friend, witnessed the 
ceremony. Appropriately, Mrs. Crismon assisted Bishop and 
Mrs. Nibley in receiving their guests in the Hotel Utah. 

Mrs. Niblev was born in Salt Lake City, March 30, 1851. 


The Bishop's birthplace was near Edinburgh, Scotland. He was 
born February 5, 1849. When he was a lad of six years, his 
family moved to Rhode Island, saved up enough money to cross 
the plains, and arrived here in 1860. The 70-year-old financier 
and churchman today speaks smilingly of his boyhood here in 
Utah, when he gleaned wheat, and herded scheep. He tells of the 
days, too, when Mrs. Nibley dug sego.s on the hills, the bulbs 
being a considerable part of the pioneer food of those days. 

Two weeks after their marriage the young couple moved to 
Brigham City, where Bishop Nibley was in partnership in the 
mercantile business with M. D. Rosenbaum, Mrs. Nibley's broth- 
er-in-law. The following autumn Mr. Nibley went on a mission 
to the Eastern States. On his return, he was for a time station 
agent on the Central Pacific railroad and the young couple, with 
their baby, lived down on the railroad track alone for some 
time. When the Utah Northern was built, Mr. Nibley was ap- 
pointed general ticket and freight agent at Logan. They lived 
there for 22 years and there most of their children were born. 

In 1877, Elder Nibley was called on a mission to accompany 
the late President Joseph F. Smith to Europe. He labored in 
the business department of the European mission for two years, 
and returned home in 1879. Later, the family moved to Baker 
City, Oregon, where Mr. Nibley engaged in the lumber business, 
and where they lived for 11 years. They have had ten children, 
four daughters and six sons, seven of whom are living. 

The couple celebrated their silver wedding in Baker City 
and invitations were sent out to many friends who were present 
25 years ago. Since 1903 Bishop and Mrs. Nibley have made 
their home in this city. In 1907 the Bishop was appointed to his 
present office in the Church and in the same year Mrs. Nibley 
was made a member of the General Board of the Relief Society. 
One regret in connection with the present anniversary, expressed 
by both the Bishop and his wife, was that their close friend, the 
late President Joseph F. Smith, could not be present. 

Mrs. Rebecca N. Nibley has been a member of our General 
Board for twelve years, and has taken an active interest in the 
work of the Society, especially along practical lines. She has 
been a member of the Relief Society Magazine committee from 
its organization, and is Chairman of the Relief Society Home 
committee. She has successfully administered the financial affairs 
of the Home, keeping the place out of debt, and making it a 
haven of refuge for those who are sheltered there. She is in- 
vincible in testimony, quick in responsive loyalty to our leaders, 
and full of quiet generosity and sympathy to all her many friends 
and associates. 

This Church has been blessed with manv great and wise 


leaders who have stood as pillars of strength to the people of 
God. Few have equalled, none have surpassed Bishop Nibley in 
integrity, sagacity and breadth of vision. He stands today as a 
mighty bulwark of strength and inspired leadership in his stren- 
uous and important position as Presiding Bishop of the Church. 
His quick apperception of .spiritual changes, his masterly yet 
simply expressed loyalty and devotion to our present Church 
leaders is both inspiring and fruitful of results. The people re- 
pose, with increasing confidence, their trust in their great financial 
and temporal judge in Israel, Charles W. Nibley. He is one of 
the most important figures in business and financial circles of the 
inter-mountain west. And besides his host of friends in Utah, 
many prominent citizens over the entire western section of the 
country extended hearty congratulations to him. and Mrs. Nibley 
on their golden wedding anniversary. 

Lines for a Golden Wedding Day. 

Written for Bishop and Mrs. C. W. Nibley. 

In harbored bay, with wavelets softly rolling. 
Their boat rides out with bells all gayly tolling. 
Two sit beneath a sail of pure and snowy hue. 
And watch the sunrise in the distant, eastern blue. 

A restless sea, with dashing waves athwart the bow, 
Their ship rides heavily with children's boats in tow. 
She comes to harbor on their silver wedding day. 
That friends may come aboard to speed them on their way, 

Storms well weathered, life's story nearly told. 

The sails and decks a-shining in sunset's fairy gold — 

The ship weighs anchor, while her bells are ringing 

A golden message — ^old friends are happy wishes bringing. 

O ships, that sail life's stormy, billowing crest, 

How like the lives of those who drift upon your breast; 

How few to anchor come on golden wedding day, 
How many know but sorrow's bitter, blighting way ! 

Yet fewer still may ride prosperity's wide waves — 
And keep life's pilot's facing the Master's Light which saves. 
Protect our vessels. Lord of Light, upon life's stormy sea, 
And bring our convoys home to harbor close near Thee._ 

Mary Foster Gibbs. 

Municipal Kitchens in England 
During the War. 

By Joseph A. West. 

The following article was sent through the courtesy of Elder 
George F. Richards, of the Council of the Twelve, from Liver- 
pool, in response to my request. It will doubtless be of interest 
to your readers, especially that portion which speaks of the 
economical features of the Community Kitchen. Of course, we 
do not know how the prices will compare with ours here. 

Had we a careful record of the community kitchens and din- 
ing rooms kept by the several United Order communities which 
were established in different parts of Utah, under the presidency of 
Brigham Young, doubtless the favorable economic and other 
results of such movements right here among us would Ibe 
equally apparent. 

Some twelve or fifteen years after the Prophet Joseph 
Smith received that remarkable revelation upon the Order of 
Enoch, certain leading and influential men, and men of letters, too, 
including Horace Greely, editor of the New York Tribune; 
Charles A. Dana, editor and owner of the Netv York Sun; Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne; Park Goodwin, of the Netv York Evening 
Post, and son-in-law of William Cullen Bryant; George Ripley, 
John S. Dwight, William Henry Channing, T. A. Whitney, and 
Albert Brisbane, noted editor and publisher of his time, suc- 
ceeded, by extensive lecture tours throughout the East, in estab- 
lishing what is known as Fouierism in the United States, nu- 
merous societies being established in Massachusetts, New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Mich- 
igan. On the 4th of April, 1844, a national convention was 
held at Clinton Hall, New York, at which George Ripley was 
chosen president, and amqng the vice-presidents were such men 
as Horace Greely, Albert Brisbane, Park Goodwin and Charles 
A. Dana. 

The movement, which was but one of some fifteen others of 
like purpose, but different in some features of their organization, 
established what was known as the North American Phalanx 
of Fouierism in Monmoth county. New Jersey. 

A large tract of land was purchased, on which was erected 
a spacious three-story mansion for housing all the members 
of the Phalanx, who worked in the various industries of the 
oorganization, but who were mainly horticulturists and agri- 


All lived under one roof, and ate in the same dining room. 
The cost of meals which were served a' la carte, (this was in 
1850) was remarkably small, coffee being but one-half cent per 
cup, including milk; butter, half a cent; meat, two cents, and 
other dishes in proportion; but in addition to this, each mem- 
ber paid 361/^ cents per week for the dining room and his pro- 
portion of waiter service and lights. The rent of a good sized 
room in the mansion was $12 per year. (See Hilquisfs History 
of Socialism in America.) All this is another evidence of what 
may be saved to any community that can successfully adopt such 
measures of economic living. 

The Phalanx, above referred to, numbering several hundred 
people ceased to exist after a few years, as they lacked the influ- 
ence of true Christianity to cement and beautify their community 

The following are extracts from Mr. Forshaw's address on 
"Municipal Kitchens," in England, and their use during the war: 

Address on ''Municipal Kitchens" and Their Use Durikg 
THE Scarcity of Food. 

By Mr. H. Forshaw. 

As you are all aware, the present crisis through which the 
World is passing has compelled men and women everywhere to 
consider new subjects and adjust their views regarding old ones. 

Our municipalities organized National Kitchens rather from 
expediency, owing to conditions arising out of the War, than from 
economic principles. 

Contrary to all experience and expectations, during this war 
traders have generally been experiencing an unprecedented time 
of prosperity, and so have a large number of wage-earners ; but 
nevertheless, unorganized labor has received little or no increase 
ir; wages. 

Tho^o who have received a large increase in wages are able 
to satisfy their wants and buy goods unthought of in ordinary 
Limes and also to meet the enhanced prices charged, while those 
who have received little or no advance are the worst sufferers. Of 
course, it is well known that the art of good government is to 
keep people contented and give them no cause for grievance. 
The vulgar display of dress, seen in our streets, cannot but create 
a spirit of discontent amongst those who cannot get enough to 
keep body and soul together. 

With a view to meeting the wants of the working-people 
the Liverpool Corporation are attempting to carry out the prin- 
ciple of Municipal Kitchens. 

You all know what co-operation is, then what objection can 
there be to Co-operative Cooking? As is well known in all 


enterprises the greater the output or turnover the more eco- 
nomically can any enterprise be worked. This is naturally so in 
the case of Municipal Kitchens and the cost of providing for 5,000 
or 6,000 persons is much cheaper per head than for a family of 
six, the saving thus affected can be utilized in reducing the price of 
food. What 100 housewives will have to pay in bulk for say £20, 
the Manager of the Kitchens would pay about £9 — this is no 
fallacy but a fact. Much food is lost by bad or indifferent cook- 
ing, and these kitchens will set a new example in the prepara- 
tion and use of food, and so educate the tastes of people. 

Briefly it may be said that the main objects of the Kitchens 
are to save food, fuel, worry, labor and to enable persons who 
cannot cook at home to obtain nourishing food whether hot or 
cold. These kitchens are not run for profit but aim merely to 
clear expenses. Consider the amount of money saved in fuel. For 
instance, instead of 100 fires going to cook (well or badly) 100 
meals in 100 kitchens, we have one large fire, or stove, at a 
Municipal Kitchen which will cook the whole of the 100 meals 
with ease. The day may come, when Municipal Cooking ma> 
become an absolute necessity, in order to properly feed our dear 
young children and the aged and infirm who cannot look after 

It may be of interest to know that Kitchens were started in 
London at the East End by two missionaries about 30 years ago. 
Messrs. Gregory and Chudleigh, who started a Soup Kitchen in 
one of the worst parts of the East End. In Holland they have a 
kitchen in each street. The .success of these endeavors, coupled 
with other individual efforts, no doubt influenced our British 
Food Controller to suggest the idea that Municipalities should 
provide and equip Municipal Kitchens in the interests of National 
Food Economy. To many of the patrons the valuable properties 
and even the taste of vegetables are unknown. Few will care to 
return to poorer and more expensive habits after experiencing the 
advantages of variety in food and better methods of cooking. 

It is a very common thing for a whole family to be supplied 
with dinners from our Kitchens, and it cannot be too strongly 
pointed out that the Kitchens are not open for the poorest of the 
poor only, but for any class of the community who wish to avail 
themselves of the facilities afforded for the obtaining of good 
cooked food at reasonable prices. This is a great boon to 
mothers who have been compelled to go out to work to supple- 
ment the income of the home and also to provide children with 
a good wholesome meal at the period of their lives when it is 
most needed. Of course these Kitchens are never intended to 
harass existing traders, but to help people to obtain a decent meal 
during the present strain and stress of the times. For your infor- 
mation we have now in Liverpool 10 Municipal Kitchens and 


these are in such places as Scotland Road, Old Swan, Kirkdale 
Road, Earle Road, Netherfield Road, Park Road, etc. 

Owing to the difficult times and scarcity of foodstuffs every 
effort is made to vary the kinds of foods supplied, the dishes being 
changed as often as possible. The following is a menu : 


Hot Water i/gd. 

Porridge li/gd. 

Cocoa Id. 

Irish Stew 4d. 

Hot Pot 4d! 

War Stew 3d. and 4d. 

Municipal Pie and Gravy 3d. 

. Roast Beef . 4d. 

And Potatoes Boiled, Jacket, Baked or Roasted. 

Puddings li^d. and 2d. 

Soups .l^d. 

The other day I saw a queue waiting outside a butcher's 
shop numbering about 200. These people were all waiting in the 
rain to purchase meat, and from what I could see the butcher 
had in his shop sufficient to supply each person with about 4 
ounces. Only a few doors away, the people could have obtained 
meat at our Kitchen, ready cooked, which would have been sold 
ar probably a less price than they would pay the butcher for the 
same meat, and then it would not be cooked. Passing along 
the same quarter on the first day of the week, I saw a queue of 
practically the same women waiting outside a paw.nshop. 

This war is teaching us that if human beings are to work 
at their best, their mental and physical conditions must be 
as good as possible. Miserable dwelling places, foul air, long hours 
of labor, labor made harder than is necessary, defeat their 
objects both in the world of industry and in the universal industry 
of keeping house, bearing and rearing children. The Municipal 
Kitchen is an institution which should bear no relationship at 
all to the charity soup kitchen. 

As an illustration of the war Meat Rationing Order, note 
the following: One meat coupon from a Meat Card will ensure 
a meat meal for four days in the week. This meal would con- 
sist of say, Stewed oi Roast Heart, Kidney or Ox Cheeks, Liver 
or Tripe, to the amount of nearly two ounces in each meal. A 
half of a coupon ^vill ensure a cut from a joint either roast beef 
or mutton or stewed steak with onions or carrots and covered 
with nice hot gravy. 

Three whole coupons if left at one of the Kitchens will 


ensure a Meat ivleal for the whole of the week inckiding a por- 
tion to be used for the Sunday. 

All the Kitchens are registered by the Food Controller, and 
the supplies are rationed out. 

There ;s an uiea ui some quarters to the effect that Municipal 
Kitchens nre all right in their way, but certain people cannot 
quite fancy the loorl cooked therein. In this connection ii is inter- 
esting for me to be able to state that food cooked at one of the 
Kitchens, is at present and has been for some time past, supplied 
to a certain Club in Liverpool, and the food has been commented 
upon in lauf'.atoiy terms by the patrons who to this day are 
absolutely in ignorance as to where the food iComes from. 
The Committee of the Club have expressed the wish that the 
walls of the Club were made of rubber so that thev could 
stretch or enlarge the premises when occasion requires owing to 
the large and sudden increase in the memberships. We are also 
supplying dinners to the Walker Art Gallery for the staff work- 
ing on Food Control, at a cost of 7i/^d. 

I may mention that a movement is on foot to start a National 
Restaurant where a meal can be bought for 8d. including a 

The whole movement is of course only in its infancy. 


Direct 01 of food Kitchen During the Great War. 

Dear Mr. Richards: Herewith please find a copy of an ad- 
dress delivered to the Co-operation Society during the worst part 
of the war when food was very uncertain. 

I may state that in the north of England these kitchens have 
not proved the success that we anticipated, but I firmly believe that 
a kitchen or restaurant is necessary in every large district. I will 
be glad to give you any further particulars necessary. You have 
only to ask. 

Yours truly, 



The surprising news that the grandson of the Prophet 
Joseph Smith, Frederick M. Smith, had tendered his resignation 
as the President of the Reorganite Church, because of disagree- 
ment with his Twelve Apostles, is reported from Lamoni, Iowa, 
April 10. Later information states that the trouble had been ad- 
justed and that the president will continue in office. The diffi- 
culty arose over whether the Twelve or the President should 
direct the 300 missionaries of the organization. 

A Lover of Grape Vines. 

Frank R. Arnold, U. A. C, Logan, Utah. 

It often takes a woman to get some things done on the farm 
or in the garden. My neighbor last summer "guessed" that 
his peartrees at the bottom of the garden v^^ould get enough water 
anyway, but his wife insisted on having a ditch made and seeing 
with her own eyes the water arrive at the tree roots and saved 
the pears. At Arbor Day time it is usually the wife who uses her 
influence to have the home orchard of varied varieties ( ?) planted 
which, with its many flavors, is so superior for home use to the 
commercial orchard which is restricted to two or three varieties. 
It is usually also the wife who picks out a sunny, protected corner 
by the kitchen door and suggests putting in a grape vine for 
table grapes and the joy of being able to sit under one's own 
vine and fig tree. Women are supposed to be more interested in 
figleaves than vines, but the true homemaker loves them both. 

It is to be hoped that many Utah housewives will insist this 
year on putting in one or two grapevines, for although St. George 
is the favored vineyard spot of the State, there is no reason why 
the eastern benches of Utah, Salt Lake, Davis, and Box Elder 
counties should not be covered with grape vines and known as 
Utahs' Rhineland. Here you have similar conditions to the fa- 
mous Chataqua grape district of New York. You have sunny 
hill sides with southern and western exposures to give the grape 
vines the warm feet that they love and the drainage, so necessary 
to their perfect development. You have two large lakes to tem- 
per cold weather in winter, equalize day and night temperatures 
in summer, lengthen the growing season and ward off early 
frosts, for in grape grov/ing climate this more important a factor 
than soil. And the Utah bench soil is well suited to the grape, 
and if constantly cultivated needs no irrigation. If anyone does 
not believe that grapes may be grown in Davis county as easily 
and in as great a variety as in California he, or better, she, 
should make a visit to Mr. George Wood's vineyard on his ranch 
in the southeastern part of Bountiful. You leave the Bountiful 
car just before arriving at Val Verda and find yourself in an acre 
of Black Hamburg grapes. Up on the hillside is one of those 
stone houses that give Utah such an old-world look, while near 
by are stone barns with straw heaped upon the roofs like English 
thatched cottages. Here is a ranch of 300 acres, mainly given up 
to wheat and alfalfa, but remarkable for thirty acres of grapevines 
representing forty varieties Paths shaded by almond trees lead 


from the stone farm house to two bungalows where live two 
married sons of Mr. Wood, for the pleasant custom is growing in 
Utah of living on the paternal estate, but having a house of your 
own. Mr. Wood's vineyard is famous in the Salt Lake market 
every fall, and at times you may see as many as thirty automo- 
biles at his door all eager to go out into the vineyard and pick 
grapes. Unscrupulous automobile owners will also sometimes at 
night turn out their lights and invade the vineyard and help 
themselves to grapes without money and without price. They 
mash the grapes and tramp down the vines in the darkness and 
one guilty woman even shed an ostrich plume which was picked 
up the next morning by Mr. Wood. It didn't pay for the dam- 
age done and the grapes purloined. 

Some families in Utah, like the Caines in Richmond, take 
naturally and inevitably to stock raising. Others, like the Knud- 
sons of Brigham City, have an inborn passion for horticulture, and 
Mr. Wood is a born grower of grapes. Next to his family his 
vineyard has been the great work of his life. He has built it up 
with local and California varieties, and now knows his vines so 
well that if you were to show him a vine cutting without leaf or 
fruit he could tell you immediately to which of his forty varieties 
it belonged. His father came from Dutchess county, in New 
York, where American grapes were first developed successfully, 
and though he did not have the New York horticultural passion 
it was recessive in his blood and he passed it on to his son. It 
is rare to find so many European and American grapes in an 
American vineyard, whether east or west. In the east you expect 
to find the American grapes and west of the Continental Divide 
you know the Californian or European varieties flourish, but Utah 
and Mr. Wood have given a royal welcome to both kinds and 
Mr. Wood is succeeding well with both. Thus the Black Ham- 
burg does as well for him in the open air as it does in English 
conservatories. The Blue Malvoise he considers the best of table 
grapes, though it cannot be shipped far, owing to its tender skin. 
The White Tokay and the Elaine Tokay he has acclimated until 
they are as hardy in Bountiful as in California. He finds the 
Muscatel the most hardy of the white grapes. The Cornichon 
and the Emperor winterkill easily and need a long season. Most 
surprising of all, the Thompson's seedless grape, or Sultanina, as 
it is called in California, succeeds as well on Mr. Wood's land 
as it does in St. George. It is often ready by the end of August, 
and always by September 15, and some of the bunches weigh as 
high as seven pounds. Mr. Wood has also the Rose of Peru or 
Black Prince, a large black grape; the Verdell, a large white 
grape in loose bunches with a tender skin, and the Muscat, which 
with him is perfectly hardy. 

Of the eastern or "slip skin" varieties he has the Worden. 


Concord, Delaware, Niagara, Catawba, Isabella, and the Agawam, 
a red grape, much like the Concord. He finds the Malvoise and 
Muscatel the best market grape for Salt Lake, though the Concord 
is in such demand that he says he ought to have fifty acres of 
Concords to supply the demand. 

When a man has so many vineyard favorites it is hard for 
him to say just what is the best variety to plant, if you can have 
only one or two vines. He says that the Concord, Worden, 
Thompson's Seedless and Verdell can be raised in protected spots 
even as far north as Cache Valley. "If, however, I were re- 
stricted to one variety of grape," says Mr. Wood, "I'd take the 
Valvoise for first choice and the Muscatel for second. But if the 
wife wanted jelly, I'd have to plant Concords." 

Part of Mr. Wood's success with grapes is due to the fact 
that the Lord meant him to grow them, part also to soil and cli- 
mate, and part to the care he gives his vines. When he has pre- 
pared his soil by ploughing from fifteen to eighteen inches deep, 
he dips his plants or cuttings in mud and sets them in straight 
lines, taking care to pack the soil very firmly about them and 
leave a hollow around each to catch the rain. The vineyard soil 
as a whole must be loose to hold air and warmth, but no roots or 
cuttings will start to grow unless there is firm contact between 
them and the soil. The cultivator is going all day long in Mr. 
Wood's vineyards until the grapes get so large there is danger 
of knocking them off. Then just as soon as the leaves begin to 
faU, pruning must be done so that ends may heal up well, other- 
wise the vines will bleed so that you would' think it had been rain- 
ing. Although you can get water by tunneling the hills east of 
Bountiful, the vineyard needs no irrigation all summer, for just 
enough water to secure a good growth of vine gives the largest 
crop with the best quality and freest from fungi. The chief en- 
emies of the vineyard are the robins and the grasshoppers. The 
first Mr. Wood has to scare away, the latter he poisons. 

"When the pioneers first came to this valley, says Mr. Wood," 
it froze every month of the year. But Brother Brigham stretched 
out his hand and said, 'This land is adapted to small fruits,' and 
I had to help prove that his words were right. I used to see 
lots of grapes shipped into Salt Lake, and when I took my first 
load to an Italian there he said to me, 'Be patient and you will 
arrive.' " 

Patience, religion, and a love of one's work will get a man 

Guidance of Children — Family Or- 

By Lucy Wright Snow. 

While the all-absorbing topic of after-war readjustment is 
being discussed and .plans are made to meet the many new con- 
ditions ^nd requirements, while schools, churches'', busin»ess 
houses and manufactories are being adjusted, what are fathers 
and mothers doing in the way of family adjustment? 

There is now more than ever before, the need of our homes 
being kept in order, families working unitedly and family records 
being kept. Millions of men have been called to the great be- 
yond in the great world war, many of whom have never heard 
the gospel of Christ, leaving behind them their preparatory 
work for receiving the gospel, to be done vicariously. Unnum- 
bered mothers have died of pestilence or been widowed by war, 
leaving their families to be reared by those outside their home 

Are we ready for this extra work? 
Are our houses in order? 
How shall they be placed in order? 

By mobilizing forces and bringing families to a unity of 
purpose and effort for that which is yet to come and for the 
work that there is to do. 

Are parents sensing their responsibilities and covenants made 
to this end? 

While trying to establish a League of Nations let us bear 
in mind that united families — families who know the law of 
obedience, form the basis of united nations. 

Are Latter-day Saint mothers fully awake to their duties 
as heads of families, to meet all needs now at this time, when 
all forces available are required to make the necessary prepara- 
tion for the coming events of which the prophets have spoken? 
Families can be formed into great forces for good by organ- 
ization. Great treasures of knowledge and power lie hidden 
and ready to be brought out by close association of families — by 
family organization and efifort. Of course a family is a recog- 
nized organization, but if an organization is not active it will 
die, and many Latter-day Saint heads of families are failing to 
bring out the powers of their own family circle, that would mean 
much to the children individually as well as to the family as a 


Family meetings in the homes have been suggested by the 
head of our Church as a unity producing medium. These meet- 
ings would crystallize the family organization and assist mate- 
rially in all branches of education, and both parents and children 
would find this to be a wonderful system of development. There 
is nothing that children delight in quite so much as to have their 
parents get down to their world and be students with them. There 
should be a family meeting held at regular intervals at which 
mjceting each member of the family would be expected to attend. 
If any member is absent, his letter should be there. 

The plans and methods of conducting such meetings are 
many and varied, and heads of families, by a little careful thought 
and consideration, should be best able to make the plan and live 
to that which would suit their own family needs best. A simple 
suggestive outline follows : 

Let the father act as president with mother as his counselor ; 
a member of the family as secretary and treasurer, another mem- 
ber as chorister and the young boys act as deacons. 

Procure a good large record book for the minutes and have 
the secretary carefully record all minutes and important items 
concerning the meetings under the name ,of the Home meetings of 
the (father's name) family. 

Deacons prepare the room in readiness for the meeting. All 
m.embers should be clean and in proper condition to attend a 
meeting and the meeting be carried on with dignity and perfect 
order, though not tense and formal. 

Father always presides but each member in turn may be 
appointed to conduct the meetings or even be responsible for the 
program and success of the meeting which he has been appointed 
to conduct. 

There should be a free and happy spirit and the best way of 
assuring this is to assemble asking Divine guidance just as our 
Church organizations do, for the Lord has said where two or 
three are assembled in his name, they shall have his Spirit to 
direct them. Opportunities are afforded each member of the 
family including father and mother, to ofifer appropriate prayers 
for opening and closing, learning to select appropriate ,songs and 
in short, learning to "do things" appropriately and well, without 

Unnumbered subjects of interest may be introduced by the 
m.embers in their turn, or some systematic study pursued. Paul 
said "search the Scriptures, arid prove all things and hold fast to 
that which is good." This would surely be good advice for pur- 
suance of a family organization. 

The meetings, furnish an ideal place and condition for par- 
ents to get close to the children and teach tactfully and force- 



fully as well as gracefully, the many lessons that have to be taught, 
and a great amount of individual teaching can be done away 
with. B}^ making each member in turn responsible for the meet- 
ing and allowing him to conduct that meeting, he will learn to 
love the work and if sufficient variety is introduced the meet- 
ings will never become tiresome. 

The teachings need not be all of a religious nature, although 
as interest becomes stimulated it will invariably be found that 
Scripture literature holds first place if properly presented. Then 
there are Current Events, Studies of Animals, wild and domestic 
of the various countries ; Stories of Travel illustrated by a 
sterioptican (which, by the way, can be purchased for about 
$10.) illustrating- subjects under disdussion ; Concert Recita- 
tions and Songs memorized, Stories, Talks of Great Men and 
Women of Ancient and Modern Times, Teaching the boy to save. 
Teaching the girl how to help in the home, the Value of Service. 

Encourage and bring out the talents of the family. Parents 
will be repeatedly surprised and astonished at what their children 
can do and how they will develop their talents and learn to love 
their home circle. 

One tactful mother brought about a wonderful penitence in 
a runaway boy, by withholding stinging reproof on his return, 
and then telling feelingly the story of The Prodigal Son at the 
family meeting. 

There is a tendency in these days of school rush, for parents 
to relieve their children of all their home duties so that they can 
better master their school work, thereby overtaxing their mental 
powers and eliminating practical education. This should not be 
done. Home education is fully as valuable as school education, 
and parents should insist upon children giving good home re- 
ports as well as good school reports. 

Lead the different members of the family to make their 
effort to increase human efficiency along the lines of Obedience, 
Good Manners, Conduct, Effort, Personal Hygiene and Responsi- 
bilities. Under the last heading a great feature might be awakened 
by outlining a plan of scout work for boys and girls ; e. g., get 
up as soon as awake, morning prayers, attend to personal toilet, 
put room in order or any duties that parents might find profitable 
to their own children. A lively interest will be taken in these 
subjects if parents will mark their weekly reports on the subjects 
similar to the school reports, e. g., 1. Excellent; 2. Good; 3. Pass- 
ing ; 4. Poor. 

The older members of the family will be pleased to report on 
these subjects willingly, setting the example and becoming co- 
workers with the small children. We never grow too big nor too 
old to take pride in efficiency on any of the subjects indicated. 


The small children will take a wild interest in reporting- on the 
same things as big brothers and sisters do. They love co-opera- 
tion. Indeed co-operation is unity. An occasional report of 
the children's saving, earnings and investments, given by the 
treasurer, lends interest. 

So numerous are the subjects that might be taken up with 
profit and so varied the plans, that it remains with the resource- 
ful parents and children to find them and pursue them interestedly. 
But almost whatever plan is followed, if taken up earnestly and 
conscientiously with a view to education and advancement and 
unity-producing effort, will bring results that will far surpass 
expectations. "There is no excellence without labor," and so the 
more effort and conscientious thought that is put into family 
organization, the more will be realized from such effort. In truth, 
parents are responsible for seeing that their children are properly 
guided along all lines of education, whether they be at home, at 
school or at play, and no parent will be excused in this age for 
trusting their God-given children entirely to the guidance of 


By Lucy Wright Snow. 

Would that I could breathe to thee 
Words full of tenderest sympathy. 
To help thee on thy sorrowing way ; 
But 'tis not given to human kind 
To comfort much the sorrowing mind. 
'Tis only given to me to ask ; 
God bless my sister in distress ; 
Hold her close that she may find 
Thy comfort to her sorrowing mind. 
Take courage, then, my sister dear. 
The loved ones aren't gone — they're near, 
'Tis but a day till we shall meet 
To worship at the Savior's feet ; 
There fathers, mothers, children dear. 
Shall claim each other, never fear. 
The plan is made — the end is sure; 
Be faithful, trustful evermore ; 
Thy treasures are laid up in heaven. 
And some on earth thou still art given, 
These shall thy glory be at length, 
And lives eternal bless thy strength. 

Real Economy in the Home. 

By Clara Fagangren. 

Mrs. Tobhs ran over to her neighbor, Mrs. Snobbs, to see 
if she could use the telephone, (her own having been taken out 
for economical reasons). She stumbled and almost fell over the 
full g-arbage can outside the kitchen door, and could not but 
take a casual look at its contents; bits of bread, the tough ends 
of steak, stalks of celery, even half eaten pieces of cake confronted 
her eye. 

The door was opened by a half clad youngster, (although it 
was well after nine o'clock in the morning), having a pancake in 
one hand and a piece of candy in the other. 

"Come right in," he said, "mother is in the dining room, 
writin' her lecture for the Ladies' Club this afternoon. 

The neat and scrupulously clean Mrs. Tobbs crossed the un- 
tidy kitchen with its sink piled high with unwashed dishes, into 
the equally untidy dining room, where Mrs. Snobbs, attired in a 
soiled and frilly silk kimona and an elaborate boudoir-cap on 
her tousled head, was busily engaged in the task of writing out 
her speech on home economics, she being a prominent member 
of the leading women's club in the town. 

"Sit down," she said cordially to her friend, "do tell me 
how you manage to live with your large family these times when 
everything is so high ; it's all we can do to meet our bills with only 
two children to support, while you have a family of eight." 

Mrs. Tobbs seated herself on the only chair in the room 
which was not streaked with grease or jelly. Folding her hands 
on her freshly ironed apron, she contemplated the other woman 

"That is getting to be quite a problem," she admitted, "my 
husband is not getting any more money now than he did when 
things cost half what they do now, and it seems that the chil- 
dren's appetites are increasing every day ; but thank the Lord for 
that, it's cheaper to buy bread than medicine." 

"But," Mrs. Snobbs persisted, "you must have variety in the 
diet. Here we are tired to death of roast and steaks, salads and 
cake, I wish I could think of something unusual. Yesterday I 
bought a lobster, it cost me forty cents a pound and two hours' 
work to prepare it and then we didn't seem to relish it." 

"Perhaps you have the habit of eating between meals," 
vouchsafed Mrs. Tobbs, who knew the Snobbs children were 
seldom seen without candy of some kind in their hands. She had 


also been informed that their mother frequented the downtown 
cafes in the afternoons and evenings. "I let my family get good 
and hungry for their meals, and they find they are only too glad 
to sit down to the plainest of fare, just so there is plenty of it. 
Now for breakfast we always have either cornmeal or oatmeal 
mush, and if eggs are cheap, say twenty-five cents a dozen, we 
have them also. If not, I cook dried prunes Or peaches to be 
eaten with good home-made all wheat bread. Mr. Tobbs comes 
home in the middle of the day so we have our dinner then. The 
meat question doesn't bother me much since I made up my mind 
not to spend more than twenty cents for meat a day." 

"What !" cried Mrs. Snobbs aghast, "tell me what you can 
get for a family of your size for twenty cents? Our meat bill 
must be twenty dollars a month. Mr Snobbs claims it is extrava- 
gant, but one must eat." 

"I'll tell you," Mrs. Tobbs answered, "one day we have round 
steak cooked tender with an onion and potatoes. This makes a 
big meat pie, enough for us all. Sometimes the beefsteak is 
cooked pot-roast fashion. I make brown gravy and dumplings to 
make it reach ; then for a change I get hamburger steak, add as 
much bread crumbs as tliQre is meat, with an tgg. a chopped onion, 
half a cup of milk and seasoning. Fried in cakes, this makes a 
dish fit for a king. Another way to cook this meat is to mix it 
the .same way and put it in a deep, greased pan, cover with a 
package of cooked spagghetti and bake in the oven. Still another 
economical way is to drop spoonfuls of the meat and parboiled 
cabbage leaves and bake in the oven thirty minutes. This way we 
have a change every day. I stopped baking pies and cake ; we eat 
our fruit plain and find it much more wholesome. Where I used 
to buy three pounds of butter I get two; our income hasn't in- 
creased with the high cost of everything, so the only thing to do 
is to figure on the cheapest and most nourishing food." 

Mrs. Snobbs mentally added her expenditures ; it dawned on 
her mind that she must have been extravagant, as she always 
ordered fruit and vegetables out of season, and the best cuts of 
meat because they were the most easily prepared. Her husband 
had double the income of Mr. Tobbs, still they never saved a 
dollar, while here were the Tobbs with their large family, living 
within their income and actually thriving. 

"I'm glad you came in," she said, "I've learned a lesson this 
morning. After this I'll consult you about marketing. Run over 
again, you are welcome to use our 'phone any time, for your visits 
are profitable. Good-morning!" 

Rainbows on War Clouds. 

New Book of Poems by Col. James L. Hughes. 

The war has demanded great sacrifice, developed latent no- 
bility, in the nations taking part, and in a few instances has in- 
spired poetic speech from both experienced and inexperienced 

No one tribute to the war and its sacrificial altar has moved 
America more than the clear and beautiful poetic stanzas written 
by Col. James I.. Hughes, the famous educator, poet and soldier. 
He was Dr. James L. Hughes to us in Utah, fifteen years ago, 
when he came to visit us and to give his stirring lectures on 
"Kindling," "The Old Training and the New," and especially on 
the educational side of his friend the great Charles Dickens. 

His only son, Chester Hughes, was an early hero who laid 
down his life, November 15, 1915. That great personal grief and 
the horror of war has not extinguished the Christian hope of life 
after death, one reads all through the book of poems which Col. 
Hughes has just published, Rainhoivs on War Clouds, which may 
be purchased from C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, New York. The 
simplicity of Wordsworth and the spiritual insight of Browning 
mark these radiant tributes to life's richest values. It is impossible 
to indicate all of the lovely sentiments crystallized in musical 
verse, but note this : 


life's vital power. 

"The battlefield has many scars, 

But life has vital power, and so 
New branches spring from broken trunks; 

New leaves on shattered branches grow. 

"Though some have feared that faith was dead. 
And that no more its light would shine ; 

Through sacrifice and service, faith 
Has grown in beauty more divine. 

"So from the despot's ruthless war 

True freedom will in beauty grow 
O'er all the earth, till brotherhood 

In human hearts will ever grow." 

The poems which circle around the grave of his son Chester 
shine with the lustre of faith and hope, while his tributes to 
American loyalty demonstrate the new and close comradeship felt 
by both England and Canada for America and her flag. 

"old glory" and "the union jack." 

" 'Old Glory' has new glory now. 

Its message to the truly free 
Is universal, unconfined 

By boundaries of land or sea. 

"Beside the flags of other lands 

That love democracy and right, 
Americans 'Old Glory' bear 

To break the power of despot might. 

" 'Old Glory' and the Union Jack 

Have waved good will a hundred years, 

And smile our border land. 
Hats off to them, and rousing cheers ! 

"And they will float in harmony 

Through all the ages yet to be; 
And help to make the whole wide world 

Join in fraternal unity." 

Col. Hughes is a brother of the no less distinguished Sir 
Sam Hughes who has been so marked a figure in Canada dur- 
ing the war. Another brother is Gen. Garnet Hughes, and still 
another is also a colonel. Nine of the second generation were 
in active service, including Lieut. Chester Hughes. 

The Garden in May. 

By Morag. 

Welcome ! merry month of May 
Sunshine all the livelong day; 
Apple blossoms pink and white 
Scent the air. With wild delight 
Birds are singing, flowers are springing; 
'Tis the lovely month of May. 

Earth is clothed in wondrous green ; 
Now we'll choose our sweet May queen, 
Deck her brow with garlands bright. 
Peer of flowers, carnations white. 
Honor Mother, there's no other 
Like her, for our "Queen of May." 

The earlier part of May finds the garden beds irresistibly 
gay with the late tulips, hyacinths and daffodils, while the apple 
blossoms and lilacs fill the air with their perfume. Later in the 
month, the peonies and iris begin to show their rich colors, while 
at their feet bloom the pansies, primroses, pyrethrums and many 
of the spring flowering perennials and hardy shrubs. Seeds of 
cosmos, asters, stocks and nasturtiums may now be safely planted 
in the open ground, while plants of many varieties may be trans- 
planted from the hotbed or cold frame. Many people set out 
plants immediately after a rain. A better method is to transplant 
on a dry day after sundown. Dig the hole the full depth of the 
plant's root length, place the plant in the hole, fill half full of 
water, throw in enough dirt to make a soft mud about the roots 
and fill with perfectly dry soil. The plant will seldom wilt, as 
the moisture at the roots evaporates very slowly, and there is 
none on the surface of the ground for the sun to bake or steam. 

Let us make a sunshine bed, or garden of gold. For a back- 
ground plant double sunflowers or rudbeckia (golden glow). 
In front of this sow seeds of the tall African marigold, lemon and 
orange colored. Next caliopsis, or coreopsis, and yellow mar- 
guerites, then California poppies, and border the bed with mig- 
nonette or dwarf marigolds. 

If you want a flower bed which, in bloom, will rival heaven's 
own blue, plant giant larkspur at the rear, then anchusa, next 
a row of cornflowers, bordering with dwarf blue ageratum. 


For a white bed plant nicotiaria, white asters, snapdragon, 
candytuft and sweet alyssum. 

For a quick growing hedge grow kochia or summer cypress. 
Its exquisite green, fihny foliage will grow about two and a half 
feet in one season and will turn to a glowing crimson in the 

Four o'clocks make another delightful low hedge, and their 
varied colors and fragrant flowers are a source of daily delight. 

The geraniums and petunias may be bedded out after the 
twenty-fifth of the month, and formal ornamental bed's made. A 
good edging plant is the blue and white lobelia. 

This is the month to plant out window and porch boxes and 
hanging baskets. The plainest and most unattractive house be- 
comes cheerful with a few of them. And what won't they do for 
those monotonous apartment house windows? Fortunately win- 
dow boxes are not expensive and can easily be made by the handy 
man at home, or the boy who learns carpentry at school. When- 
ever possible, boxes should be at least a foot wide and must have 
good drainage holes in the bottom, and filled with rich soil. Most 
of the common annuals are suitable for window gardening. Some 
of the best are petunias, salvias, parlor ivy, phlox, verbena and 
geraniums of all kinds, particularly the ivy-leaved varieties. 

For windows which are partly shaded, use begonias, fuchia, 
coleus, asparagus, sprengerie and plumosa nanus (lace fern). 

Window boxes and hanging baskets must be watered thor- 
oughly and often. 

Remember Mother's Day, and bring her some flowers — car- 
nations if you will, but preferably a growing plant which, if taken 
good care of, can be enjoyed not by mother alone but also by 
father and all the family. A thrifty syringa shrub, or snowball, 
for the home garden, or some choice lily bulbs may be pur- 
chased for the price of one florist's bouquet and would grow and 
continue in beauty for many succeeding years. 


When a plumber makes a mistake he charges twice for it. 
When a lawyer makes a mistake, it is just what he wanted, 
because he has a chance to try the case all over again. 

When a carpenter makes a mistake, it's just what he expected. 
When a doctor makes a mistake he buries it. 
When a judge makes a mistake, it becomes the law of the land. 
When a preacher makes a mistake, nobody knows the 

When an electrician makes a mistake, he blames it on in- 
duction ; nobody knows what that means. 

But when an editor makes a mistake — Good night! ! ! — Ex. 

The Angel Azrael. 

By Sarah L. Tenny. 

There was silence throughout heaven ; hushed were the golden 

strings ; 
And cherubim and seraphim bowed low with folded wings. 
The eternal One had spoken, like .diapasons swell, 
Yet in accents deep and tender rose the summons, "Azrael !" 

Lo ! one .stood forth whose brightness outshone the myriad throng ; 
His wings of dazzling whiteness, his mein, majestic, strong, 
A glittering spear he carried, as reverently he moved, 
Fairest of all God's angels, of all God's most beloved. 

"Azrael !" Lowly bending, he knelt before the throne ; 
Humility "still lending new charms unto his own. 
"Azrael ! from my children on earth, come cries of woe, 
I hear and fain would help them, thither, my angel, go. 

"In pain and grief some languish, sighing to be set free. 
And some in mortal anguish struggling for liberty. 
Go, Azrael, release them from their prison house of clay, 
And bring my children home to me, in my paradise this day." 

Down through the boundless ether the swift-winged angel flew. 
Past upper world and nether, till unto the earth he drew ; 
Entered the chamber's portal, where the weary sufferers lay, 
Released their souls immortal, and bore them hence away. 
On earth were .sounds of weeping, and funeral bells were tolled ; 
But there was rapturous greetings, in the city paved with gold, 
Hosannas filled all heaven ; unto him upon the throne, 
As the angel who was bidden, brought back to God his own. 

"W.ell done, my faithful angel !" Thus the Almighty One ; 

"And welcome, earth-born children, your life work, too, is well 

done ! 
But thou art sad, oh Azrael, and sorrow dims thine eye. 
Thy radiant wings are drooping, tell me, my angel, why?" 

"O thou, whose matchless glory fills earth and sky and sea, 
Who art from everlasting, and to the end shall be — 
Joyful I heard thy summons and hastened to fulfill. 
Glad to be counted worthy to do my Maker's will. 


"I thought I should be welcome, since I came to set men free 
From their chains of earthly thralldom, but they looked with fear 

on me, 
And everywhere they saw me, men spoke with bated breath, 
They turned away and shuddered and whispering called me 


"They know not it is life's sweet life the angel Azrael brings; 
And thus it is my spirit grieves and therefore droop my wings, 
And now, O loving Father, bend low thy gracious ear. 
And in thy tender mercy; grant Azrael this his prayer: 

"Lift but for one brief moment, the shadowy, mystic veil, 

That hides earth's children from their loved and lost ones they 

And never more, kind Father, shall they look on me with fear, 
Or bow their heads in anguish when Azrael draws near." 

"Rise, Azrael, beloved, I may not grant thy plea ; 
These earthly children of my care, must learn to trust in me ; 
I have told them of my heaven and many mansions fair. 
My Son, the crucified, I've given, that they may enter there. 

"But if a moment only, it were permitted them ; 

To gaze with earthly vision on the new Jerusalem — 

Her princely towers and turrets, her glory all untold. 

The rapture of the shining ones, who walk her streets of gold — 

"Think you they would be fitted, for the victory they must win. 
Ere they can hear the welcome, 'Good and faithful, enter in?' 
Their efiforts would be palsied with longing to be there ; 
Nay, Azrael, it were not kind to hearken to thy prayer. 

"But this I grant thee, angel, from henceforward it shall be. 
When thou dost go to earth to set a spirit free. 
Unto the hearts left desolate, this message thou shalt tell ; 
Mourn not thy loved ones, for with them it is and shall be well !" 

And so, whene'er the ,sorrow of the Angel's drooping wing 
Falls on our hearthstone, and we sit speechless in suffering, 
Rising o'er all our anguish, deeper than hope's deep knell. 
We hear the angel whisper, "with thy loved ones it is well." 

Oh, sweet and blest assurance, it soothes our nameless dread, 
And though Rachel still be weeping, her heart is comforted, 
Beloved, let us fear not, knowing it shall be well 
When comes for us God's angel, the white-winged Azrael ! 

— Boston Evening Transcript. 


Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa Smith Williams and Mrs. Amy 
Brown Lyman. 

The most important and interesting- happening for women 
in the last month has been the recognition by the Paris Peace 
Conference of equal civil rights for the sexes. This surely will 
put an end to opposition for women suffrage in our nation, as 
well as in all other enlightened countries. Women everywhere 
are rejoicing over this triumph of right. 

The National Woman's Suffrage Association met in St. 
Louis, March 28 and 29, under the able leadership of Mrs. 
Carrie Chapman Catt. Mrs. Emily S. Richards, who is not only 
a member of our General Board, but is also President of the 
State Suffrage Association, with Miss Alice L. Reynolds, of 
Provo, who represents the women of that section, were our dele- 
gates at this great convention. The jubilee convention of the 
National Woman Suffrage Association elected Mrs. C. H. 
Brooks, of Wichita, Kansas, as permanent chairman of the 
League of Women Voters to serve until the next national con- 
vention of the suffrage association, which will be held in Feb- 
ruary, 1920, as a centennial celebration of Susan B. Anthony's 
birthday. By that time it is expected that the federal suffrage 
amendment will have been passed, and the National Suffrage 
association will take' the name of League of Women Voters. 
The League of Women Voters is composed of women of twenty- 
five states, in which there are more than 13,000,000 women 
voters. As other states are granted suffrage they become units 
of the league. The league decided to erect a monument in 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, where women were first granted the 
franchise ; endorsed a plan of Americanization for the United 
States, and appointed committees to take up at once the study 
of laws on citizenship, elections, social morality and hygiene, 
unification of laws, food supply and demand. The American- 
ization plan as approved, provides : Compulsory education for 
all children between the ages of 6 and 16, with school attend- 


ance provided for nine months of each year ; education of il- 
Hterate adults ; stricter provisions of naturalization ; votes for 
women to be given only to those who are naturalized in their 
own person or through naturalization of their father or mother 
or husband, after a residence of five years ; naturalization laws to 
be so changed as to permit a married woman to be naturalized 
on her own qualifiactions ; English to be the language of all 
public and private schools ; oath of allegiance to the United 
States, as a qualification of the vote of all citizens ; establish- 
ment of schools of citizenship in all school districts, and an 
educational qualification for every voter. The Illinois delega- 
tion has invited the next national convention to be held in 

The outstanding feature of the convention was the adoption 
by the women delegates of the League to Enforce Peace and 
their determination to stand by the Peace Council sitting at 
Versailles. While women of both political parties may differ 
from President Wilson in some of his expressed views and points 
for a League constitution, every woman who loves freedom and 
an opportunity for self-expression must be grateful to President 
Wilson and his associates for the splendid recognition afforded 
them just recently in Paris. Men in high places politically, and 
men in low places, will have to reckon with women voters in 
the future. 

The campaign for the collection of clothing to relieve the 
terrible conditions in Europe, especially in Belgium, has been 
eminently successful in this state. The Red Cross has handled 
the matter with wisdom and dispatch, and the results have been 
overwhelmingly successful. 

The Fifth Liberty Loan has found Utah able and willing 
to meet her obligations to the country and to prove her loyalty 
through the thrift and patriotism of her citizens. As usual the 
women did the most of the detail work, and as usual they did it 


The postponement of the April conference was a great dis- 
appointment at headquarters. The General Board had prepared 
a full and instructive program for our own two days' confer- 

This summer many of the Societies will wish for some 
chance to catch up with lesson work, as so much has been lost be- 
cause of "flu" conditions. The General Board are arranging 
some articles on Music and Special Hygiene. They will appear 
in the Magazine, as supplementary or informal studies. The 
choir leaders may or may not use the articles as lessons. 



Alpine Stake. 

A neat little folder has just been received at the general 
offices of the Relief Society. It is entitled "A Tribute to the 
Relief Societies of the Church," and was written in commem- 
oration of the first organization of the Relief Society. It is 
signed by the Presidency of the Alpine stake : Stephen L. Chip- 
man, James H. Clark, and Abel John Evans. In the introduc- 
tion it states that this tribute is to be read to every family in the 
Alpine stake of Zion by the ward teachers for the month of 
March, 1919. Following this is the date of the first organization, 
in 1842, with the original officers of the Relief Society. Next 
are the present general presiding officers, then the Relief Society 
officers of the Alpine stake. 

The General Board is indeed grateful for this splendid 
Appreciaition of the work of the Relief Society and with the 
spirit which prompted it. Such splendid support as is indicated 
in this article would make any stake Relief Society successful. 
The folder closes with the following tribute : 

"The labors and services of these noble and virtuous wom- 
en are free, without money or price. Such service cannot be 
found in all the world, in any other Society known. In fact 
the organization of the Relief Society, in 1842, was the first 
known for the women in all the world. 

"Women as a rule have a keener sense of the needs of 
sufifering humanity, than have men ; in their administration, they 
are gentle and kind, and become angels of love and mercy to 
those who are cast down. 

"They are women of faith, of hope and of charity, and 
consequently administer spiritual food, as well as physical 

"They were organized under inspiration, and should re- 
ceive the earnest support of every member of the Church of 

"Reports are made annually, and every cent accounted for 
that goes through the hands of our sisters. 

"March 17th of each year is celebrated in all the wards in 
commemoration of the first organization. 

"We recommend that every young woman, and especially 
our married daughters, join this benevolent organization and 
become active workers. 

"We solicit the support that the Society requires from our 
brethren and sisters and friends, with their means and influence. 
We sincerely hope that the Relief Society will grow and pros- 
per, until every family can be well cared for, and that no one 
will be found hungry or destitute in our midst. 


"We also reconmend that as many of our sisters as can, 
should attend the Relief Society conferences of the Church, so 
they can keep in touch with the workings of the Society. 

"Praying that comfort will come to those who need com- 
fort, and that faith will come to those who need faith, and that 
the poor will always be cared for, is the desire of the Alpine 
Stake Presidency. 

"Stephen L. Chipman, " 
"James H. Clark, 
"Abel John Evans." 
Oneida Stake. 

Mrs. Lucy M. Cutler, first counselor to President Nellie P. 
Head of the Relief Society of the Oneida stake, departed this 
life January 30, 1919, of influenza. In the passing of Mrs. Cut- 
ler, the Oneida stake loses not only a capable and conscientious 
officer, but a devoted and faithful member. Mrs. Cutler was a 
woman who understood and appreciated the gospel and who 
endeavored at all times to live in accordance with its teachings. 
During her life she served in various offices in each of the 
three women's organizations of the Church, and at the time she 
was chosen counselor in the Stake Relief Society, she was acting 
president of the Primary Association of the Oneida stake. 

While Mrs. Cutler was very active in the Church and public 
work, she neglected none of her home duties. She was the 
proud mother of twelve children, all of whom are left to love and 
cherish her memory. 
Cassia Stake. 

In a letter from Cassia stake we learn that several of the 
Relief Society women have attended a Chapter Course in Home 
Service, given at Twin Falls by the Northwestern Division of 
the Red Cross. This course, which was under the supervision 
of Miss Virginia McMechen of the Division office, was very 
interesting and instructive. Several home institutes have been 
held in this Division, at Seattle. Mrs. Ida Smoot Dusenberry 
of the General Board attended the Institute held in Seattle, in 
June, 1918. 

The teachers' training classes have been organized in this 
stake, and the president, Mrs. Tine I. Jack, feels that these 
courses will be very helpful to the class teachers in the Relief 

From the stake report recently received, we learn that in 
spite of the siege of influenza a great deal of work has been ac- 
complished and the membership has an increase of 59 over last 
year; 492 days have been given in nursing care, and 823 special 
visits to the sick, in addition to the 257 regular visits made by the 
Relief Society ward teachers. The sum of $1,300 has been 
subscribed by ward Relief Societies in Liberty Bonds; and in 


addition, the individual members of the stake have subscribed 
to the amount of $8,920. One or two items from the Red Cross 
report will indicate the activity along that line : number of hos- 
pital garments made, 456; hospital supplies, 754; number of 
knitted articles, 1,254; articles collected for Belgian relief, 1,570. 

Tahitian Mission. 

The following very interesting letter has been received from 
Mrs. Venus R. Rossiter, of the Tahitian Mission : 

"I am today sending the annual report of the Tahitian Mis- 
sion Relief Society, and trust that it will not be too late to be 
included in the 1918 general report; but since at this port all 
local vessels have been held under quarantine with the Spanish 
influenza since last November, I have not been able to com- 
municate with the different island branches and get the material 
to compile the report. 

"We have had a terrible siege here of the influenza, people 
dying in such numbers that they could not be buried, and were 
therefore burned. Entire families were wiped out, and houses 
are standing empty all around us. 

"Five of our elders contracted it, but fortunately had very 
light cases. The rest of us escaped it entirely, for which we are 
very grateful. 

"By the report you will see that our members have been very 
diligent the past year in raising funds for different purposes. 
The sisters of the Takaroa and Hikueru branches have pur- 
chased organs for their respective branches, the Takaroa sisters 
raising $145 in one day by voluntary donations of $5 each, for 
that purpose. The remaining amount was raised by diving for 
pearls, and making coprah (dried cocoanut). 

"In the erection of a new chapel, at Hikueru, the sisters 
assisted with the sum of $217.60, and also prepared the meals 
daily for the brethren who turned out en masse to build it. 

"You will find enclosed $30 for the Temple Building Fund.' 

"We all send our love and heartiest congratulations to 'Aunt 
Em,' and hope that she may yet live many years to lead this 
great Relief Society work and to inspire and lead us on by her 
revered presence. 

"I remain sincerely 

"Your sister in the gospel, 

"'Venus R. Rossiter.'^ 

In the Tahitian Mission there is a total membership of 118. 
During the last year the theological and home economics lessons 
have been studied. With the sick, 190 days have been spent, 591 
special visits have been made to the sick, 25 families helped, and 
ten bodies prepared for burial ; $292 have been paid for charit- 
able purposes, and $296 for general purposes. 


Relief Society Stake Conferences for May, June and July 
will be held in connection with the Stake quarterly conferences, 
v/herever and whenever the latter are to be held. We are ad- 
vised from the General Church Offices that the holding of quar- 
terly conferences for the next quarter will depend upon health 
conditions in the various local communities and upon the recom- 
mendation of the stake presidents. Relief Society stake officers 
will, therefore, consult with the stake presidency and learn from 
them as to whether or not conferences will be held. 

The Conference dates following have been arranged tenta- 
tively pending- local conditions. Relief Society Conferences held in 
November will be held independently. 
Conference Dates. 

May 3rd and 4th — Curlew, Alberta, Boise, Maricopa, Raft 
River, South Sanpete, Wayne. 

May 10th and 11th — Emery, Millard, Juab, Taylor, St. Joseph. 

May 17th and 18th — San Juan, Shelley, Bannock, Malad, 
Blackfoot, Big Horn, Teton, Juarez. 

May 24th and 25th — Portneuf, Bingham, Pocatello, Young, 
Bear Lake. 

May 31st and June 1st — Rigby, Panguitch, Moapa, Idaho, 
San Luis. 

June 7th and 8th — Kanab, Morgan, Oneida. 

June 21st and 22nd— St. George, North Sanpete, Uintah, 
Star Valley, Union, Montpelier. 

June 28th and 29th — Sevier, Fremont, Deseret, Duchesne, 

July 19th and 20th — Beaver, Benson, Hyrum, Tooele, Tintic, 
St. Johns. 

July 26th and 27th — Wasatch, Woodruff, Cassia, Yellow- 
stone, Snowflake. 

November (dates to be arranged later) — Alpine, Bear River, 
Box Elder, Cache, Carbon, Cottonwood, South Davis, Ensign, 
Granite, Jordan, Liberty, Nebo, North Davis, North Weber, 0%- 
den. Pioneer, Salt Lake, Summit, Utah, Weber. 


For stakes holding conferences in connection with quarterly 
conferences : 

First Session. Saturday, 2 p. m. Public Session. Quarterly 
Conference. Conjoint meeting Relief Society and Primary. 

Second Session. Saturday 4 p. m. Stake and Local Officers 

Third Session. Stake Officers Meeting. (Time and place 
to be decided by Stake President.) 

Amy Brown Lyman, 

General Secretary. 

Construction -^no 


The- Hnue 


When a waist is basted, ready to fit, the different parts should 
be adjusted in the following order : 

1. Center of front and back. 

2. Neck — trim, if necessary. 

3. Shoulder. 

4. Armeye. 

5. Lender arm. 

6. Waist. 

The center of the front must be pinned in place so that in 
fitting, the material is not drawn too far to either side. 

The low cut necks are very easily adjusted, but in a high 
neck exact adjustment is absolutely necessary. The best way 
to insure a perfect fitting neck is to fit it to the collar line and then 
trim it out to the shape desired. Fit the neck a little above the 
collar line and make it tight enough to necessitate a little stretch- 
ing of the material in the curve of the neck. If much trimming 
or changing of the neck is necessary, unbaste the shoulder. See 
Fig. I. 

The dotted line indicates the collar line. By fitting the 
material as the upper line indicates and a little tight, it is possible 
to stretch the material so that it fits down into the curve of the 

The adjusting of the shoulder is, without doubt, the most 
important feature of waist fitting. Amateurs will often try to 
correct a fault in shoulder by merely taking up the seam. If the 
fault is ever so little, take out the basting and see that your front 
and back pieces come together correctly in the neck. Then pro- 
ceed from the neck toward the armeye. The front shoulder 
should be from one-fourth to one-half inch shorter than the back 
shoulder. This results in a little stretching of the one and a 
slight fullness of the other and makes a better fitting shoulder. 
If there is any unevenness let it come out over the shoulder, where 






ild-^iiMiMt^iiii== > 

'^■-«i JIU 


it can easily be trimmed off, but do not trim it until you are sure 
the shoulder is correct. 

When the front and back of the waist do not fit together, 
wrinkles such as shown in Fig. II result. This is a very common 
fault with home made dresses. 

When the shoulder is satisfactory, turn the armeye. Make a 
line with pins where the line seems to come and observe it care- 
fully before cutting. 

The adjustment of the underarm seam should be just as 
carefully adjusted as the shoulder and this also should be un- 
basted to make any changes. 


All fitted skirts are based upon the yoke pattern. The 
upper part of the skirt remains practically the same though the 
bottom changes with the style. The matter of cutting a plain 
skirt from the yoke pattern is comparatively simple and a good 
fitting pattern may be made following these simple directions. 

The measures required are the waist, the hip and the length 
(the front and side). Take the waist measure in the waist line. Take 
the hip measure about five inches below the waist line. It is 
well to use two tape measures and take both of these measures 
at the same time. Three length measures are taken from the waist 
to the floor, then subtract from each the number of inches you 
desire your skirt to be from the floor. 

For cutting the yoke pattern, brown wrapping paper is 
best, but newspaper will do. 

Take half the waist measure and make two lines of that 
length at right angles. Connect the two outer ends with a curved 
line so as to form a quarter of a circle. Five inches further out 
from this curved line make another curved line. See Fig. III. 
The space between these two lines forms the yoke. It may 
be exactly correct, so cut out the yoke after having drafted 
the pattern on a double piece of paper so that one end of the 
pattern is on the fold as shown in Fig. III. Then fit it to the 
person, being careful to place it as the skirt is to be placed at 
the top. You cannot fit the yoke pattern low and expect to make 
a skirt with a high waist line. Place the fold of the paper in the 
center of the front and make little folds, wherever necessary, 
all the way around, being careful to cut off any extra length in 
the pattern and have the ends just meet in the center of the 
back. Do not use this same paper (with the folds in it) for 
cutting your skirt, but cut another paper the same shape as the 
first yoke is after being corrected. 

The next lesson will explain how to use the yoke for cut- 
ting a skirt. 



The spring styles of this year give many suggestions for 
the use of the straight skirt. These skirts are made of two widths 
of material a yard wide. If a slight peg effect is desired, slope off 
about four inches at the bottom of each side of each width. The 
top may be either gathered or pleated on to the belting. The 
difference in the front and back lengths must be made at the 
top of the skirt Tas shown in Fig. IV.) instead of at the bottom. 


The despised tepary bean will become as popular in the West 
as they are in the East and South when we learn how to cook them. 
They are not to be cooked as the ordinary bean, and unless they 
are par-boiled in soda-water, and then reboiled for a few min- 
utes, in order to clear them of the soda and natural smell, they 
cannot be enjoyed ; but they can be enjoyed if you will soak them 
over night in soda water, a teaspoon of soda to a quart of water, 
then boil half an hour, then pour the water off and reboil for 
a minute or so ; then cook two or three hours, or until nice and 
tender. Serve like green peas, with rich milk or cream. 

Recipe No. 2. 

Prepare as for peas, then eat dry with mayonaise dressing, 
garnished as salad, with boiled eggs and onions. They are very 


He was not loyal to them . 

He was suspicious of everybody. 

He borrowed money from them. 

He measured them by their ability to advance him. 

He did not know the value of thoughtfulness in little things. 

He seemed to forget that he who uses his f rinds loses them. 

He was always jealous of those who were more prosperous 
than himself. 

He never thought it worth while to spend time in keeping up 
his friendships. 

He was always wounding their feelings, making sarcastic or 
funny remarks at their expense. 

He did not realize that friendship will not thrive on sentiment 
alone : that there must be service to nourish it. 

He was always ready to recieve assistance from them, but 
always too busy or too stingy to assist them in their time of need. 

He used his friends in all sorts of ways and for his own ends, 
and never hesitated to sacrifice their reputation for his own ad- 
vantage. — Orison Sweet Harden, in the Nezv Success. 


Oh TheWatchWower 



James H. Anderson. 

Bessarabia, formerly part of Russia, declared itself a re 
public, in March. 

The American Congress is to be convened in special ses- 
sion about May 15. 

Korea attempted to break from Japan, in March, but the 
rebellion was suppressed. 

Ex-kaiser William of Germany and Charles of Austria 
found a home in Switzerland in March. 

In Northern Russia, the allied troops fought Bolshevik 
forces in March, being waist deep in snow. 

Food-ships from America reached German ports on March 
20, with supplies for needy people there. 

In the Argentine Republic, during the last week in March, 
nearly 2,000 Jews were killed in anti-Jewish riots. 

Women are to be eligible for office in the proposed league 
of nations, as the plan was amended on March 26. 

American army casualties (exclusive of deaths from dis- 
ease) during the war in Europe numbered 240,197 men. 

Bolshevism in Russia, Austria and Germany, began a 
definite campaign in March for a world-wide revolution. 

Sleeping sickness of a fatal character, following influenza, 
was reported during March, from various sections of the United 


Egypt was the scene of a considerable revolt against British 
rule, in March, but the uprisal of the natives was quickly sup- 

Italian troops advanced into Hungary on March 25, in en- 
forcing Italy's demand for territory on the Dalmatian coast. 

The Jews in Poland and Lithuania were subjected to further 
indignities and loss of life during March, in anti-Jewish riots. 

President Wilson is announced in Paris dispatches to be 
"the most carefully dressed person attending the peace council." 

Japan demands that the proposed league of nations shall 
provide for race equality, but the English-speaking people refuse 
their consent. 

Influenza recurrence in the Rocky Mountain region during 
March was occasion for postponing the annual April conference 
of the Church. 

Holland, when asked in March if it would surrender the 
former Kaiser William to the entente allies, replied that it would 
do so only upon legal procedure. There is no legal precedent for 
such surrender. 

Aviators of America, Great Britain and France were mak- 
ing preparations in March to cross the Atlantic in April, in 
special airships. 

Spain was placed under martial law during the latter part 
of March, owing to a section of the nation trying to set up an 
independent government. 

A MONARCHY or a lapse into Bolshevism seemed to be the 
alternatives presented to Germany in the near future, by events 
of the last week in March. 

The killed, or died of wounds received in battle, during 
the great war in Europe, from August 1, 1914, to November 11, 
1918, numbered 7,354,000 men.. 

The Jugo-Slavs, a new nation carved out of Austria, finds 
itself so much at variance with Italy that war between the two 
nations is not an improbability. 

In Berlin, during the second week in March, an uprising 


of Spartacans, who are akin to anarchists, was suppressed by the 
killing of several hundred people. 

Poland was attacked on three sides, in March, by Bolshevist 
troops, and may not be able to maintain national independence 
without help from the entente allies. 

In Great Britain, it is said, there are now a million and 
a half young women who never will marry, or even be asked to 
m.arry, owing to the scarcity of men. 

Turkish atrocities, such as the disemboweling of Armenian 
women who were supposed to have swallowed jewelry, were re- 
ported in March as being continued. 

In Austria, on March 28, a general railway strike paralyzed 
all traffic, prevented the movement of relief trains, and produced 
a most critical situation in that land. 

Hungary was taken over by a workmen's council govern- 
ment in March, and joined with Russia, thereby creating much 
anxiety to the nations of western Europe. 

Germany's present government has announced that it ad- 
heres to "President Wilson's fourteen points," and will not sur- 
render any German territorty, east or west. 

In Mexico, in March, President of the Juarez stake, Bentley, 
and two other "Mormons" were taken prisoner by Francisco Vil- 
la's troops, but were released in a few days. 

Admission to the league of nations is to be on condition of 
each nation therein guaranteeing freedom of the press, religious 
liberty, and protection to property and to its people. 

The longest flight yet made by an airplane was recorded 
in March, a British aviator being in the air above the North Sea 
for A0y2 hours continuously, during which time he traveled 1285 

Bodies of American soldiers who died in France are either 
to be brought home or left where they are, as relatives may 
desire, according to official announcement made from Washing- 
ton on March 25. 

Telegraph operators belonging to the Commercial Teleg- 
raphers' Union decided in March to strike all over the United 


States in April, against Postmaster General Burleson's attitude 
respecting their union. 

The Phillipine Islanders took action in March toward 
insisting on their independence from the United States under 
President Wilson's theory of "self-determination of peoples." 
There was no violence. 

Radio telephone communication (without wires) was estab- 
lished between the office of the secretary of the navy at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and a naval aeroplane flying 150 miles distant, dur- 
ing the last week in March. 

The Mid-European Union, comprising the new efforts at 
small .state governments in middle Europe, have requested muni- 
tions of war from America, Great Britain, and France, to aid in 
resisting the Russian Bolshevists. 

Semi-official announcement was made from Rome in 
March, that prior to the meeting of the Paris peace conference, 
v/hen President Wilson visited the Vatican, he and Pope Benedict 
came to an agreement on the league of nations plan. 

Censorship on the cables between America and Europe was 
,so strict in March that action in the United States Senate against 
the first draft for a constitution for a league of nations had to 
be transmitted to Europe by special messengers on steamship 

Coal-operators in the United States broke ofif negotiations 
v;ith the government railway administration, on March 27, giving 
as a reason that the government railway director had broken faith 
and was insisting on coal at less than cost for the railways, thus 
compelling an increase in price for all private use. 

The British government has prepared plans for a tunnel 
under the strait of Dover, from England to France. The cost 
will be about 25% greater than the Panama canal, the distance 
twenty miles, and the lowest point for the tunnel 265 feet below 
sea level, or 95 feet below the ocean bed at the deepest point in 
the channel. 

Pope Benedict, in his allocution at a consistory in Rome on 
March 10, announced that "It would be a great grief to the holy 
see if in Palestine the preponderating position were given to 
infidels, and still greater grief if the holy places were given to 
a non-Christian power." The infidels referred to are the Turks, 
and the non-Christian power the Jews. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Ofi&ce, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

Mrs. Emmehne B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... Ftrst Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward. Music Director 

Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor ...----- SosA Youmo Gatm 

Business Manager ...... Jankttk A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. VI. MAY, 1919. No. 5. 


Intelligent people flatter themselves today with the thought 
that superstition is an out-worn and very much discarded habit of 
mind. The ancient Oriental belief in magicians and incantations 
is supposed to be shaken to its foundation, even in the most remote 
pagan countries, while all forms of Middle Age witchcraft beliefs 
are supposed to be absolutely routed and thrown into the dis- 
card. There never was a greater fallacy. Belief in God and m the 
devil and refusal to believe in either was just as fixed anciently, 
and at the same time as much in a state of constant flux amongst 
those old Egyptians, Chinese, Assyrians, Greeks and Romans, as 
it is today in our so-called enlightened modern civilization. When 
a man like "Alexander" can come into the state of Utah, and m 
less than two weeks extract over $20,000 in clear profits from the 
pockets of the credulous and superstitious living in Salt Lake City, 
we certainly cannot lay any claim either to much enlightenment 
or to lack of superstition. 

It is most surprising that even Latter-day Samts would 
throw good monev and more precious time away upon such a 
mixture of shrewd charlatanism and hoary superstition as was 
embodied in this man Alexander. What he could not accomplish 
through familiar legerdemain methods, he achieved through 
spiritualism. Either one is surely not very refined nor mtelligent 
amusement for Relief Society women. _ 

The longing to know something about the future is one ot 
the most deep-seated passions of the human heart. Every fortune 
or fortune-telling method that promises results obtains hordes ot 
eager seekers after the veiled events ahead of us. It is very 


evident that if the Lord wanted his children to know what would 
come to pass he would have provided constant and easy means for 
them to receive this information. Knowing, as we do, that the 
most vital lesson his children were to learn on this earth was faith 
u\ the future, we can see why he withheld knowledge of the fu- 
ture in order that we might develop that faith. He has provided 
a legitimate and satisfying mode for looking into the future. He 
has given us, through the mouths of prophets ancient and mod- 
ern, general descriptions of the history of the earth and of the 
human family. He himself has avoided dates and set times. It 
is the devil who gladly leads on his curious followers after illegal 
knowledge of the future with dates and names and times. 

We suggest to our sisters that neither they nor their fam- 
ilies shall indulge in fortune telling through tea cups, cards, 
necromancers, spiritualists, or fortune tellers of any sort what- 
ever. Keep right away from such people, remember what Brig- 
ham Young once said : "Don't get on the devil's ground." 


The destiny of this people and the history of this Church are 
prophetically foretold in sacred writ. We have also amongst us 
the evangelists or patriarchs, whose duty and obligation it is to 
bless the Saints and through the inspiration of the Lord acquaint 
them with the promises of the future. Do the mothers of this 
people encourage their daughters to visit the patriarchs of the 
Church, presided over by our beloved and noble young Patri- 
arch, Hyrum G. Smith? Certainly every woman in the Church 
should instruct her children and children's children concerning 
their privileges, if they will take advantage of the opportunity 
afforded, through the blessings of the patriarchs. Great indeed 
is the responsibility resting upon the evangelists of this Church, 
but never, so far as the writer knows, has any patriarch in the 
Church been led astray in the exercise of his priestly functions. 
The father of any family is the head or patriarch of that family, 
and it is his prerogative to bless his children, and his children's 
children to the latest generation; but the public exercise of the 
priestly blessing belongs of right to the Church patriarchs. Wom- 
en sometimes bless each other and their little children, which is 
eminently proper and fitting both in times of sickness, sorrow 
or distress ; but neither they nor other lay members of the 
Church are justified in announcing the lineage of the person 
blessed, which is the prerogative of the patriarchs of the Church, 
upon which in no sense should any one trench. There is order 
in all these matters, and by observing the order of the priest- 
hood we shall be blessed, and happy in blessing ^each other. 

Guide Lessons. 


Theology and Testimony. 

First Week in June. 


"And I looked and beheld a man among the Gentiles who 
was separated from the seed of my brethren by the many waters ; 
and I beheld the Spirit of God, that it came down and wrought 
upon the man ; and he went forth upon the many waters, even 
unto the seed of my brethren, who were in the promised land. 

"And it came to pass that I beheld the Spirit of God, that it 
wrought upon other Gentiles ; and they went forth out of captiv- 
ity, upon the many waters. 

"And it came to pass that I beheld many multitudes of the 
Gentiles upon the land of promise ; and I beheld the wrath of God, 
that it was upon the seed of my brethren ; and they were scat- 
tered before the Gentiles, and were smitten." (I. Nephi 13: 12, 
13, 144.) 

All real Christians believe that God holds within his hands 
the destinies of the nations and the world ; many people believe 
that the United States constitution was divinely inspired, because 
they have watched its course and growth among the nations. On 
this point the Latter-day Saints can have no doubt, and surely in 
all sacred literature there is no other place where the faith of God 
directing the course of nations is stated in a more entirely positive 
way than in the passages already quoted. 

The Book of Mormon tells us that the Spirit of God wrought 
upon the man, who was Columbus, and he went forth upon the 
mighty waters to the seed of Nephi's brethren ; a statement show- 
ing that when the due time of the Lord came for this continent, 
folded in darkness for many centuries, to be brought into the 
lime-light, it was done. 

There were many centuries between the Christian Era and 
the discovery of America, when on both continents civilization 
all but perished from the earth, when the world, whose earlier 
maps indicated that they had known of a continent beyond the 
great seas, gave no further evidence of such knowledge. Never- 
theless, in the Lord's time that knowledge was again revealed, in 
this latter time, in all its fulness. 


And yet, our Father in heaven works on natural principles. 
He took a man to whom no doubt it was natural to ponder over 
these things, from the most forward nation of Europe, for Italian 
civilization was in advance of that of other countries at that time, 
and led him to another nation moving rapidly towards the fulness 
of its power, and there he obtained the political and financial 
backing necessary for his great venture. 

How forcefully has this item of history been brought to our 
minds in these days ; for while England reminds us that 
America is her daughter, of her laws and her speech an heir ; and 
Fraace, of Lafayette and Rochambeau ; Italy tells us that an 
Italian discovered America, and she now wants America to dis- 
cover Italy. In line with the significance of that fact the chief ex- 
excutive of our nation made special provision in his program in 
Italy for a visit to Genoa, and while there placed a wreath upon 
the statue of Columbus. 

As it was with Columbus and the Pilgrims, it has been, no 
doubt, with other men and with other groups of men. We have 
no doubt about this matter, as it affected Lehi and his little colony, 
nor have we doubts about the inspiration of Jared and his breth- 
ren. We recall the finding of the Liahona and its effective work, 
and are reminded that both the barges of the Jaredites and the 
ship that Nephi built were builded under the inspiration of the 
Lord of hosts, and the latter was really a submarine. 

It certainly should not be difficult for Latter-day Saints to 
conclude that men and groups of men, in all ages, have been 
inspired that his righteous purposes might be fulfilled. How 
marvelous the translation of the English Bible, under the super- 
vision of King James, and the preserving of the Mook of Mormon 
in the Hill Cumorah ! May we not pause here for an instant to 
consider how important a translation of the Bible of such signal 
excellence is to the world at this time ; for no other language in 
the civilized world is as widely spoken as the English language, 
and the extent to which it is destined to serve the children of 
men no one can foresee. Truly James Russell Lowell was right 
when he characterized the English language as the best product 
of the confusion of tongues. 

The flood-tide of invention, since 1830, from the railroad on 
the one hand, to the automobile and the flying machine on the 
other, all bear evidence of the fact that God is inspiring men to 
do these things that shall eventually lead to the consummation of 
all things in righteousness. 

Thomas A. Edison and John M. Browning, each by original 
nature no doubt, had strong inclinations to seek after the highly 
specialized type of knowledge which their inventions reveal, but 
each, no doubt, has been inspired by the Lord to do the thing that 
he has done, 


And thus we move on, and thus God continues to work on 
natural principles for the consummation of his will. The late war 
reveals no brighter spot, perhaps, than the spectacle of the smit- 
ten Turk, who must surely relinquish his land to God's ancient 
covenant people, the Jews. 


1. Relate the story of the discovery of America as it is set 
forth in the Book of Mormon. 

2. Show that while God inspires men to great achievements, 
he works on entirely natural principles. 

3. Show that our Father in heaven is a great economist in 
operating thus. 

4. To what Spanish monarch did Columbus make his ap- 
peal for political and financial backing? 

5. What events of recent history had caused the Italians, 
French and English to remind us of our connection with them? 

6. How does this desire for co-operation make for inter- 
national good will? 

7. Give evidence that in all ages Gqd inspired men and 
groups of men to do the acts that have made for growth and 
advancement in the world. 

8. Explain how an expert translation of the Bible preserves 
the Bible for humanity. 

9. Why is the expert translation of the English Bible of 
prime importance at the present time? 


Work and Business. 

Second Week in June. 


Third Week in June. 


Teachers' Outlines. (Chap. i6 in Surname Book.) 

The Anglo-Saxons were the farmers and trades-people. Sur- 
names from trades are originally Anglo-Saxon. 
Surnames derived from : 

(a) The farmer and his helps. 

(b) Builders and carpenters, etc. 


(c) Freemen or hinds. 

(d) Millers, carters, ostlers, coopers, clerks, turners, etc. 
Guilds or trades unions were powerful in the middle ages. 


We learn in a former lesson that the Anglo-Saxons were 
farmers and trades people. This being ,so we would naturally 
conclude that surnames derived from trades and occupations show 
a pretty clear descent from Anglo-Saxon stock and not from the 
mixed Norman stock. 

As Anglo-Saxons formed the great body of the English peo- 
ple, we would expect to find the large majority of English sur- 
names derived from trades and occupations. Such indeed is the 
case. We might add that this fact is true of all European coun- 
rties. The great mass of surnames are trade and occupative sur- 
names, because the great mass of the people are the yeomanry, 
who are either agriculturists or trades people. 

First we have the farmer and all his helpers in toil, the 
plowman and the reaper, the sower and the binder — these all are 
well represented in surnames. Next came the builders and car- 
penters, who are represented almost as extensively as are the 

We must make allowances, however, for the changes in 
language which have taken place in the seven or eight hundred 
years which have elapsed since .surnames were universal, so that 
terms which were used then such as cotter, hind, freeman, thegn 
and laet are obsolete with us today, but we find traces of them 
in English surnames. There is a cloud of surnames derived from 
the millers, carters, ostlers, coopers, clerks, turners, weavers, etc., 
and all of them point plainly to Anglo-Saxon origin. When the 
name originated it would be William the Miller, Thomas the Car- 
ter, and John the Cooper; but soon the was dropped and the 
trade was attached to the family as a permanent addition to the 
various personal names. 

During the middle ages the trades unions were the most 
powerful cogent social influence known. Indeed so dominant did 
they become that courts and nobles were obliged to join with 
them and adopt some guild as a part of social and civic life. 


Why do we suppose that surnames are derived from trades? 
Indicate Anglo-Saxon inheritances for those who bear them. 
What can you say of the Anglo-Saxon farmer? 
Name some surnames derived from agricultural pursuits. 
Give a list of surnames derived from the carpenter's trade. 


Who were the Anglo-Saxon freemen? 
Who were the yeomen ? 
What is the meaning of the word hind? 
How many surnames have you in your class or in your ward 
derived from trades and occupations? 
What is a trades union? 
Describe the guilds of the middle ages. 

We suggest to all our students and workers in genealogy 
that they cultivate a plain round style of penmanship in making 
out records, both for their own use and for use of temple re- 
corders. The illegible and undecipherable penmanship that is 
often handed in to the temple recorders is not only extremely 
puzzling and annoying, but it is also a great waste of time for 
them, and above all, it renders the records unsafe to use. The 
recorders are not able, at times, to spell names of persons and 
places correctly, nor are they able to decide what figures mean ; 
7's, 9's, 2's and 4's, u and n, with w and v and i are all mixed up 
and written so abominably that not even the person who wrote 
them is able always to tell what is meant. 

Sisters, we suggest that as a side line, in your genealogical 
work, you organize classes in penmanship and teach people how 
to write clearly and unmistakably. 


Home Courses. 

Fourth Week in June. 


It is now an accepted fact that the quality of the Nation 
depends on the right care, conduct and methods of the home ; so 
that upon parents devolve the responsibilities and duties of home 
organization and the moulding of character, by which is deter- 
mined the standard of individual national worth. Seeing then, 
that homes are the source of efficient human beings, that is, 
individuals contributing their quota of energy, labor and 
intelligence to the universal welfare, the continuation of untrained 
domestic methods is rapidly giving place to the recognition of 
Home Making as a profession, requiring the greatest skill, and 
adequate preparation, as well as the co-operation of both parents. 

Homes are designed for the protection and security of their 
inmates ; but are they rightly called means of physical shelter 


when yearly there is such an appalling loss of, or damage to, 
child life, from accidents by fire, water or preventable diseases? 
Again, are they justly described as moral shelters, when the 
parents' attitude towards life, which largely colors that of the 
household, is often harassed, depressed, or over fatigued. In 
some houses the smiling face is preserved for visitors only, just 
as are carefully served food and mutual politeness. Such stand- 
ards are detrimental to a harmonious home atmosphere, impair 
health through the nervous tension which prevails, and offer 
unsatisfactory examples to impressionable young people. No 
double standard of "Manners" is permissible, one in the family 
circle, another for visitors. Here also are established social and 
civic standards which later dominate state and country. Illegiti- 
mate expenditures on social functions, give false impressions of 
income, sacrifice daily healthful essentials, and react upon national 
efficiency by fostering false ideals in youth. 

Home Life should be so happy that children will there find 
ample opportunity for amusement rather than seek entertainment 
from outside attractions, which excite and over stimulate young 
minds. The character of books and periodicals drawn from the 
public library, the kind of plays presented in theatres, the most 
patronized type of "movie," are one and all decided by the moral 
standard cultivated in each home. Music, games, pets, books, 
daily -reading aloud, habits of sharing bits of news, all tend to 
unite the members of a household and promote a moral atmo- 
sphere of harmony, most conducive to healthy existence. Often 
unconsciously, a mother sacrifices personal recreation and mental 
refreshments in serving the physical needs of her family. The 
father returns immersed in business cares, without realizing that 
their individual efficiency is thereby curtailed and a bad example 
set to the children. Much fatigue and time could be saved by a 
more intelligent division of home duties, which lightens labor 
and cultivates the essential spirit of co-operation. 

In the next place, parents must know that mere abundance 
of food does not nourish children, but the wise selection, prepara- 
tion and service of the right food stuffs. The formation of good 
eating habits is a national duty. Authorities insist that diet is a 
relatively complex thing; none of the essential constituents can 
be ignored in its planning without loss to the consumer ; but they 
also assure us that the observance of certain general rules insures 
the reduction of common faults to a minimum. For instance, a 
diet which consists chiefly of peas, beans, potatoes, roots and 
meats will not promote adult health or child growth. There may 
not be actual illness, but there will not be optimum health, unless 
there be a sufficient addition of milk, eggs and leafy vegetables, 
such as cabbage, lettuce, etc. 

No care is too great to establish early good habits of internal 


as well as of external bodily cleanliness; to include, in the one 
case, regularity of the functions of excretion, and in the other, 
care of the bed ; that is, the daily throwing back of all the cov- 
ers and arching of the mattress to permit free circulation of air. 
This is necessary to dry off the bedding, which receives an 
average of one pint of perspiration per night, evaporated from 
the skin during .sleep. 

The death rate from pneumonia and kindred diseases is a 
serious source of national anxiety at the present time. To what 
extent may the cause be found in unwise selection of clothing, 
which by its unsuitability to season lowers the wearer's capacity 
to resist attack of infections? For instance, thin shoes on 
snowy side-walks; short socks or bare arms (because mothers 
think the child's bare limbs look pretty) ; unequal distribution 
of clothing; all impose a strain on the nervous system, lowering 
vitality and predisposing to many forms of" internal congestion. 
Reference must also be made to the detrimental results of 
overheating the houses. "Man requires cool air and moisture 
around him," writes Dr. James J. Walsh. "Overheated dry air 
makes him too susceptible to disease. In a temperature of over 
68 degrees, it is difificult, for men and women to exist health- 
fully. Fresh, cool, moist air is the foe of pneumonia, and per- 
sons who keep their houses cool and breathe fresh, moist air need 
have no fear of it." 

It is a new thought to many that national efficiency is pro- 
moted by the wise choice of household equipment ; 'health is 
maintained where fatigue is diminished and efficiency promoted. 
I' or instance, the steam pressure cooker, if used daily (instead 
of being shut away as it is in many homes, except during the fruit 
canning season) saves not only about half the fuel otherwise 
used, thus releasing cash for other purposes, but saves much 
time and energy by the rapidity with which it accomplishes its 
work. Few women realize that they actually control the quality 
and efficiency of utensils on sale in the stores. Were they to 
purchase only the best types of food chopper, fruit presser, cream 
whip, etc., the poor designs wich are now bought by unobser- 
ant purchasers would disappear, while through the improvement 
of domestic processes, diet and health would improve, and nerve 
strain would diminish, a finer type of citizen being the result. 
The same criticism applies to the purchase of textiles, shoes or 

Any failure to maintain the highest health standard m each 
home imposes an unrecognized burden on public finances. One 
idividual unable to contribute his or her full quota to productive 
national life diminishes the national income to that extent. Each 
premature death robs the country of a potential producer; each 
maimed, sickly weakling (mental or physical) costs often a large 



sum for state maintenance over many years, for which the tax 
payer is responsible. 


1. Give four reasons why Home Making can be no longer 
considered an unskilled occupation? 

2. Suggest means by which parents can find more time to 
become the companions of their children? How would this re- 
act on National Welfare? 

3. In what way does careless homemaking involve civic 
expenditure ? 

4. Give illustrations of what might be described as false 
domestic standards? 

5. How does the early formation of good habits contribute 
to civic work? 


By A. A. Ramsey er. 

The following circumstance will interest our readers : 
Sister Annie D. Watson, who has been very diligent in ar- 
ranging records for temple work, engaged in this work after be- 
ing deprived of her hearing, since her affliction hindered her from 
continuing her labors as a temple worker. Her deafness, how- 
ever, has turned to be a blessing in disguise to herself and those 
whom she has helped. 

President Anthon H. Lund promised her once that she 
should "hear the softest strains of the sweetest music." One 
summer night of 1916, about 10 o'clock, while she was tend- 
ing her lawn, she heard some beautiful singing, and the follow- 
ing verse was sung three times, which riveted it upon her mem- 
ory, so that she was able to dictate it: 

When grief and affliction, and war's stern command. 
Have blighted affection and wasted the land. 
And the proud, haughty nations each other assail, 
The grandest will envy your home in the Vale. 


How often do we hear a lady say: 
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By Dr. James E. Talmage 

The Vitality of Mormonism 

This work, consisting of 360 pages,' is 
published by the Gotham Press, Boston, 
Mass., and comprises the articles written by 
Dr. Talmage and published in many of the 
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The book contains all the articles pub- 
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In This Number: 

"In Memory of the Martyrdom," 

Two timely articles on Health — 
"Germs and Disease," "The House 
Fly," by Dr. Martin P. Henderson. 

The continuation of the charac- 
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Judd Clawson, and "Mothers of Our 

Two stories, "The Paymaster," by 
Lucy S. Burnham; and "The House 
of Gifts," by Clara S. Fagergren. 







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The Relief Society Magazine 

Oumed and Published by the General Board of the Reliej Sodmty of th* 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JUNE,. 1919. 

Verses Charles W. Penrose 311 

In Memory of the Martyrdom 312 

Mothers of Our Leaders 313 

A Utah Mornng Maud Baggarley 316 

Rambling Reminiscences of Margaret Gay Judd Clawson 317 

There was an Unhappy Woman Annie G. Lauritzen 327 

The Paymaster Lucy S. Burnham 328 

Helps for Health Talks 334 

Why Not? Mrs. Parley Nelson 334 

History of Instrumental Music Brigham Cecil Gates 33,5 

June Magic Morag 3'40 

Faith Grace Ingles Frost 341 

The House of Gifts Clara S. Fagergren 342 

Our Temple Mothers James Kirkham, Sr. 347 

The Official Round Table 343 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home 354 

On the Watch Tower 357 

Editorial: Reconstruction 361 

Germs and Disease Dr. Martin P. Henderson 3^3 

The House Fly Dr. Martin P. Henderson 366 

"O My Father'' Professor Henry E. Giles 369 


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Z. C If. In talt Laks Oty. 


Words by Charles W. Penrose. Music by George Careless. 

Death gathers up thick clouds of gloom 
And wounds the soul with anguish deep. 
Gaunt sorrow sits upon the tornb, 
And round the grave dense shadows creep. 

But faith beams down from God's fair skies 
And bids the clouds and shades begone. 
We gaze with brightened, tear-dried eyes, 
And lo! There stands the Holy One! 

"The Resurrection and the Life," 
What hope and joy that title brings! 
Death's but a myth with horrors rife, 
And flees before the King of kings. 

Then, shall we mourn and weep today 
Because our chief has gone to rest? 
He slumbers not in that cold clay. 
But lives and moves among the blest. 

W€ lose a leading Master Mind, 
And spirit hosts behind the vail. 
New strength and added wisdom find. 
To make our mutual work prevail. 

Hosannas greet his entrance there. 
And Joseph waits with words of praise, 
While here sit thousands bowed in prayer, 
And funeral notes in grief we raise. 

Farewell, dear Brother Brigham Young, 
God called thee through the eternal gate, 
Thy fame shall dwell on every tongue. 
And Saints thy worth will emulate. 

Thy work on earth was nobly done. 
And peace smiles sweetly on thee now. 
The crown celestial thou hast won, 
In splendor waits to deck thy brow! 
Salt Lake City, August 30, 1877. 


Joseph Smith ,the Prophet in center; upper left, Hyrum Smith, the 
Patriarch; lower left, John Taylor; upper right, Brigham Young; lower 
right, Willard Richards. 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. VI. TUNE, 1919. No. 6. 

Mothers of Our Leaders 


Mother of Elder George Albert Smith. 

My mother was born in a Latter-day Saint home. She was 
a daughter of Lorin Farr and Amanda Chase, both being pioneer 
families. She passed through the experiences of pioneer life in 
such manner as to develop the best there is in a human being. She 
began life w^ith a strong physique and a cheerful disposition, thus 
entering into the struggle of existence with assurance of success. 
Her training made her exceedingly frugal and economical so that 
when, as a young girl, she married my father, John Henry Smith, 
she began home-making under the most favorable circumstances. 

My parents had no home of their own, and their few belong- 
ings were packed in a box. Father made some ot their furniture, 
and they began married life in a log house, with a mud roof. 
Mother was and is one of the most industrious women I ever 
knew. I well remember, when I was a child, how she was the first 
one up in the morning and the last one to bed at night. And dur- 
ing her experience of giving birth to eleven children and rearing 
eight of them to man and womanhood not one of us was ever 
neglected in any way. She was a strict disciplinarian, and we al- 
ways knew that when she told us to do anything she meant it. 

She has had to economize most all of her life, and now, at 
nearly seventy years of age, she is perhaps more comfortably sit- 
uated than ever before. Although we were very poor, and my 
father was on a mission when I was five years old, I never remem- 
ber of hearing my mother complain, and I never saw her shed a 
tear because of conditions that surrounded her. She could make a 
dollar go as far as anybody I ever knew. She is a wonderful 
housekeeper, and during the rearing of her large family, she did 
not have much assistance from hired help. She is a great lover 
of beautiful things ; she always kept her home properly, and in 


good repair. She had a faculty of mending things with tin. If a 
mouse got into the cupboard, she found the hole, and the next time 
he paid a visit, he discovered his entrance barred with a piece of 

She is a woman of remarkable endurance, and until after her 
last child was born I do not remember to have ever heard her say 
she was tired. She seemed to feel she had a certain amount of 
work to do and she proceeded to do it in the most rapid and pains- 
taking manner. Although she was not able to attend meetings 
often, yet her children were always made ready for Sabbath 
School, and we were encouraged to attend to our duties in the 
Church in every possible way. 

No husband was ever more devotedly sustained by his help- 
meet than my father was by my mother. She loved him with all 
her heart, and seemed to find the greatest possible pleasure in 
doing the thing that she knew would satisfy him. She retained 
her youth to the extent that when I was a young man we were 
taken for brother and sister. When father was absent from home 
on a mission, mother took his place, and she was really the head 
of the house in his absence. We attended to our prayers, and had 
a blessing on the food, and in case of sickness, she called in the 
elders, for she has great faith in the ordinances of the gospel. She 
has always been a strict tithe-payer, and as far as I have been able 
to discover, there has never entered her mind a thought that per- 
haps there might be a mistake and "Mormonism" not be true. 
She believes it with all her soul, and has sustained the authorities 
of the Church in every possible way. She always had a good word 
for all people, and it is a rare thing for her to speak in any other 
way than that of commendation of any soul. I never knew a more 
charitable woman, or one more willing to impart of what little she 
had to those who needed more than she. I know that many, 
many times she has given to others of her small substance and has 
gone without things that most people would have considered 
really important. 

Of course, I look upon her as a wonderful mother, and from 
the depth of my soul, I thank my heavenly Father that she is my 
mother. Her strict honesty, her scrupulous truthfulness, and' her 
great care to fulfil any promise made, was always an inspiration to 
me. Like most mothers, she was slow to believe that her children 
could do anything that wasn't just right. But if an accusation was 
made, she went to the bottom of it before rendering a decision, and 
if her child was in the wrong, the child knew it had to make the 
matter right. Her strict determination to be just in all things has 
always had its effect upon me. 

She had a faculty of always presenting a neat appearance, no 
matter how ordinary her clothing might be, and she always looked 
well dressed. 


She gave her consent for father to marry Aunt Josephine, 
and was loyal to her and to her children in every way. They have 
lived the principle of plural marriage as well as any family I have 
ever seen, and the two have been like sisters and still are. 

Your brother, 

George Albert Smith. 

Mother of Elder Anthony W . Ivins. 

My mother, Anna Lowrie Ivins, was the daughter of Caleb 
Ivins, Jr., and Edith Ridgway. She was born at Philadelphia, 
Nov. 18, 1816, and was a sister to Rachel Ridgway Ivins, the 
mother of Prest. Heber J. Grant. 

Caleb Ivins, Jr., was the son of Caleb Ivins and Sarah Wright. 
Caleb Ivins was the son of Moses Ivins and Kezia Shreve. 

My father, Israel Ivins, was the son of Anthony Ivins and 
Sarah Reeves Wallen. Anthony Ivins was the son of Israel Ivins 
and Margaret Woodward. Israel Ivins was the son of Moses 
Ivins and Kezia Shreve. It will be seen by the above that the 
grandparents (great-grandparents) of both father and mother 
were the same. 

Like many others who identified themselves with the Church 
at an early period, and came to Utah during the pioneer days, my 
parents found themselves in a new environment, and entirely dif- 
ferent to that to which they had been accustomed. The families 
of both parents were well to do, they were merchants, manufac- 
turers, and owners of large tracts of land in New Jersey, and 
adjoining states. My father was an engineer by profession. 

We were among the first settlers in the St. George valley, and 
in common with other pioneers of the Dixie country passed 
through the hardships incident to the development of that inhos- 
pitable region. The resources brought from the old home were 
soon exhausted, and we were reduced to a condition of poverty 
in strong contrast to our early life. 

The one thing which impressed me most in the character of 
my mother was, that during all of these experiences, of poverty 
and different family conditions from those to which she had been 
accustomed in her early life, she did not for a moment lose her 
patience, dignity, or self control. She was the same dignified, pa- 
tient, pleasant woman under all circumstances. She did not at any 
time in my life inflict corporal punishment upon me, nor do I re- 
member a word spoken in anger. Where correction was necessary 
it was administered in kindness and by reason, which never failed 
to leave a profound impression. 


I never, at any time, heard her speak in anger to my father 
or any other member of the family. The debt of gratitude which 
I owe her has not, and cannot, be paid in this life, I hope that in 
eternity it may be. 

She was a convert to the divine mission of the prophet Joseph 
Smith, and a believer, without reservation, in the doctrines of the 
restored gospel. She lived in accordance with her profession of 
faith, and taught me, both by precept and example, to live a virtu- 
ous, honest life. That I have succeeded as well as I have is large- 
ly due to her teaching and example. 

Perhaps you can glean from the foregoing what you would 
like to have for the Magazine. 

With assurances of confidence and esteem I remain, 

Sincerely yours, 

A. W. IviNs. 

A Utah Morning. 

By Maud Baggarley. 

Veiled in mist, the mountains lie 

Like poet's dream or faint mirage 

Against the April sky. 

A little teasing bee at play, 

(Like sweet but naughty child) 

At threshold of the day, 

Starts like humming bird, 

Or honey bee, about each blossom-laden tree. 

Upon the grass the jocund sun 

Hath scattered largess for each one 

Whose eager hands can grasp and hold 

His measure of the fairy gold. 

Little jostled birds complain; 

The dim earth glows with sudden light; 
The peach trees burn with magic flame ; 

And lo, the morning bright 
Unfolds her wings upon the azure hills. 
And through the veins of earth there thrills 

New ecstasy of life. 

Rambling Reminiscencesof Marga ret 
Gay Judd Clawson. 

(Continued from page 262.) 

I have heard mother tell a little incident about the Prophet: 
Soon after we went to Nauvoo, she had occasion to do a little 
shopping, and on her way to the store, she passed the Mansion 
House. The Prophet was standing on the lawn conversing quite 
earnestly with several very elegant Gentile gentlemen. As she 
passed along, very naturally she looked at the Prophet. She 
knew him, but he did not know her. All at once he reached his 
arm over the fence, grasped her by the hand, and gave her a 
hearty shake. He did not hesitate in his conversation with the 
gentlemen but kept right on talking, and mother passed on. I 
need not say she was delighted. I am sure he divined what a 
noble-spirited woman she was. 

When our house was furnished and we moved in, my parents 
were delighted. It was their own home, and built in the city of the 
Saints, where they expected to live the rest of their days. Our 
family consisted of father, mother, brother Riley, sister Phebe, 
and myself, with grandfather and grandmother Judd, who lived 
with us part of the time. My grandparents were most welcome 
in our home, where mother and grandmother Judd were always 
on the best of terms. Grandmother said: "I would rather live 
with Teresa than any one I ever knew." Mother v/as not like 
many daughters-in-law, who look upon their mothers-in-law as 
their natural enemies, ,so their association was always most har- 
monious. I was very fond of my grandmother Judd. I have 
only a faint recollection of my grandmother Hastings, as I never 
saw her after I was six years old, but I have heard father say that 
she was a very kind, liberal-hearted woman. 

I think it was about in 1842 or '43 that the mob be- 
gan again to harass the Saints very frequently, and we had a 
repetition of the old exciting times. It was generally known 
when the mobs were prowling around outside of Nauvoo. The 
brethren were advised to always be in readiness to meet them 
and to protect their homes and families. 

One morning I saw something more than usual going on 
at one of our neighbor's, an English family by the name of 
Thompson, so I ran over to see what it was. Well, the word had 
been brought in that the mob was coming, and very near, and 
"Little Thompson" (he was a very small man) with others had 



been called to the defense. His wife was hurrying to get her 
protector ready to go. I was filled with patriotism when I saw 
him staggering off under the weight of his lunch and g^n. After 
bidding him good-bye, she stood there and called after him, as 
long as she could see him, these encouraging words : "Now 
Thompson, stick to thy post and don't thee flinch." No doubt, 
they stimulated him to greater deeds of valor ; but the expected 
did not happen. It was merely a false alarm and the mob was 
not there, and Thompson came home covered with glory and as 
brave as a lion, bragging what he would have done if the mob 
had been there, much to the admiration of his wife and myself. 
Times were very hard and provisions were scarce. Father 


•t was unfinished at his death, and completed by Mr. Biddamon who 
married the widow of the Prophet. 

was an industrious, hard-working man and could work at two 
tra.des, but it seemed almost impossible for him to get the right 
kind of pay for his work, so as to provide the necessaries of life 
for his family, and for this reason he went back to La Harpe to 
work. He used to send us flour, meat, etc. Transportation was 
not as easy in those days as it is now, and father had to watch 
his chance for sending us provisions, and if he missed we ran 
short. Father often walked the twenty-five miles home to see 
his family. He was a splendid walker. He told us once when 
he came home of a mad dog overtaking him. The dog was a 


terrible sight — his eyes were blood red, his tongue hanging out, 
and he was frothing at the mouth. Father was quite pleased 
when he passed by without a salute. In a very short time a lot 
of men and boys with clubs and guns came running after the 
■dog. They said he had bitten a boy and several animals. In a 
little while father heard them yelling and heard the shots from 
the guns, so he supposed they had killed the dog. 

' At one time, that I remember, father had not had an oppor- 
tunity of sending us any provisions for some time, and we got up 
one morning to find ourselves without anything in the house to 
eat, except some shelled corn. There were five of us at that time 
— mother, grandmother, Brother Riley, Sister Phebe and myself. 
What were we to do? We had heard of a woman who had a 
hand-mill for grinding. She lived about a mile from us, and as 
our only chance for food was to get the corn ground, mother 

"Children, do you think you could take some and grind it? 
and when you come back I will make a nice johnny cake for our 

Of course we could ; so brother and I started out in high 
spirits, with all the corn we could carry, much impressed and feel- 
ing our importance in being allowed to help to support the fam- 
ily. Well, when we got to the neighbor's, she took us into the 
back yard and showed us the mill, telling us that we would have 
to pay her toll for the use of it. We had heard that before. We 
started in real brisk — it didn't seem so very hard. We talked 
and laughed and encouraged each other. The meal seemed to 
run out of the hopper quite fast, and we thought mother would 
be surprised to see us home so soon with such a lot of meal. Well, 
when we had got nearly half of the corn ground that horrid 
woman came out and took it all in for her share. Oh, didn't our 
hearts sink ! And didn't that mill get awfully hard to turn ; and 
then the handle slipped off and struck me on the finger-nail and 
hurt me dreadfully. Then it was Riley's turn to grind, so I could 
stop and cry awhile, but it was not long before the handle slipped 
off again, and knocked his finger nail nearly off. Poor fellow, 
how he did cry, and how the blood ran. He always got the worst 
of every hurt. I went into the house and asked the woman for a 
rag to put around his bleeding finger, but she would not take the 
trouble to give me one, saying, "It. won't hurt very long." So I 
tore a piece off my apron and wrapped his finger up. 

Now, it was my turn to finish grinding the corn. I could 
not expect Riley to work any longer with his aching finger. As 
everything must have an end, our grist was ground at last, and 
we started home, "wiser but sadder children." When we came in 
sight of home there was mother watching for us, and when she 


saw our bunged-up eyes and sore fingers, she could scarcely re- 
strain her tears. I don't think she expressed herself half as em- 
phatically as she felt, for her eyes were unusually bright, and her 
cheeks were very red. If mother had met that woman then, there 
would have been quite a flow of eloquence, I think. 

In a very short time mother had the meal sifted and the corn 
bread in the spider baking, and when it was done, oh, what a de- 
licious breakfast. No sweeter morsel was ever set before a king 
than that hard earned johnny cake was to us. As good luck would 
have it, father sent us some provisions from La Harpe that very 
day. With all our poverty and hardships, I never heard mother 
speak one word of complaint, she was so thankful to be with the 
Saints and hear the teachings of the prophet! 


Father planted us a garden that spring. The vegetables grew 
very fast, but the weeds grew faster, and mother made Riley and 
me do the weeding (or some of it). We used to say if it were 
only shady, and we could sit down, it wouldn't be so hard, but to 
go right out in the hot sun, and stoop over to pull the weeds, we 
thought it awfully cruel of mother to have us do it. She often 
used to show us how to do it. It seemed so easy for her. Why, 
she could pull more weeds in five minutes than we could in half 
an hour, and still she insisted on us doing it. Oh, the hardships 
of childhood! 

I think it was the latter part of 1843 that my uncle and 
grandfather went to Springfield, 111., and from there they kept 
writing to father, telling of what good times they had found and 
that coopers were getting higher wages than in any other trade, 
and if he would come there for awhile, he could get a good start, 
and would not have to live from hand to mouth, as he was then 
doing. Although father was hard-working and industrious, he did 
not seem to get ahead at all, so after awhile he decided to go. 
Mother was very loth to leave Nauvoo and hoped it would be for 
only a short time. There was quite a little branch of the Church 
in Springfield. 

In the spring of 1844, we went to Springfield. We had not 
been there more than two or three months when we got the news 
of the prophet's death. Mother would not believe it, saying it was 
a false report, but when it was confirmed, our house was a house 
of mourning, and I don't think mother could have felt worse if 
it had been one of her own family. Father got all the work he 
could do at fair wages, but with a family to support, clothe, house- 
rent and other expenses to pay, he did not get rich very fast. 
Then there was another child added to our home. On New Year's 
day, 1845, Brother George came, and that made us six in family. 

My second great grief of childhood came on the fourth of 
October, 1844, when my dearly loved grandmother Judd left us 




for a better world. She was so pleasant and kind to all ! Mother 
loved her as if she were her own mother. I shall never forget 
how dreadfully I felt ! It seemed the sun would never shine again. 
I was then thirteen and could fully realize our great loss. I could 
not eat, and slept very little until mother became worried about 
me, but youth and time obliterate sorrow. Grandmother was sick 
about two weeks and said from the beginning that she did not 
want to get well again. After she was in her cofifin. one of my 
young cousins came to look at her. As soon as he saw her he said : 
"Oh, grandma is laughing," and if that beautiful smile on her 
face was an indication of her happiness, it was indeed supreme. 
After the Saints left Nauvoo. my parents redoubled their 
exertions to get an outfit to go to the Rocky Mountains. In the 
meantime, father had one or two quite sick spells which put him 
back considerably. How well I remember what a hard time he 
had breaking in the animals to draw the wagon. There were six 
cows and two oxen. The oxen were well broken and quite sedate, 
but the cows were wild and unruly. He would get help to yoke 
them up, and then would start to drive them. All at once, they 
would run ofif in an opposite direction to where he wanted them 
to go, or would run around the back of the wagon, and get all 
tangled up. Well, this went on for days and days, and while 
father was breaking the cattle, mother was praying. She told me 
afterwards that many nights when we were in bed asleep that 
she would go out into the orchard at the back of our house, and 
there pour out her soul in prayer, asking the Lord to open the 



way for us to go with the Saints. She was williixg- to share their 
privations for the sake of being with them. 

Another source of anxiety to mother was that I was now in 
my 'teens, at the romantic age of seventeen, and mother, knowing 
the susceptibility of the human heart, was afraid that some young 
man might persuade me to think more of him than I did of her, 
and induce me to remain in the east. She could not live away 
from the Church, and she could not leave a child behind. So my 
parents said we mu&t not stay at Springfield any longer. 

After weeks of hard work, father had the cows broken so 
that he could drive them, and on the ninth day of May, 1849, my 
brother Riley's sixteenth birthday, we said good-bye to our friends 
and relatives, got into our wagon, and started on our long, event- 
ful journey. Oh, how mother's countenance beamed with joy! 



What did she care for hardships, if she could only reach the goal ? 
I will relate one of many little romances. The night before 
we left, my true lover, Henry Ridgley, came to bid me farewell, 
and under our trysting tree (a big tree close by) we each vowed 
eternal constancy — for four years, at least. At the end of that 
time, he would be of age, and then he would come to claim me 
for his own, even if I was at the end of the earth. Well, he did 
come to see me, but it was forty years after instead of four years. 
He had a wife and three children. I had a husband and was the 
mother of thirteen children. The romance of youth was gone — 


the reality was here. How we did talk of the long past, and laugh 
at each other's inconstancy. After a pleasant two weeks' visit 
with us, he returned to Springfield, and in five years after I re- 
ceived a letter from his wife, telling me of his death. 

On our first night after starting on our journey, we camped 
on the prairie. Father unyoked the cattle, and turned them out 
to feed on the grass, looking after them carefully to keep them 
from straying away. We had packed up enough fuel to make a 
good fire, and mother was getting supper, when all at once there 
came a most terrific thunder storm. The rain poured down in 
torrents, and we were all drenched, although we got into the 
wagon as soon as we could. The wind blew the rain with such 
force that the wagon was very little protection. Of course, the 
fire was put out. and it was cold comfort for supper that night. 
However, the next morning the sun shone brightly, everything 
got dry, and we jogged on our journey. 

I don't remember how long we were in reaching Council 
BlulTs, but I do remember that we camped there one month wait- 
ing for companies to be made up. They had to be organized for 
protection against the Indians. Oh, the monotony of camp life 
when we were not traveling. How delighted we all were when 
we started on our journey for good. Everything was bright and 
beautiful. I was young and healthy. All was "color de rose" for 
me. The responsibilities, anxieties and cares rested on my par- 

In traveling as we did, one day was very like another. After 
jogging along all day we camped at night. The men took care of 
the cattle, while the women got supper. After that was over the 
young folks generally made a bon-fire and sat around it, talked, 
told stories, sung songs, etc. There were several nice young 
men in our company, which made it interesting for the girls. 

On the Fourth of July we camped for the day, not entirely to 
celebrate, but to wash and do mending and various other things 
that were necessary. We camped in a pretty place near a creek. 
I was to wash, with Phebe's help. She was only twelve, but very 
energetic. We selected a place, quite secluded, close to the creek 
where we could have plenty of water. Well, we were making 
suds, when a dapper young gentleman from New York, a nephew 
of our captain, who was on his way to California, discovered us 
and brought a bottle of wine and a large piece of delicious fruit 
cake which was made to celebrate the Fourth on the plains. 

It was a rather embarassing position to accept this compli- 
ment in the midst of soiled linen and soap suds, and I had not 
been introduced to him before. However, I accepted the cake 
and wine with great patriotism, and from that time on he often 
called at our wagon — that is, our wagon yard. Everyone was 
supposed to own all the land that was occupied by ox yokes, camp 


kettles, and everything that goes to make an outfit for traveling, 
so when any of the young folks called, I was as much at home 
sitting on an ox yoke as if I were sitting in an easy chair in a 
parlor. Such is life on the plains. 

There were several very nice young men in our company, 
especially one. He used to say such lovely things to me — told 
me that I was beautiful and intelligent, and even went so far as 
to say that I was amiable, something I had never been accused 
of before. Said I was the only woman that he ever loved, and 
that we were just suited to each other. I began to believe him, 
and when he proposed, what could I say but yes. Well, the course 
of true love did run smooth, at least, until we got into the valley. 
There we had the usual lover's quarrel, but not the usual making 
up. In a short time, he. let me know that another girl appreciated 
him, if I did not. He married one of the girls of our company, 
whose ignorance he had ridiculed to me many times while on our 
journey. Such is the constancy of man ! I understood she made 
him a good wife, but stood in great awe of him, the man who had 
honored her so highly. The fates sometimes do interfere with our 
plans, all for our best good. 

My brother drove an ox team across the plains for a widow 
and her little girl. The little girl was very sweet and amiable, the 
mother rather peculiar. He said that she would ask more ques- 
tions in a day than ten men could answer in a week. He was a 
born joker, and could no more help joking than he could help 
breathing. He could never tell her anything so absurd or ridicu- 
lous but what she believed it. He got so tired of her questions, 
such as, "Riley, I wonder how far we have traveled today, and 
I wonder how far we will travel tomorrow," "I wonder if we will 
get to water," "I wonder if we will see Indians, and I wonder what 
they will do," "Will they be friendly or savage?" 

The "wondering" got so monotonous Riley could hardly 
stand it. At last he had his revenge, when we came in sight of 
Chimney Rock. (Anybody who has crossed the plains either by 
wagon or rail will remember seeing this landmark). It is very 
tall and shaped something like a smokestack, and probably cen- 
turies old. At the rate we traveled it could be seen several days 
before we reached it. She began her speculations about the rock, 
and he told her in a most confidential way that as soon as we got 
to it, he was going to push it down ; that he was sick and tired 
of hearing so much about Chimney Rock, and that it had stood 
there long enough anyway. As soon as he got his hands on it, 
over it would go. Well, she begged and implored him to let it 
stand, that other emigrants might see it who came after us., but he 
was obdurate. She then threatened to tell "Brother Brigham" 
when she got to the Valley. That was always her last resort. He 




kept her anxiety at fever heat for two days until we were within 
about a half mile of it. He then gave in to her pleadings, and 
said he would let it stand. She' was so delighted that she gave 
him an extra good dinner and supper that day. 

He little intended that his last joke with her should turn out 
as it did. By the way of amusement, he had been telling her 
before we came to the last canyon, Emigration, that her wagon 
was going to tip over, in fact, he knew it would. She said that if 
it did she would tell "Brother Brigham." Sure enough it did 
tip clear over down the hill, and lit on the bows. It was a very 
hard canyon for men to drive down, and Riley was awfully sur- 
prised. He was only a boy and was terribly frightened. No one 
worked harder than he did to get it righted. With the help of the 
men in camp, he got it up into the road, which was very sideling. 
The wagon looked very dilapidated, with the bows all smashed 
down, but very little damage was done to the contents, and as it 
was our last day before entering the valley, the widow managed 
very well. Riley never heard whether she told "Brother Brigham" 
or not. 

After jogging along several hundred miles without incident, 
the monotony was finally broken by our cattle stampeding. It 
seemed the longer we went and the harder the cattle worked, the 
easier they became frightened. 

The one that terrified me the most was the night stampede. 
We had had one or two before in the daytime, so the cattle were 
prepared for another at any moment. Our company was coun- 


seled to corral their animals every night, perhaps on account of 
the Indians, or it might have been because of the large herds of 
buffalo that we saw daily. 

At night the cattle were always turned out to feed for a while. 
They were watched and herded, then brought into the corral for 
the night. The corral was made with wagons formed in a large 
circle, with the wheels touching each other, with one opening left 
to drive them in, then log chains were put across the opening, so 
that the enclosure was perfectly secure. We were in a buffalo 
country. We had heard what a terrible thing their stampedes 
were, and that not long before a large herd had started on their 
mad run, and when those in front came to a high bluff of the 
Platte River, they dashed in and made a bridge for the last ones, 
who trampled to death and drowned their companions. 

One night, about two o'clock, our whole camp were peace- 
fully sleeping, when all at once there came an awful sound of 
tramping and bellowing. The ground shook, our wagon trembled 
and rocked. It flashed through my mind in a moment that a herd 
of buffalo was stampeding, and that we would all be trampled 
to death, so I covered up my head and prepared to die. Mother 
soon called out to Phebe and myself ; as there was no sound from 
our little bed-room (the front end of the wagon), I gave a 
smothered answer from under the bed clothes that I was alive. 
All at once there was another crashing noise. It was our own 
cattle, broken out of the corral. Something had frightened them, 
and then they started on their wild, mad run. They ran around 
and around inside, and then broke through the log-chains. Noth- 
ing could stay them, and they scattered over the country for 
miles and miles. It took our men days and days to gather them 
back again, and a sorry looking lot they were, those that were 
left, for some died from exhaustion, and others were killed. 

One pair of the captain's cows had run up a very steep hill, 
fallen backwards and broken their necks — which made one pair 
less to pull his wagon and one pair less to milk. (Oh, the deli- 
cious milk! What a luxury on the plains.) In that stampede 
there were two or three men hurt — one quite badly. He was a 
gold digger going to California, who had overtaken us and was 
traveling with our company awhile. The California emigrants 
traveled much faster than the "Mormon" emigrants. In trying 
to stop the cattle this emigrant was knocked down and trampled 
on, and his groans were piteous. 

I did not see the injured man again until one day the next 
winter, when he called on us in the Valley. During all the time 
he was there he was down on his knees. He could stand up, but 
could not sit down. I never heard from him again after he left 
for the gold mines. 


Old cattle-men say that tame, domestic horned cattle are the 
craziest and wildest of all animals in a stampede. It is very sin- 
gular, but they seem to start all at once, just as if a bolt had struck 
every one at the same instant. 

{To be continued.) 

There was an Unhappy Woman. 

By Annie G. Lauritsen. 

There was an unhappy woman — of dignity, pride and reserve. 
Thinking that all should serve her, her mandates all should serve ; 
Wherever she went she was slighted, and while everything said 

To her delicate, finer feelings, and often she wept and sighed. 

She decided to search the Scriptures, some comfort in them to find ; 
And oh, what sweet joy and comfort was brought to her sinking 

She read of the mission of Jesus who went about doing great good. 
Teaching, comforting, healing, saving all that he could. 
She read in the blessed beatitudes those promises he let fall, 
"Let him who would be greatest among vou, become the servant 

of all." 
Deciding to copy her Master, whose complete effacement of self 
Caused him to be worshiped by Saints, despisers of pride and pelf. 

She's now a most happy woman, whose life is grand and sublime. 
She has a kind word for all — she's doing good all the time ; 
Earth's good things are hers to enjoy, from duty she doesn't 

She is the happiest woman alive, for she now has learned to serve. 

She is cheerful and gentle and loving, since she has learned how 

to live, 
Her sorrows are swallowed in joys, since she has learned how to 

forgive ; 
She is free from the cunning of Satan, who sought to allure her 

to sin. 
Her hours are spent in seeking the souls of her loved ones to win ; 
Honor and glory and wisdom wait on her unselfish call, 
For she loves and has patience with all, and she is now loved by ail. 

The Paymaster. 

By Lucy S. Burnham. 

Teta stood in the open doorway, gazing with anxious eyes 
across the dreary stretch of desert land. 

As far as the eye could see, there stretched before her gaze, 
sand, hot, dazzHng sand. Teta was alarmed at the strange, new re- 
bellion that filled her heart today,and a question as new and strange 
seemed to stand out in letters of fire before her weary brain. Had 
they been over-zealous in the work of the Lord that they had 
given their all for the gospel's sake? It was just before little Edith 
was born that Dwight had been called on his mission. How tender 
Dwight had been to her during the long, anxious time of waiting, 
and when the call had come he seemed stunned at the thought of 
leaving her to go down the valley of deep shadow, without him 
there to comfort and help her with his love. During the days that 
followed before his leaving, Teta often caught him looking at her 
with a gaze that was almost worshipful. 

She wondered now at the strange, new calm that had settled 
upon her as Dwight took her in his arms at parting, his face all 
white and drawn and the laughter all turned to pain in his big, 
blue eyes. 

How she ever endured the month that followed she never 
knew, but when her first born was laid in her arms, by her own 
dear mother, she took a new hold on life and was soon her old self 

She had seen all their hard savings dwindle away and even 
the little home, to which Dwight had taken her as a bride, sold that 
Dwight might fill his mission. 

Job's comforters there were, who told her plainly they had 
been silly to make such sacrifices, and that it was not required of 
any one to undergo such hardships, and she had very spiritedly 
replied : "Perhaps it is not necessary or required, yet if we do it 
willingly, I am sure God will accept and bless us for it. I am so 
glad for Dwight's sake, for he needed the experience so much." 

And yet today this question would gnaw at her vitals, for 
within the darkened room lay her baby, sick nigh unto death, for 
want of help, and she was alone in this desert. 

Pacing back and forth between the crib and the open door in 
her sleepless agony, as one in a dream, she lived over the past and 
what had brought them to this lonely place. On Dwight's return 
from his mission in the late fall, penniless, work was scarce, so he 
had accepted the first position offered him, that of foreman on a 


big cattle ranch in northwestern New Mexico. He had not in- 
tended to take her with him. 

"It is too lonely a place, Teta," he had told her; "I will get 
along someway, and in the spring, perhaps, I can secure work 
nearer home." 

She had answered him out of a full heart : "Dwight, where 
you go I will go. Your home shall be my home." 

The winter had not been altogether bad. Dwight had worked 
hard during the day, but he was near her, and the long evenings 
together paid for all the day's loneliness. The summer which fol- 
lowed had been hot and dry, no rain falling, and the big stretches 
of meadow land were now only patches of hot, dry sand. Water 
was scarce, and the worried foreman and weary cowboys were in 
the saddle constantly trying to keep the roving, restless herd under 
control. ' 

At last the owner had decided it necessary to move the cattle, 
and yesterday Dwight had ridden with his cowboys on a round-up 
and had left Teta with only an Indian boy for company. 

Soon after he rode away little Edith had shown symptoms 
of illness. All day and all night Teta had applied her scanty rem- 
edies, but baby Edith steadily grew worse. Goaded to desperation 
but a few hours ago, she had sent the Indian boy to find Dwight. 

The desert and its loneliness had never seemed as terrible to 
her as now. Oh, if she could only get help of some kind ! 

How she longed for her mother, or even the good old country 
doctor who had attended the people of her home town for years ! 
She had never known his skill and his faith to fail. If she were 
only in her old home town ! Had they then been truly unwise, and 
must they suffer for it now? 

A little moaning sound aroused her from her deep thought ; 
giving the landscape one last hurried search, she flew inside to 
the cradle. A sharp pain pierced her heart as she noted the little 
flushed face and gasping breath of her baby. She must have help 
of some kind, and that soon, too. No tears came now, her eyes 
were dry and hard. This, then, was how they were to be paid for 
their sacrifice, foolishness — call it what you would! To see her 
baby die and she alone, alone, indeed, if God was deaf to her cry. 

With a low, choking sob, she ran to the door, to take up her 
blinding search once more. 

This time was she to be rewarded ? Or was she crazy? Had 
her mind become so intent on one thought, help, that her weary 
brain reproduced, in the distant haze, what she so desired to see? 

Wearily she brushed her hand across her eyes in an uncertain 
way, then fairly gasped. In the distance now could be ,seen two 
human beings slowly approaching. It could not be Dwight and 
the Indian boy, for these two men were walking. The fretful 
voice oi tier baby was calling again. She bathed the little hot face. 


soothed it as best she could, and then kneeling by the bed and 
burying her face in the pillow, she sobbed out her gratitude : "Oh, 
baby Edith, help is coming. God has not forsaken us !" Then in 
a repentant mood she prayed, "Oh, God, forgive me, forgive." 

She arose from her knees and went to the door. The men 
were very near now ; she could not distinguish their features, but 
she could see they were respectable-looking men. One man car- 
ried a small grip. He kept changing it from hand to hand as he 
walked — a gesture she knew so well as belonging to Dr. Lloyd, 
the one person she longed for most beside DWight. Could it pos- 
sibly be he? He went often to Crown Point (an Indian agency) 
she knew. 

Nearer and nearer they came, and she bounded out to meet 
them, now recognizing him beyond a doubt. 

"Oh, Doctor Lloyd," she sobbed, "it was God who sent you 
here, I am sure." 

The doctor took both hands of the now hysterical girl, and 
added dryly: 

"I thought it was a broken-down machine, but maybe you are 
right. Be it as it may, I am glad I am here, if you need me. Is 
Dwight sick?" 

"No, no ; it is baby Edith who is sick. Oh, doctor, she is 
dying, I tell you, dying." 

"Come, child," the doctor said kindly, "you must calm your- 
self. If the baby is sick, she needs our best efforts at once." 

He led Teta into the house, and while she was bravely fight- 
ing for calm, he took off his dusty coat, opened his medical case, 
and then, as the examination went on, Teta told him of the baby's 
symptoms and all she had done for her. She had great confidence 
in the good old doctor. Of course, he could save Edith. Had he 
not done so time and again? 

"Pneumonia," the doctor told her, "you have done all any one 
could do, and now it is up to me, and I will do my best. Where is 
Dwight? I wish he were here." 

Teta told of Dwight's absence and how she had sent the boy 
for him. "I feel sure they will come soon," she added. 

Swiftly they worked, the doctor giving instructions and Teta 
calmly carrying them out. 

The afternoon faded away, the sun sank to rest beyond the 
low hills, twilight came and slowly the darkness settled round 
about them. 

In a quiet room, lighted by a single coal-oil lamp, the doctor 
and Teta sat on either side of the little bed watching the life of 
the little sufferer slowly ebb away. 

Teta was strangely white and quiet. She seemed stupified bv 
what she saw in the countenance of her child. She had' such 
confidence in the doctor's ability, now even that had failed her. 


Oh, if only Dwight would come. He seemed her one hope 
now. It would be terrible to have him come home and find the 
little girl he loved cold and still forever. 

"Oh, Dwight," she murmured aloud, "come, come," and as if 
in answer to her cry, the sound of a galloping horse was heard. 
Nearer and nearer it came. A man's voice was heard, sharp and 
quick, a clink of spurs and Dwight stood in the doorway, his 
big, stalwart bulk filling the opening. 

For one moment he stood, while his eyes took in the two 
silent watchers and the white, spent form of his baby girl in the 
cradle. The laugh slowly faded from his eyes, leaving only a 
dumb questioning. He seemed robbed of power of speech or 

Then Teta with a little moaning gesture held out her hands 
tr'wards him, and in one bound he was kneeling beside her, call- 
ing out his baby's name in low, broken tones. 

At the sound the little eyelids fluttered and opened, but the 
blue eyes so like his own, were blurred with delirium. 

Dwight took his now sobbing wife in his arms, and over her 
bowed head he looked squarely into the eyes of the doctor with 
a mute appeal. 

The doctor winced as he slowly shook his head in answer. 

Dwigh!: understood, and rising to his feet, he walked with 
unsteady L^tep to the door. He must have one moment alone, 
under the stars, to steady him,self. The suddenness of the blow 
seemed to crush him. The Indian boy had told him the child was 
sick, but to find her thus — 

The doctor followed him from the room, leaving Teta still 
sobbing by the bed. He went directly to the young father who 
stood in the statlic;!]!:. bowed in grief like an old man. 

Dwight turned sharply at the footsteps, but before he could 
speak the doctor was addressing him in low fatherly tones. 

"Dwight. my boy, you must brace up for your wife's sake. 
She has endured so much, I really fear for her. I cannot keep 
from you the fact that your baby is dying now. I would give 
my right arm if I could save her for you, Dwight. but I can do no 
more, and we must think of Teta now." 

The doctor, forgetting the open door, had spoken louder 
than he knew, and Teta, kneeling by the bed, had heard every 

Like one suddenly awakened, she lifted her head, and slowly 
but surely the faith that had been dormant for hours came to life. 

Dwight's voice came to her now, low and broken : "Please 
allow me one moment to myself, doctor, and I will be strong." 

"It is all so sudden. My baby, oh, my baby," he was sob- 
bing now as only a strong man may. 

What was the matter with Dwight? cried the mother-heart. 


It was not like him to give up so. Was he going to let their 
baby die without an effort to save her? And she had counted 
so on him. All her fighting blood was up now, a mother fighting 
for her young. 

With a low cry she ran to the door and the doctor and 
Dwight turned at her cry. 

But this was not the Teta they had left, this woman with 
head held high, and in her eyes the light of unflinching faith. 

"Dwight, doctor," she said, and her voice was low and 
calm, "what are you talking about? My baby is not going to 

"Oh, my husband," she said, as she came near and put two 
strong arms about his neck, "where is your faith? Is it sleeping 
as mine has been? Dwight," her pleading toney cut the silence, 
"have you forgotten the wonderful gift of healing you >»*ere 
blessed with while on your mission? Wake up, my husband, 
wake up. Surely, dear, when your faith availed so much for 
others, you can exercise it now for our own precious child." 

She lifted her eager eyes to his, and as she did so he shook 
himself as if to get rid of some gripping power. 

"You are right, Teta, I was sleeping. Come, doctor," he 
added, "you will come with us and we will ask the help of the 
greatest physician of all." 

He kissed Teta as reverently as one would a saint, and still 
holding her hand he walked with a firm, steady step into the 

He took a bottle of consecrated oil from a shelf near the 
door and said, "Come, we will pray for our baby." 

Pouring some of the holy oil upon the crown of her head, 
he anointed her in the name of Jesus Christ, and then sealing 
the anointing, he prayed, as the astonished doctor, now kneeling 
near Teta, had never heard any one pray before. 

The pleading voice filled the room. This man was not praying 
to a spirit, a Father of doubtful personage, a God without body, 
parts or passions, everywhere and yet nowhere present. Oh, no ! 
Dwight was praying as if he were face to face with a Father who 
was very near, and ready and able to bless his children. A new 
wonder began to dawn in the doctor's heart, a new respect for 
the strange pepole called "Mormons." After all, could it be pos- 
sible they were right in their strange views of God? When, in 
earnest tones, Dwight finished his prayer, the doctor's "Amen" 
was as earnest as Teta's, and still they knelt in silence. Not one 
sound could be heard but the ticking of the clock and the labored 
breathing of the baby. 

A moment passed and the breathing seemed to be growing 
less difficult. The three bowed heads were raised in wonder to see 
the little eyes wide open. 


Two little arms reached for Dwight's neck, butt fell helpless, 
from weakness, upon her little breast ; and a voice so weak, the 
big boy bending over her could scarcely hear, as she murmured, 

The doctor took the little hands in his and, to his joy, found 
the little pulse growing stronger. He put his hand upon her 
brow and found it moist. Turning to the still kneeling father and 
mother, he said, "Lo, a miracle has been performed. Your 
child will live. All she needs now is good care and a continua- 
tion of your great faith." 

The next morning, just as the sun came peeping over the 
hill, flooding the world with its glory, the doctor came into the 
room to find Teta and Dwight kneeling by the baby sound 
asleep. The baby was sleeping sweetly. Dwight lay near the 
baby, his hands still upon her head as if in prayer. Fearful 
that he would yet lose her, he had knelt with his hands upon her 
head until, from sheer exhaustion, he had fallen asleep. The 
sunbeams at the window sill lit up the scene and glorified the 
bronze and golden head, so near each other, as if in benediction. 

The doctor turned to go, but two heads came up in alarm, 
and the movement awakened the baby. Putting out one little 
hand she said, "Daddy, Edie hungry." 

An hour later, as the doctor was leaving, he took Dwight's 
hand in evident embarrassment and said, "Dwight, I am going 
home to read that Book of Mormon you gave me so long ago; 
and if you will give me more information on your gospel I 
will promise to read and consider it." 

With a hearty handshake the doctor and Dwight parted, 
Dwight to wonder at the doctor's words and the doctor to won- 
der at his new experience. 

When they were once more alone, Teta confided to Dwight 
all her bitter rebellion and strange questioning, adding, "Oh, I 
feel so chastened, so ashamed, I wonder if God can forgive me." 

"Of course, he can, and already has forgiven you, dear, for 
you were not to blame. It was terrible for you to be alone with 
baby so sick, and I will not chance it happening again. I will 
send you in to stay with your mother until the round-up is over, 
and move." 

"Dwight took his wife tenderly in his arms as he spoke. 

"No, Dwight," Teta replied, "there is no need of your going 
to all that trouble and expense, for I will not doubt my heavenly 
Father again. I have had my lesson. He gave to us what no 
one else could have done. He gave us our baby's life. Surely 
God is a good paymaster, and he that giveth his time and means 
to his service, shall some day be paid in full." 

Helps for Health Talks. 

The main cause of ill health is lack of cleanliness. 

The human body is the most wonderful machine in existence. 
With proper care it will keep in good order for seventy or more 

Good food, cleanliness, fresh air, exercise, sleep, will keep 
this machine in good running order. 


Brush teeth at least once daily. 

Keep articles handled by others from your mouth. 

Cover mouth when coughing or sneezing. 

Wash hands before eating. 

Sleep and work with the windows open. 

Bathe frequently. 

Why Not? 

By Mrs. Parley Nelson. 

The pathway is rugged, my feet have grown weary, 
The skies are o'ercast and the day seems so dreary; 
Aly burden grows heavy as onward I go, 
Dear heart, if you love me, why not tell me so ? 

Love would smooth the rough path, and my heart would be sing- 

The skies would seem bright and the joy bells be ringing. 
My cross would grow lighter as onward I go. 
Dear heart, if you love me, why not tell me so? 

Do not wait 'till I've passed through the gateway eternal, 
Where the peace and the rest and the joys are supernal ; 
There the winds of adversity no more shall blow 
Dear heart, if you love me, why not tell me so? 

More precious are loving words now, than the flowers 
Which may cover my grave when I've finished earth's hours. 
Then rest will be perfect from sandal to brow ; 
Dear heart, if you love me, why not tell me now ? 

History of Instrumental Music. 

Brigham Cecil Gates. 

Instrumental music is probably nearly as old as vocal music. 
A baby delights in making rythmic sounds with his pounding 
hammer on a convenient tin pan or wooden board. Drums are 
so ancient that we have no record as to when they came into ex- 
istence. The bird-cries and the twittering melodies were soon 
imitated by the shepherd on the banks of a river who blew his 
notes into the reed and learned that various sizes and lengths of 
reeds made various sounds. The assembly of various sizes of 
'reeds, made from hard woods, constituted the first organ and 
man soon learned that the pipes could be handled through a 
key-board and bellows instead of blown upon in turn with his 
own lips. Flutes and modified instruments grew out of this 
primary discovery. The horns of animals furnished suggestions 
for the blasts of trumpets, while conch-shells, on the sea shore, 
were used by savages for similar purposes. 

Bows and arrows furnished the suggestion for the first 
stringed harps. The twang of the bow differed in sound from 
its thickness and length and thus taught the early descendants of 
Cain how to fasten gut strings in varying lengths and thick- 
nesses across a wooden frame. Thus the first lute was made. 
Harps and, in very modern centuries, violins are the natural out- 
growths of these discoveries. Annette Hullah in A Little His- 
tory of Music, says : 

"Anybody can make an instrument something like Hermes' 
lute. A small wooden case does quite well for a sound-box, and 
if you have gut strings instead of fibre or a thong, as some sav- 
ages do, it will give quite a good sound. Some of the early in- 
struments of this kind had no box, but a soundboard under- 
neath the strings, with a little bridge under them to prevent 
them touching the wood, but the sounds are not nearly so loud 
as when there is a box, because the sound-waves are dispersed 
instead of being collected." 

A piano, which is less than 200 years old, is only a harp laid 
flat, while a violin, not much older in point of discovery, is 
merely a string box with a handle added and a cover put on. 

Instruments are divided into three classes : percussion in- 
struments, which are struck; stringed instruments, those which 
are plucked or bowed ; wind instruments, those which are blown. 
The Chinese like things they can bang, and have bells, slabs of 
wood and slices of bamboo all arranged in rows on a frame, to 
be hit with a hammer. They have many varieties of flutes and 


drums and trumpets: The Hinndus used drums, bag-pipes, cym- 
bals and trumpets. The Hebrews loved the lyre and 
harp, while they had also cymbals and drums. The 
Egyptians and Assyrians used all of these instruments, 
only the Egyptians made them longer and noiser than 
anybody else. The Greeks refined their music and had flutes, 
trumpets, pan-pipes, cymbals and small drums. They developed a 
system of music writing, but they used their alphabet instead of 
any other note. They had time and rhythm marks for instru- 
mental music, but none for their songs as the singer followed 
the words of the poems, making each note lasting as long as the 
syllable. The Romans liked noisier music than the Greeks. They 
used noisy instruments such as trumpets, cymbals, gongs, casta- 
nets, bells and bag-pipes, scorning the soft Greek instruments as 
not fit for fighting men. Their music was mostly martial music 
There was a very powerful musical guild in Rome with special 
privileges in the temple of Jupiter, and once, when the Roman 
senate took away their temple privileges, the entire guild went 
on strike and left the city. The senators had to send a special 
embassy to beg them to come back, for no entertainments could 
be given without them, and the priests could not conduct their 
services. The Romans preferred orchestras or an assemblage of 
players rather than solos and solo players. The tyrant Nero, 
however, was so proud of his singing voice and his fiddling gifts 
that he would sit up all night practicing the odes he was going 
to sing in public. He used to lie on the floor every day and do 
breathing exercises, with a chunk of lead across his waist to 
make him breathe from the diaphram. He naturally won all the 
musical prizes. One day an organ was sent him by a Greek 
inventor, different from any he had ever seen, and while he was 
unpacking it and trying it, his legions revolted and Rome 

Perhaps the Welsh people had the earliest music in Europe, 
that is the Celts ; but the Teutons were also fond of music and had 
their crude instruments and sang their warlike songs. 

In Rome the Christians had been meeting in the catacombs, 
singing their hymns and psalms together. When Christianity 
became popular, the Christians refused to adopt the pagan music 
about them, and so there was a great sameness in their church 
singing. We do not know whether the early Christian music 
was taken from the Romans, Hebrews, or Greeks, but we do know 
that they sang their hymms and chanjts alternately, because 
Pliny, who lived 112 years after the Christian Era, writes about 
their music. 

When Constantine, in the fourth century, made the Chris- 
tian religion popular, flne churches were built, with large choirs, 
and the priests took over the singing altogether. 


In the beginning of the fifth century a bishop named Am- 
brose, in Milan, did a great deal for music. He shortened the 
chants, made new ones, wrote cheerful music and had his singers 
practice hard, adding to their voices the organ and lyre. How- 
ever, even these singers sang only one note to each syllable, so that 
everyone could hear what was said. Over in Rome they sang 
two or three notes to each syllable, so that one word had a whole 
string of notes sung with it. This was called the Gregorian style 
or fashion, after Pope Gregory. There was a great deal of 
contention over these two methods, and for many centuries 
Charlemagne (King of the Franks 800-814) the Great, was as 
fine a musician as he was a soldier. He played the lute, com- 
posed songs and had singing taught in all the schools as one of 
the fixed studies. He himself went about in his travels through 
the schools and churches correcting, advising and encouraging 
music. He introduced organs from Constantinople, where they 
were made in his day. 

The mediaeval monks introduced harmony, using fourths and 
fifths, but the parts were all the same length, just the same 
quantity of notes in each and lasting the same time. A monk 
named Guido Arezzo, in 1020, invented the syllables to sing by, 
although they used only what we would call the white notes on 
the piano, and their school was different from ours. 

The evolution of the violin took place in the 17th century. 
Some say it came from the Welch crwth and some think it evolved 
from oriental lutes, but certain it is that the violin, as we know it 
today, developed rapidly and culminated sharply in 1611 at Cre- 
mona, Italy. The Amati family and Stradivari, who died in 
1737, made the most renowned and perfect violins known to 
history. Even modern art has not equalled, much less surpassed, 
these wonderful and rare violins. Many instruments grew out 
of the little fiddle : little viols and big viols, some with long necks, 
some with short, some round, some flat, others with large curves 
and some with small. 

The next wonderful instrument evolved in these modern 
times is the piano. The organ itself had a natural evolutionary 
process from pipes and reeds, while the piano is simply a harp 
laid down in a box. The earliest piano was called the spinet; 
then came the harpsichord, used as early as the 16th century but 
associated with the organ until the 17th century. In the 18th 
century Paris and London had excellent manufactories of good 
harpsichords. The pianoforte is essentially a keyboard-dulcimer. 
It was not, however, before 1800 that the pianoforte began to 
take the place of the harpsichord and these were exceedingly 
small and confined as to keys and action. And not until the 
middle of the last century were there pianos such as we now 
use. Erard, in 1831. invented the repeating action and made a 


grand piano. The organ, too, although of ancient manufacture, 
was not known in its present splendid condition until the recent 
centuries. The last hundred years has seen wonderful growth 
and development in all musical instruments. 


We know that music has formed a great part of divine wor- 
ship, from the creation of this earth, as doubtless it does in the 
worlds beyond this life. All intelligent Latter-day Saints should 
learn some primary facts concerning the history of music, and its 
value to us as a people, and they should acquaint themselves with 
the foundation principles of vocal and instrumental music. Music 
has developed as rapidly in the last hundred years as science or 
education have. The complex and intricate forms and modes of 
music known today require years of study and application to un- 
derstand, much more to produce. However, there is no reason 
why all women in the Relief Society should not know a few of the 
elements of good music and how to enjoy that which they hear. 

Harmony is, musically speaking, a just adaptation of parts to 
each other in musical concord. We know that our Father in 
heaven loves harmony. We should see that all our children are 
trained to have an accurate sense of time and tune, even if tkey 
do not inherit it. The ear of the natural msuician is as greatly 
pained by discords in music as he would be by listening to people 
quarrel. Some voices sing a little off pitch, either too flat or too 
sharp, especially too flat. Such singers are an abomination in a 
choir, especially if the voice be strong and dominating. 

When music began to develop and was divided, in the middle 
ages, into sacred and secular music, the church music was very 
slow, with prolonged notes and few but swelling chords ; while the 
secular music was gay and cheerful, with tripping notes and trill- 
ing cadences which expressed merriment and pleasure. The first 
attempt at writing opera music took cognizance of these facts, and 
the music was written in tripping measures, enriched with trills 
and rulades for the principal singers, while the music in the 
churches remained quiet and soft, delivered in slow time and with 
careful emphasis. It was supposed that in this way religious peo- 
ple expressed their worship of God, for they imagined ordinary 
human emotions, such as laughter and gaiety, with birds singing 
and the breeze playing, could not be expressed properly in church 
music. Even today this distinction is kept with more or less 

A very potent union of emotion or feeling is expressed 
through the words which accompany the music. Indeed, the mu- 


sician usually has a set of words to which he composes his music, 
suiting the strains and harmonies he devised to fit the meaning of 
the words which are before him. Note the martial music com- 
posed by Elder George Careless for the words, "Hark, listen to 
the trumpeters." Observe, also, the pathos of that lovely music 
which he wrote for Henry W. Naisbitt'.s funeral poem, "Rest for 
the weary soul." 

This thought suggests suitability in choice of music which the 
choir leader should study, and adapt her music to the time and the 
occasion. Love songs do not fit in well at religious assemblies, 
nor do rollicking instrumental pieces belong on our religious pro- 
grams. If you are to have a special service for Anniversary Day, 
or Christmas, or Easter time, see that your choice of music fits in 
with the spirit of the occasion. 

Melody is as susceptible of variety and chang'~ as our human 
emotions are, or as are the songs of birds and bees and waves. 
Now, when harmony is added, and there are chords of music de- 
veloped, these add infinite sources of variety and change, the com- 
binations are infinite, and almost an inconceivable number of com- 
posers exist toda,^ writing so-called new melodies and devising 
new combinations of harmonic chords and accompaniments. 

We hear people speak of classical music and romantic music, 
of good music and poor music. Just what they mean is difficult 
for the ordinary person to understand. An ordinary definition 
would be that classical, or good music, never tires those who hear 
it, while cheap and poor music soon wearies and bores the hearers. 
Yet all music serves a purpose in life, and adds to its enjoyment, 
quieting the nervous, stilling the evil impulses, and developing 
within a love of God, nature, and man. As an example of classical 
music united to beautiful words we have : "Rest on the hillside, 
rest," by our two home authors, Henry W. Nai.sbitt and George 
Careless ; "Come, thou glorious day of promise," also by home 
authors, Alexander Neibaur and A. C. Smyth ; "O awake, 
my slumbering minstrel," by Eliza R. Snow and Evan Stephens. 
As an example of cheap and poor music we have such ballads as : 
"Smiles," "I'll say she does," and "Wee, wee, Marie." 

June Magic. 

By Morag. 

June, 'tis June, Year's high noon; 
Earth's a-bloom with roses rare, 
Honeysuckles scent the air. 
Flowers springing everywhere. 
Hearts in tune, Honeymoon, 
June, 'tis June ! 

June ! 'tis June, Life's high noon ; 
Perfect days, pleasant ways. 

Life's rich blessings crown your days. 
Lift your soul in grateful praise. 
Night comes soon ! Keep in tune. 
June, 'tis June. 


The month of June brings to us the magic fulfilment of our 
hopes of early Spring, a reward for our labors during the planting 
time. Many of the earlier annuals and perennial plants are now 
in full bloom. Here we find the hardy buttercup, the sweet Wil- 
liams and columbines. The lilacs, iris and peonies are followed 
by the wonderful roses, honeysuckles, and many others. Now is 
the time to thin out the plants in the annual borders, transplant 
zinnias, snapdragons, stocks, asters, cosmos, etc. 

Plant out all your winter flowering geraniums, fuchias, etc. 
Cuttings may now be taken and rooted in the sand box, or tiny 
pots of earth. Pinch plants back to promote branching, and re- 
m.ove all buds, and your flowers for next winter are assured. 

Cut back your houseplants and repot into larger pots, using 
a mixture of one-third good soil, one-third sand, and one-third 
well-rotted manure. Set the pots out of doors in a partly shaded 
spot, water sparingly, and let them have a rest period during the 
hotter months of the year. 

One flower that should be grown in every home garden is 
the aster. The easiest way to grow asters is to sow the seed in 
an especially prepared bed. This can be done in late April or 
the early days of May. Asters will do well in any ordinary soil, 
but do best of all on sandy, mellow soil which has been well 
fertilized during the previous summer or autumn. If manure is 
added in spring, see to it that it is well rotted, for fresh fertilizer 
is certain death to asters. When the seedlings are about three 
inches high, transplant to permanent bed or border. Plant when 


soil is moist but not wet, and have plants from ten to eighteen 
inches apart, according to variety ; the tall, branching variety need 
more room. Cultivate deeply. Water thoroughly, but not too 
often. Asters do well in partial shade. 

When the flower buds have formed, a mulch of lawn clippings 
will help retain the moisture in the soil and prevent the opening 
flowers from being soiled by the storm. Asters usually find a good 
market as cut flowers, and for boquets and decorative pieces are 
especially prized, both for their wonderful range of colors and the 
length of time they will keep fresh in water. 

Full particulars as to varieties, time of blooming and culture 
may be found in any good flower catalog or garden guide. We 
can especially recommend the one issued by |ames Vicks Sons, 
Rochester, New York, who are aster specialists of international 
reputation, and whose flower and vegetable seeds are thoroughly 
reliable and moderate in prices. 

All spring bulbs, as hyacinths, tulips, etc., should now be dug 
up, dried, and put away ready for next fall's planting, and their 
places filled in with summer flowers. 

Lawns now require to be mowed weekly ,and edgings trimmed 
nicely, and the flower beds hoed and raked after each shower or 
v/atering, for if weeds are not kept down as they first appear, 
double the labor will be required to eradicate them next month. 

Cuttings, or young plants of chrysanthmums, if started now, 
will give fine flowering plants for fall flowering. 

By Grace Ingles Frost. 

There sounds from the dusk of the even, 

No longer the katydid's cry, 
The rain drips from eaves and from branches, 

A veil hath been drawn o'er the sky, 
That hides all its blue from my vision, 

And the gold of the sun is hid, too, 
But well do I know still is gleaming, 

'Round the mist and the gray of that pall. 
The shine of a wonderful gladness. 

And God within reach of my call. 

The House of Gifts 

Clara S. Fagergren. 

The month of May was a veritable month of birthdays in 
the house of Hopkins. Mother's birthday came on the fifth ; 
Jane's came on the day following. Father celebrated his on the 
seventeenth, and Jim squeezed in his birthday on the last day of 
the month. 

It had always been the custom in the Hopkins family to 
duly acknowledge and celebrate every birthday anniversary of its 
members by appropriate gifts and ceremonies. This year was to 
be no exception to the established rule, and preparations for the 
coming birthdays had been under way for some time in much 
secrecy, and much inward enjoyment of the various members of 
the family. 

Mother's birthday dawned cold and clear. She was greeted 
on her descending into the living-room by the assembled family ; 
a bright log-fire— built with elaborate care by Jim in honor of the 
occasion — shone upon Jane's colored crepe paper decorations on 
the curtains and chandeliers and rested warmly on a bowl-ful of 
fragrant violets, the first of the season, gathered with much pa- 
tience and care by six-year-old Elsie, from under the south bay 

Mother glanced about the cheerful room appreciatively, and 
smiled. Noticing the listening attitude of the family, and knowing 
she was expected to make the customary complimentary speech, 
she exclaimed in honest admiration : 

"How beautiful !" Great delight and satisfaction among 
father and the children. "How exquisite !" she went on, in genu- 
ine ecstasy, "and to think of your going to all this trouble for me. 
I'm sure I appreciate it and I thank you all," she concluded, feel- 
ingly, kissing them all in turn. 

But the real treat was yet to come. Mysterious-looking bun- 
dles were brought from impossible hiding places, and mother was 
compelled to sit in the seat of honor — the big Morris chair by the 
fire-place, the while untying and commending the gifts. 

Jane brought out a high, thick, and round package — a great 
curiosity and many guesses as to what it could be — when mother 
cut the string which was wound around the thing horizontally, 
perpendicularly, and diagonally, revealing to their admiring gaze 
an expensive aluminum cooking set, the kind in which the pans 
fit one on top of the other so as to save gas, by cooking the whole 
meal over one flame, all joined in gleeful shouts. 


"Now, that's what I call real thoughtfulness," said mother, 
noticing the eager look on Jane's rosy face. "Perhaps I'll get a 
gas range some day, then I'll be able to use these pretty utensils. 
I'm not so particular about the space on the coal range ; I will 
save these useful pans for future use." She put the aluminum 
ware to one side with a little inward sigh, mentally figuring that 
the amount of money that had been spent on them would have 
bought her goods. for a new dress. 

Elsie now brought out a long, curious-looking j)ackage, tied 
up in a lot of newspapers with much string. It proved to be a 
brand new broom, bought with her savings of nickels and dimes. 
Mother was visibly affected by her youngest daughter's act of 
unselfishness — because it was an open secret that Elsie hated to 
part with money ; she preferred to make her presents out of the 
scrap bag — and she fairly hugged the breath out of the delighted 

"To think that a child of your age could notice that I needed 
a new broom," she exulted. "You'll make a good housekeeper 
some day, if you thus keep your eyes open to the needs of your 

Father was seen to be looking rather nervously out of the 
window every once in a while. He looked anxiously up and 
down the street while consulting the clock every few minutes as 
if he were expecting something or somebody. At last he drew a 
sigh of relief as a furniture van came in sight and finally stopped 
in front of the house. Two husky fellows yanked a piece of fur- 
niture out, and lifting it on their broad shoulders, came up the 
steps leading to the front door, which was opened by father who 
told them to bring their load right into the living-room. 

"A new dining-room table! How nice of you to think of 
one," ejaculated mother, noticing with one glance that it matched 
neither the dining-room chairs nor the buffet, but had a peculiar 
style all its own with its carved legs and square corners. She 
had secretly wished for a round table, and had hoped to get an 
entire new dining-room set some day ; the chairs were battered 
up and shabby-looking, too. 

Father surveyed his gift proudly. "I overheard you saying 
that our dining-room table was a disgrace, and I don't wonder 
if it is. Think of the many years it has been in use. No wonder 
it is all scratched and banged up. I picked out a good substantial 
table this time, one that will last us for the rest of our lives." He 
stroked the shining surface of the table and looked at mother 
for further approval of his gift. 

"It is just the very thing I've wanted," she fibbed bravely, 
determined not to mar the pleasure of the day by any remark 
that might hurt his feelings. "You always did anticipate my 
wishes, and I'm sure you have an excellent taste for choosing 


furniture. You must have paid a big price for it, too," she con- 
cluded, wistfully, picturing in her mind's eye the large, massive 
table, in the somewhat cramped-for-space dining room. 

"Don't let the price of it bother you in the least," retorted 
father, generously. "It pays to get a good article. What's a few 
dollars more or less when you get something for the house, 
something that we can all enjoy." 

"Now we can have regular dinner parties," said June, 
joyfully. "That table, when pulled out to its full capacity, should 
seat thirty people." 

Mother readily assented to this proposition, though she knew 
it to be an utter impossibility to crowd that many people into the 
dining room. 

It was now Jim's turn to give his present. He fumbled bash- 
fully in his pocket for a moment and brought out a handful of 
loose change, which he laid in his mother's work-seamed hand. 

"Here's two dollars and seventy-nine cents," he blurted. "It's 
all I've been able to save since Christmas. Perhaps it will buy 
you a pair of gloves or something." He backed away shame- 
facedly for not being able to give more, when the others had 
given such magnificent presents. 

Tears stood in mother's eyes as she frankly kissed the em- 
barassed boy and whispered in his ear that his present was the 
best of them all. He had given all he possessed ; that was an un- 
selfish and noble act. 

The boy glowed with pride and satisfaction on hearing the 
praise that was meant only for himself, and repaired in high spirits 
to the dining-room for the belated breakfast. 

Mother spent the rest of the day in the pleasant living-room 
rceiving her old-time friends who called to wish her many happy 
returns of the day. In the evening the regular birthday dinner 
was served, when motner was not allowed to rise from the table, 
but was waited upon by the other members of the family, as if 
she were a queen. Taking it all around, mother's birthday was a 
huge success. 

The same decorations served for Jane's birthday anniversary, 
which was celebrated the day after mother's. Jane came down- 
stairs earlier than usual, eager and expectant for the presents 
which she knew would be hers. The whole family was there 
to greet her, and her quick eyes swept the room in search of 
packages, of which several were in full view on the table. 

Father gave his offering first. There was an exclamation 
of delight from Jane as she opened a small box and gazed at a 
pretty necklace. She must try it on immediately. It certainly 
did look well against her white neck. How the girls would envy 
her! This last thought gave her an inner feeling of satisfaction 
that increased her geniality considerably. Jim gave her a box of 


handkerchiefs, and Elsie gave her a little bag that she had made, 
of the use of which she didn't have a very clear conception herself, 
but it was left for Jane to figure out its value. Jane duly ac- 
knowledged the gifts and thanked them all, waiting breathlessly 
for mother's present; it would surely be something that she 
wanted ; she had hinted openly at wanting a blue silk party dress. 

Mother finally pulled a big box from under the table. Great 
excitement and curiosity from the assembled crowd. Jane untied 
the wrappings with trembling hands and disclosed to their curi- 
ous looks a set of dishes. 

A set of dishes ! She looked up, too much disappointed for 
words, at mother, who was regarding her seriously. 

"I thought this present would be most appropriate," she ex- 
plained, "You always complain when washing dishes of their 
being cracked, and of their being odds and ends of them. You 
said dish-washing would become a pleasure if you had pretty 
dishes to wash. I'm sure you'll enjoy washing these; each dish 
has a bluebird on." 

Jane swallowed her tears and thanked her mother dutifully, 
though a trifle listlessly. The idea ! A set of dishes ! Something 
that the whole family could have the use of. What could be the 
matter with mother? Somehow she felt as if the day were 
spoiled, although her mother had taken great pains to prepare 
her favorite dishes for dinner, and had made a gorgeous birthday 
cake for her which was resplendent with eighteen candles. 

Father came downstairs smiling on the morning of the sev- 
enteenth, enjoying beforehand his reading of Carlyle's books, a 
set of which he was sure would be his gift from mother. He had 
voiced his preference for that set of books more than once, and 
mother's mind was marvelously quick to grasp suggestions. 

He found the living-room decorated in flowers in honor of 
the day — a sunburst of twisted crepe paper radiating from the 
chandelier to the four corners of the room — like a huge, green, 
four-cornered emblem. Ferns were fastened to the curtains, 
and a boquet of carnations occupied the center table. Father 
looked around approvingly, habitually seating himself in his ac- 
customed chair and waited for the beginning of the ceremonies. 

The children waited expectantly for mother to bring out the 
present — it was to be only one, because the family had pooled 
their savings and combined their gift. Mother made the presen- 
tation speech a trifle tremulously, while father looked curiously 
at the big, odd-shaped bundle — very much unlike a package of 
books — on the table. 

"You have always taken such an interest in the house," she 
said, "on that account we have bought you something very useful. 


It is a wonderful invention and time-saver, as well as being san- 
itary and a device you will enjoy using." 

The wrappings were undone wonderingly by father, and his 
astonished eyes beheld an electric vacuum cleaner, so useful in 
cleaning carpets and upholstered goods, but not exactly the pres- 
ent he had been wishing for. 

"Now you won't have to beat carpets any more!" chipped in 
Jim, cheerfully. "Let me show you how it works," and he suited 
his actions to his words, fastening the cord in a socket and run- 
ning the vacuum cleaner lustily up and down on the carpet. 

Father looked at his son's performance in silence. The gift 
was appropriate in a way. It was incredible, however, for mother 
to be giving household presents. She had always given some- 
thing personal, something individual, some little surprise in- 
tended only for the receiver of her present ; and now to begin to 
give something that can be used in the housekeeping apparatus ! 
Father felt puzzled and aggravated. 

The usual birthday dinner was served that evening to the as 
sembled family and a few of father's old cronies. The boquet 
of carnations had been transferred to the dining-room table — 
mother's birthday present — the ornamented birthday cake reposed 
close by them; father's favorite oyster scallop and roast beef 
were served out in generous portions, and the meal was finished 
off with caramel ice cream, and after-dinner candy. 

Father, warmed and satisfied by the delicious meal, looked 
over at mother a couple of times before clearing his throat and 
saying his little speech : 

"There seems to have been something wrong with the pres- 
ents we have been giving you, mother," he said, apologetically. "We 
have always given you something that could be used in the house 
or for the comfort of all of us. Have you ever received anything 
but lace curtains, teaspoons, rugs, dishes and pictures ! We have 
never given you anything for your own personal self, and you, 
being the most unselfish person in the world, have never uttered 
one word of complaint or dissatisfaction. For my part, I'm 
going to remedy this fault in the future. I'll give you the money 
that I will lay aside for your birthday present, providing you 
promise to buy something for yourself ; something that the whole 
family can't use ; something that you want in the way of clothes 
or amusement. Not one cent of it is to be spent for the family ; 
let them have their turn on their birthdays." 

Mother looked at father and smiled gratefully. She knew 
in her heart there had been times when she had wished her pres- 
ents to be dififerent. But she had always been loyal and cheerful 


about her gifts, making the givers beheve that they had given her 
the very things that she had wanted. 

Jane flushed guihily when she recalled the various gifts she 
had given her mother. They were mostly things to be used in 
the house. Jim spoke in opportune time from the other end of 
the table : "Since we are to have our choice of gifts, let me tell 
you right here that I want a baseball suit for my birthday. I've 
been afraid you might give me a rake and a shovel with which 
to make a garden in the spring. If I can't have a baseball suit, I 
don't want anything, so there." He clinched his appeal by looking 
at mother for approval. She answered him with an understand- 
ing smile and said : 

"I'll tell you what we will do. You can have the money with 
which to buy your baseball suit and go down town and pick it 
out yourself; then you will be sure to be suited." 

Our Temple Mothers. 

By James Kirkham, Sr. 

Mothers of virtue, truth and right, 
Adorned in garments pure and white. 

They're guiding stars for those who will 
Battle for truth and Israel. 

Aiding those who enter in 

To temple courts for blessings holy, 
Redeeming souls from death and sin, 

Their reward in heaven only. 

Cheering those who are poor and aged. 

Counseling our favored youth. 
Helping up the lost and fallen. 

Teaching them the ways of truth. 

Then blessed be our temple mothers. 

Ever cherished may they be. 
Clothed in robes of righteousness, 

Crowned with immortality. 


Conducted by Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams and Mrs. Amy Brown 


The Boston Transcript in a little article entitled "Women Out- 
rank Men," says : "The woman continues to be a better student 
than the man. There has not been a great deal of evidence on 
the subject of late, probably because conditions have not been 
just right for making comparisons, but in the news from Cornell 
this morning is the announcement that the co-eds have won 
twenty-one of the thirty-one elections for membership in Phi Beta 
Kappa, the honorary scholarship society. 

Mrs. William Riter, residing near Lehi, has been appointed 
a hunter and trapper for the state live stock board. Her hus- 
band is already in the employ of the federal government in a sim- 
ilar capacity. 

Mrs. Riter is reputed to be an expert trapper and an accurate 
shot and will devote her time to destruction of predatory animals 
in the interest of the state live stock industry. 

The National Council of- Women of the United States held 
a meeting of the board of directors of the organization in Wash- 
ington, on Friday, April 18. The object of the meeting was to 
discuss the further policy of the National Council with reference 
to the Peace Conference and League of Nations : also to hear 
the report of the special committee on reconstruction and perman- 
ent peace. 

Mrs. James H. Moyle, wife of Hon. James H. Moyle, As- 
sistant Secretary of the Treasury, attended the session to repre- 
sent the National Women's Relief Society, and also the Young 
Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association. 


Have yon ever noticed the trifling, and sometimes the ap- 
parently important things which arise to prevent us from attend- 
ing our Relief Society meetings? If one wants, a .dozen differ- 
ent excuses can be made, and absence from meeting seems legiti- 
mate and necessary. The little domestic difficulties which arise 
— the social calls, the ringing of the telephone, a slight misun- 
derstanding with some other member of the Society which makes 
us rather unwilling to face our neighbor — all these things too 
often arrive and prevent our members from attending meeting. 
Do not be kept out of heaven by trifles nor by your enemies. Make 
your enemies your friencls ; control the circumstances about you 
and rise up in the dignity of your womanhood and be a true Re- 
lief Society woman. 

The conduct of our business meetings in the Relief Society 
ia a subject of considerable importance to the members thereof. 
Let us suggest to officers and teachers that when they gather in 
their business meetings order shall obtain. Chatter and laughter 
are excellent antidotes to care and trouble, but they have no place 
in the regular and ordained meetings of the Society. Confusion 
results where two people talk at the same time, and no matter 
how harmless the exchange of neighborly gossip may be, the 
Relief Society meeting is not the place for it. We suggest that 
perfect and quiet discipline shall mark the conduct of all our Re- 
Hef Society gatherings. 


Hyrum Stake. 

Mrs. Sophia Christensen of Hyrum Stake, although 78 years 
of age, and partly crippled with rheumatism, knitted last year 
over 58 pairs of socks, two sweaters and 17 large blocks to be 
used in the Red Cross quilts. Another member of this ward 
knitted 26 sweaters. To stimulate an interest in knitting, Mrs. 
H P. Nielsen, Chairman of the Red Cross knitting in the Third 
Ward, instituted knitting parties which were very successful. 

Benson Stake. 

Seven thousand bushels of wheat was turned over to the gov- 
ernment from Benson Stake. During the past year the teachers 
have made 100 per cent visits. All ward presidents attend sacra- 
ment meetings regularly. 

One of the Stake Board members who took a course in 
Child Welfare under Miss Ravenhill of the A. C. has had charge 


of the Child Welfare work in the stake. She has given three lec- 
tures in each ward on this subject. 

Bannock Stake. 

On September 7, 1918, Mrs. Gwen H. Redford was released 
as president of the Relief Society of the Bannock stake. She 
resigned her po,sition because of the fact that she had moved to 
Logan to place her children in school. Although she had held 
this position only a few years her splendid work in the Relief 
Society was already bearing fruit. Mrs. Redford is a capable, 
piogressive, well trained woman, deeply spiritual and a student 
of the gospel. She will be greatly missed by Relief Society 
workers in the Bannock stake. 

Mrs. Minnie Sorenson of Lago, Idaho, was appointed to 
succeed Mrs. Redford. We are pleased to welcome Mrs. Soren- 
son in our group of Stake Presidents and feel sure that she will 
be able to carry on the good work so well begun in her stake. 

Japan Mission. 

The following interesting letter has just been received from 
Joseph H. Stimpson, president of the Japan Mission: 

For some time we have been trying to get a Relief Society 
started among the women of this land but it seems impossible at 
the present to effect such an organization. We wrote to you 
about this a long time ago, and Sister Stimpson was appointed 
to take charge of that work, but the small number of women now 
attending our meetings, and especially the few women saints, have 
made it impossible to even get the organization completed. Wo- 
men in Japan have very few rights, if we speak from the woman's 
rights point of view, as known in America. They are not even 
able to go and come where they wish. So we are sorry to state 
that as yet we have not been able to get enough together to hold 
a meeting. I am sorry we are not able to make a better report, 
but we have not given up hopes that conditions will be such that 
we may get started sometime. 

However, lately we have done a little in the line of geneal- 
ogical work. Some of the saints are starting to get their gen- 
ealogies collected. I have helped in the arrangement of this data 
in logical order and find it very interesting. It is hard to follow 
out the family, often because men as well as women change their 
names at marriage and adoptions are so common that it is diffi- 
cult to keep the family lines straight. I find the work very in- 
teresting, though, and hope to get more done in the near future. 

The Relief Society Magazine is very welcome in our midst. 
We thank you very much for sending it to the mission and we feel 
that with it you are filling a place not reached by any other pub- 
lication, and desire to congratulate you on your success. 


FOR 1918 


Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1918- 

Charity fund $ 19,575 67 

General fund 54,304.34 

Wheat fund 78,368.55 

Total balance $152,248.56 


Charity fund 57,321.05 

General fund 55,042.89 

Wheat fund 7,056.93 

Annual Dues for General Board 7,911.54 

Dues for Stake Board 1,531.16 

Received for wheat sold 137,454.23 , 

Other receipts 44,897.40 

Total donations and receipts $311,2l5.;'0 

Total $463,463.76 


Paid for charitable purposes $ 59,061.21 

Paid for general purposes 54,148.54 

Paid for wheat 20,471.14 

Paid to General Board for membership dues.. 9,066.48 

Paid to Stake Boards for dues 2,400.51 

Paid for other purposes 50,135.57 

Total expenditures $195,283.45 

Balance on hand Dec. 31, 1918: 

Charity fund 20,885.48 

General fund 50,665.56 

Wheat fund 196,629.27 

Total balance $268,18«.31 

Total $463,463.76 


Received and Disbursed. 

Wheat on hand Jan. 1, 1918 10,867,660 lbs. 

Wheat donated during 1918 90,199 " 

Wheat purchased during 1918 567,412 " 

Other wheat receipts 259,113 " 

Total 11,784,384 lbs. 

or 196,406.4 bu. 



Wheat credit with P. B. 5,401,899 lbs. 

Wheat in local Relief Society granary.. 1,434,888 " 

Wheat in other granaries 211,403 " 

Other wheat deposits 185,200 " 

Total wheat on hand and wheat 

credits with P. B. 7,233,390 lbs. 

or (120,556.5 bu.) 

Wheat sold locally 4,381,919 lbs. 

Shrinkage, waste and loss 169,075 " 

Total sold and loss 4,550,994 lbs. 

Total 11,784,384 lbs. 

or (196,406.4 bu') 



Balance on hand Dec. 31, 1918— all funds $268,180.31 

Value of wheat on hand and wheat credits with 

P. B. O. Dec. 31, 1918 189,421.74 

Value of real estate, buildings and furniture. .. . 239,316.97 

Value of invested funds 38,906.93 

Other resources 35,588.60 

Total $771,414.55 


Indebetdness $ 3,287.99 

Balance net resources 768,126.56 

Total $771,414.55 


Membership Jan. 1, 1918: 

Officers 6,516 

Teachers 13,658 

Members 24,337 

Admitted to membership during y \"i 5,699 

Total 50,210 

Membership Dec. 31, 1918: 

Officers 6,511 

Teachers 13,795 

Members 24,990 

Total or present membership 45,296 

Removed or resigned 4,288 

Died 626 

Total withdrawn 4,914 

Total 50,210 


vjeneral officers and Board members * 23 

Stake officers and Board members 1,037 

Number of meetings held 29*589 

Average attendance at meetings 15,473 

Number of Relief Society organizations 1,146 

Number of L. D. S. families in stakes 67i860 


Number of Relief Society Magazines taken 13,686 

Days spent with the sick 42,380 

Special visits to the sick 87i858 

Families helped 5438 

Bodies prepared for burial 2^967 

Number of visits by stake Relief Society officers to wards 3^962 

No. visits made by Relief Society ward '^eachers during year.. 85,273 

Number of days spent m Temple work 26,899 

Assistance to missionaries or their families $2,275.62 



Grain raised by ward Relief Societies 1,644 bu. 

Fruit and jelly canned by ward Relief Societies 36,000 qts. 

Dried fruit conserved by ward Relief Societies 3,361 lbs. 

Dried vegetables conserved by ward Relief Societies 3,002 " 

Fruit and jellies canned by individual members of ward 

Relief Societies for family use 2,564,705 qts. 

Dried vegetables conserved by individual members of 

ward Relief Societies for family use 574,138 lbs. 

Other items such as remodeling clothing, making quilts, 

etc 52,850 


Amount subscribed by ward Relief Societies $ 44,417.80 

Amount subscribed by memers of ward Relief Societies.... 397,032.00 


Number of Red Cross memberships taken by ward Relief 

Society members 24,297 

Number of Surgical Dressings 371,455 

Number of hospital garments 71,013 

Number of hospital supplies 58,939 

Number of knitted articles 91,795 

Number of refugee garments 41,175 

Articles collected for Belgian relief 226,784 


Number of sheets 2,818 

Number of bath tov/els 6,307 

Number of hand towels 8,934 

Number of handkerchiefs 9,276 

Number of napkins 16,220 

Construction ^no 

Weconstwction in 
The- Home.. 

The Plain Tailored Skirt. 

The materials suitable for tailored skirts are the heavy 
woolen materials such as serges, broadcloth, etc. It is use- 
less to try to make a tailored skirt from a cotton serge, or 
other .similar materials, as cotton does not require tailoring. 
So the directions here given for making a plain skirt are only 
to be applied to the all-wool materials. 

In making the selection and purchase of material, first of 
all make sure you are buying woolen material. As to color, 
the conservative woman will select a quiet color which will 
be in good taste for street wear and all occasions appropriate 
for the wearing of tailored clothes. Quiet colors are more 
practical in their combination with different colored waists. For 
the ordinary home dress-maker, plain materials will be more 
easily laundered than checks, plaids or stripes, unless the fig- 
ure is very small. The colors I consider most practical for a 
tailored skirt are, navy blue, greys, browns and black. 

After careful selection, find out if the material has been 
shrunk. If not, you must either shrink it or have it done. To 
shrink it, press it on the wrong side, using a heavy, damp 
cloth, and allow the material to remain in place on the board 
until the steam from the cloth thoroughly penetrates. Shrink- 
ing will lessen the gloss or finish on broadcoth and similar 
materials, but all things being considered, it is wisest in the 
long run. 

Next, the style must be considered. The styles change less 
in tailored clothing than they do in other types, and are in- 
variably plain. In this article we will consider the making of 
the two-piece skirt with little fulness in the back, as that seems 
to be the most favored style this season. 

The amount of material required will vary with the size 
of the person to be fitted, the width of material and the style 
selected. A medium-sized or small person will require twice the 
length (allowing about six inches extra for curving at the top 



and hems at the bottom) of yard wide material, or one length 
in the_ seventy-two inch material. Many of the heavy materials 
come in this width. A large person will, of course, require more 

To Cut the Tivo-Piece Skirt. 

First, cut and fit a yoke pattern as described in our last 
number. Be very accurate and careful in .doing this, as the 
skirt perfectly shaped from the beginning is always more suc- 
cessful than the one which has to be altered greatly. The draw- 
ing will show the use of yoke pattern, in shaping the two-pieces, 
front and back. The skirts having the ,seam directly over the 
hip and exactly half way between the center of the front and the 
center of the back have always appeared more satisfactory to 
me, though many of the models have the seam just a little to- 
ward the front. This is merely a matter of taste, but you must 
decide and then divide your yoke pattern into front and back 
accordingly. Personally, I prefer to fold half the yoke pattern 
(from the center of the front to the center of the back) into two 
equal parts, but be careful not to confuse them as there may be 
.some difference in their shape. 

The width at the bottom, of course, changes with the style. 
This year they are very narrow. However, the sensible woman 

r^yvvA^ ^ 


will not wear a skirt less than one yard and twenty-one inches, 
which allows a comfortable step. Stout women require at least 
two yards at the bottom of the skirt. 

The pattern may be cut of brown wrapping paper, or if one 
has had experience in cutting it, the shape of the gores may be 
marked on the wrong side of the material with chalk. A yard 
ruler is a great help in drafting a skirt. 

Figure I shows the front gore. A is the front half of half 
the yoke pattern, B shows the treatment of the side. The straight 
line from the bottom of the yoke pattern to the bottom of the skirt 
leaves a sharp angle at the hip. In narrow skirts, round the side 
out as shown here. This will make the skirt more ample through 
the center. C shows how the skirt may be added to and made 

Figure II shows the back gore with fulness allowed in the 
center of the back. At least two inches on the fold can be used 
in the back for gathers. Many women in making their skirts 
are allowing still more — enough to make an inverted pleat down 
the center of the back, to be used in making the skirt fuller 
when style ,so demands, as may be the case even before the skirt 
has been worn one season. A shows the back half of the yoke, 
B shows the method of treating the angle at the hip line. The 
fulness allowed in the back makes the curve over the hip un- 
necesary, so a straight line may be made from the top of the 
skirt to the bottom. C shows how the back gore also may be 
made fuller, D shows the fulness allowed in the back. 

In case you have divided your yoke pattern so that the seam 
comes a little to the front, you cannot divide the fulness at the 
bottom in half. The back will, of course, have to be wider in 
order to be consistent with the top. 

Note how the curve at the top is extended over the fulness 
at the back. 

In cutting, allow one inch seams and about three inches for 
a hem. 

The proper length of the tailored skirts at present is about 
five inches from the floor. It is to be hoped that it will remain 
so, as it is very much more becoming and sensible than shorter 
or longer skirts. 

Next number will treat the making and finishing of the 
tailored skirt. 


Oh TheWatchWower 


Yokohama, Japan, had a seven-million-dollar fire on April 

Aviators anxious to fly across the Atlantic made a start 
May 8. 

Peace Day was observed in all the churches in Utah on 
April 13. 

Brewing beer in the United States stopped on May 1, under 
Federal law. 

American losses in the late war, up to April 30, aggregated 
275,800 men. 

Coal prices in Utah came .down 40 cents per ton, or about 
5 percent, on May 1. 

British India had six million deaths from influenza for the 
year ended April 30. 

Francisco Villa, the Mexican bandit, renewed his fighting 
activity in Mexico in April. 

Women comprise one-half of the 20,877 stockholders of the 
American Sugar Refining Company. 

British India had a considerable uprising of natives in 
April, but it was suppressed by force. 

The Korean rebellion against Japan was suppressed in 
April, at a cost of several thousand lives. 

Mesopotamia is now being heralded as the greatest pros- 
pective grain producing country in the world. 

International labor legislation received a considerable 
share of attention in the peace treaty made at Paris. 


An I. W. W. CONVENTION scheduled for Salt Lake City on 
Jiine 27 has been forbidden by the municipal authorities. 

Egypt's efforts in April, to break away from Great Britain, 
proved futile under the pressure of superior military force. 

A TORNADO in Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas, on April 10. 
caused the death of over 100 persons, besides injuring many 

Jews continue to gather to Palestine, notwithstanding ob- 
jections by Mohammedans and others to making that land a Jew- 
ish state. 

Ireland's advocates of a republic for the island failed to 
secure such a provision in the treaty framed at the Paris peace 

A Butter boycott in Utah, in April, for a reduction in 
prices, received general support from the women folks in the 
larger cities. 

The German peace party which reached Versailles, France, 
on April 30, to consider the peace treaty, included thirty women 

An earthquake in San Salvador on April 29 caused a loss 
of forty lives, the injury of hundreds of people, and great des- 
truction of property. 

Mrs. Louise P. Holbrook, a Salvation Army captain, ad- 
dressed the congregation in the "Mormon" Tabernacle at Salt 
Lake City on April 27. 

Russian women are making vehement protests against the 
communism of women adopted by some of the soviet govern- 
ments there — and well they might. 

David Lloyd-George, British premier, warned Great Britain, 
in April, that Europe was facing "a real danger — ^the gaunt 
specter of hunger is stalking through the land." 

National finances in the world are summed up by Senator 
Smoot, of Utah, in the statement that the United States may 
meet its obligations, but the other nations never can. 


Telephone rates in the United States were increased 20 
per cent and upwards on May 1, under g-overnment direction. The 
lines are to go back into private operation on May 10. 

Women in Salt Lake City and Ogden are evincing- much 
antagonism to the new law passed by the Utah legislature regu- 
lating hours of work, and which went into efifect on May 12. 

The "Mormon" Church now has twenty-two large mission 
fields in the world, the latest one formed being known as the 
Canadian mission, over which Nephi Jensen has been called to pre- 

The Hawaiian Temple of the Church is to be opened in 
the near future. Elder D. M. McAllister, who has had long ex- 
perience in the Salt Lake and St. George temples, is to be in 

Philippine independence is being urged upon the United 
States government by Filipino representatives, who came to 
Washington in April and awaited the return of President Wil- 
son from France. 

Bombs containing high explosives were sent by mail from 
New York in the later part of April, and two women were se- 
riously injured in opening one. Two were received in Utah for 
prominent citizens. 

Czecho-Slovakia and Jugo-Slavia are the names of two 
new nations formed in north central and south central Europe, 
respectively. The names will bear a translation into simpler Eng- 
lish, for pronunciation. 

Railway men in the "four brotherhoods" received another 
increase in wages by the government, in April. The wages in- 
crease for these employees during the past three years averages 
$690.00 per year each. 

Woman suffrage will win on the matter of a national con- 
stitutional amendment through Congress within thirty days of the 
convening of an extra session, is the prediction of Senator W. 
M. Calder of New York. 

Future wars are by no means an impossibility, according 
to the British premier, who announced in parliament in April that 


a blunder at the Paris peace conference "might precipitate a uni- 
versal war which might be either near or distant." 

The Atlantic cable lines, taken over by the United States 
government, were ordered back to private operation on May 3. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the completion of the Union 
and Central Pacific railways, at Promontory, Utah, was observed 
at Ogden on May 10. January 10, 1920, is the fiftieth anniversary 
of the completion of the first railway into Salt Lake City. 

Church union throughout the world is again being advo- 
cated in some of the larger religious denominations. The Catholic 
church says the union with that body comes only through its 
designated channels of admission, while many Protestants insist 
that they will never consent to that. 

Italy was greatly offended at the Paris peace conference in 
April, by President Wilson's refusal to permit the Adriatic sea- 
port of Fiume, in the Italian Irredenta formerly held by Austria, 
to be transferred to Italy. The Italians were so wrought up that 
one illustration of their anger was the changing of the name of 
a street in Genoa, once designated in honor of President Wilson, 
to Fiume street. 

A Woman defeated the "nationalization" of Women in 
Hungary in April. The new Hungarian ministry had agreed on 
the law, and one of the ministers, Herr Weltner, explained its 
workings to his wife. "Do you mean to tell me that you can get 
rid of m.e from one day to another, and marry the next day if you 
like?" demanded young Frau Weltner. "That's how the law 
stands," replied the husband. Then the storm broke; both wife 
and mother-in-law beagn to scream and a frenzied scene ensued ; 
they demanded that the minister should stop the law, or they 
would leave him and get the wives, mothers and mothers-in-law 
of all the ministers to take similar action. Herr Weltner was 
glad to take up the cudgel with the other ministers, and the law 
was stopped. Honor to this Hungarian woman, who had more 
decency in her make-up than the whole batch of the male soviet 
propaganda ! 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto — Charity Ntvtr FaUeth 

Mrs. Eiimeline B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah J^ddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 

Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor ........ StrsA Yoomo Gates 

Business Manager ...... Jametti A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City. Utah 

Vol. VI. JUNE, 1919. No. 6. 


The result of any cataclysm such as the world has just passed 
through, necessarily leaves in its wake a vast trail of difficult 
problems and unsettled conditions. It is true that our own coun- 
try has not been devastated as France and Belgium have been, 
nor have we approached the verge of bankruptcy, as perhaps 
England is doing. Yet the calling of 5,000,000 men from regu- 
lar avenues of domestic and civil life, thrusting them into the 
preparation and conflict of war involves no light process of read- 
justment in order that these men shall be returned to social life 
without injury to themselves and their interests, and without loss 
to the people of the country. Moreover, the changing of manu- 
facturing plants from the peaceable pursuits of ordinary life into 
institutions for the manufacture of strictly war materials, and 
vice versa, constitutes another problem in readjustment which 
statesmen must face. Added to this is the unbelievable increase 
of the credit system, which means that everybody is buying on 
credit — for that is what paper money is — which has caused prices 
to soar beyond the wildest dream,s, while everybody clamors for 
lower prices on what is bought, yet all the workers want higher 
wages and salaries than has ever been earned in the history of 
the world. 

This reconstruction need is the foundation of our Fifth Lib- 
erty or Victory Loan, and there may be another in the future ; 
while the vexing and difficult process of administering needed re- 


lief to families robbed of their wage-earners, through war's ne- 
cessities, and finding profitable jobs for returned soldiers, hangs 
like a threatening cloud over the heads of civic relief workers 
and public officials. Then there is the sex problem. Women have 
crowded by the hundreds of thousands into the ranks of the 
wage-earners, and they are very loth to go back into their homes 
and become a seeming burden on the shoulders of men. They 
have tasted the sweets of financial and social independence and 
in most instances refuse to return to old conditions. 

The biggest problem of all, that which contains the germ of 
world-suicide, is the dissatisfaction of the working classes every- 
where with existing conditions. Labor is not satisfied with more 
wages and shorter hours. Men feel that the crux of the labor 
problem lies in the ownership of the producing industry. They 
find themeslves without power or influence in the matter of gov- 
erning industries which they themselves create and continue. The 
human spirit, when released from the pressure of fear, rebels 
against any form of authority which is not delegated from itself; 
yet the masses of the people are the masses because they lack the 
initiative and creative governing .power to organize and control 
human and mechanical forces. The whole world, therefore, is 
whirling around in this vortex of confusion and dismay. 

It may well be that all the prophecies made concerning this 
people shall be fulfilled in a shorter period of time than we now 
realize. We have all the foundation of truth with the basic prin- 
ciples which underlie the government of the world. The recon- 
struction question with you and me, however, is an individual 
question. Always keep that in mind, my sisters. The people 
in this Church and kingdom are the Church and kingdom, as the 
citizens of this Government are the Government. No stream 
rises higher than its source, and the strength of the cham is its 
weakest link. Look well to your individual link, that it shall be 
strong, not corroded with evil passions, rusted with envy, nor 
ground upon by the friction of sordid ambition and the lust for 
the vain things of this world. This is the message of reconstruc- 
tion for this people : learn to construct and adjust all your own 
life-forces so that you shall be ready, not to drive and force men 
into the true Church and kingdom of God. but to lead them by 
loving them, to win them by serving them. The gospel is the plan 
under heaven by which men can be saved. 

Germs and Disease. 

Dr. Martin P. Henderson, Professor of Biology, 
B. Y. University, Provo. 

(This takes place of Guide Work for July.) 

The existence of a world of microscopic life with its won- 
derful manifestations, was but vaguely suggested at the begin- 
ning of the Nineteenth century. Fermentations and decay were 
not understood. Disease was a mystery. Epidemics came and 
went without any apparent cause. Decaying organic matter had 
been observed to swarm with bacteria, but these were supposed 
to arise spontaneously as a product of the dead cells, and to take 
no part in causing the decay. Similar structures had been seen 
in the tartar from the teeth, but it was not supposed that these 
tmy organisms normally grow and reproduce in the human mouth. 
About the middle of the century, however, the question of the 
origin of these lowly forms engaged the attention and genius of 
the leaders in the fields of chemistry and medicine, and out of 
their controversies and experiments came a recognition of three 
fundamental facts: first, that these simple organisms do not 
arise de novo, from the air or from any other substance either 
organic or inorganic, but like all other living things must have 
their origin in antecedent parental forms ; second, that fermenta- 
tion, putrefaction and decay are results of the life activities of 
these forms ; and third, that they are causative agents in diseases 
of plants and animals. 

Despite this information, which has been current for almost 
sixty years, and in the face of the certainty that a majority of 
our common contagious diseases are caused by germs, and that 
others on very good evidence are believed to be thus caused, the 
idea .seems to prevail in the popular mind that an epidemic of 
disease, such as that of the past season, may arise spontaneously 
out of the air or have its origin in some other intangible manner. 
The disease germ is thought of as a mysterious something which 
as mysteriously transports itself from one person to another 
without the intervention of any material mediator. 

A germ is either a minute plant or animal. It differs from 
the higher forms of life primarily in its size and .simpler organ- 
ization. Usually it is a single cell, so small that hundreds or 
even thousands of them would have to be grouped together to 
form a mass of sufficient size to be visible. Germs are subject 
to the same laws of the universe and dependent upon the .same 
principles of life as are higher organisms. Their need for food 


is no less imperativ,e and their necessity for right conditions of 
temperature and moisture is just as real. They take food, grow 
and reproduce their kind. What constitutes them disease germs 
is the power which they have acquired to operate upon and within 
the human body and to draw from it the nutrients requisite for 
a complete cycle of life. They may be simple saprophytes such 
as the colon bacillus, which is always present but does not cause 
.specific disease, active parasites which are able to wrest their 
nourishment from the living cells, or less virulent forms such 
as the pneumonia germs which attack the host only when he is 
weakened from some other cause. Germs may attack and destroy 
living tissues, as in the case of diphtheria bacteria in the lining 
of the throat, or the typhoid bacillus in the walls of the intestinal 
tract; they may remain localized as to place of development but 
in their operations produce poisons which are distributed by the 
blood to- all parts of the body, as in diphtheria and lockjaw; or 
they may get into the blood stream and be carried to various parts 
of the body, as in .syphilis and typhoid fever. 

Contagious germs develop normally only in connection with 
the body or its immediate wastes. When a person "catches" an 
infectious disease it means simply that the germ causing it has 
been transferred from an infected individual to a vulnerable 
portion of his own body, and finding there requisite environ- 
metal conditions, has established itself and is continuing its 
natural processes of growth and reproduction. The germ is not 
at fault any more than the weed is at fault in growing in the 
choicest spot of the garden. It is merely satisfying the greatest 
demand of its existence — the perpetuation of its kind. 

The transfer of germs from one individual to another takes 
place in a variety of ways all of which might be avoided, and 
which would no doubt be avoided, were the true .significance of 
germs realized. But their small size makes them very difficult 
to .study and entirely inaccessible, so far as the unaided senses 
of man are concerned. If it were possible to see them as they 
are in their normal places of growth, many of the practices of 
the present would be substituted by more sanitary ones, and 
many thoughtless acts would be discontinued. Suppose for ex- 
ample it were possible to see and recognize the myriads of living 
forms that swarm on the lips and in the mouth of a person in- 
fected with influenza, diphtheria, "colds" or tuberculosis, or sup- 
pose the individual could thus see himself. What wcuLi bt the 
possibilities of quarantine? What would become of tlu^ habit o^ 
promiscuous kissing? Suppose such an infected individual could 
.see these same forms swimming in the droplets of saliva as they 
issue in clouds from his mouth and bespatter his friends whenever 
he sneezes or coughs. Would he be guilty of p-^t forming these 
acts except behind his handkerchief or some other adequate 


screen ? Imagine the possibilities, could a tuberculous individual 
see that the sputum from his mouth is filled with a writhing mass 
of living forms, the germs of this terrible disease. Would he be 
willing to take the risk of expectorating indiscriminately about 
him, either in private or public places, or would such a thing be 
at all permitted? Assume the results, were it possible for us all 
to really ,see the various forms of life which adhere to our hands, 
and recognize among them those that produce typhoid fever, 
diphtheria, tuberculosis or syphilis. Would the deplorable "hand 
to mouth" habit be continued? Would careless handling of arti- 
cles touched by others particularly ihose infected witli contagious 
diseases, continue ? Suppose the possibility of seeing the millions 
of typhoid germs with their numcious whip-like swimming ap- 
pendages, as they writhe and swarm in the feces of a typhoid pa- 
tient, of watching these same germs as they are washed by the 
rains into the well or other water supply, and finally as they would 
appear in the glass of clear cold water on the table. Or imagine 
watching them taken up by the thousands on the body and feet 
of a fly and carried direct to the nearest kitchen where they are 
deposited on baby's "comfort," on his hands, on his lips, on the 
dishes, on various articles of food and finally washed ofif the in- 
sect by a bath in the milk. Would human excrement be left ex- 
posed? Would open privies be maintained? Would decaying 
or putrefying filth of any sort be permitted to encumber the 
premises ? 

These are the things that are happening around us every 
day, but due to the natural limitations of vision, the majority of 
us do not see them except through the eyes of others. Shall we 
for that reason reject them? The day of preventive medicine 
is rapidly approaching. Will we hinder its approach by dogmatic 
persistence in theories and traditions of the past, or shall we 
rather hasten its coming by an intelligent acceptance and appli- 
cation of the truth as it is now known? 

The House Fly. 

Dr. Martin P. Henderson, Professor of Biology, 
B. Y. University, Provo. 

(This takes place of Guide Work for July.) 

The fly is too cosmopolitan to require introduction, but in 
common with many other individuals often encountered in "po- 
lite society," it will probably be the less appreciated the more its 
history and habits are understood. Of the various kinds of flies 
commonly found in houses but one really deserves the name of 
"house-fly," since it represents rather more than 95 per cent of 
the entire number. 

A careful examination of its body reveals the fact that it 
could hardly have been better designed for the role of filth dis- 
tributor. The head is composed mainly of two large compound 
eyes. These at first appear to be smooth but closer observation 
proves them to be dotted with myriads of fine hairs. In front, be- 
tween the eyes are the antennae, the last joint of which bears a 
short feathery brush. Other parts of the head are provided 
with bristle-like hairs of varying lengths. From the under side 
of the head arises the proboscis. This is an elongated, fleshy tube 
covered with hairs on the exterior and expanded at the tip into 
two broad membranous lobes provided with many fine corrugated 
ridges. This structure is admirably fitted for sucking, and 
through it food is taken in a liquid or semi-liquid form. When 
hard substances, such as sugar, are to be taken up they are first 
moistened and dissolved "with vomit which is regurgitated from 
the crop" laden with germs and filth which have previously been 
sucked up. The body is densely covered with bristles and hairs 
of varying lengths, ,so arranged that they carry with them large 
quantities of any dirt or germs encountered. The wings, although 
apparently bare, have a very dense covering of fine hairs ad- 
mirably suited to the collection of germs and filth. The legs are 
provided with bristles arranged in rows and interspersed with 
denser mats of fine, short hairs. The last joint of the foot bears 
at its tip two large curved claws and a pair of sponge-like pads 
from which project myriads of glandular hairs which secrete a 
substance by means of which the fly adheres to polished surfaces, 
a most admirable provision also for the collection and distribu- 
tion of any kind of foul matter encountered. 

The fly's breeding habits likewise fit it for the role of filth dis- 
tributor. Its eggs are laid in filth, the larvae or maggots wallow 
in filth, the pupae spend their "sleeping" period in filth, and 
the adults emerge laden with filth to begin their duties in a near- 


by household. Horse manure appears to be the favorite larval 
food, but when this is not immediately available it does not hesi- 
tate to appropriate to its needs any corrupt mass of organic ma- 
terial. It has been observed to breed in pig-, cow and chicken 
manure, in human excrement, in -dirty waste paper, decaying 
vegetation, putrifying meat, slaughter-house refuse, sawdust 
sweepings, slops, fermenting vegetable materials, such as spent 
hops, bran and ensilage, and in rotting potatoes. 

The rate at which flies increase is astounding. A female 
deposits an average of one hundred twenty eggs at one time, and 
will produce at least two, and frequently four, such batches be- 
tween April and September. In twelve to fifteen days the new 
a-dult generation is also ready to lay eggs so that ten to twelve 
generations may result from a single individual during a season. 
It has been estimated that the progeny of one female under 
favorable conditions would amount to hundreds of billions in a 

The omnivorous habits of the "house-fly" are matters of 
every day observation. It has a keen ,sense of smell without any 
sense of decency — so is attracted alike by the delicate odors from 
the kitchen and the foul-smelling stenches arising from putrefying 
organic wastes. It does not hesitate to eat its fill from and wallow 
its body in the filthiest germ-laden mass, and then at first op- 
portunity to plunge its reeking feet and "snout" into the most 
delicious cream cake on the pantry shelf. It will feed ravenously 
on excreted wastes of the typhoid patient, suck up with avidity 
the sputum from a tuberculous individual, wallow in the pus of 
an open sore, and then pass directly to any food upon the table, 
to the nipple of baby's bottle, to healthy mucus membranes or 
uncontaminated wounds. "There is nothing to tell whether the 
fly that comes blithely up to sup with you is merely unclean, or 
whether it has just finished feeding upon dejecta teeming with 
typhoid bacilli." 

That the fly is a distributor par excellence of all kinds of 
filth and disease germs, has long since passed the stage of experi- 
mental demonstration. It has been repeatedly examined not only 
for .surface contamination, but also as to the number of germs 
that may be carried in the digestive tract. The number of sur- 
face forms on a single fly has been known to vary from about five 
hundred to more than six millions, and those of the digestive tract 
from one hundred to more than three millions. The number of 
germs carried varies with the season and the quantity of exposed 
filth of the district in which the flies are collected, in fact the quan- 
tity of filth carried by the flies as well as the number of flies in any 
locality seems to bear a definite relation to the habits of the peo- 
ple and to the conditions of their surroundings. In one experi- 
ment in which the fly was permitted to fall into a vessel of sterile 


water and swim about for several minutes — just as sometimes 
occurs in many households — the number of surface germs washed 
off was five hundred million, and those from the digestive tract 
over three hundred million. This perhaps represents extremes 
as to number of germs, but it is often repeated as to the bath, 
except that milk serves as the medium and an unsuspecting child 
as the incubator. 

As to specific germs of disease, the evidence is no leas certain 
and convincing. Flies fed on material cantaminated with the 
typhoid bacillus have been found to .distribute this germ in their 
feces for two days after feeding. From flies naturally infected, 
this germ has also been repeatedly recovered, so we know that 
the typhoid bacillus is carried not only accidentally on the sur- 
face of the insect's body but within its alimentary canal. Similar 
results have been reached in experiments with other disease 
germs, notably that of tuberculous, and there is abundant evi- 
dence that infantile diarrhea, dysentery and cholera may be so 

Consider the possibilities of the fly coming m contact with 
these germs in nature. Typhoid bacilli are abundant in the ex- 
crement and urine of the person suffering from the disease, and 
are often in the dejecta for months or even years after the in- 
dividual has recovered. Human excreta is very attractive to flies 
both for feeding and egg-laying. It is frequently carelessly ex- 
posed in waste places or open privies and left to contaminate 
myriads of insects not only with typhoid bacilli but with the germs 
of other intestinal diseases. The sputum of tubercular individ- 
uals is also greedily devoured by flies, and they have been shown 
to distribute the germ for several days after feeding on infected 

The fly, then, is most admirably adapted in bodily construc- 
tion, breeding habits and life activities, to the nefarious practice 
of filth and disease distribution. But is the fly to blame? Is it 
not merely responding to environment in the only way in which 
nature permits it to respond, and incidentally turning back upon 
man the natural results of his own unclean habits? 

"O My Father." 

Adapted to the tune of "The Nephite Lamentation' as arranged 
by Professor Henry E. Giles. 


The melody of the "Nephite Lamentation" has a very in- 
teresting and impressive history. It was given to Thomas Dur- 
ham of Parowan, Utah, in a dream. Because of its connection 
with Book of Mormon history it is of special interest to Latter- 
day Saints. 

The history of the melody and the story of the dream as 
given to the publisher by President Canute Peterson of Sanpete 
Stake are as follows: 

A promise had been made to Thomas Durham that he should 
be visited by heavenly beings. In fulfilment of the promise a 
young man, who proved to be one of the twenty-four Nephites 
surviving the last great battle between the Nephites and Laman- 
ites at the Hill Cumorah, came to his room and played this mel- 
ody on a brass horn. Apparently for the purpose of impressing 
the tune upon Brother Durham's memory, it was repeated three 
times. In its rendition it seems that the high note in the second 
strain of the melody was beyond the range of the instrument 
but by the expression on the face of the young Nephite it was 
apparent that he was trying to reach a higher note. Brother Dur- 
ham, being a musician, readily placed the missing note to com- 
plete the melody. The rendition so impressed him that he was 
awakened and immediately arose and wrote the music of the 
tune to preserve it. 

The history of the melody, as given to Brother Durham, 
connects it with the battle of the Hill Cumorah, as related in the 
Book of Mormon, Mormon, sixth chapter, eleventh verse: "And 
when they had gone through and hewn down all my people, save 
it were twenty and four of us, (among whom was my son 
Moroni, and we having survived the dead of our people, did 
behold on the morrow, when the Lamanites had returned unto 
their camps, from the top of the hill Cumorah, the ten thousand 
of my people who were hewn down, being led in the front by 

Fifteenth verse: "And it came to pass that there were ten 
more who did fall bv the sword, with their ten thousand each; 



yea, even all my people, save it were those twenty and four who 
were with me, and also a few who had escaped into the south 
countries, and a few who had dissented over unto the Laman- 
ites, had' fallen, and their flesh, and bones, and blood lay upon the 
face of the earth.'' (There were 230,000 .slain. ) 

When the twenty-four had gathered at the Hill Cumorah the 
morning after the battle, the young man who appeared to Brother 
Durham played this same melody as a lamentation for the dead. 
As he played, he was sitting on the bank of a stream, facing the 
west, probably overlooking the battle field of the previous day. 

The melody, having been preserved by Brother Durham after 
the -dream, he later adapted it to the words of the favorite "Mor- 
mon" hymn, "O, my Father," and frequently sang it in public. 
When the melody was given to the writer who, on one occasion 
at Cedar City, heard it sung by Brother Durham, he arranged it 
in its present form and has frequently used it as an organ solo 
for sacramental music. It has created a deep impression when- 
ever played, and is now very frequently requested. 

The melody is now published as choir music for the first 
time, and it is hoped and believed that it will be widely used 
throughout the Church : 


Tune— Nephite Lamentation. THOMAS DURHAM. 
, R Snow. Arr. by H. E Giles. 

Solo. Andante moderato. 





For a 

Fa - ther, Thou that dwell - est In the 
wise and glori-ous pur - pose Thou hast 





CHOBUS. p Very distinct. 

8. I had learned to call Thee 

4. When I leave this frail ex 

.0. .0. .0i. .0i. 

Fa - ther, Through Thy 
ist - ©nee, When I 


— 0i. 







-- ^— 

high and glorious 
placed me here on 

place! When shall I re - gain Thy 
earth, And with - held the re - col- 


Spir - it from on 
lay this mor - tal 





But un - til the Key of 
Fa - ther, Moth - er, may I 




— s^- 

pres - ence, And a - gain be - hold Thy 
lee - tion Of my for - mer friends and 





Know - ledge Was re 
meet you In your 

stored I knew not 
roy - al courts on 







In Thy ho - ly 
Yet oft • times a 

hab - i - ta - tion, Did my 
se - cret some - thing Whispered, 

-N— I 1 1 ^ 

p^m^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

In the heav'ns are par - ents sin 

Then, at length, when I've com - plet 

■0- -#- -^- -#- -0- -0- -#i 


No; the 
All you 

y^ — > 

-t/ — 





spir - it once re - side; 
"You're a stran-ger here;" 

A tempo. 

In my first pri - me - val 
And I felt that I had 


thought makes reason 
sent me forth to 


A tempo. 
stare! Truth is rea • son, truth e- 
do, With your mu - tual ap - pro- 






-I — i— j- 


child - hood, Was I 
wan - dered From a 

nu - tured near Thy side, 

more ex - alt - ed sphere. 




I I b 

ter - nal Tells me 
ba - tion Let me 




I've a moth - er there, 

come and dwell with you. 

-0- -^ -»'- M. 



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q^ X 


By Dr. James E. Talmage 

The Vitality of l\/lormonism 

This work, consisting of 360 pages, is 
published by the Gotham Press, Boston, 
Mass., and comprises the articles written by 
Dr. Talmage and published in many of the 
great and influential newspapers of the 

The book contains all the articles pub- 
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rf* Bound in Cloth, $1.50 postpaid 

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THE .' ^^ 


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Sermon of President Joseph F. Smith. 

President Young once said to Eliza 
R. Snow: "Tell the sisters not to raf- 
fle. If the mothers raffle, the children 
will gamble. Raffling is gambling. 
Then it is added: 'Some say what shall 
we do, we have quilts on hand, we can 
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supply our treasury which we can ob- 
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poor?" Rather let the quilts rot on 
the shelves than adopt the old adage, 
'The end will sanctify the means.' As 
Latter-day Saints, we cannot afford to 
sacrifice moral principle to financial 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Chnrch of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
No. 29 Bishop's Bldg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Cory 10c 
Vol. VI No. 7 





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A REAL self filling Pen, 
guaranteed to satisfy. 
Ask about it. 
Write about it. 


"The Jeweler" 

64 Main Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 

A thrifty nation is a Gib- 
raltar against the surf of 
anarchy and revolution 
and all the destructive 
forces that follow in the 
wake of extravagance, 
thoughtless, blind living. 

W. S. S. 


Relief Society General Board 
furnishes complete 


Address: — 


67 East South Temple Street 
Pktne W. 1752 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


»miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiNriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiicriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiii^ 



I The women of the Relief Society have now the opportunity of securing | 

I a sufficient sum for proper burial bj' the payment of a small monthly amount. | 

I The moment you sign your policy your burial expenses are assured without | 

= burdening your children. Talk to us about this. RELIEF SOCIETY i 


I Beneficial Life Insufance Company | 

I Relief Society Department | 


2)liiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiii: -^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiili^ 

I Can You Guess the Reason? | 

i Some stores offer some of their | 

I goods at "Cut-Rate" prices, oth- | 

= ers offer some other "special" in- | 

s ducement to attract customers — = 

I We offer no "Cut-Rate" prices | 

I and no "special" inducements, | 

S and yet we are w^ell pleased with = 

i our patronage. | 

I We sell only the very best = 

i goods we can obtain, at only a | 

I modest profit over our cost — our | 

i goods are clean when bought — i 

I kept clean — and sold clean — our | 

I service is real. | 

S Havr you tried our Hawaiian Coffee? = 


= Hyland 60, 61 and 62 = 

I 676-680 East 2nd South Street. | 


I While there are no meetings i 
I is a good time to read | 

I "Love and The Light" I 

I By O. F. Whitney 

I $1.25 at thi [ 


I The Btik Store tf Salt Lake Citf \ 
I 44 East on South Temple Street | 


The Ilelief Society Magazine 

Owned and Published by the General Board of the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 


JULY, 1919. 

Appeal Lillian Pamplin Lee 373 

Famous Statue of Moses Frontispiece 

Medical Needs in the Days of Moses and Today 

May Foster Gibbs 375 

Gems from the General Conference 383 

Reminiscences of Margaret Gav Judd Clawson 391 

Modesty .' 400 

A Quaker Girl's Dream Sabina L. Baxter 401 

A Friendly Rhyme in Honor of E. Wesley Smith and Fam- 
ily . Lillie T. Freeez 403 

An Indian Story 405 

The Jews 409 

Thrift Hints 410 

The Official Round Table 411 

On the Watch Tower James H. Anderson 418 

Construction and Reconstruction in the Home 422 

Caution Grace Ingles Frost 425 

Editorial : Teachers' Training Course 426 

Summer Lessons in Hygiene 428 


Patronize those who patronize us 
AMUNDSEN STUDIO, 249 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER CO., Billiard Tables, 55-59 W. South Temple, 

Street, Salt Lake City. 
BURIAL CLOTHES, 67 E. South Temple Street. 
DAYNES-BEEBE MUSIC CO., 61-3-5 Main Street, Salt Lake City. 
DESERET NEWS BOOK STORE, Books and Stationery, Salt Lake City. 
S. S. DICKSON & CO., 680 E. Second South, Salt Lake City. 
EARDLEY BROS. CO., '^Everything for Electricity," Salt Lake City. 
McCONAHAY, "The Jeweler," 64 Main St. 

MODEL KNITTING WORKS, 657 Iverson Street, Salt Lake City. 
ROYAL BAKING CO., Salt Lake City. 
STAR PRINTING CO., 35 P. O. Place, Salt Lake City. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION BOOK STORE, 44 East South Temple St. Salt Lake City. 
Z. C. M. I., Salt Lake City. 


Lillia Pamplin Lee. 

How long- dost thou think, O mortal man. 
The power of God thou canst withstand ? 

Wilt thou continue thy downward way, 
And steep in sin till the dawn of day? 

And dost thou think, when morning comes. 
With its golden rays of many suns, 

To hide thy garments besmeared with sin, 
And with the spotless, to enter in ? 

'■' Has thou no thought that thou shalt hear 
When the trumpet sounds, that judgment's near? 

These words of Jesus, thine ears shall fill : 
He that is filthy, is filthy still. 

O mortal, awake and cleanse thy soul. 
That thou mayest be ready to win the goal ; 

Put away evil and desire to sin. 

That you may be ready His glory to win. 

© Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 




Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. VI. JULY, 1919. No. 7. 

Medical Needs in the Days of 
Moses and Today. 

Mary Foster Gibbs. 

The Latter-day Saints are peculiarly open-minded in their 
attitude towards life. The cardinal principle of the gospel of 
Jesus Christ is faith in God and his ever-renewing revelations. 
Truth never changes, but because times and circumstances bring 
new angles upon any truth or principle, the gospel comprehends 
the living adjustment of truth's atmosphere to suit men's minds 
and conditions. 

Because of this flexible quality in our spiritual attitude we are 
given to extremes at times. If we speak in terms of politics, we 
are inclined to be partisan in the extreme. If we consider educa- 
tion, not even the newest and latest fad is sufificiently advanced for 
our quick apperceptions ; while in all other avenues of social and 
spiritual life, we are ever on the watch-tower, listening for the 
swift approach of events and up-do-date appeals which shall alter 
and amend our fortress to admit the restless troops of ideas and 
ideals that constitute our outer mental assailants. We are ex- 
tremely hopeful, and were, in olden days, devout and childlike in 
faith and trust. Philosophers tell us that such an attitude of mind 
sometimes renders its possessor a fearful man and a credulous 
one. Happily our faith is founded on the Rock of Ages, so that 
in common with most of our American citizenry, we possess ad- 
mirable poise and our final judgment restores the perfect equi- 

Just now our western communities, and indeed the world at 
large, seem beset with the clamor of medical appraisement, and 
the glamor of medical achievement. Let us consider wisely and 
calmly the case of wives and mothers in this Church and kingdom 
on this subject of medical need and medical aid. 

First, then, we are confronted with the high cost of medical 


assistance, which has affrii^htcd the young- married people of this 
community more than their elders care to admit. So rapid has 
been the increase in charges, so insistent and socially benumbing 
are the financial requirements made by doctors and nurses, that 
parenthood has become well nigh prohibitive, unless young people 
are well-to-do, or have wealthy relatives. Operations are the 
order of the day : teeth, tonsils, appendixes — although these later 
operations are getting a little out of fashion — feet with fallen 
arches, and corns, and all sorts of internal embelishments for 
women, strew the triumphant pathway of the successful surgeon. 
Concealed poison, pus, microbes and neuritis have become familiar 
terms in the daily vocabulary of even the proletariat. 

A young couple who are trying to live on $75 or even $100 
a month gaze into the future appalled at the cost of a hospital 
room for the prospective mother costing $35 a week, with nurses 
at $25 and $35 a week, very possible operations — especially if 
physicians are in a hurry — with medical trimmings extra. What 
are young people to do? Fortunate the young wife who lives in 
the country and has a mother who is able and willing to nurse 
her in the old-fashioned way. The good old-fashioned midwife 
has been driven out of our communities, and statistics fail to 
testify of very much in"provement in conditions because of their 

The old world has been staggering along with babies com- 
ing into the world by the aid of mid wives for over 5,500 years, 
yet now-a-days a woman is practically barred from the chamber 
of birth, through public opinion, and shrewd, indirect manipulation 
of press and social exchange. It may well be that some day the 
careful and God-fearing midwife may find her way back into her 
own beautiful kingdom. 

No one, least of all myself, dares to say very much about this 
condition, lest we shall be called unprogressive, narrow-minded, 
bigoted, and lacking in intelligence and culture ; for we are all, 
a*? was said in the l)eginnirg of this article, verv opei-mindel 
to the call of progressivism and very sensitive about refusing 
truth in whatever guise it may appear. Just what is truth in these 
matters of medicine is rather difficult for even an intelligent 
reader and student to determine. We are told by very distin- 
guished physicians that surgery has practically become a science, 
but that the practice of medicine, with its sometimes pompous 
silences and frequent experimentations, is as little understood 
and as uncertain as it was in the days of Hippocrates and Galen. 
Said a distinguished patient who died not long since : "I am 
weary of having my body made an experiment station of by 
doctors who try one thing for a day or two and change it for 
something else, and then something else, all the time wishing to 
see its results, knowing no more than T do, and suffering not at 


all, while I bear all the pangs and horror of their instruments of 

It would seem that each individual invalid case becomes, as it 
were, a law unto itself, for no one is just like anyone else in face 
or form. So, too, it may be assumed that our internal machinery 
differs in like manner, anfl no matter how trifling the (Hiferences 
n-a\' be, together they constitute internal idiosyncracies which 

Copyright, Underwood & Undcr-.vnod . \'r:v Ymk 



make the art of medicine a daily surprise and a constant experi- 
ment. General rules fit general cases as general coats fit genera' 
sized men, but no two are just alike and the off-size people, like 
the unbalanced internal organisms, require individual study for 
years in order to even approximate an understanding on the part 
of the patient or physician. 

The science of surgerv, the art of medicine, and the laws of 


hygiene, while all closely allied, are separate and distinct subjects. 
What is known as hygiene or the laws of life, comprised usually 
in the one word, cleanliness, is and always has been a necessity 
and has been so acknowledged by ancient and modern prophets. 
The Lord was very careful to instruct Moses concerning the pri- 
mary principles of hygiene. That great law giver knowing that 
his vast multitude of 8,0OC,CCO pecple would not practice these 
rules unless they formed part of a religious ritual, incorporated 
them in his divine regulations and laws. He discovered an herb 
at the waters of Marah which turned the bitterness of the stream 
into a life-giving fluid (Exodus 15:23-27). He taught them 
the use of olive oil and spices, showing them how to compound 
the sacred ointment, which was both incense and disinfectant 
(Ex. 30: 23-38). He instructed them in the most precise manner 
concerning the offering of sacrifice, enjoining upon them the cre- 
mation of ofifal from their continuous and vast sacrificial rites 
(Lev. 1:13-16). He forbade the eating of fat or blood, while 
contamination with decaying substances and possible germ cul- 
tures were likewise strictly forbidden (Lev. 5:2; 3:6; 7:25-27; 
Ex. 17:10). Cleanliness was enjoined in every branch of temple 
service, especially in eating and sacrificial ofiferings (Lev. 8:6; 
Ex. 29; Ex:. 10:14). Animals which were unhealthful for hu- 
mans to eat were most zealously forbidden, and men today would 
be healthier and happier if thev observed these strict laws (Ex. 

Women in childbirth were particularlv protected throush re- 
ligious enactment, and even in the distant isles of the sea where 
descendants of Abraham dwelt, and among the Indian women, at 
this period of time as well as during their monthly need of rest, 
women in confinemert and at monthlv periods were isolated in 
specially constructed houses or huts where no male was permitted 
to enter (Ex. 12). The Sandwich Islanders, as well as our In- 
dians, kept up these customs until very recently. 

Leprosy, which was a "^exual ''iso^'rler. brouoht over to 
Palestine from Egypt and taken to the Sandwich Islands from 
the Chinese, was carefully treated in a list of special laws 
(Ex. 13, Hand 15). 

No priest could officiate in the tabernacle ordinances if he 
had any bodily blemish, so exacting was the Lord concerning pos- 
sible infection and contagion (Ex. 22). 

In all oriental countries physicians were members of the 
priesthood, and as people fell away from the truth, the spiritual 
exactions of the priests alons" with their superstition, made a 
yoke grievous to be borne bv the people. We won'^'er if .political 
conditions of today are going to fasten upon the necks of our 
n^oderns similar heavy medical burdens too grievous to be borne. 

The Lord has not left his people in latter days without light 



Copyright, Underwood & Underivood, New York 


upon this question. He gives a few succinct and careful instruc- 
tions in the Doctrine and Covenants in what is known as the 
Word of Wisdom. Even more direct and comprehensive are the 
hygienic and psychological laws embraced in the following verses 
from Section 42 : 40-52 : 

"And again, thou shalt not be proud in thy heart ; let all thy 
garments be plain, and their beauty the beauty of the work of 
thine own hands : And let all things be done in cleanliness before 
me. Thou shalt not be idle ; for he that is idle shall not eat the 
bread nor wear the garments of the laborer. And whosoever 
among you are sick, and have not faith to be healed, but believe, 
shall be nourished with all tenderness, with herbs and mild food, 
and that not by the hand of an enemy. And the elders of the 
Church, two or more, shall be called, and shall pray for and lay 


tlieir hands upon them in my name; and if they die they shall 
die unto me, and if they live they shall live unto me. Thou, shalt 
live together in love, insomuch that thou shalt weep for the loss 
of them that die, and more especially for those that have not 
hope of a glorious resurrection. x\nd it shall come to pass that 
those that die in me, shall not taste of death, for it shall be sweet 
unto them; And they that die not in me, wo unto them, for their 
death is bitter. And again, it shall come to pass that he that 
hath faith in me to be healed, and is not appointed unto death, 
shall be healed ; he who hath faith to see shall see ; he who hath 
faith to hear shall hear ; the lame who hath faith to leap shall 
leap ; and they who have not faith to do these things, but believe 
in me, have power to become my sons ; and inasmuch as they 
break not my laws, thou shalt bear their infirmities." 

"A Word of Wi?.flom, for the benefit of the Council of High 
Priests, assembled in Kirtland, and Church ; and also the Saints in 

"To be sent greeting — not by commandment or constraint, 
but by revelation and the word of wisdom, showing forth the 
order and will of God in the temporal salvation of all saints in the 
last days. 

"Given for a principle with promise, adapted to the capacity 
of the weak and the weakest of all saints, who are or can be called 

"Behold, verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, in conse- 
quence of evils and designs which do and will exist in the hearts 
!,f conspiring men in the last days, I have warned you, and fore- 
v/arn you, bv giving unto you this word of wis 'oni by revelation, 

"That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink 
aniong you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of 
your Father, only in assembling yourselves together to ofifer up 
)our sacraments before him. 

"And, behold, this should be wine, yea, pure wine of the 
grape of the vine, of your own make. ■ • 

".^ixl. a'^'.'iin. strong; drinks arc not for the IdcUv, but for the 
washing of your bodies. 

"And again, tobacco is not for the body, neither for the belly, 
and is not good for man, but is an herb for bruises and all sick 
cattle, to be used with judgment and skill. 

"And again, hot drinks are not for the body or belly. 

"And again, verily I say unto you, all wholesome herbs God 
hath ordained for the constitution, nature, and use of man. 

"Every herb in the season thereof, and every fruit in the 
season thereof ; all these to be used with prudence and thanks- 

"Yea, flesh also of beasts and of the fowls of the air, I, the 


Lord, have ordained for the use of man with thanksgiving ; never- 
theless they are to be used sparingly ; 

"And it is pleasing unto me that they should not be used 
only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine. 

"All grain is ordained for the use of man and of beasts, to 
be the staff of life, not only for man but for the beasts of the field, 
and the fowls of heaven, and all wild animals that run or creep 
on the earth ; 

"And these hath God made for the use of man only in times 
of famine and excess of hunger. 

"All grain is good for the food of man, as also the fru't of 
the vine, that which yieldeth fruit, whether in the ground or 
above the ground. 

"Nevertheless, wheat for man, and corn for the ox, and oats 
for the horse, and rye for the fowls and for swine, and for all 

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N . Y. 


beasts of the field, and barley for all useful animals, and for mild 
drinks, as also other grain. 

"And all saints who remember to keep and do these sayings, 
walking in obedience to the commandments, shall receive health 
in their navel, and marrow to their bones, 

"And shall find wisdom and great treasures of knowledge, 
even hidden treasures ; 

"And shall run and not be weary, and shall walk and not 
faint ; 

"And I, the Lord, give unto them a promise, that the de- 
stroying angel shall pass by them, as the children of Israel, and 
not slay them. Amen." 

Who among the people today have abiding faith in these 
life-giving words, or who among us are following thoughtlessly 
after the teachings of men and the precepts of so-called scien- 
tists and expert practitioners? 

We have faithful Latter-day Saint physicians amongst us, 
men who are devoted to the service of God and man. Cannot 
some one among them suggest a remedy for this condition, a 
solution of this very grievous problem ? Would it be a good plan 
for our young couples to begin married life with paying a month- 
ly maternal or medical insurance which would cover the expenses 
of childbirth and ordinary sickness? Or what plan could be 
evolved? Come, physicians, brothers, friends, let us reason to- 
gether ! 


I sit and sew by the window, 

Arid out in the garden I see 
A little plaid bonnet, bobbing about. 

In the shade of the old apple tree. 
I hear little feet softly patter, 

A sweet, rosy face I behpld ; 
I am richer by far than most millionaires are. 

For my treasure is better than gold. 

Mrs. Parley Nelson. 
Rexbur^, Idaho. 

Gems from the General Conference. 

The Annual Conference of the Church, postponed be- 
cause of "Fki" conditions, was notable, particularly as the first 
conference presided over by President Heber J. Grant; and the 
rightful succession to the high office which he holds was the 
key-note of the conference. The freedom and sympathetic 
response of the people was most marked and gratifying. The 
beautiful weather, the joyous crowds, helped to make the oc- 
casion auspicious and inspiring. 


President Heber J. Grant said he felt humble beyond the 
power of any words to express in occupying the position in which 
he had just been sustained. With the help of the Lord he ex- 
pressed a determination to do his best to fill the position of Pres- 
ident of the Church. 'T will ask no man to be more liberal with 
his means according to his ability, for the upbuilding of the 
Church, than I myself shall be; I will ask no man to be more 
strict in the observance of the Word of Wisdom than I am willing 
to be ; I will ask no man to be more conscientious and prompt in 
the payment of his tithes and offerings than myself ; I will ask no 
man to be more ready and willing to come early and go late and to 
give more of his time and talents to the work of the Lord than 
1 am willing to do and to give." He felt that without the help 
of the Lord he would meet with no success in the high and ex- 
alted position to which he was called by the Lord and sustained 
by the people. But, as Nephi of old expressed it : The Lord will 
require nothing of his people save he will open the way for them 
to accomplish that which he requires of them." With this knowl- 
edge in my heart, I accept the calling, knowing that God will 
sustain me, provided always, I shall labor in humility and with 
diligence." He called the attention of the Saints to Section 121 
of the Doctrine and Covenants, wherein the Lord told the Prophet 
Joseph Smith that the priesthood should and must exercise au- 
thority with kindness, with persuasion, and with love unfeigned ; 
and President Grant said this will be his guiding motive in ad- 
ministering the affairs of the Church. "God being my helper, 
those words shall be my guide." 

No man could so inspire love and confidence in him as Pres- 
ident Joseph F. Smith, the speaker said. No man on earth he 
loved more. He told of calling on President Smith in his last 
illness, and how President Smith grasped his hand, with a strong 
pressure even in his last hours, and said : "The Lord bless you, 
my boy; the Lord bless you. Yours will be a great responsibil- 
ity. Always remember that this is the work of the Lord." Pres- 


ident Grant said he had hoped that President Smith might live 
to see the 100th anniversary of the organization of the Church and 
at one time prayed that he might, and felt that his prayer would 
be answered; but it was not to be so. 


President Lund said he rejoices in a knowledge of the gosjx?] 
and during the sessions of conference thus far he had thought, 
how marvelous is the work of the Lord. He bore testimony that 
Joseph Smith was a Prophet of God. Testifying that the Prophet 
Joseph Smith's successor, Brihgam Young, was a true prophet of 
God, and all who followed in the Presidency. 

During President Smith's presidency of the Church, said 
President Lund, many meetinghouses and temples were built in 
the stakes of Zion and abroad, and temporal affairs prospered. 
President Smith was a spiritual man, always kind and always 
possessed of the spirit of the Lord. We all miss him. He prayed 
that President Smith's memory may ever be great in the minds 
of the Saints and his example always remain before them. Pres- 
ident Lund said that the Lord will bless President Heber J. Grant, 
and he exhorted the Saints to uphold and sustain him. 


President Penrose said there are some thoughts of which he 
felt sure President Smith would speak if he were present in per- 
son. On ewas th edivinity of the mission of Jesus the Christ and 
another the power of the priesthood. Another: members of the 
Church belong to the body of Christ and there is no need for mem- 
bers to go outside of it for anything on earth, particularly in a 
religious, spiritual or social sense. This is not new, said President 
Penrose, but it should be impressed anew on the minds of the 
Saints. Within the Church is all that its members need ; no need 
to join other organizations or associations. This, he said, is not 
saying anything against those who see differently, but as for the 
Saints, let them keep out of entangling alliances. In the order of 
the holy priesthood all things for the welfare of the Lord's peo- 
ple are embraced, and there is no need to join other orders. In 
these perilous times, when marvelous things are taking place and 
still more marvelous things will shortly take place, it is well for 
the Saints to stand in holy places : not to waste their time and tal- 
ents in orders and societies that shall perish and pass away, but 
give their time and talents to the work of the Lord and to be pre- 
pared for any marvelous event that may come to pass. This, he 
felt sure, would be the admonition of President Joseph F. Smith 
if he were present in person : That the Saints withdraw their sup- 
port and influence from orders not of God, a ndgive their entire 
support, influence, time and talent to the priesthood and auxiliary 
orsranizations of the Church. 




President Clawson said the voting indicated to him an irre- 
sistible, compelHng- power. He was reminded of the saying: "In 
union there is strength." And surely, he said, the Latter-day 
Saints are strong, for they have a united priesthood and people. 
Where could be found, in all the world, men such as Joseph Smith, 
Brigham Young. John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, 
Joseph F. Smith and Heber J. Grant? They were pure, good 
men. free from the sins of the world, and men whom the Saints 
could safely follow. He exhorted the Saints to honor the priest- 
hood and the ordinances of the gospel, and to rear their children 
in fear of God. 


Elder George Albert Smith was the next speaker. He said 
that the world today is in distress. Men are bewildered, for their 
own wisdom is failing them, and they are seeking blindly for light 
and truth. If men but knew it the gospel is the panacea that will 
bring peace on earth and harmony and accord. Now that the bar- 
riers are down for the spread of the gospel, let all Latter-dav 
Saints prepare to preach the gospel to all the world, to go on mis- 
sions. He exhorted the Saints to pray always for the Spirit of 
God to guide them through the perilous times coming. 


What made Joseph F. Smith a great man? Two things, said 
Elder Whitney. First, he was a big, broad-minded man ; and, 
second, he had constantly with him the Spirit of God. The one 
may be called the machinery, the other the power that moves or 
impels it. Every president of the Church has been the man needed 
at that particular time, and so it will be with President Heber J. 
Grant : he will do the work God has for him to accomplish, with 
the help of the Lord, and with the support of the Saints. 


Latter-da)' Saints, said Elder McKay, know that in the home 
there is nothing temporary, all is eternal in the relationship of 
the family and the marriage covenant. The home is the cell unit 
of society, and in the home lies the safety of society and of the 
state. All the auxiliary organizations of the Church are designed 
to assist in training the youth of Zion. but none of them can sup- 
plant the training and influence of the home. He said that the 
word honor with all its synonyms — reverence, obedience, love, etc. 
— is the keynote of the successful home. Elder McKay said he 


believes that during the first five years of a child's life parents sow 
the seeds of obedience or disobedience. Every member of the 
family should help and serve every other mmber. 


Elder Anthony W. Ivins spoke of the time that has passed 
since the Declaration of Independence, and said that the great 
changes that have taken place since that time were neither hoped 
for nor expected. Great as were the expectations of the patriots, 
who fought and obtained their freedom, they did not dream that 
future events would be fraught with such great import as they 
have been. Especially important are the events to Latter-day 

He referred to the trying times through which the people 
have passed since the last general conference : the great war, the 
influenza epidemic, and the loss of our Church leader, the late 
President .Joseph F. Smith. The Lord has raised up another 
leader to direct His affairs upon earth in this new era ,for, said 
he, the world of 1919 is not the world of 1918. He referred to 
the stupendous effort put forth by the nation to bring the war to 
a close, the gigantic scale on which troops were massed and trans- 
ported, and the unflinching and marvelous courage of the Amer- 
ican soldiers. Men will not hesitate to attempt to discredit the 
administration of President Woodrow Wilson, said Elder Ivins, 
but the fact will be written in history that Woodrow Wilson was 
confronted Avith the most difficult problems with which to grap- 
ple that any President probably ever had before ; and he met them 
with wonderful success ; and the Lord be praised that Woodrow 
Wilson met the situation as well as he did. What has all this to 
do with the Church? asked Elder Ivins. The Church and the 
State are both entering on a new era, and if one is in danger then 
the other cannot escape. Elder Ivins said he fancies he sees dan- 
ger ahead : selfishness is the great element of danger. The rich 
grind down the poor, and by selfishness governments have been 
-wrecked in the past ; "why close our eyes to experience?" he asked. 

The enactment of laws is not nearly so essential as is their 
execution. What the country needs is more unselfish statesmen 
and fewer professional politicians. The selfish politician and 
greedv capitalist and labor agitator who grind down the poor, 
close factories, corrupt legislative bodies and thereby sow seeds 
of unrest among the people are the great menace to society. Elder 
Ivins exhorted Latter-day Saints to put selfishness and greed out 
of their lives, and give their time and talent to the study and exe- 
cution of righteousness in government, and in the Church of God. 



The priesthood is eternal, and no man can preside in this 
Church without the consent of the people. 

No man could preside over any body within the Church or 
over the Church itself without the assenting- vote of the people. 
The Lord will not permit any man not qualified, one whom he 
does not choose, to reach the position of president of His Church. 


Joseph F. Smih was foreordained for his epoch. He was one 
of the real prophets of God. I have heard his testimony and have 
heard him preach in his conversation. His face was never so 
lighted up as when he was bearing his testimony of the truth of 
the gospel. He seemed to be personally acquainted with Christ. 
While he was the connecting link between the first and latest au- 
thorities of the Church, he was always up to date. There was no 
clinging to the things of the past with him. He was the living em- 
bodiment of the truth that schools and colleges do not make the 

There was no tint of bombast in his speeches. He did not 
speak to the ear, but to the heart. He was the preacher of right- 
eousness on earth. 


President Smith, Elder Richards said, lived a life of useful- 
ness and value seldom achieved by any man. He was the very in- 
carnation of faith and made it a living principle of the gospel 
which he lived. It radiated from his person. When one heard 
his testimony one never doubted his faith. He possessed a great 
faculty of making things plain to others. He contended that men 
must live the gospel as well as preach it. No words of his were 
ever so much of a sermon as his life. He was kind, considerate 
and compassionate towards sinners, but intolerant of sin. His 
words always held encouragement for those who had sinned. He 
upheld the gospel and extended a helping hand to those who 
needed it. There was no deviation from the truth in his life, and 
never was there a more sincere, just or noble man than Joseph F. 
Smith. His friendship lifted one up and not down, and all loved 
him. God so mixed the elements in him that he could withstand 
all temptations and trials. I firmly believe that at the time of his 
death he was the greatest man in the world. View it from any 
angle, and few can equal his record of service. 


Elder Lyman said that it is also interesting to note the 
changes made in this valley during the life of President Smith 


here. When he came as a boy of nine, there was but one green 
spot in the valley. Today it is a land of beauty and a garden of 
roses. No fairy tale unfolds a more marvelous story of trans- 
formation than occurred in this man's life. 

Like David of old, Joseph F. Smith was chosen of God to 
preside over his people. He was a poof boy, herding cows on 
the desert. David was herding sheep when Samuel called at his 
father's house to choose from his family a king of Israel. God 
chose and placed both David and Joseph F. Smith in the positions 
which they occupied on earth. Joseph F. Smith made no com- 
promise with sin. 


The Lord is speaking to the world and pouring out his judg- 
ment by war, pestilences and scourges. Men have tried to regu- 
late the judgments of God to the sphere of accident or coinci- 
dence, but the great afflictions are no more nor less than the 
Lord speaking in wrath because the children of men will not re- 
pent. Elder Ballard said man cannot build so secure as to pro- 
tect himself from the judgments of God. The great Titanic, 
which was sunk by an iceberg, was supposed to be unsinkable ; 
it was a great and necessary lesson ; nothing is secure from the 
hands of God. The great war, the scourge of influenza; and other 
diseases that are baffling science, are the judgments of the Lord. 
Elder Ballard said he had asked the Lord in anguish why babes, 
mothers, the innocent as well as the guilty, should be stricken, 
and he said he was given an answer that the Lord is calling the 
world to repentance, because the time is near at hand when the 
Savior shall come and the wicked shall not stand in his presence. 
It may not be influenza but it will be one scourge, and affliction 
after another, until the world turns from wickedness and repents. 

Why are the Saints afflicted? Because, said Elder Ballard, 
the Lord is chastising them for their own degree of disobedience. 
If they are touched, the Lord is preparing them to stand as lights 
to the world. Those whom the Lord took from among his peo- 
ple did not need the chastisement individually ; but the Lord spoke 
through them to his own people. Elder Ballard expressed grati- 
tude that those who were taken in most instances were prepared 
to go, and many were left who needed to repent. He believed 
the wisdom of the Lord was apparent in every instance. 


Within the revelations of God, said Bishop Nibley, is con- 
tained principles that embody the only league that will ever bring 
peace on earth. The word of the Lord, he said, will bring about 


peace : for it will and it alone, accomplish what mankind is grop- 
ing for today. The word of the Lord is greater than anything 
man can concoct. In the league laid down in the covenant of 
the Lord there will be no L W. W., no labor troubles, and no 
unrest, for the word of the Lord says the idler shall not eat of 
the bread of the workers. 

In the league and covenant that the word of the Lord pro- 
vides for, there will be men who shall live long and be strong, 
for the word of the Lord tells how to live the Word of Wisdom ; 
there will be no sin, no crime, because the word of the Lord tells 
his children how to live in peace; and when the world accepts 
the word of the Lord there will be peace on earth. 

Freedom shall rule, said Bishop Nibley, and force shall never 
again hold sway for any length of time. 


Elder Theodore Tobiason, new president of the Swedish 
mission, bore his testimony that the Latter-day Saints are en- 
gaged in the work of the Lord, and he testified that the Lord had 
made known to him that President Heber J. Grant was the proper 
successor to the late President Joseph F. Smith. He had never 
doubted, but, nevertheless, he testified that in a fast meeting some 
four weeks ago in the temple, Heber J. Grant was speaking. Elder 
Tobiason said he was gazing intently at President Grant, and all 
at once there seemed to appear in his place the beloved late Church 
head. President Joseph F. Smith. He looked away and then 
back again to assure himself — the manifestation still remained. 
It was just as true as the circumstance was when the mantle of 
the_ Prophet Joseph Smith fell upon Brigham Young at that his- 
toric meeting in Nauvoo, and Elder Tobiason said he has heard 
numerous Saints who were present in the temple a month ago 
testify that they had similar manifestations. 


During the year 1918 there were .4,761 baptisms and 15,963 
children were blessed. There were 5,752 deaths, which is the 
largest number on record for any year. Of this number, 1,054 
died of influenza and 862 died of pneumonia. 

Military. — Over 20,000 members of the Church were in the 
military service of the LTnited States and its Allies at the close of 
the year 1918. Of this number, 383 died in the service. We 
should have been allowed not less than 20 chaplains, and we made 
application for permission to furnish our quota, but for some rea- 
son, unknown to us, we were only allowed to furnish three chap- 
lains, two of whom saw active service at the front in France. 

Priesthood. — There has been a better attendance of the priest- 


hood at the ward weekly meetings, but there are still 9,078 per- 
sons who hold the priesthood whom the Bishops report are willing 
to labor, but have not been assigned to any duties in the stake or 

Tithes. — There has been a considerable increase in the amount 
of tithes paid for the year 1918. The tithing has been well han- 
dled by the bishops. Very little loss has been incurred, except 
through the failure to find a market for the large potato crop of 
the year 1917. 

Temple Work. — There were 175,525 baptisms for the dead 
performed in the temples, and there were 78,001 endowments for 
the living and dead. The Hawaiian temple is now practically com- 
pleted at a cost of about $200,000. The Cardston temple is near- 
ing completion and will cost, when finished, about $600,000.00. 

Sacrament Meetings. — In consequence of the quarantine and 
conditions prevailing during the epidemic of influenza in the lat- 
ter part of the year 1918, the attendance at Sacrament meetings 
has fallen ofif and the visits of the ward teachers have not been as 
regular as in other years. 

Finances. — The following are some of the expenditures paid 
out of the tithes and other Church funds during the year 1918. 

There has been expended for assisting the worthy pooii$279, 244.30 

For missionary work and building" of meetinghouses in 
the missions, mission houses and return fares of 
elders 345,761.51 

For the maintenance and operation of the Church 
school system, including the erection of new 
school buildings 695,561.70 

For the maintenance and operation of the St. George, 

Manti and Salt Lake Temples 170,000.00 

For the construction and equipment of the Hawaiian 

and Cardston temples 340,036.17 

For the erection of meetinghouses (This does not in- 
clude donations for the same purposes by mem- 
bers of the respective wards) 288,766.76 

For the maintenance of stakes and wards in all their 

various departments 526,002.91 

Attention has been called to the fact that the work- which the 
Pioneers did in planting trees and in beautifying homes, farms, 
ward meetinghouses, schools and other buildings is being sadly 
neglected in the Latter-day Saint communities. Our advice and 
counsel to the Latter-day Saints is to plant more trees, to get the 
best kinds adapted to each locality and grow them wherever they 
can be grown. 

Reminiscences of Margaret Gay 
Judd Clawson. 


Our next thrilling adventure occurred one pleasant afternoon, 
as we were slowly jogging along. All at once our whole train was 
flying in every direction, with lightning speed, over the plains. I 
don't think the fastest horses could have kept up with our cows. 
Father sat in the front of the wagon talking to and whipping his 
staid old oxen to keep them going right along. He was afraid 
the cows might get mixed up with other teams that were run- 
ning, or might whirl around and tip the wagon o\ er with us all in 
it. We went over humps and bumps. Sometimes our heads 
would be thrown up to the top of the wagon bows, then we would 
alight anywhere it happened, inside the wagon. Nobody can ap- 
preciate the situation without the experience. Again death was 
staring me in the face and again I covered up my head. If I had 
to be killed I didn't want to . see the process. LVlother soon 
snatched the covering off my head, and when we came to a stop 
she gave me a sound lecture to always be on the lookout and 
watch for the best chance for escape. Well, after the cattle had 
run as long as they could, they stopped. There were several ac- 
cidents, and one woman was killed. She was knocked down and 
trampled to death. She left a family of children. 

How we dreaded the stampedes ! There is something dreadful 
in a lot of panic-stricken cattle. Even human beings are not re- 
sponsible when fright overcomes reason. One cow in our team 
was very intelligent, in fact, she was so bright that she used to 
hide in the willows to keep from being yoked up, but when father 
found her and yoked her she was a good worker and a good milk- 
er. She got very lame at one time and could scarcely travel. 
My parents were very much worried, having already lost one cow. 
They were afraid they could not keep up with the company, and 
so mother said she would make a poultice and put it on as soon as 
Bossy laid down for the night. Mother made a very large plas- 
ter that covered all the cow's lame hip. Well, the next morning 
when father went to get the cows up he called out, "Why mother, 
you have poulticed the wrong hip." Mother said, "Never mind ; 
it's all right, it has gone clean through ;" and sure enough, Bossy 
limped a very little that day, and was soon as well as ever, t 
know there was a great deal of faith mixed up with that poultice. 

Along in the early fall, we used to find wild fruit, such as 


choke cherries, service berries, and a little red berry called buffalo 
or sqiiaw berries, all of which we enjoyed very much. One day I 
decided to have a reception that evening, so after we camped, I 
asked some of the girls and boys to come and spend the evening 
at our camp fire after their chores were done. Verbal invitations 
and short notice never gave offense then. All were delighted to 
come ; no regrets. In the meantime, I had asked mother to let me 
make some buffalo berry pies. Of course, she did. Pies were a 
great luxury and were seldom seen on the plains. I wanted to 
surprise my guests with the sumptuousness of my refreshment"^ ; 
and I did. Well, I had hardly got the ox yokes and some other 
things artistically arranged before my company arrived. Not so 
fashionably late then as now. After we had chatted awhile and 
sung songs together, I excused myself to go into the pantry (a 
box under the wagon) and brought out my pies. In passing the 
pie, I rather apologetically remarked that they might not be quite 
sweet enough. One gallant young man spoke up very quickly, 
saying. "Oh, anything would be sweet made by those hands." And 
I believed him. After serving the company, I joined them with 
my piece of pie. Well, with the first mouthful — oh, my, how it set 
my teeth on edge, and tasted as if it had been sweetened with 
citric acid ! That ended my pie making on the plains. I often 
wondered how my friends could have eaten it, but etiquette de- 
manded it. I don't think there was enough sugar in the camp to 
have sweetened that pie. 

The best of all meals to me while on our journey was our 
midday luncheon. Mother used to make a kettle of corn meal 
mush in the morning, then she wrapped it up to keep it warui. 
After the milking was done, the milk was put in a tin churn and the 
churn was wrapped tq keep it from slopping over. When we camped 
at noon to let the cattle feed, mother used to bring out the mush 
and milk. Why, it was too good for poor folks. Sister Phebe 
never liked it ; she said it always made her so hungry. T never 
heard any one complain of a poor appetite while crossing the 
plains. Any kind of food was sweet except my pies. Bread and 
bacon was more delicious then than plum pudding or pound cake 
now. How environments change our tastes. 

The greatest hardship I passed through on our journey was 
on the day before we got to Laramie. The cattle were tired and 
foot-sore and the traveling was very hard, so father told us that 
morning we must all walk — no riding that day. I shall never 
forget that memorable walk — sand ankle deep to men and women 
and much deeper to the cattle and wagons. When we camped 
that night, we had traveled ten miles. I thought it was a thou- 
sand, and wished many times that day that I was where people 
didn't get tired. 

At last we came to the end of our long, tedious journey, and 


on the evening of October 15, 1849, we camped at the mouth of 
Emigration Canyon. Oh, what a glorious sight it was to look 
down the Valley of the Great Salt Lake ! 

The next morning we were up bright and early, and soon 
drove down. In the meantime Brother and Sister George String- 
him, old friends and neighbors in Springfield, who came to the 
Valley the year before, sent word to my parents to come co din- • 
ner, and to camp on their lot. Never was invitation more gladly 
accepted. Their little two-roomed adobe house stood on the 
corner where the Kenyon hotel now stands. 

That dinner — can I ever forget it — never before nor snice 
have I tasted anything like it. I remember everything we h.\d 
that day. There was a nice, juicy, fat beef pot-roast, baked 
squash, boiled potatoes, mashed turnips and boiled cabbage. It 
seemed very extravagant to have so many kinds of vegetables, 
but Sister Stringham wanted to give us a real treat, knowing that 
we had not eaten any kinds of vegetables since leaving home. 
They had raised the vegetables in their own garden that summer. 
Everything tasted as if it had been sweetened with sugar. It was 
a feast fit for the gods. I wonder how our fancy cooks now-a- 
(lays would like to get a full dinner in an open fire-place with wood 
for fuel and very few cooking utensils. That was the way we got 
our meals in those early days — no cook stoves then. 

In a very short time after we got into the Valley, Bro'cher 
Riley started for the gold mines. There was a large train being 
made up to go to California. They were going to take the -.outh- 
ern route that fall, as it was too late to cross the mountains. Mr. 
Pomroy, I think that was his name, offered to take men and boys 
through as teamsters. Brother Riley, with many others, got the 
gold fever. He coaxed and begged my parents to let hun go. 
Mother very reluctantly gave her consent. The morning he left, 
we were standing around the camp fire ; mother was looking very 
sad. He picked up a frying pan and said: "Mother, when I come 
home, I will bring this full of gold." I wondered how mother 
could' be so downhearted, when he was going to make us all rich 
so soon. Wise mother ! Poor boy, he little knew what he would 
have to pass through before coming home. 

It was a very hard journey to the coast, under the best of 
circumstances, and in crossing the desert Riley's company had a 
great many animals die, and had to leave many of their wagons 
right there. Their provisions got scarce and short rations and 
walking were the order of the day. Sometime before they got over 
the desert the water gave out and their thirst was terrible. The 
last day on the desert several men gave out and could go no far- 
ther, but Riley, with others, struggled on, their tongues so dry, 
and parched they could hardly speak. 

At last they came to a stream of clear, running water. Some 


older heads had cautioned the younger ones not to drink too much 
at first. What did Riley care for that advice. He laid down on 
the bank on his stomach nad drank, and drank, and drank, and 
when he tried to get up he could not. So he rolled over in the 
hot, burning sun and went to sleep, and when he awoke in two 
or three hours afterwards, he found the grass very wet all around 
him, and little rivulets of water running from all over his body. 
'That saved him from the serious results of over-drinking. 

On arriving at San Bernardino, the teamsters were dis- 
charged. From there they had to make their way up to San 
Francisco as best they could, and from there to the gold mines. 
When Riley left the train he took his gun. Before he had walked 
many days, it grew as large as a cannon, so one day he threw it 
down by the roadside, and said he would rather be killed than 
carry it any longer. He must have been a sorry sight — not seven- 
teen, very tall and bony, barefooted, clothes in rags, and his hat 
without a crown. 

On their way one day they stopped at a kind of eating house 
and found there was a looking glass, the first Riley had seen for 
months. He did not know himself. After that he no longer 
wondered why people laughed as he passed along. 

At last Riley got to the gold mines, and like thousands of 
others, he got gold and spent it. Being young and inexperienced, 
he did not know how to save. Mother waited and prayed for her 
boy to come back, for she was afraid he would get weaned away 
from home and never return. All our letters to him ran : "Riley, 
come home ; never mind whether you have gold or not, you are 
just as welcome without." "Mother wants you home." 

In two years he came back, and instead of a frying pan full 
of gold, he and all his belongings were on a little bit of a pony, 
his feet nearly touching the ground. He had grown a great deal 
during that time. How glad we all were to have him with us 
again. Mother's joy, was boundless, for she had her little flock 
once more together where she could hover over them all. Riley 
told us afterwards that he did not know how when he ever would 
have come back, had it not been for mother ; he said he never 
dreamed or thought of her without seeing her with a sorrowful 
countenance — a very unusual expression for mother. It seemed 
to draw him back. I am sure it was her faith and prayers that 
did it. 

We had been camped about two or three weeks on the 
Stringham lot when my parents began looking for a shelter for 
winter. There had been quite a few mud roofed adobe houses 
built during that summer and the summer before. Great Salt Lake 
City had been surveyed and laid out in wards. Each ward was 
fenced in with poles and in going from one to another we had 


to stop and let down the bars to pass through the gate. Of course, 
there were not as many wards then as now. 

After hunting days and days, father found a very small room 
owned by William Brown in the Fifteenth Ward. He had built a 
three-roomed house — a living room, bed room, and a little^ ten by 
ten kitchen with one door at the back, a small window in front, 
and a fire place. 

The Brown family (six in number) seemed to have more 
room than they needed, so they rented this back one to us. We 
were delighted to be so comfortably located. Our furniture con- 
sisted of a home-made bedstead — father made it. four parts made 
of poles, and it was corded with rope or raw hide, and with a 
straw bed and a feather bed on top of that, it was luxurious. 

Father, mother and baby George occupied that bed. The 
table was a chest, that we used for carrying our clothes in while 
crossing the plains, and was about four feet long and two feet 
wide, as near as I can remember. There were no trunks in those 
days. An old chair or two and a stool or two made up our fur- 
niture. When we had extra company we seated our guests on the 
bed and on the table. The cooking utensils were a bake kettle, a 
boiling kettle, and a spider. Mother always made such good 
bread and she baked it just to a turn. When she put me in charge 
of the cooking, the family all knew it for the bread was either 
burned or doughy. I never could get the knack of baking in those 
old iron-lidded bake kettles. 

Sister Phebe and myself had a bed room all to ourselves. It 
was our wagon box, set on the ground in the back yard. The 
winter of '49 and '50 was very cold and a great deal of snow fell. 
Many nights have we waded knee deep in snow to our little bed 
room. Mother made us just as comfortable as she could, but a 
straw bed on the floor of the wagon box and a canvas cover on 
the bows was not very inviting. We sometimes put a kettle of 
hot coals in the wagon to warm up to go to bed. It would be 
very pleasant for a while, but before morning, oh, my ! Then there 
was a big dog who found us out, and insisted on sharing our bed 
with him, so we had to barricade the entrance to keep him but. 

Our greatest trials were when father used to go to the can- 
yon for wood. He would sometimes go prepared to stay all night, 
thinking he could not get his load in one day ; then mother would 
have sister Phebe and myself come in the house and sleep with 
her. Oh, how we did enjoy it. There was not another bed like 
it in all the world, we thought. After we had all got snuggled 
down in that nice, warm bed, and just got into the land of nod, 
all at once we would hear, "Whoa, haw ! Buck, Whoa, Haw ! 
Wright !" and then we knew that father had come home with his 
load of wood. Our pleasant dreams were dispelled by our get- 
ting up and going out into our own little bed room. We wished 


the canyon longer and the wood farther off, but with all these little 
uiconveniences we were a happy family. 

Our requirements in those days were not so many as now. 
Sociability prevailed. Then our dressmakers' and milliners' bills 
were very small. Socially and financially we were all on an equal 
footing in the very busy days. Afternoon visits and dancing 
parties were the rage and these were the only amusements. 
Everybody danced, the young and the old, especially the old who 
had never danced before. They did it with zeal and devotion. No 
poetry of motion was thought of nor did we indulge in the mazy 
waltz ; just our quadrille dancing. Our ball dresses? Why, if we 
had a new calico once a year, and especially a gingham, we were 
delighted — all hand made by ourselves at home. In a few years 
the costumes and fashions of Babylon came here. How eagerly 
we followed them. 

Wheat flour was pretty scarce our first winter, so we often 
had to substitute buck-wheat flour. It seemed to be composed of 
grit and sand. How I did hate it, and do to this day. We had 
excellent meat. The old cattle that hauled the Saints over the 
plains on arriving here were turned out on the range, fatted up 
and they made good beef. 

While living in the little Brown room, mother sometimes 
had some of her old friends bring their knitting and spend the 
afternoon. Of course, she must have thought of it before or 
she could not have given them such a rare treat as she did. I 
have a faint recollection of the first course — think it was meat, 
potatoes, baked squash and a dish of stewed, dried peaches. These 
dried peaches were only brought out on great occasions. But 
when mother passed around the mince pie, oh, my, it was then, 
"Sister Judd, where did you get your ingredients; we have not 
tasted such pie since we left the States." Mother very modestly 
gave them her recipes. Beef was the foundation, mixed with 
pickled beets, chopped moderately fine, wild dried currants 
ground, cherries and service berries, native wild fruits, all well 
cooked before mixing, sweetened with the molasses which had 
been boiled down from the juice of the beets, seasoned with salt, 
pepper and ground allspice, chopped suet added to it give the 
required richness. The pie crust was shortened with beef drip- 
pings : not exactly puff paste, but it was delicious anyway. Who 
could have made such pies but mother ! She was a good cook and 
excelled in many dishes. 

After her children had all left the home nest, they nor their 
children could ever drop in to see her without seeing some 
tempting little morsel brought out. The house we spent the win- 
ter in was located on First South and Second West, and is still 
standing (1905), with several additions added. The little room 


we lived in has been enlarged. I never pass it without the old 
time comes over me. 

In the spring of '50 we moved and camped on our own lot 
— an acre and a quarter (the regulation size), which father 
bought. It cost one dollar and a quarter ; that was the price of 
lots then, located on Fourth West between First and Second South 
streets. Father built a board shanty for our living room, and 
two wagon boxes for our bed rooms. The shanty had three 
sides and an open front with a fire on the ground outside of the 
shanty to cook on. When it rained we had the full benefit and 
the horrid dust storms, if possible, were worse than the rain, 
with no place under cover. That summer father was getting ma- 
terial together to build in the fall. He made all the adobes him- 
self, and bought the lumber by doing mason work for other 
people. When he started our one-room story and a half, mud- 
covered house, he was the mason and had two splendid helpers — 
sister Phebe and myself. We were the mortar mixers and adobe 
carriers, and father said we were as good as a great many hod 
carriers who had waited on him in the States. Of course, we 
couldn't carry as big loads, but we took great interest in our 
work and stuck to it manfully. We realized that when it was 
finished we would have a good, warm room in winter and a nice, 
cool one in summer. 

When our house was finished that fall we were very proud of 
it and felt that we were half owners in it, for hadn't we worked 
just as hard as father? After our day's work was done, we used 
to count the adobes to see how fast it was going up, and it seemefl 
to go awfully slow. However, as everything must have an end, 
our house got to the roofing point, and the hod carriers were dis- 
charged with thanks. The less said the better about the archi- 
tectural beauties of that house. Suffice it to say, there was one 
good sized room below and one above in the half story; medium 
windows below and very small ones above ; a mud roof — very 
good in dry weather — and when it rained and leaked, th^ • 
nothing to do but put on more mud. These roofs are much cooler 
than a single roof. The ceilino- was boards laid on the joists. 

Phebe and myself occupied the upstairs room ; the entrance 
was outside up a ladder, and we became quite expert climbing that 
ladder. This was a great improvement on a wagon box bed 
room anyway. In a very few years father improved it by ceiling 
it over head above and below, and building a kitchen, with stairs 
to go up on the inside, and in a few years more built two wings. 

My parents had brought all kinds of seeds with them from 
the States from a locust tree to pepper grass. They planted a 
garden that spring. How we did revel in vegetables of all kinds 
that summer ; especially do I remember the great, luscious water- 
melons. I was very fond of them, but sister Phebe seemed to have 


an insatiable appetite for them, in fact, more than father thought 
was necessary, so surreptitiously she helped herself quite fre- 
quently. Between the house and the melons there was a corn 
patch. In that she would go and devour watermelons to her 
heart's content. Father often said that the boys were stealing 
the melons constantly and he could not catch them. In the fall, 
after the corn stalks were cut down, young melon vines were 
coming up all through the patch. It was a great mystery to father, 
but none to "Sissey," for she had planted the seeds and rinds 
after her marauding. The evidence of her guilt stared her in the 
face, but it didn't seem to trouble her conscience. I don't think 
she explained the mystery to father for a considerable time after. 

In those days we could have two free baths a week by taking 
a walk of two miles out to the Warm Springs. It was a large 
pool of warm sulphur water, flowing constantly out of the moun- 
tain. President Young made the rule that Tuesdays and Fri- 
days should be women's days, and no "peeping Toms" were al- 
lowed near the place. The other days were the men's. The bath- 
ing was delightful. It was great fun for a lot of girls to go out 
there together to play and splash in the water for hours. The 
banks of the pool were our clressing rooms, without any kind of 
shelter. We have gone in winter in a sleigh and dressed in the 
same old outdoors room, with snow on the ground. Oh, my! 
didn't we dress quickly. Anyway, we did have bare ground to 
stand on, as the steam melted the snow quite a little distance 
around the spring. 

In those days, dry goods and groceries were very scarce, but 
merchants began hauling wagon loads of goods over the plains 
from the States. A few days before the train of goods arrived, 
word was sent in when it would be here, so everybody could be 
getting their gold dust ready. That was the exchange then. There 
was considerable dust brought here from California. After the 
train got in, and the goods opened, everybody outside was wait- 
ing when the door opened — and then what an awful rush! Do- 
mestic, bleached and unbleached, with calico brought a dollar a 
yard ; cotton thread, twenty-five cents a spool, and only one of a 
family was allowed a certain amount. Many women used to get 
their neighbors to buy for them after their own amount was ex- 
hausted. A very excusable mode of cheating. 

One day the word was passed around the city, that a wagon 
load of sugar wouUl soon be in, and mother made up her mind 
to have one pound of it, for that was all the merchants would sell 
to one family. When it arrived mother gave Sissey (that was 
what we called Phebe then) a dollar (one dollar a pound was 
the price) and a little two-quart tin pail. The store on Main 
Street was about two miles from home, and was situated in a 
little one-room log house with a front and back door. When she 


got to it there was the usual big crowd around the place, and 
when the doors were opened there was the usual rush. Sissey got 
into the jam and being young and slender was carried right 
through and nearly squeezed to death. When Sissey came home 
she was a sorry sight — her dress nearly torn off, her hat all 
jammed up and the tin pail mashed together, and not one ounce of 
sugar ! Of course, we were disappointed, but mother cheerfully 
said, "It might have been worse." 

The first year is generally the hardest for newcomers. The 
year of '48 was called the cricket famine, and many suffered the 
pangs of hunger. That was the year before we came. There was 
a Norwegian family living near us. When asked what they had 
lived on, they said: '■\^ell. ve lived off grass and veeds all sum- 
mer." How eagerly the sego lily roots were dug and eaten to 
satisfy hunger. How soon we forget these discomforts when 
they are over ! Had it not been for the sea gulls that came in 
great flocks and ate up the crickets, many people might have 
starved. But they saved the crops. 

The next famine came in '50. This one was called the grass- 
hopper famine. The insects came in millions and ate up every- 
thing green. People had to fight them constantly. In the spring 
of '67 we had another siege of them. They came thicker than 
ever and seemed more voracious, for they stripped trees of all 
their foliage. The air was black with them. I don't remember 
whether it was at that time, or before, but all at once they flew up 
and over to Salt Lake and into Salt Lake and were drowned. 
Myriads of them were washed up in great banks for miles ind 
miles along the shore. How plain the hand of the Lord can be 
seen in their destruction. 

Mother was an indefatigable worker in the Relief Society of 
the Fifteenth Ward. In the winter of 1857, at the time of the 
Echo Canyon War, she voluntarily went through the ward get- 
ting contributions of warm clothing for the brethren who were in 
the mountains and sadly in need of them. She sat up many 
nights knitting woolen stockings to protect them from the in- 
clemency of the weather. She gave her time and .vhat little means 
she could spare for their comfort. 

Father shared in the trials and hardships of the brethren 
at that time in protecting us from the invasion of the L^. S. Army, 
who were sent here to subdue the people. The soldiers were kept 
out of the Territory until the next summer and when they did 
pass through Salt Lake City it was a deserted village — not one 
family was left in it, only a few men left who were detailed to 
burn up every house in case the soldiers attempted to make per- 
manent quarters therein. 

In the meantime (in the early spring of 1858), President 
Young had sent messages to everv town north of Lehi to t.'ike 


their families and all they owned and go south without any ex- 
pectation of ever returning. Oh, what a sacrifice it was ! After 
struggling to get a little home and a few little comforts around 
them, it was hard for the people to leave all for a dark, uncertain 
future. The Saints, scattered all through the settlements in the 
southern part of the Territory, did not know how soon tliey 
would also be told to start out again, and stop they knew not 

I can never forget that great eventful move south. Brother 
Riley was married and had a little one-room house in Lehi, so 
father and mother moved there. It is easily imagined what con- 
veniences and comforts they enjoyed during their stay. Presi- 
dent Young made arrangements for his family to move to Prove 
and had some board shanties put up for their use. Hiram Claw- 
son, to whom I had been recently married, being in his employ, 
was given two little rooms and a covered wagon. It was the 
same old '49 bed-room for me. Well, after packing all of orr 
household belongings, the loads were sent down a day ahead of 
the family. Ellen, who was my husband's first wife, and her four 
children, myself and my three children were loaded into a thre't- 
=;eated spring wagon and arrived in Provo one spring day, after 

(To he continued.) 


When every pool in Eden was a mirror 

That unto Eve her dainty charms proclaimed, 
She went undraped without a single fear or 

Thought that she had need to be ashamed. 

'Twas only when she'd eaten of the apple 
That she became inclined to be a prude, 

And found that evermore she'd have to grapple 
With much debated problems of the nude. 

Thereafter she devoted her attention, 

Her time and all her money to her clothes ; 

And that was the beginning of convention, 
And modesty, at least, so I suppose. 

Reactions come about in fashion's recent ; 

Now girls conceal so little from the men 
That it would seem, to get back to the decent. 

Some serpent ought to pass the fruit again. 

— Yale Record. 

A Quaker Girrs Dream, 

Sabina L. Baxter. 

I dreamed I was on my way to school, when suddenly I no- 
ticed a great crowd upon a green park-like place. People were 
hurrying to and fro, and when I asked what all this commotion 
was about, a girl said: • 

"Why, do you not know ? It's measuring day, and the Lord s 
Angel has come to see how much our souls have grown since last 
measuring day." , , r 

"Measuring day," said I, "measuring souls? I never heard of 

such a thing." 

I began to ask questions, but the girl hurried on. After a 
little while I let myself be pressed along with the crowd to the 
green park. 

There in the center, on a kind of throne under the green 
elm was the most glorious and beautiful being I ever saw. His 
clothes were of shining white, and he had the kindest yet most 
serious face I ever beheld. By his side was a tall golden rod, 
fastened upright in the ground, with curious marks, at regular 
intervals, from top to bottom. Over it, in golden scroll, were the 
words, "The measure of a perfect man." 

The Angel held in his hand a large book in which he wrote 
the measurements, as the people came up at the calling of their 
names in their turns. The instant each one touched the golden 
measure, a most wonderful thing happened : no one could escape 
the terrible accuracy of that strange rod. Each one shrank or in- 
creased to his true dimensions— his spiritual dimensions, as I soon 
learned— for it was an index of the soul-growth which was shown 
in this mysterious way. 

The first few who were measured after I came 1 did not know, 
but soon the name of Elizabeth Darrow was called ; she is presi- 
dent of our Society, and she is in ever so many other societies and 
clubs, too, and I thought, surely E. Darrow's measure will be very 
hicrh indeed But as she stood by the rod, the insmnt she touched 
itlhe seemed to grow shorter and shorter, and the Angel s face 
grew very serious as he said : "This would be a soul of high stat- 
ure if only the zeal for outside works, which can be seen of man 
had not checked the lowly, secret graces of humility and trust and 
patience under little daily trials. These, too, are needed for per- 
fect soul-growth." , 

I pitied Elizabeth Darrow as she moved away with such a 
sad and surprised face, to make room for the next. It was poor, 
thin little Betsy Lines, the seamstress. I never was more aston- 


ished in my life than when she took her stand by the rod, and im- 
mediately increased in height till her mark was higher than any I 
had seen before, and her face shone so that I thought it must have 
caught its light from the Angel who smiled so gloriously that I 
envied poor little Betsy, whom before I had rather looked down 
„iipon. And as the Angel wrote in the book, he said : "Blessed are 
the poo'r in spirit, for their's is the kingdom of heaven." 

The next was Lillian Edgar, who dresses so beautifully that 
I have often wished I had such clothes and so much money. The 
_ Angel looked sadly at her measure, for it was very low — so low 
that Lillian turned pale as death — and her beautiful clothes no ofie 
noticed at ali, for they were quite overshadowed by the glittering 
robes of the bright Angel beside her. And the Angel said in a 
solemn tone: "Oh, child, why take thought of raiment? Let your 
adorning be not that of outward appearance nor the putting on of 
apparel, but let it be the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which 
is, in the sight of God, of great price. Thus only canst thou grow 
like the Ma'ster." 

Old Jerry, the janitor, came next — poor, old, clumsy Jerry. 
But as. he hobbled up the steps the Angel's face fairly blazed with 
Hght, and he smiled on him and led him to the rod; and behold, 
Jerry's measure was higher than that of any of the others. The 
Angel's voice rang out so loud and clear that we all heard him 
saying: "He that humbleth himself shall be exalted," 

xAnd then, oh. my name came next ! And I trembled so that I 
could hardly reach the Angel, but he put his arm around me and 
helped me to stand by the rod. As soon as I touched it, I felt my- 
self growing shorter and shorter, and though I stretched and 
strained every nerve to be as tall as possible, I could only reach 
Lillian's mark — Lillian's, the lowest of all — and I had been a mem- 
ber of the Church for two years ! 

I grew crimson for shame, and whispered to the Angel : "Oh, 
giye me another chance before you mark me in the book as low as 
this. Tell me how to grow. I will do it all so gladly, only do not 
])ut this mark down." 

The Angel shook his head sadly. "The record must go down 
as it is, my child. May it be higher when I come next time. This 
rule will help thee. Whatsoever thou doest, do it heartily as to 
the Lord, in singleness of heart as unto Christ." 

And with that I burst into tears, and suddenly awakened, to 
find myself crying. But, oh, I shall never forget that dream. I 
shall never forget my humiliating mark! 

A Friendly Rhyme in Honor of E. Wesley 
Smith and Family. 

Lillie T. Freeze. 

You are saying farewell to the ocean, 

The seagull and sands of the shore, 

To the fisherman's boats and the sea shells, 

To the spray and the ocean's roar ; 

To the storms and their wild commotion. 

To the rainbow's hues on the foam, 

Creating a memory picture 

To carry where'er you may roam. 

To the song birds and lovely flowers. 
To the hum of the wild honey-bee, 
To the trailing vines and the palm trees. 
As far as the eye can see : 
To the purple and gold o'er the islands, 
To the glorious tints o'er the hills. 
To the calm and balm of the climate, 
That the soul of all nature thrills. 

To the peace and rest of "Deseret", 
With its orange and green lemon trees. 
Where sweet odors are wafted over 
On the wings of the mountain breeze. 

But you are going back to your mountain home. 

To its canyons, rts rocks and its rills. 

To the home of your happy childhood, 

This thought with gratitude thrills ; 

To the arms of a loving mother, 

To brothers and sisters kind. 

These ties to the heart of a rover. 

Forever to homeland will bind — 

And you're taking — let's count o'er the treasures — 

There must be a wonderful store. 

To fill all your thoughts in the future. 


There's the love of the Saints in the branches, 
Great respect from mountain to shore, 
For kindness and thoughtful attention 
Made manifest o'er and o'er. 
In seasons of sickness and trial 
You've extended a helping hand, 
And been as a friend and a brother 
In the hearts of this ocean band. 
With smiling suggestion and counsel 
Have you helped o'er some difficult place, 
Inspiring with faith, hope and courage. 
And charity's saving grace. 

And the beautiful truths of the gospel, 
You have sown with a willing hand, 
Some time there will be a rich harvest 
From seed sown in this fair land. 
In the hearts of the little children 
You've implanted a love for the truth 
That will guide and direct their footsteps 
O'er the perilous pathways of youth. 

To the aged and poor you have given relief, 
While seeking for rest and health — 
To all have you ministered graciously, 
Though in poverty or in wealth. 

So we have every reason to miss you. 
And regret that a parting must come 
At the close of a useful mission, 
With its duties so faithfully done. 

And we say, God bless you, our brother, 
Your children and charming wife, 
And grant you, in all the future, 
A happy, successful life. 

A tribute from the Relief Society of Santa Monica, 
February, 1919. 

An Indian Story. 

We present to our readers a vivid and simple narrative re- 
lated by our well-known Lamanite Canadian convert, Elder J.^ J. 
Galbreath, whose own life and conversion is full of dramatic in- 
terest and spiritual testimony. 

This story was told by Curley Bear, to Elders Frank Warner 
and J. J. Galbreath, on the 13th day of March, 1917, while they 
were acting as special missionaries on the South Piegan Reserva- 

"I know you are presenting the truth, and was told four 
or five years ago that there was a book coming in our midst and 
that you people were going to deliver us the truth ; and by that 
description and Mr. Galbreath's actions we must admit the truth 
that this book (Book of Mormon) is our history that you bring 
us. Now I feel impressed to relate to you a story in connection 
with this. 

"In the fall of 1913, in September, I had a friend. White 
Calf, a very ('ear friend who lived on the North Piegan Reserva- 
tion, who has been knov/n as a Christian Indian ; years back all 
his ancestors were the same way, and have always worshiped 
Deity. He said during the fall of 1913 he was riding in Calgary, or 
some place near Calgary. On his way the earth shook under his 
horse and a terrific wind arose. He looked up to the sky where a 
cloud rested about 20 feet ahead of him. The cloud vanished ani 
there stood a personage four or five feet high who said : 'My Father 
has sent me here to reveal a few things to you,. You have been* very 
faithful in vour prayers, and our heavenly Father feels very sorry 
for your people, and you being a believer in Christ we want to tell 
you some things. The Father is coming to preserve this race of 
people, and you are in the safest place of the earth along these 
Rocky Mountains. Now will you continue to obey our laws which 
I am about to give you?' The Indian said, 'Yes.' The person- 
age .said, 'Get off your horse and picket him and come out over 
here and undress.' There was a little skiff of snow on the ground 
and the chief said, 'It is quite a cold, chilly morning.' But they 
kicked the snow away and the personage said to the Indian, 'Take 
that dirt and rub on your body; that is one of the laws given 
you,' which he did. 'Now close your eyes.' 

"The chief obeyed and felt himself going through the skies 
until all of a sudden his feet hit the earth and he was told to open 
his eyes. There, on the pinnacle or high mountain (somewhere 
near Calgary as near as I could understand), which mountain the 


Indians claim has not been climbed by man, when he opened 
his eyes there stood before him a larger personage. 

"The small being said, *Do you know this man?' He .said, 
'No.' 'Well, we will call hirn Thunder.' 

"The large n:an said, 'Do not fear me.' The Indian replied, 
'No, I am not afraid. I am just chilly.' The personage said, 'We 
vill have heat.' 

"The snow disappeared for a space of 20 feet and they stood 
in the center of the green grass and heat came up like a furnace. 
Then the guide said, 'Look across there. We are going to reveal 
a few things that will come to pass in the future.' There was 
shown to the chief the old country and the sea, and across the sea 
in the old country were bodies piled up on one another, great ex- 
plosions happening in cities and the highest civilized nations 
murdering one another in cold blood. His guide explained : 'The 
same has happened to this people which brought you to your 
state; through your disobedience to the laws. Your people have 
had wars like this. I will not allow the white race to exterminate 
each other entirely. You see your prayers have been answered 
which makes known to you that Deity exists. So go back and 
be honest, true, chaste and benevolent to your fellow man. Tell 
this to the Black foot nation. They will not believe you, but you 
are to obey.' He was permitted to close his eyes and to return 
to his horse and told to return the next fall to the same place and 
at the same time. 

"So he returned the next fall to the same place and the 
same cloud and the same figure appeared. He went through the 
same performance as before but did not undress. He had been 
faithful and true and was told to close his eyes, and when he 
opened them he found himself sitting in a cloud with the earth 
beneath him. There appeared a big, fine figure. The small figure 
said, 'Do you know this man?' He said, 'No.' 'Well, we will call 
him Lightning, and I am called the Sun. Now look up. See 
that eagle flying there? Well, you want to catch him and take 
his feathers and wear them in your hat and hair. Look down. 
See that large light right on the north side of the lake? You 
dig down two feet in the earth and you will come to some white 
dirt, like chalk, and some coarser. Take that also. That your 
v/ife must use, and the fine dirt you use and keep it on you. The 
element in this dirt is for a purpose.' Here some of the dirt 
was exhibited as the story was told. 'Whenever an explosion or 
calamity is to come on a city that you might be in, or any other 
Indians, this white earth shall be a protection unto you. We 
travel the world over, and we sometimes make mistakes as the 
Indians have changed their customs of dress, ,so it is hard to 
detect them from other men. You are a chosen people and we 


are going- to protect this race. So you may return to your people 
and explain this to them, but you must be prayerful and faithful 
and deliver this message to your people. They will not believe 
you, but you must obey this law. This is all for a purpose.' 

"The next fall was in 1915, and the chief went to the ,same 
place and at the same time. 

"In the fall of 1915 he went through the same performance 
and took the dirt and covered his body with it. He was told to 
close his eyes and travel with the small figure, who told him he 
would show him where the wicked Indians went to. He also 
told him the Indians had friends amongst the white people who 
were dear to them. 

"So they traveled on to the place of departed spirits, where 
he was allowed to open his eyes and look. He saw thousands 
of Indians and other people who looked wicked an-a who were 
making no progress. The figure said, 'Close your eyes and go 
on to the next place, or to heaven.' He was permitted to open 
his eyes, and there he saw a better class. There were a few 
flowers and a little moix progress. He closed his eyes and re- 
turned to his horse and was given instructions the same as be- 
fore, to pray and be faithful and the next fall to go direct West, 
clear to the Rocky Mountains, and was told to bring with him 
his wife as witness. So he went to the mountains. Before he 
got there he was told to tell his wife of what was going to 
happen. He invited other people, but they would not go. He 
found lots of feed and water and unhitched his team there. While 
he was doing so the same little figure appeared and was help- 
ing him with his horses. He said to his wife, 'There is the little 
man I told you about who came to meet me. Hurry up and 
pitch your tepee.' The little figure said, T am going to take 
your husband for a long trip. He cannot take his body this 
time as we are going to my Father's house. We are going to 
leave his body here. You must keep it well wrapped and pro- 
tect it and do not be alarmed. He will be dead for two days. 
When the body quivers it is a sign that the spirit is leaving it.' 
So he felt himself leaving the tepee and body, and he looked 
back and felt the same as before. He saw his body there. They 
traveled until they got to the first Heaven with the wicked 
Indians. He looked all over it and was then permitted to go on 
tc the next one, and the figure said, 'This will show you the 
different heavens you will attain by being faithful.' Coming to 
the second Heaven they found things brighter and a little more 
progression there. So they traveled a long time at a good rate 
of speed, but his eyes were closed. Finally he was told to open 
his eyes. There were flowers blooming and a beautiful building 
covering a large space, and this was pointed out as his Father's 


Mansion, the cornice of which appeared to his eyes like a chand- 
aHer with diamonds hanging around the corners, so brilHant he 
could hardly look at it, and the people's countenances were so 
bright that he could hardly look at them. There came to him 
a woman. The little figure said, 'You are permitted to talk to 
this woman and she to you.' In this place the buffalo and the 
lion were all playing together in harmony. The woman's coun- 
tenance was very bright. She said, 'Do you know me?' He 
said, 'No.' She said, T am a Blackfoot woman. We must labor 
to lift up our people to this sphere. We must work for them. 
You can do wonderful work for our people and the Son will 
give you further instructions.' The little man then told him this 
was the high Heaven where all people could go by being faith- 
ful and true to their God. These things were shown to him as 
evidence of a book that was going to come amongst them. 'There 
will be a book delivered amongst your people giving you instruc- 
tions which comes from an unpopular religion ; but the rules and 
laws are for your safety and protection.' He also told him to 
obey the commandments which were in this book, but he must 
help himself also. 'Close your eyes and we will return to your 
family,' which he did and was told to go to his people and tell 
them about this experience, which was surely true. 

"Curley Bear showed the people present some of the first 
earth which he received on the north side of the lake. His wife, 
Whitecalf and Curley Bear could neither read nor write; and 
they told the story in their own simple way. But it was im- 
pressive, and it was true." 


How are you preparing for the coming season ? What plans 
are you making about fixing up the premises outside and the 
house inside for hot weather? How are you going to safeguard 
the health of your children ? Have you given any thought to the 
school and playground? Are the women of the neighborhood 
doing anything to get it in good shape ? Are you letting the chil- 
dren share in the fruits of their labors in the home and garden ? 
What are you going to do toward conserving food? Have you 
given one thought to the summer recreation? 

The Jews. 

The present physical, moral, and social condition of the 
Jews must be a miracle. We can come to no other conclusion. 
Had they continued from the Christian era down to the present 
hour in some such national state in which we find the Chinese, 
v/alled oflF from the rest of the human family, and by their sel- 
fishness as a nation, and their repulsion of alien elements, re- 
sisting every assault from without, in the shape of hostile inva- 
sion, and from an overpowering national pride forbidding" the 
introduction of new and foreign customs, we should not see so 
much miracle interwoven with their existence. But this is not 
their state — far from it. They are neither a united nor an in- 
dependent nation, nor a parasitic province. They are peeled and 
scattered into fragments ; but broken globules of quicksilver, 
instinct with a cohesive power, ever claiming affinity and, ever 
ready to amalgamate. Geography, arms, genius, politics, and 
foreign help do not explain their existence ; time and climate 
and customs equally fail to unravel it. None of these are, or 
« can be, springs of their perpetuity. They have spread over every 
part of the habitable globe ; have lived under the rein of every 
dynasty ; they have used every tongue, and lived in every latitude. 
The snows of Lapland have chilled, and the .suns of Africa have 
scorched them. They have drank of the Tiber, the Thames, the 
Jordan, the Mississippi. In every country, in every latitude and 
longitude, we find a Jew. 

It is not so with any other race. Empires the most illustrious 
have fallen, and buried men that constructed them ; but the Jew 
has lived among the ruins, a living monument of indestructibility. 
Persecution has unsheathed the sword and lighted the faggot ; 
Papal superstition and Moslem barbarism have smitten them with 
unspeakable ferocity; penal rescripts and deep prejudice have 
visited on them the most ungenerous debasement ; and, notwith- 
standing all, they survive. 

Like their own bush on Mount Horeb, Israel has continued 
in fiames, but unconsumed. — They are the aristocracy of script- 
ure — sets of coronets — princes in degradation. A Babylonian, 
a Theban, a Spartan, an Athenian, a Roman, are names known 
to history only; their sha'^ows alone haunt the world and flicker 
its tablets. A Jew walks every street, and dwells in every capitol, 
traverses every exchange, and relieves the monotony of the na- 
tions of the earth. The race has inherited the heirloom of im- 
mortality, incapable of extinction or amalgamation. Like 
streamlets from a common head, and composed of water's pe- 


culiar nature, they have flowed along every stream without 
blending with it or receiving its flavors, and traversed the sur- 
face of the globe amid the lapse of many centuries distinct — 
alone. The Jewish race at this day is, perhaps, the most striking 
seal of the sacred oracles. There is no possibility of account- 
ing for their perpetual isolation, their depressed but distinct 
being, on any ground save those revealed in the record of truth. — 
Eraser's Magasine. — Times and Seasons, Page 520. City of 
Nauvoo, 111.,' Monday, May 1. 1844. 


To keep white crepe de chine v^ists from turning yellow: 
After washing, wrap the waist in a Turkish towel overnight and 
in the morning it will be damp enough to iron. • If done in this 
way white crepe de chine waists will keep the dead white of new 
material. Hanging in the air is what makes them yellow. 

To restore flesh-colored crepe de chine waists and underwear : 
Put a piece of red crepe paper in the rinse water. Test the color • 
with a piece of cheesecloth and when of the right shade immerse 
the waist in the colored water. 

To clean kid gloves : Put on hands, dip in soap solution, 
and then wash with gasoline. After washing, pass the gloves 
through a wringer between two clean cloths, pull them in shape, 
and hang in the air to dry. After drying, dust white gloves with 
powdered pipe clay, chalk, or magnesia. 

Once a month, in the evening, pour a cupful of kerosene 
down the sink drain, and next morning follow it with a pailful 
of boiling water. The kerosene dissolves the grease from the sides 
of the drain pipe and the boiling water carries it away. 

Tablecloths and napkins will last longer if when ironed they 
are folded in three parts one week and four the next ironing. 

Try putting a teaspoonful of salt in the starch on wash day. 
The clothes will not be so apt to stick to the line, neither will they 
lose their stiffness. 

Pin small articles on a towel before taking out doors. It will 
take but a moment to fasten the towel to the line and will save 
space and clothespins. 

Narrow strips of rubber cut from worn out hot-water bags or 
rubbers make fine weather strips for drafty doors or windows. 

Why not shade your back porch with a screen of lima beans? 
The crop may surprise you. 


At the recent meeting of the Executive Board of the National 
Council of Women, held in Washington, D. C, many interesting 
subjects were discussed. Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer, Chairman of 
the Committee on Reconstruction and Permanent Peace, presented 
resolutions favoring the League of Nations. In these resolutions, 
it was stated that at this most critical time in human history, the 
future of the world depends largely upon the decision of the plain 
people of the United States. Every patriotic, responsible citizen 
is called upon to study carefully the proposed constitution for a 
League of Nations and to remember that though it is not a per- 
fect document and needs some amendments, the failure to secure a 
two-thirds vote of ratificaiton for it in the Senate, will mean that 
we have lost the fruits of victory. 

"Most of the critics of the League fail to recognize that in a 
world now become organic, it is impossible for us ever again to 
separate our fortunes from those of the rest of mankind. 

"We believe it is important to emphasize the necessity of the 
Covenant as an integral part of the Peace Settlement, and to op- 
pose all efforts to postpone consideration of it. It is now that the 
decision must be made. Revolution and anarchy are sure to follow 
a failure to achieve a League which shall be a guarantee for the 
carrying out of the provisions of the settlement. 

"We urge local study classes, mass meetings and in- 
dividual letters sent to Senators conveying an expression of your 
convictions on this momentous question." 

Mrs. Hussey spoke for her committee on the Legal Status 
of Women, and offered resolutions which were adopted. These 
resolutions stated that women at the present time, in practically all 
countries, are requested, upon marriage to aliens, to relinquish 


their own citizenship and accept that of their husbands; this is 
unjust to women who have as strong a love of country as men. 

It was resolved that no distinction shall be made by any court 
in matters of naturalization of aliens whether in declaration of 
intention on final application or proof or otherwise, because of the 
sex of such alien, and that women shall have the same rights as 
men in deciding the matter of their citizenship. 

Dr. Kate Waller Barrett gave a verbal report of her most 
interesting work in behalf of immigration, and outlined briefly 
the plans of the government in caring for immigrants. She was 
leaving for France immediately, to attend the Peace Conference, 
as a member of Jane Addams' delegates from the Woman's Peace 

Mrs. Morgan brought up the housing problem in Washing- 
ton and it was decided that the National Council would urge upon 
the President and Congress that wherever large bodies of women 
are employed in the government service the conditions under 
which they live shall be under the immediate supervision and con- 
trol of women with adequate authority; and also that since the 
government has erected in Washington, buildings housing 2,000 
women at the present, that the policy and administration of these 
government residents be placed in the hands of women. 

The matter of physical training and wholesome recreation for 
children and adults was discussed. Attention was called to the 
fact that many men and boys were unfit for full military service 
because of bad physical condition. It was decided that the Council 
use its influence toward securing state and federal legislation for 
establishing in the schools a universal system of physical educa- 
tion, including instruction in the principles of health, periodic 
physical examinations, and health giving activities. A committee 
was appointed to further these aims through co-operation with 
other interested agencies. 

Mrs. James H. Moyle of Utah was named on this committee. 

The U. S. Government Employment service, which has been 
operating during the war, formed another subject for considera- 
tion, and it was decided that the National Council of Women 
should use their best efforts to secure the legislation required to 
establish the U. S. Employment service within the Department of 
Labor on a permanent national basis. 

The meeting of the Better Film committee of the National 
Council of Women was held in New York, April 24. The General 
Boards of the Relief Society and Y. L. M. I. A. were invited to 
send delegates to this conference. Miss Marie Haselman, Presi- 
dent of the Relief Society in the Eastern States mission, repre- 
sented the General Board of the Relief Society, and Miss Louie 


Sloan, who is at present laboring as a missionary in the Eastern 
States, represented the Y. L. M. I. A. 

It was decided at this meeting to organize a National Federa- 
tion of Better Film Workers. The object of this federation will 
be to work for the presentation of better pictures in our own 
country as well as abroad. The film unit going to France, under 
the direction of this committee, will aim to teach sanitation and 
hygiene. It will also show the industrial conditions prevailing on 
this side of the sea, and will endeavor to bring back the smile on 
the faces of the children in Europe. It will exhibit children's 
classics, and will have for the deepest meaning, the thought to 
bring the women of all the world together in the spirit of service. 

It was stated that ten million pictures are in motion in France 
all the time, that every film is carefully selected by competent 
people, and all undesiraljle features, such as ladies smoking, elope- 
ments, men starting to drink, etc., etc., are eliminated. The com- 
mittee will work for the same supervision in America. 

In the organization of this federation. Miss Sarah M. McLel- 
land of the General Board of the Relief Society was selected as 
the Fourth Vice-President. 

Women all over the U. S. are rejoicing over the fact that 
national suffrage for women was endorsed by the House of Rep- 
resentatives for the second time on May 21, when the Susan B. 
Anthony amendment resolution was adopted by a vote of 304 to 
89. Supporters of the measure immediately arranged to carry 
their fight to the Senate, where, although twice defeated at the 
last session, they are confident of obtaining the necessary two- 
thirds vote. 

The so-called "wet" forces are trying venomously to impugn 
the motives and character of the Prohibition leaders. The New 
York World has given itself wickedly to the character-traducing 
policy. It would seem that the "wet" forces have even won Presi- 
dent Wilson partly to their side, as he has asked to have light 
wines and beer set aside from the National Prohibition law. There 
are, it is hoped, enough wise and sane Senators and Representa- 
tives in Congress to carry the prohibition law through.. When the 
women of the country get the vote they will see to it if necessary 
that the law is enforced. 

Elder John C. Cutler, Jr., has prepared a very interesting and 
charming leaflet giving an account of his trip to Rotterdam in the 
Hague just before the opening of the war. \\'e commeu'l the story 
to our readers. 



Nurse School. 

The commencement exercises of the ReHef Society Nurse 
School were held on Friday evening, May 23, 1919, in the Relief 
Society reception rooms. The following program was given : 

Hymn, "Oh Ye Mountains High." 

Opening prayer Mrs. Julina L. Smith 

Soprano Solo (Selected) Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward 

Remarks Miss Ruth Lewis 

Address to Graduates Bishop John Wells 

Solo Prof. A. C. Lund 

"Ideals In Nursing" Mrs. Louetta Brown 

Awarding of Certificates to Graduates. .Pres. Emmeline B. Wells 

In her opening remarks. Miss Ruth Lewis, who has been the 
regular teacher for the course, explained that the work had been 
largely theoretical, and that those receiving certificates realized 
fully their limitations in the nursing field. She stated that the 
students had had courses in anatomy, nursing technique, bacteri- 
ology and dietetics, and that lectures had been given in obstetrics, 
contagious diseases, care of children, etc. 

Bishop John Wells, of the Presiding Bishopric, for many 
years Superintendent of the Latter-day Saints Hospital, gave an 
address full of practical suggestions to the class. He urged upon 
them the importance of following out the orders of physicians, 
and the necessity of being resourceful and helpful in the various 
homes where they will labor. He especially urged the importance 
of cheerfulness and optimism on the part of all who serve in the 
sick room. 

Ideals in Nursing was the subject of a very interesting paper 
given by Miss Louetta Brown, a member of the class. 

President Emmeline B. Wells and Counselor Clarissa S. 
Williams addressed the gathering. Mrs. Williams gave a short 
sketch of nursing in the Relief Society, and called attention to the 
fact that these nurses graduating had cheerfully signed contracts 
to give a stipulated amount of volunteer service in their various 

President Wells urged the class to cultivate faith, stating that 
this is one of the best assets for any person who deals with those 
who are afflicted. 

The opening prayer was offered by Counselor Julina L. 
Smith and closing prayer by Elder Rudger Clawson. Mrs. Lizzie 
Thomas Edward and Prof. A. C. Lund gave vocal solos which 


were greatly appreciated. Mrs. Williams, who is chairman of the 
Nurse Committee, was chairman of the evening. 

Certificates were awarded by President Emmeline B. Wells 
to the following: 


Miss Esther Allen, Hyrum, Utah ; Miss Zina Allen, Hyrum, 
Utah ; Miss Leola Anderson, Vernal, Utah ; Miss Louetta Brown, 
Salt Lake City, Utah ; Miss Lucile Barlow, Bountiful. Utah ; Miss 
Lillian Burnham, Salt Lake City, Utah ; Miss Corley Coombs, Salt 
Lake City, Utah ; Miss Verna Cole, Preston, Idaho ; Miss Jessie 
De Freize St. Johns, Arizona ; Miss Celia Eldridge, Woods Cross, 
Utah ; Miss Leone Fackrell, Woods Cross, Utah ; Miss Abbie 
Hancock, Blanding, Utah; Mrs. Ella Larsen, Nephi, Utah; Mrs. 
Phoebe Lundberg Salt Lake City, Utah ; Mrs. Nellie Muir, Salt 
Lake City, Utah ; Mrs. M. C. Melville, Salt Lake City, Utah ; Mrs. 
Louise Skog, Salt Lake City, Utah ; Mrs. Marie Rogers, Blanding, 
Utah ; Miss Rosa Tillack, x^lberta, Canada ; Mrs. Mary Truman, 
Enterprise, Utah ; Mrs. Ethel Varley, Vineyard, Utah ; Miss 
Emma Williams Taylorsville, Utah. 

Millard Stake. 

Mrs. Emma Watts, of Kanosh, was fatally injured in an auto- 
mobile accident on April 26, while on her way to Relief Society 
union meeting, and passed away the following day. She was a 
faithful and energetic worker in the organization, and will be 
greatly missed by her co-laborers. 

Tooele Stake. 

Has sent 100 per cent annual dues for 1919. 

Malad Stake. 

In the recent influenza epidemic, every family in one of the 
wards was stricken. The President of the Relief Society and 
eight assistants left their homes and for six weeks nursed the sick 
in this district. So successful were they in their ministration, that 
not a case was lost. Half dozen of the brethren accompanied the 
women to do outside chores. 

Pioneer Stake. 

Because of the fact that the Arthur Smelter plant has closed 
the Arthur Branch Relief Society has gone out of existence. Even 
the houses have been moved to other locations. This energetic 
little branch had a membership of 60 and these workers will be 
welcomed in other communities where they are sure to give active 


Victory Loan. 

The Latter-day Saints women of Salt Lake City and county 
were very active in the Victory loan. The committee, which con- 
sisted of representatives from the Relief Society, Y. L. M. L A., 
and Primary boards, with representatives from the stakes and 
wards, succeeded in raising $351,350 which was turned over to 
the Woman's committee. Through the courtesy of President 
Heber J. Grant, bonds purchased by the Church, amounting to 
$250,000 were taken through this committee. 

Liberty Stake. 

Report of Red Cross work done by Liberty stake Relief So- 
ciety officers, March to October, 1918 : 

Twenty-six days' work performed by 42 women 

Received from Red Cross Headquarters : 14,000 yards of 
gauze, 483 hanks of wool. 

Made for Red Cross : 5,400 influenza masks, 260 pairs of 
socks, 12 sweaters, 132 pajama suits. 101 bel sheets, 368 abdom- 
inal bandages, 116 surgeon's gowns, 34 surgeon's sheets, 200 mis- 
cellaneous articles for hospital, 2,500 masks re-made (from other 

Donated to Red Cross by the stake : 2 complete layettes for 
infants, 4 convalescent qualities. 

Made from cut-out articles received from Red Cross : 10 
men's shirts, 12 boys' serge suits, 48 girls' dresses, 38 pairs ban- 
dage bed socks, 7 bed jackets, 20 helpless case bed shirts. 

In the report from the Home Bound committee of this stake, 
for the last year, among other interesting items are the following : 
818 hours spent with the Home Bound, 127 baskets of food, etc., 
sent to inmates of the County Infirmary. 

The Cache stake members have been extremely busy with 
their Red Cross work. So have the other stakes also, but we give 
here an interesting note received by them from the head of the 
Red Cross work : 

Mrs. Lucy S. Cardon, President Cache Stake Relief Society, 

Logan, LTtah. 

Dear Sister Cardon: I take this opportunity to thank you 
in behalf of the American Red Cross Camp Service, at the U. A. 
C, for the very valuable aid the Relief Society has rendered us in 
the emergency caused by the influenza epidemic. I am sure I 
voice the sentiments of all the boys when I say that the Relief 
Society has smoothed a lot of rough places in the lives of the boys 
of the S. A. T. C. With heartiest greetings of the season, I re- 
main, sincerely yours, W. C. Brimley, 

Asst. Field Director, American Red Cross, Logan. 


■ As a sample of the ward activities in that stake we give the 
following items from the Providence Secon<l ward : 

Providence, Second ward, in the three years just previous 
to entering the war, since which time they have turned their at- 
tention to Red Cross work, the following work : 

Sunday e^gg money paid on meeting house $395.03 

To meeting house for bazar 81.95 

Carpet for class rooms for meeting house 36.15 

For carpet for large room • 17.50 

For curtains, table cloth and looking glass for meeting 

house ' . .\ \ 10.75 

Carpet for temple 18.00 

For temple clothes 8.93 

Furniture for Relief Society room 50.05 

Dishes for meeting house 3.40 

Flood sufferers 5.00 

Mexico sufferers 10.00 

Days spent with the sick 100 

Special visits to sick 204 

Charity work done in the temple names 503 


Mabel Gardner Pancake. 

"Brethren, shall we not go on in so great a cause? Go 
forward and not backward. Courage, brethren ; and on, on to 
the victory! Let your hearts rejoice, and be exceedingly glad. Let 
the earth break forth into singing. Let the dead speak forth an- 
thems of eternal praise to the King Immanuel, who hath or- 
dained before the world was, that which would enable us to re- 
deem them out of their prison ; for the prisoners shall 20 free" 
(D. & C. 128:22). 

Arise ! Awake ! fresh courage take, 

Ope wide the prison — See ! 
The numerous prisoners in the pit ; 

Redeem them, set them free. 

Why hold them back, why shirk or slack? 

'Tis work that must be done, 
That they may be through eternity. 

With the Father and the Son. 



James H. Anderson. 

Congress met on May 19. and proceeded to transact business 
with unusual promptness. 

Mexico's internal warfare increased in May, and now threat- 
ens the states of Chihuahua and Durangfo. 

Woman suffrage is receiving general acceptance, through 
legislative action in Great Britain in May. 

Austrian peace terms cover the division of that empire, and 
the limit of its standing army to 15,000 men. 

An eruption of the volcano of Kaput, island of Java, the 
last week in May, caused a loss of 15,000 lives. 

10,000 Dogs, of all varieties, were used with the entente allies' 
armies in France, said to be with excellent results. 

Turkey is to be carved into very small states, instead of being 
upheld as a "buflfer nation," as it has been for centuries. 

17-inch "hobble skirts" for women is announced to be the 
coming fashion. Pity the poor woman with the 8^-inch feet. 

An electrical workers' strike throughout the United States, 
to compel recognition of the labor union, has been called for July 1. 

Ruth Law (Mrs. Oliver), who made a record aeroplane trip 
from New York to Chicago, now proposes to attempt a trans- 
atlantic flight. 

Moslem women in Egypt and Turkey now go about in 


public without veils, the war having swept away the custom of 

Sixteen distinct v/ars were being waged in Europe and 
Asia, during the month of May, chiefly growing out of the results 
of the great war just closed. 

The Joseph F. Smith memorial building on the L. D. S. uni- 
versity grounds in Salt Lake City is being completed, and will be 
dedicated in September next. 

Four hundred thousand American troops in Europe has 
been figured out as the number necessary to maintain there, under 
the preliminary workings of the league of nations. 

Great Britain is to have Mesopotamia as well as Palestine, 
in the peace settlement, and thus secures an all-land route to Brit- 
ish India from the former Turkish Mediterranean coast. 

A great strike, centering at Winnipeg, almost paralyzed 
business in Western Canada in May. The demand of the strikers 
was for recognition of their labor union by the employers. 

The American League is the name adopted by an organiza- 
tion of American soldiers in the great war. The cardinal principle 
of the league is to uphold American government ideals. 

Railway operation by the \]. S. government continues to be 
very expensive, Congress being asked for a total of nearly one and 
three-quarters of a billion dollars for the deficit up to the end of 

Bolshevism in the United States is being belittled by many 
publicists, but it nevertheless is rife and demands the overthrow of 
the existing order of government, although not in the precise line 
of Russian Bolshevism. 

League of Nations as a separate measure from the treaty of 
peace appears to be assured, as the action of the United States 
Senate, from declarations made on the assembling of Congress in 
extra session in Mav. 

Palestine has been definitely assigned to control by Great 
Britain, and the building up of that land, with the freedom of 
the Jews who gather there, is reasonably assured, for the first time 
in more than twentv centuries, 


Constantinople is being figured on as becoming an inter- 
national city, under the mandatory of the four great powers, Great 
Britain, France, Italy, and America. The latter does not wish to 
accept the responsibility alone. 

Church union of various denominations, in some way not 
yet worked out, is demanded by eminent religious leaders through- 
out Christendom as the only way to cope with moral conditions 
which have arisen from the great war. 

The "luxury tax" in the revenue law jDassed by the last Con- 
gress — the tax on soaps and various toilet articles, etc. — is causing 
so much dissatisfaction that Congress is expected to repeal that 
provision at the extra session. 

David O. McKay as commissioner, and Stephen L. Richards 
and Richard R. Lyman as assistants, comprise the new commission 
of education organized in the "Mormon" Church, for its schools. 
All are members of the council of apostles. 

German women in Germany have made a big organization 
among members of their sex, by which each one is pledged to do 
something in the line of social and domestic economy that will be 
of benefit in the community where thev reside. 

Sending of bombs through the mails, as was done in the 
United States in the latter part of April, is to be made punishable 
by death, according to a bill introduced in the United States Sen- 
ate by Senator W. H. King of Utah. 

Japan has been awarded by the peace commission in Paris a 
sphere of influence in northern China, which is the direction in 
which the Japanese empire seeks expansion. The Japs also are 
taking in large areas of eastern and northern Siberia. 

Greece is being made a comparatively important nation by 
the Paris peace conference, in extending that nation's territory so 
as to include Smyrna, formerly in Turkey. This movement may be 
a bone of contention in future developments. 

Italy returned her delegates to the Paris peace conference in 
May, to meet the German and Austrian peace delegations, but the 
close of that month did not see a satisfactory conclusion to the 
dispute regarding the disposition of the port of Fiume. 

The equal sltffrage amendment to the American Constitu- 
tion was passed by the national House of Representatives in May, 


passed also in the Senate, June 4, and its submission to the various 
State legislatures for ratification is now in order. 

Germany objects strongly to the peace terms submitted, 
which require her to give up territory, pay heavy indemnities, and 
restrict her standing army to 100,000 men. Notwithstanding the 
objections, the probability is that the Germans will sign the treaty. 

Baptists and Presbyterians, as well as Catholics, have refused 
to engage in a great combination of the churches under one head, 
yet the cleavage between Protestant and Catholic seems the likely 
permanent line of demarcation, from developments and discus- 
sions in those quarters during May. 

Labor strikes occurred in several states of the Union, in- 
cluding Utah, in May, the chief demands being for higher wages 
and the recognition of the unions to the exclusion of other work- 
ers*. The tendency becoming clearly manifest is to seek power and 
gain for the labor unions in the disputes that arise. 

President Wilson asked Congress, in his message to that 
body, to repeal the wartime prohibition of the manufacture and 
sale of beer and light wines. The mass of the people in the United 
States seem so well satisfied with the results of the prohibition that 
thev have not taken kindlv to the President's recommendation. 

Transatlantic air-flights were shown in Mav to be possible, 
by the flight of three American planes toward the Azores, the 
longest lap in that ocean passage. One of these, the NC4. was 
successful on Mav 16 and 17. under Lieut.-Commander Albert S. 
Read. The other two were disabled Avhen near their destination, 
and the crews rescued. Later the NC4 made Lisbon, and Amer- 
ica holds the honor of having passed the Atlantic by air flight. 

Harry G. Hawker and McKenzie Grieve, an Australian avi- 
tor and British naval officer, who made the daring attempt on May 
17 to go in an airplane from Newfoundland to Ireland, went 1100 
miles on their way, when a pipe in the machine became clogged 
and they were compelled to descend in the sea. They were then 
800 miles from the Irish coast. They were nicked up ninety min- 
utes later by the crew of the Danish ship Mary, but their rescue 
did not become known to the people on the mainland until six 
davs later. 

Construction ^nd 
Reconstruct/on in 

THt- Home, 



The type of seam used will make some difference in how 
we should proceed to baste the skirt. In all cases, however, two 
points must be carefully kept in mind (a) Baste from the top 
of the skirt down so that all unevenness will come out at %the 
bottom of the skirt, (b) as you baste be careful not to stretch 
the material in either side of the seam. The latter results in an 
ugly drawn seam and no amount of pressing will remedy this 

The two most used types of seams at the present time are 
the plain tailored ,seam (in this the two edges of the seam are 
turned the same way on the wrong side and the stitching is done 
on the right side) and the ordinary seam with the edges separated 
and pressed apart on the wrong side (see figures a and b). 

In basting for the plain seam proceed as already suggested 
on the wrong side, from the top of the skirt to the bottom, being 
very careful to take up as much material as you have allowed 
for seam. In the previous number one inch seams were suggested. 
This you will find makes it very much easier to keep from stretch- 
ing either side of the seam as you are working far enough back 
from the raw edge, for the material to retain its >.rmness. 

In the tailored ,seam, first baste back one inch of material on 
the edges of the front gore. When basted press with a damp 
cloth over so as to give a decided fold on the edge. Then place 
this folded edge one inch over the edge of the side gore and baste 
together from the right side. This can best be done flat on the 
table and lessens the danger of stretching the material. 

When you finish basting each seam hold it up you 
and look down at it to see if the material is properly adjusted. 

Fitting the Skirt. 

Before fitting the skirt hem the ends of the belting and sew 
the hooks and eyes on it, so that it just comes together. With 



the present styles a two inch or inch and a half belting should 
be used. Pin the .skirt to the upper edge of the belting so that 
the hooks and eyes come even with the placket of the skirt. Then 
make what changes are necessary and, as in fitting a waist, do 
not try to make changes without unbasting the seam to be cor- 
rected. If the fullness falls too much to the front of the skirt 
it is generally the result of the front being hollowed out too much 
and to correct this raise the back up until the folds in the skirt 


•3... (^ 


fall in the proper place. On the other hand, the reverse of this 
efifect will result from the front not being cut low enough to be 
in accordance with the back. 

The placket comes on the left side and is usually about 
eleven inches long. 

It is not necessary to trim the bottom at the first fitting, in 
fact it is much safer for a beginner in dressmaking to entirely 
finish the top of the skirt before trimming the bottom. About 


five inches from the floor is the proper length at the present time 
for a tailored skirt. 

The Scam. 

When the fitting' is completed sew up the seams with sewing 
silk. One of the most vital points in skirt making is the proper 
adjustment of the tentions of the sewing machine. If you do 
not know how to loosen or tighten the upper and lower tentions 
have an agent explain it to you at once. Both threads must pull 
evenly and for skirts seams must be loose or the seam will be 
drawn inspite of all the pressing one might do. See figure C and 

Next thoroughly press the seams with a damp cloth and hot 

The method of finishing the wrong side of the seams can 
be determined only by the weight of the material. 

The best methods are as follows : 

(a) Clipping in points — this is very .suitable for extra heavy 
materials that do not frey. 

(b) Binding— great care must be taken in this to avoid mak- 
ing the binding" too bulky and cord like. 

(c) Turning the edge back and stitching. 

(d) Stitching on the .edge by machine and then overcasting. 

In all these metho 's the seams must be carefully trimmed to 
an even width. 

The Placket. 

The placket is probably the most difFxult of all parts of the 
skirt and there are several good ways of finishing the placket. 
The main point, however, is to make it neat and invisible. Figure 
E and F will give you some idea of one method T have used a 
great deal and found very ])ractical. 

The Bottom of the Skirt. 

A hem is always preferable — usually in tailored skirts about 
tliree inches deep. If the material is heavy, bind the upper edge 
i'jstead of making a second turn. Figure G will give you some 
idea of placing the little plaits in the hem where the bottom of 
the skirt is curved. 

In case you face a skirt — use the same material if possible 
and if a substitute is necessary have it as nearly as possible of 
the same quality. The facing should always be cut in the true 
bias of the material. This is preferable to a facing cut to fit the 


The hem of facing should always be sewed by hand and made 
as nearly invisible as possible. I know of no material used for tail- 
ored skirts which does not look much better hemmed by hand. 

The Belt. 

The belts to tailored skirts are usually made separate when 
they go all the way around the waist. A small belt across the full- 
ress in the back may be lined with a silk to match the material 
and then tacked in place, or if so desired, may be left separate 
and adjusted when the skirit is worn. 

Figure A. Tailorel seam, stitched on the right side. 

Figure B. Plain seam — wrong side — edges pressed apart 
and bound. 

Figure C. Illustrates how both the upper and lower threads 
in machine sitching should pull evenly. The center line repre- 
sents the cloth. 

Figure D. Illustrates an improperly adjusted tension where 
cne thread is tight and one loose. 

Figure E is the right side of placket. 

Figure F is the wrong side of placket. 

Figure G shows how to adjust small plaits resulting from 
a cu"ved hem. 


Grace Ingles Frost. 

She walks not in the dark, with firm-set feet she steps, 

Nor hinders she her progress by crude haste, 

As she plods onward toward the goal ambition points. 

Upon her lips is placed the seal of silence, 

Which locked remains, save unto voice of wisdom. 

Her deep set orbs, alert with visual power. 

See life as it exists in verity. 

Nor read into its meaning esoterics. 

Her ears attuned to every key existent, 

Select the strain which guides to fuller knowledge, 

And ends upon the perfect note of peace. 


Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells ...... President 

Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams ..... First Counselor 

Mrs. Julina L. Smith ...... Second Counselor 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman ..... General Secretary 

Mrs. Susa Young Gates ..... Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey ....... Treasurer 

Mrs. Sarah Jenne Cannon Mrs. Carrie S. Thomas Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon 

Dr. Romania B. Penrose Mrs. Elizabeth S. Wilcox Mrs. Janette A. Hyde 

Mrs. Emily S. Richards Mrs. Rebecca Niebaur Nibley Miss Sarah Eddington 

Mrs. Julia P. M. Farnsworth Mrs. Elizabeth C. McCune Miss Lillian Cameron 
Mrs. Phoebe Y. Beatie Miss Edna May Davis Mrs. Donnette Smith Kesler 

Mrs. Ida S. Dusenberry Miss Sarah McLelland 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 

Miss Edna Coray, Organist 


Editor ........ SusA Young Gates 

Business Manager ...... Janette A. Hyde 

Assistant Manager ...... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 29, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. VI. JULY, 1919. No. 7. 


The Church authorities delegated to a large committee, 
chosen from the auxiliary boards, the task of improving the 
methods of our various class leaders and teachers in Relief Socie- 
ties, Sunday Schools, the Mutuals, Primaries and Religion Classes. 
To this end a book was printed, and classes have been arranged 
where all these religion teachers may meet for study and discussion 
of teaching methods. It is expected that they who are already fa- 
miliar with such methods in public schools will acquire a needed 
religious application of their pedagogical ideas ; while those who 
have never had that inestimable privilege, will acquire, to a greater 
or less degree, ideas and modes of imparting information which 
are, and forever will be, a dominant part of every Latter-day 
Saint's life here and hereafter. Fathers, mothers of children, 
grandparents, guardians, men in active priesthood quorums, 
women in auxiliary official positions, of any sort, — in short, the 
whole membership of the Church need to teach, for we are sent to 
teach rather than to be taught of the world, and if we need to 
teach, we ought to know all we can know about how to teach. 

All of us, the least educated or the best, the toiler or the 
teacher, the mother or the school student, vv^e all have stores of 
irformation crowded together in our minds. It may be informa- 
tion of a limited nature on a few subjects ; but Latter-day Saints 
are Saints because they think on religious topics, and match 


thought with action. That information, whether rt pertains only 
to daily, temporal duties, or broadens out to include vast stores of 
mental' and spiritual truths will lie huddled together in our minds, 
like great masses of unsorted merchandise in a storehouse, unless 
we discover how to classify it, sort it, and to use it in logical 
sequence suited to the time and the occasion. 

The teachers' training course aims to give clues by which 
system and order may supercede the chaotic condition of many 
otherwise well stored' minds. Parents have to teach, they do 
teach, daily, hourly, whether they will or not. And too often, 
because of' the lack of the fundamentals of inspired pedagogy, 
they teach lessons exactly the opposite of what they aim to, while 
class teachers in our women's organization, many of them school 
teachers with more or less pedagogical proficienc}, use what they 
have learned from uninspired sources to the actual detriment of 
those to whom they address themselves in our auxiliary organiza- 
tions. Another class, the great majority of them being good 
former missionaries, or men and women of much natural ability 
but without training, stumble along, now hitting the mark and 
occasionally missing it. To all of these, this teacher's training 
course comes like a staff, on an upward climb. 

The point of the whole matter is that the course is founded 
on the teachings of the Christ, its corner stone is his gospel, and 
the whole superstructure, faulty as human vision is fallible, yet 
bears the impress of divine ideals. The Prophet Joseph, we are 
told, instructed his friends to acquire all possible information, 
adding that he himself, if confined to one study would choose 
"natural philosophy," as it was then called: \vhile President 
Young organized the Church school system, giving Dr. Maeser, 
as his only advice, "Don't try even to teach the multiplication 
table without the Spirit of the Lord." 

We shall never learn too much, nor know facts and truths 
enough. We may well fear to achieve knowledge, to receive 
what we term education, under the tutelage of skeptics and un- 
believers in divine revelation. But when, as in the present in- 
stance, our instruction comes through the channels of the priest- 
hood, and the knowledge of truths taught are informed and in- 
spired by Latter-day Saint teachers and instructors, we shall do 
well to become willing pupils, eager students. 

We welcome, therefore, this effort to give better methods, 
more definite results, to the teaching necessities of the Relief 
Society class leaders and all officers and members of our great 
organization. Sisters, let us support this movement with all our 

Summer Lesson in Hygiene. 

Dr. Samuel H. Allen. 

We have appreciated that man is a dual being — one part 
cf the human Ego is spiritual, and the other part purely material. 
The material part of us is in every sense of the word a machine, 
following all the mechanical laws of machines. It is true that 
many of the processes of this wonderful machine are beyond 
our power of comprehension, but many of them we have learned 
to comprehend, and the science which deals with the processes 
of the human body we call physiology. 

For a machine to work well, there are certain rules that 
have to be observed in managing it. The man who would keep 
his automobile in first class condition mus