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Portrait of Rembrandt (1658.) 




His Life, his Work, and his Time 



EM ILK M i en ML 






With Sixty-seven Full-page Plates 
And Two Hundred n/irf Fifty Text Illustrations 

Second Volume 








TOMI:.' 132 






VOL. II. i> 









PERIOD 143 166 














PORTRAIT OF REMURAXDT. 1658. (Lord Ilehestcr's Collection.) J'/viiiispiaa 


(BibliotJdque Xationalt:.) _j 

STUDY FOR THE "GOOD SAMARITAN-." Pen and wash. (Rotterdam Museum.) 

Phot. Bacr I0 

THE Sui'l'F.K AT EMMAUS. 1648. (Louvre.) Phot. IJraun 12 

KRAGMF.XT FROM "Tin; PACIFICATION OF HOLLAND." 1648. (Rotterdam Museum.) 

Phot, llaer H 

STUDY OF A WOMAX, SKATED. Pen Drawing, heightened with sepia. (Bibliothcque 

Nationalc.) 22 

CHRIST PRKACHIXC.. Facsimile of the etching known as The Lilllc Tomb. About 

1652. (IS. 67.) 30 

VIEW OF AMSTERDAM. Pen and sepia. (Alberlina.) Phot. IJraun 50 

INTERIOR OF A CHURCH. Pen and wash. (Albertina.) 52 

COTTAGE SURROUNDED I;Y TREES. Pen and wash. (Heseltine Collection.) 54 

STUDY OF A COUCHANT LION. Pen and wash. (Lord Brownlow's Collection.) .... 56 

LANDSCAPE STUDY. Pen and wash. (British Museum.) 58 

THE STORM. Pen and wash. (Albertina.) 60 

TOBIAS AND HIS FAMILY WITH THK ANGEL. Pen and wash. (Albertina.) 62 

PORTRAIT OF TITUS VAN RYN. 1655. (M. R. Kami's Collection.) 66 

PORTRAIT OF HENDRICKJK STOFFELS. About 1652. (Louvre.) Phot. Braun .... 68 

BATHSHEISA. 1654. (Louvre.) Phot. Braun 70 

PORTRAIT OF HENDRICKJE STOFFELS. About 16581660. (Scottish National Gallery.) 72 

WOMAN BATHING. 1654. (National Gallery.) Phot. Braun 74 

GIRL WITH A BROOM. About 1654. (Hermitage.) Phot. Braun 76 

PORTRAIT OF AX OLD WOMAN. 1654. (Hermitage.) Phot. Braun 78 

A MAN READINC;. Pen and sepia. (Louvre.) 82 

A MAN IN ARMOUR. 1655. (Glasgow Corporation Gallery.) 86 

PILATE WASHING HIS HANDS. About 1656. (M. Sedelmcycr.) 106 



Tin: LARGK COPPKNOL. About 1658. Facsimile of the Etching. (8.283.) 136 

PORTRAIT OF RKMISKANDT. 1660. (Louvre.) 138 

THK SYNDICS OF THK CLOTH HALL. 1661. (Amsterdam Ryksmuseum.) Phot. 

Hanfstacngl > 5 s 

A PILGRIM PRAYING. 1661. (Weber Collection, Hamburg.) 162 

PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN, SKATKD. Pen and sepia. (Heseltine Collection.) 200 

Tin: WOMAN AT THF WINDOW. Pen and wash. (Heseltine Collection.) 204 

AN OLD MAN SKATKD IN AN ARMCHAIR. Pen and sepia. (British Museum.) .... 212 



DRAWING, washed with Indian Ink. (British Museum.) I 

AN OLD MAN, WITHOUT A BEARD. About 1635. ('* 299.) i 


SUSANNA AND THK ELDERS. 1647. (Berlin Museum.) 5 

THK GOOD SAMARITAN. Pen Drawing. (Berlin Print Room.) 8 

REMBRANDT DRAWING. 1648. (B. 22.) 9 

NOLI ME TANGERE. 1651. (Brunswick Museum.) 12 


THE SPANISH GIPSY. 1647. (B. 120.) 16 

HEAD OF CHRIST. About 1652. (M. Rodolphe Kann.) 17 

SKETCH FOR "DANIEL'S VISION." Pen. Drawing with wash. (M. Leon Bonnat.) . ... 20 

DR. FAUSTUS. About 1651. (13. 270.) 21 

BEGGARS AT THE DOOR OF A HOUSE. 1648. (B. 176.) 24 

STUDY FOR THK HUNDRED GUILDER PIECE. Pen Drawing. (Berlin Print Room.) . . 25 


LANDSCAPE WITH A RUINED TOWER. About 1648. (B. 223.) 33 

THE DRAUGHTSMAN. Pen Drawing. (British Museum.) 33 

STUDY FOR THE PORTRAIT OF J. C. SYLVIUS. Pen Drawing. (British Museum.) ... 36 


PORTRAIT OF CLEMENT DE JONGHE. 1651. (B. 272.) First state 40 

PORTRAIT OF CLEMENT DE JONGHE. 1651. (B. 272.) Third state 41 


A LANDSCAPE. Pen Drawing, heightened with sepia. (Heseltine Collection.) 45 

PORTRAIT OF JAN ASSKLYN 1648. (B. 277.) . 48 



RUINS OF THE AMSTERDAM TOWN HALL. 1652. Pen Drawing, heightened with wash. 

(Heseltine Collection.) 4^ 

TOWT BLIND. 1651. (0.42.) 52 

VILLAGE WITH A SQUARE TOWER. 1650. (B. 218.) -3 

A ROAD THROUGH A WOOD. Pen Drawing. (Duke of Devonshire.) 56 

LANDSCAPE WITH AN OIIEI.ISK. About 1650. (li. 227.) - 7 

A WOMAN IN BED ASLEEP. 1'en Drawing. (Hcscltinc Collection.) O i 

STUDY OF A BEAR. Pen Drawing heightened with wash. ''Lord Brownlow.) 6 

Tin-: GOLDWKIGHEK'S FIELD. 1651. (B. 234.) 65 

OLD MAN WITH A LARGE BEARD. About 1631. (B. 312.) 65 

PORTRAIT OE TITUS. About 1652. (B. n.) 6<S 

TiTi's' \URSE. Pen Drawing heightened with wash. (Teylcr Museum.) 69 

REMMRANDTS HEAD AND OTHER SKETCHES. 1631, and 1650 (?) (B. 370.) 72 


CHRIST IN THE GARDEN OE OLIVES. About 1657. (B. 75.) 78 

STUDY OF A YOUTH. (Titus?) Pen Drawing. (Stockholm Print Room.) 79 

THE YOUNG SERVANT. About 1654. (Stockholm Museum.) 82 

THE SPORT OF GOLF. 1654. (15. 125.) 87 

TOHIT AND HIS WIFE. Pen Drawing. (Stockholm Print Room.) 90 

THE CANAL. About 1652. (B. 221.) 91 

BUST OF A WOMAN. About 1631. (B. 358.) 91 

PEN SKETCH. (Boymans Museum, Rotterdam.) 94 


PORTRAIT OF DR. ARNOLD THOLINX. 1656. (M. Kdouard Andre.) 98 

PORTRAIT OF DR. ARNOLD THOLINX. About 1655. (B. 284.) 99 

DR. J. DEYMAN'S LESSON IN ANATOMY. 1656. (Ryksmuscum, Amsterdam.) .... 102 


PORTRAIT OF JAN LUTMA. 1656. (B. 276.) 107 


THE " IMPERIAL CROWN" AT AMSTERDAM. Facsimile of a Drawing of 1725 114 

LANDSCAPE STUDY. Pen Drawing. (British Museum.) 115 

ENTRANCE TO A TOWN. Pen Drawing. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 118 

PEN DRAWING OK A LANDSCAPE. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 119 

PEN SKETCH, with wash. (British Museum.) 119 

ST. PETER DELIVERED FROM PRISON. Pen Drawing heightened with wash. (Albertina.) 122 

ST. JEROME. About 1652. (B. 104.) 123 

REMBRANDT IN HIS WORKING DRESS. Pen Drawing. (Heseltine Collection.) .... 126 

FIGURE OF CHRIST. About 16581660. (Count Orloff-Davidoff) 127 

DAVID ON HIS KNEES. 1652. (B. 41.) 130 

AN OLD WOMAN CUTTING HER NAILS. 1658. (M. R. Kann.) 131 

CHRIST AND THE SAMARITAN WOMAN. Pen Drawing, heightened with wash. (Stock- 
holm Print Room.) 134 




YOUNG WOMAN ASLEEP. Pen Drawing. (Hcseltinc Collection.) 138 

PEN SKETCH, heightened with sepia. (Seymour-IIadcn Collection.) 139 

THE HOLY WOMEN ON CALVARY. I'en Drawing. (Stockholm Print Room.) 142 

PEN DRAWING or A LANDSCAPE. (Uuke of Devonshire's Collection.) 143 

SMALL HEAD OF REMISKANDT, STOOPING. About 1630. (1!. 5.) 143 

YOUNG WOMAN AT A WINDOW. About 1665. (Berlin Museum.) 146 

TIIK FAITHFUL SERVANT. Pen Drawing. (Bonnat Collection.) ... 147 

Tin; CONSPIRACY OF CLAUDIUS 1661. (Stockholm Museum.; 150 

THE CONSPIRACY 'OF CLAUDIUS (Study for the original work. Facsimile of 

a Drawing in the Munich Print Room.) 151 

WOMAN AT A WINDOW. Pen Drawing washed with sepia. (Hcseltinc Collection.) ... 154 
Tin: PKINSENGRACHT AND THE WES TERKERK. (Near Rembrandt's home on the 

Rozengracht.) Drawing by Boudier, from a photograph 155 

JACOB'S BLESSING. Pen Drawing. (Stockholm Print Room.) 162 

Kl.l.lAll IN Tin; DESERT. Pen Drawing. (Berlin Print Room.) 163 

PEN SKETCH OF A LANDSCAPE. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 166 

SKETCH OF A LANDSCAPE, heightened with sepia. (Duke of Devonshire's Collec- 
tion.) 167 

AN OLD WOMAN IN A BLACK VEIL. 1631. (B. 355.) 167 

PEN SKETCH, heightened with sepia. (Lord Warwick's Collection.; 170 

Till'. JEWISH BRIDE. (BOA/ AND Ruin?; About 1665. (Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam.) . 171 

I.. \II.\N AND LEAH. Pen Drawing. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 174 

THE NATIVITY. About 1652. (B. 45.) 174 

I'EN DRAW i\c,, heightened with sepia. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 175 

PEN DRAWING, washed with sepia. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 175 

PEN SKETCH, with sepia. (Lord Warwick's Collection.) 178 

THE STANDARD BEAKER. About 1662-1664. (Lord Warwick's Collection.) 179 

SCRIPTURAL SUP.JECT. Pen Sketch with sepia. (Lord Warwick's Collection.) 182 

FAMILY GROUP. About 1668- 1669 (Brunswick Museum.) 183 

INTERIOR OF THK WESTERKERK. (Facsimile of a contemporary Print.) 186 

THE Fi.AGl'.Ll.ATiON. 1668. (Darmstadt Museum.) 187 



SEPIA DRAWING. (Heseltinc Collection.) 194 


REMIIRANDT WITH FRIZZLED HAIR. About 1631. (B. 336.) 195 

YOUNG WOMAN ASLEEP AT A WINDOW. Pen Drawing heightened with sepia. (Hesel- 
tinc Collection.) , y y 

Jois AND HIS FRIENDS. Pen Study with bistre. (Stockholm Punt Room.; 199 

YOUNC, WOMAN READING. Pen Drawing. (Berlin Print Room.) 202 

STUDY FROM RAPHAEL'S BALUASSARE CASTIGLIONO. Pen and sepia. (Albcrtina, Vienna.; 203 



PEN DRAWING. (Seymour-Haden Collection.) 206 

PEN SKETCH OF A LANDSCAPE. (Ileseliinc Collection.) 207 

THE GEOGRAPHER. Pen Drawing heightened with sepia. (Dresden Print Room.) . . . 210 

REMBRANDT LEANING ON A STONE Sn.i.. 1639. fl>. 21.) 211 

STUDV OF A HEAD. (Rembrandt's Brother ?) 1650. (I Injjue Museum.; 214 

PEN SKETCHES OF A BEGGAR. (liritish Museum.) 215 

PEN DRAWING. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 2iH 

CHRIST IN THE GARDEN OF OLIVES. Pen drawing. (Kunsth;illc, Hamburg 219 

THE BLIND FIDDLER. 1631. (li. 138.) 220 

ISAAC BLESSING JACOI:. (Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 221 

THE STORM. About 1640. (Brunswick Museum.) 222 


A BEGGAR WOMAN ASKING ALMS. 1646. (B. 170.) 224 

A JEWS' SYNAGOGUE. 164$. 'P.. 126.) 225 

LIFE-STUDY OF A YOUNG MAN. 1646. (11. 196.) 226 

BUST OF AN OLD MAX WITH A LONG BEARD. About 1630. '}',. 291.) 229 

/ THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL. Pen .sketch. I'l.ouvrc.) 2SK 

THE SHELL. 1650. (B. 159.) 290 

WASHED DRAWING, INK. (Lord Warwick's Collection.) 291 



(liritish Museum}. 





About 1635 (B. 299). 

REMBRANDT, as we see, had, to a 
certain extent, shaken off the deep 
depression that had overwhelmed him 
after the death of Saskia. An intimate com- 
munion with nature had invigorated his genius, 
and in resuming the labours that had become 
a necessity to him, he soon felt the benefit of 
these novel studies. The loneliness of his 
position had this advantage, at least that it 

enabled him to devote himself more ardently than ever to his 
work and the period we are about to deal with was one of 
the most productive of his busy life. In returning to the Scriptural 
subjects he preferred to all others, he sought satisfaction alike for 
his active imagination and his creative passion. The infinite variety 
of these subjects harmonised with the diversity of his own im- 
pressions, and he interpreted their emotional aspects with equal 
sincerity and penetration. He now received a fresh commission from 
VOL. n. B 


Prince Frederick Henry. Though he had lost his popularity with the 
public, he was still appreciated by the Prince, who, though already 
the owner of five pictures by him, wished for two more. The 
price paid for these is an interesting proof of the Prince's growing 
respect for his powers. In a draft dated November 29, 1646, 
Frederick Henry commands that a sum of 2400 florins be paid to 
Rembrandt for the pair. It will be remembered that the price paid for 
the two pictures of the same dimensions delivered to the Statlwuder 
in 1639 was just a half of this, while in 1645 he had also bought two 
important pictures by Rubens, who had lately died, and whose works 
were in great request, for the sum of 2100 florins. Of one of the 
works painted for the Prince, the Circumcision, no trace is to be found. 
It had disappeared before the removal of the Electoral collection from 
Diisseldorf to the Munich Pinacothek. 

The other, an Adoration of the Shepherds, now in the Pinacothek, 
has suffered severely from the effects of time. This is the more to be 
regretted, as the subject was one peculiarly adapted to Rembrandt's 
manner, and he had bestowed great care upon it. Not only did he make 
an elaborate study of its effects and arrangement in the fine drawing 
belonging to Mr. Heseltine which we reproduce, but he also painted a 
replica, with a few slight modifications, which bears the same date, 
1646. It is now in the National Gallery. The conception is much on 
the lines of Corrcggio's Notte in the Dresden Gallery. As in the 
Italian master's work, the illumination of the central group proceeds 
almost entirely from the Infant Saviour. This light, resplendent 
with vivid red and deep golden tones, gradually melts away into 
the surrounding gloom of the humble shed. Some few articles 
of rustic furniture, and the silhouettes of crouching cattle are dis- 
tinguishable in the shadows. Mysterious reflections gleam through the 
semi-transparent darkness on the faces of the shepherds, who draw 
near to join the Virgin and the kneeling St. Joseph in adoration 
of the new-born Babe. 

The Susanna and the Elders of 1647 : is a striking instance of 

1 This picture belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds, and in later times to Sir Ed. 
Lechmere, from whose collection it passed to the Berlin Gallery in 1883. 


Rembrandt's versatility, and of the ease with which he now approached 
the most diverse subjects, preserving the essential character of each. 
The episode was one which specially attracted him, by the oppor- 
tunity it afforded for the treatment of the nude. His technical 
equipment was now so complete, that he might, like so many others, 
have relied in future on the resources at his command, taking counsel 
with nature only when projecting or executing a picture. But we 
shall find him not only consulting realities at times of special need, 
but devoting himself unweariedly to studies, the one object of which 
was his further instruction and improvement. The numerous " aca- 
demies " executed at this period witness to the delight he took in these 
disinterested studies. Several of these drawings from male and female 
models belong to the Louvre and the Bibliotheque Nationale, others 
to Mr. Heseltine and M. Leon Bonnat. A model of frequent occur- 
rence among them is a slender youth, whose long thin limbs have not 
attained their full development. Such a type was valuable as enabling 
the painter to observe the play of bones and muscles, and their exact 
positions in action. In the matter of feminine models, he had perforce 
to content himself with the few among that decorous nation who could 
be induced to pose in a studio. The types and forms available were 
therefore far from elegant, yet the master reproduced them with the 
most scrupulous exactitude, abating nothing of their ugliness. The 
sincerity of these studies is only to be equalled by their facility of 
execution. The figure is sketched in with a few strokes of the pen ; 
a slight wash of sepia or Indian ink is then employed for the modelling, 
which is carried out with the utmost delicacy and precision, every 
inflection being carefully followed with extraordinary perception of 
values. Rembrandt had gradually acquired an absolute mastery of 
such effects ; the two etchings dated 1646, of which we give facsimiles 
(B. 193 and 195), may be examined as typical examples of that close 
and nervous draughtsmanship, which enabled the master to indicate, 
not only the silhouette, but the structure and effects of a subject, with 
a few strokes of the point, and this with faultless accuracy and precision. 
Such studies were not invariably sketched directly on the plate. One 
of the two etchings reproduced was preceded by a drawing from nature, 

B 2 


Museum in 
composition is 

now in the Bibliotheque Nationale. But very often the subject was 
sketched on the copper without any preparation, sometimes on the un- 
occupied corner of a partially covered plate, such as that (B. 194) on 
which two of these life-studies are drawn side by side with a sketch of 

an old woman bending 
down to play with a child 
in a go-cart. Another 
etching, the Rcmbranat 
drawing from a Model 
(B. 192), was executed, 
probably in 1647, from a 
sketch in the British 
which the 

reversed which repre- 
sents the master in his 
studio, drawing from a 
nude female model. The 
background only was 
finished, probably by one 
of Rembrandt's pupils. 
The figures of the woman, 
who holds a palm-branch 
in her hand, and of the 
artist, who is seated on 
a little stool in front of 
her, are merely indicated. 

The composition of 
the Sttsanna Rembrandt 
had treated not only in 

several sketches, but in two painted studies. To judge by that of the 
Lacaze collection in the Louvre, the model was far from seductive. 
Her body is badly formed, her legs thin and bowed. The 
original of M. Leon Bonnat's oval panel a little brunette with 
luxuriant hair, a large mouth, a thick flat nose, and black eyes 


1646 (B. 193). 

Life Study of a Young Man Study for the 
Etching (1646). 

Pen and Wash. 


Printed by Draeger & Lesieur, Paris 


has a fair share of that beautt 1 du diable proper to her extreme 
youth. The technique of this study is superb, and the glow and 
texture of the flesh, shivering as it encounters the cold water, are 
rendered with extraordinary power. In the Berlin picture, the type has 
been further refined, and is not without grace, though it hardly attains 
to beauty. The young woman, about to enter a bath hollowed out 
among the rocks, is seized by one of the elders, an evil-looking old 


1647 (Berlin Museum). 

man. He tries to snatch away the last vestige of her raiment ; 
another old man, whose face has an expression of profound cunning, 
advances from his ambush to his accomplice's aid. Thus surprised, 
the young woman turns towards the spectator in terror and amaze- 
ment. Above the bath, on the edge of which is perched a peacock, 
flowers, creepers, and the branches of trees increase the decorative 
effect of the lofty buildings in the background. Above them all rises 


a tower with an imposing clerestory; below is a building with gilded 
capitals, a portico, and a terrace adorned with statues. The bather's 
garments lie on the circular stone bench at the edge of the bath ; they 
consist of a scarf with golden tassels, and a dress of heavy material, the 
skirt a magnificent purple, the bodice a deeper shade, trimmed with 
golden ornaments. These vivid tones are enhanced by the neutral 
gray of the sky and the stone, the deep green of the trees, and the 
strong yellows of the bushes, and throw the dazzling whiteness of 
Susanna's body into forcible relief. The abrupt inflection of the left 
leg is unpleasant ; but, on the other hand, the upper part of the body, 
and the gesture of the hand, are instinct with youthful grace and 
modesty. In several early pictures notably in the Siisanna of the 
Mauritshuis, and the Bathslicba of the Steengracht collection- 
Rembrandt had sought to express the harmonious splendours of that 
Biblical East which appealed so strongly to his imagination. But 
never had he rendered it with such a wealth of magnificent fancy as in 
this picture, in which the luxuriant vegetation, the fantastic grandeur 
of the architecture, the splendour of the draperies, and their gorgeous 
colouring are enhanced by a masterly use of chiaroscuro, by the 
exquisite finish of the execution, and by the perfect harmony of the 
handling with the various picturesque details. 

It will not be out of place to inquire briefly into those principles 
of colouring which produced the full, resonant, and varied crimsons so 
happily blended or opposed in this picture. The master, careful of 
every element in his art, was specially jealous of the composition and 
preparation of his ingredients. He procured the rarest and most 
precious woods for his panels, and was equally particular as to the oils 
and varnishes he employed. The problem of the vehicles he used to 
spread his colours, or to continue an interrupted work without 
prejudice to its solidity and freshness, is still unsolved. Lacquers 
brought from the Dutch Indies had doubtless increased the resources 
of the palette in Rembrandt's time. Sandrart extols the excellence of 
the colours then manufactured at Amsterdam, making special mention 
of a certain imperishable white, and of various ochres, which retained 
their transparence in shadow. The simplicity of Rembrandt's 


methods was a further guarantee of the durability of his works, and 
the excellent condition of all such as have enjoyed adequate care 
and protection is a sufficient proof of his technical superiority. 

In the small panel, Hannah teaching the child Samuelinthe Temple, 
dated 1648, now at Bridgwater House, the execution is as finished, and 
the chiaroscuro as delicate, but unhappily, the colour has deteriorated. 
Hannah, a venerable old woman in a black wimple, and crimson 
dress with gold embroidered bodice, holds in her hand a pair of 
spectacles, and a large parchment book, from which the youthful 
Samuel has been reading. The child, a fair-headed cherub, with an 
innocent, rosy face, prays devoutly, with clasped hands. A soft 
shadow falls across his face. In the middle distance, two old men 
stand beside a cradle, and in the background of the Temple rise the 
tables of the Law surmounted by an angel's head amidst gilded 
sculptures. The golden browns of the child's dress contrast finely 
with the magnificent reds of his mother's robe, and form as it were a 
subdued echo of the gorgeous harmonies of the Susanna. In this 
perceptible lowering of the key of colour, in the rich decorations of the 
Temple, where gold and the vague glint of precious stones are 
cunningly blended, we find a fresh evidence of the art with which 
Rembrandt brought every detail of his compositions into harmony 
with the subject. A somewhat larger picture in the Hermitage of the 
same theme, known as The Nun and the Child, may be bracketed 
with the Bridgwater House panel, as closely analogous, though 
possibly later by a year or two. The heavy and somewhat spiritless 
execution, the comparatively cold, opaque shadows, and the want 
of richness in the tonality have suggested doubts, not altogether 
unreasonable, as to the authenticity of the work. We may, however, 
point out that the type of the child is identical with that of the Ephraim 
in the Jacob blessing the Children of Joseph of 1656, and that the old 
woman, and the chair in which she sits, figure in several portrait-studies 
dated 1654. We should not be disinclined to question the authenticity 
of another large picture of this period, also in the Hermitage, a Fall of 
Haman, in which the life-size figures are fantastically arrayed in 
Turkish costume, and painted in a coarse and summary style. But we 


are fain to believe it a genuine work. A bare mention will suffice for 
this large canvas, the very perfunctory achievement of some few 

Returning to the year 1648, we shall find two masterpieces in the 
Louvre, bearing this date, together with Rembrandt's signature. 
These are the Good Samaritan, and the Christ with the Disciples at 

f i/-.^ 

i+.JMK m 


Pen drawing (Uc-rlin Prim Room). 

Emmaus, subjects which seem to have had a supreme fascination 
for the master. He treated them again and again at different stages 
of his career, in paintings, drawings, and engravings. The motive 
of the Good Samaritan had a double attraction for him. It gave 
him an opportunity for the rendering of the nude, and the episode itself 
was one that appealed strongly to a nature so tender and sympathetic 
as that of Rembrandt, "kindly to the verge of extravagance," as 
Baldinucci testifies. Some strange presentiment of his own fate 


seems to have haunted the artist, making him keenly susceptible to 
the pathos of the story. He, too, was destined to lie stripped and 

1648 (B. 22). 

wounded by Life's wayside, while many passed him by unheeding. 
He had already treated the subject in an etching of 1633, i a 
picture now in the Wallace collection, and in the drawing in the 


Boymans Museum, in all of which he lays peculiar emphasis on 
the moving elements of the drama. The sketch in the Berlin Print 
Room deals with another moment of the action. The master made 
use of it, with some unimportant modifications, for an interesting 
picture signed, and elated 1639, which M. Sedelmeyer recently 
bought in England. The wounded man lies almost naked on 
the ground. The Samaritan, who wears a red costume and a 
turban, kneels beside him, dressing his wounds. To the left 
stands an iron-gray horse with a saddle ; on the right is a drapery 
bordered with a rich embroidery, of that golden yellow in which 
Rembrandt delighted. A small medicine chest full of phials is 
open beside it. The horizon is shut out by a mass of rocks with a 
waterfall, and on some rising ground in the distance the Levite of 
the Gospel narrative casts a furtive backward glance at the sufferer 
he has left to perish. The harmony, made up of warm browns, yellows, 
and russets, is sustained and powerful, and the somewhat harsh 
execution, broad and free. In the Louvre picture, painted some nine 
years later, as in a beautiful and most luminous sketch purchased by 
M. Sedelmeyer, 1 Rembrandt returns to his first conception. But his 
artistic progress may be measured by the modifications to which he 
has subjected his composition. The sun is sinking, and the dying rays 
light up the group at the door, where the wounded man is lifted 
from the horse amidst the excited spectators of his arrival, and borne 
to the inn. His saviour, purse in hand, recommends him to the care 
of the hostess. How can we more fitly describe the scene than in 
the eloquent words of Fromentin ? " The man is barely alive ; his 
bearers support the bent and mangled body by the shoulders and 
legs ; gasping with agony at the movement, he hangs helplessly in 
their arms, his bare knees drawn convulsively together, his feet 
contracted, one arm thrown across his hollow breast, his head 
swathed in a bloodstained bandage. ... It is late, the shadows 
are lengthening. The tranquil uniformity of twilight' reigns 

1 Formerly in Mr. Henry Willett's collection. It is a night-scene, the action 
taking place by torch-light, which gives occasion for various happy effects of chiaro- 



throughout the canvas, save for an occasional gleam that seems 
to float across the surface, so fitful and mobile is its effect. In the 
mysterious gloaming, you scarcely distinguish the finely modelled 
horse to the left of the picture, and the sickly-looking child, rising 
on tip-toe to peer across the animal's neck at the wounded 
wayfarer, who moans as the servants carefully lift his shattered body." 
As to the execution again we give way to Fromentin : " Pause, look 
at it closely, or at a distance, examine it carefully. No contour is 
obtrusive, no accent mechanical. You note a timidity which has 
nothing in common with ignorance, which results rather from a 
horror of the trivial, or from the great importance attached by the 
thinker to the direct expression of life ; a building up of things which 
seem to exist in his inner vision, and to suggest by indefinable methods 
alike the precision and the hesitations of Nature. . . . Nowhere a 
contortion, an exaggerated feature, nor a touch in the expression of the 
unutterable which is not at once pathetic and subdued ; the whole 
instinct with deep feeling, rendered with a technical skill little short 
of miraculous." l 

Emotion is perhaps still more powerfully expressed in the Christ 
with the Disciples at Emmiius, a subject which presented greater 
difficulties. Here the simplicity of the conception is more marked, the 
treatment more personal and mysterious. Recalling earlier versions of 
the touching Gospel story, the purely decorative renderings of painters 
such as Titian and Paul Veronese, we feel that it was reserved for 
Rembrandt to comprehend and translate its intimate poetry. Hence- 
forth, it seems hardly possible to conceive of the scene but as he 
painted it. What depths of faith and adoring reverence he has 
suggested in the attitude of the disciple, who, his heart " burning 
within him" at his Master's words, recognises Him "in the breaking 
of bread," and clasps his hands in worship, while his companion, 
unconvinced as yet, leans upon the arm of his chair, his questioning 
gaze fixed on the Saviour's face. How truthful again is the expression 
of ingenuous curiosity in the features of the young servant, amazed at 
the sudden emotion of the two apostles ! But more admirable than all 

1 E. Fromentin, Les Maitres tfAnlrefois, p. 376 et scq. 


is the conception of the risen Christ, the mysterious radiance that 
beams from His pallid face, the parted lips, the glassy eyes that 
have looked on death, the air of beneficent authority that marks 
His bearing. By what strange magic of art was Rembrandt 
enabled to render things unspeakable, and to breathe into our souls 
the divine essence of the sacred page by means of a picture 
" insignificant in appearance, without any beauty of accessories or 

background, subdued in 
colour, careful, and almost 
awkward in handling ? " 1 
Rembrandt returned 
to the subject more than 
once. He had already 
treated it after a slightly 
fantastic fashion, in an 
etching of 1634 (B. 88), 
the Christ of which is 
a somewhat theatrical 
figure. Twenty years 
later he made use of it 
for another plate (B. 87), 
the composition of which 

is much on the same lines as that of the picture in the Louvre, 
though less impressive. The latter was probably preceded by 
the picture of the same date (1648) in the Copenhagen Museum, 
a greatly inferior work, in poor condition. The treatment is 
more complex, and the episode loses much of its emotional 
power. As in several other instances, Rembrandt has inclosed his 
composition in a simulated frame, slightly arched at the top ; a 
brown curtain, hanging from a rod, is painted across the left of the 
canvas. The Saviour wears a red robe; His serene features show no 
traces of recent suffering and death. The interest is less concentrated ; 
and the obtrusive figure of an old woman in a white hood, carrying a 
glass, who is placed immediately in the light, attracts the eye of 
1 Fromentin, Les Maitres (FAutrefois, p. 380. 


1651 (Brunswick Museum). 

The Supper at Emmiius (i6jS). 



the spectator in a fashion disastrous to the effect of the main 
group. The master was more happily inspired in the beautiful 
drawing of the Dresden Museum. The moment chosen is that 
wherein the Saviour vanishes from the sight of His followers. 
Rembrandt very characteristically represents the humble room as 
illuminated by a vivid light, shining above the place lately occupied 
by the Lord. The two disciples are lost in awe and wonder at 


the miracle. One has risen, and presses against the wall, as if 
overcome with terror. 

The year 1648 is a date for ever memorable in the annals of the 
Netherlands. After a prolonged struggle, the Beggars had triumphed 
over their oppressors, and had wrung from them recognition of their 
national independence. Throughout the length and breadth of 
Holland, already rich and powerful, the solemn act which ratified her 
claims in the sight of Europe, and crowned her prosperity, was received 
with joyful acclamations. Public fetes, and gala theatrical perfor- 


mances. attested the popular delight at the proclamation of the Peace 
of Westphalia. The men of letters celebrated it in their writings. 
Terborch constituted himself historiographer of the Treaty of Munster, 
which set the final seal on the peace ; Van der Heist, who had become 
Rembrandt's rival, and Covert Flinck, who had taken his master's 
place in public favour, were commissioned by the civic guards to paint 
the two large canvases that now flank the Night Watch in the Ryks- 
museum. No one seems to have thought of Rembrandt on this 
occasion. Although he now lived in great retirement, troubling 
himself little about public opinion, it is natural to suppose that he 
was not insensible to this neglect. He cannot but have shared the 
emotion of his contemporaries. A son of that Leyden whose heroic 
resistance had so greatly strengthened the cause of national freedom, 
he loved the land he was never to leave, and where, but a few years 
back, he was accounted the most distinguished master of his day. His 
artistic susceptibilities were wounded, and he resolved to emerge from 
his seclusion. It was doubtless in the hope of receiving some com- 
mission akin to those of his confreres, which would give scope for the 
display both of his talents and his patriotism, that in 1648 he executed 
the grisaille in the Rotterdam Museum, known as The Pacification oj 
Holland (La Concorde du Pays), a confused, overloaded composition, 
full of subtle allusions suggested, perhaps, by some pedant of the 
master's acquaintance. Rembrandt showed little aptitude for allegory. 
He had none of Rubens' ease, coherence, and decorative sense in its 
treatment. Realities were the essential basis of his art. The 
Rotterdam picture, with its two compact masses of combatants, 
separated by a lioness chained beneath a shield emblazoned with the 
arms of Amsterdam J and the legend, Soli Deo Gloria ; its figure of 
Justice, clumsily grasping a scale loaded with papers ; its infinite variety 
of grotesque detail, is a mere jumble of enigmatical episodes, the 
interpretation of which passes both our courage and our patience. 
The general effect, however, is very remarkable. The neutral blue 
tint of the sky is happily contrasted with the predominant brown and 

1 The introduction of this shield seems to confirm the idea that Rembrandt had 
hopes of a place in one of the public buildings, perhaps the Stadhuis, for his work. 

Fragment front. " The Pacification of Holland" (1648). 



russet tones, which are heightened here and there by fat touches 
of pale yellow, applied with superb brio for the high lights. The 
execution of the left portion of the panel is masterly in the extreme. 
From Mr. Baer's fine photograph here reproduced our readers may 
gain a very fair idea of the feeling for picturesque effect, and 
extraordinary divination of the mediaeval spirit displayed by Rembrandt, 
in his grouping of the serried ranks of mailed horsemen in martial and 
resolute array. The figure of the leader, lance in rest on his 
prancing white charger, is especially admirable. Instinct with the 
prescience of modern Romanticism, it recalls one of Delacroix's vivid 
creations. The composition, it appears, was never carried out on 
a larger scale. The grisaille remained in Rembrandt's studio and 
figures in the inventory of 1656. We need not greatly regret that the 
painter received no commission for the large picture he had aspired to 
paint. In its present dimensions the sketch is highly interesting, 
as exhibiting Rembrandt's methods of composition. In a more 
imposing form its extravagances would have been fatally apparent. 
The commentaries, more or less ingenious, by which some writers 
have sought to explain the hidden meanings of the allegory, tend 
only to the deeper mystification of the student. Here again Rem- 
brandt seems to have recognised his disabilities. He made no 
further essays in this direction, and the Pacification remains his 
solitary attempt to illustrate, directly or indirectly, the history of his 
own times. 

Two pictures, one the landscape in the Cassel Gallery, known as 
The Ruin, the other a portrait at Panshanger, are the only works by 
Rembrandt we can assign to the year 1649, and even so, we have 
nothing to go upon in the case of the latter but conjecture. Lord 
Cowper's example is a life-size equestrian portrait of a personage said 
to be the Marechal de Turenne. He wears a rich and brilliant 
uniform a buff jerkin with gold-embroidered silk sleeves, and a large 
felt hat with feathers and bestrides a restive dapple-gray horse, at 
the entrance of a park. A servant stands beside him, and in the 
middle distance to the left is a state-carriage with footmen, 
containing several persons. The magnificence of the surroundings 



is by no means out of character with the supposed sitter, and seems 
to confirm the notion that the portrait is that of Turenne. The 
Marshal, a grandson of William the Silent, had served his apprentice- 
ship to the career of arms with some distinction, under his uncles, 
Maurice and Frederick Henry, sons of the Prince of Orange. The 
assumed date of the portrait also agrees with that of Turenne's later 
sojourn in Holland. It will be remembered that the Marshal, having 

sided against Mazarin in 
the troubles of the Fronde, 
was abandoned by his 
troops, and judged it pru- 
dent to retire to the 
Netherlands in February, 
1649. He remained in the 
country till the conclusion 
of the Peace of Rueil, on 
the first of April of the 
same year, and during 
these weeks, when he 
was no doubt the guest 
of his cousin, William 1 1 1., 
Rembrandt is supposed to 
have painted his portrait. 
The work adds little to 
the master's reputation. 

The horse was not studied with the care and precision necessary 
for a work on this large scale, and has a lifeless, wooden appear- 
ance. The colour is monotonously brown ; the handling, loose and 
slight in the background, and excessively loaded in the draperies, 
is careless throughout, save in the modelling of the head. This, 
though not essentially unlike that of Turenne the facial type 
is that of a severe-looking man, with a rather thick nose, a 
florid complexion, long luxuriant hair, and a slight black moustache 
bears but a vague resemblance to the later portrait by Pieter de 
Jode, engraved by Anselm van Hulle, or to that by Philippe 


1647 (B. I2o) 


de Champagne, familiar to us in Robert de Nauteuil's admirable 
engraving. 1 

The Vertumnus and Pomona in the collection of the Artis Amicitifc 
Society at Prague, is now admitted to be by Aert de Gelder. This 
picture, which enjoyed a great reputation during the eighteenth 
century, was engraved by Lepicie as the work of Rembrandt. At 
the Lebrun sale, however, it was restored to its true author. Both in 
subject and sentiment 
the composition has very 
slight affinities, if any, 
with Rembrandt's work. 
Neither in the delicately- 
featured Pomona, who 
wears a large straw hat 
and a dress of somewhat 
pretentious elegance, nor 
in her disguised suitor, 
the old woman in a cloak, 
leaning upon a crutch, 
can we trace any like- 
ness to the types and 
costumes of the master. 
The execution, too, differs 
radically from that of 

After an interval of 
some two years we find 

the artist returning to the Scriptural subjects he loved. The Jacob 
lamenting the supposed Death of Joseph, in the Hermitage, a picture 
with life-size figures, three-quarters length, represents the patriarch 
gazing at the bloody coat of Joseph. One of the brothers dis- 
plays it across his knees ; another tells the story agreed upon. 
Jacob stands beside a table, and, lifting up his hands, expresses 

1 As Dr. Bredius points out, the face is that of a younger man than Turenne, who 
was born in 1611, and was therefore thirty-eight at the supposed date of the picture. 


About 1652 (M. Rodolphe Kami). 


his agony at the news. The youthful Benjamin beside him plays 
with a bird, childishly indifferent to the catastrophe. The scene 
is well composed, and carried out in the warm browns, yellows, 
and reds peculiar to the period. The execution is not remark- 
able, as compared with the master's technique generally. Abraham 
entertaining the Angels, also in the Hermitage, apparently belongs 
to the same period. Here the figures are again life-size. The 
patriarch, seated with his guests at a table spread before the 
open door of his house, pauses in the act of carving the joint 
before him, amazed at the white-robed angel's announcement that 
Sarah shall shortly bear a son. His wife, who appears behind 
him on the threshold, laughs incredulously at the angel's words. 
The venerable figure of the patriarch is full of dignity and beauty. 
But the conception has scarcely the expressive eloquence proper to 
Rembrandt's works. The strange attitude of the angel in the 
foreground, and the vivid hues of his many-coloured wings assert 
themselves somewhat unduly in the composition. Pleased with the 
theme, the master had already treated it in several drawings, and 
in a small picture dated 1646, formerly in the Six collection, which 
was in Mr. Richard Saunderson's possession in 1836. He returned to 
it some years later (in 1656), for an etching (B. 29) less interesting 
than the St. Petersburg example, and marked by eccentricities of 
treatment still more pronounced. 

We may briefly call attention to the Woman taken in Adultery, a 
large canvas from the Duke of Marlborough's collection, recently 
acquired by M. Sedelmeyer. In this remarkable work the colour, 
and the strong traces of Italian influence in the composition are 
sufficiently perplexing to the connoisseur. Both in type and execution 
two of the figures Jesus Himself, and the white-bearded old man 
beside Him are purely Rembrandtesque conceptions, worthy of 
the master's genius. The remaining three, however, the young 
man to the left, the woman, and the handsome effeminate-looking youth 
in the shadow seem to be borrowed from Titian or Van Dyck. In 
view of these anomalies, we cannot but concur in Dr. Bode's doubts 
as to the authenticity of this work, its harmonious colour and fine 


quality notwithstanding ; and we may add, in further justification of 
such doubts, that the signature and the date 1644 inscribed on the 
canvas are obvious forgeries. 

Though neither signed nor dated, the Vision of Daniel, purchased 
within the last few years from Sir Ed. Lechmere for the Berlin 
Museum, is, on the other hand, unquestionably the work of Rembrandt. 
Landscape plays an important part in the mysterious sublimity of 
the scene. A tower the same we noted in the Susanna rises 
against the pale gray sky from a base of perpendicular rock. Daniel 
has fallen forward on his face by the riverside, trembling with fear 
at the apparition of the strange beast on the opposite bank. The 
angel Gabriel stoops to raise him from the ground, and expounds the 
vision, pointing to the fantastic ram from which the young prophet 
averts his terrified gaze. A drawing in M. Bonnat's collection shows 
that Rembrandt took considerable pains to render the symbolic horns 
exactly as they are described in the text. He must have at last 
recognised the futility of his efforts, for after reiterated corrections and 
erasures he finally abandoned his attempt. But though his concep- 
tion of the beast is rather grotesque than terrible, its absurdity is more 
than redeemed by details such as the awe-struck face of Daniel, his 
attitude, and that of the consoling angel, the mysterious brightness 
which throws the two figures into strong relief against the brown 
tones of the surrounding landscape, and, finally, the skill with which 
the handling is adapted to the dimensions, The work remains, in 
spite of its defects, one of the most poetic of the master's creations at 
this period. 

The Christ appearing to the Magdalene, of the Brunswick Museum, 
dated 1651, is instinct with a charm still deeper and more penetrating. 
Here Rembrandt returns to the theme he had already treated in the 
Buckingham Palace picture, avoiding the various eccentricities we 
deprecated in the earlier work. In a beautiful drawing in the 
Stockholm Print Room he gives yet a third version of the episode. 
The scene as represented in the Brunswick canvas is, however, vastly 
more impressive. Alone, and dressed in mourning robes, abandoning 
herself to her despair, the Magdalene has fled the city, and drawn 

c 2 



by some strange prescience, has wandered into this desert spot, 
where the last faint rays of the setting sun gleam on rocks and 
stunted bushes. The Saviour draws near, touched by her devotion. 
Faint and weary, bearing in His feet and hands the bloody evidences 
of His passion, and on His face the marks of His protracted agony, 
He comes forth from the land of shadows. Wrapped in His winding- 
sheet of linen, He approaches the mourner, faithful when so many 

. ,*^Ln^Hr: 


Pen drawing with wash (M. Leon Uonnnl). 

failed. Mary endeavours to kiss the hem of His garment. She 
stretches forth detaining hands. But the Saviour's kingdom is 
not of this world. He does not repulse her, but, with a gesture of 
benevolent authority, pronounces the warning Noli me tangere. 
The two solitary figures, the one illuminated by the light that 
shines from the other, the vague outlines, the melancholy of the 
place and hour, the majesty of death, the ineffable fusion of love 
and awe, together with countless other traits, conceived with 
infinite delicacy, and rendered with matchless eloquence, appeal to 
the soul and move it to its uttermost depths. 



In the intervals of these important undertakings, Rembrandt painted 
a few portraits of friends, and fancy studies, such as the Minerva, 


About 1651 (I!. 270). 

in the Hermitage, which to judge by the breadth of the handling 
probably dates from about 1650. The goddess wears a helmet with 


an owl for crest, and grasps a shield. But for the working up of 
the impasto, and the harmonious intonations so characteristic of 
Rembrandt, the beauty and noble proportions of the figure might 
well lead us to suppose it the creation of some Italian master. 
Unhappily the picture has suffered considerably ; the buckler, which 
fills the lower part of the canvas, has become quite black. A portrait, 
or rather a study, painted about 1648 1650, claims a place of honour 
among the works of this period. This is the life-size three-quarters 
length of an old woman, bought by M. Seclelmeyer in Scotland, 
and now in M. J. Forges' collection in Paris. A large Bible lies 
upon her lap ; her left hand rests upon it, holding her spectacles. 
She seems to be musing on what she has just read. Her face is 
seamed with wrinkles, the gray hairs about her temples and broad 
forehead have become scanty ; her small eyes, reddened by frequent 
tears, are dim and sunken; but her ruddy lips and cheeks denote 
a temperament still vigorous and active. Her dress, though simple, 
is very picturesque. The execution, free and even careless in 
parts as, for instance, in the sleeves and the hastily painted hands 
is elaborately finished in the delicately modelled face, the head- 
dress, and notably in the fur, the tawny shades of which are treated 
with the utmost skill and precision. Save that the effect is richer, 
we recognise the same harmony of brilliant and varied reds and 
yellows melting into iron grays, the secret of which Maes learnt from 
the master, and turned to account in several fine works. But 
powerful drawing and glowing colour notwithstanding, the sitter's 
personality dominates the whole. The interest centres in the 
expression of the venerable face, the meditative gaze, the unstudied 
pathos of the gesture by which the simple old creature seems to 
proclaim the fervour of her faith, and the consoling influences of her 
favourite book. 

Among the small studies of heads painted towards this period 
are two more notable than the rest : the first that of a young man 
with a fresh complexion, a quantity of fair hair, and a soft and 
gentle expression (it belongs to Mr. Warneck), the second a 
study of an old man, belonging to Baron van Harinxma of 

Study of a Woman, seated. 

Pen Drawing, heightened with Sepia. 

(HI 111. Hll Hi... I h \,\ 111 .\Al.t-.) 

. > n. 

Printed by Berthaud, Paris (France). 


Leeuwarden. 1 Both are remarkable for the delicacy of their 
modelling, the brilliance of their high-toned flesh-tints, and a 
breadth of handling unusual in works of such small dimensions. 
In addition to several other portraits, of which we shall have more 
to say in due time, we may mention two studies of himself painted 
by Rembrandt at this period. The Leipzig Museum owns one, 
a bust, the head turned full to the spectator, in which the master 
wears a dark reel costume ; a large violet cap throws its shadow 
over the greater part of his face. The other, a more important 
work, signed, and dated 1650, belongs to the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge. As was so often his habit when making a study 
from himself, Rembrandt has somewhat disregarded the actual 
likeness, and it is hardly surprising that Waagen failed to recognise 
the painter in this portrait, which represents him in the martial 
trappings he affected in his earlier works. A broad-brimmed hat 
with feathers shades his face ; over his slashed crimson doublet he 
wears a heavy gold chain, a cuirass, and the inevitable steel gorget 
we have so often noted. One hand rests on the hilt of his 
sworcl, the other on his hip. The excellent condition of this picture 
enables the student fully to appreciate the charm of the chiaroscuro, 
and the masterly assurance of the frank, yet mellow touch. A 
more faithful transcript of the master's features at this period is to 
be found in an etching of 1648, the Portrait of Rembrandt drawing 
(B. 22). Here the painter has put off his lordly airs with his 
plumed cap, and represents himself in his working dress, a plain 
tunic open at the neck, and the rather high, narrow-brimmed hat 
which also figures in a drawing in Mr. Heseltine's collection. He 
is seated at a table, drawing by the light from an open casement, 
through which are seen the tops of distant trees. His features 
have aged considerably ; his forehead is covered with wrinkles ; his 
eyes, melancholy, but penetrating as ever, are fixed steadily 
on the model before him. This is a fine and impressive plate, 
though somewhat worn in the later impressions (there are ten 

1 This study, which is signed, and dated 1647, figured in the exhibition organised by 
the Pulchri Studio Club at the Hague in 1890. 


altogether). The earlier "states," though lacking the charm of 
many other portraits of the master, express more forcibly than 
any the keenness of his gaze, and the concentration he brought to 
bear on a task that demanded all his attention. 

The etchings of this period are to the full as important as the 
pictures. Their number, and the elaboration of some among them, 

explain the comparative 
rarity of Rembrandt's 
paintings in certain years, 
as for instance in 1649 
and 1651. His infinite 
variety both of subject and 
method attests the fertility 
of his imagination, and 
the flexible quality of his 
genius. We find him pass- 
ing in rapid succession 
from motive to motive of 
the most diverse charac- 
ter. He had always shown 
a deep interest in popular 
life and manners, recog- 
nising that among the 
lower orders, the expres- 
sion of feeling is vigorous 
and natural in proportion 

to its lack of refinement. The little plate of 1646, the Old Beg- 
garwoman (B. 170), leaning on a staff, her right hand extended, 
as if asking alms, reproduces both the figure and attitude of the 
old woman in the Little Spanish Gipsy (B. 120), a plate executed 
about this period ; it is said, as an illustration for a Dutch play, 
borrowed from the Spanish stage, which was then popular in 
Amsterdam. 1 

1648 (T,. 176). 

1 The evidence on this point is by no means conclusive. The play, however, was 
published by the title Het Leven van Konstance ; Amsterdam, 1643. 


In 1648 he returned to those types of beggars and poor persons 
which had inspired so many of his early plates, and closed the series 
by a masterpiece, the Beggars at the Door of a House (B. 1/6), an 
etching in which the most vivid and striking effect is won by means 
of a few strokes. Four ragged figures a boy, an old man, and a 
woman with a baby on her back -stand shivering in their patched 


Pen drawing (Herlin Print Room). 

garments at the threshold of an open door, awaiting, with the 
patient resignation of the wretched, the alms a benevolent-looking 
man smilingly bestows upon them. As our readers will note on 
examination, every stroke tells in this plate, the richness of which 
is obtained by the most simple means. The touch, full of an in- 
telligent sobriety, reproduces not merely the outline of objects, but 
their textures and quality, with unerring precision. A plate closely 
allied to this in execution is the Jews Synagogue (B. 126), of the 


same year (1648), the scene and strongly marked types of which 
Rembrandt no doubt studied in the vicinity of his own house, close 
to the Breestraat. 

At this period, as throughout his career, Rembrandt drew his 
subjects largely from the Bible. We need not linger over the little 
plate of 1647, the Rest in Egypt (B. 57), nor, though this is 
more important, over the Christ on the Cross between the two 
Thieves (B. 79) of the preceding year. Both were merely pretexts for 
studies of light somewhat hurriedly treated. This brings us to 1649, a 
year in which we shall not be surprised to find the list of pictures 
painted by the master a very scanty one. It was made memorable by 
one great creation, the fame of which suffices to glorify, as the labour 
of execution sufficed to occupy it. This was the celebrated plate, 
Christ Healing the Sick (B, 74), better known as The Hundred 
Crinlder Piece. Rembrandt made several studies for this plate, the 
most remarkable of which are the reversed drawing of the central 
group of sufferers, in the Berlin Print Room, and the drawing of the 
camel to the right, in M. Bonnat's collection. By this careful pre- 
paration the order and clarity of the conception were perfectly 
preserved, and in spite of the multiplicity of episodes, the effect is 
simple and coherent. Beauty of execution seems to have reached its 
highest point in the finer impressions of the plate. Rembrandt was 
now in full possession of his artistic resources. He made use of an 
infinity of processes, combining and opposing them, not in foolish pride 
of technical accomplishment, but as a means towards the highest ex- 
pressive quality. He loads one portion of the plate with those intense 
velvety blacks of which he alone possessed the secret, making every 
detail legible through the deep, yet transparent shadow. In another 
part the execution is extremely slight, the delicate strokes seeming to 
melt into the high lights. The master was able to correct and work 
upon his plates in such a manner as to re-inforce their unity. By 
means of a learned system of preparation and re-touching, he trans- 
formed them, bringing out new and unexpected beauties. The strokes 
of the needle are so placed as never to quite conceal what is beneath, 
and the darkest parts are never blind or impenetrable. The methods 


by which he emphasises the more essential features of his subject are 
such as genius alone could devise. Note, for instance, the consum- 
mate art of the grouping in this Hundred Guilder Piece. To the left 
are the spectators of the miracle, Pharisees and unbelievers, the types 
of self-sufficiency and rancour, jealous of those worldly interests and 
conventional creeds the Saviour's teaching seems to threaten. They 
dog His steps, secretly hoping to find some fault in Him, and exchange 
virulent criticisms among themselves. Some there are, however, who 
seem to hesitate, half-convinced, awaiting the manifestation that shall 
determine their doubts and compel their adhesion. On the right we 
see the crowd of sufferers the sick, the insane every type of human 
pain and misery. They too follow Jesus, but in no contentious spirit. 
They suffer, and they hope for healing. From every side they hasten 
to the Saviour's feet some limping, or dragging themselves on 
crutches ; others brought by friends on wheelbarrows or stretchers ; 
some crawling painfully on hands and knees. They press eagerly 
around Him, imploring help by word and gesture. A deep and 
beautiful significance is added to the conception by the disposal of the 
sceptics and false teachers in the full daylight, and of the sick and 
afflicted suppliants in dense shadow. " An antithesis superb alike 
in its moral truth and artistic effect," as Vosmaer says, and due 
to no puerile straining after dramatic contrast, but to " a perception 
of life and art of the utmost truth and delicacy." By a skilful dis- 
tribution of the half-tones the two groups are brought together in a 
series of modulated gradations, which obviate all the harshness 
of violent contrast. Prominent in the midst of the two groups 
the Saviour stands, His face radiant with serene compassion and 
tenderness, a figure at once gentle and commanding, to which the 
eye is immediately attracted as the central point of interest in the 

It was natural that Rembrandt should bestow the utmost care on 
all the mechanical aids to such a work as this. Just as he chose the 
wood for his panels, and superintended the preparation of his colours, 
so he printed his etchings on the papers best fitted to bring out the 
perfection of his work. He procured specimens of those he considered 


most suitable from the country in which such manufactures have been 
brought to the highest point of perfection, and occasionally experi- 
mented on vellum, but for choice, made use of China or Japanese 
paper, the supple, resisting quality of which material heightened the 
delicate effect of his workmanship. He invariably printed his etchings 
himself, with such variety in the processes employed, that it is rare to 
find two perfectly similar impressions from the same plate. In many 
instances, the differences resulting from his method of spreading the 
ink, and wiping away sometimes more, sometimes less of the fluid 
before pulling, have caused it to be supposed that the various impres- 
sions were, in fact, distinct states. By thus undertaking the more 
mechanical processes, which others were content to leave to subordin- 
ates, Rembrandt gave them a peculiar aesthetic quality, and the finer 
impressions of his works soon came to be highly prized by amateurs. 
None were more eagerly sought after than the Hundred Guilder 
prints, which fetched comparatively high prices as soon as they were 
completed. Many of these have passed from one famous collection to 
another ; they have their distinctive titles, and have risen steadily in 
value with years. In spite of the tradition, however, it does not 
appear that the print actually sold for a hundred guilders (a sum equal 
to about eight guineas) in Rembrandt's lifetime. An old inscription 
on the back of an impression of the first state in the Vienna Print 
Room mentions forty-eight florins as the price given for the sixth 
impression. It may be, as M. Dutuit suggests, that Rembrandt 
valued the print at a hundred guilders in exchanging it with his friend 
Zoomer for some engravings by Marc Antonio. But its market 
value has greatly increased since the beginning of the present 
century. Only nine impressions of the first state exist. Of these, 
one, formerly in the Zoomer collection, was bought by M. Dutuit 
in 1868 for _i,ioo (27,500 francs). 1 

After a task of such magnitude, in which the demands both on 

1 And another, which had been Mr. Ho/ford's, was sold at Christie's in July, 1893, 
for ;i,75. More encouraging yet, because it was a sign of the admiration excited by 
fine subject and fine impression, independent of " state," was the price obtained at Sotheby's 
in 1892, for the impression which had belonged to that admirable amateur, Mr. Richard 
Fisher. F, IV, 


genius and industry were so severe, Rembrandt naturally sought 
relaxation. The etchings that immediately followed are little more 
than careless sketches, hastily drawn on the copper, though even in 
these the progress made by the master is manifest. Three among 
them, it is true, the Flight into Egypt of 1651 (B. 53); the Star 
of the Kings (B. 113) and the Adoration of the Shepherds (B. 46), 
probably of the same year, are night-pieces, in which the darkness 
is relieved by occasional gleams of brilliant light ; but the opacity 
of the shadows betrays the haste of the treatment. The Triumph 
of Mordccai (B. 40), a plate of about the same period, is almost as 
summary in execution, and is merely a picturesque motive, of slight 
importance, while the fantastic composition of the Funeral of 
Jesiis (B. 86) is rendered more startling by the coarse handling. 
But other plates of this period are models of pregnant concision in 
their deliberate reticence of treatment. In his fresh and novel pre- 
sentments of familiar episodes, Rembrandt reveals both the fertility of 
his imagination, and the increase of his experimental knowledge. In 
the Nativity (B. 45) he shows us the Shepherds advancing with 
reverent curiosity to the rude manger ; the cattle in the background 
seem to unite with them in wondering homage. In the Jesus 
disputing with the Doctors in the Temple (B. 65) we see the Divine 
Child alone among the elders, baffling their perfidious questions, 
and confounding their boasted wisdom by the ingenuity of His 
replies. In the Jesus Christ in the midst of His Disciples of 
1650 (B. 89), we note the various emotions amazement, incredulity 
and rapture roused in the minds of the disciples by the sacred 

Rembrandt's powers are even more brilliantly manifested in two Old 
Testament subjects of this period. The David on his Knees of 1652 
(B. 41) combines extreme simplicity of technique with a most masterly 
precision. Under the magic touch of the Master's burin, common- 
place objects take on an indescribable colour and charm. The Tobit 
Blind (1651 ; B. 42) has not only these qualities, but the further 
beauty of admirable composition. The wonderfully natural gesture 
of the old man, who gropes his way with his stick and his 


disengaged hand, recalls the attitude of Elymas the sorcerer in 
Raphael's cartoon. 1 

Two other etchings of this period are perhaps more typical 
examples, in that they deal with effects of light. Turning to very 
novel account the most subtle of the picturesque elements in Nature, 
he found methods of expression no less varied than powerful in the 
treatment of chiaroscuro. By means of strong contrasts of light and 
shadow he succeeded in rendering or suggesting those supernatural 
phenomena which art had been powerless to express before his 
advent. The Doctor Faustus of 1651 (B. 2/0) attests Rembrandt's 
continued preoccupation with the problems of chiaroscuro he had 
attacked in the Christ with /he Disciples at Enimaits and the Hundred 
Guilder Piece. The mysterious element in such a subject as the 
Doctor Faustus was of a nature to appeal strongly to the master. 
Standing at a table in his laboratory, surrounded by the paraphernalia 
of his art, the doctor looks with fixed attention at the apparition he has 
conjured up, a mirror containing a cabalistic inscription, wherein the 
name Adam appears together with the title /;/;'/ in fiery letters. 
There is no touch of fear on his refined and intelligent features. The 
expression is marked only by eager curiosity. The old man is 
evidently an adept for whom the black art has lost its terrors. 

In a more important plate of two years later, the Three Crosses 
(1653 ; B. 78), a more pathetic effect is won from the arrangement 
of light. The stormy grandeur of the composition is in perfect 
harmony with the character of the scene. The trembling earth, the 
riven clouds, the flashing rays of light, the universal tumult of the 
elements, blend into unity with the agitation of the crowd, their grief, 
terror, adoration, or hatred, the wild flood of human emotions that 
surged about the foot of the Cross. The very contrasts of execution 
seem but a natural echo of the outburst of contending passions. 
While some of the details are finished with the utmost elaboration, 
others, as, for instance, the horse ridden by one of the soldiers, and 

1 Rembrandt's Tobit was no sudden inspiration. It was preceded by the Blind Man 
seen from behind (B. 153), a plate probably executed in 1630, in which the gesture and 
movement are very characteristic, though the conception is greatly inferior to the Tobit in 
style, and even in truth. 




the guard who has dismounted, are so slightly sketched as to give 
an effect of incoherence, or even of an almost childish awkwardness. 
The master's hand would seem to have followed the workings of his 
imagination with a feverish eagerness that impelled him to leave 
his work unfinished, and trust to the sympathy of the spectator for 
its due completion. Anxious, however, to carry his interpretation 
of the text as far as possible, Rembrandt deepened the shadows 
very considerably in the after states of this plate, finally drowning 
all the details in complete darkness. 

The Christ preaching (B. 67), a plate worthy to rank beside the 
Hundred Guilder Piece, though somewhat smaller in dimensions, brings 
this series to an end. Executed about 1652, it was generally known, 
perhaps even in Rembrandt's lifetime, and certainly soon, after his 
death, as The Little Tomb (Tombisch plaatgen), probably because it 
became the property of a friend of Rembrandt's named Jacob de la 
Tombe. The full maturity of the master's genius is expressed in 
every feature in the impressive aspect of the whole, the frankness 
of the effect, the happy balance of masses, the animation and variety 
of expression, the ease and precision of the handling. Familiar 
types abound in the composition ; many of the faces are vulgar, 
some of the attitudes incorrect. But these seem only to accentuate 
the ideal beauty of the Saviour, and the majesty of His bearing. 
Rembrandt's type of Jesus at this period a face of singular nobility, 
with brown hair and beard, and eyes at once soft and piercing- 
ma)' be recognised in the admirable study of a head in M. Rodolphe 
Kann's collection, probably painted about 1652. In his conceptions 
of the divine figure, Rembrandt loved to dwell on the infinitely 
human and compassionate aspects of His personality. His Christ is 
the apostle and martyr of Charity, the Christ of the rough manger, 
the cottage home of Nazareth, the supper at Emmaus. He dwells 
among the poor, the despised, the afflicted. We have seen him 
healing their diseases ; we now behold Him ministering to their 
souls. The master expresses the Saviour's love and mercy in accents 
of deep conviction, the candid simplicity of which confounded the 
devotees of accepted traditions. Rembrandt's visions have an inward- 


ness all their own, and the emotions he seeks to inspire lie beyond the 
regions of convention. His own heart was profoundly touched by them j 
they haunted his solitary and dreamy mind, filling it so completely 
that the occasional grotesqueness of his conceptions escaped his 
notice, and he was hardly aware that his characters lacked nobility 
and distinction, or that their costumes were often fantastic and 
inappropriate. But his sincerity was absolute, and eager to declare 
to us new things of subjects apparently exhausted, he turned to 
novel and untried methods. He created a style a style compounded 
of diffidence and audacity, of ingenuity and knowledge, a purely 
personal style, yet one which his genius, at once positive and 
speculative, never definitively adopted, so strong were those early- 
prepossessions, from which even his passionate desire for perfection 
never completely detached him. 

1652 (B. 65). 


About 1648 (IJ. 223). 






EM BRANDT'S painted and engraved 
portraits of this period have a peculiar 
interest, as affording us an insight 
into his friendships and course of life. One 
of these, the portrait of an elderly man, 
dated 1650, which Dr. Bredius bought not 
long since in England, he thinks may very 
probably represent Rembrandt's brother, 
Adriaen, the quondam shoemaker, who took 
over the mill after his father's death. The 
face, with its broad nose, vigorous features, 
and moustache, is not unlike Rembrandt's 
several other works by the master, as, for 
instance, in the full face study of a head, engraved by Schmidt 
in a study of a man in a helmet, which passed from France 
to America in 1890, and in one of Rembrandt's latest pic- 
VOL n. D 


Pen drawing (British Museum). 

and grizzled hair 
own. It figures 




tures, the Workers in the Vineyard of the Wallace collection. 1 
M. Kann's study is carried out in brown transparent glazes upon a 
light ground ; the impasto is rich and loaded in the lights, and 
the effect of the rapid, but masterly touch is singularly brilliant. 
In the etching of Jan Cornelisz Sylvius we have the portrait of 
another member of the artist's family. Rembrandt, we know, had 
already etched Sylvius' portrait in 1633 or 1634. For the plate 
of 1646 (B. 280), executed eight years after the minister's death, 
he used a drawing made in Sylvius' life-time, and also a sketch 
(in the British Museum) in which, with a few hasty strokes, he 
decided upon the arrangement of the figure. Saskia's cousin is 
represented full face. He turns over the leaves of a book with 
his left hand ; his right is outstretched as if to emphasise a solemn 
declaration of faith. Around the oval enframing the bust is an 
inscription, giving the dates of Sylvius' birth and death, and a list 
of his various pastorates. Some Latin verses by Van Baerle and 
Scriverius printed below proclaim his virtues, and attest the holiness 
of his life and his entire devotion to his ministerial office. We 
may therefore conclude that the print was a pious souvenir, executed 
for the friends of the good minister, and those he had converted 
by his preaching, or edified by his example. No fitter hand than 
Rembrandt's could have paid this last homage to the beloved 
relative, who had always shown him the most cordial kindness. 

The other portraits with which we are now concerned are 
those of Rembrandt's friends, or of artists with whom he was 
intimate at this period. First among them is the likeness of the 
physician, Ephraim Bueno or Bonus. 2 Bonus was the son of a 
distinguished physician and belonged to the community of 

Portuguese Jews at Amsterdam, where civic rights were conferred 
on him in 1651. Himself an eminent savant, he had evidently 
a taste for the society of artists ; a few years later, Lievens 
etched a fine portrait of him (B. 56). Rembrandt's plate is dated 

1 It has been suggested that the head of a man, one of several sketches on a single 
plate (B. 370), among them a group of beggars etched in 1631, was drawn from this same 
model. But this head is evidently a study of Rembrandt himself. Its likeness to the 
Rembrandt drawing (B. 22), for instanc?, is unmistakable. 

2 See Vol. I. page 85. 


1647 (B. 2 ?8), and represents Ephraim in a meditative attitude, 
his hand on the balustrade of a staircase. As is the case in several 
of Rembrandt's portraits, 1 the arm on which he leans seems 
disproportionately short ; but the head, with its melancholy expression 
and thoughtful gaze, is full of a pensive intelligence. It is not 
unlikely that Ephraim attended Rembrandt or some member of 
his family, and that the master, in acknowledgment of his services, 
painted the little portrait in the Six collection, from which the 
etching was made. The composition is reversed in the latter, 
but the dimensions are almost identical. Another doctor, J. 
Antonides van cler Linden, whose portrait (B. 264) Rembrandt 
etched about 1652 1653, was a professor at the University of 
Franeker. He enlarged and re-organised the botanical gardens of 
the town, and Vosmaer supposes Rembrandt to have had this 
benefaction in his mind when he represented the doctor in a 
garden. It may be, however, that the master considered such a 
background the most favourable for the head of the Professor, 
who is painted in his official costume, a gown with a broad velvet 
collar. Another plate of about the same period (B. 282) is 
devoted to one of Rembrandt's earliest patrons and most faithful 
friends, the writing-master Coppenol. The apparent age of the 
sitter is about fifty-five, and Coppenol, we know, was born in 
1598. He is seated beneath a window, his head turned towards 
the spectator, a complacent expression on his full, round face. 
Over his closely cropped hair he wears a black skull-cap. Two 
wooden squares and a pair of compasses hang beside the window. 
His plump, well-shaped hands rest on a sheet of paper ; he holds 
in the right a long goose-quill, with which he has just completed 
a capital letter. A boy behind him looks admiringly at his 
master's work. Coppenol had no mean opinion of himself, and 
under several impressions, both of this plate and of a later portrait 
by Rembrandt, he wrote, in fine, bold characters, verses in his 
own praise by contemporary poets. Coppenol, however, has a 
claim on our sympathies in spite of his weaknesses. He was one 
of the first to encourage Rembrandt's youthful efforts, and was 

1 See the portraits of Jan Lutma, Old Haaring, and Coppenol. 

D 2 


constant when many others abandoned [him. The writing-master 
was also a lover of the arts. In the third state of the above 
etching Rembrandt placed a triptych of the Crucifixion on the 
wall beside him, no doubt in allusion to his tastes. 


Pen drawing (British Museum). 

Jan Six, whose whole length portrait Rembrandt etched in 1647 
(B. 285), was an amateur of higher pretensions. His house was a 
museum of beautiful things. He was a bibliophile, and possessed 
a choice collection of engravings, drawings, and pictures by the 


most famous Dutch and Italian masters. His acquaintance with 

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1646 (13. 280). 

Rembrandt dated from 1641 at latest, for we know that the 
master painted his mother's portrait in that year ; a close intimacy 


had gradually grown up between them. Six's wife, Margaretha, 
whom he married in 1655, Rembrandt had, no doubt, often met in 
the house of her father, his early patron Dr. Tulp. Of Rembrandt's 
genius Six had the highest opinion. He gave substantial proof of 
his admiration by advancing a sum of money to the master in 
1653, on Van Ludik's security. A year after the execution of the 
etching of 1647, he commissioned Rembrandt to undertake another, 
the plate of which is still in the possession of the Six family. This 
was the Marriage of Jason and Crcnsa, (B. 112), a picturesque 
rendering of one of the principal episodes of Six's tragedy Medea. 1 
Some years later (about 1658-1660) Rembrandt was further 
commissioned to paint the fine portrait of the Burgomaster with 
which we shall deal more fully in a future chapter. 

Several pictures by Rembrandt appear in the catalogue of 
Six's collections, which were sold on April 6, 1702, after his 
death. They included Lord Dudley's grisaille, the Preaching of 
JoJin the Baptist, a portrait of Saskia, " of remarkable grace and 
vigour," and the "charming" little picture of 1646 already described, 
Abraham entertaining the Angels. It is evident that Rembrandt was 
anxious to please the distinguished amateur who showed him so 
much kindness. Before embarking upon the plate, he painted the 
preliminary study of the head now in M. Bonnat's collection. In 
arrangement it agrees almost exactly with the etching, though the 
composition is reversed. But his very anxiety militated against the 
complete success of his work. The task he set himself when he 
posed his sitter with his back against an open window, his head 
in relief on a light background of sky, was at once difficult and 
ungrateful. In spite of the great beauty of the execution, the 
contrasts between the dark shadows and the white of the paper are 
too strongly marked, save in a few of the finest impressions, such 
as one of the second state in the Print Room of the Louvre. 

The various accessories by which the master indicates his sitter's 
tastes are barely distinguishable. Some books, a sword and sword- 

1 There seems to be no ground for the assertion that the plate was intended to figure 
as an illustration in the volume containing the tragedy : Medee, Treurspel ; Amsterdam, 


belt are laid on a bench behind him. A picture in an ebony frame 
hangs against the wall. The modelling of the head is far from fault- 
less, and, in the portions nearest the light, depth and transparency 
are entirely destroyed by the over-loading of the shadows. 

It would be difficult, on the other hand, to conceive of work- 
manship more delicate, expressive, and intelligent than that of the 
Portrait of Clement de Jonghc, dated 1651 (B. 272). The famous 
publisher's shop was one of the best known and most widely 
patronised among those of the printsellers and art-dealers of the 
Kalverstraat, and Rembrandt's passion for collecting naturally 
brought about a considerable traffic between the two, both in the 
way of purchase and of exchange. The inventory of Clement de 
Jonghe's effects, drawn up after his death, and dated February IT, 
1679, includes seventy-four etchings by Rembrandt. This catalogue 
is of peculiar interest, as giving the titles by which the plates were 
commonly known in Rembrandt's time. The authenticity of several 
among them has been confirmed by means of these titles, and the 
identity of the sitters established, as in the case of the portraits of 
Rembrandt's father and mother, his son Titus, and others. In the 
etching of 1651 De Jonghe is represented sitting in an elbow-chair, 
wrapped in a loose cloak, and wearing a broad-brimmed hat, which 
throws a shadow over his face. The characteristic expression 
the astute air of one versed in all the subtleties of art- traffic are 
rendered with inimitable ease and sobriety. The portrait is one of 
Rembrandt's very finest prints. We can recall none in which the 
facility, concision, and breadth of the technique bear more eloquent 
testimony to the ripeness of the master's power. 

At the sales he was in the habit of frequenting, the meetings for 
the appraisement of works of art to which painters were often 
summoned in those days, the shops of dealers such as De Jonghe 
and Johannes de Renialme, the houses of his cousin Hendrick 
van Uylenborch, of Fransz, and of those collectors who, like Marten 
Kretzer and Herman Becker, combined a certain unofficial traffic 
in pictures with their other avocations, 1 Rembrandt must often 

1 See Dr. Bredius' interesting study, De Kunsthandel te Amsterdam in de XVII. Eeuw, 
in the Amsterdamsch Jaarboeckje, 1891. 


have encountered Claes Berchem. Berchem, who was born at 
Haarlem in 1620, had settled early in his career at Amsterdam. 


1651 (B. 272). 
(Etching : first state.) 

Like Rembrandt, he was a collector mainly of Italian prints and 
drawings, for which he occasionally paid high prices. Houbraken 
tells us that he gave sixty florins for Marc Antonio's Massacre of 


the Innocents, after Raphael. Tastes such as this, his devotion to 
his art, and his enthusiasm for Italy, the picturesque scenery of 
which he loved to paint, were all strong recommendations to 
Rembrandt's favour and friendship. An intimacy soon sprang- \-p 
between the two, slight as were their artistic affinities. In Berchem's 
studio Rembrandt may very possibly have encountered another 
landscape-painter, one whose art was more purely Dutch than 
Berchem's, and whose 
sincerity and poetic tem- 
perament had more in 
common with the mas- 
ter's own genius. The 
attraction between Jacob 
van Ruysdael and Rem- 
brandt must, it is natural 
to suppose, have been a 
strong one. Like Rem- 
brandt, Ruysdael lived 
apart, indifferent to the 
suffrages of his contem- 
poraries. At the time 
we are now considering, 
he was in the habit of 
requisitioning Berchem's 
facile brush for the fig- 
ures and animals in his 
landscapes. No trace of 
the relations that may 
have existed between the two greatest of the Dutch masters has sur- 
vived. But Rembrandt's friendship with Berchem is formally attested 
by the master's portraits of the landscape-painter and his wife, painted 
in 1647, an d now in the Duke of Westminster's collection. Berchem, 
who was twenty-seven years old at this date, wears a broad-brimmed 
hat, and a black costume, relieved by a flat turn-down collar, the 
whiteness of which accentuates the olive tint of his complexion. A 
quantity of black hair surrounds his delicately-featured face ; a black 


1651 (H. 272). 
(Ktching; third state.) 


beard, and a curling black moustache enhance the vigour of the manly 
head. The wife's frank eyes and fresh complexion, her simple dress, 
the absence of all jewelry save the wedding ring on one of the short, 
serviceable hands, proclaim her an honest, notable soul, full of sound 
sense and housewifely instincts. Rembrandt shows himself at his ease 
with this excellent couple. The broad, yet careful handling, and the 
charm of expression in the two portraits indicate a labour of love. 

One of Rembrandt's finest etched portraits dates from this same 
year and was inspired by another of the Italianisers, the landscape- 
painter Jan Asselyn (11 277). He wears a cloak, thrown jauntily over 
his shoulder and fastened round the waist with a sash. His left hand 
is placed on his hip, his right rests on the table against which he stands. 
In the first state of the etching there is an easel behind him, with one 
of his landscapes upon it ; but this Rembrandt afterwards effaced, no 
doubt because it detracted somewhat from the effect produced by the 

The long, regular features have a candid, open expression. Rem- 
brandt skilfully conceals a deformity of his model's hands by means of 
a pair of gloves. Asselyn is said to have suffered from a distortion of 
the fingers which won him the nickname of Crabbetjc (little crab) 
among the Dutch painters in Rome. He lived for a considerable time 
in Italy, where he came under the influence of Jan Miel and Pieter de 
Laar. Passing through Lyons on his return to Holland in 1645, he 
married the daughter of an Antwerp merchant settled in that city. At 
this date he was thirty-five years old. He had just established himself 
in Amsterdam when Rembrandt etched this portrait. 

Other landscape-painters whose names are not to be found in the 
list of Rembrandt's sitters were nevertheless among his closest friends. 
Although he took pleasure in the society of some among the Italian- 
i-ers, his sympathies rather inclined him to the more original artists 
whose genius was essentially Dutch. We learn from Houbraken that 
the almost forgotten master, Roelandt Roghman, was his closest friend. 
The two had many points of contact. They were united by a common 
devotion to their art, a similarity of sentiment and tastes, and later, by 
their brotherhood in adversity. An ardent student of Nature, as his 
numerous studies of the ruined castles, churches, and monasteries which 


abounded in Holland sufficiently prove, 1 Roghman had a fondness 
for the brown tones affected by Rembrandt, and in his com- 
position and his treatment of chiaroscuro occasionally approached 
the master so closely that his works have been attributed to 
Rembrandt. The two large landscapes signed with his mono- 
gram in the Cassel Gallery long passed for the work of the greater 
master. This ascription was supported by the adroit modification of the 
monogram by a forger. In the fine Hilly Landscape in the Oldenburg 
Museum, signed with Roghman's name in full, a work we take to be 
his masterpiece, the effort is more concentrated ; the colour, though no 
less harmonious, has greater brilliance and variety, and the blue sky, 
with its floating white clouds, blends very happily with the warm, trans- 
parent tones of the landscape. Roghman, who had travelled much, 
was also an engraver, and has left a considerable number of plates, 
among them two sets of views, one of places in the neighbourhood of 
Amsterdam, the other of the most picturesque spots in Holland. 2 

There is a higher art and a deeper study of nature in his set of 
landscapes illustrating the scenery of the Wood, near the Hague, which 
occasionally suggest Ruysdael. For Roghman, his senior by some ten 
years, Rembrandt had a warm affection. Jan Grifficr, a pupil of the 
elder master, is said to have deserted his studio, and to have presented 
himself to Rembrandt, begging to be enrolled among his scholars. 
Rembrandt, however, promptly dismissed him, declaring himself too 
much attached to Roghman to steal away his pupils. Neglected by his 
contemporaries, the unfortunate Roghman found himself at last com- 
pletely abandoned. He remarked, with pardonable bitterness, that 
" he had gained knowledge and experience only to find that he had no 
use for them." Poverty overtook him in his old age. He was reduced 
to the shelter of an almshouse in 1686, and died there, having survived 
his friend many years. 

Hercules Seghers, a landscape-painter even more unfortunate than 
Roghman, was no less generously appreciated by Rembrandt. It 

1 Many of these drawings are in the Six collection, the Teyler Museum, and the 
Amsterdam Print Room, and have an historic interest apart from their great facility of 

" Plaisante Lantschappen na tLeven geteeckendt door Roelant Roghman^ gedruckt by 



seems unlikely, however, that there was much intercourse between the 
two, taking into account the difference in their respective ages. The 
date of Seghers' birth is not known, but he was practising in Amster- 
dam so early as 1607, and traces of him are to be found from time to 
time till 1630. By virtue no less of his aspirations than of his actual 
achievements, Seghers deserves to rank among those pioneers who led 

the way to the emancipa- 
tion of Dutch art, and 
proclaimed its true voca- 
tion. After a life of con- 
stant struggle with poverty 
he was reduced to selling 
his plates at starvation 
prices, and even to cutting 
them up in order to make 
some trifling profit on 
them. His prints were 
mainly appreciated by his 
grocer and fruiterer, who 
used them to wrap up 
their goods. His misfor- 
tunes seem to have per- 
sisted, even beyond the 
grave, for all his works 
have disappeared, with the 
exception of two pictures, 

the Dutch Landscape in the Berlin Museum, a wide plain with a 
distant town beside a canal, and the fine landscape in the Uffizi, 
known as The Storm, and long ascribed to Rembrandt. 1 

Yet Seghers was one of the most prolific artists of his day. No 
less than thirty-six of his pictures, some among them of considerable 
importance, appear in the inventory of Johannes de Renialme's effects, 
dated 1644. Both in his pictures and engravings Seghers foreshadows 


About 1653 (B. 264). 

1 Its restitution to Seghers was due to Dr. Bode. An engraving of this landscape, 
bearing Seghers' name, has lately come to light, confirming Dr. Bode's pronouncement. 



those panoramic expanses of plains and waters, of alternate bands of 
light and shadow, the picturesque aspects of which were afterwards 
more fully developed by Vermeer of Haarlem, and Philips de Koninck. 
As an engraver Seghers was an experimentalist, eager to improve and 
extend the resources of his art. He attempted, not without a certain 
measure of success, to invent a process for printing in colours on pre- 
pared paper or stuffs, and exasperated his wife by requisitioning the 
scanty household linen for his experiments, the variety of which is at- 
tested by the rich collection of examples in the. Ryksmuseum. They 


Pell drawing, heightened with sepia (Heseltille Collection). 

consist for the most part of views in the Tyrol, the skies slightly tinted, 
the brown tones of the rocks relieved by the greenish-blues of the 
backgrounds. Absorbed in such researches, the poor artist sank deeper 
and deeper into difficulties, and finally sought solace for his misfortunes 
in drink. He is said to have been killed by a fall from the top of a 
staircase. Rembrandt was naturally attracted by efforts so interesting 
and suggestive. He professed the warmest admiration for Seghers' 
talents, and we know from his inventory that he owned six of his 
pictures, one a very important example. He also possessed Seghers' 
plate, of Tobias and the Angel, which it occurred to him to improve by 
certain modifications. He accordingly replaced the original group 


by a Flight into Egypt (B. 56) the Virgin with the Infant Jesus in 
her arms, seated on an ass led by St. Joseph. Dissatisfied with the 
result, however, he threw it aside without signature. 1 

Rembrandt's relations with these landscape-painters, and his 
admiration for their works, attest his deep love of nature. As yet 
uncertain of his own course, his allegiance was divided between 
the devotees of Italian convention and the more purely Dutch artists. 
Sincere and exact as he always showed himself in his studies from 
nature, he continued to draw occasionally upon his imagination, and 
to group the picturesque elements of his works in a somewhat 
arbitrary fashion. A small night-piece dated 1647, formerly in 
Sir Henry Hoare's collection, and lately purchased for the Dublin 
Gallery, is remarkable for its transparent shadows, and mysterious 
serenity of sentiment. The subject is The Holy Family resting in 
Egypt.- The fugitives, surrounded by animals, are seated near a fire, 
the light of which is reflected in a quiet pool in the foreground. The 
picture is little more than a sketch, founded on a composition of 
Elsheimer's, to which the master has added a breadth and poetry all his 
own. In 77/6' Ruin, a landscape in the Cassel Museum, painted about 
1650, Rembrandt returns to the complex and somewhat incoherent 
composition of his early landscapes. The various details the 
windmill, carefully sheltered from the wind, and planted on the bank 
of a running stream, the boat with flags, the swan, the little horseman 
in a red cloak, and a huge turban, the unmistakably Italian mountains, 
and the purely Dutch cottages, the foaming cascades, and the temple 
of Tivoli, rising from a precipitous rock all are familiar to us, not 
only in Rembrandt's own works, but in those of the Italianisers from 
whom he borrowed. These details he gleaned from many an 
engraving and drawing, blending them into fantastic unity in one 
picture. His own originality found scope only in the masterly 
treatment of general effect, in the instinctive subordination of values 
to the main harmony, and in the powerful, but delicately adjusted 
contrasts between the high tones of the sky, and the strong tints of the 

1 Seghers' plate itself was only a copy, with very slight modifications, of an engraving 
executed in 1613 by Count Goudt, the friend of Elsheimer. 

2 // wmld seem to be rather a Bivouac of Shepherds. F. IV. 


landscape. In the Landscape with Swans, which belongs to Madame 
Lacroix, a work of about the same period, the composition, though 
superficially simpler, is no less complex. A group of lofty trees, the 
outline of which we recognise in many other drawings by Rembrandt ; 
a bridge, towards which a carriage full of people advances ; in the 
foreground, a dark pool on which arc two swans, and a small boat ; 
under some trees to the right a flaming forge and a blacksmith at 
work ; in the background, a confused mass of slopes, towers, windmills, 
aqueducts, a village, etc. make up a somewhat bewildering sum of 
details. It must be allowed however that there are no incongruous 
elements in the scene, the effect of daylight is skilfully rendered, and 
the golden tones of the background melt into pleasant harmony with 
the pale blues of the luminous sky. The canvas is not in absolutely 
first-rate condition, but is on the whole fairly well preserved, and 
the general effect is brilliant and animated. The latest of these 
painted landscapes, the Windmill, formerly in the Orleans collection, 
and now at Bowood, is the masterpiece of the whole series. It may 
possibly be a composition, but this it would be difficult to determine 
from the arrangement, and the general effect, which is still more 
homogeneous than that of the Landscape with Swans, has all the 
appearance of a direct inspiration from nature. A windmill surrounded 
by a few cottages rises from a hillock above a watercourse. The 
lower part only is illuminated. The outline is relieved against a wild 
and stormy sky. The sun has sunk below the horizon, but his last 
rays gild the broad wings of the mill ; below, the water, the banks and 
the distant landscape melt into the gathering shadows ; a silence, as 
of advancing night, broods upon the scene. The spectator seems to 
hear the beat of water against some boat at anchor, and the furtive 
flight of an unseen bird in the thicket. A solemn calm descends 
upon the earth. Here the details are better chosen and less 
complicated ; and instead of distracting the attention, they enhance 
the melancholy poetry of the landscape. Rembrandt's studies were 
bearing fruit. He dared to be simple, to reject those complexities 
and artifices which had no part in nature, and to rely on realities 
for his effects. At no period of his career do his drawings and 
etchings furnish stronger proofs of his constant and sincere 

4 8 


communion with nature. As was his invariable habit, he turned 
his attention to the things and events he saw around him. On 
the /th of July, 1652, the Town-hall of Amsterdam was partially 
destroyed by fire. On the gth of the same month he made a drawing 
of the ruins (Heseltine collection), a most minute and careful study, 
as we find by comparing it with a picture by T. Beerstraten, in the 


1648 (li. 2 77 ). 

Ryksmuseum, painted from a similar point of view. In his occasional 
wanderings outside the city the most humble spots attracted him. 
In the presence of nature, no matter in how lowly a guise, he seemed 
to disregard the promptings of his own exuberant imagination, and 
copied the scene before him with the most scrupulous fidelity. He 



accepted the austere monotony of her lines ; and drew from her 
very poverty the means of expression. The simplest motives sufficed 
to charm him ; the corner of a meadow, a country road winding 
along the plain, a crazy shed, a rustic cabin shaded by some stunted 
tree. He, the painter of the poor, the wretched, the forsaken, now 
shows us the places where they live and suffer. He paints the 
land of the tici;gars, in all its desolation, the land they had twice 


Pen drawing, heightened with wanh (Hescltine Collection). 

redeemed, once from the fury of the sea, once from the more cruel 
frenzy of the Spaniard. The love of the patriot for this territory 
was intense in proportion to the price he had paid for it. To 
Rembrandt, every aspect of his native country was beautiful. He 
never went beyond it, and his wanderings even within its limits 
were sufficiently circumscribed. His travels were confined to the 
quiet suburbs of Amsterdam Sloten, Laren, Loenen, and the Castle 
of Kronenburg to the mills of Zaandam, to the coast hamlets, 
Naarden, Diemen, and Muiderberg, where Sylvius' son was minister ; 



to Jan Six's house at Elsbroeck, to the Receiver Uytenbogaerd's home 
at Goeland, and to the various asylums offered him in his adversity 
by a few staunch friends. The priceless series of drawings purchased 
by an ancestor of the present Duke of Devonshire from the son 
of Rembrandt's pupil, Govert Flinck, to whom they originally 
belonged, were probably executed during one of his temporary 
sojourns among trees and fields. Rejoicing in the momentary respite 
from cares and creditors, the great painter sought solace from Nature, 
the friend who had never forsaken him. The various drawings of 
this series several of which we reproduce in facsimile were no doubt 
originally the leaves of a sketch-book. They were probably all 
produced at the same period, and certainly in the same place. Every 
aspect of the scenery which we believe to be that of some district 
close to Amsterdam is carefully recorded by the master. He notes 
the flat coast, the wide watery expanses, the level horizons against 
which every inequality shows out in strong relief, the groups of trees 
clustering about scattered dwellings, the passing boats, their sails 
swelling to the breeze, the cottages nestling one against another, 
as if to offer a braver front to the winds that sweep the plain, a village 
spreading along the banks of a stream, a fisherman's hut, with nets 
drying in the sun. The most casual incident becomes a picture, 
so firm and precise is the outline of each object, so exact and truthful 
the modelling. In most of these drawings, the outline is lightly traced 
with a pen ; the work is then heightened with washes of Indian 
ink or bistre, by means of which the diversity of local values and 
planes is suggested with extraordinary delicacy and firmness. Very 
often the master returns to the same spot, and following up his 
practice in the treatment of the human model, hovers about a 
landscape, seeking its most picturesque aspect. He sketches it 
from a distance of some few paces, endeavouring by such careful 
examination to solve the problems of form and effect, and to discover, 
under the infinite variety of nature, the complex laws which regulate 
her superficial aspects, and determine the unity of a landscape. 

Among the Chatsworth drawings we find numerous examples 
of such reiterated studies from a single motive, made during a 
summer visit to the country. We might multiply instances ; but 




the comparison of those we have selected for reproduction, such as 
the clump of high trees by the waterside, and the Gothic gateway 
at the entrance of a town, will convince our readers of Rembrandt's 
predilection for methods to which we have already several times 
referred. By means of this uncompromising fidelity the master 
gave an interest to the most ordinary motives, an interest often 
extrinsic, born of the art with which he seized upon the essential 
features of a scene, and the science and ingenuity with which he 
expressed them. 

His etchings of this period have the same sincerity of conception, 
the same firmness of treatment, that mark these drawings. An 
exception should perhaps be made in the case of the Landscape with 
a Canal and Sivans (B. 235), dated 1650, and The Sportsman (B. 211), 
a plate executed probably some years later. In these, there is an 
evident blending of fact and fancy. The mountains in the distance 
are ill adapted to the foregrounds, and bear a strong likeness to 
those of the Ruin, which was painted at about the same date. The 
other etched landscapes of this period are remarkable for their perfect 
cohesion and homogeneity, and, like the drawings, were evidently 
studied in the open, face to face with nature. We must be content 
to enumerate some of the most picturesque among them, as the 
Village with a Square Tower (B. 218) the Arched Landscape zvith 
a Flock of Sheep (B. 224), the Canal (B. 221) with its fringe of leafless 
trees, their forms most firmly and truthfully rendered, the Peasant 
carrying Milk-pails (B. 213) with the crazy hovels by the waterside, 
the Village near the High-road (B. 217), the Arched Landscape 
with an Obelisk (B. 227), which takes its name from a monument 
the master has also introduced in one of his drawings, a landmark 
some two miles from Amsterdam, with an inscription indicating its 
distance from the city. Two of the plates executed at this period 
claim special mention, their truth of conception and extreme sobriety 
of workmanship giving them a place apart. These are the Landscape 
with a ruined Tower (B. 223),' the spirited effect of which is obtained 
by the simplest means, and the Goldweighers Field of 1651 (B. 234) 

1 Called more properly by Monsieur Charles Blanc, " Pay sage a la Tour" there being 
indeed little indication of " ruin" in the first state, with the dome. F. W. 

E 2 

5 2 


a print no less free and facile in treatment, and perhaps even more 
effective. Within the narrow limits of this plate, the master suggests, 
with incomparable knowledge and precision, the various planes of a 

T O IJ I T U I. 1 N D. 

1651 (D. 42). 

wide champaign, the plantations of a great estate, a mansion surrounded 
by a wood, with its outbuildings and dependencies, the adjacent 
villages and, beyond, the broad line of ocean, stretching away to 

Interior oj a Church. 

Pen ruiil Wavh. 

I AI.M' I; I 1NA.) 

Printed by Draeger & Lesieur, Paris 



the horizon. With a few careless strokes of the point, he defines 
the site, and the salient features of his landscape. He then elaborates 
its details, bringing out the characteristic growth of the various trees, 
and finally gives colour and completeness to the whole by a few 
emphatic touches, applied with unerring science. Even in these 
swift and summary renderings of nature, improvisations rather than 
studies, we are struck by the intimate harmony between the method 
of expression and the desired effect. A mind so entirely absorbed 
in art and its various developments was naturally attracted to 
experimental processes. Evidences of such attraction are to be 
found in a plate of several sketches (B. 364), where Rembrandt 
seems to have tried the 
effect of a broad point 
to produce rich, intense 
blacks, in contrast to the 
white tone of the paper. 
The authenticity of this 
plate has been questioned. 
We believe, it, however, 
to be the work of the 
master. The impression 
in the British Museum 

has strong presumptive evidence in its favour, for it originally formed 
part of Houbraken's collection. But we rely more confidently on its 
analogies with plates such as the Village near the High-road (B. 217) 
and the Landscape with a Vista, dated 1652 (B. 222), in which the 
treatment of masses of foliage is almost identical. An etching dated 
1650, the Shell (B. 159), is yet another instance of Rembrandt's 
scrupulous observation, and fidelity to Nature. It is interesting to 
find the great artist, in the full maturity of his genius, giving himself 
up to the minute and careful reproduction of a sea-shell, which doubt- 
less was one of the many curiosities of his home. 

The most ordinary objects arrest his attention, and help him to 
further knowledge. His passion for self-improvement persisted 
throughout his life, and evinces itself at this period of his career in 
numerous studies of animals. The Good Samaritan and the Pacifi- 
cation of Holland attest great advance in the treatment of horses. 


1650 (li. 218). 



Turenne's charger is certainly an awkwardly constructed beast, but 
Dr. Bode mentions an admirably painted horse of smaller size in the 
equestrian portrait of a Hungarian magnate, executed about 1654, and 
now in Galicia. 1 

In the pictures, drawings and etchings of this period we find 
cattle, asses, &c., more correctly drawn than in earlier works, and 
it was about this time that Rembrandt made his first studies of 
lions. We have noted his grotesque treatment of the lions in his 
S/. Jerome, and the Lion Ihints. A travelling menagerie passing 
through Amsterdam probably gave him opportunities of observing 
their structure and attitudes. He threw himself with great ardour 
into the study, and produced some twenty drawings. 2 He seems 
to have had some difficulty in seizing their characteristics, for 
several of the drawings are insignificant, and fail to suggest the 
dignity of leonine movement and expression. There are others, 
however, in which the types and forms are most admirably rendered, 
as, for instance, M. Bonnat's studies of two crouching lions, formerly 
in the Russell collection in England, where they were the admiration 
of Landseer ; the lion with eyes voluptuously closed, gnawing at a 
bone between his paws ; the study in the British Museum, of a lion 
emaciated by long captivity, whose mournful air and resigned 
dignity of bearing agree so perfectly with the Latin inscription 
written below the sketch : 

Jam piger et longo jacet exarmatus ab aevo ; 
Magna tamen fades et non adeunda senectus. 

1 he two studies of lionesses, one eating, the other sleeping, also in 
the British Museum, are no less remarkable. 

The large curiosity, the love of nature and of life so character- 
istic of Rembrandt, were important factors in his art-teaching at 
this period. We have shown that he had lost ground considerably 
in popular favour, but he retained his prestige as the greatest of 
contemporary masters among the artists of his day, and a large number 
of pupils continued to frequent his studio. It seems to have been 

Studien, p. 499. Dr. Bode saw this portrait in Vienna, whither it had been sent by 
its owner for restoration. 

'- There are examples in the public collections at Berlin, Dresden, Frankfort, Munich, 
in the Albertina, the Louvre, the British Museum, the Teyler Museum, and in the 
collections of Messrs. Heseltine, Bonnat, Dutuit, &c. 



acknowledged that instruction at once so thorough and so lofty was 
unattainable elsewhere. Both as painter and engraver, Rembrandt's 
reputation was incontestable, and he had proved his capacity in every 
genre he had attempted. He was further justly reputed a kind and 
generous master, careful of the comfort and liberty of his pupils. 
Scholars were attracted to his studio from all quarters, not only of 
Holland, but of neighbouring countries. We are dealing with the life 
of Rembrandt, and not with that of his followers. We must therefore 
be content with a brief mention of the most important, in which we 
shall dwell more particularly on those aspects of their history which 
throw light on that of the master. Germany sent him several scholars, 
among them Michiel Willemans, the engraver Ulric Mayr of Augsburg, 
and Franz Wulfhagen of Bremen. The Saxon, Christophel Paudiss, born 
about 1618, had preceded them to Amsterdam. His pictures suffer from 
a certain want of vigour in the tonality ; but Rembrandt's influence over 
him persisted, and is apparent in his treatment of chiaroscuro. His 
powers may be very fully estimated by the numerous examples of his 
works in the Belvedere, where he is represented by religious subjects, 
portraits, and rustic scenes. The Contract attributed to him in the 
Dresden Museum (No. 1994 in the Catalogue) is really by Aert de 
Gelder, and to this we shall return presently. Juriaen Ovens, who was 
born at Tcenningen in Holstein in 1623, and was living at Amsterdam 
so late as 1662, was also a pupil of Rembrandt's. He was distinguished 
as a clever portraitist, and very expeditious workman, and must have 
enjoyed a considerable reputation, for he numbered persons of import- 
ance, such as the Seven Regents of the Municipal Almshonse, among 
his sitters (1650). His manner in works of this class approaches that 
of Van der Heist, and even that of Van Dyck ; but a large picture in 
the Nantes Museum, dated 1651, Tobias making ready to return to his 
Father, shows plainly, both in composition and effect, that Rembrandt's 
teaching never lost its hold upon him. The Dane, Bernard Keilh or 
Keilham, born at Helsingborg in 1625, remained eight years with 
Rembrandt. He left Amsterdam in 1656 for Italy, where he died in 
1687. His works are very rare. A picture by him in his native 
country, a Sculptor, showing his statues to a friend by lamp-light, was 
evidently conceived under the master's influence. But in two later 
and more important works, formerly in Mayence Cathedral, and now 


in the church of Loerzweiler (in Hesse), the skilful and highly conven- 
tional manner has close affinities with that of the later Bolognese 
school, so much admired in Italy at the period. Keilh, however, has 
a title to our respect in his faithful attachment to his master, and we are 
indebted to him for various interesting details of Rembrandt's character 
and habits, which he communicated to Balclinucci, who incorporated 
them in a study we have already quoted more than once. 

sr^ W*. 


J * ''' J^t-t^- -rZZQ * " * 

I&L^ f &$&iii^s^L t 5sF%asl:s Nr^T 

^apB^it^ HM 


Pen drawing (Duke of Devonshire). 

As was natural, however, the Dutch contingent was the most 
important and numerous among Rembrandt's scholars. Covert Flinck 
and Ferdinand Bol, it is true, renounced his manner for a brighter 
and more popular style, impelled either by calculation or natural 
inclination. Official honours and commissions were diverted to 
their studios ; but, nevertheless, Rembrandt continued the head of 
a national school. Many of the young men who gathered round 
him are known only by documents in which their names are mentioned, 
their works having entirely disappeared. At a meeting of experts, 
convened September 16, 1653, by Abraham de Cooge, an art-dealer 
at Amsterdam, to determine the authorship of a reputed work of 


the mos 





Paul Brill, 1 various artists and connoisseurs of Amsterdam, Hendrick 
van Uylenborch, Marten Kretzer, Lodewyk van Ludick, B. 
Breembergh, B. Van der Heist, Philips cle Koninck and Willem 
Kalff being associated with him as witnesses, Rembrandt attested 
the authenticity of the picture by his signature, supported by that of 
two of his pupils : Jan van Glabbeck and Jacobus Levecq. 2 We have 
not been able to discover any work by the former ; but Mr. George 
Salting owns a male portrait, painted by Levecq in 1665, an example 
in which the considerable talent of the artist shows stronger affinities 
with Van Dyck than with Rembrandt. None of the works of another 
pupil, Heymann Dullaert, 
can now be traced. His 
name occurs jointly with 
that of a fellow-student, 
Johan Hindrichsen, as 
witness to a deed, dated 
March 28, 1653, empower- 
ing one Frans de Coster 
to collect certain sums of 


About 1650 (11. 227). 

money due to Rembrandt. 
Dullaert, we learn from 

Houbraken, painted interiors with figures ; he was further a 
poet, a good musician, and an agreeable singer. Aclriaen Verdoel, 
probably a pupil of Leonard Bramer, is said by Houbraken to 
have also received instruction from Rembrandt. Like Dullaert, 
he was a poet, and, indeed, laureate of the Chamber of Rhetoric 
at Flushing. We may further mention Cornelis Drost, whose 
Magdalene at the Feet of Christ in the Cassel Museum is very 
Rembrandtesque in sentiment, and two other pupils or imitators 
of the master at this period, Jacob van Dorst, whose male portrait, 
in the Dresden Gallery is redeemed from vulgarity by its soft 
golden tone, and G. Horst, the author of a Continence of Scipio. 
Hendrick Heerschop, born in 1620 or 1621, studied for a while 

1 Oud-Holland, Kumtkritick der XVII. Eeuw, by A. Bredius. 

2 Like many of Rembrandt's pupils, Levecq was a native of Dordrecht. Mr. G. Veth 
has published a series of interesting articles dealing with him and his compatriots in 
Oud-Holland. Levecq, as is well known, became Houbraken's master. 


under Claesz Heda, and entered Rembrandt's studio about 1644. 
He engraved, in imitation of the master's manner, a St. Jerome 
and a Susanna at the Bath, by no means remarkable for their 
distinction. In the Amsterdam Museum there is Erichthonius by 
him, a somewhat vulgar composition, and in the Cassel Gallery a 
Card-Player, a soldier with an ugly girl, treated in the manner of Dirck 
Hals. C. Renesse also received some lessons from Rembrandt about 
1649, and we find that he made use of the master's studies of lions 
for two of his drawings, a St. Jerome dated 1652, in the Teyler 
Museum, and a Daniel in the Lions Den in the Boymans Museum. 
An inscription by his own hand on the back of the second drawing 
informs us that he had "shown it to Rembrandt, October i, 1649, the 
second time he went to him." Renesse delighted in such studies 
ot animal life. He introduced them in various carefully executed 
engravings, as lor instance the Joseph sold by Jiis Brethren, in which 
he has drawn a group of camels, and the Child devoured by a Bear, 
a plate dated 1653. Vosmaer mentions a Family Groiip by him 
in the Czernin collection at Vienna, as remarkable for the truth of its 
chiaroscuro. An Old Woman reading, attributed to him, which 
appeared at the exhibition of works by the Old Masters at the Hague 
in 1890, attracted much attention, partly by reason of the strange type 
of the sitter, but more especially in virtue of its brilliant colour and force 
of expression. We must add that the ascription to Renesse was purely 
conjectural. To a recent discovery made by Dr. Bredius among the 
archives we owe our knowledge of the fact that Esaias Boursse, the 
rival of Pieter de Hooch, was also one of Rembrandt's disciples. 
Born at Amsterdam about 1630, Boursse practised in his native city 
from 1656 to 1672, and like his fellow-student Jan Victors, made 
several voyages to India, in the East India Company's service. 
Pictures by him, in which a perfect knowledge of effect gives the utmost 
value to strong, yet delicate colour, are to be found in the Suermondt 
Gallery at Aix-la-Chapelle, the Wallace collection at Hertford House, 
the Berlin Museum, and the Ryksmuseum. 

There remain two of Rembrandt's pupils who claim a place 
apart. The one, Nicolas Maes, worked under the master from 
1650 to 1653. The works he produced after quitting Rembrandt's 
studio bear eloquent witness to the excellence of the teaching he 


I i 


had received. These works are mainly portraits, very character- 
istically treated, or familiar subjects : a servant asleep over her 
work, or engaged in some household duty, or spying upon her 
employers ; or, more often still, old women at a spinning-wheel, or 
at a meal, or praying. But the painter's genius gives a wonderful 
elevation to these simple themes, many of which are treated with 
a curious modernism. His colour is generally deep and vigorous ; 
rich reds and intense blacks are very happily blended with delicate 
iron-gray tones, while a piquant note is added to the harmony 
by the introduction of some homely utensil such as a stone jar 
with a blue pattern, or a red earthen bowl. The handling, at once 
broad and supple, is full of the most masterly decision. The finest 
examples are to be found in Holland, and in English collections, 
(the National Gallery, Buckingham Palace, Lord Ashburton's, etc.). 
The contrast between these beautiful works and the portraits painted 
by Maes towards the close of his career is so startling, that certain 
critics, unable to accept the theory of a change of style so radical, 
have suggested the existence of another painter of the same name. 
There are, however, documents which dispose of this supposition. 
Maes had already a considerable vogue as a portrait-painter when, 
on the occasion of a visit to Antwerp, he was fascinated by the 
works of Rubens and Van Dyck. He forthwith abandoned his 
early manner in favour of a lighter and gayer system of colouring, 
a looser and more fluent touch, and a meretricious grace and elegance 
that delighted his wealthy patrons. A male portrait in the Brussels 
Museum (No. 333 in the Catalogue) seems to have been painted 
in the period of transition from his early to his later manner. We 
note a premonitory jarring of the harmonies, purplish tones side by 
side with somewhat crude vermilions. The drawing is less firm, 
the handling tamer and less characteristic, and there are traces 
of that triviality which becomes so marked in later works. 

The other pupil, Carel Fabritius, had his life been spared to 
fulfil the promise of his youth, might have won a place in the first 
rank of Dutch painters. Born in 1624, he was killed in the 
flower of his age by the explosion of the powder-magazine at 
Delft, on October 12, 1654, while engaged on a portrait of 
the sacristan, Simon Decker. His evil fortune pursued him even 


beyond the grave, and his masterpiece, the fine portrait-group of 
the Van der Vin family, perished in the fire at the Boymans 
Museum in Rotterdam. The rare examples of his art now 
extant show how greatly he had profited by Rembrandt's teach- 
ing. The study of a head in the Rotterdam Museum is a work 
not easily forgotten. Its impressiveness is due in some measure 
to the peculiarity of the type, with its piercing eyes and long 
black hair, but still more to the energetic character of the treat- 
ment. Madame Lacroix's pretty study of a goldfinch chained to 
a feeding-trough, with its sunlit background, is a little, gem of 
light and brilliance, and a work of a very different order, the 
Sentinel in the Schwerin Museum, also dated 1654 (the year of 
the painter's death), attests the versatility and originality of his 
genius. Bernhard Fabritius, probably Carel's brother, if not 
actually Rembrandt's pupil, was greatly influenced by the master, 
as is evident from his essays in chiaroscuro, and the harmonious 
blending of tones in his best works, such, for instance, as his 
St. Peter in the House of Cornelius, in the Brunswick Gallery (dated 
1653), arR l tne so-called Baptism of St. John (1666) in the 
Habich collection at Cassel. 1 

As a teacher it was Rembrandt's constant endeavour to make 
his instruction so catholic as to fit his pupils to deal with every 
variety of subject. We know that Ferdinand Bol and Covert 
Flinck had been trained to study the backgrounds of their 
compositions from nature. Gerbrandt van den Eeckhout, whose 
relations with the master were more lasting, continued through- 
out his career to produce those spirited sketches of landscape, 
tinted with water-colour, now so much coveted by collectors. 
Philips de Koninck, immediately after his emancipation from 
Rembrandt's studio in 1646, began to produce the panoramic 
views, in which he approaches the master's manner so closely 
that his works have been occasionally ascribed to Rembrandt. 
Treating the same motives as Vermeer of Haarlem, but ani- 
mating the wide tracts of country he loved to render with richer 
and warmer tones, he excelled in rendering the mobile shadows 
of vast gray clouds sailing across the plain, and far horizons 
1 The greater part of this collection has lately been acquired by the National Gallery. 



marked by the broad belt of the distant sea. His masterpiece, 
The Storm, formerly in the possession of the Comte de Vence, 
and now in Lord Lindsay's collection, long passed for the work of 
Rembrandt, and was engraved as such. The motives are those De 
Koninck habitually treated : watercourses of varying heights, dividing 
an expanse of sparse yellowish vegetation into parallel strips. But the 
artist surpasses himself in this fine work, and a most impressive and 


Pen drawing (Heseltine Collection). 

poetic effect is won by opposing the warm, bright tints of the sunlit 
sand-dunes to the gray background of rolling clouds. 

Landscape had now been admitted by Rembrandt to a place so 
important in his ceuvre that it naturally became a favourite branch of 
study with many of his later pupils. Pure landscape-painters gradually 
arose in his school. But none attained the mastery of Philips de 
Koninck, and most of those who are mentioned as his disciples or imi- 
tators are now forgotten. We find small trace of Rembrandt's influence 
in the works of Leupenius, who is known to us only in drawings, notably 
a Viezu of the Amstel, in the Fodor Museum, and a few insignificant 
etchings. Neither is it very apparent in the case of Jacob Esselens, 
whom Vosmaer mentions as one of the master's scholars, and who is 


represented by a landscape in the style of Poelemburgh in the 
Brunswick Museum, and in the Copenhagen and Rotterdam 
Museums by northern landscapes, with huntsmen and animals, 
executed with a light and facile touch, which also distinguishes 
his sketches. Rembrandt's teaching is more evident in the case 
of Farnerius, who frequented his studio from about 1640 to 1645. 
There is an admirable pen-drawing, tinted with water-colour, by 
him in the Teyler Museum, in which the chiaroscuro is very deli- 
cately treated. Lambert Boomer's indebtedness to the master is 
still more obvious. Thanks to the liberality of Dr. Bredius, the 
Ryksmuseum has lately (1890) become possessed of a picture 
by him, singularly modern in treatment. It represents a woman 
washing clothes at a fountain, from which a man is drawing water. 
Beside them is a group of large trees, the vigorous colour of 
which is effectively relieved against a luminous white sky. 

The marine-painter, Jan van de Cappelle, if not Rembrandt's pupil, 
was at least his friend and admirer. A native of Amsterdam, Van 
de Cappelle's name first appears among the list of citizens on 
July 29, 1653. The date of his birth is not known. His devotion 
to his art, the distinction of his style, the researches into the 
mysteries of chiaroscuro, to which his pictures and the two 
Winter Scenes he etched bear witness, no doubt appealed strongly 
to Rembrandt's sympathies. This master, the greatest of the 
Dutch sea-painters, is only to be properly appreciated in England, 
which boasts many fine examples of his work, in the National 
Gallery, and the great private collections. He has all Willem van 
de Velde's knowledge with greater variety. His execution is 
broader and less dry than that of his rival, his colour equally deli- 
cate, but richer, his illumination more justly diffused. Unlike the 
generality of his brethren, Van de Cappelle was a man of means. 
His fortune, however, was derived, not from his art, but from some 
dye-works inherited from his father, which he, in his turn, bequeathed 
to his children. He died January ist, 1680, leaving, according to 
the inventory of his effects lately discovered by Dr. Bredius, 
money to the value of 30,000 florins, a very considerable sum in 
those days, a superb collection of two hundred pictures, and some 
thousands of drawings, among them five hundred by Rembrandt, 


which are classified according to their subjects as " landscapes, historical 
subjects, and ' studies of womanhood and childhood.' ' One hundred 
come under the latter category. Among the pictures are several by 
Frans Hals and by Rembrandt, both of whom painted Van de Cappelle's 
portrait. Of Rembrandt's portrait all trace has been lost. It may 
possibly be a picture in Lord Carlisle's collection at Castle Howard, 
described by Dr. Bode l as the portrait of a friend or pupil of Rem- 
brandt, painted about 1648, the date of the portraits of Berchem and 
Asselyn. The model is a young artist in a dark dress and high hat, 
holding an album of studies in his hand. 

We may close the list of those among Rembrandt's scholars we have 
selected for mention with the name of Samuel van Hoogstraaten. Born 
at Dordrecht August 2nd, 1627, Hoogstraaten learnt the rudiments of 
his art from his father, and entered Rembrandt's studio at Amsterdam in 
1640, remaining under his guidance till 1650. He then travelled, visiting 
Vienna, Rome, and London. Returning to the Hague in 1668, he finally 
settled in his native town, where he was appointed Director of the Mint. 
The eager curiosity of his temperament manifested itself no less in his 
studies than in his wandering life. He essayed every branch of his 
art, portraits, landscape, genre, sea-pieces, architectural subjects, and 
still life. He was further a man of liberal and cultivated mind, given 
to reasoning and philosophising over his art. It is from this side that 
his personality has a special interest for us. In the work he wrote for 
the instruction of his numerous pupils in after life, the Introduction to 
Painting? it is possible to recognise his master's ideas in many of 
the theories he formulates. During his novitiate Hoogstraaten seems 
to have been in the habit of plying Rembrandt with inquiries on every 
possible subject, which the master received with the utmost patience 
and kindness. On one occasion, however, when he had shown himself 
somewhat more insistent than usual, he was thus admonished : " Make 
it your endeavour to turn the knowledge you already possess to good 
account ; the unknown things that torment you will reveal themselves 
in due season." We have another echo from Rembrandt's studio 
when Hoogstraaten praises a certain painter for "a style, which results 
from his faculty of selecting and co-ordinating the most harmonious 

1 Bode, Studien, p. 498. 

2 Inleyding tot de hooge School der Schilder Konst. 1678. 



elements of a given theme." Again we seem to hear Rembrandt's 
own words in Hoogstraaten's advice to his brother, who proposed to 
visit Rome; "You will find in your own country so many beauties 
that your life will be too short for their comprehension and expression. 
Italy, with all her loveliness, will be useless to you if you are unable to 
render the nature around you." Though he soon abandoned his 
master's manner, Hoogstraaten never ceased to venerate his genius. 
He extols Rembrandt's mastery of "that science of reflections, which 
was his true element." From Rembrandt he learnt to value those 
essays in chiaroscuro and studies in expression on which he afterwards 
laid such stress in his own teaching. To impress upon his pupils the 
importance of such studies, he arranged a theatre for them in the 
house he occupied at Dordrecht, formerly a brewery known as the 
Orange-tree, and would make a certain number act, while the others 
observed their action and play of feature, sometimes taking the players 
through their parts again and again, until they hit upon the simplest 
and most expressive gestures. These exercises he diversified 
by experiments with a game of Chinese shadows, by means of which 
he demonstrated the infinite variety of effects produced by changing 
the position of the source of light. In such teaching and experiments 
he merely reduced to practice the precepts he had heard from 
Rembrandt ; while in his liberal treatment of his pupils he was 
again guided by the example of that generous master, who, as 
Baldinucci tells us on the excellent authority of Keilh, " was to be 
admired not less for his noble devotion to his art, than for a kindness 
of heart verging on extravagance." 

- * 


Pen-drawing, heightened with wash (Lord Drownlow). 


165- (B. 234). 





TO one of Rembrandt's 
affectionate and home- 
loving temperament, the 
bitterness of his bereavement 
must have been greatly enhanced 
by the anxieties inseparable from 
the management of a house and 
the bringing up of a little child. 
Absorbed in his art, and ignorant 
of the details of every-day life, 
he was incapable of directing 
his household, and was entirely 
at the mercy of those about him. 
Titus' nurse, Geertje Dircx, the 

widow of a trumpeter named Abraham Claesz, soon acquired an 
ascendency in the establishment, justified in some measure by 
her devotion to her charge. At the time of Titus' birth, Saskia 
was already suffering from the illness of which she died within the 



About 1631 (B. 312). 


year. It is not surprising therefore, that the child was far from 
robust, and needed constant watchfulness. There are traces of languor 
and ill-health in two portraits of him painted by his father about 
this period. As Claussin, and after him Messrs. Charles Blanc and 
Middleton-Wake have suggested, Titus was no doubt the model 
for a little plate (B. n), which, judging by its style and treatment, 
was probably executed about 1652. This date agrees with the 
age of the supposed sitter. We also recognise his delicate features, 
ingenuous expression, and luxuriant hair in a portrait belonging to 
M. R. Kami painted some three years later, when he was about 
fourteen. It is signed, and dated 1655. The master, following his 
usual custom in the treatment of members of his own household, paints 
him in a fancy costume. He wears a black velvet cap with a white 
feather, pearl earrings, a reddish brown doublet over a gathered 
chemisette, and a greenish cloak trimmed with fur. In this picturesque 
array, he looks like some northern prince, a youthful Hamlet, gentle 
and dreamy. The master has lingered lovingly over the work, 
especially the modelling of the head, bringing out the charming 
expression of the young face, which has much of Saskia's sweetness, 
and proclaims the loving, sensitive character of the model. We 
shall find that throughout his relations with his father, which were 
more than once somewhat difficult and delicate, Titus proved himself 
an affectionate and dutiful son. His weakness of constitution no doubt 
debarred him from an active life, for he seems to have had no 
settled occupation. In 1655, he had made some essays in painting, 
for the inventory of the following year records three studies by 
Rembrandt's son : "a Head of the Virgin, a Book, and Three 
Puppies from Nature." His vocation was probably not very pro- 
nounced, as the documents to which we owe our knowledge of 
him make no mention of further efforts. 

The unceasing care and attention necessary to Titus throughout 
his ailing childhood were cheerfully accorded by his nurse, whose 
affection for him was in proportion to the helplessness of his 
orphaned condition. Geertje Dircx became so fondly attached to 
him, that she made him her heir in a will dated January 24 
1648, bequeathing to him all her property with the exception 

Portrait of Titus van Ryn 

(M. R. KANN'S roi_]-i 


of a certain portion which legally reverted to her mother. She 
made it a condition, however, that Titus should hand over the sum 
of 100 florins to the daughter of a certain Pieter Beetz de Hoorn, 
together with her portrait. Was this portrait by Rembrandt ? We 
know not. But an ancient inscription on the charming drawing in 
the Teyler Museum identifies the model with Titus' nurse. It may 
be that Geertje's affection was not wholly disinterested, and that some 
hope of replacing Saskia underlay her devotion. Be this as it may, 
her fidelity was not of long duration. Less than two years after 
the execution of her will, she announced her intention of quitting 
Rembrandt's service. She proceeded to make a variety of claims 
against him, angrily proclaimed her desire to revoke the will, and 
summoned her master to answer her charges in a court of law. 
On October i, 1649, Rembrandt, supported by two witnesses, 
formally certified the terms of his agreement with her before a 
notary. But when some few days after, on October 14, Geertje was 
required to sign a deed confirming her bequest, she passionately 
refused, and poured out a torrent of abuse, her main grievance 
being the insufficiency of the annuity settled upon her. 1 In the 
following year, Geertje's health and reason alike broke down, and 
it became necessary to place her in an asylum at Gouda. At the 
request of her family, Rembrandt agreed to advance money for the 
journey, and the necessary fees. But when he found himself in 
difficulties in 1656, he made an attempt to recover the debt, and 
brought an action against certain of his old servant's relatives, one 
of whom, Pieter Dircx, was arrested. Dircx subsequently sued for 
damages " in respect of the insult and abuse to which he had been 
subjected throughout the affair." 

One of the two witnesses cited by Rembrandt in support of his 
statement of October i, 1649, was a young fellow-servant of Geertje's, 
named Hendrickje Stoffels. This girl, who was twenty-three years 
old at the time, was destined to play an important part in the career 
of her master, with whom she remained till her death. Forgotten 
to some extent by his contemporaries, he was no longer overwhelmed 
with commissions, and in his unaccustomed leisure he had eagerly 

1 Oud-Holland, iii. p. 95-98, and viii. p. 175. 

F 2 


reverted to the purely artistic experiments in which he delighted. 
The period of his career we are now considering is marked by 
increasing ardour in his studies from Nature, a depth of sincerity 
in his renderings of her various aspects, and a concentrated fire and 
force in his interpretations of her phenomena. These studies were 
not confined to landscape and animals. He drew instruction from the 
most commonplace objects, such, for instance, as the Sea-shell of 
his wonderful etching, or the Bullocks Carcase of his superb study 
in the Louvre. But, as may be readily supposed, the human 

form had a higher interest and attrac- 
tion for him. With the exception 
of Cornelis van Haarlem and a few 
of the early Italianisers, we believe 
no Dutch artist to have approached 
Rembrandt in the number and con- 
tinuity of his life-studies. His usual 
models, as we have seen, were young 
lads from among the poorer population 
of the quays and port of Amsterdam, 
who were readily induced to sit by 
the offer of trifling moneys. But 
female models were difficult to procure. 
In Rembrandt's age and country, 
painters could rarely overcome the 

scruples of their modesty. Those they prevailed upon to pose for 
them were not, as a rule, remarkable for grace or beauty. Some 
among Rembrandt's female models are hideously repulsive. He 
reproduced their ugliness with the most elaborate fidelity, modifying 
none of the disfigurements arising from age, maternity, or social 
condition. Absolutely uncompromising in this respect, his one idea 
was the truthful delineation of the model. Some of these women 
are horrible to behold, as for instance, the model for a study 
in the Heseltine collection, a masterly and over-faithful rendering 
of a degraded wretch, whose brazen leer and bestial laugh are re- 
produced with the same terrible exactitude that insists on every fold 
and wrinkle of the misshapen body. Hendrickje's presence under his 

About 1652 (11. TI). 

Portrait of Hcndrukje Slo/cls (about 1652). 

Printed by Eudes & Chassepot. Paris 'France . 



roof gave him a model more worthy of his brush, of which, faithful 
to his life-long habit, he eagerly availed himself. 

In several works of this period we recognise a feminine model 
whose apparent age agrees with I Icndrickje's. The first and best 
example of these is the beautiful portrait in the Salon Carre 
of the Louvre, probably painted about 1652. This fine work is well 
known to all students of 
Rembrandt, and its iden- 
tification with Hendrickje 
gives it additional inter- 
est. The young woman 
is dressed in one of those 


elegant fancy costumes 
the master loved to paint. 
She wears a bracelet, ear- 
rings, and a brooch of 
costly pearls, very richly 
mounted. The face is by 
no means strictly beauti- 
ful. The features are 
irregular, the nose too 
broad. But there is a 
charm of youth and fresh- 
ness in the brilliant com- 
plexion, rosy mouth, and 
dark eyes, the animation 
and tenderness of the 
expression, and the open 

forehead, with its waving masses of bright hair. The technical 
qualities of the work are of the very highest order, worthy of 
Rembrandt's powers at the supreme period of his development, and 
even he has never shown greater mastery than in the powerful 
harmony of the tawny fur and rich dress, by which the glowing 
flesh-tints are relieved. 

Hendrickje is again easily recognisable in another picture in the 
Louvre, the Bathsheba of the Lacaze collection, painted in 1654. The 


Pen drawing, heightened with wa>h (Teyler Museum). 

70 REM BRAN in- 

seated figure is life-size, and the young woman appears to have just 
come out of the bath. She holds David's missive in her hand, re- 
volving its contents in her mind. An old woman, no doubt the bearer 
of the letter, is engaged in the prosaic task of paring her nails. We 
are prepared to admit that Bathsheba's legs, and the lower part of 
her body generally, are vulgar and ill-proportioned. The bust and 
throat, on the other hand, are exquisitely modelled. The light falls 
full upon them, bringing out the purity of the contours, and the 
luminous delicacy of the flesh-tints, which, as Dr. Bode justly remarks, 
would bear comparison with the best work of Giorgione, Titian, 
and Correggio, the supreme painters of feminine nudity. Not one of 
the three, we may further venture to assert, could have given 
Bathsheba's face the expression so finely imagined by Rembrandt. 
Flattered, though as yet undecided, Uriah's wife has evidently no 
intention of repulsing her unlawful suitor. She allows her thoughts 
to wander at will, and her preoccupied air and troubled look betray 
her vacillation. We recognise Henclrickje once more in a bold and 
brilliant study, painted a year or two later, about 1658 1660, which 
was at the Winter Exhibition at Burlington House in 1883. She 
is represented lying on a bed, one shoulder uncovered, the left hand, 
which is foreshortened, stretched out to draw a crimson curtain. 1 

The finest of the whole series, however, is the study of Hendrickje 
in the National Gallery, the so-called Woman Bathing. It bears the 
same date as the Bathsheba (1654) and is undoubtedly a masterpiece 
among Rembrandt's less important works. The young woman, whose 
only garment is a chemise, stands almost facing the spectator, in a 
deep pool. Her attitude suggests a sensation of pleasure and refresh- 
ment, tempered by an involuntary shrinking of her body at the first 
contact of the cold water. The light from above glances on her 
breast and forehead, and on the luxuriant disorder of her bright 
hair ; the lower part of her face and her legs are in deep transparent 
shadow. The brown tones of the soil, the landscape background, 
and the water, the purple and gold of the draperies among the 

1 This r.tudy, which is rather less than life-size, was then in Mr. H. St. John Mildmay's 
collection. It was afterwards bought by Mr. Wertheimer, the well-known dealer. 

2 // is now in the Scottish National Gallery. See the illustration on p. 73 F. W. 

Bathsheba (1654). 



stuffs on the bank we note the heavy golden brocade which figures in 
the Bathsheba make up a marvellous setting alike for the brilliantly 
illuminated contours and the more subdued carnations of the model. 
The truth of the impression, the breadth of the careful, but masterly 
execution, the variety of the handling, proclaim the matured power 
of the artist, and combine to glorify the hardy grace and youthful 
radiance of his creation. 

When Rembrandt painted these various studies, he had secured 
the complaisant model for his life-long companion. Hendrickje had 
been his mistress for some time past. Careless of public opinion, 
he took little pains to conceal the situation, which soon created 
considerable scandal. On July 23, 1654 the year of the Bathsheba 
and the Bathing Woman Hendrickje was summoned before the 
elders of her church this interference with the private affairs of 
the faithful is very characteristic of religious sentiment in Holland 
at the period severely admonished, and forbidden to receive the 
sacrament. Even had she been disposed to deny her fault, con- 
cealment was no longer possible, for in the autumn of the same 
year she gave birth to a daughter. This child was acknowledged 
by Rembrandt, and baptised on October 30 in the Oude Kerk, 
receiving his mother's name, Cornelia, already twice bestowed on 
children by Saskia who had died in infancy. The liaison, however, 
dated from some three years earlier, for Hendrickje's first child 
died at its birth, and was buried August 15, 1652, in the Zuider 
Kerk. Hendrickje was the woman spoken of by Houbraken as 
"a peasant of Ransdorp," Rembrandt's "wife." A recently dis- 
covered document states that she was a native of a village of 
this name, on the borders of Westphalia. On August 31, 1661, 
Hendrickje gave a power of attorney to her brother-in-law, an 
inhabitant of Breevoort, a commune adjoining Ransdorp, authorising 
him to receive all moneys that might become due to her in her native 
district. The young woman seems to have been quite uneducated, 
for her signature in this deed, as in all others where it appears, 
consists of a cross. There is no foundation whatever for the 
tradition of her legal marriage with Rembrandt, though such an 
union was not at all an unlikely one for a man of her master's 

7 2 


temperament. Rembrandt, though fully alive to the charms of a 
well-bred society, and counting many persons of distinction among 
his friends, was not averse to the companionship of his inferiors. 
It would have been no great sacrifice to him to "give his name 'to 
a woman who filled the place of a wife in his household, and who, 
by her fidelity to himself, and admirable conduct towards Titus, 


1631 and 1650 (?) (B. 370). 

proved herself deserving of affection. It may be that Hendrickje 
had refrained from pressing the point, and, confident of her master's 
love, and of his dependence on her care, had frankly accepted 
her position. Such acquiescence in the situation might further 
be explained by her knowledge of those financial difficulties with 
which Rembrandt had long been struggling, which were gradually 
approaching their climax. 

Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels (about 1658 -- -1660). 


Woman Bat king (1654). 


d by Eudeft ft. Chagsepot Pens (France) 



Several pictures of this period were probably studies from 
members of the painter's household. Two of these were painted 
at an interval of some three or four years, perhaps in 1652 and 1656 
respectively, from a little peasant girl, whom Hendrickje may 
have employed to help her in the household work. She is 
scarcely more than a child in the Girl with a Broom, in the 
Hermitage, in which she faces the spectator, dressed in the usual 
costume of a Dutch 
servant, a square-cut 
bodice with braces, over 
a white chemisette with 
full sleeves. Her facial 
type is a vulgar one, 
round and full, with a 
turned-up nose, thick lips, 
a quantity of fair hair, 
and a prominent fore- 
head. She leans over a 
rough fence, and gazes 
straight before her, with 
widely opened eyes. Be- 
side her are a pail and 
basket, and in her coarse 
little red hands she grasps 
a broom, the emblem of 
her calling. This imple- 
ment she clasps to her 
breast, as if to suggest 

its importance in her scheme of life. The master seems to have 
been moved to typify and extol the housewifely instincts of his 
countrywomen in this bold, vigorous, and rapidly painted study. 
His little model reappears in a picture in the Stockholm Museum 
(No. 584 in the Catalogue). It is apparently dated 1651, but the 
figures, especially the last of the four, are almost illegible, and 
we believe it to have been painted some two or three years 
later. The costume and attitude are almost the same as in the 

,654 (B. 87). 


St. Petersburg example. But the child has grown, and, though 
the features are little altered, the face and the hands are longer 
and more refined. Leaning in a musing attitude on a window- 
sill, she indulges in some youthful day-dream. Rembrandt, no 
doubt to give her pleasure, seems to have adorned her simple 
dress with some trinkets from his own stores. She wears a pearl 
necklace ; her red frock is bordered with gold embroidery, and her 
hair is drawn stiffly off her forehead and confined in a smart cap. 
The execution is more careful and finished in this study, but it has 
all the vigour and freshness of the earlier portrait. The strong 
shadows are relieved by warm reflections, very boldly and brilliantly 
applied. The face, though calm, is full of vitality. The skin is 
firm and supple, showing the blue veins here and there. Youth, 
health, and the glow of expanding life seem to breathe from the 
sturdy little body. 

Very different is the motive in three female studies in the 
Hermitage (Nos. 804, 805, and 806). Old age, decrepitude and 
decline here inspire the master's brush. All three pictures were 
painted in 1654, and represent the same person, in almost the same 
attitude, the difference lying in the costume and proportion. The 
one is a bust portrait, the second a three-quarters, the third nearly 
a whole length. No. 805, which we reproduce, seems to us the 
most expressive. The venerable model is posed in a large arm- 
chair, her bony, wrinkled hands crossed upon her lap. She wears a 
black hood, and a brown cape over a reddish dress with a full 
white fichu. In her wrinkled features we note the traces of former 
beauty, and her face is full of a touching sadness. The drooping 
attitude, the indefinable expression of the weary eyes, suggest the 
lassitude born of manifold sorrows. She seems to be dreaming 
of all those who have gone before her. She has nothing to hope 
for in this life, and the very poignancy of her regrets helps her to 
fix her thoughts on that which is to come. A portrait of the same 
old woman in Count Moltke's collection at Copenhagen is perhaps 
even finer in quality, and is in such first-rate condition that its beauties 
may be fully appreciated. The sitter is rather older, and looks feebler 
than in the earlier studies. Her wrinkled flesh has become loose 

Girl with a Broom (about 1654). 




and flaccid ; her hands are wrapped in a sort of sling. But there 
is still a lingering fire in the eyes, and the face bears that impress 
of unswerving rectitude which gives majesty to the humblest old 
age. A fifth portrait of this old woman passed into the Epinal 
Museum, with the rest of the Salm collection. In this she is repre- 
sented with a rosary in her hand, wearing a hood of cloth of gold, 
the ends of which fall upon her shoulders, and a chemisette, opening 
over a vest of cloth of gold. The somewhat coarse and violent 
execution, and the amber tone of the colour, confirm the date 1661 
on this portrait, still a powerful and striking work, in spite of its 
deterioration. The number of these studies extant convince us that 
the model who so often sat for Rembrandt, and whose costume he 
modified according to his fancy, was a person belonging to his 
own immediate circle. We can offer no evidence as to her identity, 
but it is not improbable that she may have been Hendrickje's mother, 
or some old relative, whom the master, with his customary generosity, 
had received into his house. 

In these candid studies, Rembrandt expresses with equal eloquence 
alike the bloom and vigour of life and its ultimate quiescence. His 
sincerity was absolute in all his commerce with nature ; his first 
desire was to learn, and to add to his resources. But even when he 
seems to be copying with the most scrupulous minuteness, he informs 
his theme with his own commanding individuality. Face to face with 
the myriad aspects of nature, he recognised the limitations of his art 
in their reproduction, and sensible that he could not render all, he 
selected those which seemed to him the most impressive, those which 
agreed most fully with that " certain idea " spoken of by Raphael, which 
every true artist carries within him. His own intelligent conception of 
his art, his sympathy with his models, and the versatility of his intellect, 
give a supreme interest to those varied and deeply expressive studies. 
the freedom and spontaneity of which allowed full scope to his originality. 
Graceful and exquisite as are many of his youthful feminine figures, 
he is perhaps most individual and moving in those portraits of old 
women, in which by the accidents of form and feature he so admirably 
suggests the moral life. It is as a painter of character that he shows 
himself supreme, bringing out the personality of his sitters in their 


gestures, their attitudes, in the peculiarities of bearing and expression 
stamped on them by temperament and habit. 

In addition to these independent studies, the Hermitage Museum, 
which is specially rich in Rembrandt's works of this period, owns a 
portrait of an old lady (No. 823 in the Catalogue) evidently painted on 
commission, to judge by the careful execution and formal costume. 

The model is seated in 
an arm-chair and wears 
a reddish head-dress over 
a close white cap, which 
conceals all but the roots 
of her brown hair. A 
little square collar and a 
brown fur-trimmed mantle 
complete her costume. 
The iron-gray of her 
bodice, and the reds of 
her sleeves and cap make 
up a harmony of exquisite 
distinction, which Nicho- 
las Maes, inspired by his 
master's example, has in- 
troduced in several of his 
pictures. A pair of por- 
traits in the Stockholm 


About 1657 (R 75). 

Museum (Nos. 581 and 
582), signed, and dated 
1655, represent an aged 

couple, grown gray together. The picture of the wife, who wears a 
turban and a loose brown gown, trimmed with fur, is a broad and sober 
piece of work, subdued in colour, but distinguished by a gentle refine- 
ment of handling in admirable harmony with the serene personality of 
the sitter. The portrait of the husband, a gray-bearded man in a brown 
dress and black hat, is no less remarkable in treatment ; though 
unfortunately in very poor condition. Some of the studies of old men, 
almost as numerous as those of old women, compare not unfavourably 

Portrait of an Old Woman 


-,n'ed by Eudes S. Chasscpot, Pans (Trance) 



with these. We may instance two little panels in the Cassel Museum, 
painted about 1655, one (No. 225) the bust portrait of a gray-haired 
man in profile, dressed in a brown robe ; the other, a study of a 
somewhat younger man, painted full-face, a fur cap on his head ; J 
Sir Francis Cook's study of an old man seated, and leaning on a stick ; 
and a later sketch in Mr. 
Humphry Ward's posses- 
sion, painted about 1658, 
a man in a red cap and 
robe of golden brown, 
whose vigorous head, 
with its somewhat dis- 
trustful expression, is 
modelled with great effect 
in a rich impasto. Seve- 
ral other studies, more 
important both in dimen- 
sions and quality, remain 
to be noticed, among 
them an old man, with 
strongly-marked features, 
in the Hermitage Mu- 
seum. Painted about 
1654 1656, it may pro- 
bably have been used 
by the master for the 
Jacob blessing the Child- 
ren of Joseph, of the 
latter year. The Hermi- 
tage possesses yet another study of an old man in a black dress and 
cap, and brown robe, dated 1654, remarkable for the transparent 
quality of its subdued tones. The head of an old man in the 
Schwerin Museum (No. 855 in the Catalogue) is now restored to 
Rembrandt on Dr. Bode's authority. It was long ascribed to Ribera. 
The finest of the whole series, the Old Man in the Dresden Gallery 

1 Of this there is a replica, or perhaps a copy, in the Louvre, rather inferior in quality. 


Pen drawing (Stockholm Print Room). 


(No. 1567 in the Catalogue), is signed and dated 1654. The majestic 
bearing and dignified features of the model must have delighted the 
master ; the study is singularly powerful and vital. The head, with 
its broad-brimmed cap, enframed in its long white hair and beard, is 
modelled in a full, fat impasto, handled with consummate knowledge 
and decision. The sitter was very probably a chance model, picked 
up in the streets of Amsterdam ; but in his rich crimson dress and 
heavy mantle he is a most commanding figure, his proud bearing, 
confident gaze, powerful frame, and deeply furrowed skin, suggesting 
a parallel with some rugged oak, towering above its forest brethren. 
The Man in Armour in the Cassel Museum (No. 223 in the 
Catalogue), though lacking the breadth and grandeur of the Dresden 
example, has all the vigour characteristic of this period. The forged 
inscription of Rembrandt's name, and the date 1655, was probably 
added to supplement an illegible signature, traces of which are still 
decipherable. The work is undoubtedly by the master, and the 
execution confirms its ascription to this period. Under Mr. Mauser's 
skilful restoration, it has regained its original brilliance, and the 
manly head, with its noble and regular features, and abundant brown 
hair, is a haunting and impressive creation. 

The advantages of such studies arc amply demonstrated in the 
pictures of this period. In the Tribute Money of 1655, a little panel 
with a number of figures, formerly in the Wynn Ellis collection, and 
now belonging to Mr. Beaumont, we note an increasing richness and 
animation in the colour. This is still more evident in two works of 
greater importance painted in 1655,' both representing the episode of 
Joseph accused by tlie Wife of Potip/iar, with slight variations in 
detail. That in the Berlin Museum is not only more dramatic in 
composition than its companion in the Hermitage, but more brilliant 
in colour, and in better condition. The Potiphar of the Berlin picture 
seems to accept his wife's statements with a certain reserve. He gazes 
earnestly at Joseph, as if seeking confirmation or disproval of the 
charge in the face of the accused. The figure of Joseph is full of 

' Dr. Bode believes that the Hermitage example was painted in 1654, and dated that 
year, but that Rembrandt modified it considerably the following year, and altered the 
date to 1655. Mr. Somoff, the Director of the Hermitage Museum agrees with me, 
however, that 1655 was the original date. 


expression ; beside himself, he casts his eyes upwards, as if attesting his 
innocence before Heaven, while in the Hermitage example he listens, 
with downcast eyes and impassible face, to the denunciations of his 
supposed treachery. Expressive as are the faces and attitudes, the 
supreme beauty of the work lies in the wonderful richness and 
harmony of the colour. Rembrandt himself had never equalled its 
magnificence. Even in the Susanna, also at Berlin, the variety and 
splendour of his palette are scarcely so fully exhibited. To avoid the 
gaudiness and incoherence of multiplied tints, he has with exquisite 
art confined the general tonality to the play of two complementary 
colours, opposing the various reds of the picture to skilfully distri- 
buted greens. The simplicity of the general effect is thus preserved, 
and the eye of the spectator feasts undisturbed on the sumptuous 
harmony, in which Rembrandt seems to have epitomised all the 
splendours of Eastern life. 

Now, as always, the master loved to vary one form of work by 
recourse to another. Idleness was impossible to him, and a change of 
occupation the only relaxation his ceaseless activity demanded. In 
addition to the many pictures already described, he executed a con- 
siderable number of etchings in 1654 and 1655. These, in general, 
are marked by the same breadth and simplicity that distinguish the 
paintings. Like many of the preceding period, some among them are 
sketched rapidly on the plate, without a preliminary study. But the 
careless -spontaneity of such a method tended to preserve the fire and 
freedom of the inspiration. Nearly all these plates deal with subjects 
from the New Testament. Rembrandt seems to have applied himself 
at this stage in his career to a closer study of the life of Jesus, realising 
more fully than he had hitherto done the character of the Saviour, as 
he followed the Divine Figure throughout the cycle of His earthly 
pilgrimage, and embodied its more striking episodes. With deep 
emotion he traces His course from birth, through death, to resurrection. 
Thus, following on the Nativity (B. 45), already described, which 
should probably be referred to this period, we have the Circumcision 
of 1654 (B. 47), the singular plate in which the ceremony is represented 
as taking place in a stable ; l the Presentation (B. 50), a most 

1 This plate is signed and dated twice over, Rembrandt f. 1654. 



picturesque rendering of the theme, executed with great spirit and 
firmness, probably in 1654, the year of the Flight into Egypt; the 
Holy Family crossing a Rill (B. 55), and of the Holy Family (B. 63), in 
which the Virgin is sleeping, her head resting on that of the Child in 
her lap. These were succeeded by the Jesus disputing with tlie Doctors 
in the Temple (B. 64), a subject of which there are numerous ver- 
sions among Rembrandt's 
drawings and etchings ; 
the Jesus found by his 
Parents in their Journey 
to Jerusalem (B. 60), to 
adopt Wilson's reading of 
the subject, which Bartsch 
erroneously describes as 
The Return from Egypt, 
a title obviously at vari- 


ance with the apparent 
age of the Holy Child ; 
the Christ in the Garden 
of Olives (B. 75), with 
the fainting Saviour sup 
ported by an angel, the 
sleeping apostles behind 
Him, and, barely visible 
in the dim moonlight, 
Judas advancing with the 

guards to seize his Master an admirable composition, of which 
Rembrandt made several studies, though we do not find that he ever 
used them for a picture ; and, finally, the Disciples at Emm'aus (B. 87), 
already mentioned, and the Descent from the Cross (B. 83), a torch- 
light scene remarkable for the frankness of its treatment and effects. 

In 1655 Rembrandt, who had kept up his friendship with 

Menasseh ben Israel, etched four little illustrations for a work in 

Spanish by the Rabbi, entitled : La Piedra gloriosa o de la estatua de 

N abuchadnesar? By a variety of subtle arguments and shadowy 

1 This book was published at Amsterdam, and dated 5415 (1655 of our era). 

Tin-: vor.Ni; SKKVANT. 
About 1654 (Stockholm Museum). 

Man Reading, 

Pen and Sepia. 

Printed by Draeger & Lesieur, Pans 


analogies Menasseh seeks to demonstrate in this work that Nebuchad- 
nezzar's dream was a prophecy of the Messiah's advent, further 
confirmed by the vision of Daniel that the stone which shattered the 
statue of the Assyrian monarch, the stone which served Jacob for a 
pillow, and the stone with which David slew Goliath were all types 
of the same event. Such subjects were ill-suited to the genius 
of Rembrandt, who, conscious perhaps of his inaptitude for their 
treatment, had little taste for allegories. He did his best, however, 
to satisfy his friend. The first states of the plate were in his dark 
manner, but these he worked over and lightened considerably for 
the later impressions, endeavouring to follow Menasseh's text as 
closely as possible, and bring out its full significance. In spite of his 
efforts, however, the result was sufficiently fantastic and incom- 
prehensible. The plates were apparently not to the publisher's 
taste, for shortly after Menasseh's death he caused fresh ones to 
be executed, considerably modifying the composition of Rembrandt's 
illustrations, which were not much improved in the process. They 
appeared only in the earlier copies of the book. 

We are unable to concur with Mr. Middleton-Wake in his 
classification of the sketch of St. Peter (B. 95), which he includes 
among the etchings of 1655. Judging by the execution, we agree with 
Mr. von Seidlitz that it belongs to a much earlier period, probably 
about 1630. Its analogies with such youthful works as the FligJit into 
Egypt (B. 54), the Old Man Studying (B. 149), the Tobit Blind 
(B. 153), and the Beggar standing (B. 162) are very striking. The 
slight but attractive little plate, The Sport of Kolef or Golf (>. 125), is, 
however, a work of 1654. One of the players is in the act of striking 
the ball ; two others are talking together, while a fourth personage, 
apparently lost in thought, reclines on a bench in the foreground. 
The Abraham 's Sacrifice (B. 35) of the following year is equally firm 
in execution, while the large Ecce Homo (B. 76) of the same date, 
though not less summary in treatment, is even more masterly. The 
figures, with the exception perhaps of some which are introduced 
merely as a relief to the shadows of the architectural background, are 

etched with a firm, nervous stroke, and are full of vitality and 

c 2 


expression. The subdued energy of the treatment brings out, in a 
very pathetic fashion, the diversity of sentiments animating the crowd 
that clamours round the innocent victim. In the sixth state of this 
plate, however, the master, apparently dissatisfied with his composition, 
modified it very considerably. Anxious, no doubt, to concentrate 
attention more fully on the principal actor, he erased the figures of the 
foreground, substituting for them an arcade in the projecting base of 
the portico on which Jesus stands between Pilate and his attendants, 
exposed to the insults of the mob below. 

After this long enumeration of works executed in 1654 and 1655, 
it is hardly necessary to point out that these years were among the 
busiest and most fruitful of the master's career. Rembrandt was 
happy ; his house was once more a home. An amenable com- 
panion was always by his side. She directed his household, brought 
up his children, and upon occasion sat for his pictures. His sedentary 
habits took firmer hold upon him than ever, and he rarely went 
beyond the home he had arranged to suit his own tastes, and in 
which, as we have said more than once, he had accumulated an infinite 
variety of objects he considered helpful in his art. The moment seems 
a favourable one for us to enter the dwelling ; and the inventory of July 
25 and 26, 1656, which furnishes us with an exact list of its contents, 
throws considerable light on the master's life and habits. The house 
in the Breestraat where Rembrandt had lived since May, 1639, 
was pleasantly situated, within an easy distance both of the harbour 
and the outlying country, in the heart of the Jewish quarter. It 
is still in existence, and, save for a slight alteration necessitated 
by its division into two separate houses, the exterior remains 
unchanged. It is a building of the Dutch-Italian Renaissance, faced 
with alternate courses of brick and freestone, and ornamented with 
small sculptured heads. The fa9ade is crowned with a pediment, on the 
tympanum of which is carved a wreath and scrolls. The ground floor 
is raised above the street by the height of some five or six steps. 
Above it are a first and second storey surmounted by attics. It 
was therefore a fairly spacious dwelling. At the entrance was a 
vestibule leading into an ante-room, on either side of which was a 


large room. Rembrandt probably slept in one of these, and worked 
there in the evenings, preparing his plates, or printing his etchings, 
for among the articles of furniture noted in the inventory are tables, 
presses of oak and foreign woods, a copper boiler, and screens. 
Another ante-room on the first floor gave access to the saloon, or 
Museum (Kunstcaemer), in which the most valuable articles of the 
collections were exhibited. The studios were probably on the second 
floor, where the light was best, and were doubtless so arranged as 
to get the full benefit of the sun, and facilitate those experiments in 
illumination affected by the master. One of these studios, that 
used by Rembrandt himself, communicated with a small lumber-room, 
where he kept his furs ; the other, of the same dimensions, was 
reserved for his pupils, and divided into five compartments. In all 
probability, one of these compartments, the largest of the five, was 
also occupied by Rembrandt himself ; it contained, in addition to 
the trophies of foreign curiosities, weapons, and musical instruments 
with which all five were decorated, plaster casts of statues, models 
of arms and legs, and a quantity of antique fabrics, of various colours 
and textures. Lastly, we come to a small office, and a little kitchen, 
furnished with a scanty supply of pots and crockery. Plain living 
was the rule in Rembrandt's household, and all his biographers are 
agreed as to the frugality of his habits. Of table and body linen, 
the pride of the Dutch housewife, he seems to have possessed but a very 
meagre store. The entries under this head in the inventory are 
of the briefest. Nor was the library more abundantly furnished. It 
consisted of some twenty volumes, among them some specimens of 
calligraphy, probably the gift of Coppenol, Jan Six's Mcdca, two 
German books, one of military subjects, the other Josephus' History of 
thejeu-s, with illustrations by Tobias Slimmer, 1 and the master's " old 
Bible," the book of which he never wearied. 

The various rooms were sparingly furnished with old Spanish 
chairs, upholstered in leather or velvet, mirrors in ebony frames, 

1 Not by Tobias Timmcrman, as Scheltemaand Vosmaer have stated. The book was 
a folio volume, published at Frankfort in 1580 by S. Feyerabcndt : Opera Josephi I'iri : 
de A ntitjti itatibits Juda'ids Hbri XX. 


tables with rich covers ; we read also of an old chest, the little 
carved bed of gilded wood already mentioned, a marble cooler, etc. 
Ranged along the walls were cabinets containing Indian boxes, of 
sandalwood or bamboo, vases, cups, china, fanciful costumes, stuffed 
animals, 1 minerals, shells, fish, sea-weed, and jewels of rare workman- 
ship or fine quality. A quantity of armour, of various periods and 
countries, further attested the catholic tastes of the master, in whose 
household artistic treasures took the place of domestic luxuries. In 
such matters Rembrandt seems to have been entirely free from 
prepossessions. He gleaned indifferently among various styles and 
epochs, requiring only artistic merit of some sort in his acquisitions. 
Among his sculptures we find both original works, and casts from 
the antique, a Laocoon, a Socrates, a Homer, an Aristotle, some 
sixteen busts of Roman emperors, naked children, models of heads, 
and of a negro from life, a mask of Prince Maurice taken after his 
death, an iron shield with figures by " Ouentin the Smith," Diana s 
Bath, and a basin with nude figures in plaster by the sculptor 
Adam van Vianen. His taste in pictures was no less eclectic. 
Among his examples of the Italian masters, then so greatly admired 
in Amsterdam, were two of which he was joint purchaser with the 
dealer Pieter de la Tombe : The Parable of tlie Rich Man by 
Palma Yecchio, and The Samaritan Woman by " Zjorzjone " 
(Giorgionc); a study of a head by Raphael, a Camp by Bassano, 
and two copies after Carraccio. The Flemish and Dutch schools 
were more fully represented. I 7 irst on the list are four examples 
of the "primitives:" a head by Jan van Eyck, and three pictures 
by the rare master, Aertgen van Leyden : The Resurrection of a 
dead Man, St. Peter s Boat, and Joseph. Next come seven pictures 
by Brauwer, and a portfolio of his drawings ; a picture by Frans 
Hals, and two small studies of heads by Lucas van Valckenburg. 
We have already mentioned the works of contemporary landscape- 
painters, for which Rembrandt had a special predilection ; to these 
we must add examples of his master Lastman, of Jan Pynas, another 

1 In a drawer containing a number of fans was found the skin of a bird of Paradise, 
from which Rembrandt made two pen-drawings, now in M. Bonnat's collection. 

Man in Armour (1655). 


P.HS, am 

Primed by Cha rdon-Wtttmann Parts (F -a nee 


Itahamscr, and of his friend Lievcns, who was represented by a 
Resurrection of Lazarus, a Hermit, an Abrahams Sacrifice, a 
Nativity, all favourite subjects with Rembrandt, and, further, by 
two landscapes, one a AFooiilight Scene. 

But the engravings were the most important items of Rembrandt's 
rich and varied collection. These had a twofold interest for him. 
They gave him much valuable information as to the methods of his 
predecessors in an art of which he was himself a past master, and 
by their means he became familiar with the great painters of foreign 
schools, Michelangelo, Raphael he frequently gave large prices for 
fine impressions of Marc 
Antonio's plates Titian. 
of whose works be owned 
a complete set of prints, 
Holbein, Cranach, Ribera, 
the Bolognesc masters, 
Rubens, Van Dyck, Jor- 
daens, P. Brueghel, &c. 
The masters he most 
highly valued were the 
original artists, who en- 
graved their own subjects, 
Man teg na, Schongauer, 

Albrecht Dtirer, Callot, and his compatriots Lucas van Leyclen, Heems- 
kerk, A. Bloemaert, and Goltzius. He was never weary of studying 
their works, making drawings of those he most admired, such as 
Mantegna's well-known Calumny of Apcllcs, which he reproduced 
in a delicate pen-drawing ; a bust of Andrea Doria, " Duke of 
Genoa," which he framed in a medallion ; and the prints after 
Raphael's Madonna delta Sedia and Portrait of Baldassare Castiglionc. 
But of all the creations of the Italian Renaissance, that which seems 
to have most deeply impressed him was Leonardo's masterpiece, 
the Last Supper. Of this he made two copies ; one is a pen draw- 
ing dated 1635, in the Berlin Print Room ; the other, a study in 
red chalk, belonging to Prince George of Saxony. The latter is 



especially interesting. Rembrandt first sketched in the subject care- 
fully and lightly, working it over afterwards with bold, firm 
strokes of the pencil. His intention is very obvious. By means 
of these vigorously loaded touches, he admirably suggests the 
ingenious methods by which Leonardo brought the various figures 
of his composition into unity, and subordinated them to the principal 
personage, the Christ in the centre, revealing the geometrical basis 
of the arrangement, and the scientific spirit underlying the con- 
ceptions of his profoundly philosophical intellect. Such methods 
as these Rembrandt eagerly studied and assimilated. 

In his quest for instruction Rembrandt also sought to familiarise 
himself with contemporary knowledge of the antique. He collected 
medals, sculptures and casts, and filled his portfolios with drawings 
and engravings from statues and classic monuments. He was no 
less eager for information touching foreign lands, and just as he 
studied history, not in books, but in the works of his predecessors, 
so we find him journeying into far countries with his confreres. 
We know that he affected the works of the Italianisers ; he also 
collected views of Italy by various masters, and views of the 
Tyrol by Roelandt Savery. He studied Oriental buildings and 
costumes in the Scenes from Turkisli Life of Pieter Coucke of 
Alost, and the Turkish Buildings of Melchior Lorch and Hendrick 
van Aelst. Or his fancy, dreaming of new horizons and undis- 
covered territories, took a wider flight, to countries as yet unvisited 
by the European artist. His imagination was fired by tales of 
the Indies, and the mysterious coasts visited by hardy Dutch 
mariners. Among the innumerable curiosities from those distant 
shores in his possession, were Persian and Hindoo miniatures. 
Fascinated by the singularity, the mingled barbarity and refine- 
ment of Oriental art, he made careful studies from many of his 
specimens. The Louvre, the British Museum, and Messrs. Bonnat, 
Heseltine and Salting possess copies by him from the miniatures : 
a rajah in a helmet, seated on a throne, surrounded by his court ; 
a young prince on horseback, falcon on wrist, &c. These reve- 
lations of an exotic art were absolutely novel in Rembrandt's 


days, and appealed strongly to his imagination. We may imagine 
how great his delight would have been could he have seen any 
of those Japanese drawings of which he sometimes shows, as it 
were, a curious prescience in his own works. His landscape 
sketches, indeed, and many of his etchings, are marked by the same 
exquisite sense of form, the same ingenious distribution of masses, 
the same intelligent and unforeseen interpretation of nature, which 
have fascinated the artists of our own day. Here again Rembrandt 
figures as a pioneer. 

We must not omit such works of his own or of his pupils as 
were found among his effects. These were chiefly studies from 
nature, landscapes, or Vanitas which he re-touched, animals, heads, 
life-studies of men and women, two studies of negroes, a Soldier 
m a Cuirass (perhaps the one in the Cassel Gallery), together with 
a few pictures and sketches, such as the Pacification of Holland, 
an Ecce Homo in grisaille (in Lady Eastlake's possession), another 
grisaille now lost, The Dedication of Solomons Temple, a Virgin, 
a Head oj Christ, a Lion-fig/it, a Courtesan adorning herself. Of 
several others, a Flagellation, a Resurrection, a Descent from the 
Cross, there were two and even three versions, perhaps replicas, 
perhaps copies, or compositions by pupils, touched up by the 
master. Such was a Good Samaritan among the number. A few, 
of various sizes, were unnamed. Finally, there was the Diana 
or Danae, hidden in the lumber-room, identical, no doubt, with the 
nude Saskia of the Hermitage collection. 

Among the engravings apart from all those spoken of already- 
the inventory notes several portfolios, with complete sets of Rem- 
brandt's own etchings ; a number of plates by his friend Lievens 
and his pupil Ferdinand Bol ; a cupboard containing reproductions 
of the master's pictures by J. van Vliet. His own drawings fill 
no less than twenty albums and portfolios. They were all care- 
fully classified by him, and arranged in categorical order life- 
studies, studies of animals, landscapes, studies from antiques, rough 
sketches of compositions and more elaborate sketches. It is curious 
to find one so careless of his own interests and neglectful of 



ordinary business details, so laboriously methodical and exact in 
all matters that concerned his art. 

Such was Rembrandt's home : a museum of rare and precious 
things collected by the master in no spirit of ostentation, but 
for the delight and profit of his artistic faculties. We can hardly 
wonder that he felt little inclination to wander from the place 
where his tastes and his affections alike centred. But the day was 
not far distant when he was to be driven forth from this haven, and 
despoiled of nearly all that made up the happiness of his life. 


' T -A 



About 1652 (II. 221). 







NATURAL feeling of sympathy and 
admiration for great artists often leads 
us to lay the blame of what we take 


to be their undeserved misfortunes on their 
contemporaries. Rembrandt, so long the victim 
of calumnies detailed by inventive biographers, 
now, perhaps, usurps more than his legitimate 
share of the retrospective pity due to genius in 
distress. Many other artists, including some of 
the greatest among his own compatriots, died 
neglected, or tended by charity in a hospital. 

The names of Frans Hals, of Jacob van Ruysdael, of Van Goyen, 
of Aert van cler Neer, of Hobbema, of Jan Steen, of Pieter de Hooch, 
of Vermeer of Delft, all figure in this martyrology of the Dutch school, 
some as the innocent victims of destiny, others as the architects of 
their own misfortunes. 

Rembrandt, we are bound to admit, belongs to the latter category, 


About 1631 (B. 358) 


The accumulated embarrassments which finally resulted in ruin 
were due to himself alone. He had inherited a small patrimony, 
which, with Saskia's dowry and the various legacies that fell to him, 
should have secured him a comfortable income. Almost at the 
outset of his career, he became the fashionable portrait-painter of 
the day, and earned considerable sums of money. The prices he 
commanded, though not extravagant, were among the highest obtained 
by any artist of his time. l''or portraits, and pictures of medium size, 
his usual charge was live hundred florins; for the Niglit-Watch he 
received sixteen hundred florins ; for the pictures painted for Prince 
Frederick Henry, six hundred florins each for the the first five, 
and twelve hundred each (or the two delivered in 1646. He 
had further the fees derived from his numerous pupils, and con- 
temporary evidence shows that his etchings were in great request, 
and sold for fair prices. AH these circumstances tended to make 
Rembrandt's position a very enviable: one as compared with that of 
other artists of his day. With some small share of that method and 
foresight which Rubens displayed throughout his career, he might, 
without emulating the magnificence of his Flemish confrere, or 
leaving a large fortune behind him, have kept a roof over his head, 
and honourably maintained his position in the first rank of Dutch 
artists. Hut, in addition to the general embarrassments in which his 
affairs became involved between 1652 and 1655, there were many 
purely personal causes of Rembrandt's disaster. 1 He had never 
learnt to economise, (ienerous and impulsive, he was incapable of 
protecting his own interests. No sooner did he lay hands on a sum 
of money than he lavished it on friends or relations, or on some 
caprice of the moment. As early as 1631 he lent a thousand 
florins to Hendrick van Uylenborch, and some years later, he, in 
conjunction with two or three brother-artists, made a further advance 
of a considerable sum, for which Hendrick gave a security in 1640. 

Some of the details hearing on Rembrandt's financial position are given in Vosmaer's 
book and Scheltcma's pamphlet ; but these have been largely supplemented by the 
discoveries of Messrs. Bredius and lie Roever, published in On,/ Holland. On these 
researches we base the chronological statement which summarises the essential facts of 
their discoveries. 


We know that he behaved with no less liberality to the members 
of his own family. He had treated them with great generosity in the 
matter of the division of his parents' property, and we have no doubt 
that he: often befriended his brothers and sisters, notably Adriaen, 
whose management of the mill was not very profitable, and Lysbeth, 
who is inscribed on the Leyden register of ratepayers as " almost 
bankrupt, and in very reduced circumstances." The " kindness of 
heart, verging on extravagance," which Baldinucci ascribes to him, 
must have often moved him to help distressed friends or brother 
artists. Though extremely frugal in his living and personal habits, 
he paid the most extravagant prices for works ol art and decorative 
objects. Nothing was too costly for Saskia's adornment, and on the 
occasion of an inquiry, held about i65S 59 at the instance of his 
son's trustee, the goldsmith Jan van Loo and his wile, who had long 
been on terms of friendship with the master, deposed on oath before 
a notary that the following were among his possessions during his 
wife's lifetime : two large pear-shaped pearls, two rows of fine pearls, 
the largest forming a necklace, the others bracelets ; a large diamond 
mounted in a ring, and two diamonds set as earrings ; a pair of 
enamelled bracelets, the cover of a missal, a variety ol articles in 
wrought iron and copper; two large pieces of ornamental plate; 
a silver dish, coffee-pot, and spoons, &c. On the same occasion 
Philips de Konirick deposed to having bought from his master seven 
years previously a rich necklace of fine pearls. 

Such detailr, give some idea of the nature of Rembrandt's collections. 
Two art-dealers, Loclewyck van Ludik and Adriaen de Wees, who 
were also examined, valued the various objects collected between 1640 
and 1650, exclusive of pictures, at 11,000 florins approximately. Tor 
the pictures Rembrandt no doubt paid sums far in excess of their 
value, a result of the habit already referred to, of out-bidding com- 
petitors at auctions by extravagant advances, on the pretext of 
raising his art in the public estimation. His passion for such 
acquisitions seems to have been entirely beyond his control. 
If he had no funds for purchases, he borrowed. When he got 
possession of a sum of money, he spent it, not in satisfying the claims 



of his creditors, but in fresh purchases ; or, contenting himself with 
trifling payments on account, he plunged deeper into debt, heedless of 
a future day of reckoning. Under conditions such as these, he 
fell an easy prey to unscrupulous money-lenders, and thus with 

his own hands he dug 
the pit, in which he 
was presently to be 

The purchase of his 
house had also proved 
a most disastrous trans- 
action for the artist. 
When he bought it in 
1639, he had very little 
of the purchase-money in 
hand. But a short time 
afterwards, he managed 
to pay half of the 13,000 
florins agreed upon, and 
engaged to discharge the 
rest of the debt at 
stated intervals. Not 
only, however, did he 
fail to fulfil the contract, 
but from 1649 onwards 
he paid no interest what- 
ever on the debt, and 
even evaded the payment 
of the rates, which there- 
fore devolved on the former owner, one Christoffel Thysz. Thysz, 
who had long treated Rembrandt with forbearance, became impatient 
at last, and on February i, 1653, he formally demanded payment 
of the sum due to him, amounting, with principal, interest, and 
moneys advanced, to 8,470 florins. Rembrandt, who was not in a 
position to satisfy his claims, replied by a refusal to settle the 

(l!uyni:ins~ Museum, Kotlt-Ttlain.) 




account until the title-deeds of the property had been handed 
over to him. This was evidently a mere subterfuge, designed to 
conceal the actual state of his exchequer. Thysz, patient as he 
was, considered that thirteen years was as long as he could 
reasonably be expected to wait for his money. He therefore 
suggested that Rem- 
brandt should either dis- 
charge the debt, or give 
up the house. This last 
alternative was not at 
all to the painter's taste, 
and he seems now to 
have made some effort 
to appease his creditor, 
for on March 28 follow- 
ing he gave a power of 
attorney, duly attested 
by his two pupils, 
Heyman Dullaert and 
Johan Hindrichsen, to 
one Frans de Coster, 
empowering him to col- 
lect all moneys due to 
him. The total, how- 
ever, seems to have 
been insufficient, or per- 
haps Rembrandt applied 
it to some other purpose. 

However this may be, it appears that in September, 1653, 
anxious to discharge his debt to Thysz, he borrowed 8,400 florins 
from the councillor C. Witsen, and the merchant Isaac van Herts- 
beek. The lenders formally protected their claims, by making a 
declaration of the loan before the court of Echcvins, Witsen certifying 
his share as 4,180 florins, on January 29, 1653, Van Hertsbeek his 
as 4,200 florins, on March 14 following. But Rembrandt, with his 


(Stockholm Print Room). 


usual nonchalance in such matters, retained a portion of the sum thus 
raised. He was probably short of money for other purposes, and an 
agreement was made with Thysz, by which the latter received part 
payment of his debt, with a mortgage on the house to the value of 
1,170 in discharge of the balance. Witsen and Van Hertsbeek 
considered themselves to have established a primary claim on 
Rembrandt's estate by the steps they had taken for their security ; 
but their position in the matter proved to be less clearly defined than 
they had supposed. 

Saskia, as we know, had left all her property in her husband's 
hands, and, confident of his rectitude, had even specially enjoined 
that the usual formalities should be dispensed with, and that no 
statement or inventory of the common property, defining Titus' share, 
should be required from Rembrandt. But as in time Rembrandt's 
embarrassments became notoriously hopeless, and his ruin imminent, 
Saskia's relatives, who had refrained from interference at first in 
deference to her wishes, felt it necessary to take action on behalf of 
Titus, of whose interests they were the legal guardians. In 1647, 
accordingly, they demanded that some statement should at least be 
made as to the value of Rembrandt's property in 1642, the date of 
Saskia's death. This Rembrandt fixed approximately at 40,750 florins. 
A sum of 20,375 florins was therefore claimed for Titus, and Rem- 
brandt, in satisfaction of this claim, appeared before the Chamber 
of Orphans on May 17, 1656, and made over his interest in the house 
in the Breestraat to his son. 

Rembrandt's creditors were naturally much incensed by this 
act of somewhat dubious morality, which neutralised all the pre- 
cautions they had taken to secure their property. They denounced 
the transfer as a fraudulent infringement of their rights. We shall 
find later that the affair resulted in a series of complicated law- 
suits, which were only concluded after innumerable pleadings and 
counter-pleadings before different tribunals. 

Meanwhile, in 1654, a curious incident took place, which shows 
that Rembrandt's position was by this time well known, and that 
enterprising speculators were beginning to mark him out for 


exploitation. One Dirck van Cattenburch, a shrewd man of 
business, himself a collector of works of art, proposed to Rembrandt 
that he should give up the house he was unable to pay for, and buy 
another. The plan he submitted to Rembrandt, though somewhat 
unusual, was of a nature to please the artist, for it involved no outlay 
on his part ; on the contrary, the vendor of the property was to 
make him an advance. The nominal price was to be 4,000 florins. 
Rembrandt was to receive from Cattenburch 1,000 florins, on the 
understanding that he was subsequently to pay over 3,000 florins 
in kind, that is to say, in pictures and etchings of equivalent 
value ; he was further to etch a portrait of Cattenburch's brother 
Otto, secretary to the Count of Brederode at Vianen, and this 
portrait it was stipulated " should be as carefully finished as that 
of Jan Six." The project was acted upon to a certain extent. 
Rembrandt received the 1000 florins, and duly delivered a certain 
number of pictures and etchings, among them six little pictures by 
Brauwer and Percellis. The works were valued by the dealers 
Lodewyk van Ludik and Abraham Fransz at a sum which, 
together with the estimated price of the proposed portrait, 400 
florins, amounted to 3,861 florins. But the transaction does not 
appear to have been concluded, for no portrait of Otto van 
Cattenburch figures in Rembrandt's ivuvrc. It was settled, no 
doubt, in an amicable fashion, for there is no entry of any sum paid 
or received in this connection in the statement of Rembrandt's 

Having taken such precautions as he could to safeguard Titus' 
interests, Rembrandt made some efforts, if not to satisfy his 
creditors, at least to temporarily appease them by payment of 
occasional sums out of the profits arising from his pictures. The 
numerous and important works produced by him in the year 1656, 
one of the most prolific of his career, attest his industry. Now, 
as always, his art was his solace amidst the troubles and anxieties 
that beset him. Among the portraits of this period, we shall first 
call attention to one in the Hermitage, of a young woman, seated, 
and leaning on a table covered with a red cloth. Some apples, and 



a prayer-book lie beside her. Her face is turned nearly full to 
the front. She holds a pink in her right hand, and wears an 
under-dress with red sleeves, and over it a black gown, and a 
large white collar, fastened with a gold clasp. She has regular 

features, and fresh, 
red lips. Her 
calm, confident 
expression and 
clear complexion 
denote health and 
vigour. The sim- 
plicity of the 
dress, and a cer- 
tain coarseness in 
the large hands, 
make it not un- 
likely that the 
sitter was some 
friend of Hend- 
rickje's. The mas- 
ter has bestowed 
great pains on 
the execution, and 
evidently took 
pleasure in the 
rendering of his 
worthy model, 
placing her figure 

in a strong, glowing light, which emphasises her characteristic air 
of well-directed energy. 

In the Copenhagen Museum there are two portraits of this period, 
forming a pair. The sitters are evidently husband and wife. Both 
are painted full face, and are very richly dressed. The female portrait is 
elated 1656. The husband, a young man with long fair hair, wears a 
large brown cap with strings of pearls for ornament, and a black doublet, 


1656 (M. Edouard'Andrt). 



striped with gold, fastened with a clasp across his red vest. The 
painting is somewhat tame, and the expression lacks character, but 
these defects may be due in some measure to the poor condition of the 


About 1655 (B. 284). 

picture. The wife's portrait has more distinction. She rests one hand 
on the back of a red chair, and, like the young woman of the 
Hermitage, holds in the other a pink. Over her full yellow skirt she 
wears a black velvet jacket bordered with fur ; an elaborate head-dress, 
earrings of gold and silver, and a star-shaped brooch fastening her 

II 2 


collar to her chemisette, complete the costume. The small, timid 
eyes, the high forehead, the straight nose and ingenuous expression, 
make up a very characteristic individuality, and Rembrandt, who was 
ready to modify his manner at need, has been careful to avoid strong 
contrasts and deep shadows, as inconsistent with the delicate charm of 
his model. 

The Portrait of a Mathematician in the Cassel Gallery, a collection 
unusually rich in Rembrandt's works, has lately been restored by Mr. 
Hauser with complete success. Its recovered freshness and brilliance 
come as a revelation upon those who, like myself, were familiar with it 
some years ago. The master's signature has unfortunately disappeared 
in the process, but the work now sufficiently proclaims its own 
authenticity. The date, 1656, is intact, and is fully borne out by the 

In no instance, we think, has the master achieved a more sincere 
and forcible expression of intellectual life. The old man sits at a table 
strewn with papers, his pen in one hand, a square in the other. He 
wears a reddish gown bordered with tawny fur. His beard, and the 
soft hair that crowns the refined, intelligent head, are quite white. The 
simple attitude, the calm reflective mien, the wrinkled nervous hand, 
even the half-consumed taper on the table, all suggest the student, 
whose life has been dedicated to research and lofty speculation. As if 
himself amazed at an unexpected revelation, he ceases writing, and sits 
absorbed in meditation. His deep-set eyes are in shadow, and seem 
to be following his thoughts through infinite space ; the light falls full 
on his upturned forehead, the broad expanse of which seems to quiver 
under the passing breath of a vast idea. The restrained force of the 
handling, and the extraordinary delicacy of the chiaroscuro combine 
most eloquently to express the sudden illumination of a human mind 
by a great truth, and the silent ecstasy of its endeavours to fix and 
formulate the revelation. 1 

We pass on to a very different conception in the robust type of 
masculine vigour so admirably depicted in the famous portrait of Dr. 

1 This fine and deeply interesting picture Dr. Bode is inclined to attribute to Nicolaes 
Maes, If really by him, it is one of his greatest works, 


Arnold Tholinx, formerly in the Van Brienen collection, and now one 
ot M. Edouard Andre's many artistic treasures. The courtesy of its 
present owners enables us to reproduce this masterpiece, in which 
Rembrandt's powers are seen at their greatest. Tholinx is represented 
nearly full-face, wearing a broad-brimmed black hat, and a very simple 
black costume. The strong contours of his manly head, his fresh 
complexion and energetic features arc defined by deep, but very 
transparent shadows. The brilliant carnations stand out in frank relief 
against the white collar and gray background ; the mobile lips are 
parted as if to speak. In spite of the mature age indicated by the 
grizzled beard and moustache, the blood Hows warmly under the 
supple skin ; the eyes have the keen, penetrating gaze of the skilled 
physician. The broad execution is full of fire ; the grand manner of 
the Syndics is foreshadowed in its vigour and decision. The master 
was already familiar with his model. The fine etched portrait, 
in which the doctor is seated at a table, an open book before him, 
a retort and phials at his side, was probably executed the year 
before. Rembrandt had always affected the society of doctors. He 
had not long before produced the portraits of Ephraim Bonus and 
Van der Linden ; and Tulp, as we know, had materially contributed 
to his early successes by the commission for the Anatomy Lesson. 
Rembrandt was able to talk of this former patron with Tholinx, 
who, as inspector of the medical college, had revised Tulp's 
Pha rmacentical Fo rm iila ry. 

It was probably through Tholinx's introduction that Rembrandt 
became acquainted with his successor, Johannes Deyman, who, in 
his turn, commissioned Rembrandt to paint, for the Surgeons' Hall, 
a picture which was very much damaged and partially destroyed 
by a fire in 1/23. Setting this disaster aside, however, the work must 
have greatly deteriorated in the present century, for Reynolds, who 
saw it in 1781, after describing the corpse as "so much foreshortened 
that the hands and feet almost touch each other," remarks that " there is 
something sublime in the character of the head, which reminds one 
of Michael Angelo. The whole is finely painted, the colouring 
much like Titian." For these doubtful analogies Reynolds might 


more justly have substituted a comparison of the foreshortened 
corpse with Mantegna's Dead Christ} from a print or drawing of 
which Rembrandt undoubtedly borrowed. Of the execution it is im- 
possible to form an opinion in the present condition of the picture. 
Some idea of its primitive richness may be gathered from 

1656 (Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam). 

the treatment of the linen drapery, and the faces of the operator^ 
and the corpse. The composition seems to have been painted on 
a canvas already used for some other subject. Traces of the original 
work are visible here and there, notably a Cupid's head, which, by 
a grim irony of chance, peers through the shadows beside the gaping 
abdomen, the open skull and decomposing flesh of the corpse, details 
which Rembrandt, more happily inspired, spared us in his earlier 

1 In the Brera at Milan. 


Amtomy Lesson. Further details no less repulsive are indicated in 
a sketch for the picture by Rembrandt in the Six collection, and in a 

1654 (B. 83). 

drawing of the composition in its entirety made by Dilhoff in 1760. 
DilhofFs drawing, which belonged to Vosmaer, shows Deyman, his 
hat on his head, demonstrating to nine students. His assistant, Dr. 


(iysbert Kalkoen, holds in his hand the brain-pan of the subject, no 
doubt a criminal, delivered to the operators after his execution. In 
spite of the ruined state of the picture, we cannot but commend the 
public spirit of certain amateurs, who, in conjunction with the city of 
Amsterdam, purchased the fragment now in the Ryksmuseum from an 
English owner, and restored it to their native land, the authenticity of 
the work having been previously attested by Messrs. Bode and Richter. 1 
Another important picture in the Cassel (iallery, the Jacob 
blessing the Sons of Joseph, which is no less indebted to Mr. Hauser 
than the Mathematician, claims mention as one of Rembrandt's 
most accomplished works. Conscious of his approaching end, the 
patriarch has summoned to his bedside the children of his best- 
loved son, and blesses them, laying his right hand on the head of 
Ephraim, the younger of the two. Joseph, displeased at the error, 
" holds up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head 
unto Manasseh's head." His wife looks on in silence. Such, in 
its simplicity, is the composition, of which Rembrandt had made 
several preliminary studies. The conception is one of the utmost 
nobility and pathos. The five figures, closely united as they are by 
a common interest, have each a marked individuality. The old man 2 
seems to be struggling with the weakness of approaching death, 
to carry out this last duty. Every detail tends to move our admira- 
tion afresh the dim gaze of the patriarch, and the uncertain gesture 
of his failing hands, as he seeks the head of the child ; the fine 
countenance of Joseph, in which a sense of justice contends with 
filial reverence ; the secret satisfaction of the mother at the exaltation 
of her favourite child ; the innocent simplicity in the fair, rosy face 
of Ephraim ; the touch of resentment in the bold, alert expression of 
his dark-haired elder brother ; the delicate gradations of vitality ; above 
all, the harmonious unity of the action. The simplicity of costume, 
attitude, and arrangement harmonises with the noble conception of 
patriarchal life. Here Rembrandt relies solely on the expression 

' The purchase, which was made in 1883 for 1,400 florins, was due to the initiative 
of Dr. J. Six. 

2 We have already remarked that the same model figures in a picture in the Hermitage 
(No. 818 in the Catalogue). 


ot human sentiment to give grandeur to the sacred theme, renouncing 
all the factitious dignity ot picturesque accessories, fantastic archi- 
tecture, and gorgeous costume, with which he not unfrequently 
marred the solemnity of his Scriptural scenes. A further novelty 
in the master's manner is the softness of the harmony in the Cassel 
picture, with its clear, suave intonations, its pale grays and subdued 
yellows, relieved here and there by some russet or purely red tint. 
The light, like the colour, is limpid, diffused, and chastened, and 
the effect is won without strong contrasts of any kind. The less 
important details are lost in a golden penumbra, and are very 
slightly indicated : the execution, at once broad and reticent, vigourous 
and discreet, is marvellously attuned to the solemn calm and silence 
of approaching death. Of the handling indeed, the spectator takes 
little note, so entirely is it subordinated to the sentiment of the 
scene, spiritualised, as it were, by a poet who, in the midst of over- 
whelming anxieties, preserves a perfect serenity in his art, and reveals 
himself as he is, tender, affectionate, and pathetic. With a genius 
that commands the reverence of the greatest artists, Rembrandt 
combines a naive familiarity that appeals to the most uninstructed. 
There is no straining after eloquence in his utterances ; for deep in 
his own heart springs the fountain of that magnetic emotion which 
finds an echo in every breast. 

The Denial of St. Peter, in the Hermitage, a picture of nearly 
the same dimensions, with life-size figures in three-quarters length, 
was painted at about the same period, probably in the same year 
(1656). The scene, in accordance with the Gospel narrative, is repre- 
sented as taking place in the middle of the night. The darkness 
is relieved only by the flaming torch in the hand of a maid-servant, 
the light of which falls full on the figure of the apostle, wrapped in a 
loose woollen robe of a yellowish tint. He returns the questioning 
look of the maid with a steady gaze, emphasising his denial by an 
expressive gesture. A soldier sits on the edge of a wall, before 
the two central figures, his helmet and part of his armour in his 
hand ; another soldier stands listening to the altercation ; several 
barely distinguishable figures beyond are illuminated only by the 
fitful gleams from a fire burning in the background. The softly 


diffused light of the Jacob blessing the Children of Joseph is here 
replaced by the concentrated glow of the torch on the face of St. 
Peter, and on the red bodice of the servant, a finely modelled figure 
in a tasteful costume. The broad execution brings out the picturesque 
elements of the conception, and the brown and golden tones that 
predominate are happily relieved by the vivid scarlet of the bodice, 
the one brilliant touch of colour in the picture. A similar harmony 
of yellowish tones prevails in another important work, which we take 
to have been painted at about the same period, the Pilate washing 
his Hands, recently bought by M. Sedelmeyer from Lord Mount- 
Temple. Rembrandt had already treated the episode in two drawings, 
differing but slightly one from another, which are now in the Vienna 
and Stockholm collections respectively. In these he strives to bring 
out the emotional aspects of the theme, while in the picture he 
confines himself almost wholly to the picturesque elements. The 
figure of Christ does not appear in the composition, and the effect 
of the armed men, whose heads are ranged one above another against 
the sky to the right, is somewhat grotesque. Pilate himself, pleased 
to be delivered from responsibility in the matter of "the just 
person " before him, washes his hands with an air of manifest 
satisfaction. A dark-haired child in a green dress with red sleeves 
stands before him, and pours water over his hands into the 
silver basin on his knees. A gray-bearded man beside Pilate, 
probably one of his advisers, seems to commend his prudence. 
1 he pictorial motive here is the harmony of the iron-gray archi- 
tectural background with the brilliant yellows of this old man's 
robe, and the golden tones of Pilate's mantle, which, with its glitter- 
ing embroidery of precious stones, produces an effect of extraordinary 

A work of very different character again attests the master's 
versatility. This is the fine grisaille of 1656. The Preaching 
of John the Baptist, once the property of Jan Six. It was 
bought by Cardinal Fesch for ,1,600 (40,000 francs), and now 
belongs to Lord Dudley. 1 Rembrandt probably painted it as a 

1 It bought for thi Berlin Museum at the sale of the Dudley Collection at Christie's 
in 1892.^. W. 




study for a proposed etching, which he designed for a pendant to 


1656 (B. 276). 

the Hundred Guilder Piece. For his Ecce Homo plate (B. 76), 
already mentioned, he had made a similar study in grisaille the 


year before, which was one of the items in his inventory, and 
passed to England in 1 734, at the sale of the W. Six collection. 1 
The composition, carried out in what is practically a monochrome 
of golden brown, is really a carefully finished picture, and it is not 
surprising that Rembrandt, who disliked the drudgery of reproduc- 
tion, and who at the time had no pupil to whom he could entrust 
the execution of so delicate a piece of work, abandoned the idea of 
the etching. Norblin's print gives a very poor idea of the original, 
accentuatino- as it does all those eccentricities of detail, which 


are lost in the magic of the general effect in the Dudley picture. 
The: eager, ascetic figure of the prophet dominates the scene from 
a piece of rising ground. The light falls full upon him as, his hand 
on his breast, he harangues the crowd around him, a multitude of 
all ages, temperaments, and conditions, animated by the most widely 
varied emotions. The infinity of episode is further complicated by 
the diversity of costumes, the picturesque luxuriance of the land- 
scape, the swarming masses of humanity, the .rich luxuriance of 
animal life. From a cave over-grown with creepers, a flight of 
steps leads to a fantastic building on the left. At the entrance is 
an obelisk surmounted by a bust ; a river dashes in a foaming torrent 
through the arches of a bridge, and beyond rise mountains studded 
with forests, villages, and castles. Scattered throughout the land- 
scape are horses taking their rest, ruminating cows, fighting dogs, 
the camels of an approaching caravan. Warriors with halberds and 
lances, standing, sitting, or crouching on the ground, dignified 
figures in flowing robes, citizens, peasants, beggars, children 
wrangling or playing together, women rebuking or caressing them, 
listeners, attentive and indifferent, hesitating and convinced, argu- 
mentative, or rapt in silent ecstasy a nation, a world, gathers 
round the orator. Yet, nothwithstanding the multiplicity of detail, 
the teeming composition is simple in effect, so rhythmical is the flow 
of the lines, so skilful the distribution of the masses, so harmonious 
the grouping of the figures. The balance and unity of the con- 

1 We do not know where it is to be found at present, but in Smith's Catalogue. 
Raisonne (No. 88) it figures as the property of Mr. Jeremiah Harman. 


ception prevail ; and the eye is riveted at once on the inspired 
figure of the preacher as, with burning words and impassioned 
gesture, he delivers to the simple souls around him the divine mes- 
sage of salvation. 

Very inferior to this wonderful composition is the only Scriptural 
etching of 1656, Abraham entertaining the Angels (B. 29), a plate, 
which though not wanting in a certain picturesqueness of arrange- 
ment, is chiefly remarkable for the somewhat vulgar singularity of 
the types and costumes. Several of the etched portraits of this 
period, however, must be ranked among the finest of Rembrandt's 
works. The least happy, perhaps, is the portrait of his friend, 
Abraham Fransz, the art-dealer, (B. 273), whose affection for him 
was unswerving, and who gave him many substantial evidences of 
his attachment. Faithful to his habit of representing his sitters 
engaged in their characteristic pursuits, the master has seated Fransz 
at a window, a print, which he examines with great attention, 
in his hand. On the table before him are several other prints, 
and a small Chinese figure ; a triptych, with the Crucifixion in the 
central panel, hangs on the wall, a picture on either side of it. The 
opacity of the shadows, and a certain roughness in the execution 
give an effect of exaggeration to the chiaroscuro, though the 
composition itself is irreproachable. 1 In the Portrait of Jan Lntma 
(B. 276), dated 1656, it would be difficult, on the other hand, to 
find a fault. He, too, was probably one of the master's friends, or, 
at any rate, a man in whose society Rembrandt took pleasure. A 
native of Groningen, Lutma, who was seventy-two years old at 
the date of his portrait, had a great reputation at Amsterdam 
as a sculptor and goldsmith. His dishes, vases, and goblets, of a 
very original style, somewhat heavy, but broad and rich in effect, 
were much in request among amateurs, and were often offered as 

1 The plate of ' Abraham Fransz ' passed through what u<as even an unusua! number 
of 'states' in itself, I think, some evidence that though it lias its interest for as, tlie 
print never, wholly satisfied the master. The modifications cannot all have been made to 

repair the ravages of use, and, if the first conception ;ms not perfect, the afterthoughts 

were not all of them happy. F. II', 


prizes in the competitions between the military guilds. They figured 
on many patrician sideboards, and in many of the corporation treasuries, 
and several specimens are still preserved in the Chamber of Antiquities 
at Amsterdam. Lutma was himself a lover of the arts ; he collected 
engravings, and had commissioned Jacob Backer to paint the por- 
traits of himself and his wife some years before. 1 His son, Jacob 
Lutma, born at Amsterdam in 1609, was an artist. He composed 
a series of ornamental designs for goldsmiths, sculptors, and stone- 
carvers, and was himself a chaser and engraver of considerable 
talent. The four plates he executed from busts of himself, Vondel, 
Hooft ("alter Tad/us"), and his father, by the latter, are remark- 
able for their boldness of drawing, and originality of treatment. 
The year that Rembrandt etched his portrait of the elder Lutma, 
the son also produced a plate from the same model, in which he 
seems to have profited by some advice from the master, for the execu- 
tion is freer and richer than in his other works, and the two prints, 
though very unequal in merit, have a certain analogy. Rembrandt 
must naturally have been attracted to a household where so many 
of his own tastes obtained. In Lutma's portrait he once more 
characterises his sitter by accessories denoting his habits and 
occupation. On the table beside him are a silver dish, a box of 
gravers, and a hammer. The famous goldsmith, who wears a black 
skull-cap, and flowing gown, holds in his right hand a metal figure, 
probably his own work. In his keen eyes, intelligent features, and 
complacent smile, Rembrandt suggests, with no less truth than charm, 
the concentrated experience of a long life devoted to a much loved 
art, and the legitimate satisfaction of a man whose wealth had been 
won by honourable toil. 

Rembrandt's relations with the Lutmas belong, strictly speaking, 
to his more prosperous days. But two other portraits of this period 
are closely associated with the difficulties and trials of his later career. 
The Portrait of Yonng Haaring (B. 275), though dark and somewhat 
loaded in treatment, is marked by the same hastiness of execution 
1 These two portraits are now in Count Inniszech's collection in Paris. 


as the Portrait of Abraham Fransz ; but that of Old Haaring 
(B. 274) is unquestionably one of the finest of Rembrandt's creations. 
Its depth and richness of tone, its truth of expression, its decision 
and flexibility of handling, are unsurpassed in the whole of the 
master's ceuvre. The venerable face, with its crown of white hair, 
is full of a benign serenity. Haaring was an official of the Bankruptcy 
Court, and Rembrandt, 
whether in recognition 
of past services, or in 
hope of future favours, 
was evidently anxious 
to please the person- 
age with whom his 
growing difficulties had 
brought him into contact. 
If we may accept the 
title by which it is com- 
monly known, a picture 
in the Cassel Gallery, 
the so-called Portrait of 
Frans Brnyningh (No. 
221) is another memorial 
of Rembrandt's ruin, for 
Bruyningh was secretary 
to the Bankruptcy Court. 
But as Dr. Eisenmann 

has pointed out, there is really very little evidence for this comparatively 
modern appellation. He adduces the date on the portrait, which he 
takes to be 1652, in support of his contention. The last figure is not 
very legible. But after careful examination, we came to the conclu- 
sion already arrived at by Dr. Bode, that the figures are 1658, a 
date which is fully borne out by the execution. The work, in any 
case, is highly interesting. Both pose and costume are extremely 
simple. The light falls full on the very attractive head of the model ; 


1658 (Cassel Museum)- 


the rest of the figure is bathed in a warm, transparent shadow. 
There is a haunting charm in this frank face with its setting of rich 
brown hair, its smiling lips and eyes, its expression of cordial sweetness 
and sincerity. Never did Rembrandt show a more perfect compre- 
hension of artistic sacrifice ; never did he display greater mastery 
in the rendering of forms at once definite and mysterious, in the 
treatment of chiaroscuro, or in the suggestion of a fascinating 

Despite his courageous and determined industry, Rem- 
brandt's ruin was inevitable. His desperate attempts to raise 
money, and to collect the sums due to him were all un- 
availing. His resources were totally insufficient to meet his 
accumulated debts. The evil clay was no longer to be staved 
off; and his creditors, incensed at the measures he had adopted to 
protect the interests of Titus, at last proceeded against him. 
Rembrandt was accordingly declared bankrupt, and on July 25 
and 26, 1656, an inventory was made by order of the Bank- 
ruptcy Court of "all the pictures, furniture and household goods 
of the debtor, Rembrandt van Ryn, inhabiting the Breestraat, 
near St. Anthony's Lock." The sale, however, was delayed 
awhile to give time for preliminary formalities necessitated by 
Rembrandt's circumstances, and it seems probable that he 
remained in his house. But under such conditions he must 
have had little time at his disposal. The business details he 
had always shunned were now forced upon him. He was in 
the grip of the law, closely beset by his creditors, and full of 
anxieties as to the future of his son. On May 17, 1656, the 
guardianship of Titus had been transferred to a certain Jan 
Verbout. Titus, however, continued to show the warmest 
affection for his father. The will he executed on October 
20, 1657, and to which he made an addition necessitated by 
some irregularity of form on November 22 following, gives con- 
vincing proof of his attachment, not only to Rembrandt, but to 
Hendrickje and her daughter Cornelia. Recognising his father's 


incapacity for the management of his own affairs, and the dis- 
abilities to which the claims of his creditors subjected him as a 
legatee, Titus bequeathes all his property to Hcndrickje and to his 
half-sister Cornelia, on condition that Rembrandt shall enjoy the 
income arising therefrom during his life. If, however, his father 
should prefer to take his legitimate share of the heritage, it is 
directed that this be paid over to him from the estate, and that the 
residue be allowed to accumulate for Cornelia, and become her property 
either on her majority or her marriage. It is further provided 
that none of the income shall be used by Rembrandt to pay 
off debts contracted before the date of the will, and that, at 
his death, it shall revert to Hendrickje and her daughter Cornelia. 
At Cornelia's death her rights shall be transferred to her children, 
tailing which the capital shall be equally divided between friends 
of the testator's father and mother, Hendrickje still retaining a life 
interest in the property. 

Harassed by his creditors, and forced to occupy himself with 
matters for which he had no aptitude, Rembrandt was no longer 
able to seek distraction from his sorrows in his work, and this 
deprivation must have greatly enhanced the bitterness of his mis- 
fortunes. The year 1657 is one of the least productive of his 
career. We note but one etching, a 6V. Francis Praying (B. 107), 
treated in a somewhat summary manner. It represents the 
saint kneeling before a crucifix at the entrance of a picturesque 
grotto in deep shadow. The only Scriptural subject is the 
Adoration of the Magi, at Buckingham Palace, an upright com- 
position, the small dimensions and numerous figures in which 
would seem to indicate a return to an earlier manner, but for the 
breadth of the handling and the richness of the harmony, in which 
reds and yellows predominate. The faces are full of life and expres- 
sion, notably that of the old man kneeling beside the Virgin, who 
reverently lays his offering at the feet of the Holy Child. The re- 
maining pictures of this year are all studies made by the master 
from himself or those about him. Dr. Bode mentions a fine portrait 


1 14 


of a vouno- man seated in an arm-chair, belonging to the Duke of 

y o 

Rutland, signed, and dated 1657. The Rabbi of the National 
Gallery is a vigorous study of an old man in a fur cloak, with a black 
cap, which throws a strong shadow on his forehead. A ray of 
strongly concentrated light strikes on the nose and the right cheek of a 
thin pale face, with brown beard and moustaches. The Portrait of an 

Old Man in a meditative 
Attitude, in the Duke of 
Devonshire's collection at 
Chiswick, is equally broad 
in treatment, and the ex- 
pression of the head is 
even more remarkable. 
We may further mention 
three small studies of 
heads, one in Mr. Alfred 
Buckley's collection, the 
other two owned by M. 
Leon Bonnat and M. 
Rodolphe Kann. Both 
the latter are painted from 
the same model, a so- 
called Rabbi in a brown 
cap, with a spreading 
beard. The light falls on 
the wrinkled forehead and 
strongly marked brows, 

beneath which gleam a pair of singularly piercing eyes. The effect 
in these sketches is frank and life-life ; and the rich impasto of the 
high lights is very dexterously opposed to the deep, golden shadows 
of the surrounding surfaces. 

In the Portrait of a Youtk in Lady Wallace's collection, we 
recognise Titus, older by some two or three years than in M. 
Rodolphe Kann's fine picture. He is painted almost full face, 



(l-ai-similt ttntr tttktiuuif :#ii I?:>J 


Facsimile of a drawing of 1725. 



simply dressed in a brown cloak, and a red cap, from beneath which 
his hair falls in curling locks about his neck. There is a slight 
down on his upper lip, but his face shows the same traces of ill- 
health, and is marked by the same sweetness of expression. In 
the isolation of his life at this period, Rembrandt naturally made 
frequent studies from himself. We recognise his features in several 
portraits, some dated, some ascribed to this period on internal 
evidences. One of these is in the Bridgwatcr Gallery, another in 


Pen drawing (British Museum). 

the Cassel Museum. The latter bears a date, which Dr. Eisen- 
mann deciphers 1654. The execution, however, and the apparent 
age of the sitter, seem to us sufficient evidence that it was painted 
at a later period. A third of these studies belongs to Lord 
Ilchester, and is dated 1658. It appeared at the Winter Exhibi- 
tion of 1889, where it attracted universal admiration, being, in fact, 
as Dr. Bredius observed, 1 the gem of the collection. It is a three- 

1 Old Masters in the Royal Academy, 1889 : extract from the Nederlandsche Spectator, 
1889, No. 17. 

I 2 


quarters length of the master. He wears a fanciful costume, and 
holds a stick in his hand. The painting is wonderfully luminous 
in effect, and in perfect condition. The flesh tints are clear 
and brilliant, the hands broadly and firmly modelled. The 
melancholy eyes meet those of the spectator with an expres- 
sion of deep dejection. Another portrait of the master, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy by Lord Ashburton in 1890, is closely 
allied to the last in treatment and expression, and was probably 
painted in the same year. The hair is grizzled, but the features, 
though somewhat heavier, are manly and vigorous, and the eyes 
have lost none of their keenness. The master wears a black cap, 
and a tunic of yellowish brown, opening over a red vest with 
sleeves, probably his working dress, for it reappears in the Cassel 
picture, and in a portrait in the Dresden Gallery, signed, and 
dated 1657, which, though it has deteriorated to a certain extent, 
and is somewhat black in the shadows, seems to us the most 
pathetic of the series. The days of fanciful costumes, military 
trappings, and lofty bearing are past. Under the stress of years 
and misfortune, the master's sedentary habits have grown upon 
him, and his dress has become severely simple, even negligent, 
according to Baldinucci, who relates that it was his practice, when 
painting, to wipe his brushes on his clothes. He is represented with 
a pen in his right hand, an ink-bottle and album in his left, engaged 
upon a drawing. In happier days he had been able to shake off his 
troubles, and forget himself in his work ; but now the sadness of 
his face has become habitual, and the wrinkles are many, and 
strongly marked. 

He had abundant cause for melancholy. Towards the close of 
1657, the commissioners of the Bankruptcy Court had instructed 
Thomas Jacobsz Haaring to sell his goods. He was therefore forced 
at last to quit the home he had created, and to which he was bound 
by so many tender memories. On December 4, he removed to the 
Imperial Crown, an inn, kept by one B. Schuurman, in the 
Kalverstraat. As we may judge from the facsimile of an old drawing 


we borrow from Oud-Holland? this inn was a remarkable building in 
the Dutch Renaissance style, which had been the municipal 
orphanage till 1578, since when it had become a much-frequented 
hostelry. Its name was derived from the crown carved over the main 
entrance, and repeated above the shields on either side of the 
facade. Public sales were commonly held at this inn in Rembrandt's 
time, and the custom seems to have continued into the next century, 
for in our reproduction, the original of which dates from 1/25, two 
persons in the foreground appear to be reading a notice of some 
such proceeding. Judging from the accounts of his daily expenses 
at the Imperial Crown, which average from three to four florins a day, 
it seems probable that Rembrandt was alone at the inn, and that 
Hendrickje and Titus were bestowed elsewhere.' 2 On December 25, 
a portion of Rembrandt's collections was sold at the inn ; but the 
moment seems to have been an unfavourable one for some reason ; 
and though the sale extended over six days, the more important 
items, including the greater part of the prints and drawings, were 
reserved till September, 1658, when a fresh sale took place at the 
same spot. The whole of the rare and beautiful things collected, 
as the catalogue puts it, " with great discrimination by Rembrandt 
van Ryn," realised the ludicrously inadequate sum of 5,000 florins. 
The house in the Breestraat had already been disposed of on 
February i, 1658, by authority of the tfc/ici'ins, at the instance of 
the commissioner Henricus Torquinius, for 13,600 florins, which 
price was to include "the two stoves, and the partitions in the 
garret, which Rembrandt had used that his pupils might be sepa- 
rated." But the purchaser, a certain Pieter Wiebrantsz, mason, 
was apparently unable to carry out his contract, for the transaction 
was not completed. Another bidder, who offered 12,000 florins, 
was also unable to give the necessary securities, and a bargain 
was finally concluded with one Lieven Simonsz, a shoemaker. 

1 Oud-Holland, vi. p. 48. 

1 These accounts, which figure among the papers relating to the bankruptcy, were 
published by Scheltema and Vosmaer. 



whose offer of 11,218 florins was accepted on the security of two 
other citizens. 

We shall deal later on with the litigation connected with the 
proceeds of these successive sales. Meanwhile, Rembrandt's ruin 
was complete. At the age of fifty-five he found himself homeless 
and penniless, stripped of all that had made life pleasant to him, com- 
pelled to leave his refuge in the inn without even paying the expenses 
of that melancholy sojourn, during which all the treasures he had 
collected " with great discrimination " were divided among strangers 
before his eyes. 

Pen drawing (Duku of Devonshire). 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 







HK unsettled life to which he 
was condemned for awhile 
after the loss of his home 
must have been no small trial to one 
of Rembrandt's peace-loving tem- 
perament. He was now obliged to 
look for a lodging sufficiently spacious 
to serve as a studio, among the out- 
lying districts where the rents were 
within his means. His art was more 
than ever necessary to him, both as 
a diversion and a means of liveli- 
hood. But he felt strangely out of 

his element in the various temporary dwelling-places with which he 
was forced to content himself, after the home which he had arranged 
to suit his own tastes and convenience. He had not only lost his 
engravings, his precious stuffs, his jewels, and all the accessories he 


(British Museum.) 


had hitherto considered essential to his art ; but now, when advanc- 
ing age was beginning to tell upon his sight, he was forced to 
accept such conditions of illumination as his improvised studios 
afforded. Neither had he come to the end of his business anxieties. 
His own affairs were indeed past mending. But it was his duty 
to give such help as he could to Titus' representative in his en- 
deavours to make good the claims of the latter to a share in the 
profits arising from the sales. To save further explanations on this 
head, we may here give a brief account of the complications which 
arose from the settlement of the accounts. 

On January 30, 1658, the commissioners in bankruptcy authorised 
the municipal secretary to pay C. Witsen the 4,180 florins owing 
to him, and in spite of the determined opposition of Louis Crayers, 
who had succeeded Jan Verbout as Titus' guardian, the other chief 
creditor, Isaac van Hertsbeek, was also repaid his share of the loan 
(4,200 florins) on May 10 following. A settlement was also effected 
with several of the other creditors, notably with the heir of Christoffel 
Thysz, the former proprietor of the house in the Breestraat, who re- 
ceived the equivalent of his mortgage on the property. But Crayers, 
a better man of business than his predecessor, carried on a vigorous 
campaign in defence of his ward's interests. His contention was, 
that though Rembrandt had made no formal acknowledgment of his 
son's claims after Saskia's death, these claims could not be set aside, 
and were, in fact, safeguarded by Titus' rights as a minor. Crayers 
further sought to establish by various evidences that Rembrandt's 
assessment of his personalty at 40,750 florins at the time of his wife's 
death was by no means exaggerated, and that Titus' heritage 
consequently amounted to 20,375 florins, the half of this total. 
Rembrandt's creditors, on the other hand, left no stone unturned to 
prove that he had greatly overstated the actual value of his property. 
Crayers retorted by calling witnesses to support his estimate. The 
result was a long inquiry, in the course of which, as was mentioned 
in the last chapter, Van Loo the goldsmith and his wife, Philips de 
Koninck, and several art-dealers were heard in evidence:. Other 
witnesses were also produced by Crayers and Rembrandt. Jan 


Pietersz, clothier, and Nicolaes van Cruysbergen, provost to the 
municipality, who both figure in the Night W'atch, were responsible 
for the information we have already noted as to the price of that 
work. A collector named Adriaen Banck had paid Rembrandt 500 
florins in 1647, for a Susanna at the Bath. Saskia's cousin, Henclrick 
van Uylenborch, gave evidence as to having acted as arbitrator be- 
tween Rembrandt and Andries de Graeff in the matter of a portrait 
for which the latter claimed and received 500 florins. Abraham 
Wilmerdonx, Director of the East India Company, deposed to 
having paid Rembrandt 500 florins for a portrait of himself and his 
wife, with a further sum of 60 florins for the canvas and frame. 
Finally, one of the dealers who had been called upon to value the 
master's collections, proved having sold him a picture by Rubens 
of Hero and Lcander, which he kept some years, for 530 florins. 
On such evidences of Rembrandt's earnings, and of the valuables 
among his possessions, Grayer founded his contention that his estimate 
of Rembrandt's property in 1647 was a f ;i ' r ;ill( -l reasonable one, and 
that Titus' claim of 20,375 florins against the estate must be allowed 
priority over those of all subsequent creditors. A series of tedious 
and complicated actions before various tribunals followed. Witsen, 
who seems to have taken better precautions than his colleague, or 
whose position as a municipal councillor perhaps gave him a secret 
advantage, retained the sum paid over to him, but Van Hertsbeek, 
by a judgment given May 5, 1660, was compelled to disgorge his 
4,200 florins, and hand them over to Crayers. His successive appeals 
to the Provincial Court and the Grand Council were dismissed, both 
courts confirming the previous judgment, which accordingly came into 
force June 20, 1665. When all the costs of this litigation were paid, 
Titus' inheritance amounted to a sum of 6,952 florins, which he duly- 
received on November 5, 1665. 

The possibilities of such a fortune were not extensive, and 
pending its acquisition, the pinch of poverty must have been 
severely felt by the master and his belongings. A few etchings 
saved out of the wreck were no doubt sold by way of sup- 
plementing such sums as Rembrandt could earn by painting. 



But the moment was not a favourable one for the sale of pictures, 
more especially Rembrandt's pictures. A taste for the arts had 
indeed become much more widespread in Amsterdam, but painters 
had multiplied as the demand for their works increased. At the 
close of a festival held October 20, 1653, at the Doelen of Saint 
George, in honour of their patron, the members of the Guild of 


Pen drawing heightened wilh wash (Albertina). 

Saint Luke, which had hitherto admitted tapestry-workers, glass- 
makers, and persons of various allied crafts, pronounced in favour of 
an entire reconstruction of the Guild, and a restriction of membership 
to painters, sculptors, and amateurs of the arts. The inauguration of 
the new body thus constituted took place a year later, on October 
21, I654. 1 Foremost among the promoters of the new association 

1 Vosmaer, p. 325. 



were Martin Kretzer, Asselyn's brother-in-law, N. Helt-Stockade, 
and B. van der Heist ; but we search the list of members in vain 
for the name of Rembrandt. It was not alone his love of solitude 


About 1652 (II. 104). 

or his somewhat unsociable temper that kept him aloot ; the very 
character of his genius tended to isolate him from his brother-artists. 
The representatives of that great generation which had founded the 


Dutch school were beginning to dwindle. In Amsterdam, Rem- 
brandt and his pupils were the sole adherents of the earlier tradition. 
Lasttnann, Elias, and Jacob Backer were dead ; Thomas de Keyser, 
Rembrandt's forerunner and sometime rival, now confined himself to 
pictures of small dimensions ; and those among Rembrandt's pupils 
who had taken his place in the public favour, Ferdinand Bol, 
Covert Flinck, and Nicolaes Maes, had completely abandoned his 
manner, seduced by the more popular style of Van der Heist, 
then in the heyday of his reputation. Painters who had formerly 
imitated Rembrandt, recognising the reaction, gradually detached 
themselves from him. Houbraken tells us that J. de Baen, on leaving 
Backer's studio in 1651, had hesitated for a time as to which 
manner he should adopt, that of Rembrandt or of Van Dyck, and 
had finally decided on the latter, as "more durable." Landscape 
painters, such as Jacob van Ruysdael and Adriaen van de Velde, 
and masters of genre such as Pieter de Hooch, still maintained 
the glory and originality of the school. But the honours of the 
day were not for them. These were reserved for a style, the 
essentials of which were clarity, minute finish, a smooth, polished 
fusion of tints. The insipid prettinesses and affected grace of the 
academic school were exalted by the devotees of classic correct- 
ness, far above Rembrandt's noble simplicity, and robust virility of 
execution. To them his compositions were too familiar, his sin- 
cerity too uncompromising, his colour too intense. Thus he found 
himself at last entirely deserted. But he cared little for the 
suffrages of the crowd. Even when most successful he had never 
abated one jot of his independence, and it was not to be expected 
that he should make concessions to fashion now, when his powers 
had reached their richest maturity. He set his face more steadily 
than ever towards the goal he had marked out for himself. The 
artist was now no longer a collector, and thus his very ruin tended 
to confirm him in the simplicity to which he had inclined more and 
more throughout his career. Within the bare walls of his make- 
shift studios, seeking solace in work and meditation, he lived for his 
art more absolutely than before ; and some of his creations of this 


period have a poetry and depth of expression such as he had never 
hitherto achieved. 

Notwithstanding his manifold vexations and anxieties, he had set 
up his easel with unabated courage, though in many of his com- 
positions of this period we catch the echo of his melancholy. The 
personality of the Saviour had always strongly attracted him ; but 
now his own sorrows seem to have given him a peculiar insight into 
the Christly Life. He returns again and again to the Divine Figure, 
striving in each fresh essay after a more complete suggestion of the 
ideal type he had conceived. Some years before he had sought to 
express this sublime embodiment of spotlessness and compassion in 
the beautiful study of a head, now in M. Rodolphe Kann's collection. 
But in the larger study painted about 1658-1660, the conception is 
nobler and more impressive. We refer to the fine picture exhibited 
at Vienna in 1873, and now in Count Orloff Davidoff's collection at 
St. Petersburg. The face is turned full to the spectator ; the figure, 
a half-length, is very simply posed, the arms partly crossed, the left 
hand resting on the right arm. The dress is a reddish tunic, open at 
the throat, and a dark mantle, drawn round the shoulders. A mass of 
bright brown hair, divided in the middle, falls on either side of the 
pure and delicately-featured face. The dark beard and moustache 
accentuate the pallor ot the complexion ; the large clear eyes look out 
from the canvas, with an expression of mingled sweetness and 
authority. The broad handling, which has a somewhat confused 
appearance on close examination, is singularly powerful from a little 
distance, and amply justifies the master's methods by its perfection of 
modelling, and consummate knowledge of effect. The supernatural 
beauty and serenity of this type re-appears in another picture of 1661, 
the Ecce Homo in the Aschaffenburg Museum, where the Saviour is 
represented full-face, draped in a white robe open at the breast, 
on which the light is concentrated, the head being in deep, transparent 

Of subjects which appealed strongly to his imagination Rembrandt 
never wearied. He returned to them time after time, approaching 
them from various points of view, bent on solving their innermost 




Pen drawing (Headline Collection). 

mysteries. At this period, when his emotions were so deeply stirred 
by the vision of a compassionate Saviour, he felt a kindred attraction 
for those mystic souls who sought, in solitude and prayer, a closer 
communion with the Christ to whom he felt himself drawn by his own 
sorrows. Inspired by some sympathetic impulse strangely opposed to 

the practical Protestant 
spirit of those among 
whom he dwelt, he had 
already, in an etching of 
1657, shown us Saint 
Francis, prostrate in holy 
ecstasy at the foot of the 
Cross. The same train 
of thought seems to have 
been at work in his choice 
of a monastic habit for his 
models in three studies 
painted in 1660. Count 
Sergius Strogonoff's ex- 
ample, a somewhat hastily 
executed work, represents 
a melancholy-looking 
Yoimg Monk, his cowl 
drawn over his head ; 
Lord Wemyss' Monk, at 
Gosford Park, is a man 
of about forty, with a fair 
beard. The face is en- 
tirely in shadow, but a 

brilliant light falls on his hand and on the book he reads. This is a 
clear and luminous picture, in excellent condition. The Capuchin, in 
the National Gallery, has unfortunately suffered somewhat from time. 
The devout gravity of the face is finely expressed, but the dark 
and somewhat dirty flesh-tones have caused doubts as to the 
authenticity of the work, which is, however, sufficiently evident. 



Attractive as Rembrandt seems to have found these subjects, 
his mind was not wholly engrossed by them ; several pictures of a 
very different character, inspired by Biblical themes, belong to the 


About 16581660 (Count Orloff-Davidoff). 

year 1659. Two of these in the Berlin Museum : Moses breaking the 
Tables of the Law, and Jacob wrestling with the Angel, are violent 
compositions, harsh and somewhat coarse in handling, the unpleasant 


effect of which is no doubt due in some measure to their deteriora- 
tion. The Moses in particular is very hastily treated, and the 
conception of the Lawgiver as a choleric person, brandishing the 
tables of stone above his head in a sudden access of fury, is vulgar 
and prosaic. In the second picture, however, there are touches of 
a happier inspiration, notably in the contrast of Jacob's desperate 
endeavours with the severe calm of the Angel, who refrains from 
bringing his adversary to the ground, content to make him feel his 
helplessness. The David playing the Harp before Saul, formerly 
in Baron Oppenheim's collection at Frankfort, and recently in the 
possession of M. Bourgeois of Paris, we take to have been painted 
about 1660. It is an important composition of two life-size figures, 
for which Rembrandt made a pen and ink study, now belonging to 
M. Bonnat. David, a red-haired youth in a scarlet tunic, stands at 
the foot ot the throne, and endeavours to soothe the frenzied king 
with the strains of his harp. Saul wears a high turban surmounted 
by a crown, and a purple mantle over a tunic richly embroidered 
with gold and precious stones. His face is fixed in an expression 
ot the deepest melancholy, and he wipes the tears that spring to 
his eyes on the drapery beside him ; the tumult of his mind 
betrays itself in his wild looks, and the furious gesture with which 
he grips the spear in his hand proclaims the danger incurred by 
the young musician. He, however, absorbed in the play of his 
own skilful fingers, and unconscious of peril, gives himself up to 
the delight of improvisation. The contrast between the two figures, 
each engrossed in his distinct emotion, is stirringly rendered ; the 
richness of the execution, and the powerful harmony of the red and 
golden tones partake of that breadth and splendour which characterised 
Rembrandt's last pictures. 

The year 1658 was marked by one of Rembrandt's rare essays 
in the treatment of mythological subjects : Jupiter and Mercury 
received by Philemon and Baucis. The theme was one which had 
already attracted the master : a somewhat confused sketch in the 
Berlin Museum represents the old couple preparing for the enter- 
tainment of their guests. But the composition of the small picture, 


recently bought by Mr. C. J. Yerkes of Chicago from M. Sedelmeyer, 
is infinitely more picturesque and sympathetic. Jupiter, seated face 
to face with Mercury, expresses to his hosts his satisfaction at the 
welcome accorded to him and his companion. The husband and 
wife, approaching their guests to offer them a white goose, suddenly 
become aware of their divinity, and fall terror-stricken at their feet. 
A taper, the flame of which is concealed by Mercury, lights the 
humble cottage, dimly revealing its boarded partitions, the mats 
hanging from the beams, and on the left a few logs blazing on the 
hearth. The light is concentrated on the King of Olympus, a 
personage of somewhat fantastic aspect in a blue tunic with gold em- 
broideries, and on the venerable features of the aged pair, who worship 
with folded hands. Their attitude of fervent adoration involuntarily 
suggests the Disciples at Emmans, which Rembrandt certainly had 
in his mind when treating this mythological theme. 

1 ogether with these compositions, the master, happy to be once 
more at work, painted a considerable number of portraits and studies 
from models about him. Some neighbour probably figures in M. L. 
Goldschmidt's study of 1656 58 known as Rcmbrandf s Cook. She 
stands by a window, her rubicund face turned almost full to the 
spectator, a knife in her hand, with which she seems to be meditating 
an onslaught on some fowl outside. Her brown hair is drawn under 
a white cap, over which she wears a red hood : her brown skirt has 
a red bodice and sleeves, partially covered by a thick white ker- 
chief. The strongly illumined head is very frankly modelled, and the 
brilliant carnations of the vulgar, but healthy and vigorous face, stand 
out in strong relief from the brown background. The study of a 
young girl, painted no doubt at about the same period, which we saw 
in M. Sedelmeyer's possession, whence it has now passed into that of 
Mr. Robert Hoe of New York, is no less remarkable. The model is 
a girl of about sixteen or seventeen, with a brilliant complexion, deep 
and piercing eyes, and an air of strong individuality. Rembrandt has 
painted her in one of those animated attitudes he loved to render, one 
hand on her breast, the other outstretched, and very skilfully fore- 
shortened. The dress makes up a harmony of varying reds with 


I 3 


yellowish grays, and the vigour of the drawing is accentuated by the 
vivacity of the effect. But the transitions are so carefully managed that 
the contrast between the brilliant lights and intense shadows is not 
excessive. Here we recognise Rembrandt's methods as described by 
the worthy De Piles. " It was his custom to place his models directly 

beneath a strongly con- 
centrated light. By this 
means the shadows were 
made very intense, while 
the surfaces which caught 
the light were brought 
more closely together, the 
general effect gaining 
greatly in solidity and 

Among the studies of 
this period, we find 
several of those heads 
of old people for which 
Rembrandt showed so 
strong a predilection. We 
may draw attention to 
the Old Lady in the 
Duke of Buccleuch's col- 
lection, painted in 1660. 
She wears a white fichu 
and a brown hood, and 
seems to be entirely ab- 
sorbed in the book before 

her. Another Old Woman, painted in 1658, is still more remarkable. 
But that her wrinkles are deeper and more numerous, and her cheeks 
hollower and this may perhaps be accounted for by the interval of 
time which separates this from the earlier studies we might identify 
her with the model for the portraits of 1654 in the Hermitage and in 
1 Abrege de la Vie des Peintres, 1715, p. 411. 


1652 (B. 41). 


Count Moltke's collection at Copenhagen, of which we have already 
spoken. The portrait in question is the magnificent study of an old 

1658 (Kann Collection). 

woman, engaged in the prosaic task of cutting her nails, recently 
bought by M. Rodolphe Kann in Russia. 1 She is seated scissors in hand 

1 This picture was in the Ingham-Foster collection towards the close of the last 
century. It was engraved by J. G. Haid for the Boydell collection, and was catalogued 

K 2 


in an armchair, almost facing the spectator, dressed in a yellow gown 
with a brown bodice, and a hood of gray and pale yellow, which throws 
a strong shadow over her face. She seems to have suffered deeply 
and her worn features, and loose, wrinkled skin proclaim her failing 
strength. Notwithstanding the vulgarity of her features, and the 
excessive homeliness of her occupation, the effect she produces is 
grave and dignified. In this example, the execution, though free, is 
masterly to a degree, and in certain passages, such as the modelling of 
the face and hands, and the rendering of the furs and the bodice, 
extremely delicate. Criticism is disarmed before the manifold beauties 
of this fine work, one of the most vigorous and brilliant in Rembrandt's 
a'livrc, as regards its resonant intonations the reds, yellows and iron- 
grays affected by the master at this period the power and exquisite 
refinement of its harmony, its expressive quality, and imposing effect. 
Among the studies from masculine models of this period, we must 
be content with a brief mention of the St. Paul in Lord Wimborne's 
collection at Canford Manor, painted about 1658 1660, a seated 
figure, girt with a sword, posed in a pensive attitude by a table ; 
and the Portrait of a Merchant, reading near a window, painted in 
1659, a work in Lord Feversham's possession at Duncombe Park, 
described to me by Dr. Bode. The Old Man in the National 
Gallery, wrapped in a fur-trimmed robe, and wearing on his head a 
reddish cap, is dated 1659. This picture, which is painted in a 
rich, fat impasto, very skilfully worked up, has unfortunately darkened 
a good deal, but the thin face, with its melancholy expression, and the 
deep-set eyes that look out with a piercing brilliance from under the 
shaggy eyebrows, make a strong impression on the spectator. Another 
study of the same period, in the Pitti Palace, an Old Man seated, is 
painted with the same mastery of chiaroscuro, but the colour is warmer, 
and the general effect very luminous. With these we may class a 
small Study of a Head in M. Rodolphe Kami's collection, represent- 
ing a man with long red hair, features of a proud and aristocratic type, 

by Smith, who had never seen the original, from this engraving. It was brought to Russia 
by M. Bibikoff, and was for some time at Moscow, in the possession of M, Massaloff, the 
father of the well-known engraver. 


and a very penetrating expression ; and two Portraits of YoutJis, more 
in the nature of brilliant sketches the first, in which the sitter wears a 
gray dress, and a black hat with a red plume, belonging to Lord 
Spencer at Althorp, and erroneously supposed to represent William III.; 
the other a Young Man Singing, in the Belvedere, a broadly treated 
and luminous study of a model who wears a cap, from beneath 
which his bright brown hair waves luxuriantly about his face. A 
picture formerly in the Crabbe collection, sold in Paris, June 12, 1890, 
is a more important work. 1 It is the life-size portrait of a man, rather 
more than three-quarters length, turned almost full face to the spectator. 
He wears a broad-brimmed hat, and a loose furred robe over a red 
doublet embroidered in gold. A pouch is fastened by a leather strap 
across his breast, on which hangs a small gold instrument, apparently a 
whistle, an ornament which occurs in several portraits of this period. 
It was, no doubt, a symbol of authority, and, as such, may account 
for the title, The Admiral, bestowed on the personage of this 
portrait. His features have no great distinction, but the head is full 
of vitality, and the thin face, in its setting of long reddish hair, 
bespeaks the man of action. The high lights are accentuated by 
strong shadows ; the colouring, which seems somewhat excessive 
at close quarters, resolves itself, when viewed from a distance, into a 
glowing harmony of the utmost richness. 

The studies of friends or relatives, however, have a deeper interest 
for us than these portraits of unknown models. Among Rembrandt's 
sitters of this period we find the Burgomaster Six, whose friendship 
with Rembrandt remained unbroken. From a document recently 
discovered by Messrs. Bredius and De Roever 2 we learn that in 1653 
Six made him an advance, for which L. van Ludik was surety. The 
debt was subsequently transferred to one G. Ornia, who, after 
Rembrandt's bankruptcy, came upon Ludik for payment. In 
October, 1652, Six further concluded a bargain with Rembrandt, by 
virtue of which he became the possessor of a portrait of Saskia, in 
exchange for which he returned to the master two other of his works 

1 It sold for 4 260, and now belongs to Mr. Schaus of New York. 

2 Oi'd-Holland, viii. p. 181. 



a Simeon and the grisaille, The Preaching of John the Baptist on 
condition that Rembrandt should have the option of reclaiming them, 
up to a certain date. This agreement was, however, set aside 
by a decision of the commissioners in bankruptcy in 1658. It is 
evident that frequent intercourse had been kept up between Six 
and Rembrandt, and it was perhaps after some business interview 
with the Burgomaster that the artist set to work on his portrait, 
which, as we learn from a journal belonging to the Six family, was 
painted in 1654. So perfect is its condition that it might have 

been finished yesterday. 
Standing with his head 
a little bent, in a won- 
derfully life-like attitude, 
Six draws on his gloves, 
as if about to go out. 
He wears a black hat, 
and a gray doublet, over 
which is thrown a red 
cloak trimmed with gold 
lace. The face, which is 
modelled in planes of 
great breadth, is sur- 
rounded by waving 
masses of fair hair, and 

stands out from a dark background. The handling, in spite of 
its facility, is marvellously decisive. There are no subtleties of 
treatment, but emphasis is given by touches of unerring precision ; 
the chord of colour, simple, yet supremely harmonious, is made 
up of subdued reds touched with gold, and neutral grays. In this 
work (painted probably in a few hours) every stroke told, every 
sweep of the brush was final ; the artist obviously conceived 
and accomplished with equal rapidity and perfection. As Fro- 
mentin happily remarks : " We note the geniality of a mind that 
finds relaxation in a pleasurable task, the assurance of a prac- 
tised hand amusing itself with the tools of its craft, and above all, a 


Pen drawing, heightened with wash (Stockholm Print Room). 



fashion of interpreting life only possible to a thinker, accustomed 
to be busied with high problems." Such qualities have drawn 
generation after generation of amateurs to the hospitable house in 
the Heerengracht at Amsterdam, the doors of which are open to all 
lovers of art. There, in his old home, still the home of his 
descendants, Six looks down from the wall, side by side with his 
mother, the Anna Wymer painted by the master in 1641. A com- 
parison of these two works will give students of Rembrandt some idea 
of the progress he had made in the twenty years that divide them. 

Lord Ashburton's 
little portrait of Cop- 
penol, painted about 
1658, is as remarkable 
for elaboration and 
finish as is that of Six 
for breadth and facility. 
Its exact date is not 
known, but Mr. Mid- 
dleton-Wake, rightly as 
we think, assigns the 
etching, which was ex- 
ecuted from this por- 
trait to 1658. The 
plate is an exact re- 
production of the picture, save that the composition is reversed. 2 
The old writing-master is represented sitting at a table, his cloak 
on his shoulders. The sleeves of a red waistcoat show below 
those of his doublet ; he wears a flat white collar, and, on his 
head, a black skull-cap. His hair has become scanty and, like 
his moustache, is gray ; but the freshness of his complexion, and 
the vivacity of his expression, denote a healthy and robust 
temperament. He holds a sheet of paper in his hands, and looks 

1 Les Maltres ifAutrefois, p. 371. 

2 Rembrandt was even careful to pose Coppenol with his pen in his left hand, in 
order that it might appear in the right in the print reversed from the copper. 

l6 5 S (1). 70). 


out towards the spectator with an air of triumph, as if challenging 
admiration for the wonders his skilful pen is to trace. The 
combination of breadth with closeness of execution is unique. 
While the full and luminous tones are worthy of Rembrandt at his 
best, the modelling rivals that of Holbein in scrupulous and learned 
precision. The old painter seems to be hurling a defiance at all 
the devotees of minute finish with whom his detractors were fond 
of comparing him to his disadvantage. He accepts the contest on 
their own ground, as if to confound them by showing that with 
all the prodigies of elaboration they produced, to him alone be- 
longed the secret of that spirit and vigour of expression, that 
breath of life and grandeur, to which none of his rivals could attain. 
The etching made from this little masterpiece is of the same 
dimensions (B. 283), and is no less finished in execution. With 
his picture for guide, Rembrandt was able to work leisurely and 
methodically at his plate. 1 Thus, though the tones are rich and 
full, the print has all the transparence and delicacy of a work 
which has been carefully prepared, and accomplished with patience 
and precision. Like the picture, it is unique in its way, and the 
elaborate workmanship attests both the master's desire to please his 
triend, and his own uncliminished energy. 

A few other plates of this period are of a very different 
character, and are for the most part rapid and summary in treatment. 
There are only two compositions, both of the year 1658, after which 
date we shall find no other etchings of this class. Jesus and the 
Samaritan Woman (B. 70) was a subject the master had already 
attempted more than once, and of which he had made several 
drawings (notably that in the Stockholm Museum) besides the 
etching of 1634 (B. 71). The later print is more in the nature 
of a sketch, broad and frank in treatment, and somewhat hasty. 
Turning towards Christ, the woman rests her arms on a bucket, 
which stands on the edge of the well, and listens respectfully to 
the words of the Teacher, seated on a projecting piece of wall 

1 Yes, and the plate with all its perfection has something of the air of an accomplished 
translation. The sense of actual spontaneity is the charm denied. F. IV. 

The Large Co/>pcnol, about 1658. (B. 283.) 
Fac-simile of the Etching. 


beside her. In the background is a picturesque landscape, with 
the outline of a distant town beyond ; a group of peasants to the 
left observe the two chief actors, and converse among themselves. 
In the Allegorical Piece, also dated 1658, the master's intention 
is somewhat obscure, and both as regards ensemble and detail the 
work is peculiarly fantastic. In the foreground, at the base of a large 
pedestal, on the upper part of which is a shield with a ducal coronet, 
lies the colossal statue which once crowned the structure. In its 
place, a stork, the national emblem of Holland, stands on his nest 
in a luminous glory, while a little winged figure hovers in the air 
on either side, blowing a trumpet. A crowd of spectators below 
applaud the manifestation. Mr. Middleton-Wake explains the 
allegory as referring to Turenne's victory over the Spaniards at 
the Battle of Dunes, in 1658. His interpretation seems to us 
somewhat over-subtle, and though the traditional explanation of the 
piece, as representing the demolition of Alva's statue at Antwerp in 
1577, is not absolutely convincing, it is at least more plausible. 
The plate is another instance of Rembrandt's incapacity for allegorical 
composition. The statue, the spectators, and the winged genii 
are of the most vulgar types : and the clumsy bird on the top 
of the pedestal is much more like a goose than a stork. The 
hasty execution in no wise redeems the faults of the composition, 
on which the master evidently bestowed little labour. 

Three other plates dated 1658, the Woman sitting before a 
Dutch Stove (B. 197), the Woman preparing to dress after bathing 
(B. 199), the Woman with her Feet in the Water (B. 200), and 
perhaps too the Naked Woman seen from behind (La Ni'gresse 
Couchde] (B. 205), are merely nude female studies, bold and brilliant 
in effect, if somewhat coarse in execution. They are all from the 
same model, probably Henclrickje. The faces are so slightly in- 
dicated as to afford little clue ; but the breast, and the propor- 
tions of the body, are unmistakably those of the Bathsheba in the 
Louvre, whose attitude differs very slightly from that of the Woman 
sitting before a Dutch Stove. We recognise Hendrickje again in 
the Jnpiter and Antiope (B. 203), apparently a reminiscence of 



Correggio, though there is little of the Italian master's beauty of 
form in the sleeping figure, which an old satyr contemplates with 
the air of a connoisseur. In this later work, Rembrandt seems 
to have determined to justify the violent attacks of his academic 
critics, whose strictures were echoed a few years after the master's 
death by Andries Pels, a mediocre Dutch writer, in his Poem on 

the Theatre^ : " When he 
attempted to paint a naked 
woman," he remarks of 
Rembrandt, " he chose, 
not the Grecian Venus, 
but a washerwoman or 
farm-servant .... Such 
models he reproduced in 
every detail, flabby breasts, 
distorted hands, even the 
ridges formed by the bodice 
round the waist, and the 
marks of the garters about 
the legs." If Rembrandt 
more than once justified 
this criticism, it was not, 
as Pels supposes, " from 
a deliberately adopted 
heresy .... arising out 
of his inability to com- 
pete with Titian, Van 
Dyck, and Michelan- 
gelo." The misconception here is two-fold ; Rembrandt had no 
deliberate theory in the matter. In this, as in all things his sincerity 
was absolute. Neither can it be truly said that he was incapable of 
rendering beauty, and that his " glaring aberrations " were the result 
of his revolt against " authority and tradition." In the matter of studies 
from nature, Rembrandt had no system other than that common to all 
1 Gebruik en Misbruik des Toneels, 1681, p. 36. 


Pen drawing (Heseltine Collection). 

Portrait of Rembrandt (1660). 

(1,1,1 \ 


rvs " were the result 
the matter 1 of st 


''X s ^vAi'4-V 

great masters. His observations were based en the facts before him. 
As his patrons fell off, he, who could not exist without work, 
made use of the only models available for those exercises he loved 
and diligently pursued until his death. 

Titus was Rembrandt's model, as well as Hendrickje. As far 
as it is possible to judge through the deep shadow in which the 
contours are veiled, he it was who sat for a picture in the Hermitage, 
painted about 1660 (No. 825 in the Catalogue), which, in general 
effect, harmony, and style 
of execution, recalls the 
beautiful portrait of Bruy- 
ningh in the Cassel 
Museum. Dr. Bredius 
further recognises Titus 
in two portraits in the 
Louvre ; one, the very 
expressive study of a 
pale, olive - complexioned 
young man, of aristocratic 
appearance, with an air 
of dignified melancholy ; 
the other a broad, sketchy 
work, in the Lacaze col- 
lection, remarkable for the 
vivid frankness of the high 
lights. The likeness be- 
tween the two, however, seems to us very slight, and the sitter in both 
considerably older than Titus in 1667 or 1668, the approximate date 
of the two portraits. 

As for those studies of himself which Rembrandt had laid aside 
during his brief period of popularity, they become more and more 
numerous with advancing age. Two almost similar portraits, one 
in the Uffizi, the other in the Belvedere, were painted about 1658, 
and represent the master nearly full face, in his working dress : 
a cap, and a loose brown tunic, held to the figure by a scarf, into 


(Seymour-Haden Collection.) 


which his hands are thrust. Two other portraits of Rembrandt, 
one belonging to Lord Ellesmere, the other to Lady Wallace, are 
marked by the .same expression of melancholy. The more austere 
portrait of 1660, in the Louvre, which we reproduce, is perhaps 
even more characteristic. It shows the master at his work, in a 
loose gown of cheap material, and a white night-cap. His face is 
unshaved, his hair has become gray and scanty. Standing by his 
easel, palette and brushes in hand, he studies his model, fixing the 
forms and colours before him on his memory. In that keen, 
searching gaze, we divine the artist, accustomed to note the most 
fugitive shades of expression in a human face, and the infinite 
modifications of light. He has accumulated knowledge and ex- 
perience without prejudice to his perfect sincerity. Absorbed in the 
problem before him, and temporarily oblivious of his sufferings, he 
finds calm and refreshment in his task. Once more he tastes the 
delight of creation. Shattered by adversity, his one desire is for 
some quiet corner in which at least he may work. 

His art was, in fact, the sole direction in which he showed him- 
self practical and clear-sighted, and, recognising this, those who loved 
him conspired together to mark out his life and protect it, and to 
prevent the imprudences and prodigalities into which he would again 
have drifted if left to himself. They had also found it necessary to 
shelter him in some measure from the importunities of his creditors. 
On December 15, 1660, in the presence of a notary and two witnesses, 
Hendrickje and Titus entered into an agreement, one of the main 
objects of which was to ensure Rembrandt's future comfort, and 
the tranquillity necessary for his work. As all Rembrandt's own 
earnings were at the mercy of his vigilant creditors, Hendrickje 
had devised a plan by which she hoped to free him from their 
power. She and Titus entered into partnership as dealers in 
pictures, engravings, and curiosities, a business she had already 
started some two years before. Each partner agreed to embark 
his whole fortune in the venture, and each was to be part pro- 
prietor of the stock-in-trade, and to make an equal division of profit 
and loss, But, "as it was indispensable that the partners should 


have the help and advice of a third person, and as none was so 
capable of directing them as Rembrandt," it was further agreed 
that he should live with them, receiving board and lodging in 
return for his services. He was to reserve nothing he might 
possess at that or any future time, and was further to bind him- 
self never to make any claim upon the profits of the partnership. 
In consideration of which, Titus agreed to allow him 950 florins 
and Hendrickje 800 florins, which sums he promised to return as 
soon as he should earn sufficient by his own work. 

In this combination, which placed the partners on a footing of 
absolute equality, Rembrandt was treated as the child he had shown 
himself to be in money-matters. He had become the ward, for 
whom Titus and Hendrickje undertook to administer the common 
property. It may be supposed that an agreement so obviously 
aimed at the interests of the creditors was not complaisantly 
accepted by them ; they made, in fact, repeated claims and 
demands. It seems unlikely, moreover, that the business can have 
been very lucrative. The country was more or less exhausted by 
the war with England ; the truce was generally believed to be 
but temporary, and the times were hardly favourable for dealers 
in luxuries. As Dr. Bredius has shown in his interesting study- 
on the traffic in works of art during the seventeenth century, 1 many 
of the great art-dealers of this period ended their days in bankruptcy 
and poverty. But it is very probable that Titus and Hendrickje 
had learnt caution from former disaster, and avoided speculations 
involving large risks, contenting themselves chiefly with the sale 
of Rembrandt's own works, notably his etchings. Although 
Rembrandt's inventory of 1656 was a fairly circumstantial one, we 
find no mention in it of any of the copper plates of his etchings. 
Some, no doubt, had been sold to dealers ; but it is not improbable 
that he kept a good many, either to finish, or re-touch, and that 
these were not included in the sale of 1658. Amateurs were 
beginning to appreciate his etchings ; famous collections of them 
were formed, and the various states often fetched considerable prices, 
1 Amsterdamsch Jaerboekje, voor Geschiedenis en Letteren. 1891. 



which were determined, perhaps, rather by their rarity, than by their 
artistic merit. It is doubtless to this traffic that Houbraken refers, 
in the statement that Titus was in the habit of travelling about 
carrying his father's etchings for sale, a statement the author makes 
the text for a further denunciation of Rembrandt's avarice. We 
may ask with Vosmaer : " What possible disgrace could attach to 
such a commerce ? " The profits of these sales sufficed for the 
maintenance of the little family, and Rembrandt, free from anxiety 
on this score, was once more able to devote himself entirely to his 
art. His powers had reached, if possible, more perfect development 
by means of the numerous disinterested studies of the last two 
years, and he was about to signalise the close of his career by 
new masterpieces. 


Pen drawing (Stockholm Print Room). 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 




THE! year 1661 is one of the most prolific 
in Rembrandt's career. It was marked 
by the production of one supreme work, 
and of several which are important, This 
fertility bears witness to the energy with 
which he had returned to his labours. He 
established himself this year in a house on the 
Rozengracht, where he remained till 1664. It 
was, at the time, a comparatively unfrequented 
quarter, where the master, no doubt, had been 
able to find a suitable domicile at a reasonable 

cost. Land was cheap in this district, and immediately opposite 
Rembrandt's house, David Lingelbach of Frankfort, father of the well- 


About 1630 (B. 5). 


known painter, Johannes Lingelbach, had laid out one of those pleasure- 
gardens then popular under the name of Labyrinths (Doolhof]. 
Lingelbach was an enterprising and industrious person, and had 
already started a New Labyrinth, known as The Orange Tree, in 1636, 
on the Loiersgracht, a neighbouring quay, where he offered greater 
attractions than any of his predecessors had been able to collect. 
Among these were mechanical set pieces, such as Orpheus charming 
(he Beasts, surprise fountains, and monumental fountains, such as 
The Samaritan Woman and the Sei'cn Provinces, natural curiosities of 
every kind, strange animals, alive or stuffed, patriotic groups, 
satirical representations, such as the Procession of the Ommcgang, 
grottoes, flower-beds, and various other spectacles for the attraction of 
visitors, who brought their families to these establishments to see the 
sights, enjoy the music, and partake of refreshments. 1 

Lingelbach opened the Labyrinth on the Rozetlgracht in February, 
1648. It occupied a considerable space, and had involved the purchase 
oi two large gardens, and several adjoining houses. But the amuse- 
ments of such a place were little to Rembrandt's taste, as we know, 
and he was now less inclined than ever for such distractions. He 
had no money to spend at sales, or in the shops of art- dealers, and 
when he made up his mind to leave his studio, he generally turned his 
steps towards the country, which was easy of access from this quarter 
of the town. Here he found a variety of excursions, along the 
ramparts and canals, and in outlying suburbs, clotted here and there 
with laundries and windmills. His sedentary habits, however, were 
more confirmed than ever, and he rarely left the shelter of his 
roof. The friends who were willing to seek him out in the 
Rozengracht were few, and his work was very seldom interrupted. 
But he had no lack of occupation. 

Among the pictures he painted at this period, the first in order 
is a Circumcision at Althorp, which Smith describes in his Catalogue 

1 See Mr. N. do Roever's interesting article in Oud-Holland (vi. 103-112) on the 
successive Labyrinths laid out at Amsterdam. These pleasure-gardens were the fore- 
runners of the magnificent zoological gardens now established at Amsterdam and 


raisonnt (No. 69) as "an admirably finished study, remarkably brilliant 
and effective . . . dated 1661," while Dr. Bode, who was unable 
to decipher the date, declares it to be a sketch-like composition, 
painted in the bright, high tones, and fluid manner afterwards adopted 
by Rembrandt's pupil, Aert de Gelcler. The ceremony takes place 
in a vast building, the light falling full on the seated Virgin, with the 
Infant Jesus in her lap, and on the kneeling High Priest, who wears a 
brilliant yellow mantle. In the background, as in the etching of 1654 
(B. 47), a group of spectators lean forward to watch the operation, 
and some cattle in stalls are distinguishable beyond. 

The Saint Mattheiu and the Angel in the Louvre dated 1661, is a 
more elevated composition. The apostle's face, it is true, lacks nobility. 
His features are coarse, his dress poor, and the harmony of the 
brown garment, the gray cap, and the rather strong flesh tints, is 
neither rich nor distinguished. The handling is harsh and abrupt, 
even coarse at times, but here and there we note those subtleties 
of expression peculiar to Rembrandt. The idea that of divine 
inspiration breathed into a human soul seems almost impossible 
of concrete realisation, and wholly beyond the resources of painting. 
Yet Rembrandt has succeeded in rendering it with unrivalled clarity 
and eloquence. Seated at his table, the old man becomes conscious 
of the presence of the divine messenger, who visits him in his 
retreat. The angel draws near, laying his hand gently on the 
apostle's shoulder, and placing his lips to his ear. The saint presses 
his withered hand to his breast, as if in the rapture of divine inspiration. 
He seems to gaze fixedly into space at things unspeakable that rise 
before him ; he sees the events he will presently transcribe at the 
angel's bidding. 

We feel some diffidence in passing from this picture to another 
canvas in the Louvre, the Venus and Cupid of about the same date, 
which Dr. Bode, rightly as we think, conjectures to be a study of 
Hendrickje with her child, the little Cornelia. The apparent ages 
of the two figures, and the type of the Venus support his assump- 
tion. But Hendrickje, if Hendrickje it be, has grown stouter ; her 
contours have lost their youthful grace, and the peevish-looking Cupid 




by her side has no more of distinction than his mother. But for 
the wings set awkwardly on his shoulders, it would be hard to divine 
the very unfortunate title of the picture, against which the unmis- 
takably Dutch character of the forms, types and accessories seems 
to enter a vigorous protest. Once more we recognise the master's 
shortcomings as a painter of mythological subjects. But if we set 

aside the legend, with 
which the characters have 
evidently no connection, 
and take the picture 
merely as a conception 
of maternal love, it is 
full of tenderness and 
charm ; we forget the 
incongruity of the sup- 
posed theme, in admira- 
tion of the mother's loving 
expression, the gentleness 
with which she consoles 
the child, and the deep 
mutual affection of the 
pair. The Young Woman 
at the Window in the 
Berlin Gallery (No. 828 
b.), must have been 


About 1665 (Berlin Museum). 

painted at about the 
same period. Dr. Bode, 
it is true, hesitates to ac- 
cept this as a portrait of Hendrickje such as Rembrandt painted her 
in the Portrait of the Salon Carrt. But the resemblance between 
the Berlin model and the Venus seems to us very striking, and their 
ages appear to be the same. The Young Woman at the Windoiv 
is perhaps, if anything, a trifle younger. Hendrickje has become 
stouter, and broader ; the double chin is now apparent, but she 
is still fresh and attractive. Her somewhat fanciful costume is very 


tasteful ; she wears a red mantle trimmed with fur over a white 
under-dress, a cap striped with broad bands of gold, pearl earrings 
and bracelets, and a gold ring hanging by a black ribbon at her 
breast. But the easy negligence of the pose, and the low chemisette 
which partly reveals the neck and bosom, seem to mark the sitter 
as one who was on terms 01 close intimacy with the master. 
The bold, free touch gives us little clue as to the date of execution. 


Pen drawing (HontKit Collection). 

At this period Rembrandt's handling varies so perpetually that it 
is impossible to draw anything but approximate conclusions from the 
character of his work, which in one picture is rough, hasty and 
impulsive, in another sedate and careful, according to his changing 

Neglected as he now was, the master still retained a few constant 
friends. Of this we find evidences in two very important commissions 
of this period. One of these works, or rather a fragment of the 

L 2 



original, is in the Stockholm Museum. The subject long exercised 
the sagacity of critics, and has recently been determined by the 
discovery of a document in which reference is made to it. The scene 
as represented in the mutilated picture is certainly somewhat obscure. 
Round a table lighted by a blazing torch are grouped ten life-size 
figures. To the left, facing the spectator, sits their chieftain, to whom 
they appear to be swearing obedience, brandishing aloft their swords 
and drinking-cups. The leader, who wears a sort of high tiara, re- 
sponds by holding up his own blade. He is a man of imposing 
appearance and grave demeanour, apparently blind of one eye. 
Both he and his companions wear rich dresses, which ate, however, 
not sufficiently distinctive to give any hint as to the episode repre- 

Who are these warriors, and for what mysterious purpose are 
they assembled ? Various solutions have been proposed from time 
to time, but none of a very convincing character. Noting that the 
leader is represented as one-eyed, some writers supposed him to 
be John Ziska. But we know how rarely Rembrandt sought 
inspiration in modern history, and it was difficult to believe that 
he could have chosen a theme so fantastic, and so alien to the 
artistic conceptions of himself and his compatriots. This hypothesis 
was accordingly abandoned, and a solution was sought for in the 
Scriptures, Rembrandt's perennial source of inspiration. It came 
to be very generally accepted that the theme was taken from the 
Book of the Maccabees, and that the artist intended to represent 
either Mattathias and his sons swearing to defend their faith 
against the persecutors, or the meeting of Judas Maccabseus and 
his brothers before their encounter with the troops of Antiochus. 
In later times, Professor K. Madsen suggested The Founding of 
the Kingdom of Sweden by Odin. 1 The wide diversity of these 
opinions shows their inconclusiveness. On a personal examination 
of the work, though I could arrive at no solution which satisfied 
me as to the subject, I was persuaded that the canvas had been 
mutilated much after the same fashion as the Night Watch, though 
1 Studierjra Swerig, by K. Madsen. i vol. 8vo. Copenhagen. 1892. 


I little imagined to what an extent. It is now known that the Stock- 
holm picture, large as it is it measures rather over six by ten feet is 
only a fragment, equal in surface to about a quarter of the original. 
Our facsimile of a drawing in the Munich Print Room will give some 
idea of the primitive work and its dimensions. This drawing, to 
which attention has already been drawn in the Stockholm Catalogue, 
though it gives the composition in its entirety, affords no clue as 
to the subject. It was reserved for Mr. de Roever to solve the 
much discussed problem, which he does in a recent number of the 
valuable journal of which he is joint-editor. 1 

The learned archivist had been struck by a passage in a 
Description of Amsterdam, published by Melchior Fokkens in 1662, 
in which mention is made of a picture in one of the angles of the great 
gallery in the Town Hall, now the Royal Palace, representing The Mid- 
night Banquet of Claudius Civilis, at which he persuaded the Batauians 
to throw off the Roman Yoke. " The subject of this picture," adds 
Fokkens, "was one Rembrandt had treated." We know further, 
from a document already referred to in connection with the advance 
made by Jan Six to Rembrandt, that Lodewyk van Ludik, 
Rembrandt's security, received from the artist, in August, 1662, a 
deed, by which it was agreed that the half of Rembrandt's 
earnings up to January i, 1663, should be devoted to paying off 
the loss of 1082 florins incurred by Lodewyk through this transaction. 
It further provided that Van Ludik should be entitled to a 
quarter of the price paid to Rembrandt " for a picture painted for 
the Town Hall." Thanks to M. de Roever's collation of these 
statements, and to the evidence afforded by the Munich drawing, 
it is now possible to reconstruct the original composition, and to 
determine its subject. In the place indicated by Fokkens in the 
great gallery of the Palace is still to be seen an immense picture 
hanging very high up, in a dark corner, which might perhaps for 
a moment be mistaken for the work of Rembrandt. But the test 

1 Een Rembrandt opt Stadhuis ; Oud-Holland, ix. p. 296. See also an article in the 
Nederlandsche Spectator, April, 1892, in which the question is admirably summed up by 
Mr. Cornelis Hofstede de Grote. 


of the electric light has revealed the fact that this mediocre and 
coarsely executed picture was substituted for that of Rembrandt, 
as indeed Zesen informs us in his Description of Amsterdam 
(1663). No doubt Rembrandt, bearing in mind the destination of 
his canvas, had also treated his subject in a free and decorative 
style, the effect of which was unpleasant at close quarters. As it 
did not find favour with the magistrates, it seems not unlikely 


66 (Stockholm Museum). 

that they ventured on certain strictures which Rembrandt ignored, 
and that the result was the rejection of his picture. It then became 
a question how to dispose of this huge canvas, some sixty-five 
feet square, by far the largest ever covered by the master. In its 
original dimensions it was hopeless to offer it to a private purchaser, 
and this consideration, no doubt, led to the paring down of the 
canvas to the central group, which, after various vicissitudes, has 
found a resting-place in the Stockholm Gallery. 1 

1 Of its provenance nothing is known but that, in 1798, it was bequeathed to the Fine 
Arts Academy at Stockholm by a certain Dame Peill, nee Grill, whose husband, like 
herself, was of Dutch origin. It was removed to the Museum in 1864. 


As we learn from the accounts 01 the Amsterdam Treasury, 
Flinck was the person originally entrusted with the decoration of 
this gallery in the Town Hall, by virtue of a contract approved on 


(Facsimile of a drawing in the Munich Print Room). 

November 28, I659- 1 The choice of The Conspiracy of Claudius 
Civilis as one of the episodes to be treated is readily explained by 
the part the hero had played in the Batavian revolt, and by the 

1 The scheme of decoration comprised twelve pictures to be painted in six years, at 
1,000 florins each. See AmsteFs Oudheid, II. p. 143. 


analogies the poets of the day, Vonclel among others, had drawn 
between the early struggle against the Roman dominion, and that 
the Princes of Orange had brought to a triumphant issue against 
the Spaniards. But Flinck's labours having been interrupted 
by his death on Feburary 22, 1660, the commission for the picture 
of Claudius Civilis was passed on to Rembrandt. It is "not unlikely 
that the influence of his early patron, Dr. Tulp, who held the 
office of municipal treasurer from 1658 to 1659, was exercised in his 

The earlier designation of the work as The Conspiracy of John 
Ziska was, as we have seen, to some extent justified by the principal 
figure, for Ziska was blind of one eye, like Civilis, who, according to 
Tacitus, gloried in a defect he shared with Hannibal, another heroic 
enemy of Rome. Rembrandt adheres very closely to the historian's 
text. In the Munich drawing the table of the midnight banquet is 
raised on a sort of dais under a portico, beyond which we dimly dis- 
cern the branches of trees, and the battlements of a castle. The 
principal native chiefs and nobles who have rallied round Civilis are 
grouped about the table, and swear with him to throw off the yoke 
of their oppressors. The broad execution of the Stockholm picture, 
which is yet sufficiently careful in the high lights, harmonises with 
the mysterious nature of the subject, and a very powerful effect is 
won by the simplest means. We recognise the hand of the master, 
and the exquisite delicacy of his harmonies, in the varied play of 
reds and yellows, with which the cunningly distributed blues and 
greens are so happily contrasted. The portion to the right especially 
is a miracle of brilliance. The man with long white hair in a cymar 
of pale golden tissue, and the four figures beside him, make up a 
colour passage of inimitable grace and distinction. 

We may find some solace for our regrets at the mutilations 
undergone by such works as the Night Watch and the Conspiracy 
oj Claudius Civilis, in the perfect preservation of another canvas 
of this period. Commissioned by the Guild of Drapers, or Cloth- 
workers, to paint a portrait group of their Syndics for the Hall of 
the Corporation, Rembrandt in 1661 delivered to them the great 


picture which formerly hung in the Chamber of the Controllers and 
Gaugers of Cloth, at the Staalkof, and has now been removed to 
the Ryksmuseum. As in earlier days at Florence, the wool industry 
held an important place in the national commerce of Holland, and 
had greatly contributed to the development of public prosperity. 
At Leyden, where the Guild was a large and important company, 
we know that the Drapers decorated their Hall with pictures by 
Isaac van Swancnburch, representing the various processes of 
cloth-making. At Amsterdam, they formed a no less conspicuous 
body, and an admirable work, also in the Ryksmuscum, painted by 
Aert Petersen in 1599, has immortalised the Six Syndics of the 
Cloth Hall of that date. On this brilliant and perfectly preserved 
panel, the arrangement of the six figures has, it is true, a somewhat 
accidental appearance, and evidently cost the artist little trouble. 
But the frankly modelled heads have a startling energy and 
individuality, notably that of the central figure, a middle-aged man 
with grizzled hair, and a face of remarkable intelligence and decision. 
The following inscription on the panel sums up in few words the 
duties of the administration : " Conform to your vows in all matters 
clearly within their jurisdiction ; live honestly ; be not influenced 
in your judgments by favour, hatred, or personal interest." Such 
a programme of loyalty and strict justice was the foundation of 
Dutch commercial greatness. The model traders of Holland com- 
bined with their perfect integrity a spirit of enterprise which led 
them to seek distant markets for their produce, and a tenacity which 
ensured the success of the hazardous expeditions they promoted. 
They brought the qualities they had acquired in the exercise of 
their calling to bear upon their management of public business, 
and it was not unusual for the most prominent among them, who 
had proved their capacity in the administration of their various 
guilds, to be elected councillors and burgomasters by their fellow- 
citizens, or to undertake the management of those charitable institu- 
tions which abounded in all the Dutch towns. As was the custom 
among the military guilds, which gradually declined as the civic cor- 
porations increased in importance, it became a practice among the 



latter to decorate their halls with the portraits of their dignitaries. 
Whatever the character of the Company, the manner of representa- 
tion differed little in these portraits. Save in the case of the 
Anatomy Lessons, painted for the guilds of Physicians and Surgeons, 
or some few awkwardly rendered episodes inspired by the distribu- 
tion of alms to the aged and the orphaned, the painters of these 

compositions contented 
themselves with arrang- 
ing their patrons round 
a table, making no at- 
tempt to characterise 
them by any sort of 
accessory. The balanc- 
ing of accounts, an 
operation common to all 
the Companies, had be- 
come a favourite motive 
in such groups. The 
administrators would ap- 
pear seated at a table, 
covered with a cloth, 
busily verifying their ac- 
counts, and the contents 
of their cash-boxes, and 
explaining, with gestures 
more or less expressive, 
that all was in order, 

and that they had faithfully fulfilled their trust. In the back- 
ground, standing apart with uncovered heads, some subordinates 
awaited their pleasure, or aided them in their task. Such was 
the trite theme, which was adapted to each of the societies in 
turn, and to which all the painters of corporation groups con- 
formed with more or less exactitude. The only modifications of 
treatment arose from the varying degrees of talent in the ex- 
ecutants. But in all we find that same spirit of conscientious 


Pen drawing washed with Sepia (Hestliine Collection). 



exactitude and absolute sincerity which had brought wealth to their 
models, and was the first foundation of Dutch greatness alike in 
commerce and in art. 

Such a spirit had already manifested itself in the Regents of the 
Asylum for the Aged, by Cornelis van de Voort, and in the pictures 
of Werner van Valckert, an artist who had won a well-deserved 
reputation by his studies of life in the Municipal Orphanage, and who 


(Near the Rozengraclit, Rembrandt's later home. 
(Drawing by Boudier after a photograph.) 

painted a portrait-group of The Four Syndics, of the Mercers Guild, 
in 1622. In the hands of Thomas de Keyser and Nicolaes Elias the 
genre had reached its full development. Proclaimed their painter in 
ordinary by the leading citizens of Amsterdam, Elias was commissioned 
in 1626 to paint the Regents of the Guild of Wine Merchants, and in 
1628 produced his fine work, The Regents of the Spinhuis. Santvoort 
in his turn though his talents lay chiefly in the direction of female 
portraiture displayed his powers very creditably in his Four Regents of 
the Serge Hall of 1643, a serious and well-considered work, finely 


modelled, and very characteristically treated. But to Haarlem belongs 
the honour of having produced the finest corporation picture executed 
before Rembrandt's masterpiece. Too much stress has perhaps been 
laid on the manifestation of his influence in Frans Hals' Regents 
of the Hospital of St. Elizabeth, painted in 1641. The Haarlem 
master may, we think, justly la)- claim to the full glory of his achieve- 
ments. As if grateful in anticipation for the succour he was afterwards 
to receive from his models, Hals here combines with the magnificent 
technique usual in his works, a precision and dignity to which he had 
never before attained. 

At this period, Dutch art had reached 'its apogee, and corpora- 
tion pictures were beginning to show symptoms of decline. The 
unquestionable talent of Ferdinand Bol, one of Rembrandt's best 
pupils, had not preserved him from a certain mannerism in his 
Regents, of the Asylum for the Aged, dated I65/. 1 The six persons 
are seated in the usual manner round a table. The heads are 
somewhat round and soft in the modelling, and have little of the 
strong individuality that impresses us in the works of Bol's pre- 
decessors. The composition is lacking in simplicity, and the painter's 
anxiety to give variety to the attitudes is somewhat distractingly 
obvious. Each figure seems to claim exclusive attention, and this 
neglect of artistic subordination injures the unity of the com- 
position, though it was indeed one of the main causes of Bol's success, 
for each model was flattered by the importance of his own figure in 
the group. 

Such were the most important productions in this genre, when 
Rembrandt was commissioned to paint his group of Syndics. It is not 
unlikely that Van de Cappelle had used his influence on the master's 
behalf. He was on terms of friendship with Rembrandt at this period, 
and had dealings with most of the principal Drapers, in connection with 
his dye-works. It is therefore possible that he recommended the 
master to their patronage. On this occasion Rembrandt made no 
attempt to vary traditional treatment by picturesque episode, or novel 
method of illumination, as in the case of the Night Watch. As Dr. 

1 He was afterwards himself a Regent of the institution. 


Bredius remarks : " He recognised, no doubt, that such experi- 
ments were far from grateful to his patrons, or it may be that 
they themselves made certain stipulations which left him no choice 
in the matter." ' Be this as it may, Rembrandt accepted the 
convention of his predecessors in all its simplicity. The five 
dignitaries of the Corporation are ranged round the inevitable 
table, prosaically occupied in the verification of their accounts 
They are all dressed in black costumes, with flat white collars, 
and broad-brimmed black hats. Behind them, and somewhat in 
the shadow, as befits his office, a servant, also in black, awaits 
their orders with uncovered head. The table-cloth is of a rich 
scarlet ; a wainscot of yellowish brown wood, with simple mouldings, 
forms the background for the heads. No accessories, no variation in 
the costumes ; an equally diffused light, falling from the left on the 
faces, which are those of men of mature years, some verging on old 
age. With such modest materials Rembrandt produced his masterpiece. 
At the first glance, we are fascinated by the extraordinary reality 
of the scene, by the commanding presence and intense vitality of the 
models. They are simply honest citizens discussing the details of 
their calling ; but there is an air of dignity on the manly faces that 
compels respect. In these men, to whom their comrades have en- 
trusted the direction of their affairs, we recognise the marks of clean 
and upright living, the treasures of moral and physical health amassed 
by a robust and wholesome race. The eyes look out frankly from 
the canvas : the lips seem formed for the utterance of wise and 
sincere words. Such is the work, but, contemplating it, the student 
finds it difficult to analyse the secret of its greatness, so artfully is its 
art concealed. Unfettered by the limitations imposed on him, the 
master's genius finds its opportunity in the arrangement of the 
figures, and their spacing on the canvas, in the slight inflection of 
the line of faces, in the unstudied variety of gesture and attitude, 
in the rhythm and balance of the whole. An examination of the 
various details confirms our admiration. We note the solid structure 
of the heads and figures, the absolute truth of the values, the 
1 Les Chefs-ctctuvre du Musee d 'Amsterdam, p. 26. 


individual and expressive quality of each head, and their unity 
one with another. Passing from the drawing to the colour, our 
enthusiasm is raised by the harmony of intense velvety blacks and 
warm whites with brilliant carnations, which seem to have been 
kneaded, as it were, with sunshine ; by the shadows which bring 
the forms into relief by an unerring perception oi their surfaces and 
textures ; and, finally, by the general harmony, the extraordinary 
vivacity of which can only be appreciated by comparing it with the 
surrounding canvases. 

The execution is no less amazing in its sustained breadth and 
sobriety. As Fromentin justly observes: "The vivid quality of 
the light is so illusory that it is difficult to conceive of it as 
artificial." " So perfect is the balance of parts," he acids, " that 
the general impression would be that of sobriety and reticence, 
were it not for the undercurrent of nerves, of flame, of impa- 
tience, we divine beneath the outwardly calm maturity of the 
master." No criticism could be more admirable, save for the 
terms "nerves" and "impatience," which seem to me to be 
peculiarly inappropriate. I appeal to all students of this great work, 
in which there is not the slightest trace of precipitation or negli- 
gence, in which the "flame" is the steady fire of an inspiration 
perfectly under control. 

That phase ot Rembrandt's development in which he had 
yielded an almost slavish obedience to Nature had long passed away ; 
but his assurance has none of the bravura of a virtuoso making a 
display of his proficiency. His is the strength that possesses its 
soul in patience, and attains its end without haste or hesitation. 
Never before had he achieved such perfection ; never again was 
he to repeat the triumph of that supreme moment when all his 
natural gifts joined forces with the vast experiences of a life 
devoted to his art, in such a crowning manifestation of his 
genius. Brilliant and poetical, his masterpiece was at the same 
time absolutely correct and unexceptionable. Criticism, which still 
wrangles over the Night Watch, is unanimous in admiration of 
the Syndics. In it the colourist and the draughtsman, the simple 


and the subtle, the realist and the idealist, alike recognise one of 
the masterpieces of painting. 

We know not how the work was received. But the absence of 
any evidence to the contrary seems to prove that it made no great 
impression on Rembrandt's contemporaries. Its virile art was little 
suited to the taste of the clay ; an enamelled smoothness of surface, 
and elaborate minuteness of treatment alone found favour. The 
master's broad and liberal manner must have seemed a direct 
challenge to his contemporaries. At Rembrandt's age, and in the 
conditions under which he was living-, it was impossible that he should 
long sustain the high level of excellence he had reached in the 
Syndics. Proud and independent as he had remained in his poverty, 
he cared little for popular judgment. His life became more and 
more retired. In the district where he was now established, his 
patient industry and the decorum of his household had gradually 
won the sympathy of those about him. Hendrickje's affectionate 
solicitude for Titus, no less than for Cornelia, gave colour to the 
assumption that both were her children ; she herself passed for 
Rembrandt's lawful wife. In the early days of their liaison, that 
liaison had caused scandal. In the inventory of Clement de Jonghe's 
effects, dated February 11, 16/9, the etchings in his possession at 
the time of his death were as has been said before catalogued 
under the titles by which they were then commonly known. One 
of these appears as No. 47, Rembrandt's Concubine. It was probably 
one of those studies of naked women already described, of which 
the master produced yet another example in 1661, the Woman with 
the Arrow (B. 202), a more carefully executed plate than the earlier 
essays. The preliminary sketch, a pen drawing washed with sepia, is 
in the British Museum. Hendrickje was, no doubt, again his model, 
for the type is certainly the same as that in the etchings of 1658. But 
the simple and regular life led by Rembrandt and his mistress disarmed 
suspicion as to the legitimacy of their connexion, and a document 
recently discovered by Dr. Bredius offers convincing proof that in 
their new home they were unquestioningly accepted as man and wife. 
The proces-verbal of an inquiry held October 27, 1661, into some 


disturbances caused by a drunken man in the neighbourhood, mentions 
Hendrickje, "lawful wife of Rembrandt the painter," 1 as one of the 
witnesses. Unhappily, her health began to fail at about this period. 
Some weeks before, on August 7, 1661, believing herself to be in 
imminent danger, she had sent for a notary, though the day was a 
Sunday, and had made known her last wishes. Her will gives final 
evidence of that affection and harmony which had united the family. 
Hendrickje made her daughter her heiress ; but in the event of 
Cornelia's death, provided that her inheritance should pass to her 
half-brother, Titus. Rembrandt was appointed her guardian, and 
was further given a life-interest in the property, should he survive 
Cornelia. The document above reierred to shows that Hendrickje 
had recovered, to some extent, by October 27. But her days were 
then numbered, and although the exact date of her death is unknown, 
it probably took place before 1664. In the interval of her com- 
panionship that remained to him, however, Rembrandt once more 
enjoyed a certain measure of peace and happiness in the modest 
home on the Rozengracht. He may even have again tasted the 
joys of collecting on a small scale, either for himself, or for Titus 
and Hendrickje, for he seems to have had certain drawings by 
famous masters in his possession. In an unpublished letter, written 
by Constantine Huygens to his brother Christian in 1663, he begs 
him to study some drawings by Carraccio in Jabach's possession, 
"so as to be able to determine whether the one belonging to 
Rembrandt at Amsterdam be a copy ; which, however, he cannot 
believe, on account of the boldness of the touch." Although he 
lived thus in solitude, Rembrandt was not absolutely forgotten, and 
a few friends still occasionally sought him out in his retreat. A 
precious album, now the property of the widowed Madame Knep- 
pelhout, records their names. The collection was formed by one 
Jacob Hey block, a writer and professor of some repute, who was 
for a time a teacher of Latin at Leyden, and finally settled at Am- 

1 Huysvrouw van S. Rembrant van Reyn fijnschilder : as on al! other occasions, she 
attests the statement with a cross, which Titus witnessed and confirmed. 
Communicated by Dr. Bredius. 


sterdam, where he was on terms of friendship with most of his 
distinguished contemporaries, such as Vossius, Heinsius, Vondel, 
Voetius, Cats, Huygens, &c. Side by side with their names 
in this album, we find those of the faithful few who had been 
constant to the master in his misfortunes. First among them are 
his pupils, Covert Flinck and Cerbrandt van den Keckhout, the 
latter represented by a somewhat mediocre composition of Mercury 
and Argus ; then his fervid admirer, J. van de Cappelle, who con- 
tributes a pretty drawing of golf-players, dated 1654 ; J. de Decker, 
an adherent of Rembrandt to the end ; and the worthy Coppcnol, 
who in 1658 transcribed two sets of verses in praise of calligraphy, 
in his most finished style. In 1661 Rembrandt takes his place 
bravely in this distinguished company, with a sketch of Simeon, 
heightened with Chinese white and bistre, in which he delicately 
expresses the emotion of the old man, as he takes in his arms the 
Infant Jesus, whom Mary and Joseph contemplate with reverent 

The year 1661 is among the most productive in Rembrandt's 
career. Together with the various works we have enumerated, as 
preceding the masterpiece that eclipsed them all, he painted a number 
of studies and portraits. Some of these are dated ; others we refer 
to this period on internal evidences. The most important is perhaps 
the Praying Pilgrim, signed and elated 1661, which was recently 
bought by M. Sedelmeyer, in England, and has since passed into 
the Weber Collection at Hamburg. The work is of the highest 
quality, the handling broad, nervous, and superbly expressive. The 
life-size bust is in profile. The pilgrim wears a mantle of yellowish 
gray, to which is fastened the symbolic scallop-shell ; his staff and 
hat lie beside him. Standing, with folded hands, he prays fervently. 
The light strikes full on his bony hands and illumines a pallid 
face with angular features, a small pointed beard, and luxuriant 
hair. The simple harmony of the picture first claims our attention, 
and we linger to admire the impressive beauty of the head, the fire 
and fervour of the expression, and the unity of intention in face and 
attitude. We may next refer to the portrait formerly in Lord Lans- 




downe's collection, which was bought by Lord Iveagh in 1889, a 
sombre work, somewhat indecisive in the modelling, notwithstanding 
its intense shadows. It represents a man still young, in a black 
dress and hi^h black hat. In Lord Wimborne's portrait at Canford 


Manor, the model, whose face is relieved against a curtain of dull 
crimson, is a man of some forty years old, seated before a table 
with a red cloth. He wears a pointed hat, which casts its 
shadow over part of his face. The head is very powerfully 
modelled, and the brilliance of the carnations and breadth of the 
treatment may compare not unworthily with like qualities in the 

Syndics. The portrait 
of a man of about the 
same age in the Her- 
mitage was probably 
painted in the same 
year. His refined and 
somewhat unhealthy 
face is framed in an 
abundant setting of red- 
dish hair and beard. 
He wears a brown cap, 
a yellowish doublet, and 
a cloak of dull violet. 
The dark background 
brings out the firm mo- 
delling of the visage, with its somewhat melancholy expression, and 
compressed lips. The strong individuality of the sitter is sym- 
pathetically suggested. On close examination, the brushing seems 
somewhat coarse, and the colour exaggerated. But this excess of 
emphasis is tempered by distance, and gives a singular vigour to 
the effect. 

Another male portrait, lent by Lord Ashburton to the Winter 
Exhibition of 1890, is signed and elated 1661. It represents a man 
of florid complexion, with very piercing eyes ; he wears a black dress, 
and a broad-brimmed black hat, which throws a deep shadow on 

Pen drawing (Stockholm Print Room). 

A Pilgrim Praying (1661) 


ited hy Eudes ft Chasscpot fans ^ I- ranee ) 



his forehead. We need not concern ourselves with the French 
inscription at the top of the panel : Portrait of Jansenitis, the father 
of a numerous family, who died in 1638, aged fifty-three years. 
It was added in the days when the value of a picture was supposed 
to be greatly enhanced by an attractive title. Jansenius, judging 

. " ' " ' ' ,,-'"* 


Pen drawing (Berlin Print Room). 

by his acknowledged portraits, had nothing to do with this, which 
is evidently painted from life. The date 1661, which I myself 
was not able to discover, 1 seems to me a suspicious one, and 
hardly agrees with the character of the execution. The elaborate 

1 No doubt on account of the glass, a protection now very generally adopted for 
valuable pictures in England. Dr. Bode's catalogue, and the catalogue of the exhibition, 
both give the date 1661. 

M 2 


finish of this work, its sedate and somewhat fluid handling, its 
sparing impasto, are so many evidences to us, as to Dr. Bredius, 1 
of earlier origin. It has more the appearance of a work of 
1645 1648. The best and most important picture of this class 
produced by the master at the period is the large portrait signed 
and dated 1661, belonging to Mr. Bough ton- Knight, which, on 
the absurd system so often alluded to, is called Rembrandfs Cook ! 
Knowing what we do of Rembrandt's frugal habits, it is curious 
to find him credited with the possession of a chef ! The so-called 
cook is a middle-aged man of an open, pleasant countenance, with 
closely cropped hair. He faces the spectator, wearing a greenish 
gray dress, opening over a white chemisette, and a brown cloak. 
Some books lie by his side, and in his right hand he holds the 
small knife which gave rise to the title of his portrait. What the 
true function of this instrument may be, we are no more able 
to suggest than Dr. Bode. He rests his chin on his other hand, 
and seems to be reflecting deeply. He was perhaps some savant, 
perhaps one of those doctors whose society Rembrandt affected, 
certainly one of his friends. Whoever he may have been, he had 
every reason to be satisfied with his portrait. The powerful effect 
of the sober intonations, the masterly freedom of the touch, the 
brilliance of the light on face and hands, are among the many 
admirable qualities of this work. 

Together with these portraits of friends or patrons, we find 
several of those studies of himself by which the master has 
marked the successive stages of his laborious career. In one 
of these, a bust portrait in Sir John Neeld's collection at Grit- 
tleton House, a work somewhat below the master's level in ex- 
pressive quality, and over-black in the shadows, he wears a brown 
costume and a pale violet cap striped with red. Another, which 
belongs to Lord Kinnaird, a more luminous and interesting study, 
is one of those harmonies in brown tones relieved by reds and 
yellows, with which Rembrandt loved to accentuate the brilliance 

' Bredius : " Old Masters in the Royal Academy" ; Nederlandsche Spectator. 1890. 
No. 13. 


of his carnations. As in the Louvre picture, his head is swathed 
in a white and yellow turban ; but instead of palette and brushes, he 
holds a book in his hand, and looks up from the page at the spectator. 
His expression is calm. The bitterest of his trials were past, and 
though his position was still a precarious one, he seems to have 
recovered a certain measure of hope. 

In spite of the numerous evidences of Rembrandt's activity 
throughout the year 1661, the legend of his sojourn in England 
at this period has been revived of late, on the evidence of a 
document to which Dr. Bredius calls my attention. In the 
manuscript of Vertue's diaries, dated 1/13, in the British Museum 1 
the following note occurs : " Rembrant van Rhine was in England, 
livd at Hull in Yorkshire about sixteen or eighteen months, where 
he painted several gentlemen and seafaring men's pictures. One 
of them is in the possession of Mr. Dahl, a .sea-captain, with the 
gentleman's name, Rembrant's name, and York, and the year 
1 66 1. Reported by old Larroon who in his youth knew Rembrant 
at York. Christian." We may ask how it was possible that 
Laroon, who was born at the Hague in 1653, could have met 
Rembrandt in Yorkshire in 1661. Laroon may have come to Eng- 
land at an early age; but in 1661 he was only eight years old. 
On the other hand, Rembrandt's presence in Amsterdam in 1661 
is attested by many important works, and by official documents. 
It was the year in which he settled on the Rozengracht, the year 
in which Hendrickje made a will in his favour, the year of the 
report already quoted, in which she is described as his " lawful wife." 
Besides the evidence of the drawing in J. Heyblock's album, we have 
that of such important pictures as the Saint Matthew with the Angel 
in the Louvre, Mr. Weber's Pilgrim, the masterpiece of the Syndics, 

1 Add. MSS. 21,111. f. 8. (1713). 

2 In the transcript of this volume (Add. MSS. 23,068) there are negatives in Vertue's 
writing against the statements as to the name, place, and date in the last sentence. The 
' Christian ' who appears to have given Vertue this information was Charles Christian 
Reisen, the seal-engraver. F. W. 



and the huge Claudius Civilis. Is it credible that the master can 
further have found time for a visit to England ? Up to the present 
date, none of the portraits he is supposed to have painted at Hull have 
come to light. Until some fresh evidence is offered, we must reject 
the tradition. 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 


(Duke of Devonshire '.s Collection.) 




H E term of tranquil indus- 
try enjoyed just now was 
not of long duration. 
Sorrow after sorrow, each more 
cruel than the last, darkened the 
last years of Rembrandt's life. 
It seems probable that he lost 
Hendrickje before 1664. The 
death of that faithful friend un- 
doubtedly preceded his own, for 
after the year 1661 she disap- 
pears from the master's asuvre, 
and no mention of her occurs in 
any of the documents relating to 

Rembrandt or his children. She was probably buried in the Wester 
Kerk ; but as there is no entry of such burial in the registers of this 


.631 (15. 355). 


church from 1664 to 1670, nor in any of the other registers of Am- 
sterdam churches from 1661 to 1670, it may be that the sale of 
Rembrandt's family vault in the Oude Kerk on October 27, 1662, 
coincided with Hendrickje's death. After his change of domicile, 
the vault was useless to the master, and, in his impoverished state, 
he was forced on purchasing another to give it up. 

By the death of Hendrickje, Rembrandt was left more defenceless 
than ever against the anxieties to which he was exposed. His 
position had long been somewhat of an anomaly, complicated as it was 
by the various family arrangements to which he had been a party. 
Hendrickje's will, her partnership with Titus, the prolonged liquida- 
tion consequent on the bankruptcy, all these afforded Rembrandt's 
creditors pretexts for intervening in his affairs, of which they were 
not slow to avail themselves, hoping on each occasion to recover some 
part of their property. 

Overwhelmed at last by this concatenation of miseries, the old 
painter seems to have given way for a time to a very natural depres- 
sion. His health, and probably his sight, were beginning to fail. If 
we consider his age, his many troubles, the sedentary life he had led, 
we shall not be surprised to find that a constitution naturally robust was 
greatly impaired. The body to which he had been such a harsh task- 
master at last began to resent his ill-usage. The portraits of himself 
he painted at this period reveal the ravages wrought by the last few 
years on his person. He has grown fat and unwieldy; an unhealthy 
puffiness of flesh has become apparent in his cheeks and throat. His 
features are contracted, as if with pain, and the bandages round his 
head under his red cap seem to suggest continuous sufferings from 
head-ache. The sunken, bloodshot appearance of his eyes, and the 
swollen eyelids further indicate a gradual weakening of his sight. 

What artist, indeed, had ever made severer demands upon his 
powers of vision ? Consider the strain to which he had constantly 
subjected them, the long education by which he had made them sub- 
servient to his will, teaching his eyes to read the depths of the pro- 
foundest shadows, to seize the minutest gradations of light, to express 
them in all their infinitude, with no abatement of the general unity, 


with no forgetfulness of the final effect. Consider the long-sustained 
effort of an undertaking so minute and laborious as the Hundred 
Guilder Piece. Rembrandt was condemned to expiate the abuse of 
his powers by a period of enforced idleness. So, at least, we interpret 
the absence of any work by him from 1662 to 1664. His etchings, 
which had gradually declined in number, cease entirely from 1661 
onwards. For some time before they were marked by an increasing 
hastiness and loss of delicacy. The life-studies and landscapes also 
come to an abrupt end, together with those etchings and landscapes 
in which he had taken so great a delight. When at last Rembrandt 
was able to resume his painting, his style had undergone a marked 
change. He was no longer able to attack complex subjects, which 
necessitated study and preparation. He now confined himself in 
general to one or two figures of large size, which he was content 
to sketch broadly on his canvas. All unnecessary details were dis- 
pensed with ; he limited himself to the essentials of expression, on 
which he concentrated all his powers. In time his harmonies become 
less intricate, his effects less subtle, his palette less varied ; but he 
shows an increasing predilection for depth and richness in the few 
colours to which he restricts himself. The violets disappear, and their 
place is taken by vermilions, blended with brilliant yellows and tawny 
browns. The execution shows a growing breadth, simplicity, and 
decision. When the work prolongs itself unduly, the master's nerves 
are no longer under perfect control, and he has recourse to violence, 
where before he was content that patience should solve the 

As Dr. Bode remarks, the productions of this last period have 
many analogies with his youthful works. They are rather studies 
than portraits, and for most of them he himself and his intimates were 
the models. Just as in his early pictures he made use of the butt-end 
of the brush to draw the hair and beard of his figures in the moist 
paint, so now he has recourse to the palette-knife, and lays on bold 
masses of colour, which he afterwards works up into luminous relief 
with an eager, feverish touch. And yet, as Felibien naively remarks : 
" The broad and even coarse treatment which gives to some of these 


works the appearance of hasty sketches on close examination, is amply 
justified by their effect at a certain distance. As the spectator recedes 
the vigorous strokes of the brush, and the loaded colour, assume their 
legitimate functions, melting and blending into the desired harmony." l 
But with Rembrandt we have always to reckon with the un- 
expected. Side by side with these 
tempestuous creations we find 
works of the most impeccable 
execution. Occasionally the same 
canvas shows startling inequali- 
ties. Some passages are finished 
with elaborate care ; others are 
barely sketched. In one place 
the impasto is loaded to excess, 
in others the ground is scarcely 
covered. The Death of Lucretia 
of this period is an example of such 
anomalies ; its remarkable breadth 
and freedom is tempered by a 
certain reticence in parts. The 
subject was one that pleased the 
master, and he appears to have 
already treated it, for in the 
inventory of one Abraham de 

Wyss, dated March i, 1658, Dr. Bredius discovers "a large picture 
of Lticretia, by Rembrandt van Ryn." The Liicretia of 1664 ' s 
signed and elated. It was formerly in the San Donate collec- 
tion, and we saw it not long since in Paris. The life-size figure 
is rather more than three-quarters' length. Lucretia holds in her 
right hand a dagger, its point towards her breast. The other hand 
is upraised in a gesture of despair, as if calling Heaven to witness 

1 Entretien sur les Vies et les Ouvrages des pins excellent* Peintres. 5 vols. 1 21110. 
1725. Vol. III. p. 458. 

All this is hardly exceptional : hardly even peculiar. At least we recognise its counter- 
part in the prompt and potent inspirations of the old age of Velasquez of the old age of 
David Cox, F. W. 

(Lord Warwick's Collection.) 


that death is the victim's only refuge. The young matron wears a 
:unic of golden brown over a white chemisette, and a necklace of 
pearls ; a medallion with a large pearl attached hangs on her breast. 
Her head is slightly bent, and is crowned by a golden diaclem, round 
which is coiled a mass of bright brown hair. The regular features 

o o 

the pure oval of the face, the rich hair, recall one of the fair 
Venetians immortalised by Titian. In the execution, which is more 


About 1665 (Ryksmuseum, Amsterdam). 

discreet and supple than is usual at this period, we note further 
reminiscences of the painter of Cadore, for whom, judging by the 
examples of his works collected by the master, Rembrandt seems to 
have had a deep admiration. But the harmony of the amber 
tones, and the luminous brilliance of the carnations against the 
dark background are very characteristic of Rembrandt, and justify 
Burger's criticism : " It is painted with gold." The work is more 
summary, but the expressive quality, on the other hand, is of 
a higher order in the Workers in the Vineyard, a picture in 



the Wallace collection, probably painted at about the same period. 
Here the figures, like that of the Liicretia, are life-size, and 
three-quarters' length. Seated at a table, his purse beside him, the 
gray-haired master of the vineyard is paying his labourers. He wears 
a high turban, and a red robe, opening over a white shirt with an 
ornamental pattern. Resting one hand on the table, he points with 
the other to the account on a sheet of paper before him, to which he 
calls the attention of one among the three labourers, another of whom 
wears a military dress, and a helmet with white plumes. The harmony, 
a deliberately austere scheme of reds, toned whites, and gray or 
yellowish browns, has peculiar distinction. But the main beauty of 
the composition lies in the nobility of the conception, in the air of 
authority on the benevolent face of the master, outraged at the unjust 
claims by which his bounty is rewarded. 

To this same period, about the year 1665, we may probably assign 
a picture of the Van der Hoop collection, in the Ryksmuseum, the 
traditional title of which, 77/6' Jewish Bride, seems to us as purely 
arbitrary as that of The Night Watch. The theme, though simple in 
treatment, is very enigmatical. The elderly man who lays one hand 
on the young woman's shoulder, the other on her breast, in a some- 
what compromising attitude, looks too reverend a personage for a 
gallant, too serious and respectable for a seducer ; his air of gravity, 
and the deferential expression of the young woman, seem rather to 
proclaim him a father or guardian, from whom she is about to part. 
We can detect nothing in the appearance of either model to help us 
to their identification with any of the master's friends or relatives. 
The subject, which may possibly, as has been suggested, be the court- 
ship of Boaz and Ruth, is, however, unimportant, as compared with the 
great technical interest of the work. Note especially the natural grace 
of the young woman, the beauty of her hands, the magnificent harmony 
of her flesh-tones, and the rich crimson of her gown, a harmony 
brought into vivid relief by the dark green of the background, and 
the iron-grays skilfully distributed among the more brilliant tints. 

In this year 1665, the prolonged disputes arising out of Rembrandt's 
relations with his creditors were finally brought to an end. The most 


formidable creditor, Van Hertsbeek, had, as we know, appealed in 
vain against the judgment of the provincial court of December 22, 
1662, ordering him to restore the 4200 florins he had obtained from 
the insolvent estate. The decree was confirmed by the Great Council 
on January 27, 1665, and on June 20 following Van Hertsbeek 
was ordered to pay over the money to Louis Crayers, advocate, and 
agent for Titus. 

To avoid further difficulties, Rembrandt made up his mind to 
establish Titus' position, by demanding an abridgment of his minority 
by a year. Jointly with his son, he presented a petition to the 
magistrates of the town, asking them to support the request before the 
Grand Council. 1 In this document Titus sets forth that " as a citizen of 
Amsterdam, his situation as a minor is a drawback to him in his 
business, and might become very prejudicial." He solicits permission 
" to manage his own affairs and administer his own property." The 
faithful Abraham Fransz who was probably Titus' friend and counsel- 
lor in his business as a dealer "in engravings, pictures, and curiosities 
of all sorts "-further certifies that the young man is perfectly qualified 
for the dispensation "by reason alike of his business capabilities, and 
his exemplary conduct," an opinion in which Fransz is supported by 
two witnesses. The request having been favourably received by the 
magistrates, the desired indulgence was granted on June 19 following, 
and on November 5 Titus was awarded the sum of 6952 florins 
" being the balance, as well of the produce of the sale at his father's 
house, in the Breestraat near St. Anthony's Lock, in 1658, as also 
of the former inheritance." Although the sum fell far short of what 
he had originally claimed, the conclusion of the litigation was an 
infinite relief to Rembrandt. After a sojourn of some three years 
in the house on the Rozengracht, his life had become more or less 
nomadic. He seems however to have been on excellent terms with 
his late landlord, one Van Leest, for on January 26, 1663, Rembrandt 
acted as his witness to an inventory of his deceased son's property. 
But in 1664 Rembrandt gave up his house, and installed himself on a 
neighbouring quay, the Lauriergracht, where he remained only a year. 

1 Vosmaer, p. 374 and 449. 



Pen drawing (I)ukt: uf Devonshire's Collcction\ 

In 1665 we find him back again on the Rozengracht, and there he 
remained until his death. These successive changes seem to point to 

money-difficulties, and 
it is probable that Titus' 
tardy inheritance re- 
lieved the old painter's 
distress at a most op- 
portune moment. 

Notwithstanding the 
neglect which had over- 
taken the master, a 
pupil came to him at 
this period, whose talent 
and aptitude must have 
cheered the forsaken 
artist in his solitude. 
This, his latest scholar, 

Aert de Gelder, was born October 26, 1645, at Dordrecht, the 

city which had furnished 

Rembrandt with so many 

disciples. DC Gelder 

had been a pupil of one 

of these, Samuel van 

Hoogstraaten, until the 

departure of the latter 

for England, in 1662. 

As Mr. G. Veth has 

already remarked, 1 it is 

probable that De Gel- 
der passed directly from 

Hoogstraaten's studio to 

Rembrandt ; for Houbra- 

ken, who knew him 

personally, only mentions these two as his masters. He belonged to a 
1 Anteekeningen omtrent eetiige Dordretsche Schilders ; Oud-Holland, vi. p. 184. 


About 1652 (B. 45). 



good family, and was, in all probability the son of J. Gclcler Aertsz, 
accountant to the East India Company at Dordrecht in 1650. An 
enthusiastic worshipper of Rembrandt, De Gelder soon adopted all 


Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 

his tastes. He imitated his execution, painted kindred subjects, and, 
like Rembrandt, adorned the walls of his studio with a mass of 
ornaments, embroideries, foreign shoes and weapons. It was not only 

his habit to lay on his 
colours with a palette- 
knife, as was the prac- 
tice of his master ; he 
even kneaded the paste 
with his finger and thumb, 
"despising," as Houbra- 
ken says, " no technical 
device to obtain a desired 
end, and often producing 
truly surprising effects 
from a distance." 

Among De Gelder's 
best works we may men- 
tion the Synagogue, a picture of sixteen figures, painted in 1671, 
the chiaroscuro of which is so delicately studied that, in Burger's 
words, it is hard to believe it anything but a sketch by Rembrandt; 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 

(This drawing, the one above it, and the head-piece of Chapter I., Vol. I., 
are studies of the same landscape.) 


the Painter engaged on the portrait of an old Lady (1685) in the 
Stadel Institute at Frankfort, perhaps his masterpiece ; the Ecce 
Homo at Dresden (1671), a work evidently inspired by Rem- 
brandt's large plate of 1655 (B. 76); and a second picture in 
the same gallery, the charming Contract, attributed to C. Paudiss, 
but undoubtedly by De Gelder. The type of the woman and 
her heacl-dress are almost identical with those of a Bathsheba at 
David's Diath-bcd belonging to Madame Lacroix. The analogies of 
the execution are further very marked. Madame Lacroix's example 
was a famous work even in the painter's life-time, and was formerly 
in the celebrated Van der Linden Van Slingelandt collection, sold at 
Dordrecht in i/Ss. 1 \Yc may close the list with the two pictures in 
the Prague Museum, the Vcrhimnns and Pomona, engraved by 
Lepicie as a work of Rembrandt's, but restored to its true author by 
Lebrun ; and the Ruth and Boaz, the composition of which, being 
closely allied to that of the: Jewish Bride in the Ryksmuseum, confirms 
the hypothesis that this was the subject treated by Rembrandt. 

In these various works, the disciple approaches the master so 
closely that it is easy to explain occasional mistakes of attribution. To 
Aert de Gelder, we think, must be assigned the so-called Lc Pecq Rem- 
brandt, a picture which gave rise to the most passionate controversy, 
both in France and abroad, at the beginning of 1890. Public interest 
in the question was so great that we may be pardoned for devoting 
some few lines to this Abraham entertaining the Angels, which bears 
Rembrandt's signature, and the date 1656. I was one of the first 
to whom M. Bourgeois submitted the picture after its purchase at a 
public sale held at Le Pecq, near Saint Germain. I saw it under 
unfavourable conditions, and by gas-light. But my immediate im- 
pression was that the work was not by Rembrandt. During my 
fifteen years' study of the master, and more particularly during the 
three years I have devoted exclusively to his works, I have often 
been called upon to pronounce on the authenticity of pictures 
attributed to him. There have been occasions when I have hesitated 

1 The Bathsheba then fetched 200 florins. The collection included five other works 
by Aert de Gelder, among them two allegorical figures, Liberty and Concord. 


between Rembrandt and his pupils ; but in this case my decision 
was made at a glance. Two days later the opening of the Winter 
Exhibition necessitated my presence in London, and before leaving 
I was only able to express my opinion as to the so-called Rembrandt 
to one or two friends. At the time I was far from foreseeing the 


violent discussions of which I subsequently caught the echoes in 
numerous European, and even American newspapers. But while in 
London my opinion was fully confirmed by Dr. Bode, who arrived 
two days after me, and who had examined the picture on his 
way through Paris. He negatived the attribution on grounds 
identical with those already advanced by me. I afterwards saw the 
picture in a strong light, and examined it carefully, with the 
result that my first impressions were in every respect justified. As 
far as my knowledge goes, Rembrandt treated the subject three 
times: in the etching of 1656 (B. 29), and in two pictures, one the 
"little gem" of 1646 (No. 2 in Smith's Catalogue), the other the 
large canvas of the same year in the Hermitage. Both in the etching 
and the pictures, the master has adhered scrupulously to the text, 
representing Abraham as a white-bearded old man, and Sara, as 
holding somewhat aloof, and laughing at the suggestion that she 
shall yet bear a son in her old age. In the Le Pecq picture 
Sara is not present. The figure of Abraham, though in the fore- 
ground, is veiled in a strong shadow, and is barely recognisable. 
His attitude and his brown hair are very uncharacteristic of the 
patriarch as elsewhere conceived by Rembrandt. The types also 
differ widely from those affected by the master. The heads of 
the angels are poorly drawn, and expressionless ; the Eternal Father 
in the centre is a venerable figure ; but his refined and delicate 
features have none of the power and majesty with which Rembrandt 
would have endowed them. The weakness and incorrectness in the 
modelling of the hands are flagrant ; not that the master himself 
was always beyond reproach in this respect. But his very errors 
have a brilliance totally wanting here. In spite of De Gelder's 
simulated audacity, in spite of his loaded impasto, and free use of 
the palette-knife, his execution is essentially timid. We recognise 

I 7 8 


the uncertainty of handling, the spurious vigour of one whose excite- 
ment is calculated and deliberate, rather than the assurance of touch, 
the freedom, the feverish impatience of an artist sure of himself, as 
was Rembrandt, in works where he too had recourse to the palette- 
knife, as for instance the Syndics, the JcivisJi Bride, and the Family 
Portrait in the Brunswick Gallery. At this period nothing could 
have been more alien to his manner than the somewhat insipid 
refinement, and elaborate care that marks his pupil's conception of 

God the Father the best, and 
indeed the only good figure of the 
composition. In the presence of this 
work, we cannot but concur in 
Smith's appreciation of Aert de 
Gekler's powers : " Many of this 
artist's productions, when viewed at a 
moderate distance, have a deceptive 
resemblance to Rembrandt's, but 
when examined more closely, they 
will be found exceedingly thin and 
meagre in colour, and slight in 
the execution." : To be brief, we 
consider the work, though inferior 
to the Frankfort picture, and in- 
jured by an early restoration, which 
has reduced the impasto, and given 
it a certain rawness and monotony, 

to be nevertheless one of De Gekler's best productions. But for 
the reasons we have stated, as for many others we might point out, 
we cannot admit it to a place in Rembrandt's ceuvre. 

At about the same time that De Gelder came, an apt and docile 
pupil, to cheer Rembrandt's solitude, the master had the further 
satisfaction of increased intimacy with one who had long been among 
his friends. This was Vondel's pupil, Jeremias de Decker, whose 
portrait, painted by Rembrandt in 1666, is now in the Hermitage. 

1 Catalogue Raisonne, vii. p. 249. 


(Lord Warwick's Collection.) 


Decker professed the warmest admiration for the master, and had 
sung his praises in a sonnet inspired by his picture : The Magdalene 


About 1662 1664 (Lord Warwick's Collection). 

at the Feet of CJirist^ He extols his friend's " respect for the 

1 Rembrandt twice treated the subject, once in the picture in Buckingham Palace, 
dated 1638, and again in that in the Brunswick Gallery, dated 1651. It is not known to 
which l)e Decker referred ; probably, however, to the later picture, as the first edition of 
the poet's works appeared at Amsterdam in 1656. 

X 2 


sacred text. " Have pen and pencil ever been so intimately allied ?" 
he asks. " Did ever colours approach reality so nearly?" Speaking 
of the touching figure of the Magdalene, he dwells on the poetic 
charm of her attitude and expression. " She believes and doubts 
by turns ; she hesitates between hope and fear. The towering rocks 
of the sepulchre give a mysterious majesty to the scene. Friend 
Rembrandt, I saw the work grow beneath thine active hand ; my 
pen does homage to thy brush, my ink to thy pigments." The 
fine quality of the Hermitage portrait proclaims Rembrandt's evident 
pleasure in the rendering of his model. He is turned almost full 
face to the spectator, and wears a broad-brimmed hat, which throws 
a strong shadow across the upper part of the face, concentrating 
the light on the nose and the left cheek. The black costume is 
relieved by a flat white collar. The somewhat blunt features 
express vigour and resolution ; the keen eyes are full of 
sincerity. The work is marked by no special display of techni- 
cal mastery. Its characteristics are rather the noble breadth 
and simplicity that give the painter of the Syndics a place apart 
among artists. Such an interpretation of his personality moved the 
poet to express his gratitude in verse. In a poem written immediately 
after the completion of the portrait he died the same year Decker 
lauds the generosity of the Apelles, whose work was undertaken, 
not in the hope of profit, but " for the love of his friend and of 
the Muses." He wishes that he were able, in like masterly fashion, 
to reproduce the artist with the pen not his features, but his 
cultured mind and ingenious art, which he (Decker) would fain 
manifest to all the world, to the confusion of Envy, that evil beast. 
But what, he asks, can verse such as his own avail the painter, 
whose glory has spread wherever the ships of free Holland have 
sailed ? Though his pen can add nothing to the fame of Van Ryn, 
he begs him to accept the verses as a humble tribute from one who 
will ever be his obliged and grateful friend. 

Such appreciation must have sounded strangely in Rembrandt's 
unaccustomed ears. His friends were few, and more than ever 
his work had become his main solace. Most of the pictures 


painted at this period are portraits, or rather studies, for, judging by 
their attitudes and costume, the persons represented were chiefly those 
about him. The Portrait of a Young Woman, in the National 
Gallery, signed and dated 1666, no doubt belongs to this category. 
She is painted nearly full face, in a black costume, with pearls in her 
ears, and rings on her fingers. Her hands are crossed on her breast, 
and in one she holds a handkerchief. Her features are commonplace 
enough, but her smiling lips and the sweet expression of her eyes 
denote a kindly nature, and in his rendering of her characteristic 
type Rembrandt combines an absolute sincerity with that consum- 
mate mastery of material to which he had now attained. Mr. 
Charles Morrison's Portrait of a Young Girl is even more attractive, 
though it has lost something of its first freshness. It must have 
been painted at about the same time, but only the first three 
figures of the date (166) are now legible. As Dr. Bode remarks, 1 
there is no justification for the title, Raiibrandfs Daughter, by 
which it is commonly known. Cornelia was only eleven or twelve 
years old at the time, and the girl in the portrait is apparently 
from eighteen to twenty. The graceful figure is seated in an 
elbow-chair, on the arm of which she rests her right hand. She 
is wrapped in a white fur, which, while it serves to supplement her 
scanty draperies, leaves her chemise and part of her breast uncovered. 
The deep violet crimson of the table-cover beside her, and the dull 
red of the curtain behind set off her brilliant carnations, and the 
beauty of her youthful contours is fully displayed by the truth of 
the attitude, and the delicacy of the chiaroscuro. 

In addition to these youthful models, Rembrandt found around 
him a few of those old men he loved to paint, because they fell 
in submissively with his fancies, and allowed him to pose and 
accoutre them as he pleased. Foremost among these was the 
Standard- Bearer now at Warwick Castle, an elderly man who stands 
facing the spectator, in a broad brimmed hat with white plumes, 
and a brown costume relieved by a dark green_scarf and gold baldrick. 
In his left hand he grasps a red and yellow standard. His features 

1 Bode, Studioi, p. 551. 



are delicate and refined, and, as Dr. Bode remarks, there is a 
curious incongruity between his placid expression and his martial 


Lord Northbrook's Portrait of an old Man leaning on a Stick 
seems to us not altogether above suspicion. It is signed and dated 
1667, but the weakness and timidity of the handling make this 
date an incredible one. The Duke of Devonshire's Old Man at 
Chiswick is a more important work, and worthier of the master ; 
but the finest of this series is the Old Man in the Dresden Gallery 

(No. 1570 in the 
Catalogue), which 
must have been 
painted at this 
period. Though 
Rembrandt has 
laid his palette 
with a certain re- 
ticence, the effect 
is marvellously rich 
and vigorous. The 
somewhat strong 
shadows enhance 
the brilliance of 

the high lights, which are very carefully studied, the touches being 
juxtaposed, but without fusion, a device by which the play of the 
impasto takes on a vibrating quality of extraordinary depth and 
harmony. The more loaded passages such as the brocaded drapery, 
and the clasp which fastens the mantle are rather modelled than 
painted, and from a short distance are almost illusory in their 
rendering of the glimmer of gold and the glint of precious stones. 

To this period 1666 to 1668 we think must be assigned a pair 
of bust portraits of a husband and wife, purchased in 1889 by Messrs. 
Rodolphe and Maurice Kann, from the Comte d'Ouhremont at 
Brussels. They are marked by the freedom of touch, the vigour 
almost verging on violence, which distinguish the works already 


Pen and Sepia (Lord Warwick's Collection). 



enumerated. The husband, a man of energetic appearance, with a 
florid complexion, brown moustaches, and grizzled hair rising 
in a mass above his forehead, wears a yellowish doublet with a 
small flat collar, and over it a full gown of deep red. Round 
his neck is a gold chain, and in his left hand (the only hand visible) 
he holds a magnifying glass. The strong but transparent shadows 

About 1668 1669 (Brunswick Mil-cam). 

are so disposed as to give great effect to the harmony. The thin 
face of the model has great nobility, and the expression of the 
eyes denotes a singular power of concentration. Though the like- 
ness was evidently striking, we divine a something above and 
beyond reality, due to the genius of the artist. The splendour 
and harmony of the colour is no less remarkable in the wife's 
portrait. In her crimson dress, the diadem of gold and pearls that 
crowns her red hair, her ornaments of gold and gems, and her 
pearl earrings, the lady is rather striking than beautiful. Like 
several other of Rembrandt's sitters, she holds a pink in her right 


hand. Her small mouth, her thin straight nose, her large, inquiring 
eyes, make up a singular, but very original and life-like type. The 
general effect is extraordinarily rich and glowing ; the olive-green 
curtain against which the head is relieved brings out the magnifi- 
cent reds of the clress, which are tempered here and there by 
gold. The handling, though broad and free as a whole, is 
varied by passages of great delicacy, and the neutral half-tones 
are exquisitely delicate. 

In appearance the couple seem to us not unlike the husband and 
wife whom Rembrandt painted with their three young children in 
the large Family Group of the Brunswick Gallery, one of the most 
marvellous creations of his closing years. 

The light is concentrated on the five figures of the group, the 
father, mother, and three children, and these figures, with their 
sparkling eyes, their brilliant complexions, the almost supernatural 
vivacity of their bearing, look like apparitions emerging from the 
gloom around them. In the vigorous contrasts necessary for such an 
effect as Rembrandt has here conceived, there was scope for the most 
intense blacks, and the most brilliant high tones, and for an infinity of 
delicately modulated gradations between the two extremes. A like 
luxuriance characterises the colour. The general harmony wavers 
between red and yellow, but red predominates, a red of regal 
magnificence, now frank and vivid, now veiled and subdued, its 
glowing, velvety transparence accentuated by sudden touches of pure 
colour which give increased resonance to the tonality. The effect 
is that of an open casket, its golden ornaments and precious 
stones displayed on a lining of purple. Forms stand out in bold 
relief, or melt into obscurity in the iridescent radiance, now merely 
indicated by the brown outline of the sketch, now worked up and 
modelled with equal ease and audacity. 

These manifold contrasts are further heightened by that of touch, 
which is by turns fiery and restrained, light and loaded, mellow and 
unctuous, as the master's instrument is by turns the brush itself, its 
butt-end, or the palette knife. On one portion of the picture the colour 
is spread smoothly on an even ground, so thinly that the texture of 


the canvas appears, while close beside we have the rough impasto 
piled up in heavy, serrated masses, in which the various objects seem 
rather to be modelled than painted. 

There is a sort of frenzy in these caprices of treatment. We know no 
work by the master with such violent contrasts, such flagrant incoher- 
ences. And yet, all the inequalities of touch, the clangour of tones, 
the complexities of light, take on order and harmony when seen 
from a distance. We have but to step back a few paces and the 
structure becomes logical and vigorous, the values balance them- 
selves, the colours sing in radiant melody. We turn to the neigh- 
bouring canvases, and all seem dull, lifeless, and insignificant. 
Involuntarily, our gaze is once more riveted on the stupendous 
creation, which combines the vague poetry of dreams with a 
manifestation of intense reality. 

The date of the Flagellation in the Darmstadt Museum has long 
been a subject of debate. The third figure is so indistinct that it may 
be read either as an 8 or a 6. If, as Dr. Bode and Mr. Hofmann, the 
Director of the Gallery, think, the figures should be read 1668, we 
must acknowledge the execution, masterly as it is, to point rather to 
an earlier period. The anomaly is perhaps to be explained by the 
fact that Rembrandt's inventory of 1656 mentions two Flagellations, 
one by his own hand, the other a copy. It is very possible that one 
of the two remained on his hands and that he completed and 
signed it in 1668. A drawing of a naked figure with uplifted arms, 
in the Louvre, seems to confirm this hypothesis. It is a study for 
the figure of Christ, drawn with the pen and heightened with bistre, 
and its careful execution and somewhat dry precision undoubtedly 
indicate a period prior to 1660. Be this as it may, Rembrandt's 
conception is deeply impressive. In a dungeon lighted from above, 
two rustics of a brutal type are engaged in torturing the Saviour. 
One of them, a ruffian with red hair and moustaches, dressed in a 
shirt and a pair of red breeches, fetters the feet of the victim ; the 
other, who wears a cap, and a loose yellow jacket with sleeves of 
grayish blue, strains at a rope passed over a pulley, to which the 



victim's hands are fastened. A stick, a bundle of rods, and various 
weapons are scattered here and there. The abruptness of the lines 
and colours, and the violence of the action, accentuate the whiteness of 
the long thin body, the quivering pallor of which breaks through 
the shadows like a sob of agony. The improbabilities and exaggera- 
tion of the episode, which 
is not to be found in 
the sacred books, are 
obvious. But we forget 
them as our eyes are 
drawn to the touching 
face of the victim, with 
its expression of patient 
suffering. It seems as 
if Rembrandt, retracing 
the horrible drama, had 
sought courage in his 
own distress from the 
Great Exemplar. 

No such discussions 
as have risen concerning 
the date of this picture 
are possible in the case 
of the Return of the 
Prodigal in the Hermi- 
tage, unquestionably a 
work of Rembrandt's 
latest period. Yet Vos- 

maer, misled by the "Van Ryn " of the signature, which occurs in no 
other example of the period, and further by the etching of the same 
subject dated 1636 (B. 91), assigns the picture to this date. But he 
had never seen it himself, and merely describes the composition, 
ignoring the character of the execution. Had he spoken from personal 
observation, he could never have referred such a work to the master's 


(Facsimile of a contemporary Print.) 



youth a work M. Paul Mantz happily describes as a "heroic painting, 
in which art finds most eloquent and moving expression." " Never," he 


1668 (Darmstadt Museum). 

adds, " did Rembrandt show greater power ; never was his speech more 
persuasive The free use of red tones, the vigorous execution, 



the ' fine frenzy ' of the brushing, forbid the ascription of this master- 
piece to a period of comparatively timid and tentative work. . . . Here 
Rembrandt shows all the formidable strength of the unchained lion." 1 
Dr. Bode is equally positive on this head, and rightly, in our opinion, 
assigns the work to 1668 1669. The master, 
careless of technical perfection, displays something 

3-t" J?\j7T/ i * t ' ie same fi erce :mc ' terrible energy that 
marks the latest works of Titian. But the rough 
rind conceals a precious fruit. 2 In addition to 
the etching of 1636 Rembrandt had produced 

many sketches of this subject, which was one entirely suited to his 
genius. But never before had he risen to such a height of pathetic 
eloquence in its treatment. What force and originality of invention 
marks his conception of the father, who clasps his dearly loved child 
to his heart ! The son he has so long mourned is restored to him. 
Clothed in miserable rags that barely cover his meagre body, he kneels 
before the old man who alone has recognised him in the misery to 
which his long absence has brought him. The servants look on in 
wonder at a scene incomprehensible to them. But the father and son, 
heedless of spectators, give way to their emotion, the one full of 
repentant shame, and the other of joy. Enraptured at the return 
of the son he had given up for lost, the father lays his hands on 
the young man's shoulders, and draws him to himself with tender 
words of comfort. Before this noble work we forget the roughness 
and harshness of the touch, in admiration of the sentimental and ex- 
pressive power. The absolute simplicity of the harmony, which is 
composed of browns, reels, and yellowish-whites, contributes to the 
intimate pathos of the scene, probably the last composition ever painted 
by the old master. 

The few pictures painted after the Return of the Prodigal are all 
portraits of Rembrandt himself. In his declining years, as in the outset 
of his career, he took pleasure in tracing his own likeness. Perhaps no 

1 Le Musce de t Ermitage ; text by Paul Mantz. Ad. Rraun and Co. 
3 Bode, Studien, p. 527. 


other model now remained to him. His face changed considerably in 
these closing years, and the ravages of premature old age are very pro- 
nounced in two portraits, one in the Uffizi, the other at Vienna, both 
painted about 1666 1668. In both he almost faces the spectator, and 
wears his working dress, the reddish-brown tunic and cap he rarely laid 
aside towards the end of his life. His features are worn, his skin puffy 
and faded, his forehead seamed with many wrinkles. And yet, on his 
lips, and in his small sunken eyes, there is an unmistakable expression 
of serenity and contentment, an expression which is even more 
strongly marked in the famous portrait formerly in the Double col- 
lection, and now the property of Mr. Carstanjen of Berlin. This 
extraordinary work, perhaps the last Rembrandt painted, is modelled 
with prodigious vigour and freedom. With superb audacity, the 
master shows us once more the familiar features, on which age and 
sorrow have worked their will. They are distorted, disfigured, almost 
unrecognisable. But the free spirit is still unbroken. The eyes that 
meet ours are still keen and piercing ; they have even the old twinkle 
of good-humoured irony, and the toothless mouth relaxes in frank 
laughter. What was the secret of this gaiety? In spite of his 
poverty, he had still a corner in which to paint. Beside him 
stand an easel and an antique bust, perhaps some relic of his 
former wealth. He holds his maulstick in his hand, and pauses 
for a moment in his work. He is happy because he can give himself 
up to his art. 

But his troubles were not yet ended : the short term of life 
remaining to him held sorrows in store. The marriage of his 
son must, however, have given him pleasure. Titus' wife was his 
cousin, Magdalena van Loo, the daughter of Dr. Albertus van Loo 
and Cornelia van Uylenborch, Saskia's niece. The young couple 
settled on the Singel, in a house known as The Golden Scales, near the 
Apple- Market, and Rembrandt remained on the Rozengracht with 
Hendrickje's daughter, Cornelia. 1 His sedentary and retired life 
sufficiently explains the complete oblivion into which he had sunk. 

1 Scheltema, Rembrandt, p. 68. 

i go 


So entirely was he forgotten by his contemporaries, that the most 
absurd fables relating to him were credited almost before his death. 
Baldinucci, whose information on many points was so exact, 
believed that Rembrandt quitted Holland to settle in Stockholm, 
as painter in ordinary to the King of Sweden, in whose service he 
was supposed to have died in 1670. Other writers, as we have 
already said, relate that he ended his days in England, at Hull or 
Yarmouth. 1 

In happier days, he had found it difficult to carry out his numerous 

commissions ; but towards 
the end of his life he 
could not sell his pictures, 
even at nominal prices. 
His great-nephew, Wy- 
brandt dc Geest, grandson 
of Rembrandt's brother- 
in-law of the same name, 
has left some pitiable 
details on this score : 
" But a short time ago," 
he says in his book, 2 " the 
ignorance of reputed con- 
noisseurs was so gross 

with regard to the admirable works of the mighty Rembrandt, that it 
was possible to buy one of his portraits for sixpence, as many well- 
known amateurs and dealers can attest. After a while, however, 
the price rose to eleven florins, and now one of these powerful works 
commands several hundred florins." 

The embarrassments inevitable under such conditions were 
aggravated by crushing bereavements. Titus died in the year of 
his marriage. He was buried in the Wester Kerk, September 4, 
1668, and in March of the following year his young wife bore a 

1 Burnet, Rembrandt and his Works, p. 6; and Wilson, Descriptive Catalogue, p. 13. 

2 Le Cabinet des Statues, published 1702. 



daughter, who was baptised on the 22nd of the month, in the pres- 
ence of her grandfather and her guardian, Frans Bylert, receiving 
the name of Titia, in memory, no doubt, both of her father and her 
great-aunt. The death of Titus was the occasion of further formalities. 
His partnership with Hendrickje had never been legally dissolved, and 
it therefore became necessary to define the position of the two little 
girls, and to establish their respective claims. At the time of 
Rembrandt's bankruptcy, in 1656, Hendrickje had rescued a small 
quantity of plate and linen, valued at about 600 florins, by swearing 


1642 (I!. 232). 

that the various items were her personal property. She may, perhaps, 
have also saved a small sum which at her death had passed to 
Cornelia. But adversity had more than once overtaken the household, 
obliging Rembrandt to encroach on the little store. Broken down by 
poverty, and crushed by bereavements, the old master was not 
long parted from his son. His death, of which no mention is to be 
found in any contemporary document extant, is briefly noted in the 
death-register of the Wester Kerk as follows : " Tuesday, October 8, 
1669; Rembrandt van Ryn, painter, on the Roozegraft, opposite the 
Doolhof. Leaves two children." 

Rembrandt was buried in the Wester Kerk, near the foot of the 


staircase below the last pillar, to the left, towards the edge of the 
engraving reproduced. A year or two ago, when the pavement 
of the church was re-laid, several graves were discovered, one of 
which, judging by the arrangement of those opened in this part 
of the church in 1669, was probably Rembrandt's; but no remains 
were to be found in the half open coffin. 1 The burial expenses 
amounted to thirteen florins, a sum sufficient to allow of a decent 
ceremonial in those clays. Titus' widow, no doubt, shared the cost 
with Cornelia, for in the inventory drawn up shortly afterwards 
it is expressly stated that the great artist " left nothing of personal 
property but some linen and woollen garments, and his painting 

An evil fate seemed to pursue the family. A few days after 
Rembrandt's burial, on October 21, 1669, Titus' widow passed away. 
The task of regulating the accounts of the succession was undertaken 
by Frans van Bylert, acting for Titia, and by Christian Dusart 
and the ever faithful Abraham Fransz, on behalf of Cornelia. 
Again it became necessary to invoke the testimony of neighbours 
and inmates of the household, in order to assess the claims of 
the two minors. An inquiry was held, and the requisite depositions 
were made before the authorities on March 16 and 18, and on 
April 25, 1670. 

Once more we shall note the name of Titia van Ryn some sixteen years 
later, on the occasion of her marriage with Frans Bylert, the younger, 
the son of her guardian, June 16, 1686, at the church of Slooten. At 
this date she was barely seventeen. Bylert was a jeweller, established 
at Amsterdam on the Kloveniers-Burgwal. Titia seems to have died 
before her husband, on November 22, 1725, and it is probable that 
several children were born of the union, who all died young, and who 
are inscribed on the death registers of the Wester Kerk under the 
family name of Van Ryn, in 1688, 1695, ^98 and 1 728.2 Cornelia 
married one Suythoff, whom she followed to the East Indies. Two 

1 Communicated by Mr. N. de Roever, Municipal Archivist of Amsterdam. 
- Scheltema, Rembrandt, p. 69. 


grandsons of the great painter's figure on the baptismal registers 
of the Dutch settlement of Batavia as the fruit of this marriage. 
The elder, baptised December 5, 1673, received the name im- 
mortalised by his grandfather, Rembrandt; the second, baptised 
July 14, 16/8, was named Hendrick, no doubt in memory of his 

The silence preserved by all Rembrandt's contemporaries touching 
his death shows how complete was the isolation in which the last 
years of his life were spent. He, once the most famous painter 
of his age, and destined to be his country's greatest glory, passed 
away without notice from men of letters or brother- artists. We 
may gather some idea of the neglect that had overtaken him 
from the strictures of one who had taken his place in public 
favour some forty years after his death. Gerard de Lairesse, then 
at the height of his reputation, thus sums up the genius of the 
master, whom he probably knew personally during his youth at 
Amsterdam. 1 " In his efforts to attain a mellow manner, Rem- 
brandt merely achieved an effect of rottenness. The vulgar and 
prosaic aspects of a subject were the only ones he was capable 
of noting, and with his red and yellow tones, he set the fatal 
example of shadows so hot that they seem aglow, and colours 
which appear to lie like liquid mud on the canvas." Lairesse admits 
however that, in respect of intensity of colour, " Rembrandt was 
no whit inferior to Titian, while the vigour and sincerity of his 
art preserves it from utter worthlessness." He thinks it his 
duty, however, "to warn young students against the teaching of 
such few adherents as Rembrandt still possesses, who maintain 
that he has surpassed the most famous masters in vigour of 
colour, and beauty of illumination, in richness of harmony 
and sublimity of ideas." He concludes, with a sincerity truly 
praiseworthy in the author of so many cold and laboured 
allegories, by avowing that : " he himself had inclined for a time to 
this style of painting," hastening to add, however, that he had 

1 Groot Schilderbock, 1714. 


" long abjured his errors, and abandoned a manner founded on a 

Great, no doubt, would have been the amazement of this exponent 
of academic doctrines could it have been revealed to him that a just 
reaction in connoisseurship would finally result in the total eclipse of 
his own fame and that of his rival, Van cler Werff, before the glory of 
the great master he contemned. 


(Uerlin Print Ruuiii.) 







About 1631 (B. 356). 

OSTERITY has taken upon itself to 
avenge the oblivion into which Rem- 
brandt fell. And yet we should be 
wrong to bear too hardly upon his contem- 
poraries for their want of appreciation. Rem- 
brandt's art was too original, too diametrically 
opposed to received ideas, for things to be 
otherwise. The average man could not un- 
derstand it, and the touch of moroseness 
in the artist's self-contained personality was 

not calculated to attract his affection. He scandalised his 
fellow-townsmen by some of his proceedings, and in none did he 
lay himself out to please them. Always in extremes, his temper- 
ament offers many contradictions. From one point of view he was 
a dreamer, incapable of managing his affairs, or even of arranging 
his daily life. On the other hand, in all that touched his work, 
he showed a tenacity and a sense of system which are rare even 

o 2 

, 9 6 RKiM BRANDT 

with the best regulated artists. He created his own methods of 
study from the very foundation. Simple in his habits and of an 
extreme frugality, he yet shrank from no expenditure when it was 
a case of satisfying an artistic caprice. Good-humoured, kindly, 
and ready to do a service as he was, he nevertheless lived 
apart, in a solitude which had something forbidding about it. 
He took an interest in all things, and yet, although his move- 
ments were perfectly free, he never left his native country. 
Gifted with a fine imagination, he yet clung to the skirts of 
nature ; eager for every novelty, it was yet in the humblest and 
most beaten tracks of life that he sought and found the sub- 
jects he dressed in unexpected poetry. His sense of beauty was 
perfect, and he spares us no extreme of ugliness. On a single 
canvas he will mix up the highest aspirations with the commonest 
trivialities, the most absolute want of taste with a refinement of 
delicacy almost excessive. 

As we might expect with so complex a temperament, Rem- 
brandt's life, like his painting, was full of lights and shadows. He 
underwent every vicissitude of fortune, and experienced all the joys 
and all the trials of existence. After a youth passed in hard work, 
and warmed by family affection, he left his native city to find him- 
self alone and famous at Amsterdam. After having, by his 
genius, won the first place among the painters of his native 
country, he did not hesitate to compromise his reputation with the 
Night Watch, a challenge to public opinion, and a wound to the 
self-love of those who took care to make him suffer for his 
exploit. With a little tact he might have replaced the applause 
of the crowd by the patronage of the upper class. But he 
neither cared for the great, nor possessed social skill. He lays 
his character bare in the remark quoted by his biographers : 
"When I want to give my wits a rest, I do not look for honours, 
but for liberty." In fact, he took care to remain his own master and 
to spend his time in the way that seemed best to himself. Tender 
and passionate, he loved his own hearth above all places. And 


yet what inconsistencies we find in that home-life to which he clung 
so fondly ! He marries a girl who is at once rich and well born, 
whom he adores, and of whose perfection he is so jealous that he 
cannot bear the least criticism of her conduct, or of her powers as 
a housekeeper. After her death he seems inconsolable, and yet only 
a few years pass before he exposes himself to public reprobation by 
living openly with her maid. By good luck, the servant now his 
mistress is tender, faithful, and full of devotion to himself. She 
becomes the providence of his evil days, and helps him through the 
miseries which fall thick and fast upon him. Hendrickje behaved 
as well to the son of Saskia as she did to her own daughter by the 
same father, and the two children grew up side by side, objects of 
an equal love and solicitude. 

Happy once more and at peace, in the house he had bought 
without having the means to pay for it, in the house he had filled 
with all that could delight his eyes and develope his powers, with 
curiosities of every kind as well as with pictures, engravings, and 
drawings of every time and school, the master again devoted himself 
to work with all the ardour of youth. But the time was at hand when 
all this comfort had to be abandoned for one of those obscure lodgings 
into which a bankrupt is hunted by his creditors. There, surrounded 
by all the squalid accompaniments of insolvency, harassed by men 
of law, tutored by his servant and mistress, Hendrickje, and his 
boy, Titus, we see him driven, with all his horror of affairs, into 
the most distressful kinds of business. And yet, in spite of all this, 
in spite of the equivocal situation in which he finds himself, the 
friends he had won among the honest and god-fearing gentry 
of Holland do not desert him. Finally, after he is stripped of 
everything he once thought indispensable to the practice of his art, 
we shall see him, in the naked and lamentable apartment which 
formed his last studio, producing not a few of his most famous 

The want of order and conduct which are so striking in the life 
of Rembrandt, make the unity of his artistic career seem all the more 



extraordinary. The strong will so conspicuous by its absence from 
the management of his affairs was nevertheless his master-quality. 
But he kept it all for his art. His love of work equalled his sincerity. 
He allowed no interference with his liberty, neither as a man nor as 
an artist. In spite of the vagaries and the harkings back on himself 
that we find in his work, one thing remains unchanged through every 
vicissitude, I mean that constant love of nature which was the 

foundation of his origi- 
nality from the first 
moment to the last. 
Compare one of the 
laboriously finished works 
of his early years with 
some audaciously handled 
picture from the last stage 
in his development, and 
you will say that an 
impassable abyss yawns 
between the -two you 
will scarcely believe they 
can be the work of the 
same hand, so numerous 
and deeply seated are 
the points of difference. 
And yet, if you look 
closely into their consti- 
tution, you will see at 

last that there is no mistake in the reasoning which puts one name 
at the foot of both. 

Between the timidities of his prudent, though ardent youth, and the 
audacities of his old age, there was a whole life of labour. Review his 
various phases with care, and all his transformations fall into their 
frame ; his genius appears as a perfectly regular and natural whole. 
As soon as he had mastered the elements of his trade, he felt that 


Pen drawing heightened with Sepia (Heselline Collection). 



masters had no more to teach him. He set to work to experiment 
with systems of study, and to discover a method for himself. He was 
fond of solitude, for it was in solitude that he could work most freely, 
and could try his own powers with least chance of error. What could 
Italy have done for him ? He found it difficult enough to shake 
off the influence of his first teachers as it was. It was only by slow 


Pen study wilh Bistre (Stockholm Print Room). 

degrees that he detached himself from the sham picturesque, from the 
style at once common and pretentious, from the general false taste 
of those Italianisers who held so great a place in the Dutch school 
when he began to paint. The opportunities for self-improvement 
which led others into distant countries he saw all round him. Was 
not the sincere and continuous study of such nature as lay to his hand 
better than the superficial and incomplete note-taking of a foreign 
tour ? Was not man himself the best and most interesting, as well as 


the most convenient object of study ? Does not each one of us 
find an endless field for inquiry and comprehension in his own person ? 
The trouble that most of us take to avoid self-examination, to amuse 
ourselves and to get away from our own thoughts, Rembrandt lavished 
on observation of his own personality. He could find no better model 
than his own countenance and his own person. With no other sitter 
could he vary and multiply his studies with such complete freedom, 
with no other could he train eye and hand so entirely in his own 
fashion. Through all his changes of fortune he never ceased to 
multiply his own image, to reproduce it in every pose, in every sort of 
costume, under all lights, and at all ages. And in every study he 
learnt something new. Each head he painted added to his power of 
distinguishing the vital traits, of keeping, under the superficial changes 
of varying expression, the persistent character of his sitter, and of 
grasping an emotion in its depth, or a fleeting sentiment in its rapid 
passage across the countenance. 

With powers ripened by labours such as these, the young artist 
found the most indulgent of models at his own fireside. His 


relations and friends lent themselves with a touching goodwill to 
his artistic caprices, and he made the best use of their devotion. 
When he left Leyden, the precocious reputation which had preceded 
him to Amsterdam drew the best society of the Dutch metro- 
polis to his studio. Young and old, magistrates and viveurs, 
patricians and parvenus, dignified matrons and elegant young 
women, all sat to him, and from each he drew some addition to 
his stock of knowledge. At first he laid himself out to please 
every one who came to him, but before long he began to show his 
preference for those from whom he could win improvement. His 
pleasure in the society of surgeons and physicians soon declared 
itself. He discussed their occupations with them, more especially 
anatomy, of which he himself was a devoted student. He carried 
on debates, too, with ministers of religion, but in a more than 
tolerant spirit. Above all dogmatic prejudice, he was able to 
appreciate the fundamental honesty which lay alike beneath the 

Portrait of a Woman, seated. 

Pen and Sepia. 



opinions of the orthodox clergy, of the Mennonites, and of 
the Jewish Rabbis. From each of these he drew light on those 
sacred writings to which he turned almost exclusively for the 
subjects of his pictures. On the other hand he does not seem to 
have been frequented by men of letters, and we search in vain 
among his portraits for those of Vondel, Hooft, Cats, Van Baerle 
and others of their class. Their culture was too much affected 
by convention, their writings too full of academical subtlety for 
his ingenuous spirit. He preferred a less artificial air, a freer, 
healthier, and franker outlook upon life. Old men, especially, he 
liked for the ease with which their faces could be read, and for the 
clearness with which their moral habits were stamped upon their 
features. The higher classes of society were open to him, as we 
have said, but he preferred the lower. Some of his panegyrists have 
thought it necessary to explain away this preference by throwing 
doubts on the plain evidence of contemporaries. But their interpre- 
tations are clearly forced, and there is no doubt that Rembrandt 
was powerfully attracted by the ease with which the human emo- 
tions could be followed in the looks and gestures of such uncultivated 
children of nature as sailors, workmen, peasants and the beggars of 
the towns. 

As for artists, he confined himself practically to landscape-painters. 
Not only did he buy their works, but among them we find his 
dearest friends, such as Roghman, Van de Cappelle, Berchem and 
Asselyn. From these he had something to learn, and they were all 
united by a common love of nature. As for painters in other genres, 
we find none except some of his own pupils, such as Eeckhout and 
Aert de Gelder, among his intimates. They were too inferior to 
himself, and their ideas were too different from his, for much 
community. When he wanted to commune with his peers he turned 
to his portfolios, to the drawings of every time and school therein 
collected. Neither his preferences nor his methods of work were 
logically deduced from any well-reasoned principle, but they were 
governed by an unfailing instinct. Art for him was a living thing, 


to which he had given himself up once for all. His whole heart was 
in it, and its ways were made clear to him by the light of his own 
devotion. Moreover, he did not know what it was to be idle ; and 
his chief recreation was such as he obtained from a change of 

Scarcely any artist has produced more than Rembrandt, and 
we know of none who has made so many drawings. Even in the 

activity of Rubens there 
were moments of relaxa- 
tion, even periods of 
absolute repose. His 
foreign journeys, the 
honours heaped upon 
him, the princely visits 
he received, the diplo- 
matic missions on which 
he was sent, were so 
many occasions of holi- 
day. Nothing of the sort 
happened to Rembrandt. 
He lived in retirement, 
and suffered no break 
in his constant labour. 

Neither in his youth at Leyclen, nor in the full tide of his success 
at Amsterdam, nor even in the. first flush of his passion for Saskia, 
did he interrupt his work. In the evil days of his maturity, when 
he was hunted a pauper from his familiar studio, he took his 
easel with him and went on bravely with his work. He never 
seems to have cared for amusements. His one care was to 
prevent his time from being broken in upon. His chief pleasure, 
after a day spent in painting, was to pass the evening with his 
pen or his graver. He drew every thing he saw, and the vast 
number of his designs is the best proof we could have of his fertility 
of fancy, as well of his excellent employment of his time. 

Pen drawing (licrlin Print Room). 



Rembrandt's drawings are interesting for the revelations they 
give not only of his talent, but of his methods, and even of his 
domestic arrangements. Their chronology is a little difficult. 
Unlike his etchings and pictures, they arc scarcely ever either dated 
or signed, while the evidence embodied in their manner is not 
always decisive. At each 
period in his career, just 
as we find every kind of 
process, so do we find 
drawings of every sort, 
from the rapid scribble, 
carrying the mere sug- 
gestion of a design, to 
the conception in which 
every line is pondered 
and set down with re- 
straint and care. No 
doubt, like every other 
original master, he con- 
sistently enlarged his 
manner. It is only at 
the outset that we en- 
counter the finish, the 
care for elegance and 
delicacy of execution, 
which distinguish such 
drawings as the S/. 

Jerome of the Louvre, the studies in red chalk of the Berlin 
Museum and the Stadel Institute, and Mr. Heseltine's drawing 
for the Philosopher Meditating. Seductive as this manner is, he 
soon abandoned it. His drawings were not made to please other 
people, but to develope his own powers and to express his own 
thoughts. He cared nothing for neatness in the result. He used 
his tools as he saw fit at the moment, and public approbation 

Pen and Sepia (Albertina, Vienna). 


was the least of his cares. Side by side with the most conclusive 
proofs of his ability, we find sketches that are almost childish 
in their naivete, sketches full of the sincerity of the man who 
seeks to give its full significance to his work, no matter how 
many hesitations or tergiversations take place on the way. The 
man himself, with all his originality, with all his fire and spon- 
taneity, appears in these paper confessions. If, in the numer- 
ous inequalities which mark his talent, we are left sometimes 
in doubt whether we have to clo with himself or with one of his 
countless pupils or imitators, no doubt whatever is possible with 
reo-ard to his better works. There we recognise the hand and 
thought of the great master without question ; we no longer think 
of the attribution. It imposes itself upon us and we are left to ex- 
haust our powers of enjoyment in one of those moments of 
communion with a great spirit which is the keenest pleasure that 
Art can offer. 

The drawings of Rembrandt may be classed under two heads : 

his studies from nature and his studies from the masters. The 

first bear witness to his intellectual curiosity, to his insatiable 

desire for a knowledge of all that nature has to tell. He reproduces 

the every-clay events of his own house, he draws from his wife, 

from his children, from his neighbours, from the old women who 

gossip about his doorstep, from the people who spend their lives 

in hanging about the pavement, from some young Dutchwoman 

drawn to the window by the life of the street, from an old woman 

absorbed in a book, from another who nocls over her volume 

and they all vibrate with life, with life seized as it passes, and set 

down in a stroke or two of the point or brush. Side by side with 

these memoranda from nature, we find others made from memory 

of some scene at which the artist has assisted. At Stockholm, for 

instance, there is a sketch of a man who has fainted : the crowd 

presses about him as crowds are wont to do, each member giving 

help or proffering an opinion, the man himself full of the sudden 

pathos of failing life. Mr. Salting has a drawing of children staring, 

The Woman at the I 

Pen nnd \Vnsh. 

I II! SM I ]M- l ,.[ I 1-1 TION.) 

Printed by Draeger & Lesieur, Paris 


wonderingly, at a Star of BetlileJiem carried through the street by 
a group of their companions. Rembrandt loved to make hasty but 
vivid notes of such episodes as these. They trained his already 
great faculty for observation, and their results appear in the treat- 
ment of crowds, and of the emotions by which they are swayed. 
We have already talked of his lite-studies, of his drawings from 
animals, of those landscape studies which, in their scrupulous fidelity, 
display so marked a contrast with most of his pictures in the same 
genre. They are studies pure and simple, aiming at nothing but 
truth and its consequent instruction ; there is no attempt to be 
poetical, or to embellish reality ; and yet, in spite of this, the 
slightest sketches of Rembrandt bear the mark of his genius, so 
concise is their expression and so instinctively just is their choice 
of means. 

His originality is, of course, still more striking in his compositions. 
The care he gave to this side of his art and the numerous studies he 
made in order to develope it, show what importance it had in his eyes. 
To the spirit of independence, which was one of the distinctive marks 
of his nature, he joined a full determination to profit by what his 
predecessors had clone we have already seen with what intelligence 
he studied and copied some of the best of those Italian engravings on 
which he had lavished his money. We shall find it no less interesting 
to examine his method of conception, and to make ourselves familiar 
with his first attack, so to speak, upon a subject. As we might have 
guessed, he is first attracted by opportunities for the treatment of 
chiaroscuro. It was by management of light and shadow that he first 
conquered his great position, and though others before him may have 
handled similar problems and arrived at conclusions no less veracious 
than his, he alone had elaborated chiaroscuro into an instrument of 
composition powerful enough and delicate enough for the most various 
ends. It was by chiaroscuro that he gave significance to his ideas, 
that he won subordination, that he called up in the beholder those 
emotions of cheerfulness or melancholy, of calm or passion, on which 
he relied for the success of his conceptions. Rembrandt, in fact, was a 


consummate and unapproachable master in tracking light through its 
infinite modifications, through all its changes of relation to the objects 
on which it falls, and through the alterations it may cause in the 
character of a subject. 

The fact, however, must not be lost sight of, that when Rembrandt 

underlined the essential 
factors of his subject in 
this way, he committed 
himself to giving a maxi- 
mum of expressive value 
to those particular figures 
on which he concentrated 
the spectator's attention, 
and that something more 
than a mere question of 
illumination then came 
in. If he had been a 
mediocre draughtsman 
his method would have 
been ruinous to himself. 
He has been belauded 
for the skill and origi- 
nality he shows in his 
management of light, and 
he certainly deserves the 
title of luminariste given 
to him by Fromentin, 
for his power of " paint- 
ing with light and nothing else." 1 Nevertheless it is inaccurate to 
add that he " draws only with light." 2 No doubt, with palette on 
thumb, he is quite right to make paint c'o all it can. But if his character 

1 Les Ma'ttres cTautrefois, p. 359. 

2 Of course. For what is his etching but draughtsmanship, and where indeed in 
draughtsmanship is line more expressive than there ? F. W. 


(Seymour Hnden Collection.) 



as a draughtsman is less solidly established than his rank as painter, 
his knowledge and originality in that direction are quite as incontest- 
able. At a very early period in his career he was able to express him- 
self with pen or pencil alone. He studied movements and attitudes 
both from himself and from models, and he never ceased to perfect his 
skill, to exercise his memory and his observation on the effects of varied 
emotions on the human countenance. He trained himself until the 

reproduction on paper of the children of his own fancy offered no sort 
of difficulty, until he could set them down in a few vital lines, and 
with as much vivacity as if he had seen them with his outward 
eyes. Sometimes, to pass the time, he would allow his pen to wander 
aimlessly over the page, and then, suddenly, his thought would con- 
dense itself, his will awake, and in a few minutes a figure palpitating 
with life would share the sheet with tentative and unmeaning 


And feats like this were neither accidental nor involuntary ; 
with Rembrandt vitality and truth were the rewards of sincere 
and unflagging labour. He never hesitated to correct, with the 
most ruthless strokes, a drawing that any one else would have thought 
perfect as it stood. Until his idea was expressed, until a figure 
had exactly the turn, and an eye the look he wanted, his hand 
was pitiless. In all such matters he was as exacting as Leonardo, 
or Poussin, or any other among those acknowledged masters of form 
who knew no weariness in their search for the line the attitude 
or the gesture which said what they wished to say with the 
greatest precision. Other draughtsmen may have given more cor- 
rectness, more taste, beauty, and grace, to their designs, but none 
have expressed their ideas with a fuller measure of clarity and 

Miscellaneous beyond precedent in the methods employed, 
Rembrandt's drawings are quite as various in their degrees of finish. 
Side by side with mere thumbnail notes, we find designs in which 
every detail is carefully elaborated. Some are restrained, deliberate, 
and traced with extreme certainty and exactness ; others are vehe- 
ment, tumultuous, irresponsible. Among the latter we often find the 
whole history of an idea, from its first inception to its complete 
definite expression. Some compositions which seemed final, Rem- 
brandt has a habit of remodelling in parts, or even of entirely recasting. 
Houbraken says that no other master has given so many different 
treatments to a single theme. The progress of his talent and the 
gradual expansion of his intellect may be traced in drawings of this 
class. At the beginning he thinks only of the picturesque. Later on 
this preoccupation yields to a desire to give human sentiment its 
fullest possible expression. For some of his best pictures, the Syndics 
for example, he has, so far as we know, left no preparatory designs. 
On the other hand, whole series of drawings exist which seem to lead 
up to some picture never painted, or to some plate never etched. 
Careful in all that concerned the material conditions of his art, 
untiring in his search for the best panels, the best colours, and the 


finest kinds of paper, Rembrandt was not particular what he used 
when fired by an inspiration. He took the first rag of paper that 
came to hand to jot down his idea. The Print Room at Munich has 
a Christ disputing with the Doctors and a sketch for the Stockholm 
Claudius Civilis on the back of a torn invitation to a funeral. Again 
in the Teyler Museum at Haarlem we find a drawing, dated 1634, 
for a Jesus among his Disciples, in which the work has been corrected 
so often that the paper would not hang together, and the master 
has pasted another sheet upon it, cutting out the latter so as to 
preserve those parts of the first sketch which he was unwilling 
to lose. But this is an exception ; when in full career his passion 
for production did not lend itself to such a slow contrivance. 
Under the stress of inspiration he addresses his world without 
reserve, and admits it to his confidence with a most absolute 

Similar qualities exist in the master's etchings, which indeed 
have a very strong analogy with his drawings. Among them 
also we find both simple sketches, hot from nature, and elaborate 
compositions, prepared with care and carried to the extreme limits of 

Many others had been tempted before the time of Rembrandt by 
the advantages of engraving, by its directness of expression as well as 
its power of bringing a master's work before a large number of people 
at once. Speaking generally, there is always a great difference 
between the work of the professional engraver, translating the ideas 
of other men, and that of an original master interpreting his 
own. But before the time of Rembrandt the difference was even 
greater still. Remarkable as are the plates of a Mantegna or a 
Diirer for their concise and nervous eloquence, they deal rather 
with contour and character than with colour and chiaroscuro. Lucas 
van Leyden was almost alone in attempting to treat "values" and 
aerial perspective with the burin. He was followed by the Count 
Palatine Goudt, and by Jan van de Velde, who set themselves to 
obtain a greater force of contrast, but did so by processes in which 

VOL. II. p 


the sense of spontaneity disappears more or less in that of difficulty 

Rembrandt, who lived among the finest creations of his pre- 
decessors, laid his hand on all their methods. He thoroughly 
understood his mi'ticr. It was in no spirit of idle parade that he 
used every process in turn. " His aim," as Bartsch very justly 

remarks, " was not so 
much to engrave as to 
paint on copper." Some 
of his etchings are stand- 
ing puzzles for the most 
experienced specialists. 
They even talk of trade 
secrets which he carefully 
kept to himself. Des- 
camps, with his mania 
for apocryphal tales, goes 
so far as to say that 
"jealous of his secret, 
he would never engrave 
before any one." The 
truth is, of course, that 
Rembrandt's only secret 
was his wonderful talent. 
Bartsch, who studied him 
deeply, was the first to 

recognise the truth of this, and since his time both etchers and 
critics who understand the process of etching have been compelled 
to allow that Bartsch was right. The subtle art which knew 
how to bend everything to its will, which understood when to 
make use of this process, when of that, and when to combine 
the two, had its foundation simply in Rembrandt's complete mastery 
of his tools, and of himself. His variety equals his grandeur. 
Here, in the light, the delicate, long-drawn line seems absorbed 

Pen drnwing heightened \v!tli Sepia (Dresden Print Room). 


by the light itself; close by, half tones of an infinite softness 
and subtlety are heightened by a few firmly placed strokes of the 


1639 (B, 21). 

burin or the dry point, which no one could use like Rembrandt. 
In his most successful plates the intensest darks are never opaque. 

p 2 


We can look into them, and in their mysterious velvety depths 
we shall still find modelling. And as if the various capacities 
of point and acid were not enough, Rembrandt supplements them 
with all the resources of the printer. It is well known that he 
printed his own etchings, and that he modified his proceedings 
according to changes in the plate or in the paper he was 
using. He would ink and wipe as he pleased, insisting on this 
and gently passing over that, so that each impression became 
a living thing, animated by his immediate will, and burning with 
that passion for perfection which he brought into all that he 

No doubt his desire for variety led him now and then to make 
dangerous experiments, and his etchings, as we have seen, do not 
always gain by their successive modifications. In some the first state 
is the best ; others arc improved up to a certain " state," while after- 
wards every change is rather for the worse ; others again, which begin 
by being insignificant enough, are gradually built up into something 
better and more important. In any case, before the monument of 
artistic wealth which makes up the engraved work of Rembrandt, the 
intelligent amateur cannot avoid being captured by the passion with 
which so many generations of artists and collectors have burned. 
"His manner," as Mons. Delaborde says, "is, so to speak, im- 
material. Sometimes he appears to attack the copper anyhow ; 
sometimes he caresses it with the most exquisite delicacy, with 
the most magical dexterity." .... He makes use of the tools 
and processes of the ordinary engraver, but he adapts them to 
his own thought, to the expression of his own ideas. Without 
troubling himself over much about finish or super-refinement, he elabo- 
rates a style that is always expressive, from the most varied elements, 
from elements in which the familiar and the stately, the common 
and the heroic, all play their part ; and yet, from the mixture of 
such diverse ingredients, he educes a whole quite admirable in its 

Photography has enabled a considerable public to become familiar 

An Old Man Seated in an Arm Chair. 

Pen and Sepia. 

Printed by Draeger & Lesieur Paris 


with Rembrandt's etchings. What used to be the delight of the 
cultivated few has gradually taken its place among the pleasures of the 
crowd. Little by little, thanks to the excellence and the cheapness of 
the reproductions, the world at large will become familiar with the 
grasp and fertility of the great Dutch master. It will appreciate 
landscapes like the Six's Bridge, the Oii>a/, and the Three Tiees, or 
simple studies, like the Hog and the Shell ; or scenes from everyday 
life, like the Beggars at the Door of a House ; or portraits like 
those of Clement dc Jonghe, Jan Lutma, Jan Uytenbogaerd, 
and Old H Raring ; or compositions like the Tobit, and the Death 
of the Virgin, the Christ teaching, and the great Hundred Guilder 
Print. The original impressions themselves must be studied in 
the great collections, in the British Museum, the Louvre, or the 
Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam. In these \ve find the choicest 
proofs, often with the master's own writing or corrections still 
upon them. Every such sheet has its own history, its own 
peculiar charm, and, as it were, its own titledceds to existence. 
While looking into it we gradually penetrate the mind of its 
creator, and enroll ourselves among the intimates of the unsurpass- 
able master. 

But immense though our interest may be in the drawings and 
etchings of Rembrandt, it is after all, we think, in his paintings that his 
originality declares itself most completely. Just as Beethoven (with 
whom Rembrandt had not a few points in common), while he 
contrived to display his genius in simple Sonatas, cannot be entirely 
appreciated until we know hir, Symphonies, so Rembrandt only gives 
the full stature of his genius in his pictures. The painter took 
the same path to perfection as the draughtsman and the etcher ; his 
development, his progress towards artistic simplicity, was the same as 
theirs. From the extreme precision and finish of his youth to the 
breadth and largeness of his maturity it was a steady march. He 
advanced from the particular to the general, and so, when he wished 
to summarise, he had the right to. He had learnt things in detail, 
and so he knew what was essential and what was not. In his first 



productions his studies, of course, excepted his touch is fused, deli- 
cate and subtle ; in his later works it is broader, freer, more decisive ; 
and it ends with the somewhat forbidding abruptness of his old age. In 
this connection some of his own remarks are significant " Hang these 
pictures in a very strong light," he says, in his youth, when speaking 

of his Passion series. So 
far from being nervous as 
to the result, he feels sure 
his work will only profit 
by being severely seen. 
It might, in fact, have 
been put beside that of 
the most famous finishers, 
even beside the pictures 
of his pupil, Gerard Don. 
As age came upon him 
he kept the critics more 
at arm's length. " The 
smell of paint is not good 
for the health," we hear 
him saying to some one 
who came too close to 
his easel. At the same 
time as a broader treat- 
ment led him to enlarge 
his figures, it also caused 
him to diminish their 
number, for he felt that 

to multiply the points of interest, as he used to do, was hurtful 
to the unity of the final result. His aim was to deepen and clarify 
the effects. Among all possible movements and gestures he sought 
for those which best agreed with the character of his subject, 
and established the closest and most definite relations between 
the various figures. So too, in his portraits, he attached gradually 

1650 (The Hague Museum). 



less and less importance to costume and to various colour. He 
suppressed strong contrasts and so led the eye more surely to 
the true centre of interest, the head. He recognised that all the 
features are not of equal moment. He insists upon those which 
give individuality to a countenance, upon the mouth and, still more, 
upon the eyes, which he endows with a singular vivacity. As for colour, 

. - 

, " 


(British Museum.) 

after having first experimented with a sort of monochrome made up of 
reddish tones, and afterwards with a richer and more varied palette, 
he came to see that harmony, as he understood it, was to be obtained 
by the utmost possible enforcement of certain dominant tones golden 
and tawny browns, and especially reds and by their juxtaposition 
to broken tints of iron-gray and neutral brown. His chiaroscuro, 
too, was modified as his powers grew. The sharp transitions of his 


early work disappeared to make way for quieter contrasts, with 
which he obtained effects quite as powerful and more subtle and 

His originality of interpretation was always controlled by study of 
nature. Nature made him what he was. and to her he turned un- 
ceasingly. One of his principles was that " Nature alone should be 
followed." Tradition had little power over him, and yet he never 
deliberately threw off its yoke. On the contrary he was always keen 
to know what men had done before his time, and to profit by their 
teaching. But when a subject had to be treated, he did not trouble 
himself too much about what others had said. He thought about it 
for himself; he entered into it ; he, as it were, lived it over again, and 
then set himself to reproduce it in his own way, giving special force to 
those aspects which had stirred his own emotions. 

Rembrandt developed the rich gifts which nature had showered 
upon him by a patient scheme of culture, thoroughly reasoned out. 
The facile successes to be won by saying again what had already been 
well said, had no attraction for him. He preferred the slower process 
of research, and its demands upon the individual. He never ceased to 
learn, to renew his own powers, and to give to each work all the 
perfection of which it was capable. If, at the close of his life, 
he gave rein to his genius, he had earned the right to do so, by 
continuous study. If he then let rules go by the board, he had 
justified the proceeding by his long previous submission. Here we 
have a lesson which should be taken to heart : namely, that even over 
the genius of a Rembrandt, logic has its rights. 

But logic cannot explain genius, more especially such a genius 
as that of Rembrandt, perhaps the most personal that has ever 
existed. He will prove a dangerous guide to rash imitators of his 
manner ; we should not even venture to assert that he was a good 
master for his pupils, or that his influence over them was wholly 
beneficial. A temperament so strong as his was sure to dominate 
theirs, and in spite of the material precautions he took to isolate 
them and to preserve their mutual independence, they nearly all 


so far submitted to his ascendency as to lose their individuality in his. 
Protected against the effect they might have had on each other, they 
had no defence against their master. The best of them, in their best 
works, came near to his level, and near to his style ; and their highest 
honour is to be sometimes confused with Rembrandt himself. But as 
a rule they only succeed in imitating his habits of composition and 
the more fantastic elements in his work. The resemblance is all on 
the outside. They borrow his subjects, his costumes, his methods of 
getting effect ; but the grand originality of the master only serves 
to enhance the docility of their submission. 

Rembrandt, in fact, belongs to the breed of artists which can 
have no posterity. His place is with the Michelangelos, the 
Shakespeares, and the Beethovens. An artistic Prometheus, he 
stole the celestial fire and with it put life into what was inert, and 
expressed the immaterial and evasive sides of nature in his breathing 
forms. Bold spirits are attracted by the infinite. The ideal they 
pursue flies continually before them. They give themselves over 
body and soul to the sublime pursuit, and as the sentiment by which 
they are spurred exists in embryo in every human soul, they call 
up in every one of us some echo of the thoughts which agitate 
themselves. It is scarcely necessary to say that their works are 
unequal, extravagant sometimes, often contemptuous of tradition. But 
they atone for this by their grandeur of expression. They indulge 
in no empty formula;. The purest side of their being appears in their 
work. They understand all human sentiments, but they rarely taste 
the joys of earth. They live apart, enamoured rather of independence 
than of honours or applause. Their thoughts are given to solitary 
labour, to the noble torment of limitless aspirations, to the perplexities 
and disappointments which attend the seeking after perfection. They 
are pathetic even in their moments of discouragement ; even their 
despair has dignity. They lament the inability of art to express 
the thoughts which haunt them, and yet, happily for us with our 
relish for masterpieces, their art is their world. In it they 
discover beauties undreamt of before, and in the very act of 



appropriating the inventions of their forerunners, they invent in 
their turn. Even when their talent has raised them high above 
their contemporaries, they seem to contemn their own powers and 
their own knowledge. They cannot stop, and a superiority painfully 
won becomes merely a stepping-stone to greater heights. The roads 
which have led to perfection fail to satisfy their ambitions ; they 
cannot traverse them more than once, and so they are tempted to 
adventures which attract mainly by their temerity. They have to 

their hands an instrument 
of their own creation, they 
are intimately acquainted 
with its powers, and from 
it they burn to draw 
sounds never heard be- 
fore. The consequence is 
that chords of the most 
confused, disorganised, 
and wildest kind inter- 
rupt the sublimest melo- 
dies. Who is to under- 
stand them ? As to that, 
however, they have little 
concern, and in the ab- 
sence of a fit audience, 
they produce only for 

themselves, seeking that self-approbation which they never reach. 
In their decline we find them still more self-contained; we see 
them drunk with their own thoughts, which are not always 
comprehensible ; we see them despising correctness and doing 
violence to those forms of their own creating which no longer 
lend themselves to the desired end. Is this madness, or sublimity? 
They become more and more foreign to their own time ; but 
enlightened by that flame of genius which, before it expires, blazes 
up to throw a last dazzling ray upon their talent, they go steadily 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 



on, leaving to those who come after them the task of recognising 
beauties which may break accepted rules, but which nevertheless 
will be a law to the future. 

Without any wish to renew somewhat empty comparisons, it is 
difficult to speak of Rembrandt and not contrast his life with that of 
Rubens, his neighbour and almost his contemporary. Side by side with 
certain points of likeness in their domesticity, for instance, and their 
extraordinary activity -what a divergence there was between the des- 


Pen drawing (Kunsthalle, Hamburg). 

tinies and the genius of the two men ! Think of the ever-increasing 
obscurity of Rembrandt, of his deepening self-concentration, of his 
solitary habits, of his absolute ignorance of business, of his incurable 
prodigality, of his constant efforts at improvement, and of his miserable 
end ; and then turn to the master of Antwerp, to his European fame, 
his well-balanced nature, his serenity, his gift for being happy himself 
and for communicating happiness to others, to the versatility which en- 
abled him, as occasion arose, to become now a diplomat and now 
a man of business, to his patronage of all the painters of his country 
and to his confident exercise of a gift which satisfied himself, to the 


princely fortune gained by honest work, and finally to his death 
in the full tide of prosperity, and his passage to the grave through 
all that was honourable in his native city. What a contrast it is, and 
what a vivid light it throws upon the natures of these two great 
masters ! 

Rembrandt was content to be an artist and to give up all his life to 
his art. He does not, as we have seen, reveal himself all at once, and 
in attempting one of those summary descriptions so popular with the 
multitude, we should run the risk of doing him less than justice. His 

devotees have thought to do him honour 
by endowing him with the whole credit 
of the invention of what is called chiaro- 
scuro, but others were chiaroscurists 
before him ; Leonardo and Correggio, in 
Italy, to name only the most illustrious ; 
and Pieter Lastman, his own master, 
among the painters of his own time and 
country. But none of these had gone 
below the surface. It was reserved for 
Rembrandt to give their full value to 
light and shade as vehicles of expression. 
We have already described how he 
reached the desired end by a renovation 
of his method, and we need not repeat 

it. But we may point out how he surpassed all his countrymen 
by the universality of his aptitudes, by the force of his genius, 
by the nobility of his aims. No doubt such names as Frans 
Hals and Thomas de Keyser, Terborch and Metsu, Jan Steen and 
Johannes Vermeer, Adrian van de Velde and Paul Potter, Van 
Goyen, Van de Cappelle, Cuyp, Jakob Ruysdael, and many more, 
would have sufficed to render the School of Holland illustrious, but 
without Rembrandt it would have been truncated, it would have 
lost its poetry, and the apex of its glory. With him, on the other 
hand, with his etchings and drawings, with portraits such as the 


1631 (H. T 3 R). 


Elizabeth Bas and the Lady with tlic Fan, Dr. Tholiux and the 
Burgomaster Six, with the Saskia of Cassel and the Hendrickje of the 
Louvre, with the Bathsheba of the Lacaze Collection and the Dan'de 
of the Hermitage, with most of the renderings of his own features, with 
his versions of Scripture, such as the Jacob's Blessing, at Cassel, the 
Magdalene, at Brunswick, the Adulteress, of the National Gallery, the 
Manoah, of Dresden, the Good Samaritan, the Tobit, and the Pilgrims 
at Emmiins, of the Louvre, with the Lesson in Anatomy, with the 
Night Watch, with the Syndics and the Jewish Bride, and with a 
host of fine things too 
numerous to be named in 
this list, the Dutch School 
may take its place fear- 
lessly in the first rank, 
and may brave all com- 

While at many points 
Rembrandt belongs tho- 
roughly to his own time 
and country, he is marked 
off sharply by his peculiar 
originality. The fashions 
of the clay had some 
influence upon him, as 
upon every artist, but, 

thanks to his personal method of work and to his complete self- 
mastery, he was enabled to stand up against them with success. 
Member of a race distinguished by positive and practical gifts, he 
alone, until Spinosa appeared, was a poet and a seer, he alone spread 
his wings freely, and when he set foot on earth, did so merely to get 
a purchase for a wider flight. 

Rembrandt excels in the expression of sentiments at once august 
and intimate. Mystery attracts him, and he loves to tell us what 
ear has never heard, to show us what eye has never seen. 


(Duke of Devonshire's Collection.) 



Standing at the junction of the visible and the invisible, he passes 
continually from the one to the other and summons us to follow. 
Dreams with their confused lights, the agonies of approaching death, 
the formidable problems of life and mortality which none can escape, 
the fervour of prayer, the tenderness of a father who finds a son he 
had believed to be lost, or that of a (iod who reveals Himself to His 


(About 1640 (l!riin^\\k-k Museum). 

disciples, the vague looks and hesitating gestures of a body which 
has just ceased to be a corpse, the revelations which a Lazarus 
might bring back from the grave or a Christ let fall from the 
Cross, all these indescribable things he reveals discreetly, with 
just the right frankness and the right obscurity. All the energies 
and all the reserves of human sentiment find their utterance in 
the work of this strange and powerful master, who, even in his 
subtlest intricacy, never omits to be profoundly human and to give 



in his pictures some echo of the movements and hesitations of human 

In the extended field over which his art was spread, Rembrandt 
embraced all realities and all visions. The mysterious element of 
which we are continually conscious in our passage through life 

r.ssiN*; THE cmu>iu-:\ O 
1656 (Casse Museum). 

informs his pictures, and explains their influence over the most 
divergent natures. Supple and vigorous, he understands exactly 
how to be at once precise and suggestive, how to satisfy, and how 
to stimulate by the merest hint of meaning. We do not choose to 
be dragooned into our admirations, and even in presence of a master- 
piece we like to keep our liberty, to have some scope left for fancy. 
Rembrandt comprehends this to perfection, and while he conveys his 



own idea with all required completeness, he takes care to evoke that 
collaboration on the part of his audience with which the painter can 
no more dispense than can the writer. When he has caught our 
attention and produced his argument he leaves us to make of it what 
we may. Were he more insistent he would run the risk of breaking 
the charm and of arousing hostility. But we have no defence against 
an artist whose powers leave mere talent behind, and who yet 
confesses that, deeply moved as he is, he can go no further, 

. but must leave to each one of us the task of 

completing his thought. 

It is easy to see how his own people failed 
to appreciate Rembrandt ; with the passage of 
time he has gathered a following in every 
country. In many ways he deserves to be the 
favourite painter of our epoch, for of all the 
masters he is the most modern. Through 
those fluctuations of taste which have been fatal 
to so many, his fame has steadily grown. 
The sobriety with which it began makes its 
present eclat the more startling, yet the unani- 
mous applause with which the master is now 
hailed is no more than a legitimate tribute. 
In these latter years Rembrandt has afforded 

a raison d'etre for numerous publications. The prices paid for 
his works increase day by day ; almost alone among the old 
masters he has won favour in the si<jht of a youthful afeneration, 

o J > 

whose impatience of rule is unbounded, and whose admiration is 
far from catholic. This great position he owes to his sincerity, 
and to an independence so absolute that theorists on art find it 
impossible to classify him. As M. Victor Cherbuliez says very 
truly, 1 " Rembrandt belongs to no school. He has a profound sense 
of life and of reality. By his way of treating light he gives a certain 


1646 (1!. 170). 

' U Art et la Nature, i vol. 121110. Paris, 1892. P. 294. 



magical and supernatural quality to the most common realities, so 
that his works are at once passages from nature and fantastic tales, 
the fairy vision of a great soul." 

The moment, then, had arrived, in our belief at least, to 
put before the public a complete picture of the life and artistic 
career of Rembrandt, accompanied for the first time by numerous 
reproductions chosen from all the three classes of his works. 
Unless we are much mistaken, no artist has displayed himself 
with less reserve, has been franker in confiding his thoughts, 
his loves, his joys and sorrows, to the paper than he. He 

1648 (B. 126). 

has discovered himself absolutely, with his virtues and faults, 
and with the painful contrast between artist and man, between 
the painter who had care for nothing but his work, whose love 
was there concentrated, and who cherished that love to the end, 
and the man whose later vears were a series of misfortunes cruel 


always, and not always undeserved. 

It has been our endeavour throughout to approach the study 
of this great personality with an open mind, profiting as far as 
possible by the resources offered us by former workers in the same 
field. We have neither sought to extenuate the moral deficien- 
cies of the man, and the inequalities of the artist, nor to conceal 
our predilection for a master so absolutely devoted to his 
VOL. n. g 



art, so profoundly human, so expressive and so touching in the 
familiar simplicity of his eloquence. The work we dedicate 
to his genius is certainly not all we could have wished. But 
at least we have grudged neither time nor labour to the task. 


i6. ( 5 (B. 196). 



Q 2 


DURIXG the fifty-seven years 
which have elapsed since 
Smith compiled his Catalogue 
Raisonne, two art critics have set them- 
selves the task of making a complete and 
methodical list of Rembrandt's works. 
Vosmaer, the earlier of the pair, attempted 
to include in his list the whole production 
of the master, assigning each drawing, 
etching, and painting to the year to which 
it belonged. Unfortunately, only a com- 
paratively small number of the pictures 
had been seen by him, and even for those 
he knew, his appreciation was often 
at fault. Taking up the same task 
with more method and a wider know- 
ledge, Dr. Bode brought it to a more 
satisfactory conclusion. His exhaustive 
studies of Rembrandt's development en- 
abled him to distinguish the phases through which the evolution of the master's talent 
passed. It is to him we owe the identification of many youthful works previously 
ignored. Differing in execution from Rembrandt's later productions, and signed only 
with a monogram, they had escaped less thorough students. Moreover, in his repeated 
journeys across the length and breadth of Europe, Dr. Bode found opportunities for a 
repeated comparison of all the pictures distributed in public and private collections. 
The list given in his Studien zur Geschichte der hollandischen Malerei is consequently the 
most accurate and trustworthy we possess. But since 1883, when the Studien were 
first published, the constantly growing vogue of Rembrandt, and the increase in the value 
of his works, has necessarily led to many changes in their distribution. In a Munich 


About 1630 (B. 291). 


journal (the Miinchener neueste NuchriMen of July 9, 1890), Dr. Bode has therefore 
added to his catalogue and rectified it in many points, noting the changes in ownership 
which took place between 1883 and 1890. Recent though this publication is, many 
important changes have since occurred, especially in English collections, and show once 
more how difficult, how impossible in fact, it is, to keep such a catalogue up to date. 
What is now going on in England is enough by itself to prove this. Not only have 
many famous collections, like that of Blenheim, been dispersed at public auction ; 
changes of proprietorship have taken place, as it were, sub rosa, secrecy being one of the 
conditions of many sales to which owners have been now forced by pecuniary embarrass- 
ment, now tempted by the offer of some enormous price. In my list some forty 
pictures will be found, which, during the last few years, have passed through the hands 
of M. Sedelmeyer alone, mostly from England, some to find new homes on the Continent, 
others to enrich the numerous galleries now being formed in the United States of America. 
Thanks to the courtesy of M. Sedelmeyer, I have been able not only to examine, but to 
photograph some of these pictures during their brief stay in Paris. 

In spite of all the efforts I have made and the many letters I have written, I can 
only put before my readers an approximate account of the present whereabouts of 
Rembrandt's pictures. As I have had occasion, in the course of the foregoing pages, to 
refer to most of them in their order of production, I thought it would facilitate research 
to make their geographical distribution govern the arrangement of this formal list. And, 
as I had to economise space, I have been content to give only the most indispensable 
details : the title, the date, the form of signature, the provenance, and the size of each 
picture, together with the material on which it is executed. For such collections, public 
or private, as possess catalogues, I have given the number according to the latest edition, 
the date of which, where possible, is also given. 

The collections richest in the work of Rembrandt are the Hermitage (35), the Louvre 
(20), the Galleries of Cassel (20), Berlin (17), and Dresden (16), the National Gallery (12), 
and the Gallery of Munich (10). Taking the total number of pictures at 450, an 
approximate figure according to Dr. Bode, Holland only possesses one eighteenth, or 
25. It is true, however, that this small total comprises several works of the first order, 
both in importance and merit, such as the Lesson in Anatomy, the Night Watch, the 
Jewish Bride, the Elizabeth Bas, the Burgomaster Six, and the Syndics. 

We have spoken of the discredit into which Rembrandt's work had fallen towards the 
end of his life, and have quoted his grand-nephew, Wybrandt de Geest, on the point. 
Towards the beginning of the eighteenth century, the prices of his pictures, still very low, 
began gradually to rise. It was not, however, a steady improvement. At the sale of the 
W. Six collection, one of the most important of those days, the prices varied between the 
50 florins (& 3.?. $d.) for the two Philosop/iers Meditating, now in the Louvre, and the 
2,510 florins (^209 35. 4^.) for the Woman taken in Adultery, of the National Gallery. 
French amateurs were the first to look for Rembrandt's pictures. Among the best- 
known collectors who owned them were Crozat, the Comte de Vence, M. de Julienne, 
who had ten, the Comte de Choiseul, who had six or seven, the Prince de Conti, and 
the Due d'Orleans, whose sale took place in 1792. In the present century the Erard 
sale (August 7, 1832), and that of Cardinal Fesch (March 17, 1845), should especially be 
mentioned. In England, where the genius of Rembrandt also grew steadily into favour, 
his pictures found their way into the princely homes of the great nobles, and it is in 


England still, in spite of the frequent sales, that the most important private collections 
are to be found, such as those of Her Majesty the Queen, of Lady Wallace, of the Duke 
of Westminster, of Lord Ashburton, of Lord Ellesmere, &c. It is in England, too, that 
we may hope to find some of the lost works of the master, as well as some which have 
never yet been recognised. 

The market value of Rembrandt's pictures has been rising ever since the middle 
of the eighteenth century. The sale careers of the two little pictures in the Louvre, 
the Philosophers Meditating, can be followed, and will give some idea of how prices 
have advanced. They were sold : 

In the W. Six sale (1734) for 50 florins (^8 3^. 4^.). 

,, Comte de Vence (1752) for .... 3,000 livres (^120). 
Due de Choiseul (1772) for .... 14,000 ,, (,560). 
,, Randon de Boisset (1777) lor . . . 10,900 ,, (,436). 
Comte de Vaudreuil (1784) for . . . 13,000 ,, (,520). 

when they were bought for Louis XVI. 

At the Orleans sale, in 1792, the composition known as The Cradle, now in the 
possession of Mr. Boughton-Knight at Downton Castle, was sold for ,1,050 (26,250 
francs) ; while the admirable " Windmill," now in Lord Lansdowne's collection, was sold 
for .484 (12,120 francs). A Holy Family (the Menage du Menuisier in the Louvre), 
which had formed part of the Choiseul collection, was sold for .684 i6,y. (17,120 francs) 
on February 16, 1793, although the Terror was at its height. In our own time Rem- 
brandt's pictures have kept their upward movement. He is now one of the most sought 
after of all painters, and of all the old masters he is the most popular in America. 
The male portrait known as " Le Doreur," signed and dated 1640, was sold for .200 
(5,000 francs) in Paris in 1802. In 1836 it fetched .600 (15,000) francs at auction. 
It was sold for _i,ooo (25,000 francs) at the Gentil de Cavagnac sale in 1854, and for 
.6,200 (155,000 francs) at that of the Due de Morny in 1865. Bought in 1884 by 
Mr. Schaus, of New York, for ,9,000 (225,000 francs), it is said to have been sold by 
him to Mr. Havemeyer for _i 6,000 (400,000 francs), and is now on loan in the 
Metropolitan Museum of New York. Another portrait, known as the Admiral, was 
bought by Mr. Schaus for ,4,260 (106,500 francs) at the sale of the Crabbe Collection, 
June 12, 1890. The two fine full-length portraits of Martin Daey and his wife, bought in 
August, 1877, with the rest of the Van Loon collection, by the Rothschild family, wore 
taken by the Baron Gustave de Rothschild at a valuation of more than a million of 
francs (,40,000). Two other portraits, one of Rembrandt himself and another of a 
young woman, were sold by the Marquis of Lansdowne to Lord Iveagh for over 
.16,000. In 1883, Joseph and Potiphar's Wife was bought by the Berlin Museum from 
Sir John Neeld for .8,000. In 1891 the Pilgrim at Prayer was bought by Mr. Weber, 
of Hamburg, for ,4,000 ; an Old Woman with a Bible by M. Forges, of Paris, for 
,6,000 (150,000 francs) ; and The Accountant by Mr. Handford, of Chicago, for ,5,600 
(140,000 francs). 

The strong contrasts and the breadth of effect in Rembrandt's pictures were of a 
nature to tempt engravers, and they have been often reproduced ; in the last century 
by Schmidt and De Frey, and in our time by such skilful etchers as Massalof, Unger, 
Courtry, Koping, Waltner, and Rajon. It is only fa.r to mention also Mouilleron's fine 



lithograph after the Nig/it Watch. Finally the photographs of Braun of Uornach ; of 
Hanfstaengl of Munich ; and of Baer of Rotterdam, have effectually helped to extend 
the knowledge of Rembrandt's work. 

In the following list the countries are arranged in alphabetical order. Under each 
town the pictures in public museums precede those in private collections. In the case 
of pictures which I have not seen, or as to which I have been unable to procure special 
information, I have, as a rule, accepted the information given in Dr. Bode's catalogues. 
As for the signatures, I have only described such as differed, either in form or spelling, 
fro:n those habitually used by the master. The figures which follow the letters c and w 
(canvas or wood) give the size in inches and sixteenths of an inch, the height being 
always given first. 

A U S T R I A- H U X G A R Y. 

B u D A- P F.STH. Academy. 

Old Man with a while Beard, full length, 
medium size. Signed and dated 1642. \V, - 
28 X 2i,, inches. No. 235. 

The Repose of the Holy Family, painted 
about 1655. 
Count J. Andrassy. 

Portrait of Rembrandt. Signed and dated 
1630. W. ig,V X I $ inches. Georges Rath 

Female Portrait (unfinished), perhaps 
Hendrickje Stoffels. W. 28};] x 20^,. inches, 

Landscape. Signed and dated 1638. 2i}JX 
28/5 inches. 

Study of a RullocKs Carcase. Signed R. 
1639. \V. 20! jj x 17 inches. 

CRACOW. Czartorisky Gallery. 
Large Landscape, dated 1638. 

INNSPRUCK. Fefdinandeum. 

The Head of an old Man (Rembrandt's 
Father), commonly known as Phllo the Jew. 
Signed with the monogram and dated 1630. 
W. 8}J X 6}J inches. Hoppc and Tschager 

PRAGUE. Count Nostitz. 

Portrait of an old Man, seated at a table, 
three - quarters length, life-size. Signed. 
Painted about 1635, 

TARNOWtTZ. Prince Tarnowsky> 

Equestrian Portrait of a young Pole. 

VIENNA. Imperial Museum. (Cataloeue of 

Portrait of a Man, half-length, life-size, 
painted about 1632. W. 35! X2;| inches. 
(Catalogue of 1783.) No. 1 139. 

Portrait of a Woman, pendant to above. 
No. 1 140. 

Rembrandt s Mother, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1639. W. 31^ x 24^ 
inches. (Catalogue of 1783.) No. 1139. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life-size, 
painted about 1658. C. 44i X 31 J inches. 
Charles VI's Collection. No. 1142. 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, life-size. 
Signed, painted about 1666-1668. W. 
! 9is X i6 inches. 

A young Man singing (Titus ?), half- 
length, life-size, painted about 1658. C. 28 
X 2 8 $ inches. (Catalogue of 1783.) No. 

St. Pai//, half-length, life-size, painted about 
1636. C. 493 X 43,% inches. Inventory of 

Academy of Fine Arts. 

Portrait of a young Lady, half-length, 
signed with the monogram, and dated 1632. C. 
38,^ X 28f inches. 

Liechtenstein Collection. (Catalogue of 1873). 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1635. C. 36,^ X 28f 

J'ortrait of Saskia, an oval ; bust, full-face, 
life-size. Signed with the monogram and 
dated 1632. W. 23 J X 17^ inches. Valpin- 
C,on and Secrdtan Collections. 

The Jewish Bride, full length, half life-size, 
Signed and dated 1632. C. 42^x361 inches. 
De Bandeville, Rendlesham, Mulgrave and 
Sir Charles Robinson Collections. 

Rust Portrait of a Man, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1636. Kuscheleff, Besborodko, and 
Incontri Collections. 

Portrait of a Woman, pendant to above. 
Same collections. 



Baron von Konigswarter. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, full-face, life- 
size. Painted about 1640. W. 22i X 19|J 
inches. Mount-Temple and Caledon Collec- 

Count Schonborn. 

Samson overcome by the Philistines, whole- 
length figures, nearly life-size. Signed and 
dated 1636. C. 76| X 1O2| inches. 


ANTWERP. Museum. 

Portrait of the Minister Sivalmius, seated, 
life-size three-quarters length. Signed and 
dated 1637. C.- -57^ X 44^ inches. Orleans, 
Stowe, and Dudley Collections. 


Museum. (Catalogue of 

Portrait of a Man. half-length, life-size. 
Pendant to the Ladyu'ith the Fan at Bucking- 
ham Palace. Signed and dated 1641. C. 

41 ij X 32J-J inches. Dansaert Collection. 

(No- 397-) 

Portrait of an old Woman, three-quarters 
length, life-size. The signature : Rembrandt, 
1654, apparently a forgery. C. Acquired in 
1886. (No. 397a.) 
Arenberg Gallery. 

Tobias restoring his Father's Sight, small 
figures. Signed and dated 1634 or 1636. W. 
i8| x 15^ inches. Hibbert, Carignan, and 
Gildemecster Collections. 


Col'KNHAGKN. Royal Gallery. (Catalogue of 

Christ at Emmiius, figures of medium size. 
Signed and dated 1648. C.- (No. 292). 

Bust Portrait of a young Man, life-size. 
Signed, but not dated. Painted in 1656. C. 
-(No. 273). 

Portrait of a young Woman, pendant to 

the above. Signed and dated 1656. C. (No. 
Count Moltke. 

Portrait of an old Woman. The model the 
same as in the picture in the Epinal Museum, 
and the three studies in the Hermitage. Half- 
length, life-size, painted about 1654. (Cata- 
logue of the collection, No. 32.) 


H.M. the Queen. Buckingham Palace. 

The Shipbuilder and his Wife, three- 
quarters length figures, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1633. C. 4i| X 64$ inches. Smeth 
van Alphen Collection. 

The Aderation of the Magi, figures of 
medium size. Signed and dated 1657. W. 
Si,\ X 38 inches. 

Rembrandt and Saskia, commonly called 
The Burgomaster Pancras and his H'ife. 
Signed, but not dated. Painted about 1635- 
1636. C. 61^ X 77 inches. H.Hope Col- 

Christ and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb, 
full-length figures, of medium size. Signed 
and dated 1638. W. 23^ X 19! inches. 
De Reuver, Elector of Cassel, and Malmaison 

The Lady with the Fan, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1641. C. 
inches. Townshend Collection. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. Signed 
and dated 164 (about 1645). W. 27 X 24^ 
inches. Baring Collection. 

H.M. the Queen. Hampton Court Palace. 

A Jewish Rabbi, bust, life-size, arched at 
the top. Signed and dated 1635. W. arched 
at the top. 

H.M. the Queen. Windsor Castle. 

Portrait of a young Man (Gerard Dou?), 
bust. Signed with a monogram, and dated 

Portrait of Rcmbrandfs Mother, bust. 
Painted about 1630-1632. 

CAMBRIDGE. Fitzwilliam Museum. (Cata- 
logue of 1 86 1.) 

Portrait nf Rembrandt in military Costume, 
three-quarters length^ life-size. Signed and 
dated 1650. C. 53,*,, X 45}} inches. 



DUBLIN. National Gallery of Ireland. (Cata- 
logue of 1890.) 

The Rest in Egypt, small figures. (More 
probably a Bivouac of Shepherds.) Signed 
and dated 1647. W. 15^ X I2j inches. 
Sir Henry Hoare Collection. (No. 115.) 

Portrait of a Young Man (Louis van der 
Linden), bust. An oval. Painted about 1630- 
1631. Not catalogued. Bought from Mr. A. 
Uansaert, of Brussels. 

DULWICH GALLERY. (Catalogue of 1880.) 

Bust Portrait of a young Man, rather less 
than life-size. Signed with the monogram, 
K. H. L. van Ryn, f. 1632. W. n X 9-,^ 
inches. (No. 189.) 

Girl at a Window, an oval, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1645. C. 
31 J X 24,1, inches. R. Hibbcrt Collection. 

EDINBURGH. Scottish National Gallery. 

A young Woman in Bed (Hendrickje Stof- 
fels), bust, life-size, arched at the top. Signed 
and dated 1650. Carignan, Maynard, and 
Mildmay Collections. Bought from Mr. 
Charles Wertheimer in 1892. 

GLASGOW. Corporation Gallery. 

Small Female Portrait, a youthful work. 

A Man in Armour, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1655. C. 53^ X 40^ 

Tobias and the Angel. Landscape with 
figures. W. 29^ x 26 inches. 

Study of a Bullock's Carcase, similar to that 
in the Louvre. 

LONDON. National Gallery. (Catalogue of 

The Descent from the Cross, a sketch in 
grisaille for the etching of 1642 (B. 82), 
numerous small figures. W. 13 X II inches. 
J. de Barry, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Sir 
George Beaumont Collections. (No. 43.) 

The Woman taken in Adultery, small 
figures. Signed and dated 1644. W. 32^ 
X 25^ inches. Six and Angerstein Collec- 
tions. (No. 45.) 

The Adoration of the Shepherds, small 
figures. Signed and dated 1646. C. 25 < 
22 inches. De Noailles, De Bandeville, Tolo- 
san and Angerstein Collections. (No. 47.) 

A Woman bathing, a figure of medium size. 
Signed and dated 1654. W. 24 x i8| inches. 
Lord Gwydyr and Rev. W. Holwcll-Carr 
Collections. (No. 54.) 

Portrait of a Capuchin Friar, bust, life-size, 
painted about 1660. C. 34^ X 25^ inches. 
Duke of Northumberland's Collection. (No. 
1 66.) 

A Jewish Rabbi, bust, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1657. C. 30 X 26 inches. Duke of 
Argyll, Harman, and Farrer Collections. 

Landscape, with Tobias and the Angel, W. 
22 X 34 inches. Bequeathed by the Rev. 
W. Holwell-Carr. (No. 72.) 

Portrait of a Jew Merchant, half-length, 
life-size. C. 53 X 41 inches. Sir George 
Beaumont's Collection. (No. 51.) 

The Painter's oivn Portrait at an advanced 
Age, bust, life-size, painted about 1664. C. 
33 x 27^ inches. Middleton Collection. (No. 


Portrait of a Woman, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1666. C. 26^ X 23^ 
inches. Lord Colborne's Collection. (No. 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1659. C. 39 X 32^ 
inches. Lord Colborne's Collection. (No. 

His own Portrait -when aged about 32, half- 
length, life-size. Signed Rembrandt f. conter- 
feyt. 1640. C 39X31^ inches. Dupont 
de Richemont Collection. (No. 672.) 

Portrait of an old Lady, an oval, bust, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1634. AE. SUAE. 83. 
W. 27 X 21 inches. Roos, Erard, Wells of 
Redleaf, and Sir C. Eastlake Collections. (No. 


Portrait of Rembrandt, an oval, bust, life- 
size (called in the catalogue A Man's Portrait). 
Signed and dated 1635. C. 30^ X 225 inches. 
Peel Collection. (No. 850.) 

Lady Ashburnham. 

The Minister Anslo Exhorting a young 
Widow, three-quarters length, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1641. C. 72^ X 88| inches. Sir 
Thomas Dundas Collection. 

Lord Ashburton. 

Bust Portrait of a Man, an oval, life-size. 
Painted about 1635. W. 29}! X 25 inches. 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, life-size. 
Painted about 1658. C. 30 X 25 inches. 
Due de Valentinois Collection. 

Portrait of a Man, half-length, life-size. 
Painted about 1637. 48^ X 37 inches. 

Supposed Portrait of Jansenius, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1661. W. 
3U X 26 inches. Sereville and Talleyrand 

Portrait of the Writing-master Coppenol, 
half-length, small figure. Signed. Painted 
about 1658. W. 13^5 X 10}$ inches. Saint 
Julien and L. Bonaparte Collections. 


2 35 

Mr. Beaumont. 

The Tribute Money, small figures. Signed 
and dated 1655. C. 25^ x 33^ inches. R. 
Clarke and Wynn Ellis Collections. 

Duke of Bedford. Woburn Abbey. 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1632. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1635. C. 34! X 3o| inches. 

Mr. Beresford-Hope. 

Rembrandt's Fatlter in military Costume, 
bust, life-size. Painted about 1631. 

Lord Brownlow. Ashridge Park. 

Portrait of a Man, erroneously called a 
Portrait of Jlooft, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1653. C. 6if x 59 

Portrait of a Man in a Fancy Dress. Signed 
and dated 1653. 

Duke of Buccleuch. Montague House. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1659. C. 33,',, X 27^. 

Portrait of an old IVoman, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed, but not dated. Painted 
about 1657. 

Mr. A. Buckley. 

Portrait of a Afan, bust, small size, painted 
about 1655-1657. 

Lord Carlisle. Castle Howard. 

Portrait of a young Artist, seated and 
drawing, bust, life-size. Signed. Painted 
about 1648. 

Mr. W. C. Cartwright. 

Dead Peacock and Peahen. Signed, but not 
dated. Painted about 1640. 

Mr. W. Chamberlain. (Brighton). 

Portrait of a Man in military Costume 
(Rembrandt's father), bust, life-size. Signed, 
but not dated. W. 26 X 19}* inches. 

Sir Francis Cook, Doughty House, Richmond 
Portrait of Rembrandt's Sister, bust. 

Signed R. H. L. van Ryn, 1632. 

Study of an old Man seated, half life-size, 

half-length, painted about 1654. 21 X HfV 

inches. Comte de Vence Collection. 

Tobit and his Wife, small figures. Signed 

and dated 1650. W. \i\ x i;| inches. 

Lord Cowper. Panshanger. 

Supposed equestrian Portrait of Turenne, 
life-size, painted in 1649. C. 124^ X 76 \ 
inches. De Plettemberg and Van Zwietene 

Portrait of a young Man, three-quarters- 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1644. 
C. 44{ff X 393 inches. 

Mr. Davis. 

Portrait of an old Lady, seated, three- 
quarters length, life-size. Signed and dated 
1635. C. 
Lord Derby. Knowsley House. 

Belshazzar's Feast, half-length figures, life- 
size. Painted about 1636. C. Tulwood 

Portrait of a Rabbi, full face, bust. Signed 
and dated 163 (about 1635). 

Joseph's Brethren showing his Coat to Jacob, 
numerous figures, three-quarters of life-size. 
Painted about 1657-1659. C. 51-,^ x S9\s- 
Duke of Devonshire. Chatsworth. 

Portrait of a Rabbi, seated, three-quarters 
length, life-sized. Signed and dated 1635. 

Portrait of an old Man, seated, three- 
quarters length, life-size. Signed and dated 
165 (about 1656). 

Portrait of mi old J\fan, full-face, half- 
length, life-size. Painted about 1663-1665. 

Lady Eastlake. 

Ecce Homn. Grisaille. Study for the 
etching of 1636, (B. 77), small figures. -21 1,! 
X 19^5 inches. W. Six, Goll and Brondgeest 

Lord Ellcsmere. Bridgewater House. 

Portrait of a young Girl of Eighteen, an 
oval, bust, life-size. Signed and dated 1634, 
AE. SVAE. \V. -29iX22j inches. De Merle, 
Destouches, and Bridgwater Collections. 

Portrait of a young Lady, an oval, bust, 
life-size, painted about 1635. 

Portrait of an old Man, life-size, three- 
quarters length. Signed and dated 1637. C. 
57^X41^ inches. Gildemeester Collection. 

Small Study of an old Man, a bust, painted 
about 1655. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 165 (about 1659). C. 
22^ X 17! inches. Holderness Collection. 

Hannah and the Child Samuel, small figures. 
Signed and dated 1648. W. 17^ X 13^ inches. 
De Klines, De Roore, Julienne, Egerton Col- 
Lord Feversham. Duncombe Park. 

Portrait of a Merchant, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1659. 

Mr. G. C. W. Fitz william. 

Bust of an old Man. (The same model as 
in the studies of the Metz and Cassel 
Museums), the signature illegible. Painted 
about 1632. W. 21 J X 17} I- 
Mr. A. P. Heywood Lonsdale. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1635. W. 25j T 6 x 19! inches 



Captain Holford (Dorchester House). 

Portrait of Marten Looten, half-length, life- 
size. Signed R. H. L. January, 1632. C. 
37 X 3J inches. Cardinal Fesch Collection. 

Portrait of Titus van Ryn, about 1660. 

Portrait of an old Lady (the wife of Syl- 
vius ?), 1644. C. 7j| X 45Jj inches. Fesch 

Portrait of Rembrandt, \ 644. 

Mr. Adrian Hope. 

Portrait of Nicholas Ruts, three-quarters 
length, one third of life-size. Signed and 
dated 1631. W. 16}^ X I2J inches. 
Romswinckel and William II. Collections. 

Portrait of a young Woman, an oval, bust, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1635. 

Lord Francis Pelham-Clinton-Hope. 

St. Peter's Boat, figures of medium size. 
Signed and dated 1633. C. 683 X 54| inches. 
J. J. Hinloopen, King of Poland, and G. 
Braamcamp Collections. 

Portrait of a young Couple, whole-length 
figures, rather over one-third of life-size. 
Signed and dated 1633. 

Lord Ilchester. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1658. C. 51 X 40 inches. 

Mr. Constantine lonides. 

The Dismissal of Hagar, small figures. 
Signed and dated 1640. W. I2g X i8}j 

Lord Iveagh. 

Portrait of a young Lady, life-size, three 
quarters length. Signed and dated 1642. C. 
45| x 39? inches. La Live de Jully, Trouart, 
De Gevigney and Lord Lansdowne Collec- 

Portrait of Rembrandt, full face, life-size, 
three-quarters length, painted about 1662- 
1664. C. 49$ x 45! inches. De Vence, 
Hennessy, Dannoot, Nieuwenhuys, and Lord 
Lansdowne Collections. 

Mr. Samuel Joseph. 

Portrait of Saskia, bust. Signed Rem- 
brant. About 1636-1637. C. 26^ x 2o} 
Lord Kinnaird, Rossie Priory. 

Portrait of a young Woman,\>\\%{. Signed 
and dated 1636, octagon. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length. Signed 
and dated 1661. 

Mr. A. R. Boughton Knight. Downton Castle. 
The Holy Family, known as The Cradle, 
small figures, painted about 1643-1645. W. 
24! X 3o| inches. Orleans Collodion. 

Portrait of a Man, called Rembrandfs Cook, 
full-face, half-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1661. C. 29^ x 24$ inches. J. Black- 
wood and Lapeyriere Collections. 

Lord Lansdowne. Bowood. 

The Mill. Signed. Painted about 1654. 
Orleans and W. Smith Collections. 
Sir E. Lechmere. 

The Jewish Bride (Portrait of Saskia). A 
replica, with slight modifications, of the Her- 
mitage picture. Three-quarters length, life- 
size, painted about 1634. C. 6o^f X 50^ 
inches. Sir Joshua Reynolds and Duke of 
Buccleuch Collections. 
Lord Leconfield. Petworth. 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, full face, an 
oval. Signed R. H. L. van Ryn, 1632. 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Sister, pendant to 
the above. Not dated. 

Portrait of a young Woman, seated, full 
face, three-quarters length, life-size, painted 
about 1640. 

Portrait of a Youth, bust, painted about 

Mr. Alfred Morrison. 

Portrait of a Man, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 164 (about 1642). W. 
40 X 29}$ inches. 
Mr. Charles Morrison. Basildon Park. 

Portrait of a young Lady, seated, three- 
quarters length, life-size. Signed and dated 
166 (about 1665). C. 49^ X 36^ inches. 
Gray Collection. 
Sir John Neeld. Grittleton House. 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, an oval. 
Painted about 1660 1662. 

Lord Northbrook. 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1667. 

Small Landscape with a Stream, painted 
about 1640-1645. 

Lord Paulet. Hinton House. 

Bust Portrait of a young Man. Signed 
with the monogram R.H.L. Painted about 
1628 1629. 

Sir Robert Peel. Drayton Manor. 

Moses found by Pharaoh's Daughter, small 
figures. Painted about 1640. C. An oval. 
19 X 24^ inches. Crozat, De Choiseul, De 
Conti, Boileau, and De Saint-Victor Collec- 

Lord Pembroke. Wilton House. 

Rembrandts Mother reading the Bible. 
Signed, but not dated. Painted about 1630. 
C. 28|X 1 8] | inches. 



Lord Penrhyn. 

Portrait of Catherine Hough, at fifty years 
of age, life-size, to the knees. Signed and 
dated 1657. C. 54^ X 415 inches. Peacock 
and E. Higginson Collections. 
Lady (Anthony)Rothschild. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, painted 
about 1656. C. 
Duke of Rutland. Belvoir Castle. 

Portrait of a young Man, three-quarters 
length, nearly life-size. Signed and dated 
165. C. arched at the top. 30,^X24* inches. 

Lord Scarsdale. Kedleston Hall. 

Portrait of an old Man, seated, half-length. 
Signed. Painted about 1645. 
Lord Spencer. Althorp. 

The Circumcision, a sketchy composition, 
with small figures. Signed, and, according to 
Smith, dated 1661. 24^ X 3o| inches. 

Portrait of a Child, called William, Prince 
of Orange, bust, painted about 1658-1660. 
Lady Wallace (Hertford House). 

Portrait of Jan Pcllicorne and his Son, sit- 
ting, full length, life-size. Signed Rembrandt, 
painted about 1632-1633. C. 60^ X 47 
inches. William II.'s Collection. 

Portraits of Susanna van Collen and her 
Daughter (pendant of the preceding). Signed 
Rembrandt f. 16 (about 1633). Same size and 
provenance as the last. 

The Good Samaritan, small figures, a re- 
versed reproduction of the etching of 1633, 
(H. 90). W. lojjj 1 X 8j. Choiseul and Coxe 

The Workers in the Vineyard, life-size 
figures, to the knees, painted about 1664. C. 
53i X "]i\ inches. Stowe Collection. (The 
subject of this picture is more probably The 
Unmerciful Servant.} 

Study of a Young Negro, bust, life-size, 
painted about 1640. Stowe Collection. 

Rembrandt in a Cuirass, bust, life-size. 
Signed Remb. f., painted about 1634. 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, small, painted 
about 1655-1657. 

Mountainous Landscape, painted about 
1640. W. 17} X 27,1 inches.- W'. Taylor 

Loi\l Wantage. 

Portrait of an old Lady, an oval, bust, life- 
sixe. C.--29,*, X 25 inches. Townshcnd, 
Yerstolk van Soelen, and Baring Collections. 

Lord Warwick. Warwick Castle. 

T/ie Standard Hearer, front face, life-size, 
to the knees. Painted about 1660-1662. 
C.- 55i X 45i inches. 

Duke of Westminster. Giosvenor House. 

Salutation of the Virgin and St. Elizabeth, 
small figures. Signed and dated 1640. B. 
Arched top. 23^ X 19}^ inches. 

Portrait of Clues JJerchctn, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1647. W. 35,V x 2Sg 

Portrait of Berchenfs Wife, pendant to the 
above. (Same signature and dimensions.) 
Lord Wemyss. Gosford Park. 

A Monk seated, and reading. Signed and 
dated 1660. 

Lord Wimborne. -Canford Manor. 

St .Paul, seated. Signed. Painted about 1658. 
Portrait of a Man, three-quarters length, 
life-size. Painted about 1660. 

Lord Yarborough. 

Portrait of an old Woman, half-length, 
rather less than life-size, painted about 
1636-1637. W. -39! X 35J inches. 


FINAL. Museum. (Catalogue of 1880.) 

Portrait of an old Woman, half-length, 
life-size. (The same model as in the Her- 
mitage pictures, and that belonging to Count 
Moltke at Copenhagen.) Signed and dated 
1661. C. 44| X 3ii inches. Salm Collec- 
tion. (No. 101.) 

NANTES. Museum. (Catalogue of 1876.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Father, bust, one- 
quarter of life-size. About 1628. W. 
6 x 5, 5 6 inches. No. 522. (Catalogued as by 
Van Vliet.) Due de Feltre's Collection. 

PARIS. Louvre. (Catalogue of 1890.) 

The Angel Raphael leaving Tobias. Signed 

and dated 1637. W. 26} j| X 2oi inches. 
In the collection in 1754. (No. 404.) 

The Good Samaritan, figures of medium 
size. Signed and dated 1648. C. 44; X 
53(' ! s inches. Van Slingelandt and Louis 
XVI. Collections. (No. 405.) 

Saint Matthew, bust, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1661. C 37? X 31 i inches. Collot 
Collection. (No. 406.) 

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus, figures 
of medium size. Signed and dated 1648. 
W. 26}$ x 25! inches. Six, De Lassay, 
Randon dc Boisset Collections. (No. 407.) 

A Phibsopher absorbed in Meditation; 
small figure. Signed with the monogram R. 

2 3 8 


H. van Ryn, 1633. W. n&X 13 inches. 
Louis XVI. Collection. (No. 408.) 

A Philosopher absorbedin Meditation; small 
figure. Painted in 1633. W. 1 1 -^ X 1 3 
inches. Louis XVI. Collection. (No. 409.) 

The Carpenter's Household; small figures. 
Signed and dated 1640. W. i6J X ij| 
inches. Is. van Thye, Gaignat, Choiseul- 
Praslin Collections. (No. 410.) 

Venus and Cupid, half-length, life-size. C. 
43vVX3ii inches. Pieter Six Collection 
(?). (No. 411") 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, an oval, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1633. W. 22$ X 17? 
inches. Musee Napoleon. (No. 412.) 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, an oval, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1634. W. 26}jj- X 
2oJ inches.--De Choiscul Collection. (No. 


Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, an oval, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1637. W. 31 j X 
24j 7 ff inches. Louis XVI. Collection. (No. 

Portrait of Rembrandt at an advanced Age. 
Half-length, life-size. Signed Remb. . . f. 
1660. C. 43! X 335 inches. Louis XVI. 
Collection. (No. 415.) 

Bust Portrait of an old Man, an oval, life- 
size. Signed Rembrand, 1638. W. 27^,,- X 
22 r V inches. In the early collection. (No. 416.) 

Bust Portrait of a young Man, life- 
size. C. 284 X 24 T V inches. Signed and 
dated 1658. Musee Napoleon. (No. 417.) 

Bust Portrait of a Man, small size. A 
replica of rather better quality in the Cassel 
Museum. Painted about 1655-1657. W. 
loj X 7\ inches. Early collection. (No. 

Portrait of a young Woman {Hendrickje 
Stojjels), bust, life-size. Painted about 
1652-1654. C. 28| X 23! inches. Early 
collection. (No. 419.) 

The Carcase of a Bullock hanging in a 
Butcher's Stall. Signed and dated 1655. W. 
37 X 26 r 7 (T inches. (No. 690.) 

Lacaze Collection. 

Bathsheba, full-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1654. C. 55}| X Young 
Ottley, Peacock, Maison, P. Perrier Col- 
lections. (No. 96.) 

A Woman Bathing, full-length figure, small 
size. Study for the Susanna in the Berlin 
Museum. Painted in 1647. 24^ x 18}-; 
inches. (No. 97.) 

Portrait of a Man, full face, life-size. Signed; 
the date illegible. C. 32}^ X 26 inches. 
(No. 98.) 

M. Edouard Andrd 

Portrait of Arnold Tholinx, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1656. C. 29}$- X 24! 
inches. Van Brienen Collection. 

Clirist at Emtniius, small figures. Signed 
with the monogram R.H. Painted about 
1632-1633. W. 151x16^5 inches. Leroy 
d'Etiolles Collection. 

Portrait of Saskia, bust, profile, life-size. 
Signed Rembrandt van Ryn, 1632. C. 27 X 
21 1 inches. De Reiset and Haro Collections. 

M. Lon Bonnat. 

Susanna, an oval, bust, small size. Study 
for the picture in the Berlin Museum. Painted 
about 1647. W. 8JJ X 7 inches. His de 
la Salle Collection. 

Head of a Rabbi, bust, small size. Painted 
about 1655. W. 8f ! F X 9i y ft inches. 

The Burgomaster Six, study for the etching 
(B. 285), small size. 1647. W. 

M. Stcph. Bourgeois. 

Bust Portrait of a Woman, three-quarters 
to the front, small size. About 1640. W. 
7| X 6| inches. 

Prince de Chalais. 

Bust Portrait of a Man, erroneously called 
a Portrait of Rembrandt. 

M. Dutuit. 

Full-length Portrait of Rembrandt, medium 
size. Signed and dated 1631. W. 31 X 
21 \\ inches. Schamp d'Averschoot Collec- 

M. Leon Gauchez. 

The Death of Lucretia, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1664. 
C. 45JJ x 38^ inches. Demidoff Collection. 

M. Leopold Goldschmidt. 

Study of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1635. C. 25$ X 21 , s lV 
inches. Auguiot and Demidoff Collections. 

Study of a Woman, known as Rembrandt's 
Cook, bust, life-size. Painted about 1656. C. 
28 X 23 \ inches. Nieuwenhuys Collection. 

M. Haro. 

Judas bringing back the thirty Pieces of 
Silver to the High Priest, figures of medium 
size. Painted about 1628-1630. C. 3iA X 
40 ^ inches. Fanshawe, Terrour, and Lord 
Northwick Collections. 

M. Harjes. 

An Old Man with a white Beard, read- 
ing, bust, life-size. C. 24,^ X 22j inches. 
De Beurnonvillc Collections. 



Baron Hirsch de Gereuth. 

Portrait of Saskia, an oval, bust, full face, 
life-size. Signed with the monogram R. H. f. 
1633. W. 22jX2ij* 5 inches. Roehn and 
Brooks Collections. 

M. Maurice Kann. 

Portrait of a Man, half length, life-size. 
Painted about 1662-1665. C. 35! X 29! 
inches. D'Oultremont Collection. 

Head of Christ, life-size. Painted about 
1656. C 18| X 14,% inches. 

Bust Portrait of a Man, half the size of 
life. Signed and dated 1659. W. 13^ X 
1 i-fy inches. From the Weber Collection at 

M. Rodolphe Kann. 

Portrait of an old M'oman cut tint; lift- 
Nails, three-quarters length, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1658. C. 49^ X 41 inches. 
Ingham, Foster, Bibikoff, and Massaloff 

Portrait of Titus van Ryn, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1655. C. 
30/5 X 22i inches. 

Portrait of a Woman, half-length, life- 
size. Painted about 1662-1665. c - 36jj X 
28J inches. (Pendant to M. Maurice Kann's 
male portrait.) D'Oultremont Collection. 

Head of Christ, half life-size. Painted 
about 1652. W. I0j 5 5 X 7^f inches. 

Head of a Rabbi, the same model as in M. 
Bonnat's Rabbi, bust, small size, about 1655. 
W. 9! X 1\\ inches. 

Madame Lacroix. 

Landscape with Swans, painted about 

1645. C. 25i x 17 inches. W. Burger 

M. Paul Mathey. 

Head of an old Man with a grey Beard, 
full-face. W. I9}J X 23}J inches. 

M. Henry Pereire. 

Portrait of a Man, an oval ; bust, life-size. 
Signed Rembrandt f. 1632. C 23JJ X iSi 

Portrait of a Woman (pendant to the 
above), an oval ; bust, life-size. Signed Rem- 
brandt f. 1633. Same dimensions as above. 
De Beurnonville Collection. 

M. Jules Porges. 

Study of an old Woman, life-sire, three- 
quarters length, painted about 1649. C. 37 1- 
X 29^ inches. 

A Rabbi, full-face, bust, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1642. W. 29^ X 24,^ inches. 

Count Edmond de Pourtales. 

Portrait of a young Man, thiee-quarters 
length, life-size, painted about 1633. C. 
49 i x 39* inches. Ashburnham and Farrer 

Baron Alphonse de Rothschild. 

Portrait of an old Lady, an oval ; bust, 
nearly life-size. Signed R. van Ryn, 1632. 
W. 30$ X 22} \ inches. 

Baron Gustave de Rothschild. 

The Standard Bearer, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 163 (about 1636). C. 
49! X 41 1 inches. Verhulst, Lebceuf, and 
Clarke Collections. 

Portrait of Marten Daey, full-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1634. 8ij 9 lT X 52 
inches. Daey van Winter and Van Loon 

Portrait of Marten Daey's Wife (pendant 
to above). Same date, dimensions, and collec- 

Baroness Nathaniel de Rothschild. 

Portrait of a Youth, an oval ; bust, life-size. 
Signed, and dated 1633. C. 17,^ X 13 

M. Henri Schneider. 

Portrait of the Minister Alenson, full-length, 
life-size. Signed, and dated 1634. C. 70 J 
X 52 inches. S. Colby and Fisher Collec- 

Portrait of A/enson's Wife (pendant to the 
above). Same signature, size, and collections. 

M. Charles Sedclmeyer. 

The Good Samaritan, full-length figures of 
medium size. Signature and date 1639, prob- 
ably forged. C. 38^ X 49i inches. 

Pilate Washing his Hands, half length 
figures, life-size. C. 50^ X 65 inches. 
Palmerston and Mount-Temple Collections. 

The Woman taken in Adultery (?), life-size 
figures, full-length. Forged date (1644) and 
signature. C. 44u> X 5 3 A inches. Blen- 
heim Collection. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus, small full- 
length figures. W. 161% X 13}! inches. 

The Crucifixion, small full-length figures. 
'3i 7 5 X 9i inches. King of Poland and Wilson 

M. A. Waltner. 

An Old Rabbi, half-length, life-size. About 
1654-1656. C. 32ft X 25S inches. 



M. 1C. Warneck. 

Rembrandt with a beardless face, laugh- 
ing, bust, small size. Signed and iated 1633. 
W. 8A X 6} 3 inches. 

Study of a Rabbi, bust, small size, about 
1650-1655. W. 8JJ X 7^0 inches. 

Study of a Youth, bust, small size, about 
1654. W. 9^ X 7},\ inches. 

Diana at the Bath, small full-length figure. 
A reproduction of the etching (B 201), about 
1631. W. 7x6J inches. Hulot Collec- 


ASCHAFFENBURG. Museum of the Royal 
Palace. (Catalogue of 1883.) 

Ecce Homo, bust, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1661. C. arched at the top. (Dimen- 
sions not given in catalogue.) 

BERLIN. Museum. (Catalogue of 1891.) 

Samson threatening his Father-in-Law, life- 
size figures, three-quarters length. Signed 
and dated 1635. C. 6iix jo}^ inches. 

Royal Collections. (No. 802.) 

Tobifs Wife with the Kid, small figures. 
Signed and dated 1645. W. 7j X io inches. 

Royal Collections. (No. 805.) 

Joseph's Dream, pendant to the above. 
Same signature, date, and dimensions. (No. 

/'ortrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
About 1634-1635. W. 2i]Jx i8 inches. 
Royal Collections. (No. 808.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1634. W. 22^ X i8 
inches. Royal Collections. (No. 810.) 

Moses breaking the Tables of the<, three- 
quarters length, life-size. Signed and dated 
1659. C. 65j| X 53^ inches. Royal Col- 
lections. (No. 81 1.) 

Rembrandt's Wife, Saskia, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1643. W. 28| X 22 
inches. Royal Collections. (No. 812.) 

The Rape of Proserpine, small figures, 
painted about 1632. \V. 32^ x 3og inches. 
Royal Collections. (No. 823.) 

Jacob wrestling w'tli the Angel, life-size 
figures, three-quarters length. Signed and 
dated 1659. C. 53}^ ^. 45^ inches. Solly 
Collection. (No. 828.) 

Portrait of a Rabbi, three-quarters length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1645. C. 
43A x 3 2 I inches. Suermondt Collection. 
(No. 828A.) 

Portrait oj Hendrickje Stoffcls, half-length, 
life-size. Painted about 1662-1664. C. 
34,* s X 255 inches. (No. 828n.) 

A Young Woman in Armour (Judith or 
Minerva), small figure. Traces of a signa- 
ture, R. Painted about 163 1 1632. W. 23] X 
l8|jj inches. Royal Collections. (No. 828c.) 

Tlic Moncy-Changer, small figure. Signed 
with the monogram R., 1627. W. I2j X i6j 9 ff 
inches. Presented by Sir Charles Robinson. 
(No. 8281).) 

Susanna and the Elders, figures of medium 
size. Signed and dated 1647. W. 29^ X 
35^ inches. Sir E. Lechmere's Collection. 
(No. 828E.) 

The Vision of Daniel, figures of medium 
size. Painted about 1650. C. 37$ x 45 \ 
inches. Sir E. Lechmere's Collection. (No. 

Joseph accused by the Wife of Potiphar, 
figures of medium size. Signed and dated 
1655. C. 43,% X 3ojj. Sir John Neeld's 
Collection. (No. 828H.) 

Study of an old Man, bust, life-size. Painted 
about 1655. C. 20^ X I4i 9 j inches. (No. 

The Preaching of John the Baptist. Grisaille, 
small figures. Signed and dated 1656. C. 
258 X 32J inches. J. Six, Cardinal Fesch, 
and Dudley Collections. 

Royal Palace. 

Samson and Delilah, small figures, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L., 1628. 
W. 241 X I9|J inches. From the Collec- 
tion of the Princes of Orange. 

BRUNSWICK. Grand Ducal Museum. (Cata- 
logue of 1887.) 

Portrait of a Man, erroneously called Por- 
trait of Hugo Grotius, oval, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1632. \V. 25,^ x iS^f 
inches. (No. 232.) 

Portrait of a Woman, pendant to above. 
Signed and dated 1633. Same dimensions. 
(No. 233.) 

A Philosopher, figure of medium size. (Per- 
haps a copy.) Signature probably a forgery. 
W. 2o x 17^. (No. 234.) 

Noli me tangere, figures of medium size. 
Signed and dated 1651. C. 258 x 31^ inches. 
-(No. 235.) 

The Storm. Signed, but not dated. Painted 
about 1640. W. 20^ x 28| inches. (No. 



A Warrior in a Helmet, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1638. W.~32| x 26f 
inches. (No. 237.) 

Family Group, three-quarters length figures, 
life-size. Signed, but not dated. Painted 
about 1668-1669. C. 49JJ x 65}% inches. 
(No. 238.) 

CARLSRUHE. Grand Ducal Museum. (Cata- 
logue of 1881.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Signed, but not dated. Painted about 1645. 
W. 29,% x 23! inches. (No. 238.) 

CASSEL. Museum. (Catalogue of 1888.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, half life-size. 
About 1627. 7j x 64- inches. Inventory of 
1749. (No. 208.) 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L., 1630. 
W. An octagon. 26 x 22^ inches. Inven- 
tory of 1749. (No. 209.) 

Study of a bald old Man, bust, nearly life- 
size. Signed with the monogram R. H. L., 
1632. W. 19}^ x 15! inches. Inventory of 
1749. (No. 210.) 

Study of an old Man, bust, life-size. Signed 
with the monogram R. H. L. van Ryn, 1632. 
W. 23! x 19,% inches. De Reuver Collec- 
tion. Inventory of 1749. (No. 211.) 

Supposed Portrait of the Writing-master, 
Coppcnol, three-quarters length, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L. van Ryn. 
Painted about 1632-1633. C. 39! X 3of 
inches. De Reuver collection. Inventory of 
1749. (No. 212). 

Portrait of the Poet, Jan Herman Krul, 
three-quarters length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1633. C. 48^ X 37iV inches. Invent- 
ory of 1749. (No. 213). 

Portrait of Saskia, half-length, life-size. 
Painted about 1633-1634. W. 38 \\ X 3o| 
inches. Six and De Reuver collections. In- 
ventory of 1749. (No. 214). 

Portrait of Rembrandt in a Helmet, bust, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1634. W. An 
octagon 31^ X 25^ inches. Inventory of 
1749. (No. 215). 

Portrait of a young Woman, bust, life-size. 
About 1635-1636. W. 28| X 23^ inches. In- 
ventory of 1749. (No. 216). 

Portrait of a Man, erroneously called a 
Portrait of the Burgomaster Six, or of Rem- 
brandt, full-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1639. C. 78,^ X47| inches. Inventory 
of 1749. (No. 217.) 

The Holy Family, small figures .Signed 
and dated 1646. W. 17! X 26^5 inches. 
Lormier Collection. (No. 218.) 

A Winter Scene. Signed and dated 1646. 
W. 6J X 8JJ inches. Inventory of 1749. 
(No. 219.) 

The Ruin. Signed, but not dated. Painted 
about 1650. W. 26 X 33jii inches. Invent- 
ory of 1749. (No. 220.) 

Portrait of Frans Bruyningh, life-size 
three-quarters length. Signed and dated 1652 
(?). C. 41 1 X 35j inches. Inventory of 1749. 

(No. 221.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 165 (about 1659). C. In- 
ventory of 1749. (No. 221.) 

A Man in Armour, three-quarters length, 
life-size. The signature forged, probably to 
replace an authentic inscription, of which 
traces are still visible. Painted about 1655. 
C. 44i x 35;> inches. Von Donop Collection. 
Inventory of 1749. (No. 223.) 

Portrait of a Mathematician, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Forged signature. Painted 
about 1656. C. 47]- X 35! inches.- Inventory 
of 1749. (No. 224.) 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, a quarter of 
life-size. Painted about 1655-1657. W. 7j X 
6] inches. Inventory of 1749. (No. 225.) 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, a third of 
life-size. About 1655. \V. 73 X 55 inches. 
Inventory of 1749. (No. 226.) 

Jacob blessing the Sons of Joseph, figures 
three-quarters length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1656. C 68 T n ff X 78| inches.- Acquired 
about 1752. (Xo. 227.) 

Habich Collection. (Exhibited in the Cassel 
Museum till 1892. Sold May 9, 1892.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt's Father, bust, life- 
size. Painted about 1632. W. i8jj X HA 
inches. (No. 122 in the sale catalogue.) 

DARMSTADT. Grand Ducal Gallery. (Cata- 
logue of 1875.) 

The Flagellation, figures of medium size. 
Signed and dated 1668. C. 37i J ff X 28 J inches. 
-(No. 347.) 

DRESDEN. Royal Picture Gallery. (Catalogue 
of 1887.) 

Portrait of Saskia, bust, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1633. W. 20]^ X I7f'ff inches. 
Inventory of 1817. (No. 1 556.) 

Portrait of Willem Burchgraeff (the pen- 
dant in the Stadel Institute, Frankfort). 
Bust, life-size. Signed and dated 1633. W. 
26$ X 5 1 finches. Van Mierop Collection 
Inventory of 1722. (No. 1557.) 

The Rape of Ganymede, full length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1635. W. 67^- X 5ifV 
inches. Acquired at Hamburg in 1751. (No. 



Rem'jrandt ami 5 ^/^three-quarters length, 
life-size. Signed Rcmbrant. Painted about 
1635-1636. C. 63 r 7 X 51 1 inches. Bought 
from Le Leu in Paris, 1749. (No. 1559.) 

The Marriage of Samson, figures about 
half life-size. Signed and dated 1638. C. 
49Ji| X 69^ inches. Inventory of 1722. (No. 

Sports/nan until a Bittern, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1639. W. 
47! * 35! 1 ,, inches. Inventory of earlier date 
than 1753. (No. 1561). 

Portrait of Saskia holding a Flower in her 
Hand, three-quarters length, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1641. W. 38^ X 32, 9 (I inches. 
Araignon Collection. (No. 1562.) 

ManoaKs Sacrifice, figures, full length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1641. C. 95 ^y X 1 1 1 i 
inches. Inventory of earlier date than 1753. 
(No. 1563.) 

An old \\'oinan weighing Money, three- 
quarters length, life-size. The signature, 
Rembrandt 1643, seems to beaforgery. C. 
44.7 X 39] : ",j inches. Inventory of 1754. (No. 

Portrait of a young Man in military Cos- 
tume, bust, life-size. Signed and dated 1643. 
C- 30^ X 26, 7 f inches. Inventory of earlier 
date than 1753. (No. 1565.) 

The Entombment, figures of medium size. 
Copy of the Munich picture, worked upon by 
Rembrandt. Signed and dated 1653. C. 
38/3- X 27 inches. Lormicr Collection. (No. 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1654. W. 40^ x 
3o| inches. Inventory of 1722. (No. 1567.) 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, l.'fe- 
size, painted about 1656. C 35^ X 27 inches. 
Inventory of 1765. (No. 1568.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, drawing, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1657. C. 33} J- 
X 2J| inches. Inventory of 1722. (No. 
I 569.) 

Portrait of an old Man, three-quarters 
length, life-size, painted about 1665-1667. C. 
3 2 S X 28 inches. Inventory of 1722. (No. 

Portrait of an old Man, three-quarters 
length, life-size, painted about 1645. C. 
37 1 X 31 }J inches. Inventory of earlier date 
than 1753. (No. 1571.) 

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN. Stadel Institute. 
(Catalogue of 1 879.) 

Portrait of Margaretha van Bilderbeccq, an 
oval, bust, life-size (pendant to the portrait of 
William Burchgraeff in the Dresden Gallery). 

Signed and dated 1633. W. 26 T 7 ff x 22y\, 
inches. Van Microp Collection. (No. 182.) 
David playing the Harp before Saul (as- 
cribed in the catalogue to Salomon Koninck). 
Whole length figures, about a quarter of life- 
size. Painted about 1632. W. 24 T 7 F X igJi 
inches. (No. 183.) 

GOTHA. Grand Ducal Museum. (Catalogue of 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, small size. 
Signed R. H. L. 1629. W. 7^ X & in- 
ches. (No. i Si.) 

HAMBURG. Kunsthalle. (Catalogue of 1887.) 
Portrait of Maurice Huygens, bust, small 
size. Signed R. H. L. 1630. Recently ac- 
quired by the Museum with the Wesselhoeft 
Collection. Vis. Blokhuysen Collection. 
Mr. Weber. 

Tltc Presentation in the Temple, small 
figures. Signed, but not dated. Painted about 
1630. W. 21 \\ x i7T 5 ?r inches. From the 
De Lassay, De la Guiche, Sagan and Hohen- 
zollern Collections. (No. 212 in Dr. K. Woer- 
mann's Catalogue.) 

A Pilgrim praying, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1661. C. 35^ X 3oj in- 
ches. (No. 213 in Dr. K. Woermann's 

LEIPZIG. Municipal Museum. (Catalogue of 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, small size, 
painted about 1652-1654. W r . loj X 8J in- 
ches. Clauss Collection. 

METZ. Municipal Museum. 

Portrait of an old Man, an oval ; bust, 
life-size. Signed Rembrandt, 1633. W. 
17 \ y, 16^ inches. Bequeathed by the 
Marquis d'Ourches. 

MUNICH. Royal Pinacothek. (Catalogue of 

The Holy Family, full-length figures, three- 
quarters of life-size. Signed and dated 1631. 
C. 76 X 51 \ inches. Mannheim Gallery. 
(No. 324.) 

Portrait of an old Man in Eastern Dress. 
Signed and dated 1633. W. 33^ X 24J in- 
ches. Zweibriicken Collection. (No. 325.) 

The Descent from the Cross, small figures. 
Signed Rembrant. Painted in 1633. W 
arched at the top. 35^ X 25! inches. 
Painted for Prince Frederick Henry of the 
Netherlands. (No. 326.) 

The Elevation of the Cross, small figures. 
Signed. Painted in 1633. W. 37! X 28| 
inches. Prince Frederick Henry's Collection 
(No. 327.) 



The Ascension, small figures. Signed and 
dated 1636. W. arched at the top. 36^ X 
26'{ g inches. Prince Frederick Henry's Col- 
lection. (No. 328.) 

The Resurrection, small figures. Signed 
and dated 1639. C. arched at the top. 
37i J 5 x273 inches. Prince Frederick Henry's 
Collection. (No. 329.) 

The Entombment, small figures. Painted 
about 1636-1638. C. arched at the top. 
365 x 27, r >, inches. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds, small 
figures. Signed . . . ndt, f. 1646. C. arched 
at the top. 38^ x 28 J inches. Prince 
Frederick Henry's Collection. (No. 331.) 

Abraham's Sacrifice, life-size figures. Signed 
Rembrandt verandert en overgcschildert, 
1636. C. 76/5 x 51 1 inches. Mannheim 
Gallery. (No. 332.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. The 
signature, Rembrandt f. 1654, is probably a 
forgery, and the picture an early copy. Diis- 
seldorf Gallery. 

NUREMBERG. Germanic Museum. (Catalogue 
of 1886.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt in military Costume, 
bust, life-size. Signed with the monogram. 
Painted about i629.\V. 152 x 12?. (No. 298.) 

St. Paul, small figure. Painted about 1629- 
1630. Baron von Bodcck's Collection 

OLDENBURG. Grand Ducal Museum. (Cata- 
logue of 1 88 1.) 

The Prophetess Anna. (Portrait of Rem- 
brandt's mother.) Half-length, life-size. 
Signed R. H. L. 1631. C. 23^ x i8, 3 , T inches. 
Schonborn von Pommersfcldcn Collection. 
(No. 166.) 

Bust of an old Man, life-size, signed R. H. L. 
Van Ryn. 1632. C. 26^ X 20^ inches. 
(No. 167.) 

Landscape with two Water-courses. 
Painted about 1645. W. ii^ x 155 inches. 
(No. 169.) 

SCHWERIN. Grand Ducal Museum. (Catalogue 
of 1890.) 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L. Painted 
about 1630. W. 26}$ x 2o inches. (No. 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1656. C. 22^ X i8| inches. 
-(No. 855.) 

STUTTGART. Royal Museum. (Catalogue of 

St. Paul in Prison, small figure. Signed 

R. F. 1627 and Rembrandt fecit. W. 27, (1 ff X 
22| inches. Schonborn Collection. (No. 225.) 

Mr. von Carstanjen. 

Portrait of J. C. Sylvius, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1645. 
C. 5i, 3 , y X 43 1% inches. Cardinal Fesch and 
E. Pcrcirc Collections. 

Tlie Flagellation, small figures. Painted 
about 1645. W. 13'- X HiV inches. De 
Beurnonville Collection. 

Portrait of Rembrandt in old Age, half- 
length, life-size. Signed, but not dated (about 
1665-1667). C 32jj X 24J.--L. Double Col- 

Count Estcrhazy. Nordkirchcn. 

Young Man laughing, full-face, bust, 
nearly life-size. Signed with the monogram. 
Painted about 1629-1630. 

Mr. K. von dcr Hcydt. Elbcrfcld. 

Portrait of a young M'oman, an oval, bust, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1635. W. 
304 X 25' inches. From the Stadcl Insti- 
tute at Frankfort. 

The Denial <>f St. Peter, very small figures. 
Signed R. H. L., 1628. Copper. Sjjx 6}J 
inches. Otto Pcin Collection. 

Mr. Carl Hollitschcr. 

Sf. Paul, half-length, life-size. Painted 
about 1635. C. 46), x 37 ij inches. Somer- 
set Collection. 

Tlic Crucifixion, small figures. Painted 
about 1648. W. 13];: X 9^ inches. 

Count Luckner. Altfrankcn. 

Portrait of Saskia, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1635. 

Count Salm-Salm. Anhalt. 

Diana discovering the Pregnancy of Callisto, 
small figures. Signed and dated 1635. C. 
-28 X 37 jj inches. 

Mr. James Simon. 

Portrait of a young Lady, full-length, small 
size. About 1634. W. 17,'% x 14-,-'^ inches. 
Leroy d'Etiollcs Collection. 

Mr. A. Thieme. 

Supposed Portrait of the Conn/table de 
Bourbon, half-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1644. C. 35^ X 29^5 inches. 
Secrdtan Collection. 

The Good Samaritan, sketch in grisaille; 
small figures. iif X 14^ inches. Henry 
Willett Collection. 

R 2 




AMSTERDAM. Ryksmuscum. (Dr. Brcdius' 
Catalogue of 1891. French edition.) 

The March-out of a Company of the Am- 
sterdam Musketeers, commonly called The 
Night Watch. Painted for the Hall of the 
Musketeers' Guild. Life-size figures. Signed 
and dated 1642. C HiiJ X I7i] inches. 
--(No. 312 in the Catalogue.) 

The Syndics of the Cloth Hall. Painted 
for the Staalhof. Life-size figures, three- 
quarters length. Signed and dated 1661. C. 
72| X 1075 jf inches. (No. 313.) 

Portrait of Elizabeth Bas, widow of the 
Admiral]. H. Swartenhout. Seated, life-size, 
three-quarters length. Painted about 1643. 
C. 45] i 1 ; X 34}if inches. Bequeathed by 
Mr. Van dc Poll, 1880. (No. 314.1.) 

Dr. J. Deymmts Anatomy lesson. Frag- 
ment of a picture painted for the Surgeons' 
Guild, and partially destroyed by fire, Novem- 
ber 8, 1723. Life-size, three-quarters length. 
Signed and dated 1656. C. 39! X 52 inches. 
(No. 3141:.) 

A Mythological Composition (Narcissus?), 
half life-size. Painted about 1648. C. 
33i% X 26| inches. Hamilton Collection. 
(No. 1251.) 

The Jewish Bride (Boas and Ruth f) three- 
quarters length, life-size. Signed and dated 
16. . , (probably about 1665-1668.) C. 
46^ X 64$ inches. Van der Hoop Collection. 
(No. 1252.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Mother, lent by 
Mr. Hockwater in 1889, half-length, life-size. 
Painted about 1627-1628. C. 

THE HAGUE. Mauritshuis. (Dr. Bredius' 
Catalogue of 1891. French edition.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Father, bust, life- 
size. About 1630. C. 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Mother. The 
pendant, Portrait of Rembrandfs Father, is 
in the Nantes Museum. (No. 522.) Bust, 
small size. Painted about 1628. W. 6| X 
5^ inches. Lent by Dr. Bredius. (No. 314.) 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, rather less 
than life-size. Painted about 1629-1630. W. 
14-J-J-Xnf inches. William V. Collection. 
(No. 315.) 

The Presentation in the Temple, small 
figures. Signed with the monogram R. H. L., 
1631. W. 28} \ (the arched top is an addition) 
X 1 8J inches. William V.'s Collection. 

Dr. Nicolacs Tutp's Anatomy Lesson. 
Painted for the Surgeons' Guild of Amster- 
dam. Figures three-quarters length, life-size. 
Signed Rembrandt f. 1632. C. 65/ ff x 85! 
inches. (No. 317.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt in military Cos- 
tume, bust, life-size. Signed. Painted about 
1634. W. 24 T ,i X 18/5- inches. William V. 
Collection. (No. 318.) 

Portrait of a young Woman (Saskia?), 

bust, life-size. Signed Rem Painted 

about 1635. W. 285 X 24}!; inches. Duclos 
and Secrdtan Collections. Lent by Dr. 
Bredius. (No. 319.) 

Susanna at the Bath, small figure. Signed 
Rembrandt f. 1637. W. 28J x 24|f inches. 
Van Slingelandt and William V. Collec- 
tions. (No. 320.) 

Study of a Head (Rembrandt's brother 
Adriacn?), bust, life-size. Signed and dated 
1650. C. 30! X 263^ inches. Lebrun and 
Sir Charles Robinson Collections. (No. 

ROTTERDAM. Boymans Museum. (Catalogue 
of 1883.) 

The Pacification of Holland, an allegorical 
composition inspired by the Treaty of Munster. 
(1648.) Small figures. Signed and dated 
1648. W. 28{J X 39 1 inches. Samuel 
Rogers Collection. (No. 241.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Father, bust, life- 
size, oval. Traces of a signature and date. 
Painted about 1630. W. 28JJ x 22 inches. 
Baron Harinxma. Leeuwarden. 

Portrait of an old Man, small size. Signed 
and dated 1647. W. 9-,% X SjV inches. 

Prince Henry of the Netherlands. 

Bust Portrait of Rembrandt, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1643. C. 24 X i8| inches. 

Mr. Ouarles van UTford. 

Supposed Portrait of Captain Jorts de 
Caulery, full face, half-length. Signed with the 
monogram R. H. L. van Ryn, 1632. (This 
picture was recently sold to an American 

Mr. J. P. Six. 

Portrait of Anna Wymer, mother of Jan 
Six, life-size, three-quarters length. Signed 
and dated 1641. C. 37! x 313 inches. 



Portrait of the Burgomaster, Jan Six, 
life-size, three-quarters length. Painted in 
1654. W. 42*5 X 38^ inches. 

Portrait of Ephraim Bonus, small figure, 
three-quarters length. Painted in 1647. W. 
7k X 6 T V inches. 

Joseph interpreting the Dreams, grisaille 
on paper. Signed and dated 163 . (About 
1633.) 2iJ X 13! inches. W. Six and De 
Vos Collections. 

Baron Steengracht van Duivemvoorde. 

Bathsheba, small figure. Signed and dated 
1643. W. 24! X 31}$ inches. Lebrun, Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, De la Hante, Emmerson, 
and De Bird Collections. 

Mr. van Weede van Dyckveld. Utrecht. 

Portrait of a young Woman, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1639. C. 41 Jx 
31 J;| inches. 


FLORENCE. Uffizi Gallery. (Catalogue of 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life-size. 
Painted about 1655-1657. (No. 451.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1666-1668. (No. 452.) 

Pitti Palace. 

Portrait of an old Man, rather more than 
three-quarters length. Signed and dated 1 6. . 
(about 1658). (No. 1 6.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt in military Costume, 
bust. Painted about 1635. Gucrini Collection. 
(No. 60.) 
-Mn.AX. Brcra. (Catalogue of 1887.) 

Portrait of a Woman (Rembrandt's Sister?) 
Signed R. II. L. van Ryn, 1632. W. 2i| X 
iSJ inches. (No. 449.) 
Mr. Fabri. 

Study of n/i old Man, bust, life-size. W. 
2 3ni X uS, 7 ,. inches. 


SAINT PETERSBURG. Hermitage. (Catalogue 
of 1891.) 

Abraham entertaining the three Angels, life- 
size figures, three-quarters length. Painted 
about 1650. C. 47}| X 63};; inches. Cathe- 
rine II. Collection. (No. 791.) 

Abraham's Sacrifice, full-length, life-size 
figures. Signed and dated 1635. C. 75}! 
X 52| inches. Wai pole Collection. (No. 

Joseph's Brethren shew the bloody Coat to 
Jacob, half-length figures, life-size. Signed, but 
not dated. Painted about 1650. C. 6oJ;f x 
65! inches. 

Joseph accused by Potiphar's Wife, half- 
length figures of medium size. Signed and 
dated 1655. C. 4if X 38$ inches. Gotz- 
kowski and Catherine II. Collections. (No. 

The Fall of Hainan, half-length figures, 
life-size. Signed, but not dated. Painted about 
1650. C. 49! x 46^ inches. Catherine II. 
Collection. (No. 795.) 

The Holy Family, full-length figures of 
medium size. Signed and dated 1645. C. 
4i X 35f inches. Crozat Collection. (No. 

The Return of the Prodigal, full-length, life- 
size figures. Signed with the monogram 
R. V. Ryn. Painted about 1668-1669. c - 
103^X98! inches. From the Duke of Bavaria 

(Clement Augustus), D'Amczune, and Cathe- 
rine II. Collections. (No. 797.) 

The Workers in the Vineyard, full-length 
figures, small size. Signed and dated 1637. 
W. 1 2 ,=',.; X i6i inchcs.-(No. 798.) 

St. /'(/, r's Dental, life-size figures, three- 
quarters length. Painted about 1656. C. 
60] X 66 inches.^-Catherine II. Collection. 
(No. 799.) 

The Descent from the Cross, figures of 
medium size. Signed and dated 1634. C. 
62] x 46^ inches. Malmaison Collection. 
(No. 800.) 

The Incredulity of St. Thomas, small figures. 
Signed and dated 1634. W. 2i| x 20^ 
inches Ph. van Dyck, Gotzkowski, and 
Catherine II. Collections. (No. 801.) 

Dande, whole-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated .6.6 (1636). C. 72!;} x 8* inches. 
Crozat Collection. (No. 802.) 

Portrait of an old Woman, half-length, 
life-size. Painted in 1654. C. 523 x 424 
inches. Crozat Collection. (No. 804.) 

Portrait of an old Woman (the same model 
as the above), half-length, life-size. Signed and 
dated 1654. C. 42* x 33 inches. Baudouin 
and Catherine II. Collections. (No. 805.) 

Portrait of an old Woman (the same model 
as in the two preceding pictures), half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1654. C. 2c x 
24* inches. Briihl Collection. (No. 806.) 

2 4 6 


Portrait of Rembrandt' s Mo/ha; half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1643. W. 31 x 
24 inches.- Catherine II. Collection. (No. 

Supposed Portrait of Coppenol, half-length, 
life-size. Signed with the monogram R. !I. L. 
1631. C. 44* x 36^ inches. Bruhl Col- 
lection. (No. 808.) 

Pallas, half-length, rather more than life- 
size. Painted about 1650. C. 46!; x 35-] 
inches. Baudouin and Catherine II. Collec- 
tions. (No. 809.) 

Study of an old Jcrj, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1654. C. 424 x 33 inches. 
Baudouin and Catherine II. Collections. 
(No. Sio.) 

Portrait of a Man, erroneously called a 
Portrait of Sobieski, half-length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1637. W. 38 J- x 25? 
inches. Catherine II. Collection. (No. Sn.) 

Tlic Jewish Bride (Saskia~), life-size, three- 
quarters length. Signed and dated 1634. C. 
-\')i\; x 39-'} inches. Catherine II. Collec- 
tion. (No. 812 ) 

Portrait of an Oriental, half-length, life-size. 
Signed. Painted about 1636. C. 39 x 29] jf 
inches. Gotzkowski and Catherine II. Col- 
lections. (No. 813.) 

Portrait of Rembrandfs Father in military 
Costume, bust, rather less than life-size. 
Signed with the monogram. Painted about 
1630. \V. An octagon. I4, :i ,r x ic.J- inches. 

-;NO. 814.) 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, life- 
size. Painted about 1654. C. 42?, x 33^ 
inches. Bruhl Collection. (No. SiS.) 

Portrait of a young Woman, half-length, 
life-size. Signed and dated 1656. C. 40,";., 
x 34] inches. Crozat Collection. (No. 819.) 

Portrait of a Man, erroneously called a 
Portrait of Mcnasseh ben Israel, half-length, 
life-size. Dated 1645. C. 50^ x 44^ inches. 
Crozat Collection. (No. 820.) 

Bust Portrait of a Man, life-size. Signed 
and dated 166 . (about 1661). C. 28 x 24 
inches. Saint-Leu Collection. (No. 821.) 

Hannah teaching the Child Samuel, three- 
quarters figures, life-size. Signed, but not 
dated. Painted about 1650. C. 46^ x 37 
inches. Walpole Collection. (No. 822.) 

Portrait of an old Lady, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 16 . (about 1654). C. 
34 J x 28 J inches. Walpole Collection. (No. 

Portrait of an old Man, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1654. C. 2gJ x 24^ inches 
Bruhl Collection. (No. 824.) 
. Portrait of a young Man, bust, life-size. 
Painted about 1660. C. 2S : J x 22 inches. 
Baudouin and Catherine II. Collections. (No. 

The Girl witli a Broom, half-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1651. C. 42 J x 36]^ 
inches. Crozat Collection (No. 826.) 

Portrait of the Poet Jeremias de Decker, 
bust, life-size. Signed and dated 1666. W. 
28 x 22 inches. Baudouin Collection. 
(No. 827.) 

Portrait of a young Man, erroneously 
called a Portrait of the Dutch Admiral, Ph. 
ran Dorp, an oval ; bust, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1634. W. 27 x 2oi inches. 
Saint-Leu Collection. (No. 828.) 

Portrait of an old Lady, half-length, life- 
size. Signed Rembrandt. No date. (About 
1640 1643.) W. 29^ x 22 inches. Cathe- 
rine II. Collection. (No. 829.) 

Tlie Meeting of David and Absalom, small 
figures. Signed and dated 1642. W. 29^ x 
24 1 : >r inches. Bought by Alexander I. For- 
merly in the Pcterhof. (Not catalogued.) 

Prince Lcuchtemberg. Exhibited at the Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts. (Catalogue of 1886.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt, half-length, life-size. 
Painted about 1640-1645. W. 29^ x 24$ 
inches. (No. 108.) 

Count A. W. Orloff Davidoff. 

Half-length Figure of Christ, life-size. 
Painted about 1658-1660. C. 43 x 38^ inches. 

Count S. Stroganoff. 

Philosopher absorbed in Meditation (Lot ?), 
small figure. Signed with the monogram 
R. H. L. 1630. W. 24j| x i8f ff inches. 

Portrait of a Young Monk, bust, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1660. C. 31};} x 26$ 

Prince Youssoupoff. 

Susanna and the Elders, small figures. The 
signature, Rembrandt, 1637, apparently a 

Study of a Child's Head, small size. Signed 
Rembrandt, 1633. 

Portrait of a young Man, half-length, life- 
size. Painted about 1662. 

Portrait of a young Lady (pendant to the 




MADRID. Prado Museum. (Catalogue of 1885.) 
Cleopatra at her Toilette (Sash'a), half- 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1634. C. 
55l X 6o| inches. (No. 1 544.) 

Duke of Alva's Collection. 

Landscape : the 
Painted about 1640. 

Entrance to a Town, 


STOCKHOLM. Royal Museum. (Catalogue of 

The Conspiracy of Claudius Civ His, formerly 
known as The Conspiracy of John Ziska, life- 
size figures. Painted in 1661. C. 753 X 
I2if inches. Bequeathed by Madame Peil, 
nee Grille. (No. 578.) 

Saint Anastasius, small figure. Signed 
Rembrant f. 1631. \V. 233 x iSJ inches. 
Gustavus III. Collection. (No. 579.) 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, life- 
size. Signed and dated 1655. C. 35 x 
28 JJ inches. Gustavus III. Collection. (No. 

Portrait of an old IVoman (pendant to the 
above). Same date, signature, size, and pro- 
venance. (No. 582.) 

Portrait of Saskia, profile, bust, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L. van Ryn. 
1632. C. 28| x 214 inches. Princess Louisa 
Ulrica's Collection. (No. 583.) 

The young Servant, half-length, life-size. 

Signed and dated 1654. C. 30! x 24! inches. 
De Piles, D'Hoym, De Fonspertuis, Blon- 
del de Gaguy, and Gustavus III. Collections. 
(No. 584.) 

Portrait of an old Man, half-length, life- 
size. Signed. No date (about 1632-1633). 
Adolphtis Frederick Collection. (No. 585.) 

Study of nn old Man as St. Peter, half- 
length, life-size. Signed with the monogram 
R. H. L. van Ryn. 1632. C. 32] X 24^ 
inches. (No. 1349.) 

Portrait of a you/iff Girl (Rembrandt's 
Sister ?), an oval ; bust, life-size. About 
1628 1630. \V. 23 $ T X 241 inches. (No. 
Count Axel von \Vachtmeister.. Vanas. 

Portrait of a young Alan, bust, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram R. H. L. van Ryn, 
1632. 24 : j X iSj^y inches. 

Portrait of a young ^lan, three-quarters 
length, life-size. Signed and dated 1662. C. 
4' I X 3 5s inches. 


NEW YORK. Metropolitan Museum. (Cata- 
logue of May, 1891.) 
Portrait of an old Lady. (No. 72.) 
Portrait of an old Man. Signed and dated 
1665. C. 27i 9 ff X 25 inches. Sir William 
Knighton Collection. (No. 33.) 

The Mill. C. 21 \ X 25$ inches. (No. 36.) 
Bust Portrait of a Man, life-size. About 
1640. Lansdowne Collection. (No. 37.) 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. Replica 
of the picture in the National Gallery, with 
some variations. W. 24 X 21 \ inches, 
Mr. Armour. Chicago. 

Portrait of a Man. Signed and dated 
1643. C. 33 X 26| inches. 
Mr. W. H. Beers. 

Portrait of Rembrandt's Father, in a plumed 
Cap, bust, life-size. About 1632. C. 2gi x 
inches. Bought from M. Sedelmeyer. 

Mr. W. H. Crocker. San Francisco. 

Portrait of a Youth, bust, life-size. W. - 
i6y\ x 13! inches. De Morny Collection. 

Mr. P. C. Hanford. 

An Accountant standing by a Table. C. 
4& * 3 l % inches, Sir Joshua Reynold's 

Mr. H. O. Havemeyer. 

Portrait of Christian Paul van Beeresteyn, 
Burgomaster of Delft. Signed with the mono- 
gram and dated 1632. From the Chateau de 
Maurik, near Vecht. 

Portrait of Volkera Nicolai Knobbert, wife 
of the above. Signed with the monogram 
and dated 1632. 

Portrait of Paulus Doomer, called The 
Gilder, bust, life-size. Signed and dated 1640. 
W. 28if X 21^ inches. Ancaster, Van 



Helsleuter, De Chavagnac, De Morny, and 
W. Schaus Collections. 

These three pictures are lent by the owner 
to the Metropolitan Museum, where they arc 
numbered 5, 9, 7. (Handbook, No. 6.) 

Mr. Robert Hoe. 

A Gipsy Girl holding a Medallion, bust, 
life-size. About 1650. C. ztfg x 5J inches. 
Bought from M. Sedelmeyer. Formerly in 
Sir Charles Robinson's Collection. 

Mr. W. Schaus. 

Portrait of an Admiral, erroneously called 
Admiral Tromp, half-length, life-size. About 
1658. C. 44f x 34j- inches. Alphonse Al- 
lard and Crabbe Collections. 

Mr. Charles Stewart Smith. 

Saint John, an oval ; bust, life-size. Signed 
and dated 1632. \V. 25^,; x 19] inches. 
Palmerston and Mount-Temple Collections. 

Mr. Sutton. 

A Alan in Armour, full face, half-length. 
About 1635. C. 39! x 33 inches. Dcmidoff 
and Sccrdtan Collections. 

Mr. C. T. Ycrkes. 

Philemon and Baucis, small, full-length 
figures. Signed and dated 1658. W. 
21 j x 27^ inches. 

The following pictures have also been acquired 
by American purchasers of late years : 

An Orphan of the Municipal Orphanage, 
Amsterdam, three-quarters length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1645. C. 62f x 33 inches. 
Demidoff Collection. 

Portrait of a young Man, erroneously 
called a Portrait of Dr. Tulp, bust, life-size. 
Signed with the monogram and dated 1632. 
W.- 28| x 20^ inches. Collot and Princesse 
de Sagan Collections. 

Portrait of a young Woman (pendant to the 
above). Signed and dated 1634. Same size 
and provenance. 

Portrait of a young Man, erroneously called 
a Portrait of the Btirgomaster Six, bust, life- 
size. About 1643. C. 47 J x 36,% inches.- 
Mecklenburg and Princesse de Sagan Collec- 

Portrait oj a Man, said to be Matthys 
Kalkoen, three-quarters length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1632. C. 44^ x 35-j1 T 
inches. De Kat and Princesse de Sagan 

Portrait of a Man, known as The Dutch 
Admiral, three-quarters length, life-size. 
Signed and dated 1643. Erard and Princesse 
dc Sagan Collections. 

Portrait of a Woman (pendant to the above). 
Princesse de Sagan Collection. 


IF the continually increasing number of sales make it difficult to draw up a 
complete catalogue of Rembrandt's pictures, the case is still worse with regard 
to his drawings. Not only is it almost impossible to trace the wanderings of 
such portable works when collections in which they are included are sold privately, 
or still more privately divided between the different members of a family ; their 
authenticity, too, is a more delicate question to deal with than that of pictures. 
Putting aside old forgeries often very cleverly carried out many of the master's pupils 
and disciples imitated his manner with more or less success. 

Readers of these volumes may easily convince themselves of this, for among 
its illustrations they will find several reproductions after Rembrandt's imitators, such 
as S. van Hoogstraaten and Gerbrandt van der Eeckhout for example, the Storm 
Effect (plate 77), the Family of Tobias with the Angel (plate 78), both from the 
Albertina collection, and the copy after the Ganymede (plate 59), from the Dresden 

Rembrandt very seldom signed his drawings, and although the finer ones 
leave little room for doubt, we may often hesitate to pronounce upon those of less 
importance. In private collections, and even in public museums, we frequently find 
two or three almost identical repetitions of a single drawing, which have to be 
carefully compared before a decision can be arrived at as to the original. Rem- 
brandt's productions in this class differ as much in degree of finish and in character 
of execution as in the methods employed. Black chalk, red chalk, silver point, 
the quill pen, the reed pen, the pencil, even the fingers, are used in turns and 
sometimes in combination, while washes of Indian ink, sepia, white, and red often 
help to heighten or to produce effects. 

Problems still more complex are started when we come to chronology. The 
conscientious studies, at once elegant and precise, of which we have given many 
examples, belong for the most part to the master's early years, but even in his youth 
we find him striking off sketches of curious audacity, vigour, and expressive quality. 
On the other hand we find, down to the very end of his career, that he occasionally 
laid himself out to produce drawings of infinite delicacy, drawings in which every 
contour is absolutely correct and in which the play of light and shade is rendered 
with the utmost care. We must therefore be content, where we have no dated etchings 
or pictures to guide us, to travel on broad lines in determining such questions. 


Widely as they differed from the drawings most in fashion at the time, Rem- 
brandt's studies were appreciated during his own life, especially by artists. He took 
great care of them himself, and we have seen that when he was declared in- 
solvent on July 25, 1656, they filled five and twenty albums or portfolios, and 
had been arranged by his own hand in separate categories. Nude figures, studies 
of animals, landscapes, studies after antique statues, sketches of composition, and more 
careful studies, all were marshalled systematically, so that at any moment he could 
lay his hand on whichever he might want. When the rest of his property was sold, at 
the end of 1657, his drawings were reserved for sale in the month of September, 1658. 
Many of Rembrandt's friends and pupils had already begun to collect. Zoomer, 
Six, and Govert Flinck, especially, had acquired a considerable number, and Van 
de Cappelle, the sea-painter, obtained all that came in his way. De Piles, the 
French writer, tells us that he, too, formed a collection, probably during his captivity 
in Holland. Since this period the great public depositories, such as the Louvre, the 
Cabinets of Dresden, Berlin, Munich, Stockholm, Buda-Pesth, and the Albertina, the 
British Museum, the Fodor Museum at Amsterdam, and the Teyler Museum at 
Haarlem, have been laying up the coveted treasures for good and all, while many 
private collections, famous in their time, have successively changed hands. Such 
\vere : in Holland, those of the poet Feitama, of Ploos van Amstel, of the Baron 
Verstolk van Soelen, of Goll de Frankenstein, of Leembruggen, of De Vos, De Kat, 
and Blokhuysen ; in England, of Sir Joshua Reynolds, of Sir Thomas Lawrence, of 
Woodburn (the dealer), of W. Esdaile, of R. Payne-Knight, of Lord Aylesford, and 
(quite recently) of Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Seymour-Haden (sales of May 7, 1890, 
and June 15, 1891); in France, those of Crozat, Julienne, Claussin, Paignon-Dijonval, 
Em. Galichon, Firmin Didot, and Armand. At present the largest and most re- 
markable collections are those of Lord Warwick, Sir Frederick Leighton, Mr. 
Heseltine, and Mr. George Salting, in London ; of the Duke of Devonshire, at 
Chatsworth, where Rembrandt has Claude, with the Liber Veritatis, as his com- 
panion ; of Dr. Straetcr, at Aix-la-Chapelle ; of Mr. von Beckerath, at Berlin ; of the 
Due d'Aumale and of M. Leon Bonnat, in France. M. Bonnat's and Mr. Heseltine's 
collections are the most important and the best selected we have seen. 

The prices of Rembrandt's drawings have increased continuously, and yet 
until about the middle of the eighteenth century, they remained cheap enough. Crozat, 
who had a veritable passion for the master, collected more than three hundred, and 
although, as Mariette tells us, he bitterly regretted the loss of " the famous cabinet 
of M. Flinck of Rotterdam l which ' Milord Devonshire ' had carried off from him," 
he succeeded in acquiring the larger portion of the De Piles collection, among them, 
no doubt, many which had belonged to Van de Capelle. At the Crozat sale (1741) 
106 of these drawings were bought by Count G. de Tessin, at that time Swedish 
Ambassador to the French Court. The prices were probably small, for we know that 
Tessin bought 7,000 drawings altogether for 5,072 livres 10 sous (about 200), averaging 
75 centimes (7^d.) a-piece. Happy time for amateurs, when so high a pleasure 
could be obtained so cheaply, and a good investment made at the same stroke ! 

1 The son of Govert Flinck, Rembrandt's pupil. His collection, formed by his father, was 
mainly composed of landscape studies, several of which we have reproduced. 


In his preface to Ploos van Amstel's facsimiles, Josi says that the work of no other 
master has gone up " steadily in price like that of Rembrandt ; his finest landscapes 
and his historical compositions fetch from 500 (about 40) to 1,000 florins." But 
since Josi wrote, and especially since about the middle of the present century, the 
rise has been still more remarkable. At the Verstolk van Soelen sale, in 1847, the 
Portrait of Anslo fetched 2,100 francs (^84), a Landscape 2,812 francs (about ^112), 
and a View of the old Ramparts at Amsterdam, 3,125 francs (^125). A drawing, of 
which the authenticity has since, and with good reason, been contested it was a 
Death of the Virgin rose to 3,717 francs (about ^148); in 1883, at the De Vos sale, 
it fetched 6,510 francs (^260). The following prices at the latter sale may also be 
noted: 8,400 francs (,336) for a Study of an old Man ; 2,142 francs (about ^85) 
for a study bought for the Herlin Museum ; 9,240 (,369) for the Naughty Boy, for 
the same collection; 6,691 francs (about ^267) for a Dutch Landscape; and 10,920 
francs (about ^436) for a View of the Ramparts of a Town, bought for the Teyler 

So early as the eighteenth century engravers began to turn their attention to Rem- 
brandt's drawings, or at least to those which then bore his name. Art-criticism was 
in a very rudimentary condition, and, the interest or vanity of collectors aiding, many 
more than doubtful things achieved the honour of reproduction. Such were the ten 
compositions from the History of Joseph, bought by the Louvre in 1842 at the Revoil 
sale, which were engraved over the name of Rembrandt by the Comte de Caylus. 
They are certainly not by the master. 1 Most of the things reproduced in the Ploos 
van Amstel collection of facsimiles (1765), with its continuation by Josi (iSoo),' 2 are 
of very doubtful authenticity. All these attempts at facsimiles are, moreover, poor 
enough in quality, and often show but little resemblance to their originals. 

It was reserved to the photographer to furnish copies which could really be 
depended on. The Messrs. Braun were the first to enter upon the task, and to put 
before us faithful facsimiles of the most remarkable contents of the European museums, 
as well as of drawings shown at gatherings like that held at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 
1879. But although the engraved work of Rembrandt had given rise to a large 
number of publications, his. drawings were always a little neglected until quite lately. 
The learned and energetic head of the Berlin Print Room, Dr. F. Lippmann, first 
set himself to remedy this state of things. With the help of certain critics and 
amateurs who had specially concerned themselves with the master, he undertook the 
publication of four volumes of facsimiles, each containing rather more than fifty 
faithful reproductions of, for the most part, unpublished drawings. 3 Thanks to Dr. 
Lippmann's generosity, we have been able to draw upon this magnificent publication 
for many of the facsimiles of drawings given in these volumes. Their conjunction with 
those from etchings and pictures, casts a new light upon Rembrandt's genius. For 
others we have to thank Mr. Scholten, director of the Teyler Museum, Mr. 
Haverkorn van Ryswyck, of the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam, and Mr. Baer, 
the Amsterdam photographer. Finally, Mr. G. Upmark, director of the Stockholm 

1 I agree with Dr. Bredius in assigning them to Aert de Gelder. 

* Collection if imitations de dessins dapris les prindpaux mattrts Iwllandais el fiamands. C. Josi, 
London, 1821. 

3 Original Drawings by Rembrandt reproduced in Phototype. Berlin, London, Paris; folio; 1890-91. 

2 S 2 


Museum, has allowed us to photograph some of the best things in the fine collection 
under his charge, a collection enriched wilh many of the Crozat treasures. 

We have ourselves seen and made notes of most of the works in the 
following catalogue. In the case of public collections, our thanks are due to 
those in authority over them, and especially to Dr. W. von Seidlitz, Dr. Hofstede de 
Groot, Dr. Schmidt of Munich, Dr. Richard Graul, director of the Graphischen 
Kiinstc of Vienna, M. Duplessis, director of the Cabinet des Estampes in the 
Bibliothcque Nationale, and to MM. Lafenestre and H. de Chennevieres of the 
Louvre. In adding to these names those of Mr. Salting and Mr. Heseltine of 
London, and M. Le'on Bonnat of Paris, I only discharge a debt of gratitude for 
much valuable help and information. 


NEW YORK. Metropolitan Museum. (Hand- 
book No. 8.) Vandcrbilt Collection. 

Nos. 445. Landscape with a Tower. 

448. Houses. 

449. A Road. 

Xos. 450. Adoration of the Magi. 

451. Cottages. 

452. A Man reading. 

453. Two Men. 

454. Figure of a Man. 

455. An Interior. 


BUDAPKST. Estcrhazy Gallery. 

The two Rowers. Pen drawing. 2,-';, x 2],'. 

Study of a Jew advancing towards tlic 
left. 1'en, washed with bistre. j, 1 ,; x 2g 

Two Men walking and conversing. Pen 
and bistre. 4^ x 2| inches. 

A Beggar standing, with a high cap ; 
another in profile. Pen. 5];"; x 5, 1 ,.- inches. 

Portrait of Rembrandt in old Age, seated 
before a table. Pen and bistre, heightened 
with red. 5{j x if inches. 

Study of a Ma?i. Pen. 6J- x 6 inches. 

Study of a Man advancing towards tlic 
left. Bistre. 5-,^ x 4j inches. 

A couchant Lion, turned towards the right. 
Pen, washed with bistre. 4i x S'f n inches. 

A couchant Lion, turned towards the left. 
Bistre. 5j% x 9^ inches. 

Life-study of a Woman, standing. Chalk 
and pen. loj x 6-j% inches. 

A young Woman (Saskia ?), seated, at a 
table near a window. Pen and bistre. 
6| x 4}| inches. 

A Man standing, leaning on a stick. Pen 
and bistre. 3}|- x 2^ inches. 

Life-study of a young Man, turned towards 
the right. Pen and bistre. gjf x 5 inches. 

An Angel appearing to an old Man and a 
kneeling Woman. Pen and bistre. 8| x n\ s g 

Jesus and the Samaritan Woman. Pen, 
lightly washed. 5^- x iijinches. 

VIENNA. Albcrtina. 

The Dismissal of Hagar. Black chalk. 
Jcseph distributing Food to the Crowd. 
Black chalk, signed. 

Rebecca and Eleazar. Pen and bistre. 
Judah requesting Jacob to confide Benjamin 
to his care. Pen. 

The Angel guiding Tobias. Pen and bistre. 

Tobias alarmed at the Sight of the Fish. 
Pen and bistre. 

Tobias taking the Gall of the Fish. Pen and 
Jesus and the Samaritan Woman. Pen. 

Jesus before Caiaphas. Pen. 

The Beheading of John the Baptist. Pen 
and bistre. 

Argus killed by Mercury. Pen and bistre. 

A Woman holding a Child. Black chalk. 

An old Woman dressing the Hair of a 
Woman, seated. Pen and bistre. 

Life-study of a young Man standing. Pen 
and bistre ; probably a study for the etching 
of a Young Man standing. (B. 194.) 


A Woman holding a Child in leading- 
strings. Red chalk. 

An old Man kneeling. Red chalk. 

A Beggar and his Wife, each carrying a 
child. Black chalk. 

A Man seated. Black chalk. 

A Woman seated near a Table, reading. 
Red chalk and wash. 

A young Girl asleep. Black chalk. 

Sketches of Heads, and a man in a cloak, 
seated. Black chalk. 

An old Woman walking on Crutches. 

Baldassare Castiglione, copy of Raphael's 
portrait. A sketch in bistre, with an auto- 
graph inscription, and the date 1639. 

A large Study of an Elephant. Black 
chalk ; signed and dated 1637. 

Two other Sketches of Elephants. Black 

A couchant Lion. Pen and bistre. 

A View of a Town, with fantastic Buildings. 
Pen and bistre ; signed and dated 1640. 

A Lime-kiln. Black chalk. 

The Exterior of a large Church. Black 

The Rokin, at Amsterdam. Pen and sepia. 

A Plain, with a distant Mountain. Black 

The Entrance to a Church, with figures in 
the foreground. Pen and sepia. 

Four Sketches of Landscapes. Black chalk. 


LONDON. British Museum. 

Jacob's Dream (.-- 1 ). Pen, washed with sepia. 

The Good Samaritan (?) Pen, washed with 

The II 'idow's Mite. Pen and sepia. 6.\ x 
4g inches. Payne-Knight Collection. 

The Burial of Lazarus, dated 1630. A 
rough sketch in red chalk. \o\ x 7; inches. 
Richardson and W. Fawkcncr Collections. 

Joseph tending the Prisoners. Pen. 

The Descent from the Cross. Bistre, touched 
with body-colour and oil ; a sketch for the 
grisaille in the National Gallery. 7; x gj 
inches. Richardson, Reynolds, and Payne- 
Knight Collections. 

A Halt of Travellers (Flight into Egypt ?). 
Pen, washed with sepia. 6| x 9} inches. 
Payne-Knight Collection. 

The Dismissal of Hagar. Pen, washed 
with sepia. "j\ x 9^ T inches. Wooclburn 

Two Negro Drummers, astride on mules. 
A drawing in bistre, heightened with red. 
8}J x 6J inches. T. Hudson, Richardson, and 
Payne-Knight Collections. 

Life-study of a Woman, for the etching of 
A Woman before a Dutch Stove. (B. 197.) Pen 
and sepia. n-^ x 7^ inches. R. Houlditch 

A Youth (Titus?) drawing; on the same 
sheet, a head of a child. Pen. 

A Persian Prince, on a throne ; a man read- 
ing before him. Pen and wash. 

A Persian Warrior on Horseback. Pen, 
washed with brown and red. j\ x 6| inches. 
Richardson, J. Barnard, and Cracherode 

Three Studies of Men, leaning on crutches. 

A Mother holding her sleeping Child on her 
Breast. Pen and sepia wash. 6| x ji inches. 
Ed. Bouvcric Collection. 

An old Man with a long Beard, seated. 

Two Men at Table, shaking hands. Pen 
and sepia. 7, 1 }.- x 6^ inches. J. Anderson 

A naked Woman, holding a palm ; study 
for the etching, B. 192. 

The Draughtsman. Pen and bistre. ~7\'g x 
6 1 3 ff inches. Cracherode Collection. 

A Woman seated, another going upstairs. 
Pen and wash. 

A Cavalier, with a plumed hat and ruff. 
Pen and wash. 

A young Man holding a cane. 

A Woman suckling a Child. Black and 
red chalk. 

Four Beggars on the same sheet. Pen. 

A naked Model, standing and leaning on 
a cushion. Pen, washed with bistre, and 
touched with body-colour. 

A small Portrait of Rembrandt as a beard- 
less youth. Wash of Indian ink. 

Study for the etched Portrait of Sylvius. 
Pen and wash. 

Study for the etched Portrait of C. Anslo ; 
signed and dated 1640. Red chalk. 

Study for tlie Picture of Lot and his 
Daughters (1631). Red chalk touched with 

Pen copy of Mantegna's Calumny of Ape lies. 
9s x 1 5^ inches. Van der Schelling and 
Richardson Collections. 

Study of a State-coach, perhaps for Lor 
Cowper's equestrian portrait of Turenne. Pen 
and wash. 7 x 9! inches. Payne-Knight 



A Lion reposing. Sepia wash. 

A Lioness feeding. Black chalk. 

A Lioness reposing. Black chalk and 

Four Lions in different altitudes. Wash. 

A coiichant Lion. Bistre wash ; a Latin 
couplet below : 

Jnm piger et longo jacet exarmatus ab a:vo 
Magna tamcn facieset nun adeunda senectus. 

A sleeping Lion. Bistre wash. 

An Elephant, standing. Study in Black 

A Landscape, with a turrcted house, a wall, 
and a garden. Pen. 

A Canal, with a clump of trees and a shed. 

Houses on the Bank of a Canal ; on a slope 
above, some horses on a tow-path. Pen. 

Cottages, u>ith Fishing-nets drying. Pen. 

Houses and Sheds, with a thicket by the 
waterside. Pen. 

Cottages and Trees, near a stream. Pen 
and wash. 5 x 9J| inches. Payne-Knight 

A Bridge near a Canal. Pen and sepia 

Devonshire, Duke of. ChaUworth. 

The drawings of this collection were for- 
merly in that of Nicolaes Antoni Flinck, 
son of the painter Covert Flinck, and were 
bought in 1745 by an ancestor of the present 

An old Man on his Death-lied, surrounded 
by his family. Pen and sepia. 85 x 8 inches. 

Christ croii'itcd with Thorns. Pen and 
sepia ; arched at the top. 7,^ x 7! inches. 

A Landscape, with two men by the water- 
side. Pen, sepia, and Indian ink. 

The Banks of a Watercourse, with a wind- 
mill and a sailing boat. Pen and sepia. 

A Road through a Wood. Pen. SfjxSfV 

A I'ool of Water, with a village in the dis- 
tance. Pen and sepia. 2| x 5 J inches. 

A Road leading to a Village. Pen and sepia. 
35 x 8J| inches. 

A flat Landscape with Water and Houses 
in the Distance. Pen and sepia. 4^ x 7^ 

The rowing Boat. Pen and sepia. 

A Sheet of Water, with vessels. Pen and 

A Group of Trees, with a Cottage. Pen and 

A Village, with a road on rising ground. 

A Haystack near a Farm. A highly-finished 
pen-drawing, heightened with sepia and Indian 
ink. Signed, Rembrandt van Ryn. 

A Group of Trees, near a Road. Pen sketch 
with bistre. 

Two Cottages in a Village Street. Pen. 
5.1 x 7$ inches. 

A Road near a Pond, with a Village in the 
distance. Pen. 

The Banks of a River, with a fence in the 
Foreground. Pen and sepia. 

A Windmill by the Roadside. Pen and 

A Fisherman's Hut. Pen and bistre. 

A Farm by the Waterside. Pen and 

A Village, with a church by the waterside. 
Pen and sepia. 3} J x j\\ inches. 

A Gate, and the ancient Ramparts of a Town 

A Canal, with a road and trees in the back- 
ground. Pen. 

A Sheet of Water, with windmills on its 
banks. Pen and wash. 

A Cottage among the Sand-dunes. Pen and 

Isaac blessing Jacob. Pen. 

Fragment of a Composition : Labanpresent- 
ing Leah to Jacob. On the right a fragment 
of another composition, with the figure of an 
Angel. Pen and bistre. 

Sketch of an Oriental talking to an old man 

Saint Gregory seated before a table covered 
with books. Pen. 7^ x 5* inches. 

A Cottage with a large Tree, by the water- 
side. Pen and bistre. 6}J x lof inches. 

A Windmill, with houses by a lake. Pen. 

A Road by the Waterside, with a spire 
in the distance. Pen and bistre. 31 x 5^ 

A Horse towing a Boat. Pen and bistre. 
3i 3 - x 5j inches. 

Landscape, with water, boats, and houses 
partly hidden by trees. Pen and sepia. sj 
x 9Jj inches. 

A Road bordered with Trees, houses in the 
distance. Pen. 5-,% x 7^ inches. 

Mr. J. P. Heseltine. 

A Persian Prince and his Son, copy of a 
miniature. Pen, washed with sepia. 3| x 
3| inches. Hudson, Richardson, Houlditch, 
Lord Selsey and Roupell Collections. 

A Woman reading. Pen and sepia wash. 
2| x 3$ inches. Sir W. Knighton's Col- 

Sketches of Men's Heads, with one of a 
woman's head. Lead pencil on vellum. On 
the reverse, two cottages. 5f ff x 3y\ inches. 
Sir W. Knighton's Collection. 


2 55 


The Head of a Man in n high Cap. Pen. 

3tl inches. 

Life-study of a Man, standing, his hands 
clasped. Sepia. SJ x 3j", T inches. Roupell 

A Alan in a high cap, seated. 6};f x Jyj, 
inches. Sir Th. Lawrence, W. Esdaile, and 
C. S. Bale Collections. 

A \Voman standing, and a Man walking, 
a purse, and two heads of men. Pen. 4^ x 
4| inches. Sir W. Knighton's Collection. 

Tivo Women standing, holding a child. 
3i x ! ik inches. Sir W. Knighton's Collec- 

Study for the above. Pen. 4^ x 3^ inches. 
Sir W. Knighton's Collection. 

Life-study of a Man, standing. Sepia. 
9j x 6g inches. Nieuwenhuys Collection. 

Life-study of a Man, standing, his left arm 
raised. Sepia. 4};} x 2^ inches. Utterson 

Head of a bearded old Man. Pen. 3-} x 
2j inches. De Vos Collection. 

The Virgin fainting at the foot of the 
Cross. Pen. 3f x 6 inches. DC Vos Col- 

Beggars, in the foreground : a cripple ; on 
the reverse, a man seated. Black chalk. 
35 x 4| inches. De Vos Collection. 

Study of an old Man for the Philosopher in 
the Louvre. Signed R. 1639. Red chalk. 
6^5- x 5f inches. De Vos Collection. 

A bearded Afa/i, scaled. Black chalk. 
6i x 4^ inches. Verstolk van Soelen Col- 

A Woman seated, her head on her hand. 
Black chalk. 4$ x 3! inches. Ue Vos Col- 

A Woman holding a Child. Pen. 4^ x 
3! inches. R. Dumesnil and De Vos Collec- 

The Crucifixion, study for the etching (B. 
80.) Pen. 4{\ x 4$ inches. 

A Village with, a Spire. Sepia. 4! x 7^ 
inches. R. Cosway, Wellesley and Palgrave 

A fantastic Landscape, with a stormy sky. 
Sepia. 5j 3 j x y/j inches. SirW. Knighton's 

Houses under some high Trees. Pen and 
sepia. 4^ x 9^ inches. Bouverie and 
Roupell Collections. 

Rampart near the Gate of St. Anthony. 
Wash slightly tinted with water-colour. 
6j x 9! inches. Woodburn Collection. 

A Bridge and Houses on a Canal. Pen 
and sepia. 5J x 7$ inches. Sir Thomas 
Lawrence and W. Esdaile Collections. 

The Banks of a Canal. Pen and sepia. 
4 x 3} j inches. Sir W. Knighton's Collec- 

Houses with Trees, on the bank of a canal. 
Sepia. 4fV x 7| inches. J. P. Zoomer 

A large Drawing from Nature, a cottage 
surrounded by vegetation. Signed and dated 
1644. Sepia. I if x 17}$ inches. J. Barnard, 
A. Pond, Sir T. Lawrence and W. Esdaile 

A small Canal, with plants and a fence. 
Sepia. 6,-'^ x 7^ inches. Utterson and De 
Vos Collections. 

Houses under Trees. Sepia. 4J x 7l*5 
inches. Lawrence, Esdaile, and Bale Collec- 

A Cottage and Trees, by the waterside. 
Pen, washed with Indian ink. 6j x 9 inches. 
De Vos Collection. 

Houses with Sheds, the same landscape as 
the above, but more extensive. Pen. 4| x 8 

Christ in the Garden of Olives. Pen and 
sepia. 7j x 6^ inches. Baring Collection. 

A coiif/Miit Lion. Sepia. 4- l :1 ff x 8 inches. 
Sir W. Knighton collection. 

A couchant Lion. Sepia. 4^ x 6j inches. 
Sir \V. Knighton's Collection. 

A Landscape, a Road by a River. Sepia. 
On the reverse, a sketch of a landscape in 
black chalk with the following inscription : 
" Decs tekcningh versoont de buissen as- 
noldi (?) Lant Soo braaf getekent door heer 
Rembrands cygen hant. 

" P. Ko : (Philipps Koninck)." 
6| x io| inches. Goll van Franckenstein, 
Sir T. Lawrence, W. Esdaile, James and 
Roupell Collections. 

A Cottage surrounded by Trees. Pen and 
wash. 6f x gi inches. J. P. Zoomer and 
Woodburn Collections. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds, a study for 
the picture in the National Gallery. Sepia 
wash. 8 x gj inches. Sir T. Lawrence and 
Esdaile Collections. 

A Landscape, the banks of a river. 4/5 x 
55 inches. Richardson, Willett, Esdaile and 
Bale Collections. 

Study of an old Man, seated, probably for 
the etching, The Gold-weigher (B. 281). 
Sepia. 7j x 6J inches. Woodburn and 
Dimsdale Collections. 

The Mont a! ban Tower, at Amsterdam. 
Pen and sepia. 5^f x $\\ inches. Zoomer, 
Sir J. Reynolds, and Howe Collections. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, standing, in his 
working dress. Pen. 7$ x 5^ inches 

2 S 6 


Life-study of a young Man, seated. Sepia 
an:l red chalk. 5^ x ;| inches. Uttcrson 
and W. Russell Collections. 

Sketches of nine Heads on a single sheet, 
drawn with a reed-pen, one in red. SJ x 9^ 
inches. Roupcll Collection. 

A Woman standing, looking out of a 
window. Bistr wash. ujj x 6g inches. 

A Landscape, with a clump of trees by the 
waterside. 5j x 9$ inches. J. Hudson and 
Portarlington Collections. 

A Woman seated in the embrasure of a 
window, her head on her hand. Pen, washed 
with bistre. 9,'",; x 6J inches. Marquis de 
Vende, Dimsdale, Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
Esdailc, and Bale Collections. 

An old Woman asleep, a book on her knees. 
Pen and sepia. 5$ x 5,", ; inches. Baron 
Dcnon and J. Gigoux Collections. 

An old Woman asleep, her spectacles in her 
right hand, a book in her left. Sepia wash. 
61 x 6 1 1 () - inches. Dcnon Collection. 

An old Woman seated. Sepia wash. 
5x4! inches. Richardson, Sir J. Reynolds, 
Sir Th. Lawrence, W. Esdaile, and C. S. Bale 

Life-study of a Woman, seated. Sepia 
wash. n] x 7,",.- inches. Lord Spencer and 
W. Russell Collections. 

Life-study of a Woman, lying down. Sepia. 

5$ x iii inches. Sir Th. Lawrence, Es- 
dailc, Woodburn and Roupcll Collections. 

Life-study of a Woman, seated, and smiling. 

log x 7| inches. Sir W. Knighton's Col- 

Jacotfs Blessing. Sepia. 6} jj- x SJ inches. 
Sir W. Knighton's Collection. 

An old Man, seated. Reed pen with bistre. 
&\s x 5^ inches. Bouverie and Nicuwcn- 
huys Collections. 

Simeon in tiie Temple. Bistre, Indian ink 
and touches of white. gj x Sj inches. Sir 
Th. Lawrence, Esdaile, J. W. Brett and De 
Vos Collections. 

A Landscape with Windmills. Reed pen 
and bistre, with the inscription : 

"Buyten Amsterdam aan de Weetering 
op de Stadspakhuyze te zien." 4| x io| 
inches. Burlctt, Verstolk and De Vos Col- 

A Holy Family. Sepia. 6 x 6 inches. 
Hibbert Collection. 

A small Town, with a view of a pier. 
Sepia. 3! x 5^5 inches. Suermondt Collec- 

The Head of an old Woman. Sepia. 
4i x 3H inches. Sir Th. Lawrence, Esdaile, 
and Bale Collections. 

A Man seated, feeding a Child; the draw- 
ing known as The Widower. Sepia. 
6jj| x 5f inches. Woodburn Collection. 

A Road with a Cottage. Pen. 5f x 8 

An old Man seated, a woman kneeling before 
him taking off his shoes ; another woman 
preparing his bed. Sepia. 6| x 6f inches. 
Roupell Collection. 

A young Girl sleeping, with her head on a 
pillow. 55 x 3$ inches. De Vos Collec- 

Tliree Heads of old Men, studies for the 
Disciples at Emmdiis. Pen. 6 x 6j inches. 
SirJ. Reynolds, Richardson and Woodburn 

Tliree Women, one with a child ; on the 
reverse, the head of a man in a large hat, 
resembling Ephraim Bonus, and a woman 
asleep in a bed. Pen. Sj x 5! inches. Sir 
W. Knighton Collection. 

A House under Trees. Sepia. 4^ x 6^ 

Tlie Town-hall of Amsterdam, after the fire 
of July 9, 1652. Signed : Rembrandt van 
Ryn ; and inscribed as follows : " Van d'waech 
afte zicn Statshuis van Amstcldam doen afif- 
gcbrandt was den 9 Jul. 1652." Pen and sepia. 
6]ij x 8 inches. 

Life-study of a young Man, seated. 
Sepia. ioj x 6| inches. Nieuwenhuys Col- 

A Landscape, with Amsterdam in the dis- 
tance. Pen. 3i x 6 inches. Goll van Frack- 
enstein, Sir Th. Lawrence, W. Esdaile and 
Bale Collections. 

A Landscape, with a stream. Bistre wash. 
5j x 12$ inches. Crozat Collection. 

A young Girl asleep at a window. Sepia. 
4l x 3S inches. De Vos Collection. 

A Woman lying in a Bed. Pen. 5^ x 
7 1 \ inches. De Vos Collection. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives, with the 
sleeping disciples. Pen and wash. 
7 T % x iij'j inches. Roupell Collection. 

Moses and the Burning Bush. 6J| x 9j fl a 
inches. Roupell Collection. 

A Man in a Cloak,standing. 6f x 5 inches. 
Sir Th. Lawrence and Esdaile Collections. 

Sir Frederick Leighton, P.R.A. 

A Child asleep in its bed. Black lead pencil. 
Andrew James and Esdaile Collections. 

A Landscape, a road bordered with trees 
and cottages, leading to a village with a 
church. Pen, washed with bistre. 6}J x 7^ 
inches. De Vos and De Kat Collections. 

The Agony. Pen. 



Mr. W. Mitchell. (This collection was sold at 
Frankfort, May 7, 1890.) 

An old Man seated on a chair, study for the 
the figure of Jacob in the etching Joseph telling 
his Dreams (1638). Signed with the mono- 
gram, and dated 1631. Red chalk. g{ x 6f B 
inches. Hawkins and James Collections. 

A Man in a Cloak, talking, and emphasising 
his speech by a gesture of his left hand. 
Black chalk. ;i x 3" inches. Th. 
Hudson, J. Richardson, and Firmin Didot 

A Lion reposing. Pen. 3^ x 6] finches. 

A Landscape, houses, and a church witli a 
cupola. Pen and wash. 4 x j\ inches. 

A landscape, houses by a canal with trees 
and a small bridge. Pen. 5^ x 4!; inches. 

A Landscape, a cottage at the mouth of a 
canal, with a bridge. Black lead pencil. 
Andrcossy and Firmin Didot Collections. 

Two Studies from Nature : The Entrance to 
a Wood and The Margin of a Forest with a 
Pool. Black chalk. 3-$ x 5^ inches. 
Andreossy and Firmin Didot Collections. 

Mr. Edward Poynter, R.A. 

Study for a figure of Christ, half naked, 
seated, holding a reed in His hand. Signed, 
R. v. R. f. 1637. Pen, washed with sepia. 
5s x 3if inches. Parsons Collection. 

A lame Beggar, offering matches. Pen and 
sepia. 5^ x 3);} inches. Barton Graham 

Mr. George Salting. 

A Windmill, with a country-house sur- 
rounded by trees, and other buildings on the 
bank of a canal. Sepia wash. 5-^5 x 8 inches. 
Lawrence and James Collections. 

Two Studies of Elephants. Black chalk. 
7 x 6} j inches. 

A Man walking. Pen. 4 x 6 inches. 
Dimsdale and Woodburn Collections. 

A Woman with child, standing; on the 
reverse a young girl. Pen. 6 x 4 inches. 
Dimsdale and Woodburn Collections. 

A Woman seated, her head on her hand. 
Pen. 8 x 6 t V inches. Bale, Knight and 
Reynolds Collections. 

A Woman supporting a Child, who is trying 
to walk ; below, two women leading the child. 
Red chalk. ioi x log inches. Robinson 

Two old Men and a young Child, who 
seizes one of them by the hair. Pen. 
7 x 6J inches. Lawrence, Esdaile, and 
James Collections. 

The Workers in the Vineyard. Pen. 
6 x 7^ inches. Utterson Collection. 

The Star of the Kings carried through the 
streets at night by children. Signed Rem- 
brandt ; the following inscription by Zanctti 
on the reverse : " Designo capitale di Rem- 
brandt." Pen and wash. 8 x 12 inches. 
De Fries and James Collections. 

Saint Peter walking on the ll'ater to 
Christ. Pen. ~]\ x ii-, 1 ^ inches. Lawrence 
and Esdaile Collections. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. Pen and 
wash. 7 x io;j inches. 

A Persian Prince; copy of a Persian minia- 
ture. Wash, heightened with red. 7 x 4J- 
inches. Richardson, Selscy and Russell 

Hagar and Ishmacl, two compositions. 
Pen. The larger of the two represents the 
Dismissal. 8 x 9 inches. The other, Hagar 
and IshmacI on a Road. 5^ x 4 inches. 
Carcw Collection. 

The Prodigal Son ; he kneels near a trough 
from which the s\vinc are feeding. Pen. 
6j x 9} inches. James Collection. 

Tiuo Heads of the same II "oman, who wears 
a hood. Pen. 2" x 5 inches.- Bale Col- 

Jacob's Blessing. Pen. 4,";., x \\ inches. 
Ksdaile and Lawrence Collections. 

David refusing the Armour offered him 
for the fight with Goliath. Pen. 7 x 9! 
inches.-- Reynolds and James Collection. 

Mr. F. Seymour-Hadcn, Wooclcotc, Hants. 
(This collection was sold in London, June iSth, 
1891 ; the drawings acquired by M. Lcfon 
Bonnat we give elsewhere ; the greater 
number of those remaining were bought 
for America.) 

A House -with Fishing-nets and a boat. 
Pen and sepia wash. De Vos Collection. 

A Square in a Town. Pen and bistre. 
Reynolds and Richardson Collections. 

A Study of Pigs. Pen and bistre. 

Two Studies of Heads. Pen and bistre. E. 
Bouverie Collection. 

A Man walking with a young Woman. 

A Malefactor hanging from a Gibbet. Pen 
and bistre. De Vos and Esdaile Collections. 

A House. Pen and bistre. 

Study for the Death of the Virgin. Pen and 
bistre. 6 x ; inches. Galichon Collection. 

Two Women seated. Pen. 

A Man seated on the Threshold of his Door. 
Pen and bistre. Reynolds, Lawrence, and 
Esdaile Collections. 

David and Nathan. Pen and bistre. 
Lawrence, Esdaile and Richardson Collec- 


A House with a group of Trees. Pen and 
bistre. Ksdailc Collection. 

The Interior of a Picture Gallery, with a 
group of figures. Pen and bistre. Roupell 

A Landscape with Cottages. Pen and 

An Interior, with a woman and a sleeping 
child. Hudson and Richardson Collec- 

Lord Warwick, Warwick Castle. 

The Head of an old If an, full-face ; per- 
haps Rembrandt's father. Pen and wash. 
7i 5 iT x 6 inches. 

A Man in a Cap, seated, and gesticulating. 
Pen and sepia. 5^ x 4] inches. 

A Man standing, full-face, three-quarters 
length. Pen and sepia. 9.} x 7J; inches. 

1' art rait of a Man holding a Hut (the same 
person whose portrait in the Hoi ford Col- 
lection is signed and dated 1634). Black and 
red chalk. 

Saint Jerome praying before a crucifix. 
Pen and sepia. 7 ,% x 9i inches. 

A ll'onian on her Knees. Pen and sepia. 
5i x 4 inches. 

A Woman (Judith ?) holding a Sword, 
and several other figures. Pen and sepia. 
7 x iij inches. 

An Oriental seen from behind, and two 
women on the threshold of a house. Pen 
and sepia. 7o x 12 inches. 

An Indian holding an arrow. Pen and 
sepia. 7\ x 5 inches. 

A Landscape, view of a town with ramparts 
and a church. Pen and sepia. %\ x I2 

Study of a young Girl, partly naked, her 
hands clasped. Pen and sepia. 93 x 6| 

Life-study of a Woman lying down, seen 
from behind. Pen and sepia. 6i x II inches. 

Life-study of a Woman, kneeling. Pen 
and sepia.- 8'^ x 5;* inches. 


PARIS. Louvre. 

Tobias restoring his Fathers Sight. Study 
for the picture in the Arenberg Gallery (1634). 
Pen and bistre. "]-{\ t x 10 inches. 

Jacob's Dream. Pen, corrected with 
body-colour. 9g x 8} inches. Mariette Col- 

The Prodigal Son. Pen. 5 x gj inches. 

Tlie Samaritan paying the Host. Pen and 
bistre. 6g x 8}J inches. 

Calvary. Pen and bistre. 8 x 1 1 \ inches. 

Christ with two of the Apostles, a man 
kneeling before Him. Pen. 6j x 9^ inches. 

The Last Supper (/) Pen and bistre. 7j x 
1 1 ] ;] inches. Mariette Collection. 

Head of an old Man, in red chalk. Study 
for ths Saint Anastasius, at Stockholm. 

The Banks of a Canal. Pen and bistre. 
55 x log inches. 

Walls and Gothic Gateway of a Town. Pen 
and bistre. 7,^ x 10 inches. 

An old Man, and two Heads. Pen. John 
Barnard Collection. 

A Man seated at a Table, reading, near 
another person who is writing. Pen. 5 j x si 

A naked Woman, seated. Pen and bistre. 
S|X7| inches. 

A Youth (?) in a high cap. Pen and bistre. 
6i X 4H inches. Huquicr Collection. 

Hiist of a Man in a broad-brimmed hat. 
ISistre wash. 911 X7j inches. 

Study for the Saint Jerome engraved by J. 
van Vliet, in 1631. Red chalk with touches 
of black. 8 J x 6, 5 ff inches. 

A Young Woman seated in an arm-chair. 
Red chalk. 5jX4 inches. 

A Lion approaching a Corpse stretched on 
the ground. Brush and bistre. 5| x 8^ 

A Lion turned to the right, seen in profile. 
Brush and bistre. 6^ x 9^ inches. 

Rcmbrandfs Studio. Pen, washed with 
Indian ink and bistre. 6f x 9^ inches. His 
de la Salle Collection. 

Three standing Figures. Pen, washed 
with bistre ; arched above. 5^ x 4j inches. 
Lord Spencer and His de la Salle 

The Court of an Indian Prince, copy of an 
Indian miniature. Pen, washed with bistre. 
7^x7^ inches. Richardson, Houlditch, and 
His de la Salle Collections. 

The Disciples at Emmiius. Pen. 6i x 8{-$ 
inches. Mariette Collection. 

A Man reading. Pen, washed with bistre ; 
arched at the top. 6| x 4 inches. 

Life-study of a young Man, lying down. 
Pen, washed with bistre. 5^ x 7^ inches.- 
Mariette Collection. 


2 59 

A Landscape, with a Canal and a Bridge. 
Pen and bistre. 4f X4}$ inches. Mariettc 


Lot leaving Sodom. Pen, washed with 
bistre. 7f xgf inches. 

A young Woman seated, full face. Pen, 
washed with bistre. 8- l ', T x6, : ; f inches. 

Life-study of a young Man, seated, his 
hands crossed. Pen and bistre ; study for 
the etching. gj x 6| inches. 

M. Lt?on Bonnat. 

Portrait of Rembrandt, signed Rh. 1630. 
Pen, bistre, and body-colour. s,';., x 3 ,';.; 

A Man in a Cloak, turned three-quarters to 
the spectator. Pen. 3,",,- x 2,",,- inches. Sir 
J. Reynolds Collection. 

A Stream, with three boats, two of them 
with sails ; a town in the background. Bistre 
wash. 5$ x 6,-; v inches. Esdaile Collection. 

A Lawn with large Trees and figures. 
Pen and sepia. ;i x -j\\ inches. 

A landscape with large Trees, a glade in 
the middle. Bistre wash. 5.} x 7,^ inches. 
On the reverse, an autograph inscription by 
Rembrandt, consisting of a receipt for a 
mixture of oil of white turpentine with 
ordinary turpentine. 

A Road rising to a Bridge, with trees on the 
farther side of the water. Pen and sepia 
wash. 9,'j x 4! inches. 

A Hay-shed, in a meadow where two cows 
are feeding near some tall trees and a fence ; 
a road to the right. Pen and bistre. 
4 T s ff x lo-Jj inches. 

A Road by the Waterside ; houses and a 
spire in the background. Pen. 6}^ x y\ 
inches. Richard Cosway Collection. 

A Stream fringed with Trees, a bridge and 
houses in the middle. Pen. 4}g x yi inches. 

A Woman asleep in Bed. Pen. 3y' ! ff x 4^ 

A Youth lying on the Ground. Pen and 
bistre. 3 x 4^'$ inches. 

A bearded Man in a high cap bordered 
with fur. Black chalk. 5^ x 3! inches. 
Richardson Senior, John Thane, and A. Firmin 
Didot Collections. 

A Man seated at a Table, supporting a large 
book with his left hand. Pen. 3! x 3^ 
inches. Utterson Collection. 

A Man with a long Beard, seated near 
another man crouching before a grate, and 
holding a frying-pan in his hand. Pen. 
4$ x 5| inches. 

A Woman standing near a young woman, 
seated and weeping. Pen. 4^ x 4| inches. 
Esdaile Collection. 

An old Man seated near a Woman; to the 
left below, a child turning away from a dog, 
which is trying to take what he is eating. 
Pen. 4 ] '-' iT x 6 inches. 

Two kneeling Figures, one, half-naked, 
pressing against the other ; to the left, above, 
angels. (Abraham's Sacrifice?') Pen. sjx 
4j| inches. 

A High Priest enthroned ; a man standing 
beside him ; on the steps, a man kneeling, 
and uvo other persons standing. Pen. 
3];"; x 3;,! inches. E. Utterson Collection. 

Study for an Abraham's Sacrifice. Pen. 
-4 x 3i''iv inches. 

Another Study for the same. Pen. 5,^ x 
4$ inches. 

A Man in a liigh Cap, seated before a table. 
Pen, washed with reddish sepia. 6,% x 3};} 

The Disciples at Emmiius. Pen. 4^ x 
4,'V, inches. 

A Woman asleep, facing the spectator, her 
head in her hands. Sepia. 1\ x 2j inches. 

E. Utterson Collection. 

An old M'oman, her head swathed in a 
handkerchief. Bistre. 3 x 2^ inches. 

A Man in Bed. Pen. 3 x 5! inches. 
Andreossy Collection. 

A Woman raising her Hand to her 
Face. Pen. --3J x 3 inches. Andreossy Col- 

77/6' Beheading of John the Baptist. Pen. 

S-> x 5i*f inches. R. P. Roupell Collec- 

Two Persons in broad-brimmed Hats, 
perhaps a study for the Night Watch. Pen. 
4j x 2f inches. 

Beggars walking. Pen, washed with ink. 
4^ x 2^ inches. 

An old Woman standing, full-face ; and a 
sketch of a woman's head. Black chalk. 
3}f x 2j inches. 

A Man in a high Hat. Black chalk. 
44* x 3 inches. Andreossy Collection. 

A Woman holding a Child in her Arnn. 
Pen. 4$ x 2 inches. 

An old Man standing, leaning on a stick, a 
seated figure to the right. Pen and bistre. 
4 x 3 inches. Richardson Junior Col- 

A Man sheathing his Sword after behead- 
ing a man who lies at his feet. (The Behead- 
ing of John the Baptist?} Pen. 5f x 4$ 

An old Woman standing, her hand on the 

S 2 



shoulder of a youth. (The Departure of 
Tobias?} Pen and sepia. 61 x 3, !l ff inches. 

A Woman seated before a Table, shading 
her eyes from the flame of a taper. Sepia. 
5in x 4i'k inches. Sir J. Reynolds Col- 

A Woman seated, her hands crossed on 
her lap. Pen and bistre, with touches of 
white. 6,", v x 4$ inches. E. Utterson Col- 

A Woman seated, holding a child. Pen. 
6,'V, x 5jj- inches. 

Christ crowned with Thorns. Pen. 
~1\ x 6f, s inches. Sir J. Reynolds and Utter- 
son Collections. 

A Man standing, in a gown girt round the 
waist, a skull-cap on his head. Pen. 
"\ x 4];": inches. 

A Woman seated, praying, her hands 
clasped. Pen and bistre. On the reverse, 
a sketch of a woman holding a child. 
T ft, x 5', inches. 

Portrait of Saskia. Bistre and black chalk. 
7i<\ x 5-2 inches. N. Diaz Collection. 

A Woman seated, another figure in the 
light near a window ; in the shade, a man in 
a high cap. Bistre. 6J x yJ, inches. Wood- 
burn Collection. 

Tlie Head of a Man in a Turban, the end of 
which hangs down in a scarf; a bird of 
Paradise below. Pen, bistre, and white. 
6,4 x 6],V inches. 

Two Birds of Paradise. Pen, bistre, and 
white. 6| x b\\ inches. 

Study of a kneeling Camel. Bistre. Below, 
a camel's head. Pen. 6, s , v x 4j inches. 

Study of a Cow in a Stall. Bistre. 
5'K x 5s inches. 

A Pig standing up, another rolling on the 
ground beside him. Pen. \\^ x y-J inches. 

Three Heads of Lions. A sketch with the 
brush. 6j x 5^ inches. Esdaile Collection. 

A couchant Lion, the head in profile. 
Bistre. 5,% x 7^ inches. 

A couchant Lion, the head three-quarters 
to the front. Bistre. 5! x 8J inches. On 
the reverse," Rembrandt nat Leven." Henry 
Rcveley Collection. 

Joseph interpreting the Dreams (?}. An 
aged man on a throne, a man addressing him 
from the steps ; other persons grouped around. 
Pen. 7j x ioj inches. Richardson Junior 

An old Woman kneeling before an old 
Man at the mouth of a cave, a horse to the 
left. Bistre. 7^ x 9! inches. 

A young Woman kneeling to an old man ; 
a man in a turban advances towards them ; 

a globe on a table near. Pen and bistre. 
7s x 9s inches. Utterson Collection. 

Clirist standing, a man kneeling to Him, 
and other persons approaching. Pen. 
5g x gi inches. Sir J. Reynolds, Utterson, 
and Richardson Collections. 

Christ approaching a Boat in which are 
two fishermen. Bistre. 6j% x 9^ inches. 
\V. Ottley Collection. 

The Vision of Daniel. Sketch for the 
picture at Berlin. 6i x gf inches. Utterson 

Jesus in tlie midst of Hie Doctors. Pen 
and bistre. 6| x gi inches. W. Ottley Col- 

The Flight info Egypt. Pen and bistre. 
61 x 9g inches. Utterson and Russell Col- 

Study for tlie Hundred Guilder Print. Pen. 
7s x 9 iV inches. W. Esdaile Collection. 

Tlie Baptism of the Eunuch. Study for the 
etching. Pen and bistre. 6| x 10] inches. 

Life-study of a Man lying on the ground. 
Pen and bistre. 7jj x 9! inches. Utterson 

landscape with a watercourse, a road, and 
cottages. Bistre wash. 6- ] i \ x 1 1 f fi inches. 

A Landscape, with a bridge over a stream 
and houses under tall trees. Lead pencil. 
10 J x 1 1 1 inches. 

Judas bringing back the thirty Pieces of 
Sih>cr(?}. Pen. 8| x lojfinches. Richardson 
Junior and Sir J. C. Robinson Collections. 

An Old Man, leaning on a stick, and 
approaching a kneeling woman, near whom is 
a man carrying a basket ; in the background 
a town. Bistre wash. 6Jx6Jjf inches. 

A Woman seated at a Table, another woman 
standing near her with clasped hands ; below, 
and to the right several other figures, two of 
them kneeling. Pen. 4}f x 7$ inches. 

The Prodigal Son kneeling before his 
father. Pen and bistre. 7^ x 9^ inches. 

Life-study of a Youth, his left hand resting on 
a support. Pen and bistre. 9^ x 16^5 inches. 
Christ surrounded by several Persons, one 
of whom kneels before Him ; above, to the 
right, the head of an old woman. Pen. 
6 rV x 5 A inches. 

A Variation of the same Theme. Pen and 
bistre. 7^x6,% inches. On the reverse, a 
few words in Rembrandt's writing, and the 
signature Rembrandt van .... 

A Landscape -with Cottages, a stream, mills, 
and a village. Pen and bistre. 7/^x12 
inches. Lord Spencer Collection. 

The Angel Raphael with Tobias and his 
Family. Pen. 6| x 8^J inches. 



David playing the Harp before Saul. Pen 
and bistre. 8 T %x6f inches. A. Firmin 
Didot Collection. 

The Student of Leyden. Pen and bistre 
wash. 8| x 4$ inches. Richardson Senior 
and Junior Collections. 

Study for an Adoration of the Magi. Pen. 
7ix llj inches. Mourian Collection. 

An old Man praying, behind him, to the 
right, a figure in bed. Pen and bistre, with 
touches of white. 7^x7! inches. 

A Road between Trees. Sepia wash. - 
6 x 7 T % inches. 

An Indian Prince on Horseback, a falcon 
on his hand. Pen, lightly washed with red. 
8iJ x 7-ji'jj inches. W. Russell and Richard- 
son Junior Collections. 

Life study of a young Man, seated on a 
stool. Black chalk gj x 7 \ inches. \V. Es- 
daile Collections. 

Mercury and Argus. Pen and bistre. 
5f X7j inches. 

A Woman seated by a well with a dome ; 
she seems to see an apparition. Pen and 
bistre. 7i x 8f inches. Utterson Collection. 
Four Sketclics of Womcifs Heads. Pen. 
On the reverse, a sketch of cavaliers. Pen. 
7g x Jg inches. J. Richardson junior, John 
Thane, and R. P. Roupell. 

Tobias and the Angel by the waterside. 
Pen. 7^ x io| inches. J. Reynolds and 
Utterson Collections. 

Rembrandfs Studio, a replica (?) of the 
drawing in the His de la Salle Collection. 
Sepia. 7JX9^ inches. Marietta Collection. 
A Composition with many Figures (the 
Preaching of John the Baptist ?) in a simulated 
frame. Pen and bistre. 5^ x 7 inches. 

Tobias and the Angel by the waterside, a 
variation of the composition in the Albertina ; 
signed above, but not by the master's own 
hand, Rembrandt f. 1630. Pen. 8fJ x I2i 

A Cavalier -with a Sword, with two other 
persons, one of whom is showing him the 
way. Pen and bistre. 6j 3 5 x 7$ inches. 

A naked Man, kneeling. Pen. 3j x 3g 
inches. Sir J. Reynolds, Hudson and Sey- 
mour Haden Collections. 

A Woman with her hands clasped, looking 
mournfully at a dead man in a bed. Pen. 
6-i5r x 8J inches. 

A Woman standing near the daTs of a raised 
bed, advances towards some men (one of 
them in a helmet) partly hidden by a drapery. 
Pen. 6.V x 8J inches. 

A young Man kneeling to a King seated on 
his throne, and surrounded by his Court. 

(Joseph interpreting the Dreams?} Pen and 
bistre. ~]\ x 9^ inches. 

The Denial of St. Peter, a night effect. 
Reed pen and sepia. 7j x 10 inches. 
Lempereur and Seymour Haden Collections. 

A Woman seated, her head resting on her 
left hand ; above her, two wax candles. Pen 
and sepia. 7^ x sf g inches. Sir Th. Law- 
rence, R. Roupell, Esdaile, and Woodburn 

The unfaithful Servant. Pen. 6J- x 8J 
inches. Esdaile and Seymour Haden Collec- 

Clirist in the midst of the Doctors. Pen, with 
touches of white. 7-^ x ioj inches. Sir Th. 
Lawrence, Esdaile, and Seymour Haden Col- 

A Cottage. Pen and bistre. 4]^ x 6J 
inches. Esdaile and Seymour Haden Collec- 

Gateway at tlte Entrance of a Town. Pen 
and sepia. 51 x 9} inches. Seymour Ha- 
den Collection. 

A couchant Lion. Black chalk. 4^ x 5} 
inches. Seymour Haden Collection. 

Two couchant Lions. Bistre wash. 5^ x 
S},\ inches. 

A Staircase with a Landing. Black chalk 
and bistre. 5j x 3Jj{ inches. 

Due d'Aumale. Chant illy. 

The unfaithful Servant. Pen and wash. 55 
x 8J inches. Desperet Collection. 

A couchant Lion. Pen and wash. 5^ x 
QI'J inches. Denon and Reisct Collections. 

A Landscape, with a windmill and cows. 
Pen and bistre. ;i x 1 i j~ ff inches. 

A Landscape with large trees, washed with 
bistre. 5'{X6 inches. Reiset Collection. 

M. Eugene Dutuit. Rouen. 

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. 
Pen. 7j x b\\ inches. Ploos van Amstel and 
De Visscher Collections. 

M. Louis Galichon. 

Judas bringing back the thirty Pieces of 
Silver. Pen, washed with sepia, with touches 
of red chalk. 5^ x 6J inches. Em. Galichon 

A young Woman seated in an Arm-chair. 
Red chalk with touches of black. 5^ x 5| 
inches. Em. Galichon Collection. 

A young Woman in a broad-brimmed Hat. 
Pen. 4i%x3 I ( k inches. Andreossy and Em. 
Galichon Collections. 

A full length of a Woman, seen in profile. 
Pen. 5J x 4-,^ inches. Andreossy and Em. 
~~ Galichon Collections. 



Christ in the midst of His Disciples. Pen. 
7? x ii^y inches. Fcstctis and Firmin 
Didot Collections. 

Esther and Mordecai. Pen, washed with 
sepia. 7j x i2{-;j inches. Rumohr, Festctis, 
and Firmin Didot Collections. 

Study of a Man, full length. Black chalk. 
5ii x 4ui inches. Robert Dumesnil and 
Firmin Didot Collections. 

Peasants near a Cornfield. Pen. -6J x 9; 
inches. Em. Galichon Collection. 

M. PaulMathcy. 

A Man in an Arm-chair, meditating, a ter- 
restrial globe at his feet. Pen, washed with 
sepia, and touched with body-colour. 7,'^ x 
7.', inches. Count Soutcktclcw Collection. 

Portrait of a young Man in a Cap. Pen and 
bistre. 5^- x 4;! inches. Seymour I laden 

The \\~oundcd M'lin of the Parable of the 

Good Samaritan visited by Doctors. Pen and 
bistre. ~i\ x 9^ inches. E. Utterson and 
Soutcktelew Collections. 

A Man approaching a Woman with a 
child on her lap. Lead pencil. 4f x 6 

A Woman in full dress, seated in an arm- 
chair. Pen and bistre. 6, S x 5^ inches. 
Soutcktclcw Collection. 

M. Henry Pcrcirc. 

A Woman suckling her Child. Pen and 
sepia. Armand Collection. 

A Dutch Landscape, with houses, mills, and 
a drawbridge on a canal. Pen and sepia. 
"]\\ x I2j inches. Armand Collection. 

Baron Edmond de Rothschild. 

Portrait of Reinier Anslo. Study for the 
etching. Pen, washed with bistre, with touches 
of red chalk and body-colour. 9^ x y|g 
inches. Em. Galichon Collection. 


BKKUX.- Print Room of the Royal Museum. 

The Head of a M'oman. nearly in profile. 
Pen. -2.V x 2 t ~ ft inches. Hausmann Collec- 

A Man standing (a priest or apostle) ; to 
the left a kneeling woman ; a third person to 
the right. Pen. 4JJ- x 4^ inches. 

A young Woman seated before a table on 
which is a violin. Pen, washed with bistre. 
6;' x 7j| inches. On the reverse a head of a 
woman. Von Nagler Collection. 

Philemon and Baucis, a man seated at a 
table in the foreground, a figure seated on the 
ground by a fire, and in the background to 
the left, another figure, standing ; inscribed : 
" d. onde filemon on van t mcs in d mond en 
d hand op d vlocr omgeswicht?" Pen 
sketch. 5-, : iy x 7-^ inches. J. D. Bohm and 

^ Beggar in a large hat, walking towards 
the right. Black chalk. 6}j|- x 3 inches. 
Hausmann Collection. 

The Circumcision; a high priest, an assist- 
ant, the parents, and spectators. Pen, washed 
with sepia. 8 x \\{^ inches. Lawrence, 
Esdaile and Suermondt Collections. 

A Landscape, with a bridge over a stream, 
a cottage, and trees. Black chalk. 31$ x 
5! inches. 

A landscape, with a stream and two boats, 
houses and trees. Black chalk. 3| x 6^- 
A Landscape, with two low-roofed cottages 

and a pool ot water! Sketch in chalk. 
3i 7 " x 6} inches. J. D. Bohm and W. 
Roller Collections. 

A Landscape, a road by a stream, with 
houses and trees. Black chalk. 35 x 6 
inches. On the reverse, a half-length figure 
of a man, sketched with a few strokes. 

A Man seated on a Mound, and on an emi- 
nence beyond, a house surrounded by trees. 
Pen. 8j' l ff x I3j inches. Blokhuyzen and 
Suermondt Collections. 

An old Woman seated in an arm-chair, hold- 
ing a book in her left hand. Pen. 6 x 6|f 
inches. On the reverse, the head of a bearded 
man in a high turban. Pen. Von Nagler 

Ati old Man seated in an arm-chair, his head 
slightly bowed, his hands clasped. Red chalk, 
with touches of black. 8^f x 6y inches.-- 
Ploos van Amstel, Dapper and Suermondt 

Saskia in a large straw hat, holding a flower 
in her hand ; with the following autograph 
inscription by Rembrandt : " dit is naer rnyn 
huysvrou geconterfeyt do 21 yaer ond 
was den derden Dach als wy getrondt 
waere de 8 e Yunyns 1633." Lead pencil on 
parchment. 7j% x 4^ inches. 

Rembrandt, a bust, full face, with bare head. 
Pen, heightened with wash. 4}f x 5/5 
inches. Sir Th. Lawrence and Esdaile 

Christ bearing His Cross. The Saviour 



sinking beneath the weight of the Cross, the 
Virgin fainting ; to the left one of the thieves, 
bearing his cross. Pen. ;j x io{ inches. 

Bust Portrait of Andrea Doria, in profile, 
with an autograph inscription by Rembrandt : 
"Andreas d. Aurca, hartog van Genuwa." 
Pen. 6 x 8 inches. Sir J. Robinson Col- 

A Woman seated, in Eastern dress. Pen, 
sepia wash, and touches of white. 7j x 6g 

A Man with ii long Beard, in a large hat, 
standing. Black chalk on Chinese paper. 
5$ x 3i- inches. 

A Woman carrying a Sack on her shoulder, 
a little girl walking beside her, and an old 
woman seen from behind. A sketch in black 
chalk. 3i x 4$ inches. 

77/6' Descent from the Cross; the Virgin, 
three other kneeling women, and two men 
standing surround the winding-sheet. On the 
reverse, an erotic subject. Pen sketch. 
6}jf x 6^ inches. 

The Annunciation, the Virgin seated to the 
left, to the right the Angel, with his right arm 
uplifted. A drawing by F. Bol, corrected with 
bold, masterly strokes by Rembrandt. Red 
chalk, heightened with bistre, and touched 
with white. 6g x 9^ inches. Lawrence, 
Esdaile and Bale Collections. 

A Landscape; a plain with a watercourse ; 
to the left a herd of cows, a woman milking 
one of them. Pen and wash. Lawrence, 
Esdaile and Bale Collections. 

Sketches of seven Heads, or half lengths of 
men and women on a single sheet. Pen. 
7iV x 7r% inches. Lawrence, Esdaile and 
Bale Collections. 

A Sheet of Sketches of men, women, and a 
weeping child. Pen. 8JJ x 7$ inches. Legay, 
Esdaile and Bale Collections. 

A Landscape with two cottages and a group 
of six peasants. On the reverse, another 
Landscape with a road, and a town with a 
church spire. Lead pencil on parchment. 
4y>5 x 7^5 inches. Esdaile and Bale Col- 

Study of a Woman, richly dressed, stand- 
ing, her left hand on her hip. Pen, lightly 
washed, and touched with white. 5, 7 5 x 3! 
inches. J. Thane, W. Esdaile and A. Posonyi 

Study for an Entombment. Pen and sepia. 
4& x 5& inches. E. Durand and Posonyi 

The Descent from the Cross. Pen and sepia, 
touched with white. yJJ x 8j% inches. 
Posonyi Collection. 

Cain and Abel offering their sacrifices. \ 'en 
and sepia, heightened with white. Mariclt.' 
Beurnonville and Posonyi Collections. 

A Woman with Spectacles, seated, reading. 
Pen and sepia. 4j x 2g inches. Pulszky, 
Von Rath, and Posonyi Collections. 

Christ taken down from the Cross, His 
followers weeping round His corpse. Pen 
and sepia, heightened with white. 5^ x 7;' 
inches. Pulszky, Von Rath, and Posonyi Col- 

Pyrainus with Thisbe kneeling beside him. 
Pen and sepia. 6^5- x 7^ inches. Pulszky, 
Von Rath, and Posonyi Collections. 

Pyrainus and Tliisbe. Pen and sepia. - 
4/ii x 7s inches. S. Zoort, Dreux, and Posonyi 

Thisbe kneeling by the Corpse of Pyramus. 
Pen and sepia. 10,''^ x 7| inches. Bohm, 
(iscll, Von Rath, Pulszky, and Posonyi Col- 

A Landscape with two cottages under large 
trees. Pen and sepia. 7." x I2|- inches.-- 
Pulszky, Von Rath, and Posonyi Collections. 

Study for the Group of sick Persons in the 
Hundred Guilder Print (the composition re- 
versed). Pen and sepia. 5},} x 7 j s rt - inches. 
Fcstctis and Bohm Collections. 

Jacob's Dream, two angels and two cherubs 
on the steps of the mystic ladder. Pen and 
sepia. 7J x 7} inches. 

The Good Samaritan. Pen and sepia. 
6.' x 7},\ inches. Gavet, Pulszky, Von Rath, 
Engcrt and Posonyi Collections. 

The Rest in Jtgypt, the angel directin ; 
Joseph. Pen and sepia, heightened with 
white. 5J x 7$ inches. Andreossy, Beurnon- 
ville, Gigoux and Posonyi Collections. 

The Prodigal Son's Depart lire. Pen and 
sepia. 7, ft lS x ioj;| inches. Pulszky, Von 
Rath, Posonyi and Gsell Collections. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives, the Apostles 
asleep. Pen and sepia. 7 x gj inches. 
Lawrence, Esdaile, Desperet, Galichon and 
Posonyi Collections. 

Tobit and his Wife with the Goat. Pen. 
5iff x 7ii inches. Pulszky, Von Rath an:l 
Posonyi Collections. 

Judith and her Attendant entering the tent 
of Holofernes ; two other women near. Pen. 
6|x6f inches. Pulszky, Von Rath, and 
Posonyi Collections. 

A Man praying before a Crucifix, another 
man kneeling beside him. Pen and sepia. 
6$ x 7^ inches. W. Roller and Posonyi Col- 

An Oriental Prince giving audience (Joseph 
and his brethren ?) ; a man kneeling before 



him and three other persons near. Pen. 7 
X7 t V inches. Pulszky, Von Rath, Koller 
and Posonyi Collections. 

Philemon and Baucis. Pen. 5* x 5^r inches. 
Bohm, Pulszky, Von Rath, Festctis, and 
Posonyi Collections. 

An Oriental, richly dressed; to the right a 
figure seen from behind ; between them a 
third figure, lightly sketched. Pen. 6^x5^ 
inches. Bohm and Posonyi Collections. 

Three Jews conversing. Pen, on Japanese 
paper. 4l;.;x2 1 1 j{ inches. Van der Schafft, 
Habich and Posonyi Collections. 

An Oriental, in a cap and a large cloak. 
Pen. 4] s ,y x2 i;} inches. On the reverse, 
horsemen at the gateway of a town. 
Reynolds, Lawrence, Esdailc and Posonyi 

An Oriental in a turban; another figure, 
very lightly sketched, beside him. Black 
chalk. 4} i;x 2] ;f inches. Pulszky, Von Rath 
and Posonyi Collections. 

An Oriental, nearly in profile, leaning on a 

stick. Pen. 5^ x 3] inches. Estcrhazy, 

Pulszky, Von Rath, and Posonyi Collections. 

A Man in a Cloak and a high hat, a woman 

to the left. Pen. 4,'ij x 3,';, inches. 

A liov taking offhis Shoes. On the reverse, 
the head of a beardless man in a fur cap. 
Pen and sepia. 4};| x 2} J inches. Bohm, 
Pulszky, Von Rath and Posonyi Collec- 

A Village by a Canal ; in the centre, a house 
with a high gable end. Pen, on red tinted 
paper. 2|jx6:j inches. Van der Willigen, 
Hebich and Posonyi Collections. 

The Poet Vondel in front of his house. Pen 
and red chalk with wash. 8, fl ( yX9j inches. 
De Vos Collection. 

The Last Supper, after Leonardo da Vinci. 
Signed, and dated 1635. Pen. 5, : "; v x 1 5 

A Child in a Passion, carried away by its 
mother. Pen and wash. SJxjf inches. 
De Vos Collection. 

The blind old Woman. She leans on a 
stick, and lays her left hand on the shoulder 
of a child ; below, a beggar. On the reverse, 
a man in a fur-trimmed cap. Pen. 7^ x 6} ,} 
inches. Th. Hudson, Reynolds, Lawrence, 
Esdaile, De Kat and De Vos Collections. 

A Sheet of Sketches of figures and heads. 
Pen and sepia. 6^ x 7} \ inches. Lawrence 
and Esdaile Collections. 

Manoah and his Wife, startled at the sight 
of the angel who announces the birth of Sam- 
son. Pen and sepia. 6J x 7^ inches. On 
the reverse, the half-length figure of a man 

with one arm outstretched. Sir Th. Lawrence 
and Esdaile Collections. 

BREMEN. Museum (Kunsthalle). 

Dromedaries, a study from nature. Black 
chalk. Dated 1633. 

DRESDEN. Royal Museum. 

Abraham's Sacrifice. Pen, arched at the 
top. 7^ x 6J- inches. 

Samson struggling with a Lion. Pen 
sketch. 7 x \o\ inches. 

Saul falling upon his Sword. Pen, 
heightened with bistre. 6}f x 8 inches. 

The Judgment of Solomon (?). Pen and 
bistre; the signature a forgery. 7 J x 12^ 

Gods Covenant with Abraham. Pen, 
arched at the top. 7}$ x io| inches. 

Joseph interpreting the Dreams. Pen. 
7j x 7 inches. 

The Angel showing the Fish to Tobias, 
who recoils in alarm. Pen. 6j% x 6^ 

The Angel leaving Tobias and his Family ; 
study for the picture in the Louvre. Pen. 
7}^* x 7 inches. 

An old A fan seated, teaching a kneeling 
Child to read (7). Pen. 7% x 9^ inches. 

The Angel announcing the Birth of John 
the Baptist to Zachariah. Pen. 7| x io^f 

The Adoration of the Shepherds (f). Pen, 
heightened with bistre. 6J x 8J- inches. 
The Circumcision. Pen. 8J x 8j a ff inches. 
The I'irgin with the Infant Jesus, a 
reminiscence of Raphael's Madonna della 
Scdia. Pen. 7| x 6| inches. 

Jesus among the Doctors. Pen, washed 
with sepia ; the signature forged. 7f x 8 

The Baptism of Christ. Pen, heightened 
with wash. 6i x lofg inches. 

The Temptation. Pen sketch. 7^5- x 8{J 

The Departure of the Prodigal Son (.?). Pen 
with wash. 7 x loj inches. 

The Return of the Prodigal Son. Pen and 
wash. 7 1 7 , r x loj inches. 

A Vessel on a stormy Sea. Pen sketch for 
the Deepdene picture, St. Peter's Boat in the 
Storm. 7j x u|jj inches. 

The Flagellation. Pen, heightened with 
bistre. 7j s ff x lo^j inches. 

Ecce Homo. Red chalk. 13^ x I of inches. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives. Pen. 
7\ x 6| inches. 

The Holy Women weeping over the body of 
Christ. Pen. 7] x loj inches. 



The Entombment. Pen, arched at the top. 
9& * 7j% inches. 

Christ appearing to the Magdalene. Pen. 
~!\ x \o\ inches. 

An Oriental Chief vanquishing his enemy. 
Pen and bistre. 1\ x 8J inches. 

An Oriental standing by a Woman who is 
lying down. Pen, arched at the top. 

A naked Man kneeling, in a landscape (St. 
Jerome?) Pen. 5^ x 4] inches. 

An old Man praying (.-). Pen. 5^ x 5^ 

A Man in Eastern dress, standing. Pen. 

7.' x 9^ inches. 

The Rape of Ganymede. Sketch for the 
Dresden picture (1635). Pen, heightened with 
wash. 7 1 x 6-, 5 , v inches. 

Diana surprised by Ac/icon. Pen, height- 
ened with bistre, the signature forged. 
9}?! x '3U inches. 

Tlie Minister Swalmius. Sketch in black 
chalk for the portrait in the Antwerp Museum 
(1637). Forged signature. 9 x 6| inches. 

An old Man with a cap and stick, seated. 
Pen and bistre. ,J x 4J? inches. 

A young Woman in bed. Pen and bistre. 

5il x 5i inches. 

A young Man in a broad-brimmed Hat (?"). 
Pen and bistre. 7] x 5 ,'',. inches. 

A Geographer (?). Pen, heightened with 
bistre. 8, 7 , y x 6; inches. 

An old Beggar. Sketch in black chalk. 
(About 1630.) 10 x i\ inches. 

An old Woman asleep. Black chalk. 
(About 1630.) 9};{ x -j\ inches. 

An old II 'oman, seated. Pen. 4f x 4| inches. 

An old Man looking out of window. Pen 
and wash. 6| x 4^ inches. 

A young Girl in a large Hood, seated ; to 
the right, a sketch of her head in profile. 
Pen. 4 x 4\% inches. 

Two Women, and a Child in Swaddling- 
clothes. Pen sketch, with bistre. 5^ x 4f 

A Man, and a Woman holding a Child, 
seated at table (?). Pen and bistre wash. 
5 x 6jf inches. 

A Hawking Party (/). Pen sketch. 
8^ x 9?i inches. 

A three quarters length Figure, a Man, 
full length, and a Woman seated. Pen and 
bistre. Above : a sketch of two persons, an 
old and a young man ; sketches in ink, per- 
haps for the etching, The three Crosses. 
(B. 78.) 7}J x lo^. inches. 

Two Persons taking leave. Pen and sepia, 
rounded at the upper corners. 7, !> s - x 9}^ 

A Woman in Bed, and, to the right, four 
other persons. Pen. 7^ x lof inches. 

Tivo Men in a Farmyard with a donkey, 
another man at a door. Pen, heightened with 
wash, arched above. 7 x 12 inches. 

A Man seated at a Table. Pen. \\ j x 4-^ 

Two Persons at a door. Pen sketch. 
~1\ x 8|- inches. 

Study of a Man, seated, seen from behind (?). 
Pen sketch, heightened with sepia. 8^ x 6J 

Study of a Man, seated, looking to the 
right (?). Sketch with pen and brush. 
7j x 5J- inches. 

A M'oman lying down, her face in profile. 
Pen sketch. 5^ x 6J inches. 

A young Man asleep, perhaps a study for 
the Antiopc. Pen and brush. 7]- x 5$ 

A young Man seated and reading (/). Pen 
and brush. 6J;J x 4j inches. 

A young Man standing and dropping a 
pike (?). Pen and bistre wash. 9! x 7^ 

Two Heads of Camels (>}. Pen. 4} x 6Jf 

Studies of Lions (/}. Pen and chalk. 
7};{ x 6J inches. 

Study of a Lion. Pen and wash. 5$ x 6| 

A Farm surrounded by Trees. Pen study, 
perhaps for the etching of 1641 (B. 225.), the 
signature forged. I2}ii x 7] inches. 

A Cottage and a Tree. Pen sketch, perhaps 
for the etching of 1650 (B. 217.). 6i x 9^ 

The Gate of a Town, with a distant back- 
ground. 7 x loj inches. 

The Moat about a Town, with houses and 
a windmill. Pen and wash. 6 J x gf inches. 

A group of Trees in front of a Cottage. 
Pen and wash. Perhaps a study for the 
etching of 1636 (B. 224.). si x 8-^ inches. 

A Cottage surrounded by Trees. Pen sketch, 
perhaps for the etching of 1641 (B. 226.), 
4 x "U inches. 

View of the Ramparts of a Town. Pen and 
bistre. 6| x 10 inches. 

The Market Place at Rotterdam (?). Pen 
and wash. 6^ X 8 T : V inches. 

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN. Stadel Institute. 

The Crucifixion. Pen and sepia. 
The rest in Egypt. Pen. 
A Man standing. Pen. 
St. Peter delivered from Prison (?~). Pen, 
washed with bistre. 



The Temptation. Pen. 

Study of an old Man for Lot and liis 
Daughters. Red chalk. Signed and dated 

Two Men conversing. Pen. 

A Woman seated, study from the antique. 

David and Saul. Pen, heightened with 

HAMHURG. Kunsthallc. 

Hagar and the Angel. Pen. 7^x9-; 

Head of a young Man, perhaps Rembrandt 
himself. Black chalk. 

Study of a naked Woman lying on a bed. 
Black chalk. 

A House under large Trees, study. Pen 
and bistre. De Baillie Collection. 

An Alley of Trees. Pen and bistre. 

St. Jerome praying. Pen and bistre. 9 ^ 
x 7 inches. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives, the angel 
ministering to Him. Pen and bistre. /J x 
12 inches. 

MUNICH. Royal Collection of Drawings and 

The Angel showing Hagar the Well. 

Jacob's Blessing. Black chalk. 

The Flight into Egypt, the angel appearing 
to Joseph and Mary. Pen. 

The Adoration of the Magi, two sketches 
in black chalk, and one with the pen. 

The Triumph ofMordecai. Pen and bistre. 

77;i? Circumcision (?). Pen. 

The Annunciation to the Shepherds, a night 
effect. Bistre wash. 

The Ascension. Pen. 

Christ among the Doctors. Pen, heightened 
with red. Below, an inscription, perhaps by 
Rembrandt's own hand, alluding to the 
sacred story ; drawn on the back of an invita- 
tion to a funeral. 

Christ among the Doctors. Pen. A dif- 
ferent composition. 

The Angel ministering to Christ in the 
Garden. Pen. 

The Angel seated on the Stone of the 
Sepulchre. Pen. 

The Repentance of St. Peter. 

St. Jerome asleep. Bistre wash. 

Study for the Baptism of the Eunuch, 
engraved by J. van Vliet (1631). Pen. 

A woman reading from a large Book on a 
table, a crucifix beside her. (The Magdalene ?) 

An Oriental, standing before a table, with a 
sceptre ; on the other side a weeping woman, 
and another with her hands clasped. Pen 
and bistre. 

The Banquet of Claudius Civilis, study for 
the composition painted for the Stadhuis, the 
central portion of which is now in the Stock- 
holm Museum. Pen and bistre, sketched on 
the back of an invitation to a funeral. 

A Man kneeling before a Priest, and other 
persons. Pen. 

A Cavalry Skirmish. Pen, washed with 

A Carriage drawn with great difficulty by 
Horses. Signed and dated 1630. Black 

A Sleigh, with a man standing up and 
another running. The signature and date, 
1639, forged ; the horse by another hand. 

A Woman lying down; study in red 

A Woman standing before the fire ; to the 
left another person. Pen, washed with sepia. 

Bust of a Woman in a Cap. Pen and 

A Woman, seated, full face, a veil on her 
head and a roll of papers on her lap. Bistre 
wash, lightly tinted with red. 

A Woman in Bed, a seated figure at her 
feet. Pen. 

A sick Woman in Bed, her hands clasped. 
(Saskia ?). Pen. 

Rembrandt painting a study of a Woman. 

A Painter at his Easel ; to the right a 
woman, seated, with a child. Pen. 

An artist painting the Portrait of a 
W'oman; a variation on the above. Pen. 

A young Girl reading at a Window. Pen 
and bistre. 

Two studies of a. Child in a Cradle. 

A Man reading at a Window. Pen and 

A High Priest in his Robes. Pen and 

A Study of Ducks. 

A couchant Lion. Pen and bistre. 

A Lion rising from the Ground. Pen and 

A Horse attacked by a Lion, kicking. Pen. 

A Landscape, with a village, and a far- 
reaching horizon. Bistre wash. 

WEIMAR. Goethe's House. 

An old Man fainting, two men supporting 
him ; and three other sketches on the same 
sheet. Pen. 5^ x 4^ inches. 

A Sheet of Sketches ; three full face heads 
of the same woman, and two women with a 
child. Pen. 7^ x 5| inches. 

Lot and his Daughters. Pen. 5^$ x 7^ 



Mr. A. von Beckcrath. 

Susanna at the Bath; she is turned full face 
to the spectator, and endeavours to cover 
herself on perceiving the Elders. Pen and 
sepia. 5]j; x 6} j inches. Lord Egmont and 
Roupell Collections. 

Susanna at the Balk j she is seated on a 
bench, the Elders behind her. Signed below 
R. f. Red chalk. 9] x 14^ inches. Gigoux 
and Andrcossy Collections. 

David and Jonathan (?) in a landscape. Pen 
and sepia. 5, : ; r x 8i inches. 

Esther, Ahasucrits, and Haitian. Pen and 
sepia. 6| x SJ inches. Goll van Francken- 
stein Collection. 

Nathan and David. Pen and sepia. 5| 
x 6}jj inches. Klinkosch Collection. 

ManoaKs Sacrifice ; his wife stands beside 
him, and turns away her head at the sight 
of the angel. Pen and sepia. 6g x 8 inches. 
Roupell Collection. 

The Dismissal of Hagar. Pen and sepia. 
7| x 8},} inches. 

The Dismissal of Hagar. Pen and sepia. 
5j x 6 inches. 

facob and Esau. Pen and sepia. 6j x 
S, 1 ^ inches. 

Jacob's Dream. Pen and sepia. 7| x yf 

Study for Jacob's Dream. Pen and sepia. 
4 x 5^ inches. Lawrence and Esdaile 

Isaac blessing Jacob ; Rebecca stands beside 
the bed. Pen and sepia. 4};} x 6] ;; inches. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives. Pen and 
sepia. 7^ x 9^ inches. Lawrence, Esdaile, 
and Roupell Collections. 

Christ before Herod (or Ca'iaphas ?). Pen 
and sepia. 6 x 7 j inches. Roupell Collec- 

The Entombment. Pen and sepia. 6J x 9 
inches. Klinkosch and Festetis Collections. 

The Prodigal Son (?) Pen and sepia. 
7fs x 8f inches. 

The Raising of faints' Daughter. Pen and 
sepia. 7j x 7j inches. On the reverse, a 
small head of a young man. Seymour Haden 

The Betrayal of Christ. Judas approaches 
to kiss Him. Pen and sepia. "]\ x 8 J inches. 

Christ blessing little Children. Pen and 
sepia. 8^ x ii| inches. Woodburn and 
Roupell Collections. 

Study for a Descent from the Cross. Pen 
and sepia. lo^ x 8$ inches. Van der Willi- 
gen, Temminck, Hooft and Van der Schafft 

Pilate giving Judgment (?) A composition 

of numerous figures. Pen and sepia. 8^% x 
iOj% inches. Klinkosch and Festetis Col- 
lections. Engraved by Bartsch. 

The Presentation in the Temple. Pen and 
sepia. 7^ x 9^ inches. Roupell and l)c 
Vries Collections. 

The Good Samaritan. The wounded man 
in bed ; the Samaritan giving money to the 
host. Pen and sepia. 5^ x 9 inches. 

Christ healing the Sick (/) Pen and sepia, 
lightened with a few touches. 7A x 9? 

The W'orkers in tlie Vineyard. Pen and 
sepia. 6];;- x 9^ inches. 

The Adoration of the Magi. Pen and sepia. 
6^ x 9 inches. Klinkosch and Festetis 

Study for a Holy Family (/) Pen and sepia. 
4-,\f x 54 inches. Roupell Collection. 

The ll'/ifow's Mite. Pen drawing, heigh- 
tened with sepia, and very carefully finished. 
"1 x 12] inches. Woodburn, Esdaile, 
Lawrence, and Roupell Collections. 

Study of an old Man seated. Pen and sepia. 
3;| x 2] IJ ft inches. Klinkosch Collection. 

Tii'o Men conversing. Pen, washed with 
ink. 5}, x 3|,f inches. 

Study of a Man in a Turban. Pen and 
sepia. 4? x 4i inches. 

Two S/udies of Men on the same sheet. 
Pen and sepia. 2.' x 2^ and 2j x 2^ inches. 
Seymour Haden and Bouverie Collections. 

Study of a Man in a high Cap. Pen and 
sepia. 47 x 3,^ inches. On the reverse, some 
lightly sketched outlines of figures. 

A blind Beggar, with a child and a dog. 
Black chalk. 5 x 3^ inches. 

Study of seven \Vomen seated near a stair- 
case. Pen and sepia. 73 x 4} j inches. 

Study of an old Man, seated, full face. Pen 
and sepia. 3^ x 2^ inches. Klinkosch Col- 

A young Man seated and reading. Pen 
and sepia. 3^ x 4^ inches. Dimsdale and 
Esdaile Collections. 

Sketch of a Man, bust. Pen and sepia. 
3^ x 2& inches. Gigoux Collection. 

Sketch of a Man writing, facing to the 
front. Pen and sepia. 3^ x 3^ inches. 
Gigoux Collection. 

Study of a U'oman, seated, half naked, 
probably for a Susanna. Black chalk. An- 
dreossy and Gigoux Collections. 

Two Studies of Men's Heads on a single 
sheet. Chalk. 4^ x 4^ inches, and 2{ x 3 
inches. Gigoux Collection. 

Five small Heads on a single sheet : i. A 
young Man with long hair. Pen and sepia. 



lyV x lit inches. 2. An old Woman 
I |J x I ,'lf inches. 3. A young Girl with long 
hair. Red chalk. 2j x 2 inches. 4. A 
grotesque Head with open mouth. Light 
chalk (?). ijx ij'jj- inches. 5. Head of a Man 
with a bandage over one eye. Light chalk 
ij x il inches. 

An old Alan seated and reading. Black and 
red chalk, very carefully finished. 1 1 , 7 lT x 8J 

An Interior, with a bullock's (?) carcase 
hanging up, and several figures. Pen, very 
boldly washed with a broad brush. j{ x 7j 

An allegorical Composition ; a man seated, 
Death advancing towards him. Pen and sepia. 
9fer x 7s inches. (Belisarius (?).) In the 
foreground a beggar, to whom a man is giving 
alms, another man standing by. Above, an 
inscription of seven lines, in which the name 
Belisarius seems to occur. Pen and sepia. 
Posonyi Collection. 

A Landscape, with the framework of a boat, 
and workmen. Pen and sepia. 5; x 9^5- 

Study for the Syndics, a free sketch for the 
three figures to the left. Outlines of some of 
the other figures. Pen and sepia. 7 x 8J 
inches. Gigoux Collection. 

A Pair of Lovers, a young man with his 
arm round a young girl's neck. Pen and sepia, 
with touches of white. 6 x 2J ! inches. 

Study for a Mountebank. Pen and sepia. 
7iir x 5jj inches. Bohm Collection. 

The Conversation, two men talking. Pen 
and sepia. 4] j x 3^ inches. Gigoux Col- 

The Wounded Man; another man tending 
him ; and two persons looking on pityingly. 
Pen and sepia. 4^ x 4!- inches. Roupell 

Study of a Landscape, with houses and 
trees. Black chalk. 4^ x 6^ inches. An- 
dreossy and Gigoux Collections. 

A Landscape, with a cottage and a tree ; 
a road to the left. Pen and sepia. 5! x 9,-^ 

A Stream, with boats ; houses and a mill 
in the distance. Pen and sepia. 4^ x io}$ 

A group of Trees and a building. Pen and 
sepia. 34 x 6| inches. On the reverse a 
Study of an Interior. Roupell Collection. 

A group of Trees, with water and boats. 
Pen and sepia. 4 x 6i. Roupell Collec- 

A Stream, with trees to the left, and on the 
right a road, with a man and a child. Black 

chalk. 4j x 7^ inches. Andreossy and 
Gigoux Collections. 

A Road, with a woman and a child seen 
from behind. Pen and sepia. 3! x 9 T fl ff 
inches. On the reverse : fragment of a man 
kneeling, in red chalk, with touches of black. 

A Pond, with trees on the banks. Pen and 
sepia, with touches of violet. 5^ x yf 

A Landscape, with a tree in the middle, 
and a hut to the right. Black chalk. 
6/n x 9i'i'i inches. Gigoux Collection. 

The Temptation of Saint Anthony, in the 
centre the Saint, seen from behind, on the 
right a devil addressing him. Pen and sepia. 
6! x 6]fj inches. Maris Collection. 

Mr. K. Habich. Casscl. 

A Lion Hunt. Pen. 

The good Samaritan. Pen and bistre. 
Dated 1644. 

I'icta, the holy women and St. John round 
the Saviour's corpse. Pen. 

An Interior, an old man reading by the 
fireside, his wife listening. Pen. 

Prince George of Saxony's Collection. 

(All these drawings, except the last three, 
arc from the J. G. A. Fensel Collection, sold 
at Dresden, August 7, 1837.) 

Lot and his Daughters. Pen. 5! x 6| 

Sara conducting Hagar to Abraham (?). 
Pen. 6, : i, x 7J,V inches. 

Hagar and Ishmael in the Desert. Pen and 
sepia. 55 x 6i inches. 

Esther, Ahasuerus, and Hainan, at table (?). 
Pen and wash. A replica, with variations, of 
a drawing in the Munich Collection. 3}-| x 
9, 7 ,., inches. 

A young Oriental, richly dressed, on a 
camel. Pen and bistre. ~]\ x 4^ inches. 

An old Man and a Woman, in a vaulted 
interior. Pen and wash. 6| x gj inches. 

An Angel -with four Persons, a Scriptural 
subject (?). Pen and wash. 7y% x 9^ inches. 

The Tribute-money (?). Pen and wash. 
8 x 7i inches. 

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper. A copy 
in red chalk. Signed Rembrant. 10/3- x 
1 8} J inches. 

St. Peter delivered from Prison (?). Pen 
and wash. 7^ x 12^ inches. 

Mercury and Argus. Pen and wash. 7^ x 
loj inches. 

Pyramus and Thisbe. Pen and wash. 5 \ x 
6i inches. 

A Study of two full-length Figures in cloaks, 



and a head in a broad-brimmed hat. Sketch 
with the brush. 5 x 3j inches. 

Head of a bearded Man, profile. Black 
chalk. 3| x 2 ,'-5- inches. 

Study of an old Man, erroneously called 
Sylvius or Justus Lipsius. On the reverse, 
an inscription of two lines, perhaps by 
Rembrandt's own hand. Pen. j| x 4],^ 

A Woman standing, with two children. 
Pen. 5 T ^ T x 5 inches. 

A Beggar, turned to the left. Black chalk. 
1 5s x 3l inches. 

A blather holding her Child, another child 
on a chair near a cradle. Pen sketch. 3J x 
3f inches. 

An old Woman walking, and sketches of 
five heads. 5^x9' inches. 

An old \\'otnan in a large Hood, seated. 
Black chalk. ji x 4,"^ inches. 

A Mountebank in a Market (/). Pen and 
wash. 7j| x 6;j inches. 

E/is/m's Miracle on the Jordin (/). A 
Scriptural subject, probably by one of Rem- 
brandt's pupils, with corrections by the master. 
Brush and bistre. 7] ;J x 7; inches. 

A Landscape, with a wide road, a canal, 
houses and trees. Pen and wash. 5^ x loj 

Houses and Groups of Trees by the water- 
side. Pen. -2i x S\ inches. 

A Man coining downstairs, supported by 
another person. Pen and wash. Forged 
signature. 6 x 4! inches. 

A ruined Cottage, with a fallen tree. Pen 
and wash. 4j x 6}j inches. 

An old Man leaning on a Stick, in a land- 
scape. Pen, with touches by another hand. 
The signature a forgery. 4j x 2| inches. 

Dr. Striiter. Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Christ in the Garden of Olives. Pen, 
washed with bistre. 6},\ x 8j inches. Vis 
Blokhuyzen Collection. 

The Entombment. Pen ; on the reverse, 
a study for the etching, The Beheading of 
John the Baptist. (B. 92.) 10 x 7^ inches. 
Vis Blockhuyzen Collection. 

Two Men and a Woman. Pen. 3}j x 5' 
inches. Six and Vis Blokhuyzen Collec- 

An old Man, seated. Pen. Galichon and 
Sucnnondt Collections. 

Three Sheets of Sketches, heads of men 
and women. Pen. Galichon and Suermondt 

A couchant Lion. Pen study, heightened 
with bistre. 3};j- x 19^ inches. De Vos 

A Landscape, with a canal and a village 
with a spire. Pen, washed with sepia. 
3g x 4j inches. J. P. Zoomer, Goll van 
Franckenstcin and Van Cranenburgh Collec- 

The old Willow, perhaps a study for the 
etching, A View of Omval. (B. 209. Pen, 
washed with sepia. 8f x 4^ inches. Revil, 
Van den Zandc and De Kat Collections. 


AMSTERDAM. Ryksmuseum. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. Pen, 
heightened with wash. 

Life-study of a Woman, full face. The 
same model as in a drawing in the Heseltine 
Collection. Pen and wash. 

A Woman going up a Staircase recoils in 
alarm at the sight of a dead man lying at the 
threshold of a door. Sepia and Indian ink. 

Philemon and Baucis imploring Jupiter ; 
his eagle with extended wings beside him. 

A Landscape with three Trees, a study for 
the etching of 1643. (B. 212.) 1643. 

A Woman leaning upon a Door, and look- 
ing out. Sepia, heightened with body-colour. 
~6i 5 ff x 5J inches. Ploos van Amstel, 
Versteeg and Van Cranenburg Collections. 

A couchant Lion, asleep. Pen and bistre. 
Verstolk van Soelen Collection. 

A Man, full face, with a wallet. Black 

A blind Man leaning on a stick. Black 
chalk. Verstolk van Soelen Collection. 

Fodor Museum. (Catalogue of 1863.) 

A blind Man, and a Woman carrying a 
child. Black chalk. Bernard and Verstolk 
van Soelen Collections. 

A Sheet of Studies of five Figures. Black 
chalk. Baartz Collection. 

Seven Studies of Heads. Black chalk. 

A Group of four Men conversing. Black 
chalk. Verstolk van Soelen Collection. 

Mars and Venus surprised by Vulcan (?). 
Pen. Baartz Collection. 



The return of Tobias. Bistre wash. sells his Birthright. Pen, washed 
with sepia. Mendes de Leon Collection. 

A crouching Lion. Pen, washed with 

A View of the Westerkerk. Pen, washed 
with sepia. 

The Towers of the M'esterkerk, from the 
Rozcngracht. Pen and bistre. Baartz Col- 

The Interior of a J'casan/'s House. Pen 
and bistre. 

A Mill on the ancient ramparts of Amster- 
dam. Pen and bistre. Ploos van Amstel, 
('oil van Franckenstein, De Haas, J. 
Hnrmann and Ycrstolk van Soclcn Collec- 

A }\'ell under a Tree. Pen, heightened 
with sepia and red chalk. 

The Courtyard of tlie hunting Sent of the 
Counts of Holland. Pen and sepia. Ploos 
van Amstel, J. de Yos and Six Collections. 

HAARI.KM. Teyler Museum. 

Isaac and Esau (/). I "en. 

A Man asleep (/). Bistre. 

Two Men conversing (?*). Black chalk. 

The Dismissal of Hagar. A study for the 
etching, the composition reversed. Pen and 
wash. On the reverse, the Head of an old 

Two Men in Eastern Dress. Pen and 

Study of an old Man, from a model of 
frequent occurrence in the master's youthful 
pictures and etchings. Red chalk. Signed 
with the monogram, and dated 1631. 8 J X 
5| inches. 

A sleeping Lion. Bistre wash. 

A Landscape with a windmill. Bistre 

Saskia. Pen, washed with Indian ink. 

Rembrandt. Pen, washed with Indian ink. 

A View of Hillegom. Pen and sepia. 
Xoomer Collection. 

The Gate known as the Jan Roodenspoort. 
Sepia, very delicately treated. 5i x 7; 
inches. De Vos Collection. 

Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. 

The Rampart of Amsterdam. Pen, 
heightened, perhaps by another hand, with 
bistre and water-colour. 7j x log inches. 
Ploos van Amstel, De Vos and Six Collec- 

A couchant Lion, asleep. Bistre wash. 

fesus in the midst of His Disciples, signed 
and dated 1634. Black and red chalk, pen, 

and touches of bistre, body-colour, and red. 
An elaborately treated drawing, altered in 
parts by pasting cuttings of paper over the 
original work. The composition contains 
several of the types familiar to us in Rem- 
brandt's early pictures and etchings. 14 x 
i8J inches. 

A Frisian ]l'j:ni:i, S22n from behind ; the 
drawing known as Titus'' Nurse. Pen and 
Indian ink. S],} x 5}-" inches. Sir Th. 
Lawrence, Mendes de Leon, Verstolk van 
Soelen and Lecmbruggen Collections. 

The Departure of Benjamin for Egypt. Pen, 
washed with sepia. 7), x ui inches. Goll 
van Franckenstein, De Vos, Mendes de Leon, 
and DC Kat Collections. 

A Landscape witlia Watercourse. Pen and 

A Landscape with a Cottage and Bushes. 
Pen and sepia. 

The Entombment. A reminiscence of Italian 
art. Pen and bistre. 

Samuel anoints David. An interior, with 
several figures. Pen and bistre. 

77/6' Return of the Prodigal Son. Pen and 

A ruined Tower, with cottages in the back- 

A large Tree by a Canal, in shadow ; in the 
background, hills, the light falling upon them. 
Pen and bistre. 

Two Men, full face, one wearing a loose 
gown. Pen and bistre. 

ROT i -KRDA.M. Uoymans Museum. 

A Man on Horseback with a lance, and 
several other horsemen. Pen. 5^ x 6J 

A Hfn/i, seated, and searching in his pockets. 
4j x 3i inches. 

Abraham kneel ing to receive the Angels. 
Pen, heightened with wash. 6j x 9^ inches. 

Christ healing a Blind Man. Pen and 
bistre. 7j x gj inches. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus. Pen sketch. 
7f s x 6| inches. 

The Good Samaritan. A broadly treated 
study washed with bistre, for the picture in the 
Louvre. 8 x I2 inches. 

An old Man standing, leaning upon a 
stick; a landscape background. 7i x 4$ 

Boaz and Ruth (.?). Pen and bistre.- 6g x 
lo^j inches. 

The Betrayal of Christ (/). Pen. s} x 
9 T 5 S inches. 

The Holy Family : the Virgin at a spinning- 
wheel, St. Joseph kneeling, a mallet in his 



hand, his back to the spectator. Pen. 6J x 
9j^ inches. 

A Man leaning on a Table, two persons by 
his side. On the same sheet, a head in an 
antique helmet ; perhaps a study for the 
Minerva in the Hermitage. Pen. 

Several of the drawings in this Col- 
lection were destroyed in the fire of 1864, 
among them a Woman making Pancakes, 
a Mercury and Argus, and a Study of a 

Madame Kneppelhout. Sterkenburg. 

Simeon holding the Child Jesus in his Arms. 
Signed and dated 1661. Pen, heightened with 
sepia. In an album formerly belonging to J. 

Mr. J. P. Six van Hillcgom. 

Two landscapes. Pen, washed with sepia, 
for the family album known as Pandora. 

A Sketch for tlie Anatomy Lesson of Dr. 
Deyinan. Pen and brown ink. 4$ X 5] 


ST. PETERSBURG. The Hermitage. 

Abraham and the three Angels. Pen sketch. 
8JJ x 13! inches. 

A Woman seated in an Arm-chair, a fan 
in her hand. Pen and bistre. 5| x 4.} 

A Woman seated on a Bench, her head rest- 
ing on her hand. Pen. 4- 1 s , r x 4,^ inches. 

An Interior, with a woman holding a child 
in her arms, and a man seated at a table look- 
ing at her. Pen and bistre wash. 4,^-5 x 4,-",. 

The Banks of a Canal, with houses and a 

windmill. Sketch with a reed pen. 6,",) x 
i ii inches. 

The ! lend of an old Man with a white beard, 
a skull-cap on his head. Signed with the 
monogram. Study in red chalk for Count 
Stroganoff's picture. 

Christ and Nicodemus conversing in a room 
by lamp-light. Pen and bistre. 3.' x 2-; 

Tltrcc l-'igures of Men, one in Eastern 
dress. Pen and bistre. 5}^ x 5},^ inches. 

The Dismissal of Hagar (/). Red chalk. 
10;^ x 8> inches. 


STOCKHOLM. Royal Museum. 

The greater part of this fine Collection 
came .from the Crozat cabinet, which con- 
sisted in the main of drawings bought by De 
Piles in Holland, probably from J. van de 

Study of a naked Model, standing at a table ; 
the same slender youth who reappears in 
various other drawings and etchings by the 
master. Pen and sepia wash. 

Jesus among the Doctors,. A free sketch 
with the reed pen. 

Calvary. A pen study. 

Titia van Uylenborch, Saskiefs sister. A 
drawing from nature, the name of the sitter 
inscribed by Rembrandt, and the date 1639. 
Pen and bistre. 

A Woman in a Hood, her hands hidden in 
her loose sleeves. Pen and bistre. 

The Head of a Child, almost full face. 
Titus (?). Pen and bistre. 

A young Girl in a broad-brimmed hat, her 

hand on a window-frame. Bistre, corrected 
with body-colour. 

The same, her head resting on her right 
hand. Bistre, with corrections in body- 

A Turk, full face. Black chalk and Indian 

A young Woman in profile ; two others, 
lightly sketched with the pen. 

A Man seated, a stick in his hand ; another, 
the position reversed. 

A Landscape, with a canal, reeds, and trees. 
Sepia wash. 

Three Cottages, with a clump of trees. Sepia 

A young Woman, with a veil and a floating 
skirt, holding a flower in her hand. Bistre. 

A Woman with a white head-dress and 
apron, her head resting on her right hand. 
Pen and wash. 

An old Woman, guiding a child in leading- 
strings. Pen. 



A Man fishing. Pen. 

An Oriental, seated. Pen. 

Three Studies of the same Model. Pen. 

A Youth in Oriental Dress; from the posi- 
tion of his right hand he appears to be play- 
ing the harp ; perhaps a study for a David. 

An old Woman, scuted, reading in a large 
book. Pen, washed with Indian ink. 

An old U'oman asleep. Pen. 

A Man, seated, and reading by the light of 
a lamp. Pen and sepia wash. 

A Man in a Turban, seated before a table 
loaded with books. Pen. 

A young Woman in full dress, seated by a 
basket of fruit and flowers ; an old woman 
beside her talking to her. Pen. 

Jesus and the Disciples at Emmiius. Pen 
and sepia wash. 

A Turk going up a Staircase, another figure 
beside him. Pen. 

Two nearly nude figures, with clasped 
hands. Pen. 

Four rough sketches of heads. Pen. 

A Youth in a Cap, seated, one of his feet 
on a stool. Titus. Drawn from nature, with a 
reed pen. 

A Man standing, one hand giasping a 
sword, the other laid upon his breast. Pen. 

A young Man leaning on a stick, seen from 
behind. Pen and bistre. 

A young \\'oinan standing near a table ; 
the curtains of a bed in the background. Pen. 

A Man in a plumed Jiat, seated on a low 
chair. Pen. 

Abraham and Isaac. A study of two dif- 
ferent gestures for the patriarch's hand, as he 
preaches submission to the Divine will. 

A young Woman seated at a Table, absorbed 
in a book. Pen. 

Two Women, each suckling a child. Pen 
and sepia. 

An Oriental in a Turban and Cloak. Pen. 

A Fisherman in a Blouse, holding a basket 
in each hand. 

The Saviour showing His Wounds to St. 
Thomas, who kneels at His feet. Pen. 

David and Uriah. On the margin, this 
sketch is divided into squares. 

A Man in a Swoon; persons pressing round 
to help him. Pen and bistre wash. 

The Entombment ; the size noted on the 
margin. Pen. 

Abraham's Sacrifice. Study for the picture 
in the Hermitage. Pen and bistre wash. 

Christ and the Samaritan Woman, by the 
well. Sepia wash. 

A Woman resting at the mouth of a cave. 

Study fora Flight into Egypt. Sepia wash. 

A young Woman, seated in an arm-chair ; 
an old woman behind her. Pen. 

An Oriental in a Turban, wrapped in a 
large cloak. Pen. 

A Woman suckling her Child. Pen sketch. 

A Woman holding a Child in Swaddling- 
clothes ; another woman suckling a child 
beside her. Pen sketch from nature. 

Sketch for an Abraham's Sacrifice. Sepia 

A Man sea/ed at a Table, his head on his 
right hand. Pen. 

An old Man in a high hat and short cloak, 
with a child. Pen. 

An old Man seated, reading in a book, which 
he holds in his hand. Pen. 

An old Woman standing, carrying a basket, 
and speaking to a young woman in front of 
her. Pen. 

An old Man on a platform, listening to a 
man who addresses him from below ; perhaps 
the Good Samaritan and the Host. Pen. 

An Oriental in a Turban, armed with a 
scimitar ; before him a man imploring his 
mercy, with clasped bands. Pen. 

Pilate declares Jesus innocent ; the same 
motive, slightly less elaborated, is in the 
Albertina Collection. Pen, with sepia wash. 

Abraham's Sacrifice, study for the picture 
in the Hermitage. Pen and sepia. 

The Good Samaritan tending the wounded 
man. Pen. 

An old Woman seated at a fireplace, watch- 
ing a saucepan upon the fire. Pen and 

A Woman warming a Child at a fire. Pen. 

An old Woman seated, her hands crossed 
before her. Pen and sepia. 

A Person kneeling before an Oriental. 
Pen and sepia. 

Jacob's Blessing. Study for the Cassel 
picture. Pen. 

The Triumph of Mordecai. Study for the 
etching. Pen and sepia. 

The Magdalene kneeling at the Feet of 
Christ. Study for the Brunswick picture. 
Pen and sepia, heightened with white. 

A Man with Books under his Arm. a child 
near him. Pen and bistre. 

A Life-study of a Man. Black chalk. 

An Oriental, full face, in a high cap. 

A Woman lying on the Ground, another 
woman tending her, in an Eastern landscape. 

A Woman praying, in a Landscape, an 
angel approaching her. Pen and bistre. 



A Woman caressing a Child, who stands 
before her. Below, the rough sketch of a 
head, and a study of the same child in a cap. 
Pen, washed with ink. 

A Man, seated at a table; he hands some 
money to a workman standing beside him ; 
another workman counts over what he has 
received. (The Workers in the Vineyard?} 

Jesus among the Doctors. Pen. 

Tobit and his Wife with the Goat. A 
sketch for the picture in the Berlin Museum. 

A couchant Lion, asleep. Pen. 

Manoah's Prayer. A sketch for the Dresden 
picture ; arched at the top. Pen and sepia. 
8| x ~]\ inches. 

Raguel and his Wife return thanks to Cod 
for the preservation of Tobit. Pen. 

Christ and the Apostles in the Garden of 
Olives. Pen and sepia wash. 

Jesus taken Prisoner. Pen and sepia. 

The Adulteress before Christ. Pen. 

A Landscape with two Coivs and a 
Shepherdess. Pen. 

A study for the grisaille, The Preaching of 
John the Baptist. Pen and wash. 

Calvary. A pen study. 

A Woman seated, her hair unbound ; a 
study for the Jewish Bride. Pen and wash. 

Job, his Wife, and his Friends. Pen and 
bistre, with corrections in the action of the 
principal figure. 

A Study for the Workers in the Vineyard 
at the Hermitage. Pen. 

Copy of the Adoration of the Magi, an 
Italian composition, remodelled by Rem- 
brandt. On the reverse, an Adoration of the 
Shepherds. Bistre, heightened with red chalk. 

Mr. Josephson. 

The Visitation; two women embracing in 
a landscape before a house, fr<5m which two 
men are looking out at them. Pen, washed 
with bistre. 7^ x 5^ inches. M. G. 
Anckerswaerd Collection. 

A Landscape, with a stream in the fore- 
ground, a hut to the left, and a hay-shed 
surrounded by trees. Pen, washed with 
bistre. 4.4 x 6J inches. Comte de Tessin 
and Anckerswaerd Collections. 




EVEN during his lifetime Rembrandt's etchings were very much sought after by 
amateurs. We find Houbraken already speaking of excited contests for their 
possession, and of great variation in price between one proof and another, caused 
rather by rarity than merit. He quotes Clement de Jonghe, Zoomer, and Pieter de la 
Tombe, as having made collections even in those early years. 

In the eighteenth century the best known Dutch collections were those of Amadeus 
de Burgy and of Van Leyden. We shall also have to speak of those of J. Barnard and 
of Lord Aylesford in England ; and those of Marolles, Coypel, Julienne, Silvestre, and, 
above all, Mariette, in France, where Rembrandt had fervent admirers at a very early period. 

In our own time we may be content with mentioning those of M. Edmond de 
Rothschild and of M. Dutuit, in France ; that of Mr. Holford, in London ; those of 
Mr. Artaria, at Vienna ; of Dr. Straeter, at Aix-la-Chapelle ; and of Mr. D. Rovinsky ; at 
St. Petersburg. 

Important as these private cabinets may be, they must yield the pas to the great 
public collections, with their privilege of durability, which are enriched from day to 
clay by purchase and bequest. For the number and beauty of its proofs Amster- 
dam comes first. It was formed in great part by the purchase of the Van Leyden 
collection in 1810, by Louis Bonaparte. Next come the cabinets of Paris, of London, 
of Berlin, of Vienna, and of Frankfort. At the successive great sales of the present 
century those of Silvestre in 1811, of Robert Dumesnil in 1836, of Lord Aylesford 
in 1846, of the Baron Verstolk van Soelen in 1847 and 1851, of Firmin Didot in 1877! 
prices steadily increased. In 1782 a proof of the Burgomaster Six, in the first state, 
was bought for 500 florins (^32 i6s.) by the Vienna Museum. At the Verstolk sale, the 
Resurrection of Lazarus fetched ^54 ; the Renter Anslo, ^60 ; the large Coppenol, 
100 guineas; the Ephraim Bonus, ^138 8^., and the Rembrandt with a Sabre, ,152. 
The famous Christ healing the Sick, for which a hundred guilders (^8 65. 8d.) had once 
seemed a memorable price, was sold at this sale for ^154 i6s. It has since been sold for 
.1,160. Finally, at the Griffith sale, in 1883, M. Edmond de Rothschild acquired 

1 To these we may add the sales of Dr. Griffith in 1883, of the Duke oj Buccleuch in 1887, nfMr. Richard 
Fisher in 1892, of Air . Seymour Hadcn in 1891, a nil oj Mr. A'. S. Holford in 1893. /'. W. 


a first state of the Dr. A. Tholinx for ^1,520, the highest price, I believe, ever paid 
for an engraving. 1 

Rembrandt's etchings have been the subject of much cataloguing and classification. 
Gersaint, the friend of Watteau, was the first to put together the elements of a catalogue, 
which, however, he left unfinished. After his death his MS. was bought by Helle 
and Glomy, who added some information collected by themselves, and published the 
whole in 1751. P. Yver, an art-dealer of Amsterdam, issued a supplement in 1756, 
correcting several mistakes, and an Englishman, Daniel Daulby, printed a translation 
of this latter work, accompanied by notes of his own, in 1796, at Liverpool. 

Twelve months later the well-known engraver, Adam liartsch, who was then keeper 
of the prints in the Vienna library, completed the labours of his predecessors with his 
conscientious study of Rembrandt and his imitators, published in two volumes in the 
Austrian capital. 

The Chevalier Claussin (1824) in France, and Wilson (1836) in England, did little 
more than reproduce the work of Bartsch with some improvements, although the 
earlier of the two made no allusion to the source from which he had so largely drawn. 
More recently still in 1854, 1859, and 1861 Charles Blanc added some judicious 
remarks to the work of all these men, but, like them, he adopted the classification by 
subjects. Vosmaer was the first to attempt the study of Rembrandt's work as a whole, 
giving to each production, so far as he could, its correct place in the chronology of the 
master's life. It is easy to understand how many difficulties stood in the way of such 
a task, especially at its inception. Scarcely a third of the etchings are dated, and 
the work of fixing approximate dates, or even an order of production, for those 
which are undated, is still a very delicate business. Vosmaer's chronology contains, 
therefore, plenty of mistakes. But it was the first parallel in a siege prosecuted with 
increased vigour by later critics. 

In May, 1877, an exhibition of Rembrandt's etchings was organized by English 
amateurs at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, a chronological order being determined on. 
Mr. Seymour Haden, one of the promoters of this exhibition, to which he had sent 
the most remarkable proofs in his own collection, wrote a preface to the catalogue and 
in this he put forward his own views upon disputed questions of dates and authenticity. 

A passionate admirer of Rembrandt, Mr. Seymour Haden is himself a most dis- 
tinguished etcher, and so his researches and the results to which they lead have a peculiar 
interest of their own. It is impossible to disagree with his opinions on the comparative 
value of different impressions of Rembrandt's plates, and on the unreasonableness of the 
excessive variations in price brought about by the rarity of certain proofs. It must be 
acknowledged that everything he says on these points springs from his delicate appreciation 
of the art he practises, and of the qualities of his favourite master. His admiration for 
Rembrandt may even have a touch of over-partiality about it. In his recognition of the 
very real differences between works of the same period, he may not have taken sufficient 
account of inequalities in the master's talent and of modifications due to the varying measure 
of time and trouble expended on this plate and on that. In his desire to attribute nothing 
to Rembrandt but masterpieces, Mr. Seymour Haden has gone a little too far. He has not 
shrunk from erasing Rembrandt's name from plates on which it was inscribed, but which 

1 This price was exceeded by that given for the Hundred Guilder Print at the Hjlford Safe (1,750), and 
also by that rcachai by the Ephraim Bonus with the black ring (.1,950). F. W. 

T 2 


seemed to him unworthy of the honour, or from giving some of the work to assistants. In 
order, apparently, to add force to his hypothesis, he even ventures to distinguish between one 
assistant and another, and to name them. Here it is certain that the English critic has 
fallen into more than one error. 1 He calls Lievens and Van Vliet Rembrandt's pupils, for 
instance, and he included in the list other artists who were not in the master's studio at the 
time when he declares them to have helped him with his plates. Again he refuses to 
accept as genuine forms of signature which seem unusual to himself even when those very 
forms are to be recognized on contemporary works in oil. As Mr. Seymour Haden's formal 
statements on these points have been recognized as inexact, his mistakes, although they do 
not destroy the value of his work, make it necessary to use it with discretion. 

More reticent than his countryman on questions of authenticity, Mr. C. H. Middleton- 
Wake (formerly Middleton) was also struck by the advantages to be won by classifying 
Rembrandt's teuvre chronologically. During the Burlington Club exhibition he gave his 
notions on this subject to the public in Notes on the Etched Work of Rembrandt (London, 
1877, 410), which was followed a year later by a complete catalogue of the master's 
etchings. 2 This is an excellent work, in which the description of each plate was followed by 
the remarks of preceding labourers in the same field as well as by his own. While proclaim- 
ing the superiority of the chronological arrangement, Mr. Middleton-Wake has attempted 
to reconcile it in his own catalogue with the old-fashioned grouping by subjects. He has 
diminished the number of the groups, however, and substituted four heads for the twelve 
adopted by Bartsch, viz.: i, Studies and Portraits; 2, Biblical and Religious Subjects; 
3, Fancy Subjects; and, 4, Landscapes. Valuable as his work is from the chronological 
stand-point, Mr. Middleton Wake has, so far as the designation of the plates is concerned, 
only added one more to previously existing notations, and so far has added to the confusion 
brought about by so many systems. 

M. Eugene Dutuit, in his turn, did a good service to criticism in having the whole 
series of Rembrandt's etchings reproduced in their actual dimensions and with the most 
scrupulous care. For this purpose he used the best proofs in his own collection one 
of the finest of those formed in our time and in the public museums. This magnificent 
work, which the progress of heliogravure has made vastly superior to anything previously 
attempted, puts within the reach of every critic and every collector the means of com- 
paring groups of etchings which can never be found united in original impressions of equal 
quality. Each reproduction is accompanied by a commentary pointing out the different 
states of the plate and the various opinions which have been expressed upon it. M. Dutuit 
himself, while leaving to each critic the responsibility for such opinions as he may quote, 
expresses his own with discretion, modesty, and impartiality. In the matter of enumera- 
tion, he protests against the inconvenience resulting from previous systems, but he adds 
another to the total, and so helps to increase the discomfort he deplores. I must 
add, however, that he does something to help other students in this matter, for his 
elaborate concordance tables allow any particular plate to be readily followed through 
all the classifications. On the other hand, his own critical use of the facsimiles made 
with such care is slight enough. 

1 This, I think, M,: Seymour Haden has admitted. His fi, st conjectures may have gone too far, but there 
can scarcely be a question as to the general value of his cont. ibution to Kcmbrandt criticism. It is full of 

ttggcstivencss, of -vitality, and of knowledge. F. W. 

2 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Etched Work of Kcmbrandt van Kyn. Svo. London : John Murray. 


In an important work published at St. Petersburg in 1890, Mr. Dmitri Rovinsky 
lays before the student reproductions of Rembrandt's etchings in all their states. The 
one thousand untouched phototypes included in this work allow us perhaps for the first 
time to appreciate the various stages through which Rembrandt carried his plates, and 
therefore to fix for each the real number of states, apart from such changes (due to caprice, 
experiment, or accident in the printing) as do not amount to a "state." 

The exhibition at the Burlington Club led, of course, to many discussions as to 
the authenticity of certain plates ascribed, with more or less probability, to Rembrandt. 
Bartsch's total of 375 was soon acknowleged to be over-generous, and later critics have 
successively reduced it : Wilson to 366, Claussin to 365, Charles Blanc to 353, Middleton- 
Wake to 329. Going still further in the same direction, certain artists and amateurs, 
acting not seldom on mere personal predilection, have erased other works from the already 
shortened list, and one, Mr. Alphonse Legros, has gone so far as to limit Rembrandt's 
undoubted authorship to 71 plates, while he allows that 42 others, or 113 in all, 
may be by his hand. The sceptical movement set afoot by Mr. Seymour Haden thus 
made way, and in December, 1885, M. Louis Gonse published an article in the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts in which he altogether blessed the innovators, and asserted the 
necessity for a thorough overhauling of the traditional lists. Certainly, as one of 
Rembrandt's most intelligent admirers, Mr. W. von Seidlitz, wrote to me, the master's 
reputation could only gain by the recognition that certain unworthy plates were not his, 
but the work of purification should be done without any taint of partiality. In an other- 
wise judicious article printed in the Repertorium fiir Kunstwissensekaft, 1 Dr. Strater of Aix- 
la-Chapelle yields to the new ideas even while attempting to combat them. In his total of 
from 280 to 300 plates, he refuses to include the free subjects, not because they are inferior 
or different in execution from the rest, but simply because their grossness seems to him 
unworthy of the master's reputation. 

It fell to Dr. Bode to revindicate the rights of true criticism, which in all this had 
been somewhat overlooked. He did so in a sequel to Dr. Strater's article, which also 
appeared in the Repertorium, and carried the weight due to Dr. Bode's knowledge 
of Rembrandt's work as a whole. The technical knowledge of actual practitioners has 
its value, says the German critic, in these questions, but side by side with the special 
indications to which such men are apt to confine themselves, a vast amount of other 
evidence exists which must be taken into account. In the case of Rembrandt, the dates 
on his early etchings against which the strictures of Mr. Seymour Haden and his followers 
are chiefly directed a comparison between their execution and that of pictures and 
drawings of the same period, as well as biographical documents relating to himself and 
his contemporaries, should all be taken into account. Unless this be done, and done with 
fulness both of knowledge and judgment, false or dangerous conclusions may readily 
be come to. It is certain that when we compare the master's early pictures with those 
of his maturity, they offer differences no less marked than, and of the same kind as, those 
between some scratching of his experimental period and such a masterpiece as the Lutma, 
or the Old Haaring or the Hundred Guilder Print. Neither can it be denied that plates 
like those numbered 14, 15, 25, 150, 166, 314, 322, 337, 360 by Bartsch to mention 
only these do Rembrandt little honour, and yet, with their dates of 1630 or 1631, 

1 Rcnibrandfs Radintngtti ; 1886, pp. 253 et seq. 


with their monograms and their acceptance by Rembrandt as part of his achievement, 
they are neither better nor worse than many pictures of the same epoch. If, as Dr. Bode 
wisely points out, the master attached but little importance to these early efforts, they 
yet have their uses in showing the progressive development of his powers and the lines 
on which he built up his definitive manner. From the study of his earliest pictures we 
may draw indisputable proof of authenticity in the case of certain etchings which otherwise 
we should be tempted to erase from the catalogue of his productions. The monograms 
and signatures : R. H., R. H. van Ryn, Rembrant van Ryn, Rembrant, and finally 
Rembrandt, which we find on pictures combined with dates between 1628 and 1633, 
appear also upon etchings of the same epoch. Now these facts have only been noticed 
and put on record quite recently, so that forgers could not have made use of them for 
the better recommendation of their wares. It is only fair to say that the credit for these 
discoveries, as well as their proper combination, belongs to Dr. Bode, whose deductions 
and even hypotheses have been confirmed by what has since come to light about Rem- 
brandt's youth. Thanks to such evidence as that here briefly sketched, the authenticity 
of a large number of the early etchings which are those most contested seems to be 
put beyond cavil, especially that of such as beat 1 the master's name or monogram. 
Until these signatures are proved to be false we shall do well not to show ourselves 
more fastidious than Rembrandt himself, who, in spite of their inequalities of execution, 
acknowledges them his by his sign manual. 

However this may be, it must be allowed that the movement started by Mr. Seymour 
Haden has done much good in freeing Rembrandt from responsibility for certain plates 
quite unworthy of him. Mr. Middleton-Wake, for instance, while maintaining a laudable 
reserve, throws doubt upon various landscapes rather lightly accepted by Bartsch, some of 
which may now be even restored to their true authors. Still more recently, Mr. W. von 
Seidlitz, in his desire to throw light on the question, was happily inspired to provoke 
a discussion of the whole subject in the Berlin Society for the study of Art History. 1 He 
invited the co-operation of those, who, by their special studies, had proved themselves 
authorities on questions of authenticity. By correspondence with Dr. Bode, with Dr. Strater, 
and with myself, he, moreover, took care to combine the information he had received on 
points which seemed doubtful, and to note agreement between different authorities, whenever 
it occurred. As a consequence of all these inquiries and of his own personal researches 
the number of plates accepted by Mr. von Seidlitz as the work of Rembrandt amounts 
to 260. 

Our limited space has compelled us to confine the following catalogue to what is 
strictly necessary. As we were unable to notice all the enumerations previously put forth, 
we have been content to give references to two which represent between them the respective 
systems of classification by groups and by dates. 2 For the first we have taken Bartsch, 
who seems to enjoy a certain immortality, and who has, moreover, this advantage, that he 
can be quoted also for Rembrandt's pupils and imitators. To the notation of Bartsch we 
have added that of Middleton-Wake, whose chronology, with a few rare exceptions in this, 
usually with the support of Mr. von Seidlitz we have also adopted. We have pointed 
out the plates the authenticity of which is seriously contested, and have rejected those 
which for various reasons, seemed to ourselves inadmissible. The total to which all this 

1 Meeting of the 3151 October, 1890. 

2 But n-e have added Wilson see Editors Preface. F. W. 



brings us is 270 ; some forty plates being included on which we should hesitate to give 
a definite opinion. The number does not differ very greatly from that arrived at by 
Mr. von Seidlitz, and yet, in a matter so delicate, it can only be looked upon as 

The figures placed after the letters B, W, and M refer respectively to the numbers 
in the catalogues of Bartsch, Wilson, and Middleton. 



Portrait of Rembrandt, when young, -with bushy 
hair. Monogr. About 1630. (Bartsch, I. 
Wilson, i. Middleton- Wake, 51.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt -with moustaches. About 
1634. (B. 2. W. i. M. 1 06.) 

Rembrandt, holding a Bird of Prey. About 
1633. Contested by von Seidlitz. The first 
state probably by Rembrandt. (B. 3. W. 3. 
M. 100.) 

A Bust of Rembrandt, with a large nose. About 
1631. (B. 4. W. 4. M. 42.) 

A small head of Rembrandt, stooping. About 
1630. (B. 5. W. 5. M. 19.) 

A Bust of Rembrandt, with a fur cap and dark 
dress, coarsely etched. About 1630. Con- 
tested. (B. 6. W. 6. M. 17.) 

Rembrandt in a turned up hat and embroidered 
mantle. Monogr. 1631. The impression of 
the second state, on which Rembrandt wrote : 
ast. 24 (or 25), anno 1631, is in the British 
Museum. (B. 7. W. 7. M. 52.) 

Rembrandt with frizzled hair. About 1631. 
(B. 8. W. 8. M. 50.) 

Bust of Rembrandt, the eyes deeply shaded. About 
1630. Contested. (B. 9. W. 9. M. 21.) 

Rembrandt with an air of grimace. Monogr. 
1630. (B. 10. W. io. M. 23.) 

A Portrait of Rembrandt when young. (Por- 
trait of Titus van Ryn.) About 1652. (B. ii. 
W. ii. M. 165.) 

Portrait of Rembrandt in an Oval. About 
1630. Contested. (B. 12. W. 12. M. 16.) 

Rembrandt with an open mouth. Monogr. 

1630. (B. 13. W. 13. M. 22.) 
Rembrandt with a fur cap and robe. Monogr. 

1631. Contested. (B. 14. W. 14. M. 44.) 

Rembrandt -with a mantle and cape. Monogr. 

1631. (B. 15. W. 15. M. 48.) 
Rembrandt with a round fur cap. Monogr. 

1631. (B. 16. W. 16. M. 45.) 
Rembrandt with a scarf round his neck. Rem- 
brandt. 1633. (B. 17. W. 17. M. 99.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt with a drawn sabre, 

held upright. Rembrandt f. 1634. (B. 18. 

W. 18. M. 105.) 
Rembrandt and his Wife. Rembrandt, f. 1636. 

(B. 19. W. 19. M. 128.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt in a cap and feather. 

Rembrandt, f. 1638. (B. 20. W. 20. M. 

Rembrandt leaning on a stone sill. Rembrandt 

f. 1639. (B. 21. W. 21. M. 137.) 
Rembrandt drawing. Rembrandt f. 1648. 

(B. 22. W. 22. M. 1 60.) 
A Portrait of Rembrandt in an Oval. In the 

first state, the figure is shown to the knees ; 

the plate is a square, signed above, Rem- 
brandt f. 1634. It was cut to an oval for the 

second state. (B. 23. W. 23. M. in.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt in a fur cap and light 

dress. Monogr. 1630. (B. 24. W. 24. 

M. 27.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt with frizzled hair. We 

believe the first state only to be by Rembrandt. 

It is signed with the monogr., and dated 

1631. Contested. (B. 25. W. 25. M. 49.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt with short curly hair. 

Rembrandt. About 1638. (B. 26. W. 26. 

-M. 133.) 
Portrait of Rembrandt with frizzled hair, a 

tuft of which rises over the left eye. Monogr. 

1630. (B. 27. W. 27. M. 26.) 



Adam and Eve. Rembrandt f. 1638. (6.28. 
W. 35. M. 206.) 

Abraham entertaining the three Angels. Rem- 
brandt f. 1656. (B. 29. W. 36. M. 250.) 

The Dismissal of Hagar. Rembrandt f. 1637. 
(B. 30. W. 37. M. 204.) 

The same Subject. These two plates are not by 

Rembrandt. (B. 31 and 32.) 
Abraham caressing Isaac. Rembrandt f. 

About 1638-1639. (B. 33. W. 135*. M. 203.) 
Abraham with his son Isaac. Rembrandt. 

1645. (B. 34. W. 38. M. 220.) 



Abraham's Sacrifice. Rembrandt f. 1655. 
(B. 35. W. 39. M. 246.) 

Four Prints for a Spanish Bank : La PiciJra 
Gloriosa, by Menassch ben Israel. I. 
Nebuchadnezzar's Vision of the linage. 
2. DanicFs Vision. 3. Jacob's Dream. 4. 
David and Goliath. Rembrandt f. 1655. In 
the first states these plates were dark, and full 
of bur. They were afterwards lightened, and 
retouched. (B. 36. W. 40. M. 247.) 

Josepli telling his Dream to his Brethren. Rem- 
brandt f. ' 1638. (B. 37. W. 41. M. 205.) 

Jacob lamenting tJie supposed Death of Joseph. 

Rembrandt van Ryn fe. (B. 38. W. 42. 

M. 189.) 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. Rembrandt f. 

1634. (B. 39. W. 43. M. 192.) 
The Triumph of Mordecai. About 1648-1650. 

(B. 40. W. 44. M. 228. 
David on his Knees. Rembrandt f. 1651. (B. 

41. W. 45. M. 232.) 
Tobit Blind. Rembrandt f. 1652. (B. 42. 

W. 46. M. 226.) 
The Angel ascending from Tobit and his 

Family. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 43. W. 

48. M. 213.) 



Tlte Angel appearing to the Shepherds. Rem- 
brant f. 1634. (B. 44. W. 49. M. 191.) 

The Nativity. Rembrandt f. About 1654. (B. 
45. W. 50. M. 238.) 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. About 1652. 
(B. 46. W. 51. M. 230.) 

J/ie Circumcision. Signed twice : Rembrandt 
f. 1654. (B. 47- W. 52. M. 239.) 

The Circumcision. About 1630. (B. 48. W. 
53. M. 179.) 

The Presentation of Jesus in the vaulted Temple. 
About 1641. (B. 49. W. 54. M. 208.) 

The Presentation, in Rcmbrandf's dark manner. 
About 1654. (B. 50. W. 55. M. 243.) 

The Presentation, with the Angel. Monogr. 
1630. (B. 51. W. 56. M. 178.) 

The Flight into Egypt : a small Print. Rem- 
brandt inventor et fecit. 1633. The compo- 
sition only by Rembrandt (?) (B. 52. \V. 57. 
M. 184.) 

The Flight into Egypt : a Night Piece. Rem- 
brandt f. 1651. (B. 53. W. 58. M. 227.) 

The Flight into Egypt. About 1630. (B. 54. 
W. 59. M. 181'.) 

The Flight into Rgypt : the Holy Family 
crossing a Rill. Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 
55. W. 60. M. 240.) 

The Flight into Egypt: in the style of 
Elshcimer. About 1653. The composition 
taken from a plate by Hercules Seghers, of 
Tobias and the Angel. (B. 56. W. 62. M. 

The Rest in Egypt, in a Wood, by Night. About 
1641-1642. (B. 57. W. 62. M. 221.) 

The Rest in Egypt. Rembrandt f. 1645. (B. 
58. W. 63. 218.) 

The Rest in Egypt. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 

Jesus found by his Parents in their Journey to 

Jerusalem. Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 60. 

W. 64. M. 244.) 
The Virgin and the Infant Jesus in the Clouds. 

Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 61. W. 65. M.2II.) 
The Holy Family. Monogr. About 1632. (B. 

62.- W. 66. M. 182.) 
The Holy Family ; Joseph looking in at the 

Window. Rembrandt f. 1654. (B 63. W. 

67. M. 241.) 
Jesus disputing with the Doctors in the 

Temple: a Sketch. Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 

64. W. 68. M. 245.) 
The same Subject ; a larger Sketch. Rembrandt 

f. 1652. (B. 65. W.'eg. M. 231.) 
The same Subject ; a small upright. Monogr. 

1630. (B. 66. W. 70. M. 177.) 
Christ preaching, commonly called The little 

Tomb. About 1652. (B. 67. W. 71. M. 229.) 
The Tribute-Money. About 1634. (B. 68. W. 

72. M. 196.) 
Christ driving the money-changers out of the 

Temple. Rembrandt f. 1635. (B. 69. W. 

73.-M. 198.) 
Jesus and the Samaritan Woman at the Well ; 

an arched Plate. The third state signed : 

Rembrandtf. 1658. (B. 70. W. 74. M. 253.) 
The same Subject; an upright Plate. Rem- 
brandt f. 1634. (B. 71. W. 75. M. 193.) 
The Resurrection of Lazarus. Rembrandt f. 

1642. (B. 72. W. 76. M. 215.) 
The same Subject; a large Print. R. H. Van 

Ryn f. About 1633. (B. 73. W. 77. M. 188.) 
Christ healing the Sick; called The Hundred 

Guilder Piece. About 1649. ( B - 74- W. 78. 

M. 224.) 
Christ in the Garden of Olives. Rembrandt . 

165. About 1657. (6.75. W. 79. M. 251.) 
Christ before Pilate. Rembrandt f. 1655. (B. 

76. W. So. M. 248.) 


The Ecce Hanw. Rembrandt f. 1636. Cum 
privil. A plate in which the collaboration 
of a pupil, probably J. van Vliet, is very 
obvious. (B. 77. W. 82. M. 200.) 

The Three Crosses. (Christ crucified between 
the two Thieves.') The third state signed : 
Rembrandt f. 1653. (B. 78. W. 81. M. 


The same Subject; an oval Plate. About 1640. 
(B. 79. W. 85. M. 222.) 

The Crucifixion; a small square Plate. Rem- 
brandt f. About 1634. (B. 80. W. 86. M. 


The Descent from the Cross. Rembrant f. 
1633. Of this plate there are only three 
impressions. A copy on a slightly larger 
scale made probably by one of Rembrandt's 
pupils is signed : Rembrandt f. cum. privil. 
1633. (M. 187.) (B. 81. W. 83 and 84. 
M. 1 86.) 

The Descent from the Cross ; a Sketch. 
Rembrandt f. 1642. (B. 82. W. 87. M. 

The Descent from the Cross; a Night Piece. 
Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 83. W. 88. M. 242.) 

The Funeral of Jesus. Rembrandt. About 
1645. (B. 84. W. 89. M. 217.) 

The Virgin mourning the Death of Jesus. 
About 1641. The execution closely allied 
to that of the Spanish Gipsy of this date 
(No. 120.). (B. 85. W. 90. M. 202.) 

Jesus Christ Entombed. About 1652. (B. 86. 

W. 91. M. 233.) 
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus. 

Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 87. W. 92. 

M. 237.) 
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus; a small 

Print. Rembrandt f. 1634. (B. 88. W. 

93. M. 194.) 
Jesus Christ in the middle of his Disciples. 

Rembrandt f. 1650. (B. 89. W. 94. 

M.22 5 .) 

The Good Samaritan. Rembrandt inventor et 

fecit. 1633. (B. 90. W. 95. M. 185.) 
The Return of the Prodigal Son. Rembrandt 

f. 1636. (B. 91. \V. 96. M. 201.) 
The Beheading of John the Baptist. Rembrandt 

f. 1640. (B. 92. W. 97. M. 209.) 
The same Subject. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 93.) 
Peter and John at the Beautiful Gate of the 

Temple. Rembrandt f. 1659. (B. 94. \V. 

9 8.-M. 254.) 
The same Subject. About 1630. (B. 95. 

W. 99.-M. 249.) 
St. Peter. Rembrandt f. 1645. (B. 96. W. 

101. M. 219.) 
The Martyrdom of St. Stephen. Rembrandt 

f. 1635. (B. 97. W. 102. M. 197.) 
The Baptism of the Eunuch. Rembrandt f. 

1641. (B. 98. W. 103. M. 210.) 
The Death of the Virgin. Rembrandt f. 1639. 

(B. 99. XV. 104. M. 207.) 



St. Jerome sitting at the Foot of a Tree. Rem- 
brandt. 1634. (B. ico. W. 105. M. 190.) 

St. Jerome kneeling ; an arched Print. Rem- 
brandt ft. 1632. (B. ioi. W. 106. M. 183.) 

St. Jerome kneeling. Rembrandt f. 1635. (B. 
102. W. 107. M. 199.) 

St. Jerome sitting before the Trunk of an old Tree. 
Rembrandt f. 1648. (B. 103. XV. 108. M. 

St. Jerome ; unfinished. About 1652. (B. 104. 
W. 109. M. 234.) 

St. Jerome; in Rembrandt s dark manner. Rem- 
brandt f. 1642. (B. 105. XX". no. M. 214.) 

St. Jerome. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 106. XV. 

St. Francis praying. Rembrandt f. 1657. (B. 
107. XV. 112. M. 252.) 



The Hour of Death. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 

Youth surprised by Death. Rembrandt f. 1639. 
(B. 109. W. 113. M. 265.) 

An allegorical Piece; probably the Demo- 
lition of the Duke of Alva's Statue. Rem- 
brandt f. 1658. (B. no. W. 114. M. 

Adverse Fortune; an allegorical Piece. Rem- 

brandt f. 1633. (B. in. W. 115. M. 

Medea; or the Marriage of Jason and Creiisa. 

The fourth state signed : Rembrandt f. 1648. 

(B. ii2. W. 1 1 6. M. 286.) 
The Star of the Kings. About 165? (B. 113. 

W. 117. M. 293.) 
The Large Lion- Hunt. Rembrandt f. 1641. 

(B. 114. XV. 1 1 8. M. 272.) 



A Lion- Hunt. About 1641. (6. 1 15. VV. 1 19. 

M 273.) 
A Lion-Hunt. About 1641. (B. 116. VV. 120. 

M. 274.) 
A Battle. About 1641. (B. 117. W. 121. M. 


Three Oriental Figures (Jacob and Laban.} 
Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 118. \V. 122. M. 


The Travelling Musicians. About 1635. Con- 
tested. (B. 119. W. 123. M. 263.) 

The Spanish Gipsy. About 1647. (B. 120. 
W. 124. M. 285.) 

The Rat-Killer. Monogr. 1632. (B. I2I.--W. 
125. M. 261.) 

The Rat-Killer. About 1632. Contested. (B. 

122. W. 126. M. 260.) 

The Goldsmith. Rembrandt f. 1655. (B. 123. 

W. 127. M. 295.) 
The Pancake Woman. Rembrandt f. 1635. 

(B. 124. W. 128. M. 264.) 
The Sport of Kolf. Rembrandt f. 1654. (B. 

125. W. 129. M. 294.) 
A Jews' Synagogue. Rembrandt f. 1648. (B. 

126. W. 130, M. 288.) 

The Corn-Cutter. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 127.) 
The Schoolmaster. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 

128. W. 131. M. 271.) 
The Mountebank. Rembrandt f. 1635. (B. 

129. W. 132. M. 117.) 
The Draughtsman. About 1641. (6.130. W. 

133. M. 270.) 
Peasants travelling. About 1650. Contested. 

(B. i 3 i.-W. I34.-M. 153.) 
Cupid reposing. Not by Rembrandt. (6.132.) 
A Jew, with a high Cap. Rembrandt f. 1639. 

(B. 133. W. 135.- M. 140.) 
The Onion-Woman. Monogr. 1631. Con- 
tested. (B. 134. Rejected by Wilson. M. 

The Peasant with his Hands behind him. Monogr. 

1631. Contested. (6.135. W. 136. M. 89.) 
The Card-player. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 

136. W. 137. M. 269.) 

Old Man with a short Beard. Not by Rem- 
brandt. (B. 137.) 
The blind Fiddler. Monogr. 1631. (B. 138. 

W. 138. M. 78.) 

The Man on Horseback. Monogr. About 1630. 

(B. 139. W. 139. M. 4.) 
A Polander. About 1633. (B. 140. W. 140. 

M. 102.) 
Another Polander, with a Sword. About 1632 

Contested. (B. 141. W. 141. M. 93.) 
The Little Polander. Monogr. 1631. (6.142. 

W. 142. M. 79.) 
An old Man, seen from behind. About 1631. 

(B. 143. W. 143. M. 86.) 
Two travelling Peasants. About 1634. (B. 

144. W. 144. M. 104.) 

The Astrologer. Not by Rembrandt. (6.145.) 
A Philosopher. Not by Rembrandt. (6. 146.) 
A Philosopher meditating. About 1646. (B. 

147. W. 145. M. 156.) 
A Man meditating. About 1642. (B. 148. 

VV. 146. M. 276) 
An old Man studying. About 1629. (B. 149. 

VV. 147. M. 176.) 

A beardless old Man. Monogr. 1631. Con- 
tested. (B. 150. VV. 148. M. 71.) 
An old Man with a bushy Beard. Monogr. 

reversed. About 1630-1632. (6. 151. W. 

149. M. 32.) 
The Persian. Monogr. 1632. (6. 152. W. 

I50.--M. 91.) 
A blind Man, seen from behind. About 1630. 

This, as Messrs. Charles Blanc, Middleton- 

VVake and Wilson have pointed out, is a study 

for the Tobit (6. 42). Contested. (B. I 53. 

W. 47. M. 1 80.) 
Two Venetian Figures. Monogr. Contested. 

(B. IS4.-W. iji.-M. 73.) 
A Physician feeling the Pulse of a Patient. 

Study for the physician in the Death of the 

Virgin (B. 99). (B. 155. W. 152. M. 143.) 
A Skater. About 1633, according to Mr. 

Middleton-Wake. We agree with Mr. von 

Seidlitz that the plate is not by Rembrandt. 

(B. 156. W. 153. M. 103.) 
The Hog. Rembrandt f. 1643. (B. 157. 

W. 154 M. 277.) 
The little Dog sleeping. About 1640. Accepted 

by Dr. Bode. Rejected by Mr. von Seidlitz. 

(B. 158. W. 155. M. 267.) 
The Shell. Rembrandt f. 1650. (B. 159. 

W. 156. M. 290.) 



A Beggar sitting in an elbow-chair. About 
1631. (B. 160. W. 157. M. 76.) 

Beggars : A Man and a Woman. About 
1639, according to Mr. Middleton-Wake. We 
agree with Mr. von Seidlitz that the plate is not 
by Rembrandt. (B. 161. VV. 158. M. 142.) 

A Beggar standing, and leaning on a Stick. 

About 1630. (B. 162. W. 159. M. 33.) 
A Beggar standing, seen in Profile in a Cap. 

About 1631. (B. 163. W. 160. M. 141.) 
Two Beggars, a Man and Woman, conversing. 

Monogr. 1630. (B. 164. W. 161. M. 37.) 


Two Bfggars, a Man and a II 'a man, coming 

from behind a Bank. Monogr. About 1629. 

(B. 165. \V. 162. M. 10.) 
A Beggar, in the manner of Callot. About 

1631. We agree with Mr. von Seidlitz that this 

piece is very doubtful. (I?. 166. XV. 163. - 

M. 74.) 
A in a slashed CL'ak. Monogr. 1631. 

Contested. (B. 167. W. 164. M. 70.) 
A Beggar Woman with a leathern Hot tie. 

About 1631. We agree with Mr. von Seidlitz 

that this piece is very doubtful. (B. 168.- 

W. i6 5 .-M. 75.) 
A Beygar Standing. Monogr. About 1631. 

Contested. (B. 169. W. 166. M. So.) 
A Beggar Woman, asking Alms. Rembrandt 

f. 1646. (B. 170. W. 167. M. 157.) 
L.izarus Klap, or the dum'j Beggar. Monogr. 

1631. Contested. (B. 171. W. 168. M. 72.) 
A Ragged 1'casanf, ivith his Hands behind 

him. About 1630. (B. 172. \V. 169.- 

M. 121.) 

A Beggar warming his Hands over a Chafing- 
dish. About 1629. (B. 173. -W. 170. 

M. 14.) 
A Beggar sitting on a Hillock. Monogr. 1630. 

(B. i7 4 .-W.'i 7 i.- M. 34.) 
An old Beggar with a long Beard, and a Dog 

by his Side. Monogr. 1631. Contested. 
(B. 175. W. 172. M. 65.) 

Beggars at the Door of a House. Rembrandt 
1648. (B. 176. W. 173. M. 287.) 

A Beggar, and its Companion, in Two Pieces. 
Rembrandt f. 1634. (B. 177. W. 174. 
M. 112.) Rembran. f. 163. (B. 178. W. 
I75--M. H3-) 

A Beggar with a Wooden Ij?g. About 1630. 
(B. 179. W. 176. M. 35.) 

A 1'easant standing. Not by Rembrandt. 
(B. 1 80.) 

A Female Peasant standing : companion to the 
last. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 181.) 

A Beggar: a Sketch. About 1629. (B. 182. 
W. 179. M. 11.) 

Two Beggars : A Man and a Woman. About 
1631. Contested ; but an impression of this 
plate is found on the reverse of an impression 
from the Uizarus Klap (B. 171).- (B. 183.-- 
W. 180. M. 13.) 

A Beggar, wrapped in a Cloak. About 1629. 
Contested. The last part of Bartsch's de- 
scription applies to another plate. (B. 184. 
\V. 181. M. 9.) 

A sick Beggar lying on the Ground, and a 
Beggar Woman. Rejected, with good reason, 
by Mr. Middleton-Wake. (B. 185. W. 182.) 



Ledikant, or the French Bed. Rembrandt f. 

1646. (B. 186. W. 183. M. 283.) 

The Friar in the Cornfield. About 1640. Con- 
tested. (B. 187. W. 184. M. 282.) 

'Ihe Flute-player. Rembrandt f. 1640. (B. 
188. W. 185. M. 268.) 

The Shepherds in the Wood. About 1641. 
(B. 189. W. 1 86. M. 281.) 

A Man making Water. Monogr. 1630. (B. 
190. W. 187. M. 255.) 

A Woman crouching under a Tree ; a com- 
panion to the last. Monogr. 1631. (B. 191. - 
W. 188. M. 257.) 

A Painter drawing from a Model. About 

1647. Contested, though there is a drawing 
by Rembrandt of the composition. (B. 192. 
W. 189. M. 284.) 

An academical Figure of a Man, called in 
Holland the Prodigal Son. Rembrandt f. 
1646. A study (reversed), for this plate is in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale. (B. 193. W. 
190. M. 279.) 

Academical Figures of Two Men. About 1646. 
The sketch of a Woman playing with a Child 
on the same plate is probably a little earlier. 
(B. 194. W. 191. M. 280.) 

The Bathers. Rembrandt f. 1651. The 5 in 

the date was substituted by the artist for the 3 

originally written. (B. 195. W. 192. M. 292.) 
Academical Figure of a Man sitting on the 

Ground. Rembrandt f. 1646. (B. 196. W. 

193. M. 278.) 
A Woman sitting before a Dutch Stoi'e. 

Rembrandt f. 1658. (B. 197. W. 194. M. 

A naked Woman sitting on a Hillock. Monogr. 

About 1631. (B. 198. W. 195. M. 256.) 
A Woman preparing to dress after bathing. 

Rembrandt f. 1658. (B.iog. -W. 196. M. 298.) 
A Woman with her feet in the Water. Rembrandt 

f. 1658. (B. 200. W. 197. M. 297.) 
Venus or Diana, bathing. Monogr. About 

1631. (B. 201. W. 198. M. 258.) 
The Woman with the Arrow. Rembrandt f. 

1661. (The a of the signature is missing, and 

the b is reversed.) (B. 202. W. 199. M. 302.) 
Antiope, and Jupiter as a Satyr. Rembrandt f. 

1659. (B. 203. W. 200. M. 301.) 
Dande and Jupiter. Monogr. About 1631. 

(B. 204. W. 201. M. 259.) 
A naked Woman, seen from behind. Rembrandt. 

1658. (B. 205. W. 202. M. 300.) 

2 8 4 



The Landscape ivith a Caiv. Rejected by 

Middleton-Wake. The date 1634 (if indeed 

the last figure be a 4) docs not agree with the 

monogram, which Rembrandt no longer used 

at this period. (B. 206. W. 103.) 

A Landscape with a House and a large Tree by 

it. About 1640. (B. 207. W. 204. M. 303.) 

Six's Bridge. Rembrandt f. 1645. (B. 208. 

W. 205 AM. 313.) 
View of Oinval. Rembrandt f. 1645. (B. 209. 

W. 206. M. 211.) 
View of Amsterdam. About 1640. (B. 210.-- 

W. 207. M. 304.) 
The Sportsman. About 1653. (B. 211. W. 

208. M. 329.) 
The three Trees. Rembrandt f. 1643. (15. 212. 

W. 209. M. 309.) 
A Peasant carrying Milk-pails. About 1650. 

(B. 213. W. 210. M. 320.) 
A Landscape with two Houses, lightly etched 
and washed with Indian ink. Rejected, with 
good reason, by Mr. Middleton-Wake ; pro- 
bably by Ph. Koninck. (B. 214. W. 211.) 
The Coach Landscape. Not by Rembrandt. 

(B. 215. W. 212.) 
The Terrace. Not by Rembrandt. (B ->i6 

W. 2,3.) 

A Village near the High-road, arched. Rem- 
brandt f. 1650. (li. 217. W. 214. M.325.) 
A Village with a square Tower, arched. 
Rembrandt f. i65o.(B. 218. W. 215. M. 321.) 
Landscape, with a Man sketching. About 1646. 

(B. 219. W. 216. M. 315.) 
The Shepherd and his Family. Rembrandt f. 

1644. (B. 220. W. 217. M. 310.) 
The Canal. About 1652. (B. 2->i W ->i8-- 

M. 327.) 
A Landscape -with a Vista. Rembrandt f. 1652. 

(B. 222. W. 219. M. 328.) 
Landscape with a ruined Tower. About 

1648. (B. 223. W. 220. M. 317.) 
An arched Landscape with a Flock of Sheet. 
Rembrandt f. 1636. (B. 224. W. 221. M. 319 ) 
Large Landscape, with a Cottage and a Dutch 
Hay-barn. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 225 - - 
W. 222. M. 306.) 
A Large Landscape, -with a Mill Sail seen aboi'e 

a Cottage. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 226. W. 

223. M. 307.) 
Landscape with an Obelisk. About 1650. (B. 

227. W. 224. M. 324.) 
A Village with a Canal and a Vessel under Sail. 

About 1645. (B. 228. W. 225. M. 314.) 
A Landscape with a Clump of Trees near the 
Road-side. Rejected with good reason by 
Messrs. Ch. Blanc and Middleton-Wake. (B. 
229. W. 226.) 
An Orchard with a Barn. About 1648, 

But we 

(B. 230. 



according to Mr. Middleton-Wake. 

follow Mr. von Scidlitz in rejecting it. 

W. 227. M. 316.) 
The Grotto with a Brook. Rembrandt 

(B. 231. W. 228. M. 312.) 
The Cottage with -white Pales. About 1645-1648. 

(B. 232. W. 229. M. 308.) 
Renbrandfs Mill. Rembrandt f. 1641. (B. 233. 

W. 230. M. 305.) 
The Gold-weigher's Field. Rembrandt. 

(B. 234. W. 231. M. 326.) 
A Canal with Swans. Rembrandt f. 

(B. 235. W. 232. M. 322.) 
Landscape ivith a Canal and a large Boat. 

Rembrandt f. 1650. (The a and the 6 

reversed.) (15. 226. W. 233. M. 323.) 
A Landscape with a Cow Drinking. About 

1649. (B. 237. W.234. M. 318.) 


(The fifteen 

following are not by 

A Landscape with a square Tower. (The 

signature a forgery.) (B. 238. W. 235.) 
A Landscape, with a small Figure of a Man. 

(B. 239. W. 237.) 
A Landscape : the Canal with the little Boat. 

(15. 240. W. 236.) 
A Landscape -with a gnat Tree in the middle. 

(B. 241. W. 238.) 

The Landscape with a white Fence. (B. 242.) 
A Landscape with a Fisherman in a Boat. (B. 

243. W. 239.) 

A Landscape with a Canal. (B. 244. W. 240.) 
The low House on the Bank of a Canal. (B. 

245. W. 241.) 
A Landscape with a Wooden Bridge. (B. 246 

W. 242.) 
A Landscape, with a Canal and a Palisade, 

dated 1659. (B. 247. W. 243.) 
A Cottage and a Barn filled with Hay. (B 248. 

-W. 244.) 
A Cottage with a square Chimney. (B. 249. 

W. 245.) 
The House with three Chimneys. (B. 250. W 


The Hay-waggon. (B. 251. W. 247.) 
The Castle. (B. 252. W. 248.) 

The Bull. Rembrandt f. 164. About 1649. 

(B. 253. W. 249. M. 289.) 
The Village Street. Rejected with good reason 

by Mr. Middleton-Wake. (B. 254. W. 250.) 
An unfinished Landscape, with five Cottages. 

Signed P. D. W. (P. de Witt.) (B. 255. W. 

A Landscape : View of a Canal. Xot by 

Rembrandt. (B. 256. W. 252. 





A Man in an Arbour. Rembrandt f. 1642. 

(B. 257. W. 258. M. 152.) 
A Young Man sitting in a Chair. Rejected 

with good reason by Mr. Middleton-Wake. 

(B. 258. W. 259.) 
An old Man with a large Beard, lifting his 

Hand to his Cap. About 1639. (B. 259. 

W. 260. M. 139.) 
Bust of an old Man with a long Beard. 

Monogr. 1631. (B. 260. W. 261. M. 62.) 
A Man -with a Crucifix and Chain. Rembrandt 

f. 1641 ; the same model as in the Man 

flaying Cards (B. 136), dated the same year. 

(B. 261. W. 263. M. 147.) 
An old Man, with a large white Beard, and a 

Fur Cap. Monogr. About 1632. Mr. 

Middleton-Wake wrongly supposes him to be 

Rembrandt's father. (B. 262. \V. 264. M. 

Portrait of a Man -with a short Beard. Monogr. 

1631. (Portrait of Rembrandt's father.) (B. 

263. W. 265. M. 77.) 
Portrait of J. Antonides van der TJnden. About 

1653. (B. 264. W. 266. M. 167.) 
An old Man in a fur Cap, divided in the 

Middle. Rembrandt f. 1640. (B. 265. W. 

267. M. 145.) 
Jan Cornelisz Sylvius. Rembrandt f. 1634. 

(B. 266. W. 268. M. no.) 
An old Man sitting at a Table. Not by Rem- 
brandt. (B. 267. W. 269.) 
A Young Man musing. Rembrandt f. 1637. 

(B. 268. W. 270. M. 132.) 
Menasseh ben Israel. Rembrandt f. 1636. (B. 

269. W. 271. M. 127.) 
Doctor Faust us. About 1651. (B. 270. W. 

272. M. 291.) 

Renier Anslo. Rembrandt f. 1641. There are 

two studies by Rembrandt for this plate ; 

one in the British Museum, the other in M. 

Ed. de Rothschild's collection. (B. 271. W. 

2 73 .-M. 146.) 
Clement de Jonghe. Rembrandt f. 1651. (B. 

272. W. 274.' M. 164.) 
Abraham Fransz. About 1656. (B. 273. W. 

275. M. 172.) 
Old Haaring. About 1655. (B. 274. \V. 276. 

M. 1 68.) 
Young Haaring. Rembrandt f. 1655. (B. 275. 

W. 277. M. 169.) 
Jan I.utma. Rembrandt f. 1656 (on the second 

state.) (B. 276. \V. 278. M. 171.) 
Jan Assclyn. Rembra ... f. 164. About 1648. 

(B. 277. W. 279. M. 161.) 
Ephraim Bonus. Rembrandt f. 1647. (B. 278. 

W. 280. M. 158.) 
Uytenbogaerd, a Dutch Minister. Rembrandt 

f. 1635 (on the third state.) (B. 279. W. 281. 

M. 114.) 
Jan Cornelisz Sylvius. Rembrandt 1645. (B. 

280. W. 282. M. 155.) 
Uytenbogacrd : called " The Goldweigher." 

Rembrandt f. 1639. It is generally agreed 

that one of Rembrandt's pupils, probably . 

Bol, assisted him in this plate. (B. 281. 

W. 283. M. 138.) 
The Little Coppcnol. About 1651. (B. 282. 

W. 284. M. 162.) 
The Great Coppenol. About 1658. (B. 283. 

W. 285. M. 174.) 
Doctor A. Tholin.i: About 1655. (B. 284. 

W. 286. M. 170.) 
The Burgomaster Six. Rembrandt f. 1647. 

(B. 285. W. 287. M. 159.) 



First Oriental Head. Rembrandt geretuc. 
1635. Portrait of Rembrandt's father. (B. 286. 
W. 288. M. 122.) 

Second Oriental Head. Rembrandt geretuckeert. 
Portrait of Rembrandt's father. (B. 287. 
W. 289. M. 123.) 
Third Oriental Head. Rembrandt geretuck. 

1635. (B. 288. W. 290. M. 124.) 
A Young Man in a Mczelin Cap. Sig. R. 
(B. 289. W. 291. M. 125.) 

The four plates above are, as the word 
geretuckeert indicates, studio pieces, copies 
of prints by Lievens, and only retouched 
by Rembrandt. 

Bust of an old Man with a large Beard. 

About 1635. (B. 290. W. 292. M. 126.) 
Bust of an old Man, bald-headed, with a long 

Beard. About 1630. (B. 291. W. 293. M. 29.) 
Profile of a bald-headed Man. Monogr. 1630. 

(B. 292 W. 294. M. 39.) 
Profile of a bald-headed Man. About 1630. 

Portrait of Rembrandt's father. Contested. 

(B. 293. -W. 308. M. 41.) 
An old Man with abald Head. Monogr. 1630. 

Portrait of Rembrandt's father. (B. 294. 

W. 295. M. 40.) 
An old Man with a long Beard. Not by 

Rembrandt. (B. 295.) 

2 86 


Jiust of an old Man with a bald Head. About 

1632. (B. 296. W. 296. M. 95.) 
An old Man with a Beard. Monogr. 1631. 

Contested. (B. 297. \V. 297. M. 61.) 
Bust of a bald old At an with his Month open. 

Monogr. 1631. Contested. (B. 298. 

W. 298. M. 56.) 
Bust of an old Man without a Heard, in a very 

high fur Cap. About 1631, according to Mr. 

Middleton-Wake ; we agree, however, with 

Messrs. Bode and von Scidlitz, who reject it. 

(B. 299. \V. 299.- M. 118.) 
Bust of a Man with a Heard from Ear to Ear. 

About 1631. (B. 300. W. 300.- M. 88.) 
Head of an old Man with a Heard. A copy of 

the above, on a smaller scale. (B. 301. 

\V. 301.) 
The Slave with the great Cap. About 1631. 

Contested. (B. 302. \V. 302. M. 81.) 
A Turkish Slave. About 1631. (B. 303. 

W. 303, M.8 7 .) 
Bust of a Man seen in front in a Cap. Monogr. 

1630. Contested. (H. 304. \V. 304. M. 38.) 
Bust of a Man with curling Hnir and his 

Undtr-lip thrust out. About 1635. (B. 305. 

W. 305.-- M. 119.) 
A bald old Man with a short Heard. About 

1635. ('* 36- - W. 306. -- M. 120.) 
H ust of a Man in a fur Cap, stooping. Monogr. 

1631. (B. 307. W. 307. -M. 58.') 

Bust of a Man in the Action of Grimace. About 
1631. Contested. Its authenticity very 
doubtful. (B. 308. W. 309. M. 60.) 

An old Man with a large white Beard. Monogr. 
1630. (B. 309. W. 310. M. 31.) 

I'or/rait of a Hoy, a Half-length. Rembrandt f. 
1641. Called by various authors a portrait 
of William II. as a child, a statement for 
which there is no evidence. (B. 310. W. 311. 
-M. 148.) 

A Man with a broad-bri mined Hat and a KufJ. 
Monogr. 1630. De Vries read the date 1638, 
and the last figure may be taken for 8. But 
at this period Rembrandt did not use the 
monogram here employed. Mr. von Seidlitz, 
however, ascribes the plate to Koninck. 
(B. 311. W. 312. M. 28. 

An old Man -with a large Beard and fur Cap. 
About 1631. (B. 312. W. 313. M. 64.) 

An old Man with a square Beard in a rich 
velvet Cap. Rembrandt f. 1637. (B. 313. 
W. 314.-- M. 131.) 

An old Man with a square Beard and a Cap. 
Aboui 1630. Contested. (B. 314. W. 315. 
-M. 59.) 

Jiitst of an old Man, with a large pointed Heard. 
Monogr. 1631 (on the second state). (P. 315. 
W. 316.-M. 63.) 

Bust of a Man, full face, laughing. (I'crtra't of 
Rembrandt.) (B. 316. W. 29. M. 25.) 

Profile of a Man with a short, thick Beard. 
Monogr. 1631. Contested. (B. 317. W. 
3I7.-M. 69.) 

A Philosopher, with an Hour-glass. Monogr. 
1630 (on the third state). Rejected, with good 
reason, by Mr. von S Jdlitz. (B. 318. W. 318. 
-M. 15.)' 

" L'komme a trois C 'rocs" About 1631. Portra : t 
of Rembrandt with moustaches, and a small 
tuft on the chin. (B. 319. W. 28. M. 47.) 

Head of a Man with a mutilated Cap or Rem- 
brandt with haggard Eyes. Monogr. 1630. 
(B. 320. -W. 33. M. 34.) 

A Man with Moustaches, in a high Cap, silting, 
also known as I'hilo the Jew. Monogr. 
1630. It is really a portrait of Rembrandt's 
father. (B. 321. W. 319. M. 36.) 

Bust of a J\Ian in a Cap. Monogr. 1631. Con- 
tested. (B. 322. W. 320. M. 46.) 

A Man's Head, with Cap and Chin-stay. Of 
very doubtful authenticity. (B. 323. W. 321.) 

Bust of a bald-headed Man. Monogr. 1631. 
Contested. (B. 324. \\'. 322. M. 57.) 

An old Man with a very large Beard. Monogr. 
1630. (B. 325. YV. 323. M. 30.) 

A grotesque Head, in a. high fur Cap. Ab >ut 
1632, according to Mr. Middleton-Wake but 
rejected by Mr. von Seidlitz. (B 326 W. 324. 
-M 98) 

A small grotesque Head, with the mouth open. 
About 1632. (B. 327 W. 325 M 97.) 

A Man pointing. Not by Rembrandt. (B 328.) 

Bust of a young Man, in an Octagon. Not by. 
Rembrandt (B. 329. W. 326.) of a young Man, lightly sketched. About 
1651, according to Mr. Middleton-Wake; but 
we agree with Messrs. Bode, von Seidlitz, and 
Striiter, who reject it. (B. 330. W. 327.-- 
M. 163.) 

Bust of a young Man in a Mezetin Cap with it 
Feather. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 331. W 

Head of a Man with curly Hair and thin 
Moustaches. Monogr. 1631. (B. 332. W. 
336. M. 43.) 

Bust of an old Man with an aquiline Nosf. 
About 1631. (B. 333. W. 329.- M. 85.) 

Must- of an old Man, seen nearly in profile. 
About 1631. (B. 334. W. 330. M. 84.) 

Bust of a Man in a Ruff, with Feathers in his 
Cap. About 1628, according to Mr. Middle- 
ton-Wake, but we are inclined to doubt its 
authenticity. (B. 335. W. 331. M. 2.) 

A Man with frizzled Hair; or Portrait of 
Rembrandt, in an Octagon. About 1631, ac- 
cording to Mr. Middleton-Wake ; but we are 



inclined to doubt its authenticity. (B. 336. - 
VV. 31. M. 20.) 

Must (if an old Man with a white Beard and a 
Cip with a Border. About 1630. Contested. 
(B. 337.-W. 332.-M. 96.) 

Bust of a young Man (Rembrandt?). Memoir. 

1629. (B. 338. W. 30. M. 7.) 
The white Ne^ro, or Morisco Nol bv Rem 

brandt. (B. 339. VV. 333.) 



77/1.' Gnat Jewish Bride. Monogr. 1634. 

Its authenticity questioned by M. de Seid- 

litz. (B. 340. \V. 337. M. 1 08.) 
Study for the abm'e. Rejected, with good 

reason, by Mr. Middleton-\Vake. (B. 341.) 
The Little Jewish Bride, or Saint Catharine. 

Rembrandt f. 1638. (B. 342. \V. 338. M. 


Portrait of an old U'omiin, sitting, or Kern- 
rand fs Mot 'her, with a black I '<//. 

Monogr. About 1631. (B. 343. \V. 339. 

M. 54. 
Another old Woman sitting, or Rembrandt's 

Moth jr. Rombrandt f. About 1632. (B. 

344. VV. 340. M. 92.) 
A young Woman reading. Rembrandt f. 1634. 

(B. 345. W. 341. M. 109.) 
An old Woman meditating over a Book. Not 

by Rembrandt. (B. 346.) 
A young Woman with a Head-dress of Pearls. 

(Saskia.) Rembrandt f. 1634. (B. 347.^ 

W. 342. M. 107. 
An old Woman with an Oriental Head-dress. 

(Rembrandt's mother.) Monogr. 1631. (B. 

348.-W. 343--M. 55-) 
Rembrandt's Mother. Monogr. 1631. (B. 

349. W. 344. M. 53.) 
An old Woman asleep. About 1635. (B. 350. 

W. 345. M. 116.) 
Head of an old Woman (Rembrandt's Mother 

etched no lower than the chin. Rembran It 
f. 1633. (B. 351. --AV. 346. M. 101.) 

The same subject, but earlier. Monogr. 1628. 

_ (8.352. -W. 347--M. 6.) 
Bust of Rembrandt'' s Mother. Not in existence. 

( 353.) 

Bust of old W'omiin lightly etched. (Rem- 
brandt's Mother.) Monogr. 1628. (B. 354. 

-W. 348.-M. 50 
An old Woman in a black- I'eil. Monogr. 1631. 

Contested. (B. 355. VV. 349. M. 67.) 
A \\'oian with a Basket. About 1642. (B. 

356. VV. 350. M. 151.) 
The white Negress, or Morisco. Rejected by 

Mr. Middleton-Wake, though the first stat : 

bears the master's monogram. The same 

subject was etched by Lievens on a smaller 

scale. (B. 357--W. 35'.) 
Bust of a Woman, the lower piirt oval. About 

1631. Contested. (B. 358. \V. 352. M. 68.) 
A Woman in a large flood. About 1642. (B. 

359-^ W. 353.-M. 150.) 
An old Woman's Head. Monogr. Contested 

by Mr. von Seidlitz. The execution very 
. coarse and heavy. (B. 360. W. 354.) 
A Woman reading. Not by Rembrandt. (B. 

3 6i.-W. 355.) ' 
An old Woman in Spectacles, reading. About 

1641, according to Mr. Middleton-Wake. 

Contested. (B. 362. W. 356. M. 149.) 



The Head of Rembrandt and other Studies. 
About 1632. (B. 363. W. 357--M. 136.) 

Part of a Horse and other Sketches. About 
1652. (B. 364. W. 358. M. 166.) 

S.i sh'a, and other Heads. Rembrandt f. 1636. 
(B. 365. -W. 359--M. 129.) 

A Sheet of Sketches, containing Jive Heads. 
Monogr. reversed. 1631. The plate has been 
cut into five pieces, which are described in 
this Catalogue separately as follows : B. 143, 
300, 303, 333, and 33).. (B. 366.- VV. 360. 
M. 83.) 

Three Heads of Women. (Saskia). About 1635. 
(B. 367. VV. 361. M. 115.) 

Three Heads of Women, one asleep. Rembrandt 
f. 1637. (B. 368. VV. 362. M. 130.) 

Two Women in Beds, and other Sketches. 
About 1639. (B. 369. W. 363. M. 144.) 

Rembrandt's Head, and other Sketches. Monogr. 
1631. The date has been disputed. We take 
it as referring only to the group of beggars in 
the corner. Rembrandt's portrait was evi- 
dently added on a vacant space at a much 
later date, probably 1648-1650, as appiars 
from his apparent ag; and the character of 
the execution. (B. 370. W. 364. M. 82.) 

Sketch of a Dog. About 1640, according to 
Mr. Middlcton-VVakc. The plate is however, 



contested, in spite of its bold and brilliant 

execution. (B. 372. W. 365. M. 266.) 
Sketch of a Tree, and other Subjects. About 

1638-1640. (B. 371. W. 366. M. 154.) 
Two Small Figures and some Trees; the plate 

divided in two by a line. About 1631. (B. 

373--W. 3 67.-M. i.) 
Three Profiles of old Men. About 1630. 

Probably studies of Rembrandt's father 
(B. 374. W. 368. M. 12.) 
Head of a Woman. A Study. About 1628, 
according to Mr. Middleton-Wake. M. de 
Seidlitz questions its authenticity, and is 
inclined to give it to Hoogstraaten. (B. 375. 
W. 369. M. 3.) 


. Rembrandt Engraving a Plate. Unique 
impression, belonging to M. Dutuit (No. 173 
in his Catalogue.) Accepted by Messrs. 
Seymour Haden and Middleton-Wake, who 
refer it to 1658. Rejected by Mr. von Seidlitz. 

. Beggars under a Cloak. Accepted by M. 
Charles Blanc (No. 150 in his Catalogue) and 
by Mr. Middleton-Wake (No. 8 in his Cata- 
logue), who believes it to date from 1629. But 
we agree with Mr. von Seidlitz in rejecting it. 


Pen Sketch (Louvre). 


THE Literature connected with Rembrandt would form a library of itself. We have 
been content to quote in chronological order the principal publications bearing 
on his life and works. The special authorities consulted have been noted in the text. 

CONSTAXTIXK HUVGKNS. Unpublished auto- 
biography, written about 162930. Library 
of the Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam. 
MS. Xo. XLVIII : Prasa Anglica, Italica, 
Hispanica, &c. 
J. J. ORLERS. Beschryving der Stad Leiden, 

i vol. Ley den, 1641. 

MENASSEH BKN Isy.\v.\..I 3 iedragloriosa ode 
la Estatua de Nebuchadnesar, i vol. 121110. 
Amsterdam, 1655. 

SAMUKI, VAN HaoGSTRATEN.Meyding tot dc 
hooge School der Schilderkonst. Rotterdam, 
JOACHIM DE SANDRART. Academianobilissimce 

artis pictorice, fol. Nuremberg, 16751683. 
progresso delC arte delF intagliare in mine, 
i vol. 410. Florence, 1686. 
FELIBIEN. Entretiens sur Ics Vies et les 
Outrages des plus excellent* Peintres, 5 vol. 
I2mo, 1666 1688. 
R. DE PILES. Abrege de la Vie des Peintres, 

i st edition, i vol. 121110. 1699. 
ARNOLD HOUBRAKEN. De groote Shoubourgh 
der nederlandsche Konstschilders, 3 vol. 8vo. 
Amsterdam, 17181719. 

schryvingen der nederlandsche Konstschilders, 
4 vol. 8vo. The Hague, 1729. 
DARGENVILLE. Abrigc de la Vie des plus 

fameux Peintres, 3 vol. 4to. Paris, 1745. 
GERSAINT. Catalogue raisonne' de toutes les 
Pieces qui forment Fceuvre de Rembrandt, 
published by Messrs. Helle and Glomy, i 
vol. I2mo. Paris, 1751. 

PIERRE YVER. Supplement au Catalogue 
raisonne de MM. Gersaint, Helle ami Glomy, 
i vol. i2mo. Amsterdam, 1756. 


J. VAX DYCK. Beschryving van alle dc Schil- 
deryen op hct Stadhuis van Amsterdam. 
Amsterdam, 1758. 

DAMKI. DAULI-.V. A descriptive Catalogue of 
the Works of Rembrandt and of his Scholars, 
\ vol. 8vo. Liverpool and London, 1796. 
ADAM BARTSCH. Catalogue raisonne de toutes 
les Estampes qui forment rcem're de Rembrandt 
et ceux de ses principaux imitatcurs, 2 vol. 
8vo. Vienna, 1797. 

raisonne de toutes les Estampes qui forment 
rccuvrc de Rembrandt, i vol. 8vo. Paris, 

Idem. Supplement au Catalogue de Rembrandt, 
i vol. 8vo. Paris, 1828. 

JOHN SMITH. Catalogue raisonne of the Works 
of the most eminent Dutch, Flemish and 
French Painters, 9 vol. Svo. London, 1829 
1842. Vol. VII (1836) is specially devoted to 
Rembrandt's Works. 

D ESC AMPS. Vies des Peintres flamands ct 
hollandais, 3 vol. 4to. Marseilles, 1840. 

EDUARD KOLLOKF. Rembrandt's Leben und 
Werke, published in Fr. von Raumer's 
Historisches Taschenbuch. Leipzig, 1854. 

W. BURGER. Tresors (fart exposes a Manches- 
ter in 1857, i vol. I2mo. Paris, 1857. 

Idem. Les Must'esde Belgique ct de Hollande, 
3 vol. 121110. Paris, 1858, 1860, and 1862. 

DR. SCHELTEMA. Rembrandt; Discours sur 
sa Vie et son GMe, i vol. Svo. Paris, 1866. 

P. G. HAMERTON. Etching and Etchers, i vol. 
Svo. London, 1868. 

F. SEYMOUR-HADEN. Introductory Remarks 
to the Catalogue of the etched Work of Rem- 
brandt (Burlington Club Exhibition), 410. 
London, 1877. 




C. VOSMAER. Rembrandt, so. Vie et ses CEuvres, 
i vol. 8vo. The Hague and Paris, 1877. 

DR. C. LEMCKE. Rembrandt van Ryn, pub- 
lished in R. Dohme's Kunst und Kiinstler 
8vo. Leipzig, 1877. 

EUGENE FROMENTIN. Lcs Maitres d'autrefois, 

I vol. I2mo. Paris, 1877. 
C. H. MIDDLETON-WAKE. Notes on the etched 

Work of Rembrandt, 410. London, 1877. 
Idem. A Descriptive Catalogue of the etched 

Work of Rembrandt, i vol. Svo. London 


HENRI HAVARD. L'Art et les Artistes hol- 
landais, 3 vol. Svo. Paris, 1879. 

F. SEYMOUR HADEN. Lam-are grave de Rem- 
brandt, Svo. Paris, 1880. 

CHARLES BLANC. Lauvre comflet dc Rem- 
brandt dccrit et commentc, 2 vols. fol Paris 

HERMAN RiEGEL.-AW/n^ zur niederldndi- 
schen Kimstgeschichte, 2 vol. 121110 Berlin 

A. BRKDIUS AND N. Die RoEVER. Oud-Holland, 
a periodical, first published in Amsterdam in 
1882, 10 vol., 410. 

W. BODE. Studien sur Geschichte der hol- 
liindischen Malerei, i vol. Svo. Brunswick 

ANTON SPRINGER.-^/,/^ au s der neucren 
Kunstgeschichte, vol. 1 1 : Rembrandt i,nd 
seine Genossen; 2 vol. Bonn, 1886. 

BUSKKN-HUET.-^^ Land van Rembrandt 
3 vol. Svo. Harlem, 1886. 

L. SCHNEIDER. Geschichte der niederldndi- 
schen Litteratur, i vol. Svo. Leipzig, 1888. 

G. GALLAND. Geschichte der hollandischen 
Baukunst und Bildnerei, i vol. large Svo. 
Leipzig, 1890. 

A. BREDIUS. Les C/tefs-tfceuvre du Muset 1 
royal d Amsterdam (French translation), i vol. 
folio, Paris, 1890. 

Idem. Die Meisterwerke der koniglichen 
Gemdlde Galerie im Haag, i vol. fol. Munich 

schichte der Malerei, 3 vol. Svo. Leipzig. 

L>R. W. Scmnm.Handzeichnungen alter 
Meister im K. g. Kupferstichkabinet sit 
Miinchen, fol. Munich. 

DMITRI ROVINSKI. L'ceuvre grave de Rem- 
brandt, reproduction of original plates in all 
their successive states. 1,000 phototypes (un- 
touched), fol. St. Petersburg, 1890. 

DR.^LANGEEHN. Rembrandt ah Erzichcr, by 
a German, i vol. Svo. Leipzig, 1890. (Pub- 
lished anonymously.) 

DR. F. LIPPMANN. Original Drawings by 
Rembrandt, reproduced in Phototype. London, 
Berlin, and Paris ; 200 drawings in four issues' 

W. VON SEIDUTZ. Rembrandt's Radirungen 
published in the Zeitschrift fiir bildende 
Kunst, 1892. 

PROFR. KARL MADSKN. Studier f ra 
i vol. Svo. Copenhagen. 1892. 


1650 (B. 159). 



(Lord Warwick's 

Rvx, i. 72, 
263, 264 : ii. 


tcr),i. 13,194- 

A I, K N S N 

(Hans), i. 149- 

(H. van), i. 

ANSI o (Rcnicr), i. :6o, 272, 273 


ARMINIUS, i. 3, 190. 
ASSKLVN (Jan), ii. 42, coi. 

BACKER (Jacob), i. 83, 243,247 ; 

ii. no, 124. 
BAEN (Jan of), ii. 124. 
BAERLE (Caspar van), i. 71, 93, 

170,259,275; ii. 34,201. 
BAILLY (David), i. 36. 
BAILLY (Pieter), i. 35. 
BALDINUCCI (Filippo), i. 253, 

258 ; ii. 64, 190. 
BANCK (Adriaen), ii. 121. 
BARENTSZ (Dirck), i. 112, 279. 
BAS (Elizabeth), i. 306, 307. 
BASSEE (Pieter), i. 250, 253. 
BASSEN (Van), i. 95. 
BECKER (Herman), ii. 39. 
BEERSTRATEN (Jan), ii. 48. 
BERCHEM (Claes), ii. 40, 41, 


BEUCKELAER (Joachim), i. 194. 
BEYEREN (Cornelisz van), i. 250. 
BLEKER (Dirck), i. 155, 242. 
BLOEMAERT, i. 57. 
BOISSENS, i. 6. 

Boi. (Ferdinand), i. 69, 106, 141, 
198, 200, 238, 244, 246, 247, 
258, 2/2 ; ii. 56, 60, 89, 124, 

BONUS (EphraTm), i. 83 ; ii. 34, 

BOURSSE (Esaias), ii. 58. 

BRAMER (Leonard), i. 242. 

BRAUWER (Adriaen), i. 253. 

BRKDKROO, i. 84, 85, 89. 

likii. (Paul), i. 5. 

BRUYNINGH (Frans), ii. in, 
1 12. 

Burn El. (Arent van), i. 57, 

BURCHGRAEFF (Willem), i. 139. 

BVLKRT (Frans), ii. 191, 192. 

C.U.CAR (John of), i. 126. 
CALLOT (Jacques), i. 62. 
CAPPKI.I.E (Jan van de), i. 210, 

249 ; ii. 62, 156, 161, 201. 
CARAMAN (Adriaen), i. 22. 
CARAVAGGIO, i. 242. 
CATS (Jacob), i. 87, 88 ; ii. 161, 


CAULERY (Joris de), i. 118. 
COCQ (Frans Banning), i. 282, 

283, 296. 

CODDE (Pieter), i. 90. 
COLYNS (David), i. 251. 
COPAL (Francis), i. 167, 210, 

262, 293. 
COPPENOL, i. 6, 115, 1 16 ; ii. 35, 

135, 161. 

COQUES (Gonzales), i. 155. 

ii2, 113, 159, 181, 189, 


112; ii. 68. 

C'ORREGGIO, i. 222, 223 : ii. ~O. 

COSTER, i. 84, 259. 

CRAYKRS (Louis), ii. 120, 121, 


Cl'YP (Albert), i. 242. 
Cl'YP (Benjamin), i. 242. 

UAEY (Marten), i. 148, 213. 
DAI.KN (C. van), i. 131. 
DANCKERTS, i. 98. 
DECKER (Jeremias de), ii. 161, 

178, 179, i So. 
DESCARTES, i. 79, So. 
DEYMAN (Johannes), ii. 101, 

102, 103. 

DIRCX (Gecrtje), ii. 65, 66, 67. 
DOLENIKI (Bartolomeus), ii. 35, 

DOOMER (Lambert), i. 270 ; ii. 


DOOMER (Paulus), i. 270. 
DORP (Philip van), i. 147, 156. 
DORST (Jacob von), ii. 57. 
DOU (Gerard), i. 38, 40, 42, 46, 

47, 5i, 73, 196, 3o. 
DROST (Cornells), ii. 57. 
DUART (Francisca), i. 259. 
DULLAERT (Heyman), ii. 57,95- 
DUSART (Christian), ii. 192. 
DYCK (Anthony van), i. 93, 112, 

118, 149, 155; 57, 124- 
DYCK (Jan van), i. 286, 288. 

EECKHOUT (G. van den), i. 198, 

248, 249, 258 ; ii. 60, 161, 201. 
EGBERTSZ DE VRY (Sebastian), 

i. 128, 129. 
ELIAS (Nicholaes), i. 112, 130, 

258,281 ; ii. 124, 155. 
ELSHEIMER (Adam), i. 16, 17, 

27, 242 ; ii. 46. 



KLZEVIER (Hernout), i. 310. 
ELZEVIRS (the), i. 3, 35. 
ENGELBRECHTSZ (Cornells), i. 
10, 1 1. 

ESSELENS (Jacob), ii. 61. 

FAMRITIUS (Bernhard), ii. 60. 
FABRFFIUS (Card), ii. 59, 60. 
FAKXERIUS, ii. 62. 
FKI.IIIIKN, ii. 169. 
FI.IXCK (Govcrt), i. 90, 198,246, 

-47, 258, 290; ii. 14, 50, 56, 

60, 124, 151, 152, i6r. 
FOKKF.XS (Mclchior), ii. 149. 
FOUKMF.XT (Helena), i. 223. 
FRAXSZ, (Abraham), ii. 39, 97, 

'9, '73, 192. 

'93, i55,i5 6 , '59, 19, 238; ii. 


GF.EST (YVybrandt dc), i. 167, 

i/i ; ii. 190. 
G ELDER (Acrt dc), ii. 17, 55, 

H5, '74, 175, 176, 177, 201. 
r.HKVN (James of), i. 35, 131. 
GlORGIOXE, i. 224 ; ii. 70. 

GLAHHECK (Jan van), ii. 57. 
GOETHK, i. 103. 
GOLTZIUS, i. 57. 

GOMARUS, i. 3. 

GOUDT (The Count Palatine), ii. 
46, 209. 

GOYEX (Jan van), i. 56,95,310; 
ii. 91. 

GRAEFF (Andries de), ii. 121. 
GREP.P.ER (Pietcr de), i. 155. 
GKOOT (Hugo de), called 
Grotius, i. 123, 190. 

HAARING (Jacob), i. m. 
HALS (Frans), i. 112, 183, 280; 
ii. 86, 91. 

HARMEN (Gerritsz van Ryn), i. 

5, 6, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44) 45; 46 , 

59, 72. 

HEEM (Jan Davidsz de), i. 55. 
HEEMSKERCK (M. van), i. 57 , 


HEERSCHOP (Hendrick), ii. 57. 
HEINSIUS (Daniel),!. 3; ii. 161. 
HELST (Barthelemi van der), i. 
248; ii. 14, 55, 123, 124. 

HELT-.STOCKADE (\. dc), ii. 


HERCKMANS, i. 191. 
HERTSP.EEK (Isaac van), ii. 95, 

120, 121, 173. 

HEYBLOCQ (Jacob), ii. 160. 
HEYDEX (Van dcr), i. 98. 
HIXDRICHSF.N (Johan), ii. 57, 


HIXI.OOPF.X (Jan), i. 152. 
Hoijp.E.MA, i. 95 ; ii. 91. 
HOET (Gsrard), i. 55, 115. 
HOI.HEIN, i. 112 ; ii. 136. 
HOI.I.AXD (Johann), i. 130. 
Houi.THORsr (Gerard), i. 20, 

27, 155, 242. 
HOOCH (Pieter de) i. 95, 154; 

ii. 58, 91, 124. 
HOOFT (I'ieter Cornelisz), i. 85, 

86, 87, 90, 93, 259 ; ii. 201. 

HOOGSTRATEX (Samuel van), 
i. 290, 291 ; ii. 63, 174. 

HORST (G.), ii. 57. 

HOUMRAKEX, i. 4, 15, 38, 47, 
119, 146, 152, 196, 198, 
243, 252, 258, 290 ; ii. 40, 42, 
53,7i, 124, 142, 175. 

HUYGENS (Constantin), i. 58, 59, 
60, 61, 62, 114, 155, 156, 159, 
160,220, 255, 256; ii. i6i. 

HUYGENS (Maurice), i. 114. 


JACOBSZ (Dirck), i. 112, 279. 
JONGE (Martsen de), i. 259. 

JONGHK (Clement de), i. 42, 98 ; 
ii. 39. 

JORDAENS, i. 155. 

KEILH (Bernard), i. 253, 283 ; 
ii. 55, 56, 64. 

KETEL (Cornells), i. 57, n2 

KETHAM (Johannes de), i. 126. 
KEYSER (Hendrick de), i. 80, 

9i, "3- 
KEYSER (Thomas de), i. 83, 1 13, 

114, 117, 129, 130, 133, 142, 

144, 244, 259, 281 ; ii. 124, 1 55. 
KONINCK (Philips de), i. 198, 

251,258; ii.45, 57, 61,93, 120. 
KONIXCK (Salomon), i. 152, 

218, 251. 

KOUWENHORN (Pieter), i. 38. 
KRETZER (Marten), ii. 39, 57, 

KRUL (Jan Hermansz), i. 140, 

LAIRESSE (Ge'rard de), ii. 193. 
LAMBERT (Jacobsz), i. 244, 247. 
LAROON (Marcus), ii. 165. 
LAST.MAX (Claes Pietersz), i. 281 . 
LASTMAX (Pieter), i. 15, 16, 17, 

1 8, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 242 ; 

ii. 86, 124. 

LEVECQ (Jacobus), ii. 57. 
LESIRE (Paulus), i. 118, 242. 
LEUPEMUS, ii. 61. 
LIEVEXSZ (Jan), i. 15, 16, 37, 

40,46,47, 58, 59, 72, 73, 1 1 8, 

196, 198, 200, 203, 205, 206, 

3io; ii. 87. 
LIXDEX (Antonides van der), ii. 

LlXGELBACH (David), ii. 143, 


LIXGELBACH (Johannes), ii. 

Loo (Albert van), i. 255; ii. 

Loo (Gerrit van), i. 167, 174, 

255, 293- 

Loo (Jan van), ii. 93, 1 20. 
LOOTEN (Marten), i. 117. 
LORRAIN (Claude), i. 242. 

LUCAS DE LEYDEN, i. 10, n, 

35, 55, 57, 62, 250. 
LUDIK (Lodewyck van), ii. 57, 

93, 97, 133, 149- 
LUNDENS (Gerrit), i. 287, 289. 
LUTMA (Jan), i. 98, 249 ; ii. 109, 

1 10. 
LYSBETH VAN RYN, i. 69, 72, 

109, 1 10, 263; ii. 93. 

MAES (Nicolaes), i. 22, 58, 59 ; 
ii. 78, 124. 

MAGISTRIS (Trojanus de), i. 


MANDER (Karel van), i. 10. 

GONDE, i. 3. 

MATHAM (Theodor), i. 244. 
i. 155, 189,248. 




MAYR (Ulric), ii. 55. 

MEER (Willen van der), i. 128. 


236 ; ii. 82, 83. 
MIERVELT (Michiel), i. 112, 128, 

155, 167. 

MIERVELT (Pieter), i. 128. 
MOEYAERT (Claes), i. 251, 259, 


MOLYN (Pieter de), i. 310. 
MONCONYS (de), i. 125. 
MOREEI.SE (Paul), i. 112, 167. 
MORO (Antonio), i. 112. 

Rembrandt's mother), i. 6, 
22, 39, 40, 263. 
NEER (Aert van der), ii. 91. 
NOLPE (Pieter), i. 98. 

ORLERS, i. 4, 14, 15, 23. 
ORNIA (Gerbrandt), ii. 133. 
OSTADE (Adriaen van), i. 1 54. 
OVEN (Juriaen), i. 83 ; ii. 55. 

PAAUW (Pieter), i. 123, 124, 


PALAMEDES (Antoni), i. 90. 
PANCRAS (The Burgomaster), 

i. 1 80. 
PAUDISS (Christophel), i. 272 ; 

ii. 55, 176. 

PELLICORNE (Jan), i. 139. 
PELS (Andries), ii. 138. 
PERCELLIS (Jan), i. 55, 310. 
PlETERSEN (Aert), i. 128, 281 ; 

ii. 153. 

PILES (Roger de), ii. 130. 
PLANTIN, i. 3. 
POORTER (Willem de), i. 196, 


POTTER (Pieter), i. 55, 90. 
PYNAS (Jan), i. 15, 55,242,250. 

QUELLINUS (Artus), i. 131. 

OUINCKHARD, i. 130, 131. 

RAPHAEL, ii. 30. 

RAVESTEYN (Jan van), i. 112, 


RENESSE (C.), ii. 58. 
RENIALME (Johannes de), ii. 


RlBERA, i. 242. 

ROGHMAN (Roelant), i. 249, 

261 ; ii. 42, 43, 201. 
RUBENS, i. 93, 112, 155, 204, 

223, 224; ii. 2, 59, 202, 219. 
RUYSCH (Frederick), i. 124. 
RUYSCH (Rachel), i. 124. 
RUYSDAEL (Jacob van), ii. 41, 

91, 124. 
RUYSDAEL (Salomon van), i. 


SANDRART (Joachim de), i. 196, 
251, 258, 259, 260, 281 ; ii. 6. 
SANTVOORT (Dirck), ii. 155. 
SAUMAISE, i. 3. 
SAVERY (Roelant), i. 310. 
SAVERY (Salomon), i. 156. 

SCALIGER, i. 3. 

SCHILPEROORT (Conraet), i. 310. 

SCOREL (Jan van), i. 112. 

SEGHERS (Hercules), ii. 43, 45- 


Six (Jan), i. 214, 318; ii. 36,37, 
J33, '34, 149- 

SOBIESKI (John), i. 216. 

SPINOSA, i. So, 86. 

STEEN (Jan), i. 95, 300 ; ii. 91. 

STOCK (Andreas), i. 131. 

STOFFELS (Hendrickje), ii. 67, 
68, 69,70,71,72,73, 74, 112, 
113, 137, 140, 141, 145, '46, 
159, 160 ; ii. 167, 168, 189, 191, 

SWALMIUS, i. 214. 

SWANENBURCH (Claes van), i. 

SWANENBURCH (Isaac van), i. 

13, 56; ii. 153- 
SWANENBURCH (Jacob van), i. 

13, I4,i5- 
SWANENBURCH (Willem van), i. 

7, 8, 12, 35, 125. 
SWEELINCKS (the), i. 91. 
SYLVIUS (Jan Cornells), i. 167, 

170, 171, 176, 260; ii. 34- 

TERBORCH (Gerard), ii. 14- 
TESSELSCHADE (Maria), i. 259. 
TEUNISSEN (Cornells), i. 112, 


THOLINX (Arnold), ii. 101. 
THYSZ (Christoffel), ii. 94, 95> 

1 20. 

TITIAN,!. 126, 223; ii. ii, 70 

171, 188. 
TITUS (van Ryn), i. 293, 294, 295, 

310 ; ii. 68, 96, 97, 112, 113, 

120, 121, 139, 140, 141, 142, 

159, 160, 173, 174, 189, 190, 


TOM BE (Pieter de la), i. 31. 
Tui.P (Claes Pietersz), i. 118, 

130, 131, 132,133, 134; ii- 38, 

101, 152. 
TURENNE (Mardchal de), ii. I 5, 

1 6. 

UYLEXBORCH(The family van), 
i. 166, 167. 

UYLEXBORCH (Hendrick van), 
i. 71, 101, 167, 168, 171, 202, 
247, 261, 295 ; ii. 39, 57, 92, 


UYLENBORCH (Saskia van), i. 
166 184,209, 210, 2ii, 213, 
223, 224, 225, 226, 254, 255, 
293, 294, 295, 296 ; ii. 96. 

UYLENBORCH (Titia van), i. 262, 


UYLENBORCH (Ulric van), i. 255. 
UYTENBOGAERD(Jan),i.83, 142, 

189, 190, 244. 

urer), i. 238, 256. 

UYTENBROECK (Moses) i. 118, 
i55, 242. 

VALCKERT (Werner van), i. 112, 

281 ; ii. 155. 

VALDEZ (Francesco de), i. 9. 
VALENTIN, i. 242. 
VELDE (Adriaen vande), ii. 124. 
VELDE (Esa'ias van de), i. 90, 

VELDE (Jan van de), i. 6, 103 ; 

ii. 209. 

VENANT (Frans), i. 251. 
VENNE (Adriaen van de), i. 87. 
VERBOUT (Jan), ii. 112, 120. 
VERDOEL (Adriaen), ii. 57. 
VERMEER (Jan), of Delft, ii. 91. 
VERMEER (Jan), of Haarlem, ii. 


VERSCHOOTEN (Joris), i. 15. 
VESALIUS (Andrea), i. 126, 127. 
VIANEN (Adam van), i. 98, 249. 
VICTORS (Jan), i. 249, 250; ii. 



VlNCl (Leonardo da), ii. 87, 88. 

VlNCKKNBRINCK (Jansx), i. 91. 
VlSSCHKR, i. 98, 131. 
YUKOKR (Simon dc), i. 55, 310. 
VI.IKT (Joris Van), i. 38, 40, 42, 

46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 74, 196, 

198, 199, 200, 202, 203 ; ii. 

VOXDKI. i. 86, 87, 90, 93, 248, 

251, 289 ; ii. 152, 161, 178, 

20 1. 


VOORT (Cornelis van dcr), i 

M2, 130, 131, 281 ; ii. 155. 
VOKSTKRMAN (Lucas), i. 198. 
Vossius, i. 3 ; ii. 161. 
VRIK.S (Abraham dc), i. 83. 
VRIKS (Vreclcman dc), i. 95. 

WICKS (Adriacn dc), ii. 93. 
\\"KT (Jacob dc), i. 199, 243. 

WlF.r.RANTSZ (I'ictcr) ii. II/. 

WIU.KN (Van Ryn), i. 72, 263. 
\Vii.i.ii.MANs (Michiel), ii. 55. 
WII.MKRDOUX (Abraham), ii 

\VITSF.N (C.), ii. 95, 120, 121. 
WULFHAOEN (Franz), ii. 55. 
\VVMKR (Anna), i. 268. 
WITT (P. dc), i. 196. 

ZKSF.N (Philips dc), ii. 150 
ZOOMK.R, ii. 28. 

1652 (I!. 65). 



1670 4 

ND Michel, Emile 

653 Rembrandt