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Full text of "The Relief Society magazine : organ of the Relief Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints"

A Warm and Comfortable New Year With 

KNIGHT Spring Canyon 
and ROYAL COALS 

Resolve to make 1931 your most comfortable year with the added 
economy and comfort of Knight Spring Canyon and Royal Coals. 

Favored by nature, Knight Spring Canyon comes from Utah's deepest 
coal seam. Its hard straight grain is free from imperfections and burns 
long with intense heat. 

For quick-starting choose Royal Coal. It burns freely and leaves 
little ash or soot. 

A phone call to your Knight Spring Canyon and Royal dealer clinches 
your resolution and brings you heating satisfaction for the New Year. 

KNIGHT FUEL CO. 
ROYAL COAL CO. 

L. E. ADAMS, General Sales Agent 
818 Newhouse Building Salt Lake City, Utah 



Resolve for 1931 



to 



Cook Electrically 

CLEAN— ECONOMICAL— CONVENIENT 

A Hotpoint or Westinghouse 
Electric Range will bring to you 
perfect cooking results. 

VISIT OUR STORE AND SEE THESE RANGES 

UTAH POWER 8 LIGHT CO. 

Efficient Public Service 



When Buying Mention Relief Society Magasins 



L. D. S. GARMENTS 

Good grade and well made. When ordering, state Size, New or Old Style, 
and if for man or lady. Postage prepaid. Sample on request. 

147 Spring Needle, Flat Weave $1.10 608 Ladies' New Style Extra Lt. 

32 Combed Cotton, Lt. Wt 1.50 Wt. Combed Cot — 1.25 

208 Lt. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot... 1.35 302 Ladies* New Style, Rayon 2.50 

222 Rayon Striped Combed Cot 1.65 807 Men's New Style, Rayon 2.75 

9KB m»h wt Rih TVmhlp Card Cot 1 85 264 Ray°n Silk, Fine Quality 3.00 

258 Med. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot. l.ao ?4g Unbleached Cot Hvy wt 2 00 

628 Merc. Lisle Light Wt 2.00 754 Bleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.25 

908 Unblecahed Cot. Ex. Hvy 2.75 1118 Wool and Cotton Mixed 3.50 

BARTON & CO. 

Established in Utah 45 Years 
142 WEST SOUTH TEMPLE ST. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



Temple and Burial Clothes 

COMPLETE SUITS FOR MEN AND WOMEN 

Variety of Grades and Prices 

Prompt and Careful Attention To Mail — Telephone — Telegraph Order $ 

Open Daily, 9 a. m. — 5 p. m. 

• General Board Relief Society 

Phone Wasatch 3286 
29 Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 



L. D. S. GARMENTS 

Direct From Factory 

You are guaranteed unusual wear and satisfaction from Cutler Garments. They 
are made from the best long wearing, two combed yarns. 

No. 68 Old Style new style H or No. 61 Ribbed Med. Hvy. Unbleached 

long legs $ .85 Double Back 1.75 

No. 68 Ribbed lt. cot. knee length....! .75 No. 56 Ribbed Hvy. Cotton bleached 2.15 

No. 74 Ribbed lt. wt. Cotton 1.10 No. 55 Ribbed Hvy. Cot., Unbleached 

No. 84 Rib. Mercerized Lisle 1.95 Double Back 2.15 

No. 76 Ribbed lt. wt. Lisle 1.35 No. 27 Ribbed Med. Wt. 60% 

No. 63 Lt. Med. Unbleached Double Wool 3.15 

Back 1.35 No. 39 Ribbed Hvy. Wt. 60% 

No. 64 Ribbed Lt. Med. Cot 1.35 Wool 3 65 

No. 62 Ribbed Med. Hvy. bleached.... 1.75 No. 32 Silk and- Wooi 4i35 

N ° n R Leng\h y ° n :....?™°L.™.i.5.!! e .! 2.15 WHITE TEMPLE PANTS 

Long Sleeves and Legs, or old style.. 2.65 8 oz. Heavy Duck 1.95 

SPECIAL MISSIONARY DISCOUNTS 

In ordering garments please state if for men or women and if old or new 
styles are wanted. 

Also give bust, height and weight. 

Sizes above 48 — 20% extra. Marking 16c. Postage Prepaid. 

Special — When you order three pair of garments at one time we allow yon a 16% 
discount on third pair only. 



Cutler 




36 SOUTH MAIN ST. 
GARMENTS UNDERWEAR 

Whin Buying Mention Relief Society Maganine 



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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 



Who Creates Wealth? 

By Dr. Frank Crane 

Labor is fond of saying that all Wealth is created by it. 

Capital replies that Labor never creates a dollar's worth of Wealth 
except when financed by Capital. Capital is the true begetter of Wealth, 
it claims. 

They are both mistaken. 

It is Brains that create Wealth. Some fellow with Brains reaches 
out into empty space and fetches an Idea back "out of the Everywhere 
into the Here." 

And then it isn't any time before the Idea enlists the services of 
Capital and Labor and produces Wealth. 

The true and only Creator of that Wealth is the Man behind the 
Brains. 

The other night they gave a dinner to Thomas Alva Edison to cele- 
brate forty years of use of Electric Light. 

Edison created Electric Light. It was a product of his Brains. It 
was an Idea, a mighty good Idea. Forty years ago said Idea put Capital 
and Labor to work. 

And now, where there was nothing, there is wealth, in the form of 
lighting business throughout the country, Wealth amounting to four and 
a quarter billion dollars. 

Labor and Capital don't create Wealth. They only think so. Their 
job is to take orders from the Boy with Ideas! 

Here is a list of people who actually created Wealth, and they were 
neither laborers nor capitalists: 

The man who invented blotting paper by accidentally discovering 
that unsized paper was better than sand for drying ink. 

The man who invented waterproof cloth by trying to wash out the 
wrong dye with alum, and then several days afterwards trying to wash 
the cloth again and finding out he could not even wet it. 

The man who discovered the use of soft glue for making printers' 
inking rollers. 

The man who discovered lithography. 

The printer's wife who found that oily ink would float on water and 
so discovered marbling by dipping the paper in it. 

The man who thought of putting the hump in the hairpin. 

And the man who thought of pointing the ordinary wood screw. 

Thought is the only creator of anything. Both Capital and Labor 
are hired servants. 



L. D. S. GARMENTS 

FOR ALL SEASONS 

Selected from our extensive line of L. D. S. Garments we suggest the following 

numbers for all seasons wear: 



No. 1 New style, ribbed lgt. wgt. 
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cotton, our standard summer 
wgt 1.25 

No. 3 Ribbed med. wgt. cotton, 
bleached or unbleached. Our 
all season number 1.90 

No. 4 Ribbed heavy wgt. un- 
bleached cotton. Our double 
back number 2.25 

No. 5 Part wool, ribbed unbleached. 
Our best selling wool num- 
ber 3.00 



No. 6 Light weight summer gar- 
ment. Old style or Ladies' 
new style 95 

No. 7 Light wgt. new or old style, 

mercerized — silky finish 1.75 

No. 8 Light weight Spring and 

Summer garment. Men only 1.00 

No. 9 Light weight silk for ladies 

only, new style only 1.50 

No. 10 Medium wgt. silk for men 

and women, new style only.. 1.95 



In ordering, be sure to specify whether old or new style garments, three-quarter 
or ankle length legs, short or long sleeves are wanted. Also give bust measure, height 
and weight to insure perfect fit. 

Postage prepaid. Special discount to missionaries. 

FACTORY TO YOU— -THE ORIGINAL 

Utah Woolen Mills 



Briant Stringham, Manager 

One-Half Block South of Temple Gates 



28 Richards Street 



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At All Grocer 9 $ 



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and 

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177 E. 3rd So. St., Salt Lake City 



When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 



CONTENTS 

Portrait of Sarah Ahlstrom Nelson Frontispiece 

Abraham Lincoln (Prize Poem) By Sarah Ahlstrom Nelson 3 

Social Work By Amy Brown Lyman . . 4 

Summer Camps of the Y. L. M. I. A By Rosetta W. Bennett 9 

The Relef Society Social Service Department By Genevieve Thornton 13 

The L. D. S. Children's Hospital By Vera P. Walquist 18 

The Neighborhood House By Ellen Taylor 27 

Alberta Carries Health to its Children By Frank Steele 31 

Municipal Hospitals in Alberta, Canada By Dora H. Jacobs 32 

If By Else E. Barrett 33 

What the Social Service Institute Means to Us By Laura A. Watkins 34 

A Hidden Opportunity By Rose Ellen B. Valentine 37 

Notes to the Field 42 

Notes from the Field 44 

Editorial— 1931 Welcome 47 

Whitehouse Conference on Childhood Health and Protection 48 

One Hundred Years 50 

Lesson Department 51 

Solitude ) 64 

She Never Refused to Sing (Poem) By Linda S. Fletcher 66 

Procrastination ( Poem) By ALce Morrill 66 

Conventions and Conferences 67 



Reality 

By Linda S. Fletcher 

Beloved, the world seems eclipsed, drear, 

Since you are gone who, as my soul, was near; 

The days drag by, dull, leaden things, 

Flight is so slow on bruis'ed wings. 

I steel myself 'gainst thoughts of thee, 

Their poignant sweetness not for me, 

Yet, when the night comes floating in, 

All of the joys that might have been 

Are mine, beloved, for conscious will, 

When slumber comes, is placid, still. 

I feel your dear arms once again, 

Forgotten, each heart-bruising pain. 

Welcone the last long sleep will be, 

For then, f ore'ver, I'll be with thee ! 




SARAH AHLSTROM NELSON 



THE 



Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII 



JANUARY, 1931 



No. 1 



~ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii H- 



■'i i i n ii ii ii^^n^^H^— n» 




Abraham Lincoln 

Poem awarded first prize in the Eliza Roxey Snow Poetry Contest 

By Sarah Ahlstrom Nelson 

First he was yours, Kentucky, 

You were honored by his birth, 

Though little you recked of his future 

And little you dreamed of his worth, 

For humble and mean as the stable 

Was the cabin that sheltered his head, 

And lowly and poor as /the manger 

Was the pallet he used for a bed. 

While hunger and hardship and sorrow 

Were his constant companions in youth, 

With his gaze toward a distant tomorrow 

His feet kept the pathway of truth; 

And though it was rugged and thorny, 

That trail winding over the hill, 

Never once did he falter or turn from the task 

That he felt was his own to fulfill. 

So he climbed to the heights, Kentucky, 

With the flag of the nation unfurled, 

Achieving the glory of deathless fame 

In the citizenry of the world. 



Social Work 



(Historical Sketch) 
By Amy Brown Lyman 



THE practice of giving aid to 
the poor is probably as old 
as society itself. Traces of 
Charity work are to be found among 
all the peoples of antiquity, and 
beggars have been known to all 
literature. The Chinese, long be- 
fore Christ, established refuges for 
the aged and poor sick; Buddha 
taught that it was a duty of society 
to alleviate the pains and miseries 
of human life; the ancient Greeks 
and Romans contributed money lib- 
erally for the care of the poor. 

The motives which prompt char- 
itable deeds have not always been 
the highest. The desire to help an- 
other for his own sake has often 
been supplemented by and in some 
cases substituted by a desire upon 
the part of the giver to gain favor 
and reward for himself or to pre- 
vent bad luck or disaster which he 
feared might follow refusal. Such 
ideas were rather prevalent in an- 
cient times, as the following quota- 
tions indicate: "The riches of an 
infinite God will be bestowed upon 
him who relieves the poor;" "The 
house that does not open to the poor 
shall open to the physician." 

With the ancient Jews it was a 
religious duty to care for their 
needy. The Jewish law made char- 
ity an obligation. The well-to-do 
were even assessed for the benefit 
of the poor. Especial attention was 
given to the rearing of orphans 
which was regarded as the highest 
form of charity. It was considered 
a privilege rather than an act of 
charity to become foster parents to 
destitute orphan children. 



THE teachings of the Savior put 
philanthropy upon a higher 
plane than it had reached before. 
All life was purified and elevated 
through Him. New ideals and new 
standards of conduct were intro- 
duced into every phase of human 
relations. When Christ said : "Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God with 
all thy heart, and with all thy soul, 
and with all thy strength, and with 
all thy mind, and thy neighbor as 
thyself," and when he gave, by way 
of further explanation of this idea, 
the parable of the Good Samaritan, 
he introduced new incentives into 
charitable endeavor — brotherly love 
and human sympathy. 

During the brief period of Christ's 
time and immediately thereafter, the 
new Christian groups which were 
organized into small assemblies or 
churches, practiced ithe voluntary 
charity which had been introduced 
by the Savior. This method of 
spontaneous mutual aid prevailed 
among them generally until the time 
of Constantine, when the church in 
its changed condition arose to great 
and unprecedented power, and be- 
came the state religion of the Roman 
Empire. 

DURING the Middle Ages, char- 
ity degenerated to a great ex- 
tent into alms-giving for the benefit 
of the giver. The religious merit 
of almsgiving was so emphasized 
that the particular needs of the poor 
were secondary. Outside of the 
work done by the Jews for their 
own people, and the alms given 
personally by wealthy individuals, 



SOCIAL WORK 



the great Roman Church was prac- 
tically the only agency for the ad- 
ministration of relief. The methods 
of helping were through indiscrim- 
inate almsgiving at the doors of the 
monasteries where the poor gathered 
in hordes asking for help, and 
through two types of institutions es- 
tablished in connection with the 
monasteries — one, hospitals for the 
poor sick, the other, similar institu- 
tions for the care of the aged, or- 
phans and widows. At church doors 
and in other public places there 
was also begging. Although the 
churches made great effort to dis- 
courage it, begging became quite 
general everywhere, and finally got 
beyond control. It was apparent 
to churchmen themselves that the 
indiscriminate almsgiving at the 
monasteries and similar medieval in- 
stitutions was failing as a means of 
caring for the poor and was con- 
tributing to professional beggary. 

Due to the idea which was preva- 
lent that "alms have power to ex- 
piate sin," people gave large sums 
to church charity thus seeking for- 
giveness of their sins. And so be- 
gan the sale of indulgences author- 
ized by the popes and church coun- 
cils. It was not uncommon for 
hospital authorities to sell forgive- 
ness of sins for donations to their 
respective institutions. In spite of 
the weakness of ecclesiastical char- 
ities of the Middle Ages, the fact 
remains that the Catholic Church 
did a stupendous work in alleviating 
physical pain and distress which 
would never have been accomplished 
but for its influence. And further- 
more the Church stimulated and cul- 
tivated a general spirit of helpful- 
ness. 

REALIZING that dependents 
were constantly on the in- 
crease, and feeling that the eccle- 
siastical agencies had not succeeded 



in handling charity, the state finally 
interfered. In practically all of the 
European countries, serious efforts 
were made first to eliminate begging 
by severely punishing beggars, and 
when this failed the work was taken 
over by the state. In Scandinavia, 
this occurred at an early period ; 
in England, at the time of the Re- 
formation, when the monasteries 
were dissolved by Henry VIII ; in 
France, at the time of the Revolu- 
tion; and in Switzerland and Ger- 
many following the Reformation. 

After the state took over the 
charity work, however, there was 
very little improvement for a long 
time. The development of public 
relief in the various countries was 
a slow process. England, with her 
Poor Laws designed to regulate and 
systematize public relief, led all 
other countries, and her system has 
influenced social work in America 
more than that of any other country. 

THE beginning of the English 
Poor Laws was in 1536, when 
it was decreed that begging must 
go ; that the poor were to remain 
in their own districts, and be helped 
by the local authorities; that poor 
funds were to be raised by collec- 
tion of alms in the "common boxes" 
of the churches ; that straying in- 
digents were to be whipped and 
sent to their own parishes. Later 
the parish was required to furnish 
work to able-bodied persons in need. 
The law was supplemented from 
time to time and finally, in 1601, the 
various provisions relating to the 
poor were brought together (into 
what seemed a model law. Among 
other things, it divided the poor 
into three classes — able-bodied, 
those unable to work, and children 
— all of whom were to be treated 
according to their needs. A tax 
system was levied on property to 
increase the inadequate funds. In 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



1834 the law was further supple- 
mented and developed, and authori- 
ty was concentrated in a national 
department. It has since been 
amended from time to time. 

The Poor Law was enforced rig- 
idly in some localities and indiffer- 
ently in others, thus failing to meet 
the needs. The system was a great 
step forward nevertheless. It un- 
dertook to organize and systematize 
relief giving, it contributed the idea 
of national responsibility in relief 
work, and finally it has seemed to 
recognize the inadequacy of mere 
charity and the necessity of pre- 
ventive work. 

THE next advancement was the 
movement for the organization 
of charity which began in Germany 
and England about the same time. 
It came as a protest to the grave 
abuse of charitable relief then ob- 
taining. In Hamburg, a free city 
which was wealthy and over-run by 
beggars, there was a reorganization 
of relief work in 1788, and later, 
in 1852, the plan was modified and 
adopted in Elberfeldt. There was 
a central bureau of charity to super- 
vise all charitable work. The city 
was divided into precincts with a 
superintendent for each, and the 
precincts divided into districts, with 
a visitor for each. The poor were 
classified and the duties of the vis- 
itors were similar to those of the 
modern family visitor. 

IN 1869 the London Charity Or- 
ganization Society, a private 
agency, was organized. It was the 
climax of charitable endeavor, and 
has been a pattern for such or- 
ganization in America. Its object 
was to organize and coordinate re- 
lief, and to study causes of poverty 
and develop all possible substitutes 
for relief giving. There were in 
London at that time numerous or- 



ganizations working independently 
and duplicating one another's work ; 
clever people were getting help from 
a number of sources while the back- 
ward and perhaps more needy were 
overlooked, and there was indis- 
criminate alms-giving on every 
hand. The movement was inaug- 
urated by a group of church and 
university men and some forward 
looking workers in the field of social 
reform. Among the policies of the 
society were : correlation of the work 
of agencies, district conferences, and 
case-work methods — the latter em- 
bracing the study and treatment of 
each individual or family as an in- 
dividual problem. The Charity Or- 
ganization Movement later spread 
to America. The first of such or- 
ganizations here was the Buffalo, 
New York Society founded in 1877. 

IN the United States in early times 
each case of need was considered 
and provided for individually by 
town or county officials. Later, 
there was a system of out-door 
relief supplemented by the estab- 
lishment of alms-houses where at 
first all classes of needy individuals 
were placed, including tramps, de- 
pendent aged and children, insane, 
feeble-minded, blind, deaf, confine- 
ment cases, etc. 

BY the end of the 19th century, 
however, the country had wit- 
nessed many changes for the better. 
A number of institutions and 
agencies had been established to 
meet the special needs of the differ- 
ently handicapped, and charity or- 
ganization societies had taught su- 
perior methods of dealing with in- 
dividual cases in distress and of 
handling out-door relief. Private 
institutions including both Church 
and non-sectarian agencies had come 
into existence supplementing the 
work of the tax supported public 



SOCIAL WORK 



agencies. A wave of humanitarian 
sympathy and scientific inquiry had 
spread over the country creating a 
new interest in human beings. There 
were also social and economic 
changes including the rise of the 
middle classes — the working people 
— who set about to improve their 
condition through legislative action, 
being assisted by social minded in- 
dividuals. Attention was given by 
them to the protection of health, 
medical service, sanitation of fac- 
tories, compensation for accidents, 
provision of regular employment 
with shorter hours and better wages, 
child care including education and 
recreation. 

IN the present century attention 
has been focused upon preven- 
tion, the idea being that prevention 
is better than relief. The failure 
of the old-fashioned charity was 
no doubt due to the fact that it 
was merely palliative, paying atten- 
tion only to those already in trou- 
ble. Welfare work today calls for 
the getting to the very roots of 
trouble and sparing nothing which 
may be involved in the process, pre- 
venting a recurrence of those con- 
ditions which cause distress, and 
giving people an opportunity for 
normal life. The steps are first, 
curative — relieving those already in 
distress and destitution ; secondly, 
preventive — guarding against the 
recurrence of conditions which 
cause distress and poverty, and 
thirdly, constructive — putting forth 
effort to raise human life to its 
highest level. 

Many people today believe that 
all welfare work should be done 
by public agencies supported 'by 
taxation, and that private agencies 
are not needed. Others favor a 
combination of both, maintaining 
that the private agencies are neces- 
sary to lead the way and set the 



standards. There are still others 
who claim that the type of work 
clone is more important than the 
type of agency under which it is 
done. 

AMONG the agencies organized 
in the United States in the 
19th century is our own L. D. S. 
Relief Society founded in 1842, a 
private church agency auxiliary to 
the L. D. S. Church. Its life of 
eighty-eight years has covered the 
most interesting period in the whole 
history and development of social 
work. The Relief Society was or- 
ganized for spiritual, educational, 
and philanthropic purposes and 
functions under the direction of the 
presiding and local bishops in whom 
is vested the responsibility for the 
charity work of the Church. It is 
a great outdoor relief agency with 
1665 local organizations, in each 
of which is a department of charity 
and health. 

In each local organization the Re- 
lief Society president has charge of 
the charity and health work, this 
being one of her most important 
duties. Where necessary she calls 
to her assistance a worker or aid 
especially designated for this work. 
She cooperates closely with the 
bishop of the ward and works under 
his direction. In addition to a 
regular monthly conference of the 
bishopric and Relief Society presi- 
dency there is constant communica- 
tion and consultation between them. 
To the Relief ^Society has »been 
given the special work of family 
investigation and family planning, 
the final disposition being usually 
a joint decision. The Relief So- 
ciety president also coperates with 
the county and any other agency 
interested in the family being 
helped. The district visiting 
teachers or friendly visitors visit all 
the families of the Church monthly, 



8 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



irrespective of their needs or social 
status and receive funds from them 
which are contributed for relief pur- 
poses. It is the policy of the L. 
D. S. Church to have its charity 
work administered by volunteer 
workers, the only exception being 
the work done under the direction 
of the General Board in the Social 
Service Department at Relief Soci- 
ety Headquarters in Salt Lake City, 
a case working agency which super- 
vises and supplements the regular 
work of the Society in the city and 
provides a laboratory for experi- 
mental and training purposes. 

For a number of years the Socie- 
ty has been working constantly to 
improve its methods of welfare 
work. It has no blanket plan of 
caring for the needy, but aims to 
treat individuals according to their 
individual needs, aiming as far as 
possible, to meet the requirements 
set 'by standardized social case- 
working agencies. 

In addition to its welfare work, 
the Relief Society has a second 
well-estsablished department which 
cooperates closely with the welfare 
department. . jit is the education 
department with a uniform course 
of study for the benefit of mem- 
biers. These two departments 
— education and welfare — react 
most favorably and beneficially 
upon each other to the great 
advantage of the organization gen- 
erally. The education department 
features, among other subjects, 
studies in social welfare which stim- 
ulate and create interest in the actu- 
al projects in welfare work and 
social reform which the Society is 



sponsoring; while the various local 
workers who are dealing with the 
actual problems in turn vitalize and 
stimulate the class work. 

Because /of its comprehensive 
organization and methods of co- 
operation, the Relief Society is well- 
fitted for community work, and in 
addition to its special mission of 
caring for the poor and sick it has, 
from the beginning, fostered any 
and all movements which have had 
for their object the improvement 
of civic conditions and the develop- 
ment of community life. It has 
worked among other things for wo- 
man suffrage, for educational pro- 
jects, pure water supplies, sanitation 
and for social legislation. 

In the objects, aims and standards 
of its welfare work the Relief So- 
ciety is striving to meet the national 
standards for such work. It believes 
in organized relief, and has from 
the beginning discouraged indis- 
criminate individual giving. It is 
making every effort to improve it's 
curative work by giving training 
to its volunteer workers. It has 
always stood for preventive work, 
its program of prevention and social 
reform going hand in hand with its 
curative and corrective work. 

Its combined program of educa- 
tion, service and religion, is com- 
prehensive and constructive, de- 
signed to help those in distress, to 
prevent social ills, to provide for 
educational opportunity and religi- 
ous development and to foster con- 
structive movements which have for 
their object wholesome, abundant 
life for all. 



Summer Camps of the Y* L* ML L A. 

By Rosetta W . Bennett, Chairman Summer Camp Committee of the 

General Board of the Y. L. M.I. A. 



THE love of nature and the 
lure of outdoor life is very 
greatly developed in the 
hearts and lives of the Latter-day 
Saints. Our hearts turn to the 
Sacred Grove at Palmyra where the 
boy Prophet sought its seclusion 
to pour forth the longings of his 
soul for relief from the spiritual 
conflict that encompassed him. 

It was in the grove at Nauvoo 
where God manifested to the people 
His choice of Brigham Young as 
the true shepherd of the sorely 
harassed and heart broken people. 
It was the vision of the sheltered 
valleys of the mighty Rocky Moun- 
tains that sustained them and gave 
them heroic courage to tramp one 
thousand miles beyond civilization 
and establish a home in this then 
desolate country. It was the song 
and the dance and the game that 
eased the strain of the journey. 

The mountains were friendly 
and gladly gave of their timber to 
build houses and make fires ; gave 
of their fresh sparkling snow-born 
streams to revive the parched land 
and swell and develop the treasured 
seeds committed to the bosom of 
mother earth with such perfect, 
compelling faith ; gave of their wild 
fruits and game to lend variety and 
cheer to their scanty board ; gave 
of their flowers and bird-songs to 
gladden their eyes and hearts ; and 
gave them glorious promisse for 
the future. 

IT was to lovely Brighton Valley 
at the top of Big Cottonwood 
Canyon that Brigham Young led 
his people in July, 1857, to spend 



several days in celebration of the 
tenth anniversary of their entrance 
into the valley. There in prayer 
and speech and feasting, dancing, 
games or songs, they gave thanks 
to God for their safe refuge from 
the violent storms that had beset 
them so cruelly in the past. 

In the city pleasure resorts were 
laid out that all might have recrea- 
tion : Calder's Park, Lindsay's Gar- 
dens, Fuller's Hill, Lake Shore, 
Black Rock, Garfield on the shore 
of Salt Lake. These places the 
children of the Pioneers remember 
with delight. Here !Bishops of 
Wards with their entire flock, made 
yearly pilgrimage. A whole day 
of unalloyed delight, an organized, 
supervised day with prayer at be- 
ginning and close of it, a Brass 
Band to head the long line of wag- 
ons and hay-ricks, etc., a bag of 
candy for every child and every 
child in the ward there. If it 
should rain and we couldn't go — 
desolation ! ! Would morning never 
come so we could don our new 
dress and hat and shoes, unloose the 
tightly braided hair and tie on the 
precious blue or pink ribbon and 
so adorned fly to the meeting house 
and wait to be tucked into the straw 
laden wagon box and at last be on 
our happy way to swing under the 
great Cottonwood trees, go boating 
on the silvery lake, play ball, dance, 
run races, etc.? 

In the fall families went to the 
mountains, the men to cut logs for 
firewood, the women to gather wild 
fruit for winter jam. They slept 
under the stars beside the singing 
streams, listened to the murmur of 



10 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



the trees, the song of the birds and 
the hum of insects and gazed upon 
the mighty hills and felt the majesty 
of earth and sky and knew God was 
there. In their mountain Retreat 
God did strengthen their feet and 



uplift and power to be clean and 
true. 

AS the people grew in numbers, 
cities sprang into being, claims 
of community life multiplied and 




A FEW OF THE ATTRACTIVE Y. L. M. I. A. SUMMER CAMPS 



gave them power, by the touch of 
the mountain sod to become a phys- 
ically strong, healthy people, and 
by the call of the mrghty mountain 
peaks gave them moral and spiritual 



commerce with the outside world 
threw wide our gates and our shel- 
tered retreat became the highway 
of the westward moving nation. 
The stress and push brought many 



SUMMER CAMPS 



11 



changes. Mechanical inventions 
made possible the manufacture of 
most things that were formerly 
made in the home. Easy transpor- 
tation brought them to our doors. 
The new era brought new responsi- 
bilities. New adjustments must be 
made, our hands must learn new 
occupations. Many boys who worked 
on farms, women who iformerly 
were fully occupied in the home, 
must go out of the accustomled 
course and find employment in the 



became an individual affair largely. 
Many people built cabins in the 
mountains and took their families 
to these cool retreats for a few 
weeks in the heat of summer. Many 
could not afford to do this and so 
lost much benefit and joy. 

THINKING people everywhere 
realized that change and recre- 
ation must be had and provision 
made for it if people were to live 
full, happy lives. Brigham Young 




SLEEPING APARTMENT OF FIRST Y. L. M. I. A. CAMP 



new mechanical and business world 
in order to live and develop and 
keep in the van of Progress. Hours 
of confinement at machine or desk 
brought greater physical, nervous 
and mental strain. Opportunities 
for better educational and cultural 
advantages presented themselves 
and life became more complex and 
demanding. We could not so easily 
or frequently or with such freedom 
enjoy the beauties of our canyons, 
mountains, lakes, etc. Where wards 
used to provide for the vacations 
of the masses of the people it now 



taught his people to play as well 
as to work. He encouraged music, 
drama, dancing, physical sports for 
the recreation ^nd relaxation of the 
people. In later years the Latter- 
day Saints have made a more con- 
certed effort to encourage proper 
recreation among the people and to 
the M. I. A. have been assigned the 
special duty of creating and super- 
vising recreational activities in the 
Church. The Young Ladies' M. I. 
A. have instituted a special feature 
in recreation in the Summer Camp 
Movement; the idea being to build 



12 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Summer Camps in the mountains, 
on lake shores, etc., in places of 
easy access but away from the high- 
ways, so that they may be by them- 
selves and enjoy the outdoor life 
and carry out their programs with- 
out restraint other than the rules 
governing their association. The 
first organized movement seems to 
have been among the officers of 
Liberty Stake in Salt Lake City. 
Sister Emily H. Higgs, the Presi- 
dent of Liberty Stake Y. L. M. I. 
A., in 1912 obtained permission 
from Brother Godfrey of that Stake 
to build a little camp on his farm 
at the mouth of Big Cottonwood 
Canyon and on the creek or river 
of that name. Hugh J. Cannon, 
President of Liberty Stake, entered 
most heartily into the scheme and 
with the cooperation of the Priest- 
hood and the M. I. A. Stake officers 
and ward associations, the camp was 
built. A kitchen, a combined 
screened in dining room, and sleep- 
ing quarters were built. A swim- 
ming pool was prepared in a seclud- 
ed spot on the river bank, a tent 
pitched for a dressing room and 
all was ready for the eager girls 
who drew lots to see which ward 
should occupy the camp first. 
Schedules and rules were made, 
supervision and protection provided 
and success attended the movement 
and untold benefit both physical 
and spiritual followed. 

SISTER JENNIE BRIMHALL 
KjNIGHT, visited the camp and 
very 'shortly thereafter, with the 
cooperation of her Stake Priesthood 
and the M. I. A., opened a camp 
in Provo Canyon, and not long after 
Alpine Stake (now including Lehi 
and Timpanogos Stakes) built "Mu- 
tual Dell," in American Fork Can- 
yon. A few years later the General 
Board, realizing the wisdom of the 
movement appointed a committee 



to consider a summer camp in 
Brighton, the lovely valley at the 
head of Big Cottonwood Canyon — 
the place chosen years before by 
Brigham Young for the tenth cele- 
bration of the entrance into Salt 
Lake Valley, July 24. With the aid 
of members of Y. M. M. I. A. 
Board, of Salt Lajke Stake, and 
others, a spot at the extreme end 
of the Valley behind giant boulders, 
and upon the mountain side was 
chosen and dedicated for the build- 
ing of a Summer Camp for M. I. 
A. girls. It was dedicated as a 
place of safety, peace, rest, health 
and joy, — a place where girls might 
rest and play and refresh themselves 
in the very heart of nature, in the 
tops of lofty peaks, on the banks of 
mountain lakes, in leafy dells and 
shady paths. 

Brother Jesse Knight of Provo 
owned timber concessions near the 
site and he generously allowed 
the committee, for a small consider- 
ation, to cut the logs for the build- 
ing. It was erected and later the four 
Salt Lake City Stakes, Liberty, 
Salt Lake, Ensign, and Pioneer, 
took over the project and improved 
and developed it until it is one of 
the most beautiful mountain camps 
in the Church. It is operated upon 
a thorough business basis and is 
self-supporting. Thousand of M. 
I. A. girls and many of their moth- 
ers, find rest, relaxation and recre- 
ation under its friendly roof. The 
Logan Stakes built their lovely home 
about the same time. Bear Lake, 
Box Elder and the fou<r, Ogden 
Stakes followed. Still more recent- 
ly, Beaver, Maricopa and the Pima 
Ward of the St. Joseph Stake have 
erected camps, and others are in 
prospect with officers all over the 
Church enthusiastic in their efforts 
to establish delightful camps for 
their girls. The Summer Camp 



SUMMER CAMPS 



13 



Movement is thoroughly organized. 
In preparation for the camps we 
have the following organization: 

1. Executive Committee. 

2. Light and Building Committee. 

3. Finance Committee. 

4. Furnishing Committee. 

5. Management Committee, 

and in the Camps themselves, under 
the direction of the M. I. A. Stake 
Officers : 

1. A House Mother, 

2. A Kitchen Supervisor, 

3. A Recreational Leader. 

Wards come to camp in organ- 
ized groups with their own leaders 
who cooperate with the camp offi- 
cers. Every girl is welcome, has 
her place, and is made happy and 
in turn contributes to the well being 

.and happiness of all the others; 
each one is under the inspiring in- 
fluence of competent physical and 
spiritual leaders. 

This movement has the support 
of the Priesthood — in fact cannot 
prosper without it — also the support 
of the mothers of the girls who 
have been in the camps, and we 
plead for the support and coopera- 
tion of all our mothers. Now if our 
great Mother organization of the 
Church, the Relief Society, will 



join with us in this great move- 
ment for supervised summer recre- 
ation, we would indeed be happy. 
Come and spend summer days with 
us, your daughters. Great good 
would come to us for we could 
gather to ourselves the riches of 




PIMOLA SUMMER CAMP, 
PIMA, ARIZONA 

your experience and wisdom and 
great spiritual strength and the clear 
vision of your tested faith. You 
could enjoy in us the renewal of 
your youth, the ardent enthusiasm 
of our quest for happiness, and 
away from the stress and routine 
of every day affairs, we could be 
united in heart and purpose and 
more fully cement our efforts for 
the building of future noble wo- 
manhood. 




A NATURE STUDY GROUP 



The Relief Society Social Service Department 

By Genevieve Thornton 
(Supervisor Social Service Department, 1927-1930) 



A PRINCIPLE that has made 
for the steady growth of the 
Relief Society is its success in 
meeting the needs of its people as 
they arise or as they assume more 
complex form. One of the most re- 
cent and perhaps the most interest- 
ing services to be developed to meet 
a special need is the Social Service 
Department maintained at Relief 
Society headquarters. 

This Department has grown out 
of the need of the Church in a city 
the size of Salt Lake for a central 
bureau where wards can bring their 
knotty problems of families in 
trouble to specially trained people 
for help in planning and in the mak- 
.ing of adjustments. It has also 
grown out of the need of the city 
for a central agency, through which 
unattached L. D. S. families in dis- 
tress who apply to, or are reported 
by other agencies to the Social Serv- 
ice Department can be put into 
touch with their local bishops or 
ward presidents. It is an agency 
through which all L. D. S. families 
most satisfactorily receive any need- 
ed service of the organized social 
agencies of the city. And likewise, 
its function of teaching volunteer 
Relief Society workers throughout 
the Church how to most success- 
fully assist with family problems in 
their own wards and stakes has 
grown as the importance of and the 
need for this work has become bet- 
ter understood. This work, under 
General Board direction, is carried 
on by means of special classes and 
social service institutes at head- 
quarters and in the various stakes. 
THE Relief Society Social Service 
Department began in 1919 at 



the close of the war, during which 
trying period the Relief Society of- 
fice had assisted the Red Cross with 
L. D. S. family work. It commenced 
in a small way with one worker, and 
it has grown steadily until it now 
employs a supervisor, five family 
case workers, one employment 
worker and a stenographer. The 
late President Joseph F. Smith, al- 
ways a friend to the work, advised 
the opening of this Department at 
Relief Society headquarters. This 
was done under the direction of 
President Emmeline B. Wells and 
her Board with Mrs. Amy B. Ly- 
man in charge. The work grew 
steadily and increased practically to 
its present status during the ad- 
ministration of President Clarissa S. 
Williams, who succeeded" Aunt Em" 
as General President of the Relief 
Society, and who was most actively 
interested in the development of the 
most approved methods of doing 
family work. 

But the leading spirit in the estab- 
lishment and development of social 
work in the Church was and has 
continued to be Mrs. Amy B. Ly- 
man, General Secretary of Relief 
Society from 1913 until 1928, and 
now first counselor to President 
Louise Y. Robison and Director of 
Social Service. To her tireless work 
and keen appreciation of the greater 
development of organized social 
work among our people is due much 
of the credit for the growth of social 
service generally in the Church, and 
of this special department with its 
various types of service. 

WARD bishops and "Relief So- 
iety presidents in Salt Lake 



RELIEF SOCIETY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT 15 

City and vicinity need the service of the recommendations of the Depart- 
the Social Service Department in ment as to what seems to be the 
some ways more than do the wards thing that will help the family most, 
in smaller communities, as condi- And together they work out details 
tions are such that in the city very of the plan. The cooperation of the 
few people who are not well situated Social Service Department with 
financially own a home but rent wards often carries another advan- 
instead. They move about a great tage in that the Department is an 
deal from ward to ward so that in agency of recognized professional 
the more congested sections it is dif- standing in the community. Its 
ficult for anyone to know their per- recommendation to other social 
sonal situation without making a agencies in the city for service on 
definite study of this. City officers a particular case is at once complied 
of wards in congested districts do with so far as these agencies are 
not have the advantage of intimate, able to meet the need. For instance, 
long-time acquaintance with these if after investigation by the depart- 
families, with their work and hab- ment it appears that Mrs. Jones 
its, relatives and general financial should have care at the County 
situation, etc., as is the case in Infirmary the County officials ad- 
the small town. In the city if Mr. mit her there as soon as there 
Blank is suddenly taken ill and his is a bed available. Or if re- 
family reported to the ward as be- lief must be supplied in the home 
ing in distress, the matter of mak- due to illness or other cause, the 
ing the wisest and best solution of County Department of Charities 
such a family problem is therefore will put this in upon recommenda- 
not a simple one. And the number tion of the Department. This saves 
of such cases in many wards is so considerable ward money, as recom- 
large that these ward officers, be mendation usually is that the ex- 
they ever so efficient, find them- pense be about equally divided be- 
selves unable to do all the work tween church and county. This 
necessary even though they give close type of cooperation applies to 
most generously of their time. Also, all agencies with which the Depart- 
they frequently feel the need of ad- ment works. Other social agencies 
vice on some of the most knotty refer all L. D. S. persons asking 
problems from people who specialize them for service or assistance to the 
in social work. Relief Society Social Service De- 
It is at these points that the Social partment for investigation and rec- 
Service Department is often asked ommendation. 
to take up the case, get acquainted 

with the family and learn the facts T^HE average number of families 
about their present trouble, how the * worked with in 1929 was 330 
family and their close relatives feel each month. These families are scat- 
matters could best be worked out, tered through all the city stakes and 
and what resources there are in the close in county wards, the large num- 
family and in the city for working ber. being in the more congested sec- 
them out. This often entails cor- tions of the city. Of these, 220 
respondence and contacts with agen- families received some relief, while 
cies and relatives in other localities. 110 received no relief but service in 
Then the worker has a talk with the adjustments. Often the greatest 
ward president reporting the case, need of a family is health or em- 
explaining the situation and giving ployment or educational opportunity 



16 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

or a better understanding of and tutes have been carried out to the 

appreciation for each other rather different stakes upon their request 

than relief. The aim of the De- for this service. In all, sixty such 

partment is always to strengthen institutes have been held in the 

the family in all ways so that it can Church, varying in length from six 

carry its own load as soon as pos- weeks to a few days. Ward presi- 

sible. dents, stake and ward social aids in 

THE Social Service Department attendance. It is only in Salt Lake 
as such handles no relief except City and vicinity that the benefit of 
a small emergency fund provided direct assistance with case work 
by the General Board and an also from the Social Service Department 
comparatively small milk fund can be made generally available. It 
which the General Board and the is hoped that in the future this serv- 
S takes provide for. These funds ice from the Department can be ex- 
are used in the various city stakes, tended to remote stakes by means 
Funds are supplied, as indicated of a traveling field worker who may 
above, through ward bishops and spend a limited time in each section 
Relief Society presidents, and assisting wards with knotty prob- 
through the County Department of lems. At present, during time that 
Charities, the latter relief on recom- institutes are being held in outlying 
mendation of Social Service Depart- stakes some direct assistance is 
ment. The General Board however given these stakes. In the institutes 
operates a storehouse of used cloth- the women are taught the underly- 
ing, quilts and furniture which is ing principles of social case work 
given or loaned to needy families, and practical use of community re- 
in making budgets, clothing from sources. Also professional people 
the storehouse is relied upon for a and public officials with whom the 
considerable part of the clothing workers will need to co-operate, 
supply. sucn as physicians, educators, county 

WHILE the handling of this officers, etc. are invited to meet the 
family work is the major ac- group on the angles of social work 
tivity of the Department, its social in which they are most active. And 
service institutes held upon call of the bishops are always invited to 
the General Board and under its im- take part in these classes, it being 
mediate direction, is an important recognized that one of the import- 
part of its activity. Almost since ant points in good ward work is 
the organization of the Department effective co-operation between bish- 
this work has been carried on but op and ward president, 
has recently been intensified under The general educational value of 
the administration of President the institutes can hardly be over- 
Robison to include church-wide in- estimated. They have up to date 
struction of volunteer workers in reached over twenty-nine hundred 
all stakes. It has been long recog- individuals. In addition to this 
nized that rural districts have many regular institute work the Depart- 
of the same social problems to cope ment has trained nineteen people 
with as urban sections do, and that who have taken up social work as a 
instruction of social aids willing to profession. It has also given some 
volunteer some time with stake and assistance in University of Utah Ex- 
ward work is of as vital importance tension courses in receiving students 
there as it is in the larger centers, for field work in family case work. 
Therefore these social service insti- Instruction and some field experi- 



RELIEF SOCIETY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT 17 



ence has for a number of years been 
extended to L. D. S. Hospital nurses 
during their senior year. This serv- 
ice has been given at the request of 
these institutions. 

ONE of the special activities of 
the Social Service Department 
which is of general interest is its 
summer outing work with under- 
privileged children in the various 
outlying stake Relief Societies. This 
work has been carried on rather ex- 
tensively for the past six years. 
These stake Relief Societies have 
most generously co-operated with 
the Department in receiving the 
children into their homes, while the 
Salt Lake City stakes and the Gen- 
eral Board have met the expense of 
transportation and necessary cloth- 
ing, etc. These children are all un- 
dernourished or from homes where 
sickness, unemployment or other un- 
fortunate conditions have deprived 
them of the home privileges that 
most children enjoy. These little 
folk have enjoyed these outings im- 
mensely and have shown a general 
gain in weight upon their return. 
The usual length of such outings is 
two weeks but' some children have 
remained as guests for several weeks 
at the request of the homes in which 
they were entertained. Occasionally 
a child becomes homesick and is re- 
turned home before his time is up, 
but on the other hand last summer 
one little boy had such a good time 
on his Idaho outing that he later 
ran away from home, taking a little 
companion with him, and returned 
there without waiting for the for- 
mality of another invitation! And 
Cache Valley, Davis and Utah Coun- 
ty stakes have been just as popular 
with the children. From 60 to 80 
children are sent on these outings 
each year. 

In addition to the stake work in 
summer outing, the Utah Tubercu- 



losis Association has for the past 
three years, since the opening of its 
fresh air camp in Cottonwood Can- 
yon, received nine or ten children 
through the Department, children 
who are badly underweight or who 
are known to have been in contact 
with active cases of tuberculosis in 
their home. The purpose of this 
camp is to build up children who 
might otherwise contract tubercu- 
losis because of run down condition. 
The children are given six weeks 
in this camp and last summer 
showed an average gain in weight of 
4.5 lbs. each. 

A NOTHER important service 
-** maintained in the offices of the 
Social Service Department is that 
of an employment Bureau for 
women. In 1929 there were 
in all 1,867 positions secured 
by the Bureau. The larger number 
of these was for housework and 
cooking, but a few factory, laundry, 
sewing, practical nursing, pantry 
work, chamber maid, dish washer, 
waitress, janitor, nurse maid, maton, 
clerking, and office positions were 
also secured for women and girls. 
It is a service appreciated by many 
L. D. S. women and girls. 

^HUS is the Relief Society, by 
A means of its Social Service De- 
partment, rising up to meet the 
special growing need of its people 
for professional social service in 
solving some of the difficult prob- 
lems at hand for the teaching of 
the many fine volunteer Relief So- 
ciety workers to assist them in 
carrying on their work more ef- 
fectively, for close cooperative 
work with community agencies, and 
for the carrying on of such other 
special activities as may be extended 
to meet a particular need of the 
people. 




The L* D* S* Children's Hospital 

£3/ Vera P. WMqirist 

"That broken and twisted little bones may be straightened and healed ; that 
faltering little feet shall walk; that listless little hands shall wave; that dull eyes 
shall sparkle ; that cries of pain shall be turned into glad song and laughter ; to that 
end and to the children themselves this hospital is dedicated." 



THE L. D. S. Children's Hos- 
pital, the pioneer institution 
of its kind in the state of 
Utah, had its beginning in 1911. 

Inspiration for such a movement 
grew out of some surprising and 
pathetic conditions referred to the 
Primary General Board. 

This institution is maintained by 
an unusually unique plan. During 
the months of March, April and 
May every person in the Church, 
both old and young, is invited to 
contribute one penny for each year 
of his age. These contributions are 
called "birthday pennies." This an- 
nual collection, together with special 
donations of food, clothing, etc., 
from the various ward and stake 
organizations, make possible the 
continuation of this free hospital 
service. 

From 1911 to May, 1922, before 
the Convalescent Hospital was es- 
tablished, 52 cases were given treat- 
ment in the Dr. Groves L. D. S. 
Hospital. 



During the following eight 
months, from May to Dec, 1922, 
53 applications were made and the 
necessary treatment rendered. 

IN 1923, the first complete year in 
our report, 82 cases were re- 
corded. All of them, except one, 
were successfully treated for the 
following ailments : Osteomelitus, 
(bone trouble), 21; Hip Trouble, 
9; Infantile Paralysis, 14; Spinal 
Abnormality, 6 ; Tonsil Infection, 5 ; 
Heart Trouble, 3 ; Club Feet, 4 ; 
Lung Trouble, 1 ; Accidents, 1 ; 
Wry-Neck, 1. The one exception 
was a case of too long standing pre- 
vious to hospital registration. 

Up until November, 1930, over 
one thousand children have received 
professional assistance in The L. D. 
S. Children's Hospital, at a total 
cost of $178,250.03. During the cur- 
rent year $18,269.38 has been con- 
tributed for the maintenance of this 
institution, by our Primary Asso- 
ciations. 



L. D. S. CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 



19 



THE General Board is especially 
grateful to everyone that has 
helped to make this undertaking a 
success. Although the hospital can 
comfortably accommodate but 
twenty-five children, an average of 
forty is the regular registration. 
While the institution was established 
primarily to care for Primary chil- 
dren whose parents cannot meet the 
financial obligation, its hospitality is 
extended to all who are in need of 
such care. When the capacity per- 
mits, remunerative cases are also 
accepted. 

"The majority of patients are 
brought to Salt Lake City and taken 
to the Dr. Groves L. D. S. Hospital 
for major operations, then are 
moved to the Children's Hospital 
for convalescence. Minor opera- 
tions are performed at the Chil- 
dren's Hospital. Leading physicians 
and surgeons give their service free 
of charge. Where it is possible pa- 
tients are taken care of in hospitals 
established in their own communi- 
ties. In such cases, bills for room 
rent, operating services, etc., are 
sent to and paid for by the General 
Primary Association." 

Registration of Cases 

BEFORE a child can be placed 
as a Primary Association pa- 
tient in any hospital, the following 
preliminaries must be made : 

1. The case must be thoroughly 
diagnosed by a competent physician 
to see if the condition is remedial. 
(Feebleminded, epileptic, contagious 
and incurable cases cannot be con- 
sidered.) 

2. A hospital blank must be se- 
cured from the office of the General 
Primary Board, filled out and for- 
warded to that office if possible 
before the child arrives. However, 
emergency cases may be received 
without it. 



3. A letter announcing the time 
of the child's expected arrival should 
be sent to the General Office. 

4. The child, together with the 
blank properly filled out, should be 
brought to the General Office. 
This blank should be signed by 
the Ward Primary Superintendent, 
the Ward Bishop and the President 
of the Stake. If convenient, the 
Stake Superintendent of the Pri- 
mary Association should sign it 
also; if not, she should be given 
the necessary information regard- 
ing the child that she may keep in 
touch with it and have a complete 
record of all children who receive 
help from the L. D. S. Children's 
Hospital. 

The Sunny Side 

\ LITTLE boy five years old had 
f* cataracts on both eyes. He had 
never seen a ray of sunshine; not 
even his mother's face. After one 
operation by a competent physician, 
his sight was restored. The grateful 
mother, with tear dimmed eyes, said 
it * was like a miracle, almost too 
good to be true. Before coming to 
the hospital, he was cross and fret- 
ful ; afterward, he showed symp- 
toms of a cheerful disposition. 

Another boy, eleven years of age, 
had not walked since babyhood. He 
crept on his knees around the house. 
Whenever he desired to go some dis- 
tance, his older brother carried him 
on his back. An operation was per- 
formed on his legs and after being 
in a cast for six months, he could 
stand upon his feet. Later by the 
use of braces he walked with 
crutches. 

A tiny girl eight years of age, 
had not been able to go to school 
because of cataracts on her eyes. 
After the second operation, she, too, 
could see. She visited all the other 
children of the hospital and related 



20 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



to them the good news. With her 
rosy face beaming with joy, she told 
them that on that day she had seen 
her first airplane. On Christinas 
after she returned home, she called 
on the Bishop of her ward and the 
Superintendent of the Primary to 
thank them for signing the applica- 
tion. The Superintendent of the 
Primary Association said that the 
child's expression of gratitude to 
her was the best Christmas present 
she had ever received. The little 
girl also wrote to the General Board 
to thank them for what had been 
done for her. 

Amid all her rejoicing she did not 
forget to say, "Thank you" to her 
Father in Heaven. 

Educational Opportunities 

EACH year these boys and girls 
have the opportunity of pur- 
suing their regular school work 
under the direction of the Salt Lake 
City Schools. Through the kind 
cooperation of Superintendent G. N. 
Child, every possible educational ad- 
vantage is offered to the patients of 
the Primary Hospital. 

Not all of these children are 
handicapped to the extent that they 
cannot attend school. Such cases 
are enrolled either in the grades of 
the Lafayette School or the classes 
of the West Junior High School. 

Little children who are too seri- 
ously afflicted to go to these 
schools are taught at the Hospital 
by an especially appointed teacher 
of the Salt Lake Schools. 

During the past year, each child 
completed the standardized course 
of study for his particular grade, 
and in each instance, at the close of 
the school year, a certificate of pro- 
motion was presented. This seems 
an unusual achievement for chil- 
dren who are so physically handi- 
capped. It also bespeaks words of 



praise for those loyal teachers who 
so efficiently carried on this work. 

"Red Letter" Days 

THROUGH the efforts of the 
Granite Stake Primary under 
the direction of Sister Josephine G. 
Goff, a moving picture machine was 
installed by an enthusiastic patron, 
Mr. David Neff. The splendid work 
begun by Sister Goff was later 
continued by Sister Margaret Jen- 
sen. 

As a result of this interest in the 
happiness of the children at the 
Hospital, a film has been presented 
each week by one of our local pic- 
ture houses. In most instances the 
pictures have been attractive and 
of a character promoting nature. 

Once each year the children of the 
Hospital are given a day's outing at 
one of our parks. On this occasion 
the Police Department of Salt Lake 
City offers ambulance service for 
the transportation of the most se- 
riously afflicted ones. In fact, at 
any time this service is at the dis- 
posal of those who have these chil- 
dren in charge. The Primary Board 
greatly appreciates the willing co- 
operation of this department. 

Religious Training 

TPIE children's auxiliary organi- 
zations of the .Seventeenth 
Ward of Salt Lake City, help, too, 
in bringing sunshine to the lives of 
these unfortunate boys and girls. 

Every Sunday morning some of 
the Sunday School officers and 
teachers conduct exercises for these 
children. The opportunity -to par- 
take of the Sacrament is hereby 
afforded them. 

Under the untiring and capable 
leadership of Sister Rebecca Carr, 
Primary Superintendent of this 
ward, Primary is likewise brought 



L. D. S. CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 



21 



to the Children's Hospital. The 
activities of this organization bring 
week day religious instruction, 
training in the fundamentals of 
health, and opportunities for ap- 
propriate leisure time activities. 
They are taught the common little 
courtesies of life, the gospel mes- 
sage in terms which their youthful 
minds can grasp, and how to offer 
up to their Father in Heaven their 
own little prayerful petitions. 

As a result of one type of leisure 
time instruction, one of the boys 
won two first prizes at the recent 
Utah State Fair. 

Our story would be incomplete 
without a word of commendation 
for the spiritual influence of those in 
charge of this institution. 

Each morning Miss Anna Rosen- 
kilde, the Superintendent, asks the 
blessing on the food. At the noon 
and evening meals, she asks one of 
the children to offer thanks. At 
bedtime she gathers them all around 
her and calls upon one of the older 
ones to offer the goodnight prayer. 
Whenever a little child is seriously 
ill, Miss Rosenkilde calls Sister 
Carr. As soon as possible the 
Elders are summoned and accom- 



panied very often by Sister Carr, 
herself, go to the bedside of the af- 
flicted one. Sister Carr delights in 
serving these unfortunate children 
who always enlist her wholehearted 
sympathy and motherly affection. 
Again, when a patient is to be 
operated upon, Miss Rosenkilde 
sends the name to the Temple, and 
there in the special prayer circle in 
the House of the Lord, these sick 
children are remembered. 

This atmosphere of spirituality 
seems to be contagious, for very 
often a little child makes its own 
personal request for the administra- 
tion of the Elders. 

One little girl who came from a 
Catholic family said, after her re- 
covery, "I knew I'd be better for 
the good men laid their hands on 
my head and blessed me. How 
could I help but be well and strong 
again !" 

"Little bodies here are made 

Straight and strong and well. 
Little minds are taught to Know 

Truths the Gospel tells. 
Little hands learn how to do 

Many a useful thing. 
Little hearts and voices ever 

Songs of gladness sing." 




A Question in Case Work 



By Annie D. Palmer 



IN the comfortable waiting - room 
of a family agency Joe Mann, 
a lad of eleven years, sat wait- 
ing his turn for service. The office 
girl had paid no attention to Joe 
whatever as she supposed he was 
accompanied by one of the adults 
who was also waiting. The lad 
hung close to the radiator and fum- 
bled his shabby cap contenitedly. 
When every one else had left the 
room the supervisor was informed 
that a very poor little boy had sat 
there for hours and was asking for 
"the lady what rinds homes for 
kids." 

"That last place you got fer me 
haint no good," said Joe by way 
of introduction when Miss Morton 
appeared. "I'll have to try an- 
other." 

"Well — just what do you mean 
by no good? Why isn't it good, 
boy?" 

"My name is Joe Mann. What 
must I call you?" 

"I am Miss Morton. Grace 
Morton." 

"You hain't the one what sent 
me to Arnolds are ye?" 

"No. Maybe that was Miss Dar- 
nell." 

"Yep. That's her. But she 
didn't know much about the Ar- 
nolds." 

"Didn't she? It's a nice home, 
isn't it?" 

"Oh, it's nice all right. But 
they hain't no place to live in it, 
nor to put things — not fer a boy, 
anyway." 

"I thought it was a big house. 
I don't understand." 

"You wouldn't. I guess you 
hain't never lived with some one 



where you didn't belong. Please, 
Miss Morton, can't you find my 
very own mother an' dad? Why 
can't I live with them?" 

"I'm afraid—" 

"Miss Arnold said she guessed 
they was too poor to keep me. I 
don't care how poor they be. If 
they'd jest let me set by the fire, 
an' cuddle close up to 'em some- 
times, I'd love 'em anyway. An' 
maybe I could git a job sellin' papers 
or somethin'." 

"Your mother has gone to heaven, 
Joe." 

"Dead !" 

"Yes." 

"Has my dad gone to heaven, 
too?" 

"I don't think so." 

"Mostly men don't go there, do 
they? Maybe my dad went to hell." 

"Why Joe! I am shocked." 

"That's where Mrs. Arnold keeps 
tellin' Mr. Arnold to go. Will you 
help me find my dad?" 

"Your dad would never make a 
suitable home for you. That's why 
your mother left him." 

"But I'd belong to him!" 

"What makes you think you do 
not belong to the Arnolds?" 

"Well, it's like this. Mr. and 
Mrs. Arnold set in the dining room 
an' listen to the radio an' talk 
about folks, an' wrecks, an' poler- 
ticks, an' earthquakes, an' every- 
thing. An' they don't care if I 
hear or if I don't. An then they 
git' close together an' speak low an 
look at me once in awile, an' nen 
I know they're talkin' about me. 
So I listen awful hard, an' Mrs. 
Arnold says at I never can fit in 
an' she's a gonna change me fer a 



A QUESTION IN CASE- WORK 



23 



girl or somethin'. Miss Morton, 
if you take me away from Arnolds, 
don't never send no girl there. I'd 
ruther stay myself. A girl couldn't 
stand it nohow." 

"What makes you think a girl 
couldn't stand it?" 

"Teacher says 'at girls is weaker 
— weaker — I dunno what that word 
is." 

"But Mrs. Arnold might be love- 
ly to a girl." 

"Oh, no. She couldn't." 

"Where did you live before you 
went to Arnold's?" 

"In the Boy's Detention Home. 
I didn't belong there, neither." 

"Of course you didn't. Tell me 
about it." 

"Well, I was so hungry ! Have 
you ever been turrible, tumble 
hungry, so 'at yer stumic jest felt 
kinda like it was mashed?" 

"Yes." 

"But you could go some place 
where you belonged an' git some 
dinner couldn't ye? I didn't belong 
nowhere, an' I asked some fellers 
on the street fer some money. So 
they told a cop 'at I was beggin' 
an' I got sent to the home. It was 
better'n Arnold's though." 

THE small office in which this 
interview was held grew dark, 
and the sophisticated young client 
became restless. Miss Morton was 
sorely puzzled. The lad had been 
placed in three different homes, be- 
sides spending a few weeks in the 
Boy's Detention Home. The only 
complaint against him was that he 
strayed about after school and was 
over sensitive about being corrected. 
The social worker began to see what 
it all meant. She remembered his 
earlier history, how his defenseless 
mother with her little brood had 
often left the home at nightfall in 
fear of the father who would come 



home drunk and beat them. She 
remembered when the mother a few 
days before her death had begged 
that her children be rescued from 
the man whose duty it was to pro- 
tect and shelter them. Joe was 
too young to remember. He had 
been placed in an institution. When 
he became very ill he had been taken 
to a hospital, where he was kept 
for nearly a year. Then he spent 
a few years with a distant aunt, 
who took him only because she saw 
in his care a possible way to keep 
her own children from want. His 
father failed to contribute and fi- 
nally the aunt was obliged to take 
employment away from home. She 
could no longer continue the care 
of Joe. It was then that the agency 
began the placement of the lad, 
which, as already stated, developed 
into a series. 

The big brown eyes of the child 
ran over as Miss Morton gently 
patted his shoulder and assured him 
there must be a place where he 
really belonged; and that she and 
Miss Darnell would never give up 
till they had found the place. To- 
night he must return to the Arnolds 
who might even now be wondering 
where he was. 

The weather was bitterly cold. 
Miss Morton offered a coat which 
Joe. would not wear because it was 
too big for him. He confided to 
her that he had two good suits at 
the Arnold home, but was wearing 
these old clothes which were his 
very own because he had not in- 
tended to return. He was given a 
streetcar ticket which would take 
him within half a block of home. 
He was accustomed to going about 
by himself. That was no part of 
his problem. 

Miss Darnell had now returned 
to the office and Miss Morton called 
her for consultation. Miss Darnell 



24 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



believed Joe was right about not 
being wanted at Arnold's. Mrs. 
Arnold had consented to take him 
only to satisfy her husband, and she 
seemed to grow more and more 
peevish about the extra work. She 
was jealous, too ; and any attention 
shown the boy by Mr. Arnold was 
the occasion for a quarrel or an 
angry pout. Joe's school record was 
very satisfactory. He was quick 
and alert and often showed wisdom 
beyond his years. He excelled in 
music and art. Many of his draw- 
ings and water color pieces were 
exhibited among the best work of 
the grade. But he was underweight 
and seemed not to care to play. 

The young women decided that 
Joe should have another home. But 
they were more than puzzled about 
finding one. They got the bunch 
of application cards from the filing 
case, and went over them one by 
one. Nearly all the requests were 
for infants. There was a farmer 
in the southern part of the state 
who wanted a boy of the age that 
Joe might fit. But investigation 
had shown that 1 the farmer was 
keeping his own boys from school 
a big part of the time ; and that 
his concern lay much more in the 
raising of good hogs than in the 
training of potential men. A widow 
who had recently buried an only 
son had applied for such a boy as 
Joe, too. Her income was too 
meagre to think about, and her 
health was failing. Besides, every 
social worker would agree that 
what Joe needed more than anything 
else was normal family life, which 
means a father and a mother. It 
looked very discouraging for Joe. 
Miss Morton said nothing about it, 
but in her heart she wished that she 
herself could offer this fine little 
lad the kind of home he ought to 
have. 



THE supervisor continued to rake 
her brain about Joe long after 
she went to bed that night, wonder- 
ing who would take him, and how 
she could help to get him inter- 
preted right. When they did place 
him again it must be with a better 
understanding of his needs and the 
feeling of security and friendliness 
that up to the present had failed 
to touch his life. At last the tired 
worker fell asleep and dreamed that 
she was a child again, closely folded 
in her mother's arms, while soft 
lullabies and gentle bedtime stories 
soothed her to rest. She thought 
of Joe wistfully while she took her 
morning bath, and sorrowfully on 
her way to work. There was some- 
thing in the manner of this waif, 
in the appealing look of his beauti- 
ful eyes that she was quite unable 
to brush aside, as though he who 
felt that he didn't belong anywhere, 
really belonged to her. She smiled 
to herself at what the verdict of 
such a piece of social work would 
be. 

"Who was Joe's mother?" she 
asked abruptly in answer to the 
pleasant "Good morning" of Miss 
Darnell. 

Miss Darnell couldn't remember, 
Her maiden name wasn't on the 
record. Strange they had over- 
looked that. They must get the 
information from Joe. 

A moment later Miss Morton was 
called to the telephone. The icy 
tones of a proud woman answered 
her. 

"Mrs. Arnold speaking. Joe 
Mann was knocked down by an 
auto last night at dusk. His left 
leg is badly broken, also his left 
arm. The doctor says there may 
be internal injuries. The kid is in 
a very bad condition, and I can't 
stay with him. He is at the County 
Hospital. He is calling for his 
mother," 



A QUESTION IN CASE WORK 



25 



Miss Morton felt a wild impulse 
to rush to the injured lad, but it 
was really Miss Darnell's case. Why 
should she be chasing out on it. 
And what could any one do just 
now except to assure herself that 
everything - possible would be done 
for the child at the hospital ? When 
Miss Darnell returned she said even 
her visit was unnecessary because 
everyone at the hospital knew Joe 
and loved him. She found him 
lying still and white on his pillows 
gazing with admiration at a picture 
of his mother in a tiny locket. The 
peaceful look on his face had made 
Miss Darnell wonder if here was 
where he felt that he really be- 
longed. 

A smart young attorney of the 
Legal Aid Society was asked to go 
after the legal phase of the situa- 
tion in the hope there might be 
compensation. He found that the 
driver of the car had reported at 
the sheriff's office and no arrest was 
made. A ragged waif had darted 
in front of his car, the accident was 
unavoidable. He had paid $50 to 
the kid's father and had supposed 
the matter settled. The man was 
now held under a thousand dollars 
bail pending trial when Joe was 
better. 

For weeks Joe seemed to grow 
thinner and paler. The broken 
bones were knit, but the broken 
spirit continued to droop. Miss 
Darnell went out on vacation, and 
Miss Morton found a good reason 
for visiting the hospital. Joe smiled 
as she came to the bed and clasped 
his small, white hand. 

"How are you, Joe? Better?" she 
asked cheerfully. 

"Yep. Have you got a place for 
me yet?" 

"Well, you see we had to sort o' 
wait for you to get well. You've 
been ill a long time." 

"I'll say I have. Only fer jest 



a poor kid like me, we call it plain 
sick. Shall I tell ye somethin' ?" 

"Sure. A secret?" 

"Kind of. They's been quite a 
lot of folks here, doctors an' nurses, 
an — an — 

"And lawyers?" 

"Yep. An' I've picked out a 
dad." 

"You have?" 

"But I hain't seen his wife yet. 
You said I must have a mother 
and a father." 

"So I did. Let's hope the wife 
is the very kind of woman you'd 
like for a mother, Joe. Have you 
talked to him about it?" 

"Nope. I thought you had to do 
that." 

"Oh, I see. Referring it to a 
specialist. Well, who is the lucky 
man? I suppose I'd better see him." 

"I've got a card with his name — " 
The child fumbled about under his 
pillow and drew forth a card with 
the name, Samuel R. Harvey, At- 
torney at Law. "That's him," he 
said, "He's -sure some guy. Calls 
me Mr. Mann. An' tells me about 
goin' fishin', an' says he'll hire me 
to caddy an' sweep his office when 
I git well. Gee, won't it be fine 
to earn money to buy clothes an' 
lunches ?" 

Miss Morton had never met At- 
torney Harvey, but she had heard 
him over radio in a series of talks 
to boy scouts. She remembered 
how sound and inspiring these talks 
had been. How simple the words ! 
How pleasing the voice ! No won- 
der he had captured the heart of 
Joe. 

"You can see him today if you 
wait. He said he'd bring me some 
ice cream at four o'clock." 

"It's three-thirty now." 

"Three-twenty-nine to be exact." 
The lad held out his wrist for veri- 
fication. 



26 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



"Did he give you the wrist 
watch ?" 

"Nope. He let me take it so's 
I can tell when he's comin'. I'm 
gonna buy it of him when I git 
well. He said it would help me 
to be exact.' , 

"Fine. Well, then I'll go and 
talk to the doctor, and come back 
ten minutes after Mr. Harvey does. 
O. K.?" 

"That will be exactly four ten, 
won't it?" 

DR. TAYLOR reported that Joe 
should be removed from the 
hospital, but there seemed to be 
no suitable home. He was not 
gaining. IWhat he needed was 
mothering. His was a nature very 
fine and sensitive, one that responds 
quickly to environment ; and a hos- 
pital is no suitable place for such 
patients. Miss Morton assured the 
doctor that she understood the sit- 
uation and would do all in her 
power to get him located as soon 
as possible. When Dr. Taylor had 
hurried away, she still had ten min- 
utes before she might again venture 
into the semi-private ward where 
Joe would introduce her to his 
friend. She earnestly hoped for 
the sake of the boy, that Mr. Har- 
vey would consider giving him a 
home. (She hoped Mr. Harvey's 
wife would show the same fine 
spirit the boy had discovered in his 
attorney. And yet before the ten 
minutes were ended, she had half 
planned to herself undertake the 
care of the little patient ; and she 
almost wished Mr. Harvey would 
not consider the request. Again 
she thought over her old casework 
principle that the child should have 
a father and a mother. She must 
undertake the delicate task of try- 
ing to place a boy where there was 
no application, and had never been 



the slightest indication that a child 
was wanted. 

How could she under these cir- 
cumstances broach the subject to 
Mr. Harvey whom she had never 
met before? She felt almost elo- 
quent on the subject of Joe's need, 
but would she be able to control 
her emotion? 

It was four ten "to be exact,'' 
when she opened the door of the 
ward. Mr. Harvey sat with his 
back to the door holding the hand 
of Joe. 

"Now the nurse will soon be in- 
viting me to leave," he was saying, 
"in which case I might get angry 
and not come back." 

"But you will listen to Miss Mor- 
ton first, won't you? She wants 
to ask you somethin'." 

"I beg your pardon, Miss Mor- 
ton," said the attorney, rising. "I 
thought a nurse opened the door. 
Be seated." 

"I can sit on the edge of Joe's 
bed," she replied, "while you keep 
the chair. I am so glad to meet 
you. So appreciative of your in- 
terest in Joe. So anxious for his 
welfare. You see we are looking 
for a suitable home for Joe, some 
place where he will feel security, 
and a sense that he really belongs. 
He is a fine lad, and I'd love to 
have him myself. In fact I had 
partly planned — only a boy needs a 
mother and. a da.d. Besides, Joe 
has taken such a liking to you. In 
fact he has really chosen you, se- 
lected you, as it were ; and hopes 
you can be induced to let him be 
your son — providing, of course, 
Mrs. Harvey might approve. You'll 
think me queer in making this kind 
of proposition to you when we are 
comparative strangers, and I must 
admit it is poor casework. My only 
excuse is the good of the boy. It 
doesn't need to be decided today, 
does it little Man?" 



A QUETION IN CASE WORK 



27 



The attorney looked her over for 
about a minute before he answered : 
"If you weren't so earnest and so 
frightened, I'd laugh. Of course I'm 
going to be a 'dad to Joe. He be- 
longs to me! The picture he has 
in that locket is my sister Lucy, 
whom I saw last before Joe was 
born. But I have no home, and 
no Mrs. Harvey to consult. Can 
Joe stay here for two more weeks 
while I make preparation for the 
family life? And, Miss Morton, 



may I see you this evening and talk 
further about plans for the mother- 
ing of Joe? I know I shouldn't 
ask for appointments after office 
hours, but the business is very ur- 
gent." 

"It will be exactly two weeks, 
won't it?" Joe asked wondering. 

Mr. Harvey looked into the smil- 
ing eyes of the woman and replied : 
"I think so. We shall work very 
fast." 



The Neighborhood House 



By Ellen Taylor 



THE work of the Neighbor- 
hood House was begun in 
1894, when the Board of 
Managers started a free Kinder- 
garten on the East Side of town. 
After many changes of locality the 
work was centered at 753 West 1st 
South in 1911, and there it remained 
until 1928 when a beautiful new 
building was erected at 727 West 
1st South which now houses the 
various activities. 

The Day Nursery, for care of 
children whose mothers must work 
for their living outside the home, is 
open every week day at seven in 
the morning. The members of it 
range from nine months to nine 
years old. They come from all parts 
of town. They come in autos, 
trucks, street cars and on foot. 
Their rooms are furnished as me- 
morials, more helpful than those of 
marble. The Rosemary Room is 
full of little green beds, each one 
inscribed with the name of the giver 
and of the one in whose memory it 
was given. The playground was 
supplied by the city with the best 
possible equipment, including jun- 
glegym, sandbox and wading pool. 



The meals served are what the 
children need and enjoy with plenty 
of fresh vegetables, fruit and milk. 
It is a day home for those who 
come. The average attendance in 
October, 1930, was forty-six. Each 
application is signed by the parent 
with the understanding that the 
child will be vaccinated, take dip- 
theria anti-toxin and have what- 
ever medical or dental care is 
needed. The enrollment for the 
year April 1, 1929, to April 1, 1930, 
was one hundred and eighty-one 
children, coming from one hundred 
and fifteen families. 

THE Board of Health Clinic 
makes it 'convenient for the 
W r est Side mothers to bring their 
babies without a trip to town, and 
the crowded room shows how this 
service is appreciated. 

The Public Library keeps a lend- 
ing station and reading room open 
three afternoons a week. Many 
gifts of books supplement those the 
library can buy. The nationality, 
especially of the youngest readers, 
is varied : Chinese, Italian, Greek 
and Austrian have a common in- 



28 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



terest in stories and go off with 
books that introduce them to good 
English literature. 

The Kindergarten, a branch of 
the Franklin Public School, is in 
the house, supported and directed 
by the Board of Education, for the 
use of the nursery children and 
others who live near. The room 
was beautifully equipped by the 
School Board when the house was 
opened. 

The Girl Scouts and Brownies 
have each a Neighborhood House 
Troop to the advantage of the 
House and the girls, who often find 
here needs for their services. The 
art of sewing is taught to girls at 
the Saturday morning Sewing 
School and many of them give up 
their holiday for their improvement 
and pleasure. The teachers are all 
volunteers who are glad to help. 
For several years, two of them were 
Public School teachers giving their 
leisure morning to serve these chil- 
dren. 

THHE Handicraft class is for wo- 
-1 men to help them earn money 
while at home. It is carried on 
by two board members. Orders 
are taken for embroidery, table and 
bed linen, and for careful mending, 
lace, sweaters, etc. One of the wo- 
men who was taught at home in 
Norway, has filled orders for mend- 
ing delicate fabrics very satisfactor- 
ily, as well as doing the other work 
of the class. There are evening 
and afternoon clubs for girls and 
women. 

The Employment Office is carried 
on to find work for the women 
who go out to do housework, clean- 
ing, etc., and to provide the house- 
keepers of the town with their ser- 
vice. Many of the nursery and 
other mothers, have supported 
themselves and their families for 



years through this office. This last 
year has been very difficult, as there 
have been fewer calls for workers 
and many more demands for work. 
Where so many men are unem- 
ployed, or only on part time, the 
women must help to keep up the 
home, pay the incidental expenses 
of home life besides the food and 
clothes needed by school children. 
On this account, friends of the 
Neighborhood House have helped 
with clothing for some of the fam- 
ilies, so that the boys and girls may 
use the advantages of the city 
schools. It is hard to see a promis- 
ing young girl give up the work 
and play of High School to take a 
position as houseworker for the sup- 
port of her parents and the home. 
Yet the girls who have done so 
feel that the help they give is their 
reward. 

A BAZAAR was held one day. 
years ago, to raise additional 
money needed for the support of 
the Neighborhood House, and it 
was so successful both financially 
and in giving to the neighbors what 
they could not buy at the same price 
in the stores, that out of this ex- 
perience developed the Neighbor- 
hood House Shop. It was housed 
in various places until it was con- 
venient to buy a little corner build- 
ing that had been a laundry. A 
retired business man gave of his 
time and skill in directing it until 
hi° ath. ''"vOpen three afternoons 
a week with four saleswomen, it 
reaches not only neighbors but peo- 
ple from quite a distance. Gifts 
for sale are sent from other Utah 
towns, as donors have become in- 
terested. Tomatoes and apples from 
outlying farms have been sold at 
prices that cover the cost of hauling 
and give unemployed truckmen a 
small wage. Furniture has helped 



THE NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 



29 



families to start a permanent home 
after a wandering existence of fur- 
nished lodging's. Clothing of all 
sorts is for sale, from pretty, fresh 
things that are occasionally given, 
to materials good only for quilts or 
rugs. Flannels, children's clothes 
and shoes are always needed. Toys 
and costumes are sold or rented 
for occasions and at Halloween 
several were happily outfitted. The 
money ;raised by the shop helps 
materially in the support of the 
Neighborhood House. 

THE Neighborhood House is 
one of the Salt Lake Com- 
munity Chest agencies. The State 
of Utah (makes an appropriation 
chiefly so that by bringing their 
children to the nursery its widowed 
and other needy mothers may feel 
free to work to support the home. 
The shop receipts, nursery fees, the 
State and Community Chest appro- 
priations, support the work of the 
Neighborhood House. The building 
of the new house and its equipment 
was done altogether through special 
gifts. 

The old house was given up for 
the larger, better one, but still has 
its place in West Side work. It 
is now used as a Club House during 



the winter and a Playground Center 
during the summer months, sup- 
ported by men's service clubs and 
the City through its Park and Play- 
ground Departments. 

pHRISTMAS festivities last 
^ over a week, and many differ- 
ent groups enjoy the good cheer. 
Thanksgiving time is really a time 
of rejoicing — the nursery children 
with some big brothers and sisters 
celebrate first at their "day home" 
and later with their mothers at their 
own homes. Last year a real 
Thanksgiving dinner was given by 
a friendly club to all our nursery 
mothers, who fully appreciate the 
great treat of being served at table. 
For all the holiday entertainments, 
parties, picnics, gifts, etc., we are 
indebted to schools, clubs and in- 
terested friends of all ages, rich 
and poor. Volunteer service helps 
in every phase of the Neighbor- 
hood House work, sewing, working 
with the pre-school children, car- 
rying on dubs, friendly visiting, 
music, auto service, etc. 

By its location, by its many con- 
tacts with its neighbors and by the 
present advantages of better equip- 
ment, Neighborhood House hopes 
for a future of greater usefulness. 




THE NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 



Alberta Carries Health to its Children 



By Frank Steele 



THE province of Alberta, Can- 
ada, is waging war on de- 
fective teeth, tonsils, ade- 
noids, ruptures, eye troubles and 
other defects undermining the 
health of its children. For six 
years now the department of health 
has sponsored a system of travel- 
ling health clinics, a movement for 
child health that actually carries the 
services of skilled doctors and 
nurses to the doors of the people 
giving the children needed attention 
at a fraction of the ordinary cost. 
Dental service is also given and 
early in the past year an aggressive 
mouth health campaign was inaug- 
urated to cover the whole of the 
province. 

"Save the children and you save 
all," to paraphrase the well known 
slogan of a commercial group, 
seems to be the keynote of the Al- 
berta ^authorities. To quote (the 
words of the minister of health, 
Hon. George Hoadley, the policy of 
the government is as follows : "The 
department of public health takes 
the attitude that the health and well- 
being of the children of the province 
is of primary importance, and thor- 
oughly realizes the fact that there 
are a great many instances where 
parents are too far removed from 
the cities or other hospital centers, 
or who are financially unable to 
undertake the considerable cost of 
bringing their children to these cen- 
ters for proper treatment of remedi- 
able defects which are retarding 
their physical and mental develop- 
ment." 

Thousands of Alberta mothers are 
eager to have a visit from the trav- 
elling child welfare clinic which 
travels through the province during 



the summer months. During the 
summer of 1929 a total of 121 clinics 
were held at centers reaching all 
the way from the fringe of the 
Arctic to the United States bound- 
ary, and 2,566 children were exam- 
ined. Of this number 772 only 
were found to be in perfect con- 
dition, and 1,794 were suffering 
from minor defects. This service 
to the pre-school age children is 
augmented by clinics for school 
children at which, in addition to the 
giving of hints on diet, posture, etc., 
operations are performed, eyes 
fitted for glasses, defective teeth re- 
moved and other work performed 
by government doctors, dentists, eye 
specialists and nurses. 

Usually some local community 
organization cooperates with the 
health department in the holding of 
these clinics. In some of our Lat- 
ter-day Saint communities the Re- 
lief Society organizations have giv- 
en needed backing to the movement. 
Preliminary examinations are made 
by a qualified nurse and the con- 
dition of the children is noted. On 
the appointed day for the opening 
of the clinic, the travelling "hos- 
pital" staff arrives by motor cara- 
van, and further examinations are 
made and those in immediate need 
of surgical or dental help are tab- 
ulated for recommendation to the 
surgical clinic to be held the follow- 
ing day. Following these prelim- 
inaries definite arrangements are 
made with the parents or guardians 
of the little patients, including the 
time of assembly, necessary cloth- 
ing, payment of fees and the sign- 
ing of permission forms. 

The local committee, meanwhile, 



32 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



has made all arrangements for hos- 
pital ward equipment — often the 
clinics are held in schools, halls and 
churches — and by early morning the 
clinic is well away. In a single 
year 663 operations for tonsils and 
adenoids were performed, 89 cir- 
cumcisions, 1311 extractions and 
about 500 other dental treatments. 
In addition to this practical work, 
hundreds of others were either 
given prescriptions or referred to 
their family physicians or dentists 
for surgical and dental work. Scores 
were vaccinated. 

Underlying this travelling clinic 
service is help to the public, hence 
the fees are thought within the 
reach of parents of even very lim- 
ited means. Operations for tonsils 
and adenoids are performed for $15 
with other surgical work in propor- 
tion. For dental work extractions 
run from fifty cents to one dollar, 
fillings from one dollar to two dol- 



lars and other treatments in propor- 
tion. 

Great as is the immediate benefits 
to the child's physical and mental 
condition accruing from the work 
of the travelling clinics, the move- 
ment is having another and perhaps 
greater effect. It is a subtle kind of 
service, the creation in the minds 
of the people of a consciousness of 
the transcendent value of health. 
Alberta's vast stretches have nu- 
merous communities isolated from 
hospital conveniences, often from 1 
medical and dental services, and to 
these communities, struggling to> 
gain a foothold in their new home, 
the travelling health clinic is prov- 
ing a boon indeed. 

To these /rural iolk, many of 
them still halting in their use of 
English, there comes through this 
work privileges hitherto reserved 
for those living in the larger towns 
and cities. 



Municipal Hospitals in Alberta, Canada 



By Dora H. Jacobs 



IN order to give a concrete ex- 
ample of how the Municipal 
Hospital Act operates, I will 
cite the Cardston Municipal Hos- 
pital District. In this district there 
are five units or subdivisions— four 
rural and one urban unit. The 
urban unit is the Town of Cardston. 
In the rural units there is an area 
of 508,197 acres. The district serves 
about 7000 people. 

Before a hospital district is es- 
tablished, a petition is sent to the 
Minister of Health of the Province, 
which petition is signed by at least 
10% of the rate payers or tax 
payers in the particular units seek- 
ing to be formed into a district. 
This petition contains the proposed 
hospital scheme. The scheme sets 



forth on what terms and conditions 
the rate payers desire to be formed 
into a district. 

After receiving the approval of 
the Minister, the scheme is voted 
on by the hospital rate payers in 
the proposed district. If the scheme 
is ratified by vote, it then becomes 
the constitution of the said hospital 
district. 

Each unit has a representative 
on the hospital board which forms 
the governing body of the hospital 
district. The board has powers for 
carrying out the provisions of the 
hospital scheme. Some of the prin- 
cipal provisions of the scheme are 
issuing bonds or debentures, erect- 
ing or purchasing a hospital, en- 
gaging the hospital staff, and in 



MUNICIPAL HOSPITALS 



33 



general assuming of the supervision 
of the said hospital. 

The revenue of the hospital is 
raised by the hospital board making 
a requisition for certain funds each 
year from each of the five con- 
tributing hospital units. In the ur- 
ban unit, the assessment and collec- 
tion of the taxes or rates is made 
by the council of such urban unit. 
In the rural units the assessment 
is made and collected by the Pro- 
vincial government. 

Where rate payers' taxes amount 
to $6.00 yearly, the rate payer and 
all members of his or her house- 
hold obtain all hospital privileges 
for $1.00 per day. These hospital 
privileges do not include the cost of 
a physician in performing opera- 
tions. Persons who are not rate 
payers or who are not hospital sup- 
porters pay $4.50 per day for hos- 
pital privileges besides paying the 
usual fees for surgical operations. 
Any person who resides in the hos- 
pital district, and who pays $6.00 
to the hospital board before the 
first day of March each year, be- 
comes a hospital supporter and is 
entitled with all of the members of 
his or her household, to the $1.00 
per day rate. This is a very gen- 
erous provision for people of mod- 
erate means to obtain hospital priv- 
ileges for a very nominal sum. 

So far the scheme has worked 
out very well, and has been a source 
of great assistance to people who 
require hospital privileges. 



We have a splendid Indian 
Hospital which is built on the In- 
dian Reserve just across the road 
from the Cardston Municipal Hos- 
pital. The Indian Hospital is 
equipped with most of the latest 
devices used in hospitals. All the 
care taking is done under the di- 
rection of the Federal Government, 
while one of our local doctors has 
charge of all medical and surgical 
work. Hundreds of Indians receive 
medical attention there yearly, and 
their women during maternity, re- 
ceive every attention as do the 
white women in our own hospital. 
The Indian Hospital is maintained 
wholly by the Federal Government 
and all Indians are admitted free 
of charge. 

It is working a wonderful refor- 
mation among the Lamanite race, 
especially in the way of sanitary 
measures. 

Our Provincial Government also 
furnishes us with a travelling clinic 
consisting of a physician, surgeon, 
dentist and several nurses who 
travel around through the thinly 
populated rural areas of the Prov- 
ince, more especially where there 
are no hospital conveniences. These 
clinics do a great deal of good. 
We are indeed proud of the most 
excellent service rendered by our 
Provincial and Federal governments 
along these lines, for we feel that 
no governments could show greater 
interest in the health and well being 
of their subjects, than does ours. 



if 

By Elsie E. Barrett 



If we would strew good seeds each day, 
A forest soon would grow ; 

Then love would come at evening time. 
When age begins to show. 



If we would drop a wholesome thought, 

Upon a genial mind; 
Let fall true words of hope and love, 

They'd soon increase their kind. 



O seed ! O thought ! O word of hope ! 

O love that grows so fast ! 
You seem so little when begun, 

But mighty at the last. 



What the Social Service Institute Means 

to Us 

By Laura A. Watkins, Logan Stake Representative 
(Address given at Relief Society Conference, Oct. 1, 1930) 

I AM very happy and feel very 
much honored in being asked to 
try to explain to you people 
just what this institute means to a 
stake worker, although I sense 
very keenly this responsibility. 

I wish it were possible for me to 
convey to you one hundredth part 
of the inspiration and some of the 
beautiful thoughts that came to me 
during the institute. I marvel that 
a course could be so unique yet 
so broad in its scope as to include 
so many varied yet closely related 
subjects in six short weeks. I do 
not. know how it would have been 
possible to have made better ar- 
rangements or more profitable con- 
tacts. The course was very inten- 
sive, -there :Was no time wasted. 
Every minute was planned for our 
enlightenment and comfort and to 
give us the greatest possible benefit. 
I feel that it is one of the biggest 
movements forward in Relief So- 
ciety work. The stake officer who 
has the opportunity to attend is 
indeed favored. I know it is a sac- 
rifice to leave home for that length 
of time but it is well worth the 
effort. 

I am grateful that it was possible 
for me to attend all the class work 
every day as there was something 
really wojrth while in each con- 
tact. You know there is an un- 
spoken language that travels from 
soul to soul, and my heart was 
touched. I have heard it said that 
religion must be caught, not taught. 
I believe the real lessons of life 
must be caught as well as taught, 
and the 'teachers 'must have the 



power to make one feel as well as 
think. I believe our dear sisters 
who so patiently and faithfully la- 
bored with us, will ever remain in 
our memory as a teaching power. 

I WOULD say to the stakes who 
will have the opportunity to send 
delegates to the social service in- 
stitute that it was the most profit- 
able six weeks I ever spent from an 
educational viewpoint. It is the first 
time I have ever had the privilege 
of studying the theory and trying to 
apply it at the same time. When 
we discuss methods of dealing with 
people, then go out and come in 
direct contact with the problems of 
disease, poverty, neglect, delin- 
quency and the heart-aches and 
heart-throbs that naturally accom- 
pany these unhappy conditions, we 
renew our determination to work a 
little harder, and study a little more 
the ways and means of helping to 
alleviate suffering. 

I do not wish to give the impres- 
sion that because of this short 
course, I feel prepared to do effi- 
cient social work; rather I sense 
more keenly my inability to do so. 
But, it has given me a much broader 
understanding of what is expected 
and a greater conception of the 
magnitude of the work. I take it 
as a foundation for a beginning 
upon which to build. Through the 
observations made and the literature 
we have studied we can better un- 
derstand some of the world's needs. 
One of the big impressions of the 
institute that came to me was the 
stimulation to a higher development 



WHAT THE SOCIAL SERVICE INSTITUTE MEANS 35 



of my own powers and to better 
prepare myself to Jive and help 
others make a more harmonious 
adjustment to life. The span of life 
has been increased by several years 
in the last decade, but what does 
that profit a person unless that life 
has been made more desirable? 
When we meet with so much un- 
happiness and suffering, we wonder 
what is wrong with the world and 
why this should be so. "Man is 
that he might have joy." Christ 
came to earth not only to make the 
redemption of mankind possible, but 
to set the proper example, and lead 
the way. He was the greatest so- 
ciologist the world has ever known, 
our greatest teacher, yet after two 
thousand years we are just begin- 
ning to realize what he meant when 
he said, "love thy neighbor as thy- 
self." 

I WAS impressed with the thread 
of the many valuable thoughts 
which were carried over from one 
class into another, and through the 
entire period. I shall briefly men- 
tion a few: 

1. Preventative rather than cur- 
ative methods were stressed. The 
old adage, "A stitch in ,time saves 
nine" is true in every phase of 
social work. 

2. Early detection of problems 
is vital whether they present them- 
selves in the form of physical or 
mental illness, delinquency or what 
not. All educators today realize 
that childhood is the psychological 
time to lay the foundation for char- 
acter and a happy future. 

3. Home is the greatest of the 
institutions. Of course we know 
that the home is a divine institu- 
tion, and that every Latter-day Saint 
woman should Jhelp preserve the 
finer elements of family life. But 
it is interesting to hear men who 
have spent many years studying so- 
cial problems, declare that the home 



is the very basis of society and must 
be kept intact. 

4. Another thought that Sister 
Evans gave out time and again was 
— in our work we should minister 
to the strength of people and not 
to their weakness. This thought 
comes to me often and I can see that 
it embodies volumes. To be able 
to do this, one would need to be 
blessed with tact, wisdom, under- 
standing, knowledge, and would 
need to be judicious, and I wonder 
if it will ever be possible for me to 
develop in any degree these desir- 
able characteristics, and yet we 
must use them all the time if we 
are to have any degree of success 
in our work. Ella Wheeler Wilcox 
recognized this when she said : 

"I gave a beggar from my little store of 

well earned gold, 
He took the shining ore, and came again 

and, again, 
Still cold and hungry as before. 
I gave a thought, and through that 

thought of mine 
He found himself, the man divine, 
Fed, clothed and anchored, 
And now he begs no more." 

MY vision has been broadened 
by visiting the state and coun- 
ty institutions, under the direction 
of Miss Thornton. Time will not 
permit relating the many varied ex- 
periences and profitable lessons ob- 
tained from these visits. I should 
like to mention just a few of my 
impressions. I noted in visiting the 
mental hospital the decided change 
that has taken place in the past few 
years. That deep feeling of depres- 
sion was not present in the same 
degree, there was a more cheerful 
aspect all around, also many com- 
forts which were absent in my pre- 
vious visit had been provided. I 
was very much impressed with the 
school for the blind and the deaf. 
Their process of learning was in- 
teresting in the extreme. I should 



36 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



have enjoyed spending the entire 
day there. I was not so favorably 
impressed with the industrial school. 
It cast a gloom over me which I 
was not able to dispel. Perhaps 
it was because I knew those boys 
and girls were not there through 
choice, but to answer to the law 
for the mistakes they had made 
and their failure to comply with 
the rules of society. In one of the 
workshops there were many mot- 
toes, one of which read like this— 
"Boys and girls are more in need of 
models than they are of critics." I 
wondered how many of them were 
there because of bad behavior pat- 
terns of parents, teachers, neigh- 
bors, and church members. One 
writer has said, 

"The night has a thousand eyes, the day 

but one, 
Yet the light of a whole world dies with 

the setting sun. 
The mind has a thousand eyes, the 

heart but one, 
Yet the light of a whole life dies when 

love is done." 

IN glancing over the countenances 
of these boys and girls, I again 
wondered how many had lost hope 
and faith in themselves, and if the 
light of their life had gone out ; 
if so, if ever again it would be re- 
kindled, or if they would later find 
their way to a penal institution. 
Somehow I could not help thinking 
that perhaps most of these children 
could have been spared this un- 
pleasant episode if their early train- 
ing could have been adequate. And 
I thought more seriously of our 
responsibility as Relief Society wo- 
men. If we could throw out a 



thought or a kind word that would 
help some one along the rugged 
path, how worth while life would 
be. Why do we live unless to make 
life less difficult? Gillian says, 

"Tis the human touch in this world that 

counts, 
The touch of your hand and mine, 
Which means far more to the fainting 

heart 
Than shelter and bread and wine. 
For shelter is gone when night is past, 
And bread lasts only a day, 
But the touch of the hand and the sound 

of the voice 
Sing on in the soul alway." 

In conclusion, let me say just 
a word about the personnel, both of 
the Family Service Society and of 
the Relief Society Social Service 
Department. I think I have never 
come in contact with office groups 
who have a keener sense of appreci- 
ation. You can just see the word 
service written all over them. Now 
what I have been trying to clarify 
in my own mind is whether social 
service work has helped these peo- 
ple develop that finer type of per- 
sonality, or, because of their per- 
sonality development and their sense 
of values, they have chosen to do 
as Christ said, "Feed my sheep." 
It is my firm conviction that every 
sister who has taken this course 
can truthfully say that she has been 
imbued with a sincere desire to re- 
turn to her stake and comply with 
the Master's command — "Feed my 
lambs." 

May we all be blessed in our Re- 
lief Society work and may it con- 
tinue to grow, I pray in the name 
of Jesus. Amen. 



Great deeds cannot die; 
They with the sun and moon renew their light 
For ever, blessing those that look on them. — Tennyson. 



s 



A Hidden Opportunity 

By Rose Ellen B. Valentine 

AFTER considering for days Montreal. Here we boarded the 
whether or not to take a va- Canadian Pacific Liner, Montrose, 
cation, I finally came to a de- which glided down the majestic St. 
cision on July 18, 1926, and con- Lawrence River, skirted on either 
eluded to join some relatives and bank with the autumn splendor of 
friends in an excursion trip to Los colorful foliage. A few hours stop 
Angeles. Plans and arrangements at Quebec, for the pickup of the 
for the journey were discussed, and last Mail gave the passengers time 
upon retiring for the night my mind for a stroll in the midnight moon- 
was filled with delightful thoughts light, through the winding streets 
of travel, new faces, strange scenes, of the quaint old City of the Do- 
and sweet rest. minion. When morning came, 

Upon reaching our offices |the we were already on the mighty deep, 

following morning, we received an The number of hungry guests to 

inquiry from the First Presidency the dining room grew fewer. Phys- 

of the Church concerning our con- ical adjustments were being made ; 

ditions and our feelings, with re- many quickly found their bearings 

spect to a call for my husband to and availed themselves of sea voy- 

preside over the German-Austrian age comforts, while others were 

Mission, with headquarters at Dres- forced to endure seclusion until the 

den. With mingled feelings of welcome sight of land appeared, 
di'sappointment and iexquisite joy 

the California trip was swallowed A T Liverpool, there was a rush 

up in the more absorbing prepara- rX through the customs, a bustle 

tion for the European journey and about the city, and away to Har- 

the missionary responsibility. wich and the continent. We, how- 

Under the hands of the First ever > s P ent a day or two in the ge- 
Presidency of the Church, President nial warmth of the fireside of Pres- 
Anthony W. Ivins being mouth, I iden t and Sister James E. Talmage 
was set apart as a missionary and of the European Mission at Dur- 
as President over the Women's Or- ham House, after which we wended 
ganizations of the German-Austrian our wa Y to Leeds, to the loved ones 
Mission, under the direction of my o f m Y father, James Bywater ; then 
husband— a rare privilege and one to London, and on to Dresden, the 
calling for divine guidance. With home of the Mission, where we dis- 
great faith in the promises of the covered that we had been anxious- 
Lord, I went forth. ty awaited, that we might partici- 
pate in the last of the autumn con- 
THE farewells and separation ferences. A few hours of readjust- 
from friends and loved ones ment and off we went, to Berlin 
closed another chapter in life's his- and to the first of our Conferences — 
tory, and a new one opened up, in a picture, unbelievable — the as- 
those bright autumn days as the sembly hall of the Elizabeth School, 
great train carried us eastward, and in the vicinity of the Alexander 
more eastward, to Chicago, Buffalo, Platz in Berlin ifilled beyond ca- 
including Niagara Falls, and on to pacity ! What a change, formerly 



38 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



hunted, now protected ; at one time 
banished, n,ow (made welcome tin 
their spacious school buildings ! 
Would that the same recognition 
might come everywhere. 

A DISTRICT CONFERENCE 
is no longer a preaching service 
alone, but includes, a recreational 
program, sacred pageantry, depart- 
ment meetings and convention work, 
as well. How admirably are the 
school buildings suited for such a 
program, with their gyms, assem- 
blies, and class rooms. My joy at 
greeting again the sisters of the 
Relief Society, in a meeting at the 
close of the afternoon sessipn of 
the conference was quite complete. 
Almost a foretaste of heaven, to be 
again among those whom we had 
aided and assisted in this organiza- 
tion so many years before. It was 
difficult to again use the adopted 
tongue which had fallen more or 
less into subconsciousness because 
of disuse. Truly, nature seems to 
bestow upon us according to the 
use and application which we make, 
while penalizing us for disuse. We 
soon became aware that the work 
had been going steadily on since our 
departure from the Mission in 1917, 
for we found it much in advance of 
what it was at that time. The 
Mutuals had long since made their 
formal entry and were now on the 
verge of specializing in the depart- 
ments of Scouting, and the Bee 
Hive Work, and the "M" Men too, 
were beckoning for attention. 

IN a special conference with Pres- 
ident Hugh J. Cannon and his 
wife Sarah, R. Cannon of the Swiss- 
German Mission, we learned that 
Sister Cannon was greatly imbued 
with the work of the Bee Hive 
Girls in the missions, and was di- 
recting the translation of a Hand 
Book, for use in that field. I, there- 



fore, was given the responsibility 
of supplying or suggesting the ma- 
terial for the Relief Societies of the 
missions as the successor of Sister 
Eliza Tadje. This arrangement 
continued and worked most excel- 
lently. Sister Sarah R. Cannon may 
for all time be proud of the ac- 
complishment of translating the Bee 
Hive Hand Book for the benefit 
of the Bee Hive Girls of the Ger- 
man Missions, because too much 
praise cannot be given for the ex- 
cellence of that effort. 

While the Bee Hive Hand Book 
was going forward, I was groping 
and struggling with Relief Society 
work. The whisperings of the 
Spirit to me and had been and were : 
"Why not take up the work of Nu- 
trition?" It came repeatedly. I 
recognized the voice but felt my 
inability to respond, especially in a 
foreign land and a strange tongue ; 
and because of so many other tasks, 
among them the Mission Home, the 
Mission Mother, and the introduc- 
ing of the Bee Hive work among 
the girls of the Mission. Neverthe- 
less the work was growing, and the 
preparation was in progress, al- 
though with my limited finite vision 
I was not able to discern its de- 
velopment. The organizations of 
the Relief Societies were increasing 
in numbers and membership. The 
societies were better organized and 
more efficient ; the adoption of the 
Uniform Roll and Minute books 
was a step forward. 

|N June, 1928, the Green-Gold 
A Freud'echo, was held in Berlin. 
At its termination a conference con- 
vened, between the presidencies of 
the two German Missions, and it 
was finally decided, that an outline 
on Nutrition should be worked out : 
and the responsibility of doing this 
fell upon me since this was more 



A HIDDEN OPPORTUNITY 39 

or less in the line of my activity treat for thereby one learns the real 
and research. The Great Nutri- object of the Institution and the 
tional Exposition, then in progress purpose of its organization. Dr. 
in Berlin seemed providential, and Winckel is one of the 432 doctors, 
revealed a most helpful source of professors, and jurists, whose pub- 
assistance in accomplishing the task, lie spirit made the Exposition pos- 
In vision I saw a realization of sible. He was also one of its di- 
the ever recurring urge, yes, in- rectors. 

spiration, to have a set of lessons One of the outstanding features 

on Nutrition, supported by our of the exposition was the section 

Word of Wisdom, for the use of from the Hygienic Museum, of 

our Relief Societies. Dresden, called Der Mensch. (Ma ti) 

T TTT ^ . , T . r , . I also learned that Dr. Martin 

HE month of July found me in y , was ^ sdeati& . Director 

the great exposition seeking of {hat instituti at Dresden . I 

material for the outline I was in- determined at on that t should 

terested ;m its completeness, and mee 4. u: m 
astonished at its extent. Spacious 

halls contained all kinds of grains, /^\N August 7, 1928, I went to 
vegetables, and fruits, as well as ^^ the Dresden Hygienic Mu- 
animal products — all for the use of seum and asked for an interview 
man — also accompanying colored with Dr. Martin Vogel. The man 
charts, giving the food elements of in charge repjied, with a smile : 
each, and their relative values ; and "Doctor Vogel is a very busy man, 
the amount of food necessary, for you cannot see him." "That is too 
various ages and occupations. The bad, for I, too, am interested in 
Histology section was little short of health problems, I am working in 
spectacular, showing life sized mod- the Relief Society of the German 
els in colors, representing the prep- Austrian Mission in which there are 
aration and serving of foods, and more than 2000 German speaking 
characteristic of the countries rep- women enrolled. Right now plans 
resented. The latest methods and are being made 'to take up tihe 
machinery for the preserving and study of Nutrition and I desire to 
conserving of fruits, vegetables, and get some information, as well as 
fruit juices, without sugar, and yet some suggestions from the learned 
retaining their vitamins, covered a Doctor," I said. "Wait a moment!" 
large section. Each day a scientific he replied. Upon returning he bade 
kitchen demonstration was given in me follow him, which I did. Doctor 
food preparation, illustrating the Vogel greeting me most gracious- 
chemical changes which take place, ly, thereby putting me at ease. Is 
in the various preparations of foods, it not ever true that the real, big- 
All of this was most instructive, people of the earth, are just plain 
revealing each day something new folk? I told him frankly who I was 
which was directly applicable to the and the purpose of my visit, where- 
homes of the sisters in the prepara- upon he said, "Your plan of teach- 
tion of the family meal. While ing the mothers the necessity of 
pursuing my investigation, I had properly nourishing their families 
the pleasure of accompanying Dr. is better than our method of intro- 
Max Winckel in one of his classes ducing it into the schools." I asked 
through the Exposition for educa- him to suggest a suitable text book, 
tional purposes. This was indeed a conveying the latest German scien- 



40 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



tific thought on the subject. He 
said, "There are numerous scientific 
works, but one covering the subject 
in a simple way is hard to find. 
Therefore I am busily engaged in 
writing a booklet. I have given a 
great deal of time to it, really more 
than it would have taken to prepare 
a large scientific work on the sub- 
ject. I expect to have it finished 
within a month or so, and perhaps 
it will be just what you want." 
I was happy in the thought, that 
here was at least a promise of solv- 
ing one of our problems. In ex- 
pressing my admiration, for the dis- 
play which the Hygienic Museum 
had in the exposition in Berlin, he 
asked me for my opinion on the 
Histology Section. In response to 
my favorable comment, he told me, 
that years ago he began his research 
along this line, and how interesting 
it had become, and expressed the 
thought that everyone should study 
the food question, in the interests 
of their own welfare. "Every morn- 
ing," he said, "I drink milk, and 
eat figs for breakfast, and some time 
during the day I eat raw carrots. 
I always put a few in my brief case 
before leaving home, for one never 
knows what the day will bring in 
the way of foods. The entire study 
of this subject has convinced me of 
the evil effects of alcoholic bev- 
erages, and I am using my knowl- 
edge and influence against their 
consumption." At this point I ex- 
plained to him that in 1833, the 
Lord gave to the Prophet Joseph 
Smith a revelation on this subject, 
known as the Word of Wisdom, 
which was then, and still is a nu- 
tritional guide for the membership 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. Immediately, he 
asked, if he might secure a copy of 
the same in the German language — 
it would be another item for the his- 



tory of the subject. "It is strange," 
he said, "but in all of my research 
on this subject, I have never heard 
of this before." As we further 
discussed the subject, he became ex- 
ceedingly interested and acknowl- 
edged it to be in harmony with the 
latest scientific conclusions. 

"I am very desirous of securing 
some of your vital statistics, for 
they must be far above the average 
for your country or your neighbors. 
Will you not write me an article 
covering some of these?" Needless 
to say, this request was cheerfully 
granted. 

After this most pleasant and 
profitable interview, and with the 
materials and information gathered, 
I set about the task of getting out- 
lines ready, in earnest, and by Nov. 
1, 1928, the first three lessons were 
ready for publication. 

When Dr. Vogel's booklet, "Nu- 
tritional Guide," came off the press 
it proved to be admirably adapted 
to our needs and most reasonable 
in price, and we placed an initial 
order for 500 copies and later re- 
peated it. Thus was secured the 
much needed supplementary text 
for our lessons on nutrition. Im- 
agine, if possible, my satisfaction 
in ithis new woirk to 'have thus 
bridged the beginning in such an 
admirable manner and with such 
affable, efficient assistance and co- 
operation. 

On December 5, 1928, an invi- 
tation was extended to Dr. Martin 
Vogel to give an illustrated lecture 
on the subject of food values, be- 
fore the Relief Society of Dresden, 
to which he replied, "Warum Nicht" 
(Why not). An exact date was 
never fixed, for this lecture, and it 
is my regret that the sisters were 
not favored with his scholarly ap- 
pearance on their program. During 
this interview he expressed his 



A HIDDEN OPPORTUNITY 



41 



pleasure in obtaining the article on 
the Word of Wisdom and the Vital 
Statistics among the Mormon?, and 
pronounced the Word of Wisdom 
a rare gem in the Histology of Nu- 
trition. In the sublimity of the 
moment, and responding to the in- 
spiration of the occasion the Doc- 
tor said, "Would you folks not like 
to have a display of your Word of 
Wisdom or the History of Nutri- 
tion among the Mormons, in the 
International Exposition to be held 
in the New Hygienic Museum, in 
Dresden, in 1930?" I was thrilled! 
Could it be true? 

My joy knew no bounds, and 
with a light step and a happy thank- 
ful heart, I hurried home to tell 
of the offer. My husband rejoiced 
with me in the blessing of the Lord 
that had come so unexpectedly. This 
good news was communicated to 
Dr. 'John A. Wiidtsoe, President 
of the European Mission, who 
looked upon it with favor and urged 
us to keep it alive and have it ma- 
terialize if possible. 

The matter was next taken up 
with Mr. Artimus T. Haeberle, the 
United States Consul General at 
Dresden, who in turn referred the 
subject to the Department of State 
at Washington, D. C, for it was 
thought that we might come in with 
the section from the United States. 
We received word from the De- 
partment that the U. S. did not ex- 
pect to participate since no appro- 
priation had been made for such a 
purpose. 

In April, 1929, Mr. Haeberle re- 
turned to the United States and took 
the matter up with Senator Reed 



Smoot of Utah, and upon the return 
of Mr. Haeberle to Dresden in 
July, he gave us some hope that 
we might secure some appropriation 
for the display, even at that late 
date, although the United States 
had decided definitely not to par- 
ticipate as a Nation. 

IN the midst of this came word 
of our release, and the arrival of 
our successors, President and Mrs. 
Edward P. Kimball. Quite con- 
trary to the general practice of 
'haste away' we were together for 
seven weeks, during which time all 
connections possible were made for 
the continuation of all matters un- 
der way. One of the most pleasant 
of these functions was the enter- 
tainment of Dr. Martin Vogel and 
Consul General and Mrs. A. T. 
Haeberle at the mission home prior 
to our departure. 

It was hard to leave amidst such 
interesting developments, but the 
work went on to a glorious com- 
pletion. Many labored to accom- 
plish its .fulfilment, and the end is 
not yet. 

The glory of the offer is best 
seen in the grandeur of the Dis- 
play which appears to be one of the 
outstanding events in church history 
as far as Europe is concerned, and 
commemorates most sublimely the 
Centennial Year of the progress of 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints, in this the Dispensa- 
tion of the Fulness of Times, and 
has revealed perhaps a hidden op- 
portunity for bringing the message 
of great joy before the inhabitants 
of the earth. 




Notes to the Field 

The Board hopes through this department to keep in closer touch with 

the stake workers. As soon as your Magazine comes, turn to this page to 

get the latest word from the General Board 



Social Work 

Contemplate the scope of social 
work — "all conscious effort to help 
human beings, including mass bet- 
terment as well as individual better- 
ment" — comes under its aegis. It 
includes preventive as well as cor- 
rective work. , With this in mind, 
one sees the many problems that 
may engage the Relief Society 
worker. We thought a special num- 
ber of our Magazine, giving the 
history of social service and some of 
the work being done among us, 
would be interesting and profitable 
to our readers. 

Magazine Agents 

We cannot publish the honor roll 
promised in our letter of August 6, 
1930, until more of our stakes send 
in the information asked for. Kindly 
let us know at once what your mem- 
bership was in 1930 and how many 
Magazines were subscribed for in 
your stake. What is your member- 
ship in 1931 and how many sub- 
scriptions have you sent in for this 
year? 

Grant Stake 

In response to our letter of 
August 6, 1930, asking that a house 
to house canvass be made in the in- 
terest of Magazine subscriptions, 
Grant Stake Board offered a prize 
of ten annual subscriptions to the 
ward that should get the highest per- 
centage of its members as subscrib- 
ers, and five annual subscriptions to 
the ward that should secure second 
place in the contest. Later, a third 
prize of five annual subscriptions 
was given, as one ward had made 
such an exceptional record in both 



yearly and half-yearly subscriptions. 

Burton ward won the first prize 
with this record : membersip, 69, 
yearly subscriptions, 62, half-yearly 
subscriptions, 10. Whittier ward 
secured second prize, with 58 yearly 
subscribers among their membership 
of 65. The third prize went to 
Southgate ward, with a membership 
of 41, which secured 23 yearly sub- 
scribers and 34 half-yearly subscrib- 
ers. 

We congratulate Grant stake, 
which is the first, and at the present 
time, the only stake which has sent 
in the information asked for in our 
above mentioned letter. In 1929 
they had 465 subscribers, or 43% 
of their enrollment. This year 
(1930) they have 652 subscribers, 
or 52% of their enrollment. 

Subscription Lists 

Relief Society Presidents : Kind- 
ly instruct your Magazine agents to 
state which month to begin subscrip- 
tions with when sending in orders 
for the Magazine, so as to avoid 
duplications, as it is our custom to 
commence subscriptions with the 
current issue, unless directed other- 
wise. 

The Eliza Roxcy Snow Poem 
Contest 

The interest in the Eliza R. Snow 
Poem Contest increases from year 
to year. There were 77 entries this 
year, eight more than for 1929. 

The winner of the first prize is 
Sarah Ahlstrom Nelson of Rexburg, 
Idaho, for "Abraham Lincoln." The 
second prize is awarded to Merling 
D. Clyde of Price, Utah, for "Unto 
the Least of These," 



NOTES TO THE FIELD 



43 



Honorable mention is given to 
Claire Stewart Boyer of Salt Lake 
City, for "Up Past the Stars to 
God," Edith E. Anderson of Tre- 
monton, Utah, for "To a Relief So- 
ciety Worker," and to Katheryn 
L. Clyde, Heber City, Utah, for 
"My Masterpiece." 

The judges of the contest were 
Dr. Sherman B. Neff, head of the 
English Department of the Uni- 
versity of Utah ; Mrs. Elsie Tal- 
mage Brandley, associate editor of 
the Improvement Era; and Mrs. 
Lotta Paul Baxter of the General 
Board. 

We congratulate the winners and 

express appreciation for the many 

excellent poems that were submitted. 

Give Alio ted Time to Class Leaders 
The success of our meetings, as 
well as our educational program, 
depends upon the efficiency of our 
Class Leaders. When these faithful 
women spend hours, often days, pre- 
paring their topics, it is discourag- 
ing to have the lesson period short- 
ened. 

Reports frequently reach the 
General Board that Class Leaders 
are curtailed in the time for giving 
lessons. One capable, enthusiastic 
sister prepared a Theology Lesson, 
expecting to have forty-five minutes 
for the presentation. Meeting be- 
gan a few minutes late, full fifteen 
minutes were used in singing prac- 
tice ; a Stake Board member in at- 
tendance was asked to speak, and 
twenty-five minutes time was re- 
served for testimony bearing, leav- 
ing far too short a period for the 
Theology Lesson with its vital and 
inspiring message. 

The General Board recommends 
that announcements be made when 
the meeting is called to order ; that 
as far as possible the business of 
the Society such as receiving new 
members etc. be transacted in Work 



and Business Meeting ; that there be 
no singing practice on Theology and 
Testimony day. 

We hope our Presidents will care- 
fully plan their meetings and not 
permit anything to interfere with 
the time allotted to our Class Lead- 
ers. 

Music in Our Organization 
Choristers and Organists, how are 
you succeeding with the music in 
your organization ? Is it representa- 
tive of your ideals? Are you using 
successfully the ten minutes al- 
lowed for good lively community 
song practice? Are you teaching 
new songs and creating a renewed 
interest in good singing? Does the 
music in your ward reflect the 
standards of our people? Is the 
character of the music in your or- 
ganization such as would attract 
and increase the enrollment of new 
members? Is the music of your 
organization keeping pace with the 
other fine intellectual activities of 
the Relief Society? Are you your- 
self so enthusiastic over your work 
that your enthusiasm is contagious? 
Choristers and Organists, empha- 
size a more active participation in 
music on the part of the Relief So- 
ciety members. Help them to realize 
the value of preserving in adult 
life the musical aptitudes which 
were developed through public 
school music, and other musical ac- 
tivities. The product of this train- 
ing must have found its way into 
our Relief Society groups. Try to 
establish in the hearts of our sisters 
this idea, this desire — Hear Music, 
Make Music, Enjoy Music. 

Let us all remember there are no 
age limits to music — that music is 
the real fountain of youth. Music 
is a sacred, a divine thing that lifts 
us up to God. It helps us to feel 
His glory. 

(Continued on page 65) 



Notes from the Field 



North Sevier Stake : 

RELIEF SOCIETY workers 
are always interested in the 
report of the floral -festivals 
of the stakes. That held in the 
North Sevier stake on August 20, 
1930, was extremely successful. The 
Redmond Ward Recreation Hall 
was the scene of this very beautiful 
exhibition. It was under the direc- 
tion of the president, Mrs. Melissa 
Crane. A program consisting of a 
one-act play and a musical number 
by the Relief Society chorus, was 
rendered. The judges of the floral 
offerings were from the Gunnison 
stake Relief Society, and they in- 
cluded experienced florists who 
declared that the display was of 
unusual merit both in variety and 
beauty. Cash prizes were given for 
the best ward displays. Salina Sec- 
ond ward took the first prize, the 
second prize went to the Redmond 
ward, while the third prize went to 
the Salina First ward. Ribbons 
were given for individual entries. 



Following the demonstration re- 
freshments were served by the Red- 
mond ward Relief Society to 250 
guests. 

Franklin Stake : 

ON August 5, 1930, in compli- 
ment to the executive officers 
of the Relief Society of the Preston 
Second ward, Franklin stake, a very 
splendid social was given in the 
ward chapel. This was an activity 
of the Relief Society. The hall 
was beautifully decorated with flow- 
ers ; paper cap souvenirs were given 
to all the guests. The stake Relief 
Society presidency, the board mem- 
bers and the ward bishopric were 
in attendance. A spicy program 
was given which featured the great 
scope of Relief Society work. A 
little playlet called "Angels of 
Mercy," was presented, after which 
a delicious luncheon was served. 
Covers were laid for 80. It was the 
feeling of the group that the affair 
was a most decided success. 




FESTIVE BOARD OF FRANKLIN STAKF 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 



45 



Alberta Stake : 

FROM the far north comes a most 
interesting' account of Relief 
'Society activities. On Saturday, 
October 18, 1930, there was a dem- 
onstration of the Work and Business 
Day of the Alberta stake Relief 
Society. The Cardston Gymnasium 
was the scene of this very remark- 
able exhibition. All the wards of 
the stake had assisted the officers in 
preparing the exhibits for display, 
and the people of the town par- 
ticularly had donated many articles 
for re-sale to those whose funds 
were insufficient to purchase the new 
articles. The Gymnasium walls 
were covered and several tables 
about the room, showed articles that 
were most tempting. The total 
quantity of goods that were dis- 
played was remarkable, and offered 
a wonderful opportunity for scores 
of people who were in attendance. 
'Not only was it a fine chance to 
profit by the bargains offered, but 
it was an excellent exhibition of the 
skill and the frugality that is taught 
through the medium of the Relief 
Society. One of the most interest- 
ing phases of the demonstration was 
the work-saving devices. At one 
table was shown a dressed wild 
duck, illustrating an easier way to 
clean these game birds, especially 
in the removal of the pin feathers 
that are so great a bugbear to the 
housewife. After plucking the large 
feathers off the bird, it is covered 
with a thin coating of hot paraffine, 
applied with a cloth or small brush. 
When this hardens it may be easily 
scraped off, taking with it every pin 
feather. Another device was to 
demonstrate how onions may be cut 
without touching them or getting 
the juice in the eyes and causing so 
much weeping. Another method 
was how to make a quilt in an 
hour's time, displacing the old-time 



quilting bee where 7 or 8 women 
call on you and spend a day 
of toil slaving over the quilt. 
Cookery too, which is always inter- 
esting to the men — if the women do 
it — was demonstrated, and all those 
fancy little things as the making of 
letters and designs on cakes, putting 
those frills on cooking, which do 
not really cost any more, and create 
so many appetizing features. An- 
other helpful hint was how to mend 
socks without so much waste of 
time. There were a hundred ways 
of how to do the common little 
things in an uncommon way. An- 
other very valuable feature of this 
was the day's program on the 
method of providing good reading 
material in the home. The Relief 
Society sisters are creating an ex- 
change reading table, and have it 
under the direction of one of the 
stake board members. They take all 
the spare magazines, newspapers or 
other periodicals available from the 
homes where they are found in over- 
abundance, and distribute them in 
the homes where the people are 
without good reading material. 
Hundreds of magazines which 
would otherwise be food for the 
furnace or the bonfire find their way 
to homes where children are hungry 
for the things printed in them. The 
work is just beginning, but it can 
be extended indefinitely if once 
people get behind the movement and 
give generously of their spare maga- 
zines. A most useful section of the 
demonstration was the clothing 
booth, where articles had been re- 
made or cleaned and repaired, and 
many bargains were to be had. Al- 
together it was a most remarkable 
demonstration, covering the scope 
of Relief Society activities and dem- 
onstrating just what can be done 
when these earnest women coop- 
erate, as they do in this forward- 
looking stake. 



46 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 




"THE CONVERSION OF KING LAMONI," LOGAN STAKE 



Logan Stake : 

THIS picture shows a cast of 
characters from the Logan 1 1th 
ward, as they appeared in a pageant 
called "The Conversion of King 
Lamoni," given under the direction 
of the Logan Stake Relief Society. 
This is quite in keeping with the 
theological studies for this year. The 
pageant is taken from the Book of 
Mormon, the 18th and 19th chapters 
of Alma, and opened with soft mu- 
sic singing "God moves in a Mys- 
terious Way His Wonders to 
Perform. " The presentation was 



beautifully rendered in all wards of 
the Logan stake at the ward con- 
ferences, each ward supplying its 
own cast of characters. The pur- 
pose of this demonstration was to 
create a desire in the hearts of every 
soul to seek the truths that are to 
be found in the sacred book. A 
very keen interest was taken, and 
every performance was to crowded 
houses. This is certainly a very 
splendid demonstration of vitalizing 
and bringing actively before the peo- 
ple the magnificent messages of the 
Book of Mormon. 




MRS 

MRS 

MRS 

MRS. 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 



THE RELIEF SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF 
JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

THE GENERAL BOARD 

. LOUISE YATES ROBISON President 

AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

. JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

JULIA A. F. LUND General Secretary and Treasurer 

Emma A. Empey Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs*. Ida P. Beal 

Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Annie Wells' Cannon - Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Lalene H. Hart Mrs. Elise B. Alder Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Inez K. Allen Mrs. Mary Connelly Kimball 

Cora L. Bennion 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Editor Mary Connelly Kimball 

Manager .-.-.......-. Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager ........... Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, |Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, ISalt Lake City, Utah 



Vol. XVIII 



JANUARY, 1931 



No. 1 



EDITORIAL 



1931 Welcome 



THE bells are ringing out a re- 
quiem mass for the old year and 
a welcoming challenge to the new. 
Nineteen thirty with its joys and 
sorrows, its achievements and fail- 
ures, has passed into history, and 
1931, with its hopes and promises 
and possibilities is here. There is 
something sad in the passing of the 
old ; there is something mystic in the 
birth of the new. 

WE send hearty good wishes 
and Happy New Year Greet- 
ings to all our officers, members, 
and magazine readers. 

We deeply appreciate the many 
greetings and good wishes we have 
received during the Holiday Season. 
It is sweet to be remembered and to 
know that there is a feeling of good 
will and fellowship existing between 



those who labor together in this 
great cause. 

THE past year has seen much 
suffering. The way people 
have given of their time and money 
and substance to alleviate the hard- 
ships of the unemployed has shown 
that never heretofore were so many 
people socially minded, so deeply in- 
terested in the welfare of the un- 
fortunate and needy. The largess 
has been unprecedented. Farmers, 
merchants, coal dealers, milk distri- 
butors, and bakers have given as 
never before to agencies for a wise 
distribution to the needy The em- 
ployees of many firms have given a 
day's salary a month that work might 
be provided for the unemployed. 
Mayors, governors, congressmen, 
senators, the President of the United 



48 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



States, have been deeply concerned 
and anxious that public work be 
undertaken to lessen the suffering. 
Cities, counties and states have un- 
dertaken public improvements that 
work might be provided for the 
unemployed. Our Relief Society 
officers and members have worked 
more diligently than ever in helping 
the hard pressed. 

MAY the year which has just 
been ushered in bring a return 
to normalcy. May people learn 
through the pressure of the past few 
months to provide in the days of 
prosperity for the time of unemploy- 



ment and sickness and financial de- 
pression. May all emerge from the 
clouds which have been so lowering 
into a saner and more stable way 
of living. 

May your opportunities for serv- 
ice be greater than ever before and 
may your work be more efficiently 
done. May blessings unmeasured 
be yours. May your cup of joy be 
full. May peace and wisdom be 
your portion during 1931. 

Louise Y . Robison, 
Amy Brown Lyman, 
Julia A. Child, 
General Presidency of the Relief 
Society. 



Whitehouse Conference on Childhood 
Health and Protection 



THE United States is greatly 
blessed in having as its chief 
executive President Herbert 
Hoover, a man who is so vitally in- 
terested in human beings. His love 
for children is deep, and his interest 
in their welfare is one of his marked 
characteristics. Shortly after he be- 
came president, he announced that 
he would call a conference on child 
health and protection, with the ob- 
ject in view of finding out what 
ought to be done and the best way 
of doing it. At his call in 1929, the 
body met, and after several sessions 
adjourned to carry on a year's re- 
search. Twelve hundred experts 
have delved into the subject and 
in November, 1930, brought with 
them their printed report to the 
White House Conference on Child 
Health and Protection. For the use 
of this conference, foundations, edu- 
cational institutions, and commis- 
sions have carried on investigations 
and have made surveys throughout 
the United States. This conference 



is not a governmental affair but is 
an unofficial service rendered in re- 
sponse to President Hoover's call. 
It is financed by funds given by 
those who, like the President, are 
interested in child welfare, and by 
grants from foundations and asso- 
ciations that are interested in child 
study. Secretary Wibur said these 
twelve hundred investigators are as- 
sembling all that it is possible to find 
out about children, to be sifted, 
sorted, and given back to those who 
have practical every-day dealings 
with them. 

President Hoover himself opened 
the White House Conference on 
Child Health and Protection. He 
said : 

FROM your explorations into the 
mental and moral endowment 
and opportunities of children will 
develop new methods to inspire their 
creative work and play, to substitute 
love and self discipline for the 
rigors of rule, to guide their recre- 



EDITORIAL 



49 



ations into wholesome channels, to 
steer them past the reefs of tempta- 
tion, to develop their character and 
to bring them to adult age in tune 
with life, strong in moral fiber and 
prepared to play more happily their 
part in the productive tasks of so- 
ciety. 

"The problems of the child are 
not always the problems of the child 
alone. In the vision of the whole 
of our social fabric, we have loos- 
ened new ambitions, new energies; 
we have produced a complexity of 
life for which there is no precedent. 
■With machines ever enlarging man's 
power and capacity, with electricity 
extending over the world its magic, 
with the air giving us a wholly new 
realm, our children must be pre- 
pared to meet entirely new contacts 
and new forces. They must be 
physically strong and mentally 
placed to stand up under the in- 
creasing pressure of life. Their 
problem is not alone one of physical 
health, but of mental, emotional and 
spiritual health. 

"These are the problems that I 
charge you to answer. This task 
that you have come here to perform 
has never been done before. These 
problems are not easily answered, 
they reach the very root of our 
national life. We need to meet them 
squarely and to accuse ourselves as 
frankly as possible, to see all the 
implications that trail in our wake, 
and to place the blame where it lies 
and set resolutely to attack it." 

President Hoover told the confer- 
ence that the problem falls into three 
groups: "First, the protection and 
stimulation of the normal child ; sec- 
ond, aid to the physically defective 
and handicapped child; third, the 
problems of the delinquent child." 

He said that of 45,000,000 chil- 
dren, 10,000,000 are deficient, with 
more than 80% of these not receiv- 
ing the necessary attention, and that 



"we must get to the cause of their 
handicaps from the beginnings of 
their lives ; we must not leave one 
of them uncared for." 

In dealing with the complex prob- 
lems of the delinquent child, "we 
need to turn the methods of inquiry 
from the punishment of delinquency 
to the causes of delinquency. * * * 
It is not the delinquent child that 
is at the bar of judgment, but so- 
ciety itself." 

* * * "Any labor which stunts 
growth, either physical or mental, 
that limits education, that deprives 
children of the right of comradeship, 
of joy and play, is sapping the 
next generation." * * "In the last 
half a century we have herded 50,- 
000,000 more human beings into 
towns and cities, where the whole 
setting is new to the race. We have 
created highly congested areas with 
a thousand changes resulting in the 
swift transition from a rural and 
agrarian people to an urban, indus- 
trial nation. Perhaps the widest 
range of difficulties with which we 
are dealing in the betterment of 
children grows out of their crowding 
into cities." * * * "Problems of 
sanitation and public health loom in 
every direction. Delinquency in- 
creases with congestion. Over- 
crowding produces disease and con- 
tagion. The child's natural play 
place is taken from him. His mind 
is stunted by the lack of imaginative 
surroundings and lack of contact 
with the fields, streams, trees and 
birds. Home life becomes more dif- 
ficult. Cheerless homes produce 
morbid minds. Our growth of town 
life unendingly imposes such prob- 
lems as milk and food supplies, for 
we have shifted these children from 
a diet of 10,000 years' standing. 

"Nor is the problem one solely of 
the city child. We have grave re- 
sponsibilities to the rural child. Ade- 
quate expert service should be as 



50 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



available to him from maternity to 
maturity." 

ELDER DAVID O. McKAY, on 
his return from the conference, 
said: "The conference fulfilled its 
purpose in bringing to the attention 
of the American people conditions 
that need remedying, but the great 
problem of how to do this is still 
unsolved. To translate theory into 
activity and practice is now the re- 
sponsibility and duty of states and 
local communities. May these earn- 
est seekers soon find the way to aid 
children whether they are normal, 
pnysically defective or delinquent, 
to a finer and fuller life. 

Man does not live to himself 



alone. He is part of the social 
order, "verily, he is his brother's 
keeper." His duty is to minister to 
his fellows. Now, however, people 
are realizing that it takes training 
to constructively help the unfor- 
tunate. Ofttimes, well-intentioned 
people have, in their methods of 
giving, hindered rather than helped. 
To lead people to help themselves 
is the keynote of modern social 
work. Many in the past have been 
pauperized by the methods used. He 
who would intelligently help the 
needy, the unfortunate, the afflicted, 
should have an understanding heart, 
a deep sympathy, ability to make a 
correct diagnosis, and ability to keep 
things to himself. 



One Hundred Years 



"One Hundred Years" briefly 
crystalizes in permanent form the 
achievements of the century that be- 
gan April 6, 1830, and closed April 
6, 1930. The following subjects are 
treated : "The First Century of the 
Restoration," "Why We Build 
Temples," "Centennial Conference 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints," "The Message 
of the Ages," "The Relief Society 
of the Church," "Latter-day Saint 
Sunday Schools," "Young ^ Men's 
Mutual Improvement Association," 
"Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association," "The Primary 
Association," "Latter-day Saint 
Missions," "Community Life Among 
the Latter-day Saints," "Latter-day 
Saint Women", "Outstanding 
Events of the Century," "How Cen- 



tennial News was Circulated." Ex- 
cerpts from addresses delivered 
by the First Presidency, Council of 
the Twelve, and Patriarch at the 
Centennial Conference and a few 
excerpts from newspaper editorials 
are also included. 

The book is a fine example of the 
printer's art and is beautifully illus- 
trated. George D. Pyper, under 
whose able editorship it was issued 
must feel delighted with the out- 
come of his efforts. 

This souvenir will be treasured in 
the homes of the Latter-day Saints. 
It will be enjoyed by those who love 
the beautiful. It will be of deep 
interest to all who like to mark prog- 
ress and survey the genesis of 
great movements. 



EJkX^» 



jm^. 




r^^BSWBF^^ 9 



Lesson Department 

LESSON I 



Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in March) 

Book of Mormon — Christ in America 



Assignment 

Read the matter in Third Nephi, 
chapters 8 to 20, including both. 
The time is A. D. 34. It will be 
helpful if the section about Christ 
can be read in Reynold's Diction- 
ary of the Book of Mormon, and 
chapters 28, 29 and 30 of Evans' 
Message and CJiaracters of the 
Book of Mormon. 

Outline of the Lesson 

I. Three hours of natural con- 
vulsions. 
II. Three days of total darkness. 

III. The Voice out of the darkness. 

1. Gathering of the people. 

2. Their lamentations. 

3. Message of the Voice. 

IV. The great silence. 
V. Christ appears. 

1. Introduction by the Father. 

2. Message of Jesus. 

a. Physical test of His 
presence. 

b. Instructions concerning: 
Baptism, 

Harmony in the Church, 
The twelve disciples, 
Things to do in life, 
The sacrament of the 

Lord's supper, 
The "other sheep," 
Attendance at religious 

meetings. 

3. Acts of Jesus before the 
multitude. 



a. Heals the sick, etc. 

b. Blesses the children. 

c. Prays before the people. 

Story of the Lesson 

The lesson opens with great con- 
vulsions of nature — thunder and 
lightning, earthquakes, floods, and 
other eruptions. Whole cities, with 
their inhabitants, are completely de- 
stroyed in these events. After this 
there comes a period of excessive 
darkness — three days of it — when it 
is impossible to strike a light of any 
kind. 

This period coincides with the 
time of the crucifixion of Christ in 
Palestine and that during which His 
body lay in the tomb. 

Then comes the Voice from out 
the darkness. It is heard by all the 
inhabitants of the continent. Fol- 
lowing this is a great silence. After- 
wards, when some two thousand 
five hundred people are gathered 
near the temple in the land of Boun- 
tiful, Christ appears. 

On His first apeparance among 
the Nephites Jesus invited the peo- 
ple to come forward and touch the 
wounds in His hands and feet and 
side — which they did. Then He 
taught them essentially the same 
principles and ordinances that He 
had done in Palestine — repentance, 
baptism, confirmation, with their 
common basis, faith; prayer, the 



52 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



sacrament of the Lord's supper, 
attendance at religious meetings; 
and the various ideas in what is the 
Sermon on the Mount in the Gos- 
pels, with differences. 

Also He chose twelve disciples, 
the understanding being, presum- 
ably, that these men would organize 
the Church. Before He ascended 
to heaven after this first visitation, 
He healed the sick, the blind, the 
deaf, the halt, and whoever in the 
multitude was afflicted in any way ; 
and blessed the children amid heav- 
enly manifestations. 

Notes 

This description of Christ's ap- 
pearing to the Nephites is a valuable 
addition to what is given in the 
New Testament concerning Him, 
and deserves the most careful at- 
tention from this point of view. A 
great many Christians have yearned 
for more information about Jesus 
than is given there, more intimate 
details concerning Him. Well, here 
it is, if they will receive it. For, 
as a matter of fact, we do get a more 
intimate view of the Master in 
Third Nephi, which has been called 
the Fifth Gospel, than we do in the 
biblical account. This is due to the 
greater, more child-life faith of the 
Nephites. Jesus says this Himself. 

For one thing, He speaks more 
plainly to the Nephites than to the 
Jews. Observe what He says about 
contention, about baptism, about the 
"other sheep." 

For another thing, He gives way 
to His feeling of joy and thanks- 
giving here more than He did among 
the Jews in Palestine. He seems to 
be under less restraint. He does not 
hesitate to weep in the presence of 
the people around Him; Across the 
waters He wept only in the presence 
of a few close friends. And then, 
too, He opens His heart in praise 



and thanksgiving to God before all 
the people. 

And for still another thing, He 
grants even the wishes of the multi- 
tude. He heals all their sick. He 
did not do that in Palestine. Only 
occasionally did He perform mir- 
acles there. Besides, note how He 
yields to their unexpressed desire 
that He stay longer. They are 
hungry, too, and tired. 

This is a great scene — one of the 
very greatest in all history. 

2. Skeptics have found fault with 
the Book of Mormon on account of 
the almost identical language lof 
what is sometimes called the "quo- 
tations" from the King James ver- 
sion of the Bible. The fact is, 
however, that this is not a real ob- 
jection to the Nephite Scriptures, as 
is sometimes claimed by outsiders. 

Most probably, when the Prophet 
Joseph came to a "quotation" in the 
Nephite Record from, say, Isaiah or 
Matthew, he turned to the passage 
in the version of the Bible with 
which he was acquainted, and copied 
it. But that it was not a mere copy, 
set down without thought or inspired 
guidance, is evident from the dif- 
ferences between the passage in the 
Book of Mormon and that in our 
Bible. 

For instance : Blessed are the 
poor in spirit who come unto me, 
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 
Blessed are all they who do hunger 
and thirst after righteousness, for 
they shall be rilled with the Holy 
Ghost. In both of these verses the 
italicized words are not in the Gos- 
pel of Matthew. There are many 
other instances of a similar nature, 
where the Book of Mormon version 
clarifies the thought Or adds to it. 

A difference on a larger scale is 
to be found in the thirteenth chapter 
of our lesson, beginning with the 
twenty-fifth verse. 

Scoffers have ridiculed the idea 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



53 



that Jesus should advise people 
generally to take "no thought" as 
to what they eat and drink, and trust 
to God for "food and raiment." The 
fact is that Jesus was speaking, not 
to the multitude when He said these 
and similar words, but rather to 
His twelve disciples. The Book of 
Mormon makes this clear. But one 
might be led to think, from the pas- 
sage in Matthew, that He was speak- 
ing to the crowd. 

It will be found that in very many 
instances where there are "quota- 
tions" in the Book of Mormon from 
the Hebrew Scriptures, the varia- 
tions always throw jlight on the 
meaning or situation. 

3. There is the same tolerance 
and wide sympathy on the part of 
Jesus in the Fifth Gospel that there 
is in the other Gospels. Only, in the 
Nephite Record it is shown in a 
slightly different way. 

While the sacrament is not to be 
administered to those who are "un- 
worthy" of it, yet they are not to ibe 
"cast out." On the contrary, they 
are to be worked with and prayed 
over, not spurned and ignored ; for, 
says the iMaster, "ye know not but 
what they will return and repent, 
and come unto me with full purpose 
of heart, and I shall heal them ; and 
ye shall be the means of bringing 
salvation unto them." Here, too, 
Jesus exhibits His great concern 
for the human personality, for sal- 
vation. The disciples are to "con- 
tinue" to "minister" unto those who 
manifest indifference to Christ. 

4. And this thought leads to an- 
other not far removed from it in 
kind. It is what Jesus calls "my 
doctrine." Here is the bedrock of 
the Christian ideal. 

The idea is stated thus: "Ye 
must repent, and become as a little 
child, and be baptized in my name, 
or ye can in no wise receive these 
things. And again I say unto you, 



ye must repent, and be baptized in 
my name, and become as a little 
child, or ye can in no wise inherit 
the kingdom of God." Jesus deems 
this idea so important that He re- 
peats it in almost identical words. 

What does He mean? 

Note that He says nothing here 
about faith. That is taken for 
granted. For no one will repent 
unless he first believes. But He 
stresses repentance. It is a great 
principle of life. Life consists of 
struggle, of trial and error. The 
main thing is to keep struggling 
against the tide of evil in the world. 
So repentance is just as necessary 
after baptism as before it. 

He also emphasizes baptism. Bap- 
tism is not only a sign of our 
obedience and a symbol of a new 
birth, but it is a token of absolute 
trust. In baptism we put ourselves 
utterly in the hands of the one who 
is baptizing us. Here is a child-like 
simplicity. 

Some people would have us be- 
lieve that to be like a child is the 
worst thing that can happen to us. 
But what is the main trait of child- 
hood? Is it not unconventionally, 
open-mindedness, an eagerness to 
learn, teachableness? Persons who 
object to this statement of Jesus 
about being like a child always as- 
sume that blind obedience is the 
main characteristic of childhood. It 
is not. Obedience need not be^ 
blind at all. Intelligent obedience 
is not. There is always a reason 
why we should obey those who 
know more than we do. As a matter 
of fact, do we not accept others' 
word in politics, in government, in 
education, in science, in business. 
Why should we not do the same 
thing in religion? 

5. Jesus discourages "contention" 
as being "of the devil." 

Contention is not the same with 
discussion and a good-natured ex- 



54 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



change of views. Not all the wis- 
dom of the world is in one head. 
Some of it is in other heads. In 
a class, for instance, it is not neces- 
sary for anyone to "contend" that 
his particular opinion is right — even 
if it is so. Others are entitled to 
their views, even though they may 
be in error. On any particular 
point it is a good thing for everyone 
to state his opinion, without argu- 
ment, and let it go at that. Out 
of all the views there will assuredly 
come .light. In the end, probably, 
everybody's view will be somewhat 
different from what it was to begin 
with — maybe more nearly right, cer- 
tainly clearer. 

Where a class, a debate, a dis- 
cussion, is carried on in this spirit, 
the devil can have no leeway. He 



always gets his work in where peo- 
ple "contend" over their opinions. 
This is what Jesus means, most 
likely. 

Questions and Problems 

1. Why do you think the people 
gathered round the temple after the 
natural disturbances? 

2. Find other passages where 
there is light thrown on biblical 
verses. 

3. Does God bring on calamities, 
or merely let them come upon the 
children of men ? 

4. What differences as to the 
body are there to be noted, so far as 
we have information, between Jesus 
before and after the resurrection ? 



Work and Business 

Teacher's Topic For March 

(This topic is to be given at the special teachers' meeting the first 

week in March.) 

Our Responsibility to Sustain Church Organizations 



"No one can survey the history 
of modern progress — its philan- 
thropy, its reforms, its industrial 
responsibility, its political democ- 
racy — without recognizing that the 
chief accession of moral force which 
these movements have received has 
come from the Christian religion." 

"The whole duty of man is not 
to enjoy God forever, but to descend 
with the grace of God to the help 
of man. The Christian Church is 
not a place of refuge from the 
world, but a place of training for 
the world. The Christian life is 
not a retreat from stormy winds 
and tides of woe, but an advance 



through them ; not a hiding beneath 
the Mercy-seat, but a rising from 
one's seat for the sake of mercy." 
"The sanctified life is the service- 
able life, and in that service finds 
its freedom." 

— Francis Greenwood Peabody. 

"Not always on the mount may we 
Rapt in heavenly vision be ; 

The mount for vision — but below 
The paths of daily duty go." 

Women, from the beginning, 
have been great inspirers, great 
teachers — they have been noted as 
most ardent supporters of the 
Church. 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



55 



Since Church institutions are for 
the welfare of its members, women 
should avail themselves of the op- 
portunities offered, and encourage 
others to benefit from active par- 
ticipation therein. 

I. They should sustain Church in- 
stitutions themselves : 

1. By attending meetings. 

2. By speaking in their favor. 

3. By encouraging their hus- 
bands and children to attend 
and uphold them. 

4. By giving them financial 
backing. 

5. By teaching their value in 
the home. 

6. By pointing out their bene- 



fits to friends and neighbors 
and encouraging them to at- 
tend. 
7. By acting as teachers and 
officers when requested so to 
do. 
II. They should uphold those 
called to preside in the differ- 
ent associations, giving them 
their most ardent support. 
They should not dwell upon 
the faults and failings of the 
officers, but note their strong 
points and commend their de- 
votion to duty. 
I IT. They should tell the officers 
how much they appreciate 
their service. 



Literature 

(Third Week- in March) 
The Short Story in Germany 



Suggested Short Stories 

The Coming of Gandin by Gott- 
friend Von Strassburg*. 

The Sick Wife by Christian Gel- 
lert. 

The Fury by Paul Heyse. 

The Triple Warning by Arthur 
Schnitzler. 

A New Year's Eve Confession by 
Merman Sudermann*. 

To devote just one lesson to the 
Short Story in Germany is some- 
what like taking a trip around the 
world in a Zeppelin and looking out 
of the window but once. 

German literature is rich in short 
stories and her writers have con- 
tributed much to that form of art ; 
yet the stories of this country are, 
in many instances, not as well known 
as they deserve to be. Nor has their 
influence been as wide as might be 
expected of so intellectual a nation. 



There are several reasons for this. 
As with anything else, stories ex- 
isted before their terminology was 
known, and German short stories 
are as old as German literature. But 
the German mind, which takes so 
easily to analysis, divides and sub- 
divides its subjects, and the short 
story has not escaped. The Ger- 
mans have made so many classes, 
instead of holding to the one term, 
novclle, that it has been difficult for 
the non-German reader to under- 
stand that the short story as we 
understand it exists in Germany. 
However, since the World War, 
editors and other writers in Ger- 
many have tended to adopt the two 
terms, novelle and erzahlung, just 
as in English we have the short 
story and the tale. 

Moreover, as a usual thing, the 
German short story is too long, 
giving a great deal of space to de- 
scription. It is not at all uncommon 



56 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



for a German short story to be from 
twenty to thirty thousand words 
long, while we favor our short 
stories from twelve hundred up — 
and the upward limit is soon 
reached. 

Another reason is that the Ger- 
mans have lost many excellent 
stories (novellen) through not col- 
lecting them in books. Thus their 
stories die too early and they lose 
the dignity of permanence. (Many 
of the stories in our Church have 
been lost for this same reason.) 

Then the German critics have 
been unkind to the story writers. A 
large number of them have taken 
the attitude that there have never 
been great short stories in German 
and that the modern writers have no 
claim to greatness. And it is also 
true that in Germany it is hard to 
find a representative writer. Indeed 
no German has ever written the 
complete history of the short story 
in his country. Germany, however, 
has been , kind to the writers of 
other nations, for their translations 
include most of the literature of the 
world. 

In spite of these drawbacks, the 
German short story ranks in quan- 
tity and quality with that of other 
nations. 

Up until 1200 there was no dis- 
tinct type of short story for the 
very reason that there was no prose 
in which stories might be written. 
Germany was almost two centuries 
later than France in developing her 
prose. Readers may find this next 
statement hard to credit, but it was 
not until 1687 that Christian 
Thomasius amazed his colleagues at 
the University of Leipzig by an- 
nouncing that from then on he 
would deliver his lectures in German 
instead of in Latin. Martin Luther, 
born in 1483, has been rightly called 
the father of German prose. Yet 
it was a good many years after his 



birth that the German language be- 
came an effective medium of expres- 
sion. 

Some two hundred years before 
Martin Luther there had been a 
number of classical writers, Gott- 
fried Von Strassburg among them, 
but for a long time after the Ger- 
man language was given such im- 
petus, there were no gifted writers. 
Boccacio was translated in 1460 and 
the Gesta Romanorum of England 
was also made available, giving Ger- 
many something more exciting to 
read than anything she could pro- 
duce. 

It was the Reformation in the 
sixteenth century that brought about 
great reforms in economics, religion, 
and philosophy, and it was during 
the period of 1500 to 1770 that the 
seeds were sown for modern Ger- 
man literature, of which the short 
story is an integral part. 

During this period Germany's 
greatest universities were either 
founded or took their place in the 
intellectual life of the nation. Pre- 
vious to the appearance of the uni- 
versities, critical thought was an 
almost unknown thing. Authors 
were so intent upon their moral 
that they forgot style and form. 
When the professor arrived, he em- 
phasized art for its own sake and 
analyzed for his students the 
strengths and weaknesses of his ma- 
terials. Translations became more 
common and German literature was 
founded. 

From the sixteenth to well into 
the eighteenth centuries, many dif- 
ferent types of stories flourished — 
Volkbrecher, fablen, and marchen to 
mention a few. These stories dif- 
fered in two ways from the modern 
conception: They were didactic 
and they appealed too much to the 
supernatural. 

Gottsched, for more than half 
of the eighteenth century, taught at 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



57 



Leipzig that prose should be used 
exclusively for theorizing. But 
while the professor talked, the peo- 
ple were reading Schnabel's Insel 
\Felsenburg, Germany's Robinson 
Crusoe. And in 1776 Shakespeare 
was translated into prose and was 
produced on the stage. People 
learned that the great English writer 
had used short stories for his 
sources. The short story had come 
to stay. 

1796 to 1830 was approximately 
the great period of the Romanticists. 
These writers felt that in their 
stories they should tell of something 
that had never been written before. 
Heaven and hell and strange worlds 
in between were used to stir the 
imagination, and Italy and Spain 
were resorted to more than Ger- 
many itself. A number of these 
writers, among them Tieck, Wieland 
and Goethe, tried to establish the 
novelle as a distinct form. 

The real short story writers 
among the Romanticists were Kleist, 
Hoffman, Tieck, Brentano, Arnim 
and Eichendorff. Kleist was the 
greatest genius and is the best dra- 
matist of Germany, while Hoffman 
was the most gifted story writer. It 
was he who greatly influenced Ed- 
gar Allen Poe. Hoffman was en- 
dowed with a mysterious sixth sense 
and his characters today seem as so 
many Dr. Jekylls and Mr. Hydes, 
ghosts, sprites, vampires, doomed 
men, and fairy children. He did 
much to introduce the novelle and 
to make it an enduring type, and 
he did not write one indelicate line. 
Many lesser writers have failed in 
imitating Hoffman. His genius was 
too strange and great. 

Brentano was the son of a family 
with partly Italian blood. He in- 
troduced humor into the short story 
and Eichendorff used his genius to 
champion loveliness and to glorify 
the charms of nature. 



Of the next group, Paul Heyse, 
il830-1914, was the leader. Rather 
than draw his material from Ger- 
many he went to the Southlands for 
his stories. It was in 1910 that he 
won the Nobel prize in literature. 
He was a great admirer of Boccacio, 
and especially of one story, "The 
Falcon," which will be studied later 
in the Italian group. From this one 
story Heyse derived much of his 
theory for writing short stories. 
'His theory has also been widely 
accepted. 

Many of the best short stories in 
Germany were written from 1870 
on to the Wlorld War. Women now 
began to add to literature. One of 
the first of the earlier writers was 
Annette Von Droste-Huhlshoff, 
1822-1891. Since her time there 
have been Marie Von Ebner-Esch- 
enbach, Helene Stcekl, Isolde, Kurz, 
Gabriele Reuter, Richardo Huch, 
and many others. Some of the later 
writers who have won world fame 
are Arthur Schnitzler, Thomas 
Mann, Herman Sudermann, Jacob 
Wasserman, and Zweig. Schnitzler 
and Sudermann will be written of 
in more detail. Thomas Mann is 
considered by many to be the great- 
est of the living German writers. 
In 1929 he won the Nobel Prize for 
his "Magic Mountain," and his first 
great novel, in a way the autobi- 
ography of his youth and youthful 
thinking, is "Buddenbrooks." 

Herman Sudermann 

Herman Sudermann was born in 
East Prussia in 1857, of a poor 
Mennonite family. At the age of 
fourteen he was apprenticed to a 
chemist, but the boy was not satis- 
fied and by various struggles he was 
able to enter the University of Tilsit, 
and later the University of Berlin. 
He tutored, did many kinds of 
work, and wrote for the newspapers, 



58 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



and at one time was a journalist. 
It was in 1885 that a collection was 
made of his newspaper stories, and 
the next year he wrote one of his 
great novels, ''Dame Care" (Frau 
Sorge). Since then he has written 
much, stories, novels and plays. 

His characters are swayed by pas- 
sions, sorrows, and mental twists 
which everyone is familiar with 
in some degree. Thus Sudermann's 
characters give his readers a feeling 
of kinship and of sympathy. He is 
almost always sympathetic with his 
characters and has a firm faith in the 
saving power of women, a theme 
running through many of his writ- 
ings. 

Arthur Schnitzler 

Great writers are often associated 
with great cities — Dickens with 
London, Zola with Paris — and Ar- 
thur Schnitzler and Vienna are in- 
separable. He is a product of the 
Austrian capital and he writes of 
every phase of Viennese life, though 
he is more apt to avoid the very 
lowly and the very high. 

His love for his city is not of the 
intense political mature some men 
feel. He loved it under Franz Josef 
and he loves it under his President. 
AVhat has held him true has been 
the city that housed Mozart, Beet- 
hoven, Haydn, the city that is filled 
with great architects, painters, 
sculptors, actors, singers, writers, 
and scientists, the city of restau- 
rants, laughter, and waltz music. 

Of Schnitzler's personal life little 
is known. He feels that this is his 
own private affair, and he does not 
want his biography written. He 
was born of a family of Hungarian 
Jews, his father being a noted doc- 
tor of medicine at the University 
of Vienna. Dr. Johann Schnitzler 
loved the theatre and his private 
practice included manv renowned 



members of the operatic and the- 
atrical world. So 'his son came 
rightly by his love of drama and 
music. 

Arthur Schnitzler was born May 
15, 1862 and became, like his father, 
a doctor of medicine. Later he 
turned more to the practice of the 
psychological (phases of medicine 
and many of his dramas and stories 
revolve about a doctor of that type. 
He has always kept up some private 
practice, even after his fiftieth birth- 
day, when he was recognized as 
Austria's most gifted writer. 

Schnitzler has beautifully molded 
features and a sensitive face, and 
his writings are sometimes delicate 
and fragile. For a long time he had 
little confidence in his gifts, keeping 
his writing in obscurity. His writ- 
ings are for a public, sophisticated in 
life as well as in art. He invests 
human life with the grace and charm 
of poetry, but through it all runs a 
strain of melancholy. His cynicism 
is not distrust in human nature; 
rather it is the knowledge that 
comes with complete vision of man's 
frailties. 

If he has any fixed philosophy to 
guide his writings, it is that man is 
uneven and so are his days. He 
feels that temptation is everywhere 
and the person who escapes it is not 
so often strong as merely inactive. 
Arthur Schnitzler is not the greatest 
writer Austria has produced, but 
he is the most interesting. In his 
own field, that of creating tragedy 
ending with hope in the ofTing and 
of comedy closing with pathos near, 
he is without a superior in any na- 
tion. 

To the Teachers'. 

You will find that most of these 
German stories will be enjoyed by 
the class members. The first and 
the last in the suggested list have 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



59 



been starred as being particularly 
appropriate. Schnitzler's story, too, 
is short and will arouse a great deal 
of comment. The "Sick Wife" is 
also brief and will be enjoyed for 
its humor. One of woman's traits 
has a long history. "The Fury" 
is a beautiful and romantic story, 
and is found in almost every col- 
lection of great short stories from 
various nations. The pronunciation 
of the German names may seem a 
little difficult, but they are, on the 
whole, pronounced just as they are 
spelled. Sudermann has the oo u 
and the a is a short a. To give all 
the others would require too much 
time and space, but you cannot go 
very wrong in pronouncing them. 

Questions 

The Triple Warning : 

What is the theme of this story 
and what is Schnitzler's philosophy? 
Is the meaning allegorical ? 

A New Years Eve Confession : 

Are you aware at any point in the 
story (not counting the climax) 
that either the husband or the friend 



knew who held the wife's real love? 
Do you believe the husband's last 
statement ? 

In what way does this story show 
Sudermann's belief in good women? 

Is this a true short story ? Why ? 
Is this story strictly German tin 
local color and character? What is 
most emphasized, plot, character, or 
action ? What is the conflict in this 
story and who is the chief char- 
acter ? 

The Fury: 

Mention details 'that place the 
characters of this story (a) racially, 
(b) socially. Who is the dominant 
character ? What clues show 
Laurella's love for Antonio? Why 
did she struggle against her love 
for him? If her inner struggle is 
the chief one, what other struggle 
is also important? Show how the 
two combined make one large con- 
flict? Which is the scene of dra- 
matic climax? In what way does 
the curato contribute to the story? 
What is the length of the action? 

Have you obtained anything from 
these stories that will give you a 
better insight into the German racial 
characteristics ? 



Social Service 

(Fourth Week in March) 

Personality Study: Habits and Growth 

Based on Overstreet's "Influencing Human Behavior," pages 169-183, 

201-216 



"The most widespread disease of 
humanity," remarked a great soci- 
ologist in a lecture before the stu- 
dents of the Alpine session of 
Brigham Young University, "is the 
unwillingness to work." During his 
travels in many different countries 
he had observed unmistakable evi- 



dences that in the presence of work 
to be done, practically every human 
being tries with more or less suc- 
cess to "let George do it." Count- 
less interesting subterfuges are in- 
vented — The Chinaman lets his 
finger nails grow so that he can't 
work. The American becomes a 



60 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



hobo or finds an easy "white-collar 
job." The European often manages 
to "let the women do the work." 
Religionists throughout the world 
very frequently lose sight of the 
spur to individual achievement pre- 
sented by their early prophets and 
conjure up much more lazy and 
comfortable means of salvation. 
Such observations and generaliza- 
tions correspond remarkably well 
with those which have been made by 
psychologists. In a former lesson 
our attention was directed to a hu- 
man characteristic, sometimes called 
the "tendency to minimum effort" 
Thorndike gives it as his impression 
that "the majority of men remain 
far below their limit of efficiency, 
even when it is decidedly in their 
interest to approach it, and when 
they think they are doing the best 
that they are capable of." 

This "tendency to minimum ef- 
fort," coupled with a desire to main- 
tain our self respect, leads to a 
number of mental habits that hinder 
our personal growth. What our 
personalities are like, as we have al- 
ready seen, is largely the result of 
our past training and experience. 
During our lives we pass through 
many specific conflicts in the effort 
to make satisfactory social adjust- 
ments to the environments in which 
we find ourselves. These struggles 
are for the most part mental in 
character, but they are none the less 
real and important in their conse- 
quences. They are efforts at self- 
preservation (seldom mere physical 
self-preservation), and the "ad- 
vancement of one's ego." The 
typical outcome of these mental bat- 
tles is not complete victory nor 
complete defeat, but rather a sort 
of not altogether satisfactory com- 
promise. 

Since the habit-systems that make 
up our personalities crystalize more 



or less as a result of our reactions 
to the conflicts we pass through, it 
may help us to understand various 
possibilities if we list some of the 
types of reaction which are fre- 
quently adopted in these mental 
struggles. 

On the one hand we may assume 
and hold more or less continuously 
an aggressive attitude, facing reality 
and recognizing rather honestly 
whatever the outcome may be. The 
genuine optimist may be taken as a 
person likely to adopt this attitude. 
He is not only willing but anxious 
to take into account unfavorable 
facts, but he also has an aggressive 
program based upon an unfeigned 
confidence that evil can be overcome 
with good. 

On the other hand we may adopt 
one or more of a number of types 
of somewhat well known defensive 
reactions. We shall enumerate and 
discuss just seven of them. 

1. We may recognize but refuse 
to meet the difficulty. An example 
of this is the pouting reaction seen 
in children and not infrequently in 
some adults. The pessimist also 
furnishes us with typical reactions 
under this heading. Even at his 
best he recognizes the existence of 
evil, but seems to lack the faith and 
willingness to expend energy which 
is required to cope adequately with 
the situation. 

2. We may avoid battle by deny- 
ing to ourselves and others the ex- 
istence of any issue that should give 
us concern. Here we may point to 
the counterfeit optimist so often met 
with — the "cheerful idiot" who, of 
course, has no program of social 
betterment, because whatever is, is 
"fine and dandy" and "couldn't be 
better." Also typical of this reac- 
tion is the keeping of our religion 
and business or our religion and 
science in separate "water-tight" 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 61 

compartments of our minds, so to pious yearning to be freed from all 

speak. Perhaps this condition that pertains to this earth and to 

would not be so comfortable to us come into possession of the peace 

if we knew that our friends some- and supposed rest of heaven. The 

times suspect us of lacking intel- sentiments expressed in the songs 

lectual honesty and the genuine kind which they sing with especial fervor 

of faith that dares to inquire. are like the following : 

3. Sometimes rather than admit 

our present defeat we try to over- "Come on, my partners in distress, 

shadow it by keeping in mind some My comrades through the wilderness, 

previous victory. An example is the ™2n? %>£*£*& £ ^ f ears , 

repulsed lover returning for comfort And look beyond this vale of tears, 

to a consideration of the time when To that celestial hill." 

he was his mother's darling. Mr. . 

Nebbs and Major Hoople of the Fair land !-could mortal eyes 

J , *\ , -But half its charms explore, 

comic strips, seem to resort to some- How would our spirits long to rise, 

what similar regressions in order to And dwell on earth no more !" ' 

bolster up their self-regard with 

least bother to themselves in the ''My ish T an ^ sig u h i° ^j^, 

r . «• , Where Jesus hath fixed his abode ; 

W Y ?i f n P . r f ent ac r hlev f ment , O when shall we meet in the air, 

4. Wjhich one of us has not taken And fly to the mountain of God I" 
satisfaction in the midst of conflict 

by congratulating ourselves as being Of course Latter-day Saints 

more fortunate than the other fel- should not fall into the error of 

low — the one who didn't even get a being too other-worldly in their 

chance to be a "goat," for example, concerns, or of despising their mor- 

Self-consolation obtained by playing tal bodies and this earthly existence, 

the role of a snob, either as an in- It is more typical for us to sing 

dividual or as a group, (there are songs with sentiments appreciative 

many varieties), is a rather poor of our present natural surroundings, 

way of blinding ourselves, and as and of the need of making this 

one writer says it "simply kills any world a better place in which to live, 

initiative we may have to improve Then, too, the prophet Alma plainly 

our position." (See Overstreet, says that "now is the time and the 

pages 178-181, also Jno. 8:31-39, day of your salvation." In the same 

Alma 31:16-28, Rom. 2:17-29). spirit Brigham Young said: "We 

5. Sometimes we soothe ourselves ought not to speak lightly of and 
by dwelling in a world of phantasy, undervalue the life we now enjoy, 
considering either the great things but so dispose of each passing day 
we might have done or the easy that the hours and minutes are 
victories that some day will be ours, spent in doing good * * * in im- 
Mr. Overstreet takes quite a thrust proving our talents and abilities to 
at some so-called Christians who do more good. * * * 

evade the religious responsibilities "It would be no blessing to you 
of the here and now by dwelling too to be carried into the celestial king- 
much upon supposed matters per- dom, and obliged to stay therein, 
taining to the next world. unless you were prepared to dwell 

Such people seem to despise their there, 

present existence, referring to it as "This life is worth as much as any 

passing through a "vale of tears." life that any being can possess in 

They have an intense and supposedly time or in eternity. * * * 



62 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



"It is my business to teach man- 
kind how to live, how to honor their 
present existence, how to treat their 
bodies so as to live to a good old 
age on the earth, and have power to 
do good." (Discourses of Brigham 
Young, pages 140, 146, 446, 513.) 

To continue our enumeration let 
us mention briefly just two more 
very human reactions to conflict. 

6. A seemingly very satisfactory 
and frequently used way of explain- 
ing away defeat, is to shift the 
blame for our failures to the 
shoulders of someone else. Our 
successful rival "had a pull." The 
devil was working against us or 
again on the basis of no real evi- 
dence at all, we may even blandly 
remark that "it was God's will." 

7. Sometimes we succeed more or 
less in exonerating ourselves by 
rather skillfully shifting the blame 
to certain uncontrollable circum- 
stances that seem to be plausible ex- 
planations. The failure would not 
have occurred except for our ill 
luck, bad health, or our alleged con- 
dition of over- work or inability to 
sleep, and so on. 

Before leaving the subject of de- 
fensive reactions, it should be em- 
phasized that typically in most of 
them we are not ourselves aware 
that we are using them. We not 
only succeed in fooling others to 
some extent, but we are perhaps 
most successful in "kidding" our- 
selves, and that is the real pity of 
it all. Happy may the person be 
who was brought up during his 
childhood with plenty of experience 
with success so that he has not de- 
veloped a lot of fabrication habits 
to hinder his progress. Of course 
this does not mean that he should 
never have come face to face with 
hard problems to solve, but he 
should be guarded from an undue 
number of impossible ones that pre- 
clude any chance of success in spite 



of a reasonable amount of ingenuity, 
industriousness and persistence on 
his part. 

A Fezv of the Possible Problems 
for Discussion 

1. Explain briefly the two basic 
drives mentioned in our text, viz. 
self-regard and least effort. In this 
connection read and comment upon 
the quotation from Swift, given in 
the September Magazine, page 516. 

2. Mention several maladjust- 
ments which people might make in 
relation to the mental conflicts they 
encounter. 

3. In relation to the tendencies 
toward other worldliness which 
might even afflict some members of 
our own group, read suitable ex- 
tracts from the following songs in 
our book of Deseret Sunday School 
Songs, Nos. 52, 60, 123, 139, 197, 
207, 222, and 228. Have any songs 
with sentiments like those in the 
verses quoted above been included 
in our Sunday School song book? 
If so, are they favorites with us and 
what is their source ? 

4. We sometimes speak of our- 
selves as being the "chosen people" 
of God. Can it be possible that with 
some of us this notion serves us just 
like the fabricated superiority which 
Overstreet speaks of — buttressing 
our insecure self-respect and nour- 
ishing the "tendency to minimum 
effort ?" Or do most of us feel chal- 
lenged to worthy effort because we 
feel that our people have been 
chosen not so much for favor as 
for service and responsibility ? 

5. In the biography of a Latter- 
day Saint missionary to the Society 
Islands, it tells of his efforts to dis- 
lodge the native converts from their 
"indolent reliance upon ceremonial 
for salvation. * * * To them re- 
ligion was an invitation to comfort 
and peace, rather than a call to ad- 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



63 



venture and service, often to heroic 
performance.'' He had come to ap- 
preciate the fact that "religious and 
moral character * * is an achieve- 
ment, not a gift; an invitation to 
struggle and accomplishment, not to 
peace and security." Compare the 
insight of this missionary with that 
reflected in such Bible passages as 
the following: Hosea 6:6; Micah 
6:6-8; Amos 5:14-15, 21-24; Isa. 
1 :10-17 ; Jer. 7 :5-7, 21-22, Matt. 25 : 
31-46; Jno. 8:31-39, Rom. 2:17-29. 
6. Read Mosiah 18:8-13; Alma 
31:16-28; 34:28-34; 41:14; II Ne- 
phi 9:16, 33, 38; Mormon 9:14; D. 
& C. 11:12, 20; 58:26-29; 108:99, 
and comment along the line of the 
thoughts suggested in problem five. 
To what extent do these extracts 
from characteristic Mormon scrip- 
ture emphasize a conception of re- 
ligion which does not permit of 
careless procrastination or empty 
emotionalism, or a lazy reliance upon 
mere rituals and ceremonies as sub- 
stitutes for initiative and self-effort 
here and now as essential conditions 
of salvation ? 



7. It is fairly easy for us to rec- 
ognize defensive reactions in other 
people, especially in children. Sug- 
gest several specific ways of helping 
them. How may we ourselves over- 
come these tendencies? In their 
extreme forms to what do they lead ? 

8. We have all heard the saying 
that "nothing succeeds like success." 
Of what importance is this idea in 
relation to personality development ? 
Should children be provided with a 
lot of cheap or undeserved "suc- 
cesses?" If not, what are the 
characteristics of real successes and 
what should be done to bring them 
about ? 

9. Read carefully page 181 of our 
text and write out your best com- 
ment on it for presentation before 
the class. 

10. In Chapter XII, Overstreet 
discusses in a clear manner certain 
interesting problems of social and 
political progress. With what part 
of this chapter do you find yourself 
in closest agreement ? Point out one 
or two things he expresses with 
which you do not readily agree. 




HAPPY LITTLE FOLK AT THE 
PRIMARY CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 




SOLITUDE 



Conventions and Conferences 

General Board members visited Relief Society stake conventions and conferences, 
which were held in the stakes during 1930, as follows : 



Alberta — Mrs. Mary C. Kimball. 

Alpine — Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 

Bannock — Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Bear Lake — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Bear River — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 

Beaver — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Benson — Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Big Horn — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Blackfoot — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Blaine — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Boise— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Box Elder — Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine. 

Burley— Mrs. Julia A. Child. 

Cache — Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

Carbon — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Cassia — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Cottonwood — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Curlew — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 

Deseret — Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon. 

Duchesne — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

East Jordan — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Emery — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Ensign — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion, Mrs. 

Mary C. Kimball. 
Franklin — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 
Fremont — Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 
Garfield — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 
Granite — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford, Mrs. 

Emeline Y. Nebeker. 
Grant — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford, Miss 

Sarah M. McLelland. 
Gunnison — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 
Hollywood — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 
Hyrum — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 
Idaho — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 
Idaho Falls — Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 
Juab — Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker. 
Juarez — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 
Kanab — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 
Kolob — Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker. 
Lehi — Mrs. Julia A. Child. 
Lethbridge — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 
Liberty — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund, Mrs 

Mary C. Kimball. 
Logan — Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 
Los Angeles — Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 
Lost River — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 
Lvman^Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 
Malad— Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford. 
Maricona — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 
Millard — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 
Minidoka — Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine. 
Moapa — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 
Montpelier — Mrs. Julia A. Child, 
Morgan — Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 
Moroni— Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 
Mount Ogden — Mrs. Kate M. Barker, 

Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 



Nebo — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 
Nevada — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 
North Davis — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxtei. 
North Sanpete— Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 
North Sevier — Mrs. Mary C. Kimball. 
North Weber— Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 
Ogden— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Oneida — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 

Oquirrh — Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon, 
Miss Sarah M. McLelland 

Palmyra — Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 

Panguitch — Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Parowan — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Pioneer — Mrs. Julia A. Child, Mrs. 
Emeline Y. Nebeker. 

Pocatello — Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter. 

Portneuf — Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker. 

Raft River — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

Rigby — Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

Roosevelt — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

St. George — Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

St. Johns— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

St. Joseph — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Salt Lake— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

San Francisco — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

San Juan — Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

San Luis — Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Sevier — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Sharon — Mrs. Jennie B. Knight. 

Shelley— Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Snowflake — Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

South Davis — Mrs. Amy W. Evans. 

South Sanpete — Mrs. Emeline Y. Neb- 
eker. 

South Sevier— Mrs. Mary C. Kimball. 

Star Valley— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Summit — Mrs. Cora L. Bennion. 

Taylor — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison, Mrs. 
Mary C. Kimball. 

Teton— Mrs. Ethel R. Smith. 

Timpanogos — Miss Sarah M. McLelland. 
Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine. 

Tintic— Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 

Tooele — Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Twin Falls — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

Uintah— Mrs. Marcia K. Howells. 

Union — Mrs. Louise Y. Robison. 

Utah— Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund. 

Wasatch— Mrs. Kate M. Barker. 

Wayne — Mrs. Ida Peterson Beal. 

Weber— Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund, Mrs. 
Emma A. Empey. 

West Jordan — Mrs. Elise B. Alder. 

Woodruff — Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine. 

Yellowstone — Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 
—Young— Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood. 

Zion Park — Mrs. Inez K. Allen. 



Massing for Prohibition's Greatest Drive 



NO wonder public sentiment against 
prohibition is gaining. Often the 
press seems to avoid printing the 
dry side of the story. Facts favoring 
prohibition are frequently lost in a maze 
of wet propaganda. Often items concern- 
ing prohibition are twisted into an argu- 
ment against prohibition ... a Federal 
officer is killed by a bootlegger with a 
criminal record of twenty years, and, the 
news headline is "snooper killed." 

Unfortunately for the common good, 
facts are distorted ; editorials are often 
assaults on prohibition; nothing is left 
unturned by the wet radical papers to 
discredit the greatest moral reform of 
the century. 

The majority of the people in the most 
populous centers of the United States 
form their opin- 
ion from the mass 
of liquor propa- 
ganda. Why 
shouldn't they 
wonder about the 
benefits of prohi- 
bition? Why 
shouldn't they be- 
gin to think or 
act against the 
Eighteenth 
Amendment? 



It's time to do 
something. Let's 
give the people 
the facts about 
prohibition. De- 
spite the excellent 
work done by the 
religious and 
other law-uphold- 
ing publications 
of the nation in 
telli'ng 'the true 
story, much work 
is yet to be done. 
We must reach 
the masses, who 
read only the 
daily newspapers, 
whose thoughts, 
actions and votes, 
are controlled by 
the papers. 



LETS HAVE THE TRUTH 
ABOUT PROHIBITION 

The American Business Men's Prohibition 
Foundation is incorporated in Illinois ^ "not 
for profit" and is a voluntary association 
organized to collect, correlate and dissem- 
inate facts regarding the results of Na- 
tional Prohibition and its relation to the 
welfare and progress of the people of the 
United States. 



Let's give them the real facts : that 
drinking has decreased; that crime has 
lessened; that the death rate has been 
lowered ; that the standard of living has 
been raised; that the nation as a whole 
as well as the individual has been ma- 
terially benefited. 

The people should know the truth 
about prohibition. Only the truth, told 
now in a forceful manner, will save 
prohibition. 

The American Business Men's Prohi- 
bition Foundation after months of ex- 
haustive research has gathered the facts 
that prove conclusively the great success 
of prohibition. It has given the facts, 
through its press bureau, to the news- 
papers of the country. Papers that are 
fair have printed them. But many wet 

papers have ig- 
nored them — and 
it is to the twenty 
millions of read- 
ers of the wet 
press that we 
must give the 
facts. 



Advisory Board 



Herbert T. Ames 

Lawyer, 

Pennsylvania 
Francis E. Baldwin 

Manufacturer, N. Y 

William Lowe Bryan 

Pres. Indiana Univ. 
Andrew B. Crichton 

Coal Mines, 

Pennsylvania 
Zane Grey 

Author 

Franklin S. Harris 
Pres. Brigham 
Ydung Univ. 

R. J. KlTTREDGE 

Manufacturer, 
Chicago 

Henry M. Leland 
Manufacturer, 
Detroit 

S. S. McClure 
Editor, Publisher 



J. Knox Montgomery 

Pres. Muskingum 

College 
P. W . Morgan 

Banker, 

Pennsylvania 
Wm. R. ISi 'icholson, Jr. 

Manufacturer, 

Philadelphia 
Mrs. H. W. Peabody 

Chairman, Woman's 

Nat. Com. for 

Law Enforcement 
James C. Penny 

Merchant 
Mrs. John F. Sippel 

Pres. Gen. Fed. 

of Women's Clubs 
John Timothy Stone 

Pres. McCormick 

Seminary 
Louis J. Taber 

Master, 

National Grange 
Floyd W. Tom kins 

Author, Pa. 



To reach this 
mass of readers — 
most of whom 
are fair-minded 
and who will ap- 
preciate the truth 
— this Foundation 
is going to adver- 
tise nation-wide. 
Full pages of 
paid newspaper 
advertising will 
be published in 
wet as well as 
dry paper s — to 
reach everybody! 

The work of 
spreading the 
truth to the 
largest reading 
public can be 
accomplished in 
no better manner. 
Paid advertise- 
ments will tell 
the actual facts 
as they exist. 



Notes to the Field 

(Continued from page 43) 

Special Instruction For Choristers locality will be given on the follow- 

and Organists: ing dates: January 5, Ephraim; 

DURING the month of January January 10, Logan; January 12, 
a specially designed course for Richfield; January 17, Provo; Jan- 
stake and ward choristers and or- wary 19, Salt Lake City; January 
ganists will be commenced in Idaho 24 , Ogden ; Januay 26, Idaho Falls. 
Falls, Logan, Odgen, Salt Lake We especially urge all choristers 
City, Provo, Ephraim, and Richfield, and organists in our Relief Society 
The course, which will be made up organization to take advantage of 
of six free lessons given over a this exceptional opportunity wher- 
period of six weeks, has been out- ever possible. 

lined by the General Music Com- Th]s instruction is given to the 

mittee of the Church with the assist- Re]ief Sodet f through the 

ance of the Church s music institu- courtesy o{ the General Board 
tion, the McCune School of Music 

and Art, and six prominent music _, _ „ „ „ , . 

leaders from the faculty of that The Russell Sage Foundation: 

school have been selected to present T" HE Russell Sage is one of the 

subjects included in the course. ■ seven great foundations, and is 

These instructors are : Edward an institution established in 1907 by 
P. Kimball, Organist of the Taber- Mrs. Russell Sage, with an endow- 
nacle; Lester Hinchcliff, Director ment of ten million dollars. The 
of the Ogden Tabernacle Choir; C. purpose of this was to establish a 
W. Reid, former director of the Foundation for the improvement of 
music department of the ( B. Y. social and living conditons in the 
University; Anthony C. Lund, Di- United States. The Foundation 
rector of the Salt Lake Tabernacle does not attempt to relieve individ- 
Choir; Reginald Beales, viiolinist ual or family needs, but merely to 
and teacher of violin and ensemble study and investigate, in order to 
groups at the McCune School of eradicate the causes of distress The 
Music and Art; and Tracy Y. work is distributed among several 
Cannon, Director ot the McCune departments, including the Charity 
School and former organist of the Organization Department, the De- 
Tabernacle, partment, of Industrial Studies, 

This valuable series of lectures Division of Remedial Loans, De- 

and class discussions is intended not partment of Surveys and Exhibits, 

alone for the Church musicians in the Division of Recreation, Division 

the centers mentioned ; it is sincerely °. f Publication of Library and Sta- 

hoped by the General Boards of all tistics. 

the Auxiliaries that all the music It is with the Charity Organiza- 

ofhcers in their organizations within ton and with the Library and Statis- 

convenient traveling distance of a tics and Survey, that the Relief 

class meeting-place will attend the Society has had most contact. The 

six classes. The first class in each Charity Organization Department 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



66 



has made studies of Marriage Ad- Exhibits has, by constant effort, kept 

ministration in the several states, the community informed of its prob- 

with the object of announcing a year lems, and therefore has served as a 

minimum age law for girls. The great educator of public opinion. 

Division of Recreation has done It is in the Department of Surveys 

much to develop the Community that the present Year Book has been 

Center idea, the Division of Rem- completed, and is the most compre- 

edial Loans has thrown light on the hensive thing of its kind ever at- 

methods of loan sharks, and has tempted in the United States, 
promoted co-operative Loan So- When assembling the material for 

cieties. Through its library many of the Social Service Year Book, Mr. 

the very finest works on social ser- Fred S. Hall, the editor wrote to 

vice have been published and made the secretary of the Relief Society, 

available at a minimum cost. The and expressed his thought that the 

Foundation has also supervised the book would not be complete without 

development of the model suburban an article on "Mormon Social 

community at Forest Hills, Long Work," Mrs. Lund wrote the article 

Island. asked for and we are happy to have 

The Department of Surveys and it appear in this valuable book. 



She Never Refused to Sing 

By Linda S. Fletcher 



She was an old, old lady 

Upon whose gentle face, 
A life of love and service 

Had left a kindly trace. 

"I sang for the Queen," she murmured, 
I might have won wealth and fame ; 

The annals of earth's illustrious 
Might have glorified my name." 

"But I joined a humble people; 

In trial, my gift would bring 
To them a comforting pleasure, 

And I never refused to sing." 



"Now I am old and feeble, 
But still, 'tis a marvelous thing, 

I have never lost my talent, 
I still have the power to sing." 

"Last Night," and her eyes grew misty, 

"I trod the streets of gold ; 
And, it seemed, in this heavenly vision, 

That I sang, as I sang of old." 

"And I know, very soon, my daughter, 

My spirit in joy will wing 
To the blest abode of my loved ones, 

And I'll sing for my Heavenly King." 



Procrastination 

By Alice Morrill 



There are aching hearts repining 
For the words you did not say. 

There are hope-lost souls a-needing 
Faith-sweet prayers you did not pray. 

There are hungry hearts a-longing 
For the love you did not give, 

There is cruel need, depending 
On your pleasure to relieve. 

There are baby-lips awaiting 
For your truant, fond caress 



There is dearth-of-blessing calling 
You, who never think to bless. 

There are lonely ones still listening 
For the song you did not sing, 

There are empty arms a-reaching 
For the gift you did not bring. 

There's a broken soul now stranded 
By the heart- worn, heavy road ; 

For you never sought to cheer him, 
Never thought to ease his load. 



Distinctive 

TYPE 

FACES 



Correct in Style for 



Society 



and 



Commercial 
Printing 



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CONTENTS 

The Protest C. E. Dallin Frontispiece 

The Lamanite in the Gospel Scheme Rey L. Pratt 71 

The Old, Old Folk (Poem) Bertha A. Kleinman 79 

Careers (One-Act Comedy) Linda S. Fletcher 80 

The Voicing Wilds of America (Poem) S. T. Brimhall Foley 86 

The Indian Appeal Julia A. Farnsworth Lund 87 

Bronze Figure of Squaw Sachem C. E. Dallin 91 

The Indian in the Public Schools Marian Gardner Nielson 92 

Thy Country Shall be My Country Edna Harker Thomas 94 

A Beautiful Memory Glen Perrins 98 

Some Findings of the White House Conference Jean Cox 99 

The Life Story of Orson F. Whitney Byron Whitney 105 

Notes to the Field 106 

Notes From the Field 107 

Editorial — An Endless Quest 110 

The Indian Ill 

Response of the Lamanite Sisters 112 

Lesson Department 113 

God (Poem) Tsabelle Tngalese 12? 



In Tune 

By Helen Kimball Orgill 

The day has been dark and dreary ; 
My task has been hard and long, 

But I am not sad or weary, 
For deep in my heart there's a song. 

A song that springs up like a fountain, 
From depths of an infinite calm 

And woes that seem great as a mountain, 
Are banished by heav'nly balm. 




THE PROTEST 



C. E. Dallin 



THE 



Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII 



FEBRUARY, 1931 



No. 2 



The Lamanite in the Gospel Scheme 

Address delivered at the Relief Society Conference October 1, 1930 
By Rey L. Pratt, President of the Mexican Mission 



WHILE sitting here, my 
mind has gone back to the 
many, many sad times in 
my contact with the Lamanite peo- 
ple, knowing and feeling how mis- 
understood they have been. How 
my heart has longed for an oppor- 
tunity such as this, that I might be 
transported from where I was to 
some great gathering of the Church 
to tell my story in their behalf ! And 
now I find myself looking at it 
from the other point of view and I 
wish with all my heart that I could 
transport you out' to where they are 
so that you might get a personal 
glimpse and have the contact that 
would let you know intimately the 
feelings and the problems and the 
conditions of trie Lamanite people. 

HP HE past year in your work in 
■1 the Relief Society you have 
been taking up the study of the 
Book of Mormon. I thank the Lord 
for that. I feel that the Church 
could well afford to devote more 
time to this study than it has done 
for some time past. Perhaps what 
the Lord revealed to Joseph Smith 
concerning the coming forth of the 
Book of Mormon and the very spe- 



cific reasons for its coming forth 
has been missed by you in your 
study of it. 

The assumption in the Church in 
regard to trie Book of Mormon is 
that the primary purpose was to give 
us the gospel. In it is contained, as 
we know, the fulness of the ever- 
lasting gospel, but I should like to 
read in that connection a quotation 
from trie Doctrine and Covenants 
that seems to put us right as to why 
the Book of Mormon came forth in 
this day and age in which we live. 
The Lord was rather reproving Jo- 
seph Smith for letting the manu- 
script get out of his hands and told 
him what' he might do to regain 
favor with the Lord and go on with 
the translation, and said, 

"Nevertheless my work shall go forth, 
for inasmuch as the knowledge of a 
Savior has come unto the world, through 
the testimony of the Jews, even so shall 
the knowledge of a Savior come unto 
my people, 

"And to the Nephites, and the Jacob- 
ites, and the Josephites, and the Zoram- 
ites. through the testimony of their 
fathers — 

"And this testimony shall come to the 
knowledge of the Lamanites. and the 
Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites, who 
dwindled in unbelief because of the in 



72 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



iquitv, of their fathers, whom the Lord 
has suffered to destroy their brethren 
the Nephites, because of their iniquities 
and their abominations ; 

"And for this very purpose are these 
plates preserved which contain these 
records, that the promises of the Lord 
might be fulfilled, which he made to his 
people ; 

"And that the Lamanites might come 
to the knowledge of their fathers, and 
that they might know the promises of the 
Lord, and that they may believe the gos- 
pel and rely upon the merits of Jesus 
Christ, and be glorified through faith 
in his name, and that through their re- 
pentance they might be saved." Section 
3, 16-20. 

If the coming forth of the Book 
of Mormon and the preservation of 
these plates were for this very pur- 
pose, it seems very evident to me 
that the membership of this Church 
should direct their efforts toward the 
fulfillment of these promises, for 
the Lamanite people do not know of 
the promises made concerning them. 
Without the contact being made 
with these promises and the book 
that contains them, through us, they 
will never know of them. Conse- 
quently there is a very great re- 
sponsibility devolving upon this 
Church in 'behalf of our Lamanite 
brethren. 

I call your attention to the fact 
that the Lamanites that dwell with- 
in the confines of the United States 
are a very small part of the people 
of Joseph, those descendants of Lehi 
through his sons Laman and Lem- 
uel, that are in existence. There 
are a great many more of them in 
the countries to the south of us : 
Mexico is a Lamanitish country, 
Central America is a Lamanitish 
country, the great majority of the 
inhabitants of all of the South 
American countries are Lamanitish 
people. They are nevertheless con- 
quered and dominated and brought 
down to a condition of serfdom by 
the Gentile conquerors who have 



come in among them. The Laman- 
ites are the descendants of the re- 
bellious sons of Lehi, those two boys 
who would not work in harmony 
with their father Ifrom th|e time 
they left Jerusalem, who persecuted 
their younger brother Nephi and 
his brothers who stood with him in 
endeavoring to establish the Church 
of the Lord and to work out his 
purposes among them. Early in their 
history, this prediction was made by 
the Lord, speaking to Nephi : 

"And inasmuch as ye shall keep my 
commandments, ye shall prosper, and 
shall be led to a land of promise ; yea, 
even a land which I have prepared for 
you ; yea, a land which is choice above 
all other lands. 

"And inasmuch as thy brethren shall 
rebel against thee, they shall be cut off 
from the presence of the Lord. 

"And inasmuch as thou shalt keep my 
commandments, thou shalt be made a 
ruler and a teacher over thy brethren. 

"For behold, in that day that they 
shall rebel against me, I will curse them 
even with a sore curse, and they shall 
have no power over thy seed except 
they shall rebel against me also." Book 
of Mormon, 1 Nephi, 2 :20-23. 

The curse placed upon them was 
a result of their rebellion and the 
curse was manifest in a dark skin 
that came upon these people. The 
Lord made it permanent so long as 
they would not return to him. He 
extended it to all who mixed with 
them. Lehi, even before he came 
unto this land, foresaw the condi- 
tion that should prevail among the 
people under certain conditions, and 
I would like to read to you this af- 
ternoon his prediction concerning 
this people and their coming unto 
this land, for it foreshadows all 
that has passed and it specifically 
sets forth conditions as they have 
been recited to you this afternoon 
and conditions that I should like 
to call to your attention that prevail 
in the republics to the south of us 



THE LAMANITE IN THE GOSPEL SCHEME 



73 



with a predominance of Lamanitish 
population. Lehi said : 

"Wherefore, I, Lehi, have obtained a 
promise, that inasmuch as those whom 
the Lord God shall bring out of the 
land of Jerusalem shall keep his com- 
mandments, they shall prosper upon the 
face of this land; and they shall be kept 
from all other nations, that they may 
possess this land unto themselves. And 
if it so be that they shall keep his com- 
mandments they shall be blessed upon 
the face of this land, and there shall be 
none to molest them, nor to take away 
the land of their inheritance ; and they 
shall dwell safely forever." 2 Nephi, 1 :9. 

The Lord never makes promises 
that he does not expect to fulfill if 
the people comply with the condi- 
tions. If the descendants of Lehi 
had complied with the conditions 
herein laid down and had served 
the God of the land, they would 
have been possessors of this land — 
even we should have had no par- 
ticipation in it unless we belonged 
to the nation they presided over. 
While the Lord makes his promises 
to be fulfilled, there is always an 
alternative — the Lord always pre- 
sents the other side of the question. 
To these people who were given 
such a wonderful opportunity 
through this prediction of their 
father to possess forever this land 
as a land of their inheritance, it was 
given them to know how they might 
forfeit it. Strange how men will 
sin in the face of knowledge, but 
that is a human propensity. 

"But behold, when the time cometh 
that they shall dwindle in unbelief, after 
they have received so great blessings 
from the hand of the Lord — having a 
knowledge of the creation of the earth, 
and all men, knowing the great and mar- 
velous works of the Lord from the crea- 
tion of the world; having power given 
them to do all things by faith ; having 
all the commandments from the begin- 
ning, and having been brought by his 
infinite goodness into this precious land 
of promise — behold, I say, if the day 



shall come that they will reject the Hoh 
One of Israel, the true Messiah, their 
Redeemer and their God, behold, the 
judgments of him that is just shall rest 
upon them. 

"Yea, he will bring other nations unto 
them, and he will give unto them power, 
and he will take away from them the 
lands of their possessions, and he will 
cause them to be scattered and smitten." 
2 Nephi, 1:10-11. 

Now, the history of these peoples 
shows emphatically that they pur- 
sued the latter course, that they 
turned from their knowledge of the 
God of the land through a great 
many centuries. The Nephites main- 
tained their prophets and they main- 
tained the religion that the Lord had 
given to them. At times they fell 
into wickedness, but all through the 
long history of the Lamanite nation 
they rebelled against their father, 
they rebelled against the religion 
taught by Lehi and by Nephi, ex- 
cept for short intervals during which 
time some of the Lamanites were 
converted. After the visit of the 
Savior to this land, all the people 
were converted to the gospel of Je- 
sus Christ, and for a period of two 
hundred years there was absolute 
peace and faith and obedience to the 
commandments of the Lord, and the 
doctrines of God were followed by 
the people of the land. But' even 
after this momentous time, one of 
the most remarkable in the world's 
history, they became proud and 
haughty and class distinctions arose 
and divisions came among the peo- 
ple — Lamanites and Nephites were 
again known and there was wicked- 
ness on the part of both factions : 
if anything, the Nephite people were 
more wicked than the Lamanite fac- 
tion, and the Lord permitted that 
the Lamanites should absolutely and 
utterly destroy them from off the 
face of the earth. Subsequent to 
that time, the Lamanites degener- 
ated in their worship, they descend- 



74 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

ed in the countries to the south of them wonderful presents of gold and 

us, to a system of devil worship. other treasures, hoping they would 

There are a great many other pas- be placated and would go back and 

sages in the Book of Mormon to not molest them. But this only in- 

show this condition was foretold : cited a desire to conquer and lay 

you will find them recorded in Third hold upon these wonderful riches. 

Nephi and again in Mormon and in They found they were pitting six 

other writings of the ancient pro- hundred men against a nation of 

phets of this land who specifically thirty millions of people with many 

predicted these conditions, the treat- hundreds of thousands of warriors, 

ment that the people should receive It seems strange that a little band 

at the hands of the other people, the of men could have overcome such 

other nations that should come in a great nation, but we must take 

among them, and that they should into consideration one thing : The 

be scattered, that they should be Savior of the world visited the 

smitten, that they should be hated, Nephite people and instituted his 

that they should become a hiss and Church, an era of prosperity fol- 

a by-word, that they should be made lowed his divine ministry among 

the hewers of wood and the drawers this people ; when the Savior went 

of water for the conquering nations away he promised sometime to re- 

that should come in among them, turn, and these people had it in their 

traditions that that fair god whom 

PROPHECIES in this world, no they called Quetzalcoatl who insti- 

matter where recorded, have tuted this era of prosperity was to 

never had a more literal fulfillment return to them. In their minds he 

than those uttered concerning the was probably very much like the 

Lamanite people. The saddest his- Spaniards proved to be. Peculiar 

tory, is the story of the Indian as I things had been occurring during 

have been reading it for the past Montezuma's reign that made it ap- 

quarter of a century — reading it in parent that the empire was to be 

books, yes, but more often in the wrested from his hands, and he saw 

lives of the people I have come in in Cortez the return of that god in 

contact with. I have in my collec- their mythology to take away - the 

tion a history of the Indian written empire and return the people to their 

by a historian in Guatemala who great day of prosperity. But still 

prefaces his work in these words : there was some fear in his heart 

"If my pen might have the gift of and he shrank from it, praying the 

tears, I would write a book and I men to return to the land from 

would call it The Indian and I would which they came. For this reason 

make the whole world weep." there was no particular resistance 

The Indian was the veritable lord to Cortez, and when he marched on 

of the land at the time of the com- the City of Mexico, with his forces 

ing of Europeans here. In the year augmented by traitors from the In- 

1519 Cortez set out with an expedi- dian tribes he had conquered with 

tion from the island of Cuba to con- his magic arms, he was met by the 

quer the great Aztec nation. After emperor himself who invited him 

overcoming several Indian tribes, he into his city on peaceful terms and 

and his men went on to the present who offered him quarters next to 

site of the City of Mexico, where his own in the capital. This condi- 

Montezuma, the Aztec chieftain en- tion did not last long for Cortez in 

treated them to return. He sent a most presumptive way made a 



THE LAMANITE IN THE GOSPEL SCHEME 



75 



prisoner of Montezuma right in his 
own capital. Trouble arose and 
Montezuma was induced to send his 
brother to quiet the rebels, but the 
brother, instead of trying to do this, 
led the people in open assault against 
the Spaniards who were quartered 
in the city, and they were driven 
out the western causeway and re- 
treated from the city, back to the 
little republic of Tlascala. The ar- 
rival of several vessels with men 
and war munitions enabled Cortez 
to reorganize his army, and after 
recuperating from his defeat he laid 
seige to the City of Mexico and 
more terrible seige was never waged. 
Mothers were reduced to the ex- 
tremes of eating their own young 
to assuage the pangs of hunger and 
two days preceding the fall of that 
city, 80,000 people were butchered 
by the Spaniards and their allies. 
The fall of the great Aztec em- 
pire was the opening wedge that 
subdued all the native races south 
of the Rio Grande. The coun- 
try was made a vassal of Spain. 
The people were the slaves of Spain 
and were apportioned out with land 
to the conquerors. I know men in 
that country who have held in one 
holding as much land as tw r o-thirds 
of the State of Utah. They took 
from them their land and their pos- 
sessions, took away everything that 
they possessed. They threw down 
their gods, they desecrated their 
temples, they murdered their emper- 
ors. From this beginning we have 
Alvarado who repeated this same 
condition in Guatemala ; and we have 
the terrible Pizarro who humbled 
Peru. The gold of the country was 
gathered together and melted and 
carried away by the invaders. Not 
only were they despoiled of all the 
material things of life, but their re- 
ligion was desecrated, those things 
held most dear were taken away 
from them. The Spanish conquer- 



ors considered it to be their duty to 
convert the races that they con- 
quered as well as to subject them 
to their king. Their right of con- 
quest given them by the Holy See, 
they set out to convert them and to 
establish in lieu of the religion of 
the country, the Catholic faith. In 
order to accomplish this, the inqui- 
sition with all its horrors was 
brought to bear against the people. 
The mute evidences of it make a 
man's blood curdle. I have seen a 
section of wall in one particular 
part of the National Museum of 
Mexico where it stated in the de- 
scription of it that it was used in 
the Spanish inquisition — the face of 
it is torn off, but there, partly 
turned to stone, you see a mother 
with a baby in her arms, who had 
been built right into that wall. The 
horrors of the inquisition are too 
great to ieven mention here, but 
suffice it to say that the Indian was 
humbled, he was brought low, and 
to escape absolute extermination, he 

was converted to the religion of the 
country. Statistics are marvelous in 
regard to what has been done in 
these countries in regard to the rem- 
nant that has been left by reason of 
the conquest. I am reading here 
from an article that I compiled in 
1914 on these matters : 

"History says that at the beginning of 
the Conquest of the proud Incas of Peru 
by the Spaniards under Pizarro, they 
numbered six millions, and fifty years 
after the conquest, there had perished, 
according to a canon gotten up by the 
order of Philip 2nd, in the year 1580, 
more than two millions of the Indians 
of that empire. When Peru gained her 
independence, says a reliable historian, she 
had lost nine-tenths of her inhabitants 
Of the six millions that she had at the 
coming of the Spaniards, according to a 
census taken at the order of Viceroy Gil 
de Lemos, there remained in the vear 
1795 only 608,899. 

"The kingdoms of Quatemala, com 
prising most of what is now known as 



76 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Central America, had a population at 
the coming of the Spaniards of over 
three millions of people; according to a 
census taken in the year 1810, there re- 
mained of the native people, only 646,- 
076. It is said on good authority, (An- 
tonio Batres Jauregui, Autor de Los 
Jndios, su Historia y su Civilization) 
that, at the end of the 18th century the 
native people of the countries that had 
been conquered by Spain had been re- 
duced to one-tenth their number at the 
coming of the Spanish conqueror." 

I wonder if we could ask for a 
more literal fulfillment of prophecy. 
Could we wish the Lord to be more- 
literal in taking away from these 
people the land of their inheritance? 
The present rebellion in Mexico that 
began in 1910 is bringing liberty to 
thousands of people whose parents 
never knew liberty, bringing liberty 
to people whose parents have been 
in captivity since the conquest. Sta- 
tistics given out' in 1910 were to the 
effect that of the fifteen million 
people in that land, two million alone 
owned the shirts that they stood up 
in ; thirteen million people in that 
land did not possess legal right to 
a single foot of ground, to a home, 
to anything in all the wide world, 
they were absolutely dependent upon 
the people who owned the country 
and who gave them work — at what 
a cost ! They were reduced to bond- 
age, compelled to work at a wage 
on which they could not live, and 
when they drew from the country 
enough on which to live, the amount 
was charged against them. The law 
allowed the country to retain the 
person of a man who owed a debt, 
and should he die, to pass it on to 
his son, in his father's stead. What 
was the result? They were never 
able to pay the debt. I lived there 
during years of a regime of that 
kind in Mexico. Men were taken 
into the tropics where it is unhealthy 
to live and made to work through- 
out the long tropical days, and were 



herded into stockades at night. They 
died like flies. Thank God they are 
not like they used to be. In some 
sections they have papers from the 
crown of Spain which granted pos- 
session of land. These papers are 
registered in the City of Mexico, but 
do you think they can get possession 
of that land? They cannot, unless 
somebody mightier than I have seen 
steps in and gives them right to 
that which they hold papers for. 
They have been reduced to a rem- 
nant, have been brought low in ev- 
ery sense of the word. If it should 
go on how long would it be before 
the other one-tenth would become 
extinct, if in four hundred years 
nine-tenths have succumbed? 



THIS is the point I want to get 
to — that same God that re- 
vealed to Lehi these very conditions 
and that predicted this and caused 
it to be brought about to humble 
these people, has provided and fore- 
told and will decree their restora- 
tion. That is the point ; that is the 
hope that I have. I would like to 
read to you some of the prophecies 
that' pertain to that part of my story : 
the Lord revealed the future to Ne- 
phi and had him record these words : 

"Nevertheless thou beholdest that the 
Gentiles who have gone forth out of 
captivity, and have been lifted up by the 
power of God above all other nations 
upon the face of the land, which is 
choice above all other lands, which is 
the land that the Lord God hath cov- 
enanted with thy father that his seed 
should have it for the land of their in- 
heritance, wherefore thou seest that the 
Lord God will not suffer that the Gen- 
tiles will utterly destroy the mixture of 
thy seed, which are among thy brethren ; 

"Neither will he suffer that the Gen- 
tiles shall destroy the seed of thy breth- 
ren." I Nephi 13:30, 31. 

The Lord has decreed that we 
(for I maintain we are the Gen- 



THE LAMAN1TE IN THE GOSPEL SCHEME 



77 



tiles, and I maintain that in a way 
we have participated in bringing 
these people down to where they 
are) are to assist in their restora- 
tion. I would like to call another 
passage to your attention : 

"And now, I would prophesy somewhat 
more concerning the Jews and the Gen- 
tiles. For after the book of which I 
have spoken shall come forth, and be 
written unto the Gentiles, and sealed up 
again unto the Lord, there shall be many 
which shall believe the words which are 
written ; and they shall carry them forth 
unto the remnant of our seed. 

"And then shall the remnant of our 
seed know concerning us, know that we 
came out of Jerusalem^ and that they 
are descendants of the Jews. 

"And the gospel of Jesus Christ shall 
be declared among them ; wherefore, they 
shall be restored unto the knowledge of 
their fathers, and also to the knowledge 
of Jesus Christ, which was had among 
their fathers. 

"And then shall they rejoice; for they 
shall know that it is a blessing unto them 
from the hand of God ; and their scales 
of darkness shall begin to fall from their 
eyes ; and many generations shall not 
pass away among them, save they shall 
be a white and delightsome people." II 
Nephi 30 :3-6. 

These things are balm to our spir- 
its. I have labored among these 
people for twenty-five years. My 
heart goes out to them. Oh how 
anxiously I labor for the fulfillment 
of these predictions in their behalf. 
Are they worthwhile ? Are they the 
terrible, ignorant, degraded people 
that we esteem them to be? I won- 
der if we know what is working 
among them just now. At the be- 
ginning of the revolution, 85 per 
cent of them were illiterate; the oth- 
er day President Rubio gave out 
statistics to the effect that illiteracy 
has been reduced to 65 per cent. 
They have a passion for education, 
and I see in it the hand of God pre- 
paring these people for the recep- 
tion of the gospel. 



DO we believe in the book that 
we have before us and have 
been studying during the past year ? 
It is incumbent upon us, from this 
moment henceforth to carry that 
book and the message contained in 
it back, to this people. I want to 
read a passage or two to show how 
vital it is for us to give considera- 
tion to these things : 

"And now behold, I say unto you thai 
when the Lord shall see lit, in his wis- 
dom, that these sayings shall come unto 
the Gentiles according to his word, then 
ye may know that the covenant which the 
Father hath made with the children of 
Israel, concerning their restoration to the 
lands of their inheritance, is already be- 
ginning to be fulfilled. 

"And ye may know that the words of 
the Lord, which have been spoken by the 
holy prophets, shall all be fulfilled ; and 
ye need not say that the Lord delays 
his coming unto the children of Israel. 

"And ye need not imagine in your 
hearts that the words which have been 
spoken are vain, for behold, the Lord 
will remember his covenant which he 
hath made unto his people of the house 
of Israel. 

"And when ye shall see these sayings 
coming forth among you, then ye need 
not any longer spurn at the doings of 
the Lord, for the sword of his justice 
is in his right hand ; and behold, al 
that day, if ye shall spurn at his doings 
he will cause that it shall soon overtake 
you. 

"Wo unto him that spurneth at the 
doings of the Lord ; yea, wo unto him 
that shall deny the Christ and his words ! 

"Yea, wo unto him that shall deny 
the revelations of the Lord, and that 
shall say the Lord no longer worketh 
by revelation, or by prophecy, or by gifts, 
or by tongues, or by healings, or by the 
power of the Holy Ghost! 

"Yea, and wo unto him that shall say 
at that day, to get gain, that there can 
be no miracle wrought by Jesus Christ: 
for he that doeth this shall become like 
unto the son of perdition, for whom there 
was no mercv, according to the word of 
Christ! 

"Yea, and ye need not any longer hiss, 
nor spurn, nor make game of the Jews, 
nor any of the remnant of the house of 
Israel ; for behold, the Lord remembereth 
his covenant unto them, and he will do 



78 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



unto them according to that which he 
hath sworn. 

"Therefore ye need not suppose thai 
ye can turn the right hand of the Lord 
unto the left, that he may not execute 
judgment unto the fulfilling of the cov- 
enant which he hath made unto the house 
of Israel." ITI Nephi, 29. 

TT is wonderfuful to learn not to 
-* hate people. There is a natural 
antipathy and hatred on the part of 
the Anglo-Saxon toward the Indian, 
but why? Do you feel any better 
for it? I am a peculiarly made 
fellow, with strong likes and very 
strong dislikes, and one of the hard- 
est things for me to overcome all 
through my life has been my dislike 
for people, individuals or races, and 
I have had an antipathy in times 
past towards Mexican people, but 
when I overcame it I felt better 
about it. Later in life, when I saw 
the terrible things brought upon the 
Mexican people by Cortez and oth- 
ers who were Spaniards, I instinc- 
tively hated the Spanish people, and 
the Lord had to send me to South 
America, where I thought I was go- 
ing to preach to Lamanites and 
where they were all Spanish people, 
to learn that we are all God's chil- 
dren, and then my hatred of the 
Spanish vanished in my work of 
preaching the gospel to them. Get 
hatred out of your systems, the idea 
that you are holier than someone 
else. We are all God's children, and 
if you are favored, thank God, but 
do not boast of it; and if you are 
truly thankful, you will assist to 
bring them to where you are, just 
as Jesus Christ did when he went 
down with the publicans and sin- 
ners. You cannot hand them sal- 
vation on the end of a pole. I love 
the Lamanitish people; I have slept 
in their homes ; I have gone to their 
places at nine or ten o'clock at night 
and they have got out of bed and 
slept on the floor that I might sleep 



in the bed, even though I would 
rather have slept on the floor. They 
will do anything for a man who will 
give them a square deal ; and the 
Indian in the United States and 
Mexico and everywhere else wants 
nothing more than he wants a square 
deal. That is what they need. There 
is a lot of good in them, a lot' of 
good things in their traditions. I 
was in New Mexico about two weeks 
ago among the Pueblo Indians. 
They are obliged to send their peo- 
ple to the schools in Santa Fe and 
Albuquerque. The Indian boy has 
his hair cut, is dressed in civilized 
clothes and an education is forced 
on him. All of his traditions are 
trampled in the dust, nothing good 
that he has is accepted, and then he 
is sent out. I do not know what he 
is equipped for. He goes back into 
the tribal home ; his hair grows long 
and he takes off the white man's 
clothes and puts on the Indian blan- 
ket. I asked a group what they 
would do if nothing more than that 
was offered them, and they said they 
would go back and wear the blanket, 
too, and I gloried in their indepen- 
dence. There is something in them 
and it can be touched by the gospel 
of Jesus Christ, and a great race will 
rise up and they will be redeemed, 
and they shall be powerful in the 
building of the center stake of Zion. 
This is their land and our participa- 
tion will be because of our keeping 
the commandments of God and we 
will be counted among them, the 
seed of Joseph — they are not going 
to be counted among us. These are 
predictions the Lord has made and 
they are going to be fulfilled. 

MY testimony to you is that the 
gospel of Jesus Christ' is true. 
My testimony to you is that this 
Book of Mormon is true. I have 
thought it over from every angle I 



THE LAMANITE IN THE GOSPEL SCHEME 79 

could think it over ; I have gone over date it, let us live up to it, and let 

every word of it, studied every punc- us be found earnestly working for 

tuation mark in it, in order to re- the establishment of God's purpos- 

lease it' in another language. I have es, and let us use our influence as 

studied the relics and traditions of far as it can go, and if the call 

the people, and have had the wit- comes to us to participate, either 

ness of the Holy Ghost that makes actively in this work, or by sending 

me know in every fibre of my body our sons or daughters, let us avail 

that that book is what it purports ourselves of this privilege. Great 

to be — it is a witness in the world will be your reward for every one 

for God and it is true. The man that comes to a knowledge of the 

who brought it forth is a prophet of truth through your efforts. The 

God. The gospel restored through Lord bless you and help you to un- 

him is the gospel of Jesus Christ derstand these things, is my humble 

— it is the power o£ God unto sal- prayer in the name of Jesus Christ, 

vation. We have it, let us appre- Amen. 



The Old, Old Folk 

By Bertha A. Kleimnmi 

I sit at the feet of the old, old folk. 
The bent and the halt and the grey, 

And I string the pearls from the good words spoke. 
For a learned folk are they. 

I fondle the hands of the old, old folk. 

And a courage new is born, 
For theirs is the strength of the tempered oak 
Tn the fingers gnarled and worn: 

I welcome the smile of the old, old folk. 

The wrinkled and comely cheer, 
And proud am I when I invoke 

The praise of an old compeer. 

I look in the eyes of the old, old folk, 

In the windows dulled and dim, 
Where vision lightens with master-stroke 

The sight that is turned to Him. 

I follow the wake of the old, old folk. 

And reap of the goodly seed, 
Over fruited trail that their feet have broke, 

Where the steps of the fathers lead. 

I stand for the faith of the old, old folk. 

The light of the world to be ; 
I stand for the standards their lives evoke, 

For their faith is the faith for me ! 



Careers 

(A One- Act Comedy-Drama of Life and Love) 
By Linda S. Fletcher 

Suitable for Annual Day Programs 

Cast of Characters 

Katherine Leighton A Modern Maiden 

Cornelia Leighton Her Mother 

Dawn Joy A Motion Picture Star 

Mary Hilton ; ... An Author 

Rose Ramsay A Singer 

Joyce, age 8, and 

Betty Ellen, age 10 The Leighton Children 

Jimmie Halstead Katherine's Suitor 

Ward Leighton Her Father 

Jesse Georges A Motion Picture Producer 

Douglas Lincoln A Portrait Painter 

Scene: Living room in the Leighton should rather have it go to one of 

homestead with davenport and table, the othe rs— or all, if possible. (Goes 

right center, several big, easy chairs, desk. , r , N ^ .. 1,1 • 

upper left, blackboard, with colored draw- left ). Lal1 me when the Y arrive, 

ing, left; flowers, a profusion of mag- (Exits left) 

azines and books, lamps etc., arranged (Door-bell rings; Katherine 

artistically lend an atmosphere of charm. greets Ji mm i e Halstead.) 

Doors, back center, left, and right. Katherine (SiirnriseH p« qVi^ nnK 

At rise of curtain, Katherine, wearing . . ^amerme surprised, as ^ she puts 
a summery frock and dainty apron, is his things on table, r.) Why, Jim- 
arranging flowers at the davenport table, mie ! Whoever would have expected 
right center. Cornelia, upper left, is just to see you in Morton ! 
closing the desk. She has a sweet serene y { (t ki h hand )__ It ' s 
face, dark hair, slightly gray at the tern- 1M ,1 • T ) ,, . B «,, ' . , , 
pies. She wears a becoming dress of llke thls > Kathie. When you tola 
blue linen. me goodbye after the "U" dance 

the other evening, I did so much 

Katherine — Run along, now, wan t to ask you something— but just 

mother, and enjoy yourself. I'll couldn't get nerve enough. After 

finish the house-work and answer you left, however, I found it just 

the door-bell. I can hardly wait for had to be said, if I were to enjoy 

our eminent visitors to arrive. any peace of mind, so I followed 

Cornelia (smiling) — You always vou here, 

did adore famous people, didn't you, Katherine— And this mysterious 

Kathie ? something — Jimmie ? 

Katherine — Yes; and I'm quite Jimmie (hesitatingly) — You 

overwhelmed by our present good know how I have shadowed you the 

fortune in having three celebrities past year. Always in your way, 

under our roof and two more com- wasn't I ? 

ing. Are you disappointed that Katherine — iNever in the way! It 

there is so little likelihood of your was thrilling to a Junior to have a 

winning the prize, mother ? "grave and reverend" Senior notice 

Cornelia — Of course not, dear. I her, I assure you, especially when 



CAREERS 



81 



he was ''honor man" of his class, 
and its president, too. 

Jimmie — No more than tnrilling? 

Katherine — Well — rather nice ! 

Jimmie (earnestly) — Was it nice 
enough, Katherine, that you'd be 
willing to have me — well — rather 
near, the rest of your life? 

Katherine — Is — is this a pro- 
posal ? 

Jimmie — Well, I'm not carrying it 
off in Romeo or Barrymore fashion 
(ruefully) I know, hut I do love 
you, Kathie. Do you think you 
could ever care for me? 

Katherine (responding sweetly to 
his seriousness) — It's nice of you 
Jimmie, to like me. I'm fond of you, 
too. But, Jimmie, I just' don't want 
to get married. I don't want to be 
tied to dust-cloths and mop-pails! 
I want a career ! 

Jimmie — But isn't marriage a 
career? Surely a woman can have 
no greater career than that assigned 
her by God. 

Katherine (slightly sarcastic) — 
Spoken like a "man" ! Are you sure 
it was not mere man, rather, who 
assigned this career of which you 
speak, to woman ! Of course, wife- 
hood is best for the untalented wo- 
man, but I think the Maker intend- 
ed that those especially gifted should 
use their abilities for the betterment 
of humanity and should devote their 
lives to the world as a whole instead 
of limiting them to one fire-side! 

Jimmie — I can think of no way 
in which a woman of the highest 
talents could more greatly benefit 
the race than by becoming the moth- 
er of some of its children. There 
is a career that calls for the develop- 
ment of every talent, demands un- 
selfishness, it is true, and yet re- 
wards with the most poignant hap- 
piness this world can bestow ! 

Katherine — Oh, but you're wrong, 
Jimmie. Look at my mother, she 



seems to be happy enough, and I'm 
sure she's unselfish, but as for de- 
veloping her talents — why, she has- 
n't time to do a thing but work for 
us. To see her, now, you would 
never believe that, at the time of her 
marriage, the world seemed to be 
hers for the taking. She could just 
do anything, they say. She had 
three especially intimate girl friends : 
Rose Ramsay, who had a very good 
voice, but not so lovely as mother's 
contralto; Mary Hilton, who could 
write very well, but not nearly as 
effectively as mother, who, before 
she was twenty had had several 
poems and a short story accepted 
for publication by local magazines ; 
and Frances McConnell, who was 
pretty and could act, but who never 
won the leading parts in the school 
plays when mother was competing. 
Sit down, Jimmie, and I'll tell you 
about the pact these girls made while 
going to school together. (They sit 
on davenport) They agreed that 
twenty years later they would meet 
and decide whose life had been most 
successful, judged by the happiness 
of each and her contribution to hu- 
manity, as evidenced by the real 
beauty of her countenance. Well, 
Jimmie, the twenty years are up to- 
day and these three friends of moth- 
er's are here ; they are women who 
have had wonderful careers. 

Jimmie — And you see in their suc- 
cess the kind you desire for your- 
self? You are wonderfully gifted, 
Kathie, of course, or you wouldn't 
have had the lead in both the school 
plays and operas every year you've 
been at the U, and I desire your hap- 
piness more than my own. If there 
were only some way, though, that 
we could be sure that a public career 
will indeed bring you true happiness. 
Tell me, how are these women go- 
ing to decide who has won the novel 
competition ? 



82 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Katherine — That's the most thrill- Miss Ramsay expects him to have 3 

ing part. Douglas Lincoln — you very good contract for her also, 

know, the famous portrait painter — And, O Jimmie ! What if he should 

is to see the four of them for the notice me ! Maybe this is going tc 

first time today. He is to decide by be my big chance. See, I have my 

choosing the one he would prefer best photo on exhibition. (Points 

to paint, and the portrait he does is to a large photo of herself standing 

to be the prize. You see, each year, on davenport table.) 

each of the competitors has contrib- Jimmie — Well, he's no judge of 

uted one-twenty-fifth of her total looks if he fails to notice you, Kath- 

earnings to a common fund, and they ie. But this Miss Joy of whom you 

have quite a staggering amount on speak; Have you captured Leatrice 

hand to pay for the painting, al- or Dawn and how does she happen 

though the amount mother has paid to be here? 

each year hasn't been very large Katherine — Well, I see you're up 

compared to that contributed by the on your photoplays, Jimmie, as you 

others. Father says half he receives ought to be after the course I gave 

as salary is really mother's, so she you last winter. The one and only 

has based her payment's on that. Dawn Joy is no other than mother's 

Father doesn't earn so much as a friend, Frances McConnell and she's 

high school teacher. When they really and truly here. Now tell me 

were married he was as poor as — if you think mother has a chance! 

Jimmy (dryly) — As Jimmie Hal- Douglas Lincoln will be wild to 

stead now is ; and from what you paint Miss Joy ! 

tell me he must have had the same Jimmie — And is the other one as 

colossal nerve when he asked your great a celebrity as Miss Joy ? 

mother to do the very thing that I Katherine — You read "Heritage," 

am asking you to do. But who are didn't you — last year's best seller ? 

these others and what have they Well, Miss Hilton wrote that, 

done to win so much lucre ? Jimmie — Well, well. You have 

Katherine — I'm sure you won't captured some big ones haven't you, 
blame me for being dazzled, when Kathie? No wonder the life I have 
I tell you about them. First, there to offer looks commonplace when 
is Rose Ramsay, the opera singer, you compare it with the tales you 
Perhaps you haven't heard of her must have heard from them. (De- 
because, while she has good parts, jectedly) I suppose I may as well 
she has never yet become a prima go back home. My case looks hope- 
donna. She has made a lot of rec- less. 

ords, however, and also does a great Katherine (impulsively) — Jim- 
deal of singing at private musicales. mie, let's be sporting about this. 
She came on here from Hollywood Let's make Douglas Lincoln's de- 
where she has been having her voice cision ours. But it's three to one 
tested for the movies. If her tests for me, you know, 
are a success, she will make a great Jimmie — I remember your moth- 
deal of money at voice doubling, er, though I met her only once; 1 
They couln't let her know before don't think my chances are so poor, 
she came on here, because Mr. But' where are they all ? 
Georges, the producer, was in New Katherine — The family, with 
York, and he had to pass on the Miss Hilton and Miss Ramsay are 
tests. He is coming here to see Miss having a picnic luncheon in the ap- 
Joy about her new contract, and pie orchard. Miss Joy is still in 



CAREERS 



83 



her room where her maid is per- 
forming beauty rites, I imagine. Say, 
Jimmie, I'm maid here today — why 
couldn't you run out and join the 
others ? They'll give you something 
to eat, and I'm sure you're famished. 
You know mother — tell her I sent 
you out. I must preside at the door, 
for our distinguished guests may 
put in an appearance any time. The 
hour of their arrival was indefinite. 

(Enter Dawn Joy. She is arti- 
ficially beautiful and very well- 
dressed. She comes in at the door, 
r. c. and to center stage between 
Jimmie, left and Katherine, right, 
who have risen. 

Dawn — What' luck! I didn't ex- 
pect to find such a charming youth 
outside of Hollywood. (To Kath- 
erine, as she goes closer to Jimmie) 
Hurry and tell me who he is, Kath- 
erine, for I do miss my court. 

Katherine — That's Jimmie Hal- 
stead, Miss Joy. He was just going 
to join the others outside. They're 
having luncheon under the apple 
trees, Miss Joy. Would you care 
to join them, too? 

Dawn (languidly) — No, I'm 
afraid not. You see there are two 
dangers out there for me — food — 
Oh, I haven't eaten "food" for 
years ! — and then the out-of-doors 
might ruin my make-up for Mr. 
Georges' inspection; and, mercy, 
Donnette has been all morning turn- 
ing me out'. (Sighs) I've had my 
grape-fruit ! 

Jimmie — Well, then, I'll run 
along, Kathie. Must find some way 
to pass the time — — 

Dawn (lays hand on his arm) — 
Why not come out on the sun porch 
and talk to me ? I need a new lead- 
ing man for my next picture and I'm 
sure I could get the place for you 
if you'd like it. 

Jimmie — Oh, I'm not much of an 
actor 

Dawn — You wouldn't need to be 



— in my picture. I've had ever so 
many of my leading men tell me 
that to be my lover on the screen 
they had only to act natural. Do 
you think you could fall for me like 
that? 

Katherine (impulsively) — Why 
you're old enough to be Jimmie's 
mother 

Dawn — Oh, one is only as old as 
one looks and acts, my dear. Cleo- 
patras never age — and I could do a 
lot for Jimmie. (To Jimmie) How 
about it — food for the body, or food 
for the — imagination? 

Jimmie — The sun-porch sounds 
good to me. (They go out door, 
right.) 

Katherine — Jimmie's just like the 
others — he soon forgets about his 
ideals when some one like Miss Joy 
beckons. (Doorbell, back center. 
Katherine answers the door. Enter 
Jesse Georges.) 

Georges — ( As he gives her his 
things) — Please tell Miss Joy that 
Mr. Georges is here. My dear, you 
are quite too pretty to be playing 
the maid. 

Katherine (rather breathlessly) 
Well, when one is a beggar-maid, 
and King Cophetua's ring must 
needs be answered, one forgets that 
the daughter of the household does 
not answer the bell. 

Mr. Georges ( Looks again at her, 
keenly) Say, I wish I had you in 
Hollywood for some camera and 
voice tests ! I think I am on the 
brink of making another discovery ! 
(Notices photograph) You photo- 
graph splendidly. I'm sure you'd 
go over big! 

Katherine (enthralled) — Oh, do 
you think so ? I have always dream- 
ed of being a real actress some day ! 

Mr. Georges — Why not come 
back with Miss Joy ? — Do you sing ? 

Katherine — My teachers all say 
my voice is very good, Mr. Georges. 



84 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Mr. Georges — And I suppose you coffers whenever my pictures have 

dance? been exhibited, and insult me! 

Katherine — I have had dancing Mr. Georges — Now, now, Dawn, 

lessons for years. let's look at this sensibly. You know 

Mr. Georges — I must speak to and I know that you are through 

your parents about your going back with the kind of parts you have been 

with us. Is Miss Joy around? playing. We thought we'd make a 

Katherine — I'll call her ; she's on picture starring you in an older part, 

the porch. and if it went' over, sign you up to 

(Exit Katherine, left.) do some similar ones. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Georges (studying the photo- We want to do right by you, but 

graph) I believe I've found someone making pictures costs money and we 

who will be hailed as the sensation can't risk too much. We're willing 

of the year. She's a whole lot more to give you a trial in this new type 

worth looking at than the scenery of picture, but we can't make any 

I'm supposed to be viewing out here, more of the kind you have been 

(Enter Dawn Joy) playing in. 

Dawn (cooingly to Mr Georges) Dawn (calmer now) — Oh, I knew 

— Has the big nice man brought his it was coming. — Well — all I can do 

little Joy a nice fat contract? is take the medicine. It will be a 

Mr Georges (temporizing) — Of great relief to be able to relax a 

course, and we've got' some swell little, anyway. Too old ! ( Sinks to 

things planned for you Dawn How davenport, on her face a look of 

would you like the fat part of Nancy stony despair.) 

in Hoffenbury's "Flaming Soul?" (Enter Katherine, left.) 

(rubs his hands together unctuous- Katherine — Would you like to 

ly, but eyes her anxiously) come out and meet the others, Mr. 

Dawn (amazement turning to an- Georges ? 

ger) Why — why — she's forty years Mr. Georges — I should like to see 

old or more ! How — how dare you ? Miss Ramsay alone, first. But take 

Mr Georges — But all the stars are Miss Joy out with you. She'll want 
declaring for sophisticated parts and to tell you all about our ambitious 
— well, Dawn, we've talked things plans for her. We're going to film 
over at the studio, and, frankly, we "Flaming Souls" ! 
think the parts you've been playing Katherine — Oh, how perfectly 
are too young for you People are splendid ! And Dawn is to be Naida ? 
beginning to get sarcastic about our Dawn — How absurd ! No ; they're 
casting a foyty-year-old woman as going to let me do a real part at 
the sweet young thing you have been last. I'm to play "Nancy" ! 
playing (Katherine looks at her, dubious- 
ly <m/w (speechless rage bursting ly, but follows her out, left.) 
into audible fury) — How dare you Mr. Georges — Pride! It's a good 
say that to me! Oh, you're just thing a movie star has that to fall 
like all the rest ! You know I don't back upon. (Sighs) Well, it's a 
look a day over seventeen in my tough game for all concerned — up 
pictures, and yet you think you can today and down tomorrow, one nev- 
bully me like this. After all I've er knows, 
starved and sweat and endured to (Enter Rose Ramsay.) 
keep youthful, you can come to me Rose (rather timidly, as if afraid 
like a monstrous ingrate, forgetting of what she is to hear) You wished 
the money that has rolled into your to see me, Mr. Georges ? 



CAREERS 



85 



Georges — Yes, but 1 hope the 
news I have isn't bad ; I mean, you 
still have your operatic career. 

Rose — Then you mean ? 

Georges — That the fickle "mike" 
just didn't like your voice, Miss 
Ramsay. 

Rose (involuntarily) Oh-h 

Georges (surprised) Does it mean 
a great deal to you ? 

Rose — Only this : it would have 
secured my future. I haven't been 
able to save very much as a second 
rate opera singer, and I'm begin- 
ning to realize that the years ahead 
can be rather dreadful to one who 
is forty and has no one to care for 
her especially. — Shall we join the 
others ? 

(As they exit, left, enter Mary 
Hilton, Joyce, and Betty Ellen, back 
center.) 

Mary (to Joyce) — And did all 
those charming stories come out of 
your head ? 

Joyce — Mother helped me with 
them. We imagine together and 
then I write them down — I like to 
do that. 

Mary — It must be very satisfac- 
tory to have a little girl to help with 
stories (musingly.) 

Joyce — Do you help your little 
girl, Miss Hilton? 

Mary — No ; I haven't any chil- 
dren, except those I create with my 
brain. 

Betty Ellen — Don't you get lone- 
some? Why Mother has Kathie, 
Joyce and me at home, but she miss- 
es Jack and Joe, my big twin broth- 
ers who are in New York, and Ted, 
who is spending his vacation with 
grandfather on the farm, so much! 

Mary (half to herself) I shall be 
lonesome — I know I shall be — after 
I leave here. (After a moment, 
throws off the mood she is in) But, 
let's have a look at that picture! 

Betty Ellen (leading her to the 
blackboard) — Here it is! 



Mary (after studying it for a 
short time) — That's really very 
good, Betty Ellen. Some day, no 
doubt Joyce will write and you il- 
lustrate her stories. 

Joyce (excitedly) — That's just 
what Jack and Joe do, Miss Hilton. 
But I'd rather have some children 
like mother has than write like you 
do and live all alone. 

Mary — I'm sure you have chosen 
wisely. It isn't nice to be alone — 
and one can be so alone at forty ! 

(Enter the others, Cornelia in 
center with package. They group 
themselves around her, Mary, Joyce, 
Betty Ellen, Mr. Georges, and Miss 
Joy, left, and Katherine, Jimmie, 
Rose Ramsay, and Ward Leighton, 
right.) 

Joyce — What have you, Mother? 

Cornelia — Something from Jack 
and Joe — very precious, I'm sure. 
That's why I wanted you all to be 
here when I opened it. (Removes 
wrappings to display new book 
which she opens excitedly.) To — 
(her voice breaks and she hands 
book to her husband) You read it, 
Ward. 

Mr. Leighton (with deep feeling) 
— "To our Mother, Cornelia Leigh- 
ton, who lighted the torch and 
showed us the gleam, this book is 
affectionately dedicated by her 
sons." (Speaks to Cornelia) Cor- 
nelia, at last you have written a 
book ! And not only have you writ- 
ten it but you have illustrated it, as 
well, I see. 

(All examine it excitedly. Door- 
bell rings ; Katherine ushers in 
Douglas Lincoln who comes center, 
right.) 

Cornelia (giving him her hand) 
We are glad to welcome you, Mr. 
Lincoln. (Introduces him to the 
others.) 

Jimmie (As he shakes hands im- 
pulsively) — And now, do your stuff, 



86 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Mr. Lincoln. I have a stake in 
this ! 

Douglas (gently) — An eye much 
less keen than that of an artist would 
have no trouble in making the choice 
I have been asked to make. I shall 
have to tell you, frankly, what I 
see. (With a gesture indicating 
Mary, Rose, and Dawn) In these 
faces, I read the story of lives lived 
all for self, and selfishness is not an 
ingredient of beauty On the other 
hand, (indicates Cornelia) here is a 
face that proclaims that its owner, 
having given all has won all ! 



Katherine — Mother ? Oh, how 
blind I have been! 

Cornelia — But the others — 1 
would much rather they had won. 
I have so much already — so much ! 

Jimmie (as he takes Katherine's 
hand) — And doesn't the Good Book 
have something to say about that? 

Douglas — "To him that hath shall 
be given, and from him that hath not 
shall be taken away, even that which 
he hath." 

(Curtain) 



The Voicing Wilds of America 

By S. T. Brimhall Foley 



The voicing wild's mute eloquence 

In golden silence streams 
From ruined walls and caverns deep 

Where scarce the sun-light 
gleams ; 
Intelligence there testifies 

Through massive walls of stone 
Or prison chambers 'neath the earth 

Of peoples long unknown. 

The tangled growth of sunny climes 

Fall like the reapers mow, 
Yielding to hordes of alien hands 

Which lay its curtains low, 
Freeing the towers and ancient walls 

From loneliness and dread 
To let their silent beauty speak 

The grandeur of their dead. 

The fortress on the mountain height 
Speaks volumes of some race 

Pursued by other bands of men 
Which roamed from place to 
place ; 



Deep in the caves of mountain sides, 
In chambers dark and still 

Ingenious wares speak cultured 
hands' 
Intelligence and skill. 

The moaning winds of barren lands 

O'er ruined cities stray 
Yet blend no more with sound of 
hoof 

Or feet of child at play ; 
Clay mounds of Montezuma speak 

And say: This spot is dear 
For they who called this place their 
home 

In spirit form are near. 

The riven rocks still shield the 
bloom 

Of plants that Eden grew, 
And wild birds bear the iris tint 

Of bows that crowned the blue; 
All these and more in symphony 

With treasures from the hill 
Are speaking truths in harmony 

Through voices low and still. 



The Indian Appeal 



Address delivered at the Relief Society Conference October 1, 1930 
By Julia A. Farnsworth Lund 



IN the aroused consciousness of 
our duty in relation to our fel- 
low men we have traveled a 
long way on the road toward prac- 
tical Christianity. There are between 
three and four hundred thousand 
people in our own country, consti- 
tuting the only wards the United 
States has, yet their cause has never, 
perhaps, been given sympathetic, in- 
telligent consideration. 

THE Anglo-Saxon conception of 
property rights is the basis of 
our whole governmental system. 
The Constitution of the United 
States and all subsequent legisla- 
tion, both state and national, has 
carefully safeguarded this principle. 
In direct opposition to Communism, 
our civilization rests on the recog- 
nition of individual liberty and the 
principle of private ownership. This 
is the foundation of our American 
initiative and the source of our na- 
tional greatness. It is paradoxical 
that this immortal, self-evident 
truth, should be so completely ig- 
nored, so wholly lacking as it has 
been, in all our dealings with the 
Indian. 

The Indian problem is the oldest 
and most direct social responsibility 
of the national government. There 
is much in the past record of the 
dealings of our government with the 
Indian, of which we can not be 
proud. We never have fully ac- 
knowledged our debt of gratitude. 
The Government has not protected 
its wards — the Indians — yet it can 
never honorably disavow its re- 
sponsibility. 



TNTIMATELY associated with 
* the Indian problem is that of our 
public lands, which we can only note 
in passing — as the first — and by far 
the greatest source of revenue to our 
national government since the first 
territory was ceded to it by the 
States in 1781 under the Articles of 
Confederation. After the ratifica- 
tion of the Federal Constitution as 
the states grew, so did the public 
domain, and it was from these great 
tracts of land, as a source of rev- 
enue, that our internal improvements 
were almost entirely accomplished. 
Military services were paid for — 
our highways and our waterways 
and our railroads were constructed 
— our colleges and universities were 
endowed — in fact the development 
of the entire United States, great 
in all that makes a nation, was 
through the land that at one time 
belonged to the Indians. 

We do not discount the splendid 
accomplishments of our own people. 
There is one thing however, that 
we do regret — it is that in the storm 
and stress of our own great aims 
and achievements, the like of which 
no other country shows, we have 
not considered the rights, nor safe- 
guarded the interests of the unfor- 
tunate race, displaced of its own pos- 
sessions by our march of progress. 
As Red Jacket said in a council 
meeting with the whites in 1805, 
"Brothers, our seats were once large 
and yours were small. You have 
now become a great people, and we 
have scarcely a place left to spread 
our blankets." 



88 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



THE real trouble, perhaps, rests 
upon the fact that the Govern- 
ment does not do anything very well 
in which the people are not inter- 
ested. The people have been too 
much absorbed in their own affairs 
to pay attention to the Indian ques- 
tion, disavowing all responsibility to 
those who lost their land, when once 
we gained possession. No better 
demonstration of this fact can be 
made than to note the way the In- 
dian Bureau during the past has 
been managed. It was placed in the 
Department of the Interior, simply 
because that was the department of 
the government which handled the 
public lands. The human element 
never entered into the scheme. The 
Indian Service has for the most part 
been a political catch ball with all 
the attending evils ; a tottering rule, 
built upon a great injustice and al- 
lowed to continue. If we were to 
begin a recital of the 465 broken 
treaties of the government with the 
Indians, of the wholesale betrayal of 
trust, the utter lack of the spirit of 
humanity and fair play, there would 
be space for nothing else. 

The Indian wars were followed 
by a sort of military subjugation, 
which gave place to the reservation 
plan — both schemes as wholly lack- 
ing in proper adjustment as can be 
conceived, the politician playing his 
vicious game throughout. The policy 
of Indian isolation at once put him 
out of step with the rest of human 
progress, and he has been subjected 
to a lot of experimentation. That 
type of control has operated to re- 
strict, depress and submerge the per- 
sonality of the Indian. In speaking 
of this, one young student said, "I 
plead that I be allowed to make my 
own mistakes rather than that an- 
other make them for me." The pol- 
icy of the government has made of 
the Indians a socially broken race, 
but social retardation is not an evi- 



dence of basic inferiority. Scien- 
tists tell us that the economic values 
of plants and foods developed by- the 
Indians far surpass any contribu- 
tions made by men of Luther Bur- 
bank's type, splendid as their work 
may have been, while the textiles 
and contributions in the field of art 
surpassed those of European origin. 

AT present in the United States 
we have in the neighborhood of 
three hundred and fifty thousand 
Indians with whom the National 
government has some relationship. 
The Indian service reports that it 
deals with about two hundred tribes 
located in twenty-six different 
states. A word should be said about 
the oil-rich Osages. Stories of their 
great wealth have created a popular 
belief that all Indians are rich and 
extravagant. They number about 
three thousand, less than one per 
cent of the total. Tales regarding 
this little group have blinded the 
people of the United States and 
have kept them from understanding 
that the great majority of Indians 
are poor; desperately poor. 

The facts that present themselves 
are, that the Indians are face to face 
with the civilization of the whites. 
The hands of the clock cannot be 
turned backward. The advancing 
tide of white civilization has as a 
rule, largely destroyed the economic 
foundation upon which the Indian 
source of supply, as well as their 
culture, rested. This economic foun- 
dation can not be restored as it was. 
The Indians cannot be set apart 
away from contact with the whites. 
There are therefore two very well 
defined objectives for all work with 
or for the Indians. That is, to fit 
them either to merge into the social 
and economic life of the prevailing 
civilization as developed by the 
whites, or to live in the presence 
of that civilization, at least in ac- 



THE INDIAN APPEAL 



89 



cordance with something of their 
ideals. By far the greater number 
of Indians desire to become ab- 
sorbed in our body politic, so one 
of their own race, Mr. Cloud, Presi- 
dent of the American Indian Insti- 
tute at Witchita tells us ; and they 
desire to become good citizens. But 
there are still some tribes practically 
untouched by the contact with the 
white race, preserving their own cul- 
ture. This should ibe protected, as- 
sisted, modified perhaps, but not de- 
stroyed. The Indian problem, as 
any racial problem, is so stupen- 
dous, when we begin to consider 
the needs that it is impossible to 
discuss it in one meeting. Mr. 
Merian's book covers over a thou- 
sand pages and most of the material 
is in the form of constructive sug- 
gestions for the Service. First of 
all, that the government place the 
Indian Service abreast of its best 
social agencies such as the Public 
Health, The Children's Bureau and 
certain bureaus of the Department 
of Agriculture. 

The fundamental requirement is 
that the task of the Indian Service 
be recognized as primarily educa- 
tional in the broadest sense of that 
word and that it be made an effi- 
cient educational agency, devoting 
its main energies to the social and 
economic advancement of the In- 
dians so that they may be absorbed 
into the prevailing civilization or be 
fitted to live in the presence of that 
civilization at least in accordance 
with a minimum standard of health 
and decency. 

THE Indian is beginning to re- 
sent any form of charity ; he is 
fast out-growing adolescence and is 
tired of being led by the hand. He 
wants a voice directing his own af- 
fairs. The greatest injury that can 
ever be done to a race is to make 
them feel that they are of no value 



to the nation. This has been strik- 
ingly true of the Indian. He just 
wants to know what "it's all about" 
and when he understands he re- 
sponds remarkably well. He needs 
good citizens to emulate. As we 
have said it is a great educational 
program, built upon the normal fac- 
tors of life. Whatever will stim- 
ulate the initiative and create an 
adequate incentive for life or oper- 
ate for the destruction of the same, 
for the white race will be found 
applicable to the American Indian. 
Some of the fine efforts of the gov- 
ernment have not succeeded and the 
attitude of the Indians toward the 
whites varies ; but this is usually 
conditioned by the type of whites 
with whom they have had associa- 
tion. 

THE environment of the Indian 
should be given careful consid- 
eration and he should be changed 
by modifying his surroundings. He 
should have proper sanitation, nutri- 
tion, minimum standards of health, 
vocational guidance, child care, child 
training, leisure time activities, com- 
munity planning, home making, wa- 
ter storage, good roads. It does not 
make any difference into what field 
you look, agricultural, educational, 
recreational, industrial, all the fac- 
tors that make for a higher stan- 
dard of living, mean just as much 
to the Indian as to his white brother. 
I have not spoken of the specific 
abuses that have been so prevalent 
in the Indian Service. The poor 
schools, wretched housing, the mal- 
nutrition, the woeful lack of the 
proper safeguards to health, the to- 
tal lack of social service, the ex- 
ploitation of Indian labor, especially 
the children, the floggings, and so 
on. It is a dark page in American 
history. There is already an en- 
lightened public opinion demanding 
that the Indian Service comply with 



90 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



other educational and social agen- 
cies in its objectives. 

All the people can help by coop- 
erating with the Service in estab- 
lishing sound standards. They can 
study the reports from the govern- 
ment service and insist upon full 
statements of conditions. Great 
good also can be done by coopera- 
tion both in aiding Indians and in 
improving the attitude of white 
communities toward the Indians and 
the attitude of the Indians toward 
their white neighbors. The great 
national educational agencies are in- 
terested in Indian education in all 
its manifold forms of expression. 
The national health agencies are in- 
terested in Indian health, but the 
Indian Service needs more than 
that : it needs the distinct contribu- 
tion of modern social work in mak- 
ing individual adjustments and in 
improving family life and com- 
munity development. 

In the words of Dr. Lewis Merian 
we may say : "Today the American 



people have the opportunity if they 
will to write the closing chapters in 
the history of the relationship of the 
national government and the In- 
dians. The national conscience is 
stirred. A demand is growing that 
the government shall recognize in 
full its obligation toward its Indian 
wards, and that it furnish them 
with a service abreast of the best 
rendered any people." 

THE cry of the Indian today is 
for the release of his person 
and of his personality. President 
Hoover has said, "The days of the 
pioneer are not over. There are 
continents of human welfare, of 
which we have penetrated only the 
coastal plain." Far back in the re- 
cesses of the continent there lives 
this Indian race, hungry for the 
grasp of the hand of social under- 
standing and human fellowship. If 
ever a race were in need of a new 
birth of freedom it is the American 
Indian. 




Photo by Hileman 
MONARCH OF THE PAST 




C. E. Dallin 
FROM BRONZE FIGURE OF SQUAW SACHEM 

One of four figures surrounding an ornamental flagstaff presented to 
Arlington, Mass., by the Misses Robbins. 



The Indian in the Public Schools 



By Marian Gardner N id son 



ANEW experiment in Indian 
education is being tried in 
Blanding, San Juan County, 
Utah. Here the government has 
established the first Indian dormi- 
tory, where the Indians live away 
from home and attend the public 
schools. There are dormitories for 
Indians a t Indian Government 
schools, on Indian reservations, and 
at Indian Mission schools, but this 
is the only dormitory occupied by 
Indian children going to the public 
schools. 

About fifty per cent of the states 
in the United States accept Indian 
pupils in their schools. Some of 
these are : Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
the Dakotas, Montana, Oregon, 
New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, 
and Utah. There are approximate- 
ly 47,000 Indian pupils in govern- 
ment and mission schools, and about 
40,000 attending public. schools. 

THE experiment at Blanding is 
under ideal conditions. There 
are about 1,000 Piutes and Utes at 
Towoac, Colorado, lgnacio, Colo- 
rado, and Blanding, .Utah out of 
the once flourishing tribes. About 
200 of these are in this section on 
the Allan Canyon reserve. Each 
Ute child of these 200 Utes is ac- 
counted for, and, with the excep- 
tion of four or five who have special 
permits, is attending either a public 
or government school. 

The dormitory site was selected 
here for a definite purpose. The 
Indians of Allan canyon are non- 
taxpayers, and the government pays 
school tuition for their children. The 
price per child per day ranges from 
fifteen cents to sixty cents over the 



United States, and in Blanding the 
sum is forty cents for the twenty 
Indian children here. The govern- 
ment expends $250 a year to send 
one Indian child to our public 
schools. The Ute parents had the 
choice of sending their children to 
lgnacio, Colorado, Towoac, Colo- 
rado, or to Blanding. Due to the 
fact that their reservation is so close 
to Blanding, and so that the par- 
ents could visit and mingle with 
their children, the children were 
placed in the dormitory here to at- 
tend the oublic schools. 

The cultural and physical advan- 
tages of the dormitory to the Indian 
child are unlimited. Here the In- 
dian pupils have regular community 
life. They have training identical 
to, and with, the white people. Phys- 
ical examinations are given them 
every week. The government re- 
quires them to eat certain amounts 
of cooked and leafy vegetables each 
day, and to drink milk. They all 
show weight gain on their health 
charts. 

The progress of the Indian chil- 
dren in our public school is unbe- 
lievable, even in these few months 
of school. They assimilate things 
very easily. The fact that there is 
no racial prejudice among the chil- 
dren makes it easier for the Indian 
pupils to absorb our customs and 
ideals. They are very apt in any 
forms of handicraft. Their draw- 
ings are particularly commendable. 
Molly Deer, of the fourth grade, is 
a beautiful penman. They are cour- 
teous, obedient to their teachers, 
play games very well with the white 
children, and love to sing. Eileen 
Hatch, a sixth grader, dressed as an 



THE INDIAN IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL 



93 



Indian princess sang "Ramona" 
in a school program. On Armistice 
Day all of the Indian children, car- 
rying flags, participated in the par- 
ade. At the Junior dance, after- 
ward, the townspeople were aston- 
ished at their ability to dance social 
dances. 

The teachers like the Indians for 
pupils. They try very hard to learn 
and to apply the things they are 
taught. Although they are rowdy, 
full of mischief and practical jokes, 
they respond exceptionally well to 
school discipline. Their attendance 
is far better and more regular than 
that of the white children. During 
the three months of school this year, 
only two Indian children have been 
absent — one absence was due to 
toothache, one to a slight cold. 

IT has been shown that Indians 
learn the language more readily 
and assimilate ideas better, if 
mingled with the white children. 
There are two groups of beginners 
in our school. The first group had 
one year at a government school 
where it was taught English. The 
second group has not .previously 
been to school and could not speak 
English at the beginning of the 
term. But at the end of the school 
year — by present indications — this 
second group will be up with, or 
even surpass, the first one. 

There are problems, however, 
connected with the experiment. The 
greatest difficulty we have to over- 
come is the opposition of many of 
the townspeople to having the In- 
dian children in the public schools. 
However, this feeling is being elim- 
inated to a great extent as facts are 
taking the place of racial prejudice ; 
as the white children are not being 
scholastically retarded by Indian as- 
sociation ; and as the Indian children 
are really in better health than the 



white children (any Indian child 
who is sick, or who has the eye dis- 
ease, trachoma, is compelled to go 
to Towoac to school at once, and 
to have special treatment) ; and be- 
cause the status of the Indian is 
markedly improving, these unreas- 
onable prejudices are disappearing. 
Aside from any other reasons the 
financial aid to the town is a big 
item to be considered. 

THERE are several projects be- 
ing carried on for the benefit 
of these Lamanite children. Certain 
men go to the dormitory in the ev- 
ening and tell stories of the Book 
of Mormon to the children. Oth- 
ers teach singing. The Relief So- 
ciety Stake Board has a play hour 
there once a week, and a singing 
hour once a week. The Indians have 
been invited to attend Primary and 
Sunday School and the older ones 
attend Sacrament meetings. 

This Indian project should be, 
and is, one of most vital interest to 
the people here. Our parents were 
called here to San Juan to establish 
friendly relations with the Indians. 
It is our grave duty to carry on 
the work they began. This is the 
old home of the Nephites. Battles 
were fought and won here, and now 
it is only just that we try to help 
the remnant that is left here. Pro- 
phecies in the Book of Mormon tell 
us that the Indians will become a 
white and delightsome people. 

It is easily seen that the hand oi 
the Lord is in the affairs of the 
Lamanites. The national govern- 
ment has instituted proceedings to 
help the Indian. The Indian ques- 
tion is (being agitated all over the 
United States. Our pioneer fath- 
ers made friends of these Indians, 
the government is educating them, 
and it is our mission, now, to con- 
vert them. 



Thy Country Shall be My Country 

By Edna Harker Thomas 

FOR generations the McGreg- mie, from his shoe shining earnings, 
ors had lived in Scotland, dropped a penny or two in oftener 
Nobody ever dreamed of than Kathleen knew. He loved his 
their living anywhere else until now. pretty, curly-headed, brown-eyed 
But times were hard and jobs were sister and he wanted her to be happy, 
scarce and so Father McGregor ar- 
gued with his protesting family, TT took a year to save enough for 
"Me and Jimmie are not enough ■■- Kathleen to go. The bank was 
men, even if Jimmie is big, to feed emptied, but it would stay in that 
and clothe eight lassies." same place, for the same purpose 

So the big family moved to Liv- for, if Kathleen thought best, the 

erpool, and there Kathleen, sixteen, family would follow some day. 

and Maggie, fourteen, got places in A steerage passage, combined 

a factory. Their father obtained with homesickness and loneliness, 

a better paying job too, but even made Kathleen happy to see the 

then the mother had a hard time shores of quaint old Montreal. But 

"making both ends meet." she was yet far from her destina- 

Looking out from the factory win- tion. Mrs. Smith, whom she had 

dows where Kathleen and Maggie met at church in Liverpool, lived in 

worked could be seen the big pas- Lethbridge, way out west where the 

senger ships as they steamed in and distances were great and the grain 

out of the harbor from all parts of grew taller and more golden in the 

the world. ■ harvest time. 

One noontime, while they were Her friend had said that she 
eating their scanty lunch, Kathleen would try to get Kathleen a position 
astonished Maggie with, "Sis, we if she ever felt like coming to Can- 
will never get anywhere staying in ada. But she little thought, when 
this city. We will always be fac- the promise was given, that Kath- 
tory girls, earning our six or eight leen would ever find courage enough 
shillings a week. I can't stand this to have that promise fulfilled. "Why 
humdrum, cooped-up existence. I didn't you write me that you were 
am going to Canada as soon as I coming, child-alive," she said when 
can get enough money to go there." Kathleen finally reached her home. 
"Why Canada?" asked Maggie. Kathleen's only reply was, "Be- 

"Because, as English subjects, we cause I was never sure that I was 

can get in that country more easily going to make it myself." 

than other places, that's all. Besides, Mrs. Smith had no need for Kath- 

Mrs. Smith lives there and I will leen but, after considerable hunting 

give her a chance to keep her prom- around, she found a lady who said 

ise." that she could use her at least until 

The family was consulted, they harvest time. The wages would be 

agreed and the grind began. A lit- small but she would teach Kathleen 

tie bank was placed on the shelf, how to keep house — something she 

Every penny that could possibly be knew little about — and she would 

spared was dropped in. Even Jim- allow her to go to school. 



THY COUNTRY SHALL BE MY COUNTRY 95 

Kathleen liked school except when much water. With twin babies to 

the boys teased her because of her wash and care for, it seemed that 

Scotch accent. Many a time she the water barrel was always nearly 

went alone and cried. "My Scotch empty. Just when Kathleen would 

isn't any worse than their Canadian, think that a resting time was com- 

and I don't make fun of them." ing, she would be told to "fill the 

When vacation time came, Kath- water barrel, as we might need water 

leen was stranded again. Sometimes, before morning." 

she wondered if she had done right Kathleen felt that something ter- 

in leaving her loved ones. No one rible was going to happen to her 

really cared for her here. Maybe every time she went to the spring, 

it was wrong to think that she could And if she was told to go for water 

be happy in a country so different after dark, especially if the wind was 

from Scotland — the land she loved blowing, she was filled with fear 

so dearly. unspeakable. She felt ashamed to 

Canada was so big and no matter admit her fear and so went on tor- 

which way she turned in Lethbridge turing herself, always knowing that 

she could see nothing but sky. How someday, simething would happen, 

she hated it ! — the never-ceasing To celebrate the successful har- 

wind ! It blew every day in the vest season, the husband and wife 

year, it seemed to her. She found decided to leave Kathleen with the 

herself wishing that it would blow twins and take a trip to the nearest 

her back to her loved ones, instead city. Kathleen wanted so much to 

of just making her lonesome and tell them that she was afraid to stay 

homesick. alone but her Scotch pride would 

Her money was low. She must not allow her to say so when her 

find work, so when a lady, with mistress said, "You don't mind be- 

twin babies, wanted her to be a ing alone, Kathleen, do you? You 

nurse girl out on their ranch, Kath- are such a brave girl." 

leen accepted, not from choice, but Kathleen's extra duties kept her 

from necessity. quite busy and it was almost dusk 

As they rode out to the ranch, when she suddenly realized that the 
she thought that they would never, water barrel was empty. She must 
never reach the place. Houses be- get more water. The twins were 
came fewer and farther and farther asleep so now would be a good time 
apart. When the fence pole was to go. "How I hate this job," she 
taken down and they drove into the said to herself as she securely fas- 
yard, Kathleen could hardly keep tened the door so that the wind 
the tears back. No trees, no moun- wouldn't blow it open, and started 
tains, not a flower nor any lawn — down the path, 
just space. The house wasn't even She hurried along, constantly 
painted. looking to the right and left, for 

The inside was bare and the con- what she did not know. The spring 

veniences were few. Every drop of was by the side of a clump of wil- 

water that was used in the house had lows, the only resemblance to a tree 

to be carried from a spring a hun- that grew near the place, 

dred yards away. As she dipped in the bucket, she 

saw a reflection in the water which 

KATHLEEN now had two ter- froze her to the spot. There, stand- 

rors — wind first and going for ing over her, was a huge Indian. He 

water second. And they needed so seemed a giant to her in his full In- 



96 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



dian costume, feathered head piece, 
beaded buckskin jacket, pants, and 
moccasins. By his bleary eyes and 
by the whiskey flask in his hand, 
she knew that he was a drunken 
Indian. 

What should she do? If she ran 
to the house, no one was there to 
help her and he must not see the 
twins for he might steal them. She 
had read of Indians stealing white 
babies and adopting them into their 
tribe. She must not act afraid. So 
she took the bucket of water and 
started toward the barn, hoping to 
lead the Indian away from the 
house. The Indian stood still watch- 
ing her until she had gone about a 
fourth of the distance, and then 
started after her. She began to run 
and so did he. Still wanting to keep 
him away from the babies, she head- 
ed for the road. Just as she reached 
the road, with a final leer, the In- 
dian grabbed her in his arms, and 
as he did so she screamed. 

NEVER mind, little girl, you'll 
be all right now," was the next 
thing she heard. "I came around 
the bend in the road just as you 
screamed. That Indian wouldn't 
have touched you if he hadn't been 
filled with moonshine that some dir- 
ty devil of a white skunk had given 
him. When he saw me, he dropped 
you and ran. You fainted and, by 
the time I had brought you around, 
the Indian was out of sight." 

"Thank you so much," said Kath- 
leen. "I didn't know anybody lived 
around here." 

"I don't live here. My father's 
ranch house is twenty-five miles 
from here. I was riding out this 
way to round up some of our stray 
cattle." 

The boy was about Kathleen's 
age. He wore chaps and a big hat, 
and held a quirt in his right hand. 



''You never use that,4o you?" asked 
Kathleen. 

Travers laughed and his big blue 
eyes twinkled as he said, "Only on 
cattle and Indians that try to frigh- 
ten white girls like you." 

Kathleen smiled gratefully back 
at him and then suddenly remem- 
bered the twins. "Oh, won't you 
please come in and rest," she said. 
"I want you to see the twins." 

"Not yours, I hope." 

"No, but I wish they were." 

As they walked toward the house, 
Travers' horse obediently followed 
him and without a word being spok- 
en to him, stopped at the hitching 
post, and his master threw the bridle 
reins over the post. As he gave 
the horse a friendly pat, he said to 
Kathleen, "This is my best pal. He 
can do everything but talk." 

Travers lingered much longer 
than he had expected to. He found 
Kathleen much more interesting than 
most girls he knew. She found her- 
self telling him all her history, dwell- 
ing most of the time upon Scotland. 
How she loved to talk about the 
mountains and lakes and flowers in 
the land where she had spent so 
many happy days. "That's what I 
miss out here where you have noth- 
ing but sky and wind." 

"Oh, but the mountains would 
hem me in," said Travers. "I like 
to feel that I could go and go and 
never come to an end." 

Travers didn't say so, but he pur- 
posely kept Kathleen company until 
the folks returned. 

Kathleen went to sleep that night 
thinking not of the leering eyes of 
the Indian but of the kindly blue 
eyes of the one who had rescued 
her. 

HE next two years Kathleen 
— and Travers spent in high 
school in the city. They grew to 
like one another more and more and 



THY COUNTRY SHALL BE MY COUNTRY 97 

were happiest when together. Once ery one, they told each other of the 
they had a debate in school. The progress being made toward keep- 
question was : "Resolved : that Scot- ing their promises, 
land is a better country to live in 

than Canada." Travers spoke for |£" ATHLEEN now had a good 

Canada and Kathleen for Scotland A*» position as a stenographer, and 

and the judges declared it a tie. she was saving as much money as 

As a graduation present, Travers' she could toward bringing her fam- 
parents gave a class party at the ily to Canada. She was especially 
ranch house. It was really a house anxious to have her mother come, 
party because the ranch was so far as frequently different members of 
away that they all stayed over night, the family had written to her say- 
Kathleen expected to see a house ing that "Mother's health is poor, 
similar to the one she had lived in She has such terrible headaches that 
with the twins. But Travers' par- the doctor has to give her some 
ents were wealthy and their ranch powders to take. When she takes 
was noted all the country over, them, she can sleep, and only then." 
There was every convenience of the Kathleen felt that if her mother 
city home. They had their private could only breathe the fresh air of 
electric lighting system, their big Canada instead of the Liverpool 
hot-water furnace and, best of all, smoke that she would be better 
their own private spring which car- soon. 

ried the water all through the house But the daughter's dream was 

and even supplied the big barn with never realized for one day a letter 

running water for the animals. came saying that Mother had taken 

She was most interested in the too many powders and had never 

spring. As she leaned over to wakened from her sleep, 

drink, she slipped and Travers Kathleen was heartbroken, espec- 

caught her. He held her tightly in ially when the papers came which 

his arms and kissed her tenderly, said that her mother had committed 

"Oh forgive me," he said. "I suicide. She wrote to Travers about 

shouldn't have done that because — it, who had met all of her family 

because — well, I'm going away for a as he passed through Liverpool on 

while. It may be two years or more, his way to Scotland. 

That was my farewell party last "You know my mother wouldn't 

night. I am going on a mission do that terrible thing, don't you," 

for my church. she wrote. "If I could only talk 

Kathleen looked so sad that Tra- to you, I know that you could com- 

vers felt he must chase the tears fort' me. You will go to see them 

away so he said gaily, "I'm going on your way home, won't you ?" 

to see. for myself whether or not He did more than that. The fam- 

Scotland is better than Canada." ily had saved ever since Kathleen 

Kathleen's mood changed. "All left and with a little help which 

right, sir, I'll make a bargain with Travers borrowed from his father, 

you. If you will try to like Scot- he brought the entire family home 

land, I will try to like Canada." with him on the same boat. 

The bargain was sealed with a "This is to be my surprise to 

kiss and they rode away. Kathleen," he explained to them and 

The two years passed quickly for so she knew nothing except that 

they were busy. They exchanged Travers would be home on a cer- 

letters regularly and in nearly ev- tain date. 



98 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



As the train pulled in, Kathleen's 
heart was beating like a sledge ham- 
mer. The one person who had been 
the kindest to her was home again. 
Oh if — but she smothered the wish. 
It came true just the same for he 
did. bring all the rest of the people 
that she wanted most to see. 

It didn't take long to get her fam- 
ily comfortably settled in a little 
home, with good prospects of get- 
ting along nicely. They had Kath- 
leen to help them over the rough 
places. 

It was the fall harvest time when 
they landed and all the family were 
able to get work right away. Ev- 
erybody in Canada is busy at har- 
vest time. Even Travers and Kath- 
leen couldn't see each other as much 
as they wished. 

Travers' father and mother felt 
that they were old now, and they 
wanted to leave the ranch and its 
responsibilities and go to the city 



to live. So they announced to Tra- 
vers one day that they wanted to 
give a farewell party at the ranch 
house, Christmas Eve. "The last 
big party we gave was your gradua- 
tion and farewell party, Travers, 
and now we'd like this to be your 
wedding party, son, if Kathleen says 
yes." 

It was a merry wedding party. 

Most of the guests came in bob 
sleighs, for the snow was drifted and 
no auto could get through. 

When everyone had gone home 
but the bride and groom, as they 
sat before the big log fire, Kathleen 
looked at Travers and said, "Oh, 
I'm so glad we don't have to fill 
our water barrel tonight." 

"Are you sure you can be happy 
with me here, Kathleen ?" 

"Yes, dear. Thy country shall 
be my country and thy people my 
people." 







*$: ■ . % ■■ stem 




am 








^yjAfcrX 




^fii 


w 




^ a^tftfw ' " RE- 







BEAUTIFUL OGDEN CANYON 

A Beautiful Memory 

By Glen Perrins 
Enthralled at the bend of the river I stood one winter's day, looking at the 
contrasts of the black and white of Mother Nature. Ogden river gurgled merrily 
down the canyon, splashing against the ice which lined its banks. Here and there 
a green pine tree stood silhouetted against the white background of snow on the 
mountain side. Bare were the limbs of the trees and bushes — a stiff wind had preceded 
my visit to this beauty spot. It was still blowing a bit and the day was rather cold, yet 
I stood enrapt at the magnificence of winter, and took away with me that day a 
beautiful memory. 



Some Findings of the White House 

Conference 

By Jean Cox, State Supervisor of Home Economics 

(A Resume of the Purpose of 4 the Conference and an Adaptation of the 
Committee Reports on Education and Training)* 



THE spirit of the 1930 White 
House Conference was ex- 
pressed in the invocation in 
which the plea was made for all chil- 
dren everywhere, that they might 
have health of body, purity of mind, 
and joy in work and play. 

Appreciation of the keen interest 
of President Hoover was expressed 
several times during the proceed- 
ings. It may he that he will go 
down in history as the President 
who was most interested in child 
welfare. Perhaps the outstanding, 
as well as the most beautiful, para- 
graph in President Hoover's speech 
to the assembled group and the mil- 
lions who heard him on the air, 
typifies the serious and purposeful 
interest of those who participated 
in the convention proceedings. This 
paragraph in its prose simplicity re- 
minds one of the Gettysburg Ad- 
dress. The paragraph reads: 

"We approach all problems of 
childhood with affection. Theirs is 

*This article is merely a means of 
giving wider publicity to some of the 
findings of the committees. Parts of 
the reports necessarily are abridged. In 
some few cases for the purpose of clar- 
ity, sentences or paragraphs are expand- 
ed. Although, in many instances, the 
words are not identical with the orig- 
inal, in all cases an earnest endeavor 
has been made to translate the spirit of 
service typified by the work of the com- 
mittee of the White House Conference 
in child health and protection. 

These findings are an attempt to trans- 
late into thought the findings of the 
committee in behalf of the millions of 
American children. — Jean Cox. 



the province of joy and good hu- 
mor. They are the most whole- 
some part of the race, the sweetest, 
for they are fresher from the hands 
of God. Whimsical, ingenious, mis- 
chievous ; we live a life of appre- 
hension as to what their opinions 
may be of us, a life of defense 
against their terrifying energy ; we 
put them to bed with a sense of re- 
lief and a lingering devotion. We 
envy them the freshness of adven- 
ture and discovery of life; we 
mourn over the disappointments 
they will meet." 

The purpose of the Conference 
appointed for cooperative public 
service at the call of the President 

of the United States is: 

1. To study the children of the nation 
and the various forces influencing them. 

2. From the findings of the investiga- 
tion to recommend the wisest possible 
course for their future direction. 

The four divisions of study were 
Medical Service, Public Health Service 
and Administration, Education and 
Training, and Rehabilitation. 

Out of this large field, however, 
consideration will only be given to 
the section on Education and Train- 
ing. One of the keynotes through 
the reports on education, as well as 
others, was the importance of hav- 
ing the findings of the conference 
measured in the difference it makes 
in the lives of human beings. It 
was suggested that each member of 
the conference make of himself an 
interpreter so that the masses of 
the citizens will appreciate what the 



100 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

work of the committee may mean exceptional children, for by so doing" 
in terms of child life and social ad- opportunity may be given children 
vance. of greater capacity to make a real 
Three thousand people, experts in contribution to the common welfare 
the fields of child welfare and pro- and for the majority of the children 
tection assembled in Washington at of better capacity to become self 
the call of President Hoover for supporting instead of possible depen- 
the third White House Conference dents or delinquent members of so- 
on child welfare. About twelve ciety. 

hundred of the group were mem- Out of these deliberations may 
bers of the various committees who result organization of classes or 
have been working for more than a schools for the exceptional children 
year to determine needs and set up which will later fit them for leader- 
a program which will enable those ship in the community and nation, 
people directly associated with child The interest in dependents and 
care and training to improve child delinquents continued from the pre- 
health and welfare. It is felt the vious conferences and sentiment 
application of these findings will re- seemed to te centered in efforts to 
suit in improved standards for a give these less fortunate children 
full generation. The nation should such training in terms of mental at- 
be proud of the fact that so many tainments as will make of them hap- 
well trained people freely gave their py and self supporting members of 
time without pay for the betterment society. 

of children. ., nj .. , ~ . . 

T , \htu-a. zj r c Education and lraininq 

lhe White House Conference was y 

virtually an all star performance. HP HE most important agency in 
Research had been made, studies ** child health and protection is 
carried on, and messages delivered the family. Although statistics on 
by outstanding people in the vari- marriage, divorce, size of families, 
ous fields. It was a summation and and proportion of births have been 
deliberation on the part of many interpreted by some to mean disin- 
committees which composed the four tegration of family life, the corn- 
sections, mittee concluded that the family 
These reports are a cross section fills deep seated needs of the human 
of the expert thought and endeavor race and will endure, 
concerning the welfare of children. The question for consideration is : 
The assembling of this expert Shall we let the family be merely 
opinion and inquiry should stimu- the product of a changing environ- 
late every effort to give to the chil- ment, adapting itself to it, or are 
dren of America their fullest mea- there not fundamental values in 
sure of opportunity and develop- family life which should be con- 
ment. It gives consideration to the served and the environment adjust- 
fact that all children differ in char- ed to them ? 

acter capacity and inclination. In Because of the changing social 

order to give them their full chance and economic conditions there is 

they must have that service in edu- need for study upon the fundamen- 

cation which develops their special tal human values in family life. Dr. 

qualities. There was a definite feel- Groves of North Carolina is making 

ing that it is sound public policy, an outline analyzing family func- 

not charity, to provide special treat- tions in reference to the child. Dr. 

ment and training for all types of Burgess of Chicago with the cooper- 



SOME FINDINGS OF WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE 101 



ation of school people has had rec- 
ords collected from 8000 school 
children. These were analyzed to 
determine factors in the home en- 
vironment which seem to affect per- 
sonality development of children. 
Relationship was found between the 
degree in which children confide in 
parents and other factors of family 
life such as group celebration of hol- 
idays, recreational activities in com- 
mon, the type of control exercised 
by the parents over children, source 
of first information about sex, and 
the general personality adjustment 
of the child. The committee under 
the leadership of Dr. Burgess of the 
Chicago University endeavored to 
find out in what way home is an edu- 
cational influence in the life of the 
child. They wanted to find a means 
of measuring the effect of different 
kinds of homes and family life upon 
children. This committee studied a 
total of 8600 children of the 7th, 
8th, and 9th grades. 

There were : 

1970 urban children 
1200 native white children 
991 children from small cities 
1271 negro children 

These groups were selected so as 
to show differences. 

Dr. Burgess and his committee 
have shown that by use of statistical 
technique and data they are able to 
measure the development of per- 
sonality of the individual as well as 
the effect upon the individual of 
family and community relationship. 
Family relationships make a definite 
contribution in personality adjust- 
ment. Habits and social customs of 
the family seem to have a definite 
relationship upon the personality de- 
velopment, e.- g., the charm of social 
personality which results from the 
informal give and take and lessons 
in consideration of others around 
the family dinner table is lacking 



among children where meal time is 
merely informal piecing. Parents 
must realize that the most sacred 
thing to every child is his person- 
ality. Every child needs help to 
grow and expand his personality so 
that he will be able to do his best 
and thus make the most of his pos- 
sibilities. There is need for wider 
belief that boys and girls are citi- 
zens in the making rather than in 
the unmaking. 

Another study made by Dr. Ra- 
chel Stutzman of the Merrill Pal- 
mer School on Home Atmosphere 
has opened up a new method of re- 
search. This study was made upon 
fifty children from well adjusted 
homes and the same number of chil- 
dren from poorly adjusted homes. 
Some of the conclusions reached fol- 
low : 

Children showing optimism de- 
velopment usually have good homes. 

Factors which contribute to 
wholesome character development 
are more usually found in good 
homes. There is less tension and 
unhappiness in the relationship of 
father and mother — father to chil- 
dren, mother to children, and chil- 
dren to each other. 

In maladjusted homes children of 
same economic level are more inter- 
ested in getting jobs. The reasons 
frequently are ambition for econom- 
ic independence and desire to be 
away from home unpleasantness. 

The well adjusted children do bet- 
ter work in school. 

In the maladjusted home there is 
frequently partiality shown to dif- 
ferent children. Where mother is 
maladjusted she is apt to favor one 
child. 

In well adjusted homes parents 
are interested in what the child 
wants to do, while in the wrong 
kind of home the child is not given 
support in his natural wholesome 
interests. 



102 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



In terms of discipline, parents in 
happy homes are inclined to ignore 
mistakes and praise successes, while 
in less happy homes parents punish 
mistakes and award successes. 

In the maladjusted home likes 
and dislikes are much more notice- 
able. Children alternate between lik- 
ing and disliking people. Maladjust- 
ed parents have less happy children. 
Frequently they, themselves, have 
come from maladjusted homes. Mal- 
adjusted parents frequently have 
differences over each other's reli- 
gion and other out of home inter- 
ests. 

The personality of both child and 
adult reflect the influences from the 
kinds of homes which have been re- 
sponsible for their training and lack 
of satisfactory home experiences. 

It is expected further study will 
be carried along in this field. 

The great question is : What are 
those fundamental human values in 
family life which are the product of 
interaction of personalities within 
the family ? While the physical en- 
vironment, the cultural background, 
and the social status of the family 
undoubtedly aid or deter the devel- 
opment of individuals in that fam- 
ily, it must not 'be forgotten that 
some fine individuals do come from 
homes which would be rated poor. 

There is at present no exact 
measure of personal relationships. 
The family must depend for guid- 
ance upon the principles of human 
behavior as they have been inter- 
preted in the fields of psychology, 
psychiatric, and mental hygiene. A 
further knowledge of these prin- 
ciples applied to daily living will 
doubtless contribute to better un- 
derstanding of cause and effect in 
the actions of human beings. 

Importance of economic stability 
for successful family life was also 
given careful consideration. Studies 



show that worry over employment 
and finances contribute to maladjust- 
ed homes. Inability of wife to spend 
income wisely contributes to unsuc- 
cessful standards of living. If all 
of the children of America are to 
have satisfactory opportunities, 
miseries and worries of poverty 
must in some way be overcome. 

Additional proof on the impor- 
tance of wholesome home life is 
shown by a statistical study showing 
there are more breakdowns in indi- 
viduals where society has had to 
assume a part of the parental role. 
While the function of different fam- 
ilies, as well as the responsibilities 
of the individuals within the fam- 
ilies, vary to some extent, it can not 
be denied that always the basic func- 
tion has been the rearing and caring 
for the young. When this respon- 
sibility is shifted or denied, the de- 
fenseless children suffer the most. 

Present social and economic cus- 
toms are the result of the gradual 
expansion of industry which have 
removed from the home certain 
functions formerly considered as in- 
herent in family life. With these 
changes, some losses in satisfac- 
tions and interest in work have re- 
sulted. Individual achievement in 
the home has become less marked 
because of the increased demands 
for machine made clothing, furni- 
ture, furnishings and equipment. 
Foods served which are prepared 
outside of the home have less per- 
sonal appeal than those made under 
the home roof. The emotional re- 
action for home prepared foods has 
probably been over estimated. While 
the committee reported food as a 
basic need, they also gave considera- 
tion to cost, amounts, nutrients, ap- 
pearance, flavor, palatable prepara- 
tion, and attractive service in pleas- 
ing surroundings. They reached 
the conclusion that where the food 



SOME FINDINGS OF WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE 103 

is prepared is of less importance in children with a sincere and unself- 

family life than where and how it ish love, in short, if they are well 

is served. The service of food from balanced individuals, gifted with a 

the standpoint of family integrity certain amount of insight, they are 

was given careful thought. The fam- apt to provide the child with a 

ily dining table furnishes a means wholesome emotional background 

of recreation and of bringing the which will contribute more to his 

family together which unquestion- development than mere material ad- 

ably may have an important intiu- vantages, 

ence upon family life. The educational equipment neces- 

From studies made by the com- sary for parents to see the child as 
mittee, it seems necessary to re- a whole will demand a change in 
evaluate standards in family living, emphasis from that which is ex- 
Increased attention should be given clusively informational and utilite- 
to the welfare of older children, rian to the development of appre- 
Studies show that traditions of the ciations of values in human life, 
family have more value than hith- More stress in education needs to 
erto believed. The observance of be placed upon the development of 
birthdays and holidays in the home the individual and less upon the 
has distinct social, emotional, and teaching of facts. More thought 
educational possibilities. From the needs to be given to how much a 
studies made by the committees, life is worth rather than how much 
functions of the home and of family the person is worth in terms of dol- 
life have been extended. Besides lars and cents. 

the nurturing of the young, the oth- One of the most outstanding 

er big function of family life is to things stressed by the Convention 

send out individuals better able to is the importance of home and Um- 

face life than were their parents. ily in the solution of the problems 

In accordance with these prin- facing the child. In order to 

ciples, the ideal family would pro- solve this problem, we must go back 

vide for the child a friendly and to the parent who has charge of the 

hospitable environment for the de- child. There is need for universi- 

velopment of his emotions and abil- ties and colleges to put into their 

ities. It would insure him a secure curricula for students in training, 

relationship in a group of dignified courses for the training of parents 

human beings by whom he was on the job. 

loved, protected and encouraged. Parents need to realize that due 
For his own self respect, the child to the complex civilization and 
wants to belong to a family, to have many activities open to the child 
his own name, his own parents, and there is danger of over stimulation 
his own things. In other words, he to the child. This may begin at in- 
wants to belong and be considered a fancy and extend beyond the time 
member of the group. He needs the covered by the scope of this in- 
affection, the security, and the en- vestigation. Homes that are over- 
couragement of the family to fortify busy react upon the child. Tele- 
him for successful contacts with phone, radio, athletics, movies, all 
the outside world. If his parents contribute to the strain of over 
are happy in their adjustment to stimulation. These stimulating in- 
each other, if they are working hope- fluences operating through a great 
fully toward the fulfillment of an part of the twenty-four hours do 
ideal of living, if they love their not afford periods of rest and re- 



104 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



laxation that contribute to the de- 
velopment of nervous and emotion- 
al' stability. Children, like other 
animals, need periods of rest and 
relaxation. They need opportuni- 
ties to think, to read, to day dream 
in order to make use of imagination. 
Dr. Ray Croft of Princeton Univer- 
sity who deals with boys having 
nervous and emotional difficulties 
says that a large proportion of these 
have their roots back in early child- 
hood. Additional dangers added to 
those of early childhood lie in the 
tendency toward exploitation of the 
boy in school athletic contests. 
These endanger the boy's future 
success. 

Criticism was also registered 
against competitive athletic games 
and sports for girls. 

Home economics education should 
play a significant role in furthering 
ideals of family living through fur- 
nishing information to direct fam- 
ily consumption and knowledge and 
skills for the management of the 
surviving household activities. It 
has a special challenge to develop 
the individual to see these activi- 
ties, not as ends in themselves, but 
in relation to the promotion of 
wholesome family life. 

Many of the recommendations of 
the conference must be made effec- 
tive through the education of par- 
ents. The following recommenda- 
tions are listed : 

1. Further research is important 
in the field of the family. Only 
on the basis of research can an ade- 
quate science of the family be estab- 
lished and problems of family re- 
lationship be treated. One specific 
research recommendation, growing 



out of the studies of the committee, 
is that provision be made for fur- 
ther development of the indices for 
measuring family relationships and 
home atmosphere tentatively form- 
ulated by the White House Confer- 
ence. 

2. Further research is needed on 
the social and economic factors af- 
fecting family life today. The rela- 
tionship of these factors to the fam- 
ily is worthy the same careful con- 
sideration that has been given to 
the conditions of production in re- 
lation to industry and commerce. 

3. Institute or research centers to 
study family relationships and pro- 
cesses of family life as well as the 
economic and social factors oper- 
ating upon the family life today 
should be established. These should 
integrate the various disciplines af- 
fecting family life. 

4. Family consultation centers 
should be established with a staff 
composed of specialists in home eco- 
nomics, housing, social work, law, 
psychiatry, psychology, and sociol- 
ogy. These centers should be pre- 
pared to give advice and informa- 
tion on the different problems of 
family life. 

5. Special attention should be paid 
to Italians, Mexicans, and other im- 
migrant groups who come into cities 
from rural backgrounds and who 
need help in adjusting themselves 
to the conditions of American urban 
life. 

6. Special attention should also 
be paid to the negro family in order 
that it may attain that economic se- 
curity necessary for staple family 
life, and may also be assisted to the 
attainments of higher ideals of fam- 
ily life. 



The Life Story of Orson F* Whitney 



By C. Byron Whitney 



THE Life Story of a man is gen- 
erally considered of interest to 
others in proportion to that man's 
position or prominence among men. 
But when the words of the story 
become a gem of literature, a series 
of remarkable pen pictures depict- 
ing whole communities, a valuable 
historical record, all setting forth a 
profound and dynamic sermon on 
life and love of God and humanity, 
then that story ceases to be singular 
as to any man and becomes a thing 
of deep heart interest to many. 
Such is the volume recently pub- 
lished under the title — "The Life 
Story of Orson F. Whitney, as told 
by himself." 

Rich in historical lore, deep in 
human emotion, fervent and con- 
vincing in the testimony it bears, 
yet, withal, sparkling throughout 
with wit, wisdom, and fine humor, 
the volume appeals to almost every 
mood of the reader who seeks and 
finds the big and noble thought 
underlying it all. In point' of dic- 
tion, rhetoric, continuity of ideas 
and mastery of language, it deserves 
a place among model works of 
English literature. But it is the 
heart and soul of the book— the great 
story it tells, rather than how it tells 
it — that will endear it to the reader 
long after the few copies now in 
print are exhausted. 

Orson F. Whitney, scion of a 
Pioneer family of the State, and 
author of Whitney's Llistory of 
Utah, grew from birth to manhood 
as a stalwart branch of the great 
family tree to which he belongs. 



Intellectually and spiritually gifted, 
his name stands out amid every 
worthy endeavor of his people — re- 
ligiously, politically, and in advance- 
ment of the arts of literature, music 
and the drama. He holds his pres- 
ent high ecclesiastical position, as a 
member of the Quorum of the 
Twelve, in faithfulness and devotion 
to God, and with the love and re- 
spect of his associates and the peo- 
ple in general. His remarkable gifts 
as writer, poet and public speaker, 
to say nothing of his pronounced 
dramatic ability, would long ago 
have won him worldly fame and 
fortune, had he not chosen to de- 
vote them unselfishly, untiringly, to 
the spiritual welfare of his loved 
ones and his fellowmen. That this 
is purely and solely the underlying 
motive of his latest literary work — 
his Life Story as told by himself — 
will be readily recognized by the 
readers of that very interesting nar- 
rative. 

This publication is not a com- 
mercial project in any sense. The 
sale is not solicited at large. The 
purpose being to preserve certain 
experiences and to present principles 
sacred to the author and others of 
whom he has written, the distribu- 
tion is limited and the book pro- 
curable only from the author, at a 
modest price representing actual 
cost of issuance. It is highly com- 
mended by this reviewer to all who 
feel a sincere and kindly interest 
in the mighty testimony of a godly 
man and the interesting story of 
the remarkable life record of Orson 
F. Whitney. 



Notes to the Field 

Suggestions for the Seventeenth of March Celebration 



EACH year as our anniversary 
approaches, the requests be- 
gin to come into the office for 
suitable material to be used in pro- 
grams for the 17th of March. We 
have the following references for 
anniversary programs : "First Min- 
utes of Relief Society," January 
Magazine, 1915, page 20; "Instruc- 
tions of the Prophet Given at Nau- 
voo," March Magazine, 1915, page 
91 ; "Object, Aims and Brief His- 
tory of Relief Society," March 
Magazine, 1915, page 111; 
"Sketches of the First Five General 
Presidents," March Magazine, 1920, 
page 127 ; "Sketch of President 
Clarissa S. Williams," July Maga- 
zine, 1921, page 378; "Story of the 
Organization," March Magazine, 
1919, page 127; "Our Anniversary," 
March Magazine, 1921, page 137; 
"Relief Society Teaching," Decem- 
ber Magazine, 1916, page 668; 
"National Woman's Relief Society, 
1842-1925", March 1925, page 115 ; 
"Historical Events in the Relief 
Society," August, 1927, page 389; 
"Sketch of President Louise Y. 
Robison," January Magazine, 1929, 
page 3. 

It is suggested, with this material, 
that many of the sisters have, in 
their local communities, most dra- 
matic events that would make excel- 
lent material for programs, and we 
feel that it is altogether fitting and 
proper that the pioneer sisters be 
honored in this way, and their deeds 
and their struggles recalled by their 
descendants. We therefore suggest 
to our organizations everywhere to 
look into their own community his- 
tory, and present some of the out- 
standing events in the lives of 
pioneers. So many interesting hap- 
penings in the gathering of the 



wheat, or the settlement of the vari- 
ous communities, the organization 
of the Relief Society, and all those 
things that have gone to make up the 
story of our great organization, af- 
ford excellent material for pro- 
grams. It is quite in keeping with 
the spirit of the day that we use this 
and some of the finest plays pro- 
duced are the folk stories of pioneer 
days, the settlement of the West, 
and the great achievements of our 
fathers and mothers. 

THE first organization of the 
Relief Society might be dra- 
matized. 

The one-act play, "Careers" by 
Linda S. Fletcher, which appears on 
page 80 of this number of the 
Magazine, is suitable for an annual 
day entertainment. 

THE question as to new songs for 
special occasions is one not al- 
ways easily answered. In the new 
psalmody or "Latter-day Saints 
Hymns", is found a beautiful hymn 
particularly fitting to be sung on the 
17th of March. It is number 377 
"Oh, Blest was the Day When the 
Prophet and Seer." It speaks of the 
organization of the Relief Society in 
this dispensation by the Prophet and 
Seer, and also what would be ex- 
pected of the Daughters of Zion. 
The words are by Sister Emily H. 
Woodmansee, one of the early 
writer? of the Church. From her 
pen has come some of the choicest 
verses which have been set to music. 
Our beloved Brother Evan Stephens 
composed the music. 

This would be a splendid congre- 
gational song and could easily be 
learned by the 17th of March. Try 
it. 



Notes from the Field 



Reorganizations : 

SINCE last October Conference 
the following stakes have re- 
ported a reorganization in their 
Relief Society. Cache stake, Mrs. 
Lizzie B. Owen, released, Mrs. Lula 
Y. Smith, appointed president; 
Oneida stake, Mrs. Nellie P. Head, 
released, Mrs. Anna R. Hawkes, ap- 
pointed president; Taylor stake, 
Mrs. Georgina O'Brien, released, 
Mrs. Julia E. Ririe, appointed presi- 
dent; Union stake, Mrs. Evelyn R. 
Lyman, released, Mrs. Josephine 
Hanks, appointed president. We 
extend our greetings to the new 
presidents, and pray for the bless- 
ings of the Lord upon them in the 
duties they have assumed. 

In the retirement of these sisters 
from office, the General Board, as 
well as all the sisters of the organi- 
zation, acknowledge a great debt of 
gratitude to them for their untiring 
service in the cause. Their zeal for 
the work, their intelligent grasp of 
the scope of Relief Society and its 



full message, their sympathetic un- 
derstanding of the spirit of their 
calling, made them real leaders from 
whom the general organization al- 
ways received the heartiest coopera- 
tion, and their stakes took rank a- 
mong the most forward-looking in 
the whole Relief Society organiza- 
tion. We are grateful to them for 
their services in the past, and our 
love and our prayers for their future 
health and happiness accompany 
them. 

Hyrum Stake: 

THE. accompanying picture is of a 
cast who very successfully pres- 
ented the comic drama "Sewing for 
the Heathens." It was an entertain- 
ment given by the Relief Society 
stake board for the ward Relief 
Societies of the stake. The cast of 
the drama was composed of mem- 
bers of the Hyrum Second Ward 
Relief Society. The play was the 
source of much amusement, and a 
very successful entertainment. 




CAST OF "SEWING FOR THE HEATHENS" 



108 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Tongan Mission : 

SISTER FLOY B. CUTLER, 
president of the Relief Society 
of the Tongan Mission writes: 
"Perhaps a few words about the Re- 
lief Society work in the Tongan 
mission, Friendly Isles, will be in- 
teresting. While we do not have a 
Relief Society organization in all the 
branches of the Church throughout 
the mission, there are, in all, ten or- 
ganizations in the three districts: 
four in Tongatabu ; four in Vavau ; 
and two in Haapai. These organi- 
zations are all presided over by na- 
tive sisters and with native members 
making a total membership of 122. 
The sisters are diligent in the Relief 
Society work, and are willing and 
anxious to assist and care for the 
sick and anyone in need, members, 
or those from the outside alike. 
They are glad of an opportunity of 
helping the missionaries in their la- 
bors here. They respond readily 
and willingly to any call for help. 
We have just purchased for the 
Tongatabu district, enough sacra- 
ment glasses, and by making our 
own trays of polished wood, will 
furnish every branch in the district 
with an individual sacrament set. 
The money for this has been con- 
tributed by the sisters of their own 
accord. Very few of these people 
speak or understand English. It is 
difficult for us to follow the general 
program as outlined in the Relief 
Society Magazine, and all the les- 
sons that are used must be translated 
from the English into the language 
of our sisters here, some of the 
courses of study are not adaptable 
to this people. W|e are, however, 
following the Book of Mormon les- 
sons, a study in which these people 
take very much interest. Some of 
our Saints are familiar with the 
Samoan language, and as we have 
the Samoan Book of Mormon, the 



lessons may be used to great advan- 
tage. We make one lesson each 
month from the Teachers' Topic, 
and have a work day and one testi- 
mony meeting. The sisters always 
look forward to these, as they are 
anxious to take advantage of every 
opportunity of bearing their testi- 
mony of the Gospel and the bless- 
ings they receive. In general the 
work is in good condition, and I am 
happy for the opportunity of labor- 
ing here among these people. 
Words cannot express the joy and 
satisfaction that comes from mis- 
sionary service, for the great plan 
of this work is service." 

Tahitian Mission : 

NEWS from another one of our 
far distant missions comes to 
us in the form of a report from our 
Relief Society president, Sister 
Marguerite S. Burbridge. A most 
interesting report of the conference 
on October 5, 1930, at which the 
Relief Society presented a little play 
entitled "Hungry Souls Satisfied," 
was received. The little play is pub- 
lished in "A Sheaf of Home-made 
'Pageants and Plays" for use in the 
European Mission, but which was 
changed so that the characters were 
all women, and the little play could 
be nicely presented by the sisters of 
the Tahitian Mission. They learned 
their parts well, and presented it in 
a very able manner. They looked 
very lovely in their pretty new 
dresses, which they had made them- 
selves. There were no stage facil- 
ities at all, but one was improvised 
on the stand in the meeting house, 
thus making a garden effect. A 
latticed summer house in the middle 
of the stand was constructed of co- 
coanut leaves. This had a pretty 
pink climbing vine running all over 
the lattice, with ferns and flowers 
over the entire stand, giving the ap- 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 



109 




TAHITIAN MISSION 



pearance of a garden. Between the 
first and second acts, the sisters 
sang in English "I Have Read of a 
Beautiful City," after which the 
president of the Relief Society pre- 
sented the branch with two lovely 
sacrament cloths, which the Relief 
Society sisters had hemstitched and 
embroidered. Between the second 
and third acts a guitar duet and solo 
were given. At home this might 
not seem so very much, but here, 
where there are a very few people, 
especially natives, who can read 
music, it was quite an achievement. 
There is only one girl in the branch 
who has any knowledge of music, 
and ber's is somewhat limited. 
Everyone who attended the meet- 
ing said it was very successful as it 
is the first time that women had 
taken full charge of a Sunday eve- 
ning conference. The sisters of the 
branch were very much pleased with 
the success of their undertaking. 

Northcentral States Mission: 

SISTER PHOEBE M. WELL- 
ING, president of the Relief So- 
ciety of this mission writes of many 
interesting experiences among the 
sisters of the Northern States and 



the Canadian part of the mission 
where she has visited. To quote 
Sister Welling : "I am happy to be- 
come acquainted with each set of 
officers, and be able to visualize them 
in their working conditions. It is 
putting it mildly when one says they 
are the very 'salt of the earth.' I 
could cry tears of joy over the noble 
efforts some of them are making. 
All the Relief Society organizations 
are getting ready for their year's 
work, and are having meetings at 
the homes of the home-bound and ill. 
Each organization had contributed 
to a fund to assist in reestablishing 
the headquarters of the Berthold 
Indian Reservation. The elders are 
already there fixing up the build- 
ings, and getting things in shape. 
Our Wolf Point Indian branch is 
doing so well it may be we can or- 
ganize a Relief Society there. I 
am thrilled with all my work, and 
thank my Heavenly Father constant- 
ly for this great privilege. One 
year has already gone, and I have 
hardly thrust my sickle in, it seems." 
All over this mission the sisters are 
prepared and only await the coming 
of President Welling and the El- 
ders to organize the mission Relief 
Society branches. 



THE RELIEF SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF 
JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 

Motto — Charity Never Faileth 

THE GENERAL BOARD 

MRS. LOUISE YATES ROBISON President 

MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

MRS. JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrg. Ida P. Beal 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Mrs. Elise B. Alder Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Inez K. Allen Mrs. Mary Connelly Kimball 

Mrs. Cora L. Bennion 

Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Editor Mary Connelly Kimball 

Manager - Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, iSalt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Vol. XVIII FEBRUARY, 1931 No. 2 

EDITORIAL 



An Endless Quest 

LIFE is an endless quest for "Great is this marble, greater still 
knowledge, a ceaseless striv- the hand that carved it ; greatest of 
ing to attain to higher and all the God who fashioned the sculp- 
better things. While childhood is tor. I still learn. I still learn." 
the time of most rapid development 

and while the acquisitive powers be- H^ ODAY we are surrounded with 
come less active with the oncoming A a wealth of books. Lincoln 
years, the normal individual learns would walk miles to borrow a trea- 
from the cradle to the grave. In- sured volume and pore over it by 
deed one of life's greatest boons is the light of a pine knot. Darwin, 
the opportunity it offers for learn- working under conditions that would 
ing. It is unfortunate that most of make most people feel helpless in- 
us do not seize the opportunities valids, produced works that have 
offered and make the most of them been treasured ever since. Helen 
as we should. History's pages are Keller, deaf, dumb, and blind, has 
replete with illustrations of those attained scholarship away beyond 
who under untoward circumstances what most unhandicapped have 
have forged ahead and reached the reached. Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
heights. Michael Angelo, when old ing wrote very fine poetry while suf- 
and blind, groped his way into the fering intense physical pain. Louisa 
gallery of the Vatican. After feel- M. Allcott wrote charming stories, 
ing the torso of Phidias he said, spite of arduous toil and privation. 



EDITORIAL 



111 



Milton's blindness precluded outside 
interests and he devoted his talent 
to writing his immortal "Paradise 
Lost." Bunyan, incarcerated in 
prison, wrote his "Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress." 

Most of us only touch the out- 
skirts of our possibilities. The 
handicapped ones who have reached 
such great heights and have ren- 
dered such signal service in spite 
of their handicaps show how much 
more those with their senses and 
faculties unimpaired should accom- 
plish. 

Einstein says, "The man who 



leads the most successful life is he 
who keeps on learning the longest 
— the man for whom every experi- 
ence is a new building stone. I do 
not refer to the mere gathering of 
information, but to the ability to 
take to oneself knowledge and ex- 
perience and to use them. That 
man is always enlarging his uni- 
verse." 

Happy are they who go steadily 
forward, learning here a little, there 
a little, who comprehend today what 
was hidden yesterday, who are ever 
enlarging their universe. 



The Indian 



WE believe no people have 
cause for such deep and 
sincere interest in the In- 
dians as do the Latter-day Saints 
for they know whence they came, 
why they are in the condition they 
are in at the present time, and that 
they are in the future to become a 
"white and delightsome people." 

We present in this number sev- 
eral articles dealing with the In- 
dian, and hope that our readers will 
interest themselves in the red man 
and do what they can to further 
his welfare. 

We believe the near future will 
show many remarkable finds by 
archaeologists who are delving in 
ruins on the American continent. 
We suggest that it would be wise 
to clip reports from newspapers and 
magazines and file them for future 
use. 

SOME men outstanding in public 
life today have Indian blood in 
their veins. Two notable examples 
are Vice President Curtis, and Will 
Rogers. The latter is one of the 



most widely read writers in the 
United States. Daily he has a few 
lines in the newspapers that com- 
mand the attention of the reading 
public. He takes up things that are 
uppermost in the minds of people, 
and "hits the nail on the head." We 
give the following excerpt to show 
his philosophy and his style : 

"Everybody is saying that the 
trouble with the country is that 
people are saving instead of spend- 
ing. Well, if that's a vice, then J 
am Einstein. Since when did sav- 
ing become a national calamity? I 
know it's terrible for a non-author- 
ity like me to tell you to go contrary 
to expert advice, but I am telling 
you if you got a dollar to soak it 
away, put it in a savings bank, bury 
it, do anything but spend it. Spend- 
ing when we didn't have it put us 
where we are today. 

"Saving when we have got it will 
get us back to where we was before 
we went cuckoo. 

''Yours, 

"Will Rogers." 




A GROUP OF LAMANITE SISTERS, LOS ANGELES BRANCH, 

MEXICAN MISSION 

Elder Anton Cannon, at right, back row ; Elder Huber, at left, front row ; 
Mrs. Foley, center, back row. 

Response of the Lamanite Sisters 

To Poem by Mrs. Ellen L. Jakeman, 
Relief Society Magazine, Vol. XV, \page 160 

By S. T. Brimhall Foley 

We are daughters of Laman, returning with gladness, 

Our long tresses braided, unbarbered, unshorn. 
We have thrown off the mantle of sorrow and sadness 

And rejoice that the Day of our freedom is born. 
We have waited for ages the "White Man's appearance," 

But now from the Heavens we know He has come; 
His Gospel rewards all our suffering and patience; 

Its Heralds, anointed, are bringing us home. 

His Spirit has fallen upon us with blessings, 

Our souls are rejoicing in gladness and song; 
We know that its power has transformed our beings — 

Against all temptation is making us strong. 
We love that sweet promise once made to our fathers, — 

Lo ! Lo ! the Remnant of Joseph returns to the fold ! 
For this Day the archives were laden with treasures, 

And histories of nations were penciled on gold. 

We cherish the Record that comes from Cumorah, 

Untangling the thread of our lineage and kin; 
We love the great names, the good words, of those writers, 

And hope that salvation with them we shall win. 
The kings and the queens each appointed by Heaven, 

Are watching our footsteps and teaching us grace; 
With theirs in the temples our voices are ringing 

That truth has come forth to enlighten our race. 

We are daughters of Laman,. returning with gladness, 
Our long tresses braided, unbarbered, unshorn; 

We are singing hosanna while reaping the blessings 
Predicted by prophets since Time's early morn. 

We rejoice that our fathers were children of Jacob 
And wrote all their doings on tablets of gold — 

That the great Day has come for the feast of the righteous, 

When the children of Lehi may dine with the fold. 



Lesson Department 



Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in April) 
Book of Mormon — Christ In America (Continued) 



Read the rest of Third Nephi, 
from chapter 21 on; also the entire 
book of Fourth Nephi, to the book 
of Mormon. This closes the abridge- 
ment of the Nephite record by that 
prophet-warrior. 

The time is mainly the year 34, 
but goes to the year 322, After 
Christ. 

Story of the Lesson 

In this lesson Jesus continues his 
ministry among the iNephites. The 
historian tells us that the Lord "did 
truly teach the people for the space 
of three days." Whether or not 
this [was on three consecutive days 
he does not say. But "after that/' 
we are told, Jesus showed himself 
"oft" to them and administered the 
sacrament to them and taught them. 

During this period Christ per- 
formed a similar miracle to that 
recorded in the Gospels of feeding 
the five thousand. Only, this was 
in connection with the Lord's sup- 
per. "Now, there had been no 
bread, neither wine, brought by the 
disciples, neither by the multitude. 
But He truly gave unto them bread 
to eat, and also wine to drink." 

Then, too, He answered a ques- 
tion as to what the Church should 
be called. It was, He said, to be 
known as the Church of Christ. For 
how, He asked, "can it be my 
Church save it be called in my 
name? If a church be called in 
Moses' name, then it is Moses' 
church ; or if it be called in the 



name of a man, then it is the church 
of a man ; but if it be called in my 
name, then it is my Church, if it so 
be that they are built upon my gos- 
pel." 

Also Jesus gave the twelve dis- 
ciples their secret wishes. Nine of 
them elected to "go speedily into 
God's kingdom" at their death. They 
were told that they should live to 
be seventy-two years old, after 
which they should "find rest" with. 
Christ. But the other three, like 
John the Beloved, desired to con- 
tinue their earthly ministry indefi- 
nitely. And they were told that 
they should never "taste of death" 
or have pain of body, that they 
should continue to bring souls to 
Christ, and that at His coming again 
they should "be changed in the 
twinkling of an eye from mortality 
to immortality." 

Besides, our Savior performed 
many miracles during this time. He 
healed all the sick and lame, opened 
the eyes of the blind, unstopped the 
ears of the deaf, and "did all man 
ner of cures" among the people, 
even raising a man from the dead. 

Mainly, though, He taught the 
people. The historian says He 
taught them "all things from the be- 
ginning." Here are the main points 
in His teaching : 

There is a guiding influence in 
the affairs of men. Things are not 
allowed to get out of hand, but are 
directed toward an end. Especially 
is this so in the case of the children 



114 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



of the promise. In Abraham and 
his seed all nations are to be blessed 
of God. All the promises "made 
to the fathers" will be fulfilled in 
the due time of the Lord. Israel 
will be gathered ; Jerusalem will be 
rebuilt in Palestine ; a New Jeru- 
salem will be established on the 
American continent ; the "remnants" 
will be remembered. In a series of 
quotations, with running comments, 
events of the past and the future 
are tied together in a very illuminat- 
ing manner. 

After the last visitation of Jesus 
to the Nephites, the twelve disciples 
carry on the work begun by the 
Christ. They preach the gospel and 
minister to the people, till all 
become members of the Church 
through baptism. Great miracles 
are performed. Peace, prosperity, 
and happiness prevail everywhere. 
The Order of Enoch is established, 
and continues for about two hun- 
dred years. 

Then the seeds of disunion begin 
to sprout. Dissenters arise, infidel- 
ity spreads, the old lines of cleavage 
as between Nephites and Lamanites 
spring up again, till by the year 
322, or thereabouts, social and re- 
ligious chaos comes once more to 
this hapless nation. It is now a lit- 
tle way to the end. The swiftness 
with which things happen, however, 
as we shall see presently, is more 
in the narrative than in the events 
depicted. 

Notes 

1. The Fifth Gospel: It is inter- 
esting to compare the account of 
Christ's ministry in the Book of 
Mormon with that in the four Gos- 
pels in the New Testament. 

Nephi's is the longest. In Mat- 
thew there are approximately twen- 
ty-eight thousand words; in Mark, 
nineteen thousand ; in Luke, thirtv 



thousand ; in John, twenty-two 
thousand ; and in iNephi, if we in- 
clude what is introductory to the 
account, thirty-four thousand. It 
is probably true that, if we take into 
consideration only the words actual- 
ly uttered by Jesus in the five ac- 
counts of His ministry, we shall 
find more in the Nephite Record 
than in the four Gospels put togeth- 
er, not counting the duplications in 
the latter. 

The conditions are, of course, 
very different in some respects. 
Among the Jews in Palestine Jesus 
is mortal ; in America, immortal. 
This does not cover the times when 
He appeared to the apostles there. 
On the eastern continent the people 
of His time were, on the whole, very 
unresponsive to His teachings. On 
the western hemisphere the people 
almost without exception were ex- 
tremely responsive. For when the 
Nephites believed, they believed 
withput any reservations. Always 
they were either hot or cold, never 
merely lukewarm, like the Laodi- 
ceans of whom John speaks and 
whom God, on account of their in- 
definite temperature, threatened to 
"spue out of His mouth." Jesus 
himself declares that "so great faith 
He had never seen among all the 
Jews." That is why Pie "could not 
show unto them so great miracles" 
as He performed among the Ne- 
phites. He is speaking, however, to 
the twelve disciples, but no doubt 
the description applies to the whole 
people as well. 

This greater faith on the part of 
the Nephites gives us a clew to the 
essential difference between Jesus in 
Palestine and Jesus in America. 

Among the Nephites he per- 
formed about the same miracles as 
He did among the Jews — healing 
the sick, raising the dead, multiply- 
ing the quantity of bread and wine, 
and so on. But there are some 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



115 



distinctive spiritual manifestations 
on this continent. Jesus himself 
hints at this fact in the phrase "so 
great miracles." 

For one thing, when Nephi bap- 
tized the twelve disciples, they 
''were filled with the Holy Ghost, 
and with fire." Afterwards they 
"were encircled about as if by fire 
from heaven, and the multitude did 
witness it and did bear record." For 
another thing, little children, in the 
presence of the multitude, uttered 
''marvelous things." These "mar- 
velous things," according to the rec- 
ord, "were greater than Jesus had 
revealed unto the people." And, for 
still another thing, Jesus told the 
Nephites many things which He had 
been forbidden by the Father to tell 
the Jews because of their unbelief 
— about the "other sheep," for in- 
stance, and the ten tribes. In a 
word, as we stated elsewhere, Jesus 
seems to have been under consid- 
erably less restraint here than in 
Palestine. This shows that people 
receive of divine things according 
to their faith. 

Furthermore, there are more in- 
timate touches of Jesus in the Fifth 
Gospel than in the other four. In 
the Nezv Testament Jesus is "the 
Man of sorrows." He is decidedly 
"acquainted with grief." This is 
the predominant tone of the Gos- 
pels by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and 
John. Whether or not the writers 
were under the deep spell of Cal- 
vary, it is impossible to say. But 
it is not so in the Book of Mormon. 
Here He appears in a different light. 
In Nephi He weeps, but it is from 
joy. He prays, too, evidently in the 
hearing of the multitude, out of 
sheer thanksgiving at the great faith 
He witnesses. Also He smiles. Let 
us not forget that. And here we 
see the Master in a new light. Twice 
He smiles on the twelve disciples, 
His countenance beaming with light 



and happiness. No one can read 
Nephi's account of Christ in any- 
thing like a sympathetic spirit with- 
out getting something more, and 
other, than what he gets from the 
New Testament account of Him. 

2. The Order of Enoch : As a 
rule, when, in the history of reli- 
gion, any considerable number of 
people accept the gospel and are en- 
tering upon the first practice of it, 
their prime consideration is a re- 
formation of their temporal, or eco- 
nomic, situation. This is a curious 
fact. 

That happened in the days before 
the Flood, when the prophet Enoch 
preached. The order then estab- 
lished, probably for the first time, 
was named for him. "They had all 
things in common, and there were 
no poor and no rich among them." 
It happened, too, in the time of the 
apostles of Christ after the Ascen- 
sion. It happened, also, in our own 
age, in Ohio and Missouri. And it 
happened in the times immediately 
following the visitation of Jesus to 
the Nephites. 

There seems to be a conflict be- 
tween the pursuit of the material 
and the pursuit of the spiritual. This 
fact is especially noteworthy of the 
Nephite peoples, as we have seen 
in a preceding lesson. But it is 
true of all peoples. "Ye cannot 
serve God and Mammon," says 
Jesus. The lure of wealth is al- 
most unescapable. The love of 
pleasure and power also. And so, 
on so many occasions when there 
has been a strong spiritual uprush, 
men have set their minds on mak- 
ing such a change in their material 
affairs as would lessen the conflict 
between the temporal and the spir- 
itual. And goodness knows it is 
sorely in need of alterations in our 
own times, where there is periodical 
unemployment with much poverty 
and ignorance, 



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3. The Time Element : Somehow 
one gets the impression from read- 
ing the Book of Mormon that the 
Nephites were swifter to do evil 
than other peoples of whom we read 
in religious history. But this is 
more imaginary than real as the con- 
sideration of a few facts will show. 

If a historian three hundred years 
from now should briefly record the 
happenings of, say, the period be- 
tween 1900 and 1920, he would have 
a quicker and greater change to 
write about than anything to be 
found in the Book of Mormon. For 
during those years the whole world, 
not merely a comparatively small 
nation, went from a period of uni- 
versal peace through the most de- 
vastating of all wars into another 
period of universal peace. The thing 
would appear incredible if set down 
in a sober history, especially in view 
of our great pretentions to peace 
and Christianity. Yet it is a solemn 
and lamentable fact. 

That so far as outer events are 
concerned. Moral upsets as swift 
have taken place. Consider the 
period in England just after the 
brilliant reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
when morals went to such loose 



ends as to shock every right think- 
ing person. And then look at the 
rise of the Puritans, with their hor- 
ror of what to us now are innocent 
amusements — dancing, theater-go- 
ing, and so on. 

Human emotions are queer things. 
A gust of wind may change us in a 
moment, as witness the almost sud- 
den change of our attitude in Amer- 
ica towards the League of Nations 
a few years ago. We changed al- 
most in a night. And so there is 
nothing very remarkable about the 
alterations in the Nephites, in re- 
spect to their swift changes from 
good to evil and from evil to good, 
when we consider human emotions. 

Questions and Problems 

1. What is the United Order? 
How would it work today? What 
conditions give rise to such schemes ? 

2. Has the economic problem any- 
thing to do with the size of famines 
today? Explain your view. 

3. Are morals any looser today 
than before the Great War? Give 
reasons for your views. 

4. Account for the last war be- 
tween the Nephites and the Laman- 
ites. 



Work and Business 

Teachers' Topic for April 

(This topic is to be given at the special teachers' meeting the first week 

in April.) 



Our Responsibility to Sustain 
the Law 

"Law commands that which is 
right and prohibits that which is 
wrong." — Blackstone. 

"We believe in honoring, obeying 
and sustaining the law." — Articles 
of Faith. 

"We stand for the observance of 



law, the people who live it and the 
officers who enforce it." — M. I. A. 
Slogan. 

"By strict obedience Jesus won." 
— Hymn. 

I. Origin and History 

Civil law, rule, and order 
came with the advent of man. 
It began with family, patriarch- 
al and tribal organization, 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



117 



changing in form and require- 
ments as man spread over the 
earth. The purpose was protection, 
defense, and progress. 
II. Purpose and Necessity of Law 
and Government 

1. To establish justice. 

2. To insure domestic tran- 
quility. 

3. To promote the general wel- 
fare. 

4. To secure the blessings of 
liberty to ourselves and our 
posterity. 

III. Teaching Law and Order 

a. Home — 

Beginnings of obedience : 
The earlier in life that a 
child can appreciate and re- 
spond to the responsibilities 
of life, the safer he is and 
the more sure he will be of 
success. No one can suc- 
cessfully escape the real re- 
sponsibilities of the full re- 
quirements of proper con- 
duct of life. 

b. Church — 

The real progress and 
pleasure of life comes from a 
response to the law of God. 
Man is that he might have 
joy, predicated on the prin- 
ciple of an attitude of re- 
sponsibility. This means a 
proper attitude to God and 
man and country. 



c. School — 

School is closely associat 
ed with the home and en- 
larges the child's experience. 
He carries to the group the 
principles taught and nur- 
tured in the home. Every 
human being must learn the 
majesty of the law. 

d. Society — 

Strong and potential fac 
tor for human conduct. 

IV. Benefits and Blessing of the 
Law. 

Security 

Order 

Progress — Education 

Unity of effort. 
A response to the requirements oi 
law and order measures true citizen- 
ship, which aims to live above the 
law. 

Responsibility serves two purpos- 
es : first, upholds and sustains the 
law ; secondly, sets a good example 
and thereby influences others to sup- 
port and sustain the law. Not only 
is this true in the civil law but in 
the law and requirements of God. 

"Let your light so shine before 
men that they may see your good 
works and glorify your Father 
which is in heaven." — Matt. 5:16. 

Responsibility is closely allied to 
opportunity, privilege, power, au- 
thority, and influence. 



Literature 

(3rd Week in April) 

The Short Siory In France 

Suggested Stories : Bernier's The At the beginning of this century 

Divided Horsecloth; Voltaire's Brander Matthews, who is one of 

Memmon the Philosopher; Rabelais' the greatest literary critics America 

He Who Married a Dumb Wife; has produced, wrote: "Probably 

Merimee's Mateo Falcone. there is no rashness in a prophecy 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



that the short story will flourish 
even more luxuriously in the imme- 
diate future than it has flourished 
in the immediate past." (He had 
just written that the nineteenth cen- 
tury had been a short story and 
novel era.) "Of a certainty we can 
assert that a literary form as pop- 
ular as the short story, as well estab- 
lished in every modern literature, 
is deserving of serious consideration 
and is worthy of careful study." 

It is useless to ask if Brander 
Matthews' prophecy has been real- 
ized by 1931, but it is worthwhile 
to know something of the causes 
that have brought about this su- 
premacy of the short story. And we 
owe more to France than to any 
other European country. 

To tell the account briefly, for 
we are more interested in the short 
story of modern France, long before 
the close of the Middle Ages, France 
had its native writers who wrote 
their tales in Fabliau form. This 
form, for our purposes, is a brief 
tale, little more than an anecdote, 
with a sharp sting at the end. The 
Fabliau is* full of gayety and has 
the simple shrewdness of the plain 
people. One of the few Fabliau 
authors known to modern times is 
Bernier, whose story, "The Divided 
Horsecloth," is found in the text. 

About the middle of the four- 
teenth century the Fabliau lost its 
importance and the forms of the 
Lay, Miracle, and Devotional stories 
were in vogue until after the close 
of the Middle Ages. Troubadors 
and minstrels roved in France, as 
in other countries, and many of their 
stories were recorded by later writ- 
ers. In Italy, Boccaccio was the 
master and in France Rabelais and 
Marguerite de Navarre are two 
names that have lived. 

In the seventeenth century France 
paid most of her literary attention 
to the drama and to long drawn out 



sentimental romances. However, in 
the second half of the century 
Charles Perrault and La Fontaine 
(both of these writers are repre- 
sented in the text) developed the 
fable and fairy story into beautiful- 
forms. A great many of the stories 
that are told children today were 
written by Perrault. To him we 
owe Cinderella, Little Red Riding 
Hood, Blue Beard, Sleeping Beauty, 
Puss-in-Boots, and many others. 
This distinguished Parisian was 
born in 1628. He was the author 
of elaborate works in prose and 
verse, but his fame rests on a few 
tales that he wrote for recreation 
when he was growing old — tales to 
which he was not even willing to 
give his name. They were first 
published under the name of his 
son, a ten year old boy. Because 
of the stories' simplicity there is a 
slight reason for thinking that Per- 
rault might have had the boy tell 
the stories and then record them in 
their charming and simple style. 

Perrault's fame made fairy tales 
the rage. There were imitators down 
to the eighteenth century, with its 
new philosophy, its skepticism, and 
its interest in pure literary form. 
As in England, French writers of 
this century occupied themselves 
largely with the moral tale and Vol- 
taire was the great master of this 
form. (One of Voltaire's stories 
is found in the text and the reader 
will readily notice the difference be- 
tween his profoundly and the light- 
er touch of Addison.) 

In the nineteenth century the 
modern short story was born and 
by the second quarter it was reach- 
ing a perfection that has not yet 
been excelled. These early modern 
stories were written not so much as 
consciously following a purpose ab 
by a certain turn of genius in the 
men. Their stories made the short 
story one of the most highly per- 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



119 



fected forms of literature in France. 
It was in France and in the Unit- 
ed States that the short story was 
finally achieved and it was done al- 
most simultaneously and quite inde- 
pendently. There are perhaps two 
reasons for France's development — 
first, she has a finer artistic appre- 
ciation and has acquired the Latin 
liking for logic, which includes the 
classical code of unity and propor- 
tion, and secondly, the Parisian 
newspapers. In France, then and 
today, there are not many maga- 
zines. Instead, the newspapers, 
cheap in price and widely read, give 
the same thing that is obtained in 
America from more expensive 
sources. The French newspapers 
welcomed and definitely encouraged 
writers of short stories ; the stories, 
themselves, were widely read and 
much criticized. 

And it was in the Parisian news- 
papers that such writers as Coppee, 
Daudet, and Maupassant first be- 
came known. Balzac, one of the 
great writers of all time, broke defi- 
nitely with the past in his art, and 
his methods were adapted by the 
great writers of fiction, many of 
whose names are as familiar as our 
English ones — George Sand, Ana- 
tole France, Daudet, Merimee, Zola, 
Maupassant, Flaubert, and others. 

Stevenson in England, you will 
recall, was much influenced by the 
French writers. He summed up 
their art when he said in reply to a 
friend who had asked him why he 
did not change the ending of a cer- 
tain story: ''Make another end to 
it? That's not the way I write. 
The whole tale is implied. I never 
use an effect when I can help it 
unless it prepares the effects that 
are to follow. That's what a story 
consists in. To make another end 
than that is to make the beginning 
all wrong." 



Notes to the teacher: 

If the material on the short story 
in France were divided into two 
periods, the last being the modern 
one, Balzac's story would begin the 
latter. However, if it is possible, 
Merimee's story of "Mateo Falcone'' 
should be given in the first lesson, 
in addition to at least one of the 
briefer, older ones. The modern 
short stories represent a section of 
the best of France's art, and as 
many of the stories as can be ar- 
ranged for should be given in class. 
''Mateo Falcone" is counted one of 
the greatest short stories of all 
time, and if the majority of the class 
are not acquainted with it, the mem- 
bers will enjoy it much better than 
they will some of the older ones. 
Balzac's story, in its way, is equally 
great, but it is not placed on the 
suggested list because it might not 
appeal to all the members of the 
class. Questions on the stories 
should bring out the characteristics 
of the French art in comparison 
with that of other nations previous- 
ly studied, and on the style of the 
individual stories. One easy way 
of getting at this later is to ask the 
members if they could tell another 
story by the same author if the 
name were withheld, then ask them 
to explain why. Questions on the 
short story as a form of art, given 
early in the course, may be used to 
good effect on the French stories. 

"The Divided Horsecloth" by Ber- 
nier 

Nothing is known of Bernier ex- 
cept that he lived in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries and that his 
name is signed to the ms. of "The 
Divided Horsecloth. " This is a 
beautiful story of a certain trait in 
human nature that has not varied 
much from the beginning of man. 
It is the account of a wealthy and 



120 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



prudent man from the common 
ranks who went up to Paris so that 
he might better himself and family. 
Time passed, the wife died, and the 
father loving his son and desiring 
to see the boy well and happily mar- 
ried, forgot how necessary wealthy 
possessions are for retaining inde- 
pendence of ways and thought, and 
gave all of his wealth to his son. It 
was not long before the father was 
looked upon as an object of charity 
in the home he had built. The wife, 
who had been obtained at such a 
price, grew weary of the old man 
and asked that he be sent away. 

The old father, grown weak and 
weary, protested and then agreed 
to go if first he should be given a 
piece of cloth to protect him from 
the cold. Selfishly, the son refused, 
but later relented by saying the old 
man could have one of the cloths 
now used to cover the horses. The 
son called for his young boy to do 
the errand, and it was here that the 
child's wisdom asserted itself, and 
gave the unexpected ending to the 
Fabliau. 

Questions on "The Divided 
Horsecloth" 

1. In what ways can you place the 
period in which the story was writ- 
ten? 

2. What is the universal appeal 
of the story? 

3. What are the characteristics of 
the Fabliau as exemplified by "The 
Divided Horsecloth?" 

"Mateo Falcone' by Prosper Mer- 
imee 

Prosper Merimee, who is one of 
the great masters of French style 
and of short story writing, was born 
at Paris in September, 1803. He 
studied at the bar but never prac- 
ticed law. It was his good fortune 



to become acquainted with the moth- 
er of . the future Empress Eugenie, 
and when Eugenie married Napo- 
leon III, Merimee became a court 
favorite and was given a number of 
coveted positions. 

He was a man of deep emotions, 
which he successfully hid from all 
but his best friends, and even they 
found it hard to pierce his stoical 
reserve. In spite of his kind and 
helpful nature, he had a distrust 
and even a contempt for mankind. 
Several times he was disappointed 
in love affairs, and this fact may ac- 
count for the hard, vampirish qual- 
ity of many of his women charac- 
ters. His deep but hidden emotions 
also give a clue to the wild, unbridl- 
ed nature of his characters. 

When "Mateo Falcone" was writ- 
ten, Merimee had not been to Cor- 
sica, but he afterwards visited there 
and was entertained by an aging 
woman who had long been the lead- 
er of a famous feud. He told her 
story in ''Colomba." Merimee died 
at Cannes, September, 1870 just af- 
ter the close of the Franco-Prussian 
war. Many of his short stories are 
known throughout the world, and 
one of them, ''Carmen," inspired 
the famous opera by that name. 

Questions 

(It must be remembered in this 
story that the Corsicans, through 
long years of being unjustly treated 
and governed, had learned to take 
the law into their own hands. The 
men killed, not for lust and robbery, 
but to see that justice was adminis- 
tered. The weak man was the one 
who let an offense go unpunished.) 

1. What features of the setting 
are necessary to make the action ap- 
pear probable ? 

2. What traits of character in 
Gianetto, Fortunato, Gamba, and 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



121 



Mateo are motives for the succes- 
sive stages of action? 

3. Do you judge these characters 
most by what they think, say, or do ? 
Which method of indicating charac- 
ter is most dramatic? 



tunato or are you merely shocked 
by his death? 

5. Is the repetition of the bribery 
artistic? 

6. Could the story be made into 
a play? If it were a one-act one, 



4. Do you sympathize with For- where would you lay the scene? 



Social Service 

(Fourth Week in April) 

Personality Study: Thinking Straight 

Based on Overstreet's Influencing Human Behavior, pages 184-200 



When any of your friends have 
offered you a penny for your 
thoughts have you ever considered 
that your "thoughts" were worth 
the price offered? If you ever hes- 
itated in making the proposed ex- 
change, has it not been mainly be- 
cause you were ashamed of the very 
trivial nature of the less than half- 
formed ideas you were entertaining ? 
A very large proportion of our so- 
called thinking is very readily recog- 
nized as being anything but genuine 
reasoning or creative thinking. And 
a large majority of what seems to 
pass as the true coin, so to speak, 
is in reality a counterfeit variety 
known in modern psychology as ra- 
tionalization. There are so many 
pitfalls that beset the course of 
straight thinking that the wonder is 
that this rather rare process is ever 
engaged in or found in others by 
people who are acquainted with its 
characteristics. Let us now address 
ourselves as vigorously as we may 
to the important problem of straight 
thinking, i. c. thinking in the best 
sense of the word. 

First, it may be well for us to 
characterize more specifically each 
of about five of the various types of 
mental processes which we call 



thinking. They range all the way 
from the get-no-where activity of 
the thinking mechanism when hazy 
ideas are used in a mere "idling" 
fashion on to the distinctly human 
use of clearly defined ideas in the 
successful search for truth. 

1. Reverie or day dreaming is a 
type of thinking which occupies a 
great deal of our time and seems to 
require a minimum of effort. It 
goes on almost spontaneously and 
seems to be rather self -centered in 
character. Can it be possible that 
an old cow lying in the shade chew- 
ing her cud could often match us 
for worthwhile mental activity ? An- 
imals generally are not accorded the 
use of ideas, but it surely would 
not be claiming much for the above 
mentioned cow if we admitted that 
her possible dreams of new pastures 
were as worthy as are our day- 
dreams of "castles in Spain." Of 
course under some circumstances a 
moderate amount of day dreaming 
may not be objectionable. At times 
it may be quite harmless or even 
beneficial as a relaxation after pro- 
longed mental effort. It presents, 
however, some real dangers. For 
example, it often tends to unduly 
color or crowd out altogether our 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



more worth-while types of thinking. 

2. "Wishful" thinking has more 
sequence and direction than reverie, 
but otherwise is much the same. It, 
too, occupies much of our time and 
accomplishes little or nothing. It 
is this futile type of ''thinking'' 
which we nearly always bring to 
bear on such problems as spreading 
the gospel, conservation, flood con- 
trol, immigration, community clean- 
ups, adjustment of the tax burden, 
overcoming the present business de- 
pression, building up Zion in Jack- 
son County, etc., etc. Here too, be- 
long our fabrications of easy re- 
wards in heaven with which we were 
concerned in our last lesson. 

Both reverie and "wishful" think- 
ing would furnish examples of what 
is sometimes discussed as autistic 
thinking, i. e. thinking which is suf- 
ficient unto itself. The very pro- 
cess itself satisfies so that one need 
not bring criticism to bear in order 
to increase the probability that it 
will meet the social test or square 
with the facts of the objective uni- 
verse. 

3. Hasty or so-called practical 
thinking, as the name clearly im- 
plies, is quite different from the 
types we have just been discuss- 
ing. It seldom goes on in leisurely 
fashion and it is at least realistic in 
the sense that it has to do with the 
ordinary practical affairs of every- 
day life. There are many decisions 
which most of us must make every 
day — the majority of them of minor 
importance. We say: "I think I'll 
call at the postoffice — try eating an 
olive — ask Mr. Jones for a job — buy 
a paper — become a teacher," and so 
on. The words we use in announc- 
ing these decisions indicate that we 
are inclined to believe that they fol- 
low upon thought processes of some 
kind and no doubt they do. But 
that the mental activity involved in 
nearly all of such cases hardly de- 



serves to be called reasoning or 
thinking, is evident from the fact 
that most of it is done in a careless 
or slip-shod manner. Furthermore 
it is often based upon superstitions, 
prejudices, "hunches," and inade- 
quate information. At best these 
practical decisions are based upon 
rather haphazard — though fairly re- 
liable — observations and personal 
habits or upon beliefs which may at 
times represent somewhat careful 
•thinking done for us by other people, 
and which we are inclined to accept 
somewhat blindly rather than do the 
necessary thinking for ourselves. 
For example, we may act quite ap- 
propriately at times on the state- 
ment: "Make hay while the sun 
shines." 

4. Rationalization is a term which 
during recent years has been used to 
designate a kind of thinking which 
is often so elaborate and logical as 
to pass as honest - to - goodness, 
straight thinking. When we really 
learn to recognize it we are usually 
convinced that we should use th-: 
same care to avoid it that we would 
to avoid skillfully made counterfeit 
coins with which we might other- 
wise become dangerously burdened. 
The process of rationalization really 
grows out of man's conceit in jeal- 
ously guarding his reputation as the 
one being in creation who must al- 
ways have things pass through the 
"crucible of reason" before they can 
be accepted by him. He must not 
be accused even by himself of ac- 
cepting any proposition that will 
not stand the test of reason. If 
really good reasons cannot be found, 
then acceptably "good" reasons must 
be brought forward. If necessary, 
he will be blind to all evidences ex- 
cept those which further his side of 
the case. Both true and false ele- 
ments are strangely mingled to- 
gether in the effort to justify his ac- 
tions, attitudes, or beliefs, but the 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



123 



result is a line of argument which 
seems at least to himself to be very 
logical and reasonable. If it seems 
plausible and persuasive to others, 
so much the better. Thus we see 
that rationalizing is little better than 
a process of mere self-justification 
and excuse-making. It is a matter 
of inventing "good" reasons to 
cover up socially non-acceptable real 
reasons. And to appreciate how 
logical and elaborate the process is 
in many cases just put someone to 
work defending his actions or be- 
liefs and listen while he talks. You 
may initiate the interesting process 
perhaps by simply questioning the 
reasonableness of his recent pur- 
chase of an automobile ; his adher- 
ence to the Republican party, or the 
church he belongs to ; his views on 
vaccination or the Word of Wis- 
dom ; his support or non-support of 
the eighteenth amendment; his join- 
ing of ,a college fraternity or a 
lodge ; his conclusions on organic 
evolution or the higher criticism ; 
his attitude toward the Boy Scout 
Movement, or toward higher educa- 
tion for girls ; the amount of his 
contribution to the Red Cross or to 
the Community Chest ; the amount 
he paid as tithing ; and so on. No 
matter on which point you challenge 
him he is more likely than not to 
offer you so-called good reasons in- 
stead of the real reasons. Possibly 
you are prepared to carry the ex- 
periment a step further and make 
doubly sure that your friend is ra- 
tionalizing but not reasoning in any 
very worthy sense of the word. This 
is almost an infallible test if you 
can make it. Try calmly to win 
against his mere rationalization, by 
means of some straight thinking 
which has due regard for the cru- 
cial evidences in the case. As Mor- 
gan well says, "If he keeps his poise 
throughout, and if finally outdone, 
he placidly accepts the outcome of 



reason, he is not rationalizing, but 
reasoning. Tf, on the other hand, 
he shows great perturbation should 
he be defeated in the debate, and 
finally goes into a rage, one can be 
reasonably sure that all his argu- 
ments were simply attempts to con- 
vince himself and others of the truth 
of something that he wished to be- 
lieve." 

5. We are now ready to more 
fully appreciate a kind of thinking 
which needs to be encouraged and 
stimulated in all of us. We refer 
to genuine reasoning or creative 
thinking — the more or less rare and 
difficult types of mental activity 
comparable to that engaged in by the 
true scientist or philosopher when 
he is seeking earnestly for new 
truth. 

The careful thinker is in no undue 
hurry. He has ever a "passion for 
facts" and will go to considerable 
trouble to see that they are reliable. 
He knows at the outset that the ap- 
parently simple process of percep- 
tion or observation is beset with 
many difficulties. It has been well 
said that "we see things not as they 
are but as we are." (Patrick.) We 
seem bound in the very process of 
careful observation to interpret 
sense data in terms of our past ex- 
perience and our mental set at the 
given moment. In other words, 
sense data do not impress them- 
selves upon a passive and indiffer- 
ent mind, but are given meaning as 
a result of the very active mental 
process of perception. To facilitate 
accurate perception very often sens- 
ory defects need to be remedied, 
or again normal perception is aided 
by means of microscopes, photo- 
graphic films, telescopes and other 
instruments of precision. Very often 
observations are made under con- 
ditions of experimental control. 
Considerable patience is exercised 
in making accurate measurements, 



124 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

records and other provisions to fa- attempt is made to understand these 
cilitate verification by subsequent phenomena by means of one or 
observers. Precautions are taken all more preliminary guesses or specu- 
the way along the line to guard lations. Other inquiring minds co- 
against errors, unrecognized arti- operate in checking up on the valid- 
facts, illusions, data collected under ity of the proposed guesses. A third 
the influence of hampering distrac- step is taken when one of these is 
tions or prejudices, etc., etc. In found to fit the known facts suffi- 
short, experts make observations un- ciently well to raise its status so 
der the most favorable conditions that it may be properly designated 
possible and keep suitable records as an hypothesis. Fourth, when this 
of the same as a basis for carefully in turn becomes considerably more 
guarded inferences which come into well established by means of fur- 
special prominence later. ther scientific procedure it becomes 

For convenience we shall now proper for the first time to call it 
take up a separate consideration of by the rather dignified name of 
the process of making inferences. theory. Fifth, after much more 
Before we begin, however, it may extended verification by many 
be well to remind ourselves that in trained investigators, it is finally re- 
reality the collection of facts and ferred to as a law or principle. An 
the making of inferences about important safeguard which careful 
them, are not wholly separate pro- thinkers have learned to use during 
cesses. In his recently published this whole process is known as the 
"Psychology" Woodworth says, law of parsimony. The New English 
"There is a close relation between Dictionary explains it as "the logi- 
sense perception and reasoning, and cal principle that no more causes or 
inference is an extension -of the forces should be assumed than are 
pattern-grasping activity beyond the necessary to account for the facts." 
sensory field. * * * From simple When scientists apply it in helping 
cases (of perception) we can trace to choose between two or more rival 
a continuous series extending to the hypotheses they choose the one 
most abstract reasoning imaginable." which is the simplest, and which 

The person who has acquired the best takes into account all of the 

habit of straight thinking not only thoroughly established facts and 

insists that his facts be thoroughly generalizations of science, 

tested and verified, but he is even Sound reasoning also implies 

more cautious, if possible, to have great care in avoiding a number of 

his theories carefully checked up well known pitfalls of thinking 

by other competent workers so that which we can do little more than 

they may approach as nearly as pos- mention at this time, 

sible to the status of well tested 1. Rationalizing as a substitute 

probabilities or practical certainties. for the ideational search for truth 

So cautious is he that he never may perhaps be regarded as one of 

claims for even very well established the very common hidden dangers to 

laws or principles the status of ab- be avoided. 

solute truths. One is impressed by 2. Some people "reason" like this : 

the steps involved in the gradual "Christianity is either the most vi- 

development of the laws or prin- cious fraud ever perpetrated upon 

ciples of science. First, we have the world, or it is the most glorious 

phenomena to which are attached a revelation of divine truth which has 

minimum of meaning. Second, an ever blessed mankind." Tt may be 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



125 



the latter, but it should be clear that 
this process of so-called reasoning 
does not establish the proposed gen- 
eralization. Is not this simply an 
example of the familiar disjunctive 
fallacy ? 

3. Then there is the danger of 
false analog Even a true analogy 
does not prove a conclusion. Its 
only proper use is to help explain 
it and even here we should be aware 
of the danger of attempting to earn 
an analogy too far. 

4. Hasty generalizations should 
be carefully avoided. All of us may 
well cultivate more of a tentative 
attitude toward knowledge, for as 
indicated above, many of our gen- 
eralizations are in the constant pro- 
cess of formulation and reformula- 
tion and they all rest upon various 
degrees of tested probabilities rath- 
er than upon absolute certainties. 
Our "hankering for certainty'' 
should not lead us into the pitfall 
of prematurely fixed ideas. 

5. Sometimes thinking is done by 
incorrect causal relationships. How 
common is the tendency to "jump 
to conclusions." It seems so difficult 
to wait until we have data which 
are not only fair and typical, but 
also sufficient in amount. Who 
has not seen the typical politician 
fall into this error when trying to 
explain the cause of either hard 
times or prosperity? Patent-medi- 
cine testimonials are full of the 
same type of "reasoning." 

6. Too often people attempt to 
think through ambiguous terms. 
They may confuse making the world 
safe for democracy with making it 
safe for the Democratic party, or 
prophecy with mere prediction, or 
tax reform with the undue increase 
of the average tax burden. Most 
of us have doubtless heard wasted 
arguments end with remarks some- 
thing like this : "Oh, if that is what 



you mean then I agree with you 
and there is no use of further ar- 
gument." 

7. Another well known pijtfall 
which careful thinkers avoid is to 
base a line of reasoning on one or 
more unsupported assertions. At 
times prominent people who may 
have splendid insight or access to 
abundant evidence in one field, at- 
tempt to have their assertions ac- 
cepted just as readily in other fields 
where they really should assume a 
much more humble position. Why 
should anyone be confused by the 
views of Edison on intelligence tests 
or those of Burbank on immortal- 
ity, or the half-baked notions- on 
chemistry put forth by a prominent 
psychologist, for example ? 

8. Again people are hindered 
from doing straight thinking by the 
notion that is sometimes entertained 
that because seemingly valid objec- 
tions can be raised against a propo- 
sition it should therefore be wholly 
rejected. Recently the proposal to 
abandon the use of a little ungraded 
school in a certain district was at 
least temporarily defeated largely 
because certain quite irrelevant ob- 
jections were played up by certain 
interested parties and the anti-super- 
intendent local paper. To win out 
there seemed to be no real need 
of discovering the possible valid 
objections that might have been 
brought forward. The fact that ob- 
jections could be raised was convinc- 
ing enough. How foolish ! 

9. Sometimes sound conclusions 
cannot be reached because the main 
issue is either lost sight of, or pur- 
posely evaded. We say that the 
person is arguing "beside the point." 
Many a lawyer with a weak case to 
defend wastes time on non-essen- 
tials, often on mere trivialities, in- 
stead of using his energies on the 
really crucial points that rightly 



126 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

should be stressed. A rather low own bias is very pronounced, it is 

form of this error is when he resorts a good practice to give the benefit 

to the "calling of names" or some of a possible doubt to the opposite 

worse form of personal abuse. side, especially if your selfish inter- 

10. At the risk of seeming to ests are involved in the decision to 
over-lap somewhat in our enumera- " e made. 

tion of common pitfalls, let us go 12-14. We could go on enumerate 
on to a brief statement of the dan- ing cautions against trying to do 
ger of shifting ground. When this clear thinking under conditions 
slippery practice of refusing to be which make us highly suggestible, 
pinned down even when you are against basing important decision- 
wrong is consciously engaged in, it on what we sometimes call "chance" 
is indeed a despicable thing, but very such as the mere flip of a coin, 
often people seem to fall into this against being swayed to a warped 
error quite unconsciously. An ar- conclusion by strong but very tem- 
gument becomes endless and at the porary emotional factors and so on. 
same time gets nowhere because one But surely we have been impressed 
or both of the participants have ac- with the fact that straight thinking- 
quired such automatic facility in i s not a simple and easy matter. We 
shifting from one proposition to an- a i so know that the trained thinker 
other one, the moment he seems j s we n aware f many guide-posts, 
pressed to face a decision on the an( j t h at when he in cooperation 
one he started with. In honest w j tn many others finally announces 
thinking one ought to first clearly careful inferences as high probabili- 
define the problem, then bring forth t j es or practical certainties that it is 
the evidences that are relevant and not tne resu i t f mere child's play 
accept the appropriate conclusions tnat any one who has reached his ma- 
no matter what becomes of one's jority can engage in as successfully 
preconceptions. as anyone else. 

11. We should not fail to call Let us be grateful that we have 
attention to the importance of dis- many carefully worked out observed 
counting our prejudices and those uniformities which are sometimes 
of the ones whom we choose to help disparagingly styled the "theories 
us with our thinking. No one likes f men ." And let us also resolve 
to be taken in by a mere propagan- tna t as adults believing in the dig- 
dist. Yet everyone has prejudices n j ty f man an d his eternal possi- 
of some kind. Even the so-called bilities we will accept Overstreet's 
impartial scientific investigator has challenge and proceed immediately 
them as part of his equipment. The to get rid of our possible "museum 
important thing is to allow sufh- f immature fixations, snap judg- 
ciently for probable prejudices that ments, picked-up prejudices, and un- 
would tend to unduly hamper a per- verified 'hand-me-downs' * * * . The 
son in making a given investigation great hope of straighter and more 
or in appraising its validity or sig- fruitful thinking among adults," he 
nificance. We are helped in knowing goes on to say, (lies) "in the in- 
how much to discount these by be- creasingly wide recognition of the 
coming acquainted with investiga- fact that education should not be 
tions or conclusions made by others confined to a few preparatory years, 
who are inclined to show partiality but should be a continuing process 
in the opposite direction. If your throughout life." 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



127 



Problems to Select Prom for Class 
Discussion 

1. Explain as clearly as you can 
what is meant by science and scien- 
tific method. Which is the more 
expert procedure; "accurate obser- 
vation" or "cautious inference?" 

2. Do you think Ovlerstreet is 
too hard on the rationalizers? (See 
pp. 191-193). Describe a good re- 
cent example of rationalizing that 
you have observed. How did you 
know it was really an instance of 
rationalizing ? 

3. Mention and describe briefly 
each of three other rather unworthy 
types of thinking. What is the rel- 
ative prominence of each in our 
lives ? 

4. What constitutes thinking in 
the best and most worthy sense of 
the word? Of what significance is 
such thinking in human life? Can 
a person be truly religious who does 
no such thinking? 

5. What important differences 
would it make in the world "if we 
feared the entertaining of an un- 
verifiable opinion with the warmth 
with which we fear using the wrong 
implement at the dinner table, 
(and) if the thought of holding a 
prejudice disgusted us as does a 
foul disease"? (Trotter.) 

6. According to the dictionary 
what is the distinction between a 
theory and an hypothesis ? Explain 
the steps involved in the gradual de- 
velopment of scientific laws or prin- 
ciples. Read Alma 32:26-43 and 
see if you can discover such cor- 
responding steps as, for example, 
non-belief, desire to believe, belief, 
faith and knowledge in the realm of 
religious experience. 

7. Distinguish between the legit- 
imate kind of doubting involved in 
worth-while thinking and the kind 
that should be avoided and warned 
against. Give an instance that you 



know of where doubting seemed to 
be engaged in for the mere sake 
of doubting. In this connection con- 
sider the following quotation from 
the psychologist Stratton: "Doubt 
is a state of incomplete or suspend- 
ed judgment to be distinguished 
from belief, either in its positive or 
negative form. Doubt is closely 
connected with the formation of be- 
lief. (Doubt) is useful so long as 
it tends to make belief more intelli- 
gent and more in harmony with wide 
experience (but it may) far outlive 
its period of usefulness." 

8. Among the "essentials of the 
thinking process" Strayer and Nors- 
worthy mention, "a state of doubt 
or uncertainty, resulting in suspend- 
ed judgment." Colvin and Bagley 
say that "thinking comes only when 
a problem is presented or a situa- 
tion faced, only when a 'crisis' in 
our behavior arises." The follow- 
ing is from Dewey : "To maintain 
the state of doubt and to carry on 
systematic and protracted inquiry — 
these are the essentials of thinking." 
Does it follow then that the person 
who says he "has never had even 
the least shadow of a doubt about 
anything pertaining to the gospel" 
is confessing that he has not done 
any thinking about it? Do the 
above quotations furnish a clue as 
to how to stimulate real thinking? 
Discuss. 

9. Comment on this statement 
from Tennyson's "In Memoriam:" 

"There lives more faith in 

honest doubt, 
Believe me, than in half 

the creeds." 
How would you deal with doubts 
in religious matters such as are 
sometimes expressed by adolescent 
boys and girls ? Does the unwilling- 
ness to entertain such doubts imply 
much or little faith in the gospel? 

10. Comment on the following 



128 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



quotation from G. M. Stratton in re- 
lation to this lesson : "When we are 
offered new lamps for old, we must 
test the new to see how much of the 
old Aladdin-magic they contain. Let 
us have the new with the least loss." 

11. Mention and briefly explain 
as many pitfalls of thinking as you 
can. Discuss the statement : "When 
a problem is well defined it is half 
solved." 

12. Find these phrases in the last 
half of the chapter in our text and 
comment briefly on each: "solemn, 
self -justifying muddle-headedness," 
"heresy hunting," "do not know the 
science," "a new idea is beginning," 
"law-makers ill equipped," "a most 
exhilarating prospect," "over-rated 
'school of experience'," "the preva- 
lent 'drill' technique.". 

13. Someone has said that the 
using of isolated Scripture texts ac- 
cording to the Ready Reference pat- 
tern, contributes to a never-ending 
and hopeless mass of rationalizing. 
It is said that as long as we admit 
the vaidity of the method our op- 
ponents will be tempted to carry the 
same method to even more ludicrous 



extremes and we go on wrangling 
forever. What would you substi- 
tute for this method? 

14. Have you ever been aston- 
ished at the way some people are 
impressed by obscure, mystifying, or 
even meaningless phrases? They 
seem so credulous or so unable to 
think that they fairly revel in a 
mass of worthless drivel which no 
one can possibly understand. The 
more obscure the material is the 
more sure they seem to feel that it 
contains important "concealed wis- 
dom." Consider, for example, this 
sample taken from certain occult 
literature with which our country 
is flooded. It is supposed to an- 
swer the question as to "WHERE 
DWELLS THE I AM." It reads 
thus: "Through involution we are 
carried back to the nativity or pri- 
mary life through material form, 
which is the first expression of love 
through earth form or upon this 
earth plane." (This has been care- 
fully checked as a correct quota- 
tion.) In your opinion what is the 
relationship between clear thinking 
and clear expression? 



God 



God thinks — and suns spring into shape ; 

He wills, and worlds disintegrate; 

He loves, and souls are born. 

And loving is His only way 

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CONTENTS 

Yosemite National Park Frontispiece 

In Nature's Nests (Poem) Josephine Spencer 129 

Religious Education in the Family Milton Bennion 131 

Unto the Least of These (Poem) Merling D. Clyde 133 

The Christening Fay Ollerton 139 

The Dreamer (Poem) Ivy Williams Stone 142 

Our Birthdav President, Louise Y. Robison 143 

Don't Knock (Poem) Elsie E. Barrett 144 

Out of the Shadows Alveretta S. Engar 145 

The Rummage Sale Nora McKay Stevenson 148 

Keeping Up with Lizzie's Kids Harrison R. Merrill 155 

Lake McDonald Glacier National Park 156 

Relation of Diet to Teeth Anna Page 157 

Bashful Giant 161 

Money Value Nellie Allen Talmage 162 

Poor House or Pension ? Dr. J. H. Paul 165 

Notes from the Field 168 

Notes to the Field 171 

Editorial — Our Mother Tongue 173 

Our Anniversary Celebration 174 

A Period of Stress and Strain 174 

John Q. Cannon 174 

The First Relief Society (Poem) Jeanette McKay Morrell 175 

Lesson Department 177 

O Let Me Live by the Roadside (Poem) Ida R. Alldredge 188 

In Nature's Nests 

By the late Josephine Spencer 

Thick and fast from their feeding-place 
In the cloud-sewn fields of the upper sky 

The" storm-birds gather to run their race 

At the sound of the wind's shrill signal cry. 

Fly, but dip to the giant nests 

Set, all snug, where a bird can light 

In the tops of the highest mountain crests, 
A halting place in their earthward flight. 

And some of the birds an instant stay 
There where the cosy hollows lure ; 

(Just the place for a bird to lay — 
Better than ours have here, I'm sure!) 

Their eggs are the mammoth snow-balls, packed 
Tight in the sheltering, pine-fleeced hills ; 

And when their ice-shells Spring has cracked — 
Watch for the new-hatched, fluffy rills ! 



THE 

Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII MARCH, 1931 No. 3 



Religious Education in the Family 

By Milton Bennion 

RELIGION, in some form or ciation of religion with everyday 
other, has been and still is life is one reason why the family is 
one of the most powerful the primary religious education in- 
factors in development both of the stitution. This has been one of the 
individual and of the race. Reli- major functions of the family 
gious education should, therefore, through all historic times ; it must 
be an aspect of all education. This always be so, if the race is to con- 
is also true of character education, tinue to develop toward a higher 
These two most important aspects civilization, 
of education cannot be segregated. 

Whichever term we use should be \I7HAT is the essence of reli- 
regarded as including the other. Re- ▼ V gious education ? It is con- 
ligious education is impossible with- cerned primarily with the develop- 
out striving for development of ment of personalities, with helping 
character in the highest degree ; each person to realize the highest 
character education is narrow and ideals of human life, to approach 
seriously deficient without the force divinity as nearly as may be ; as 
and inspiration of religion. There Jesus said in the Sermon on the 
is both a religious and a character Mount: "Be ye therefore perfect, 
aspect to all thinking, feeling, and even as your Father which is in 
doing. Formal theological instruc- Heaven is perfect." This is the 
tion may be assigned to a particular supreme and ultimate goal of reli- 
day or to specific hours of every gious endeavor. It includes a keen 
day. This cannot be true of reli- sense of the intrinsic worth of per- 
gious education; it goes on all the sonality and. its evaluation above all 
time. The old idea of identifying else. It is also in high degree social 
religion almost wholly with public because persons are essentially so- 
worship on Sunday and with family cial. A person develops in and 
prayers at home has long since been through association with other per- 
superseded by a broader conception sons. Thus the welfare of com- 
of religion. Not that these acts of munity becomes a major factor in 
worship are to be undervalued, but religion, and training in -the amen- 
rather that their value is questioned ities of social life becomes a major 
if they are not supported by an ac- factor in religious education, 
tive religious life every day and Religion is usually correlated 
every hour. This intimate asso- with faith in Divine Providence or 



132 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



in the ultimate goodness of the uni- 
verse. It certainly will include faith 
in human possibilities for good, in 
the high destiny of man. This 
thought is commonly expressed in 
terms of the fatherhood of God, 
with its implied sonship of man, and 
the universal brotherhood of man. 
Akin to this and naturally following 
from it, is the love of God and the 
love of fellowmen, as religious 
ideals. 

It is not our purpose here to dis- 
cuss the theological phases of these 
religious ideals. That belongs of 
right to each individual family and 
to the various churches. Our pur- 
pose is to consider the practical, 
every-day aspect of religious educa- 
tion. How can the religious qual- 
ities oi character t>e realized in 
young people ? Answer to this ques- 
tion is the major concern of reli- 
gious education. 

Recent changes in home life, so 
much talked of, need, in this respect, 
make no difference to the responsi- 
bility of the family. Even though 
the home, as now constituted, should 
vanish, the family would remain, 
unless indeed, it should be wholly 
absorbed by the state, as portrayed 
in some Utopian social schemes. 
This, however, is altogether im- 
probable. Parental instincts are too 
firmly rooted and too socially useful 
to be thus ignored. 

THERE are two major aspects 
of the life of the family, i. e., 
the material or economic, and the 
religious or spiritual. These two 
aspects of life are here segregated 
only for the purpose of thought and 
discussion. The relative emphasis 
that may be given to the one phase 
or the other is well illustrated jn the 
familiar story of Mary and Martha 
at Bethany. In the Gospel accord- 
ing to St. Luke, immediately fol- 



lowing the story of the good Samar- 
itan, is the following passage : 

"Now it came to pass, as they went, 
that he entered into a certain village ; and 
a certain woman named Martha received 
him into her house. 

"And she had a sister called Mary, 
which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard 
his word. 

"But Martha was cumbered (about 
much serving, and came to him, and 
said, Lord, dost thou not care that my 
sister hath left me to serve alone? bid 
her therefore that she help me. 

"And Jesus answered and said unto 
her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful 
and troubled about many things : 

"But one thing is needful; and Mary 
hath chosen that good part, which shall 
not be taken away from her." 
(Luke 10:38-42) 

The trou'ble with Martha and 
Mary seems to have been that in- 
stead of each sharing the major re- 
sponsibilities of home life and giv- 
ing spiritual significance to all home 
activity, they unwittingly divided 
these responsibilities between them, 
Mary, taking "that good part" — 
companionship, and the more dis- 
tinctly spiritual aspects of service, 
while Martha was overwhelmed 
with mere manual service — cleaning 
pots and kettles, may we assume. 

THE spirit of love and service 
should enter into all phases of 
family life, into the material as well 
as the spiritual. This will of course, 
tend to raise all to the level of the 
ideal, and to make loving service of 
any kind a joy. To realize this it is 
necessary that work be apportioned 
with regard to the available time 
and strength of the various mem- 
bers of the family, that no one may 
be overburdened. 

One of the major troubles in some 
otherwise well regulated families is 
that the mother's energy is wholly 
consumed with Martha's cares so 
that there is neither time, nor en- 
ergy, nor enthusiasm to devote to 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE FAMILY 



133 



"that good part" which Mary chose. 
The case is comparable in one way 
to the hostess who invites guests to 
dinner and then proceeds to exhaust 
herself in preparation as though her 
guests' interests were entirely phys- 
ical. It is, of course, necessary to 
eat ; but presumably among enlight- 
ened human beings this is a means 
to other ends. May it not, there- 
fore, be more important to meet 
guests cordially and to enjoy their 
companionship with untroubled 
mind rather than to be exhausted or 
half-distracted by the mere material 
phases of the entertainment. 

The principle here applied to en- 
tertaining guests has equal applica- 
tion to home folks. Here the value 
of love, confidence, and willing serv- 
ice, both material and spiritual, 
should never be overlooked. If 
anti-religious qualities of character 
are allowed to flourish in the fam- 
ily they are almost sure to be trans- 
mitted to community life and to the 
new families that are later founded. 
Such qualities make life "mean, 
nasty, and miserable," as Thomas 
Hobbes conceived it to be in its 
original state. 

LET us turn away from this un- 
attractive picture and contem- 
plate the possibilities for good that 
lie within the reach of the family 
that is governed by religious motives 
and principles. The great and en- 
during attitudes of the religious life 
are very strikingly portrayed by the 
Apostle Paul in his marvelous dis- 
course on Charity, now translated as 
"love," the concluding verse of 
which reads : "And now abideth 
faith, hope, love, these three ; but 
the greatest of these is love." (I 
Cor. 13:13.) Let us consider these 
three attitudes : faith, hope, love — 
in their relation to religious educa- 
tion in the family. 



F^AITH has saved many a youth 
from falling and has inspired 
many more to high positive attain- 
ment. Many a delinquent person 
owes his return to decency to some- 
one's everlastingly persistent faith, 
frequently that of his mother. The 
contrary attitude on the part of his 
parents has often impelled a youth 
to live in accord with his evil repu- 
tation. Call him a liar and he tends 
to become one ; assume that he is a 
thief and he is very likely to make 
good the assumption. Even people 
in the middle and later life have a 
tendency to live up or down to their 
reputations. If people think well of 
us we feel an obligation to make 
good their expectations. If we have 
a very bad reputation we may be in- 
clined to think that it isn't worth 
while to be otherwise than bad. 
This being true of persons of ma- 
ture mind and fairly settled char- 
acter, is it not infinitely more 
important in case of persons whose 
character is in flux, and may, there- 
fore easily be swayed one way or 
another ? 

Another aspect of this question is 
the problem of developing in young 
persons faith in themselves ; and, in 
this connection, of their getting a 
right conception of what is worthy 
and what is unworthy of a human 
being — of the moral dignity of man- 
kind. This, coupled with a proper 
understanding of their own natures 
and possibilities, may be a powerful 
factor in helping them to realize the 
best in themselves, and also to en- 
courage realization of the best in 
their companions. 

Without faith of some sort there 
can be no hope. Without both there 
is likely to be little earnest en- 
deavor, and no basis for facing life 
cheerfully and joyfully. With both 
faith and hope there is a solid foun- 
dation for real progress and assur- 
ance of a disposition to attack 



134 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

individual and social problems with HP HE love and service that 

determination to solve them and to A properly characterize life with- 

make life a blessing. in the family fall short of the re- 

OF all qualities of character love quirements of religious education 
is, however, the greatest. It unless they are extended to the life 
touches life more powerfully than of the community. That "we are 
does any other aspect of feeling or members one of another" is not 
desire. It is so much stronger than only true of the family and the 
reason as a motive in conduct that Church membership ; it applies also 
the latter is often swept aside by to humanity as a whole. Failure to 
the onrush of this powerful emo- recognize this may be the occasion 
tion. It is this fact probably that of small group selfishness, even of 
has led some contemporary psychol- prayers that disregard the welfare 
ogists to recommend elimination of of all outside the immediate family, 
the influence of love in human re- Religious education properly calls 
lations and more especially in the for breadth of vision, universal 
training of children. Development sympathy, and practical interest in 
of personalities, however, calls for the welfare of humanity. This 
harmonization of the spring's ,of point of view is recognized in part, 
conduct and control of their diree- at least, by ancient writers, as indi- 
tion rather than for suppression of cated in the following: 
one side of human nature. To dim- „ Pure religion and undefiled before 
mate feeling is to undermine the God and the Father is this, To visit the 
basis of desire and to destroy in fatherless and the widows in their af- 
large measure the foundations upon Action, and to keep himself unspotted 
which judgments of value depend. from the world " <J ames l :27 > 
The religious and moral life cannot This practical phase of ancient 
be developed apart from these judg- Christianity is now being developed 
>ments. Reason should, of course, in the light of man's greater knowl- 
be an important factor in determin- edge of his f ellowmen, both in ex- 
ing the goals of life and an indis- tension and in intention — both geo- 
pensable means of helping to graphically and historically, on the 
realize these goals. one hand ; and psychologically and 
In contrast with the ancient Greek socially, on the other. This wider 
usage, the term, love, as used in knowledge and experience carries 
the New Testament, has reference with it correspondingly greater obli- 
to the most highly spiritual aspect gations, obligations that have their 
of life. This type of love leads to beginnings in the family, but that 
actions in accord with the highest can never end there. The family 
and most lasting welfare of man- is a training school to prepare the 
kind. In the family it is manifest members of each new generation 
in recognition of the worth of each for their responsibilities to human- 
person, and in constant effort to ity, and to the social institutions of 
preserve and to develop that which which they are or ought to be mem- 
is most worthy in each. Such an bers. The family should, therefore, 
attitude on the part of each mem- take account of the future prospects 
ber of the family naturally leads to and ambitions of each of its mem- 
harmony, confidence, cheerful co- bers and of their preparation for 
operation, and an enduring bond of their life's work. The disposition of 
union through which the joys of young people to look beyond the 
family life may be perpetuated. home and to yearn for wider expe- 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE FAMILY 



135 



rience is manifested early. The 
wanderlust of youth is one instance 
of this. Under proper parental 
guidance this inclination may lead 
to experiences that may greatly 
broaden the youth without corrupt- 
ing him. A misunderstood youth, 
on the other hand, is sometimes led 
to satisfy his wanderlust in ways 
that may prove very detrimental. 

THE dreams of youth, it is gen- 
erally recognized, have much to 
do with the accomplishment of later 
life. Among the most vital things 
about which a youth may dream are 
his future vocation and his future 
family life. No parent can afford 
to ignore or to belittle such dreams. 

The faith and the hope of youth 
in his future vocational possibilities 
should, with wise guidance, be en- 
couraged, amended if need be, but 
never subjected to ridicule or dis- 
couragement. This point is well il- 
lustrated by the small boy who had 
watched the garbage man making 
his rounds. There was something 
adventurous in driving up and down 
the street, stopping at each can, 
lifting it over the wheel, emptying 
contents into the wagon. The little 
fellow ran to his mother and with 
eager voice exclaimed, "IWhen I'm 
big I'm going to be a garbage 
man!" The understanding mother 
smiled and replied, "All right son, 
that's useful work, ibut be sure 
you're the kind of garbage man who 
empties the can clean and who 
doesn't scatter litter all over the 
street." The fires of youthful en- 
thusiasm are too often extinguished 
by a "wet blanket" thrown by some 
fellow member of the family. Such 
an act should be recognized as one 
of the major sins. 

An even greater sin, however, is 
that of treating lightly the loves or 
maybe fitful love dreams of youth. 
Sex love is a normal expression of 



human instincts, one that is essen- 
tial to the preservation of the race. 
The selection of a life's partner, 
and thereby the founding of a new 
family is one of the most delicately 
personal matters with which a youth 
may be concerned. This fact should 
be recognized Iby brothers and sis- 
ters as well as by parents. It should 
be utilized to develop feelings of 
respect and reverence toward court- 
ship and marriage, the results of 
which are so profoundly significant 
to the individuals immediately con- 
cerned, and also far reaching in 
their ultimate consequences in the 
life of humanity. WJiat responsi- 
bility can be greater than that of 
bringing into being new persons and 
assuming to direct the course of 
their development? It is very sig- 
nificantly said that the family is 
educational in function and religious 
in character. Marriage should then 
be regarded as a religious institu- 
tion, and the proper education of 
children the most sacred duty of the 
family. 

THE family life should be one of 
refinement and serious pur- 
poses ; not however, solemn or 
sanctimonious, but on the contrary, 
cheerful and joyous. No vulgarity 
or coarseness should ever be toler- 
ated. Concentrating attention upon 
the finer things of life and upon the 
great and noble examples of men 
and women who have contributed 
most to the onward march of the 
spiritual life of mankind is an ef- 
fective way of overcoming evil with 
good. 

It is unfortunate that 'because of 
speed of modern life and the dis- 
position to multiply functions out- 
side the home, the time available for 
cultivation of common interests in 
the home is often reduced to a min- 
imum. There may, however, be at 
least some opportunity for this at 



136 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



the dinner- table, after the day's 
work is done. Family life should 
be enriched by all the material bene- 
fits the family budget can afford, 
such as carefully selected books and 
magazines, musical instruments, and 
music of an elevating sort. The 
advent of the radio also makes pos- 
sible entertainment for all the fam- 
ily group in the home, and that 
with the greatest economy of time. 
There is, however, always the im- 
portant problem of wise selection of 
radio periods and of topics of fam- 
ily conversation. ■ This calls also 
for cultivation of common tastes 
and interests. The great master- 
pieces of music now played or sung 
over the radio by the world's lead- 
ing musicians far surpass oppor- 
tunities heretofore available to 
families generally. The great organ 
selections are especially of a very 
distinctly religious character, and 
may have the same beneficial in- 
fluence upon the family group in 
the home as do similar types of 
music upon the congregation at 
church. Such instruments and mu- 
sicians are not, however, available 
to many churches. There is also 
great value for religious education 
in listening to world famous or- 
chestras and singers. Since there 
is so much of this type of entertain- 
ment now available, it is a great pity 
not to make the greatest possible 
use of it. This does not mean to 
exclude everything else. There are 
speeches, sermons, and news items 
well worth listening to, there is 
wholesome humor that gives rest 
and recreation, but there is no ex- 
cuse for patronizing the low grade 
forms of entertainment, either with- 
in or without the home. 

Conversation in the family group, 
or between parent and child, should 
also grow out of common tastes and 
interests. The greatest guiding in- 
fluence of parent upon child often 



comes from informal association 
and conversation rather than from 
more formal procedures. A mere 
suggestion for thought may have 
greater weight with youth than 
formal instruction. Young people 
must ultimately work out their own 
conceptions of life, its values, and 
its activities. It is well that they 
should make a beginning early under 
wise guidance. This wise guidance 
in the home, however, lays a great 
responsibility upon parents, the re- 
sponsibility of keeping pace with 
youth in knowledge and understand- 
ing of world progress and the 
problems that confront youth. Noth- 
ing is sadder and more disastrous, 
religiously and morally, than failure 
of parent and child to understand 
each other. A notable example of 
this is the rigid adherence of some 
parents to some traditional theolog- 
ical interpretations of natural his- 
tory, while the youth is viewing 
nature and its history from the point 
of view of what he is taught in 
geology and biology. Each takes 
his point of view to be a flat con- 
tradiction of the other, and each 
may vigorously condemn the other's 
views as radically false; the one 
pronounced superstition, the other 
sacrilege. There is, evidently, need 
that each understand the other, that 
both earnestly seek the truth and 
meantime cultivate open mindedness, 
tolerance, and sympathetic under- 
standing of those that hold opin- 
ions they cannot share. 

Religion is not a thing that can 
or ought to be thrust upon youth. 
It must develop in him as a part of 
his own nature. The parent's re- 
sponsibility is to be a sympathetic 
helper. This will be accomplished 
more by what the parent is than by 
what he says. When he does 
speak, however, he should do so 
with understanding both of what he 
says and to whom he speaks. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE FAMILY 



137 



ANOTHER very important phase 
of religious education is the 
development of the highest type of 
loyalty. We say highest type be- 
cause this quality of character is 
often misconceived and misused. 
There is the loyalty of lawbreakers 
to each other in their evil causes, 
which is generally accepted as evi- 
dence that they are not totally de- 
praved. This use of loyalty is some- 
what comparable to the use that 
yeggs make of the virtue of tem- 
perance ; they cannot be successful 
burglars without it. So whether or 
not these qualities of character have 
real value for mankind as a whole, 
which is the ultimate test of right, 
depends upon the use that is made 
of them. What is the proper place 
of loyalty in religious education? 
It is one of the most basic and most 
essential character qualities of an 
individual, both as a member of a 
family and also as a member of 
larger social groups. It calls for 
exercise of faith, hope, and love, 
joined with knowledge in the pro- 
motion of a cause or causes that 
make for the highest and most en- 
during welfare of fellowmen. In 
the ethical and religious sense of 
the term it cannot be directed to- 
ward the good of one human group 
to the injury of other groups. The 
highest good of any member of the 
human race cannot properly conflict 
with the highest good of the race as 
a whole. Recognition of this prin- " 
ciple is a most important element in 
determining what is morally right 
in any given situation. 

Training in a right type of loyalty 



should begin with the young child 
in the home. He may be led very 
early to realize that he should be 
loyal to the best good of the family 
group; that this group has set up 
moral standards to be realized, and 
that his own personal pleasure 
should always be subordinate to 
these standards. The family name, 
as well as the welfare of each mem- 
ber of the family is at stake. In 
case the good of the individual 
seems to be in conflict with that of 
the family as a whole, this fact is 
evidence of mistaken judgment as 
to what is really good. Either the 
individual or the group may be mis- 
taken. 

As the youth becomes an active 
member of larger social groups the 
same principle holds. Rightly un- 
derstood loyalty to any group will 
not conflict with loyalty to the more 
inclusive groups or to society at 
large. The outcome then of this 
training in loyalty within the family 
will be development of loyalty to 
the most lasting good of humanity ; 
this will include loyalty to truth 
and right. Such loyalty, however, 
calls for cooperation of each indi- 
vidual with his fellowmen in organ- 
izations of which the family is a 
type. Men and women must work 
together, and be loyal to each other, 
if they would succeed in furthering 
those causes that make for the high- 
est and most enduring good of hu- 
manity. This is the fundamental 
purpose of religion ; it is, therefore, 
a most necessary phase of religious 
education in the family. 



I cannot but believe that in the heart of every "Mormon" boy and 
every "Mormon" girl there is a spiritual gold mine, awaiting development. 
To some, the development comes early, to others, late. But come it will, 
sometime, somewhere. They are children of the Covenant; in their veins 
is the blood of Israel ; and they have received, if baptized, the gift of the 
Holy Ghost, which manifests the things of God. How could all that go 
for naught? — "Through Memory's Halls," by Orson F. Whitney. 




"Unto the Least of These" 

Awarded Second Prize in the Eliza R. Snow (Memorial Contest. 
(Dedicated to the workers of Relief Society, who unceasingly follow the Christ.) 

By Merling D. Clyde 

They came unsung — no herald marked their way — 
Through brown old hills and fertile fields afar. 
They, who had watched and waited, saw the Star 
Shine out to mark the spot where Jesus lay. 
They carried gifts ; not gold, but love and song 
Detained by pleading hands from day to day 
They succored those who stumbled by the way 
And reached the Place to find the King had gone. 

Yet seeking on their wearied way they win 
Across the trackless wastes and thorny hill ; 
In busy marts and empty halls they still 
Find solace in the spot where He has been. 
When God, alone, has set the time and place, 
Like Artaban,* they, too, shall see His Face. 



*From "The Other Wise Man," by Van Dyke. 



The Christening 

By Fay Ollerton 



IN the year 1842 the Church was 
still young, scarcely an adoles- 
cent. There had been no time in 
the colorful and often tragic moves 
from Kirtland to Missouri and back 
across the icy Mississippi to Illinois 
for the women to do anything more 
than move with their men or wait 
for them when necessary. 

But times were changing. The 
sodden little settlement that was 
Commerce in the winter of 1839, 
had become Nauvoo, the Beautiful, 
a dream city rising almost overnight 
from the snow-covered prairie to a 
city of homes and mills and fac- 
tories overlooking the buff Missis- 
sippi. In this dream city thousands 
of people were living, some of them 
in pretentious homes and others so 
new in Nauvoo that they depended 
on charity for a night's lodging. 
And daily the slow prairie schooners 
and the crawling river boats were 
bringing new citizens — a few with 
gold in their pockets but more with 
the idea that now they had found 
Nauvoo and "Brother Joseph" that 
all would be well. There was work 
in Nauvoo that only women could 
do. 

JOSEPH SMITH in his wisdom 
* recognized the need for some 
unified body of women. His idea 
was a strange one, for in 1842 there 
were no women's clubs, literary or 
social, no auxiliaries to the national 
parties, no business and professional 
woman's clubs, no woman's city 
clubs, no Eastern Stars, only a few 
sewing groups that are remembered 
only in history. 

Besides the converts from many 
states and lands, the hunger and 



privation that were always lurking, 
there were worse things — discon- 
tent, jdisloyalty, and apostasy — all 
things that women, with their cour- 
age and patience, could fight. 

So on March 17, 1842, when the 
prairie was losing its snow and 
green was showing on the river 
banks, Joseph Smith called a num- 
ber of women to meet in the Nauvoo 
Lodge Room. He there disclosed 
his new project. The names of 
these women read like a catalogue 
of old New England. There were, 
among others, Sarah Cleveland, 
Philanda Merrick, Desdemona Ful- 
mer, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, 
Martha Knight, Phoebe Ann 
Hawkes, Elvira A. Coles, Margaret 
A. Cook, and Sophia Robinson. 

They were all eager and curious. 
This was an adventure — not like 
fleeing from the Missourians or 
coming by boat to Nauvoo, but 
something more subtle and challeng- 
ing. Joseph Smith had asked the 
serious young Canadian, John Tay- 
lor, and Willard Richards of loyal 
friendship, to help him organize the 
society. It was a time, remember, 
when woman's suffrage and wom- 
an's rights, had not been heard in 
these new lands, and it was scarcely 
to be expected that women would 
know how to conduct themselves. 

Willard Richards was made secre- 
tary of the meeting. In fact it is 
due to his careful recording that the 
memory of that 17th of March still 
lives so strongly. 

"The spirit of God like a fire is 
burning, the latter day glory begins 
to come forth," sang the fervent 
women, their hearts beating faster 



\Ai) 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



against the tight, dark bodices of 
their dresses. 

When prayer had been offered, 
Joseph Smith, proudly and ably sec- 
onded by Sarah Cleveland, moved 
that a vote be taken to determine if 
all those present were "satisfied with 
each female present and willing to 
acknowledge them in full fellowship 
to the Institution about to be 
formed." 

It is on record that the men with- 
drew while the vote was being taken. 
Tact flourished in the river city even 
though it was not yet three years 
old. But the truly astounding thing 
was that each "female" voted that 
she had no objection to any of the 
others. They even added the names 
of six women not present. 

Soon, the men were back. It was 
then that Joseph Smith explained 
why he had called them together. 
Besides caring for the wants of the 
poor they were "to provoke the 
brethren to good works, to assist 
by correcting even the morals of the 
community, and to save the elders 
the trouble of rebuking, that they, 
the elders, might have more time to 
attend to their other duties, includ- 
ing public speaking." 

Rather complex duties for so 
simple a beginning. 

Now came the obvious task of 
selecting officers — a presidency that 
was to be as a constitution and 
whose word was to be as law. If 
other officers were needed, they were 
to be appointed even as the deacons 
and teachers were appointed. 

Elizabeth Ann Whitney lost no 
time in moving that Emma Smith 
be made president. And there was 
not one dissenting vote. Was she 
not the beloved wife of their pro- 
phet, a woman tall and dark and 
handsome, who moved with dignity 
and was renowned for her intelli- 
gence and wisdom? And was she 
not one whom they had housed in 



times of need and who had thrown 
open her home to the poor, the 
fatherless, the widows, and whose 
gentleness and sympathy and un- 
tiring labor had inspired them in 
times of sickness? She was a fit 
leader for their great experiment. 

President Smith's first act was to 
choose her counsellors, Sarah Cleve- 
land and Elizabeth Ann Whitney. 
All of them were set apart, Emma 
to the dignity and qualifications of 
her high calling and the other two 
to be her aids. 

ONCE organized, would the fe- 
males know how to conduct 
themselves? Indeed not, if we are 
to accept the men's viewpoint. And 
why should the women know how? 
They did not participate in the poli- 
tical meetings that were the very 
meat* of life to men in the forties. 
Neither did they overly intrude 
themselves at any public gatherings. 

The females were instructed that 
if two speakers should address the 
chair at once (proof enough of 
Joseph Smith's keen foresight), they 
were to wait until the "Mrs. Chair- 
man" decided the one to be honored. 
Very tactfully but firmly it was 
forced upon their attention that 
whatever the majority should de- 
cide was to be law. There was to 
be no seeming assent and then rush- 
ing forth from the meeting to 
spread disapproval. 

A more delicate subject was next 
brought before the members. It 
had to do with a certain human 
trait that must have been first ob- 
served about the time Eve saw 
Lilluth or Lilluth saw Eve, depend- 
ing on who was the first observer. 
It would not be right to say that 
this characteristic was common in 
Nauvoo. It is enough to say that 
Joseph Smith spoke of it in these 
words : "You are not to injure the 
character of anyone. If a member 



THE CHRISTENING 141 

of the society should conduct her- understanding, Joseph Smith ex- 
self improperly, deal with her, but plained that Relief was rather a new 
keep all your doings within your word among popular societies and 
own bosoms and hold all character more extended in its suggestions 
sacred." than Benevolent. Indeed, it might 
That was practical Christianity, be construed by enemies to mean 
plainly put tnat tne soc i e ty was to relieve crim- 

The brethren must have sighed inal ? from P""' 311 ™"*: . Jt ™ st , be 

with relief, these instructions off a f™ remembered that in that day 

their minds. They had nothing to of lntens , e re 'S lous feeling enemies 

do but turn the meeting over to the 7 ere real an ^ massacres had started 

females, then observe how apt their f. rom so sll S ht a thln S as a founda - 

pupils were. tI0 " less mmor t : . . . . 

5 ■ , .„.. ,. , However, the president of the 

It is a legitimate question to ask new sodet wag able to defend . 

what was the first act of this longest name> Benevolent, she declared, 

lived woman s society in the United was too lar a name E SQ _ 

States. And the answer is simple. ciet was usi {t Wh there was 

It was that of naming the society. one Washington Benevolent Society 

There was no trouble finding that was not worthy to be men- 
names. The difficulty rose in hear- tioned. She, for one, did not want 
ing what names were being sug- the society to be called after any 
gested, so quickly had the females ther in the world, 
forgotten their instructions. Joseph Joseph Smith very quickly an- 
Smith was patient, however, and nounced that he had no objections 
soon they were proceeding in quiet, to the word Relief. He merely 
regular order. wanted them not to move too hastily. 

Counsellor Cleveland, who was Then Eliza R. |Snow, that 

no shy woman if records speak the black-eyed and vivacious descendant 

truth, suggested that the society be G f a long line of puritans, threw in 

called the Nauvoo Female Relief the weight of her learning with the 

Society. The naming might have president. The word Benevolent, 

been as simple as that had it not s he said, had been associated with 

been for Elder Taylor. Elder Tay- too many corrupt societies to be 

lor was an admirable and learned considered. Further, she contended 

man, but he did not yet know the that as the daughters of Zion they 

capabilities of females. He sug- should set an example to the rest 

gested that Benevolent be substi- f the world— not content them- 

tuted for Relief. Benevolent, he selves with following common paths, 

thought, would give a more definite But Eliza was rather an intro- 

idea of the society's nature. spective sort of person and she had 

And that started the trouble. her doubts about the suitability of 

President Emma Smith, her Relief. Might not some people 

brown eyes very bright, suggested think it was connected with being 

that she and Elder Taylor come to prepared for calamity instead of 

some understanding about the mean- meeting the every day needs ? 

ings of the words Relief and President Smith met that objec- 

Benevolent. This must have been tion with a quickness of wit that 

truly astounding, for women were won the skirmish — and the name, 

not supposed to be erudite. Exciting times were coming, she 

Before they could start on the told them, and pressing need when 



142 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



there would be loud calls for relief. 
And they would be ready for them 
as well as for exigencies of daily 
life. 

That satisfied John Taylor, who 
must have wished that he had been 
less quick about offering amend- 
ments. For the moment the society 
was the Nauvoo Female Relief So- 
ciety, and would have remained so 
if Eliza R. Snow had not felt that 
the Female Relief Society of 
Nauvoo was more rhymthical. A 
vote was taken and the name was 
the Female Relief Society of Nau- 
voo. 

The society now had members, of- 
ficers, and a name. It lacked but 
one thing for efficient functioning — 
funds. But not for long. Dona- 
tions ranged all the way from five 
dollars in gold from Joseph Smith 
to one bit (twelve and a half cents 
for the benefit of those who have 
not been raised on bits). It is only 
truthful to write, however, that most 
of the ranging was from two dollars 
to the one bit. 

With a well stocked treasury the 
society was ready for work. There 



was no quibbling here. Emma Smith 
knew her Nauvoo, from the newest, 
hungriest emigrant to come up the 
river to the wealthiest of the first 
settlers whose many-roomed houses 
overlooked the prairie. She had 
names on the tip of her tongue of 
families that must have immediate 
help, and of women who wanted 
only work. Those who hired wid- 
ows, Emma was prompt to add, 
must be prompt with payment. 
Emma knew of women who had 
worked for no hire and she did not 
mean that this condition should con- 
tinue. 

The long morning was closing. 
Husbands were coming home hun- 
gry, and there must have been chil- 
dren whose patience had long been 
gone. The meeting was adjourned 
until one week from that Thursday 
at ten o'clock in the morning. 

In its way the Relief Society, or- 
ganized in the young town of Nau- 
voo, has been the history of Church 
women these past ninety years. It 
has progressed as they have grown, 
and it is, as ever, the pioneer of 
their development. 



The Dreamer 

By Ivy Williams Stone 

Some day when I have lots of time 

I think I'll write a clever rhyme. 

Again, with not a thing to do 

I'll scribble off a tale or two! 

Some useful thing I may invent — 

For science I may have a bent ; 

Some time with weeks and weeks to spare 

I'll plant a garden wondrous fair. 

I'll paint a picture, trim a hat; 

I may do this, I may do that. 

Whate'er I do, I know 'twill be 

A marvel for the world to see. 

The thing I do will win acclaim 

And all the world will shout my name ! 

I will not start my plans today — 

It's nicer far, to dream and play! 



Our Birthday 

By President Louise Y . R obis on 



MARCH 17th is an eventful 
day to all Relief Society 
women, as it is the birthday 
of our organization. Birthdays are 
unusual days in our own lives, and 
in the lives of our friends. From 
childhood to old age the day is made 
happier because friends and loved 
ones, if we have lived sweetly or 
have contributed to the happiness 
of others, send gifts or loving greet- 
ings to express their regard for us. 
We lovingly remember the birth 
date of our friends, and no matter 
how far distant they are, we plan to 
have our greetings reach them on 
that day. 

Now we bring love and greetings 
to our Relief Society on its birthday. 
We commemorate this day with 
gratitude to our Heavenly Father 
that He graciously gave freedom 
and opportunity to His daughters. 
We deeply appreciate the support, 
encouragement' and guidance of the 
Leaders of our Church, from our 
inspired Prophet Joseph SmitlT — - 
who organized the Relief Society — 
to our President Heber J. Grant, 
whose counsel and interest are al- 
ways a sustaining power. 

ALTHOUGH our records are 
well kept, there is no human 
power which can give an account of 
the deeds of loving kindness per- 
formed by our Relief Society mem- 
bers during the 89 years of its ex- 
istence. The comfort given to the 
sorrowing, to the lonely, the relief 
to the distressed, and the friend- 
less, are of sufficient value to justify 
its existence. In addition there are 
the educational opportunities avail- 
able for our developmept. Think 



of the excellent training which six- 
teen hundred ward presidents re- 
ceive, when each week they preside 
at meetings ! To do so successfully 
means not only self control, but a 
sympathetic understanding of each 
member present, so that all may par- 
ticipate in the exercises. The in- 
tricate work of the secretaries, the 
committees who plan the details, 
the chorister and organist, who, by 
preparation and inspiration unite the 
hearts of those present in harmony 
and praise — the development along 
these lines alone would make the 
Relief Society a valuable asset in 
any community. 

There is still another opportunity 
offered. In our organization there 
are sixteen hundred studious teach- 
ers who each week prepare lessons 
from courses outlined in the Relief 
Society Magazine. We may add 
to this number the officers of each 
organization who must, of course, 
be prepared, and at least half of our 
membership who study these lessons. 
So we have thirty thousand women 
who are studying and discussing a 
systematic course of lessons each 
week. 

In our visiting teachers' depart- 
ment there are twenty thousand 
earnest, prayerful women, radiant 
with the joy of service, who visit the 
homes of the saints each month, 
carrying a Relief Society message 
of helpfulness and encouragement, 
at the same time accepting contribu- 
tions in the name of our Society, to 
be used by the Presidents to relieve 
those in need. 

These great activities are planned 
and supervised by one thousand 
Stake Board members, and twenty- 



144 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



three General Board members, who 
spend hours and days earnestly out- 
lining lessons, visiting and encour- 
aging this great organization. 

For all these opportunities the 
members are truly thankful and they 
gladly send their annual dues each 
year to carry their love and greet- 
ings to the organizations. 

We 'pledge our loyalty anew to 
you, Relief Society, and resolve to 
make better preparation for that 
special work we are asked to do. 

"Who calls His glorious service hard? 
Who deems it not its own reward? 
Who for its trials counts it less, 
A cause for praise and thankfulness? 
It may not be our lot to wield, 
A sickle in the ripening field, 
Nor ours to hear, on summer eves, 
The reapers song among the sheaves, 
But where our duty's task is wrought, 
In unison with God's great thought, 



The near and future blend in one, 
And whatso'er is willed is done. 
And our's the grateful service 
Whence comes, day by day, the recom- 
pense. 
The wish, the hope, the purpose, stayed, 
The sunshine and the noon-day shade." 

There is always a value in striv- 
ing ; always compensation for effort. 
When these efforts have an aim to 
relieve and bless, the result is a gain 
in priceless experience, and a 
growth in spiritual power. 

"Better to stem, with heart and hand, 
The roaring tide of Life, 
Than lie, unmindful, on its flowery 

strand, 
Of God's occasions drifting by; 
Better, with naked nerve, to bear, 
The needles of a goading air, 
Than in the laps of senual ease, 
Forget the God-like power to do, 
The God-like aim to know." 



Don't Knock 

By Elsie E. Barrett 

Our Grandmas gave us sulphur 

When Spring was in its prime, 
On necks tied assafetida 

When came the autumn time.. 
Some thought the feet of rabbits 

Protection from disease, 
That wormwood tea and catsup 

Would rheumatism ease. 

But Science has discovered 

That Vitamines count much; 
So throw away the sulphur, 

The wormwood tea and such. 
Through proper combinations 

Of food and exercise, 
The glow of health will brighten 

Your listless faded eyes. 

You'll build up strong resistance 

To every future ill, 
Renew each vital organ 

Without a drug or pill. 
Don't knock "new-fangled" notions 

Climb down from your old perch ; 
Don't knock! just be a helper 

To Science and Research. 



Out of the Shadows 



IT is not an uncommon thing for 
an old house to be rebuilt, made 
over or restored. But not every- 
one has such a background of 
human interest as this one. Build- 
ing societies desiring to increase 
their rentals look with cold-blooded 
interest at the old home and if the 



By Alveretta- S. Engar 

with her husband and three lovely 
children, the baby only two weeks 
old. This is the story she told me : 
"We had been married for twelve 
years without being blessed with a 
baby ; for eight years I suffered with 
rheumatism, and went through the 
usual process of having tonsils re- 




A beautiful little home of spotless whitness, bright awnings and graceful 

pergolas. 

possibilities of rejuvenation warrant moved, some bad teeth and other 
the expenditure of their money they perfectly sound ones drawn, etc., 



do not hesitate, but if not the old 
deserted place is left still looking as 
Madison Carwein says, "Like some 
old ghost from out its grave." 

During the summer, I passed and 
repassed this beautiful little home 
with its spotless whiteness, bright 
awnings, graceful pergolas with 
their colorful cement' floors, sur- 
rounded by beautiful ferns and 
flowers, being so attracted by its 
simple beauty and hominess, that 



but all in vain. Nothing seemed to 
help. . 

"I tried many remedies and dif- 
ferent doctors and finally was bene- 
fited by osteopathic treatments, but 
poison from certain other treatments 
so prostrated me that my life hung 
in the balance. In our despair it 
was decided that I take a trip to 
California. 

"We sold our cozy little home and 



finally curiosity and an admiring in- everything in it at auction ; our sav- 

terest led me to the door to ask for ings, our accumulations of years 

a kodak picture. I was not disap- went under the thud of the hammer, 

pointed. A mother artist lived there This was our darkest hour. 



146 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



"I returned from the trip some- 
what built up. We moved into a 
small unfurnished apartment and 
soon — miracle of miracles, our first 
babe was born, and with him was 
born new hope, new interest in life. 
I had never given up hope, always 
believing that nothing is impossible 
with the Lord. 

"As the little one grew and de- 
veloped, a compelling desire for a 
home, a place where he could be free 
to run and play in the sunshine pos- 
sessed me. 

"We began to look around for a 
home, but found nothing that we 
wanted without running hopelessly 
in debt. Finally the real estate 
agent offered this homely barn of 
a place to us at a figure we could 
handle without paying out so much 
in interest. 

"Immediately I saw a vision : 
This deserted looking place that had 
once sheltered all of life, sorrow, 
death, birth, love and happiness, 
might again be restored, made over 
and become to us a shelter, a spot 
of beauty and also embody an ar- 
rangement of utility and comfort. 

"I begged my husband to buy the 
house and lot and with intense in- 
terest I went to work, drawing 
plans, estimating costs, etc. 

"The lot was spacious but the 
house being almost against another 
one had to be moved. 

"A basement was dug, the floor 



plan changed entirely, new hard- 
wood floors put in, new windows 
and doors, and two new rooms added, 
one a bedroom and a garage. Cup- 
boards, shelves, closets, plumbing 
and lighting fixtures were also 
added. An arch was made between 
the living room and dining room. 

"We let the contract to a Building 
and Supply Association, who let us 
have material on a monthly payment 
plan, furnishing a carpenter to do 
the work. We did our own paint- 
ing, papering and added the per- 
golas. In four years we rebuilt and 
paid for it. By the time we were 
through my health was completely 
restored, and while this made over 
home is not as nice as our former 
one, we have known more happiness 
than we ever dreamed could be ours, 
and best of all we can lie down con- 
tentedly without worry of debt." 

Mrs. Nye is a devoted mother to 
her babies ; through her service to 
them and her husband, together with 
her interest in the planning and 
building of their home, her body 
and mind, so weakened by long suf- 
fering, has become perfectly normal 
and strong. Today she is enjoying 
the fruits of accomplishment that 
come only through persistent, un- 
faltering faith and effort. 

As she graciously led me through 
and around their home, I saw in the 
back yard that dream of a sunny 
spot for the children, clean and well 




This deserted looking place might be mad,e into a spot of beauty and embody an 
arrangement of utility and comfort. 



OUT OP THE SHADOWS 



147 



arranged, with a sand pile and a and its present happy inmates were 



little playhouse built of goods boxes 
and equipped with simple playthings 
that children love. 

The rehabilitation is complete, 
through which the deserted home 



iterally lifted out of the shadows 
into the sunshine, making the little 
family and their home fit subjects 
for poetry and song. 



mmm^-'^^^^^^ ^ ~ t tt5e 



LAWW 






amE 




Roger W. Babson says, "I am continually asked, 'Is it not a great 
economic waste to have millions of people idle?' To this question I frankly 
answer: 'If the only values are (material — that is, if commodities are 
America's only need — then unemployment and financial failures are solely 
economic losses. If, however, spiritual and intellectual values are also of 
great importance, ' then it must be recognized that business depressions 
have their usefulness and fulfill an important economic function.' I per- 
sonally hold the latter belief, and have felt that rainy days have their 
usefulness as well as sunny days. 

"Economic history plainly teaches that during periods of prosperity 
there develop waste, carelessness and crime. These agents are the real 
cause of the business depression which inevitably follows. When men are 
making money they are likely to lose their faith — forget their God and 
become more or less pagans. During such prosperous times, the churches 
become neglected, personal prayers are dropped, and man feels self- 
sufficient, without the need of Bible, church, or mediation. These are 
the conditions which America has witnessed during the past few years. 

"When, however, people are. out of employment, when business men 
are making losses, when we find things drifting away from us and we are 
unable to control the situation, then we look to higher and better things. 
The first move is to stop waste, next, every worker determines to do his 
very best, and finally, we begin to seek higher sources for aid and guidance. 
A beautiful little home of spotless whiteness, bright awnings and graceful 
ican Legion Magazine. 



The Rummage Sale 

By Nora McKay Stevenson 

YOU'LL hardly believe me when I was mad. I've hauled that 

I tell you about all the im- heavy old picture around ever since 

portant things that happened I can remember, 

on account of house cleaning this "Jane's got to help." I said as 

year. cross as I dared. 

We were still having winter Jane is fat, and the stairway nar- 

weather, but our house just had to row and steep. We just got about 

be cleaned. Mother said so, and half way down when a tack came 

what mother says goes. out, and the carpet slipped. Jane 

We live in Salt Lake, a nice clean went down the last two or three 
town, but Mother is one of those steps with a crash, me and the pic- 
women who always has to be clean- ture on top. The glass busted but 
ing. we didn't get cut. I didn't think 

Dad remembered that he had an Jane could be hurt much,, and I 

important business engagement out wanted to make her forget it if she 

of town. were, so I yelled excitedly: 

Paul, my big brother thinks that "Look out ! Look out, Jane, he'll 
just because he is a senior at the bite!" The big dog stood so life- 
University this year he should be like against the wall, she screamed, 
excused from all home work. So and jumped, and started to cry with 
as usual I could see that Jane and hysterics, 
me were to do all the cleaning. Mother came running and asked, 

Jane is the woman we pay four "Are you hurt Jane? Are you 

dollars a day to tell us what to do. hurt?" 

And I'm the fellow twelve years "No— no," screamed Jane, but she 

old, that has to help with every kept right on crying, 

single thing that gets done around Mother couldn't help laughing a 

here. little. It was funny to see Jane so 

Last year when I helped clean we scared of just a picture. And be- 
took all the old furniture from the sides, Mother was glad we weren't 
basement to the top floor. This hurt. I was laughing too. 
time, as far as I could see, we were As quick as a flash Jane's face got 
to carry it all down again. purple. She stamped her foot and 

Every minute mother shouted at cried through her tears, "Well, Mrs. 

me. (I've tried to get her to call Brown, if that's the kind of woman 

me Bill, I get sick of hearing "Wil- you are, laughing at one that's 

lie" so much, but she don't like down, I'm through working for 

Bill.) you." She banged the door hard 

"Willie! Come and take this as she went out. 

chair to the basement." Mother was speechless, so she 

"Willie! Hurry now, take this just sat on the step. I saw she was 

table down." thinking, and kept quiet. You have 

"Willie ! Why do you stay down to be patient with Mother. I knew 

stairs so long? Take that dog pic- that now Jane was gone we would 

ture next." be pretty slow at house cleaning. 



THE RUMMAGE SALE 



149 



Sometimes when Mother is thinking 
real hard she talks to herself. After 
I had the glass all picked up I heard 
her say: 

"It seems to me that someone 
might be glad to get these old 
things. The Widow Kerr needs 
furniture, but I'd hate to give her 
this old stuff. If I could just sell 
the junk, we could help her with 
the money. She is awfully proud, 
and hates charity, but goodness 
knows how she manages with just 
the small amount that Nellie earns. 

Mother belongs to a society which 
looks after the poor. Dad grumbles 
that we'll soon be in the poor house 
ourselves if she continues her ever- 
lasting giving. 

Her forehead was all puckered 
up, and I knew she was studying 
hard, so I went out to snow-ball 
with the fellows. Every time I came 
in the house all that day Mother 
was telephoning. Once I heard her 
say: 

"Oh Mrs. Jones, that will be 
lovely. You have an old cupboard, 
a suit of clothes, an out-grown pair 
of shoes, and a string of beads. 
And you say Mrs. Cohn has a wash- 
board, a pet monkey that isn't thriv- 
ing, and two bottles of fruit she is 
afraid may spoil. My dear, we are 
going to have a wonderful assort- 
ment. Every lady in the Society is 
responding fine." 

DAD had a funny shocked look 
when he came home several 
days later and found Mother sing- 
ing though the cleaning wasn't 
done. I guess he was surprised and 
a little disappointed, but I only 
heard him say : 

"Wlell, well, Emma, I never did 
know you to be so happy while 
house-cleaning. I suppose there is 
a lot of joy in house work if one 
looks for it." 

Mother looked down at Dad in a 



superior sort of way from the ladder 
on which she was standing in front 
of the built-in cupboard, and said: 

"A lot of joy there'd be in this 
dirty drudgery if I didn't keep my 
thoughts dwelling on a loftier plane. 
I've been thinking about that dear 
Kerr family. They are behind with 
their rent, and Mary needs a new 
dress. Mrs. Kerr has learned re- 
cently that two Pennsylvania cars 
were seen entering Farmington just 
before that awful cloud-burst. She 
scarcely eats or sleeps she is so 
frantically writing letters of inquiry 
to newspapers all over America, 
hoping to locate the driver of the 
other car. She thinks he might 
know something about her boy. 
Poor thing can't seem to reconcile 
herself to the fact that the child 
must have been caught in a cloud- 
burst and buried under the rock and 
gravel along with the father. All 
the women feel sorry for her, and 
we've decided to have a rummage 
sale next Saturday. We'll find some 
nice way of giving her the money. 

Dad just grunted and thought- 
fully stroked his chin. 

AS soon as Paul heard that the 
sale was for the Kerr family he 
had plenty of time to help. He got 
his boy friends with cars to gather 
up the discarded goods from dozens 
of homes, and helped price, and ar- 
range the stuff in the empty store 
Mother rented on Regent Street. 

Paul is in love with Nellie. I 
know she loves him too, 'cause once 
when they were standing on the 
porch in the moonlight I heard her 
say: 

"I do love you Paul, but I can't 
ever, ever marry. I must support 
Mother, and my poor crippled sister. 
It would all be different if we hadn't 
lost Father and Angus. Even Angus 
could have supported us. He might 
be a great singer now. We were 



150 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



having his voice trained. Father 
started to California to see if he 
could earn enough money to send 
Angus to Europe." 

Paul was looking at the stars, 
and holding Nellie's hand tight. He 
turned to her, and I felt proud to 
hear him say : 

"Don't you worry, dear. We'll 
get married all right. I'll be out 
of 'school soon. Then I'll earn 
plenty of money for all of us." (I 
bet he will, too.) 

Nellie just went on talking in a 
low tone. 

"We never were very well off, 
but we did have a home. Mother 
sold everything to come West. We 
knew so little about that awful 
cloudburst on the Lincoln Highway 
at Farmington. Mother just felt as 
if it couldn't have killed both Father 
and Angus." 

Saturday morning the sale goods 
looked smart. There were hundreds 
of old shoes, hats and dresses that 
somebody's great grandmother wore. 
Swell jewelry, purses, pictures, 
candle-sticks, candles, and every- 
thing. Then there was a dog, too 
old to keep awake ; the sick monkey, 
a scared cat, and a swell white rat 
that I wanted Mother to buy for me. 

A crowd was gathering outside, 
and everything looked like a big 
success. Then Dad sent for me to 
come to the office to help him. That's 
the worst about being a fellow 
capable of doing every (kind jof 
work. Someone always wants you 
to help 'em. 

When I rushed back to the sale 
late in the afternoon nearly every- 
thing was sold, and nobody there 
but Mother, Nellie, and Paul. Not 
knowing it was a benefit sale for her 
family, Nellie had come over after 
work. 

Nellie was standing smiling up 



into Paul's face as usual. 

"Dear me, I must be going," she 
complained. "Mother is awfully sad 
today. I must hurry home and try 
to cheer her up. It's Mary's birth- 
day and somehow Mother got 
started off weeping this morning. 
I wore this locket to work today to 
keep her from crying over it all day. 
See, it has a picture of Angus and 
me in it. Angus had a beautiful 
voice. He sang in entertainments 
often when he was real small. He 
bought this locket with money he 
earned, and father put our picture 
in it." 

I looked at the locket and at 
Nellie's sad face. "My ! I bet he 
was a smart kid," I said. "It just 
seems like cloudbursts and things 
always knock off the nicest people." 

Paul had the necklace in his 
fingers, and kept saying, "How 
beautiful! How beautiful!" But 
he was gazing into Nellie's eyes, and 
I couldn't tell which he was talking 
about. I bet I'll never be that silly 
over a girl. 

Nellie smiled a little at me as if 
she knew what I was thinking. 

"I bought Mary a little pink dress 
for her birthday," she said, "Don't 
let me forget it when I leave." 

I was just going to ask her to 
show us the dress when the door 
opened and two dirty tramps and 
an awfully large woman came in. 
Her little round hat on top of a 
huge pile of gray hair, trembled as 
the woman importantly walked up 
to Mother. 

"Oh dear, your sale is nearly over 
ain't it? Hainy't 'cha got nothin' 
left I kin buy? I do love a rum- 
mage sale." 

"We still have a few very nice 
things," Mother managed to say 
with her best company smile. "How 
would you like one of those nice 
pictures ?" 



THE RUMMAGE SALE 



151 



"My, ain't that big dog picture 
purty ? The frame could be touched 
up where it's broken, don't 'cha 
think?" 

"Wlhy yes, you could fill in the 
broken places with plaster of paris, 
and paint the whole thing. You 
may have that for seventy-five 
cents," Mother explained. 

The woman looked thoughtful. 
"Hm'm, it'd make a fine weddin' 
present, all right. I'll take it. 

I loved her for saying those three 
words. I knew I'd seen the last of 
the old dog. 

While I'd been paying attention to 
the woman with my ears, my eyes 
had been following the two dirty 
men. They went around quietly 
trying on coats, and mumbling to 
each other out of the corners of 
their hairy tobacco stained mouths. 
The monkey was making a terrible 
fuss just like he didn't want the 
men touching things. 

"What's the boy doing with them 
little pictures?" I heard the woman 
ask. 

Mother had told me to gather 
them up for the junk man. Now, 
she hastily said, "Oh, just getting 
them together. We must soon close. 
You may have those at five for a 
quarter." 

"Wrap 'em all right up," smiled 
the woman. "I kin fix 'em and 
paint 'em up beautiful." 

Her face was growing red with 
excitement. She stood with feet 
apart, and large hands on her hips, 
casting hungry eyes around the 
room. 

"Why, what's this — a lovely gray 
suit?" 

It was just sticking out of the 
top of a box of ten-cent-a-pound 
woolen rags. 

"Yes, it's a lady's suit, a little 
moth eaten, but you may have it 
for a dollar," Mother said in her 
most business-like voice. 



"The moth holes is awful thick 
all over. Hm'm, but what a lovely 
color. I could embroider red silk 
dots over the holes. A lady's whole 
spring suit for a dollar ! Well, wrap 
'er up. My, how tf do love 'a sale-" 

Mother was just trembling. I 
guess she was thrilled over the big 
business she was doing. She might 
have sold all we had left, only just 
then an auto horn began sounding 
loud quick blasts. 

"Luddy, there's that man waitin' 
fur me. Won't he be mad?" As 
she put her money on the table she 
noticed the monkey sitting on her 
bundles. 

"Look at the darlin' monkey," she 
said, "Wish I could buy him too." 

We hurried to load her up. I 
grabbed all the bundles in sight, and 
filled her arms. She went through 
the door side- ways muttering: 

"Luddy, won't he be mad, but 
he knows I just love a rummage 
sale." 

BEFORE I got the door shut a 
little thin man and a tall skinny 
boy came in. The boy was coughing 
something awful, and looked so sick 
I forgot to watch the two dirty 
guys that seemed to want to wait 
upon themselves. 

"I'd like to buy a pair of shoes 
that will fit Joe," the old man said. 

"Wte have a good many shoes left. 
Just look through the pile," Mother 
said. She was so happy over the 
big addition she had just made that 
she was counting the money all over 
again. 

"Try these on, Joe. The soles 
look pretty good. You know Ma- 
am, Joe and me have to walk to 
Ogden tonight." 

At that Mother dropped the 
money back into the bag on her arm. 

"Dear me, what a long way to 
walk in the snow. Just look, it's 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



beginning to storm now. You surely 
need good shoes." 

"We are compelled to go," said 
the little man in a mournful voice. 
"We can't get work here, and we 
have no place to stay." 

Nellie put the monkey off her 
shoulder, and she and Paul went 
close to the old man, looking sober 
with sympathy. I was feeling so 
sad I hardly noticed the tramps 
leave. Joe was coughing just ter- 
rible. 

"Have you no home at all?" 
Mother asked with concern. 

"No ma-am. We sold our home 
for money to take Mother to Ari- 
zona. She died on us anyway." He 
paused, as if examining a pair of 
shoes, and then went on like he was 
talking to himself. "Ever since we 
lost Mother we haven't had a home. 
Sallie stays with Jim, our married 
boy. She works and goes to school, 
but there's no room for Joe and 
me." 

Even the monkey sat still as the 
old man talked. And tears were 
in Mother's eyes. I knew she was 
thinking how terrible 'twould be 
not to have a home or some place 
where you were wanted. Poor old 
man seemed nice too, good grammar 
and everything. 

While Paul and Nellie found 
overcoats Mother looked for shoes. 
Two men walked in. The one in 
working clothes said, "Show me 
them candlesticks, boy." He pointed 
to some in the window. I hated to 
miss anything the old man said but 
someone had to wait on them. 

"They are just what we need to 
make {that setting perfect." What- 
ever that meant. He seemed sur- 
prised when 1 said, "a quarter, 
please." 

The monkey which had come 
from Nellie over to me was jumping 
all over me and on the paper when 
I was trying to wrap the candle- 



sticks, and the young man laughed 
with such a beautiful voice. 

AFTER they were gone Mother 
brought four pair of shoes to 
the wrapping table. And Nellie 
and Paul showed the old man the 
coats they had found for him. 

All of a sudden Nellie noticed 
that her locket was not on her neck. 

"Where's my necklace? Oh, 
where is my locket?" she cried, the 
tears just bursting from her eyes. 

We all rushed around looking 
everywhere, but we couldn't see it. 

"Oh dear ! What shall I do," she 
moaned, "It is the only picture we 
have of my brother." 

We were all sad and worried. We 
ran around turning shoes up side 
down, and feeling in coat pockets. 
Then Nellie screamed : 

"Where's Mary's dress? I left it 
right here on the end of this table. 
Oh dear ! Oh dear ! I'm the most 
unlucky girl alive." 

Paul went to her and put his arm 
around her. "There, there, dear, 
you have so many tears in your eyes 
you couldn't see Mary's dress if it 
were laying right before you. Try 
not to cry, dear. We'll find the 
locket if we have to bring back 
every person who has been here 
buying." 

After we had looked everywhere, 
Paul got in our car and drove away. 

"I will not go Ma-am until you 
have found the lost articles," the 
old man said, as he sat stroking the 
overcoat on his knee. 

Mother was holding Nellie in her 
arms, and wishing she ,had never 
thought of having a rummage sale, 
when Dad came in. 

"What's wrong? Wlhat's wrong 
here?" he demanded at once. 

I knew Mother'd hate to tell him 
so I said, "Nothing much, Dad. 
We've just mislaid something of 
Nellie's." 



THE RUMMAGE SALE 153 

"Mislaid," he said loudly. "I locket is pawned they'll have to look 

guess you mean you've had some- for it later anyway." 

thing stolen. I've always thought I ran along Regent Street to Sec- 

your mother's craze for charity ond South. A cop was putting red 

work would get us into trouble." marks on auto tires, but he quit and 

As no one spoke he continued, came with me right away when I 

"Well Willie, what is it? I want told him we had been robbed, 

to know." He asked Nellie to describe the 

"Nellie's locket with her dead locket and chain. He questioned us 

brother's picture in it and the new about all the customers we had 

dress she bought for her sister's been selling to since Nellie's arrival, 

birthday is gone," I said slowly, He looked about on the floor and 

as I watched the rat to see if it was tables, and then said he would 

going to crawl into a hole in the search each person now in the room. 

fl°° r - He began with the old man. It 

Then the door opened and the big scared me. I prayed that he would 

woman came in. The rat would not find the locket on the old man or 

have escaped then if Joe hadn't Joe. They both looked so pitiful, 

caught him. Dad wore a puzzled expression 

Mother looked enquiringly at the and looked at the old man closely, 

woman, who answered crossly: "Say, what's your name?" he 

"I came to your sale to buy valued asked, 

antiques, not goods that can be "John Morgan, sir." 

bought at any store. Here is your "Didn't you used to be with the 

pink dress. I have no use fur it. Utah Light and Power Company?" 

Don't see why you give it to me, "Yes sir." 

anyway." Before she banged the "Well, you knew that the matter 

door we heard her complaining, of the missing stock certificate was 

"Luddy, Pa was mad, havin' to all cleared up after you left ?" 

make an extra trip back here, and "Oh, no sir. They never told 

everything." ^ me." He looked awfully pleased in 

A glad smile spread over Moth- spite of having to hold out his arms 

er's face. "Don't you see, John," while the policeman searched his 

she said to Dad, "The people who pockets. 

were here are honest. I'm sure no "You had moved away, and I 

thieves came to our sale." guess the message never reached 

I laid the dress in Nellie's lap and you." 

patted her shoulder. "Don't worry, "I was in Arizona trying to get 

kid, we'll get the locket back, too." mother well." 

But she kept on crying. "You better come round to the 

Paul came in all breathless. "I office in the morning. They'll be 
couldn't find a trace of the tramps," £ lad t0 & et you back." 
he said. "I parked in the next The old man straightened up till 
block. I thought maybe if they he looked inches taller, and so 
didn't see the car they might think happy. The officer didn't find a 
we had gone, and would come back thing in his clothes, 
to see if they could steal something "This man and his son are con- 
else." t [ I cealing nothing on their bodies," 

''Willie, you go find a policeman, he said as he turned to search me. 

This is a case for the law. If the Mother stepped near the old man 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



and gave him five dollars out of the 
purse on her arm. 

"You will need this to pay for a 
place to stay tonight," she smiled. 

He hesitated ever so little, before 
saying, "O thanks for the loan 
Ma-am. I'll pay you back out of 
my first check." 

THE policeman was turning my 
pockets inside-out and slapping 
me all over to see if he could feel 
anything underneath, when here 
came the swell-dressed young man 
that had been with the guy that 
bought the candlesticks. He was 
all out of breath. 

"Did this locket come from here ?" 
he exploded the minute he was in- 
side. 

Nellie jumped toward him, "Oh 
my locket ! My locket !" she ex- 
claimed, weeping harder than ever. 

The young man caught hold of 
her arm. We were all just awfully 
surprised. 

"Where did you get that locket? 
Who are you ?" he questioned excit- 
edly, as Nellie tried to pull away 
from him. 

"You're not Nellie Kerr! You 
can't be my little sister!" he went 
on without waiting for her to speak. 
She was staring at him. Then her 
arms were around his neck. 

"Angus ! Darling Angus." Her 
face was buried in his shoulder, and 
his strong arms were around her. 

"Wlhere is Mother — Mother and 
the baby ?" he asked fearfully. 

Nellie raised her head and tried 
to smile. "They're at home, but 
Mary isn't a baby any longer. She's 
fifteen today." 

He held Nellie close, and two 
tears trickled down his cheeks. 
"Poor Mother, how she must have 



suffered. I've searched the States 
over for you. I was riding with 
Mr. and Mrs. Brainard in the car 
just behind Father when the cloud- 
burst struck. We never knew ex- 
actly what became of Father. We 
looked for him on the road for 
several days. At last when we did 
not catch up with him the Brainards 
tried to get in touch with Mother, 
but you had moved and left no ad- 
dress." 

"We camped in Farmington a 
long time. When we finally settled 
here we sent our address back 
home." 

"I guess I was traveling after 
that. How we all have suffered." 

"But Angus dear, where did you 
find the locket?" 

"I am in town with the Brainard 
Opera Company. I walked out 
with the theater property man. He 
came in here to buy some old candle- 
sticks. When we unwrapped them 
the locket fell out. 

"I bet the monkey dropped it in 
as I wrapped," I chuckled. I gath- 
ered him in my arms. "Look what 
you've done, you good old monk," I 
whispered in his ear. 

Paul took Angus and Nellie right 
home in our car. 

Father signaled a taxi, "I guess 
we can go home now. I want my 
dinner," he said gruffly. I knew he 
just talked that way to hide his real 
feelings. There was a lump in my 
throat. I was just suffering to cry. 
But I bet I'll never be so happy 
again as long as I live. 

The monkey was on my shoulder 
and the rat in my lap, as we taxied 
home, and I knew we had a lot of 
things left for the next rummage 
sale. 



Keeping Up With Lizzy's Kids 

By Harrison R. Merrill 



RACING with Lizzy has never 
held the thrill for me that it 
really should have done, I 
fear, for I am neither lean nor 
hungry, and sleep fairly well at 
nights ; but keeping up with Lizzy's 
kids promises to furnish some ex- 



to sell that could be jimmied on to 
any part of my anatomy. My taste 
in the matter was entirely beside and 
beyond the question. As a result, 
I came to look upon anything I 
could use at all as being strictly 
proper for me to wear. 




citement. Being reared as I was in 
the hills where buckled stogy shoes, 
a faded pair of Levi's or Mountain- 
eers, a cotton shirt and a conical hat 
constituted the entire wardrobe of a 
boy in his 'teens, I did not develop 
any highfaultin' ideas about dress. 

Later, being high above and con- 
siderably wider than the average 
man and with a pair of feet in pro- 
portion, I found it necessary for me 
to take what the "store-keeper" had 



Lizzy, in my case, was merely a 
rapidly expanding pair of shoulders, 
lengthening legs, and arms that 
seemed determined to grow beyond 
any sleeve of shirt or coat ever de- 
vised by man. Finding clothing 
that would cover my growth was 
my one great problem. What Lizzy 
or Henry, or Jack had or wore grad- 
ually became less and less important. 
My shoes might be futuristic or ten 
years behind the times, but I always 



156 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



had the consolation of knowing that 
they were the only ones available in 
my size. My coat was frequently 
short when others were wearing 
them long; my trousers were "Eng- 
lish" when "collegiate" roominess 
was in vogue — but always I had my 
reason for being out of style. 

BUT now, I am a man with a 
family. My youngsters, like 
others of their kind, have both eyes 
and ears. They know and, what is 
more important, they care what 
Lizzy's children are wearing and so 
— the race is on. 

The other day our daughter 
needed shoes. She had been wear- 
ing low-heeled, comfortable oxfords. 
But oxfords of that type would 
serve no longer. 

The clerk, sensing our predica- 
ment, brought out oxfords — black 
oxfords, tan oxfords, red oxfords — 
but always they were greeted with 
an emphatic shake of the head. At 
last, in desperation, he brought forth 
a beautiful pair of tan shoes with 
military heels. The quest was ended. 

"That's like Lucy's!" the little 
lady exclaimed. 



"But — " Mother expostulated. 

All buts were over-ruled. We 
bought the shoes at a price a dollar 
or two higher than we had ever 
paid for her foot-wear before. 

"Quite a price," my wife sug- 
gested when we were alone that eve- 
ning, "but she really had to have 
them — in her group — you know." 

A few days later we happened to 
pass through Salt Lake City. The 
daughter must remove her galoshes. 
We wondered why she was so in- 
sistent until we were stepping it off 
down Main Street. Suddenly the 
maid looked up and said — 

"I feel smart walking down this 
street in these shoes !" 

And now some other little girl 
is likely to see our little girl in her 
smart "grown-up shoes," and de- 
mand military heels. 

The race goes on, merrily in some 
cases, tragically in others. If it 
isn't with Lizzy it's with Lizzy's 
kids. It always has gone on — it 
always will go on. 

What shall we do about it ? 

I shrug my shoulders. Frankly, 
I haven't an idea ; the race with 
Lizzy's kids is quite different from 
an ambling old canter after Lizzy. 




Photo )By Hileman. 

lake Mcdonald, glacier national park 



Relation of Diet to Teeth 

By Anna Page, Nutrition Specialist, Utah State Department of Education 

WHY do teeth decay ? During in the same mouth, acted upon by 

the last ten years we have the same bacteria and lodging food 

gone far in answering this in the same spaces?" Why do the 

question. Until the present time teeth of primitive people the world 

the "fermentation" theory of tooth over — Eskimos, New Zealanders,Af- 

decay has been prevalent. There is ricans, and North American Indians 

no question but what fermentation deteriorate so quickly under the in- 

plays an important role in tooth fluence of civilization? Why, too, 

decay. Today there is indisputable are the teeth of some civilized peo- 

evidence that soft, sticky, starchy, pie, for example, the Highland 

pasty foods that are allowed to stay Scotch, now losing the immunity 

in close contact with the teeth make which they have long enjoyed ? Why 

an excellent breeding place for has there been no decline, but rather 

strongly acid forming bacteria, an increase in the occurrence of 

These bacteria if allowed to grow dental decay in spite of the fact 

in contact with the teeth are capable that methods for the daily care of 

of destroying them. Cooked starch the teeth similar to those in use to- 

has this effect while raw starch does day have been known and advo- 

not. This is the reason it is not cated by doctors and dentists for the 

advisable to use rich pies, cakes, last five hundred years ? 

pastry, or sweet foods at the end of Recent studies show causes of 

the meal or in between meals. It tooth decay may be determined by 

is far better to finish the meal with forces inside the tooth> which prob _ 

raw fruits or vegetables. This habit ably means that the tooth has not 

is especially important when the been well formed because of the lack 

teeth cannot be brushed immediately of right building material. Correct 

after meals. The using of raw diet may be the determining factor 

fruits and vegetables at the end of Jn prevention of tooth decay. The 

the meal will help in mechanically pro blem of tooth decay and the 

keeping the teeth clean and in the building of good teeth is one of 

prevention of fermentation. There our most i mpor tant problems in nu- 

is additional evidence to show that trition at the pres ent time. Em- 

if the mouth is kept scrupulously phasis is being put on l { the 

clean and the teeth as free as pos- foundation for the growing of 

sib e from such fermentable mate- strong teeth) and diet is consid ered 

rial, the process of decay can be the most { mportant factor . Ninety 

retarded. t ninety-five per cent of all children 

Dental decay cannot be entirely in the United States suffer from 

prevented by this means, as is shown dental decay. In cities and states 

by the large numbers of persons where surveys of mouth conditions 

who have decayed teeth. There of school children have been made, 

must be some other cause of tooth the average number of cavities in 

decay than that of fermentation to the teeth of each child has been 

answer these questions. "Why is found to be six. 

it," asks one dentist, "that a molar Dr. Cross from his investigation 

decays and a bicuspid remains sound in 1923 states that all adult dental 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



diseases except pyorrhea are the re- 
sult of poor tooth development or 
neglect of the proper diet and hy- 
giene during childhood. Dead teeth, 
focal infection, and diseases of the 
heart, kidneys and joints are the 
result of childhood neglect of the 
teeth. There is now every reason 
to believe that we may be able to 
avoid many of the disasters due to 
infected teeth. This can be over- 
come by building strong teeth by 
right food habits. 

Dr. McCollum states that the de- 
velopment of sound teeth capable of 
resisting destructive agencies is es- 
sentially a dietary problem. The 
small jaws and the crowding of the 
teeth as frequently seen in children 
today are almost certainly the result 
of faulty skeletal development, and 
will be influenced by the same diet- 
ary factors which favor the develop- 
ment of rickets. 

The tooth is composed of three 
different parts: 

1 . The enamel or the outer cover- 
ing of the tooth. This is the hardest 
substance in the body, it is hard and 
brittle in texture and has a smooth, 
lustrous, and whitish appearance. 
The enamel of the tooth is not put 
on all at the same time. The enamel 
is composed of tiny prisms tightly 
fitted together. While it is possible 
for the enamel to be put together so 
well that the dentine is completely 
covered, yet there are chances for 
grooves. The enamel becomes un- 
dermined through the action of acid 
that forms normally in the mouth 
and grooves result. Sticky, starchy 
and pasty foods adhere to the teeth 
and if not properly washed away, 
change to acid which in time will 
cause the teeth to decay. The acid 
roughens the enamel, and this causes 
more starch to stick, which again 
produces more acid. This is the 
reason why the meal should not be 
finished with rich pies, cakes or pud- 



dings, but it would be much better 
to use a raw fruit or vegetable to. 
help mechanically in cleaning the 
teeth. 

2. The dentine is a softer sub- 
stance under the enamel. It is a 
kind of bony substance. The den- 
tine of the growing child is con- 
stantly nourished. In 1925 was 
demonstrated the existence of a 
circulatory mechanism inside the 
tooth which allows for its contin- 
uous nutrition, both during growth 
and after full growth has been ob- 
tained. Strange as it may seem, it 
also permits withdrawal of calcium 
and phosphorous in time of stress, 
making the teeth more subject to 
decay. This emphasizes the point 
that a well balanced diet is necessary 
throughout the growing period of 
the child and for the protection of 
the adult's teeth. 

3. The pulp is soft tissue com- 
posed largely of cells, blood vessels, 
and nerves, having its outer layer 
made up of dentine forming cells. 

The saliva in the mouth has a 
preservative action on the teeth. 
Normally the saliva helps to keep 
the teeth cleaned. As both talking 
and chewing help to increase the 
flow of saliva, these help to keep 
the teeth clean. For this reason at 
least one hard food every day and 
one chewey food at each meal is 
strongly recommended. The hard 
foods are crusts of bread, toast, 
hard rolls. The chewey foods are 
meats, nuts, raw vegetables and 
fruits. 

The importance o f the diet in the 
formation of sound teeth is empha- 
sized by the fact that the calcifica- 
tion of the first set of teeth is begun 
before birth. The teeth begin to 
form between the third and fourth 
month of pregnancy and the crowns 
of the first permanent molars are 
formed before birth. It is clear 
that good teeth are determined in 



RELATION OF, DIET TO TEETH 



159 



a great measure before the child is 
born. It is true that serious damage 
may, and often does, occur to the 
teeth after birth. The infectious dis- 
eases of childhood, such as measles, 
scarlet fever, and other infectious 
diseases, may temporarily interrupt 
the development of the teeth, and 
when development is resumed a 
fault may be visible in the enamel to 
mark the event. Correct diet 
throughout the growing period of 
the child is a very important factor • 
in the development of sound teeth. 

Delayed cutting of the teeth, 
crooked and malformed teeth, have 
been regarded by many physicians 
as a symptom of rickets. Recently 
Drs. Julius Blum and Jacob Mellion 
have published the results of a sta- 
tistical study of the time of eruption 
of the teeth in eighty-seven rachitic 
and sixty-eight non-rachitic infants. 
The children were residents of a 
children's home in New York. Their 
results show the cases of rickets 
observed were mild and the time of 
eruption of the first tooth varied 
considerably even among the normal 
children ; nevertheless the rachitic 
children were distinctly behind the 
normal ones in their teething sched- 
ule. About one-tenth of the nor- 
mal babies had their first tooth when 
they were six months old, whereas 
none of the rachitic children had 
a tooth at this age. At nine months 
almost two-thirds of the normal 
children and only one-fourth of the 
rachitic children had a first tooth, 
and at one year all but one of the 
normal babies and only three- 
fourths of the rachitic children had 
a tooth. Teething was delayed un- 
til the twelfth to the fifteenth month 
in eighteen of the infants having 
rickets. In four cases the teeth did 
not erupt until the fifteenth to the 
twenty-first month. The authors 
state that not only the first tooth but 
also the eruption of subsequent teeth 



is delayed by rickets. Even in the 
mildest form of rickets at present 
recognizable, there is a definite delay 
of dentition in rachitic children as 
compared with normal babies. 

There are many statements at the 
present time to show that the quality 
and structure of the permanent teeth 
are affected by rickets, and that the 
teeth of rachitic children are par- 
ticularly subject to decay. All the 
late research work shows that there 
is a very close relation between the 
formation of bone and prevention 
of rickets and the proper develop- 
ment and calcification of the teeth. 

Rickets can be prevented by giv- 
ing sufficient amount of Vitamin 
D. Vitamin D is necessary for the 
proper utilization of the calcium and 
phosphorus in the building of both 
bones and sound teeth. Results 
from recent investigations support 
the theory that poor structure is a 
predisposing cause of tooth decay 
and indicate that the presence of 
Vitamin D in the diet is essential 
not only for the original develop- 
ment of the tooth but for its pro- 
tection later in life. 

In order to insure sound teeth 
children need during the time that 
the teeth are being formed a large 
supply of Vitamin D. The best 
foods which are sources of Vitamin 
D are egg yolk and large amounts 
of milk and butter. Foods cannot 
be relied on entirely as an adequate 
source of Vitamin D, but cod liver 
oil, viosterol, ultra violet ray, sun 
baths should be used in addition. 

The question is frequently asked, 
do adults need Vitamin D? The 
answer is yes, but not in as large 
amounts as do growing children. 
Adults can probably get their re- 
quirement of Vitamin D, except in 
special cases, from the short rays of 
the sun and from egg yolks. 

During pregnancy and lactation, 
Vitamin D is needed, in larger 



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amounts. This Vitamin has a bene- 
ficial influence on both the mother 
and the child ; on the mother in the 
protection of her own teeth and 
bones ; on the child in helping to lay 
the foundation for good bones and 
teeth. Dentists report that there are 
more cases of tooth decay in preg- 
nant women than any other group 
of individuals. Most physicians 
advise the taking of cod liver oil 
or some source of Vitamin D during 
pregnancy. 

The teeth are composed of cal- 
cium and phosphorous. In order to 
furnish the necessary building ma- 
terial for sound teeth an adequate 
amount of calcium and phosphorous 
are necessary. Dr. Sherman says 
that fifty per cent of the American 
people are_ suffering from calcium 
starvation. Statistics show that 50- 
75% of the children in the United 
States have rickets and 90-95% of 
the school children have one or more 
decayed teeth. Both of these con- 
ditions may result from the lack of 
calcium in the diet. 

Milk is the most dependable 
source of calcium, which is con- 
vincing proof that every child 
should have a full quart of milk 
daily. It is just as important that 
adults have the generally accepted 
one pint requirement, however, in 
most cases the adult diet would be 
improved by having the full quart 
of milk if they desire to protect 
their teeth. 

Other good sources of calcium 
are buttermilk, cheese, American 
■cottage cheese; vegetables, as spin- 
ach, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, 
string beans, turnips, oranges, 
prunes, almonds, oat meal, whole 
grain cereals. 

If Vitamin C is lacking in the 
diet, irregular spaced teeth are pro- 
duced, the gums become red and 
swollen and the teeth become loose. 



Dr. Howe has found in experi- 
ments with guinea pigs that when 
there is a lack of Vitamin C the 
teeth become very soft, they bend 
easily and decay appears in a large 
number of cases. They also develop 
a condition very closely resembling 
pyorrhea in man. The gums be- 
come red and spongy and ready to 
bleed upon the slightest pressure, 
the jaw bone is absorbed to such an 
extent that the teeth become loose 
and may actually drop out. In many 
instances there is also a copious flow 
of pus from the tissues surrounding 
the tooth. When the animal is fed 
orange juice, however, the gums be- 
come healthy once more, the teeth 
tighten up, and the pus disappears. 

Dr. Hanke made an extensive 
study of the effect of diet upon 
dental disease, both pyorrhea and 
dental caries in human mouths. He 
reports that every case of dental dis- 
order either caries or pyorrhea was 
associated with some dietary defi- 
ciency. The results of the improve- 
ment of the diet of these patients 
have been astonishing. Very large 
quantities of Vitamin C in oranges 
and lemon juice have brought about 
almost unbelievable rapid cures of 
pyorrhea and an apparent complete 
cessation of decay. The quantities 
of Vitamin C which must be used to 
obtain these remarkable results are, 
however, far in excess of what has 
previously been considered necessary 
for the average person. The foods 
recommended by Dr. Hanke as the 
most agreeable sources of Vitamin 
C are orange juice, lemon juice, and 
lettuce. These he believes should be 
eaten daily in the following 
amounts: the juice of one lemon 
mixed with sufficient orange juice 
to make one pint, plus at least one- 
fourth head of lettuce. For children 
from six to ten years of age he 
recommends one-half of these quan- 
tities. 



RELATION OF DIET TO TEETH 



161 



Most of the raw fruits and vege- 
tables contain Vitamin C. As Vita- 
min C is destroyed to a certain ex- 
tent by cooking, some raw fruit or 
vegetable is needed daily. There 
needs to be an increase in the 
amount of Vitamin C that is found 
in the average American diet. How 
much of an increase is not definitely 
known, but at least two or three 
good sources of Vitamin C should 
be taken daily. Tomatoes, oranges, 
lemons, pineapple, bananas, apples, 
lettuce, celery, raw carrots, and cab- 



bage are the best sources of Vitamin 
C. 

At the present time it cannot be 
said definitely that the health of the 
teeth depends upon any one element 
in the diet. But it is quite definitely 
known that the most common dental 
disorders, tooth decay and pyorrhea 
are primarily dietary deficiency 
diseases, which can be in a large 
part, if not entirely, prevented by a 
diet that contains generous quan- 
tities of the tooth building materials, 
calcium, phosphorous, Vitamin D 
and Vitamin C. 




BASHFUL GIANT 



Photo By Cottatn. 



Money Value 

By Nelle Allen Talmage 



TEN o'clock in the morning 
and the thermometer stood at 
85°, but the lowering thun- 
der clouds made it seem much 
higher ! ' 

"Gee, it's hot!" and for the 
steenth time that morning Gertrude 
Allen wiped her face with a soiled 
powder puff. Gertrude was secre- 
tary to Miss Hurley of District 32 
of the Family Welfare Association. 
All morning she had struggled with 
a budget list' for a family of five. 
"Why do people want to eat on a 
day like this ?" she grumbled to her- 
self. Although she could think of 
a hundred things she would rather 
do she worked on so as to provide 
full value for the little money at 
their disposal for the many needy 
ones. She worked steadily for at 
least ten minutes, and then she felt 
rather than heard some one stand- 
ing before her. She looked up. 

"Good da morn," a little Italian 
woman with an old young face tried 
a droopy smile. Gertrude, accus- 
tomed to seeing such visitors, said 
wearily, "Miss Hurley hasn't come 
yet. Will you wait or can I be of 
any service to you ?" 

"You gooda da girl. I am so — 
so," and she tapped her throat and 
sighed deeply, "what' you say — 
what you say — starfe. I starfe; my 
bambino starfe. No worka — see — " 
she thrust out two dirty hands, 
gnarled, wrinkled, shaking as with 
palsy. "See, no worka for me. No 
worka for heem. Heem seek. We 
starfe." As she spoke tears 
streamed down the furrows of her 
cheeks. Then more calmly and with 
a shrug, "For me, — I do 'nott'a 
care. For heem, is seek and my 



bambinos — one, two. And see, soon 
another — poor, poor bambino ! 
What we do?" 

"If you will tell me' your name 
and address I'll have Miss Hurley 
take care of you as soon as she 
comes in. You understand I can't 
do anything without Miss Hurley." 
And Gertrude took up a pad of pa- 
per and raised questioning eyes. 
"Your name, please?" 

"My nama ees Carmella Mene- 
ghini." 

"What is your husband's name?" 

"Tony — Antonio — ees hees 
name." And a loving lilt was in her 
voice. 

"And you live?" 

"4335 Marcosti Street. Oop high 
oop the stairs." 

"Miss Hurley expects to call on 
two other families on that street 
this morning so she will be in to see 
you." And as the woman made no 
move to go, she added, "Good by, 
she will take care of you shortly." 

"Gooda da by ? No, no ! I canna 
da go. Heem starfe ! Bambinos 
starfe! No fooda!" And in a half 
fainting condition she swayed, — 
caught hold of a chair, steadied her- 
seilf 'and convulsively fobbed, "I 
canna da go ! I canna da go !" 

Poor Gertrude. It was her first 
experience with such cases. It was 
true that she had heard of them 
from Miss Hurley. But Miss Hur- 
ley had told her that the saddest 
cases came in the winter time when 
so many were without work. What 
should she do ? There stood a poor 
soul, hungry, grimy, sweaty and 
emitting an offensive smell, sobbing, 
"Heem seek! Bambinos starfe!" 
Oh, how Gertrude wished that Miss 



MONEY VALUE 



163 



Hurley would come ! It was seldom 
that she was late but she did say 
that she was going- to see about the 
sheriff's notice to old Mr. Grams- 
taulk before coming today. She 
might not be in until nearly noon ! 

The cries became shriller. She 
must do something ! "Let's see," 
she thought, "I've heard Miss Hur- 
ley say many times, 'Relieve the im- 
mediate need, and then investi- 
gate.' " The immediate need was 
food. Food ! Lunch ! Why, her 
lunch which she had packed that 
morning! But how far would two 
tiny sandwiches, two cookies, and 
an orange go to keep a family from 
starving? At least it would help 
one person. The woman could eat 
it' right there. 

She took the package from her 
desk and opened it. "Mrs. Mene- 
ghini, come, you are wearing your- 
self out with grief. Take this. Eat 
it now and Miss Hurley will come in 
time to help your family. Here — ■ 
I've opened it for you. Here, eat." 

Carmella took her hands down 
from her face and looked ravenous- 
ly at the tiny sandwiches. Timidly 
she touched one as if to see if it 
was real ; then clutching the pack- 
age in one hand, she grasped the 
arm of her benefactor. "Ave Maria, 
may she bless you," and she started 
to the door. 

"But," called Gertrude, "You 
should eat it now." 

"No, no, heem seek, heem starfe. 
Bambino starfe. Me ! Me, bigga 
da ' strong." And, calling down 
blessings from heaven upon Ger- 
trude's head, she staggered out. 

Gertrude did not feel self right- 
eous at having given up her lunch- 
eon. It was too hot to eat anyway. 
And, oh, how glad she was to get 
rid of the poor creature. 

HE morning passed as others 
did. Telephone calls from 



women asking help for their neigh- 
bors who were in need. Calls from 
priests and ministers reporting the 
needy ones in their flocks. Mrs. 
Jones, a friendly visitor, came in 
for a minute from the torrid heat of 
the streets. Miss Hurley came in 
close to eleven o'clock, read over the 
two records on Marcosti Street ; ob- 
tained the new name and left again, 
so as to clear up the work and have 
the afternoon free for the meeting 
with the Neighborhood Committee. 

Lunch time passed, but Gertrude 
did not go out as that would leave 
the office alone. She was a healthy 
young woman and a big drink of 
water sufficed for luncheon that day 
without any undue suffering. 

Other days came with their reg- 
ular routine and when a few weeks 
later Miss Hurley asked her if she 
would like to make a friendly call 
on Mrs. Meneghini to see how they 
were getting along, she had to read 
over the report to refresh her mem- 
ory of the original plea for help. 

Another hot wave had come ; and, 
as Gertrude climbed the dark stair- 
ways of the tenement, kicking each 
stair before stepping so as to make 
sure there was one, the heat seemed 
unbearable. Flies buzzed around 
her head, and the odor of garlic, 
stale tobacco smoke and nauseating 
booze hung heavy in the unventi- 
lated and unlighted halls. From 
doorways on the landings she heard 
fretful wailing of puny infants or a 
snarl from a disgruntled man, and, 
overhead, above it all, a clear sweet 
voice — so out of place ! A man's 
voice in Italian singing opera arias ! 
It lifted one from the low hung at- 
mosphere into clear mountain air ! 
A grating, rasping sound — and the 
song was ended. 

Gertrude had reached the floor 
where the Meneghinis lived and was 
about to tap on the door when the 
singing voice began again. There 



164 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



was no doubt now ; it was Caruso. 
A record — cracked, she was sure, by 
the break now and then in the song. 
She listened a moment and then 
knocked. With a rasp the phono- 
graph stopped and a voice called, 
"And who ees eet wanta to see me ?" 

"I am Miss Allen from the Fam- 
ily Welfare." 

The door opened and the little 
woman grimier than ever peered 
out. "Oh, yessa, da love-ly lady. 
Come a in. I see you again. Come 
a in." And white teeth flashed in 
greeting. "You musta heer da 
greata Caruso. He greata da man." 
She paused and made a grimace of 
pain, clutching a chair as she did 
so. Then, very apologetically, "You 
see, another bambino about to come. 
It hurta me. But you must heer da 
greata Caruso. When heem seeng 
da pain notta hurt so bad." And 
she placed the needle back on the 
disc and set it' revolving. At the 
first strain of the opera, Pagliacci, 
her face lighted with j oy and heaven 
shone from her eyes. "Ah, Ave Ma- 
ria," and she crossed herself. Again 
a spasm of pain took possession of 
her. Gertrude became anxious. 

"You must have a doctor right 
away. Where is your husband?" 
Gertrude had become the practical 
woman. 

"Tony" — again the love tilt as she 
spoke his name, — "Antonio — heem 
work. Heem buy me thees," (point- 
ing to the phonograph) weeth hees 
first money. Heem worka, one, 
two, tree days. Heem buy me Ca- 
ruso and thees — " and she lifted 
from the table a broken bottle hold- 
ing a wilted la france rose. With 
adoring eyes she looked at it and 
whispered, "Ah eet ees so love-ly." 
But again pain changed the face 
and made it old, oh, so old. 

Gertrude appreciated the love 
Carmella had for beauty but she 
knew that skillful practical atten- 



tion would be needed before long. 

"Yes, yes," she said a trifle impa- 
tiently, "but where is a doctor?" 

"No mona for a docta. Tony, he 
musta worka." 

"But who will look after you? 
You will need help soon I" 

"Ah you are heer. You helpa 
me: 

"But I do not know how. Let 
me go for a doctor." Not waiting 
for a reply Gertrude hurried down 
the stairs and raced through the 
streets, stinking with rotting fruit, 
to the nearest dispensary. She must 
have help for the suffering woman ; 
and as she sped, following, floating 
through the air came the golden 
voice of Caruso. 

She was fortunate to find a stu- 
dent doctor at the dispensary. 
Within a quarter of an hour after 
leaving the room, Gertrude and the 
young man, stumbled and groped 
their way back up the stairs. And 
ever Caruso sang! 

The baby was born before they 
got there. The mother lay on a 
dirty bed, listening raptly to the 
music. An old crone from the neigh- 
boring room slunk out as the doctor 
came in. 

The phonograph ran down, but 
Gertrude and the doctor had not 
time to set the needle again. But 
the beatific expression remained on 
the face of Carmella Meneghini. 
Over and over again she crooned, 
"Beautiful da music — leesten! 
Beautee-ful the music. Ave Maria." 

The next day Carmella died,' and 
Gertrude saw that the rose that she 
so loved was placed in her hand. 
The baby lived. His little brother 
and sister kept him covered with 
sticky kisses. 

At the next meeting of the Neigh- 
borhood Committee, the question of 
the Meneghini family was discussed. 
What should they do about the chil- 
dren, three of them? The father 



MONEY VALUE 



165 



earned money spasmodically. If he 
could get a steady job they might 
be able to keep the family together. 
A white haired old man took the 
lead in the discussion. 

"Tony is a likeable chap. He 
works well. Of course he is un- 
trained. I might get him a job as 
general man at my neighbor's place. 
Not much money, but, if he's care- 
ful, and, with a little help now and 
then, he could get along." 

Gertrude came into the room and 
respectfully waited for Miss Hurley 
to notice her. Her eyes lighted as 
she noted that her family, as she 
called Carmella's three, were to be 
taken care of. But immediately they 



dulled as the most practical and 
wealthiest woman on the board ex- 
claimed, "Humph, careful, indeed ! 
Tony doesn't know the value of 
money. He'd spend his last cent 
on a worn out phonograph, a 
cracked record and a wilted rose." 
"Oh!" A cry of pain, with her 
whole heart in it, fell from Ger- 
trude's lips. 

The practical one turned with a 
glare. She raised her glass and 
stared at Gertrude. 

Gertrude hurried from the room, 
and with her head buried on her 
desk, she sobbed, "Money value ! 
Money value !" 



Poorhouse or Pension? 

By J. H. Paul, Director Old-Age Pensions, Salt Lake County 



I. Why Old- Age Pensions? 
The changed modes of life, due to 
the industrial revolution of the past 
25 years in America, have made 
old-age pensions a present necessity 
not keenly felt in former periods. 
As long as our country was pre- 
dominantly agricultural, as long as 
virgin soil could be taken up at 
slight cost, factory work was usually 
but a temporary occupation to en- 
able the worker to save enough to 
start on his farm or small business. 
Few workers remained in the shops 
till old age had overtaken them. 
The problem of aged workers was 
almost non-existent. A book of 
forty years ago, Three Acres and 
Liberty, showed how almost any 
man could go upon a small, cheap 
farm, and earn a fair livelihood. 
Today that is impossible upon three, 
thirty, or even 300 acres, unless the 
man has a large capital. 

From an overwhelmingly agricultural 
nation, the United States, in the course 
of a generation, has become one of the 
mpst highly developed of industrial coun- 
tries. The number of those directly 
engaged in manufacturing and mechanical 



pursuits grew from 5,678,468 in 1890 to 
12,818,524 in 1920, a gain of over 125 
percent in one generation. In iron and 
steel, the percentage has risen much 
higher ; in railroads the increase amounts 
to over 233 percent. The number engaged 
in mining increased from 387,248 in 1890 
to 1,090,233 in 1920, or 181 percent. On 
the other hand, the percentage of those 
engaged in agricultural pursuits declined 
from 44.4 percent of the total gainfully 
employed in 1880 to 26.3 percent in 1920, 
and is still lower now, the census figures 
for 1930 being not yet available. 

//. Present Plight of the Aged 

Today the old man finds it diffi- 
cult or impossible to get work at 
any wages. Modern, mass produc- 
tion demands the swift speed that 
only young men can give. The 
aged worker is laid off", and, since 
the decline of farming, has nowhere 
to go. 

Many industries now limit their hiring 
age to 40 and 35 years. Unlike the grad- 
ual physical decline in old age character- 
istic of agricultural countries, economic 
superannuation takes place in indus- 
try abruptly and earlier in life. The 
factory, wearing out its workers with 
great rapidity, scraps alike machinery 
and human beings. The young, the 
vigorous, the adaptable, the supple of 



166 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



limb, the alert of mind, are alone in de- 
mand. In business and in professions, 
maturity of judgment and ripened ex- 
perience offset, to some extent, the dis- 
advantage of old age; but in the factory 
and on the railway, with spade and pick, 
at the spindle, and at the steel converters, 
there are no offsets. Middle age is old 
age. The wage-earner is compelled to 
discontinue work long {before lactual 
senility sets in; not because he is worn 
out, but because he is unable to maintain 
the pace necessary in modern production. 

7/7. How Aged People Used to Live 

The number of aged people who 
can get work or live by operating a 
small farm is much less than it was 
25 and even ten years ago. Older 
men cannot get work as they used 
to do, and the small farm or home 
no longer yields enough to support 
aged people, being oftener a liability 
than an asset. 

The orchard and garden, the little 
shop, the pig, chickens, cow — common 
to former small homes — have all gone; 
so that aged couples, who formerly could 
make a fair living from a small piece of 
land with a little house on it, can do 
nothing with such capital now. 

The percentage of the population over 
65 who are still at work was (census 
1920) : in all occupations 4.1 per cent; 
bakers, 2.1 ; bankers, brokers, etc., 5.4 ; 
bookkeepers, etc., 1.2; clothing industry, 
1.2; coal mining, 1.6; firemen, 2.4; glass 
blowers, 2.0; clerks, 1.3; farmers, 8.8; 
laborers (building), 6.4; laborers (iron 
and steel), 2.4; laborers (steam and 
R. R.), 2.8; laborers (public service), 
8.1; other laborers, 2.5; machinists, 1.7; 
managers, 2.1 ; manufacturers and offi- 
cials, 5.7; mechanics, 1.4; moulders, etc., 
1.5; plumbers, etc., 1.2; iron and steel, 
1.5; printing, 1.3. Note the high percent- 
age of aged people in farming and public 
service. 

IV. Few Workmen Can Save For 
Old Age 

American wages, in this era of 
high costs of living, are barely suf- 
ficient for daily needs, and have not 
permitted, even in our most prosper- 
ous years, sufficient savings for old 
age. _ 

With the exception of a few iso- 
lated and exceptionally skilled 



trades, the wages of American 
workers are insufficient, without 
supplement from other sources, to 
provide for the subsistence of a 
family consisting of husband, wife, 
and three minor children, much less 
to maintain them in that condition 
of "health and reasonable comfort" 
which every humane consideration 
demands. — National War Labor 
Board, 1922. 

The actual weekly wages earned by 
those employed in 1920, a year of great 
prosperity, by the average in all indus- 
tries, was $2r3.30 ; factory iemployees, 
$28.15; farm laborers, with board, $10.82, 
without board, $14.98; iron and steel, 
$45.65.— U. S. Com. of Labor. 

The amount of a weekly budget for a 
standard of health and decency, was : 
Detroit, $32.00; "Philadelphia, $3(5.00; 
Calif, laborer's familv of five, $39.41 : 
clerk's family of five, $57.53 ; families in 
Calif, cities, $39; farm families, N. Y., 
$38.50. 

After the World War, our prosperity 
continued for three years. Since then 
one great depression (1921-22) and two 
minor ones have occurred, followed in 
193G by the greatest depression of our 
history. Deceived by accounts of 22 
million automobiles owned by Americans, 
millions of radios and increasng bank- 
deposits, iwe overlooked the (deserted 
farms, the homes that were being ex- 
changed for autos and radios, and the 
fact that notable increases in bank de- 
posits occurred only in great industrial 
states. 

V. Shall it Be Poor House or 
Pensions? 

The poor house, or infirmary, is 
not the place for dependent aged 
people ; it costs more and is less 
effective and uplifting than pen- 
sions or insurance. 

The Salt Lake County cost of old-age 
pensions averages $132 per year. The 
cost in the Infirmary is $319 per year. 
The cost of almshouse maintenance in 
Wisconsin is $186 yearly per inmate ; 
out-door relief, only $50 per year; in 
Ohio, about $170 per capita in city and 
county infirmaries, but some as high as 
$300, others as low as $100. The cities 
and (counties (have an investment of 
$10,000,000 in infirmaries alone. In 1925 
the U. S. Dept. of Labor published a 



POOR HOUSE OR PENSION? 



167 



comprehensive monograph, The Cost of 
American Almshouses. The maintenance 
cost for each inmate averaged $334.64 per 
year ; adding interest at 6 per cent on 
the investment, the cost was $439.76 per 
year. In small almshouses average main- 
tenance amounted to $508 per inmate. 
Fifty per cent of this cost is overhead; 
only half of the maintenance goes to the 
inmates. With pensions, more than 94 
per cent reaches the pensioners. 

The social insurance laws of European 
nations, which have saved most of them 
from revolution, have been dubbed "dole" 
systems and even cited as the causes 
of Europe's economic depression since 
the World War. "Burdensome costs" 
is the argument against European 
methods, yet the per capita wealth of the 
United States ($3,000) is the highest of 
any nation, the American tax-payer the 
least burdened. The poorhouse system 
and its accessories, are estimated by Ep- 
stein (Challenge of the Aged, 1928) to 
cost "$6.50 a year for every man, woman, 
and child in the country" — a total of 
several billions a year, while Britain's 
"dole" and insurance bill is only $100,- 
000,000 a year. 

VI. The Chances for Old Age 

Today, owing to recent advances 
in medical science, a person has a 
little more than an even chance to 
live to be 65 years of age — the age 
generally set as the threshold of 
old age, when the rates of sickness 
and death show a marked increase 
over those of earlier years. 

The number of persons engaged 
in industry has increased more rap- 
idly than has the number reaching 
old age. 

The proportion of aged people 
employed in agriculture is much 
greater than in other occupations. 

In 1920 6.7 per cent of the total males 
in farm work were over 65. Domestic 
and personal service retain 5.5 per cent, 
professional work 5.2 per cent, public 
service 6.3 per cent. But manufacturing 
retains only 3.5 per cent, mining, 2.1 per 
cent, transportation, 2.7, and clerical occu- 
pations, only 2.1, who are over 65 out of 
the total reaching old age. 

For female workers the disparity is 
still greater — 5 per cent of female farm 
workers being retained after 65, but only 
1.4 per cent work in manufacturing after 



reaching 65; shoe factories, 1.9; other 
industries 1.7; locomotive firemen, .4; 
retail dealers, 5.3; and quarrymen, 3.3 
per cent of those employed are over 65. 
The chances the aged have for getting 
employment are best in agriculture, in 
retail shops, and in public service labor. 

VII. Chief Causes of Pauperism 
Age alone is the minor cause of 
pauperism ; illness and reverses of 
fortune, and not shiftlessness, are 
the principal causes. 

On our Utah pension lists are men 
and women once well to do and 
leaders in their respective commun- 
ities — engineers, business men, big 
farmers, former members of the 
legislature, and the like. None of 
those receiving pensions can be 
classified as lazy or idle. All are 
willing and anxious to work, but 
are disabled. Old age, as such, 
plays only a small part in depend- 
ency. 

The earning power of most work- 
ers is past at 70 years of age; the 
average age at which partial impair- 
ment occurs is 65 ; of total impair- 
ment 68 or 69. — Massachusetts 
Commission on Pensions, 1925. 

The Thirteenth U. S. Census gave 
the percentage of aged and infirm in 
almshouses as 32.1 percent. Illnesses 
were more important than any other cause 
in bringing about premature superannu- 
ation. Sickness frequently required the 
expenditure of all previous savings. 
Disease, sickness, or accident was given 
as the most important cause of depend- 
ency in 29.9 percent, of the cases. In 
Massachusetts, the latest investigation 
shows that among persons 65 and over, 
old age caused total impairment in only 
21.6 percent of the men and 25 percent 
of the women. 

Many of the workers interviewed 
stated that they began to fail after 50. 
Machinists and pattern makers com- 
plained of defective eyesight, the mold- 
ers, of rheumatism. As a rule they paid 
little attention to these disorders until a 
breakdown compelled them to give up 
work. 

(Except where other wise indicated, all 
figures and facts given are quoted from 
the census and other official reports.) 



Notes from the Field 



Salt Lake Stake : 

ON the afternoon and evening 
of November 14, 1930, the Re- 
lief Society of the 17th Ward in 
the Salt Lake stake, held a bazaar 
with a program following. [A one 
act play "The Spinsters' Conven- 
tion," was put on by officers and 
members of the Relief Society. 
Other wards in attendance asked to 
have it presented, and it was the 
source of a great deal of praise and 
appreciation. The bazaar and pro- 
gram proved to be a great success 
financially as well as socially. 



the retiring officers of the Second 
Ward Relief Society. — Mrs. Emily 
Sumsion Crandall, president; Mrs. 
Mahala Crandall Bringhurst, first 
counselor; ;Mrs. Sylvia Johnson 
Miner, second counselor ; Mrs. Ada 
Bissell Harrison, secretary-treasurer. 
Sister Crandall had given 26 years 
of her life to Relief Society work. 
We review her activities, and those 
of her associates, with so much in- 
terest as they are typical of the 
scope and spirit of the Relief So- 
ciety organization. These sisters 
gleaned wheat' in the fields, and went 




CAST OF THE SPINSTERS' CONVENTION, SALT LAKE STAKE 
Kolob Stake : from house to house to collect it. 

UNDOUBTEDLY 1930 was a The finances of the organization 
most unusual year, and from were looked after with great care, 
every quarter in our organization and honestly and efficiently handled. 



we received accounts of fine activi- 
ties ; some as stake functions, others 
as wards. From the Kolob stake a 
most excellent account was furn- 



Relief Society carried on its educa- 
tional program through all the 
years. In addition to this the mem- 
bers cared for people of the ward 



ished of the testimonial honoring when death came, and tenderly and 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 



169 



properly laid the loved ones away. 
They have given all assistance pos- 
sible to help the unfortunate, and to 
see that the members of the com- 
munity did not want. They have 
always taught people to be able to 
take care of themselves. We quote 
from Sister Crandall's address at 
this time : "I have given every of- 
ficer and every class leader, and 
every teacher a responsibility to 
carry, and they have carried their 
work well, with a spirit of love and 
loyal support. Relief Society work 
carries with it much responsibility. 
Sometimes we grow faint-hearted, 
but I have put my faith and every 
bit of power I had into my work, 
and did my part as best' I could. 
The Lord was mindful of me, and 
gave me just what I needed to carry 
on. I thank him for it. Now I 
feel like a released missionary — I 
want to always keep the spirit of 
the Relief Society work." 

Sharon Stake : 

THE president of the Sharon 
Stake Relief Society writes : "It 
is a pleasure to give a brief report 
of our stake work during the past 
year. We have a wonderful group 
of women in this stake, and they 
are ever ready to do all in their 
power to be of service to the great 
Relief Society cause. There are 
seven wards in the stake, and we 
completed our seven conferences 
just before the close of the year. 
We held our stake conference on 
November 23, 1930, at which time 
we put away a "Memory Box," to 
be opened at the end of fifty years. 
Each organization of the stake, both 
ward and stake, put' away histories 
of the organization since the be- 
ginning of the stake, and some of 
the Relief Societies since its organ- 
ization. The annual party given 
March 17, 1930, began our flower 
show project. The flower show was 



held in August, and each ward had 
a wonderful display. Timpanogos 
Ward carried first honors, Sharon 
and Pleasant View Wards tying for 
second honors, and Edgemont Ward 
receiving third, besides the splendid 
individual exhibits in different va- 
rieties of flowers. Prizes were 
given for the best flowers of the 
following varieties : Roses, Asters, 
Marigolds, Zinnia, Gladiola, Dahlia 
and Petunia. 

"Our stake is building a new ad- 
ministration and seminary building, 
and the Relief Society was asked to 
furnish it with suitable shades and 
drapes for the windows. During 
the past year this has been ac- 
complished. 

"Our project for this year is more 
efficient teachers' work and larger 
attendance at meeting, especially of 
the very young mothers. Also more 
Relief Society Magazines in the 
homes. We hope to be on your 
honor roll before the end of the 
season." 

Timpanogos Stake: 

THE Relief Society visiting 
teacher s' convention of the 
Timpanogos stake was held Janu- 
ary 13, 1931, at 2 p. m. in the Pleas- 
ant Grove Third Ward Amusement 
Hall. During the year 1930, the 
visiting teachers in all the wards 
have made 100%. The convention 
took the form of a testimonial in 
honor of those who had worked so 
faithfully to make this enviable rec- 
ord possible. The hosts were mem- 
bers of the Relief Society Stake 
Presidency and Board. All Relief 
Society members were invited to be 
present. The hall was filled to ca- 
pacity, more than three hundred in 
attendance, among whom were 
Mrs. Jennie B. Knight and Mrs. 
Inez K. Allen, of the General Board, 
the Stake Presidency, and the Bish- 
opric from the ward, members of 



170 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



the High Council. The stake pres- 
ident, Mrs. Ella M. Cragun pre- 
sided, and expressed appreciation 
for the labor so faithfully per- 
formed by the teachers. The pro- 
gram of songs and speeches was 
very beautifully carried out, and 
also a play was a feature of the en- 
tertainment. At the conclusion of 
the program a very tasty luncheon 
was served. It was felt that the 
afternoon had been a most delight- 
ful and profitable meeting, with a 
wonderful spirit prevailing through- 
out. 

Calif omai Mission : 

ON September 28, 1930, the Sut- 
ter Branch Relief Society, at 
'Sacramento, California, presented 



of Teacher Supervisor and Relief 
Society Teachers," "Activities of 
Work and Business Meeting," 
"Theology," "Literature," "Social 
Service." 

The sisters in this branch have 
been most devoted in the discharge 
of their duties, and they rejoice 
greatly in the privilege which is 
theirs, that of ministering to the 
needy, and of giving of their means 
and service to further the work of 
the Lord. 

Southern States Mission: 

SISTER GRACE E. CALLIS, 
president of the Southern States 
Mission Relief Society writes : "The 
organization of four new Societies 
shows that the interest of the wom- 




"ETERNAL WOMANHOOD," 
the little pageant "Eternal Woman- 
hood." The purpose of the meeting 
was to introduce the ensuing year's 
work, and show the scope of Relief 
Society activities. The characters 
portrayed were : Womanhood, 
Motherhood, The Word of God, 
Obedience, Love, Service, Home, 
Prayer, Virtue, Intelligence, Faith, 
Beauty and Loyalty. The topics 
discussed as a part of the evening's 
program were as follows : "Duties 



SAN FRANCISCO STAKE 
en in the Relief Society and their 
desire to be actively associated with 
it is ever growing. A whole-heart- 
ed and enthusiastic response was 
given by the sisters to the request to 
make articles of clothing for the 
needy. The clothing thus made, or 
as much thereof as was necessary 
was used in the branches ; the sur- 
plus was sent' to mission headquar- 
tersi for distribution to the needy in 
the country districts. In addition 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 171 

to the social service work done by Central States Mission (Leaven- 
the Relief Society as an organiza- worth Branch) : 
tion, the sisters are cooperating with rj* ROM the Leavenworth Branch, 
well known local charitable associa- T Kansas, comes a very interest- 
tions in studying the conditions that ing report of the Relief Society. It 
prevail among the poor, and by ex- i s a small branch, but the spirit of 
ample and precept are helping to the organization is the same in all 
bring about an improvement in the parts. There were just eight mem- 
home conditions of the unfortunate, bers in the organization, but they 
Imbued with the missionary spirit prepared dinner for all who attend- 
quite a number of the sisters in the ed the East Kansas district confer- 
branches do regular missionary ence in Leavenworth, on August 10, 
work when their household duties 1930. It was a very successful af- 
permit. They tract two by two. fair. Due to the fine cooperation of 
hold cottage meetings and accom- the Bee Hive Girls in the branch, 
pany the lady missionaries in dis- dinner was served to all in attend- 
tributing Gospel literature, holding ance, and a nice little sum was net- 
meetings, visiting, etc. More and ted for the use of the organization, 
more the sisters are relying on the Sister Charlotte T. Bennion, presi- 
Relief Society Magazine as an au- dent of the Central States Mission, 
thoritative, helpful and inspiring was in attendance. There were 
guide in their work. In the study also some visitors from other con- 
of the outlined lessons, the spiritual ferences. Very excellent instruc- 
side of our duties is clearly seen, tions were given, and the sisters in 
and the desire for advancement this branch, as in others, are widely 
along literary lines is well answered, scattered and have many difficulties, 
We are most appreciative of the but they are enjoying their work, 
wise counsel and blessing and friend- and through it find inspiration to 
ship of the general organization of solve their problems and continue 
the Relief Society." in the work of the Lord. 



Notes to the Field 

Bicentennial of George Washington tion will be the planting of ten mil- 

In 192*4 , when Calvin Coolidge Hon trees throughout the United 

was President of the United States, States to be dedicated with appro- 

the Gecrge Washington Bicentennial priate ceremonies by the citizens of 

Commision was created foy joint the various communities on Feb. 22, 

session of Congress. 1932. 

The purpose as expressed by that A record will be kept of all trees 

body is — "to so commemorate the planted and the names will be rec- 

first true American that future gen- orded as members of the American 

erations of American citizens may Tree Association, and certificates 

live according to the example and will be sent to each one. 

precepts of his exalted life and char- In Dec, 1930, Governor George 

acter and thus perpetuate the Ameri- H. Dern appointed the Utah Bicen- 

can Republic. " tennial Commission of 'which 

An important part of this celebra- Chauncy P. Overfield is chairman, 



172 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



to arrange Utah's part in the Na- 
liunal celebration. 

The Utah Commission aspires to 
have each city and town in Utah 
arrange a tree planting program for 
Arbor Day, (Which will be on or 
before April 15.) 

Such trees are to be dedicated 
with appropriate ceremonies Feb. 
22, 1932. 

The General Board of Women's 
National Relief Society in recent 
session voted to co-operate with the 
Utah Commision in this tree plant- 
ing program. 

Every stake and ward might ar- 
range for appropriate planting in 
suitable places such as grounds of 
houses of worship, play grounds, 
public parks, etc. 

The Relief Society has always 
responded to every patriotic appeal. 

This is a rare opportunity to hon- 
or the father of our country and 
at the same time to enrich the for- 
estry and beautify some sacred spot. 

The Jones-Cooper Bill 

The General Board is watching 
with keen interest the fate of the 
Jones-Cooper Maternity Bill, the 
successor to the Sheppard-Towner 
Act, which authorizes "an annual 
federal appropriation of one million 
dollars to be spent along with equal 
amount's from states for promotion 
of the health and welfare of mothers 
and infants." 

The Bill passed the Senate by a 
vote of 56 to 10 on January 10. On 
January 15, night letters were sent 



to Utah's representatives Colton 
and Loofbourow by the General 
Board stating that the Relief So- 
ciety strongly favored the passage 
of this measure, and replies were 
received that these representatives 
favored the bill. 

Magazine Subscriptions 

We had hoped to publish in this 
issue the ,record of stake subscrip- 
tions ,to our |magazine. )So few 
stakes have made their report to us 
that we will wait to get word from 
more stakes. We note with pleas- 
ure that earnest, efficient work has 
been done by those who have re- 
ported. Many stakes have given 
prizes to the wards securing the 
highest percentage of subscriptions. 
Kindly send in your reports as soon 
as possible. 



We wish to inform subscribers to 
the Magazine who have not yet sent 
in their renewal for 1931 that we 
still have January numbers. Also 
let us suggest that as an organiza- 
tion you have one volume bound 
each year and keep for reference 
in the files of your Relief Society. 

Class Teachers'. 

Are you having the membership 
of the class participate or are you 
occupying all the time yourselves? 
Teaching is not a pouring in process. 
Draw out the members, stimulate 
their thinking, encourage them to 
express themselves. 



Henry Ford asked Steinmetz, "In the next fifty years, where 
do you think the greatest development will be made ?" 

"I think the greatest development will be made along spiritual 
lines — the greatest power in the development of mankind," was 
the reply. 



MRS 

MRS 

MRS 

MRS 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 



THE RELIEF SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF 
JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 

Mo'lto — Charity Never Faileth 

THE GENERAL BOARD 

. LOUISE YATES ROBINSON - - President 

. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

. JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

. JULIA A. F. LUND .... . General Secretary and Treasurer 

Emma A. Empey Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Airs. Ida P. Beal 

Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Marcia K. Howella 

Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Lalene H. Hart Mrs. Elise B. Alder Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Inez K. Allen Mrs. Mary Connelly Kimball 

Cora L. Bennion 



Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Editor -• Mary Connelly Kimball 

Manager .... Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 

Room 20, Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Magazine entered as second-class matter at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah 



Vol. XVIII 



MARCH, 1931 



No. 3 



EDITORIAL 



Our Mother Tongue 



ONE of the graces and the de- 
lights of a public speaker and 
conversationalist is a knowl- 
edge of and a correct use of his 
mother tongue. To have a large 
vocabulary and to pronounce words 
correctly is very desirable. Few peo- 
ple give the time and attention that 
they could and should to increasing 
their vocabulary and learning the 
correct pronunciation of words. 

Some carry too far the feeling of 
their inability to speak as perfectly 
as they would like to, however, 
and lose golden opportunities of 
growth. We heard of a woman re- 
cently who was afraid to give a 
lesson in Relief Society lest she 
might mispronounce a word. Col- 
lege graduates and even professors 



are not entirely free from errors in 
this line. The procedure which one 
woman followed who had a remark- 
able knowledge of words might 
profitably be followed by others. 
When asked how it was that she 
knew how to spell, pronounce, de- 
fine and use accurately so many 
words, she replied, ''Whenever I 
come across an unfamiliar word, I 
look it up, impress it upon my mem- 
ory, and make it mine. Then as 
soon as possible, I use it. If an 
educated person pronounces a word 
differently from what I am used to, 
I look it up to see which pronun- 
ciation is correct." Her extensive 
range of words was a delight to her 
family and to all who conversed 
with her. Let us learn more of our 
mother tongue. 



174 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Our Anniversary Celebration 



IT is a desirable thing to fittingly 
dbserve anniversaries. We hope 
every society will enjoy a special 
program on March 17. Such occa- 
sions offer excellent opportunity to 
portray the first organization, to 
graphically show what it entailed, to 
follow the history of the organiza- 
tion from its genesis to the present, 
and to honor those who have been 
instrumental in carrying on the great 
work in times past. 

Since 1842, when the 'Prophet 
Joseph Smith organized the Relief 
Society, countless thousands have 
been benefited by it — some by help 
extended in time of need, but the 
majority by working in its varied 
activities. Those who have admin- 
istered to the sick, the dying, the 
sorrowing, the needy, the distressed, 
have learned the joy of service. 
Those who have studied the lessons 
offered have realized the joy of com- 
muning with great works of liter- 
ature and studying great problems 
and seeking to solve them. 

The growth of the Relief Society 
has been marked — from 18 at the 



first meeting to more than 62,000 at 
the present time. At first, its mem- 
bership consisted largely of elderly 
women. Now, the young like to 
join, participate in its courses of 
study, and serve. Once, no study 
courses were offered ; now it is 
realized that to give abundantly, one 
must store up abundantly. The 
richer and fuller her own life, the 
more she has to give to the dis- 
tressed and needy. 

Let those who have served the 
Relief Society and are out of office 
at the present time, be not forgotten. 
We urge our officers to invite them 
personally to any special affairs the 
Relief Society may give, and espe- 
cially to the 17 of March celebra- 
tion. Let those who have presided 
over the work in wards and stakes 
in times past be greeted most warm- 
ly and given seats of honor. 

It is a good thing to vary the 
routine of the program by some- 
thing different, so appoint your com- 
mittees early. Let them plan care- 
fully that March 17 may be a red 
letter event in our season's activities. 



John Q. Cannon 



OUR sympathy goes out to those 
who are called upon to mourn 
the death of John Q. Cannon. His 
wife, Annie Wells Cannon, and his 
sister, Rosannah Cannon Irvine, are 
two of the General Board's most 
valued members. Sister Cannon has 
been a wonderful wife and mother. 
She is blessed in being the mother of 
twelve children, only one preceded 
the father to the great beyond. She 



and her husband were most con- 
genial, enjoying literature and the 
fine things of life together. In his 
editorial work (he was editor of the 
"Deseret Newis") she was a con- 
stant help to him. She will have 
many happy memories of their long 
life together and great satisfaction 
in knowing that she always helped 
and encouraged him in his work. 



A Period of Stress and Strain 

Many have been going through a cial difficulties have caused them to 
period of stress and strain. Finan- endure sleepless nights and anxious 



EDITORIAL 



175 



days. Now the strain is beginning 
to lighten, and as people look back 
they realise that the big thing was 
not so much what they have had to 
pass through, but how they have 
met it. Seneca has his pilot say, 
"Oh, Neptune, you may save me if 
you will; you may sink me if you 
will ; but whatever happens, I shall 



keep my rudder true." Those who 
have kept their rudder true, who 
have maintained their integrity, and 
have met their difficulties squarely, 
will emerge from the furnace as 
gold purified by fire. They will have 
been made stronger and more stead- 
fast by the struggle. 



The First Relief Society 

(March 17, 1842) 
By Jeanette McKay Morrell 



The key was turned, 
The portals opened wide 
And those who yearned, 
And longed, and prayed, and cried, 
Found themselves free — 

With flag unfurled, 
To march, with might and mind, 
First in the world, 
Of glorious woman kind 
With this equality. 

Their duties these : 
To seek poor suffering souls 
Their pain to ease 
To urge them toward new goals 
On Life's broad sea. 



Their hearts aflame 
With love of fellow-men, 
In His dear name, 
They pledged their honor then, 
His elect to be ; 

Their sincerity attest — 
They brought their jewels rare, 
And everything the best, 
With those less fortunate to share 
At the first gentle plea. 

Auspicious day! 
From that first morn 'til now, 
They've led the way ; 
Kept sacred every vow ; 
And justified the trust. 



Love of God, the very essence of religion, was always with me. I 
never doubted the Lord's existence, his goodness or his power. When in 
trouble my first thought was to pray to him. I did not share the notion, 
expressed by some of my fellows, that "the Lord doesn't want us to bother 
him about every little thing." I have never believed that we trouble our 
Heavenly Father by craving blessings at his hand. Prayer is an expression 
of faith, and the exercise of faith, whereby comes spiritual development, is 
one of the great objects and privileges of this earthly existence, our 
"second estate," where we "walk by faith," as before we "walked by sight." 
I believed then and believe now, that God's ear is as open to the pleadings 
of a little child, as to the prayers of the congregation or the shouts of armies 
going into battle. — "Trough Memory's Halls" by Orson F. Whitney. 



Lesson Department 

Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in May) 
Book of Mormon — The Last of the Nephites 



Assignment 

Read carefully the section called 
"The Book of Mormon" from lie- 
ginning to end, till you reach the 
section known as "The Book of 
Ether." Then, skipping the "Book 
of Ether," which we shall take in 
the lesson following this, read all 
of the "Book of Moroni." 

It will be helpful also if you can 
read what is said about Mormon 
and Moroni in the Dictionary of the 
Book of Mormon and in chapter 31 
of the Message and Characters of 
the Book of Mormon. 

Story of the Lesson 

Here is where the Nephites come 
to the precipice and jump ofT. They 
have continued to go from bad to 
worse in the period after Christ, 
till they reach a point where they 
cannot see where their own higher 
interest lies, as has been the case so 
many times in the history of indi- 
viduals and of peoples. 

Ammoron, who has the plates 
and the other sacred things, charges 
the ten-year-old Mormon with the 
duty of keeping the record of his 
people, because he is an observant 
youth. Meantime, he hides the rec- 
ords in a hill, where Mormon is to 
look for them when the time comes 
for him to begin setting down the 
historical facts of his own day. 
Mormon began this work fourteen 
years afterwards, when he was 
twenty-five years old. 

In 322 A. D. the last war broke 
out between the Lamanites and the 



Nephites. It continued, with occa- 
sional recesses, till after the year 
400. At first the I\ephites won. 
This was due partly to the fact that 
they were not yet "ripe in iniq- 
uity," as the historian picturesquely 
puts it, and partly to the fact that 
they were led by Mormon, who was 
made their leader at fifteen. But, 
as time went on, they lost out in the 
numerous battles. Meantime if the 
Lamanites were victorious, they 
drove the Nephites from their homes 
into the north countries ; if the Ne- 
phites won in the battle, they re- 
turned to their homes. Occasion- 
ally Mormon, who was also a 
prophet, induced his people to turn 
to the Lord. Whereupon they 
would win victories, but presently 
they would lapse again into forget- 
fulness of God. Then they would 
lose. Finally Mormon became dis- 
gusted and refused to lead them into 
battle, till, as he saw their disas- 
ters, his heart would soften and he 
gave in. This is the way things 
went between the years 326 and 
385, with a ten years' respite, dur- 
ing which both peoples were nurs- 
ing their hatred of the enemy. 

Hundreds of thousands of troops 
were engaged in these battles. To- 
ward the last days we read of hor- 
rors unspeakable. Whenever the 
Lamanites took any prisoners, they 
proceeded to kill the men, ravish the 
women, and maltreat the little chil- 
dren. Mormon writes to his son that 
the women and children were fed 
the very flesh of their slain husbands 
and fathers. Truly, as Mormon 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



177 



says, they were without civilization. 
In the end — that is, after the year 
400 — the Nephites disappear or are 
absorbed into the Lamanite popula- 
tion. 

Meanwhile, however, Mormon 
performed the task assigned him 
by Ammoron. He got the plates 
from the hill, set down on them the 
events of his own time, made an 
abridgment of the entire history of 
the Lehites, from the beginning to 
the end, and turned the records over 
to his son Moroni, with a set of 
small plates of Nephi, to be finished 
and then hidden away in the earth. 

Moroni also had been a Nephite 
military leader. He is not the same 
Moroni that we read of some lessons 
ago, who was a contemporary of 
/\malickiah. This Moroni is the 
one who delivered the plates of the 
Book of Mormon to the prophet 
Joseph Smith. After ibeing given 
the record by his father, he adds 
some of the happenings of his own 
day, translates and abridges the rec- 
ord of the Jaredites, and then hides 
away the precious things in the hill 
Cumorah, where they remain undis- 
turbed for about fourteen hundred 
years. 

Outline 

I. The record of Mormon. 

1. His war record. 

2. His struggles with the Ne- 
phites for righeousness. 

3. His leadership of the army 
against the Lamanites. 

4. His work on the history of 
his people. 

(1) As historian of his 
times. 

(2) As abridger of past 
records. 

5. His character. 

II. The work of Moroni. 

1. Who Moroni was. 

2. His work on the plates. 

3. His task of translator. 



4. His own additions to the 
record. 

5. His appearance to Joseph 
Smith. 

Notes 

1. The Fall of Nations : The Ne- 
phite nation came to an end after 
it had lived for a thousand years. 
It was not the first nation, however, 
to do that, nor the last. Babylon 
Chaldea, Ninevah, Israel, Greece, 
Rome — these, too, have gone, leav- 
ing only their names and the lesson 
of their downfall. Why does a na- 
tion die? 

A nation does not come to an end 
for the same reason that an individ- 
ual does. An individual dies be- 
cause his body gives out — the res- 
piratory system fails, or the food 
channels refuse to function, or the 
circulatory ducts cease to work. 
The trouble is generally physical. 
Sometimes, however, he leads too 
fast a life, as we say of one who 
dissipates ; and that also reacts on 
the body. Often we find people 
dying from sheer old age. 

But there is no such reason why 
a nation's life cannot go on forever. 
A nation is merely an association 
of individuals, a group of people 
bound together by invisible ties. 
Kingdoms are snuffed out at times 
when the ruler becomes oppressive 
and tyrannical, or just merely weak. 
Democracies die because the major- 
ity of the people want the wrong 
things. That is what the good King 
Mosiah tells us in the Book of Mor- 
mon. There are certain laws of per- 
petuity for governments of every 
sort, and if they do not adhere to 
these laws they go down. 

In the last analysis, however, the 
decision as to whether a nation shall 
live or die, rests with the individual 
members of that nation. One his- 
torian attributes the fall of the 
Roman empire to the fact that every- 



178 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



body wanted to live in a city ; an- 
other, to the general immorality 
that prevailed at it's downfall. In- 
dividual sins brought on the final 
scenes in the Jewish nation. And 
that is probably why the Nephite 
people came to their end. A chain 
is no stronger than its weakest link. 
Whenever the individual members 
of any nation become so corrupt as 
to give a general tone to the think- 
ing and the deeds of the nation, then 
the end is in sight 1 . That is why 
the more intelligent men and women 
in pur own nation are becoming 
alarmed at the corruption of the 
courts in New York City, the 
gangster's power in Chicago, and the 
almost universal disrespect for law 
in -the United States. 

2. Mormon : The last of the 
prophet-generals among the Ne- 
phites is one of the most interesting 
characters in the Book of Mormon. 

In his long life of perhaps sev- 
enty-eight years he was an active 
leader among his people. Born in 
the year 311 A. D., he seems to have 
attained his maturity, both physic- 
ally and mentally, at a very early 
age. At ten his qualities attracted 
the attention of the historian Am- 
moran, who placed in his keeping 
the Nephite records. At' fifteen he 
was asked to take command of the 
entire Nephite army — a heavy re- 
sponsibility in times like this. There 
must, therefore, have been some ex- 
traordinary qualities about this man. 

One of these was his physical 
stature. As already stated, he ma- 
tured in body very early. And then 
he was a man of strong, decided 
convictions as to ,the religious life. 
For, say what you will, to believe 
with all your heart in anything as 
fundamental as religion at' once sets 
you apart in any society or age. 
Mormon was a firm believer in Jesus 
Christ and his power to save. 
Since this sort of thing appears to 



have been rare in his time, he there- 
fore stood out. 

Also he was full of courage. Not 
the courage merely that enables one 
to face the enemy in battle, but the 
rarer courage that inspires one to 
reprimand a whole people, includ- 
ing the army, when they leave the 
path of duty and righteousness. 
And Mormon did that time and 
again. "Behold," he says to his 
son concerning the people, "I am 
laboring with them continually ; and 
when I speak the word of God with 
sharpness they tremble and anger 
against me; and when I use no 
sharpness they harden their heart's 
against it. Wherefore, J fear lest 
the Spirit of the Lord hath ceased 
to strive with them." 

But Mormon was more than a 
prophet and military man. He was 
also an historian. [And he carried 
on his literary tasks alongside his 
other duties. To make an abridg- 
ment of the record of a people for 
a thousand years is no easy job, 
even when you have nothing else 
to do, especially, one would imag- 
ine, as all the writing had to be en- 
graved on gold plates. It may well 
be that Mormon had to make even 
the plates on iwhich he wrote the 
history. 

3. Moroni: A worthy son of a 
worthy sire, is what one thinks on 
approaching the life of jMoroni. 

In all three respects Moroni was 
the son of his father. He was a 
military man, a prohet, and an his- 
torian. During the life-time of his 
father, Moroni had command of a 
division of the army, and appears 
to have been very efficient in that 
capacity. That he was a prophet, 
not in the lesser sense of one who 
predicts but of one who is a seer, 
is evident from the fact that he 
translated ,the Book of t Ether, a 
Jaredite record in a foreign Ian- 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



179 



guage. Most probably the means 
he used in its translation was the 
urim and thummim, or interpre- 
ters. And then he finished the rec- 
ord on the plates which his father 
had given him, adding some letters 
from his father and some of the 
forms practiced by the church of 
his times. 

Moroni, furthermore, is the con- 
necting link between his time and 
Joseph -Smith's. He buried the 
plates and the other precious things 
in Cumorah, and then, after the 
lapse of fourteen hundred years, 
uncovered them to the gaze of the 
prophet of the nineteenth century. 
In the meantime, however, he had 
died — just how we are not, of 
course, informed — and was raised 
from the dead, so that he appeared 



to Joseph (Smith in his resurrected 
form. 

It was a great mission that Mo- 
roni performed. 

Questions 

1. Tell in brief the story of the 
years during which the Nephite 
nation was disappearing. 

2. Compare the character and 
personality of Mormon with those 
of the first Nephi in as many re- 
spects as you can. 

3. Do you see any evidences of 
decay ' in the nations of the earth 
today? If so, what are they? Is 
there any cause for alarm respect- 
ing our own nation? ,If so, point 
them out. What must the people of 
our country do in order to preserve 
our principles of government? 



Work and Business 

(Second Week in May.) 

Teacher's Topic For April 

(This topic is to be given at the special teachers' meeting the first 

week in May.) 

Our Responsibility to Family and Neighbors 



I. There is a duty in every Latter- 
day Saint home that rests al- 
most entirely upon the mother 
and that duty is teaching the 
children to love and cherish 
every ordinance of the Gospel. 

a. Blessing the baby should be 
made a real event to all 
members of the household. 
Tell of Hannah and other 
mothers in Ancient Israel, 
looking upon this ordinance 
as very important. 

b. Children should be told of 
the importance of Baptism 
years before they are can- 
didates for baptism ; and al- 
so of confirmation. 

c. Training in the Priesthood 



quorums and especially the 
privilege of passing the Sac- 
rament of the Lord's Sup- 
per should be held high in 
the estimation of boys par- 
ticipating. 

Many others could be 
named but space will not 
permit. 
II. Our duty to our friends. There 

are a number of obligations we 

owe to our neighbors that we 

must not overlook. 

a. Where there are parents in 
any given neighborhood 
striving to send their chil- 
dren to Sunday School reg- 
ularly and on time, every 
parent in that locality 



180 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



should silently cooperate to 
have their children do the 
same. This applies to day 
school also. 

b. If ome are endeavoring to 
abstain from Sunday amuse- 
ments, all parents should do 
team work along that line. 

c. The curfew law should re- 
ceive the united support of 
all. 

d. Quarantine Regulations ; 

e. Respect for property, in 



fact, everything that makes 
for a better community 
standard should be taught 
and enforced. Boys and 
girls who live under regu- 
lations of this type make 
better citizens than those 
who have been denied this 
wholesome training. The 
value of cooperation of par- 
ents for community welfare 
cannot be over-estimated. 
Try it. 



Literature 



(Third Week in May) 
Part II On the Short Story in France 



Suggested Stories 

"The Substitute," by Francois 
Coppe. 

"Our Lady's Juggler," by Anatole 
France. 

The Authors 

Francois Coppe 

Francois Coppe was a man who 
prospered in life, both in a material 
and spiritual way. Success came to 
him while he was still young, and it 
continued with him the rest of his 
life. With it, however, he managed 
to retain much of his simplicity and 
his sense of spiritual values. 

He was born in Paris in 1842, 
where he spent the greater part of 
his life. Coppe's father was a very 
minor official in the Ministry of 
War and his mother, to eke out her 
husband's earnings, kept books for 
a neighboring tradesman. While 
Coppe was still very young and at- 
tending school, his father died. Now 
the boy had to earn his own living in 
addition to helping support his 
mother and sister. One of his first 
appointments was that of a very 
junior helper in the War Office. 



If he had not been endowed with 
some genius, his record might have 
been as humble as that of his fa- 
ther's. The boy wrote verses in 
secret, and once he became so dis- 
couraged that he threw them all into 
the fire and was for leaving poetry 
to her own devices. But the poet in 
him refused to die and some time 
later that man of French letters, Ca- 
tulle Mendes, became interested in 
Coppe and helped the young man to 
place his poems. The first one to 
bring Coppe any great popularity 
was "Le Reliquaire," published in 
1866. Soon his verses were known 
all over France and schoolboys were 
declaiming them. By this time Cop- 
pe seemed definitely to have found 
his subject material. He was inter- 
ested in the lives of the resigned and 
voiceless poor. He was naturally 
sentimental, and often his pathos 
was overdrawn, but his observations 
are true and his form of writing- 
beautiful and precise. 

Coppe, like every other writer, 
wished to produce a drama. In 
1869 he wrote "La Passant" in 
which Sarah Bernhardt made her 
first real success. Heartened by the 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



181 



reception of his drama in verse, 
Coppe wrote a number of epic plays, 
using- French, British, and Italian 
history for his subjects. 

After a few years, however, he 
gave most of his attention to prose. 
His contributions were found in 
many of the periodicals of his day. 
He continued to interpret with some 
humor, and with real understanding 
the prosaic facts of life. Somber- 
ness rather than humor, is more apt 
to be the prevailing tone of his sto- 
ries, but his details are never sordid. 

Before he had really begun to 
grow old his literary eminence was 
recognized, and in 1876 he was made 
a member of the Legion of Honor 
and in 1884 elected to the Academy. 
He was also a sincere convert to the 
Catholic church during the later 
years of his life. Many of the crit- 
ics of his time asserted that not 
one of his lines would outlive him, 
but Coppe's stories are already list- 
ed among the classics. He died in 
1908. 

Anatole France (Anatole Thibault) 

Anatole France must be included 
in the lessons on the short story in 
France. For the last twenty-five 
years of his life he was the recog- 
nized leader of French letters and 
enjoyed a world wide fame. It is 
almost impossible to write of him 
briefly because of his many-sided 
nature. He produced some fifty vol- 
umes, including d|rama, criticism, 
history, poetry, novels, short stories, 
and philosophical reflections, and 
there was an unbelievably wide 
range of thought in each of his 
fields of writing. And Anatole 
France is as varied as his writings. 

His dates are from 1844 to 1924, 
and Paris was his home for a good 
many of those years. In his youth 
he learned much of books from his 
father's shop and from the clerical 



college, where he also acquired a 
hatred of monks. (He does not dis- 
close this hatred, however, in his 
story of "Our Lady's Juggler.") 
Like most writers he was born poor. 
"Poverty," he wrote, "taught me the 
true value of books useful to life." 

When Anatole was very young he 
began to write. Indeed his master- 
piece, "Sylvestre Bonnard," one of 
the most beautiful stories in the 
world, was produced when he was 
thirty-seven, and it is quite prob- 
able that he wrote it several years 
earlier. By 1894 he was elected to 
the Academy, an honor that he held 
lightly. 

Throughout all of Anatole 
France's works there is a subtle 
intelligence. He was rightly called 
one of the most intelligent men of 
his day. His intelligence was ac- 
companied by a great curiosity, a 
thirst for knowedge. But he was a 
dilettante, eager to know for the 
sake of knowing, without practically 
applying his knowledge. Yet, for ail 
of his apparent laziness, he was a 
voluminous writer. Much of it 
would never have been done had it 
not been for a certain woman who 
forcibly encouraged him to write. 

Art with him was not art for art's 
sake. France believed that the 
writer should throw himself into the 
strife of the political and industrial 
world. In 1894, when Captain 
Dreyfus was wrongly accused of 
treason so that guilty superiors 
could be protected, Anatole France 
was one of the few men who fought 
for Dreyfus. For years he threw 
himself into the Dreyfus affair, and 
because the church and army were 
so closely connected with it, he bit- 
terly attacked both of them. But 
in 1914 at the age of seventy, he 
asked to be allowed to serve his 
country as a private. 

For the most part, however, his 
life was what he said of it : "I have 



182 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



always been inclined to take life as 
a spectacle." 

France believed that' existence 
would be intolerable if one did not 
dream. Several of his most charm- 
ing books are concerned with the 
dreams of the boy, Jacques Anatole. 
Along with his dreams he was sen- 
sual. The great sin, he once de- 
clared, was to deprive one's self of 
pleasure. But there was a redeem- 
ing side to his nature. He had a 
genuine kindness and sympathy, and 
did much to help the poor and op- 
pressed. 

At forty-four he said: "I am 
sure of a very few things in the 
world." At seventy-five : "I should 
be tempted to put very large ques- 
tion marks after all that I write, all 
that 'I say, and all that I think." 
But now comes another contradic- 
tion in his nature. It was perhaps 
of himself that he was thinking 
when he wrote: "Those who 
thought him irresolute and fickle 
had not taken the trouble to ob- 
serve his world of ideas." 

Few people have loved beauty 
more than Anatole France. In 
sheer beauty and charm of style he 
has few superiors or even peers. 
On the other hand he refused to take 
the trouble to compose. Events in 
his writings are rarely well coordi- 
nated, and the outcome of the plot 
is rarely the chief point of interest. 
Sometimes, indeed, there is no out- 
come. It is for the subtleness of 
thought' and the charm of his ex- 
pression that he is read. 

"Our Lady's Juggler," however, 
is one of his better coordinated sto- 
ries. Unlike most other French 
stories there is little in the forepart 
to indicate what' the end will be. 
Other writers would have been apt 
to finish the story with the Virgin's 
act, but France rambles on a few 
lines further. Throughout the story 
he diffuses his love of beauty. His 



descriptions of the monk's worship 
of the Virgin are sheer delight to 
read, and even the humble Barnabas 
is touched with beauty. 

If the class members are not 
acquainted with Anatole France it 
is best to approach him guardedly. 
Many of his works are only for a 
certain type of reader, but' the 
"Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard," the 
story of an old man, is a delightful 
book for any one to read. Then 
there is a collection of short stories 
called "Bluebeard and Other Tales," 
whose skepticism most people will 
enjoy. 

The Substitute 

Coppe's "The Substitute" pre- 
sents the pitiful struggle of a man 
to find some way of living in honor. 
It is not so much an indictment 
against the world that' allowed Jean 
Francois Leturc to be beaten in the 
end, or even to have to make the 
struggle, as lit is an exposition of 
one man's soul. 

The story, in Imany ways, follows 
the true French form. It has only 
the two major characters, though 
the underworld of jParis, the men of 
the prisons and of the galleys, and 
the humble working men of the city, 
make up its background. And its 
single impression is unmistakable. 

Its major character, Jean Fran- 
cois Leturc, was born into poverty 
and vice, but he was blessed with a 
sweetness of disposition and a desire 
to live in harmony with people. 
Had he been privileged with a nor- 
mal life — home, parents, friends, 
security, and education, he would no 
doubt have grown into an amiable, 
hard-working man, not so intelli- 
gent that he would have escaped 
being imposed upon. But life chose 
that he should be thrown on the 
streets to ;sing a refrain with a 
drunken failure. 

It is at the turning point of Jean's 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



183 



life, when he sees the young priest 
standing in his schoolroom, that 
many critics would say that Coppe's 
pathos was overdrawn. But life 
occasionally furnishes examples of 
that kind of pathos. At any rate 
the sentiment that carried Jean away 
from Jhis old ways was strong 
enough to change his whole mode 
of thought and doing. 

Jean needed just one more thing 
to complete his life. He found a 
friend — not a woman, for that kind 
of life had been too long denied him 
— but a man whom he could love. 
The new friend was much younger 
than Jean, a peasant named Savin- 
ien who was new in Paris. In him 
Jean found piety and an untarnished 
background, the things he so longed 
for in (his new life. 

But Savinien had a weakness for 
women, which is perhaps the most 
disastrous of all weaknesses. To 
obtain money for some woman he 
stole money. And the (French po- 
lice are not hesitant about thieves. 
It was then that Jean was forced to 
make his decision. He could 
choose either security or the ,sight 
of the one person he loved being 
started on the dark path of crime 
from which there is little escape. 
He did not wait long, and he made 
but one request of Savinien. 

Coppe pictures Jean's sense of 
futility when he feels that his fail- 
ure to protect Savinien is due to his 
bad habits of the old life. On the 
other hand there is no futility in 
Jean's deed. It was a thing so 
splendid that it entirely redeems 
him and it may save the younger 
and weaker man for a life of honor. 

Questions 

What is the significance of the 
title? 

Why could not this title be used 
for an American story of the same 
subject ? 



What things in the story give it 
a strictly Parisian flavor? 

What is the single impression of 
the story? What' is the irony in 
the last line ? Show the importance 
of this last line to the whole story. 

Point out parts in the story that 
might be called overly sentimental. 

In what' ways does Savinien show 
his weakness? 

Why was Jean so drawn to Sa- 
vinien? 

Our Lady's Juggler 

Our Lady's Juggler is a beautiful 
story both in subject matter and in 
style. It shows one of the contra- 
dictions in Anatole France's life 
that he who seemed to hate the 
church and jprofessed no belief in 
God, could write so lovingly of the 
medieval life of the monks. 

The story concerns itself with a 
poor juggler who, "like most of 
those who exist by their accomplish- 
ments, had a hard time making a 
living." Barnabas, the juggler, was 
a simple man, enjoying the warmth 
of summer and enduring the bitter 
discomforts of iwinter because he 
knew the warmth would come again. 
Juggling was "the finest calling in 
the world if he could but eat every 
day" until he learned of the ways 
of the priests whose lives were per- 
petual hymns to God. That to him 
seemed better than juggling. 

So he became a monk and his 
days were pleasant' until he discov- 
ered that while all the other priests 
exercised some special talent in their 
worship of the Virgin, he had none. 
He was not jealous of the talent of 
Brother Maurice who could copy 
on parchment or Brother Alexandre 
who decorated the parchment with 
delicate miniatures of holy things, 
nor of Brother Marbode who cut 
images in stone. No, he felt badly 
because the Virgin must think him 
poor who could do none of these 



184 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



wonderful things. But there are 
compensations and France gives 
Barnabas a whimsical compensation. 
He declares that one's talents, how- 
ever lowly and mean they are, if 
they are executed in love and in the 
best' manner possible, are as accept- 
able as those of the highest. And 
he has the Virgin step down from 
her pedestal to prove his contention. 
This story should be read slowly 
to enjoy France's subtle wit and 
his mellowed observations on life. 

Questions 
What things kept' iBarnabas from 



enjoying his juggler's life to the 
utmost ? 

What was the Virgin Cult of the 
middle ages? 

What other things in this story 
place it in the middle ages? 

Why did Barnabas feel that he 
was stupid and ignorant ? 

Characterize Barnabas briefly. 

What was the first reaction of the 
brothers when they learned what 
Barnabas was doing? Was it a 
natural reaction ? How did the Vir- 
gin rebuke them? 



Social Service 



(Fourth Week in May) 

Personality Study: The Creative Mind 

Based on Overstreet's "Influencing Human Behavior," pages 217-255 



"Is it scientific?" "Has it been 
established experimentally?" The 
standard for judging things ex- 
pressed by these questions seems to 
have come to dominate if not also 
to domineer in our present civiliza- 
tion. The writer is inclined to pity 
certain musicians, painters, religion- 
ists, etc., who constantly talk as 
though the interests they represent 
would be greatly enhanced if they 
could persuade others that music, or 
painting, or religion, has not merely 
a scientific aspect, but that each of 
these is in reality a science. As 
though something that could be 
proved experimentally or found to 
satisfy the standards of science were 
more important or more to be ap- 
preciated by us than a thing of 
beauty or one of the great arts ! 

Our last lesson was designed to 
help us appreciate some of the meth- 
ods of science. This lesson has 
much the same general purpose. 
The above paragraph should not be 



construed as one intended to dis- 
parage the technique of scientific 
experimentation. The point is that 
science is held in such very high 
regard today even by non-scientists 
that we need especially to be pre- 
pared to distinguish between the 
genuine article, so to speak, and the 
many counterfeits which are bound 
under the circumstances to show up 
on every hand. Remembering that 
our appreciation of science need not 
carry with it a disparagement of art, 
let us learn even more about how the 
scientific spirit may contribute sub- 
stantially to social progress. 

The very popularity of science is 
perhaps its greatest present handi- 
cap. The tendency to accept mere 
verbal parroting of scientific 
phrases as the equivalent of a gen- 
uine understanding of science; the 
fact that almost anyone can manip- 
ulate such physical and mechanical 
benefits of science as the automobile, 
the radio, and the telephone ; as well 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



185 



as the deliberate pseudo-scientific 
practices of fakers in medicine, 
geology, psychology, etc., all tend to 
introduce confusion. Even the sup- 
posed sources of reliable training in 
the technique of scientific experi- 
mentation have (become contami- 
nated. Mr. Overstreet quite rightly 
is led to deplore the great amount 
of "authoritarian" stuff and mere 
"cook-book" science which passes 
for real science in our school labor- 
atories. Students are made to go 
through the motions of experiment- 
ing without ever actually doing any 
real experimenting. The shadow is 
accepted in lieu of the substance. 
Is it any wonder that in this so- 
called scientific age we have no 
widespread "experimental habit of 
mind?" The spirit of fearless and 
independent adventure coupled with 
a sufficiently disciplined sense of 
responsibility is indeed rare. Espe- 
cially is this so when it is proposed 
to extend the methods of scientific 
research beyond the field of the 
physical and mechanical into the 
realm of the emerging social 
sciences. 

We need to take active steps to 
substitute 'for the older type of 
"authoritarian training" with its 
consequent "passively acceptive" 
system of habits, a kind of training 
calculated to develop habits that are 
inquisitive, experimental, and cre- 
ative. We need to clarify our no- 
tions as to what constitutes origi- 
nality in the best sense of the word 
and then try to find out if and how 
this valuable trait may be encour- 
aged. 

The psychologist, Thorndike, has 
given an excellent discussion of the 
nature and development of initiative 
and originality. In this paragraph 
we can do little better than attempt 
to give a condensed version of part 
of his very helpful paper. Self- 



reliance, initiative and originality 
are not capricious general faculties 
of the mind. They are not like little 
slaves which might be made to re- 
spond to commands and admoni- 
tions. They are not to be perfected 
by indiscriminate practice for they 
represent, perhaps, a good many 
rather specialized habits. It is cer- 
tain that in a democracy we have 
little use for a general, diffuse, busy- 
body type of initiative or for a 
never conforming, mad-house type 
of originality. "Effective independ- 
ence, initiative and originality are 
not the negations of dependence, 
imitation, and fixed habits. * * * 
A good definition of intellectual in- 
dependence is 'reasoned depend- 
ence.' The truly initiating mind 
does not imitate less, but more. * * 
It is reasoned imitation ; the zeal to 
take the profitable risk, the hopeful 
leap in the dark." Originality in a 
very worthy sense of the term im- 
plies considerable industry at routine 
tasks and aggressive willingness to 
learn what otheis may have already 
contributed on the matter in ques- 
tion. It implies "strength in doing 
work that is new or doing it in new 
ways, an attitude of hoping to 
change knowledge or practice for 
the better, an organization of habits 
that causes their progressive modi- 
fication. 

The person who is creative or 
original is successful in making sig- 
nificant improvements in already ex- 
isting material. Perhaps the need 
is for material to be extended and 
elaborated, or to be useful it may 
need something like condensation 
and reorganization, or again it may 
need to be vitalized or put into more 
dynamic form in some way. In each 
case the creative mind may furnish 
us with a thing not wholly "new 
under the sun," but yet changed sig- 
nificantly for the better by the 



186 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

touch of his personality. It is the should be genuine optimists — open- 
product of his unique past expe- minded experimenters, and indus- 
rience, his yearning to be of service trious workers — willing to do our 
to his fellows, and of his intense own "dirty work" and all other 
and often long-continued effort. It work that needs to be done. We 
comes to be recognized as an im- should cultivate inquiring minds — 
portant contribution to human wel- minds accustomed to doubt the 
fare and is accordingly conserved finality of many of our ways of 
by society and is later used as a doing things. We should 'often 
basis for continued improvement iby take matters into our own hands and 
other creative minds. become "anxiously engaged in a 

™, , , i good cause, and do many things of 

Ihere are many people who be- 7 n r M1 J A , . & , 

r ,1 . ; • 1 1 . .u- „ (our) own free will, and bring to 

heve that we must simply let things J u • , , „ & 

, 1 .«■ * r J & r pass much righteousness, 

take their natural course — some 01 r w & , , 

,, , ,, , ,, , We seem to need someone . or 

them even assert that the natural ,«. _ , « , , , 

, • ,, , , ••, something to keep us at our best, 

course of events is the best guide w , & . w 11 «. 

i.^- -Ui. t-u 4.1. We need vigorous challenges or we 

as to what is right. Ihey are the , * & j • jut 1. t*. • 

, , r .1 j- a u a become lazy and indifferent. It is 

advocates of the now discredited ,, / , necessity is the 

laissez faire doctrine in politics or ,, % ■ ■ , • rv, * * 

', J „ 1 ,, ,1 . F , • mother of invention. Uverstreet 

the so-called theory _ that nature is tfaat „ conflict {s Qm dfl „ tQ 

right formerly believed by some k us from mental « slumping .» 

psychologists, sociologists, and edu- Heraclitus is oted as even - 

cators. They are the counterfeit that « TOr fa the Father of all 

optimists who seem to hold to the things> » And one of our recent 

theory of automatic social progress. writers seems tQ that practicall y 

They are the well-meaning people a „ of the characteristic ideals, sen- 

who think that God is going to force timents> and institutions of Mor- 

Heaven or the Millennium upon us monism have simply grown out of 

independent of what we may do or « its connictSj its struggles, its 

not do in relation to achieving these crises /> We may not agree with all 

conditions. We must admit that f tne se statements. Certain it is 

many of these people are at times that mere conflict is not to be sought 

quite inconsistent. For example, a f teTj for in itself it is neither good 

they curb the natural appetite for nor bad. There no doubt have been 

sweets, they patronize barbers, they many fruitless industrial conflicts, 

wear eye-glasses, they punish bul- race conflicts, religious conflicts, 

lies, they attend schools, they insist family feuds, etc. Overstreet sug- 

on promptness, they obey traffic sig- gests that conflict' can only be con- 

nals, etc., etc. But what is most sidered intelligent and "civilizing 

important just now is the fact that when it involves an effort (1) %o 

as a class they obstruct social pro- understand the opposing factor; and 

gress. They do not encourage or (2) to invent a means whereby the 

initiate programs to bring about so- opposition is succeeded by fruitful 

cial betterment. They do not ap- cooperation." 

preciate the need of social experi- In relation to the topic of our 

mentation for with them whatever lesson we can hardly over-emphasize 

is, is right. In a pinch they expect the importance of meeting our 

a sort of bell-hop god to come at necessary conflicts in ways that 

their bidding and get them out of make for progress. Whenever pos- 

their difficulties. As for us, we sible we should capitalize our handi- 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



187 



caps and treat our social conflicts 
as opportunities for the exercise of 
the creative mind, and the result 
should be an enlarged group con- 
sciousness and an increase of gen- 
eral good will. 

Strangely enough we sometimes 
deliberately create senseless conflicts 
and even offer prizes to induce our 
young folks to engage in them. The 
reference is to school debating. And 
why call these scantily attended pub- 
lic combats senseless ? Because they 
have little better justification than 
mere custom. These "verbal orgies" 
were started at a time when people 
thought that they afforded valuable 
general mental discipline and before 
we had learned to appreciate very 
generally that problems are not set- 
tled by flowery oratory nor the mar- 
shalling of mere statistics or high 
sounding opinions. The whole pro- 
cess has even been declared to be 
immoral and subversive to straight 
thinking because it necessarily in- 
volves a great deal of insincere ra- 
tionalization. It tends to substitute 
sophistry for the scientific ways of 
finding things out. 

Are these lessons helping us to 
do less of the sincere blundering that 
was mentioned in the Preface of our 
text? Are we gradually becoming 
more genuinely progressive and 
more skilled in what our author calls 
the "major art of life?" 

A Few Possible Problems for 
Discussion 

1. Do you agree with the first 
sentence on page 217 of our text? 
Support your answer with real 
evidence if possible. 

2. Why is the average housewife 
so notoriously non-progressive in 
relation to labor-saving devices in 
the home? Answer this question 
carefully without indulging in mere 
wise-cracks. 

3. In science it is evidence that 



counts — not mere authority in the 
usual sense of the word. Much of 
the medieval notion of authority has 
come down to us today. We ought 
to obey, even blindly, for "the king 
can do no wrong," is something like 
this old idea. Science, democracy, 
and true religion have made some 
headway in establishing a newer 
conception. It is that one has au- 
thority to the extent that one has 
superior insight and sincere willing- 
ness to serve. It is not a matter 
of arbitrarily established prestige as 
in an aristocracy, but rather a demo- 
cratic "leadership based upon spe- 
cial knowledge of the facts and 
flowering toward control of these 
facts for human ends. * * * Every 
man leads where his knowledge jus- 
tifies and follows where his ignor- 
ance compels." Discuss these two 
notions of authority in relation to 
the paragraph in Overstreet which 
begins near the bottom of page 225 
and also the first paragraph on page 
226. 

4. Do you know of a better chal- 
lenge to worthwhile individual in- 
itiative than that given in Doc. and 
Cov. 58:26-29, or a more sobering 
conception of authority than that 
expressed in Doc. and Cov. 121 :34- 
44 ? What appeals to you especially 
in each of these passages? 

5. Explain clearly what you un- 
derstand by originality in the best 
sense of the word. Read and report 
briefly on the article "What is In- 
vention?" in The Literary Digest 
for January 10, 1931. It would be 
easy to prove that during the first 
third of the last century there was 
considerable propaganda in Amer- 
ica, based upon the findings of 
eminent physicians quite in line with 
the teachings of the Word of Wis- 
dom as to the advisability of abstain- 
ing from wine, strong drink, to- 
bacco, tea, coffee, the excessive eat- 
ing of meat, etc. Might not the 



188 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Word of Wisdom be considered as 
highly original, nevertheless? What 
original elements, if any, can you 
point out that would not appear 
ridiculous to informed people? 
What do you understand by the 
term "plagiarism?" 

6. Criticize the notion that nature 
is unreservedly bad. That what is 
natural is right. What things must 
we do besides pray that God's "will 
may be done on earth as it is in 
Heaven ?" Try to be quite specific. 
Do any of these things imply that 
some natural tendencies need to be 
improved ? 

7. What are the really important 
things you learned from studying 
pages 244-245 of the text. Read to 
the class the one sentence on each 
page which you regard as most sig- 
nificant. 

8. Relate an instance or two with- 
in your own observation illustrating 
how "people tend to be down on 
things that they are not up on." Can 
you also tell of a conflict that was 



settled intelligently in ways similar 
to those our author suggests as being 
effective and proper ? 

9. Discuss as fully as you can the 
first paragraph on page 253 of our 
text. Refer to what is said on ra- 
tionalization in the lesson for last 
month. What do you think of Over- 
street's plan for what he calls "con- 
structive debate?" 

10. Discuss the last paragraph on 
page 254 of the text, especially the 
part quoted from Woodrow Wilson. 
What does this paragraph suggest 
as to good missionary technique? 
A successful missionary reports that 
he makes it a special point in his 
first conversations with an investi- 
gator to establish a basis for friend- 
ship and to emphasize important 
gospel matters upon which they can 
both substantially agree. Points of 
possible difference are reserved for 
later conversations. He says to do 
otherwise is to make yourself into 
a sort of religious porcupine. What 
are the possible advantages and dis- 
advantages of his method? 



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Oh let me live by the roadside 

And aid him to reach his goal. 

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As they tread the dusty sod 
For creed nor color matter not 

We're all children of one God. 



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THE RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 



Vol. 18 April, 1931 No. 4 

CONTENTS 

Easter Morning Frontispiece 

The Spirit of Easter Dr. George H. Brimhall 191 

Tears (Poem) Vesta Pierce Crawford 192 

Women in Organization Work Amy B. Lyman 193 

Self-Giving (Poem) Margaret P. Naisbitt 198 

Branches Stretched Heavenward ( Photo 199 

A Spring Song R. J. Green 200 

April Showers Terrance Sylvester Clennamaddy 200 

Springtime Camille C. Nuffer 201 

Fragments from a Spring Day Grace A. Woodbury 201 

Zina Young Card Annie Wells Cannon 202 

Have You a "Clean Suds" Fetish ? Elsie C. Carroll 204 

The Pine Valley Flood Josephine Spencer 208 

Contentment ( Poem) Merling D. Clyde 216 

Exit Back Yard, Enter Out-door Living Room (Illustrated) . .Maud Chegwidden 217 

The Afterglow (Poem) Abbie R. Madsen 221 

Notes from the Field 222 

Notes to the Field 225 

Forget It (Poem) Sarah C. Maeser 226 

Editorial — Easter 227 

Anna Garlin Spencer 228 

Another Victory for the Eighteenth Amendment 229 

Lesson Department — Theology and Testimony 230 

Work and Business 233 

Literature , 234 

Social Service 238 

Mother (Song with Music) Alfred Durham 242 

Explore Your Mind Claire .Stewart Boyer 244 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE GENERAL BOARD OF 

RELIEF SOCIETY 

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Entered as second-class matter February 18, 1914, at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, under the Act of March 3. 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of 
postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 8, 1917. 




EASTER MORNING 
From an Engraving by P. Habelmann, after the Painting by B. Plockhorst 



THE 



Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII 



APRIL, 1931 



No. 4 



The Spirit of Easter 

By George H. Brimhall 
President Emeritus, Brigham Young University 



No matter though the sky be dark 

On Easter Sunday morn, 
The season call for nesting lark 

Or harvesting of corn. 

No matter though the Easter feast, 

Be in the tent or grove 
Or gilded hall or shine of east 

Its spirit must be love. 

And gladness shall be hostess there 
And Faith and Hope shall sing 

Sweet Gratitude a crown shall wear 
And Good-will shall be King. 

THE thought behind the spirit 
of Easter antedates mortal- 
ity. The resurrection was 
planned before the world was made, 
and its revelation to man runs con- 
current with the life of the race. 

"For behold, this is my work and 
my glory to bring to pass the im- 
mortality and eternal life of man." 
These are the words of the Lord to 
Moses, in the Book of Moses, as 
recorded in the Pearl of Great Price 
1 :39. 

The soul of man becomes im- 
mortal through the resurrection or 
the reuniting of the spirit and body. 
The life worth living becomes eter- 
nal through the infinite extension of 
libertv and the pursuit of happiness. 



In this revelation the resurrection is 
made one of the two great objectives 
of the Lord's work with the inhab- 
itants of this earth. And in the 
presence of the plan the parents of 
the human race were filled with 
gratitude and gladness, as shown in 
the following: "And- in that day 
Adam blessed God and was filled, 
and began to prophesy concerning 
all the families of the earth, saying: 
Blessed be the name of God for be- 
cause of my transgression my eyes 
are opened, and in this life I shall 
have joy and again in the flesh I 
shall see God. And Eve, his wife, 
heard all these things and was glad." 
Do we not have here in spirit the 
first celebration of the prospective 
resurrection ? 

Out of the depths of sorrow and 
woe Job arose to the apex of grati- 
tude and gladness, for the hour of 
his greatest exultation is seen in his 
testimony of the resurrection : "Oh 
that my words were now written ! 
Oh that they were printed in a 
book ! That they were graven with 
an iron pen and lead in the rock for- 
ever ! For I know that my redeemer 
liveth, and that he shall stand at the 
latter day upon the earth : And 
though after my skin worms de- 
stroy this body, yet in my flesh shall 



192 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



I see God." This is gratitude and 
gladness at high tide. 

THE Spirit of Easter is fostered 
by cumulative evidence. Some 
of the occurrences of the first Easter 
Sunday are recorded by Luke. On 
that first Easter angels from the 
tomb declared his resurrection, and 
it was there that Mary met him. On 
his way to Emmaus he reviewed the 
prophecies fulfilled through his ad- 
vent from the grave, and revealed 
himself to two disciples while at 
meat. He met with his apostles and 
gave them physical proof of his res- 
urrection by showing them his hands 
and feet. These events and more 
are but one day's evidence that the 
resurrection was a physical reality. 

Christians revere Christmas and 
Easter as the two great days of the 
year. And of the two "Easter is 
greater, for it represents not merely 
life, but life victorious ; not merely 
joy, but joy that has been tested and 
yet endures. The happiness of 
Christmas is the happiness of the 
child. The happiness of Easter is 
the happiness of maturity. Christ- 
mas represents the faith that faces 
life like the happy warrior. Easter 
represents faith that has been 
through the battle like the veteran. 
He who thinks that to be wise is to 
be sophisticated, and therefore cyni- 
cal, has not graduated from the 
school of life."* 

"The assurance of immortality 



The Outlook for March 31, 1926. 



alone is not enough. For if we are 
told that we are to live forever and 
still left without the knowledge of 
a personal God, eternity stretches 
before us like a boundless desert, a 
perpetual and desolate orphanage. It 
is the Divine Companionship that 
the Spirit needs first of all and most 
deeply." — Henry Van Dyke. 

"Not another day of the year 
comes upon the earth with such uni- 
versal acceptance as Easter. Al- 
though every Sabbath day is now 
changed to be a day of rejoicing for 
the resurrection of the Son of God, 
yet this is the annual and all-in- 
clusive day, and is the Sunday of 
Sundays, which proclaims the resur- 
rection of Christ from the dead with 
sounding joy and sympathy of the 
whole Christian world. Christ is 
risen ! There is life, therefore, after 
death ! His resurrection is the sym- 
bol and pledge of universal resur- 
rection !" — Henry Ward Beecher. 

"You will be brought forth from 
death to life again, just as surely 
as Christ was brought forth from 
death to, life." — Joseph F. Smith. 

The spirit of Easter is one of hu- 
mility void of humiliation. The egg 
is symbolic of a life potentiality 
within, awaiting a something from 
without to complete the possibility 
of life. No egg can hatch itself, no 
one alone can be resurrected. In 
the presence of this knowledge the 
spirit of Easter rs one of happy hu- 
mility, and leads one to ask, "O why 
should the spirit of mortal be 
proud?" 



Tears 



By Vesta Pierce Crawford 

Once I thought that nothing was 
So cool as April rain, 
So cool as winter snow against a win- 
dow pane ! 



Once I thought that nothing was 
So cool as ocean spray, 
So cool as pebbled streams in caroled 
May! 



Rut sorrow-crowned have come the years 
And I have felt the touch of tears, 
Their utter sharpness in a silent place. 
Cold, wet tears brushed from my face ! 



Women in Organization Work 

By Amy Brown Lyman 



THERE has never been a time 
in the history of the world 
when women generally were 
so interested and so influential in 
public affairs as they are today. In 
the practical consideration of social 
and economic problems, in the field 
of human welfare, and in education, 
they are making important contri- 
butions. To substantiate this fact, 
one has only to make a survey of 
the work of women's organizations 
and of the activities of women as in- 
dividuals. 

This condition has come about 
gradually as the result of extended 
opportunities to women, such as col- 
lege training, woman suffrage, and 
release of time and energy through 
labor saving methods and devices. 
It is a far cry from the position of 
women today back to the days when 
no woman could enter a college any- 
where in the world, when no woman 
could vote, and when woman's 
sphere was limited to the four walls 
of her home. 

The purpose of this article is to 
discuss very briefly the work and 
extent of the women's national or- 
ganizations of the United States, 
rather than to feature the work or 
achievements of individual women 
in the various fields in which they 
have entered and are so successful, 
such as industry, education, busi- 
ness, and the official and professional 
world. 

THE first organized effort of the 
women of the United States 
occurred in 1837, with the formation 
of the Female Anti-slavery Society. 
The next great cause in which they 
became interested was woman suf- 



frage, which began with the organ- 
ization of the Woman's Rights 
Convention at Seneca Falls, in 1848, 
and which finally culminated in the 
passage of the Susan B. Anthony 
amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States, seventy-two years 
later, in 1920, granting woman suf- 
frage. In working for the freedom 
of the black man, American women 
discovered their own strength, 
learned the lesson of freedom for 
themselves, and began to organize 
their forces in their own behalf, as 
well as in the interest of humanity at 
large. 

It is significant to note that mid- 
way between the organization of 
the Female Anti-slavery Society and 
the Woman's Suffrage movement, 
the Relief Society of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
was organized (in 1842), and while 
it was limited in the beginning to 
one group and locality, it soon 
spread across the country. 

These early organizations were 
soon followed by others until today 
there are more than three score in 
the country. 

General Federation of Women's 
Clubs 

By far the largest group of or- 
ganized women is the General Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, founded 
in 1889, and with a present mem- 
bership of two million, eight hun- 
dred thousand. The object of this 
organization is to promote educa- 
tional, industrial, literary, artistic, 
and scientifc culture, and to promote 
general welfare. A recent piece of 
work accomplished by this organiza- 
tion was a survey of both rural and 



194 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



urban homes and a. follow-up cam- 
paign instituted in connection with 
the American Home program. The 
result of the survey shows the equip- 
ment in almost eight million urban 
homes, and in forty thousand rural 
homes. The Federation is now con- 
ducting a follow-up campaign, the 
objective being to raise the level of 
efficiency of American home-making 
by ranging the nation's twenty-six 
million homes on the side of science 
and industry, in the struggle (to 
eliminate waste and to conserve hu- 
man and material resources. 

Women's Christian Temperance 
Union 

The second largest group is the 
Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, organized in 1874. The 
present membership of this organ- 
ization is 600,000 women. The 
purpose of the W. C. T. U. is to 
educate public sentiment to the 
standard of total abstinence from the 
use of intoxicating liquors ; to train 
the young in habits of sobriety and 
total abstinence; to secure the full 
benefits of the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment to the Federal Constitution 
through law observance and law 
enforcement ; to promote good cit- 
izenship and the general welfare. 
This organization considers prohi- 
bition as a child welfare measure 
and maintains that the government 
has a right to decide whether or not 
poisonous narcotics and drugs detri- 
mental to child welfare may be 
freely distributed. When the or- 
ganization was fifty years old, in 
1924, the members raised one mil- 
lion dollars for scientific welfare 
work. 

Young Women's Christian 
Association 

The third largest group is the 
Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation, organized first in 1858. and 



with a national board in 1907, and 
has a membership of 586,000. The 
purpose of this organization is to 
advance the physical, social, intel- 
lectual, moral, and spiritual interests 
of young women, and to promote 
growth in Christian character and 
service. 

The National League of Women 
Voters 
The National League of Women 
Voters is fourth in size, with a 
membership of 350,000 to 400,000. 
This organization is the child of and 
the successor to the National Wom- 
an's Suffrage Association, and was 
organized in 1920, following the 
passage of the Susan B. Anthony 
Amendment. The object of this or- 
ganization is to promote education 
in citizenship, efficiency in govern- 
ment, needed legislation, and inter- 
national cooperation to prevent war. 
It is now organized in practically 
every state of the Union, where 
regular educational work is being 
carried on. 

The Supreme Forest Woodmen 
Circle 

The Supreme Forest Woodmen 
Circle, founded in 1895, is a fra- 
ternal insurance organization for 
women with a membership of 130,- 
560. The organization conducts a 
home for aged members and or- 
phaned children. 

The American Nurse Association 

The American Nurse Association, 
organized in 1897, has a membership 
of 70,000. Its object is to promote 
the professional and educational ad- 
vancement of nurses, to elevate the 
standard of nursing education, and 
to work for a better distribution of 
graduate nursing service. 

The National Woman's Relief 

Society 
The National Woman's Relief 



WOMEN IN ORGANIZATION WORK 



195 



Society, an auxiliary of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
was founded in 1842, and has a pres- 
ent membership of 62,550. In point 
of age and seniority, the Relief So- 
ciety heads the list of national or- 
ganizations in the United States. 
The Female Anti-slavery Society, 
organized five years earlier than the 
Relief Society, discontinued its work 
and went out of existence when 
slavery was abolished. The Wom- 
an's Suffrage Association, organized 
six years later than the Relief So- 
ciety, ceased its labors after seventy- 
two years. The Relief Society 
has a two-fold program — wel- 
fare activities and educational work 
for its members. The aims and ob- 
jects of the Society are to manifest 
benevolence irrespective of creed or 
nationality ; to care for the poor, the 
sick and unfortunate; to minister 
where death reigns; to assist in cor- 
recting the morals and strengthen- 
ing the virtues of community life; 
to foster love for religion, education, 
culture and refinement; to save 
souls ; to raise human life to its 
highest level ; to elevate and enlarge 
the scope of women's activities and 
conditions. 

The Girls' Friendly Society 

The Girls' Friendly Society, with 
branches in forty-four states, was 
founded in 1875, and has a present 
membership of 60,000. Its object 
is to uphold Christian standards of 
daily living in the home, in the 
business world, and in the commun- 
ity. 

The National Federation of Temple 
Sisterhoods 

The National Federation of Tem- 
ple Sisterhoods (Jewish), was 
founded in 1913 and has a member- 
ship of 55,000. This group is the 
women's branch of the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations, 



which is comprised of the reform 
element of Jewry in America, and 
was organized for religious pur- 
poses. The aims of the organization 
as prescribed in its constitution are : 
to bring the Sisterhoods of the 
country into closer cooperation and 
association with one another, to 
quicken the religious consciousness 
of Israel by stimulating spiritual and 
educational activity, to make propa- 
ganda for the cause of Judaism, to 
espouse such religious causes as are 
particularly the work of Jewish 
women. 

The Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Association 

The Young Ladies' Mutual Im- 
provement Association, an auxiliary 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, was founded in 
1869. Its membership is 54,000. Its 
object is to inculcate faith in God, 
provide religious and moral instruc- 
tion, offer training for home-making 
and citizenship, and establish ideals 
in recreation and supply the highest 
type of leisure time activities. The 
problem of supervision of recreation 
for the L. D. S. Church has been 
assigned to the Young Men's and 
the Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations, and great devel- 
opment has been shown in this field 
in recent years. A feature of the 
Y. L. M. I. A. is the establishment 
of summer camps in the canyons. 
A score of these are in operation and 
can accommodate 4,500 girls. 

The Women of the Maccabees 

The Women of the Maccabees 
was organized in 1886, and has a 
membership of 50,000. It is a mu- 
tual benefit insurance organization. 

The Needlework Guild of America 

The Needlework Guild of Amer- 
ica was founded in 1885 and has 
grown from a small group of worn- 



196 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



en to a present membership of 50,- 
000. Its only requirement for mem- 
bership is the giving of two or more 
new garments or a sum of money. 
Aside from this there are no dues 
or assessments. The object of the 
Guild is to collect and distribute 
once a year new and warm articles 
of clothing and household linen 
suitable for the inmates of hospitals, 
homes, and other charitable institu- 
tions. During a two year period 
recently, two million, five hundred 
thousand articles were distributed to 
individuals and institutions. In cases 
of disaster, the new garments have 
been especially appreciated by the 
National American Red Cross. 

National Federation of Business and 
Professional Women's Clubs 

One of the most vigorous and active 
organizations of women in the 
United States is the National Feder- 
ation of Business and Professional 
Women's Clubs, which was organ- 
ized in 1919 to promote the interests 
of business and professional women, 
and to bring about a spirit of co- 
operation among them. Its present 
membership is 50,000. The organ- 
ization has recently completed an 
occupational survey which made in- 
quiry into every factor which can 
possibly affect the business or pro- 
fessional woman's choice of vocation 
— economic and psychological. This 
survey contained also a compre- 
hensive study of salary scales, with 
causes for fluctuations in them. The 
Federation is actively interested in 
plans to encourage girls who expect 
to make business a career to con- 
tinue through high school, and if 
possible, take additional training in 
business schools or colleges, before 
entering the business world. To 
this end a loan fund of $500,000 has 
been established. This organization 
is unique in that its membership is 
composed of actual wage earners 



who are economically independent as 
well as efficient and progressive. 

The National Council of Catltolic 
Women 

The National Council of Catholic 
Women was founded in 1920. Its 
membership includes women repre- 
sentatives of every Catholic Diocese 
in America. Its purpose is to pro- 
mote unity of thought and action 
among its members, and to pre- 
serve Christian social principles up- 
on which the safety of the nation 
rests. 

The National Council of Jewish 
Women 
The National Council of Jewish 
women, organized in 1893, numbers 
52,000. The program of this organ- 
ization includes civic, religious, edu- 
cational and social service activities. 
In its department of education, a 
number of scholarship funds are in 
operation. A new feature in the 
educational work is a department of 
vocational guidance and employ- 
ment. 

The National Motion Picture 
League 

The National Motion Picture 
League, founded in 1913, has a 
membership of 25,000. The object 
of the League is to encourage pro- 
duction, exhibition and patronage of 
wholesome motion pictures, and to 
render constructive criticisms to 
producers before the pictures, are 
released to the theatres. The League 
has no connection financially or in 
any other way with the motion pic- 
ture industry. It is thus able to be 
impartial in its judgment and to be 
free from any domination by the in- 
dustry. 

The Am eric an Association of 
University Women 

The American Association of 



WOMEN IN ORGANIZATION WORK 



197 



University Women was organized 
in 1882. Its membership consists 
of graduates from accredited col- 
leges and universities only. The 
Association works for proper recog- 
nition of women on faculties and 
for adequate provisions at colleges 
for the housing, physical training 
and social life of women students. 
Another feature is the encourag- 
ment of women students by means 
of fellowship and scholarship. 

National Council of Administrative 
Women in Education 

This organization was founded in 
1915 to promote and strengthen the 
interests of women executives in 
educational work and to raise pro- 
fessional standards of women edu- 
cators. 

The National Kindergarten 
Association 

The National Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation was founded in 1909 to se- 
cure the establishment of a sufficient 
number of kindergartens in the 
public schools to provide early sys- 
tematic training for all of the na- 
tion's children. 

The National Association of Colored 
Women 

The National Association of Col- 
ored Women was founded in 1896, 
to obtain for colored women the 
opportunity of reaching the highest 
standards in all fields of human en- 
deavor and to promote interracial 
understanding so that justice and 
good will may prevail among all 
people. 

Health Organizations 

There are a number of women's 
health organizations in the United 
States, such as Medical Women's 
National Association, organized in 
1917; the Association of Women in 
Public Health, organized in 1920; 



the National Organization for Pub- 
lic Health Nursing, organized in 
1920; and the Osteopathic Women, 
organized in 1920. 

Patriotic Organizations 

Women's patriotic organizations 
have been formed following the va- 
rious wars in which America has 
participated, the object being to 
honor the memory of those who fell 
in war, to commemorate the deeds 
of soldiers and sailors, and to guard 
their welfare and that of their fam- 
ilies. They are Daughters of the 
American Revolution ; the Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution ; Ladies of the 
G. A. R. ; Women's Relief Corps ; 
Auxiliary to the Sons of Union Vet- 
erans of the Civil War; Daughters 
of Union Veterans of the Civil War ; 
National Auxiliary, United Spanish 
War Veterans ; Service Star Le- 
gion ; Gold Star Mothers ; Women's 
Auxiliary of American Legion. 

Girls' rganiza tions 

Three very interesting groups of 
girls' organizations are the Campfire 
Girls, organized about 1910; the Girl 
Scouts, organized in 1913 ; and the 
Bee-Hive Girls, organized in 1915. 

The Primary Association 

While the members of this group 
are composed of both boys and girls, 
this list would not be complete with- 
out the Primary Association, an aux- 
iliary of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, which was or- 
ganized in 1878, and has a present 
membership of 109,500. The pur- 
poses of this organization are three- 
fold: religious instruction for chil- 
dren ; supervision of leisure time ; 
health program — convalescent care 
for children. All officers of this 
organization are women. 

In contemplating this array of 
women's organizations, one is im- 
pressed with the extent of the work 



198 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

and the varying fields of interest knowledge, and better understand- 
and endeavor covered. But, on sec- ing, there will come a closer union 
ond thought, two questions naturally of effort and amalgamation of inter- 
arise. Are women over-organized ? ests among the women's groups, and 
Is there not duplication of effort in also between them and other na- 
all this work? These are pertinent tional organizations composed of 
questions and might apply also to both men and women, 
the multiplicity of organizations It has been a long, hard road that 
generally — organizations of women, woman has traveled in the last one 
organizations of men, and organiza- hundred years, seeking freedom, 
tions of both men and women. recognition, and an opportunity to 

assist with the world's work. In 

There is no doubt that in or- some instances, she may have gone 

ganization work there is duplication to the extreme ; nevertheless, she has 

of effort, and especially in depart- made rich contributions along the 

ment and committee work. But as way which have been constructive 

time goes on, there is no doubt but and beneficial and have helped to 

that through experience, broader raise the standard of human life. 



Self-Giving 

By Margaret P. Naisbitt 

The flowers in the garden are many, 

And all of them are lovely, — 

But the dainty pansies are the most friendly and generous. 

Each morning from the time they begin to bloom, 

They lift their little baby faces and ask to be picked. 

The more they give of their little flowers 

The more they have to give the next day, and every day, 

Until the snow comes and takes them away. 

And so it is with human life, with us, 

The more we give of ourselves, our talents, our love, sympathy and 

understanding, 
The more we have to give. 
And like the pansy, the more numerous our gifts the bigger, the finer, and 

the better we grow and bloom. 
So let us give and give today, and when tomorrow comes, 
Our store will have increased to the advantage of those around us. 
Then when winter comes for us, we shall leave behind, 
Blossoms of self-giving that will never die. 




A Spring Song 

By R. J. Green 



Hear the laughter and the singing 
That the infant', Spring, is bringing 

In her wake ! 
As from snowy bed she merges, 
E'en the willows, oaks and birches 

New life take ! 
Every bee and bird and flower 
In each greening, budding bower 

All astir 
At the earliest peep of day 
Each one busy in its way 

Just for her. 



See the glorious rosy morn 

Of her drear and coldness shorn 

Spread her rays ! 
Beauteous blossoms — every hue 
Bathed with perfumed drops of dew 

Homage pays ! 
And the fairy leaflets dance 
Baby eyes look on askance ; 

All things new ! 
Birdlings twitter, chirp and sing 
Dainty Cherub — lovely Spring, 

All for you. 



April Showers 

By Terr arte e Sylvester Glennamaddy 



April showers 
And the flowers 
Of spring. 
Morning hours 
In the bowers 
Where robins sing. 
Daffodils 
Mid the rills 
All day. 
My heart fills 
With thrills 
And a lay. 



Tulips bright 
Over night 
Have burst out. 
Morning light 
On the height 
Makes me shout. 
Dandelion 
In Zion 

Makes me sing. 
When I'm dyin' 
On cot lyin' 
I hope 'tis spring. 



Springtime 

By Camille C. Nuffer 



Joyous spring is on the wing; 

And we shall all be gay, 
When bleak old winter sheds her 
coat; 

And slyly slinks away. 
When chilly frost, to us is lost. 

And spring has come to stay. 

Balmy spring is on the wing, 
And winter's fast retreating. 

Loudly blows the old north wind, 
Round barren cliff's a beating. 

When Robinbreast, does build her 
nest 



And sings her anthems gay. 
Oh we shall all be happy ; 

When spring has come to stay. 

Joyous spring is on the wing, 

Old winter echoes low. 
Daisies peep their naughty heads 

From out beneath the snow. 
When sparkling rills rush from the 
hills, 

And dance through woodlands 
gay; 
Oh we shall all be happy 

When spring has come to stay. 



Fragments from a Spring Day 

By Grace A. Woodbury. 



A dash of sunshine — 

A splash of rain — 

A golden measure of bird refrain. 

A glimpse of the river — 
A cool damp breeze — 
A fragment of rainbow caught in the 
trees. 



The blossoming pink of almond, 
The white-robed apricot, 
The weeping willow — tender green 
The brown plowed garden spot. 



On hillsides, frail spring beauties, 
Phacelia's dainty blue, 
Anemones and brake fern, 
Rocks with moss-green hue. 

And weary man responding 

To awakened appealing spring, — 

Though his lips may refuse the 

impulse, 
The heart within will sing. 




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rillllllllllllllllMUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIItlllllllllllllllllllllllMHIItlllllllMllinillllllllllllllllllllillllMlltlllllHIIIIIIIIIIIMhIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIR 



Zina Young Card 

A Memory and A Tribute 
By Annie Wells Cannon 



IN Memory's Book there are 
many lines recalling the spiritual 
uplift, the sweet influence, and 
the delicate charm brought into one's 
own life through the acquaintance 
and friendship of such women as 
Zina Young Card. 

I can't remember when I did not 
know Zina, but during my child- 
hood it was more in a nebulous way, 



as it were from a distance, when 
she and my older sisters mingled in 
their several activities. She became 
to me a distinct personality when 
I was about fourteen years old. At 
that time her mother, Aunt Zina 
Young of blessed memory, lived 
next door to us, having moved from 
the Lion House into a home of her 
own. There Zina also lived, after 



ZINA YOUNG CARD 203 

she was married; there her two telling them "to be an example in 

sons, Sterling and Tom were born, matters of dress and conduct to all 

and there her husband, -Thomas the daughters in Israel." Zina al- 

Williams, died. ways tried to follow the admonition 

Between her mother and mine °f her fat her in this respect and 

there existed not only a neighborly though neat and becoming in her 

association but an association in dres s, avoided extremes of fashion 

Church activities and public affairs and extravagance. Gentle in word, 

which necessarily meant friendly in- and klnd in heart she taught the 

tercourse between the two families. l° un S women righteous living, both 

Zina as I knew her then, Zina as by precept and example. 

I knew her later in a more intimate At eighteen she became the wife 

way, was ever the same— gentle, of Thomas Williams, a prosperous 

smiling, happy in girlhood and worn- business man connected with the 

anhood ; proud of her name, of her mercantile establishment of Zion's 

heritage and of her people; con- Cooperative Mercantile Institution 

fiding, helpful, hopeful, even to the and the Salt Lake Theatre. By him 

end. Wihen she lay dying she wrote ^e had two sons, Sterling and 

to a friend, who had met a great ■ Lh ? ma J s * 1 . i . Af ^ er S1X years of happy 

sorrow, these tender words : "Sister, wedded life Mr. Williams died and 

you are in my heart and thoughts [ he y° un S widow with her two little 

every hour. God bless and comfort b °y s moved to Provo, where she 

and sustain you. He will, I feel. I entered the Domestic Science de- 

cannot see to write more. God bless Foment of the Bngham Young 

you. I am your sister, Zina." University to prepare herself for 

The comforting, saintly spirit ex- a <* ree r of teaching, a career she 

pressed in these pencilled words, the foll owed off and on for many years ; 

last perhaps she ever wrote, are serving at different times as matron 

typical of her whole unselfish life. ' °* the , Ingham Young University 

of which institution she was a 

ZINA YOUNG CARD was born Trust ee at the time of her death; 
in Salt Lake City, April 3, as matron of the Bngham Young 
1850. She was the daughter of College at Logan, and also matron 
Zina D. H. and Brigham Young and of the Latter-day Saints University 
from both of these parents inherited at ^ alt ^ ake City, 
a religious fervor and spiritual in- In 1884 > Zina married Charles 
sight— which remained with her °ra Card. They went to Alberta, 
throughout her life. Her girlhood Canada, where he founded the Lat- 
home was the historic Lion House, ter-day Saint mission. They took 
where with others of her father's with them their first son, Joseph 
large family she enjoyed the priv- Young, who was born in Logan 
ileges of practical training in many in 1885. . Here she repeated, to a 
lines under the guidance of her wise large extent, the pioneer work of 
father. her parents and endured many hard- 
Zina was one of the officers in the ships, known only to those who set- 
first Retrenchment Society. Her tie in new lands. She became a 
father, President Young, deeming it saintly mother to the young women 
necessary to organize the young in this new unsettled community, 
women of the Church, called his nursed and cared for them in hours 
daughters together in the Lion of travail, and encouraged them in 
House parlor and organized them, hours of despondency. 



204 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Other children came to bless the 
home during the fifteen years resi- 
dence in Canada, Zina Young, born 
in 1888, and Orson Rega, born in 
1891. In 1903 the family moved 
back to Utah. Three years later 
Mr. Card died and Zina, again wid- 
owed, resumed her teaching. 

Mrs. Card was a member of the 
General Board of the Primary Asso- 
ciation for many years and traveled 
extensively in its interests. 

She was a charter member and 
one time president of the society of 
the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers 
and always one of the most en- 
thusiastic and active members of 
the central organization, giving 
much time collecting books and 
pamphlets, especially those pertain- 
ing to Church history and biog- 
raphy. 

She accompanied Mrs. Emmeline 
B. Wells on her first visit to Wash- 
ington to attend a National Wom- 
an's Suffrage Council and while 



there they presented a memorial to 
Congress in behalf of the people of 
Utah. 

Many of the last years of her 
life were devoted to Temple work, 
where her ministrations and instruc- 
tions to young women were bless- 
ings long to be remembered. 

She was a loyal daughter of the 
pioneers who lived to see her beloved 
land pass from a desert to a garden. 
She shared in all the passing in- 
cidents from the days of the covered 
wagon to the horseless carriage and 
the airplane, and one who with all 
the rich experiences of passing time 
maintained a wonderful poise, a re- 
markable memory and a manner so 
gentle and so kind that blessed in- 
deed were those who knew and 
lover her. 

It was a lovely coincidence that 
her spirit passed from earth on the 
birthday of her beloved mother — 
January 31st, 1931. 



Have You a "Clean Suds" Fetish? 

By Elsie C. Carroll 



I HAVE often thought that a tub 
of clean suds looks innocent in 
its calm, creamy, softness. Yet 
it is an insidious spirit making its 
way with regular periodicy into 
many well-regulated homes, and 
scattering, without a moment's 
warning, the serenest domestic tran- 
quility. 

A housewife who exhibits un- 
erring judgment in most matters of 
life — who can dismiss a persistent 
book-agent with a dignified abrupt- 
ness her husband might envy; who 
can say no with the finality of the 
Supreme Court when it comes to de- 
ciding important questions for Bet- 
ty or Jack ; who can argue with ap- 
parent soundness when it comes to 
preparing an indictment against the 



possibility of using the dining-room 
furniture another year, or the im- 
possibility of getting along without 
a frigidaire — this housewife stands 
helpless before a tub of clean suds, 
her judgment shattered; her will- 
power, in all directions save one, 
turned to spongy nothingness. Yet 
in that one direction her will is dom- 
inant enough to defy husband, chil- 
dren, and if need be, health and hap- 
piness. 

While this process of meta- 
morphosis is going on, this trans- 
formation of a family-and-peace- 
loving woman into a sort of mono- 
maniac whose one purpose in life is 
to get over as much surface of floors 
and woodwork as possible with that 
tub of seductive clean suds, she 



HAVE YOU A "CLEAN SUDS" FETISH ? 



205 



stands before the tempter, Eve once 
more being beguiled by a serpent of 
destruction. She hesitates. Her 
glance travels through the basement 
window at the long line of snowy 
clothes fluttering in the sunshine, 
and her hand goes sympathetically 
to her aching back. 

It was a big washing. There had 
been all the new tea-towels she had 
made last 'week, and the extra nap- 
kins from Betty's party, and Jack 
had had an unusual number of 
shirts. Then she had laundered the 
white counterpane from the spare 
bed and the white lamb's wool 
blankets. Why hadn't she done the 
tan or gray blankets instead, or one 
of the dark quilts? Then there 
would not have been all this lovely 
clean suds left? 

She was tired. And she could 
feel those unmistakable rhuematic 
pains shooting through her shoul- 
ders and hips. They were becoming 
more and more frequent on wash 
days. — It would be terrible to get all 
crippled up with rhuematism like 
poor Mrs. Dennis. She looked up 
the stairs and thought of her own 
cool room with its soft, inviting bed 
waiting to rest' her tired body. 

She had counted on lying down 
for a couple of hours when she was 
through washing, before time to get 
supper. 

She wavers. 

Her hand reaches to turn the 
washer outlet. But it is lured to the 
surface of the innocuous suds. Her 
fingers stir lightly through its warm 
depths. Little mountains of soft 
bubbly foam spring up under her 
touch. 

The thing is done! Eve has 
fallen ! 

She will forego the Eden of those 
hours of rest and relaxation in her 
peaceful room. She will doom her- 
self to the wrath of a provoked hus- 



band, and querulous protests of un- 
reasoning children. 

A look of invincible determina- 
tion comes into her face; her lips 
narrow into a grim line and her 
tired body straightens with the reso- 
lution of an invincible purpose. 

Where shall she use the suds? 
Betty went over the kitchen floor 
this morning and Jack hosed off the 
front porch while he was watering 
the lawn. 

The pantry shelves. They hadn't' 
been cleaned for two weeks. There'd 
be suds enough for them and for 
the woodwork and floor of the sun 
parlor. Does she dare ask Jack to 
help? He made such a fuss over 
scrubbing the screened porch last 
week. He always declares he can't 
see a bit of dirt and that it is fool- 
ish to save suds just to make a fel- 
low work. 

Dipping out a bucketful of the 
vapid-looking suds, she marches to 
the foot of the stairs and her voice, 
bravely trying to sound casual and 
cheerful, floats up to break through 
the romantic enchantment that sur- 
rounds the boy curled up with a 
book in the library. "Jack, wouldn't 
you like to wash off the woodwork 
in the sunroom? I have such a lot 
of nice, clean suds left from the 
washing." 

I shall considerately drop the cur- 
tain on the hit of domestic turmoil 
that follows. 

THE other day I took a spring 
walk out toward the foothills. 
I was passing a neat little cottage on 
the outskirts of town when I heard 
a heated altercation taking place on 
an open back porch, from the post 
of which hung a line of freshly 
laundered clothes. 

"I tell you I'm goin' to empty that 
tub of suds." The man's voice was 
deep and convincing. 

"But, John, look how nice and 



206 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



clean it is. It will just take me a 
minute or so to wash down the 
woodwork in the kitchen and wipe 
up this porch." There was a plead- 
ing note in the woman's tone. 

"No! You didn't feel well this 
morning before you started to wash. 
Do you want to get down sick ? You 
women with your clean suds, beat 
anything I ever saw. I tell you I'm 
going to empty that tub." I heard 
a resolute step followed by an 
alarmed little scream ; then the 
woman's voice again, which had 
now lost: its pleading note. 

"John Banks, you just leave that 
suds alone." One could easily have 
imagined she was protecting an en- 
dangered child from some heartless 
monster. "You tend to your own 
affairs and leave mine to me. I tell 
you I'm going to use that suds. You 
just let it be." 

I had to pass on to save myself 
from the appearance of prying, but 
an hour later when I returned from 
the foothills, I saw the worsted John 
sulkily hoeing in a small garden at 
the rear of the house, while the tri- 
umphant "missus" was wearily wip- 
ing up from the bottom porch step 
the last of her precious suds. 

This interesting frugality in the 
direction of clean suds, is a subject 
to call forth analytic thinking. One 
observes, of course, that the tradi- 
tion has a stronger hold on the older 
generation than upon the younger. 
For instance, my young daughter 
can pour out a tub of the loveliest 
suds without an apparent qualm of 
conscience. I must confess that it 
gives me a peculiar twinge of guilt 
to see her do it, in spite of the fact 
that I must recognize the saneness in 
her protests against saving it. While 
I have never been able to bring my- 
self to the callous throwing away of 
suds that is absolutely clean and un- 
sullied, I must admit that I some- 
time indulge in a compromise that 



would shock my scrupulous mother. 
When I have a tub of clean suds 
left, the old impulse, given me with- 
out doubt through inheritance and 
early training, is to dive into a siege 
of heavy, useless cleaning in spite of 
the clamor for rest of my already 
weary body. The new impulse, 
born of long struggles with mascu- 
line superiority and scarcasm on the 
subject of feminine inconsistency, 
and of innumerable wise discourses 
on efficiency from up-to-date off- 
spring, is of course, to empty the 
suds without any to-do about it. A 
sort of brain-storm ensues when the 
two impulses clash, so I compromise 
by washing out in the clean suds 
some garment that I know will fade. 
When the suds is colored, even 
though its cleansing qualities, are 
unimpaired, I can throw it' away 
with a clearer conscience. So I 
should advise all women who are 
struggling between the old and the 
new impulses, to invest in a percale 
apron, or cheap gingham house 
dress of precarious colors, to be used 
as a convenient conscience anaes- 
thetic. 

It is easy to explain why this feel- 
ing for clean suds has its strongest 
hold on the older generation. It' is 
but a reflection of those habits of 
frugality and thrift of our pioneer 
forefathers, the fruits of which we 
are now enjoying. Of course, the 
habit crops out in this age often 
with conspicuous incongruity. Some 
of the champion clean-suds hoard- 
ers, are reckless spendthrifts in 
other directions. To understand 
this we must look into the origin of 
the suds-saving tradition. It had 
its origin in the old rain-barrel and 
soap-kettle of Colonial times ; in the 
old process of distilling lye, by a la- 
borious process, from white wood- 
ashes, and of making soap from the 
carefully hoarded grease-scraps of 
half a year. When you think of 



HAVE YOU A "CLEAN SUDS" FETISH ? 



207 



those primitive methods — the care- 
ful mixing of those grease scraps 
with the right proportion of water 
and lye, the weary hours of watch- 
ing and skimming and testing and 
boiling until the mixture became 
clear and jelly-like; the cooling and 
cutting and drying and storing away 
of the precious product — when you 
think of all this, does it not take 
away, in a measure at least, the de- 
sire- to laugh at the fetish for clean 
suds? Is it any wonder that in those 
days when a cube of home-made 
soap represented the careful preser- 
vation of hundreds of "rimmings" 
from greasy dishpans, and hours of 
back-foreaking labor ; when water 
had to be hauled in barrels from 
springs or streams perhaps miles 
away — is it any wonder it seemed 
almost sacrilegious to throw out nice 
clean suds, or that the "feeling" for 
clean suds should have persisted 
through the years of increased pros- 
perity which followed those lean 
years of saving and toil ? 

As I have already mentioned, this 
feeling is often mixed with in- 
congruity — with humor and pathos. 

A short time ago I was visiting a 
friend whose charming mother still 
clings to the old tradition. Her 
daughter is trying to break her of 
the "clean suds" obsession. Granny 
always makes the toast for break- 
fast. Her toast is a perfection of 
culinary art — each slice an even 
golden brown; each slice buttered 
lavishly to its very edges, the butter 



melted into the pores and standing 
in little shining pools over the gold- 
en surface. One Sunday morning 
as Granny was generously butter- 
ing the stack of crisp slices, my 
friend said, "There, mother, go easy 
with the butter this morning. 
There's only another half pound to 
last through the day." Then she 
added laughingly, "I keep telling 
mother that if she would be a little 
more stingy with the butter on the 
toast, we wouldn't have to save 
suds." The poor old lady was so 
wounded at this remark she 
wouldn't eat any breakfast. One of 
her reverenced household dieties had 
been insulted. 

A TUB of clean suds! What 
does it represent? A half bar 
of laundry soap at four or five cents 
a bar, two or three pails of water 
of which an endless supply may be 
had by the mere turning of a tap. 
What does it cause? Unnumbered 
family strifes ; the sacrifice of pre- 
cious leisure for rest, recreation, 
pleasurable companionship with 
children and friends ; weary bodies 
and frazzled nerves — often sickness, 
doctor bills — early graves. 

Should there not be a concerted 
effort on the part of reformatory 
forces to combat this insidious foe? 
Perhaps. — But if it' were not clean 
suds, you can't be sure it wouldn't 
be a fetish for something else just 
as ridiculous. 




The Pine Valley Flood 

By the Late Josephine Spencer 



IT goes against my blood," said 
Peggy rebelliously, "to think of 
you and Pa going over there to 
talk it over. If anybody tried a 
trick like that on me, I'd go to law 
first, and do my talking after. I 
can't see what Pa's taking so much 
pains for — with his papers all 
straight." 

"It's just this, Peggy. Pete 
Haightly has got a half dozen o' the 
sheep-herders over there on his side, 
that'll swear the cattle's been stole 
or died off — or anything Pete tells 
'em to. My idea is, Pete had the 
plan all made up to lie about the 
stock — when he got your father to 
agree to make it up to him out o' 
the property, if the profit's failed to 
pay for his work." 

"It's a mystery — Pa making such 
a promise, anyway," suggested Peg- 
gy frowningly. 

"Oh, but it only would have been 
fair — with Pete takin' charge and 
seein' to the place over there, that 
he' should have his pay for the work. 
The mean trick about it is — he's 
being more than paid — and now 
means to cheat your father out o' 
his share of the ranch, if he can." 

"If I was Pa I wouldn't go near 
Pete. If he'd steal, he'd do any 
other wicked thing," said Peggy 
ominously. 

"Oh, I guess he won't try to do 
your father any injury," said her 
mother. "With this deal on of the 
sale of the ranch, and the dispute 
he's raised — he would be too sure 
he'd be suspected. "He'd like to get 
hold o' them papers, though; that's 
why I was so bent on your father 
leavin* 'em home. If that crowd 
over there thought he had 'em with 



him, they wouldn't stop at any trick, 
to get 'em and destroy 'em. If Pete 
don't come to terms with me and 
Abe Snow goin' over there and 
testifying before the syndicate 
agents — why then the case'll have to 
go to law. Father's papers'll be 
proof enough in any court to show 
he's entitled to his half-interest." 

"Then I'd let Pete Haightly do 
the troubling and come to me," said 
Peggy. 

Amelia Hickley smiled. Peggy's 
well-known characteristics of simul- 
taneous thought and action, made it 
certain that the case would have 
been as she said. It was, in fact, an 
axiom in the entire Pine Valley re- 
gion that Peggy Hickley was "the 
best man and woman of the whole 
Hickley lot." Every one in the val- 
ley knew how Peggy, two years 
since, when she was only twelve 
years old, while her parents were 
absent on £ three days' visit to the 
"other ranch" — had not only cleaned 
the house from porch to kitchen — 
taking up carpets, and laying them 
— to say nothing of scrubbing floors 
and woodwork and furniture — but 
had put a bright coat' of paint on 
the porch and all the outside win- 
dow casings — '"a job" that her 
father with characteristic consist- 
ency had been promising to do and 
putting off for an indefinite number 
of years — Peggy's innovation mak- 
ing the place to shine inside and out, 
as it' had never done before since 
the Hickley's advent into the valley. 

There were other minor things, 
too, that had helped to build up 
Peggy's reputation for "smartness" 
— the Pine Valley opinion being ma- 
terially coincided in by Peggy's par- 



THE PINE VALLEY FLOOD 



209 



ents — who were provided with in- 
numerable testimonies, in the daily 
life lived with -Peggy — that the rest 
of the world knew not of. 

Peggy's character was such, in 
fact, tnat she had — since the pass- 
ing of her tenderest years — been en- 
trusted with a large share of the 
family's responsibilities. But noth- 
ing else had figured in her mind like 
the predominant importance of hav- 
ing the precious papers entrusted to 
her charge during her parent's ab- 
sence. 

Ned, who was two years older 
than Peggy, had not been taken in- 
to council concerning the papers, or 
purpose of his parents' trip to the 
ranch — Ned's well-known proclivity 
for retailing bits of family history 
about the valley, being a serious rea- 
son for keeping the affair from him 
for the present ; — and Ben and Len- 
nie were of course too young to 
share the important secrets of the 
family — being respectively but six 
and three years old. 

But Peggy's pride in her responsi- 
bility did not equal her ire at the 
occasion of it. 

"They started in to cheat Pa if 
they could," she still opposed stout- 
ly — ignoring her mother's deprecat- 
ing shake of the head ; "and if I was 
Pa I wouldn't go over there begging 
for my rights, when I had the law 
on my side." 

"Well, father thinks its better to 
settle it up without any trouble if 
he can — " 

"Yes, that's Pa — of course," as- 
sented Peggy scathingly. But the 
corners of her firm little mouth 
softened in a moment, and her black 
eyes filled with tears. Her father 
was her dear comrade — she loved 
him with all the strength of her loyal 
heart, but his disposition to yield 
disputed ground, whether abstract 
or actual, on the score of "keeping 



peace" was a sore bug bear to the 
fiery Peggy. 

"It makes me about as mad as a 
hornet to think of Pete trying to 
cheat anyone as easy and good as 
Pa," she declared. 

"Well, he can't do it, Peggy — un- 
less something happens to the pa- 
pers." 

Peggy's black eyes flashed. 

"There shan't anything happen to 
'em while you're gone — if I'm alive 
to look after 'em," she' said. 

"We ain't a bit afraid you're goin' 
to let 'em out o' your sight," her 
mother said. "There — hand me my 
shawl, Peggy. Here's your father 
with the wagon." 

Peggy kissed her parents good- 
bye — and when they drove away, 
stood in the doorway and watched 
the wagon out of sight. Ned and 
the two children were going to the 
station — Ned to bring back the 
wagon, and the children, because it 
would be easier for Peggy to get 
the breakfast dishes washed, and the 
house straightened in their absence. 

When the wagon disappeared, 
Peggy set to work — her deft fingers 
soon setting the untidy kitchen and 
bed-rooms in order. 

She took the precaution of lock- 
ing the door while she was alone — 
for though the seclusion and peace 
of Pine Valley were such as to make 
such care ordinarily unnecessary, 
either by day or night — the fact of 
the important papers being left in 
her charge, moved Peggy to cau- 
tious measures. 

THE Hickley homestead was not 
in the valley, where the rest of 
the colony was gathered, but stood 
on the slope of the foot-hills some 
little distance from the canyon — 
whose streams watered the farms 
that lay clustered near the southern 
part of the valley. 

The nearest house to Hickley's 



210 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

was that of Amos Riser whose ranch casional short lapses, kept up all 

lay two miles westward near the night. 

base of the "Point o' the Mountain" The doors were shut and securely 

— a name given to a hill-spur whose fastened at dark, and for the safety 

terraced slope jutted in a crescent of the precious papers Peggy her- 

shape eastward from the further self slept in the bed under which 

stretch of the surrounding moun- the oak chest was kept where they 

tains — and thus situated, Peggy felt — with the other family valuables 

that discretion, at least, was justi- were locked. 

fiable — though there really existed No one could get at them with- 

no probable danger of her molesta- out making a noise — for her father 

tion. had taken the key with him, and to 

It was nearly seven miles to the open the stout oak chest without 
railway station — and the time seem- it, meant' both time and trouble, 
ed long before she heard the wel- Peggy lay awake till nearly mid- 
come sound of the returning wagon night imagining her possible line of 
from the road leading to the house. defense, in case of the advent of 

Ned drove up to the door, and "some of the Haightly gang" into 

the two children came dashing in the house in an attempt to capture 

pell-mell, hurrying to get out of the the coveted deeds of agreement up- 

rain, which had commenced a slight on which so much depended, 
patter some little time before. But no thief disturbed Peggy's 

While /Ned drove the wagon to watch that night — and her imag- 

the barn, and unhitched the horses, ined plans of circumvention were 

Peggy put dry clothes on the chil- not called into play, 
dren and re-built the kitchen fire, The foe which was to challenge 

which had gone out. Peggy's reserve-power of reliance 

Not that it was very cold — to be and courage was far more formid- 

sure — being late in May — but the able than her human enemies; and 

sky had grown so dark that she being unimagined — one which her 

wanted the shine of the bright flames ingenious foresight might not f ore- 

for company. stall. 

By the time Ned came in from the 

barn, the rain's slow patter had TN the morning the sun shone, and 

changed to a steady downpour, mak- 1 the children influenced with its 

ing the air so chill in a short time infection of cheer, and the re-action 

that the fire was needed for com- from yesterday's gloom, arose with 

fort' as well as cheer. buoyant spirits. 

They all sat around it — Ned They had just finished the break- 
mending his fishing gear, and Peggy fast Peggy's deft fingers had pre- 
darning stockings and telling stories pared, and the children were put- 
to the children until noon, when ting on their hats to go out, when 
Peggy prepared lunch. Afterwards they heard the clatter of horses' 
she and Ned made molasses candy hoofs dashing up to the door, and 
and had a pulling-bee for the bene- a man's voice called sharply from 
fit of Ben and Lennie, who by this outside. 

time were fidgety, and inclined to Ned went to open the door, with 

be rebellious about staying indoors. Ben and Lennie following close at 

At sunset the skies cleared a lit- his heels, 
tie, but an hour later sent down a It was George Hickman, one of 

steady downpour, which, with oc- the hands from the saw-mill which 



THE PINE. VALLEY FLOOD 



211 



was located some two miles up the 
canyon near the big reservoir. 

He held his horse, whose mouth 
and nostrils were white with foam, 
reined close to the steps — and spoke 
breathlessly as Ned appeared. 

"Tell your father to step out here, 
quick," he said. 

"Father ain't here," said Ned. 
"Him and mother went away yes- 
terday." 

The man muttered something un- 
der his breath. 

"Have you got horses here — any- 
thing to carry you over to the foot- 
hills ?" he asked anxiously. 

"There's three," Ned answered. 
"The span of sorrels and the bay 
mare — " 

Hickman interrupted him. 

"Get on one and ride over to the 
'Point o' the Mountain' as quick as 
you can. A cloud burst last night 
just above the reservoir, and that 
and the rainfall have strained the 
dam. There's a leak, already, and 
the bank may give way any time. 
Don't wait for saddles — I want you 
to take the word to Amos Riser's 
people — it'll be right on your way 
to the Point. I can't take time to 
ride round there — I've got to warn 
the valley. How many of you are 
there?" he asked, reining in sud- 
denly, as Peggy's startled face ap- 
peared over Ned's shoulder. 

"Four," said Ned. 

An anxious look disturbed Hick- 
man's face. Four — with Ned, the 
oldest of them, a mere boy, and the 
littlest a baby. 

"I'll take the little girl with me," 
Hickman said, "and the rest of you 
will have to do the best you can for 
yourselves. Don't stop for any- 
thing — get on your horses and ride 
over to Riser's and the hills as quick 
as you can." 

He leaned over and lifted Lennie 
from the step, putting her in front 



of him — and galloped away down 
the valley. 

For a moment the three children 
stood staring at each other in si- 
lence — their minds dazed by the 
suddenness of the news, and the 
threatened danger. 

It was Peggy's practical mind 
that first sensed the situation, and 
suggested instant action. 

"We'll have to put bridles on Moll 
and the bay mare," she panted, lead- 
ing the way to the barn, "and Ned, 
you must take Ben on the mare with 
you. She will ride faster than either 
of the team horses — and there's no 
time to lose if we are going to warn 
the Riser's." 

It took but a moment's time to put 
the bridles on the two horses. All 
the children were used to riding 
without saddles — so there was no 
need, even if there had been time — 
to wait for them. 

Ned lifted Ben to the bay mare's 
back, and leaped on behind him. 

"You'd better hurry, Peg," he 
called out impatiently. "Seems to 
me after what George Hickman said 
you'd have sense enough not to stay 
here mooning." 

It was unusual to have to prompt 
Peggy to action — but in this case it 
really seemed necessary. 

She had stepped on to the water- 
ing trough that stood near the barn, 
to enable her to mount her horse — 
but had stopped suddenly, and stood 
there with her hand on Moll's bridle, 
her eyes fixed on the ground in in- 
tense and serious thought. She 
looked up at Ned's rebuke, and 
spoke almost in a whisper. "I for- 
got, Ned," she said, her face paler 
than it had been before — "I forgot' 
Pa's oak chest under the bed. 
There's all his papers, and money 
and everything in it." 

Ned's face seemed to take a paler 
hue. Though not aware of the pre- 
cise contents of the chest, he knew 



212 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



that it contained whatever of value 
belonged to the family — the fact of 
its being kept jealously guarded by 
his parents, suggesting that the con- 
tents were precious at least to them. 

In the excitement of the sudden 
news, Wed, like Peggy, had forgot- 
ten all else but the necessity for in- 
stant flight, and as Peggy spoke, 
there came to both of them for the 
first time, the sense of what the 
event would mean in case the flood 
came — even if they themselves 
should escape. The house and all 
that it contained — the barn, the 
wagon — all the property they owned, 
in fact, except the bare acres of 
ground on which they stood — all 
would be swept away. 

"Did Pa leave the key to the chest 
here?" asked Ned with a gleam of 
hope in his tone. 

"No/' answered Peggy. 

"Then it's all up," said Ned. "We 
can't carry the chest, horse-back." 

"No," said Peggy hopelessly. Ned 
glanced anxiously beyond her to- 
wards the mouth of the canyon. 

"There's no use stopping here to 
worry about it," he said. 

"If I could break the box open — " 
commenced Peggy, her face bright- 
ening. 

"George told us not to wait for 
anything," interrupted Ned, "and 
besides, there's the Riser's. They 
won't know anything about this — 
till we get there." 

Peggy leaped on Moll's back, her 
quick sense of duty quelling all hesi- 
tation. Where human lives were at 
stake, her father's interests — im- 
portant as they were — must be set 
aside. 

As they rode to the gate, Peggy 
glanced towards the valley. 

Hickman had ridden swiftly — 
and she could see people in evident 
commotion outside the farm houses 
below — many of them already on 
horseback and in wagons, fleeing to- 



wards the foothills — which fortu- 
nately for them, rose not far from 
the populated portion of the valley. 
The three children were in fact fur- 
ther from safety than the other in- 
habitants — the "Point of the Moun- 
tain" being nearly two miles dis- 
tant. Then, too, they must take 
time to stop at the Riser farmhouse. 

Ned's eyes and thoughts had fol- 
lowed Peggy's, and he glanced ap- 
prehensively once more towards the 
canyon. 

"I guess the dam ain't broke yet," 
he said, "or we could hear the water 
roaring in the canyon." 

The cloud on Peggy's face sud- 
denly lightened. The dread of the 
water's bursting suddenly from the 
near canyon-mouth, had kept her 
nerves strained each instant since 
Hickman's c o m i n g — but Ned's 
words awakened a sense of partial- 
assurance in her heart. 

They must certainly hear the roar 
of the waters, if they had already 
burst their bounds — the mile of can- 
yon way, with the high, resounding 
walls of the mountains to send out 
echoes — making previous warning 
certain. 

If one only knew — there might be 
time, yet, to burst the lock of the 
chest, and save at least the papers, 
upon which so much depended. Peg- 
gy shuddered to think what their 
loss — with all that which was threat- 
ened by the impending flood — would 
mean to them. 

With Peggy, to think, in case of 
emergency — was to act. They were 
just out of the yard when she turned 
suddenly to her brother, reining in 
her horse, as she spoke. 

"Ned — I'm going to try and break 
open the chest and save father's 
papers. The flood ain't started yet, 
and maybe won't for a long time. 
W r e mustn't stop to talk," she inter- 
rupted, as Ned, scowling, uttered 
angry resistance; "you don't know 



THE PINE VALLEY FLOOD 



213 



all there is at stake. If you'll do 
your part and let the Riser's know— 
and then get Ben safe to the Point 
— I'll take care of the rest." 

Peggy did not stop to parley — nor 
in truth did Ned. The latter was 
too well acquainted with Peggy's pe- 
cularities of disposition to doubt the 
eventual outcome of argument, even 
if indulged in — and besides, his own 
fear — sharpened wits told him the 
necessity of the instant performance 
of Peggy's instructions. 

When Peggy leaped from her 
horse to the doorstep, therefore, her 
auick glance, darted backward as 
she threw Moll's bridle over the post 
of the porch railing — saw the brown 
mare, with Ned and Ben tightly 
hueging her back — flving swiftly 
down the road towards the Riser 
farmhouse. 

Pegev drew a quick gasp of min- 
gled relief and apprehension. It was 
one sensation to know that the chil- 
dren were on the way to safetv — and 
another to feel that she herself was 
absolutely alone — with the fateful 
canyon yawning like a dragon's 
mouth — threatening momentary de- 
struction. 

All that had passed since George 
Hickman's coming, both in thought 
and action, had taken few more mo- 
ments than the telling ; and in much 
less time, Peggy had run to the 
kitchen — seized the' ax from the 
woodbox and was in the bedroom 
pulling the oak-chest from its place 
under the bedstead. 

Hack ! Hack ! Peggy lifted her ax 
aloft and struck blow after blow up- 
on the unyielding oaken lid. The 
chest had been made for utilitv in a 
reeion where banks were far off and 
vaults and safes were untransport- 
able luxuries — and its iron locks and 
clamps and bindings, combined with 
the hard wood, made a hopeless task 
of Peggy's efforts to demolish them. 
It was no shame to her that, when, 



finally, she knew her task hopeless, 
the tears blinded her eyes so that 
she could hardly see her way to the 
door. For the first time she almost 
regretted that she had let Ned go. 
Perhaps together they might have 
managed the chest. But then, there 
was Ben and the Riser's. 

Peggy leaped on Moll's back, and 
for the second time set forth on her 
flight. As she reached the corner 
of the house her glance fell on an 
object standing outside the barn. 
The wagon ! In her first moments of 
frenzied fear Peggy had not thought 
of that. The harnessing would 
have meant too much time then. But 
now, since she had stayed so long 
without harm — why give up, when 
a few moments perhaps would save 
the chest and its precious contents? 

Peggy felt quite sure of being 
able to manage the chest in this way 
for though it was strong, and awk- 
ward — it was not so heavy that her 
lithe young muscles — trained with 
the household work — could not lift 
it into the wagon. An impossible 
burden for the horse's back — it 
would be a light one for the team. 

How foolish, indeed, not to have 
thought of it at first. Peggy's heels 
dealt Moll's flangs a sudden sharp 
blow. A moment later she had 
reached the barn, and was leading 
Moll's mate and Moll to the wagon 
— where with a skill born of fre- 
quent practice, she soon had the 
team harnessed. It seemed an age 
to her, though, till she was back in 
the house again — tugging away at 
the oak-chest. 

It took hardly a moment to drag 
it to the doorstep, but there came 
the most difficult part of her task. 

She had backed the wagon to the 
edge of the steps — the slope upon 
which the house was built aiding her 
plan by bringing the end of the 
wagon almost level with the steps. 
With the end -board out, she had 



214 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



only to lift the trunk a little dis- 
tance and shove it into the wagon. 
Spite of her strength it was a hard 
task and when it was done — and the 
end-board replaced, the trembling 
in her hands was not all caused by 
fear. Peggy sprang to the seat and 
gave both horses the whip — sending 
a last fearful look towards the can- 
yon, as they dashed down the road. 

A long stretch to safety it was, 
with that unspeakable terror threat- 
ening behind. 

The road, save for herself, was 
quite lonely — its only traffic at all 
being the families of the mill hands 
who lived in the canyon above the 
reservoir — and the Riser farm peo- 
ple who lived beyond. 

Peggy could not doubt that the 
latter, with Ned and Ben, were well 
on their way to the slopes of the 
Point by this time, and though the 
thought gave her relief — she could 
not help wishing that someone were 
near to ride with her. 

She reached the bend made by the 
rise of ground — and from here could 
see both the Riser farm, and the 
Point, beyond — and could distin- 
guish figures moving about on the 
level strips that terraced the hill- 
side. 

Doubtless they were, Ned and 
Ben, with the Riser family and farm 
hands. The clear atmosphere made 
the hills seem very near, and this, 
with the sight' of the people gath- 
ered there — gave Peggy a sense of 
relief. 

Peggy again laid the lash on Moll 
and Doad — the animals, unused to 
such severe discipline, dashed for- 
ward at a speed that rapidly les- 
sened the distance between them and 
the hills. 

Peggy drew a long breath of re- 
lief and triumph. How ?lad she was 
that she had waited ! Though their 
house would be lost to them — every- 
thing else of value that belonged to 



her parents was in the trunk — and 
that was safe. 

She had often heard her father 
say that if he could sell his share in 
the other ranch — he would tear the 
"old shack" down, and put up a new 
house, so that with the papers saved, 
and the sale to the English syndi- 
cate pending — the flood, if it came 1 — 
might not be so disastrous after all. 

Just then Peggy's heart gave a 
great thump — and in an instant the 
blood in her body seemed to have 
turned to ice. Far behind, from the 
direction of the canyon, came a 
sound as of a dull clap of thunder — 
yet the sky was like turquoise. t The 
sound did not cease — but rolled in- 
to a long, continuous roar, that con- 
stantly came nearer. There was no 
mistaking what the sound meant. 
The dam of the reservoir had given 
way — and the water stored in the 
lake above, was rushing down to 
the valley. 

With sudden desperate energy 
Peggy sat up and took the reins in 
a firm grasp, and with another sting- 
ing blow from the whip — brought 
the horses to their best speed. The 
Point was so near now, that she 
could see the people gathered there, 
wildly gesticulating — the faint sound 
of their voices, raised in shrill cries 
— reaching her above the clatter of 
the bouncing wagon and horses 
hoofs. 

With the lines and whip held in 
a tight clasp, Peggy set with strain- 
ed eyes fixed on the hills. They 
were quite near now, and she could 
hear the words the people were 
shouting. 

Suddenly, once more, Peggy's 
heart gave a leap, and then seemed 
to stand still. The dull roar be- 
hind her broke suddenly into a great 
turmoil of splashing and hissing — 
like the leap and splash of a mon- 
strous waterfall. Peggy looked back. 
The flood had reached the mouth of 



THE PINE VALLEY FLOOD 



215 



the canyon, and breaking there in a 
mimic Niagara — spread itself out — 
a great gray sheet — over the foot- 
hills, and came rolling onward swift- 
ly to the levels of the valley. 

Peggy had time to note, in her 
brief glance, how quickly the face 
of the flood narrowed the distance 
between it and herself. She was 
nearing the Point now — and could 
see Amos Riser, with his eldest son 
and two hired farm hands running 
down from the upper slope of the 
hill towards her. 

They were calling out words of 
encouragement — and above these 
she could hear the shrill voices of 
his mother and wife, who with Ned 
and Ben, were uttering cries of ter- 
ror. 

It was only a little further now — 
but she was driving up hill, and the 
horses, spent with their unaccus- 
tomed speed, were commencing to 
lag. 

The steady swish and roar of the 
waters were sounding close at hand 
now, and before Peggy had time to 
realize that the worst had come — 
the flood caught the wagon, lifting 
it and the horses bodily on its strong 
tide — and bore them onward. 

But it had not far to carry them. 
Close in front the Point loomed — 
and as the water swept them to the 
edge of the high banks made by its 
terraced slope — Peggy, dazed and 
hopeless — saw Amos and the three 
younger men scrambling down the 
slope, with their arms outstretched 
— all of them shouting to her to 
jump. 

Before she could obey, however, 
Sol Riser's hand grasped the halter 
of the plunging horses close to the 
bits ; then the other three laid hold 
— and tugging and yelling they 
pulled the struggling horses up the 
slope — Peggy, a moment later, find- 
ing herself still sitting on the wag- 



on-seat, pulled high and dry upon 
the comparative level of the Point. 

THERE were no fatalities listed 
in the record of the Pine Val- 
ley flood. George Hickman's time- 
ly warning gave each human being 
of the little colony time to reach the 
near hills — only the personal prop- 
erty of the people suffering material 
damage from the waters. Happily — 
almost all houses were left standing, 
though the water stood, for all that 
day, window high in the rooms of 
the cottages. 

Only the Hickley and Riser homes 
went down — the flood's greatest 
force being spent near the upper 
foothills. 

Widow Sharkey, whose curiosity 
was one of the exciting themes of 
the valley, was heard to declare dis- 
appointedly after the first few days' 
excitement had passed, that "if we'd 
only know'd how it was all goin' to 
turn out we might' have set up on 
our roofs and enjoyed the sight — 
'stead of turnin' tail and runnin' and 
hidin' our faces in our skirts up 
there on the hills, fear o' some o' 
our neighbors being swept to glory." 

Peggy was the only real heroine 
in the valley ; and when the waters 
had subsided, and the community 
began to regain its usual calm — the 
story of her rescue of the trunk be- 
came the sensation of the Pine Val- 
ley region. 

As to John and Amelia Hickley 
— who hurried home at first word of 
the flood — their hearts sore with 
anxiety and dread — no words ex- 
isted, in their opinion which were 
able to express adequate justice to 
Peggy's exploit. 

"We'd all be beggars today, if she 
hadn't saved the chest," her father 
said. "All I've got to say is, that 
if the law-suit comes out all right — 
I'm going to put Peggy in a place 
where her education'!! have a chance 



216 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



to catch up with her wits. I'd like 
folks to see what sort of a girl, such 
a span as that harnessed together'll 
turn out." 

When the case was settled, John 
Hickley came in for a half share of 
the purchase money paid by the 
syndicate for the "other ranch" — a 
sum so generous as to make him in- 
dependent of the sterile acres from 
which he had eked a bare living for 
many years, and which he was glad 
to sell to the syndicate for grazing 
land — at a price, which, though not 
large, yet helped to furnish the new 
home in the city where they were 
henceforth to live. 

The people in Pine Valley de- 
clared amongst themselves that the 
flood was "a mascot for the Hick- 
ley's" — the opinion of the majority 
being that in spite of the ranch sale 



John Hickley's natural inertia of 
temperament made it probable that 
"the old shack" would have served 
as the roof-tree of the family for 
years to come — had not the flood 
acted as a progressive agent, and 
laid it in ruins. 

"I don't know about that," said 
one, however, to whom this view 
was expressed. "I heard Peggy say 
once that if the family ever had 
money, she'd never rest till they 
moved to some place where it was 
worth while to git out of bed morn- 
in's ; and someway, whatever Peggy 
sets her mind on seems to go 
through — like the oak chest that 
time of the flood. I'll bank all my 
money on it, though, 'twas Peggy's 
idea — gettin' out o' the valley. All 
John Hickley had to do with it is to 
put Peggy's plan in pants." 



Contentment 

By Merlin g D. Clyde 

The far-away birds are singing, 
The far-away flowers are in bloom, 

But hearts that are near are dearest, 
Our birds sing the sweetest tune. 

Distance may lend its enchantment, 
But the view is more perfect here, 

If we look with clear, unbiased love 
On familiar objects near. 



There's no use in going somewhere 
To wander sad and alone, 

For the best is here at our doorsteps 
And the rainbow's end is Home. 



Exit Back Yard, Enter Out-door 
Living Room 

By Maud Chegividden, Garden Editor, Salt Lake Tribune 

"A garden is a lovesome thing, God wot ! 
Rose plot, 
Fringed pool, 
Fern grot — 
The veriest school 
Of peace ; and yet the fool 
Contends that God is not. 
Not God in gardens ! when the eve is cool ? 
Nay, but I have a sign ! 
'Tis very sure God walks in mine." 

— Thomas Edward Browne. 



YEARS ago that anomalous 
piece of ground directly be- 
hind the house, which was not 
seen from the street and so received 
scant attention when it came to 
beautifying the property, was called 
the backyard — an ugly name for an 
ugly place, usually of bare beaten 
earth or straggly weeds, and fre- 
quently the depository of tin cans, 
the dog's dinner-bones, and other 
rubbish. 

Nowadays, however, more atten- 
tion is being paid to this area of 
the home grounds than to any other, 
and it has become the fashion to 
call it the outdoor living room, and 
to make of it an open air sitting and 
dining room. In our beautiful Utah 
climate every home should make an 
outdoor living room in the rear of 
the house, for we may spend hours 
and hours of rich and peaceful liv- 
ing there. 

It is not a hard job to make a 
secluded beauty spot in the rear of 
your home. Once you have per- 
suaded friend husband to do the 
heavy digging for you, all of the 
rest is quite within a woman's pow- 
ers. You will often find that he 
himself will become so enamored 



of the garden work that it will be a 
race between you to see who reaches 
the spade or hoe the first. Working 
side by side, together making a 
charming spot for the enjoyment of 
family and guest, is the ideal way. 

MOST important of all in this 
outdoor living room is the 
boundary. You would not think of 
living in a house without walls, 
where all and sundry might gaze at 
your daily occupations, would you? 
and no more may this new garden 
we are to make be without walls — 
not walls of brick and mortar, but 
of beautiful green drapery on 
snowy lattice fences, or of a choice 
selection of flowering shrubs. The 
floor is already there, to be carpeted 
with emerald grass and edged with 
flower borders; and the roof is the 
blue sky, patterned with clouds or 
stars. 

If you are able to have a picket 
fence, or a lattice fence, painted 
white, you have a beautiful founda- 
tion for growing vines or climbing 
roses. The first year you would 
need to choose the annual vines, 
which would grow, bloom and 
spread quickly all in the first sum- 



218 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 




mer. These will fill the time until 
the slower growing but permanent 
perennial vines are getting a good 
start. 

Excellent annual vines include 
morning glories, canary climbers, 
cardinal climbers and even nastur- 
tiums. The wild cucumber is a fine 
vine which grows fifty feet in a 
season in rich soil, and which seeds 
itself from year to year. The 
fragrant sprays of creamy flowers 
and the odd, prickly fruits are alike 
attractive. The scarlet runner bean 
is perhaps best of all, for not only 
will it give handsome scarlet flowers 
which are beloved of the humming 
birds, but it gives luscious beans 
which, picked while young and 
tender, are cooked exactly as string 
beans are. 

Another splendid annual vine for 
draping over your fence is the 
moonflower. This gives large, heart 



shaped leaves, with the most exquis- 
its white flowers, six or more inches 
in diameter, like a glorified morning 
glory. The flowers only open as 
evening approaches, and one may 
stand in admiration and watch the 
waxy petals unfold, and so see one 
of God's miracles. A moonflower 
vine, seen in the moonlight, is almost 
too lovely. 

Seeds of these annual vines may 
be sown about the beginning of 
May outdoors, if you think there 
will be no hard frosts after that 
time. The scarlet runner bean is 
tender, so take no chances if you 
expect frost. The moonflower, too, 
is a late bloomer and so may give 
a longer period of bloom if the seeds 
are planted indoors in tiny pots or 
tins, and then by the time you are 
able to place them outdoors with 
safety they will be nice large plants. 
The little cans which contain spices 



EXIT BACK YARD 



219 




are excellent for starting seeds this 
way in fine soil, a few seeds in each, 
providing you punch a hole for 
drainage in the bottom. 

Perennial vines are of course the 
best to use on your fence although 
they will give little result the first 
year. Many of these may be grown 
from seeds or from rooted slips, but 
purchased roots give quicker results, 
and they should be planted before 
the beginning of May as a rule. 

The silver lace vine (polygonum 
Auberti) is a lovely vine, which 
twines around its support and will 
be covered from midsummer until 
frost with fleecy cream colored 
flowers. Climbing honeysuckle is 
the most fragrant vine I know, and 
also the most successful for a shady 
position, although it will grow in 
full sun, too. The perennial peas, 
( lathy rus latifolius) are splendid for 
fence-work, and come in white, pale 



lavender, and deep rosy pink. They 
have no perfume but are constant 
bloomers. 

Another vine for perpetual bloom 
is the scarlet trumpet honeysuckle; 
this has no fragrance, but the clus- 
ters of coral-colored, tubular flowers 
are beautiful. The Chinese wisteria 
may be grown on a fence, and will 
be the most beautiful thing in sight 
when it is hung with its racemes of 
purple flowers, but this vine is some- 
times temperamental and takes years 
to bloom; however, the leaves are 
handsome and worth while, even 
without the flowers. 

Perhaps you wish climbing roses 
to form the walls of your outdoor 
living room. I like these roses in 
this position better than on an arch, 
particularly where there are little 
children in the family, for it is so 
easy to have young faces and limbs 
scratched with the cruel thorns. 



220 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 




ANY BACK YARD MAY BE MADE AS ATTRACTIVE AS THTS ONE 



Crimson rambler and Dorothy 
Perkins are, I believe, the two 
climbing roses most universally 
grown, but there are many varieties 
just as cheap and far superior. Both 
of these two suffer from mildew on 
the leaves, and this powdery looking 
effect is to be deplored. Omit these 
roses if you can, and try some of 
the newer introductions. 

No white climbing rose can sur- 
pass Silver Moon, which has the 
most exquisite buds of pale yellow 
before the full white flowers open, 
to display the charming golden 
stamens. Two of the best pink roses 
are Dr. Van Fleet and Mary Wal- 
lace. The former is pale pink, so 
delicate and fragile in appearance 
that one thinks it is too lovely for 
this earth. Mary Wallace gives 
beautiful rose-pink flowers, formed 
like miniature bush roses. 

Red climbers among the roses are 
always beloved by men, and they 
will revel in the brilliant scarlet 
blooms, carried in clusters and each 



flower very large, of Paul's Scarlet 
climber. Whatever you do, never 
plant this rose near the Climbing 
American Beauty, which has flowers 
of a magenta tint terrible to behold 
when near the scarlet. The Climb- 
ing American Beauty, however, is 
a fine plant and one of the earliest 
to bloom. 

You have now a sufficient list of 
tried and trusty vines from which 
you may choose to grace your fence. 
Even a common wire fence will soon 
be a thing of beauty thus draped. 

Inside the fence, if your lot is 
large enough, a planting of mixed 
shrubbery will both add beauty and 
usefulness. Shrubs may be chosen 
which will give bloom from April 
until frost. You must not crowd the 
shrubs, however, allowing at least 
six feet for the larger sorts to grow 
gracefully and symmetrically. 

If the neighbor has an ugly 
garage, or a chicken coop, or any 
other outbuilding which is no asset 



EXIT BACK YARD 221 

to the appearance of your garden, spring up as good as new, and will 
screen it from view by planting tall flower profusely again, 
growing shrubs there. Suitable Dwarf shrubs, which never grow 

ones are the bush honeysuckles, with taller than three or four feet, are 
either white or pink flowers later sometimes needed. One of the best 
forming bright red berries, beloved of these is the snowberry, symphor- 
of the birds; the elderberries, both icarpus racemosus, and almost as 
the native sort and the golden-leaved good is its cousin the coralberry, 
variety, with huge flat clusters of symphoricarpus vulgaris, both of 
creamy flowers and dark, rich look- which have the faculty of living and 
ing berries afterwards; the mock thriving in the shade. Each shrub 
orange blossoms, with fragrant has tiny pink flowers in summer, 
white flowers in June, and the lilacs, followed by handsome berries, 
those sweetest things of all. Try snowberry having large milk-white 
the Persian lilac, or some of the new ones and coralberry small ruby- 
hybrid French lilacs, instead of the purple ones, 
common old-fashioned sort. There are two spireas among the 

If you want bloom on your dwarfs which are very useful. One 
shrubs from earliest spring, choose is Anthony Waterer, the other Froe- 
several specimens of the forsythia or Bel's spirea ; they grow about two 
golden bell, that shrub which bursts and a half feet tall, and have flat 
into golden glory in April, before clusters of deep pink or red flowers, 
the leaves appear. Then there is You must try the hypericum if you 
the flowering almond, in either pink want an unusual and beautiful 
or white, and the snowy bridal dwarf shrub. This has bright golden 
wreath, called spirea Van Houtte in flowers, each with a prominent 
the catalogues, and the cydonia center of stamens, and the yellow 
japonica or flowering quince, all for flowered shrubs are quite scarce, 
bloom in May and June. The Japanese barberry, that thorny 

Later in summer comes the but- creature which turns such brilliant 
terfly bush or summer lilac, (bud- colors in the fall, and is hung with 
dleia variabilis) and the althea or red berries, must not be forgotten, 
rose of Sharon, which will remain in Now we have learned how to en- 

flower until frost. The butterfly close with living walls of beauty our 
bush will give you a terrible shock outdoor living room. Next month 
the first year you grow it, for it the flower borders will have our at- 
winterkills right back to the ground tention, along with the lawn, which 
in our climate ; but next year it will is most important. 

The Afterglow 

By Abbie R. Mcdsen 

Out of the grime, and after the tears, 
Out of the dust, and after the years, 
There icomes a joy — if we'ed have it so 

The peace and 'joy of the afterglow. 

Dark though the shadows loom on the way 
Hard though the labors With little for pay, 
Peace in the offing bekons I know 

The peace and joy of the afterglow. 



Notes from the Field 



Ensign Stake : 

SOME months ago the Ensign 
Stake Relief Society presi- 
dency and board members en- 
tertained all of the Relief Society 
members of the Ensign stake, wish- 
ing especially to honor the sisters 
who had given long years of untir- 
ing service to the great Relief 
Society cause. The party was also 
in recognition of the teachers' ef- 
forts and those who had cooperated 
so willingly in every endeavor. Each 
ward had a most attractive display 
of handwork completed during the 
year. Many lovely articles adorned 
the large assembly room, and the 
great variety of work displayed 
proved the ingenuity and thrift of 
the good sisters, depicting a real 
story of busy hands and an unfold- 
ing of real accomplishments. Pres- 
ident Alice B. Castleton, a real Re- 
lief Society stimulator, welcomed 
over four hundred guests at this 
genuinely hospitable entertainment. 
A little play written by Jane Cutler 
Weaver was presented by the 20th 
ward Relief Society. Mrs. Weaver 
read the verses, and as she did so, 
the different characters appeared in 
costume to the accompaniment of 
suggestive and beautiful music. A 
boys' chorus and a dance number 
by two little girls completed the 
program of the afternoon, after 
which mirth and happiness reigned 
when prizes were given to the sisters 
establishing the best record during 
their Relief Society experiences. 
The awarding of prizes was really 
an amazing feature, for example, the 
one to whom the prize was given 
for raising the best flowers read: 
"These lovely flowers my garden 
enhanced ; I knew I'd get a prize if 
given half a chance." Later in the 



afternoon in the 21st ward Relief 
Society rooms the guests were 
served a delicious luncheon. Alto- 
gether it was voted a most delightful 
affair, and the following little verse 
typifies the spirit of the occasion : 

"It is good to live 
When the years are young, 
And the buds 
Give promise of flowers. 
But it's better to live 
Till the blooms have come 
And the fruit 
Has followed the showers." 

Big Horn Stake: 

AS ever, Big Horn has been very 
active in all the branches of 
Relief Society work. Each organi- 
zation closed the regular meetings 
for the year by having a social, and 
at this the guests of honor were the 
Pioneers of each locality. The en- 
tertainment consisted of a program, 
luncheon, and social hour. The 
hardships relative to the pioneering 
and settling of Big Horn had been 
so recent in the experiences of all 
present, that keen sympathy was felt 
and the joys and sorrows of this 
experience formed a part of the life 
story of those present. All were 
thrilled with the great development 
that has taken place, and the feeling 
is that the Big Horn pioneers take 
second place only to the Utah pio- 
neers. 

In connection with the annual 
convention, a Work and Business 
exhibit was held the day previous. 
Each ward was asked to arrange its 
own booth, which was done in a 
manner exceeding the fondest hopes. 
The Thermopolis branch of the 
Western States Mission cooperated 
with Big Horn stake upon this oc- 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 223 

casion, and a special meeting was tour of the islands, and the spirit 
held at 2 o'clock. On this particular among the people is wonderful, 
occasion President Louise Y. Rob- The Relief Societies of Honolulu 
ison, General President of the Relief met together in the latter part of 
Society, was in attendance. That December, and had the very unusual 
evening all the Relief Society work- experience of a visit from two of the 
ers were given the opportunity of General Board members, Mrs. Jen- 
meeting the General President. nie B. Knight and Mrs. Lalene H. 
During the Fall a vacation was Hart, who were visiting in Hono- 
enjoyed by the Relief Society. The lulu. There were also President and 
month of October saw the culmina- Mrs. Chipman of the Alpine stake, 
tion of the project "Every Home a and Dr. and Mrs. George H. Brim- 
Garden." About 98% of the f am- hall of the Brigham Young Uni- 
ilies in this locality participated in versity. A very hearty welcome was 
the project, and a great amount of extended to them. Wlonderful tes- 
produce was conserved for Winter timonies were borne and altogether 
use. The latest project of the stake it was a very delightful experience 
is "Improving Our Meeting Places." for the guests and for the native 
The sisters of Relief Society have sisters of Honolulu, 
attacked this problem with the same 

enthusiasm that has been exempli- South African Mission : 

fied in others, and the meeting jt>ROM another far distant quar- 

houses have been overhauled and the F ter comes the news that the 

unpleasant features removed. Al- Relief Society work is a great factor 

together a most inviting appearance in missionary labors. It goes right 

will soon be presented in most of to the heart and helps. Many peo- 

the meeting houses of the organiza- p l e in this part of the world are 

tions. becoming interested, and are able to 

see the application of Gospel teach- 

Hawaiian Mission : ings through the ministration of 

FROM far away Hawaii comes Relief Society There is a great 

the greetings and news of a work for the Priesthood and the 

general Relief Society conference Rehef Society organizations. They 

which was held at Wailuku, Mauri, must take care of the P 00r and 

October 24, 1930, where all the con- need y> and whlle there are man y 

ferences of the Islands were repre- obstacles in the way of accomphsh- 

sented and reported to be in good in S a11 that ma ^ be de sired, the 

condition. There are 48 branches of Rehef Society does much to bring 

Relief Society in the Hawaiian Mis- about g° od wl11 am ong the people, 

sion, and all are fully organized and and interest them m the work that 

functioning properly. They are cer- 1S so important. Many of the peo- 

tainly to be commended for their P le are turning their attention to 

large treasuries, for their care of this > and are 'ending their efforts 

the poor, although most of the sis- *°ward the furtherance of the work, 

ters of the organization are poor The . re are T7T . or 2 anizatlo " s A a ]" 

themselves, but they follow the ad- ready completed in the South Af- 

' . .. . , ncan Mission, and three more are 

monition to give until it hurts. fa process of organization . Many 

Since the general Relief Society of the members live a long way from 

conference in October, representa- the branches, but they are anxious 

tives of Relief Society have made a to do their part and send their con- 



224 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



tributions and labors in to be used 
for the benefit of the people. All 
are anxious to get help and to know 
how best to carry on the work. 

Northern States Mission : 




Members of the Linton Branch Relief 

Society. Rena Keller, Nellie Centers. 

Chloe Lawrence, Pauline Lawrence 

THE above picture was sent to 
the ofhce some time ago, but it 
shows the type of women who are 
interested in the great Relief Society 
work. From the president of the 
Northern States Mission we get a 
report of the very excellent work 
the organization is doing. At this 
time, however, the Relief Society 
appreciates the very sad situation of 
finding so many people out of work. 
While the sisters have been brave 
and kept their organization together, 



it has been impossible for them to 
do as much in a financial way as they 
would like to do. However, the 
spirit has been very brave and fine. 
There is a new organization at West 
Frankfort, Illinois. These sisters 
are living in the Illinois mining dis- 
trict, where most or all the men are 
out of work. The President, Sister 
Allie Y. Pond, made a call for old 
clothing, and the response was won- 
derful. Six boxes of good clothing 
were sent from the Logan Square 
branch, and some of the others 
which had a surplus. After looking 
after the needy in their own 
branches they helped many families 
who were not even in the Church. 
In the big home for incurable 
diseases were many poor souls who 
had no one to look after them. The 
Relief Society donated some of the 
warm underwear and clothing that 
was given to the Relief Society, to 
this home, and caused feelings of 
gratitude in the hearts of the un- 
fortunate who were made happy 
through the generosity of the Relief 
Society sisters. After all this was 
done, word came that a woman out 
away from any Relief Society was 
destitute, and there were six little 
children in the family who could not 
go to school because of lack of cloth- 
ing. When the president reported 
this to the Relief Society within a 
few days two large boxes of cloth- 
ing were on their way to supply 
their needs. This sister, after three 
weeks, reported that she had sewed 
night and day, and now all her chil- 
dren were ready for school, and 
her gratitude was unbounded. These 
are only a few of the examples that 
are taken from the wonderful report 
submitted by the Mission President. 
The sisters of the organization have 
responded most generously, those 
who had it to give, and loving serv- 
ice has accompanied the donations. 
All of the Relief Societies are busy 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 



225 



in preparation of programs for the and interest in it are able to accom- 

17th of March. Really and truly plish a marvelous work, both among 

Relief Society work is wonderful, their sisters in this world, and in the 

and the women who put their heart sight of our Father in Heaven. 



Notes to the Field 



Social Service Institutes : 

The General Board is delighted 
with the whole-hearted response of 
46 stakes in sending representatives 
to take six weeks of intensive train- 
ing in social service work, prepar- 
atory to doing more efficient service 
in this important line of our ac- 
tivity. The following stakes sent 
representatives to the first institute, 
which was held from Aug. 18 to 
Sept. 27, 1930: Bear River, Ben- 
son, Box Elder, Cache, East Jordan, 
^Ensign, Granite, Kolob, Liberty, 
Lehi, Logan, Morgan, Mt. Ogden, 
North Weber, Oneida, Ogden, Pal- 
myra, Pioneer, Salt Lake, South 
Davis, Summit, Weber, West Jor- 
dan. 

Delegates from the following 
stakes were in attendance at the 
second institute, which was held 
from Jan. 5 to Feb. 14, 1931 : Al- 
pine, Bannock, Bear Lake, Boise, 
Cottonwood, D e s e r e t, Fremont, 
Grant, Hyrum, Idaho, Idaho Falls, 
Minidoka, Millard, Nebo, North 
Davis, Parowan, Portneuf, Raft 
River, Rigby, Sevier, St. George, 
Teton, Timpanogos. 

We wish to especially mention 
Bannock, Bear Lake, Boise, Fre- 
mont, Idaho, Idaho Falls, Minidoka, 
Parowan, Portneuf, Raft River, Rig- 
by, St. George, and Teton stakes, be- 
cause they sent such splendid repre- 
sentatives on very short notice. 
Some stakes that had been invited to 
attend the second institute were un- 
able to accept the invitation and then 
letters of invitations were sent to the 
above mentioned stakes and their 
response was very wholehearted. 



The women selected by the stakes 
were of the finest type — earnest, de- 
pendable, efficient, thoughtful. They 
read, studied, listened to lectures, 
until they felt full to overflowing. 
They discussed questions in an in- 
telligent way and did able field work. 
New interests were aroused, new 
trends of thought begun. They 
delved into the field of social liter- 
ature and their appetites were whet- 
ted to want more. Their vision was 
expanded so that they returned to 
their homes seeing the vastness of 
the field of social work and its tre- 
mendous possibilities. Delightful 
friendships were formed, and when 
they returned to their dear ones who 
had sacrificed that they might leave 
their homes for six weeks, they were 
better wives and mothers and 
daughters and infinitely better fitted 
to serve in their communities. We 
wish to thank those who came and 
those who made it possible for them 
to come, and feel sure that all will 
feel abundantly repaid because of 
the growth that came to them during 
this period of intensive work. 

We wish them every success in 
their work and hope that the same 
spirit that (actuated them during 
their sojourn in Salt Lake will con- 
tinue with them in their stake work. 

Our Responsibility : 

The great responsibility given the 
Relief Society by the Presiding 
Bishopric, is a challenge to all Re- 
lief Society officers to be prepared. 

Read carefully paragraph two in 
the pamphlet compiled by the Pre- 
siding Bishopric — Ward Charity — 



226 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Details of Administration. A copy 
of this was sent to every Bishop, and 
later General Board members car- 
ried copies into the stakes for all 
Ward Presidents. 

After the announcement, "the 
Ward Bishopric are responsible for 
the care of the worthy poor," and 
"the Relief Society labor under their 
direction," is the startling statement, 
"the Bishopric should refer all cases 
to the Relief Society for investiga- 
tion." This requires careful and 
prayerful preparation. We urge 
each Stake to be ready to give help- 
ful assistance to Ward Presidents 
when the Priesthood Authorities of 
the Stake ask for cooperation. It is 



one of the most' important assign- 
ments ever given (to Relief Society. 

Bring in Young People: 

The members of the General 
Board, in visiting the celebrations 
held in honor of the anniversary of 
the organization of the Relief 
Society, were delighted that many 
young people were brought into the 
programs, some as ushers, others as 
participants in the musical pro- 
grams, or in the pageants and pic- 
tures. This is a most desirable 
thing as it brings freshness and 
brightness to the Relief Society pro- 
gram, and brings to the young 
people an understanding of and a 
love for the Relief Society work. 



Forget It 

By Sarah C. Maeser 

Is some trait of your neighbor's distasteful to you ? 

Forget it. 
Is he getting more favors than you think his due? 

Forget it. 
You have your own questions and problems to solve, 
Your own goal to strive for, and plans to evolve. 
Don't waste your time airing his faults, but resolve 

To forget it. 

Are you hurt by some careless or slighting remark? 

Forget it. 
Does hate in your soul try to kindle a spark? 

Forget it. 
Are you prone over wrong and injustice to brood? 
Turn quickly your thoughts to the lovely and good ; 
And should aught that's impure ever seek to intrude, 

Forget it. 

Let no evil passion encumber your life, 

Forget it. 
Be it vanity, jealousy, anger, or strife, 

Forget it. 
For life's well supplied with most beautiful things, 
And harmony sweet through each avenue rings, 
If we learn to pass by what e'er dissonance brings, 

And forget it, 



MRS 

MRS 

MRS 

MRS 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 



THE RELIEF SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF 
JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 

Mo'tto — Charity Never Fadleth 

THE GENERAL BOARD 

. LOUISE YATES ROBINSON President 

AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

, JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

, JULIA A. F. LUND .... . General Secretary and Treasurer 

Emma A. Empey Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Annie Wells Cannon Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Marcia K Howellg 

Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Lalene H. Hart Mrs. Elise B. Alder Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Inez K. Allen Mrs. Mary Connelly Kimball 

Cora L. Benmon 



Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Editor Mary Connelly Kimball 

Manager .... Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager Amy Brown Lyman 



Vol. XVIII 



APRIL, 1931 



No. 4 



EDITORIAL 



Easter 



THROUGHOUT Christendom 
again is celebrated Easter- 
tide. The glad message, "He 
is risen," rings out from choir and 
pulpit. Again is told to reverent 
worshippers the story of his victory 
over death and the grave, and in 
glad exultation people remember 
that because he arose they too shall 
come forth from the tomb. 

What dramatic contrasts the cru- 
cifixion and resurrection offer. 
'Midst brutal jeers and cruel suffer- 
ing, with all the contumely that 
scoffers could think of, he was led 
to the hill of crucifixion. He en- 
dured the sarcasm and scorn of the 
soldiers, a crown of thorns was 
placed on his head, a purple cloak 
was flung around his shoulders in 
derision of his kingship. He was 



scourged and hailed in mockery, 
"King of the Jews." "Ha, thou that 
destroyest the temple and buildest it 
in three days, save thyself and come 
down from the cross." His divinity 
showed itself when under such treat- 
ment he could fervently pray, 
"Father, forgive them; they know 
not what they do." Then came the 
final agony and the lingering death. 
His torn flesh, his cramped mus- 
cles, the weight of his body pulling 
against the nails, tortured him al- 
most beyond endurance, and in 
agony he cried out, "My God, my 
God, why hast thou forsaken me?" 
Then came the final glorious, vic- 
torious cry, "Father, into thy hands 
I commend my spirit." Night de- 
scended. The three crosses stood 
out in bold relief on Calvary. 



228 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



The disciples assembled. What 
could they say to one another ? Jesus 
whom they had expected to redeem 
Israel was gone; all their hopes had 
vanished. 

AS soon as the first day of the 
week dawned, Mary Magdalene 
and the other Mary hastened to the 
sepulchre. They were fearful when 
they saw the stone rolled away, but 
an angel whose countenance was like 
lightning and whose raiment was 
white as snow, said to them, "Fear 
not: ye: for I know that ye seek 
Jesus, which was crucified. He is 
not here : for he is risen, as he said. 
Come, see the place where the Lord 
lay. And go quickly, and tell his 
disciples that he is risen from the 
dead; and, behold, he goeth before 
you into Galilee; there shall ye see 
him: lo, I have told you." (Matt. 
28:5-7.) Joy winged their feet as 
they hastened to proclaim the great 
message. On the way Jesus saluted 
them with "All hail." As they wor- 
shipped at his feet, he said unto 
them, "Be not afraid: go tell my 
brethren that they go into Galilee, 
and there shall they see me. (Matt. 
28:10.) When the eleven disciples 
went into Galilee, as directed, Jesus 
appeared among them and they wor- 
shipped him. Then he gave them 
this wonderful commission : "All 



power is given unto me in heaven 
and in earth. Go ye therefore, and 
teach all nations, baptizing them in 
the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost : teach- 
ing them to observe all things what- 
soever I have commanded you : and, 
lo, I am with you always, even un- 
to the end of the world." (Matt. 
28:18-20.) 

Eight days passed. Again he vis- 
ited his assembled disciples. To the 
doubting Thomas he said, "Reach 
hither thy finger, and behold my 
hand, and thrust it into my side: 
and be not faithless, but believing." 
A third time, at the sea of Tiberias, 
he visited his disciples, and through 
following his instructions, their net 
was so filled with fish that they could 
not draw it. After dining with 
them, he asked Peter, "Lovest thou 
me more than these?" "Yea, Lord; 
thou knowest that I love thee," said 
the disciple. As a test of his love 
he was admonished, "Feed my 
lambs," and to make as emphatic as 
possible that this was the test of true 
love, a second and third time he ad- 
monished, "Feed my sheep." 

Thus again and again did the 
risen Lord appear to his loved apos- 
tles, giving proof that he had in- 
deed risen from the dead and be- 
come the first fruits of them that 
sleep. 



Anna Garlin Spencer 



IN the passing of Anna Garlin 
Spencer a most inspiring leader 
left us. She has been a pillar of 
strength to the National Council of 
Women of the United States, and 
has been a potent factor in advanc- 
ing its purposes. Although past 
eighty years of age, she was the 
outstanding figure at the Council 
gathering held February 3 and 4, 
1931. 



Miss Lena Madesin Phillips, pres- 
ident of the National Council of 
Women, pays her this tribute: 

"The National Council of Women 
has suffered a great loss in the death 
of its beloved leader, Dr. Anna Gar- 
lin Spencer. Her love for the 
Council through many years of in- 
valuable service, tirelessly given, 
and her hopes for its future will 
serve as a perpetual memorial and 



EDITORIAL 



229 



source of inspiration to those of us 
who follow humbly in her footsteps, 
with the light of her great vision to 
serve as our guide, and the memory 
of her enthusiasm to spur us on to 
greater effort." 

All those who have represented 
*he Young Ladies' Mutual Improve- 
ment Association and the Relief So- 
ciety at National Council gatherings 
have come home with words of 
praise and love for this able, dis- 
tinguished and understanding wom- 
an.* 

She was interested in all that per- 
tains to the welfare of mankind. An 
able writer, a forceful speaker, she 
championed many causes and helped 
to establish better conditions. 

At her funeral, Dr. Lon R. Call 
said: 



"Such people never die. In our 
own lives we give them immortality. 
Let us arise and take up the work 
they have left unfinished, and pre- 
serve the treasures they have won, 
and round out the circuit of their 
being to the fulness of an ampler 
orbit in our own. Such an effort 
on our part will be our best tribute. 
Thereby the force and flow of their 
action and work may be carried over 
the gulfs of death and made im- 
mortal in the true and healthy life 
which they worthily had and used. 

"When are the good so powerful 
to guide and to quicken as after 
death has withdrawn them from us, 
when we feel that the seal is set 
upon what was made perfect in their 
souls? They take their place like 
stars in a region of purity and 
peace." 



Another Victory for the Eighteenth Amendment 

Some time ago Federal Judge ically upheld the constitutionality of 

William Clark of New Jersey the amendment. We hope that in 

startled the country by claiming that the future lawmakers everywhere 

the eighteenth amendment had been will strive more vigorously to en- 

improperly ratified. We rejoice that force this law and that its beneficial 

the Supreme Court of the United effects will be more and more widely 

States has vigorously and emphat- observed. 



Something for nothing is not a principle of eternal justice. We pay 
for what we get, even from the Divine Giver — pay to the limit of our 
ability to pay ; and He does the rest, the part that we cannot do. 

Parents of the wilful and the wayward ! Do not give them up. Do not 
cast them off. They are not utterly lost. They have but strayed in 
ignorance from the Path of Right, and God is very merciful to ignorance. 
Only the fulness of knowledge brings the fulness of accountability. Our 
Heavenly Father is far more merciful, infinitely more charitable, than the 
best of his servants, and the Everlasting Gospel is mightier in power to 
save than our narrow, finite minds can comprehend. — From "Through 
Memory's Halls," by O. F. Whitney. 



*In a later issue of our Magazine Mrs. Amy Brown Lyman will give a sketch 
of her life. 



Lesson Department 

Theology and Testimony 

(First Week in June) 
Book of Mormon — The Jaredite People 



Assignment 

Read the "Book of Ether" in the 
Book pf Mormon. It will help you 
to acquire clear ideas on the subject 
if you read also what is said in the 
Dictionary of the Book of Mormon 
about Jared, his brother, and Ether ; 
and chapters six and seven in the 
Message and Characters of the Book 
of Mormon, also the story of the 
Jaredites as told in this last refer- 
ence, pages 40-44. 

Outline 

I. Conditions in the Old World. 

1. Social conditions. 

2. Time and place. 

3. The Tower of Babel. 

4. Jared and his brother. 

5. The journey to the New 
World. 

II. Conditions in the New World. 

1. Growth of the community. 

2. Political government. 

3. Religious government. 

4. Death of the leaders. 

III. Jared and his brother. 

1. Life of each separately. 

2. Dissimilarities between 
them. 

3. Outstanding quality in each. 

IV. Later history. 

1. The kings. 

2. Social and religious condi- 
tions. 

3. Causes of decline. 

4. Ether, the prophet-historian. 

5. The end of the nation. 
V. Ideas in the book. 

1. About the relations between 
man and God. 

2. About the pre-earth life. 



3. About political government. 

4. About the land of America. 

The Story 

The story opens in Babylon, about 
four thousand years ago. It was 
after the Great Flood, of which the 
Bible tells us, when Noah and his 
family were saved. 

For some reason — maybe fear 
from another flood — the people in 
Babylon erected a high tower. The 
Lord, however, we are informed, 
confounded their language, so that 
they were unable to understand one 
another. This is why it is now 
called the Tower of Babel — which 
means confusion. 

In Babylon were the families of 
two brothers — Jared and Morian- 
cumr. At Jared's request Morian- 
cumr prayed for the Lord to allow 
them to retain their language, and 
then to permit their friends to retain 
theirs also; finally he prayed that 
God would lead them all to another 
place. All these prayers were 
granted. 

Presently this small colony was 
led to the land which we now call 
America. They crossed the great 
ocean in eight ibarges, or (ships, 
which they made for the purpose 
under the guidance of the Lord. 
On landing here they formed a gov- 
ernment — a kingdom it turned out to 
be before the death of the brothers. 

Here ,the Jaredites lived as a na- 
tion for about fourteen hundred 
years — that is, from around 2000 
B. C. to about 600 B. C. They had 
a great many kings during this 
period ; they cultivated agriculture, 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



231 



built houses, smelted ore, and jeven 
had a process, it seems, of making 
glass ; and they carried on a govern- 
ment and a religion. Also they ex- 
ercised the same virtues and human 
weaknesses, privately and publicly, 
as people have done before them and 
since. Prophets arose to warn them 
of impending calamities if they per- 
sisted in sin. One of these was 
Ether, who also made a history of 
his people from the beginning. 

The end of this nation was very 
dramatic — for they did not heed the 
warnings of their prophet. Civil 
war broke out over the question as 
to who should be king — Coriantumr 
or Shiz. The whole nation — men, 
women, and children — was arrayed 
in battle on one side or the other ; 
and they fought till only the two 
aspirants for the kingship remained 
alive to carry on the battle. In the 
end Coriantumr cut off the head of 
Shiz, and then wandered about till 
he ran into the Mulekites, who had 
not been in the land very long. To 
them he told the sad tale of the 
decline and destruction of his peo- 
ple. It is probably the only instance 
— certainly it is the clearest case — 
of the suicide iof a nation. 

Notes 

1 . The P re-earth Life : In the 
record of the Jaredite nation we get 
the clearest view of the pre-earth 
existence to be found in sacred liter- 
ature. 

While the Jaredite colony was 
yet in the wilderness of the Old 
World, Jesus Christ apeared in spir- 
it-form to Moriancumr. This was, 
of course, before his incarnation in 
the flesh. The brother jof Jared 
gathered from this vision that the 
spirit is in the form of the body, 
that the spirits of all men had a pre- 
earth life, and that the spirit itself is 
a spiritual tabernacle. It is one of 
the greatest revelations ever given 



to any mortal. You will find it in 
chapter 3 of "Ether." 

2. The Land of America: An- 
other idea of great significance con- 
cerns the continent we have come to 
call America. 

To the Jaredites, as to the Ne- 
phrites after them, it was the Land 
of Promise, just as Palestine was to 
the Israelites. It was a place pecu- 
liarly blessed of God, dedicated as a 
land of freedom. Over and over 
again is this idea stated in the Book 
tof Mormon, especially in the "Book 
of Ether." But it was to be a free 
country, politically, socially, and re- 
ligiously, only on certain conditions. 
These conditions are thus stated by 
Moroni, and he sets them down 
mainly for the benefit of those who 
should read the Nephite record in 
our time : 

"Behold, this is a land which is 
choice above all other lands ; where- 
fore he that doth possess it shall 
serve God or be swept off. * * * 
Whatsoever nation shall possess it 
shall be free from bondage, and 
from captivity, and from all other 
nations under heaven — if they will 
but serve the God of the land, who 
is Jesus Christ." 

Here is a patriotic view of Amer- 
ica, the like of which has never been 
expressed elsewhere in any liter- 
ature, and it furnishes a splendid 
background for ,what Nephi the 
First says about its discovery in 
modern times, about God fighting on 
the side of the "Gentiles who had 
been separated from the mother 
country," and also for what our own 
prophet says concerning the inspira- 
tion of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

3. The Two Brothers: In Jared 
and Moriancumr we have two very 
remarkable characters. 

In one respect they are alike — 
they both have supreme faith in 
God. But in all other respects they 



232 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



are different. Jared is a leader in 
matters that belong to the material 
world ; Moriancumr, in thing's of the 
spirit. This is clear from all details 
we have in that swift narrative, the 
"Book of Ether." 

Jared it is who sees that the small 
group of believers can do nothing 
unless they have the same language, 
that it would be useless for them to 
remain in the old home, and, after 
their arrival in the Promised Land, 
that the people ought to have their 
say as to the form of government 
they are to have, even if that is to 
be an unlimited monarchy. But he 
has enough faith in God to request 
his brother to find out from Him 
just what to do in each of these situ- 
ations. For generally it is at his 
request that information comes to 
the colony through Moriancumr. 

Moriancumr, on the other hand, 
was highly spiritual in his nature. 
He was what we would call today 
"psychic." That is, he was more 
susceptible to spiritual truth than 
most persons — specifically, than his 
brother Jared. He therefore became 
a medium between Jared and God. 
Indeed, he was one of the most 
spiritually susceptible men of whom 
we have any record. Said Jesus to 
him on the occasion of his visitation 
to him, "Never have I showed my- 
self unto man whom I have created, 
for never has man believed in me as 
thou hast." And Moroni comments 
— "Because of the knowledge of this 
man, he could not be kept from be- 
holding within the veil." 

4. Moroni and Ether: In the 
reading of the "Book of Ether" ex- 
treme care must be exercised to dis- 
tinguish between what the prophet 
Ether says and what the translator 
Moroni adds by way of comment. 

Usually a translator sticks to his 
text; he does not make any com- 
ments on what he is translating ; and 
if he deems it necessary to do that, 



he puts his notes at the bottom of the 
page, instead of in with the matter 
he is translating. That, at least, is 
what Moroni would do today. But 
this is not what he does in his ren- 
dering of the history of the Jaredites 
on the plates before him. And 
sometimes these comments are both 
long and valuable. It is as if 
Moroni were translating for a 
reader who has to have things 
pointed out to him, so that he will 
be sure not to miss anything. Or, 
possibly, it is because he realizes that 
he is boiling down his narrative to 
such an extent as to make it hard 
to follow. At any rate, it becomes 
necessary to discriminate between 
the text translated and the notes of 
the translator. 

5. A Bit of Evidence : Moroni's 
part in the composition of the Book 
of Mormon is extremely varied. 
This is what he gives us — (1) The 
rest of the history of his people; 
(2) a translation and abridgment of 
the record of the Jaredites, in the 
"Book of Ether;" (3) some letters 
from his father to himself, while the 
war between the Nephites and the 
Lamanites was in progress, thus giv- 
ing us a first-hand account of events 
he did not see; and (4) the exact 
wording of some of the religious 
forms used in his day — baptism, for 
instance, and the Lord's supper. 

This is exactly 'as it would be, if 
we take into consideration the cir- 
cumstances under which Moroni 
wrote his part of the book. " Had 
Joseph Smith been imagining all 
this, it would most likely have been 
different. There would not, one 
would think, be so many after- 
thoughts. As it is, there is what 
the teachers of English call "veri- 
similitude" especially striking in this 
part of the narrative. We get from 
a reading of this section of the 
Book of Mormon, that is, a sense of 
reality which we could not get if 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



233 



Joseph Smith had made it all up 
instead of giving an actual situ- 
ation. 

If, therefore, the Book of Mor- 
mon be a work of fiction as unbe- 
lievers would have us think, then the 
Prophet must have had a most vivid 
imagination to have sensed so clearly 
a situation so realistic as the one 
Moroni is supposed to have been in. 
For, considering the conditions, 
Moroni does exactly what he must 
do under the circumstances. 

Questions 

1. Tell briefly the story of the 
Jaredites from the time of the tower 
till the end of the nation. 

2. Compare and contrast the 



downfall of the Jaredites and that 
of the Nephites. What appears to 
have been the cause in each case? 

3. Make two lists of famous char- 
acters in religion — one that might be 
headed by Jared and another that 
might be headed by Moriancumr. 
One might begin with Joseph Smith 
and Brigham Young, for instance. 

4. Are we in any way influenced 
in our conduct by the statements in 
the Book of Mormon concerning the 
Promised Land — its discovery, its 
colonization, its dedication to free- 
dom? If so, point out this influence 
specifically. What is the meaning 
of the phrase "serve the God of the 
land, who is Jesus Christ"? Is 
America now serving the God of 
this land? How? 



Work and Business 

Teacher's Topic For June 
Our Responsibility to Ourselves 



"Our education should be such as 
to improve our minds 'and fit us for 
increased usefulness, to make us of 
greater service to the human family, 
to enable us to improve our methods 
of living, speaking and thinking." — 
Brigham Young. 

"The one duty of life is to lessen 
every vice and enlarge every virtue 
by education." — David Swing. 

"Real education is measured by 
our ability to get along with others 
and to be interested in others rather 
than getting others interested in us." 
— Wiggam. 

"All love for others begins by a 
wise love for self." — Dwight Hillis. 

"The Divine Teacher asks each 
youth to love and make the most of 
himself that later on he may be 



bread to the hungry, medicine to the 
wounded, shelter to the weak." — 
Dwight Hillis. 

We have an obligation to develop 
ourselves to 'the highest possible 
attainments : 

/. Intellectually 

By careful and systematic study. 
(A short time each day devoted to 
systematic study soon accomplishes 
much.) 

By keeping abreast of the times 
and what is going on in the world, 
and discussing it with the family. 

By taking an interest in the 
studies of the husband and children. 
(How much more interesting a hus- 
band's study becomes when he is 
joined in it by his wife, and how 



234 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



much more interesting a boy's les- 
son, if his mother can take part in 
its discussion and add encourage- 
ment as he studies.) 

By reading well chosen books, and 
attending lectures, etc. 

By reading of the accomplish- 
ments of women. 

II. Spiritually 

By studying and applying the 
gospel. 

By reading and studying the life 
of the Master. 

By taking advantage of the Relief 
Society lessons. 

By making the most of the oppor- 



tunities for service, as exemplified 
by Christ's life of loving service. 

777. Physically 

By keeping physically fit. (Em- 
phasize self -care and self-love.) 

By realizing that we are re- 
sponsible for our own growth and 
happiness and for the growth and 
development of those about us. 

By proper diet and health habits, 
including exercise. 

By regarding the Word of Wis- 
dom as a guide to health. 

By caring for personal appear- 
ance. 

By developing personality. 



Literature 

(Third Week in June) 
Lesson IX — The Short Story in Italy 



Suggested Story 

"The Falcon." by Giovanni Boc- 
caccio (B6k-ka/-ch6), from the 
"Decameron." 

Few countries are as rich in sto- 
ries and story tellers as is Italy. This 
lesson, however, will deal with only 
one writer of tales, Giovanni Boc- 
caccio. In spite of the fact that for 
many years Boccaccio's works, in- 
cluding his "Decameron," were kept 
in dark places, if kept at all, he is 
the one Italian writer who has done 
most to influence Italy and other 
European countries in the art of 
short story writing. 

Dante, writer of the "Divine 
Comedy," who is to (Italy what 
Chaucer and Shakespeare are to 
English speaking countries, was the 
first great figure in Italian literature. 
He Was a poet and it was left to 
Boccaccio, born about half a century 
later, to become the first great writer 
of Italian prose. The novela, or 



short story, which he developed, 
seemed to be exactly suited to the 
Italian temperament, and for three 
hundred years it was carefully de- 
veloped. 

When the Renaissance declined, 
story telling as an art, fell into dis- 
repute, and it was not until the 
19th century, with the naturalist, 
Verga, whose fame would rest on 
his story of "Cavalleria Rusticana" 
alone, that the short story again be- 
came one of the prominent arts. 
Today, Italy has, like America, num- 
berless writers of the short story. 

Out of all the stories in the text, 
Boccaccio's tale of "The Falcon" has 
been chosen for two reasons : It is 
one of the loveliest stories found in 
any language ; and it was written by 
a man who helped to bring about 
the Renaissance in literature and 
who has profoundly influenced writ- 
ers all over the civilized world. 

Indeed, the literature of modern 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 235 

Europe as distinguished from that frankly abandoned theological and 

of medieval times began with three political doctrine for men and nature 

Italian poets — Dante, Petrarch, and as they are, particularly in their 

Boccaccio, for Boccaccio was also a lesser moments, 

poet. Several characteristics made The Italians of the Renaissance 

these men modern. They all had sought for pleasure above all else, 

a firm grasp on the form they devel- and Boccaccio portrayed life as they 

oped; they all projected their per- wanted to find it. 

sonalities into their art (medieval But Boccaccio was not altogether 

writing very often does not reflect of the pleasure loving world. _ It 

the personality of the writer — it is was he who did so much to bring 

too apt to be vague and dreamy) ; Greek studies into Europe, and he 

and their natural vigor lifted writ- devoted much of his life in aiding 

ing into the world of facts. Petrarch, the man who brought back 

Dante chose to write the drama of humanism and scholarship and who 

the human soul, Petrarch of the gave us the modern intellectual 

heart, and Boccaccio of the field that ideal. 

is every day life — man as he is. Out Little is known of Giovanni Boc- 

of these three spheres, Dante gave caccio's early life. It is fairly well 

the world the epic, Petrarch the established that his father sought to 

lyric, and Boccaccio the novel. make him a merchant, and for six 

And so great was the genius of years the boy was in service to a 

these men that their work is final, great trader. Boccaccio, however, 

Many have learned from the three cared for little save poetry, and if 

Italians, but none have excelled. It he had been allowed to follow his 

was from them that modern liter- desire, he might have been a poet 

ature came. alone, and not the greatest in Italy 

Strangely they were all born in either. 

Florence, Dante in 1265, Petrarch in For six more years after the mer- 

1304, and Boccaccio in 1313. The chant-service, he studied ecclesias- 

"Divine Comedy," the "Canzoniere," tical law, producing poetry in mo- 

and the "Decameron" represent the ments when he should have been 

best of all three. working. When he was old Boc- 

Boccaccio's father was a mer- caccio wrote of these early years: 

chant, and it is supposed that his "It is unbecoming and indecent for 

mother was French. Whether he is anybody to attempt that which he 

legitimate no student has been able cannot believe himself capable of 

to determine fully. Boccaccio's performing. Consequently since, I 

class, the lower middle one, was in think God was pleased to make liter- 

the ascendancy at the time of his ature my vocation, and in this I am 

birth, and he, himself, exerted more determined to persevere." 

influence over his successors for After Boccaccio had served his 

three hundred years than did the . second six years, he went to Naples 

two other men, though in force of and definitely pursued literature. It 

genius and character he was third, was here that he met the lady re- 

Perhaps the reason for his sway nowned in literature as Fiametta and 

was that more than the other poets, who so profoundly influenced his 

he anticipated the future. Instead writing. 

of using mystic and abstract ideals, Boccaccio first met her in the 

he substituted sensual and concrete church of San Lorenzo in 1338, on 

men, and in his younger years he Easter Eve. She was a few years 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



older and married to a nobleman. 
Another of the indefinite things 
about Boccaccio is that no one has 
been able to determine whether he 
knew this lady intimately or if he 
loved her from afar as Dante did 
Beatrice and Petrarch Laura. 

Soon after his arrival at Naples, 
he was invited to the most distin- 
guished homes. He made friends 
among the noble and the celebrated 
and he was early renowned as a 
brilliant story teller, and both qual- 
ities helped him in his social life. 

All of his early work can be 
traced to the influence of Fiametta, 
whom he must have met at some of 
the homes in Naples. Even when 
her influence was on the wane at 
the time he was writing the "De- 
cameron," he paid homage to her. 

In 1344 (or 43) he returned to 
Florence, but his father's second or 
third marriage caused him to hurry 
back to Naples. Here Joanna, one 
of the most dissolute rulers of all 
time, was upon the throne. This 
strange woman, whose life was so 
licentious, was also a patron of the 
arts, and it was at her command that 
Boccaccio wrote the "Decameron." 

Southern Italy at this time was 
torn by war, famine, and pestilence. 
The Black Death raged through 
Naples, and Boccaccio again re- 
turned home — this time no doubt to 
attend to his inheritance. His father 
had died from the Plague. 

It was the Plague at Florence that 
gave him the setting for the "De- 
cameron." In his book a group of 
pleasure loving people left the 
ghastly city for the safety of a beau- 
tiful garden in the country. They 
were to forget Death, who was for- 
ever approaching them, by telling 
stories. The "Decameron" contains 
the stories. 

These stories relate of human ex- 
perience, but Boccaccio does not 



trouble to probe the meaning of the 
experiences. He uses light but 
stinging satire, and the church, mat- 
rimony, and other sacred institutions 
are not spared. Because of his 
satire, many people have believed 
that the "Decameron" was a subtle 
attack on the Catholic Church, and 
for that reason the book is on the 
banned list. 

Boccaccio, perhaps, had no such 
idea. He was a Catholic in good 
standing, and at that time there was 
no danger of separation in the 
church. Everyone belonged, and 
people were accustomed to speak 
freely of it. It was only in another 
century, when the Reformation was 
upon Europe, that the "Decameron" 
was exiled. 

Men who have spent years in in- 
vestigating the sources of the "De- 
cameron" have concluded that few 
of its tales were original with Boc- 
caccio — that they came from many 
lands and people. Story telling was 
much in vogue during the Middle 
Ages, and Boccaccio gathered and 
preserved these tales. To them he 
gave his great art, and he made a 
complete book, written in a stately 
and beautiful style, and one that 
touched the heights, and depths, the 
pomp and misery, and the pleasures 
and sorrows of human life. It is 
no mistake to call it the "human 
comedy." 

Some years after the "Decam- 
eron"' Boccaccio wrote a book that 
was displeasing to his readers, even 
then, and two years later a strange 
thing happened to him. In the 
summer of 1361 a Carthusian Monk 
named Pietro died. Before he died 
he asserted that he had had a vision 
that must be communicated to Boc- 
caccio and several other celebrated 
men of the times. Warning was 
then sent to Boccaccio and the 
others that unless they repented and 
changed their ways, they should be 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 



237 



damned — that they were already 
hovering over the brink of hell. 

Boccaccio's first reaction was to 
give up his library and studies to 
become a monk. Luckily, Petrarch, 
who was a close friend of Boccaccio, 
hurried from Padua to advise mod- 
eration. Petrarch pointed out that 
poetry and literature, in themselves, 
are not displeasing to God. Boc- 
caccio continued with his studies, but 
he wrote no more tales of life in its 
frailer moments. 

He became saddened and pious, 
and counseled his friends to forget 
the "Decameron" — by means of 
which he lives today. With his 
interest in poetry gone, he turned 
to scholarship and to service in the 
church. In old age he suffered 
much from bodily afflictions, but his 
work continued. One of his labors 
was to lecture at Florence on Dante 
and to write a life of the great poet. 
It was at this time, also, that he did 
many of his Greek translations. He 
died at Certaldo, December 21, 
1375, about a year after Petrarch's 
death, and was buried in the Cer- 
taldo church. 

To the Teacher 

"The Falcon" is a love story of 
the romantic and idealistic type. It 
is the story of a man who heedlessly 
gave away the greater part of his 
possessions to gain the love of a 
woman, and who, through his desire 
to serve her, unknowingly sacrificed 
the last and most beloved of his 
possessions just when she most 
needed this bit of property. All of 
us at some time or another throw 
away something that at a later time 
we dearly need, so that there is no 
difficulty in understanding the ap- 
peal of Boccaccio's story. The story 
is saved from tragedy by Federigo's 
gaining the love of the lady he had 



despaired of so long. If the main 
interest had been centered about the 
lady or her small son, the ending 
could not have been so happy, but 
the reader is so anxious to see 
Federigo succeed that his attention 
is not particularly drawn to the boy's 
death. 



Questions 

1. Is "The Falcon" a true short 
story? Explain your answer. In 
what way does Boccaccio's art, as 
shown in this story, differ from 
modern short story writing? 

2. What customs mentioned are 
characteristic of Italy in the four- 
teenth century ? 

3. How has Boccaccio overcome 
the difficulty of his story's covering 
a number of years? 

4. Are the details of the story 
presented fully enough to be con- 
vincing? 

5. What acts of Federigo's help 
most to reveal his character? 

6. Is this a satisfactory love 
story? Give reasons for your an- 
swer. 

7. In what way is the love story 
idealistic ? 

Alfred Tennyson thought this 
story so beautiful that he wrote a 
one-act play in verse using the same 
theme. The play is beautifully writ- 
ten and makes the motives, situa- 
tions, and characters more clearly 
defined. Some teachers may prefer 
the play to the story. It will help 
the teacher in the interpretation of 
the story to read the play first. 

The last Italian story in the text, 
Deledda's "Two Miracles" is a beau- 
tiful story, dealing with the religious 
customs of the people. The class 
members will enjoy this story if time 
will permit the reading of it. 



238 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Social Service 

(Fourth Week in June 

Personality Study : Proper Use of Humor 

Based on Overstreet's Influencing Human Behavior, pp. 256-277 

"Humor is a powerful factor in side of life one must enjoy a fair 

influencing behavior," says the degree of physical health and of 

author of our text. A writer in the mental exuberance. If he has suf- 

field of business psychology says fered long hours of tedious labor 

that "it is extremely difficult to without sleep, if he has been the vic- 

handle humor successfully, and tim of recent financial reverses, if 

when not used successfully it is very loved ones are dangerously ill, the 

likely to do positive har m." mirthful self is likely to be quiescent. 

(Strong.) These two quotations The play tendencies and the social 

express very clearly the keynote of spirit are fundamental to the expres- 

this lesson. The definite implication sion of mirth." * * * 

is that we may well cultivate a sense "Laughter is born of social con- 

of humor and that we should learn tacts. Whenever two or more per- 

how it may be used more effectively, sons who are kindred spirits are 

The subject of mirthful behavior, gathered together under agreeable 
to many may seem very trifling, yet circumstances, they are l<ikely to 
it is a fact that great men like Aris- burst out into laughter at any mo- 
totle, Hobbes, Kant, Schopenhauer, ment. * * * A member of an adult 
Spencer and Bergson have seriously group may laugh because he is un- 
tried to understand the causes of consciously stimulated by the laugh- 
laughter and whole volumes have ing of others. * * * Laughter some- 
been written by way of exposition times results from the desire not to 
of their findings. Their views are be conspicuous. The listener may 
couched briefly in such phrases as fail to catch the point of a story, but 
"imitation * * * of a lower type," joins in the group laughter. * * * 
"theory of superiority," "nullifica- "Laughter is occasionally forced, 
tion of expectation," "theory of in- An individual is insulted by a slight- 
congruity," "an effort which sud- ing remark. He does not want to 
denly encounters a void," "the ap- recognize the incident, therefore he 
pearance of mechanical inelasticity will parry the thrust by laughing, 
in human life," etc. * * * Laughter is sometimes util- 

Ours is a practical interest, so it ized to cover pain. One's pride may 
will not be appropriate to dwell on lead him to invoke a laughing mood, 
the merely theoretical aspects of this Pain is frequently camouflaged by 
very interesting and important gen- laughter. Tears may be concealed 
eral topic. However, we do want by laughter." * * * 
to know something of the conditions "Probably the most common cause 
which make for mirthful behavior of laughter is found in the incon- 
as well as something of the social gruous actions of other individuals, 
effectiveness of humor, and how we A dog chases his tail, a boy with a 
may avoid certain common mistakes basket of eggs falls down, a dig- 
in relation to its use. nified man runs after his wind-blown 

We may begin with a brief quota- hat— these are never-failing, mirth- 

tion from a valuable discussion of provoking incongruities. * * Then 

this subject by Bogardus : there are incongruous ideas which 

"In order to see the humorous are common causes of laughter, such 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 239 

as (1) Illogical statements, (2) prophet tells the "unspiritual ritual- 
Grammatical and rhetorical errors, ists" to whom he is speaking to 
(3) Idiomatical and related mis- "come to Bethel, (a sanctuary) and 
takes, (4) The play on words, (5) transgress; to Gilgal, and multiply 
Overstatement or understatement transgression; bring your sacrifices 
that is moderate and implied, (6) every morning, and your tithes 
A sudden change from the serious every three days." Is he not poking 
to the trifling or ridiculous, and (7) fun at some of the respectabilities 
Unintended suggestions." * * * on which they have gone to seed? 

"To make fun of others consti- Or could any intelligent reader think 
tutes an entirely different set of that Jesus intended the plain im- 
causes of laughter. * * * There is plication of his answer record- 
laughter which is simply ridicule — ed in Mark 2:17 to be taken 
the individual is merely derided. * seriously? The self-sufficient scribes 
Then there is laughter which is of the Pharisees were questioning 
purely and openly sarcastic, biting, the propriety of Jesus eating and 
and generally anti-social. Social drinking with publicans and sinners, 
ridicule of whatever degree is pow- What effective irony is contained 
erful because it directly affects the in his splendid answer and what a 
socially reflected self. Social laugh- fine key it is into the insight which 
ter is a corrective. It arouses fear, Jesus had as to the kind of people 
and 'restrains eccentricity'."* with whom reform may best be 

These brief quoted extracts on begun. When Jesus learned about 
laughter are very inadequate as a the question and noted the self- 
sample of the way social psycholo- satisfied anxiety of the delegation of 
gists discuss this interesting topic, scribes looking in at the feast he 
However, a careful rereading of this said to them, "They that are whole 
material should stimulate consider- have no need of a physician, but 
able reflection and help in a meas- they that are sick: I came not to 
ure to understand mirthful behavior, call the righteous, but sinners." 
and the last paragraph especially What do you suppose was the effect 
suggests how at times the provoking of this carefully worded reply? Cer- 
of laughter may have considerable tain it is that even our sacred liter- 
social importance in addition to the ature illustrates how humor may be 
possible amusement afforded. used with telling effect. 

People who are more than super- l n the business world today it is 
ficially acquainted with the Bible recognized that humor if properly 
know that it contains many situa- used may be very effective. Adver- 
tions that were intended perhaps to tisers, a few years ago, who wished 
be humorous. Consider, for ex- to promote the use of starched col- 
ample, the answer of Job to his l a rs tried to convey the impression 
critics who had been parroting an- that most of the wearers of soft 
cient so-called wisdom to him after collars were down at the heels in 
the fashion of a Bromide. He says, their business. Said their advertis- 
"No doubt you are the men who i n g, "Almost all successful men 
know ! Wisdom will die with you." we ar stiff collars." It is clear that 
Job 12 :2, Moffat's translation. i n this we have an effort to use 

Read in Amos 4:4-5 where the humor to undermine the business of 

the manufacturers of soft and semi- 



*Reprinted from Essentials of Social ft collars> It is interesting to 

Psychology by Emory S. Bogardus, with , . , , .P . 

permission of the publisher, Jesse Ray kn ° w that a humorous advertising 

Miller. appeal was used by the Van Heusen 



240 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



people by way of rebuttal and de- 
fense. They could not remain in 
dignified silence nor trust to an or- 
dinary denial while their customers 
were being belittled in this way and 
dubbed as unsuccessful. Soon the 
reading public were smiling if not 
laughing at the expense of those 
who imitate with their uncomfort- 
able collars the vain asceticism of 
those in days gone by when, for no 
good reason at all, such things as 
starched ruffs, hard-boiled shirts, 
,etc, were worn. In a subordinate 
part of the advertisement it is 
pointed out by way of contrast that 
the present generation with its sen- 
sible appreciation of comfort as well 
as style, wears soft shirts with soft 
bosoms and soft cuffs, soft hats, etc. 
If you happen to remember this 
advertisement picturing "Ye Hall of 
Discomforts" with its judicious use 
of humor you will agree that it was 
very effective. 

But let us not assume that suc- 
cessful business men use humor 
freely. As a matter of fact they 
exercise considerable self-restraint. 
A beginning store clerk is often 
cautioned about how he attempts to 
joke with the customers. It is easy 
by joking to give offense when it 
is really not intended. Humor is 
recognized as being so very difficult 
to apply successfully that one im- 
portant advertising concern restricts 
the use of humor to only those ad- 
vertisements where this sort of ao- 
peal has been specifically authorized 
by the president. 

It is significant that one of the 
best recent discussions of the prac- 
tical use of humor is entitled "Mis- 
takes to Avoid in Using Humor."* 

*See Webb and Morgan — "Strategy in 
Handling People" (1930), pp. 238-243. 
Publishers : Boulton, Pierce and Com- 
pany, 232 East Erie Street, Chicago, 111. 
Price $3.00. This book is a very inter- 
esting and helpful approach to the same 
general problem as that treated in our 
text. 



It brings home to us again the fact 
that "humor is an edged tool ; it can 
be used to fight with as well as to 
please." The characteristic feature 
of this consideration of the problem 
is the use of many illustrative ex- 
amples culled from "incidents from 
the careers of successful men." 
Some of their conclusions arrived at 
which might supplement our text 
are expressed briefly as follows : 

"We cannot go wrong with a joke 
on ourselves. .We accomplish much 
the same result by joining in the 
laugh when- someone else springs 
one on us. * •* * It is giving a 
thought to the victim that able men 
make their humor effective in cre- 
ating good will. They take care 
that their thrusts inflict no damage 
which they may regret. Kindly hu- 
mor charms people and puts them at 
ease. It is perhaps unequalled as a 
means of relieving tension and 
drawing people together." 

At the close of this season's work 
it may be of interest to many of 
the Relief Society members to know 
that it has been decided to use the 
same text for another year and to 
try by a slightly different series of 
lessons to master the material much 
more thoroughly. The Magazine 
lessons will have new content and 
an attempt will be made to make the 
work somewhat easier. 

A Few of the Possible Problems 
For Discussion 

1. Relate instances to illustrate 
the truth of the statement from 
Strong quoted in the first paragraph. 

2. Read to the class and comment 
briefly on the quotation from Bo- 
gardus. Which paragraph do you 
regard as most significant? Why? 

3. Why is it considered such a 
ihigh compliment to say that a person 

has a fine sense of humor? If it is 
available read the interesting column 
on the "Sense of Joy" found in The 



LESSON DEPARTMENT 241 

Nation for April 27, 1927, p. 468. Israel. After much discussion they 
Do you consider a sense of humor sought for the final solution of the 
more important than a sense of joy problem at the general church head- 
as a "distinguishing mark of su- quarters. The answer came 
premely and passionately happy per- promptly. It was about as follows : 
sons?" Give reasons. "We do not know where the ten 
4. Under what circumstances is it lost tribes are. They are lost." 
justifiable to poke fun at the "solemn H *ve you ever heard of similar pro- 
respectabilities" of people? What foundry trivial discussions where the 
good, if any, do you suppose came participants had at least temporarily 
out of the verses quoted in the text lost their sense of humor? How 
on page 260 ? Do you suppose they c *n such people be helped ? 
were intended to be merely amus- 9. Wihat do you think of the sug- 
ing? gestion that humor is to be found 

5. Two bromides, (See November in the Bible? Discuss some of the 
Magazine, page 632) in this case a passages you are acquainted with 
school teacher and a garrulous club where some form of humor is used, 
woman had been relating publicly One writer characterizes Matt. 23: 
in church their experiences during 32 and Rev. 22:11 as "gravely iron- 
a summer's trip abroad. Their re- ical." What is your opinion of 
marks seemed so trifling and com- these passages? Do you know of 
monplace and unnecessarily pro- any preachers who make effective 
longed that the chorister expressed use of humor in their sermons to 
his reaction by having the bishop further the cause of righteousness? 
announce that the closing song would Name them and relate an illustra- 
te the hymn entitled, "Ye simple tion or two. 

souls who stray." Do you suppose 10. Present as convincingly as 

that the effects on the whole were you can the considerations which 

good or were they bad ? Do you cause you to believe that we can suc- 

regard the act as an unkindly thrust cessfully cultivate a system of habits 

or a justified corrective? Make that make for humor and actually 

your comments in the light of what break up those habits we have that 

Overstreet says on the last half of tend to make us pitifully unhumor- 

page 262 and of what Bogardus ous. 

says in the last paragraph quoted H, What to you is the best con- 
here in the Magazine. tribution you get from Chapter XVI 

6. Mention some of the delightful of the text ? 

personal qualities of one who has 12 . One* of America's greatest 

cultivated a truly humorous attitude, educators says that we might well 

7. One of the many alleged judge the value of educational ac- 
"eleventh" commandments says, tivities by (1) the extent to which 
"Thou shalt not take thyself too — they stimulate a desire for continued 
seriously." Comment on this espe- growth and (2) the extent to which 
daily in the light of the first half of they furnish the necessary bfisis 
page 266 in our text. upon which further development 

8. The writer has heard it said may take place. Judged from these 
that in a certain theological class standards have you made this "so- 
the members became very much ex- cial service" course a success ? What 
ercised about the problem of the are the evidences which would sup- 
location of the ten lost tribes of port your answer? 



Woman 



Three Part Chorus, written for and dedicated to the Salt Lake Stake Relief Society 



Moderato con espress mf 



Alfred M. Durham. 



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Explore Your Mind 

By Claire Stewart Boyer 



"The aim of science, art and re- 
ligion is forever the same — to bring 
the mind into possession of the 
truth, goodness and beauty of the 
world. The aim of science is to find 
a universe that works, the aim of 
art and religion is to find a universe 
that is significant." This statement 
which opens Mr. Wiggam's great 
book gives the scope of a mind that 
can see world problems in their true 
relationship and can state them, 
fearlessly and with a satisfying cer- 
tainty. Mr. Wiggam is just as effi- 
cient in dealing with individual 
problems. He tells us. that Char- 
acter tests have proved that 80 per 
cent of the failures in life are due 
to things which the individual can 
control. 

In addition to the physical, men- 
tal and emotional phases of person- 
ality he adds social intelligence and 
will power. Social intelligence is 
the ability to judge, appreciate and 
adjust. The person who can judge 
himself well, ■ usually overestimates 
others. He is interested in others, 
makes human contacts easily and 
successfully, stirs others to enthu- 
siasms. He is the inspirational type, 
the leader. He who judges others 
well, is the cold-blooded driver. 
He is interested most in himself. He 
should choose and hire employes 
but never direct them. He is the 
egoist. Overestimation of self re- 
veals stupidity, good estimation of 
self reveals intelligence. 

Desirable qualities in men seem 
to be linked together. The able 
person has common sense, socia- 
bility, talent and appreciation. "Rate 



yourself, compare yourself, with 
others," says Wiggam. 

Success depends greatly upon will 
power. No one is denied a measure 
of success who will use this great 
force. Recreate your lost enthu- 
siasms, overcome fear, develop the 
qualities you admire through using 
will power. One woman learned 
to use a paralyzed arm through 
will power. Fear shuts up the path- 
way of expression and response. It 
binds one to failure. Will power 
can overthrow fear. Don't let your 
feelings overcome you. Action is 
the remedy for the blues. 

Only the self controlled person 
is free. Mental and emotional tests 
are now given for an estimate of the 
worth of an individual. If he has 
established definite, purposeful hab- 
its, coordinated and controlled them 
he will be an efficient human being. 

Imagination, reason and memory 
are merely habit responses. If the 
memory is weak, the habit has not 
been well developed, has been mis- 
treated or ignored. It is startling 
to know that the genius and the 
idiot think in the same way, only 
the higher mind makes connections 
of thought with thought in order to 
be able to retain and recall them, to 
build and create with them. 

Few people even begin to live up 
to their possibilities. The object of 
vocational guidance is to make ac- 
complishment run parallel to abil- 
ity. To make the most of life, phy- 
sical, mental, social, emotional and 
will habits should be carefully de- 
veloped. 

The establishment of these habits 
is education, and education is life. 



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Them Sody Biskits 

By Owen Woodruff Bunker 

I like t'watch my Ma make pies, 

An' roll out ci'mon muffins. 
I like t'see her mix th' dough 

Fer cake, nex' bes' t'nuthin. 
I like t'see her stir th' stuff 

Fer gingerbread, an' fix 
Th' raisins in, but tell th' truth 

I'd ruther see her mix 

Them Sody Biskits. 

I like t'watch her pick a hen 

An' make a batch o' dumplin's, 
'Nen stuff it full o' crum's an' sage, 

An' spice, an' salt, an' somethun' 
Else she alius stuffs it with 

Away up in a 'twix', 
But not s'good as standin' by 

A watchin' at her mix 

Them Sody Biskits. 

I us't t'like it best uv all 

T' see her mix a batter 
O' cookies up, an' bake 'em brown, 

'Nen pass 'em on a platter, 
N'take th' leavin's from th' pan 

An' mix up five er six 
O' quirlie cakes, but now I guess 

I'd ruther see her mix 

Them Sody Biskits. 

There's somethun' 'bout the' dough 'at makes 

A feller git t'lovin' 
'Em things a hour 'fore she gits 

'Em greased an' in th' oven, 
An after all m'tellin' if 

She'll let me have m'picks, 
I'll take a place up clost t'Ma 

So's I can watch 'er mix 
Them Sody Biskits. 



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THE RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 



Vol. 18 May, 1931 No. 5 

CONTENTS 

Motherhood Bessie Potter Vonnoh Frontispiece 

Resurrection ( Poem) Rachel Grant Taylor 245 

Mother (Poem) Jennie Bastian Mansfield 245 

Sketches of Representative Women— Augusta Winters Grant.. Susa Young Gates 247 

A Tribute Amy M. Rice 252 

A Visit to the American Embassy in Mexico Alice D. Moyle 253 

Where's Mother? (Poem) H. L. Reid 257 

Anna Garlin Spencer Amy Brown Lyman 258 

Mothers' Day (Poem) Winona F. Thomas 260 

Facing Facts on Mothers' Day 261 

The Children's Charter 262 

The Waste in Mothers' Lives Mrs. John Sloane 264 

What is Adequate Maternity Care? ■•. Hazel Corbin 265 

My Mother's Smile (Poem) Mary Petterson 266 

Mothers' Day ( Story) Ida R. Alldredge 267 

A Mothers' Day Observance Without Children Olivia S Waddoups 271 

Bessie Potter Vonnoh Jennie B. Knight 273 

Our Field (Poem) Martha J. Barnes 275 

Growing Old with the Poets Lois V. Hales 276 

Maytime (Poem) Merling D. Clyde 278 

Moroni the Faithful Nora A. Davis 279 

What Does Your Home Afford ? Jean Cox 281 

Notes from the Field 285 

Hope ( Poem) Willamelia F. Barton 288 

Relief Society Annual Report, 1930 Julia A. F. Lund 289 

Notes to the Field 292 

Editorial— Mothers' Day 294 

Another Victory for Women 295 

Twelve Outstanding Women 296 

Relief Society Handbook 297 

Hats Off 297 

Mothers of Men ' Vernessa Miller Nagle 299 

The Consumer's Responsibility to the Manufacturer and Merchant. .Vilate Elliott 301 
A Tribute Helen K. Orgill 302 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE GENERAL BOARD OF 

RELIEF SOCIETY 

Editorial and Business Offices : 20 Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Subscription Price: $1.00 a year; foreign, $1.25 a year; payable in advance. 

Single copy, 10c 

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copies will be missed. Report change of address at once, giving both old and new 
address. 

Entered as second-class matter February 18, 1914, at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of 
postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 8, 1917, authorized June 29, 1918. 



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Resurrection 

By Rachel Grant Taylor 

In tune our hearts throb with the song of spring, 
"I am the resurrection and the life." 

Held close in winter's icy bands, the germ of life lies hidden. 
Those coatings dull and brown are but its somber grave clothes. 
Peacefully in darkness deep it rests, beneath a coverlet of snow. 
But when the light of spring's fair sun, dispels the shades of 

winter's night, 
Deep in the earth, life hears the Master's call, 
Casts off its shroud and triumphs over death. 

In tune our hearts throb with the song of spring, 
"I am the resurrection and the life." 



Mother 

By Jennie Bastian Mansfield 



Bits of heavenly wisdom, 
A thousand kinds of cheer, 

A million kinds of comfort, 
For every need that's here ; 



Love that never faileth, 

Tenderness sincere, 
God put them all together 

When He made you, Mother dear. 




By Bessie Potter Vo'nnoh. 



MOTHERHOOD 



THE 



Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII 



MAY. 1931 



No. 5 



Sketches of Representative Women 

Of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

By Susa Young Gates 



WHEN the roll of honor is 
called in heavenly courts, 
the women whose names 
will lead all the rest will be those 
who have crowned wifehood and 
motherhood with the jewels fash- 
ioned out of the glowing sacrifices 
of their own hopes, ambitions, gifts 
and love. The names will be not 
those of the female poets and paint- 
ers, the orators or authors who have 
emerged from domestic obscurity to 
emblazon itheir names on earthly 
scrolls of fame, but of those wives 
and mothers whose human master- 
pieces have gone out from their 
hearthstones to repeat again and 
again the dramas, comedies, and 
tragedies of life! And if life or 
opportunity have deprived the child- 
less, husbandless woman of her 
God-ordained destiny, she too, if she 
has risen to her full womanly 
stature, whether her feet have trod 
the highways of fame or the byways 
of absorption in other related lives 
and interests, if she has preserved 
and developed her mothering in- 
stincts and qualities — she, too, will 
be named among those chosen ones 
when He makes up His jewels. 



Augusta Winters Grant 

Wife of President Heber J. Grant 

MRS. AUGUSTA WINTERS 
GRANT, wife of President 
Heber J. Grant, is a true represen- 
tative of the womanhood of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, sincere, modest, intelli- 
gent. Her life has expressed the 
best there is in wifehood and moth- 
erhood. 

Mrs. Grant was born July 7, 
i856, at Pleasant Grove, Utah. Her 
ancestry answers the problem of her 
own distinguished and beautiful per- 
sonality. Her puritan and Amer- 
ican pioneer ancestry on both ma- 
ternal and paternal lines molded the 
strong lines of courage, the delicate 
tracery of natural refinement and 
peace with the added resourceful- 
ness which enabled them and their 
descendants to meet wisely and 
calmly life's daily problems. 

MRS. GRANT'S father, Oscar 
Winters, descended from two 
Puritan strains, the Burdicks and 
the Winters. His mother, Rebecca 
Rurdick Winters, was a daughter of 



248 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Gideon Burdick who was a Revolu- assisted by her wise father in ac- 

tionary soldier. Gideon enlisted in quiring opinions of national affairs 

1776 in the Colonial Army at the and prominent people which were 

age of 16 years, and served through- uncolored by political bias and un- 

out the war with some years of touched by heated controversy. Os- 

subsequent service. He rose to the car Winters ,had not the remotest 

rank of lieutenant and finally to idea of becoming a school teacher ; 

that of captain ; but he began his but he was called by the Bishop of 

record as a drummer boy. He en- Mount Pleasant about 1860 to take 

rolled from Charleston County, charge of the winter school with 

Rhode Island, and was with Wash- his wife, Mary Ann Stearns Win- 

ington on that fateful night, the ters, who had long been a trained 

25th of December, 1776, when the school teacher. Mary Ann Stearns 

ice-filled Delaware bore the deter- Winters, the wife of Oscar and 

mined American troops across and mother of Augusta, was a school 

met and out-flanked the enemies' teacher from the time she was a 

treacherous assault. Gideon vividly little girl. She taught in Winter 

recalled and described to his de- Quarters and all her younger life 

scendants the scenes and tragic in Utah. 

events of that night and his subse- a UGUSTA'S earliest recollec- 
quent experiences. The war rec- f\ tions were concerned with the 
ordsshow that he remained in active pleasurable task of assisting the 
service until 1804. He was a pen- younger children in the class work 
sioner of the government until his f those primitive schools. She 
death. Gideon joined the Church acted as teacher and assistant 
in June, 1833, in Jamestown, New teacher from the early age of thir- 
York, his whole family being bap- teen years. She was so successful 
tized at the outlet of Lake Chautau- and so beloved a teacher that her 
qua, near Buffalo. pupils and associates carried her 
Oscar Winters, son of Rebecca reputation all over the State. She 
Burdick, grandson of Gideon, was was the principal of the school in 
a well-read, intelligent man, who al- Pleasant Grove for two years. The 
ways kept abreast of the happenings next year she attended the Uni- 
which were of world-wide interest, versity of Utah, and was invited by 
As a child, Mrs. Grant remembers Dr. Park to take charge of a depart- 
her father reading Greek history ment in the city schools in his first 
and the biographies of noted men attempt to grade and organize the 
in their little pioneer home. For city schools. Prior to this time each 
years he was a subscriber to the district and ward managed its own 
Toledo Blade and the New York educational affairs, and the tuition 
Sun, when these papers were scarce- paid in by the children was given 
ly ever heard of in Utah. In those to the teacher. Again asked to act 
days indeed few books and papers as principal, she accepted the re- 
were obtainable, as pioneer condi- sponsibility of the 17th Ward 
tions and the long journey across the Academy where she presided over 
plains prevented general distribu- a group of pupils older than her- 
tion. The children in the household self. This was her last experience 
read these papers with great inter- in direct school teaching. Au- 
est. Particularly was the mind of gusta taught school altogether about 
the growing girl, Augusta, formed ten years. She has "ex-pupils" all 
along educational lines. She was over the State of Utah. 




AUGUSTA WINTERS GRANT 



250 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

A hunger for learning has always herself in a family of ten — the or- 

characterized her life and is one phaned children of her husband and 

of her outstanding attributes. She her sister. While she was priv- 

never has had to make herself ileged to bear but one daughter of 

study, but does it because she loves her own, she has mothered in her 

it. It is her recreation. At the age home twelve fine girls ; the children 

of eight she spelled down her entire of her husband and of two of her 

school in an old-fashioned spelling sisters. She has seen them all grow 

contest. As her mother was a to maturity and develop into fine 

school teacher, she encouraged her characters, worthy citizens and all 

children to get all the education they happily married, 

could. The "Winters girls" were To her one daughter, she is a 

among the first to go away from haven of joy and still waters, where 

home to school in Provo and Salt the restless barks of her noisy 

Lake City, and older heads in the grandchildren may harbor without 

town were shaken seriously as the storm or delay. All of these, as 

townspeople prophesied that "Oscar well as her husband's children and 

Winters was going to spoil those children's children, cast anchor into 

girls by spending for their education the soundless depths of her love and 

instead of keeping them home to peace. 

help him." They would go to school She is a firm believer in the prin- 

one year and teach the next, saving ciple that we receive our reward 

the greater part of the money earned for all we do, as we go along, and 

to help pay for their education. is sensitive of the fact that she has 

When in New York the winter received more than her just reward 

her daughter Mary was at Columbia in the loyalty and devotion of her 

University, the mother Augusta family, 
registered there for one of the 

courses. At this time she was nearly Q HE is never aggressive, nor a 

sixty. She loves to study French ^ seeker in any sense of the word. 

and used to keep up with her daugh- She has to be chosen. She cares 

ter while she was taking it and has nothing ior formal society and its 

remembered it always, taking fre- arbitrary rules and restrictions. She 

quent opportunities to speak it since, has always been beautiful, and has 

She learned Japanese quite readily, been sought after by all who knew 

and the knowledge of the language her. Yet she has preserved her 

enabled her to do much good while modest character without a taint of 

in Japan. She has always been in- vanity or self-seeking. Her charm 

terested in books and magazines and of personality and her refined taste, 

has kept up on current events. quiet attire and modest appearance, 

She organized a night school in have given her an air of distinction 

Pleasant Grove for young people which she herself has never sought, 

who had been denied educational Early in life she decided that she 

opportunities and had a very sue- would "always like to do what she 

cessful class in English. One mem- had to do" and "she would never 

ber of this class was head of the want anything which she could not 

schools in this little town. have." These two decisions have 

influenced her life deeply. 

AUGUSTA was married happily She is never averse to telling her 

and congenially in 1884 to Pres- age, and rather enjoys announcing 

ident Heber J. Grant and found the fact that for four months in the 



AUGUSTA WINTERS GRANT 251 

year she is older than her husband, has also been a member of the Read- 
while for the rest of the year they ing Course Committee, the Ad- 
are the same age. She cares vanced Senior Course Committee, 
nothing for jewelry and has told and on the Committee for Summer 
her husband that instead of buying Homes for Girls. It was she who 
diamonds and jewels for her she selected and suggested the beau- 
would prefer to have him use the tiful site of the Girls' Summer 
money for charitable purposes. She Home in Brighton. She has greatly 
sometimes says that diamonds, in- enjoyed all these and other labors 
stead of adding youthful charm and on the General Board of which she 
attractions, rather accentuate the is still an honored member, 
lack of them. She is and has ever been the 

quietly acknowledged leader of any 

WITH gifts and graces which circle where she moves. No one, 

qualify her for highest pub- least of all herself, ever announces 

lie position and responsibility, with that prominence. Few know the 

a radiant personality and supreme secret of this power ; yet all might, 

powers of leadership, she has ac- It is that she is impersonal in her 

cepted only of such minor offices wishes or purposes. She has used 

and duties as will permit her full her governing powers in her home 

discharge of those domestic respon- and social circle so discretely that 

sibilities which flood the swift flow- only those who observe closely 

ing river from her husband's bur- realize what force is moving them, 

dened public life. She is ready at She has the rare reserves of a 

his instant call for voyage, sudden thoughtful frankness. Her own in- 

dinner guest's change of plan or re- ner fortress rarely opens, even to 

moval. Never flustered, never re- her friends. She guards her own 

luctant, peaceful, hopeful, self-re- and her husband's secrets with 

liant, and with abundant tact, she is strong yet gently fastened locks. It 

the ideal helpmate for her virile, would not be friendship to endeavor 

swift-moving, inttensely active hus- to infringe upon her silences. In 

band. all her speech there shines her quiet 

Yet she has served in many of- insistence on the virtue of truth, 

fices in our Church organizations. Never does she exaggerate ! It is 

She was made secretary of the rarely possible to find so strong a 

Pleasant Grove M. I. A. by Pres- personality blended with such simple 

ident Emmeline B. Wells, who was graciousness, consideration, and up- 

always proud of the fact that "she lifting helpfulness. Steadfastly 

had discovered Augusta Winters cheerful, quietly hopeful, wisely 

Grant." She was made secretary of prayerful, she rules in her own 

the Salt Lake 'Stake Relief Society circle because she wins love and 

in 1898 when that stake comprised obedience. She never asks : "What 

all of Salt Lake Valley and when the do I get of this?" It is always: 

venerated M. Isabella Home was "What can I give to this or that 

president. She was appointed on cause or person?" 
the General Board of the Y. L. M. 

I. A. September 19, 1898, by Presi- lV/fRS. GRANT has traveled 

dent Elmina S. Taylor. She assisted i ^1 widely. She, with her hus- 

in establishing traveling libraries and band, has met many of the most 

served on the editorial committee of eminent people of the nation — men 

the Young Woman's Journal. She and women famous in science, edu- 



252 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



cation, and governmental renown, languages. She is, to this day, often 

She greatly appreciates the privilege intrigued with a new French book 

of thus widening her own field of or a French newspaper, 
observation and experience. She 

spent two years with her husband XjO more exalted example has 

in Japan. In all of this traveling, 1^ been set by the wife of any 

Mrs. Grant finds great delight in President of the Church than by this 

nature and the beauty spread before good woman in her constant devo- 

her eyes by Him who made the tion to temple work for many years, 

stars and set bounds to the rivers She has and does give liberal funds 



of water. She is very much inter- 
ested in art and music, Wagner's 
operas being her favorite. Her 
favorite of all forms of entertain- 
ment is grand opera. She would 



to the research work for her kin- 
dred dead. Following in the path- 
way marked out by her saintly 
mother, she not only gives of her 
substance for this work — she like- 



now rather read Shakespeare than wise gives herself. At least once a 
to see the plays on the stage, for week, oftentimes more, she enters 



since the days of Booth and Barrett, 
few are good Shakespearian actors. 
She cannot endure a whole evening 
of piano music, and is not partial 
to victrola music. She has only con- 
tempt for jazz music and plays. 



the Salt Lake Temple, and there she 
slips in and out of the crowded halls, 
so retiring, so modest, that new- 
comers are astonished when they 
learn that she is the wife of Pres- 
ident Heber J. Grant. She accom- 



Only the very best in theatricals panies her devoted husband when he 

appeals to her. Popular vaudeville is in town and can attend, but she 

and film pictures do not interest her. goes many times when he is absent 

Ancient relics of the past move her or busy. And her manner of doing 

only as they relate to the develop- what she does is no less an example 

ment of character and the purposes than the work she does. Quietly, 

of God. Her principal interests are in modestly, simply, she moves in her 

educational fields and in Church or- wide circle of friends, loving and 

ganizations. Her attractions in edu- beloved by all. Verily, of such are 

cation are history, literature and the the queens of heaven. 



A Tribute 

To Charlotte Stahr, California Mission 
By Amy M. Rice 



Sometimes when I am tempted most, 

Beset by grief and fears ; 
The words I've often heard you say 

Keep ringing in my ears. 
And to my weakness comes your strength 

To lift me to the sun. 
And I am able by that grace 

To say "Thy will be done." 

Sometimes I'd give the world to be, 
Where you could take my hand; 

For in your kindly sympathy 
I know you understand. 



We must have known each other There 

In ages long gone by; 
You in your strength to help inspire 

The weak ones such as I. 

This tribute rare I give to you 

No greater if I tried. 
'Tis Zion's grandest womanhood 

In you personified. 
And if you're called to journey first, 

To other lands more fair, 
May your kind hand extended be 

To help me enter There. 



A Visit to the American Embassy in 

Mexico 



By Alice D. Moyle 



ALONG felt desire to visit the 
wonderful ruins of Yucatan 
and Mexico resulted in Broth- 
er Moyle and myself sailing from 
New York recently bound for Pro- 
gresso, the only port of entry for 
the peninsula of Yucatan, where we 
landed five days later and proceeded 
to Merrida. This quaint Spanish 
City is the capitol and only city of 
any size in Yucatan, it has a little 
less than a hundred thousand inhab- 
itants. 

From there we visited Uxmal and 
Chichen Itza where are found some 
of the most extensive and remark- 
able ruins of the cities of the Mayas 
— the most progressive and en- 
lightened nation of the ancient 
Aborigines of iAmerica. These 
cities must have had a far greater 



population than Merrida now has. 

I should like to dwell on this 
fascinating part of our trip, but I 
want to tell you of our visit to 
Mexico City, and of the interesting 
and important position occupied, 
and of the work being performed 
by our own Mrs. Clark and her dis- 
tinguished husband. 

After leaving Yucatan we took a 
steamer to Vera Cruz and from 
there went by train over one of the 
most picturesque roads on the con- 
tinent to Mexico City, where we 
were met at the station by Ambas- 
sador and Mrs. Clark and taken 
bag and baggage to their beautiful 
home, the American Embassy. 

Mexico City is seventy-five hun- 
dred feet above sea level on a great 
plateau surrounded by mountains, 




AMERICAN EMBASSY 



254 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



towering over all is 'the famous 
Mount Popocatapetl, which is ten 
thousand three hundred feet above 
the valley and nearly twenty thou- 
sand feet above sea level. It has 
been called the "Vesuvius of Amer- 
ica," but now only occasionally 
emits smoke. Its peak is snow- 
capped, and on a bright day its 
summit seems to link with the sky. 
Mexico City is perhaps the oldest 
city on the continent, and has a 
population of 968,443. The Span- 



high arched windows and huge fire- 
places. The drawing rooms are 
beautifully furnished and draped 
with old brocades, antique furniture 
and beautiful mirrors. The large 
dining room easily seats fifty to 
sixty people. This room opens with 
low French windows onto a wide 
veranda which runs the length of 
the house, and from this we reach 
a lovely garden, or patio enclosed 
by a high wall covered with vines 
and flowers. In this enclosure at 




THE CLARK FAMILY 



ish atmosphere, the tropical vege- 
tation and flowers, combined with 
its temperate climate, make it a 
most desirable place in which to 
live. 

The American Embassy, by far 
the finest of any of the Embassies 
in Mexico, is imposing and impres- 
sive, and is very fittingly called 
"The White House of Mexico." It 
is a large one-story structure, Span- 
ish" style, with flat roof, heavy 
columns, ceilings twenty-five to 
thirty feet in height, marble floors, 



the other end of the garden are the 
offices of the Ambassador and his 
staff in a dignified building called 
the Chancery. The Embassy is 
beautifully decorated for all enter- 
tainments and every day is filled 
with the loveliest flowers, immense 
bowls of which are in every avail- 
able space. As we approached the 
Embassy, we entered through large 
carved iron gates, which were 
closely guarded. These led to a 
recessed white marble entrance, 
which was very striking with its red 



AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MEXICO 



255 



velvet carpeted steps, and looking 
out upon a wall of beautiful flowers 
and beds of Calla lilies. 

Ambassador and Mrs. Clark are 
very busy people. Besides affairs 
of State there is much entertain- 
ment. Luncheons, teas and dinners 



During our stay we were fortu- 
nate enough to be among the guests 
at two large dinner parties, one 
given to educators and men of af- 
fairs in Mexico, the other to Diplo- 
mats and distinguished visitors. A 
large dinner dance was also given 




LIVING ROOM TN AMERICAN EMBASSY 



follow each other in quick succes- 
sion. Once every month the Em- 
bassy is thrown open for a large 
reception at which three or four 
hundred people are entertained. 
The guests include Mexican Diplo- 
mats and Officials, American and 
British Subjects, in fact, the Em- 
bassy is an open house. 



for the American Consuls, eighty in 
number, who were attending a con- 
ference in Mexico City at the call 
of Ambassador Clark. 

Mrs. Clark shares the distinction, 
with the wife of President Rubio of 
Mexico, of being chosen an honor- 
ary President of the Pan-American 
Society. This Society was enter- 




MUSIC ROOM IN AMERICAN EMBASSY 



256 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



tained recently at a beautifully ap- 
pointed luncheon by Mrs. Clark. It 
is the privilege and custom of the 
Ambassador to entertain any and 
all distinguished people who visit 
Mexico. Mr. Thomas S. Gates, 
President of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and until quite recent- 
ly, the partner of Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan, with his wife, were guests 
at the Embassy during our visit. 

Ambassador and Mrs. Clark plan- 
ned and accompanied us on several 
wonderful trips to places of interest. 
One delightful jaunt was to Xochi- 
melico,* where are located the 
famous floating Aztec gardens. 
These gardens were .originally made 
by inter-lacing twigs strong enough 
to form a mat, and covering them 
with a thin layer of earth. Being 
light they were easily moved across 
the canals with oars. They were 
sometimes one hundred feet long. 
Fragile huts and gardens were built 
upon them. Eventually these gar- 
dens took root, and trees and shrubs 
grew, until now they are stationary 
gardens of trees, flowers, and vege- 
tables. Each little plot of land is 
a floral paradise. At one of the 
landing places, awaiting our party 
of eight, was a quaint flat bottom 
boat with posts supporting a canopy 
covered with bunches of flowers. 
Down the center of the boat a table 
was spread with a most delicious 
luncheon. We were towed by a 
native through picturesque canals 
lined on both sides with gardens of 
flowers, and the most wonderful 
tropical vegetation. At every turn 
in the stream, we passed boats 
bound for markets laden with fruit, 
vegetables and flowers. 

We visited the wonderful pyra- 
mids, temples, and ruins of pre- 



*Xochimelico means "Where flowers 
grow." 



historic time, in and around Mexico 
City. 

Another delightful trip was our 
visit to Cuernevaca, where the sum- 
mer home of the former Ambas- 
sador, Mr. Morrow, is situated, and 
is still maintained by him. Here 
the most luxurious tropical gardens, 
swimming pool and quaint Spanish 
home is at the disposal of Mr. and 
Mrs. Clark. 

Of all the demands made upon 
Mrs. Clark, none does she enjoy 
more than her philanthropic and 
charitable work. She has already 
identified herself in the work of the 
Red Cross and other local charities. 
Mrs. Clark had the honor lately of 
opening a large bazaar. 

Mr. Clark's decision, that no 
liquor be served at the Embassy, 
while quite an innovation, has im- 
pressed the American Colony with 
its consistency and good taste. If 
one may judge from the popularity 
and length of time the guests linger, 
Mr. Clark has refuted the idea so 
.prevalent, especially in Latin coun- 
tries, that dinners and entertain- 
ments cannot be popular without 
serving liquor. 

Twelve native servants are em- 
ployed at the Embassy, and Mrs. 
Clark is able to give, in Spanish, 
the final word in the management of 
her household. One of the most 
highly prized members of the staff 
is the efficient and attractive Social 
Secretary. Mrs. Clark's Chef is 
reputed to be the finest in Mexico, 
with which I heartily agree. 

This article would fall short if 
I did not tell you about Luacine, the 
only child of Mr. and Mrs. Clark 
at home. She is not old enough to 
attend formal parties, but is a joy 
in the Embassy. Luacine will 
graduate from the American High 
School in June. She speaks Span- 
ish, and is very accomplished in 
music and composition. She, with 



AMERICAN EMBASSY IN MEXICO 



257 



her mother, are at work now on an 
operetta. Her intelligent, sweet un- 
affected manner is winning for her 
many friends. 

Mr. Clark's appointment to this 
high position, is due to his expert 
knowledge of International Law, 
and to his demonstrated ability to 
handle successfully the delicate and 
important diplomatic affairs of our 
government, with 'Mexico. It is 
common for Ambassadors to be 
appointed because of great: wealth, 
social distinction, or coming from 



important centers of population, 
but Mr. Clark was chosen not 
for these, but for his recognized 
ability, knowledge, fitness for the 
place, and popularity with Mexican 
people, who are not easily under- 
stood. That so small and remote a 
state as Utah should be thus fa- 
vored, is a distinct honor, not only 
to Mr. Clark, but to the State. Mr. 
Clark's home and domestic life in 
Mexico is typical of the highest 
ideals of the people to whom he be- 
longs, and of the country which he 
represents. 



Where's Mother? 

By H. L. Reid 

When father comes home at the close of day, 
From the office, or road, or the field of hay, 
He puts out the team, or drives in the car, 
Then enters the house, leaving the door ajar, 
And asks, "Where's Mother?" 

As the setting of the sun is drawing nigh, 
Sis comes home from her work at the High. 
She giggles and laughs with the crowd at the gate, 
Then enters the house, she knows she's late, 
"O! Where's Mother?" 

Bill comes home, gaunt and slim 
From his work on the track, or perhaps in the Gym. 
He bounds in the house, leaving wide open the door, 
Throws his cap and his books upon the floor, 
"O! Where's Mother?" 

Then the kiddies come home, each in his way, 
As chicks to the roost at the close of day, 
They find father, sister, and brothers all, 
But yet each echoes that little call, 
"O! Where's Mother?" 



If she should chance to step out of the way, 
Or lie down to rest for a minute some day, 
Though nothing is needed, there's nowhere to go 
Yet everyone seems to just want to know, 
"O! Where's Mother?" 

When Mother's gone the "home" isn't there, 
Of course, there's the house and the garden fair, 
But amid it all there's an empty sting, 
The spirit of home! There isn't such a thing 
Unless Mother's there. 



Anna Garlin Spencer 

By Amy Brotvn Lyman 



DR. ANNA GARLIN SPEN- 
CER, one of America's noted 
women, passed away on Feb- 
ruary 12, 1931, at her home in New 
;York City, only two months before 
her eightieth birthday. She was 
born April 17, 1851, of excellent 
parents, in Attleboro, Massachusetts, 
and was a direct descendant of Peter 
Garlin who emigrated to the United 
'States in 1637. 

Mrs. Spencer was one of the 
rarest spirits and most gifted women 
of her time. Although slight in 
ffigure and rather delicate physically, 
she was possessed of a powerful in- 
tellect and remarkable mental clar- 
ity. Availing herself of every op- 
portunity for study and training, she 
won many academic honors. Free 
from prejudices and complexes, her 
lovely personality and fine mind 
were released for constructive, 
helpful work, of which she did her 
'full share. 

Mrs. Spencer was a pioneer in 
social work and public welfare. She 
was a suffrage leader, sociologist, 
philanthropist, teacher, preacher, 
and writer; and withal, a faithful 
and helpful wife and devoted 
mother. 

She was well known to many 
Utah women through association in 
tthe National Council of Women of 
the United States, and was always 
their loyal and interested friend. She 
had been active in the Council from 
the beginning, and attended the or- 
ganization meeting in 1888, appear- 
ing on the program on that memor- 
able occasion. She had held various 
offices in the Council, and at the 
itime of her death was honorary vice 
president. 



It is a deep satisfaction to all who 
knew and loved her that she was able 
to be her active, busy, and efficient 
self until almost her last moment. 
On February 2, 3 and 4, 1931, she 
attended the biennial meeting of the 
National Council of Women, where 
she was the foremost figure and 
leading spirit of the convention, 
directing in a marvelous manner 
plans for the reorganization of the 
Council. On Monday, February 9, 
the day before she was taken ill, she 
gave a lecture in her course on The 
Family before one jhundjred and 
'seventy-eight students at Columbia 
University. On Tuesday, the 10th, 
she was at her desk in the office of 
the American Social Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, from which she directed her 
work in the Family Relations Di- 
vision. On Tuesday evening she 
attended a dinner given by the 
League of Nations Association in 
honor of Dame Rachel Crowdy of 
'England. She was taken sick dur- 
ing this dinner, and two days later 
passed away without distress or 
anxiety. 

Dr. Spencer's public career began 
at the age of eighteen when she 
taught school in Providence, Rhode 
Island. She later took up news- 
paper work and magazine writing, 
and for nine years was connected 
with the Providence Journal. All 
this time she continued her academic 
istudies. In 1891 she was ordained 
a minister of the Unitarian Church, 
in which she preached regularly for 
fourteen years. Her husband was 
also a minister of this denomination. 
Early in life she had been interested 
in moral education and social re- 
iform, and she later specialized in 



ANNA GARLIN SPENCER 



259 



these fields. She was for ten years Theological S ch o ol,- Meadville, 

associate director and staff lecturer Pennsylvania; in 1918 she was lec- 

of the New York School of Philan- turer at the University of Chicago ; 

thropy ; for three years she was spe- and since 1920 she had been a lec- 

cial lecturer on social service and turer in social science at Teachers' 




ANNA GARLIN SPENCER 



isocial aspects of education, at the 
lUniversity of Wisconsin, and direc- 
tor of the Summer School of Ethics 
(for the American Ethical Union; 
for five years she was Hackley pro- 
fessor of sociology and ethics at the 



College, Columbia University. At 
the time of her death, she was di- 
rector of the Division of Family 
Relations, American Social Hygiene 
Association. 

She was for six years a member 



260 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



of the Board of Control of the 
Rhode Island State Home and 
School for Dependent Children ; she 
was secretary and later vice pres- 
ident of the Rhode Island Woman's 
Suffrage Association; president of 
(the local Council of Women of 
Rhode Island, in which capacity she 
aided in securing the law by which 
the legal age of the child worker 
was raised from ten to twelve years, 
and other reforms in the interest of 
if actory workers ; she was an officer 
of the Providence Society for Or- 
ganizing Charity; and chairman of 
the section on child saving and care 
of the International Conference of 
Social Work. 

The memory of Anna Garlin 
Spencer will he sacred to all those 
fortunate enough to have known her. 
They will remember her for her keen 
interest and active participation in 
causes which have had for their 
object the benefit of humanity and 
the raising of human life to its high- 
est level — in woman suffrage, in 
temperance, in social reform and 
legislation, in health work including 
social hygiene, in world peace. She 
assisted personally in all of these 
causes and held numerous positions 
of trust and honor in connection 
with them. 

They will remember Mrs. Spen- 
cer for her fine outlook and progres- 
sive views on the problems of the 
day, as she expressed them on the 
platform and in her writings, among 
which are the following interesting 
volumes : Woman's Share in Social 
Culture; The Care of Dependent, 



'Neglected, and Wayward Children; 
The Family and Its Members. 

They will remember her for her 
keen intellect, her power of discrimi- 
nation, her ability to weigh and sift 
evidence on a mooted question ; for 
her ability to assemble facts and or- 
ganize a constructive plan; for her 
eloquence and power as a public 
speaker; for her sincerity and hon- 
esty ; and for her courage and sense 
of humor which were so effective in 
times of discouragement. 

They will remember and appreciate 
her most of all, however, for her 
charming personality and her pre- 
cious self — free from envy, jealousy 
and prejudice, and abounding in 
tender sympathy and love for her 
Father's other children. 

The following tribute was paid to 
Dr. Spencer by Dr. Valeria H. 
Parker, honorary president of the 
National Council of Women of the 
United States: 

"I count as one of the greatest 
blessings of my life the privilege of 
sharing work with Dr. Anna Garlin 
Spencer and of knowing her as 
friend. Her mind and spirit retained 
their radiance until she entered in 
her last hours of sleep. Her phys- 
ical body never changed to the heavy 
potter of old age. Her last public 
appearance was as she would have 
wished it, at a great international 
gathering. 

"Her nearly four score years of 
rich and fruitful living and rare 
vision of the future will challenge 
the many who miss her earthly pres- 
ence and who will forever cherish 
her bright and loving memory." 



Mothers' Day 

By Winona F. Thomas 



If I could give you just one gift, 
I'd try to make your dreams come 
true. 



I'd see that my life was so spent 
That I would be a monument, 
Commemorating you. 



-«/ 



Facing Facts on Mothers' Day 




MATERNITY CENTER ASSOCIATION, N. Y. C 



Uncle Sam is troubled — 16,000 mothers every year 
fail to answer roll-call on Mother's Day. They die 
having babies. Of these 10,000 could be saved, if 
people knew the importance of adequate maternity care. 
For information, write your health department, the 
Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C, or Maternity 
Center Association, 578 Madison Avenue, New York- 
City. 



*»• 



The Children's Charter 

President Hoover's White House Conference on Child Health and 

Protection, recognising the rights of the child as the first 

rights of citizenship, pledges itself to these aims 

for the Children of America 

FOR every child spiritual and moral training to help him to 
stand firm under the pressure of life. 

2. For every child understanding and the guarding of 
his personality as his most precious right. 

3. For every child a home and that love and security which 
a home provides ; and for that child who must receive foster care, 
the nearest substitute for his own home. 

4. For every child full preparation for his birth, his mother 
receiving prenatal, natal, and postnatal care ; and the establishment 
of such protective measures as will make child-bearing safer. 

5. For every child health protection from birth through 
adolescence, including: periodical health examinations and, where 
needed, care of specialists and hospital treatment; regular dental 
examinations and care of the teeth ; protective and preventive 
measures against communicable diseases ; the insuring of pure food, 
pure milk, and pure water. 

6. For every child from birth through adolescence, promotion 
of health, including health instruction and a health program, 
wholesome physical and mental recreation, with teachers and 
leaders adequately trained. 

7. For every child a dwelling place safe, sanitary, and whole- 
some, with reasonable provisions for privacy, free from conditions 
which tend to thwart his development; and a home environment 
harmonious and enriching. 

8. For every child a school which is safe from hazards, 
sanitary, properly equipped, lighted, and ventilated. For younger 
children nursery schools and kindergartens to supplement home 
care. 

9. For every child a community which recognizes and plans 
for his needs, protects him against physical dangers, moral hazards, 
and disease ; provides him with sane and wholesome places for 
play and recreation; and makes provision for his cultural and 
social needs. i 

10. For every child an education which, through the discovery 
and development of his individual abilities, prepares him for life ; 
and through training and vocational guidance prepares him for a 
living which will yield him the maximum of satisfaction. 

11. For every child such teaching and training as will prepare 
him for successful parenthood, homemaking, and the rights of 
citizenship ; and, for parents, supplementary training to fit them 
to deal wisely with the problems of parenthood. 



12. For every child education for safety and protection against 
accidents to which modern conditions subject him — those to which 
he is directly exposed and those which, through loss or maiming 
of his parents, affect him indirectly. 

13. For every child who is blind, deaf, crippled, or otherwise 
physically handicapped, and for the child who is mentally handi- 
capped, such measures as will early discover and diagnose his 
handicap, provide care and treatment, and so train him that he may 
become an asset to society rather than a liability. Expenses of 
these services should be born publicly where they cannot be pri- 
vately met. 

14. For every child who is in conflict with society the right 
to be dealt with intelligently as society's charge, not society's 
outcast ; with the home, the school, the church, the court and the 
institution when needed, shaped to return him whenever possible 
to the normal stream of life. 

15. For every child the right to grow up in a family with an 
adequate standard of living and the security of a stable income as 
the surest safeguard against social handicaps. 

16. For every child protection against labor that stunts 
growth, either physical or mental, that limits education, that 
deprives children of the right of comradeship, of £>lay, and of joy. 

17. For every rural child as satisfactory schooling and 
health services as for the city child, and an extension to rural 
families of social, recreational, and cultural facilities. 

18. To supplement the home and the school in the training 
of youth, and to return to them those interests of which modern 
life tends to cheat children, every stimulation and encouragement 
should be given to the extension and development of the voluntary 
youth organizations. 

19. To make everywhere available these minimum protections 
of the health and welfare of children, there should be a district, 
county, or community organization for health, education, and wel- 
fare, with full-time officials, coordinating with a state-wide pro- 
gram which will be responsive to a nation-wide service of general 
information, statistics, and scientific research. This should include : 

(a) Trained, full-time public health officials, with public 
health nurses, sanitary inspection, and laboratory workers. 

(b) Available hospital beds. 

(c) Full-time public welfare service for the relief, aid, 
and guidance of children in special need due to poverty, mis- 
fortune, or behavior difficulties, and for the protection of 
children from abuse, neglect, exploitation, or moral hazard. 

For every child these rights, regardless of race, or color, or 

situation, wherever he may live under the protection 

of the American flag. 



The Waste in Mothers' Lives 



By Mrs. John Sloane, President Maternity Center Association 

New York City 



APPALLING facts about the 
number of mothers dying from 
childbirth came to the atten- 
tion of members of the Women's 
City Club of New York in 1917. 
They were aroused to action when 
they realized that, during the de- 
cade preceding, typhoid fever had 
been practically eliminated ; tuber- 
culosis had diminished from first to 
second place on the roster of lethal 
diseases; smallpox had been con- 
trolled ; but deaths of mothers in 
childbirth had shown no reduction 
whatever. And this was in the face 
of the fact that obstetricians advised 
that adequate maternity care could 
prevent a large part of these deaths. 

Something soon began to happen. 
In the summer of 1917 a maternity 
center was opened, financed by the 
Women's City Club. Then, in April, 
1918, a group of women met and 
conferred with several prominent 
obstetricians. They were inspired 
by these doctors with hope that the 
skill and care which showed such 
excellent results among their own 
patients could be extended to wo- 
men at large. 

This led to the organization of 
the Maternity Center Association. 
It was predicted when the Associa- 
tion was organized that as a result 
of the activities which were out- 
lined, the deaths of mothers in 
childbirth would be reduced by 66 
per cent, and of infants under one 
month by 40 per cent. 

This is how nearly the prediction 
has come true. Among 4,726 
mothers cared for by the Associa- 
tion, the deaths were reduced to 



2.2 per thousand live births, as com- 
pared with 6.2 among mothers in 
the same district not under the care 
of the Association. Infant deaths 
in the first month of life were 29.1 
in the special group, while they were 
42.9 per thousand in the general 
population. 

The records of mothers cared for 
were analyzed by Louis I. Dublin, 
statistician of the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company, who made this 
comment : "This result is indicative 
of the saving of lives that might 
be accomplished were every mother 
to receive adequate maternity care. 
More than 16,000 women in the 
United States die every year from 
causes related to maternity — the 
highest rate of any civilized nation. 
If these mothers received adequate 
maternity care 10,000 could be 
saved." 

The situation existing in this 
country can only be explained by 
the fact that childbirth is so com- 
monplace and the accidents attend- 
ant upon it are accepted as the will 
of God. The lack of care is due 
to an uninformed public rather than 
to the lack of medical knowledge. 
It is not indifference but ignorance 
that allows us to continue last on 
the list of nations in the maternity 
care we provide. 

"One of the most dramatic of all 
human events, the birth of a new 
being, is accepted casually, almost 
without concern, because it is so 
frequent — so commonplace." 

The cold, bare, terrible fact is 
that we, as a people, are not aroused 



THE HMSTE IN MOTHERS' LIVES 



265 



sufficiently to this national disgrace 
to take the necessary measures to 
remove it. 

Maternity hazards can be re- 
duced by money wisely expended in 
any community when doctors, nurses 
and lay people will learn how to 
work together to provide adequate 
maternity care for every expectant 
mother. 

The need today is to set into op- 



eration the machinery which will 
bring to doctors, nurses and the 
public what obstetricians have 
learned will save mothers' lives. 

Your State Department of Health 
and the Children's Bureau at Wash- 
ington, D. C, will send helpful 
literature on request, or write to 
the Maternity Center Association, 
576 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 



What is Adequate Maternity Care? 

By Hazel Corbin, General Director Maternity Center Association, New 

York City 



ADEQUATE maternity care is 
the observation, care and in- 
struction by doctors and 
nurses of pregnant mothers from 
the time the mother thinks she may 
be pregnant until she is able to re- 
sume her regular activities and to 
care for her new baby. The Ma- 
ternity Center Association cares for 
mothers in one section of New York 
City by holding clinics where doc- 
tors examine those patients who, 
for one reason or another, would 
otherwise have no medical super- 
vision ; by sending public health 
nurses to visit mothers in their 
homes, and by conducting classes 
for mothers at the centers where 
they can see the model clothes and 
supplies for babies and themselves 
and practice bathing and dressing 
a baby-sized doll. 

Nurses urge each mother to reg- 
ister as early as possible with the 
private doctor or hospital physician 
who will deliver her so he may 
direct her care during pregnancy 
and know all about her when it 
comes time for the delivery and 
care of the baby. Each mother is 
helped to select, from the facilities 



available, what is best suited to her 
condition. 

The nurses, working with the doc- 
tors and reporting to them each 
time they see the mothers, see each 
mother at regular intervals during 
pregnancy to : 

1. Help with every question or 
problem that may disturb her 
peace of mind or happiness or 
interfere with the health of the 
other members of the family. 

2. Detect any discomforts, abnor- 
malties or complications in time 
to have them corrected before 
they can hurt the mother or the 
baby. 

3. Teach the mother and father 
about : 

(a) The mother's hygiene, diet, 
rest, exercise, elimination, 
bathing, clothes, care of 
breasts, care of teeth, and 
how these items may be 
fitted into the daily regime 
of the home. 

(b) The preparation for the 
baby including clothes, bed, 
toilet supplies and the care 
of them. 

(c) The preparation of delivery 



266 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



supplies and planning- for 
the mother's care when the 
baby comes and during the 
next few weeks, 
(d) The care of the baby— -bath, 
rest, exercise, food, habit 
formation — and how t h e 
best daily regime may be se- 
cured without disrupting the 
family life. 

The nurses help the doctor or 
midwife during delivery and make 
regular visits afterward to give, or 
teach some responsible person to 
give, the necessary care to mother 
and baby, as well as to see that the 
household is running smoothly so 
the mother can rest as long as neces- 
sary, and gradually, as the doctor 
advises, resume her usual activities 
and increased responsibilities. 

When the mother begins to care 
for her baby, the nurse is right there 
to explain again all those points — 
each so important — that the mother 
has learned in the classes at the 
center. Then, she helps the mother 
to plan her day's work so she can 



have time ^for rest and other things 
and still give the baby the best of 
care. 

Before the nurse stops visiting 
she makes sure of three things — 
first, that the mother has seen her 
doctor for the last examination that 
is so necessary to detect and correct 
at once any bad effect's of the preg- 
nancy, and second that the baby 
is registered with a doctor or a 
clinic for regular health supervision 
and instruction until he .goes to 
school, and finally that father and 
mother both recognize that "an 
ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure," and that regular 
health examinations for the whole 
family are that ounce of prevention. 

The death rate among mothers 
who have had this care was two- 
thirds lower than it was among 
those mothers living in the same 
district who did not have this care. 
If every mother in this country 
could have the care she needs, we 
would no longer have a maternal 
mortality rate higher than twenty- 
one other countries. 



My Mother's Smile 

By Mary Pettcrson 



Did you e'er see my mother's smile 
When a little child was near? 

I cannot think of anything 
That to me is half so dear. 

Scent of violets on the air 
When spring breezes lowly blow 

A bit of blue that flashes by 
With secrets — none may know; 



A crevasse parting snow-drift clouds 

Disclosing a heav'nly view ; 
Lines of Lombards 'gainst the sky, 
When the sunset's rays fall through ; 

The meadow lark's glad call in spring 
When scarce the snow is gone ; 

Cirrus clouds at early morn 
Rose dappling with the dawn — 



All these and some I cannot trace 
So elusive is their wile 

But far above them all I place 
My mother's loving smile- 



Mothers' Day 

By Ida R. Alldredge 



JUST two weeks until Mothers' 
Day," mused Mrs. Thurber, 
"Dr. Keate is to pay tribute to 
the mothers who have passed away 
and they say he was ashamed of his 
own mother after he became so 
great a doctor. And she slaved over 
the washtub to educate him too." 
She died of neglect and a broken 
heart." 

"Ken Martin will sing 'That 
Wonderful Mother of Mine.' His 
mother deserted her home and chil- 
dren." 

"Betty Jones will be sure to 
choose 'Love at Home' as the open- 
ing song. Her family do nothing 
but quarrel the whole time. And 
so it goes." 

Mrs. Thurber painfully rose from 
her knees, straightened up and 
wrung out her mop. 

"It seems to me like Mothers' 
Day is about as much a farce as 
anything could be. The real Moth- 
ers' Day comes every other day of 
the year, especially wash day, iron- 
ing day and Saturday. Here it is 
nearly sundown and I'm not through 
yet." 

"Lil must take her week end out 
of town. John must see the foot- 
ball game, and Ted's class is off on 
a picnic. Jean thinks she should 
practice all afternoon so there's only 
the two babies home. And then to 
cap it all John phones that he is 
inviting two of his old college chums 
home to supper." 

"You don't mind, Mumsie dear, 
do you? You see they're old pals 
of mine. Make things nifty, too, 
won't you ? A fellow sort of wants 
to appear his best. Perhaps you 
might have time to make some of 



those lemon tarts like you used to 
fix. Goodbye until seven." 

"If that isn't just like John to 
hang up the receiver before I had 
time to refuse. He just took me 
for granted. That's what they all 
do." 

She emptied her bucket, hung up 
her mop, and looked at the clock. 

"Five already. Just exactly two 
hours to finish straightening up the 
house, bathe the babies, clean my- 
self up and cook supper. If I only 
had two pairs of hands I might 
manage. But somehow I must get 
things done so John won't be dis- 
appointed. If they had only come 
some other day than Saturday." 

IN spite of mother's misgivings 
supper was ready exactly on 
time. The tablecloth was spotless 
and the table was laid with the best 
silverware and china. She eyed her 
preparations with pride. The tarts 
looked unusually inviting, she had 
added an extra touch to her salad. 
Father would be late so the table 
was set for only three. 

"I do wish John would hurry 
before everything is spoiled from 
waiting," she said. 

The telephone rang and as she 
went to answer she said to herself: 

"That must be father. Perhaps 
he has decided to come home early 
after all. He's working altogether 
too hard lately." 

"Hello, is this Mother? I'm 
sorry Mom, but we've changed our 
plans and won't be down to supper 
after all. Hope it hasn't put you 
out. So long." 

Mother dropped into the nearest 
chair and covered her face with 



268 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



shaking hands. The light of antici- 
pation died in her eyes and tears 
filled them instead. A great weari- 
ness overcame her. She hadn't 
realized how tired she was until 
now. For a long time she sat there 
until the striking of the clock 
roused her. With lagging steps she 
crossed the room and slowly 
mounted the stairs that led to her 
bedroom. With aching limbs she 
climbed into bed and soon fell into 
a troubled sleep. 

The following morning, the first 
time in many months, mother re- 
mained in bed, after the rest were 
up and making preparations for the 
Sunday services. Her head ached 
and she was too weary to get 
dressed. 

Father couldn't decide which tie 
to wear without consulting Mother. 
And John couldn't find his socks. 

"Mother, could you tell me where 
my slippers are? I put them up 
last night but can't remember 
where," said Lil. 

"And would you hook my dress ? 
I can't reach. Jean knelt by the 
bed while her mother assisted her. 

At last they were all off to Sun- 
day School and Mother settled 
down under the cover with a sigh. 
Everything was in confusion but 
she was too tired to care. However, 
she was not too tired to think. All 
night she had tumbled and tossed 
trying to decide what she could do 
to shift a little of the responsibility. 
Why should she take it all when 
there were so many others to share 
it with her. After all had she been 
the right kind of a mother to be- 
come nothing but a door mat for 
the family to trample upon? Wjas 
the fault with her or the children? 

She knew that John had not pur- 
posely hurt her last night. 

"I hope I've not put you out; 
Mom," she said bitterly to herself. 

"Well, maybe it's a good thing 



that it happened, for it waked me 
up anyway. I'm afraid something's 
wrong with my training. I must 
decide upon some plan and start all 
over. 

She got out of bed and went to 
the glass. 

"Dorothy Dean, you're not nearly 
as old as you look, only forty and 
anyone would think you were at 
least fifty. You used to be the belle 
of the town and folks said you were 
pretty. Now your face is wrinkled 
and you're getting stooped." 

She threw back her shoulders and 
a smile lighted up her face. 

"I have it ! The very thing ! It 
may be hard on the family but 
they'll get along some way and it's 
worth trying. I'll wire Aunt Alice 
today that I'm going to accept her 
invitation and pay her a long visit. 
It will do the family and me both 
good. I'll spend a few weeks in 
making myself over while the fam- 
ily learn a little about what I have 
to do. Perhaps they'll wake up, 
too." 

Mother hastily dressed, for she 
must wire Aunt Alice before they 
returned or she might change her 
mind. 

Already she felt younger at the 
'thoughts of a real vacation. She'd 
have nothing to worry about and 
nothing to do. She laughed when 
she thought of her, Dorothy Dean, 
who always waited upon the whole 
family, eating her breakfast in bed. 
She could read all she wanted to 
and if she needed anything she 
could ring and her wishes would be 
granted. "A few weeks of rest will 
remove some of the wrinkles, and 
I'll have time to take proper exercise 
too, so I *can limber up a bit." 

With springing steps she hastened 
down town to the telegraph office. 
With a smile of satisfaction she 
handed ( them the message. 



MOTHERS' DAY 



269 



FATHER and the children were 
amazed, upon their return, to 
find the house still in confusion and 
instead of their usual Sunday din- 
ner waiting upon the table, there 
were dirty dishes left from the 
hurried breakfast. 

Where could mother be? Per- 
haps she was really ill and they 
should not have left her alone. 

John, leaping three steps at a 
time, rushed to her room but re- 
turned with a puzzled expression 
upon his face. 

"She's not there. Maybe she de- 
cided to go to church after we left 
and we missed her." 

Lil shook her head. 

"That's not like mother and be- 
sides I'm sure she wasn't there. 
Jean, run over to the neighbors and 
see if she is visiting." 

"Dad, look again in her room. 
Maybe she's covered up so John 
didn't see her. He never could find 
anything or anybody." 

Father looked in the bed, under 
it, and even in the closet. He re- 
turned with the same puzzled ex- 
pression. 

"Mother! Mother!" they shout- 
ed in chorus, but there was no 
answer. 

The children cleared the table, 
Jean made the beds and tidied up 
the front room, while John, Ted, 
and even father were pressed into 
service. 

Lil prepared dinner from the un- 
touched supper. As they took their 
seats at the table mother's smiling 
face greeted them from the door- 
way. 

"Well, I'm just in time, and I'm 
hungry, too." 

"Mother, where have you been ?" 
they all asked in a chorus. "We've 
hunted everywhere." 

"Well, I got to thinking and de- 
cided to accept Aunt Alice's invita- 
tion to visit her. So I went down 



and wired that I would leave this 
evening. You know Father, I'm 
a little tired and I thought it might 
do me good. Lil can manage the 
babies, and you can all help." 

"But Mother, how can you leave 
us to do everything. Surely you 
will at least take the babies ? You'd 
be worried about them," said Lil. 

"Say Mom, what will I do about 
that party I've planned? You'll 
just have to wait till after that," 
said John. 

"And my new dress; It's only 
half done. And I must have it. 
ready to wear to the dance." 

Dorothy looked in consternation 
at her mother. 

"Just a minute children, said 
Father. Mother's right. She does 
need a rest, and I'm glad she has 
decided to visit Aunt Alice. We'll 
manage some way. John can do 
without his party. And Dorothy 
can get Miss Simpkins to finish her 
dress. We'll all help Lil. You go 
and have a good time, Mother." 

AUNT ALICE was waiting when 
Mother arrived. In a moment 
they were off, threading their way 
through the heavy traffic. 

"Well, Dorothy, I'm so glad that 
you changed your mind and decided 
to come, and that I'm to have you 
all to myself for a long visit. 

"I want you to get that tired look 
out of your eyes." 

Before she could realize what had 
happened she was standing in a 
large hall, brilliantly lighted. And 
a moment later was led up a broad 
stairway and into the loveliest bed- 
room she had ever seen. 

The dainty covers were thrown 
back and it looked so inviting after 
the evening trip that Mother could 
hardly wait to go to bed. 

"You are probably tired after 
your trip, so I ordered your dinner 
served here. I hope you will find 
nothing lacking, but if you should, 



270 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



just ring and Isabelle will answer. 
I hope you rest well and tomorrow 
we'll have a real visit together. 
Good night." 

Aunt Alice kissed her and closed 
the door. 

"How thoughtful she is, just like 
she used to be. I am tired and 
that bed looks so inviting." 

The days that followed were one 
round of pleasure. With skillful 
hands Isabelle dressed her mistress' 
niece. With deft ringers she ar- 
ranged her hair, until Mother could 
scarcely believe it was herself. If 
Father could see her now he might 
fall in love all over again. One 
more resolution took form. In the 
future she must try to preserve her 
youthful appearance, so that father 
and the children would be proud of 
her. 

AFTER a week of never ending 
pleasure Mother began to grow 
lonesome for the sound of baby 
voices and the touch of their little 
hands. She even longed to hear 
John calling her "Mom." She won- 
dered how Lil was managing the 
family, and if Father was receiving 
the attention which he needed. The 
house seemed so still that she 
wanted to shout to make things 
seem more natural. How did Aunt 
Alice endure the quiet, sameness, of 
it all, with never a sound of baby 
feet pattering about, the call of baby 
voices, the slamming of doors, and 
the shouting of Mother! echoing 
through the house. She had thought 
she was tired of it all but now she 
longed to hear it again. 

What would Aunt Alice think if 
she decided to go home a little 



earlier than she had planned? But 
no, she must stay with her resolu- 
tion. 

The second week dragged by, for 
in spite of all Aunt Alice could do 
Mother was homesick. 

It was the day before Mothers' 
Day. As she sat in her room writ- 
ing a letter home Isabelle entered 
carrying a large box. Mother open- 
ed it with eager ringers. As she 
lifted the lid the perfume of home 
grown carnations filled the room. 
She hastily opened the note which 
read: 

"Dear Mother, day after tomor- 
row is Mothers' Day. We feel that 
it would be a most imperfect one if 
you were not here to be honored 
with our love. We have learned 
through your absence, what it would 
mean to be deprived always of your 
loving presence. From now on we 
will all help share the responsibility 
that you may take your rightful 
place and not that of a servant. 

"Do you think you could be con- 
tent to shorten your visit and return 
for that greatest of all days ? Signed, 
Lil, John, Ted and Father." 

ALL the family were waiting to 
greet Mother as she stepped 
from the train. 

That night after she had tucked 
the babies into bed she turned and 
slipped her hand into Father's. 
"I've had a wonderful trip and it 
has taught me the real value of 
"Motherhood," she said. 

And father, putting his arm 
around her said, in a husky voice, 
"And it has taught us the real 
meaning of Mother." 




A Mothers' Day Observance Without 

Children 

By Olivia S. Waddoups 



A VISIT to Hawaii or a study 
of Hawaii and her problems 
would not be complete with- 
out some study and mention of the 
unique and in many ways beautiful 
little Leper Settlement on the Island 
of Molokai. 

If you were to take steamer from 
the peaceful harbor of Honolulu 
you would in all probability leave 
about 8 p. m. If you were fortunate 
enough to have a sufficiently smooth 
voyage to permit sleep and were a 
good enough sailor not to spend the 
night nursing your stomach, you 
would likely be awakened early the 
next morning by the crowing of 
numerous cocks, and upon investi- 
gation would find yourself quietly 
resting in the secluded little harbor 
outside the entrance to the Kalau- 
papa Leper Settlement. 

As soon as day was sufficiently 
advanced you would be lowered into 
a little row boat, rowed to shore, in 
the manner used by the boats in 
these little landings for a hundred 
years. At the pier you would be 
met by the genial Manager of the 
settlement, R. L. Cook, who would 
give you such a welcome that you 
would at once feel at home. The 
welcome shower and tasty breakfast 
of the manager's home would put 
you in perfect physical and mental 
condition to enjoy the many sur- 
prises which you would find in this 
one of the most unusual little set- 
tlements in the world. 

The purpose of our little visit was 
to lend help and encouragement to 
the members of our church living 
there, and of course our first con- 



cern was for them. To our perfect 
satisfaction, we found that the pres- 
ident of the branch had arranged 
a series of meetings in the commo- 
dious meeting house, so that we 
could present the principles of the 
gospel to the people, and lend what- 
ever encouragement and hope we 
could to our dear saints residing 
there. Let me pause to say, that in 
all the branches of the church I 
have ever visited, I have never 
found more faithful and energetic 
saints than live in Kalaupapa. Per- 
haps they feel closer to our Father 
in Heaven because they feel so very 
dependent upon his mercy and love. 

ONE of the most interesting of 
all the meetings which we held 
was the meeting held in honor of 
Motherhood, on Mothers' Day. Not 
a child in the meeting house. Not 
a baby in any of the homes in the 
Settlement. In other churches in 
Hawaii, on this Mothers' Day the 
children place a lei or wreath of 
carnations lovingly around the neck 
of their mother, but here in Kalau- 
papa there are no carnations, the 
mothers request that there be none 
presented ; perhaps they feel that 
they prefer no flowers if their own 
children's hands may not place them 
on their necks. In all it was a sad 
meeting, and yet there was a feeling 
of peace and contentment there, that 
I have never felt elsewhere. If chil- 
dren could not pay tribute to their 
mothers, mothers could thank God 
for their children. I wish you could 
all have the experience of visiting 
this little colony. As we entered the 



272 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



little chapel we were greeted with 
"Aloha nui, pehea oukou," "Good 
morning, how are you." The Hawa- 
iian greeting is full of love and good 
will, no word I know of in any 
language expresses the meaning of 
the Hawaiian "Aloha." Every 
scarred face is wreathed in smiles, 
every swollen and disfigured mouth 
breathes a prayer to our Heavenly 
Father for you, every honest but 
often feeble beating heart is full of 
love for you and the Gospel, which 
means so much to them. 

My heart was somewhat heavy, 
as I was away from my own chil- 
dren, my mother, and the mission- 
aries whom I love as my own, and 
who treat me as a mother. How 
proud the mothers at home should 
be, of their noble sons, who are in 
the mission field. 

After the service is over, a serv- 
ice not unlike the usual service held 
for Mothers' Day in other places, 
except as noted above, we were in- 
vited by the Doctor, the Superin- 
tendent and their wives to visit, 
with them, the nursery, at the hos- 
pital. On arriving there we found 
thirteen beautiful babies less than 
eight months old, all babies of 
leprous parents, clean and perfect in 
body 'and mind. These babies are 
never touched by the mother's hands 
but are taken away at birth and 
cared for in the nursery. The re- 
ception room had in the center, 
serving as a partition, a large plate 
glass window. Through this glass 
partition the mothers sat and looked 
on their darling babies, never 
knowing the feel of their chubby 
arms, their lips at the breast, nor 
their wriggly little forms in their 
own arms, loving them at a safe 
distance, permitting them, as only 



mothers know how to sacrifice, to 
be separated from them, for their 
own safety. Truly mother love 
knows not self, but is sacrificed for 
the good of their children, how like 
the love of God. These mothers 
gazed with tear dimmed eyes, ask- 
ing by motion of lip, which was her 
baby, if it slept well, if it liked the 
artificial feeding, if it was good 
natured, and other questions so 
close to a mother heart. 

After a half hour of this my heart 
was so full that my eyes overflowed, 
and I thanked God for my own chil- 
dren, all of whom I have personally 
fed at my breast, loved and through 
them been glorified. Motherhood 
through a plate glass window, yet 
all of them, outwardly, at least, 
were happy, smiling and tjhank- 
ful, that they could thus see their 
darlings. How selfish of me to 
complain that I am separated from 
my own for just this one day. Now 
when Mothers' Day comes round 
my thoughts and prayers are for 
the mothers who view their babies 
through a plate glass window, in 
the Leper Settlement of Kalaupapa. 

The Territorial government has 
amply provided for the care of these 
babies, until they are old enough to 
be either placed in the homes of 
their own relatives or cared for and 
educated in private homes, of hon- 
orable citizens of Hawaii. One very 
fortunate, and perhaps surprising 
thing about these beautiful children, 
is that so far as is known, few if 
any of them, during the past fifty 
years, are known to have contracted 
the disease from their leprous par- 
ents. They seem to be as free from 
it as the ordinary child. Just one 
of the mysteries of this oldest, and 
perhaps least understood disease. 



■ 



Bessie Potter Vonnoh 



By Jennie B. Knight 

MRS. BESSIE POTTER She has chosen for her subjects the 

VONNOH, whose "Moth- things of daily life and in a degree 

erhood" is the frontispiece preserved for the future the col- 

of this issue of our Magazine, holds tumes> the characters and habits of 

our time. This is particularly true 
of her figurines which emphasize 
the newest and oldest of all subjects, 
Motherhood and Child Life. In 
her statues she has truly expressed 
the contentment and supreme joy 
found in no other realm. 

The Columbian Exposition at 





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a distinct position in the field of Art. 

An article furnished by the Ryer- 
son Library of Chicago, gives us 
the following about Mrs. Vonnoh: 
"Her young mothers are essen- 
tially maternal, her young women 
delightfully feminine, her children 
are childish, lovable and sincere. 
Thus in her little group Mrs. Von- 
noh touches upon those human re- 
lationships which are elemental and 
which stir emotions both deep and 
profound." 

Mrs. Vonnoh is an American, 
born in St. Louis, Missouri. She 
was a student with Mr. Lorado Taft 
and also of the Art Institute of Chi- 
cago. Her work, being original with Chicago occurred during her student 
a touch of delicacy and grace, at- days, which gave her an opportunity 
tracted attention in her early years, of seeing some of the works of 




THE SANDMAN S TRAIL 



274 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



artists from abroad. She had the 
opportunity later of spending" some 
time in Europe. While she has a 




DAPHNE 

profound admiration for the great 
artists, there is nothing imitative in 
her work. 

Mrs. Vonnoh has the rare good 
fortune of enjoying the companion- 
ship of a husband who is also an 
artist. Robert Vonnoh is a painter 
of renown. In one of their joint 
exhibitions he presented twenty-six 
paintings, she forty pieces of sculp- 
ture, among them a Portrait Relief 
of her husband. 

She has held many positions in 
the field of Art and has been elected 
a National Academician which hon- 
or she shares equally with Mr. 
Vonnoh, whose works have been 
known in America for years. 



She is represented in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art with eleven 
statues, in the Art Institute of 
Chicago with thirteen. Others are 
to be seen at the Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, Washington, D. C, The 
Brooklyn Museum of Art and 
Science, Newark Museum Asso- 
ciation, Capitol Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C, Cincinnati Art Museum, 
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg, and 
the Art Museum at Tokio, Japan. 

The Roosevelt Memorial bird 
fountain erected at Oyster Bay in 
1925, is one of her creations. An- 
other fountain, Water Lilies — 
which was awarded the Barnett 




GIRL IN VENETIAN COSTUME 

prize of the National Association of 
Women Painters and Sculptors in 
1920, is worthy of the praise it re- 



BESSIE POTTER VON N OH 



275 




ceived. One who has seen it says: 
''Its beauty lies in the sweet sim- 
plicity of youth." The lines of the 
silhouette are beautiful in every 
turn. The poise of the figure is 
balanced by the outstretched arms. 
In one hand she holds a lily which 
serves as the water course whence 
the water drops through tiny holes 
when the bronze is used as a basin 
fountain figure. The "Girl Read- 
ing" has repose and beauty. The 
lines are excellent, the straight Mex- 
ican chair contrasting with the curve 
of the figure. Mrs. Vonnoh has 
done life size work. 

All of us are proud that through 
her, one more woman has added to 
the art of America, and that many 
other figurines in gold, silver and 
bronze have found their way into 
the homes of those who love and 
appreciate Art. 



GIRL READING 



Our Field 



By Martha J. Barnes 

We Relief Society members like the farmer must not shirk. 

In whatever field is ready, that's the field where we must work. 

There's a place 'round every homestead, though a small secluded spot, 

And a time that's right for planting of the sweet forget-me-not. 

It may be a branch needs healing where a bud was cut away, 

Or there's lack of pleasant sunshine 'cause the clouds hang low and gray, 

Or perhaps the gate needs watching lest the lethal knife should stray 

And the cruel hand, returning, cut more precious buds away, 

Or a field needs getting ready, out where cool green meadows roll, 

For the planting of true character and nobleness of soul. 

There's a place that's very lonely since the bird notes cease to ring ; 

And there's some one there needs cheering — one to whom we well may sing. 

There's an isolated corner, slightly touched by blight of sin, 

We must spray with love and kindness and the thoughts of good bring in. 

There's a weed that's giving trouble — yes, more trouble than we guess — 

It's the weed we all are growing — the dread weed of selfishness. 

It is growing in our gardens, in our fields and orchards too ; 

And the only way to kill it is to think and give and do. 

There's a plot of drooping flowers. If we want to bring them through, 

We must call down grace from heaven and must bathe them in its dew. 

If it's cold around the edges and the frost is threatening harm, 

We must call the hand of friendship to light smudge- pots on the farm. 

Now in judgment I am thinking what a slacker I would be 

If I failed, at least attempting, to perform what's asked of me. 



Growing Old with the Poets 



By Lois V. Hales 



WE must all grow old or die. 
It is important that we grow 
old successfully. Each one 
of us has an idea of the ideal way 
of growing old. We may not be 
conscious of it until we read books 
and poetry which arouse us either 
to agreement or disagreement. Then 
we become conscious of our own 
philosophy — what we would like to 
think, feel, recall, look forward to 
in our old age. Poets often help us 
to find ourselves. 

Generally youth is considered the 
golden time of life, the time of high 
thoughts, daring deeds, grand ad- 
venture. There are poets who look 
forward with dread to the time 
when they shall be old. Edwin 
Arlington Robinson complains that 
as he grows older the stars are not 
"quite so friendly, nor quite so 
near." To him we are nearer God 
in our childhood and youth. Heaven 
is far ofT in age. Stoddard mourns 
for his lost youth with which went 
something never to return. We are 
stronger and better in age, he says, 
but 

"Something beautiful is vanished, 
And we sigh for it in vain; 
We behold it everywhere, 
On the earth, and in the air, 
But it never comes again;" 

Winifred Welles in her exquisite 
little poem "Lifetime," says that she 
must "grow old and sleep into in- 
difference." There is no turning 
back. All she asks is to go onward 
close to the dark, sweet earth — 

"With the sky's mark hidden in my 

breast, 
And a star's shadow falling on my 

face . . . 
Death is the beautiful and bitter sea." 

Some of us are so afraid to live 
"for fear that we may die." Often 



we hear our older people say that 
for them "life is over." They look 
back instead of forward and always 
with a sense of regret. 

However, there are many who see 
themselves growing old without any 
feeling of remorse or regret. Rob- 
ert Browning at the age of seventy- 
seven, rejoiced that he had lost the 
rose-colored glasses of youth and 
could now look at the world naked- 
ly, clearly, wholly. Old age, to 
him, was rich and good. "Come," 
he states, 

"Grow old along with me! 

The best is yet to be, 

The last of life, for which the first was 

made . . . 

* * * 

Youth shows but half; trust God; see 
all, nor be afraid." 

We need not lose our enthusiasms 
as we grow old. They change for 
we grow out of things — we change 
to finer things. "A well-ordered 
life," says William Lyon Phelps, "is 
like climbing a tower ; the view half 
way up is better than the view from 
the base, and it steadily becomes 
finer as the horizon expands." 

"We live in deeds, not years ; in thoughts, 

not breaths; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial. 
We should count time by heart throbs. 

He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts 

the best." 

John Masefield in his famous 
poem, "On Growing Old," says that 
now that he cannot sail seas, wander 
on cornland, nor hill-land, nor val- 
leys, he asks only his old dog, his 
old book and his sense of beauty 
which is the "bread of the soul." 

"Give me but these, and, though the 
darkness close, 
Even the night will blossom as the 
rose." 



GROWING OLD WITH THE POETS 



277 



To Sarah Cleghorn age is like a 
captain returning with a great sea- 
chest of treasure. She is content 
to climb the hill of life hoping that 
the other side "shines on a silver 
shore." Rupert Brooke in his little 
poem "Treasure" asks for some 
golden space in his life when he may 
unpack his scented store of memo- 
ries and count and touch and turn 
them o'er as a mother, who 

"Has watched her children all the rich 
day through, 
Sits, quiet-handed, in the fading light, 
When children sleep, 'ere night." 

John Burroughs waits with joy 
the coming years for his heart shall 
reap where it has sown, and "garner 
up its fruit of tears." 

"Serene I fold my hands and wait, 
Nor care for wind, nor tide, nor sea. 
I rave no more 'gainst time or fate, 
For lo my own shall come to me." 

Sara Teasdale thinks that "the 
heart asks more than life can give." 
When she is old she will have 
learned this lesson and then the 
beauties of life will not hurt her. 
Symons feels that in this life we let 
slip so much, we are so little awake, 
and we shall sleep so long, that we 
should live this life consciously, 
fully, valiantly. In "An Old 
Thought" we see the difference be- 
tween youth and age as seen by an- 
other poet. 

"Framed in the cavernous fireplace sits 
a boy, 

Watching the embers from his grand- 
sire's knee, 

One sees red castles rise, and laughs 
with joy 

The other marks them crumble silent- 
ly." 

To Robinson Jeffers old age is 
the time to gloat over one's treas- 
ures. 

"The heads of strong old age are beau- 
tiful 
Beyond all grace of youth. They have 
strange quiet, 



Integrity, health, soundness, to the full 
They've dealt with life and been at- 
tempered by it." 

"Praise Youth's hot blood if you will, I 
think that happiness 

Rather consists in having lived clear 
through 

Youth and hot blood, on to the wintrier 
hemisphere 

Where one has time to wait and re- 
member." 

Some think that youth is not a 
time of life — it is a state of mind. 
Nobody grows old by merely liv- 
ing a number of years. People grow 
old by doubt ; as young as your self- 
confidence, as old as your fear; as 
young as your hope, as old as your 
despair. In the central place of 
your heart there is a wireless sta- 
tion. "So long as it receives mes- 
sages of beauty, hope, cheer, grand- 
eur, courage, and power from the 
earth, from men, from the infinite, 
so long are you young." 

William Butler Yeats in his poem 
"When You Are Old" says, 

"When you are old and gray and full of 
sleep, 

And nodding by the fire, take down this 
book, 

And slowly read, and dream of the soft 
look, 

Your eyes had once, and of their shad- 
ows deep." 

Rosamund Watson says that as 
she grows old she will rejoice that 
the world is yet young, that spring 
will come again, that the birds will 
sing. It will be sweet to know 

"That though my meagre days be with- 
ering 
Still shall be wrought the miracle of 
spring." 

She will rejoice that others are 
doing the things she would like to 
have done — that there are always 
adventurers on the hazardous sea of 
life. 

Lizette Woodworth Reese asks 
only for an old quiet house away 
from the town, a clump of lavender 
with "small cross bees astir," a few 



278 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



tall well-thumbed books and "old 
friends who from the village walk 
on Sunday afternoons." To her 

"Whether we climb, whether we plod, 
Space for one task the scant years lend 
To choose some path that leads to God, 
And keep it to the end." 

To Oliver Wendell Holmes the 
ideal way to grow old is told in his 
famous poem, 

"Build thee more stately mansions, O my 

soul, 
As the swift seasons roll! 
Leave the low- vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the 

last, 
Shut thee from heaven with a dome 

more vast, 
Till thou at length art free, 
Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's 

unresting sea." 

Frances A. Kemble wants us to 
grow old in trust and hope. 

"Better trust; and be deceived, 
And weep that trust and that deceiving, 
Than doubt one heart that, if believed, 
Had blessed one's life, with true be- 
lieving." 

Newman says there was a time 
when he loved to choose and see his 
path, but now 

"Lead, kindly Light, amid th' encircling 
gloom, 
Lead Thou me on: 



The night is dark, and I am far from 
home, 
Lead Thou me on: 
Keep Thou my feet; I do not ask to 
see 
The distant scene; one step enough for 
me. 

Longfellow in his matchless son- 
net likens age and death to the child 
who comes to love his toys and 
looks longingly back at them as the 
nurse takes him to bed. 

"So Nature deals with us, and takes 

away 
Our playthings one by one, and by the 

hand 
Leads us to rest so gently, that we go 
Scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay. 
Being too full of sleep to understand 
How far the unknown transcends the 

what we know." 

Ulysses, the great adventurer, 
gives us some of the most comfort- 
ing and inspiring advice on growing 
old. 

"You and I are old ; 

Old age hath yet his honor and his toil ; 
Death closes all; but something 'ere the 
end, 
Some work of noble note, may yet be 

done, 
Not unbecoming men that strove with 
Gods." 



Maytime 

By Merlin g D. Clyde 



Noontime and sunshine, 

A breath of flowers on the breeze, 

A song of love and loveliness 

Murmuring among the trees ; 

Gay little buds in springtime green 

Swinging to and fro, 

Awaiting the touch of the sun's 

caress 
Their full blown beauty to show. 



Down in the grass a shy white 

flower 
Sheds a fragrance in the air, 
Close where a baby's feet may pass 
And find it growing there. 
By the garden gate a winsome maid 
Waits for her lover so true, 
Hoping he'll come when no one's 

about 
And there'll be a kiss for two. 



Moroni the Faithful 



By Nora A. Davis 



ONE of the choicest gifts 
anyone can bequeath to the 
world is himself at his best. 
Each of us gives this contribution 
according to his opportunities, and 
to his ideas of values and ideals. 
Moroni thought more of his testi- 
mony of the Savior and of preserv- 
ing the sacred plates of the Book of 
Mormon than he did of his own life. 
That was one way he gave himself 
in a super-gift. Everything else 
was secondary to these spiritual 
duties. No precaution or effort was 
too great for him to take in protect- 
ing the holy records. He was faith- 
ful in his care of them in life, in 
death, and in resurrection. 

Moroni was born and grew to 
manhood in the terrible civil war 
time previous to the final struggle 
between the Nephites and Lamanites. 
He was an officer under his father 
Mormon, and commander of a corps 
of ten thousand men in the last 
battle. In this war of annihilation 
all the Nephites were killed save 
twenty-four strong men, and a 
small number who escaped south- 
ward, and a few dissenters who 
joined the Lamanites. Moroni and 
his father were among the twenty- 
four survivors. 

Living in that wicked age and 
passing through the blood and de- 
struction of the final battles it was 
singular for Moroni to place em- 
phasis on spiritual things above all 
else. In spite of every opposition 
he was determined to obey the 
teachings of his faithful father, and 
always be true to bis calling and 
testimony. He had the insight and 
vision of the value the records 
would be to a future generation and 



forgot himself in his resolute efforts 
to preserve them. 

Moroni's last days were anything 
but pleasant. The rigor of the 
northern winters, and the necessity 
of supplying himself with clothing, 
food, and shelter, added greatly to 
his difficulties. Then his very ex- 
istence was in jeopardy. In fact, 
for the most part, his life was filled 
with great personal danger, and con- 
stant anxiety for the safety of the 
records. At first he had his father 
and companions for company, but 
sixteen years after the last battle 
he was the only faithful Nephite 
living. 

In 400 A. D. he wrote : "After 
the great and tremendous battle at 
Cumorah, behold, the Nephites who 
had escaped into the country south- 
ward were hunted down by the La- 
manites until they were all de- 
stroyed, and my /father also was 
killed by ithem and I even remain 
alone to write the sad tale of the 
destruction of my people." Mor- 
mon 8:2-3. 

During the next twenty years he 
lived alone, finishing up the Nephite 
history and abridging the Book of 
Ether. After he had finished this 
he wrote: "Now I, Moroni, after 
having made an end of abridging 
the account of the people of Jared, 
I had supposed not to have written 
more, but I have not as yet perished, 
and I make not myself known to 
the Lamanites, lest they should de- 
stroy me. 

"For behold, their wars are ex- 
ceeding fierce among themselves ; 
and because of their hatred, they put 
to death every Nephite that will not 
deny Christ. 



280 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

"And I, Moroni, will not deny strength of character and spiritual 

Christ ; wherefore I wander wither- endurance. 

soever I can, for the safety of my In the dramatic restoration of the 

own life." Moroni 1:1-3. Gospel in this dispensation, 

Rather than sacrifice his testi- Moroni, as a glorious angel and 
mony he lived as an outcast, his life resurrected being, was just as care- 
in constant peril for those last ful with the plates and the other 
twenty years. During this time articles with them. He wouldn't 
alone he must have longed for hu- eve n allow Joseph Smith to touch 
man companionship. But he re- them at first. Before he permitted 
fused to sell his soul for this asso- the Prophet to remove them he re- 
ciation. He chose the harder but quired him to wait four years, dur- 
wiser course of remaining faithful ing which time he yearly instructed 
and protecting the records at all mr n concerning their sacredness. He 
hazards. warned the boy ]many times that 

His loneliness must have been ^ P! ates . could not !* u f ed for 

trying at times and yet it was not financia S ain > that their value was 

as depressing as it could have been, S reat< r r than f 1011 ^' because they 

as he realized he was sacrificing for contained the fulness of the Gospel, 

a great cause. He knew what he and that he should ma ^ e ever y e t n " 

was doing was tremendously worth- deav ?j\ to P re jerve them or he 

while. Then he was sustained spir- s,hould be cut off * 
itually from heaven. On one occa- Joseph heeded the warnings and 

sion he and his father had a visit used man y successful strategies in 

from the three Nephite Apostles, keeping the plates safe during their 

Then most of the time he was occu- translation. After this was accom- 

pied in literary work connected Pushed the angel appeared to the 

with the plates. I wonder if he Pro P he .t a .nd received back the 

could have stood his solitude with- p ^? s ln ., s car ^' e , , 

out an occupation, and without great , Mor °™ s watchful care over the 

spiritual fortitude and vision. P lates / ull y test . ed l ! lm - ^required 

T/fOAAT^iv/r • ij more than his time in mortality. On 

In 420 A. D- Moroni sealed up ^ earth he his uf ( Q the 

the records and hid them away in d * reS urrected state 

a stone box m the Hill Cumorah. stil , functions as custodian . 
His earthly work was then done. B t lorious has been his reward 

In speaking of his passing he once f tQ s him h weU earned 

sl r 1 1 w t y w ihonor of bein s the an ^ el to . fl y 

J e n _ w ™ from heaven bearing the everlasting 

Therefore I will write and hide (Gospel to the earth in the last days. 

up the records in the earth, and Like Moroni, we are all faced 

whither I go it mattereth not." w ; tn problems and ideals that test 

How he met the final end we do us, and to which we have to be 

not know, but we are sure he was faithful even though we stand alone, 
always faithful to his trust as cus- We tall have sacred things en- 

todian of the holy things in his care; trusted to our keeping. Our lives, 

and although he died the last repre- and the way we live them are holy 

sentative of a fallen race, his tenac- charges. We also have our dear 

ity in giving his best to safeguard ones, our friends, our testimonies of 

the sacred records in his charge the Gospel, and our ideals to protect 

makes one marvel at his great from evil at all times. 



What Does Your Home Afford? 



By Jean Cox 



WOULD you like to measure 
your home with some of the 
measuring sticks suggested 
by the White House Conference? 

Have you often wondered what 
kind of a home you have and how 
it compares with other homes with 
which you are more or less ac- 
quainted ? 

Have you a rather definite picture 
in your own mind of what consti- 
tutes a so-called good home? 

Have you wondered if there are 
other means of measuring homes 
than the indefinite terms used when 
the matter is up for discussion? 

Have you wondered if there is a 
way of rating some of the intangi- 
bles which make homes differ ? 

Attempts to answer questions 
such as these were part' of the ob- 
jectives of the committee on Family 
and Parent Education which made 
its splendid contribution to the 
White House Conference. Some 
very unique studies were reported 
by these committees in their efforts 
to find a way of measuring, for in- 
stance, that elusive something called 
atmosphere. Their measuring stick 
was in terms of product or result. 
One study was made on the assump- 
tion that children from homes are 
symptomatic of the home. Dr. Ra- 
chel Seutzman of Merrill Palmer 
and her committee made a study of 
the homes of one hundred children. 
Fifty of these were considered well 
adjusted children, and fifty were 
poorly adjusted children. A study 
of the homes from which the chil- 
dren came showed that the first 
group came from well conditioned 
homes and had fewer troubles in 
their human relationships than did 



the other group. Their fathers and 
mothers lived more harmoniously. 
There were fewer differences in re- 
ligious and financial matters. Chil- 
dren from these homes had a more 
wholesome outlook. 

Another question demanding 
careful consideration is, what do 
homes contribute in developing in- 
dependence of children. Too many 
children are over-mothered even in- 
to adulthood. The following story 
represents many only sons. 

The president of a southern col- 
lege received this message from an 
anxious mother. "I fear a northern 
(cold storm) is coming. Will you 
please see that my son is covered 
up." The son a freshman at college 
was not known by the president, 
neither did he want to assume nurse 
guardianship to overcome lack of 
training which college youths should 
have had before entering high school 
or college. 

Efficient home training should es- 
tablish ideals of responsibility for 
children for maintaining their own 
health. Children, as well as ado- 
lescents, should desire health. With 
the right home atmosphere the de- 
sire to be well, to be strong, to be 
good natured, to be helpful becomes 
a part of the family creed. Positive 
appeal rather than negative should 
be made. Strength is a more potent 
force than is weakness. Many fam- 
ilies, however, have fine health 
standards and to them living be- 
comes a pleasure, an engaging ex- 
perience. Unfortunately in other 
families children as well as parent's, 
do not realize what good health is, 
and they know little concerning the 
resultant joys of radiant health. 



282 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Someone has said that a positive 
health ideal is worth more than a 
bank account. 

Health and illness have been 
equated in terms of dollars and 
cents. Loss of work, or extra ex- 
pense, however, are less significant 
than lack of mental health or desire 
for joy in living. 

TT has been said that the only fixed 
A thing in regard to the home is the 
ideal, and similarly it might be said 
that the only fixed thing in our edu- 
cation for modern family living is 
an appreciation of this ideal. Chil- 
dren change from month to month, 
relationships 'between husbands and 
wives, vary as a result of other 
changes. Economic and social dif- 
ferences are reflected in the home 
and also in the individuals who con- 
tribute to the home. With a rather 
definite ideal, however, of what' a 
home should contribute to the dif- 
ferent members of the family, the 
function of the home remains some- 
what constant even if adjustments in 
the physical plant vary. Trite as 
it may seem, from better homes will 
result better individuals, commu- 
nities, and nation ; and better indi- 
viduals will insure better homes 
which may make bigger contribu- 
tions to the social development of 
the communities and nation. 

In any child welfare program 
much must depend upon the home. 
While difTerent homes vary in the 
physical plant the most important 
single factor, quoting President 
Hoover is, "that afTeetion and de- 
votion of the soul which is the great 
endowment of mothers. " Because 
of this great love and understand- 
ing, she can supplement training 
from schools and church. Leaders 
do occasionally come from so-called 
poor homes. Doubtless the moth- 
er's influence compensates for other 



unsatisfactory conditions within 
the home plant. 

Due to the economic and social 
conditions the homes of today have 
difTerent problems as well as in- 
creased responsibility, than the 
childhood homes of the present par- 
ents and grandparents. Fewer re- 
sponsibilities for children in and 
around the home plant have de- 
creased natural opportunities for 
child training. The crowding of 
families into the cities have multi- 
plied problems in child care and 
training. Delinquency increases with 
congestion. Physical disease fre- 
quently results from over-crowding. 
This, however, is not all of the story 
for when the child's natural play- 
ground is taken from him, his mind 
does not have opportunities for 
wholesome imagination and play, in 
a make-believe world. Flights of 
fancy and development of initiative 
respond to the stimuli of wood, 
stream, and field. 

The home must be a haven of 
safety for the child if physical, so- 
cial, and emotional development are 
satisfactory. The average child is 
an acquisitive individual and de- 
lights in feeling ownership of toys, 
books, and playthings. For his best 
development he needs a sense of be- 
longing to the family group, a feel- 
ing that' he is necessary for their 
happiness as well as the repeated as- 
surance that he is loved by those 
whom he loves. The sense of se- 
curity, as well as freedom from 
worry, contributes to both physical, 
mental, and social health. This feel- 
ing of security in childhood will con- 
tribute to the individual's poise in 
adulthood. It will help in the de- 
velopment of a personality which 
will help its owner gain the big ob- 
jective of joy in the art of living. 



I 



N his White House Conference 
speech, President Hoover made 



WHAT DOES YOUR HOME AFFORD? 



283 



the statement that "Cheerless homes 
produce morbid minds." To pro- 
duce happy individuals is one of the 
chief functions of the home. The 
happy hopeful personality h a dis- 
tinct asset to the individual and is 
largely the result of satisfactory 
home conditions. This results when 
there is love and understanding 
among the different members of the 
family group. The ideal family re- 
lationships stimulate courage, con- 
fidence, and self-respect which are 
all necessary for the well-being of 
the child and which will also con- 
tribute to his later success. 

There is little assurance for suc- 
cess if the human relationships in 
the home have made the person sus- 
picious, fault-finding, self-effacing, 
and prone to carry the proverbial 
chip on his shoulder. Later success 
is also endangered if early years do 
not afford expression of love, un- 
derstanding, and desire for, and sat- 
isfaction in the child, regardless of 
age or sex. 

The query of the two year old, 
"Do you need me mother?" typifies 
his need for belonging to the group. 
Little children want to belong to a 
family. They desire appreciation, 
they desire their own toys and 
books. 

Are you over-serious in your re- 
sponsibilities as parents? Does in- 
telligent' parenthood necessarily in- 
volve only seriousness in action and 
contemplation to the exclusion of 
happiness and joy for both parents 
and children? Successful homes are 
happy homes. Someone said the 
eleventh commandment is Do not 
take your job too seriously. Per- 
haps this applies to you. 

T_T OMES have many responsibil- 
* ■» ities. Does your home supply 
management and supervision in the 
control and prevention of illness? 
Frequent and prolonged illness 



changes the home atmosphere, en- 
tails extra expense, and results in 
unnecessary human suffering. The 
White House Conference committee 
on management reported that in a 
study made of 355 families over a 
three year period, one-half of the 
group had one or more illnesses dur- 
ing the three years. Operations, 
whooping cough, and common colds 
were reported most frequently ; con- 
stipation, diseased tonsils and ade- 
noids, and various types of nervous 
disorders occurred less often. The 
homemakers admitted their inability 
to forecast the proportion of the in- 
come which is needed to promote 
health. They were concerned over 
the narrow margin left after other 
expenses were met which made the 
maintenance of health exceedingly 
important in the family of average 
income. 

Have you sufficient knowledge of 
child psychology to deal satisfactor- 
ily with problems of the younger 
members of the family? A better 
understanding of human nature was 
one of the needs listed by a major- 
ity of the three 'hundred and fifty- 
six mothers studied. These women 
were also anxious to study books de- 
signed to give help in family rela- 
tionships, including that of the par- 
ent and older child relationships. 
Additional emphasis was also given 
to the importance of providing train- 
ing for fathers as well as mothers. 

Ideally, fathers as well as moth- 
ers should have pre-parental train- 
ing in order to establish ideals and 
set standards for the kind of home 
and family life they desire. Too 
great differences in training bring 
the husband and wife to the re- 
sponsibilities of parenthood with di- 
vergent ideas and standards. This 
demands careful consideration. One 
of the difficulties arising out of the 
child study groups which are at- 
tended largely by women is that the 



284 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



increased training given the mother ganization of the work in the home 
may increase these divergencies, as well as discriminate between es- 
Having material for father to read sential and less essential tasks for 
as well as free discussion between different homes. This elimination 
husband and wife of the problems would vtiry also with ages as well 
discussed by the group will tend to as outside demands on the time of 
break down these differences. One the different members of the family 
of the big responsibilities of home- group. There is evident need of 
making is to make it a joint occupa- more cooperative plans for accom- 
tion of husband and wife by com- plishing the necessary work of the 
mon understanding and consent. home, and making it possible for the 
Mothers need health in order to different members of the family to 
carry on their many managerial and share free time together, 
•technical jobs as well as those en- The American home is in a way 
tailing human relationships. Physi- under fire. More studies need to be 
cal and nervous strain which results made regarding the present home 
from the long hours as well as nu- for children who are growing up in 
merous duties make decided drains the homes of today. More attention 
on the mother's vitality. In other needs to be given to scientific stud- 
words, long continued peak loads of ies regarding the so-called intangi- 
work or responsibility and work bles in order to more definitely de- 
may keep all but the very able from termine what the individual home 
giving of their best to their husband affords. You might be interested in 
and children. Further studies are scoring your home on the following 
needed to help determine better or- chart. Range in score : 

Normal Curve 1 5 10 

Love and Under- 
standing 

Managerial 
Ability \ 

Child Training 

Economic 

Stability 

Suitability and 
Efficiency of 

Home Plant 

Does your home score average, above, or below ? 




Notes from the Field 



Western States Mission : 

ON January 10 and 11, 1931, 
a most successful branch con- 
ference of the Western States 
Mission was held at Omaha and 
Council Bluffs. President and 
Sister Elias S. Woodruff met with 
the missionaries and saints of the 
East Nebraska Branch in the con- 
ference sessions, where the time was 



tion work, and help interpret it to 
the local officers. On Saturday 
evening, January 10, the Relief So- 
ciety conference was held in the 
chapel at Omaha, where the accom- 
panying picture was taken of the as- 
sembled group. President Wood- 
ruff and Sister Woodruff gave most 
inspirational instructions, which 
were followed by interesting reports 




WESTERN STATES MISSION, EAST NEBRASKA BRANCH 



given over to the consideration of 
the Relief Society and Sunday School 
work in the mission. Bishop David 
A. Smith and Brother Robert L. 
Judd of the Deseret Sunday School 
Union Board, and Sister Julia A. F. 
Lund, General Secretary of the Re- 
lief Society, were in attendance, to 
represent their auxiliary organiza- 



from tthe local presidents of tthe 
Omaha, Lincoln and Council Bluffs 
Relief Society, after which Sister 
Lund spoke of the great objectives 
of Relief Society work and its place 
in the missions. On Sunday morn- 
ing, January 11th, Sunday School 
conferences and special executive 
meetings of the Relief Society were 



286 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



held in the Council Bluffs chapel, 
where much constructive work was 
discussed, and it was voted at the 
close of this conference one of great 
inspiration and assistance in the 
work. 

Australian Mission: 

SISTER HAZEL B. TINGEY, 
president of the Australian Mis- 
sion Relief Society, gives the fol- 
lowing interesting report of her 
mission: "In traveling through the 
mission I am happy to report things 
in a very favorable condition. We 
now have six organizations of the 
Relief Society, and in visiting I find 
the spirit displayed by the sisters 
in each organization to be one of 
love and unity. It seems that our 
faith and devotion to the work is 
being increased day by day, and 
that we cannot be grateful enough 
to our Heavenly Father for the 
many blessings that He has be- 
stowed upon us as a people. Due 
to the necessity of so many of our 
sisters having to earn their own 
living, also because of the great dis- 
tance they are from the church, we 
do not have as many enrolled as we 
should like. However, we have 
changed the plan of meeting in the 
afternoon, and are now meeting in 
the evening when the Priesthood is 
in session. This plan seems to be 
far more successful, and will permit 
many more of the sisters to come, 
especially as many of them have 
young children, and these mothers 
are the ones who derive the greatest 
amount of benefit from the Relief 
Society work. The organization 
course of study in all its various 
phases is being handled very suc- 
cessfully in most of our districts. 
The sisters are timid in their feel- 
ings in reference to their capability 
of handling the subjects and doing 
them justice. We also find that not 
as many of our sisters are taking 



the Magazine as we should like, but 
trust in the near future they will see 
their way clear to do so, as the 
Magazine is indispensable in the 
lesson work. I trust: that this let- 
ter finds all well at home, and I pray 
the blessings of our Heavenly 
Father may attend all in this great 
work." 

Nprth Central States Mission : 

F^ROM the North Central States 
we have the interesting report 
that the work is going on very 
splendidly, and that one of the new 
organizations has among its mem- 
bers about twenty women not mem- 
bers of the Church. These women 
come to get the benefit derived from 
the wonderful lessons and discus- 
sions. They donate to the charity 
fund, and say that the Relief So- 
ciety is one of the most pleasant 
organizations among women they 
have ever attended. The winter 
has been a mild one in this quarter, 
but the unemployment has made it 
necessary to do a great deal of char- 
ity work. The Lord has blessed 
the missionaries with good health, 
and even though their numbers 
have decreased, the good work has 
steadily gone forward. 

Portneuf Stake : 

THE first of the reports on the 
recent Annual Day celebration 
to reach the office comes from Port- 
neuf. The secretary writes : "I am 
pleased to report that most of the 
wards in Portneuf stake observed 
Relief Society Annual Day with 
appropriate programs of songs, 
readings and papers on the first or- 
ganization. Also a one-act play was 
presented. Dancing of old time 
dances was very much enjoyed by 
the old people, and delicious re- 
freshments completed a very suc- 
cessful gathering. In some cases 
two or more wards made this a 
district affair, while others made it 



NOTES FROM THE FIELD 



2S7 



a home celebration. The wards 
throughout the stake thoroughly en- 
joyed the day and did full honor to 
the occasion." 

Juarez Stake : 

ONE of the most comprehensive 
and delightful reports of stake 
activities that has reached the office 
comes from our far away Mexican 
stake — Juarez. The president writes : 
"WSth the closing of the records and 
making of reports for the year 1930, 
we thought it fitting to report some 
of the accomplishments in this stake 
during the past year, and the means 
by which we have been able to do 
our work. We found it most in- 
teresting to check up on the aims we 
made at the beginning of last year, 
and see how nearly we have been 
able to accomplish them. When the 
work closed last spring we had a 
request from the ward presidents to 
permit them to hold Relief Society 
during the summer months. We 
were very happy to grant this, and 
submitted to them a uniform pro- 
gram that was carried out by all the 
wards, with very excellent results. 
This program consisted of two 
Work and Business Meetings a 
month, one Theology and one Tes- 
timony meeting, a topic for visiting 
teachers each month, and one lesson 
on moral training of children in the 
home, one on prenatal and postnatal 
care of the child, and one on the 
Magazine. With the closing of the 
summer work and the beginning of 
the Fall, we had a class leaders' con- 
vention which was well attended by 
class leaders and officers from all 
over the stake. The lesson work 
was carefully outlined and skillfully 
put over, and succeeded in impart- 
ing such enthusiasm at the begin- 
ning that the effects of it were felt 
in the class work throughout the 
year. The lessons planned are so 
wonderful and so broad in their 



scope, that the women of this stake 
can ill afford to miss the possible 
benefits and development that may 
be derived from participation and 
study in these, and we have planned 
to devise ways and means of getting 
more women into actual contact 
with the lesson work. To increase 
the attendance we first had the pres- 
idents of the various wards write a 
letter to each member expressing 
appreciation for their support and 
cooperation, and pointing out the 
benefits that may be derived from 
regular attendance at the weekly 
meeting, and enclosed a record of 
their attendance at Relief Society 
during the past year. The letter 
closed with an urgent appeal to 
improve their record during the 
coming year. We also had them 
write a letter of good will and cheer 
to the homebound in their wards. 
Next we made out blanks for a 
monthly survey of the ward Relief 
Societies. This gives us specific in- 
formation concerning the attend- 
ance of the officers and class leaders 
at prayer meeting, Relief Society, 
Union Meeting, the Magazine sub- 
scriptions, and the grade of the 
teachers' preparation. It also gives 
specific information concerning the 
attendance at Relief Society of the 
visiting teacher, her monthly visit, 
discussion of the topic, her Maga- 
zine subscription and her efficiency 
percent, if she reads the lesson. W|e 
made a yearly outline for our Work 
and Business Meeting, and in it we 
planned for a larger variety of work 
to be done than ever before, this to 
increase the attendance at the meet- 
ings, and our plan has worked out 
so successfully that the attendance 
has increased from 52 to 60%. Our 
Union Meetings are our best 
means of putting over our work, but 
owing to the scattered condition of 
our stake, and the distance some of 
our wards are from each other, we 



288 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



can always be assured of a full 
representation of all our wards only 
once in three months. To offset 
this difficulty we put all instructions 
given in Union Meeting, both in the 
executive and lesson departments, 
into a monthly bulletin, and mail it 
to the wards after each Union Meet- 
ing. In these bulletins we send each 
month a detailed plan for the Work 
and Business Meeting for the month 
that is to follow. We feel that if 
every mother in the stake will de- 
termine that every party given in 
her home, whether for children, 
young people, or adults, shall be 
well planned and well supervised, 
much can be done to improve and 
raise the standards of amusement, 
and to aid in this we send out games 
and suggestions for a party, for 
both children and adults. These 
have been enthusiastically received, 
and on the whole we feel that our 
bulletin has given us closer contact 
with the wards, and brought heartier 
and more immediate results than 
anything we have done heretofore. 
In spite of our scattered condition 
we are able to make quarterly visits 
throughout the stake, and keep in 
fairly close touch. As the outcome 
of our lesson work in the literary 
and social service departments, we 
have planned a story-writing con- 



test. We feel that our country is 
rich in material suitable for short 
stories, and that whatever incidents 
concerning the settling and develop- 
ment of our colony can be written 
and preserved, will be worth much 
to the coming generation. It will 
also help develop latent ability and 
talent that may be in our midst. 
The project seems to have created 
great enthusiasm and we are hoping 
the 1st of May will see a number 
of stories in our possession. We 
feel that we are beginning to get 
results from our work with the Re- 
lief Society in the Mexican branch. 
We have on our board an officer of 
the Mexican Relief Society, and 
through her we have been able to 
get in closer touch with the people 
of this country, and to understand 
their difficulties and be better able 
to help them. Our mission in this 
land is for that, and great effort 
on our part is necessary to prepare 
us to be of service to them. We are 
planning a Work and Business dem- 
onstration for the Fall. The mem- 
bers of our stake board are zealous, 
efficient women, full of integrity and 
an intense desire to be of service, 
and most of all they love the Relief 
Society work and are anxious and 
willing to further it in every way in 
our stake." 



Hope 

By Willamelia F. Barton 



Sweet Hope you are welcome ; 
I have been so sad and lone, 
So desolate and afraid. 
Come closer, Hope, 



That I may touch your robe. 
Now my heart seems 
A little nearer to God. 



Relief Society Annual Report 

1930 

Julia A. F. Lund, General Secretary 

FINANCIAL ACCOUNT 
Cash Receipts 
Balance on hand January 1, 1930: 

Chanty Fund . $ 37,701.46 

General Fund 119,878.98 

Wheat Trust Fund 11,810.88 

Total Balance, January 1 $169,391.32 

Donations Received During 1930 : 

Charity Fund $100,849.91 

General Fund 123.184.32 

Annual Dues 22,984.18 

Other Receipts 59,092.39 

Total Receipts $306,110.80 

Total Balance on hand and Receipts $ 475,502.12 

Cash Disbursements 

Paid for Charitable Purposes $109,493.19 

Paid for General Purposes 143,745.33 

Wheat Trust Fund Remitted to Pre- 
siding Bishop's Office 817.25 

Annual Dues paid to General Board 

and to Stake Boards 26,764.56 

Paid for Other Purposes 29,877.34 

Total Disbursements $310,697.66 

Balance on hand December 31, 1930 : 

Charity Fund $ 38,229.58 

General Fund 115,426.16 

Wheat Trust Fund 11,148.72 

Total Balance, December 31 $164,804.46 

Total Disbursements and Balance 

on hand $ 475,502.12 

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 
Assets 
Balance on hand December 31, 1930: 

All Funds $164,183.75 

Wheat Trust Fund Deposited at Pre- 
siding Bishop's Office 400,266.29 

Other Invested Funds 56,275.81 

Value of Real Estate and Buildings .... 227,853.94 

Value of Furniture and Fixtures 79.979.85 

Other Assets 32,091.79 

$960,651.43 
Stake Board Cash Balances on hand 

December 31, 1930 $ 25,423.82 

Other Assets 59,637.49 

$ 85,061.31 



Total Assets $1,045,712.74 



290 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Liabilities 

Indebtedness .......$ 4,448.39 

Balance Net Assets 956,203.04 



$960,651.43 
Balance Stake Board Net Assets 85,061.31 



Total Net Assets and Liabilities. . . $1,045,712.74 

STATISTICS 
Membership 
January |1, 1930 : 

Executive and Special Officers 10,417 

Visiting Teachers 21,267 

Other Members 30,873 



Total Membership January 1 

Increase : ■ - 

Admitted to Membership During Year 

Total Membership and Increase 71,235 

Decrease : 



Removed or Resigned 
Died 





62,557 
8,678 


6,180 
830 





Total Decrease 7,010 



Membership 

December 31, 1930: 

Executive and Special Officers 10,619 

Visiting Teachers 21,765 

Other Members 31,841 



64,225 



Total Membership December 31 . . . 64,225 

The Total Membership includes : 

General Officers and Board Members 23 

Stake Officers and Board, Members 1,102 

Mission Presidents and Officers 70 

Number of Stakes 104 

Number of Missions 26 

Number of Relief Society Ward and Branch Organizations 1,568 

Number of Visiting Teachers' Districts 11,323 

Number of L. D. S. Families in Wards 7. 115,725 

Number of Relief Society Magazines taken 26,639 

Number of Executive Officers taking Relief Society Magazine 5,401 

Number of Meetings held in Wards 55,973 

Number of Stake Meetings Held 2,090 

Number of Stake and Ward Officers' (Union) Meetings Held 1,107 

Number of Ward Conferences Held 1,251 

Average Attendance at Ward Meetings 24,521 

Number of Visits by Visiting Teachers 763,918 

Number of Families Helped 14,676 

Number of Days Spent with the Sick 43,672 

Number of Special Visits to the Sick and Homebound 186,436 

Number of Bodies Prepared for Burial 2,206 

Number of Visits to Wards by Stake Officers 5.678 



RELIEF SOCIETY ANNUAL REPORT 



291 



COMPARATIVE FIGURES FROM RELIEF SOCIETY REPORTS 

1928 

Paid for Charitable Purposes $100,836.76 

Total or Present Membership 62,550 

No. of Relief Society Organizations 1,452 

No. of Relief Society Magazine Taken 24,570 

No. of Days Spent with Sick 52,796 

No. of Special Visits to Sick and Homebound 189,593 

No. of Families Helped 17,550 

No. of Visits -by Stake Relief Society Of- 
ficers to Wards 5,032 

No. of Visits by Relief Society Visiting 

Teachers 700,131 

DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP OF RELIEF SOCIETY 



1929 


1930 


$ 98.925.02 


$109,493.19 


62,902 


64,225 


1,501 


1,568 


26,509 


26,639 


50,706 


43,672 


184,166 


186,436 


13,578 


14,676 


5,490 


5,678 


726,232 


763,918 



Stakes 

Arizona 1,618 

California 1,624 

Canada 1,304 

Colorado 1,130 

Tdaho 7.991 

Mexico 165 

Nevada 641 

Oregon 211 

Utah 35,827 

Wyoming 2,047 



Missions 

Australia 68 

Canada 147 

Europe 4,469 

Hawaii 711 

Mexico 215 

New Zealand 575 

Samoa 267 

South Africa 97 

Tahiti 309 

Tonga 120 

United States 4,689 



Total Membership in Stakes. .52,558 Total Membership in Missions 11,667 
Total Membership in Stakes and Missions 64.225 

(Note : In the foregoing report all funds are held and disbursed in the various 
wards, with the exception of the annual membership dues.) 




Notes to the Field 



IN order that our stakes may see 
how they compare with their 
sister stakes in Magazine subscrip- 
tions we print herewith the Stake 
Membership and the number of 
subscribers each had when the re- 
ports were sent in. Many have 
already added to their number. 

We heartily thank those who have 
given this part of our work such 
earnest effort and who have done so 
well. In spite of the financial de- 
pression many stakes have increased 
their subscription list over the 1930 
figures. 

January 1, 1931 
Stake Membership Subscriptions 

Alberta 617 220 

Alpine 366 214 

Bannock 290 132 

Bear Lake 421 198 

Bear River 502 256 

Beaver 360 130 

Benson 1,110 '. . . .331 

Big Horn 506 183 

Blackfoot 645 249 

Boise 446 184 

Box Elder 948 539 

Burley 365 160 

Cache 804 411 

Carbon 599 232 

Cassia 170 103 

Cottonwood 755 225 

Curlew 158 73 

Deseret 584 182 

Duchesne 364 95 

East Jordan 640 288 

Emery 720 216 

Ensign 718 355 

Franklin 557 272 

Fremont 855 512 

Garfield 395 136 

Granite 1,136 405 

Grant 1,170 574 

Gunnison 372 141 

Hollywood 542 252 

Hyrum 682 259 

Idaho 194 110 

Idaho Falls 651 256 

Juab 425 147 

Juarez 169 100 

Kanab 304 127 

Kolob 435 335 

Lehi 416 171 



January 1, 1931 
Stake Membership Subscriptions 

Lethbridge 288 163 

Liberty 1,229 672 

Logan 836 367 

Los Angeles 695 366 

Lost River 135 62 

Lyman 306 170 

Malad 539 251 

Maricopa 645 236 

Millard 527 157 

Minidoka 378 160 

Moapa 406 186 

Montpelier 515 226 

Morgan 230 100 

Moroni 426 98 

Mount Ogden 561 253 

Nebo 655 201 

Nevada 248 99 

North Davis 489 140 

North Sanpete . . . .664 221 

North Sevier ....311 83 

North Weber 789 369 

Ogden ..872 408 

Oneida 556 221 

Oquirrh 420 110 

Palmyra 623 292 

Panguitch 377 114 

Parowan 635 236 

Pioneer 648 161 

Pocatello 625 205 

Portneuf 355 139 

Raft River 182 83 

Rigby 619 302 

Roosevelt 413 78 

St. George 551 249 

St. Joseph 852 421 

Salt Lake 851 357 

San Francisco ...395 270 

San Juan 218 176 

San Luis 284 76 

Sevier 562 226 

Sharon 327 126 

Shelley 391 189 

Snowflake 411 184 

South Davis 609 194 

South Sanpete . . .745 224 

South Sevier 435 134 

Star Valley 411 170 

St. Johns 244 90 

Summit 546 213 

Taylor 413 168 

Teton 348 151 

Timpanogos 315 148 

Tintic 247 74 

Tooele 476 168 

Twin Falls 183 83 

Uintah 447 168 



NOTES TO THE FIELD 



293 



January 1, 1931 
Stake Membership Subscriptions 

Union 216 157 

Utah 851 441 

Wasatch 531 267 

Wayne 276 7S 

Weber 637 260 

West Jordan 500 253 

Woodruff 289 120 

Yellowstone 451 223 

Young 202 64 

Zion Park 257 102 

This interesting information came 
with the reports : 

Alpine Stake offered a prize of $10 
to the ward having the highest per cent 
of the families in the ward subscribing 
for the Magasine. The First Ward of 
American Fork carried off the prize, 
reaching 39%. 

Cottonwood Stake offered a prize of 
$10 to the ward getting the largest num- 
ber, based on their enrollment. Cotton- 
wood ward had 31 enrolled and 27 sub- 
scriptions. The contest closed in Feb- 
ruary. 

Grant Stake offered a prize of ten 
annual subscriptions to the ward that 
should get the highest percentage of its 
members as subscribers and five annual 
subscriptions to the ward that should 
secure second place in the contest. Bur- 
ton Ward won the first prize with mem- 
bership of 69, it secured 62 yearly and 
10 half year subscriptions. Whittier 
Ward won second prize with a member- 
ship of 65, it secured 58 yearly subscrip- 
tions. Southgate won a third prize which 
was given for unusual attainment, with 
a membership of 41 it secured 23 yearly 
and 34 half-yearly subscribers. 

Hollywood Stake, Mar Vista Ward, 
has a membership of 47 and a subscrip- 
tion list of 40. 

North Sanpete Stake offered two prizes 
as an incentive to the wards. 

San Francisco Stake, Martinez Relief 
Society, with 14 members, subscribes for 
20 magazines. Burlingame, a new So- 
ciety has 82% of its membership sub- 
scribing. 

Due to financial conditions, some stakes 
urged neighbors to subscribe for the 
Magasine together. 

Begin and Close on Time 

Do you begin and close your 
meetings promptly ? In visiting, we 



note that some Societies close from 
fifteen to thirty minutes behind the 
scheduled time. The meeting is 
marred after the hour for closing 
has passed by restlessness and with- 
drawals. 

Some ward conferences are not 
timed carefully enough and run 
away beyond the time scheduled for 
the sacrament meetings. Let all Re- 
lief Society presidents be noted for 
beginning and closing on time. 

Relief Society Handbook 

The General Board of the Relief 
Society is pleased to announce the 
publication of a Relief Society 
Handbook which is now ready for 
distribution. 

This Handbook has been care- 
fully prepared by an appointed com- 
mittee and approved by the officers 
and members of the General Board. 

It contains a fund of information 
pertaining to the history and func- 
tioning of the Society, which has 
often been called for by both officers 
and members and which it is hoped 
will be beneficial to the organiza- 
tion. 

This information is now compiled 
in a neat little volume carefully in- 
dexed forming a ready reference. It 
contains a brief but complete history 
of the Relief Society, biographical 
sketches of its seven presidents and 
all the dates of organization with 
rulings and instructions from the 
time of organization, March, 1842, 
to the present time, 1931, as gleaned 
from the records of the Society and 
kindred publications ; also other val- 
uable and interesting material. 

In issuing this book the General 
Board trusts it will fill a long felt 
need, and find a welcome place in 
the homes of the officers and mem- 
bers of the Relief Society. 



THE RELIEF SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF 
JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 

Mo'tto — Charity Never Faileth 
THE GENERAL BOARD 

MRS. LOUISE YATES ROBISON President 

MRS. AMY BROWN LYMAN First Counselor 

MRS. JULIA ALLEMAN CHILD Second Counselor 

MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND General Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Emma A. Empey Mrs. Amy Whipple Evans Mrs. Ida P. Beal 

Miss Sarah M. McLelland Mrs. Ethel Reynolds Smith Mrs. Kate M. Barker 

Mrs. Annie Wellg Cannon Mrs. Rosannah C. Irvine Mrs. Marcia K. Howells 

Mrs. Jennie B. Knight Mrs. Nettie D. Bradford Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood 

Mrs. Lalene H. Hart Mrs. Elise B. Alder Mrs. Emeline Y. Nebeker 

Mrs. Lotta Paul Baxter Mrs. Inez K. Allen Mrs. Mary Connelly Kimball 

Mrs. Cora L. Bennion 



Mrs. Lizzie Thomas Edward, Music Director 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Editor - ■ Mary Connelly Kimball 

Manager .... Louise Y. Robison 

Assistant Manager ........... Amy Brown Lyman 

Vol. XVIII MAY, 1931 No. 5 

EDITORIAL 



Mothers' Day 

THROUGH the activity of the the records of 4,728 mothers cared 
Maternity Center Association for by the Maternity Center Asso- 
of New York, Mother's Day this ciation over a period of six years in 
year is to have a new significance a certain section of New York City, 
and an added factor of practical use- He compared the results with what 
fulness. Public-spirited men and happened to mothers in the same 
women everywhere, educators, phy- section of the city not receiving such 
sicians, women's clubs, churches and care. This showed that those in 
civic organizations, are joining to the first group had about three times 
center public attention on the fact as good a chance to survive as the 
that America's death rate from others. The report says: 
causes connected with maternity is "The result is indicative of the 
the highest in the civilized world. saving of lives that might be ac- 
The Maternity Center can speak ccmplished were all the mothers to 
with authority since it has been receive the benefit of adequate ma- 
working on the matter for eight ternity care, as more than sixteen 
years with nearly five thousand thousand women in the United 
mothers. States every year die from causes 
Louis I. Dublin, Ph. D., statisti- related to maternity. This means 
cian of the Metropolitan Life In- that more than ten thousand deaths 
surance Company, internationally are preventable. In addition, 30,- 
known as an expert, has examined 000 of the 100,000 babies who now 



EDITORAL 



295 



die in the first month of life, would 
be saved. Infants as well as moth- 
ers are protected by adequate ma- 
ternity care." 

Commending this campaign for 
Mother's Day, Surgeon General 
Cumming said, "The high maternal 
death rate in this country is a dis- 
grace to our profession, and I am 
sure that efforts such as this will 
go far toward improving condi- 
tions." 

Grace Abbott, chief of the Chil- 
dren's Bureau, endorsing the pro- 
ject, said, "There are no more tragic 
deaths than of mothers in childbirth, 
and I feel sure that if it were un- 
derstood by people of the United 
States that to a very large extent 
these deaths are preventable they 
would be prevented." 

Magazines and newspapers are 
to take up the campaign, radio talks 
from coast to coast are to be made 
by physicians and laymen, meetings 
of women's clubs are to conduct 
special programs designed to see 
what can be done to stop the waste 
in mothers' lives. Dr. Ralph W. 
Lobenstein says: "An inf'ormed 
public opinion, demanding adequate 
maternity care, is a condition pre- 
cedent to improvement." He points 
out that while typhoid fever, small- 



pox and diphtheria have yielded to 
scientific control in the last quarter 
of a century, and that tuberculosis 
has been reduced to half its toll, that 
the death rate from causes con- 
nected with maternity has not been 
lowered at all during the period for 
which records are available. 

The Center points out that the 
essentials by which so many moth- 
ers' lives were saved who were 
taken under its care, are "a medical 
examination immediately upon the 
discovery that a baby is expected ; 
frequent and regular examinations 
and instructions until the crucial 
time, adequate preparations for the 
birth itself, assuring the presence of 
the doctor and the nurse too ; and 
remaining under the doctor's care 
for six weeks after." 

Here is a wish for Mother's Day, 
May 10: "That every baby could 
be born healthy, and every mother 
escape the dangers which take 10,- 
000 every year from preventable 
causes in childbirth. 

"Something can be done to make 
this wish come true. Medical 
science, like a fairy Godmother, pro- 
vides the means to reduce these 
ravages by offering modern matern- 
ity care as a gift to be had for the 
seeking." 



Another Victory for Women 



PRESIDENT HOOVER has 
signed an amendment to the 
Cable Act, which was sponsored in 
the House by Ruth Bryan Owen.* 
This brings success to a twenty-five 
year campaign against laws that 
have deprived women of American 
citizenship when they married for- 

*Mrs. Owen once lost her own Amer- 
ican citizenship rights through her 
marriage to a British Army officer. 



eigners. By this act the United 
States has added its name to a list 
of thirteen nations that give women 
the same nationality rights with 
men. The Woman's Journal, of 
New York, gives this explanation of 
this amendment: 

"The amendment to the Cable 
Act provides that an American 
woman shall not forfeit her citizen- 
ship, even though her alien husband 



296 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



may because of race, nationality, or 
other causes be ineligible for citi- 
zenship. 

"It permits women who have pre- 
viously lost their citizenship by mar- 
riage to an ineligible alien to be- 
come repatriated without submitting 
to a long nationalization process. 

"It also permits women married 
to aliens who have lived abroad for 
more than two years, and who have 
formerly been presumed to have lost 
their citizenship, to regain it." 

The New York World-Telegram 



and the Buffalo Courier-Express 
give these interesting comments on 
the success of this campaign : 

"The most important battle wom- 
en have carried on since the suffrage 
campaign. " 

"A woman's right to her nation- 
ality should be equal to that of a 
man. So long as both have political 
equality, their rights to citizenship 
should rest on the same footing. 
This is so logical that anything to 
the contrary is absurd." 



Twelve Outstanding Women 



GOOD HO USEKEEPING 
magazine recently invited 
nominations for a panel of the 
twelve most famous and greatest 
American women. A jury com- 
posed of such prominent men as 
Newton D. Baker, former secretary 
of war; Dr. Henry Van Dyke, the 
famous author and educator ; Booth 
Tarkington, novelist; Otto Kahn, 
banker, and Bruce Barton, publicist 
and writer, made the final selections. 
This choice was made from a list of 
twenty-six women that had been 
culled from 2,786 nominations sub- 
mitted by the readers of the mag- 
azine during a four months' survey. 
Two interesting things about the 
results of the vote are that only 
four of the twelve women finally 
selected are married, and all of those 
chosen have shunned publicity, go- 
ing about their work unostenta- 
tiously, working for an object, a 
cause, rather than for personal 
glory. The list is arranged alpha- 
betically, leaving it to individuals to 
place the names in the order of 
merit. Here are the twelve names 
selected : 

Grace Abbott, Chief of the Fed- 



eral Children's Bureau, and a leader 
in campaigns for child labor laws, 
children's clinics, and community 
nurseries ; 

Jiane Ad dams, whose work jin 
Hull House and other pioneer 
achievements in social welfare work 
make her known the world over ; 

Cecelia Beaux, an American ar- 
tist, whose works hang not only in 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
but also in some of the world's 
leading galleries ; 

Martha Berry, whose work for 
mountain boys and girls of the 
South has led many to become suc- 
cessful because of the start that she 
gave them ; 

Willa Cather, a novelist ; 

Carrie Chapman Catt, the great 
woman suffrage leader and a worker 
for international peace ; 

Grace Coolidge, whose endeavors 
to aid the handicapped have been so 
effective, and who is responsible for 
a million-dollar endowment for deaf 
mute children; 

Minnie Maddern Fiske, the noted 
actress, who is also famous for her 



EDITORIAL 



297 



humanitarian work in behalf of 
animals ; 

Helen Keller, who, though deaf, 
dumb and blind from infancy, has 
so developed her mind that she has 
won the highest educational attain- 
ments and honors, and has even 
learned to speak ; 

Florence Rena Sabin, whose 
scientific work has brought her rec- 



ognition from scientists all over the 
world ; 

Ernestine S c human n- H eink , the 
noted singer; 

Mary B. Wooley, who as pres- 
ident of Mount Holyoke college for 
thirty years has influenced vastly 
the education of the women of the 
country. 



Relief Society Handbook 



LONG and eagerly have our of- 
ficers and members looked for 
the publication of a handbook. The 
April Relief Society conference of 
1931 will go down in history as 
distinguished for the issuance of this 
greatly desired book. 

Much time and thought and effi- 
cient work have been put upon it, so 
that it comes forth attractively 
bound, clearly printed, comprehen- 
sive in its contents — a credit to the 
great Relief Society organization. 
It contains a brief, comprehensive 
history of the Society from its or- 
ganization in 1842 to March, 1931, 
biographical sketches of the seven 
presidents of the Society, and the 
rulings, regulations and instructions 
that have been issued for the benefit 
of the Society from time to time. 
An interesting feature and one 



which the General Board has long- 
felt necessary to be placed in the 
hands of the officers and members 
of the Society is a list of names of 
the charter members, the Nauvoo 
members, and all general officers 
and General Board members with 
the time of service from the first or- 
ganization up to the time of its is- 
suance. 

Every efficient officer will need to 
acquaint herself with what the book 
contains. It is worth re-reading 
many times. Every member should 
be happy to own a copy and read 
and digest the information it con- 
tains. 

Price : paper binding, 60c ; cloth 
binding, 85c. Orders should be ad- 
dressed to Mrs. Julia A. F. Lund, 
General Secretary, 28 Bishop's 
Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



Hats Off 



SEVERAL years ago a strenuous 
effort was made to get all women 
to remove their hats in places of 
public assembly. The law required 
it, church officials requested that 
women in church gatherings keep 
their hats off during the entire serv- 
ices. With the advent of the small, 
close-fitting hat, the vigilance re- 
laxed and many women became law 
breakers, for the law was not re- 



voked, the request was not with- 
drawn. There are so many reasons 
why women should remove their 
hats and so few why they should 
not that we are surprised how dif- 
ficult it seems to get the majority 
of them to bare their heads in places 
of public assembly. 

It is much pleasanter for those 
who are behind to have all hats 
removed, and it is much more in- 



298 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



spiring to the speaker who faces 
the women. Women thus show rev- 
erence for places of worship, those 
who remove their hats show con- 
sideration for the well being of 
others ; they are law abiding, they 
.show a readiness to observe the re- 
requirements of those in authority in 
the Church, and they add to the 



general appearance of public as- 
semblies. What if removing the 
hat does disturb a few hairs ? What 
if it is a little awkward to hold a 
hat on the lap? These are trivial 
considerations ; the important thing 
is that we observe the law and cheer- 
fully respond to the request of 
Church leaders. 



"Mother Heart of Gold" 



THEODORE E. CURTIS, has 
"issued his fifth Mother Day 
Booklet. The mothers featured this 
year are Julina L. Smith and Mar- 
garet McNeil Ballard — the tributes . , , ■ , , 

are beautifully written by their sons ^ 'booklets have been sold during 
Joseph Fieilding Smith and Melvin the P ast flve y ears - Pnce 2oc each. 
J. Ballard. A number of poems to $!- 35 Per doz. 



be sung to well known tunes w'.ll be 
widely used. 

The popularity of the series is 
shown by the fact that 100,000 of 




Mothers of Men 



By Vcmcssa Miller Nagle 



GOOD HOUSEKEEPING 
MAGAZINE recently con- 
ducted through its pages a 
contest for the purpose of deter- 
mining the twelve greatest living 
American women. This contest has 
attracted nation-wide interest. The 
names of twenty-two women were 
featured representing twenty-two 
various walks of life. Front page 
prominence was not to be considered 
a test of their greatness, for such 
distinction often means only mo- 
mentary fame. Among these twen- 
ty-two eminent women were the 
names of a consulting engineer, his- 
torian, composer, stateswoman, 
worker for the blind, singer, actress, 
athlete, sociologist, and wife and 
mother. That among these many 
professions of life, that of wife and 
mother should be listed is signifi- 
cant. It appears to be the glorify- 
ing of the commonplace. It means 
that being a wife and mother is at 
last considered in the light of a bus- 
iness or profession. Ida M. Tar- 
bell has written a delightful little 
book on "The Business of Being a 
Woman." She says, "The meaning 
of honor and of the sanctity of 
the principles of democracy and of 
the society in which we live, the 
love of humanity, and the desire 
to serve — these are what make a 
good citizen. The tools for pre- 
paring herself to give this training 
are in the woman's hands. * * It is 
not too much to say that the success 
of the Declaration of Independence 
and the Constitution depended, in 
the minds of certain early Demo- 
crats, upon the woman. The doc- 
trines of these great instruments 
would be worked out according to 



the way she played her part. Her 
serious responsibility came in the 
fact that her work was one that 
nobody could take off her hands." 

Nancy Hanks, mother of Lincoln, 
was a woman of simplicity and 
strength. She had married his fa- 
ther because she loved him, and 
when Abe was born she was living 
with his father in the poorest kind 
of shack in the wildest part of Ken- 
tucky. But, even though she may 
have felt the pinch of poverty, she 
did her duty toward this boy ten- 
derly and with the affection of 
motherhood. She taught him not 
only to read, but she awakened his 
imagination with fairy stories and 
legends that influenced his nature 
all through his life. His kindness, 
humor, humanity, and hatred of 
slavery come from his mother. 

WHlliam Lloyd Garrison was a 
man of conscientious convictions 
that came directly from that mother 
of whom, in later years, he wrote in 
a letter to his fiancee : 

"I had a Mother once who cared 
for me with passionate regard. Her 
mind was clear, vigorous, creative, 
and lustrous, and sanctified by an 
everglowing piety. How often did 
she watch over me — weep over me 
- — and pray over me." 

Robert E. Lee's father died when 
Robert was but eleven years of age 
and the responsibility of rearing the 
lad fell entirely upon his mother. 
So many of the praiseworthy char- 
acteristics of this mother have found 
their counterpart in the life of her 
son. 

It has been possible for the paint- 
er with his brush to transfer the 



300 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



landscape to the canvas with such 
fidelity that the trees and grasses 
seem almost real ; but perhaps one 
of the most perfect reproductions 
of a subject of life is Whistler's 
immortal portrait of his mother. In 
this picture we see all that Whistler 
so much adored in his mother. 

One of the prominent speakers at 
the Women's Encampment last 
Summer spoke these words, "Hap- 
piness in life lies in its echo." I 
have often thought of these words 
as applying to this business of home- 
making. The echoes of any suc- 
cessful mother's life are those 
splendid men and women with whom 
she enriches society. Many a little 
mother has foregone the self-satis- 
faction that comes from a successful 
career and has found the echo of 
her fame in the achievement of her 
boys and girls. 

Theodore Roosevelt has said re- 
garding mothers, "The mother who 
does her part in rearing and train- 
ing aright the boys and girls who 
are to become the men and women 
of the next generation, is of a 
greater use to the community and 
occupies, if she only would realize 
it, a more honorable position, as 



well as important one, than any so- 
called successful business man." 

"A Lantern in Her Hand," by 
Beth Streeter Aldrich, is the story 
of a woman who found the happi- 
ness of her life in its echoes. As 
a young girl Abbie harbored great 
hopes of a wonderful musical career. 
All who heard her sing gave her 
encouragement. But there were 
so many things to interfere — the 
coming of the babies, the droughts 
of 78, 79 and '90. Through all 
the hardships and poverty she sang 
on and on. Oftimes it was a song 
of despair, but always she tried to 
make it .a song of hope. At last 
Abbie realizes that her own am- 
bitions must be sacrificed on the 
altar of love. The joy she found 
in the success of her sons and 
daughters was recompense for all. 

The American woman has played 
an honorable part in the making of 
our country, and for this part she 
should have full credit. There are 
many women who through riches 
become idle, selfish, miserable, and 
anti- social. But they are not the 
women upon whom society depends ; 
they are not the ones who build 
the nation — the mothers of men. 



The Consumer's Responsibility to the 

Manufacturer and Merchant 

By Vilate Elliott, Professor of Textiles and Clothing, B. Y. U . 

IGNORANCE and selfishness are Where a woman trades at one 
two factors in buying; often it store frequently, she may form the 
does not occur to a woman that habit of trading with the same sales- 
she is affecting anyone but herself woman. If she continually asks for 
in what she buys. Yet it is a part certain lines of goods she will be 
of her responsibility to know how shown that class of garment. In 
and where the garment is made. She this way the habit of right choice 
must know something of the sani- will grow, she will have satisfaction 
tary conditions, of the number of in her knowledge of buying that 
hours required of the workmen, if which makes for the betterment of 
a reasonable wage is paid to them, her home, which makes her a more 
Some people are heedless of these competent spender in handling the 
facts until they are told that little money with which she has been pro- 
children wearing uninspected cloth- vided. 

ing may be endangered and exposed The retail stores have given their 

to disease. If a mother understands customers many privileges and ac- 

these conditions, she will insist on commodations such as rest rooms, 

branded garments. These things phones, credit, delivery. Some peo- 

help her to realize that the selection pie have misused these privileges, 

for her family takes her out into the they have taken advantage of them 

world and into many homes not so until the American woman has 

pleasant as her own, where the liv- formed many bad shopping habits, 

ing is scanty, where a starvation Getting garments on approval 

wage is paid, where the mother is without any or very little intention 

not permitted to give her time to her of keeping them, and then returning 

home and family. She will know them, sometimes in a soiled or 

she must take her share of the re- crumpled condition and showing 

sponsibility of such places of gar- marks of having been worn, is a 

ment making. She will be anxious practice to be condemned. Such 

to identify herself with the consum- garments are usually returned and 

er's league or other associations for sold at a discount. The manager 

the betterment of working people, does this rather than lose a customer 

The woman who does these things, or his reputation for being generous, 

giving of her time and strength, This habit also makes it necessary 

usually profits by it : she has the for the store to keep a bigger stock 

satisfaction of knowing that other of goods in order not to lose sales 

little children are being better cared while the garments are out. There 

for, that people are working in should be a time limit on a garment 

cleaner, lighter, and more sanitary sent out on approval. It is morally 

buildings, where rest rooms and wrong to permit an article to be 

nurses are found, where a decent sent out unless one expects to make 

wage is paid, and where a limited a purchase, but there are people who 

number of hours is considered a deliberately plan to have them sent 

day's work. out, expecting to wear them on some 



302 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



special occasion and then return 
them. 

Free delivery is another much de- 
bated question. Delivery adds about 
five per cent to the cost of the mer- 
chandise and is paid by all alike. 
Would it not be better to make a 
small charge for delivery for those 
desiring it ? Is it not fair for those 
who wish special privileges to pay 
for them? Should not delivery be 
limited to at least once a day ? How- 
ever, more packages would be car- 
ried if the time of waiting" for the 
package could be eliminated. 

Late shopping adds to the ex- 
pense of the store and incidentally 
to the cost. Seventy-five per cent of 
the sales are made after two o'clock. 
Some stores offer a ten percent dis- 
count on all shopping done before 
ten o'clock. Early morning habits 
of shopping are excellent : the buyer 
is fresh and better able to judge 
what she wants. The sales people 
are not so busy and are anxious to 
show their materials, and can give 



more time in helping the customer 
in her selection. 

It is well to be definite in your 
shopping. If you have not decided 
on what you want to buy, tell your 
saleswoman you are just looking. 
Don't feel vexed if she does not give 
you an unlimited amount of time. 
Be frank with her, tell her you may 
return after having looked else- 
where. If you do return, go to the 
same saleswoman, as the sale be- 
longs to her. Many of them are 
paid a commission on their sales. 
If a customer takes up much of her 
time and buys nothing, her com- 
missions are diminished. This is 
discouraging, you really have pre- 
vented her from making other sales. 
A customer expects courteous treat- 
ment ; she should be willing to ac- 
cord the same to the saleswoman. 
A kindly word carrying with it an 
expression of appreciation will throw 
an atmosphere of cheer around the 
saleswoman, perchance, for the rest 
of the day. 



A Tribute 



To Sister Georgenia O'Brien and her Board of the Taylor Stake Relief Society, Alberta, 
Canada, who are retiring after many years of faithful services. 

By Helen K. Orgill 



From crimson eve till break of dawn 
The mills of God go on and on, 
In silence never ending. 

And ah, I think within, that mill 
The cries of happy children will 
E'er blend with Heavenly music. 

And grateful glances sent above 
From "these the best" whom "God doth 

love" 
Will each one be remembered. 

For He who lives in "regions fair," 
Who knows us all and "counts each 

hair" ; 
Rewards with joy eternal. 



But we'll not wait, we'll praise you here, 
Present our love, O sister dear ; 
From hearts that beat in union. 

To thousands in this far off land, 
A mighty rock of strength you stand; 
They rise and call you blessed. 

To you, and all, that faithful band, 
Who've worked together hand in hand, 
We send a heart-felt greeting. 

And may your days be multiplied 
To cheer the old, the young to guide ; 
To succor still the needy. 

And may God bless your days with peace, 
From every sorrow find surcease; 
And jovs be ever boundless. 



L. D. S. GARMENTS 

Good grade and well made. When ordering, state Size, New or Old Style, 
and if for man or lady. Postage prepaid. Sample on request. 

147 Spring Needle. Flat Weave $1.10 508 Ladies' New Style Extra Lt. 

32 Combed Cotton. Lt. Wt 1.50 Wt. Combed Cot 1.25 

208 Lt. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot... 1.35 802 Ladies' New Style, Rayon 2.50 

222 Rayon Striped Combed Cot. 1.C5 307 Men's New Style, Rayon. 2.75 

258 Med. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot. 1.85 748 Unbleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.00 

628 Merc. Lisle Light Wt 2.00 754 Bleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.25 

908 Unblecahed Cot. Ex. Hvy 2.75 1118 Wool and Cotton Mixed 8.50 

BARTON & CO. 

Established In Utah 45 Tears 
142 WEST SOUTH TEMPLE ST. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



L, D. S, GARMENTS 



Direct From Factory 



You are guaranteed unusual wear and satisfaction from Cutler Garments, 
are made from the best Ions: wearing, two combed yarns. 



Th«y 



No. 68 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton $ .75 

No. 74 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton 1.00 

No. 84 Rib. Mercerized Lisle 1.95 

No. 76 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Lisle 1.19 

No. 63 Lt. Med. Unbleached Double 

Back ~. 1.19 

No. 64 Ribbed Lt. Med. Cotton 1.19 

No. 62 Ribbed Med. Hvy. bleached.... 1.65 

No. 61 Ribbed Med. Hvy. unbleached 

Double Back _ 1.65 

Non Run Rayon, Elbow and Knee 

Length _ 1.50 



Non Run Rayon, Long Legs or Old 

Style 2.00 

No. 56 Ribbed Hvy. Cotton, bleached 1.98 
No. 55 Ribbed Hvy. Cot., unbleached 

Double Back 1.98 

No. 27 Ribbed Med. Wt. 50% Wool..|2.85 
No. 39 Ribbed Hvy. Wt. 50% Wool.. 3.50 

No. 32 Silk and Wool 3.95 

No. 67 Med. Wt. Part Wool 1.69 



WHITE TEMPLE PANTS 

8 oz.. Heavy Duck 1.95 

SPECIAL MISSIONARY DISCOUNTS 

In ordering garments please state if for men or women and if old or new 
styles are wanted. 

Also give bust, height and weight. 

Sizes above 48 — 20% extra. Marking 15c. Postage Prepaid. 

Special — When you order three pair of garments at one time we allow you a 15% 
discount on third pair only. 



Cutler 

tf SOUTH MAIN ST. 




GARMENTS 



UNDERWEAR 



IN QUALITY 



The foods and items for sale in our store you'll agree are superior in 
quality. Everything dependable. Everything guaranteed. It is as though 
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'A Surety of Purity' 



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Variety of Grades and Prices 

GENERAL BOARD RELIEF 
SOCIETY 



Open Daily — 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. 

Telephone Wasatch 3286 
29 Bishop's Building 

Salt Lake City, Utah 



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MRS HEHTHA JEPPSUN 
2 C> 1 SO 1 ST E AST 
n H IGHAM C I TY V TAH 



The Maytag is Easier 

on the Clothes, 
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Maytag NOW makes a 
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MAYTAG INTERMOUNTAIN CO. 

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211 South State Street 



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X, D. S. GARMENTS 

FpR ALL SEASONS 

Selected from our extensive line of L. D. S. Garments we sanest the following 
• numbers for all seasons wear: 



No. 



No. 



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1 New style, ribbed lgt. wgt. 
cotton with rayon silk stripe. 

An excellent Ladies number..$1.25 

2 Old style, ribbed lgt. wgt. 
cotton, our standard summer 
wgt 1.25 

3 Ribbed med. wgt. cotton, 
bleached or unbleached. Our 

all season number-— 1.75 



wet. un- 
Our double 



No. 6 Light weight summer gar- 
ment. Ladies' new style .95 

No. 7 Light wgt. new or old style, 

mercerized — silky finish 1.75 

No. 8 Light weight Spring and 

Summer garment. Men only. 1.M 

No. 9 Light weight silk for ladies 

only, new style only 1.25 

No. 10 Medium wgt. silk for men 
and women, new style only. 
Non-Run . 1.95 

In ordering, be sure to specify whether old or new style garments, three-quarter 
or ankle length legs, short or long sleeves are wanted. Also give bust measure, height 
and weight to insure perfect fit. 

Postage prepaid. Special discount to missionaries. 

FACTORY TO YOU— THE ORIGINAL 

Utah Woolen Mills 



4 Ribbed heavy 
bleached cotton, 
back number ... 



2.25 



5 Part wool, ribbed unbleached. 
Our best selling wool num- > 
ber ...». _ ; 3.00 



Briant Stringham, Manager 

One-Half Block South of Temple Gates 



28 Richards Street 



Invest in Home Prosperity 

Use 



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Whipping Cream 15c per half-pint 
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Hy. 1086 



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You would see a resilient Inner Spring made of 285 double-knotted, revitalized, 
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fiber ed cotton felt — and last by beautiful hand-painted art ticking of the finest texture. 
That makes a bed! A bed that contributes to normal 'growth and rugged health. 

AT YOUR DEALER'S 
(A Product of Utah Labor) 

SALT LAKE MATTRESS & MFG. CO. 




L. D. S. GARMENTS 



Direct From Factory 



You arc guaranteed unusual wear and satisfaction from Cutler Garments, 
are made from the best long wearing, two combed yarns. 



They 



No. 68 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton $ .75 

No. 74 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Cotton 1.00 

No. 84 Rib. Mercerized Lisle 1.49 

No. 76 Ribbed Lt. Wt. Lisle 1.19 

No. 577 Fine Cotton Silk Stripe 1.19 

No. 63 Lt. Med. Unbleached Double 

Back „. 1.19 

No. 64 Ribbed Lt. Med. Cotton 1.19 

No. 62 Ribbed Med. Hvy. bleached.... 1.65 
No. 61 Ribbed Med. Hvy. unbleached 

Double Back 1.65 

Non Run Rayon, Elbow and Knee 

Length _ 1.50 



Non Run Rayon, Long Legs or Old 

Style 2.00 

No. 56 Ribbed Hvy. Cotton, bleached 1.98 

No. 55 Ribbed Hvy. Cot., unbleached 

Double Back 1.98 

No. 27 Ribbed Med. Wt. 50% Wool..|2.85 

No. 39 Ribbed Hvy. Wt. 50% Wool.. 3.50 

No. 32 Silk and Wool 3.95 

No. 67 Med. Wt. Part Wool 1.69 

WHITE TEMPLE PANTS 



8 oz.. Heavy Duck 1.95 

SPECIAL MISSIONARY DISCOUNTS 
In ordering garments please state if for men or women and if old or new 
styles are wanted. 

Also give bust, height and weight. 

Sizes above 48 — 20% extra. Marking 15c. Postage Prepaid. 
Special — When you order three pair of garments at one time we allow you a 15% 
discount on third pair only. 



Cutler 

M SOUTH MAIN ST. 




GARMENTS 



UNDERWEAR 



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THE RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

Organ of the Relief Society of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 



Vol. 18 June, 1931 No. 6 



CONTENTS 

Portrait of Elder Orson F. Whitney Frontispiece 

Crusade Against the Use of Tobacco Prest. Louise Y. Robison 303 

Orson F. Whitney, Apostle, Poet, Historian, Philosopher. . . .Annie Wells Cannon 305 

Relief Society Conference : 

Officers' Meeting, Morning Session 307 

Officers' Meeting, Afternoon Session 320 

General Meeting, Morning Session 333 

General Meeting, Afternoon Session 343 

Mrs. Phillip North Moore Annie Wells Cannon 353 

From a Mail Carrier to an Artist *. Curt Meng 354 

Easy Money Lela M. Hoggan 356 

Blue Herons, Prairie Dogs and Men Harrison R. Merrill 360 

June (Poem) Elsie E. Barrett 363 

Editorial : 

President Rey L. Pratt 364 

Antoine Ridgeway Ivins 365 

A Call Answered — A Life Changed 365 

Utah White House Conference on Child Health and Protection 367 

Gratitude to President Hoover 366 

Tree Planting 368 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE GENERAL BOARD OF 

RELIEF SOCIETY 

Editorial and Business Offices : 20 Bishop's Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Subscription Price: $1.00 a year; foreign, $1.25 a year; payable in advance. 

Single copy, 10c 

The Magazine is not sent after subscription expires. Renew promptly so that no 
copies will be missed. Report change of address at once, giving" both old and new 
address. 

Entered as second-class matter February 18, 1914, at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of 
postage provided for in section 1103, Act of October 8, 1917, authorized June 29, 1918. 



Ask for one of our folders describing the different services 

we offer. 




Hyland 190 Distinctive Work Office 319 S. Main St. 



CONFERENCE VISITORS 

are cordially invited to the 

Granite Furniture Co. 

in Sugar House 

1050 E. 21st South 

auioopM apeui aq jjim sjoiist^y 

The Granite is Salt Lake's Big and Progressive Furniture Store 

WE ARE NEVER UNDERSOLD 

GRANITE FURNITURE CO. 

Sugar House, Murray, Park City, Bingham 
W. B. Richards, Jr., Manager 

L. D. S. GARMENTS 

Good grade and well made. When ordering, state Size, New or Old Style, 
and if for man or lady. Postage prepaid. Sample on request. 

147 Spring Needle, Flat Weave $1.10 508 Ladies' New Style Extra Lt. 

32 Combed Cotton, Lt. Wt 1.50 Wt. Combed Cot 1.25 

208 Lt. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot... 1.35 302 Ladies' New Style, Rayon 2.50 

222 Rayon Striped Combed Cot 1.65 307 Men's New Style, Rayon 2.75 

258 Med. Wt. Rib. Double Card Cot. 1.85 748 Unbleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.00 

628 Merc. Lisle Light Wt 2.00 754 Bleached Cot., Hvy. Wt 2.25 

908 Unbleached Cot. Ex. Hvy 2.75 1118 Wool and Cotton Mixed 3.50 

BARTON & CO. 

Established in Utah 45 Years 
142 West South Temple St. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 




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When Buying Mention Relief Society Magazine 



Crusade A&ainst the Use of Tobacco 

By President Louise Y. Robison 

THE instinct of mothers to be alarmed when danger menaces 
their young is universal. Both human and animal mothers 
are forever on their guard to protect their young from destruc- 
tive forces — no sacrifice is too great, even to endangering their 
own lives. 

Some evils are limited in their power and individual 
mothers can cope successfully with them but there are others 
which demand united effort. 

Such a destructive influence is with us today and challenges 
the motherhood of our nation. It is not enough that one mother 
I nor twenty mothers become alarmed — but all people who de- 
| sire the health, efficiency, and spiritual development of our 

youth are urged to join forces for their protection. , 

Human judgement may err but we have the word of our i 

Heavenly Father that tobacco is not good for us. The Relief j 

Society believing the Word of Wisdom to be the word of God ! 

! calls on all its members to cooperate in helping our young J 

I people to see the benefit of living strictly in accordance with its I 

| teachings. ' j 

| With the approval of the First Presidency, the Auxiliary j 

| organizations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day j 

I Saints are uniting in a crusade against the use of tobacco. Each j 

f has its special assignment. To the Relief Society it is that we • 

! will not condemn nor make unhappy those of our young people I 

j who have acquired the tobacco habit but with all the power of I 

I our love and prayers we will help them to see the benefit of I 

I complying with our Father's admonition and of stopping this j 

j injurious indulgence. j 

j And further, as a safeguard to those who have not formed j 

I this habit and to protect and help the weaker ones, that j 

we will not patronize any merchant who sells tobacco, , 

in any form, to minors. Relief Society always has stood ! 

for law enforcement. In Utah, as in many other states it is ! 

illegal to sell tobacco to minors. We certainly, even at in- I 

convenience to ourselves, cannot support violators of the law j 

especially when such violators are destroying our youth. j 

We especially appeal to all Relief Society women and all j 

other women in our communities to seriously and zealously j 

work for the welfare of our young men and women and to see | 

that the laws that have been enacted to safeguard them are not I 

violated. I 

1 




ELDER ORSON F. WHITNEY 



THE 



Relief Society Magazine 



Vol. XVIII 



JUNE, 1931 



No. 6 



Orson F- Whitney, Apostle, Poet, Historian, 

Philosopher 



By Annie Wells Cannon 



IT was dawn. The warm glow of 
the rising sun kissed the eastern 
hills. The new day spread its 
golden loveliness over an awaken- 
ing world, just as the kingly spirit 
of Orson F. Whitney, passed into 
the great beyond. He died May 16, 
1930, peaceful and content. 

His way in life was pleasant for 
he sought only the beautiful in art 
and nature ; had enjoyment in com- 
panionship of friends and the pur- 
suit of knowledge. Holland's beau- 
tiful verse which he sometimes used 
for a text might easily apply to 
his own career. 

"Heaven is not reached in a single 

bound: 
But we build the ladder by which we 

rise 
From the lowly earth to the vaulted 

skies 
And we mount its summit round by 

round." 

While his experiences were var- 
ied, he marked for himself a path- 
way clear, motivated by earnest en- 
deavor, poetic ideals and fervent 
emotion. 



O 



RSON FERGUSON WHIT- 
NEY was born in Salt Lake 



City July 1, 1855, son of Horace K. 
Whitney, one of the original pio- 
neers of 1847, and Helen Mar Kim- 
ball, eldest daughter of Heber C. 
Kimball, a member of the first coun- 
cil of the twelve under Joseph Smith 
and counselor to President Brigham 
Young. i 

His boyhood was spent largely 
in the open spaces. Amusements 
were few for the pioneer children 
save such as they themselves pro- 
vided. There was, however, an ex- 
ceptional opportunity in the com- 
munity of seeing the classic drama 
and Shakespeare's plays, given by 
the old Salt Lake dramatic associa- 
tion, of which Orson's father was 
a member. His father was also a 
gifted musician while his mother 
was a forceful writer and speaker. 

These inherited talents added to 
his natural gifts — a remarkable 
memory, a rich mellow voice, a 
graceful and pleasing personality, 
would seem to point to a stage 
career, and that was his choice, but 
Providence ruled otherwise. In 
1876 he answered a call for a mis- 
sion to the eastern states. Engaged 
in this ministry, he found his true 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



vocation ; here, too, he began his 
literary work, contributing poems 
and articles to the home papers. 
Soon after his return from this 
mission Elder Whitney was appoint- 
ed Bishop of the 18th Ward, a 
stewardship he held for 28 years 
and wherein he was greatly loved 
and honored. The capacious and 
beautiful annex to the ward chapel 
is named Whitney Hall in his honor. 
In 1881 Bishop Whitney took a 
second mission, this time going to 
Europe. While in England he 
availed himself of the rare pleasure 
of visiting places he had learned to 
love through the medium of romance 
and poetry — homes and haunts of 
the English poets, the abbeys and 
castles around which their stories 
are entwined, like the ivy on their 
walls. 

In 1906 iElder Whitney was ap- 
pointed a member of the Council 
of the Twelve. To this high calling 
he gave the most sincere and rever- 
ent devotion. 

In 1921 he went again to England, 
this time to preside over the Euro- 
pean mission. A severe illness 
shortened this mission and he re- 
turned home in a few months. 

Always in the ministry he found 
happiness and satisfaction and was 
an eloquent defender of the faith 
with tongue and pen. Among the 
stakes and missions he traveled, ex- 
horting and encouraging the people 
in ways of righteousness. 

Elder Whitney's literary work is 
outstanding. As an historian he 
was accurate and careful, as a poet 
lofty and idealistic, as an essayist 
logical and convincing, all making 
a valuable contribution to the liter- 
ature of the Church and state. 

"The Lifted Ensign— A Call to 
Israel" was written for the Centen- 



nial Conference, April 6, 1930, and 
read by the author on that memor- 
able occasion before the vast audi- 
ence in the Tabernacle. 

Notwithstanding his inclination 
for the more quiet calling in the 
ministry or literary field, Elder 
Whitney was not unmindful of his 
responsibilities as a loyal and patri- 
otic citizen and held many offices 
both civic and state. He was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 1894, held prior to state- 
hood, at which time he made an 
earnest and eloquent plea for the 
cause of woman suffrage. He was 
Chancellor and Regent of the State 
University, taught philosophy and 
history at the Brigham Young Col- 
lege at Logan and for many years 
was a member of the Church Board 
of Education. 

December 18, 1879, Elder Whit- 
ney was married to Zina Beal 
Smoot, the piquant and charming 
daughter of Abraham O. Smoot of 
Provo. Zina died in 1900. She was 
the mother of nine children, seven 
of whom are living. In July, 1888, 
he married May Wells, daughter of 
Gen. Daniel H. Wells, and to her 
fell the task of caring for these 
motherless children as well as her 
own two boys. To all she gave 
tender care and devotion. 

In the atmosphere of social and 
home life Orson Whitney's charm 
was most apparent. There his ready 
wit, his gift as a recounter of fascin- 
ating stories, his many accomplish- 
ments afforded delightful entertain- 
ment. Always the gentleman, re- 
fined, sensitive, kind, how he will 
be missed. To his family he ren- 
dered sweet affection and has left 
a legacy of things imperishable. 

He mounted the ladder round by 
round. Who doubts but he reached 
the "summit of the vaulted skies." 



Relief Society Conference 

Held April 2 and 3, 1931 



THE Relief Society of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints held An- 
nual Conference on Thursday and 
Friday, April 2 and 3, 1931, in Salt 
Lake City, Utah. President Louise 
Y. Robison was in charge and pre- 
sided over the General Sessions of 
the conference. 

The meetings were as follows: 
Stake Officers and General Board 
Members, held in the Auditorium 
of the Bishop's Building, from 10 
a. m. to 12 noon on Thursday. 
There were seven department meet- 
ings: Theological, Literary, Social 
Service Lesson, Visiting Teachers, 
Class Leaders, Social Service Case 
Work, Choristers and Organists, 
and the Secretaries' Department. 
The two general sessions were held 
in the Tabernacle on Friday, April 
3. There was an Executive Officers' 
Banquet, held at the Hotel Utah on 
the evening of April 3, the Presi- 
dency and the General Board being 
hostesses. In addition to the pres- 
idents, the executive officers of the 
various stakes were included. 

The attendance at the General 
Stake Officers' Meeting was as fol- 
lows : There were 102 out of the 
104 stakes of the Church repre- 
sented, 10 of the missions in the 



United States, in addition to the 
president of the European Mission, 
Sister Leah D. Widtsoe ; and Mrs. 
Arthur Gaeth of the Czecho-slovak- 
ian Mission; also representatives 
from the Canadian and Mexican 
Missions. There were 22 General 
Board members; 603 Stake and 
Mission Officers, including: Stake 
presidents, 80; Counselors, 123; 
Secretary-treasurers, 64; Other 
Board Members 324; Mission pres- 
idents 12. Ushers furnished by the 
Salt Lake City stakes and some of 
the Salt Lake County stakes gave 
excellent service in handling the 
large number in attendance and in 
properly seating them in the various 
meetings. 

A very delightful feature of the 
conference was the music. Mrs. 
Lizzie Thomas Edward directed the 
congregational singing. There were 
special musical numbers from Mrs. 
Pearl Kimball Davis, Miss Miriam 
Erickson, Mrs. Annette R. Din- 
woodey ; a very delightful string trio 
consisting of Miss Miriam Gilchrist, 
Miss Lucille Merrill and Miss Sina 
Brimhall. An unusual feature was 
the splendid music furnished for the 
general sessions of the conference 
under the direction of stake chor- 
isters, special mention is made of 
Grant and Liberty stakes. 



OFFICERS' MEETING 

Morning Session, Thursday, April 2, 1931 



PRESIDENT LOUISE Y. 
ROBISON 



prayers have been answered. Our 
hearts are full of gratitude to our 
Heavenly Father, and to you, our 

I WISH I had words to express dear sisters, for the efforts which 
the gratitude we feel this morn- you have made to come to this 
ing in greeting you all here. Our Conference. 



308 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



I have often heard that Confer- 
ences are the finest medium we have 
of holding interest in the Church. 
I believe this, and the joy we have 
in meeting again with our sisters 
whom we meet out in the stakes, 
wards and mission fields, is beyond 
expression. I wish you knew how 
we appreciate you, and all the serv- 
ice that you have rendered. 

I believe that the record has been 
made in Relief Society in getting 
replies, for anything that we 
wanted at the office. Just a short 
time ago the White House Confer- 
ence Committee asked for some 
special information, which we did 
not have in the office. On Saturday 
the Secretary and her helpers sent 
out letters and asked that we have 
this information in at once. On 
Monday afternoon we had some of 
the replies, and on Tuesday they 
came in from far away places. I 
want to tell you how we appreciate 
this, because I know that you are 
all busy women. 

Usually in making an address we 
want to leave the most thrilling 
thiiig to the last, but I am so eager 
to tell you some good news, that I 
am going to tell you first. For years 
we have been wanting a handbook. 
Numberless appeals have come to us 
for something that would help wom- 
en get started with the Relief So- 
ciety work, and I am very happy to 
announce that we have now a per- 
fectly wonderful handbook. The 
committee, Counselor Amy Brown 
Lyman, and Sister Annie 'Wells 
Cannon, have been working on it 
almost day and night, because we 
have been so eager to have it ready 
for this Conference. This hand- 
book contains full information per- 
taining to the history of the Relief 
Society. It has a sketch of the 
seven presidents, and information 
that has been compiled from all of 
our records that we have. had since 



the beginning, — how to conduct 
and what to do in all activities. It 
seems to us it is going to be a most 
wonderful help, especially to the 
new officers, and we feel it will be 
a tower of strength to our officers 
who are in charge. 

We hope you will use it as officers 
of the army use their rules. No 
matter how long an officer is in the 
army it is one of his requirements 
that he read his rules every day. 

There are illustrations in it, a 
table of contents, and it is indexed 
and cross-indexed, so that you can 
easily find anything you wish. 

For many years we have been 
using gold and white for our So- 
ciety colors, but a very exhaustive 
search fails to discover any official 
word that these were really made 
the Relief Society colors. We love 
the old traditions of our organiza- 
tion and we were loath to give up 
gold and white. I think there was 
just a bit of sentiment about it, 
thinking the gold represented the 
wheat, but wheat is not really gold 
— we call it the "golden grain" but 
when you take a piece of straw 
you find it is not really gold, but 
yellow. After much thought and 
discussion we decided to choose 
something distinctive, so now our 
official colors are gold and blue. I 
would like to know how many of 
you would like to have gold and 
blue instead of white and gold (vote 
unanimous). 

We have had a few reorganiza- 
tions since last Conference. It 
makes us sad to think that there is 
need of reorganizations. We love 
these women so dearly ; they do such 
beautiful work, and when we think 
of their leaving it seems impossible 
to find anybody who can take their 
places. That is one of the beautiful 
things of this Church, it does not 
matter how splendid a person is, 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



309 



and how much we miss and love to the Work and Business Meetings, 

him, the Lord is always able to help On the contrary, one of the stake 

us find someone else who can ably presidents told me that in her stake, 

fill the place. which is a stake of large wards — 



Date 


Stake 


Mar., 


1931 


Beaver 


Feb., 


1931 


Box Elder 


Oct., 


1930 


Cache 


Feb., 


1931 


Franklin 


Feb., 


1931 


Garfield 


Mar., 


1931 


Malad 


Nov., 


1930 


Oneida 


Nov., 


1930 


Taylor 


Dec, 


1930 


Union 



Reorganizations 

Released 
Mrs. Susan J. Murdock 
Mrs. Lula B. Call 
Mrs. Lizzie B. Owen 
Mrs. Veroka G. Nash 
■Mrs. Irene N. Rowan 
Mrs. Eleanor J. Richards 
Mrs. Nellie P. Head # 
Mrs. Georgina O'Brien 
Mrs. Evelyn R. Lyman 



Appointed President 
Mrs. Kate Jensen 
Mrs. Vera D. Sederhold 
Mrs. Lula Y. Smith 
Mrs. Bertha P. Larson 
Mrs. Ida H. Steed 
Mrs. Nellie K. Dredge 
Mrs. Anna R. Hawkes 
Mrs. Julia E. Ririe 
Mrs. Josephine Hanks 



Some of our people have said, "Let 
us go back to the old method of 
having our teachers go to Union 
Meeting, and not have their special 
meetings in the wards." I would 
like to ask as a personal favor, that 
you stake officers make this a matter 
of prayer. The General Board has 
discussed this matter, and prayed 
and we cannot see how it would 
strengthen our work to have the 
Relief Society visiting teachers go 
back to Union Meeting, and not 
have the specific instructions which 
they get in their wards. In stakes 
and wards where this has been tried 
out persistently it has worked beau- 
tifully. One stake president told me 
just the other day that it would be 
a calamity to go back to the old 
method, the teachers are doing so 
much better and the work is going 
along much more harmoniously. We 
do earnestly beg of you that you 
will try just a little longer, and make 
some provision where this teachers' 
training meeting can be held in a 
regular meeting. This need not be 
very long, but make it just the very 
finest meeting of which you are 
capable. Have the class leader who 
goes to the stake union meeting 
come back so full of help for the 
visiting teachers that they cannot 
get along without her. Some believe 
that the teachers will not come out 



there is an attendance in one ward 
of 104, and in another of 80. She 
asked her stake to keep tab of the 
women who left during the Work 
and Business Meeting, and only two 
women in that whole stake, with 
such a large enrollment, leave the 
Work and Business Meeting before 
3 :30. She feels that there must be 
something lacking that even two 
women leave. In some of the wards 
the women are not interested, they 
are tired when they go to meeting 
and to go there to sew might not be 
so interesting. In some of the stakes 
they will have in connection with 
this meeting a class in something. 
We have in one stake a class in 
child care. You can go in and sew 
on quilts (you know everyone can- 
not sew on quilts, but everyone who 
chooses can do so) then they can 
make rugs, lamp shades, tied and 
dyed work; there is a department 
for young mothers, and in one of 
these wards there are 17 new young 
mothers who have come in and 
joined the organization just for this 
class in child training. Now if they 
have someone there capable of giv- 
ing help to mothers on how to make 
little things out of spools that the 
child can make, or how to tell stories 
that the mothers can tell to their 
children when they go home, or give 
a little talk on the guidance of the 



310 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



child ; what to do with a child who 
sucks its thumb, or a child that 
tells fibs, or a child that takes things 
that do not belong to it. This is 
very appealing and will increase at- 
tendance. 

Have your teachers' training 
meeting some time that will coor- 
dinate with this work and business 
meeting, and then have something in 
the Work and Business meeting that 
will interest all the women in the 
ward, and you will be surprised how 
successfully it will turn out. 

Last spring we asked that all of 
the Relief Society women of the 
Church donate one article, either a 
new article or made-over or re- 
modeled article, for the benefit of 
those in need. It seems in some 
stakes this has hardly been under- 
stood, and they have not known 
what to do with the articles when 
they were collected. You can have 
the articles range in price from ten 
cents to any amount, even to a pair 
of blankets, if anyone would care to 
give that much. We asked every 
woman to turn in to the Relief So- 
ciety president one article of cloth- 
ing that would be suitable for those 
who are in need, and let the ward 
have it for use in the ward, but do 
not send it away until everyone in 
need in your own ward has been 
supplied. Now look about you and 
see if all the children are taken care 
of, that no little child is going to 
school humiliated because of its 
clothing. It is a cruel thing for a 
child to have to go to school or Sun- 
day School and be ashamed be- 
cause its clothing is worn. Take 
care of your ward out of this con- 
tribution, then if you have your 
ward supplied, (and we do have 
wards where there is very little or 
no need, but we still expect and 
hope that these sisters in such wards 
will contribute), and you still have 
a surplus, have the ward president 



speak to the stake president about 
this. In almost every stake there 
will be one ward where there is 
greater need than in other wards. 

Other women's organizations do 
this type of work. Last year the 
Needlework Guild of America sup- 
plied 1,300,000 articles. To be a 
member of the Needlework Guild 
one must donate two articles a year, 
or an equivalent amount of money. 
These are given to the Red Cross or 
to any group that are in need. We 
are not trying to take care of the 
world, but sisters of the Relief So- 
ciety, do you not think this Relief 
Society is strong enough to take 
care of every Latter-day Saint child 
there is in this Church? Don't you 
think it is our calling, as mothers of 
the Church, to see that there is not 
a child in this whole Church suffer- 
ing? 

We have a very good storehouse 
where used clothing and furniture 
are sent. The Presiding Bishopric 
provided these excellent quarters for 
us. This last year there were 3,892 
articles and 621 pairs of shoes given 
away. When one of the sisters liv- 
ing here went over to get some 
things she needed she said, "I have 
five children, and not one of them 
had an article of underwear on this 
winter." Now sisters, is not this a 
challenge to every Relief Society 
woman to in some way provide for 
every Latter-day Saint child who is 
in need. One article a year given by 
our sisters would not be any hard- 
ship at all, but it would open a way 
that all could be taken care of. Care 
for your wards first, then if you 
have a surplus refer it to your stake 
president and let her see that every 
child in that stake is cared for, and 
then if you have a surplus do not 
send it to us but notify us that you 
have a surplus and what articles 
they are. We will instruct you what 
to do with them. I hope that the 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



311 



Spirit of the Lord will be in this 
meeting this morning, and that it 
will sAik into your hearts, and that 
you will see the beauty of this move- 
ment, and that it may accomplish 
some very good results. 

We have to thank a number of 
our stake presidents who did splen- 
did work in getting representatives 
to our social service institute on 
such short notice last winter. We 
have had some of the finest women 
here, taking the work in the insti- 
tutes. Enquiries have been made 
when another institute will be held. 
The representatives from the stakes 
come into headquarters and for six 
weeks study and work just as hard 
as it is humanly possible to study 
and work, and then carry back to the 
stakes all the help they are capable 
of carrying. It is not just an in- 
novation of Relief Society, but came 
from the Presiding Bishopric. To 
each of your stakes last year copies 
of the little circular, "Details of 
Charity Administration from the 
Presiding Bishopric," were sent. If 
you will read the second paragraph 
of this little booklet and see what 
work is assigned to us by the au- 
thorities of the Church, you will 
realize that we need training to do 
it properly. This seems to me the 
biggest responsibility ever given to 
the Relief Society, and we want to 
help you prepare to do this in a 
correct manner, so we are now going 
to have other institutes. We can 
accommodate only 25 stakes at one 
time. We had one last Fall begin- 
ning in August and carrying through 
until September, and the women 
said it was in the wrong time of 
the year, they were all so busy. 
Then we had one early in January, 
and the complaint was that it was 
so cold, and that was the wrong time 
of the year, so this time we are 
going to have it a vacation period, 
when we hope it will be satisfactory. 



The Relief Society has asked for 
years and years that every ward and 
every stake in the Church keep a 
history of the organization. We 
hear that there are some stakes 
where there are no histories kept. 
We wish to say now that we shall 
instruct all of our General Board 
members who visit you this year to 
examine your records and read your 
histories and see what excellent rec- 
ords you have of your Relief So- 
cieties. A short time ago the three 
presidents of the women's organiza- 
tion were invited by Sister Susa Y. 
Gates to visit the Historian's Office, 
and I was amazed at the volumes 
and shelves of histories of the 
Church, but there was very little 
there about the history of the 
women. All of the ward and stake 
books are arranged so that you can 
write the history in them. We want 
to see what your histories are. 

We want to thank the sisters for 
the wonderful effort they have put 
forth in regard to the Magazine. I 
know that there are so many women 
who have had a hard time this 
winter, and for the efforts you 
blessed sisters have made that our 
Magazine subscriptions have kept 
up as well as this, we are very grate- 
ful. In one of our far away stakes 
a sister said, "We are doing the best 
we can. In one ward we have 14 
members and we are sending in 20 
subscriptions." 

MRS. JULIA A. F. LUND 
General Secretary 

MY dear sisters : I would like 
to say 'before submitting the 
Annual Report that it has been 
one of the. most thrilling expe- 
riences of my life to go through 
the reports we have received this 
year, and I think every mission and 
every stake is to be congratulated 
upon the excellence of the secre- 



312 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



tarial work. More than half of the 
mission and stake reports were per- 
fect. Others did not quite come in 
this class, 'but in the main the re- 
ports were correct, and it was just 
a slight misunderstanding which we 
are sure will not occur another year. 
The standard of the work of the 
secretaries is very high indeed, and 
I want to congratulate all of them. 
The following is the result of a 
very careful audit of the annual re- 
ports : Total balance on hand, Jan- 
uary 1, 1930, $169,391.32; Total 
receipts during 1930, $306,110.80; 
Total balance on hand and receipts, 
$475,502.12; Paid for charitable 



purposes, $109,493.19; Total dis- 
bursements, $310,697.66; Total bal- 
ance, December 31, 1930, $164,804.- 
46; total assets, $1,045,712.74 
Ward conferences held 1,251 
Teachers' visits made, 763,918 
Visits to sick and homebound, 186,- 
436. Membership in 1929, 62,902, 
in 1930, 64,225, an increase of 1,323. 
The membership includes, executive 
and special officers, 10,619, visiting 
teachers, 21,765, members 31,841. 
Average attendance, 1929, 23,716; 
1930, 24,521, an increase of 806. 
Paid for charitable purposes, 1929, 
$98,925.02; 1930, $109,493.19, an 
increase of $10,568.17. 



Reforestation as Bi-Centennial Celebration to 
Honor George Washington 



MRS. INEZ K. ALLEN 
General Board Member 

MY dear sisters : You have read 
about the organization of a com- 
mission several years ago in Wash- 
ington, to make due preparation for 
the celebration of the bicentennial 
of George Washington. This com- 
mission is composed of the highest 
officials in our country, the Pres- 
ident of the United States is pres- 
ident, the vice president, chairman. 
In accordance with this there is also 
a commission organized in Utah, 
with Governor George H. Dern as 
chairman. 

One part of this program is that 
trees shall be planted in honor of 
General Washington. The General 
Board of the Relief Society desires 
that the Relief Societies shall co- 
operate in this particular phase of 
the work. The national commission 
has said, "Let us have ten million 
trees planted this year — ten million 
monuments, ten million tributes to 



a great man, the father of our coun- 
try." 

It is recommended by the com- 
mission that every citizen, and every 
child, have an opportunity to par- 
ticipate in this great event, which 
will be celebrated next year on the 
22nd day of February. In order to 
get ready for that, trees must be 
planted this year, that they he rooted 
and growing, so that next year on 
the date set they may be dedicated 
to the honor of George Washington. 

The General Board recommends 
that ever stake and ward plant one 
tree at least. We hope many of you 
will plant more than one tree. Some 
of you may desire to make lovely 
parks, or to beautify playgrounds, 
but at least we desire that every 
stake and every ward shall plant 
one tree, and the General Board is 
recommending that the tree which 
shall be planted by you shall be a 
Norway Maple tree, to be known as 
the Relief Society tree. One reason 
why this tree was selected is because 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



313 



the horticulturists say it has the 
most perfect bill of health for this 
rocky mountain climate, which 
seems that we would be more likely 
of success. It is a very beautiful 
tree and entirely suitable to become 
a monument for this very rare and 
important occasion. 

Recently I was permitted to visit 
Golden Gate Park in California. 
That park is ten miles long, and 
only a few years ago that whole 
area was nothing ibut sandhills, and 
now it is one of the famous beauty 
spots of the world because of the 
planting which has taken place there. 
This should encourage us, so that 
we may make our own communities 
more beautiful. Many magnificent 
structures there are builded by the 
hands of men, but the great living 
forests would surpass them all. I 
was recently in the midst of some 
of the highest and biggest trees 
known. Some of them were said 
to be as high as nearly two of Salt 
Lake's blocks would be if they were 
straight up in the air. I was filled 
with reverence and awe, as I con- 
templated how marvelous and won- 
derful a tree can be. One evergreen 
tree in Yosemite, known as the 
Grizzly Giant, had withstood the 
wind and storm, and responded to 
the sunshine for imore than three 
thousand years, and it still lives to 
perform the purpose for which it 
was created. In such a presence one 
feels inspired with hope, contem- 
plating the ages in which the fibres 
of the tree have blindly groped and 
the leaves have unfolded their 
beauty, even as man's life must 
climb from the clods of earth to 
heaven. One feels joy in the com- 
fort of the birds which sing and 
nest therein. A feeling of peace 
and harmony is there. One has re- 



newed confidence in the growth 
of the soul, as he contemplates the 
new shoots each year on old growth. 
The poet says : 

"He who plants a tree, 
He plants life; 

Tints of coolness spreading out above, 
Wayfarers he may never live to see, 
Gifts that grow are best, 
Hands that bless are blest. 
Plant! life does the rest." 

But even these rare specimens of 
which I have been speaking are not 
more worthy of sentiment than the 
trees under which our own troth 
perhaps was pledged, or under 
which our children or grandchildren 
have played, and their shade is no 
more precious than the shade of the 
old apple tree, or some other trees in 
our own door yard. The trees you 
plant to honor the father of our 
country may at the same time be 
monuments to the tears and the love, 
and the prayers with which you have 
done your part in building up your 
own communities. 

Truly the poet has said, as was 
sung, "Only God can make a tree." 
Another has said, "The forests were 
God's first temples." 

One writer has said : 

"What does he plant who plants a tree? 
He plants, in sap and leaf and wood, 
Tn love of home and loyalty 
And far-cast thought of civic good--- 
His blessings on the neighborhood - 
Who in the hollow of His hand 
Holds all the growth of all our land — 
A nation's growth from seat to sea 
Stirs in his heart who plants a tree." 

May the Lord bless us in our 
planting of trees, for we know thai 
we plant and only God can give the 
increase. I pray for -His blessings 
in the name of Jesus, Amen, • 



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RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Legislation in Western States 

Local Problems 



MRS. ETHEL R. SMITH 
General Board Member 

AT the conclusion of a legislative 
session, undoubtedly the pre- 
vailing question that is asked by 
thoughtful people is, "What has 
been accomplished?" 

We are social workers and as such 
are vitally interested in any legisla- 
tion that affects our work. At the 
beginning of this nineteenth session 
of the Utah Legislature, we saw a 
"rainbow of promise" in certain 
measures which were presented, but 
at the end we discovered that we 
had not obtained all that we had 
hoped for. 

The State owes a duty of pro 
tection to its children. 

Mr. Drowne, National Probation 
worker, says in his survey : "In the 
past political favoritism Jias played 
an important part in the selection of 
judges and probation officers ; in 
fact from what could be learned 
much more attention has been paid 
to the political affiliations of the 
candidates than to their qualifica- 
tions and fitness to deal successfully 
with children in trouble. In Juve- 
nile Court work a careful selection 
of personnel is more than ordinar- 
ily important because upon it de- 
pends the success of the courts in 
giving to each under-privileged boy 
or girl an opportunity to grow into 
self-respecting citizenship." 

If there is any court which should 
be free from politics, and have in- 
telligent social minded judges, it is 
the Juvenile Court. Juvenile judges 
and probation officers should be 
especially trained and fitted for their 
work, and have an intelligent, scien- 
tific attitude toward their problems. 
Every court should have an oppor- 



tunity of the services of a psychia- 
trist as well as a physician to help 
determine the treatment of their 
case. Such advantages are slow to 
come if the court is tied up in poli- 
tics. However, we are very grateful 
for the few crumbs that fell from 
the table, and hope for better things 
in years hence. In the past many 
grievous crimes have been com- 
mitted against helpless children. 
People have been placing children, 
including matrons of maternity 
homes, doctors, etc., some of whom 
have charged for the babies. This 
monetary consideration and greed 
has defeated every altruistic motive. 
Now, however, due to the activities 
of those who are deeply concerned 
in children's rights, changes in the 
law have been made declaring it to 
be unlawful for anyone to place a 
child under 16 years of age in any 
home, either permanently or tempo- 
rarily, other than the child's relatives 
within the second degree of con- 
sanguinity, or to solicit money in 
behalf of any child placing agency 
without a written license from the 
State Board of Health. The Gen- 
eral Board has such a license, and is 
the official agency for child placing 
for the Church. This is a very im- 
portant type of protective legisla- 
tion. Child placing is a very serious 
undertaking, and should be done 
only by specially trained people. 
Adoptions should not be made with- 
out a definite knowledge of the 
physical and mental status of the 
child, something of the child's 
heredity, and without a knowledge 
of the intentions and abilities of the 
proposed foster parents. Some chil- 
dren are not placeable, and should 
not be given to prospective parents 
who might later suffer disappoint- 
ment. Children from feebleminded 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



315 



or syphilitic parents are not desirable 
for adoption. 

Now, what is our responsibility 
as Relief Society and social work- 
ers? As I see it, it is as follows: 
First, to educate ourselves in regard 
to social needs. Second, to work 
for good social legislation. How 
can this 'be done? By ascertaining 
the attitude of prospective legisla- 
tors and informing them in regard 
to human welfare, and by using 
our franchise intelligently that 
proper representatives who have a 
high regard for human value, may 
be sent to our legislatures. 

One of the finest pieces of social 
work ever done was accomplished 
by a group of intelligent women in 



some of the stakes in one of our 
Sister states when they secured an 
appropriation to provide a public 
health nurse in their county. Led 
by one of our stake presidents, they 
formulated a letter stating their 
stand, and asking the aspirant for 
legislative honors to give his stand 
on the question. The result was 
that the men were glad to pledge 
their support to such a measure. 
We can all by individual, as well as 
united effort, accomplish similar 
things, and become great factors in 
social progress in our communities. 
May our motto ever be the words of 
an eminent jurist : "For every child 
let truth spring up from the earth, 
and justice and mercy rain down 
from heaven." 



General Problems 



MRS. KATE M. BARKER 
General Board Member 

SISTERS of the Relief Society: 
Someone has said that "The love 
of justice which exists in the heart 
of man, is the distinguishing mark 
of his humanity, and should be re- 
spected as such. And it is the 
supreme obligation of each genera- 
tion to find the means by which this 
love of justice may be purified and 
still further increased." 

I think I would say in spite of the 
fact that recently we have had some 
very unfortunate legislation in some 
of the states, that the general trend 
of legislation in the Western States 
has been in the direction of wider 
justice and in accordance with the 
best ideals of social service work. 
Of course law must always lag a 
little behind public opinion, because 
it can wisely be made law only when 
public opinion has crystallized. There 
is apparently an increasing interest 
in attacking some of the more 
serious problems of community life 
through legislative means. In re- 



cent years advance has been made 
not only in strengthening existing 
laws, but in further providing for 
modern protection for health and 
safety of the wage earners. The 
employment of women and children, 
which historically was the first labor 
problem to be attacked by the state, 
still holds interest in the legislature. 
California has recently strengthened 
the investigation power of the In- 
dustrial Welfare Commission, and 
has increased the penalty for failure 
to comply with the orders of this 
commission respecting the length of 
working hours and the working 
conditions of women and minors. 

The care of the aged is becoming 
more and more a serious problem, 
and most of the existing agencies 
for the care of the aged are chang- 
ing their methods, and there is in- 
creased talk of old age pensions. 
Idaho, in her last legislature, joined 
the other Western states in passing 
the old age pension bill. 

Every child is entitled to a chance 
for normal development, and it is 
generally accepted that this normal 



316 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



development can best be carried on 
in the child's own home, or foster 
home, and because this idea is so 
generally accepted the legislatures 
all over the country have tried to put 
it in operation, and so in most of 
our states now we have what is 
called the Mothers' Pension Law, 
but the trouble is that the admin- 
istration has not kept pace with the 
legislation. Due to the fact that in 
many states the public interest has 
decreased for the passage of the 
bill, and adequate appropriation has 
not been made in spite of the fact 
that we hold to this idea of the care 
of the child in the home, the prob- 
lem is not yet adequately solved. 

The bulletin of the Children's 
Bureau estimates that in 1929, 200,- 
000 children received help. This 
was not sufficient, as there were 
more than 400,000 children who 
needed it. It is quite evident that 
what we need is not more laws, but 
to create public opinion that the ap- 
propriations will be adequate to take 
care of the children the law was 
meant to benefit. 

The earlier laws, and these are 
still in operation in many of the 
states, permitted only children of 
widowed mothers to receive this 
help, but the general trend of legis- 
lation in the last few years has been 
to grant aid to any dependent chil- 
dren of any mother. 

Any child which is committed to 
an institution, whether for depend- 
ent or delinquent children, when he 
comes out of that institution is 
handicapped. It is now the idea 
back of the most advanced work in 
our Juvenile Courts to use the in- 
stitution as a last resort, and to 
widen and perfect the probation 
system. 

The Juvenile Court of California 
is probably the most up to date 
Juvenile Court' in any state. It is 
an arm of the district court ; judges 



are elected and it is absolutely non- 
political. For this reason the judge 
can choose his own staff and he has 
a very well trained, well paid corps 
of probation officers. The idea is 
to use the juvenile institutions only 
as a last resort. They also have in 
connection with their Juvenile 
Court, a behavior clinic, and a psy- 
chiatrist who is appointed by the 
state. The idea is to individualize 
punishment, and to find out what 
each delinquent child specially needs, 
not with the idea of punishing him, 
but of trying to keep him from com- 
mitting further misdemeanors. 

There have been two movements 
in the Western states during the 
past year, which may give us an 
idea of the trend of legislation in 
the near future. One of these spon- 
sored by Colorado is the idea of 
stricter marriage laws. If a couple 
wish to marry, the ceremony cannot 
be performed until five days after 
the marriage license is issued. 

Another movement is that of so- 
cial insurance. The Workmen's 
Compensation law has put the re- 
sponsibility for accident and sickness 
of the employees back on industry 
itself. We are facing a very serious 
problem, that of unemployment, and 
the idea now is that this can best be 
solved by unemployment insurance. 
That is a matter that is now being 
agitated, and many bills are being 
introduced. As yet not one state 
has passed this law. 

In 1921 Arizona took a step for- 
ward in her social service work. She 
organized a State Department of 
Public Welfare. At the head of this 
is a trained social worker, whose 
duty it is to go out into every corner 
of the state and help organize 
county units. This type of organ- 
ization has been adopted by every 
western state except Utah, and every 
other state has a State Board of 
Public Welfare which supervises 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



317 



all the welfare work which is done 
in the state. 

We all know of the good that was 
accomplished by the Sheppard- 
Towner Bill, and the wonderful 
work that was done in the states 
during the seven years that bill was 
in operation. If the percentage of 
deaths of infants under one year 
had remained the same as when the 
bill was introduced in 1921, 60,000 
more infants would have died. The 
percentage of deaths of mothers has 
been very materially decreased. 

In 1929 the Sheppard-Towner bill 
ceased to function, and last year in 
Congress, the Jones bill was intro- 
duced to take the place of the Shep- 
pard-Towner bill. The Sheppard- 
Towner bill gave $5,000.00 outright 
to each state ; then it gave $5,000.00 
additional to each state that matched 
that $5,000.00, so that the states 
matching it had $15,000.00. This 
was to operate for five years. The 
Jones Bill is somewhat different. 
Nothing is given outright to the 
states, but $15,000.00 is given to each 
state which will match it, therefore 
each state will have $30,000.00 to 
operate on, and there is no time 
limit to the bill. The bill was vetoed, 
but it is hoped that this will be 
one of the first hills that will be 
taken up at the next session of 



Congress. After the Sheppard- 
Towner bill ceased to function, the 
advocates of the bill carried on quite 
a campaign in all the different states, 
trying to get the state legislature to 
appropriate an equal amount to that 
which had been given by the federal 
and state governments to carry on 
this work, but only nineteen of the 
states in the United States made 
this appropriation, New Mexico be- 
ing the only western state to make it. 
This is an extract from an article in 
The American Magazine : "In some 
of these states the appropriation 
was made because the women of the 
state requested it in such over- 
whelming numbers that refusal 
seemed impossible." This is only 
one of the many instances in which 
women have influenced public opin- 
ion, and constructive legislation has 
resulted. 

That is our responsibility as Re- 
lief Society workers, and as citizens 
of the various states, but let us not 
forget, as Jane Addams says, that 
this work of spreading justice is 
hampered inasmuch as each one of 
us "fails to perceive or perceives in- 
completely, or judges superficially." 

Let us try to keep up with the 
social work of our state, and try our 
best to influence public opinion in 
that direction. 



Taxation 



MRS. IDA PETERSON BEAL 
General Board Member 

MY dear sisters : It is not my 
purpose or privilege to go into 
a discussion of tax problems, the 
merits or demerits of the same, but 
simply to bring to your attention the 
trends of tax legislation in some of 
our western states. 

It is a vital question, and one 
upon which the women should in- 



form themselves, so that when they 
go to the polls they may there 
register their approval for disap- 
proval with understanding and sat- 
isfaction. I assume that many of 
you sisters have property in your 
own right, and I am certain that you 
are anxious to inform yourselves 
as to how these tax problems will 
affect you. 

During the pioneer period of our 
state, and even in early statehood, 



318 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



the general property tax was ade- 
quate, because tangible property, 
lands, homes, etc., formed a basis 
of wealth and ability to pay, but 
since the expenditures have in- 
creased for state and local purposes, 
it has become necessary for state 
governments to use additional 
means, such as the inheritance tax, 
various license and franchise taxes, 
and the income tax in order to raise 
enough revenue to meet these in- 
creased expenditures without plac- 
ing too heavy a tax on that kind of 
property such as lands, homes, etc., 
which were already overburdened 
with taxation. It is estimated that 
about 80% of the tax burden of the 
state has been borne by this kind of 
property. 

Utah. After a twenty year leth- 
argy as far as accomplishments, but 
not as far as endeavor, a special or 
extraordinary session of the legis- 
lature of Utah was called for Jan- 
uary, 1930, having tax reform as the 
chief problem for solution. During 
these twenty years three special in- 
vestigating committees, 1912, 1922 
and 1930, had produced the cus- 
tomary reports berating the out- 
grown, property tax. Many people 
have a vague fear of a change, they 
would "rather bear the ills they have 
than fly to others that they know 
not of." 

As I stated, in January, 1930, our 
legislature met to consider the report 
of the legislative committee of 1929, 
and a commission was appointed by 
the governor, the two bodies which 
had set about deliberately to find 
property tax relief, and a distribu- 
tion of the burden so that intangible 
property, such as bonds, stocks, 
moneys, mortgages, etc., and large 
incomes would pay their rightful 
share. Public and private hearings 
were held by these two committees, 
so that the taxpayers in all walks of 



life would have ample opportunity 
of airing their views and in a meas- 
ure have their objections ironed out 
by the experts who were called in 
for advice. It was a lengthy session, 
but much good came out of this open 
minded procedure. Prejudice to the 
"new" was in many instances re- 
moved, and a better understanding 
of proposed measures established. 
The tax commission and the legis- 
lative committee appointed by the 
governor recommended six amend- 
ments to the constitution, four of 
which had to do with tax reform. 
These were passed by the people in 
the Fall election of 1930. These 
amendments provided for: First, 
the personal income tax ; second, 
corporation or business tax ; third, 
state school equalization fund ; 
fourth, a tax commission. To these 
were added at this recent legislature, 
a filing fee, an increase in the gas- 
oline tax from 3 l / 2 cents to 4 cents 
per gallon. From this tax it is 
expected to raise approximately 
$3,000,000 per year, to be spent on 
the public highways of the state. 

Under the new income tax law 
every person, except those exempt 
because of age or dependency, who 
has an income of $1,000 or more, 
and is single, or an income of $2,000 
or more and is married, must file an 
income tax return. If married, the 
taxpayer deducts $1,000 from his 
net income and is taxed on the 
remainder. If his taxable income 
is exactly $1,000 after all deduc- 
tions, his tax would be $10. If mar- 
ried he is exempted $2,000, and $400 
for each minor child under 21 years 
of age. So that a married man 
with three children would be ex- 
empted up to $3,2:00. For example 
if such a person should receive 
$4,000 a year, his taxes would be 
1 % on $800 or $8. Against this is 
an offset not to exceed thirty-three 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



319 



and one-third per cent of the tax on 
income, and which does not apply to 
the filing fee. 

Somewhat similar to the income 
tax is the corporation tax which 
provides for a flat rate of 3% on 
income of the corporation, with an 
offset of one-third, or thirty-three 
and one-third percent. 

State school equalization fund — 
For some time it has been realized 
that inequalities exist in many of 
the school districts. To overcome 
this difficulty an equalization fund 
of $5 per school child would be 
necessary to overcome this differ- 
ence. The governor in his message 
to the legislature of this year 
sounded the warning that because 
of the financial condition of the state 
it might be unwise to enact legisla- 
tion calling for $5 equalization at 
this time. The legislature heeded 
the warning, and adopted a five-year 
program beginning with a fund of $1 
per school child, which will bring 
about $150,000 a year, and increas- 
ing $1 each year until the $5 max- 
imum has been reached. The bill 
will not be effective until the school 
year of 1932-33. The legislature 
also wisely said that no district 
should participate in the fund until 
a minimum school levy of 5.5 mills 
had been imposed, and the assessed 
valuation was in conformity with 
those throughout the state. 

A filing fee of $1 is required for 
every person, except dependents, 
over 21 years of age. It is esti- 
mated that this tax will bring in 
the neighborhood of $200,000 a 
year. 

Idaho. Idaho has adopted a sim- 
ilar system to that which we have 
here in Utah, but the same scale is 
applied to both persons and business. 
Single persons are allowed exemp- 
tions of $1000, and heads of "fam- 



ilies $2,500, and $300 for each child 
and additional dependents. This is 
1 % on the first $2,000 above ex- 
emptions ; 2 % on $4,000 ; 3 % on 
$6,000, and all above, 4 % . The rate 
is graduated at larger amounts. 

Nevada. Nevada, from what we 
can learn, has not done much with 
tax systems, but provided additional 
revenue through license taxes, that 
is, a license tax for all kinds of 
business and games of chance, legal- 
izing gambling somewhat. Much 
revenue is expected from this 
source. 

Oregon. In Oregon the state 
legislature passed the three follow- 
ing measures : first, an excise tax of 
5% on corporations with certain 
deductions allowed ; second, a flat 
tax on income of intangibles, such as 
moneys, credits, bonds, etc., of 8% ; 
third, a property tax relief act, pro- 
viding for taxes on incomes of 
everyone on all net income arising 
or accruing in Oregon. These ex- 
emptions are somewhat similar to 
ours in Utah, $1,000 for single per- 
son, $2,500 if the head of a family, 
and $400 for children under 18 years 
of age. The rate in Oregon is 1 % 
on first $1,000, 2% on next $1,000, 
three on the third, four on the 
fourth, and all above, 5%. 

California. Recent measures 
have provided for a bureau of tax 
research, also for the relief of 
property and inequality between 
taxes on corporations and persons. 
The personal income tax was intro- 
duced in 1931. The exemptions are 
similar to those granted in Utah. 

The women of the Church will 
render a genuine service to their 
communities by becoming students 
of these vital problems, and lending 
their support to forward looking 
movements which will help fulfil the 
sacred obligations of citizenship. 



320 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



OFFICERS' MEETING 

Afternoon Session, Thursday, April 2, 1931 

Theology Department 



MRS. CORA L. BENNION 

Chairman 

^f RS. ZINA BENNION CAN- 
'1 NON, Class Leader of Forest 
Dale Ward, gave a detailed and in- 
spirational talk on the study of the 
Book of Mormon lessons. She sug- 
gested the extensive sources for a 
background for this study. The 
Book of Mormon cannot be fully 
appreciated when considered by it- 
self alone, but clarifies the knowl- 
edge and expands the information 
presented in the scriptures, and in 
other historic materials. Consid- 
ered in this broad light, and with 
the whole knowledge of the Gospel 
and the peoples with whom it deals, 
considered in true relationship, the 
Relief Society Theology studies are 
greatly enhanced in interest and 
value. 

MR. JOHN HENRY EVANS 

EVERYBODY, I suppose, who 
has ever studied the Book of 
Mormon has felt a very pressing 
need for something in the way of a 
map, so as to tell where these peo- 
ple came from, and where they are 
going. A map, however, of the 
Book of Mormon is really impos- 
sible. We have not sufficient infor- 
mation about the migrations of the 
Nephites to enable us to make a 
satisfactory map. 

However, we do have a chart 
which enables us, I think, better 
than anything else, to understand 
the events of significance in the 
Book of Mormon. This chart was 
made by one of the greatest students 
of the Book of Mormon that we 
have ever had, Elder George Rey- 



nolds. If a map of the Book of 
Mormon were possible, George 
Reynolds would have given us a 
map, but he has given us this chart, 
which I think is one of the greatest 
helps to a study of the Book of 
Mormon that I know anything 
about. It has been out of print for 
many years, and for that reason, 
I suppose, it had never been called 
to my attention, otherwise we would 
have (been studying it a good many 
years. 

My suggestion is that you keep 
this chart before you constantly, so 
that when you want to refer to any 
particular event, you can do it from 
the chart. I am sure it will con- 
tribute to a clear and more definite 
understanding of the history of the 
Nephites, and the chief events and 
characters in the Book of Mormon 
than anything else that you can pos- 
sibly get. 

Occasionally I think it would be 
a good idea to call attention to the 
whole period, and the characters, 
historical events and dates, and if 
you call attention to the chart you 
will find it will he much clearer than 
it otherwise would. 

Now a few words about the course 
for next year. I am anxious that 
you get this view, because it is some- 
thing different from anything that 
I have seen in the way of organiza- 
tion of the material that we find in 
the Book of Mormon. 

I am going to write the nine les- 
sons next year with the idea that 
we have more information about 
the immortality of the soul and 
heaven than the Christian world has 
ever had for more than 1800 years 
of time. Joseph Smith tells the 
world that he saw a resurrected 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



321 



man. If Joseph Smith is telling the 
truth, that is the greatest piece of 
evidence that we have for the im- 
mortality of man that the world has 
ever had since Jesus Christ rose 
from the dead. How are we going 
to know whether Joseph Smith was 
telling the truth or not ? These are 
two things by which we can test his 
statement, one is to be found in the 
Book of Mormon itself. The Book 
of Mormon is a tangible thing. We 
can test the truthfulness of the Book 
of Mormon by going into the book 
itself, which I propose to do. 

I am going to ask you next year 
to consider the. ideas that we find in 
the Book of Mormon. By ideas I 
mean the doctrines of the Book of 
Mormon. Some of these doctrines 
are truly remarkable. The idea of 
the pre-earth life, for instance, in 
the Book of Mormon, has never 
been revealed to man, so far as we 
know. Where did Joseph Smith get 
it? Then I am going to ask you to 
consider the views which we hold 
of the people of his day, with a view 
of finding out whether he could have 
got his ideas from these people. 
Then I am going to ask you to con- 
sider such ideas as the free agency 
of man in the Book of Mormon ; the 
power of God in the Holy Spirit, 
which helps man to live properly, 
and some of the social, economic and 
spiritual truths that we are expected 
to live, according to the Book of 
Mormon. In this way we shall be 
able to cover the main doctrinal 
features of the Book of Mormon. 

The other thing by which we are 
able to test the Book of Mormon, is 
the testimony of the truthfulness of 
Joseph Smith's statement, and the 
testimony of the witness of the Book 
of Mormon, and I am going to take 
them up in a slightly different way 
from which we usually take them 
up. So I am going to close the 
Book of .Mormon study with as 



much in the way of evidence as we 
can get from the witnesses and the 
Book of Mormon teachings them- 
selves, so as to have an estimate of 
the truthfulness of the statement of 
Joseph Smith concerning the ap- 
pearance of this resurrected man to 
him. If we can find out that he was 
telling the truth, then we have some 
foundation for the teachings of the 
Book of Mormon about heaven. We 
want to know what we are going to 
do when we die, and the Book of 
Mormon helps us to get an idea of 
heaven, especially in view of the fact 
that Mormon lived on this continent, 
that he died here, was raised from 
the dead, and did some service to 
his f ellowmen in our own day. That 
is the outline in brief, of what we 
are going to study next year. 

I imagine that this ought to be 
faith promoting. I do not think, of 
course, that this is going to prove 
the immortality of the soul, that can- 
not be done ; the only way jby which 
we can know these things ourselves, 
is to have them revealed to us, but 
aside from that we can have evi- 
dence in the testimony of other peo- 
ple, which we can test by certain 
fundamental laws, and that testi- 
mony, if it stands the test, will en- 
able us to have a better and clearer 
idea of where we are going, than 
we could possibly have through any 
other means. 

I do not want you to expect too 
much from the course, but you may 
expect at least that. 

I /hope that you will catch the 
main thread in this series of lessons, 
viz., that we are doing to find out. 
through the teachings of the Book 
of Mormon, and the testimony of 
the witnesses, as to its divinity, 
whether Joseph Smith was telling 
the truth, and whether we can rely 
upon his word respecting the ap- 
pearance of Mormon, a resurrected 
being, to him. 



322 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Literary Department 

MRS. JENNIE B. KNIGHT 

Chairman 



RS. CHRISTEN JENSEN 



literary composition from its very 
old simple form, and pointed out 
the distinguishing characteristics of 
the modern art. She called atten- 
tion to the nations where the great- 



IV* gave a very fine address and est development has been reached, 
demonstrations upon the Short and gave some artistic examples of 
Story. She traced this type of beautiful short stories. 



The Social Service Lesson Department 



MRS. 



INEZ K. ALLEN 

Chairman 



LESSON preview was given by 
Professor M. Wilford Poulsen 
of the Brigham Young University. 

He stated in continuing the per- 
sonality lessons, Overstreet's "In- 
fluencing Human Behavior" would 
be the text book for the year. The 
aim of all the lessons is to enable 
Relief Society women to enrich their 
own personalities and enhance their 
efficiency in the service of others. 
The subjects of lessons for the year 
are as follows : 

1. Psychology and Personal De- 
velopment. 

Visiting Teacher Class Leaders' Department 

MRS. LOTTA PAUL BAXTER 

Chairman 



2. Making New Friends. 

3. Influencing People by Letters 
and Conversation. 

4. Modifying Habit Systems. 

5. Habit Formation. 

6. Improving Our Ability to 
Think Straight. 

7. Diagnosing and Influencing the 
Public. 

8. Developing Initiative and Per- 
sonality. 

9. Social Conflicts and Social 
Progress. 

A talk was given by Mrs. Eunice 
Jacobsen Miles of Yale Ward, on 
'The Creative Mind." 



T 



HE Worth of the Teachers' 
Topic and the Meeting, was 



carry over, is the occasion of the 
meeting. There is no more impor- 
tant work than that of the teacher, 
nor one offering greater opportuni- 
ties. If the preparation is prayerful 



given by Mrs. Hazel H. Greenwood, and adequate, there can be no fail- 
The great importance of the ures. 



Teachers to the organization was 
stressed. The good they have done 
can never be fully recounted. The 
need for keeping abreast of the times 
and for recognition of the prepara- 
tion is felt. The institution of the 

Topic, and the Teacher Training definite and Inspiring that it will get 
Meeting constitute the answer to all thinking, studying and talking 
this demand. A worthwhile mes- on the subject. In the wards the 
sage in every home is the burden of assignment should be made at least 
the topic. The way in which to one week previous to the topic being 
present this message so that it will given ; and to the ward leaders, it 



Teacher's Topic for June 

"Our Responsibility to Our- 
selves" 

Mrs. Mary C. Kimball 
The assignment should be 



so 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 323 

should be assigned at the union son presentation in the training 

meeting the month preceding the meeting: Why do we not often 

time it is to be given. speak of our responsibility to our- 

Suggestive assignment: Mem- selves? Do we love ourselves too 
orize quotations on education, much or not enough? What did 
Which appeals most strongly to Jesus say regarding self-love? Give 
you ? Why ? Define personality, quotations from the lesson regarding 
(See index of Overstreet's "Influ- love for self. Which do we neglect 
encing Human Behavior.") Come most, our physical, mental, or spir- 
with suggestions on how to improve itual well being ? Why should we 
physically, mentally and spiritually, cultivate our best selves? What do 
Study your people carefully to de- we do when we appear at our best? 
termine what part of the lesson each Why should we persistently and con- 
needs most. Study how you can tinuously develop our intelligence? 
get each one thinking along the lines Point out ways we may improve our 
she needs most. What will you make habit systems. Give concrete sug- 
the entering wedge for this topic? gestions for spiritual growth. Sug- 
Note : Be sure to get the women gest ways to improve our physical 
whom you visit talking. Study how well being. Show how the wife and 
to do it. Do not just pour the sub- mother who senses her responsibility 
ject into them. Your visits should to herself makes a better wife and 
be conversational treats. mother than is possible if she neg- 

Suggestive questions for the les- lects herself. 

Social Service Case Work Department 

AMY BROWN LYMAN Board of County Commissioners 

Chairman authorizes the expenditure of money 

for charitable purposes. In eight 

Church and County Welfare Work : counties charity expenditures in- 

Practices in Cooperation creased every year during the five 

Cooperation in Family Welfare year period under consideration, 

Work — Observations from notwithstanding the fact that this 

a State Survey was a period of increasingly good 

n ;,. T .„ .. T7 T times. In ten more, or 56%, the 

By Alden LillywMe Utah State al trend was upwarcL Eighteen 

Agricultural College counties, 66 % , increased in the five 
HE survey was carried out in year period under consideration; 
this manner: General infor- only eleven decreased charity ex- 
mation was procured from every penditures ; four, or 15%, remained 
county in the State, some of the practically the same. The county 
work done by the county and some clerks said they thought the com- 
by the Church in that county; and missioners were handling the char- 
then a detailed study was made in ity and welfare problems adequately, 
one particular county of everything that nothing more need be done, 
done in charity welfare work in Twenty-seven of the counties that 
that county. The first thing I will answered the questionnaire reported 
give is the result of the State sur- spending practically the entire 
vey, then practices and cooperation, amount of money given for charity 
and then the results of some of the to individuals themselves ; there was 
detailed study. very little — almost a negligible 
In every county in the State the amount — being spent for supervi- 



324 RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 

sion. In other words, there was no trained workers to do investigating 

supervision in spending of charity — it puts a person on the charity list, 

by the county commissioners. Salt sends the check every month, very 

Lake County is not included because seldom is able to take a person off 

the conditious in that county vary the permanent list ; while the L. D. 

so much that it is practically impos- S. Church is in closer touch with 

sible to class them with the rural the work that is done. If an epi- 

conditions in the other counties. demic comes, or a period of hard 

It was not possible to get statistics times, the Church expenditures in- 

from the counties regarding what crease, and then as conditions im- 

the Church does. In 1925, one prove, the expenditures decrease ac- 

county paid out $12,630; in 1929, cording to the need. Still, there is 

five years later, the same county a general trend to increase, 
paid out $16,000, making an increase 

of $3,370, or 25 % increase in five Rehe f Work Don ^ h Cities 
years. During the same years, the A city is not ordinarily thought 
number receiving help increased 320 f as a charity relief organization, 
persons or 76% in five years. The The city officials have no funds pro- 
population of the county during v jded for that purpose, and persons 
the same years, decreased 500 peo- applying for charity are referred to 
pie. In 1925 four percent of the t h e county commissioners. The 
people of the county were helped cities, however, often exempt charity 
from county funds; in 1929, the cases from the payment of water 
number of people helped had an d light rates. Eleven percent of 
reached 6% of the entire population the population of a city was given 
of the county. Seventy cases out h e l p in this way in 1925, and the 
of 185, or 39%, received help tern- ngure was ra i se d to 13% by 1929. 
porarily during the five years that A city manager told me that some 
were studied ; 158 cases out of 185, people are exempt from the payment 
or 84%, received help permanently f these taxes who had daily in- 
every year after being put on the com es from investments which 
county list. This may indicate that am0 unted to more than his salary, 
we put people on the charity list and They had perhaps been in an emer- 
seldom take them off. gent situation at some previous time 

Summary of L. D. S. Church Work ?. n <| unable *° P^ the w * t( : r * nd 

Done in Counties h S ht rat * s > thelr ™ mes ^ ^ n 

put on the exempt list and had re- 
Figures in the Church are dif- mained there, 
ferent. Church expenditures for Th$ Counf Qls a Whde 
charity in one county decreased 

from $7,545 in 1925 to $6,895 in In one county, 170 people in 

1929, a decrease of $650 or 9%. 1925 were given $32,000 by ap- 

In these same years, the Church proximately 18,000 people. In 1929, 

population increased 30% ; the 16,000 people were given $38,000 

number receiving help decreased by 18,000 people. The total amount 

130, or 10%. Three, or 12% of given in the county increased ap- 

the wards increased expenditures proximately $5,000 or 16%, an 

every year ; eight or 28 % decreased, average increase of $1,194 every 

while nine, or 36 % , remained about year. The number receiving help 

the same. This indicates that the increased approximately 320% ; the 

county has a set method, without number of people carrying the 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



325 



burden was reduced 2,500, or 8%. 
The per capita cost of relief in one 
particular county was $1.80 in 1925, 
$2.06 in 1929. I secured the names 
of all persons receiving help from 
the three main sources, and found 
that 36% of all the cases in the 
locality were getting aid from all 
three sources. 

I formulated several questions de- 
signed to show how the agencies co- 
operated with each other in handling 
the welfare work done in the county. 
I asked them to give the exact prac- 
tices of cooperation, who the agen- 
cies were, the method followed, and 
the results obtained. 100% an- 
swered that they cooperated in some 
way with other agencies. 100% an- 
swered that they thought a greater 
degree of cooperation could be 
achieved with little or no additional 
cost. To the question, What or- 
ganization or procedure would you 
suggest the answer was, a State De- 
partment of Public Welfare or a 
centralized head, or a State Depart- 
ment of Public Welfare with trained 
county workers. 

Due to a lack of cooperation, it 
was found that relief was actually 
going to people who did not want. 
In one locality, the Parent-Teachers 
Association collected clothing for 
children and distributed it through 
the schools to families whom the 
teachers thought might need it. The 
next day they had parents there 
from every home to find out why 
charity was being forced on their 
children. 

The county did a very remarkable 
piece of work which I will give the 
Relief Society credit for inaugurat- 
ing, and that is the matter of ma- 
ternity and child welfare, which you 
are all familiar with. Through the 
stake, a number of wards got to- 
gether, secured doctors' services 
during clinic days, and the Relief 
Society, through the stake organiza- 



tion, got the wards together, pooled 
their resources, and did a great 
amount of preventive work. That 
is one of the most outstanding prin- 
ciples developed in the last years, 
and I certainly compliment the peo- 
ple who put that into effect. 

With regard to stake aids and 
the matter of establishing a perma- 
nent record of every case, your ef- 
forts in this direction are to be com- 
mended. 

One bishop o. k.'s every cent of 
charity spent in his town except that 
spent by the different lodge organi- 
zations. There are seven different 
organizations that come to him be- 
fore a cent of money is spent. He 
can do that for this reason : he is 
bishop of the ward ; he is mayor of 
the city, and president of the Lions 
Club. The work done in that town 
shows what can ,be accomplished 
through the cooperation that can be 
secured through a centralized head. 

I asked each person investigated 
how many agencies were doing char- 
ity relief work in the town. I got 
answers from 100%. The total 
number listed was 32% of the en- 
tire amount. Twenty-eight agencies 
in one town are giving charity, and 
the heads of all these organizations 
to whom I talked only knew of ten. 

I have secured a great deal of 
very interesting information from 
the survey I have made. In spite 
of the fact that we are handling 
charity cases, we do not know all 
there is to know about it. When I 
took a card and went out and asked 
for specific information to put on 
that card as to amount in wages, 
charity given, etc., there was not 
one bishop or Relief Society pres- 
ident or head of any other organi- 
zation that knew exactly what the 
family needed. We need to adopt 
some of the newer methods that 
your Relief Society directors are 
trying to give to yon. 



326 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



Cooperation Between Salt Lake County Charity 
Department and L. D. S. Relief Society 



B. F. QUINN 

Commissioner of Health and 
Charities, Salt Lake County 

r T O me this is a privilege and a 
* pleasure and a great honor to 
appear before this gathering of this 
organization with its great historical 
background. If there was need for 
the organization of this Relief So- 
ciety in 1842, it has grown today 
with the great changes in transpor- 
tation, in industry, in manufactur- 
ing, in the life that we are living, 
many, many fold. Today we are 
leading a complex life that takes 
us away from the very fundamental 
bulwarks of our civilization — the 
home, the church, and the school. 
The conditions under which we are 
living, the grouping of the people 
in cities under unsanitary condi- 
tions that are not conducive to 
health, are reasons why this organ- 
ization which has now grown, I 
understand, to 65,000, has every 
reason to exist. 

I feel that we are'particularly for- 
tunate to have an organization of 
this strength, of this type, that 
reaches into every county, into every 
city, into every town and hamlet ; 
and we should use you people to the 
very best of our ability. Serving 
as I do the people of Salt Lake 
County, I might say that practically 
all of the social legislation that is 
written into our laws comes under 
the direct supervision or direction of 
the county commissioner. I believe 
that he comes closer to the lives of 
the people than any other public 
servant I know. He supervises the 
health of the people, the milk sup- 
plies, the health of the community, 
the hospitalization of the poor. The 
care of the poor aged and the burial 



of the indigent dead is under the 
direction of the county. In other 
words, your county commissioners 
are the social service agency of the 
State, and that commissioner who 
has the department of health and 
charity is the social service worker. 
It seems as though this would be 
an opportune time to establish a 
minimum standard of social work 
throughout the entire state. We 
have a tendency in parties and 
politics to treat most everyone in a 
political way. It is only natural that 
the charity department of a county 
government should become a politi- 
cal thing under the control of poli- 
tics. It is time, in my judgment, 
that we work toward the end of 
taking that department away from 
partisan politics. The powers of the 
county commissioner are great. You 
may get an idea of how it is possible 
to work in politics with the powers 
he has. In delinquent tax matters, a 
county commissioner is all powerful. 
He can adjust, compromise or abate 
these taxes. If he hasn't the proper 
social background, it is probable 
that that power can be used for 
political purposes. For instance, we 
have a $10 widow's abatement tax, 
but there is no such law on the 
statute books. That section does not 
even mention the word widow. 
There is a $10 abatement in the 
statute allowed to any idiotic, insane, 
aged person who is incapable of 
making a livelihood. I had an ex- 
perience which I wish to recite to 
you in this connection. There was a 
lady I had known since a child. Her 
husband at one time was in business 
in Salt Lake City; he accumulated 
considerable money in this city in 
mining property ; he died several 
years ago, leaving the lady a widow. 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



327 



If she is worth a dollar, I would say 
she is worth $250,000. She came 
into my office two years ago, soon 
after my election, and requested her 
$10 abatement. If she had attempted 
to put another ring on her fingers, 
it would have dropped on the desk. 
She drove up in a Packard car. I 
told her it would be impossible to 
give her an abatement. She said she 
had had it for twelve years, that it 
was her right and her privilege. I 
said it could not be given her, and I 
suppose I ihave an enemy for life. 
That is one incident of how that 
office can or might be used. 

Salt Lake County works in the 
closest harmony and cooperation 
with your Society. We have in Salt 
Lake County, a confidential ex- 
change and through that exchange 
every case that comes to us is 
cleared. If it is a Family Service 
case, it is referred to the Family 
Service Society; if a Relief Society 
case, it is referred to the Relief So- 
ciety ; if it is a county case, we take 
it. During the year 1930, according 
to the charity report for that year, 
the Relief Society distributed for 
Salt Lake County $15,299 in gro- 
ceries, $12,00 in milk, $1,517 in coal, 
and $3,348 in rent, making a total of 
$20,176. That money has been ex- 
pended not by the Relief Society 



but by the county, after the investi- 
gation by the Relief Society trained 
workers, and I have no question but 
what that money went to do the 
most good. When a case comes to 
us, it is referred to the Relief So- 
ciety, they investigate the case and 
recommend to the county the 
amount of relief they feel should be 
put in. If we did not cooperate 
with the Relief Society it would 
mean that within Salt Lake City, 
Salt Lake County would have to 
maintain five or six additional work- 
ers, so we make full use of your 
organization and your trained work- 
ers. 

I wish to commend you upon the 
institutes that you have established 
for the training of workers. I have 
noticed in (my department that since 
the institution of that school that 
we are cooperating in the county 
outside the city Himits to a much 
better advantage. These workers 
who have had training are doing a 
much better piece of work than they 
were formerly, and I think that it 
is to the mutual advantage of the 
county and the Relief Society to 
work in the close cooperation that 
we have done in the past. I thank 
you for this opportunity of appear- 
ing before you here today. 



Cooperation With Client, Neighbors, Relatives, Church 



ANNIE D. PALMER 

WE live in a coperative age. 
Our job is a get-together job. 
While in its nature social work is 
private and confidential there are 
individuals who will be our stoutest 
allies or our most powerful oppon- 
ents according to the wisdom and 
tact with which we treat our prob- 
lem. To know when and with 
whom to share ,our planning is a 
matter of vital importance. As Miss 



MacLean puts it in her interesting 
book, "Our Neighbors," one thou- 
sand poor people are just like one 
thousand rich people except for the 
absence of things. So we must treat 
our poor neighbors considerately, as 
we treat our rich neighbors and with 
the same regard for their likes and 
dislikes. 

That success in case work de- 
pends upon wholehearted coopera- 
tion between worker and client is 
obvious. There is in the heart of 



328 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



everyone the desire to make his own 
plans and to work out his own pro- 
jects. Even though a man has failed 
miserably in many things he still 
wants to have his say about what 
the next move is to be and how it 
shall be made. We on the outside 
may feel that if we are to help we 
have a right to say that he must do 
thus and so, but to so try to force 
the issue is surely an admission of 
our own failure. It < is like the 
youngster who owns the ball and 
says to his mates, "if you don't let 
me pitch you can't play." If they 
give up to him they think him a 
selfish prig, and if they do not, the 
fun is ended. It's failure in either 
case. 

What is the object of our plan- 
ning anyway? If I make for my 
client the hest plan that can possibly 
be evolved and work the plan in the 
most perfect fashion, what have I 
really done for him? What expe- 
rience did he get from my planning ? 
What incentive ? What new insight ? 
What spur to his ambition? Did I 
enhance his strength or increase his 
weakness when I relieved him of the 
necessity of using his own head as 
well as his own hands? 

What then can I do for the person 
who comes to me for assistance? 
Much. Help him, perhaps, to in- 
terpret his difficulty. Lead him to 
discover and evaluate his resources. 
Release him from fear, prejudice, 
jealousy and other inhibitions that 
bind him. Explain whatever there 
is of opportunity that he does not 
understand. Open his eyes to goals 
he has not seen, to joys he has failed 
to appreciate. Suggest approaches, 
ways, means, possibilities. And 
stand by, the friend in whom he can 
always confide ; to whom he can 
always come with the certainty of 
meeting truth in its simplest guise. 

With the client bravely working 
out the intricate pattern of his own 



life, there will be times when I can 
help to lift a too heavy obstacle, or 
provide shelter from a too merciless 
storm. He will appreciate .the 
service and not weaken. It is his 
plan. I am but the humble instru- 
ment who opened the door or 
watched while he wrought. Thus I 
may cooperate with the person I am 
to serve. Carl DeSchweinitz in 
"The Art of Helping People Out 
of Trouble," quotes from the Life 
and Letters of Walter H. Page: 
"A man ought to express himself, 
ought to live his own life, say his 
own say, before silence comes. The 
'say' may be bad — a mere yawp, and 
silence might be more becoming. But 
the same argument would make a 
man dissatisfied with his own nose 
if it happened, to be ugly. It's his 
nose, and he must content himself. 
So it's his yawp, and he must let 
it go." 

Seldom is the person or the fam- 
ily in trouble so isolated that other 
eyes are not watching the progress 
or other minds questioning the plan, 
the treatment, and the outcome. The 
friend or neighbor who reported to 
the agency will be very critical if 
no report comes to tell him whether 
or not the appeal fell on ears that 
did not hear. More than that, he 
may frustrate the very objective for 
which we strive if he does not know 
or understand the purpose. An old 
case from our files will illustrate: 
Mrs. Bowman, a widow with four 
young children, was reported to an 
agency by Mrs. Grace, a neighbor. 
The case was described as one of 
the worst cases of neglect. Words 
could not express the condition of 
helplessness on the part of the moth- 
er nor the pity elicited on behalf of 
the innocent children. The case 
worker had long been trying to build 
up the family in which the mother 
and one of the children were defi- 
nitely feeble-minded. Now after 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



329 



most careful deliberation and expert 
advice, she turned to the J. C. with 
the recommendation that three of 
the children be placed permanently 
with relatives whose comfortable 
homes were open to receive them. 
The feeble-minded child was to re- 
main with her mother. Through 
cooperation with these same rel- 
atives Mrs. Bowman was persuaded 
to consent to the arrangement. But 
Mrs. Grace threw a bomb into the 
otherwise peaceful proceeding and 
came near to undoing the entire 
plan. She aired her view garru- 
lously among neighbors, Relief So- 
ciety workers, and other ward of- 
ficials. It was the most cruel, the 
most unreasonable, the most un- 
heard of way of helping imaginable ; 
and whoever thought it out should 
be sent to jail for life where no 
more of her nefarious schemes could 
be set in motion against unfortunate 
humanity. Only the wisdom of the 
stake president silenced the neigh- 
bor's bitter denunciations. When 
she came to the president he said 
calmly: "Yes, it is terrible! I un- 
derstand that those three untrained, 
underfed, cold, neglected and abused 
little children are to be transplanted 
into real homes with relatives of 
their dead father. Isn't it an awful 
thing?" Mrs. Grace was hushed. 
She probably would have said noth- 
ing in the first place had someone 
taken the trouble to report back to 
her with some little explanation of 
what had been done and what might 
be necessary. Neighbors hear some 
things in spite of us, and often get 
a distorted story. I sometimes 
wonder if in our intense desire to 
put over a business-like job we for- 
get the offices of the good neighbor 
or the importance of what social 
workers term the friendly visitor. 
My most grateful recollections of a 
very active Relief Society worker 
who has gone beyond, are recollec- 



tions of lessons of thrift and clean- 
liness and morality, she efficiently 
carried into the home of one of my 
most needy clients. She was |a 
neighbor in the sense of living near 
by. She was also a neighbor in the 
sense expressed in the Master's par- 
able of the Good Samaritan. When 
Mrs. L. needed underwear for the 
children the good neighbor said: 
"I'll show you how to make it from 
the remnants you can buy so very 
cheap at the knitting mills." If in 
summer, "We'll just make that from 
flour bags." When outer garments 
were the requirement, "Here's a 
dress my daughter can't wear to 
work any longer, we can make it 
over for a school frock." In the 
course of a morning's call she would 
say : "Doesn't it take a lot of work 
to keep clean? I'm trying to train 
my youngsters to put all their own 
things away, and to keep the house 
always fit for visitors. Would you 
like some plants for the garden? I'll 
give you some and the hoys will 
enjoy caring for them. Do you 
practice buying your groceries on 
bargain days? I hardly ever buy 
meat except on Wednesday and Sat- 
urday. Then I get a nice boiling 
piece and 1:reat' the /family to a 
wholesome stew or pot pie. It 
shocks me terribly to hear my boys 
use bad language. I think every 
Latter-day Saint, rich or poor, can 
be clean in language and habits. Go- 
ing to Sunday School helps a lot 
along that line." So week after 
week, month after month, quietly, 
faithfully, unobtrusively, this one 
friendly visitor worked with her 
family. Not in the life of this 
neighbor, perhaps, might the good 
she did be measured. But her in- 
fluence will continue on, and the 
family of Mrs. L. must always be 
better for the lessons so tactfully 
taught. 

In the Bowman case relatives 



330 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



were taken into account and became 
a part of the plan. This was not so 
in the problem of Mr. Garn, a tuber- 
cular man. In this case Mr. and 
Mrs. Garn agreed with the case 
worker that the only hope of re- 
covery for Mr. Garn as well as the 
only safety for the wife and six chil- 
dren, lay in his getting rest and 
treatment in the T. JB. ward of the 
General Hospital. In their anxiety 
and perplexity they overlooked the 
very important item of consulting 
relatives, particularly the mother of 
Mr. Garn, who was sending help 
every month from another state. 
When the mother was informed 
after he was admitted to the hos- 
pital, she was so angry that she 
refused to send further aid ; and the 
worry so caused greatly retarded 
the recovery of the sick man. 

Quite naturally the person in 
trouble asks why we want to know 
about his relatives when we have 
already been assured they cannot 
give assistance. The answer is 
simple. We are never quite sure 
that we know our problem until we 
have looked at it from various 
angles. Neither can we estimate 
what some seemingly small service 
may mean when there is need of 
that particular service. While Mr. 
Jack was in a hospital his brother 
went to the home every day to carry 
the coal from the basement for the 
wife whose health was precarious. 
Mrs. May cared for her cousin's 
two year old baby for a whole year 
in order that the cousin could work 
for the support of her little family. 
The Roberts family consisting of 15 
or 16 members contributed a dollar 
each per month to the support of a 
widowed in-law and her family 
over a period of 8 years. 

A relative of Mrs. Smith kept one 
child in shoes, and one sent a roast 
for dinner every Sunday. Visits, 
car rides, summer outings, are some 



of the services we may expect from 
kinsfolk who are not able to make 
substantial regular contributions. 
And such services are not to be 
counted of little consequence. They 
are the ties that bind, and their 
worth is not to be measured in terms 
of cash. 

We must relate these expressions 
of good will to the need of the 
client for the strengthening of fam- 
ily ties. As one old fashioned wom- 
an has quaintly said : "I alius want 
to feel close enough to Mary to go 
to her to borry bread. That's the 
reason for bein' sisters." 

Strengthening family ties is part 
of our job. The brother who said: 
I didn't know Sis was having such 
a struggle" will be happier for doing 
his bit to lighten the burden of his 
widowed sister; and the daughter 
who for years has neglected writing 
to her lonely old dad will increase 
his joy and add to her own if she 
but writes a letter or sends him a 
pair of socks from a Kress store. 
Families need one another. If we 
are to help best we must make 
stronger the natural ties of kinship 
and affection. 

In closing let me plead for co- 
operation with the Church. Per- 
haps because of indifference, or sick- 
ness, or poverty, your client has not 
been active in his Church for years. 
He comes as a stranger seeking 
food, fuel or shelter. Shall these 
be supplied and no effort be made 
to feed him with the bread of life? 
In the Mormon Church we boast 
that there is something for everyone 
to do. Can we help the humble 
wanderer to find the thing that is 
for him, and put him in the way of 
the doing? The various organiza- 
tions of the Church must be our 
allies. One young woman who had 
done no Church work advanced 
rapidly in Mutual and became a 
stake counselor because someone 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



331 



recognized and called into use her 
hidden talent. A poor widow be- 
came active and efficient in ward 
Relief Society work when the pres- 
ident was persuaded to invite her 
to join the Relief Society choir. 
Afterward when she led the same 
choir her happiness was almost 
complete. Recognition is so vital 
a thing - ! Perhaps that is why God 
gives to his people so many things 
to do. While it may not be the 



business of the Social worker to 
teach religion, it is distinctly her 
task to see that her client is bene- 
fited by the morality, the courage, 
the patience, the spiritual influences, 
that only the Church can give. 
Strengthening Church ties is a part 
of our job. 

And so we come back to where we 
began. We live in a cooperative 
age and work in a cooperative field. 



Choristers' and Organists' Department 



MRS. IDA PETERSON BEAL 

Chairman 

Gleanings From Music Institute 
MRS. IDA PETERSON BEAL 

I WAS very happy to attend all of 
these sessions of the Music In- 
stitute, and I gathered a great deal. 
It shows what a wonderful spirit we 
have among the choristers and or- 
ganist's of raising the standards of 
music in our Church and of lending 
their support to the fostering of fine 
music. Let us use the music pos- 
sibilities that we have, and make the 
most of them. Professor Lund said, 
in the talk that he gave that "song 
is glorified speech." 

Where there is no practice, there 
is no interest ; and where there is 
no interest, there is no progress." 

To the choristers and organists is 
given a great responsibility. Music 
is a language that all can under- 
stand. It is the flower of our civil- 
ization. Now see to it that you 
know the words of your song. Then, 
fit the music to the members you 
have. You all know what that 
means. Don't try to teach them 
arias from the operas, but teach 
them to sing their hymns beauti- 
fully. When you come, know ex- 



actly what you are going to do. 
Know the songs, the pages they are 
on, etc. If your group feels that 
you have the spirit of unprepared- 
ness, it is certain to filter over to 
the group. In the Relief Society 
the stakes can outline a program 
and all of the units within the stake 
can be learning the same song. 

See that your music reflects the 
standards of your people. Let your 
music keep pace with the other fine 
activities of the Relief Society. 

There should l>e cooperation be- 
tween the music activities of your 
ward. You should help the Mutual, 
and the Mutual should help you. 
Through the efforts of all the 
groups, you should raise the music 
standards of your community. 

PROFESSOR J. SPENCER 
CORNWALL 

T THINK there are two real out- 
* standing purposes to which we 
have put our music — one is to unify 
the group. All are doing the same 
thing at the same time. That is a 
very wonderful thing. Music with 
its rhythm is one of the most orderly 
things we have in the world. I sup- 
pose if heaven is made up of order 
it will be very rhythmical. You 
must be in time. Things must be 
done exactly so. Then the second 



332 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



thing is to express emotions — or in 
our case, very largely religious 
fervor. Most of the songs are re- 
ligious songs, with religious senti- 
ment in the words. These are the 
two outstanding things that we have 
followed. 

There is a third thing which is 
coming in more and more — to add to 
the cultural development. 

I think there is still another way. 
We sing at our work, don't we? 
We can keep ourselves in a good 
attitude in that way. Music must 
have that connection, otherwise it is 
a thing apart. 

All part-singing is of excellence 
according to the way the ability of 
the group is handled. Not every- 
one can sing a part. First, hold 
your own. Sing your part and 
don't get it mixed up with the per- 
son's on the other side of you. The 
second thing is to blend. Blending 
is that' peculiar phenomena of tone 
that is inexplainable but produces a 
beautiful effect. We know some- 
thing about it, but not all about it. 
Blending is an amalgamation of the 
tone that takes place to unify all of 
it'. That has to happen. 

We must sing with our hearts in 
it. We sing* notes, tones, or what- 
ever it is. The expression makes 
music a part of us that is the thing 
that finally makes music worthwhile. 
There is only one difficulty with the 
whole situation — s o m e o n e else 
writes the song, and we have to fit 
into their idea and feel their in- 
spiration. If we could sing as we 
feel, and could make up our own 
music all of the time, it would be 
much easier. We have to get that 
same naturalness into it by finding 
out what the other person had in 
mind. 

I am very happy to be with you, 
and ask the Lord to bless you. 
Amen. 



Correlation Program of Songs to 
the Lesson of Each Month. 

MRS. TRESSA L. ERICKSON 

ALREADY we have heard much 
that regards the correlation of 
our songs to our work, and this is a 
subject in which I have long been 
vitally interested. It strikes a very 
responsive chord in my heart when 
I hear it comes from the proper 
sources. We are told that music 
is a problem of emotion. In our 
lessons in the Relief Society, we 
have the emotional, as well as the 
religious, and the social service 
work, which make up a part of our 
lives. It speaks for culture, and 
we, as Relief Society people, are 
united heart and hand in doing any- 
thing we can to further and promote 
the cultural part of our lives. I 
find in my experience that no place 
in the world is the same cooperation 
that I find in the Relief Society 
members. They are rallying to our 
support 100% in our stake, and 
helping put over the things we have 
thus far suggested. 

When possible, use seasonable 
songs, or songs that are fitting for 
that particular occasion. We don't 
want to sing a winter song on a 
bright spring morning, or a summer 
song on Christmas morning, for the 
songs fit from a seasonable point of 
view, as well as the particular oc- 
casion. 

Our responsibility as the chorister 
or organist is one of no little con- 
sequence. 

We do not want to destroy ini- 
tiative in giving out these correlated 
programs. We give these songs as 
suggestive material. 

Another thing that is coming out 
of the correlated program, is a much 
better response on the part of the 
ward choristers and organists. They 
are there early; they have their 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



333 



books passed, and are ready to go. 
They are then ready for the begin- 
ning of the meeting. Hardly ever 
do we have a chorister or organist 
absent. They are feeling their re- 
sponsibilities ; they are not apolo- 
gizing for their position as chorister 
and organist. They are adding dig- 
nity to the position, and are putting 
it over in that same spirit'. 



In our union meetings we put 
over these correlated programs, and 
we frequently have them do the 
work and ask them to take up these 
new practice songs and put them 
over in our little groups. We also 
ask them to suggest the practice 
songs for the month. This gives 
them originality and initiative, and 
it also gives us some greater variety. 



GENERAL MEETING 

Morning Session, Friday, April 3, 1931 



PRESIDENT LOUISE Y. 
ROBISON 

WE are happy to have our mis- 
sion presidents with us. For 
some time we have discussed the ad- 
visability of -having this meeting in 
honor of the mothers, or the women 
of the Church who have contributed 
their wonderful sacrifices for the 
missionary cause of the Church. 
From the very beginning our women 
have willingly and lovingly sent 
forth husbands and sons, and in the 
later years, their daughters, to pro- 
claim the Gospel, and it seems to 
me that it is one of the greatest con- 
tributions that women have ever 
made. In the early part of Church 
history we read that some of the 
early Apostles left their wives at 
home sick in bed, and we read of 
that courageous woman who was 
assisted from her bed to go to the 
door and wave goodbye and 'God 
speed to her husband. Women's 
hearts throughout this whole Church 
have just gone out in loving prayers 
for husbands, sons and daughters, 
and the sacrifices they have made. 
I am sure many of you have gone 
without the clothing that you would 
have enjoyed, or some lovely piece 
of furniture in your home which 
you had anticipated having, and have 
gladly given it to send a missionary 



on his way. So this morning I 
feel that we are greatly blessed in 
having so many women with us. 
If it would not be out of place, I 
think it would be interesting to have 
a show of hands of all the women 
here who have had, or now have, 
people in the missions. Would you 
kindly raise your hands, you sisters 
who ever had people in the mission 
field. (Nearly all raised their 
hands.) 

Our morning session is going to 
be given over to listening to reports 
of the women who have represented 
the Relief Society in the missions in 
the United States, in Canada, and 
in the European Mission, and I am 
sure that the love and prayers that 
you sisters have carried in your 
hearts through all these years and 
that are in your hearts this morning 
will ascend to our Father in Heaven, 
and that we will have a rich out- 
pouring of the Spirit of the Lord, 
and that we will be richly blessed. 

MRS. CHARLOTTE C. STAHR 

Relief Society President, California 
Mission 

I HAVE been asked to report the 
work done by the Relief Societies 
of the California Mission, which 
comprises 58 organizations — 37 in 



334 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



California, 13 in Arizona, and 8 in 
Nevada. 

It is my pleasure to travel with 
my counselors through this mission 
twice each year, and give to them 
our hope, and our courage, and our 
faith ; to assist them in performing 
the duties and labors devolving up- 
on them as Relief Society workers. 
We always feel happy to meet these 
dear sisters of the mission and to 
strengthen and encourage them, for 
we realize that they are handicapped 
to a certain extent. 

We have now organized a plan in 
the California Mission whereby we 
have a Union Meeting each month 
wherever it! lis possible to Ibring 
three or four organizations together. 
One organization will take part and 
carry on the work for one month, 
and the next month another, and 
so on until each organization has 
had charge of the work. Then they 
start over again. In these union 
meetings we expect one organiza- 
tion to take charge of the work, 
present the lessons, and have each 
class leader take the group of class 
leaders to one part of the building, 
and there explain their methods and 
systems of carrying on the class 
work. We have our secretaries 
meet together, and the presidents 
and the counselors meet together, 
and there discuss their plans and 
methods of carrying on the work. 
We have only had these meetings 
during the last few months, and so 
it has not been possible for us to 
find out just how they are working 
out throughout the mission, but 
wherever we have visited we are 
happy to say that they feel that 
there is a great deal of good ac- 
complished. 

All organizations have their 
prayer meetings before the general 
assembly, and they are carrying out 
the outlines in the Magazine to the 



very best of their ability. We have 
a wonderful group of teachers, but 
they are handicapped by the distance 
they have to travel. I have sug- 
gested in the different organizations 
where I have visited, that they take 
from the general fund money 
enough to transport them from one 
place to another in their labors as 
teachers, that they might have the 
privilege of carrying on this work, 
and that the saints may have the 
pleasure of having the teachers. 

We have received very many 
gratifying reports from some of our 
districts. This winter we have had 
hard times and many reports have 
reached us where the organizations 
have had to ido a great deal to 
alleviate distress. In one Society in 
Northern California twenty quilts 
were made and distributed to those 
in need. Coal and wood were 
purchased and clothing made over 
and new articles provided to keep 
the children and the women from 
suffering. 

In some of our organizations we 
are fortunate enough to have women 
who are taking up work which will 
help them to make their Relief So- 
cieties more successful. In one such 
we have a president who belongs to 
an art industry^ club, where they do 
sewing, dress-making, basket weav^ 
ing, flower-making, oilcloth work, 
window painting, etc., and she is 
very happy to take this work into 
her Relief Society organization, and 
to call other organizations nearby to 
come and get the .benefit of this 
work. The activity is carried on 
during the summer months, when 
we are not taking our regular work. 

In nearly all our organizations 
they hold one work and business 
meeting a month, where the teachers 
make their reports. 

In Bisbee, x\rizona, all our sisters 
are doing the very best they can in 



RELIEF SOCIETY CONFERENCE 



335 



subscribing for the Magazine and 
we are 100% in our Magazine sub- 
scriptions. They feel it is impos- 
sible for them to get the benefit of 
the lesson work unless they have 
the Magazine. 

I believe we are about 100% in 
our Book of Mormon charts. I 
have received letters from nearly 
every organization saying that they 
have received the chart ordered, and 
it has been a great help. 

We have in our organizations a 
fund, known as the "emergency 
fund." About one and a half years 
ago I traveled through the Cali- 
fornia Mission, and in many of the 
branches I found many, many peo- 
ple who were in want, and in these 
branches where the distress was felt 
most, we did not have very much in 
the treasury. The branch presidents 
were not able to give to these mem- 
bers who were in need enough to 
sustain them until they could obtain 
employment (and many of our 
members have not had employment 
in the last year or more. I was 
grieved in my soul when I saw the 
distress there was throughout our 
mission. I wondered if ,there could 
not be some plan organized whereby 
those branches who had a large 
fund, and did not seem to have 
many poor, could contribute to a 
fund that would help those who had 
nothing. I consulted President 
McMurrin and the General Board. 
We worked the plan out and asked 
each organization in the mission to 
contribute $1.00 a month from their 
general fund to be sent into the mis- 
sion office, there to be held in trust 
by President McMurrin and sent 
out, under my direction, to those 
who needed assistance, and we also 
gave those throughout the mission 
to understand that if they needed 
help they were to send direct to me 
and that help would be given to 
them. I am very happy to say that 



every organization has contributed 
its full amount in the last year, and 
has partly paid up for this coming 
year, and all seem to be one in this 
wonderful movement. 

I feel that the Lord has inspired 
the women of California with the 
spirit of charity, and that the emer- 
gency fund has been a wonderful 
blessing to the Latter-day Saints 
who have been in need. 

We are now taking care of one 
sister from Arizona, who is in Los 
Angeles being treated for an illness 
that will take many months perhaps 
to overcome, and we feel very happy 
in having this privilege to help. 

I believe that all in all California 
Mission Relief Societies are work- 
ing to the very best of their ability 
and for the advantage of the women 
in that mission. 

MRS. LALENE H. HART 

Member of the General Board and 

Former President of the Relief 

Society of the Canadian Mission 

MY dear sisters and brethren: 
I feel it quite an honor this 
morning to be called upon to repre- 
sent the Canadian Mission. 

We have been told that a good 
social service worker must have in- 
terest and desire to advance welfare 
work, sympathy and understanding, 
steadfastness, patience and persist- 
ence, tact, trustworthiness, truthful- 
ness, self control, sense of humor, 
enthusiasm, high personal stand- 
ards, and a vital spiritual life. A 
Relief Society mission president 
must have all of these qualifications 
with many more. 

There are many problems that 
come to us in the Canadian Mission, 
some of which are the territory 
which we have to cover, the need 
for cooperative spirit, the migratory 
groups with which we have to deal, 
and the lack of knowledge. 



336 



RELIEF SOCIETY MAGAZINE 



The Canadian Mission comprises 
the provinces of Ontario, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince 
Edward Isle, and Quebec, and the 
states of Maine, New Hampshire 
and Vermont. Most of our mem- 
bers, however, are in the province 
of Ontario. It is quite impossible 
for the far-off organizations, which 
are few in number and small in 
membership, to be visited very often 
by the Relief Society mission pres- 
ident, and the work suffers to that 
extent. It is so much easier to solve 
problems near their source. Then, 
too, our membership is separated so 
far in the larger cities that it takes 
so much time to go from one part 
of the city to the other. For in- 
stance, in the city of Toronto it takes 
two hours on the street car to go 
from one end to the other, and 
where our members are scattered 
you can understand how much work 
the visiting teachers would do in 
one day. However, they are doing 
that work. 

We have the need for the cooper- 
ative spirit, and by that I mean that 
we are made up of so many different 
groups that we have to harmonize 
all of these in order for each to get 
the same point of view. If we 
accomplish the things that we desire 
to accomplish there must be har- 
mony and union. Habit is a tre- 
mendously binding force. When we 
understand groups of people com- 
ing together under these conditions 
we can readily see that if one group 
does not understand the customs of 
the other, they unconsciously tram- 
ple on each others rights. 

The groups that we have, come 
from different parts of the old coun- 
try. Some of them come to Canada 
for the purpose of making their 
homes, others with the intention of 
entering the United States, and so 
just as we get them settled, and they 
seem to be working in harmony, 



some of them move, and the groups 
are disturbed again. This is a prob- 
lem that the Canadian social service 
worker has .to contend with. So 
many times people in the old country 
are given a rosy description of the 
advantages and the employment 
that they might get in Canada, and 
when they come they are sometimes 
disappointed. 

Strong national feeling can be 
very constructive and not disjunc- 
tive only if used in a mixed group 
where each nationality will do its 
best for the mixed group in the 
spirit of friendly competition. We 
ought to be very much honored by 
the way in which national groups 
appreciate our interest and are ready 
to respond to almost any extent. 
The social workers of the different 
cities are working to bring about 
proper adjustment and harmony 
which affects, to a certain extent, 
our work in the Relief Society. 

Some of the women who are try- 
ing to carry on, do not understand 
the work, their background and 
knowledge are limited. Our mis- 
sionaries as a group, go out without 
very much knowledge of Relief So- 
ciety work. It is surprising, how- 
ever, to see the amount of work they 
do and how well they meet emer- 
gencies. If you mothers and Relief 
Society women want to do some 
especially fine work to help the Re- 
lief Society in the missions there is 
an opportunity for such service. We 
have reports of the women building 
up funds for the missionaries, which 
is a very splendid idea, but if the 
same energy wit