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In reviewing the record of achievements 
for the year 1929 our hearts are full of grati- 
tude and appreciation for the fine work done 
by our sisters in the Temples of the Lord. 

The beautiful spirit of service which has 
inspired so many Relief Society women to in- 
terest themselves in the work for their kindred 
is typical of the organization. 

We appreciate the difficulties under which 
they labor and the sacrifice often entailed in 
accomplishing this purpose. 

No more important labor can be under- 
taken than this for God's Children who had 
not the privilege themselves, of doing that 
which means exaltation in Our Father's 

We encourage them in this glorious serv- 
ice which is " twice blest", enriching the one 
who gives and the one who receives. 

The Presidency and General Board 
Relief Society 

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The first year of the General Relief Society 
Organization under its present leadership has 
drawn to a close, and at the beginning of the New 
Year, it is the desire of the Presidency and General 
Board to express their love and gratitude to all the 

Sincere thanks go to the Stakes for their fine 
response and for their cooperation in everything 
asked of them; the efforts they made to carry out 
all instructions, and make the conferences success- 
ful; the uniform care and courtesy extended to 
the General Board members who feel themselves 
greatly enriched by the fine contacts they have 
made in their visits to the Stakes. 

The many beautiful messages and Christmas 
greetings which have come into theoffice, from you 
dear sisters, constitute a source of great joy. Lov- 
ing appreciation is expressed to every one for these, 
and a most fervent prayer is uttered — that our 
Father's choicest blessing will be with every Relief 
Society sister throughout the coming year. 

The Presidency and General Board 
Relief Society 

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Scotty Anderson and his Dogs ...Frontispiece 
Greeting and Praise Lula Greene Richards 3 
Portrait of Mrs. Elsie E. Barrett 

One Sunrise Elsie E. Barrett 

Portrait of Mrs. Linnie Fisher Robinson 

Extolled Linnie Fisher Robinson 

Portrait of Mrs. Margaret Mitchell Caine 

A Tribute Annie Wells Cannon 

Medical Aspects of the Word of Wisdom 

L. Weston Oakes, M. D. 

Presidents of Relief Society of Liberty 


Address Dr. Joseph S. Merrill 

Prohibition Oscar ^f. McConkie 

Training School for Feeble-minded .... 

Amy Brown Lyman 

Theological Stundies for the Year 

Jnlia A. F. Lund 

Editorial — The Bright New Year 

Eliza Roxey Snow Poem Contest . . . 

Prest. Louise Y. Robison Speaks at 

General Conference 27 

General Board of Relief Society Ex- 
presses Appreciation of Organist 28 

Notes from the Field 29 

Guide Lessons for March 31 

A Midland Triology Lois V. Hales 53 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Room 20 Bishop's Bldg. Salt Lake City, Utah 

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Greetings and Praise 

For the Year Nineteen Hundred and Thirty. 

Grand Centennial, blest year! 

As thy dawning doth appear 
Trusting saints rejoice and praise, while faith expands 

With the countless blessings brought 

In the great salvation wrought 
For the Church of Christ through near and distant lands. 

Joseph Smith, the child and man 

Through whom God revealed the plan 
And restored to earth the Gospel's saving rays — 

Joseph-Prophet, Priest and Seer, 

Now we hail the hundredth year 
Since he formed the Church of Christ of Latter-days. 

Rescued from false, worldly pride, 

Saints must in the truth abide, 
True repentance in forgiving hearts maintain. 

Thus prepared-wait, watch and pray 

For the fast approaching day 
When the Savior shall in glory come to reign. 

Zion's watchmen publish peace, 

Temples, power, and grace increase — 
Lo the glory of her rising lifts the cloud! 

Let her sons their tributes bring, 

Let her joyous daughters sing, 
And her little ones shout gladly long and loud. 

Yea! let Zion offer praise 

For the years and for the days 
Which are making strong her aged and her youth. 

For the wisdom thou hast taught, 

The salvation thou hast wrought, 
O Jehovah! gracious God of light and truth. 

Grand Centennial, blest year! 

Virtue, love, good- will, and cheer 
Let the saints of God uphold in all their ways, 

To his Prophets' words attend, 

Each to all prove staunch, true friend — 
And to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost all praise. 

— Lula Greene Richards. 


One Sunrise 

Mrs. Elsie E. Barrett, Los Angeles, California, Awarded First, 
Prise in the Eliza R. Snow Memorial Contest 

The robes of Dawn 

Fast fade to fawn, 
Night's vigil quickly ending; 

Pale orange links 

With amber pinks 
To naples yellow blending; 

Rose clouds gold-rimmed 

O'er mountains dimmed 
With dusky shadows fleeting; 

Mauve tints that leap 

From craig to peak 
The blue-grey veils are meeting; 

Blue pines jade dripped 

And golden tipped 
In purple canyons glowing; 

The Valley's shade, 

Each bush and blade v 
The Sun's first rays are showing; 

Quick rays that start, 

O'er hilltops dart 
. And pierce the last mist dreaming; 

The Day has burst! 

The Dawn dispersed 
SUNRISE in GLORY beaming! 



Mrs. Linnie Fisher Robinson, Salt Lake City, Utah, Awarded 
Second Prize in the Eliza R. Snow Memorial Contest. 

I fashioned me a little rhyme 

And made it tender, sweet, and gay; 

I filled it full of beauteous thoughts, 
And dwelt with it the live-long day. 

It gave my clouds a lighter hue, 
And minded me how good God is; 

It made each tree a living soul, 
And every wind a healing kiss. 

It covered up a deep, deep scar, 

And fought against my loneliness; 
It was so full of love and cheer 
I titled it True Friendliness. 

Far better than I dreamed, it sang 
Into the world with golden notes 

Where e'er I wander now, I hear 
The echo as it softly floats, 



Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII JANUARY, 1929 No. 1 

A Tribue 

Margaret Mitchell Caine 

Born August 28, 1859; Died November 6, 1929. 
By Annie Wells Cannon 

"To glorify the common officers of life, that is the grandest 
part of a woman's work in the world." 

Hard as partings are, it is nevertheless a beautiful thought 
that in merciful tenderness the great Reaper gathers to himself 
those who have bravely borne life's burdens through long weary 
years ; those whose loneliness was manifest even amidst the happy 
throng; those whose nearest and dearest were gone beyond re- 
call, and yet do well each daily task until the final summons. Such 
a one has filled life's mission to the fullest, has played her part 
in life's drama to perfection; with joy indeed can she pass the 
portals where loved ones await her and receive that just reward 
given those who have fought "the good fight and kept the faith." 

Mrs. Caine was the oldest daughter of Frederick A. and 
Margaret Mitchell, both active in Church affairs in the 13th 
Ward in Salt Lake City, where Margaret was born August 28, 

Her father was a successful and prominent merchant, her 
mother a cultivated and beautiful woman, who outside the home 
engaged in kindly acts for others less fortunate than herself. 
She was counselor to Sister Rachel Grant, mother of President 
Heber J. Grant, in the ward Relief Society, so relief work was 
something of a heritage to Margaret, who enlisted when quite 
young in the same cause. 

Maggie Mitchell, as her friends and dear ones called her, 
had a happy and pleasant childhood. The environment of her 
early years was refined and cultural. In those pioneer days, be- 
fore the railroad came, there were few homes more comfortably 
or finely furnisheo! than the Mitchell home, which was always a. 


choice gathering place for neighbors and friends. She was a 
bright, intelligent little girl, surpassing many of her companions 
in school and Sunday School classes. Her opportunities were as 
good as the times afforded. She attended the private schools 
of Mr. Raeger and Miss Mary Cook who taught in the old Social 
Hall, and later she attended the University of Deseret. For a 
Sunday School teacher she was favored in having dear Aunt 
Zina Young, whose angelic influence left its mark on many of 
her pupils ; for she not only taught to them the Book of Mormon 
and the gospel, but instilled in their souls an abiding faith in the 
goodness and mercy of the Lord. 

Maggie's father, Brother Frederick A. Mitchell, performed 
two missions to the Hawaiian Islands, and on the one taken in 
1873 took his family with him. Maggie was than 14 years old. 
She had a circle of playmates of whom she was very fond ; this 
was the first parting and quite an event to that group of little girls. 
It had its romance as well as its sadness, for soon there were other 
partings of the way, never to be again renewed — but now there 
must be parties and gifts and farewells and promises of letters, 
just as there are today when one takes a journey, only then it 
was a much rarer occasion. True to her promise, she wrote home 
some very interesting letters, which from the pen of one so 
young were quite remarkable. Descriptions of the foliage, flow- 
ers, and beauty of the Islands, the grandeur and magnificence of 
the great Pacific, the fierceness, fury, and thrill of Mauna Loa 
erupting fire and molten lava — what a spectacle for children to 
contemplate! But what astounded them most was the fact that 
they had been superseded by a group of little Kanakas as play- 

Shortly after the return from this mission, her father en- 
gaged in business in Coalville, Summit County, and moved his 
family there. It was here Maggie met, and was wooed and won 
by young Alfred Caine, son of Hon. John T. Caine, delegate from 
Utah to Congress, and business manager for many years of the 
Salt Lake Herald. This union was happy in every respect and 
the future looked most promising. The young couple made their 
abode for a short time in Coalville, then moved to Salt Lake City, 
where eventually they built a commodious and pretty home. Four 
little ones came to bless this union, but the shadow of death 
hovered near and two boys and a lovely little girl died in infancy. 
This great sorrow actuated all the more the love and tenderness 
bestowed upon the one son "Fred," who was left to them. When 
nine short years had passed, her husband, Alfred Caine, died 
from typhoid fever. Now came the real test of her womanhood, 
when in her widowed sorrow she had herself and little son to» 
care for. Bravely she faced the issue and carried on. 

When President Heber J. Grant was called to go to Japan 


to open up that mission, "Fred" Caine was one of the young men 
called to accompany him. This young man filled a fine mission 
in Japan, remaining there several years; during that time he 
acquired a knowledge of the Japanese language and customs and 
assisted in the translation of the Book of Mormon and several 
Latter-day Saint hymns into Japanese. After his return from 
this mission he married and moved to Idaho Falls, where he be- 
came stake president, honored and beloved by his associates, a 
credit always to the name he bore and to the teachings of his 
devoted mother. His untimely death last summer no doubt 
hastened her demise a few weeks later. 

Mrs. Caine lived a useful and busy life, engaging in many 
varied activities. She was greatly interested in sericulture, being 
a member of the territorial organization. She not only traveled 
extensively in the effort to promote this industry and encourage 
the women to raise cocoons and plant the necessary mulberry 
trees, but she also did this thing herself and won prizes at the 
Fair for her fine specimens of silk cocoons and raw silk. She al- 
so learned to spin and weave the silk. She helped put the meas- 
ure through the legislature for a bounty on cocoons in order to 
put the industry on a firm basis, and was among the most active 
protestants when that act was repealed. At the World's Fair 
at Chicago in 1893 she had charge of the Utah silk exhibit and 
demonstrated the procedure of its manufacture. She at that 
time and during the preparation of Utah's exhibit was private 
secretary to Mrs. Margaret Blaine Salisbury, chairman for 
Utah of the Board of Lady Managers. 

For a period of six years, from 1902 to 1908, she was ^ 
member of the General Board of the Relief Society under the 
presidency of Bathsheba W. Smith. In this capacity she traveled 
extensively throughout the different stakes, visiting the people 
and instructing in Relief Society work. She was especially in- 
terested in the practical nurse work of the organization and a 
sincere advocate of the gleaning and storing of wheat. 

In 1899 Mrs. Caine, in company with Mrs. Emmeline B. 
Wells, Mrs. Susa Young Gates, and a large group of Utah 
women, attended the quinquennial of the International Council 
of Women held in London, and with them was a guest at many 
brilliant functions given in honor of the delegates to the Council, 
one of which was the Queen's tea at Windsor Castle. While on 
this journey she availed herself of the opportunities of visiting 
historic places in the British Isles, including the city of Edin- 
burgh, also Shakespeare's home at Stratford-on-Avon, and other 
shrines connected with the immortal bard. 

She was an early ordinance worker in the Salt Lake temple 
and continued in that work during her entire life, having been at 


her post of service until within a few days of her death, covering 
a period of over thirty years. 

She was in politics a Democrat and worked for her party in 
local primaries and conventions, being rewarded at one time with 
the position of county auditor. 

She was a member of the Reapers' Club and the Utah 
Wioman's Press Club, giving to both of these organizations her 
usual earnestness and loyalty. 

Hers was a life replete with usefulness and good deeds. 
Sometimes she may have felt the journey long and life's lessons 
hard; but her patience, her forbearance, her industry, her faith, 
gave her an experience that proved a strength and staff to the 
end of the way. 

Such was the nature of Margaret Mitchell Caine. She 

"How sublime a thing it is to suffer and be strong." 

The Rainbow's Ending 

If the rainbow spanned a prismy arch, 

When I was young and bolder, 
It spans a golden super-arch 

Today when I am older. 

If skies were blue when I was young, 

With cloud-dust intertwining, 
Today their blue with gold is spun 

And clouds have turned their lining. 

If friends were allies in my youth 

To joy-dreams of the morrow, 
Today in tested ranks of truth 

They steady me in sorrow. 

And so I cull from out the past 

A fuller, deeper blending; 
And in the things that live and last 

I find the rainbow's ending. 

— Bertha A. Kleinman. 

Medical Aspects of the Word of 


By L. Weston Oakes, M. D. 

A book recently published by the Brigham Young University, 
written by a member of its medical staff, shows that at the time 
the revelation known as the "Word of Wisdom" was given there 
were in the medical world numerous schools based upon different 
hypotheses concerning the causes of disease, prescribing drugs 
dosing with alcohol, "stuffing the body with food for one disease 
and starving it for another," practising "blood-letting and various 
other uncertain means" for the supposed welfare of the human 

Then came the Word of Wisdom, declaring against strong 
drinks, tobacco, the excessive use of meats and other forms of 
intemperance. This was a direct challenge to the medical learning 
of that time. Dr. Oakes discusses the subject in five chapters: 

Introduction, Alcohol and Humanity, Tobacco and Humanity, 
The Tea and Coffee Question, Bits of Health Wisdom. 

The findings of modern science on the effects of alcohol on 
the human body, are given in some detail, its effects upon parent- 
hood and the unborn, upon the nervous system and upon long 
life, are presented by the testimony of specialists in each of these 
fields. "A little alcohol, writes one of the authorities, lessens self- 
consciousness, with the result that the subject speaks without 
reserve, and without confining himself to what is important. 
Conversation is diluted with trivialities. We may admit that this 
is enlivening. But how much the animating potency of wine at 
banquets, is over-estimated ! There is a simple reason for its 
undeserved reputation; and this is found in lowered standards 
of judgment on the part of those who listen to what is said. The 
ready laughter and applause do not indicate brilliancy on the part 
of the speaker nearly so often as a readiness to be amused on the 
part of the listeners. In the midst of such company, the total 
abstainer feels an amazement verging on disgust, as he observes 
the demonstrations that greet speeches which in themselves are 
wholly inane and commonly in bad taste." 

The case against tobacco is similarly pungent, powerful and 
convincing. Young people will do well to read this concise book of 
125 pages filled from cover to cover with striking demonstrations 
of the baneful effects of intemperance. 


By Dr. Joseph F. Merrill, Church Commissioner of Education 

I feel greatly honored and doubly pleased with the oppor- 
tunity of coming here, because from one point of view I am talk- 
ing, practically, to the entire Church. 

May I outline to you what religious education the Church is 
providing? First — I claim it first because it comprehends the 
entire Church membership from the cradle to the grave — is 
the Sunday School organization, meeting on the most favorable 
day in the week, at the most favorable hour of the day, and doing 
effective work in religious instruction. 

As to the opportunities for weekday religious training, one 
of the first changes I made was to transfer teacher-training 
from the Department of Education to the Sunday School. Then 
came the transfer of a large amount of weekday religious training 
to the Primary Association. Some have asked if I am trying to 
destroy the Department of Education. It matters not how small 
the Department of Education becomes, if the changes improve 
the religious training of the people. The transfer of teacher- 
training to the Sunday School places teacher-training in charge 
of the organization best qualified to carry it on. 

A survey disclosed that the Primary and the Religion Class 
work were being duplicated. The majority of the children did 
not belong to both — they would belong to the one or the other. 
We decided that it would be better to make one effective than to 
carry two that were not. Therefore, we have abandoned nothing 
— I would like that message to get over — of weekday religious 
training. The Primary organization has the added responsibility 
of weekday instruction previously given in the elementary grades. 
The seminaries carry forward the weekday religious training that 
formerly ended with the sixth grade in the public schools. 

What is the junior seminary? It is only Religion Class under 
a new name for grades 7, 8 and 9 of the public schools. Hereto- 
fore Religion Class work has ended with the eighth grade. We 
have had seminaries in the high schools, but there is an increase 
in the number of high schools. Most of the ninth grade students 
in Utah, as well as a large portion in Idaho, do not go to senior 
high school at all, and as we have been previously operating, there 
was in the ninth grade what one of our teachers called the tragic 
gap. In this city there are 25,000 junior high school students, 
few of whom our organizations are reaching, and so it was felt 
that if we can so organize that we can carry forward this work 
as effectively as ever, the Religion Class, by including the ninth 
grade, will be doing more than ever before. 


We are trying to effect a junior seminary organization that 
will begin where the Primary leaves off. One problem occurs where 
the children are taken to and from school in buses. How can 
we carry junior seminary work forward there? In certain stakes 
arrangements have been made for the children to be released from 
public school in time to get junior seminary training. Some schools 
report 100 per cent of the students in the junior seminary work. 
We go to the home and secure their support, without which we 
know in advance that we shall fail. The response from the 
homes has been most generous. In the schools, pupils are taught 
that they must do their own thinking, that they are responsible for 
themselves. The young people are feeling that new freedom ; 
therefore we must give them positive religious instruction if we 
are to hold them. 

Senior seminary work comes in the high schools, under the 
supervision of paid teachers. Today we are serving 87 public 
institutions — 83 high school groups, and 4 college groups. As 
means will permit, this seminary work will extend until it reaches 
every high school and college, junior and senior, where our people 
attend in sufficient numbers to warrant the establishment of an 
institution. President Robison's saying that there is nothing 
so dear to the heart of parents as the training of their children, is 
proved by the sacrifices the Latter-day Saints have made for it. 

May I read from a journal. A university president last June 
was addressing the graduating class at a baccalaureate service. 
Two thousand or more young people, ready to receive their de- 
grees, were in the assembly. The president said: 

"One- reason that in educated communities today there is a 
weakening of the hold which the orthodox religions have on the 
thoughts and actions of those who are young and independent 
is the static and ritualistic conception of God and of His word, 
which those religions insist must be accepted. There are, 
however, unmistakable signs that the proportion of those who 
find spiritual enlightenment by blind obedience to vested author- 
ity is decreasing with great rapidity." 

Your young people attending schools and colleges are reading 
this magazine. Teachers suggest these ideas and assign these 
topics for your young people to write essays about. There is in 
this country today a war upon established religion. The thing to 
do is to arm ourselves in advance. We have one university, six 
junior colleges, one academy — only eight schools now maintained 
in the Church ; but we have the seminaries. These offer oppor- 
tunities for weekday religious instruction for all of the young 
people they can possibly reach. We shall succeed in accomplish- 
ing this purpose only with your backing and help, and may you 
feel keenly alive to the necessity of supporting the Church educa- 
tional program, 


Judge Oscar W. McConkie 

On December 18, 1917, the Eighteenth Amendment was sub- 
mitted to the States by Congress and on January 8, 1918, the first 
state, Mississippi, ratified it. Nebraska, the last of the first 36 
states to approve, ratified on January 16, 1919, whereupon the 
Secretary of State, by proclamation, made January 29, 1919, 
caused that it should become effective one year from Nebraska's 
ratification, or on January 16, 1920. By February 25, 1919, 45 
of the states had ratified and on March 9, 1922, New Jersey, the 
46th, followed, leaving Connecticut and Rhode Island declining so 
to do. 

The Votes of States and Nation 

In a majority of cases the vote of the ratifying states was over- 
whelming. With the exception of four, New York, Maryland, 
Montana, and Nevada, the several states passed enforcement acts. 
With the view of creating machinery within "the government for 
the Eighteenth Amendment's enforcement, in October, 1919, the 
Congress passed the Volstead Act. It was vetoed by President 
Wilson, but so strong was the congressional will that it was imme- 
diately passed over the President's veto by vote of 176 to 55 in 
the House and 65 to 20 in the Senate. 

At the time the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified twelve 
states were already bone dry, six by legislative enactment and 
six by popular vote, while 18 others had state-wide restrictions. 
All bone-dry laws had been passed after the beginning of the? 
World War in 1914. The express intention of the Eighteenth 
Amendment and the enactments that followed was to prohibit 
the manufacture, sale, barter, transportation, importation, ex- 
portation, delivery or furnishing of any intoxicating liquors, or 
the possession thereof, except under the provisions of the law, and 
the word "liquor" was defined to mean alcohol, brandy, whisky, 
rum, gin, beer, ale, porter, and wine, and other beverages con- 
taining one-half of one per cent or more of alcohol. 

The Protest of Brewers 

After the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, R. I. 
brewery interests retained Elihu Root to contest the law and 
Charles E. Hughes was chief counsel for the prohibition interests. 
The matter was fully considered and determined, but agitation 
did not stop there. With increased vigilance energies were re- 
newed. Contrary to law, brewer corporations contributed finan- 
cial aid to wet political organizations. But when the breaking 
down of constitutional law is the aim, the striking down of statu- 
tory law seems of small moment to him who rides thus shod. The 


appalling compensation of these and kindred efforts — together 
with the help of well meaning persons who have no apparent vision 
arid but little understanding — is disrespect for not only this' 
law but contempt for all law that does not meet individual ap- 

Widespread Consumption of Alcoholic Drinks 

The fact must not be ignored, also, that there are large num- 
bers of intelligent and patriotic people who have both vision and 
understanding but who do not believe that the 18th Amendment 
is in harmony with the fundamentals of our government. What- 
ever the reason, it is a fact that many men and women in whom 
are reposed public trusts, daily violate the law. It is also true 
that in greater or less degree and in one form or another the use 
of alcohol has been almost world-old as an article of world- 
wide consumption. In far-apart countries peoples have used it. 
Grain, fruit, and milk have long furnished ingredients for its 
manufacture. Indeed it has been said that one must go to 'the 
Turks of Asia Minor or to the innermost recesses of the Sahara 
to find peoples who are free from it. 

The Cost of Prohibition 

The New York Times has made the claim that eight years of 
prohibition enforcement cost the government $177,716,000, at the 
same time pointing to the fact that during the same period only 
$38,390,889.36 was collected in fines and penalties. The govern- 
ment, it is said, profited $284,008,512.62 from liquor revenue 
during the eight years previous to 1918, and that from January 
16, 1920, to October 31, 1927, 47 officers and 126 civilians were 
killed in the enforcement of the law. 

The Cost of Crime 

Without minimizing the loss of enforcement I refer you to 
an infinitely greater loss, of which loss the use of alcohol is ad- 
mitted as one of the positive and approximate causes. In the 
United States there are 12,000 annual homicides, or more than 
2,000 times as many as the number of officers killed in enforcing 
prohibition. Financial crimes cos+ approximately 250 times as 
much as the cost of prohibition enforcement. The loss of pro- 
duction on prisoners is two billion dollars annually. Between 
nine and ten billion dollars is our annual cost of crime. One 
million persons are annually committed to penal institutions. The 
cost of policing the country, detecting crime, convicting persons, 
caring for them before and after conviction, etc., is three billion 
dollars annually. 

In other words the annual cost of crime to the government and 
the country is two and one half times the average annual receipts 
of the government ; is three times the average national budget ; is 
three times the customs and internal revenue; and is twelve times 


the cost of the army and navy. It is approximately 500 times the 
entire cost of prohibition enforcement. It is true that human in- 
telligence cannot determine just what proportion of the expendi- 
ture of these incomprehensible sums is made necessary because 
of alcoholic beverages, but it will scarcely be doubted that tjhe 
proportion is material. 

Effects of Alcohol 
Reverence inspires obedience and intoxicating beverages de- 
stroy reverence. Irreverence is the mother of crime. How, then, 
can rational men assert that intoxicating liquors are not responsi- 
ble, directly and indirectly, for much of the crime that costs the 
nation such stupendous sums? 

- As to the virtue of temperance, we are not left to the wisdom 
of men. "Behold, verily, thus saith the Lord unto you : In conse- 
quence of evils and designs which do and will exist in the hearts 
of conspiring men in the last days, I have warned you, and fore- 
warn you, by giving unto you this word of wisdom by revelation 
— That inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink 
among you, behold it is not good, neither meet in the sight of your 
father, only in assembling yourselves together to offer up your 
sacraments before him." 

Change to Better Foods 

Milk is one of our most healthful foods. From 1917 to 1924 
its consumption increased fifty percent, an increase far exceeding 
that in population. Increased advertising of its food values part- 
ly explain the increase, but in the opinion of persons in official 
position, prohibition has been the important factor in promoting 
its popularity. Restaurants and hotels substitute it for beverages. 
On thousands of street corners where liquors were sold, are now 
orange juice and ice cream stands. Their consumption increased 
phenomenally with the passing of the saloon. The consumption 
of ice cream more than doubled. Prevailing mid-day beef steaks 
served in thousands of saloons passed, salads and sandwiches 
taking their place. Coffee and tea merchants contemplated a 
great harvest, but, peculiarly enough, the consumption per capita 
remained practically the same. Less drinking at meals resulted 
in lighter eating. Eating habits were transformed, the effect 
upon health being apparent. 

Alcohol Lowers Efficiency 

Herbert Hoover, when Secretary of Commerce, ascribed to 
prohibition an increase of efficiency in the individual worker of 
the United States of upwards of ten percent. He stated: "There 
is no question that prohibition is making America more produc- 
tive." In his annual report of 1925 he reviewed the country's 
gain in national efficiency since 1920 and credited prohibition as 
one of the important causes of the increase. I quote, also, Pro- 
fessor Thomas Nixon Carver, eminent Harvard University au- 


thority: "I am convinced," said he, "that one important factor 
in promotion, in maintaining a scarcity of high grade men, and 
at the same time increasing the superabundance of low grade men, 
is drink. Drunkenness, or anything that tends to destroy a 
man's dependability, would tend to prevent his promotion or 
cause his demotion, thus increasing the congestion in the lower 
occupations. Anything which makes for sobriety should, other 
things equal, increase the rate of promotion, and thus relieve the 
congestion at the bottom." A survey of manufacturing plants 
and industrial centers revealed that the workers were, since pro- 
hibition, taking more interest in sports, week-end vacations and 
daily recreation, thus materially increasing their efficiency and 
adding to their energy. 

Gain in Real Values 

Notwithstanding clamor to the contrary, it is asserted by 
students that infinitely less money is now spent annually for 
liquor than before prohibition. Savings banks reported an in- 
crease in depositors from an annual average of a few million when 
prohibition came, to 46,762,240 in 1926. A survey of insurance 
companies showed that the heads of families were at home nights 
in far greater numbers after prohibition began, and industrial 
concerns reported material decline in loss from accidents. With 
prohibition the financial burden of the states in caring for de-< 
pendent children, in cases where intemperance was the approxi- 
mate cause, decreased approximately fifty percent. Real estate 
values, formerly cheapened by adjoining saloons, increased and 
where there had been naught but buy and drink there was sub- 
stituted investment and the desire for more investment. 

Indeed, just as man's blood reaches every part of the physical 
body, so does the use of intoxicating liquor fasten itself upon 
every parcel of the temporal structure. An indictment against 
it would charge that it not only damages the nerves, acts as a 
narcotic, weakens the heart, lowers resistance, hinders immunity, 
increases typhoid mortality, lessens nerve sensibility, impairs 
judgment, detracts from nerve and muscle power, lowers blood 
pressure, causes irritation and checks digestion, smothers spirit- 
uality and destroys reverence, but would also charge that it isj 
equally harmful to the economic structure. 

Prof. Fisher wrote : "The mental worker who takes alcohol 
voluntarily puts a yoke upon himself. He limits the exercise of 
his faculties ; for he cannot judge so wisely, will so forcefully, 
think so clearly, as when his system is free from alcohol. The 
athlete who takes alcoholic liquor is similarly handicapped ; for 
he is not free to run so fast, jump so high, pitch a baseball so, 
accurately as when his system is free from the drug. Any one 
who has become a 'slave to alcohol' has lost the very essence of 
personal liberty." 


Enforcement is Ihe Problem 
I have sought to speak only of the temporal side of alcohol 
and have said nothing about state sovereignty, individual liberties 
or the wisdom or lack of wisdom of making the 18th Amendment 
a part of the Constitution. Our problem is an enforcement 
problem. Law will not execute itself. It is not enough to simply 
refrain from the violation of law. We must be aggressive. Evi- 
dence must be found and prosecutions begun. If we are unwill- 
ing or too indolent to lend ourselves to that end then the law 
will lie prostrate. 

Where all men favor a law, there is no enforcement problem. 
In the case at issue millions of our citizens are not in present; 
accord with it. Therein lies our greatest difficulty. We can 
devote ourselves to its enforcement. Because of the "designs 
which do and will exist in the heart? of conspiring men in the last 
days" it is necessary that we do so. 

Resolution to Uphold the Prohibition Law 

By Counselor Julia A. Child 

One of our Articles of Faith says : "We believe in being 
subject to kings, presidents, rulers, and magistrates, in obeying, 
honoring, and sustaining the law." 

I feel that, to a great extent, it rests with the mothers as to 
how this 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States is carried out. As mothers, if we are united, we can do 
a very great deal in enforcing that law, and I should like to present 
for consideration a resolution to be adopted by the members of 
this organization. 


WHEREAS there is widespread disrespect for and num- 
erous violations of the 18th Amendment to our national consti- 
tution, which prohibits the manufacture, possession or use of in- 
toxicating liquor, 

AND WHEREAS the National Woman's Relief Society 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints views with 
alarm and sorrow the many evil consequences of such disrespect 
and such violations which, if continued, will destroy human life 
and happiness, and also undermine confidence in government: 

BE IT RESOLVED that the organization calls upon all its 
members to live in strict accord with both the letter and the spirit 
of the prohibition law in their homes and in all other places, and 
that they use every proper endeavor to persuade others to do 
likewise, to the end that peace and safety may De assured, and 
that loyalty to law and government may prevail. 

Training School for the 

£3/ Counselor Amy Brown Lyman 

I feel that a brief report of the work of the Commission, 
appointed to select a site for the Utah State Training School for 
the Feeble-minded, is due the Relief Society women. 

At the last session of the legislature, a law was passed pro- 
viding for such an institution and carrying an appropriation of 
$300,000. You will recall the part the Relief Society women took 
in helping to bring about the passage of the bill, by personally 
interviewing your legislators and by circulating petitions. 

Soon after the close of the legislative session, the Governor 
appointed a commission of five to select a site. The members 
are: Governor George H. Dern, chairman; Mr. D. A. Skeen of 
Salt Lake City; Mayor John Booth of Spanish Fork; Mr. Roy 
Thatcher of Ogden ; Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman of Salt Lake City. 

The commission sought advice from states having such an 
institution, and applied to the Director of the Experiment Sta- 
tion of the Agricultural College for a soil expert and a hydraulic 
engineer to give expert advice as to soil, water, drainage, and 
sewage. Letters were written also to individuals who were ex- 
perts in these matters. As the Governor had already planned to 
attend a convention of Governors in Boston, and as the secretary 
of the commission was scheduled to attend a bar convention in 
the East, it was easy and inexpensive for them to visit some of 
the outstanding institutions. 

Director P. V. Cardon of the Agricultural College, with Pro- 
fessor Clyde, hydraulic engineer, and Doctors Jennings and Stew- 
art, soil experts, accompanied the commission in investigating 
sites. Two additional experts, Dr. Allen, superintendent of the 
Vermont State Training School, and Dr. Calder of Los Angeles, 
a native Utahn, also assisted. The aid of these physicians, both 
psychiatrists excellently trained and with long experience in in- 
stitutional work, was invaluable to the commission. 

Some of the decisions reached were: 

1. That the school be located as near as possible to the center 
of population of the State; near the seat of government, the 
medical school, and social agencies ; also near the best transporta- 
tion facilities and the sources of supply. 

2. That the school should be near a city or town, so that 
employees can easily have interests in, and identify themselves 
with, the community, thus insuring the best type of employees 
and instructors. 

3. That the site should have at the outset enough land to 
provide for future growth. (Some authorities claim that there 


should be one acre per child, and others half an acre; we should 
have about six or seven hundred acres of land.) 

4. That the land should be fertile, and able to produce all 
kinds of grain. 

5. That a water supply, adequate for both irrigation and 
culinary purposes, is very important. (Some of the sites offered 
have been eliminated because of scarcity of water.) 

It is hoped that this institution will eventually be largely self- 
sustaining; hence there must be in connection with it farming, 
gardening, dairying, fruit raising. In such institutions it is the 
practice to have practically all the work done by the pupils. 

The commission has visited more than thirty sites, making 
notes and observations ; and when the site is finally selected, you 
may know that, in the opinion of the commission, it will be the 
best location available. 

The state law provides for two departments in the institu- 
tion: a school department, for instruction and training for those 
within the school age, or who are capable of being benefited by 
school instruction ; a custodial department, which will consist of 
those beyond school age, or not capable of being benefited by 
school instruction. The latter group will be given training in 
unskilled labor, kindergarten work, arts, crafts, etc. 

The law states also that this institution is not for feeble- 
minded convicts or defective delinquent children. Regarding 
feeble-mindedness, I should like to state that just a few of us are 
entirely able-bodied, so most of us go through life more or less 
mentally handicapped. Between the mental disability of which 
the possessor may never be conscious, and so-called feeble mind- 
edness, there are all possible gradations, and all of us fit in; 
somewhere along the line. 

Psychiatrists tell us that a so-called feeble-minded person 
differs from the normal person only in learning ability, and that 
the principles of mental hygiene apply to him just as they do to 
the rest of society ; that we all have the same emotional problems. 
The aim of society is to assist the child of slow learning ability 
to good personality development and to success. 

When the child of poor learning ability attends regular 
schools, he soon comes to feel inferior, losing self respect and 
self confidence, both of which are essential to mental health. So 
it is recommended that those with slow learning ability be placed 
in ability groups rather than in so-called defective classes. In 
fact, it is the idea of modern education that all children should 
be placed in groups with others of like ability. This enables 
pupils to go fast or slow, just as they are able, and keeps them 
from making dismal failures. Failure, to the pupil of slow learn- 
ing ability, is^ just as tragic as it is to the normal child. 

The basic idea, then, of a training school for the feeble- 


minded, is to make it possible for the pupils to learn just as they 
are able to learn, and what they are able to learn — in other words 
to give them exactly the right opportunity. With such a special 
state school, and with opportunity for special classes in the regular 
schools for retarded pupils, all children should have opportunity 
to do what they are capable of doing. 

I have been authorized by the state commission to express 
officially to you the appreciation of the commission for the ex- 
cellent work you. have done in helping to secure this much needed 
institution, and to thank you, in their behalf, for your aid. I 
think Relief Society women could do nothing finer than to help to 
better opportunity those who lack initiative and ability to work for 

Theological Studies for the Year 

By General Secretary Julia A. F. Lund 

It has been suggested that I make a few remarks on the; 
theological study selected for the Relief Society for this present 

The Relief Society feels that, within the scope of its organi- 
zation, it affords a wonderful place for theological education. 
The tide of a nation's life can rise no higher than its woman- 
hood ! The mother holds the strategic position in the home ; in 
the life of the people, therefore, it is necessary that she be versed 
in lines of study that are vital in life. There is no more import- 
ant subject than that of theology. Man cannot live by bread 
alone, but by every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. 
We feel that our mothers should be informed in this knowledge of 
the word of God. 

I would like to refer to the Article of Faith that says, "We 
believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God." We have 
taken it as the subject of our studies. As we approach the one 
hundredth anniversary of the organization of the Church, let us 
give attention to this marvelous book. It is a source of great 
satisfaction, and a great stimulant in the promotion and develop- 
ment of our faith that we can turn our attention to the founda- 
tion stones upon which our faith is reared. 

During past years we have given study to the Hebrew scrip- 
tures, the life of the Savior as portrayed in the New Testament, 
the gospel dispensations, and many other interesting fields, and 
now it seems proper to review and refresh our memories with a 
more intimate knowledge of this great book of scripture. Our 
faith is the most vital power in our life today ; it is the great judg- 
ment-forming institution of life, supplying the objective for our 
best efforts. It gives us the force and the power to face lifei 
in the blackest situations. 


We propose to study the Book of Mormon in the light of the 
knowledge we may have had in the past, to correlate it with our 
knowledge of the Testament studies, and to see in both the life of 
the Savior, with the inspiration which will come from that study. 

It has been suggested in the preview that we first read the 
Book of Mormon thoroughly to gain a picture of the work in its 
fulness. Step by step, as we read of their development, we can 
see in the calling of Lehi much the same purpose as in the calling 
of Abraham. Along with Abraham, as the Lord spoke to him 
face to face and told him of the mighty spirits in heaven, we like 
to think of Lehi as being among this group, and we would trace 
the people from their small beginning to the mighty nation de- 
veloped upon the American continent. 

We touch the marvelous romance, the great dramatic situa- 
tions, and the marvelously interesting events. Then, perhaps dur- 
ing the second year of the study, we can give more particular at- 
tention to the doctrinal phases of the Book of Mormon. Though 
in any study of the Book of Mormon we cannot miss the spiritual 
life that breathes from every page, yet in this second year o*f 
study we direct more attention to the principles of the gospel as 
they are set forth in the lives of the great leaders — Lehi and 
Nephi. The third year could perhaps be devoted to a study of 
the divine authenticity of the book, as it is reflected through the 
internal and external evidences that are developing day by day. 
The Book of Mormon, from the standpoint of theological teach- 
ing is one of the most perfect books ever written ; it gives us the 
gospel in its purity and strength, and we would have our women 
know it through the reading and research that they themselves 
can give. 

The Book of Mormon has been with us for more than one 
hundred years; it has been the target for adverse criticism and 
for ridicule — the most dreadful intellectual weapon that can be 
wielded ; but it stands today unanswerable, undisputed in its divine 
Authenticity. We would know this book ; we would know of the 
beautiful things that are therein contained, and we believe that 
our women can know them if they will follow the advice of the 
book itself: "Behold I would exhort you that when ye shall read 
these things, if it be wisdom in God that ye should read them, that 
ye would remember how merciful the Lord hath been unto the 
children of men, from the creation of Adam, even down until the 
time that ye shall receive these things, and ponder it in youir 
hearts. And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort 
you that ye would ask God, the eternal Father, in the name of 
Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a 
sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will 
manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost ; 
and by the power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of all 


Motto — Charity Never Faileth 



MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. r LUND .... General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford 

Mrs. Jeanette A. Hyde Mrs. Cora L Bennion Mr9. Elise B. Alder 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Inez K. Allen 
Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds' Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 
Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Rarker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edwards, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynold! 

Manager - Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as «econd-class matter at tne Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. XVII JANUARY, 1930 No. 1 


The Bright New Year , 

With the dawning of the New Year 1930, every Latter-day 
Saint will be transported in spirit, for this dawning means the 
review of a century of achievement in Church and in world pro- 
gress. It marks the passing of the greatest century that this 
world has ever known. The ushering in of the new year will 
rivet the thought of Latter-day Saints on April 6, 1830, when six 
persons were organized into the Church, which has been the 
pride, the hope, of thousands through the years that have gone. 

We are living in a day of unprecedented progress, in busi- 
ness; nevertheless business has a larger concern for human wel- 
fare than it has ever had before in history. Men who have 
amassed fortunes seem anxious that their accumulations of 
wealth shall be used in some definite way for human better- 
ment. One may elect to contribute money for the banishment 
of disease not yet conquered; another, for afleviation of human 
misery where there is much poverty ; others have their hearts set 
on the abolition of crime; while still others feel it incumbent 
upon them to do everything in their power to destroy war. 

All these things are heralds of a better day; consequently 
the close of this first century in the history of the Church is but 
the dawning of another brighter day. A hundred years have 


virtually given to us a new heaven and a new earth ; yet the new 
century that bursts into being will have for us other and better 
things. Just now the peace dove hovers near. May the new 
year give added strength to a movement so worthy. 

At the head of our greatest governments are two men who 
have literally come up through the toils to the first place. They 
are filled with the milk of human kindness, anxious to better the 
conditions of humanity. President Hoover's work for children, 
has behind it a force for regeneration that cannot be measured, 
while Premier Ramsey Macdonald's sympathetic nature is seeking 
to sound the depths of British suffering to the end of its amelior- 
ation ; and these two great historical figures are combining for 
the abolition of war. 

The Eliza Roxey Snow Poem Contest 

We are particularly happy to report that sixty-nine poems 
were entered for the 1929 poetry contest — an increase of nine- 
teen poems over last year. Mrs. Elsie E. Barrett, well known 
throughout the State for her painting and sketching, is the winner 
of the first prize. She is at present living in Los Angeles, Cali- 

The second prize is awarded to Mrs. Linnie Fisher Robinson 
of Salt Lake City. Honorable mention is given to Merling D. 
Clyde of Price, Utah ; Josephine M. Duncan of Springville, Utah ; 
and Miranda Walton of Woodruff, Utah. 

In the contest one feature especially pleasing to the Board 
is the fact that the winners have come from varied localities in 
the Church. Last year the winner of the first prize was from 
Colorado ; the winner of the second prize, from California. One 
year the second prize was won by a lady living in Longview, 
Washington. Twice honorable mention has gone to persons liv- 
ing on the other side of the Atlantic, and once to Canada. 

The judges for the 1929 contest were Mrs. Jennie B. Knight 
of the General Board, Dr. Sherman B. Neff, head of the English 
Department of the University of Utah, and Miss Kate Thomas, 
a well known writer of the State. 

The Magazine is pleased once again to congratulate the 
winners in the Eliza R. Snow Poetry Contest. 

President Louise Y. Robison Speaks at 
General Conference 

Much appreciated by the women of the Church was an in- 
novation that occurred at the recent general conference in the Salt 


Lake Tabernacle, October 4-6, 1929. President Grant called to 
the stand President Louise Y. Robison of the Relief Society, 
President Ruth May Fox of the Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association, and President May Anderson of the Primary 
Association. They were each invited to occupy a few moments 
of the time. 

This is the first time in the history of the Church that the 
heads of these three important organizations affecting so vitally 
the work of women and children in the Church, have been called 
to speak in a general conference. Sister Robison was first, and, 
as a result, had the least time to adjust to a situation so wholly 
new. Yet she was equal to the occasion. Her voice carried 
through the vast auditorium, and her testimony was heard, not 
only by the thousands in the audience before her, but by the tens 
of thousands of radio listeners all over the land. 

This innovation, due largely to the fact that amplifiers and 
other mechanical devices convey a voice of ordinary power long 
distances, is but another of the blessings we receive from the sci- 
entific age in which we live. In the recognition given to our 
President as the representative of the great Relief Society, we ex- 
perience a feeling of rejoicing and congratulation. We trust that 
the future holds more such occasions for the women of our 
Church who carry such significant responsibility. 

General Board of Relief Society Expresses 
Appreciation to Organist 

Edna Coray, for twenty-three years organist for the General 
Board of the Relief Society, has recently severed her connection 
with the organization. Her marriage made the resignation im- 
perative, as she has moved out of the State. 

Mrs. Edna Coray Dyer has rendered very efficient and very 
exceptional service. Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, director of 
the choir, states that she is one of the best all-round musicians in 
this part of the country, talented and trustworthy. "If I asked/' 
says Mrs. Edward, "that a key be lowered or raised for any se- 
lection, she could do it on the instant/' To talent she added 
loyalty and dependability, so that the director of the choir knew 
that she would always be on hand when called for, and she al- 
ways was on hand. 

The Relief Society, its officers and members, take this oppor- 
tunity of expressing their grateful appreciation to Mrs. Dyer for 
her efficient and faithful services. We feel that in every respect 
she has been exemplary and we wish her a fulness of joy in her 
new life, praying that God will add abundant blessings. 

Notes from the Field 

Annual Dues: 

With the spirit of hearty cooperation, so characteristic of the 
stakes, the suggestions of the General Board in reference to the 
Annual Dues were very generally carried into effect. There have 
been, during the past year, many changes in the stake organiza- 
tions, and a number of questions in relation to the payment of 
annual dues have come into the office. It is therefore deemed ad- 
visable to quote a few instructions that are necessary for this 
piece of work. 

Dues in the Relief Society consist of fifty cents a year — 
twenty-five cents of which is forwarded to the General Board, 
to be used for the general maintenance of the Relief Society ; the 
other twenty-five cents is retained in the stake organization to be 
used for its maintenance. The annual membership dues should 
be paid in advance in January of each year. For example, the 
dues for 1930 should be paid in January, 1930. The dues should 
he sent to the stake secretary not later than February 28. The 
stake secretary should then forward the portion due to the Gen- 
eral Board to the General Secretary by March 31, retaining the 
remainder for stake purposes. 

Where members are enrolled in the Relief Society for the 
first time, it is expected that they pay their membership dues for 
the year in which they were admitted ; however, when new mem- 
bers enter the organization after September 30, the dues paid at 
this time should be considered as covering the remainder of the 
year and the following year. For the convenience of the secre- 
tary in checking the payment of dues, a column has been provided 
on the right-hand side of the roll for this purpose. 


Since the October conference, reports of reorganizations in 
some of the stakes, also changes in the personal of the officers, 
have reached the office. 

Bannock Stake : 

Mrs. Minnie L. Sorensen was released, after vears of faithful 
service. Mrs. Cora Cooper was called to take Mrs. Sorensen's 
place as president, with Mrs. Pond and Mrs. Lydia Hilten as 

It has always been a matter of congratulation to Bannock 
stake to consider the fine leadership shown in Relief Society work. 
Sister Sorensen was fully alive to the probletris before her, her 


term as president showing great development and reflecting real 
credit upon the stake. The good wishes of the General Board and 
all the people of the stake accompany Mrs. Sorensen in her re- 
tirement; and the hearty cooperation and support that have been 
characteristic of her administration we are sure will come to Mrs. 
Cooper and her corps of officers. 

Liberty Stake: 

In the calling of Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood to the General 
Board of Relief Society, the problem of new leadership was sug- 
gested for Liberty stake, and Mrs. Ida S. Rees, who for many 
years has filled the position as first counselor, was called to suc- 
ceed Mrs. Greenwood. Mrs. Rees has chosen Mrs. Ruby W. 
Henderson, first counselor; Mrs. Retta S. Neff, second counselor; 
and Mrs. Edith R. Christensen has been retained as secretary- 
treasurer. The stake is fortunate in the choice of able and cap- 
able leaders, and the congratulations and best wishes of the Gen- 
eral Board and the people generally go to Mrs. Rees and to the 

Lost River Stake : 

The removal of Mrs. Mary E. Black from her home in the 
Lost River stake to Logan, has been the occasion for a change. 
Mrs. Black is a woman of very great ability and a real Relief So- 
ciety leader. The stake, however, is to be congratulated upon 
the new officers, who have been chosen : for president, Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Hoggan; first counselor, Mrs. Mary A. Jeppesen; second 
counselor, Mrs. Veda J. Waddoups ; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Jo- 
sephine Toombs (retained). In assuming their duties as officers 
these sisters have the very best wishes of the General Board and 
of the Relief Society. 

Pioneer Stake: 

The last reorganization to be fully reported was from Pioneer 
stake, Mrs. Lettie T. Cannon being released, and the following 
executive officers sustained: Mrs. Edna T. Matson, president; 
Mrs. Lanora S. Hyde, first counselor ; Mrs. Florence Burton,second 
counselor; Mrs. Amelia Bissell, secretary-treasurer. Sister Can- 
non and her able associates have left a record of undoubted 

The love and best wishes of the General Board and the 
people of their stake are extended to them. The Pioneer stake 
Relief Society is to be congratulated upon its new leaders, and we 
are sure the same fine cooperation and hearty support will be 
given them by the people. 

Guide Lessons for March 


Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in March) 

Lesson 6. A Nephite Colony 

In this lesson, which covers the matter between pages 181 
and 212 of the Book of Mormon, we have a continuity which we 
have not had in any of the lessons thus far studied. It is mainly 
narrative — the story of one of the Nephite colonies. But in 
order to understand the whole situation, it is necessary to know 
certain historical facts in connection with Nephite migrations. 

1. Zarahemla and the Land of Nephi. As has been hinted 
already once or twice, it is not very material just where the places 
mentioned in the Book of Mormon were in the absolute sense. 
About all we can now hope to do is to locate these places with re- 
spect to one another. To be sure, it would be helpful if we could 
put our finger on our present map of the Americas and say with 
confidence, "Zarahemla was here" and "The Land of Nephi was 
there." But as we cannot do that, we must do the next best 
thing, which is to locate the Book of Mormon places relatively. 

The Land of Zarahemla is where we find King Mosiah, 
father of King Benjamin, about one and a quarter centuries be- 
fore Christ. Yet King Mosiah was born in the Land of Nephi. 
How does all this come about? 

On the death of Lehi, Laman became murderous in his pur- 
pose to rule, and he embittered his followers toward Nephi and 
Nephi's friends. So Nephi, warned of God, took all his 
friends and their belongings into the wilderness, where they 
might live in comparative peace and safety. Doubtless they did 
not go any great distance away from their first home. That is 
why their enemies found them presently, and renewed their dis- 
turbance. And so Nephi moved again. These removals were 
rather numerous, we are led to believe, and continued long after 
Nephi's death — continued, in fact, as long as his people were 
unable to resist the encroachments of the Lamanites. They hap- 
pened, however, these removals, within what is very generally 
termed in the Record, the Land of Nephi, named after their first 
great leader. 

Within this territory, probably the last removal before Mo- 


siah Fs time, was a smaller district called by the same name, the 
Land of Nephi, but sometimes also called Lehi-Nephi. It was 
here that Mosiah I lived and reigned in his earlier years. 

As often occurred among the Nephites, the people were di- 
vided as to their disposition and works. Some were what the 
Book of Mormon calls "wicked," and others were "righteous." 
Besides, the Lamanites were becoming more and more trouble- 
some. And so the Lord instructed Mosiah to take all those who 
would go with him out into the "wilderness", and He would lead 
them to a place of safety. This Mosiah did. We are not informed 
how many remained behind nor what became of them. But this 
fact we must not lose sight of — that it was the Land of Nephi or 
Lehi-Nephi which Mosiah I and his people abandoned. 

Now the place to which the Lord guided these emigrants was 
called the Land of Zarahemla. But Zarahemla, too, had a larger 
and a smaller territory called by the same name, with a city of the 
same name, situated in the heart of the smaller district. And it 
had a numerous population, under the rule of a man named Zara- 
hemla. These people were also Israelites, probably of the tribe of 
Judah, who had come to America under divine guidance not a 
great while after the Lehites landed in America. Having come 
here without records of any kind, their religious habits had de- 
generated to a point where they no longer believed in God, and 
their language had become so corrupted that Mosiah's people 
could not understand them. All this had taken place in about four 
hundred years. The two people became one, with the ruler of 
the superior as head of the government. 

And here we come to the lesson of today. 

2. The Zeniif Colony. As time went on, those who had 
left relatives and friends in the old home, naturally wanted to 
know what had become of them. You know how it would be. 
For religion often divides husbands and wives, sweethearts and 
lovers, parents and children, brothers and sisters. It is assured- 
ly a two-edged sword, as we are told in the Good Book. 

Well, one of these anxious ones was a man named Zeniff: 
Zeniff says of himself, as you will read in the Record, that he was 
"taught in all the language of the Nephites," that he had "a 
knowledge of the Land of Nephi", and that he was by profession 
a spy for the Nephite army in their encounters with the Laman- 

In this business of spying out the enemy's secrets — and this 
is an interesting point — he had learned that the Lamanites were 
not such a bad lot after all. And so he was for entering into a 
treaty with them and teaching them the ways of peace and civil- 
ization through ideas rather than the sword. A very good 
suggestion, as we think today. But the "ruler" — by which term 
it is presumed he meant the head of the army — would have none 


of it. Being "an austere and blood-thirsty man," we are told, he 
was not only against the idea, but against the man who suggested 
the idea. And so Zeniff had to be rescued by his fellow soldiers. 
He was avenged, however — if he needed vengeance — by the great 
slaughter of Nephite forces in their encounters with the Laman- 
ites, for the "greatest number of our army was destroyed", and the 
survivors went home to tell the tale to the widows and orphans. 
A wonderful lot of romance, philosophy, adventure, emotion, 
what not is packed away in those twenty-five lines about Zeniff 
before his great adventure to the southland. 

3. This Picture and That. The Nephite Record abounds 
in contrasts — contrast of character, of ideas, of setting, of emo- 
tions, of everything in fact. One of the most illuminating of 
these is the character of King Benjamin set beside that of King 

Noah had the usual kingly impression that he was of better 
clay than his subjects ; Benjamin, that he had come from the same 
mold as those he ruled. Accordingly, while Benjamin earned his 
own living by hard work and did only what he thought was for 
the best good of his people, Noah taxed his subjects heavily in 
order that he might live sumptuously in "spacious buildings," 
ruling from a costly throne and surrounded by a group of cor- 
rupt, hypocritical sycophants. Benjamin saw to it that his home 
was a source of pleasure and benefit to his children; Noah had 
"wives and concubines," and encouraged a life of harlotry in his 
priests. The difference lay in their conflicting root qualities. 
The ideal of Noah, if it can be termed an ideal, was selfishness ; 
that of Benjamin was service. And see how they ended — the 
one in a peaceful bed, surrounded by a nation of weeping friends; 
the other in bundles of faggots, set on fire by a host of infuriated 

4. Community of the Spirit:. One of the singular things 
about the Nephite prophets is that they seem to have known as 
much as, and some of them more than, we do about our Savior. 
And yet they lived, most of them, hundreds of years before his 
advent. This is especially true of King Benjamin, whose life we 
studied in the last lesson, and of Abinadi, of whom we read in this 
lesson. And the delightful thing about it all is the great clear- 
ness of the views expressed. Here are some of the high water 
marks in the teachings of Abinadi * 

(a) His views of Christ. Opinion is divided today among 
Christians as to whether Jesus was divine or not. Indeed it is 
coming to be more and more the sentiment of people that He was 
not. And this in the face of a belief in the New Testament. But 
there can be no two opinions on the subject with those who accept 
the Book of Mormon. "God himself," Abinadi says, "shall come 
down among the children of men, and shall redeem his people. 


And because He dwelleth in the flesh, he shall be called the Son 
of God." And this agrees with what Benjamin said before him, 

that "the Lord Omnipotent who is from all eternity, shall 

come down from heaven among the children of men, and shall 

dwell in a tabernacle of clay And He shall be called Jesus 

Christ, the Son of God, the Father of heaven and earth, the Cre- 
ator of all things." 

(b) His views of the law of Moses. These are clarity it- 
self compared with what we find in the Old Testament, and are 
on a par with the utterances in the New Testament on the sub- 
ject. "It is expedient," he says to Noah's priests, "that ye should 
keep the law of Moses as yet, but the time shall come when it 
shall no more be expedient to keep the law of Moses." This 
"strict law," he further explains, was given to the Children of 
Israel because "they were a stiff-necked people." And he calls 
it "a law of performances and ordinances," a law to keep them 
in remembrance of the Lord. It was a type, a shadow of things 
to come. 

(c) His Views on Redemption. All men are "carnal, sen- 
sual, devilish," subjecting themselves to the devil, although they 
know good from evil. This has come about through the "fall" 
of our first parents. Now, unless something occurred to redeem 
them from the consequences of this "fall," all mankind would 
be lost "endlessly." But God has provided a means of redemp- 
tion through Christ's death and resurrection. It is effective, 
however, only where man repents and mends his ways ; for if he 
"persists in his own carnal nature," he is as if "there was no re- 
demption made." Christ breaks the bands of death, robbing the 
grave of its victory. And so "there is a resurrection" from the 
dead, and "this mortal shall put on immortality, and this cor- 
ruption shall put on incorruption." 

It is all as clear in the mind of A.binadi as if he were speak- 
ing of the events after they had taken place. This is the true 
fellowship of the Spirit, the communion of souls that have 
drunk of the same all-pervading influence, though separated by 
hundreds of years in time. Christ is eternally the same, whether 
He speaks to Moriancumr on the mount, to King Benjamin 
through an angel, to the poetic intelligence of Isaiah, to a humble 
farm-boy in the nineteenth century, looking for light and wisdom 
— they are all one in spirit and purpose and heart. 


1. Tell how the Nephites came to Zarahemla. Who was 
their leader? Whom did they find there? What was their con- 
dition after four hundred years? 

2. Contrast King Benjamin and King Noah. Who was 


3. Describe the conditions of ZenifFs colony under Zeniff 
and under Noah. How do you account for the difference? 

4. Who was Abinadi? What kind of man would you 
think him to be from what he says and does? Was his fine ex- 
position of doctrine wasted on the priests? Explain. 

5. Who was Alma? Describe his character from the 
things he does in the text. 

6. Who was Ammon? Limhi? Gideon? 


Work and Business 


(This topic is to be given at the special teachers' meeting the first 

week in March) 


I. Courage enables us to encounter danger and difficulties 

It makes us stronger, braver, and more resolute. 
"Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your heart, 
all ye that hope in the Lord." — Psalms 31 :24. 
II. Moral courage or the courage of one's convictions. 

a. Joseph Smith the Prophet 
Inception of Relief Society movement. 

b. The L. D. S. missionaries. 

c. Pioneers. 

d. Historical examples among women. 

1. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in the 
face of ridicule, worked for women's suffrage. 

2. Harriet Beecher Stowe worked for the abolition of 

3. Florence Nightingale, first as well as one of the 
greatest of war nurses, devoted her life to the care of 
the sick. 

III. Physical Courage — the type displayed by the soldier. 

a. David, the shepherd lad who slew the great Goliath. 

b. Washington at Valley Forge. 

c. Examples from the World War. 

IV. Everyday Courage. 

a. Do daily tasks cheerfully. 

b. Make brave decisions. 

c. Go on with our work, even though unjust things are said 
of us. 

d. Seize opportunities with eagerness and zeal. 

"If I want to be a happy, useful citizen, I must be 
brave — This means I must be brave enough and strong 


enough to control what I Hiink and what I say and what 
I do." — Colliers. 
"Be strong! 
We are not here to play, to dream, to drift ; 
We have hard work to do and loads to lift; 
Shun not the struggle — face it 
'Tis God's Gift."— M. D. Babcock. 
V. Courage to observe Church standards. 

a. Is of vital importance in Relief Society work. 

b. Is a positive force in character building. 

Two Artists 

Two Artists stood at the dawn of day 
Where the way of life before them lay ; 
Each felt the urge that is heaven lent 
To whom the God of Arts hath sent. 

Said the first, "I will paint for the world to see 
A masterpiece of artistry; 
At my touch, all men and the crowned king 
Will hold my name, and my praise will sing !" 

So he caught its gleam from the golden cloud, 
And the ocean's blue, and the morn-mist's shroud ; 
Then with master stroke he flung them high — 
A scene of grandeur beneath the sky. 

The crowds came fast with praises free ; 
The Artists gazed at his artistry — 
But when he viewed what his hand had wrought, 
'Twas not the thing himself had sought. 

The second, too, would win high place, 
An honored name in the world's great race ; 
He, too, would work ; his highest goal 
To put on his canvas a bit of soul. 

He wrought all day with patient skill. 
He wrought all day with his brush, until 
A little child with tear-filled eye 
And quivering lips came slowly by. 

Then the Artist turned from his mastery, 
For his soul was filled with sympathy ; 
And then, with tender touch and mild, 
He drew a sketch for the little child. 

Till the baby smiled and raised his eyes 
In all of a baby's glad surprise. 
The Artist, thrilled with loves increase, 
Knew not — that the sketch was his masterpiece. 

—Alice Morrill, 



(Third Week in March) 

The Autobiography of Cincinnatus Hiner (sometimes writ- 
ten Heine) "Joaquin" Miller has been published in various places 
and will probably be available in almost any library in the country. 
Volume one of Joaquin Miller's Poems, published in 1917 by the 
Harr Wagner Publishing Company of San Francisco, is a con- 
venient one to use, if available. 

Joaquin Miller was a strange being, so strange that even 
Western people who should know him best scarcely know him at 
all. This is due partly to his reported eccentricities and partly to 
the fact that it has been popular among critics either to distort 
the peculiarities or else to ignore him entirely. Now that he 
has joined the immortals, perhaps a calmer, saner attitude will 
be taken toward him and his work. 

His autobiography is a naive statement of his experiences. 
It is not long and gives no very adequate picture of him; but 
with his poems, which he says are foot-notes to his life, it does 
round into something like a complete likeness. His habit of 
calling his father papa throughout the autobiography adds to the 
spirit of simplicity, causing the reader to wonder if the poet ever 
did grow into manhood. 

That he felt the American attitude toward him and his works 
to be unfair is indicated early in his notes. He says, "In dedi- 
cating this final edition of my poems to the memory of my par- 
ents, please let me introduce them to you, and, incidentally, in- 
troduce myself ; for it really seems to me that from the day I was 
suddenly discovered and pointed out in London I have been an 
entire stranger in my own land — the land I have loved, lived for, 
battled for from the first. As for that red-shirted and hairy 
man bearing my name abroad and "standing before kings", I 
never saw him, never heard of him until on returning to my own 
country I found that this unpleasant and entirely impossible 
figure ever attended or even overshadowed my most earnest 
work. I desire that my lines shall be read and remembered for 
the merit which the British seem to have discovered in them, and 
quite apart from that creation of the American imagination, the 
stalwart, red-shirted and six-shootered hairy man of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains. Hence this sketch of my gentle and pious 
parents, involving the story of my stormy youth." 

The poet's story might well be a page from the journal of 


some good Latter-day Saint, so similar were his experiences to 
those of many of our own ancestors. "My cradle," he says, "was 
a. covered wagon pointed west. I was born in a covered wagon, 
I am told, at or about the time it crossed the line dividing In- 
diana and Ohio, wherein my mother was born.' , 

The wagon housing this pious family of Quakers continued 
pointing west at intervals until the boy at last found himself 
on the shores of the "Sundown Seas." The father, a gentleman, 
according to his son, never in his life fired a gun. In fact, he 
had a great horror for fire arms and found it unnecessary to re- 
sort to their use in any of his pioneer experiences. 

Being a school master, the father of Joaquin Miller spent 
much of the time on Sundays and in the evenings reading to his 
little flock. He was devout in the matter of prayers and bless- 
ings on the food and reared his children to be the samt. As in 
so many pioneer households, the mother seemed to be the better 
manager of the two. 

Trundle beds, homemade clothmg, scant rations, heart breaks, 
ecstacies, troop through the pages of this simple narrative just as 
they do through the majority of our own pioneer literature, for 
the Millers were pioneers in the finest sense of the term. Bits 
like this make all of us kin : 

"A few days before this little rebellion by the baby boy in 
his first pantaloons," (the boy refused longer to sleep in the 
cradle) "an honest man and a pretty young girl, really the 
prettiest woman I had ever seen except *my mother, came to papa 
to be married, and, as usual, where money was so scarce, brought 
two coon skins. And they were very fine skins, killed in the heart 
of winter and dressed to perfection 

"Mother had claimed these two beautiful skins for some 
special purpose of her own and put them away under her pillow, 
where she always kept the money when there was any money, 
and she now brought out the beaatiful skins, which Jimmy had 
also admired very much and she put them carefully and tenderly 
in the cradle, smoothing them down with her hands and talking 

gently baby talk to Jimmy No cradle for Jimmy Miller. 

So mother took the coon skins out, for a time at least, and the 
cradle was put back in the smoke house. 

"Soon after, a good old Southern woman came from theBilly 
Fields settlement and sent us little folks away to Billy Fields and 
his house full of girls. And when the old woman went away 
we were all back home and very, -very happy. 

"But let me tell you the end of this chapter in verse. For 
there are things that are sacred from severe prose and a song 
suits better the theme. This is from Harper's Magazine : 



"We dwelt in the woods of the Tippecanoe, 
In a lone, lost cabin, with never a view 
Of the full day's sun for a whole year through. 
With strange half hints through the russet corn 
We three were hurried one night. Next morn 
There was frost on the trees, and a sprinkle of snow 
And tracks on the ground. We burst through the door 
And a girl baby cried — and then we were four. 

"We were not sturdy, and we were not wise, 
In the things of the world, and the ways men dare ; 
A pale-browed mother with a prophet's eyes 
A father that dreamed and looked any where. 
Three brothers — wild blossoms, tall fashioned as men 
And we mingled with none, but we lived as when 
The pair first lived, ere they knew the fall ; 
And loving all things we believed in all." 

Speaking of their march farther west, the poet says: "The 
next camp was in South Pass, so named by Fremont, who had set 
up a cairn of stones here: the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 
The flying snow fell in our faces as we looked away to the west. 
The waters were flowing toward the setting sun. It seemed to 
us all, weary as we were, the rest of the way must be down hill 
to the vast ocean. Our camp was by the Pacific Springs. We 
were now drinking of the waters that flowed to the mighty ocean/ 
What exultation! What glory and achievement!" 

Sounds like a paragraph from a Latter-day Saint's note 
book. Again: "At Salt Lake, a beautiful city and scene of; 
honest industry, we rested long, sold some worn-out cattle, the 
carriage and the two horses; keeping one for mother and the 
baby. We three little fellows had learned to walk well ; and walk 
we did now all the time " Later on he says, making a be- 
lated apology, but one that from its apparent sincerity ought to 
be accepted fully: "life was monotonous here." — speaking of a 
sojourn in California — "for we had to live alone in our cabin 
because of the intolerable toughness and roughness of the men 
here at The Forks, who made their focus of action and distraction 
in the Howling Wilderness saloon. Here I laid the scene of "The 
Danites," my famous play, but have always been sorry I printed 
it, as it is unfair to the Mormons and Chinese." 

After being spared by the Indians because they called him 
"Los bobo," the fool, he had a long struggle to regain his health. 
"When strong enough," he says, "I went home, went to college 
some, studied law at home some; but ever and ever the lure ofi 
the mountains called and called, and I could not keep my mind on 


my books. But I could keep my mind on the perils I had passed. 
I could write of them, and I did write of them, almost every day. 
The Tale of the Tall Alcalde, Oregonian, Californian, With 
Walker in Nicaragua — I had lived all these and more ; and they 
were now a part of my existence. If you would care to read 
further of my life, making allowance for poetic license, you will 
find these literally true." 

Again he says : ''My first lines, and in truth, all my lines, 
as a rule, were descriptive stories of the lands I knew, so that my 
poems are literally my autobiography." 

Songs of the Sierra was his first book. It was published at 
his own expense in London, where it met with considerable favor. 
Life Among the Mo docs was one of his most profitable publica- 
tions. He called it a veritable gold mine. 

He concludes his autobiography with paragraphs of sum- 
mation, among them these: "The little story of our pilgrimage 
is simply that of thousands and hundreds of thousands who peo- 
pled the ultimate West. Wie were, perhaps, a little more reliant 
on or a little more dependent on Providence, a little more prayer- 
ful than the average, perhaps; for while others carried guns to 
protect them, the head of our little party never laid hand to a. 
gun, never fired a shot in all his long life. All the vast multi- 
tude as in the exodus of old, in quest of the Promised Land, was, 
as a rule, religious, and buried their dead with hymns and prayers, 
all along that dreary half year's journey on which no coward ever 
ventured, and where the weak fell by the wayside, leaving a na- 
tural selection of good and great people, both in soul and body." 

That he hoped he was doing something worthy and fine in his 
poems is indicated near the close of his autobiography, where he 
also indicates that he believes the great singers of those great 
times are yet to come. 

"But bear in mind," he says, "we are only plowing, sowing 
now, making ready for the reaper, the happy harvester of song, 
who will come to his own, and all in good time, when of today the 
workers and builders shall not be forgotten. Only let us build 
true, level, square, and deserve to be remembered." 

"Of course both warp and woof of every real poem, beyond 
a . sonnet's length, must be shot through and through with 
threads of gold and silver, else it is at best but a guide book ; and 
I would like to be remembered by those of the years to be as a, 
pioneer who not only blazed the path but also loved the flowers 
under foot and the peaks that companion with the stars. 

"My poems may be no better nor much worse than the poems 
of Virgil, Homer, Byron; but are they not new, unique? If 
not, then have my work and wanderings been in vain and my 
life labors, however delightful they have been in the doing, must 
be set down as a failure; for I have certainly had a golden har- 


vest field and, with a few hard exceptions, the most glorious oppor- 
tunity in all the world." 

Joaquin Miller's autobiography is not in any sense great. It 
consists merely of a few elementary notes telling of his experi- 
ences, but taken with his poems it does, as has been said, give the 
reader some idea of this early Western singer who was not so 
very original and who was not so very profound, but who deserves 
to be remembered at least by Westerners, among whom he is real- 
ly little known, for his sincerity at least. A few of his poems will 
probably live always, either for the picture they draw of an era, 
such as "Kit Carson's Ride," or for the moral value they possess, 
such as "Columbus" and "The Fortunate Isles." 


You sail and you seek for the Fortunate Isles, 
The old Greek Isles of the yellow bird's song 
Then steer straight on through the watery miles, 

Straight on, straight on, and you can't go wrong. 
Nay not to the left, nay not to the right, 
But on, straight on, and the isles are in sight, 
The old Greek Isles where yellow birds sing 
And life lies girt with a golden ring. 

These Fortunate Isles they are not so far, 

They lie within reach of the lowliest door; 
You can see them gleam by the twilight star; 

You can hear them sing by the moon's white shore- 
Nay, never look back! Those leveled grave stones 
They were landing steps ; they were steps unto thrones 
Of glory of souls that have gone before, 
And have set white feet on the fortunate shore. 

And what are the names of the Fortunate Isles? 

Why, Duty and Love and a large Content. 
Lo, these are the Isles of the watery miles, 

That God let down from the firmament. 
Aye! Duty and Love and a true man's trust; 
Your forehead to God though your feet in the dust. 
Aye ! Duty to man, and to God meanwhiles, 
And these, O Friends, are the Fortunate Isles. 

— From Later Lines Preferred by London. 

From Lines That Mother Liked 

The bravest battle that ever was founght ; 

Shall I tell you where and when? 
On the maps of the world you will find it not : 

It was fought by the mothers of men. 


Nay, not with cannon or battle shot, 

With sword or braver pen ; 
Nay, not with the eloquent word or thought, 

From mouths of wonderful men. 

But deep in a woman's walled-up heart — 
Of woman that would not yield, 

But patiently, silently bore her part — 
Lo! There is the battle field. 

No marshalling troop, no bivouac song; 

No banners to gleam and wave; 
And, oh; these battles they last so long — 

From babyhood to the grave! 

Yet, faithful and still as a bridge of stars, 
She fights in her walled-up town — 

Fights on and on in the endless wars, 
Then silent, unseen — goes down. 

From Lines That Papa Liked 

Come listen, O Love, to the voice of the dove, 

Come, harken and hear him say, 
"There are many Tomorrows, my Love, my Love, 

There is only one Today." 

And all day long you can hear him say 

This day in purple is rolled, 
And the baby stars of the milky way 

They are cradled in cradles of gold. 

Now what is thy secret, serene gray dove 

Of singing so sweetly alway? 
"There are many tomorrows, my Love, my Love, 

There is only one Today." 


In men whom men condemn as ill 
I find so much of goodness still, 

In men whom men pronounce divine 
I find so much of sin and blot, 

I hesitate to draw a line 
Between the two, where God has not. 



Cincinnatus Hiner Miller was born in a covered wagon in 
the Wabash District, Indiana, November 10, 1841. His father, 
Hulings Miller, a schhool teacher of considerable learning, re- 
moved to Oregon when Joaquin was 9: Young Miller was sent 
to school but ran away to California, where he spent about two 
years in the mines, during which time he suffered many hardships. 

He is said to have been a filibuster with Walker, and Indian 
sachem and Spanish vaguero. 

He returned with $100, gave it to his father, and entered 
school. He then went to Columb'a College, where he was grad- 
uated in 1858, valedictorian of his class. 

He read and studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1860. In the spring of 1861 he went to the gold mines of Idaho, 
where he is said to have given that territory the nick name which 
it still bears — "Gem of the Mountains." There he turned ex- 
press messenger. 

He returned in 1863 to Oregon and edited a paper called 
"The Democratic Register" at Eugene, Oregon ; but the paper was 
soon suppressed for alleged treasonable utterances. 

He returned to the practice of law in 1864 at Canon City, 
Oregon, and was soon made judge of Grant County, a position 
which he held four years. 

He collected his poems under the title Songs of the Sierras, 
and being unable to get them published here went with them to 
London, England, where he published them at his own expense. 
To this volume he signed the name, "Joaquin" Miller, one he had 
assumed from having written a defense of the Mexican brigand, 
Joaquin Murietta. 

He then returned to America but again visited England in 
1873, where he published Songs of the Sunland and One Fair\ 

He returned to New York, but later settled at Washington, 
D. C. where he wrote for various publications. In 1887 he re- 
turned to California and built him a home near San Francisco 
Bay. Tourists frequently visit it now as they did before his' 
death. Many of the world's greatest literary lights called on 
the Poet of the Sierras there. 

He died April 17, 1913. 

He was a great lover of the Indians. He says somewhere: 
"All that I am or ever hope to be, I owe to them — I owe no white 
man anything at all. The Indians sre my true and warm friends." 

Hamlin Garland's tribute upon Miller's death: "Neverthe- 
less, when all blue penciling has been finished, when all allowances 
are made, I think posterity will agree with old Walt (Walt Whit- 
man), who §ajd qi him in substance, T am inclined to set Joaquin 


Miller at the head of the whole list (of Western poets) because 
of his brave attempt at putting into verse the epic scenes and 
characters of our border-land.' " 

Articles of interest: "Passing of Joaquin Miller", Current 
Opinion, Vol 54, pages 318-19, April, 1913 ; "Poet of the Sierras", 
by Hamlin Garland, Sunset Magazine, Vol. 30, pages 765-70, 
June, 1913; "Poet of the Sierras", by Elbert Hubbard, Hearst's 
Magazine, Vol. 23, pages 662-3, April 1913. "Close Up of the 
Poet", Literary Digest, Vol. 87, pages 82-87, November 1*4, 

Questions and Problems 

1. Have a good reader read "Kit Carson's Ride". Comment 
on the introduction to the poem. Where was that introduction 
probably written? 

2. Read "Columbus." What is there about the poem that 
inspires you? 

3. What experiences did Miller have in common with our 
early pioneers? 

4. Why does he say his poems are foot notes to his life? 

5. If any one in the class has ever met Joaquin Miller or 
has ever visited his home above Oakland, she might tell of the 

6. It would be well to have members of the class read his 
poems and bring to class bits that would add to the autobigraphy. 

A Prayer 

Let me live long enough, 

O Lord, 

To learn to be 


Let me see 

Another's fault 

And not be quick 

To judge. 

Help me to live well enough, 

O Lord, 

That I may ne'er 

Feel shame. 

Give me strength 

To see and 

Conquer all my own 


— Adeline J. Haws. 


Social Service 

(Fourth Week in March) 


Lesson 3. Physical and Mental Diseases 

In the last lesson we discussed the extent and the causes of 
poverty. We considered also the principles of care for dependent 
families, dependent adults, and dependent children. 

One of the major causes of dependency, we saw, is physical 
or mental disease. We shall devote this lesson to a consideration 
of these specific causes, noting" the ways in which modern social 
work and workers deal with the problem. 

A. Physical Diseases: Their Nature and Extent 

The precise amount of disease and ill-health is, of course, im- 
possible to determine. We are therefore forced to rely upon 
estimates. One index, however, is the vearly number of persons 
tieated in hospitals and disnensaries. The U. S. Census Bureau 
reports that in the year 1922, 4,700 hospitals and sanatoriums in 
the United States treated over 5,000,000 patients for an aggregate 
of 81,500,000 days. Another 570,000 persons were treated in 
institutions for the mentally handicapped. These figures, of course, 
do not include the out-patients at dispensaries and the private 
patients treated in their homes or at the doctor's office. 

In their book Social Pathology, 1 Queen and Mann quote from 
the Committee on Waste in Industry, of the Federated American 
Engineering Societies, to the effect that : 

* * * each of the 42,000 persons gainfully employed in the United 
States loses on an average more than 8 days a year from illness. 
a total of 350.000 working - days. Perhaps 3 per cent of the wage 
earners (1,250,000) have tuberculosis. Influenza and pneumonia 
in non-epidemic years take ahnnt 35.000 lives in the working ae^es 
and account for at least 350.0000 cases of sickness. Typhoid fever 
fills about 150,000 beds annually and takes 15,000 lives. Malaria 
is responsible for much "sub-standard" health and probably 
affects 1.500.000 peoole each year. Perhans 1.500.000 workers are 
infected with venereal diseases. Six million have organic diseases 
of various sorts. Twenty-five million have defective vision re- 
quiring correction. 

Another way to estimate the nature and extent of ohvsical 
morbidity is to consider the things th^t neonle die of. The tate^t 
statistics are those furnished by the U. S. Census Bureau in 1927. 
from which the following figures ar e taken. ; 

*Crowe1l, 1925 (p. 451) 


Death-Rates per 100,000 Estimated Population in the U. S. 
Registration Area, 1925 

A. The Ten Chief Causes of Death 

Diseases of the heart 176.9 

Cancer and other malignant tumors 92.6 

Tuberculosis (all forms) 86.6 

Cerebral hemorrhage 83.7 

Accidental or undefined , 78.3 

Broncho-pneumonia 38.6 

Diarrhea and enteritis (under 2 years of age) 31.5 

Influenza 29.6 

Arteriosclerosis 20.1 

Diabetes mellitus 16.9 

B. Death-Rates by Divisions 

All causes (exclusive of still-births) 1,182.3 

I. Epidemic, endemic and infections diseases 169.1 

II. General diseases not included in I 138.9 

III. Diseases of the nervous system and organs of 

special sense .' 120.1 

IV. Diseases of the circulatory system 211.0 

V. Diseases of the respiratory system 108.6 

VI. Diseases of the digestive system 101.2 

VII. Non-venereal diseases of the genito-urinary system 

and annexa 111.8 

VIII. The puerperal state 14.9 

IX. Diseases of the skin and cellular tissue 3.2 

X. Diseases of bones and organs of locomotion 1.3 

XI. Malformations 13.8 

XII. Early infancy 60.1 

XIII. Old age 12.0 

XIV. External causes 99.1 

The relationship between social work and physical disease is 
well illustrated in the following facts : 2 

During the six months ending March 31, 1923, the New York 
Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor cared for 3,875 
families, in which it found 5,613 separate important health problems. 
Five hundred and thirty-nine families showed tuberculosis, 299 showed 
nervous or mental disease or mental deficiency. 268 showed venereal 
disease, 236 showed rickets, 163 showed cardiac problems. 

Facts of a similar nature come from the United Charities of 
Chicago, where it is reported for 1921-22 : 3 

* * * that 2,125 families out of 5,400 receiving "major services" 
presented important health problems. For the six years ending in 
19?2, 12,500 out of 38,000 such families presented cases of acute illness. 

B. The Treatment of Physical Disease 

The scope and variety of public and private effort for the 
relief and prevention of physical i-lness and distress is, in many 
ways, the crowning achievement of Western civilization. Merely 

2 Queen and Mann, op, ci{. 457. 


to list the main divisions and types of these efforts, would take more 
space than is here available. Hospitals, sanatoria, clinics, dispen- 
saries, infant-welfare stations, with their efficient staffs of phy- 
sicians, surgeons, laboratory technicians, pathologists, nurses, etc., 
are already quite well-known to the public. The newer services 
of the medical social workers, the public health nurse, the tuber- 
culosis association teacher, and the heart association worker are, 
however, not so well understood. These latter services constitute 
a sort of auxiliary to the field of medicine; they are among the 
more modern forms of social assistance made necessary in the 
active control of disease and poverty. 

The social nature of much disease and its responsiveness to 
educational control is well illustrated in the case of tuberculosis 
which two decades ago was the chief cause of death. Due largely 
to the ingenious and persistent educational efforts of the National 
Tuberculosis Association, the "white plague" has become — in the 
United States at least — much less devastating and now occupies 
only third place among the chief causes of death. 4 And this in 
spite of the fact that there is still no specific remedy for tubercu- 

An interesting example of the tremendous power of private 
philanthropy in the control of disease is the work of the Rocke- 
feller Foundation, — the largest philanthropic enterprise of its sort 
in the world. During the year 1928, for example, under the able 
leadership of its president, Dr. George E. Vincent, the Founda- 
tion spent $21,690,738 in the world-wide control of hookworm, 
malaria, yellow fever, etc. Most of this vast sum was spent in 
foreign countries in the form of subsidies to medical schools, for 
research, for nursing education. Contributions were also made to 
the budgets of 85 county health organizations in seven states of 
the Mississippi flood area. 5 

C. Mental Diseases : Their Nature and Extent 

We should carefully distinguish, at the outset, between mental 
deficiency and insanity. The former is essentially a lack of mind 
and is correctly called feeblemindedness, whereas the latter is truly 
a loss of mind and is correctly designated mental disease or in- 

The term "insanity" describes the legal status of a mentally 
diseased person after a court has declared him to be a danger to 
himself or to society or both. The point is that a person can be 
declared insane for any one of a score of mental diseases, each one 
of which is more or less distinct from all the rest in nature, cau- 
sation, and outcome. 


4 The unique way of financing this vast, educational campaign is, 
of course, by the sale of Christmas seals. 


The nature and relative importance of these mental diseases 
(psychoses) can be seen from the following table: 

Number and Per Cent Distribution, by Psychoses, of Patients in 
Hospitals* for Mental Disease, January 1, 1923 ("Patients in Hospitals 
for Mental disease, 1923," U. S. Census Bureau, 1926, p. 44.) 

Psychoses Number Per Cent 

All clinical groups 265,829 100.0 

Traumatic 251 2 

Senile 13,585 5J 

With cerebral arteriosclerosis 4,419 1.7 

General paralysis 9,394 3.5 

With cerebral syphilis 1,810 0.7 

With Huntington's chorea 317 0.1 

With brain tumor 49 (2) 

With other brain or nervous diseases 1,060 0.4 

Alcoholic 7,396 2.8 

Due to drugs and other exogenous toxins 554 0.2 

With pellagra 507 0.2 

With other somatic diseases 1,978 0.7 

Manic-depressive 40,751 15.3 

Involution melancholia 5,763 2.2 

Dementia praecox (schizophrenia) 114,240 43.0 

Paranoia or paranoid conditions 11,953 4.5 

Epileptic 9,155 3.4 

Psychoneuroses and neuroses 2,351 0.9 

With psychopathic personality 2,883 1.1 

With mental deficiency 11,942 4.5 

Undiagnosed , 14,235 5.4 

Without psychosis 9,499 3.6 

Unknown 1,467 0.6 

(2) Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

That insanity is increasing in the United States, there can be 
little doubt. It is probable, however, that much of the increase 
is due to the fact that mental diseases are much more noticeable 
and are treated earlier now than ever before. This fact, to- 
gether with the better facilities that are increasingly available for 
the care of the insane, explains a good deal of the increase noted 
in the statistics. 

It is quite incorrect, moreover, to assume that all insanity is 
attributable to one cause — heredity. As a matter of fact, each 
specific form of mental disease has its own unique set of causes, 
some being hereditary, others non-hereditary. Generalizing in 
regard to insanity as a whole, it is more nearly correct to assume 
that it is produced by two equally important sets of causes — (1) 

5 Class leaders and L. D. S. welfare workers generally will do well 
to write for a copy of "A Review of 1928," by Dr. G. E. Vincent. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 61 Broadway, New York City. 

*State hospitals 165 

Other public hospitals 148 

Private hospitals 213 

Total 526 


predisposing facts (hereditary, constitutional, etc.) ; and (2) con- 
tributing factors (environmental pressures, life experiences, etc.) 

D. The Mental Hygiene Movement 

The mental hygiene movement is uniquely an American ef- 
fort — precipitated by Clifford W. Beers' epoch-making book, A 
Mind That Found Itself — to prevent nervous and mental diseases 
and to raise the standards of care and treatment of the mentally 

It assumes that what was done by educational and com- 
munity organization methods for the control of tuberculosis can 
also be done for insanity. The chief problems attacked, of 
course, are mental disease, feeble-mindedness, and epilepsy. The 
borderline conditions, including such mild disorders as hysteria, 
neurasthenia, psychasthenia, anxiety neuroses, etc., are also of 
chief concern, not only because they constitute by far the largest 
group of the mentally handicapped, but because they respond 
best to curative and preventive treatment. 

Mental hygienists and their social work colleagues in this 
field are devoted also to the task of raising the standards of care 
and treatment of the insane, the feeble-minded, and the epileptics 
in public institutions. Then, too, by means of survey and dem- 
onstration, important mental hygiene projects have been launched 
under both public and private auspices. 

On the more strictly social service side are to be noted the 
almost universal employment of psychiatric social workers in 
state institutions. These workers have become invaluable in 
the diagnosis and treatment of the mentally handicapped. 

The outstanding achievement of the mental hygiene move- 
ment, to date, however, is the child-guidance clinic, a free out- 
patient facility for the diagnosis and treatment of children's con- 
duct disorders. The minimum staff of a child-guidance clinic 
comprises a psychiatrist (who is also a physician), a psychologist, 
and a psychiatric social worker. In almost every American city 
of any size, one or more of these clinics serves the juvenile court, 
the public schools, the social agencies, and parents generally, in 
the personality adjustment of children who are traditionally la- 
belled "delinquent," "incorrigible," "nervous," "truant/ "un- 
adjusted," "sub-normal," etc. 

Questions for the Further Stimulation of Thought 

1. What do people die of in your community and State? 
Do these causes differ from those in other places? 

2. Make a list of all the various health and medical agencies 
serving your community. 


3. To what extent is illness and disease a cause of poverty 
and destitution in your community? 

4. How forward-looking are the public health facilities and 
regulations in your town and state? Do you require all milk 
that is sold to be pasteurized? 

5. Is your community adequately supplied with well trained 
physicians, competent nurses and ^modern hospital facilities? 
Whose business is it to see that such services and facilities are 
made available in your community? 

6. How do mentally-ill people in your community get into 
your state hospital? Do they go via the county jail? Is this 
practice intelligent and humane? Then why does the practice 
continue ? 

7. Does the mental hospital in your State measure up to 
the best standards of care and treatment in such matters as fire 
protection ; ample accommodations ; size and quality of its staff — 
medical, nursing, psychological, social service, occupational 
therapy, etc.? 

8. Is there an out-patient department maintained by your 
State hospital? 

9. Does your State hospital take the position that all in- 
sanity is more or less incurable? Why? 

10. Are the services of a child-guidance clinic available to 
your community? Why not? 

11. Get some member of your group to read and review A 
Mind That Found Itself by Clifford W. Beers, or Reluctantly, 
Told by Jane Hillyer. Your local librarian will be glad to get 
these books for you. 

Leadership Week at B. Y. U. 

Leadership week at the Brigham Young University will con- 
vene Monday, January 27th, covering the week including January 
31st. An attractive program is being prepared under the direction 
of Dr. Lowry Nelson, head of the extension division. The Slogan 
for the week is "Your Community and What You Can Do For It." 

Conferences and Conventions 

General Board members visited Relief Society stake conventions 
and 'conferences, which were held in the stakes during 1929, as follows: 

Alberta— Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Alpine — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Bannock — Mrs. Jnlia A. F. Lund. 

Bear Lake— Mrs. Marcia K. 

Bear River — Mrs. Louise Y. Rob- 

Beaver— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 

Benson — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Big Horn — Mrs. Marcia K. How- 

Blackfoot— M r s. L o 1 1 a Paul 

Blaine — Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon. 

Boise — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Box Elder — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Burley — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Cache — Miss Alice L. Reynolds. 

Carbon — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Cassia — Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Cottonwood — M r s. Kate M. 

Curlew — Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 

Deseret— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 

Duchesne — Mrs. Ida Peterson 

East Jordan — Mrs. Julia A. F. 

Emery — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Ensign — Mrs. Kate M. Barker, 
Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Franklin— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Fremont — Mrs. Nettie D. Brad- 

Garfield — Mrs. Louise Y. Robi- 

Granite — Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

Grant— Mrs. Julia A. Child, Mrs. 
Julia A. F. Lund, Mrs. Louise 
Y. Robison. 

Gunnison — Miss Alice L. Rey- 

Hollywood — Mrs. Julia A. F. 

Hyrum — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Idaho— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Idaho Falls — Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

Juab — Miss Alice L. Reynolds. 

Juarez — Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 

Kanab — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Kolob— Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

Lethbridge— Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Liberty— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford, 
Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 

Lehi — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Logan — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Los Angeles — Mrs. Julia A. F. 

Lost River — Mrs. Julia A. F. 

Lyman — Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Malad— Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Maricopa — Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 

Millard— Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 

Minidoka— Mrs. Nettie D. Brad- 

Moapa— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 

Montpelier — Mrs. Ida Peterson 

Morgan — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

Moroni — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Mt. Ogden— Mrs. Ida Peterson 

Nebo — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Nevada — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

North Davis — Mrs. Marcia K. 

North Sanpete — Mrs. Ida Peterson 

North Sevier — Mrs. Jennie B. 

North Weber— Mrs. Ethel R. 

Ogden— Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Oneida— Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Oquirrh— Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

Palmyra— Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Panguitch— Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Parowan— Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

Pioneer— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford, 
Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 

Pocatello — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Portneuf — Mrs. Louise Y. Robi- 

Raft River— Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Rigby— Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Roosevelt — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

St. George— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

St. Johns— Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 



St. Joseph — Mrs. Annie Wells 

Salt Lake — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland. 
San Francisco — Mrs. Louise Y. 

San Juan — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 
San Luis — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 
Sharon — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 
Sevier — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 
Shelley— Mrs. Julia A. Child. 
Snowflake — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 
South Davis — Mrs. Ida Peterson 

South Sanpete — Mrs. Ethel R. 

South Sevier— Mrs. Nettie D. 

Star Valley— Mrs. Julia A. F. 

Summit — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Taylor— Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Teton — Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

Timpanogos — Mrs. Cora L. Ben- 

Tintic — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

Tooele — Mrs. Annie Wells Can- 

Twin Falls — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Uintah — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Union— Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Utah— Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Wasatch— Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Wayne — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Weber — Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

West Jordan— Mrs. Ethel R. 

Woodruff— Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Yellowstone — Mrs. Louise Y. Rob- 

Young — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

,The Seasons 

Tis Autumn here, and Summer there ; 
And somewhere else 'tis Spring, 
With tiny blades of tender grass 
And birds come back to sing. 

And in some other place the snow 
Falls gently through the air ; 
Smoke curls from every chimney; 
There's quiet everywhere. 

And so it is with human hearts, 
'Wherever you may go ; 
While your heart bursts with joy and song, 
My heart breaks with woe. 

And when at last my aching heart 
Begins to lighter grow, 
Some other heart is singing 
And another breaks with woe. 

— Adeline J. Haws. 

A Midland Trilogy 

By Lais V. Hales 

Vandemark's Folly, The Hawkeye, and The Invisible Woman, 
comprise Herbert Quick's Midland Trilogy. Each one of these 
books has in turn been called "the great American novel" by emi- 
nent critics. Three rapidly changing phases of American civili- 
zation, which have already become mythical, have here been pre- 
served for all time. All three books are composed of the happiest 
possible mixture of fiction, romance, and history, and their ad- 
mirers are many and constantly increasing. Though it is about 
four years since death robbed us of their great author, Mr. Quick 
lives vividly through his books, which are intimate and biographi- 

Vandemark's Folly begins this epic of the Middle West. It 
is a story of the Erie Canal and the settlement of Iowa. It covers 
the stirring decade of 1855 to 1865. Its hero, Vandemark, a/ 
Dutchman, comes as a pioneer to the much feared and much 
loved prairies of Iowa. Here he fights for the prairie, builds it 
up, wins estate and infinite love, and develops a personality that 
for many years colors both incidents and individuals. Through- 
out the book one feels the pathos, the tragedy, the exaltation, the 
variety, the comedy, of pioneer life. Overshadowing everything 
in the book is the Iowa Prairie, which Mr. Quick knew so well 
and loved so much. His descriptions of the blizzard and the 
prairie fire are things never to be forgotten. William Allen White 
has called this book "the best historical novel of the Middle West." 

The Hawkeye continues the narrative of the growth of this 
American soil through the 'seventies and 'eighties, the era of 
"engaging ruffians and lovable boodlers." This book covers 
the era of county irregularities and lawlessness, vividly exposing 
both the good and the bad of this period. The hero of this book 
is Fremont McConkey, "a sensitive child, banished from contact 
save with a few of his kind, condemned to long, lonely days with 
the green sky of the prairies and the blue meadows of heaven, full 
of romance, quivering with dreams, timid as a shade-haunting 
heron, yet yearning for companionship, conscious of his own 
precocity, secretly proud of it, and yet keenly aware that he must 
be looked upon by town people as ignorant." 

How well Mr. Quick knew Fremont McConkey ! His hand- 
ling of his boy hero and his descriptions of the land where Fre- 
mont "snared gophers, hunted the nests of prairie chickens. 


watched the formation of storms, hunted wild-fowl, listened to 
the orchestration of the birds, leaped sidewise in fear of the rattle 
snake as the locust sprung its rattle, picked up stubs of grass to 
fester in his bare feet, and saw his fellow tumble-weeds rolling 
back and forth in the wind," — these are two of the three best 
things in this good book. It is here that we find the finest of Mr. 
Quick's many tributes to the pioneer mother, of whom he says : 
"The mothers of the frontier ! In the smoky over-heated kitchens, 
as they washed and mopped and baked and brewed and spun and 
wove and knit, and boiled soap, and mended and cut and basted and 
sewed, and strained milk and skimmed cream and churned and 
worked over butter, catching now and then an opportunity to 
read while rocking a child to sleep, drinking in once in a while 
a bit of poetry from the sky or the cloud or the flower; they 

worked and planned and assumed all for their children 

We build monuments in the public square for the soldiers of our 
wars; but where is the monument for the Kate McConkeys who 
made possible so much of the good that is represented by the 
public square itself? Unless it is a monument not made with 
hands, in our hearts and souls, none can ever exist which can be 
in any way adequate/' 

The Invisible Woman carries the story on to the end of the 
century — to the time of wild speculation, of railroad power, of 
invisible government. Woman at this time was just emerging 
from her "place in the home". Christina Thorkelson is the 
woman, and she is one of Mr. Quick's finest creations. She has 
all the honesty, the sturdiness, the understanding, of the pioneer 
woman plus a confidence which they lacked. The Invisible 
Woman is a good, honest book but lacks the epic qualities of the 
first two. 

Quick's Trilogy of the Middle West ranks with that of 
Hamlin Garland. Two great authors of pioneer literature they 
have many things in common. Both impress their readers with 
their sterling honesty — their freedom from the spectacular. Both 
are good story tellers. They have a balanced attitude toward 
the pioneer and the land he conquered. They both write cheer- 
ful, wholesome, soul-lifting literature, and we feel the pleasure 
they derived from writing of such fine things. Their books are 
contributions both to the literature and the history of our country. 
Their subject — early pioneer life — is epic and demands epic treat- 
ment, which they have given it with such success. 

Planning your progress 
for 1930! 

Will you have the same old job and the same old 
pay envelope? Or will you be holding a good posi- 
tion at an increased salary? 

It will pay you to investigate the opportunities avail- 
able in high grade office employment. We can help 
you get started where the pay is good and there are 
opportunities for advancement. 

Just write your name below and mail to us for com- 
plete details of our plan. It's time now to think 
about 1930! 

L* D* S* Business College 







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Made in 

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Blizzard Alice Pierce Willardson 55 

Portrait of Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 56 

Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 

Rose Jenkins Badger 57 

Portrait of Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 60 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker .. Ruth May Fox 61 

Snowflakes Nina Eckart Kerrick 63 

The Nutrition of the Child 

Dr. L. L. Daines 64 

Editorial — Tobacco 70 

The Women in the Case 71 

Welfare Work of the League of Na- 
tions 72 

Every Wednesday Evening 

.Ivy Williams Stone 72 

The Place of Woman in the Farm Home. . 

Dr. Thomas L. Martin 81 

Notes from the Field 85 

Guide Lessons for April SS 

Books for the Family Lais V. Hales 106 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

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NO. 2 



First Poem to Receive Honorable Mention in the Eliza Roxey Snow 

Poetry Contest. 

By Merling Dennis Clyde 

I writhed in deepest agony. My mind 
Reached out to ask why I should thus endure 
This untold pain — this age-old cross. Oh, more: 
I fretted withjthe knowledge that mankind 
(And all of Nature's laws are so aligned) 
Demand that woman touch that unknown 

shore — 
Meet Death, yet safely bring the child she bore. 
But now, all dark and tortured hours combined 
Can never dim the glory that I know. 
The sacrifice became a, cleansing power 
That robbed my beating soul of its unrest. 
Through utter pain came ecstasy. I go 
Content to live from shining hour to hour, 
Since I have felt sweet lips against my breast. 





By Alice Pierce Willardson 

Skies are distant, cold, and gray; 
Winds are hissing, raging, moaning 
Through a mist of icy turmoil; 
Snow in clouds is driven upward. 
Whipped from quiet into chaos, 
Dancing now in crazed confusion, 
Rests again in heaps and mounds. 

Winter, wild and lost and wailing, 
After all your moods and madness 
Shall we find the summer mild? 




Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII FEBRUARY, 1930 No. 2 

Mrs. Hazel H* Greenwood 

By Rose Jenkins Badger. 

Hazel Agnes Hill Greenwood was born November 16, 1886 
in Mill Creek, Salt Lake County. Her father, William Ii. Kill, 
who came here in pioneer days, was of Scotch descent, born in Can- 
ada. Her mother was Elizabeth Ann Hamilton. 

Hazel was the youngest of her father's children, eighteen in 
number. Of these, seven were her mother's. 

I became acquainted with this wonderful family when Hazel 
was a little girl about eight years old. I was her teacher. When 
the weather was too severe to come into town at night, I stayed at 
the Hill home. It was a real privilege to become intimate with 
this family. 

One gets a peculiar and valuable training as a member 
of a large family where there is unity and love. One's nature is 
unconsciously broadened by learning in babyhood to get along with 
people, to adjust to others, to fit in readily; and certainly these 
traits are Hazel's. 

Hazel began her schooling in the old frame school house of 
the 39th District School. Later for two years she attended the 
Granite Stake Academy. From there she went to the Latter-day 
Saints High School, from which she graduated in 1906. 

She was a regular attendant at Sunday School and Mutual. 
A spiritual awakening came to her while studying the Book of 
Mormon in Mutual under the leadership of Sister Marie Hazel- 

In the fall of 1907 her father died, and that same fall she be- 
gan teaching. The first year she taught in Holliday ; the three years 
following, in the 39th District where she first went to school.) 
While teaching in Holliday she met Jacob C. Jensen, a young man 
of fine character, whom she married in 1910. The next year her 
son Grant was born. One year later typhoid fever robbed her 
of her young husband. This terrific blow was made bearable only 


by her faith. As he left her, she looked out across the fields where 
she had lived since babyhood, now drab and dismal to her. Said 
a friend to her, "Hazel, sorrow never leaves us where it finds us." 
Impressed by this remark, she said to herself, " I shall go back 
to the school room, but not to teach as I have done, merely to pass 
a few years away. I shall make of myself the best teacher I can 

Thus began some busy years — teaching in the winter and 
studying in the summer. When she climbed the hill to the State 
University on a hot summer day, the remembrance of the happy, 
restful, summer afternoons on the farm would come to her. She 
would wish then that she had used them to better advantage, so 
that it would not be necessary for her to work so many hours now. 
By this means, however, she was able to get her life certificate for 

To be a companion her mother gave up her home in Mill 
Creek and bought a home in the city, taking care of little Grant and 
making home cheerful and comfortable for Hazel, who was no less 
devoted as a daughter. 

In the death of her mother in 1916 sorrow again came to her. 
It is at such times that one's' family is most appreciated. Her 
brothers and sisters most lovingly tried to help her to readjust her 
life. They insisted upon deeding the little home to her in addi- 
tion to her full share in the other properties of her mother. A 
niece came to live with her to assume the household tasks that 
grandmother had been accustomed to perform. 

Hazel kept her resolve to become the best teacher of which 
she was capable, doing her work efficiently and faithfully. She 
made a real home for herself and her boy, besides finding time to 
do considerable church work. Her experience extended to all 
the organizations except Religion Class. 

At this time she was living in the LeGrande Ward. At the 
home of a friend she met Judge Joshua Greenwood, who was also 
a member of the LeGrand Ward. 

In 1921 Hazel and Elder Greenwood were married. He had 
two grown daughters at home. Hazel soon won their love, asf 
the Judge gained the love of little Grant. A beautiful home life 
has been theirs. With the work of her clever fingers Hazel has 
beautified the house. The broad experience and trained intellect 
of the Judge have made him a most valuable help to her. He has 
always had a sympathetic interest in everything she has under- 

Since her marriage to the Judge she has had the opportunity 
to travel. She has accompanied him on pleasure and business trips 
throughout Utah, California, the Northwest, New York and other 
cities of the East. 


Now began her Relief Society experiences. She first served 
as secretary in Liberty Stake, she next served as counselor to Sis- 
ter Myrtle Shurtliff in the Presidency of the Stake. In 1925 she 
was made Stake President, resigning to become a member of the 
General Board. All persons who have worked with Sister Green- 
wood in the Liberty Stake agree that her leadership was outstand- 
ing. The qualities that contributed to this leadership were con- 
genial personality and unusual tact. Good will and harmony was 
the prevailing tone of the board over which she presided, and as a 
result the cooperation was of a very high order, due in large meas- 
ure to her own temperament. She comes to her new position on the 
General Board, well trained, and with a deep-rootea love for the 
gospel. She loves Relief Society work. She is full of energy, 
efficient, dependable. 

One of her co-workers says that under the most trying cir- 
cumstance she is always good natured. As president of Liberty 
Stake, Sister Greenwood put over the Relief Society program in a 
strikingly intelligent manner. During the beautification cam- 
paign she concentrated on better and more beautiful Relief Society 
rooms. As a result of her work the meeting places for the Re- 
lief Society in the wards of Liberty Stake are conspicuous [for 
comfort and good taste. She had her heart set on improving the 
class work of the Stake and in that project was very successful. 
All Relief Society workers know that welfare work can hardly be 
approached let alone accomplished unless there is fine cooperation 
between the Bishops and ward Presidents and others who may 
be doing welfare work in the wards and stakes. Sister Green- 
wood was unusually successful in bringing about this cooperation. 
She also stimulated the reading of standard Church Works, the re- 
sponse to this idea being practically general. 

In summarizing her work we would say: she exhibited the 
ability to maintain harmony among her workers ; and was fearless 
in defending the right. She is in very deed a true daughter of her 
splendid pioneer parents and a worthy representative of a real 
Latter-day Saint family. 

Mrs. Greenwood and Mrs. Kearnes Honored 

Honoring Hazel H. Greenwood, their former well loved 
President, and Ovanda Kearnes, Welfare Class Leader, the Liberty 
Stake Relief Society Board entertained Saturday, January fourth. 
A prettily arranged luncheon took place at the home of Ruby 
Henderson on Michigan Avenue. All who had worked with Sister 
Greenwood on the Stake Board were guests. Between courses 
limericks written to the two honored guests were read and at the 
close of the luncheon gifts which were symbols of the love and 
esteem in which Sisters Greenwood and Kearnes were held, were 
presented to thm. Librty Stake wishes them success for the future. 


Mrs* Emeline Y* Nebekcr 

Ruth May Fox 

"The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places ; yea, I have 
a goodly heritage." So sang the sweet singer of Israel, and well 
may the subject of this sketch cherish the song in her heart of 

Emeline Young Nebeker was born in the Fourteenth Ward, 
Salt Lake City, September 27, 1875. Her father, Hyrutm S. 
Young, was the son of the late President Brigham Young, of 
whom it is only necessary to mention his name to awaken in^the 
minds of thousands of people memories of the marvelous accom- 
plishments of that inspired leader. His mother, Emeline Free, 
was a charming woman of those early days. Emeline's mother, 
Lucy Georgianne Fox, was the daughter of Jesse Williams Fox 
and Eliza Jerusha Gibbs. 

All the hardships, persecutions, and occasional romance of 
pioneer times are recalled with the names of thesce two people. 
Jesse Williams Fox is remembered as the first general surveyor of 
the territory of Utah and also as being one of the kindest and most 
unselfish of men, who might have made himself wealthy because 
of his opportunities to acquire choice tracts of land ; but these he 
passed by saying : "Let poor men have it." 

In the veins of his wife, Eliza Jerusha Gibbs, Emeline's 
grandmother, ran the blood of the Carter family prominent in 
early church history. 

Her family, consisting of three sisters and a brother, were 
orphaned when quite young. They lived in Montrose and fre- 
quently crossed the great Mississippi to and fro between that 
town and Nauvoo, during those troublous times. The brother, 
Gideon Carter Gibbs, was in the battle at Far West when the 
Saints were ordered to stack their arms and deed away their pro- 
perty to the enemy. 

Eliza Jerusha, a girl of eighteen, crossed the plains in 1848 
in the same company with Jesse Williams Fox, who, by the way, 
had been her school teacher. Friendship ripened into love, so the 
two decided to marry while on their journey. They had their 
first wedding supper sitting on an ox yoke, ,and spent their honey- 
moon wading streams, crossing deserts, and climbing mountains to 
an unknown land. 

Emeline's father, Hyrum S. Young, who for a long time 
was cashier of the Deseret National Bank, was a loyal son, a de- 
voted husband, and an indulgent father, a gentleman in every 


sense of the word. Like her mother before her, Lucy Georgianne 
Fox was a gentle, kind, and hospitable woman, making friends of 
every one, especially the needy. She was one of the first women 
associated with the kindergarten movement in Utah, and became 
very active in that organization, holding meetings in her own home 
and assisting in organizing kindergarten groups. For many 
years she was counselor in the Salt Lake Stake Relief Society 
when Mrs. Clarissa S. Williams was president of that stake, hold- 
ing that position when she passed away to a more beautiful sphere 
of action. 

Emeline was graduated from the normal school of the Uni- 
versity of Utah in 1895 and taught four and one-half years in the 
public schools of Salt Lake City. She was also active in Sunday 
School work. 

In her choice of husband she was fortunate in joining hands 
with another notable pioneer family. Walter D., her husband, 
is the son of George Nebeker and Maria Dillworth. In the early 
60 , s Mr. Nebeker was called to preside over the Hawaiian Mission 
and also to start the sugar industry in that then far-away land. 
His wife, Maria Dillworth went with him and taught school, hav- 
ing a group of native children for her pupils. An interesting inci- 
dent is recalled in connection with this trip. Mr. and Mrs. Nebe- 
ker had both crossed the plains by ox teams ; now they must jour- 
ney to Sacramento in the same slow way, thus crossing the con- 
tinent in that weary, dreary mode of travel. They rode the great 
Pacific on a sailing vessel. But lo, what a change! Five years 
later when returning to Salt Lake City they traveled from San 
Francisco with what appeared to them to be the speed of the 
lightning. The Great High Way had been completed. This visit, 
however, did not terminate Mr. Nebeker's mission. He returned 
to the Islands, remaining four years longer, making a mission of 
nine years in all. 

Since her marriage, as before, Emeline has been active in 
church organizations, having worked in the Primary, Mutual, and 
Relief Society. She has been ward president of each of these 
associations, also a stake officer in the Primary Association. At 
this writing she is president of the Twelfth-Thirteenth Ward Re- 
lief Society. 

Emeline is able to trace her lineage on both sides to thafc 
eventful war which won American independence; consequently 
she is a member of the Ujtah State Society of the Daughters of 
the Revolution, and she has held the position of regent in that 
Institution. Civic work also has claimed her interest, and she is 
now a director on the Community Chest Board. 

Emeline is the proud mother of two children, a son and a 
daughter. Both are attending school, the daughter in Junior High 


and the son majoring in history at the University of Utah. She 
has a lovely home and is a real home-maker, believing absolutely 
that home happiness is the greatest factor in a successful life. 
What more need be said? Up to the present she has filled hei* 
mission nobly. Her natural abilities, her activities, and the ex- 
perience she has gained therefrom make her eminently fitted for 
the great work to which she has been called as a member on the 
General Board of the National Woman's Relief Society. 


By Nina Eckhart Kerrick. 

See snowflakes in the air, 

Falling, falling, everywhere ; 

In their crystal purity — 

Thoughts, by words sent forth on earth, 

Oft in sadnes, oft in mirth. 

Oft in just the quiet way 

That the snowflakes fall today, 

Beautiful and pure and Oh! 

It is God who made them so. 

He who send the snow from heaven 

To the world has also given 

Blessed thoughts, so pure, devine, 

Just to drift to earth and shine 

Like the snowflake as it lay 

Glistening on the ground today. 

The Nutrition of the Child 

(Prenatal and Postnatal) 
By Dr. L. L. Dairies, University of Utah. 

In infancy, sickness and death are due largely to diseases, 
of the intestines and stomach and to acute respiratory diseases. 
There has been a remarkable decrease in the past few years in 
the death rate in infants from diseases of the intestines and 
stomach, mainly because we have a better knowledge of the proper 
diets for children. 

For the welfare of the child clean heredity is not the only 
thing to be seriously considered during the prenatal period. While 
the twelve months before the child is born is the period most ne- 
glected in regard to his care and feeding, we are learning a great 
deal concerning what can be done then to guard his welfare in a 
physical way. 

Diseases From Prenatal Conditions. 

Breast milk is often deficient in the essential inorganic salts, 
as well as in vitamins — a fact that undoubtedly explains, at least 
partially why some breast-fed infants suffer from rickets, scurvy, 
goitre, etc. It seems safe to assume that the blame for this con- 
dition lies in improper prenatal maternal feeding. 

Evidence is accumulating that the need of calcium and phos- 
phorus for bone building are greatest in foetal life. The calci- 
fication of the first teeth is said to begin early in the prenatal period ; 
while calcification of the second or permanent set begins some 
time before birth. The mother who at this time, is willing to in- 
clude in her food goodly quantities of these essential things is 
going far toward insuring the proper development of her child. 

Another inorganic substance that is commonly lacking is 
iodine — a condition often completely neglected in the diet of the 
prenatal period. Dr. Robert Olesen, in Public Health Service, 
says: "During the prenatal period, iodine should be administered 
under the direction of the medical attendant, thereby preventing 
the development of goitre in the child as well as in the mother." 
The inorganic salts and vitamins needed by the foetus or the 
nursing infant cannot be built up in the mother's body ; they must 
be obtained from her food or from the store of such substances in 
her own body tissues- 

Diet For Infants 
In the case of artificially fed infants, it is of course just as 


essential to concern ourselves with all these necessary elements. 
While many of the serious disturbances of digestion in infants 
are due to bacterial contamination of food, still perhaps as many, 
or more, such disturbances are due to improper balancing of the 
infant's food. The pediatrician, or specialist in children's dis- 
eases, can usually correct these conditions by a careful adjustment 
of the proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In proper hands, this 
is one of the most fruitful fields in the prevention and treatment 
of human disease. 

It seems safe to say that a large proportion of the decrease 
in infant mortality is due to the intense interest that is being tak- 
en in foods and nutrition by the general public as well as by the 
medical profession. There never has been a time when so many 
people have been interested in foods and nutrition as now. This is 
because the importance of a proper diet for health and long life 
is more apparent than in the past. 

In determining a proper diet, many things must be con- 
sidered, such as the right kinds and proper amounts of proteins, 
carbohydrates, and fats. Mineral salts make up a very necessary 
part of the diet. It is desirable to give attention to the things that 
will stimulate the appetite; and we must carefully supply a suf- 
ficient amount of indigestible material to keep up the proper tone 
of the intestinal muscles. 

* Substances Essential For Health 

Recently there have been discovered five or six substances, 
whose presence in the food is necessary for health, for the proper 
physical development, and for the propagation of the race. Be- 
cause nothing is yet known of their chemical nature, they are 
assigned letters of the alphabet. The first to be discovered was 
vitamin C. This substance is present in milk and fresh uncooked 
vegetables and fruits, especially in orange, lemon and tomato 
juice, when these are ripened in the field. It is sensitive to boiling 
and even the temperature of pasteurization of milk, if air is present 
during the process, destroys it. Its absence from food for any 
length of time results in the development of a definite and serious 
disease called scurvy. This disease in infants occurs especially 
in babies who receive for many months a diet limited to heated 
cows milk, with or without cereal addition. These babies grow 
pale and fretful, fail to gain in weight, give evidence of tender- 
ness of the limbs, and perhaps bleeding of the gums. It is de- 
cidedly possible that in lighter cases, many of the so-called "grow- 
ing pains" may be evidences of this disease. The greatest danger 
lies in the fact that a marked susceptibility to infections is asso- 
ciated with this nutritional disturbance- 

It has recently been determined that it is not the heat that 


mainly destroys this vitamin but the oxidation that generally 
accompanies the process. If milk or other food is heated with 
but little access of air during the process, almost all of the vita- 
min is preserved. As a result of this knowledge it has recently 
been learned how to preserve vegetables and fruits so that they 
retain their antiscorbutic properties throughout the winter season. 
Even dried milk contains this factor in almost undiminished 
amount. This is due to the fact that dried milk is not subject to 
oxidation in its preparation. 

The Water-Soluble Vitamins. 

The next to be discovered was water-soluble vitamin B. 
This is now considered to be a complex and will probably bej 
called vitamins F. and G. It is present in milk, fresh vegetables, 
the hulls of cereals, in yeast, eggs and glandular meats, such as 
liver and kidneys. The absence of this vitamin complex from 
the diet permits the development of both Beri-beri and pellegra. 
Of far greater importance to us, however, is the fact that both 
these substances in vitamin B. are essential to growth. Several 
workers have repeatedly demonstrated the marked effect of this 
vitamin on the appetite. While often referred to as "growth- 
promoting," this vitamin, like each of the others, is essential to 
normal nutrition at all ages. This vitamin is not destroyed by 
boiling unless too liberal amounts of soda are added to the food 
during the process of cooking. 

The third is fat soluble vitamin A. It is present in butter- 
fat, milk, eggs, and fresh green vegetables. It is found in the 
green leaves of plants and in general these are much richer in 
this vitamin than are other organs of the plant. The pale inner 
leaves of headed lettuce and cabbage are not nearly so rich as are 
the green outer leaves. Recent careful work has shown that the 
green plant tissues other than leaves, used as food in the form of 
string beans and green peppers are, like the green leaves, rich in 

vitamin A- 

McCollum found that by depriving an animal of vitamin A, a 
serious condition of the eye and other complications arise. Al- 
though this is important in times of war and famine, jwhen 
there is the most serious lack of these vitamins, under more nor- 
mal conditions the chief interest in vitamin A, centers around its 
importance in promoting growth as well as in being a regulatory 

Several investigators have emphasized the fact that respira- 
tory diseases are more frequent among experimental animals 
whose food is relatively poor in vitamin A. A liberal allowance 
of this vitamin certainly tends toward a higher degree of health 
and vigor ; and when more is consumed than is needed, the body 


has power to store the surplus and hold it available for future 
use. This has been found to be strikingly true both of young 
animals and of adults. That vitamin A plays an extremely im- 
portant part in the nutrition not only of the young but also of 
the adult, is now well established. Experiments by Sherman and 
McLeod in feeding two parallel groups of rats two types of diets, 
one rather low and the other fairly high in vitamin A, gave the 
very interesting result that the group given the liberal allowance 
of vitamin A lived on the average a little over twice as long as 
those on the diet equally good in all other respects but lower in 
vitamin A. This vitamin is relatively stable under the condi- 
tions generally maintained in the cooking of foods. 

Rickets and Vitamin D. 

Vitamin D is correlated with the development of rickets in 
children and has therefore been called the antirachitic vitamin. 
It is present in large amounts in cod-liver oil, and occurs in small 
quantities in butter-fat and the yolk of eggs. Rickets can be 
cured or prevented by exposure to summer sunshine or to ultra- 
violet rays, provided the sunshine is not robbed of its necessary 
properties as in passing through ordinary window glass. 

It has been shown that the ultra violet irrodition of oils, in 
themselves not antirachitic, or cholestero, produces a substance 
identical with, or metabolically equivalent to, vitamin D. The 
insolation of this compound has recently been claimed. The de- 
velopment of rickets depends on an unsatisfactory relation among 
three dietary factors — calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D — and 
of sunlight. The results of recent experiments emphasize the 
fact that the outstanding feature of the disease is an incorrect 
metabolism of phosphorus rather than of calcium, and that this 
condition is brought about by insufficient amount of both vitamin 
D. and sunshine- 
Rickets is a disease of infancy. After the first two years of 
life, children become rapidly insusceptible to its development. 
The essential feature of the disease is a defect in the development 
of bone. This leads to deformity — to abnormal enlargement 
of the ends of the bones, and to distortion due to bending, owing 
to lack of resistance of the bone to the body weight. It is caused 
also by muscular tension and atmospheric pressure. 

Features of Rachitic Diseases 

Bow-legs, knock-knees, enlarged joints, flat or deformed 
chests, and abnormal conformations of the skull, are all the re- 
sult of failure by the bones to develop in a normal manner. These 
defects alone do not endanger the life of the infant. Only in 
severe cases are there permanent distortions and mechanical dis- 


ability. The disease presents, however, in addition to these de- 
fects in bone growth, other features indicating a general disturb- 
ance of nutritional processes. There is marked anemia, flabby 
musculation, and impairment of digestive function. Rachitic 
children are predisposed to dangerous gastro-intestinal distur- 
bances and readily contract infectious diseases, especially those 
of the respiratory tract. Since rickets is so widely prevalent it 
is indirectly responsible for a large part of infant mortality. 

Findley in a recent survey of rickets says: "In England, 
as in most civilized countries, rickets is one of the most common 
diseases of children. Further, it is probably the most potent! 
factor in interfering with the efficiency of the race. It not only 
stunts the growth and causes deformities, some of which greatly 
increase the dangers of child-bearing, but it raises considerably 
the mortality rate of such diseases as measles and whooping 

It should be said that in order to suffer serious injury from 
any of these so called deficiency diseases, it is not necessary to 
have frank or severe cases of them. Scurvy and rickets, for 
example, may do serious damage without symptoms that would 
be readily recognized. 

In pointing out the great importance of the vitamin D. (cal- 
cium-phosphorus combination in the proper development of the 
teeth) McCollum says: "While commendable as a general hy- 
gienic measure, mouth hygiene has little if anything to do with 
the preservation of the teeth. All measures hitherto proposed 
which stress cleanliness and prompt repair do not get at the root 
of the evil- The development during very early life of a sound 
set of teeth is the most important factor in preventive dentistry." 

A Cause of Sterility In Animals 

Recently a remarkable series of experiments has been pub- 
lished, setting forth the probability of another vitamin that is 
essential in preventing sterility in animals. It was found that 
on certain diets rats could grow to full maturity and appear nor- 
mal, but were incapable of reproduction. This condition can be 
cured or prevented by a change in the dietary program. This 
change involves the addition of certain single natural foods high 
in a new food factor, vitamin E : or the addition of much smaller 
amounts of extracts of these foods. This vitamin is found most 
abundantly in the lipoid extracts of cereal grains, but is abundant 
also in various leafy vegetables. Additional work has recently 
shown that young animals nursing from mothers deprived of this 
vitamin develop paralyses. 


The Best of Fopds 

What foods, then, are important in furnishing these essential 
food factors? It is chiefly because of their outstanding import- 
ance as sources of vitamin A as well as calcium and the complete 
nature of their proteins that McCollum has designated milk and 
the green vegetables as the protective foods. In view of this 
fact, a Committee on Nutritional Problems appointed by the 
American Public Health Association emphasizes the importance 
of including milk in the daily diet to the extent of at least a quart 
for every child and not less than a pint for the adult. Sherman 
says that the standard of a quart of milk in some form every 
day should be maintained at least up to the age of 14 years. 

In order to get an adequate supply of vitamin C, uncooked 
fruits and vegetables must be included in the diet. 

Foodstuffs suitable for human consumption are, almost with- 
out exception, deficient in the antirachitic vitamin D. Butter 
and egg-yolk are the only common foods which have been shown 
to contain appreciable amounts. Cod-liver oil and sunshine have 
a marked protective as well as curative influence. 

The glandular organs, such as liver, kidney, and sweetbread 
or pancreas, are extremely rich in vitamins as compared with! 
other parts. The mucle meats and cereals are very poorly sup- 
plied except for vitamin E. Milk, leafy vegetables, fresh uncooked 
fruits and vegetables, eggs, butter, cod-liver oil, and grandular 
meats are our protective foods, and they furnish in addition ap- 
petite stimulating substances and the necessary calcium and phos- 
phorus as well as other minerals. Apparently, too much of these 
important food factors cannot be taken. The American Public 
Health Association's Committee on Nutritional Problems says in 
its report: "Of total food (calories) we can advantageously use 
only a little more than we actually need; but in recent experi- 
ments with vitamins, intakes of several-fold the amounts dem- 
onstrably needed have shown no danger, but on the contrary have 
proved distinctly advantageous. As with fresh air, we can exist 
without conspicious injury on relatively little, but we can use) 
advantageously a many-fold, larger allowance, generally as much 
as we can conveniently get." 


Mottct — Charity Never Faileth 


MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND .... General Secretary and Treasurer 
Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion Mm Elise B. Alder 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Inez K. Allen 
Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds' Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 
Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edwards, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. XVII FEBRUARY, 1930 No, 2 



A recent report published in the daily papers of the State, 
shows a marked increase in the sale of tobacco in Utah during 
the past year. We wish we could be sure that no women of the 
State were adding to this increase. Particularly are we anxious 
on behalf of women who have been reared in Latter-day Saint 
homes and have been taught the value of the Word of Wisdom. 
Yet reports occasionally come to us that seem to indicate that 
Latter-day Saint women are not 100 per cent strong on this point. 

Last year a public official refused to eat at a restaurant in 
one of our towns south of Salt Lake because he said women 
smoking there offended him. As the population of that town 
is overwhelmingly Latter-day Saint, the chances are that some 
of the women who gave offense to that official are from Latter- 
day Saint homes. 

One of the amazing facts of recent years is the way women 
have taken up smoking and we regret to say that frequently these 
women have been encouraged by their husbands to smoke. There 
are persons in official positions who think it just as intolerant to 
bar a woman from teaching because she smokes as because she 
has short hair or skirts of the prevailing length, but we are not of 


that opinion. We think smoking is a habit that interferes with 
physical, mental, and spiritual growth, and that it is detrimental 
to motherhood. 

Recently a group of American scientists were making their 
way by train through Continental Europe. A woman was with 
the men in one of the non-smoking compartments- She was a 
smoker, and consequently grew restless. She offered the gentle- 
men cigarettes, which they refused, saying, they did not smoke. 
She replied to their refusal, "This is embarrassing; do you mind 
my smoking?" This certainly looks like a case of tables turned; 
as we view it, — turned in the wrong direction. 

Not long ago a woman riding on one of our railroads, found 
herself the victim of her own bad habit. She wanted to smoke ; 
she said she had to smoke, but added, "If I do, I shall give offense 
to every man and woman on this train". However she went into 
the smoker and began to smoke, and, as she had anticipated, there 
was a fuss. The conductor said that every woman in the car 
was scolding him for letting her smoke. She certainly was un- 
popular in that company, and very much to be pitied. Perhaps 
she took up with this undesirable habit by associating with men 
and women who urged smoking, and led her into it. Hence her 
trouble. Compared to the embarrassment of this woman the 
perverbial fish out of water is to be envied. W|e trust that Utah 
standards will not break down. Let us hold the line, even as 
the French held it at Verdun. "Thou shalt not pass," is as im- 
portant a slogan in the spiritual realm as it ever could be in the 
realm of the physical. 

The Women in the Case 

In our New Year's issue we paid tribute to President Her- 
bert Hoover and Premier Ramsey MaDonald. These two men 
deserve the support and confidence of all people who believe in 
the possibility of a better world — a world no longer torn by na- 
tional prejudice or by such strife as wars are made of. 

And here we wish to pay tribute to the women who are 
officially hostesses for these two great men. Lou Henry Hoover 
is a college trained woman with fine American traditions behind 
her- She is socialized in the real sense. For years those close to 
her know how sincere have been her efforts to better untoward 
conditions in the world, and how generously she has given of 
her means to foster such movements- The Twentieth Century 
with its program of betterment for children and peace for hu- 
manity has in her an intelligent and sympathetic supporter. 

The hostess of Premier Ramsey MacDonald is his daughter, 
Ishbel, a very serious minded young woman interested first of all 
in social work. While in America with her Father, she spent 


much of her time in settlements and other places where up-to-date 
social work is being done. She and her father attended a social 
work Conference in New York City ; afterwards they were guests 
of Miss Lillian Wald of Henry street Settlement fame, of the 
Settlement Workers' Home in Saugatuck, Connecticut. This is 
the second time Miss MacDonald has been her father's hostess at 
No. 10 Downing Street. During Mr. Stanley Baldwin's term 
of office she devoted herself very actively to Social Work in Eng- 

Surely the world is growing better. It is a far cry from the 
time when the poor little ignorant Queen of France, Marie An- 
tonette, hearing the murmurings of the mob in front of the Palace, 
asked why they were protesting; when told that they were asking 
for bread, she exclaimed, "Why don't they eat cake?" 

Mrs. Hoover and the young Miss MacDonald are each zealous 
that their grasp of present day situations shall be in a high degree 
intelligent and comprehensive. 

Welfare Work of the League of Nations 

Social workers the world over will be interested in knowing 
of the Welfare Work that has been done by the League of 
Nations during the ten years of its existence. For that reason we 
include the following account of Welfare Work as published by 
the New York Times, January 5, 1930 : 

"The League health organization, and especially its conference 
at Warsaw in 1922, attended by twenty-eight States, including 
Russia and Turkey, has been a most powerful influence in pre- 
venting the spread of epidemics from Eastern Europe and laying 
down principles of international health control. 

The League's conference on the protection of children and 
the traffc in women have created legislation in various States 
checking cruelty and immorality and educating world opinion. 

One of its most humane works was the repatriation of 500,000 
war prisoners who still despaired behind their barbed wire four 
years after the armistice. 

Another was its rescue of Russian refugees and other victims 
of war and revolution. In this work the American Red Cross 
gave generous help. 

A committee of the League was appointed in 1924 to secure 
more efficient suppression of slavery and forced labor among 
primitive peoples and its conventions have been signed by forty- 
six states. 

The Opium Commission has not yet succeeded in restricing 
the traffic in that drug owing to the fortunes gained by the evasion 
of regulations. 

The absurdity of the passport system in Europe and its 
constant annoyance to travelers have been lessened by represen- 
tations from Geneva to various governments. 

Every Wednesday Evening 

By Ivy Williams Stone. 

At three o'clock on Wednesday afternoon Nancy Ware was 
hurrying to finish her ironing. There remained only the rompers, 
six pairs of them for the sturdy, robust twins, also the baby's 
creepers. The dish towels and sheets, smoothly folded, but un- 
ironed, were piled on Jhe table. The sink was full of milk bottles 
and unwashed dinner dishes. Little ripples of lint lay under the 
ironing board and around the table legs. Baby Jean had been 
fretful with her teeth, and the boys had run away. Now, in the 
temporary peace caused by the three little sleepers, Nancy ironed 
with desperate haste. 

She had to get through. The kitchen must be cleaned and 
the dining room dusted. Most good housewives would have their 
ironings finished by Tuesday evening. Thus pondered Nancy, 
as the iron sputtered over a wax crayon in a coverall pocket 
But perhaps they did not have three babies ; and besides, it was 
her birthday. The icecream was ripening in the basement, and 
the cake only lacked icing. John would be sure to bring her a 
gift, and they would have a family celebration. 

Nancy hurriedly pressed the last coverall. She was leaning 
over to disconnect the iron when the doorbell rang with an in- 
sistence that would have awakened the sleeping babies, had iit 
not been muffled. 

"Company," muttered Nancy, pulling a wry face. "Of all 
times!" Brushing a lock of moist hair from her forehead, she 
hastened to answer. There stood a Personage, who in contrast 
to Nancy's flushed appearance could only be called "The Cool 
Lady." From her perfect fresh marcel to the tips of her new 
tan slippers she reflected a study in personal care. 

"How do you do, Nancy?" The voice was musical, per- 
fectly modulated. 

"Why," floundered Nancy, struggling to place this face in 
the mental gallery of people she used to know. 

"May I come in?" A hand as white as any lily of the field 
opened the screen ; and with a faint odor of delicate perfume, the 
Cool Lady entered the clean but toy-strewn room. One rocker 
held a set of tinker toys, another a sand dumper ; while a set of 
blocks littered the floor. Nancy hurriedly cleared a chair and 
thrust it toward her guest. "O Henrietta Long," she cried tri- 
umphantly, "Where, oh where, did you drop from? Why, I 
haven't seen you since we graduated!" 

"Not since that June night when you successfully screened 


John and me while we sat out a dance I cut with funny little Laf- 
fy Myers. Have you ever seen him since? I'm spending the 
summer with Grandma Long. Remember, I lived with her when 
I went to High." 

"And John and I have been married seven years," mused 
Nancy. "Have you. ever — " 

"Never," supplied Henrietta. "Guess you think my name 
has been Long long enough. But I went to France as a war 
worker. Since then I've been teaching home economics in High 
School." A turn of the beautiful hands revealed nails polished 
and manicured to perfection. 

Truly Henrietta was beautiful ; didn't look a day older either, 
except that she had a touch of arch poise. As Nancy surveyed 
the waxwhite profile, the drooping lids, the charming mouth, she 
was acutely aware that her own hands bore the stains of recent 
apple jelly. She knew her nails hadn't been polished for months, 
that her marcel was nearly gone. She was swept with an in- 
feriority complex. She felt a surging return of the old, inex- 
plicable resentment which Henrietta used to create. She had al- 
ways seemed so superior. She had always conveyed the opinion 
of having the most dresses, the newest styles, the highest grades, 
the most beaux. How well Nancy remembered the eventful even- 
ing Henrietta had just sketched. She had been beautiful in her 
flowered mulle, long, of course, with three-quarter sleeves. She 
had always possessed a way of making the boys curious over 
little nothings, and her programs were always full. 

There had been an odd little fellow in their class — Lafayette 
Myers. But because he was queer and lived among the retorts and 
bottles of the chemistry laboratory, everybody called him "Laffy." 
Somehow he had managed a dance with Henrietta and she had 
cut it — and sneaked out on the balcony with John. Nancy's 
John ! That, of course, long before he had noticed those sterling 
qualities which made Nancy a most desirable life companion. 
Laffy Myers had been unable to find Henrietta. So, after his 
near-sighted eyes had traversed the hall twice, he had sat the dance 
out with Nancy. She had been obliged to appear interested in 
his technical explanations of blue liquids in retorts and of the ant- 
idote for something he expected to perfect. • Nancy fancied she 
could still see his rapt expression, the skrewed-up face, the blink- 
ing eyes behind the thick lenses. All the time Myers had talked 
and Nancy had pretended to listen, she could hear Henrietta's 
subdued laughter from the balcony. Henrietta had really ex- 
pected too much! 

As she faced her graceful, smiling guest, all these memories 
in kaleidoscopic array flashed across Nancy's mind- Henrietta's 
delicate yellow silk heightened the whiteness of her skin. In con- 


trast Nancy compared her own housedress to sack-cloth and ashes. 

Suddenly Henrietta sniffed and puckered her nose. "I 
smell, smell something burning/' she said. 

"Oh my gracious 1" cried Nancy, dashing kitchenward. "I 
forgot the iron !" 

Henrietta followed the precipitated Nancy. They found the 
cloth charred under the iron, but otherwise no harm done. 

"Are you ironing ?" queried Henrietta. "Wjhy Grandma and 
I finished ours Monday afternoon. Mustn't get slack, Nancy I" 

"I was just finishing when you rang," defended Nancy. 
. "Oh, no !" contradicted Henrietta, "you weren't finished. 
All these sheets and teatowels — " 

"I don't iron them," countered Nancy. "They are healthier 
sun kissed. All doctors claim that." 

"I'll iron them," announced Henrietta with finality. "They'll 
look so beautiful you'll want them so always. Tidy up your sink 
and get your dinner started. I believe I'll stay and see old John." 

"We have dinner at noon. But we'll be glad to have you eat 
supper with us, Henrietta- It's my birthday, and John will be 
delighted to see you." 

"The nicest people," added Henrietta, moving the iron with 
snail-like speed over the first hem of the first sheet, "The people 
who care, have dinner at six and lunch at noon. Supper is obso- 

"But John can't sleep if he eats heavily at night ;" and Nancy, 
washing dishes with lightning rapidity, felt the old sweeping re- 
sentment rising within her. Henrietta should not remodel the 
customs of their home with her notions on etiquette. 

Nancy finished the kitchen, dusted the dining room, cleared 
the litter of toys from the living room, before Henrietta reached 
the last hem of the fourth and last sheet. Nancy put away the 
coveralls and, unobserved, tucked the unironed teatowels into 
their proper drawer. After all, one must be courteous to the 

"Let me put away the board." she offered. 

Henrietta relinquished the iron with no protest, making no 
inquiry about the missing towels. "I do feel rather fatigued," 
she admitted. "Strange how strenuous work weakens one !" 

The babies awakened and Nancy cuddled and mothered each 
one in turn. Then, while baby Jean drained her bottle, the boys 
were dressed in white suits. Presently two sturdy, fine speci- 
mens of future manhood stood before Henrietta. "Now" thought 
Nancy with pardonable pride, "Henrietta can't brag of nicer chil- 
dren than ours." 

"You should dress them in colors, Nancy, never white." 

"But white boils clean." began Nancy, then stopped. Why 
argue with Henrietta? She always would be superior- 


"White," continued Henrietta, as if addressing a class in 
sewing, is a difficult color for even the very beautiful to wear. ,, 
Here one of the twins poked an inquisitive finger toward the pale 
yellow silk. 

"Oh don't let him touch me," she cried. "He'll spoil my 
gown." Thus admonished, little John took refuge behind Nancy 
and cast frightened glances toward the cool lady. 

Nancy hurried to prepare the meal. Supper or dinner — at 
least they must eat; the best linen and the sterling silver; Havi- 
land china for the three adults ; heavier ware for the boys, with a 
baby plate for Jean. 

"Why don't you give your boys the good china too ?" queried 
Henrietta, surveying the table critically. 

"They can't be trusted yet," replied Nancy determined not 
to become ruffled. "Since the war, you can't match the better 

"Teach your children a love for the beautiful and they will 
treat it accordingly," chanted Henrietta in a class-room voice. 
"Children must be trained to handle good dishes. You should 
have used a boiled icing on your cake, Nancy." 

Nancy thought of the time little John threw his spoon and 
shattered her one piece of Tiffany cut glass. She also thought 
of the pale yellow silk he had been forbidden to touch, and smiled 

Six o'clock brought John, carrying a confectioner's box. 
Nancy, looking sweet and happy in her pink frock, smiled joyous- 
ly at his greeting. Thoughtful John, who never forgot! 

"Sweets to the sweet, Mrs. Ware," he called, extending his 
gift, "even if you are thirty and married." He bent to kiss her 
but Henrietta, who had slipped behind the door, now stepped, 
between them- "Not in public," she reproved archly, "it isn't 
good form. How do you do, Johnny? My, but you're fat!" 

"Why Ritta," cried John Ware, seizing her hand with what 
seemed to Nancy over zeal. "This is a pleasant surprise. From 
where, what to and why?" 

To John and Henrietta the meal was food with memories. 
Nancy, feeding the baby and serving the boys, found little oppor- 
tunity to eat. 

"Do you remember the time you and I cut Latin and went 
rowing?" queried Henrietta, tapping John familiarly with her 
cake fork. 

"You mean played hooky and got all wet on the raft?" 
counted John. "This is sure some cake, Nancy. Mind if I 
have another piece?" 

"It would have been better with boiled icing," persisted Hen- 
rietta, nibbling daintily. 

John stopped eating and shot a quick glance at Henrietta, 


then on to Nancy.' Then a queer little smile puckered his lips 
and he almost whistled. 

"Do you remember the time I sprained my ankle and you 
practically had to carry me home?" 

"Um-Hum — " mumbled John eyeing the last piece of cake. 

"Do you remember/' continued Henrietta with her old gaiety 
and air of mystery, "the time you coaxed me to cut Laf fy's dance 
and hide with you on the balcony? Wasn't the moon georgeous 
and the lilacs heavy with perfume?" 

"I remember old Laffy sitting the dance out with Nancy — 
made me sore," mumbled John, his mouth not quite empty. 

"Help me up," commanded Henrietta. "Let's go sample 
Nancy's candy." 

Nancy had already risen with baby Jean in her arms. But 
Henrietta sat still, holding out her hand toward John who, finally 
understanding, gave her a none too gracious assistance. 

Nancy went to the bedroom ; Henrietta, with never a glance 
toward the disheveled table, led the way to the living room. As 
John passed, he picked up his still unopened newspaper. 

"Oh, you mustn't read with guests around," admonished 
Henrietta, "it isn't done." 

As Nancy undressed the two little boys, a service usually per- 
formed by a proud father, she heard the crackling of paper as 
Henrietta unwrapped the precious box of candy. There was not 
room for many boxes of candy in their strict budget. As she 
tried to quiet the fretful little Jean, Henrietta's voice drifted in, 
musical and modulated, but always beginning, "Do you remem- 
ber, Johnny?" How he loathed the term Johnny. 

Finally peace reigned among the three little sleepers and 
Nancy tiptoed out. Henrietta had moved beside John on the divan 
and emphasized the high points of her reminiscences with little 
taps on his arm or knee. 

"I was surely surprised when that French Colonel kissed me 
and pinned the medal. Ah, Nancy, your candy was wonderful. 
John has a good memory. He used to buy the same kind for me!" 

"I really must be going," she added, "beauty sleep comes be- 
fore midnight." She looked significantly at John who had slid 
to the far edge of the divan and was stealthily reading the head- 

"I'll walk a ways with you," smiled Nancy. "The air will 
do me good, and it gets rather dark before you reach the arc light." 
"But you'll be afraid to come back," reasoned Henrietta. "It's 
not modern, I know, but I still feel safer with an escort." 

At this direct hint John dropped his paper and rose hurriedly. 
"Come on," he said, "I'll get you there in a hurry." 
"Do come again," urged Nancy, who felt she could and should 
be nice to Henrietta. After all, her life was narrow. 


"I'd love to. I'll be here all summer. Suppose we say every 
Wednesday evening? I'll enjoy old friends — old memories- 
Thanks, Nancy." 

As they went down the walk Nancy turned toward the library 
table. The box contained little frilled cups and crumpled tinsel, 
but not one piece of candy. 

She was clearing the table when John returned shortly after. 
He was whistling and radiant. "Helloo, Mrs. Ware/' he bantered, 
"was your candy good?" 

"You and Henrietta," began Nancy. 

"Henrietta only" contradicted John. "I ate only a chocolate 
nut. That girl is some whiz with sweets. Wonder she isn't sick. 
But she offered to teach me golf, so I won't get too heavy. She's 
keeping her looks, though, in spite of time. You'd better have 
your hair curled again to-morrow, hadn't you?" 

"Say," he called from the bedroom after the dropping of one 
shoe and before the falling of its mate, "Henrietta told me what's 
become of that little old Laffy Myers. He's got a job in the ex- 
periment lab. at the State U. He married, and had two pairs of 
twin boys. Then his wife died. Think I'd stay in the lab- too !" 
finished John- 

Thereafter for ten strained weeks Nancy's life became one 
round of getting ready for Wednesday evenings and clearing up 
afterwards. Each week Henrietta came fresh and resplendent in 
a different gown. Each week she suggested new dishes and desserts 
— all expensive in ingredients, time consuming in their preparation, 
and unsuited to the diet of growing babies. Somehow, Nancy 
got her laundry out of the way by Tuesday evening. She managed 
to have her hair marceled weekly. Each Wednesday evening 
found the Ware home clean and tidy, the table set with the best 
linen and china. As always in the old school days, Henrietta had 
her way. 

At first John was interested in the prospective golf lessons. 
But when he learned the price of sticks and club dues, his en- 
thusiasm waned. "Can't cut it this year," he negatived Henri- 
etta's urgings, "got too many little shoes to buy." 

So Henrietta brought a checkerboard. While Nancy sang 
strained lullabyes to the teething Jean, Henrietta and John became 
absorbed in the intricacies of kings and double corners. Every 
evening John had to walk home with Henrietta. And Nancy, 
washing the delicate china with dangerous haste, yielded to the 
insidious encroachings of jealousy. John was staying a trifle 
later each Wednesday evening. He seemed less his buoyant self. 
He was impatient with the babies, reserved toward Nancy. 

On the tenth Wednesday night he was unusually late- The 
dishes were washed, three little sets of clothes were arranged for 


the morning, and Nancy was setting the table for brakfast when 
he arrived. He looked elated, like a person who has finished a 
set, odious task. 

"Where's the paper? Late, as it is, I'll read the headlines." 
He dropped his shoes in the living room and stretched out con- 
tentedly on the divan. 

The next week was an unhappy one for Nancy. Stung by 
jealousy she attached grave meanings to John's every look or 
action. Her mirror revealed swollen eyes and occasional tears 
sizzled on the iron as she hurried through this odious task. She 
dared not seek advice, urged by pride to keep her misgivings to 
herself. Good John, unsuspecting John, like clay in Henrietta's 
clever hands ! 

Finally, after wakeful nights, Nancy devised a plan of defense. 
She sent the washing to the laundry. She hired Edna Watts, who 
wanted odd jobs, to tend the babies and clean the house. There- 
upon Nancy went shopping. She choose a dress as elaborate as 
any Henrietta had flaunted, with slippers and hose to match. She 
had her hair trimmed, shampooed and marceled. When she left 
the shop, her finger nails were brilliantly polished. For once the 
terms of their budget were flagrantly disregarded. 

In her marketing she selected an elaborate meal. She would 
keep Edna to help serve, watch the babies, wash the dishes. She, 
Nancy, would stay in the parlor and be a member of the walking 
home party. She would learn, first hand, the important things 
Henrietta had to say to John- 

Turning a corner hurriedly, she encountered a little man. A 
very diminutive man with skrewed-up face and doubly thick lens 
in his glasses. 

"Excuse me," he muttered apoligetically, "I did not see you !" 

Nancy's reply was a spontaneous laugh- "Why Laf fy Myers, 
where did you come from ? and what brings you to this old town 
again ? 

"Upon my word, Nancy!" The little man seemed glad to 
see again a familiar face. "You haven't changed a bit. I'm 
snatching a two-day vacation, and ran down to meet an old friend. 
Can't take longer. You remember that antidote I once told you 
I was perfecting? Well, it's almost perfected. I've tested it on 
several forms of animal life and it responds beautifully. Really, 
Nancy, I'm so engrossed. It will mean the saving — " 

"How about your babies — your children ?" demanded Nancy, 
more concerned over the welfare of babies than the saving of; 
poisoned adults. 

"Oh— yes." The tone lost its enthusiasm. "That's what brings 
me to see this old friend. They must be cared for." 

He made the excuse of haste and hurried on. Nancy, watch- 


ing the retreating form, thought of the motherless boys whose 
father had no time for their care. Then her thoughts reverted 
again to her own problems, the memory of Laffy Myers fading 
with the cares of her own day. 

Five-thirty found Nancy ready and expectant. The flush of 
conflict made her cheeks becomingly pink ! the new gown certainly 
made her look younger. The house was clean, the children spot- 
less, the table perfect. Nancy sat down to await the coming of her 
husband and guest. At six-thirty John arrived with a confection- 
ar's box under his arm. 

"Gosh, Nancy, but you look nice," he commented- Then 
reaching for the paper he stretched out full length on the divan 
and kicked off his shoes. 

Nancy sat puzzled. Why didn't he dress for dinner? Hen- 
rietta would be here any minute. There was a tiny round hole jn 
the toe of John's sock. If he didn't get it covered, Henrietta 
would comment on the duty of wives ! 

John finished the paper and sat up inquiringly. "Supper 
ready?" he grinned. 

"Why yes," answered Nancy. "Long ago. But you wouldn't 
eat without your guest, would you? This is Wednesday, you 

John stared incredulously, then understanding slowly dawned 
upon him. 

Have you cooked dinner for Henrietta" he demanded. "Do 
you mean to tell me you don't know?" 

"I know nothing except that Henrietta comes to dinner every 
Wednesday evening. I have tried to prepare a nice dinner for your 

"My friend" scoffed John. She never was my friend, except 
in her own mind. What you've had her here all summer for, beats 
me. Making me take her home nights when my feet ached and J 
wanted to read the paper. Last time I yawned in her face three 
times before she got through asking for advice and guidance." 

"Advice? What for?" gasped Nancy, half stupidly, half 

" 'Bout old Laffy Myers. He wrote and asked her to marry 
him. Said he'd take a couple of days off from his beloved retorts- 
They were married at noon and took the afternoon train back to 
his antidotes and bottles and babies. Now I know she's gone, I've 
brought you another box of candy." 

Nancy's hands trembled as she took the proffered box. Be- 
fore her mind marched the array of her groundless fears and sus- 
picions. She felt nothing but compassion for Henrietta — playing 
to the galleries to the very last. How narrow her life had be- 
come ! Now Nancy understood the superior mannerisms, the lit- 


tie criticisms. Having no home, no babies, Henrietta had pre- 
tended an indifference for all the little services and sacrifices that 
make up a life worth living. Poor Henrietta! She would no 
longer wear pale yellow silks, or serve every meal on Haviland 
china ! 

"What say/' continued John, since you're all dolled up and 
Edna's here to tend the babies, that we take in a show ?" 

Nancy smiled demurely. "Supper is ready," she answered. 
"Not luncheon or dinner, but plain, old fashioned supper" 

The Place of Woman in the Farm Home 

By Dr. Thomas L. Martin, Agronomist, Brigham Young 


At various times a feeling has prevailed that agricultural 
work is not dignified. This feeling has changed, or is changing. 
During the last ten years social and economic leaders, have sensed 
the need of a more sympathetic regard for the farm ; and in order 
to counteract the migration to the city which robs the country of 
much of its leadership they have used their energies to create a 
better attitude toward country life- They are doing everything in 
their power to get farmers to organize- They aim to bring about 
conditions which will make the country so attractive that it will 
take its due place in civilization. 

Country roads are being improved. Ease of communication 
is aiding advertisers to offer the installment buying system thus 
putting their goods into rural homes. Changed conditions are in- 
fluencing the thinking in the farm home. Extension work through 
colleges, country high schools, country agents, farmer's bulletins, 
and leadership-week activities are doing their part. Rural Ideas 
are changing all. This is of vital interest, for it has its influence 
on each member of the farm family, particularly on the farm 1 

The Mother Overlooked 

In the rural home the mother has been overlooked. Her im- 
portance has not been appreciated. She it is to whom one must 
look for leadership in rural life. She is the spiritual force in the 
home, the guardian of her children. Her presence, her hands, 
her smile, her fingers, have always done their part in stimulating 
the men who have ruled the world. She is always home while 
the workers are in the field. If the father is sick, she manages the 
farm. If he becomes disappointed she gives him courage. She 
is the one who knows the child mind before the child can talk. 
She interprets one child to another and composes their conflicts. 


She interprets the father to each child. She is the very founda- 
tion of the home. Without her the nation would dwindle into de- 
cay. And it is to the mother of the farm home that the nation 
must return if American civilization is to continue. 

Why Help The Farm Mother? 

Because of her importance in life, woman must be given more 
consideration. It may be that man has done his part ; yet our rural 
surveys of the standard of living and conditions in the home reveal 
the fact that man has been negligent. He has built the house and 
then assumed that his home job was completed. The four walls of 
shelter have been provided, but what else ? Has it ever been con- 
sidered that those four walls constitute the woman's workshop? 
It is in this workshop that ideals develop and it is here that in- 
spiration for the accomplishment of those ideals is created. But 
long hours of lifting, carrying, cleaning, labor with utensils, with 
clothing, etc., have fatigued her until it has stamped its impress 
upon her countenance. As one great writer has stated, "Fatigue 
has poisoned her nervous system, has weakened her capacities and 
energies for which she is noted and needed, and has made- many 
a promising young maiden decide that such is the fate of all 
who accept rural life." 

Farm Life and Insanity 

Statistics indicate that there is a lot of insanity in the world 
and that, with the exception of' the alcohol addict, a vast number 
of the insane are recruited from rural homes. It is estimated that 
80 per cent of the inmates of a Georgia institution are wives and 
daughters of farmers. The rural socioligists attempt to explain 
this condition as probably due to drudgery and lack of social life. 
This explanation may be right or wrong, yet the mother is often 
made a beast of burden because of the great labor she must per- 
form in the home where conveniences have not been considered. 
Unthinkingly on her part or on the part of the household, she 
takes the burden of the sacrifices in the home. 

When the woman on the farm wears out her vitality, the well 
of inspiration is dry. The spirit life in the farm home is dead. Can 
we do something for her ? 

What Can We Do For Farm Homes? 

The story is told, of one woman who said that she would like 
to live on the farm, but that her husband must make the home in 
which she lived a fit place for living. It was agreed that this 
should be done. The farm home was made over, the house re- 
arranged with the same care that is given in planning barns for 
high grade livestock. Windows were lengthened to admit more 


light,, a porch was added, cement walks were laid from the front 
porch- She insisted on and secured a side porch and drive-way to 
the barn. Windows were arranged for a good view of the out- 
side world, the kitchen was painted white, water faucets were 
placed in the kitchen, cupboards were built in, gas lights were in- 
stalled, a bath tub found its place, a well lighted laundry was built 
in the basement, a sink installed in the laundry, and sewer pipes 
were connected with a cesspool. A windmill was erected ; auto- 
matically it pumped air and water for a large pressure tank in 
the basement. A gasoline engine was installed for light and heat. 
This sounds like a tremendous lot of luxurious things, but the 
cost, the windmill excepted, was less than $500. Who will deny 
that the changes were not worth more to the comfort of the 
home than would be a used Ford? That farmstead was changed 
over from one on which a living was to be made to one which 
provided for nearly all the privileges that can be secured in the 
much lauded town home. 

Can Farms Afford The Above Expenses? 

All farmers in our country cannot do just what is above indi- 
cated but they certainly can spare a few dollars for at least the 
fundamentals of decent working conditions for the women. There 
are many leisure days in the twelve months of the year. During 
these periods much that would relieve the burden of the housewife 
could be done by the husband. 

This question is serious. Consider the tendencies in city homes. 
The nation seems to be growing city minded, because city life pro- 
vides pleasant home conditions. But in the city there are less 
than two children to the home. In such homes the mother loses 
both the home instinct and the family instinct. Rural leaders in- 
sist tnatthe nation must return to the mother of the farm home. 
The farm woman lives longer than the city woman, her average 
life being five years more. She is less frequently found in the di- 
vorce court. The apartment houses and family hotels destroy 
domesticity and weaken home ties. The entertainment is much 
more conventionalized and superficial. 

The Nation In Danger 

How different in the farm home and with farm woman. If 
one but makes observations he will be led to the conclusion that 
as the nation continues its city-mindedness so will it arrest the com- 
pletion of its destiny. The mother of the farm home is the bul- 
wark of the nation and should be treated as such- 

Rural life needs attention. The accusation is made that the 
best blood is leaving the country and moving to the city. The 
condition is becoming alarming. Latter-day Saints pride them- 


selves on their wonderful home life. Great claims are made, yet 
it will prove profitable if the father and mother in our rural homes 
will take stock of a very important and delicate situation — the 
conditions of the farm home and the attitude toward the mother 
of the farm home. Fathers should co-operate with mothers and 
make the home a better place in which to live. Some of the sup- 
posed luxuries of life must be placed in the home and the stand- 
ards of living improved. An attempt at city conveniences must 
be made. Pictures, carpets, wall paper, running water, cupboards, 
closets, sinks, and many things of convenience must be there. 
Magazines other than those at fifty cents a year are needed. Good 
Housekeeping, Literary Digest, Pictorial Review, Geographic 
Magazine, Popular Science Monthly, as well as the religious mag- 
azines of the Church will do much to make life more pleasurable 
and profitable. 

Consider The Farm Woman 

The suggestion may be made that it takes money to do these 
things. The suggestion is a correct one, but some things can be 
done that will cost but little. Then again are we really doing our 
best to budget our time and money? Are we 100 per cent efficient 
in the way we manage? Do we give, five per cent of our actual 
thinking to the problems of the home ? or do we drift along the 
lines of least resistance? 

The woman in the farm home is entitled to more attention. 
The mental and spiritual possibilities of our children must not be 
stultified by low home standards. Let us put energy to the ques- 
tions of home life as well as to the care of animals and barns ; 
then our mothers will be most appreciative, our children will grow 
up with kind feelings towards rural life, and rural America will 
furnish what she is expected to furnish — the ideal American citi- 

The deizens of pen and fold With broken panes and shingles 

Are snugly walled against the cold leaking 

In structures reared on studied lines And blackened walls and knotty floors 
Laid down by well-conceived designs. 

They dwell in cosy comfort there, Behind the battered, sagging doors. 
With just enough of light and air What is good farming for, anyway? 
And exercise and balanced ration. To furnish children with the wealth 
Due heed is given each sensation; Of happiness in sparkling health; 
For farmers prize their blooded stock, To pour the molten mind of youth 
Aristocrats of herd and flock. Tn forms of beauty, toil, and truth; 

To give that mind a rugged form, 
That's well enough ; but I object To shield it from the warping storm 

When some men wilfully neglect Of lies and disillusionment; 

The .true aristocrats of earth : To keep unstemmed and yet unspent 

Their daughters, sons, and wives, In every breast a tide of love — 

whose worth Such is the farm's bright treasure- 

They risk in houses warped and trove! 

creaking — Carlton Culmsee. 

Notes from the Field 

Tintic Stake. 

Reports from Tintic stake indicate that the Relief 
Society has been very successful during the year, with ward 
conferences throughout the stake, and in September a note- 
worthy Class Leaders' Convention at Goshen, in which the 
wards all participated. A preview for the coming year's 
work was given by the different class leaders, inspiring talks 
were given by the president, and others of the stake Relief 
Society, and by the Priesthood president. In this late Summer, 
the Stake Presidency and Bishops entertained the aged and 
the widowed of the stake — nearly two hundred guests — at 
Provo, with movies, followed by a delicious supper, at the 
home of President and Mrs. E. Frank Birch. Enthusiasm 
marked the fall work in all the ward Relief Societies. The 
feeling of the leaders is one of real gratification. 

St. Loseph Stake. 

The Secretary-treasurer of the El Paso Ward writes: "We 
are pleased and happy to report a substantial growth, with in- 
creasing development in the spirit of our El Paso Ward Re- 
lief Society. We are keeping in mind the mission of the Re- 
lief Society as the Prophet Joseph Smith outlined it — to look 
after the wants of the needy. Very efficient women we have 
in our organization, having excellent support by the officers. 
Over the lesson work the women are enthusiastic, and they 
enjoy the opportunities it gives for discussion and self expres- 
sion. A majority of our members attend the meetings regu- 
larly and are active in the various phases of the work. It is 
remarkable to note the personal development that takes place. 
The sisters become more efficient as home-makers, and better 
able to manage their children. The Relief Society Magazine 
is greatly appreciated. Along with our regular work we pro- 
vide special entertainment, and wherever possible secure able 
lecturers on problems of vital interest to our members. Pa- 
triarch Harry M. Payne of the St. Joseph stake recently visit- 
ed us giving many of the sisters wonderful blessings during 
his stay. For old-time's sake, and as a help in developing 
the spirit of Relief Society work among our Mexican Latter- 
day Saints, the association commemorated Mexico's National 
Independence Day, the 16th of September, with decora- 
tions, program, and special refreshments featuring a Spanish 
theme. Spanish-speaking missionaries enjoy themselves with 
us. Along with our Social Service lessons we have had the 


pleasure of hearing Mrs. D. H. HufTaker, a very efficient 
leader, in a wonderful presentation of Child Welfare." 

Weber Stake. 

Weber stake, reorganized during last Summer, has shown 
that the officers, though but recently called to leadership, 
are veterans in the cause of Relief Society service. On 
August 27, in the nineteenth Ward hall a brilliant Flower 
Show was held, eight wards offering beautiful exhibits. Hooper 
Ward received first prize, the Eleventh Ward second, and 
the Ninteenth Ward, third. There were also ninety-four special 
exhibits, for which special awards were made. 

Three times during the past year the stake board has re- 
ceived a great deal of joy and satisfaction from visiting the 
County Infirmary. To each inmate they sent a Thanksgiving and 
a Christmas box, feeling that the real Relief Society spirit exists 
where joy is brought to those who are not able to do for them- 

In September at the Eleventh Ward rooms the board enter- 
tained, in honor of the ward executive committees and the retir- 
ing Stake board members and officers — President Marianne Brown- 
ing, First Counselor Ellen H. Tanner, and board members Isa- 
bell Garner and Ada Quinn. It was a delightful afternoon with a 
lovely three-course luncheon served to forty-eight sisters. Gifts 
and expressions of appreciation were presented to the retiring 
stake members. 

North Sevier Stake. 

The North Sevier Stake Annual Flower Festival was held 
on August 20, 1929, at the Salina Second Ward. The opening 
program consisting of speeches and greetings and appropriate 
musical numbers, was furnished by the various wards. The -con- 
cluding event was a one-act play presented by the Redmond Ward. 
A profusion of beautiful flowers adorned the banquet room where 
light refreshments were served. Judges, chosen from the Gunnison 
Stake,. awarded prizes for the best ward collections, and the best 
individual displays of the following flowers: Sweet Peas, Mixed 
Boquets, vRoses, Zinnias, Dahlias, and house plants. We feel that 
flower festivals do much toward the beautifying of our commu- 

Hyrum Stake. 

The Annual Stake Relief social and testimonial was held on 
Thursday, August 22, 1929, in the Third Ward Meeting House. 
The event was in honor of the retiring executive officers : Sisters 
Susannah Nielson, Emily Savage, Hazel Peterson, and Millie M. 
Peterson. A color scheme of yellow and green was carried out 


in the decorations, and a splendid program was given. Two hun- 
dred and thirty guests were present, including the Priesthood 
Stake Presidency. The presentation speech was made by Presi- 
dent Laura L. Christensen. Appropriate gifts were presented to 
the retiring sisters, the gifts being in the form of a beautifully 
bound Book of Mormon. The retiring officers made appreciative 
responses, the delightful event closing with a luncheon and a one 
act play. 

Malad Stake. 

Malad stake is endeavoring through public lectures to stimulate 
interest in the Book of Mormon. At one of these lectures a rather 
unique prologue occurred at a meeting in Malad on November 26. 
The Lamanites in the Washakie ward were the guests of honor, 
two of them, the Bishop's Counselors, offering the opening prayer 
and benediction — simple, concise, appropriate. A mixed chorus 
of Lamanite sisters gave a hymn, taking all the parts. One of the 
Lamanite sisters garbed in her native costume, stood beside an- 
other dressed in present-day clothing, giving a striking illustration 
of the contrast between what the Indian was, and what he now is. 
An able address on the characters of the Book of Mormon, by 
Elder John Henry Evans, followed the prologue. 

Minidoka Stake. 

In Rupert, Idaho, on September 14, Minidoka stake Relief 
Society held a splendid exhibition, combining literary features 
with exhibitions of handwork. Nine wards participated. The 
exhibition opened at noon, with displays of a most attractive ar- 
ray of art and crafts, showing what the various wards had done 
during the summer and early fall. The display was so arranged 
that each ward had its own section. Beautiful features of hand- 
work, exhibiting a wide range of articles that combine utility and 
beauty, in well selected fabrics and pleasing colors, were in evi- 
dence. Especially attractive was the display of quilts, and unique 
among these was an heirloom — a marvelous piece of patchwork 
made eighty years ago, exhibited by Mrs. Mary Moncur of Ru- 
pert, in whose family it has been kept for nearly a century. There 
was an abundance of rugs, pillows, and other articles of house 
furnishings. Of special merit was the display of children's wear- 
ing apparel. Altogether, the display was a triumph of art, coupled 
with a feeling of thrift and good taste in industry, — all developed 
within the Relief Society. The literary program that followed 
was especially fine. The theme was the home; and short talks 
were given on the following subjects: "The Home," "What 
Mother Teaches and Her Influence in the Home," "Music and 
Reading in the Home," "Honesty and Loyalty in the Home." 
"Prayer, a Divine Guidance," "Reverence for Parenthood," 


"Beauty in Every Day Life," "Opportunities of Old Age," "Spirit 
of the Master." Appropriate music and an hour of informal rec- 
reation with games and other delightful features, made this pro- 
gram a very injoyable feature of the organization work — a com- 
bination of social activity and real achievement. 

Portneuf Stake. 

In connection with the annual Stake Relief Society Confer- 
ence in September a unique exhibition of art work was given. 
Ten wards were represented. The display was a revelation of 
what may be accomplished by the industrious Relief Society sis- 
ters. The stake showed its appreciation for the splendid efforts 
of its wards in the exhibit by giving to each a year's subscription 
to the Relief Society Magazine. The conference itself was an 
inspiration, from the presence of President Louise Y. Robison, 
and was an incentive to the sisters to make this year one of signal 
achievement in our history. 

Granite Stake: 

During the season of 1928 and 1929, Granite stake has stres- 
sed particular activity in regard to the Relief Society Magazine. 
With a view to promoting more intelligent interest in class work 
a slogan was adopted : "Read the Magazine from cover to cover, 
and re-read each week's lesson on the day before the lesson is 
given." Agents, in securing subscriptions, have urged members 
to devote the equivalent of ten minutes a day to the Magazine. 
To bring before the women of our Church the high cultural value 
of subjects therein, the last Thursday in October was designated 
as Magazine Day, when a revue and pageant dramatizing one ar- 
ticle from each month's Magazine during the year, was presented 
in every ward. Beautifully typical of our publication, this pageant 
conveyed by picture, prose, and verse, the scope and variety of 
subjects contained in each issue. The setting for the presenta- 
tion of these subjects was a large frame representing the cover — 
the Relief Society Magazine, with the lettering done in black and 
gold. Those taking part on the program appeared behind the 
open oval in the center of the frame, and special lighting effects 
made a very effective demonstration. The number of subscriptions 
has noticeably increased. The following slips were handed to 
every woman attending the meeting: 

Granite Stake Relief Society Slogan: 

Read the Magazine from cover to cover, and repeat 

the reading of each lesson before the day on which the ; 

lesson is given. 

Are you a subscriber ? 

Will you subscribe? 


Guide Lessons for April - 

Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in April) 


This lesson includes the matter between page 212 and page 
251 of the Book of Mormon. 

Excepting the disquisition of King Mosiah II on popular 
government and that of Alma the younger on religion, the lesson 
is mainly narrative. It gives, first, the escape of Alma the Elder 
and his people from the Land of Nephi to Zarahemla and his 
work in the Church there in behalf of the younger generation; 
second, the change in the political government of the Nephites 
from a kingdom to a sort of republic, due to the Nephite mis- 
sion to the Lamanites and the cool temperament of the reigning 
monarch : third, the period of internal struggle among the Ne- 
phites, induced by the ambition of one Amlici, and the subsequent 
conflict with the Lamanites; and fourth, the conversion of Alma 
the younger, with the king's sons, and his early efforts to undo 
his first bad works and to build up both the political and the re- 
ligious organization which had been placed in his efficient and 
trustworthy hands. In outline form this material would appear 
as follows: 

1. Alma the Elder on his way to Zarahemla. 

1. At Helam: 

(a) Approximate location with regard to the Lands ot 
Nephi and Zarahemla. 

(b) Conditions there- 

(c) Arrival of Lemanites — results. 

(d) Departure to Zarahemla. 

2. Arrival at Zarahemla. 

(a) Dual people there. 

(b) Comparative number of each. 

(c) Reception of newcomers. 

3. New duties of Alma. 

2. The Younger Generation: 

1. Whom this younger set consists of. 

2. Causes and results of their defection. 

3. What was done about it: 

(a) Alma's difficulty in the situation. 

(b) The king's attitude. 


(c) Solution. 
3. Alteration in the Nephite government : 

1. Form of government before this. 

(a) Trace the rulers up to now. 

(b) Tell how they acted toward the people. 

(c) Give the occasion for the change. 

2. Nature of the new government, 
(a) The grades of judges. 

)b) Their relation to one another, 
(c) Their relation to the people. 

3. Its workings. 

4. Strife under the new regime. 

1. Nehor. 

(a) Who he was. 

(b) His ideas. 

(c) What was done about him- 

2. Amlici. 

(a) W)ho he was. 

(b) His pretentions. 

• (c) Conflict with him. 

5. Alma the Younger. , 

1. His education and early associations. 

2. His early character and purposes. 

3. His conversion. 

4. Subsequent events. 

(a) Elevation to the priesthood and chief judgeship. 

(b) Characteristics of his ministry. 

(c) His message to the Nation (pp. 245-51). 


1. This lesson is filled with big ideas, religious, political, 
and social. < 

Mention has been made on more than one occasion in the 
course of these lessons of the necessity of going to original sources 
for our knowledge of spiritual things. An idea so fundamental 
cannot be too often called to our attention. Anyway, it occurs 
over and over again in the Book of Mormon. And one of the 
outstanding occasions for mention of it once more occurs in the 
present lesson. 

A "document" has been placed in the hands of King Mosiah, 
which is in an unknown tongue. Instead of puzzling over it and 
beating his brain about its contents, he proceeds to use his pro- 
phetic office to decipher it. With the plates was found an instru- 
ment called a urim and thummin, and this he employs in the trans- 
lation of the foreign language. The result is that the tragic story 
of the Jaredites is unfolded before the Nephites. 

Alma the Younger, although he was instructed in religion by 


his gifted father and by means of such literature as the Nephites 
had, yet he does not depend on that source for his information 
concerning divine matters. "How do you suppose", he asks the 
people, "that I know of a surity of the things of which I have 
spoken?" And he answers with great emphasis, "Behold, they 
are made known unto me by the Holy Spirit of God, and I do 
know for myself that they are true. Moreover," he adds, "it has 
been revealed to me that the words that have been spoken by our 
fathers, are true." 

Thus these two men were qualified to speak on the things of 
the spirit, not because they had conversed with prophets or pored 
over books, but because they had contacted with beings and 
powers in another world. 

Then look at just one of the political ideas that are in this 

Mosiah believes that the people should have a say as to who 
should rule them. Or strictly speaking, he believes they should 
govern themselves- In other words he accepts the idea which 
lies at the very basis of our modern American Government, ex- 
pressed in the phrase the Voice of the People. "It is not common", 
he says in a very fine sentence, "that the voice of the people de- 
sireth anything contrary to that which is right * * * * And if the 
time comes that the voice of the people doth choose iniquity, then 
is the time that the judgments of God will come, with great des- 
truction." If any American of modern times has better expres- 
sed a belief in democratic government than that, we have not come 
across it. 

And then there is that age-old doctrine, so repugnant to most 
people in practice and so much vaunted in theory, the doctrine of 
social equality — a doctrine too on which the Lord has thrown 
every possible emphasis through all his prophets in all ages of 
the world- "Thus saith the Lord," says the Elder Alma. "Ye 
shall not esteem one flesh above another, or one man shall not 
think himself above another." 

This was given as a reason against the doctrine of kingship. 
To have a king means that one person is lifted above the people. 
And this in turn means the building of an aristocracy — lifting a 
group, or class, of persons above the masses. This democratic 
doctrine the Nephites of this period carried out in practice. For 
Benjamin and Mosiah "worked with their hands" so as not to 
become a burden to the people. And even the religious teachers, 
including the high priest, earned their living by manual labor. 
Their society however was of the primitive sort, hot highly special- 
ized and complex like ours. 

2. No doubt these ideas come to the surface at this particular 
time in Nephite history because of the very high character of the 
leaders during this period — iMosiah and the two Almas. For all 


three men were exceptionally endowed with intellect and moral 

We have already mentioned the fine moral courage of thel 
Elder Alma, as instanced when he broke with his iniquitous col- 
leagues and the king. His son Alma, it seems, had the same rare 
quality, as shown when he invited the ridicule (and doubtless re- 
ceived it a-plenty) of his companions and followers at the time 
of his conversion. To break with the past, whether that past be 
either wrong or merely conventional, places a heavier tax on our 
moral stamina than most people imagine, who have not been put 
to the actual test. 

And then, most of all, observe the great clearness of vision, 
coupled with courage, exhibited by Mosiah when he changed the 
form of political government. He was king. His eldest son 
would, in the course of events, be Kling after him. Aud what 
father does not wish his children and his children's children held 
up in the spotlight ? But Mosiah is more anxious for the welfare of 
his people than he was that the kingship should remain in his fam- 
ily. And so he made it impossible for his sons, any or all of them, 
ily. And so he made it impossible for his sons ever to change 
their minds, bring division and probably bloodshed to the Nephite 
nation. Mosiah was under no illusion as to his children, as most 
parents are. He knew human nature. He know that his sons 
were made of the same clay as other men. And who could tell 
how long they would retain the Spirit of God ? 

3. Another very illuminating observation grows out of our 
contact with such characters as Mosiah, the two Almas, and Am- 
nion (of whom we shall hear presently). We mean the tremend- 
ous grip that spiritual things have on the human soul. 

People who have never had any spiritual experiences often 
sneer at the knowledge that religious persons claim to have of the 
unseen forces of the universe, as if the only matters of which the 
human mind can have any real knowledge are material. The 
truth is, as President Brigham Young long ago asserted so posi- 
tively, that there is no knowledge whatever that is at once so sure- 
footed, so definite and certain and so dependable as the knowledge 
that comes from a well-defined spiritual experience. In other 
words, when the Lord reveals anything to you you know it better 
and more surely than you can know anything in the merely sen- 
suous world. And it is both silly and ignorant for what Profes- 
sor William James used to call "toughminded" persons to dis- 
credit a spiritual experience on the ground that it was not founded 
in the senses. 

It is doubtless on account of this obsolute sureness of 
knowledge that great conversions like that of Alma and Ammon, 
in the Book of Mormon, and of Saul of Tarsus, in the New Tes- 
tament, are so crucial, so shattering to old ideals, so powerful in 


directing the life into new channels, so steadying to faith in the 
divine. For only on this assumption of knowledge — and knowledge 
too of the most assuring sort — can we account for the conduct of 
such men as these. Alma endured contumely and persecution, 
Ammon suffered hardships and privation, and Paul invited martyr- 
dom, by merely following the light which never was on land or 
sea. And strong-willed, intellectual men like them would not have 
done so for a will-o-the-wisp. 

Coupled with the sureness of spiritual knowledge is the very 
singular thing that no sooner is a person taken hold of by a 
spiritual experience than he is restless till the whole world comes 
under the spell of the same influence. It is characteristic when 
Galileo discovered the great potential fact that a pound of lead 
and a pound of feathers reached the ground at the same time! 
when dropped from the tower of Pisa, or when, a few days ago, 
two young scientists discovered that hydrogen is a compound 
and not an element, these men did not feel an irrepressible urge 
to spend the rest of their lives showing people that these were 
facts and not illusions. But when Alma and Ammon and Paul 
came to know that Christ opens the way to salvation, they could 
rest neither night nor day as long as anyone remained ignorant, 
through fault of theirs, of this redemptive truth. 

It is indeed a marvelous thing, and a wonder. 


1. Relate the story of how Alma and his converts escaped 
to Zarahemla. 

2. Explain the change that took place in the political gov- 
ernment of the Nephites at this period- 

3. Tell about Nehor, about Amlici. 

4. Relate the conversion of Alma. 

5. Why should the "younger generation" be slow in accept- 
ing religion? 

6. What is the difference between a "democrat" and an 
"aristocrat" ? 

7. Can you think of a situation in which your love of honor 
for a child would conflict with the welfare of your people or 
community ? 

8. Why should Alma "rejoice" when he was told that his 
son had fallen to the ground and been stricken dumb? 


1. TheThe,text pp. 212-251. 

2. The "Dictionary of the Book of Mormon" and the "Story 
of the Book of Mormon" by George Reynolds. 

3. "Message and Characters of the Book of Mormon," by 
John Henry Evans. 


Work and Business 

(Second Week in April) 

1. Honesty is more than a mere policy, it is a principle. It 
embraces truth, a reverance for right honorable dealing, and it 
holds sacred the rights of property. "An honest man is the 
noblest work of God." Honesty should be cultivated through-out 

2. Teaching Children to be Honest: 

1. Begin Early. 

"Train up a child in the way he shall go: And when he is 
old, he will not depart from it" Prov. 22:6. 

2. "Honesty is acquired, not inherited." 

a. The child must understand property rights — "mine 
and thine." 

b. He should have his own possessions and jurisdic- 
tion over them. 

c. The group attitude and ideals are of great import- 

d. Happiness and success are results of honorable 

3. There is generally a motive underlying a dishonest act, 
and it is most important to find it. In a child who has a feeling 
of inferiority, the motive may be a desire to appear more im- 
portant. Again it may be to gain recognition of his group, to 
become more popular. An example of this is taking money to 
buy candy for friends. Sometimes the group may approve of 
acts of dishonesty. It may be a result of jealousy or a means of 
getting even. Whatever the motive may be, "The earlier we 
recognize that these children are not bad or vicious and necessari- 
ly doomed to a criminal career, but that they are simply flounder- 
ing around, trying to find some outlet for their pent up emotions, 
the more we can do for them." Let them know we trust them, 
give them understanding, love and confidence. 

3. Honesty in Religious Life: 

1. In referring to a non-tithe payer, President Heber J. 
Grant said, "How can a man sing lullabys to his conscience and 
compromise himself with the Lord, when he is strictly honest 
with men." 

2. "We believe in being honest" — 13th Article of Faith 
"Thou shalt not steal. 

"Thou shalt not bear false witness. — Exodus 20:15-16. 
"Providing for honest things — 2 Cor. 8:21. 

4. We owe it to our God, our country, our neighbors and 
ourselves to be honest. If we observe the Golden Rule m all 
our dealings, it will be a positive power in character development. 




(Third Week in April) 


Ernestein Roessler, later known as Schumann-Heink, was born 
of Austrian parentage on June 15, 1861, in Lieben, Prague. Her 
father's name was Hans Rossler; her mother's Charlotte Gold- 
man. The two were married in Italy ; for at that time a part of 
Italy belonged to Austria, and Hans Roessler was a lieutenant in 
the Austrian Army. Schumann-Heink says of him, "My father 
was the finest kind of man — a perfect gentleman, but — well — 
I must admit it, a real old rough-neck soldier just the same! A 
good, good man he was — but a rough-neck ! God bless him !" 

Charlotte Goldman spoke Italian, French, German, Dutch, 
and Latin very well, and was possessed of a beautiful contralto 
voice. It was probably from her that Ernestine inherited her 
gift. That Schumann-Heink's great voice was a gift of nature 
there can be no doubt, for early in her life it was recognized as 
being very unusual. 

Though the Roesslers were very poor, friends who could 
sing early heard the child and volunteered to teach her how to 
sing. Through some help from appreciative people — apprecia- 
tive people who will put themselves out to help genius are God's 
great gift to the world — and a great deal of struggle and perse- 
verance on her own part, Ernestine soon learned to use her voice. 
The Master had given her just one talent this time- — she was not 
graceful or beautiful ; that talent she did not bury, but pruned and 
tended in the face of every difficulty. As a result she won the 
world. She secured a contract to sing in Dresden Royal Opera, 
and from that time her climb was sure though at times somewhat 

Ernestine Roessler married three different men. The first 
one was Heink, a young officer in the army and secretary of the 
Royal Opera at Desden. From him she had four children, August 
Heink who was later killed in the world war, being the eldest,, 
Heink and Ernestine lost their positions in the opera and soon 
separated, owing to the fact that he could not understand her ; and 
poverty glared at them continually. 

Later Mrs. Heink, then divorced from her first husband who 
had deserted her, met Paul Schumann, a great actor and singer. 
He had lost his wife and the two soon fell in love. It seems that 
this was the one love romance in Schumann-Heink's life. Schu- 
mann had one son whom the singer took and cared for. Schu- 


mann's health was poor- He gradually grew worse and at length 
died, leaving his wife a widow. Schumann was a Mason; Schu- 
mann-Heink a Catholic, but love soon overcame these barriers. 

After Schumann's death, the great singer felt much alone 
with her eight children. It was then she decided to marry, seem- 
ingly as a matter of convenience, her third husband, William Rapp, 
who was her secretary. These two, however, did not remain to- 
gather so very long. 

Schuman-Heink made the United States her home. During 
the war she had one son, August, in the German army, and her 
others in the United States forces. She became the greatest con- 
tralto singer of her time and is still an active singer. In the 
summer of 1929 she returned to Bayreuth, the scene of her early 
triumph, to participate in a great celebration and reunion of mu- 

The names of her children are: August, Charlotte, Henry, 
Hans, Walter, Ferdinand, Marie and George Washington. 


By Mary Lawton. 

"Madame Schumann-Heink is one of the few active surviv- 
ors of a wonderful musical period and of a group of famous sing- 
ers — great singers of distinction, whose training and whose asso- 
ciation with an equally important group of musicians and conduct- 
ors seem to set them apart from the singers before and after them. 
In telling her story to Mary Lawton, Madame Schumann-Heink 
includes her memories of many of these celebrated people, as well 
as the events of her own rich life. Miss Lawton has not only 
recreated the singer's interviews into an absorbing narrative but 
has taken great pains to catch the homely idiom in which they 
were expressed; and, while setting down the incidents in orderly 
fashion, to convey the full impression of Madame Schumann- 
Heink's personality. 

"The story tells of Schumann-Heink's early privations and 
struggles, of her first successes, of her experiences in America, 
of London days, of singing to the soldiers during the War, and 
of the climax of her fame and her golden jubilee." — Editor's note. 

The above quotation gives in a few words the contents of this 
rather remarkable biography of a great person, but of course it 
cannot give the charm of the narrative nor can it convey the im- 
pression one gets from reading the life of a truly great character. 
One must read the book to get those impressions. Since this bi- 
ography appeared in "The Ladies' Home Journal" a few years 
ago, it is probable that there are a few in every community who 
have already made the acquaintance of Schumann-Heink. Li- 


braries and even homes probably still possess the volume of the 
Journal in which it appeared, hence there is little doubt but that 
the story is accessible in every ward- There probably are in every 
community, too, a few people who have actually seen the great 
Heink and who have heard her sing. 

Due to the cleverness of Miss Mary Lawton, this biography 
reads like an autobiography. We have no third person narrative 
but a warm, informal story which seems to come from the very 
lips of the singer. So realistic is it that in places the reader feels 
that he is not only hearing her talk, but is actually seeing her. 
This illusion is enhanced by the copious illustrations, which show 
the Madame during all periods of her life and also many of the 
great musicians with whom she has associated. 

The narrative is simple- It even suggests in its quaint phras- 
ing that Schumann-Heink, though a naturalized American citizen 
and one to her heart's core, is of foreign birth. The idiom of 
her own language shines through the English to add charm. Miss 
Lawton succeeds in keeping herself entirely out of the reader's 
mind. She, it seems, acts as a wise stenographer and allows the 
inter-viewed — Schuman-Heink — to draw her own likeness; and 
what a likeness it is ! 

Here we have, to begin with, the daughter of a poor army 
officer who has scarcely enough to eat, let alone to give his family 
any sort of training. We behold the child sallow of skin even 
from youth, and to off-set that handicap with no good features 
except a pair of dark eyes. Wie see her as a child, doing childish 
things until her marvelous voice — even then marvelous — an in- 
heritance probably from her mother — is heard by a sympathetic 
person who knows when she hears an unusual voice. Then we 
see the free lessons, followed by the struggle up and up towards 
a career. We see the disappointments the girl meets, but see 
shining through them all the heart of a Titan, as she struggles on 
and on. 

We come, through reading this book, to know just how| 
much that one slothful servant of the parable might have accom- 
plished with his one talent had he been possessed of the courage 
of this Austrian girl. 

What would many of us have done under the following cir- 
cumstances ; LeBatt, a tenor from the Vienna Opera had heard 
the child sing through the efforts of Tante Nina Kienzl, the wife 
of a great composer who lived near the child and who frequently 
had celebrities call. LeBatt suggested that the child go to Vienna 
and sing before his director. Ernestein, however, had no money 
with which to go to Vienna, so she prevailed upon Tante Nina to 
introduce her to a rich retired officer who lived near by. This 


man heard her sing and afterwards gave her money with which 
to make the trip. 

"Yes, I went to Vienna — to the director — and song." Ma- 
dame Schumann-Heink declared, "I sang 'Ah, Mon Fils', and the 
'Drinking Song' from 'Lucrezia Borgia' — 'the Brindisi', they gen- 
erally called it — which made me famous in the United States long 
years after — though at that time I didn't know anything about the 
United States ; didn't know even that there was such a place !" 

"Well, I had a good success, but that wasn't enough. The 
Director (Zauner was his name) listened to me patiently, and 
then turned to LeBatt, and said, shrugging his shoulders., 

"Well, what you want? What's all the fuss? Look at her! 
Mein Gott ! With such a face — and such poverty — nothing ? What 
do you want ? What do you expect ? Gott in Himmel !" 

"And then to me, 'No, no my dear child, waving his hands. 
"Go home quick, and ask your kind friends who helped you to 
come to Vienna to buy you instead a sewing machine, and learn 
to be a good dressmaker maybe, or something like that — but a 
singer — an opera singer! Ach, no! Never — never in this world." 
So home I went, heartbroken. 

Upon her return her father flew into a rage and told her to 
get back to school and learn to be a school teacher; but her old 
teacher and her mother still thought otherwise, and so also did 

Soon afterward a little Jew named Levi came to Graz to 
make engagements for singers. He went to Marietta von Le- 
clair. Ernestein's teacher, and told her that the whole Vienna opera 
company was buzzing over the marvelous voice of the child. 

"Now I am interested in young singers," said he, "and I 
telegraphed to the Dresden Royal Opera, and they are willing to 
pay the expenses and hear her there, and if they find she is what 
they think, and has talent and voice, they will make a contract 
with her, I am sure." 

The teacher hastened over to the home of Ernestine. 

"Now," she said, "this is the real opportunity! I know posi- 
tively this child will have a success. It is a sign of God!" 

The family was upset, for they had no money with which to 
pay the child's fare even though she was to be reimbursed. Again, 
however, the money was forth-coming from a friend. Ernestine 
had her chance and this time she was engaged at 3,600 marks the 
first year, 4,600 marks the second and 5,000 marks the third 

"God knows what will happen to you, Tina, you are so 
young," her father said as she was ready to leave to embark upon 
her career. 

"Well, his fears were useless," Schumann-Heink declares, 


"Because from the very first, I had one big protection: I was 
homely * * * * I knew from the beginning how homely I was. But 
homely or not — nothing mattered then. For at last I have my 
contract for the Dresden Royal Opera — signed by the King." 

The child's troubles were not by any means over, but from 
that point there was little turning back. She went from one tri- 
umph to another, though in between were many periods of des- 
pair, during one of which she even contemplated the killing of her 
children and suicide, because of her extreme poverty. It seems, 
however, that the gods or fate had decreed that she was to be a 
great singer, and nothing seemed capable of stopping her after 
once she set her foot upon the right path. 

Her greatest triumphs were achieved after she came to this 
country. Here in America she was acclaimed everywhere; and 
the little child who in Austria often had insufficient food received 
as high as $28,000.00 for a single week's engagement. No wonder 
that she adopted this country and was willing that some of her 
sons should fight for it in the World War even though one son 
was on the German side- 

Any woman who reads this remarkable volume through will 
come from it, I feel sure, believing that the struggle is worth 
while- That it is great to be a great singer, but that it is also 
great to be a great mother who would, if need be, sacrifice her 
career or her life for her children. 

I think some of her closing words are worth repeating here, 
for fear that some of the sisters will not see them. 

"It's a long, long trail — a long way I've come, a rough way in 
places, but it has been a wonderful life, all told, and I wouldn't 
have missed an hour of it or changed it for any other ; for I've 
learned something, I hope, in these starving, working, bitter, and 
golden years. And now that I no longer look with the eager eyes 
of youth, I see more clearly than ever that one point, the very 
mainspring of my life, has been the concentration on my art. I 
never looked to the right or the left, I had. simply this one big 
idea from the beginning — to reach the goal, to fulfill my childhood 
ambition — to be one of the great contraltos of the world. And, 
thank God! I've stuck to my point, through thick and thin, 
through poverty, sickness, and death, from youth to old age — and 
I've come at last to the top of the little tree that I planted so many, 
many years ago. 

"The value of this to young singers is my only object in tell- 
ing it all over again. This shall be my parting word — know what 
you want to do — then do it. Make straight for your goal and go 
undefeated in spirit to the end. And that, let me tell you, requires 
some doing — take it from Mother Schumann-Heink — and who 
should know better than I ?" 


"Yes, children, see it through, and perhaps you, too, wjill 
come, as I have, to a Golden Jubilee. This is a Golden Jubilee for 
me, in every sense of the word — as full of touching tributes as my 
heart is of gratitude. Gratitude! — that's my very last word — 
gratitude to the American people who have so made my American 
career! For it is here in America that my happiest years have 
been spent — it is here in America, please God, that I shall end 
my days — march on, 'booted and spurred,' as my father used 
to say, like an old soldier of fortune. 

"For how better could one make the grand finale — and ring 
down the last curtain? Still marching on!" 

"That is the great wish of my heart — to die as I've lived — in 

One closes the book feeling that here is a woman well worth 
the knowing, an achievement of which the world may well feel 


Social Service 

(Fourth Week in April) 

In lesson III we considered the extent and causes of physical 
and mental disease, and discussed the treatment of physical and 
mental defects operating to produce poverty and demoralization. 
The present lesson we shall devote to a consideration of (a) the 
crippled and disabled, (b) the blind and the deaf, and (c) the 
mentally defective. 

A. The Crippled wid Disabled. 

The Minnesota State Board of Control defines a disabled 
person as "Any person who by reason of physical defect or de- 
formity, whether congenital or acquired by accident, injury or 
disease is, or may be expected to be, totally or partially incapaci- 
tated for remunerative occupation." The question arises: How 
many such persons are there? 

Statistics on this subject are difficult to secure. In 1916 a 
house to house canvass in Cleveland revealed the presence of more 
than 4,000 cripples — a ratio of about six disabled persons to every 
one thousand inhabitants. A census taken in Massachusetts in 
1905 (Queen and Mann, "Social Pathology," Crowell, Page 521) 
gives "more than 17,00 lame, maimed and deformed persons, — a 
ratio of 5.7 per thousand of the state's population. The close 
similarity of the figures from these two studies leads us to feel 
that an estimate for the entire United States may be based on 


them, giving for the United States, 660,000 seriously disabled per- 
sons. Mr. Dean estimates the number of crippled and disabled 
in the United States to be over 2,000,000 'of whom 600,000 have 
been so incapacitated as to be rendered occupationally useless.' " 

The causes of physical disability in adults can be determined 
only approximately. It is estimated (Queen and Mann, 524 ^ 
"that of 600,000 permanently disabled persons in the United 
States, 300,000 represent the results of disease, 100,000 of indus- 
trial accidents, and 200,000 of other accidents." For children, 
there are more accurate data of the causes of physical disability. 
The following table is furnished by the Spalding School, Chicago. 

Diagnosis of Crippled Children In Chicago 

Diagnosis Per cent. 

Infantile paralysis 42 

Tuberculosis of bone 18 

Spastic paralysis 10 

Cardiac defects 10 

Rickets _ 


Congenital defects 


Arthritis , 

Obstetrical paralysis , 

Sleeping sickness , 

Accidents, etc 

Types of Service 

There are two distinct types of service for crippled and dis- 
abled children : one is medical ; the other, educational. Medical 
services vary all the way from the out-patient department of the 
private general hospital to the highly specialized ortheopedic san- 
itarium, maintained out of public funds. An example of the 
latter type is the remarkable institution maintained by the State 
of Iowa, at the State Medical School. 

During recent years great progress has been made in inven- 
tions and adaptations of prosthetic devices, artificial limbs, sup- 
ports, braces, etc. In most large cities, schools for crippled chil- 
dren are part of the public-school facilities, as in the Spalding 
School, Chicago, connected with the Institute for Destitute Crip- 
pled Children. 

For the care of the crippled and disabled adult a new principle 
has been introduced in the United States. Following the World 
War, ex-soldiers and ex-sailors, instead of being pensioned, as in 
previous wars, were granted subsidies under the war-risk-insur- 
ance act. In addition to insurance, disabled soldiers and sailors 

Y 20 


receive compensation, the amount varying with the nature of the 
injuries and with the number of their dependents. Our govern- 
ment went further and provided vocational rehabilitation and 
training for disabled veterans. These services are administered 
through the Veterans' Bureau, the American Red Cross, and the 
Federal Board for Vocation Education. 

The same principles have been applied to the care of adults 
disabled in industry, so that now more than half the States have 
what is called civilian rehabilitation laws, which provide (a) in- 
surance, (b) disability compensation, and (c) vocational re-edu- 

It is probably safe to conclude that in our own country, at 
least, society is dealing much more intelligently with the crippled 
and disabled than it has ever done before ; but, many possibilities 
lie in the field of prevention. 

B. The Blind And The Deaf. 

In 1920 the United States census reported 52,500 blind per- 
sons in the United States, approximately 500 per 1,000,000 of the 
population. Of these 30,000 were male, and 22,500 were female. 
Only 10,000 of the blind were under the age of twenty-five. 

Most of these persons are greatly handicapped. It is probably 
safe to say that the great majority of the adult blind are not self- 
supporting. On the other hand, large numbers are employed and 
become partially self-supporting in broom-making, chair-caning, 
piano-tuning, basket-weaving, etc; and many blind persons are 
employed as news-dealers, clerks, salesmen. 

The causes of blindness are interesting. In the case of 35,000 
blind from whom data are available in the census, "two-fifths re- 
ported specific affections of the eye, such as cataract, glaucoma, 
atrophy of the optic nerve, ophthalmia neonatorum, and trachoma. 
One-sixth reported their blindness to be due to such general dis- 
eases as measles, meningitis and scarlet fever. Another one-sixth 
reported the cause of their blindness to be accidents from explos- 
ives, firearms, falls, etc. Finally, there were about one-fourth 
whose reports as to causation were indefinite or inaccurate. These 
included the blind who stated that their condition was congenital 
(not otherwise specified) that it was due to neuralgia, sore eyes, 
etc. From the first to the fifty-fourth year, external injury is the' 
most frequent cause of blindness. From the fifth to the thirty- 
fourth year it produces more than one-fourth of all blindness, but 
from fifty-five on, cataract is the leading cause. Atrophy of the 
optic nerve gradually increased in frequency up to middle life, 
after which it continues as the second most important causal fac- 
tor." (Queen and Mann, 552). 


Cared For By States 

Every State in the Union has one or more state boarding 
schools for the blind, furnishing systematic instruction in the fun- 
damental school subjects and in vocational subjects. In most of 
the large school systems, provision is also made for the education 
and training of blind children. A number of states have gone so 
far as to provide special pensions for blind adults. 

In addition to the facilities provided out of public funds, 
many private agencies support adult homes for the blind, work- 
shops for the blind, special schools, home instruction, vocational 
education, libraries, bureaus of information, "light-houses." 

The blind constitute perhaps the oldest and most permanent 
group of the physically handicapped/ and while more social and 
public welfare work is done for them than for any other group 
of the disadvantaged, it is also true that a great deal has yet to 
be done on the preventive side. Social work and social workers 
could well afford to concentrate their energies on the causes of 

Deafness, while a serious handicap, is not so disabling as 
blindness ; yet the last census gives the number of deaf persons in 
the United States as 45,000, most of whom were over ten years 
of age. Approximately one-third of this number are persons able 
to speak, and about one-half are able to read lips. Four-fifths use 
the sign language, and an equal number employ finger-spelling. 
The great majority can write; the point being that practically all 
deaf persons are able to communicate. 

Causes and Cures of Deafness 

Deafness, of course, does not carry with it the economic dis- 
advantage that blindness involves; most deaf persons being self- 

One of the striking things about deafness is that about two- 
fifths of the deaf are born so handicapped. It is well known that 
certain types of deafness are hereditary, yet it must not be as- 
sumed that all cases of congenital deafness appearing in infancy 
are due to heredity. As a matter of fact, among the chief causes of 
deafness are scarlet fever, meningitis, brain fever, measles and 

Most states have provided systems of care for the deaf al- 
most parallel to the facilities set up for the blind, boarding schools, 
special classes in the public schools, etc. Private agencies, sup- 
ported out of private funds, are doing all sorts of helpful things 
for the deaf — research, job-finding, education of public opinion, 
etc. What was said of blindness might be said with equal truth 
of deafness: the greatest effort yet remains to be exerted on the 


side of prevention. Here again we find that the diseases of child- 
hood, if intelligently controlled and prevented, would greatly re- 
duce the amount of blindness and deafness. Intelligent parents 
can no longer take the position that whooping cough, scarlet fever, 
measles, are diseases inevitable in childhood and the sooner their 
children have them "and get it over with," the better. 

The advent of the radio, particularly through the use of the 
earphone, has contributed greatly to the increased happiness of 
many partially deaf persons. 

C. Mental Defectives. 

Feeblemindedness is to be clearly distinguished from insanity ; 
the latter is a mental disease ; the former, a mental defect. Says 
the British Royal Commission : 

"A feebleminded person is one who is capable of earning a 
living under favorable circumstances, but is incapable, from mental 
defect existing from birth, or from an early age, (a) of compet- 
ing on equal terms with his normal fellows; or (b) of managing 
himself and his affairs with ordinary prudence." 

Psychologically, mental deficiency is sometimes described as 
a condition of arrested development, limiting the individual to a 
mental capacity not exceeding that of twelve-year-old normal 

Most authorities agree that the percentage of feebleminded- 
ness ranges from one-half of one per cent to three per cent of the 
population. Taking the smaller figure, this means that we have 
in the United States over 500,000 mental defectives ; and, in Utah, 
a total of 2,500, 1,700 of whom would probably be children of 
school age, i. e., under fifteen years. Only the low-grade defectives 
need permanent care in state institutions. Higher grade defec* 
tives can and should be dealt with in the public schools. 

While it is true that most feeblemindedness is the result of 
defective inheritance, it is also true that a large amount of mental 
deficiency is congenital, the direct result of alcoholism, tubercu- 
losis, or syphilis, in the parents. Conditions acting before birth, 
during birth, and after birth can produce feeblemindedness. Such 
things as abnormal conditions of the mother during pregnancy, 
injuries to the fetus,, abnormalities of labor, premature birth, 
head injuries, toxic conditions, convulsions, nutritional disturb- 
ances, are all well known causes of feeblemindedness that is not 

Treatment of the Feeble-Minded 

Not much can be done medically and surgically for mental 
dificiency, although limited success has been achieved by means 
of what is popularly called "gland" treatment. Following are 


principles generally accepted as the basis of a community's pro- 
gram for the control of feeblemindedness: 

1. Identification. 

2. Registration. 

3. Special education in the public schools followed by com- 
munity supervision, for the high-grade defective. 

4. Segregation in a separate state school for the low-grade 

5. Segregation in a separate state institution for the defec- 
tive delinquent. 

Many states, during the last generation, have tried steriliza- 
tion as a preventive measure against feeblemindedness. In most 
states where sterilization laws have been passed, however, this 
form of control is anything but successful. On the other hand, 
California, for instance — where the great majority of all steriliza- 
tions have been performed — seems to have achieved considerable 
success in the matter. 

Questions For The Further Stimulation of Thought. 

1. How many crippled and disabled persons are there in 
your community? How do they get along financially? What occu- 
pations do they follow? 

2. Do you know of cases of poverty and family disorgani- 
zation due to physical disability? How might social work meet 
this situation? 

3. What sort of vocations and leisure-time activities are pur- 
sued by the blind in your community? 

4. What do your own state laws provide regarding the edu- 
cation and training of blind children in the public schools ? 

5. Are the schools in your city, county, or district equipped 
with special classes for the education of blind, deaf, and crippled 
children ? Why not ? 

6. What do your own state laws provide for the rehabilita- 
tion of workmen injured in industry? 

7. Have you ever noticed that deaf people are inclined to be 
a little more irritable, sensitive, and suspicious than the blind? 
How do you account for this fact? 

8. What provision has your community made for the edu- 
cation and training of high grade feebleminded children in your 
public schools? 

9. What are the arguments for or against sterilization of 
mental defectives ? 

10. How intelligent is your community in the control of those 
children's diseases which sometimes result in physical deformity, 
blindness, deafness, and even feeblemindedness? 

Books for the Family 

By Lais V- Hales* 


By Helen Ekin Starrett. 

Most young couples start with a dream of an ideal home. 
But they fail to accept the conditions necessary to the realization 
of this ideal, such as infinite patience, constant love, confidence, 
devotion, unselfishness, willingness to spend and be spent in the 
service of each other. "Nowhere are beautiful manners so 
beautiful as in the home" ; and no higher aim can be set before 
any young couple than the building of an ideal home and family. 

The girls of today are not well prepared for the responsibili- 
ties of wifehood. In them is a lack of physical and mental stam- 
ina, a lack of spirit of steady industry, of definite aim, of respon- 
sibility. The fault lies mainly with the mothers and the times 
in which these girls live. In most homes there is overpressure 
on the mother, which prevents her from giving the right amount 
of time to training her daughters. Again, too many things are 
pressed upon the attention of the young girls — too many studies, 
too many diversions, too much going about, too much of seeing 
people. To make up for these serious deficiencies, the young 
wife of today must, above all things, "be guided by a high sense 
of duty, and by a sincere, unselfish determination to do her share 
in the work of building a home." 

Housekeeping and homekeeping are two very different 
things. There are times when the mother may make housekeep- 
ing secondary but homemaking, never. To proportion the two 
properly will require patience and wisdom. Some of the things 
that will help are early rising, intelligent preparation of meals, an 
active superintendence of the duties of the home "which most of 
all dignify young wifehood." She must early realize that the 
cares of the home, in all their multiplicity and wearisomeness of 
detail, will devolve chiefly upon her. She must have the patience 
to avoid bickerings and quarrels, which utterly destroy the dignity 
of the home. 

The mother is the heart of the home. The atmosphere of 
the home is determined largely by the mother. She it is who will 
decide upon the character of the friends who shall visit the home. 
The spiritual plane upon which she lives will regulate her influ- 
ence and measure her power in moulding the character of her 
children. She must constantly keep in mind that the most ef fee- 


tive training for children is the training of example- She must 
be happy, kind, patient, humble, unselfish, if she wants her chil- 
dren to possess these virtues. She must remember and be 
strengthened by the thought that the confining home duties and 
cares occupy only a passing period of her life. She must know 
that she is practicing an art — "incomparably the highest of all 
arts, — the moulding of human character. A kingdom in the 
hearts of her children, it is worth any mother's toil and care and 
weariness to win." 

"Even this shall pass away," is a comforting, useful house- 
hold maxim. The young mother should be as happy as she can 
in the busy care-crowded days, remembering that all annoyances 
will pass away. She would miss one of her troublesome little 
noise-makers from among the flock — 

"The mother in the sunshine sits 
Besides the cottage wall; 
And softly, while she knits and knits, 
The gathering tears down fall; 
The little hindering thing is gone, 
And undisturbed she may knit on." 

She must exercise wisdom in dividing her time sanely among 
the unending demands of home life. The higher must never 
be sacrificed to the lower. A good mother must realize the rel- 
ative importance of things. Her first duty is to be cheerful, 
healthy, patient, and loving ; and all work that tends to prevent her 
from fulfilling this duty is comparatively unimportant, being better 
left undone. Scolding, in its effect on family life, is like "throw- 
ing sand into a delicate machine ; it causes all parts to grate upon 
each other; it does no good, but only evil and that continually." 
To choose the happy medium and golden mean in everything 
should be the study of every sensible young wife and mother. 

The comfort-dispenser in the home is usually a woman. 
Comfort and repose go hand in hand. The desire to adorn and 
beautify the home is one of the highest and best instincts of the 
human heart. Order, neatness, system, tidiness, are the first ele- 
ments of household decoration. Home is, first of all, for use 
and comfort. A window is to look out of, and a chair to sit in ; 
and anything that gives other than an impression of permanence, 
consistent with the use for which it is intended and of having an 
"excuse for being," is poor taste. 

In this business of establishing a "well-mannered home," 
happy is that wife and mother who finds a friend and companion 
in her mother or mother-in-law- Half the cares and troubles 
of married life and of rearing a family may be lifted by suchj 
kindly, loving, and sympathizing companionship as the latter may 


give- "Where she shines supreme is in the care of little children. 
No house that has a baby in it is complete without a grandma; 
and happy beyond worlds is that baby, and happy is that young 
mother, who possesses one. She is the one member of the fam- 
ily who can do more to make household affairs run smoothly than 
any other, for she knows all the ins and outs of housekeeping and 

These and many other helpful and sincerely beautiful thoughts 
are contained in Helen Ekin Starrett's delightful little book, "The 
Charm Of a Well-Mannered Home." Mrs. Starrett lived the 
mother-life that she expounds in this book; her book, therefore, 
is sincere, and free from any didactic quality. It contains much 
of the "inspiring influence" of its author, whose whole life was 
one of love and unselfishness. It is distinctly a gentle book but 
its effect is powerful and stimulating. For every member of the 
family there is real help in this little volume. Although it is ad- 
dressed primarily to the mother, it discusses problems that con- 
cern the father and the children. One critic has said it is a book 
"for both men and women to read, mark, learn, and inwardly 

Prosperity: An Answer to Hope 

As a topic of the day, no one can doubt the popularity of the 
word "Prosperity." The word is on the tongues and in the minds 
of millions daily. Some dispute its existence. Others assert it. 

The word prosperity has an interesting fact in its history. 
Fundamentally, from its origin, the word means "an answer to 
hope." An effective popular definition of prosperity could per- 
haps be phrased : "Prosperity is that condition of economic affairs 
which the people earnestly hope will come to pass." 

This origin of the word prosperity is borne out by Webster's 
New International Dictionary, which traces the word to the Latin 
prefix "pro," meaning "according to," plus the first four letters 
of the verb "sperare," meaning to hope. 

Is your 1929 fob 
good enough for 1930? 

If you want to make more money in 1930 than you did 
last year — if you are serious about getting ahead, we may be 
able to help you. 

Many young people who have been working, come back 
here to school for a few months to learn the fundamentals 
of business. Our Employment Department then cooperates 
with them in finding a better position where their business 
training can be capitalized. 

Don't struggle along in the same old rut this year. Get 
the facts about this simple and easy avenue to a bigger job 
and better pay. Send in your name today for complete de- 
tails. No obligation. 



Name : 



'And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen 
and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone," 

— Luke 23:53. 

Thus did Joseph of Arimathea care for the body of Christ. 

From the earliest records we find Mausoleum entombment being used 
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Relief Society Women 
Attention I 

After sixteen years of service to 
the people, the BURIAL CLOTHES 
DEPARTMENT of the Relief So- 
ciety takes this opportunity of ex- 
pressing appreciation to you for 
your co-operation and patronage, 
which has contributed to the growth 
and stability of the Department. 

The Presidency of the Church, 
realizing the needs of the people, 
authorized the establishment of the 
Department in 1913. Since that 
time it has endeavored to serve the 

The Burial Clothes Department 
desires to announce that it has on 
hand a large and complete stock of 
temple and burial clothing in a 
variety of materials. There are 
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burial clothing for children, includ- 
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cellent Ladies number„$1.25 No 7 Light wgt. new or old 

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long legs . .85 No. 56 Ribbed Hvy. Cotton bleached 2.15 

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Roberts, spans a century of time — 1830 to 1930 — and tells in 
vivid narrative the story of martyrdom, exodus, pioneering, 
expansion and consolidation. Printed in 6 beautiful Art Craft 
volumes — off the press soon after April 6, 1930, in a limited 
edition. For complete information, call on or write to — 

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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

Portrait of Eliza R. Snow Frontispiece 

Portrait of Zina D. H. Young 112 

Portrait of Bathsheba W. Smith 114 

Portrait of Emmeline B. Wells 116 

Portrait of Clarissa S. Williams' 11! 

Portrait of Louise Y. Robison 120 

Spring is Here Bertha M. Rosevear 122 

Our President's Visit 123 

National Council of Women 

.Amy Brown Lyman 125 
Editorial — A Hundred Years of Progress 

for Women 129 

Portraits of Our Presidents 130 

The New York Biennial 130 

Autumn Josephine M. Duncan 131 

Guide Lessons for May 132 

Out of My Thorn... Helen Kimball Orgill 145 

Notes from the Field 146 

Some Outstanding Incidents in Joseph 

Smith's Life Carter E. Grant 150 

Pictures in the Fire. . .Julia Collard Baker 155 

Self -Reliance Lais V. Hales 156 

The Quest Bertha A. Kleinman 159 

Ninety-Four Years Young. J. A. Washburn 160 

A Widow's Protective League 

Elizabeth Cannon Porter 162 

A March Reverie Helen Evans* 163 

Radio's Debt to Farming 164 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Room 20 Bishop's Bldg. Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Copy, 10c 

Foreign, $1.25 a Year — 15c Single Copy 

Entered as second-class matter at the 

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NO. 3 

Portrait of Eliza R. Snow 

Second General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by John Willard Clawson. 

Portrait of Zina D. H. Young 

Third General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by John Willard Clawson. 

Portrait of Bathsheba W. Smith 

Fourth General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by Lee Greene Richards. 

Portrait of Emmeline B. Wells 

Fifth General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by Lee Greene Kic hards. 

Portrait of Clarissa S. Williams 

Sixth General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by Lee Greene Richards. 

Portrait of Louise Y. Robison 

Seventh General President of the Relief Society 

of the Church of Jesus Christ 

of Latter-day Saints 

— Painted by John Willard Clawson. 



Spring is Here 

#3/ Bertha M. Rosevear 

Spring is here! 

The robins tell it, 
Piping forth their notes of praise, 
How their call awakes the echoes 

In these balmy days. 

Spring is here, 
The pussy willows, 
In their soft grey furry coats, 
Scramble up their stems to listen 
To the robin's notes. 

Spring is here; 

The earth, responding, 
Spreads a carpet cool and green, 
While the brooks and rills go dancing 

With a happy mien. 

Spring is here, 

The wild flowers waken, 
Hear the robin s cheery call, 
Don their gorgeous robes, and hasten 

To the festival. 

Spring is here, 
The trees and bushes 
Shake themseh f es in pure delight, 
Then in haste they don their garments, 
Green, and pink, and white. 

Spring is here; 

The robins tell it, 
Piping forth their notes of praise, 
While the whole creation answers 

To their joyous lays. 




Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII 

MARCH, 1930 

No. 3 

Our President's Visit 

President Louise Y. Robison has 
been radiating a good deal of en- 
thusiasm since her return from the 
Biennial of the National Council 
of Women held in New York during 
the month of November. The pro- 
gram of the session, comprehensive 
and varied in nature, emphasized 
matters of interest in the home and 
community, such as education and 
the moving picture. 

Sister Robison remained after the 
session, visiting Relief Societies in 
the Eastern States Mission. Our 
one regret in the matter is our sheer 
inability to express the interest and 
enthusiasm breathing through the 
verbal report of the President as she 
made it to the General Board. On 
her way she visited the organiza- 
tions in Chicago, where she found 
a large group putting over the les- 
son work in an especially intelligent 
manner. From there she went to 
Cleveland, which brought to her an 
opportunity to visit Kirtland and 
behold the Kirtland Temple. 

The Temple at Kirtland has not 
gone unnoticed in recent years; its 
stability and beauty have been writ- 
ten of by American architects. The 
President's account was in harmony 
with the general opinion. She ex- 
pressed herself as impressed with 
the architecture; and counted it a 

solemn moment in her life to stand 
near the bronze tablet indicating the 
place where heavenly messengers 
had stood. 

On her way to the Council meet- 
ing the President held a district con- 
ference at Palmyra. At the close of 
the day's meetings, in company with 
Sister Alice D. Moyle, President of 
the Eastern States Relief Society 
and Sister Ruth May Fox, the Pres- 
ident of the Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Association, she vis- 
ited the Hill Cumorah and the 
Sacred Grove. 

The Grove was seen at sunset, 
its crimson light casting a glamor 
over the falling leaves of the au- 
tumnal season. Nature and the mem- 
ory of divine visitations mingled to 
produce a feeling of spiritual ex- 
altation. Yet another factor was 
soon to enter in and emphasize the 
occasion. Sister Robison, Sister 
Moyle, and Sister Fox had gone to 
the Grove in an automobile; later 
came a group of missionaries, who 
had walked "over the colorful land- 
scape to that historic spot. It oc- 
curred to Sister Robinson that a 
song of praise, often appreciated as 
we pass in life's journey, could 
nowhere be more appropriate than 
in the Grove, where the Father and 
Son had appeared to the youth who 


was destined to be the leader of { which for some time past has pre- 

Latter-day Israel. sented a rather barren appearance. 

Sister Moyle told the group of Visits were made to the Associa- 
missionaries that Sister Robison 10ns m PhiMdphia and Washing- 
would very much like to hear them ***> and + *> BT0 ° kl ^ ^ lh ™l> ™* 
sing ; and this request they met with Schenectady in New York State ; al- 
a rendition of "An Angel From On s ° t0 Newark and Union City, in 
jj- ^ » New Jersey. It is interesting to 

know, in relation to the Organiza- 

The Relief Society at Palmyra tions in New Jersey, that a good 

came in for a just meed of praise. It many of the members are German 

furnishes a good example of how it Saints, who have immigrated rather 

is possible for the spirit of an or- recently. 

ganization to carry over and inspire ^ " Hartf ord Connecticut, was 

to noble deeds In that city of his- visited alsQ Providence Rhode Is . 

tone interest, there are five Latter- land where one>s attention is drawn 

day Saint women who are all pro- tQ ^ f ^ afe f E ljsh 

jaded for but who felt the urg * to extraction . Then fo j lowed the s visit 

look about to see if there were those to Bost where Sister Robison 

in the community not so fortunate. . . ,« * £ , 

J was a guest in the home of her son 

One of the women acquainted with Rulon Y. Robison, who is on the 
school work learned that it was dif- teaching staff of the New England 
ficult to obtain milk for some of the Conservatory of Music. Here, as 
undernourished children attending in New York City and Brooklyn, 
the school. To meet the situation the the organization is made up partly 
Palmyra Relief Society contributed f students, who are in these cen- 
$5.50, which furnishes milk for one ters studying, and the wives of pro- 
child during the year. Later they fessional men, who are there serv- 
remodeled clothing for the children i ng various educational and business 
who were not warmly and appro- institutions, 
pnately clad. The courteous attention extended 

When the teachers at the school President Robison by the mission- 
saw what a splendid job had been aries affected her deeply. She feels 
done, they gave to the Relief So- that it is only due them that the 
ciety their old clothing, to make use Magazine should carry her message 
of in a similar manner. The atten- of deep gratitude for all the kind- 
tion of the Superintendent of schools ness shown her while she was away, 
was drawn to the situation and he Everywhere the young missionaries, 
remarked that he wished there were young ladies as well as young men, 
more women in the community who gave thoughtful alttenfcion jto the 
would busy themselves in so worthy details that helped to make her visit 
a cause. so thoroughly enjoyable and so tru- 

Sister Robison visited the Smith ty profitable. Chief among those who 

farm, where she enjoyed greatly the served her faithfully and well were 

association of Elder Willard Bean the esteemed President of the 

and his wife. Through Brother Mission, Elder James H. Moyle, 

Bean's initiative thirty thousand and his wife who is the President of 

trees have been planted on the the Relief Society of the Eastern 

path to and on the Hill Cumorah, States Mission. 

National Council of Women of the United 
States — Biennial Meeting 

Amy Brown Lyman. 

The National Council of Women 
of the United States held its fif- 
teenth biennial meeting in New 
York City, November 4-9, 1929. 
Under the leadership of Dr. Valeria 
H. Parker, the president, delegates 
from twenty-four affiliated national 
organizations assembled, for con- 
ference and deliberation. 

The Place and The People 

In addition to the national offi- 
cers and delegates the Council was 
honored by having in attendance 
Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer, Honor- 
ary Vice President; Mrs. W. E. 
Sanford, of Hamilton, Canada, 
Treasurer of the International 
Council of Women; and Madam 
Laura Dreyfus-Barney, Vice Con- 
venor of the Peace and Arbitration 
Committee, of the International 
Council of Women. 

Two Latter-day Saint organiza- 
tions were represented: Relief So- 
ciety — President Louise Y. Robi- 
son, Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman, Mrs. 
James H. Moyle, Mrs. Howard R. 
Driggs ; Young Ladies' Mutual Im- 
provement Association — President 
Ruth May Fox, Miss Elva Moss, 
Miss Margaret Newman, Mrs. 
Frances Kirkham. 

The meetings were held at the 
Home Making Center, Grand Cen- 
tral Palace, 480 Lexington Avenue, 
where the new office of the National 
Council is located, and where the 
large auditorium, banquet hall and 
committee rooms were tendered the 
Council free of charge. 

The Home Making Center was 
established quite recently by the 

New York State Federation of 
Women's Clubs, as a laboratory 
for studying problems related to the 
home and to family life. It occupies 
the entire tenth floor of the Grand 
Central Palace. Here conferences 
and demonstrations are held to pro- 
mote activities in which women are 
interested, and there is on display in 
the various rooms almost every type 
of equipment for the home, — dis- 
plays from forty-three nations, and 
all but two of the States. 

Through the generosity of the 
New York State Federations of 
Women's Clubs, the National Coun- 
cil of the United States, early in 
1929, was offered office space in the 
Home Making Center free of 
charge. The offer was accepted with 
gratitude and appreciation, and in 
March 1929, the headquarters of the 
Council were moved to this location. 
Mrs. Sarah D. Gregory, who con- 
ceived the idea of the Home Mak- 
ing Center, and is now its educa- 
tional director, had in early life 
been a close personal friend and ad- 
mirer of Mrs. May Wright Sewell, 
one of the founders of the Council, 
and she was instrumental in bring- 
ing about the action which resulted 
in this offer to the National Coun- 
cil from the New York State Fed- 

The office of the Council is spa- 
cious and attractive, with a full-time 
secretary in charge. It was a most 
convenient and home-like place for 
delegates to meet informally as well 
as by appointment, to exchange 
views and gather information re- 
garding the National Council and 



its affiliated groups, the Interna- 
tional Council of Women, and wo- 
men's organizations generally. 

The sessions consisted of two 
meetings for executive officers, two 
board meetings, three business meet- 
ings for official delegates only, and 
thirteen general sessions. 

Work of the Sessions. 

The opening session was the most 
interesting meeting, with the Presi- 
dent's address and the five-minute 
reports of the Presidents of the 
Member-Societies. Dr. Parker, re- 
viewed and commented upon Presi- 
dent Hoover's proposed White 
House Conference on Child Wel- 
fare, and the cooperation which the 
Planning Committee of the Con- 
ference desires of the National 
Council ; the work being done in the 
interest of World Peace; the Pro- 
hibition movement, also the import- 
ance of the full support of the wo- 
men of the nation in this task; the 
tariff question, w»hich should be 
studied by the women of the nation. 
She spoke against companionate 
and child marriage, and made a 
plea for clean family life, a single 
moral standard, the elimination of 
the triangle and the substitution of 
the circle ; for marriage based upon 
good health, good morals, and eco- 
nomic understanding. The reports 
of the Presidents indicated that the 
women of the Council are actively 
interested in promoting movements 
for the raising of health, living and 
working standards. The reports of 
Presidents Louise Y. Robison and 
Ruth May Fox were enthusiastical- 
ly received. 

The Forums covered the follow- 
ing subjects: Child Welfare, Ed- 
ucation ; Music ; Motion Pictures"; 
Public Health ; Social Hygiene ; Per- 
manent Peace; Law Enforcement; 

Industrial Relations; Radio; Pub- 
licity. Many speakers of prominence 
appeared upon the programs: Dr. 
Harry A. Overstreet, of the Depart- 
ment of Philosophy of the College 
of the City of New York ; Henry 
W. Thurston, Head of Child Wel- 
fare Department, New York School 
of Social Work; Don C. Seitz, Ed- 
itor of the "Outlook" ; Dr. C. E. A. 
Winslow, Professor of Public 
Health, Yale University; Dr. Wil- 
liam F. Snow, General Director, 
American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion ; Mrs. Laura Puffer Morgan, 
National Council for Prevention of 

Chief Topics In Brief 

Dr. Overstreet said the central 
thought in education today is to 
teach power of mind. The awaken- 
ed mind will find a way. Students 
should be judged by their power of 
mind rather than by the amount of 
information they possess. 

Dr. Seitz criticized the types of 
pictures shown and the promotion 
method used by the picture industry 
for getting people, and especially 
children, to attend the theatre. He 
said the picture industry has but one 
standard — 'are the seats filled?' He 
recommended federal supervision. 

Dr. Winslow held that a yearly 
medical examination should be made 
possible for everybody ; "to cure" is 
the voice of the past, "to prevent" is 
the voice of today. He urged a uni- 
versal study of mental hygiene. 

Dr. Andrews, secretary of the 
American Association for Labor 
Legislation, stated that the cost of 
accidents that are borne by industry, 
should include, in addition to broken 
machinery, broken bones; also that 
"slow poison" should be included. 


Proceedings at the Banquet. child welfare that has ever been 

made. . 

The chief social function of the 
convention was the International For Protection of the Child 
Banquet. At the speaker's table were The whole problem of child health 
seated the honored guests, the an d protection is divided, Dr. Barn- 
speakers of the evening, and the of- ar d reported, into four sections, 
ficers of the Council. The invoca- The first of these is medical service, 
tion was pronounced by the Rev. which is to be headed by Dr. Samuel 
Anna Garlin Spencer. Dr. Parker, M. Hamill of Philadelphia. His 
toastmistress, presented the speak- WO rk divided into three subsections : 
ers : "The International Council of ne on pre-natal and maternal care. 
Women" — Madame Laura Dreyfus one on medical care of children, and 
Barney, Vice-Convenor, Peace and one on growth and development. 
Arbitration Committee, Internation- The second section, public health 
al Council of Women ; "The Re- service and administration, has Sur- 
sponsibility of Women in Interna- geon-general Hugh S. Cummings at 
tional Affairs"-^Mrs. Laura Puf- its head, and consists of three sub- 
fer Morgan, Chairman, Committee sections: public health organiza- 
of Permanent Peace, National Coun- tions, communicable disease control, 
cil of Women : "An Advocacy of and milk production and control. 
Protective Tariff" — Representative Section three is to be devoted to 
Franklin W. Fort of New Jersey; education and training, and is head- 
"An Opposition to Protective Tar- ed by Dr F j Kelley. It has six 
iff— Philip LeBoutillier, President, SUD -sections : the family and parent 
National Merchants Retail Associa- education, the infant and pre-school 
tion ; ''The Foundation of Creative child, the school child, vocational 
Peace" — Eduard C. Lindeman, guidance, child labor, recreation and 
New York School of Social Work; physical education, and special 
"Our Children — The World's Great- classes. 

est Asset"— Dr. H. E. Barnard, Di- Section four is to devote to the 

rector Planning Committee White handicapped child, considering pre- 

House Conference on Child Wei- vention, maintenance and protection. 

* are - At its head is C. C. Carstens, direc- 

Madame Dreyfus-Barney brought tor of the Child Welfare League of 
greetings from the International America. His work has four sub- 
Council. Mrs. Morgan spoke in the sections: State and local organiza- 
interest of permanent peace, point- tions for the handicapped, a study 
ing out how women could promote of the physically and mentally defi- 
the movement. cient, of delinquency, and of the 

Dr. Barnard stated that after dependent child, 
three months of preparatory work SqM ^ QmM 
the President s Planning Commit- 
tee for the White House Conference Two other interesting social 
of Child Health and Protection is events were the teas given respec- 
ready to function, and is about to tively by Mrs. Otto H. Kahn, and 
begin the most sweeping study of Mrs. James D. Laidlaw, in honor 



of the board members. It was a rare' 
treat to view the beautiful art col- 
lection in the Kahn mansion, at 1100 
Fifth Avenue, and to meet the 
charming wife of the great philan- 

The Utah delegates were enter- 
tained at dinner at the home of 
President and Mrs. James H. Moyle 
and at the home of Dr. and Mrs. 
Howard R. Driggs. 

At the last business session the 
Conference discussed the matter of 
appointing delegates to the Quin- 
quennial Meeting of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women, to be held 
in Vienna in May 1930. The elec- 
tion of officers for the biennial 
period 1929-1931 resulted as fol- 

President — Mrs. Frances P. 
Parks, of New York City. 

First Vice-President, Mrs. Theo- 
dore J. Louden, Bloomington, Ind. 

Second Vice-President, Miss Le- 
na M. Phillips, New York City. 

Third Vice-President, Mrs. Amy 
Brown Lyman, Salt Lake City, Ut. 

Fourth Vice-President, Mrs. Sal- 
ly W. Stewart, Chicago, 111. 

Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. 
Glenn L. Swiggett, Washington, D. 

Recording Secretary, Mrs. Estel- 
le M. Sternberger, New York City. 

Treasurer, Mrs. Alfred G. Wil- 
son, Detroit, Michigan. 

Auditor, Dr. M. J. Bush, Phila- 

Just a bad cold 
— due to 


COMMON winter ailment 

— in homes heated by old' 
fashioned methods 

Four out of ten men and seven out of 
ten women are incapacitated by colds 
each winter. School children are simi- 
larly affected. Medical experts say over 
50 per cent of these cases can be pre- 
vented. They point out that most colds 
are caused by sharply fluctuating tem- 
peratures — a common condition in 
homes heated by old-fashioned methods. 

offers the remedy 

Healthful, automatic Natural Gas heat 
can be installed in one day. Your home 
will be kept warm in the meantime. Call, 
phone or write for full details today. 

If it's done with heat, 

you can do it better with 

Natural Gas 

Utah Gas & Coke Co, 

Ogden Gas Co. 

Wasatch Gas Co. 


Motto — Charity Never Faileth 


MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND ...... General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion Mrs. Elise B. Alder 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evang Mrs. Inez K. Allen 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager .... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. XVII MARCH, 1930 No. 3 


A Hundred Years of Progress for Women 

One of the things Relief Society where women serve children. 
workers know best is that when Women are found in laboratories, 
on March 17, 1842, the Prophet Jo- where they are working out nutri- 
seph Smith organized the associa- tion problems for the guidance of 
tion he said he had turned the key mothers in the rearing of their chil- 
for women. With this anniversary dren. In a recent experience we 
issue, of the Centenary Year, it watched a college professor stand- 
should be interesting to cast about ing over a group of poorly nour- 
and see what evidence there is of ished children in one of our educa- 
the fulfillment of this prophecy. tional institutions, giving to them 

In the first place, through modern all the advantage of her unusual 
invention, wives and mothers have training, in order that their bodies 
been much relieved in their house- might be built up, their mental 
hold duties. The energy of women power stimulated, and their joy in 
has been released for better things, life increased. 
provided she chooses these better Another matter of interest is 
things. Recently we met a young that .women have done very con- 
mother returning home at 10 o'clock spicuous work out of the home dur- 
in the morning. She said "I am just ing the century. We select a few 
coming from a class in child nu- examples at random: 
trition, one of my chief concerns Susan B. Anthony, headed the 
these days." movement that resulted in women 

Nevertheless, in our modern obtaining (their suffrage; Francis 

world, home is not the only place Willard prepared the Nation for 



prohibition; Clara Barton gave 
America its vision of Red Cross 
work. Jane Adclams is conspicuous 
as a leader in social work; Char- 
lotte Perkins Gillman is a philoso- 
pher; while lady Nancy Astor is 
a member of the British Parliament, 
and Ruth Bryan Owen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 
Mabel Walker Willebrandt was At- 
torney General, and Florence Al- 
len is Judge of the Supreme Court 
of the State of Ohio. Mary E. 
Woolley is a College President; 
while Ella Flagg Young was Su- 
perintendent of Schools in Chicago. 
Such names as Edna St. Vincent 

Mi Hay and Rachel Crothers give evi- 
dence of the ability of women in 
literature, while the names of Dr. 
Florence R. Sabin and Dr. Alice 
Hamilton tell of their achievements 
in science. Maude Adams, 'Jane 
Cowle, Geraldine Farrar, and Mary 
Garden, proclaim woman's promi- 
nence in drama and opera. 

Our readers will wish to add many 
names to the list of women in art, 
and we shall be highly gratified to 
know that they are indulging in so 
pleasant a pastime. It is interest- 
ing to realize that two of the wom- 
en mentioned herein were born in 

Portraits of Our Presidents 

We are publishing in this issue 
of the Magazine photographs from 
oil paintings of the General Presi- 
dents of the Relief Society — por- 
traits that adorn the Board room. 
Three of them have never before 
appeared in any publication, those 
of Eliza R. Snow, Zina D. H. Young 
and Louise Y. Robison. We are ex- 
ceedingly happy to have these por- 
traits as part of our surroundings, 
feeling that all women of the Church 
are proud of the comfortable and 
beautiful quarters in which our or- 
ganizations are housed. Many visit- 

ors to Utah have expressed astonish- 
ment and )deUghtt on seeing the 
Church Office Building, the Pre- 
siding Bishop's Office, and the ele- 
gant quarters in which the Primary, 
the Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association and the Relief So- 
ciety are located. Besides being un- 
deniable evidences of our love of 
art these structures, these paintings, 
are mute but strong evidence of 
our power as community builders. 
All such things are eloquent expres- 
sions of the soul's reach; they are 
outward signs of inward growth. 

The New York Biennial 

Sifting the items of importance 
from the enthusiastic report made 
by our two delegates President 
Louise Y. Robison and Counselor 
Amy Brown Lyman to the Bien- 
nial of the National Council of 
Women held in New York, we draw 
attention first to the address made 
by President Louise Y. Robison re- 
porting the Relief Society. Her ad- 

dress included a report on the two 
major activities of the organiza- 
tion: first, the relief work, which 
is carried on in the main according 
to the best methods that science has 
devised and experience revealed. 
Second, the educational program de- 
voted to courses in religion, litera- 
ture and social service. Next we 



turn to the election of the Third 
Vice President of the National 
Council, Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman. 
She has held two other offices 
in the organization, that of Record- 
ing Secretary and Auditor. Mrs. 
Ruth May Fox, President of the 
Young {Ladies' Mutual Improve- 

ment Association, has also served 
the organization as Auditor. This 
is the first time a Latter-day Saint 
woman has held a position in the 
Presidency of the organization. We 
are gratified at these developments, 
and tender sincere congratulations 
to Mrs. Lyman. 


By Josephine M. Duncan. 
Second Honorable Mention in the Eliza R. Snow Contest. 

A dreamy haze hangs in the air ; ' 
And like a sunbeam bright and fair, 
The goldenglow in royal state 
Raises its head beside the gate ; 
Smiling and basking in the sun 
x\nd one by one — 
Wearying of their colors old, 
The green leaves barter them for 

And crimson hues. The shocks of 

To make the color scheme complete 
In regal pride 
And side by side 

Now stand in yellow splendor while 
They glory in fair Autumn's smile. 
Upon the hill 

The sheep no longer graze at will. 
We marvel at the azure sky 
With fleecy clouds that hasten by. 
We revel in the beauty of 
This last sad season that we love, 
Because we know that soon the pall 

Of winter will be over all. 
Then no regrets can change again 
The drifting snow to gentle rain. 
And no repinings can recall 
The asters by the garden wall, 
Or coax the brilliant golden glow 
From its warm bed beneath the 

Then let our hearts with joy be 

For fruitful fields that have been 

By toil worn hands. And let us 

Our maker for his wondrous ways. 
Let us thank Him with heads bent 

For summer rain and winter snow. 
And when the Harvest time is past 
And bleak December comes at last, 
Then let us lift our hearts and cry 
A song of praise to God on high. 

Guide Lessons for May 

Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in May) 


Lesson 8 : Alma The Younger 

This lesson covers the material left the place but subsequently the 

found in the Book of Mormon be- entire population of this disreput- 

tween page 251 and page 282. It able land was wiped out by Laman- 

is a section of the life of one of the ites and its buildings razed. Ever 

most remarkable men that ever afterwards it was called the Desola- 

lived in the flesh— Alma the Young- tion of Nehors. Alma, with his con- 

er, the Saint Paul of the Book of verts > returned to Zarahemla. 

Mormon. • Alma's Teachings 

The Matter of this lesson falls T , « , . «. ,, ,, 

, u • , . , v Al r The doctrines taught at these three 

naturally into two parts, both of , u * , r ,« 

t-u j- • ^i • places may be grouped as follows: 

which are extraordinary in their r t-. . .i ., & r , . , 

, -o • n x -l j ^ -r irst, the ideas revolving about 

character. Briefly stated these two ., £ nu . , T , .\ « . 

,. . . J £ u the name of Christ. It must be kept 

divisions run as follows : {n mind ^ Alma Hved {n ^ ^ 

The Narrative. century of the Old Era, before the 

Leaving Zarahemla after his re- advent of Jesus. This is why these 

organization of the Church there, ideas are remarkable. Alma taught 

Alma betook himself to the Gideon- that Jesus would be born in Pales- 

ites, who lived on "the east side of tine, that his mother would bear the 

the river Sidon" (wherever that name of Mary, that he would be 

was). He preached to these people called the Son of God, being "con- 

with such success that he "estab- ceived by the power of the Holy 

lished the order of the Church" Ghost," that he would '"take upon 

there. Thence he crossed the river himself the pains and sicknesses of 

and visited the Melekites, with even his people," that he would "loose 

greater effect, for we are informed the bonds of death" and redeem 

that "they were baptized through- mankind, and that he would visit 

out all the land." Leaving the peo- the Nephites. 

pie of Melek and traveling "three Second, the ideas that cluster 
days' journey" northward on the - about life here below. These are, in 

same side of Sidon, he arrived at general, faith, repentance, and good 

Ammonihah. Here the people re- works. Not only in the three places 

sisted his teaching, expelled him mentioned but everywhere he went, 

from their borders, and, when he he preached against "all lying, and 

returned another way at the com- deceivings, and envying, and strifes, 

mand of an angel, imprisoned both and malice, and revilings, and steal- 

him and Amulek, a native convert, ing, robbing, plundering, murdering. 

Some were converted, however, and adultery, and all manner of lasciv- 



iousness," and urged a life full of 
good deeds. 

Third, the resurrection. This 
was to be very literal. The spirit 
and the body were to be reunited 
in "perfect form," as at present, and 
we should have "a bright recollec- 
tion of all our guilt." Moreover, the 
next life would be dependent on 
what we thought and did and said in 
this life, for those who were "fil- 
thy" here would be "filthy" there. 
As through Adam death come to 
all men, so through Christ eternal 
life would come to all, and exalta- 
tion to those who sought it in faith 
and righteousness. 


I. Narrative of events. 

1. In Gideon 

a. Where Gideon was. 

b. Alma's work there. 

c. Results 

2. In Mulek 

a. Where Mulek was. 

b. Alma's work there 

c. Results. 

3. In Ammonihah. 

a. Where the place was. 

b. Atheistic conditions there 

c. Alma and Amulek. 

d. What happened to these 
two there. 

e. Results. 

(1). To those who re- 
(2). To Zeezrom 
(3). To the place and peo- 
ple generally. 
II. Teachings. 

1. Concerning Christ. 

a. His earthly ministry. 

b. His birth and character. 

c. His work for mankind. 

d. After his resurrection. 

2. Concerning this life. 

a. Principles and ordinances 

b. Conduct, 

3. The resurrection. 

a. Its literalness. 

b. By whom brought about. 

c. Conditions of eternal life 
(1). General salvation 
(2). Personal salvation. 


. 1. Paul and Alma: Careful read- 
ers of the Book of Mormon have ob- 
served the similarity between the 
Apostle Paul and Alma, in the de- 
tails of their lives, their intellect, 
and their vast energy. 

Paul's life fell in the first cen- 
tury after Christ, that of Alma in 
the first century before Christ. Both, 
apparently, were well educated after 
the manner of their times, although 
Paul was most likely the greater 
scholar. In both lives the crisis was 
a vision — a vision of an angel to 
the Nephite and of the risen Lord to 
the Jew; and in both, this meant a 
turning in their lives, a change to 
to the Christian ideal into powerful 
champions of the faith. The Ameri- 
can, like the European, suffered 
shame, violence, and imprisonment 
for his advocacy of the Cause. Only, 
in the case of the former his devo- 
tion was crowned with translation 
of the body, and in the latter with 

Intellectually Paul and Alma were 
the outstanding men in Christian 
and Nephite thought respectively. 
Of Paul we need say nothing more 
here, for the world over he is rec- 
ognized as the most powerful influ- 
ence, after Jesus himself, in the 
shaping of the new faith. Our con- 
cern here is chiefly with Alma. 

Alma had a grasp of the truths 
of revealed religion that is not ex- 
celled by that of Paul, and certainly 
his expression of them is superior 
to Paul's in clearness. His thought 
is not as involved in refinements 


and subtleties as that of the Apostle justice and the chief judge amen- 
to the Gentiles. But that, maybe, is able to a court of lesser judges. Rut 
due to the fact that there were no a principal defect in the system, it 
heathen philosophies at work among seems, was that these officers were 
the Nephites, with their abstractions paid, not a stipulated salary, but an 
and man-made reasonings. And then amount in proportion to the time 
too the Nephites stuck more closely they put in. And so it happened 
to the fundamentals of the faith sometimes, as at Ammonihah, thgt a 
than the Jew — which involves us in corrupt judge would increase his in- 
fewer theological entanglements. come by "stirring up the people to 

There is a close resemblance too riotings and all manner of disturb- 
in the intense missionary zeal of ances." Thus it was that Amulek 
the two men. In a previous lesson could truthfully say to the people 
we called attention to the strange of his native city, "The foundation 
fact that converts to religious truth, of the destruction of this people is 
nearly always feel impelled, as by beginning to be laid by the unright- 
some external force, to see that oth- eousness of your lawyers and your 
ers are brought "into the light". In judges." 

no historical character is this spirit For the Nephites had lawyers as 

more dominant than in the two men we ll as judges. One of these was 

we are now considering. Their con- Zeezrom. And if we may judge the 

suming devotion to the task of dis- res t of the legal lights among the 

seminating their faith is what is of- Nephites by this man, they were a 

ten turned fanaticism by an out- shrewd lot, with their eye open to 

sider. In Alma and Paul however it the main chance. Zeezrom was not 

seems to be due partly to an effort nly a sharp inquisitor, as his ques- 

to make up for lost time, when they tioning of Alma and Amulek shows, 

were engaged in opposing what but he was not above both bribery 

they afterwards advocated, but part- and deception. At least he tried these 

ly to their native energy. n this occasion. It happened how- 

2. Alma's Times: In the present ever that he was caught himself 

lesson, we get several glimpses into in the trap he had laid for the proph- 

the social and political conditions ets. 

during this period. It [ s j n t hi s lesson also that we 

As we already have seen, the Ne- obtain most of our information a- 
phites were living under a kind of bout the monetary system of the Ne- 
demoeracy instead of a monarchy, phites. The historian tells us the rel- 
At the time which we have reached ative, but not the absolute, values of 
in this lesson they had been living the coins they used. Gold and silver 
thus for ten years. Their govern- seem to have been the only metals 
ment was of the simplest kind, be- used for coins. Until the times of 
ing a judgeship. There was a chief the Judges the standard of "reckon- 
judge, with what we may term dis- ing and measure" changed "accord- 
trict and local judges, all elected by ing to the minds and the circum- 
the people. Misdemeanors on the stances of the people in every gen- 
part of these various officials were eration," till the time of Mosiah, 
provided against by making the when these were permanently es- 
lower judges answerable to the chief tablished. Elder George Reynolds 



was of the opinion that the names of 
these coins "were identical with or 
derived from, those of familiar per- 
sons or places." And that may eas- 
ily be the case, for with the Ne- 
phrites proper names, especially of 
persons, appear to have been the 
starting point of many things. Their 
cities and "lands" derived their 
names, for the most part, from the 
names of the first settler of conse- 
quence there. 

Also we gather from the material 
in this lesson and other lessons that 
the Nephites had jails, arresting of- 
ficials, criminals, freedom of speech 
and action up to a given point. And 
then too they had;, (especially at 
such places as Ammonihah, evil- 
minded men who played upon the 
masses and used Ithem to attain 
their own purposes in politics and 
private life. All of which goes to 
show that human nature is at bot- 
tom much the same in one place as 
another, in one age of the world as 

3. Zeezrom and Amulek: That 
Nephite society abounded in minor 
interesting characters is evident 
from the rather accidental appear- 
ance of Zeezrom and Amulek in the 
narrative. For we must never forget 
that the purpose of all the writers 
of the Book of Mormon was not to 
give a complete, even though brief, 
history of its peoples but rather to 
outline God's dealings with the Ne- 
phites and Jaredites. 

Zeezrom was a lawyer — and a 
sharp one. If it were not for his 
questioning Alma and Amulek on 
the occasion of their visit to Ammo- 
nihah, we might never have known 
that the Nephites had lawyers. At 
the core Zeezrom was a good man, 
notwithstanding his attempt at de- 
ception and bribery on this occasion. 

He may have thought at first that he 
was doing his people a service in 
exposing the preachers, Alma and 
Amulek. But when his purpose was 
detected, he saw the light, and al- 
tered his conduct accordingly. His 
extreme mental anguish later, when 
he imagined that his actions had led 
to the probable death of the two 
men, also shows that his natural 
disposition was good. 

Amulek was one of Ammonihah's 
rich men. We are not told how he 
became such except that it was by 
his "industry." It is interesting to 
know that he was a lineal descend- 
ant of Nephi — of which he appears 
to have been proud. Also he was "a 
man of no small reputation" in his 
community, as he himself tells his 
fellow townsmen. This reputation 
may have been due to his wealth or 
to his family, or to both. At all 
events, he seems to have been a man 
of some character, to judge by his 
manner of address. 

He charges himself with having 
neglected to avail himself of the op- 
portunity to become familiar with 
the Lord's "mysteries and marvel- 
ous power." But if so, it does not 
take him long to make up for these 
lost opportunities, for under the 
teaching of Alma, he learns very 
rapidly. And the fine courage he 
displays in his preaching matches 
Alma's own. He is a good example 
of the minor prophet among the 


1. Give the story part of this lesson. 

2. Tell what it says about. 

a. Christ. 

b. What we are to do here and 

c. The resurrection. 

3. Who was Zeezrom? Amulek? 



4. Where were these places with 
respect to the river Sidon; Gid- 
eon, Melech, Ammonihah? 

5. Why is Alma called the Paul of 
the Book of Mormon. 

6. What does the phrase "my 
women" mean to you in Alma 
Chapter 10, verse 11? 

7. What are the political and social 
conditions of this period ? 

8. What happened to Ammonihah ? 

Book of Mormon, pages 251-282. 

Reynold's "Dictionary of the 
Book of Mormon," under Alma, 
Ammonihah, Zeezrom, Amulek. 

Evans's "Message and Characters 
of the Book of Mormon," pages 168- 


Work and Business 


(Second Week in May) 


1. Courtesy is the heir-loom of civi- 

As far back as the days of knight- 
hood there were prevailing courte- 
sies which have come down to us. 
The knights raised their visors in 
acknowledgment of friends even as 
our gentlemen of today raise their 
hats in courteous recognition of 
friends and acquaintances. 

2. Courtesy is consideration for 
others, that is: 

1. Careful thoughtfulness of oth- 

2. The will to do for others the 
things you would have others 
do for you. 

3. The will to say to others the 
pleasant, courteous thing you 
would have others say to you. 

4. Forget fulness of self. 

3. What some noted people have 
thought of courtesy. 

Confucius, the Chinese sage, con- 
sidered courtesy a requisite of vir- 
tue. Virtue in itself was not enough 
without politeness. He "saw courte- 
sies as coming from the heart," main- 

taining that "when they are prac- 
ticed with all the heart a moral ele- 
vation ensues." 

W. E. Gladstone said to his 
countrymen, "Let us respect the an- 
cient manners, and recollect that if 
the true soul of chivalry has died 
among us, with it all that is good in 
society has died." 

Lord Chesterfield in one of the 
famous "Letters to His Son" said, 
"Moral virtues are the foundation 
of society in general, and of friend- 
ship in particular ; but attentions, 
manners, and graces both adorn and 
strengthen them." 

Samuel Smiles writes, "A man's 
manner, to a certain extent, indi- 
cates his character. It is the external 
exponent of his inner nature." 
"Manners are not idle, but the fruit 
of noble nature and of loyal mind.*' 
— Tennyson. 

"A beautiful behavior is better 
than a beautiful form ; it gives a 
higher pleasure than statues and 
pictures ; it is the finest of the fine 
arts." — Emerson, 



"Manners are often too much 
neglected; they are most important 
to men, no less than to women — 
Life is too short to get over a bad 
manner; besides, manners are the 
shadows of virtues." — Rev. Sidney 
4. Some well known examples of 


1. The pleasant, cheery, short 
visit to the sick room, or the 
bouquet of flowers. 

2. The glass of jelly, the unex- 
pected dinner ; the magazine or 
book to the kept-in. 

3. All of the acts of neighborli- 
ness in times of trouble or 
sorrow, where self is in the 

4. Behavior on the street, side- 
walk, or public places. 

a. The low tone of voice — the 
quiet laugh. Avoid the 
"loud laugh that speaks the 
vacant mind." 

b. Avoid blocking traffic. 

c. Keeping in line in purchas- 
ing tickets, in getting or 
sending mail; at voting 

d. Not jostling in a crowd nor 
elbowing one's way through. 

(Get through by courteous 
apologies for necessary 

e. Carrying umbrellas so as 
not to annoy others. 
(Scraping the feet in walk- 
ing is considered boorish.) 

f. Applauding without stamp- 
ing or whistling. 

g. Eating or chewing where 
others are not participating 
is discourteous and rude. 

h. A gentleman offering his 
seat to a lady, or a younger 
person to an older is still 
considered an act of courte- 

5. Courtesy a mark of culture. 

1 . Courtesies are the rules of the 
cultural life and must be followed 
if we would play the game. 

2. The old courtesies or manners 
were based upon the Christian prin- 
ciples of unselfishness. 

3. Money or position is not a pre- 
requisite for gentle manners but 
rather, "that instinctive yearning of 
mankind for a system of life regu- 
lated by good taste, high intelli- 
gence, and sound affections." 

4. In this age of worship of the 
"Golden Calf," almost anything can 
be bought and sold ; but even as the 
veneers are detected from the real 
polished woods, so insincere man- 
ners lack the genuineness which 
make the best society. "The best so- 
ciety is not a fellowship of the weal- 
thy nor does it seek to exclude those 
who are not of exalted birth; it is 
an association of gentle-folk, in 
which good form in speech, charm 
of manner, knowledge of social 
pleasantness, and instinctive con- 
sideration for the feelings of others, 
are the credentials by which society 
the world over recognizes its chosen 

6. The span of Courtesy. 

1. Parents and children. 

2. Brothers and sisters. 

3. Friends, loved ones, and ac- 

4. Employers and Employees. 

5. The ward members and the 

6. The governed and the govern- 

7. The President and his people. 

8. The King and his subjects. 

Even as "mercy becomes the 
throned monarch better than his 
crown" so courtesy exalts all who 
practice it with full purpose of 




(Third Week in May) 


The Last of the Titans. 

The biography of Madam Schu- ut! From the fat old grocery 
mann-Heink, by Mary Lawton, is woman who demanded a dance in 
more than a biography of a single exchange for a piece of cheese — 
woman — it is, like all good biogra- to the Emperor who bestowed a 
phies, a biography of her times as decoration! From the poor rope- 
well. And what a biography it real- maker's little boy who brings her a 
ly is! glass of Jamajica ginger for the 
Across the pages of the book stomach ache — to Queen Victoria, 
walk some of the greatest figures of From the sick, starving baby in the 
the past half century. Not only do theatre, that she nursed back to 
we catch glimpses of the great mu- life — to the Empress of Germany! 
sicians of her time with whom the And from cleaning monkey cages 
singer was on intimate terms, but in a circus for her dinner — to our 
in addition we behold the Kaiser, own President Roosevelt! All these 
King Edward of England, Theodore pass before us, one by one, in this 
Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Wil- amazing human narrative." 
Ham Howard Taft, and other states- Besides the numerous notables 
men who have had much to do with mentioned in the book, whose pic- 
the shifting policies of the world. tures are not given, there are the 
These great characters, of course, following whose pictures are given 
do not appear exactly as they are. or whose likeness, snapshots only 
Each is seen through Madam Schu- however, are presented to the de- 
mann-Heink's eyes; therefore, we lighted reader. These snaps are all 
not only see them as she saw them, colored by Madam Schumann- 
but through them we see other sides Heink's humor, her admiration, her 
of her that might not have been re- reverence, or love. Like the painted 
vealed in any other manner. portrait of men and women, they re- 
One of the publicists of the book veal the great men and women truly, 
company has this to say : but in addition, they reveal the paint- 
"Mary Lawton has not only told er as well. We see the soul of the 
the story of this great career with Madam in each one. 
captivating charm, but she has given I have taken the trouble to page 
us, as well, rare and amusing anec- the photograph or the written pic- 
dotes of other notables of the time, ture of twenty-five of these famous 
A brilliant panorama ! The rich and people. It is by belief that an excel- 
the poor, the great and the small, lent lesson in musical and political 
kings and queens, singers, compos- history can be had from going over 
ers, violinists and pianists, writers the most important of these. In 
and painters, the butcher, the baker, most cases where the photograph of 
the candle-stick maker — one and all the person is given, there will be 
— Schumann-Heink runs the gam- found on nearby pages Madam 



Schumann-Heink's word portraits 
of the individual so deftly caught 
and recorded by Mary Lawton. 

(I am using the order used by 
the book company in a four page 
leaflet concerning the book, which 
they issued at the time of its publi- 

A Gallery of Notables 

Lilli ■ Lehmann, p. 178; Cosima 
Wagner, p. 261 ; Enrico Caruso, 
298; Hans Von Bulow, 78; Pol 
Plancon. 82; Lillian Nordica, 215: 
Marie Wilt, 233; Amelia Materna, 
231 ; Edouard De Reska, 239; Jean 
De Reska, 241 ; Paul Schumann, 
119; Marcella Sembrich, 292; Hans 
Richter, 319; Richard Strauss, 323; 
Johann Brahms, 355 ; Gustave Mah- 
ler, 359; Richard Wagneri, 364; 
Anton Rubenstein, 379; President 
Wilson; President Taft, 284; King 
Edward VII, 247-48. Empress Fred- 
erick ; President Roosevelt, 279 and 
286; Maurice Grau, 137; and Wil- 
liam Jennings Bryan. 

That is an imposing list. Few 
people ever have the opportunity of 
coming in contact with so many 
great ones, yet this is but a partial 
list of those mentioned in the book ; 
and the book itself contains, of 
course, only a partial list of those 
who have crossed the path of this 
great woman. 

In her account of these acquain- 
tanceships, one catches a glimpse of 
the fine, humble spirit of the Ma- 
dam. He sees her praising not only 
her friends but her rivals; he sees 
her standing respectfully in the pres- 
ence of the President of the United 
States in the face of his request that 
she sit; he sees her admiration, her 
gratitude. From these glimpses he 
surely gets some idea of why com- 
mon soldiers dared call her the 
greatest contralto of her time and 
one of the greatest of all time and a 

prima donna who has sung before 
kings and presidents, Mother Schu- 

During the class it would be well 
in those wards where there are port- 
able Victrolas to have played some 
of Schumann-Heink's records. 

Where it is impossible to secure 
the services of a Victrola, local 
singers, contraltos, preferably, might 
be induced to sing some of the songs 
which she especially loved. 

Some of the simple songs men- 
tioned in the book upon the pages 
recorded here are : "The Rosary," p. 
324; "The Lord Is Mindful Of His 
Own," p 329; "Silent Night," "La 
Paloma," p. 327; and "The Lost 
Chord." Her reaction to American 
jazz and prohibition can be found 
on pages 332-339. 

Her attitude toward the home is 
given succinctly: 

"The fact is — say what you will 
to excuse it, about the high cost of 
living — women today don't want a 
home. Now, every man does want 
and expect a home when he marries. 
That is what he marries for — a home 
and children. Let the women look 
to it that a happy home life exists, 
for that is what keeps the nation up. 
And here is something else — and 
you needn't laugh at me — but cook- 
ing is one of the main contributions 
to a happy home. I'll bet that no 
man will laugh at this (if any man 
ever reads it!) You may call me 
old-fashioned ; well, if that is old- 
fashioned, then thank God. I am !" 

The following articles which deal 
with Madam Schumann-Heink may 
be available to some of the wards : 

"Schumann-Heink, The Last of 
The Titans" — Good Housekeeping, 
84: 16-19 (This is the book as it 
appeared in magazine form.) "Why 
I Live In California," by W. F. 
Minor, Sunset, October '28; "Les- 
son of Madam Schumann-Heink for 



Rising Stars" — Literary Digest, 
Jan. 8, 1927. "Marion Tully and 
Older"— Nation, March 24, 1926; 
Portrait "Erd's Farewell" — Liter- 
ary Digest, March 23, 1929; "He- 
roic Figure", O. G. Villard — Na- 
tion, 128, p. 401-02, April 3, 1929; 
"Opera's Favorite" — Common- 
wealth, 10-166, June 12, 1929 ; and 
as another view of Mary Lawton's 
ability as a biographer of the re- 
porter type, "A Lifetime With 
Mark Twain," by Mary Lawton, a 
book published by Harcourt, Brace, 
and Company, New York. 

Questions and Problems 

1. Some one has said, "Miss 
Lawton has preserved the homely 
idiom and the delightful broken 
English in telling this story of 
Schumann-Heink." Do you like 
that or not? Give your reasons? 

2. The same person said, "Mary 
Lawton has given us far more than 

a biography, for she has accom- 
plished a miracle, and has deftly 
pinned the famous singer to the 
printed page where Schumann- 
Heink herself seems actually to live 
and talk for us." What device did 
Mary Lawton use to accomplish this 
result? Do you believe the state- 
ment to be true? 

3. In what ways do Madam 
Schumann-Heink's remarks about 
other people reveal her own soul? 
Does that apply to us also when we 
speak of others ? 

4. Why do these characters which 
throng the pages of the book not ap- 
pear as they actually are? Can any 
characters so revealed by any hu- 
man being appear as they are? Is 
that fact a limitation of the biogra- 

5. In reality, would you call this 
a biography or an autobiography? 

Social Service 

(Fourth Week in May) 
Lesson 5 — Crime and Delinquency 

In this lesson we propose to deal 
with crime and delinquency, one of 
the most important branches of so- 
cial and public welfare work. The 
materials presented here do not, of 
course, do justice to the subject. 
Class leaders, stake supervisors and 
others will therefore do well to con- 
sult any of the standard works on 

I. The Nature and 

the subject which might be available 
in their local libraries. Two of the 
most reliable books on the subject 
are the following: 

Gillin, J. L., Crimminology and 
Penology (Century, 1926). 

Burt, Cyril, The Young Delin- 
quent (Appleton, 1925). 

Extent of Crime. 

Accurate data regarding the na- committed is reported to the police, 

ture and extent of crime are prac- Furthermore, the crimes which are 

tically impossible to get. In the first reported are rarely ever tabulated 

place ; not dM of the crime that is for the public's use. 


We present in the following ta- (Published by the Government 

bles, three sorts of data regarding Printing Office, 1926). It shows the 

crime and delinquency. Table 1, is offenses for which persons were 

taken from the U. S. Census Bur- committed to local and state prisons 

reau's report of Prisoners for 1923. during the year 1923. 

Table 1. Number of Persons Committed to Prisons in the United 
States during the year 1923 ; for Specified Offenses. 

OFFENSE Number committed. 

Total 357,493 

Drunkenness - 91,367 

Disorderly Conduct 53,359 

Violating liquor laws 39,340 

Vagrancy 28,030 

Larceny 27,141 

Assault '. 12,606 

Violating traffic laws ...- 11,493 

Violating City ordinances 10,116 

Burglary 8,574 

Violating drug laws 7,103 

Carrying concealed weapons 5,642 

Fornication and prostitution 5,114 

Fraud 4,766 

Forgery 4,093 

Homicide , 3,906 

Gambling 4,035 

Robbery 3,584 

Malicious mischief and trespassing '. 3,703 

Non-support or neglect of family 3,660 

Rape 2,149 

All other classified offenses 17,193 

Unclassified and unknown 10,519 

The following table, Table No. 2, University of Utah. The data show 

is compiled from the records of the the number of arrests rather than — 

Salt Lake Police Department, and is as in Table No. 1 — the number of 

furnished through the courtesy of persons committed to prisons, 
the Sociology Department of the 

Table 2. Number and percent distribution of arrests made by the 
Salt Lake City Police Department during five year period, 1924 to 1928 

Offense Number Per Cent. 

Violating Traffic* or Motor Vehicle Laws 28,129 53.2 

Vagrancy (2) 8,604 16.3 

Drunkenness 4,164 7.9 

Violating Liquor Laws . 2,931 5.5 

Disorderly Conduct '. 1,535 2.9 

Gambling 1 ,376 2.6 

Sex Offenses (Except Rape) (3) 1,283 2.4 

Larceny (4) 750 1.4 

Violating Municipal Ordinances (5) 693 1.3 

Assault (6) 589 1.1 

Burglary 212 0.4 

Trespassing 190 0.3 

Robbery 108 0.2 

Nonsupport or neglect of family 87 0.2 


Keeping Gambling House 83 0.2 

Carrying Weapons 70 0.1 

Abusive Language 70 0.1 

Forgery 63 0. 1 

Destroying Property 44 (1) 

Resisting or Interfering with Officer 32 (1) 

Homicide 27 (1) 

Rape 23 (1) 

Violating Drug Laws 22 (1) 

Held for other Dep'ts of Justice (7) 1,223 2.3 

All Others (8) 527 1.0 

TOTAL 52,835 100.0 

(1) Less than one tenth of one per cent. 

(2) Such, for example, as begging, suspicion and vagrancy. 

(3) Such, for example, as soliciting, resorting, adultery, fornication, keeping house of ill- 
fame, indecent exposure, bigamy, pandering, securing and transporting women for immoral 
purposes, etc. 

(4) Such, for example, as grand and petit larceny, embezzlement, bad checks, receiving 
stolen property, shop lifting, etc. 

(5) Such, for example, as the following ordinances: license, pool, closing, sidewalk, cigar- 
ette, smoke, health, dog, hotel, humane, "keeping lookout," etc. 

(6) Such, for example, as simple assault, assault and battery, attempted murder, fighting, 
wife beating, battery, assault with deadly weapon, etc. 

(7) For example, Juvenile court, sheriff's office, U. S. Government, state industrial school, 

(S) Such, for example, as arson, demented, commitment, witness, insulting women, etc. 

Another type of statistics of de- shows the nature and extent of ju- 
linquency is illustrated in Table No. venile delinquency in a typically ur- 
3, taken from the Survey of Boys ban community, 
and Girls in Salt Lake City, which 

Table No. 3. Number and percent distribution according to offense and 
sex of "out-Court" cases, Salt Lake Juvenile delinquents in Juvenile Court 
during the five-year period May 4, 1923, to May 4, 1928. 

Offense Boys Girls 

Number Per Cent. Number Per Cent. 

TOTAL 3783 100.0 490 100.0 

Larceny 1585 41.9 54 11.0 

Malicious Mischief 814 21.5 21 4.3 

Truancy 444 11.7 125 25.5 

Incorrigibility 322 8.5 202 41.2 

Trespassing 122 3.2 3 0.6 

Burglary 91 2.4 1 0.2 

Drunkenness 62 1.6 6 1.3 

Immorality 59 1.5 70 14.2 

Smoking 58 1.5 1 0.3 

Violation of Traffic Ordinances 44 1.2 

Forgery 10 .2 

All Other Offenses 172 4.5 7 1.4 

Copies of this survey may be secured from the Rotary Club. The Business and 
Professional Women's Club or from the University of Utah Bookstore (from 
the latter place $1.10 post paid). 

II. The Cause of Crime and Delinquency 

Like many other social problems law — holds that crime is the "per- 
difficult of solution, the question : verse expression of a free will," the 
"What is the cause of delinquency ?" result of "an abandoned and a ma- 
has been answered most often in lignant heart." Modern psychology 
single — track terms. The classical has, of course, greatly upset this 
notion — still explicit in the criminal view. Then there was Lombroso 


and his followers who held that all in his study of large numbers of de- 
criminals are throw-backs, so to linquents, illustrates the best and 
speak, to a primitive type of human most reliable view of the matter 
being ; that criminality is hereditary, ( Burt, The Young Delinquent, P. 
and so forth. Following the scien- 577 — ) : 

tific exposure of this fallacy came "On an average, therefore, each 

another view — also fallacious — that delinquent child is the product of 

delinquents are generally feeble- nine or ten subversive circumstan- 

minded. Then the disciples of Karl ces, one as a rule preponderating and 

Marx, the apostle of socialism, have all conspiring to draw him into 

insisted that crime is primarily the crime." 

result of economic conditions. This All of which suggests that pro- 
view is equally objectionable be- g reS s in the prevention of crime and 
cause it underestimates all of the delinquency will be achieved only 
other known causes of crime. wne n society is able and willing to 

Within recent years, scientific deal with a variety of known, speci- 
studies have proved conclusively fie causes. That is to say, crime and 
that crime is due to no one cause, delinquency can not be dealt with 
Crime is rather a uniform conse- intelligently en bloc, any more than 
quent of many different antecedents, disease can be effectively treated or 
Crime is a symptom, so to speak, prevented en bloc. Just as there is 
and like a high temperature in hu- no one universal panacea or pallia- 
man illness, for example, it can be tive for all disease, neither is there 
associated with and the result of one universal cause or treatment for 
many different underlying causes. crime and delinquency. 

The following quotations taken In English-speaking countries, 

from the conclusians of a careful the treatment of adult offenders 

scholar who used scientific methods ranges all the way from the death 

III. The Treatment of Adult offenders 

penalty to probation. 'Specifically, jail, house of correction, penal form, 

our penal system comprises : capital etc. — constitutes the core of our pe- 

punishment, imprisonment, the fine, nal system, in this country, at least, 

probation and parole. It is felt that to isolate the offender, 

Thirty-six American States retain at hard labor for a shorter or a 

the death penalty, chiefly as a longer period, will not only deter 

means of punishing ( ?) the murder- him and others from crime, but will 

er or murderess. This dubious form also reform him. The effects of the 

of treatment is a vestigial carry-over prison system are hard to measure, 

from the Roman lex talionis, "an and it is very doubtful if there is 

eye for an eye ; a tooth for a tooth" ; as much deterrence or reformation 

a law which was presumably super- affected, as is popularly believed, 

seded by Christ's law of love. A The tragic, not to say outrageous 

critical examination of the matter prison riots of 1929 — notably at 

will convince one that the facts and Auburn, New York, and Canyon 

the weight of argument are decided- City, Colorado — suggest that there 

ly against this inhuman form of is something radically wrong with 

treatment. our prison system in this country. 

Imprisonment in one form or an- According to the U. S. Census 

other — penitentiary, reformatory, Bureau Report of Prisoners, 1923, 



it is unbelievably true that 47.4% 
of all persons committed to prison 
during 1923, were sentenced "for 
non-payment of fine." In other 
words, approximately one-half of 
all the people who go to prison, are 
poor persons who cannot pay their 
fines ! Moreover, 23.2% or nearly 
one- fourth of those who go to jail 
because of their inability to pay their 
fines, are persons who are fined less 
than ten dollars. More than a de- 
cade ago, the British government 
practically solved this problem by 
allowing such persons to pay their 
fines on the installment plan, and to 
follow their employment and care 
for their dependents while doing so. 
Perhaps the most intelligent of all 
the methods of dealing with offend- 
ers — a form which smacks least of 
vindictive punishment — is proba- 
tion. It is a form of "suspended sen- 
tence" in which the convicted per- 
son is placed under the sympathetic 
care and supervision of a trained 

IV. The Treatment 

the subject as fully as it deserves be- 
cause we have already devoted one 
full lesson to the subject, in the last 
series of lessons. 

The outstanding feature of our 
modern approach to the treatment 
of juvenile delinquency, is our sys- 
tem of juvenile courts, and the for- 
ward-looking laws which support 
them. The essential idea underlying 
the system is well stated as follows : 

"The purpose of the juvenile 
court is to secure for each child un- 
der its jurisdiction such care, guid- 
ance and control, preferably in his 
own home, as will conduce to the 
child's welfare and the best inter- 
ests of the state ; and when such 
child is removed from his own fam- 
ily, to secure for him custody, care 
and discipline as nearly as possible 
equivalent to that which should have 

case-worker called a probation of- 
ficer for a period varying from a 
few months to a year. All of the 
American States use this system for 
juvenile offenders and about half 
of them employ it for adults. Mas- 
sachusetts has gone further than any 
other community in applying this 
form of treatment. At the present 
time the great majority of all her 
convicted adults are serving "sus- 
pended sentences" i. e., are on pro- 
bation and not in prison. The sys- 
tem is economical as well as hu- 

Parole is a similar device, except 
that it follows a prison term. It en- 
ables the prisoner, following good 
behavior, to serve part of his sen- 
tence on the outside. This device 
is growing in favor for the same 
reasons that probation commends it- 
self. Trained social-workers, how- 
ever, are indispensable to the suc- 
cess of both systems. 

We shall not go into this phase of 

of Juvenile Offenders 

been given by his parents." (A Stan- 
dard Juvenile Court Law. National 
Probation Association Bulletin, 

Juvenile courts, however, do not 
work well unless they are supple- 
mented by two important services, 
viz, (1) a behavior clinic for dis- 
covering the underlying causes of 
the child's misbehavior, and (2) a 
stafT of trained probation officers 
to bring about reformation. To es- 
tablish juvenile courts without also 
providing for these collateral ser- 
vices, would be like establishing a 
hospital, without providing for doc- 
tors, nurses, clinicians, etc., to deal 
with the patients' ailments. 

Reformatories for juvenile of- 
fenders are sometimes very neces- 
sary. Children should be committed 
to these institutions, however, only 


when all other devices — especially rect the early signs of character 

probation — fail. malformation. Here again the ser- 

The public schools can do a great vices of case-workers, psychologists, 

deal to prevent delinquency, espe- physicians and counsellors are indis- 

cially if equipped to detect and cor- pensable. 

Questions For The Further Stimulation of Thought 

1. Is it possible to get accurate and against putting people to death 
information regarding the nature for crime? 

and extent of crime in your town or 6. To what extent does your state 

state? Why not? execute murderers? 

2. Ask any score of people at 7. For what reasons do we put 
random as to their ideas of crime People in prison? What are the spe- 
causation. Note the extreme varia- cine objections to the prison system , 
bility in the replies. How do you 8. To what extent are persons 
account for this fact? committed to prison in your local- 

3. What accurate information has { % io L^ non-payment of fine ? 
your local juvenile court furnished , 9 ' ^o what extent is probation 
your community regarding the spe- for adult of ?f ders em P lo 3^ d in 
cific causes of juvenile delinquency your community? 

in your locality? . 10 ' To "**. ftent are physi- 

•;._. ,. . cians, psychologists, social workers, 

4. Make a list of efforts which pro b a tion officers, psychiatric case- 
you think a typical community wor k e rs, etc., employed by your 
should make in order to minimize community for the diagnosis and 
crime and delinquency. treatment of criminality and de- 

5. What are the arguments for linquency? 

Out Of My Thorn 

By Helen Kimball Orgill 
I wove my broken blossoms 
Into a chaplet fair; 
I treasured every tear drop 
And strung a necklet rare; 
And all the heart- felt longing 
I made into a song — 
O boon of sweet evolving, 
From out my thorn and thong! 
How fully have I tested 
Deep joy and biting pains ; 
I've found that without losses 
One never can have gains. 

Notes from the Field 

Box Elder Stake 

Box Elder Stake : 

The above group represents the 
characters in a one-act play entitled 
"How the Story Grew," which was 
presented by the teachers' depart- 
ment of the Third Ward of Brig- 
ham City, at their teachers' conven- 
tion in October. The play is a little 
entertainment that deals with gos- 
siping and its results. Although it 
is a humorous sketch and greatly ex- 
aggerated, yet it conveyed a message 
to every sister who attended the 
meeting, and each one went home 
with a resolve in her heart that she 
would not be guilty of spreading 
gossip about her friends. The story 
centers around a group of kind 
hearted and well meaning neighbors. 
A bit of gossip is thrown their way, 
and each one, in repeating it to her 
neighbors, adds enough of her own 
imagination, so that the truth is lost. 
It creates a great deal of consterna- 
tion when the real truth is known. 

Sharon Stake: 

Sharon stake is the next youngest 
stake in the Church, but it is now 
fully organized, and promises a 
most successful year's work. Seven 
wards were taken from the Utah 
stake in September, 1929, and the 
Sharon stake was formed. On No- 
vember 24, the first stake conference 
was held with a very gratifying at- 
tendance. Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund, 
General Secretary of the Relief So- 
ciety was in attendance and gave 
the address for the General Board. 
Mrs. Evalina Reed, Utah County 
nurse, spoke on "Child Health in 
Our Community." Sharon stake 
board members, Mrs. Maud W. 
Partridge, Mrs. Lena Andreason 
and Mrs. Sarah Shaw also gave 
short addresses on "Child Health/' 
"The Value of Play for Children 
and Opportunities in this Communi- 
ty," and "Recreation for Young 
Folks, Employment, etc." A short 


report and greeting was given by the selected for the prizes and were 
Priesthood President, A. V. Wat- awarded at the general session of 
kins. The music was under the di- the stake Priesthood meeting held 
rection of Sister Wells, and a beau- in September. The prize-winning 
tiful number was furnished by poems were published in the local 
each of the wards in the stake. The newspaper. The stake board feels 
Relief Society Magazine means very that these activities have produced 
much to the sisters of this stake, the desired results ; that more whole- 
and they hope to increase their some and intelligent reading is be- 
membership and also their sub- ing done by the women of this stake 
scriptions to the Magazine. than ever before. The board is 
Alberta Stake: pleased also that its member in 
The Alberta stake board members char £ e of reading is enthusiastic 
were very desirous of encouraging and has worked out a very fine sys- 
effort along the lines of "Better tern for checking and ascertaining 
Homes," and "Increased Reading." the amount and kind of reading 
After due consideration of these done by the members of the stake, 
topics, they adopted the slogan Thls stake is outstanding in the 
"We stand for Better Homes ver y ^ ne work that has been done 
Through the Increase of Whole- through the clinics, "some of the 
some, Intelligent Reading." This lar ^ est and most successful ever held 
slogan was beautifully printed up- m the province of Alberta. The 
on large sheets of white cardboard, first- clinic was held at the School 
One of these was presented to each of Agriculture, a provincial govern- 
organization by the stake represen- ment institution, which met the 
tative attending the ward confer- n eed temporarily. Three hundred 
ence. The slogan was hung upon a and ninety-five physical examina- 
wall of the ward Relief Society tions were made, 104 operations at- 
room where it served as a constant tended to, 391 dental examinations, 
reminder. A twenty minute talk and a great number of fillings and 
was given on the slogan by the stake extractions which were very neces- 
board member, and a talk on prac- sary. There was also an eye special- 
tical suggestions for the betterment ist present who conducted exami- 
of our homes was given by a ward nations. The sisters of the Al- 
member. As a further inducement berta stake feel very much en- 
it was decided to have a poetry couraged. They are trying to fol- 
contest, in which the slogan should low the instructions that have been 
be the theme and title of the poems, given them along all lines of Relief 
Rules and regulations governing Society work. Ward conferences 
the contest were prepared. It was have been held, and a very success- 
open to all Relief Society members ful bazaar. The reports that come 
and was conducted during the from our northern stakes indicate 
months of July and August, and that the sisters are keenly alive to 
eighteen poems were submitted. In their work, and appreciate the op- 
keeping with the slogan, books were portunities that are afforded. 

Organization and Reorganization 

Zion Park Stake: pleasure to welcome into the group 

It gives the Presidency and Gen- of stakes the youngest, Zion Park. 

eral Board of Relief Society great The new stake begins its career un- 


der very happy auspices, we feel, ceed the sisters who have served long 

and we are delighted to welcome to and ably in the work, and we con- 

our group of stake presidents, Sis- gratulate the stakes on their present 

ter Josephine Sandberg, president ; leadership as on their past. The 

Sister Augusta Wood, first counsel- love and best wishes of the Gen- 

or; Sister Mary A. Gubler, second eral Board go to the retiring and 

counselor; Sister Mary W. Hall, the present officers of both the Ne- 

secretary-treasurer. We congratu- vada and the Tooele stake, 
late the new stake on its choice of 

these sisters, and we are very sure Juarez Stake: 

that the Relief Society of the Zion Another reorganization this 
Park stake is in very capable hands. Winter is that of the Juarez stake. 
Our best wishes are with it, and we Official notification has come to 
are at the service of this stake, as of th e office that the stake has been re- 
all others, for anything that we are organized, [that Sister Fannie C. 
able to do. Harper was released as president, 

and Sister Nelle S. Hatch has been 

Nevada Stake: chosen to succeed Sister Harper. 

The office is in receipt of a re- iWe feel that a wise choice has been 

port of the reorganization of the ma d e in naming Sister Hatch to 

Nevada stake Relief Society. Pres- m i s position of stake president, and 

ident Mary E. Horlacher has been we look for the same fine coopera- 

released at her own request. Mrs. t i on f rom the j uarez sta k e that has 

Louisa C. Johnson has been named always existed with the (General 

as president, with Mrs. Mathilda Office of the Relief Society, and 

Swallow and Mrs. Ethel Matheson our very best wishes are extended 

as her counselors. Sister Horlacher to Sister Hatch, with the hope that 

and her associates have been most we shall be able to be of service, 

diligent in their service in Relief So- A . TT . . . r 

ciety work, and we feel that they re- . As S . ls . ter harper » "*mng from 

tire from office with the blessing * he P 0Sltl0 r n of Relief Society presi- 

of the entire community. dent ' we feel * 1S ^ Ulte P ro P er f . or 

us to express the sincere apprecia- 

Tooele Stake: tion and great admiration we have 
One of the most recent reorgani- for her excellent service covering 
zations which has been reported is many critical years. During this 
that of the Tooele stake. On Jan- period there have been scenes that 
uary 12, 1930, at the regular quar- only the most courageous souls could 
terly conference, Sister Maggie W. face, but Sister Harper has always 
Anderson, who has served the Re- been equal to the emergency. Much 
lief Society long and well in the ca- of her splendid service came from 
pacity of stake president, was re- her great faith in the people, and 
leased, and Sister Lillian H. Ander- through her untiring efforts to 
son was sustained as president, serve their best interests in temporal 
with Sister Charlotte Fawson and as well as spiritual matters. We 
Sister Mary E. Halladay as her two are quite sure that in her retire- 
counselors, ment from office she still cherishes 
We have always felt to congrat- the desire to be of service to her 
ulate these stakes on their able people, and we know that the love 
leadership,, and we know that a and best wishes of all our sisters ac- 
wise choice has been made to sue- company her in her retirement. 








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Salt Lake City 



Some Outstanding Incidents in 
Joseph Smith's Life 

By Carter E. Grant, Principal Jordan Seminary. 

Since the young Prophet Joseph lost silver mine. Steal's interest in 

was in many respects not unlike the the mine had been aroused by some 

rest of us during his latter teens, old documents, stating that in the 

he responded naturally enough to hills near Harmony, certain Span- 

the emotions of friendship and love iards, in years gone by, had opened 

for the fair sex. By the time he a silver mine of great wealth, 
had reached his twenty-first birth- This fabulous and legendary tale 

day, December 23, 1826, he had so worked upon the mind of Mr. 

found his "help-mate" and stood Steal that he soon set about secur- 

ready for marriage. We are told ing men for his undertaking. While 

that Joseph was anxious, so also he journeyed in the vicinity of the 

was Emma, but the parents of the Hill Cumorah, there fell upon his 

girl, seemingly, were not. ears a strange story regarding the 

Let us look at Joseph here for a Smiths, and of Joseph in particu- 
moment. Exceptionally unique, if lar. Thus thinking that such a rare- 
not singularly unusual, Were his ly gifted young "Seer" would prove 
first twenty-one years. Joseph re- an asset of inestimable value in his 
cords that at the time of his mar- project, he soon had the nineteen- 
riage he had seen and conversed year-old Prophet hired, and to- 
with the Father and the Son ; had gether they set off toward Pennsyl 7 
met Moroni on at least eight dif- vania. Joseph records that owing to 
ferent occasions; at the Hill Cu- crop failures of this year and to 
morah four times he had viewed various other financial losses of hi9 
the golden records, the breast plate, parents, Mr. Stoal's offer was an 
and the Urim and Thummim; had opportunity not to be set aside. It 
beheld the "Prince of darkness sur- is hardly to be supposed that Jo- 
rounded by his innumerable train." seph anticipated or promised in any 
He then adds, that in less than a manner whatever the use of his 
year from that time, Moroni had rare gifts to help satisfy Mr. Stoal's 
promised to deliver the sacred craze for riches, 
treasure into his hands. Joseph informs us that during 

To get quickly at our theme, let's these days of prospecting, he was 
drop back a year and take a look sent to board at the Hale home; 
at Joseph in October, 1825, a few there lived Isaac Hale with his wife 
months prior to his twentieth birth- Elizabeth, five sons and three 
day. At this time, there came into daughters— catch the Bible names 
the neighborhood of the Smiths, among the sons : — Isaac, Jesse, Da- 
near the Hill Cumorah, Mr. Josiah vid, Reuben, and Alva. The girls 
Steal from South Brainbridge, New were Elizabeth, Phoebe and Emma. 
York, advertising for workmen to It seems that some of these older 
go with him a hundred miles south- children were married. Of the 
east near Harmony, Pennsylvania, Hales the mother writes, "They 
and there aid in re-locating a long- were an intelligent and highly re- 



spected family — were pleasantly sit- 
uated, and lived in good style in 
the town of Harmony, on the Sus- 
quehannah River." 

Speaking of Joseph's life before 
he left for Pennsylvania, the mother 
leaves us this important informa- 
tion: "He continued to receive in- 
structions from the Lord, and we 
continued to get the children to- 
gether every evening, for the pur- 
pose of listening while he related 
his experiences. I presume our 
family presented an aspect as singu- 
lar as any that ever lived upon the 
face of the earth — all seated in a 
circle, father, mother, sons and 
daughters, and giving the most 
profound attention to, a boy, eigh- 
teen years of age." For "We were 
now confirmed in the opinion that 
God was about to bring to light 
something upon \which we ipould 
stay our minds, or that would give 
us a more perfect knowledge of the 
plan of salvation and the redemp- 
tion of the human family. This 
caused us greatly to rejoice; the 
sweetest union and happiness per- 
vaded our house; and tranquility 
reigned in our midst. 

"During our evening conversa- 
tions, Joseph would occasionally give 
us some of the most amusing reci- 
tals that could be imagined. He 
would describe the ancient inhabit- 
ants of this continent; their dress, 
mode of traveling, and the animals 
upon which they rode; their cities, 
their buildings, with every particu- 
lar; their mode of warfare; and 
also their religious worship. This 
he would do with as much ease, 
seemingly, as if he had spent his 
whole life among them." {Era, Vol. 
5, p 257.) 

Again the mother shows Joseph's 
early seership: "One day he said 
that he would give us an example," 
(of some of the Churchmen's hearts 

about them), "and that we might 
set it down as a prophecy; viz: — 
'You look at Deacon Jessup', said 
he, 'and you hear him talk very 
piously. Well, you think he is a 
very good man. Now suppose that 
one of his poor neighbors should 
owe him the value of a cow, and 
that this poor man had eight little 
children; moreover, that he should 
be taken sick and die, leaving his 
wife with one cow, but destitute of 
every other means of supporting 
herself and family — now I tell you, 
that Deacon Jessup, religious as he 
is, would not scruple to take the 
last cow from the poor widow and 
orphans, in order to secure the debt, 
notwithstanding he himself has an 
abundance of everything.' 

"At that time, this seemed im- 
possible to us, yet one year had 
scarcely expired when we saw Jo- 
seph's prophecy literally fulfilled." 
(Era, Vol. 5, p. 325.) 

It was this extraordinary broad- 
shouldered, light - complexioned, 
blue-eyed, athletic-six-footer, bear- 
ing a native countenance of frank- 
ness and stability, that Emma Hale 
for the first time set her eyes upon, 
when, one evening late in October 
1825, Joseph presented himself at 
her supper table, coming as a regu- 
lar boarder. Emma likewise, was no 
child, being fully matured, charm- 
ingly proportioned, possessing jet 
black locks and dark sparkling eyes 
— a real woman, having passed her 
twenty-first birthday by more than 
three months. Almost immediately 
something more than friendship be- 
gan springing up between the two. 
I dare say that in all the country 
around about no one could find a 
pair better mated, both being des- 
ignated as "naturally good looking." 
Let me here digress a moment. 

"The Prophet," wrote an English 
traveler in 1843, "is a kind, cheer- 



ful, sociable companion. — As I saw 
the Prophet and his brother Hyrum 
conversing together one day, I 
thought I beheld two of the greatest 
men of the nineteenth century." An 
officer of the United States Artil- 
lery, who visited Nauvoo in 1842, 
exclaimed: "The Smiths are not 
without talent. Joseph, the chief, 
is a noble-looking fellow, a Maho- 
met, every inch of him!" A Con- 
gressman writing to his wife says, 
"He is what the ladies would call 
a very good-looking man." These 
statements I quote to inform the 
reader that not only was Joseph 
gifted in spiritual faculties, but pos- 
sessed physical endowments at 
once congenial and attractive. 

Of Emma, the Lord a little later 
declared (Section 25, D. & C.) "Be- 
hold thy sins are forgiven thee, and 
thou art an ELECT LADY, whom 
I have called." (The Prophet Jo- 
seph, when organizing the Relief 
Society, at Nauvoo, March 17, 
1842, explained that an "Elect 
Lady" is one who is elected to do 
a certain work in the Church, and 
that this revelation was fulfilled 
when Emma was elected president 
of that organization. (See D. & C. 
Commentary, p. 173.) 

In the same Revelation, the Lord 
continues, "And the office of thy 
calling shall be for a comfort unto 
my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., thy 
husband, in his afflictions, with con- 
soling words, in the spirit of meek- 
ness. — And thou shalt be ordained 
under his hand to expound scrip- 
tures, and to exhort the Church, ac- 
cording as it shall be given unto 
thee by my spirit. — And verily I say 
unto thee, thou shalt lay aside the 
things of this world, and seek for 
the things of a better. And it shall 
be given thee, also, to make a selec- 
tion of sacred hymns, as it shall be 
given unto thee, which is pleasing 

unto me, to be had in my Church; 
for my soul delighteth in the song 
of the heart, yea the song of the 
righteous is a prayer unto me, and 
it shall be answered with a blessing 
upon their heads." This shows that 
the Lord was interested also in 
Emma. From that first day in 
October, 1825, when these two 
young folks stood facing one an- 
other until nineteen summers later, 
when Joseph was shot t;o death at 
Carthage, they moved through the 
persecutions of the Church as 
"twin-halves, born for each other." 
Regarding the fruitless search for 
the silver mine, Joseph writes, we 
"continued to work for nearly a 
month, without success in our un- 
dertaking, and finally I prevailed 
with the old gentleman to cease dig- 
ging for it." 

When the first snows of Novem- 
ber, 1825, blanketed the rolling 
hills of Northern Pennsylvania, Jo- 
seph bade adieu to his dark-eyed 
sweetheart, and traveling forty 
miles northward into the State of 
New York, began working for the 
winter at the Stoal ranch, located 
some eighty miles from the Hill 
Cumorah, and a few miles north of 
Colesville, which was the home of 
the Knights. It was here in 1830, 
Emma was baptized, and this was 
the place also where the Prophet 
was first arrested and brought into 
court for trial. 

Joseph does not inform us how 
often during the winter of 1825-26, 
he traveled the forty-mile trail to 
Harmony, neither does he mention 
visiting with his parents during this 
time. We can suppose, nevertheless, 
since Joseph seemed to believe that 
Emma would soon be his, that he 
related to her in detail his marvel- 
ous manifestations (regarding tihe 
Father and Son; also Moroni and 
the precious golden records; the 


Hill Cumorah and other events, end- that Emma should not marry a 
ing, no doubt, by stating that the "visionary man" nor one who pos- 
time was drawing near for the res- sessed no lands of his own. Al- 
teration of the true Church with its though Emma had passed her 
accompanying gifts and blessings, twenty-second year and reasoned 
Imagine, however, the young folks' her right to marry her own choice, 
dismay, when Joseph told the story the parents overruled, 
to Emma's parents ; for they be- Following a scene of tears, the 
lieved not a word of it. The little date was postponed and Joseph 
town of "Harmony" from that day went north to work at the Stoal 
forward ceased to be "Harmony", ranch. Two months slowly dragged 
The tide of opposition soon began by, and the Prophet had passed his 
swelling, and although it ebbed at twenty-first birthday for about three 
times, none of the family but Emma weeks. Again he was at the Hale 
ever joined the Church. home. It was finally decided to have 

We learn that during part of the the ceremony take place thirty miles 
summer of 1826, while Joseph was north near Colesville, the town 
twenty-years of age, he was back where Emma's sister lived. Ac- 
home working with his parents. Of cordingly, on January 18, 1827, 
this year the mother writes, that Squire Tarbill performed the mar- 
immediately after the threshing was riage north of Colesville twelve or 
over, Josiah Stoal and Joseph fifteen miles, near the Stoal home 
Knight arrived from Colesville, a or at the Stoal home, Joseph does 
town seventy-five miles southeast, not say which. He does record, 
and purchased Mr. Smith's grain, however,. "Immediately after my 
"Joseph called my husband and my- marriage, I left Mr. Stoal's and went 
self aside," says sister Smith, "and to my father's and farmed with them 
explained, 'I have been very lonely that season", 1827, the year the 
ever since Alvin died, and I have plates were delivered, 
concluded to get married; and if Of the above events the mother 
you have no objections to my unit- continues, "And the next January 
ing myself in marriage with Miss (1827) Joseph returned with hi* 
Emma Hale, she would be my choice wife, in good health and fine spir- 
in preference to any other woman its." Can you see this mature couple 
I have seen. We were pleased with ready to leave the Stoal's ranch, 
his choice, and not only consented bidding them a fond farewell and 
to his marrying her, but requested then heading their bob sleigh on a 
him to bring her home with him, two or three days' journey toward 
and live with us." the Hill Cumorah and the Smith 

In contrast to modern methods of home? How their souls must have 

speedy love making, Joseph set out burned as they looked forward upon 

on the round-trip of more than two the future ! 

hundred miles with his wagon and Passing westward, Joseph no 

team. When once at the Hale home, doubt, pointed out to Emma the 

however, Joseph and his intended various places of interest, saying 

were soon laying plans for the fu- words like these upon reaching the 

ture. Imagine their shock when famous Hill Cumorah : "Think of 

upon placing their desires before it Emma ! Four times already I have 

Emma's parents, the whole affair actually visited with Moroni up 

was disrupted with the statement yonder among those trees, near the 



top, there on the west side! Eight 
more months and the angel and I 
shall meet again. I can hardly real- 
ize the fact that then I am actually 
to receive the plates, the Urim and 
Thummim, and Breast Plate, hold 
them in my hands, and bring them 
home — Oh, how wonderful! Then 
how we shall work to learn the 
strange story they possess ! Emma, 
you cannot understand how happy 
I am to know that you believe all my 
statements. You see, the angel has 
also told me repeatedly that the 
"fulness of the everlasting Gospel" 
is upon the records, just as it was 
delivered by the Savior to the an- 
cient inhabitants of this land. I was 
also informed that I should stand 
at the head of the restored Church 

and that the new organization was 
to be the very "kingdom of God" 
as seen by Daniel to be 'set up in 
the last days/ " 

Can you see this trusting young 
woman, nestling among blankets 
and covers against a cold winter 
wind, affirming in no mistakable 
terms her confidence in her hus- 
band's testimonies? Vaguely, how- 
ever, did she dream, of the trying 
years ahead, or of the cost of be- 
coming a joint-heir with a "dispen- 
sation-opener" — a real "Prophet" 
with "The Kingdom of God at 

Our second chapter will narrate 
further facts regarding Joseph and 
Emma with special attention to the 
Plates and the Hill Cumorah. 



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Pictures in the Fire 

By Julia Collard Baker 

The curling blue smoke and the crimson flame 

That up thru' the chimney wind 
Do nightly for me a picture frame 
From memories left behind — 
Holy visions that hang like pearls apart, 

As a sweet old face I see, 
While a song I hear, a prayer in the heart, 
My Grandmother's song to me : 

(Old Melody) 
"Hush, my babe, lie still and slumber ; 
Holy angels guard thy bed ; 
Heavenly blessings without number 
Gently falling on thy head." 

Once again I see, in the firelight deep, 

The same low rocking chair 
And Grandmother hushing a child to sleep, 
A child with flaxen hair; 
As slowly she rocks and softly sings, 

Through lips so worn and thin, 
A sweet and holy nursery rhyme — 

My Grandmother's song and mine: 

(Old Melody) 
"Soft and easy is thy cradle; 
Coarse and hard thy Savior lay, 
For his birthplace was a stable, 
And His softest bed was hay." 

And still at twilight they come again, 

Those dear loved pictures so blest : 
A homely old room and a blessed refrain, 

A sunny head lying at rest, 
A sunny head prone on a breast so warm ; 

(And dreamily comes the old Rhyme). 
Pictures of innocence, love and charm — 
My Grandmother's picture and mine : 

(Old Melody) 
"How much better thou art tended 
Than the Son of God could be, 
When from heaven He descended 
And became a child like thee." 



By Lais V. Hales. 

Many mothers shut up in their "modern dragon of the inferiority 

various homes are doing their complex." 

unprepared best for their children. Mrs. Fisher realizes the vast 
Some of them have read books on amount of work and time required 
child psychology. But they are on the part of parents to help the 
inexperienced, having had no prac- child toward self-reliance. But noth- 
tice in the art of child raising. Too ing, she feels, is more worth while 
many of them are entirely occupied than an honest effort to improve 
with the material care of their chil- the relations of parents and chil- 
dren and their home. They are hur- dren. After once taking on the re- 
ried and distracted by innumerable sponsibility of children there is no 
details of their occupation. They do going back. Regret is vain. Parents 
not have time to put into practice have burned their bridges behind 
the sound principles that in theory them. The best program for them is 
they know very well. It is for such to "do the best they can, and every 
mothers, at such moments when day to make that best a little bet- 
child psychology is most needed, ter." 

that Dorothy Canfield Fisher wrote, ~ 7 ^. . rj7 , 

j • j r--Ci. i , The Finest Work 
and re-issued fifteen years later in 

1929, her sane, kind, helpful book, Parents should feel that there is 

Self -Reliance. nothing comparable to "the job of 

The Self -Reliant Child h / in S in S up <*udren for interest 
' for unexpectedness, tor sanity ana 
Modern discoveries in psychology laughter, and health and joy." A 
indicate that self-reliance in chil- study of child psychology lessens 
dren is most important. For the the dangers of being a child. When 
child who has not the soul of a para- a mother finds, that authors do not 
site it is neither happy, natural, nor agree on problems relating to chil- 
congenial to spend long and impres- dren, let her summon to her aid her 
sionable years dependent on others, firm independent common sense. 
Their self-reliance is bound up with Much that Mrs. Fisher writes about, 
their self-respect. "Many of the dis- thoughtful parents know, but it is of- 
agreeable doings of children, from ten a good thing to have them set 
bragging and bullying to teasing and down in a book, for "we are apt to 
cringing, from "showing off" to forget in the bewilderment and fa- 
morbid shyness, are found to be tigue and even disheartenment which 
their despairing, inexpert attempts at times inevitably confuses a par- 
to escape from inferiority to equal- ent's mind." 

ity." The cultivation of self-reliance The whole trend of American 

is necessary in order that the child life seems to be away from the old, 

may meet life standing alone ; in or- plainly visible, individual responsi- 

der that he Jnay escape from the bitfty. The conveniences of modern 



life our children unthinkingly ac- 
cept, thus falling into habits of in- 
ertia and moral flabbiness — habits 
that kill self-reliance and initiative. 

Tench Self-Reliance 

Self-reliance can be taught in early 
childhood. When your four-year-old 
is confronted with an obstacle, do 
not encourage him to come to you 
for help. Let him solve it himself 
with your guidance. The healthy in- 
fant is straining every nerve to "do 
•for himself." No child is naturally 
passive." A little boy who at two 
does not ask to be lifted up on a 
sofa, but goes and gets a little stool 
to climb up and down, has set his 
feet on the path which leads surely 
and certainly to self-reliance. 

As soon after five as possible the 
child should have some work of the 
household to do himself. This should 
be definite, regular work, light, 
quickly accomplished, and closely re- 
lated to his own life. Do not pounce 
spasmodically on him to "run er- 
rands" etc. for he likes to feel that 
when he has done his day's work, 
his time is for the most part his 
own. Respect his little dignity, but 
by all means give him responsibil- 
ity. A six-year-old can sew on but- 
tons, complete his toilet, decide 
which clothes he will wear, care for 
his play-room, consult the thermo- 
meter as a gauge as to the necessity 
for wraps, etc. Show him the rela- 
tionship of these tasks to his life 
and he will work willingly. Steep 
his early life in an atmosphere col- 
ored with energetic, purposeful ac- 
tion. Surround him with raw ma- 
terials that continually tempt him 
to do things for himself. "Children 
should spend as little of their pre- 
cious youth as possible hankering af- 
ter ready-made possessions, and as 
much time as possible creating for 

themselves the things they desire. 
Give the child games, sleds, roller- 
skates, modeling clay, a carpenter's 
bench, crayons, tools — things either 
to create with or to use as means to 
learn dexterity. 

Take Trips With Children 

Every one of us to some degree 
is a Robinson Crusoe. The parents 
should go Robinson Crusoeing to- 
gether. "Family hikes" branch out 
many new interests and influences, 
leading toward the habit of self-re- 
liance and the goodly habit of com- 
radeship between parent and child. 
A boy whose family "has always 
been his (gang) needs and will seek 
no other." 

Children will have social life 
whether we like it or not, and the 
"best we can do is to try to color 
their social life with wholesomeness, 
spontaneity, and true light-hearted- 
ness, rather than with vanity, com- 
petition, self-seeking and egotism. 
Train them not to depend for their 
social life on the cumbrous social 
machinery but to create it them- 
selves. Let their parties be as spon- 
taneous as possible with the children 
doing the work and arranging. Help- 
lessness and lack of resource and 
initiative in the matter of pleasant 
social intercourses are likely to be 
punished by more or less complete 
isolation, which makes an adult most 
unhappy, to say nothing of a child. 

Teach Them How To Spend 

Children should be taught finan- 
cial self-reliance and responsibility. 
Money-spending is quite as import- 
ant as money-getting. Let them in 
on the discussion as to the appor- 
tioning of the family income. Take 
them occasionally on well-regulated 
buying trips. As the child grows 
older, and has absorbed the family 


atmosphere of systematic and well- allowances, under pressure from the 

proportioned expenditures, he can child. 

be trusted with an allowance of his These and many other important 

own. Knowing from such experience issues in the home are discussed by 

that buying is one of the vital pro- Mrs. Fisher in Self-Reliance. The 

cesses in modern life, he will never latter part of the book is devoted to 

fall into the slip-shod method of the relationship between the schools 

hand-to-mouth buying. and the parents of the children with- 

Mrs. Fisher feels that allowances in the schools. Mrs. Fisher is al- 

large or small will do no good unless ways sane and helpful. Her deci- 

the child has before him a daily ex- sions are wise, thoughtful, practical, 

ample for forethought in expendi- Self-Reliance offers explicit help to 

ture. The key to the situation is the all members of the" family and can 

budget system. With it, no matter well occupy a prominent place on 

how rigid the economy needs, there the shelf of reference books in the 

are harmony and responsibility. Con- home ; it is a companion volume to 

tinued experience with real cash and The Charm Of A Well Mannered 

its exasperating way of vanishing in- Home, which we discussed last 

to dentists' bills, etc., is a great in- month. Parents who read these 

culcator of reasonableness in the books will realize the stupidity of 

matter of money. The one thing to that oft repeated parental wail — 

be avoided is the practice of doling "I can't do anything with my chil- 

out irregular additions to the child's dren." 


The Great Helper in home, factory, mill and office — 

Efficient, economical and dependable and CLEAN — 
With no days off or evenings off, is — 

Electric Service 

May we remind you of our combination rates — call at our nearest office, or 
telephone for a representative to call and explain in detail the helpfulness of 
electric cooking, refrigeration, water heating and many other operations in the 
home. He will show you leisure hours in the electric home that mean the 
disappearance of kitchen drudgery and household tasks. In their place Electric 
Service brings time for woman to do the many things she has longed to do, but 
could never find time for because of the excessive toil that always prevented. 

In business, farming and manufacturing and the mining and processing of raw 
material high in the hill is available. "We will be glad to have our specialists 
cooperate with you. A call at our nearest office will bring these expert advisors. 
Of course, it is with no obligation on your part whatever and at no cost. 


Efficient Public Service 

Pf^"Vg<»ii— M II— «— n— 11— n^—ii^— n— n^— n^— 11^— 11^— n^— n^— n n^— 11 ii^^h- h ii^^n^»»n— ^jT*" > yj 

JtfYjS"" ii-^— ii^^ii ii n ii n— ii ii n^_n ii ii u«^»n ii ii ii »— n ii ii "^j?€jS 

bt <Q>M£©t 









jBt/ Bertha A. Kleinman 

The happiness for which your life is quest 
Is neither here, nor there, nor east, nor west; 
You cannot find it all the world around, 
For happiness is never to be found; 
Who finds himself and his capacity 
Beneath the false conventionality 
Of self to self — to him it shall befall — 
The reach, the flight, the substance of it all. 

Who finds his place amid the surge and press, 
That other lives their fullness shall express, 
Has found it all, the entity, the best — 
Lol happiness has then encrowned his quest. 


Ninety-Four Years Young 

By J. A. Washburn 

With eyes slightly dimmed but a at the grove though it seemed to be 

memory grown brighter with years, pouring down all around. I knew 

Aunt Mary greeted her visitor with then, that Joseph Smith was a true 

her characteristic smile. Though prophet." 

ninety-four years have passed over She laughed as she told this little 

her head, her slight figure is straight story which was current in Nauvoo. 

and her step light. Dates and hap^ "It was a time when the Prophet 

penings of the distant past were was in hiding from his enemies, and 

recalled as vividly as those of yester- the officers were in town looking 

day. for him. They saw a little boy 

U I wait upon myself," she said as flying a kite and asked him if he 
she busied herself about her clean, knew where Joseph Smith was. The 
snug little cottage at the corner of lad replied, 'He went to heaven this 
town. But she does more, for she morning on Uncle Hyrum's gray 
always has time to take part in the mare, and I am sending up his din- 
joys and sorrows of both the young ner on this kite'." 
and the old. Dispensing cheer and "I remember the time," she con- 
encouragement is as natural to her tinued, "when father returned from 
as for the sun to radiate light. the meeting where Brigham Young 

Mary Shumway Westover was was transfigured. Mother and I 

born in Massachusetts, October 27, did not go to meeting that day but 

1835. At the age of seven she father told us all about it. That 

moved with her parents to Nauvoo, is not just an idle story. It really 

Illinois, where she passed through happened, for my father saw it and 

the trying experiences incident to told us at the time, 

the Mormon persecutions of those "I attended one dedicational serv- 

days. Though but a slip of a girl, ice at the Nauvoo temple, but I do 

those trying scenes are stamped upon not remember which room. The 

her memory with a clearness that thing I remember best about the 

time cannot erase. temple is the twelve large oxen on 

To the question, "Do you remem- which the font rested, 

ber the Prophet Joseph Smith," she "Our wagons were the first to 

answered? "I remember him well, cross the river at the time of the 

I loved to be in his presence and exodus. They were ferried across 

hear him speak. Once I heard him on a flat boat February 2, 1846. 

preach at the funeral of a man There had been a thaw, and the 

(King Follett) who had been killed boat was kept busy until the river 

while working on the temple. The froze over again and the wagons 

funeral was held in a grove and the could cross on the ice. I remember 

rain began coming down in torrents, that in the middle of the stream we 

As the people began moving away to had to stop to let a great block of 

find shelter, the Prophet promised ice pass. After we had crossed 

that if they would remain quiet and there was some rain and a little 

pray in their hearts, the storm would snow." 

cease. Then I saw through a break The company in which she trav- 

in the trees that the clouds were eled continued to a point about 

dividing. The rain stopped falling 100 miles west of Winter Quarters 



near a Pawnee Indian village. They 
were instructed by Brigham Young 
to remain there for the winter if 
conditions would permit. Thirty- 
eight of the fifty families moved 
still farther west, where they spent 
a hard winter, while her father with 
the other families returned to 
Winter Quarters. 

"It was a hard winter," she said. 
"Not so much for the lack of food, 
but because of the chills. We just 
shook all winter long. I don't know 
how father got the money to pay 
for them, but he went into Missouri 
and bought a load of supplies, 
though he shook with chills all the 
way. We lived in a log cabin with 
a dirt roof and a dirt floor." 

The saddest event of that winter 
was the death of her mother. She 
was now left to the care of her 
foster mother, her father's plural 

In the spring of 1847 her father, 
Charles Shumway, and her brother 
Andrew, were called to go with the 
pioneer company to the west. Not 
long after their departure, her little 
three-year-old sister died. 

"Those were trying days," she 
said as tears filled her eyes. "My 
mother and sister dead, and father 
and brother on their way to an un- 
known land" 

"What do you remember best 
about your experiences while cross- 
ing the plains," she was asked? 
"Buffaloes," was the answer. 
"Oceans of them. Sometimes we 
could see them, it seemed, for miles 
in all directions. It took only a few 
minutes to provide fresh meat for 
the whole company. 

"Once our cattle stampeded. The 
wagons had been arranged in a 
circle to form a corral. During the 
night something frightened them 
and they all made a break for an 
opening. One of the oxen jumped 
entirely over a wagon where a girl 

was sleeping without waking her 

She crossed the plains in Jedediah 
M. Grant's company, arriving in 
Salt Lake City October 12th, 1847. 
Here she met her father and brother 
and lived in the fort for two years. 
Her first school teacher was W. W. 
Phelps. For pastime she and her 
friends bathed in the warm springs 
and gathered berries and segoes. 

In 1849 her father was called to 
Manti and later to P'ayson, where he 
operated a saw mill. While living 
in Manti, Joseph Allen struck an 
Indian who had tantalized him to 
the point of desperation. The In- 
dians soon gathered and after a 
council of war, demanded the lives 
of two men. The two men selected 
by them were her father, Charles 
Shumway, and Darwin Chase. The 
matter was finally compromised by 
brother Allen giving up his two 
oxen. The people all contributed 
a little and bought him some more. 

At Payson, she experienced all 
the thrills, excitement, and worry of 
the Walker War. After the war 
they moved to Big Cottonwood, 
where she met and married Charles 
Westover in 1856. Her husband 
was called to St. George, where he 
was a veteran threshing machine 
man in southern Utah almost to 
the day of his death. 

During her residence in the south- 
ern part of the state, she lived at 
Pine Valley two years, Pinto, ten 
years and Hamblin, eight years. 
While at Pinto a great flood came 
and carried away all they had. It 
.was Sunday, and she was alone in 
the house with Grandma Westover. 
All at once, she discovered that the 
house was surrounded with water 
and the front part of it was soon 
washed away. They were rescued 
by two young men who came and 
carried them to safety. 

The town of Hamblin, in those 



days, was a rather desolate place. 
One night while she was alone and 
pondering over conditions, she said 
aloud to herself, "How long must I 
remain in this place?" A voice 
from behind her seemed to say, 
"Eight years." Sure enough, she 
lived there just eight years. 

In 1889 she moved with her fam- 
ily to Huntington, Emery County, 

Utah, where she now lives. All her 
life she has been a faithful, en- 
thusiastic worker in the Relief So- 
ciety and other organizations of 
the Church. She is known far and 
near for her cheerfulness and kind- 
ness. To know her is to love her. 
October the 27th, last, she was 
ninety-four years old. May she live 
as long as life seems a pleasure. 

A Widow's Protective League 

By Elizabeth Cannon Porter 

To keep widows from being im- 
posed upon and to educate them 
in the handling of their finances, is 
the object of the Widow's Protective 
League organized in Los Angeles 
three years ago. Realizing that the 
weakness of women through the 
ages has been a lack of organization, 
it aims to supply a need. The move- 
ment is being taken up in other cities 
and states, and will eventually be 
national in its scope. 

Unscrupulous persons who expect 
perquisites through dealing with 
women unused to business responsi- 
bilities find the League a check on 
their operations. Also, by re-fin- 
ancing, it has done much to remove 
that age-old bugbear of widows — 
foreclosed mortgages. 

A widow who had been injured 
in a traffic accident found her case 
being postponed and delayed day 
after day, with the result that she 
was nearly fainting on her crutches. 
The League's Legal Committee, 
composed of nine women garbed in 
black and white, attended the trial, 
succeeded in having the case speeded 
up, and the woman won her award. 
An aged lady who had been traded 
enough German marks to paper a 
room in exchange for some per- 
fectly good stock, had the trade re- 
versed through the activity of the 

A prominent business man who 
had let his notes to a woman become 
outlawed decided to pay them when 
the organization took up the matter. 
He couldn't afford the publicity. It 
would injure his business reputation. 
This Widow's League was instru- 
mental in sending dishonest oil ope- 
rators to Leavenworth. 

It led a campaign against loan 
sharks, reduced usury, investigated 
a cemetery swindle. Its real estate 
ramifications are multiple. It in- 
vestigates the status of bonds and 
other securities, collect rent, lo- 
cates people who disappear. 

For the education of women it 
conducted a class in popular law 
in the evening. One night a month 
is given to lectures. Among the 
speakers secured were Georgia Bul- 
lock, woman police judge, and Nick 
Harris, head of a popular detective 

The latter outlined the career of 
"Bluebeard" Watson now serving 
life in the California penitentiary. 
According to this criminal's confes- 
sion he had married and victimized 
thirty-six women. He was finally 
caught when a "wife" who had let 
him have $3,600 became suspicious 
over his frequent absences, and en- 
gaged detectives to apprehend him. 

The speaker also told the story of 
the trunk robber. This man had 



constructed a special trunk in which 
he had himself hidden and trans- 
ported to the vaults of a Holly- 
wood Storage Co. His object was 
to plunder the place and have him- 
self removed, still in the trunk, the 
next day. He engaged a 17-year- 
old boy to haul the trunk. They 
were overheard plotting in a local 
hotel room with the result that they 
were arrested. Chandeleria was 
sent to prison for 7 years. As he 
had spent 7 years in constructing the 
ingeniously devised trunk, his 
wasted effort represented 14 years 
in all. He might have grown rich 
in constructive work in that time. 

The Widow's Protective League 
also undertakes reforms in legisla- 
tion. In Utah a widow can obtain 
a ten-dollar-a-year rebate on her 
taxes. In Arizona a widow has 
$2,500 exempt; that is, she has to 
pay taxes only on the property over 
and above that amount. California 
widows are trying to get a $4,000 

exemption. Naturally, the large tax- 
payers and corporations oppose this 

The colors of the League are 
black and white. Its insignia is a 
pin of outspread Egyptian wings — 
for protection. The applicant pays 
$5 for her initiation fee and pin. 
Thereafter she pays $5 a year. This 
entitles her to free legal advice from 
the Leagues' Counsel. Where debts 
are collected by the organization 5% 
is paid into the treasury for the 

Women widowed by death or 
divorce are eligible, but the Widow's 
Protective League will not handle 
alimony nor domestic relations 
cases and thereby probably saves 
itself a world of trouble. 

Lillian Pascal Day, a syndicate 
writer, inaugurated the movement. 
The idea grew out of unfortunate 
experiences of her own widowhood. 
She is ably assisted by a superb 
corps of women. 

A March Reverie 

By Helen Evans 

Young Match came to me one day; it said: 
Oh, how I love the world, 
My frolic and fun are ne'er at an end 
'Till my whole long month is dead. 

To the feeble and old I am harsh, they say, 
For my winds are cold and skies oft grey; 
But I am youth with a carefree air 
And I laugh my whole time away. 

Fair promise I bring sometimes, to you, 
Though my nature is fickle indeed; 
Oft I smile as the sunbeams dance 
And earth's life's lease is built anew. 

sp - ■fla 

Radio's Debt to Farming 

Whimsically speaking, radio owes a debt to farming. 
This debt is owed for a word that was borrowed — a word 
that radio today cannot get along without, a word that is 
heard daily by anyone who owns a receiving set. That word 
is "broadcast," or any of its various forms and derivatives. 

The word "broadcast," as noun, adjective, adverb and 
verb, was in the dictionary long before the wonders of 
modern radio were realized. It referred, however chiefly 
to the sowing of seed in agriculture. 

As confirmation, consider this definition quoted from 
the pages of Webster's New International Dictionary, show- 
ing the early use of the verb "to broadcast :" "To scatter or 
sow broadcast ; to disseminate widely ;" and this definition 
of the adjective "broadcast:" "Cast or dispersed in all 
directions, as seed from the hand in sowing ; widely diffused." 

The definition of the modern practice of radio broad- 
casting is as follows, showing how the word has extended 
its meaning to the present specific use : "To send out from 
a radio transmitting station information, lectures, music, or 
messages of any kind by radiotelegraph or radiotelephone, 
for the benefit of an unlimited number of receiving stations." 

@k «fig 

The Grace of the Roadside Trees 

By Bertha A. Kleinman 

Let me teat by the side of the toad, 

Whete the ptess of life goes by — 
Not alone the walls of a fait abode 

To domicile such as I; 
Let me teat a naive cathedtal aisle, 

With its atches flung to God, 
Whete the leaves sptay ovet the dusty mile 

And dapple the toadside sod; 
Whete feet that seek no heatth of mine 

May slow to theit leisuted ease, 
And heatts may lift to the thtone divine 

Fot the Gtace of the Roadside tteesl 



Start your planting now! 
Many varieties of trees, 
shrubs, plants and flowers 
should be set out now to 
give their root systems a 
chance to become firmly 
fixed in the soil by the 
early season rains. 

We'll be glad to advise 
you just which varieties 
to plant now. Phone us. 

Write Today For Our Free Seed and 
Nursery Book 





mm m funis* 

Salt Lake City 

" II " I- II II II 

'The Sparrow" 

By Leah Harrison 

O joyous little spattow, 
He sings amid the cold, 
He's happy though hes 

shiveting — 
It seems that he would scold 
The people who go gtumbling 
The happy, live-long day. 
He feels, if he wete human, 
Hed know a bettet way. 

I ii^— i: ii. 

— H— h^— n^— ii— ii ii— » 11^—11 ■ i 

When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 



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and if for any reason your purchase is not entirely satis- 
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Books of Study for the 


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Mail — Telephone— Telegraph 


Open Daily, 9 a. m. — 5 p. m. 

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Write us about them. 

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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

Relief Society Women 
Attention I 

After sixteen years of service to 
the people, the BURIAL CLOTHES 
DEPARTMENT of the Relief So- 
ciety takes this opportunity of ex- 
pressing appreciation to you for 
your co-operation and patronage, 
which has contributed to the growth 
and stability of the Department. 

The Presidency of the Church, 
realizing the needs of the people, 
authorized the establishment of the 
Department in 1913. Since that 
time it has endeavored to serve the 

The Burial Clothes Department 
desires to announce that it has on 
hand a large and complete stock of 
temple and burial clothing in a 
variety of materials. There are 
suits for men and women, and 
burial clothing for children, includ- 
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On January 1st, 1930, the outstanding mortgages negotiated through our 
Loan Department were in classification as to ownership approximately 
as follows: 

Purchased by Insurance Companies $3,000,000 

Held by Individual Investors 1,500,000 

Sold to Banks and Trust Companies 750,000 

Loans unassigned , ^ 350,000 

Over a 28 year experience in business, no investor, either corporation or 
individual, has ever been asked to wait for the payment of interest or 
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Utah's Summer School 
of Service 

With the idea of offering courses desired by the people of the 
State, in all grades of collegiate work, the 


will again present an outstanding Summer School of Service. 
Courses of general interest, as well as many courses of special 
value to the teachers of the State, will be offered. The well- 
trained University staff (mostly department heads) , will be 
supplemented by the following carefully chosen distinguished 
educational specialists: 

MISS GRACE L. BEBB, Visiting Teacher, DR. MARK A. MAY, Professor of Edu- 
Bureau of Child Welfare, Board of Ed- cational Psychology, Yale University; 

ucation, Lincoln, Nebraska. Investigator in the Character Educa- 

MRS. RHEA WAHLE CORNELIUS. As- fe n ft^I'lT****' Colle * e ' C ° 1Um " 

sistant Professor in Physical Education. D a * nrsc weeK *> 

formerly of Iowa State Teachers Col- DR# B0RIS A< MORKOVIN. Assistant 

ie * e ' Professor of Sociology, University of 

DR. BESS V. CUNNINGHAM, Associate Southern California. 
Professor of Education, Teachers' Col- 
lege. Columbia University (three DR . JULIAN H . STEWARD, Assistant 
weeiss.j Professor Anthropology, University of 

DR. HOWARD R. DRIGGS, Head of De- Michigan ; University of Utah, 1930-31. 
partment of English Education, New 

York University (fifth week.) DR . J0HN SUNDWALL, Head of De- 

DR. SUNDER JOSHI, Lecturer and partment of Hygiene and Public Health, 

Teacher of Extension Courses, Massa- and Director of Students' Physical Wel- 

chusetts State Department of Educa- fare, University of Michigan (two 

tion. Division of University Extension. weeks.) 

To this list of out-of-state visiting faculty has been added Mary L. Bastow, 
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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

Portrait of Lucy Mack Smith. .. .Frontispiece 

Portrait of Rachel Grant Ivins 168 

Portrait of Louise Yates Robison 170 

Portrait of Amy Brown Lyman 172 

Portrait of Julia Alleman Child 174 

Portrait of Julia A. F. Lund 176 

Portrait of Alice Louise Reynolds 178 

Portrait of Maud May Babcock 180 

Portrait of Florence Jepperson Madsen. . . . 182 

Portrait of Rhoda Bowen Cook 184 

Portrait of Martha Hughes Cannon 186 

Portrait of Jeannette Acord Hyde 188 

Portrait of Jennie Brimhall Knight 190 

Portrait of Inez Knight Allen 192 

A Prayer Miriam Walton 194 

Our Gallery of Portraits 

Alice Louise Reynolds 195 

Editorial — The Book and the Poor 198 

The Era Notes Our Anniversary 199 

Our Former President 199 

Program for 1930 Group Conventions 201 

Guide Lessons for June 202 

Florence Crismon Rich 217 

When It's Almost Blossom Time.Lydia Hall 217 
Notes from the Field 218 

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APRIL, 1930 

Mrs. Lucy Mack Smith 

Mother of the Prophet. Joseph Smith became 

President of the Church of Jesus Christ of 

Latter-day Saints, April 6, 1830. 

Mrs. Rachel Ivins Grant 

Mother of President Heber J. Grant, President of 

the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 

Saints, April 6, 1930. 

Mrs. Louise Yates Robison 

General President of the Relief Society of the, 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Head of Temple and Burial Clothes Department 

of the General Board. 

Business Manager of the Relief Society Magazine. 

Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman 

First Counselor to President Robison. 

Head of t<he Social Service Department of the 

General Board of the Relief Society. 

Mrs. Julia Alleman Child 

Second Counselor to 'President Robison. Head 

of the Lesson Department of the General 

Board of the Relief Society. 

Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund 

General Secretary of the Relief Society 

Miss Alice Louise Reynolds 
Editor of the Relief Society Magazine, 

Miss Maud May Babcock 

Head of Department of Speech, University of 
Utah, Appointed Professor at University of 
Utah in 1902. President of Board of Trustees of 
Utah School for Deaf and Blind 1905 to 1917. 

Mrs. Florence Jepperson Madsen 

Head of Department of Music at Brigbam 

Young University since 1920. 

Director, Vocal Department, Lasalle Seminary, 

Boston, 1911-1916, Instructor Chicago Musical 

College Summer of 1927. 

Mrs. Rhoda Bowen Cook 

Head of the Textile and Clothing Department, 
School of Home Economics, at Utah State Agri- 
cultural College, 1900 to 1915. 

Dr. Martha Hughes Cannon 

First woman to be elected to the Senate of a 

Legislature in the United States, Held office 

1896-1900. Introduced six bills in the Senate of 

the State of Utah, all of which became law. 

Mrs. Jeannette Acord Hyde 

Collector of Customs at the Port of Hawaii, 
appointed by President Coolidge, 1925, reap- 
pointed by President Hoover, 1929. 

Mrs. Jennie Brimhall Knight 

One of two women xuho were the first regularly 
called missionaries from among the unmarried 
group of Latter-day Saint women. Mrs. Knight 
served as a missionary in Great Britain from 
April 2, 1898 until December 9, 1898. 

Mrs. Inez Knight Allen 

Who in company with Mrs. Knight was the other 
woman first to receive a regular call for a Mis- 
sion from among the unmarried group of Latter- 
day Saint women. Mrs. Allen served as a mis- 
sionary in Great Britain from April 2, 1898 to 

July 4, 1900. 

m 3K 



Third Poem to Receive Honorable Mention in the Eliza Roxey 

Snow Poetry Contest 

By Miranda Walton 

God of the silent stars, teach me their calm 
That all my petty cares may drift away; 

Teach me the gold of silence, and of Truth, 
And take me back when Morning comes, I 

Lord of the bluebird's song, give me the joy 
That comes from living in a world of Thine; 

Teach me to grasp the beauty of Thy work, 
And show me how to make that beauty mine. 

God of the autumn leaves and rain-bowed trees, 

God of the harvest moon, and Indian sun, 
Grant me the dues of labor, and the peace 
That work can bring, and of a task well done. 

God of the frozen snows, give me the hope 
Thou hast planted in the hearts of Earth and 
men: — 
When winter griefs and winds have had their 
The Miracle of spring and life will come 

^%t^V^^«^V^^^V^>?^J««^»«^V^V-^>«^V«^V^>«^ , 5««^X^4 




Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII 

APRIL, 1930 

No. 4 

Our Gallery of Portraits 

Alice Louise Reynolds 

WE are presenting in this is- 
sue of the Magazine a series 
of photographs of Latter- 
day Saint women. We wish them to 
stand as symbols of the achieve- 
ments of Latter-day Saint women 
during the one hundred years of 
Church History now closing. 

Latter-day Saint Mothers 

FIRST in our gallery of pictures, 
we place the photograph of 
Lucy Mack Smith, the mother of 
our Prophet, the Church founder. 
Next Mrs. Rachel Ivins Grant, 
mother of President Heber J. Grant, 
who is now the President of the 
Church. We desire that these two 
women, whose noble example stands 
out through the years, shall symbol- 
ize the glories of motherhood that 
form part and portion of the homes 
builded and consecrated by Latter- 
day Saint women. We wish to say, in 
modesty and humility, that we be- 
lieve no better homes have ever 
come into being than those created 
by Latter-day Saints. Through 
Sister Smith and Sister Grant we 
pay tribute to the motherhood of 
the Church. 

Relief Society Activities 


various activities sponsored by the 
General Board of the Relief Society. 
First, we present President Louise 
Y. Robison, who, in addition to dis- 
charging the duties of General 
President, is at the head of the 
Burial Clothes Department of the 
General Board. This department 
has carried on its work in a highly 
efficient manner. There have been 
crises making the demand on this 
department very great, but it has 
always met its obligations. Presi- 
dent Robison is also the business 
manager of the Magazine. 

Welfare Work 

^["EXT we present Counselor 
•L ^ Amy Brown Lyman, who is at 
the head of the Welfare Department. 
Since Mrs. Lyman first began the 
study of modern social work in Den- 
ver, she has kept in close touch with 
advanced methods. The aim of the 
department is to adapt these mod- 
ern methods to the needs and condi- 
tions of Latter-day Saints. Its in- 
fluence has been felt in practically 
every ward and stake in Zion. 


MRS. Julia A. Child is chairman 
of the lesson work. This de- 

UR next photographs are of partment furnishes work in religious 
people who are in charge of education, literature, and social 



service. Throughout the years these 
courses have been pursued with 
great interest by women all over the 
Church. They are the important 
feature of the program at the weekly 

Secretary's Department 

IN the Secretary's Office is Mrs. 
Julia A. F. Lund, who must con- 
stantly care for a multiplicity of de- 
tails. The many responsibilities of 
the Secretary will be partly realized 
and partly appreciated by the stake 
and ward secretaries throughout the 
Church. The Secretary's Office 
serves the field in detail matters 
every day of the year. Merely an- 
swering letters is a big piece of 

The Magazine 

HP HE Magazine, edited by Miss 

* Alice L. Reynolds, carries the 
lesson work of the organization into 
the field, fosters and supports Lat- 
ter-day Saint ideals and standards, 
and publishes articles that voice the 
forward movement of our present 

Latter-day Saint Women and 

TN the United States women do the 

* major part of the teaching, and 
in this important work Latter-day 
Saint women have done their part. 
We are publishing the portraits of 
three women who have reached con- 
spicuous places in the three colleges 
of the State of Utah. 

The first is Miss Maud May 
Babcock, who is the first Latter-day 
Saint woman to head a department 
at the University of Utah. She i§ 
also the first and only Latter-day 
Saint woman who has been a Pres- 
ident of a Board of one of the educa- 

tional institutions of the State. For 
many years she was President of the 
School for the Deaf and Blind. A 
fact of interest concerning Miss 
Babcock is that she has always been 
in competition with men in her po- 
sition. The head of the department 
of Dramatic Art is a man in most 
colleges and universities. 

The outstanding assignment made 
to a woman at the Brigham Young 
University has fallen to the lot of 
Mrs. Florence Jepperson Madsen, 
who is head of the Department of 
Music. Like Miss Babcock, Mrs. 
Madsen has been in competition with 
men, as we usually find a man at 
the head of the Department of Mu- 
sic in our colleges and universities. 

Mrs. Rhoda Bowen Cook has the 
honor of being the first Latter-day 
Saint woman to head a department 
of work at the Utah State Agricul- 
tural College. She was head of 
'what is known today as the Textile 
and Clothing Department in the 
School of Home Economics. 

TN addition to giving recognition 
"■*■ to these women as leaders in the 
field of education, we wish to draw 
attention to their respective lines. 
Miss Babcock represents drama, a 
line of art that has always been en- 
couraged and fostered by the "Mor- 
mon" Church. To all women of the 
Church who have used this form of 
art to express the ideality and beauty 
of life as well as some of its sordid 
cross-sections, we pay tribute 
through her. 

Through Mrs. Florence Madsen, 
whose beautiful voice has been 
heard in many places of the United 
States in the alto part of the "Mes- 
siah," we pay tribute to all the 
singers of Zion who have added the 
beauty of their voices to hymns to 
the sacred words of scripture, and 
to the compositions of the great 



Mrs. Cook symbolizes beautiful 
handcraft work that has adorned the 
home, the costumes, of wife and 
children. To all who are skilled 
in this lovely art we pay tribute 
through Mrs. Cook. 

We wish these three women, 
prominent in educational work in 
the State of Utah, to stand as sym- 
bols for all the work in education 
done by Latter-day Saint women, 
wherever they may be; for "Mor- 
mon' ' women are engaged in teach- 
ing in many of the States of the 

State and Federal Positions 

OUR next group takes in two 
women, Mrs. Martha Hughes 
Cannon, who is the first woman to 
hold a seat in the Senate of any State 
Legislature in the United States; 
she was also the first woman elected 
to the legislature of the State of 
Utah. We desire that she shall 
stand as the symbol of all Latter- 
day Saint women who have served 
in State Legislatures since suffrage 
has been obtained. 

Next is the portrait of Mrs. 
Jeannette A. Hyde, who holds the 

important post of Collector of Cus- 
toms at the Port of Hawaii, now for 
a second term. Mrs. Hyde holds this 
position under the Federal Govern- 
ment. Not many women in the 
United States hold positions under 
the Federal Government, conse- 
quently we look on Mrs. Hyde as 
one who has blazed a trail where 
others may follow. 

OUR last portraits are of Mrs. 
Jennie B. Knight and Mrs. 
Inez K. Allen, who were the first 
regularly called women missionaries 
of the Church. Many young un- 
married women have been called 
on missions since that time, but 
they were first to go into the 
field, directed in many instances to 
do much the same sort of work as 
the Elders. To the ever increasing 
group of young women who have 
gone forth as ambassadors of Christ, 
we tender through Mrs. Knight and 
Mrs. Allen our gratitude and es- 

To all Latter-day Saint women 
who have in any degree served their 
Church, their Nation, and their 
God, we dedicate this issue. 

The Bathsheba W. Smith Memorial was established February 20, 
1924 and became effective January, 1925. Five Temples have had the use 
of it, which means that ordinance work in the Temple has been done for 
some three hundred women. 

There have been one hundred and two girls assisted in their course 
of study at the Brigham Young University by the Emmeline B. Wells 
Memorial Loan Fund. A fund first made available in May, 1922. 


Motto — Charity Never Faileth 


MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND - - ... General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion Mrs. Elise B. Alder 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evang Mrs. Inez K. Allen 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howella 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager - Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Offioe, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. XVII - APRIL, 1930 No. 4 


The Book and the Poor 

ONE of the comforting and temporally, according to their wants, 

really startling facts about the And see that all these things are 

Book of Mormon is its con- done in wisdom and order; for it 

stant and enlightened solicitude for is not requisite that a man should 

the poor. For instance, Jacob, one run faster than he has strength, 

of the early prophets, has this to say : (Mos. 4 :26, 27.) 
"After ye have obtained a hope in 

Christ, ye shall obtain riches, if ye HTO this Alma, in his inimitable 

seek them ; and ye will seek them ■■■ way, adds : "And now behold, 

for the intent to do good — to clothe my beloved brethren, I say unto 

the naked, and to feed the hungry, you, do not suppose that this is all ; 

and to liberate the captive, and ad- for after ye have done all these 

minister relief to the sick and the things, if ye turn away the needy, 

afflicted. (Jac. 2:19.) and the naked, and visit not the sick 

Later Mosiah makes this illumi- and afflicted, and impart of your 

nating remark : "For the sake of re- substance, if ye have, to those who 

taining a remission of your sins stand in need — I say unto you, if ye 

from day to day, that ye may walk do not any of these things, behold, 

guiltless before God — I would that your prayer is vain, and availeth you 

ye should impart of your substance nothing and ye are as hyprocrites 

to the poor, every man according to who do deny the faith. (Alma 

that which he hath, such as feeding 34:28.) 

the hungry, clothing the naked, visit- Mormon in his writings makes it 

ing the sick and administering to clear that God rebuked the people 

their relief, both spiritually and for neglect of the poor — a fact 



shown in the following passages: 
"And it was because of the pride of 
their hearts, because of their exceed- 
ing riches, yea, it was because of 
their oppression to the poor, with- 
holding their food from the hungry, 
withholding their clothing from the 
naked." "And I know that ye do 
walk in the pride of your hearts; 
and there are none save a few only 
who do not lift themselves up in 
the pride of their hearts, unto 

the wearing of very fine apparel, 
unto envying, and strifes, and 
malice, and persecutions, and all 
manner of iniquities, and your 
churches, yea, even every one, have 
become polluted because of the pride 
of your hearts. For behold, ye do 
love money, and your substances, 
and your fine apparel, and the 
adorning of your churches, more 
than ye love the poor and the needy, 
the sick and the afflicted." 

The Era Notes Our Anniversary 

THE Magazine has very great 
pleasure in recognizing the place 

given the Relief Society in the 
March issue of the Improvement 
Era. In connection with the article 
stressing the anniversary of the or- 
ganization of the Society the Era 
also published cuts of the Presi- 
dency on its cover. 

What we particularly appreciate 
about this tribute from our sister 
organization is the spirit of coop- 
eration and good will that dictated 

As the world advances, it begins 

to understand how futile emphasis 
on differences may be and how all 
important is unity. In the main our 
interest is a common one. For all 
that the Mutual Improvement Asso- 
ciation is striving the Relief Society 
gives unqualified support. The ar- 
ticle in the Era gives abundant evi- 
dence of the fact the Mutual Im- 
provement Organization supports 
whole-heartedly the program of the 
Relief Society. We thank the Era 
for heralding to the young people 
of Zion the great purpose of our or- 

Our Former President 

ON March 8, Mrs. Clarissa Smith 
Williams, the former General 
President of the Latter-day Saints' 
Relief Society, passed to her reward. 
On March 11th, services were held 
in the Assembly Hall at Salt Lake 
City. The spacious stand and the 
casket were enveloped in beautiful 
floral tributes carrying expressions 
of sympathy and love from Relief 
Society workers throughout the 

President Louise Y. Robison rep- 
resented the General Board at the 
Services. Her tribute was tender, 
expressing appreciation for the 
high qualities of Sister Williams' 

The May issue of the Magazine 
will publish tributes to President 
Williams from members of the 
Board associated with her. 

Mrs. Lula Greene Richards, the first Editor of the Woman's Exponent 
will celebrate her eighty-first birthday on April 8, 1930. We congratulate 
Sister Richards and are very happy that she is with us to participate in 
the Centennary Celebration of the Church. 

Carbon that is deposited by The little carbon that Shell 

ordinary oil is gritty 9 hard, Motor Oil forms is soft, soot- 

flint-like; it will tear paper; like. Most of it blows away 

it will scratch brass — wear away through the exhaust, 

Avoid Carbon-Forming Oils 
— they damage modern motors 

\A[ ANY oils that are otherwise good lubricants have 
a tendency to form hard carbon when they 
burn. The carbon they leave is deposited within the 
motor, causing all manner of troubles. 

Shell Motor Oil, a fine new lubricant made by a 
new process, does ( not form hard carbon. It forms 
only a little soft soot that blows away through the 


Program for 1930 Group Conventions 

MEETING (Saturday— half 
hour meeting preceding Public 
Meeting. For Stake Presidency 
and Secretary-treasurer only) 
Discussion of Local Prob- 
day — two hour meeting) 

1. Greetings and Report .... 
Stake President 

2. The Evil Effects of the Use 

of Tobacco 

Stake Board Member 

3. Musical number. 

4. Great Movements Pioneered 
by Women Since the Or- 
ganization of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day 


. . . General Board Member 

5. Remarks. 


(Sunday 8:30 to 9:45 a. m. 
Stake Officers and Board 
Members only) 

1. Questionnaire 

. . . General Board Member 

2. How to Strengthen the 

Ward Organization 

. . . General Board Member 

Stake Executives and Board 
Members, Ward Executives, 
Presiding Priesthood and Bish- 

1. Report from Ward Presi- 

2. Ward Charity — Details of 


. . . General Board Member 

3. Discussion. 

Alberta — August 16-17. 
Bannock — April 26-27. 
Big Horn — August 30-31. 
Blaine— May 3-4. 
Boise — May 31 - June 1. 
Duchesne — May 10-11. 
Emery — April 26-27. 
Garfield— May 3-4. 
Idaho— May 17-18. 
Juarez — Sept. 6-7. 
Kanab— Aug. 30-31. 
Lethbridge — August 16-17. 
Lost River— April 19-20. 
Lyman— April 19-20. 
Maricopa — Aug. 30-31. 
Moapa — June 14-15. 
Nevada—April 19-20. 
Panguitch— May 17-18. 
Raft River— May 31 - June 1. 
Roosevelt— May 10-11. 
St. George — June 14-15, 
St. Johns— Aug. 16-17. 
St. Joseph — Sept. 6-7. 
San Juan — May 31 - June 1. 
San Luis — June 14-15. 
Snowflake — Aug. 23-24. 
Star Valley— June 14-15. 
Taylor— Aug. 23-24. 
Uintah— Aug. 23-24. 
Union — June 14-15. 
Wayne— April 19-20. 
Young — June 14-15. 
Zion Park — June 14-15. 

Guide Lessons For June 


Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in June) 
Ammon and his Brethren 

The Outline 

1. Conversion. 

1. Who Ammon and* his asso- 
ciates were. 

2. Their opposition to the 

3. Heavenly manifestation to 

4. Result to Alma and Ammon. 

5. Purpose to preach to Lamon- 

a. Why this mission chosen. 

b. Consultation with king. 

c. Promises of the Lord to 

2. The Journey. 

1. Dangers involved. 

2. Conditions among the Laman- 

3. Preparations for journey. 

4. Breaking up of the party. 

3. Ammon's Experiences. 

1. First apprehension by Laman- 

2. The Waters of Sebus. 

3. Conversations with King La- 

4. Results of conversations. 

5. Controversy with Lamoni's 

4. Aaron's Experiences. 

1. Imprisonment. 

2. Release through Ammon's in- 

3. Meeting with the head king. 

4. Subsequent successes. 

5. Anti-Nephi-Lehi Church. 

1. Influence of the old king. 

2. The new name. 

3. Rise of Opposition. 

a. Who opposition were. 

b. Position of Lamoni. 

c. Results to both parties to 
the war. 
6. Removal of new converts to Za- 

The Story 

ALTHOUGH the material for 
this lesson covers 35 pages, there 
is almost nothing in it but narrative. 
But it is narrative of a most thrilling 
sort, unusual even in the Book of 

When the angel appeared to Alma 
and Ammon that time, the same im- 
pression was made on Ammon and 
his brothers, sons of the King, as 
on Alma. For with Alma these men 
had been engaged in tearing down 
the church and faith which Alma's 
father and the King had labored to 
establish. But now the King's sons 
decided to undertake a mission to 
the Lamanites, while Alma stayed 
at home engaged in the work we 
have seen him do. 

They were promised that many 
would believe on their word and that 
they would be preserved from the 
hands of their enemies. They were 
gone fourteen years. But when they 
returned they brought many thou- 
sand converts with them. And such 
converts ! 

On reaching Lamanite territory 
the party separated, each man going 
a different way. Ammon's fortunes 
lay in the land of Ishmael. He dis- 
tinguished himself there and attract- 
ed the attention of King Lamoni. 
This led to conversations with the 
King and Queen, with the result that 
they and their people were con- 



Meantime Aaron had gone to an- 
other land, Jerusalem, where he was 
imprisoned. Later, after a set-to 
with Lamoni's father, who was the 
general ruler of the Lamonites, Am- 
nion had secured the old monarch's 
promise to have Aaron and his com- 
panions released. After this Aaron 
and his friends converted the old 
King and thousands of his subjects 
and this led to a proclamation that 
opened the way for preaching the 
word throughout all the Lamanite 

THEN opposition developed. The 
Amulonites and Amalekites, 
apostates and children of apostate 
Nephites, stirred up enmity against 
the converts. The old King died 
after giving these a new name, and 
was succeeded by a son who had a 
less strong arm than he. The peo- 
ple of Lamoni were attacked, but re- 
fused to take up arms in self-de- 

In the end the Lamanite converts, 
many thousands in number, were 
removed to Zarahemla, where they 
were set apart by themselves and 
given protection by the nation. 

This story, a very wonderful 
story, is <cornplefce by kself, 'and 
forms one of the episodes of the Ne- 
phite people, in which that nation 
must have abounded. 


1. The Lamanites at this period: 
From all accounts the Lamanites 
were far more numerous than the 
Nephites. This was due partly, it 
seems to the fact that they hung to- 
gether better than their civilized 
neighbors. For the Nephites were 
always at loggerheads with one an- 
other. And then, too, disgruntled 
Nephites went over to the Lamon- 
ites, whereas no Lamanites ever de- 
fected into the ranks of the Nephites. 

THE Lamanites therefore covered 
more territory than the Ne- 
phites. The historian says that they 
almost surrounded the country oc- 
cupied by the Nephites. And they 
had many "lands" and cities. Twelve 
of these are mentioned by name — 
Ishmael, Middoni, Jerusalem, Mor- 
mon, Nephi, Shilom, Shemlon, Lem- 
uel, Shimmilon, Amulon, Helma, 

Their government was simpler 
than that of their neighbors. They 
had a "king" over each of these 
lands, as in the case of Lamoni, who 
ruled over Ishmael, all of whom 
seem to have been more or less re- 
sponsible to a head king. It was a 
sort of feudalism, such as we find 
in Mediaeval Europe, only not per- 
haps so well knit together. 

In habits and customs the Laman- 
ites were far inferior to the Ne- 
phites. While many of them lived 
in houses — built perhaps mostly by 
the Nephites before their migration 
north — still some of them dwelt in 
tents. Especially was this true of 
those who lived in what was known 
as The Wilderness. They had no 
literature. They neither wrote nor 
read. They knew nothing of God 
or revealed religion. The historian 
describes them as "a wild and a 
hardened, and a ferocious people; a 
people who delighted in murdering 
the Nephites, and robbing and plun- 
dering them ; and their hearts were 
set upon riches, or upon gold and 
silver, and precious stones." An 
idle and indolent race, they wor- 
shipped idols. 

2. An heroic undertaking: We 
must bear in mind that this mis- 
sionary enterprise of Ammon and 
his fellow workers was undertaken 
about eighty-five years before Christ. 
The Nephites and the Lamanites had 
gone on in their separate ways for 
nearly five hundred years, each de- 



veloping along a different line. 
Moreover, the Lamanites, on the one 
hand, had acquired and cultivated an 
intense bitterness of feeling towards 
their neighbors, the spirit of hatred 
and revenge and murder. And the 
Nephites on their part, had devel- 
oped a fear and distrust of the La- 
manites. And there you were. Dur- 
ing these hundreds of years of sep- 
aration the Nephites had never even 
attempted, so far as we know, to 
conquer their foe by means of the 
only power that ever does really 
conquer — the power of Christ, the 
power of love. 

ALL of a sudden there rises 
among the Nephites a man who 
has the idea that these barbarians 
can be converted to the truth of 
revealed religion. And what is 
more, he is willing to risk his life in 
the undertaking. It is a grand idea. 
It is like a League of Nations only 
greater, because dominated by love, 
not fear. Doubtless if it succeeded, 
it would be the biggest piece of work 
done on the continent in five hun- 
dred years. 

But what shall we say of the man 
who conceived this huge plan in the 
first place? Men are to be judged 
by the ideas they have and their suc- 
cess in executing them. Remember 
"the glory of God is intelligence." 
There is room here for the imagina- 
tion to revive the man Ammon. 

And here once more we come up- 
on the most wonderful thing in life 
— the immense power of love. For 
here was Ammon trying to outdo 
himself in breaking down the bar- 
riers of faith and truth, all of a 
sudden, like Paul facing in the op- 
posite direction, and becoming even 
more determined and active in build- 
ing what he had been trying to 
tear down. And then, when he 
had got the idea firmly embedded in 
his soul, nothing else counted — not 

father and mother, not former asso- 
ciates, not ties of home and home- 
land, not even life itself, to say 
nothing of possible hardship and suf- 
fering by the side of which death 
itself would be sweet. Here is life 
on the grand scale, where men can 
utterly abandon themselves in the 
larger good, can abnegate self to 
the uttermost. Such an instance as 
this is a luminous comment on that 
profound saying of Jesus, that if we 
would save our life we must lose 
it. For if Ammon had not carried 
out this great plan of love and sac- 
rifice, the chances are not only that 
we would never have heard of him 
but that he himself would have been 
lost to himself. 

THAT was the effect of conver- 
sion on a man of cultivated in- 
telligence. The results of conver- 
sion were just as powerful on the 
simple-minded Lamanite. And it was 
even more striking. Once Lamoni 
and his people became aware of the 
meaning of truth, their lives took 
on a new significance. They sluffed 
their old habits of sin. So great had 
suddenly become their horror of tak- 
ing human life — a thing that thereto- 
fore had given them no compunction 
whatever — that they would not 
even take up arms in self-defense; 
and in order that they might not be 
tempted to break their vow, they 
buried all their weapons of war in 
the earth. It was a simple enough 
act in itself and one that we are in- 
clined to undervalue, but it was a 
sublime act all the same and showed 
the hold that truth may have on 
the human heart. 

3. Perhaps this is as good a place 
as any in which to call attention to 
two matters — one of substance and 
one of form — that go to show the 
divine origin of the Book of Mor- 

The Book of Mormon, as you 
know, claims to be a translation, not 



an original production by Joseph 
Smith. This requires that every- 
thing must be in keeping with that 

The Nephite Record being an in- 
spired translation, its spirit through- 
out should be the most wholesome. 
Now the essence of goodness is that 
there must be service. The "work 
and the glory" of even God is "to 
bring to pass the immortality and 
eternal life of man." That is, to 
serve. Now this is the very heart 
and core of the Book of Mormon. 
There can be no doubt of this in 
the mind of anyone who will read 
that volume with an open mind. In 
a word, the Nephite Record abounds 
in such instances as this of Ammon 
and his companions — a willingness 
to make any personal sacrifice in or- 
der to bring about the larger service 
or good. Nephi, Benjamin, the two 
Mosiahs, the two Almas, Abinadi, 
and now Ammon and his friends. 
No mere deceiver or religious fraud 
would be likely to compose and pub- 
lish a work of this character. 

A SECOND observation concerns 
the form of the work. If the 
Book of Mormon is an inspired 
translation, as the Saints claim, then 
its literary form should be in keep- 
ing with that hypothesis. In a pre- 
vious lesson attention was called to 
the fact that the Small Plates of 
Nephi — the first one hundred fifty- 
seven pages of our present editions 
— is in the first person. This is the 
case because it is not an abridgment 
at all like the rest of the book — ex- 
cept actual quotations. And that 
fact agrees with the assumption that 
it is an inspired translation. 

In the present and the preceding 
lesson we have a similarly strong 
point. In Alma the eleventh chapter 
we have an account of the Nephite 
coins. This is in agreement with 
the claim that Mormon had before 

him the record of Alma, of which 
he was making an abridgment. It 
is hardly probable that Alma would 
set down in his account, which was 
not intended to fall into strange 
hands, a statement of the coins then 
in use. There would be no reason 
for that. But there was the best 
of reasons why Mormon should do 
so in his record, because it was in- 
tended to be read by persons hun- 
dreds of years then in the future, 
and by those who would not be fa- 
miliar with the coins used by the Ne- 

Exactly the same line of reason- 
ing holds good of Mormon's descrip- 
tion of the Lamanites of the period 
in which Ammon lived. Alma knew 
their condition. His readers, if he 
ever had any, would have the same 
information. But not so with Mor- 
mon and his readers. He was mak- 
ing an abridgment for a generation 
yet in the future. 

The force of this argument will 
be seen at once if the conditions were 
reversed — if the Small Plates were 
in the third person, and so on. 


1. Why was the mission to the 
Lamanites such a hazardous under- 
taking ? 

2. Why is the burying of their 
weapons of war by Lamoni's people 
such a sublime act ? 

3. How would you justify the 
statement found in Alma 24, verse 

4. Why did it seem necessary for 
Ammon to display the power given 
him in the way he did? 

5. What personal qualities do you 
find in Ammon? 

6. Compare Alma and Ammon. 

Book of Alma, chs. 17-28, inclus- 

"Dictionary of the Book of Mor- 



mon" (Reynolds) under Ammon, 
Lamoni, Aaron, Amalekites, Am- 

"Message and Characters of the 
Book of Mormon" (Evans) pp. 

Work and Business 

(Second Week in June) 
Teacher's Topic 

During the past year we have con- 
sidered characteristics which are 
fundamental in character-building 
and absolutely necessary for success 
and happiness in life. 

The following points may be em- 
phasized : 

1. The burden of responsibility in 
character development is on the par- 
ents — in the home. 

2. Parents need to be guided by 
intelligent understanding of child 

3. Our aim should be the ultimate 
good of the child, not yielding to 
whims nor seeking the easiest way 
out for the moment. 

4. Example is the best teacher. 
We must be what we wish them to 

5. Moral qualities .are built up 
through practice, and not by being 
"talked at or preached at." The 
home must furnish the right condi- 
tions for the formation of these 
habits. There are wonderful oppor- 
tunities in the simplest situations of 
everyday life. 

"When we talk about building 
character, the essence of this build- 
ing is learning. * * * It is learn- 
ing of life that I am talking about, 
and I would give you this definition 
of learning : learning is conduct that 
has been so acquired that when the 
time comes it carries itself." 

— William Kilpatrick — Columbia 

Cooperation of Parents 

Social Standards. 

1. As members of the human 


race, we must share a com- 
mon social life. 

2. This social life is necessary 
to our development. 

3. Though we disapprove of 
some community standards, 
we cannot withdraw our 
children from group life. It 
is their environment. They 
must venture forth. 

4. Young people are governed 
largely by group standards, 
a. Children often resist on 

the ground that similar 
. requirements • are not 
made of neighbors' chil- 

5. Lacking in experience and 
undeveloped mentally and 
spiritually youth needs help 
in forming right standards. 

II. Parents' responsibility. 

1. In shaping character in the 

2. In modifying community 

Get acquainted with par- 
ents of children's friends. 
Seek united action. More 
cooperative work on the 
part of parents. Parents' 
maxim should be — decide 
what is best for the ulti- 
mate welfare of the child 
and then work together 
toward that end. 
III. Some community standards 
which can be modified only 
through cooperation of parents. 
Late hours. 

Numerous and expensive parties 
— encourage parties at home — have 
them simple. 







(Third Week in June) 
Martha Gilbert Dickinson Bianchi 

MARTHA Bianchi, author of 
"The Life and Letters of 
Emily Dickinson," and 
daughter of William Austin and 
Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickin- 
son, was born in Amherst, Massa- 
chusetts. After receiving her edu- 
cation at Miss Porter's school, 
Farmington, Connecticut, she spent 
some time in traveling. She was 
married in 1903 to Captain Alex- 
ander E. Bianchi. 

Mrs. Bianchi is the author of a 
number of poems and novels, also a 
contributor of articles to several of 
the magazines, including "Scrib- 
ner's," 'The Atlantic Monthly," and 

She was opposed to woman suf- 

This brief sketch was taken from 
an Encyclopaedia. 


By Her Niece — Martha Dickinson 

EMILY Dickinson, "one of the 
most original intelligences and 
possibly the greatest woman poet of 
modern times, was born in Amherst, 
Massachusetts, December 10, 1830. 
She was a physical as well as a 
spiritual hermit, actually spending 
most of her life without setting her 
foot beyond her own doorstep. She 
wrote her short, introspective verses 
without thought of publication ; and 
it was not until 1890, four years af- 
ter her death, that the first volume 
of her posthumous poetry appeared, 
with an introduction by Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson." 

"That her work will last longer 

than the work of the majority of her 
— or our — generation is, I think, in- 
dubitable. That it is sometimes 
erratic, half done, and thrown off 
with no thought of publication, in 
need of the finisher's file, is also, I 
believe, self-evident. But in the 
greater number of the poems, the 
leap of thought is so daring, the 
gaps so thrilling, that moments 
which, in a lesser spirit, would have 
turned to pretty or audacious con- 
ceits become startling snatches of 
revelation." * * * 

"It is no secret that Emily Dick- 
inson fell in love with a man already 
married, that she renounced her 
love, and withdrew from the world. 
(The poem entitled 'The Soul Se- 
lects' is evidently autobiograhical 

We give it here : 


The soul selects her own society, 

Then shuts the door; 
On her divine majority 

Obtrude no more. 

Unmoved she notes the chariots 

At her low gate; 
Unmoved, an emperor is kneeling 

Upon her mat. 

I've known her from an ample na- 
Choose one; 
Then close the valves of her atten- 
Like stone. 

"In 1884 she was stricken, like 
her father, with Bright's disease. 
Two years later, on Mav 16, 1886, 
at Amherst, this woman with 'the 



soul of a monk of the Middle Ages 
bound up in the flesh of a Puritan' 
died, after a life devoid of outward 
adventure. Few were present at the 
funeral; fewer still dreamed that 
she would outlive the obituary in 
the Springfield Republican. Today 
her place is secure; her work is 

Of the Colossal substance 
Of Immortalitv. ,, 
— (Notes from a brief biography 
by Louis Unter-Meyer. 

THOSE who are assigned to give 
this lesson should bear in mind 
that they are not to present espe- 
cially Emily Dickinson, or her 
poetry, but particularly "The Life 
and Letters of Emily Dickinson," by 
Martha Dickinson Bianchi, a niece 
of the poetess. 

Though the book is a large one, 
on account of the nature of its con- 
tents it is one of the easiest of the 
course to give, for the reason that 
the reviewer can find so many quot- 
able passages, more or less unat- 
tached, which will not only reveal 
Emily Dickinson herself, but Mrs. 
Bianchi and her book. 

The volume consists of two parts : 
"Her Life," and "Her Letters." The 
first part — "Her Life" — is divided 
into eight chapters: 1. Ancestry; 
2. Childhood; 3. School Days; 
4. Social Life at Amherst Seventy 
Years Ago ; 5. The End of Peace ; 
6. A Hedge Away ; 7. Later Years 
From Friends and Books; 8. Her 
Religion. The second part consists 
of her letters to various people, in 
which many of her pert little bits of 
verse appear. 

In this volume Martha Bianchi has 
done a very creditable piece of work. 
She has given us an intimate, sprite- 
ly, delicate picture of her aunt, who. 
little known during her life time, 
has come to rank high among Amer- 
ican poets. Mrs. Bianchi, possessed 

evidently of some of Emily Dickin- 
son's spirit, has given us a sparkling 
picture of the little girl who lived 
and wrote and loved nearly a cen- 
tury ago. 

In giving reason for producing 
the book, the author in a prefatory 
note says : "A high exigence con- 
strains the sole survivor of her fam- 
ily to state her simply and truthfully, 
in view of a public which has, 
doubtless without intention, misun- 
derstood and exaggerated her seclu- 
sion — amassing a really quite vol- 
uminous stock of quite lurid misin- 
formation of irrelevant personalities. 
She has been taught in colleges as 
a weird recluse, rehearsed to wom- 
en's clubs as a love-lorn sentimental- 
ist — even betrayed by one American 
essayist of repute to appear a fantas- 
tic eccentric. 

"On the other hand, she has been 
named 'the feminine Walt Whit- 
man' in at least one of the great 
universities; in another — 

Of the Colossal substance 
Of Immortality." 

THAT Mrs. Bianchi has succeed- 
ed in stating her simply there 
can be little doubt ; but how truthful- 
ly it is as yet impossible to say. If by 
truthfully the author meant that she 
expected to tell the whole truth, then 
certainly she has fallen short, for 
there are many recesses in Emily 
Dickinson's mind and heart into 
which the reader is not allowed to 
glance, let alone look with anything 
like understanding. 

Mrs. Bianchi, however, is frank 
enough to admit that her aunt, in 
spiritual qualities, at least, was too 
much for her limited pen and her 
unlimited love. She says: "How- 
ever the present volume may lift the 
veil, or presume to lead her shy real- 
ity into the light of mortal dawns 
again, Emily alone supplies the only 



clue to herself, the articles of her 

"The Soul's superior instants 

Occur to her alone, 
When friend and earth's occasion 

Have infinite withdrawn. 

"Or she, herself, ascended 

To too remote a height, 
For lower recognition 

Than her omnipotent. 

"This mortal abolition 

Is seldon, but as fair 
As apparition — subject 

To autocratic air. 

"Eternity's disclosure 

To favorites, few, 
Of the Colossal substance 

Of Immortality." 

That poem, to be understood must 
be thought over — dreamed over — 
for it, too, is of the "substance of 
immortality." She is evidently trying 
to voice a truth which hung fre- 
quently about Emerson and others 
of the great philosophers that only 
when earth and friends and time 
have withdrawn infinitely away does 
one see the superior quality — or im- 
mortality if you will — of the soul. 
Lorado Taft attempted the same 
poem in stone in his magnificent 
group "The Solitude of the Soul." 
Mrs. Bianchi is acknowledging that 
it is quite impossible for a biog- 
rapher to reveal the soul of one who 
can only catch glimpses of her own 
greater self at intervals. The per- 
son, she says in other words, some- 
times "ascends to too great height" 
for common mortal recognition and 
that, therefore, those heights cannot 
be chronicled because they can be 
so indistinctly understood in com- 
mon moments. 

HERE one thinks of the apostles 
and Jesus. They could under- 
stand Jesus, the man, rather well; 

but Jesus the God they could not 
understand at all. That is, whenever 
Jesus was "transfigured before 
them" the apostles were simply 
dumb or — slept. 

Mrs. Bianchi makes further ex- 
cuses by saying: "The essential 
difficulty in presenting a Life of 
Emily Dickinson has been enhanced 
by the sacred pact observed with her 
chosen few, that all letters should 
be burned after her death. This ex- 
cludes exactly those which might 
have held together the frail external 
incidents of her days, which seem 
so scantily supplied to those ignorant 
of the thronging events of the Spirit 
which eternally preoccupied her." 

Those letters, no doubt, suggested 
the recesses of her life which the 
poetess preferred should remain in at 
least partial shadow. To one of 
Martha Bianchi's temperament, as 
expressed in her spritely book, a 
hint was evidently sufficient. We, 
therefore, close the volume, believ- 
ing the tender niece who knew her 
aunt for many years, might have 
given us much more had she not 
feared breaking faith with the dead. 

But turning more directly to the 
biography we read: "Emily Dick- 
inson's ancestry is distinctly traced 
in nine generations in America." 
"Her local ancestry settled in old 
Hadley, and a later generation was 
one of the founders of the church 
and town of Amherst. There were 
Dickinsons mentioned in Hadley 
among the first letters of the original 
Indian grants in 1659." 

By that we learn that Emily's 
progenitors were among the first 
arrivals in America and that she is in 
a very real sense an American poet- 
ess. Her father was a lawyer prac- 
ticing in Amherst, Massachusetts, 
a graduate of Yale University. Her 
mother "was an exquisite little lady 
of the old school long passed into 
mythology." She was the daughter 



of Alfred Norcross, of Monson. 
"The family was well-to-do and she 
was educated and finished off at a 
school for young ladies at New 
Haven, very much in repute in her 

UPON her marriage, no railroad 
then reaching Amherst, her 
dower was brought by several yoke 
of brindle oxen — " "Emily Nor- 
cross Dickinson feared and hon- 
ored her husband after the manner 
of the Old Testament. She trembled 
and flushed, obeyed and was silent 
before him. He was to her Jehovah, 
and she was to him the sole being 
to whom he intrusted the secrets of 
his inmost heart. His letters to her 
were discreet, respectful, "frosty 
but kindly" — ending always with 
the assurance of his remaining her 
'most ob't servant, Edward Dick- 
inson/ " 

"It is impossible to derive Emily 
from either her stately father or her 
fluttering little mother, always tim- 
orous, always anxious. Treasured 
among the daughter's most cher- 
ished papers, was found the little 
yellow certificate of her mother's 
exemplary conduct as a girl at 
school : 

"Miss Emily Norcross, for punc- 
tual attendance, close application, 
good acquirements, and discreet be- 
havior merits the approbation of 
her preceptress. 

"E. P. Dutch." 

"And out of this human stock and 
precision of living came the little 
girl whose soul flew up and away 
like the smoke from the high chim- 
neys of her home under the tall 

It is with such delightfully "dif- 
ferent" notes as those that this book 
abounds, indicating that Martha 
Bianchi inherited much of the bird- 
like quality of her relative. 

"Emily Norcross Dickinson, nam- 

ed for her mother, was born De- 
cember 11, 1830, in Amherst, Mas- 
sachusetts, in the old house said to 
have been the first erected of brick 
in Amherst." 

"Her brother Austin, (Martha 
Dickinson Bianchi's father) and 
her younger sister Lavinia, were 
the other children of the home, both 
possessed of marked ability and va- 
ried temperament." 

THE chapter dealing with Emily's 
childhood here must be passed 
by with the mere mention that the 
author calls attention to the fact 
that Helen Fisk, later known as 
Helen Hunt, the poetess, was one 
of the Dickinsons' favorite play- 

Her school days and her social 
life must also be skipped, although 
the reviewer in class might well 
spend some time by quoting from 
both of those chapters. 

Then came her unfortunate love 
affair over which her niece passes 
so lightly and delicately, but which, 
in all probability, had much to do 
with giving us one of our greatest 
American poetesses and perhaps 
one of the world's greatest. A 
glimpse of her tragedy and the man- 
ner in which she met it are given in 
one of her letters quoted on page 
49 and followed by some verses. 
They run : 

"Susan — We both are women and 
there is a Will of God ; 

Could the dying confide Death, 
there would be no dead. 

Wedlock is shyer than death. 

Thank you for tenderness. 

"And during her first ecstasy of re- 
nunciation : 
"Title divine is mine 

The life without 

The Sign. 

Acute degree 

Conferred on me — 



Empress of Calvary. 

Royal, all but the 

Crown — 

Bethrothed, without the Swoon 

God gives us Women 

When two hold 

Garnet to garnet 

Gold to gold — 

Born — Bridaled — 

Shrouded — 

In a day 

Tri-Victory — 

'My Husband" 

Women say, 

Stroking the melody. 

Is this the way? 


The author follows with a word 
portrait of her subject taken from 
the preface to one of her volumes 
of poetry — "The Single Hound." 
This could well be read in class. It 
closes with the very apt statement : 

FASCINATION was her ele- 
ment. "She was not daily bread ; 
she was star dust. Her solitude 
made her and was part of her." 

The chapter entitled : "A Hedge 
Away" is filled full of intimate little 
glimpses of Emily and her new love, 
"Sister Sue" or "Sister Susan," her 
brother Austin's wife. The flashes 
on pages 60 and 61 would be inter- 
esting to the class and also illum- 

It is in the discussion of Emily 
Dickinson's religion that her niece 
reveals her own power best. Caught 
by the spritely, one might say al- 
most irreverent, flashes of the poet- 
ess, the author reveals an insight 
into true religion that is definitely 
refreshing. She senses the short- 
comings of the creeds, and in 
Emily's quiet little flings discovers a 
deeper, more beautiful religion, 
which is, after all, the religion of 
the Master. Love is at its heart — 
not fear, not sham, not preach- 
ments, merely Love unfeigned. 

Then came the end. Her bio- 
grapher writes: 

"While her work still fascinated 
her, there came a morning in June, 
1884, when without warning Emily 
was smitten as her father before 
her, and though she lived for two 
years after, 

"The green world went on a sud- 
den blind," 
and it was impossible for her to 
write more than an occasional pen- 
ciled note. She wrote her sister at 
this time, 'You must let me go first, 
Sue, because I live in the sea al- 
ways now, and know the road!" 

"It was on May 16, 1886, that 
her family gave her back to immor- 
tality with a strange relief, as of 
setting a winged thing free. At the 
simple funeral in the old house, 
Colonel Higginson read a poem of 
Emily Bronte's, the last words she 
ever wrote, prefacing it by saying: 

THIS poem on Immortality "was 
a favorite of Emily Dickinson 
who has just put it on — if she could 
ever have been said to have put it 
off." The poem might well be read 
to the class as a statement of her 

The tribute of her brother's wife 
— the Sister Sue of her love — is 
rather fine and might well be quoted 
in part. Among other things she 

"A Damascus blade gleaming and 
glancing in the sun was her wit. Her 
swift poetic rapture was like the 
long glistening note of a bird one 
hears in the June woods at high 
noon, but can never see. Like a 
magician she caught the shadowy 
apparitions of her brain and tossed 
them in startling picturesquenessto 
her friends, who, charmed with 
their simplicity and homeliness as 
well as profundity, fretted that she 
had so easily made palpable the tan- 
talizing fancies forever eluding their 
bungling, fettered grasp. . . . "How 



better note the flight of this 'soul 
of fire in a shell of pearl' than by 
her own words? 

"Morns like these we parted; 
Noons like these she rose ; 
Fluttering" first then firmer, 
To her fair repose. — S. H. D" 

TNTERESTING are all the let- 
4- ters. The one who gives the les- 
son may select almost at random 
and find something illuminating and 
interesting, on account of that "dif- 
ference" which is the spark of 
genius. Here are two examples : 

To Colonel T. W. Higginson, 
August, 1874. 

"When I think of my father's 
lonely life and lonelier death there 
is this redress — 
"Take all away, 
The only thing worth larceny 
Is left — the Immortality. 
"My earliest friend wrote me the 
week he died, 'If I live, I will go 
to Amherst; if I die, I certainly 

"Is your house deeper off? 

"Your Scholar." 
To the same, June, 1875. 
"Dear Friend, — Mother was par- 
alyzed Tuesday, a year from the 
evening father died. I thought per- 
haps you would care. 

"Your Scholar." 
"A death-blow is a life-blow to some 
Who, till they died, did not alive 

become ; 
Who, had they lived, had died, but 

They died, vitality begun." 

In one of her letters to her nieces 
she said this so succinctly: 

"A word left careless on a page 
May consecrate an eye, 
When folded in perpetual seam 
The wrinkled author lie." 

And again; "Life is a spell so 
exquisite that everything conspires 
to break it." Letters on pages 292, 
293, 306, 397, and 336 seem to me 
to be especially fraught with great 

Questions and Problems 

1. Locate Amherst, Massa- 
chusetts, on a map, giving some ap- 
proximate distances from New 
Haven and Cambridge. 

2. WJiy was it quite impossible 
for the author to state Emily Dick- 
inson Full "Truthfully." 

3. What are your reactions to the 
poem, beginning, "The Soul's Su- 
perior Instants?" 

Do you ever sense "Superior in- 
stants?" Do you think they are 
common with humanity? 

4. Discuss the two little poems 
beginning, "Take All Away" and 
the one "A death-blow is a Life- 

5. Bring to class any poems of 
Emily Dickinson that may have 
been especially helpful or interest- 
ing to you. 

6. Quote some of Mrs. Bianchi's 
most effective passages. 

7. Discuss Mr. Higginson's state- 
ment: "This poem on Immortality 
was a favorite of Emily Dickinson, 
who has just put it on — if she could 
ever have been said to have put it 
off." What is the significance of 
his words? 

Interesting Poems by Emily Dickinson 


I stepped from plank to plank 

So slow and cautiously; 
The stars about my head I felt, 

About my feet the sea. 

I knew not but the next 
Would be my final inch, — 

This gave me that precarious gait 
Some call experience. 


To lose one's faith surpasses 

The loss of an estate, 
Because estates can be 

Replenished, — faith cannot. 

Inherited with life, 

Belief but once can be; 
Annihilate a single clause, 

And Being's beggary. 

Who has not found the heaven below 

Will fail of it above. 
God's residence is next to mine, 

His furniture is love. 


We never know how high we are 
Till we are called to rise ; 

And then, if we are true to plan, 
Our statures touch the skies. 

The heroism we recite 

Would be a daily thing, 
Did not ourselves the cubits warp 

For fear to be a king. 


The brain is wider than the sky, 
For, put them side by side, 

The one the other will include 
With ease, and you beside. 

The brain is deeper than the sea, 
For, hold them blue to blue, 

The one the other will absorb, 
As sponges, buckets do. 

The brain is just the weight of God, 
For, lift them, pound for pound, 

And they will differ, if they do, 
As syllable from sound. 


Fate slew him, but he did not drop , 
She felled — he did not fall — 

Impaled him on her fiercest stakes — 
He neutralized them all. 

She stung him, sapped his firm ad- 

But, when her worst was done, 
And he, unmoved, regarded her, 

Acknowledged him a man. 


There is no frigate like a book 

To take us lands away, 
Nor any coursers like a page 

Of prancing poetry. 
This traverse may the poorest take 

Without oppress of toll; 
How frugal is the chariot 

That bears a human soul ! 


If tolling bell I ask the cause; 

"A soul has gone to God." 
I'm answered in a lonesome tone ; 

Is heaven then so sad? 

That bells should joyful ring to tell 
A soul had gone ,to heaven, 

Would seem to me the proper way 
A good news should be given. 


Social Service 

(Fourth Week in June) 

Organisation and Administration of Salvation Army "pot" at Christmas. 

Social Work Some organizations— such as the 

I XT , ,, ,- , American Red Cross, for example, 

N the five preceding lessons we conduct a x drive for member . 

have outlined the field of socia shi M reli ious groups doing 

work in terms of its general sodal WQrk • the Jews in x 

scope and methods Many import- American cities) assess their donors 

ant details have, of necessity, been a - n amounL 

omitted Our purpose has been The most t kal method fa this 

achieved if our readers have gained CQUnt however> is the « drive " or 

a correct although general im- "campaign," in which a children's 

pression of this vast area of Chris- organization> for example, appeals 

tian endeavor. directly to the public by means of the 

It remains for us to consider in « tag _ day .» These campaigns, of 

this the last lesson the ways m CQUr are promoted b the usual 

which these diversified needs are methods of adve rtising through 

being met. newspapers, leaflets, posters, radio, 

1. Financing Social Work and the pulpit. ; 

Before the war it was customary 

T is greatly to the credit of our for each social agency to make its 
Western civilization that vast own "tag-day." During the strenu- 
sums of money are yearly devoted to ous days of 1917 and 1918, however, 
public and private work. It is in- drives of one sort or another became 
creasing out of all proportion to the so frequent that the public — largely 
general increase in wealth, chiefly on the initiative of its business-men 
for the reason that individuals and — sought to protect itself by corn- 
social groups are becoming more bining these drives and establishing 
and more altruistic. what is called "The War Chest." 

The cost of administering those This method of substituting one 

forms of social work called "public big money-raising campaign for a 

welfare," (i. e., the care of the in- number of independent "tag-days" 

sane, the blind, the deaf; alms- has developed so rapidly since the 

houses, county hospitals, mothers' war that at the present time most 

pensions, etc.,) is borne out of pub- American cities of any size maintain 

lie funds secured through taxation, a "Community Chest," an organiza- 

All other forms of social work, tion through which most of the ac- 

called "private philanthropy," are credited, non-sectarian agencies raise 

financed wholly by voluntary dona- their funds jointly, 

V r>T TT™,A-oTr t .- r H- The Organization of Private 

OLUNTARY donations for Philanthropy 
philanthropic purposes range 

all the way from the million-dollar /^\NE of the precursors of the 

endowment (e. g. Julius Rosen- ^^ community-chest movement 

wald's gift for negro education) to was the Council of Social Agencies, 

the few coppers dropped into the an organization of private social 




work and social workers for the 
purpose of coordinating social prac- 
tice and raising the standards of 
social work. This movement has 
been made necessary because of the 
vast array of independent philan- 
thropic efforts. One of the valid 
criticisms of private social work is 
that it is sporadic, is independently 
projected, and often overlaps. Then, 
too, it leaves many important areas 
of human need untouched. 

The origin of this movement for 
cooperation in social work goes 
back to the '60s and 70s of last 
century, when, in London for ex- 
ample, conditions became so acute 
that in order to do intelligent social 
work it became necessary for or- 
ganizations to investigate every case 
of need before relief was supplied. 
This situation in England produced 
what is called "The Charity Organ- 
ization Society" movement, a move- 
ment which has stood for the prin- 
ciple that before aid is given to a 
family or a person in need, an at- 
tempt will be made to find out if and 
what other agency might also be put- 
ting in relief. 

Strange as it might seem, there 
are many applicants for relief who 
exploit a philanthropic agency and 
deliberately secure relief from as 
many agencies as possible, some- 
times using an alias. The Charity 
Organization Society is now perhaps 
the largest single movement within 
the field of private social work. It 
is organized in practically all mod- 
ern countries; the various branches 
assist one another in the investiga- 
tion and treatment of inter-city 

III. Public Welfare Administration 

NEXT to education the state's 
greatest problem is the care of 
its handicapped, — the insane, feeble- 
minded, delinquent, dependent, etc. 
In most American states, as a 

matter of fact, the second largest 
item of expense is the cost of ad- 
ministering public welfare activities. 

Unlike education, which is a mat- 
ter for the towns and local districts, 
public welfare — in the main — is ad- 
ministered directly by the state. This 
situation calls for a major division 
of state government devoted exclu- 
sively to these matters. 

Beginning with the Massachusetts 
State Board of Charity, in 1863, all 
but three states — Nevada, Missis- 
sippi, and Utah — have created cen- 
tral boards or departments of public 

Specifically, a state board of public 
welfare is a non-partisan body of 
capable citizens, serving without pay. 
They are appointed by the Governor 
with the consent of the Legislature, 
and are usually empowered to coor- 
dinate and standardize the work of 
all institutions and agencies dealing 
with the dependent, neglected, delin- 
quent, physically or mentally handi- 
capped classes supported wholly or 
in part by the state or any subdi- 
vision thereof. 

Such a board also acts as a clear- 
ing house and a research agency on 
all public welfare problems affecting 
the state. Not only does such a 
board or department call attention 
of the legislature to current needs, 
tendencies, and proposals, but also 
formulates and sponsors preventive 
programs calculated to minimize 
public welfare problems and activi- 

An ideal board or department of 
public welfare resembles in most 
particulars the existing state boards 
of education, except that the exec- 
utive officer should be appointed by 
the board rather than elected by the 

IV. Trained Social Workers 

SOCIAL work is successful only 
when competent people adminis- 



ter it. An adequate personal- 
ity, a liberal education, and a period 
of professional training — usually a 
year's graduate study in one of the 
score or so of training schools — are 
the minima. This emphasis upon 
training is not, of course, meant to 
disparage the volunteer worker. As 
a matter of fact, there is a definite 
place — especially in our Church — 
for the untrained visitor in the field 
of social work. 

MANY people argue that all 
funds devoted to social work 
should be devoted to relief, and as 
little as possible to "overhead," in- 
cluding the salaries of social work- 
ers. A moment's reflection will 
show how superficial, in general, this 
view is. Which is sounder, for in- 
stance, in the case of a destitute 
family: To furnish sustenance for 
the family without case-work, or to 
investigate the problem carefully and 
determine the causes of poverty? to 
remedy them by (a) finding em- 
ployment for the breadwinners, (b) 
arranging for medical care if neces- 
sary, (c) getting indifferent rela- 
tives to share the responsibility, and 
so forth? There is but one answer 
to such a question. 

Attendance at conference of one 
sort or another is not a substitute for 
training in social work. National 
conventions of social work for social 
workers are valuable — and more or 
less indispensable — for trained 
workers in service. State confer- 
ences of social work serve a double 
purpose. In the first place they ed- 
ucate the laity with respect to (a) 

the nature of social problems and 
(b) the scope and methods of so- 
cial work. Secondly, they are an 
invaluable means of promoting pro- 
fessionalism in the ranks of social 

Questions for the Further Stimu- 
lation of Thought 

1. How is social work financed in 
your community ? What are the rel- 
ative amounts from taxes and from 
private philanthropy ? 

2. Does your community indulge 
in "tag-days ?" What are the argu- 
ments for and against raising money 
in this way? 

3. To what extent is social or 
public welfare work in your com- 
munity or state endowed? During 
the past quarter of a century, what 
large donations have been made for 
social work? 

4. Outline a program for raising 
the standards of social and public 
welfare work in your community 
and for securing the establishment 
of a state department of public wel- 
fare in Utah. 

5. Analyze further the objection 
to "overhead costs" in social work. 

6. To what extent is your com- 
munity supplied with trained social 
workers ? 

7. Wlhat improvements might be 
made in the present methods of se- 
lecting and training volunteer social 
workers ? 

8. Is there a state conference of 
social work in your state ? What are 
its history, aims, and achievements? 
What place should it fill? 

Florence Crismon Rich 

Daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth C. Crismon, former member of the General 


ON January 20, 1930, Florence 
Grismon Rich passed from 
earth life to a sphere of great- 
er activity. All, who knew her loved 
her and appreciated her gentleness, 
tenderness, firmness, ability, and 

Florence came to bless her par- 
ents' home, January 1, 1874. What 
a New Year's gift she proved to be ! 
for she filled the home with joy. 
When she went to school she stood 
out as superior, and one of her 
scoolmates thus characterized her: 
"A lovely girl has come to school. 
She's just like a rosebud among a 
lot of sunflowers." 

On December 11, 1895, she mar- 
ried John Y. Rich, and to them were 
born four sons: Robert, who died 
in infancy; Denton, Jefferson, and 
Joseph Caine. Florence was a self- 
sacrificing wife and mother. It may 
be truly said of her that she was 
devoted in all the relations of life ; 
as daughter, sister, wife, mother, 
she played her part well. 

Her husband, her children, her 
mother, her home, were her first 
care. When her obligations to these 
were fulfilled and she had time for 
other things, she liked to delve into 
literature and to mingle with those 
who also loved the great authors. 
She was a charter member of the 
Author's Club and belonged also to 
the Geo fan. 

SELDOM is it given to a mother 
to have such constant compan- 
ionship with a daughter as existed 
between Mrs. Crismon and Florence. 
For only a few years were they sep- 
arated, when Florence was away at 
school, and for five years after her 
marriage when she resided in Brig- 
ham City. She knew her mother's 
pleasure in the Author's Club and 
made it possible for her to attend 
the sessions for years. 

Unselfish devotion was manifest 
in the home. Never was an unkind 
or contentious word heard. When 
pain racked her body, she tried 
to conceal her suffering. 

When It's Almond Blossom Time 

By Lydia Hall 

When it's springtime, lovely spring- When the petals, pink are falling, 

•. time Lightly falling on the ground, 

And the sky is all a-glow, And the spark'ing brooklet's sing- 
When the mocking birds are sing- ing 

ing With a very merry sound, 

And the south winds softly blow, When the lovely fragrance tells us 

When the honey bees are buzzing That the world is all in rhyme, 

Where the honey suckles climb, Then you know beyond all doubt- 
When the world is full of beauty ing 

Then it's almond blossom time. That it's almond blossom time. 

Notes from the Field 

Rigby Stake: 

IT gives us great pleasure to pub- 
lish this little picture of the Ririe 
Ward, in Rigby Stake. Taken 
last spring, it seems to be expressive 
of Relief Society groups. As we 
note, the sisters in the picture range 
from the darling little babies in their 
mothers' arms, up to the mature 
women, who have written in their 
faces something of the story of life. 
These pictures are very expressive 

attractive and practical manner, with 
a blue oilcloth cover, rendering it 
usable in every kitchen. The book 
not only is filled with excellent reci- 
pes for all kinds of articles of food, 
but it is also interspersed with very 
fine suggestions that cover the whole 
range of housekeeping. We con- 
gratulate the Big Horn Stake upon 
this achievement; it is another evi- 
dence of their enterprise, energy, and 

— a fine demonstration of the mes- 
sage of Relief Society to all women 
of the Church, appealing alike to the 
mother with her first baby and to the 
grandmother. That Relief Society 
women excel in more things than 
one, the reports from all parts where 
the organization exists clearly dem- 
onstrate. These accounts are elo- 
quent of activity along all lines of 
development, physical, intellectual, 

Big Horn Stake : 

THE office is in receipt of a most 
excellent cook-book of tested 
recipes. It is gotten out in a very 

Alpine Stake : 

AT the close of 1929, as a com- 
pliment to the ward officers and 
class leaders of the stake, a unique 
luncheon was given in the Alpine 
Stake Tabernacle by the Relief So- 
city Stake Board. Two long tables, 
with covers set for 51 guests, were 
transformed into a mass of color by 
the use of Autumn flowers and table 
center pieces made of pumpkin bowls 
filled with red and yellow apples. 
This introduced the Hallowe'en mo- 
tive, which was most effective in the 
soft gleam of lighted orange tapers. 
The guests wore Hallowe'en caps, 
and presented a most effective ap- 


pearance. President Maud D. which all the talks were built was 

Christensen presided as toastmis- Happiness. 

tress during the following program : On July 10, eight of the stake 

Toast, "A Recipe for the 1 o'clock board members, with their husbands, 

Meeting," by Jennie Cunningham ; took an outing to Beaver and Puf- 

Toast, "The Relief Society Quilting fers' Lake. Breakfast was cooked 

Bee," by Eleanor Nicholes ; Toast to camp fire style at Cove Fort. After 

the Board Members, by Hannah having a regular monthly board 

Ashby; Toast to the Ward Presi- meeting with one of the former 

dents, by Pearl Loveless. The occa- board members in Beaver, the party 

sion was greatly enhanced in value returned to Puffers' Lake, where 

by the presence of General Board dinner was served. Hikes to the lake 

Member Jennie B. Knight, who was and other beauty spots made a most 

a special guest. Very fine music delightful conclusion to the excur- 

concluded a most interesting pro- sion, which was a combination of 

gram. recreation and demonstration of Re- 

Deseret Stake 


T the regular Union Meetim 

lief Society work. 
Liberty Stake: 

during the Summer of 1929, a /^\NE of the outstanding features 

^^ of last summer's pleasure en- 

course in "Methods of Teaching" ^* of last summer's pl( 
was given for all the Relief Society joyed by the sisters of the Eighth 
class leaders of the stake. Each Ward Relief Society, was a glorious 
ward in the stake held a Visiting trip to the Arizona Temple. The 
Teachers' Convention during the sisters, 25 in number, chartered a 
summer and fall. The aim of these bus from the Union Bus Company, 
conventions was to encourage the and left the Eighth Ward Chapel on 
teachers and help them to sense more the morning of May 22, arriving in 
fully their importance and respon- Arizona, May 24, at 8 a. m. 
sibility in the organization. One or As the party approached the tern- 
more stake board members attended pie, it appeared a most beautiful 
these conventions. sight. The temple workers were 
Successful Ward Conferences waiting for the sisters on the temple 
were held in each ward during the steps. President Udall welcomed 
past year. A number of talks, all the party, and took them through all 
bearing on the theme of the home, the rooms of the temple. The beauty 
gave the ward as well as the stake of" the Mesa Temple is most won- 
workers an opportunity for self-ex- derful, yet its extreme simplicity 
pression makes a very great appeal. The in- 

The stake as a whole adopted a flu u enc l e of * is a PP eal w f s *f h X a11 

six months' plan for the Work and who ha ? the opportunity of enjoy- 

Business Meetings. This was sue- in S lt . n It was an ex P enence *e sis- 

cessful in standardizing the work ters will never forget, 

and producing the effects desired. Bef ? re g° m S through the temple 

a testimony meeting was held, and 

DURIiNG the past year the stake all responded to the wonderful spirit 

board made regular visits to in the sacred hall. It was a great 

the wards, and the entire program privilege for our women to be able 

on these occasions was furnished by to work for the Lamanite sisters, 

the stake board. The theme upon After the sessions in the temple, 



Brother James W. Lesueur present- that could be spared from home li- 
ed the party with a book of Indian braries. Subscriptions were given 
Legends, compiled by himself. The for boys' magazines, and a fine se- 
party felt that it was a most unusual lection of books assembled. The 

opportunity to be taken sightseeing 
after the temple excursion. They 
saw the Indians on their reserva- 
tions, the Jaredite Canal, and other 
historical places. The party is pho- 
tographed under the giant cactus. 

After the party had concluded its 
sightseeing tour, it returned to Salt 
Lake by way of Death Valley, where 
a rather thrilling experience oc- 
curred in the form of a sand storm. 
The whole excursion was wonderful, 
never to be forgotten by those who 
were fortunate enough to be in the 

The Lund Home : 

BEFORE the holidays it was sug- 
gested to the General Board of 
Relief Society that books would be 
a most acceptable contribution to the 
Lund Home. The reading material 
available there was quite limited, as 
the boys do not have access to a 
public library. The board members 
were asked to bring into the office, 
for the boys, any books or magazines 

following letter is an eloquent ex- 
pression of the appreciation felt by 
the boys : 

"Dear Friends : 

"We are sorry that we have neg- 
lected sending this letter before. We 
had a very fine, memorable Christ- 
mas, for which you are largely re- 
sponsible. The books which were 
given to us are about the choicest 
and best selected volumes that can 
be given to boys. We are very grate- 
ful to our dear friends who have 
contributed to us. We thoroughly 
enjoyed the candy and nuts, and we 
wish to thank you again for these. 
The victrola is quite an amusing 
novelty, and we are afraid that if 
we don't stop playing it all the time 
that it will soon wear out. Our tree 
was decorated prettier than any other 
we have ever had ; thanks for the 
decorations and all other gifts that 
you have contributed for our hap- 

"Your very grateful friends, 

"Lund Home Boys." 


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By Carrie Tanner ! 

1 I 

I O wondrous gift from God, the gift of faith — 

The great impelling power within the soul. 
Like acorn small it grows to mighty oak 
That firm withstands the angry tempest rage. 

Or like the vine, it climbs and spreads and clings j 

Around the precious words of truth revealed, j 

And blossoms in the warmth of God's great love. ! 

O strong and sacred power that sustains j 

The noble martyr on the torturing cross, i 

Who fain would know the agonizing pain j 

Ere from the lips would send denial foul. j 

The mighty power that doth stay the flame, I 

Or close, for purpose great, the lion's jaw. , j 

The path we walk that leads us on and on; j 

And though the night be dark, the gloom be chill, j 
The way be steep, it leads to wondrous gate 
That opens through the sacred jasper wall. 


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Prompt and Careful Attention To 

Mail — Telephone — Telegraph 


Open Daily, 9 a. m. — 5 p. m. 

General Board 
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Phone Wasatch 3286 
29 Bishop's Building 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

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Magazines. These volumes should be pre- 
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Write us about them. 

The Deseret News Press 

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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

Relief Society Women 
Attention ! 

After sixteen years of sendee to 
the people, the BURIAL CLOTHES 
DEPARTMENT of the Relief So- 
ciety takes this opportunity of ex- 
pressing appreciation to you for 
your co-operation and patronage, 
which has contributed to the growth 
and stability of the Department. 

The Presidency of the Church, 
realizing the needs of the people, 
authorized the establishment of the 
Department in 1913. Since that 
time it has endeavored to serve the 

The Burial Clothes Department 
desires to announce that it has on 
hand a large and complete stock of 
temple and burial clothing in a 
variety of materials* There are 
suits for men and women, and 
burial clothing for children, includ- 
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We give prompt and careful at- 
tention to mail, telephone and tele- 
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Portrait of Clarissa Smith Williams. 


Tributes to Clarissa Smith Williams 223 

The European Missions 231 

Mother Belle Watson Anderson 233 

British National Council of Women 234 

For the Salvation of a Nation. 

.Arthur Gaeth 235 

Editorial — Ten Years of suffrage 240 

Some Things Women Can Do 241 

We are Proud of Both of You 241 

This Issue Devotes Space to Work in 

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Notes from the Field 243 

Faith of the Mothers. . . .Linda S. Fletcher 249 
Faith and Faithfulness Triumphant...... 

Lula Greene Richards 251 

Spring Time Camille Cole Neuffer 260 

Moral Training Through Home Work. . . . 

Milton Bennion 261 

Questons in Theology 268 

The Old Juniper Tree. Mrs. George Q. Rich 270 
Thorn's "Everyday Problems of Every- 
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MAY, 1930 

NO. 5 

President Clarissa Smith Williams 


Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII 

MAY, 1930 

No. 5 

Tributes to Clarissa Smith Williams 

By Louise Y . Robison 

CLARISSA Smith Williams- 
can I say more than that she 
was my ideal — friend, wife, mother, 
and Latter-day Saint. Her poise, 
which brought peace and calm ; her 
devotion to husband and children, 
that unusual devotion which not 
only served but stimulated in oth- 
ers the desire to serve ; the gracious 

hospitality, making all happy in 
her presence ; her wise counsel and 
absolutely just decision ; loyalty to 
friends, devotion to Relief Society 
and the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints — these are the 
characteristics that made Sister 
Williams admired as a beautiful ex- 
ample for all women. 

By Amy Brown Lyman 

' I * HE grave has won no victory 
* in the death of Clarissa Smith 
Williams. Her fine character, her 
excellent example, and her lovely 
personality, which have so enriched 
the lives of thousands, will not be 
forgotten : and her numerous good 
works will live as a monument to 
her memory and an inspiration to 
others. She has but passed from 
mortality to immortality, where she 
will enjov her reward and the ful- 
filment of her highest desires. 

Sister Williams was one of God's 
noble women, rich in life's greatest 
assets — faith in God and fellow- 
man, faith in family and home, 
faith in friends and associates. Hon- 
est, outspoken, straight-forward, 
she shunned hypocrisy, sham, and 
deceit. Brave and courageous in de- 
fending the right, she was true and 
loyal to every trust. With all she 

was humble, gentle, kind, possess- 
ing rare culture, refinement, and 
poise. She was free from those de- 
vastating complexes of mind and 
soul which block natural resoonses 
and honest action, and which mar 
and destroy personality. 

Both in length of service and 
in quality, her humanitarian 
work was unique. For over half a 
century she devoted herself with- 
out a break to Relief Society work- 
striving for health opportunitv. 
normal living and working condi- 
tions, for educational facilities and 
spiritual development. 

Clarissa Smith Williams was the 
ideal of the women of the great Re- 
lief Society over whom she presid- 
ed. Her fine soul qualities found 
response in their hearts and her 
name will linger with them forever. 



By Julia 

T^THEN a great man dies, 

* * For years beyond his ken 
The light he leaves behind him 
Shines upon the paths of men." 

The foregoing stanza applies also 
to women. It finds exemplification 
in the influence exerted during life, 
and abiding with us still, of our be- 
loved president, leader, and sister, 
Clarissa S. Wiilliams. She was by 
inheritance a natural leader, pos- 
sessing those rare qualities of per- 
sonality that inspire respect and 

A. Child 


In her life she practiced both jus- 
tice and mercy. With her superior 
intelligence there was always a hu- 
man sympathy that warmed the 
hearts of her associates. Thus, with 
Sister Williams, leadership was 
easy, natural, and always large and 
inspiring. She was a friend who 
seemed to understand the needs and 
hopes of others. By example and 
by precept she "allured to brighter 
worlds and led the way." 

By Julia A. F. Lund 

IT has been said that the supreme 
achievement of knowledge is the 
discovery of unity. Applied to life 
and character, this means the har- 
monious blending of all those qual- 
ities that make living the finest of 
the fine arts. This unity has cer- 
tainly, to a very marked degree, 
found expression in the rare person- 
ality of Clarissa Smith Williams. 
Service to State and Nation were 
quite as marked in their fields as 
her achievements in Relief Society, 
and in the higher and more sacred 
calling, within the home. Hers was 

certainly a life of three dimensions : 
its strength was dependent upon the 
physical rhythms she always main-* 
tained in the march of progfess ; its 
breadth was secured by the extent 
of her interests and the range of 
her activities ; the depth was secured 
by her abiding vision and her high 

Loyal, patriotic, tender, true : a 
rare blending of the practical with 
the spiritual ; a public servant, a 
friend, a wife, a mother. Great in 
each, and in all — "Hers a life with- 
out a stain, a fame without a flaw." 

By Jennie B. Knight 

IF writing were as easy as loving 
President Williams, my tribute 
would readily be expressed. When 
I saw her first, she impressed me as 
a wise and gracious leader. This 
impression ripened into knowledge 
during the years that I was priv- 
ileged to work with her, fir^t as a 
vice-president on the Woman's 
Committee State Council of Nation- 
al Defense, then as her first coun- 
selor in the National Woman's Re- 
lief Society. 

Momentous was the occasion 
when in 1917 the government en- 
trusted to women the leadership of 

the war work of the women of 
America. Mrs. Williams was chair- 
man for Utah. In this position she 
proved to be trained to the leader- 
ship of women, sympathetic with 
women's ways of thinking, expe- 
rienced with their methods of work, 
and anxious for the welfare of 
women, sons, and husbands. 

Periodically, as her committee 
met with the men's division in the 
Governor's room at the State Capi- 
tol, her reports and recommenda- 
tions were given with queenly dig- 
nity and received with considera- 
tion and respect. To her I owe a 
lasting debt for seven and a half 



abundant years, full of opportunity, 
rich in experiences and happy con- 
tacts with noble people, many of 
these in the humbler walks of life, 
others of national and international 

She was deliberate, just, wise, and 

appreciative, with the rare gift of 
making all who labored with her 
feel that their position was an im- 
portant one and that each had the 
ability to accomplish the task as- 
signed. She was, in very deed, a 

By Emma A. Empey 

DURING my association with 
Sister Clarissa S. Williams, 
which dates back more than twenty 
years, I have learned to love and 
appreciate the splendid qualities of 
character which contributed to make 
of her what she was — a true and 
sympathetic friend, a wise Coun- 
selor, an honored and beloved lead- 
er, of the women of the Relief So- 

She had served in every depart- 
ment of the organization, from vis- 
iting teacher to General President, 
and was familiar with every phase 
of the work. She understood the 
problems of the Ward President; 
and the vision she had of what 
might be accomplished under cer- 
tain conditions, made her eager for 
more education and training among 

Relief Society women. To equip 
them better for their work she gave 
careful consideration to every sug- 
gestion for better methods. 

She was especially sympathetic 
with little children. The physically 
handicapped and the neglected child 
claimed her special care. 

As a hostess in her home and to 
her friends she was gracious and 
charming, and to the stranger kind 
and attentive. In my intimate as- 
sociation with her I have never 
heard her speak unkindly of any 
one. My heart is filled with deep 
gratitude as I contemplate the life 
and labors of this superior woman, 
and count what it has meant to me 
to have known her and to call her 
my friend. 

By Sarah M. McLelland 

THE opportunity of paying a 
tribute to the memory of Sis- 
ter Clarissa S. Williams I sincerely 
appreciate. As a close associate 
for many years in the activities of 
the General Board of the Relief So- 
ciety, I admire her for her many 
noble qualities, and learned to love 
her for her own dear self. She was 

always tolerant and just, apprecia- 
tive of any labor performed in the 
great cause of humanity, and loyal 
to her God, her family, and the Re- 
lief Society Work. Only those real- 
ly in earnest and consecrated to 
their task can do this. 
God blessed her efforts. 

By Annie Wells Cannon 

A FITTING tribute would I lay 
** upon this shrine of tender re- 
membrance. You were a friend to 
my girlhood, a companion of my 
youth, and for many years a co- 
worker and associate in the great 
organization of the Relief Society. 

Always ready and quick to learn, 
you were foremost among your 
schoolmates. You possessed an un- 
usual and logical mind, were gift- 
ed with fine intelligence, and with 
it all manifested an obedience to 
authority and a willingness to serve. 



You were the first of Utah's native 
daughters to wear the mantle of the 
"Elect Lady." You were a worthy 
daughter of the pioneers, and your 
reverence for God's priesthood and 
your early training prepared you for 
this high calling. For your many 
attributes of mind and heart, many 
will arise and call you blessed. Your 
hospitality sent a warm glow to the 
friend who entered your door, as 
bright and cheery as the red coals 

in an open fire-place on a cloudy 
day. Your wifely devotion and glo- 
rious motherhood stands pre-emi- 
nent, an example to all women for 
unselfish love and tenderness. Your 
dignified and gracious bearing mark- 
ed you as a leader among women. 

In my heart will linger always the 
memory of your genial smile, the 
clasp of your velvet hand, and all 
your ways of friendliness. 

By Lalcne H. Hart 

F?ROM the school of experience 
.-I into a higher sphere of learning 
a beautiful, queenly mother has 
passed with honors, there to con- 
tinue in eternal progress. A mother 
whose motherly love and devotion 
extended far beyond her own home. 
Because of the loss of her com- 
panionship and wise counsel her 
passing has filled many hearts with 
sadness. But out of this sorrow 
will come sweet memories and great 
joy because of lives nobly enriched 
through her influence. Sister Wil- 
liams was a tower of strength and 
inspiration. Her culture, poise, dig- 
nity, personality, and leadership 
made her an outstanding woman in 
the home, the church, the communi- 
ty, and the nation. 

To those with less experience in 
the great Relief Society work over 

which she so graciously presided, 
she extended generously her sym- 
pathy, confidence, and encourage- 
ment. Her vision and her supreme 
desire to have the work, so dear to 
her and so vital to humanity, ad- 
vance, gave others a new stimulus 
to measure up to the high ideals she 
had attained. Her womanly power 
and strength meant much to those 
in deep sorrow, in abounding joy, 
or in perplexing situations. On all 
occasions she manifested the same 
sweet spirit and kindly attitude. To 
those whose hearts were filled with 
unspoken appreciation for her, she 
instinctively knew that they silently 
loved and honored her. Hers was 
a noble work, and the world needs 
many such mothers. It was a won- 
derful privilege to know and to 
serve with her. 

By Lotta Paul Baxter 

TN the death of Clarissa S. Wil- 
liams one of the greatest women 
of modern times was taken from us. 
She was a friend of women. All 
women of her acquaintance felt her 
interest in them and her desire to 
make them happier by making sur- 
rounding conditions better. 

Filled with sympathy and under- 
standing of the difficulties that be- 
set women in remote places, she was 
thinking constantly of something to 

benefit them. She was the friend of 

Under-privileged children receiv- 
ed her first attention. To them she 
sought to give expression to their 
latent abilities, which could be de- 
veloped only by special training. 

She was my friend. When work 
was to be done, the different assign- 
ments were made ; and although lit- 
tle was said, we knew we were ex- 
pected to do our best. If we failed 



or partially failed, Sister Williams 
sympathized, encouraged, and sent 
us forth again, with a buoyant con- 
fidence that we could make good. 
In our minds there was never any 
doubt or question as to the justice 

of her decisions. Even when they 
were against us we felt that they 
were right. 

My debt of gratitude to her can 
never be repaid ; she inspired me to 
live my better-self. 

By Cora L. Bennion 

SISTER Clarissa Smith Williams 
was an outstanding example of 
the two great principles of relig- 
ion — love of God and love of hu- 
manity. Her heart was full of un- 
failing love for all mankind. Her 
unselfish devotion to the Church and 
to the work of the Relief Society 
was and still is a constant inspira- 
tion to those engaged in this great 

In her nature, Sister Williams 
was deeply spiritual. Devoted to 
truth and right, she was yet slow 
to condemn offenders. Her attitude 

toward them was that of charity. Al- 
ways ready to forgive, she would 
pray for those who were in need of 
moral and spiritual strength. She 
was socially intelligent, refined and 
gentle in manner, yet humble as a 
little child. 

It was a real privilege to have an 
intimate association with Sister 
Y/illiams. To be in her presence 
was an inspiration. She made us 
feel that we wanted to do our part 
and do it well. We will always 
cherish her memory. 

By Amy W . Evans 

* I ^O me one of the outstanding 
* characteristics of Clarissa S. 
Williams was her public-spirited- 
ness, her vision of usefulness to 
others. This is to be seen in all she 
did toward building up our com- 
munities in health, education, and 
in spirituality. 

During her presidency of the Re- 
lief Society, funds were set aside 
in honor of those who had served at 
the head of the organization. These 
were all "living monuments," as she 
herself used to say. They served a 
useful purpose, — to encourage the 
writing of poetry among our worn- 

By Ethel 

H^RULY in the face of one's 
■*■ holiest feelings we are mute. 
Words cannot be found to express 
my love and admiration for Clarissa 
Smith Williams, and the joy and 
happiness that came into my life 
through knowing and associating 

en, to aid young women to become 
nurses, to do Temple work for the 
dead, to help girls to receive an edu- 
cation, to aid young women to train 
as public health nurses and social 

Through her influence the wheat 
interest fund is being used to pro- 
mote and insure the health of wom- 
en and children throughout our 

She always sought service in the 
forward-looking larger way. The 
bread she cast upon the waters will 
return every day forever. 

R. Smith 

with her. Before becoming a mem- 
ber of the General Board, I had 
known Sister Williams only as a 
charming, gracious, distant relative 
of my husband's family ; had learned 
also somewhat of her accomplish- 
ments. However it was not until I 



became intimately associated with 
her that I began to realize her 

Sister Williams' love for her fel- 
low workers, and her desire to show 
her love, made each member of her 
board rejoice in the possession of 
her confidence and friendship. Each 
Wednesday afternoon, the time 
when the board meetings were held, 
became an event looked forward to, 
and each opportunity to be with her 

was a choice and happy experience. 
Each time we left her presence, we 
left filled with inspiration to become 
better, nobler women. 

Her dignity, fearlessness, wisdom, 
justice, and her tender, impartial 
love made her co-workers ardently 
desire the opportunity to serve her. 
Her passing has left sorrow in our 
hearts, a void in our lives, but also 
a beautiful, loving memory of a 
noble woman. 

By Rosannah C. Irvine 

VX70MANHOOD and the Cause. 
* 7 These are two great things 
to be thankful for in the life of 
Clarissa Smith Williams. True 
womanhood and the cause of truth 
she upheld throughout her life. 

Far better than a shaft of marble 
or mausoleum of stone in commem- 
oration of her deeds, is the love of 
sixty thousand women, on whose 
hearts is engraved, in tender rever- 
ence, this name : "Our President." 
Unlike many whose lives are cast 
in pleasant places, Sister Williams 
did not grow weak and vacillating, 
but developed and retained the stal- 
wart, invincible character which was 
her heritage. Her greatness was 
shown, not only in holding the 
hearts of her people with diplomacy 

and discretion, but in yielding gra- 
ciously to what she acknowledged 
a higher authority than her own, 
even in the frustration of her fond- 
est hopes. She sometimes met with 
opposition — what great soul does 
not? — but she accepted counsel or 
criticism as calmly and serenely as 
she accepted the affectionate regard 
of thousands. 

The power to attract love and de- 
votion is the result of the ability to 
see and appreciate in others what is 
good and beautiful. Sister Williams 
had this rare gift. 

A happiness to have known her, a 
privilege to have been her friend, it 
is a blessing to have been permitted 
to work with her in the Cause she 
loved so well. 

By Alice L. Reynolds 

IT often becomes part of a leader's 
work to direct leaders. This is 
eminently true of the General Board 
of the Relief Society, with a mem- 
bership of many women who form- 
erly were at the head of Stake 

In the field of statecraft, many 
men have failed because they could 
not lead leaders. In this very thing, 
Clarissa Smith Williams was extra- 
ordinarily successful. The spirit of 
appreciation for those working with 

her radiated from her as warmth 
radiates from the sun, and as a con- 
sequence harmony prevailed. She 
presented her problems in a way 
that made appeal and brought at 
once to their support the efforts of 
a united Board. She had the gift 
of making those associated with her 
feel that she was genuinely inter- 
ested in them and in the particular 
piece of work that they were striv- 
ing to have succeed. She lived above 
the petty and sordid things of life, 
and inspired nobility in others. Her 



life was such as to suggest James 
Russell Lowell's tribute: "Earth's 
noblest thing, a Woman perfected." 
She was one of the most mag- 
nanimous women it has been my 
good fortune to know. An out- 

standing example of her magnanim- 
ity is seen in the fact that she es- 
tablished memorials to each of her 
predecessors, and that these memo- 
rials have in them the possibility of 
great good and benefit for others. 

By Nettie D. Bradford 

HPHOSE loved her most who 
-^ knew her best. 

WTien I was a child, we lived on 
the same block with her in Salt Lake 
City ; her mother was our Relief 
Society teacher. Her home life was 
ideal ; her love for her good hus- 
band, her devotion to her family, 
was to me an inspiration. My first 
calling to Relief Society in a stake 
capacity was under her stake presi- 
dency ; and it is pleasant to recall 
committee meetings in her home. 
Her daughters were most gracious 
to their mother's guests. 

A natural-born leader, she in- 
spired in us confidence in our own 
abilities. She presided as stake 
president with the same kindly dig- 
nity that characterized her in the 

office of General President. Yet 
her dignity was no barrier to ap- 
proach, when one sought help from 
her, neither was it alloyed with 
aloofness, for she remained her 
genuine self amidst her wonderful 

Solicitous of the welfare of her 
board on their visits to the stakes, 
and attentive to reports when they 
returned, she respected our opin- 
ions, gave advice with perfect frank- 
ness, and thus commanded deep re- 
spect from her co-workers. She 
was wise in hearing and in weigh- 
ing evidence before rendering de- 
cisions ; but when rendered they 
were final. I esteem it a great priv- 
ilege to have labored under her, for 
she meant so much to me. 

By Elise B. Alder 

OUR beloved and noble leader is 
gone. We have lost one of 
our greatest women. Referring to 
her birth, we find her descending 
from the same noble family jthat 
gave to the world the prophet Jo- 
seph Smith. Looking back upon 
the years of her past life, we find 
her ever valiant in Relief Society 
work — she has been connected with 
its every phase. George Eliot says : 
"The reward of one duty is the 
power to fulfil another :" and she 
has climbed the ladder step by step 
until the top in honor has been 
reached — tnat of the highest calling 
of woman in our Church, the presi- 

dent of the Woman's National Re- 
lief Society. 

During her administration in this 
high calling, her chief concern, aside 
from her constant endeavor to be 
considerate of her co-workers, was 
a sincere desire to better the world 
by protecting the health of women 
and children. As we Board mem- 
bers travel through various stakes, 
brought vividly to our notice are the 
many hearts that have been filled 
with gratitude for the benefits they 
enjoy from her efforts in prevent- 
ive and corrective welfare work. 

She has bequeathed to her 
Church a character that is a subject 
of admiration and gratitude. 



By Inez K. Allen 

AS a counselor to President Em- 
** meline B. Wells in her declin- 
ing years, Sister Williams .was loyal, 
wise, and kind. As General Relief 
Society President, her very expres- 
sion met response within me (then 
a Stake Relief Society President) 
that she was inspired by the wis- 
dom of God, both as to content and 
manner of expression. Her atti- 
tude seemed that of a great mother. 
She was progressive, the social 
service system which she inaug- 
urated standing as a light on a hill 
for all the Relief Society. Because 
some women and little children suf- 
fered and died each year from lack 
of necessary care, her heart was 
touched ; so when she called upon 
the Relief Society officers to direct 
the interest on the wheat fund for 

the health of women and children, 
there was not a dissenting vote. 

As President of the Board, she 
was always gracious, considered 
well her utterances, was humble yet 
dignified. She enjoyed good humor, 
was sincere, and her hospitality was 
generous and charming. Lest the 
Relief Society should in any way 
suffer because of her failing health, 
she manifested courage when she 
asked to be released from the high- 
est position any woman can hold in 
the Church. From my first asso- 
ciation to the parting hour, she con- 
stantly rose higher and higher. Her 
last simple request that the board 
members give Sister Robison the 
same support they gave to her was 
sublime. Is it any wonder I love 


By Ida Peterson Beal 

HE sands of time in the hour fications, amply manifested in her 
glass of a noble life have run labors as president of the Relief So- 

out, and dear Sister Clarissa S. Wil- 
liams is with us no more. In her 
passing she is sincerely mourned 
and missed by the women of the 
Church, to whom she has given so 
abundantly of her time and energy. 
To them she has left a legacy more 
valuable than riches. Her life was 
a daily example of her teachings — 
"true worth is in being, not in seem- 

Sister Williams was richly en- 
dowed by nature with a remarkable 
mind. She was an eager student al- 
ways, maintaining "that one is 
never too old to learn." Leadership 
was one of her outstanding quali- 

ciety. The secret of her marvelous 
success has been her vision and de- 
votion to duty. Simply, directly, 
tenderly, yet efficiently, she admin- 
istered the affairs of this great or- 
ganization. She did not misread the 
responsibility of her great calling, 
but with patience and humility her 
constant anxiety was how she could 
best help and serve those who were 
beset with sorrow and suffering. 

Lives have been enriched and 
ennobled by coming in contact with 
this good woman. Generously she 
gave of her great love, and in rich 
measure love came back to her. 

The European Missions 

FROM Mrs. Leah D. Widtsoe, 
President of the Relief Society 
of the European Missions, come in- 
teresting letters, reports, and pam- 
phlets indicating how the work is 
going in these European centers. 
A spirit of interest characterizes the 
reports and explanations. In a far- 
sighted and interesting program 
Mrs. Widtsoe's aids in the various 
missions are ably cooperating with 

In a Conference of Relief Society 
Presidents, held at Durham House, 
295 Edge Lane, Liverpool, from 
August 16-21, 1929, plans were 
made for the work of the follow- 
ing year. At the Conference were 
Sisters Leah D. Widtsoe, European 
Missions ; Ida A. Petersen, Danish 
Mission ; Rose Ellen B. Valentine, 
German-Austrian Mission ; Eliza 
W. Tadje, Swiss-German Mission ; 
Signe L. Hulterstrom, 'Swedish 
Mission ; Josephine B. Lund, British 
Mission ; Margaret A*. Jensen, Nor- 
wegian Mission ; Lillian D. Lilly- 
white, Netherlands Mission ; also 
Elders C. Lowell Lees, acting as 
head of all the auxiliary work of the 
French Mission, and J u e 1 L . 
Andreasen, of the Danish Mission. 
t The resolutions are so interesting 
that we are including the first four- 
teen : 

Roll and Minutes : 

1. A European Mission roll book 
shall be kept for future conferences ; 
entries of the past three conferences 
are to be made. The minutes of the 
Conferences shall also be filed and 

2. The general policy of the con- 
duct and courses of study of the 
Relief Society and other auxiliary 

work shall be in step with that of the 
Church, varying only as may be 
necessary to meet especial mission 

3. These changes where necessary, 
are to be regularly reported to 
Church Auxiliary Headquarters that 
the General Boards may be entirely 
acquainted with the reason for our 
departure from the outline of work 
adopted by the Church. 

Mission Co-0 rdination : 

4. All the European Missions shall 
be harmonious with each other in 
their Relief Society and other aux- 
iliary work — -as to lessons and gen- 
eral -outlines of procedure. The 
adopted course may be varied only 
as may be necessary to meet a 
peculiar condition which may arise 
and after consultation with the Eu- 
ropean officers. Any change in 
policy is to be reported to the Eu- 
opean office. 

5. The Relief Society as an organ- 
ization for woman's advancement 
should be conducted by the women 
as much as possible, always with the 
sanction and blessing of the Priest- 
hood. The Elders and brethren 
shall be called for help only as an 
emergency may arise, or a special 
need exists. 

6. Each mission is to collect 
all data of past Relief Society 
activity by the end of 1930. That is 
to be our centennial contribution. 

7. The uniform roll and minute 
book for local use is to be ready for 
use in all missions by Tanuary 1st, 

8. Visiting teachers shall be en- 
couraged in all missions and their 
work emphasized. A uniform book 



for teachers' use is to be prepared 
for each mission. Suitable teacher 
topics are to be printed each month. 

9. The European office is to be, in 
fact, a "clearing house," an inspira- 
tional center for all the missions. 
When material is prepared for one 
mission's need, a copy shall be sent 
to all missions in case of similar 

10. A copy of all material pre- 
pared by the missions for local 
needs shall be sent to the European 
office. When advisable, the Euro- 
pean office may send such sugges- 
tions to other missions as may help 
them in a similar condition. 

Lessons : 

11. For 1930 all Relief Society 
and auxiliary lessons shall be uni- 
form and shall be sent from the Eu- 
ropean office in time for use in all 
missions. The Relief Society lesson 
work shall be divided into a Winter 
program of 10 months ; a Summer 
program of 2 months. During the 
Summer, the sisters may sew at 
every meeting to prepare for Fall 

12. The officers pledge them- 
selves to see that all refreshments 
served under Relief Society aus- 
pices shall be Word of Wisdom 
foods. All harmful drinks, including 
coca-cola, shall be forbidden, we 
should emphasize the health drinks 
to take their place. The use of 
natual foods and simple refresh- 
ments shall be encouraged. 

13. The Relief Society of each 
branch where baptisms are per- 
formed are to prepare and keep on 
hand, two or more sets of bap- 
tismal clothes, for young and old, 
to be used by those who need them, 
and to prevent the necessity of pur 
chase for the one event. 

Pageant of Woman's Works : 

14. A pageant depicting woman's 
participation in the founding and 
history of the Church shall be given 
as part of the 1929 celebration. 
Competition to be called for by Jan- 
uary 1st, 1930, and given out by 
January 15th. 

T N the lessons on health outlined 
■*• for the missions there is so much 
far-sightedness that we devote some 
space to this topic. The lessons 
have been put out under the caption 
of Word of Wisdom Lessons. Con- 
ditions in England among the work- 
ing people, whose incomes are small, 
suggest that the people are under- 
nourished and that the food that 
they have is out of harmony with 
health laws. While they have been 
in the habit of eating concentrated 
food such as "meat and pudding," 
their diet as a whole contains very 
little milk, fruit or green vegetables. 

Mrs. Widtsoe is well prepared 
to put over a program on nutrition ; 
practically all her life she has been 
interested in such problems, and 
has had special training for the 
work ; and her plan would naturally 
include the Word of Wisdom. In 
a report forwarded to President 
Louise Y. Robison, she says, 
"That's, why we have rather em- 
phasized the Word of Wisdom': 
That's why I've emphasized ^he 
spending of the little they do have 
for foods that build the body — its 
bone, muscle, and nerve tissue — as 
cheaply as possible. Most of their 
food is imported and reaches them 
so devitalized and commercialized 
that it may be shipped from earth's 

THE women are enjoying the 
nutrition lessons, and are wak- 
ing up with new interest. A number 



of people have come under Sister 
Widtsoe's notice who are reaping 
untold benefits, who are better fed 
on less money, and have an un- 
Jooked-for increase of pep and 
vigor. All the European Missions 
are giving the Word of Wisdom 
lessons with similar results. The 
work is fundamental moral fitness 
and intellectual fitness, being closely 
related to physical fitness. 

It has been our good fortune to 

spend time in England at three dif- 
ferent periods ; we therefore recog- 
nize that conditions among the 
people of that country are such, that 
they badly need lessons on nutrition. 
Often tea is made to substitute for 
practically all the nutritive foods 
that are necessary to build the body. 
It is gratifying to know that Sister 
Widtsoe and her aids have planned 
a program so worth while and 


Belle Watson Anderson 

They told me you had gone away, 
They told me, Dear, you died ; 
I since have learned the claims of death, 
But you stayed by my side. 

Sometimes they called me motherless,' 
And acted strange or sad ; 
Yet all the while I had your smile 
And you to make me glad. 

They spoke of your important work, 
Upon a distant sphere; 
Yet every hour, I feel your power, 
Guiding me ever here. 

They knew that we were lonely, Dear. 
I here, and you above ; 
But every day in your sweet way 
You cheer me with your love. 

They do not know you come to me — 
You, and not another ; 
That God moves heavenly gates apart 
And gives to me — My Mother. 

British National Council of Women 

FROM October 14 to 18 the CityJ 
of Manchester, England, was^ 
host to the British National Council 
of Women. Mrs. Leah D. Widtsoe, 
President of the Relief Society of 
the European Mission was appoint- 
ed a delegate from the Liverpool 
Branch to the British National 
Council of Women, whose sessions 
were held in Albert Hall, Man- 
chester, the " Manchester and Sal- 
ford Woman Citizen" has this to 
say of the sessions : 

"The program of the various 
public meetings, the subject for 
which, taking advantage of a com- 
prehensive grouping under the title 
of 'Modern Developments,' cover a 
wide field of interests, is a most at- 
tractive one. A study of the sub- 
jects chosen for consideration by 
this conference of women delegates 
reveals the keen interest taken by 
them in aspects of modern life which 
are not exclusively feminine but 
which affect the home and the com- 
munity and therefore men and wom- 
en alike. With one exception all 
the subjects for the public meetings 
are of this character. One session 
is to be devoted to the general 
effect of broadcasting, the broad- 
casting of music and the influences 
of broadcasting in the home and the 
school ; another is for the discus- 
sion of the two recent reports on 

police procedure and on street 
offences. The third open session 
is to deal with recent developments 
in child guidance and with the 
influence of the cinema, while the 
last is concerned with the preser- 
vation of the countryside. Such 
subjects command the attention 
of all who are concerned with our 
national well-being. 

The agenda of resolutions which 
will be discussed at the delegates' 
meetings show, as would be expect- 
ed, a predominant concern with 
women's interests in public affairs, 
though here, too, there are refer- 
ences to matters of general interest, 
such as contamination of food, legal 
aid for poor prisoners, and slum 
clearance. Resolutions upon such 
important questions as the need for 
more women on local government 
bodies, the request for information 
on methods of birth control at ma- 
ternity and child welfare centres, 
women property managers, etc., are 
in the true tradition of the National 
Council of Women, and show there 
is still need for vigilance on the part 
of women's societies in matters 
especially affecting women. There 
is an imposing list of distinguished 
speakers, men and women, and alto- 
gether the Conference promises to 
be of exceptional interest." 

My Love 

By Vinna H. Lichfield 

With spreading fields in balmy air, 
My love is with the sunset glow, 
Its sacred moods, that I may know, 
With spreading fields in balmy air, 
With humming bee and song of bird 
And sunshine everywhere. 

For the Salvation of a Nation 

Women play an important part in the opening of new mission. 
By Arthur Gaeth, President of Czechoslovak Mission 

LAST July another chapter in 
the spreading of the gospel 
among the people of the earth 
was begun. The first missionaries 
were sent to Czechoslovakia to lay 
a foundation for the promulgation 
of the Lord's message among the 
Czechs, so that eventually they and 
all their Slavic brethren, in Poland, 
Jugoslavia, Russia, Bulgaria and 
the other Balkan countries, might 
hear His voice. 

The Part Taken By Women 

r^OR some time it had been the 
* aim of the authorities of the 
Church to open a mission among 
these people, but the earnest plead- 
ing of a mother and her daughters 
that their countrymen might also be 
permitted to hear the gospel, no 
doubt carried great weight and was 
an impetus to speed a decision. 

On the 24th of July, 1929, the 
Czechoslovak Mission was dedicated 
under the direction of Apostle John 
A.' Widtsoe; Arthur Gaeth was 
appointed its first president. Five 
other brethren, Elders Alvin C. 
Carlson, Joseph I. Hart, Willis 
Hayward, Wallace F. Toronto and 
Charles Josie, were stationed in 
Prague with Elder Gaeth to begin 
their labors of opening up the new 
field. These brethren have since 
partaken of the cheerful hospitality 
of Sister Franziska Brodil and her 
family, and have felt their wonder- 
ful spirit. To them the gospel has 
come as a blessing for their years of 
faithfulness. In Czechoslovakia they 
were without the companionship of 

missionaries and had to undergo 
trials and hardships. They have 
an interesting story to tell. Iiet the 
readers of the Relief Society Maga- 
zine hear it from Sister Brodil's own 

A Story of Conversion 

ONE day she related to me the 
following story: "I was born 
on the 12th of January, 1881, the 
daughter of a miller in a little village 
in southern Bohemia. The young- 
est girl in a family of ten children, 
and growing up in a typical rural 
Bohemian environment, I was bless- 
ed with a mother who had the dis- 
position of an angel and was very 
religious . My father, on the other 
hand, although very intelligent, was 
a licentious, carefree, brutal type of 
man, causing my mother untold 
sorrow and tribulation. Her face 
was sorrowful from a grief we 
could not comprehend. Only the 
older children knew and imparted 
to us later that she had often been 
on the verge of ending her life, but 
her faith in God and the thought of 
us ten children held her back. We 
loved and worshipped her, and she 
was surrounded by all of us when 
she bid us goodbye for the last time. 
We laid her to rest in the little vil- 
lage cemetery. We were her entire 
joy in life, and it is entirely to her 
credit that we all are living straight- 
forward, honest lives. Father's 
negligence, on the other hand, 
ruined him. Forced to sell the mill, 
he died in poverty, alone and 



Shortly after mother passed away, 
I went when about 18 years old to 
Vienna to live with my oldest sister. 
It was not difficult for me to leave 
the little country town ; I had never 
experienced the love of a good home 
there as I have since felt it now that 
I have two children of my own and 
learned to know into what a haven 
home can be made. In Vienna I 
soon became acquainted with my 
future husband, marrying him in 
February, 1904. 

How She Joined the Church 

FROM early childhood I had 
been blessed with religious in- 
clinations. When the priest read 
Bible passages and delivered his ser- 
mons, I learned the passages by 
heart, and could tell, almost ver- 
batim, what the sermons contained. 
When I went to Vienna, I began to 
read the Bible, finding many inter- 
esting things in it, but also some 
that caused me to wonder. 

From the lives of the supposed 
representatives of Jesus Christ with 
whom I was acquainted, I could per- 
ceive that there was a difference be- 
tween Christ's teachings and their 
interpretation. They were using the 
teachings as a sham to carry out 
their own evil designs. These things 
disturbed me, and I began to wonder 
if there really was a God ; and if 
there was, where his Prophets were. 
The responsibility of my children 
deepened this feeling, but the Lord 
willed that I should not be kept in 
ignorance much longer. 

/^\NE day a young man who came 
^-^ to the door offered me a little 
pamphlet that I was at first unwill- 
ing to take ; but he finally prevailed 
upon me. Reading it with some 
misgiving, I soon found its message 
wholesome. When he returned with 

a second tract, I began to read with 
deeper interest. This brought him 
and his companion to my home re- 
peatedly, and I soon discovered a 
large difference between the work 
of God and that of man. I was re- 
ceiving an answer to, my question, 
Is there a prophet of God upon the 
earth? Missionaries of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
were quenching the thirst for truth 
of another soul. After visiting the 
meetings in Vienna, I soon became a 
member, being baptized by Brother 
K. H. Bennion on September 29, 

The Great War Calamity 

MY heart now swelled with a 
feeling of satisfaction, and 
at my confirmation I felt myself 
filled with a new power. The next 
few months were indeed happy ones ; 
then it seemed as if a wet, dark 
blanket had been placed over the 
entire affair. The World War broke 
out, the missionaries were called 
home, and all the brethren went to 
war. A handful of sisters remain- 
ing in Vienna conducted our meet- 
ings. With Bible classes held reg- 
ularly, we tried to do our part, but 
those were trying times. Often we 
lacked the meager necessities of life. 
The last two years of the war were 
so horrible that we almost died from 
starvation. Bread, potatoes, and a 
few vegetables were doled out to us, 
but never was there enough for a 
healthy meal. We managed some- 
how to live through it ; but when we 
came out of it, we were mere skele- 
tons compared with what we were 
when we entered the war. Then 
followed an upheaval of govern- 
ments and a revolution, resulting in 
the organization of the Czecho- 
slovak State. All those of Czech 
nativity in Austrian governmental 



positions were thrown out of work, 
and my husband soon found himself 
without employment. 

The Czech government promised 
to transport all these people to their 
own confines and give them work, 
but several months passed before 
anything happened. My husband, 
a musician and an official, was of a 
temperamental nature, and the worry 
of finding means wherewith to pro- 
vide for his family caused him much 

When we were finally moved to 
Prague in Czechoslovakia, he was 
already a sick man. Placed in a 
hospital for some months, he finally 
passed away, leaving me alone with 
my two children* He had not been 
prepared to receive the gospel, al- 
though he was always a friend of the 
Church; but I have the greatest 
hopes that salvation will come to him 
on the other side. 

Return of the Elders 

HPRYING indeed were the next 
■■* years. I was alone in Prague, 
with no friends and with two chil- 
dren who still had to be sent to 
school. My brother in South Amer- 
ica came to my rescue and sent me 
the money that enabled me to send 
my children on through school! 
Several years passed, and though 
we heard little of the Church, we 
continued to live according to its 
commandments. Finally, one day, 
we were visited by President Serge 
Ballif and Brother Niederhauser of 
the Vienna Branch; and on the 3d 
of June, 1921, my two daughters, 
Franziska and Jana, were baptized 
in the Vltava (Moldau), thus be- 
coming the first two members to be 
baptized on Czech soil. These breth- 
ren brought encouragement, saying 
that they would soon send us mis-, 
sionaries so that we should not be/ 

alone. I received other encourage- 
ments, but no brethren came for 
some years. 

WHEN President Fred Tadje 
came to preside over the Ger- 
man-Austrian Mission with head- 
quarters in 'Dresden, lytsits t o 
Prague were more frequent, Mis- 
sionaries stopping off in Prague to 
see us on their way from Dresden to 
Vienna. Then I became seriously 
ill. Brother Sheets was called from 
Vienna to administer to me, but I 
did not get well. One day Brother 
Jean Wunderlich came from Dres- 
den. He laid his hands upon my 
head and promised me that I would 
not die, but would again be well and 
strong, for I still had a great work 
to do on this earth. After that I 
recovered, and was much encour- 

For some time we figured that 
with President Tadje's release in 
1926, something would be done 
through the Church at home; but 
again the months passed. Then we 
were visited by Apostle James E. 
Talmage and President and Sister 
Valentine. They held a wonderful 
meeting with us, and we had a long 
conversation on the subject of mis- 
sionaries ; but the time was not yet 

In February, 1928, old Brother 
Thomas Biesinger, 84 years of age, 
was sent to Prague. He came, and 
going to the officials discovered that 
no difficulties would be placed in the 
path of the missionaries if they wish- 
ed to come. The constitution allow- 
ed absolute religious freedom. Two 
and a half months later he was re- 
leased to return home and no one 
was sent to take his place. That 
was our darkest hour, for we knew 
that there were no obstacles in the 
path of the missionaries, yet they 
did not come. 



The Brodil Family, Prague, Czechoslovakia 

Opening of the Mission 

'T'HEN I received a thought. I 
■* would write to the First Pres- 
idency. We wrote a letter and in- 
closed it with one to Brother Jean 
Wunderlich, asking him to translate 
it into English. From him I soon 
received word that he had done so. 
With the encouragement that work 
in South America had been opened 
in somewhat the same manner, a 
plea was sent in by some of the mem- 
bers there. 

Soon we received our first com- 
munication from President Widtsoe, 
in which he asked for definite infor- 
mation concerning conditions in the 
country. We wrote to and received 
frequent letters from President 
Widtsoe, till one day the word came 
that missionaries would be with us 
the following summer. We were 
inclined to doubt ; but when Brother 
Arthur Hasler, President of the 
Vienna District, returned from the 
Priesthood Centennial of the Ger- 
man-Austrian Mission in Leipzig in 
May, 1929, he stopped in Prague 
and brought us the joyful news that 

Brother Arthur Gaeth had been ap- 
pointed (by President Widtsoe to 
come to Prague and start investiga- 
tions for the immediate opening of 
the Czechoslovak Mission. 

When Brother Gaeth came two 
days later, this hope was fulfilled, 
but we could hardly beleive our eyes. 
Soon President Widtsoe was also 
in our midst, and five missionaries 
came from the Swiss-German and 
German-Austrian Mission. On the 
24th of July, 1929, the pioneer 
"work in Czechoslovakia was per- 
formed and this country became a 
mission of the Church. 

Few people can realize the joy we 
experienced, for we have been pray- 
ing for years for this day. There 
are thousands of our countrymen 
who are waiting for the gospel, and 
it is our prayer that the Lord will 
help our brethren to learn the lan- 
guage so that they can impart the 
message to them. We thank the 
Lord from the bottom of our 

Sister Franziska Brodil 
Prague, Czechoslovakia. 



The Work Progresses 

HTO people such as these we young 
* brethren came in July, 1929. 
They were overjoyed to see us. 
That longing look for help soon left 
their eyes as they put their shoul- 
ders to the wheel and helped to open 
many a door in the preliminary 
work of getting established in 
Prague. They were able assistants 
to us in the language. Sister Brodil, 
assisted by her two daughters, teach- 
es our Sunday School in Czech. 
The mother has provided her chil- 
dren with a very liberal education, so 
that they speak Czech and German 
perfectly, and also understand and 
speak English well. 

The Lord had prepared the field 
and they were able to do translating 
for us. _But above all, they have 
been as a mother and sisters to six 
young missionaries who were sent 
into a new environment, with a new 
language to learn. We have three 
wonderful members here, to whom 
in our difficulties, we can turn for 
help and consolation. Their sweet 
spirits are a fountain of strength. 
Six brethren are indeed thankful to 
the Lord that these sisters live in 
Prague and that they have been per- 
mitted to partake of their hospital- 
ity, their wonderful spirit and testi- 


By Alberta H. Christ ensen 

Spring slipped into my garden plot last night 

On slender, noiseless feet. 

I did not hear her footstep on the grass, 

Or know the hour of coming — see her pass, 

But lo today thru my broad window pane 

I see an apple tree aflame 

With perfumed loveliness, all white 

And pinkish, with a touch of green 

Poking its timid self between 

The velvet clusters. 

Spring slipped into my heart last night, I know, 

With gentle, tender tread.' 

I did not hear her knock upon the door ; 

A warmer clasp of hand there was, no more. 

But lo today my heart brims o'er with song — 

A melody all glad and wild and strong. 

Although I did not see her come or go, 
Spring came last night— I know, I know. 




Motto — Charity Never Faileth 


AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

, JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

JULIA A. F. LUND ...... General Secretary and Treasurer 

Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion • Mrs. Elise B. Alder 

Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Inez K. Allen 

Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howell? 

Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Vol. XVII 

MAY, 1930 

No. 5 


Ten Years of Suffrage 

ON Wednesday, March 26, 
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, 
President of the American 
Suffrage Association, spoke from 
the National Broadcasting Studio in 
New York. Her address com- 
memorated the passage, ten years 
ago, of the Federal Suffrage 
Amendment in the Senate of the 
United States. Any thought of suf- 
frage ecalls the great struggle: the 
forty years' devotion of Susan B. 
Anthony, the years of work of Anna 
Howard Shaw, and the distinguish- 
ed service of Carrie Chapman Catt, 
now seventy years of age, Of ne- 
cessity there was much sacrifice, 
much humiliation, and much fatigue 
along the way; but it was a glori- 
ous struggle, and glorious has been 
its consummation. It presented a 

situation in which tragedy and com- 
edy often mingled. 

At one time, when suffrage lead- 
ers were before the Senate Judiciary 
Committee urging that the amend- 
ment be presented to Congress, one 
of the members of the Committee 
said, he did not think women want- 
ed suffrage. "For instance," he 
said, "my wife does not want suf- 
frage." His wife, sitting by Anna 
Howard Shaw, promptly said, "I 
do want suffrage, and he knows it. 
I have told him so again and again." 
To which Dr. Shaw answered, "Tell 
him once more." 

IT was our privilege to be at the 
National Suffrage Convention of 
1918, held in St. Louis. Three 
things made it notable. First, the 



Convention was celebrating the 
fiftieth year of suffrage in Wyom- 
ing, which was the first state to re- 
ceive suffrage. Secondly, the state 
of Missouri passed a Suffrage Bill 
during that session, and Missouri 
was farther south than any other 
state that had granted suffrage up 
to that time. Thirdly, Mrs. Catt 
delivered there one of the notable 
speeches of her life. This is no 
idle remark; we feel sure that com- 
petent judges would vote her one of 
the best speakers in America. 

On this particular evening, Anna 
Howard Shaw introduced Mrs. Catt 
in the following language: "And 
now it is my privilege and pleasure 
to introduce to you a woman who 
is the peer of any man in America." 

It is perhaps sufficient to remark 
that while there was on that pro- 
gram a Governor noted for his abil- 
ity as a speaker, no other address 
that evening won the applause from 
the audience or the favorable and 
unusual comments from the press 
that the address of Carrie Chap- 
man Catt received. 

Behind these great leaders stood 
a host of patriotic, struggling, de- 
termined women. Many deserve 
special mention, which our limited 
space will not permit. To all who 
contributed their talent and energy 
in the leadership of this great 
movemest, as well as to all who co- 
operated with those who led, we ex- 
press undying gratitude. 

Some Things Women Can Do 

IN the days of good Queen 
Elizabeth the idea of taking a 
census began. People were 
suspicious — loath to give statistics 
to government officials. Since that 
time, they have learned that the first 
step toward remedying an evil is 
to recognize it. 

Statistics are the basis upon which 
most reform movements are 
founded. They are the means 
wherewith governments collect the 
information that enables them to 
make comparisons. Facts in regard 
to disease, mortality and crime, as 
well as many things that are of an 
encouraging nature, make a census 
invaluable. It is a mark of intelli- 
gence to cooperate whole heartedly 

with the census enumerators by an- 
swering their questions as quickly 
and accurately as possible. 

\X7HILE we are talking about 
* * the census, may we add a 
word about the prohibition poll con- 
ducted by the Literary Digest. It is 
usually conceded that women are the 
heartiest supporters of prohibition. 
Yet some have been careless about 
the ballots that have been sent them. 
Those desiring the repeal of the 
18th amendment are militant, hence 
those who desire the amendment en- 
forced must be militant also. In- 
difference and carelessness are in- 
effective weapons with which to 
maintain the right. 

We are Proud of Both of You 

HPO Mrs. Bertha A. Kleinman, heartiest congratulation. It is a 
A who has done such splendid matter of distinct pride to the worn- 
work on the pageant we extend en of the Church that she should 



have been called from her home in 
Arizona to put into rhythmical form 
many of the lines that are so en- 
chanting a part of the Centennial 

We have always been glad to 
publish Mrs. Kleinman's poems in 
the Relief Society Magazine, for we 
say without hesitation that she is one 
of the most gifted of our writers. 
When we selected a group of Latter- 
day Saint women for our lesson 
work, Mrs. Kleinman was one of the 
first to be listed. The quality of her 
work made her selection inevitable. 
We hope that this pageant will be 
at least the nucleus of a piece of 
enduring art which will be a monu- 
ment to the talent and spirit of the 
Latter-day Saints. 

NEXT we wish to congratulate 
Mrs. Florence Jepperson Mad- 
sen, who for two years has been the 

musical director of the "Mission 
Play," produced at San Gabriel, 
California. The play is put on at a 
theater, built at a cost of $1,000,- 
000. Its three-thousanth perform- 
ance was given February 17, 1930. 
It has been running for nineteen 
years and during the season has been 
produced once each day. So far 
as is known, it has had the longest 
run of any play yet produced. 

Its author is Dr. John Stephan 
McGroarty, nationally famous 
writer and at present a member of 
the staff of the Los Angeles Times. 
At the special performance in Feb- 
ruary each person paid $100.00 for 
his ticket. 

We are certainly proud that two 
of our Latter-day Saint wpmen have 
made such outstanding contributions 
to two pieces of art born of the life 
of the great West, and dear to the 
heart of the West. 

This, Issue Devotes Space to Work in Missions 

FOR a number of years the May great zeal ; and while the scope is not 
Magazine has been devoted to a so great as in the Wards and Stakes 
Mother's Day issue. This year we at home, the Spirit behind it is in 

feel that our readers will welcome in 
its stead an issue placing emphasis 
on the work in the Missions. 

That the Latter-day Saints Mis- 
sions are gaining in importance year 
by year is evident from the fact 
that the Saints are no longer advised 
to emigrate, but rather to build up 
strong Branches and Conferences in 
their own native lands. Conse- 
quently they go at their work with 

tense, full of ardor, full of interest. 
Nowhere is there a better exempli- 
fication of the promise of the Lord 
that where a few would gather in his 
name, he would be there also, than 
in the work of the various auxiliary 
organizations in the mission field. 
We are happy, therefore, to include 
in this issue something in relation 
to the work of various missions. 

Notes from the Field 

Southern States Mission 

SISTER Grace E. Callis, pres- 
ident of the Southern States 
Relief Society, reports the fol- 
lowing : ";We have closed a year in 
which the sisters have found joy and 
nearness to the Lord by proving the 
truth of the old saying that actions 
speak louder than words, especially 
when it comes to looking after the 
wants and needs of the poor and 
needy, ministering to the sick and 
afflicted, and comforting the sorrow- 

When people are ill, they ponder 
the gospel ; and under these con- 
ditions visiting teachers feel free to 
preach the gospel to strangers, and 
conversions have been the result. 

"Four new Societies have been 
organized. This action came in 
response to the request of women 
who are anxious to be engaged in 
the Relief Society work. It gives 
them an opportunity to minister to 
the poor and sick, and to show sym- 
pathy to the afflicted. 

POINDING ihomes for orphans, 
* giving material aid to enable 
crippled children to receive surgical 
treatment by specialists, and furn- 
ishing new chapels, are some of the 
outstanding services that our Socie- 
ties have given this past year 

"The sisters in historic Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, with praise- 
worthy planning and diligence, have 
raised the sum of $333.00 to help 
purchase a lot, upon which the 
Church will build a chapel. During 
the Christmas season the spirit of 
kindness, which is the soul of Relief 
Society work, was given expression 
by the Societies in sending baskets 
of provisions to the poor, remember- 

ing the widows, and providing 
Christmas trees to Sunday School 

"The new record book is especial- 
ly adapted to conditions here, and is 
sincerely appreciated. The lessons, 
instructions, and articles in the 
Relief Society Magazine inspire us 
to keep in harmony with the spirit 
and genius of the work. Interest 
and membership are growing. How 
thankful we should be that the Lord 
has a work for his daughters to do, 
and that while charity begins at 
home, it ought not and does not 
end there." 

Northwestern States Mission 

FROM Sister Pearl C. Sloan, of 
the Northwestern States Mis- 
sion comes this cheering message: 
"We are much pleased over our an- 
nual reports. We note the increase 
in all activities, especially in members 
enrolled; and feel that through the 
Book of Mormon lessons, we are 
gaining more members. Among our 
younger sisters, we have some very 
splendid class leaders, who add en- 
thusiasm to the work. The increase 
in our attendance has had a tendency 
also to increase our Magazine sub- 
scriptions. We are very happy to 
note this, for we realize that the 
Magazine is one of the greatest 
assets that we have. Some of the 
Societies have been made happy by 
having subscriptions sent in from 
women who are interested in the 
work but are not members of th** 
Church. Everywhere that I have 
gone throughout the mission I have 
found splendid women who have 
been active in the' Relief Society 
who do not yet claim membership in 
the Church. We have the feeling 



that the Relief Society is rendering 
excellent missionary service." 

Nezv Zealand Mission 

SISTER Jennie E. Magleby pres- 
ident of our far-away New 
Zealand Mission writes : "We have 
a number of new organizations in 
the mission. The new officers with- 
in the different organizations have 
a renewed spirit of serving in their 
calling. With your faith and pray- 
ers and ours added to the call for 
Relief Society progress, the Lord 
will grant us the blessings of our 
labors. The future appears to be 
most promising. 

"Our Relief Society members 
have been enjoying the activities of 
district conferences. Half of the 
Sunday evening programs have been 
devoted to the Relief Society. We 
have put on the pageant, "Make 
Your Home a Heaven J" Songs 
and home stalks were concurrent 
with the pageant. The opportun- 
ity given to the Relief Society has 
added zest and happiness in being 
able to do their part in expounding 
the teachings. The programs have 
been greatly appreciated, and have 
been of much benefit to those taking 
part as well as to the audience. 

"Our work meetings are directed 
towards the functions for Hui Tau, 
our annual conference. At small 
cost, we have made many beautiful 
floor mats, quilts, comforters, and 
other things. The art-color designs 
and workmanship are worthy of 
great praise. They are sold at the 
conventions and thus re-enforce our 

HPHE theme for the coming con- 
■*- ference is : "The organization 
of the Relief Society and its objec- 
tives." On January 5, 1930, a 
model conference will be held at 
Auckland. We have the following 

program to be carried out on Sun- 
day evening: 'We thank Thee, O 
God, for a Prophet.' Talk by a 
Relief Society member, The Pro- 
phet Joseph Smith/ Duet, .'Sing a 
Wondrous Story/ Talk by a Re- 
lief Society member, 'History of 
the Relief Society and Its Purpose/ 
Song, 'Sweet is the work/ 'Relief 
Society Loyalty,' by one of the 
members. The progam concludes 
with the song, 'Beautiful Words of 
Love.' Then the Mutual organ- 
ization finishes the evening with its 

"These Sunday evening confer- 
ences provide an opportunity for 
the Relief Society workers to ex- 
press themselves. One of the spirit- 
ual talks was delivered by a sister 
who had never before appeared be- 
fore an audience. She could hardly 
keep from weeping after she fin- 
ished. She was so happy to have 
had the opportunity of bearing her 
testimony and giving her thoughts 
as to "The Duties of Parents in 
Rearing Children.' 

"I love the labor, and shall always 
cherish the pleasant hours spent in 
the Relief Society work in New Zea- 

Northern States Mission 

THIS picture represents the 
Milwaukee branch Relief 
Society of the Northern States mis- 
sion. Every sister in this group 
is a subscriber to the Relief Society 
Magazine, and president Pond says 
each of them is a real Latter-day 
Saint. Sister Allie Y. Pond reports 
that the Relief Society organization 
completed at Galesburg, Illinois, is 
a small branch, yet every member 
takes the Relief Society Magazine. 
Like all others, this mission has 
its difficulties, but the workers have 
the spirit of enthusiam; and not 



Milwaukee Branch Relief Society 

only in the branches that have been 
mentioned, but in every part of the 
mission field we have received the 
same encouraging (report. The 
sisters are keenly alive to their work, 
and are interesting many investi- 

German- Austrian Mission 

WE are indebted to Brother 
Edward P. Kimball, pres- 
ident of the German-Austrian Mis- 
sion, for the following photographs, 
and the account of the activities of 

No. 1 



No. 2 '■•■■'■ 

the Relief Society in this far away any way to the bazaar that is here 

land. reported. 

The first picture shows the group Brother HCimball writes: "On 

assembled, all who contributed in the evening of November 20, 1929, 

No. 3 



the For st branch Relief Society of 
the Spreewald District of this mis- 
sion held a very successful bazaar. 
Because of its supremacy among all 
bazaars held in this field, we feel 
that you may be interested in a short 
report of it. 

"The bazaar was held in the large 
reception hall of the Hotel Kaiser- 
hof. Despite the large number of 
unemployed in the realms of the city, 
there was a most commendable 

A S proof of the integrity of the 
**• Relief Society sisters and their 
organization and branch presidency, 

further that the bazaar in two hours, 
had taken in for their organization, 
over 900. marks (nearly $220.00). 
The final receipts, considering ar- 
ticles disposed of and those yet on 
hand, reached near 1,200 marks 
(nearly $300.00). 

"Not (only /Was the evening a 
success in a financial way, but from 
a spiritual standpoint it was very 
remarkable. The program numbers 
given, the gospel contacts made with 
friends, etc., were of a type that 
make for progress in any mission. 

"The postcards enclosed are as 
follows : No. 1 gives a picture of 

No. 4 

it was reported that all rent, light, 
heat, and similar costs were cared 
for before the evening opened, 
through voluntary contributions 
gathered from various willing bus- 
iness concerns. Even city officials 
were made to feel the value of such 
a worthy endeavor, and rendered 
assistance in varied ways. 

"The .branch president reports 

all who assisted with the bazaar ; 
No. 2 is the middle booth for white 
goods and fancy work ; No. 3 the 
booth for sandwiches, meats, and 
salads. At this bazaar 350 sand- 
wiches were sold, the materials for 
which were mostly contributed free 
of charge by the business houses of 
the city ; No. 4 indicates the second 
life picture, 'The Church-way.' In 



the spinning room the song 'The 
Evil Tongues' was sung. At the 
close, the picture was presented. 

pROUD of the results achieved 
-*- we trust that our report to you 
will give you an idea of the fine 
work our local people of this land 
are accomplishing. This branch is 
entirely in the hands of local Priest- 
hood. Missionaries have not had 
charge of it for some time." 

This certainly is an eloquent ex- 
pression of the zeal and the interest 
of the saints in this fine branch. 

Eastern States Mission 

MARIAN Agren, Counselor and 
Secretary of the Eastern 
States Mission, writes: "On July 
5, 1929, Sister Alice D. Moyle was 
appointed to succeed Sister Olita 
Melville as president of the Eastern 
States Mission Relief Societies. 

During November, President 
Louise Y. Robison visited several 
of our Societies. Her sweet spirit 
and words of encouragement and 
advice were an inspiration — an in- 
centive to work more diligently. It 
was a privilege to hear her. 

In January, 1929, West Virginia 
was taken from the Eastern States 
Mission into the East Central States 
Mission. At that time this mission 
lost six Relief Societies, viz., White 
Sulphur Springs, Huntington, New 
Martinsville, Verdunville, and 
Ketterman. Before this change 
took place there were 33 Relief 
Societies in the Eastern States Mis- 

Since the beginning of the year 
1929, the Auburn and Wilson Relief 
Societies have discontinued, and the 
Bronx and Long Island divisions of 
the New York Relief Society have 
come together again, thus making a 
further <d ecrease of four Societies 
in the mission. At present there are 
23 Societies with a total member- 
ship of 392 women, most of whom 
are faithful, sincere workers de- 
sirous of ,serving God and their 
fellowmen. It is a real pleasure to 
work with them. 

IN all Societies of this mission the 
members of the Relief Society 
are few and widely scattered ; never- 
theless, they are doing fine work. 
The Palmyra Relief Society leads 
all the others in charity, Buffalo, 
Palmyra, and New York Societies 
are to be complimented on their fine 
visiting teachers' work. Because of 
the fact that the members are widely 
scattered and that many of them are 
employed in factories, shops, etc., 
during the day, it is almost impos- 
sible to carry on visiting teachers' 
work in many of the Societies. 
When carried on, the visits have re- 
sulted in better Relief Society work. 

"We appreciate the willing co- 
operation and help the missionaries 
have given. They have incited in- 
terest and enthusiasm among the 

"The officers aim to keep in close 
contact with all the Societies through 
personal visits and letters, and the 
Societies in general are in a state of 
progress and peace." 

Faith of the Mothers 

By Linda S. Fletcher 

Sadness, like a hovering shadow, 
Darkened all the Land of Melek, 
Wherein dwelt a li/hteous people, 
Designated 'Those of Ammon" ; 
For their brethren, known as Ne- 

Sore beset by hordes of Laman, 
Struggled vainly, all around them, 
To drive out the cursed invader. 
'Twas unrighteousness had weak- 
Nephi's children; and disunion 
Made them prey to their dark breth- 

Ammonite, was mighty Amlek, — 

Agony, the inner conflict, 

Which he knew. One voice now 

counseled : 
"Help the Nephites — aid the breth- 
Who, through all these years, have 

Thee and thine, since forth thou 

From the southern Land of 

Nephi, — 
From among the savage people, — 
Cleansed thy heart by Amnion's 

message — 
Called to Christ by joyous tidings, 
Which Mosiah's Sons did bring 

While Another spake within him : 
"Break not now thy testimony, — 
That great covenant thou madest 
With thy God, when thou didst bury 
All thy weapons for the shedding 
Of man's blood, thus bearing wit- 
That thy sword, cleansed by repent- 
And the blood of Gael's Anointed, 

Should no more be used for slaying ! 
Amlek, keep this vow, so holy, 
Lest thy soul forever perish !" 
As the latter, counseled Helaman, 
The High Priest, 'mong Nephi '^ 

Then, on Amlek's tortured musings 
Broke the voice so sweet, so gentle, 
Of his wife, the wise Deborah: 
"Grieve not, O my lord, my hus- 
band ! 
God .hath put it in our power 
To show gratitude for kindness 
Manifest to Amnion's people 
By the Nephite's, our loved guar- 
And yet keep our vows, so sacred! 
Look! Lift up thine head from 

And behold what we, the Mothers, 
Have devised, to aid in freeing 
Zarahemla's Land from Laman!" 

Amlek. in a daze of wonder, 
Suffered thai Deborah lead him 
To the door-step. 

Marching by them, 
To the sound of trump and cymbal, 
Strode two-thousand — yea, the 

Of young Ammonitish manhood — 
Boys — mere striplings — strong and 

As young gods, in all the beauty 
That the living of God's precepts 
E'er bestows upon His children ! 
"See, our Sons !" proclaimed De- 
"They the oath have never taken, 
Since too young to know its mean- 
When we made our vows with 



Forth they go to fight our battles, 
Helaman, the Priest, their Leader ; 
And the Holy One, who gave 

them, — 
Taught their mothers how to rear 

Goes with them to, e'er protect them, 
Back to us to bring them safely. 
Till their measure of creation 
Is completed and perfected." 
Forth they marched, the "Sons" 

two-thousand — 
(This, with love, their Leader called 

them) — 
Forth unto Judea, fared they, 
Aiding Antipus, who struggled 
'Gainst the Lamanites, victorious 
In that part of Zarahemla, 
Where they'd taken Antiparah, 
Zeezrom, Manti and Cumeni. 
And the God the "Sons" had trusted, 
Who, their mothers taught, would 

save them, 
If they doubted not, was with them ! 
Fought they in the thick of battle, 
For the freedom of their country, 
Side by side with Nephite brethren, 
Till the Lamanites were driven 
From their lands — from all their 

cities ! 
And when Helaman did gather 
All his "Sons" at close of conflict, 
Not one young life had departed ! 
For no soul of them had doubted 
God's great power to preserve them. 
Simply each proclaimed with fervor : 
"Thus declared our Mothers to us, 
And we doubt not that they knew 


O God, grant that we, as mothers 
May have faith as those of Ammon ! 

cK Holers 


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Faith and Faithfulness Triumphant 

A True Story 
By hula Greene Richards 

THERE were no clouds visible 
in the sky nor anything in all 
the world of even a grayish 
appearance so far as could be seen 
by Albert Clements. He stood or 
moved about as if standing or walk- 
ing in the air, so light and buoy- 
ant was the beating of his strong, 
healthy young heart. No wonder 
the world seemed beautiful to him 
that peerless autumn morning. It 
was his birthday, and nineteen years 
before, on the 19th of November, 
1801, his birth had occurred at Fort 
Ann, Washington County, State of 
New York. That place, with his 
parents, had always been his home. 
There it was that he was now en- 
gaged in ^hopping down trees on 
his father's farm, which were to be 
used for timber in building a house 
and making a home for himself and 
Ada Winchell, his sweetheart. 

Ada was one month and five days 
his junior, having been born De- 
cember 24, 1801, at Hebsen, in the 
same county and State as himself. 
Good fortune had brought about an 
agreeable acquaintance between 
these two young persons, which al- 
most immediately took on the form 
of a genuine friendship, and soon 
ripened into pure, first love. 

Not until that faultless morning 
had Albert made his declaration 
and asked Ada to become his wife. 
The girl, who was chaste and hon- 
est in thought and being, without 
hesitation had met his proposal 
half way and agreed that their mar- 
^ 1 'age should take place verv soon. 
By Ada's "very soon" she had not 
thought to indicate an earlier pe- 
riod than the next spring or sum- 

mer. But within a few weeks Al- 
bert's earnest persuasions won out 
in placing January 28, 1821, as the 
date for their wedding. The day 
came and the marriage was sol- 
emnized. "Are you happy, dearest?" 
Albert asked of his rosy, smiling 
bride, when for a moment they were 
by themselves. Ada answered sweet- 
ly — "Happy Albert ! I have never 
believed in what is said of wedding 
days being the happiest days of all 
until now." "And my greatest 
wish," Albert continued, "is that I 
may always be able to keep you 
happy, and to make each day and 
year better and happier than the 
last." "And my wish is," said Ada, 
"that I may ever prove the true 
helpmate you are taking me for." 

No thought came to those young, 
joyous souls of the sorrows and 
heartaches awaiting them in the 
coming years. 

ONE year later their first child 
was born, and a few weeks 
after Ada confided to its tiny, un- 
conscious ear the fact that she had 
not known how much happiness this 
life can bring to mortals until it 
had come to nestle in her arms. She 
and Albert were blest with nine such 
priceless gifts in all, but not all of 
them came into such peaceful, pleas- 
ant surroundings. 

Albert and Ada remained in Fort 
Ann until 1832, then a change came 
to them. Albert, returning from a 
business trip which had taken him 
some distance from home, brought 
his wife a book which he believed 
would interest her as it did him. 

He told her he had met a min- 



ister of the Gospel who had taught 
the same as Jesus had done when 
He was on the earth, and told of 
a young Prophet named Joseph 
Smith. The minister's name was 
Sidney Rigdon and the book Albert 
had purchased of him was the Book 
of Mormon. 

Albert and Ada together studied 
and embraced the Gospel, were bap- 
tized, and with their five children 
moved to Florence, Ohio, to be near 
the Saints. From that time on they 
followed with their chosen people 
and shared their prosperity and 
their disappointments, their suffer- 
ings and their rejoicings. 

Other children were born to them 
in different localities, and some of 
their precious flock they buried by 
the way as they were being driven 
from place to place. Perhaps the 
most severely trying of these expe- 
riences came when their son Paul, 
a young man, was brutally killed 
during the persecutions of the Saints 
in Missouri. But there was no 
thought of ever turning back with 
either Albert Clements or his wife. 
They were united in all that came 
to them and the great love they held 
for each other strengthened them 
for each emergency and every sac- 

A FTER the expulsion of the 
** Saints from Missouri, and when 
with the others the Clements set- 
tled for a time in Nauvoo, a son 
was born to them on November 15, 
1842. They named him Albert 
Nephi for his father and their fa- 
vorite hero in the Book of Mormon. 
The parents had each now reached 
the age of forty-one, and this son 
was, in a way destined to become 
the most important, or prominent 
member of the family. 

At the time of the martyrdom of 
Joseph and Hyrum Smith — the 
Prophet an4 Patriarch — Albert, like 

many of the brethren, was away 
from Nauvoo engaged in labors for 
the strengthening of the Church 
and the support of the families. 

When news reached him of th° 
terrible tragedy at Carthage, which 
by the death of Joseph took away 
the earthly head of the Church, as 
soon as possible he cancelled all en- 
gagements, dropped the work he 
was occupied with and started for 
Nauvoo, there to face whatever- 
hardships might be in store for him 
in connection with his beloved peo- 
ple and family. 

At a small town one evening while 
on his journey he met a relative of 
his mother with whom he had been 
associated in past years. This gen- 
tleman kindly invited Albert to his 
home to, remain over night and the 
invitation was accepted. He was 
traveling with a span of good 
horses, one of which he found in 
the morning very sick and unable 
to proceed on the homeward jour- 

Upon entering a nearby store for 
medicine with which to treat the dis- 
abled animal, Albert was highly de- 
lighted at meeting Elder Sidne^ 
Rigdon, who was on his way from 
Pittsburgh to Nauvoo. 

SIDNEY and Albert were both 
exceedingly gratified at meeting 
each other, and they sought and had 
a few moments' privacy in which 
they discussed the great calamity 
that had befallen their people in the 
awful death of their beloved Proph- 
et leader. Sidney comforted his 
quiescent listener by acquainting 
him with the fact that he himself 
was hastening to the Saints to take 
the position awaiting him as their 
guardian and director in place of 
the slain Prophet whose loss they 
mourned. A great burden was there- 
by lifted from Albert's grief -strick- 
en heart, Although on account of 



the sick horse, he could not travel 
on that day, it did not matter so 
much. President Rigdon would 
soon be with the crushed and hope- 
less Saints, would arouse their 
stunned energies and revive their 
faith and confidence in the goodness 
and wisdom of God. And his own 
family, Albert felt sure, would be 
all right. His dear, noble Ada 
would be staunch and brave as she 
had always been and would keep 
their children safe and contented. 
He would be with them again before 
long to help cheer and comfort 
them, and all would be well with 
them and with the Church. 

By the exercise of great care and 
skillful nursing the sick horse was 
rendered able to travel within a few 
days. But Albert realized that very 
gentle treatment and no haste with 
the horse must still be cautiously 
observed in order that he might pro- 
ceed on his way with some degree 
of safety. Other hindrances were 
also met with. The mending of a 
broken wagon wheel caused a delay 
of several hours. Then came the 
humane necessity for helping some 
over-loaded wagons with poor, run- 
down teams across quite a long 
stretch of heavy, almost impassable 
roads. Thus one thing after an- 
other transpired to lengthen out the 
time of Albert's journey until the 
15th day of August, 1844, had ar- 
rived when he reached Nauvoo. So 
excited and over- joyed were his 
wife and children to have him at 
home with them again after so long 
a separation — it seemed to them like 
years instead of months with all the 
distressing things which had hap- 
pened during his absence, — that 
nothing was talked of or perhaps 
even thought about but their own 
family affairs for an hour or more 
following his reaching home. By 
that time all the children had turned 
their attention to other things which 

interested them, except baby Albert 
Nephi, who refused to leave his 
father's arms for any other posi- 

\\7 HEN the husband and wife 
* * were alone, save for their 
baby nearly two years old, they 
placed their arms around each other 
and looked into each other's eyes 
with love and confidence as true and 
tender, if not so young and impul- 
sive, as that which stirred in their 
hearts the day on which they were 
married more than twenty years 
ago. The baby held between them 
watched them kiss each other and 
he slobbered both their faces with 
his own sweet, baby kisses, patted 
their cheeks, and played with and 
mussed their hair, entirely uncon- 
scious of the all important sequence 
contained in their low voiced, earn- 
est conversation. Dear little Albert 
N. ! Truly he sensed nothing of the 
weightiness of the following words 
as they passed between his idolized 
father and mother. 

"Albert, dear!" said the wife, "I 
should have 'been the happiest wom- 
an in the world, I think, one week 
ago this morning if you had been 
with me in the meeting that was held 
in the Grove at that time/' 

"Wihy, dearest? Was the meet- 
ing different to or better than oth- 
ers we have attended together ?" Al- 
bert asked. "Don't you know about 
it — haven't you heard?" exclaimed 
Ada almost incredulously. "I have 
heard nothing and know nothing of 
it — tell me !" Albert answered. His 
wife responded — "Well, I have been 
thinking all along that surely you 
would be told all about it, and of 
course you would be feeling relieved 
and happy over it, the same as my- 
self and most of our people. But 
if you have not heard then certainly 
I shall gladly tell you, for all must 
know about the most marvelous and 



glorious meeting that the Saints 
here have ever known anything con- 

ALBERT was beginning to be 
enthusiastic and anxious to 
hear the whole story. Taking the 
baby's hand from covering his 
mouth, he asked eagerly — Was 
President Rigdon there in his place, 
and did he take up the reins of gov- 
ernment and start the good work 
speeding on with new force and 
vigor ?" 

"Why do you ask a thing like 
that, Albert?" the woman question- 
ed with a look and in a tone that 
would indicate she almost felt it sac- 
rilege for her husband to have given 
utterance to such thoughts. 

"Yes," she continued, "Sidney 
Rigdon was at that meeting ! but he 
was no better prepared to take the 
leadership among our people than 
this baby of ours is. I have heard 
him speak in meeting when the 
Spirit of God was with him and 
when he propounded principles of 
truth and righteousness in a way 
that would be instructive and con- 
vincing to honest hearts. But he has 
changed — he has lost the faith and 
power he possessed when he stood 
next to the Prophet and was humble 
and fearless as the Saints must be 
to live near the Lord. He was the 
first speaker in the meeting, and he 
said he had come to offer himself as 
a guardian and a leader for the 
Church ! that he was the man ap- 
pointed by the Lord to be spokes- 
man for Joseph. But he was en- 
tirely void of the spirit he former- 
ly manifested. He could scarcely 
talk at all some of the time. There 
was nothing of the grand personal- 
ity of the Prophet to draw the Saints 
toward Sidney Rigdon, either in his 
voice or .words or looks. He talked 
for one hour and a half and we be- 
came very tired sitting on those 

hard wooden planks, but in all his 
discourse there was nothing to lift 
the cloud of sorrow from our hearts 
or to arouse our faith and hope to 
new life." Ada paused and Albert 
spoke with undisguised misgivings 
and said : "You certainly surprise 
me, Ada! And was that the thrill- 
ingly delightful meeting you wish I 
might have attended ?" 

WAIT," Ada answered! "that 
was only the forepart of the 
memorable meeting, and that part 
was exceedingly tedious and unsat- 
isfactory. But as soon as Sidney 
Rigdon had finished and sat down, 
Brigham Young arose and — oh, Al- 
bert ! it was Joseph appeared, with 
■ his voice and words as he spoke, 
which I do so wish you might have 
seen and heard." There was silence 
for a moment. Baby was beginning 
to nod sleepily. Albert softly laid 
the little head over on his breast and 
then said: "Well, Ada, what of it 
all ? Can't you tell me ? Was any- 
thing decided concerning the future 
movements of the Church. Who 
will take the lead — was that fixed?" 
"It certainly was, Albert," Ada 
replied. "That question settled 
itself, or the Lord settled it. I will 
tell you how. Sidney talked for a 
long time, as I said, and offered him- 
self as a guardian for the people. 
But his speech was delivered in a 
doubtful, hesitating, even cowardly 
way, which failed to impress the 
Saints with any confidence in him 
or desire to accept his offered guard- 
ianship. I believe many must have 
remembered as I did how Sidney, 
after being brutally dragged out of 
bed by drunken mobs, and with the 
Prophet who was treated the worst 
of the two — tarred and feathered — 
said if Joseph Smith's God was go- 
ing to let him be put through such 
a course as that, Joseph would have 
to take it without him for he could 



not stand such usage. Many of us 
heard him say that, and also knew 
that he proved treacherous to the 
Prophet and the Church because of 
cowardice, instead of standing like 
a hero and sharing the Prophet's 
sufferings even unto death if it had 
been required. There was nothing 
about Sidney Rigdon to inspire even 
common sympathy or respect." 

Albert arose and carefully placed 
little Albert N. asleep on the bed. 
Then turning to his wife he said, 
"Ada, dearest, I fear you are great- 
ly prejudiced against President Rig- 
don. I feel that he has been mis- 
judged and unfairly dealt by." Ada 
felt a strange suffocating pain in her 
chest as she listened to those words 
from her beloved husband. So many 
were weakening — undecided — s o 
much was being said among the false 
pretenders around them. Leading 
Albert over to the window she 
placed her arm affectionately around 
his waist and his quickly encircled 
her shoulders. As they looked into 
each other's faces, she sadly discov- 
ered that his features were drawn 
and troubled, and he saw with great 
hurt in his heart that she was very 

LET me finish telling you of the 
meeting," Ada said. "The last 
was the good part of it. When Brig- 
ham arose and commenced speaking 
his face and form immediately as- 
sumed the exact appearance of . the 
Prophet Joseph Smith. And he 
spoke as distinctly in the voice of 
the Prophet as you ever heard Jo- 
seph speak himself. He told the 
Saints that the keys and power of 
the leadership of the Church had 
been sealed upon the quorum of the 
Twelve Apostles with Brigham 
Young as their President. This had 
been done by the Prophet himself 
by commandment from the Lord. 
And much more he said, although 

he took but a short time to say it. 
The Saints were all converted to the 
fact that Brigham Young was the 
right man, with the Twelve, to lead 
the Church now, and all the con- 
gregation voted for that — there was 
not one hand raised in opposition." 
Albert was about to speak when 
one of the girls came to the bed- 
room door and told her parents that 
dinner was ready and asked them to 
come and eat. The family gathered 
around the table, but there seemed 
to be something strangely cold and 
lacking harmony which they could 
not understand, for there should 
have been rejoicing in a goodly de- 
gree over the safe return home of 
the husband and father. 

JUST as the meal was finished a 
messenger came to the door and 
beckoned Albert outside. The sum- 
mons was readily obeyed and for a 
few moments Albert remained talk- 
ing with the young man. When he 
returned his wife asked what was 
wanted of him. Albert replied, 
"There is a meeting of some of the 
brethren this evening, which they 
would like me to attend. 

"Is it concerning the finishing of 
the Temple?" Ada asked with a 
show of brightening, and she con- 
tinued, "I have been so in hopes 
you might be called to that work." 

"No," answered Albert. "I do 
not know what the business to be 
considered is, but the meeting is 
called by President Rigdon and 
Wjilliam Marks." 

"Surely, Albert, you will not at- 
tend it!" his wife exclaimed almost 
with alarm. "Certainly I shall, 
Ada!" returned the husband with 

From that time on differing opin- 
ions in relation to their religious 
views rendered Albert and Ada 
Clements very unhappy. The most 
severe trial of their faith came to 



them from the fact that Albert saw 
Sidney Rigdon as his leader, while 
Ada had actually seen the mantle 
of Joseph Smith fall upon Brigham 
Young, anal knew positively that 
Brigham was chosen of God to di- 
rect the affairs of His Church and 
people. She knew this great truth 
by even a stronger evidence than the 
seeing with her eyes and the hear- 
ing with her ears. She knew it by 
"The testimony of the Lord (which ) 
is sure, making wise the simple." 
But with all the power she was able 
to exert in her husband's interest 
she could not make him see it, he 
was so blinded by the influence of 
crafty men. And although he tried 
with all the fervor of his soul to 
induce his wife to see the subject 
as he viewed it, she had been shown 
the true light, had accepted it, and 
was determined to follow where- 
ever it should lead. 

The Clements were scriptural 
students and they read and talked 
over the Savior's sayings found in 
St. Matthew, chapter 10, verse 37 — 
"He that loveth father or mother 
more than me is not worthy of me : 
and he that loveth son or daughter 
more than me is not worthy of me." 
And Ada remarked that although 
husband or wife were not men- 
tioned it might be supposed justi- 
fiable to include them also in the 

Then Albert asked, "And will 
you give me up, Ada, and follow 
Brigham Young into the wilderness 
you know not where or what fate 
may await you, while I shall remain 
in peace, and have no more of the 
persecutions and disturbances to 
which we have been so long sub- 

A DA replied with heroic deter- 
mination, "I shall continue with 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints and share its fate, 

even unto death should that be nec- 
essary. But I shall never cease to 
love you, Albert, whether you fol- 
low Sidney Rigdon or any other 
man. And I shall pray for you al- 
ways that you may be brought to 
see the truth, even as was Saul of 
Tarsus ! for you are blinded as he 
was by delusive spirits and the 
craftiness of unreliable men." Thus 
they came to the parting of the 

Ada with her children, who de- 
cided to cling to their mother, left 
Nauvoo among the earliest of the 
Saints who were driven from their 
homes there, and moved to Winter 
Quarters, To his credit Albert was 
generous in providing as comfort- 
ably as he could for the travels of 
his wife and children, although they 
were leaving him in sorrow and 

A number of years passed before 
the way opened for Ada and her 
children to journey on to the Rocky 
Mountains. Albert Nephi, the son 
born in Nauvoo, was a boy nearly 
ten years and drove his mother's ox 
team across the plains when the 
family came in Captain Warren 
Snow's company, arriving in Great 
Salt Lake Valley, October 9, 1852. 

During all the poverty and strug- 
gles of the early Mormon Pioneers 
through which Ada had passed, she 
never lost faith in the innate good- 
ness and integrity of her husband's 
heart. Nor did she neglect to men- 
tion him in prayer, asking that his 
heart might be touched with the 
testimony of the divine mission of 
Joseph Smith as a true prophet of 
God, whose life, like that of the 
Savior, had been sacrificed for the 
Truth's sake. If only this could 
happen she knew he would turn 
from the folly of being misguided 
by apostate leaders, and through re- 
pentance be forgiven of his sins. 



ONE day quite a shock came to 
Ada in the following manner. 
An Elder who had been commis- 
sioned to look after some matters in 
the affairs of the Church had just 
returned from a trip East. He call- 
ed on Ada and told her he had run 
across her husband in Iowa. Al- 
bert, he said, appeared to be in good 
health and was prospering in a 
worldly way. The surprise came 
then, which for a short time some- 
what bewildered Ada. The Elder 
informed her that Albert — her hus- 
band — had employed and paid him 
to accompany him to some lawyers 
who had made out a bill of divorce- 
ment, which needed only Ada's sig- 
nature to make it a legal document 
dissolving the bond between them 
which had united them as husband 
and wife. The plea which Albert 
had used in the suit was desertion. 
All there was for Ada to do to make 
the decree complete was to sign her 
name to it in the presence of wit- 
nesses. Only a brief time she wav- 
ered while she considered the ques- 
tion. It would be as well, she de- 
cided. The marriage had been only 
for this life, any way. It had noth- 
ing to do with the eternity beyond. 
So the affair was settled and Ada 
Clements was a divorced wife. The 
Elder sent the document to Albert. 
In 1863 when a young man of 
twenty-one years, Albert N. drove 
an ox team back across the plains 
as a Church teamster to assist in 
bringing a company of Saints to 
Zion, Utah. He found time to visit 
his father, who was greatly sur- 
prised and over- joyed to behold 
again his youngest son. 

How delighted that father would 
have been could he have prevailed 
on that son to remain with him and 
share and inherit his worldly pos- 
sessions. He had been prospered in 
acquiring means and was well off as 
far as worldly riches go. He had 

also married a good and pleasant 
woman who kept a neat and com- 
fortable home for them, but no 
child was ever born of their union. 
The home was in Iowa and the 
father had joined a branch of what 
was then known as the Josephite 

TTAD Albert N. been disposed to 
■*■ ■*■ remain there with his kind- 
hearted, affectionate father, what a 
life of ease and pleasure he might 
have found. Great opportunities 
might have been his for acquiring 
knowledge from schools and by in- 
teresting travel, instead of passing 
his days and years in laboring for 
a living and attending to duties re- 
quired of him as a member of the 
Church. But all those alluring pros- 
pects held no temptation for the 
honest-hearted Utah boy. He was 
glad to see his father and spend a 
short time with him, and to bear a 
humble, sincere affirmation to him 
and his wife that he knew by the 
testimony with which the Lord had 
blest him that Joseph Smith was a 
true Prophet of the Lord, and that 
Brigham Young was indeed the 
Prophet's lawful, heaven-appointed 
successor. Then he wanted to hasten 
back home to Zion and his loved 
ones there as soon as he reasonably 
could, which he did. 

When Albert N. reached home 
and his mother again she was glad 
to learn that his father had married 
a good woman. "It is better for 
him," she commented. "The man 
is not without the woman, neither 
the woman without the man in the 

The next year, 1864, the Clem- 
ents moved from Utah into Idaho, 
and settled at Stockton, a branch of 

In 1865, having discovered "the 
finest girl in the world" (for him) 
Albert N. married Elizabeth Ann 



Boyce. His mother, being persuad- 
ed that she might do more good in 
the world as a comfort to others and 
by being helped herself over some 
hard places in life by marrying a 
man named James Steers, consented 
to the change this brought to her. 
x\fter a few years Mr. Steers died. 
Other years passed, and again, for 
the sake of helping and of being 
helped Ada was married to a Mr. 
Wilbur. He also died after a time. 
No children were born of either of 
these marriages, nor had Ada con- 
sented with either for a Church 
marriage in the Endowment House, 
which was then being used tempo- 
rarily while the Temples were build- 

Albert N. went East a second 
time to assist in bringing emigrants 
to the Valleys in 1868. This time 
he drove a horse team. Again he 
visited his father, and with him at- 
tended one of his Church meetings. 
On returning home the father asked 
his son how he enjoyed the services. 
The son promptly replied, "It was 
as sounding brass and a tinkling 
cymbal." He then bore a strong 
testimony of the truth of the Gos- 
pel to his father ! he said, "The day 
will come when you shall see the 
light ! And when that time does 
come, father, and with your relig- 
ion goes everything else and you 
haven't anything, remember you can 
have a home with me. Just send 
me word. Here is a purse I wish 
to give you as a token, and I pray 
it may ever be full." 

IN the years that followed noth- 
ing was heard from the father. 
Albert was in a new part of the 
country, Idaho, working steadily, 
and bravely making a livelihood for 
his young and increasing family. 
During this period the father's wife 
died. His means all slipped away 
from him. The mother twice wid- 

owed was now alone, living some 
distance from her son, Albert N. 
The mail came into their town twice 
a week from Corinth. 

One Friday morning the mail 
brought Albert N. a letter from his 
father, telling him his prophecy had 
been fulfilled — that he was left deso- 
late, and had not sufficient means to 
come to him ; but that he had seen 
his mistake and wished to come to 
his people. In the afternoon the 
mail went out and with it a letter 
from Albert N., telling his father 
that on the following Monday he 
would go out on the mail and send 
him money for his fare. At that 
time he only had fifty cents in the 
house, but the money must come — 
he knew it would. How he prayed 
and schemed ! 

Sunday morning came and as yet 
nothing had been brought to the 
mind of Albert N. to show him how 
he was to obtain the money which 
he must have. He sat in his front 
room ; the south door was open, let- 
ting in a flood of bright sunshine. 
His heart was lifted in prayer. A 
stranger horseman rode up to the 
gate. Without waiting for him to 
dismount Albert N. hastened to him 
and passed the time of day. The 
following conversation then ensued : 

Stranger : "Do you know of anv- 
one with a yoke of oxen for sale?" 
Albert N. : "Oh, yes! I have two 
of them." 

Stranger: "Where are they?" 

Albert : "In the pasture. Shall I 
drive them here, or will you go 

Stranger: "I will jog on down 
with you." 

All the while from Albert N.'s 
soul, the prayer was being offered 
up: "O Father in Heaven, put it 
into his heart to buy them ! For the 
promise to my father I must keep." 

When the oxen were rounded up, 
two fine yoke, the stranger selected 



one pair and paid Albert N. $100.00 
for them. Next morning Albert N. 
was off to Corinth, and borrowing 
$100.00 more, forwarded the $200.- 
00 to his father. He then made 
arrangements with Brother David 
Eccles to meet his father when he 
should arrive in Corinth, and give 
him every attention in case he, his 
son, should not be there himself. 

Albert Nephi had confided a little 
scheme to his wife, and she prepared 
a room for his mother and persuaded 
her to come and spend a week or 
two with them — all unconscious of 
the fact that her "first love," the 
father of her children was so'on com- 
ing to them. 

AT the proper time Albert N. 
drove over to Corinth to receive 
his father and take him home. 
Brother Eccles met him; his father 
had just arrived and was resting in 
the best hotel in town. The 

charge for his, entertainment Brother 
Eccles had paid. When the father 
and son met, there was in that hotel 
a scene of great rejoicing, although 
no dry eyes were beholding it. It 
was a reminder of the memorable 
meeting of Jacob and Joseph in 
Egypt, Genesis 46:29. As soon as 
he was able to speak, the father drew 
a purse from his pocket and said as 
he handed it to Albert N. "Do you 
remember this, my son? It is yours 
with all it contains and I am now in 
your keeping." His fare had been 
$180.00 and $20.00 remained in the 

Albert and Ada knew nothing of 
the meeting planned for them by 
their son and his wife until it took 
place in their home. But notwith- 
standing the long separation and the 

changes brought to both, there was 
nothing between them that could 
not be readily forgiven ; a complete 
and sincere reconciliation immedi- 
ately followed. Albert was humbly 
penitent for the mistaken course he 
had pursued. And his wife and their 
children, also the Church authorities, 
were all rejoiced to forgive and to 
receive him back into the true fold 
of Christ. 

Albert Clements and Ada Winch- 
ell did their courting all over again. 
And after awhile, when they were 
all ready, their faithful, youngest 
son, Albert Nephi, fixed up his 
wagon, hitched up his team, and 
drove with them to the Endowment 
House in Salt Lake City. There 
they received blessings and promises 
reserved for the pure in heart who 
are obedient to the laws of God. 
And Albert Nephi had the unique 
privilege of witnessing the marriage 
of his own father and mother — their 
true marriage, uniting them for time 
and all eternity. 

Before leaving the sacred build- 
ing, Ada referred to their former 
marriage so long ago and so far 
away in Fort Ann, New York — 
how happy they had been then in 
each other's love. And she said, 
"But this day is far more blessed, 
and our happiness more sure and 
complete. Is it not so, dear Al- 
bert?" Her husband responded ten- 
derly and reverently, "Indeed it is 
true, my dearest Ad;i! And this 
glorious triumph over which we 
gratefully rejoice today, I humbly 
and fervently acknowledge is very 
largely due to your undeviating 
Faith and Prayers and Faithful- 

By Camille Cole Neuffer 

Joyous spring is on the wing: 

And we shall all be gay, 
When bleak old winter sheds her coat: 

And stealthy slinks away. 
When chilly frost to us is lost: 

And spring has come to stay. 

Balmy spring is on the wing. 

And winter s fast retreating. 
Loudly blows the old March wind 

Round barren cliffs a beating. 
When Robin Breast, does build her nest 

And sings her anthems gay. 
Oh we shall "all be happy, 

When spring has come to stay. 

Joyous spring is on the wing: 

Old winter echoes low. 
Daisies peep their naughty heads 

From out beneath the snow. 
When sparkling rills rush from the hills 

And dance through woodlands gay, 
Oh we shall all be happy 

When spring has come to stay. 








Moral Training Through Home Work 

Radio speech delivered over K. S. L. January 26, 1930, under the 
auspices of the Utah State Departmene of Education. 
By Milton Bennion 

THAT the conditions of mod- 
ern life, in cities especially, 
have brought about radical 
changes in the home, and more par- 
ticularly in the duties and responsi- 
bilities of children, is widely recog- 
nized. Many writers on modern ed- 
ucation and some sociologists have 
lamented the fact that the home no 
longer furnishes favorable condi- 
tions for training children to carry 
their share of responsibilities in co- 
operation with other members of the 
family. In this respect, at least, they 
hold that the home has ceased to be 
an educational institution. Many ed- 
ucational administrators have for a 
generation, more or less, taken this 
for granted, and have devised vari- 
ous ways of annexing this respon- 
sibility to the schools. 

There is a tendency in human na- 
ture to idealize the past, to think 
only of its glory and to forget its 
gloom. There is also a widespread 
tendency to have visions of a future 
millennium when all the evils and 
deficiencies of the present will be 
automatically swept away. Thus the 
evils of the present become magni- 
fied in the light of the Eden of the 
past and the Paradise of the future. 

A NY rational consideration of his- 
•**' torical and social facts will, 
however, convince anyone that the 
past had its evils and limitations, 
and that the millennium is not likely 
to come without long and persistent 
effort on the part of those that are 
to realize it. The multiplicity of du- 
ties in and about the old fashioned 
rural home doubtless did furnish, 

under wise parental leadership, ex- 
cellent opportunities for moral 
training. It is also true that many 
parents were deficient in knowledge 
of child nature and education and 
so did not make use of these oppor- 

It may be too severe even to think 
of the type of parent who was more 
interested in the care of his cattle 
than in the education of his children, 
and who would, unconsciously no 
doubt, sacrifice the future possibili- 
ties of his children for the better- 
ment of his dairy herd. It was such 
grim facts as these that made neces- 
sary enactment of compulsory school 
attendance laws and other measures 
for the protection of children against 
the ignorance and the economic 
greed of some parents. 

These unsavory historical facts 
are here mentioned because there 
are quarters of the earth, and even 
parts of America, where these condi- 
tions still exist. The fact that they 
are more rare now than they were a 
century ago is to the credit of the 
present and a basis of hope for the 

AS civilization advances and con- 
ditions change radically, man- 
kind very naturally outgrows many 
social defects such, for instance, as 
that of stunting the physical and 
mental development of children 
through excessive toil. New condi- 
tions, however, bring new problems. 
People are frequently carried from 
one extreme to its opposite, from 
poverty and excessive toil to great 
wealth and luxury and with indo- 



lence following in their trail, the 
familiar condition, "Where wealth 
accumulates and men decay/' 

Yet wealth, properly used, may 
be a means of high and worthy at- 
tainment. Comfortable homes and 
modern conveniences need not de- 
stroy the moral influence of the 
home. The greater leisure and op- 
portunities for study on the part of 
parents, together with the facilities 
of modern education now available 
to children, can be utilized for the 
improvement of home life. There 
is still work enough for all, for each 
in proportion to his abilities and his 

ONE of the foundational princi- 
ples of character education is 
development of personal and social 
responsibility. This is a quality of 
character that may be developed in 
some degree in early childhood; it 
should receive the attention of par- 
ents throughout the whole period of 
development of their children from 
infancy to maturity. 

The great need for developing a 
sense of responsibility is at once 
manifest to one who has to deal with 
a person deficient in this quality. 
One of the chief means of insurance 
against such deficiency is the wise 
use of home work as a means of 
training young people. The work to 
be done should, of course, be suited 
to the age and strength of the child 
and not of such a nature as to be 
excessively or persistently tedious. 

Care should be exercised not to 
antagonize the child or to have him 
feel that he is assigned work that is 
too menial for the parents them- 
selves to do, or that he is working 
for his parents in slavish fashion 
rather than that he is working with 
them in the performance of neces- 
sary home tasks. 

Parents and children should be 
partners in the maintenance of their 

common home. Parents are, of 
course, senior partners in the busi- 
ness, they should, however, never 
play the roll of dictators or slave 
drivers. Two fundamental principles 
they should always keep uppermost 
in mind; i. e. 

f? IRST, they should recognize the 
fact that the child is a person 
and that requirements made of him 
should always be with his own ulti- 
mate best good in mind. He should 
never be regarded as merely a 
means to the fulfillment of the pur^ 
poses of another, not even those of 
the parent. This is not to say that 
he may not be of service to parents ; 
such service, however, should be of 
a kind that will, in the long run at 
least, be mutually helpful. 

The child labor laws of modern 
progressive states are based upon 
this principle. Any kind of labor 
that stunts the physical, intellectual, 
or moral development of a child is 
or ought to be illegal. This, how- 
ever, is not true of many kinds and 
quantities of labor that children may 
perform in and about the home. 

SECOND, a parent should never 
require the child to do anything 
that he is not willing, if able, to do 
himself. In line with this principle it 
is advantageous for the parent, 
whenever feasible, to work with the 

There is a fourfold advantage in 
this. It tends to dignify the work in 
the mind of the child; it creates a 
bond of sympathy between parent 
and child as they are engaged in a 
common task ; it furnishes a most 
favorable opportunity for social in- 
tercourse, companionship, through 
which the parent may influence the 
attitudes and ideals of the child; it 
furnishes opportunity to develop 
confidential relations that may lead 
the child and later the youth, to 



consult freely with the parent in re- 
gard to his difficult problems — 
problems most vital in their relation 
to his future development and hap- 

THE attitude of the child toward 
home work is influenced to a 
much greater extent by the actions 
and attitudes of the parent than by 
anything the parent may say. A 
cheerful, willing, joyous attitude on 
the part of the parent will tend to 
develop the same characteristics in 
the child. These qualities of charac- 
ter are contagious. It is to this kind 
of contagion that young people 
should be constantly exposed. 

On the other hand, if the parent 
regards the work as mere drudgery 
the child is almost sure to groan 
under the burden. Part of the diffi- 
culty comes about from one person's 
trying to do too much, thus lower- 
ing the vigor of both body and mind. 
Anything that is to be enjoyed must 
be done with zest. This zest is, how- 
ever, influenced not only by fatigue, 
but also by interest, and this in turn 
by the thought that is given it. As 
to attitude, why not cultivate the 
habit of thinking of household 
tasks in the light of their import- 
ance, their contribution toward 
maintaining comfort, health or ar- 
tistic standards. 

A NY thoughtful person may 
*"*■ readily appreciate the daily sys- 
tematic care necessary to make and 
to keep a room attractive, the neces- 
sity of dishwashing, or the practi- 
cal value of the dozen or more other 
routine tasks that have to be done 
every day or two or three times a 
day. Consider what home conditions 
are like when those tasks are not 
done, and they will at once appear 
as worth doing. Failure to perform 
some simple little task may cause 
distress out of all proportion tj the 
time and care needed to do it. 

All work should be carefully 
planned and, where possible, 
thoughtfully executed. Careful 
planning ahead saves time and ef- 
fort and, as a rule, also improves 
the quality of the work. 

WHAT are some of the labors 
in which both parents and 
children may participate ? Let us be- 
gin in the kitchen, where there is 
that ever recurring task of cleaning 
and drying dishes, only too com- 
monly thought of as drudgery. 

Where there are a number of 
persons in the household this job 
may be lightened and tendency to- 
ward monotony relieved by making 
it a cooperative one. For one persvn 
to have to wash, dry, and put away 
dishes three times a day, or even 
twice a day, is satisfactory only when 
there is no one available to help and 
to contribute good cheer to the oc- 
casion. The more dishes there are 
to care for, the more this fact is 

Children may well begin early to 
participate in this kitchen activity. 
A child that is old enough to begin 
first grade in the public school may 
well also begin first grade in the 
kitchen — drying and putting away 
knives, forks, and spoons, for in- 
stance, while other phases of the 
job are attended to by other mem- 
bers of the family. Wiping dust 
from furniture and fixtures in the 
house is another simple task that the 
child may share with adults. 

The same may be said of keeping 
books, magazines, and papers in 
their proper places. In this it is part- 
ly a matter of training the child to 
put back in place at the proper time, 
things that he uses. He seems nat- 
urally prone to throw them down 
anywhere, assuming that the job of 
putting them in their proper places 
belongs of natural right to Mother, 
or to the maid, if there chances lo 
be one. 



Closely allied to this is the prob- 
lem of cultivating thoughtfulness 
with regard to household af fail s and 
such habits of orderliness and clean- 
liness as will reduce to the minimum 
the so-called drudgery of house- 
keeping. This in itself has great 
moral value. 

TT is not the purpose here to dis- 
* cuss the details of housekeeping, 
but merely to offer a few samples 
of what may very well be done by 
way of cooperative work and to di- 
rect attention to the moral values 
that may be derived from such co- 
operation between parent and child. 
This point is well illustrated by 
the story of the college girl who tells 
with enthusiasm of the good times 
she had with her mother while shar- 
ing with her the household tasks. 
Her mother used great ingenuity in 
making the work pleasant and a 
means of intimate companionship; 
this, to such an extent that both 
mother and daughter rather resent- 
ed the intrusion of a third helper. 

WITHOUT the house there is 
normally the problem of car- 
ing for lawn, flowers, and in some 
instances, vegetable garden and do- 
mestic animals. 

In these appendages of the home 
all members of the family should be 
interested; responsibility for their 
care, however generally falls to 
father and son; mother and daugh- 
ters are likely, however, to be at 
least equally aggressive in promot- 
ing the artistic features of the home 
environment. In any case common 
interest is fostered by common par- 
ticipation in the labor and other re- 
sponsibilities involved. 

Any one may easily think of many 
other specific jobs in and about the 
home in which children and par- 
ents may share. While the values to 
be derived are here discussed with 

special reference to children and * 
youths, ,it is nevertheless a fact that 
parents also may share in many of 
these moral values. 

\7f7HAT are some of these moral 
* ▼ values in addition to that of 
developing individual and social 
responsibility ? 

We suggest for consideration the - 
following: First, development of 
thrift habits. This means not only 
industry, but also the habit of wise 
spending and judicious saving. 
These qualities taken together are 
essential to economic independence. 
This remark carries the implication 
that money is somehow involved in 
connection with home work. It is, 
without doubt, one important as- 
pect of the question, but, of course, 
not the only one. 

No child should get the notion 
that he should be paid for every 
home duty ^performed. He should 
rather grow up with the thought 
that the family is an economic unit, 
and that each member of the fam- 
ily should give of his time, energy, 
and means in proportion to his abil- 
ities, and that each should receive 
in proportion to his needs. 

COME of these needs are financial, 
^ and of these the child has a 
share, however small. He should 
learn early to evaluate money, to ex- 
ercise self-restraint against spend- 
ing it hastily and foolishly, and to 
learn as he grows older how to pro- 
vide for his own needs. 

In some families each child has 
a weekly or a monthly allowance for 
his personal needs, or, may be for 
spending on his own pleasures. This 
plan is more favorable to develop- 
ment of responsibility, self-respect, 
and independence than is the plan of 
forcing a child to beg for every cent 
he gets. There are mothers who will 
readily understand this. 



May it not, however, be better 
in connection with a regular allow- 
ance to assign some regular duties, 
not necessarily with the idea of fix- 
ing exactly the economic value of 
the duties, but rather with the idea 
of correlating in the mind of the 
child privileges with duties. This 
is a most fundamental principle in 
ethics, i. e., for every right or privi- 
lege there is a corresponding duty. 

THIS practice also tends to stim- 
ulate industry, responsibility, 
and practical adjustment to the prin- 
ciple that each should serve in pro- 
portion to his ability, while he re- 
ceives in proportion to his needs. 

The amount to be paid will be 
determined in some measure by the 
circumstances of the family and in 
still larger measure by the use that 
is to be made of the money. Is it to 
be used for such things as candy and 
shows only, or is it also to pay for 
music and private music lessons, for 
clothing, or for other necessities? 

Consideration of abilities and 
needs — the utilitarian theory of prop- 
erty — rather than the labor theory 
alone, should always be uppermost. 
The labor theory has its value, but 
it is wholly inadequate to the eco- 
nomic life of the family. In itself it 
is even an inadequate basis for the 
economic life of the state. 

The child will, of course, receive 
much more than he can give ; he 
should, however, develop to the point 
where this condition can be reversed. 
Meantime he should be acquiring 
habits of using his time, his abilities, 
and his economic resources in ways 
that will be most valuable to all con- 
cerned. Home work may save him 
from habits of careless use of time 
as well as of money, to say nothing 
of the evils of dissipation that may 
result from such idleness and care- 

CHILDREN should be trained to 
appreciate the value of time. 
They should be led to realize that 
their own accomplishments in life 
will depend primarily upon how they 
invest their time. To make the most 
effective investment there is need 
of a time budget. It is more im- 
portant than is a financial budget, 
now so generally recognized as es- 
sential in all sound business prac- 

Yet many people are most waste- 
ful of their time, throwing away 
hours when they would be horrified 
at the thought of throwing away 
dollars. Habits pertaining to the use 
of time are generally formed early 
in life. Children may be helped to 
form right habits by training them 
to budget their time, including, of 
course, the time* allotted to home 
work and specifically to each job as- 
signed to them. This may be an 
antidote against developing the hab- 
it of procrastination and mere daw- 
dling over a piece of work. 

IDLENESS and irresponsibility 
among the children of the well-to- 
do, where these conditions exist, may 
be a greater menace to them and to 
the nation than is much of the child 
labor now forbidden by law. This is 
no defense of such child labor. Child 
labor laws are here referred to only 
to emphasize the opposite evils of 
idleness and irresponsibility, which 
cannot easily be cured by legisla- 
tion ; the remedy is, however, within 
the power of the family, at least un- 
til the abilities and the needs of 
youth call for regular employment 
outside the home. It then becomes 
also a community problem. 

It should be noted in passing that 
one of the greatest community 
needs is extension of home employ- 
ment to well regulated community 
employment for youths during their 
vacation periods. The lack of such 



employment may be morally disas- 
trous. Solution of this problem calls 
for cooperation of all parents with 
the schools and the business organi- 
zations of the community. Here is a 
great educational opportunity that 
should not be neglected. 

T7ARIETY in the work to be 
* done in and about the home ; 
and, of course, suitable outside jobs 
for young people, have great value 
for pre-vocational education, voca- 
tional guidance, and possible future 

In the matter of selecting a life's 
work practical experience is indis- 
pensable, more important than mere 
theory. Both are essential to wise 
guidance. The home can make sub- 
stantial contributions on the practi- 
cal side. Parents may not properly 
dictate or in any degree attempt to 
coerce their sons and daughters into 
preparation for any particular vo- 
cation. They can, however, with jus- 
tice lead their young people to see 
that they are morally obligated to 
choose and to qualify for a life's 
work, both as a means of social ser- 
vice and also as a means of their own 
economic independence. 

As a help toward this end they 
should provide their children with a 
variety of vocational experiences, 
and should cooperate with the 
schools in providing them with in- 
formation about vocations. 

This subject may well be a topic 
of conversation while parent and 
youth are working together about 
the home. Concerning these mat- 
ters an earnest, energetic youth is 
likely to have much more enthusi- 
asm than practical wisdom. The 
opinion and counsel of a thoughtful, 
intelligent, and sympathetic parent 
may be a very valuable supplement 
to the inexperience of youth. 

It may be suggested that all of 
this can be done quite apart from 
home work. That may be, but the 

habit of doing things together de- 
velops a bond of sympathy and un- 
derstanding that is not usually de- 
veloped by talking together merely. 
ANOTHER phase of this prob- 
** lem concerns training sons and 
daughters to become successful hus- 
bands and wives, fathers and moth- 
ers. Some one has recently sug- 
gested trial vocations as substitutes 
for trial marriages on the theory that 
if people were trained in vocations 
and had some experience in re- 
sponsible work, and in this connec- 
tion, learned the value of money 
and the necessity of wise and limit- 
ed spending, there would be little 
need of trial marriages. 

This may be true, but of equal or 
even greater importance is practical 
experience in carrying on the essen- 
tial work of the home. This is in 
part a matter of knowing how, but 
it is also and more fundamentally a 
matter of habit and attitude. 

One who has been trained from 
childhood to cooperate with other 
members of the family in carrying 
on the business of the household is 
much more likely to continue such 
cooperation in mature life than is 
one who has never been thus trained. 
Many a joyous honeymoon has been 
marred through one party's throw- 
ing all the home burden upon the 
other. When both parties shirk re- 
sponsibility, home life becomes prac- 
tically impossible and the young 
couple may then choose between a 
boarding house and the divorce 

HABIT, as has often been pointed 
out, is one of the most power- 
ful factors in life. The habits of 
childhood and youth tend to persist 
throughout life. This applies «to the 
habit of work and the bearing of 
responsibilities about the home no 
less than it applies to other habits. 
Habits also tend to create attitudes 
and these together are important 



factors in developing ideals, all of 
which combine to create the moral 
and social atmosphere of the home. 

Home work and the attitude of 
each member of the family toward 
that work is a very important fac- 
tor in determining what the home 
atmosphere shall be. The good or 
the evil results of training in the 
home do not, of course, end in the 
home, either the one in which the 
child grows up or in the new home 
he has founded. The results go out 
into the life of the whole communi- 
ty and affect the character of the 
state and the nation. The very life 
of these institutions is determined in 
large measure by the families of 
which they are constituted, and the 
kind of training each new generation 
of citizens receives in their home. 
IRRESPONSIBLE and shiftless 
f- members of families are very 
naturally irresponsible and shiftless 
members of the community, persons 

who are always willing to let some 
one else carry the load while they 
share the benefits. Such an attitude 
not infrequently leads to positive 
dishonesty. Out of this class ordi- 
narily come the criminals, large and 
small, of the community. The more 
able and ambitious the individual 
the more disastrous may be the lack 
of proper training. 

On the contrary, the early estab- 
lishment of habits of industry, re- 
sponsibility, with harmonious co- 
operation in the family, lays the 
foundation for those qualities of 
character which make of the natural- 
ly capable the great social, political, 
and religious leaders of the com- 
munity; while of those of ordinary 
or even less than ordinary ability it 
makes the substantial, dependable 
body, of citizens upon whom the or- 
derly life of the state and the nation 

is Service plus! 

The word service is so often used and so often misused that we 
hesitate to use it as descriptive of the service we offer you — 'because 
every time you avail yourself of its almost countless uses in the home, 
farm and factory, it is a dependable servant, always there when you 
push a button or turn a switch. 


You have heard of our combination rate for home use of electric 
service. We would like to have the opportunity of going- into it thor- 
oughly and explaining - its flexibility and advantages. 

Call at our nearest office, or telephone for a representative to call 
at your home, office or factory. He will be glad to explain on the 
premises in just what ways Electric Service can be used by you at the 
highest efficiency and the lowest cost — and he will tell you also how 
easy it is to buy electric equipment from us on our convenient sales 


Efficient Public Service 

Questions in Theology 

Questions in Theology ; as presented 
to the Theological Department at 
the recent Conference. 

(Discriminate carefully between 
what the Book of Mormon says and 
what you infer from what it says.) 

1. What does the Book of Mor- 
mon tell us about the pre-earth life 
— (a) of Christ? (b) of man gen- 
erally? 2. Is there any mention 
there about the pre-earth life of 
satan? 3. What details are we in 
possession of respecting the pre- 
earth life? Which of these do we 
get from the Book of Mormon? 4. 
What does the Record say of the 
purpose of our coming to the earth- 


5. According to the Book of 
Mormon what is the relationship 
between God and man? 6. In what 
ways does the Record show the 
Lord's concern for man? 7. Tell 
the ways through which the Book 
of Mormon people received light 
from heaven. 8. What is said about 
Christ's relationship to man, to 
America, to the world generally? 

9. Does the Record say anything 
about the Godhead? If so, what? 

10. What attribute do you think of 
in connection with the fact that God 
was so concerned with the people 
on this continent? 11. Study Alma, 
chapter 29, verse 8, and give your 
interpretation of it. How does that 
idea conflict with the Jewish idea 
at the same time? 

12. Did, the Jaredites have a 
church? If so, in what ways did 
it differ from that among the Ne- 
phites? 13. Describe in detail the 
church among the Nephites, keeping 
close to the facts. 14. Compare the 
Nephite church— '(a) with that in 

Palestine at the time of the apostles, 
and (b) with our own in this age. 
15. What religious ordinances did 
the Nephites have? (Distinguish 
between a principle and an ordin- 
ance.) 16. What manner of life did 
the Nephite church require of its 
members? (Be specific.) 17. Give 
in detail the teachings of the Book 
of Mormon respecting the state be- 
tween death and the resurrection. 
18. What does the Book of Mormon 
say on the resurrection from the 
dead? 19. According to Lehi what 
is the purpose of life? Distinguish 
between pleasure, happiness, joy. 
20. What do you understand by — 
(a) the spirit of a home? (b) of 
a book? (c) of a person? Tell 
the various kinds of spirit each of 
these may have. 21. What is the 
spirit of the Book of Mormon? 
Which of these adjectives apply to it 
— gay, solemn, serious, pious, relig- 
ious, atheistic, irreverent? 22. Is 
there any humor in the Book of 
Mormon? If not, why not? Do 
you have any reason for believing 
that the Nephites had a sense of 
humor? 23. Is the Book of Mor- 
mon too serious in its general tone — 
(a) for you? (b) for the boys and 
girls of today? 
Questions on Nephite Life 

(Discriminate carefully between 
what the Book of Mormon says and 
what you infer from what it savs.) 
I. . 

1. What kind of houses did the 
Jaredites live in? The Nephites? 
The Lamanites? 2. Did they have 
any domesticated animals? If so, 
can you tell what they were? 3. To 
what extent did they carry on trade 
— first, the Jaredites, and next, the 
Nephites ? What about the Laman- 
ites in this respect? 4, Did the 



Jaredites or the Nephites know any- 
thing about ships and navigation? 
If so, to what extent? 5. What do 
you know about the money of the 
Book of Mormon peoples? What 
metals did they use? 
6. How large were the families 
of the Jaredites and the Nephites? 

7. Did either of these people practice 
plural marriage? Do you know of 
any :nonpolygamous families that 
have 'had twenty -two children? 

8. What was the work assigned to 
the Nephite women ? What influ- 
ence did they exert, so far as we 
know? 9. Did the Nephites gener- 
ally know how to read and write? 
Give references for your statements. 
10. What do we gather about the 
training of children from the Book 
of Mormon? 

11. What kind of government did 
the Jaredites have? 12. What is 
the difference between an "absolute 
monarchy" and a "limited mon- 
archy?" 13. What kinds of gov- 
ernment did the Nephites have at 
various times during their history? 

Take each of these and compare — 

(a) with the contemporary govern- 
ments across the sea in Europe, and 

(b) with our own at the time of 
Joseph Smith. 14. What sort of 
political government did the Laman- 
ites have? 15. To what extent did 
the Jaredites and the Nephites gen- 
erally participate in government? 
16. Point out the ways in which the 
Record says the government was a 
failure. That is, what defects de- 
veloped ? 

17. What occupations did the 
Joredites follow? 18. What oc- 
cupations did the Nephites follow? 

19. What did the Lamanites eat, 
and how did they obtain their food ? 

20. What social sins, like prostitu- 
tion and drunkenness, manifested 
themselves among the peoples of 
the Book of Mormon ? 21. Did they 
have any poverty? How did they 
deal with this social problem? 
22. What characteristically human 
qualities, good and bad, do you find 
in the Book of Mormon? 23. Are 
any implements of any kind spoken 
of in the Record? If so, what? 

My Gift 

Lucy Wright Snow 

God gave to me a gift — a spirit child; 
One nurtured by His side in His own 

Heaven ; 
He bade me bear my precious gift to 

There to endow it with a mortal birth; 
To teach my babe from whence he came, 

and why 
He wandered thus from his loved home 

on high. 
So, through the valley of the death I 

Bearing to earth my babe — my God- 
given guest. 
God help me by Thy gift- -this child to me 
To gain a greater knowledge of Thy 

power ; 
Quicken my senses through my sacrifice, 
To feel the presence of Thy Comforter, 

each hour. 

Teach me Thy ways, oh Lord, that I may 

How best to live and love while here 

below ; 
Endow me with the power to serve Thy 

Cause — 
To teach my heavenly guest celestial 

Help me to be, at least, a thankful child. 
Worthy to come back to Thy home again ; 
Let me return to Thee and bring my 

To lay it at Thy feet, a monument 
Of strength, love, virtue, wisdom, grace, 
Added upon, enriched, perfected here; 
Let this, Thy gracious gift, my child to 


Return approved, beloved, my gift to 

^ *f^ 

The Old Juniper Tree 

J3t/ Mrs. George Q. Rich 

We followed the trail up the mountain 

To old Juniper, one May day; 

As we climbed to lofty summits, 

The wild flowers strewed the way. 

Far down below flowed the river; 

An eagle soared over head; 

There were footprints on the mountainside, 

Where the bounding deer had tread; 

We heard the mournful cooing 

Of a dove as it called its mate; 

In all that majestic setting 

There was naught of strife or hate. 

From that lofty throne on the mountain 
We could see far, snow-capped peaks, 
Could hear the voice of the forest, 
Where whispering breezes oft speaks, 
We saw giant pines and cedars, 
But old Juniper reigns king of all, 
Its bark all dry and crispy, 
Its branches all twisted and gnarled. 
Like a silent sentinel watching 
Each day and throughout the night, 
In spring, summer, autumn and winter, 
The old juniper stands in its might. 

We felt its aged influence 
As we stood beside it there, 
Watching its wind-swept branches 
Bowing, as if in prayer. 
Up in that mountain vastness 
Living a long, long span, 
Looking so old and ancient 
Like the mummies we see of man. 
Now the silence of ages is broken 
And many that long trail will climb, 
To gaze upon the old Juniper, 
And view that scene sublime. 

NOTE: The "Old Juniper" is the oldest living juniper tree in the world. 
It is more than 3,000 years old, with a circumference of 26 feet and 8 inches 
and is 44 V 2 feet high. It grows out of a large cliff of rock. It was discov- 
ered in July, 1923, in Logan Canyon by Professor Maurice Linford. It is 
protected by the Government. 

Thorn's "Everyday Problems of the 
Everyday Child" 

By Lais V . Hales 

UNTIL recently parents have 
not appreciated the fact that 
the obligations of parenthood 
mean a great deal more than to see 
that the child has enough to eat and 
wear and does not steal, lie, or set 
fires. Of the many helpful books 
that have been written in the last 
three years along child development 
and parenthood obligation lines, Dr. 
Douglas A. Thorn's "Everyday 
Problems of the Everyday Child" 
stands out prominently. Written in 
1927, it received the "Children, The 
Parents' Magazine" medal for the 
best book of the year for parents. 

Through his "Habit Clinics" in 
Boston, Dr. Thorn had received a 
wealth of practical experience with 
children of all types. He felt that 
during the formative years a child is 
likely to acquire some undesirable 
habits and personality traits such as 
cruelty, lying, anger, etc. This was 
to be expected in some phase of 
every child's development and did 
not in any way stamp a child as ab- 
normal or cast any reflection upon 
the parents. 

So he wrote his book to plead 
that parents, instead of being 
ashamed and humiliated at the ap- 
pearance of undesirable traits in 
their children, face them, study 
them, and deal with them under- 
standingly. To him one of the most 
important tasks of parents is to 
see that the boy or girl is happy 
and is learning how to meet prob- 
lems of everyday life successfully. 
Loving the child is not enough. 
Knowledge is required for the job 
of parenthood. Above all, Dr. Thorn 
stresses the importance of the mo- 

tives for conduct rather than the 
conduct itself. 

EVERY living thing is affected 
both by heredity and environ- 
ment, but the great majority of chil- 
dren with undesirable habits, per- 
sonality deviations, and delinquent 
trends are not the product of an 
irreparable past, over which they 
have no control. They are largely 
the result of the environment in 
which they have been reared ; and 
the dominating feature of this en- 
vironment is always the parent. 

Habits are the tools by which we 
achieve health, happiness, and ef- 
ficiency. Reward, praise, blame, 
and punishment must be considered 
in bringing about desirable habits 
in the child. Children are born 
without habits. Existence necessi- 
tates the taking on of various modes 
of action. Whether these modes shall 
be desirable or undesirable will de- 
pend upon the training given the 
child. But important as is the 
guiding, directing, and training of 
the child, it must not overshadow the 
creating in the home of an atmos- 
phere of affection, kindly consider- 
ation, and fair play. 

/~\BEDIENCE in the child should 
^^ not be looked upon as an end in 
itself, for it is only a means to an 
end, and that end is self-control and 
restraint. Forceful and uncompro- 
mising measures on the part of par- 
ents to gain obedience lead often to 
stubbornness. Obedience comes 
from discipline. The child will learn 
the value of obedience by experience, 
and not by any process of moraliza- 
tion. Let the child learn by expe- 



rience that his way of doing - things 
works out to his disadvantage while 
obedience leads to pleasure and sat- 

Make as few demands as possible 
upon the child and stimulate him to 
his best efforts by compensation. 
Approbation should be given without 
too much restraint. Material incen- 
tives should be given. Every com- 
mand made by a parent should be 
followed up. A command worth 
giving is worth carrying out, but 
avoid overcorrection and autocratic 

Above all things let parents expect 
obedience. Do not let the child feel 
that you are uncertain as to his re- 
sponse, or that you are sure he will 
disobey. The child particularly 
wants to live up to what is expected 
of him. 

ANGER is experienced by every 
individual. We do not want to 
eradicate it, but rather, through ed- 
ucation, training, and experience, to 
teach the child how to control this 
emotion. Let the child early in life 
see that anger does not work out to 
his advantage. Often anger is only 
a danger signal, warning parents to 
look further for a deeper cause. 

Find out what the child is think- 
ing about. What are his problems, 
hopes, and disappointments ? A rea- 
sonable explanation of why a child 
should do a particular thing will do 
much to train him along the path 
of obedience and protect him from 
irritability and spells of anger. 

Fp EAR is a common emotion — one 
that may prove to be construc- 
tive or destructive in the develop- 
ment of the personality of the child. 
The stimulation of fear in a child 
is not only barbarous and cruel, but 
practically useless. Parents should 
not create about their children a per- 
petual atmosphere of fear — of ever 
present danger — by incessantly 

warning them of dangers. Caution 
is necessary to success but too many 
people are dominated by fear. The 
fears of childhood are very real to 
the child and should never be mini- 
mized, criticized, or ridiculed. Pa- 
tience and consideration, with a 
kindly and confident attitude will do 
much to quiet the fears of childhood. 

JEALOUSY between the ages of 
one and five is a normal reaction 
common to most children. If, by 
accident or otherwise, this emotion 
is fostered and allowed to dominate 
the personality, serious difficulty in 
social adaptation will follow. By its 
very nature jealousy carries with it a 
lowering of self -valuation ; followed 
by humiliation, concealment, and 

Much conduct that is described as 
queer, eccentric, or peculiar is based 
on jealousy. It is not an inherit- 
ance ; it is usually the result of sel- 
fishness, which means faulty train- 
ing. The child who has learned to 
share his toys, who has learned to 
appreciate that his mother has other 
duties in life besides fulfilling his 
every wish, will probably not be 
much handicapped by jealousy. 

HONESTY is acquired, not in- 
herited. The instinct of ac- 
quisition is strong in children and 
they must be trained to differentiate 
within the family group that which 
belongs to them from that which is 
the property of somebody else. To 
treat stealing in children, the im- 
portant thing to do is to determine 
what purpose the stealing served in 
the emotional life of the child and 
then make every effort to help the 
child meet this need in a legitimate 

Stealing may be the reaction to a 
jealous inferiority, to revenge, or to 
a blind effort to find some satisfac- 
tory outlet. If parents meet the 
problem of dishonesty openly and 



frankly and intelligently there is no 
cause for alarm. If they keep in 
touch with the daily activities of 
their children they will detect the 
habit of stealing and dishonesty be- 
fore it has gained much headway. . 
RARELY do we find a child who 
is wilfully and wantonly des- 
tructive. Activity is fundamental 
with them, and there is always a plan 
behind it — an end in view. The 
child has no sense of values so he 
should have a corner of his own to 
play in. Curiosity, the desire to find 
out what makes things go, how they 
are made, and what can be done 
with them, is the cause of most of 
what we call the destructive tenden- 
cies in children. 

Along with the above traits and 
habits Dr. Thorn discusses many 
others such as feeding, sleeping, in- 
feriority, truancy, lying, sex, and 
teacher and pupil relationship. This 
book is richly illustrated with indi- 

vidual cases bearing upon his sub- 
ject. Dr. Thorn's attitude, however, 
is the most helpful thing about his 
book. It is one of complete sym- 
pathy with the child and encourage- 
ment for the often bewildered and 
discouraged and humiliated parent. 

We feel the wisdom of Dr. Thorn 
and his earnest desire to help. The 
book is written in such a way that 
it is most readable, helpful, and ap- 
plicable to the lives of our children. 
He stresses always the motives for 
conduct rather than the conduct it- 
self, the importance of parental 
study of children, and the use of pa- 
tience, intelligence, and frankness in 
any matter dealing with children. He 
pleads for companionship between 
parents and children, urging that it 
be established in the early years of 
the child's life. 

It is a very friendly book full of 
the common sense so necessary in 
proper parenthood. 


THE problem of selecting- a college with which to entrust the 
business training- of your sons and daughters is of the utmost 
importance. Human lives are involved — your own flesh and blood 
— and the training received will become an inseparable part of 
those lives. If good it will bring success and honor; if poor it will 
prove a handicap for life. 

The development of character is the chief aim of all education, and 
you want to be sure that your sons and daughters will be surrounded 
by good influences. You want them to gain in business integrity as well 
as in knowledge and technical ability, and no matter how good their 
home training has been their character will be influenced by the environ- 
ment in which they receive their business education. 

At the L. D. S. Business College the maintenance of a high moral 
standard is considered of first importance, and when yon entrust your 
sons and daughters to our care you may be sure that they will be sur- 
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Doesn't this appeal to you? You cannot estimate in dollars and 
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training amid such elevating and refining influences. You need have 
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The Homeless Ones 

By Alfred Osmond 

I sing of those whose parents have been parted, 

Not by the hand of death, which would be kind ; 

But by a broken vow of the false-hearted 

Who desecrate the temples of the mind. 

Methinks their cruelty is less refined 

Than those who rob the coffers of the poor. 

They steal the birthrights that should be enshrined 

In homes that should be builded to endure 

The storms that make the brave more steadfast and secure 

The homeless ones who in there dire distress 

Will never feel a mother's fond embrace. 

The children whom the Lord can hardly bless 

With compensation for parental grace. 

The storms of life that they will have to face 

Without the blessings of a happy home 

Stamps wantonness with that debauched disgrace 

That curses the unfortunate who roam, 

With no protecting care from heaven's heedless dome. 

Torn from their cradles by a legal hand, . 

I hear and heed the homeless children crying. 

The curse is stalking boldly through the land, 

While wounded love in chains is sadly sighing. 

While hopes of happiness are slowly dying, 

The wrecker of the home laughs loud with scorn. 

But Vengeance, like an angry god, is flying, 

To herald forth the rights of these unborn 

And comfort breaking hearts of those who weep and mourn. 

Think not to fly from justice, but be sure 

That all the fairest prospects of the nation 

Are rocked in cradles that must be secure 

From robbers and their creeds- of desecration. 

The birdlings, in their nests of procreation, 

Are often crying for paternal care. 

Heed not their cries, and drums of devastation 

Will call to arms the storm-gods of the air, 

To overwhelm the world 'neath billows of despair. 








The Dawn of Hope For Saint and Sinner 
in the Life to Come 

By J. H. Paul 

1. "Are there Few That Be Saved?" 

SUPPOSE we undertake to an- 
swer this question : "What 
doctrine is it, that more than 
any other has awakened the minds 
and quickened the hearts of men 
with a new confidence in this life 
and in the life to come?" My answer 
would be those revelations through 
Joseph Smith which indicate the 
final salvation of practically all, and 
possibly all, of the human race. 

When Parley P. Pratt, as he 
viewed the heights and depths, the 
truth and beauty, of the doctrines 
that restored confidence and faith 
to a world floundering - in the gloom 
of the religions of despair, wrote 
in a sort of ecstasy, "The morning 
breaks, the shadows flee," he must 
have been contrasting with this 
glorious truth the representations of 
"orthodox" creeds : the lake of fire, 
the worm that never dies, the con- 
demnation of heathens, unbelievers, 
and infants, and the endless tortures 
of the so-called lost souls. 

Infinite Love and Boundless Mercy 

T^HE restored gospel had shown 
* him that the Hebrew seers, the 
Son of the Most High, and the 
truths revealed to Joseph, in our 
day, unite in portraying, not a pic- 
ture of endless future woe but one 
of infinite love and future joy. In 
expressions that, as the skeptic Hux- 
ley remarked, "are as tender and 
consoling to our human weakness 
and insignificance as a mother's em- 
brace, but sublime also as the starry 
heavens and majestic as the onward 

sweep of ages," they proclaim to 
doubtful, fearing, misled mortals, 
"The eternal God is thy refuge, and 
underneath are the everlasting 

This was the voice of revelation a 
hundred lifetimes ago — a light that 
re-dawned upon tlfte minds of men. 
when Joseph Smith explained that 
we are at school on earth, that we 
shall be at home in heaven ; that we 
left our Father's courts on high for 
an experience in this intermediate 
school; and that, if we now faith- 
fully keep our second estate, we shall 
quickly, as even the sinners shall 
finally, graduate into that higher 
school, that more perfect society of 
the future life, where the many man- 
sions be. We shall each be placed 
in that "mansion" which we have 
fitted ourselves to occupy — the one 
that will be best adapted for our re- 
formation, growth, development, and 
transformation. We shall, in the 
words of Tennyson, 

Rejoin the lost, the loved of earth, 
And greet each kindred breast, 

Where the wicked cease from trou- 
And the weary are at rest. 

The Foundation of Hope 

THIS is most striking and useful 
of recent contributions to the 
thoughts and aspirations of man- 
kind — that in all the years to be, 
and throughout the very eternities to 
come, the fathers of men cannot 
be complete without their children, 
nor the children without their fath- 
ers ; and, still more wonderful, that 



the felicity of the heavenly hosts — 
yea, and that of the Most High him- 
self — depends in part upon the re- 
turn of the prodigajs who have 
wandered far from their Father's 
house, which is, indeed, their own 
home and heaven. 

Is Jesus our everlasting enemy? 
or our all-wise, eternal friend? 
What shall our answer be ? 

Ideas But Recently Held 

HpHAT the powers and personages 
-1 of heaven are the enemies rath- 
er than the friends of the human 
race ; that only a few, the elect, will 
be chosen for the better life of the 
world to come; and that the vast 
majority of mankind are doomed to 
a future of endless suffering, from 
which no deliverance can ever come 
— these ideas, a brief century ago, 
were leading doctrines of standard 
Christian theology. 

How such doctrines arose, and 
why they gained and maintained for 
ages so firm a hold upon the faith 
of the Christian world, was due to 
the very simple circumstance that 
these doctrines had apparently been 
taught by Christ and the apostles. 
As facts divinely revealed, these 
ideas were held to be beyond contro- 
versy. And certain scriptures, when 
taken by themselves, undoubtedly 
suggest that in the future world the 
fate of the great bulk of mankind — 
literally myriads of the human race 
— will be one of never ending sin 
and of eternal suffering. 

"Fear Not, Little Flock" 

IT was the teaching of Jesus that 
* only a few should be found ready 
at his coming; and it is an obvious 
historical fact that comparatively 
few accepted his doctrines while he 
taught them on the earth. These 
were matters that greatly perplexed 
his disciples; and notwithstanding 

his reassuring words to them— - 
'Tear not, little flock; for it is your 
Father's good pleasure to give you 
the kingdom" (Luke 12:32)— they 
still hesitated to believe that the 
great majority of people were wrong 
and that only a few were right. 

''Then said one unto him, Lord, 
are there few that be saved? And 
he said unto them, Strive to enter 
in at the strait gate ; for many, I 
say unto you, will seek to enter in, 
and shall not be able." (Luke 13 :23- 
24.) "For wide is the gate and 
broad is the way that leadeth to 
destruction, and many there be 
which go in thereat ; because strait 
is the gate and narrow is the way 
that leadeth unto life, and few there 
be that find it" (Matt. 7:13-14.) 

Nothing, men argued, could be 
clearer than these scriptures, which 
plainly teach (do they not?) that 
those who are to be saved are few 

The Few That Hearken 

EVEN among the few who are 
summoned "out of darkness in- 
to his marvelous light" * * * "not 
many wise men after the flesh, not 
many mighty, not many noble are 
called" ; for "God hath chosen the 
weak things of the world" (I Cor. 
1 \26-27) to do his work — "a chosen 
generation, a royal priesthood, a holy 
nation, a peculiar people" (I Peter 

The truths of the spirit are usu- 
ally hidden from the "wise and the 
prudent" and revealed unto the low 
and the humble — ''the babes and 
sucklings." As in many other realms 
of truth, to be right and to be pop- 
ular are different and often opposed 
things. Only the pure in heart, the 
poor in spirit, the meek, the merci- 
ful, the peacemakers, and especially 
"they which are persecuted for 
rightousness' sake," shall inherit the 



earth at last and shall enter the 
kingdom." All this, as every stu- 
dent knows, the New Testament 
plainly declares. 

The uniform declaration of holy 
writ is that believers are to be few 
in number, "the salt of the earth," 
the "light of the world," known be- 
fore men by one distinctive mark — 
by their good works (Matt. 5 :l-20). 
As to the great bulk of mankind, 
those who did not receive and those 
who merely professed to receive the 
gospel of light, they were to be 
found, at the time of Christ's sec- 
ond coming, in a state of spiritual 
darkness and unbelief. The churches 
themselves were to be in the last 
stages of apostasy, the "man of sin" 
revealed, and the anti-Christ him- 
self was to be found exalted when 
the Lord should come again. "Nev- 
ertheless, shall the Son of Man, 
when he cometh, find faith on 
earth?" (See Matt. 24; Luke 18: 
8, 1. Tim. 4:11. Tim. 3-4; 11. 
Peter 3:11. Thess. 2, and many 
other passages). 

The Many That Must Yet Hear 

NOT alone was it easy and na- 
tural, it was almost inevitable, 
from the general tenor of scripture, 
to conclude that the gospel is for 
only a few, "the very elect," of 
whom also it was spoken that even 
they should "barely be saved." The 
more intensely men of learning, 
without the guidance of revelation 
and inspiration, studied and medi- 
tated scripture, the more they be- 
came convinced that only a (few 
could be chosen for eternal life. 
Students of theology were tri- 
umphant in asking: Does it not 
follow, then, from all the scriptures, 
that only a few shall be saved? 
while practically the whole universe 
of souls shall be lost or condemned ? 

"Not at all," answers the modern 
Prophet. But why not? 

"Because we trust in the living 
God, who is the Savior of all men" 
(I Tim. 4:10). "For God sent not 
his Son into the world to condemn 
the world, but that the world 
through him might be saved" (John 
3 :16-17). "Who will have all men 
to be saved * * * who gave himself 
a ransom for all" (I Tim. 2:4-6). 

TWO thousand years have passed 
since these words of 'grace and 
mercy were spoken by servants of 
the Most High ; in all that time only 
a few, compared with the total pop- 
ulation of the earth, have hearkened 
to the teaching of their Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ; and without 
question, even in our own day, the 
great majority of mankind have not 
so much as heard of his doctrines. 

What shall we say of the vast and 
uncounted hosts of men, the untold 
thousands of millions, who lived and 
died before Christ came? Are they 
lost? The descendants of Israel 
alone were to become as numerous 
as the sands of the sea ; and the few 
of them who ever heard of the Mas- 
ter, for the most part rejected him. 

The Cultured Greeks? The Noble 

SHALL the final estate of the mil- 
lions of people in the populous 
empires of antiquity, and especially 
the Greeks, with their marvelous 
works and culture be one of con- 
demnation? Grecian glory, Ruskin 
claims, is destined to survive long 
after the civilizations of Western 
Europe shall have crumbled to dust 
and been forgotten. What shall be 
the eternal lestate of these tjruth 
seeking and artistic generations of 
mankind, who lived and died before 
the meridian of time, and hence had 
no opportunity to hear the truth for 
which so many of them longed ? 



PLATO would have rejoiced to see 
Christ's day. At the conclusion 
of his inquiries into the basis and 
nature of moral truth and religious 
certainty, he said in a sort of des- 
pair, "We must wait till some one 
comes who can tell us the truth." 
Shall Plato and others without 
number, resembling him in their de- 
sire to know what they should do to 
be saved, be forever denied the priv- 
ilege of hearing and believing on him 
for whom they hoped and waited? 

Later, among the heroic Romans, 
consider such men as the noble Bru- 
tus. "His life was gentle, and the 
elements so mixed in him that nature 
might stand up and say to all the 
world, "This was a man." Can any 
one, using his own powers of rea- 
soning, maintain that the upright 
and divine soul of such a man will 
be eternally lost, simply because, 
through no fault of his own, he 
never heard of the gospel of peace? 

Other Great Peoples 

A FAVORITE diversion of the 
writer during a missionary pe- 
riod in Great Britain, was to ask the 
congregations that would stop to 
hear us on the streets and elsewhere 
questions like this : What think you 
shall be the portion, in the eternities 
to come, of the high-minded and 
courageous queen of these islands — 
Boadacea, who roused the retreating 
Celts and gathered her sons and war- 
riors about her to resist the Roman 

invaders who everywhere "made a 
solitude and called it peace" — can 
you believe theologians who tell you 
that she and her noble comrades in 
arms are doomed to suffer forever 
the torments and punishments of the 
condemned, simply because she and 
they happened to be born and to 
live in a country to which the full 
light of truth had not as yet come ? 

Deep in your hearts, you believe 
it not ; for it really means that the 
great Eternal Father and the Son 
whom he sent into the world thai 
the world through him might De 
saved, is not your eternal friend but 
your eternal enemy — a thought im- 
possible to be true, since it is con- 
trary to all that has been revealed 
of their nature and perfections. 

Beautiful to look upon, beauti- 
ful to live with, she radiated good- 
ness, purity, gladness ; her mere 
presence was sanctification and bles- 
sedness. Surely she has earned the 
sweet repose of the ransomed spirit. 

As we gazed at her in her casket 
and noted how strong and peaceful 
she looked, the words of Holmes 
seemed especially appropriate for 
her : 

"Death reaches not a spirit such as 
thine — 
It can but steal the robe that hid 
thy wings ; 
Though thy warm breathing pres- 
ence we resign, 
Still in our heart its loving sem- 
blance clings." 

For Alice 

By Kate Thomas 

Color and perfume! All spring ever gave 

Gladdens the world today; 
I may not see the green upon her grave 

She lies so far away. 

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After sixteen years of service to 
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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

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Relief Society Conference — 

Officers' Meeting, Morning Session . . . . 282 
Department Meeting, Afternoon Session 293 
General Session, Saturday Morning.... 311 
General Session, Saturday Afternoon. . . . 324 

Communion Merling Clyde 310 

Portrait of President Louise Y. Robison. 308 

Editorial — Mrs. Jeanette A. Hyde 309 

Summer Outing for Undernursed Chil- 
dren. 1930 310 

Text Book for the Course in Literature. 337 
Presentation of Bathsheba W. Smith Por- 
trait Kate M. Barker 338 

A Prayer Elsie E. Barrett 338 

Relief Society Annual Report 339 

God, Open Your Door.. Myron E. Crandall 342 
Salt Lake Visiting Nurse Association.... 343 
Nature's Interpreter. .Myron E. Crandall 344 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

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JUNE, 1930 

NO. 6 


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Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII 

JUNE, 1930 

No. 6 

Relief Society Conference 

THE Annual Conference of 
the Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, was held April 
4 and 5, 1930, in Salt Lake City, 
Utah. President Louise Y. Rob- 
ison presided, assisted by Counse- 
lor Julia A. Child. Sincere solic- 
itude was expressed that First 
Counselor Amy Brown Lyman was 
prevented by an accident to her 
ankle from being present. Love 
and best wishes from the Relief 
Society were sent in her absence. 

The Centennial Spirit 

From its opening session the cen- 
tennial spirit pervaded the entire 
Conference — the department meet- 
ings, the President's Banquet, and 
the General Sessions. The follow- 
ing sessions were held : An Officer's 
Meeting, for general, stake, and 
mission officers, every stake in the 
Church and every mission in the 
United States, Canada, and Mexico 
being represented. 

Seven department meetings, 
satisfactory, interesting, and largely 
attended, were held ; and on the 
evening of the first day, April 4, a 
delightful Presidents' Banquet was 
given at the Hotel Utah., 

On Saturday, April 5, there were 
two General Sessions, with overflow 
meetings. The departments featured 
were the Secretaries' Meeting, the 
first of the kind to be held during 
the general sessions of the Confer- 
ence ; the General Educational as- 
sembly to which all stake and ward 
supervisors and class leaders were 
invited ; and the following depart- 
ments : Theological, Literary, So- 
cial Service Case- Work, Work and 
Business Meetings, and Social 
Service Class Leaders. 

The music of the entire Confer- 
ence was one of its most delightful 
features. Ably directed by the 
Music Committee of the General 
Board, the Chorister, and her cap- 
able assistants, a truly delightful 
musical program was furnished for 
each occasion, no pains being spared 
by the leaders to make the music a 
real feature. 

Relief Society officers from the 
Salt Lake County stakes were in 
charge of the ushers, and the 
promptness with which the large 
audiences were seated was an evi- 
dence of their efficiency. 

The Record Attendance 

OLL call showed every general 
officer and board member (22) 




in attendance with the exception of 
First Counselor Amy B. Lyman : 
stake and mission officers 659, in- 
cluding stake presidents 87, coun- 
selors 144, secretary-treasurers 71, 
other board members 346, mission 
presidents 11 — a total of 681. In 
addition to the stake and mission 
officers a large number of ward 
officers were present at all depart- 
ment meetings and general sessions, 
with record breaking crowds of 
members. General sessions filled 
the Assembly Hall to capacity, and 
the overflow meeting, held in the 
Auditorium of the Bishop's Build- 
ing was also well attended. 

It had been intended to hold the 
general sessions on Saturday in the 
Tabernacle — a hope that was enter- 
tained up to the day of the Confer- 
ence. However, it was learned that 
since the pageant was to be pre- 
sented on Sunday, it would be neces- 
sary for the Tabernacle to be used 
by the pageant committee during 
their elaborate preparations. The 
Relief Society therefore held its 
conference in the Assembly Hall. 

The Place of Meeting 

IT has for some time been evident 
that the Assembly Hall is not 
adequate for the general sessions, 
and realizing that the present Con- 

ference would exceed all former 
sessions in attendance the Board 
earnestly desired to hold the general 
sessions in the Tabernacle where all 
could be comfortably seated. When 
it was definitely learned that this 
could not be, President Robison de- 
cided to repeat the program of the 
general sessions in an overflow 
meeting in the Auditorium of the 
Bishop's Building, which convened 
15 minutes later than the one in the 
Assembly Hall. As the numbers on 
the program were completed, they 
were immediately repeated in the 
overflow meeting. 

President Louise Y. Robison pre- 
sided in the general sessions in the 
Assembly Hall ; Counselor Julia A. 
Child, in the overflow meeting in the 
Bishop's Building. The plan worked 
out well, hundreds who would other- 
wise have been unable to hear the 
sessions of the conference (being 
comfortably accommodated. Though 
it was something of a strain upon 
those who had the numbers on the 
program, it was yet a joy to them to 
be able to respond and meet the 
emergency. A wonderful spirit per- 
vaded the meetings ; and the sessions 
will long be remembered. 

Exquisite music was again a note- 
worthy feature. 

Officers' Meeting 



MY heart is full of praise and 
thanksgiving; may your faith 
and prayers sustain and help me to 
express what I would say. It seems 
to me that the words of our beau- 
tiful hymn, "From on High Jehovah 
Speaks," have been literally fulfilled. 
One hundred years ago the Church 
was organized, with six members, 
all men; but back of every man, 


sustaining him in every effort, was 
a woman. The same beautiful 
spirit of cooperation has always ex- 

A Prayer 

This morning in the preliminary 
prayer meeting the General Board 
prayed for this congregation as for 
itself. You always have our faith, 
our love. Exquisite tributes have 
come to us, among them this mag- 
nificent basket of roses in the Relief 



Society colors and this lovely basket 
of carnations. Tokens from every 
quarter of the Relief Society give 
evidence of the strength of your 
support, and of the spirit you man- 
ifest in all your endeavors. 

We are greatly touched by the 
presence here of sisters who have 
come from so far, many of them 
under great difficulties, to be with 
us upon this memorable occasion, 
but we miss the presence of our 
First Counselor, Amy Brown Ly- 
man, who was prevented from re- 
turning from Los Angeles in time 
for Conference, as she had intended. 
We send to her our love and best 
wishes for a speedy recovery. 

A Memory 

SISTERS, I know that you are 
all thinking of our beloved Sister 
Williams ; and I should like to spend 
the whole morning in paying tribute 
to her, one of the noblest of women, 
her life a beautiful example for 
every Latter-day Saint woman ; and 
here, on this beautiful morning, I 
feel that we sense her presence and 
feel her influence to bless. 

Since last October Conference, at 
the invitation of President and 
Sister Moyle, I have had the great 
privilege of going through the East- 
ern States Mission. In all my life, 
it seems to me, I have never had 
such a glorious time, and had my 
faith so strengthened. Meeting with 
the saints, seeing them in their isola- 
tion, we see that the only touch 
they can have of the gospel is 
through the Elders and Brother and 
Sister Moyle. To have daughters 
and sons in the mission field, how 
thankful you should be. Sometimes 
we feel that the young people are 
not taking life seriously ; but I came 
home with the feeling that so long 
as we have young people such as 
those in the Eastern States Mission, 
and in every mission, we have no 
need to fear for the future of the 

Church. No doubt I should feel 
exactly the same way about all the 
other missions in the Church. 


HpHERE are, this morning, some 
*• problems that I should like to 
talk to you about and have you con- 

Social Service Institutes : We are 
hoping that there will be more in- 
stitutes in the Church for the Social 
Welfare work. We shall try to help 
you pay the expenses of someone 
from your stakes to come to the 
General Office and take this train- 
ing. The plan will be worked out 
later, when we shall be happy to tell 
you the details of it. We are deeply 
sensible of the marvelous work you 
are doing in the stakes, that of 
taking care of those who are in need, 
and of building up families. If 
there is anything we can do to make 
it easier for you, that is our desire 
to learn, our great objective to ac- 
complish. We ask, however, that 
you learn the purpose of an institute 
in your stake, since some of the 
stakes, not fully understanding what 
was intended, have not been pre- 
pared. Before you ask for an insti- 
tute, work it out in your stake, get 
the cooperation of your Bishop and 
the sisters, and know that they want 
it and will be interested in it, and 
get the full benefit from the instruc- 

Executive Officer's Meeting: 
Soon we are coming to visit you in 
your conferences, and to hold a 
meeting with the Executive Officers. 
Sometimes, when it is asked if there 
are any problems, the answer is 
that there are none, and the half 
hour allotted for this discussion is 
passed in talking of generalities. 
Later, when we are about to leave 
the stake, the sisters will say that 
there are many things they wish 
they could tell us about. 

Now sisters, since these Stake 



Executive Meetings are given for 
your special benefit, when you have 
a problem, do not feel that you can- 
not have it known. You need not 
fear that possibly it will suggest 
some reflection on your stake, or 
that you are not doing your best. 
Do not feel that way ; you stake 
presidents should feel about our 
coming as you would like your ward 
presidents to feel in reference to 
your visits. You know that there 
is nothing that gives you greater 
courage than to feel that you are 
helping the wards, and that they will 
consult you in reference to problems 
if they have any; so it is with the 
General Board and the stakes. 

Union Meetings: Certain of the 
stakes, in order to encourage people 
to come to Union Meeting, are giv- 
ing elaborate preliminary programs. 
This is not recommended. ; You 
have a short time at best, so please 
curtail your preliminary programs 
as much as possible, that you may 
help those ward workers who come 
to you, for the details of your spe- 
cial work. 

Choice of Officers: In choosing 
officers select women who have an 
aptitude for their special work; but 
do not disrupt your organization 
with the thought of extending cour- 
tesies or promotions. It is most dif- 
ficult for a woman who is an 
excellent secretary to be made a 
president when she hasn't the quali- 
fications for a presiding officer; or 
to reverse the case. We do our 
best where we are happiest, and can 
there give the most service. 

The Budget: Many requests to 
know about the budget come from 
the wards and in the stakes. Since 
the Bishops are trying to evolve the 
best method of handling their funds 
in the wards, the budgeting system 
may work out well. The Relief 
Society cannot budget the Wheat 
Interest Fund, nor the Charity 
Fund, nor the Annual Dues, nor 

even our General Fund unless it is 
certain that Relief Society needs 
will be met. This advice is given 
with the consent of the Presiding 
Authorities. The Relief Society is 
just a little different from the other 
organizations, and must have the 
use of its funds for specific pur- 
poses. Now, do not go home and 
tell the Bishops that you are not 
going to budget ; but if they cannot 
see your position, take it up with 
your Stake Priesthood President. 
The Presiding Authorities hold that 
our funds must be kept for certain 
purposes, and you are within your 
rights when you ask for this. 

Two-day Conference in October: 
For a number of years we have had 
only a one-day conference in the 
fall. Believing that we are thus 
missing rich contributions from our 
Stake and Mission Presidents, we 
are going to have a two-day con- 
ference next October, with the hope 
that we may hear from them. It 
would take hours to tell you o£ 
the wonderful work that is being; 
done in the missions. We get ex- 
cellent reports from Sister Widtsoe 
of the European Mission, and the 
same story of a marvelous work 
could be told from all fields if the 
opportunity were given. 

Sustaining Officers: Some of our 
stakes and wards, in their earnest 
desire to do right, are sustaining the 
Priesthood Authorities. We desire 
every stake to have the Relief So- 
ciety stake officers' names presented! 
in their conferences once a year. 
Have the General Board sustained 
as it is now constituted; then read 
the names of your stake board pres- 
idency, officers, and board members, 
and have them sustained. The same 
thing should be done in each of the 
wards in ward conferences; but in 
that case just have the stake officers 
sustained as that board is now con- 
stituted, then name all ward officers 
and class leaders and teachers. 


While we do sustain the Priesthood They come on little slips of paper, 
Authorities, it is not our privilege and we do not know when the sub- 
to present the names in our Relief scriptions expire or when they are 
Society conferences. to begin. While we truly have 

Vacations, for Under-Privileged some very capable women in that 

Children : This lovely spring department, they cannot read the 

weather recalls vacations for under- history back in the wards and stakes 

privileged children. Last year the hundreds of miles away. Try to 

stakes responded beautifully. Ben- get your sisters to use these order 

son stake led, taking sixty children blanks, and to give receipts for the 

last Summer and giving them a money given them, 

glorious vacation. I should like to State Conference of Social Work : 

ask you sisters, if you feel like it, We are frequently asked if member- 

and if it can be arranged, if any of ship in the State Conference of 

you would care to extend this aid Social Work is obligatory upon 

to the under-privileged children of stake and ward presidents. While 

Salt Lake City. we thoroughly appreciate the great 

Old Books : Books that were benefit derived from the Conference, 
published years ago by our leading and are very happy to have our 
women are in some of the Latter- women participate, the payment of 
day Saint homes. Some of the older the annual dues is not a Relief So- 
sisters may have these books, e. g., ciety requirement. 
"Women of Deseret," by Tullidge, Correspondence: We are sorry 
and "Women of Mormondom, ,, by that occasions have arisen when 
Augusta Joyce Crocheron. We ward presidents have felt hurt. They 
should like you to give out in the have written into the office for in- 
wards and stakes that these are very formation, and we have referred 
choice books, and if the daughters them to their stake president. You 
of the younger generation do not can see, sisters, that great confusion 
appreciate them, that the stake and would result if the general office 
ward officers will see that they are attempted to advise the wards. Will 
preserved. If you have extra copies you kindly explain this to your ward 
that you have no use for in your officers. 

wards and stakes, we shall be happy Organisations and Reorganisations 

to have them here at headquarters. We have here a list of organiza- 

Relief Society Magazine Sub- tions and reorganizations of the 

scriptions: Again we make an Relief Society. I should like to 

appeal in reference to sending in read every one of these and tell you 

subscriptions to the office. We have of the virtues of these sweet, lovely 

the order blanks that go free, but women. I could go down the list 

not one in ten of the orders that and tell you the fine things, but time 

come in are written on these blanks, will not permit. 

Date Stake Released Appointed President 

Dec, 1929 Zion Park (organized) Mrs. Josephine Sandberg 

Sept., 1929 Pioneer Mrs. Lettie T. Cannon Mrs. Edna T. Matson 

Oct., 1929 Liberty Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood Mrs. Ida D. Rees 

Oct., 1929 Lost River Mrs. Mary E. Black Mrs. Elizabeth Hoggan 

Nov., 1929 Bannock Mrs. Minnie L. Sorensen Mrs. Cora Cooper 

Dec., 1929 Juarez Mrs. Fanny C. Harper Mrs. Nelle S. Hatch 

Jan., 1930 Nevada Mrs. Mary E. Horlacher Mrs Louisa C. Johnson 

Jan., 1930 Tooele Mrs. Maggie W. Anderson Mrs. Lillian H. Anderson 

Feb., 1930 Carbon Mrs. Estella C. Dalton Mrs. Katherine H. Mac- 




I do desire to thank you wonder- 
ful presidents. I have asked that 
every letter coming into the office 
be brought to my desk, for it fills 
my heart with joy to keep in touch 
with you. 


Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund, General 

TT becomes my pleasure to submit 
■■■ a brief statement of the annual 
report. Before doing this I wish to 
express my great appreciation to 
the secretaries of our stakes and 
missions. The report is but a small 
indication of the work that has ac- 
tually been done by these efficient 

Total balance on hand January 1, 
1929, $172,572.09; total receipts 
during 1929, $308,102.93; total bal- 
ance on hand and receipts $480,- 
675.02 ; paid for charitable purposes 
$98,925.02; total disbursements 
$309,144.97. Ward conferences 
held, 1,192; teachers' visits made 
726,232; visits to sick and home- 
bound, 184,166. Membership in 
1928, 62,550; in 1929, 62,902 an 
increase of 352. The membership 
includes 10,363 executive and spe- 
cial officers; 21,228 visiting teach- 
ers; and 31,311 lay members. The 
average attendance in 1928 was 24,- 
775; in 1929^ it was 23,716, a de- 
crease of 1,059. The amount paid 
for charitable purposes in 1928 was 
$100,836.76; in 1929, $98,925.02, a 
decrease of $1,911.74. Now, we 
feel that the Relief Societies have 
been just as vigilant as before in the 
distribution of relief and this is 
probably a very encouraging state- 

The annual report in detail will 
be published and forwarded to you 
within the next month. 


Mrs. Marcia K. How ells, Member 
. of General Board 

I HAVE been much impressed 
with the beautiful spirit that is 
here this morning and the testimony 
that has been borne ; and I hope 
that speaking of this rather material 
subject will not detract from it. 

Because the problem we consider 
this morning is new and of utmost 
importance, we thought it worthy 
of consideration. 

Splendid work in child welfare 
has been done and is now being 
done under the direction of Presi- 
dent Hoover. He has had vivid and 
stupendous experiences in minister- 
ing to masses of children. When 
appointed to ration Belgium during 
the Great World War, millions of 
its children were his constant care. 
Later, when he was asked to assume 
the responsibility of Administrator 
of Food in America, his work ex- 
tended into the kitchen of every 
home in our country. 

After ' the war, when famine 
swooped down on Russia, Poland, 
and other lands in Europe, Mr. 
Hoover was asked to carry the re- 
lief. At this time perhaps millions 
of children were saved who might 
otherwise have perished. 

Aiding the Children 

STILL more recently, when the 
great Mississippi River, called 
the father of waters, went out of 
control, the refugee children, when 
they returned to their homes after 
the flood, were in better condition 
than they were before the flood 
came. This was due largely to the 
work under his direction. 

Dr. Wilbur remarks: "Mr. 
Hoover has had a unique experience 
in dealing with children. I doubt if, 
in the history of the world, there 



has ever been a man who saved the 
lives of so many children, or who 
carried groups of children through 
such great crises." 

When the American Child Health 
Association was organized, Mr. 
Hoover was made its president; 
while holding this office, he wrote 
his famous Child's Bill of Rights, 
which has been translated into many 
languages, and has found its way 
around the world. It is a unique 
document. It says, "The ideal to 
which we should strive is, that there 
shall be no child in America that 
has not been born under proper con- 
ditions; that does not live in hy- 
gienic surroundings; that ever suf- 
fers undernourishment; that does 
not have prompt and efficient med- 
ical attention and inspection ; that 
does not receive primary instruction 
in elements of hygiene and good 
health; that has not the complete 
birthright of a sound mind in a 
sound body; that has not the en- 
couragement to express in fullest 
measure the spirit within, which is 
the final endowment of every human 
being. ,, 

A Conference on Childhood 

WHEN Mr. Hoover became 
president, he was still con- 
cerned with the young people of 
this nation, knowing that they are 
the hope of the future and the 
country's greatest asset. Desiring 
facts about these young people, he 
picked outstanding men and women 
to form a planning committee pre- 
liminary to calling a conference at 
the White House. The purpose was 
to study the present status of the 
health and well-being of children, to 
report what is done for child health 
and protection, and to recommend 
what should be done. Dr. Wilbur 
was chosen chairman of this plan- 
ning committee. He has been a 
practicing physician, president of 

the American Medical Association, 
and the Leland Stanford University. 
He is now Secretary of the Interior. 
Dr. Barnard is a director; he has 
spent 20 years in important public 
health work. Mr. Davis, Secretary 
of Labor, was chosen vice chairman. 

Dr. Wilbur, the chairman, was in 
San Francisco this summer at the 
social workers' convention. He is a 
tall, slender man, rather plain look- 
ing, but very sincere and earnest 
and democratic, and very much to 
the point. When I saw him and 
heard him talk, I was impressed that 
he resembles our mental picture of 

In this survey about 700 men and 
women are engaged, each an expert 
in his own special field. Chosen 
from all parts of the country, they 
obtain facts from the government 
and private agencies and formulate 
a national program to promote 
health and protection for children. 

The Third Assembly 

MANY conferences have been at 
the White House on war, 
peace, slavery, but we feel that this 
is going to be one of the most im- 
portant. It is the third conference 
to be called at the White House to 
consider welfare problems of the 
child. The first was called by Pres- 
ident Roosevelt in 1909, and was 
followed the next year, in 1910, by 
the organization of the Children's 
Bureau. The second conference 
was called by President Wilson, ten 
years later. At the end of the war 
it seemed desirable to know the con- 
ditions of the children in this great 
and important country. Through 
the Children's Bureau and other 
agencies, six million children were 
examined, and their health status 
recorded — a stupendous piece of 

Now this third conference has 
been called, but not yet held. . Pres- 



ident Hoover suggests that we again 
take account of the condition of our 
children, What is the present pro- 
gress and the future need? The 
country has enjoyed ten years of 
unparalleled success and the chil- 
dren have been greatly affected. 
The current belief is that our chil- 
dren live under better home condi- 
tions, are better nourished and at- 
tend better schools. Is this just a 
belief developed out of a desire for 
these conditions? or is it a fact? 
President Hoover and his committee 
want to know about this, and facts 
are the things they are dealing with. 
President Hoover says, "There is 
a crying need to make available in 
simple, lucid terms, the findings of 

Too Many Novelties 

AT the present time we are expos- 
ing our young people to too 
many new experiences and activities. 
Who knows what the result will be ? 
We are opening a new world to 
them, and introducing them to many 
noise-making devices — radio, phono- 
graph, jazz music, talking pictures, 
automobiles. These have their use 
and value, yet with this value come 
certain dangers which we must con- 
sider. Take for instance the radio, 
perhaps the most wonderful inven- 
tion of modern times. It has educa- 
tional and entertainment value in 
keeping the family at home and to- 
gether. Its uses are many ; yet phy- 
sicians tell us that the coming of 
the radio has developed a disease — 
radio nerves. A few years ago we 
almost felt that the automobile was 
a luxury, and now we know it as a 
necessity. Yet the usefulness of the 
automobile comes to us at a very 
high cost. In the next year there 
will perhaps be 100,000 in our coun- 
try alone killed and maimed by 
automobiles. We used to think the 
rattlesnake was the most dangerous 

thing, but there are more than a 
hundred times as many children 
killed each year in our country by 
automobiles as there are by snake 

The Child Is the Future 

SAYS Dr. Wilbur : "Anyone who 
thinks forward into the future 
of this country must think in terms 
of its children. We are simply drops 
of water in the stream that goes by. 
We stay a shorter or longer time 
before we evaporate, and others 
come along in the stream of life. 
Whatever we may do in the build- 
ing of health, means nothing unless 
the children who follow us, build 
intelligently and well. Whatever we 
do in the matter of good citizenship 
is of no importance whatever, if the 
things we build up in this country 
of ours are destroyed because we 
have not placed in the minds and 
the hearts of our children the right 
attitudes, and the right things so 
that they will go forward." 

The official name for this confer- 
ence is, The White House Confer- 
ence of Child Health and Protection. 
The whole problem is divided into 
five sections, each section being di- 
vided into sub-sections. The idea is 
that no piece of the subject important 
to child health and protection shall 
be overlooked. All the things we 
can think of are to be taken up, and 
many things we have not thought of 
will be considered by these 700 ex- 
perts, men and women, who are 
studying this question. 

JVM Is Child Welfare 

The child's body, the child's mind, 
the diseases of the child, nutrition — 
all these things will be considered 
since the child's health is the most 
valuable asset of all. Not only the 
regular types of education, but 
many special types, will be con- 
sidered. The handicapped child, not 



only the crippled, but those with 
damaged hearts or disturbed lungs 
the child with only a partial mind — 
what can be done for these ? In how 
many ways may we help them? 
Also many, many more phases of 
educational work that there is not 
time to mention will be given atten- 
tion. The neglected child will be 
considered. It is said that the 
neglected child is the victim and 
responsibility of some adult. Some- 
one has said that every normal child 
acts in a so-called abnormal way at 
certain times in its life, so he must 
not be called abnormal just because 
at times he does things we think a 
normal child would not do. There 
are children who are disturbed 
mentally; what can be done for 

Equality of Opportunity 

ONE thing that President Hoover 
emphasizes is the equality of 
opportunity. Let us make every 
child's opportunity just as great as 
possible, let them have equality of 
opportunity. How can we help this 
ideal to work out? 

Educators tell us that every child 
should be given some responsibility 
for which he should be held. His 
jobs should be done in a given way 
in a given time. In big cities it 
is difficult to find jobs for boys and 

"The world will march forward 
only so far as we give to our chil- 
dren strength of body, integrity of 
character, training of mind, and the 
inspiration of religion." I am very 
happy that President Hoover men- 
tioned this last — the inspiraton of 


Former President Netherlands 
Mission Relief Society 

BELOVED sisters and co-labor- 
ers in the cause of truth, I trust 

that I may be the recipient of your 
faith and prayers. This is the first 
Relief Society conference I have 
had the pleasure of attending in 
Zion. I have, however, had the 
privilege of attending many spiritual 
Relief Society feasts in Europe un- 
der the able leadership of various 
mission presidents. Sisters Lucy 
W. Smith, May Wells Whitney, Ray 
R. McKay, May Booth Talmage, 
and Leah D. Widtsoe. More than 
presidents to me, I would rather 
call them mothers; the association 
with such noble characters makes 
one bigger and better. 

Home Again 

After an absence of more than 
three and a half years in foreign 
lands, it is wonderful to be home 
again. When I bade my folks and 
friends, and these grand old moun- 
tains, farewell on my first mission, 
I did not appreciate them ; but after 
wandering in other lands and among 
other people, I began to feel the loss 
of something very dear to me. I 
missed the strength of these ever- 
lasting hills, and the feeling of peace 
and safety one enjoys here among 
relatives and friends. During the 
six and a half years spent in the 
mission field I have fully realized 
that there is only one America in 
all the world, and only one Utah in 
all America. Experience has painted 
on my memory incidents that will 
never fade ; one I wish to relate to 
you this morning. 

A Stranger from Home 

WHEN the S. S. Rotterdam 
anchored at the port of Rot- 
terdam, in July, 1920, on my first 
mission, I applied the title of a cer- 
tain song to myself — "I'm a Pilgrim, 
I'm a Stranger," for I was unable 
to understand or speak one word in 
the Dutch language, save one sen- 
tence which I had learned while 



crossing the ocean — "I am pleased 
to make your acquaintance." 

When we arrived in Holland and 
attended Sunday School, the only 
thing I was able to enjoy was the 
beautiful, welcome, home spirit that 
distinguishes our Church from all 
others. That evening at 6 we at- 
tended the sacrament services. "Let 
the Mountains Shout for Joy" was 
the closing hymn of this meeting. 
As they sang their song of praise, 
I burst into tears, vowing if I were 
ever permitted to reach that land 
of Zion, I would never depart from 
it again. But since that I have 
filled a second mission to Holland, 
and now am willing to spend the 
remainder of my life in this service 
of the Master, having come to the 
conclusion that it does not make 
much difference where one lives; 
it is how well one lives that counts. 

The Work in Holland 

IT is wonderful to be able to bear 
testimony of the truth of the 
restored gospel, and to testify that 
Joseph Smith is in very deed a 
prophet of the living God. We were 
honored to labor among the Dutch 
people— a very religious people, 
very religious and believing. When 
we are able intelligently to present 
the gospel to them, they understand, 
accept it, and are willing to give 
their all for the truth. 

In Holland the Relief Society 
work is growing in excellence, use- 
fulness, and members. We have in 
that mission twelve well organized 
Relief Societies with a membership 
of over 250, including, not only the 
young, the middle aged, and the 
mothers, but Bee Hive girls as well. 
Working in harmony for the relief 
of the poor and for the comfort of 
those in distress, they are minister- 
ing to the sick and the needy, and 
scattering cheer and sunshine wher- 
ever thev are called to labor. These 

good sisters respond to every call 
with a spirit that is amazing. I 
know that God loves them and is 
blessing them daily for their devo- 
tion and love for the work. That 
people I shall always love for their 
honesty and wonderful spirituality. 
Our efforts have not been in vain; 
our time and money have been well 
spent; we have been wonderfully 


Former President German- Austrian 
Mission Relief Society 

AMONG memory's pictures will 
be hung a new one this morn- 
ing. It is a beautiful sight to be- 
hold, and to be in your presence in 
this great Relief Society work. May 
I first extend to you all greetings 
from the women in Europe who are 
working in this organization with 
President Leah D. Widtsoe at their 
head. I will read the names of those 
who are working in the different 
missions : Sister Tadje, Swiss-Ger- 
man Mission; Sister Hulterstrom, 
Swedish Mission; Sister Jensen, 
Norwegian Mission. Dear Sister 
Booth, who was many many years 
in the Armenian Mission is with us 
back home now. These women 
send greetings to you, and not only 
these sisters, but the local sisters 
who hold office in the German- 
Austrian Mission. Their hearts 
yearn to meet, with us here in Zion. 
What is woman's mission?. This is 
a problem we may meet every day. 
Holy Writ proclaims- it from the 
beginning. God said it was not 
good for man to be alone, and he 
gave unto Adam a help-mate. In 
the last dispensation, three months 
after the Church was organized, 
God spoke to a woman, Emma 

EAD your last Magazine", the 
March number, and note how 




beautifully it tells of the direct mes- 
sage from God to one of the sisters. It 
was necessary that they help in this 
great latter-day work. Twelve years 
after the Church organization, our 
great organization was effected. In 
the message to Emma Smith, I read 
some of the duties of her calling. 
One was to comfort her husband 
when his soul was in trouble. She 
was to go with him and act as a 
scribe, and was to be ordained by 
her husband to expound the scrip- 
tures and exhort the Church as the 
Spirit of God should direct her. 

Compare the Church with the 
home in this way. As woman is to 
the home, so is the Relief Society 
to the Church. Sister Widtsoe gave 
us this wonderful message to take 
to all of our organizations in the 
European Mission : It is woman's 
duty to create and maintain peace 
in the home, in the branch, in the 
Relief Society. 

Relief Societies in Europe 

In 1911 I went over to take 
charge, with my husband, of the 
Swiss-German Mission. At that 
time there were three Relief So- 
cieties in that mission, in German- 
Austria, in Hungary, and in France. 
During our term of five years the 
Hungarian mission was closed. 
Elders were there learning to speak 
that difficult language, but made few 
converts. The French Mission was 
opened in October, 1912, with one 
of the Swiss-German elders as its 
president. As you know, two and 
a half years of that time we were 
without elders ; for the war was on, 
and we were alone. 

In October, 1926, we went to the 
German-Austrian Mission, the 
Swiss-German mission meantime 
having been divided. Now we have 
only a part of the German- Austrian, 
the Hungarian, and a part of Ro- 

mania, in the mission. Sister Sarah 
Cannon was in the Swiss-German 
Mission when we went over, and 
now Sister Tadje is there. 

Work in Nutrition 

WITH these women I have 
worked very closely in Relief 
Society work, because these missions 
are twins. We use the same lan- 
guage, also the same outlines. The 
missions publish every three months 
a magazine called "The Wegweiser," 
containing all of the lessons and in- 
structions. The lessons we planned 
extended until the close of 1928, 
when new ones became necessary. 
At that time a great exposition of 
nutrition was being held. I felt the 
need of nutrition lessons for our 
Relief Society women when I knew 
how they lived and the food they 
were eating. They eat good food, 
but I felt that in the preparation of 
their foods they could be helped. I 
said to Sister Tadje, "One lesson a 
month on nutrition. ,, "One lesson 
on the Book of Mormon, one lesson 
in literature, and one for work meet- 
ing." The women over there love 
to work so much that they want to 
work at every meeting. These work 
meetings were mostly used in pre- 
paring articles for bazaars. 

What the Branches Do 

ONE bazaar was held after I 
left, in a small branch with 38 
members, in the Holland Mission. 
They obtained contributions from 
the big establishments, mercantile 
and grocery stores. In this little 
city they had spent their time doing 
fancy work. They put on this 
bazaar for the benefit of the poor 
in that city. They held an enter- 
tainment, and took in over 900 
marks. During the year they had 
94% of their women at Relief So- 
ciety meetings. 



In the last three years a wonder- 
ful thing has taken place in the mis- 
sions in Europe. In 1927 President 
Talmage called at Dresden a con- 
ference of the mission presidents 
and their wives in Europe, and we 
had the honor of being hosts to 
these wonderful men and women. 
Outlines and plans were discussed 
and carried out in our missions. 
The conference in 1928 was held in 
Paris, under the direction of Pres- 
ident Widtsoe. The spirit of the 
Lord was there, and wonderful 
things were accomplished. In 1929 
this conference was held in Liver- 
pool, and we had the opportunity of 
spending a day or two on the 
grounds of the great Scout Jam- 
boree. We gave nearly two weeks 
to planning and outlining. 

Activities in Mission 

MAY I also read from my little 
book some of the things we did 
in the German-Austrian Mission. In 
connection with the district confer- 
ences, which we held twice a year, 
a Relief Society convention or con- 
ference was held. We held 64 of 
these, with an average attendance of 
56, ranging from 12 to 300. We got 
out a record book, similar to the 
books you use here, covering a 
three-year record ; also a Relief So- 
ciety teachers' book and a teachers' 
creed card. We got this plan from 
the Magazine, to which we are very 
grateful. Special teachers' conven- 
tions were held in each branch, and 
a yearly branch Relief Society con- 
ference, more than half of them re- 
sponding. Thirteen new organiza- 
tions were effected, making 52 active 
organizations with an enrollment of 
1,664. I gathered up the end of the 
chronological data that we had in 
the German- Austrian Mission of our 
Relief Societies up until 1916. Then 
the thought occurred, why not have 

the histories written? All except 
three histories were written and 
copied in the new minute books. 

The twelve lessons on nutrition 
were printed by a local brother who 
is editor of the paper. The scrip- 
tures say: "Knock and it shall be 
opened unto you." I went to the 
door of the hygiene specialist in 
Dresden. I had seen the display in 
the great exposition in Berlin, and 
needing help in getting out these 
lessons, I wished to meet Dr. Vogle, 
the best authority in Europe, if not 
in all the world. 

A Scientist Aids 

WHEN I knocked at the door, 
a man answered. I told him 
I wanted to meet Dr. Vogle. He 
shook his head, saying, "No, you 
cannot meet him ; he is too busy and 
important a man." 

As I had a great need for his help, 
I told him I was working with 1,600 
women in the German countries, as 
I wished to help them take better 
care of the health of their families. 
He called over the telephone, to me, 
saying, "You may go in." I told 
the doctor who I was and what I 
wanted — a text book, one I could 
place in the hands of our sisters. 

He said, "I am writing a small 
one, covering this subject. As soon 
as it is finished you may have one." 
The subject of things not good for 
man came up. Filled with the spirit, 
I said to him, "Would you be in- 
terested to know what our people 
have on that?" He said that any- 
thing along historical lines of nutri- 
tion interested him. I told him that 
in 1833 the Lord spake to our 
Prophet, giving to him the Word 
of Wisdom — telling us what to eat 
and drink and what not to eat and 
drink. He was very much inter- 
ested. I said that alcoholic drinks 



are not to be partaken of, that they 
are for the washing of the body. 
He asked, "Cannot you write me an 
article, explaining what you have?" 
I answered I would be glad to do 

The Article Accepted 

WE wrote an article, which he 
published in full in their Hy- 
giene Wegweiser, an exclusive mag- 
azine for scientific people, and cir- 
culated through all Europe. 

Later he asked if we did not want 
to display in this great exposition 
something of the effects of clean 
living. I have just received a letter 
from him now, asking what we are 
going to do. We went to the Amer- 
ican Consul at once, knowing that 
we should come in with the United 
States in their display; but the 
United States is not going in as a 
country and so prohibited us. 

In 1927 we celebrated the one 
hundredth anniversary of the com- 
ing forth of the plates. We had a 
contest on in the mission for selling 
the Book of Mormon. I am no 
sales lady, and do not know how to 
go about it ; but one night I knelt in 
prayer and asked God to give me 
strength, and show me how I could 
help. I felt that I was the mother 
of those missionaries, and I wanted 
to do what they were being asked to 
do. In the morning this thought 
passed through my mind, and I al- 
most heard a voice say, "Begin in 
your own home." Rising I thanked 
God ; then dressed and went with 
joy. We had workmen there doing 
all kinds of work, and they needed 
the gospel. I sold two books before 
breakfast, and had a wonderful time 
that day. Before the day was fin- 
ished I had sold 22 Books of Mor- 
mon. I was thrilled and happy. 

Department Meetings 

(Afternoon Session) 

Secretaries' Department 

THIS meeting convened in the 
Auditorium of the Bishop's 
Building after the close of the Stake 
Officers' Meeting. General Secre- 
tary Julia A. F. Lund presided. It 
was the first Department Meeting 
of the Stake secretaries,, and was 
very largely attended. 

Mrs. Lund paid a tribute to the 
past and present secretaries, and 
stressed the importance of their 
work, since an organization is 
judged by the records it keeps. Re- 
lief Society secretaries are also the 
historians of the organization. 

A practical demonstration of 
"How to Audit the Annual Report," 

was conducted by Mrs. Ellen F. 
Shepherd. The copy of a report 
form was used, each step explained, 
and the most common errors made 
by secretaries pointed out. Time 
was the only element that curtailed 
the discussion, which was most 
practical and interesting. 

Educational Department 

ASSEMBLY HALL on the Tem- 
ple Block was filled by Stake 
and Ward Supervisors and Class 
Leaders, Counselor Julia A. Child 
presiding. The subject "How to 
Teach" was ably presented by Dr. 
L. John Nuttall, whose address will 
appear in detail. 



Adult Training and the Larger Life 

Dr. L. John Nuttall 

THERE is an indescribable sat- 
isfaction that comes with a 
feeling- of self-importance. It 
is not the spirit of boasting. It is a 
feeling of the value of self. One 
of the aims of all adult training 
classes is to develop this fine type of 
self-evaluation, so that each person 
goes on trying- to do what will en- 
rich and ennoble and expand his 
own life. 

What Is Education? 

Education is keeping this spirit 
alive and satisfying it. Doctor Rich- 
ard C. Cabot's "What Men Live 
By," points out that education is 
in pursuit of each of us — that our 
work gives us a place in the world 
and relates us to it; play releases 
and recreates our energies ; love for 
persons and causes binds us to be 
loyal to something larger than our- 
selves and worship (enlarges pur 
view and enables !us to see the 
greatest things in life. 

There are three subtle elements 
in this personal development: first, 
an enlargement of the power of 
appreciation ; second, a growth in 
the keenness of vision and skill in 
work that makes us greater pro- 
ducers and leaders; and third, in 
a democratic world such as ours is 
rapidly beooming, an increase in 
the ability to evaluate, criticise, and 
judge what is going on, so that our 
citizenship may contribute to a safe 
yet sure progress. 

"The greatest task of each one of 
us," said the governor of Minne- 
sota in a recent address, is to keep 
ourselves normal, fair-minded, kind- 
ly, and constructive. Even the 
critics and pessimists whom I have 
cited, without exception place their 
greatest reliance on education and 

on teachers, in the schools and out- 
side, in building better men and 
women and in bringing in a better 

A GROUP of out-of-school teach- 
ers working in a voluntary 
church organization can see the rela- 
tion of their work to the achievement 
of this three-fold aim. The attention 
of these teachers should be directed 
to three factors — teacher, subject 
matter, and teaching procedure. 

The teacher must lead with an 
assurance that comes only with pre- 
paration and a love for her work. 
Many volunteer teachers are over- 
burdened because while they teach 
they carry the entire responsibility 
for intellectual activity. A passive 
student, even though he be an adult, 
does not represent the best teacher. 
One who stimulates, who sees prob- 
lems and issues, who brings in ma- 
terial to be studied, who devises 
methods of presentation, is the real 

What Is Teaching? 

"Teaching is the stimulation, 
guidance, direction, or encourage- 
ment of learning. It is setting the 
stage upon which learning takes 
place, it is giving opportunity for 
learning to arise. It is the guidance 
of such spontaneous learning as ap- 
pears in the natural activities of 
children or older students. It in- 
cludes all the activities performed in 
the direct furtherance of learning." 
:When appreciation and enjoy- 
ment are the aims, the power of 
the teacher as a person is especially 
important. In this field the sensi- 
tive feeling enables one to make 
choices that uplift and point? to 
vistas of beauty. There are ex- 


amples of nobility and kindness ali sphere of liberty and the voluntary 

about us. Use these as illustrations cooperation of individual men and 

rather than always focus the atten- women." 

tion on corrective needs among the Education for Adults 
sordid. When a person can, as a 

part of his own intellectual attitudes, A DULT education must have ma- 
bring a class he instructs to desire /x terials. What is chosen to be 
to recreate the environment in which taught should be selected on the 
they live and at the same time make basis of the aim of education. Adults 
them capable of enjoying the acti- are educated for life just as truly 
vity and the fine choices made in as are younger people. Young folks, 
that environment, he has the power however, are on the threshold and 
that directors of adult classes need, looking forward to a variety of ac- 
In a recent report the president tivities. Older folk are approach- 
of Columbia University stresses the ing the other end of life, and look 
need of 'leadership in this field : forward to Jess variety and un- 

~ 7 , r „ , , certainty in activity and are more 

The New Problem ?nd mQre interested in ; ntrinsic ^ 

"With these changes there comes isfactions.. 

a new and difficult but very pressing From England, in a lecture given 

educational and social problem. This by Dr. L. P. Jacks, principal of 

problem is that of finding ways and Manchester College, comes a beauti- 

means for the useful and agreeable ful statement of this aim in Adult 

occupation of leisure. It signifies Education: "This, I venture to 

that men must be taught new wants think, is what we mean when we 

and given new tastes, such as can insist upon education for life. We 

only be met and gratified by the are asking for the wisdom that can 

judicious and fortunate use of those be acted. We are asking for an 

hours that need no longer be spent education that adult men and wo- 

upon productive industry. Out- men can translate into the art of 

door sports, enjoyment of nature, wise living, thereby raising the aims 

a love of the fine arts, and a grow- of education and not lowering it, as 

ing appreciation of their ideals and some people accuse us of doing. Art 

chief accomplishments; a love of is simply wisdom in action; and 

reading, not merely that of any the greatest of all the arts, the one 

mechanically printed page, but of in which all the others find their 

something which should be read for crown and glory, is the art of wise 

its form and style and nobility of living. Give us the wisdom that 

thought, even more than for the sub- leads up to that. Give us education 

ject matter with which it deals or for life/' 

the information which it may con- ™, ,, . . , Ar , , 

.I. • 4. / 4.1 I he Materials Needed 
vey — these are instruments for the 

worthy use of leisure. Moreover, TV MATERIALS for adult educa- 

some part of the leisure of every 1V1 tion in classes the Relief So- 

citizen, man or woman, should be ciety maintains, should provide for 

given to the willing support of those appreciation material that brings 

causes, religious, ethical, relief, edu- immediate satisfactions. History 

cational, which have the public in- should be filled with discussions of 

terest as their end and which in our how men culminated important 

American society are fortunately events, with less emphasis on the 

left for their advancement to the early life and biography of histori- 



cal characters. Literature should 
contain some philosophic evalua- 
tions as well as mere narration. 

One reason why books seem silly 
to the older members of these groups 
is found in this mere story-telling 
kjind often [assigned for reading. 
Poetry should be artistic and filled 
with emotions of adulthood. Poems 
published in the Relief Society 
Magazine are worth studying even 
though they don't come in the les- 

The subject matter should also 
contain material designed to aid the 
class members in becoming more in- 
telligent and skillful workers in vo- 
cation, community life, and parent- 
hood. One of the reasons why effi- 
ciency declines with age is of course 
an actual decrease in physical 
strength. Another more powerful 
cause is lack of knowledge. Oc- 
cupations shift in relative import- 
ance, and pursuits once gainful at 
times must be abandoned. To one 
who has studied the social and eco- 
nomic world in which his labor is 
placed, such a necessity comes less 
as a shock than to one who merely 
works on, not seeing clearly the in- 
dustrial procession and therefore 
entirely unprepared for the eventual 
"laying-off" and search for other 

We Must Be Ready 

OUR Church and community his- 
tories are full of the heart- 
breaks, the feelings of ingratitude, 
caused by the necessary removal 
from office and from committees of 
persons who have labored unceas- 
ingly but ineffectively in welfare ac- 
tivities. These need instruction in 
the social and personal problems in- 
herent in our changing life. They 
need to see that either they must 
adapt in their work or seek release 
from responsibility. If taught these 
changing relations among institu- 

tions and persons, their lives will 
be spared the sorrow of sudden re- 
moval. Parents need to study, not 
to condemn, modern life. 

In the world of today children 
must not be made dependent, be- 
cause inevitably the family group 
will break up into smaller units. 
We have accepted the discoveries 
of science and the achievements of 
inventors, and with them have build- 
ed a new economic life, which in 
turn has changed our social relation- 
ships. The ^certainty with which 
some parents point out the way of 
life in a world about which they 
know little, is very soon demoral- 
izing because what they say doesn't 
work. No child responds happily 
to training for a world that has 

Adjustments Needed 

Ideals come down from the past ; 
skills must be based on forecasts of 
the future. Ideals may be taught 
as controls of conduct by parents. 
Fathers and mothers who train 
young people must know of the 
world and must learn of its changes. 
A recent work published by the 
Institute of Child Welfare of the 
University of Minnesota says : 

"The changing conditions of mod- 
ern life have made necessary new 
adjustments in the family and home. 
The functions of the home have 
changed, as the work of the mem- 
bers of the family has taken them 
more and more away from it. But 
the craving for a home, and for in- 
timate understanding and affection, 
persists, though often unsatisfied. 
Progress, which has done so much 
for the comfort and convenience of 
the family, has also been responsible 
for changes to which we find it 
more difficult to adjust than to lux- 
uries such as electric lights in place 
of candles, and running water in 
place of that lugged from a well. 



"But the different type of family 
life which we condemn or deplore 
today hangs on the fact that no 
longer need the members of the 
family share in making candles, or 
cleaning lamps, or pumping the 
water. They must now, in many 
cases, leave home earlier to earn 
the money to pay for the electricity 
that furnishes water and light, and 
washing and ironing facilities. 

"In caviling at modern life, we 
are likely to forget that at no time 
in the history of the race has the 
man been the sole provider. The 
family has always been dependent 
also on the ability of the woman 
and children to create food out of 
raw material, clothes out of wool. 
It is no new thing that the members 
of the family have undertaken, but 
the fact that they must now scatter 
in order to produce the same result 
brings about many new problems." 

How to Judge 

TO judge the world and by criti- 
cism guide its destiny is the right 
of maturity. By what basis shall 
they judge? Surely the greatest 
criterion is that of human happiness. 
The material of adult classes should 
contain studies of life itself and the 
effect of forces operating thereon. 
New forms of wrong doing perhaps 
should receive added emphasis and 
old taboos perhaps be condemned 
less. New recreational activities 
form a source of joy not felt by 
some of its critics because they don't 

Centralization of power in a rep- 
resentative government is a great 
experiment. Are we learning facts 
about its effects? No nation or peo- 
ple ever before has tried universal 
compulsory education. The effects 
of such a program are more far- 
reaching than the mastery of learn- 
ing skills and the powers of ex- 
pression. What are the attitudes 

in the life of a person toward a 
government that forced him to go to 
school? New methods in schools 
will produce results different from 
the results of the old education. 
The subject matter tfor adult 
classes must be new or nothing is 
learned. Newness may consist of 
material never before experienced 
or previously learned topics with 
new interpretations or related to 
new problems. 

The Listless Class 

THERE is danger of listlessness 
in classes of older people be- 
cause of the lack of real learning. 
By mere chance I piced up the Feb- 
ruary number of the Magazine, 
which contains the lessons for April. 
The first deals with the Book of 
Mormon. The outline says: "This 
lesson is filled with ibig ideas, reli- 
gious, political, and social," calling 
attention to the fact that the nar- 
rative itself is less important. Most 
adult classes have heard many times 
the narratives in this lesson. The 
newness is evidently in the similar- 
ity of the "big ideas" to the current 
thought of today, and in the possible 
use of the Book of Mormon men as 
models in character development. 

Certain contrasts also appear be- 
tween the thoughts of the lesson 
and modern thought. These con- 
trasts stimulate thought and are 
really the means by which adults 
are able to teach old historical ma- 
terial effectively. Class teachers 
should remember that it is hardly 
justifiable to take the time of their 
members in listening to a repeti- 
tion of an already known narrative. 

Here Are Good Lessons 

HONESTY is a lesson in this 
same magazine. The writers 
of the outline seem to combine two 
aims: to insure honesty in those 
being taught and to develop skill in 



the class members in training chil- 
dren in honesty. 

The first aim must establish a 
meaning - for honesty and an analy- 
sis of modern life. No teacher 
could in these days be content with 
merely exhorting to honesty. Either 
your class members don't need this 
or they need more. The subject 
matter must be enlarged. 

In helping a class to train chil- 
dren in honesty a study of the psy- 
chology of learning is necessary. 
There is experimental data available 
showing that mottos, formal in- 
stitutional pledges, and formal les- 
sons are not effective. Examples 
of honest dealing in modern busi- 
ness are needed. As the lesson out- 
line suggests, the group attitudes 
and ideals need study, and the rela- 
tive degree of social prestige held 
by honest men pointed out. Most 
of this material will have real in- 
terest to class members. Having 
them learn it is real teaching while 
simple exhortation and preaching 
don't get very far. 

Aims for Lessons 

This lesson can also aim at de- 
veloping a power of criticism and 
improvement of our social order. 
When an experiment seems to show 
that the Boy Scout organization 
does not produce boys more honest 
than the other groups, we can say 
that the experiment is wrong, we 
can condemn the Boy Scout Move- 
ment and refuse to support it, or 
we can study the implications of 
the experiment, the possible connec- 
tions in the scout program, and 
thus become constructive critics. 

Corruption in public office needs 
study. Is oujr selection of men 
wrong? Does our system tempt 
strong men beyond resistance or is 
the situation one of deliberate plan- 
ning among groups of dishonest 

people? Teachers can help us to 
become competent critics. 

The biography of Madam Schu- 
mann-Heink is new material to most 
class members. Present it clearly 
and interestingly and supplement if 
possible by some records of her 

Not Facts, but Action 

SOCIAL service means action. 
The lesson deals with statistics 
on defectives and descriptions of 
methods employed in various places 
in their care. Action must be at 
home. This lesson would be a sorry 
failure if it ended as a fact lesson. 
Do we have defectives here? How 
are we detecting them ? What care, 
public and private, is provided? 
What can we do? Shall we do it? 
A teacher becomes an organizer, a 
promoter, and interest will develop 
largely in terms of the reality of 
the home problem. So we may 
analyze the problem of subject mat- 
ter for adult classes. 

SUGGESTIONS on method may 
be helpful. A recent writer, in 
School and Society, points out that 
adult education differs from other 
forms of education in three par- 
ticulars : 

1. Its aim is to provide for an 
exchange of vital experience. 

2. Its method is founded upon 
the assumption that real education ■ 
must not have its roots in external 
authorities, but rather in personal 
experiences with reality. 

3. It therefore proceeds by means 
of a technique of discussion in which 
the teacher or leader performs the 
function of guide and stimulator 
but never that of lawgiver. 

Types of Teaching 

Three types of teaching activities 
are usually recognized : 

1. Perceptual experiences, which 
consist of object teaching, pictures 



of various types, models, charts, 
with explanations in vivid oral ways. 

2. Reading. 

3. Problem solving. 

Palmer's "Progressive Practices 
in Directing Learning" outlines the 
following : 

Reading to Remember is encour- 
aged by : 

1. Learning exercises: 

a. Questions that are explicitly 
answered by the text. 

b. Requests to prepare for a de- 
bate or discussion of a specified 

c. Requests to underline or check 
statements judged to be important. 

2. Test exercises : 

a. Requests to reproduce the text 
read either in free expression or 
in response to specific questions 
such as : What does the author say 
about ? Discuss 

(a topic discussed in text). 

b. True-false, completion, multi- 
ple-choice, and most other kinds of 
"new examinations." 

c. Requests to summarize or out- 
line the text from memory. 

To Gain Facts 

Searching for information is en- 
couraged by: 

1. Requests to prepare reports on 
specified topics. 

2. Questions that are answered by 
the text although not explicitly 
stated by the author. 

3. Questions requiring the col- 
lecting of information as a basis 
for a judgment such as : Is the au- 
thor unprejudiced in his discus- 
sion ? What is the author's attitude 
toward ? 

4. Requests to complete a skeleton 
outline, especially when the items 
must be secured from different 

Reading with a critical attitude is 
encouraged by : 

1. Thought questions such as: Is 

the author consistent? Is he justified 
in his statement? Would the author 
agree with ? 

2. Requests to compare events, 
persons, etc. 

3. Requests to compare two or 
more texts. 

4. Requests to evaluate portions 
of a text. 

5. Requests to compare author's 
view with student's experiences and 

6. Requests to explain meaning 
of words, phrases, or sentences as 
used by the author. (Usually em- 
ployed as test exercises.) 

Beyond the Book 

Supplementing the reading of a 
text is encouraged by: 

1. Requests to prepare an ex- 
planation of statements in text. 

2. i Requests to prepare illustra- 
tions of statements in text. 

3. Requests to supply reasons for 
statements by author or to fill in 
other gaps in his trend of thought. 

4. Requests to determine implica- 
tions or consequences of statements 
made by author. 

Analytical study of text is en- 
couraged by : 

1. Requests to determine how 
emphasis is secured. 

2. Requests to note choice of 
words (diction) and sentence struc- 

3. Requests to compare the style 
of one author with that of another. 

4. Requests to identify or to pre- 
pare lists of figures of speech, or 
other items of form. 

5. Requests to correct errors. 
(This assumes that errors exist in 
the text.) 

6. Requests to determine the 
origin of words. 

Learning to Enjoy 

Reading for enjoyment is en- 
couraged by : j • 



1. Requests to select a story or 
book which the student enjoys and 
which he thinks the other members 
of the class would enjoy. 

2. Inquiries concerning charac- 
ters or portions of material read 
which were enjoyed most. 

3. Requests to make out a list 
of books to recommend to other 
students or adults. 

His outline of guides to prob- 
lem solving is as follows: 

To stimulate and assist pupils in 
carrying on reflective thinking the 
teacher should : 

1. Get them to define the problem 
at issue and keep it clearly in mind. 

2. Get them to recall as many re- 
lated ideas as possible by encourag- 
ing them : 

a. To analyze the situation. 

b. To formulate definite hypoth- 
eses and to recall general rules or 
principles that may apply. 

Noting True Values 

3. Get them to evaluate carefully 
each suggestion by encouraging 

a. To maintain an attitude of un- 
biased, suspended judgment or con- 

b. To criticise each suggestion. 

c. To be systematic in selecting 
and rejecting suggestions, and 

d. To verify conclusions. 

4. Get them to organize their ma- 
terial so as to aid in the process of 
thinking by encouraging them : 

a. To "take stock" from time to 

b. To use methods of tabulation 
and graphic expression, and 

c. To express concisely the tenta- 
tive conclusions reached from time 
to time during the inquiry. 

METHOD implies organization 
of subject matter and a guide 
of learning activities. Teachers 
should not assume that it is their re- 
sponsibility to tell all of the lessons. 
Learning really takes place better 
when learners are active. Adult at- 
tention is difficult to hold unless 
careful planning is done. If the 
teachers desire really to develop at- 
titudes they must be personally en- 
thused, use subject matter that is 
valuable in the development of real 
adult powers, and use a method of 
teaching consistent with adult in- 
terests and study habits. 

Theological Department 

THIS large department meeting 
was held in the Assembly Hall, 
Mrs. Cora L. Bennion presiding. 
The principles of correct teaching, 
especially as applied to the Book 
of Mormon was the subject of an 
inspiring demonstration by Profes- 
sor John Henry Evans, an authority 
upon this subject. He dealt with 
both the content of the lessons and 
methods of presentation. Ques- 
tions published in the May issue of 
the Relief Society Magazine fur- 
nished the outline. 

Literary Department 

THE Literary Department Meet- 
ing was held in the Ladies' 
Parlor of the Hotel Utah. Mrs. 
Jennie B. Knight presided, making 
a very fine little speech of greeting, 
with responses from the stakes. 
Mrs. Eleanor J. Richards, president 
of Malad Stake and Mrs. Ethel D. 
Payne, president of the St. Joseph 
Stake, each spoke to the subject, 
"What Have the Literary Lessons 
Done for your Stake?" 

The feeling was that if the les- 
sons had done anywhere near as 



much as in the stakes reported, they 
had been worth far more than the 
efforts put forth to secure them. 
They help young people as well as 
Relief Society members. It is also 
believed that the literary llessons 
have increased the membership, and 
added to the happiness and the 
growth of the organization. As 
a stimulus to busy mothers to reach 
out for the type of culture and 
strength that comes from an ap- 
preciation of the fine things of life, 
and the inspiration we gain from 
our storehouse of ideals, these les- 
sons give confidence to our women 
creating the desire to possess li- 

Mrs. Knight gave a preview of 
the next year's lesson work pre- 
sented in a panorama form. "Short 
Stdries" will be the subject for 
next year's work. The text book 
to be used is Great Short Stories 
of the World, by Barrett H. Clark 
and Maxim Leiber. These books 
may be obtained from D. C. Heath 
and Company, 182 Second Street, 
San Francisco, California. The 
special price to the Relief Society 
is $2.88 each, postpaid. 

Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine gave a 
demonstration of the short story, 
from Bret Harte's masterpiece, The 
Outcast of Poker Flats. 

The Short Story 

By Jennie B. Knight 

PETRARCH, the famous Italian 
poet, (1304-1374), wrote: 
"While in every other respect 
I feel the infirmities of old age, in 
my studies it seems to me that I 
grow younger every day. Therefore 
I shall be glad if death comes upon 
me while I am engaged in reading 
or writing." 

New Course in Literature 

You will be pleased to learn that 
Miss Fay Ollerton, one of our own 
girls, is to supervise the Literary 
Lessons for the next two years. A 
student of |the Brigham (Young 
University and the University of 
California, specializing in English 
and history, and in short story 
writing, Miss Ollerton is well qual- 
ified for the work. She has at- 
tended also Columbia University 
and the Pulitzer School of Journal- 
ism, where she obtained her mas- 
ter's degree. While in New York 
she earned a great deal of her liv- 

ing, and sometimes all of it, by 
writing. At one time she won a 
prize offered by a national maga- 
zine. The thesis for her degree 
had to be on a journalitic subject, 
and she chose as her title, "The 
American Periodicals' Treatment of 
Mormonism Since 1850." This 
work was intensely interesting; she 
had to read everything that had 
been written, good, bad, or indiffer- 
ent, about Mormons since that 
year. Some of the professors at 
the school became interested in her 
thesis, and the Director of the Pu- 
litzer School was good enough to 
give her an A and some special 

Several of her stories and ar- 
ticles have been published in the 
Relief Society Magazine and the 
Deseret News. While at Columbia 
she took a short-story course un- 
der Dr. Dorothy Scarborough, a 
writer of fiction of national repute. 
At present she is with a large pub- 
lishing company in San Francisco. 



That she will have a sympathetic 
understanding of Relief Society 
women may easily be inferred, as 
she is the daughter of Mary Oiler- 
ton, who was president of the Par- 
owan Stake Relief Society. 

The Short Story 

CONCERNING the course Miss 
Ollerton has furnished the fol- 
lowing items : The short story is 
as old [as civilization. Egyptian 
tales, known to be five thousand 
years old, have been found, and 
from the perfection of their art 
men must have practiced it thou- 
sands of years before the stories 
we know of were written. The 
story is a fundamental need in the 
hearts of all mankind. Our de- 
mand for it in this day of acceler- 
ated Jiving ds even greater than 
in the ages when men hewed their 
first stone weapons and learned to 
give honor to the man who was 
born with the love of story telling. 
During the coming two years, one 
of the purposes of the Relief Society 
is to give to its members a pano- 
ramic view of the short story, ex- 
tending over the entire globe and 
showing the high points in this age- 
old endeavor of man to entertain 
and to instruct. Stories of almost 
every nationality and of every age 
will be part of the view — some that 
flourished in Egypt in the dim 
3,000 B. C.'s; stories from Greece 
and Rome before and in the days 
of the Caesars ; literature from our 
own Bible and from- the Talmud ; 
stories that entertained in ancient 
India and China, always a choice 
part of our rich heritage. These 
and contributions from many other 
lands, America included, will be 
part of the panorama. 

Many Modern Examples 
Finally the study of the short 

story will bring us to ;our own 
times, where it is necessary to un- 
derstand what is meant by a short- 
story and a story that is merely 
short. For the short story (written 
with or without the hyphen) as we 
understand it today, was perfected 
in the nineteenth century and has 
come in our century to mean some- 
thing as ^definite as lyric poetry 
or a familiar essay. 

It is largely to America that the 
world owes its present form of the 
short story. We do not forget, 
as we say this, that at about the 
same time Edgar Allen Poe wrote 
his history-making "Ms. Found in 
a Bottle" and "Berenice," two of 
the first short stories as we know 
them now. Over in France a great 
artist by the name of Prosper Mer- 
imee was also composing stories 
that were to influence the entire 
world. Yet it was largely from 
America that the inspiration came 
to make of the short story a defi- 
nite form of art. 

America Pre-eminent 

AND why America? It does not 
seem at all incredible to us now 
when each year sees hundreds, even 
thousands, of novels pouring forth 
in bright colored jackets ; — when on 
Broadway hundreds of new 
dramas are witnessed by questing 
play-goers each season ; and from 
Hollywood iliterally thousands of 
dramas are unrolled each year for 
the whole world to see and hear; 
— also that there are so many short 
stories published that if a person 
did nothing else he must needs go 
blind before he could read the at- 
tempts to satisfy America's month- 
ly thirst for escape through means 
of this art. 

American literature back in the 
early and middle nineteen hundreds 
was a thing to be snubbed, a sub- 



ject not to be discussed in polite 
European circles, or among" our 
own intelligentsia. Of course, ex- 
ceptions were made for Washington 
Irving and occasionally for Cooper, 
but the world did not consider that 
we had produced any literature 
worthy of naming. English novels, 
because of the lax copyright laws, 
came into America on seemingly 
every wave of the Atlantic. So 
little, if any, did the publishers pay 
for the rights of getting them be- 
fore the public that any American 
novel was foredoomed to failure. 

Poe the Leader 

YET' a new and virile country al- 
ways finds a way and Ameri- 
ca's way to be heard was through 
the short story. Since old Chau- 
cer's day there had been only a few 
names worthy to be linked with his 
as a creator of stories. In the 19th 
Century an erratic genius by the 
name of Poe was to give to the 
world a new style in the writing 
art, one that would set a pattern 
which all of the short story writers 
since his time have attempted to 
equal or make better. 

Because Poe's theory of the short 
story is still the 1930 writer's 
theory, it will serve best to explain 
what the short story became in the 
19th Century and is today. 

"In the whole composition there 
should be no word written of which 
the tendency, direct or indirect, is 
not to the one pre-established de- 
sign, and should be done by such 
means, with such care and skill, as 
a picture is at length painted which 
leaves in the mind of him who con- 
templates it a sense of the fullest 

The Single Impression 

ORIEFLY then, the short story 
*-* must emphasize totality of ef- 
fect. It must be short enough to 

be read through at one sitting; it 
must give a single impression, it 
cannot digress. It must have unity 
of action, unity of tone, unity of 
color, unity of emotion, and must 
exclude everything that interferes 
with this one impression. 

After Poe there was a consider- 
able time when only men of medi- 
ocre talent walked the road of the 
story teller's art. To be sure we 
must not forget Hawthorne, who 
was perhaps the greater genius of 
the two. He lived and wrote dur- 
ing and after Poe's time, but his 
stories more often lacked the one 
small thing that hindered their per- 
fection, and they must more often 
be classed with the tale than with 
the short story proper. Hawthorne 
and Irving, with the privilege of 
the tale, could emphasize character, 
a moral issue, local color, action, 
and what not, all in one attempt; 
whereas the short story, fostered 
by Poe, achieved totality of effect 
by emphasizing only one thing. 

Short-Story Writers 

Poe's art. Edward Everett 
Hale with his "Man Without A 
Country," came in this period too, 
but there was no outstanding 
genius until the time of Bret 
Harte; and Harte, who wrote best 
of the gold days of California, did 
one thing that neither Hawthorne 
nor Poe could do. He made his 
stories purely American — American 
with splendid colorings, and con- 
flicts of temperament, and full of 
a kind of romantic realism. 

After Bret Harte, some years 
elapsed before the great avalanche 
of American writers was upon us. 
Then came William Dean Howell, 
H. C. Bunner, T. B. Aldrich, Mark 
Twain, James Lane Allen, Sarah 
Orne Jewett, Mary Wilkins Free- 
man, Henry James, O'Henry and 



a score of others. They brought 
the art down into our own day, 
when at least every third neighbor 
harbors aspirations, not always se- 
cret, of seeing" his name printed 
among the immortals and receiving 
substantial checks meanwhile. 

Over in England Rudyard Kip- 
ling, that superb story teller, found 
his way to fame, and hundreds have 
tried to follow him. In France the 
art flourished, perhaps in a higher 
state of perfection, than in pro- 
lific America. Balzac, Daudet, Mus- 
set, Maupassant, and Bazin are 
only a few of the masters. In 
Russia, partly through the means 
of Chekhov, a different phase of 
art, sometimes called Naturalism, 
had its start and is in vogue today. 
Because of America's inspiration, 
Sweden, Denmark, South America, 
Italy, Spain, all the civilized world 
has taken a new interest in the 
creating of stories. 

Effect of Short-Story Method 

TTHE short story has by no 
-■- means stopped with itself. It 
has so influenced our novel writing 
that totality of effect is creeping 
into some of our best books. In- 
deed the short story is at least one 
of the parents of the present hey- 
day of the drama. 

What the present trend of the 
short story is and who the writers 
are, will not be discussed here, for 
many of you are already interested 
in this subject and the rest of you 
will form your opinions as the 
course progresses. 

The study of the short story, 
which is to be yours for the next 
two winters, will, as said in the 
beginning, touch the high points in 

man's age-old form of pleasure in 
creating tales. The panoramic 
view will reveal the art of many 
nations, but even more it will show 
how we are all fundamentally alike, 
and that in many essential ways 
man's nature has not changed from 
the time the water wheels of an- 
cient Egypt helped to moisten the 
soil until this day when silver- 
winged planes fly the air and the 
music and entertainment of the 
world can be brought to our fire- 
sides by the mere pressure of a 

The course will do one more 
thing: It will attempt to gather for 
you the best of the story ' writers 
of our Church and to urge the 
need of preserving in some endur- 
ing form of the short story our 
pioneer heritage. 

A Course to Enjoy 

WE are convinced that you will 
approach this work in the 
spirit of intellectual pleasure seek- 
ing. It will help you to understand 
life. We interpret life through 
our own experiences. Through 
books and stories others speak to 
us, give us their imost precious 
thoughts, and pour their souls in- 
to ours. To read enlarges one's 
horizon. Let me suggest read aloud 
as mqch as possible. Think of 
-books in terms of personality. Walt 
iWhitman said in referring to his 
book, "Leaves of Grass," "Whoso 
touches this book touches a man." 
iBe independent — you have a right 
to your own opinion, and if you 
are broad minded enough to study 
your opinion will change. Read 
for your own pleasure — not for 
mere thrills, but for the high pleas- 
ure which is genuinely cultural. 


Social Service Class Leaders' 

HIS meeting was so largely at- 
tended by Relief Society wo- 

men, eager to hear the material on 
this very important subject, that it 
was necessary to adjourn to Barratt 
Hall, where Mrs. Inez K. Allen 



presided. The following statement 
and outline formed the subject for 
an enlightening lecture: "Psychol- 
ogy and Personal Development," by 
Professor M. Wilford Poulson. 

Professor Poulson s Remarks 

During the last hundred years 
Mormonism has been an important 
factor in helping people to appreci- 
ate more than ever the importance 
of human values as contrasted with 
mere physical property, or things. 
Physical things are merely means 
toward ends, but human beings are 
ends in themselves — capable of in- 
finite and eternal progress. We are 
all acquainted with the wonderful 
flash of divine inspiration which 
says, "As man is, God once was ; 
and as God is, man may become." 

Wle may have noticed that it 
does not state that we can be certain 
of becoming as God is, but rather 
that it is a statement of possibility 
— "man may become" is the word- 

The national Woman's Relief So- 
ciety of the Church has ever been 
in the vanguard when it came to 
the appreciation of human or per- 
sonality values. In line with this 
fact, it has been decided during the 
coming season to study a number 
of lessons intended to enlist the 
science of psychology. The aim is 
to help the members enhance their 
own personalities, so as to become 
in turn more efficient in the ser- 
vice of others. 

DEFINITE final decision as to 
the text to be used has not been 
made, but the nature of the nine 
lessons has been somewhat definitely 
agreed upon. I shall first outline 
by means of topics and brief com- 
ments, the general nature of these 
lessons, and then discuss somewhat 
more adequately one of them. 

A tentative listing of the lessons 
is as follows: 

What Is Personality? 

I. Personality — Its meaning and de- 

(a) Definition. 

(b) The traits that make for ef- 
ficiency in dealing with other people. 

(c) Those which mar our influ- 
ence with others. 

(d) Possiblities for the adult de- 
velopment of important personality 

II. The Problem of the Inheritance 
of Mental Traits. 

(a) Comparison of Physical and 
Mental Traits. 

(b) Limitations of our knowl- 
edge of human heredity. 

(c) Fallacies of the fatalists in 
this field. 

(d) Grounds for a hopeful at- 

Habit and Growth 

III. Habit formation and growth. 
(a)_ Advantages of habits — how 

they may set us free — 

(b) Disadvantages of habits, how 
they may enslave us. 

(c) Formation of new habits and 
breaking undesirable ones. . 

(d) Retaining our plasticity and 

IV. The Problem of Memorizing 
More Efficiently. 

(a) Memorizing ability in rela- 
tion to age. 

(b) Efficient and inefficient meth- 
ods of memorizing. 

(c) Wljiat we should and should 
not burden the memories with. 


V. The Psychology of Conversa- 
tion, Writing and Public Speak- 

(a) Appreciation of the point of 
view and needs of others. 



(b) Being a good listener — 

(c) Personal achievement — Be- 
ing a person that others would like 
to listen to — 

(d) How to increase one's mas- 
tery of language. 

VI. Developing Originality and In- 

(a) What is originality in the 
best sense of the term ? 

(b) Relation of originality to im- 

(c) How may originality and in- 
itiative be developed? 

Better Thinking 

VII. The Problem of Better Think- 

(a) Types of Thinking. 

(h) ICounterfeit thinking! — can 
we recognize it in ourselves and 
others ? 

(c) Pitfalls of thinking we need 
to recognize and avoid — 

(d) Genuine or creative thinking. 

VIII. The Gospel of Relaxation. 

(a) Valuable hobbies to cultivate. 

(b) Tendencies to over-tension 
in American life. 

(c) Relaxation and sleep. 

(d) What the gospel may do to 
give poise and control. 


IX. The Psychology of Leadership. 

(a) Arbitrary despotism vs. the 
democratic leadership of insight and 

(b) Personal traits that distin- 
guish leaders. 

(c) Where we should lead and 
where we should follow. 

(d) Cultivation of insight and 
other necessary qualities of good 

Final Test of Value 

SOMEONE has said that the ulti- 
mate test, the measure of the 

worth of an institution, is the kind 
of personality it tends to produce. 
On this subject two of our Latter- 
day Saint writers have recently ex- 
pressed themselves. 

One wrote : "In the contempla- 
tion of that personality in which so 
much of God was manifest in the 
guise of man, there is felt a tide of 
moral life, a classification of moral 
insights and righteous purposes. 
With the perception that person- 
ality is the highest thing in the 
world and that the enhancing of it 
is the greatest end in life, there 
comes a sense of imperfection, of 
the slightness of attainment as com- 
pared with infinite possibilities. The 
heart is transformed, and things are 
seen in new proportions." (Life 
of W. H. Chamberlin, p. 182.) 

With gifted insight the other 
writes : "There is no greater job 
and no more profitable undertaking 
than the improvement of our own 
lives. We cannot dream ourselves 
into a great life. We must simply 
take ourselves in hand where we are, 
and with patience and determina- 
tion overcome those weaknesses 
which hold us back." 

Social Service Case-Work 

SOCIAL Service Case Work, as 
a Department of the Relief So- 
ciety Conference, met in the Audi- 
torium of the Bishop's Building, 
Mrs. Amy W. Evans presiding in 
the absence of Counselor Amy B. 
Lyman. It was largely attended by 
ward presidents and social service 

Mr. D. A. Skeen, chairman of 
the Commission to select a site for 
the School for the Feebleminded, 
was the speaker. Thanking the mem- 
bers of the Relief Society for doing 
so much for the establishment of 
the school, he took occasion also to 
stress the great need for such an 



institution. Only recently have we 
looked upon the problem of the 
feebleminded as one calling for very 
serious consideration, serious in the 
idea that it may be remedied. Such 
schools are now established in all 
but two of the states. 

In these schools a proper training 
of the feeble-minded has so devel- 
oped that many of the pupils have 
become self-sustaining and useful 
citizens instead of a heavy expense. 
The public pays the penalty for 
neglect of proper training for men- 
tally inferior people. It is esti- 
mated that nearly half of the 
delinquent people in our state have 
tendencies of the feebleminded. A 
site for the school, consisting of 500 
acres with wonderful water supply 
has been secured in American Fork, 
and construction of the State Train-' 
ing School for the Feebleminded 
will shortly begin. 

The meeting was concluded by the 
presentation of two case studies, 
one by Mrs. Elizabeth C. Williams, 
the other by Miss Margaret Davis, 
social case worker in the Welfare 
Department of the General Relief 
Society office. 

Work and Business Department 

HP HE Work and Business Depart- 
■ ment Meeting was held in the 
Auditorium of the Bishop's Build- 
ing. The presiding officer, Mrs. 
Amy W. Evans, spoke to the work- 
ers on "Welfare Values of the 
Work and Business Meeting." A 
recommendation by the committee, 
endorsed by the General Board, was 
that each member of the ward Relief 
Societies contribute one new article 
of clothing each year to the ward 
organization. Remodeled clothing, 
if in good condition, would be ac- 
ceptable. If at any time a stake has 
more than it can use, it should get 

in touch with the General Board, 
who will be glad to act as a clear- 
ing house to receive and dispose 
of the articles. If in the entire stake 
there is not sufficient need, and the 
clothing accumulates, or if any stake 
does not have enough clothing to 
supply the needs of its poor, the 
stake president should notify the 
General Board. 

Public showers, it was felt, should 
be discouraged, as the sort of help 
required is not usually given, and 
there are better ways of accom- 
plishing the results than through 
public showers. 

Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford dis- 
cussed "The Value of a Stake Plan." 
She urged all the stakes to have 
their plans at the beginning of the 
year, as an objective to which all 
the wards may look with better re- 
sults. Outlines that certain stakes 
and wards had submitted were read. 
They cover a different program for 
each month of the year, thus offer- 
ing a sufficient variety. The plan 
of having light refreshments served 
at the Work and Business meeting 
often works out well. 

A display was given of some of 
the articles that had been made in 
the work and business meetings, and 
the^ methods of preparation ex- 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter spoke 
on the report of the survey on the 
Work and Business Meeting, giving 
some of the questions used in the 
survey ; and certain of the answers 
were read. The survey has demon- 
strated the Work and Business 
Meeting in many of the stakes to 
be one of the most valuable. Mrs. 
Baxter urged stake and ward pres- 
idents to choose capable and genial 
supervisors, who are able to keep 
every member of the organization 

i«, mmm i * n i ipn i— ■■— ■— i»i i n ■ i i1mitummmm»ftmm»0mik i i m— — wwp— ^ > m i »t. i. i». i »... i m. , . i n « fa 

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With the basket of roses presented by the Relief Societies of the ten stakes 
of Salt Lake County, for the Centennial Conference of the Relief Society. 


Motto — Charity Never Faileth 


MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. F. LUN'D General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion Mrs. Elise B. Alder 

Miss 1 Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Inez K. Allen 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rogannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mm Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager - Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. XVII 

JUNE, 1930 

No. 6 


Mrs. Jeanette A. Hyde 

ONE of the most genial women 
of the Church is Mrs. Jean- 
nette A. Hyde, who on 
account of her very responsible 
position as Collector of Customs at 
the Port of Hawaii, has severed her 
connections with the General Board 
of the Relief Society. The an- 
nouncement of her resignation was 
made at the recent Relief Society 
Conference held April 4 and 5, in 
Salt Lake City. 

MRS. HYDE has a winsome per- 
sonality; a voice that is soft 
and persuasive; a smile that is 
contagious ; a kindly disposition — 
all in all she is a woman of unusual 
charm. She has served as a member 
of the General Board of the Relief 
Society nearly seventeen years, as 
she became a member of the Board 

July 3, 1913. She served as Busi- 
ness Manager of the Magazine from 
September 24, 1914 until April 22, 

MRS. HYDE has visited many 
Stakes of the Church as a 
convention and conference visitor 
and is widely known by women all 
over the Church. She is what we 
call an all around woman, as she 
has achieved distinction in a num- 
ber of ways. She has been an 
outstanding woman in the public life 
of her State and Nation for some, 
time, and is noted for her skill in 
the domestic arts. Many of us 
will call to mind that a few years 
ago Mrs. Hyde captured four or 
five prizes at the State Fair for 
jellies, bottled fruits, pickles and 
other viands. Those who have 



shared her hospitality at any time 
know that she is a past-master at 
cooking — in all a good homemaker. 

SHE is serving her Church and 
Nation by following President 
Hoover's instruction in regard to 
law enforcement. The women of 
the Church are proud of Mrs. 
Hyde's work affecting the 18th 

amendment. Fortunately there are 
a good many Latter-day Saints in 
Honolulu where Mrs. Hyde is lo- 
cated, so that while her services are 
not available here at Church head- 
quarters, she can render excellent 
service in her present location. 

We wish her every success and 
God's speed in her work always. 

Summer Outing for Undernourished Children — 1930 

THE good work of several of the 
Stake Relief Societies during 
the last few years in giving under- 
nourished and underprivileged chil- 
dren a two weeks' vacation has been 
much appreciated by the General 
Board and the Social Service De- 

This year the same need exists, 
and any stake that feels to extend 
an invitation to this type of child 
for summer outing this year should 
let this be known at the office of 
the General Secretary as early as 
posisble. Last year the work for 
the first time was largely centralized 
in one stake — Benson, which cared 
for about 60 children, while several 
more children were sent to other 
stakes by request. 

In previous years children were 
sent in smaller groups to two or 
more stakes. Arrangements for 
this year are not yet made and the 
convenience of stakes will, of course, 
be considered in arranging dates, 
number of children sent, ages, etc. 
The usual stay has been two weeks, 
though in individual cases it has 
been longer. The children are sent 
from the ages of 5 to 13 and 14 
in a few cases. The children may 
go at any time between July 1st 
and August 15th, that is most con- 
venient for the stake receiving them. 
Transportation is arranged by the 
headquarter's office, and word from 
interested stakes will be appreciated 
at as early a date as possible. 

There isn't a joy at morning 
There isn't a joy at noon, 
Can equal the joys at evening 
In fire-lit shadowy room. 


By Merling Clyde 

'Tis then that cares of the day time 

All melt in the embers glow, 

And dreamily there, hand clasped in 

Comes peace only true hearts know. 

Relief Society Conference 

General Session, Saturday Morning 


WE greet you this morning in 
love, and in appreciation that 
you are here, and for the work you 
are doing. We are greatly honored 
in having with us our dear Sister 
Grant; Sister Fox, president of the 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement 
Association, and her counselor, 
Sister Beesley; Sister May Ander- 
son, president of the Primary Asso- 
ciation, and her counselors, Sister 
Ross and Sister Thomas. 

I suppose you have all been read- 
ing Church history. Can you im- 
agine what the women of the 
Church were thinking of and pray- 
ing for one hundred years ago to- 
day? While their names do not 
appear as those who took part in 
the organization of the Church, we 
know that the prayers and efforts 
of every one of them was bent to- 
ward sustaining the organization, 
and those who were working for it. 

Sister Emma Hale Smith, I am 
thinking of this morning. Church 
history shows her contribution to be 
such a glorious one. She traveled, 
labored, wrote, prayed, and com- 
forted all with her love up to the 
time of the organization, after 
which our Father in Heaven blessed 
and recognized her with a revelation. 
As I consider her anxiety on that 
day, and that of the other fine 
women, I am hoping that they are 
able to have a vision of this beau- 
tiful congregation, here today, meet- 
ing in the name of our Father in 
Heaven, and giving thanks that he 
did restore the gospel through the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, I look for- 

ward to a strengthening of our 
testimonies at this conference. 

IT seems that of all the songs of 
Zion, those we have heard this 
morning are among the most excep- 
tional ; and of all the singers in 
Zion, we could not have sweeter or 
more sacred voices than those who 
have charmed us here. Brother 
Tracy Y. Cannon, who, busy with 
this pageant, yet came here and 
inspired us with his music, we sin- 
cerely thank. 

Our beloved Sister Lalene H. 
Hart, a member of the General 
Board, and Relief Society President 
of the Canadian Mission, is not with 
us often. When she came into our 
General Board meeting yesterday it 
just seemed that we experienced the 
feelings of a fond mother who re- 
joices when her daughter comes 
home after a long visit. Sister Hart 
will now speak. 

General Secretary 

Presents Officers. 

SINCE the last general assembly 
of the Relief Society in confer- 
ence, certain changes have been 
made in the personnel of the Gen- 
eral Board. Owing to the fact that 
one of our most capable board mem- 
bers found it necessary to be absent 
for an extended period of time, it 
became necessary to accept the res- 
ignation of Mrs. Jeannette A. Hyde. 
We do so with a feeling of genuine 
regret, as Mrs. Hyde has given 
many years of valuable service in 
the cause ; but as her position is 
one of patriotic service to the na- 



tion, it has been deemed advisable 
to accept her resignation. 


General Board Member and 

President of the Canadian 

Mission Relief Society 

May I preface my remarks this 
morning with these verses : 


Our little lad came in one day 

With dusty shoes and tired feet; 
His playtime had been hard and long 

Out in the summer's noontide heat. 
"I'm glad I'm home," he cried, and hung 

His torn straw hat up in the hall, 
While in the corner by the door 

He put away his bat and ball. 

"I wonder why," his auntie said, 

"This little lad always comes here 
When there are many other homes 

Pleasant as this, and quite as near." 
He stood a moment, deep in thought, 

Then, with the love-light in his eye, 
He pointed where his mother sat, 

And said: "She lives here; that is 

With beaming face the mother heard,; 

Her mother heart was very glad. 
A true, sweet answer he had given — 

That thoughtful, little, loving lad. 
And well I know that hosts of lads 

Are just as loving, true, and dear; 
That they would answer as he did : 
" 'Tis home, for mother's living here." 

Two Kinds of People 

I TOO, am happy to be here this 
morning, because my mother is 
here, because you mothers are here, 
and because of the inspiration that 
this throng of mothers gives to us 
who have just returned from those 
other mothers who are trying to live 
this wonderful gospel. 

There are two kinds of people in 
the world — those who can do things, 
and those who can put up excuses 
for not getting anything done. 
When the program of the Relief 
Society came to me, I wondered 
which class I should go in. Then I 

thought of the story of the Master, 
in the parable of the man who had 
prepared a great feast and had in- 
vited his guests. When the time 
came for the feast, there were many 
excuses; the guests did not appear, 
having other things to do. The 
Master drew this picture to show 
us the folly of those who, having 
the honor of being guests of the 
Father, yet refuse that call. Our 
Father, through his servants, has in- 
vited me and you to come to this 
feast, where many things have been 
prepared that will help us to the 
fullest realization of our own 

May we not apply this parable to 
the work in the Relief Society? 
After we have been admitted as 
members, can we afford, as did the 
guests in the parable, to allow even 
legitimate or praiseworthy excuses 
to stand in the way of our loyalty 
to that organization? The oppor- 
tunity comes only once. The doors 
do not stand open always, and just 
as the host went out into the high- 
ways, and brought in the blind, the 
lame, the halt, to partake of that 
feast, so if we refuse to be guests 
of our Father in the things that he 
has provided for us, he will reach 
out to those who are seeking for 
that light and truth which will bring 
joy and happiness to them. 

Loyalty to Country 

LIKE the other mission pres- 
idents from foreign missions, 
I feel that we are supremely loyal 
to this country ; but because we are 
American citizens does not lessen 
our love and respect for other na- 
tions and their citizens. For the 
Book of Mormon says : "Behold, 
this is a choice land, and whatsoever 
nation shall possess it, shall be 
free from bondage, and from cap- 
tivity, and from all other nations 
under heaven, if they will but serve 



the God of the land, who is Jesus 
Christ, who hath been manifested 
by the things which we have writ- 

I am glad that I live in this choice 
land, but my love for other people 
is not lessened because of that. I 
believe that being a true American 
citizen makes me better prepared 
to be a good Canadian citizen, and 
I want the women who come from 
Canada, whether from the Canadian 
Mission or from the stakes of Can- 
ada, to know that my love for them 
is just as great. My heart has been 
stirred by reading the articles by 
women in connection with world 
peace. They have come from 
women who have lived in war-torn 
nations, whose hearts have ; been 
torn in such a way that they are 
reaching out to other people. Of 
all the women of the world, we have 
it most within our power to bring 
peace to the world. There are 
many women working, as we are, 
on the big problems that are facing 
the nations. The women of Canada 
have the same problems to solve as 
we have — social problems, and the 
message that comes from other 
women, and other nations. 

The Three Objectives 

THERE are three objectives for 
us to realize : First, to preach 
the gospel to every people. We may 
not talk, we may not say a thing ; 
but the life that we lead is the one 
thing that proclaims this gospel. If 
we are living pure lives of happi- 
ness and contentment, according to 
the commandments which the Lord 
has given then we are preaching 
the gospel to all people. Second, 
to develop higher lives among mem- 
bers of the Church. The purpose 
of the gospel is to help people to 
rise to higher levels, to develop in 
them the highest possible attributes ; 
and if we are doing that, we are 

serving our fellowmen. Third, to 
develop our community into a fit 
place for our people to live in. 

We have wonderful privileges — 
opportunities as women, and duties 
as well. The greatest privilege and 
opportunity that can come to wom- 
an, is to perpetuate the race, to be 
mothers of men, and to establish 
the destinies of nations. Is not this 
a wonderful privilege? and should 
we not respect it? 

We are responsible, as women, 
where men have failed. We must 
go on. The responsibility is with 
us. To meet these objectives, we 
must study the life and growth of 
nations, of people, noting what 
brought about the rise or the fall of 
nations, and what were the con- 
tributions of people now passed 
away to the development of the 
human family and to the world as 
a whole. 

Women are Responsible 

BEFORE we shall reach these 
objectives, we have much to do. 
We are responsible for the traits, 
thoughts, and actions of our times. 
How shall we arrive at these ob- 
jectives? By living this wonderful 
gospel, restored to us with all its 
privileges and opportunities. 

You mothers who have mission- 
aries in the Canadian mission are 
preparing them for a greater mis- 
sion than they have ever had before. 
The greatest honor that can come 
to women is motherhood ; yet even 
that does not compare with the 
monument that our mothers and our 
young people are building in the 
Boys and Girls who go into the 
mission field to proclaim this won- 
derful gospel. So, mothers, rejoice 
in these young men and women be- 
cause they are monuments to you, 
everlasting monuments, which will 
not crumble and decay while that 
spirit of faith is kept within them, 



Member of General Board 

AS I occupy this position, a feel- 
ing of deep humility and rever- 
ence comes over me — humility, be- 
cause of my inadequacy ; reverence, 
because of the magnitude of this 

"Reverence comes with all we see ; 
God writes his lessons in each flower ; 
And every singing bird or bee 
Can teach us something of his power." 

The Sense of Beauty 

That feeling is with us when we 
are out of doors, in the canyons, or 
wherever we see God's greatness in 
nature; but it should be with us 
always, within our buildings, within 
our work, within ourselves. Today, 
in this building, that feeling is 
present. In Leviticus, chapter 19, 
the Lord, speaking unto Moses 
says : "Ye shall keep my sabbath 
and reverence my sanctuary; I am 
the Lord." Have we remembered 
this commandment? If we have, 
the minute we step within the walls 
there is an atmosphere of peace, of 
awe, of nearness to God. 

OUR members have the oppor- 
tunity of being helpful and are 
most helpful, to those less fortunate. 
Broad tolerance and a kindly spirit 
are most effective in spreading the 
doctrine of the brotherhood of man. 
This spirit, or atmosphere of rever- 
ence, we cannot have unless it is 
within us. We may talk about it, 
preach about it, write about it; but 
unless we feel it within, the note 
does not ring true, and the goal for 
which we are striving is blurred 
and sometimes lost to view. The 
kingdom of God is here. Should 
we not remember what Paul's He- 
brews 12:28 says: "Wherefore we 
receiving a kingdom which cannot 
be moved, let us have grace, where- 
by we may, serve God acceptably 
with reverence and godly fear," 


Member of General Board 

WITH the opportunities of the 
Relief Society I have always 
been very much impressed. De- 
velopment comes to us through well 
directed energy. To develop spir- 
itually we must turn our thoughts 
to spiritual realities, and lifting our 
minds above the common things of 
life, center them on things of God. 
We may raise our thinking to a 
higher plane, but force and energy 
must maintain it there. 

Spirituality flourishes in an at- 
mosphere of religious thought and 
action. Constant application to the 
study of the gospel with prayerful 
thought and action develops the 
faith and courage necessary. If re- 
ligion is applied theology, then true 
spiritual development comes through 
application to our lives of religious 

How the Mind Grows 

MENTAL development is 
brought about by systematic 
thinking and study. By exercise 
and application of our mental 
powers we grow mentally. If our 
mental processes are sluggish, they 
may be revived by proper varied 
and selected reading, which brings 
us to our best, and rouses each 
faculty to its most vigorous life. 
"Give me a book, health, and a 
June day," says Emerson, u and I 
will make the pomp of kings ridic- 

Women whose lives are given 
over to home and family duties, 
often neglect the value of good 
books, which broaden our horizon 
and enrich our lives. 

One of the greatest factors in our 
development is our social contact. 
As Webster says, "More than books, 
moie than schools, society edu- 
cates." Mothers need the relaxation 



that comes through social contacts, 
going back to their homes enriched 
and enlightened. Friendships 
formed by kindred interests are last- 
ing. The gospel makes us all kin, 
and in its progress we feel a sense 
of joy and responsibility. 

As women we must keep abreast 
of the times, able to take part along 
with our husbands and children. 
How much more companionable a 
woman can become if she is ac- 
quainted with what is going on, 
and has a rich fund of knowledge 
and experience. 


To Educate the Family 

T is said "Educate a man, and 
you have educated a man; but 

educate a woman, and you have 
educated a whole family." How 
great a responsibility is ours in 
moulding and directing lives. 

The Relief Society, founded and 
directed by divine guidance, gives 
us spiritual, mental, and social de- 
velopment : spiritual, through its re- 
ligious studies; mental, through its 
stimulus; and isocial through its 
contacts. Surely it has been in the 
hands of the Almighty in the mak- 
ing. He has had his eye over it 
from the beginning, and is directing 
its destiny. The women who have 
formulated its policies have been 
inspired of God. We are caught 
in the surge of its progress, and 
will continue to participate in its 

Organization and Development of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Alice Louise Reynolds, Member General Board 

The Beginning of Wisdom 

IN a Sacred Grove in Fayette, 
Seneca County, New York, a boy 
knelt in humility, for he had read 
the epistle of James which stated : 
"If any of you lack wisdom, let him 
ask of God ; that giveth to all men 
liberally and upbraideth not; and it 
shall be given him." That passage, 
gripped the soul of the young man 
and so he put it to the supreme test. 
A pillar of light appeared exactly 
over his head having the brightness 
of the sun. Enveloped in this light 
he saw two personages whose 
brightness and glory defied all de- 
scription ; they were the Father and 
the Son. The Father calling the 
boy by name, said : "This is my 
beloved Son, hear him." 


Founding of the Church 

N the 6th day of April, 1830, 
six young men, for the oldest 

was but 31 years of age, met in the 
house of Peter Whitmer, Sr., and 
organized the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. This 
was to fulfill the legal requirement, 
because a goodly number were al- 
ready converts, among them Lucy 
Mack Smith, the mother of the 
Prophet's wife, who will always be 
revered wherever women of the 
Relief Society assemble. 

BEFORE the organization of the 
Church the Angel Moroni had 
delivered the Sacred Records from 
which the Book of Mormon was 
translated. John the Baptist had 
restored the Aaronic Priesthood ; 
Peter, James and John had placed 
their hands upon Joseph and Oliver 
Cowdery, bestowing upon them the 
Melchizedek Priesthood. 

The New Book 

HE Book of Mormon had been 
translated in an astonishingly 




short time, as the first published 
volume was given to the world in 

The first Conference of the 
Church was held on the 9th of June 
in Fayette, Seneca County, New 
York. The Church numbered at 
that time 27 souls; but there were 
other persons in attendance, some 
were friendly, others believed. At 
this Conference the Sacrament was 
administered and those recently bap- 
tized were confirmed. There were 
also a number of ordinations to the 

YET trouble was in the air, for 
bitterness was manifested on 
the part of those who opposed. Yet 
the work of the Lord progressed. 
Early in the history of the Church 
24 persons were baptized. Among 
these baptisms we find Jerusha 
Smith, wife of Hyrum Smith, and 
Emma Hale Smith, wife of Joseph 
Smith the Prophet. The record 
shows that among the very earliest 
baptisms into the Church thirteen 
were women — the women exceeding 
the number of men by 2. From 
that early date women have heeded 
the Gospel call, from every part of 
the earth. 

Revelations Received 

THIS was a period when impor- 
tant revelations were being 
received. Among others in July, 
1830, was a revelation to Emma 
Smith, the wife of Joseph Smith, 
in which she was called an "Elect 
Lady" and was directed to assist 
her husband in writing and to be 
his scribe, that Oliver Cowdery 
might be relieved for other duties. 
Among other things she was called 
to select hymns for the Church ; for 
said the Lord, "My Soul delighteth 
in the Song of the Heart, yea the 
Song of the Righteous is a prayer 
unto me and it shall be answered 
with a blessing upon their heads." 

At this time Joseph Smith was 
living in Harmony, Pennsylvania, 
but was forced to leave and take up 
his residence in Fayette, New York. 
Even his father-in-law, Isaac Hale, 
turned against him because of the 
falsehoods which were circulated 
and the prejudice existing in the 

Temple Site Dedicated 

ON the 2nd day of August 1831, 
Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, 
Sidney Rigdon, Edward Partridge, 
William W. Phelps, Martin Harris 
and Joseph Coe were far from home, 
for they met a little west of the 
Independence Court house and there 
dedicated a spot for the Temple of 
the Latter-days. The locality has 
since been known as the Center 
Stake. On the 9th day of August, 
1831, Joseph Smith and the Elders 
who were to return, started on their 
journey back to Kirtland. 

On the 25th day of January, 1832, 
a Conference was held at Amherst, 
Ohio, where the revelation known 
as section 75 in the Doctrine and 
Covenants was given, calling a 
number of elders to take missions, 
two by two, in several directions 
throughout the land. On the 16th 
of February the vision of the glo- 
ries was given. 

March 18, 1833, the First Presi- 
dency was organized with Joseph 
Smith as President and Sidney Rig- 
don and Frederick G. Williams as 
Counselors. At the Conference of 
High Priests held May 4, 1833, a 
committee was appointed to obtain 
subscriptions to erect a house to be 
used for a school, where the Elders 
were to receive instructions before 
going out to warn the world. 

Persecution Arises 

BY the 1st of June, 1833, pre- 
parations for the building of 
the Kirtland Temple were under 
way, and the work of the Lord in 



the State of Ohio was progressing 
favorably. But trouble was brew- 
ing in Jackson County, Missouri. 
The Saints who had settled there 
had dreamed of a Zion as foretold 
in the Old Testament. They had 
begun to build homes and get lo- 
cated when they discovered that 
forces were at work that would 
make Jackson County, Missouri, an 
impossible place for them. 

In the spring of 1832 it was 
decreed that no Mormon should in 
the future move and settle in that 
county. The disappointment of 
the people must have been severe, 
for they had come into the land 
by the command of the Lord to re- 
ceive their inheritance, and it was 
here that the new city of the great 
Jerusalem was to be built. What 
followed is a story of heartache and 
disappointment which only the 
blessings of the Lord could make 

Blessings Multiply 

IN the midst of this hour of trial in 
Missouri, great blessings awaited 
the Saints in Kirtland, Ohio. They 
had completed the Temple, whose 
architectural stability and beauty is 
challenging the admiration of the 
world today. The house was ready 
for dedication, Brother Phelps had 
written his soul-stirring hymn, 
"The Sprit of God Like a Fire is 
Burning." Sidney Rigdon read 
two of the most beautiful psalms. 
The prayer of dedication, which was 
given by revelation, was presented, 
and the house was given to the Lord. 
Angels were present ; the Holy 
Spirit, like the sound of a mighty 
wind, rilled the house and rested 
upon the assembly. The date of 
this event was March 27, 1836. 
Seven days after, on Sunday, April 
3, 1836, Joseph Smith and Oliver 
Cowdery retired to the pulpit in 
prayer, the veils being dropped. 

x\fter rising from their knees the 
Savior appeared to them, standing 
on the breastwork of the pulpit 
and blessed them, accepting the 
building in his name. 

After the vision closed, the heav- 
ens were again opened and Moses, 
Elias and Elijah appeared. Moses 
committed to them the Key of the 
Gathering of Israel ; Elias, the Keys 
of the Dispensation of Abraham; 
and Elijah, the Keys in Fulfilment 
of the prediction of Malachi, which 
concerned the turning of the hearts 
of the fathers to the children, and 
the hearts of the children to the 

The Apostasy 

^THREATENING and sinister 
•*■ were the clouds that hung over 
the Church at the beginning of the 
year 1838. Apostasy had broken 
into the ranks, and many faithful 
defenders of the truth had fallen 
by the wayside. So bitter became 
the spirit of opposition in Kirtland 
that Joseph Smith and Sidney Rig- 
don were forced to seek safety in 
flight. January 12, 1838, they jour- 
neyed toward Far West. The 
spirit of darkness spread from Kirt- 
land to Missouri, and some of the 
leading brethren became affected. 
This is the time when the names 
of the three witnesses were dropped 
from the Church records. March 
6, 1838, a meeting of all the Seven- 
ties of Kirtland was held to con- 
sider the moving of the Saints to 
Missouri. There was much dis- 
couragement on account of the 
poverty of the people; however 
while they were in this meeting the 
Spfirit of the Lord rested upon 
them and it was made known that 
they were to journey as a body to 

In the meantime the Saints were 
subjected to much persecution in 
Missouri. The leaders of the 



Church were demanded for trial. 
Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Ly- 
man White, Parley P. Pratt and 
George W. Robinson put themselves 
in the hands of the officers of the 
law in order to keep Far West from 
being sacked. 

An order was issued for the 
shooting of the Prophet signed by 
Samuel D. Lucas. A. W. Doniphan 
replied to this order by saying to 
his superior. "It is cold blooded 
murder ; I will not obey your com- 
mand." "My Brigade will march 
to Liberty tomorrow morning a 8 
o'clock, and if you execute these 
men I will hold you responsible 
before an earthly tribunal, so help 
me God." 

Escape from Prison 

Governor Boggs wrote General 
Clark to hold a military court in 
Davies County. Clark spent, some 
time searching the laws to find some 
authority on which the Prophet and 
others could be tried for treason. 

November 28, 1838, Joseph Smith 
and his fellow prisoners were taken 
to Liberty, and placed in Liberty 
Jail. Finally public sentiment became 
so enraged from the mistreatment of 
these brethren that those who held 
them prisoners concocted a plan for 
their release. They found their way 
into the State of Illinois. With all 
three members of the Presidency in 
prison, the burden of moving the 
Saints from Missouri was placed on 
the shoulders of Brigham Young. 

Then came the founding of Nau- 
voo, the city beautiful. Friday, 
May 10, 1839, President Joseph 
Smith took up his residence in a 
small log house on the banks of the 
Mississippi. The city had been 
known as Commerce, but it was soon 
changed to the City of Nauvoo, 
which was incorporated in Decem- 
ber, 1840. The misionary work was 
extended, and arrangements were 

made to publish both the Book of 
Mormon and the Doctrine and 
Covenants in England. 

APRIL 6, 1841, the 11th anni- 
versary of the organization of 
the Church, the cornerstone of the 
Nauvoo Temple was laid. March 
17th, 1842, the female Relief So- 
ciety of Nauvoo was organized by 
the Prophet Joseph Smith. Emma 
Smith was chosen President with 
Elizabeth Ann Whitney and Sarah 
M. Cleveland as counselors. Threats 
of mob vengeance were again in the 
air. On Saturday, August 6, 1842, 
President Joseph Smith prophesied 
that the Saints would continue to 
suffer much affliction and would be 
driven to the Rocky Mountains. 

The Martyrdom 

MAY 25, 1844, Joseph Smith 
was indicted at Carthage ; 
when they reached their destination 
Foster told Joseph Smith of the 
conspiracy against his life. The 
same spirit that had caused so much 
suffering in Missouri was rampant 
in Illinois. 

At a meeting of the City Council, 
held June 10th, after full consider- 
ation, the Expositor was declared a 
public nuisance and was ordered to 
be abated. Nauvoo was placed 
under martial law. In the general 
disturbance the prophet tried as an 
expedient, leaving Nauvoo, but some 
of his brethren accusing him of 
cowardice, urged him to return; a 
move which ended in both Joseph 
and Hyrum being taken to Carthage 

Now the name of Governor Ford 
flashes into the limelight. On June 
27th„ at five in the morning, the 
prison was attacked by an armed 
mob. A shower of bullets was 
poured into the room, Hyrum fell, 
and the Prophet exclaimed, "O, 



Brother Hyrum." As Joseph sprang 
into the window, two balls pierced 
him from the door and one entered 
his right breast from without. He 
fell outward into the hands of his 
murderers, exclaiming, "O Lord ! 
my God." 

The saints, with heads bowed with 
grief — for the greatest sorrow of 
all their history had come to them — 
wept and prayed. 

On June 28, 1844, the bodies of 
the martyred prophets were taken 
to Nauvoo by Willard Richards and 
Samuel H. Smith. On the morning 
of the 29th they were interred 
amidst the deep mourning of a 
stricken people. 

Then came the hour of transfigur- 
ation, often related to Relief So- 
ciety officers by their beloved 
President Emmeline B. Wells, when 
Brigham Young was recognized as 
the leader of the people. 

The Journey Westward 

WEDNESDAY, February 4, 
1846, the first of the Saints 
left Nauvoo and crossed the Missis- 
sippi River on the journey to the 
West, for it was evident that 
Nauvoo, like Kirtland and Far 
West, must be abandoned. The 
historic trek across the plains has 
given the Mormon Pioneers a 
unique place in history. The great 
organizing power of Brigham 
Young and others about him have 
made Utah a place sought for by 
students, and Salt Lake City is 
looked upon as the metropolis of 
this intermountain country, to which 
people have gathered for years for 
education, music and drama. Brig- 
ham Young is looked upon as a 
great and distinguished American 
and his leadership is admired and 
extolled by sociologists and com- 
munity builders wherever his work 
is known. 

The Prophet's Mother 

Mrs. Ethel R. Smith, Member of General Board 

WITHIN the ranks of God's 
soldiery are none more brave, 
none more heroic, yea none 
who endure more of the heat and the 
brunt of the battle than do the 
courageous and loyal-hearted wives 
and mothers who remain at home to 
cope with the serious problems of 
life, and to bear the responsibilities 
of the family while the husband is 
engaged in the ministry. When we 
understand this, we fully appreciate 
the tenderness and sincerity of heart, 
the purity and nobility of soul, re- 
vealed in woman — "God's master- 
piece of creation." — Ben E. Rich. 

Mother of a Prophet 

Pulsing through the pages of 
early church history are life stories 
of brave, heroic women who stood 
side by side with men and suffered 

with them for the sake of the Gos- 
pel. First and foremost was Lucy 
Smith, mother of the Prophet. Un- 
doubtedly before she entered this 
life she was chosen for this great 
mission. Well was he mothered. 
She was a remarkable personage — a 
woman of great power and force of 
character, commanding in appear- 
ance, dignified and gracious in man- 
ner, and possessing a very keen in- 
tellect. Deeply spiritual, she was 
also, and capable, with a tender love 
of all humanity. It has been said of 
her that so great was her wisdom 
and her ability to express herself, 
so great was the light that shone 
from her glorious eyes, that it was 
considered a privilege to call upon 
her, that one felt when in her pres- 
ence a sort of reverence. 

Called of God to be the mother of 



the man who restored to us the plan 
of eternal life, all honor is due her 
as a woman. 

Her Home Life 

MOTHER SMITH, as she was 
endearingly called, was born of 
very worthy parents ; and her early 
training- prepared her for her mis- 
sion. At the age of 20 she married 
Joseph Smith, a noble man whom 
she dearly loved and respected 
throughout her life. It was asked 
of one who knew her if she ever 
dominated her husband ; the answer 
was, "Lucy never wanted to." 

At first she and her husband were 
comfortable, then adversity set in 
and they were obliged to move from 
place to place. Undoubtedly the 
hand of the Lord was in their re- 
verses, for it brought them near the 
Hill Cumorah where the sacred 
records were concealed. Seven sons 
and three daughters were born to 
them. In all their experiences, 
whether of affluence or poverty, 
Lucy was willing and capable in 
every emergency. During this pe- 
riod the question of religion was the 
theme of discussion in the family. 
Occasionally, by manifestation or 
dream, the Lord prepared them for 
the great work of their son ; and 
from the very first they accepted his 
divine calling, manifested intense in- 
terest, ably encouraging him to go 
forth and do the work of the Lord. 

Her Mission 

LUCY recognized in her son an 
unusual personality ; but during 
his early life nothing of particular 
note occurred to indicate the great- 
ness of the mission to which he was 
to be called. After Joseph received 
his vision, she knew that she was the 
mother of a prophet, and from that 
time her history is closely identified 
with that of her son. Guarding care- 
fully every effort Joseph made to 

preserve the record, and suffering 
with him the persecutions of the un- 
friendly and the wicked, she was al- 
ways willing to sacrifice all in the 
service of the Lord. 

When forced from the home 
which Alvin had labored so hard to 
build, she said to Oliver Cowdery: 
"All this I give up for the sake of 
Christ and salvation; and I pray 
God to help me do so without a 
murmur or a tear. In the strength 
of God, I say that from this time 
forth I will not cast one longing 
look upon anything which I now 
leave behind me." 

Her Joy 

When the first pages of the 
manuscript were prepared and were 
given to Lucy for safe keeping, her 
joy knew no bounds. All night she 
meditated on the toil and anxiety 
they for several years had passed 
through in order to obtain this treas- 
ure — a treasure that she knew would 
bring no earthly wealth or advan- 
tage, but a treasure that would fill 
all who hungered after righteous- 
ness. When the record was pub- 
lished, she rejoiced, thinking that all 
their troubles would be over. 

On one occasion Deacon Beck- 
with asked her not to say anything 
more of her "gold Bible." She an- 
swered : "Deacon Beckwith, if you 
should stick my flesh full of fagots, 
and even burn me at the stake, I 
would declare as long as God should 
give me breath that Joseph has that 
record and that I know it is true." 

Her Personality 

SHE was a dominant figure in any 
assemblage, and a great asset to 
the cause. Severe persecutions fol- 
lowing in the wake of the organiza- 
tion produced a great deal of suffer- 
ing and proved her ready ability to 
serve her fellowmen. The soul of 


hospitality and generosity, with her it, and do the job quickly. Just 
noble husband she ministered to the shoot me down at once, then I shall 
wants of the sick and the needy, her be at rest." 
door being always open alike to rich rj n-+i, 
or poor, sick or well, rier leader- 
ship was evidenced under very try- Often when her husband had been 
ing circumstances when she led a torn from his home and family and 
band of 80 people to Kirtland, exer- imprisoned, Lucy manifested each 
cising great forbearance and pa- time a calm assurance that he would 
tience, at times commanding and at return again and all would be well, 
times persuasive, but humble and On the occasion of the last arrest of 
always seeking the guidance of the Joseph and Hyrum in Missouri, 
Spirit. when they were condemned to be 
Mother Smith was a very prayer- shot by the mob-militia, she and her 
ful woman. Many times when husband heard distinctly the horrid 
sickness had entered her home yelling of the mob. Thinking the 
through her prayers her children mob had done its work the father 
were healed. On the occasion that cried out in anguish, 'They have 
Joseph and Hyrum were stricken killed my son ; and I must die, for 
with cholera and it seemed that they l cannot live without him." 
must die, Hyrum received a vision The mother had no words of con- 
in which he saw his mother praying solation to offer ; for her heart was 
in tears for her sons. Of this testi- also broken. But Joseph and Hy- 
mony he told Joseph. "O my rum had not yet been killed; their 
mother !" said Joseph, "how often time had not come. It was decided 
have your prayers been the means that they should be taken to Liberty 
of assisting us even when the and imprisoned. At their departure, 
shadows of death encompassed." the heart-broken mother passed 
jj v . . through the crowds to the wagon 
tier Vision containing her sons, and grasped 
UCY possessed the gift of vision Joseph's hand which was thrust be- 
'and prophecy. At one time, when tween the cover and the wagon ; but 
greatly worried over Hyrum and he was not permitted to speak. Lucy 
Joseph, she was overjoyed to see said, "Joseph, do speak to your poor 
them traveling homeward. When mother once more. I cannot bear 
they arrived, they confirmed in every to go until I hear your voice." At 
detail what she related she had seen this he sobbed out, disobeying the 
in vision. She was a fearless wo- orders of the mobbers, "God bless 
man, passing calmly through scenes you, Mother." 
that would make the bravest heart 

quake. When a mob rode up to her Her Fortitude 

door, demanding to know where Sorrow filled the mother's heart, 

Joseph was, she asked them what but she found consolation that sur- 

they wanted of him. "We were passed all earthly comfort. "I was 

sent to kill the Prophet and all who filled with the Spirit of the Lord," 

believe in him," said the leader. she said. Shortly afterward she 

"I suppose," said Lucy, "you in- was bereft of her husband, but her 

tend to kill me, with the rest ?" grief was partly softened because 

"Yes we do," said the officer. of her efforts to succor those who 

"Very well," Lucy continued, "I suffered through the Missouri per- 

want you to act the gentlemen about secutions. 




A year or so later, worn out by 
persecutions and cares, she became 
very sick, nigh unto death. She 
was slowly recovering, only again to 
suffer overwhelming grief when her 
two sons were assassinated. After 
the bodies were prepared for burial, 
she was permitted to see them. She 
tells us she had to brace every nerve, 
rouse every energy of her soul, and 
call Upon God to strengthen her 
that she might look upon them ; but 
when she entered the room and saw 
her murdered sons before her and 
heard the sobs and groans of her 
family, she sank back crying, "My 
God, my God, why hast thou for- 
saken this family?" 

Her Sons Taken 

A VOICE answered, "I have 
taken them to myself that they 
might have rest." She then says, "I 
was swallowed up in the depths of 
my afflictions ; and though my soul 
was rilled with horror past imagina- 
tion, yet I was dumb until I arose 
again to contemplate the spectacle 
before me. Oh! at that moment 
how my mind flew through every 
scene of sorrow and distress which 
we had passed together, in which 
they had shown the innocence and 
sympathy which filled their guileless 
hearts. As I looked upon their 
peaceful smiling countenances, I 
seemed almost to hear them say, 
"Mother, weep not for us, we have 
overcome the world by love. We 
carried to them the Gospel that their 
souls might be saved ; they slew us 
for our testimony, and thus placed 
us beyond their power ; their ascend- 
ency is but for a moment ; ours is an 
eternal triumph." 

Her Last Years 

AFTER all this, Lucy continued 
to bear her testimony with great 
fervor, saying, "If I could make my 

voice as loud as the trumpet of 
Michael the Archangel, I would de- 
clare the truth from land to land, 
and from sea to sea ; and the echo 
should reach every isle, until every 
member of the family of Adam 
should be left without excuse. For 
I do testify that God has revealed 
himself to man again in these last 
days. Lucy lived about ten years 
longer. She appeared at conference 
and meetings upholding the Twelve 
Apostles. She once expressed the 
desire to come west but never did 
so. She also said that if she did, 
she wanted her bones brought back 
to lie with those she had loved so 

Could any woman who loved her 
children so tenderly, have stood all 
this if she had not known the mis- 
sion of Joseph to be divine? 
Mothers, can any wealth under 
heaven or any glory on earth, com- 
pensate for the loss of six glorious 
sons? also husband, grandchildren, 
and dearly loved friends, whose lives 
have been sacrificed on the altar of 
divine truth ? 

A Testimony 

NO ; and this is my testimony to 
you ; I have known the love 
and tenderness of the Smiths for 
their wives and their children. You 
who were acquainted with our late 
President Joseph F. Smith knew 
how greatly he possessed these qual- 
ities ; and in the hearts of Joseph 
and Hyrum dwelt the same holv 
feelings. Knowing this can you 
believe that they would have per- 
mitted this good mother whom they 
loved so dearly and their wives, their 
children, to suffer such persecutions 
and finally to be themselves "led like 
lambs to the slaughter," had they 
not know their mission to be divine ? 
All that Joseph had to do was to 
say he had falsified. But Joseph 
had seen God, and he knew that 



God knew it ; and I know that God with Joseph, "Blessed art thou, my 
lives, and that Lucy was the Mother mother ; and thou shalt receive 
of a Prophet. Well might we say eternal life." 

Women in Ohio 
Mrs. Inez K. Allen, Member of General Board 

TO appreciate fully the contribu- 
tion of the women of Kirtland 
to the century, we should know 
something of conditions at that time. 

Former Status of Woman 

The law was copied from the 
English common law, which de- 
scribed husband and wife as one 
individual, and certainly the hus- 
band was the one. "He might not 
deed property to her if he chose to 
do so because the law said that 
would be like deeding it to himself." 
The wife could not handle any pro- 
perty. If she had anything it became 
her husband's at the altar. She 
might not sue to collect wages she 
had earned, but her husband could ; 
she could not collect for damages to 
character or person, but the husband 
could. He might dispose of their 
children without her consent even 
before birth. 

Prayer of a Woman 

No doubt the authors of the law 
meant to protect women when they 
made it read: "She shall not be 
beaten with a stick larger than a 
man's thumb." The beginning of 
the Church in Kirtland came in 
answer to the prayer of a woman 
and a man who prayed jointly to 
know the truth even as the Prophet 
prayed for wisdom. The prayer of 
Brother Whitney and his wife Eliz- 
abeth Ann Whitney was answered 
by a manifestation shown to them 
both, in which they were promised 
messengers bearing the gospel mes- 
sage. A few days later the Prophet 
and his wife Emma presented them- 
selves to Brother and Sister Whit- 

ney, having traveled many miles 
through snow and cold in a cutter. 
After telling who they were, they 
said, "We have come in answer to 
your prayers." Elizabeth Ann 
Whitney and her husband accepted 
the gospel, made a home for the 
Prophet, and soon many were bap- 

Wo-man's Part in Progress 

KIRTLAND became a gathering 
place, the women, home build- 
ers and home keepers, were also 
Temple builders. They made 
clothes and boarded the men who 
built the Temple. They did the first 
work inside the Temple, decorating 
and making curtains, and contrib- 
uted spiritual support, showing 
fruits of the Spirit by singing, 
speaking in tongues, and bearing 
testimony to healings and manifesta- 
tions. The women contributed to 
the educational atmosphere. Eliza 
R. Snow was well educated and 
highly gifted in spite of educational 
discrimination against women at 
that time. 

My grandparents, Lydia and 
Newel Knight, were the first couple 
married by the Prophet Joseph. The 
ceremony took place at the home of 
the Patriarch Hyrum Smith, who 
gave Lydia, my grandmother, a 
blessing that she . should endure 
hardship but that her children 
should be spared. This blessing was 
fulfilled; she reared to maturity, 
seven children notwithstanding that 
while camping on the Indian reser- 
vation at Niabrara, she bade her last 
farewell to their father and her com- 
panion. Lydia G. Knight and Newel 



were among the group that volun- would pass away, and that education 
teered to start the migration west- would destroy the fourth. Now, the 
ward in 1846, but because of prairie four sons referred to are all college 
fires were obliged to turn northward, men ; one will take his Doctor's de- 
While performing the sad rite of gree in science at Stanford this 
burying Newel Knight in a coffin year; another will take his degree 
made from his wagon box, the men next year from Ames ; and the 
froze their fingers and toes. One others are following the same lines 
baby was born after Newel's death, as they come to the proper age. The 

. ^ . girls are preparing for missions. 

Six Generations Qne son has children blessed) mak _ 

THROUGH the lineage of that \ n S the seventh generation of record 

first marriage we have, in our m tne Church. 

Stake, Bishop Mark Kartchener, If we would honor the noble 

who is the father of six sons and one women of Kirtland, let us follow 

daughter. Of these six, four have their example in simple honesty, 

already filled honorable missions. loyal citizenship, unfailing kindness, 

Our enemies have said that in two uncomplaining courage, sacred 

or three generations Mormonism motherhood, and implicit faith. 


WITH all the wonderful mes- one here, could there be anyone, 
sages that we have heard this whose faith has not been strength- 
morning, I feel that I can only say ened by the wonderful and beautiful 
in humility that I very much ap- words we have heard? 
preciate the privilege of standing May the blessing of the Lord be 
here before this wonderful body of upon everyone who is engaged in 
women. this work, and who has a knowledge 
We have heard of women who and a testimony of the truths that 
have preceded us; I can say that have been given to us by the re- 
the women in action here today are vealed gospel, and the light that has 
their equals. I feel sure of this come to us through our Father in 
from what I have seen of their work Heaven and through his Son Jesus 
and from the acquaintance I have Christ. May we be strengthened, 
had with them in their homes and and helped, to go forward, perform- 
in mission fields. My message to ing our duties in humility and faith, 
you is to be faithful. Is there any- 


Women in Missouri 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter, Member General Board 

ODAY I am thinking of the to make possible our being here on 

women of Missouri, of their this memorable day and this glorious 

trials and persecutions, and the occasion. I shall mention two or 

things they endured for the gospel's three women whose deeds are typ- 

sake ; also of the fortitude and cour- ical of all. 
age with which those trials were „ , „ . ,. 

endured, and the encouragement Reason f or Prejudice 

given to the men, which made it pEOPLE in Missouri were not 

possible to carry on. We owe A ready to hear Jehovah's word; 

much to those women ; they helped they did not understand that we were 



a desirable people, who would make 
of Missouri a beautiful dwelling 
place; and so the hatred of Satan 
caused them to persecute and drive 
us from our heritage. 

In the 57th section of the Doc- 
trine and Covenants, verses 1-5, the 
Lord said: "Hearken, O ye elders 
of my church, saith the Lord your 
God, who have assembled yourselves 
together, according to my command- 
ments, in this land, which is the 
land of Missouri, which is the land 
which I have appointed and con- 
secrated for the gathering of the 

"Wherefore, this is the land of 
promise, and the place for the city 
of Zion. 

"And thus saith the Lord your 
God, if you will receive wisdom 
there is wisdom. Behold, the place 
which is now called Independence 
is the center place; and a spot for 
the temple is lying westwanj, upon 
a lot which is not far from the 

"Wherefore it is wisdom that the 
land should be purchased by the 
saints, and also every tract lying 
westward, even unto the running 
directly between Jew and Gentile:" 

"And also every tract bordering 
by the prairies, inasmuch as my dis- 
ciples are enabled to buy lands. Be- 
hold, this is wisdom, and they may 
obtain it for an everlasting inher- 

The word of Jehovah was the 
thorn in the flesh of the Missou- 
rians. They did not know that we 
had come there to build up a beau- 
tiful Zion; they thought we had 
come there to rob them of their 
little farms. 

Work of Misguided Men 

ONE of the first cruelties was 
the edict of a mob of 500, that 
the printing press which published 
the "Morning and Evening Star" 

should be destroyed. This press 
was located at the home of William 
W. Phelps; both the press and the 
home were utterly demolished. 
Sister Phelps, with a sick infant in 
her arms ran, with her little ones 
following her, to the shelter of near- 
by (bushes. Peering through an 
opening in the bushes she saw their 
home leveled to the ground. 

The mob then took Bishop Ed- 
ward Partridge and Charles Allen, 
and covered their bodies with tar 
and feathers, in which was mixed 
a burning acid that burned into their 
flesh. This cruel indignity and 
abuse these men bore with such 
fortitude that a profound silence 
fel,l upon the iboisterous mob — a 
silence broken by the voice of a 
woman crying aloud: "While you 
who have done this wicked thing 
must suffer the vengeance of God, 
they having endured persecution 
can rejoice, for henceforth for them 
is laid up a crown eternal in the 
heavens." Think of the voice of 
a lone woman crying out to an angry 
mob of 500 men. 

Reziah Higbee was driven from 
her home, and while lying upon the 
banks of the river in a downpour 
of rain gave birth to a son. 

Women entered miserable pris- 
ons, and remained there to comfort 
the men who were imprisoned for 
no reason whatever. 

Haun's Mill 

YOU know the blot upon the 
history of Missouri from the 
Massacre at Haun's Mill. Nineteen 
men and boys were killed on the 
beautiful Fall day, and their bodies 
dumped into a well just to cover 
them from the angry militia and 
men who had committed the out- 
rage. Fifteen others were wounded. 
The women came out from their 
hiding places, to find their husbands 
and sons mutilated and dead. They 



helped to bury them ; then sang 
songs of rejoicing that they still 
had the gospel left to them. 

The wife of Morris W. Phelps 
and her brother rode 160 miles on 
horseback, to the town where her 
husband and Parley P. Pratt were 
imprisoned. She took lodging with 
the jailor's wife, as was customary 
in those days. She paid for her 
board for two weeks in advance and 
to all appearance she was going to 
remain for some time; but they did 
not understand the feelings of a 
woman whose husband was in pris- 
on. They made their plans, and 
that night, when their supper was 
handed in Elders Pratt and Phelps 
made their escape upon horses her 
brother had concealed. The woman 
who was instrumental in assisting 
the men escape sat there calmly, 
looking mobbers in the eye, and they 
rode off without molesting her. 

Records of History 

MARY SMITH, the young 
wife of the patriarch, was 
prostrated with grief as she saw her 
husband dragged away. Gathering 
the motherless children of Jerusha, 
his first wife, around her, she tried 
to comfort them. Eleven days later 
she gave birth to her illustrious son, 
Joseph Fielding Smith, who became 
prophet and patriarch of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
Crosby Jackson, writing the his- 
tory of Caldwell County, says : "If 
that strange people who built 
Nauvoo and Salt Lake City, who 
uncomplainingly toiled across the 
American desert and made the wil- 
derness of Utah to bloom like a 
garden; if they had been permitted 
to remain and perfect the work 
which they had begun here, how 
different would have been the his- 
tory of Far West. Instead of being 
a farm with scarcely sufficient ruins 

to mark the spot where once it 
stood, there would have been a rich 
populous city, along the streets of 
which would be pouring the wealth 
of the world ; and instead of an old 
dilapidated farmhouse, there would 
have been magnificent temples, to 
which the devout saints from the 
farther corners of the world would 
have made their yearly pilgrimage." 

The Real Reason 

YET the historian spoils all this 
by saying: "But the bigotry 
and intolerance of the saints to- 
wards the Gentiles, and especially 
against dissenters from the revela- 
tions of Joe Smith, rendered such 
a consummation impossible." It 
wasn't the bigotry or intolerance of 
the Saints ; it was Satan, determined 
that the revelation designating that 
Jackson County, the center stake of 
Zion, should not be fulfilled. .It 
was that which for a time drove 
the people from Missouri. 

Not far from Far West (about 
30 miles) is historic Adam-ondi- 
ahman, where our father Adam, 
calling the patriarchs Seth, Enos, 
Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, gave 
them his last earthly blessing. Such 
were the scenes of the past enacted 
in the sacred valley, and greater 
ones are to be enacted when God's 
people return to build up Zion. 

B. H. Roberts, in his "Persecu- 
tions of Missouri" asks: "Is it to 
be wondered that Satan contended 
with the saints for possession of this 
holy ground, where the Kingdom 
of God shall be established in power, 
never more to be destroyed?" 

To Jackson County, we shall re- 
turn. To this beautiful place, our 
children and our children's children 
shall return, and build up the center 
stake of Zion. Then the people of 
Missouri and the* world shall know 
wh?»t a desirable people we are. 



Women in Illinois 

Mrs. Julia A . F. Lund, General Secretary 

THAT you sympathize with me, 
I fully believe, knowing well 
that it is very difficult to be a substi- 
tute. You were promised something 
very excellent, and you should have 
it; for I know of no subject that 
surpasses the topic, "The Women 
of Illinois." Yet there is one thing 
that as Relief Society women, we 
know — we respond to the calls that 
are made of us, with the assurance 
that when we earnestly seek the 
Spirit to direct we cannot wholly 
fail ; and I am depending upon your 
sympathy and the Spirit of our 
Father to help me in the things that 
I may say. 

Deeds of Our Ancestors 

ON this memorable occasion we 
have listened, to an outline of 
the history and organization of our 
Church — the most sacred, the most 
important subject in all the world 
to us, transcending in value and im- 
portance, anything of a material na- 
ture. The mother organization of 
the Church is seeking to express, as 
best it can, the interpretation we 
have of woman's contribution to the 
development of the Church. 

We know, from the beautiful 
story that was told us this morning, 
of the life of the mother of our 
Prophet, Lucy Mack Smith. We 
have traced the development of the 
women of our Church from New 
York and Pennsylvania, through 
Ohio, and Missouri; and now we 
have reached what we may perhaps 
call the climax in this first period 
of our Church history. 

T T is a remarkable story ; and we 

whose grandparents played a 

part in that development may feel 

the glow of pride that comes to us 

from the noble deeds of our an- 
cestors, as we look upon that past 
with reverent devotion, and pro- 
found thankfulness that we have 
the heritage of such a past. 

It was the last great period of 
preparation — the culmination of or- 
ganization that had begun 12 years 
previously. During this time there 
had been a constant development in 
the power and achievement of the 
Prophet. Year by year he had in- 
creased in power and in understand- 
ing, walking, as he did, and talking 
with God. 

Why Joseph Could Lead 

IS it any wonder, that he was able 
to inspire the people to do the 
mighty deeds they did? We bow 
with pride to the achievements of 
the men of that age; but we know 
that, standing side by side, enduring 
every test of faith, sympathizing 
with every defeat, glorifying every 
success, was a woman. We know 
that the person who said, "If you 
would know the political or the 
moral status of a people, you must 
know their women, for woman's 
influence comprehends the whole of 
human life." In those years, when 
the work was nearing completion, 
we know that the women noblv bore 
their part. I have the feeling that 
there was not a woman who failed 
in the duty that was asked of her; 
but we must pause for a moment 
and view with appreciation the mar- 
velous woman who was the help- 
mate and the companion of the 
Prophet Joseph in all his labors. He 
had an excellent mother, who nur- 
tured and prepared him for the 
great work. We also know that his 
wife stood by his side, that she 
shared his responsibilities, that she 



responded nobly to whatever was 
asked of her ; and we have the feel- 
ing that in the eternal world, when 
the trials of this mortal state shall 
be taken into account, and when we 
shall see with clear vision, we shall 
behold her going on through 
eternity, while we revere her as our 
first president of the Relief Society 
— Emma Hale Smith. 

Women and Civilization 

OTHER wonderful women car- 
ried on the work while crossing 
the plains ; but that is not my sub- 
ject. Coming into the valleys of the 
mountains, they laid the basis of the 
splendid civilization that has since 
arisen. How thoroughly they did 
their work the fruits of their labors 
demonstrate; and I never think of 
the women and the men of those 
days that I do not long to apply to 
them the test that was proclaimed 
by Gamaliel of old. When Peter 
and John were being persecuted for 
teaching the resurrection of the 
Master, Gamaliel arose in his place, 
and said to the members of the San- 
hedrin, "Refrain from persecuting 
these men, for if this be the work 
of men, it will come to naught : But 
if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow 
it." "Cease your persecution lest 
ye be found even to fight against 

Then and Now 

GO back one hundred years; see 
the men and women who or- 
ganized the little group of the 
Church ; then look about us today — 
consider this magnificent congrega- 
tion, with all the other groups of 
our people. We ask ourselves, was 
it the work of men who gave the 
people strength to surmount ob- 
stacles, and carry on this marvelous 
work, the fruits of which we see 
around us ? Or was it the work of 

"By their fruits ye shall know 
them;" and by the fruits of the 
labors of the women of Illinois, we 
know them. From that original 
group of 19, we now number today 
almost 63,000 women, all earnest in 
their endeavors to uplift mankind. 

When Women Organize 

"If the time ever comes," says 
Matthew Arnold, "that women are 
organized for the sole purpose of 
human uplift, it will be a force for 
good such as this world has never 
known." We can see in this mag- 
nificent organization of women, di- 
rected as it was at its inception by 
a prophet of the living God, that it 
is an organization of women for 
the sole purpose of human uplift; 
it was that in the beginning, and 
that ideal it has never ceased to 
cherish. Twofold in its program, it 
has made the finest social develop- 
ment that has since been possible, 
and has lifted high the light of hope 
to women the world over. Always 
it has guided them to enlightenment, 
faith, and hope. This period was 
the last in the history of our people 
before they began what is called 
"the great epic of American his- 
tory," that great march to the West. 
When the people perfected the or- 
ganization that knit them together 
with strength and power it led them 
over the Rocky Mountains, into the 
valleys of the West. In Illinois 
our people measured their strength, 
making final preparation for the 
work that was before them. When 
the pages of human history are 
written, will there be anything por- 
trayed finer than the contribution 
made by the women of Illinois? 

Tribute to Women 

THE women of Illinois! What 
a wealth of memory and of 
pride is inspired by that subject! 



We could search the records of civil- 
ization, and we could not again 
duplicate, in the story of achieve- 
ment, what was accomplished in the 
six brief years of the history of 
Nauvoo, and in the lives of our 
people there. Accustomed as we 

are today, to view the mighty works 
and great accomplishments of our 
people, inspired as they were by the 
Spirit of our Father, yet even with 
this, we marvel at what the women 
of the earlier day accomplished in 
their time. 

Women on the Plains 

Mrs. Amy W . Evans Member of General Board 

"Lo, a mighty host of Jacob 
Tented on the western shore, 
Of the noble Mississippi 
They had crossed to cross no more. 
At the last day-dawn of winter, 
Bound with frost and wrapped in snow, 
Hark! the cry is "Onward, onward! 
Camp of Israel rise and go." 

THIS cry of Eliza R. Snow ex- 
pressed the spirit of the women 
of the Church as the great body of 
Saints camped on the river's edge 
preparatory to the long, hazardous 
journey to their refuge in the Rocky 
Mountains. Who can tell the whole 
story? — the story of hardship and 
suffering, courage and endurance 
of these heroines of the plains, who 
gave all — father, mother, husband, 
child, even life itself — that the great 
movement to the land of Zion might 
go forward. 

Stopping Places 

As the Saints started across Iowa, 
it was decided to make stopping 
places where those who were not 
fully equipped with the necessary 
wagons, cattle, seed and provisions 
(enough to last a year), might have 
time to accumulate them. The first 
stop was at Garden Grove, named 
because of the beautiful trees there, 
and the vast gardens of wild onions 
in bloom among them. Next was 
Mt. Pisgah, so called by Parley P. 
Pratt, on account of the beauty of 
the round, sloping hills and the 
parks of large trees. Winter Quar- 

ters and Kanesville were still farther 

At all these places there was great 
suffering from illness, lack of food 
and shelter, yet the women, who 
were perhaps the greater sufferers, 
tried to live above their trials. The 
fact that they were suffering be- 
cause of their religious convictions 
brought comfort and peace. Eliza 
R. Snow again expressed their feel- 

"Although in woods and tents we dwell, 
Shout ! shout, O camp of Israel. 
No Christian mobs on earth can bind 
Our thoughts or steal our peace of 

Culture in Camps 

WHEN it was found that these 
stopping places would be oc- 
cupied for some time as they started 
west, schools were established, land 
fenced, crops planted, and houses 
built. The women kept alive the 
spirit of home, and the niceties of 
life. Social standards were not for- 
gotten. At Mt. Pisgah, Lorenzo 
Snow's wife draped the walls of 
her rude log cabin with white sheets 
(carefully preserved), hollowed out 
turnips which she tacked to the 
walls, and used as candle holders, 
sprinkled fresh straw upon the dirt 
floor, and received her guests with 
great dignity. After an evening of 
refined entertainment she served 
refreshments consisting of succo- 



AT first sickness and death were 
so prevalent that there were 
scarecly enough well to bury the 
dead. At this time a young couple 
and their children stopped to get to- 
gether more supplies. He planted a 
garden and hurried to build a log 
cabin, for they were expecting an- 
other child very soon. He became 
ill, but would not give up until the 
roof was on his house. Even then 
he went out to plant more seed, for 
they were determined to start the 
journey west next spring. He fell 
in the field and was carried to his 
cabin, terribly ill with fever. His 
young wife got up from her bed 
with her new born child, and 
watched him die. Her children 
were ill too/ except five year old 
Susan. The widow begged that her 
husband be buried in a coffin, so 
many being just wrapped in a 
blanket. Kind neighbors secured a 
wagon jbox, from which a rude 
coffin was made, and little Susan 
followed her father to the grave, 
the only one of the family able to 
do so. 

Examples of Heroism 

BY and by the young mother re- 
gained her strength. As soon 
as she was able, she took Susan by 
the hand and together they wan- 
dered over the hillside, day after 
day searching for her husband's 
grave; but it was never found. 
There was no mark, and the child 
had forgotten. She did not despair, 
but gathered her crops, picked and 
dried berries and nuts from the 
forest, dried squash and corn, and 
stored them up for the long journey. 
The children picked wool off the 
brush left there by sheep that had 
passed through. Out of this she 
spun and wove and knitted until 
there was clothing enough. Finally 
she was ready. She and her chil- 
dren started out. Little Susan took 

her brother's hand, and together 
they walked the entire way across 
the plains. 

In the same company there was 
a cultured gentleman, too weak to 
walk, so his beautiful young wife 
gave up the wagon to him, walking 
by its side, comforting and caring 
for him as best she could. When 
a buffalo was killed, she would ex- 
change her share of the meat for a 
few crackers, a little fruit, or some 
dainty that her sick husband could 
eat. Her little daughter became ill 
and died. Wrapped in a shawl, the 
little one was buried by the roadside. 
To add to the anguish of the mother, 
she could see the wolves watching 
from a distance. She knew what 
would happen when they went on, 
for she had noticed many an emptied 
grave as they had come along. 

Incidents of the Journey 

YET life was not all sorrow. In 
the evenings there were songs, 
dancing and games; and many a 
joke was cracked at their own ex- 
pense. The strictest order was 
observed ; camps were kept clean. 
President Young was very strict on 
the matter of sanitation. The women 
of course did their full share in this 
work, arid it was because of their 
presence that cleanliness, order, and 
the niceties of life were observed. 
The women did a great deal in help- 
ing to keep up the morale and cour- 
age of the companies. 

No traveling was done on Sun- 
days. Religious services were held, 
and "Come, Come Ye Saints, no 
toil nor labor fear, but with joy 
wend your way" floated over the 
vast lonesome plains. 

Sometimes circumstances de- 
manded a sternness of woman for- 
eign to her nature. This was the 
case with an English widow who, 
with her two sons, ages 14 and 16, 
were making their way across the 



plains in the handcart company. One 
day her eldest boy lay down by their 
cart, and said that he could go no 
farther. It was at this stage of the 
journey a common occurrence for 
someone, weakened from lack of 
food and worn out by toil, to give 
up and die. 

A Mother's Strength 

A group gathered around, and 
the mother came up. There lay 
her son, her main reliancee; and he 
had given up. In this crisis, she 
sensed that extreme measures must 
be used. "Get up,'" she commanded, 
"I did not bring you here to die on 
the plains; you are going to Zion." 
Then she gave him a stinging slap in 
the face. 

He was 16, and to be slapped by 
his mother in public made his blood 
boil. He needed no other stimulant. 
He jumped to his feet and pushed 
the cart along vigorously. For three 
days his anger kept him going. 

Wihen a white-haired man, he 
maintained that this stern act of his 
mother saved his life. If she had 
weakened, he never could have gone 
on. They slept on the frozen 
ground, waded through the snow, 
and nearly starved before they 
reached their destination ; but his 
mother's spirit and courage never 

Parting With Sons and Husbands 

/^~\ NE of the greatest trials of the 
^^ women on the plains was part- 
ing from their sons and husbands 
who enlisted in the Mormon Battal- 
ion. Although they cheered them 
with honor, many a woman was 
brokenhearted, and for some it was 
. fareweell forever. 

Alice Morrill's description of the 
pioneer mother fits these women : 

"Behold her busy at her task, no thought 
to turn aside nor shirk, 

Her faith but dignifies her toil, her hope 

but sanctifies her work. 
No thought to falter by the way; nor 
wish to rest from weary toil : 
A selfless life — no weak reproach nor 
plaint of cares and ceaseless moil." 

The Pioneer Woman 

WHILE the women on the 
plains carried with them the 
spirit of home, they also carried 
what they could of the culture of 
the race. In a barrel of beans, or 
a bag of wheat, in fact in any avail- 
able place, they tucked away pre- 
cious books, a bit of rare china, a 
piece of real lace, some fine clothes, 
so that in the far-away new home 
things of beauty and culture should 
not be forgotten. 

The first school teacher, when 
they arrived at their destination, 
was a woman. At the World's Fair, 
at San Francisco, there was a statue 
in honor of the pioneer woman ; on 
the pedestal was the following in- 
scription: "Over rude paths beset 
with hunger and risk, she pressed 
on toward the vision of a better 
country; to an assemblage of men 
busied with the perishable rewards 
of the day she brought the three- 
fold leaven of enduring society — 
faith, gentleness, and home, with 
the nurture of children." 

These three things, our pioneer 
women, as they toiled across the 
plains, contributed to the Church 
and to society. Without the cour- 
age, endurance, and sacrifices of 
these women, this commonwealth in 
the Rocky Mountains could not have 
been established. One of our own 
women speaks thus of the pioneer 
woman : 

"The damp earth floor whereon she 
kneels, a shrine of worship comes to 
be; > 
Her plain, hard fare becomes to her a 

sacrament of sanctity. 
A priestess she — and prophetess of far- 
off future glorious years, 
When bloom of beauty shall unfold at 
last, deep watered by her tears." 



Women in the West 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon, Member of General Board 

WE read in the Book of Isaiah : 
"The wilderness, and the 
solitary place, shall be glad 
for them; and the desert shall re- 
joice, and blossom as the rose. 

"It shall blossom abundantly, and 
rejoice even with joy and singing: 
the glory of Lebanon shall be given 
unto it, the excellency of Carmel 
and Sharon ; they shall see the glory 
of the Lord, and the excellency of 
our God. For in the wilderness 
shall waters break out, and streams 
in the desert. And the parched 
ground shall become a pool, and the 
thirsty land springs of water. 

"And an highway shall be there, 
and a way, and it shall be called, 
The way of holiness. , ' 

Today we have been looking back 
into other years, and in pictured 
words have seen forms and faces 
of the past ; in retrospection we have 
lived again the scenes of long ago. 

I WOULD ask you now to look 
back one hundred years, and view 
this desert land, barren and desolate 
it lay in its great silence, no sound 
but the chirp of the cricket or the 
rattle of the deadly snake as he 
wound his way through the purple 
sage. So for ages it had lain, wait- 
ing the advent of some master hand 
to turn the sun-baked soil and 
moisten its dry parched surface with 
a cooling drink. 

It was on a hot afternoon in late 
July, when through the gateways of 
the eastern hills, came a train of 
covered wagons bearing a group of 
refugees. As they halted on the 
hillside they looked down upon this 
waiting valley. The great pioneer 
leader looked and pronounced the 
ever memorable words, "This is the 
place." There were in that train 
three women — Clara Decker Young, 

Ellen Saunders Kimball and Harriet 
Decker Young. 

WE know not what they thought 
as they looked over the desert 
to the shimmering lake beyond, but 
this we know, they came with their 
husbands down into the valley to be- 
gin to make a home. They knew too, 
that following in the trail this first 
company of exiles had made, were 
thousands of driven refugees, to 
whom almost any place to end the 
weary journey and begin anew was 
welcome. For : 

"Long was the journey o'er the trackless 

Rivers to ford and mountain steeps to 

Nor pen nor painter can the scene por- 

A monument it stands throughout all 

LONG trains of covered wagons 
followed bringing women from 
the rocky shores of New England, 
from the hills, and dales of Ohio, 
from the prairies of Missouri, from 
the plains of Illinois; women from 
the southern states, and from far 
across the sea; from England, and 
Scotland's highland clans, from 
Wjales, the Isle of Man, and Ire- 
land ; from the fertile Netherlands ; 
from Scandinavia and the North- 
land, land of the midnight sun; 
from the Rhineland, and the snowy 
Alps; dark-eyed women from the 
southland, from sunny France ; still 
and still they come, dusky women 
from the South Seas all gather to 
this mountain land, here to build a 
nation. . 

Another devout and faithful train 
followed the covered wagons. Hun- 
dreds walked across the plains, push- 
ing heavily laden handcarts. The 
plan was crude and the hardships 




many, and even now it is always 
through a mist of tears we recall 
that journey. Many perished by the 
wayside, but those who made the 
valley became valiant workers in 
the building of the West. 

It may seem out of place to men- 
tion names when there are none 
among these wonderful women who 
came in the pioneer days but were 
heroines in very deed, yet : 

"In God's blue realms of space 
Sometimes a single star 
Sends forth its brilliant glow 
To other realms afar." 

So always there must be leaders 
around whom cluster others to help 
and reflect each endeavor. 

PIONEER life at best has its 
hardships, and this people driven 
into the wilderness had of necessity 
to be self-supporting. The women 
helped with their own hands to 
mould the adobe or put in place the 
rough sawn log that gave them 
shelter, planted gardens, fought 
with all their might the crickets and 
other pests that came to molest 
them ; moulded candles, boiled soap ; 
carded, spun and wove the wool and 
cotton into linsey cloth to clothe 
themselves and little ones. These 
tasks were some of the stepping 
stones along the way to better 
things. Home industry became 
second nature, and later, when or- 
ganized into the Relief Society, 
under the leadership of Eliza R. 
Snow, there were many activities 
introduced marking an onward pro- 
gress along the way. 

Nursing and Midwifery 

ONE of the first necessities was 
a school for nurses and mid- 
wives, for all this time women were 
having their families and needed 
proper care. Many good women en- 
gaged in this work, and the Lord 
blessed their ministrations among 
the sick, for few lives were lost. 

With the increase in population, 
and extending the colonization, it 
became necessary to train more 
women for this purpose, and Ro- 
mania B. Pratt (Penrose) was sent 
to an Eastern college to study medi- 
cine, especially midwifery and 
obstetrics. Others followed, and 
hundreds of domestic nurses were 
trained and went out in the differ- 
ent communities to wait upon the 
sick. The Deseret Hospital was 
established and supported by the 
Relief Society for the furtherance 
of this cause. 

Silk Industry 

AS home industry was a part of 
everyday life, the call to plant 
mulberry trees and engage in seri 
culture was readily responded to 
by the women, and with such suc- 
cess that Utah silk was pronounced 
by experts as fine of texture and 
quality as that raised in France or 
China. Zina D. H. Young was the 
great leader in this movement. 

Woman's Store 

FOR the encouragement of wom- 
en in fine needlework and 
domestic arts, a woman's store and 
exchange was established, where 
also temple clothing was made and 
sold and cared for, and an employ- 
ment office for women was con- 
ducted. Heading this movement 
was Mary Isabella Home, a wise 
and efficient pioneer mother. 


ADVANCEMENT and progress 
along the way marks every 
step, and Utah women were enfran- 
chised by legislative enactment, and 
exercised the suffrage in the early 
making of the state. The leading 
women met in small groups and 
studied political science and parlia- 
mentary law, thus fitting themselves 
for the honors of high office or 



legislative work when such time 
might come. Most prominent in 
this suffrage work stand foremost 
the names of Sarah M. Kimball, 
Emmeline B. Wells, Emily S. Rich- 
ards, Electa Bullock and Julia P. M. 

The Exponent and Magazines 

WOMEN engaged in so many 
activities felt the need of an 
organ to further their work. Under 
the fine leadership of Eliza R. Snow 
and her associates, a paper named 
The Woman's Exponent was estab- 
lished. Louisa Green (Richards) 
was called to be the editor of this 
little paper, the first woman's paper 
in the intermountain country. Mrs. 
Richards withdrew after two years 
service, and for forty years this 
magazine was published and edited 
by Emmeline B. Wells. Within its 
bound volumes are priceless his- 
tories of the women of the Church, 
of the West, and of the world. Its 
columns were used to encourage 
literary talent among the Latter-day 
Saint women, and among its con- 
tributors one reads familiar names 
of those who have achieved much 
in poetry and in prose. 

AFTER the organization of the 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association, they too, needed 
a magazine, and the Young Wom- 
an's Journal was established and 
edited by Mrs. Susa Young Gates. 
This was followed by the Children's 
Friend, the publication of the Pri- 
mary Association, under the direc- 
tion of Mrs. Louie B. Felt and Miss 
May Anderson. 


THE great leader, Brigham 
Young, called upon the women 
to glean, gather and store grain, and 
placed at the head of this unique 
movement Emmeline B. Wells. To 

women who had fought the crickets 
and grasshoppers, who had lived on 
sego and thistle roots, the word con- 
servation was not new, neither did 
they question the authority that bade 
them store grain against a day of 
famine. The Relief Society carried 
on this work for many years ; gran- 
aries were built and thousands of 
bushels of wheat were stored. 

Practically all the women of the 
Church had a part in this under- 
taking, especially Relief Society 
ward presidents. When the World 
War came, and the wheat was 
needed and called for, you were 
ready to hand it over to the govern- 
ment to feed the army and the 
hungry. The golden kernels were 
not lost to us, but value received 
from the government, the interest 
of which you now may use in pro- 
moting health programs for the en- 
couragement of motherhood and the 
relief of the afflicted. 


WITHIN the walls of the Old 
Fort, in Pioneer Square, 
Mary Jane Dil worth (Hammond), 
taught the first school. A tent for 
covering, half sawn logs for benches, 
no books, no charts, no maps : from 
the tent to the log cabin, from the 
cabin to the little red school house 
famous in song and story, and now 
the most convenient, finely equipped 
elementary and high schools, col- 
leges, seminaries, universities and 
libraries, with marble halls and 
classic columns where you may 
glean from rare books and works of 
art and science all the knowledge 
of the world. What a heritage is 
ours as we mark these stepping 
stones along the way. 

TRULY has the wilderness blos- 
somed for us, and in the desert 
are springs of living water. The 
Latter-day Saint women have 



walked along this great highway of 
faith and holiness, have drunk at 
the fountain of industry, devotion 
and charity. We may not yet have 
reached the heights our fathers and 
mothers idealized, but the way lies 
clear before us, and : 

"Today majestic as a queen you stand, 
The culture of the ages in your hand, 
The courage of the pioneers upon you 

The strength of motherhood within 

your breasts; 
These all adorn you like a jewelled 

Fairest of God's daughters, 
Glorious woman of the West." 

The Children of Others 

Miss May Andeson, Pesident of the Primary Association 

LIKE a little child who has lis- 
tened to a marvelous story I 
feel today. Those of you who have 
tried to tell stories to children, know 
you have been successful if when 
the end comes you hear a great sigh. 
A good story gives you that feeling, 
but it has another wonderful virtue. 
You have listened to marvelous 
things ; now what are you going to 

As a representative of the chil- 
dren's organization of the Church, 
I am happy to say that we have now, 
at the end of one hundred years, the 
possibilities of marvelous growth. 
We have heard today of the begin- 
ning, of steps on the way. As each 

page has unfolded, we have mar- 
veled. What will be the story at the 
end of another period? 

About 14,000 women in the 
Church today are voluntarily giving 
their time to tell the boys and girls 
these marvelous stories, helping 
them to understand what the gospel 
is, what it asks, what it demands — 
14,000 women who are leading more 
than 100,000 boys and girls, all 
learning this kind of lesson. 

The Lord has blest us in listening 
to the marvelous story given to us 
in these two meetings ; and now we 
can say this is the story of the past, 
of the present, and, please God, it 
shall not dim in the days to come. 

Woman's Contribution to the Church 

President Heber J. Grant 

WITHOUT the wonderful work 
of the women I realize that 
the Church would have been a fail- 
ure. The mother in the family far 
more than the father, is the one who 
instills into the hearts of the chil- 
dren, a testimony and a love for the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. Our fathers 
and mothers came here in early days 
for the one and only thing — to serve 
the Lord, and to labor for the salva- 
tion of humanity ; and wherever you 
find a woman who is devoted to this 
work, almost without exception you 
will find that her children are de- 
voted to it. 

What We Owe to Mothers 

She shapes their lives more than 
the father, because he is away much 
more; his associations in the world 
take him away from the family 
circle; so that to our mothers we 
owe everything. I, of course, owe 
everything to my mother, because 
my father died when I was only 
nine days of age ; and the marvelous 
teachings, the faith, the integrity 
of my mother have been an inspira- 
tion to me. 

T fell to my lot to spend many 
hours, as a child, in the society of 




Eliza R. Snow. In her room in the 
Lion House I have spent hours 
listening to her relate her expe- 
riences with the Prophet Joseph; 
and more from her than from any 
other woman, except only my own 
mother, I gained inspiration. It 
has been my lot to be associated 
with her and with all the leaders of 
the Relief Society work, my mother 
being president for some thirty odd 
years of the 13th Ward Society. 
She had to resign eventually because 
of an almost complete loss of her 

Generosity of W\oman 

It is more blessed to give than to 
receive, and the women are always 
ready and willing to give, more than 
the men are. There is a willingness 
to sacrifice on the part of our dear 
sisters, and of women generally, all 

over the world, that we do not find 
in men ; they are leaders in all things 
that make for spiritual uplift. 

TIME is precious, and I have come 
here only to ask God to bless 
you abundantly. The leaders who are 
engaged in the Relief Society and 
the Mutual, and all of the organiza- 
tions therein, have the love and con- 
fidence of the Presidency of the 
Church. We pray for them. In 
our meetings we always pray for the 
Executive Officers of the auxiliary 
organizations; also in my silent 
prayers I do not believe I ever for- 
get to pray for those men and 
women who stand at the head of 
these organizations. 

May the Spirit of the living God 
be your guide continually is my 
humble prayer; and I ask it in the 
name of the Redeemer. 

A Word in Closing 

President Louise Y. Robison 

MAY you all feel blessed, realiz- 
ing that this is a beautiful 
preparation for the feast in store 
for us during the next few days. I 
trust that you are comfortably set- 
tled, you sisters from out of town. 
If you are inconvenienced, try not 
to let the physical discomfort over- 
come the spiritual blessings that you 
can receive during this event, which 
can come only once in our lives. Let 
us take from this conference, not 
only today, but especially from the 
General Conference, where the 
Priesthood of the living God will 

preside, an inspiration to our homes 
that will make us better women, 
better mothers, for the strength that 
we shall receive. 

We are glad to have the beautiful 
things said about the women that 
have been said today, but we can 
only continue to deserve this praise 
by making an effort. 

I pray that our Heavenly Father 
will bless you and your families 
from whom you are separated ; and 
that his peace may be with us, I 
ask it in the name of Jesus Christ. 

Text Book for the Course in Literature 

Manager Hooper of the Deseret organization to feel that if they in- 
News Book Store has been receiving sist on buying their books at the 
some requests for the Text Book on Deseret News Book Store that they 
Short Stories to be used next year are being imposed upon, they are 
in the Literary work. The Deseret not. The Deseret News Book Store 
News Book Store is not handling the has always aimed to give the Relief 
books f o the Relief Society ; special Society good service in every re- 
arrangements having been made spect. We wish to make an appeal 
with D. C. Heath and Company, to the organizations not to send to 
whereby the organizations may ob- D. C. Heath and Company for 
tain the book for $2.88 by sending books to be delivered C. O. D. The 
to San Francisco. The Deseret exact price of the book is known, 
News cannot possibly sell the book which should be forwarded to the 
for $2.88 as they have to pay D. C. publishers to save them billing the 
Heath and Company that price and books out. We wish the Stakes 
then add frieght and postage and would find out how many books they 
other costs, — consequently they must will need and then send for them 
charge $3.60 plus postage for the altogether accompanied by Money 
Book. Order or Check. 

We do not wish members of our 


THE problem of selecting a college with which to entrust the 
business training- of your sons and daughters is of the utmost 
importance. Human lives are involved — your own flesh and blood 
— and the training received will become an inseparable part of 
those lives. If good it will bring success and honor; if poor it will 
prove a handicap for life. 

The development of character is the chief aim of all education, and 
you want to be sure that your sons and daughters will be surrounded 
by good influences. You want them to gain in business integrity as well 
as in knowledge and technical ability, and no matter how good their 
home training has been their character will be influenced by the environ- 
ment in which they receive their business education. 

At the L. D. S. Business College the maintenance of a high moral 
standard Is considered of first importance, and when you entrust your 
sons and daughters to our care you may be sure that they will be sur- 
rounded by influences that will make for upright manhood and woman- 
hood, as well as for educational thoroughness. 

Doesn't this appeal to you? You cannot estimate in dollars and 
cents the advantage of having your sons and daughters receive business 
training amid such elevating and refining influences. You need have 
no fear in sending them to us alone, for we will take your place in 
looking after their mental, moral and physical welfare, and you can 
rest assured that when they leave us they will be fully equipped for 
the future in every sense of the word. 


Write us for full information 

Presentation of Bathsheba W* Smith 


By Kate M. Barker 

ON April 3, 1930, the painting 
of Bathsheba W. Smith took 
a permanent place in the Alice Art 
Collection in the State Capitol. Mrs. 
Julia A. F. Lund, General Secretary 
of the Relief Society, presided at 
the ceremonies and introduced Mrs. 
Louise Y. Robison, who presented 
the portrait to the state. The pic- 
ture was unveiled by Mary Shep- 
herd Home Winder, a daughter of 
Mrs. Alice Merrill Home, and great- 
granddaughter of Bathsheba W. 
Smith. It was accepted in behalf of 
the state by Joseph A. Everett, a 
member of the Utah Art Institute. 
The portrait of "Aunt Bath- 
sheba" was painted by Lee Greene 
Richards soon after his return from 
studying in Paris. In the portrait 
Sister Smith is wearing a dress of 
white silk made in Utah and given 
to her by the General Board of the 
Relief Society. 

A smaller painting of "Aunt 
Bathsheba" hangs in the Relief So- 

ciety Offices, together with the other 
fine portraits of former Presidents 
of the Relief Society, all painted by 
Utah artists. The large portrait, 
now in the state capitol, was in- 
tended for this collection, but was 
found too large. Then for several 
years it hung in the Art Room of 
the University of Utah. The feel- 
ing that a permanent place should 
be found for it, led to its presenta- 
tion to the Alice Art Collection. 

The Alice Art Collection, in which 
the picture has found a permanent 
place, was named in honor of Mrs. 
Alice Merrill Home, who was the 
author of the bill providing for the 
Utah Art Institute, and who has al- 
ways been untiring in her efforts 
to foster art and encourage our 
Utah artists. The fact that Mrs. 
Home is a granddaughter of Bath- 
sheba W. Smith and a former mem- 
ber of the General Board of the 
Relief Society makes the gift of the 
portrait to the Alice Art Collection 
particularly appropriate. 

A Prayer 

By Elsie E. Barrett 

The days of youth have long since passed, 

Life's noon has come and gone ; 
In trying ways my lot's been cast, 

But still I'm carrying on ; 
A Spirit deep within my soul — 

As shadows draw their length, 
Makes known to me, in many ways, 

That I've been given strength. 
O gentle Spirit walk with me, 

Be Thou my faithful friend; 
Help me to keep a prayerful heart, 

Be with me to the end. 

Relief Society Annual Report 


Julia A. F. Lund, General Secretary 

Cash Receipts 

Balance on hand January 1, 1929: 

Charity Fund $ 33,711.27 

General Fund 125,217.29 

Wheat Trust Fund 13,643.53 

Total Balance, January 1 $172,572.09 

Donations Received during 1929: 

Charity Fund $ 88,896.23 

General Fund 128,628.16 

Annual Dues 23,008.60 

Other Receipts 67,569.94 

Total Receipts $308,102.93 

Total Balance on Hand and Receipts . . $ 480,675.02 

Cash Disbursements 

Paid for Charitable Purposes $ 98,925.02 

Paid for General Purposes 145,401.35 

Wheat Trust Fund Remitted to Pre- 
siding Bishop's Office 237.57 

Annual Dues Paid to General Board 

and to Stake Boards 26,349.09 

Paid for Other Purposes 38,231.84 

Total Disbursements $309,144.87 

Balance on hand December 31, 1929: 

Charity Fund $ 35.689.75 

General Fund 122,689.77 

Wheat Trust Fund 13,150.63 

Total Balance, December 31 $171,530.15 

Total Disbursements and Balance 

on Hand $ 480,675.02 



Balance on Hand December 31, 1929: 

All Funds $171,086.97 

Wheat Trust Fund Deposited at Pre- 
siding Bishop's Office 400.556.88 

Other Invested Funds 58.499.06 

Value of Real Estate and Buildings... 2?4.539.08 

Value of Furniture and Fixtures 70.802.48 

Other Assets 26,398.50 



Stake Board Cash Balances on Hand 

December 31, 1929 &W?2, 

Other Assets __*___ 

Total Assets 

^InSbtedness $ 1,464.00 

Balance Net Assets 950,418.97 


Stake Board Indebtedness 117.96 

Balance Net Assets &:,505.Z5 

$ 82,683.21 
Total Net Assets and Liabilities.. 




January 1,1929: 

Executive and Special Officers. 

Visiting Teachers 

Other Members 


Total Membership January 1 

I ftCy£dSB 

Admitted to Membership During Year 


Removed or Resigned 


Total Decrease 


December 31, 1929: 

Executive and Special Officers 

Visiting Teachers 

Other Members 



Total Membership December 31 . . 

The Total Membership includes: 

General Officers and Board Members 

Stake Officers and Board Members 

Mission Presidents and Officers 

Number of Stakes 

Number of Missions 

Number of Relief Society Ward and Branch Organizations 

Number of Visiting Teachers' Districts 

Number of L. D. S. Families in Wards 

Number of L. D. S, women, non-members, eligible for membership 














Number of Relief Society Magazines taken 26,509 

Number of Executive Officers taking Relief Society Magazine 5,462 

Number of Meetings held in Wards 54,955 

Number of Stake Meetings Held 2,085 

Number of Stake and Ward Officers' (Union) Meetings Held 1,096 

Number of Ward Conferences Held 1,192 

Average Attendance at Ward Meetings 23,716 

Number of Visits by Visiting Teachers 726,232 

Number of Families Helped 13,578 

Number of Days Spent with the Sick 50,706 

Number of Special Visits to Sick and Homebound 184,166 

Number of Days Spent in Temple Work 121,783 

Number of Bodies Prepared for Burial 2,363 

Number of Visits to Wards by Stake Officers 5,490 


1927 19218 1929 

Paid for Charitable Purposes $100,105.39 $100,836.76 $ 98,925.02 

Total or Present Membership 61,820 62,550 62,902 

No. of Relief Society Organizations 1,558 1,452 1,665 

No. of Relief Society Magazines Taken.... 23,575 24,570 26,509 

Days Spent with Sick 52,613 52,796 50,706 

Special Visits to Sick and Homebound.... 189,302 189,593 184,166 

Families Helped 16,762 17,550 13,578 

No. of Visits by Stake Relief Society Of- 
ficers to Wards 5,002 5,032 5,490 

No. of Visits of Relief Society Visiting 

Teachers 686,605 700,131 726.232 

No. of days spent in Temple Work 129,368 133,362 121,783 



Arizona 1,597 

California 1,499 

Canada 1,292 

Colorado 1,048 

Idaho 8,417 

Mexico 164 

Nevada 621 

Oregon 223 

Utah 34,606 

Wyoming 1,934 


Australia 68 

Canada 152 

Europe 4,660 

Hawaii 796 

Mexico 200 

New Zealand 488 

Samoa 308 

South Africa 43 

Tahiti 245 

Tonga 112 

United States 4,429 

Total Membership in Stakes. .51,401 Total Membership in Missions 11,501 
Total Membership in Stakes and Missions 62,902 

(Note: In the foregoing report all funds are held and disbursed in the various 
wards, with the exception of the annual membership dues.) 

God, Open Your Door 

By The Late Myron E. Crandall 

God, open your door and let me in ; God ! Open your door ; I know you 

My knuckles are bruised 'and my are there, 

knees are thin ■ ^ saw ^ ou one ni ^ nt through the 

M ' i , • . / i , . . portals of prayer; 

My heart is sick, and my brain is >-r i r t 1 

J ' ; fwas long, long ago, 1 was only a 

sore— child> 

God, open your door. My faith was so young, yet you 

looked down and smiled — 

God ! Open your door, can't you God ! Open your door, 
see all day 

I've forsaken my folly to implore God .' P?* n y° m door ' within and 

, ? without 

[ *' Are perils of fear and pitfalls of 

I have beaten my breast, and loudly doubt ■ 

swore Some rise to upbraid, I come to 

To do what you wished — God! adore — 

Open your door. • Quick, God, open your door. 

Start now with your MODERNIZATION plan — automatic house 
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Serving Salt Lake City 


Serving Ogden 



Salt Lake Visiting Nurse Association 

General Information 

Objects 1. To provide graduate 
nurses registered in the State of 
Utah for patients not requiring con- 
tinuous nusing care and to provide 
such other service as may from time 
to time be necessary to give efficient 
care to the sick. 

2. To teach house nursing, hy- 
gienic living and proper care of chil- 

3. To stimulate community Ire- 
sponsibility for the health of the 
community and to cooperate with 
other social agenciees to this end. 

Article 11, Constitution of Salt 
Lake Visiting Nurse Association. 


Application for visiting nurse 
service made by telephone Hyland 
6177 or Wasatch 935. 

Calls for visits to be made in the 
morning should be received the pre- 
ceding evening or before 8 :30 A. M. ; 
for afternoon visits before 2 P. M. 

Nursing Service 

Bedside Nursing Nursing visits 
are made in the homes of patients 
who cannot or do not care to go to 
the hospitals. This care may in- 
clude: A bed bath, a sterile dress- 
ing, an irrigation, or any of the va- 
rious forms of nursing care given by 
graduate nurses. It is available to 
persons of all ages in medical or 
surgical cases, both (acute and 
chronic. The nurse responds to 
every new call, but nursing care is 

not given after the first visit unless 
there is a physician in attendance 
who has given orders for care of 
the patient. 

Maternity Service Pre-natal care 
is offered to expectant mothers. 
Visits are made in the homes to 
carry out the directions of the doctor 
and to teach the mother how to pre- 
pare for her confinement. Delivery 
Service provides assistance to the 
doctor and after care of the mother 
and baby. Necessary sterile supplies 

Hourly Service This is an ap- 
pointment service to suit the con- 
vienece of the patient or attending 
physician for special treatments, 
dressings, or minor operations. 
(Maximum service 4 hours.) 

Hospital Extension Service This 
provides cooperation with the hos- 
pitals in extending nursing care to 
convalescent patients after leaving 
the hospital. 

Industrial Nusing Any indus- 
try, fraternal organization or public 
utility, may secure the services of a 
visiting nurse for members or em- 
ployees through contract with the 
Visiting Nurse Ass'n. 

School Nursing Nurses are 
available for private schools. 


Routine Visits $1.00 

Maternity Service : 

Deliveries (not to exceed 4 

hours) 6.00 

After care of mother and 

baby — visit 1.25 

Hourly Service — per hour.... 1.00 

Nature's Interpreter 


By The Late Myron E. Crandall 

Almost the last words uttered by He looked at the flowes, placed 

Myron E. Crandall were words of on the piano by his wife remarking 

admiration for a painting of John that they were very lovely, — then 

Hafen, hanging over his fireplace in fixing his eyes on the Hafen paint- 

his living room in his home at ing above the mantel he said "Isn't 

Springville, Utah. it beautiful." 

The willow is weeping, 
The cypress is keeping 
Her watch o'er his sleeping 

Where fair lillies wave: 
In forest assembling 
The aspens are trembling, 
Their branches resembling 

The sheen of the brave ; 
While bees are a-droning 
And waters intoning 
Their voice to the moaning 

Of winds o'er his grave. 

The sounds in the wildwood 
Resound as in childhood, 
When fancy beguiled would 

Allure him away; 
Like babes gone a-maying 
Where fairies were playing 
His heart went a-straying 

Enchanted all day; 
Rare beauty enjoying, 
(Nor loveliness cloying) 
His talent employing, 

He lingered for aye. 

The breezes may vary, 
The robins make merry — 
He's gone from the prairie 

Alas, all too soon: 
The stars in their waning 
In splendor are reigning, 

Their vigil retaining, 

And pale -is the moon : 
While mountains are calling 
Where waters are falling 
And night shades are palling 
A'er moorland and dune. 

The woods sing their dirges, 
Their billows and surges 
Impellingly urges 

His spirit arise; 
Their beauty revealing, 
O'er nature a-stealing; 
So softly appealing 

Where silent he lies 
Asleep on his pillow 
'Neath cypress and willow, 
While moan of the billow 

In vain to him cries. 

Fair Psyche attended 
As his palette blended 
The colors that tended 

To darkle the roses; 
He breathes in the flowers 
And weeps with the shower, 
The cool sylvan bower 

His presence discloses ; 
He walks in the forest 
And ever seems nearest 
Where skies are the clearest 

And nature reposes. 

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The Dcscret News Press 

29 on Richards Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

When Buying Mention Relief Society Magaaine 

Relief Society Women 
Attention t 

After sixteen years of service to 
the people, the BURIAL CLOTHES 
DEPARTMENT of the Relief So- 
ciety takes this opportunity of ex- 
pressing appreciation to you for 
your co-operation and patronage, 
which has contributed to the growth 
and stability of the Department. 

The Presidency of the Church, 
realizing the needs of the people, 
authorized the establishment of the 
Department in 1913. Since that 
time it has endeavored to serve the 

The Burial Clothes Department 
desires to announce that it has on 
hand a large and complete stock of 
temple and burial clothing in a 
variety of materials. There are 
suits for men and women, and 
burial clothing for children, includ- 
ing tailored suits for small boys. 

We give prompt and careful at- 
tention to mail, telephone and tele- 
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HEBER J. GRANT, Pres. E. T. RALPHS, Gen. Mgr. 

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39 North 3rd East — Rexburg, Idaho — Phone 186 

of the 

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Variety of Grades and Prices 

Prompt and Careful Attention To 
Mail — Telephone — Telegraph 

Open Daily, 9 a. m. — 5 p. m. 

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Phone Wasatch 3286 

29 Bishops' Building, 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 



Selected from our extensive line of L. D. S. Garments we suggest the following 

numbers for all seasons wear: 

No. 1 New style, ribbed Igt. wgt. 
cotton with rayon silk stripe. 
An excellent Ladies number..$1.25 

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cotton, our standard summer 
wgt 1.25 

No. 3 Ribbed med. wgtt. cotton, 
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No. 4 Ribbed heavy wgt. un- 
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mercerized — silky finish 1.75 

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only, new style only 1.50 

No. 10 Medium wgt. silk for men 

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In ordering, be sure to specify whether old or new style garments, three-quarter 
or ankle length legs, short or long sleeves are wanted. Also give bust measure, height 
and weight to insure perfect fit. 
Postage prepaid. Special discount to missionaries. 


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Usually Prefer Electric Gifts 


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264 Rayon Silk, Fine Quality 3.00 

748 Unbleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.00 

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No. 68 Ribbed ex. light Cotton $ .85 

No. 74 Ribbed lt. wt. Cotton 1.10 

No. 84 Rib. Mercerized Lisle 1.95 

No. 76 Ribbed It. wt. Lisle 1.35 

No. 63 Lt. Med. Unbleached Double 

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No. 64 Ribbed Lt. Med. Cot 1.35 

No. 62 Ribbed Med. Hvy. bleached.... 1.75 
Non Run Rayon, Elbow and Knee 

Length 2.15 

Long Sleeves and Legs 2.85 

No. 61 Ribbed Med. Hvy. Unbleached 

Double Back „ 1.75 

No. 56 Ribbed Hvy. Cotton bleached 2.15 
No. 55 Ribbed Hvy. Cot., Unbleached 

Double Back 2.15 

No. 27 Ribbed Med. Wt. 50% 

Wool 3.35 

No. 39 Ribbed Hvy. Wt. 50% 

Wool 3.85 

No. 32 Silk and Wool 4.50 


i oz. Heavy Duck 1.95 


In ordering garments please state if for men or women and if old or new 
styles are wanted. 

Also give bust, height and weight. 

Sizes above 48 — 20% extra. Marking 15e. Postage Prepaid. 





When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 

Ask for one of our folders describing the different services 

we offer. 


Hyland 190 Distinctive Work Office 319 S. Main St. 






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Temple and Burial Clothes 


Variety of Grades and Prices 

Prompt and Careful Attention To Mail — Telephone — Telegraph Orders 

Open Daily, 9 a. m. — 5 p. m. 

General Board Relief Society 

Phone Wasatch 3286 " 
29 Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 


Portrait of Elizabeth Francis Yates. 

Mothers of Our Executive Officers — 

Elizabeth Francis Yates" 348 

Margaret Zimmerman Brown 351 

Sariah Jane Starr Alleman 355 

Julia P. Murdock Farnsworth 358 

Snake Piver Annie Pike Greenwood 361 

"Atuscadero" Hanson D. Puthuff 362 

The Glory of the West. Harrison R. Merrill 363 

Editorial — The Centennial Pageant 364 

The Magazine Congratulates Mrs. 

Evans 365 

The Missions 365 

Jubilee Boxes Annie Wells Cannon 366 

Mary Birch Miller, a Gold Star Mother 

Cora Carver Richie 374 

If By Dying Arthur James' Bowers 377 

Bathsheba Blackburn Grundy 378 

A Character Sketch of Helen Gibson Ells- 
worth 381 

Reminiscences of a Pioneer . .Alice Morrill 385 

Caroline L. Holt 388 

Christina Olson Stramberg 391 

Emma Joyce Udall Levi S. Udall 393 

The Meaning of Culture Lais V. Hales 395 

Notes from the Field 398 

West with the Ox Teams 402 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

Room 20 Bishop's Bldg. Salt Lake City, Utah 

$1.00 a Year— Single Copy, 10c 

Foreign, $1.25 a Year — 15c Single Copy 

Entered as second-class matter at the 

Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Phone Wasatch 3123 


JULY, 1930 

NO. 7 



Relief Society Magazine 

Vol. XVII 

JULY, 1930 

No. 7 

Mothers Of Our Executive Officers 

By Fay Ollerton 

UNLIK/E as these four women 
were in their background, 
their emotional patterns, and 
in their spheres of activity, a com- 
mon thread ran through their lives. 
It was a thing apart even from the 
gospel that had called them from 
across oceans and unending plains, 
and it was one of the determining 
factors that brought their daughters 
together as the Executive Board of 
the Woman's Relief Society. 

One of the women began life 
in the green beauty of rural Eng- 
land, another in an historic Penn- 
sylvania town, a third first saw life 
in Illinois in the precarious days 
that preceded the Western migra- 
tion of the Church, and a fourth 
was born on the snow covered shores 
of Utah Lake five years after Brig- 
ham Young had planted his cane 
on the future site of the Salt Lake 

YET, when the ruling traits of 
any one of the four are written, 
they speak as well for the other 
three. All of them had the sin- 
cerity and love of naturalness that 
marks the truly noble. Each of 
them walked with dignity, whether 
they lived, for the moment, in a 

dugout, a log cabin, a simple home, 
or a mansion built with riches. Al- 
ways they preserved that "high 
opinion" of themselves. They had 
found the secret of harmony and 
inner peace without which no per- 
son can find repose. 

TN intelligence and intellect these 
-■■ women ranked high. They had 
the common sense necessary to 
guide their own lives and to give 
inspiration and discretion in help- 
ing others. All of them were sought 
to give advice — perhaps because in 
their homes success dwelt, born of 
righteous living, thrifty habits, keen 
foresight, and harmony of aims and 

Their homes were never without 
books, from the Bible and attend- 
ant Church works to the novels of 
Dickens and Thackeray, and the 
then startling ideas sometimes ex- 
pressed by George Eliot. And there 
were histories, too. How they all 
loved history ! One cared for stir- 
ring tales of patriotism ; another 
devoured biographies ; a third 
sought for volumes dealing with the 
story of woman's struggle (not yet 
won) ; and the four of them were 


avid readers of periodicals and living ; found time for public affairs ; 

newspapers. From them and their read and followed cultural interests, 

kind came the persons who made and taught their children. They 

it possible for women to lift their worked from dawn until far past the 

heads proudly as they do today and twilight hours, yet their energy sel- 

to face the world fearlessly. dom wavered or failed. 

PERHAPS one of their strongest A TOST remarkable of all to the 
traits was superior energy. IV1 WO men of today, who are torn 
When health permitted it, each could between the desire of following 
do the work of almost four young caree rs outside the home and of 
women of 1930. They kept their rearing children under happy con- 
own homes (kept them clean and dki ig the manner in whJch these 

orderly and with all the beauty they r .,; ;, • , 

! , J , n t . - • Z four women, with their strong per- 

could muster), often spinning, ,. . > . . , A . * r , 

weaving, .sewing, assisted in the sonahties, their varied talents, and 

outdoor work, made butter and their love for actlon > ke Pt their 
cheese, gave their time unsparingly personal desires subordinated to the 
to the Church; spent many hours welfare of their Church, husbands, 
in administering to the sick and and children. They reared felicitous 
needy ; inspired and counselled their families without curtailing self-ex- 
husbands; sometimes earned their pression. 

Elizabeth Francis Yates 

AN English officer, home from RUT there is a fascinating story 
India, was walking down the D that lies between the Elizabeth 
Devonshire lanes with his tall, young who attended the Church of Eng- 
daughter Elizabeth. "No lady," he land with her pious mother and 
told her, "ever leaves the house walked the Devonshire lanes with 
before she has fastened her gloves.'' her officer father and the tall, blue- 
Elizabeth Francis was still a good- eyed woman who spent her days in 
ish distance from her teens, but the Salt Lake Temple. And only the 
she wanted to be a lady worthy of smallest part of it can be indicated 
her gentle mother and her soldier here, 
father. In after years, when life 

had dealt to her some of the bitterest \\7 HEN Elizabeth was a tiny 

potions it seems to reserve for those V V child she had been sent to a 

whom it loves most dearly, she still maiden lady's school and taught her 

fastened her gloves and straightened letters and the intricate stitches 

her prim veil before she left the samplers in those days required. On 

house. Elizabeth Francis had al- her father's rare visits home, she 

ways been taught to meet the world displayed her knowledge. "Read 

in her best; the Elizabeth Yates the Bible," that officer who seldom 

who had walked across the plains so crossed a church threshold would 

that her "pretty china" might ride, ask of her. Often he remarked, 

who had lived in a dugout in a "Elizabeth, we haven't the gospel 

little Utah town, and who had spent with us that you are reading about, 

the last years of her life redeeming But some day it will come, and 

her dead in 'the house of the Lord, when it does, jyou must not be 

always met the world in her best afraid to accept it." 

with her head high. He died when Elizabeth was 



twelve, but the girl, soon grown 
into a tall woman, dark of hair, 
blue of eyes, and graceful of bear- 
ing, remembered, and when she 
heard the elders of Mormonism, she 
was not afraid. 

YET an almost unpassable chasm 
stood between her and the 
truth. When she was fifteen, she 
had married the administrator of 
her father's estate, a man much 
older than herself and far removed 
from her in desires. She had borne 
him four girls, one of them now 
being only a baby, and her joy 
to have them and her husband know 
the truth was so great that she could 
scarcely wait until his return from 

THIS man saw Mormonism as a 
thing to be treated with scorn. 
He told Elizabeth that if she ac- 
cepted it she would lose her home 
and children. This last she could 
not do; neither could she forsake 
the truth so wonderfully given. She 
told her huband that she must have 
her daughters and the gospel too, 
but he, without giving her an op- 
portunity for further decision, took 
the children away and kept them 
hidden from her. 

IT was a destitute young woman 
he left in quiet Devonshire — one 
burdened with one of the greatest 
griefs that can come to woman, and 
one unused to the hard ways of 
earning her daily bread. She was 
cooking strangers' bread when a 
traveling elder of her Church, young 
Thomas Yates, found her and sent 
her to Bath to live with his parents. 
But even in Bath, a living must 
be earned, and she began work in 
a corset factory. 

MEANWHILE she had not for- 
gotten her children. The baby 

had died shortly after the separa- 
tion, and she now spent much of 
her small earnings in trying to find 
ways of having the other three chil- 
dren come to her. All her plans 
failed - her, and several years later 
she and some other saints from 
Bath made the long voyage across 
the Atlantic. On July 22, 1862, 
she was married to Thomas Yates 
at Florence, Nebraska, and set out 
to walk to Utah. Perhaps if she 
had known the many miles across 
Kansas and Wyoming, she would 
not have insisted on the china 

"pvOWN at little Scipio she had 
*S Thomas erect a shelf for the 
china. Children, four daughters 
and one son, were born now, and 
the second child, Louise, came near 
to seeing life for the first time in a 
potato pit where pop-eyed toads and 
the fetid odor of sprouting potatoes 
vied with each other for attention. 
It was during an Indian raid and 
Elizabeth was rescued from the pit 
and taken to the log meeting-house 
just in time for her daughter, who 
was destined to be the president 
of all the Relief Societies, to escape 
from the ignominy of being born in 
a potato pit. 

WHEN the Yates' first went to 
Scipio, they were literally 
without purse or scrip. Thomas 
had been a clerk in England and 
neither knew anything of how to 
combat the vicissitudes of pioneer 
life. But Elizabeth, who faced the 
world in her best, had brought with 
the china dishes some silk dresses, 
voluminous of skirt and decorated 
with yards and yards of ribbon vel- 
vet. Even in those severe times there 
were those who had, and in Scipio 
to have was to own sheep. And 
sheepmen usually had daughters and 



wives. Elizabeth ripped the trim- 
mings from her dresses and sold 
it to the families for sheep. Then 
she began cutting the silk, piece 
by piece. By the time the last dress 
was gone, she and Thomas had 
acquired the beginnings of a small 
flock that was later to bring them 
the necessities and a few of the 
luxuries of life. 

WHILE the sale of the dresses 
temporarily deprived Eliza- 
beth of her best, she soon managed 
a Sunday dress. There was never 
a time, her children will say, when 
she did not have a "best" dress and 
pair of shoes for them. ' Other 
children might go hatless in the 
summer wind, but Elizabeth's wore 
hats woven of bright colored paper. 
She was one pioneer woman who 
did not belong to the sunbonnet 
era. When she went to church or 
social gatherings, she wore bonnets 
fashioned by her own hands. She 
was scornful of the homely bonnet, 
even when she took Thomas, who 
was working in a nearby field, a 
dinner made of hot greens she had 
recently dug. 

AS the Yates family prospered, 
they grew in religious prom- 
inence. Thomas was a bishop, Eliza- 
beth a Relief Society officer, and 
later the Stake President of the same 
organization. It was during her 
stake days that she bent all of her 
efforts towards helping the cause 
of woman's suffrage. "I attended 
to the matter at once," she wrote 
to a sister officer in regard to raising 
money for a national convention. 
Emmeline B. Wells spoke of her 
as "the General," — and the Indian 
officer would have been pleased to 
have heard the title. 


ER children's education was not 
neglected. Both Elizabeth and 

Thomas had fine voices, and they 

sang "Bell Brandon" and 

"To the West, to the West, to the 

land of the free, 
Wlhere the mighty Missouri rolls 

down to the Sea," 
to their children and to the groups 
who came to the Yates home because 
it was more pleasant there than 
other accessible places. The Bible, 
Dickens, and George Eliot were 
part of the daily fare of the young 
Yates.' It meant that they had 
been very bad indeed when Eliza- 
beth did not read or tell them a 

BUT singing and story telling 
were only a few of Elizabeth's 
gifts. She was a toe dancer ! The 
pioneer woman loved life, swift 
moving and full of laughter, but 
she was just a little bit afraid of 
this last talent. It was not seemly, 
she thought, for a woman of her 
stature and position to cast off re- 
straint in the dance. Yet once in 
a while, when some extra 'good 
fortune had come to the Yates fam- 
ily, or when they were more than 
every day happy, she could b^ per- 
suaded to dance a jig. 

HER days passed by in fullness 
and in strength. There was 
all the work of maintaining the 
household (there were times when 
she made everything Thomas wore, 
except his shoes manufactured by a 
local artist), the Relief Society work 
going from town to town in a white- 
top, rearing her children with a 
firm but understanding hand, and 
entertaining the groups who made 
her home a half-way place between 
St. George and Salt Lake. 

TT was when she was entertaining 

George Teasdale in early Scipio 

days that the dark burden of her 

life began to be lifted. By means 



of a casual remark of his she learned 
that her oldest daughter Susan in 
far-off England had joined the 
Church. The joining had been an 
outgrowth of the daughter's desire 
to find the mother so long denied 

THEN Thomas, as unselfish as 
his wife, left his home work in 
Echo Canyon on the railroad that 
was soon to end the pioneer era. 
The money was used to bring Susan 
to Utah. Her coming was a happy 
time and did much to eradicate the 
suffering Elizabeth had borne these 
years in silence. 

ANOTHER chance visitor, this 
time a traveling man Susan's 
husband was entertaining, noted a 
resemblance between Susan and a 
young woman he had seen in Mich- 
igan. Susan sent a letter which was 
advertised in Michigan papers and 
before long an answer came from 
Ella, the youngest living child of 
Elizabeth's first marriage. Money 
was sent for Ella and her husband 
to come West, and no person save 
a mother who has undergone a 
similar experience will understand 
the anguish Elizabeth endured dur- 
ing the waiting. WJiat would her 

child be like? Would she love her 
mother, and would she understand 
why the separation had been ? These 
and a hundred other questions 
racked the mother. 

YT7HEN Ella came, Elizabeth 
W could ask for nothing more. 
"The loveliest of all her lovely 
daughters," everyone said. So much 
was Ella like her mother that it 
was hard to believe Elizabeth had 
not reared this child. A few years 
passed and Ella, too, became a mem- 
ber of her mother's Church. 

Seventy-six years passed after the 
October 8, 1836, when Elizabeth 
Francis had been born in Devon- 
shire. An illness kept her from 
temple work, and then another ill- 
ness and she was gone to join 
Thomas, with whom she had found 
so much earthly happiness. 

A FEW days after her death in 
December, her children found a 
note in a little box where she kept 
most of her most intimate effects. It 
read, "Should I die before fast 

day, I will owe tithing." 

And in the box was the amount of 
tithing. She had been prepared, 
even before she went forth to meet 

Margaret Zimmerman Brown 

was fifteen years old when 
she left Garden Grove for 
the "Valley Home." She was no 
ordinary person, this beautiful 
brown-haired girl with the rosy 
cheeks and intelligent brown eyes, 
set far apart. Back of her was an 
unusual father who had been edu- 
cated at the University of Berlin 
and fought in the wars against 
Napoleon. Once he had been cap- 
tured by the French and been treated 
so kindly by them that when he was 

returned to his regiment, he slipped 
quietly away to an American-bound 
ship rather than lift up arms against 
a people he had learned to love. And 
there was a refined and intelligent 
mother, Juliana Hoke. 

1~\URING the four months of the 
■■— ^ trek, when Margaret and her 
family had waited days for swollen 
streams to subside, she had dreamed 
of this new Western Country and 
of the strange future it held for 
her. Once she had seen the cattle 




stampede, and with her own eyes 
watched a woman fall from a cov- 
ered wagon and be crushed to death 
by a wagon driven by those dear 
to her. And she had walked most 
of the way across the sunflower and 
sage brush trails. It is no wonder 
that her beautiful face had a pre- 
mature seriousness. 

ON the 25th of September, 1851, 
she wrote in her journal : "Oh, 
what a beautiful sight! The peace- 
ful valley of little houses and happy 
homes. Truly a haven of rest after 
our long and tiresome journey." 

A FEW days in the "haven" and 
the Zimmermans moved to Lehi 
to share an already crowded house 
with a kind friend. By spring 
George Zimmerman had a lot and 
a log cabin. The hum of the wheel 
and the heavier music of the loom 
could be heard from every open 
door and Maragaret was one of the 
fastest of the workers. When the 
girls met, there was talk of am- 
bitions never to be realized. If this 
handsome Zimmerman girl were a 
man, she'd not be spending her time 
over a wheel ! What could she do 
that was better than that, the girls 
would want to know. Why, she 
would be a doctor, one who could 
cure women of their ailments and 
save babies. But in her time there 
was wool to be carded, butter to be 
churned, yarn to be dyed, garments 
to be sewed, and Margaret was ever 
one for the job at hand. Besides, 
a woman doctor, a real one, had 
never been heard of. Years later 
she had the satisfaction of having 
her only son study medicine and of 
having him for her physician in the 
closing years of her life. 

SHE was very popular, this frank, 
outspoken Zimmerman girl, with 
the quick tongue and the laughing 

answer. If the new play needed a 
comedian, Margaret was there with 
her lines learned the first night, 
and when the scraping of the fiddle 
began in the log school and church 
house, she was one of the first ones 
on the floor and tlje last to leave 
in the flushed hours of the dawn. 
And just as happy were the hours 
spent with her father — now too old 
to teach school but not too old to 
make and mend shoes, a trade that 
he had become familiar with while 
in the French prison. He would 
tell her fascinating stories of student 
days in Berlin, of Wilhelm the 
Great, and of the strange Napoleon. 

THOSE hours of companionship 
with her father made some of 
the youths' chatter seem inconse- 
quential and shallow. When she 
was twenty-two, she married a tall, 
dark-bearded man named John 
Brown, one of the original pioneers, 
who had already seen much of the 
world Margaret had dreamed about. 
Indeed, he was a Southerner and 
had crossed the plains thirteen times 
with oxen and mule teams and was 
already possessed of two families. 
Her wedding dress was guaranteed 
all wool, spun into yarn and woven 
by herself, with white crocheted 
collar and cuffs. One of her wed- 
ding presents was a cow, which for 
reasons unknown she named Jenny 
Lind, and her first home had one 
window in it and an adobe chimney 
for burning sagebrush. 

lT^ROM now on Margaret's girl- 
* hood was placed behind her. 
Ten children in all were born to 
her. When she had been married 
a decade and a half, the second wife 
died, leaving !the third with the 
rearing of three more girls. "I 
fasted and prayed," Margaret 
wrote, "that I might do my duty 
right— when they met their mother 



they would feel toward each other 
as they did when they were separ- 
ated by death." 

NOW) her husband was bishop of 
Pleasant Grove and she lived 
in a story and. a half adobe house 
with a flower garden in the front 
and a vegetable garden in the back. 
There were also chickens and pigs 
Margaret, for all that her pies and 
cabbage and wilted lettuce dishes 
were probably the best in town, was 
very frugal. There was always a 
little money in reserve ; when her 
children grew old enough they were 
sent to the Brigham Young Acad- 
emy at Provo, accompanied by 
some of her bedding and a week's 
supply of food. Her girls were to 
be given equal opportunities with her 

AFTER fthe "birth of her last 
child, Margaret was bedridden 
for five years and she was never 
to be so strong again. It was during 
these years that the real woman 
came into her own. She was no 
querulous patient, demanding sacri- 
fices from her children. Instead 
she guided her family and almost 
the entire town from the realm of 
a four-poster. People came to her 
for advice because they knew she 
would tell them the truth — and they 
respected her judgment. Because 
she was sorely tried herself, she had 
great sympathy for the sorrow of 
others. Let some one tell her a story 
of grief and Margaret would shift 
the burden to her own shoulders 
until she could devise a way out. 
But if a woman came in with some 
silly scandal, her reception was a 
cool one. 

STRANGELY, the frank woman 
did not make enemies. People 
believed in her wisdom and they 
could be themselves with her. There 
was a young man who might have 

married the wrong girl, a misunder- 
stood daughter, an aggrieved neigh- 
bor, and scores of others to testify 
to the wisdom of this brown-eyed 
woman. Young people always found 
Margaret stimulating. Her interest 
in them lived through the years of 
invalidism and into the remoteness 
of old age. They must do some- 
thing — be somebody. One of the 
shortest cuts to these ends, she be- 
lieved, was through education. Be- 
cause of her influence, each year the 
Brigham Young Academy gained in 
number. These young people could 
come to "Aunt Maggie Brown" 
with intimate problems they would 
not take to their parents. If one 
of them came to her in search of 
bread, it is not on record that she 
gave them a stone. 

growing up now, and there 
was no place they cared for better. 
"She was never cross with us," one 
of her grandchildren tells, "but 
when she told us to do a thing we 
did not hesitate." And her children 
say : "Somehow we did not question 
Mother's counsel. We might rebel 
a little, but we knew we would be 
happier if we observed it." 

Her greatest achievement — aside 
from the fineness of her own life — 
was her children. There was little 
mediocrity in Margaret ; she did not 
tolerate it in her boys and girls. 
She had a high opinion of herself 
and husband, and she reared her 
family to hold that same self-esteem. 
Honesty, integrity — these and like 
qualities must come first. So strong- 
ly did she make them a part of her 
children that they, like herself, could 
walk with the low and the high and 
not lose their own ideals. 

According to her beliefs one could 
not live fully without service — to 
family, friends, the needy, the 
Church and State. It has been said 



that quiet Pleasant Grove has fur- daily papers were as important to 

nished more than its share of lead- her as her meals. When her eye- 

ers, and Margaret's family are not sight failed her, she stuck pins in 

among the least. One of them has the headlines she wished to learn 

won distinction in the National more about, so that her children 

Council of Women, and all of them would know where to begin their 

have held notable positions in their reading aloud. 
Church and community life. To 

Margaret was given the rare hap- TT7HEN Margaret, now become 

piness of seeing her children be the VV Grandma Brown, died at the 

things for which she had aspired. a ge of 93, one of the finest and 

Utah will be a long time in her most picturesque of the pioneer fig- 

de *• ures passed away. It was given to 

c , 1 i tv/t her to see many of her desires re- 

b she grew older Margaret wor- .. , . , v-u 1 1 

ried for fear that she would be " m A her chll f e * and ^nd- 

a burden on her children. She did children. Among the latter she will, 

not want to live longer than the as the y ears P ass > become legendary, 

enduring of her energy. All her One of the greatest of her gifts was 

life she had read, read, read. Noth- that of loving people and drawing 

ing pleased her more than a new from them the good that they were 

book of history and if she could get often unable to express with others, 

hold of a volume dealing with the This heritage will be pasesd on, and 

lives of the royal families, she could with it the strength of Margaret 

close her ears to the world. The Zimmerman Brown. 

Sariah Jane Starr Alleman 

IN Kent County, England, at the to the verdant mountains and the 
time when a small group of men blue lake, but at October conference, 
and women were setting about the Brigham Young, who had a way 
business of reforming the Church of surprising people, called upon 
of England, Dr. Comfort Starr, a the family to settle in St. George, 
well-to-do doctor, became stirred where strong and skilled men were 
with their fervor and sailed for the needed, 
new world. He settled in the Ply- 
mouth Colony. Years later, his de- C ARIAH Jane, who was seventeen 
scendants, who still carried his ad- ^ and a woman grown, did not 
venturous spirit, moved westward, go with them on this shorter jour- 
Sariah Jane Starr was born at ney. There was in Springville at 
Quincy, Illinois, on January 8, 1844, this time a young man by the name 
in the days when the young "Mor- of Benjamin Alleman. He had been 
mon" Church was fighting for its born in (Pennsylvania 'some nine 
right to exist. Six years later years earlier than the girl, and had 
Sariah's parents came to Utah by found his way to Springville in 
way of ox team. 1852. He felt that Sariah Jane 

should remain in the more settled 
rpROM Salt Lake the Starr fam- districts, and on March 24, 1861, 
1 lly moved to Springville, even they were married, 
then a green spot in the sagebrush 

wilderness. They thought, perhaps, A FTER her marriage Sariah was 
to spend the rest of their days close ** left much alone. Down in St. 




George her father was assisting in 
the building of the temple. Every 
year he either came with or sent 
his wife and daughters to visit at 
Springville. One of the earliest 
recollections of the Alleman chil- 
dren is watching the southern road 
with their mother, who strained her 
eyes for the red dust tops of the 
wagons, journeying from southern 

THREE sons and two daughters 
were born to Sariah Jane and 
Benjamin. The parents wanted them 
all to be educated. "We can't give 
them wealth," Sariah said, "but an 
education is something that can't 
be taken from them." But educa- 
tion was a hard problem in those 
days when people walked miles to 
borrow a book. Sariah made butter, 
delivering the fresh yellow pats her- 
self, raised vegetables in the fertile 
Springville soil and sold them to 
less provident neighbors. Then she 
spent hours in the arduous task of 
weaving carpets so that money could 
be garnered. 

AS strenuously as she worked, she 
did not neglect her home. Her 
house was immaculate and there 
were always good things to eat on 
the Alleman table when other house- 
wives, less resourceful, bewailed the 
scarcity and sameness of food. It 
was a common thing for the Relief 
Society teachers (and others with 
a lesser excuse) to call upon Sister 
Alleman about meal time. Sariah, 
herself a Relief Society teacher, 
looked forward to the sisters' visits 
and concocted recipes in order to 
delight them with new dishes. She 
had to be her own woman's page 
and cook book. 

SHE was a tall, handsome wo- 
man, with spirited brown eyes 
and a quick temper which she 

learned to control. Superstition had 
no place in her scheme of life, but 
when she was "impressed" to do 
a thing, she always found it wisest 
to go ahead. It is easy to believe 
that her husband had considerable 
respect for her first impressions. 
When he acted on them, he was cer- 
tain to make a success of his ven- 

TN her the eternal Eve was not 
*■ killed by the rigors of pioneer 
life. She loved pretty clothes, and 
since she could make them herself, 
she could not be accused of ex- 
travagance in owning them. Her 
children remember her, ready for 
church, dressed in her best silk and 
carrying a black silk-ruffled parasol, 
lined with white, and over her arm 
her treasured paisley shawl. When 
she was only forty, she wore little 
black bonnets. Women matured 
young in her day, and while they 
worked with the vigor of youth, 
they accepted old age before today's 
woman will give in to middle years. 
Even as she loved to entertain 
people, she loved to be entertained. 
It must have been a trial to her 
who liked to dance, that her hus- 
band cared nothing for the pastime. 
But no woman was ever left on 
the sidelines in Utah's earlier days 
and Sariah was not seriously handi- 
capped by Benjamin's non-indul- 
gence. She loved the theatre, too, 
and played in the town dramatics 
when she could find time to take 
a part. It would have been pleas- 
ant to know what dramas she liked 
best and what parts she cared to 
enact, but no record was kept of 
them by her or her children. 

SHE was a great reader, some- 
times forgetting that the butter 
must be churned when there was a 
new book to be had. And she took 
much pleasure in church going. Her 


beliefs had been shaped during the seem quiet and untouched by ad- 
days when men and women suffered venture. But in her childhood she 
privations and endangered their lives knew hardships as an every day 
for religion's sake, and she did not occurrence. Danger that would to- 
question the tenets she had accepted day change the whole current of 
from birth. W;ith her she carried our lives, she accepted as part of 
the serenity that comes of undoubt- routine. She fought a winning 
ing faith. It was a great source of fight against the elemental moods 
satisfaction to her that one son filled of nature, and out of a patch of 
a mission to Samoa and that another barren earth she helped to make 
became a school teacher. a harmonious home and to rear 

children whose names are honored 

SHE died in 1905, just two years throughout the Church. It was part 

after her husband's death. If we of her compensation that her path 

do not remember the drama of pio- was the tranquil one of those who 

neer life, her days in the recounting are certain of God's love. 

Julia P. Murdock Farnsworth 

BECAUSE my mother was Stake held in honor, and I had heard in- 

President of the Relief Society teresting stories of how Mrs. Farns- 

the General Board members were worth lived in a huge house in Salt 

apt to stay at our house during the Lake — a city I might visit some day 

conferences. I liked these times, a if I were very good, 
little perhaps for the fried chicken 

and ice cream and the lessened A GOOD many years passed be- 

discipline, but more for the presence ■** fore I was to see Mrs. Farns- 

of the ladies themselves. Most of worth again. Wlhen I saw her, her 

them were a little stout with pleas- beautiful dark hair had lost its color, 

ant, quick voices and their skirts but her brown eyes were warmer 

rustled beautifully, and the informa- and tighter against ;their silver 

tion they gave of the outside world background. She was as erect, as 

was stimulating and exciting to my gracious, and as great a lady as 

rural ears. I had remembered her and it is 

not often that a child's conception 

ONE of the Board members I ever fincfc such realization, 

remember best of all. She was About her in the sunlit living 

Mrs. Julia P. Murdock Farnsworth. room in Struval Park were num- 

While I held her in as much awe bers of new books, histories and 

as I did the others, yet I was more biographies, which she was reading, 

at ease in her presence. Not so There were her diaries, too, uniform 

long ago, my mother had told me, volumes in which she wrote every 

Mrs. Farnsworth had lived in the day. I asked rather tremulously 

neighboring town of Beaver. In if I might see inside one, but she 

fact I had often seen the tall, red closed the book and told me with 

brick house, facing the town square, almost a blush that she sometimes 

where the Murdocks still lived, and misspelled words. 

I had dear friends who spoke of Julia Murdock Farnsworth, born 

"Aunt Julia" as (familiarly as I in the bleakness of a Utah County 

did of my aunts. Too, her father winter (though there was only 

had been a man whose name we Fort Provo then), was the only 




daughter of John R. Murdock, and 
from her mother, Almira Lott, and 
her father she acquired an intense 
patriotism and love of family. Her 
mother's people had been the Clapps, 
who had come to the new world 
in 1630 with no less a person than 
John Winthrop, and Captain Clapp 
had been the Keeper of the King's 
Keys at Boston port for twenty- 
five years. Her father was of old 
Vermont stock and had been in- 
fluenced to join the Church by the 
brilliant Parley P. Pratt. John R. 
had been one of the youngest boys 
to join the Mormon Battalion. When 
he left San Diego in 1847 he car- 
ried on his back a half bucket of 
wheat — worth more than its- weight 
many times in gold. He was a tall, 
handsome man, with keen blue eyes 
and dark brown hair, and when 
he rode one of his fine horses, ladies 
who had seen (something of the 
world were apt to sigh and say 
that he looked like one of the Vir- 
ginia cavaliers of colonial days. 

BUT John R. had little time for 
cavalier puruits. He crossed 
the plains all of thirteen times and 
once he set forth alone to carry a 
personal message from Brigham 
Young to Colonel Kane. Another 
time he had to leave young Julia 
at Christmas time to guide a party 
of emigrants through the deep snow 
into Salt Lake. A girl could carry 
her head high with a father like 

JULIA'S girlhood was far differ- 
ent from that of the average 
young woman's of Utah. Her 
mother was not robust and upon 
the only daughter fell the responsi- 
bility of the older woman. The 
father, whose position made it im- 
perative that he do a great deal of 
entertaining, was also a man of 
social tendencies and magnetic per- 

sonality. When Julia was twelve, 
he moved to Beaver, near Fort 
Cameron, and the great of the army, 
the State, and the Church, were 
entertained at the Murdock home. 
At one time Julia was hostess to that 
glamorous person, General Phil 

Winter times she often went to 
Salt Lake with her father, who was 
a member of the territorial legisla- 
ture. It was on one of these oc- 
casions that she danced several times 
with Ensign Evans, who was later 
to be Rear Admiral of the United 
States navy. The salmon colored 
poplin that she wore that night was 
long a treasured gown, and it is 
doubtful if another girl at the dance 
could vie with her dark beauty and 
vivacious charm. 

JUST a stone's throw from the 
Murdock house was another tall 
home of somber hue and in it lived 
young Philo T. Farnsworth. He 
had been Julia's best friend since 
she was twelve years old. "We 
always intended to marry," she said, 
"and as soon as we were able, we 
did. There was never any one else 
for either of us}." Julia taught 
school in Beaver for a year or two 
until her young man had established 
himself strongly enough to take a 
wife, and few people have been 
happier with each other than they 
were during the whole of their mar- 
ried life. 

Marriage only heightened her col- 
orful activities. Her husband was 
also a member of the legislature, 
and while they were still young, 
he left Beaver to manage the Horn 
Silver mine — a household word then 
in Utah. Since that day, Mr. Farns- 
worth's connection with the mines 
of the West is a part of Utah's 



SHE might have chosen to have 
spent her days in social enter- 
tainment, for her husband's posi- 
tion, her home, her grace, and 
charm uniquely fitted her for such 
a life. But she was too intellectual 
a woman and her love of religion 
was too strong. The Julia who 
had gone by team to Salt Lake in 
the dead of winter that she might 
receive her endowments at the time 
of her marriage was never allowed 
to change into a woman who viewed 
life as a light matter. 

It was during her younger days 
that the fight for woman's suffrage 
was the hottest. She followed with 
interest the careers of Susan B. 
Anthony, Dr. Shaw, and the Carey 
sisters, and gave much of her time 
and resources to the cause. 

ONE of her favorite diversions 
was writing historical events 
for the Woman's Exponent. Her 
last article, if memory serves me 
right, was called "Patriotic Phases 
of the Mormon Battalion." She 
assisted in the present organization 
of the Mormon Battalion, and is 
a charter member of the Daughters 

of the Pioneers. But more than 
anything she enjoyed her work with 
the Relief Society. 

Julia had been a secretary of that 
organization when she was fifteen, 
and she was to spend many years 
traveling about the towns of the in- 
termountain region. Automobiles 
were almost unheard of in the early 
days of her Board service. 

NOW, she has retired from active 
work, but her life is still full 
and rich. Old friends and relatives 
are always welcome at her home, 
and she keeps in touch with the ac- 
tivities of her children and nieces 
and nephews. Her children and 
friends are scattered, but she writes 
to them with the ease and regularity 
of more quiet days. Her diary, too, 
she still keeps, and when she will 
allow it to be read, it will be among 
the interesting and valuable Utah 
documents. Her interest in read- 
ing — poetry, fiction, and history, has 
not dimmed. 

She has a storehouse of rich 
memories and years ahead made 
pleasant by the interest she has cul- 
tivated throughout her busy years. 

Snake River 

By Annie Pike Greenwood 

O River ! sinister, silver-green, The fields of grain now waving near 

walled high' to you. 

With lava canyons that must give If — there can be no if — there is no 

defy chance ! 

To time, — if you had never been, Certain and true the plans of God 

O Snake ! advance. 

Nothing were here the desert's No chance it was, but only planning 

thirst to slake; clear, 

Only a dream that never could come Your waters flowing through His 

true, fingers here. 








The Glory of the West 

By Harrison R. Merrill 

NOT all who look upon the 
glory of the West really see 
it until a master has touched 
their eyes. It is true that all 
who have unimpaired physical 
vision see the green of trees, the 
gold of sunlight, and the forms of 
mountains, snowcapped, through the 
mist of summer rains. They may 
feel elated, lifted by their vision of 
beauty, but there is glory hiding in 
the landscapes like a sprite that may 
not be seen except by those who 
have been transfigured by an inward 
genius or a protracted training. 

IV/fANY of our pioneer fathers 
±Vk won der now why they had 
never known the glory of Bryce or 
the Grand Canyon, or even of some 
of our mountain peaks. They saw 
them all, but in their haste to ride 
through them or over them or to 
drive around them they had missed 
the glory of them, and — they had 
been without interpreters. 

AMONG the interpreters, the 
•^ seers of western glories, few 
are so gifted as Hanson Duvall Put- 
huff, the California artist, whose 
rare and tender paintings of the 
Grand Canyon have won him the 
distinction of being one of its great- 
est interpreters, and whose rugged 
paintings of mountains have re- 
vealed their hidden glories. 


genius to see and the art to re- 

produce what he sees. His paint- 
ings are ajlive and moving with 
poetry. His colors sing of the glory 
of the out-of-doors — of the mystery 
of whispering trees, of the daring 
of overhanging bluffs, and of the 
splendors of western lights and 
shadows at evening. 

THIS summer Mr. Puthuff is 
coming to Utah. He is eager 
to see the glories of the Wasatch, 
of Utah deserts, Utah trees, and 
Utah streams. Encamped at the 
Alpine Summer School of Brigham 
Young University at Aspen Grove 
behind Timpanogos, from July 21 
to August 22, he will attempt to in- 
terpret the Wonder Mountain in 
oils. Furthermore, he will assist 
others to interpret in the same 
media, as he is to teach classes in 
art during the five weeks imme- 
diately following July 21 when the 
school opens. 

UTAH artists and others will as- 
semble to sit at the feet of the 
seer of western glories. Some of 
them will be seers, too ; men and 
women who have learned to see in 
artistic unities. 

THE West already has its inter- 
preters, but it is to have more 
of them. We are fortunate who 
see well only after we have been 
shown, that the Wasatch Mountains 
draw the great artists, and that the 
Alpine Summer School makes them 
available as teachers. 


Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

MRS. LOUISE YATES ROBISON' ..-....--'. President 

MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 


MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Cora L. Bennion Mrs. Elise B. Alder 

Miss> Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Inez K. Allen 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Miss Alice Louise Reynolds Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs 1 . Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 


Editor - Alice Louise Reynolds 

Manager ............ Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. XVII 

JULY, 1930 

No. 7 


The Centennial Pageant 

THE presentation of the late 
pageant, "The Message of the 
Ages," seems to have trans- 
cended the highest hopes and fond- 
est expectations, for we cannot recall 
hearing more general approbation of 
anything than of the recent pageant 
presented in the Tabernacle to cele- 
brate the Latter-day Saint Centen- 
nial. It was a real fulfillment. As 
evidence of such we quote from an 
editorial in the Relief Society Mag- 
azine of November, 1923. 

THE editorial is entitled "Art the 
Agent of Religion" and opens 
with a statement to the effect that 
all doors are open to the Roman 
Catholic religion through the 
medium of art. Continuing it says : 
"We find no fault with the Roman 
Catholic or Greek Catholic churches 

on this account. They are living up 
to their opportunities, but what we 
do suggest is that other religious 
bodies possessed of great art possi- 
bilities turn their attention to this 
matter and live up to their oppor- 
tunities also. The traditions of the 
Latter-day Saints go back for a hun- 
dred years; their history is rich in 
art material ; their idealism is in- 
tense. There is no reason why they 
should not turn to the enriching of 
their own lives and those of their 
fellowmen by carrying forth the 
latter-day message through so rich 
a medium as the various channels 
of art present." 

IN this pageant the ^Latter-day 
Saint Church has certainly lived 
up to its opportunities, for the lovely 
pageant encompassed much. Scrip- 



ture and cherished Latter-day Saint 
hymns form a large part of this 
noble spiritual creation. It was a 
marvelous fulfilment, full of bright- 
ness, full of hope. In it there was 
nothing oppressive or offensive. It 
was a story of deep human interest, 
carried over through the medium of 

literature, dramatic art, music, cos- 
tumes, lighting and scenic effect. 
After one month's presentation it 
left a public deeply moved and 
yearning for its continuance. It will 
be a highly gratifying and highly 
satisfying time when it shall be pre- 
sented again. 

The Magazine Congratulates Mrs. Evans 

THE women of Utah are justly 
proud of the fact that Mrs. 
Priscilla L. Evans was elected chair- 
man of the plenary session of the 
Ninth Annual American Red Cross 
Convention which met in Washing- 
ton, D. C, from May 5 to 8. Mrs. 
Evans has the proud distinction of 
being the only woman ever elected 
to fill that position. She is the sec- 

MRS. EVANS' personality com- 
bines a good, clear intellect 
with an abundance of personal 
charm. She has had considerable 
experience in public life, to which 
she has added a study of the law. 
Her degree from the University of 
Utah is in law. Her companionship 
with her husband, Hon. Frank 
Evans, has meant much to both in 
an intellectual way. The women 

ond person west of the Mississippi throughout this intermountain coun- 

to be called to the chair ; a man 
from California, who was chairman 
of the San Francisco chapter of the 
Red Cross, also served in that ca- 

try have a sense of pride in her 
election and are conscious of the fact 
that she did the work in a highly 
satisfactory way. The Magazine ex- 
tends its felicitation and congratula- 
tions to Mrs. Evans. 

The Missions 

THE Magazine takes this oppor- 
tunity of recognizing the re- 
ceipt of accounts of Centennial cele- 
brations held throughout the mis- 
sions. Splendid material has reached 
our office from Great Britain, the 
Hawaiian Islands, and from the 
Northern States Mission. The spirit 
of the centennary was as wide as the 
organization of the Church is wide. 

OF special interest has been the 
highly illustrated articles ap- 
pearing in the German press, that 
nation having sent a special repre- 
sentative to Salt Lake to collect 
material. We learned of two mis- 
sionaries who chanced to be in the 
city of Genoa, Italy, on the sixth 

day of April, and they, like all other 
Latter-day Saints, gave expression 
to the general spirit of rejoicing and 
gratitude that characterized the as- 
semblies of the Saints on that day. 

IT was an event long looked for- 
ward to by the Latter-day Saints. 
It fulfilled more than the highest 
expectations of many and ministered 
to the gratification and spiritual 
uplift of all Latter-day Saints. 
Church members, generally, had the 
privilege of reading the message 
sent out by the First Presidency. 
It was a message of good will to 
all people of the earth and one that 
brought hope, joy and rejoicing to 
all who sensed the spirit that had 
indited it. 

Jubilee Boxes 

Voices from the Past 
By Annie Wells Cannon 

APRIL, 1930, marked two 
unique and unusual cere- 
monies, incidents of especial 
interest to the officers and members 
of the Relief Society. 

These occasions were the open- 
ing of two "jubilee boxes" that had 
been arranged, sealed, and put away 
for safe keeping for a period of 
nearly fifty years. 

General Secretary of the Re- 
lief Society in 1880, placed in the 
care of the Church historian, April 1, 
1881, a box containing packages and 
mementos, pictures, newspapers and 
other matters of note of that time, 
not to be opened until a designated 
day which was April 1, 1930. 

This box was addressed to the one 
who might happen to be general 
secretary at' that time in the follow- 
ing words : 

"Hon. Secretary : This is dedi- 
cated to you with the fond hope and 
firm belief you are enjoying many 
advantages and blessings that were 
not enjoyed by your predecessors. 

"May God abundantly bless you 
and your labors. 

Sarah M. Kimball, 
Sec. Relief Society. 
"Salt Lake City, 

April 1st, 1881." 

THE other jubilee box was ar- 
ranged and deposited by the 
officers of the Utah Stake Relief So- 
ciety under the direction of Mrs. 
Margaret T. Smoot, familiarly called 
"Ma Smoot," in 1881, to be opened 
April 6, 1930. 

Mrs. Kimball had invited many 

prominent men and women to place 
a package or envelope in her box, 
each one to be addressed and de- 
livered to, where possible, the oldest 
living female descendant of the con- 

The columns of the Exponent of 
April 15, 1881, contained a short 
story of the placing of the box, and 
a poem entitled "Dedication of 
Sarah M. Kimball's Jubilee Box," 
by Augusta Joyce Crocheron. These 
two items constituted all the infor- 
mation to be had on the subject. 
It was therefore with pleased an- 
ticipation that there gathered on the 
morning of April 1, 1930, in the 
Genealogical Assembly room of the 
Church Administration Building a 
goodly company of Church officials, 
relatives, and friends or descendants 
of friends of Mrs. Kimball, to listen 
to a short program and witness the 
opening of this "jubilee box." 

AMONG those present were Pres- 
ident Heber J. Grant who pre- 
sided at the exercises, Church His- 
torian Joseph Fielding Smith in 
whose care the box has been for 
many years, Assistant Church His- 
torians Andrew Jenson and the late 
Junius F. Wells, President Louise 
Y. Robison and members of the 
General Board of Relief Society, 
Mrs. Julina L. Smith, Mrs. Susa 
Young Gates, Mrs. Lula Greene 
Richards, Dr. Ellis R. Shipp, and 
Zina Y. Card, all of these last 
named, friends and co-workers with 
Mrs. Kimball. Several of Mrs. 
Kimball's family were present, her 
son Frank D. Kimball and his son 
Leland, her daughter Elizabeth 



Kimball, her oldest grandson Hiram 
Kimball of Butte, Montana, two 
granddaughters, Mrs. May For- 
rester and Miss Florence Kimball, 
Thomas Seeney, a great-grandson, 
of Ogden, and his wife and two 
children representing the third gen- 
eration, and a granddaughter-in-law, 
Mrs. Dora Kimball, wife of Roy 

AFTER briefly stating the pur 
poses of the gathering, Pres- 
ident Grant introduced President 
Louise Y. Robison, who gave a brief 
sketch of Mrs. Kimball's life and 
paid a beautiful tribute to her mem- 
ory. Hon. Franklin S. Richards 
and Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon both 
spoke in a reminiscent manner of 
Mrs. Kimball and her friends and 
associates in the Relief Society and 
suffrage work, after which Pres- 
ident Grant made the following 
remarks : 

President Heber J. Grant 

I AM not on the program to make 
any remarks, but in view of 
what Sister Cannon has said I 
would like to say that when I was 
a very small child, being my moth- 
er's only child, on more than one 
occasion, Mother took me to the 
meetings to which Sister Cannon has 
referred. I wish to bear my witness 
here today that at one of those meet- 
ings, which was held in the home 
of Priscilla Staines, and at which 
Grandma Whitney, as we affection- 
ately called her, Aunt Eliza R. 
Snow, Zina D. Young, Sister Kim- 
ball and my mother were present, 
Sister Eliza R. Snow just before 
the meeting closed, talked to me 
by the gift of tongues. (I was 
a child playing on the floor, not 
comprehending what these sisters 
were siaying or what they were 
doing), and Sister Zina D. Young 
gave the interpretation. 

MY mother often said to me 
when I became a young man 
that if I would behave myself some 
day I would be one of the apostles. 
I always laughed at her and told her 
to get it out of her head, that I had 
no ambitions in that direction what- 
ever, that we had lived in poverty 
and I proposed to devote my efforts 
to making some money. She said, 
"Never mind, if you behave your- 
self you will some day be an apos- 

When I was chosen a member of 
the Council of the Twelve she asked 
me if I remembered this meeting in 
Sister Priscilla Staines' home. I 
told her, "Yes." 

"Do you remember anything that 
was said to you?" 

I said, "Only one thing, and that 
is that as Aunt Zina D. Young 
talked to me as I was playing on 
the floor she lifted her hand and 
said that I should become a great 
big man." (And later, as I had 
grown rather tall, I often thought 
of that promise made to me as a 
little child.) 

TV/f OTHER said, "She did not say 
±Vx an y sucn a thing; she lifted 
her hand, interpreting a blessing 
given to you by the gift of tongues, 
and said that you should become a 
great big man in the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
and become one of the Twelve 
Apostles of the Church. That is 
why I have told you that if you 
behaved yourself some day you 
would be an apostle. All blessings 
are predicated upon obedience. On 
this occasion Aunt Eliza, by the gift 
of tongues, blessed each and all of 
the ward presidents who were pres- 
ent, and Aunt Zina gave the inter- 
pretation, and knowing that the 
promises made to the various sisters 
had been fulfilled I knew that if you 



behaved yourself you would some 
day become one of the apostles." 

SHE then asked me if I also re- 
membered being in the home of 
Heber C. Kimball and of him pick- 
ing me up and putting me on a table 
and prophesying about me. 

I said, "I do not remember his 
prophesying ; all I remember is that 
he put me on the table and talked 
to me, and that he had the blackest 
eyes I ever saw, and that I was 

She said, "He prophesied that you 
should live to become one of the 
apostles and become a greater man 
in the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints than your father 

The presentation of the box to 
Sister Lund will now be made by the 
Church Historian, Elder Joseph 
Fielding Smith. 

JUST before presenting the box, 
Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine was in- 
troduced and read the following 
poem, which was written by Au- 
gusta Joyce Crocheron, March 30, 


Of Sister Sarah M. Kimball's 
Jubilee Box 

Could I the curtain tear away 
That hides the future from today, 
And look upon the reader's face, 
Bent o'er the lines hereon I trace, 
How strange, perhaps, the group 

would be, 
Who've come this treasure box to 

And very few of us, I fear, 
Who've placed these little tokens 

Will meet' with you upon that day ; 
Dear friends — we may be far away. 
Should some be there, 'twill not be 


If they have grown so very changed 
That you will wonder — is it true ? 
And was this portrait really you ? 
For fifty years will steal away 
The face that now we wear today. 
But if we do come, never mind — 
A seat with the "old folks" we'll 

If we somewhat "old styled" appear, 
In the advanced mental atmosphere, 
Ah, let no slighting thought be cast, 
Think of the scenes through which 

we've passed. 

Believers, when Truth's golden page 
Proclaimed unto a darkened age 
God's mandate, to observe his laws, 
And give our lives unto his cause; 
Through fifty years we've wrought, 

and still 
Give our glad service to his will. 
This simile should be enough — 
Foundation stones are sometimes 


Zion ! may thy next Jubilee 
Thy Kingdom's power acknowl- 
edged see ! 

May thy fair Temples have a place 
In every clime, in every race. 
May olden deserts know again 
Bright flowing streams and homes 

of men. 
May the oppressed find sweet re- 
And warfare end in lasting peace. 

To our successors, we bestow 
These little tokens, may you grow 
Faithful and fearless in the right, 
The Gospel be your guide and light. 
May you accomplish all that we 
Now in our holy calling see. 
And may we too be with you there, 
Zion's next Jubilee to share. 

SMITH then presented the 
box, saying: 

"This is the box! When it was 



deposited in the Historian's Office, 
Orson Pratt was the historian, and 
this box has been safely guarded 
from that day until now. I would 
like to tell you that Sister Lund and 
I have already had a little interview 
with this box. We have not opened 
it. One brother said he thought 
that we ought to get some dynamite 
for Sister Lund. I did not have 
time to do that, but I think Sister 
Lund reached the conclusion that 
we almost needed it. 

It is my pleasure and duty now 
to present this box to Sister Lund, 
the Secretary of the Relief Society, 
and my responsibility is at an end." 

General Secretary Julia A. . F. 
Lund accepted the box with the fol- 
lowing words : 

I THINK that you will appreciate 
that I am fully sensible of the 
responsibility and the great honor 
that has come to me in this calling, 
to be counted worthy to be the suc- 
cessor of Sarah M. Kimball. 

"There has been much said, and 
so well said, that it is not my pur- 
pose to add a word except to say 
that I could conceive of no higher 
mission in life than to be worthy to 
follow in the footsteps of my great 
predecessors in office, and to honor, 
as far as I am capable, the great 
work they have done, by doing my 
best in the office of General Secre- 
tary of the great Relief Society 

"It now becomes my very pleas- 
ant duty to open this jubilee box, 
and to distribute to those who have a 
right to claim them, the contents." 

ceeded to distribute the small 
packages and was more than pleased 
to find one from his mother, Sister 
Rachel Grant, her own picture with 
a message on the back. Dr. Ellis 
R ? Shipp and Mrs. Zina Y. Card 

were present to receive their own 
deposits. Another contributor who 
is still living but unable to be there 
on account of illness was Dr. Ro- 
mania B. Penrose. Dr. Penrose was 
assistant secretary to Mrs. Kimball 
in the Relief Society. There were 
in all sixty-four depositors, besides 
pamphlets, newspapers, and clip- 

NATURALLY, interest centered 
around Mrs. Kimball's pack- 
age addressed in her own fine writ- 
ing, "To the Honorable Secretary 
of the Relief Society, April 1st, A. 
D. 1930." This envelope contained 


the picture of Mrs. Kimball, here 
reproduced, a small photograph of 
Eliza R. Snow, a clipping from the 
Woman's Exponent giving the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting in the Four- 
teenth Ward, July 17, 1880, when 
President John Taylor gave very 
definite and important instructions 
to the Relief Society and set apart 
for their particular office President 
Eliza R. Snow, Counselors Zina D. 
H. Young and Elizabeth Ann Whit- 



ney, and Secretary Sarah M. Kim- 

The following interesting letter 
which explains the whole story of 
this "jubilee box" was also enclosed : 

Salt Lake City, Utah, 

April 1st, 1881. 
"To the President of the Relief 
Society and the Relief Society 
Secretary : 
"Dear Sisters: 

I HAVE felt impressed to gather 
the contents of this Box and 
direct to you for distribution. It 
has been with me a labor of love. 
The thought first came to me Apr. 
6th, 1880, when the Church Jubilee 
gathered many old reminiscences 
and made them interesting. The 
opening of this Box is expected to 
be Apr. 1st, 1930, the Grand Ju- 
bilee year of the Church. It has 
been my endeavor to preserve items 
of historical interest and I have had 
satisfaction in my labors. I hope 
those who distribute will feel happi- 
fied and blessed in the faithful dis- 
charge of this trust which comes to 
them all unsought. 

"Many of the items herein in- 
closed have been instructive to me 
and much good feeling has been 
expressed by the depositors. We 
hope it will please you to send down 
genealogical and historical items 
with blessings to the next genera- 
tion and that the practice will con- 
tinue through all generations of 

"We expect your advantages will 
in all respects be far superior to 
what we have enjoyed. Our greatest 
hope is centered in what will be 
accomplished by our successors. 

I HAVE this day taken to Pres. 
Taylor's Office the first general 
report of the stakes of Zion for the 
approaching conference. God has 
blessed me and I feel that I will be 

able to leave more waymarks in 
official channels than it has been my 
privilege to find. We are as a 
Church a growing people and Relief 
Society labors are becoming more 
and more understood and appre- 
ciated. I send you the design of the 
first General Society Banner. 

"God bless and help you is the 
prayer of her who writes this. 

Sarah M. Kimball. 


"We send this link from Eighteen 

To join Time's chain in Nineteen 

Will our successor, whoe're she 

may be 
Link this with Nineteen Eighty. 

S. M. Kimball." 

Utah Stake Jubilee Box 

THE box put away by "Ma 
Smoot" and her associates was 
opened April 29, at a meeting of the 


Utah Stake Relief Society held in 
Provo, by the president, Mrs. Achsa 



E. Paxman, and its contents were 
distributed by Mrs. Paxman and 
her assistants to the descendants of 
the contributors. This box con- 
tained many interesting items of his- 
tory, among them an envelope from 
Milton H. Hardy, principal of the 
University of Deseret and super- 
intendent of Utah county schools, 
containing the tHird annual catalog 
of the University and rare pam- 
phlets. One package contained 
samples of cake and candy which 
were served at "Ma Smoot's" 73rd 
birthday party. There were poems 
by O. F. Whitney and a number of 
pamphlets and histories by Karl G. 

There were 171 packages and 
letters distributed and Mrs. Paxman 
has still others to send when she 
locates the persons entitled to them. 

The following letter was in the 
Utah Stake box, a beautiful message 
to all who read : 

"Provo City, March 25, 1881. 

"To my children and my grand- 
children who may be living when the 
box which contains this letter shall 
be opened and the fingers that 
penned these lines gone back to 
mother earth : 

"I conjure you, my dear children, 
to be faithful in all your covenants 
that you make in the Church. Pay 
all your tithes and offerings with an 
eye single to the glory of God and 
be faithful to the end of your days. 
It is the great love I bear you that 
causes me to pen you these few 
lines, the last you will have from 
me on this earth. It is the voice of 
your mother and grandmother 
speaking to you from the grave, 
calling upon you to live near your 
God and do all that you can that is 
left undone for our dead. 

AyTY father, Isaac Higbee, and my 
*■**■ mother whose maiden name 
was Keziah String, and my grand- 

father, Isaac Higbee and my grand- 
mother, Sophia Summers Higbee 
and two uncles, Elias and John S. 
Higbee, with their families, joined 
the Church in the early days and 
went up to Jackson County, Mis- 
souri, from where they were driven 
by the enemies from that county to 
Clay County, in the same state. 
There my father left his family and 
went to Kirtland, Ohio, to work on 
the Temple. When he returned we 
moved to Caldwell County, Mis- 
souri, where we remained two years 
and were again driven away by 
enemies out of the state altogether. 
This time we went to Illinois where 
we remained some years and in this 
state the Prophets were killed. Here 
we built a Temple. We built our- 
selves up in many things. Many 
had good houses and farms and built 
a city and gave it the name of 
Nauvoo. It was beautifully situ- 
ated, lying in the bend of the Mis- 
sissippi River. But again our 
enemies were upon us. We were 
driven out again and found a home 
in these valleys of the mountains. 
How long we will be permitted to 
stop here unmolested is for the 
future to decide. If we do not live 
our religion God will scourge us 
until we do. 

I WAS born in the State of Ohio, 
Clearmont County, Palestine, in 
the year 1826, May 20th, and was 
married to your father and grand- 
father in the year 1845, December 
23rd, and who departed this, life in 
the year 1879, he being one of the 
First Presidents of Seventies, and 
in the full faith of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

I COULD mention many things if 
I thought it necessary in regard 
to our persecutions and suffering. 
The first night's sorrow I ever felt 



was the first night after we were 
driven out of Jackson County. We 
camped at the foot of a high bluff 
and in the night a terrible storm 
arose and rain came down in tor- 
rents and in the dead of night we 
had to climb the bluff to keep from 
being swept away by the swelling 
flood. We took shelter in a cave 
formed by projecting rocks after 
driving the wild hogs out. My dear 
mother had to be carried up, being 
too ill to help herself, and there sat 
in her chair, not being able to lie 
down. Morning came at last as it 
always does and with the light we 
resumed our journey and this day 
crossed the Missouri River and im- 
mediately pitched our tent when in 
a few moments after my mother 
gave birth to a son, and that night 
the stars fell from the heaven and 
our enemies thought the day of 
judgment had come. 

"My father was ordained to the 
Bishopric under the hands of the 
Prophet Joseph in Nauvoo. My 
present home is in Provo City 
Fourth Ward. J. E. Booth is our 
bishop of the ward ; Abraham 
Smoot, president of the stake. 

WHEN we came to these valleys 
with ox teams thirty-three 
years ago, we crossed over one 
thousand miles of uninhabited wil- 
derness, save by savages and wild 
beasts of the desert, but when we 
came in sight of the beautiful valley 
of Salt Lake, I wept like a child, 
and what for — for very joy. It 
seemed so heavenly and beautiful to 
me ; it seemed as though I stood on 
holy ground. I was filled with joy 
unspeakable and full of reverence 
to my Creator for giving me such a 
beautiful home. 

MY father was made president of 
Utah County Stake of Zion in 
J849, and in the fall of 1850 his 

only living son, my brother Joseph, 
was killed by the Indians, who made 
war with our people and were after- 
wards whipped and driven into the 
mountains. ( His was the first grave 
in Provo City.) 

MY mother's parents, Thomas 
and Hannah String (Albison 
being her maiden name) were not 
in the Church, nor any of their 
children except my mother and her 
sister Margaret. The names of 
their other children were Ann Con- 
over (her husband's name was 
Robert Conover), and Hannah 
James, the wife of George James, 
and Rebecca, the wife of Ephraim 
James, also Sarah String, Martha 
String and James String. 

MY father and husband each left 
a journal and small genealogy 
which I hope will be taken care of 
and which is now in the desk of my 
late husband where I hope it may 
be found at any future time it may 
be wanted. I also have some of my 
father's journals which may be in- 
teresting and also my husband's, 
John Mc Ewan, all of which I hope 
will be taken care of. 

"And now, my beloved children 
and children's children, down to the 
latest generation : Be true to your- 
self and to your religion and to your 
God, for there is no exaltation out- 
side of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. 

"I might write much more but 
we are told to be as brief as pos- 
sible that there may be room in the 
box for all. 

IF any of my dear children are liv- 
ing when this comes to hand, I 
hope they will think much of what 
I have written about, for it is with 
pure motive. Now do all you can 
for yourselves, my darlings, and for 
the building up of the kingdom of 
God on the earth, and may God bless 



you all, is the prayer of your loving 
Mother and Grandmother, 

Amanda M. McEwan. 

To her loving children and grand- 
children to the latest generation : 

"The names of my great grand- 
parents on my mother's side are 
Josiah Albison and Hannah, his 
wife. Father's I do not know." 

NAMES listed on envelope con- 
taining the letter : "Children — 
Mary Jane Wilkins, Wiliam Mc- 
Ewan, Amanda M. Knight, John H. 
McEwan, Isaac H. McEwan, Rosilla 
J. Haws, Eleanor McEwan. Grand- 
children — Ellen Wilkins, Oscar 
Wilkins, Jr., Minerva Wilkins, Mary 
A. Wilkins, Zina Wilkins, Lydia 
Minerva Knight, Raymond Knight, 
William Knight, A. Inez Knight, 

William McEwan Haws; Jubilee 
Box, Care Margaret T. Smoot, 
Stake Relief Society President, 
Provo, Utah." 

OUCH occasions bring to mind 
^ many memories of the past and 
create questioning thoughts for the 
future. The gifts, letters, pictures 
of fifty years ago may seem out of 
date today and so will our treasure 

boxes when opened fifty years hence 
seem queer and obsolete to the gen- 
eration of that period, 1980. Who 
of us, who today gaze reverently on 
the pictured faces of the past and 
read the precious lines written by 
dear hands, will be among those or 
represented among those who will 
receive a message in the days to 
come, I wonder. 


' Modernization Time 

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Enjoy complete Natural Gas service for automatic cooking, water heating, 
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Serving Salt Lake City 


Serving Ogden 



Mary Birch Miller, a Gold Star Mother 

By Cora Carver Ritchie 

WHEN that great commoner, 
William Jennings Bryan, 
made his last speech in 
Twin Falls, he told a story about a 
little white flower. He said he was 
viewing the grandeur of trie Snake 
River Canyon, with its precipitous 
walls of molten lava, noting espe- 
cially its barren, burnt appearance, 
when his eye glimpsed a small white 
flower, growing apparently from the 
very rocks. He marveled at plant 
life being able to exist at all in such 
desolate harrenness, much less to 
thrive and bring forth a beautiful 
blossom. He was so impressed with 
the bravery of the little white flower 
that he decided to reach it. After 
several perilous efforts he picked the 

AS he gazed at its white purity 
and smelled its dainty fra- 
grance, the thought that came to 
him was this : if a flower dared to 
grow and do its best unseen, little 
knowing the reason, struggling amid 
desolate hardships to thrive and 
turn out the best for the world, with 
only the sun and unheeding river as 
passers-by, how much more man 
should strive to do his part, to put 
forth the very best that is in him. 

HTHAT little white flower had 
*- filled its place on earth, little 
knowing that by its tenacity and 
beautiful giving it had touched one 
great heart. If it could feel, how 
proud it would be to be noticed and 
held and admired and maybe it 
would respond to the tear that fell 
from that kindly eye. 

When I first noticed Sister Mary 
Birch Miller, I thought again of the 
little white flower. The firm grasp 

of her little calloused hand, the 
kindly smile and the wrinkled face, 
the fast greying hair, and the whole 
fragility of her little body, gave an 
impression of a flower that' had 
dared to do its best in spite of 

SISTER MILLER is an excep- 
tion to the rule that a man is not 
without honor save in his own 
country, as her co-workers, neigh- 
bors, friends, and especially the 
children, all express the same love 
and respect for her. One man said, 
"She is a little giant." She does 
every task faithfully, quietly, meek- 
ly, so full of humility that many 
pass her by not seeing. She carries 
a basket, full of cookies, jelly, or it 
may be fresh buttermilk, or wonders 
from her own garden. That basket 
seems a veritable part of her make- 
up. No one knows just who will be 
the recipient. 

THE praises of her cookies have 
been sung in ward poems, plays, 
papers and songs. Their fame be- 
gan when she noticed President 
Kirkman could not eat at the socials 
as others, on account of his health, 
so Sister Miller brought her cookies 
which proved so wholesome 'and 
delicious to him. 

One Sunday, Bishop Roy Wood 
read a letter from a mission pres- 
ident. One line said, "We are re- 
leasing and sending home to you 
one of the very best missionaries 
we have ever had, Elder Woodruff 

THE bishop then reached out his 
hand and touched a beautiful 
vase of flowers, small but dainty. 
He said, "Sunday after Sunday, 



winter and summer, a little vase of 
flowers has been placed on this 
rostrum. Sister Miller raised the 
flowers in her garden during the 
summer. When winter came she 
made them bloom in spite of the 
cold. But this year, for the first 
time, no blooms came. Undaunted, 
she arranged foliage and placed 
some lovely artificial flowers to give 
the effect of reality. All willing- 
service, because of the love in her 
heart to spread happiness. These 
flowers speak more to me than you 
have any idea." 

ALL the love, tenderness and 
gratefulness that ^one human 
could hold was uttered in that bish- 
op's words. Many a heart responded. 
A tear came to the eyes of more 
than one. 

Just a little thing you say. True, 
but what are the little things ? The 
important part of a great composite. 

In February, 1930, an unusual 
party was given in honor of two of 
Sister Miller's boys — a farewell for 
Brother Eleezer Miller who was 
leaving for a mission to Mexico, and 
a welcome home party for Brother 
Woodruff Miller, who had just re- 
turned from the Northcentral States 

SISTER MILLER was at her 
happiest. When asked why she 
wanted her boys to go on missions 
she answered, "I like to have them 
all go on missions. It's a good 
school, the very best there is. I 
have one more boy to go." That is 
the fifth son of the Millers to go on 
a mission. That is why the little 
mother was so happy. That night 
came the realization of long years of 
planning, scheming and sacrifice on 
the part of Brother and Sister 
Miller. These parents have made 
the idea of a mission imperative in 
the lives of their sons, so that when 

the call came each was ready. Only 
a little thing, you say. Perhaps for 
some who need not count: the cost, 
but Sister Miller has always been a 
real pioneer. She has always had to 
struggle. Life for Brother and 
Sister Miller has been one long 
battle with the elements and with 
life itself, and now when she might 
enjoy some of the luxuries of life 
she is willing to give them all so 
that' the money that comes into her 
home may be spent in the mission 
field. When asked the hardest thing 
she has had to do, Brother Miller 
spoke up quickly: "Lots of hard 
work and nothing to eat." 

LER was born in Coalville, 
Utah, sixty-five years ago. Her 
parents were Patriarch Richard 
Birch and Mary Ann Hale. She 
married Wiliam P. Miller and raised 
three of his children and has had 
six boys and one girl of her own. 
All have been baptized in the 
Church. Most' of them have done 
temple work. Five boys have filled 
missions. All keep the Word of 
Wisdom. They all pay a full tith- 
ing. What a record for a family 
unit! Brother Miller, the father, 
set the example in ward teaching. 
Last summer he left his ranch and 
came fifty miles to attend his 
monthly ward teaching, not only 
doing his own but making up several 
other districts. For six years Sister 
Miller and her companion, Sister 
Annie Atkinson, have visited every 
home in their district every month, 
thereby gaining 100%. They walked 
always, through summer's heat, 
winter's snows, biting winds and 
mud. Only a little thing, you say. 
But what a mighty task would have 
been accomplished had every Relief 
Society sister done as much! 

Brother and Sister Miller lived in 
Kanosh, Utah, in the early settle- 



ment of that place. They endured 
all the hardships incidental to pio- 
neer life. She said, "We thought 
we were rich if we had a potato and 
a slice of bacon. We lived on pig 
weeds mostly, but they are good 
weeds. I bottled some for winter 

BROTHER MILLER helped dig 
the canal at the foot of the big 
clay mountain. It was discouraging 
work, for as fast' as it was dug, 
washes from the mountain filled it 
up again, but this was their only 
drinking water. It was so impure 
Sister Miller boiled it. She always 
kept a bucket of boiled water on 
hand, not only for her own family 
but for all the school children. 
Doubtless many grown-ups today 
will remember that cup of boiled 
water. Only a little thing, after 
all, — yes, but mighty powerful if it 
saved one child from typhoid. 

TV/I ANY were sick due to poor 
water and lack of food, so 
Sister Miller began her nursing 
career. The only doctor of the town 
sent her to care for patient's he 
could not reach. She nursed many 
back to health. At one time she 
saved a sick Italian child after the 
doctor and the mother had given it 

The frantic mother had placed the 
candles by the child's bedside and 
the rosary had been said, when to 
the great surprise of all, Sister 
Miller brought the child back from 
the very jaws of death. 

Through all her child-bearing and 
nursing, she has been a constant 
worker in the Relief Society. At 
different times she has been coun- 
selor, teacher and president, which 
office she held thirteen years, al- 
ways unassuming, quiet and efficient. 

AFTER moving to Idaho, she 
was called on for a sacrifice 

that tests the very strongest. While 
homesteading in the mountains on 
the line between Nevada and Idaho, 
James Earl, her sixteen-year-old son 
was kicked by a horse. He had 
to be taken fifty miles to the nearest 
doctor. After a day and two nights 
of intense suffering God called him 
and he left his brave little mother. 

A ST ILL greater trial was to 
come to her. When the finest 
young men in America left for over- 
seas during the World War, Gilbert 
Miller, her oldest son, was one of 
the first to go. In that famous 
battle of the Argonne on the first 
day of the battle, Gilbert was among 
the first to go over the top. He was 
killed with a machine gun on the 
very eve of that battle, September 
26, 1918. When no word came, 
no news of her boy until November 
15, 1918, she was prepared to hear 
of his death, for in her heart she 
knew he had paid the supreme sac- 
rifice. Gilbert her firstborn, her 
pride, her joy, big, strong, splendid, 
clean, — she was calm, knowing his 
reward was certain. 

Now, after more than ten years, 
she will see through tear-dimmed 
eyes the white cross No. 68, that 
marks his resting place. 

StSTER MILLER went to France 
with the first contingent of War 

While she is away, the father and 
other boys are carrying on. One 
of them said, "We are all good 
cooks ; with sister busy with her 
five children, and Eleezer on his 
mission, we will take turns doing 
the housework." I wondered! I 
marveled ! That little woman had 
trained her boys for every emer- 
gency, at home, in church, in so- 
ciety, in the mission field, aye, even 
in battle; all united, all loved and 
respected in the communities in 



which they live, all filling every task 
as kindly and efficiently as their 
mother before them. 

SISTER MILLER lives one mile 
from the church; she attends 
regularly and walks most of the 


time. Last summer, besides caring 
for her big, husky boys, canning 
fruit and doing all her own house- 

work, she nursed three mothers dur- 
ing their confinement. She is known 
as an expert nurse. Her education 
has been self -acquired. 

SHE loves the new modes of liv- 
ing and travel and was thrilled 
when some friends took her for an 
airplane ride. She saves all the ex- 
tra money she can, going without 
many desired things, to send to the 
temples to have work done for her 
relatives. Her greatest desire after 
sending her sixth son on his mission 
is to spend the remainder of her 
life working in the temples. 

LIKE hundreds of other members 
throughtout this great Church, 
she is willing to give, to sacrifice, 
aye, to lay down life itself for those 
in need. 

As she trudges bravely over the 
miles, her precious basket on her 
arm, with the wind whipping her 
skirts about her fragile body, we 
again think of the little white flower, 
giving forth the best, thinking little 
of reward, modest, shy, shrinking 
from the public eye. 

Who knows but the eye of the 
Greatest Commoner sees and is well 
pleased and some day will reach 
forth and pluck the dainty, white 
blossom and marvel? 

If By Dying 

By Arthur James Bowers 

If by living 

I can help one soul to right, 

Then let me live; 

But if by dying 

I can show one heart the "Light", 

Then let me die. 

For oft* a death can change what life cannot, 

And meteless sorrow bring what we had sought. 

Bathsheba Blackburn Grundy 

IT is a pleasant summer afternoon river fringed with willows and In- 

and a plump, serene woman, dian tepees. But the thoughts of the 

scarcely looking her three-score first home remained with him, and 

and thirteen years because of her one day he and Mary made the two 

black hair only faintly streaked with days journey to visit old friends in 

grey and her bright grey eyes, is Salt Lake, George A. Smith and 

rocking in an easy chair and talking his good wife, Bathsheba.^ The 

to her daughter. Already the after- journey proved too strenuous for 

noon shadows are purpling the walls young Mary, and that night she 

of Mt. Timpanogos, as the older gave birth to a premature girl who 

woman glances from them to her must needs be christened Bathsheba, 

daughter, who is writing in a church "because she was born in my home/' 

record * OUT the frail child grew into a 

V/r Y chief interest?" Mrs. Bath- " sturdy girl in whom piety was 

iV1 sheba Blackburn Grundy engendered young. When she was 

pauses in her rocking, "Why, re- but two years old she was sitting 

ligion, of course. What else could on the hearth watching the bright 

it be ?" And she turned again to tongues of flame leap about a black 

the darkening shadows. kettle of steaming water for the 

evening meal. Without warning the 

A ND truly it was. Religion was ro d tna t held the kettle collapsed 

^* early a ruling power in her without warning, and the scalding 

life— not the narrow religion of her wa t' e r fell over the helpless child, 

day that read the scriptures on Sun- All the medical aid which the pio- 

day afternoon in the dim light of n eer community could afford was 

drawn shades, but that religion of summoned, but Bathsheba continued 

Christ's which is to visit the father- to writhe in agony. As a last resort 

less in their affliction and to keep the girl was taken to Grandmother 

one's self unspotted from the world. Goff, who used her homemade salve 

X T ATI JRALLY religious and ^^^ m ^e elders. Within a 

N thoughts were early fostered fe ™. da ^ s the ch * ld P la y ed about the 

in her. Had not her father made cabin-unscarred. 

the ox team journey of 1849? And 'VfOT much later her father was 

her mother, Mary Lane, had been 1^ called, by Brigham Young to 

left an orphan at fourteen, on the fulfill a mission in England. Then 

Plains, by the ravaging cholera. It followed periods when Bathsheba 

was this same Mary who two or had nothing to eat save bread, and 

three years later made the everlast- very little of that. But they must rely 

ing covenant with Elias H. Black- on Providence, and one night a 

burn, even then an ardent young young man in some way connected 

man displaying the powers that were with the family brought rice, all the 

to make Patriarch Blackburn re- rice the family could eat. The little 

vered throughout the Church. girl lived happily for days in mem- 
ory of that sumptuous meal. 

SCARCELY was their honey- 
moon over when he was called 
to colonize Provo on a clear little ^ turn from England his old spirit 

^ moon over when he was called QOON after Elias Blackburn's re- 



of pioneering flamed. This time he 
moved his family to Minersville, a 
journey of many days in a covered 
wagon with Bathsheba and her 
brothers and sisters starting ahead, 

IN" Minersville troubles were only 
beginning. Bathsheba, still bare- 
foot, ran through the brush, gather- 
ing bits of wool, which she was later 
to wash, card, spin, and make into 
a dress for winter. Then there is 
another eating story that is a classic 
in its way — the story of a pregnant 
mother who stooped to grand lar- 
ceny in order that she might not 

garnered a few potatoes for 
seed purposes and buried them deep 
in the ground beneath layers of 
earth, straw and sticks. One night 
when he was gone, Mary, not so 
fresh and buoyant now, kept Bath- 
sheba awake after the other children 
had gone to bed. Mary gave the 
girl some kind of spade and told 
her to dig until she found the pota- 
toes. In the light of the dying 
embers the mother ate two roasted 
potatoes and the girl one. "I'm 
starving to death, and there aren't 
enough for the children," Mary had 
whispered when her girl had looked 
wide-eyed at the prizes. Years 
later, Mother Grundy told her chil- 
dren, "That potato was the best 
thing I ever ate." 

OATHSHEBA naturally devel- 
*-* oped early, and at sixteen or 
seventeen she was married, on De- 
cember 9, 1872, to one Clayton 
'Grundy in the Endowment House 
at Salt Lake by Daniel H. Wells. 
She made her vows in a white lawn 
dress of which she was inordinately 
proud. Her trousseau consisted of 
a bed, two pillows, and some quilts. 

FROM then on the girl was lost 
in the pioneer woman. With 
the increasing duties of her house- 
hold, she assumed new Church re- 
sponsibilities. She was first vice- 
president of that greatly discussed 
experiment, the Retrenchment So- 
ciety ; then ward president of the 
Relief Society until Clayton decided 
that Loa, over in Wayne County, 
was a better place in which to try 
his fortune. 

IT was here in Loa that she was to 
spend the most pleasant years of 
her life and really to find herself. 
The first position Loa offered her 
was that of ward teacher, but in a 
decade or so, after serving as pres- 
ident of the Y. L. M. I. A., she was 
asked to head the stake Relief So- 
ciety. This position she kept for 
twenty-one years — until May, 1926, 
less than two years before her death. 
So zealously and faithfully had she 
worked that she became, not merely 
the most loved woman of her town, 
but she received also the distinction 
of being declared the best stake 
president in the whole of Zion. 

THERE was not a baby born in 
Loa, nor a sick child, nor a 
death bed where her soothing hands 
and serene presence did not' minister. 
"When we would waken in the 
morning and call her, "her daughter 
said, "we would go wild with joy 
if we found her home." Day after 
day, when the burden was too heavy 
for her children, she would carry 
food and clothing to the dark homes 
of suffering, often waiting for the 
cover of darkness lest the town 
should know to whom charity was 
being measured. 

YET even as she worked for her 
people, she found time for her 
family and herself. It was a com- 
mon occurrence to see her at mid- 
night, mending and cleaning clothes 



so that the children could go de- 
cently clad to school and church. 
Of all the Church magazines, the 
Era was her favorite ; she never 
neglected the reading of it. Printed 
sermons held a special joy for her. 
After she died, her daughter found 
great bundles of them, mostly clip- 
ped from the Deseret News; and 


there was one placed in a letter to 
be sent to a son in distant Canada. 

NEITHER did she neglect the 
temporal side. She liked good 
books, being especially fond of the 
drama. Movies failed to interest 
her, but she could always be tempted 
from home by a play she thought 

As a girl she liked to dance and 
attend parties — a social desire that 
never left her. She was willing at 
any time to help in the ward or- 
ganizations. It was her recreation, 
her avocation, to do this ; almost to 
the last she attended the Loa socials. 

BETTER times had come to the 
Grundy family; and, luckily, 
the bleakness of pioneer years had 
not killed her love for the beautiful. 
We can see her now — a plump, 
matronly woman with kind gray 
eyes and energetic walk — going 
about her civic and church duties in 
a neat, black silk dress, with a fine 
lace collar, gold brooch, and watch. 
In her wardrobe always were a 
"dressy hat," a pair of smooth kid 
gloves, and fine black shoes. She 
believed women should keep not 
only their minds but their bodies 

IN keeping with the cheerful tenor 
of her life were her last days. 
Death held no fears ; it was the great 
adventure for which she had lived 
her seventy-three years. During 
her illness in September, 1928, just 
a few months after her husband's 
death, she discussed the matter 
calmly with her children. "You are 
none of you to weep, neither are you 
to ^harbor sad feelings," she told 
them. And when the children of 
the town came to bring her flowers, 
she smiled and told them goodbye 
as if she were going on to the next 
town. The hymns she chose for her 
funeral were like her days : "Come, 
Come, Ye Saints," "Come, Let Us 
Anew Our Journey Pursue," and 
"I'll Go Where You Want Me To 
Go, Dear Lord." 

On that bright September day 
when she died, one of the finest 
women of the old order passed on. 
Relying on faith, she had lived all 
her life without rest. She believed 
implicitly in the doctrines of the 
Church and the teaching of its 
leaders. She often said that she 
strove for the happy medium in all 
things ; but in the hearts of the peo- 
ple with whom she lived there was 
no medium — for she had reached 
the heights. 

A Character Sketch of Helen Gibson 


By An Old Friend 

ONE of the unique characters 
of early pioneer days in the 
West was found in the whole- 
hearted, genial personage of Helen 
Ellsworth, of Lewisville, Idaho — 
lovingly known to her many rela- 
tives and friends as Aunt Nell. 

BORN on the plains, cradled for 
ten days in a moving prairie 
schooner, she filled a long, happy, 
useful career, and was finally gradu- 
ated with honors from the school 
of life, at the age of eighty-one 
years. Through all the years she 
was a sturdy representative of the 
God-fearing mothers in Israel, 
mothers who, in the pioneer days, 
braved the dangers of the wilder- 
ness, and the trails of the sun-baked 
desert, to establish in the tops of the 
mountains an empire after God's 
own heart. 

PRACTICALLY all of her life 
was spent on the frontier. Her 
story is largely the story of all 
pioneer mothers of that early day. 
To them life was one round of work 
and thrift and duty. They per- 
formed their tasks willingly and 
cheerfully. Having put their 
shoulders to the wheel they scorned 
the thought of turning back. 

Helen Ellsworth's parents, Henry 
Elliot Gibson and Martha Eliza 
Gibbs, were married at Batavia, 
New York, on January 1, 1848. 

In the spring of the same year, 
on April 20, they joined Eliza's 
parents, and began with them the 
long tedious journey across the con- 

ELIZA GIBSON was the last 
child in a family of twenty-two 
children. She was somewhat frail 
and not in the sturdiest of health 
when the journey was begun. So 
it was a strenuous and nerve-rack- 
ing undertaking for her. 

The roads were rough and in 
places almost perilous. There were 
long stretches of desert country to 
be crossed, dangerous rivers to be 
forded, steep canyons to be passed 
through, and untold hardships to be 
met. But this brave young wife was 
willing to endure all of these things 
in order to reach Zion and make her 
home with the Latter-day Saints. 
Having embraced the gospel, she 
was prepared to pay the price for 
her precious gift. 

Day after day for five weary 
months they toiled on across the 
trackless waste. Then one Saturday 
night they made camp on the Black 
Fork River, between Green River 
and Echo Canyon, in what was then 
called the Territory of Wyoming. 

AS was the custom of the Saints, 
they rested during the Sabbath 
day. And it was here, early Sun- 
day morning on September, 10, 
1848, that little Helen was born— a 
blessing indeed to gladden the heart 
of her tired mother. That mother's 
long waiting days were over, 
crowned with a gift of joy. But her 
journey was not ended. For ten 
more days the invalid mother lay on 
her pillow, rocked by the swinging 
and jostling wagon, as the caravan 
wended its way across the gray 



AND so it was that Helen Gibson 
Ellsworth began her career in 

They arrived in Salt Lake Valley 
on September 20, 1848, having 
traveled with a company of Saints 
under the direction of Heber C. 

Helen's parents made their first 
home at the Old Fort in Salt Lake 
City. Later they moved into the 
Seventeenth Ward. When Helen 
was four years of age they located 
at Mill Creek, where her father 
operated a lath and shingle mill. 
From there they went to Ogden and 
later resided at Willard. 

While in Willard, Helen attended 
her first school, and studied her les- 
sons by the light from the fireplace. 

WHEN she was eleven years of 
age her parents moved to 
Richmond in Cache Valley. 

At the age of ten she was thought 
to be too old to play with dolls, so 
she gave her dolls to her little 
sisters ; but she learned to sew for 
herself by making doll's clothes. 
,When fourteen years of age, she 
cut and sewed by hand a calico 
dress for herself. It' was a tedious 
task to hem the full skirt and all 
the yards of ruffles by hand, but she 
finished it in two days. 

BEING the oldest child in a 
family of ten, many household 
cares devolved upon her. Her 
mother's failing health gave her still 
more responsibility. From the time 
she was fifteen years of age she had 
the care, not only of the household 
service, but also of the children and 
her invalid mother. Her household 
duties were somewhat more stren- 
uous than those of our girls of to- 
day. She knit and spun and wove 
and helped to make candles. She 
cooked over a fireplace and sewed 
by hand. 

WHEN twenty-one years of 
age, she went on a visit to 
Salt Lake City. It' was at this time 
that she first met Brigham H. Ells- 
worth, a grandson of President 
Brigham Young. One month from 
the time of their first meeting they 
were married in the old Endow- 
ment House at Salt Lake City. The 
ceremony was performed by Daniel 
H. Wells, on December 27, 1869. 

THEY bought a little home at 
Richmond, and their first child, 
a daughter was born there. This 
child was President Brigham 
Young's first great-granddaughter. 

A few years later Brigham and 
Helen moved to Salt Lake City, 
where he worked in the machine 
shops. Later he worked in the saw 
mill at Aspen Canyon, Wyoming. 

In 1882, in company with R. F. 
Jardine and family, they came as 
the first pioneers to Lewisville, 
Idaho. Here they settled perma- 
nently. Again they had taken their 
stand on the frontier of civilization, 
but their dauntless spirits knew no 
fear. They put their plow to the 
furrow and their shoulder to the 

BACK in Utah were three little 
mounds, sacred to the loving 
memory of little Johnny and Owen 
and Biddy. But that was only an- 
other sacrifice to be placed on the 
altar in the reclaiming of the 

Helen, or Aunt Nell, as she was 
now lovingly called, proved herself 
a true helpmate. She was strong in 
body and in spirit, fearless, uncom- 
plaining, and always full of good 

IN this new settlement there were 
roads and canals to be made, 
houses and fences to be built, land 
to be cleared of sagebrush and to be 
cultivated, wells to Ibe dug, and 
pests to be fought. 



WHILE the homes were being 
made ready, Aunt Nell and 
the others lived in tents. As fast 
as her husband could cut down the 
logs for their own house, their eight- 
year-old son dragged them with a 
horse from the timber near by. Aunt 
Nell peeled off the bark and put 
them in the sun to dry. Later, she 
helped her husband to hoist' them 
into place. By the time the roof 
was on the house, winter was near 
at hand. So she helped to daub the 
house with a plaster of thick mud. 
When it was finally finished they 
moved in on October 14. That 
night six inches of snow fell. As 
they kindled their fire and cooked 
their supper, their hearts rejoiced. 
Aunt Nell has often said that she 
never appreciated anything like she 
did that house. It was truly a place 
of refuge and of rest, and their 
home for many years. 

OF Aunt Nell's eleven children, 
four were born in Idaho. 
Three small children were buried in 
Utah, and her youngest and oldest 
daughters were buried in Idaho. 
This latter death was an exception- 
ally hard trial for Aunt Nell, but she 
was brave in her own sorrows and 
ever ready to forget herself in order 
to help others. 

SHE was strong and ambitious, 
and ready to do her share of the 
world's work. She made butter 
and cheese and soap, and raised 
chickens and garden produce. She 
usually had her windows full of 
blossoming flowers. Before fruit 
was raised in the valley, she used 
to take the children to the wooded 
river banks and gather wild currants 
and dry them for winter use. Later 
she bottled her own fruit and vege- 
tables. She made quilts and rugs 
and wove five thousand yards of 
carpet' on her own loom, 

WITH so many tasks to per- 
form indoors and outside, one 
would wonder how she ever found 
time to help others. Yet she was 
known throughout the little settle- 
ment for her many deeds of mercy. 
She visited the sick and the needy, 
she ushered in the living and helped 
to lay away the dead. For thirty- 
eight consecutive years she was a 
visiting teacher in the Relief So- 
ciety, and she always found time to 
visit the newcomers in the ward and 
give them a word of welcome and 
good cheer. She was the sort of 
neighbor that the scriptures tell us 
about* — a good Samaritan. 

ITER husband, Brigham H. Ells- 
* -1 worth, died November 19, 
1922, leaving Aunt Nell to finish 
the journey alone. For fifty-three 
years they had lived and worked 
together through all kinds of hard- 
ships. Forty years of this time they 
had spent in Lewisville. 

B. H. Ellsworth was himself 
a very remarkable character. His 
work, like Aunt Nell's, had 
been almost indispensable to the 
Lewisville pioneers. He was a 
blacksmith and a natural mechanic. 
'Not only could he mend a clock, or 
a farm implement, or shoe a horse, 
but he also built headgates and 
bridges, and caskets for the dead. 
His genius did not end in mere 
handicraft, for he was dentist and 
surgeon as well, for the town. He 
extracted teeth, set broken limbs, 
and sewed up bad cuts ; in fact, he 
performed first aid service for all 
who came to him. He did not pro- 
fess to be a surgeon, and made no 
charge for his work. He merely 
did the work that came to his hands 
to be done, and counted it part of 
his experience as a pioneer. Both 
he and Aunt Nell performed their 
work in a whole-souled generous 
manner, Their lives were truly lives 



of service to their fellows. They 
were born to their work. The at- 
mosphere of the desert, and the in- 
fluence of that mighty pioneer 
'Brigham Young, seemed ever to 
overshadow them, and hallow the 
work of their hands. 

AFTER Aunt Nell had passed 
the three-quarter century mark 
she was still strong in body and 
young in spirit. She lived alone in 
her Idaho home during the summer 
months; and spent most of her 
winters in Salt Lake City, doing en- 
dowment work for her dead in the 
Salt Lake Temple. She attended 
to all her household cares and took 
a pride in paying her living ex- 
penses by the labor of her own 
hands. She was fearless and inde- 
pendent' and practical. Any new 
truth she heard and believed she im- 
mediately applied to her own life 
for her pleasure and benefit. 

EiVEN in her last years she was 
\ never idle. She made quilts 
and rugs and paper flowers and did 
fancy knitting and embroidery. She 
watered and tended her orchard and 
garden and picked bushels of fruit 
every year. 

ONE of the most unique ex- 
amples of thrift she performed 
the summer she was seventy years 
of age. She went about' her orchard 
and ditches and gleaned all of the 
blossoming alfalfa she could find. 
She cut it with her butcher knife, 
let it lay and cure in the sun, and 
then carried it in her kitchen apron 
to the stack. It made fine hay and 
netted her a good price. 

The summer she was seventy-six 
years of age she planted one thous- 
and strawberry plants, and later 
pumped water and carried it in 
Duckets to get the plants started. 

MOST of her reading and study 
was from the standard works 

of the Church and the Church mag- 
azines. She gained a testimony of 
the truthfulness of the gospel at the 
age of twenty-seven. And all 
through the years it was a living 
flame in her heart and a guide to her 

She bore eleven children, six of 
whom are living today. She has 
fifty-seven grandchildren, and 
twenty-four great-grandchildren, all 
of whom hold her in great respect. 

IT was a very fitting and beautiful 
thing that Aunt Nell was able to 
spend her last days in work for the 
dead, having already given her 
Whole vigorous young womanhood 
in service to the living. 

Wherever she went, Aunt Nell 
had loving, appreciative friends. Her 
busy, cheerful, honest' life was at 
once an inspiration and a power for 
good. Her fun-loving spirit helped 
her over many a hard place in the 
road, and her courage and supreme 
faith brought her peace when she 
reached the end of the long bright 
trail of life. 

WHEN I get to a place where 
I can't get up and walk off 
and do the work that needs to be 
done, I'll feel that my life is fin- 
ished," she said, "and I hope I can 
pass on." 

This wish was granted and her 
passing was certainly beautiful. She 
ate breakfast with the family Sun- 
day morning and urged her daugh- 
ter to let her assist with the morn- 
ing's work. Later she lay down 
to rest. She had not been feeling 
well for a few days. Before six 
o'clock Sunday evening, she had 
passed on to the great reward for 
which she had paid in full measure. 

May her children ever cherish in 
loving memory trie principles of 
truth and beauty after which her 
generous, whole-souled life was pat- 

Reminiscences of a Pioneer 

From the Life of Juliette Stowell Perry, a Veteran of the Relief Society 

By Alice Morrill 

On November 29 last, Sister Juliette Stowell Perry was ninety-four years old. 
A member today of the Relief Society of Maeser Ward in Ashley Valley, she was 
counselor to the president of the first Relief Society in Naples Ward of this Valley. 

On account of a fractured hip, caused by falling upon the doorstep of her home 
nearly three years ago, Sister Perry is now bedfast. Since she has had to give up 
homemaking, she has lived with her daughter, Sister Etta Caldwell, of Maeser. 
This dear old lady never complains, and is very grateful for the kindly ministrations 
of her daughter's family. Faith and patience halo her presence, and she has an 
encouraging smile and word of cheer for all who visit her. 

ON one occasion the Relief So- 
ciety, held their regular 
meeting with Sister Perry. 
She gave a reminiscent talk and re- 
cited for the visitors a beautiful 
poem, which she has retained in 
memory.* Asked where she ob 
tained copies of poems during her 
life of exodus and travel, Sister 
Perry answered: "They came 
to me in various ways. I remember 
clipping one from an old Illinois 
newspaper that I found wrapped 
around some belongings of ours 
when we were camped at Council 
Bluffs. I was always on the look- 
out for scraps of good literature 
to memorize." Grandma Perry 
remembers many of these. When 
requested, she recites them for her 
children, grandchildren, or friends. 
When her visitors inquired about 
reminiscences, she related the fol- 
lowing : 

WHEN Mother and Father 
joined the Church, they were 
living upon a farm in Westfield, 
Chautauqua County, New York. 
Mother was zealous for her religion 
and had a strong desire to gather 
with the Saints. Mother and nine 
children arrived at Nauvoo just af- 
ter the Prophet was killed, and just 

*See poem at end of article. 

when the 'wolf hunt' was on. The 
mob," Sister Perry explained, "had 
determined upon 'Mormon' extir- 
pation and had organized gangs to 
go through the country adjacent 
to Nauvoo and annihilate the 'Mor- 
mons' who were living on farms 
and were unprotected. 

SOON all the brethren and sisters 
came fleeing into Nauvoo. There 
were nights and nights when Moth- 
er's floor was covered with the beds 
of the refugees." 

Of Nauvoo in the days of its 
glory, Sister Perry said : "When 
we were in Nauvoo during that first 
year, it was like a garden. Every- 
thing imaginable had been brought 
and planted. But after that there 
was trouble enough, and sorrow, in 
Nauvoo the Beautiful. We stayed 
in the city until two days before 
the mob came in and took posses- 
sion. Many of the Saints were at 
Mother's house while men went out 
trying to drive back the raging mob ; 
but it could not be halted. 

"I saw a man come running — I 
can remember his words : 'Our boys 
are beaten. Make good your re- 
treat!' Whenever word came to 
us of what was happening round 
about, the Temple bell would ring. 
Mother tied up our things in pack- 



ages and kept them ready, so that 
when the time came that we had 
to go, we could carry them in our 

I SHALL never forget that night. 
For a time it was still as still. 
Mother stood and listened. We 
could see the mob passing along the 
road. Our friends took refuge in 
a corn field. One man, who had 
been our neighbor, helped Mother 
as we moved down to the river bank. 
We didn't know what would happen 
next. Some were being ferried 
across to the other side of the river, 
but after awhile it got so cold that 
we were taken across on the ice. 

went out to where his father 
owned a farm in Knox County, 
Illinois, and got some teams. Then 
we were taken there and located 
upon a piece of land, where we 
lived for one year, raising one good 
crop. After that, with the help of 
friends, we worked our way, little 
by little, until we got to Council 
Bluffs, where we stayed four years. 
When Bishop Edward Hunter came 
back from 'the Valley' to gather up 
the poor, scatterd Saints, we were 
still living there, in 'George A's 

"We left our homes on the 15th 
of June and arrived in 'the Valley' 
on the 2nd of October. Upon ar- 
riving at the mouth of Emigration 
Canyon, I recall my feelings when 
I first beheld in 'the Valley' the 
settlement that is now Salt Lake 
City. The buildings, even then, 
were very respectable. 

"Oh! the people in those days 
were kind. I recall an incident — 
one of many — that illustrates their 
kindness. W!e had just moved into 
an unfinish frame house. The roof 
had not been completed and the 
first snow-storm sifted through. One 
morning one of our neighbors, who 

was working on the Temple, passed 
by on his way to work. Noticing 
that no smoke was rising from the 
chimney, he came to the door and 
found us still in bed with a coverlet 
of snow. 'Sister Stowell, this will 
never do,' he said, 'Go down to 
my place. Don't stop for getting 
breakfast. When I come home to- 
night, I'll see what can be done.' 
I'll always remember the kindness 


of Brother (Norton Jacobs. We 
stayed with his family and ate at 
his table the rest of the winter, 
Mother helping all she could with 
the work. 

AFTERWARD, we settled in 
Provo, and I married William 
Howard Perry, a young man whom 
I met in Salt Lake. We moved to 
Lynn later, and to Cache Valley 
still later. In 1880 we settled in 
Ashley Valley. We were there in 
the early settlement of the Valley, 
when no Relief Society was even 
organized. We had a family of ten 



children — seven girls and three 

Sister Perry's memory is good, 
and she converses intelligently on 
many subjects. She reads news- 
papers, all the Church books, and 
the Church magazines. Since her 
hip was broken, she has cut and 
pieced nine sets of quilt blocks, 
knit lace for six pairs of pillow slips, 
made two pairs of pillow slips, and 
sewed fifty pounds of carpet rags. 
She is happy to think she still can 

The following is one of her 
poems : 


Silent and lone, silent and lone! 

Where, tell me where, are my little ones 

Once they were playing about at my 

In their frolicsome mirth, their boister- 
ous glee, 

They would upset the table, misplace 
the chairs, 

Scattering their playthings, all unawares, 

Till sometimes I sighed for the good 
time to come 

When they all would be big and would 
go out from home. 

Silent and lone, silent and lone! 
Where, tell me where, have my little 

ones gone? 
No little faces to wash on this night; 
No little troubles for Mama to right; 
No tender blue eyes to be sung off to 

No tiny playthings to put up to keep ; 
No little trundle bed brim full of rollick, 
Calling for Mama to settle the frolic. 

No little clothes to be hung on the rack, 
No tales to tell, and no nuts to crack; 
No soft little lips to press me with 

kisses — 
Oh, such a sad, lonely evening as this is ! 
Silent the house with no little ones near 
To startle a smile or chase back a tear; 
No little voices to shout with delight, 
"Good night, dear Mama, good night, 

good night!" 

Silent and lone, silent and lone! 
Where, tell me where, have my little ones 

gone ? 
They are out where the great rolling 

trade stream is flowing ; 
Out where new firesides with love light 

are glowing ; 
Out where the graves with their life- 
hope is sleeping, 
Not to be comforted, weeping, still 

weeping ; 
Out where the hill-tops of science are 

Up mid the cloud rifts, up, up, still 


Seeking the sunshine that rests on the 

Drinking, yet thirsting, for aye at the 

fountain ; 
Out in life's thoroughfare, all of them 

Out in the wide world, striving and 

Little ones, loving ones, playful ones, all 
That went when I bade, and came at 

my call, 
Have you deserted me? Will you not 

Back to your mother's arms — back to 

your home? 
Useless my cry is. Why do I complain? 
Can I call back my little ones? Never 

again ! 

Can the great oak to the acorn return? — 
The broad rolling stream flow back to 

the bourne? 
The mother call childhood again to her 

That in manhood went forth, the strong 

and the free? 

Ah, no, loving Mother, wish not for them 

Your work nobly done, their tramp on 

life's track 
Will come like an organ's note lofty and 

To lift up your soul and your spirit to 

And though your tears fall when you're 

silent and lone, 
You shall know _it is best they ate 

scattered and gone." 

Silent and lone, silent and lone; — 
"Thy will, O Father, not my will be 
done !" 

Mrs. Hilda M. Richards, Malad Stake literary leader, spoke on "What Have 
the Literary Lessons Done for Your Stake?" at the Literary Department of the 
April Relief Society conference. It is regretted that the June number of the 
Magazine, on page 300, reported the address as being given by President Eleanor 
J. Richards. 

Caroline L* Holt 

HOLT was born Nov. 13th, 
1859, at Spanish Fork, Utah, 
the daughter of Thomas David and 
Priscilla Merriman Evans and the 
third in a family of twelve children. 
The father heard the Gospel in 
Wales and joined the Church when 
sixteen years of age. A year later, 
or in 1852, he was called to labor 
as a missionary in Pembrocshire, 
this mission lasted for six years. 
While traveling as a servant of God, 
he met and married the mother of 
Sister Caroline, April 3rd, 1856, 
and a few days later they left the 
land of their birth and set sail for 
America, arriving in Boston in May. 
They immediately started west- 
ward; arriving in Iowa, they con- 
tinued their journey of a thousand 
miles across the trackless plains with 
the hand cart company. Brother 
Evans had the misfortune to be run 
over when a child and lose one leg. 
Using a wooden peg in place of his 
leg made it very hard for him to 
walk. At times he suffered so much 
he was obliged to ride and his young 
bride would pull the load. After 
many hardships they arrived in Salt 
Lake Oct. 3rd, 1856. They moved 
to Spanish Fork in a short time, 
where their first child was born, a 
baby girl who was called Emma. 

THE father was called to fill 
another mission in far off 
Wales, and left Spanish Fork May 
2, 1875, in company with Brother 
Thomas C. Martell. He filled an 
honorable mission of two and one 
half years, adding many rich ex- 
periences to his life. He died Aug. 
2nd, 1906, at the age of 73. 

Sister Caroline's mother was an 
active worker in the Relief Society 

and was chosen as Secretary in 
1857 and labored in that capacity 
for many years. When the call first 
came from President Brigham 
Young for the Sisters to glean 
wheat, Sister Evans went into the 
fields with her little ones, taking 
Caroline along to tend them, thus 
helping to save the precious grain to 
be used many years later when we 
were engaged in the World War, 
the First Ward of Spanish Fork 
selling Uncle Sam over $1,300.00 

^ her grandmother for six years 
but returned home to help her 
mother while the father was in 
Wales. Sister Evans died Nov. 5th, 

The first school Sister Caroline 
attended was taught by Bishop But- 
ler's wife in a little adobe house on 
Main Street. The next teacher was 
Nancy Woodward who taught in her 
own home. Silas Hillman, James G. 
Higgenson, George H. Brimhall and 
Joseph A. Reese, were also her 
teachers. She worked as a teacher 
in Sunday School, teaching a class 
of young boys in the old meeting 
house. When the Young Ladies' 
Retrenchment Association was or- 
ganized Sister Caroline was chosen 
as Librarian holding that office until 
the Wards were divided and then 
was called to work in the same posi- 
tion in the new ward in which she 

Sister Holt was a gifted alto 
singer and has sung in the choir ever 
since she was big enough, being a 
member of the old choir and singing 
under the direction of William 
Jones, William James and Owen 
Rowe. When the Salt Lake Temple 



was dedicated she sang with a choir 
of three hundred voices at two ses- 
sions under the leadership of Prof. 
Giles. She is still a member of 
the ward choir where she resides. 

At the age of 23 she was married 
to William Nathaniel Holt, the son 
of a Mormon Battalion member, be- 
ing united to him for time and 
eternity in the old Endowment House 
by Daniel H. Wells, Nov. 2nd, 1882. 
To this union were born two chil- 
dren, Dolly Patience, Aug. 1st, 1883, 
and William David Holt, born Sept. 
22nd, ,1885. In the year 1894, 


Sister Holt had the great misfortune 
to lose her husband and although 
her health was poor she continued 
to press on rearing her children in 
faith in the Gospel and continuing 
her work in the Church. 

Her daughter Dolly married Wil- 
liam Rigtrup, Dec. 6th, 1903, and 
became the mother of five children, 
Caroline, Annie Amelia, Dolly Per- 
cilla, Carl William and Alge. Shortly 
after the birth of Alge the mother 

died, passing away Jan. 20th, 1915. 
Though this was a great trial for 
Sister Holt, her great faith in God 
gave her strength to stand the ordeal 
and she was able to say, 'The Lord 
giveth and the Lord taketh away; 
blessed be the name of the Lord." 
She has been a mother to her daugh- 
ter's children and they always find 
a home and loving care with Grand- 

Her son William graduated from 
the B. Y. U. and also filled a two 
and one-half year mission in the 
Central States. He married Zella 
Monk June 20th, 1917, and is the 
father of four children, Phyllis, 
Caroline, Zella, who died at the age 
of five months, Josephine and Don- 
na Emma. William resides in 
Tooele, being Musical Director in 
the high school. 

OISTER HOLT'S greatest public 
^ work has been in the Relief 
Society; when a girl of 18 years 
she was set apart as teacher, having 
Sister Rosetta Robertson as a com- 
panion. She labored in that capacity 
until Spanish Fork was divided into 
four wards. March 3rd, 1892, the 
Relief Society Sisters were called 
together in a meeting in the old 
Central meetinghouse. Sister Eliza 
Jex was released as President of 
Spanish Fork Relief Society and 
four organizations were perfected 
with Caroline L. Holt president of 
the First Ward, Thorgerda B. 
Snell 1st Counselor, Margaret Davis 
2nd Counselor, Eliza Hales Secre- 
tary, and Ellen Tilley Treasurer. 

jV/f ANY changes have taken place 
^ Vl among those with whom Sis- 
ter Caroline has labored, many have 
gone to the great beyond, but our 
dear sister is still with us. She 
filled the position of president of 
the Relief Society for 37 years, be- 
ing released when the First Ward 
was divided April 21, 1929. 



CHE was always on hand when- 
ever and wherever her services 
were needed, no night was ever too 
dark or cold or stormy for her to 
answer the call and her work could 
always wait until her duty was done. 
She has been as a ministering angel 
in many homes in the time of sick- 
ness and death and with the great 
faith that is her constant companion 
she has helped us all in times of sor- 
row. No record has been kept of 
the many she has helped lay away 
in death, a Lamanite Sister being 
one of the number. None can 
know of the labor she has accom- 
plished, but when that other book is 

opened a great work will be re- 
corded there. We who have labored 
with her and know her worth love 
her best for her untiring labor and 
great faith. Sister Holt was also 
a member of the old folks com- 
mittee from the time they first com- 
menced entertaining the old people 
until the division of the ward, when 
a new committee was chosen and 
she was among the honored guests 
At the present time she is active 
in Genealogical work and it is hei 
greatest desire that as long as she 
is permitted to live that she may be 
found among those who are doing 
the work of the Lord. 

Raffling, Games of Chance, Etc. 

REPORTS have been received 
from time to time that, in 
some instances, at ward fairs 
and other entertainments, raffling 
and other chance games have been 
conducted. The argument used in 
favor of these contests is that such 
games are common in the business 
world and that the purpose for 
which they are employed is a worthy 
one. In other words, it is argued 
that the end justifies the means. 

In order, however, that the posi- 
tion of the Church may be clear, we 
are quoting herewith from instruc- 
tions given by President Joseph F. 
Smith and by President