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l^arbarti College ILihxav^ 




Bmart, L — ^Analysis, locadoBi tnd besriiigf o« Hope. • 1 17 

SicT. Q. — ^Hope continaed. — ^BlisceUaneouB inferences. • • 126 

BBfsvoLnioi.— n^ AiriLtsn, ahd thb truths tavght tuiubbt. 

Bwart. L — ^The fimedon of Imietrdence, and tbe duty and plea- 
sore of doing good. 128 


SecT. I. — Conscience innate. • • • • • • 140 

Scot. II.— /Hie natttre and rationde of right and wrong; or, 

the foundation of moral obligation. . . 144 

Sect. QL — ^T^^iat is right, and what wrong? • • . . 154 
Sect. IV. — ^Depravity. — Its origin— its exlent-4(B conditions— * 

its causes — ^ils remedy. . ... 161 

8bct. V. — Punishment, here and heveaftoTi • • « 166 

SiCT. VL — Penitence and pardon. • • • • 169 

•Ooocliisioii. •••..{. 174 

P&EFACS 10 IHS fills I EJ)IIIOir. 


PhJOBABLY no sulgect whateveci is.fraiighl widi inttrnt 
lensQ, 01 attended with consequences more momeaiitoiiai than a < 
rifion of thedoctiines inculoated| and the duties lequiredi hg timu^ 
logy, with those enjoined by the Bible. 

For about 1800 years, has the religion of Jesus Chiilti tad fm 
seyeral thousand years, have the Scriptures axerted an all'Contioi* 
ling influence over the intellects, the emotionS| and the eenduiil lOt 
mankind-— engrossing the feelings, shaping the liveSi oecupyiog^ As 
minds, and filling the souls, of untold nulUons of the humaafiunOy. 
Nor does, or should this interest diminish, 

Phrenology is also now eveiy where bacoming a solgect af«fr 
absorbing interest; and well it may, for it is founded in Tmik h 
must, it K?iZZ. prevaiL It is a demonstrative science. It is buik upon 
FACTS, infinite in both yariety and numbeL It developes and evohns 
those laws in harmony with which God created both man and the 
whole range of animated nature. Every living creature that nofir 
inhabits earth, air, or water, is a living, incontestible evidsnoe iff 
its truth, as are also all that ever have lived, or that will ever inhabit 
our globe. And men have eyes to see these £ict8, as well as intellect 
enough to perceive that they establish the truth of Phrenology beyond 
all cavil or controversy. And they are fast opening their eyes to 
these facts, and yielding to the irresistible evidence that Phrenology 
is true. Nor is it possible for any intelligent mind candidly to exam- 
ine either the facts or the principles of. this science, without beeommg 
convinced of its truth, and enamored, with its doctrines. Men oannot 
help believing it, any more than they can help seeing what they look 
at, or feeling fire when they touch it All must and will admit its 

Tiii ntiTAoi. ^ 

trntL Many already beliere it Indeed, it is now acquiring and 
exerting a moral power which nothing — absolutely nothing^-^can 
gainsay or resist It is crushing beneath the car of its triumphal pro 
gress whatever and whoever resist or oppose its advancement In 
connexion with a sister science, it is sweeping into oblivion those old 
theories, unnatural customs, and erroneous institutions, by which past 
ages have been enthralled, and even the present is yet spell-bound. 
So great is its moral power, that it will prostrate and ride over tDhat- 
ever religious doctrines, forms, or practices conflict with it. If even 
ihe Bible could be found to clash therewith, then would the Bible go by 
the board. Nothing eoidd save it ; for it would war with Truth, and 
must sufier defeat But, if it be found to harmonize with Phrenology, 
then is it based upon the rock of Truth, and defended and supported 
by those immutable laws of Nature which the all-wise Creator has 
instituted for its government ; so that neither can infidelity scathe its 
walls, nor atheism find the least support for its monstrocities ; both 
being overthrown by this science. 

' In this view of the subject, how all-absorbing the interest, how over- 
whelming the importance, how momentous the results, of a compari- 
son of the religion of Phrenology with the religion of the Bible t My 
pen fidters 1 Must I proceed ? I feel utterly inadequate to the task, 
and yet I feel that this neglected task should be and must be under- 
taken. Though the objections that Phrenology favors infidelity and 
fiitaiism, have been oflen and ably refuted, yet the real principles de- 
veloped, doctrines taught, and life required by Phrenology, have never 
yet been fully and fairly compared or contrasted with the theology 
and code of morals oi the Bible. That is, the natural theology and 
moral bearings of Phrenology, and the theology and requirements of 
the Scriptures, have never yet been placed side by side, to see 
wherein they harmonize, or wherein they difier. This ought cer- 
tainly to be done. It has been studiously, if not improperly, avoided. 
No one has stood in the breach, while erring humanity demands 
the TRUTH on this all-important subject No leaning to infidelity 
on the one hand — ^no truckling to sectarianisms on the other. Let us 


appeal to raiiiOsoFHr. The truth is required, without fear, without 
fiivor, without stint 

I know full well that no other task requires more moral courage 
than this. I know that men cling with more tenacity to their religion 
than to all else hesides. What enmity is as strong, what prejudices 
are as inveterate, as those awakened by tearing one's religion from 
him ? Like Micah, he exclaims, " Ye have taken away my GODS, 
what have I more ?" 

Still, I despair not. My hope of success in this arduous and haz- 
ardous undertaking, rests in the power of truth. This power will ul- 
timately bear down all prejudice, and break through all opposition. 
It will force men to abandon their religious errors, and to plant them- 
selves upon the broad platform of the nature of man. That nature, 
Phrenology unfolds. Sooner or later, must the religion of Phrenolo- 
gy become the religion of man. The outlines of that religion, will be 
pointed out in this work. The present generation may slumber over 
these truths — ^may even scout and reject them. Even future genera 
tions may live uncheered by the sun of moral science, and die unen- 
lightened by its rays. But the time will come when its general 
principles will govern the religious creed and the practices of man- 
kind. Then will the fiery star of sectarianism set '»* '' nal night, 
never more to torment mankind with its n» .^^mm rays, 'f'hen will 
religious bigotry and mtolerance cease for ever. Then will unre- 
strained religious liberty pervade our happy earth. Then will all 
men see eye to eye and face to face. Then will a holy life and a 
spotless soul in this world, be but the enterance of man into the enjoy- 
ment of the immortal and boundless bliss which his moral faculties are 
calculated to pour into the human soul, both here and hereailer. Come, 
glorious day ! come quickly. 

And I derive no little encouragement, that it is " nigh, even at the 
door/' from the fact that the religious belief of very many good peo- 
ple, is extremely unsettled. Now, mankind hardly know what to 
believe. Too long already have they been getting their thinking 
done out ; and they begin to s^e it. They are no longer willing to 
have it done by proxy. They are unwilling, as formerly, to pin their 

fidt'H oa die slaeva 6Yen of the panoB. Theydmn^Akkim 
■elTea They are eyen diUrmined to think for themeelvee. But diqr 
have no data — no starting fotnU^ no ban li$H^ no fixed and seeded 
JhrMt prineipUs — at which to commence, and with which to compare. 
Theee first principles are to be found in the vatvblal thioloot, and 
the HATinuL RBLioi(»v,of Phrenology. This science disseeta and wdf 
folds man's moral nature — ^its primary fisusultieSy its original elements. 
It does this so clearly that man cannot fail to perceive and adopt dis 
religious doctrines it teaches, and to practice the duties it requires. 
Rid any mind of preconceived prejudices, and in one year will the truth 
of Phrenology thoroughly renovate that mind, and purify the life. 
These prejudices are giving way. The last ten years have liberal- 
ized mankind more than ages have ever done before. The next ten 
years, will witness a moral and a religious revolution greater than all 
past ages put together have yet witnessed. Antiquated errors are tot- 
tering at their base. The darkness of the past is fleeing before the 
dawn of Millennial truth. That truth is now being developed by the 
daily and astonishingly rapid spread of that knowledge of the moral 
nature and constitution of man imparted by Phrenology. To expound 
this moral nature, and to show what religious fruit grows thereon, is 
the end and aim of this little volume. Imperfect in authorship, but 
rich in subject matter. Defective in style, but deep in fundamental 
truth. Requiring some minor qualifications, but tenable in every ma- 
terial position, as well as unanswerable in every leading argument.* 
It asks no favor, but investigation — it yields nothing to the religions 
that be. Its pathway is philosophy. Its goal is eternal right. Strew- 
ed behind it in all its course, are the nauseating carcasses of hydra- 
headed error in all its forms. It stands high on the hill of Science, 
Its roots run deep into the nature of man. Its branches yield all man- 
ner of delicious fruits, for the healing of the nations, and the renova- 
tion of mankind. Its moral truths are food to the hungry, a coolin<y 
beverage to the thirsty soul, a foundation to those whom the tides of 
error are sweeping onward to destruction, and a feast of reason, with 
a flow of soul, to ally-sight to the blind, feet to the lame, health to the 
uivaHd, vitality to the dying, and life to* the dead. 

Awoif in rdibraiee to dto ^imlSf eatioii or itil Edkof for pMpcMrly 
pttaetildng Ai« Uttlrjeot That he is ±otimglalj Terse* in Phretudogf, 
mi especially in that prvicHeal department c^it which gtvpB hmi jittt 
that very kncmledge of the woridngtt or maniftistationa oi the moral 
Abfeidtiee, in dl their phaaea and comlMnationa, that is required, almost 
etery American reader will rest assured from tv^t be already knows 
of his works and standing. That no other man, his brother excepted, 
a^ equally well qualified in this respect, is a matter of fisict, and not of 

Nor is he ignorant, either theoretically or experimentally, of what 
is considered genuine religion. Brought up by a mother eminently 
godly and devout, and by a &ther long a deacon and a staunch pillar 
in the Congregational Churches, religious from cLildhood, and fa- 
miliar with both the Bible and the pecuiia. loctrines of most of the 
sects ; he brings to the discussion of this subject not only an intimate 
knowledge of that science in which his deductions are based, but also 
a minute acquaintance with the commonly received religious notions 
and practices of the age. 

Nor will these deductions be materially affected by their authorship. 
That afiects only the manner in which they are presented. Still, the 
only drawback experienced by the work consists in the haste with 
which it has been sent to press — a haste induced by a literal pressure 
of professional engagements, lecturing, business, dcrc, which must 
otherwise have postponed it indefinitely. To this, the public would 
not consent. The public have said with emphasis, " Let us have 
THE WORK. Be it imperfect as to style — ^be its authorship defective-^ 
still, at some rate — at all events, give us the work." And the Author 
feels that it wUl, that it must, do good — ^the sole object for which it 
was written. He feels that no one can rise from a careful perusal of 
its contents, without being benefitted thereby. 

It remains only to add, that the Author takes it for granted, that the 
reader admits and understands the fundamental doctrines of Phre- 
nology. Taking for granted that the truths established by this 
science are admitted, he proceeds to investigate the moral and religions 

frinriplf kid dowii| and the ivtim poialBd out, tlmebj, 
ptie them with the fundamflntal doetriiiet liiight| and duties enjoined, 
hj the BiU& Nor will there be any eiaaion of knotty points; any 
temporizing with popular prejudices. But it will contain a fiiUy fear- 
less, manlyi ezpoonding of troth, and erpoajtion of enoc; Dianks 
prejudice. Besd; ponder; inyestigaaeL Decide. BeesifS the fnad 
Reject the bad. 


In less than nine months after the publication of this woriC| an edi- 
tion of oyer two thousand copies has been exhausted. This unex- 
pected sale makes it necessary to put a second edition to press too 
soon to allow the Author the requisite time to revise it for that pur- 
pose and make as extensive improvements as he has hitherto contem- 
plated. Still, he has taken scraps of time from other labors to rewrite 
tome portions of it, transpose others, make copious additions, and, as 
a whole, greatly to improve it 

The chapter on the nature of right and wrong, and the origin or 
foundation of moral obligation, (or on the constitutional elements of 
the sinfulness of sin and the virtue of holiness,) as well as on the 
causes and cure of human depravity, will be not only new, but also 
tiirectly in the teeth of all prevailing notions on this subject Of 
course, therefore, it will be unpopular. Be it so. Be it as it may. 
With that matter, the Author does not concern himself. It concerns 
the reader — ^it affects his happiness, not mine — ^whether it be accepted 
•r rejected. That this analysis of virtue and sin cannot be contro- 
verted, is certain. That it will plough a deep and wide furrow 
through the field of truth, now overgrown with the thorns and the 
brambles of popular error, is abo certain. But it will prepare that 
field for a rich harvest of human happiness and virtue. In short, let 
not the reader be startled with any thing contained in these pages ; 
but let him come up with bold, manly thought to an unbiased exami- 
nation of their entire contents. 

The first edition was received with a much better spirit than the 
Author anticipated. He expected that its fearless exposition of secta- 
rianism, its reproving the churches for admitting the fashions into 

lb fmvioii 

them on the Sabbath, &c, aa well aa ila bold adfancemeni of loiiio 
vnpalatable trutha, and fearleee ezpoeition of aome glaring but g«iia- 
rally receiyed errora; would hare aubjected it and him to odiom. 
But hafindathil Inen cto beat tfia tiitlinaieli hbitiir tHanlMaaih 
poaed they could. He finda that they eren lave it He enpactfrf infi- 
delity would come down upon him on the one hand, for exfomng 
aome of ita errora ; and religioniata upon the odier, for tearing from 
them aome of their darling dogmaa. But he finda that nearly all like it 
He finda, thait in mattera of religicm, men diffbr nrndi tett thaii they 
aUppoee diey do. They divide <m mmm more than on ihiHgs. Ani 
what 18 more, diere are aome ftmdamental religiotia tltQia which all 
aee and admit — a broad platform of common ground, which all re- 
cognize as Buch. And I^rettotogy Will briqg all on to fliis platform. 
Ahd may thia little volume go ibrth Upon the angry aea of aeda* 
rian contention, to calm ita tlroubllDd waters ] to harmonize conflictmg 
elements, and to iiswmninate truth, and km, afld moral puri^ among 









Mah la cmistitntioiially a moral being. He is abo naturaU j lafr 
pans. Indeed, piety of some kind, and religion in some form, hatt 
frrei constituted, and still constitute, one of the leading motives, one of 
Ihe all-engrossing pursuits, of mankind. Strike from the page of his- 
tory, and from the mind and conduct of mankind, every thing appttP- 
taining to mcnrals and religion, and the identity of both will be de» 
itnoyed. T»k9 his religion from die conceited Chinese, or from the 
benighted Hindoo, or from the degraded Ethiq)ean, or from the 
noUe son of the forest, and each in his turn, wkh Blieah, would 
exclaim, '* Ye have taken away my GODS! what kiwe 1 
more?'' In fiict, where is the nation or tribe — ^when and where have 
any existed-^-rwhose religion did not enter into the very texture of dieir 
mJAds, lerm their habits, mould their characters, shape and perpetuate 
i}M»r government and institutions, a^d even guida their intelleet, as 
well as govern their whole conduct? Without these moral elements. 
k^w ignoble, hiom depmved, would man have been! But, with then^ 
l)tew exabed, hew angelic, how godlike, is he capable crfbeing and of 

Nor ie there any danger, or even possibili^, that man will ever 
beeome lea ndigious d^an he now Im and dways has been, any mere 
Ikm Aere is .danger of Ins eeasing to become hungry or lo breathe; 


for religion is engrafted upon hi» rery luttare, or, rather, forms do 
inconsiderable portion thereof. This fiict, esta bl is he d by the whole 
history of man, is demoostrated by Phrenology, in its showing that a 
large portion of the brain k appropriate to the derelopment of the moial 
and religious organs. Till, therdbre, the nature of man is enentially 
remodelled, that nature will compel him to hare a religion of sowu 
kind. The great danger is, not that mankind can erer become irre- 
ligious, for that is impossible, but that his religious fiurulties will still 
contmue to combine, as they always haye combined, with his predo- 
minant propensities^ instead of with his feebler intellect For it is a 
fully established law of Phrenology, that large organs combine in ac- 
tion more readily and powerfully with the other organs that are large, 
than with those that are smaller. Man's intellectoal lobe being usu- 
ally much inferior in size to his animal, the great danger is that his 
moral £iculties will still continue to unite with his propamtus ; and 
hence, that he will still make his religion the scape-goat of his sins. 
Always has his religion been the servant of his pride, oi his unbri- 
dled lusts, of his sinful passions. It continnes to do this. So that 
his religion, designed and calculated to make him better, actually 
makes him the worse, and the more miserable. But, let the moral 
sentiments combine with a Tigoroos and an unperreited intellect, in 
eonjnnction with a healthy organization, and incalculably will thqf 
ennoble, adorn, and happify mankind. That their power, bodi §oft 
good and for erU, exceeds all computation, is evident firom the whole 
history of man, as well as firom the nature of the fiicokies themselTeiL 

How important, then, that man should imderstand his moral nature, 
and obey its laws 1 In common with e^ery other department of his 
nature, it has its laws. To suppose otherwise, is to charge God fool* 
ishly, by supposing that he has neglected to establish the dominion 
of laws, and to arrange first princij^es in one of the most important 
departments of the nature of man. With this n^kct, the Almighty 
]a not chargeable. Of the ben^ts resulting fiomdM •***M»^Tnffif of 
these laws, man is not deprived. So fiur thsicfroai, fixed ]aw% im- 
mutable first principles^ reign suprone in dus, as fibej do in ewcrj 
other, departmen; of nature. 

Nor are these laws a sealed book Id man. They are not locked iq» 
from his moral vision. Like the ^rious sun of the natural day, 
they were made to rise upon erery son and daughter of creatiaii 
and to throw a clear beam of light and truth throughout every human 
souL Not a single dark comer exisu but is capable of being illumin. 
edbythesunofooialtruth. All have nonleyeSL All can penem 


moral truth. All can follow in the paths of morality and virtue. None 
need ever stumble upon the dark mountains of error, or be lost in the 
mist of superstition, or make shipwreck upon the rock of bigotry, or 
be swallowed up in the vortex of infidelity. Moral science exists as 
much as physical. Moral science is even as demonstrable as mathemati- 
cal or anatomical, or any other scienca The very fact that man has a 
moral nature, is prima facie evidence that nature has its laws, and that 
those laws can be known and read of all mankind. To suppose that 
man cannot arrive at a certain knowledge of moral and religious 
truth, is to suppose that the Deity has sealed or blinded the eyes ol 
man touching this important matter. Who believes this ? No one, 
surely. All men can come to the moral light of our nature. Sectarian- 
ism need not exist It should not exist. Truth is the sure light 
Truth is come-at-able, to use a common, but appropriate, word. 
Error in this matter is a most grievous evil Moral and religious 
truth is most desirable. If moral laws exist. They must not be 
violated. They must be obeyed. They may be known. They are 
not a candle hid under a bushel They are a light set upon an hilL 
All can come, should come, to this light, and be saved from religious 
error and sin. This light can be seen afar offj even unto the ends ot 
the earth, and by all flesh. Diversity of religious belief or prac- 
tice, need not and should not exist. Diversity pre-supposes error, and 
the greater this diversity, the greater the consequent error. And the 
greater this error, the more sinful, the more unhappy, the subject of 
that error. Sectarianism has no excuse. It is most pernicious ; for 
errors of practice grow out of errors in belief And the greater either, 
the greater the other, and the more ruinous. If all would use unbias- 
ed leason along with their moral sentiments, all would come to the 
same results ; for, truth is one, and always consistent with itself It 
men would only employ intellect in connexion with their moral na- 
ture, they would always believe right, and do right, and be perfect 
Oh 1 if man would but live in accordance with his moral constitution, 
how holy, how happy, would he be I Religious errors, and dogmas 
would disappear like the morning fog before the rising sun, to be fol- 
lowed by a devotional spirit, and a virtuous life. But now, alas 1 we 
grope our way in the midnight of superstition. We stumble upon 
the dark mountains of error on the one hand, while on the other, we 
plunge headlong into the miry slough of superstition, bigotryi and 
zeal without knowledge. And most sinful, most miserable, does this 
our religious nature, render us. 



But, bght it breaking m npoo the dmrk miHi of til pttt age*. H<\ 
ye who would return from joai wmnderingt and be delirered bmk 
your throldromt tnd your errort, follow the beacon light of tmA 
hoitted by Phrenology. It will dear up all difficuhiet. It will sohre 
til moral problems. It wiD pdnt out that religion which harmonixiBt 
wnn tne ntture of man, and is moat conducire to personal happnaeai 
and general moral purity. For it is setfeirident — is a phikoophical 
axiom — that the moral nature of man most necessarily be in perfect 
harmony with the moral goremment of God, as well as with the 
moral constitution of the unirerse. I^ therefore, Phrenology be true, 
it of course unfolds the moral nature of man, and, consequently, nnist 
be in perfect harmony therewith. So that, on the principle that any 
two things, each exactly like a third, are therefore Hke each other, it 
follow* that the moral doctrines taught, and the duties inculcated, by 
Phrenology, must harmonize perfectly with the moral constitution oi 
the universe ; because each, by supposition, accords with the nature of 
man. If Phrenology develope and harmonize with the nature of man, 
(which it must do if true,) and if this moral nature of man accord 
with the moral constitution of things, (which it must do, or nature will 
be found at war with herself^) then Phrenology, if true, must necer- 
sarily harmonize perfectly with the moral constftution of things. AroA ' 
vice versa. So that the nioral constitution of things, the moral ami 
religious nature of man, and the natural thedogy, the moral preoepCa^ 
and the religious teachings, of Phrenology, must each harmonize per 
fectly with all the others. 

And what is more, the moral constitution o( the universe, and dm 
government of God, must of course each harmonize with the moral 
character and attributes of the Deity, as well as with ha natui^ 
kingdom. Hence, Phrenology, if true, must of necessity be found to 
harmonize perfectly with the moral character, altribates, and govern- 
ment of the great Greatt^ and Governor of the universe. And if the 
Bible be also true, its doctrines, too, must tally exactly with those 
taught by Phrenology. But, if it be untrue, or, as &r as it is erro- 
neous, will this science expose its errors, and point out '^ a more excel- 
lent way." If the original, constitutional, moral nature of man, as point- 
ed out by Phrenology, be found lo harmonize with the Scriptures, 
they are confirmed by Phrenology, and derive an accession of evi- 
dence therefrom which no sophist can evade, or skeptic gainsay. BoC 
^ they dash, then are they building their hopes of immortality upon a 
rotten feondation, which this science can and will svreep away. In othei 
woids; if the Bible and Phrenology both be tiue, the moral precepts 


amd dudes inculcated in either, will harmonize perfectly with those 
^taught in the other, and with the fundamental principles by which the 
ontTerse itself, as well as the great Creator a( all things, are 
.goyemed ; but if either be erroneous, it will conflict with the other. 
Hence, Christianity has nothing to fear, but eyery thing to hope. 
If it be built upon the rock of truth, it will be confirmed and demon- 
•trated. If it stand on a sandy foundation, the sooner it is swept from 
under it, the better. And if its foundation, like the feet and toes of 
Nebuchadnezzar's image, be partly iron and partly miry clay — ^partly 
strong and partly weak, partly true and partly erroneous — ^we here 
have a moral touch-stone by which to try and test every moral creed 
and practice. Let us embrace it. Let all study its principles and 
iollow its precepts, and they will be the better, and the more happy 
and useful. 

If it be objected, that the Bible is already an unerring moral guide, 
and a perfect standard of religious fiuth and practice, I answer. Then, 
why does every religious denomination in Christendom, and every 
member of every religious sect, besides multitudes of private indivi- 
duals, all claim to draw their peculiar doctrines and practices from 
the Bible, and even quote Scripture therefor, and that though their dif- 
ference be heaven wide. Do not Universaiists quote chapter and 
-verse as plausibly and as sincerely to prove the final salvation of all 
men, as do the orthodox in proof of the opposite doctrine that some 
will be assigned to eternal condemnation? The Unitarian and the 
Trinitarian both claim to prove their respective but conflicting doc- 
trines each to the perfect satis&ction of himself and to the overthrow 
of the other, from the same Bible, and from not a few of the very same 
texts. Th0 Baptist draws his doctrine of immersion from the same 
Bible from which sprinklers dmw their opposite doctrine. Contro- 
versies without end have been held, and volumes without number 
written, to prove and to disprove, from the same BiUe, doctrines as op- 
posite to each odier as light and darkness, or heat and cold. Nor do 
the schisms of the Christian churches diminish. Indeed, they are in- 
;^reasing ^n number, and widening in extent continually. Every re- 
viving year gives birth to some new sect, and each of these opposang 
sects alone claim to have the Bible on Uieir side, and give it as autho- 
rity against all who differ from them ; and from the same pages of 
the same BiUe, each is reading himself into heaven, and all who dif- 
fer from him, into perdition. 

Now, if the Bibk, *^ without note or c<mmieiit," be an all-«ufficient 
guide in matters of rdigk)u» fiith and practme, why diis j^digioaBidi- 


▼ertity and contention t Why do« k not amfd all to adopt Ihi 
MMf doctrines and praeticet, and these the only correct oaeet If i» 
periment, continued for four thousand years, and tried in all agea ni 
by a vast majority o( christendonii can prove any thing, thai 
ment, or, rather, iu total yaiiare, and that too, under all dici 
has proved incontestibly, that, taking man as he is, and the Bible as 
it is, the latter is iMi, and can fievcr be, the all-sufficient religiooa goiie 
and standard of the former. Nor is it pouHU for it ever to be so. Na 
that the £iuk is in the Bible. It is in man. But the Bible requires a 
kelp-meei — something to accompany, eiphun, and interpret it, sia well 
as to enforce its doctrines and precepts. That help^neet is to he fiNnid 
in Phrenology. This science gives the tuUtirml constitution of man's 
moral and religious nature. That constitution is right Whatever 
difiera from it, is wrong. Whatever harmonizes with it, is right 
Whatever construction may be put upon the Bible, not in strict accord- 
ance with that nature, is a wrong constructioQ. Phrenology covers 
the same ground that the Bible claims to cover — that of man's wnorml 
nature. Wherein the lines of the two run parallel to each other, both 
are correct But wherein the Bible is so construed as to diverge in 
the least from Phrenology, though the Bible itself may be right, yet 
the construction put upon it, is wrong. Hence, with the book of 
Phrenology as the elements, and the Bible as the supplement, of reli* 
gion, it is to decypher out what is true, and to expose what is enone> 
ous. Each will interpret and enforce the other, and the two together 
will give a far more consistent and enlightened view of the trm^ reih- 
gion, and of correct conduct, than either could do alone, as well as 
rectify all ignorant or bigoted perversions of either. 

It is worthy of remark in this connexion, that the Bible no where 
attempts to prove either the existence of a God, or any of the funda- 
mental truths of natural religion, such as d'a future state, or the exist 
ence of first principles of right and wrong, &c It takes these mat- 
ters for granted, ««mmmg in the start, that man already admits and 
understands them. This is fully evinced by the manner oi its cam- 
mencement It opens with the statement, that '^In the beginning, 
God created the heavens and the earth," and proceeds to tell what God 
said and did, thus presupposing that his existence is already adm it ted, 
and his attributes understood. I do not now recollect a single argu- 
mentative attempt to prove his existence throughout the whole Bible. 
True, David breaks forth in the rapture, ^ The heavens declare the 
glory of God, and the earth showeth foith his handi-work," &c. ; but 
is only an exdmmmiim of adoration in view of the wonderooa 


works of God, not an argument to prove his existence. Indeed, the 
one distinctive object of Revelation, seems to be to make known the way 
ofsalvadion by Christ, not to prove the existence or attributes of God. 
The latter was left for natural theology — for the very principles we 
are urging. Modern Christianity makes too much of her Bible, by 
ascribing to it more than it claims, or was ever designed to accomplish. 
Christianity, or the doctrines of the Bible, are only the supplement of 
religion, while natural theology, or the existence of a God, or the fun- 
damental principles of religion to be presented in this essay, are the 
foundation. Revealed religion is to natural reigion, what Algebra 
is to Arithmetic — ^what the foundation is to the superstructure, or the 
tree to its roots. The latter unfolds the moral nature of man, and 
with it, the moral constitution of the universe ; the former, builds on 
it the system, doctrines, and conditions of salvation. Now the true 
policy of Christians should be to give to natural theology all the im- 
portance that really belongs to it, and to claim no more for Revelation 
than it claims for itself It nowhere claims to be the whole of reli- 
gion. The Bible itself maintains that the nature of man teaches 
him natural religion. Thus : " Because that which may be known 
of God, is manifest in them." " For the invisible things of him from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the 
things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead ; so that 
they are without excuse." " For as many as have sinned without law, 
shall also perish without law : and as many as have sinned in the 
law, shall be judged by the law." " For when the Gentiles, which 
have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these 
having not the law, are a law unto themselves." " Which shew the 
work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing 
witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing, ox else excusing 
one another." " And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, 
if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost 
transgress the law?" Rom. c. i. & ii. And before the great truths of 
Revelation can be fully enforced, or even understood, those of natural 
religion must be studied. And this is the great error of the Christian 
world. They aiake the Bible the Alpha and the Omega, the all and 
all of religion, and thrust its handmaid and twin sister, natural the* 
oiogy, away into the back ground, clear down out of sight and hear- 
ing, and they pay the forfeit of this unholy temerity in those sectarian 
dogmas which now disgrace the name and profession of Christianity. 
lUce natural theology along as an interpreter of Revelation, and this 
leligious zeal without knowledge, this superstitious bigotry and nar* 


tt mjEuoxxN: hatu&al ahd mxvmmimd. 

low-mindedness, and these lame and distorted religious opkioni aal 
practices, which now dishonor the Christian name, and degrade masi 
and exist eyery where in such rich abundance, would be swept from 
religion, and be supplanted by moral purity and correct condiMl 
Millions on millions of works on didactic and sectarian theologyi are 
pouring forth bigotry and sectarianism from the teeming preas in 
every ciyilized and in many pagan lands, while only here and then 
one on natural theology is published or read. Paley's ^ Eyideiicci 
and '< Natural Theology," ButWs « Anabgy/^ Good's ^ Book cf 
Nature," and the << Bridgewater Treatise," (each of which, if based ob 
Phrenology, the natural basis of all works on natural theology, would 
be infinitely more valuable,) with Alcott's '^ The house I live in," con- 
stitute nearly or quite all the valuable works on natural theology ex* 
tant, and yet their circulation is insignificant compared with that of 
some party religico-politico works on some creed or doctrinal point 
Witness the sale of works on the Puseyite controversy. No worka 
ever sold with equal rapidity in New- York. And yet, every man of 
understanding, ought to be ashamed to give a moment's attention to 
the points in discussion. 

Not that I would underrate the importance of the study of the Bibla 
Bat I would exalt the study of ruUnral religion. I would see Qoi^ 
study God, in clouds, in winds, in storms, in calms, in sunshine^in 
darlmeffl, in vegetation, in mineralization, in every rill, in every tiam^ 
er, in every tree, and bird, and beast, and thing that lives or is ; «nd| 
above all, in man, anatomically, physiologically, and phrenologically: 
I would make natural theology the basis of (Ul theology, and natnnl 
religion, the basis of all religion. I would teach natural religion to 
children, along with all that is taught them, and before the doctrines 
and precepts of the Bible are taught ; and fbi the same leason that I 
would teach arithmetic before asteonomy. I would teach them to 

" Look throogfa NATtrai up to Natnre't Ck>s.'* 

And, afterwards^ would teach them the plan of Redemption brought to 
light in the gospel They cannpt understand, they cannot appree^ 
ate, the latter till they have studied the former. And, what is quite ae 
important, the human mind requires somewhat more of i^roo/'than ix 
finds in the Bible. The Bible gives us its ifse dixit simply \ but t&e 
hmnan mind requires evidence — ^requires to understand the loAy, and 
the wherefore^ and the philosophy^ of that which it receives, l^hat 
philosophy, the Bible does not give ; does not even pretend to gitra 
It requires belief on the ground (xf a <' Thus toith the Lord.'^ and 

iff nvcuxAiic* 01 JUTOoi* tjsmmn. M 

Ibeie leayea it As man i« endowed with reaaon, U ia propeTi il ii 
imperative, that his reasixo^ he satisfied. He will Teason. He Atmli 
re^^oa And natural religion will give him hisi fiU of reason. It il 
all reason, and reason the most clear, the most comprehensive, lb# 
n^st satisfactory. Reason, which, while it exalts and fills the in- 
t^ect, also feasts the soul wkh the ^ost suhlime ideas of God it can 
[possibly receive or contain. And, think yon, that infidelity, and ixr^ 
ligion, and impiety, and profanity, would stalk abroad thus imbhishr 
ingly, if natural religion were taught more, and taught to children 1 
No, never. The ideas of Crod thus inculcated, would be too sacred to 
^ow them ever to take his name in vain, or wantonly to break hii 
iawa After the human mind has studied the book of nature, it il 
prepared to turn to the pages of the Scriptures. And to attempt lo 
teach BiUe religion before natural religion is taught, is to plant with? 
out preparing the ground— 4o build before laying the fotmdaiion— 40 
run before you can stand — or to be a man before you are a child. Noar 
cftn any thing else account for the growing impiety of the age ; and 
ihat, $00, in the very teeth of those mighty religious efforts now po^ 
ffirth, d^Jide propaganda. We have religious teaching enough, bal 
i^ 19 not (^ the right kind. Enough of Sabbath schools, and Kbie 
plaases, and preaching, and revivals, but not of the right eharaeUr. 
W^ require more philosophy^ in which to base it, and with which to 
tmforce it Phrenology shows, that all the other iiurulties must be 
llfulded and governed by enlightened intellect. That all impressicMiA 
»nade upon mankind, to be either permanent or useful, must be mado 
I hrough reason. Nor will the greatest stickler for Revelation, be dia- 
))Osed to question the great point I now urge — the necessity of em* 
ploying reason to enforce religion. Still less will he maintain thaft 
the Bible proves, or even attempts to prove, even the fy,ndamentals of 
leUgion, much less its detaals. So that he is compelled either to taki 
fiatural religion along with his Bible, or else to Cake his religion along 
without his intellect 

And, surely, no field within die range of human equity is as rich 
in ]^va% philosophy, as religion. None more deep or conclusive in its 
fimdamental principles ;^more vast or variegated in the pure, imadnl- 
leraled tnUh brought to light In other words : The moral nattlre of 
maa has its laws equally with every odier dqxirtment of nature, hs 
roots strike deep into the constitution oiihe human mind. Its branches 
evershadow no slight portion of that nature. Its fruit is the sweeteif 
and the richest borne by that nature. So is its philosojAy. So is its 
isoiality. TTor was tins tree of the moral nature of man ever derigih 

t4 Rsuomr: lumuLL arp BSVB4ur. 178 

id to bear the thousands of different and conflicting kinds cf fruk il 
now bears. Some, bitter ; some, sour ; some, rotten ; some, greesi ; 
some, hollow ; some, bloated ; some, shriyelled ; some, rank poisoiL 
Little healthy. Most of it injurious. All of it defective. And none 
of it fully adapted to the nature of man. But each sect, and most m- 
dividuals, have cut off the original branch or twig, on which th«j 
each hang their souls, and engrafted thereon a wild scion, whittled o«l 
by their own defective or depraved religious organization, and hukg 
on It, fight for it, die on it — sucking to the last the poisonous frcdt it 
bears, and rotting in every limb^ every joint, with the moral disease 
derived therefrom. Such is not the order of nature. That order i% 
that the tree of natural religion, planted by the God of heaven, eartli, 
and man in the soil of the human heart, is all that it ought to be. All 
that it can be. All that it can ever be made. Bearing fruit inconcetm- 
Ue in abundance. The richest possible in flavor. The most noar 
ishing possible to the nature of man. All that is desired. All thai can 
be required. Filling the soul to its utmost capacity with an exstacy of 
joy which the world can neither give nor take away. The original 
constitution of man is right It is all that even God could make it 
Every primary faculty is all that it ought to be ; and, the whole com- 
bined, surpass in excellence all the rest of creation. Man is the last, 
the greatest work of God. Man's moral nature, is the last, the great- 
est, part of man. Last to be developed. Last to die on earth ; and the 
l^eart, the centre, of his immortality. Nor can the study of any de- 
partment of nature, equal, in either importance or beauty, the study 
of that nature. Beauty inimitable, characterizes every joint ; every 
muscle ; every physical organ ; every propensity ; every element of 
Man. But thou, oh 1 thou moral nature g[ man, << exceUest them aU.^ 
They, the tree ] thou, the fruit They, the subjects ; thou, the queen. 
Perfect in every feature. Immaculate in every part And thy fiice 
reflecting the image of thy God. If we may not see God and live^ 
yet we may see thee, his protot3^e, in whom dwelleth all the pei6c- 
tions of the Divinity, as fiur as man may see them. 

Metaphor aside. Whatever man can know of God, of hnnself, of 
any thing, he must know through his Acuities. No one will fat a 
moment deny, that man was created perfect in every conceivable re- 
spect To suppose otherwise, is not Bible ; is not nature ; is not truth. 
No one supposes that his alleged fall took away any original moral 
element, or added any new element or &culty of depravity. Thia 
fijl could only have ptrvirted his nature. It could not possibly either 
add or destroy one jot or tittle of nature. It took awaj no Umb^ no 


muscle, no physical organ. It added no phrenological or other meK^ 
tal or moral faculty or power. As &r as his original contiiMimi 
was concerned, it left him just where it found him. It simply per- 
verted his nature, but did not, could not, change its original ingredi- 
ents. They are what they were in the beginning. And Phrenology 
tells us precisely what they are by constitution. It puts the finger d 
science on every element of our nature— animal, intellectual, moraL 
It gives us both the warp and the woof of that nature. Every item 
of it separately. All of it collectively. Tins, none will deny who 
admit, what this work presupposes to be admitted, namely, that Phre- 
nology is true. Hence, in telling us precisely in what the moral na* 
ture of man consists, it reveals all the doctrines, all the practices, that 
grow on that nature. That are adapted to that nature. That that nature 
teaches or requires. Dispute this, and you charge Qod foolishly, and 
show your own incapacity and bigotry. Allow it, and you allow that 
that nature fiiiiy known, gives us a knowledge of every moral duty, 
doctrine, requirement That obeyed, we should obey every moral 
duty. That perfect, in development and in action, we should be per- 
fect in doctrine, in practice, in every thing. 

<< What," says an objector, ^^ but this throws the whole plan of sal* 
vation overboard." Then overboard it mup^t go, ^< It does away with 
the Bible. It does away with the Savior. It abrogates the Sabbath. 
It sweeps the board of revealed religion, lengthwise, breadthwise, all 
wise." Then, must the Bible be done away. So must the Savior. 
So must all connected therewith. But, this is not my logic. It is 
yours, I argue thus : — The fall was subseqitent to the nature of man. 
So was the plan of salvation by Christ So the whole paraphranalia 
of accompanying doctrines—^ the doctrines connected with that sal- 
vation, or. growing out of it They are extraneous to the nature of 
man. They are added to it as far as they are connected with it This 
is clearly the doctrine of the Bible. Nothing can be more plain or 
unequivocal than its assertion that man was made perfect at first He 
woB created perfect His original constitution was perfection itselC 
That constitution. Phrenology unfolds. It reveals it «/^— every shade. 
Every phase. Every lina Every item. It teaches every doctrine 
man needs to know- Every duty he is required to perform. Of 
course, this remark excepts every doctrine and duty connected with 
the fall And if man will but fulfil all the precepts, and obey all the 
requirements of his original nature— of Phrenobgy — the fiill, and all 
its efiects, \rill pass him by. He will need no Savior, for he willcom-. 

no till. And, by tamttprntoB^ the fuar^r Im Vnm that vit 
Iwi^ tke lets mtdalj mai the moit holy and hippy, will ka b8» 

Int«Uig«iit readorl if these trathe run athwart any of thy preoon* 
cetved religioiis views, take the natter cooUy. Qo ofer the gtond 
again. Bcnitinize the baaea of these infeiencee. Sorutinia^ the intew 
onces themselTes. Giye leaaoii her perfect work, l^ear not ftr Am 
Bible. Fear not fiir Christianity. Care only ibr Ifv/i. There la no 
danger that truikinll ever overthrow either Christianity or the Bible. 
If they conflict with it, let them go. If they will stand the teal of 
science, all wtlL If not, surely you cannot wish to build your eteop* 
nal all on a sandy foundatioD. Prove aH dungs. And remembef , 
that the moment you cast overboard the chart of inUUeeiy and the 
compass of tiMuen, you are left comjdelely at the mercy of the watery^ 
windy elements of mere religious feding^— «je carried back at once 
to paganism — to idoli^. The. very fii^ that the reasoning orgaaa 
axe located by the side of the moral, is proof positive that the two were 
designed to act together. Indeed, he who will notreoion on rriigios^ 
cannot and should not know or enjoy religion. Why reason with a 
man who says in the start, that he will tu>i reason } It cannot be sup- 
posed, that any sensiUe person w31 be afraid to inrestigate the philo' 
ophy of religion, or throw Aray the unequivocal deductions of reasoi^ 
.n order to cling to preconceired, but erroneous, doctrines. Who^ 
ever does, let them. They are the sinners] they the suffer^. 

Let not the preceding be construed into a denial, of the ^ of mai^ 
the need of a Savior, and the doctrines consequent thereon. I am per- 
suaded, that the reader will find them confirmed by natural reEgion, an 
pointed out by Phrenology, and analyzed in these pages. At all events^ 
we waire these points for die present They will be diseussed here* 
after. Our object now is simply to state the fundamental trutlvi of na- 
tural religion, not to array them for or a^^ainst the doctrines of the Bi- 
ble. Nor do we wish to phce them above the Bible, bi^ only to as- 
sign to each its true sphere and boundaries,. We valu^ the fiible. 
We value natural religion. ^ These tibing$ ought ye to have <loii& 
but not to have left the other undone.** We ^e^uire hoik. NeiAe?, 
widiout die odier. Bo^ widi ihp oth^r. ^ United, i^e stand ; ^yi^- 
ed, wefidl.'' 

In mw of diese premise^^ wh^ qan be more iifteies^ing, i^hai 
mmre important, than the study of man's moral nature jand relations 7 
Stscnding, as diey do, t[iii connexion vnAx feason^^ (he yery head of 
nature, the mbjeci matter of no study can equal that of thdr study. 
The interest, the value, the importance, of any study, is proportionate 

t#t AS^Flilr «» TOM- Q^MDOK HT 

to the e.eTatioa^ in the motgeet ^MHiot^ oi the subfeet of tlwt study. 
Thus : to study yegetation^ its qualides^ k^m, and conditiom^ togeA^r 
with the means of improvii^ it^ 14 deeply mteresting and high>jr isah 
portant, because this study n oadcnlated to* pToflsote human happtnest, 
both in the intrinsio intotest of the study itself, and also in the appbcft- 
tion of the truths rerealed- fterehy to the promotion of yegetafion. 
So, the study of nanenlogy, geolbgy, geoigniphy, asfei onomy, mathe- 
matics, &c., are interesting in themselves, and the truths they tMieh 
are highly beneficial in theit apfdlcitieii to the ][Kromotion of general 
happiness; 80, die study of <(heHiistryy is both de^ly interestiagi, 
and capable of being applied perlu^ta aa extensively as any of the 
above-named sciences, ta the promotioii of human^ happaeal So^ the 
study oS natural h»tbry--<yf birds, animals^ and whatever lives and 
moves — is still more iiiteresting aad important ; because living mattelr 
IS onployedibr a higher purpose, and hae eipended upon its constitie^ 
tion and laws a greater amomit of Divine wisten and goodsess, than 
18 shared by manidoate matter. These laws^ alao^ aie quite analogous 
ro those thiU g>ehreni man; ao that the study of living things, teaehei 
'iS many a usefbl iMon as to the laws t^ govern our own naCaie^ 
itnd open into a field so near home thai we can gather from it many a 
rich scientific boquet of beautifiil flowers ; a»ny a gcdden appk of 
truth to gratify our tasie^ and to inpait heaUi and strength to ui as 
we pass OB through liie. SO) ako, die* siody of man jdiysieally^^of 
thti wott^fsrful mechanieal arrangements of bones, mitscles^ joints^ 
tendons, i&c. — c^the heart, Itmga, stomach) eyes, head^ brain, d&c-nJi 
still mere intetesting and impoiteaftf first^ because its sulgect mattet, 
(man)j iis more impdrteot than the subject nuMar of aiky of the othee 
studies ; and, secondly, because it opens op richer miaes ef ttuA^ dM 
application (^ which is every way cakuJated to augment huaum hap- 
piness, mere than any of the other studies yel named. 

But, it is Uie study of man's immortal eiiiMl*-*-4>f his elenenls of 
feeling and tulel/eel^which eonstitnt^ the elimaK of all studies, boA 
as to the intrinsic interest eonnedted with its Subject matter, afetd as ti 
. the gfeat and gfot^ttttraths revealed thereby. ThestadyQfappetit8*p* 
of food, nuttkion) the efifects ef difieretit idnM of feod^and times ef 
taking %, aiid Hk&t respective mfiaettces on intdkct and fading^ aa 
well as of the best way of «e nourishing 4m body as to prqiare it in 
the best pessiUe maimer Ibr experienoingei^Qyment, and pfomotiBgllte 
pleasutable adtion of idnd^-ef the abqairikig propensity, the ol^eote 
oh wfateh Tk should h6 itpettded, Ate ci6nd]tions of right taA wroHgtaa 
to propeily, bargains, dues, &c., and this whole subject of acquisitios. 

man's IKMUL lUTVEB AMD ■ir.lTKHII. Ifll 

man's social, connubial, parental| filial, and pdidad relalioM^ 
and all that class of duties and relations consequent thereon ; aa well 
as of resistance, fear, character, praise-worthiness, and shame, and 
every thing connected with the commendaUe and disgraceful^ — rise 
still higher in the scale of interest and value, both as a study and as 
to the sublime philosophical truths elicited thereby. Still more im- 
portant, still more useful, is the study ot intellect, of reason, of mental 

But, since the «i0rai nature and relations <tf man stand at the head ot , 
man's nature, its equal and twin sister, reason alone, always excepted} 
it follows, that the proper study of man's m&ral nature and relation-— of 
religion, theology, duty, religious doctrines, precepts, and practicea — 
stands at the head of all other subjects of study, both as to subject wuU- 
tefj and as to the pracHeal uiiUiy of such studies. From this study 
alone it is, that we can learn the most sublime pbilosophical truths, 
and those the most practical which it is possiUe for Qod to teach, or 
man to know. Though this study is not the substitute of all odier 
knowledge, yet it is the crowning excellence of every other. The 
grand focus to which all others tend. The great mirror of nature, 
which reflects not alone all that is beautiful and perfect in nature, but 
even Qod himself, in all his beauty ; in all his glory 1 If man but 
understand and obey the laws and requisitions of his moral nature, 
and those only, he will be more virtuous and happy than if he under- 
stand and obey those of any other single department of IfM nature. 
But, if he violate these, he will be rendered more sinful and miserable 
than he could by violating any other. To know them, is the very 
perfection of knowledge. To obey them, the climax of virtue. To 
violate them, the quintescence of vice. 

Will ye, then, Christians, infidels, and neutrals^ one and all, give a 
Ustening ear, a reasoning mind, and unbiased feelings, to the sublime 
Aoral truth and precepts unfolded by Phrenology, and then to a com- 
pariscm of diem with those of Revelation. And ye who are prejudic- 
ed, <' strike, but hear," I shall doubtless cross the track of many, and 
offend nearly all ; but wait, and '* think on these things" one whole 
year, pondering, point by point, and then ^' receive the good into ves- 
sels, but cast the bad away." Few agree in matters of religious fiuth. 
and practice ; therefore most are necessarily in error. Tet all think 
disf are right, and are positive that all who differ from them, are 
wrong. Who, then, will take it upon himself to assert that he alone 
is right, and diat all the world besides k wr^ng? What candid mind 


bnt will rather say: I nu^f also be in error, and will examine care- 
fully, and judge impartially. 

Taking Phrenology for our religious chart and compaiBS, then, let ub 
set sail on our moral exploring expedition, and see to what religious ha- 
ven it may conduct us — whether into the angry waters of sectarian 
contention and recrimination, or into the peaceful and delightful haren 
of truth, and the promised land, fruitful in happiness, and abounding 
in every virtue. 



As already seen, man is created with a moral nature. He has a 
moral constitution. He cannot, therefore, be otherwise than moral 
and religious. As well live without air, or food, or life, as live with- 
out moral sentiments of some kind, and religious practices of some sort ; 
because they are just as much a part of his constitution as reason, or 
appetite, or affection, or breathing. Nor can he live without them 
any more than without a stomach or a brain. This &ct is set com- 
pletely at rest by Phrenology. This science shows, that his moral 
feelings, his religious susceptibilities, are not creatures of education j 
axe not temporary and liable to fluctuation ; but that they constitute a 
very considerable part and parcel of his original nature. It shows 
that a large section of the brain is set apart exclusively for the exer- 
cise of the moral and religious feelings. And this shows, that he has 
corresponding moral and religious faeultiesj or primary elements of 
mind, the spontaneous action of which both constitutes and renders 
him a moral and religious being. 

If this question be pushed back another step. If it be asked, what 
is, the foundation of man's moral nature 1 In what is it based ? What 
relation do these moral faculties hold to the nature of things ? In 
what do these moral elements consist? What lies at the entire bottom 
of that nature ? In what does this religious nature originate ? And 
what are its relations to the nature of things ? What is its rationale / 
I answer : The same, precisely, that causality holds to the laws and 
causes of things. The same that the construction and constitution of 
the eye does to light and the principles of vision. The same that 
Amativeness does to the existence of the sexes and the propagation of 
the race. The same that Parental love does to the infantile state. 
The same that any, every phrenological organ and faculty do to their 


eoonterpart, or to that to which they are adapted. Time: An origi 
oal arrangement in the nature of man, requirea that he parlfdce cf 
(bod. Hence, adapted to this conetitntional anangement and reqoiih 
tion for food, he it created with the iacaky and organ of Alimenfthe* 
nees or appetite. 

On this eating basis of man^'natnre, grow all tinae laws, eonditiaaB, 
requirements, pleasures, pains, dsa, eonneeted whh eating, or de- 
pendent thereon, or affected thereby. Is it difficult, in this .view of 
the subject, to see what is the foundoHonj the raiumale of appetite t 
It is so, that man requires to lay up for future use a supply of food, 
clothing, and various necessaries of life. Hence the existence of the 
faculty of acquisitiveness, and of its organ and relations. Nor will 
any one dispute the self-evident inference, that all the functions, laws^ 
benefits, evils— all that can be said, all that there is, all that there 
can be, touching appetite, touching property, is based in, grows oat 
of, this primitive, constitutional adaptation of the nature of man to 
eating, or to acquiring. It being the nature of man to eat, there mre 
certain conditions of eating ; some beneficial, others injurious ; some 
in harmony with its constitutional relations, and others in opposition 
thereto. And that out of these constitutional relations, grow all that 
is,good and bad, virtuous and vicious, right and wrong, of eating. So 
of acquiring. So, also, it is so, that individual things exist, and that 
it becomes necessary for man to take eognizamee of these things. 
To enable him to do this, he is endowed with the faculty and organ of 
individuality, the constitutional tendency of which is action ; and this 
action brings to his notice those things which it is necessary for him to 
observe. And every thing connected with these things, or dependent 
thereon, has its foundation and counterpart in this constitutioDEl 
existence and function of individuality. In these relations, consist the 
rationale of this faculty, and of all connected therewith. It is so, 
that man enters the world in a condition so utterly helpless, that help 
of some kind, assistance from some quarter, must be had. Otherwise 
all children must die, and our race soon become extinct. Hence the 
rationale, the fundamental basis, of philoprogenitiveness. Nor will 
it be disputed for a moment, that all the relations of parents as pa- 
rents, to their children as children, grow out of this eonstituHonal ex. 
tstence, function, and adaptation of this faculty to its counterpart. 

And all that we haye to do for our children, or to them, or with them, 
IS simply to do what the constitutional f\inction of this faculty, pro- 

nerly developed and enlightened, would do, or requires should be done. 
So the element of beauty exists. Some things are beautiful ; oth* 


Ite tite MocflHVfi ikjuismirtias or iuju^b mdauLL kaYitbe. 81 

4rd'kre the o^pbsit^. And if it be a^ked, what is the natufe ofb^au- 
ty— Svhat is Ita^aiioHdlef ihe answer is ready — is perfectly simple. 
It is this. It is so constituted, so it is, that the condition or quality 
bfbeauCy appertains necessarily to things. Adapted to this exist. 
%iice of beatity,' man is created with the faculty of ideality, the pri. 
khitire ifbnction of iVhidh is to appttbiate and admire this element of 
'htEitukie. And dl is so arranged, that this faculty acts spontaneously 
In the perception and adtniration of this beauty, whenever it is pre« 
sented, atid whenever it can be ibuhd. And what is more— what is 
most— all that can be known or conceiyed of beauty, is what this 
fabulty teaches. Fully to understand the whole nature of this fabiiK 
ty, is toloidw all that can be known, all that is, of this beauty. And 
Ihrs knowledge would give us a perfectly full and correct estimaite of 
all the c6nditions, all the qualities, all the degrees, all of every thing 
cbnnedt^d with beauty. We need to know nothing more, we can 
know nothing niore, of beauty, than that constitutional nature of it 
trhich this faculty uniblds. lam aware that this is deep. But I 
trust it is also plain. It goes down to the last round of the ladder 
6f things. There is but one thing below it — that on which this lad 
der rests, to which we shall come preitently. 

Similar illustrations of the foundation, the basis, the constitutional- 
ity, the rationale of things, might be drawn from each of the other 
faculties. But the principle aimed at, the thought presented, is now 
clear ; sufficiently so at least to enable us to descry the bottom, 
the fundamental principle, of man's moral nature. That applica- 
tion is this. It so iSf that man suffers and enjoys. And it also so 
is, that maiikind ban both promote the enjoyment, and enhance the 
siiderings, of mankind. 'Hence the existence of benevolence. Its 
adaptation, its rationale is, to promote human happiness, and pre- 
vent human suffering. This is its foundation, its beginning, its end, 
its constitutionality, its all and all. And every thing there is 
about benevolence— every thing appertaining to the way in which it 
should be exercised, to what are, and what are not, fit objects of its ex- 
ercise, to its degrees, its kinds ; to punishment, here or hereafler— 
every thing connected with this element, depends upon the primary 
function, the constitutional arrangement of this faculty. When we 
know fully the rationale of this faculty, in all its ivmifications end 
modifications, we shall know all that can be known, all that is, 
concerning this faculty ; its duties, its requirements, its rights, its 
wrongs, and every thing any way related to this whole class of 
man's nature or relations. In other words, the complete phrenologi 


oal analysis of this faculty will tell us all that is, all that out b% 
oonoeroing this entire department of the nature of mani and all its 

So of veneration. It so u, that man worshipSi just as it ao n^ 
that he eats and sleeps. He worships a Supreme Being. He ia so 
constituted. He cannot do otherwise, any more than he can do oth- 
erwise than eat, or sleep, or die. And when we know all that 
Phrenology can tell us concerning this faculty, we shall know all 
that is (at least all that is to us,) concerning the worship of a 
God. All that can be known of times, pIaceS| and modes of this wor- 
ship. All that can be known, all that is, concerning its frequency, 
its character, and its effects. All that it is possible for man to know 
concerning the existence, character, attributes, works, and govenu 
ment of this Being. In short, man's whole duty touching this en- 
tire department of his nature. So of conscientiousness. This fiioul- 
ty exists. Its rationale, its fundamental principle, is exactly on a 
footing with that of appetite, and acquisition, and parental lovci and 
the beautiful, &c., as already seen. That foundation is, the consiti- 
tutional arrangement of right and wrong, of holiness and sin, per $$, 
And when we know all that Phrenology can teach us of this faculty 
—of the conditions of its action, of its combination in action, of its dic- 
tates, it3 requirements, and its nature, — we shall know all that man 
can know as to what is right and wrong, good and bad, sinful and 
holy. All that can be known of duty, of penitence, of pardon, of re- 
wards, of punishments,* natural and artificial, and of every thin^ 
little and great, connected with this whole department of the nature 
of men. Similar remarks will apply to hope and a future state. To 
marvellousness, and a world of spirits, spiritual monitions, impres- 
sions, existences, &c. But, as to present a few of these relations of 
the faculties to their counterpart, is to constitute the main body of 
the work, they will not be enlarged upon here. Thus much has 
been given, because it was deemed necessary to explore the faundO' 
tion of morals and religion, before we began to examine the super, 
structure. Nor have I ever before seen a successful attempt to go 
back to the beginning of the moral and religious nature of man, and 

* Beneyolence was also said to teach ns aU about ponisbment. Let me ex 
plain. I do not mean that the function or knowledge of either of these orgSM 
9i»ght without reference to their combinations and other relations, will do this. 
I mean that all which can be known of benevolence in combination with conscien- 
tiousness, and all the other organs, and every thing else bearing on it, will do 
Ihit. So of conscientiousnes. So of aU the other &culties. 


the reader is earnestly soltcited to become thoroughly master of this 
point before he proceeds. Re«perusal and mature reflection, it will 
certainly require. But give them. Tl e subject itself will repay you. 
So will the great truth unfolded. So will subsequent pages. 

It was promised above, to go still one step lower down into the bot- 
tom of the subject — to the very bottom of its bottom. And that bot- 
tom of the bottom, is the happiness enjoyed in the right exercise of 
these moral faculties. What is the reason of the existence of any 
and every faculty of man ? What the cause of this cause ? The 
sub-stratum of all ? It is to render man happy in the exercise of 
each. Thus, as philoprogenitiveness is based in the infantile condi- 
tion of man, this infantile condition is based in the happiness of both 
children and parent. As appetite is based in that arrangement of 
man's nature which requires food, this arrangement itself is based in 
the happiness of man. As ideality is based in the constitutional ex- 
istence of the beautiful, this existence is based in the happiness its* 
exercise confers on man. So of each of the moral faculties. The 
reason of the rationale of benevolence, is, that its exercise is condu- 
cive to the best interests of man. But as this has been fully shown 
in the first chapter of the author's work on Education, it need only 
be stated here, not exemplified. 

And now, reader, being at the bottom of this whole subject, let 
us commence our ascent, that we may examine, step by step, 
piece by piece, individually and collectively, all the constituent 
vessels and portions of this wonderful temple of the moral and ro^ 
ligious nature and constitution of man. 




As already implied, though not yet presented with sufficient 
clearness and force. Phrenology renders the great truth demon- 
strative and certain, that man is both a moral and a religious being, 
and that by creation^ by original constitution. It shows that this 
religious tendency before mentioned, is not wholly the creature of 
education, or habit, but of the spontaneous action of his primary 
elements. The demonstration of this point is all important. It should 
not be lefl at loose ends. Nor is it. No one who admits the 
truth *f Phrenology, can for a moment deny the therefore, that 


man is eonsiituiionally moral and religious-— so by creaU^nt mc 
merely by education or babit. This truth is inseparable frcun tbis 
science. It is not necessary — it is too plain, too self-evident to re* 
quire any thing more than the mere statement — that the admissian 
of the truth of this science, necessarily brings along with it an ad- 
mission that man has moral organs and faculties, and is therefore 
a moral and a religious being. The existence of this moral na- 
ture of man, constitutes a part and parcel of Phrenology. Since^ 
therefore, this work proceeds upon the supposition that this aoienoe 
is true, and since the admission of the truth of this science implies, 
and accompanies the admission of the moral organs and faculties^ 
the very existence merely of which both constitutes and proves roan 
a moral being, it is no more necessary to argue this point than, the. 
truth of arithmetic being admitted, it is necessary to prove by tLTr 
gument that two and three make five ; or the existence of the flyei< 
being admitted, it is necessary to prove that man is a seeing being,; 
or the existence of the reasoning faculty in man being admitted| it iiv 
necessary to support, by facts and arguments, the fact already and b} 
supposition admitted. 

Another preliminary remark. Religion being constitutional, /i 
must have its laws, and be governed by its first princjplefA 
There are three important phrenological principles that bear on 
this point, which require elucidation here. The first is, the phjfsiedL 
pwtition of the moral organs ; the second, their size ; and the thijd^ 
their function, relatively, as to. the animal propensities and intellect* 

First. The fact is worthy of remark, merely as a fact — as:a 
beautiful illustration of the adaptation of the location of organs to 
their function — as well as teaching us an important lesson touching 
their function, that the moral organs occupy the whole of the top of 
the head. This denotes the elevation of their function. No on^ wiU 
fail to observe, that organs are higher and higher in the body, the 
more important and elevated their function. Thus the feet are the 
menials of the body, and accordingly, are placed at the bottom of all, 
because they are the servant of all, and because they can discharge 
their appropriate function there better than if placed any where else. 
So, the organs of the abdomen are still more serviceable, still more 
essential to life, and pix>ductiyo of a still higher order and more ex- 
alted quality of happiness, than the feet. But they perform a funa» 
tion less essential to life, and less exalted, than the stomach, lungs, 
and heart, situated higher up, and as high up as they can well be, 
and yet be contained within the body. But the head is the highest 

%&d religion: NATUIUL AND RBVEAUId. t6 

of all, and its fuootion — the function of mind, Of feding, intelleeti 
reason — is the highest function of the nature of man, as well as the 
most pleasurable or painful. And then, too, different sections of the 
brain, perform functions still more elevated,* still more pleasurable, 
if pleasurable at all, still nrK)re painful, if painful, in proportion as 
they are located higher and still higher up in the head. Thus, 
suppose a woman to be endowed with as much of affection, relatively, 
as Webster is of intellect. Though we should honor her, yet this 
quality could not oommlsind as high a meed of praise, or be as exten- 
sively useful to mankind, as the talents of a Webster, if properly di- 
rected, are capable of becoming. So, let two men be each equally 
remarkable, the one for high-toned moral feeling and conduct, the 
other, fbr libertinism, or gluttony, or any animal propensity, and we 
honor the moral man more than the sensualist. It is the constitution 
of man so to do. It is not possible for a well-organized mind to do 
otherwise. A similar comparison of any of the upper faculties and 
organs with any of the lower, will be productive of the same results. 
This point has been fully presented in the Phrenological Journal, 
Vol. vi. No. 1, Art. II., and requires only to be stated, certainly not 
to be argued. 

This truth once admitted, and the relative importance of the moral 
faculties rises to the superlative degree, and assumes the front rank 
in the nature of man, having by their side, and on a par with them- 
selves, the reasoning intellect, but eclipsing every other element in 
the nature of man. They become the natural governors of man. 
They exercise the very highest functions of his nature — ^the throne 
of the kingdom of man. They ally man to his Maker, giving hhh 
the same kind of excellence as that possessed by the great Give^ of 
every good and perfect gif>, and differing from him in this respect 
only in degree of function, and, therefore, of glory. So, also, thdr 
exercise renders him incomparably more happy than the proportion- 
ate exercise of any animal pleasure. Who does not feel more exalt- 
ed pleasure in the doing, as well as from having done, a benevolent 
act, than in eating, or in having eaten a hearty meal 7 Who does 

* If I am asked what it if that constitates one function more elevated than 
another, I answer, the amount of happiness produced thereby. And this amdunt 
is governed by two conditions ; the one, the quantity of function ; the other, its 
quality J or the purity, and the sweetness of the pleasure afTorded. Thus ; let a 
man exercise an equ/jl degree of appetite and of conscience, and he will be ren*- 
dered more happy by the latter than by the former, besides also feeling that th« 
fualHy of the {Measure afforded by the latter is more exquisite, more rich, more 
desirable every way, than that of the former. 

t6 man's moral hatubk and relations. 

Hot feel a higher order of pleasure, as well as a greater degree of il; 
in the exercise of puiicty and from the reflection of having done 
righi^ than in the mere acquisition of property, or in the exercise dt 
anger, or cunning, or from having exercised them ? Need this poiit 
be further enforced ? Does not every well-constituted Riind yield a 
cordial assent to it ? Is it not self-evident ? A moral axioMf even? 
Not the offspring of habit, but of eom^Mion f Not taught, butyU^ 
xnktreni^ an original arrangement of our nature ? 

This harmonizes beautifully with the fact that the moral organs 
occupy a large amount of brain. It is a law of Phrenology, andy in- 
deed also, of Physiology, that the greater the amount of brain brought 
into action, the greater the pleasure or pain caused by that aetioni 
Thus ; not only does a large organ yield more pleasure, when its 
ao4ion is pleasurable, than a small one, and more pain, when that 
action is painful — large benevolence, more than small benevolence ; 
large friendship, than small friendship ; large ideality, than amall 
ideality ; large reasoning organs, than small reasoning organsy 6tQ. 
—but, some organs are larger, when large or very large, than oth- 
ers when equally developed. Thus ; the amount, of brain occupied 
by, and the periphera of scull above, benevolence, or consoientioua* 
ness, or marvellousness, or any moral organ, are much greater than 
those of size, or weight, or order ; though not greater than thoee oe^ 
cupied by many of the propensities. 

But this is not all, nor even the most important phreno-philoeophl- 
cal fact bearing on this point. There is something in the very con? 
stitution of the moral faculties, which places them at the head of the 
propensities ; at the helm of man, reason alone excepted ; or, rather, 
in conjunction with reason. It is so, that, to be productive of happi- 
ness, every animal propensity requires to be governed by the dictates 
of enlightened moral sentiment — ^that is, by the moral and intellectual 
faculties in conjunction. As this is one of the great laws of the mc 
ral constitution of man — a perfect standard of virtue, and touch-stone 
of what is right and wrong in conduct and feeling, its full elucidation 
here is very desirable, to say the least, if not absolutely indispensa 
ble. It has been already presented at some length in the author's 
work on Education and Self-Improvement, p. 149, but, as many of 
the readers of these pages will not be able to refer to the passage 
mentioned, and as many who can refer to it will not be seriously 
injured by its re-perusal, but, especially, as much that we have to 
say in this work touching the nature of holiness and sin, virtue and 
vice, good and bad, right and wrong, happiness and misery — aB but 

191 nrroRTi^NCE OF the horal faculties. 87 

dififerent names for substantially one and the same thing-— depend up- 
on it, a few quotations from the passage mentioned, will not only be 
pardoned, but are even required, and therefore given, in connexion 
however, with some important additions, improvements, and infer- 
ences : — 

" Without rendering obedience to this law, there is no virtue, no en- 
joyment in life ; but, this law obeyed, all is peace and happiness. A 
tew illustrations will serve to explain both the Jaw itself, and its im- 
portance. Let it still be borne in mind, that we live to be happy — 
that whatever augments our pleasures, both temporarily and ulti- 
mately, furthers the ends of our being, and that whatever causes pain 
is wrong, and should be avoided. In short, we need only to be selfish 
— lo promote our own greatest ultimate good. Our own happiness, 
then, and also that of our fellow-men, require that we govern our con- 
duct by the moral sentiments and intellect — that we never exercise the 
propensities but ^^ by and with the consent," and under the direction, 
of the intellectual and moral &culties — that every exercise of the 
propensities not thus governed, results in misery, both to the indivi- 
dual, and also to all concerned. 

" Thus : the exercise of Appetite, by itself, indulged for the mere 
pleasures of the palate, and without the intellect to choose the kind 
and quality of our food, or the moral sentiments to restrain its exces- 
sive action, will often eat unwholesome food, and in excessive quantities, 
which will derange the stomach, undermine the health, blunt the 
moral sensibilities, benumb the intellect, and sap the fountain-head of 
nearly all our physical as well as mental and moral pleasures, besides 
greatly abridge those very pleasures of the palate sought in its indul- 
gence. But, let it be exercised under the control of intellect — ^let the 
latter choose the best kind, and dictate the proper amount, of food, and 
let the moral sentiments restrain its excess, and the consequence will 
be, the greatest gustatory enjoyment that we are capable of experi- 
encing, as well as abundant sustenance to all the other physical facul< 
ties, and the greatest pleasures in the expenditure of this sustenance. 

" If Combativeness be exercised alone, without the sanctifying influ- 
ences of the moral sentiments, and in opposition to the dictates of rea- 
son. It becomes mere brute force, mere bravado and physical fight, 
bursting forth on all occasions, quarrelling with every body, not only 
without cause, but in opposition to right, and making its possessor and 
all around him miserable. But, let this or^n be exercised under the 
direction and control of the intellectual and moral Acuities, and it be- 
comes moral courage, a defence of right and truth, and of the oppressed, 
and opposes whatever is wrong and pernicious in its tendency — than 
which no element of our nature yields its possessor a richer harvest of 
the most pure and exalted pleasure, in addition to the pleasure felt in 
exercising this feeling, and the beneficial ends obtained thereby. 

^ Let a man exercise Acquisitiveness as the robber and knave exer- 
cise it, without intellect^ to tell him that this course, in the long run, 
•rill prevent his becommg rich, and without the moral sentiments to 


•how how wroDg and unjuit this courae, (that is, let him exercwe Aii 
organ without intollcct to point out the most successful coursey or the 
moral sentiments to prevent his getting it hy extortion and robberj, 
and other similar means, however unjust,) and this organ will mai» 
him wretched, and also all whom he wrongs by his dishonetty. lU' 
gotten weahh injures ei\ and benefits none. But let intellect ffuide a 
man so tliat he choose the best course to make money, and then let 
Conscientiousness cause him to make monejr komtsUy^ and pa^ aU he 
owes, and i3enevolence prevent his distressing any one by his efioHs 
to acquire property, and that man will enjoy his money, and esAcfj 
life, infinitely more than will he whose Acouisitiveness is not thus 

governed. The merchants in a town in wnich I once resided, heU 
leir goods at so enormous a price, that they drove all the iralnaUe 
custom to a neighboring town, where the merchants had moral fed- 
ing enough to ask only a fair, living profit, and intellect enongli tp 
see that " a nimble sixpence is better than a slow shilling." The for- 
mer merchants failed, and thus defeated their own object, but the lat- 
ter are very prosperous, and enjoy much more, (both in the poeBeenon 
of their wealth, and in the thougm that they obtained it honeaely) than 
the former class." 

Let a mother be ever so fond of her darling boy, but let her not 
guide and govern her maternal love by the dictates of the intellectital 
and the moral faculties combined, and she will not know how to keq> 
her child healthy ; and therefore will sufi*er a world of anxiety on ac- 
count of his being sick, and still more if he should die. &he will not 
know how to operate on his intellect or moral feelings, and thiis una 
ble to govern him, will be rendered miserable for life on account oi 
his mischievous, wicked propensities and conduct. Or, she will spoil 
her child by over-indulgence — an occurrence as lamentable as it is 
conunon — and thereby cause unutterable anguish to mother, child, 
Either, society, all in any way capable of being affected by the child 
or the man. But let intellect tell her what physical laws she most 
obey, to keep her child always well, and all the suffering of mother, 
of boy, of all concerned, on account of sickness or premature dea^ 
can be avoided, and, in their stead, the perfect health, the sprightli* 
ness, happiness, beauty, and growing maturity of the boy, will fill tlie 
boy himself, will swell the bosom of the mother, with, joy unspeakaUe, 
and be always increasing ; thus enabling the boy himself to become a 
boon, a blessing, to his fellow men. And the more so, if the mother's 
intellect enables her to cultivate and develope the boy's intelltcf in the 
best possible manner, and pour a continual stream of useful ksow- 
ledge, and sage maxims, into his young mind, both to guide his con 
duct, to call out and develope all the powers of his mind, and to jstsrt 
the object of her deep-rooted, but \)rell guided, maternal ^flection UtfQ 


the paths of wisdom, and leai^ning, and influencle, till, standing on a 
cbininahding intellectual einihehce, he controls the opinions, Iwd 
moulds the characters, of thousands of his fellow men ; he himself en- 
joying all thdt mind can confer ; his mother heing happy beyond d^ 
scription in her son ; and society owing and paying a tribute of ptaise 
^or the happiness spread abroad by this well educated son of intellect. 
Still more will these results be hieightened, if the mother add high- 
toned moral feeling to this powerful and well directed intellectual edu- 
cation. Then will she educate him morally^ as well as intellectually 
and physically. She will train him up in the way he should go. 
She will imbue him eairly and thoroughly with the principles of Vir • 
tue and morality. She will elev&te all his aims. Will ch&sten all 
his feelings. Will write as with the point of a diamond, upon the tablet 
of his yet plastic and susceptible mind, and in living, burning charjeictiedra. 
never to be erased : '^ My son, walk thou in the paths of virtue. Tuib 
thou away from every sinful ihftulgence," and he will obey her. Ndl 
only will his moral character be "unblemished, and he live in accoYi- 
rmce with the principle we are presenting, and therefore be happy him- 
nelf, but he will elevate all those talents already presupposed to the 
f^jsae of humanity and virtue, and thus do an invaluable amount bt 
{^food. AH this rich harvest of happiness to him, to herself,-to manlcihd. 
■«rill be the legitimate, the necessary harvest of the intellectual and m6'M 
fseed sown by his mother. It will all flow naturally from the mother^s 
following the law we are urging, of governing her philoprogenitiveness 
^y the dictates of intellectual and moral feeling. And these fruits will 
he still farther sweetened and augmented, if the parents go still farther 
%ack, ahd so apply the laws of hereditary descent as to secure a good 
(Original, ph3rsical, moral, and intellectual foundation in their chUd, on 
which to erect this glorious superstructure. 

The importance of this principle can be measured only by the heaTttn- 
wide contrast between the efi^cts, on the happiness of the parent, of this 
goodness and badness, of the health and sickness, the lifo and death, o) 
the child. If but this law were observed, we should have no premature 
sickness or death, no ebullitions of passion, n: waywardness, disobedi* 
encej or immorality in children, to wrii^ the hearts of parents with 
anguish unutterable, and to carry them down to their graves mourning. 
^* Even if the pareht love his child morally, and seek to make him 
better, but, unguided by intellect, actually makes him worse, a course 
very common, then his child is a torment to himself^ his parents, and 
aiU concerned. We must love our children intellectually and morally^ 
if We would either have them enjoy life, or tme enjoy our childteil. 


*< If a man exercise his friendship, without the governing infln- 
ences of intellect and the sanctions of the moral sentiments, ne wiU 
choose low and immoral associates, who will lower down the tone of 
his moral feelings, and lead him into the paths of sin, and thus make 
him unhappy. But, if he exercise his friendship under the sancdon 
of the moral faculties and intellect — ^if he choose inielUdual and 
moral companions, they will expand his intellect and strengthen hit 
virtuous feelings, and this will make him and them the more happy. 
Friendship, founded on intellect and virtuous feeling, is far more ex- 
alted in its character, and beneficial in its influence, than when found 
ed on any other considerations, while friendship founded on the prp' 
ptnsitiesy will increase the depravity and misery of all concerned. 

" Let Approbativeness, or love oi the good opinion of others, be go- 
verned by the moral sentiments, and it becomes ambitious to excel in 
works 01 philanthropy, and seeks to keep the moral character pure 
and spotless ; and let it be guided by the intellect, and it becomes in- 
tellectual ambition, and seeks eminence in the walks of literature or 
the fields of science : but when not thus governed, it degenerates into 
a low, animal, grovelling, sensual ambition, an ambition to became the 
greatest eater, or fighter, or duellist, or dandy, or coquette^ which 
causes unhappiness to the possessor and to all concerned. If Self- 
£steem be governed by intellect and moral feeling, it imparts noble- 
ness and elevation to the character and conduct, which sheds a besjn 
of exalted pleasure on its possessor and on all around him ; but when 
not thus governed, it degenerates into egotism, self-conceit, imperative- 
ness, and superciliousness, which gives pain to himself and to all aP 
fected by this quality in him. 

^ Let Cautiousness be exercised without inteUect, that is, when there 
is no reason for being afraid, and it produces evil only; btrt let intel- 
lect govern it, so that it is exercised only when there is real danger to 
be avoided, or let it be exercised with Benevolence, or Justice, making 
us fearful lest we do wrong, or careful not to injure others, and its 
product is most beneficial. This principle might be illustrated and 
enforced by Amativeness, and indeed by every one of the lower or- 
gans, and also rei^ersed by showing how happy is the man who gov- 
erns his principles and conduct by enlightened intellect and high-toned 
moral sentiments, but it is already rendered too plain to require it In 
short, man is constituted to be governed thoughout by his higher fac- 
ulties, and there is no enjoyment for him unless he puts intellect on 
the throne and the moral sentimemts as joint rulers of the kingdom of 
his animal nature. Much of the evil existing in society, much of the 
sufiering which stares at us wherever we turn our eyes, have their 
origin in the violation of this law. Nor is the misery, so exteni^iyey 
to be wondered at, if we consider that nineteen-twentieth of the time, 
desires, pursuits, pleasures, anxieties, &c., of mankined are consumea 
in feeding and gratifying his animal nature merely ; in scrambling 
i^er property ; in getting something to eat, and drink, and wear, and 
live in, and show off with ; in gratifying his love or power, his grasp^ 
ing ambition ; in politics, friendship, and family cares \ in combating 


contending, backbiting, lasciidoutness, and like animal gratificatunuL 
War, love, money, and display, sum up the history of man since hit 
creation to the present time. Before man can become virtuous and 
happy, his animal nature must be subjected to the control of his moral 
and intellectual faculties. 

'^ This animality of man is in striking harmony vvith the fact, that 
a large proportion of the human brain is in the region of the feelings 
while but a small moiety is found in the region of the intellect'' A^ 
before man can enjoy me, he must take time from the &shionable 
world, from the money-making world, from the red-hot pursuit of 
animal gratification, to exercise, cultivate, and adorn his moral nature. 
To be luippyj man mvat he eminently moral and religious — must sub- 
jufi^ate the entire animal, to the moral and the intellectual. And he 
is Uie most happy, who does this the most habitually, the most eflec- 

For three reasons, then, (the first, that the moral organs occupy the 
highest position in the head, the crowning portion of man ; the second, 
that they occupy so large a section of the brain, and the third, that they 
are the natural, constitutional guides and governors of the propensities,) 
should the moral nature of man be known, and its laws be obeyed. No 
tongue can tell, no finite mind can conceive, the amount of pleasure and 
pain it is in the power of the moral faculties to occasion. All the abom- 
inations of Paganism are caused by their peJrversion. All the blessings 
of that religion which is peaceable, pure, and undefiled, and that fiideth 
not aveay, it is in the power of the moral Acuities to bestow. Theirs 
it is, to sweeten every pleasure of life, and to blacken and deepen every 
crime which it is possible for man to commit. 

How all-important, then, that we understand their true function— ^hat 
we derive therefrom all the happiness they are capable of affording, and 
escape all the pains it is in their power to inflict. This knowledge will 
set us right. It will banish sectarianism. It will tell us just how to live 
in harmony with our nature. It will tell us what is right and what is 
wrong. And Phrenolc^ will certainly impart this knowledge. It will 
give us the science of man's moral nature. It will tell ns etory line, 
every lineament of our moral constitution. In telling us this, k will abo 
tell us what doctrines, wha,t practices, harmonize With that nature, and 
what conflict therewith. It will unravel the whole web of true religion, 
of pure morality. That man's moral nature has its laws, there is no 
question. Some things are right : some things are wrong. The for- 
mer are right because they harmonize with these laws. There is a mo- 
ral science, as much as ph3n5ical. Wherever there are laws, there sci- 
ence exists. And to suppose that this department of manlsi nature is 
nngovemed W law, is to suppose that the Author of nature has forgotten 

ift THE LOttmoji 4sr ygtm mmul mgahs. HI 

pKtment of his works which are so eminently wise find beQi^fldal ih 
erery other department of natire. Is this whole field of human nature 
indeed a harren waste? No right? No wrong? No laws-? Ne 
cause*? No happpiness? No suffering? Preposterous in ihMoryl 
Contradicted hy &ctl Nol There it a right There tf -a wroqg*. 
Right is right, hecause it harmonizes with these laws, j ust shcmn to eiltt. 
The wrong is wrong, and wrong because it violates these laws. Kor 
are these laws either ahove his comprehension, or heneath hia notiiDa 
Neither too ahstruce to be deciphered, nor too simple to be wottk 
investigation. They are ooropletely within the scope of his mental 
vision, the range of his intdlectual powers. He can even compiirelteiid 
all that is necessary for him to know. Nor need any more doubt hang* 
around this subject than now hangs about a fluahasmtical proUem, or 
about any other scientific 4rutL Not only does there exisi a nend 
science, but that science is demonitrable, I usethe word d cmolis ft sM b 
in its true signification. ImeaatiiatweicanjpTiitM-^HumilesMiiMrail^^A^ 
aay moral truth just as clearly, justas conc^lusively, -sis we cttidMttMi* 
strata any mathematica] proUen, any aiMomical &ct, any scieniifle 
truth. Of all this sectarian oomention, there is no need. It tb '^f^^ia 
Gu^Ue. There is a right, and nnn can oM^erlaia^iatT^fai TVtak 
exists. It is obtadnaUe. And wheniitlained, it wiU h a MDOttae evelkrjr 
disGOordant ofanion, every conlflicting feeling. Wherever theto 4n d^ 
position of views, there «rror existe. Tm^ « one. Truth al%aj^i 
harmonizes with truth. Error always efasheo with trtith, and nsnatty 
widi error. If there be two cei&flictiRg opinions touching the eaAoe 
point, one of them is eerkbMy wtoag. The other is liaUe to be. An4 
if there be tea, then nine ef the ten arc eironeous, and .perhaps the MA 
alsa This is certadn So that oj/ 2rtf^ tme of the confUctibg creeds and 
sects out of the whole two thousand that exist, are wrong, and itet one ii 
not sure to be right. And out of these errors of belief gtrowaU mannir 
of errors of practice, all sortsand sizes efeiafe eaid suli^iage, If auMca 
believe murder to be tjjghl, errors ef eenduct, and voaseqneBt mih8|ipi. 
ness to him, to ethei^i, grow out of these ericre of belief. If anbdiier b^ 
lieves it right toeteal,ot lie, his erroneous belkf will kod !him Mrnyin 
conduct, and reader him a^erable^ aixd all afiRscted by this belief, or tii# 
conduct induced ihweby, alsb auMMirsble. Thd sncaetits believed unbiv* 
died lieeationsnessto be right, or,at least, taide puibiiG prostitution <a 
part of their religion, and eafieftdthe >co>DeequeBit penelty of tbe eia 
induced thereby. True^ to de right, it is not aiweys !ntee(eary to kmnr 
what i# i^hl^ ibr a man wajr do iii^ firen intmtiOBv or stislkibt 4 tfaaftia 

197 MORAXi 80IBHCB. 48 

by simply fuUowiiig the cHiiginal impulses of his nature. Btill, to behere 
wrong to be right, is almost certain to induce wrong conduct, '(he ne- 
i^essary coneequonces of which axe .pain. 

But how shall we know what is jright, and what wrong. By what 
standard shall we try all our creeds, all our practices ? By die stand- 
ard of the nature of >man. That nature is all right — ^is perfection itself 
— as perfect as even a God could make it. To suppose otherwise isto 
arraign the workmanship of die Deity. ^Henoe, to follow that nature 
in belief, in practice, is to believe f^i^t—4o il(? right That nature has 
ite lawjs. The fulfilSng iif these -laws lis the cause of right, the cause of 
happiness. Their yiolation, is die cause of sin, the cause of suflfering. 

Sut wher« can we find an luneroing exposition of the moral nature 
fii mau;^ Such a^ expositoir, x)nce Ibund, is our talisman, our philoso- 
pher'3 stone, in all matteis of religious bebef and practice. That found, 
we need nothing else. That obeyed, we )are as perfect in conduct tus 
we are by creation. Where, then, can that stone be found ? In heaven ? 
No, for we cannot get at it there. In the decalogue ? No, it is too 
«hort. In the Bible % No, not all of it But in the pages of Phreno- 
iogy. That dissects, it lays man's moral nature completely open, and 
reveals every shread and fibre of it Every law, every requirement, 
•".very doctrine, every action, required by the nature of man, will be 
found in this book of man's moral and religious natufe. And thos ici- 
tmco puts all these doctrines, «U these iRequiremants, on a scientific 
)>asis, on that same basis of positive, actual /oc^, on which the science of 
mathematics places every mathematical (truth ; or of astronomy, any 
astronomical truth j or of anatomy^ any amtfoimioal truth ,^ or of 
chymistry, any chymical ftct ; or of induction, any waller of andiMtM 
philosophy. It is ^ put upon this basis. Nothing is left ait Joose ^nds. 
It is all exact. Ail demomtrnble. Ail certain. And all plain, too. 
No mist enveJof>es any point of it. No dark spots T&nam iqxn ito 
horizon. Every fact is as light as die noon day sun of el^mai truth, and 
unquestionahle science, can make it And I bail witK joy A» icienBe 
that can do this. That is now actually doing all 4his. That is des- 
tined, ultimat^Iy, to do all this, yea, eve^i .greater works (than diese. 
That wilj both banish all sectarian defozmides siod parrisites, so tint 
not a s^tj not a sectarian, shall exist, hut which will throw a literal 
fiood of light and truth on thi9 whole department of the natune of man, 
which it would dazzle our now benighted vision to behold. 

Gracious heaven ! Is there indeed such a treasure within ourvsackt 
Has so glorious amoral sun indeed dawned upon Ibe sectarian danrk* 
nasi ani bigotry of \^es 1 Aye^ verily^ Let ^ procead oonliMily 


but thoroughly, to unrayd this thread of roan^ moral and rdigioai 
texture and constitution. Let us bury preconceived doctrmes. Let v$ 
come up to this work as sincere inquirers after truth. Let us lean 
from it our moral duties, our moral destinies. 

But, in order fully to comprehend the moral bearings, precepts, and 
principles taught by Phrenology, we must analyze the moral facukiesL 
This will teach us their nature and true functions, and, therewith, the 
moral nature and constitution of man, as well as show what doctriDes 
they teach, what conduct they require. 

It shoiild here be added, what has all along been implied, that the 
moral faculties themselves, unenlightened by reason, are but blind led* 
ings, mere religious impulses. To produce the good effects above 
ascribed to them, it is indispensably necessary that they be guided by 
enlightened intellect, and governed entirely by the dictates of reaaoni 
as will be more fully seen hereafter. 




The organs of the moral faculties are all located together in a kind 
of &mily group, upon the top of the head. They are thus removed as 
fiur as possible from the body, so that their bland, mild, softening, hea- 
venly, harmonious action may be interrupted as little as possible by 
those causes which disease, disorder, or inflame the body, and, thereby, 
the propensities in particular. When fully developed, they cause the 
head to rise far above the ears, and become elongated upon the top, 
thereby renderiifjsr it high and long upon the top, rather than wide and 
conical They may be very correctly measured, by observing the 
amount of brain located above Cautiousness and Caus^tlity. They are 
much larger in woman than in man, and their fetculties are stronger, as 
is evinced by the fact, that about two-thirds of our church members are 
females, and that piety in woman is the crowning excellence of her 
sex, while its absence is a moral blemish which no cluster of virtues 
can effiice. 

They are peculiar to man. In the brute creation, they are wanting 
or too much so to be taken into the account They are equally delL 


cient in their character. Thus, a dog canhol he taught to worship 
God ; nor a tiger, to pray ; hecause neither is endowed hy nature 
with either the moral or religious organs or faculties. And this dou- 
hle absence of both organ and faculty, forms a strong proof of the 
truth of Phrenology, while the presence of either, without the other, 
would prostrate the science. But, it so is, that man is both the only 
animal possessed of the moral organs, and also the only terrestrial be- 
ing endowed with the moral and religious faculties that accompany 
them. This fact furnishes a positive proof of the truth of Phrenology 
as extensive, as diversified, as the whole human family, on the one 
hand, and the entire brute creation, on the other, can render it 



Adoration of a God; the Spiritual worship of a Sapreme Being; Devotion; 
Reverence for religion and things sacred ; Disposition to pray and to observe 
religions rites and ordinances. 

Gall, the discoverer of this organ and faculty, observed, that his 
brother, whom his father intended and had fitted for the mercantile 
calling, but whose religious feelings were so strong as to tear him 
from all other pursuits, overcome all obstacles, and finally force him 
to enter the clerical profession, was largely developed upon the top of 
his head. He afterwards observed, that the heads of those who visit* 
ed the temples for prayer and religious observances most frequently, 
and remained longest at their devotions, were similarly developed. 
He at first, called it the organ of Theosophy, or the science of reli- 


It creates the feeling of awe of God. It excites the spirit of prayer 
and praise to the Supreme Ruler of the universe. It delights to me- 
ditate on his character, and to study his works. It induces a general, 
spiritual state of mind, a devout, religious feeling, which fills the soul 
with holy aspirations and heavenly pleasures, and attaches its posses- 
sor to those religious observances which are considered as an expres- 
sion of these feelings. It creates a sense of the Divine presence, a feel- 
ing of nearness to God, and desire to hold communion with the Crea- 
tor of all things. It elevates the soul above the things of earth, and 
places it on Divine things, and delights to contemplate his character* 
and to bow before his throne in devout adoration and praise. 


16 AiULTan or vwHwaLnnom^ 

This organ is divided. * While the baok part, next to Fimmeai Mill 
Conscientiousness, gives the devout^ religious feeling just asenbed iv 
it, the frontal portion, creates respect for elders and superiors, and veii6> 
rates the ancient and saered. It is the e&n8irvaHv$ faculty, and, while 
the other faculties reform ahuses, this faculty prevents iudden-cbmngBiH 
and discountenances radieaiism. It is usually small in the AmerkttBT 
head and character, heiog rendered so, dtehtless, by the neceesaiy tsil^ 
dency of our republican inititmionsv I would not urge adheraiieeie 
what is wrong, but I would respect, aye, pay defl^ence to saperieHl^ 
and show respect to>vafds ail Let a deferential feeling be cultivated 
in our youth. Let impudence, and disorder, be discountenanced. L^ 
this faculty be cultivated, or our liberty will become lawlessness, and 
our republic but an unmeaning name. 

The existence and analysis of this organ, establishes, past all cavil 
and controversy, the existance of a God. The argument, or rather 
fact, by which this great truth is established, i? this: Every oftgan 
has its own primitive, natural function, and also adaptation. Or, 
rather, the primordial function of every organ, is adapted to some (me 
law of nature or want of man. Thus, Parental Love is adapted to 
the infantile condition of man. Causality adapts man to a world 
governed by causes and efieets, and enables him to apply these 
causes to the production of desired results. Cautiousness is adapted 
to a world of danger. Combativeness, to difficulties. Individuality, 
to the identity or existence of things. Form, to the great arrange^ 
ment of shape or configuration. Size, to that of bulk, or of big* anld 
little. Color, to the primitive colors. Weight, to the laws of grarity* 
Order, to that perfect system which characterizes all imture. Locality 
to space. Ideality, to the beautiful in nature and art. Constructive- 
ness, to our need of garments, houses, tools and things made. Appetite^ 
lo the great arrangement, or demand and supply, of nutrition. Ac- 
quisitiveness, to our need of property. Amativeness, to the different 
sexes, &c. 

Veneration, therefore, has its adaptation or counterpart in the na 
ture: of things ; and that adaptation is to the existence and worship of 
&iDivvne Being. This argumeat is short, but perfectly demonstror 
tvoe. It cannot be evaded. It leave? no chance for cavil. Phreno- 
l6gy establishes the existence of the organ, and the nature of its func* 
tion, namely, the worship of God. Therefore, there is a God to be 
worshipped — a Spiritual Being, adapted to Veneration, to whom this 
organ can lifl up its prayers, and with whom hold sweet communion. 
Throughout all nature, whenever and wherever one thinig exists awi 

201 muffrEViGEt of a god; 4T 

is adapted to a second, the existence of the second is 5t.r«5 else nature 
would be at fault. If this argumeat is not proof positive, then there 
is no proof, and na argument cmi ever prove wny thing ; for this is 
proofed* the strongest possible kind. An anomaly like the existence 
of any one thing in nature, adapted to that which never existed, can 
no where be found. No axiom in philosophy is more fully establish- 
ed than this, that when one thing exists, and is adapted to a second, 
the second also exists, or has existed. Ransack all nature, and not 
one solitary instance can be found^ either in the world of mind or 
matter, of one thing*s being adapted to another thing which does not ex* 
ist, or has not existed. Thus : If you find a tooth, you feel as sure that a 
socket exists or has existed, to which this tooth is adapted, as of your 
own existence. If you find an eye adapted to its socket, or a bone 
adapted to articulate upon another bone, you feel quite certain of the 
present or past existence of the socket, or the bone to which it is 
adapted. So of every thing else in the world of either mind or matter; 

Veneration, therefore, has its adaptation, and that adaptation is to 
the existence and worship of a Gody as much as the eye is adapted to 
seeing, or the ear to hearing. As the existence of the eye, and its 
adaptation to light, pre-suppose and necessarily imply the existence of 
that light to which it is adapted ; as the existence of the stomach, and 
its adaptation to food, pre-suppose and necessarily imply the existence 
of food adapted to it ; the adaptation of the lungs to air, and the air to 
the lungs ; of Causality to the laws of Causation, and laws of Causa- 
tion to Causality ; and so of illustrations innumerable scattered through- 
out nature, and indeed constituting a great portion of nature ; so the 
existence of Veneration, and its adaptation to Divine worship, pre- 
suppose and necessarily imply the existence of a Deity to be wor 

This argument is short, but on that very account, the more unan 
swerable. It has but two points: the one, that one thing's being 
adapted to another, proves the existence of the other — a principle of 
philosophy which allows of no exceptions ; and the other point, the 
fact of the adaptation of Veneration to this Divine worship. The first 
admits of no cavil whatever, and the second of none that is available. 
If it be objected, that its adaptation is to superiors, and that its function 
is that of deference and obedience to men, I answer : We have ano- 
ther faculty expressly adapted to that office ; namely, the fo7f part of 

Besides, man does certainly worship a God. Where is the human 
being who has never feared, loved, or worshipped a Divine spirit, the 
great Architect of heaven and eartl^ the great inrnne-moTing^ Oafnar 


of causes. Standing upon the top of some lofty eminence which ci 
mands a view of some vast, variegated, indescribablj bea^^i/Vil pbui 
below, loaded with nature's choicest treasures, and skirted with yon- 
der bold clifls and rugged mountains, rising one above another till 
they hide their majestic heads in the clouds ; or beholdingi in mute 
astonishment, the cataract of Niagara, in all its sublimity and gimn- 
ileur ; or watching the swift lightning, and hearing peal on peal of 
roaring thunder ; or witnessing the commotion of the elements, and the 
raging and dashing of the angry seas ; or examining minutely the 
parts of the flower, and the adaptation of every part to the perform- 
ance of its own appropriate function ; or the organs and adapcions of 
our own wonderful mechanism ; or, indeed, scrutinizing any of the 
innumerable contrivances and adaptations with which all nature iB 
teeming ; where is the moral man, endowed with an intellect capable 
of perceiving these wonders and beauties, whose heart does not kindle 
with glowing emotions of adoration and praise, rising, not alone to 
nature herself, but mainly to the Architect and Author of nature ? 
Who that has never felt — never realized — the existence of a spirit in na 
ture analogous to the God of the Christian ? And if, perchance, in 
some dark corner of our earth, a human soul should be found, which 
never felt this sentiment of Divine worship, just as there are some 
whose organs of Color are too small to perceive the colors of the rain- 
bow, does this prove that this sentiment does not exist in any other 
soul ? Shall the blind man who can see no sun, assert that therefore 
there is none 1 Shall those who cannot see, guide those who can ? 
Shall those who experience this heaven-bom emotion, be argued 
out of the existence of this emotion, because, forsooth, some self-made 
Atheist says he has never experienced it ? If one does not experi- 
ence this sentiment, another does, and this argument rests not on the 
fact that all experience this emotion, but on the fact that any do. If, 
from the first opening of the eyes of Adam upon the surrounding 
beauties of creation, down to the present time, a single human flQul 
has poured forth a single heart-felt offering of prayer and thanksgiv- 
ing to a Divine spirit, he has exercised some organ in this worship, and 
that organ is Veneration, This organ, this alone, worships a God. 
Each of the other organs has its own specific function to perform, so 
that no other organ can perform this function. But the function 
of Divine worship is exercised by man. As well tell me that the 
sun never shined, as to tell me that man has never worshipped a 
Spiritual Being. What mean yonder towering steeples, yonaer 
houses erected in every town and hamlet, in Christian and in Pagan 
lands, to the worship of God? What means yonder Hindoo widoW| 

8A$ ExmEMcm or ▲ gob. 

voluaitauly ascending the fusieral pik of hear departed hu^nuid, or 

i&[ mother cozamitting her dacling child ta the deified waters of the 

Ganges? Seest thou yonder towering pagoda; yonder temple of 

Juggernaui ; yonder thronged mosque ; yonder altar, reeking with 

human gore, just ofiered up in sacrifice to Gkxl } yonder solemn cott> 

vent ; yonder crowded sanctuary ? Hark I Hearest thou^ in ymder 

secret closet, the soA accents of heart-felt prayer and praise to the Al* 

mighty Giver of every good % Look again. Dost thou see yonder 

domestic group, bowed down around the family ahar, all offering up 

their morning or evening sacrifices of prayer and thanksgiving to the 

God of every mercy and blessing, and supplicating their continuance? 

Tellest thou me, these do not sincerely worship a Deiiy f Indeed, 

nothing is more plain, no fajd is more apparent and universal thaw 

this, that man does worship a God; and the avMfunt of this worship it 

inconceivably great It is natu/rai for man thus to worship. He ea» 

no more live wA be happy without adormg a God, than without rea^ 

son, or any other equally essential faculty. Man worships a Deityi 

and has an organ of Veneration adapting him to that worship ; there* 

fore, there is a God adapted to this organ. 

Besides : every other organ and faculty are completely engrossed ia 
performing each its own function, leaving no other one but Venera- 
tion to exercise this devotional feeling. Thus, Philoprogenitiveness 
is completely engrossed in loving and providing for children. It has 
no time, .no capacity to worship. Combativeness is all engrossed in 
resisting and defending, so that it cannot worship, nor is it capable of 
exercising any other than its own appropriate feeling. So, Appetite 
is all taken up with table luxuries. It is too greedy ever to think of 
exercising the feeling of worship. And, besides, it could not if it 
would. So, Acquisitiveness is exclusively occupied in hoarding, and 
does nothing else. Cautiousness is full of its alarms. It does not, it 
cannot, worship. Ideality is so completely absorbed in contemplating 
and admiring the glowing beauties that throng in upon its delighted, 
extatic vision from every quarter, that, though it may admire the beau- 
ties of creation, yet it cannot worship their Author. Causality does 
not, cannot worship a God. It is completely engrossed in searching 
out and applying cauoes. Though it may reason out the &ct of die 
existence of a great first cause, yet it goes no farther. It can do no 
more. It does not, it never can, fall down on the bended knees of de- 
votion, and worship Him ; because, to investigate and apply causes, it 
its sole function. Its constitution precludes its exercising any othjf. 
Similar remarks apply to Benevoience, to Compariscn, to eMb of t^iS 


iO SJOBTEiici or ▲ ooa 

iotellectnal faculties, to each of the propensities and feelings, and to 
every mental and moral element of man. So that there is no other 
organ or faculty but Veneration left to exercise this worshippmg 
function. But this function is exercised as just seen. And the awummi 
of its exercise \b inconceivably great Too great to be the result at 
habit Too universal to be the product of education. If this senti 
ment were not engrafted upon the nature of man, it would not be pat 
tible for education to perpetuate it. It would be as if eating were not 
constitutional, and therefore a perfect drudge, all up-hill work, and se 
thoroughly irksome as to be soon forgotten and lost in the oblivion of 
the past I repeat : Nothing but the fact that the sentiment of wor 
ship is constitutional^ is inwrought into the nature of man, is a consti 
tuent part and parcel of his very self, just as is breathings or sleeping-^ 
or eating, could account for either its perpetuity or its universality, or 
its power over the feelings and conduct of mankind. It must be consti* 
tutional. It is constitutional And rendered so by the existence, in 
man, of a primitive faculty, the sole office of which is to worship a Su- 
preme Being, the great Cause of causes, the God of heaven and 

Again, every organ performs some important ftinction. Without 
any Causality, or power of reasoning and adapting means to ends, 
what a great hiatus would exist in the human mind ? If all power 
of observation were destroyed ; or if Individuality were wholly wan- 
ting ; if Weight were entirely inert, so that we could not stand or 
move ; if any one of man's faculties were annihilated, the chasm, the 
aching void thus formed, would be great indeed; because, every 
organ performs a function indispensable to man's happiness. Yener^ 
ation has some function, some important function, some function, the 
loss of which would create an aching void quite as great as the loss 
of those already mentioned. What, then, is that function ? Deference 
for man ? But this is preformed by another Acuity. There is no 
function left, important or unimportant, for Veneration to exercise but 
that of worshipping God. 

Turning to the history of its discovery, we find this vieYt reiterated 
and confirmed. Gall and Spurzheim, our highest authorities m this 
matter, both regarded its function as that of worship of God, and so does 
every Phrenologist worth referring to. In fact, that is its function. 
Man does worship his God by means of it, and that worship is its na* 
tural, not its distorted, perverted, exotic function. It is adapted to the 
worship of a God ; therefore, there is a God adapted to this faculty, or 
to receiving the homage it was cheated to olSer up, 


If any doubt remain on this point, it is obviated by Phreno-Magnel- 
ism. On magnetizing any organ, the spontaneous Unction of its fitc- 
ulty bursts forth instantaneously and powerfully. Every faculty is 
thus stripped of all artificial influences, and exhibits itself in its naked, 
primitive state. I have never seen the back part of Veneration mag- 
netized, without also seeing the subject clasp and raise the hands in the 
attitude of worship, assume a devotional aspect and tone of voice, and 
express a desire to pray, or else break forth in the worship of God, en- 
raptured in contemplating him. Thus is the worshipping function of 
this faculty established by Phrenology beyond all dispute. No pro- 
position in Geometry is more fully proved than this ; and the infer« 
ence that therefore there is a God, follows as a necessary eonsequence. 

If to this it be objected that '^ most men adopt those religious views 
and practices in which they were educated," and that therefore religion 
is taught^ I answer, that before any one can be taught any thing, he 
must have some original^ primary quality capable of being taught. 
Can you teach a dog to be solemn in church, or a swine to pray ? But 
why not ? For the same reason that you cannot teach a blind man to 
see, or a deaf man to hear, or a man without limbs to use them ; namely, 
because he has no original, primitive faculty^ capable of being taught. 
And the very fact that men can be taught to pray and to worship 
Gk)d, proves that they have that very primitive faculty of prayer con- 
tended for. 

In thus establishing the function of worship as appertaining to the 
human mind, Phrenology also establishes and enforces the duty and 
utility of its exercise. Every organ was made to be exercised, and 
hence that exercise becomes a duty, and also a privilege ; for, the 
right exercise of every faculty, gives pleasure in proportion to th# 
size of its organ. Veneration is a large organ, and as such, its exer 
cise affords a fountain of the richest and most exalted pleasure. 
Every living mortal, then, should daily and hourly breathe forth holy 
aspirations of prayer and praise to his Maker — should ** keep the 
fear of God continually before his eyes;" should cultivate pious 
feelings always. Thus saith Phrenology. 

And now, reader, art thou satisfied as to whether Phrenology leads 
to infidelity and atheism ? Is not its moral bearing in this respect 
in beautiful harmony with the requirements of Revelation? The 
one requires all human beings to worship God in spirit and in truth, 
and to remember that " Thou Grod seest me," and the other, by im- 
planting this Divine sentiment in the breast of every man, also re» 


quires of him that he txireiie it iailf and kmbihuMf ift feUgbot 

To this doctrine that Phrenology proves the ezistenoe oS a (3o4» 
by pointing out a natural sentiment of worshipping a God| it is oftott 
objected, that, *< If this religious sentiment imts natural, it would load 
all men to entertain similar and e0mei religious opiaioiis, and givt 
all the $ame views in regard to right and wrong. But men's retij^ 
ious opinions difier as much as do their fitces ; producing all our aep* 
tarian diversities, as well as every form of Pagan worship, boweirsr 
revolting and criminal." To this I answer, (and this answer not 011I31 
satis&ctorily explains the cause of these religious difierenceSi bul idso 
dsvelopes the only true religion, and teaches us the true attriUUie* of 
the Deity,) that every phrenological faculty constitutes a medium^ or 
as, it were, the colored gUus, through which the mind looks at all ok- 
jeot8« As, when we look at objects through green glasses, they look 
green; when through yellow glasses, they look yellow ; when 
Arough dark shaded or smoky glasses, they look dark, gloomy, Of 
smoky ; when through glasses that are light shaded, they lock ligbi; 
when through red glasses, every thing beheld assumes a fiery red 
aspect, and that, too, whatever may be the actual color of those otn 
jects observed — so the phrenological organs constitute the meota« 
glasses through which we look at mental and moral objects. Tbmf 
those in whom Acquisitiveness or love of money, prevails, look at 
every thing, whether matters of science, or religion, or politics, or 
buisness, not in the light of philosophy, or the welfare of man, o^ at 
right and moral obligation, but in the light of dollars and cents aiUm^ 
But he in whom Benevolence predominates, looks at all matters, not 
in the light of their effects on his pockets, but in their bearing oql the 
happiness of man. He in whom Conscientiousness predominatem 
looks at, and judges of, things, neither in the light of expediency, nor 
of their pecuniary advantages, nor self-interest or popularity, but in 
that of rigkt and duty^ and abstract justice. But he in whom Appro* 
bativeness prevails, seeks popular favor, and when any new thing is 
presented to his mind, say Phrenolc^y, or Magnetism, or any thing 
whatever, asks, as the first and main question, not, ^* Is it true ?" nor, 
*' Is it philosophical ?" but, << What will the folks sat about it, and 
about me for embracing it?" The man in whom the Reasoning 
organs predominate, asks, " Is it reasonable ? What are its laws f 
Is it eonsistant with itself and with nature?'' and looks at every thmg 
through the glasses of philosophy. 


"Wt fihd an additional illustration of this principle, in appetito for 
different kinds of food. The argument is just as conclusive that ap- 
petite is not a natural, constitutional element of the human mind be- 
cause some men love some things and dislike others, while others 
like what is disliked by the former, and diislike what is liked by them 
as that the element of worship is not a primitive faculty, because men's 
religious tastes and opinions differ. Unless appetite were natural, 
there could be no diversity even. No such idea could be entertained 
or conceived. And the very fiict of such diversity, proves the point 
at issue, and leaves us to account for the fact of this diversity, just as 
we are left to account for diversity in appetites, opinions, 6lc. 

A story in point : — A man born blind, was once asked, what idea 
he had of colors. He answered by saying, that he had no very dis- 
tinct idea of them atiy way. Pressed still farther, and asked to com- 
pare his idea of them to something as nearly like them as possible, 
he said that he might not perhaps be right, but he thought they very 
much resembled the sound of a trumpet. Without some primitive 
&culty for perceiving the existence of a Qod, and experiencing the 
sentiment of Divine worship, men could no more form an estimate of 
this whole matter, than the blind man did of colors. And the fact, 
that men do form these ideas, proves the existence of the primary &• 
eulty of devotion ; while the fact, that men differ as to their ideas of a 
God, shows that they have these ideas, and therefore have the faculty 
in question, while ^e fact that they differ is perfectly explainable on 
the ground ^t the other faculties modify these ideas, and therefore 
that this is caused by diversity in other fecuhies. 

To illustrate still father : A minister, or speaker, has the motive 
or powerful temperament, yet with none of the pathetic, together with 
large reasoning organs, and large conscientiousness, but small ideality, 
eventuality, and language. He is therefore a strong reasoner, and a 
good writer and ^eologian, yet he has no eloquence, no emotion, and 
no beauty of style, together with a most unfortunate delivery. Those 
hearers who are similarly organized, have their organs called out and 
gratified, and therefore like him much. But odiers who have an op- 
posite organization, finding no food for their prevailing faculties, but 
seeing the full force of every defect, dislike him as much as the others 
like him — the one liking, the other disliking him, for precisely the 
same qualities. Another minister, having an opposite organization, 
will be liked by those who dislflred the former, and disliked by those 
"who like him. This shows why some men think a given man 
highly talented, while others, who know him equally well, think him 


a simpleton — why, in short, men differ in t^ieir tastes, desires, pur- 
suits, opinions. Still, as this diversity of opinion in matters of toate^ 
does not prove that there are no first principles of taste in things, or fa- 
culty of taste in men, 6lc, ; so, the corresponding diversity of opinions 
as to the character of a (>od, does not prove that there is no primary 
element in man for the worship of God. 

Should a picture, perfect in every respect, he hung up for inspection, 
if the heholder have the organ of size only, he will take cognizance 
of the proportion of its parts and admirahle ptnpective c rdy^ all its 
other qualities heing a dead letter to him, because he has not the fieic* 
ulties that perceive or admire them. But, add the organ of color^and 
he perceives a new beauty in the picture, namely, its rich and variega- 
ted shades, tints, hues, varnishes, &c. ] and is now doubly delighted be- 
cause two organs are agreeably exercised. Add large form, and a 
third beauty now breaks in upon him, namely, the perfection of the 
likenessj and the exquisiteness o{ figures or shape given to the persons 
and things represented in the picture. Add ideality, and still another 
source of beauty opens upon him — its richness of taste, its admirable 
designs, its creations of fancy, L's perfection and harmony of parts. 
Add causality, and he sees the moral taught and the sentiment ex- 
pressed in it, and so of the other organs. His views of the picture are 
more and more perfect, and his delight greater, and still greater, by 
every new organ added. 

So of Judgment. The man who has large color, is a good jodge 
of colors, but if causality be small, he is a poor judge of ways and 
means ; but he in whom causality is large and color small, is a good 
judge of plans, ways and means, the feasibility of measures, and 
every thing requiring the exercise of causality, but a poor 'judge of 
every thing appertaining to colors. If ideality be large and con- 
structiveness be small, his judgment of poetry, propriety, and matters 
of taste, will be good, but of mechanics, poor. If size be large and 
conscientiousness be small, he is a good judge of bulk, and the 
weight of things by looking at them, of height, perpendicularity, &c. 
yet a poor one in matters of right and wrong. If one's perceptivt 
organs and acquisitiveness be large, and conscientiousness and 
causality be moderate, his judgmemt of the value of property, the 
qualities of goods, a good bargain, or horse, or any thing appertaining 
to those organs, will be good, but of moral reasoning and of what is 
right between man and man, poor indeed. But he who has all the 
organs fully and evenly developed will take consistent and correct 
views of all subjects, have good judgment about every thing, and en 


Certain comprehensive and consistent opinions. This principle of 
Phrenology is clear, and its application universal Hence the Phre- 
nological developments of a man, tell us what is the color of the glasses 
through which he looks, and what kind of judgment is poor and 
what good. 

Now let us apply this principle to the religious opinions of mankinds 
for it holds equally true of his religious judgment, feelings, and opin- 
ions. Veneration worships God, hut the other organs color our views 
of the character and attributes of God. Thus, the ancient Greeks and 
Romans had large veneration, and were very religious, hut their other 
moral organs were small, and their animal propensities were strong, 
so that they worshipped gods of various animal passions. Their 
large veneration, combining with their very large amativeness, 
worshipped a V ^us, or the goddess of love and beauty ; combining 
with their very large combativeness and destructiv^iess, worshipped 
a Mars, or the god of war, and carnage, and blood ; with their pow- 
erful alimentiveness, worshipped a Bacchus, or the god of feasting, 
revelry, and wine; with their large acquisitiveness, worshipped the 
god Terminus, who guarded their boundaries, and protected their 
goods from pillage ; with large secretiveness, worshipped a Mercury, 
or the god of cunning, finesse, duplicity, theft, &Ai, But they had 
large intellectual organs, as well as powerful, unbridled passions. 
Hence, they worshipped a Jupiter, the great director and manager of 
the universe, and the governor of the gods ; but a god full of most 
disgusting amours, most vindictive and revengeful, vdthout moral 
principle, and swayed by a power of animal passions as much above 
that of mortals as he himself was rated superior to them. 

And now, ye sectarians, do ye see why ye differ and quarrel about 
religion ? Your organs differ, and this diversifies and distracts your 
religious vievirs and feelings. One sect has one set of organs, or looks 
through glasses of one color, and another sect has on glasses of anoth- 
er color, and both are looking at the same object and quarrelling 
about its color. One has got on green glasses, and is stoutly contend- 
ing that God is green ; another, with yelbw glasses on, is as stoutly 
contradicting the greenness* of the Deity, and maintaining that he is 
yellow. But the Atheist has black glasses on, which shut out all light, 
and therefore he maintains that there is no God, because he can see 
none. Foolish all. Take off your glasses. Look at God with the 

* Far be it from me to make light of things sacred, but I do design to ridicule 
■iifitiiriHuiiiii for main taming absmtlities as great as that God is green, or yeQcw. 

or A<ooa 9M 

wUinml eye of fally and erenly derrdoped mora orgaiit, and y^m, mSH 
^ behold him as he is," and <' worship him in spirit and in tnillL'' 

In accordance with this principle, each modem religioins Md lum 
its own peculiar sot of phrenological developments, which hanoonins 
perfectly which the peculiarities of its creed. To show minutely mkmi 
derelopments characterize each, and their departares from tke <mly 
true standard of religions £dth and practice inyolved in this firiiieiple, 
would be to thrust my face into a hornet's nest of the worst character, 
which is unnecessary, yet I ^vill giro a few illustrations. Unirena- 
lisls almost invariably hare large veneration, combined widi pndcmt 
inant benevolence and adhesiveness, and moderate destraotiveaose^ 
and hence they adore God for his goodness mainly, and dweH Im 
^wing colors upon his love; while the old-fasbioned Calviniito 
usually have large veneration, with predominant aoif e s t eem and 
finnness, and large conscientiousness, and accordingly adote die 
smttreigniy and unbending jusHce of Gkid. Has not the reader oAea 
seen stiff orthodox deacons, whose heads rose rapidly from the intellee- 
tual organs to firmness and self-esteem, showing more reverence 
than benevolence, and more firmness and conscientiousness than 
either, with a tolerably wide head? But did a Methodist, or ^nive^ 
salist, or Unitarian, or EiHScopalian, ever have this form of head^ 
These remarks do not apply, however, to Congregationalists, nor to be- 
lievers in the '< New School'* doctrines, whose conscientiousness nsQ- 
aily predominates and self-esteem is only moderate, and destmctive- 
aess seldom more than full, and whose high-toned, or rather ultra 
Calvinistic notions, are materially sofiened down. In them, amative- 
ness is usually moderate, and accordingly they abhor no sin more than 
its perversion. Episcopalians usually have large veneration, with 
predominant benevolence and large ideality, finnness, self-esteem 
and social faculties, consicentiousness being not alwa]rs large, though 
ofien full ; and hence they place their religion in works of charity, 
and in attending ^ the church,-' rather than in penitence, and are nOI 
as strict and rigid as the orthodox ; yet they are always genteel, rather 
exclusive, and eminently social Nearly all their women have so* 
perior heads, are remarkable for devotion, good sense, for the domes 
tic qualities, and especially for btncvoUnce, The Cluakers have no 
characteristic moral developments, and accordingly aDow thdr tttim- 
bers to hold any and every belief, provided they do thus and so. In- 
fidels, Deists, &c., usually have moderate hope, small venerationi 
cely the least marvellousness, large benevolenoOi and 

Mt 8E0TA£IA.fI8M -mCitOitrBb VMl iiliD XZPOBED. If 

IkninieM variable. InevtBtiBSWoiidoflnMelvtti&iMailtfi'irhblflMlMI 
a poorly balanced moval iMiad.* 

Those who have conscientioasneB pmloi&iiiant, with miall vetli^ 
adon and marvdlotsineflB, place their religion in iimxg tig^^ t^t in 
honesty and morality, but disregard the externals of reHgiofi, wUle 
those in whom theM -oirgaiw are teverwd, attend to ite tMwnti forms 
and c^rremeniieB : but, tibeugii ihey are deirout, yet they at« often ntg\M 
and immoral. Those in whom benevolence predonodasAes, {dace fheir 
reygk>n in <f(^n^g^Kx2, to the neglect of other Christian duties; 4hbls% JKi 
whom marrelkmsness is greai, regard teiigi<m as consisting in fMk, 
and implicit reliuioe upon Drrine proridence ; bat those iii whomtMi 
organ is small, do not fbel dbat awe of Gbd, >^t seftse of the DMb» 
fiiresence, wliich this Acuity lEMpires, but attribote all ettfhtslo caxM 
sbA efie^ Beit thole in whem M these Orgims ate fidlf md e^mif 
developed, '< pitt On the ntJMe armor of righteouMMM." Hiey to 
g^^ do rightj f9orsi^p Uieir Gtod^ and trust in bis piondene*^ 
wiiich, luiiled, eonstitute tlie very perfeUum of the Ckrit^iaii cfaaiAo« 
ler. Such live a blamelesB lift, wwrtfay of admiMion and indtidiiiii'^ 
whilst imperfect religious faith or piactice is tin nsloral fruit of mk* 
e^foniy derelfoped moral orgatas. 

In harmony with this prinoifda, that each phnaologiad ofgM 
stamps its impress upon the leKgiediB 0|Niuons of its possessor, k M« 
lows, that dtose in whom M the moral oigims are fiMf aiMl ^eiUf 
developed, will entertain (Upntistent and tHins&t religions opinioaa, 
and view the character and attributes of dio Deity ^» ihey are. 1^ oa 
abeady seen, vefieimtion, with predaainant benevoknee, woMhdp a 
God of 4dndiiesB ; w^ predominant cooscieiltiouBnesS) a God of lin*' 
bendmg justice ; with large causality, os the great first €}a%Lse of nil 
tUogs; with large eelf-efelieem and ^rnmess, as the great iS^veys^ \oi 
the omiveioe, immutable, omnipoleiit, oinohanging and unohdngabio; 
clothed with authority, and doing his own will and pleasure in the 

"^ the proverb Aiat we }adge odien by *otti»elvei» is in bahnoay with XHAk 
ptibciple, and iUaftrttet ic thouBattdfl of thnei in my proybsrioiuil practbe, 
WhenlhayeaiRjfib^dtoamsa'a itftttg ttdiii^ pEOsimiyiay lore ofpmise, !br 
example, telling Mm that he ift eltcMsiVely istirfiive to pndse and re](>rMuih, 
<< And 80 in eVeiy one,^ is the ai&id Vepty. ^^eilttpi the neit mnii 1 examine, 
will have small Approbatiyeness and lai|;e Sel£iEsteem. I teU him that he dOMl 
not care a i^tiaw fbrthe opudons of o^ers. ^ Well, who does t for I'm noitt I 
donV' «r, " lie^s a fodi who does/* )s apt to be Ihe ibsponse. What we \&^ 
dekuK», hite, Ato ,We sko shnort ftm to dunk otbmlove, deahe, hate, A«., 

i8 sunBKJB or A aoD. .11 

anniet of heaven abovO) and among the inhal/itants of the earth h» 
neath, &c. i then one in whom benevolence ia hrge, will worshf 
him for his great goadruss to the children of men ; in whom benev- 
olence and Conscientiousness both predominate, as kmd but just ; and 
with firmness, combativeness, destructiveness, and self-esteem add 
ed, as ^ a Grod merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abmukuil 
in goodness and truth, and who will by no means clear the guilty f 
as perfectly holy himself, and requiring holiness in all his CFeatoieiy 
as creating and governing them with a wise reference to their gzeatr 
est ultimate good, and in doing this, as rewarding those who obey his 
laws, and as punishing those who disobey ; or, rather, as infinitely 
benevolent, yet as a Gk>d who will '' not let the wicked go unponiah- 
od ;" wkh large cautiousness and philoprogenitivenes, as t^^t^rttuu^g 
a &therly care over his chil4ren, and providing a bountiful flopply 
for all their wants, dtc. Hence, one having all these organe iiilly 
and evenly developed, will tak^ all* the characteristics of the Deity 
into account, and give each their due proportion ; because the monl 
constitution of things must necessarily harmonize with the zncnal 
character and attributes of God, and man's moral character, as fiur 
as it goes, must tally with the attributes 9f the Deity, as already seen. 
Consequently, if an individual possess a well-balanced and a perfectly 
developed phrenological organization,t or have all the organs large 
and unperverted ; his views of the character, attributes, an^goveror 
ment of God, will be consistent and correct And the nearer one's head 
approaches to this phrenological standard of perfection, the more cor 
rect will be his moral feelings and conduct, as well as his religioiis 
opinions and worship. But the further one's head departs from this 
standard, that is, the more uneven one's head, and more imperfectly 
balanced his organs, the more erroneous will be his religious opin- 
ions, and proportionally imperfect his moral conduct and his woi 

* For ought we know, the Dei^ may have other attributes as conspicuoiu in 
his character as his benevolence, or justice, or wisdom, which man has now no 
hiNjXtj for perceiving, and to which he has no faculty adapted, just as the bnita 
creation have no faculty adapted to, or capable of perceiving, either his existenoe 
or any of his attributes. This, however, is all coigecture ; but as far as man's 
faculties do go, they harmonize with and lead him to adore God at he it to 

tin my work on Education and Self-Improvment p. 115, the reader will find 
this pinciple carried out and applied to the phrenological definition of a good,, 
or rather perfect, head and character — a principle than which none is more im 
portant, and the application of which will heal most of the religious and oth« 
differences existing among men. 


By the applicaticm of this principle to his own head, every individ- 
ual can see at a glance the departures of his own religious opinions 
and practices from this the true standard of our nature, pointed out by 
Phrenology. If his veneration be moderate or small, he thinks too 
.ittlc of divine things, and should cultivate his sentiment of devotion. 
If his firmness, self-esteem, combativeness, and conscientiousness 
predominate over his benevolence, that is, if his head rise higher on 
the back part of the top than on the fore part of the top, and form a 
kind of apex near the crown, his notions of the character and govern 
ment of God aro too austere and orthodox. But, on the other 
hand, if his benevolence rise high, and his conscientiousness, cau- 
tiousness and destructiveness be only moderately developed, he 
takes the other extreme, and regards Qod as all kindness, but not 
retributive. If causality and conscimtiousness predominate, and venera- 
tion and marvellousness be moderate or small, he is too radical and ultra. 
He is speculative, hypothetical, and more moral than pious. Let him 
pray more, and theorise less. So, if veneration be larger than reason, 
let him remember, that he is too apt to believe as he is told to believe, 
and requires to use more intellect along with his religious feeling. 
But the principle is before the reader. Let each apply accordingly 
as his developments may require, and let all profit by the great lesson 
taught thereby. • By this standard— this moral formula — any and 
every one should test his religion, and then should both cultivate the 
deficient moral organs, and also put his intellect over against his 
warped and contracted feelings. By analyzing the phrenological or- 
gans, his intellect can and should inform him what is the true and 
natural standard of religious belief and practice, and to this standard 
let all conform. Then will sectarianism hide its hydra head. Then 
will all embrace the same doctrines of truth, and << do works meet for 
repentance." " He that is wise, is wise /or himsetf." 

It should be added that the physical position or location of venera 
tion, as regards the other moral organs, is in beautifiil keeping with 
its powerful influence over the feelings and conduct of man. As al- 
ready seen, the moral organs are grouped together in Jie top of the 
head, and veneration occupies the centre of this group, where it car 
unite and control, in no small degree, the action of the others. In 
narmony with this fact it is, that no organ in the human head is more 
promotive of virtue and happiness, none exerts a greater or more salu' 
tary influence over the animal passions of man, or modifies his conduct 
more, than the worship of God, and his religious opinions. What 
exalts, ennobles, and purifies the soul of man moro— what more etbcm 

lQdlyreitf«iiisiuil>oilkg,ihrio«jiBarfoitt,<^ 'Thoo, 

God, iecMt aM"9 Vn^o^ whUe MaUnng that t)M ey« of hk Maknr 
«iid final Judge it Headfiuftly fixed vpon lum, eui Imowingly camak 
mat Ajid if yoawishefiectaaUy toreatfainckikUModuidTO^ 
with the erring nnner, and yoa will fubdue hm and hin fmuaam. 
Or if your own animal luatings require leaMi&t, if tenplatioft le 
strong and resifltaiiee be weak, pray to thy Fatker whoeeeth ineecrel, 
pray ferrently and cuhimte an abiding senae of fait ptesenqei and h^ 
will succor thee^ and give thee the Tictory oyer thy easily deeettug tats ; 
fot) veneration is the natmrtU antagonist of the animal propentitist. 
Nor it it till the propensitieBhafe wheedled and cajoled venemtion into 
die adoption of a religion in which they can find gratificalioii, thai 
man cmn be wicked and yet he deiPouL Think you, that, unlest dM 
excessive appcobativness, or the besetting vanity of modi^m, so oaJied^ 
CkriAianSi had cast dust in the eyes of intellect, and coaxed veHeialMii 
into a lacit adtnissiOm that decent bttire is piromotite of wonhtpi vcto- 
eraticm would have at all toloraied the disgaatinig aid wicked ¥am^ 
and show, and fashionable glitter of our fiuhionaUe worslupemt 
But for this perversion of veneration^ long ago would she have 
driven every fashonaUe bonnet, and dress, and dook, and coai^ and 
hat, and corset, and bustle from the sanctuary, and mterdieted dnireh 
fellowship to every £E»luon4oiving man and woman, /md beeimu they 
loved the fashions more than the plain-dressed Savior of maTklrmil 
Ye fiuihion-loving, gaudy leligionistB, let this merited rebuke aiak 
deep into your hearts ; for, remember, that the more you think of eal- 
mde appearoneeSf the lest you think of the true^ qiiritual wonhip of 




And bow, reader, cU»t tkcm atk, wlm land of rd^[ioA is thai le* 
quired by Plucenolf^? I answer, unhaakBtHigl]/^-^ answw, in the 
name of this great prindple oi man's natmci^ — ^That which hanno- 
nizes with aU the Realties ci man in thdff nomal, coostitiitional ac- 
tion. That which calls o«t all; which blends with all ; which satia- 
tes alL Thus, the socal and domastic feelings should each, all, be 
exercised in conjunction with the religious sentiments. C<mnubial 
}oy»--that sacred, heaTen4x>m emotion of the soul of man — should 
be exercised with prayer. Animal love— hist may noi— does nol-* 
invoke the blessing of heaven. But I believe it to be natural for those 
who feel the sacrad fires of pure, connubial love warming their in- 
most souls, and cementing their afibctions, to pmy far, to pray vrith, 
the object of their love. Husbands and wives, and also lovers, ought 
always, as their hearts go out to each other, to let them also go out 
aitqr God. They ought to hold sweet c(»nmunion together upon hea« 
ven and heavenly things ; ought to excite each other to holy deeds 
simI heavenly aspirations, as well as to sea8<m all their conversation, 
their whole conduct, with the savor of religion. I do aver, in the 
light of this clearly established principle, about which there can be no 
question, that true love cannot exist, in all its power and loveliness, 
without co-existing with religion, and, via vtrsa^ that true religion 
oannot exist in all its glory and power, without ccmuningling with this 
sacred element To be truly pious, and to the fullest extent, it is in- 
dispensable, not only that the person be married, really if not nomi- 
nally, but that the partner of his joys and sorrovirs, be also a partaker 
in his holy aspirations. This principle exhorts, commands husbands 
and wives to cuhivate this reciprocity of religious feeling. And it 
admonishes those who talk religion to others, but not to their families, 
that they are inconsistent. That wheire they require the most, there 
they have the least 

It also, and for the same reason, requires parents to cultivate 
the religious sentiment in their children. PEirents can do this &r bet- 
ter than the clergyman can. The latter see children but seldom^ and 
then do not always improve every c^prtunity to excite the religious 
feelings. And then, too, it is not possible for any one but those who 
have the cars of ohildhoDd,. and are eimaianUp mih then, to cultiv^tip 


diif element. The Sabbath school teacher sees the pupil but once a 
week, and then but an hour, and what is more, he spends that hour 
in expounding some religico-doctrinal point He rarely excites the re- 
ligious spirit To teach a child religion, you must get the lave of 
that child. Parents can do this more effectually than all others oom- 
bined. Clergymen cannot do it Sabbath school and Bible cUm 
teachers cannot do it Parents must do it And I fear that these ro* 
ligious schools called Sabbath schools and Bible classes, will do man 
harm than good ; because parents will rely on them to do up the rdi- 
gion for their children, and thus fiiil to discharge that daily duty, or, 
rather pleasure, which devolves especially on parents. And then, too, 
they are generally used to teach sectarianism. This, I abominate. 1 
would have parents teach their children religion along witk science. 
I would have them ^teach God in all that is taught Would have pa- 
rents explain the book of nature to their children — expound Giod in 
every thing. I would have them taught science, but I would have no 
fact taught them without teaching natural theology along with sci- 
ence, pari passu. 

So, Phrenology recommends, even enjoins, fiunily prayer. Family 
prayer blends • the social and the devotional so beautifully 1 It pro- 
motes family afiection. It secures family obedience. It, especially 
in the evening, calms and quiets the mind, and prepares it for sleep. 
Indeed, families should set as much by the family altar, as by the fa- 
mily table. So, Phrenology recommends saying grace before meals-* 
that is, of exercising devotion along with appetite. Social, neighbor- 
hood prayer meetings, and the exciting of our neighbours and friends to 
religious exercises, &c., are also recommended, even enjoined, by 
principle. At the south, where neighbors live too fisur apart to 
each other oflen, it is quite the custom to stay an hour after serrioe^ 
and gratify the social feeling, by exchanging compliments, news, 
friendly feelings, neighborhood incidents, &c.y and its participators 
describe it as most delightful. So the Gluaker, strict to attend church, 
asks his friends home to dinner or supper ; and then a cordial, friend- 
ly interchange of sentiments and pleasureable feeling ensues, where 
all ceremony, all restraint, are banished, and you indeed feel at home 
and happy. This is as it should be. At all events, let us have con- 
nubial religion, parental religion, family religion, and friendly reh- 
gion, and let neither be separated from the other. 

So, we should make money, but we should never let love of riches 
interfere with religion. It should indeed be a part of our religion to 
acquire sufficient of this worlds goods to live comfortably. And I 


tm plain 'c say, that I think giving money in order to promote reli- 
gion, is clearly engrafted on this principle. I believe it to be right- 
to be promotive of our own happiness — ^that we give money to ad 
vance the cause of religion. 

It would be quite in place here to animadvert upon the prevailing 
spirit of money-making which characterizes our age and nation, and 
is not wholly unknown to professors of religion. Well has the Bible 
pronounced the love of money to be the " root of all evil." Many — 
most— of the other vices that disgrace and torment man, come from 
this prolific source. All our robberies, burglaries, defalcations, dis- 
honesty, forgeries, gambling, racing, betting, &c. &c. to an unlimited 
extent. Many of our murders. Much of the vice and wretchedness 
of the rich, and most of the grasping, shark-like selfishness and rapa- 
city of all classes. This is not Bible religion. It is not phrenologi- 
cal religion. The former is full of denunciations agwnst it. The 
latter reiterates these denunciations, and enforces them by the sanc- 
tions of the natural laws. Why is it, then, that those who bear the 
name of Christ, and profess to be his followers, should, in the very 
teeth of the Bible, in the face of natural religion, and in the eyes of 
their own and their children's virtue and happiness, allow them- 
selves to amass immense wealth, and so set their hearts upon it ? I 
do not see but that there is about as much of this worldly spirit, this 
lusting after "mammon," and this idolatrous worship of it, too, in the 
church as there is out of it. I do not see but that the pretended fol- 
lowers of the meek and lowly Jesus, who was so poor that he had not 
where to lay his head, have as much aristocratical exclusiveness on 
account of wealth, as those who make no such pretentions. I do not 
see that they give more — that they give as much — for the promulga- 
tion of the peace-giving, soul-cleansing " gospel of the son of man," as 
politicians do to secure party elections ; as pleasure lovers do to se- 
cure pleasure ; as other men do to secure other objects. This ought 
not so to be. Surely, the objects, ends, of the true Christian, infinitely 
supersede those of the man of the world. Why, then, should not ef- 
forts to promote the ends of religion, be made with corresponding vi 
gor ? I do not say but that religionists often give liberally to promote 
their sectarian creeds— -to build up their church — to secure the ser- 
vices of some renowned minister, and all that sort of thing. But, is 
that jtiety ? Does it really promote the cause of either true religion 
or human happiness ? 

So, too, I do not see but that wealth gives a man as much ckarac* 
ier in the church as out of it. Be a man but rich jjq the church, and 


he has the say. He is the leader. Mkuaters, be they evec 8o gfnoif 
are his play-things. The mftir^ypg committee know foil well^ tbt 
they must choose and dismiss such ministers as he says, or, poasiU^, 
which his sinful propejisities say, or else lose his subscripdon ; aai 
that of course must be secured, right or wrcmg, come what may. 
And ministers, too, sometimes bow to the rich men of their paxiahaii 
Sometimes-— hush ! " Tell it not in Gath." Let such church mam* 
gers, and such ministers, too, humble themselves in sackcloth and 
ashes. Behold the spectacle ! Religion, with all its high and holy 
claims — all its eternal sanctions — ^kneeling down and doing homagp 
to the idol of mammon ! Bowing her sacred neck to his infernal 
chains ! Oh 1 Jesus, are these thy sheep? Po they bear thy image, 
and hear thy voice ? I now submit, whether this pretty w^ely ex- 
tended fact, as to the religion of the day, does not say, and in the lan- 
guage of the Bible, " Ye have no part nor lot in this matter." This 
mammon-loving, or the Christ-following spirit and conduct, form a 
kmd of test of true Christianity, and, tried by this test, weighed in 
this balance, I submit to nine-tenths of the professed followers of Jesus 
Christ, whether you are really his followers or his betrayers. I know 
this is plain talk, but, remember, it haa both science and the Bible on 
its side, and only a miserly, penurious, bauble-loving properuitf 
against it. The Bible says, " Be ye not conformed to this world." 
" Unless ye forsake aU, and follow me, ye cannot be my disciples," 
&c., to almost any number of like passages. And Phrenology says, 
never let animal Acquisitiveness rule spiritual Devotion: Subject 
thy love of money to thy love of God. Exercise thy love of monisy 
never, but in obedience to thy moral sentiments. 

Reader 1 Allow me to call your attention to the harmony between 
this precept of the Bible, and this requisition of Phrenology ; and then 
to ask how many tares there are growing within the folds of the 
Christian churches to every stalk of wheat ? I recommend those whose 
names are enrolled on our church records, to read a small work enti- 
tled " Mammon, the Sin of the Christian Church,'' and then read the 
great law of the nature of man, which requires that all the animal 
propensities be subjected to the royal family of the moral sentiments, 
whose President is, Veneration. I call upon rich Christians p hot ice!j 
to empty their coffers, or erase their names. I tell ministers — I tell 
churches — ^but ye know, now. See that ye do. 

It was said above, that appetite should be exercised in conjunction 
with veneration, as well as all the other organs. The Jewish passover 
famishes an illustration of this principle, and so does or should our 



thanksgivings. It u proper that we eat with special reference to the 
exercise of the religious feelings. I do not say that all our eating 
should be of that class, nor that we should, or should not, have par- 
ticular days and seasons — annual, periodical or otherwise, for reli- 
gious festivals. I rather think, however, that we should ; partly as 
tallismen of the lapse of time, and partly that friends at a distance may 
know that on particular days, a gathering of old friends will take 
place, as on thanksgiving, or christmas, or other occasions. 

So, also, tune should be exercised with veneration. It is proper 
that we sing religion, as well as convtrst religion, &c. Sacred mu- 
sic is natural to man — grows spontaneously on the tree of man's na« 
ture. Remarks on the character of church music would be in place 
here, but suffice it for the present merely, that we have called the at- 
tention to this doctrine of Phrenology. 

In like manner, man should exercise his mirthfulness along with 
his religious feelings. Let us have no gloomy, acetic piety. No fears 
that we are too great sinners to be pardoned — ^no oppressive feelings 
of self-condemnation. Let us mingle cheerfulness, and even a spoi- 
tive mirth-making disposition, perhaps evenlaughter,along with reli- 
gion. The idea that to make fun is wrong — to be jocose and witty 
are sinful — ^is erroneous, and yet quite common. Many, in ignorance 
of this principle, suflfer great condemnation for doing what it is per- 
fectly right that they should do, namely, being lively and jocose. If 
to be witty and funny had been sinful in itself, Qod would never have 
created the organ and faculty in man. But the exercise of this Acui- 
ty, besides being so rich a source of enjo3rment, is pre-eminently 
healthy and promotive of all the great functions of life— digestion, re- 
spiration, circulation, vitality, and all their attendant blessings. I re- 
gard the proper exercise of mirthfulness as pre-eminently a religout 
duty, as well as most happy in all its eflfects. 

So, also, we should exercise our intellect along with our religion. 
We should study the works of God, and the character of God as ex- 
hibited in his works. And we should especially exereise reason along 
with our religion. It is entirely proper also to open literary societies 
with prayer, and to introduce natural theology into the pulpit If our 
clergymen would take the eye, and by unfolding its constructionti 
show how beautifully and wonderfully every part of it is adapted to 
seeing, and to light — ^if they would unfold man anatomically, ph3rsio- 
logically, phrenologically — would expound and present nature in her 
never-ending adaptations and contrivances, and then lead the delight- 
ed audience up from those wonderful works to their Author, showing 
them his exist0^ut and character, as evinced m those works, what a 


fast amount of information would they thus scatter t How ^law k 
the thoughtless and the ungodly to their meetings, for the sake of till 
intellectual feasts thus seryed up to them, and then convince and pe^ 
suad their intellects, and draw out their souls in devout adontioi 
and praise. ! 

The phrenology of this course is this. The more organs broiigkt 
into combined and harmonious action, the greater the pleasure ani 
profit experienced thereby. By thus introducing natural fiicts, the 
perceptive organs are delighted and gratified ; so are also those of rea- 
son, in tracing out their adaptations, or their fitness in relation to their 
ends. And this high intellectual action reacts upon the moral feel- 
ings, greatly increasing their intensity and flow, and thus, blended 
into one harmonious whole, gratify and improve the human mind 
more than any other class of emotions it can experienca For mj 
own part, nothing gives me such exalted views of God, of his charac 
ter, wisdom, goodness, &c, as does the study of his works. Nothing 
kindles my veneration to its highest pitch of delighted and exahed 
action, equal to a beautiful landscape, a lofty summit a wonderful 
adaptation of means to ends. Under the open canopy of heaven, sur- 
rounded by the beauties of nature, admiring the glories of the rising or 
setting sun, or gazing at the starry expanse over my head, it n diat 
my soul is lifted up to the third heaven of delight and devotion, while 
sectarian religious worship is stale and insipid compared with k 
And yet our clergymen rarely ever think of introducing natural the- 
ology into their sermons, at least, except by passing allusions. Thejr 
too often assume — some one doctrine, or, more properly, dogma^ and 
another, another, to thousands of isms, and then go on and build up 
dogma upon dogma ; the blind leading the blind into the dark khy- 
rinths of error and superstition. 

I insist upon it, that science should be taught along with religion, 
and particularly, the laws of Physiology and Phrenology. Without 
obeying the laws they unfold, it is impossible to be virtuous or happy. 
And to facilitate this obedience, let them be taught, along with our ot- 
our moral duties, which it most assuredly is, the duty of preserving 
health. Indeed, I know of no virtue, no duty, that will compare in 
point of importance with that of obeying the laws of Physiology — ^pre- 
serving health, prolonging life, and keeping the body in that state 
which is most promotive of virtue and enjoyment. That to be sick is 
to be sinful, and sinful in proportion as you are sick, has been demon- 
strated in my work on Education^ and will be Btill further enforced in 
the forthcoming works on Ph3rsiology and Amativeness. I have 


there shown that sin is generally the product of physical disorder. 
This point I deem all-important I shall enforce this point, also, in 
this work. At all events, I consider clergymen almost culpable foi 
not preaching more Physiology and Phrenology. I would hare 
them carry their manikin into the desk, in the one hand, and their 
anatomical and physiological preparations in the other, to be followed 
by herbariums, specimens of animals, of all kinds — birds, beasts, in 
sects, fish, and the whole range of nature, animate and inanimate, 
and preach on astronomy, on electricity, on chemistry, natural history. 
&c — on all the works of Qod — ^his noblest work of course the most. 

" Oh, horrible ! Blasphemy! What a profanation of the Sabbath, 
of the sanctuary, of things sacred, would this be!" Indeed? indeed! 
The house of God so very holy, that the works of Qod will profane it 1 
Very holy, that. Somewhat holier than heaven itself, I doubt not * 
Why was not nature packed up and put out of sight every seventh 
day, lest its presence should profane the Sabbath ? But, as I shall 
take up this matter of the Sabbath, of religious teachers, &>c. hereafter, 
I dismiss it with a short catechism. 

Question, Phren. — " Well, Mr. Universalist, please take the stand, 
and tell the jury, whether you do or do not think that every orthodox 
minister in Christendom would preach more truth and less error, and 
do much more good in the world, if he should preach natural theolo- 
gy — God, as manifested in his works — than he now does by preach- 
ing orthodoxy." 

Answer. Universalist. — ^^ Most certainly I do ; because now he is 
preaching a doctrine erroneous in itself, injurious in its tendency, de- 
rogatory to God — an outrage" — 

Q. P. — " That will do. Mr. Orthodox, do you not think that 
Mr. Universalist would do more good and less injury if he should 
lecture to his people on science, and especially, on science as connect- 
ed with religion, than he now does ?" 

A. O. — " Beyond all question. Then he would certainly do no 
harm. He would even dispel ignorance, and do good ; whereas now,, 
he is tearing up the good old land-marks ; is a stepping stone to infi^ 
delity ; is even fast ruining souls^ by crying peace to the wicked 
when there is no peace. No ten infidels in this place are doing as 
much damage to the cause of virtue, and to young people in particu- 
lar, as he is doing.'* 

Q. P. — ^** And, Mr. Unitarian, what do you thiuk? Would the 
Rev. Mr. Trinitarian d : more good or evil than he no^v does, if h^ 


would cease preaching the peculiarity of hia creed, ana preach 
ence and natural religion ?" 

A. U. — "I think this truth ia always beneficial Error is al> 
ways pernicious. He is now preaching error, and therefore doiag 
harm. Then, he would at least preach truth, and conrey much yahh 
able information. Now, he is doing a positive injury to society. TheBp 
he would do a positive good" 

Q. P. — '^ And, Mr. Trinitarian, what think you as to the preach- 
ing of the Rev. Mr. Unitarian. Would he profane the Sabbath and 
the sanctuary more or less by adopting the course under discussion f 

A. T. — ^' Less, decidedly. I consider error to be a profanation of 
things sacred ; but truth can never profane any thing. He might 
then do some good, but now he is certainly doing immense injury to 
society. He is sowing the seeds of a fatal error, that cannot &il to 
make shipwreck of many an immortal souL I advocate the change 
most cordially." 

Q. p._" And, Mr. Pope, what say you ?" « Say // Why, I say 
you cannot possibly profane what is not holy. Their churdhes"-^— 

Q. P.— ^« Whose churches ?" « Why, all the churches — all the 
orthodox churches, (and a pretty application of names indeed, to call 
those orthodox, p] who maintain errors as palpable, as fundamental, 
as do those to whom this title is usually applied. A rose by any 
other name would smell as sweetly — all Episcopalian churches, all 
Unitarian churches, all Methodist churches, all Baptist churclies, all 
churches, of all names and kinds, not consecrated by the apostolic sue* 
cession, are no more sacred than so many old bams. To talk about 
profaning them, therefore, is to talk of spoiling rotten eggs. I consi' 
der them all heretics, enemies of ." 

That will do, Mr. Catholic. Your opinion is all we want 

Q. P. — " Come up to the stand, all ye Protestants, in a row. All 
answer together : Do you think that Catholics would pro&ne the 
Sabbath as much, the house of God as much, if they should carry 
their philosophical aparatus into their pulpits, and explain the laws 
and phenomena of nature ; should expound man, and tell the people 
the laws of life, health, mind, and virtue, as deduced therefrom, as 
they now do ?" 

A. All — "NO," with one loud, long, united, emphatic response^ 
which makes the gates of Rome tremble, and thunders in the ears of 
the Pope and the Vatican, that they think him just about as holy p 
as he thinks them. 


■ J 



This catechism might be continued till it embraced every religion! 
and anti-religions sect, and every fragment of every sect in Christen- 
dom, and in pagandom too. And, what is more, what is most, all but 
one must of course be wrong, and that one might not be right If 
such sublime, intellectual, and moral truths as those presented in 
" Good^s Book of Nature," Chalmer's work on a similar subject, 
•* Combe on the Constitution of Man," " Palejr's Natural Theology," 
dLc., are not good enough for the Sabbath and the sanctuary, then 
must the latter be too good, too holy, for man, for earth I But they 
are fiot. We shall soon see how holy the Sabbath is — ^how holy the 
churches are — and can then judge whether they are so holy that na* 
ture, pure, immaculate, God-mado Nature, will profane them. The 
plain English of this whole matter is simply this : Our Sabbaths, and 
our pulpits, are wanted for another and a meaner purpose than to pre. 
sent the sublime principles of natural religion. They are wanted as 
party religico-hacksj to be mounted and rode to deatk^ for the exclu- 
sive purpose of propagating those particular religious tenets that built 
them up. Every Unitarian pulpit is wanted to propagate Unitarian- 
ism. Every Calvinistic pulpit, is plied to its utmost to defend and 
extend Calvinism. Every Methodist pulpit, is wanted exclusively to 
propagate the faith delivered to the saints by John Wesley. So of 
Universalists. So of all those even who pretend to be liberal. Nor 
do I remember ever to have heard a single sermon from any sectarian 
pulpit — ^that is, in any pulpit ,* for, where is the pulpit that is not a 
sectarian pulpit, except where a church is owned by all in common, 
and is therefore dressed out in orthodoxy one Sabbath, in Universal- 
ism the next, in Trinitarianism the next, &>c. — the nub or butt-end, 
drifl, and texture of which did not consist of the particular tenets of the 
Sdct that owned the pulpit. Or, if some of the '< Evangelicals" ex- 
change, those points are urged which are held in common by both 
sects. Indeed, this is the object of sectarian pulpits and sectarian 
churches-*«n object so much more " holy," and " sacred," and " so- 
lemn,'' than the preaching of God in his works, that the latter actually 
profane the former. The holiness of heaven itself is but as a flicker- 
ing rush-light^ compared with the transcendantly dazzling glorifica- 
tion of sectarian pulpits 1 

Irony aside. The moral sentiments themselves are stone blind, 
mere impulses, and as capable of receiving a bad direction as a good 
one. We have already seen, that they combine with the other organs 
that are the largest If, therefore, they do not combine with intelloct^ 
they must of course combine with the propensities. It ca/nnct b$ oik' 


erwiie. And when they thuf combiDe, we hare a religion of enlii^ 
animal propensity. When, as in the ancients, they combine wkl^ 
amativenesSy we have a religion made up, in warp and woof, of pubUci 
shameless, unbridled prostitution, to the temples of which crowda of 
worshippers throng, of both sexes, and all ages ; each more eager 
than the other in the unblushing indulgenee of unhallowed liul| he 
or she being the most pious who indulge the most in venerial inter- 
course. Combining with appetite, and unguided by inteUect, they 
make a religion of their bachanalian revels, he being the moel reli- 
gious who can drink and carouse most. Combining with secredve- 
neas and acquisitiveness, they make religion to consist in stealing, aB4 
lying, and knavery. Combining with cautiousness, and ungOTemei 
by intellect, they look upon God with dread, and trembling feer, in- 
stead of with love, and offer sacrifices to appease the wrath of oftnded 
Deity — a species of animal religion, not entirely unknown to some of 
the pious of the present day. And so of its other animal combiaatimiB. 
Look at the animal religion of the ignorant, superstitious negro of 
southern slavery. His intellect untrained. His prayers perfect Uaa- 
phemy. His preaching — ^look, ye who can look, at the negro's ri^ 
gion. And all, because he cannot, must not, read ; cannot, must not, 
think ; and hence, by a necessary consequence, that combination (ot 
veneration with the propensities which produces his heathenish ne 
tions of religion. And all solely because he has no intellect, to ele* 
vate, and enlighten, and direct his blind religious impulses. I wish 
to be fully understood. I say, in broad, unequivocal terms, that the 
moral sentiments, to be productive of good, and not to be the woarst 
engines of depravity extant, must in all cases, be enlightened, and 
guided by intellect, by science, by reasany by knowledge. And, sure 
ly, no species of knowledge — neither political knowledge, nor nove^ 
knowledge, nor polite literature knowledge, nor any other form of 
knowledge — ^will sanctify and direct the moral sentiments as effecki^ 
ally as will a knowledge of Nature, so presented as to teach us €K)d, 
his character, his laws, his government — mar s duty. I say, in the 
name of this incontrovertible principle, that we cannot hofve a religiea 
'' pure and undefiled,'' without basing it in natuifal science, and makf 
ing it consist of natural theology. No other views of religion can be 
correct. No other can make man better. All others render him 
blind, bigoted, sinful, miserable. They satisfy the religious sentiment 
without improving the morals, or seasoning the conduct 

And now, intelligent reader, let us test the religion of the day, by tLk 
fully establiehed law of Phrenology and of mind. Does the rehgioi^ 


of the day call out and expand the intellects of men? Does it impart 
knowledge, particularly tl^ knowledge already shown to be needed 
by the moral sentiments — a knowledge of nature? No; not at alL 
As mute as a mole on all matters of science. And I always find ten 
times more difficulty in getting religionists, particularly old-fashioned, 
old-school Baptists and Presbyterians, to look at Phrenology, than 1 
do to g^ all the world besi^^ ^^ eJEamine it. I find, that where reli* 
gion reigns with the most complete sway, there Phrenology is inte^ 
dieted ; Phjrsiology, excluded ; G^logy, rejected ; and the other na- 
tural sciences are uncultivated ! The new-sehool men, of all denomi* 
nations, and reformers of all kinds, go in, heart and soul, for Phreno- 
logy ; but deacons — and these furnish a better test than clergymen — 
and the leaders m our churches — as well as the Mies of church ton — 
I submit to the reader, where, in the ranks of science, are they to be 
found ? Last, always. And not at all, till popularity compels their 
tacit ascent. I submit, who, but clergymen, and those, too, made up 
of doubled-and-twisted orthodoxy, have ever raised a dissenting voice 
against Geology ? Who imprisoned Gkdlileo? Who are the most 
illiberal, the most bigoted, narrow-minded, anti-scientific men of any 
and every community? And, per contra, who are the most scientific? 
Who patronize scientific lectures most? Who are the most libera] 
minded ? The most candid inquirers after truth, as well as its most 
cordial devotees ? I leave the fact to answer. I leave this principle 
to draw the inference. I leave the two united, to say, whether men 
are rendered more wise, or more ignorant, (that is, the better or the 
worse,) by the religion that is. If that religion advances science, it 
makes men^s moral faculties expand more generally and powerfaUy 
than they otherwise would, with the intellectual — ^which, as just seen, 
sanctifies the moral, and alone prevents their doing injury. But, if it 
retard the progress of science (which is, beyond all question, the fact,) 
it is a damage to mankind. Nothing can be more injurious. And no- 
thing more beneficial than that which cultivates the intellectual facul- 
ties, in connexion with the moral. 

Another test of the anti-scientific spirit of the religion of the day, 
and of course, proof that it is injurious, is to be found in the refusal of 
the great majority to allow their churches to be used for scientific lec- 
tures. These churches might be, ought to be, the promoters of science, 
by offering those facilities which their spacious walls, comfortable 
pews, and central locations, always and every where might afiford Ibr 
lectures on science — ^particularly the science of man. Bu^, the blue* 
stocking orthodoxy utterly refuse their houses to all and every thingi 

72 oBJienoii that eiuoio.«i8T8 kbasoiv. S95 

•icept the promulgation of their contracted tenelt. Andover rehgioii 
would not open her doore to lectures on Phrenology. Hence, other 
denominations, who otherwise would open their churches, follow 
suit, in order to keep up the dignity of the house of Gkxl, till even 
Unitarians and Uni^rsalists, who claim to be liberal, also lock all 
but Universalism and Unitarianism out of their houses. And yel^ 
they claim to be liberal! Away with professions without practice! 
It is in your power, if you would but improve the noble opportonitj 
ofiered, to steal the march on bigotry and intolerance, to show your 
liberality, and thus commend your sect, by opening your doors to the 
cause of science, and even pttying something as societies, to promeU 
the cause of science. But, suit yourselves. Pursue the illibezal 
course, and it will ruin you. Pursue the liberal policy, and it will 
save you. The views here presented, tnll prevail. Oppose them, 
and you die. Science asks no odds at your hands. Take ewt of 
yourselves. That is all That is quite enough for you. 

I ought here to state unequivocally, that I find clergjrmen much in 
advance of the deacons, and those church aristoercUs who govem 
both priest and people. I also find that those called ^^new school^' 
men of each of the sects, particularly of the orthodox, generally take 
liberal views of things, are generally ready to open their chnrchei, 
and are decided advocates of Ph3r8iology, Phrenology. Magnetism, &c. 
This is right. They are the salt of the churches. Grod grant that 
they may go on to banish bigotry and invite science into the sano- 
tuary, and thus purify the religion of the day from the dross, the in- 
tolerance, the ignorance of the dark ages, and of the present age, and 
bring intellect into delightful action with the moral sentimenta 

" But," says an advocate of the religions that be, << does not much 
of the preaching of the day,- particularly orthodox preaching, em/ploy 
reason, and appeal to reason ? Where do you find more logic, more 
of consecutive argumerUation than is found in much of the preaching 
(rf the day ?" 

Theorizing, you mean. I grant that they employ a show of reason 
— a mushroon, spurious, deceptive species of reasoning, but it is a tfjj^ 
cies of reasoning that proves and disproves any thing and everything. 
It proves orthodoxy, and the decrees, and partial salvation, and the 
trinity, to a perfect demonstration, while it is at the same instant, in a 
pulpit over the way there, engaged in disproving these very doctrine^ 
and proving their oppositea In one pulpit, it proves most conclu* 
sively the final perseverance of the saints, and in the next pulpit, is 

/ > 


disproving this doctrine, and proves* that it is possible, to &11 from 
grace. Indeed, that there is great danger of it In a Methodist 
pulpit, it reasons out to a demonstration, that Armenianism is the truo 
doctrine of the '^ word of God," while in an orthodox pulpit, it is 
proved quite as logically and incontestibly, that the opposite doctrines 
of rigid Calvinism are true. In a Trinitarian pulpit, the divinity of 
Christ is proved to be bible, to be reason. In a Unitarian pulpit, the 
same doctrine is overthrown — shown to be anti-reason, anti-bible— and 
its oppbsite doctrine established as truth. So of the peculiarities of 
all other creeds. I submit to one, to all of the believers of these doc- 
trines, whether ministers do not each reason out their peculiar tenets 
logically, and forcibly, and also show by reason the absurdity of the 
doctrines opposed thereto ? I ask Trinitarians if they do not think 
their ministers reason out the three-fold nature of the Godhead as 
clearly and cogently as Unitarians think their ministers reason out 
their opposite doctrine? So of each sect, as to its peculiar tenets. And 
yet the fact, that truth always harmonizes with truth, and reason with 
reason, renders it self-evident and certain that i^aost of their reasoning 
is spurious. They do not reason. They simply theorize. They 
give a therefore without a wherefore. They reason through colored 
glasses. Diversities in their religious and other organs, warp intellect, 
and render their reasoning unreasonable. 

My conscience constrains me here to censure, what I virish I could 
let pass in silence. I refer to the gay, dressy religion of the age. If 
dress had no moral character, or were harmless in its effects, most 
gladly would I say nothing about it. But, it is not so. It is most 
pernicious. Scarcely any thing is more so. To two points, illustra- 
tive of its evils, allow me to advert. First, to the amount of extra 
sewing required thereby, and to the deleterious influence of so much 
sewing on the female constitution, and thereby on the race. I do feel 
that a vast many of our blooming daughters, first lose their health and 
are rendered miserable for life by sitting and sewing so steadily. I 
call attention to this point Ye who regard suicide as sinful, open 
your eyes, I beseech you, to this lamentable subject If our fabrics 
were made strong, and a uniform fiuhion prevailed, I venture to affirm 

* I tue the word proving here and oocationally elsewhere, not by any meant 
in its tme sense, bat ironically. This is so palpable, that the seader hardly re- 
qnires to be pat on his gaard by this note. I generally ase words in thehr tnio 
sense; always, indeed, except where the sabject itself cannot fiiil to give them 
^ signification intended. To save drcamlocation, I generally ase the word 
orthodox, however, in its popular, generally received sense, rather than In Hi 
trae sense. 

74 nunmo ok thx untcm 

diaC altke lowMl ftluiMidoii|iiiDe4enthfl ok Ike «iWiog nunrpeifoKiiMd. 
Biigk h% avoidod^anlmtii and women be juit aa GemlbikUe as now 
and infinitely vkne happy than following these fathioM can poonUi 
render them. 

Secondly: Look, and weep, in view of the vaat sacrifice of lifi» lo^ 
firtue, caused by tight4acing. I will not Milarge. Nearly half of 
the deaths of women and cliiklren,are caused by this accuraed ftshisai 
besides an amount and aggrairation of misery which no tongue caa 
tally no finite mind conceive. 

^ And what has religiontodowith thiSjOr this to dowith leiigianf 
says one. A story. In making a recent Phrenological eTwntiiMitiaa 
of a woman, I saw and told her that she had almost nUfud both body 
and mind by tight-lacing. She answered, that she neTar koed mona 
ten one day in the week. Reader, what day do yon soppoae dm/t 
one was? In what one day of the week is c<»nmitted mora soicida] 
and infimticidal corsetting, than in all the other six, and Uiat by hnfr 
ixeda to one? And yet ministers admiiiister die sacrament ta we' 
men by thousands, wbSi» in tke very ad of cmnmittmg both sukafe 
and infanticide* I pity clergymen. An excellent class of m&a^ ^akek 
by and krge. They would fiiin do their duty, and speak out Bat 
the daughter of the rich church-member mentioned above, exercises 
her pious Approbativeness, by attending church richly dressed and 
tightly corsetted, in order to be the ton of the meeting. Let die eler- 
gyman open his mouth against this life-destroying sin if he dare, and 
he will get his walking papers pretty soon. Sometimes miniBters dtfy 
consequences, but alas, what can they do? A living they must bave^ 
and they yield to stem necessity. They put on the shackles, and bovT 
dieir knees. But, ye ministers of Gk>d and of truth, I submit whether 
it fa right thus to let this crying sin pass unrebuked? Starre if yon 
must, but tell the truth; ^whether diey will hear, or whethw fiief' 
will forbear.'' Be no longer <' dead dogs" in reference to this subje^ 
(rf life and death. Tour sil^ice gives consent Bond yourselves to^ 
gether, and you can rid our land, our world, of a far greater sin than 
intemperance is or ever was. If yoti do not know both its evfls 
and thdr extent, it is high dme for you to learn diem. If ydi^ 
do know them, but dare Qpt, or do not, sound the alari^fi, aban- 
do|i your calling. Yield your post tp (hose who will not Itf a fro af 
glaring as this go untebuked. Do your duty, Implorii^g inillioiif 
yet unborn, say, do your duty. 

But, 1 havp not yet lashed this keying a|id these fashions bn ifbifiltp 
they belong. They go along with, they are propagated by, Ttiigiiffff^ 

229 noB wrursNOB or wMoam, 75 

fMttingt^ paiticiilarly on the sabbath« Wliere do those who with to 
Warn the &shions as soon as they are out, go ? To church, of courfe. 
Not need they go any where else. Neither the ball-room ncr the 
theatre, nor the social party, get the fashions as soon, or propagate 
them a hundreth part as effectually, as do our religious meetings on 
the sabbath. I am plain to declare, what every mind of common in- 
telligence will admit, that if I wished to amass a fortune by the popu- 
larity of some fashion, even though it might be pernicious, I would 
not attempt to introduce it into the ball-room or tbea^ but if I couM 
introduce it among the ion of some D. D.'s church, in some populous 
city, my end would be attained, for then all the other dreesingly religions 
maids and matrons must also have it, both in that church, and in all 
the churches of the land. And if they haye it, surely those who do 
not profess religion must also have it Besides, who does not know, 
that unless a woman dresses well ai cJmrch^ she loses casU, And, I 
submit to any candid observer of the facts of the case, whether nine- 
tenths of those women who labor for wages, do not spend nine-tenths of 
these scanty earnings, for aomethmg ^ descent," (that is, fashionable,) 
with which to appear in church on the sabbath. Nearly every new 
coat, new hat, new bonnet, new dress, new fashion, new every thing, 
goes to church first---^es to church mainly. And sometimes the piti- 
ful wages paid to our laboring women, do not allow them to get as 
many ^^ decent" things as fashion requires, with which to go to meet- 
ing on Sunday ; and, not having &thers or brothers on whom to rely for 
'^ pin-meney," much as they love virtue, much as they abhor moral 
pollution, bedeck their persons on the sabbath with the wages of ain t 
If even religion did not compel them to dress, they had retained their 
virtue ; and I verily believe more than half of the prostitution of the 
land, private as well as public, is chargeable to the sabbath dressing 
sanctioned, aye, even demcmdedy by the religion of the day. But not 
by the religion of Jesus Christ, He no where requires his followers 
»o wear bustles, or corsets, or fashionable attire. He dressed in swad 
dUng clothes. He loves you none the better, ye painted, padded, bus- 
tled, ribboned, milliner-made My-christianS} because you go up to the 
sanctuary attired in the latest fashions, with your gilt-edged prayer- 
book or Bible in hand, <fcc.-*-in that nipping, swinging, artificial walk, 
and affected manners — the natural language of seU^^steem and Ap- 
probativeness. Indeed, such he does not love at aU. Te cannot 
serve two masters. If ye will dress fashionably, ye cannot be itm 
disciples of the meek and lowly Jesus. 



Methodists 1 I have one word to say to you. Ye did run weU. 
What hath hindered you? Ye once interdicted church fellowship to 
the daughters of fashion. But << ye have fallen from grace. Hare 
glided along down that swift current of fashion which is sweeping 
away all that is pure and lorely in the religion of the Bible, of the 
cross. Watchmen ! to your posts. Sound the alarm 1 

If any reader suspects that I have chained the fashions on to the car 
of religion a little more closely than truth will warrant, I defend, I 
eren advance, my position, by calling your attention to S<Uwrday af» 
Umoan and evening ; and bring shop-keepers, milliners, seamstresses 
dbc., as my witnesses. These things speak volumes. They tell 8 
tale which religion should blush to hear. 

It remains to add, that thus the exalted heavenly ^notions of Vene- 
ration, are not enhancsd, but grievously retarded by this parasite of 
approbativeness. It is that pTopensity-r^Wgion^ all along shown to be 
so injurious in its effects, and so unholy in its exercise. True, it is 
not quite as low as the licentious worship of Venus, the revelling wor« 
ship of a Bacchus, or the murderous worship of a Mars, of the an- 
cients ; because Veneration now combines with organs a little higher 
in the head, and less animal in character, than with them. Still, it is 
animal religion yet. It is not the religion of either enlightened intel 
lect or high moral sentiment It is in the teeth of the nature of man, 
and of the requirements of Phrenology. 

I might say more. I may rue my having said so mucL Be it so. 
But it is true— only that '^ the half is not told." 

From these few applications of this great principle, that correct re 
ligious doctrines and practices involve die combined and harmonious 
action of all the fiiculties, with the moral and intellectual in the ascen • 
dency, the reader will see its sweep, its power. That it forms a cor 
rect test and touchstone of true and false religion, cannot be doubted. 
That it criticises efiTectually much that now passes for religion, is self- 
evident. That these few are but the beginnings of its application, is 
also apparent Still, as these applications will be rendered much more 
clear, general, and powerful after we have analyzed a few more of the 
moral faculties, and demonstrated a few more fundamental principles, 
we postpone them for the present. Perhaps entirely ; for two reasons ; 
first, the reader can apply them — cannot help applj/ing them for him 
•elf; and secondly, the task is most painful thus to criticise what so 
Biany good peojle hold as so sacred. 

231 ns BABSBjmL 77 



Having proved the existence of a Qod, and the duty of man to wo:- 
ship him, and laid open the great principle, by appl3ring which we 
may form correct views of the character, attributes, and worship of 
God ; the inquiry comes home with great force, '' What in regard to 
the SABBATH? What says the nature of man touching this religious 
institution ? Does Phrenology recognize any sabbath ? If so, which 1 
The Jewish, or the Christian? Does the nature of man set apart, or 
lequire to be set apart, any portion of time for religious worship? If 
»o, what portion ? 

Phrenology answers this question thus : " Man, worship thy God. 
Worship dailtfi Worship habitually. Exercise thy religious feel- 
ings, not by fits and starts, not at given times and seasons, but continu- 
ally. Make this worship a part and parcel of thy daily avocations, or, 
rather, pleasures.'' It saith, <^ Arise, thee, in the morning betimes, and 
as the glorious sun is lighting up and animating all nature with his 
presence, do thou pour forth thy heart in praise and adoration to the 
Maker of the sun, and to the Author of all those beauties that surround 
thee. And when the setting sun is shedding on delighted earth his 
last rays of glory for the day, and spreading his golden hues over na- 
ture, to wrap her in the mantle of night, do thou ofier thy evening 
orisons of thanksgiving for the mercies of the day, and supplicate pro- 
tection for the night.'' Instead of spending all thy energies in amass- 
ing weahh, or in pursuing merely animal, worldly objects, Phrenology 
saith, " Take a little time to feed thy immortal soul." Phrenology 
says, thou mayest go to church if thou pleasest, or not go if thou ob- 
jectest. It says, that pla^e and mode are nothing ,* that the worship is 
the main thing. We should think as much of thus feasting our im- 
mortal souls with thoughts of God and heaven, as of feeding our frail 
bodies with our daily oreaJ Should exercise worship as oflen and 
as much as we exercise appetite or visicHi. Should take time — should 
make a business of one as much as of the other. I epiov neither food, 
nor sleep, nor life itself, more than I enjoy this communion with m^ 
God. I look upon these seasons as the brightest spots upon the page 
of life. The most pleasurable. The most profitable. 

5. At least, it is lawiiil to walk abroad in the fields on the sabbath, 
enjoy the fresh breezes, and pick and eat fruit, and what we like. 
This shutting ouraelves up in-doors, is positively wrong. It dimin- 


ishes circukdon, and this deadens the action of the brain and nenroni 
system, and, by consequence, of the mind and religious feelings. In 
order that the worshipping feeling should be most active, the body also 
must be in motion. This is founded clearly m a physiological prin- 
ciple. It is as necessary that we take exercise on the sabbath as 
that we eat If the day be indeed so very holy, why are not all the 
physiological laws suspended on that day 9 If the day is too holy in 
which to take exercise, it is, of course, too holy in which to eat, or 
breathe, or live. Why does not the heart stop its wanted pulsations 
the moment Sunday begins, and resume them the instant it terminates ? 
For, if it be right to eat or breath on the sabbath it is equally, and for 
precisely the same reason, right that we exercise, recreate, pick flow^n 
and fruits, enjoy nature, enjoy life. 

Besides, this enormous stuffing on the sabbath, is ruinous alike 
to the religious sentiment, to the whole mind. Baked beans and 
pork, the most indigestible of all things, is the Yankee dish for a sun 
day dinner as sure as Sunday comes. Precious little piety, at least, 
in pork. Above all things, children should not be confined on the 
sabbath, nor on any day. The law of their nature diat demands phy- 
sical exercise almost constantly during the waking hours of childhood 
and youth, is imperious, inexorable, even on the sabbath, and must 
not be violated. Cannot be, with impunity. 

<' Oh, but," says one, << let us at least have a sabbath as a day of rest 
from the toils and burdens of the week. As a civil institution, it has 
no parallel in value. Our horses and servants need rest We all 
require one day to clean up, refresh our weary bodies, banish the cares 
and vexations of business, and place our distracted minds on heaven 
and heavenly things.'' I know, indeed, that if men will work too hard 
one day, they require to rest the next. Not so if they do not over do. 
Indeed, perfect health requires a given, equal amount of labor daily. 
So, if a man will eat too much, he will be benefitted by fasting. Not, 
however, when he has eaten just enough. If you will not work your 
beasts too much week days, they will need no reat Sundays. If you 
do not follow the world too closely six days in the week, 3rou will 
not feel the need of resting from it on the seventh, but will le the bet 
ter for not resting. So, if you will exercise Veneration s Efficiently 
during the week, you will need no sabbath to increase its energies, 
live just as you ought to during the week, and you will require to 
live just the same on the sabbath. I might enforce this point, by al- 
luding to the force of haHt^ but, as habit only requires the applica 

79 REVIVA1.& Ok* TLZLlQlGSf, S8d 

lion of Aat same gitU law of fivo^ioitiiiiate action already pointed out 
and is tlierefbre aV»xlh)r ^mbraci^i in elfect, enlargem^it is haidly 

Bxwrjoja OT ftEUOMft. 

QovE&NED by the same principles, anJ x> iLMbrl^ related as to de- 
serve notice in the same connexion with the habbath, is the doctrine 
g( '* revroalsV Phrenology discards them entnrelT* First, on the fun- 
damental principle of Phrenology, and the great law of mind already 
brought to bear on the Sabbath, (namely, that nniformiip, proportion' 
ate action, is the great law of perfection,) revirals are to the mind 
what artificial stimulants are to the body. They elate only propor- 
tionably to depress. It is a law of mind, that extreme action induces 
the opposite extreme. Now, if it be desireable to render our religion 
purely periodical — the ebbing and flowing tide, or the mountain torrent 
— ^rather than the quiet, steady, stem, then get up revivals. But, 
we have shown, that these extremes violate a law of mind, and that a 
most important one. ^' To the law and to the testimon]^" of man's 
nature, I submit this point, as also the kindred one, touching sudden 
convictions. Ctuick convertions, on the principle that ^^ the hottest love 
is soonest cold," is like a fire made of shavings, blazes, and scorches, 
and dies, leaving no valuable influences behind. To be productive of 
permanent good the moral organs must be exercised habitually. No- 
thing but ccniinualy long continued exercise^ can essentially either 
promote the growth of the organs, or improve the tone and vigor of 
the &culities. Let this great truth, elsewhere demonstrated, (that all 
improvement of the faculties must be brought about by improving 
thehr organs,) be borne constantly in mind, and also that this improve- 
ment can be effected only by a perpetual exercise of both faculty and 
organ. Fitful action will not, cannot do this. Permanent action 
alone can do it This doctrine is opposed to revivals. That is, the 
revival prmciple. 

Besides : These revivals are sometimes got up ; and, indeed, I 
rpeak the sentiments of all their advocates, when I say that they are 
always got up by means of protracted meetings, powerful appeals, &c. 
L know something about this, for I have got up revivals and religisQs 


excitements myself. I say, then, without any fear of contradictioii, 
that religious excitements are produced just as we produce impresaoni 
or excitements about Physiology, Magnetism, Singing, Temperance, 
6lc, They are induced by their own apptopriate meansj just as any 
and every thing else in the physical and the moral world. Tl]« 
means used bring them to their crisis sooner, or protract them longer, 
according to the nature of the means used. I advocate, then, that 
they be protracted so as to have a permanent revival. I do not object 
to revivals, as creating too much religious feeling. I would have as 
much religion always as there is in any revival, divested, perhaps, of 
some extraneous matter. But I uncompromisingly oppose periodical 
religion ; or, rather, anntuU religion ; for, revival matters are so man- 
aged as to '' get up'^ revivals at stated seasons of the year. It will not 
take much of the spirit of prophecy to foretell, that about next January 
revival meetings and efforts will begin to multiply, and begin to pro- 
duce copious showers of Divine grace'' by February, (xily to be 
completely dissipated by April 

But, why do April showers, perhaps the chilly winds of March, 
dissipate or supersede the showers of Divine grace % Because revivals 
musfr give way to business. January brings leisure to merchants, 
tradesmen, &c., to get up revivals till the money-making season again 
returns. I submit, to Christian and to all, if this periodicity of revi- 
vals, and at such times and seasons, too, does not tell a story touching 
revivals that should make those blush whom it may concern. 

Let me not, by any means, be understood to speak against man's 
exercising the religious feeling. So far from it, I would advocate our 
exercising the religious sentiments more all the timCj than they are 
now exercised even in revivals. But, I would not have these exer- 
cises fitfid, but perennial. The day of Pentecost should have lasted 
till now, and even swept down the vista of all coming time, till the 
last human being gave up the ghost The principles advocated in 
this essay, show that religion should be the paranumnt feeling, pur- 
suit, occupation, of mem, and not a winter's coat, that he can put on 
when he cannot make money, only to be put off when he can. Mo- 
ney should be the one to give place to religion, and not religion to 
money-making. And this subjecting the " Spirit of God," as revival 
influences are called, to the worldly spirit, tells a deep, dark story on 
the religion of the day^ells it that it is both animal, and secondary at 
that, while it shovld be primary^ and in-wrought into the very texture 
of all we do^ say, feel. This is the revival doctrine and spirit of 
Phi^nology, and of the nature of man, if not of the pages of the Bible. 


^ndeed, I am fully persuaded, that the Bihle does not inculcate, doei 
not even sanction the revival spirit, or measures, or converts, of the 
day. For, those that are converted by impulse, must, by a law of 
mind, be impulsive, periodical Christians, and therefore disqualified 
to enjoy constant, permanent religion, as well as to shine as a steady 
Christia q light upon the sinful darkness of the surrounding world. 

But, if others entertain other views, let them. Let those cultivate 
annual religion who have no better religioa. But, let me live near to 
my God always. Let me pray without ceasing. Like Blackhawl^ 
(et me never take the refreshing draft from the bubbling spring, with- 
out offering up thanksgiving and praise to the Author of all good, 
fjet me be as religious in August as in February. Let my religion 
not be the changeable garment ; but, let it be in me, and form the 
major part of me. No annual piety. No weekly, Sunday piety, 
even. But daily, and hourly, and constantly, may my soul hold 
sweet communion with the God of nature. And I am persuaded, 
that these views will accord with both the intellect and the better feel- 
ings of those who have either. At least, I shall not concern mjrself 
with those who differ from me ; for the very good reason, that I consi- 
der them in error. 

I know that I have now touched two of the four tender places of the 
religion of the day — the Sabbath, and Revivals. I know that I shall 
excite against me the proscriptive spirit* of the religion of the age. 
Be it so. I stand where even their anathemas, (I know they are 
more powerful, more unrelenting than the anathemas, the proscrip- 
tions, the tyrany, of any thing else in this world,) cannot essentially 
harm me. The truth of Phrenology is above their reach. So is my 
professional reputation. If they say 1 do not understand my business) 
\he spontaneous voice of the entire community will give them the lie, 
ind react against them, not me. So that if they commend, or if they 
condemn, my patrimony is beyond their reach. I fear them not 
W hy, then, should I turn aside for them, or even bow and scrape to 
cr rry their favor. I have more business on hand constantly than ten 
men can execute. So that, if they even do operate against me, they 
cannot hurt me. My bread and butter is beyond their reach. I-iet 
them do their worst. I bow not. I ask no favors. 1 grant nona 

♦ There is no better proof that the religion of the day is no better than it 
ought to be, than the way it treats its opposers. When one cheek is smitten, 
it does not ram the other also. It proscribes, anathamizes, aye, even punishet 
And punishes, too, those who are tincere in Uieir belief. Bat I may take ajr 
this point separately. 


And, oh 1 if I ever thanked my Qod for any thing, it is that I aland 
in a position where I can tell the truth^ and defy the consequencea. 
^ is awful, to have truth struggling within one's soul, reel and ruo^ 
Ud(; like the earth, when its pent-up fires are seeking vent. I appea! 
to ministers, who ache to tell truths which they know will cost them 
their salar'<>s. But, it is glorious to be able to utter truth, in all iH 
dignity, in Jl its power. To see it cut its own way, and proatr^ite 
whatever opposes it To see it make those in error wince and writhe 
luider its folds, only to be overcome and prostrated by their own vain 
struggles. To see the human mind delivered from those thraldoms 
by which it has been spell-bound, and come out free as air into the 
£[Iorious liberty of the sons of truth. To see error and misery sup- 
planted by virtue and happmess. To see thirsty souls drink in truths 
and be refreshed, and to be re-invigorated, and become regenerated 
thereby. That glory, I enjoy. I glory in the mere utterance oT 
truth. I glory iu being the instrument of good to man thereby, i 
glory in not being obliged to truckle even to religious bigotry and t^ 
r^nny, the worst form of tyranny, proscription, intolerance on our glob4 . 
Even it, cannot harm me. I snuffthe wind of its threats in my nostrili , 
and sing, aha, aha 1 And I tell all whom it may concern, that I astt: 
no o4ds of any one. I have got the American ear ; the confidenc » 
of Americans. And I shall use that confidence without abusing it : 
and so as even to increase it. It cannot be taken from me. There i i 
a power in TRUTH which will make ten friends to one enemy. ^ 
can live without ever making another cent. I can satisfy my con • 
sci^ce, by telling the whole truth, and am able to father its conse 
quences. So, reader, you may hear or forbear. You may laud or 
cavil. What you say and do for or against these things, will reac;. 
on you for good or for evil. Better take it kindly, then, and profit by 
the lessons it teaches. 

Hence, when I come to the other two places — (corns ! on the feet 
of modern Religion, that make her limp and hobble along) — ^I shah 
tread on them just as though they were not there. Temporize, I need 
not. Suppress truth, 1 will not. So that the reader may calculate on 
strajght-forward, thorough work. 

S3 XBUOIOra TBACHEB8 nsBroL 237 

SECtiffll T. 


Since it is beneficial, necessary, for man to be religious, the questioip 
recurs on the expediency of having religious teachers^ preachers, dux 
Phrenology, I thing, favors the existence of this profession. Man it 
capable of being influenced by his fellow men. Hence, those who 
are truly religious, are capable of infusing the religious spirit into their 
fellow men. Still, that profession, as now conducted, is sadly faulty, 
and comes far short of effecting the good it is capable of accom- 
plishing. Ministers are able to do immense good, but they not un- 
frequently wield their tremendous influence to the injury of mankind- 
How ollen do they become dogs in the manger, neither eating the hay 
of science themselves, nor letting those under their influence eat it. 
This is strikingly true, in regard to Phrenology. And, indeed, not 
unfrequently in regard to other great reforms in mankind. Their in 
fluence is entirely too conservative. They hold society back from 
effecting those changes that are evidently beneficial to society. As a 
class, they hang on too tenaciously to the old ways, and set their faces 
against Phrenology, Magnetism, Science, Geology included, &.c. Ac.; 
and thus greatly retard human improvement, whereas they should 
be the first to descry improvements, and urge their adoption. 

A single illustration : Let there be one stiffj hard-headed orthodox 
in any place, and he will be the nucleus around which all the anti-re- 
(brm influence of the place will gather ; and will make many bigoted 
who would otherwise take liberal views of subjects. A D. D., cler-i 
gyman in a certain old-fashioned town in New England, is a cordial, 
whole-souled opponent of Phrenology, and censures severely some of 
his family who have been compelled to believe it ; besides keeping 
it out of other ministers' churches, who, but that he is a leader or ex- 
ampler among them, would favor it, and open their churches for lee-. 
tures, &c. But they must keep up their dignity by doing as he does ; 
thus employing the same principle of augmentation mentioned on p. 
71, to appertain to the opening of churches. 

And then there is something radically wrong in their education. 
They are educated to be sectarian, and they are sectarian — ^the main 
propagators of sectarian influences. I confess, I have no faith what- 
ever in the present method of manufacturing ministers. They are 


made to order as a tailor would make a coat. They must all go 
through certain mills j called the Academy, the College, tl e Seminary 
and be ground out, all ready for taking holy orders, and cooking Qf 
sectarian sermons. They must know nothing of Physiology. Oh, no; 
they have other more important things to which to attend. They 
come out of College, the Seminary, and all, ignorant of nearly every 
law of health, and generally with impaired constitutions ; and, often, 
soon become confirmed invalids, and die young. They do not even 
know, that to preserve the health is a moral duty ; or even that life and 
health can be preserved. They even generally think that sick- 
less and premature death are providential, and not the products of 
causation. And if, perchance, some of them do find out that to be 
sick is to be sinful, they must not preach on health, its duty, or its con 
ditions, but must preach sectarianism. The palpable ignorance, or 
else culpable neglect of both Physiology and Phrenology, is the 
main fault I have to find with them. As a class, they are excellent, 
moral men. They mean better than they do. They have been look- 
ing at kais gars,&>c. till they have contracted the scope of their in- 
tellectual vision into the arena of their own sectarian dogmas, and there 
they stay. Still, as a class, their motives are as good as those of any 
other class. They do as well as they know how. I pity their ignor- 
ance and contraction more than blame their motives. I say ignorance 
Not of sectarianism. Not of Theological lore. Not of old-fash- 
ioned science, " falsely so call." But of that practical knowledge of 
men and things, and plain common sense, which constitutes the basis\ 
of all true knowledge. Of mind, its laws, its elements, and the means of 
operating on it, they know very little, and most of that little they need 
to unlearn. To be good ministers, it is necessary that they all be good 
Phrenologists. Then will they understand the human mind, and 
how to operate on it. And I tell Clergymen that they can turn tneir 
attention to no branch of study that will equally fit them for the station 
they occupy. 

* It is caBtomary for the professors at Andover to let their chapels to snch 
lectures as they think it proper for their anfledged ministers to attend. I ac 
cordingly applied for it, in which to lectore on Phrenology and Physiology, and 
their bearings. My application was Drought forward at a regniar meeting of the 
lacnlty, and negatived. The answer returned was, that the attention of the 
students was pre-occupied with other more important matters* Tlis refusal was 
taatamout to a public condemnation of Phrenology. So much Ar dover knows 


I repeat : They are generally honest, sincere, well-meaning men 
and most of their faults are faults of education^ (or rather, the want ol 
It,) not of motives. I am far from joining in the g^eral tirade 
against ministers, or trumpeting their faults. Faults they certainly 
have. But they are faults that grow out of their habits, and the 
temptations to which they are exposed. 

The second £iult of ministers, is that they do not labor sufficiently 
either for healthy or talent, or moral feeling. They are feasted to death, 
because they eat much from home, and must live on the fat of the land ; 
every table to which they are set being loaded with the good things. 
Then they write and preach too much, and allow themselves very little 
time for recreation or exercise. Every minister ought to have several 
acres of land, and to work enough on it to raise most of the eatables 
for his family. This, besides vastly improving his health, and, conse- 
quently, his talents, will render him more independent than he now 
is. I do say, that no religious teacher should depend on his preach- 
ing for his living, for two reasons : — 

First : It renders them more mercenary than is consistent with their 
station — ^hirelings, that preach for wages. How can this help season- 
ing their preaching, and making them have an eye to higher salaries ? 

But the main reason is, that it incapacitates them for telling the truth. 
And hence, though consicous that certain unpopular doctrines are 
true, and ought to be preached, they yet keep one eye upon the 
loaves and fishes. It cannot be otherwise. This makes them 
temporize with the sins of the rich men of their parish, or with the 
sins of their wives, or sons, or daughters, so as to augment their own 
salaries. Let those who are so disposed, give. But let the minister be 
able to support himself^ if he must, so that he may be free and bold to 
declare the whole truth, without fear or favor. 

I would also have them mingle somewhat more with their flock 
and be more familiar with them, and talk religion, and live religion) 
to them daily. Having these set seasons for religion is not the thing. 
[t renders it formal Besides, we require to have our religious feel- 
ings kept perpetually in action ; and these organs can be operated 
upon only as can all the others, namely, by presenting their appro- 
priate food, daily, hourly. And, particulary, by living religion. I 
confess, the Cluaker notions as to ministers, come nearer to the doc- 
trines of Phrenology, in this respect, than any others. 

One thing more: Preachers of morals should also be teachers of 
science. Religion and science ought never to be separated. They 
are twm sisters. Their organs occupy contiguous portions of the head 

86 mNisiTRS SHOULD auNGLE MoiiE ^\T^ niEm flock, 2*^ 

Their functions naturally blend, and excite ea:h other. I have de- 
monstrated the principle which settles this matter. All their hom- 
ilies should be based in science, and mixed through science, and aU 
science should be accompanied with religion. Thus says Phenology. 
Tt also saith : Let no man become a religious teacher, unless prompt- 
ed by the religious feelings ; and let him never attempt to preach, 
pray, exhort, unless when imbued with this sentiment; so that it 
will gush forth in every word, in every action. Let us have no for- 
mal preaching or praying. 

I think one evil grows out of our having a set ministry : And thbt 
IS, that the people rely on them to do up their preaching, praying 
piety. They do not exhort their neighbors to love and good work?, 
because they pay their minister to do that. And so of many other re- 
ligious duties and feelings. Now piety cannot be done up by proxy. 
Every one must be religious /or himself. Tf to shurk this private, 
personal piety ofi*on to the ministers, were the natural, necessary con 
sequence of having ministers. Phrenology would utterly condemn 
having any minister, yet I do not think it is necesary, only accidental, 
caused by a low state of religious feelings. 

But, after all, though religious teachers are good in their places^ 
and though they may perhaps do good by exciting their fellow men 
to religious feeling and good works, still no one can pray or be reli- 
gious for any other. Every one must be good and do good for him- 
self Ministers cannot pray instead of their flock, and thus excuse 
tl\e latter. Nor believe for them. Nor be benevolent for them. Nor 
do works meet for repentance for them. " Every man for himself** 
And I really fear, that the mere fact of the existence of ministers of 
religion, is generally abused in this way. We would fain be reli 
ligious by proxy. Better not have any ministers at all. Then, wf 
shall not rely upon them to our soul's injury. Nor need the fact bf 
disguised, that many do rely upon their minister to do up their reli- 
gious thinking, and their religious feeling for them. As well get your 
minister to eat for you, or sleep for you, or live for you. And let us 
be religious for oiir own selves, and also do all that in us lies to pro 
mote holy feeling and godly conduct among mankind. 

As to the way they make ministers, by laying on of hands, ordain- 
ing, ^'C. it is all useless. All the ordinations and holy orders of all 
Christendom, from St Peter down to the latest dates, cannot make a 
person one whit the better man, the better minister. But they some- 
times work injury, by leading the people to suppose a man to be good 
Ujcause he has been ordained. As to laying on of l^nds, mentioned^ 


in the Bible, it was evidently, simply a magnetizing of the moral MJi- 
timents. As far as the ''lathers" in the ministry actnally change At 
moral organs of their senunary-made minister with the refigioci^ 
fluid or impulse, by holding their hands on the top of his head^ diis 
ordaining process may do some good. In no other way. 

A word in this connexion, about the consecration of houses of wor^ 
ship. How much more holy, sacred, is that church as a church, or 
the wood and morter that compose it, after its consecration than be- 
fore ? Does the quality of holiness belong to matter 7 Does it not 
belong exclusively to mind 1 Perfect nonsense to consecrate, hollfy 
wood, plaster, pews, steeple! Too absurd to require exposititm. 
And yet, to make it a profanation of holy things, a desecration of the 
sanctuary, to allow any but an ordained mimster to mount die palp^ 
or any thing but the sectarian dogma that consecrated it may allow to be 
uttered within iis walls 1 Science — ^Nature— Man 1 Olu horrible ! what 
Profanity ! Desecration I And then too, a bishop^ a church, conae* 
crated by Catholics, is catholic-holy, but «n^holy to all Protestants; 
while priests and churches consecrated by Trinitarians, are trinitari- 
an-holy, but unitanan-unholy ; and so on of all the sects; I have no 
patience with sectarian religion, sectarian holiness, sectarian church* 
!«, ministers, doctrines, any thing sectarian. 



Next to CleTgyman, come Religious Societies, or bodies of relig- 
ionists associated together for religious objects. Is this Phrenologi- 
cal ? Clearly so. The principle already explained, that the social 
affections should cbmbiiie yndih the mora( sentiments, decides this 
matter m fsvoft" Of rehgious organizations. But, it afsb says, that the 
basis of such organizations should be voluntary association^ and 
without one iota of compulsion or restraint Phrenology goes in for 
the largest liberty, especially as regards the moral sentiments, it 
does not believe in cr^Sj in any form; for this implies that they 
must govern our belief, and this trammels that perfect lil)eTty which thfe 
nature of man requites. AU pr68Clripti(yn, all ptoscripfion, are abhor 
rent to this science. I '^oll not here stop to inquiry wherein, but shall 

8i» E£U010X» UBBETT. MS 

probably demonstrate this principle hereafter. Suffice it hr the pes 
lent to observe, that the facuky of will, in like manner with all the 
dher faculties, should combine with the moral faculties. Where theft 
is compulsion of any kind, in any form, there liberty is at'*idged, and 
with it virtue and enjoyment Man was never made tu think by 
proxy, or to pin bis fidth on creeds or on leaders. Every man has or 
should have, religious feelings, intellect, and will, and should exercise 
all three together. Should think for hwiself, without let or hindrance, 
and take the consequences. Perfect liberty of thought and action k 
a cardinal doctrine of Phrenology. But all creeds, and all the reli- 
gious organizations of the day, operate against this liberty. Think of 
it I The Council of Trent legislating for the consciences of men ! The 
General Assembly, telling their churches end members what they 
shall beliove, and what not ! The Pope of Rome, telling intelligent 
beings what is heresy, and what not ! Or the Methodist Ccmference 
sajring, believe this, reject that ! Every thing of this kind — the entire 
paraphrenalia of modem religious associations — ^in character^ is on 
a par with the fires of Smithfield, and the Inquisition. There are fiig* 
gots and inquisitions in our day, in our midst, and I doubt not but that 
some readers have been scorched. I have, and expect to be again, 
But, having on the coat of truth, woven with asbestos, I tell them tu 
fire away, for they are only scorching themselves. I boldly aver, that 
there is more of religious tyranny than of all other kinds of tyranny 
put together. Men must think in the traces — ^must believe by rM/e— or 
eke have all their business, all their infiuence, taken from them. 
We declaim against the intolerance of the Catholics. They are in- 
tolerant. But the Protestants are aboutas much so. I verily believe, 
that if the civil law did not step in and prevent, religionists of our day 
would burn each other at the stake, for opinion's sdce — as the honest 
and virtuous Cluaker has been burnt — as Salem witches were mur- 
dered ! They do all but hang and burn now. They do even woiae^ 
They rob of character. They slander, and do the worst they can. In- 
stance the treatment of the Come-outers.* If they had been very devils, 

* I do not choose this illustration in order to side with the Come-oaters. I 
say they are persecuted, but I also say that they show prsoisely the intolefrent 
spirit towards their enemies that their enemies do towards them. Both deferv* 
ooDsore. At least, it is all wrong for them to disturb the meetings of othets. 
If others want meetings, or ministers, or what not, be it even liquor, let thea 
have them. Let all men do exactly as they please. I^imply point out their er 
rors, in the spirit of kindness of course, and then let them chose and act fof 

243 BBUoious mTOLSauNCB. 80 

they should not have been treated as many of them nndouhtefly 
were. Would not some folks like to bum a Rodgers now alive, os 
somebody burnt his ancestor? Shame! a burning shame 1 Forbid- 
den by the Bible I In the teeth of Phenology 1 And for opinion's sake ! 
Put on the straight-jacket of creeds, and hew every man's mind 
down to it, lengthwise, breadthwise, all wise (if you hew him in 
pieces) so that you but make him fit into the hole dug out for him ! 
And then call that religion I Religion it is, but it is that of popery. 
It is jpr6>pen5t/y-religion. It has not one generous trait to recom- 
mend it And what is more, each sect has got its own straight-jacket, 
and is trying to fit not only their own members to it, but also all the 
world besides. 

But the worst of all is, that they require us to believe lies, and then 
put us into the Inquisition, because we will not comply. To be com- 
felled to believe any thing, even the truth, is horrible. But to be 
obliged to believe error, or else to be put upon the rack !— don't call 
yourselves Christicms ! ^ A rose by any other name may small as 
Sweetly." The Bible speaks of that day as most glorious, when every 
man shall worship God << under his own vine and fig-tree." And so 
it will be ; but, though man is a little nearer to that blessed period than 
in the dark ages, he is a long way from it yet Men are yet at- 
tempting to cram their creeds down each others throats ; and <^ might 
is right" What moral man but dispises the politics of the day, for 
turning men (m^ of office, and putting them in, for opinion's sake, and 
thus destroying the freedom of the elective franchise. Contemptible? 
iVnd much the very same spirit of proscription runs through nearly- 
every sect, only that it is plied with greater minuteness and efiicacy 
by the latter than by the former. Why did not Jesus Christ catch 
Judas by his collar, and, after jerking and twiching him about, cufibig 
and pelting him almost to death, pitch him out of the pale of disciple* 
ship? And what would you have thought of him if he had dius 
treated even Judas? What do you thmk of yourselves ! and that too 
though your opponents are as sincere in belief, irreproachable in 
life, as yourself, perhaps more so ? Away I liianoi Christianity — ^it 
is narrow-minded, bigotted, tyrannical, sectarian deviltry. I mean, 
to esteem, or treat voluniary man any the better or worse because 
he does or does not 6e/teoe as you do. Let him believe as Kb pleases, 
and you believe as you please, yet both continue to be as cordial 
friends as ever. But enough of this painfiilly disgusting subject* 
Let us all do unto others as we would have them do unto us. As we 
all like to thinkand act< ibc ouxsebrsfl^ let os yield the same jibei^is 

00 FEATBB|t.«-*m I«TT.--H&« VTICAOT. Mi 

otiieni, nod yet not thipk aay the worse of them therafoie. And M 
intellect be the only weapon with which to pcopagale the pisuceftd ie> 
iigion of Jesua Christ Let Mdhemet make men religions bj dv 
sword. Liet the Pope propagate popery by meane of the InquiiitiolL 
Let Protestant dissentere ctmploy in effect the same odioas, axiti-re|nA 
lican, anti-christian 9pini against whicji thdy themselTes proteetad ani 
rebelled. But let Phrenologists take the tttheist by the hand aa ei» 
dially as they do the faitbfql, and give and take thc^hrgeat liberty:; 

The only principle oa which all religious as^ociationt) and indeil 
M associations, should proceed) is that of the natiual attractiotta: ai 
kindred minds for each othec. No fouaoal reception. No yip^^^jwa 
Let members come and go at pleasure, and believe and do whu Hmf 
please, influenced only thrangh the medium of inteUa^A Lai the 
pleasure taken in eackother? society be oux on!^ cread-^'*«nt onlf 



VaKVRATKWr prays. Prayer is then our duty^ aa it oertaiiljFi m 
our pleasure. This has been already shown. But it remaina toaa^. 
s(wer the q;i;^estion : Doea praying for any given thing have: any; iefesdeflh 
ey tp bring about the end deaired ? Doea it altar the oourae- of . the Ik^ 
ity ? Does it ohapge the immutable plana of the Ailnigh^ t^ 'D^0mi^ 
sistasidethelawsofoausieiandeflbct? No^neithen Than, <<Hbwoaiij 
itbe effioacious, whioh the Bible abundantly aasttres Uait U ?" Sii»4 
plj.thus: Weoaaoptpmy for a thing tefyewrpeetljy without dNiVli^ 
it aiSt eajnestlyi Indeed, pn^er ia hut desir^ and each- isqnrdpoi tkio^ 
arte to th0 other. Now, who doea; not ktsow- ttlat when> we iieso)r.ap 
^fem thing very mucbj we nalivrafly^ aeceasafsBy' putt forth, o^mm .' 
ppnding eSbirta to> obti^iii the thing daamd; oiv what ia ^ matm 
tbA9gi.F?Ay^ fi^>! ^' ^vA who dpeatnot . know thai thiaiefforty. this^apa. 
pl^jsaiyipa oC appropriate cauAfs totbo^produetioiiof tiMBfTaotadaaivadp. 
t^ipd^toi bring ahoii^Jdiaietd^ prayed for just aa^wa pBaduoa tLosapx^- 
cfirih ^ wheat, or peaAi.or wbatev^eo^^aa we paay fert W^ prs^ Ibtr 
evteqrtbingi^a waDt, aridsoveiy aingl<^thibg<weieffsbt, isbtit aftfarnwer ' 
tptprayer. To i^iay foraJbingaiKlinot ta.pnt £NPtfaahaioan)a^ndin|^> 
eS>i(t:ia<hp^AMM)kiir3h*-««9 «kP pmysav^QOi d^e/Jba:de8lMfand affi>ii. 

245 nuXSR-^^-BOV U. IB 4N0WXBS>. VI 

go together pari passu,* Neithsr oan be without the otfiar, and t|K 
degree of either is the measure of the other, and generally, of the ^ 
cacy of the prayer ; though that is also affected by the anoount of 
causality brought to bear upon the end prayed and labored for. 
Causality must accompany veneration—^ doctrine already urged. 

<< But," says a truly pious Christian, " we sometimes pray for 
things beyond our power to effect, and on which causes cannot be, 
and are not, brought to bear. For ioataoce, I pray,ed earnestly for 
the conversion of a certain iinpfenitent sinner. I said not a word to 
him. I used no means^ But he was converted, and in answer to 
my prayers." Agreed. " A mother prays dor her son who is far 
off, and wrestles in spirit for days, but holds no communication with 
him. Still, he is converted. So;, with hardened sinners sometimes in 
revivals. So, ill regard to praying for the sick, and their almost nu- 
] aculous recovery, and in cases innumerable where your plausible 
(exposition will not apply," 

First : In the nejfX chapter, I shall present a doctrinie in relation to 
^piritual inflijiences which will show how it is that your prayers for 
nn impenitent sinner operated as causes, to bring him to repentance. 
Men commune with each other spiriiuaSjf as well as sensibly. Man 
has a spiritual nature, a magnetic,, iffunateria} natu/re, that is not al« 
Yvays chained down to his body, but, bursting the shackles of day, 
leaps over immeasurable space, aqd knows neither time nor distance, 
[tut is indeed and in truth a spirit. This state is pre-envnently a state of 
prayer. And in this state, though the n^otbfir sees not her son with 
material eyes, or addresses; him with b^r voice^ yet her spirit holds 
< communion with his Bj^xit^ and l^s with hsrs. Though you see not, 
speak not to the impenitent sinner for whom you pcay, yet your spirifL 
yearns for his spirit, and impresses him with that religious feeling 
which pervades, engrosses, your own soul, which heoomes the 
cause, and his oonvertioni the ^ifibet. liie organs are all catching. 
The exercise of any fkculty In one^ naturally, necessarily, ex- 
cites the same faculty in another. Anger in one electrifies all 
around him with the same angry feeling. So with the religious 
spirit. The religious feelings becoming roused in one, excite the 
same in another. These two combine and reaugment and rekindle 
similar feelings in the souls of others, and thus the " revival" goes 
on till the very atmosphere becomes charged with the religious fluid 

* ** With even pace/' I sometimes quote Latin because it is often appropristo 
and expressive, and because I could wish men generally knew more about Ian* 

d2 nuTSR oikimoT osanob tbb rufcF O ii of ooa ^46 

thrown off by so many, which spirit impresses the impenitent and fi. 
nally oonverts them. 

Secondly : Our world is governed throughout by catue and effed. 
Nothing occurs that is not caused. And this is as true of the world 
of mind as of that of matter. For one, I am not atheist enough to 
M love that the first thing ever occurred without being caused. Nor 
can I admit that, after the Deity has got his plan all laid right in ia- 
finite wisdom and for the greatest good of the greatest number, that 
t!ic prayers of mortals will either change the purpose of high Hea 
vf^n,* or nullify the laws of causation as to the thing prayed for. 
Such are not my views of God or nature. If, reader, they are yours, 
T pity you. I pray that you may see your error, and I will do my 
best to get my prayer answered ; that is, to convince you that such 
notions show your views of God to be extremely limited and er- 

Intelligent reader ; while this view of prayer diminishes nought 
from the efficacy of prayer, it presents the character of God in a dig. 
nified light, and sustains the great arrangement of cause and effect 
in all its power, in all it& universality. 

It remains to add, that both verbal prayer and also public prayer^ 
find their counterpart in Phrenology ; the former in the spontaneous 
disposition of language to clothe thoughts and feelings in appropriate 
expressions, and of adhesiveness, which, with veneration, inculcates 
social prayer. On these two principles, grow both vocal prayer and 
that social prayer in which one is spokesman for the others. Praying 
with and for others, intensifies die action and extends the scope of 
veneration, and thereby increases the pleasure and the profit to be 
derived from its exercise. 

* In making thii anonon to the dootfine of Dtvino decreet, I do not wiih to 
be nndentood to adyocate the ezistenoo of fooh deoreei ; nor do I now wUi 
to be nndentood ai abrogating thia doctrine. I •in^aaj let it stand ontonok* 
ed for the preaenl. 




We cannot well close our observations on this fiiculty without re- 
marking upon religious forms, ceremonies, rites, observances dtc. 
Do they aid veneration, or augment its action 1 If so, they are good. 
If not, they are useless, besides being liable to cheat us with the 
shadow without the substance. 

Phrenology answers this question negatively. It says, that as friend- 
ship is impeded by ceiemonies, so is veneration. Gushing friendship 
is all cordiality, it knows no intervention between the feeling and the 
expression. It requires to go through no ceremony in order to express 
itself. So with the religous feelings. And as, when a would-be 
friend receives you very politely and ceremoniously, you may know 
that he does noi feel friendship, but only puts on its semblance, so 
when religious ceremonies are rigidly observed, take it for granted, 
that it is mainly ceremony. That there is very little soul or religion 
i« it 

And I cannot but think this to be the New Testament view of this 
matter. I do think, that Christ took special pains to do away with all 
rites, ceremonies, forms, &c. except the two baptism and the comm- 
union, and has not left one form, except a short prayer, on record. 
He does not say that we shall begin our set worship, (or even that we 
shall have any set, formal worship,) with asking a blessing ; to be fol- 
lowed by reading a portion of the Bible, and this, by singing, and thia 
by a long prayer ; this again by singing, this by a sermon, and this by 
ft short prayer, a sing, and the benediction. One would think thia 
specific routine, if not absolutely necessary to salvation, at least had 
some saving virtue in it, and hence its universal adoption. Phrenol- 
ogy sees no special virtue in the Episcopalian or Catholic form of ser- 
vice. — (No heaven-wide difference between them.) It sets no store 
by creeds, by councils, by religious liturgies, prayer-books, homi- 
lies, and all the attachi of modem religion. Away with them all. 
They but interrtipt thy communion with God from thy heart And 
if thy religious feelings and aspirations are so weak that these printed 
prayers and set forms are necessary, are even helps to devotion, why 
thy religion is toeak indeed ! and thou art making it still weaker. 

94 VOttmTART ASSOCUtlON THE OSLT TtOm tOlfD 0# tftflDICi 248 

Break avr&y from all shadows. Regard only the substance. Eze^ 
CISC the religious feelings. Forms or no forms, printed prayers or 
vocal prayers, or no formal, outward expression of prayers at all, so 
that thy heart but communes with God. So that thy feelings are 
but softened down by prayer's subduing influences ; so that thy soul 
is bedewed with the holy, happy, soul-satisfying worship of thy God. 
But, beware that these ceremonies do not leave thee the shadow for 
the substance. 

Quite analogous to ceremonies, are creeds, articles of faith, Sbt. 
Phrenology discards them. It is like measuring out a given kind of 
food to each and all members of the human family, and thencompel- 
liog them to eat this particular dish, (perhaps dose,) and to etit no modls, 
no less, nothing else. And that dish, too, all embittered and even 
poisoned with some ism. It is like making a bedstead, and stretching 
those who are too short to fill it, and cutting off unfeelingly those who 
are too long till they come within its iron dimensions. It also abridgeiB 
liberty of thought. Above all things, it is odious to coerce beli^. 
Many a hypocrite do these creeds make ; for he who id true to the faidi, 
gets patronized, and he who is not, is not only neglected, but is ptth 
scribed, by a silent influence to be sure, but <' by a mighty hand and 
a stretched out arm" notwithstanding. And modem rehgion gets psdl 
for ihis in her having so many tares, and so little wheat. Phrenplogj* 
says, patronize men none the less, respect them none the less for opin 
ion's sake. Let a man be an infidel, so that he is sincere, treat hinv 
just as though he believed with you. Agree to disagree. Proscri}^ 
tions for opinion's sake, are detestable. Out upon politicians for giv^ 
ing oflices exclusively to their own partizans. It is a direct and paL 
pablQ interference with the elective franchise, with that pretended, air- 
bubble liberty, in which we glorify ourselves. It must bring erea 
politics, (scandalous, contemptible, as they are any how,) into disgrace 
with every sensible man. But, to carry this proscription into religion 
— ^to buy up religion as they buy up votes — shameful, de8picable4 
And yet this is the nature of all creeds. 

" Oh, but," say you, " we want it as a test of their belief We want 
none with us who do not believe with us." I repeat : Let members 
come and go at pleasure. Let the natural bonds of friendship and ' 
adhesion alone operate. Let those form themeselves into religious . 
associations whose opinions and feelings naturally, mutually, attract 
each other. Let those go elsewhere whose pleasure in the association 
will not bind them to it. Let those come in who are attracted to il^ 
i«tt as the literary seek the society of the literary ; and so of other 


instances of association. Phrenology advocates the largest liberty. 
This liberty, especially of opinion, is the glorious birth-right of every 
human being. Upon this liberty, creeds trespass. It sets articles of 
faith to thinking for those who subscribe thereto. They can be val- 
uable only as they are minute ; and if they are minnte, they divide, 
bewilder, injure their subscribers, injure all. 

This train of remark, or these applications of Phrenology, might be 
extended at pleasure, but I forbear. Reader, carry them out for your- 
self Drink in the fundamental principles, and then run them up 
aud out for yourself in their most beautiful, most interesting appli- 



God is a Spirit; and tbey that worsliip Him, rniut wonhip Him in spirit 

and in truth. 

mmn I. 

spotrnjALrnr, o& harvellousness. — ^rrs analysis aot) bearings. 

Perception and feeling of the spiritual ; belief in the superhuman ; trust in Divino 
providences for guidance ; intuitive perception of future events ; the spirit of 
prophecy ; prescience ; that spiritual state of mind and feeling, which, as it 
were, separates the soul from the body, and perceives things independently 
of the physical senses or other faonbies ; Faith. 

Man has a soul — a spiritual essence — which sees without eyes, 
hears without ears, operates disembodied, and connects him with 
heaven, and with God. Without this soul, this spirituality, this dis- 
embodied susceptibility, how could he form the least idea of a spiritual 
state, of spiritual beings, or of God as a Spirit, or of any thing at all 
related to the spiritual ? What better idea of any thing spiritual, of 
any thing material, than the blind man, (mentioned on p. 53,) did of 
colors? How completely foreign to all his perceptions would be 
even the being of a God? He could conceive. of him only as a ma- 
teral being or thing, and could form no conception whatever, either 
right or wrong, of any being, thing, state, independent of matter, any 


more than the blind roan could of colors, or the total idiot of tint 

But, man has these perceptions and feelings. They Are in-wrought 
into his moral constitution, his very being. They are not creatures 
of education i for how can that be educated which does not exist ? 
How cultivate the spiritual, when we can form no idea whatever of 
the thing to be cultivated 1 And the universality of this sentiment, in 
the form of a belief in ghosts, in an hereafter, in transmigration, a 
heaven, a hell, and the like, in all ages, and among all mankind, estsr 
bJishes the existence of some faculty analogous to the definition given 
above, from the exercise of which these perceptions and feelings pro- 
ceed. Precisely the same argument, mutalis mutandis,* which prov- 
ed the existence of veneration, will equally prove the existence of this 
faculty. And this existence and analogy established, the same argu- 
ment of adaptation which established the existence of a God, (p. 47,) 
will establish both the existence of a spiritual state, the spiritual exist- 
ence of God, and the existence of spiritual beings. Let us apply it 

Belief in a spiritual existence, is universal From the earliest re- 
cords of man, he has held converse with spiritual beings, and has had 
his heaven and hell. Adam, Cain, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob, Hagar, Esau, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, David, Solomon, the 
Prophets, in sacred history ; the druids of our ancestors ; Eneas, and 
ail the ancients ; all paganism, all Christendom, all mankind, in all 
ages, have talked with Jehovah, or with gods, or angels, or devils, or 
departed spirits. Indeed, the entire texture and frame-work of the 
Bible, of ancient m3^hology, of Hindoo worship, of Indian worship, 
of all religion, is a spiritual existence. To deny that man has the sen 
timent of the spiritual, is utter folly. To assert that it is formed by 
education, is equal folly ; for education can never create any thmg, 
only develop primary powers. Education must have some original 
faculty upon which to operate ,• else it is powerless. And, as of vene- 
ration, so of the spiritual feeling. If it were not indigenous, it would 
soon be eradicated. At least, it could not pervade the whole human 
family, and govern them, too, so energetically. A foreign element, a 
parasite, a feeling for which man had no predisposition, and that was 
foreign, and therefore repugnant, to the nature of man, could not pos- 
sibly fasten itself upon that nature and stay fastened, and then infusc^ 
itself all through that nature as this faculty has done. The 
supposition is preposterous. For, the mental nature of man, like his 
physical, would soon expell a foreign intruder, or else merely furnish 

* « Those things being changed that require to be chnnged." 


it room, bul would separate itself therefrom completely. I camiot 
that this point requires argument ; namely, that this sentiment of the 
spiritual is constitutional in man. 

Besides : Man requires such a facuhy. Many things can be known 
only by its instrumentality. We often require to know what causality 
cannot reach, because it has no data on which to operate, or because 
unknown contingencies will render the results unknown ; in short, 
which can be arrived at through no other faculty, but which can be 
by this. Which often is by this. Man has a power of vision which 
the light of the sun cannot enlighten, cannot bedim. Which thick 
darkness cannot obstruct. Which penetrates the unknown future. 
Which dives deep into the sea of time, and gathers pearls from ^- 
bottomless abyss. Which distance does not intercept. Which sees, 
not with the natural eye, but uses the telescope of angels. Which 
reads the book of fate before time has broken its seals. Which de- 
scries danger, and either shuns it or prepares therefor. Which pre- 
cedes time and plucks many a golden apple, a delicious fruit, before 
Saturn* opens them to the gaze and the contemplation of all. Which 
looks down the long vista of time, and surveys all coming ages at one 
great view. Which soars above the clouds of heaven. Which leaps 
death's dark hiatus, and reveals to man what shall be hereafter, when 
the moon dies, the sun goes out, and rolling ages speed their onward 
flight through eternity! 

But to be specific. First : Man needs some element in his nature 
to spiritualize that nature. To throw off its terrestriality, and ethereal- 
ize his soul. To shake off the materiality of his nature, and clothe 
himself with immateriality, as with a garment of glory. To elevate 
his entire nature. To whisper constantly in his ears that God is a 
Rpirit ; that he himself is a spirit ; that anon, he will join a spiritual 
throng which no man can number, whose bodies will not wear out ; 
will only brighten ^vith age. Oh ! thou God of spirits innumerable ! 
Can we ever duly love Thee, duly praise Thee, for this the most glo- 
rious department of our nature ? Oh ! do Thou spiritualize our in- 
iTiOst souls, that we may see Thee, worship Thee, as Thou art ! That 
we may cheer on earth by tastes, by bountiful repasts, of heaven." 1 
do certainly regard this view of the nature of man as beauntiful, glo- 
xious, beyond all expression, all conception. Without it, existence, 
how tame! Death, our extinction ! Life, transient! Eternity, ban* 
isliod \ No conception of an hereafter, of a God ! But, blessed be 
( lod. for this element of Spirituality. For the lessons of immortality, 
of divinity it teaches. 

« The god of time. 


Secondly : The spirit of man does certainly revei. his coming 
destiny. Man is often forewarned. Often impressed with the feeling 
that that will happen which is about to happen. A few examples : — 
The lamented Upsher, at the very time when the fatal gun was 
loading that blew him to atoms, and immediately before its disas- 
terous explosion, in drinking a toast, took up an empty bottle, and 
remarked, that these dead bodies ^ (empty bottles,) must be cleared away 
Dcfore he could drink his toast. Setting it aside, he took up, by chance, 
nother empty bottle, * repeated, that he eould not give his toast till the 
dead bodies were cleared away. Nor did he. In a few seconds his 
o\vn dead body, along with many others, were indeed " cleared away?^ 
In conjunction, read what follows from a correspondent of the Ekxston 
Daily Advertiser, who says: — 

" It is worthy of remark, as a singular instance of pre-supposed 
danger, that the late Secretary of State, Mr. Upshur, could not be pre- 
/ailed upon to join in either of the previous excursions in the Prince- 
ton down the Potomac, assigning as a reason his fears of some disaster 
from ike big cannon. It ^\'ns only by much persuasion that his preju- 
dices were surmounted, and he prevailed upon to unite with other 
members of the Cabinet, and many personal friends, in accompanying 
the President on that greatly to be deplored occasion. Of this re- 
markable fact there can be no doubt, for I have it from one who heard 
it from the Secretary's own lips, wondering at the same time that an 
•»vidual possessed of so much good sense, and strong nerve, should 
permit his fears or prejudices thus to influence him.*' 

While goinsT down to the Princeton m me morning, Com. Kennon, 
another of the killed, remarked to Capt. Saunders, that if any accident 
should befall him on this occasion, he [Capt S.] would be the next in 
command at the Navy Yard. 

Judge Wilkins had a similar premonition, to which he took heed, 
and by which his life was saved. As the fatal gun was about to be fired, 
he remarked, pleasantly, " Though Secretary of War, I don't like this 
firing, and believe I shall run ;" and suiting the action to the word, 
he retreated to a place of safety* If Judge Upsher or Com. Kennqn 
had heeded their premonitions, so plain, so powerful that they wer3 
uttered, and in the face of the ridicule with which they were met, they 
too would have been saved. So loud was the voice of this spiritual 
monitor in Judge Upsher, that he could hardly be persuaded to go on 

• From all accounts, it would seem, that they had a real drinking froljc on 
board, and that many were intoxicated. I do not mean entirely drank7 hiiX ** ss- 
•entially corned." What examples for our rulers to set! What a national 
cone SQch rulers ! And whose money bought that fatal wine f Re«i,\^r it wa» 
Mf«, Comment each for himself. 


board, and, when on board, could talk only of ^ dead bodies" Those 
facts are undoubted. Their inferences are palpable. These facts are 
recent and striking, but they are by no means alone. Another : 

Svdden Dea4h. The Bay State Democrat of last evening announces 
the death, on Sunday morning, of the Rev. David Damon. Pastor 
of the Unitarian Society at West Cambridge. He was engaged at 
Reading on Friday afternoon last, in preaching a funeral sermon, 
when he was attacked with a fit of apoplexy, which has thus proved 
&tal. A short time since, while delivering an address at a consecration 
of a rural cemetery at West Cambridge, he made the remark, that 
possibly he should be the first to repose in death beneath its shsides ; 
and the words of the speaker have literally proved true ! — Courier. 

Maria Martin was killed by her sweetheart, William Corder, and 
buried in a bam at Ipswich, England ; and he lefl for London. Her 
mother-in-law dreamed three nights in succession, that she had been 
killed, and her body buried m a certain red barn. Her dreams alone 
induced a search in the bam, where they discovered the body, and in 
the exact place where she dreamed it was, and dressed in men's 
clothes,- as she dreamed it was dressed. He was executed in 1 827. 

The motber of McCoy, the Sabbath before he was killed in the ring 
at White Plains, while lying down to rest was awakened by a horrible 
dream which so terrified her that she sprung from her bed, and ran 
into the room where the rest of the family were, exclaiming, " I see 
him horribly beaten the blood gushing from his head with great 
fury.'' The next Tuesday, he was *>eaten till he was blind, and died 
from profuse bleeding. 

A highly nervous woman, insisted that her sons should tackle up one 
cold night, and go a given distance in a certain direction, where they 
would find some persons in distress. She had had other premonitions^ 
which they had found to be as she directed, and therefore went, and 
found some persons who had been turned over in the snow, and but 
for this timely assistance, would hare perished. With her, such pro- 
phesies were so common, and so certain, that her family always fol- 
lowed her visions, because they always found them so uniformly cor- 

The wife of the Adams who was murdered by Colt, dreamed, two 
successive nights, before the murder, that she saw the lifeless corpse 
of her husband, all mangled, wri pped in a sail, and packed away in 
a box. She told this to her husbimd, and remonstrated almost with 
frantic eamestness the la^t time he went out, to prevent his goinjcr, 
orging as her sole reason, that he wof Id be murdered. So deep was 

100 nrrumvE percsptxoh. 8M 


Jie laddening impression leA upon her mind, that she felt little ma- 
prise at his not returning, aUeging that he had heen murdered. 

Mr. R. S. says, he always dreams out any thing remarkable before 
it happens. He dreamed one night that he struck a young friend of 
his, and that the blood gashed out of the wound. In a day or two 
afterwards, this same young friend of whom he dreamed, becoming 
intoxicated, demanded his wages. Mr. S. refused to give them to him 
till he got sober, because he knew he would waste them, and told him 
to come sober to-morrow, and he should have them. But no, he must 
have them then, and took up a club to beat Mr. S., who was obliged 
to clinch in with him, in order to save himself. This young friend 
embraded his hands in the hair of Mr. S., and tried to choke him, till 
Mr. S., after remonstrating with him, and telling him he should have 
to hurt him, finally struck, and ruptured a blood vessel, which caused 
copious bleeding. The young man, however, recovered, and thank- 
ed Mr. S. for not paying him. 

A friend of mine, living in Albion, Orleans county, N. Y., tackled 
up his horses to go a few miles, and, before starting^, called his family 
together, and, what he had never before been known to do, -Idssing 
them affectionately, bid them all good by. " Why, husband, what in 
the matter ? Are you not coming back soon ?" said his wife. '' Yes^ 
I calculate to return about three o'clock ; but, somehow or other, it 
seems to me just as though I never should see you again,' ' was his 
answer. He started. His horses took fright, ran away, and killed 
him, and he was brought back to his family a corpse. This I had 
from his wife. 

Abercombie states several analogous facts. Time would fail me to 
narrate what I have seen, felt, and heard fully authenticated. Indeed, 
the world is full of them. So full, that it requires a greater stretch of 
Marvellousness to disbelieve and account for them, than to ascribe 
them to the natural workings of this faculty. How often, when our 
sky is cloudless, and every prospect bright, does a strange feeling flit 
lightly cross our mind, whisping bad news or trouble in our ears — 
faintly, perhaps, but so that we feel it, and so it turns out to be. And, 
again, how often, when hope is blasted, our way is hedged in with 
thornE, and no bright spot appears on our horizon, do we internally 
feel that all will yet be well, and so it comes to pass ? So strong is 
this sentiment in man, that it has given rise to the proverb, " tfeel U 
in my bones J^ 

But more : The canon of prophecy is not yet sealed. Men pro* 
phesy in this our day. Their spiritual vision preced^jS the lapiil 
flight of time and fore-shadows coming eventB. Afew&cii:— 

355 XNTurnvE peeceptioic 01 

Ellas Hicks prophesied many years ago, that, in 1842, England 
would be without a King, the United States without a President, and 
the times hard in the extreme. And so it came to pass. 

There are many now living in Boston, who, eleven years ago, 
heard Dr. Beecher prophesy, that, in ten years, Tremont Theatre 
would be converted into a church, and he should preach in it. '' And 
it was 30.-' Just ten years after uttering this prophesy, he preached 
its dedication sermon. And what is more, he uttered the prophes]^ 
when there was no shadow of a prospect of its being fulfilled. The 
main theatre of Boston — of New-England — ^popular; every thing 
against the prophecy. But it has literally been Ailfilled, and ^' at the 
time appointed.'' And what is still more, this prophecy was uttered 
during a revival, in whieh this faculty was of course unusually active. 

Josephine was Bonaparte's prophetess. He generally followed her 
advice. She told nim not to go to Russia that year. He disobeyed. 
He fell. Indeed, I do not believe the great man ever lived who had 
not some bosom friend, generally a female, a wife, a sister, a mother, 
a friend of childhood, or some female friend, whose whole soul is in 
the cause to which he devotes his life, to give the required advice. 
This spirituality, this intuition, is in the organization, of woman, in 
the head of woman. But enough. I shall not be believed. Thou' I do 
not put forth these views as positively as most others that I advance, 
still, I think them correct I think I find them advanced by Phreno- 
logy. If others think otherwise, they have as good a right to their 
opinion as I have to mine. 

Thirdly. Man reqmres and uses this faculty as a guide to truth. 
^< There is a divinity within" some men that siezes truth by a kind of 
mtuition, and without the aid of intellect. That scents truth, as the 
hound, the fox. That drinks it in as the fish drinks in the water, and 
with evidence, without evidence, in spite of fallacious evidence, ar- 
rives at truth. It aids causality in reasoning. It helps comparison 
propound analogies. It joins ideality in her sublime reveries, and 
opens a door for the reception of truth through that channel It guides 
the social affections upon proper objects. It warns us of hypocrites, 
and tells us whom to shun, whom to trust. Man has, or can have, in 
his own soul, a directory and a compass, to spy out his coming destiny, 
which, unperverted and properly cultivated, will warn him of ap- 
proaching danger and point out the road to success and happiness. 

But I am talking Greek to many. To most. Few have this organ, 
except very feebly developed. Miserably small in the American head ! 
Usually, a deep cavity, and that in so-called Christians, They even 
ffide themselves in rejecting Pkrenobgy, Magnetism, cveiy diing, 


till they c&n see and understand. Till the reasons^ and the tohfs and 
kows, are givtm, and so fully at to breakdown all disbelief. Why the 
existence of this organ, unless to be exercised f Its absence is a greal 
defect. Its presence constitutes a part of every weU balanced and 
truly philosophical mind. If the huinan mind were so constituted as 
to wlmii nothing which it did not see, or eke fully comprehend and 
understand, its progress in knowledge would be exceedingly slow, 
and its attainments very limited. Children could know little or no* 
thing, for they are incapable of profound reasoning or extensive ob- 
servation. Indeed, we are obliged to receive much of knowledge on 
testimony. The importance of the function of this &culty, and of 
duly exercising it, and the utter folly of those who reluse to believe 
till they can see, know, and understand, is thus too apparent to require 

But, since we take Phrenology for granted in the start, why at- 
tempt to prove what this science has already proved at our hands t 
The existence of the faculty, and its an^ysis in substance, as I have 
given it, or what is tanamount to it, is set at rest by Phrenology. It 
not only shows, as in the case of veneration, that all the other fiicuities 
are exclusively engrossed each with other functions, but that these 
apparitions and spiritual impressions are made upon the mind by 
means of this faculty. Phrenology drives the nail of its existence atid 
then clinches it. It rendets its existence and functions demonntraUf 

And glorious indeed are the results to which these inferencee con- 
duct us ! They open immortality upon our vision. They reveal a 
spiritual principle in man which age only invigorates, and which will 
be young far into the vista of eternity. Veneration tells ts that there 
is a God. Spirituality tells us that he is a Spirit, and hope tellft us 
that we shall one day see him as he is, and be like him. Infinitely 
does it exah the character and ennoble the nature d mant Glory! 
Hallaluia 1 

The argument by which this existence of a world of spirits is est** 
blished, is analogous (o that employed in proving the existence of * 
God, from the adaptation of veneration to that existence. SpirkuaUty 
exists in man. It even forms no inconsidemble a part of his prin^ 
tive constituticm^ (me of his original elements of mind. This SutfaHtf 
has its counterpart, its adaptation. That adaptation is td a spiriiUlt. 
state. Therefore the^e is a spiritual state of being adapted to this la* 
culty. Short, but demcmstrative. But two pomts. Tlie existeiMMf tf 
iiis Acuity in man^ which Phrenology Sets completely at restf AflA^ 
that great law that one thing being adapted to a second^ pwtm 0it4tt 

2&7 s»naroAim coMmnrcD. — iNrBamcBM. 103 

MlODce of this second. Phrenology says that this &cuhy eidsts, and 
the inference that a spiritual state also exists, that Qod is a spirit, that 
man has a spiritual department in his nature, that man can commune 
with God, with spirits, and with eternity, ktA kindred inferences, fol- 
bw as a necessary consequent. 



'' To be tpirittiaUy minded, !• life." 

Havino demonstrated the existence of this fiieulty, it remains to 
point out its legitimate function, and then to draw those inferences de- 
pendent thereon. 

Prayer — spiritual communion with God — ^is one of its functions. 
I have my doubts whether the spirit of prayer is fully understood — 
whether its true analysis has jret been giyen. The general impres- 
sion is that its main object should be to ^ftii^ about something — to 
supplicate some blessing, obtain some gift from Qod. This interpre- 
tation cannot be sanctioned by Phrenobgy. This science shows — all 
nature shows — that the whole universe, God himself included, is go- 
verned by immutable, unalterable laws — ^that causes and effects reign 
supreme, and allow not the least chance for prayer to effect the least 
change in effects, because it cannot change their causes. And to 
suppose that human entreaties can change the mind, the will, the eter- 
nal purpose of the Almighty, ia utter folly — h downright blasphemy. 
These notions are revolting to correct notions of the Supreme Ruler 
of the universe. But, having already refhted the doctrine, let us in* 
quire. What is the true function of prayer, and what its Qfhct7 

Its function is the exercise of the self same spiritual feelmg already 
pointed out. The value of this spiritual feehng, has been already 
shown, and prayet induces this spirituld state cf mind. ^ No man 
hath seen God at any time, so that we do not, perhaps cannot, know 
his nature, or the iMde of his existence; but, be he what he may, 
prayer assimilates our soub to his soul, andj by frequently throwing 
us into a spiritual, holy frame of mind, it induces a permanency of 
this s^^tual state tvhi(^ foreknovns the fotui^, and perceives the trutlt, 
as if by magic When particularly anxious to perceive and enforce 
truth, 1 feel like praying, perhaps not audibly, but like throwing tny- 
•9lf j^to thi9 ^pintual state in which truth flows into my own scsd^ 


from which it radiates into the souk of all who hear me. I hope I 
am fiilly understood as to the effect of prayer on the souL Hence 
Paul says, *^ If any man lack wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth 
to all liberally and upbraideth not'' We see^ in this aspect of prayer, 
funo it is that God giveth wisdom, nam^y, that by and in the very act 
of praying, we throw our minds into that spiritual state in which we 
perceive truth as if by intuition. As a means of arriving at truth, 
nothing equab prayer, and he who does not pray, is compelled to fol- 
low on after truth through the paths of intellect merely, and plod and 
dig for that which a prayerful spirit perceives at once, and with per- 
fect certainty. And, then, how happy, holy, pure is the praying soul ! 
Flow transported from earth into that blessed state that awaits the pure 
in heart ! Let scoffers laugh at prayer. Let the sons of sin and lust 
forget to pray. But let me bow the knee of hmnble prayer, and liA 
the eyes of devotion to my God, and hold swe^ communion with him 
till I become embued with his spirit, and am transformed into his 
image i 

I cannot forbear expressing the conviction not only that prayer is 
not generally understood, but also that there is much less prayer in 
the world than is supposed. Many of our clergymen preach in their 
prayers, and pray as if trying to impress some truth upon the mind 
of the hearers rather than to call out their soul in pure devotion. Let 
ministers preach when they preach, and pray when they pray. These 
preaching prayers are out of place. Besides, they substitute the form 
for the thing, and thus satisfy the praying appetite, without feeding the 
praying spirit 

As to the best place for exercising the prayerful spirit, Phrenology 
is unequivocal in recommending namre^ the open fields, the velvet 
lawn bedecked with flowers, the shaded brook, the mountain clifl[ 
The works of God are wonderfully calculated to impress his being, 
his attributes upcm the soul. They call out the spiritual feeling. 
They bring us near to God. They assimilate us to him. And i 
fully believe, that our churches should be generally in the fields of 
flowers, in the boscnn of nature, rather than m houses made with 
hands. If I were to erect a church, upon the plan propounded by 
Phrenology, I should build it of trees unsawed rather than of timbers, 
and of flowers, not with nails. Verdant leaves should be my roof. 
Paths among flowers should be my aisles. A projecting rock should 
be my pulpit Fragrant trees and flowers should be my perfumery. 
Boquets should be my psalm-books. The chirping songsters of the 
grove should echo to my notes of praise, and the balmy breeaMt 
diould waft my prayers to heaven. Suppose that immense sum ifl^. 

259 iRBiruALnnr. — iufsrbncbi 105 

pended in building Trinity Church, in New-York, had been spent in 
making a magnificent pleasure park, adapted expressly to call out the 
religious sentiments, how infinitely more real homage would be of- 
fered up to God than will ever be exercised within its massive, &sh- 
ionable walls I I have no objecdon to having churches. If they pro- 
mote the religious feelings, they are useful. If not, they are injurious. 
But, be they good or bad, to spend so much money in their erection, 
IS making but a poor use of what, if properly applied, spent in works 
of charity, would do a vast amount of good. 

By spiritualizing the soul, prayer prevents grossness and sinful ani- 
mal indulgence, and refines, elevates, purifies, and exalts the soul more 
than words can tell, but not more than may every reader experience. 

The reader will see an additional reason, from the analysis of this 
faculty, ^hy revivals of religion and religious exercises should be 
permaTieiUj not transcient The prevalence of a belief in ghosts is in 
point, and strengthens our position of spiritual premonitions. If you 
ask me whether I believe in the existence and appearance of ghosts, 1 
say yes, with emphasis. Not that I ever saw one. Nor is it the tes- 
tunony of others that imparts this confidence. li is this principle. I 
never saw an apparition. My organ of spirituality is too small ever 
to see one. But I believe this principle. It will not lia I believe that 
the spirits of departed friends hover over us, and conduct our choice, 
our course. I believe the spirit of my departed mother has watched 
over her son, guided his footsteps into the paths of Phrenology, and 
still continues to throw around him those spiritual impressions which 
fells him what is truth, and guides him in its exposition. She prayed 
for her oldest son on her dying bed, and even while death was sever- 
ing her spirit from her body. To these spiritual exercises, readeri 
you may possibly owe a smidl debt of gratitude. And if this be delu- 
sion, let me be deluded. Let me be joined to this idol, if idol it be. 

I believe farther : If we were sufficiently spiritualized, we might 
hold converse with the spirits of our departed friends, with angels, 
and with Goi 1 I believe they might become our guardian angels, to 
tell us all what we should do, and what avoid. I believe we might 
talk with them, as did Abraham, Moses, and the prophets I And 
when our friends die, we need not be separated from them, though 
we live and they are dead. They are in a state more exalted than 
ours, but, if we were as spiritually minded as we are capable of bemg, 
we could still hold direct communion with them, and they would be- 
come spiritual conductors, carrying a torch-light by which we could 
guide our erring footsteps into the paths of success, of holiness, of hap- 

106 ME. TENioiT nntSB lun or ▲ nuMOB. MO 

If this be 10, nan bat in hit own hotom a directory, • tpy on hn 
coming destiny, which, iraptnrerttd and properly ci^vated, will 
^varn him of approaching dangof , and point OQt tW oo«Me of tuccest 
and happiness. 

Animal Magnetism also ettablish^ the qiiritnal, immaterial exist. 
ence of mind in a stele separate from matter, as el^Mrly as any fact in 
nature can be demonstrated by experiment ; for, first, it throws the 
mind into a state probably analogous to thai aAer death, in which the 
body has little control ov«r it, in which time and space are unknown, 
in which it sees without the eyes, or as disembodied mind sees by 
a spiritual cognizance, and in its independent capacity as mind ; and, 
2dly, when the magnetizer and the magnetized are both pure mind- 
ed, the latter sees and holds converse with the spirits of the departed, 
and receires from them warnings, directions, council, for Aose who 
make the proper inquiry. Wor& cannot express what I hate seen 
in this respect And, ohi If I have ever seen a happy tonl, it waa 
one in this stale^ with the moral organs highly charged. Mid afl ex- 
citement removed from the propensities. Descriplioa would be itaeri- 
lige 1 And then to have this holy spell broken in upon by etcitmg 
one or more of the propensities at the same time ! But I am uttedy 
incapable of describing the scene. Still, I saw how Ineflably holy and 
happy the human soul could become by the exercise of the moral sen^ 
timents, and particularly that faculty utider consideration. The TUft* 
erend Mr. Tenant of New Jersey, who was in a trance thl*ee days, and 
who, in that state saw and heard what mortal tongue may not, could 
not teU, was in this spiritual state. Bo are those at religious meeting^ 
particularly camp-meedngs, who pray and sing till they ^ have Ute 
power," as it was formerly called. This having the power, fanatieal 
as most religions men call it, is sanctioned by Phrenology. It req[niri^ 
guiding, but it could, should be exercised till it transformed earth into 
heaven, and feasted our souls with rich foretastes of those jojrs which 
'^ eye hath not Seen, nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into the heart 
of man to conceive," but ^pdiich are laid up for the spiritually initided- 
But enough, I am treading on holy groun4* ¥*ew will ap|ireckte. 
Fewer still experience. But woman witl appreii^iate. Will feel. To 
her I commend these remarks. Her I exliort to breathe forth diese 
holy aspirations, " for in due time, ye shall reap if ye feint not'' 
And, oh ! such a harvest A feast on the food of angels ! A ban- 
quet served up in the palaces of heaven ! Fruit from the tree of eter- 
nity! Reach forth. It is within your grasp. Wuclc and eat, ahd pve 
io others, tliat they may eat and live. 

Q€l umoJA woiui— . 107 


SPfiOlAL PE0TtDB>*;0B8 

Closelt connected witk this subject, anddesenring of remark in tfts 
connection, is the doctrine of ^ Divine Pbovidbncss" so called. Spuri- 
tual guidance, has already been seen to be recognized by Phrenology. 
But about providential itUerposiiicms it knows nothing. Whatever 
eflects do not result from emuaiiony oj^ especially, whatever tmUrmpis 
causation, it discards. Nature never allows anything to step ia be- 
tween causes and effects. Spiritual impressions may guidij and hence 
may be called providential interpositions by their guiding our Ghoica ; 
but, they never cut off legitimate effects from their true causes, and sob 
ititute others. Still, an event is none the less providential when a a|pi 
litual precaution or monition forewarns us to escape danger, or induces 
«es to choose our best good, than if the laws of nature were interrupted 
&nd the great arrangement of cause and efiect rendered null and void; 
tor the results are equally beneficial to us. If our organization be 
tme, and if this feeling of spirituality be cultivated, we shall be pie- 
nerved from all harm thereby, and guided into the right eourse, ao that 
uur happiness be secured. And the fact is beautiful to philosophy, and 
encouraging to mortals, that those who are the most periectly <A|[a|tt 
^ed, should receive most of this heavenly goidanca By eukiiFa$j|i^ 
those highest elements oi our nature, already specified, wa shall te 
most effectually promoting our own highest haj^inneaa. 

But we cannot dismiss this subject of providence without ^Ty^tfag 
a prevailing error in regard to what are considered provideaces. Spi- 
rituality perceives, follows, and trusts in these spiritual guUiogs ; hope 
expects good to result therefrom; veneration adotes Qod tbMreibt; 
and benevolence adoring Qod for his kiadnesSy trusts in kitt that these 
spiritual guidings will be for goad; and all, guided by causality, tfanC 
they will harmonize with fixed laws. This pnnciple leads to the in- 
ference that all spiritual guidings and providenees, as fat as thaie pto- 
videnccs exist, are for gaod^^-eLre never afflieCive, but always pleasuM^ 
ble. Nor does the benevolent Creator of all things do erril that good 
may come. He does not give pain first, that he may give pleasim 
afterwards. In every single instance throughout creation, he so tit- 
langes it as to give all pleasure^ and no pain in oider to arrive at ttet 


|>Iea8ure. What right have we, then, to suppose that he mak«¥i ui 
sufier in order afterward to caose us enjoyment, for this would be a 
toto eelo departure from «. ▼ery principle, every fact of his entire gov- 
ernment, and in direct conflic with that view of the divine character and 
government already evd^ed from Phrenology. No ; afflictive pro* 
vidences do not exist All pain is but punishmentj not providences— 
the natural consequences of violated law, not divine chastisements. 
Ood does not carelessly dip the arrow of affliction in the wormwood of 
his malignity or wrath, and thrust it causelessly into the soul of man. 
All that God does, from beginning to end, is all promotive of happi- 
ness. The idea, so often held forth from the pulpit, that sickness and 
death in the prime of life, are afflictive providences, sent to chastise us, is 
onerous ; for they are the penalties of violated physical laws. Sick- 
ness and premature death are as much the effects of their legitimate 
causes, as any other event is an effect of its cause. A child dies, and 
the parents, while bleeding under the wounds of lacerated parental 
iove, console themselves by <' The Lord gave, the Lord hath taken 
away. Blessed be the name of the Lord." << It is the hordes doings,** 
4bc. ; whereas they killed their child. They allowed it to disorder its 
stomach and bowels by eating cucumbers, or green com, or unripe 
fruit, or too much fruit, and then it was exposed and took cold, was 
badly doctored, had the summer complaint, and died. Or, in the fall 
and spring, it was exposed till it took a violent cold ; a fever set in, 
and fiistening upon the throat, it had the croup and died. Or, upon 
the head, and it died of brain fever. Its sickness and death were caused^ 
and that by violations of the physical laws. It was murdered by neg- 
lect or improper treatment, and then all this blime is thrown off from 
the guilty perpetrators, by charging it to the providence of God. Just 
as though God killed your child 1 

An anecdote in point One Christmas evening, the parents of a 
child tickled it mightily with the idea, that if it would hang up its 
stocking, Santa Glaus would come in the night and fill it full of good 
things. She did so, and in the morning while yet in bed called for 
her stocking, which she found filled with raisins, nuts, rich cakes, dbc, 
and which she continued to eat till she had swallowed the whole. 
She was plied through the early part of the day with additional good 
things ; till at three o'clock she was taken in a fit, and died at night 
Dissection showed the cause of her death to have been simply, solely, 
%xi overloaded stomach, and yet, at her funeral, the good old minister 
toothed the lacerated feelings of parental anguish by telling the pa* 
lants that ^ It was the Lor^s doings, to which they must bow in silence 

263 SPECIAL FsovnnNCEa 109 

hat it was a mysterious proyidence, sent as a chastisement, to wean 
them from earth and earthly things, and place their souls on heaven 
and heavenly things." And yet both the gormandizing of the child 
and alJBO the dissection, showed its death to have been caused solely 
by parental indulgence. I doubt not but every reader has seen tases 
m point And then, what idea must he have of Qod, who suppose i he 
killed the child, not only without law, but directly in the teeth of those 
Tery laws which he himself has establii^ed. And even if they think 
he meant it for their good, just as though he did not know how to 
seek their good without making them thus miserable. 

Similar remarks appertain to the sickness of adults. We go on to 
violate every law of physiology, and for a series of years, and then, 
when nature would fain vindicate her laws by punishing their aggres- 
sion, we deafen our ears and harden our hearts to her remonstrances 
by accusing the Deity of stepping aside from his laws, and tormenting 
us by his afflictive providences. The plain fact is this, that we need 
never be sick. We have no right to be sick. We are culpable hi 
being sick, for all of every thing is caused. All sickness is caused, 
and caused directly by the violation of some ph3rsiological law. Let 
parents as parents, obey these laws, and then let children be brought 
up in their obedience, and then continue therein all the days of their 
lives, no sickness, no pair^ would, could occur. Every organ of the 
body was made to be healthy, none to be sickly. Health is but the 
natural, primitive, action of them all, while sickness is their abnormal 
or painful action. Let them alone, save giving them their unnatural 
stimulants, and they will all go on to perform their normal, healthy 
function from the cradle to the grave. No truth is more self-evident, 
than that heahh is the natural function of every faculty, and sickness 
their perverted function. If we do not make ourselves sick, we shall 
always be well. Teeth were never made to ache. They were made 
to masticate food. They give us pain only when we cause their decay 
by abusing them. The Indian never has decayed or aching teeth, nor 
need we if we take proper care of them. So witll every other organ 
of the body. They all give us pain only after we have abused them, 
and in consequence of that abuse. And the natural order of death is, 
that, like the setting sun, we should gradually descend the hill of life 
and die by slow and imperceptible degrees, just as the western sky be- 
comes less and less bright, till, finally, the last rays have taken their 
departure. Violent death, in the prime of life, is most abhorrent — ^is 
mconceivably shocking to Benevolence, ani forms no part of the naiu- 
9qI order of things, or of the Providence of Qod. We die in tpiU of 

110 oomfEBsuau IN 

Proridence, instead of by its hand. '^ We gire aurtelvu the woimiit 
we feel We drink the poisonous gall, and then sickness and desA 
punish us for our transgressions. 

If these principles were not rendered perfectly dtmonttroHtm hf 
physiology, I would cut off my right hand rather than pen them ; h$ 
they are most unpopular, and especially will excite rehgions prcjiadMi 
against me. But they are true^ aod will uhinoately bear Awttf. 
Reader, let me entreat thee to examine this point carefully oneiiril 
year, and then you will coincide with me. I grant that sickness sod 
death are often induced by parents, either as parents, in their hainif 
some hereditary disease, or by their not understanding how topveserre 
the healths of their children ; still, they are never providential, b«l 
always punishmerUs^ and imply guilt some where. 

If I be asked, why I bring forward a point so unpopular, I aoswor^ 
to save life. As long as men continue to regard sickness mud death 9M 
providential, they will not be led to obey the natural laws. But the 
doctrine urged above, cannot be believed without powerfully enfczeiag 
obedience to those laws ; and I doubt not but a knowledge t>f thi»irery 
principle will enable many a reader to escape many an aflUctive provi^ 
dence, and to enjoy the society of his children, companions, aari 
friends many years longer than he otherwise woul<il-^Hrea8on enou^ 

cohtersion; tbe ofbratioks of the holt ghost; nmRE cnLi0B| 

^'Unless ye he converted, &o. ye cannot see the kingdom of God.** 

The principles thus represented teach us the true doctrine of those 

spiritual influences called conversion, the operation of Divine grace, 

the Holy Spirit, dec. That a Divine Spirit exists, has been already 

^own. Also, that it is in every place. And that prayer communes 

with him, &c. But, the tendency of the principles already presented, 

shows that we seek him, not he us. He does not turn aside from the 

usual operations of nature, to pour out his spirit upon mankind. Or, 

rather, that spiiit is like the wind that blows every where, except 

where it is excluded, and that will blow even there, and with the same 
ireedom, if the doors and windows of the human soul be but opened 


for its reception. In conversion, I believe. It consists simply in tha 
ipiritualization of our natures already pointed out, the main medium 
of which is marvellousniess. By operating upon this faculty and or- 
gan, it extends the range of its action so as to quicken benevolence, 
veneration, hope, conscientiousness, and the whole moral group ; and 
this gives them that ascendency over the propensities which we have 
#lfeady shown to c<»stitute virtue, the product of which is ''joy in the 
Holy Gho$t»'' moral purity, and consequently happiness. Natural, it is ; 
jiipernatuml, it is not Not for the choaen few — the elect But as 
fieee as the air of heaven, or the gushing fountain. All can, who will, 
drink in these heavenly influences — ^be converted — ^be holy— be hap- 
py. Nor should any wait to be operated on. They must operate on 
themselves — must pray — must spiritualize themselves. And so we 
ttmst ^iritualize, convert, one another ; for all the organs are capable 
df being excited. The exercise of these spiritual feelings in one, will 
tend to excite them in others, and then again in others ; thus widening 
their influences and happifying mankind beyond what tongue can ex 
press or mind conceive. 

Praysr, being an exercise of this spiritual feeling, is eminently cal- 
culated to promote it in others ; that is, to convert others — to convert 
ourselves. So, praying for the impenitent is equally calculated, as al- 
ready shown, to spiritualize, convert, them. And let all seek these 
religious, elevating influences, for the same reason that they should eat, 
or think, or talk ; namely, to be happy in their exercise. 

But, let these exercises be permanent^ not transient To sudden 
conversions, the same principles apply that are already shown to go- 
vern revivals. But, the mere statement of the principle is sufficient 

Is it not highly probable, that these principles throw some light on 
the existence of what is called the Holy Spirit; the HolyQhost; the 
Spirit of God, &c. 7 Do not these phrases refer simply, solely, to that 
spiritual existence of God already pointed out, and refer to the mode 
of Divine existence, rather than to separate personages of the Deity ? 
At all events, other than this. Phrenology, as far as I am now able to 
interpret it, knows nothing of the existence of a s^rate part or per. 
son of the Deity corresponding with the usual doctrines of the Holy 

112 A OBAIIOS or HBA&T. ^^ 

8ECTI01I T • 


Many believers in the doctrine of a change of heart and lifoi are mi» 
able to reconcile this doctrine with the principles of Phienology Aal 
as the following quotation from page 410 of Fowler's Practical Phie* 
nology," states and answers this objection satisfactorily, it is insoted 


" ' To the Messrs. Fowlers : 

** * Sirs, — At your next lecture, I wish yoa to explain, aeeofdnig tn tlM 
principles of phrenology, how any material or radical change in a man'a idmsI 
character, disposition, or conduct, can take place. For example ; w fimqnently 
see the infidel and irreligious man, suddenly and radically chan^ hii tentimenli 
•nd practices in life, and become pious, reverential and devouonalt Now, m> 
cording to the principles of your system, it seems to follow, that, in retli^, iStnem 
are no such changes, and that they are wholly imaginary or hypocritioal, or, c^Mk, 
that there must be a corresponding change of the phrenological origans, umelji 
a sudden diminution of one class of organs, and an equally soddem 9nlarg9mmf 
of another class, whose functions are directly opposite. 

** * That men do often experience these changes, is evident to every one ; but 
that the bumps of the cranmm, are subject to such sudden growth and droret* 
sion, is certainlv most doubtful : and, if these organs do not coirespond with a 
man's changes m conduct and disposition, how can they have any reoi{Nnoeal 
relation to his true character? D. J. MALLISON, M. D.'" 

'< Admitting this doctrine of a change of character and conduct, called 
regeneration, as believed in and taught by orthodox Christians, to be 
correct^ and the first question to be considered in relation to its bearings 
upon the doctrines of Phrenology, is, in what does this change consist f 
From even a superficial view of tne subject, it is evident, that it does 
not consist either in a substitution of one primary mental faculty for an 
other opposite faculty, or in a change of the original nature and char 
racter of the faculties, or of their proportional strength ; for, if the 
subject of this change possessed a strong and original intellect before 
conversion, he has just as strong and as original an intellect after con- 
version ; but, if he is weak-minded before, he still remsdns so. Even 
his leading peculiarities of mind, thought, and feeling, remain unat 
tered. If, before conversion, he possessed a remarkably retentive mi^ 
niory of incidents, of faces, of dates, of principles, and of places, his 
memory of these things is equally tenacious afterwards ; but, if his 
memory of any of these things was weak before, it is equally so after- 
wards. If, before, he was remarkable for his mechanical or any other 
talents, he is uniformly found to possess these very same talents, and in 
the same degree, afterwards. If he be possessed of a superior musical 
talent before he meets this change, he possesses the very same talenti 
tad in the same degree of excellence, afler this evoDl 

:267 A CHINOE OF HEAIL?. 113 

^ In what, then, does this change consist ? Simply and iohly in a 
change ef the diregton of these respective faculties^ or of the objects 
upon which they are exercised, and not in a change of their nature 
and character, or of their relative power. For example : if the per- 
son converted, had a great talent for music, the effect of his conversion 
is to change the direction of this faculty : thus, hefore version, it 
was chiefly exercised in singing songs, lively airs, 6bc., whereas, it is 
now chiefly exercised upon pieces of sacred music. If, hefore conver- 
sion, his reasoning powers were great, but exercised principally upon 
political, philosophical, or scientific subjects, they are afterwards 
equally powerful, but directed mainly to religious and theological sub- 
jects, benevolence, which was before manifested in relieving the 
physical sufierlng, and promoting the temporal wants and earthly hap- 
piniess of his fellow-men, is now directed to a different and far more 
elevated object, namely, the salvation and eternal happiness of 
mankind. And so of every other feeling, faculty, and talent of the 

^' Now, inasmuch as the relative power of the faculties themselves, 
remains unchanged, though directed to different objects, there is no 
call for alteration in the proportionate size of the organs, and, of course^ 
no need of a sudden diminution of one class of organs, and an equally 
sudden enlargement of another class. But, if this change of heart 
did necessarily involve a change of the nature and the constitution of 
ihe primary mental powers the inevitable conclusion would be, that 
these faculties were not well made at the first, and therefore, require 
remodelling, or, rather, re-creating, which would necessarily imply 
imperfection on the part of the Creator ; and, not only so, but this radi- 
cal change in the nature of the faculties themselves, would certainly 
destroy the identity of the person c(Mi verted, thus making him, not a 
new, but another, being. 

" Again : if this conversion were to change the relative power of the 
primary faculties, the same inferences hold good. Whilst, then, the 
nature of the faculties themselves remain unchanged, and their propor- 
tionate strength the same as it was before, the amount of it is, that divine 
grace simply gives to the faculties as they originally or previously were, 


" An illustration willj perhaps, make the point clear. A steamboat, 
which is made perfect and beautiful throughout, is being propelled 
down a river, by the power of steam. The rudder is turned, and the 
same boat is noto propelled up the river, by the same power, and by 
means of the same a/pparattbs. But the boat is not changed, or trans* 
formed ; for it is, by supposition, made perfect ; nor is the nature of 
the steam changed, nor the character or proportionate strength of any 
one thing about the boat. This is not necessary. The boat is perfect 
Its direction, merely, is altered ; and that by means of the co-operation 
of the power of the boat and that of her commander. So it is in the 
matter of conversion. The sinner is sailing smoothly down the rapid 
current of sin and worldly pleasure. He is arrested, and changes, not 
the n^iture of ihe Jhinking faculties themselves^hui merely the direction 


•f the thoughts produced — not the nature of the propelling powers them' 
Hives, but the drift and current of the feelings that flow from those 
powers, by setting before them a different object to stimulate and occupy 
mose powers. 

'^Tne analogy of the steamboat, does not, of course, hold cood 
throughout ; lor roan is a moral agent, the steamboat, a mere machuis. 
It, however, holds good as far as 1 have occasion to apply it Men are 
depraved, not because they have depraved faculties^ but because they 
make a depraved use of good faculties : see last proposition under the 
last objection, p. 403 of Fowler's Practical Phrenology. 

^^ You allude to a ' sudden* change. So far as the change is sud> 
den, it is not a change, either of faculties, or of their relative strengtk 
This change of the proportionate strength of the faculties is always 
gradual. The man whose beseuing sin before conversion, was an 
inordinate craving for money, has the same craving afterwards, witk 
this difference merely, that, by the grace given him at conversion, it 
is restrained from breaking out into overt acts of wickedness. *Ijie 
same is true of the passionate man, &c. Paul speaks of carrying ontv 
' warfare against the lusts of the flesh ;' and the Bible everywhen.; 
holds out the idea that victory over our depraved propensities, must bi 
gradual, and can be obtained only by long continued and laboriam 
effort — ^by watching and praying, and severe self-denial Christiaii 
experience is compared to the 'rising light, which,' from a feebk 
gleaming, < groweth brighter and brighter till the p^ect day' — ' to a 
grain of mustard seed, which,' from the smallest of seeds, ' becomes a 
great tree ;' plainly implying, that, as far as the relative strength of the 
faculties is changed, so far the change is gradual, 

'^ I would ask any true Christian, if he is not obliged to hold in with 
a strong rein, those propensities that predominated before his conver- 
sion ; and, if a long time is not requisite effectually to subdue '^ those 
sins that most easily beset him," so that their instinctive promptings 
are not plainly feh. By the tipe, then, that he has subdued his pro^ 
pensities, or altered the relative strength of his faculties, the orgams 
will have time to adjust themselves accordingly : see pp. 123, to 1 40, ot 
Education and Self-Improvement; second edition, 1844. 

'< If I mistake not, then, I have clearly shown, that the doctrines and 
principles of phrenology, are not at all inconsistent with the doctiine 
of regeneration ; and, also, that phrenology enables us to tell what kimi 
of Christians particular individuals are." 

1239 HATEHIALISM. 115 



The doctrine of the inunateriality of the soul, of an eternal existence 
heyond the grave, is glorious, is beatific, in the highest degree, and 
holds out the blessed hope that that eternity may be infinitely happy, nb 
well as of infinite duration. But, it is alleged, that Phrenology mili- 
tates seriously against this soul-inspiring doctrine, by demonstratin;^ 
the existence of relations between the body and the mind so intimate, 
so perfectly reciprocal, in nearly or quite every and all conceivable cir- 
cumstances, as to leave room for the inference^ — as even to force the in- 
evitable conclusion upon us, that, when the body dies, the soul dies 
also. The intimacy of the relation existing between the body and the 
mind, I admit. But I do not admit the therefore, that mind is mate- 
rial. This therefore depends, not on the intimacy of the relation be- 
tween the body and the mind, but on the fact of the existence of any 
relation whatever. Whether this intimacy be great or little ; uniform, 
or occasional ; perfectly reciprocal, or not so at all ; does not affect the 
question. Be the relation ever so distant, so that it but exist at all, 
that existence goes just as far in proof of either doctrine, materiality or 
immateriality, as would the most intimate relation. But, I cannot see 
that the existence of this relation, be it more or less perfectly reciprocal, 
proves any thing either way. Even if matter should be shown to be 
the cause, and mind the effect, the doctrine of materialism would not 
necessarilly follow. If it could even be shown, that organization wat 
the cause of mind, and that mind was simply the product or function 
of organization in operation, I cannot see that this product is necessa- 
rily material because its machine or manufacturer is material. And 
the more so, since we cannot say for certain that the physiology is the 
cause, and the mentality the effect, rather than mind the cause, and 
physiology the effect. That laws of cause and effect exist between the 
two, or even govern all the relations of either to the other, is demon- 
strated by Phrenology ; but whether it is the original cast and charac- 
ter of the mind which gives the form and texture to the body, to the 
brain, or the size and other conditions of the latter, that govern the for- 
mer, has not yet been fully established. And even if mind could be 
shown to be the product of organized matter in action, the materiality 
or immateriality of that mind remains still undecided, that depending 
on the nature of mind itself, and not on its material agent. 

But it is hardly necessary to discuss this whole subject of material 


itm itself, but simply to show that Phrenology dees not lead thereto. 
The great truth is admitted, that we know nothing of mind in this 
world, except as it manifests itself, and acts by means of the corporeal 
organs. And particularly the brain and mind are perfectly reciprocal, is 
plain matter of fact, which all see and feel every hour, moment, of their 
waking existence. '^ The whole question, then, seems to resolve il- 
selfinto this: — Whether or not the canjuxion of mind and matter nc 
cessarily involves the doctrine of materialism. 

'^ But, decide this question as we may, this much is certain, that 
phrenology is no more liable to the charge of materialism, than is 
every system both of physicks and metaphysicks extant. If phi>enology 
is chargeable with materialism, the science of anatomy, of medicine, 
of physiology, of natural and moral philosophy, and, in short, o{ every 
thing which treats of the human body or mind, is equally chargeable 
with supporting the same doctrine ; for they, one and all, equally with 
phrenology, admit, and even demonstrate, this same great principle of 
the intimate connexion and relation between the physical organization 
and the manifestations of thought and feeling. Nay, even the Bible 
itself is chargeable with this heresy of materialism. But, if there is 
any more materialism in the proposition, that oru portion of the brain 
is employed to perform one class of mental functions, and another por- 
tion, another class, than there is in the proposition, that the v>hole Irain 
is brought into action by every operation of the mind, ihen^ indeed, is 
phrenology guilty, but not otherwise. 

A// systems of physiology support the doctrine, that the brain is the 
corporeal instrument by means of which the mind performs its various 
functions ; and this doctrine constitutes the data, and the only data, 
upon which the charge of materialism, as urged against phrenology 
is founded. Hence, so far as the objection has any force, it virtually 
lies against the existence of any connection between, not only the 
brain and the operations of the mind, but between any portions of mat- 
ter whatever and the mind. But it has already been shown, that we 
know nothing of the existence or operations of mind in this life, as a 
separate entity^ or a thing that exists or acts apart from organized or 
animate matter ; but of its existence and operation in connection with 
organized and animate matter, we do know, just as well as we know 
that matter itself exists. 

" But this objection is not urged by infidelity against the Christian 
religion so much as it is by professing Christians against phrenology. 
They argue that " Materialism is false, because it is contrary to divine 
Revelation i but that phrenology leads to materialism j and, therefor^ 


phrenology must be untrue." But let those who are zealous for the 
truth of the Christian religion, beware, lest, by proving materialism 
upon phrenology, they thereby prove it uppn themselves, and thus fal\ 
into the snare which they had set for phrenologists. They infer that, 
if phrenology is true^jt n^essarily impli«ft the truth of the doctrine of 
materialism, and, consequently, overthrows Christianity. Now, if^ 
after all, phrenology should become (as it unquestionably will) fully 
established, materialists and infidels will prove their doctrines by the 
very arguments furnished by Christians themselves. 

" They will reason thus : ' According to your own arguments, if 
phrenology is true it establishes the truth of materialism, infidelity, fatal- 
ism, &c. : phrenology is demonstrably true ; therefore the doctrines oi 
materialism, infidelity, fatalism, &c., are undeniable.' And thus, even 
though their arguments are sophistical, Christians will be ^ condemned 
out of their own mouth,* or else driven to the disagreeable alternative 
of admitting that their arguments are fallacious, and the ofispring of 
religious bigotry."* 

But, so far from bearing m the least in favor of materialism, Phie 
oology furnishes the strongest argument that exists in &vor of the 
immateriality of the soul, and of a spiritual state, ^o argument can 
be stronger in proof of any thing whatever, than the existence of this 
organ and faculty of spirituality is proof that man has an immaterial 
nature, a spiritual existence. What proof can be stronger that man is 
a seeing being than the fact that he possesses eyes, adapting him to 
seeing, and constituting him a seeing being? What, that he is a rear 
soning being, than his possession of the primary element or faculty of 
reason ? What that he has a spiritual nature than the analysis of the 
primary elementiof spirituality just shown to form a constituent portiom 
of his nature ? It is. demonstrative proof It is the highest possible 
order of proof It settles the matter completely. It leaves no evasion^ 
no cavilling, no room for the shadow of a doubt. Man has a spiritual, 
immaterial nature, just as much as he has a friendly nature, or an ob- 
serving nature, or a moving nature, or any other nature, and is there* 
fore, and thereby, and therein, an immaterial being, just as much as he 
is a thinking being, a talking being a parental being, a remembering 
being, or possessed of any other constitutimial quality whatever. Asa 
plification will not strengthen the argupient There it is, in the plaior 
est terms. Whoever admits the truth of Phrenology, a^d denies that the 
soul is immaterial, is incapable of reasoning. To admit the truth of 
du8 science, is pf necessity to admit the spirituality and the immaterial* 
ky of man. No middle ground, no other position exists. 

• Fowler's PracticaL Phrenology. 





Expectation. — Anticipation of fotora good. 

Man nerer is, bat always to be, bleised.*^ 

BIan Jves a thiee-fold life. Through the agency of memory, he ifa» 
orer, again and again, the past, for the ten thousandth time. He area 
in the present by actual sensation. He lives in the future as often, as 
luxuriantly as he pleases, by mounting his glowing imagination upon 
the pinions of hope, and soaring aloft, and afar, to that blissful period 
in the future to which he expects ere long to arrive. But for hope, the 
heart would break, the hands hang down. Little would be attempted, 
because little would be expected. In trouble, we should be unwilling 
to change lest it but increase our misfortunes. In prosperity, we should 
not expect its continuance, but stand in perpetual fear of adversity. In- 
deed, words can but feebly portray the condition of the human mind, 
without the enlivening, invigorating influences of hope. Thankful 
should we be for its existence. Careful, lest we abuse it. And assid 
uous in its proper cultivation. 

But, what is its legitimate function? What its true sphere? What 
its bearings ? What great practical truths does it unfold ? 

Immortality A state of being beyond the narrow confines of earth, 
and extending down the endless vista of eternity, infinitely beyond th« 
conception of imagination's remotest stretch ! And an eternity of haf- 
jnness, too, if we but fulfil its conditions. And to an extent, the height, 
the boundaries of which, Hope, mounted on her loftiest pinions, cannot 
environ — cannot reach. Oh ! the height, the length, the depth, the 
richness, of that ocean of love, of unalloyed bUss, opened tip to the 
foretaste of mortah by this faculty! 


" But," says one, " is not this world the natural sphere, the legitimate 
termination of hope? Have we not earthlj/ desires and prospects, hi 
our children, in property, fame, intellectual attainments, and kindred ob- 
jects, sufficient to satiate this faculty, without resortii(ig to these far- 
fetched, and at best only visionary reveries, of this organ? What is 
your proof that another state, and not this, constitutes its legitimate 
sphere of exercise ? We knotc, that to hope for this world's goods, is 
its true and natural function. Why, then, abandon its real, known 
function, for one that is both uncertain and chimerical ?" 

Look, first, at its location. Location is a certain guide to direction 
and cdst of function. Though every organ is designed to act with 
every other, yet all the organs are designed to act most with those locat- 
ed nearest to them. As the heart and lungs, designed to act with 
perfect reciprocity, are therefore placed close to each other, and so 
of the eyes and brain, and of all the organs of the body; so, of appetite 
end acquisitiveness, that we may lay up eatables ; so, of the social, of 
the intellectualj.of the moral, of all the organs of man. We will not 
demonstrate this principle here, but simply refer the reader to that se- 
ries of articles in Vol. VI., entitled, " The Philosophy of Phrenology," 
where it is fully stated and so applied as to develop many beautiful 
and valuable principles. (See also p. 34 of this work.) But, taking 
this principle of juxta position as admitted, and applying it to hope, 
we find its organ located among the moral organs ; and not among 
the propensities. Now, if in the great economy of nature, the legi- 
timate function of this faculty had been originally intended to be re- 
stricted to this world, (that is, been designed to operate with the pro- 
pensities mainly,) it would have been located among the propensities. 
If man's hopes have been originally intended to fasten on property, 
and to inspire the hope of becoming immensely rich, or to operate with 
ambition so as to create a hope for fame ; or with appetite, to make us 
anticipate rapturously every coming meal, or to work principally with 
the domestic organs, and inspire hopes appertaining to the family^ 
&c., this organ would have been located by the side of acquisitive- 
ness, or approbativeness, or appetite, or the domestic group. But it ii 
located as far from these animal organs as possible, showing that its 
main function is not to be restricted to the things of time and sense, 
but it is located in the moral group, showing that its main office is to 
hope for moral pleasures, not animal. And what is more, is most, it 
is located by the side of spirituality on the one hand, so that it may fiis- 
ten its anticipations mainly upon a spiritual state ; and on the other; 
by the side of conscientiousness, so that it may expect the rewards of 


oor good deeds. It is this juxta position of hope and conscientious- 
ness which makes us satisfied that when we have done right, we shall 
he the gainers therehy. 

An example: — Let the Author, actuated pnrely hy conscien- 
tious scruples, put forth truths in this work, or in his ieclnrcs, . 
which he kno^vs will be unpopular for the time being, and be a 
means of retarding its sale, as well as of seriously injurmg him for the 
present, yet, the very fact that he is conscious of having done his 
duty thereby, makes him feel that he shall ultimately be the gainer 
by thus telling the truth. That man whose jconscience is clear, fears 
little. A clear conscience makes a stout heart. It renders its posses 
sor bold, and makes him not only feel safe, but encourages hope to 
predict uhimate success. Truly *'are the righteous as bold as a lion." 
That is, when conscience is in its normal, self-approving state of ac 
tion, it quiets cautiousness, and stimulates hope to expect happiness 

But, reverse this principle, and we see why it is that ^^ the wicked 
flee when no man pursueth.'' For, when conscience is disturbed by 
the compunctions of guilt, this its painful action throws cautiousness 
also into a painful, fearing state, a state of alarm and terror, be- 
sides withdrawing all stimulous from hope. Hence it is that when 
a man feels guilty, he is conscious that he is continually exposied to 
punishment. Walled in on all sides, he could not feel safe. Protect- 
ed by armies of true body-guards, he would live in ccmtinual fear. 
Let A. steal, or commit any crime, and let R step up to him famiUarly, 
and tap him on the shoulder : ^ I did not steal that,'' exclaims A. 
^ No one supposed you did ; but ' a guilty conscience needs no accus 
er,' I now think you did steal it, else you would not be so anxious to 
exonerate yourself," replies B. The plain fact is, that if a man would 
be happy, he must keep his conscience clear, and if he does this, he 
will rarely be miserable. 

Secondly : Man expects to exist hereafter. No other Acuity can 
exercise this feeling. As shown under the head of veneration, (p. 49,) 
all the other faculties are exclusively pre-occupied, and wJbLoUy en- 
grossed, each in performing its own legitimate function. No one will 
question the position, that those who expect to exist hereafter, do sobf 
exercising the organ and faculty of hope. Now, is this expectatioB 
of inunortality the legitimate function of hope, or its abnormal, exotioi 
;ianatural function? If the latter, then must this expectation of 
^mity be repulsive, and all up-hiU work, contrary to the natura 
sf man, and therefore certain not to continue long ox extend br. Nt 

177 A TOTViB 6TATX. *1| 

fltronger proof can exist, that to hope for a future state ol being is tht 
natural function of this faculty, than the universality of this expecta- 
tion in all ages, among all flesh. In short, the same argument by 
which the function of Divine worship was proved to be constita* 
ttonal, [p. 46 to 53,] mutatis mutandis, proves, with equal clearneM| 
hat to expect to exist hereafler is the legitimate, primitive funo- 
ion of hope, and not its perverted function. And that same branch 
of this argument by which it was shown that worship was not 
taught, but was innate, also proves the innateness of this expecta- 
tion of eternity. Without this faculty, and unless to hope fi)r eier* 
nity were its true function, tnan could form no more cbhcepliOQ or 
idea of a future state than the blind mian could of colors. In shoir^ 
all the ramifications of that argument, apply to this. The premiapti 
the data, the application, the answers to objections, the all of eitbinr^ 
are every way alike. 

But, again : (And this argument applies equally to veneration.) tf 
to expect to live hereafter, be the true function of hope, that Tun^ 
tidn, that hope, mujt be every way beneficial to man ; for every 
organ, faculty, element of our nature, exercised in harmony with 
its normal, primitive constitution, is every way promotive of hapni- 
ness, because in obedience to the laws of its constitution. But wtial* 
ever exercise of any faculty is not in harmony with its normal, primi- 
tive constitution, violates the natural laws, and thus induces their pen- 
alty. Now, I submit to any reflecting mind, what pain, what penalty 
is there that grows naturally, necessarily, out of this hope of immor- 
tality? So far from experiencing j^atn in the act itself, the human 
mind even exults in the pleasures of such anticipation as much as iO| 
perhaps, any other mental exercise whatever. If I wished to gtrp^ 
the human mind a literal banquet of pleasure, I would feast h ^n 
thoughts of immortality. If I wished to make the strongest po89ib)^ 
and the most impressive, appeal to the mind or soul of man, I wooUl 
found that appeal on eternity ! Reader ! does thy hope of existing 
hereafler, give thee pleasure or give thee pain? And if pain, is 
that pain the necessary, or the accidental, accompaniment of hope ? 
That is, is it absolutely impossible for hope to be exercised w^thooft 
inducing this painf Surely not. Nor do any painful afler conSjQ: 
quences grow necessarily out of this exercise of hope. Both the exer- 
cise of hope in this way, and all the products of that exercise, are 
pleasurable tnUy, and pleasurable, too, in the highest possible degree. 
There is no pain, no punishment growing out of this exercise of hope, 
but a certain reward. Therefore, this exercise is in obedience to the 

HOPE, AUt> 1T8 BKAUNOll. 97g 

fixed laws of our being, and the:eforc in harmony with the primitifm 
ftmction of this faculty. Nor can this argument be evaded. 

If it be objected, that thinking so mnch of another world, unfits us 
for this, I say thinking just enough about another world is the beat 
possible preparation for enjoying this. I go farther : I say that, mere- 
ly in order to enjoy this life fully, we require to hope for another, and 
I submit this remark to the consciousness of every reader. I put 
it home to the feelings of all, whether enjoying another world in anti- 
cipation, does not sweeten every pleasure of this ; and whether a prac- 
tical belief that there is no hereafler, does not render the pleasures 
of this life insipid ; besides, weakening a most powerful motive for 
good, a powerful restraint upon evil. Nor do I feel that this position 
can be shaken or evaded. 

If it be still further objected, that many, that even the majority of, 
professing Christians, spend so much thought upon another world* 
that they fail to study and obey the organic laws, and both shorten 
13e and render it miserable ; whereas, if they did not hope for another 
life, they would study to make themselves happy in this ; I answer, by 
admitting the fact, but denying that it is a neeessary consequence of 
believing in an hereafler. So far from it, the highest possible prepa- 
ration for enjoyment in this life, constitutes the best possible prepara- 
tion for enjoying immortality ; and vice versa, the highest possible 
preparation for eternity, involves the very state which will best fit us 
to enjoy time. I know, indeed, that perhaps the majority of our truly 
rdigious people, neglect health, and oflen hasten their death, solely in 
consequence of their religious zeal. But, is this the necessary^ the 
universal, inevitable consequence of this hope of immortality 1 Is il 
utterly impossible to indulge the latter without inducing the former ^ 
Surely not, and he is simple who asserts otherwise. 

In short : Viewed in any light, in all aspects, the inference is con- 
clusive — is established by the highest order of evidence — that the l<v 
gitimate, normal function of hope is to expect to exist beyond the 

^liis established, and the inference becomes clear and even demon- 
strative, that there is a future state adapted to this faculty. If not — if 
there be no hereafter, why was this faculty, or at least this manifesta- 
tion or exercise of it, ever planted in the breast of man ? Would a 
QoA of truth and mercy thus deceive us ? Would he cruelly raise the 
cup of immort?lity to our lips only to tantalize us therewith while alive,' 
and then to deceive us with the hope of immortality thereby raised in 
<\UT souls, while no immortality exists to await or fill this natural d(> 

979 ▲ FUTURE 9TATS. 138 

fixe and expectadon? In case there were no hereafter, man would 
have no hope adapted thereto, or capable of creating this expectation. 
And, Barely, the location of hope by the side of spirituality^ so that 
the two may naturally act together, and thereby create the desire, the 
feeling, that there is a spiritual state, and that we shall exist therein 
forever, forms the strongeat kind of proof that there is an hereafter, a 
spiritual, never-ending state, adapted to that constitutional arrangement 
of the nature of man. Who can doubt the concentration of proof that 
goes to establish this glorious result ? Who can say that this radiat- 
ing focus of truth is but midnight darkness, or only the glare of the 
delusive ignis fatuus ? Nor have I ever seen the man who could inva- 
lidate this blessed conclusion. It is plainly grafted on the nature of 
man, or, rather, founded in it The admission of the truth of Phre- 
nology, presupposes, and necessarily implies, the conclusion to which 
wo have thus been brought And I am free to confess, that, fidth 
aside, and as a matter of reason and argument, I pin my hopes of im- 
mortality (and they are neither few nor weak,) on this argument 
No other argument that I have ever seen at all compares with it in 
p6int of clearness and force. I repeat it A natural, spontaneous ex- 
ercise of the faculty of hope, is an expectation of existing hereafter. 
This is its natural, legitimate, primitiv$ function ; therefore, this 
(acuity is adapted, and adapts man, to an hereafter. Hence there is 
\n hereafter adapted to this organ. 

Many infidels have been converted from Atheism, or at least from 
scepticism thereby. Among the thousands that have come to my 
imowledge, the following are given as samples : — 

'' Nmo-Fairjield, March, 1848. 
^Afr. Editor — ^During the little leisure I could get from the duties 
of a private school under my charge for about eij?hteen months past. I 
have been studying Phrenology. From the nrst, I was so deeply 
interested in its principles, its application to morals, religion, and al- 
most every other subject of public importance, that I determined to 
become its public advocate as soon as I could command time and 
means to acquire that practical proficiency adeauate to the accom* 
pUsiiment of the duties involved in so responsible an undertaking. 
And J think, of all other persons, I have the greatest reason to Un>e 
and to reverence Phrenology, inasmuch as it hais been one of the prin- 
cipal instntmeiits in saving ne from the rock of infidelity, on which I 
had ::track. When I saw, that the mind was constitutionally adapted 
to the great and leading principles of Christianity, I was enabled to 
comprehend the fallacy of the hose and servile doctrines of the infideL 
lostead of inculcating or encourag^ing any thing anti-ChrislVm, aa 
some jn thm ignorance and opposition have said, Phrenology beaufti- 

114 BOFE, AND m BEA&XNGH* iStlO 

Mly explains and establishes all the imjportant principles of religiJML 
We fino, that certain organs of the brain are neeessa/ry for the exer- 
cise of those feelings of worship and adoration of the Deit^, trust 
in his providences, and confidence in the revelations of his will. 
Hence, the infidel must, at least, be deficient in the organs of venera- 
tion and marvellousness, and, accordingly, this was the case with ine. 
..\iid nowj to obviate this tendency to disbelief, I set intellect over 
agiainst it, and take the revelations of God for granted, without ohce 
trying tp, doubt them — ^knowing that my doubts are the result oi small 
piarvelloiisness. To me^ the fiict, that there is an pr^an whose func- 
tioh is, trust in Divine providence, and belief in the spiritual, proves a 
kAute stat6, and an over-ruling hand. If this be not the case, then 
the Creator has given us a faculty for perceiving, and hatinjg faith in, 
^. state which does not existr— « thing entirely incompatible with the 
chi^cter of Omnipotence. 

'' Now^ the confirmed infidel or atheist r^uires some plain, poai 
tr^(3, and tangible evidence, that maybe brought under the cogniz- 
Haiee of his senses ; and this is the kind of evidence afibrded. by Phre* 
ndloffy^ fpr he can both see and feel it. It Was this process of reason- 
||)ff ^lat convinced me of the truth of Christianity^ and the error of 
ui^elity, and I feel bound by love to theisoiqacey and the ifiit^^ieell 
feel for those who have unfortunately stranded upon the shoals of in 
fidelity, to make this public statement. << a. J. Geat.'' 

Extract of a letter from a gentlem^p in '$^ 1., dated May, 1844.. 
* A tittle more than a vear since, an inquiry arose in my mind re 
tfpeetmg the truth of the fundamentals of religion, such as the being 
of a God — the divinity of the scriptures, &c. But, my mind becpm 
^ exx^ifed oa tjtijese points, and gettins^ into a doubting, sceptical 
mood, did not stojp here. I asked afber the foundation aiid origin of 
il^Verhments, the utility c^f the social state, &c. I would know what 
constituted an action virtuous, or if there was actually any propriety 
in ^ distinction of right and wrong. I ruminated over all the ' scenes 
of man,' to inquire into the elements of every thing, to see if, in. spite 
df pride, in erring reason's spite, f whatever is, is righf-r-l feared what 
ever is, is wrong ; or, at least, I felt I must see the reasons for Pope's 
jirbposition. * Time would fail me' to give you a detailed account of 
the state of mind into which I was hurled. What I have said must 
stlfiic^. But I began to rea4 extensively. I procured the best books 
I could obtain on the subjects which looked post momentous to ma. 
I began to nieditate also methodically and, rigidly, to d^rmine pel^ 
l^xmg questions with the precision oif a philosopher. But l fetnc^ 
what .1 had partly realized before, that authors difierod, and that linm 
v^ want o( first principles. In my distress, I turned my attentton t» 
Phrenology, of wbich I had already a little knowledge, for salvatioK 
froiil universal scepticism's painful confusion or deran^ement-^whichi 
d^ t very much feared. And, blessed be God, I found it a ttm* 
iki^ial logic^ an endless dictionary ^ a chart of the ^imkoerse^ antL ikt 
€hd of first principles, Before th^ revelations oif Phiren^ogyy alt 
it^yj doubts and perplexities fied like morning vapors chased away 


by the rising sun, and left mv aoul to enjoy a great amount of truth, 
established in the certainty of demonstration. And it was during the 
time of my emancipation from th^ thiaklom of corroding, soul-killing 
uncertainties, that I became acquainted with your writings. I feel to 

rejoice that you have ever been raised up to i^bor as a Phrenologist. 

• ■ ♦ ♦ ♦■■♦"■*'* « 

I jnust say, before I close^ I am waiting with intense interest to see 
what you shall say upon theology in the 'Journal' of this year. Hun- 
dreds and thousands are domg tne same. Among" these, I know of 
several distinguished ministers of the gospel. Do your best. Be 
thorough. Your work, < Natural Theory of Phrenology,' is good ; 
but too limited, as I wrote you several months since. Don't leave a 
ppiat not thoroughly treated." 

Letters and statements of this character, flow in continually from all 
quarters. Those who accuse Phrenology of leading to infidelity and 
scepticism, either practically or theoretically, have either but a smat- 
tering of this sublime, this religious science, or else are incapable of 
comprehending it. Its influence on my own mind has been to deepen 
my religious feelings, and enlarge their boundaries, not to enfeeble 
them. True, it has enfeebled my narrow minded sectarian notions. 
I thank God that it has. Much that was bigoted, intolerant, contracted; 
and erroneous, it has abolished. But the gold of Ophir, the wealth of 
India, the treasures of the whole earth, could be but a drop in the buck- 
et compared with the value of those religious doctrines and feelings 
it has added to my former religious istock. Nothing would tempt me to 
return back to that state of semi-darkness from which Phrenology has 
delivered me. I consider that true religious feeling has been multi- 
plied within me a hundred fold by this science. Nor, in all my ex- 
tended acqaintance, do I know the man whom Phrenology has ren- 
dered infidel. I know those whom it has liberalized. Whose bigotry 
it has slam. But not whose soul it has hardened to religious impres- 
sions. It will melt the hearts of all who drink in its doctrines. Fear 
not, then, intellectual reader. Fear not, pious reader. It will make 
you better Christians. It will purify your souls. It will elevate your 
religious nature. It will make you more holy-minded, more exalted 
in your views of the character and government of God, and go fer ti^ 
wards preparing you for a blessed immortality. 




** Which hope we have as an anchor of the bovI, both rare and stedftit, tod 

which entereth into that within the veil.*' 

Having pointed out the general function of hope, it remains to add 
a few suggestions relative to its exercise. 

1. It is very large in the American head — ^larger than in the heads 
of any other nation which it has been my good fortune to examine ; 
caused, doubtless, by that continual inflation of it, growing out of the 
very nature of our institutions. (See Hereditary Descent, p. 47.) 

2. It combines mainly with acquisitiveness ; whereas it should com- 
bine mainly with the moral faculties. We confine our hopes mainly 
to the things of this world ; whereas we should place them mostly on 
heaven and heavenly things. On this root of the violation of man's 
nature, grow the inflations and depressions of trade in this country 
which have overthrown so many, and set our whole nation uppn the 
full gallop after riches. Our pecuniary embarrassments were not 
caused, cannot be cured, by either political party, or leader, by a na- 
tional bank, or the want of it, but simply, solely, by the over-exercisa 
of hope, and by confining it to this world ; whereas it should soar tu 
another. And as long as men 'go on to violate this law of their na- 
tures, by this wrong exercise of this moral faculty, they must sufler 
the penalties of its infraction. But, when they will obey this law, 
not only will our pecuniary embarrassments cease, and our worldly 
spirit be subdued, but dl the glorious, soul-inspiring fruits of its pro- 
per exercise, will be ours in this life, along with a preparation for that 
which is to come. 

3. This organ is sometimes too small. Those professing Chris- 
tians in whom it is small, with small self-esteem, and large cautious- 
ness and conscientiousness, suflfer much from gloomy religious feelings, 
feel extremely unworthy, and too guilty to be saved, and indulge 
doubts and fears as to their future salvation. Let such remember that 
these gloomy doubts and fears are not piety, but are inconsistent with 
it— that the absence of hope is a defect, and that, if this organ were 
larger, and conscientiousness smaller, though their conduct would be 
no better, and heart perhaps worse, yet their hopes of heaven would 
be much stronger, while their prospects of future happiness would bo 


less "bright To such, Phrenology says, that these gloomy feelings 
are caused, not by any actual danger, but simply by their organs. I 
tells them to cultivate this organ, and not to indulge these religious 
doubts and fears. 

4. I find, that most disbelievers in a future state, have moderate or 
small hope, and hence their expectation of existing hereafter is feeble. 
They say and feel, " well, I neither know, nor care much, whether i 
am to live hereafter or not, but I will take my chance with the rest 
of mankind." To such, this science says, your doubts as to a future 
state grow out of your imperfect phrenological organization, and not 
out of the fact that a future state is doubtful. Cultivate and properly 
direct this faculty, and your doubts will vanish, your soul bo cheered 
with hopes of immortality. 

5. The proper cultivation and exercise of hope, becomes a matter 
of great importance. To show how to enlarge and direct this faculty 
does not come within the compass of this work, they having been 
treated in * Education and Self-Improvement.*** Suffice it to say, that 
in order to enlarge it, it must be exercised^ and to efl^ect this, its appro- 
priate food, (immortality,) must be kept continually before it ; it being 
feasted thereon, and ravished thereby. 

6. It is a little remarkable that the exercise of this faculty, in refer- 
ence to a future state, is so often commended and enforced in the Bible. 
In this, the Bible harmonizes with Phrenology, and is right 

7. Some beautiful inferences grow out of the combinations of hope 
and marvellousness, but being in possession of the requiste data, the 
reader can carry them out for himself 

* Directions for caltivating all the moral facalties, and indeed all tho faonhiei^ 
will be foaxid in that work, lo that their repetition here would be oat of (:laoe. 

128 BmsvoLSNOx. 








It is more blessed to oiyx than to receive." — Ckrist. 

Pain exists, and man is the subject of it Governed by laws, die 
violation of which induces pain, man often sins and suffers. Instead of 
placing us in a world of chaos, confusion, uncertainty, and chance, 
Infinite Wisdom has seen fit to throw laws around us, and to sanction 
those laws, by rewarding their obedience with pleasure, and punish- 
ing their infraction with pain. But for these laws, man could have 
calculated upon nothing, could have enjoyed, could have effected no- 
thing ; and without the reward of pleasure attached to their obedience, 
and a penalty of suffering affixed to their infraction, these laws would 
have been utterly powerless, and therefore perfectly useless. Indeed, 
self-contradictory though it may seem, no feature of the Divine charac- 
ter or government is more benevolent than in the institution of pain ; 
for, without it, we should be liable, carelessly or ignorantly, to lean 
upon a red hot stove, or put our hands into prusic acid, and destroy 
them, and indeed to destroy all parts of our frame a hundred times 
over, if possible ; as we now are, the instant we injure ourselves, or 
violate any physical law, we feel pain, and are thereby warned of our 
sin, and seek relief So in the world of mind. We may even take 
it for granted, that every pain ever experienced, or ever to be experi- 
enced by man, is a consequence of the violation of some law of his 
being. And on the other hand, that evary pleasure we experience, 
»vhether mental or physical, flows from our voluntary or involuntary 
obedience of some law. 

But, if this institution of pain existed, unless man had some faculty 
analogous to that of benevolence, to dispose him to pour the oil of con- 
solation into the soul of the sufferer, and assuage his pain, how deso* 
. late would our world have been ! Callous to the sufferings of oui 
feUow-beings, and not disposed to lift a finger to relieve them 1 R» 

.184 THfi inmr axd pleasure of doikg good. 129 

gaidless of bow much pain we inflicted, how much trouble we caused ! 
not one kind feeling in the soul of man 1 How utterly desolate ! How 
shorn of its blesssings, would be our earth 1 Or, if man had been 
created an isolated being, incapable of bestowing or receiving favors, 
or of augmenting or efiectiag the happiness of his fellow-men, this 
(acuity would have been out of place, and only tormented its possessor 
with the sight of suffering which could not be relieved. But, a bene- 
volent God has instituted pain for a wise and beneficial purpose. But 
lest suffering unrelieved should blast, or at least mar, his works, he has 
of&et it by planting in the soul of man this kindly feeling for his fellow- 
men. And then, in addition to this, he has put roan into that relation 
with his fellow>men by which he can both assuage their suffering and 
promote their happiness. 

Again, the exercise of every organ gives its possessor pleasure in 
proportion to its size and activity. Benevolence is a large organ, and 
therefore fills the heart of the truly benevolent man with as pure 
and enalted pleasure as he is capable of experiencing ; for, '' it is mert 
blessed to give than to receiva'' Thus does it double the pleasure of 
man ; fijrst, by pouring the oil of consolation into the wounded heart ; 
and, secondly, by filling the benevolent soul with a pure fountain of 
pleasure, '' which the world can neither give nor take away." But 
for the existence of suffering, this faculty would have had no sphere of 
action, and must have been in the way ; but, with the existence of pain, 
man is rendered, as already seen, much more happy than he could 
possibly have been without either law or consequent suffering ; and 
doubly happy : first, in bestowing charity, and in doing acts of kind- 
ness ; and secondly, in becoming the recipient ot these favors, and 
responding to them with heart-feh gratitude. Oh, God! in infinite 
wisdom hast Thou made us ! Thou hast bound us to Thee and to one 
another by a three-fold cord of love and wisdom : first, by the institu- 
tion of pain ; secondly, by offsetting this institution with this faculty, 
and, thereby, by making its exercise so pleasurable to both giver and 
receiver ! Wanting in either. Thy government would have been im- 
perfect. But possessed of all combined, it is infinite in itself, and infi 
nitely promotive of the happiness of all Thy terrestrial creatures ! 

The existence df this faculty, makes it our imperious duty to exer- 
cise it in doing good, and to exercise it much^ because it is a large or- 
gan ; that is, it occupies, when large, a greater periphera or surface 
on the scull, and a greater amount of brain, thai, perhaps any othei 
organ ; and, as already observed. Phrenology requires us to exercise 
twery organ hahiiually^ and in proportion to its relative size when 


Inrge. Man is t30 selfish, even for his own interes If he were less 
selfish, he would be more selfish: that is, if he were more benevolent, 
iio would be more happy. This organ saith ; " Throw open the doois 
ol' thy house to the benighted wanderer. Be more hospitable, for thou 
inayest entertain angels unawares. Make sacrifices to do good, and 
ihou wilt thus cast thy bread upon the waters, to be gathered in great- 
ly increased. Nay, in the very (ut of doing good, thou hast thy re- 

But, not to dismiss this subject with the mere abstract inference, 
that it is our duty to do good, let us look at some of its practical illus- 
trations ; that is, to the advantages to be derived from its general and 
proper exercise. To draw an illustration from hospitality : To enter- 
tain friends, and even strangers, is one of our greatest pleasures. It 
is not the order of nature, that we should have so many public houses. 
For, besides their being the greatest nuisances that curse any comma • 
nity, the recepticles of gambling, drinking, and all sorts of wicked 
ness, which, but for them, could not exist, they deprive us of that pri 
vilege of exercising the hospitable feeling which would result fronr. 
throwing open our doors to our fellow-men, and loading our tables tc 
feed the hungry. In a tavern, little social feeling is exercised, and 
but little benevolence. It is purely a dollar and cent afiair, and very 
dear does it cost those who are entertained ; because a few of the 
guests want a great deal of waiting upon, which raises the price, and 
then those who want but little, have to pay just as much ; thus wound- 
ing acquisitiveness and conscientiousness. 

Familiar as I am with the principle, that the violation of any of the 
natural laws punishes the disobedient, I am, notwithstanding, often 
surprised and delighted to see it practically illustrated in ways innu- 
merable, which escape general observation. The violation of the 
law of hospitality is a case in point. Taverns are the direct, legiti- 
mate product of the violation of the law of hospitality. And " eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man 
to conceive," the number and the aggravation of the public and pri- 
vate sinfulness and vice, of all descriptions and degrees of heineous- 
ness, that grow on this root of violated natural law. Drinking, and 
all the vices that accompany it, " whose name is legion," are their le- 
gitimate offspring. If taverns produced but this single sin, it would be 
punishment enough in all conscience, yet this is but the beginnmg. 
Balls are another. Not that dancing itself is wrong. Indulged in at 
proper seasons, say in the day time, or till nine or ten o*clock in the 
evening, dancing would be the best recreations to be found, and 


heahhy, especially for woman ; but, carried to excess, and con* 
Bectad, as it iisoally is, with drinking and many other objectionablt 
things, especially the exercise of amativeness, in various combinations, 
I deem it most objectionable. Besides, dancing being carried to 
sucn excess, generally continued all night, trespasses too much upon 
time that shoold be allotted to sleep, of which young people require a 
great amount They also cultivate artificial manners. These balls 
are almost always held in taverns, and go to support them. 

Another is, tavern associations — tavern stories, (almost always ob- 
scene,) tavern lingo, of which profane swearing furnishes the warp 
and considerable of the filling,* betting, political discussions, 
horse-racing, and this whole class of evils. I should rather bury my 
jhildren than have them brought up in a tavern where liquor is sold. 
I would make an exception in &lyot of temperance taverns, and I urge 
it upon every temperance man, upon all moral men, to patronize tern- 
peranee taverns wherever they can be found. I never go to any other 
when there is one in the place, and I am sometimes almost tempted even 
to solicit entertainment in private families, rather than to put up at a 
liquor-selling house however ^^ respectable.'' 

My brother urges that taverns should be supported at public ex- 
pense, as we support a minister, for example, so that they may not be 
allowsd to sell liquor. He argues, that we properly pay taxes to sup- 
port the poor i that these poor are almost all made by taverns ] and 
that we should be gainers by supporting taverns at public expense 
rather than the poor made by these taverns. That they are a great 
public curse, cannot be questioned.' That we can do without them, 1 
fully believe. Cluakers make perfectly free to call on each other for 
entertainment wherever they are. I doubt not they call it a great 
privilege both to entertain each other, though perfect strangers, and 
certainly it is most grateful to be thus- entertained. Let us all mani- 
fest the qoaker spirit, and we shal . rid our land of its most blighting 

* Swearing ii onqueitionably a great sin, not so much against Gcd, as tkc 
•wearer. If, m is often, perhaps usually, the case, it is mainly the dialect of an- 
ger and blackguardism, it simply shows the disposition of the one who swears, and 
tends to increase his rough, wrathful state of mind. If it has become habitual, it 
•hows that these feelings are habitual, and indicates permanent depravity. It also 
tends to increase these unhappy feelings in the minds of those who hear it. 
Swearing before children is very bad ; because alt children will imitate, and by imi- 
tating the language of swcarerH, they soon come to feel the accompanying fee\- 
ing, and thus grow up under the dominion of the propensities. I put swearing ap* 
on the ground of the injury it does to the swearer and to the community, rather 
than on its being an offence against God. It also indicates vulgarity. 

• 32 BENBVOT^ENCfi. — ^DO.IVO GOOD. 287 

wrocco — public houses— «nd both give and receive a vast amount of 
pleasure. This doctrine is correct in theory, and beautiful in practice, 
and I hereby extend the rites of hospitality to all who may chance tc 
pass my door,* and want victuals or lodging, as free as the air we 
breathe. By this means, vast accessions of knowledge would be de- 
rived by that interchange of views, experience, feelings, &c., conse- 
qnet thereon. Acquaintances would be extended, friends Tnultipiied. 
and society linked together by the strongest of bonds. In short, it is 
impossible to count or estimate the blessings that would grow on this 
tree of the nature of man. 

Another illustration of the beneficial effects of exercising benevo 
ence, is to be found in providing for the poor. The way they are 
now supported, almost entirely precludes the exercise of this faculty. 
This should not be. I doubt whether there need ever be any 
poor. To do away with taverns alone would obviate probably two 
thirds of their number. And most of the balance would never be- 
come poor but for this grasping love of money which actuates all 
classes, and hoards immense wealth in the hands of the few, and 
thereby ever over-reaches the many. Property is only another name 
for the necessaries and comforts of life. Now it is plain, that if a few 
have a great amount of them, the many must be proportionally de^ 
prived thereof I believe it wrong to become very rich, and that it 
should be prohibited by law, just as we prohibit other things that in- 
jure the public. 

Especially, if we give the poor an opportuuity to help themselves, 
nearly all would embrace it. To be supported ai public expense, is 
most humiliating. How many poor widows have worked themselves 
into their graves to support a starving family, rather than to go upon 
the town! Reader, writer! how would you like to go to the poor- 
house ? But, when poor, and needing help, if some more fortunate neigh 
bor would give you an opportunity to help yourself, to till land, or to 
do other work, how would your lightened heart leap for joy 1 The 
prettiest way to help a poor neighbor is to employ him, and to give 
him ample, bountiful if you please, wages. 

A story : — A fortunate, but benevolent man, had a poor colored 
neighbor too infirm to do much, but very deserving. The former 
would sell to the latter, but postpone the reception of pay, or tell him 
that he would give him a certain sum per capot for whatever tarei 

* Three miles north of Fishkili village, on the road to Pooghkeepaie, Datche* 
county, N. Y. I call h « The Bird's Nesl." 


or Termiu he wished exterminated ; say, a round sum for the head of 
every crow, or squirrel, or muskrat, &lc.j or for every thistle-root, or 
dock-root, d&c In this way, the poor man nominally paid for what 
he had, so as to he relieved from that oppressive feeling of obligation 
and dependence that always accompanies the reception of gifts, and 
yet was as much benefited as though he had not paid a cent Thou 
sands of ways which every reader can devise for himself, may be 
contrived in which to bestow charity and yet relieve the recipient from 
all feelings of obligation. 

Making Christmas, new-year, and other holiday presents, furnishes 
another delightful exercise of this &culty. Phrenology recommends 
it most cordially, and also the general interchange of neighborly acts. 
Thus : " neighbor A. come over into my orchard whenever you like and 
help yourself to such apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, and the 
like as you please." -^ Thank you, neighbor, I will avail myself of your 
kind ofier. I have a fine lot of currents, more, probably, than will be 
wanted. Come over or send any of your folks, and pick what you 
like. My grapes come on finely, and when ripe, make free to pick 
what you want" Or, as you pick a fine watermellon for your din- 
ner, send one in to your neighbor, or a dish of fruit, or a quarter of 
veal, or a few pounds of butter, or a large loaf of cake, or what- 
ever you can conveniently spare. Neighbors should not count dollars 
and cents as oflen as they now do ; nor as many thousands. 

My uncle and my father, living on adjoining farms, were in the habit 
of ^' changing works," whenever either needed help and the other could 
spare it If either had a lot of hay down and needed help, and the 
other was not driven with work, they would both turn too and help 
each other ; and so in reference to grain, or hoeing, or ploughing — 
every thing that seemed to require it ; neither ever thinking of keep- 
ing any account, or putting the matter on the ground of debt or credit, 
but on that of neighborly accommodation. Nor did I ever hear a 
word of complaint from either, that the other had not helped his part, 
or any thing of this kind. So that neighbors can interchange these 
acts of kindness greatly to the accommodation of each other, and with- 
out any thing to mar the good resulting therefrom. 

Again. Many more things should be regarded as common prop- 
erty than now are. Say, let every town own considerable public 
ground, on which any who pleased are allowed to raise potatoes, or 
com, or what they like or need. So, also, let there be much more 
public spirit than now exists. Let every town have its pleasure park, 
fiill of fruit and ornamental trees, the fruit cf which shall be common 


property, and where the whole town may congregate, say at s jnset for 
recreation and an interchange of good feeling — where our youth may 
meet for play, where our boys may drive the ball, our girls the hoop, 
our maidens take the fresh air, and give vent to their youthful, buoy- 
ant, sportive, merry, happy feelings. There is no telling how much 
pleasure, profit, might be derived from such an arrangement. 

Analogous to this would be that of lining our roads with fruit trees 
of all kinds. Let the inhabitants of any town, of all our towns, save 
the pits and seeds of all the fruit eaten in but a single year, and plant 
them by the way-side, and then graft them with the very best of fruits 
when old enough, and what vast quantities of fruits would they pro- 
duce in twenty years, sufficient to supply every family in town, and 
thousands to spare. The poor could pick and sell to our cities, and 
thus live comfortably, or at least be relieved from pinching want. 
What a vast blessing might be conferred on coming ages by a little 
pains on the part of a few. For one, I shall line the road that passes 
across my little farm in this manner, pro bono publico, and persuade 
all I can to do the same. Let all the believers in Phrenology do this, 
and long would posterity extol that science which prompted so wise, 
so philanthropic a deed. 

If it be objected, that in this case, each, eager to get his share, or 
perhaps all he can, will scramble for it before it is ripe,' I answer, 
Have enough for all. If it be further objected, that (he cattle will 
browse off the trees, I reply. Still, the trees will get above them, gra- 
dually to be sure, but ultimately. Or, they may be protected till above 
their reach. Or a town ordinance might easily exclude them from 
the streets. 

An additional motive for moving in this good cause, is to be found 
in the fact, that bread and fruit are the two main supporters of ani- 
mal life, or at least, the best Bread is emphatically the staff of life— 
the very best article of diet that our earth produces. Fruit is most 
wholesome, besides being so very delicious. But it is the two united 
which constitutes the diet for man. A meal made of good home-made 
bread manufactured of flour not killed in being ground and bolted| 
eaten with first-rate apples, either raw, or baked, or stewed, or mad^ 
into sauce, is the most palatable, the most wholesome, that can possi- 
bly be eaten. Few are aware of the fact, that a meal of this kind 
gives more gustatory pleasure in eating than a meal made up of any 
other sort of food. Fruit should always be eaten with meals, and as 
a part of them. The juice of fruit, either boLed down into a jelly 
and eaten on bread in place of butter, or the juice of fruit with b^ead 


crumbled into it, and eaton as wo eat bread and milk, is most delicious, 
most wholesome. No better article of diet can be had. Butter is most 
injurious. A poor family need not starve, if they can get nothing else, 
especially if they had some handy press for mashing and pressing 
the fruit, say every day or two, as it is wanted for use, so that it 
need not ferment The juice of all fruit after fermentation has taken 
place, is most injurious. But apples can easily be kept till straw- 
berries are ripe. Cherries, blackberries, currants, &>c, last till early 
apples and peaches come again, and thus nature has so arranged it 
that we may have fruit the year round. Has the reader never ob* 
served how wholesome and palatable strawberries are to the sick, es- 
pecially to consumptive patients ? And if I had a consumptive patient 
in the strawberry season, I should order as many as the patient pleas- 
ed to eat I should not only prescribe them in place of medicine, but 
M medicine. They will even effect cures where medicine will not. 
The diet above recommended, would prevent most our of sickness, by 
which so many are made poor, and would in nine cases out of ten 
restore health. 

An arrangement for raising abundance of bread-stuff might easily 
he made, or in its absence, potatoes, easily raised in any abundance, 
might be substituted, and thus the poor be relieved. 

Besides, there is such a thing as saving at the spigot, but letting it 
run out at the bung — as giving to the poor by liules, and yet allow- 
ing causes to remain in action — to even augment — which increase 
poverty by wholesale. Giving a shilling here, a dollar there, five 
dollars yonder, d&c., may do a moiety of good ; but one well directed 
efibort to obviate the caiue of human suffering, will be productive of great- 
er results than thousands of acts of individual charity. For one, let my 
happy lot be to espy and point out these causes — to cut away at the 
root of this fruitful tree of human suffering, and ^' dig about and dung" 
the tree of humanity. 

Bearing on a kindred point, my brother, in his lecture on the mo- 
ral hearings of Phrenology, makes some excellent remarks on the 
proper exercise of this faculty; in illustration of which he tells the 
foUowing story : — A medical student from the south, in going from 
N^w-York city to Pittsfield, Mass., gave away^ in the form of treaU 
UMiinly, seventy dollars-— all he had ; so that he not had enough to pay 
his fare the last part of the way. Though he was so very generous, 
yet his liberality did more harm than good. He says, and with pro- 
priety, that men have yet to learn how to do good. In other words : 
there is much more benevolence in the world than is exercised fro* 


ftrif.^ To be efiective, it roust always be governed by intellect, and 
blend wHb all tbe other moral sentiments. 

We cannot be too careful how we occasion pain to our fellow-men, 
or eren to brutes. We cannot be too assiduous to promote their hap- 
piness. We can never exercise enough of the kindly spirit, of good 
fe^Ung, of gushing benevolence, in expression, in action. Let all who 
are at all afTected by us, be the worse in nothing, be the better in many 
things, on our account 

The reader must excuse another quotation or two from Education 
and Self-Improvement They are made because the ideas there pre- 
sented require to be inserted in this connexion, and because they might 
not gain by recomposition. 

^ It ^ould be added that the killing of animals^ is directly calcu- 
lated to sear and weaken this faculty ; and should therefore rarely 
take place. Were a flesh diet productive of no other evil consequences 
than lowering down and hardening benevolence, that alone should 
forever annihilate so barbarous a practice.* Destructiveness should 
seldom be allowed to conflict with benevolence. The cruelties prac- 
ticed upon our animals that are slaughtered for the meat market, are 
sickening and incredible. See the poor calves, sheep, &c., tumbled 
together in the smallest possible space ; their limbs tied ; unfed, bel- 
lowing continually, and in a most piteous tone, their eyes rolled up in 
agony, taken to the slaughter-house, and whipped, or rather pelted 
by ike hour with a most torturing^ instrument, and then strung up bf' 
the hind legs, a vein opened, and they dying by inches from the gra* 
dual loss of blood, the unnatural suspension, and cruel pelting — ^and 
all to make their meat white and tender. A friend of the author, 
who lived near one of those places of torment, blood, and stench, haa 
his Benevolence, naturally very large, wrought up to its highest pitch 
of action, by the horrid groans and piteous exclamations of these 
dying animals, and was compelled to hear the blows with which they 
were beaten. At last he went to the butcher and remonstrated. This 
produced no effect. He went again and threatened him, telling him 
that if he heard another groan from dying animals, he would make 
him groan, and in so positive a manner that the cruelties were aban- 
doned. To kill animals outright, is horrible, but words are inadequate 
to express the enormity of the refined cruelty now generally practiced 

* My brother's leotare on the moral bearings of Phrenology, is sweet, lovely, 
beyond aUnost any thing else I ever heard fall from the lips of man. Its 
amalgamation with this work would greatly enhance its yalne. As yet, he has 
been unable to present it to the public in a printed form. 

t A young lady of high moral feelings, and predominant benevolence, seeing 
a calf led to the aUoghter, urged and pleaded with her father to purchase it 
and spare its life. He did so. She never allows herself to eat anything that 
hat ever had life in il^ and tbii it right. 


upon helpless dumb beasts by these murderers of the brute creatioa 
Look at me hideous and indescribably painful expression left on the 
heads of calves, sheep, hogs, &c., that we see in market, or see turn* 
bled into a cart for the glue manufacturer.'' 

Allow a short argument in reference to flesh eating. It is a clearly 
established principle of Phrenology, that no one Acuity should ever 
be so exercised as to conflict with the leigdmate function of any 
other ; and that, wherever the exercise of two or more do thus come 
in contact, one of them is wrongly exercised. Is not this principle 
too self-evident to require argument, and too plain even to require 
illustration? But if either is wanted^ the reader is referred to '' Edur 
cation," p. 157. Now sympathy for distress is one of the normal 
functions of benevolence. So is that pain consequent on witnessing 
distress which cannot be relieved, or beholding death, or the killing 
of animala In short, to kill animals without wounding benevolence 
— ^without cruelly tormenting it — ^is utterly impossible. Nothing but 
killing human beings is equally painful. And now I submit to every 
reflecting mind, whether it is possible to butcher animals for food 
without thus calling benevolence into painful action 7 But this pain- 
ful action of any organ, and especially of so high an organ, is wrong. 
Therefore is the killing of animals wrong. Or thus : The exercise 
of destructiveness, in killing animals for the table, necessarily comes 
in direct and powerful conflict with the normal function of benevo* 
lence. This quarrelling of the fiiculties gives us pain, and is there 
fere wrong. Hence, meat as an article of diet conflicts with the na 
lore of man. 

Now; since the killing of animals violates the nature of man, some 
greet evil must grow out of it ; for we cannot break nature's laws, 
without experiencing pain, and that too in the direct line of the trans- 
gression.* And I think it would not be difficult to show wherein — 
HOW — ^flesh eating punishes the transgressor. But as dietetics do 

not come within die sphere of this work, having stated the principle 
I leave it, for the present at least 

^Another barbarous practice against which Phrenology loudly 
exclaims, is thooting birds. This is, if possible, still worse, especially 
when the little warblers are of no service after being killed. To kiu 
them suddenly by a shot, is not particularly barbarous, because they 
suffer little, and only lose the pleasure of living ; but to kill them 
from the love of killing, must harden the heart and sear benevolence 
l>0yoiil measure. Its influence on the cruel perpetrator^ vs the main 

* 8«e Education, p. 21. 


wnadft I urge. Another motive is, do not kill biros of sans \ for you 
thmby deprive your fellow-men of the great amount of pleasure de- 
rirkl irom listenmg to their warblings. And then again, they feed 
on worms and insects, and thereby preserve vegetation. I doubt not 
bat much of that destruction of wheat, of late so general and fatal to 
the wheat crop, would be prevented by an abundance and variety of 
birds. In other words, take heed to the monitions of benevolence. 
and commit no cruelties, but scatter happiness in all your path, ana 
yon will be the happier, and greatly augment the happiness of all 

The exercise of benevolence in connection with veneration, is 
for exedUneey^ a doctrine of Phrenology, as it also is of the Bible. 
To da good if our duty, our privilege ; but to do good by promoting 
the cause of morality and virtue, is one of our highest moral duties- < 
on^of our greatest personal pleasures. We should try to make our 
felfew-men happier by making them better, — should seek their spiri- 
tual good more, even than their temporal. This is the very highest 
exercise of benevolence, which is one of the largest organs and high- 
est, ftcohies of man. This principle is plain in its application, and 
yet multifariotis. 

^ Above all things, this enlarged kindness is the duty aud privilege 
of <%ristianity. Boi do professors live up to this h.yr of their Lor4 
and Master, who "went about doing good." They, of all others^ 
should not go about with their gold spectacles, riding in their splen- 
did. caxcifigeSy liviiigin palaces, furnished a&er the manner of princes,^ 
an4 th^a begging money to spread the gospel amoing the heathen^. 
Away with your proud Christianity (?)— ypujc arijsfocratical ChriS]'. 
tianity, your Lam-better-than-thou — i«cat45c-i-am-ncA^--Christiai[iity j 
your money-making and money-hoarding or miserly Christianity. 
As well talk about hot ice, or cold fire, or honest rascality, as talk 
ab|Q|U$ rkA Christians, fashionably dressed Christians, or Christians 
whq dq n^t spend their all, their iim^. property , energies^ and ufu^ 
in doin^ gpoo, and in the exercise of the s^ntim^^ti^.t 

Remarks on missiouEury operations would be in place here. The 
prmeipU of givmg, to promote religion. Phrenology demonstrates — 
enforces. But it sees much in these foreign and domestic missionary 
societies, to cei^ure. St^l, evexjr^eicmjn^gffyl •^4'^^^ *? ^^ 
as. Q^)e);8,,canl^ fog^ hj^^ whep. he, kf^pyrs 3$ mu^h. about, ihsm,, 
Tkt9f^ n|issiQ|iai;ibs;who have left the American Board, have not done 
so wholly iwitkoi|it> cause. That Boa.rd dictates quite tpo muqh, B.^ 
•idte; it was, established, anjd is now cpnducted, t(^ pr9pagutie 5£,(;fap 
^^n^K^ mucbvPf rlwj^, as^^ If E^rei^lpgi^fS v^^]^ 

* Pre-eminentlj. t, Education w^^S|^-Improvement. 


form a society, to send out minionarieB to teach Phrenology liaiply^ 
^ without note or comment,'* more good and less harm would be thfi 
result ; fbi not even the heathen could long know how to find the 
organs, without moralizing thereon, and deducing inferences as to 
how we should live, the nature of man, and the opinions and conduce 
that harmonize therewith, and are therefore right, &c. If the Ame- 
rican Board would introduce pun Christianity, they would do im- 
mense good. But they propagate a strange mixture of truth and error, 
along" with those false tastes and habits of civilized, artificial, unnatu- 
ral life, which cannot fail to do more harm than their mongrel Chris- 
tianity will do good. In these views, very many excellent religious 
men concur ; and more would do so if they knew more, and were 
deceived less. 

Much as might be said upon this faculty, we will dismiss it with 
the remark, that the kindly, benevolent spirit just commended, would 
do more to banish crime than all the laws, lawyers, courts, civil officers, 
jails, prisons, penitentiaries and executions on earth. The punish- 
ment of crime will be treated under Cooscienciousness. Its preven: 
turn is infinitely better, and can be efiected by kindness and philan- 
thropy, a thousand times more effectually than by all the means now 
in operation. Let criminals discover a kindly spirit in the commu- 
nity as a whole, and they could not have a heart to commit ofiences 
against its laws or its happiness. Kindness will kill enmity ] will 
kill lawlessness ; will kill the revengeful spirit, and implant the same 
good feeling in the souls of those who otherwise would be pests to 

Let us all, then, cultivate the kindly. Let it shine forth in all wo 
say, in all we do, in all we feeL Harshness, severity, invective, are, 
not Phrenology, — are not Christianity, — are the ascendancy of the 
propensities over benevolence, which is forbidden by the Bible,— for- 
biiden by Phrenology. It intercepts our own happiness ; — ^it does, 
not promote that of our fellow-men. T%e law of love is the law of 
the nature of man, — the law of Christ The mantle of charity cov- 
ewth a multitude of sins. It will hide our sins from others. It will 
hide the sins of others from us. It will put the best construjction on 
thjMr errors, not the worst It is the greatest of the Christian virtues. 
b^is the distinguishing feature of all the works of God. To promote 
happiness is the end of creation. And shall not we do by others as . 
God has done by us ? Shall we not evince our gratitude for the con- 
tittBal shower of blessings he is pouring out upon us, by doing wha)( 
we can to promote the happiness of otWs 7 Infinite ai^e our Q|^^ 


im ibr enjoyment, and God does continually all that a God can 
d0| to fill them to the full Let us imitate our Heavenly Father in 
thif labor of lore. Let us second his great design in creation ; for in 
so doing, we shall be co-workers mth God, be even like God. Glo- 
rious, this opportunity of doing good. Let every day, every hour, find 
us employed in this great work — the work of Grod— ^e work of man I 





Imiata Mme of moral aeconntabiHty ; integrity of motfre; peroeption of right 
and wnmg, and feeling that right is rewardable, and wrong pmuBhable; 
aenae of moral obligation ; love of justice, tnithi and right, as snch ; regard 
Ibr duty, promises, &c, ; desire for moral parity, and blamelessness of con- 
dnct : that internal moral monitor which approves the right, and condemns 
tiie wrong; gratitode for fiivors ; sense of goilt ; penitence for sin; contrition: 
denre to reform ; disposition to forgive the penitent. 

** Thrice armed is he who hath his quarrel just." — Shak. 

So constituted is the human mind, that it regards — that it cannot 
hui regard — most of our feelings, actions, expressions, conduct — that 
we do and say, or are capable of doing and saying — as either right 
or WRONG, True, it regards some things as destitute of moral charac 
ter, because done without motive, or by accident, or prompted by de- 
rangement, &c. ; but these form so small a portion of their aggregate 
as to deserve mention merely. As we look upon some things as re- 
putable, and others as disgraceful; upon some as dangerous, and 
odiers as safe ; upon some as beautiful, and others as deformed ; some 
as past, others as present ; some as ludicrous, others as serious ,* some 
as causes, others as effects, dbc. ; so we consider—cannot help consi- 
dering — most that we do, say, feel, as right or wrong; and that per se < 
its own account, and in its very nature and constitution. Desti- 
of this faculty, the soul of man would be wanting in its brightest 
j t nel , its crowning excellence. Let a human being be endowed with 
te tekots of a Webster, a Franklin, a Bacon, but be destitute of mo- 

296 ooinciENCE innate. 141 

ral jHrindple, he deserves but contempt ; for he employs them to fur- 
ther what 18 wrong as soon as what is right ; to serve his propensities, 
to injure mankind, to augment his own sinfuhiess and misery. How 
changed 1 when those talents are governed by high-toned moral prin- 
ciple — are employed to subserve the cause of justice ; to oppose what- 
ever is wrong, and urge on what is right I How infinitely more ex- 
alted the character, more beneficial the conduct ! 

Not only do these perceptions and feelings of right and wrong ex- 
ist, but they are innate. Not creatures of education. Not fitful, but 
permanent In-wrought into the very nature and constitution of the 
human soul, and forming a prominent department thereof Pervad- 
ing, and almost governing, the whole human family, in all condi- 
tions and coimtries, in all past ages, in all coming time. Man feeh 
it, and knows it, that there is a right and a wrong in the very nature 
and constitution of things. 

And not only are these feelings constitutional, but man intuitively 
feels that the right must govern, and the wrong be discarded. Nor i% 
this feeling of moral obligation a tame, passive element, that simply 
whispers this moral sentiment gently in the ears. But it is clothed with 
aiUkority^ and felt to be imperious. Strong, doubly armed, is he 
whose conscience sanctions all he does.; but faint and feeble is he who 
fiiels that he ]& wrong. Barely able to hold up his head, and power- 
less in all he says and does. Conscience is designed to govern. It 
is the primier of the human soul, while all the other faculties are but 
representatives or subjects. Its edicts constitute the supreme law of 
the man. Its prohibitions are imperative, inexorable. 

The existence of this moral sense has always and every where 
beoi admitted, but its imiateness has long been a subject of universal 
discussion. Its advocates urge its innateness from its universality^ 
and appeal to every one whether he is not conscious of its existence ; 
whether his own soul does not feel its internal monitions daily and 
ccmtinually, while its opposers aver that it is wholly the creature of 
education^ as is evinced by the diversified and even conflicting opin- 
ions of men as to what is right, arguing that men think and practice 
in this matter as they are taught. Phrenology, however, demons- 
trates that man has, by nature, an innate faculty, which forms a part 
and parcel of his original nature, the specific function of which is 
to create the sentiments of right and wrong ; and to apprcnre the right, 
and condemn the wrong, and accounts for this diversity of opinion as 
to right and wrong, by showing that men's opinioDe and practices as 
to right and wrong vary as their phitnological developments diffiir. 


While, therefore, this fact completely overthrows the doctrine that con- 
science is the creature of education, it fully establishes the &ct that 
conscience is innate — that every man has, by nature, an internal 
monitor to accuse him when he does wrong, to approve him when 
he does right, to warn him against committing sin, and to entice him 
into the paths of virtue and happiness. 

Phrenology even goes farther. By pointing out the existence of 
this primary sentiment of right and justice in the soul of man, 
it proves, beyond all cavil and controversy, the existence of certain 
PRIMARY, ABSTRACT PRINCIPLES of right and moral fitness, lying back 
in the very nature and constitution of things, and forming a consti- 
tuent part of that nature, to which this faculty in man is adaptied. 
Under the head of veneration, (p. 46,) it was shown that the existence 
of one thing and its being adapted to another, proved the existence of 
the other. That same argument, " mutatis mutandis,*' or changing 
it from veneration to conscientiousness, shows that the latter, by being 
adapted to right, proves the existence of certain great and first prin • 
ciples of eternal right and justice, founded in, and forming a part of, 
the original nature and constitution of things. It proves that somet 
things are right and others wrong, in themselves, — in their very na- 
ture and essence. This adaptation of conscientiousness to these firsi 
princip^s of right, is indisputable, and even demonstrative : therefore, 
these primary principles of right exist, adapted to this organ in man. 

More and better. Besides establishing the innateness of conscience 
and the consequent existence of right and wrong in themselves. 
Phrenology also demonstrates the moral accountability of man. and, 
therefore, that he is a fit subject of rewards and punishments. As 
the existence in man of eyes, both constitutes him a seeing being, and 
also proves him to be such : — as the fact of his having lungs, both 
renders him a breathing being and proves him to be such ; the exis- 
tence of a stomach, both makes him a digesting being, and proves 
conclusively that he is such ; the existence of bones and muscles, a 
moving being ; of teeth, a masticating being ; of the social faculties, 
a social being ; of the intellectual elements, an intellectual being ; of 
the reasoning faculties, a reasoning being, and so of all his other 
primary powers — so the fact that he possesses the oi^n and faculty 
of conscientiousness both constitutes and renders him a moral and an 
accountable being, and deserving of rewards and punishments, at the 
same time that it conclusively proves him to be such. No proof is 
stronger. It is demonstration, and in the fullest, strongest sense of 
the term. Proof that appeals to the senses is not strcnger. The fact 


dial mankind exist, is not more folly, certainly established by oai 
9ee%ng them, than the truth of Phrenology being admitted, is the fact 
that man is a moral, accountable, rewardable, punishable being, ren- 
dered incontestable, dtmonttration^ certain. If required to provr 
that man was contHtutionally a seeing being, and not so by education, 
I should be unwise to aigue the point, but simply appeal to the fact that 
he is created with eyes— a kind of ad hominem home proof, which 
it is impossible to gainsay or resist The highest order of proof that 
reason is innate rather than taught, is the fact that man possesses ori- 
ginal dements of reason. The human mind is so constituted that it 
cannot possibly resist or evade this kind of proof, any more than it 
can resist the evidence of the senses. It is, in fact, proof drawn from 
the senses, and founded on them ; for we see that he has originally 
a primary organ and faculty of conscience. We also see its workings. 
We see that he possesses the primary power of conscience, just as we 
see that he possesses the primary elements of walking ; and vvc also 
see and feel the workings of this faculty, just as we see and know 
that he walks and talks. If his having feet proves him to be a 
walking being ; his possession of lungs, a breathing being ; of a sto- 
mach, a nutritive being ; of eyes, a seeing being ; of causality, n 
reasoning being ; of sexes, a sexual being ; of benevolence, a humane 
being; of veneration, a devotional being; of language, a'communi- 
cative being, then does the existence in him of conscientiousness prove 
him to be a moral, accountable, rewardable, punishable being. Ma- 
thematical demonstration is not clearer, stronger, more demonstrative, 
ad hominem, infiillible, than is this species of reasoning. Indeed, 
whoever rejects its conchisions, is incapable of reasoning — incapable 
of arriving at any conclusions, or knowing any thing whatever ; and 
as such, he is unworthy of notice. 

How unjust, then, the accusation that Phrenology establishes fatal- 
ism, when it overthrotcs that doctrine, and establishes the moral ac- 
countabUity of man ! And if any thing were wanting to complete 
this argument, the fact that there is an organ of will, (the lower por- 
tion of self-esteem,) goes, if possible, still farther ; and the two toge- 
ther establish the additional doctrine, not only that he is a moral ami 
accountable being, but also free to choose, will, decide, and act for 
himself; which completes his punishability as well as accountability. 
Those, therefore, who accuse Phrenology of favoring fatalism, arc 
either ignorant or bigoted. So fir from it, it even furnishes this moral 
accountability of man, to the Christian already proved — as clearly 
•iemonstrated as any propt>sition in geometry. Receive it, then. At 

144 MD&AL ACCOUNTABCTrr 07 VAN. ^299 

least stop these clamorous imputations. Let it also be ro member ed, 
that under the head of veneration, by proving the existence of a Grod, 
Atheism was proved to be false ; of marvelloosness, the immateriality 
or the spiritufJity of the soul was proved ; and of hope, a future state 
of being was also proved to exist No refutation of these objections 
can be more complete, and even demonstrative. 

To every reflecting reader, I have now two points to submit. First, 
whether the innateness of conscience, and the moral accountability of 
man, has not been set completely at rest by being demonstratti^ as we 
would demonstrate that two and two make four. Secondl}^, rvl\ ether 
the accusation that Phrenology leads to fatalism, is not njrrst unjust 
Mid even reprehensible ; for if those who bring it, do not kno^ enough 
about it to know better^they know nothing about it, and should say 
nothing ; but if they do Know better, they are actually culpi ble. So 
mat whoever brings it, is censurable^ and should be esteemeij ] e ^ss 
therefore. Nor will it be long before this will be the case. 



Having established the moral accountability of man, and the exis- 
tence of FIRST princifles of right and wrong, two questions naturally 
present themselves to the reflecting mind. Since the quality of right 
and wrong necessarily appertain to our opinions, conduct, expressions, 
feelings, &c. 

First : What things are right, and what wrong, that we may choose 
the former, but refuse the latter. 

Secondly : Why is that right which is right, and wherefore is that 
wrong which is wrong? In what does this quality consist 1 In what 
fundamental principles is it based ? What are the coTistitutional ele- 
ments of right and wrong ; of sin and holiness ; of virtue and vice? 

Though the first question naturally comes first, yet its answer de- 
pends upon that given to the latter question. Hence, the last shall be 
discussed first. 

In July, 1843, the author listened to an able discourse, preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Culver, of the Tremont Temple, Bofton, from the text; 

BOO IBB lurmiB of aioht and wrong. 146 

^ Thou flhalt love the Lord thy Qod with all thy heart, aad with all 
thy fool, and with all thy mind,*" in which he urged that the con- 
HAND OF Gk>D constituted the ground-work of right, and his prohibi- 
tion, that of wrong ; — that the Jews were commanded on certain occa- 
sions, to sacnfice a tohiU heifer, not because a white heifer i¥as 
better than one of any other color, not because there was any fitness 
in a white heifer moie than in others ; but simply, solely because GkxD 
ooMMANDfiD ft whlto hoifor to be sacrificed j-'-that baptism by imnur' 
sion was right— not because there was any inherent virtue, either in it 
itself or in it more than in sprinkling ; but simply, wholly, because 
Christ commanded it — that we should love God supremely, and our 
neighbors as ourselves, for no other reason whatever than because 
Qod eommajuUd it ; — that a '' Tkus saith the Lord^" was what consti- 
ifUed that right, which was right, — that wrong, which it prohibited, and 
not the nature of the thing commanded. And my impression is, that 
this is the doctrine maintained by the great majority of ministers and 

But, from this doctrine Phrenology dissents in toto. It shows that 
the rightness of right, and the wrong of wrong, are constitutumalj 
being based in the very nature and fitness of things, without any 
reference to either command or prohibition of God on the one hand, 
or to the want of them on the other. Suppose it possible for God to 
command that which was wrong in itself; — suppose it wrong in the 
yery nature of things for a man to seize a virgin by force, carry her 
off by main strength, and compel her to live with him in opposition 
to her wishes, such a course being repugnant to her, besides sundering 
those social ties that bound parents to her and her to the home of her 
youth, would that command render it right — render any thing right 
that is wrong in itself- — necessarily constitutionally wrong ? I trow 
not Phrenology shows, as fully, conclusively as it shows any thing 
— and we have seen that this is perfectly demonstrative^ and from 
precisely the same data, that the right is right, and the wrong is wrong ; 
not at all because commanded or forbidden by God, but solely, toholly^ 
because so by constitulionj — by nature, in and of itself and without 
any reference whatever to the commands or prohibitions of God. If 
things are rendered right or wrong by the word of God merely, then 
are there many things which are right constitutionally, but wrong 
in fact ; and others ^v^ong by nature, but right by command ; while 
the great majority of our every day feelings and doings are destitute 
frf all moral character, because neither commanded or forbidden, at 

* Matt xxii, 39. 


least explicitly. How can a fiat of the Bible render any thing r:ght 
or wrong, good or bad, not right or wrong, good or bad, in and of 
itself? Is it possible for a command of the Bible to alter, add to, ab- 
rogate, one iota of the original constitutionality of right aud wrong? 
This would be to array the Bible against nature — against even the 
fundamentals of that nature. It would make the Bible say, " Obser- 
ring this ordinance, is right, is a moral duty obligatory upon every 
member of the human family, from the moment of its institution ; its 
neglect wrong, sinful, punishable ;*' while the voice of nature responds : 
** No such thing. There is no right or wrong about it either way." 
I caution believers in the Bible not to array it against nature, for the 
latter will not yield one hair's breadth to the former, and what is more, 
what is most, nothing will equally lower the estimation of the Bible 
in intelligent minds, or more effectually advance infidelity. 

It requires considerable patience even to argue a point so pal- 
pably fallacious in itself, and so directly in the teeth of the nature 
of man. The fiict of the existence of the faculty of conscientiousness 
as an innate, primary element of the human mind, proves both the 
existence of right arid wrong, and also their constitutumality — that 
they are so of necessity and in their own inherent nature, not by the 
requirements of the Scriptures. Though the Deity commands us to 
do what is right, and forbids us to do what is wrong ; yet, things ani 
right and wrong in and of themselves and prior to all command^ 
independently of all prohibition. Phrenology demonstrates this point 
in and loith its demonstration of the existence of conscience. The 
two necessarily go together. They can never be separated without 
doing violence. 

To argue the point, that things are oflen rendered right or wrong 
by legislation, by law, &c., such as that hanging is right when it is 
legal, and because of its legality, — ^because we are commanded to 
obey our rulers, &c., is folly ; for he whose conscience is so weak as 
to imbibe such a doctrine has not sufficient conscience to yield assent 
to the right when he knows it. And yet, there are those, and those 
too who have considerable influence, weak enough, intellectually as 
well as morally, to advocate a doctrine that strips right of all its high 
and holy sanctions, and makes it a mere thing — ^a mere play-thing, 
even — ^with which mortals may tamper and even sport — a perfect 
weather-vane, shifting continually with every shifl of legislation, how- 
ever corrupt. 

But, to the point : Why is the right, right ? Wherefore is the wrong, 
wrong? I answer: They are rendered so by their conseg\ience» — by 


their effects on the happiness and the misery of ourselves and others 
This is rendered evident, hy that fundamental principle on which 
^every department of the nature of man proceeds. That principle is 
Jkappiness. I will not here illustrate this doctrine in detail The 
leader will find it run out in part in the few first pages of '' Education 
and Self-Improvement." It is there shown, that the fiudamental basis 
of the nature of man — the only end, object, function, and entire con- 
stitution of every organ of the body, every faculty of the mind, every 
element of our nature, is happinesSy. all happiness, and nothing but 
happiness. As this is an important point, the reader must pardon an- 
other quotation from "Education and Self-Improvement," p. 13, in 
which this fundamental principle is, perhaps, expressed better than it 
•could be if re-written. 

" That Happiness is the sole object of Man^s creation, is rendered 
evident by its being the only legitimate product of every organ of his 
body, of every faculty of his mind, of every element of his nature. 
What but happiness is the end sought and obtained in the creation of 
every bone,'bf every joint, of every muscle? — happiness in their exer- 
cise, happiness in locomotion, labor, &c., and happiness in the results 
obtained by this motion. What but pleasure is the legitimate func- 
tion of the eye ? — the most exquisite pleasure in the exercise of sight 
itself, and an inexhaustible fund of happiness in the ends attained by 
seeing — in its enabling us to find our way, and in pouring into the 
mind a vast fund of information, and also nirnishing an inexhaustible 
range of materials for thought and mental action. What but enjoy- 
TtiOiVt* is the end sought and secured by the creation of lungs ? — enjoy- 
ment in breathing freely the fresh air of heaven, and enjoyment m 
the expenditure of that vitality furnished thereby ; few realizing the 
amount of pleasure car*»ble of being taken in quaffing luxuriantly 
and abundantly the health-inspiring breeze ! What other object than 
pleasure dictated the creation of the stomach? — pleasure in tne act of 
digestion, and pleasure in the expenditure of those vital energies pro- 
duced thereby. And what is the object sought and obtained in the 
creation of the brain and nervous system — what but happiness is the 
only legitimate product of their primitive function ?—nappiness in 
their exercise itself, and inexhaustible happiness in that boundless 
rans^e of mental and moral ends secured by their creation. 

Narrowing down our observations to tne mental faculties, we find 
the same sole end sought and obtained by the creation of each one 
separately, and all collectively. Benevolence was created both to pour 
the oil of consolation into the wounded heart, to avoid occasions ot 
pain, and to beautify and bless mankind ; and also to pour still greater 
blessings into the soul of the giver ; for, it is even " more blessed to 
give than to receive." Parental love, while it renders the parent hap- 
py in providing for darling infancy and lovely chiilhood, also renders 
(he child most happy in receiving the blessings showered down upon 


k by this happifying faculty. The legitimate function of ideality is 
pleasure ; both in contemplating the beautiful and the exquisite in na 
ture and in art, and also m refining and purifying all the grosser ele- 
ments of our nature, and softening and gracing all our conduct. Ac- 
Quisitiveness was created to afford pleasure, both in the mere acquisi. 
tion of property, edibles, and the comforts sind conveniences of life ; 
and also to furnish all the other faculties with the means of gratifica- 
tion : appetite, with food ; benevolence, with the means of bestowing 
charity; cautiousness, with instruments of defence j the social feel- 
ings, with comforts for the family ; inhabitiveness, with a home ; con- 
structiveness, with tools, fiirming utensils, &c. ; intellect, with books, 
philosophical apparatus, and the means of prosecuting the study of 
nature and her laws, &c. Appetite, while it gives us gustatory plea- 
sure in partaking of food, also furnishes the stomach with the mate- 
rials required for manu&cturing that nourishment and strength with- 
out which every enjoyment would be cut off, and life itself soon cease. 
Causality was created, not only to produce the richest harvest of plea- 
sure in studying the laws and operations of nature, but also, that we 
might adapt ways and means to ends, and secure our own highest 
good, by applying the laws of causation to the production of whatever 
results we might desire. The legitimate function of limguage is to- 
furnish a world of pleasure, merely in the act of talking, and then to 
add to it that inexnaostible fountain of happiness which fiows from 
imparting and receiving knowledge, ideas, motives for action, &c.y 
and in reading, in hearing lectures, sermons, &c., &c. Memory en- 
ables us to recollect what gave us pleasure, and what pain, that we 
might repeat the former and avoid the latter ; that we might remember 
£ices, places, numbers, &c., and recall our knowledge at pleasure, so 
as to apply it to beneficial purposes. Veneration naturally gives us 
pleasure, both in worshipping God, and in those holy, purifying 
mfiuences which prayer sheds abroad in the soul. The same p'-mci- 
pie applies to Friendship, to Connubial Love, to Ambition, to Perse- 
verance, to Sense of Justice, to Hope, to Imimtion, and to every other 
element of the human mind. I repeat : The legitimate function 
every physical organ, of every mental faculty, of every element of 
of man, is happiness, all happiness, purcj unalloyed^ unmitigated 
happiness, and nothing else. Man was made solely to he ha/ppy^ to 
be PERFECTLY happv, and for that alone. — ^Nor does the needle point 
to its pole more uniformly and certainly, than does every part of man 
point to this one result. No truth can be more plain, more universal, 
more self-evident.'* 

I call upon all who^doubt this great truth, to specify a single organ, 
£eiculty, function, any thing, of the nature of man, of which this is not 
the palpable, self-evident fact. No truth is more apparent. It runs 
throughout all nature. It is the substratum of every thmg belonging 
to the nature of man. 


Right, of comae, then, harmonizes wkh this great arrangement of 
■atnre, is founded in it, is designed to carry it out. Wrong conflictf 
therewith, and Tiolates it And whatever does conflict therewith, (that 
is,' whalever oocasions pain,) is wrong, aiid wrong because of this con- 
flict — because it causes pain. So, also, whatever harmonizes with it, 
(that is, whatever causes happiness,) is right, and right because it pro- 
duces pleasure— because it fulfils not merely a law, but the law—i-ALL 
THE LAWS IN CHE— of the primitive nature and constitution of man. 

How this principle can be controverted, I see not. So constituted 
is the human mind as to see^ and fetl, that the normal action of every 
department of its nature is pleasure, and pleasure only ; and that all 
pain proceeds from — ^is caused by — a violation of that nature. It is 
also so constituted as to see that right consists in obeying the laws of 
oar being, and wrong in their violation, as well as that their observ- 
ance is right — their infraction wrong. Put these two points together, 
and the result is clear, satisfactory, that the fundamental basis of right, 
— its rationale, the reason why right is right, is — the happiness that 
flows therefrom — the furtherance of the end of our being occasioned 
thereby ; it amounting to the same thing as an augmentation, or in- 
crease, of ourselves, namely, happiness. And, per contra, the reason 
why wrong is wrong, is, that it violates^ or counteracts, that nature-— 
naars the work of Qod, by inducing suffering. 

One phase more of this argument : That whatever is right, is pro- 
aiotive of happiness, no one will for a moment deny, and, vice versOy 
that whatever is promotive of happiness, is right, as well as that the 
opposite is true as to wrong. Otherwise, the nature of man is at war 
with happiness ; and nature, with nature. And what is more, happi- 
ness and right, on the one hand, and suffering and sinfulness on the 
other, stand related to each other in the light of cause and effect. That 
either obedience to law, that is, virtue, causes happiness, or else that 
viitae is caused by, or else consists in, obedience to law, and, per con- 
tra, that the violation of law, (that is, sinfulness,) causes pain, or else 
that sinfulness is caused by suflering, is self-evident, from the fact, that 
the one is the cause, and the other the effect The first impression is, 
tluit obedience to law is the cause, and happiness the effect. But tohy 
is obedience the cause? To secure the effect, (happiness,) of course. 
Hence, it is self-evident, that it is this effect, (namely, happiness,) that 
governs. Right would not be right if it did not secure this effect 
Hence, as happiness governs virtue, it of coujse is the caiise of virtue. 
The jcontraxy is true of pain and sinfulness. In sinning, or disobey- 
iQf( kWf we sufier in order to make us ooey. To avoid suflering, is 

150 Mlh HA8 A NATURAL APnYOMI 708. PLSASUB& 305 

die governing motiyei and not merely or mainly to avoid dtoing wrong, 
per se. Wrong in itself, and aside from the suffering it causes, is a 
SMitter of little account It is to escape suffering that constitutes thtf 
goyeming motive, so that it is this suffering which governs, and, 
therefore, becomes the cause and the essence of the sinfulness of sin. 

Finally, and mainly : Man has a natural aptitude for pleasure, and 
a natural shrinking from pain. This arrangement of his nature, is 
the whole of him — all there is in him,, and of hkn, and about him. 
This is the git and quintessence of his entire constitution, and of every 
adaptation, and organ, and function, of which he is composed. This 
is the neucleus. Every thing else in him, and of him, is attached to 
-— >is gathered on this. Along with (hat of all his other elements, it 
forms the centre of right and wrong. Right and wrong, like every 
thing else, are dovetailed into — -framed upon — this standard, this foun- 
dation timber, of the man. Hence, right becomes right when, and 
because, it squares and plums with this standard : and wrong becomes 
wrong solely in consequence of its deviating therefrom. In short, 
the pith and summary of the whole argument, is simply this : Happi- 
ness, along with suffering as its natural antagonist, forms the govem- 
u^ principle or element of the nature of man. This governing prin- 
ciple of his nature, of course governs reason, friendship, appetite, praise, 
censure, kindness, connubial and parental love, truth, refinement, vul- 
garity, hope, fear, virtue, sinfulness), rigl^ wrong, sin, holiness, good- 
ness, badness — the whole of man, and, by consequence, becomes th» 
cause, and the rationale^ of them all, right and wrong, goodness and 
badness, of course included. 

To take a few examples : — ^It fis right that we exercise benevolence. 
But, why right? Simply, because that, by so doing, we further the 
end of our creation — enjoyment — both our own, and that of the leUo w- 
betng whom we help. Nor is there any other reason why it is right 
to exercise it. There is but one other possible reascMi why it is right ; 
and that is, the command or will of God, to which we shall come pre- 
sently. The opposite holds true of causing pain. To cause suffering 
for the sake rf causing it, is wrong. This, all admit. But, why wrong ? 
Because it retards the end of creation by producing its opposite. Not 
is there any other reason why it is wrong to infhet pain as such. 

It is right to eat It is our bounden duty. It is wrong to starve. 
But, why f Solely because not eating causes pain to ourselves and 
o^ers, which does violence to this fundamental law of our nature-4h6 
law of happiness. Our eating doef not effect the Deity. We eantK6t 
oieiid ffi * by not bating. Nor by esftiiig too mudi. H« is miinttely 


above all influences which it is possible for mortals to exert To mxp' 
pose it possible for our sinfulness to afiect the Almightt, is to degrade 
him by putting him upon a par with man ! I am lotih to argue a 
point so self-evident i can hardly believe that any intelligent mind 
really entertains such an idea, except by tradition, or from supersti- 
tion. Certainly not from intdlect Its absurdity could be easily d» 
monstrated, but to state it is refutation sufficient It is at war with 
every principle of common sense— -at war with the Bible, which aaith : 
— ^'' Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profit- 
able unto himself? Is it any pleasure to the Ahnighty, that thou art 
righteous 7 Or, is it gain to him, that thou makest thy ways perfect V 
— Job xxii. 2, 3. '^If thou sinnest, what doest thou against him? or, 
if thy transgressions be multiplied, what doest thou unto him? If 
thou be righteous, what givest thou to him? or, what receiveth he of 
thine hand ? Thy wickness may hurt a man as thou art ; and thy 
righteousness may profit the son of man.'' — Job xxxv. 6, 7, 8. ^ What 
is man, that thou art mindful of him,'' 6lc &c 

If by sinning against God be meant simply a breach of his laws, 
— the laws of nature, then may man be truly said to sin against G(od, 
but not in the sense of ofiending him lUeralljf. Man can indeed 
break the law of God ; because all the laws of our being may be 
considered as laws of God ; and man being capable of obeying and 
breaking these laws, he is, of course, capable of obejfing or of dis- 
obeying God. In this sense, but in no other, does the conduct of 
mortals stand related to their God. 

But, to proceed with our illustrations : It is right to worship Gh>d 
in spirit and in truth, not at all because our righteousness affects tha 
Almighty, or our impiety injures him, but simply because in so doing 
we secure to our own souls the beneficial effects of our prayer. 
Prayer softens down the propensities, subdues the soul, elevates the 
higher faculties, and makes us happy. Therefore it is right, but not 
because it in the least affects the Deity. It is wrong to take the nama 
of God in vain, not because pro&nity injures the Almiffhty, but be- 
cause it renders the swearer unhappy, by debasing his feelings, 

cuhivating the propensities, searing the moral sentiments, and thus 
rendering him and those aflected thereby miserable. It is right to 
keep our word ; because a liar is not to be believed though he speak 
the truth, and therefore loses all the advantages of confidence ; but 
he who keeps his word inviolate, his character spotless, his credit 
good, reaps all the benefits of thus fulfilling this law of his being, 
(and they are many and great,) besides rendering his fellow-menr 

1S8 iLLxmEATiora or trb princivlbb op eight avd waoko. 30f 

happy in so doing ; whereas he who does not regard his promises 
occasions pain to his fellow-men. It is the pain consequent on disho- 
nesty, a hreach of truth, promises, &c., which constitutes them wrongs. 
And the more pain they occasion, the more wicked they are. So 
murder is a most htinous crime, hecause it occasions so much misery 
•o much to the one deprived of life and all its blessings, to his fiumly 
or friends, to community, besides it so effectually hardens the heart 
of its wicked perpetrator. So of stealing. So of every crime that 
can be named. 

We might thus take up one after another, any and all of the laws 
of our being, physical or moral, and show that the heinousness of 
their violation consists in the pain consequent on such enfraction ; 
that the virtne of their obedience consists in the happiness caused 
thereby. But this is unnecessary ; for if this is the case of one, it is 
so of all. To the principle alone reference is had ; and if that prin- 
ciple applies to the above illustrations, it applies to all illustrations — 
to all possible shades and phases of both sin and holiness. 

If to this it be objected, that it is motive alone which constitutes the 
virtue or the sinfulness of acts, I answer : This has nothing whatever 
to do with the nature of right and wrong. We are now discussing 
the constituent elements of right and wrong. Motive may make an 
action which is right in itself, wrong in the doer, or one wrong in 
itself, right in the doer. Thus, in attempting to deceive or wrong my 
neighbor, I might do him an actual favor. My wrong intention might 
make it wrong in me, and yet the act done did not eventuate in wrong 
to him, but the reverse. Or, if in attempting to shoot a furious bull 
which was tearing my friend in pieces, I should shoot my friend, I 
should do wrong, while I meant right. This killing my neighbor is 
wrong in itself, but not wrong to me, because done by accident Still, 
this is foreign from the real point under discussion ; namely, the eoip- 
ttituent elements of right and wrong, in and of themselves. The 
question of motive will be discussed hereafter. 

This principle, that the nature of right and wrong is founded m 
the pleasure or pain consequent thereon, does not tally with the prin- 
ciple of deism, which maintains that there is no such thing as right 
and wrong in the abstract ; for it demonstrates that there w a right, 
a wrong, in itself— in the abstract — ^in its oion nature, and in the 
nature of things. This difference is fundamental — as toto ccdo aa 
the admission of the principle of a conscience is from its total denial-— 
as the admission of the existence of right and wrong per ae is different 
firom its denial This doctrine enforces the moral accountrbility of 

806 TSERB IS oomriTmnoHALLT A Rioar jjxd a wboko, 

man. That denies it In short ; light does not difier fron darkness, 
or heat from cold, more than this deistical doctrine of no right, no 
wrong, does from the phrenological doctrine of the existence of both, 
per St. Touching the morality^ the oceountiMlUf^ and the punisk- 
ability of men, it makes all the difference of a poeitire and a negative. 

To Christianity, this principle, that conscience is innate, as well as 
the one that right is right in its very nature and eanstitutiar^ is very 
unportant Not only does it harmonize with a similar doctrine taught 
in the Bible, " Deal justly,^* " Owe no man any thing," " Whatsoever 
ye would that others should do unto you, do ye even so unto them/* 
^' Lie not, but obey the truth,'' " Righteousness exalteth a nation," 
Ac, &c., in texts without number ; but what is still more, it greatly 
enhances the moral virtue of doing right, as well as the heinonsness 
of doin^ wrong. It gives to the right a distinctive character, a spe- 
cific nature of its own, thereby impartmg to it a moral beauty, poweTj 
and grandeur which, if it did not possess, it would be tame and pow^ 
erless, as well as destitute of all inherent, specific character, while it 
reveals in bold relief the naked deformity and inherent moral turpi- 
tude and heinousness of sin. This principle renders right and wrong 
positive in their characters. In maintaining the doctrines of Christ- 
ianity, this inherentness of right and wrong, of virtue and sin, is all* 
important, and even fundamental It is, indeed, a corner stone of the 
whole superstructure of Christianity. Overthrow this original 
constitutionality of right and wrong, and you take away the comer 
stone of Christianity, and overthrow its whole superstructure ; but 
establish it, and at one fell swoop, infidelity is overthrown. On this 
radical point the victory turns, and Phrenology gives it to Christ- 
ianity. Christian 1 dost thou fully appreciate this scientific confirma- 
tion of thy foundation stone t And ye religionists who oppose 
Phrenology, " know not what ye do," and are crucifying your best 
friend. Let me warn Christianity that she is fast losing intellectual 
ground, and that nothing but a scientific proof of her fundamental 
doctrines will arrest this onward march and these rapid strides of 
infidelity and scepticism. But Phrenology, if promulgated, tnU stop 
it Its proof of this, fundamental doctrine, infidelity cannot reach, 
nor scepticism resist They are ad hominem — they go home to the 
understanding, and innate consciousness of one and ail. Christianity t 
wik thou embrace this thy twin sister and handmaid, or wilt thou, 
unvrise, ungrateful, bigoted, turn her coldly or contemptuously away f 

There is, then, eonstitutionalljfy a right, a wrong. And that right 
]• enforced, is invited, by all the happiness it is possible for man to ex< 

tM vsuwr i» Humti axd what wbomo. Cit 

pffiiiioe in doiny light; that wrong is prohibited by &!! tts vunisli 
mmt il ia poMible for mam to aufier in breaking the laws of his being. 
Mbr ia it immaterial whether we do right or wrong. Nor are the 
artiiei for doing right far removed from ua ; nor the penalties of do- 
ing wrong They are not in heaven, not in hell, exclusively, nor 
even mainly. They are in us — in the happimts^ in ike n^enng^ we 
ATS capable of experiencing. They go right home to the inmost sout. 
at every member of the human &mily. To do right, is our own 
highest posnble interest. To do wrong, is directly, neceasarify, in the 
ipery teeth of that interest 

Let us all, then, strive to be right, that we nmy be happy, Let os 
all eschew evil, that we may escape pain. Let us avoid sin for pra^ 
casely the same reaaon that we would not put our handa into the 
fiM^ namdy, because in doing wrong, we suffer its conaequent penal- 
ly^ Wonderful i — the workmanship of a Gk>D 1 — is this contrivance, 
thisr arfangement, of right and wrong. Calculated, in the hi^^iest 
poasiUe degra^ to indvoe men to do right, and to prevent their iomg 

8I0TI0N m. 


**n&re*§ bat one way to do a thing,, and tliat is the right way."— ^ . . 

Hayino thus shown that great first principles of right exist,, and are 
founded in the very nature and constitution of things ; and, also, what 
is the nature of right and wrong ; we pass, naturally, to the applicar 
tion of this i^inciple to what is right and wcong. On this subject, 
much diversity of opinion exists, and its proper decision will do mcr^ 
for mankind than the >{nowledge of any other thing whatever. In: 
deciding it, Phrenology says : ^ That is right which. haxmonizMi widx 
the primary nature and original constitution of all our Acuities, 
and whatever violates this primacy nature, of any faculty,, is therefose 
wrong." It moreover affirms, that all those actions, feelingSr ^^ 
opinions which harmonize with the primary naiture and legjUmele 
Itiinction of any or all the oigans, and violate none, is right ; but thai 
whatever violates any faculty is wrong^-that the naturalj ItgitimtU 
eieTcise of any faculty if right, and its perverted action; wix»),g^ ft 


also shows what is the natural, and what the perverted function of any 
bcultj ; and thereby furnishes us wkh an unerring test of every 
opinion, feeling, and acticm of our whole lives. For example : Yen 
wish to decide whether a given business or bargain be right or wrong. 
Ck)nscientiousness summons a moral court martial, and subpcsnas the 
other faculties as witnesses. It says : ' Well, benevolence, what say- 
est thou to this bargain, or business, or act, or practice, or whatever 
is to be judged V^ If this &culty respond : ^ I say it will distress yon- 
der innocent man, or make that widow or orphan more wretdiad, 
or will grind the face of the poor, or is oppressive and oruei, or even 
is in the way of human enjoyment f conscientiousness then saye, ^ It 
is wrong. Do not this wicked thing." ^ And, causdity, what sayest 
iAou ?" '' I say its effect will be un&vorable," or, ^ such and such «n 
effect will be unfavorable," or, ^' such and such a law will be violated 
thereby." Conscientiousness again puts its ban upon it ''And, 
ideality, what sayest thou?'' '' I say it is coarse, vulgar, disgoitingy 
repulsive, and offensive to taste, as well as degrading and debasing:'' 
-' No," responds conscientiousness, ^ this thing is wicked, and mmt 
not be dona" If venemtion sees that the thing proposed will confliet 
with the worship of the true God ; or friendship complains that its 
legitimate exercise will be circumscribed or wounded, at parental Uvpe 
mourns over its injury to ofispring and the young, or self-interest 
c(»nplains that it will eonfUct with enlightened selfishness, by ink- 
ing the health or circumscribing legitimate enjoyments ; or time sayti 
''I have more important matters on hand ;'' or the organ of mua- 
cukr motion says, ''It will not allow me sufficient exercise;^ «r 
vitativeness says, " It will shorten my days"^if any of the orgaoi 
rise up and testify against the thing to be judged, conscientiousneM 
vetoes it, and then firmness and all the other faculties combine tO' re- 
sist it But if enlightened benevolence says, " It will do thee good, aid 
him also ;'' if friendship says, " It will deepen my roods and strength- 
en my cords ;'' if ideality be charmed with its beauty, cansality com- 
mend its efiects, time can make room for it, veneration^ be gratified, 
life prolonged, self-enjoyment secured, a'nd all the other facuUks 
sanction, none condemning, conscientiousness, as judge, says, " Nei* 
ther do I ooademn thee ^ all is right ;" and the other feeulties aid in 
its execution. This is predicated on die supposition that all the facid- 
ties act in harmony with their primaary natures and legitimate Amo- 
tions. When any act, opinion, or feeling has iius been once deddni 
npoui eventuality recollects it, and firmness abides if it 



In Still another way — by another of its principles, already explained 
^-does Phrenology tell us what is right, and what not ; as well as ex- 
plain the cause of that diversity of opinions and practice as to the 
right and wrong in opinion, feeling, and conduct. It says that the even^ 
4quabU^ or proportionate action of all the organs, is right^ and the ex- 
eessive action of any, wrong. Thus, if acquisitiveness be too large, 
and benevolenee too small. Phrenology saith : '^ Wake up, benevo- 
lence, thoa art too sluggish ; hold up, acquisitiveness, thou art too 
grasping, and dost over-reach." If cautiousness predominate, and 
combativeness be weak, it saith : ^^ Thy fear prevents thy enjoyment, 
and retards thy success : do not thus procrastinate ;'' but, if Phreno- 
logy finds cautiousness small, she saith : <' Take care, take care there, 
Mr. Reckless, thou art continually injuring thyself and others, for 
want of prudence." if she find benevolence predominant, she saith : 
^ Do not thus give away thy all, but reserve for thyself the means 
of sustaining life, and capital enough to acquire more property, with 
which to do still more good.'' If she find ideality small, she chides 
ker for allowing improprieties of feeling and expression, and for not 
enjoying those rich and ever-varying beauties with which nature 
every where shines so resplendent. If veneration be small, or mar- 
vellousness, (faith,) be feeble, she saith to the former : << Lengthen 
thy prayers, and pour out thy soul oflener in worship and praise to the 
God who made thee ;'' and to the latter she saith : " Away with thy 
•cepticism, and let thy Mth grow till from a mustard seed it becometh 
a great tree.'' And so of all the other facuhies. It saith to the feeble 
ones : ^ Quicken your actions ;" and, to the predominant one : '^ Re- 
•train your excesses." It would fain keep them all along together, 
pari passu, and combine all into one harmonious whole. 

By another of its fundamental principles, and one already given, 
does Phrenology proclaim the right, and point out the wrong ; name- 
ly, by that of the supremacy of the moral sentiments and intellect ovef 
the propensities ; or, at least, as the constitutional guides and govern-^ 
ors of the latter ; but, having already explained the principle ftilly, its 
application, in this connexion, is left for every reader to make. Let him 
who would know whether a given thing be right or wrong, stop and 
ask, whether the thing to be adjudged be in harmony \iith the dictates 
of enlightened intellect, and the normal constitution, or the primitiTe 
funtions of the moral sentiments, and the answer will soon tell hin' 
what is right, and what wrong. 

I have said that Phrenology shows why men differ in matters of 
right and duty. Men's opinions and practices as to right, duty, d&c., 



will accord with their phonological developmentt. That is, (UfTereni 
phrenological developments cause men to think and feel differently on 
these subjects. To illustrate : Suppose conscientiousness be alike in 
two persons, A. and E, and full in both, or five in a scale from 1 to 7. 
A. has large benevolence, and small acquisitiveness and veneration ; 
while B. has small benevolence, and large acquisitiveness and vene- 
ration. A.'s conscientiousness combines with his large benevolence, 
and makes him feel that he is in duty bound to do all the good he can, 
and that it is wrong to take a large price from a poor man because he 
can gei it] while his small acquisitiveness induces him to give the 
poor man more for an article than it is really worth ; yet, as his vene- 
ration is small, his conscience does not require him to go to church. 
But the large acquisitiveness and small benevolence of B. warpe his 
lesser organ of conscientiousness, and allow him to take from the 
same poor man more money for a thing than it is really worth, be- 
cause the poor man can do no better. His large acquisitiveness throws 
dust into the eyes of smaller conscientiousness and benevolence, and 
hushes up their feebler remonstrances, while he grinds the face of the 
poor, takes advantage of their distress, and extorts money from them, 
because they are in lus power, though he is wringing out their very 
heart's blood. Still, this same conscience, though it allows acquisi- 
tiveness to cheat and extort, also combines with veneration, and com- 
pels him to go to meeting the next Sabbath, to read his Bible, say his 
prayers, and go to the communion table — to " sand the rice, water 
the gin, and then come in to prayers." The conscientiousness of A. 
would torment him for extorting the money extorted by B., just as 
much as that of B. would torment him for not praying and going to 
church ; while the conscientiousness of B. would acquit him for ex- 
torting this money from the poor man, or taking the advantage of 
him in a bargain, as much as that of A. acquits him for not praying 
and attending church. The opinions of these two men as to what is 
right and wrong, are directly opposite ; each condemning what the 
other approves, and each approving what the other condemns, and both 
reading each other out of heaven, the one for the other's extortion, 
and the other for the other's impiety. Now, Phrenology condemns 
them both, and yet approves both. It saith unto A., " Thou art right 
in thy humanity, (provided thou dost not injure thyself and those de- 
pendent on thee, by giving too much,) but wrong in thy impiety, 
Give to the poor, but worship also thy God." Phrenology then turns 
to B. and saith, " Thy devotion is right, but thy extortion is wrong. 
Reduce thy acquisitiveness ; increase thy benevolence ; for it is wrong 


for thee thus to oppress and distress these poor sufferers.*' But D. 
has all these organs large and active. He makes money, but always 
makes it honeitlp^ and never distresses others. He also gives to the 
poor, but not to his own injury, or that of those dependent on him ; 
and worships his Qod, both socially and in secret. His conduct 
Phrenology fully approves, and his conscience makes him happy. 

Thus, large conscientiousness, combining with lai^ domestic or- 
gans, and weaker intellectual and moral Acuities, tells its posseesor 
that his main duty consists in taking care of his family ; and adds, 
^ He that provideth not for his family is worse than an infidel ;" but 
this organ, when it combines with small domestic organs and large be- 
nevolence, tells its possessor that his duty consists mainly in doing 
good to the heathen or to mankind in general^ though, in so doing his 
family suffer, and quotes the Scripture, '' He that giveth to the poor 
lendeth to the Lord.'' He who has large conscientiousness and ideal- 
ity thinks it his duty to keep his person neat and nice — to shave and 
change his linnen often, though he make some poor slave work 
half the time in order to keep himself clean and nice. A fitshiona- 
ble lady, (and all fashionable women are ladies, of course, however ill 
bred, for fashion " hideth" (and maketh) " a multitude of sins,") with 
more vanity than sense, but having large veneration, full conscien- 
tiousness, large ideality, very large Approbativeness, a silly mother, 
and a sofl-soap preacher, feels it to be her imperious duty to go to 
church, always provided that she can go dressed in the very top of 
the fiishion, show a wasplike waste, and wtor a half bushel bag of 
bran or a small bale of cotton ; but if she can jtot go thus fashiona- 
bly, foolishly, and wickedly attired, she does not feel it her duty to go 
at all, because her dress is not decent ; for it would be very wrong in- 
deed for her to go to church without being decently (fashionably* 
dressed, lest her dress should attract attention ; though if her extreme 
fashions should attract the gaze of all present, that would be all right , 
(how very tender some people's consciences are, though, about certam 
matters !) but the conscientiousness of another lady, who has large in- 
tellectual and moral organs, feels it to be her duty not to dress, and 
frowns upon our scrupulous fashionables. Conscientiousness with 
acquisitiveness makes one feel it to be his duty to make and hoard mo- 
ney ; but with acquisitiveness small, that it is wrong to devote all his 
energies to amassing paltry wealth ; with self-esteem large, that it is 
his first duty to take care of self— but with this organ small and be- 
nevolence large, that it is his duty to serve others first, to the neglect 
•ad even injury of self And the greater the number of faculties 


brought into simtiltaneous or combined action, the greater the iiTem- 
ty of ojnnion a^>d conduct as to what is right and wrong. 

The reader wul thus perceive that the same prmciple which wat 
pointed out in regk^rd to veneration, showing that the organs give us 
our views of the char^Jter of Qod, while veneration falls down and wor- 
ships, applies also to covJKrientiousness ; the other Acuities biasing our 
moral opinion and condt»et, and then conscientiousness impelling us 
to do what these other organs tell us is right. And as this principle, 
when applied to veneration^ teu9 us the true character and attributes 
of God, when (Ul are equally dt>^eloped and not perverted ; so when 
it is applied to conscientiousness, it sMs us what is right and wrong 
in itself; for he who has all the Ok^ns equally developed and un- 
perverted, will take correct views of n^ht, and do accordingly — will 
think it right to take care of his family, t% make money, to defend the 
truth, and the poor, to be guarded and cai Jul to dress respectably, to 
worship his God, to observe and admire the beautiful ; to do good at 
home and abroad, to take care of self, but nol )o be too selfish, and so 
of all other faculties. He, therefore, whose organs are most uniform 
and not perverted by education, will form the uiost correct opinions as 
to right, and live the best life ; but he whose heai is uneven, some of his 
organs large and others small, will be lame, and warped, and bruised, 
and zig-zag in bis moral conduct and opinions. Hence, also, by ex- 
amining his own head, every individual can see wherein his own 
standard of right and wrong in conduct and belief, departs from this 
the only true standard ; and wherein it accords with it ; so that, by 
putting his intellect over against his excesses and defects, he can see 
and remedy defects. This moral formula is the test and touch-stone, 
by which to try every opinion, and judge every act of his whole life. 
If any organ be deficient, Phrenology will analyze that organ, and 
tell how much more of that ingredient he requires in his composition, 
and also help him to supply it in theory if not in fact, and also tell him 
what organs are loo large, and therefore what kind of feelings and ac- 
tions to suppress in order to be virtuous and happy. This single prin- 
ciple, this moral formula, is worth more than all the works on ethics 
and speculative theology ever written. It shows every man what 
colored glasses he has on, and what ingredients are requisite to restore 
to them the color of truth and the practice of right. Guided by this 
principle, men will no longer regard themselves as infallible, any 
more than when they know that they have on green glasses, or pink 
glasses, or dark glasses, will they contend that every thing at which 
they look is green, or pink, or dark, just because it looJa so to theuk ; 


bat they will say, " I know that mf glasses are green, and you know 
that your glasses are pink, and you know that yours are dark, so that 
the same objects look green to me, but pink to you and dark to you. 
Though it really seems to me tiat these objects are green, to you, that 
they are all pink, and to you that they are all dark, still we can none 
of us tell what the real color is, till we get off our colored glasses — 
till our organs are equally active^ or else till intellect can make all 
necessary allowances. Then all objects will appear alike. Till then, 
we will not each read the others out of heaven, just because we wear 
different colored glasses. No, we will be charitable — ^will each re- 
collect our own liabilities to error, and not condemn those who differ 
from U8. Will not this principle, if applied, heal over and effectually 
cure those sectarian isms — those '' wounds, and bruises, and putrify- 
mg sores,'' which now cover poor, sickly, feeble Christianity << from 
the crown of the head to the sole of her foot ?" Each will not then 
say to lus neighbor, *' know ye the Lord" as I know him, or Til not 
have you in my heaven, '' but aU shall know him" right and alike. 

** Fly swifter roimd, ye wheels of time. 
And Ving this welcome day." 
Shme brighter yet thoa star of Gall : 
Teach us thy better way. 

This principle also shows how it is, that some men can be very 
wicked, and yet very religious, and even pious. A few anecdotes, by 
way of illustration : A certain deacon, that lived less than fifty miles 
above Troy, N. Y., the leader of his society, earnest, gifted, sincere 
in prayer, eloquent in exhortation, the right-hand man of the minister, 
and forward and zealous in all matters appertaining to religion, but 
somewhat slippery in money matters ; set up a store, and, in buying 
his goods in Troy, gave his minister, Mr. L., who was well known in 
that city, as his reference. Shortly aiterwards this minister being 
down to Troy, was beset by the pious deacon's creditors, to know 
what for a man he was, and whether he could be safely trusted, &c 
The reverend gentleman hesitated and evaded, but, finally, answered: 
" To tell you the truth — God-ward, he is honest ; but, towards man| 
rather twistical." 

Mr. S., being hired by a neighbor to help move a family to the west, 
stole several things, axes and other things, as he could lay hands on 
them along the road ; and some things from his employer ; and yet, 
all the way along, he talked religion to those he met, both in the baf' 
rooms, and stopping them by the way-side. 


Other similar cases haye been reported in the JounaL [See thai 
of the girl who would steal, and also that of Mr. N., of U., who pray« 
ed so fervently sabbath days, and was conyerted by every reiival that 
came along, and yet sought and took every opportunity to cheat his 
neighbors — ^both of which are given in Vol. IV.] Henry A. Wise 
is both a zealous Christian, and yet a great duellist Cases analogous 
to these occur in every community, and m nearly every church. 
Nor are these pious sinners hypocrites. They are sincere in both 
their sinfulness and their religion. And the reason why some men 
are both great sinners, and yet great religionists, is two fold: first, 
some of their animal propensities are powerfully developed, along 
with some strong religious organs, which act by turns, and thus ren- 
der them very zealous in religion at one time, and yet very immoral at 
other times. 

Much has been said of late in denunciation of those ministers who 
have been guilty of immoral conduct, as if they had all along been 
guilty of the most consummate hypocricy from the commencement of 
their career until the disclosure of their crimes. This is by no means 
necessarily the case. They may have been truly religious, sincerely 
godly, at the very time in which they were indulging unbridled lust ; 
for it is possible, it is not uncommon, for the propensities to act at th 9 
same time that the moral faculties are in exercise, and even in combi- 
nation therewith, thereby producing animal religion. Secondly 
their organs may differ, are likely to dilSer, from your own—- causing 
them to regard that as allowable which your organs condemn. Be 
charitable, therefore. Put the best construction possible on the fauMs, 
foibles, errors, selfishness, sinfulness of yoM * Mallow-men. But, more 
at this hereafter. 

SBCTinN n. 

DEPRAVITY. — rrs oRiom — ^rrs extent — rrs coNDmoNs — ^rrs causes — 


Havinq proved the existence of sin, as well as shown its rationale, 
we pass naturally to consider its origin ; its extent, whether total or 
partial ; its conditions ; its causes ; and how to obviate them, and thus 
diminish it— questions on which the religious world have been divide 
ed, and yet questions which the happiness of man requires to be 

Id2 DEi&AViTT. — ^rrs oRiour. S|7 

settled. What, then, saith the nature of man, touching these points? 

First, its totclitjf ; or what is called iotaX depravity ; criginal sin^ 
&e. I will not attempt to state, refute, or establish any of the num- 
berless views of this doctrine entertained by the different religiov 
sects : but shall proceed to show the phrenological doctrine touchiiy 
this point. L knows nothmg about any other original sin than tha 
contained in the doctrines of hereditary descent, presented in the last and 
present volumes of the Phrenological Journal. That the iniquities of 
parents — the violations of both the natural and the moral laws — are 
transmuted froc "brents to children, it fully establishes. If a parent, 
or a succession o^ parents, violate the laws of physiology so as to 
induce a consumptive tendency, the children are bom with that dis- 
ease actually fttstuned upon them. So of cancerous, apoplectic, bilious, 
nervous, and cth^i affections, and indeed, of all physical diseases, and 
of all predispositions. A similar principle applies to the transmis- 
sion of moral maladies, be it insanity, or inordinate love of money, o)* 
love of liquor, or revenge, or irritability, or lust, or deception, and 
with all forms and degrrees of sinful predispositions. And so also oi 
length of life, health, strength, buoyancy of spirits, and also kindness, 
amiableness, integrity, devotion, talents of all kinds. So, indeed, a 
of all the qualities and tendencies of our nature. The conditions 
goodness, badness, sinfulness, virtue, of the parents, and indeed of th«> 
ancestors for generations back, effect the nature, goodness, badness 
of the children, to give them originally a good or a bad tone or direc 
tion.* Like parents, like children, is its motto, as it certainly is the 
motto of truth. But, about any other kind or degree of original sin, 
or total, inpate depravity, it knows nothing. It says, that the sin of 
the first parents of our race, is capable of tainting all their posterity 
— " the sins of the parents are visited upon their children unto the 
third and fourth generations of the disobedient," (when the race runs 
out,) but, otherwise, unto thousands of the disobedient. Aside from 
this original sin, It knows no other. f Still, it does not positively say 
there is no other. But if there be, it is a revelation of the Bible, not 
of Phrenology. 

* For a fall exposition of the doctrine of the hereditary iuflnences, the reader 
IB referred to the Author's work entitled, " Hereditary Descent." its laws and 

t In Gonversing recently with a Dutch Reformed, thoogh formerly Congrega- 
tional, clergyman, on hereditary descent, he stated it an his fall belief that origi 

nal sin, or innate depravity, consisted in this doctrine of hereditary descent, and 
W8» explained by it. No one who knows him, wUl for a moment doubt his 

M to||^'* Qr^hodoxy as to Cabriniim. I alio heaid it from a itaimch ortliodos 



Anodier piiuciple of Phrenology deserves at least mention here^ 
though it may not bear much upon the original sin advocated by 
tirAodoxy. It is this. Every primary faculty of man, is good, and its 
normal, constitutional function, is virtuous. Man's origimJ nature is 

The depravity of man, however. Phrenology certainly recognizeSj 
in the fact that the natural exercise and function of all his faculties are 
more or less perverted and distorted in nearly or quite all mankind. 
Few, if any, live up to their original natures, or are any thing near as 
good in character as they are in their developments. The perverted 
and excessive action of the faculties in children is much less than in 
adults, and their heads are better. No one can look upon a healthy 
child born of really good parents, without seeing much to admire — 
very much that is sweet, lovely, angelic. A man's business and cir- 
cumstances tend greatly to increase his virtue or vice, as do also his 
physical habits, what he eats and drinks, temperance and intemperance, 
associates, 6lc. &.c. The artificial state of society in which we live, 
the inducements and temptations to sin which every where beset us, 
the universal scrambling afler money, and rush for places of profit and 
power, corrupting examples, wrong education, and thousands of simi- 
lar causes that are continuous and powerful in their action, greatly 
enhance this depravity, if they do not cause much of it, by distorting 
and perverting the nature and conduct of man. But, as to either the 
innate or the total depravity of man. Phrenology is clear and demon- 
strative. It says that every primary faculty of man, as originally Con- 
stituted, is good and right ^ and that the legitimate exercise of any and 
every faculty, upon its own appropriate object, and in a proper degree, 
is virtuous — that no faculty is constitutionally bad ; that all are good 
in themselves, and in their primitive action and function, and that de- 
pravity forms no constituent or neeessarily accompanying part of the 
nature of man, but is a perversion and violation of that nature. Far- 
ther than the hereditary descent of qualities from parents to their de- 
scendants, already alluded to. Phrenology knows nothing of man's 
depravity, cither total or innate. If this fully established doctrine of 
Phrenology is found to embrace or explain the doctrines of " original 

pnlpjt, and an Andover edncated clergyman in June 1844, and alflo in a recent 
oenversationy found it to coincide with the views of another leading Congregtp 
tional clergyman in New England. Yet, whether this sentiment be orthodoiy- 
or noty 18 left for others to say. I give it merely as hU opinion, and leave il lo^ 
odiers for consideration. 

lOi CAU8B or DEnuvnr. ftM 

an" or ^ total depravity/' by showing that children inherit from their 
parents particular predispositions, propensities, tastes, aptitudes, pe^ 
iions, tandencies, and mental and physical qualities, then PhrenoIog3r 
may possibly be said to recognize these doctrines. 

At all events, children do inherit depraved propensities from thnr 
parents, and also virtuous predispositions. Still, these hereditary ten- 
dencies may be counteracted. Though insanity, which consists in tha 
over or exalted action of one or more faculties, and liability to be 
wrought up to this exahcd pitch of derangement, be hereditary ; yet, 
by avoiding those causes of excitement whicL are calculated to devel- 
ope and increase this naturally excessive susceptibility, as well as by 
applying causes calculated to allay constitutional excitability, and to 
soothe and relax ; no one, however crazy his ancestors may have been, 
need become deranged. Indeed, this very susceptibility, instead of 
degenerating into insanity, if properly managed, is calculated to aug- 
ment his talents and happiness ; for derangement is only the excess oi 
that very action which, when healthy, gives talent and enjoyment 

If this be construed so as to militate against the doctrine of irmatc 
depravity and original sin, still it is clearly a doctrine of Phrenology, 
and as such I state it and leave it. Whatever other doctrines con- 
flict with it are erroneous. It is not necessary for Phrenology to con- 
tain this doctrine of original sin, only that it should not conflict with 
it ; for, as already observed, it is not founded in the original nature of 
man, and therefore is not a doctrine of either Phrenology or Natural 
Theology. Its advocates claim it to be a doctrine of Revelation, and 
regard it as one of the doctrines of salvation by Christ To this claim^ 
Phrenology willingly accedes. 

One origin, one great procuring cause of human depravity, is to be 
found in a disordered physiology. In my work on Education, p. 94, 
I have shown, fully and conclusively^ that there exist the most inti- 
mate relations between the body and the base of the brain, or the or- 
gans of the propensities — that whatever stimulates the former, natu- 
rally, necessarily excites the latter. This law is unquestionably a 
fundamental principle of the nature of man. I have also shown in 
this work, p. — , that the ascendency of the moral sentiments and in- 
tellect, is one of the leading conditions of virtue, while the action of the 
propensities without the direction and government of intellect and the 
moral sentiments, is sinful. Now put that and that together, that 
ph3rsical inflammation and disease often excite the propensities till they 
ffrtdominatCj and thus induce sinfulness, and we see that physical 
health is indispensable to moral purity ; while one prolific causf of 

m ftmosDY. 165 

Jiat widely attended deprarity of oar race is to be looked for in the 
dkt and php$ical habits of mankind — ^in the enormous quantities oi 
ardent spirits^ ale, beer, flesh, cucumbers, hot bread and butter, Ac, 
Ac, consumed. That alcoholic drinks vastly enhance the sinfulness 
and sufll^ring <^ the drinker, is a matter of fact which stares us all 
tally in the &ce. That it does so by disordering the phj^siology, is 
•df-evident In no other way is it posHble for matter to effect mind. 
Then why should not all physical disorder produce moral disorder 1 
Indeed, I regard sin as not unfreqnently the product of a disordered 
brain, while the normal function of a healthy brain, is always virtuous. 
I regard flesh as highly corrupting to the blood, as highly inflammatory, 
and thereby, as directly calculated to inflame the base of the brain ; 
thereby producing moral impurity. Man is a physical, as well as a 
moral being. He is under the dominion of physical laws, as well as 
of those that are moral. Why, then, should not the violation of the 
physical laws be as sinful as that of the moral, and vice versa of their 
obedience ? Indeed, the moral cannot possibly be obeyed unless the 
physical are first obeyed. Virtue and vice, sin and holiness, happi- 
ness and misery, depend far more on the conditions of the body-— on 
health and sickness, what, and how much we eat and drink, how 
much, and where we sleep, whether we exercise or not, d&c. d&c, than 
is generally supposed. A child is more cross and fretful, and there- 
fore more depraved, when a little unwell, than when not so. Eating 
green fruit, therefore, or doing anything else to impair its health, in- 
duces this fretfulness, and therefore augments depravity. Similar 
illustrations innumerable, apply to adults — to the whole human family. 
And the way to reform men morally, is to reform them physically. 
But the principle is probably clear, and the inference most important 

Let me not be understood, however, to ascribe all sin to physical 
diseases. Volition also enters into the composition of sin. An act 
cannot be called culpable unless it was done voluntarily. This is a 
matter of consciousness. The motive, as well as the act committed, 
goes far towards rendering the doer criminal or innocent. We can* 
not feel really guilty for any act, however wrong in itself, when our 
intentions were right. Nor can we help feeling condemned for an act 
good in itself, but committed \vith wrong intentions. When we hare 
injured others unintentionally, we may feel sorry, but we cannot feel 
condemned. Conscientiousness can act only in coi\junction with 
the power of will. 

Intellect, is also a necessary ingredient in accountability. An idiot 
cannot be morally accouc table, for, by supposition, he has no intellect 
to guide his choice. 


So derangement diminiBhet accoantability : and 8o does aB (faiNie 
phyaical disordera already spoken of, at inducing sinful actions. As 
tu as they effect us they are upon a par with derangement 

In short, the great Phrenological law is this. As the even, uniform 
action of all the facukies, constitutes virtue, and also gives us cm'r^ 
ideas of what is right, so our accountability is greater or less, acocfld* 
log as all our physical and moral Acuities are more or less perfectly 
developed. The parable of the talents is a happy iliustmtion of jtbe 
same doctrine. Our moral accountability increases as does our mond 
and intellectual capacity. In Phrenological language : the more fully 
and evenly developed our faculties, the more maieiial has conscience 
with which to operate, and therefore the more accountable the subject, 
and vice versa. This is the phrenological principle. Every reader 
can run it out in its ramified applications ibr himself. 



HAvmo already demonstrated the existence of right and wrong, only 
other names for virtue and sinfulness, it remains to discuss die rewards 
of virtue and the punishment of sin. It has all along been implied,^ it 
has been even demonstrated, that goodness is rewardable, and sin pun* 
iflhable. That is, obeying any and every law of our being, always 
induces a given kind and amount of pleasure as a reward, while vio- 
lating them inevitably brings down upon the transgressor, and upon aU 
affected thereby, a given kind and degree of pain, as a po:iaky conee 
qnent upon such violations. In the very act of such obedience and in 
all its consequences, to ourselves, to all concerned, we enjoy, whilst in 
and by the transgression, and in all its consequences, we sufiet . This 
is a certain, uniform, universal fact. The peimlty goes along with tjie 
transgression. The reward, with the obedience. Each are linbi4 
together as causes and efiects, and are therefore certain. They ase 
inseparable each from the other. It is not possible to sin without. SQ^ 
fering, or to suffer without somebody having sinned to cause it Npr 
is it possible to do right without receiving pleasuie therein our86hri% 
and also making happy as far as the act in question at all affects otheisi 
Farthermore. Different kinds and degrees of rewards and pnnWk* 
ment accompany the obedience and violation of the several iMSi^ 

And these are proportionate to the value or impoxianoa of tbol 


ohsyei or broken. As, the greater any blessing, the greater the ewae 
Irf" Its perrersion, so the obedience or violation of the seyeral lawSy ibr 
1Mb, amount in fact to the same thing. 

Not only does this doctrine of proportion exist between the impor* 
tance of the several laws and the penalty of their infraction, and vkt 
verta of their obedience^ but there is something in the very charac- 
ter of the pain or pleasure, analogous to the nature of the law broken 
or obeyed. Thus the obedience or violation of the natural laws, bring 
physical happiness or sufiering, while the violation or obedience of the 
inental or moi^l laws, brings mental or moral suffering or pleasue. 
The violation of the law of reason, induces error., and this error pun* 
ishes us in a variety of ways, according to the nature of the error im- 
bibed; and vice versa of correct reasoning. Obeying the law of 
friendship, induces pleasure in that department of our nature, and in 
all its dependencies, and vice versa of its infraction. 

fiut this whole range of thought is condensed in this — the self-acting 
of the various laws. Every obedience to law rewards itself Every 
violation of law punishes itself. In the very act of obedience consists 
the pleasure. In and hy the transgression occurs the pain. Hence, 
the analogy between the two on the one hand, and the pleasures <rf 
obedience, or the pains of its disobedience on the other. Hence, also, 
Ae universality, of the rewards and punishments. 

This doctrine of the selfacting of all the laws of our being, shows 
hoib it is that we shall be punished, both here and hereafter. It repft- 
diates the doctrine of a literal hell of fire and brimstone: we shall be 
iiS it Were, chained to ourie/ve^— chained to the chartuters we form 
hete, and to their consequences. This will constitute all the hell we 
i^ll ever experience. Heaven consists in doing rights and heU ia 
doing wrong. Both are conditions^ rather than places. They are in 
us, and form a part of us ; so that we need not wait for them hereafter* 
Not that Phrenology repudiates the doctrine of a heaven and a hell 
heteafter, but it shows what constitutes heaven, namely, ohediene$ t$ 
(he laws of our heingj and what makes a hell, namely, the violatiam 
of these laws, both here and also hereafter. 

Again : virtue and vice are self-perpetuating and self-progresshtet 
The Phrenological doctrine of the increase of organs by exercise, wai 
of their diminution by inaction, establishes this point beyond a doubt 
Ah already shown, Phrenology establishes the doctrine of a fuMre 
state of being, and that to us, as us — to us in our own appropriate per^ 
s&nality ; and as the same beings then that we are now ; for the Bigsh 
ittOUt already shown to prove a iuture sU^e of existence, when applied 

168 PUlfllHMlNTi HERE AND HEREAriEB. 833 

to our own personal existence, also proves that personal existenee— 
proves that we ourselves here^ shall be ourselves hereafter — shall be the 
iftme beings here as there, except important changes ; yet these chan- 
ges will not aflfect our identity, or our personality, or our existence as 
Htrselves, That is, we shall be the same beings there that we are 
here, except changes analogous to those that occur between in&ncy 
and old age. 

Since, then, we shall exist hereafter in our own appropriate per- 
sons, and be the same beings there as here, we must of course be wto- 
rtdfy accountable there as well as here, and also, as such, punishable. 
Otherwise, one fundamental condition of our present existence will be 
wanting, which will destroy our identity and personality. Now, add 
to this the Phrenological doctrine of progression in virtue and vice— 
the doctrine that the natural tendency of goodness is to grow better, 
and of depravity to become worse, and we have all the principal mate- 
rials of all the heaven and hell that await us hereafter. What influ- 
ences may be thrown around us to induce (not compel) us to choose 
the good and eschew the wrong. Phrenology saith not These influ- 
ences may be veiy powerful, and be calculated to make the good bet- 
ter and the bad worse, or to make all better, and of course the more 
happy; but I am aware of but one Phrenological principle that bears 
on this point That principle is, that as sin consists in the predomi* 
nance of the propensities, and as death is likely to weaken them, per- 
haps destroy many of them, and also relieve us of all those causes of 
depravity which come through a disordered physiology, the propen- > 
sities will not then predominate. Therefore we shall cease to sin ; 
cease to sufier. Still, there is too much of theory about both these 
opposing inferences to render either demonstrative. But I cannot 
resist the conviction, to which Phrenology brings us by several roads, 
that as long as we exist, that is forever^ we shall reap the rewards of 
our conduct in this life. In the chapter on hope, when showing the 
juxta position of hope and conscientiousness, I think I demonstrated 
a principle that bears on this point Still the principle being before the 
reader, he will draw his own deductions. Let it be borne in mind that 
this work purports to give, not the theology of its author, but of Phrt- 
^Mlogy ; supposing this science to be true. Individual opinions should 
have no place in the work. The author has sedulously endeavored to 
deduce every doctrine presented in these pages legitimately from some ' 
folly established principle of Phrenology. 

Let it also be distinctly remembered, however, as all along implied^ 
that Phrenology teaches natural theology only — the moral matubs 


and ooraarrnmoN of man alone — and not the doctiine or means of flat 
mbon hy Christ Though it teaches the doctrine of penitence and 
pardon, on which salvation by Christ is founded, yet it neither reveab 
a Savior, nor shows what we must do to be saved. The one specific 
object of Revelation, appears to me to be, to reveal a Savior and dis- 
close the means of salvation, not to furnish a code of morals for the 
guidance of man's conduct The fidl of Adam and salvation by Christ 
occurred after the nature of man was completed, and are extraneaui 
f that nature ; so that Phrenology, which unfolds the constitution and 
bws of man's nature, could not have any specific bearing on these 
points. The code of Phrenology was sealed before a Savior was 
needed, so that those doctrines connected with salvation, such as the 
doctrmes of the trinity, atonement, total depravity, special divine inflo- 
ences, and kindrecl doctrines, are all left to be developed by revelatioiL 
For Phrenology to claim their revelation, would be plagiarism, and 
derogatory to the Bible, to reveal which is its main design. Whether 
Phrenology developes principles relative to the atonement of ofibnces 
by a third person or not, I know not, but I believe that this also is left 
to be reveided by the Bible. 



** Then came Peter to him and laid, Lord how often ihall my brother ria agrfail 
me and I forgive him f Till seven times f Jesas saith unto him, I say nol mito 
thee, until seven times, but, until bivintt timis seven." 

In morals, the doctrine of penitence and pardon, is one of great im* 
portance — ^is even fundamental It is also undecided. Christianity 
maintains, or rather is based in the doctrine of the forgiveness of sin, 
or of atonement and salvation by Christ Infidelity scouts this doc- 
trine on the ground that it directly contravenes every law of nature, and 
argues that the violation of every law of nature induces its own penalty, 
while its observance brings with it its own reward — that this doctrine 
of penitence and forgiveness shields the guilty from deserved punish* 
ment, allowing them to violate the inexorable laws of their being, and 
yet escape their penalties— -and there is nothing in sorrow for sin at all 
etieulated to ward off its fearful penalties— that if a man take a rs ea h 

IfO neicmoics and PAKixm. SSft 

br kndaBvin) and Jia motnent afterwards is d^ly patiiteht ibSlfeot, vet 
'dMt dui penitence dote not m the least stay the effects of the 2teadly 
poison-— that e?en when we sin ignorantly, the (MicX IS this hhtAe astd 
die penalty sure ; and that therefore this doctrine 6f fbrgiv^^ of sm 
is utterly nnphiiosophical, and right in the very Ueth 6f Ul that we 
know to be true in nature touching this p6{nt 

And now, Chrisdan, where is thy answer 9 A « thiis Saidi die TMd?* 
will not do, for the infidel does not admit the trudi of ireyelation, hiit 
requires an answer drawn fVom niUUY9, tsA founds in die constita- 
tion of man, or in some fully established moral principle. It may 
safely be said that nature no where famishes any evidence of this lead, 
ing Christian doctrine j but So far from it, !s dirtily opposed to ft, 1^ 
eatae her natuml and physiological, as well ^ moral kws, are inez6- 
■^Is^ and the punishment attached to their tioladon ctftdxn. Hie 
Ohrisdan is nonpIuStf^ Nodiing In hattlrd affords him any aid, ibut 
«rf«»ythrog is against Um. JPhf^ology now kindly kepk forward j^ 
Us ailyahidlHiystoIiflKfideHty, '^Onate diyMtx^phkfat !k)^tflg-,t6r't&is 
dristiMi doocrine hils ^ cAunterptttt In die nattbr^ of maik^ ^'e'oir 
the funcdons of consciendousness is to be soifry wh^ ^ krb donVmced 
of having done wrong, and another is forgiveness of the penitent I 
have examined tens of thousands of heads, and am plain to say, that 
large consciendousness not only experiences deep remorse and contri- 
tion when sensible of having sinned, but also freely and fully forgives 
the penitent ; but, with combadvehi^ and destrucdveness also large, it 
never wUl forgive the sinner till he shows penitence. Till he breaks 
down with sorrow for sin, it pursues him with unrelendng moral in- 
dignation) and die more so die krget dds btgtth; b^ ^t iMHHii it 
discovers pdnitedce, it Says, « 1 forgiVe,** " g^o tfey Wftjf; iiti ho moH* 
It is not in the heart of a consciehdous and benevbleht man to punisK 
an erring but penitent sinner, who is humbly supplicating pardon for 
sins committed. Until it ddet discoti^r diis p^fenc!^ fiOw^ei*, it S^yS| 
^ Let kw have its course, be haisi sinkied, ^ Ui j^iiiiisMent tfa I&* 
wneL Let it be indidled widkmt met(5y." &t(t &l^ '^etf HMhi i 
dsKove^S sorrow for irin, its sword it jti^ice fs ihmli&i, lb pnmi- 
dve feelings are subdued. Its hioral iiidijgfbilUbii li d^Mfmed aijii 
smothered, and succel^^ \jf ML (btgiveiiciss: ^l t ni^ver y ei iutVe 
found the mail ^h Mnall dbiiscienliou^fie^j kiiA ki'le comJbaiiveheas 
aiid destntodvefhes^, Wlfi6 siioived si^ kitls^ 6t nb'nitence }br "iSi inm 
*m^ or <tf fofgiVehbi!^ bf others. A ^bty bfdtie' Wfi! s'erf e for att li 
G«ibriag«^itt 1888,Idlfit^i!ttMth^hMtf ifibi^6'dlie^Wsiia 
HbtiganiMttott. lEiibillgfatte(4n^,Mcd&c^Vea^^ 


by a firieod, whom he accordingly ekalUnged. Uib friend apolopnd. 
^Bnt what does your a/pdogy have to do with my wound^ honor ? 
Does your sorrow atone for your insult? No! Apology or no 
apology, I ^oM h§n€ tatisfaetionJ^ If benevolence he large, it may 
slay the npUfted hand of vengeance, but the old grudge will still rankle 
in the bosom. A cordial reconciliation is impossible, however hum- 
•de and penitent the transgressor. But large conscientiousness fnlly 
«xkd freely fcrgives, freely restores the guilty to confidence and nfEoc- 
lion, and even bestows increased favors upon him. 

The doctrine of penitence and pardon then, so essential to the main- 
lenance of Christianity, is proved by Phrenology to form a part afekl 
narcel of the nature of man, and to be consistent with that nature. 
True, Phrenology says nothing about forgiveness and salvation kjf 
CkriML It proves that the great tUmeni or principU of forgireness is 
not only not inconsistent with the nature of man, but is actually en- 
{rafted on that nature. It proves the basis or ground wdrk of this 
Chriscian doctrine, and leaves it for the Bible to say how and hf isholn 
Jire are to be forgiven. Overthrow this doctrine of forgiveness, txni 
Christianity is overthrown, and even razed from its very foundatiohs ; 
Imt establish it, and you thereby establish the fundamental basis of fef- 
giveness by Christ Phrenology, as already seen, proves this doe- 
trine of forgiveness to be a function of conscientiousness, and to be 
engrafted in the nature of man, and then leaves it for the Bible to tel! 
us how we are to be saved from the consequences of sin. Tell ttktj 
Christian, art thou sufficiently thankful for this timely aid ? Wik thMi 
not embrace and kiss thy twin sister and thy handmaid ? How U- 
grateful is this nineteenth century Christianity (falsely so called,) in 
thus turning its twin sister out of doors 1 

Let me not be understood to say that we can sin and not be pcmislMid 
at aU. But not to ihefdl extent In and by the very act of trah^ 
gression, we sufier. But that suffering ohen continues throughout tllte 
life. And, what is more, the natural tendency of sin is to augikent 
Utelf, But penitence induces reform-^ways, necessarily, and thos 
both arrests the increase of the transgressioh, and comleqtiently stayt 
the penalty that would otherwise have occurred, as well mi ttada 
lewards healing the wound already made. 

This principle shows that it is our duty, our privilege, to forgive the 
penitent Our fellow men wrong us ; wrong others. At first, we fed 
disposed to pursue them with the uplifted hand of punishment Bat 
this principle stays that hand. It teaches us that to '' err is human : Id 
tatgjmf divine.'' ' I^t him that is without tin, cast the first 

172 WE SHOULD roaoivs the jhuutemt. 127 

Sinful man should nothe censorious. Why is he so much so? Do 
they who condemn others, tMnk they are perfect? Should not they 
forgive who pray to be forgiven? How many, themselves no incon- 
siderable sinners, essay to pray " Forgive us our sins as we fcigive 
those who trespass against us," and yet are unsparing not in their cen- 
sure merely, but in their ceaseless condemnation of those who are even 
no worse than they ara This is not Phrenology. It is not Bible, 
it is not Christianity. Forgiveness was one of the greatest lessons 
taught by the great Teacher and Exemplar of mankind. ^ If thine 
enemy hunger, feed him." ^ He that smiteth thee on the one cheek, 
torn to him the other also." This is Christianity. This is Phreno- 
logy. And he is the best Christian who is the most forgiving. One 
of the very best of men it was my happy lot ever to know, was one of 
the most forgiving. He will take an erring brother by the hand and 
tell him. '^ sin no more," but not cast him off because he had fallen. 
Above all things, because a man has one ^ easily besetting sin," should 
he not be condemned as a bad man in oL thmgs. And yet the general 
•ay is, '^ He that will lie, will steal" As though a man could not be 
guilty of one sin without being black-hearted throughout, and given to 
all manner of wickedness. One propensity may be strong, yet others 
not so, and the moral organs generally large. That propensity may 
orercome him, and yet he be at heart good, and correct in all other 
respects. Or, under some powerful temptation, he may give way for a 
single moment, only to repent and abhor himself in sackcloth and ashes 
therefor, and yet be cast out of society, and by those, too, who call 
themselves Christians ; though a rose by any other name would smeU 
as sweetly. Especially should this forgiving spirit be manifested to- 
wards the young. They often sin from impulse merely. Forgive 
and restore them, and they will reform, whereas, if not forgiven, but 
blamed and cast off, they would plunge again into the vortex of sin 
and misery, from which they might otherwise have been saved. 

Look again at the practical utility of the application of this principle 
of forgiveness. As long as the drunkard was cast out of society for 
being a drunkard, and treated with contewpt therefor, he continued 
to drink. But when he was taken by the hand of brotherly feeling bj 
Washingtonianism,* and restored to ois lost standing in society, and 

* By many good iaen, and even Temperance advocates, WashiugtonianiBm is 
hold in light esteem. They say, <' Oh yes, it has done good to be sm«, bat, but, 
Imt." AUow me to say, that nearly every distinctive feature of Washingtonian* 
Inn is Ibanded in a principle of the nature of man. Its forgiving spirit pre-emi- 
Matly. Ifti whole-«oaled benevolence. Its brotherly feeling. Its praolkil 



made again to feel that he toot a man, he reformed. Bnt twit a Wash* 
ingtonian of having heen a drunkard, and you take the most effectual 
method possible to re-plunge him into that abyss of ruin from whicli 
he would otherwise haye escaped. As great a reform is yet destined 
to be effected among the daughters of sin, as is now in progress among 
the inebriates. It cannot be that this whole class of unfortunates must 
perish. Benevolence will not permit it Humanity, flushed with the 
triumphs she is now achieving for the intemperate, as well as in other 
departments of philanthropy, will not allow so numerous, so miserable 
a class of human beings, to perish in their sins. And in this greatest 
of works she will not be buffeted. Success will even increase upon 
her. But, koto — ^by what ipea/pons — is she to achieve her conquests? 
"By forgiveness. By love. Now, when a woman sins, be she ever so 
penitent, be it that her seducer is almost wholly in fault, as is almost 
always the case, be it even that she sinned under the most solemn pro- 
mises of marriage, or by mock marriage, still, she is cast out of '' gen- 
teeP' society. All the respectables point at ' her the finger of scorn. 
Even so-called Christians are loudest in her condemnation. Every 
friend forsakes her. All employment forsakes her. Though willing 
to earn her living by any occupation however laborious, however me- 
nial, yet even that is taken from her. She must starve, or else live com- 
pletely abandoned, however reptdsive such a life. Nobly, immortal 
Mrs. Childs ! hast thou done by Amelia Norman. Beyond all praise, 
thy conduct ! Worthy of all imitation, thy example ! And it mil be 
followed. It will rescue from ^' hell" thousands who must otherwise 
perish in untold misery I A worthy sister of the great apostle and 
martyr, of moral reform! Go on. Persevere, ye sisters of moral re- 
form. Teach men practical forgiveness. Rather re-teach them; 
for, by precept upon precept, by parable after parable,* by example 
after example, did Christ Jesus inculcate, enforce, command, his disci- 
ples to exercise this pre-eminently Christian virtue. I long to see the 
Washingtonian movement extended to the moral reform cause. Won- 
ders, will this forgiving principle work. Let its virtues be tried. Let 
this rarest of Christian virtues be cultivated. And immeasurably will 
the fruits thereof gladden mankind, as well as fill the forgiving soul to 

effects and practical workings. Its narration. Hardly any thing interests the 
human mmd more : convinces, argues, persuades , instructs, or calls out all the 
faculties of the human mind, more thtai narrative t facts ,experienec», stories, &c. 
And it is destined to teach even the learned many a lesson of human nature which 
metaphysics does not reveal. 

* See Matthew xxL 


m utmost capacity with a joy which it hath ooC entexad into the heaxt 
of man to conceive. 

These, and other fundamental principles, dereloped by Phrenology, 
both expose the utter folly of sectarianism, and reveal its remedy. 
Its disciples can hardly fail to agree in matters of religious belief and 
practice ; for its problems and corollaries are so reasonable, are eo 
forced so clearly, as literally to compel belief Taking the worst sec- 
tarian bone of contention that exists — that of original sin, or total de- 
pravity — let us see how this science will bring harmony out of Bab^ 

This doctrine is by fiir the most knotty point of controversy that 
divides the warring sects from each other, and separates them all from 
infidelity. Payne assails this doctrine of imputed sin with all the ri* 
dicule, all the opprobrium, which his satirical pen could command 
He even arraigns that part of the venerable decalogue which declares 
that God will visit the iniquities of the fathers upon the children unto 
the third and fourth generations of them that hate him, but showing 
mercy unto thousands oi them that love him and keep his command^ 
ments. He argues, that this horrible doctrine of punishing innocent 
children for the sins of their guilty parents is an outrage upon every- 
principle of justice and benevolence, as well as directly at war with thii 
whole known character of Grod ; and hence, that God could not bit 
the author either of the decalogue, or of the Bibla Many even of 
those who believe the Bible, side with him far enough to discard tha 
doctrine of imputed sin. Unitarians, Universalists, and even Method > 
ists, reject its orthodox version: "In Adam's fall we sinned all.** 
Even Dr. Taylor avows that we are not punishable for the sin of 
Adam ; and this is substantially the new school doctrine. Tbis sin-^ 
gle point, and those doctrines that grow out of it, occasion more secta- 
rian discord than probably all others united, it being the great divid- 
mg line between them. Now, if Phrenology can so for solve even 
this problem as to restore harmony of belief here, it can surely recon- 
cile minor differences, and calm the troubled waters of sectarian strife. 

This doctrine of original sin, is set at rest by the phrenological doc- 
trine of hereditary descent, or the transmission of qualities from gene- 
ration to generation as far as this matter can be traced, which is ohen 
for ten generations ; and, in the case of love of property and facility 
of acquiring it, the religious sentiment, mechanical ingenuity, and su- 
perior natural abilities, it can be traced from Abraham, all along down 
throughout the whole Jewish nation, to the present time. The law by 
which children inherit both the virtues and the vices of thcT ancestors, 
running back even to the beginning of time, is demonstrated by this 
science. (See the Author's work, entitled, << Hereditary Descent," in 


which this traosmission is shown to appertain ta the whole man, both 
mental and physical — to diseases of both body and mind — virtues and 
Tices included.) Now, in this doctrine is embodied all the original 
tin known to Phrenology, if not to man. Nor is this version of thai 
doctrine repulsive to either reason or justice, for it is as right that chil 
dren inherit the mental and moral virtues, vices, and capabilities 
of their parents, as their lands and property. Payne, then, was too 
&8t. So are all those who declaim against this doctrine. The fun- 
damental doctrine of Orthodoxy is therefore sustained by Phrenology ; 
and yet this doctrine is so modified by this its only true version as to 
be objectionable to none — to be readily admitted by all. Payne him- 
self would have been compelled to admit, would cheerfully have admit 
ted, both the doctrine itself and its utility, and even its absolute neces- 
siiy. This principle of hereditary descent would have compelled him 
to eat his own words. It will compel assent to this Calvinistic doc- 
trine as thus modified. Still, while it sustains the fundamental doc- 
trine of orthodoxy, it materially modifies it ; so much so, that now it 
both compels our assent and calls forth our admiration, whereas then 
it outraged both our justice and our reason. Thus does Phrenology 
harmonize even infidelity and orthodoxy^ and that too on the very 
point in which they diflbr most widely and fundamentally. And in 
doing this, it will settle by mutual consent many a minor point now 
controverted. It will also essentially illustrate other orthodox doctrines 
based on this point, thereby bringing all into the same (and that the 
right) ground concerning them. Similar remarks will be foimd to 
apply to nearly or quite every sectarian doctrine now in dispute. A. 
great religious peace-maker will Phrenology be found to be. But, 
why particularize ? for if it can harmonize this the greatest and most fun- 
damental difierence so easily and perfectly, surely it can the lesser ones. 
To recapitulate the numerous and striking coincidences between the 
religious doctrines taught, and practices required by Phrenology, and 
those enjoined in the Bible, is scarcely necessary, for every intellcc 
tual reader must have observed them in passing. To take a few n« 
samples : The Bible enjoins continually and positively, the worship 
of God. So does Phrenology, in its pointing out the existence of ven- 
eration, and the fact of its existence rendering its exercise imperative 
— our highest duty, our greatest privilege. And the attributes of God 
as pointed out by Phrenology, harmonize beautifully with those con- 
tained especially in the New Testament — such as his benevolence, his 
justice, his wisdom, his paternity, his spirituality, his firmness, his so- 
vereignty, &c. As the Bible requires us to do good^ and represeot| 
charity as the greatest of the Christian virtues, and our great Exam* 


pier aa wholly devoted to the cause of humanity, so. Phrenology also 
inculcates the same sentiment, by pointing out the eziatence of bene* 
volencc, and our consequent duty to exercise it 

Both the Bible and Phrenology recognize the doctrine of spiritual 
ity as appertaining both to man and to angels, as well as to God. See the 
whole tenor of the Bible touching this point, especially its requisition of 
faith, as compared with those views of spirituality found in this work. 

Phrenology and the Bible both enjoin the sentiments of justice^ of 
penitence, of forgiveness. Both inculcate the hope of immortality, and 
require its exercise. Both interdict lust, profanity, drunkenness, glut- 
tony, covetousnes». stealing, fraud, malice, revenge, false swearing, 
lying, murder, and kindred vices ; while both inculcate filial piety, 
moral purity, chastity, honesty, good works, parental and connubial 
love, friendship, industry, manual labor, self-government, patience, 
perseverance, hospitality, sincerity, cheerfulness, faith, spiritual-mind- 
edness, intellectual culture, and the whole cluster of the moral virtues. 

I do not, however, hesitate to say, that the Old Testament allows 
some doctrines which are at war with Phrenology, such as war, capi- 
tal punishment, the " life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for 
hand, foot for foot'* doctrine, &c. — (Deut xix. 21.) These, however, the 
New Testament abrogates, supplanting them by the law of kindness— 
a law so signally in harmony with the teachings of Phrenology. In- 
deed, the doctrines and teachings of Christ, are found to harmonize 
perfectfyj and in all their shades and phases with the doctrines and 
teachings of Phrenology. His doctrines are perfect Wonderfully 
calculated to reform and adorn mankind. Every doctrine, either an 
exposition of some law of mind, or else founded on some law. Every 
precept, calculated to promote moral purity and human happiness. A 
perfect pattern in both precept and example, of that ascendancy of the 
moral sentiments so clearly demonstrated and so forcibly enjoined by 
Phrenology, as the sine qua non of virtue and happiness. Phrenology 
does not suggest a single error or improvement either in his doctrines 
or examples, or in that inimitable exemplification of them in practice 
described in the first few chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, where 
they went from house to house, healing the sick, bestowing alms, 
breaking bread, and having all things in common. Oh, that his be- 
nign and heavenly doctrines were but comprehended and practiced by 
his professed followers — ^by the whole world. A holy and a happy 
*'orld would then be ours ! Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
aath it entered into the heart of man to conceive, the joy, the inefi&ble 
glory, that obedience to his precepts and practices would confer on man 1