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Jjorn, Hertford Co., No. Ca. Aug. 2d. 1802. Died, Washington, D. C Dec. 7th. 1S82. 

A. M. Univ. of No. Ca. 1826; State Treasurer, 1845. U. S. Envoy to Nicaragua, 1853. 

Author Hist, of No. Ca. and of Reminiscences of Eminent North Carolinians. 





John H. Wheeler, 




" T/s well that a State should often he reminded of her great citizens." 








President of the University of North Carolina, 

as some evidence of 




It is well known to you that your venerated father encouraged 
tlie preparation and publication of this work. His letters to the 
author prove this. Rut he died before it was completed. Lest 
the same inevitable event should occur to the author now beyond 
the allotted period of human life, these Reminiscences and Mem- 
ories, the labor and research of a life, are now given as a grateful 
legacy to his kind and generous countrymen, who will admire the 
generous traits exhibited, and imitate the noble examples of 
their forefathers. 


Washington City, No. 28, Grant Place, \ 
June 10, 1878. / 
To Hon. William H. Battle, L.L.D., Chapd Hill: 
Mv Esteemed Sir — Your recent letter as to 
"The Address on the Karly Times and Men of 
Albemarle," has been received. For the kind 
opinion, that ' ' the people of the State and es- 
pecially those of the Albemarle County, owe a 
debt of gratitude for this and other contributions 
to [heir iiistury, ' I sintcreiy liiiiiik. yuu. 

Your letter further adds, that you ' ' have seen 
in the Raleigh Obseiva, a handsome tribute to 
the value and usefulness of my History of North 
Carolina, expressing a wish for an early publica- 
tion of a second edition , uniting yourself in a 
similar request. 

Like expressions have been received from 
many respectable sources. 

Recently, The Netvs of Raleigh, The Demo- 
crat of Charlotte, and other papers call for the 
publication of the "Reminiscences of Eminent 
North Carolinians," and appeal to her sons for 
contributions "to the Grand Old History of 
North Carolina." 

It is hoped and believed this call will be heard 
and heeded. 

While Virginia on one side and South Caro- 
lina on the other, have presented to the world 
the glowing record of the patriotism, valor and 
virtues of their sons, North Carolina equally rich 

or richer in such reminiscences; and with traits 
of virtue, and honor, and sacrifices to patriotism, 
deserving of record, allows this record to be ob- 
scured by time, and to 

"Waste its fragrance on the desert air." 

It has been truly said that no State of our 
Republic, has, from the earliest period of its 
existence, shown a more determined spirit of in- 
dependence, and a more constant and firm resist- 
ance ■ • to every form of oppression of the rights 
of man " than North Carolina. This is evinced 
on every page of her history, and exhibited on 
the battle field, and in the exploits of individual 
prowess. This patriotic spirit has been accom- 
panied by noble traits of individual character ; 
as integrity of purpose, a straightforvvardness'o 
intention, and by simplicity and modesty in 

It was on the shores of North Carolina that the 
English first landed on this continent. It has 
been the refuge of the down-trodden, the op- 
pressed and persecuted of every nation, and here 
they found that freedom denied to them in the 
old world — with gentle manners and resolute 
hearts, their whole history exhibits a firm devo- 
tion to liberty, a keen perception of right and a 
ready and determined resistance to wrong. For 
this and this only, was life desirable to then;, and 
for this they were willing to die. 

The gall.'.nt patron, who first sent a colon)' to 



our shores was the victim of tyranny and op- 
pression. Her first Governor was .sacrificed in 
cicicnce of popular rights. Such seed could but 
produce goodly fruits. The character of this 
people was graphically described by one of the 
early Colonial Governors, as ' ' being insolent 
and rebellious * * * impatient of all tyr- 
anny and ready to resist oppression in every 

An early historian has recorded our people, 
as being "gentle in their manners, advocates of 
freedom ; jealous of their rulers, impatient, rest- 
less, and turbulent when ruled by any other 
government than their own ; and under that and 
that only were they .satisfied. " 

It was in the natural course of events and "the 

inexorable logic of circumstances" that the sturdy 

men of the age were ever ready to defend the of right ; and in defense of liberty to pour 

out their life blood, as at Alamance ; on the Cape 

Fear, to beard the minions of power, and cause their 

oppressor to leave the State and seek refuge 

>;i -vhefe, and that the p • of Mecklenburgh 

• ince of every othci should thunder to 

!.- -rid theeternal princij': s of Independence 

and Liberty. 

The acts and characteristics of these illu.strious 
men, and of their descendants, we wish to 

We enter upon this "labor of love " with 

.inestness and pleasure. "J.' >.ught" 

•■-s ,x ica.-ricd writer, on a sin: ; " that 

J rac workint^, for our.selves alone, nor for those. 

now iivmg. "Let us rcTicn^^er t- *■ *hni;-,p.-ir^; 

yet unborn will respect and bless the patient and 

pious hands, that have rescued from oblivion 

these precious memorials." 

The Memories of the last fifty years or more, 
cover an interesting period of our history. 

We shall leave the history of the earlier events 
to some faithful historian, and be it our task to 
take up the biographies of the leading men who 
have done " the State some service" with remi- 
niscences of their times and give the biography 

and genealogy of each, as far as attainable. Bi- 
ography presents a more minute and accurate 
view of the lights and shadows of character, 
than general history. One is general, and the 
individual is a mere accessory ; the other is mi- 
nute, and directed to a single object. We often 
have a clearer idea of any event, when the mo- 
tives and the character of the chief actors are 
minutely described. We have in the " Life of 
Washington," by Marshal, the best history of 
the American Revolution. As to our genealogy, 
this is the first attempt to present the record of 
families in our State. 

This untried path involved much research and 
labor. It is hoped it will be acceptable, and 
prove useful. We are far behind the age, on 
this subject. In England, Burke's great work 
(The Genealogical and Heraldric Dictionary of 
the British Empire) is a hand-book in every well 
appointed library. 

In New England, ' ' Whitmore's American 
Genealogy" is valuable; the Genealogical So- 
ciety of Massachusetts is in full vigor, sustaining 
a (Quarterly Magaznie. Every locality and fam- 
ily in that section have preserved and published 
such materials ; these are commemorated by 
annual domestic gatherings ; thus strengthening 
the ties of affection and refreshing the memories 
of the past. In many cases genealogy is valu- 
able in preserving property to the true owners of 
estates, and the ties of kindred that otherw/se 
would be forever buried, and broken. 

Some, with phlegmatic indifference may ridicule 
th-'5 atter,M>t ; exhibiting a supreme contempt for 
such vanity, as they call it ; but surely no one 
with a discreet mind and a sound heart can be in- 
sensible to the laudable feeling of having de- 
scended from an honest and virtuous ancestry, 
and having industrious and intelligent connec- 
tions of unsullied reputation. Such a thought 
instils a hatred of laziness and vice, and stimu- 
lates activity and virtue. 

Such is a grateful oblation to departed worth. 
Not only is this a duty discharged to the dead. 



but a moral benefit may result to the living. It 
acts as an incentive to others, while they admire 
his services and brilliant career, to emulate his 
patriotic example. 

"Oh, who shall lightly s.iy that Fame 
Is nothing but an empty name, 
While in that name there is a charm 
The nerves to brace, the heart to warm, 
When, thinking on the mighty dead, 
The youth shall rouse from slothful bed, 
And vow with uplifted hand and heart 
Like him to act a noble part." 

Let US all cherish the recollection of talents, 
services, and virtues, of departed worth, and 
such faults as arc inseparable from our nature, be 
buried in the grave with the relics of fallen 

Some pains have been taken with the table of 
contents and the preparation of the Index. 

Mr. Stevens, in his "Catalogue of his English 
Library," says, correctly: " If you are troubled 
with a pride of accuracy, and would have it 
completely taken out of you, attempt to make 
an Index or Catalogue." 

Dr. Allibone prints in his valuable Dictionary 
of Authors (I., 85), extracts from a number of 
the MoHt/tlj'RrL'in.v,\\\\\c\\ is well worthy r)f quota- 
tion here : ' 'The compilation of an index is one of 
those labors for which the public are rarely so 
forward to express their gratitude, as they ought 
to be. The value of a thing is best known by 
the want of it. We have often experienced 
great inconvenience for want of a good index to 

many books. There is far more scope for the 
exercise of judgment and ability in compiling an 
index than commonly supposed. Mr. Oldys 
expresses a similar sentiment in his Notes and 
Queries (XI., 309): "The labour and patience; 
the judgment and penetration, required to make 
a good index, is only known to those who have 
gone through the most painful and least praised 
part of a publication. 

Lord Campbell proposed in the English Par- 
liament (Wheatley on " What is an Index?" p. 27) 
that any author who published a book without 
an Index, should be deprived of the benefits of 
the copyright act. " Mr. Hinney of Philadelphia 
held the same views and Carlylc denounces the 
putting forth of books without a good Index, 
with great severity. 

The History of Tennessee, by Dr. Ram.say, 
full of research and philosophy, fails in this re- 
spect. A book with no index is like a ship on 
the ocean without compass, or rudder. 

In the following pages doubtless many worthy 
characters may have escaped notice — for the field 
is " so large and full of goodly prospects. " Nor 
would we if we could, exhaust this fair field ; but 
like Boaz, leave some rich sheaves for other and 
more skillful reapers in this bountiful harvest. 

To you, my dear sir, who have so kindly and 
repeatedly encouraged these labors, I respect- 
fully commend them and subscribe myself 
Very sincerely yours, 

Jno. H. Wheeler. 


Dedication.— Preface.— North Carolina in the Colonial Period.— Memoir of the Author. 


Regulation Troubles. Oppressions and frauds of the officers of the Crown ; causes and conseiiuences. 
Sketch of Judge Ruffin, compared to Thomas Jefferson. Colonel Thomas M. Holt. 


Sympathy with the Regulators, as to unlawful taxation— 1 768 ; copy of the oath taken ; resolutions 
that the Sheriffs and Magistrates should be elected by the people, Letter to Governor Martin. Character 
of James Cotten, a tory. Sketch of Judge Spencer ; his singular death. Sketch of Judge Thomas S. Ashe, 
now one of the Judges of the Supreme Court. 


Character of the nobleman for whom it is named ; commissioned the Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina. Freemasonry in North Carolina ; it saves the life of an officer in battle. Jeffer- 
son's opinion of Washington. Sketch of the Blounts of Beaufort. Hon. C. C. Cambreling, long a Member 
of Congress from New York, a native of Beaufort. Sketch of J. J. Guthrie, drowned off Cape Hatteras. 
Hatteras described by Joseph W. Holden, and in the National Gazette of Philadelphia, in 1792. Sketch 
of Edward Stanley; a letter of Judge Badger, his relative, as to his course. Sketch of Richard S. Donnell ; 
of Judge Rodman, who agrees with Hooker in his opinion ol the law. James Cook, C. S N. Adventurous 
life of Charles F. Taylor, a native of this section ; participates in the war in Nicaragua ; its stirring events, 
facts never before pubhshed; the policy of Marcey an error; sad fate of Walker; tragic death of Herndon, 
with whom another North Carolinian (John V. Dobbin) was drowned. Central America described- The 
Minister of the United States is recieved. Revolution. Walker captures Virgin Bay, Grenada, and puts the 
Government to flight. Sketch of Walker and his adventurous Hfe. Scenes at the Capital ; the U. S. Min- 
ister in jeopardy. The General Commander-in-Chief and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs executed by the 
invading forces. Letters between the General-in-Chief and the American Minister ; the last letter of Walker. 



Sketch of Whitmil Hill, a Member of the Provincial and Continental Congresses ; of David Stone, 
Judge of Superior Courts, Governor of the State and U. S. Senator. Genealogy of the family. Sketches 
of George Outlaw; of Willie Blount, Governor of Tennessee; of David Outlaw; of P. H. Winston; of 
James W. Clark. Genealogy of the Clark family. 


Battleof Elizabethtown, 1791; Cross Creek. Characterand services of James and Denny Porterfield. 
Sketch of John Owen, Governor of the State; of James J. McKay; of Thomas D. McDonald. 


Early history and character of its people, opposed to oppression, drove the Royal Governor, [Mar- 
tin] from the Country, July 10, 1775, seized the Stamp Master and destroyed the stamps sent to him from 
England; copy of the pledge given by the Stamp Master [William Houston]. Indignation of the people, 
and letter of Ashe, Lloyd and Lillington, offering lo jjrotect the Governor's person Sketch of General 
Robert Howe, his character as described by Governor Martin, who denounced him in a royal proclamation ; 
appointed Colonel of the zd Regiment of North Carolina troops in the Continental establishment ; marches 
to Virginia and drives the Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, from that Province. Sketch of Cornelius Har- 
nett, his life and services ; his character described by Governor Burrington, the Royal Governor ; denounced 
by Governor Martin for the destruction of Fort Johnston. General John A. Lillington's Revolutionary 
services. The Moore family of Brunswick, Maurice Moore, Roger Moore and Nathaniel Moore, the early 
settlers of the Cape Fear region. Sketch of Judge Maurice Moore ; of General James Moore; of Judge 
Alfred Moore, his legal character described. Life and services of Benjamin Smith. 


Character and services of Colonel Edward Buncombe, after whom this County is named. Sketch of 
David L. Swain, his life, services and death ; Sketches of Professors Mitchell and Phillips of the University 
of North Carolina; of Samuel F. Phillips. Sketch of Zebulon B. Vance ; extracts from a work on the Vanre 
family, printed at Cork, Ireland, showing the relationship of General Andrew Jackson to the Vances ; letter 
to General Kilpatrick from Governor Z. B. Vance. Sketch of Robert B. Vance ; of James L. Henry, late 
one of the Judges of the Superior Court; of Augustus S. Merrimon, late Judge and U. S. Senator; of 
Thomas L. Clingman, late U. S. Senator, his life and services; duel with William L. Yancey; of John L. 
Bailey, late Judge of the Superior Court ; of Robert M. Furman ; of Thomas D. Johnston. 

Life, character and services of Waightstill Avery. Genealogy of the Averys. The McDowell 
family ; its genealogy and services in the Revolution. The Carson family. Life and services of John Car- 
son, the founder of the family. Sketches of Samuel P. Carson ; of Israel Pickens; of David Newland ; of 
Todd R. Caldwell; of James William Wilson. 


Life, character and services of Reverend John Robinson, D. D., and of Reverend Hezekiah J. 
Balch D.D.; copy of the tomb-stone of the latter. The Phifer family, and their genealogy. The Barringcr 


family, and their genealogy. Sketch of Nathaniel Alexander, a member of Congress and Governor of the 
State. Sketches of Dr. Charles Harris ; Robert S. Young ; of Daniel Coleman, of Cabarrus County ; of 
Samuel F. Patterson; of James C. Harper; of Clinton A. Cilley and of George Nathaniel Folk of Cald- 
well County. 


First land sighted by the English, 1584; the lost Colony of Governor White. Indian wars with the 
Cores and Tuscaroras ; John Lawson, the first historian, murdered by them. Fort Hyde. Battle at Beau- 
fort. Sketch of the life and services of Captian Otway Burns. 


Life, character and services of Richard Caswell, the first Governor of the State under the Constitu- 
tion. Genealogy of the family. Sketches of Bardett Yancey ; of Romulus M. Saunders ; of Robert and 
Marmaduke Williams; of Calvin Graves; of Bedford Brown; of Jacob Thompson, Secretary of Interior in 
1857, and Member of Congress from Mississippi; all natives of Caswell County. John Kerr, his sufferings 
at the hands of political opponents, and his release. The mysterious murder of John W. Stevens ; his char- 


The life and bloody career, in the Revolution, of David Fanning. Sketch of Charles Manly, Gover- 
nor in 1848 ; of Abram Rencher ; of John Manning. 


Governor Eden, (for whom the County-lown is named); sketch of him and his alleged intimacy with 
the noted pirate, Edward Teach commonly called " Black Beard" ; the bloody deeds of this marauder ; his 
wicked life and bloody end. The principles and character of the early inhabitants of Chowan. The pro- 
ceedings of the Committee of Safety in 1775; the names of the members. The Vestry of St. Paul's 
Church, and the patriotic resolves of the ladies of Edenton. Life, services and character of Samuel John- 
ston ; the opinion of the Royal Governor (Martin) of him, who removed him from the office of Deputy Nav- 
al Officer, and Mr. Johnston's reply to the Governor ; member of the Provincial Congress in 1775, and of 
the Continental Congress in 17S0 ; elected Governor in 1787 ; U. S. Senator in 1789 ; in 1800 Judge of the 
Superior Court. A devoted advocate of freemasonry. Genealogy of the Johnston family. The title of the 
Marquis of Annandale supposed to belong to them. Sketch of Joseph Hewes, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence ; of Hugh Williamson, a member of the Colonial and Continental Congresses ; and of the U. 
S. ; author of a history of North Carolina ; of Stephen Cabarrus, long Speaker of the House of Commons ; 
of Charles Johnson; of Thomas Benbury. Of James Iredell, appointed Judge of Supreme Court of the 
U. S. by General Washington ; of his son, James Iredell Jr., Speaker of the House in 1817 ; Judge of the 
Superior Court 1819; Governor of the State 1821 ; U. S. Senator in 1S27, succeeding Mr, Macon. In the 
war of i8i2, was Captain, with Gavin Hogg as one of his Lieutenants. Sketch of Gavin Hogg- Life and 
services of Agustus Moore, one of the Judges of the Superior Court ; sketch of his son, William A.Moore; 
of Governor William Allen, of Ohio, member of Congress in 1833 ; Senator in 1837-49, and Governor of 
Ohio in 1874, a native of Edenton. An amusing incident connected with the names of General Scott, Dr. 
Warren, Major Gilliam and others. 



Its early history ; the Palatines; De Graaffenreidt ; Governor Dobbs; Tryon's palace ; his clock, 
John Hawks, architect. "The cause of Boston, the cause of all ! " Committee of Safety in 1775 of Chow- 
an County. Names of its members. Sketch of Francois Xavier Martin, a historian of the State ; of the 
Blount family; of Abner Nash, his character as given by Governor Martin; a member of Congress, 1776; 
first Speaker of the Assembly; Governor in 1779; member of Congress 1781. Life, service and death of 
Richard Dobbs Spaight. Duels that have been fought in North Carolina. Sketch of John Stanley ; of 
William Gaston ; of John R. Donnel ; of John Sitgreaves ; of John N. Bryan ; of Edward Graham; of 
Francis L. Hawks ; of George E Badger ; of Matthias E. Manley ; of Charles R. Thomas ; of Judge Sey 
mour ; of William J. Clarke, and his talented wife, Mary Bayard Clarke, and his son William E. Clarke. 


The Scotch heroine. Flora MacDonald, once lived in this County. Sketch of her life and character ; 

of Farquard Campbell, Governor Martin's opinion of Kim; of William Barry Grove; of John Louis Taylor, 

late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. Judicial System of the State as it existed from 

1798101804. Sketch of Henry Potter, Judge U. S. District Court ; of John D. Toomer; of Louis 

D.Henery; of Robert Strange; of James C. Dobbin; of Warren Winslow; of Duncan K. MacRae ; of Mrs. 

Miller; of Henry W. Hilliard of Georgia, a native of Cumberland ; of W. C. Troy. 


Sketch of Henry M. Shaw; of Emerson Etheridge, of Tenn., native of Currituck ; of Thomas J. Jarvis, 
Governor of North Carolina, 1882. 


Sketch of James M. Leach of Davidson ; of James Gillaspie ; of Thomas and O. Kenan ; of Charles 
Hooks of Duplin Co. Sketch of Henry Irwin, a Revolutionary hero ; of Jonas Johnston ; of John Hay- 
wood; genealogy of the Haywood family. Sketch of Henry T. Clark, Governor of North Carolina. 
The Battle Family, and their genealogy, including Judge Wm. H. Battle, and his son, Kemp P. Batde. 
Sketch of Duncan L. Clark, of U. S. Army; of Wm. D.Pender; of R. R. Bridgers; of Charles Price 
of Davie; of John B. Hussey of Davie. 


Sketch of Col, Benj. Forsythe; of Joseph Winston ; of Israel G. Lash. The History of the Moravians. 


Lynch Law, origin of the term. Services nd Sufferings of General Thomas Person ; Sketch of Hon. 
J. J. Davis. 


Sketch of Rev. Humphrey Hunter; Major Wm. Chronicle ; of Rev. R H. Morrison of Gaston County; 
of William Paul Roberts, of Gates ; of John Penn of Granville, one of the Signers of the Declaration of 

(i i) The last name in Chatham County should be Moreing. 

(12) Chapter XVII, read Duncan L. Clinch, Jiot Clark. 

(13) Chapter XXII, place a semicolon after the name "William Polk." 

(the following are to take the place of the chapters .mentioned.) 
The Murfree Family. Sketch of General Thomas Wynns ; of the Cotten Family; of Rev. Matthias 
Brickie; of Dr. Goodwin C. Moore ; of John Brown; Sketch of Kenneth Rayner ; of Willian N. H. 
Smith; Tristram Capehart ; of CuUen Capehart and of Dr. Wm. Anthony Armistead; of David A. 
Barnes; of Jesse J. Veates ; of Richard J. Catling; Gen. Lafayette's visit to North Carohna : The 
Chowan Female Institute; Insurrection of Slaves; Sketch of David Miller Carter of Hyde 
The Wheeler Family referred to. 

Sketch of Hugh Lawson White; ofWm.Sharpe; of Dr. Charles Caldwell; of David F. Caldwell; of Hon. 
Jose])h P. Caldwell; of Hon. Robert F. Armficld ; of Hon. David M. Furches of Iredell. Revolution- 
ary proc-edings in Johnston County, in 1768. Sketch of Wm. A. Smith ; of Hon. Nathan Bryan of 
Jones County, of Hardy B. Croom and of Hon. Wm. D. Mosely of Lenoir County. 

Sketch of Gen. Joseph Graham.— Genealogy of the Grahams. Sketch of Gov. W. A. Graham. Geneal- 
ogy of the Brevards. The Huguenots. Sketch of Gen. William Davidson ; of Dr. Ephraim Brevard, 
author of the Declaration of May 20, 1775. The Forney Family ; of Michael Hoke and his son Robert 
F. (Major Genl. C. S. A.); of John F. Hoke ; of James Houston ; of Dr. Wm. McLean ; of Dr. C. L. 
Hunter; of Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur ; of Gen. James P. Henderson; of Bartlett Shipp ; Robert H. 
Burton ; Hon. David Shenck. 

Chapter XXXVIII and XXXIX., read McDowell, wo/ McDonald. 
Chapter XLL, write " I (enry K. Burgwynn" at end of tliis paragraph. 

Coauty ; tf tl— 

S'^'.-'.' li of Gen. Jcseph Gia.iaui; 
L':i\ 'ds,in ; of the Forneys; of Mich.ic", 
M [.ean ; of Dr. C. L. Hunter ; of 
Viii "^V. Schenck ; of Robert H. Builu.. 


Sktii ii of Tames Lowrie Robinson (Spe.-'H 1 ; ■, jf Silas M 




Independence ; of James and John Williams ; of Robert Burton. The Henderson Family — their genealogy. 
Sketch of Robert B. Gilliam ; of A. W. Venable ; of M. Himt , of Robert Potter. 


Sketch of Gen. Jesse Speight; of Joseph Dixon. Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15, 1781, be- 
tween General Greene and Lord Cornv.allis. Sketch of Cornwallis ; of Col. Tarleton; of Col. Wilson 
Webster. Cornwallis'.s letter to his father as to the fall of Webster. 

Sketch of Dr. David Caldwell; of Alexander Martin; of Newton Cannon, Governor of Tennessee, a 
native of Guilford ; of Governor Moorehead ; of George C. Mendenhall ; of Judge John M. Dick, and 
his son, Judge Robt. P. Dick; of John A. Gilmer; of John H. Dilliard ; of Rev. Calvin H. Wiley; of 
James J. Scales ; of John H. Staples. 


The Jones Family- its genealogy; John Paul Jones adopts this name. Sketch of Wm. R. Davie, a 
General of the Revolution; of Hutchins G. Burton; of Andrew Joyner ; of John W. Eppes; of William 
Polk of the Cromwell Family ; of John B. Ashe ; of Willis Alston ; of John Haywood ; of John H. Ea*-^" ; 
of J. J. Daniel; of John R. J. Daniel; of Junius Daniel; of John Branch; of Lawrence O'B. Branch; of 
James Grant; of B. F. Moore. 


The Murfree Family. Sketch of General Thos. Wynns ; of the Wlieeler Family ; of Rev. Matthias Brickie; 
of Kenneth Rayner; of Godwin C. Moore; of Solon Borland; of Wm. H. H. Smith; of Jesse J. Yeates ; 
of Richard J. Gatlin. The Chowan Female Institute. Sketch of David Miller Carter ; of Hugh Lawton 
White of Tenn.; of the Osborne Family — Adlai Osborne, Spruce McCoy Osborne, Edward Jay Osborne, 
and Judge James W. Osborne; of David F. Caldwell; of Joseph P. Caldwell; of Professor Caldwell; of 
D. M. Furches; of Robeit F. Armfield. 


Revolutionary proceedings in Johnston County, 1768. Sketch of Wm. A. Smith ; of Nathan Bryan of 
Jones County ; of Hardy B. Croom ; of Wm. D. Mosely. 


Sketch of Gen. Joseph Graham ; Family Genealogy of the Brevards. Huguenots ; of General William 
Davidson ; of the Forneys ; of Michael, Robert F. and John T. Hoke ; of James Graham ; of Dr. Wm. 
McLean; of Dr. C. L. Hunter; of Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur ; or Gen. Jas. P. Henderson ; of Judge Da- 
vid W. Schenck ; of Robert H. Burton. 


Sketch of James Lowrie Robinson (Speaker) ; of Silas McDonald of Macon ; of Asa Biggs; of Jos. J. 



The Polk Family,— its genealogy ; The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence ; it is denounced by 
the Royal Governor, Josiah Martin. Sketches of the Members of the Convention ; of Abram Alexander ; 
of Hezekiah James Balch ; of John Davidson— with genealogy ; of Wm Graham ; of Robert Irwin ; of Wm. 
Kennon ; of David Reese ; of Adam Craighead ; of Gen. Thomas Polk,— letter of Gen Greene to Gen- 
eral Polk. " Devil Charley." Sketch of Bishop Polk of Andrew Jackson. Bishops furnished by North 
Carolina to other States. Susan Spratt nee Barnett, a Revolutionary relic. Sketch of Mrs. Susan Hancock ; 
of Judge Sam. Lowrie ; of Joseph Wilson; of Wm. J. Alexander ; of Greene W. Caldwell; of D. H. Hill ; 
The Osborne family, and a graphic sketch of Judge James W. Osborne, from the pen of D. H. Hill ; Judge 
R. P. Warring. 


Sketch of A. McNeil; of Archibald McBryde ; of Governor Benjamin Williams ; of Di. George Glass- 
cock, of Moore County. The Ashe Family,— its genealogy. John Baptista Ashe's controversy with the 
Royal Governor, and is imprisoned by him. Letter of Burrington, showing his own character and purely. 
Battle of Briar Creek. Sketch of the Hill family ; of Wm. Hooper ; of Timothy Bloodworth ; of Edward 
Jones; of Johnson Blakely ; of James Ennes ; of the Davis family; of the Waddell family; of Owen 
Holmes ; of John Cowan ; of Gov. Dudley ; of Bishop Atkinson ; of Rev. Adam Empie ; of Bishop Green ; 
of Wm. B. Meares; of Wm. H. Marsteller ; of General Abbot. 


Sketch of General Allan Jones ; of General Matt. W. Ransom ; of Edmund Fanning ; of Governor 
Burke, seized by Tories and carried to Wilmington. The Mebanes. Sketch of General Francis Nash ; of 
Judge Frederick Nash; of Judge Murphy; of Judge Norwood ; of Dr. Wm. Montgomery; of Willie P. 
Mangum ; of Thomas H. Benton ; of Gen. Geo. B. Anderson ; Memoirs of Chapel Hill ; Sketch of Dr. 
Charles F. Deems ; Hon. Paul C. Cameron ; Prof. Hubbard ; of Wm. Bingham; of John W. Graham. 


Sketch of John L. Bailey ; of Wm B. Shepard ; of George W. Brooks ; of Gen. James G. Martin ; of 
John Pool; of Pasquotank; of John Harvey; of J. W. Albertson ; of William H. Bagley, of Perquimans', 
of Hustavus A. Williamson ; of General Henry Atkinson, U. S. Army ; of Richard Atkinson ; of Judge E. 
G. Reade ; of John W. Cunningham, of Person County. 

Sketch of Dr. Robert Williams ; of General Bryan Grimes, of Pitt ; of Jonathtn Worth, of Pitt ; Colonel 
Andrew Balfour, his gallant services and tragic end ; Herman Husbands, a leader of the Regulators; Hon. 
John Long, Member of U. S. Congress. 


Sketch of A. Dockery ; of A. H. Dockery; of Governor ; Joseph R. Hawley ; of Walter Leake Steele, of 
Richmond ; of Thomas Settle Sen.— genealogy of the Settles,— of his son Thomas, now Judge in Florida ; 
of David Settle Reid ; of John H. Dilliard ; of Hamilton Henderson Chalmers, a Judge of the Supreme 
Supreme Court of Mississippi. 



Documents never before published as to early times in Rowan. Population in 1754; first settlers their 

names; Committee of Safety, 1774-76. Sketch of Hugh Montgomery — his decendants. leroic conduct of 
Mrs Steele. Sketch of General John Steele; of John V. Steele, Governor of New Har. pshire; of Wm. 
Kennon ; of Griffith Rutherford — his gallant services in the Indian and Revolutionary Wars. Sketch of the 
Locke family; of Spruce McCoy ; of James Martin ; of George Mumford ; of the Pearsons; of Judge John 
Stokes; of Charles Fisher, and his son, Colonel Charles F. F'isher, killed at Manasses, Va., and his daughter, 
Miss C. Fisher, distinguished as an authoress; of Governor John W. Ellis; of Nath. Boyden ; of Burton 
Craige; of Hamilton C. Jones; of of Francis E. Shober; of John L. Henderson. 


Sketch of Judge John Paxton; of Felix Walker, author of the world-wide expression "talking for buncombe;" 
of Colonel Wm. Graham; of Gen. John G. Bynum, and his brother, Judge Wm. P. Bynum; of Judge John 
Baxter, of Rutherford ; of Gov. Holmes ; of Gen. Tlieo. H. Holmes ; of Wm. R. King. Vice President of 
U.S. of Col. Benj. Forsythe of Stokes County ; of James Martin, his Military services in the Revolution, as de- 
posec to, by himself; of John Martin, of Stokes; of Benjamin Cleaveland, of Surry; Names of the Committee 
of Safety, of Surry County; Sketch of William Lenoir; of the Williams family; of Jesse Franklin ; ofMeshach 
Franklin ; of Judge Jesse Franklin Graves. 


Edward Buncombe, his Military services and heroic death. The Pettigrews, James and his son Ebenezer, 
and his gallant grandson J. Johnston Pettigrew ; Sketch of Dr. Edward Ransom ; of Joseph Gales, first Editor 
of the Raleigh Register; The Press of North Carolina. Sketch of Joseph Gales of Washington, D. C; of 
Weston R. Gales, of Raleigh ; of Seaton Gales; of Judge Sewall ; of Judge Duncan Cameron; of Edmund 
B. Freeman; of Dr. Richard H. Lewis. Sketch of William Hill, Sec. of State; of Dr. William G. Hill; of 
Theophilus Hill; of Mrs. Zimmerman, Poetess; of Andrew Johnson, President of United States; of General 
Joseph Lane, and of the Lane family ; of Governor W. W. Holden ; of Bishop Ravenscroft ; of Bishop Ives ; 
of Rev. Dr. Richard S. Macon ; of Bishop Beckwith ; of Octavius Coke ; of Randolph A. Shotwell ; of Don- 
ald W. Bain. 


Military services of General Jethro Sumner in the Revolution. The Hawkins family, with its genealogy; 
Sketch of Dr. James G. Brehon ; of Nathaniel Macon ; of Gov. James Turner ; of Daniel Turner ; of Whar- 
ton J. Green; of Kemp Plummer ; of Judge Hall; of Judge Edward Hall; of Judge Blake Baker; of Gov. 
William Miller; of Weldon N. Edwards; of the Bragg family ; State Capitol burned, June, 1831. 


Sketch of Daniel Boone ; of John Sevier. The State of Frankland, and its rise, progress, and fall. Sketch 
of Ezekiel Slocumb; of Col. Thomas Ruffin; of Gov. C. H. Brogden ; of Gov. Montford Stokes, and his de- 
scendants ; of Henry G. Williams, of Wilson ; Isaac F. Dortch ; of Richard W. Singletary. 



i®Siil iifflH aSMKlili 

Of Hertford County, North Carolina. 

Bv HON. JOSEl'II S. FOWLER, Ex-Senatok Fkom Tennessee. 

" Excgi monumentum tsre perenniiis^ 
Hetjalique situ pijramidnm nltius ; 
Quorf non imher edax. non Aqnilo impoteng 
Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis 
Annorum series, cl/uga lemporum.'^ 

— UOR. Cau., XXX. 

TJO.M Mooru's "Historical Si'ictches of 
Ileitford County," wo learn the fol- 
^ey lowing: 
(|] L Among the early citizens of the 

ei villiigeof Murfreesboro, in this county, 

S was John Wheeler. He was of an ancient 
1 family, long seated around New York. In 
the latter end of tlie 17th century-, under a 
grant of land from Charles II., Jo.^eph Wheeler 
emigrated from England, and settled in New- 
ark, New Jersey. Like William i'enn, he was 
the son of a gallant naval officer. Sir Francis 
AVheeler, an English admiral, was his father, 
and the grant of land from the Crown was in 
reward for faithful services, lie and his young 
wife had followed soon after the conqtiest of 
the New Netherlands by the Duke of York, son 
of Charles I., afterwards James II. 

To them was born, in 1718, their son Ephraira 
Wheeler, to whom, and his wife Mary, the tirst 
American John AVheeler was born in the year 
1744. John had bestowed upon him the best 
advantages of educai ion — he was educated as a 

physician. When the Revolutionary war came 
on, he entered the army under General Mont- 
gomery', and accompanied him in the perilous 
and ill-fated campaign to Quebec, and was in 
the battle (December 31, 1775.) in which that 
gallant officer fell. In Toner's "Reminiscences 
of the Medical Men of the Revolution" he is 
prominently mentioned. Aaron Burr served 
also in this campaign. Dr. Wheeler accom- 
panied General Greene in his southern cam- 
paign, and was with him in the hard fought 
and glorious victory at Eutaw Springs, Sep- 
tember 8, 1781, and until the close of the war. 
Pleased with the genial climate of the South, 
he settled near Murfreesboro and brought his 
family with liim. llis wife Elizabeth Long- 
worth, was the neice of Aaron Ogden, after- 
wards the Governor of New Jersey, and Sen- 
ator in Congress. Ho lived near Murfreesboro 
for years, in the practice of his profession, in 
which he had great skill and much success. 

His death occurred on October 14, 1814, and 
he lies buried in Northampton County, near 


Mnrfreesboro. He left several works in man- 
acript on medical science, which evinced tlie 
depth of his acquaintance and his devotion 
to his profession. His son John was born in 
1771. In his early youth he was engaged with 
his cousin, David Longworth, in business as 
lial)lisher8 and booksellers in New York, Here 
he attracted, by his attention to business, the 
notice of Zedekiah Stone, who was then in 
Now York, and by v.'honi he was induced to 
remove to Bertie County, North Carolina. 
Ho was there married to Elizabeth Jordan. 
January 6th, 1796, and after the death of his 
triend, Mr. Stone, Murfreesboro became his 
home. At this place he was engaged in mer- 
cantile and shipping afiairs until the day of 
his death. From his enterprise, industry, 
sagacity, and integrity he attained great suc- 
cess, and his memory, to this day, is cherished 
in that section as "the honest merchant." lie 
was a man of unspotted integrity, so strong 
that venality and indirection cowered before 
him. After a long life of industry, usefulness 
and piety (for he was a consistent member of 
the Baptist Church for more than forty years) 
he died, lamented and belovetl, August 7tb, 
1832. His family surviving him, consisted 
of two sons by his first marriage, John H. 
Wheeler, late Public Treasurer of the State, 
and Dr. S. Jordan Wheeler, late of Bertie 
County. By a second wife (Miss Woods) he 
left one daughter, Julia, the peerless wife of 
Dr. Godwin C. Moore; and by a third wife, 
among others. Colonel JuniusB. Wheeler, now 
Professor of Civil and Military Engineering 
and the Art of War in the United States Mil- 
itary Academy at West Point. He is the 
author of several military works on civil and 
military engineering, and on the art of war, 
which have been adopted as text books by the 
War Department. He has thus written his 
name in the useful literature of the nation and 
discharged "that debt," which Lord Coke 
says, "every man owes to his profession." 

Professor Wheeler was born in 1S30; edu- 
cated in pttrt at the University of North Car- 
olina, and when only a boy volunteered as a 
private in Captain William J. Clarke's com- 
pany in the Mexican war. He was in every 
battle from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. 
At the fiercely contested affair at the Nnvional 
Puente, one of the lieutenants was killed, and 
young as he was, he was appointed by the 
President as the successor, on the repor^ of his 
commanding otlicer, now on file, that "he had 
seen young Wheeler under heavy fire, and he 
had proved to the command that he was made 
of the stuff of which heroes are made." On 
his return from Mexico he could have remained 
as an officer in the army, but he declined on 
the ground of want of qualification, he there- 
fore resigned his commission. The President 
determined to retain him in the service, and 
he appointed him a cadet at West Point, 
where he graduated among the first of his 
class. After serving for several years in the 
Corps of Engineers in Louisiana, Wisconsin 
and elsewhere, he was appointed to succeed 
the late Professor Mahan in the position he 
now occupies. 

Dr. Samuel Jordan Wheeler, brother of the 
above, w'as born in 1810; was educated at the 
Hertford Academy, and graduated from 
Union College, Schenectady; he studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Nathan Ch:ipman in Philadel- 
phia, and practiced for years with success. 
He has been an earnest co-laborer in the cause 
of education and religion, as the Chowan In- 
stitute and the Church at Murfreesboro bear 
witness; he was professor in a college in 
Mississippi. He recently died in Bertie County, 
loved and respected for his purity of character. 
He married Lucinda, daughter of Lewis Bond. 

John Hill Wheeler. 

The conspicuous services rendered the State 
of North Carolina, and her eminent citizens, 
by this accomplished man, will forever pre- 


serve his nienioij from oblivion. Born in the 
dawn of the present centnry, ho has been tlie 
witness of the most remarkable events in the 
history of the republic. In the connty of 
Hertford he tirst saw tlie light, August 6, 

lie was prepared for college at Hertford 
AcadLni}' by Dr. John Otis Fieenian, an emi- 
nent divine. He was then placed at the 
Columbian University, Washington, J). C , 
and graduated in the class of 1826. In the 
year 1828 he took his degree of Master of 
Arts in the Universitj' of North Carolina. 
He studied his profession, tlic law, tinder the 
direction of Chief Justice Taylor, of Xorth 
Carolina. He was elected to the Legislature 
before ho was admitted to the bar. in the3'ear 
1827. Then State Legislatures were honored 
bodies, and secured some of the best talent in 
the States. 

This Legislature containevl manj' eminent 
and able men, auiong thvui were Judges 
Gaston, Nash and Bailey, George E. Spri- 
uell, John M. Morehead, James Iredell, and 
many more. To win position in such a body 
was tl e [iromise of a fruitful manhood, in a 
youth just twenty-one years of age. For an 
earne. i and aspiring mind, it proved a valua- 
ble seij lol. Success was not to be hoped for 
witht>!.t severestuily and thorough preparation. 
To tu. -ide into revorentiui indifference was 
notl :.. i-liaracteri.-tic of hi.smind. Independ- 
ent i ! .is feelings, whilst respecting the ability 
of Ir' ju'ileagues, he claimed equal rights in 
the ! } . Conscientious in the execution of 
the it trust com. ' ' ' r.m ]>y a gen- 
e'.X' . \jroad— &;->- . he could not 

see .litir dignity -©vei'.-^liii.'TTrK'Bd, He sum- 
mon' : .11 his powers to the v.-ork.and won 1^7 
hir;; :i conspicuous and honorable po,sition. 
So V ••: (lid he perform the task assigned him, 
that \iu. approving constituents returned him 
to the 'i.':)uy. In his twenty-fifth year, they 
nonil.i.ed him for Gviugress, but after a 

severely contested ami gallant canvass, he wis 
defeated by the Hon. William B. Shepard. 

In the year 1831, he was appointed Secii'- 
tary to the Board of Commissioners, under lli" 
treat}- with France, to adjudicate the claim.-- of 
American citizens for spoliations under Ihe 
Berlin and Milan decrees. 

In 1836, he was placed by General Jackson 
in the position of Superintendent of the 
Branch Mint at Charlotte, but in 1841 shared 
the political fortune of his friends and parly. 

In 1842, he was elected by the Legislature to 
be Treasurer of the State, in opposition to 
Major Charles L. Ilinton. After liis term had 
e.xpiied, he retired to his rural home on thq 
banks of the Catawba, and, aided by the sug- 
gestion of his friend, Governor Swain, he be- 
gan the patriotic labor of writing "Wheeler's 
Histoiy of North Carolina," on which he was 
employed for about ten years. How well this 
duty was performed, will appear from an ex- 
tract of a letter of General Swain, written not 
long before his death, now in our possession, in 
which he says: 

"I have been much urged to write a comple- 
tion of Hawks' History of North Carolina. 
The on ly response I have ever made is that I am 
too old, and too poor to venture on such an un- 
dertaking. Were it ctherwise, in ray opinion 
another edition of Wheeler's History would be 
more useful and acceptable than any work I 
could write." 

In this work. Colonel Wheeler sought to col- 
lect the intere.sting facts that illustrated the 
history of the State and give them an enduring 
place. He proposed to preserve, for all time, a 
faithful record of the illustrious deeds of a 
noble and patriotic people, who have character- 
ized their presence in the new world by an 
intense love of liberty and the most striking 
individuality. Ti^ey r.-2re. from their presenoo 
in the wilderness, aself governing"CDrr:;«iuuhy. 

No authority was sacred that did not emi- ' 
nate from themselves. Loyal to the will of 
the people, they resented indignantly the im- 


position of any external authority. They re- termined men, tojoin the liberals, and the posi- 
jected the magnificent plan of government pro- tion held by Colonel Wheeler became one of 
vided hy the Earl of Shaftesl)ury, though he much peril and responsibility. It soon became 
summoned the brilliant talents of the illnstri- manifest that neither party couki be relied on 
ous philosopher, John Locke, for its preparation, for any permanent and .sahitary government. 
They adopted a plan drawn from their own The following of Walker, though small, was 
experience and their wants, under the circum- brave, determined and intelligent; their leader 
stances, which surrounded them. They were very soon resolved, if he had not from the be- 
the first to repel the aggressions of the British ginning, to give the country an Anglo-Amer- 
parliament and crown. They well knew the ican government. He thus expected to make 
rights of freeborn Englishmen and the princi- Central America the -seat of a new and pro- 
pies of their constitution, and were determined gressive civilization, which would convert its 
that no invasion of them should be tolerated, fertile soil and generous climate into the uses 
Colonel Wheeler gave his work to the public of the commercial world. For the interesting 
in the year 1851. It was a compilete success, and incidents of this daring and romantic advent- 
is highly esteemed as a faithful record of a ure, the reader is referred to the sketches of the 
most interesting and remarkable people. incidents and characters connected with the 
in the year 1844, he was warmly urged upon revolution. A thrilling episode of his sojourn in 
by his party a.s a candidate f . v governor, but that distracted country, so characteristic of the 
did not receive the nomination. man himself, is given at pages 22 to 30 of the 

In the year 1852, he was elected to the J^tate following Reminiscences. 
Legislature, which was fiercely agitated by the As soon as General Walker had established 
contest for a United States Senator. his authority, and his was the de facto govern- 
The Democratic caucus put forth their favor- ment,theAmerican mitiister promptly acknow 1- 
ite man, the Honorable .lames C. Dobbin, than edged it. This act was not approved by the 
whom a purer, or nobler man never lived. Not- Secretary of State, the Honorable William L. 
withstanding his great popularity with his Marcy, and be requested iiis recall. As Colonel 
party, and his admitted ability, the friends " /heeler bail a warm friend in the President, 
of the Honorable Romulus M.Saunders re- andashisearnestand longtried friend,theHon. 
fused to support the caucus nominee, and James C. Dobbin, was Secretary of the Navy, 
voted for Honorable Burton Craige. The ob- he was in no danger of being recalled without 
stinate contest thus made deprived the state a hearing. His reply to .Mr. Marcy's stric- 
of its representation in the Senate for two tures was triumphant, and the President re- 
years. In this contest Colonel Wheeler stood fused to recall him. 

by bis party and his warm personal friend, iMr. Colonel Wheeler not only sympathized with 

Dobbin, and did all in his power to secure his the object of this movement, but admired the 

election. character of General WalJ^wv • He wasa qniet. 

In the year 1853, Colonel Wheeler was ap- unassuming p^rtrtfeiian, eilucated under the 

pointed, by President Pierce, Minister to Nica- best instructors of the United States and 

ragna. Central America. j>i;:;;;g his residence Europe. In [loison, he was below the average 

there thi>ef>uiiFrywastorn by opposing political American, by no means imposing in his pres- 

" factions, that sought their ends by the sword, ence. A ready, eloquent, and graceful writer. 

During tlie revolution General William Walker he would have been one of the first journalists 

made his appearance with a company of de- of his age. The blood of the Norsemen coursed 


through liis veins, niul he was alive with an soiinil judgment, a cautious fort'sight, a steady 

onthui^iasni of the old Vikings for adventure. ]mrpose, and a captivating manner, lie knew 

rio neither estimated the dangers of the how to hnshand liis resfiurces for the hour of 

enemy, or the climate; his courage was of the trial. General Walker moved often under the 

pure.«t steel. An ardent Anglo-American, lie influence of a whimsical impulse, careless of 

had only contempt for the Spaniards and those the demands of an insatiable to-morrow. He 

mongrel races, who occupied with indolence sought the enemy at too great a sacrifice of 

and semi-harbarism one of the finest an<l most men who could not be restored; he took hut 

productive regions on the continent. He con- little account of the profound causes which 

ceived the purpose of planting there another preserve and destroy armies. His high quali- 

race of men who would open the land to a re- ties and noble ambition will cause feelings of 

finement and civilization that would make it regret for his unhappy end, and the failure of 

the jiathway of nations to the eastcrir world, his ambitious and magnificent pui-pose. Not 

Colonel ^Vheeler readily saw in the advent of the love of gain, nor the vulgar display, led 

this cultivated and revolutionary mind, and this refined student to the unequal contest, 

his brave and daring followers, the promise of It was the pride of his noble race and its ea- 

hope for the country so long cursed w-ith de- pacity to rejoice a country blessed by nature 

generac}' and mindless inaction. He became with every bounty, and cursed only b}' an in- 

the invited guest and welcome friend of the dolent, vicious, and monotonous race. Too 

United States minister, who knew the men soon for the demands of mankind, a more op- 

and the situation far better than General portune period will, in time, complete the 

Walker. Had he listened more earnesti}' to w-ork in which he bravely fell, and vindicate 

the wise counsel and cautious prudence of his generous ilesign. 

('olonel Wheeler, he would, in all probability. To the honor of Colonel Whoelei- be it re- 
have realized the briglit dreams of his ardent corded that he used his influence to promote a 
fancy. He had many of the qualities of a sue- revolution so fraught with unnumbered bless- 
cessfnl leader — sincerity, courage, self-denial ings to civilized man. Nor didhe com]>roniise 
and intellectual superiority. He was not a the great repul)lic, that had confided her good 
state-iiM-i" i.ifl +'ni!od in vnnking provisions es- faith to his care, though he cou'd not lookwirh 
sential to the maintainanee of armies. Takitig composure upon the contest, of an enlightened 
no account of the strength of the foe, or the civilization witii a stupid indifference to the 
i'atality of the climate, he wasted his forces demands of an intelligent and progressive age. 
without the possibility of a supply. That one entire continent, and a large pi)rtiou 
The United States minister, with far keener of another, should be consigned to stolid repose 
apprehension, saw the dangers that threatened without an heroic effort to unfold th.eir al- 
and advised the means to insure the success of most boundless possibilities, was to him. 
the promising enterprise. To him it was the neither statesmanship nor hiunanity. He 
introduction of a new civilizatiori by a race knew it was the destiny of his race to oradi- 
whose destiny was to found new nations. His cate barliarism, and teach the inhabitants of 
whole heart was with the movement, and his the wilderness the arts of production, coni- 
condnct was only limited l)y his duty to jire- mercc, moral responsibility, social refinement, 
serve the faith and honor of the republic and intelligent freetlom. Before its all-coa- 
which he represented. To a courage not less quering enterprise nature had put off its sav- 
pronqit than General Walker's, he added a age habits for new creations of beauty and 


utility. Prot'oundly versed in its history, he 
was moved witli iidmi ration for its all-creii- 
tive energ}'. He did not doubt that its pres- 
ence would endow, with a new life, that entire 
isthmus, which could not fail, in a few years, 
to meet the advance of the Unittd States into 

estness through all its mcanderings. The 
change from Pierce to Buchanan brought no 
change in the purposes or dispositiou of the 
party. Under the former, the repeal of the 
Missouri compromise, and the organization of 
the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, had 

Mexico. With prophetic vision he beheld its dissolved the Whig party and introduced the 

gloomy' forests giving place to the peaceful 
abodes of cultivated men. Deprecating the 
erratic impulses of the young leader of this 
promising mission, he nevertheless hailed it as 
the harbinger of a glorious future for Central 
America and the commercial world. Not even 
the demands of a coldly selfish diplomacy 
could repress his generous approval, and he 
gave the benign presence of a creative enter- 

Republican party into the field of action. The 
conflict between individuals had passed away 
with the magnificent personages that charac- 
terized that period. Principles laying at the 
foundation of free institutions, and deeply 
imbedded in the conscience, came into the 
field. The Republican party planted itself 
upon the doctrine of freedom for the territor- 
ies. The Democratic party proclaimed the Ni- 

prise his counsel, his symiiathy, and his sub- violability of slavery in the States and Terri- 

stantial support 

In the year 1857, Colonel Wheeler resigned 
his mission, and returned to his abode in 
Washington City. So long as he lived he 
claimed his legal residence to be in North 
Carolina. On his door plute was that name 

tories. The former was a new and revolu- 
tionary i'orce, the latter stood firmly by the 
ancient constitutional rights of slavery. The 
former was organized to break up and displace 
it, the latter resisted displacement. Trained 
in the school of Jackson, Colonel Wheeler's 

onplcd with his own, and over the breast of judgment was against war, and adhered to 

his encoflined form was engraved that name 
so dear to him. In all his thoughts,and in all 
bis jor.rneyings, his heart yearned towards 
North Carolina, and within her borders he 
would have preferred interment. The amia- 
ble and charming English poet. Waller, in his 
old age, purchased a small property at his 
birthplace, saj-ing he would like to die, like the 
stag, where he was roused. This poetic idea 
has immortality in the lines of Goldsmith: 

■' As the poor stag, wliom hound and horns pursue, 
Fants for the place where at fh-st he flew, 
I still hud hoj'ed my vexations past. 
Here to return and die at home at last." 

By this time the long agon}' over the slav- 
ery question was culminating. Oar republic 
was rapidly drifting towards a fierce and de- 
.-itructive war. Colonel Wheeler had ever 
been identified with the Democratic part}', and 
bad followed its taithand practices with earn- 

the Union; but this school had disappeared 
and a new Democracy had arisen, and guided 
by his sympathies he followed his party, drift- 
ing rapidly upon dangerous reefs and quick- 
sands. One of his sons, C. Sully Wheeler, was 
in the Federal Navy; the other, Vi''oodbury 
Wheeler, had joined the Confederate Army. 
Each remained faithful to the cause he had 
esp )nsed, to the end. To those laboring un- 
der the weight of half a century that had seen 
the republic in the glory of its united power, 
it seemed now in the agony of inevitable death. 
The expiring houri< of Demoiiratic rule was 
spent shuddering before the fearful respon- 
sibility of the solemn oath "to support and de- 
fend the Constitution." The incoming admin- 
istration , though sustained by an unconquer- 
able enthusiasm in its ranks, was slow to an- 
nounce any policy. Many unionists in the 
south, believing all to be lost, hastened into the 


ranks of the disunionists. All tin' companions of 
Colonel Wheeler's life, all that was dear to him 
from childhood were enveloped in the fortunes 
of the Confederacy. Ilis lonj? and strong po- 
litical bias and the intensity of his friendship 
drew his sympathy and his hopes with them, 
and he came back to Xorth Carolina to be 
with her in the struggle. Too far advanced in 
life to become an actor in the contest, in 1863, 
pursuant to a resolution of the General Assem- 
bly of the State, he went to Europe to collect 
material for a new edition of liis history. Anx- 
ious to gather all that related to the subject 
which could render it a more perfect chronicle 
of his beloved people, he sought the treasures 
of the British Archives and buried himself in 
that wonderful collectioii, far from the desolat- 
ing and sanguinary events of the war. He 
collected much valuable and interesting mat- 
ter, which he incorporated in the new edition 
of his history which he left ready for the press. 
Colonel Wheeler was a sincere believer in 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
ence, of May 20th, 1775. His studies in the 
Archives left no doubt upon this interesting 
l.roblcni in his mind. The meeting and reso- 
lution of the same body of men of May 31st, 
1775, are undisputed. They did not go to the 
point of declaring a separation from the 
British government, but they went far beyond 
the expressions of any other colony. The 
reader of Wheeler's History will mark with 
what delight he records the resistance of 
these forest-born republicans to the aggres- 
sions of the royal government. The gallant 
struggles and heroic sacrifices of his revolu- 
tionary ancestors are set forth with care and 

He was thoroughly versed in the opinions 
of democratic statesmen, and sincerely devoted 
to the Jefferson school. He maintained the 
sovereignty of the states in all local matters, 
whilst he held to the inviolability of the 
Federal authority in national affairs. Each 

was sacred in the realms assigned them by the 
Constitution. It is difficult to prosorvo the 
complicated adjustment of the relations of the 
states to the general govermnent. In the 
South, he saw a strong tendency to magnify 
the powers of the states. In the North, the 
Federal authority was rapidly assuming new 
and alarming importance. The effect of the 
war was to give far greater importance to the 
nation, and to silence everywhere the princi- 
ple of state sovereignty. Colonel Wheeler 
regarded the influence of the central power as 
dangerous to individual lilierty, and constantly 
tending to imperialism. He beheld with re- 
gret the citizen disappearing in the grandeur 
and power of the nation. Reared among men 
proud of their honor and influence, he dreaded 
the decline of personal excellence. Its loss 
was the grave of liberty, and birth of imperial 

The integrity of the state and nation de- 
pended upon the sanctity of the ballot, liiid 
this upon the responsibility and intelligence 
of the individual citizen. The presence of 
powerful monied corporations, and a graiul 
central government, would destroy in time 
its responsibility. The voter, being entirely 
overshadowed, would soon begin to look as 
lightly upon his personal worth, as he did 
upon bis influence in the republic. He relied 
chiefly on character to preserve the republic 
through the ballot. Neither education nor 
wealth could be trusted with the liberties of the 
people, in the absence 'of inflexible purpose, 
and the habit of self government. The only 
safeguard for the encroachments of power 
was in the disposition and capacity of the 
citizen to resi.^t them at the threshold. When 
the public ceases to be a severe censor of the 
conduct of ofiicials, the end of our delicately 
adjusted republic will not be remote. His 
apprehensions of a gradual change, and a 
complete undermining of the nature of our 
institutions, was the result of close observa- 


tion for more than half a ceiitni'}-, of the The social qualities of Colonel Wheeler 
most e\'entful periiul of the history of the were of the highest order. His warm lieart, 
govei'iimont, aetuateil by an intense solicitude his classic wit, and mirth-creating humor, 
for the safety of the republic of the fathers. made him the favorite of all circles in which 
Cidonel Wheeler was a sincei'e believer in intelligence, refinement, and graceful address 
the salutary intiueiice of labor directed by were desired. Living in that age of the re- 
method. Ardent lal)or, regulated l)y reason, is public which gave the noblest development 
the price of excellence. He that would win of individual excellence, he had ample oppor- 
tlio latter, can not dispense with the former. tunity of mingling in its most delightful as- 
Time was a sacred trust that no one could sociations. BountifuUj' supplied with instruc- 
neglect Mithont evil. Thoroughly realizing five and intei'esting anecdote, his conversation 
its demands, with earnest i)urpnse and willing never lost its interest and inspiration. He 
hands he consecrated all to the noblest drew from ancient and modern literature their 
ends of life. Knowing that the brightest ricliest gems, and witli consummate taste he 
genius, and the most brilliant p iwei's, [ileased and instructed his ever attentive 
could avail but little if this trust was not ex- auditors. The fountains of Greek, Roman, 
ecuted with system, he introduceil the most English and French history were open to his 
con\'enient order into all his labors, so that lie never flagging memory. It was in the richer 
could call up the gleanings of years in a developments of American life that he en- 
nunnent. joyed the gi'eatest pleasure. Above all [leriods 
A systematic and laboi-ious scholar, he en- of human history, he esteemed the characters 
riched his understanding frcmi the treasures of our revolutionary era. It bad furnished 
of many tongues. The Englisli furnislied him the grandest exjjressicni of freedom an<l in- 
the I'ichest stores, and he liad drunk deeply at tegi'it}', as it had of civil and political iirstitu- 
her purest fountains. Into his tenacious and tions. With pious veneration he had collected 
fruitful memory, were joined the wealth of and preserved every heroic act and noble 
the prf)se and pioetry of that wonderful people, utterance, unwilling to allow the corroding 
whosi' intelligence, more tlian their arms, has ringers of time to erase fr(.)m coming genera- 
tilled the woild. lie was familiar with all the tions the humblest name. 

great dran.iatists. The great poems of Shakes- Not less fortunate in his political ussocia- 

peare, he could repeat with a [)ower rarely tions, lie knew personallv all the presidents 

equalled by tlie first actors c>f his time. and cabinet otricers, from Jefferson to Arthur. 

His friendships were ardent and sincere, and Ho had been the confidential friend of Jack- 

his dev(.)ti<m to his friends knew no bounds; son, i'ierce and Johnson, and was by them 

influence, purse, life itself, if in the right, called to counsel and advice. He did not 

were at their service. Attachments .-o strong look to high orti< ial station, for the richest 

and pure, insured a loving and faithful Inrs- manifestation of intellectual and moral worth, 

band, a.n indulgent and devoted father, and a He had too often seen the most commanding 

kind and generous neighbor. In all tlie rcla- positions occupied by presuming inferiority, 

tions of life ho filled the measuie of a noble through the'labors and merits of the modest 

aiianhood; tciider and charitable to the atriict- and deserving. By the fruits of their lives, 

ed, cheerful and courteous to the prosperous, he esteemed the actors of the age in which 

lie ever sought to mitigate the asperities of life, they lived and worked. Tliis volume of rem- 

.thoserude blasts tliat visit too often evervhome. ini-cences discloses his estimation of characters 


who figured in the moral and political life of most venerable and sacred institntions, in 

the state and nation, far better than any sketch time, give place to new ones, better adapted 

of his life. It also presents with equal force to represent its advancement, and perpetuate 

his moral, social and political preferences and its usefulness. 

appreciations. In all the noble actions of the great and 
He bad been from his first political essay, good of the republic, he bad an inheritance of 
trained in the Democratic party, and his ac- imperishable glory. With pious care he has 
tive afiinities drew from the ranks of that garnared all, and has labored to transmit 
party his warmest associations. Ilis demo- them to posterity, as an inspiration to emulate 
cracy was founded upon the lofty plane of the iieroic and worthy lives of an illustrious 
integrity and worth. There, all who could ancestry. The conduct of the great and good 
come wore equals, and entitled to the rights is the most valuable legacy that a nation can 
and honors of the state. Neither accident of have. The memories and the glorious deeds 
birth or wealth could push from their seats of the eminent personages whom North Caro- 
the true, the industrious, and the brave. Hum- liiia has contributed to humanity, have been 
hie worth, bending beneath the weight of sor- sacredly collected and eloquently described by 
rows and privations, had an open highway to this faithful historian. They have not been 
his respect. He rejoiced to see the virtuous left to [>erish '• unhonored and unsung." The 
youth, bursting the barriers of pride and cast, memory of the busy, patriotic and eloquent 
and appealing to the just judgment of society man, who has rescued from oblivion, so many 
for the recognition of its worth. For misfor- illnstrions names, will be recalled with grate- 
tune he had all sympathy; for unostentatious fr,l thanks, from tlie shores (mi which break the 
merit, reverence; for courage, that presses for- waves of the Atlantic, to the peaks of the 
ward in the achievement of great and useful Unaka mountains that mark the western limits 
measures, admiration. of the state. Whenever thesonsor daughters 
Trained from child iiood to industry and of the old commonwealth have eseheloned 
action, he knew the value of useful labor. No into the west, liis labors will be carried and 
speculative theorist, he sought substantial re- read. They will be to all a reservoir of bril- 
sults through methods approved of by experi- liaiit names, and a chronicle of illustrious 
euce. With reluctance he marked uny departure deeds. 

from the way selected by the sages, and lined This worthy and learned man attained a 

with countless blessings. The continuity of his- ripe age, in the full enjoyment of his intel- 

tory described the march of human intelligence lectual powers, laboring cheerfully to the end. 
and could not be broken with any assurance Though during his clo.sing years he suffered 

of safety. Nor was he blindly bound to an much, his genial and sunny disposition did 

irrational and monotinous past. He well not desert him. He continued to receive his 

knew that every day and every hour makes friends with that generous welcome, which 

demands upon the exercise of reason and in- will be fondly remembered after he has past 

vention, that can only be appeased by advance- the "sunless river's flow." 

meut in time and space. A witness of all the He was married first to -Mary, only daughter 

greatest discoveries in the useful arts, he well of Ilev. Mr. 0. B. Erown, of "Washington City, 

understood their influence upon the refine- one of the most accomplished and literary 

ment of the people. Society was undergoing ladies of her day, by whom he had one 

perpetual change in all its varied aspects. The daughter, married to George N. Deale, a 


brotlier of General E. F. Beale, late ITnited 
States Envoy toAustria, and, second, to Pollen, 
daughter of Thomas Snlly, one of the most 
distinguished artists of Philadelphia, liy whom 
he had two suns, Charles Sully and Woodbury, 
a successful lawyer in Washington City. 

On Thursday, Deecmher 7th, 1882, at 12:30 
o'clock, a. m., the long sufferings of Colonel 
Wheeler were ended; and at 2 p. m., on Sun- 
day the 10th, lie was buried in Oakllill Ccnie- 
ter3', Georgetown, D. ('. 

Eminent citizens of Xorth Carolina then in 
Wasliington, met in the National Capitol, and 
ndcijited the fiillowing resolutions: 

''Rcsijfcal, That we, North Carolinians, pre- 
sent in Washington, have assembled to pa}' a 
trilnite of respect to the memory of our de- 
parted friend, Mr. John II. Wheeler, whose 
private worth and pul)lic services have en- 
deared him to our whole i)eople. 

"Rei^olral, That by his life-work, though to 
him a labor of love, as the historian of the 
state, and the collection of vast stores of his- 
torical material, he imposed a debt of gi'ati- 
tude upon every Isorth Carolinian, and upon 
the republic of letters, which will be remem- 
bered for generations." 

Eulogiums, attesting the high place the de- 
ceased had won in the hearts of his people, 
were pronounced by the Hons. Z. B. Vance, 
Samuel F. Phillips, Jesse J. Yeates, A. M. 
Scales, M. W. Ransom, and T. L. Clingmau. 

The following letter of condolence was ad- 
dressed to Major Woodbury Wheeler, son of 
the deceased: 

'' Senate Chajibek. 
''Major WoonBrRY Wheeler. 

"Dear Sir: We have this moment heard 
with deep pain, of the death of your father. 
Ilis death atiects us with great soritiw; his 
loss will be mourned by all the people of the 
State, which he loved and served so \vell. 
Truly :i good and great man has left us. 

"We beg leave to exp)ress to j-ou and his 
family our sincerest sympathy. In your sad 
bereavement you have the consolation arising 
from the men}ory of his illustrious life marked 
by conspicuous virtues. 

"Yours sincerel}', 

"Z. B. Vance. M. W. Ransom. 

"L. C. Latham. A. M. Scales. 

"Rob't V. Vance. li. F. Akmfield. 

"W. R. Cox. C. DowD." 


Paee XII, ist column, nth line, read frontier, not fronlinj,'. 
lb lb., i^.th line, read Lords, 7wl Lord, 

lb -'d coiunin, 6lh line, read east, vol west, 
lb" lb qth line, read feeble, 7iot public, 

p.ure XV ist column, TSth line, read writer's, not writers. 
Pale XVI ist column, 38th line, place comma after ^^KSrV^''^' " 
Pafc XV .St column 24th line, read antedates, not antidates 

lb lb., . 33^1 lint-, read churchman, uot church man. 

Paee XVIII, ist column, last line, omit " &c " 
Paee XX, 1st column, 35th line, read the, «c^/ he _ 

*' 11, lb 36th line, read what, not which. / 

P^p-e XXI lb', 9th line, read e.xpOrts, 7iot e.\parts. 

IK ' ' Ih T>th line read Sounds, wo/ sound. , 

Pa JxXII !b:; ^ -Hi 37th lines, omit the interpolated sentence in brackets. 

Page XXIli, lb., 39th line, read ot, not et. 

PaleXXV, lb., 21st line, read by, «o/ viz. 

lb 2d column, last line, omit comma after local. 

Pa>'-eXXVI. lb., read Tryon, wc^/ Tyron. 

^•^hb^^""' J^^^Ir'^S^isKnSV:"! 1^ .wor of the clmrd.^^ 
Pace XXVIII ist column^ 2d paragraph should have quotation maiks to it. 
Paee XXIX, ist column, 3tst line, read imparted /w/ imported. 

^^Tu lb lod hue, omit comma after tone. 

Pace XXXI "d column, last line should follow third line of ne.xt column. 

lb ' lb 2ist hue, place "Academy ' m brackets. 

P,cr,. XXXII lb' 22d line, read extract, w/ extracts. 

Page^ XXXI 1 , lb., ^^^^ ^^^ ^__^^ j.^^^^ ^^^^ disbarring, not debarring. 

lb lb' -,ist line, read //was ordered. 

Pao-e XXXIII ist column, -,6th line, read detinue, not detinee. 

Pa^e 192, 2d column, 3d line, read Lizzie, wo/ John M. 
* lb lb 4th line, read Corvina, not Louisa, 

lb' lb' between lines 8 and 9 insert John L. 

Page 196. ist column, 32d line, read researches, not resuhs. 
Page 201, ist column, 17th line, read Humphrey, not Hampton. 
Page 202, ist column, ist line, read 1781, not 1871. 
Pifre -.04 ist column, 38th line, read " Colonel Lillmgton. 
Page 216, ist column. 17th line, read Amis, not Ams. 
' lb. lb.. 22d line, read to. not at. 

\h. 2d column, 32d line, " but had no." 
Page 217, ist column, i6th line, omit much of. 

lb., 2d column, 14th line, omit early in and. 
Page 220, ist column. 17th line, read the. not he. 
Page 221, 2d column, 22d line, read Catling, not Gatlin. 
Page ^^6, ist column, 3d line, read member. 

P 't„ B't'colun,™, n'h Un;"! b« '' McPCnl." ^l.ouUI be Mac„„el,„. 
Page -^30 2d column, 6th line, read " Carolina. 
Page 232 2d column, 24th line, read incessant, not incessent. 
Page 238, ist column, 7th line, read Pierre, w(?/ Pierce. 
Page 240, ist column, 4th line, insert on before one. 
Page 252, 2d column, 23d line, read Caesar, not Casar. 
Paee 2S3, ist column, 12th line, read 1776, not 1767. 
Page 255! ist column, loth line, read Lieut. George, not Colonel Lock. 
Page 228, ist column, 32d line, same error. ^ 

Pa^e 255, ist column, nth line, read Joseph, w<p/ (.eorge Graham. 
Page 287, 2d column, 30th line, read those that, 7iot these that. 
Page 288, ist column, 23d line, read correct, not court. 

Page 289, ist column, 9th line, read have. «<?/ here ,K,„,l,l 1,,. Moore and New Han- 

Page 297—301, inclusive-the running head " Mecklenburg counlv shoul.l be Woo.c 

over counties. . , , . ^ / > 

Page 300, 2d column, to the end ol 18th line add servient rami. 
Page 301, 1st column, 2d line, read Gen. not Gov. 

In the Colonial Period, 



An article by John Fisk, which appeared in 
the February ( 1 883) number of Harper's Maga- 
zinc, entitled "Maryland and the far South in 
the Colonial period," contains statements in 
regard to North Carolina which have given 
grave offense to every citizen and native of the 
State. The writer assumes to portray the con- 
dition of the people and the character of their 
institutions, civilization and government, during 
the whole period of their colonial existence, 
while he has presented only an exaggerated and 
distorted picture of disorders which prevailed 
among the first handful of settlers on the North- 
eastern border, before there was a defined 
boundary, and when that portion of the terri- 
tory, or a considerable part of it was claimed 
by Virginia. 

The writer may, also, have had in view the 
resistance made by the people called Regula- 
tors, in the middle and upper counties, ata later 
period, to the robbery and extortion of the 
county officers. But the more charitable sup- 
position is, that he hag never read a history of 
the Province. 

The original grant made by Charles II. to the 
Lords Proprietors, bears date March 20, 16G3. 

This instrument conveyed to the noblemen and 
gentlemen, named all the territory lying between 
the parallels of thirty-one and thirty-six degrees 
of North latitude, and extending from the At- 
lantic Ocean westward to the South Sea. Wm. 
Ryrd, Esq., the intelligent Virginia gentleman, 
who was one of the commissioners employed to 
run theboundary line between the two provinces, 
states, in his " Westover papers, " that "Sir 
William Berkeley, who was one of the grantees, 
and at that time Governor of Virginia, finding 
a territory of thirty-one miles in breadth be- 
tween the inhabited part of Virginia and the 
above mentioned boundary of Carolina, (thirty- 
six degrees) advised Lord Clarendon of it, and 
his Lordship had influence enough with the 
King to obtain a second patent to include this 
territory, dated June 30, 1665." 

It appears from this statement of Mr. Byrd, 
that North Carolina owes this addition of half 
a degree to the vvidth of her territory, to the 
treachery of the Governor of Virginia, to his 
trust. It was the duty of the Governor to se- 
cure, if practicable, the unclaimed territory for 
Virginia, but it was in the interest of Sir Wil- 
liam Berkeley to have it added to the Carolina 


Colony. However, the people of North Caro- 
lina have no reason to complain of Sir William 
on this account. 

In reference to this acquisition Dr. Hawks, 
the historian of North Carolina, remarks : "But 
though this second charter defined the line that 
was to divide Virginia and Carolina, and stated 
on what part of the globe it was to be drawn, 
viz : 36° 30' North latitude ; yet astronomical 
observations had not fixed its precise locality, 
[' V and consequently the people on the fronti^ of 
both provinces entered land and took out patents 
A by guess, either from the King, or the Lord; Pro- 
prietors. The grants of the latter, however, 
were more desirable, because, both as to terms of 
entry, and yearly taxes, they were less burden- 
some than the price and levies imposed by 
the laws of Virginia, This statement will ex- 
plain the fact that some of the earliest grants of 
land, now confessedly in Carolina, but lying 
near the border are signed by Sir William 

This new boundary line of 36° 30' remained 
undefined for two-thirds of a century — that is to 
say, until the year 172S; and in all that period 
there was a margin of territory several miles in 
width, in which no one knew, definitely, whether 
the inhabitants owed allegiance to Carolina or 
Virginia. The disputed territory lay within and 
on the southern border of the Dismal Swamp. 
Practically, for nearly fifty years, the territory 
west of the Swamp was not in dispute, as the 
settlements on the Carolina side lay to the east 
of the Chowan River. To the west of that 
great stream the Indians still held sway. It was 
not until after the Massacre in 171 1, when one 
hundred and thirty persons were murdered in 
their homes in one day, that these savages were 
made to give place to the advancing tide of civ- 
ilization. The largest of the tribes, and the 
most war-like, the Tuscaroras, after that event, 
were required to vacate their territory, when 
they emigrated North and rejoined the Iroquois 
or Five Nations, from whom they were de- 

scended. The smaller and less criminal tribes 
were permitted to remain on reservations. 

During the first sixty years of the colonial 
history, the population was chiefly confined to 
the territory north of Albemarle Sound, 
west of the Chowan River. The settle- 
ments between the two sounds, Albemarle and 
Pamlico, and that- about New Berne, were still 
-pi^i?, but were represented in the Albemarle \~<i(/ 
Assembly. This body was composed of twenty- 
seven members, of whom the four counties 
north of the sound sent five, each. The three 
counties south of Albemarle had two members 
each, and New Berne town one. There was 
little intercourse with the Cape Fear Colony, 
which had a separate Assembly of its own, as 
well as a Governor. It was a short-lived enter- 
prise. The colonists came from Barbadoes, in 
1665, under the leadership of a gentleman 
named Yeaman. He was succeeded by a Mr. 
West, as Governor, who was also made Gover- 
nor of the Charleston settlement, a few years 
later, and persuaded the Cape Fear people to 
follow him. During the year 1690, the last of 
these Cape Fear settlers abandoned their homes 
and went to Charleston. The writer, whose 
statements are complained of, assumes that 
these Barbadian colonists became a permanent 
part of the population of North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors 
surrendered their rights in and authority over 
the colony, to the crown, for a valuable consid- 
eration, of course ; Earl Granville retained his 
claim of right to the soil, and a large strip of 
country (about half the State) on the northern 
border was set off to him as his private property, 
while he surrendered his right to share in the 
Government of the people. 

Francis Xavier Martin, one of the most judi- 
cious historians of the Province, estimated the 
white population at the date of this transfer of 
authority from the Lords Proprietors to the 
Crown (17-9) at about 13,000. He gives no 
opinion as to the number of the blacks; but 


there is reason to believe that tliey were fewer 
in proportion to the whites than were to be 
found in either Virginia or South Carolina. 

A reference to the map will show the reader 
that the original boundary of 36° passes up the 
Albemarle Sound ; and the acquisition made by 
the new patent of 16C5 embraces, therefore, the 
whole territory north of the Sound. In other 
words, it embraced three-fourths of the popula- 
tion of North Carolina in 1729. This date of 
the purchase by the Crown from the Proprietors 
is, also, coeval with the separation of North 
from South Carolina, and the incorporation of 
the whole territory of the former under one Gov- 
ernor and Assembly. 

Besides the small scattered settlements south 
of Albemarle Sound, the relative importance of 
which is indicated by their proportion of repre- 
sentation in the Assembly, as above stated, the 
population had begun to spread out beyond, 
that is to say, west of the Chowan River ; and 
in the year 1722, the County or Precinct of Ber- 
tie was organized ; but up to that date, if not 
later, the people on that side of the river voted 
as of Chowan Precinct. 

The immigration of Swiss and Palatines under 
Baron De Graffenreidt and Mr. Mitchell came to 
North Carolina in the years 1709-10. No defi- 
nite statements as to their numbers, have come 
down to us, but it is believed that the two classes 
of immigrants combined, did not exceed two 
thousand. Some loose guesses make them 
larger. They settled in the vicinity of New 
Berne, which town received its name ''rom the 
Swiss. Somd of these foreigners were murdered 
by the Indians the next year, after their arrival, 
when the great Massacre of the whites occurred. 
De Graffenreidt narrowly escaped being burned 
at the stake by the Indians, in company with 
Lawson, the Surveyor General, who had invaded 
their territory with his compass and chain. It 
is probable that the massacre was the main hin- 
drance to further immigration from Switzerland 
and the Palatinate ; but De Graffenreidt failed 

to give them titles to the lands he sold them, 
which must have greatly added to their dis- 

The foregoing preliminary statement as to the 
nature and extent of the ground occupied by 
the early settlers of the Province has been 
thought necessary to a thorough understanding 
of the character of the aspersions of the writer 
referred to, and of the answers that will be 
made to them. lUit in the first place it will be 
proper to present them in the language of their 
author. They form a compact mass of misrep- 
resentation. I understand the writer to be a 
Massachusetts man. "Prof John Fisk" of 
Harvard. He says : 

" At the time of the Revolution the popula- 
tion of North Carolina numbered about 200,000, 
of which somewhat more than one-fourth were 
negio slaves. The white population was mainly 
English, but the foreign element was larger than 
in the case of any other of the colonies which 
we have thus far considered. There were Hu- 
guenots from France, German Protestant from 
the Palatinate, Moravians, Swiss, and Scotch, 
and what we have to note especially is that this 
foreign population was, in the main, far more 
respectable and orderly than the English major- 
ity. The English settlers came mostly from 
Virginia, though in the southeastern corner of 
the colony there was a considerrble settlement 
of Englishmen from Barbadoes. 

"Now, the English settlers who thus came 
southward from Virginia were very different in 
character from the sober Puritans, who went 
northward into Alaryland. North Carolina was 
to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to 
Massachusetts — a receptacle for all the factious 
and turbulent elements of Society ; but in this 
case the general charaeter of the emigration was 
iiiuiieasnreably loiver. The shiftless people who 
could not make a place for themselves in Vir- 
ginia society, including many of the "poor 
whites, " flocked in large numbers into North 
Carolina. They were, in the main, very lawless 


in temper, holding it to be the chief end of man 
to resist all constituted authority, and above all 
things to pay no taxes. The history of North 
Carolina was according!)' much more riotous 
and disorderly than the history of any of the 
other colonies. ' 'There were neither laws nor 
lawyers," says Bancroft, with slight exaggera- 
tion. The courts, such as they were, sat often 
in taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his 
wits with bad whiskc}', -li'liilc their decisions 'arrc 
not nronit-d, but were simply shouted by the 
crier from the inn door, or at the nearest market 

' 'There were a icw amateur surgeons and apoth- 
ecaries to be found in the villages, but no regu- 
lar physicians. Nor does the soul appear to be 
better cared for than the body, for it was not 
until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled 
in the colony. The Church of England was es- 
tablished by Government, without the approval 
of the people, who were opposed on principle 
to church rates, as to all kinds of ta.xes whatso- 
ever. Owing to this dislike of ta.xation, most 
of the people were Dissenters, but no Dissent- 
ing Churches flourished in the colony. There 
was complete toleration even for Quakers, be- 
cause nobody cared a groat for theology, or for 
religion. The few ministers who contrived to 
support life in North Carolina, were listened to 
in a mood like that in which Mrs. Pardigle's 
discourses were received by the brickmakers, 
while the audience freely smoked their pipes 
within the walls of the sanctuary during divine 

"Agriculture was conducted more wastefully 
and with less intelligence than in any of the 
other colonies. In the northern counties to- 
bacco was almost exclusively cultivated, but it 
was of very inferior quality, compared with the 
tobacco of Virginia. 

" All business or traffic about the coast was 
carried on under perilous conditions : for pirates 
were alwaj^s hovering about, siriiir in the svin- 
patliyof tlie people, like the brigands of southern 

Italy in recent times. It was partly due to this, 
no doubt, as well as partly to the want of good 
harborage, that a very large part of the com- 
merce of North Carolina was diverted north- 
ward to Norfolk, or southward to Charleston. 

' 'The treatment of the slaves is said to have been 
usually mild, as in Virginia, but their lives were 
practically, at the mercy of their masters. The 
white servants fared better, and the general state 
of society was so loic that when their time of ser- 
vice was ended, they had here a good chance of 
rising to a position of equality with their 

"The countr)' swarmed with ruffians of all 
sorts, who fled thither from South Carolina and 
Virginia. Life and property were very insecure, 
and l)'nch law was not infrequentl)' administered. 
The small planters led, for the most part, a lazy 
life, drinking hard, and amusing themselves 
with scrimmages, in which noses were broken 
with blows of the fist, and eyes gouged out by 
a dexterous use of the long thumb nails. The 
only other social amusement seems to have been 
gambling. But, except at elections and other 
meetings for political purposes, people saw 
very little of each other. 

' ' There were no roads worthy of the name, 
and every family was almost entirely isolated 
from its neighbors. Until just before tlic zuar for 
Indepemienec, there was not a single school, good or 
bad, in the whole colony. It need not be added that 
the people were densely ignorant. 

"The colony was a century old before it could 
boast of a printing press; and if no newspapers 
were published, it was doubtless for the suffi- 
cient reason that there were very few who would 
have been able to read them. A mail from 
Virginia came some eight or ten t'mes in a year, 
but it only reached a few towns on the coast, 
and down to the time of the Revolution the in- 
terior of the country had no mails at all. Under 
such circumstances it is not strange that North 
Carolina was in a great measure cut off" from the 
currents of thought and feeling by which the 


other colonies were swayed in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

"In the Warfor Independence, North Carolina 
produced no great leaders. She was not repre- 
sented at the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, and 
she was the last of the States, except Rhode Is- 
land, to adopt the Federal Constitution." 

The reader cannot have failed to note in these 
statements, supposing the writer to be well in- 
formed, a spirit in sympathy with the arbitrary 
rule of the Lords Proprietors and the Crown of 
England, and with their persistent efforts to 
compel an unwilling people to pay taxes for the 
support of the Church of which they were not 
members. The whole tenor of the writers criti- 
cism would justify this inference; and that his 
sympathies are also with the corrupt county 
officials whose illegal exactions provoked and 
justified the efforts of the Regulators to resist 
them. But it is charitable to assume that he 
has only a vague idea of these events, derived 
from second-hand sources. For he could not 
read the history of the Province, without being 
convinced that the causes and grounds of resist- 
ance to the constituted authorities were, in the 
first instance, the efforts of the Lords Proprietors 
to impose the absurd "Fundamental Constitu- 
tions" of Locke, upon the people, followed by 
the persistent, and never quite successful at- 
tempt to estab'ish the Church, with a system of 
Church rates. Mr. Bancroft has brought out 
these facts with more distinctness than the his- 
torians of the State ; and even Dr. Hawks has 
only paraphrased the lucid statement of the great 

The second great source of disturbance, the 
robbery of the people in the name of law, by 
the county officers, at a later period, is equally 
well attested, and no one acquainted with the 
history of those times, will venture to vindicate 
or palliate their conduct. These events will re- 
ceive further notice in their order, as well as 
other arbitrary and unjust measures of the 
British rulers of the Province. 

Another thing observable in this pretentious 
criticism is a proneness to jump to general con- 
clusions from single instances. The writer has 
seen th^r statement that at an out-of-doors relig- 
ious meeting, in the Albemarle region, in one 
of the first years of the last century, some rough 
fellow smoked his pipe while the services were 
going on; and this fact is sufficient to warrant 
the statement that such was the universal cus- 
tom throughout the colonial period, in all parts 
of the Province. He has read that a noted pi- 
rate infested the Sounds before there was so 
much as a village upon their borders, and that 
the pirate obtained supplies of provisions from 
the first squatters on the coast whom he would 
have exterminated if they had refused compli- 
ance with his demands ; and, without mention- 
ing that the pirate was at length captured and 
put to death, the swift conclusion is drawn, that 
piracy was the order of the day, all along the 
coast, with the connivance of the people, for 
the century and more of colonial vassalage; and 
that the effect was to render legitimate com- 
m.erce a hazardous and dangerous occupation, 
lo this cause the writer would have the world 
believe is due the alleged fact that the people of 
the colony carried their produce to Norfolk 
through the Dismal Swamp ; although there 
was neither road nor canal. Or else to Charles- 
ton through a wilderness two to three hundred 
miles in width, without roads or navigable wa- 
ters; whereas, at the period when the pirates 
infested the coast, the commerce of the colony 
was chiefly in the hands of New Englanders, 
who came with their vessels through the 

A traveler has at some time witnessed a fight, 
somewhere in the Province, accompanied by the 
brutal practice of "gouging," in which the 
lower class of whites sometimes engage, and 
this is sufficient to justify the critic in the sweep- 
ing statement that "scrimmages " of this sort 
constituted the favorite amusement of the small 
planters— " their only other entertainments be- 


ing drinking and gambling." It would be as 
fair to charge the whole body of respectable 
people in a Northern city, at the present day, 
with participation in all the vice and crime which 
are daily and nightly enacted in the dens of in- 
famy that are to be found in every street. 

These arc only specimens ot the illogical in- 
ferences of this writer, with whom the rule 
seems to be, that every isolated fact warrants a 

In view of reiterated charges against the peo- 
ple of lawlessness, idleness, "shiftlcssness," 
and general inability to make their way in the 
world, it is worth while to notice the first state- 
ment quoted from the writer, to the effect that at 
the period of the Revolution, North Carolina 
contained about 200,000 inhabitants ; and if this 
statement were true, it would afford evidence of 
an extraordinarily rapid increase of population 
during the next fourteen years, and especially 
so, as seven of those years were spent in civil 
and foreign wars, accompanied by the expatria- 
tion of thousands of the conquered, and the 
escape of not a few of the servile class. The 
census of 1790, which was taken just fourteen 
years after the Declaration of Independence, or 
fifteen years after the commencement of hostili- 
ties, showed the population of the State to be 
393,000, or nearly 100 per cent, more than the 
supposed number of 200,000. In consideration 
of the destructive war through which the people 
had passed during those eventful years, we are 
bound to conclude that the population at the 
beginning of the war was nearer th'-ee hundred 
than two hundred thousand. In 1729, it will 
be remembered, the total white population was 
estimated to be only 13,000; and if we add 7,000 
for the black, the aggregate, forty-six years be- 
fore the beginning of the Revolutionary War, 
would be but 20,000. Here, then, is evidence 
of an extraordinary increase of these "idle," 
"shiftless," "outlaws " and " renegades " from 

We are told that "the foreign population was 

in the main far more respectable and orderly 
than the English majority." By the foreign 
population, the writer means those of non- 
English origin. There can be no question about 
the moral worth and respectability of the Mora- 
vians and German Lutherans, of the Swiss and 
Palatine. They all made orderly, good citizens, 
but they were not more conspicuous for these 
virtues than were the Quakers, who, in early 
times, exercised a controlling influence in the 
Albemarle settlement. Nor were the "for- 
eigners" more distinguished for sobriety and 
love of learning than the Presbyterians who 
came to the Colony from Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, or directly from Scotland and England. 
Neither is it true that any of these classes were 
more respectable than the native Virginians and 
other Americans, mostly of English ancestry, 
who came in from time to time, during the 
whole colonial period, and constituted a large 
majority of the population of the Province ; and 
it is a baseless calumny to say otherwise. They 
constituted a majority, and a controlling major- 
ity of the people. They were part and parcel 
of the best element in Virginia society — em- 
bracing not many of the oldest, or more aristo- 
cratic families, but the solid, respectable, and 
well-to-do classes of planters and farmers — -the 
classes that produced such men as Jefferson, 
Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, and others who 
became eminent for talents and virtue; and they 
imparted these characteristics to their children. 
Many of the poorer classes came with these 
planters and farmers. Some were, no doubt, 
vicious characters, who added nothing to the 
strength and respectability of the Province. 
But what country under the sun is free from 
such a class ? 

"North Carolina " we are again told, "was 
to Virginia something like Rhode Island was to 
Massachusetts — a receptacle for all the factious 
and turbulent elements of society. " There was, 
it must be owned, a resemblance in the two sit- 
uations. Massachusetts e.xpellcd Roger Wil- 

Till". COLONIAL 1'1:r1()U. 

liams and his Baptist followers, with Quakers 
and Presbyterians, as heretics ; and most good 
people of the present day arc apt to believe that 
when the exiles shook the dust from their feet, 
they left not their equals in moral worth behind 
them. And it was in like manner that Virginia 
intolerance drove many of her best inhabitants 
into the wilderness of Carolina, as will now be 

Durant's Neck in Perquimans county, was 
the first permanent settlement made in the Prov- 
ince, and it was made by Quakers who fled from 
Virginiaand Massachusetts persecution. "The 
oldest land title that we know of in North Caro- 
lina," says Dr. Hawks, "and that which we 
think was actually the first, is still on record. 
It is the grant made by Cistacaiioc, king of the 
Yeopim Indians, in 1662, to Durant, for a 
neck of land at the mouth of Little and Per- 
quimans rivers, which still bears the name of the 
grantee. In 1633, Berkeley confirmed this 
grant by a patent under his own signature." ^ 

This patent by the Indian Chief to the Qua- 
Ig^ ker, antedates the first patent given by the king 
to the Lords Proprietors. It became the nu- 
cleus of a large Quaker settlement, which re- 
mains to the present day. It is said that a com- 
pany was formed some years previous to this 
purchase by Durant, for the purpose of taking 
up lands and making settlements in the un- 
claimed territory; and it is probable that the 
plan may, to some extent, have been carried 
into effect — or this purchase by the Quakers 
may have been a part of it. The cautious terms 
in which the Quakers gave in their adhesion to 
the "Fundamental Constitutions," show that 
they were neither illiterate nor reckless vaga- 
bonds. Their signature and assent are qualified 
as follows : 

" Francis Tomes, Christopher Nicholson, and 
William Wyatt did before me, this 31st July," 
&c. , &€., "and so far as any authority by the 
Lords constituted, is consonant to God's glory, 
and to the advancement of his blessed truth, 

with heart and hands we subscribe, to the best 
of our capacities and understandings." 

In regard to these earliest settlers of North 
Carolina, Mr. Bancroft states that the adjoining 
county in Virginia, Nansemond, had long 
abounded in non-conformists ; and it is certain, 
he says, that the first settlements in Albemarle 
were the result of the spontaneous overflowing 
from this source. A few vagrant families, he 
thinks, may have been planted in Carolina be- 
fore the Restoration. Such settlements would 
have been made voluntarily, as under Cromwell 
the Church would not have been permitted to 
persecute Dissenters. But on the restoration 
of Charles, men who were impatient of inter- 
ference with their religion, "who dreaded the 
enforcement of religious conformity, and who 
distrusted the spirit of the new Government in 
Virginia, plunged more deeply into the forests. 
It is known that in 1662, the Chief of the Yeo- 
pim Indians granted to George Durant the neck 
of land which still bears his name ; and, in the 
following year, George Cathmaid could claim 
from Sir Wm. Berkeley^a large grant of land 
upon the Sound, as a reward for having estab- 
lished sixty-seven persons in Carolina. This 
may have been the oldest considerable settle- 
ment; there is reason to believe that volunteer 
emigrants preceded them." 

It has already been stated that Sir William 
Berkeley was Governor of Virginia and one of / 
the Lords Proprietors of Carolina at this time. 
He was also a Churclv-man, intolerant of dissent 
— in Virginia; but his pecuniary interests im- 
pelled him to be very liberal and tolerant of 
Quakers, Presbyterian, and other sectarians who 
would agree to remove to their territory. His 
proprietary colleagues cordially concurred with 
him in this left-handed spirit of toleration, by 
which they hoped to be enriched ; and in con- 
formity with it, the Carolina colonists were 
allowed to indulge in whatever eccentricities of 
faith and worship their tastes or their con- 
sciences might suggest. 


Indeed, it was very plain to the common 
sense of the Proprietaries, that zeal for the 
Church north of 36° 30', if enforced by rigorous 
persecution, was as conducive to the peophng 
their Carolina territory, as the liberty of con- 
science which was granted south of that line. 
These seemingly hostile principles, or moral 
forces were thus made to work harmoniously for 
the advantage of their Lordships, while narrow- 
minded bigots, by enforcing conformity on both 
sides of the line, would have spoiled every- 

Howison, the historian of Virginia, describes 
Sir William, who was appointed Governor of 
Virginiain 1642, by Charles I, as an accomplish- 
ed gentleman whose winning manners captivated 
all hearts, but, "His loyalty was so excessive 
that it blinded his eyes to the faults of a crowned 
head, and steeled his heart against the prayers 
of oppressed subjects. * * He loved the 
monarchical constitution of England with sim- 
ple fervor ; he venerated her customs, her 
Church, her Bisjiops, her Liturgy ; everything 
peculiar to her as a kingdom; and believing 
them to be worthy of all acceptation, he en- 
forced conformity with uncompromising stern- 
ness. * * HadSir William Berkeley descend- 
ed to his grave at the time when Charles II gained 
the English throne, we might with safety have 
trusted to those historians who have drawn him 
as adorned with all that could grace and elevate 
his species. But he lived long enough to prove 
that loyalty when misguided, will make a tyrant; 
that religious zeal, when devoted to an estab- 
lished Church, will beget the most revolting 
bigotry : and that an ardent disposition, when 
driven on by desire for revenge, will give birth 
to the worst forms of cruelty and malice." 

Yet this excessive zeal for religion and " re- 
volting bigotry, " had a practical side to them 
which the historian overlooked. For they tend- 
ed rapidly to people Sir William's Carolina plan- 
tation with sober and industrious Quakers and 
Presbyterians &c. , who bought land or paid rent 

at prices fixed by the Proprietaries. The Vir- 
ginia Assembly, under such a champion of or- 
thodoxy, passed laws of the most stringent 
character for the enforcement of uniformity. 
Tithes were imposed and exacted inexorably : 
the persons of the Clergy were invested with 
a sanctity savoring strongly of superstition : 
papists were excluded from the privilege of hold- 
ing office, and their priests were banished the 
Province ; the oath of supremacy to the king as 
head of the Church, was imposed, dissenting 
ministers were forbidden to preach ; and the 
Governor and Council were empowered to com- 
pel "non-conformists to depart the colony with 
all convenience." It is not surprising that the 
Carolina Colony, where toleration was establish- 
ed by the Proprietaries, flourished, .when the 
Governor and Assembly of Virginia were so ac- 
tive in stimulating emigration. But it is obvious 
that these intolerant laws of Virginia, on the 
subject of religion, were not calculated nor in- 
tended to drive out the lawless and vicious 
classes. On the contraty, wherever Religion is 
established by law, whether the creed be Protes- 
tant or Catholic, the vicious and criminal classes 
are rarely arraigned for denying the authority 
of the Church, however much they may disre- 
gard its injunctions, and stand in need of its 
discipline. It is the sober, earnest men who 
suffer the pains and penalties of heresy, whether 
those penalties be the rack, the fagot or banish- 

But the persecuted Dissenters were not the 
only classes that preferred the free air of North 
Carolina to the intolerance of Berkeley. Thous- 
ands of Churchmen, real and nominal, joined 
them ; and without being eminently religious, 
they soon became sufficiently numerous to form 
a strong party in favor of a Church establish- 

Mr. Bancroft thinks that the first Governor 
of the Albemarle Colony, Drummond, appoint- 
ed by Berkeley, «»//^rt//4,W/y' liinizvitliout aitial, 
for alleged participation in Bacon's Rebellion, 


was a Presbyterian. If this opinion be correct, 
it serves to illustrate more fully how tolerant of 
heresy the bigoted Govenor of Virginia could 
be, when it tended to advance his pecuniary in- 

Two or three of the Lords Proprietors were 
cabinet ministers of Charles II, and they could 
not only procure a grant of territory half as 
large as P>urope, but they could stipulate the 
terms of the grant, and the sort of government 
its future inhabitants were to live under. Eor 
the reasons already explained, the Second Chart- 
er, dictated by themselves, authorized the es- 
tablishment of the utmost toleration, without 
so much as naming the Church, and this liberty 
was confirmed to the people. They were grant- 
ed "an Assembly, " says Mr. Bancroft, "and 
an easy tenure of lands, and he (Berkeley) left 
the infant people to take care of themselves ; to 
enjoy liberty of conscience and conduct, in the 
entire freedom of innocent retirement ; to for- 
get the world till rent day drew near, and quit- 
rents might be demanded. Such was the origin 
of fixed settlements in North Carolina. The 
child of ecclesiastical oppression was swathed in 

It is appropriate in this place to notice the ci- 
tation of Mr. Bancroft by the critic, as an au- 
thority for one of his aspersions, He says : 
"There were neither laws nor lawyers, says 
Bancroft, with but slight exaggeration," and he 
represents the historian as applying this remark 
to North Carolina throughout its whole Colonial 
existence. The truth is, that Mr. Bancroft has 
nowhere made such a remark, for the two-fold 
reason that he is too well informed, and has too 
much regard for truth to make it. On the con- 
trary, he has done more to vindicate the charac- 
ter of North Carolina than any of its special his- 
torians. And since he is a deservedly high au- 
thority throughout the nation and the world, 
it is worth while to show what he has said on the 
subject. The statement from which the above 
garbled quotations are made are but the conclu- 

sion of an elaborate account of the settlement 
of the Colony which every citizen and native 
of the State reads with pride and pleasure. 
After mentioning the arrival of emigrants from 
New lingland and from Bermuda, he says that 
the Colony lived contentedly with Stevens as 
Chief Magistrate, " under a very wise and sim- 
ple form of government. A few words express 
its outlin,e3: a Council of twelve, si.x named 
by the Proprietaries and six chosen by the As- 
sembly ; an Assembly, composed of the Gover- 
nor, the Council and delegates from the free- 
holders of the incipient settlements, formed a 
government worthy of popular confidence. No 
interference from abroad was anticipated; for 
freedom of religion and security against taxation, 
except by the Colonial Legislature, were solemn- 
ly conceded. The Colonists were satisfied ; the 
more so, as their lands were confirmed to them 
by a solemn grant on the terms which they them- 
selves had proposed. " 

Mr. Bancroft proceeds to state that the first 
Legislature, in 1669, enacted laws adapted to 
the wants of the people, "and which therefore 
endured," he saj's, " long after the designs of 
Locke were abandoned." Again he states that 
" the attempt to enforce the Fundamental Con- 
stitution of Locke, a year or two later, was im- 
possible and did but favor anarchy by invalidat- 
ing the existing system, which it could not re- 
place. The Proprietaries, contrary to stipula- 
tions with the Colonists, superseded the existing 
government ; and the Colonists resolutely re- 
jected the substitute." 

The historian then gives a brief account of 
the visits of the celebrated Quaker preachers, 
William Edmundson and George Fox, to the 
settlements at Durant'sNeck ; of the favor with 
which they wen; received by the people, and by 
the Governor, and adds: " If the introduction 
of the Constitution of Locke had before been 
difficult, it was now become impossible." 

The death of Stevens, says Mr. Bancroft, left 
the Colony without a Governor ; and by per- 


mission of the Proprietaries, the Assembly 
elected Cartwright, their Speaker, to act as Gov- 
ernor. "But the difficulty of introducing the 
model (Locke's Constitution) did not diminish ; 
and having failed to preserve order, Cartwright 
resolved to lay the state of the country before 
the Proprietaries, and embarked for England." 
At the same time the AssemblysentEastchurch, 
their new Speaker, to explain their grievances. 
Mr. Bancroft resumes: 

"The suppression of a fierce insurrection of 
the people of Virginia had been followed by the 
vindictive fury of ruthless punishments and run- 
aways, rogues and rebels, that is to say, fui^itivcs 
from arbitral)' tribunals, non-conformists, and 
fiicnds of popular liberty, fled daily to Carolina 
as their common subterfuge and lurking place. 
Did letters from the government of Virginia de- 
mand the surrender of leaders in the rebellion, 
Carolina refused to betray the fugitives who 
sought shelter in her forests." 

Such is the account given by Mr. Bancroft of 
the refugees from Virginia oppression ; and he 
rejects the idea of our historian Martin, that 
these fugitives were runaway negroes. Equally 
does he reject the Tory estimate placed upon 
them by the Virginia Governor, Smallwood, 
and other writers of that school, that they were 
lawless vagabonds and "runagates" — a phrase 
which our own Hawks applies to these non-con- 
formist refugees from priestly tyranny. These 
and similar passages in Bancroft occur in his 
first and second volumes, which were published 
long before Hawks' history of the State. The 
latter author, in som.e places rallies to [y^e. de- 
fence of the State and the South, against which 
he deems to be northern injustice ; but in deal- 
ing with this subject of our early history, he 
would have done well to follow the lead of the 
great northern historian, instead of that of the 
English and Virginia Tories. But no careful 
reader of Dr. Hawks can fail to see that his pat- 
riotic feelings, as a North Carolinian were in 
this regard overborne by his reverence for the 

Church of England, and its then feeble offshoots 
in the Colonies. This feeling blinded him to 
the virtues of Quakers and other dissenters, who 
resisted the attempts to form an establishment, 
and compel the payment of tithes or Church 
rates. It is true that he has presented a mass 
of facts which should convince everj' wise and 
dispassionate son of the Church, that the at- 
tempt to establish it in the Colony, and by such 
agencies, in spite of the determined opposition 
of a majority of the people, did it lasting injury, 
as well as equal injury to the cause of religion. 
He has shown, as he could not fail to do, with- 
out grossly perverting history, that the Church 
suffered, as well from the unjust attitude which 
its friends assumed, of attempting to force it up- 
on the people, as from the character of the 
clergymen who were sent over from England. 
Of the seven who came on this mission during 
the Proprietary government, three turned out to 
be disreputable in character — drunken, dissolute 
and knavish. The others were intelligent and 
good men, whose teaching and example, sup- 
ported by the voluntary offerings of the Church 
at home, would have been eminently salutary. 
But as the representatives of an arbitrary plan 
of enforcing uniformity of worship, and with 
their good example offset by the bad conduct 
of their associates, their labor was almost in 
vain. It was unfortunate for the Church, also, 
that the jealousy of the British Government 
would not allow America to have a Bishop dur- 
ing the whole Colonial period, but turned a deaf 
ear to the appeals in this behalf, which were 
sent up by the Colonists. The consequence 
was, that there were few native Church clergy- 
men in America, since it was necessary to send 
them to England, at great expense, to be or- 
dained and properly educated. The clerical 
"carpet-baggers" sent to the Colonies, were, 
with honorable exceptions, of course, exact 
prototypes of the lay species which have visited 
the South in more recent years. 

Mr. Bancroft has answered so many of the 


misrepresentations of North Carolina, that the 
reader will excuse a few more brief references 
and citations. He denounces the meanness of 
the British Government in applying their navi- 
gation act, passed in 1672, to the Colonies, ac- 
companied by a tax on their products. Its ap- 
plication to North Carolina was cruel. The 
population was barely four thousand. Its ex- 
pifrts consisted of a few fat cattle, a little corn 
and eight hundred hogsheads of tobacco. This 
trade was in the hands of New Englanders, 
whose small vessels came into the ^und Maden 
with such foreign articles as supplied the simple 
wants of the people, and exchanged them for 
the raw products. But the act referred to re- 
quired that these products should first be sent 
to England, where a duty was imposed on them, 
before their re exportation to the West Indies, 
or elsewhere. The tobacco was taxed a penny 
on the pound, which was equivalent to three 
cents at the present day. From this source 
these poor people were made to pay twelve 
thousand dollars per annum, and to receive only 
British goods, or foreign articles through Brit- 
ish ports, in return. A revolt was the conse- 
quence of these oppressive measures, incited, 
Mr. Bancroft says, by the Virginia refugees, 
who came over after Bacon's rebellion, and by 
New Englanders who were trading in the Albe- 
marle country. The Deputy Governor and 
Council were arrested and imprisoned ; and Cul- 
pepper, an Englishman who had come over some 
years before, was made Governor. This rebel- 
lion, therefore, was on grounds identical with 
those which moved the American colonies to 
resistance a century later, and which resulted in 
their independence. The people of New Eng- 
land, also, resisted the enforcement of this Nav- 
igation Act. The motive assigned for this re- 
bellion was, "that thereby the country may 
have a free Parliament, and may send home their 
grievances." In connection with these facts 
Mr. Bancroft remarks : 

" Are there any who doubt man's capacity 

for self government, let them study the history 
of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless 
and turbulent in their imperfect submission to a 
government imposed on them from abroad ; the 
administration of the colony was firm, humane 
and tranquil, when they were left to take care 
of themselves. Any government but one of 
their own institution was oppressive. * * 
The uneducated population of that day formed 
conclusions as just as those which a century later 
pervaded the country." 

The people rebelled again, a few years later 
against the misrule of Seth Sothel, one of the 
Proprietors who was sent over as Governor. 
This man, says Mr. Bancroft, found the country 
tranquil, on his arrival, under laws enacted by 
the people, and under a Governor of their 
own choice. "The counties were quiet and 
well regulated, because not subjected to foreign 
sway. The planters in peaceful independence, 
enjoyed the good will of the wilderness. Sothel 
arrived, and the scene was changed. * * 
Many colonial Governors displayed rapacity and 
extortion toward the people ; Sothel cheated his 
Proprietary associates, as well as plundered the 
colonists." He was deposed by the people, 
who appealed again to the Proprietaries ; and 
the planters, says Bancroft, immediately became 
tranquil, when they escaped foreign misrule. 

And here follows a remark of the historian 
made with reference to the four or five thousand 
people who constituted the whole population in 
1668, but which the maligner of the Province 
misquotes, and makes applicable to them 
throughout the one hundred and thirteen years 
of colonial dependence. Under the marginal 
date, i688, which the garbler could not fail to 
see, and just at the close of the account of the 
rebellion against Sothel, Mr. Bancroft says : 

"Careless of religious sects, or colleges, or 
lawyers, or absolute laws, the early settlers en- 
joyed liberty of conscience, and personal inde- 
pendence ; freedom of the forest and of the 


By " absolute laws," he clearly refers to the 
" Fundamental Constitutions " prepared by Mr. 
Locke for the Lords Proprietors. He could 
mean nothing else ; for he had just completed 
an elaborate eulogy of the people for their prac- 
tical wisdom in enacting laws adapted to their 
own circumstances. This remark about "abso- 
lute laws " follows what has been quoted above 
from his pages. He had also praised the virtue 
and devotion of the Quakers and non conformists, 
who sought refuge in tlie wilderness from the 
persecutions of the English church in Virginia. 
These men who had suffered together under the 
same tyrannical laws and government, and whose 
safety in their new common home depended on 
a cordial union with each other, would naturally 
subordinate their differences, and become less 
tenacious of mere names. The Quakers were 
an organized body of religionists, who, until 
they were able to build meeting-houses, wor- 
shipped in the beautiful groves, or in their pri- 
vate dwellings. The other unorganized non- 
conformists would naturally attend these Qua- 
ker meetings ; and we are assured, even by 
their enemies, that the Quakers made many 
converts to their Society from the others, 
not excepting the established Church. 

But if it were literally true that in 1688, the 
refugees in the Albemarle settlemer.t, from Vir- 
ginia oppression, had neither laws nor lawyers, 
what must be thought of the candor or the intelli- 
gence of a writer who attempts to impose upon 
the world the statement that Mr. Bancroft ap- 
plies the remark to North Carolina during her 
whole colonial histor)' from 1663 to 1776. — (1- 
suggest to April, 1775-). 

The facts here brought out on the authority of 
Mr. Bancroft, refute at the same time another 
statement of the writer, which he couples with 
his comparison of the several sorts of people 
who made up the emigrations respectively to 
Rhode Island, and to North Carolina, from 
Massachusetts and Virginia. 

In regard to the Virginia emigrants to Carolina, 

he says, " their general character was immeas- 
urably lower," than that of the Massachusetts 
emigrants to Rhode Island. There is no re- 
spectable authority for this statement. The 
victims of Massachusetts persecutions were ex- 
cellent people, no doubt ; but there is no reason 
to suppose that the Puritans of that colony 
were more select in regard to the characters of 
those whom they expelled from their borders, 
than were the Churchmen of Virginia. There 
has been nothing in the subsequent careers of 
the two classes of emigrants, or in their posteri- 
ties, to warrant the invidious comparison ; and 
there remains but one judgment to pronounce 
upon it, viz : that whether proceeding from 
ignorance or malevolence, it is no less a whole- 
sale calumny, and this calumny is repeated in 
other connections and forms, but the above 
answer must sufifice for them all. 

"They were, in the main, very lawless in 
temper," we are told, "holding it to be the 
chief end of man to resist all constituted au- 
thority, and above all things, to pay no taxes." 
Here again this ready writer shows his ignorance 
of the history of the Province. The absurdity 
of the statement becomes apparent if we com- 
pare it with other statements made by him. 
He tells us in one breath, and tells truly, that 
these Virginia and American-born emigrants 
constitute a large majority of the people ; and 
in the next that they are lawless, riotous, indo- 
lent, " shiftless," and utterly opposed to paying 
taxes. Who, then, made the colonial laws of 
which there are large volumes extant? Who 
imposed the taxes? Was it the handful of 
Swiss and Palatines, not above two thousand in 
number, and not one of whom, when they ar- 
rived, understood the language ? Was it by the 
Gaelic-speaking Scotch Highlanders, who came 
to the Province after the middle of the eight- 
eenth century — two or three thousands in num- 
ber ? Was it by the German Lutherans and 
Moravians who came still later — all of whom 
spoke a foreign language ? These emigrants 


I were most valuable acquisitions ; and many of 

their descendants have become distinguished 
citizens ; but during the twenty or thirty years 
of their residence here prior to the Revolution, 
they knew too little of the English language to 
take a leading part in making the laws. The 
conclusion is a necessary one, then, that the 
colonial statutes, constituting a complete body 
of laws, adapted to the wants of the people, 
correctly and concisely written, in parliamentary 
style, were the product of the class which this 
writer would have the world believe, was com- 
posed, "in the main," of worthless renagades 
and law-breakers from Virginia. The character 
of these laws will be shown in another place. 

"The Colony was a century old," says our 
censor, "before it had a printing press: and if 
no newspapers were published, it was doubtless 
for the sufficient reason that there were very 
few who would have been able to read them." 

The first of these statements contains full 
eighty per cent, of truth, which is so much 
above the average that it may be allowed to go 
uncontradicted. But at the same timeitadmits 
of extenuation. The Colony was planted in 
1663, and the first printing press was brought 
into it in 1749, and was employed in printing 
the laws, and a few years afterward, a news- 

The further statement of the writer, that " A 
mail from Virginia came some eight or ten times 
a year, but it only reached a few towns on the 
coast, and down to the time of the Revolution 
the interior of the country had no mails at all, " 
is quite true; and it fully explains to any fair 
mind how newspapers could not flourish under 
such circumstances, and without assuming that 
the people could not read. Another obstacle 
Q- to the success j^{ newspapers is presented in the 
fact that North Carolina was, and still is, more 
exclusively agricultural than any other part of 
America ; and contained and still contains, in 
proportion to aggregate population, f-nver peo- 
ple resident in towns. 

In New England there was a far greater popu- 
lation, and at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, Boston, according to Rev. Cotton Ma- 
ther, and other authorities quoted in the "Me- 
morial History " of that city, contained not far 
from ten thousand inhabitants. But there was 
the same deficiency of mail facilities, though 
not in equal degree, which existed in North 
Carolina. I find in a little work published by a 
Postoffice official, that so early as 1672, a 
monthly mail was established between Boston 
and New York; and that in 171 1, Massachu- 
setts established a weekly mail between Boston 
and her outl}'ing territory of Maine. And yet, 
with these relatively great advantages and facili- 
ties — a town of ten thousand inhabitants, and at 
least one weekly mail — no newspaper was es- 
tablished in Boston, nor in Massachusetts, until 
the year 1704. This was eighty-four years after 
the founding of the Colony. It is true that 
there was a printing press introduced at an ear- 
ier date, which was employed in the publica- 
tion of pamphlets and books of theology, and 
the laws of the colony; but no newspaper until 
the settlement was eighty-four years old. Isa- 
iah Thomas a Massachusetts man, in his valu- 
able history of printing, gives an interesting 
account of this first American journalistic enter- 
prise. It was called the Boston Xoxcs- Letter. 
The first numberappeared in April, 1704. John 
Campbell, a Scotchman, and Postmaster of the 
town, was the proprietor, or "Undertaker," as 
he styled himself. It was printed on a half- 
sheet of what was called "Pot" paper, once a 
week; but after the second number it appeared 
on a half-sheet of fools-cap. Whether this was 
an enlargement on Pot paper, or a reduction in 
size, is not stated ; but the change in dimensions, 
whether in one way or the other, was no doubt 
inconsiderable. At any rate the Ne^vs Letter 
continued to be printed for four years on a half- 
sheet of fools cap, once a week. It rarely con- 
tained more than two advertisements, one of 
them by the proprietor, in which he enumerated 


the articles he was ready to advertise, at reason- 
able rates, among them "runaway servants." 
The ill omened style of undertaker, assumed by 
the proprietor, may in some sort, account for the 
unhealthy childhood and youth of Boston's first- 
born journal. At any rate, the undertaker, 
after fifteen years of sad experience, informed 
the public that he could not dispose of three 
hundred copies weekly; and that he was thirteen 
months behind time in the publication of the 
foreign news. 

This was the case in 1719, when Boston must 
have had apopulation of nearly or quite 25,000, 
for in 1 7 10, according to the high authority 
of the "Memorial History," it was already 

Mr. Thomas states that the first press intro- 
duced into North Carolina (at New Berne) was 
in the year 1754 and Mr. Bancroft makes the 
same statement ; but Martin, the intelligent 
historian of the Province, who resided about 
thirty years at New Berne, during all of which 
time he was engaged in printing — and most of 
the time, as a newspaper publisher, as well as 
public printer for the Colony, says that James 
Davis came, by invitation of the Assembly, 
with a printing press, in the year 1749. Davis 
began the publication of a newspaper in 1765. 
New Berne contained at that time, perhaps, five 
hundred white inhabitants ; and the fact that 
his paper was sustained was wonderful, in view 
of Campbell's discouragements at Boston. 

It would not be fair to assume that this ina- 
bility to support, or indifference to the worth 
of a newspaper, on the part of the people of 
Massachusetts, was due to their ignorance or 
inability to read, for we know that such was not 
the case. It is more just to say that new in- 
ventions and new methods of doing particular 
things are slow in finding their way into com- 
mon use. Fifty years hence people may won- 
der that their ancestors of this our day, did not, 
one and all, use the telegraph or telephone, in- 
stead of the slow process of sending letters by 

mail, by which days are consumed in doing the 
work of a few minutes. 

"In the war for independence North Carolina 
produced no great leaders," says the essayist. 
It would be easy to retaliate that other colonies 
or States, more favorably situated, failed to pro- 
duce great leaders. New England furnished a 
majority of the rank and file, and probably, 
most of the material aid ; and yet she failed to 
produce the great leader; nor did she produce 
but one great soldier, and he came from the 
despised little colony of Rhode Island, and 
from the persecuted class of Quakers, who were 
driven into exile by Massachusetts orthodoxy. 
There were many good officers produced by the 
war of the Revolution — men who were brave, 
sagacious, and enterprising — but history fails to 
point to more than two who were equal to the 
greatest emergencies, in which the disciplined 
and well armed soldiers of Britain were to be 
met and foiled by the comparatively raw and 
ill appointed recruits of the provinces. Those 
two men were Washington and Greene. Per- 
haps there was one other thus endowed ; but he 
turned traitor to the cause. 

North Carolina produced in the Revolutionary 
era anumberof good officers — Howe, Davidson, 
Davie, Caswell, Lillington, Moore, Nash, and 
many others — the equals in merit with those of 
the same rank, in other States. And during 
those eventful days, a North Carolina boy was 
trained by the discipline of adversity, to take the 
foremost place in the Nation's regard, as a great 
captain, hero, and statesman. A New England 
author of celebrity, Parton, has demonstrated 
that Andrew Jackson was born on North Caro- 
lina soil. His childhood was spent in South 
Carolina, though within two miles of his birth- 
place; which circumstance gave rise to the im- 
pression that he was a native of that State. 
While still a boy, he returned to North Caro- 
lina, where he spent his youth and early man- 
hood. At length he emigrated to Tennessee, 
which was then only a western county of his 


native State, and there he lived and died. For 
greatness of soul — for the possession of those 
qualities of intelligence, of courage, and firm- 
ness, which inspire respect and confidence, and 
constitute a nature "born to command," An- 
drew Jackson has had, certainly, not more than 
one superior in this country. 

" She was not represented at the Stamp Act 
Congress of 1765," says Fisk, and the purpose 
of the statement is to convey the impression 
that the absence of North Carolina from tliat 
Congress was due to a want of sympathy in the 
common cause. If this was not his purpose, he 
could have had none. He failed to add that 
New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Georgia 
were also unrepresented in that Convention. 
If he had had any acquaintance with the history 
of North Carolina, he could not have been ig- 
norant of the fact that her failure to be repre- 
sented on the occasion was caused, in the lan- 
guage of Martin, -i"^^: "the lower House not 
having had the opportunity of choosing mem- 
bers," Martin suggests that a similar obstacle 
may have prevented the other three colonies 
from being represented. He states that, ' ' In 
the Province of North Carolina, the people, at 
all their public meetings, manifested their high 
approbation of the proceedings of the inhabi- 
tants of the other Provinces ; and Lieutenant 
Governor Tyron, judging from the temper of 
the people that it would be unsafe and danger- 
ous to allow them the opportunity of express- 
ing their feelings, by allowing a session of the 
Legislative body, in these days of ferment, on 
the 25th of October, issued his proclamation to 
prorogue the General Assembly, which was to 
have met on the 30th of November, till the 12th 
of March, assigning as a reason for the step, 
that there appeared to be no immediate necessity 
for their meeting at that time." 

In January, 1766, the British Sloop of War 
Diligence arrived in the Cape Fear, having on 
board the stamp paper. The Governor issued 
his proclamation calling on the stamp distribu- 

tors to apply for it to the Commander of the 
.'^loop. But Colonel John Ashe of New Han- 
over, and Colonel Waddell of Brunswick em- 
bodied the militia of the two counties, and 
marched at their head to Brunswick, where the 
Diligence was anchored, and notified the com- 
mander that they would resist the landing of the 
stamp paper. A party was left to watch the 
movements of the ship, while their comrades 
seized a boat belonging to the ship, and ascend- 
ed the river to Wilmington, where the Governor 
resided, for the time. They placed the boat on 
a cart and marched with it through the streets, 
amid the plaudits of the people. The next day, 
Colonel Ashe, with a crowd of the people, called 
on the Governor, and demanded to see the 
Stamp Master, James Houston, who it seems, 
had taken refuge with His Excellency. The 
Governor at first declared his purpose to resist 
the demand, but was induced to yield by a threat 
that his house would be burned over his head. 
Houston then came out, and accompanied Col- 
onel Ashe and the citizens to the market, where 
he took a solemn oath not to attempt the execu- 
tion of his office. Whereupon the people gave 
him three cheers, and conducted him back to 
the Governor's quarters. This statement is con- 
densed from Martin, who has given a fuller ac- 
count of the resistance of the Colonies to the 
Stamp Act, than even Mr. Bancroft, and other 
historians of the United States. 

The Whigs of North Carolina, owing to pe- 
culiar circumstances, had to confront formidable 
bodies of tories at home, where there was less 
glory, or at least, less reputation to be achieved, 
than in the struggle with the foreign foe. These 
internecine conflicts, though fierce and bloody, 
and calling forth physical courage and military 
conduct of a high order, were not of a character 
to place their leaders in the line of promotion 
in the Continental service. 

The existence of Toryism in North Carolina 
called forth all the more courage and firmness 
on the part of her lovers of liberty. This local,. 


defection was the result of a combination of 
circumstances which have never been fully ap- 
preciated beyond the limits of the State. 

The Scotch Highlanders who came to North 
Carolina about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, would, under other circumstances, have 
been an excellent class of immigrants. They 
were good people. But they had rebelled against 
George II, in favor of Charles Edward, a de- 
scendant of their ancient kings of the House 
pf Stuart. These adherents of the Stuarts con- 
stituted or formed a part of the Tory party of 
Great Britain; and the Highlanders were, there- 
foie, Tories by inheritance ; that is to say, they 
belonged to the party which believed in the di- 
vine right of kings. They had been defeated 
at the battle of CuUoden, and their last hope of 
a restoration of the Stuarts was gone. The 
leaders were hanged, and their followers were 
allowed t;^ emigrate to America, after taking the 
oath of allegiance While these North Carolina 
Highlanders, therefore cannot be supposed to 
have felt an ardent love for the British Govern- 
ment, they were still further removed in senti- 
ment from that form of Whigism in America, 

marriage licences and all legal processes. The 
Sheriffs exacted double and treble the amount of 
the taxes. The people protested, but to no pur- 
pose. At length an indictment was found 
against the Clerk of the Orange County Circuit 
Court. He was convicted, and was fined by the 
Judges — a sixpence. This conduct of the 
Court in conniving at the fraudulent extortion 
of the Clerks, rendered the people desperate, 
and provoked them to take up arms in defence 
of their violated rights. No fair-minded man 
who reads the history of these events will hesi- 
tate to say that these people were subjected to 
greater injustice than was imposed by the Crown 
and Parliament on the American Colonies. 
They took the name of Regulators, and organ- 
ized rude military companies, which were very 
poorly armed and equipped. They were poor, 
and for the most part ignorant ; and without 
arms or military training, they were in no plight 
to cope with the forces under Governor Tyron. 
They were ingloriously defeated at Alamance, 
in May, 1771 ; and like the defeated Highlanders 
at Culloden, they were required — such as were 
not hanged — to take an oath of allegiance. 

which had armed itself for the establishment of Governor Ty^on was a man of the world, un 

a Republic. They were at the same time suffer 
ing the terrible consequences of an unsuccessful 
rebellion against an established government ; 
and having renewed their allegiance to it, nothing 
was more natural than that they should shun, 
and even resist, a second rebellion. Under 
these circumstances the Royal Governor Mar- 
tin, authorized Donald McDonald, their recog- 
nized head, to raise a brigade. He did so; but 
was soon defeated and made a prisoner, together 
with Allan McDonald, the husband of the cele- 
brated Flora Mclvor. The leaders were ex- 
changed, and returned to Scotland. 

The yeomanry of the upper counties had for 

scrupulous, but polished in manners. His wife, 
and her sister Miss Esther Wake, were ladies 
of rare beauty and accomplishments. The gen- 
try in all the eastern counties were completely 
led captive by the fascinations of the Provincial 
Court. In those days, the lawyers and wealthier 
classes exercised far more control over the peo- 
ple than they have done in later years. As il- 
lustrative of this statement it may be mentioned 
that Tryon, by these social influences, was able 
to carry through the Assembly a measure which 
was regarded at the time as one of startling ex- 
travagance. This was an appropriation of fif- 
teen thousand pounds for the erection of a Gov- 
ernor's palace. The house was built at New 

years chafed under the illegal exactions of the Berne, and was, no doubt, one of the finest man- 
county officers. The Clerks of Courts demand- sions in America, in its day. It added consider- 
ed two to six times the amount of the lawful ably to the burden of taxes, and to the irritation 
fees for registering deeds and wills ; for issuing of the people. 


It was in like manner, by social blandishments 
that Tryon was able to rally around him the gen- 
try of the lowlands, when he marched into the 
up-country ;*«. the suppression of the revolt of 
the Regulators. These gentlemen, three and 
four years later, became the staunchest of Whigs, 
and were not a whit behind the Adamses and 
Hancock, of Massachusetts, or of Henry and 
Jefferson of Virginia, in their early and firm 
support of the rights of the Colonies. But the 
active part taken by these men in the suppres- 
sion of the revolt of the Regulators, tended 
strongly to alienate the latter from the cause of 
the country in 1775, and the years following. 

This antipathy of the Regulators to the lead- 
ing Whigs ; the suffering they had undergone, 
as a result of unsuccessful revolt, together with 
the oath they had so recently taken to be faith- 
ful to the Crown, made it an easy matter for 
Tryon's successor, Josiah Martin, to fix them 
in their allegiance. He visited their region of 
country, redressed their grievances, pardoned 
such as were still amenable to trial or punishment, 
and gave them his confidence by appointing 
their leading men to office. Martin, in all these 
respects showed great good sense and sagacity. 
But he led a forlorn hope ; and was compelled in 
April, 1775, to abandon the seat of govern- 
ment at New Berne, and fly for safety to Fort 
Johnston, on the banks of the Cape Fear. In 
July, feeling insecure in the Fort, he took ref- 
uge on board the British Sloop of War, Cniiscr, 
and from this safe retreat he fulminated his 
Proclamation, and issued his orders to his Tory 
adherents ; but never again could he set foot on 
North Carolina soil, as Governor of the State. 
The knavish conduct of the county ofificersin 
extorting illegal fees and taxes, which the'Regu- 
lators resisfed to the best of their ability, be- 
longs to the class of occurrences in the history 
of the Province which half-informed scribblers 
have, for a century and more, harped upon as 
affording evidence of the lawless character of 
the people. 

In Virginia, the old aristocratic families, who 
gave tone to public sentiment, were strongly 
biased, by the force of habit, education, and 
attachment to the Mother Country, )/f the 
Church of England. They were not a particu- 
larly religious class of people ; nor were they 
deeply learned or interested in theological con- 
troversy. But the religion of the Church was 
that of the Monarch, and of the aristocracy, 
and therefore, they argued, it must be the true 
church. They had sufficient influence with the 
people to establish it, and maintain it at the 
public expense. But there was a large and 
growing element of dissent, which was destined 
under the lead of Jefferson, to overthrow the 
establishment, and to place all denominations on 
an equality before the law. A large proportion 
of the wealthy and well-to-do classes who emi- 
grated to North Carolina from Virginia, were 
attached to the Church ; and, backed; at first, by 
the Lords Proprietors, and afterwards by the 
King's Government, they succeeded in estab- 
lishing the Church as the Religion of the Prov- 
ince, accompanied by the imposition of a tax 
for its support. The Province was divided into 
Parishes, and glebe lands were set apart, out of 
the public domains, with the same end in view. 
At the same time all other forms of religion 
were tolerated without the slightest restraint. 
The provision of law for the support of the 
clergy, and for other church purposes, was 
wholly inadequate, and the payment of taxes 
for that purpose was evaded as much as possible. 
The odium which attached to the establishment 
from a sense of the injustice of compelling Dis- 
senters to pay taxes for its support, was a fatal 
obstacle to its usefulness. The Proprietors 
might without olTensc to the people, have en- 
dowed the Church out of their more than princely 
domains, with lands, which, in the course of 
time, would have made it wealthy ; but the im- 
position of taxes for the support of the clergy 
was a fatal mistake which deprived it of the love 
and veneration of the people, which its unri- 


valed liturgy is so well calculated to inspire. 
At the outbreak of the Revolution there were 
not many clergymen in the Colony, and scarcely 
one of these remained with their flocks, to share 
in their fortunes, when the shock of revolution 
and war came. 

The failure of the Church to take root in the 
Colony, owing to the persistent efforts that were 
made to force it upon the people, was sufficient 
reason, with British Tory writers of those times 
(and is sufficient reason still, with an American 
writer who wishes to calumniate the State) for 
the declaration, "Nor does the soul appear to 
be better cared for thanjhe body, for it was not 
until 1703 that the first clergyman was settled 
in the Colony. ' 

The Church of England was established by 
the Government, without the approval of the 
people, who were opposed on principle to 
Church rates, as to all kinds of taxes whatsoever. 
Owing to this dislike of taxation, most of the 
people were Dissenters. But no Dissenting 
Churches flourished in the Colony. There was 
complete toleration, even for Quakers, because 
nobody cared a groat for theology, or for relig- 
ion. " This remark, like the others quoted from 
the writer, is made with reference to North Caro- 
lina, "in the Colonial Period" — that is to say, 
throughout that period. It has been shown on 
preceding pages, that the earUest settlements in 
the colony were made by people who fled from 
religious persecutions in Virginia. It is never 
the indifferent and careless, the vih; and the vi- 
cious, who become the victims of religious per- 
secution — they would rather bend the knee ; than 
brave the storm. On the contrary it is only the 
sincere and earnest believers — those who are 
inspired by an unconquerable love of truth and 
duty — that prefer exile and martyrdom to a re- 
cantation or abandonment of their faith. And 
such, we have seen, was the character of the 
Quaker and Presbyterian emigrants from Vir- 
ginia to the Albemarle settlements. They were, 
after a few years, followed by large numbers 

who were members or adherents of the Church. 
The proportion of sincere believers of this class 
was quite as large as the average in communi- 
ties; while the Quakers and Presbyterians were 
eminently rehgious — else they would not have 
been exiled by persecution. The first necessity 
of all was to build cabins to shelter them from 
the elements, to clear the forests for cultivation, 
and to enclose them with fences. For they 
brought horses, cattle and other live stock, 
which roamed at large, and helped themselves 
to the bounties supplied by nature, and needed 
little attention from their owners. The colonists 
were not in a condition to build stately churches, 
nor to pay salaries to ministers ; and it was, and 
is, a principle with Quakers, to pay no salaries 
to their preachers. This fact has been familiar 
to every man of ordinary intelligence for two 
centuries. They met at private houses for pur- 
poses of worship, or when the weather was fa- 
vorable, in the stately groves. The Presbyte- 
rians whosecircumstances were similar, imitated 
the Quakers in the simplicity of their religious 
exercises. They were often under the necessity 
of putting up, for the time, with the ministra- 
tions of laymen, or of a minister who had some 
secular occupation for his support. 

The Baptists formed a congregation in Per- 
quimans, as early as 1727. Paul Palmer was 
the minister. He began with thirty-two mem- 
bers, whose names are given. Joseph Parker 
succeeded him. A Baptist congregation was 
founded in Halifax, in 1742. "This, says Mr. 
Benedict, the historian, "is the Mother Church 
in all that part of the State, which still abounds 
with Baptists." In 1752, the Baptists had six- 
teen congregations in the Province. In 1765, 
they had become numerous, and formed the 
Kehukee Association. ' 'About this time, " says 
Mr. Benedict, "the separate Baptists had be- 
come very numerous, and were rapidly increas- 
ing in the upper regions of North Carolina." 
This schism, however, was soon afterwards 
healed, and the two branches of the denomina- 
tion were cordial'y united. 


Mr. Moore an able historian of the State, 
mentions a Baptist congregation known as Shi- 
loh, which was organized in Pasquotank County, 
as early as 1729, and refers to John Comer's 
Journal of that year, as his authority. Mr. 
Moore states, also, that "six years later, Joseph 
Parker, ordained by this church, had established, 
where Murfreesboro now stands, the church 
still known as Meherin ; that in 1750 a congre- 
gation was formed at Sandy Run in Bertie; 
and about the same time, chapels were in exist- 
ence at St. John's, and St. Luke's or Buckhorn, 
in Hertford. 

In the year 1736 there was an immigration of 
Presbyterians into Vh-ginia and North Carolina, 
from the North of Ireland. Henry E. McCul- 
lough, the agent of Lord Granville — himself a 
large land owner — induced a colony of these 
people to settle on his estate in Duplin county, 
in the southeastern part of the Province. Erom 
this time forward colonies of Presbyterians came 
and settled in the Province, from year to year, 
and became a powerful influence, from their su- 
perior education and strong characteristics. 
From the Virginia border to that of South Caro- 
lina, in all the Piedmont region, and as low 
down as the county of Granville, their settle- 
ments were numerous ; and in conjunction with 
the Moravians in Surry, the Quakers in Guilford, 
and Lutherans, and German-Reformed Churches 
Cl in Rowan, they imp^jfrted a high moral and re- 
ligious tone, to society, in all that portion of 
the Province, accompanied by a love of learning 
and of liberty. The Presbyterians were strongly 
planted in Granville and Orange ; and where- 
ever they formed a settlement they built a 
church. These settlements date back to the 
year 1740. 

To the Rev. Mr. Foote, who composed his 
valuable Sketches of North Carolina from the 
records of the Presbyteries and congregations, 
I am indebted for many valuable facts. The 
Rev. Mr. Caruthcrs, also, in his Life of the 
Rev, David Caldwell, and his sketches of the 

history of the Province and State, has contrib- 
uted many valuable facts and incidents. Mr. 
Eootc, in this connection, says : 

" While the tide of emigration was setting 
fast and strong into the fertile regions between 
the Yadkin and Catawba, from the North of Ire- 
land, through Pennsylvania and Virginia, anoth- 
er tide was flowing from the Highlands of Scot- 
land, and landing colonies of Presbyterian peo- 
ple along the Cape Eear river. Authentic re- 
cords declare that the Scotch had found the 
sandy plains of Carolina many years previous to 
the exile and emigration that succeeded the 
crushing of the hopes of the House of Stuart in 
the fatal battle of Cullodon in 1746. But in 
the year following that event, large companies 
of Highlanders seated themselves in Cumber- 
land County ; and in a few years the Gaelic lan- 
guage was heard familiarly in Moore, Anson, 
Richmond, Robeson, Bladen and Sampson. 
Among these people and their children, the 
warm hearted preacher and patriot, James Camp- 
bell labored more than a quarter of a century ; 
and with them, that romantic character. Flora 
McDonald passed a portion of her days." This 
lady worshipped at a little church among the 
sand-hills of Cumberland, called "Barbacue." 
It is still a place of public worship, but whether 
in the same building or not, is not stated. 

In the year 1750 the Moravians, or United 
Brethren purchased 100,000 acres of land from 
Lord Granville, in Surry County, in sight of the 
mountains. They began their settlements the 
next year. There were several of these settle- 
ments in the purchase, and each settlement im- 
mediately built a house of worship. Their de- 
scendants still inhabit that fine district of coun- 
try, and give tone to society. Like the Quakers, 
they are an eminently religious people ; and like 
the Quakers, too, they are conscienciously op- 
posed to war and fighting. It is a fact highly 
honorable to the Province and State of North 
Carolina, that the scruples of these two classes 
of Religionists have always been respected ; and 


men whose consciences forbid the bearing of 
arms, have ever been excused by the payment of 
a moderate tax. The ill success of the Church 
of England has already been explained. But it 
was not wholly inefficient. Every Parish — and 
the Province was divided into Parishes — had its 
lay Reader, who, in the absence of a clergyman, 
read the services, and a sermon, selected gener- 
ally from the works of some eminent English- 
man, such as Tillotson, South or Barrow. And 
thus, every heart which remained loyal to the 
faith of our English ancestors, was nourished and 
instructed. But the desertion of their posts by 
the clergy, on account of inadequate salaries, 
and the open revolt of their parishioners, in 1775, 
prepared the way for the reception of Methodism, 
which, at that time, was only a new method of 
propagating the faith of the Church. Most fam- 
ilies which were not distinctively of the Presby- 
terian, Baptist, Quaker or some other denomina- 
tion, during and immediately after the Revolu- 
tion, became attached to the Methodists. There 
was no interregnum of Religious worship and ob- 
servance in the State. 

There remain two more serious misrepresenta- 
tions to be noticed, viz : the denial that there 
were schools or Courts of law in North Caroli- 
na, during the era of Provincial dependence. 
And first, as to schools, the writer says : 

"Until just before the war for Independence 
there was not a single school, good or bad, in the 
whole Colony. It need not be added that the 
people were densely ignorant." 

If the people of North Carolina were as ignor- 
ant of letters as this historical critic has shown 
himself to be of his subject, their condition was 
pitiable indeed. 

Dr. John Brickell, an intelligent naturalist, 
resided in and traveled throughout the settle- 
ments in the early part of the eighteenth centu- 
ry, and published, in Dublin, in the year 1737, 
"The Natural History of North Carolina ; with 
an account of the trade, manners and customs 
of the Christian and Indian inhabitants." This 
intelligent writer says: 

"The Religion by law established is the Prot- 
estant, as it is professed in England ; and though 
they seldom have orthodox clergyman, (he 
means those of the Church) among them, yet 
there are not only glebe lands laid out for that 
use, commodious to each town, but likewise for 
building churches. rhcimntoj these Protestant 
Clagy is generally supplied by some sehoolmasters, 
who read the Liturgy, and then a sermon out of 
Dr. Tilotson, or some good practical divine ev- 
ery Sunday. These are the most mtmerous and are 
dispersed through the whole Pi ovince. ' ' This gen- 
tleman traveled and made his observations in 
the Province between the years 1730 and 1737, 
as is shown by the imprint of the book ; and it 
appears from his statement, that at that early 
day the ' ' schoolmaster was abroad " ' ' through 
the whole Province." Next in numerical 
strength were the Quakers, the Presbyterians, 
the Baptists and the Catholics, and the author 
says that the latter, who were scattered over the 
Province, had a clergyman at Bath-town. 

In 1704, Mr. Blair, a Church missionary, and 
a good man, came to the Colony, and reported 
that the settlers had builtsmall churches in three 
precincts, and appointed a lay Reader in each, 
who were supplied by him with sermons. These 
lay-Readers were schoolmasters, as appears from 
the specific statement of Dr. Brickell ; and there 
is additional incidental evidence of the fact. 
The lay-Readers were to be supported, and to 
employ them as teachers of schools was the nat- 
ural resource. But there is other positive evi- 
dence of the fact. 

Dr. Hawks gives an account of some small 
subscriptions made by the wealthy clergy and 
nobility for the propogation and support of the 
Gospel in America, from which it would appear 
that those well-to-do Christians of the fatherland 
had an idea that a very little money would dif- 
fuse a great deal of Gospel truth ; or that a very 
little of the truth would be sufficient for the 
Colonies. But the King, (William III,) we are 
told, did better. "On the report of Dr. Bray, 


a missionary, Bishop Compton went to tlie King, 
as he had done before, and obtained from him a 
bounty of ^20 to every minister orsc/iooluiasta; 
that would go over to America." 

The Rev. William Gordon, an intelligent Eng- 
lish clergyman, who came as a missionary to 
North Carolina in the year 1708, and who was 
a man of character and piety, after returning 
home, wrote a long letter to the Secretary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
in regard to the Colony. It bears date May 13, 
1709. In this letter he incidentally alludes to 
the fact that the Quakers in Pasquotank were 
sending their children to the school of a lay 
Reader of the Church, named Griffin. The 
same clergyman established a church at the head 
of Albemarle Sound, in the settlement which 
afterward became the town of Edenton, and in- 
trcdiu'cd a sclwobnastcr, with school books. He 
states that there were no Quakers in that pre- 
cinct, (Chowan) and that the people were ex- 
tremely ignorant and poor. Yet Edenton, long 
before the Revolution, became the centre and 
the abode of the wealthy and refined. The 
reader of the life of Judge Iredell, of the Unit- 
ed States Supreme Court, by iVIcRee, is charmed 
by the picture presented of a polished society 
of well-bred and educated people in that seclud- 
ed little nook of the Province of North Caro- 

At the session of the Assembly which met at 
Wilmington, November 20, 1759, says Martin : 

"An aid was granted to the King for the sub- 
sistence of the troops and militia now in pay of 
the Province ; it was directed to be paid out of the 
fjiiid heretofore appiopriated for the purchase of 
glebes and the establishment of schools, the King 
not having signified his pleasure on that appro- 

As a rule the Kings of England had to be 
bribed into acquiescence in any measure pro- 
posed in behalf of the Colonists, however essen- 
tial to their welfare, by the grant of money to 
/ which was no doubt dropped out or omitted, as ' 

himself or his favorites, The foregoing is a spec- 
imen of this system of government. I fail to 
find in the Colonial statutes the Act referred to, 
it never became a law. But Martin published 
one or more editions of the laws, and there can 
be no question that the Assembly, about the 
middle of the last century, passed an Act for 
the support of Common schools — a measure of 
benificence, which was frustrated by the selfish 
stupidity of George II. 

The subsequent Act of the Assembly for di- 
verting the school fund from its original purpose, 
in order to defend the Colonies against the com- 
bined attacks of the French and Indians, was 
justifiable ; but the withholding the royal assent, 
before the emergency arose, was simply in keep- 
ing with the heartless policy, with reference to 
the Colonies, which governed in the British Cab- 

In 1764, "An Act was passed for the erection 
of a schoolhouse, the Academy in the town of 
New Berne, which," says Martin, " is the first 
effectual Act for the encouragement of litera- 
ture." Why this was the first, we have already 
explained. In 1767, the Academy was incor- 
porated, and about the same time a charter was 
given to the Edenton Academy. Careless writers 
have misunderstood these remarks of Martin, 
with reference to these Charters, as implying 
that they were the first schools ever established 
in the Province. The pretentious Harper's 
Magazine Critic belongs to this class of super- 
ficial readers and writers. 

The condition of these Charters was, that the 
schools were to be taught by members of the 
established Church. And it was for lack of this 
restriction that the Royal authority was withheld 
from the Charter of Queen's Museum, at Char- 
lotte, which was to be under the control of the 
Presbyterians. At the next session of the As- 
sembly, 1 77 1, the Charter was modified, in the 
hope of securing the Royal favor, but without 
success. But as there is no royal road to science, 
so also, the classics and sciences may be taught 


in institutions from whicli the Royal assent is 
withheld — and there were many such in North 
Carolina, long before the Revolution. 

The Rev. Mr. Foote, whose sketches of North 
Carolina have been quote.:; in preceding pages, 
says "Almost invariably, as soon as a neigh- 
borhood was settled (by Presbyterians,; prepa- 
rations were made for the preaching of the 
Gospel by a regular stated pastor; and wherever 
a pastor was located, in that congregation was 
a classical school — as in Sugar Creek, Poplar 
Tent, Centre, Bethany, Buffalo, Thyatira, Grove, 
Wilmington and the churches occupied by Pa- 
tillo in Orange and Granville." The Presby- 
terian settlements commenced in 1738 ; and al- 
though each settlement did not, at first, have a 
minister, and a classical school, there can be no 
question that they had schools in which the 
children were taught to read and write. 

The history of the Moravian settlements at 
Wachovia, or Salem, shows that they founded 
churches and schools immediately on their ar- 
rival ; or as soon as they had provided humble 
dwellings for themselves and their children. On 
their hundred thousand acre purchase they 
formed several settlements, each of which had a 
place of worship. Salem is the centre ; and now 
for nearly eighty years it has had one of the 
largest and finest female schools in America, in 
which, during that long period, thousands of 
young ladies have been educated, who have gone 
thither from every State of the South, and not 
a few from the North and West. 

In the eastern and middle counties the common 
schools were taught, as has been shown, by the 
lay readers of the Church, and by others ; while 
the most wealthy classes sent their .sons to Wil- 
liam and I\Iary in Virginia, to Princeton, to 
New England, and even to Old England, for 
higher education. 

The libel which the writer attempts to attribute 
to Mr. Bancroft, has been exposed, and need 
not be repeated. He follows up that statement 
with another, however, which requires notice. 
He says : 

"The Courts, such as they were, sat often in 
taverns, where the Judge might sharpen his wits 
with bad whiskey ; ivhile theit decisions were not 
rcconicd, but were simply shouted by the crier 
from the Inn door, or at the nearest market 

Of all the statements of the writer, the aboye 
shows the greatest degree of ignorance; for it ie 
incredible that a sane man who has read the his- 
tory of the Colony, would deliberately make 
assertions which are contradicted on almost 
every page of our annals. A large portion of 
Martin's history of the Province is devoted to 
an exposition of the court systems. But to 
begin at the beginning, — Dr. Hawks, in his his- 
tory of the early colonization of the Province, 
which he brings down to the year 1730, has a 
lengthy chapter entitled "The Law and its Ad- 
ministration." He prefaces this chapter, as is 
his method, with his authorities; and these con- 
sist of extracts from the Records of the Courts. 
The first extract^ from the Records of the 
" General Court," refutes two of the statements 
above. It is dated 1695, and is an order of 
the Court to the Marshal to take into custody 
Stephen Manwaring, an attorney, " to answer 
for his contemptuous and insolent behavior be- 
fore the Court. " L-'ji 

Then follows an order debarring him ; and 
another, allowing him till th^ next term to an- 
swer ; and finally, in 1697, was ordered "that 
the said Stephen Manwaring shall not, from 
henceforth, be permitted to plead as an Attor- 
ney in any Court of Record in this Goveiunieut." 
The next extract bears date the same year, 
1695, and is of the same character. Two gen- 
tlemen of the bar were debarred for contempt. 
One of them, Henderson Walker, Esq., after- 
ward made a distinguished figure in the history 
of the Colony; and four years after this con- 
tempt of Court, he became its Governor. 

In 1697 we have the record of a "Summary 
proceeding for a false accusation." In 17 14, 
the "Proceedings on an Information against a 


militia-man;" and in 1722, an "Abatement of 
suit by reason of the plaintiff's outlawry." 
Next follows the whole proceedings in the Gen- 
eral Court, on a writ of error. This was in the 
year 1723. The introductory lines in this pro- 
ceeding will show that the forms of law, brought 
from England, were substantially observed. It 
begins as follows: 

"JohnCiray of Bertie precinct, gentleman, 
comes to prosecute his appeal from certain pro- 
ceedings had against him, at the Pnriitct Coutt 
of Berth-, on Tuesday, the 14th day of May, 
Anno Domini, 1723, at the suit of John Cot- 
ton, Esq. 

" And the said John Gray, by Edward Jfose- 
lev, his attorney, brings into court here, a copy of 
the Record and proceedings of said Court, in 
these words," &c. 

This precinct or county of Bertie, was the 
youngest of the settlements, and it had just been 
given corporate authority. This may have been 
the first court — and it was certainly among the 
earliest. Yet we see that it was a Court of 
Record, and thus brands as a calumny the state- 
ment referred to in Harpers Magazine. It is a 
part of the Record that the Court was held at 
the house of James Howard at Akotsky. The 
date was Tuesday, May 14, 1723. Bertie 
is just across the Chowan river from Edenton, 
the principal town of the Province; and the 
writ of Error seems to have been sued out on 
the day the judgment was rendered. 

Dr. Hawks gives the writ of arrest of John 
Gray, and his declaration, signed by John Hen- 
neman, his Attorney, " pro pi' ff." The suit 
tLC was an action of detiihlc for a patent, for "six 
hundred and forty acres of ground. " The Dec- 
laration is endorsed, "I do not detain the pat- 
ent. — John Gray." Next follows a formal sum- 
mons for George Wynn as a witness ; then the 
statement of the issues joined, the plea of non- 
detinet, the impannclling of the jury, and their 
verdict for the plaintiff. All this in the lowest 
court of the Province, held by three or more 

Justices of the Peace, in the youngest county 
in the Province, in the year 1723. Mr. Mosely, 
afterwards distinguished in the history of the 
Province, was the attorney for the plaintiff in 
error. He recites the foregoing facts, and 
excepts to them in the usual form and assigns 
four reasons why the court below manifestly 

The General Court reversed and annulled the 
verdict, and ordered that Cotton pay the costs. 
Dr. Hawks, who was a lawyer before he became 
a clergyman, reinarks on these proceedings as 
follows : 

"VVe have presented the whole Record of the 
General Court in this case, that the reader 
might see the forms of writ and subpoena in use 
as set forth in the Record from the Precinct 
Court. It furnishes, also, incidentally, evidence 
that the practice of the day seems to have been 
in the Precinct Court, to endorse the pleas on 
the declaration. It illustrates also, the formality 
with which the minutes of proceedings were 
kept in the General Court. There are nuiiierous 
other eases to be found, more fidly even, than this, 
and where the errors assigned involved some 
interesting and really doubtful points of law ; 
but we selected this, as being one of the short- 
est, and yet sufficient for all purposes of illus- 

Dr. Hawks fills sixteen pages with extracts 
from "tho Records of the General Court of 
Oyer and Terminer," beginning in 1697, and 
ending in 1726. Nothing could have been 
further from his purpose than to furnish proof 
that North Carolina had courts of record at that 
early day : for how could he imagine that any 
man would make such a display of his ignorance 
as to dispute the fact? How could he suppose 
that a pretentious Magazine would commit such 
a blunder, in an article of historical criticism — 
and that it would apply the stupid remark to 
the condition of the Province, during the whole 
time of colonial dependence? Yet that is the 
predicament in which Harper s Magazine has 
placed itself. 


The first case copied by Dr. Hawks from the 
Records of the General Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, is erroneously placed under the date of 
1697, when William III. was on the throne. 
For the writ runs in the name of "our Sovereign 
Lady, the Queen " — meaning, doubtless. Queen 

It was on an indictment against Susannah 
Evans, for witchcraft, under an old English stat- 
ute, as amended in the reign of James I. It 
was not a colonial statute ; yet the courts were 
required to enforce it. But the result of the 
trial shows that our ancestors were not abreast 
with the civilization of that age, as illustrated 
further north, and it was lucky forSusanah that 
they were not. The indictment is as follows : 

"The Jurors for our Sovereign Lady, the 
Queen, present upon their oaths, that Susanah 
Evans of the precinct of Currituck, in the 
County of Albemarle, in the aforesaid Province, 
not having the fear of God before her eyes, but 
being led by the investigation of the Devil, did, 
on or about the twenty-fifth day of July last past, 
the body of Deborah Bouthier, being then in 
the peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, 
devilishly and maliciously bewitch, and by as- 
sistance of the devil, afflict, with mortal pains, 
the body of the said Deborah Bouthier, whereby 
the said Deborah departed this life. And also 
did diabolically and maliciously bewitch several 
other of her Majesty's liege subjects, against the 
peace of our sovereign lady, the Queen, and 
against the form of the statute in that case made 
and provided," &c. 

This indictment was laid before the Grand 
Jury, by the Attorney General; but that body 
failed to find a true bill, and Susanah was turned 
loose upon society to work her "devilish arts." 
This seems to have been the only case in which 
a person was brought before the Courts of North 
Carolina, on a charge of witchcraft, and whether 
the fact was due to the isolation of the Province, 
by which it "was in a great measure cut off 
from the currents of thought and feeling by 

which the other colonies were swayed," or 
whether to a more enlightened sense of justice 
than prevailed in colonies which sent witches to 
the gallows " by the cartload," as Upham in- 
forms us, was the case in Massachusetts, the 
reader may determine. 

But if North Carolina suffered from its seclu- 
sion, a loss of .sympathy with the great move- 
ment for the suppression of witchcraft, it was 
from no lack of zeal for religion and good morals, 
as the Magazine critic would have the world be- 
lieve. Among the numerous extracts from the 
Records of the General Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, made by Dr. Hawks, are the proceedings 
on the indictment of John Hassel, of Chowan 
Precinct, in the year 1720, on charge of pro- 
fanity. Hassel was one of the "advanced 
thinkers" of that age, who declared publicly on 
Sunday, March 13, 17 18, "That he was never 
beholden to God Almighty for anything ; for 
that he never had anything from him, but what 
he worked for;" and much more of the same 
sort. He plead "not guilty," but the jury con- 
victed him. His counsel moved in arrest of 
judgement, that the indictment was not brought 
within six months after the words were spoken ; 
nor was it prosecuted within ten days, "accord- 
ing to the form and effect of an act for obscming 
ilic Lord's Day." The court overruled the mo- 
tion, and ordered that the culprit should receive 
"thirty-nine lashes on his bare back," and give 
security "in the sum of fifty pounds for his 
good behavior for a year and a day." 

Here is incidental proof that these colonists, 
who are represented as devoid of law and relig- 
ion, and of learning, had laws against profanity, 
and requiring the observance of the Lord's Day, 
as early as 1 7 1 8 ; and that these laws were en- 
forced against any "lawless and vile fellows" who 
might come into the Province, and offend against 
them. But our ancestors failed in the matter 
of hanging witches, and selling Quakers, and 
are voted ignorant and irreligious. 

Tiie proceedings on an indictment for ' 'forcible 


entry and trespass," are given by Hawks, un- 
der date of 1729. And of the same date there 
is the written refusal of the Governor to sign a 
death warrant on account of informaHties in the 

Numerous specimens are given of the sen- 
tences of the Court for theft, and similar offences, 
in which the lash was generally brought into 

Some pages are devoted to the Records of 
the Chancery Court, during the early period of 
colonial history, prior to 1730; but the foregoing 
must suffice. 

It is probable that the as.sailant of the good 
name of the State may have deduced many of 
his conclusions from the following remark of the 
elder Josiah Quincey, which he recorded in his 
Memoir. That gentleman passed through east- 
ern North Carolina in the Spring of 1773, and 
was greatly pleased with the character and spirit 
of the people, all along his route. He was es- 
pecially pleased with the gentlemen he met at 
Wilmington, where he spent some daj's. He 
mentions with honor several whose names have 
come down to us. Passing on further north, he 
states, under date of April 5th, that he "break- 
fasted with Colonel Buncombe[in Tyrrell County] 
who waited upon me to Edenton Sound, and 
gave me letters to his friends there. Spent this 
and the ne.xt day in crossing Albemarle Sound, 
and in dining and conversing in company with 
the most celebrated lawyers of Edenton." 
[Among these lawyers were, doubtless, Samuel 
Johnston, who, a few years later was chosen to 
the office of President of the Continental Con- 
gress, which he declined ; but became Governor 
of the State, and a United states Senator. Mr. 
Quincey more than likely met, also, James Ire- 
dell, who afterwards became a Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States.] Mr. 
Quincey continues : "From them I learned that 
Dr. Samuel Cooper of Boston, was generally 
(they said universally) esteemed the author of 
"Leonidas," who, together with " Mucius 

Scaevola, " was burnt in effigy under the gallows, 
by the common hangman." And here follows 
the misleading remark of Mr. Quincey, which a 
person, entirely ignorant of the history, and of 
most other things, might be excused for taking 
as conclusive proof that North Carolina, prior 
to the Revolution, never had any laws or courts, 
although she possessed "celebrated lawyers." 
Mr. Quincey says: "There being no courts of 
any kind in this Province, and no laws in force 
by which any courts could be held, I found little 
inclination or incitement to stay long in I'Menton, 
though a pleasant town." 

This statement was literally true at that day 
and date ; but the circumstances which brought 
about the peculiar state of things, being well 
understood throughout the colonies, Mr. Quincey 
did not stop to explain them. They constituted 
one of the most serious grievances against which 
the people of the Province had long had reason 
to complain of the Crown and Government of 
Great Britain. The explanation is as follows: 
For more than twenty years a struggle had been 
going on between the Assembly on the one side 
and the Governor and Council, appointed by 
and impelled by the Sovereign, on the other, in 
regard to the constitution of the courts, Supe- 
rior and Inferior. 

The Crown insisted on the appointment and 
removal of the Judges, at pleasure, and to im- 
port them from Great Britain, while the Assem- 
bly was required to provide them fi.xed and lib- 
eral salaries. 

The Assembly resisted this unjust pretension, 
and insisted that lawyers resident in the Colony 
should alone be appointed to Judgeships over 
them ; that their tenure of ofifice should be per- 
manent, and that their salaries should depend 
upon the free offering of the Assembly from 
year to year. 

This controversy dated back to the middle of 
the century. An act of the Assembly of 1754, 
for the regulation or reorganization of the courts 
had never received the royal sanction, and at 


length, after it had been in force for several years, 
it was annulled, or vetoed. In 1760 a new 
court act was adopted, which provided, among 
other things, that no person should be appointed 
a Justice of the Superior Court, unless he had 
been regularly called to the degree of an outer 
barrister in some of the luiglish Inns of Court; 
unless he were of five years standing, and had 
practiced law in the principle Courts of Judica- 
ture of the Province. The act also required 
that the commissions of the Judges should run 
during good behavior. 

The Governor, Dobbs, held that the clause 
defining the qualifications of the Judges, was 
an unconstitutional restraint on the King's pre- 
rogative, almost precludeing the appointment of 
any one from England ; and that the clause de- 
fining the tenure of the Judges was at variance 
with the principle of keeping all great colonial 
officers under a strict subordination to, and de- 
pendence on the Crown. 

The Assembly plead earnestly with the Gov- 
ernor, alleging the necessity for courts of Justice 
and the sacredness of the right they contended 
for. They were, indeed, fighting over again the 
parliamentary battles of Hampden and Tyni, 
for regulated liberty; and they fought them with 
a courage, an intelligence, and a dignity worthy 
of the cause. They were fighting just such 
battles as Massachusetts had fought throughout 
her whole history, and which constitute her 
chiefest glory. 

As illustrative of the Crown officials in the 
Province, and as throwing further light upon the 
causes which provoked the Regulation move- 
ment, I will be excused for presenting more 
fully, the nature of this controversy between the 
people and their imported rulers. 

Of the new court system, which was intro- 
duced and passed in the Assembly which met 
at Wilmington, November 20, 1759, Martin 
says that it provided for the establishment of a 
court of king's bench and common pleas. It 
forbade the Chief Justice to receive any part of 

the fees of the clerks, which seems to have been 
an unauthorized practice of that eminent person 
— or rather, of one or more persons who had 
held the office. The Council, which was ap- 
pointed by the Crown, would not consent to the 
passage of the bill until this prohibition was ex- 
punged, which that body held to be derogatory 
of the dignity of the Chief Justice. The Assem- 
bly replied that '' tlic practice zvliich had hitherto 
prevailed of the Chief Justice exacting from the 
Clerks a considerable proportion of their legal fees, 
had been one cause of their being guilty of great 
extortions, whereby the Superior Courts had be- 
come scenes of great oppression, and the con- 
duct of the Chief Justice and Clerks, a subject 
of universal complaint, ,);hey admitted that the J 
late Chief Justice, Peter Henly (whose death 
was lamented by all who wished to see the hand 
of Government strengthend, the laws duly exe- 
cuted and justice impartially administered) from 
a pious sense of the obligations of his oath, had 
conformed to the act of 1748, for regulating 
officers fees, but they thought themselves bound 
in duty to their constituents to provide against 
the pernicious effects of a contrary conduct." 

On this and other grounds of disagreements 
the two Houses did not come to terms, and the 
bill failed. At the ne.Kt session the Assembly 
passed a court bill not materially different from 
that of 1759. It was sent up accompanied by 
an address, in which its importance to the welfare 
of the Province was urged. 

But the Governor, who was very anxious to 
have an aid bill passed, in compliance with a 
demand by the Crown, for the prosecution of 
the war against the French and Indians, temper- 
ized while urging the paramount duty of passing 
that measure. The Assembly prepared an ad- 
dress or petition to the King, in which the griev- 
ances of the Colony were strongly set forth, and 
tile great importance of the "court law " was 

In the same address, serious complaints were I 

made against the Governor, Dobbs, who, it was j 


charged had appointed corrupt and incompetent 
men to office. 

No agreement was reached and the Superior 
Court bill was rejected. 

An act, however, was passed, for establishing 
county courts, accompanied by a provision for 
the support of the clergy ; and this was sanc- 

The Governor then prorogued the Assembly, 
from the 23d to the 26th of May; when he again 
called on that body to pass a Superior Court 
bill, and grant an aid to the King. These meas- 
ures were accordingly adopted ; and the Gover- 
nor gave his sanction to the "Court law" on the 
condition that if the King did not confirm it 
within two years from the loth of November 
following, it was to be null and void. 

In December, 1 761, the Lords Comm'ssioners 
of Trade and Plantations, laid the Court laws, 
passed in May of the preceding year, before the 
King and Council, asking the royal disallowance 
and repeal ; and accordingly the act was annulled. 
The Governor was severely censured for allow- 
ing it to go into operation before it received the 
royal sanction. 

In 1762, a Superior Court law, temporary in 
its character, was agreed upon by the two Houses, 
and was permitted to go into operation. The 
Assembly still maintained its position of with- 
holding permanent salaries from the Judges. In 
1764, the Act was renewed, or extended; and 
in 1767, a new Act was passed, and limited to 
five years duration. The County Court law was 
also renewed, and continued for the same period. 
These laws would therefore expire in 1772 — 

probably at the close of that year ; and hence it 
was that Mr. Quincey, in February, 1773, was 
correct in saying, that there were "no Courts of 
any kind in the Province, and no laws in force 
by which they could be held." The people of 
all the Colonies were aware of this state of things 
and the reason for it, and hence he deemed it 
unnecessary to explain them. A man of ordi- 
nary intelligence, and especially one who assumes 
the office of historical critic — even at a distance 
of a century — should have, at least surmised as 

The remark quoted from Mr. Bancroft, on a 
preceding page, that whoever doubts the capac- 
ity of man for self-government, should study 
the early history of North Carolina, was made 
with reference to the people of the Albemarle 
settlement during the Proprietary Government ; 
but its truth receives additional, and even fuller, 
illustration, in the subsequent career of the Col- 
onists, when they had spread over a territory as 
large as the Mother Countiy, and laid the foun- 
dations of a great State. No true man can read 
that history without admiring the courage, and 
the unconquerable firmness, exhibited under the 
most trying circumstances with which they vin- 
dicated their rights as men. The whole history 
of the Province, from 1663 to 1776, Was a strug- 
gle of the people against arbitrary power and 
corrupt administrative officers ; and people of 
the present day who imagine that Colonial de- 
pendence in the 17th and i8th centuries was an 
easy yoke to bear, only show their ignorance of 
the history ot that period. 






An Address of Gen. Rufus Barringer, delivered at the Lutheran Commemoration in Concord, 

N. C, November loth, 1883.* 

From a variety of causes, so far as I can 
learn, not a record exists exactly fixing the 
date of the first German settlement in this 
section of North CaroUna, nor has a single pen 
told the story of the wanderings of our Ger- 
man fathers nor the part they bore in our 
early wars. 

Less than five generations liave passed away 
since these German fathers first struck the 
banks of the Cold Water and Dutch Bufialo 
Creeks. Yet who, in this large assembly can 
tell when, whence, why, and. how these hardy 
pioneers came ? If direct from Europe, what 
part ? If from or through Pennsylvania, what 
County? What routes did they travel ? When 
and where was the first settlement made ? 
}2<.\d especially what were their peculiar char- 
acteristics ? Did they have any distinct reli- 
gious creed ? Any known political polity ? 
How did they bear themselves in the nume- 
rous Indian and other early wars? Especially 
in the great rexolutionary struggle for free- 
dom and independence, what troops did they 
furnish ? What sufterings and losses did they 
endure, and what sacrifices did they make for 
the cause ? Who were Whigs and who Tories ? 
All interesting questions ; the very doubt 

*Tlie reader should reraemlier tliat many of these 
remarks were local and personal aud uuderstood by 
the audience only. 

and confusion in wliich they are shrouded 
greatly embarrasses one. I shall, therefore, 
rather seek to excite interest and enquiry into 
the subject before us than undertake to decide 
or debate disputed issues. If I .should chance 
to fall into errors of any kind, I will be only 
too glad to be fully and promptly corrected. 
My great aim is historic truth. 

Before proceeding to the main enquiries, it 
is proper to disabuse the popular mind of cer- 
tain prejudices in regard to the so-called 
Dutch or Germans, generally, of this country 
and more particularly as regards the religious 
faith and fighting, or rather non-resisting 
tenets, of certain Teutonic sects amongst us. 

It is true that many of the earlier Dutch and 
German colonists were non-armbearing secta- 
rians, such as the Mennonites in Pennsylva- 
nia, the Moravians here in North Carolina, and 
the Saltzbergers in Georgia. But there were 
none amongst our Germans. From the days 
of Braddock's defeat and the advent of Maj. 
George Washington, down to the last battle 
under Gen. Robert E. Lee, our Dutch have 
proved a most pugnacious set. 

Then, again, the first German settlers are 
constantly confounded with Hessians, who 
fought against us, and numbers of whom, after 
the revolution, found an asylum in this coun- 
try, and were not unwelcome. 



The facts are these : The Hessian contin- 
gents of George III came from a region, 
and were rait^ed at a time, when the bulk of 
the common people, the world over, were lit- 
tle better than beasts of burden for their 
rulers. The Swiss Guards were not the only 
mercenaries. They, too, came from the only 
Republic of Europe. But these Hessians hap- 
pened to be mostly Protestants. The mar- 
velous light, of Luther's teachings had struck 
deep into even their dark minds. General 
Washington, with that tact and wisdom pecu- 
liarly his own, readily saw this, and ventured 
to turn it to account. He accordingly man- 
aged, when any of these Hessian soldiers were 
captured, to send them off into the interior of 
the country, and quarter them upon the 
soundest German settlements. In this way 
many of them were very naturally left in 
America. Or if exchanged, they had but to 
take the chances of war. to release them fi-om 
their military oaths and obligations. This 
happened, notabl^v, at the siege and surrender 
of Savannah, and under the articles of Peace 
1782, when hundreds of these Protestant Hes- 
sians chose to remain in this land of liberty, 
and enjoy the untold blessings they were sur- 
prised to find here. They very sensibly sought 
their German countrymen, who knew the facts 
of their case, and who pitied their forlorn con- 
dition. As a well-known circumstance, they 
almost universally make good citizens — strik- 
ingly faithful to every trust and obligation. 
Hence they soon intermarried with other clas- 
ses, and thus it happens that hundreds of those 
now before me, are the descendants of the once 
"Hated Hessians." 

But I have lately obtained information quite 
curious in regard to these Hessian contingents: 
At the very time that George III. was gath- 
ering up his foreign levies, to help to conquer 
us, Silas Deane, the American Commissioner 
in Germany, was offered large numbers of the 

same people to fight for us; and only an acci- 
dent and a scarcity of money defeated the 

Another class of German immigrants who 
entered largely into our population of foreign 
descent, and who are commonly thought to 
have cast a stain on the name of freedom, 
were the so-called Redemptioners — a term now 
well nigh obsolete in popular speech — but once 
indicating a body of immigrants, who took an 
eventful part in the development of this New 
World. The term was first used in connection 
with white indentured apprentices. It was af- 
terwards applied to a large class of very poor 
emigrants, who could not pay their passage- 
money to America in cash down ; but who 
were willing to enter into contracts of limited 
service, on their arrival here, in order tore-im- 
burse the funds advanced for that purpose. 

Still again, it was an artful scheme often re- 
sorted to, by the down -trodden of Europe, to 
escape the thraldom of feudal bondage. 

Some of our first German settlers no doubt 
belonged to all of these three different classes 
of redemptioners. A few of the most promi- 
nent pioneers certainly came in the way last 

The story of the wrongs, the sufferings, the 
trials and troubles of these humble heroes, is 
so full of interest and instruction, nay of sub- 
lime courage and christian fortitude, that I 
pause to explain it. The facts, too, slied a re- 
flected light on the mooted and somewhat mys- 
terious question of where these first adventu- 
rous Germans came from, and of tlieir national 

In one of the quiet out-lying districts of 
Wiirtemburg, the traveller now sees standing 
a plain stone pyi-araid, erected by the peasants 
of German}- in 1789, as a monument to Prince 
Charles Frederick of that Duchy, for his vol- 

*[See American Archives— series 5,— (1779), vol. III. 
page 887.] 



uutaryaliolitioii (if sorl'dom in that year. And 
its simple history is this: 

The thunder of Luther's tire struck deep and 
fast into tlie hearts of the peasantry chiss, as 
you have heard liere to-day. This resulted in 
all sorts of insurrectionarj' outhreaks, which had 
to be put down hy force. This stayed sonie- 
wliat the progress of the reformation and 
grieved Luther, But the mighty work Avent 
on and soon the minds and consciences of men 
Itecame comparativelj' free. And yet it was 
a long time before the light of political truth 
reached the prerogatives of power and property. 
At that time very few, if any, of the peasant 
class, as such, could hold real estate in Central 
Europe. On the contrary, they themselves 
were often bought and sold with the land they 
worked, and had to serve their landlords a 
certain number of days each week, the year 
round, and all through life. The Protestant 
peasants, naturally enough, became restive un- 
der such hard and cruel restraints and restric- 
tions. And they ere long sought in every pos- 
sible way to avoid and escape them. This was 
next to impossible to do, and still remain in the 
country. But to flee their homes was also ex- 
tremely hazardous. The law of expatriation 
was not then fully recognized, and all sorts of 
treaty stipulations and alliances provided for 
their recapture, return to slavery, and, usually, 
a barbarous beating besides. But go they 
would, and their safest course was stealth, un- 
der this scheme of indentured apprenticeships. 
In this way, the young men could gradually re- 
move themselves from one State or province to 
another, and little noticed, reach a seaport; and 
so escape to America or some other foreign 
country where life, liberty, limb and land were 
somewhat free. To us of this enlightened age 
and free republican government, it is simply 
incredible that such a state of things should 
have existed in any Christian country, espec- 
ially in the English colonies, less than one hun- 

dred and fifty years ago. But so it was. White 
men not only indentured themselves as ap- 
prentices, but gladh' sold their persons into 
long but limited slaverj', for the blessed privi- 
lege, or chance of escaping feudal serfdom. 
But listen while I read this advertisement 
from an old Philadelphia newspaper, Tlw Arn^r 
icnii Mn-i-urji, of date November 28, 1728: 

"Just arrived from London, in the ship Bor- 
den, Williani llurbert, connnander, a parcel of 
young likel}' Men Servants, consisting of Hus- 
bandmen, Joyners, Shoemakers, Weavers, 
Smiths, Brickmakers, Bricklayers, Sawyers, 
Tailors, Staymakers, Butchers, Chairmakers, 
and several other trades, and are to be sold 
vei-y reasonable, either for ready monej',wheat, 
bread or flour, by Edward Home, Philadel- 

Amoiiir the classes thus named were, no 
doubt, the ancestors of many now high in the 
Free Citizenship of this great country, and 
possibly the ancestors of some of those present 
here to-day.* 

After the American revolution, the exodus 
from Europe under this process was enormous; 
so much so as almost to depopulate certain 
German States and countries, notably "Wur- 
temberg, where serfdom was so absolute and 
grinding. Then it was, in 1789, that the 
reigning Grand Duke, Prince Charles Frede- 
rick, rose to the supreme height of voluntarilj- 
abolishing all serfdom in his dominions. And 

*It wa.s tlie liDiicst boast of the di.stiiiKuislied John 
Covode, of Pennsylvania, "tliat his fatlicr liad been 
held as a Kedcniptioner." 

John Reed, tlie discoverer and tirst owner of tlie fa- 
mous "Reed gold mine" in Cabarrus County, was one 
of the Hessians of the RcvohUionary war. He died a 
wealtliy man, but did not know, wlien he found the 
lirst lump of fiohl, wliat it was or what it was worth. 
Nor did he know until he was more tliaii eiffhty years 
old that he had a right to citizensliip in thi.s country. 
He was naturalized at Concord about 1843. For tlic 
discovery of the Reedf;old mine, see Wheeler's History 
of North Carolina, Vol. H, page 64. 



in return, a grateful Protestant peasantry 
cheerful!}' erected this simple monument to 
his memory. Wurtemburg again prospered; 
population grew and she soon became a king- 

In all this may be noticed the marked char- 
acteristics of the German mind and temper. 
According to their light, the German Princes 
generally had a fatherly love for their people, 
and the latter, ever reverential and grateful, ac- 
cepted the great boon conferred by Providence 
not in a spirit of fanatical pride and resent- 
ment, but as a gracious concession and bless- 

And what may seem strange to us, as touch- 
ing this custom of voluntary slavery, no sense 
of degradation seems to have attached to it. 
It simply shows that parties resorting to it, 
were in dead earnest to reach the goal of free- 
dom, and meant real work and business. As 
just and proper labor contracts, such inden- 
tures were almost invariably carried out in 
good faith by all parties concerned. 

For one, therefore, I rather commend the 
patient fortitude, the unfaltering faith and 
courage, and the Christian tidelity, with which 
certain of the redemptioners worked their 
way to the fertile fields of the Cold Water 
and Buflalo Creeks. As the darkest shades 
often reflect the most beautiful tints; and as 
the purest gold is usually found in the rough- 
est rock, so the finest characters are always 
evolved through the severest trials and tribula- 
tions. We are the more perfect through 
suffering. Our Redemptioner fore-fathers 
had realized in their own persons the inestim- 
able privileges and blessings they had come so 
far, and at such fearful risks and sacrifices, to se- 
cure. The sequel will show that when the day 
of trial came, and they were called upon to 
fight for their dear-bought benefits, they were 
equal to every emergency. 

The first Germans known to have reached 

this immediate section, now called the Dutch 
Side, consisted of three young farmers — all 
foreigners and probably all three Redemption- 
ers. One certainly was, and he the best 
known, a man in fact, of rare strength of will, 
and singular force of character. He was a 
native of Wurtemburg ; left therewith the 
consent of his father, in his 21st year; tarried 
a while in Hanover; finally sailed from Rotter- 
dam in the ship Phcenix, and landed at Phila- 
delphia Sept. 30th, 1743. He had some edu- 
cation but no money or friends. He left home 
and country, because he was not allowed to 
buy or hold real property. His term of ser- 
vice was three years; but he worked so well, 
and faithfully, that he managed, some way, to 
make favor with his master, and wiped the 
whole debt out in one short j^ear. Whether 
he married his master's daughter, or some 
other good Pennsylvania girl, it is not certain; 
but she, too, was poor; and he often told, with 
much glee that he got with her "just one sil- 
ver dollar." 

With this wife and two small children, and 
accompanied by his two countrymen and 
their little families, the youthful Redemption- 
er, now free, set out from Pennsylvania, for 
the rich region of the Yadkin and Catawba 
— then the aim and end of the adventurous 

When this trio of enterprising Germans* 
started on their perilous march, the buffalo, 
bear and the wolf still roamed our forests. 
The savage Indian and the frontier French 
often marked the camping grounds of the 
lonely immigrant with the blood of slaughtered 
innocents. They crossed the mountain ridges 
and the flooded streams by following the old 
buffalo trail, then known as the " Indian Trad- 
ing Path." At last they reached the end of 
their wanderings, and the}- safely forded the 

* The names of these three pioneer Germans were 
BaiTiuger, the grand-father of the speaker, Dry, 
(Derr, and Smith. 



broad and beautiful Yadkin at the "Trading 
Ford," the sole memorial amongst us, of this 
once famous "Indian Trading Path." But 
here a new ditBculty beset these peaceful fugi- 
tives from the land of the "Broad-brimmed 
Quaker." The free and tolerant principles of 
Penn had gathered into his Province, all the 
odds and ends of civil and religious persccutioti, 
the world over. Jarrings and conflicts na- 
turally ensued ; notably, among the Scotch- 
Irish and some of the quaint Mennonites of 
that State. When our German friends crossed 
the Yadkin, and began to cast their wistful 
eyes over the wide plains and spreading prai- 
ries of this lovely region, they were surprised 
to find the Scotch-Irish just ahead of them. 

The latter had occasional squatters, here 
and there, on the choicest spots, especially on 
its western borders, up and down the Catawba. 
Our German Pilgrims had seen enough of strife 
and resolved to "avoid all such." They ac- 
cordingly abandoned the "Trading Path," just 
east of the present site of Salisbury and 
turned square to the left and followed the 
right bank of the Yadkin, down towards the 
lighter slate soils of that broken region. They 
were however, not afraid of their Scotch-Irish 
allies, in the mighty struggle to subdue the 
wilderness and enter its broad acres. So they 
gradually turned their steps to the better lands 
above them, and iinally located on the high 
ground between the present Cold Water and 
Buffalo creeks. The exact spot was the old 
Ovenshine place, near the Henry Propst home- 

How long these people had resided in Penn- 
sylvania does not appear — long enough, how- 
ever, to have lost somewhat their native Ger- 
man, and picked up, in its stead, that strange 
but popular gibberish of all tongues, univer- 
sally known as " Pennsylvania Dutch." Our 
immigrants themselves were called Dutch. 
They recognized the term and proceeded to 

designate their surroundings accordingly. 
Their nomenclature, however, was quite limi- 
ted, and they usually followed nature. Hence 
we have Big and Little Dutch Buffalo, Big 
and Little Bear Creek, Big and Little Cold 
Water, and Jenny Wolf Branch. Above and 
west of them, was the English or Irish Buffalo, 
and south was Johnson, now Rocky River. 

This would seem to have been a long time 
ago. Ours was then Bladen, or probably Pee 
Dee County— a County never legally recog- 
nized. But after all, it was only about one 
hundred and forty years back — as near as I can 
fix it — 1745-6. One hundred and forty years ! 
Only the hfe-span of two or three of the stout 
old German fathers. And yet what marked 
and momentous changes have taken place 
amongst us, in that eventful period ! IIow t 
the panorama of history has crowded upon us, 
in one short century and a half ! How slowly 
time has passed ; and how utterlj' the foot- 
prints of these wandering fathers have fled 
from sight and memory ! They numbered 
only three families, and their nearest neigh- 
bors, on one side, were sparse settlers, in the 
present limits of Popular Tent and Coddle 
Creek, and on the other, the Highland Scotch 
of the Pee Dee hills. But our wanderers were 
uot long alone. 

Soon the news of a goodly land flew back, 
first to Pennsylvania, and then on to the far 
off", struggling, toiling, teeming, millions of the 
war-racked and priest-ridden Fatherland. 
And now they poured in from all directions, 
mainly still from and through Pennsylvania, 
but often through Charleston and occasionally 
through Wilmington, following the routes 
along the high ridges dividing the principal 
rivers. And it was thus, that this particular 
section, embracing parts of the present Coun- 
ties of Cabarrus, Rowan and Stanly, came to 
be so rapidly settled, and almost exclusively by 
Germans. Bv the time of tlie revolution, the 



" Dutch side" of old Mecklenburg was its most 
densely peopled portion. 

I here propose to correct a partial error, into 
which many have fallen (at one time nij'self,) 
in regard to the distinctive nationality of 
these first German settlers. They are often 
supposed to have come from the central and 
northern parts of Germany, and sometimes 
from the low countries of Europe. But I now 
have ample proof that they came from the 
upper or Castle Rhine regions — Wiirtemburg, 
Baden, Bavaria, and the ancient Palatinate — 
so mei'cilessl}' wasted by that grand ogre of 
France — miscalled Louis the Great. It was 
the fiercest and bloodiest of persecutions that 
then desolated all this jtart of Southern Ger- 
many, and scattered its honest, liberty loving, 
intelligent, industrious Protestants to everv 
quarter of the globe. And I am able to state 
from positive knowledge, that the common 
German names of this section, so numerous 
amongst us to-day, are all now found in the 
upper Rhine region, referred to, notably in 
and around the skirts of the Black Forest and 
its borders. 

Our familiar name of Blackwelder (German, 
Schwartzwalder) means not black wood, but a 
Black Forester. So the names of Barnhart, 
Barrier, Bost, Dry, Misenheisner, Pi'opst, Sides, 
Bosheimer, Barringer, and hundreds of others 
are there to-day. No doubt the emigrants, 
and especially those escaping under the guise 
of apiirenticcships or as indentured servants, 
often stopped over in the countries through 
which they passed, working their way along. 
And it may liave served their purpose occas- 
ionally, to hail from the Continental domin- 
ions of the (Jcorges of England. But this 
much is certain, very few of them were Dutch 
proper, or natives of the low countries, or even 
the level parts of (_Termauy. Onr first (^lerman 
settlers, nearly all built their liouses on I'each- 
ing here, on the high grounds, and often on 

the tops of the hills, aftei' the castle times of > 
their own rugged country-. Their removal to 
the level lands and bottoms was afterwards. 
But be that as it may, they came ; they came 
to stay ; and that they did so, is fully proved 
by the immense numbers of their descendants 
here to-day, and the vast regions the "Dutcli 
Side" has peopled elsewhere. They were a 
hardy, healthful, handy race, self-reliant, self- 
helpful, and they have made their mark 
wlierever the^^ have struck. 

The intellectual and religious cpuilities of 
such a people were almost sure to be marked 
and enduring. .Many of them had fought in 
the battles of Europe ; others had left home 
and country for conscience sake ; all had en- 
dured toil, sufi:'ering and sorrow for the free- 
dom they came so far to find. They learned 
to live almost entirely within themselves. 
Their wants were few and simple. Onl_y two 
things seemed absolute essentials: (1.) In all 
their wanderings — in shipwreck at sea, and in 
storm on land ; in serfdom and in voluntaiy 
slavery ; under the iron lieel of Power in 
Europe, and in the boundless freedom of Amer- 
ica — they clung to their Luther Bibles. With- 
out any distinctive notions of formal creeds, 
and profoundly indift'erent to the mere forms 
of religion, they grasped the fundamentals of 
the Bible as taught by Luther, and so they 
lived and died. (2.) They tolerated no idlers 
— no drones in either the Church, the State, or 
the family. In fact, however, the family was 
everything. With a proper start in the family, 
all government was simple and easy. There 
was an intense regard for all lawful authority. 
The husband and father felt his responsibility 
both to God and the powers that be. The 
wife and mother was, indeed a help-meet, and 
shared alike the joys and sorrows of the hus- 
band. The young all worked, and grew up 
trained and skilled in every ordinary labor and 
handicraft. Both sexes were strong and act- 



ive — monilly, mentally, and physically. The 
men were manly, and the women matronly. 
When trials and tioiihles canie, such people 
knew lunv to meet thorn. They had, at last 
found ik'liyhtful homes, and tasted the sweet 
freedom they had so much loiiged for. And 
when, therefore, they were summoned to de- 
fend those homes and to vindicate the rights 
and privileges they had secured, no people 
ever responded more heroically. 

I am ahle to show that these German sett Icrs 
paiticipated in almost every expedition against 
the Indians, and that they took a very active 
part in the forced march of General Ruther- 
ford against the Cherokees in 1776. A young 
German was one of the very few killed in ac- 
tion on that expedition." 

It is not generally known that the settlers 
of this section were ever disturbed by the 
French enemy on our distant frontiers. But I 
have here (holding it up,) a petition in 1756 
to Grovernor Dobhs, from the Rowan and An- 
son settlers, complaining (among other thmgs) 
of the dangers that threaten them from the 
"savage Indians in the interest of their French 
allies." Also a curiously carved powder-horn 
that was worn by Archibald Woodsides of 
Coddle Creek, in one of the long and hazardous 
marches against Fort Diiquesne. It has on it 
a good description of '' Fort Pitt " and its pic- 
turesque surroundings. The history of this 
singular memorial of our early wars is, that the 
owner chanced to meet in one of his marches 
with German soldiers from this settlement, 
and they persuaded him to return with them. 

But I come now^ and chiefly to speak ot the 
revolutionary services of the German fathers. 
Here the evidence is full and complete. But, 
unfortunately, it is only in old musty army 
roUs, not accessible to the general public; and 
no one has been found to tell the story of their 

•Matthias Barriuger of the Catawba family. 

deeds. But this was then the most populous 
part of old Mecklenburg; and it was, fromiirst 
to last, true, indeed, entirely unanimous in its 
fidelity to the great cause of freedom and in- 

That the Germans do not figure iirominently 
in the famous meetings at Charlotte, .May 20, 
177.5, is not strange. Their settlement lay 
mainly in the extreme limits of the old County, 
with numerous intervening streams, and scarce- 
ly any roads. They spoke a different language, 
and uearl}' all their trade and travel was in 
other directions — with Salisbury on the north, 
with Cross-creek (now Fayetteville) on the 
east, and Cheraw Hills and Camden, South 
Carolina, to the south — the three last thriving 
points at the head of navigation, on theii- re- 
spective rivers, then a matter of vast import- 
ance. But as a mere truth, the hopes of the 
German settlement, then centered in one 
leader, Lt. -Col. John Phifer. He was a 
by descent. But all his ties and associations 
were Gei-man. His mother was a Blackwelder 
and his wife a Barringer. He was an un- 
usually bright and promising man and soldier. 
The meetings were held at the Phifer Red 
Hill, three miles west of Concord. He was 
their delegate to the immortal convention that 
declared Independence, and his name so ap- 
pears. But he died early in the struggle, and 
in his youthful grave at the Red Hill seemed 
to perish the hopes of his people. But not so. 
Old and young continued to go forth to swell 
the ranks of both the regular and irregular 
forces. I have examined the Muster Rolls and 
have extracts from them, and they clearly 
show that in proportion to population the 
Germans were very largely represented. On 
the Pension Rolls for Cabarrus County in 1835, 
of 21 revolutionary soldiers still drawing pen- 
sions, 12 were Germans. And old men now 
present will remember that when the "heroes 
of 1776 " used to parade together at the 20th 



of May and -ith of July celebrations, the 
"Dutch Side " was always strong. At the last 
of these parades in 1839, 5 out of 8 of those 
present were of German blood. The Black- 
welder family alone furnished eight tried sol- 
diers to the cause. 

The silence, therefore, of the Charlotte meet- 
ings, and the absence of co-temporaneous his- 
tory, as to the Dutch Side, is nothing against 

There is a story, too, which shows that the 
Dutch had some other reason for not attempt- 
ing to make an}' display in the Queen City. 
It is, that on some military occasion, a Dutch 
captain took his company over there, and, giv- 
ing his commands in most emphatic Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch, the Scotch-Irish laughed at him. 
His company vowed to stand by their Captain, 
and refused both collectively and individually 
ever to go back to Charlotte again. In con- 
firmation of this story I have here an old Mus- 
ter Roll, and sure enough "Martin Fifer" is 
the Captain ! Certain it is, too, that at a ver}' 
early day the Dutch demanded a new County, 
and at the first election, after Cabarrus was 
cut off, Caleb Phifer (the son of Martin) and 
John Paul Barringer were its highly honored 
Commoners. So, probably, the creation of 
tliis County is also due to the German element. 

But there is another aspect of the Revolu- 
tionary struggle, decidedly complimentary to 
the Germans of old Mecklenburg, and adds a 
new laurel to her crown. 

The Dutch Side, from their isolated and re- 
mote situation, might have easily stood aloof 
from the conflict, and so, po.ssibly, have escaped 
the losses and sufferings I am about to describe. 
But they chose otherwise; and then, their 
very location and seclusion exposed them to 
the fiercest ravages of war. 

Remember, then, the surroundings of this 
German settlement. On its east the Scotch 
Highlanders of the Cape Fear and Pee Dee 

country, nearly all Loyalists, enabled the Brit- 
ish to extend the royal rule up to the Narrows 
of the Yadkin. On its south, at Cheraw and 
Camden, were British posts. North of it? 
across the Yadkin, Faiming and his infernal 
crew roamed almost unmolested. While in 
the Forks of the Yadkin, just above, the able 
Toiy leader, Col. Samuel Bryan, held a well 
organized regiment of 800 men. And then' 
on several occasions the British army lay at 
Charlotte (twice) and at Salisbury (once). 
Now history shows just what might be ex- 
pected in such a situation as this. While in. 
deed, no great armies traversed this region, 
it was greatly exposed because of its remote- 
ness and isolation, to the more frightful depre- 
dations of irregular and lawless bands of ma- 
rauders and other desperadoes, passing to and 
fro. It is a historical fact, that Col. Bryan 
marched his whole Tory Regiment of 800 men 
through the eastern end of this settlement, to 
Cheraw, S. C, spreading fear and desolation 
in all directions. It is equally true, that when 
the British occupied Salisbury, several parties 
of Tories and Royalists, from the east of Yad- 
kin, sought to join Cornwallis, but were driven 
back, mainly by Home Militia. 

But the one expedition that still lives in 
the memory of the Dutch Side, and never 
fails to fire the German blood, even to this day, 
was that organized by the Fanning men east 
of the Yadkin; and crossing the river, swept 
this German settlement in its whole length, 
up and down the two Dutch Buffalos, and 
thence on to the British post at Camden. S. C. 
They robbed hundreds of Whigs,destroyed much 
property in purest wantonness, and seized and 
carried off to British prison, under most brutal 
circumstances, more than twenty leading citi- 
zens. In this number was Major James Smith, 
of the then County of Rowan, (now Davidson,) 
a regular officer at home, wounded, and Caleb 
Blackwelder and his son-in-law, Jno. Paul 



Barringer, both old men — far past the military 
age. Smith and several others died in prison 
of small pox. Blackwelder and Barringer were 
promised their release provided some mem- 
ber of their families would come in person, 
and make certain pledges as to their conduct. 
No male of either family could risk the venture 
when old Mrs. Blackwelder mounted her horse 
and went herself to Camden, on the hopeless 
errand. She failed in her object, and m its 
stead, was the innocent means, through her 
clothing, of spreading the small pox all over 
the countr}' she passed, and far and near among 
her friends at home. I need not tell this au- 
dience, that these terrible events drew the 
lines, once and for all, between Whig and 
Tor}' in the whole Dutch settlement. Up to 
that time, there had been no division what- 
ever; no man who had ever taken protection, or 
given the eneni}- any sort of aid or' comfort, 
could stay on the Dutch side and live. Now 
two individuals were charged with bad faith 
or infidelity. One of them, Rufus Johnson, 
who was no German, simply disappeared. The 
other, Jacob Agner, was run out of the coun- 
try and his valuable property — the present 
House Mill — was confiscated. Of one or two 
others there were vague suspicions of disloyalty, 
or mean cringing in the hour of trial; and to 
this day, their names are mentioned with bated 

Such, ray friends, is the proud record of our 
German ancestry. 

I am glad of the occasion to paj' this just trib- 
ute to their noble memory. Especially am I 
happy to do so, on this day commemorative of 
the immortal Luther. His fame belongs to all 
mankind. But in its simple strength and en- 
during might, it is strikingly reflected by the 
unpretending life, and elasticity of German 
character. And we here draw a most instruc- 
tive and useful lesson. It marks the myster- 
ious workings of an allwise Providence. 

These people came here as poor, persecuted, 
wandering exiles. But in all their wanderings, 
they were an honest, sober, industrious, faith- 
ful, jieaeeful, law-abiding. God-fearing, God- 
serving and God-loving people. Against the 
early Protestant peasantry of Southern Ger- 
many scarcely aught has ever been said. Re- 
specting just authority, and rendering proper 
obedience themselves, they have everywhere 
and under all circumstances, secured confidence 
and consideration. Here, in this distant land, 
and this secluded section, they are able to de- 
velope" without contact Avith Um,t effeminate 
degeneracies of the outside world, or the 
dangerous tendencies of modern civilization. 
You see the result in an enduring, expanding, 
wide-spreading, self-reliant, and ever advanc- 
ing community. They had, too, their sports 
and amusements, their holidays and gala-days, 
their Easter fun and Kris-Kingle frolics; but 
under all, life had a serious, an intensely earn- 
est aspect. Even their sports and amusements 
partook rather of skill and labor, than dissipa- 
tion and debauchery, such as quiltings, spin- 
ning matches,corn-shucking, log-rolling, house- 
raisings and the like; all tending to manly 
vigor and modest woman-hood. In their out- 
door hunts and games we discern the same 
harmless tendencies. In an old unprinted 
diary I have before me, kept by a sort of 
trader and traveller of the revolutionary era, 
I find the fox and deer skins came mainly from 
tlie English and Irish, while the Dutch are 
death on coons ! 

In the family, especially, each and all felt the 
responsibilities resting upon them. Old and 
young had their assigned spheres and duties. 
Male and female learned some test of skill, art 
or handiwork. Life was not all one strain at 
display, nor one round of frivolity and frolic. 
There was in their family government a won- 
derful combination of duty, devotion, and dis- 
cipline, with proper rest and recreation. In a 



word, the faniily with them, combined tlie all— seem to me to pander too much— greatly 

State', the Church, and the School. And the too much— to the false sentimentalism of the 

training was more in the family than in the day. 

school. Again, see the result. They bought mv. is all sensation and pretense. Relig- 

hut little, and sold nnich. They made no debts i,jn, morality, and the simple virtues of truth 

or contracts they did not expect to pay or ex- and honesty are powerfully preached; but their 

ccute. They scorned to live on the labor or fa- yjc'c/Zcr is much more doubtful. 

vor of others. And as a consequence, they ^^.^j, ^^ .^^^j^| j^ ,,^, ^,j,^, means, imply that the 

were a gallant, brave, and public-spirited com- ^i^.g^,e„aants of the early settlers of the "Dutch 

munity. They and their descendants have ever j^j.^^,, j^.^^^ j^^ ,,,^y ^^^^.^ declined or deteriora- 

stood to the front in the time of trial and 
danger. In the war of 1812, in the .Mexican 
war, and in the great Confederate conflict, 
they rallied to the bugle-blast, in hundreds 
and thousands. They have imt only main- 
tained their ground at home, but they almost 
peopled the regions round about them, and set- 
tled, in turn, whole sections in distant States 
and Territories. I honestly and tirraly believe 
that much of this success and great pmspenty, 
is eminently due to the sound, civil, religious, 
and family training of the early fathers; and 
that, under the providence of God, it has its 
power and strength in their deei) devotion to 
to the simple Protestant faith, as taught by 

But let it not be supposed, my friends, that 
I have lost faith in our modern civilization, 
and that I would live only in the past. On the 
contrary, I believe implicitly in the progress 

ted. On the contrary, while Germans are, 
usually, not pretentious, or aml>itious of place 
or position, these people have always and every- 
where held their ground. And as a striking 
fact, they have ever managed to get their full 
share of the best land in the country. And I 
am happy to learn from others, the evidence 
of your good faith, energy and industry. A 
distinguished judge, who has often ridden all 
over the State, pronounces the tillage and 
thiift of Mt. Pleasant region the best in North 
Carolina. And a prominent Gentile physician 
says the Dutch Side is still the best paying 
people we have. My prayer is, that you may 
go on m well-doing. Neither individuals or 
communities can hope to prosper without these 
virtues. And, withal, may you never cease 
to cherish the memory of the Fathers, and 
[iractice, as they did, the precepts of the pure 
and lowly Jesus, as preached by the mighty 

of human society. There is <M,ly one thing I j^^^^j^^^,^ ^^^^^ thunders are still shaking prin 

dread: There is too much liberty-too much ^^^^^-^^^ kingdoms and crowns, and subduing 

license and licentiousness. The home, the school, commonwealths and continents, 
society, the State, and the Church — each and 




The eiiiiiieiuH' in his protVseion attained hy 
Dr. Edward Warren (Boy) and the [ininii- 
ncnce he has accjuired in tlie two hemispheres, 
eonunends the following;- nmst interesting sketch 
to the readers oY these Jiciniiiisi-iiins of Eiiiincut 
N<rrtlt Curolinians, we make the following ex- 
tract from the Medical Journal of North Caro- 
lina; it has been enlarged and continued to date 
of this puMiration, and is eminently tit to l)e 
[(reserved in tliis foiin. • 

Dr. Edward Warren (Bey) was horn in 
Tyrrell County, North Carolina, on the 22nd 
of January, 1828, of parents who emigrated 
from Virginia, and who belonged to two of 
the oldest and most distinguished families of 
that State. His father, Dr. Wm. C. Warren, 
was also a physician of eminence and a man of 
unusual intelligence and purity of character. 

When the subject of this sketch was only 
four years of age, his father removed him with 
his family to Edenton, North Carolina, where 
the son was educated up to his sixteenth year, 
when he was sent to the Fairfax Institute, 
near Alexandria, Virginia; and two years af- 
terwards to the University of Virginia. In 
the latter institution he greatl}' distinguished 
himself, having securg^ honors and diplomas 
in many of its Academic Schools, aud having 
graduated after a single course in its Medical 
Department. In 1850 he delivered the vale- 
dictory oration before the Jeflerson Society, 
which was then esteemed the. /amor of the Col- 

In 1851 he graduated in the Jefferson Medi- 
cal College of Philadelphia, and whilst pursuing 
Ids studies in that cit^, conceived the idea ofinjectin/j 
'( solution of morphia under the s/dn for the relief 
(f pain, using for the purpose a lancet-puncture,and 
Anel's sifringe. In this mode of medication, he was 
thirefore, four ijcars in advance of the inventor of 
the htjpodermic stjringe. 

This device was made the subject of a tliesis 
prep;ired for presentation to the Faculty upon 
applying for his degree, but one of tlie Pro- 
fessors, to whom he had confided the idea, so 
forcibly expressed the opinion that it was l)oth 
chimerii'al and dangerous, that the tliosis was 
witheld and another .substituted in its place. 

Dr. Warren, however, soon after his grad 
nation, found occasion to put ins idea into prac- 
tical operation. 

During the years of 1854 and 1855 he studied 
medicine in Paris, where he formed an inti- 
mate friendshiji with some of the leading 
medical men of France, and occu[iied iiimself 
by corresponding with Tltc Aim rii-an Jimnial 
of M'dical Sciences, and other leading American 
Medical Journals. 

Returning to America in the summer oi' 
1855, he settled as a practitioner in Edenton, 
X. C, where he soon accpiired an extended 
reputation, both as a physician and as a sur- 
geon. In 1856 he delivered the annual address 
before the State Medical Society, which was 
most favorably received, and also obtained 
the "Fiske Fund Prize" for an essay on the 
"Effects of Pregnancy on the Development of 
Tuberculosis," which was subsequently pub- 
lished in book form, and has ever since been 
regarded as a leading work on the subject. 

In 1857 he was elected editor of the Med- 
ical Journal of North Carolina; made a mem- 
ber of the Gynaecological Society of Boston ; 
and chosen a delegate from the American Med- 
ical Society of Paris to the American Medical 

On the 16th of November of the same year, 
he married Miss Elizabeth Cotten Johnstone, 
of Edenton, a lady of rare beauty and most 
lovely character. By referring to Wheela-'s Eis- 
tori/ of North Carolina, it will also be seen that 
the Johnstones are directly descended tVom 



two Royal Governors of the Colonj- , Gabriel 
and Saml. Johnstone, who were cousins and the 
representatives of the Cadet branch of the 
family of Annandale in the Peerage of Scotland. 

In 1860 he was elected Professor of Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics in the University of 
Maryland; first Vice-President of the Conven- 
tion to revise the Pharmacopcea of the United 
States; and a member of the Committee on 
Literature of the American Medical Associa- 
tion. He at once acquired an enviable reputa- 
tion in the city of Baltimore as a graceful, 
fluent and able lecturer. 

In 1861 he joined his fortunes with those of 
the South, and was, successively. Chief Sur- 
geon of the Navy of North Carolina: a mem- 
ber of the Board to examine candidates for ad- 
mission into the Medical Staft' of the Confed- 
erate Army; Medical Director of the Depart- 
ment of the Cape Fear; Chief Medical Inspec- 
tor of the Department of Northern Virginia 
(Gen Lee's Army;) and Surgeon-General of 
the State of North Carolina. 

Two of these positions were conferred upon 
him on the field of battle as rewards for per- 
sonal courage and professional work. At the 
battle of New Berne, although at that time on 
medical board duty at Goldsborough, Dr. 
Warren volunteered his services and remained 
under fire with the wounded, under circum- 
stances of peculiar difiiculty and danger. For 
this he was made Medical Director of the De- 
partment of Cape Fear. 

Upon the battle-field of Mechanicsville, in 
1862, while again acting as volunteer surgeon, 
he was verbally appointed by Gen. Lee, Med- 
ical Director of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia; but knowing that Surgeon Guild, who 
ranked him, was but a few rods distant, Dr. 
"Warren called the General's attention to the 
fact, and Surgeon Guild was made Medical 
Director, and upon his immediate suggestion 
Dr Warren was retained as Medical Inspector. 

By a special act of the Legislature of North 
Carolina his rank as chief medical officer of the 
State was raised from that of ''Colonel" to that 
of "Brigadier-General;" for "devoted and effi- 
cient services rendered to the sick and wound- 
ed." He tvas also chosen by the Legislature one 
of the Trustees of the University of North Car- 

During the war he wrote a work entitled 
"Surgery for Field and Hospital," which passed 
through two editions. Auiong many other 
valuable suggestions ^hich this book contained, 
was that for the treatment of "retracting flaps 
and conical stump," by means of extension 
with "adhesive strap, with cord and weight"- 
a procedure which is now vei'y widely adopted, 
and the origination of which, after much dis- 
cussion in the journals, both at home and 
abroad, has been finally conceded to Dr. War- 

This method was put into practical opera- 
tion in the hospital of the University of Vir- 
ginia, as early as August, 1861, whereas Dr. 
Hodges, of St. Louis, who alone seriously dis- 
puted the priority, finally and very courteously 
acknowledged Dr. Warren's claim, stating that 
his own first use of the method was in 1863. 

Subsequently, in a controversy conducted 
in the London Lancet, the claims were again 
settled in Dr. Warren's favor, by the publica- 
tion of an extract upon the .subject taken from 
the book which had been published during the 

In the summer of 1865, Dr. Warren re*- 
turned to Baltimore, ruined in fortune by the 
results of the war, and expecting to resume his 
Professorship in the University of Maryland. 
A refusal to return the chair to Dr. Warren 
furnished sufficient ground for legal proceedings 
by mandamus or quo warranto, but in view of 
the ruined fortunes of the contestants and of 
the financial and social influence of the Fac- 
ulty, the suit promised to oe a protracted one. 



and as the practical benefits to be gained in 
the event of success were so small, it was con- 
cluded not to resort to the Courts but to leave 
the issue to public opinion, which it was 
thought fully sustained Dr. Warren. 
1; Then came one of the most brilliant efforts 

in the life of the subject of our sketch. Under 
his direction the Washington University Med- 
ical School was revived, rising like a phcenix, 
putting itself at once on a plane with the old 
University, which in the effort to maintain its 
lead made fundamental changes in its man- 
agement and in the pcrsoiuui of its Faculty. 

Dr. Warren filled the chair of Surgery in 
the Washington College with great brilliancy , 
and became the idol of the large number of stu- 
dents who resorted annually to the school. 

When a law was passed creating a board 
for the examination and registration of the 
physicians of the State, he was made a mem- 
ber of it. He was also elected Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Medico-Chirvirgical Society of 
Maryland. In 1868 he established The Med- 
ical Bulleti7i^a journal which obtained an ex- 
tensive circulation. 

In 1872 he appeared as principal medical ex- 
pert for the defense in the celebrated Whar- 
ton trial. The circumstances of this trial were 
full of absorbing interest, it being characterized 
by great divergence of professional opinion 
among the physicians and chemists engaged in 


General Ketchum was an eccentric old bach- 
elor who died in the house of his friend, Mrs. 
Wharton, a lady of wealth and high social po- 
sition. He was attended during his short ill- 
ness by a physician whose line of treatment 
was somewhat varied, but who, although he 
did not arrive at a positive diagnosis, for some 
cause requested that an autopsy should be per- 
mitted. A thorough examination was not 
made of the rachidean and cranial cavities, and 
some of the abdominal viscera^^was submitted 

to an antiquated chemist, who, after a very 
slovenly analysis, pronounced the presence of 
antimony, and upon this an indictment was 
found against Mrs. Wharton. Dr. Warren was 
then requested, "in the interest of truth and 
justice," to examine the medical testimony 
taken by the grand jury, and he promptly de- 
clared that the symptoms described by the at- 
tending physicians and nurses were more typ- 
ical of a certain form of cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis than of antimonial poisoning. Resting 
upon this, and upon the evidence of tlic in- 
sufficiency of the chemical analysis, the de- 
fense went to trial, with the result of a prompt 
verdict in favor of the accused. 

Dr. Warren acquitted himself with great dis- 
tinction on the witness stand, receiving con • 
gratulations and moral support from a host of 
medical men both at home and abroad ; and 
although he had opposed to him a number of 
gentlemen of recognized professional ability, it 
was conceded on all sides that he came off with 
the advantage, his testimony — which was bril- 
liant in the opportunity for retorts afforded by 
the cross-examination — losing none of its force 
from the assaults of the experts for the prose- 
cution. This is fully borne out by letters and 
telegrams spontaneously sent to Dr. Warren, 
after the trial, by Dr. Fordyce Barker, of New 
York, Dr. Stevenson, of London, and many 
other prominent medical men, and even by the 
Hon. A. K, Syester, Attorney-General for the 
State of Maryland, who personally conducted 
the prosecution of the case. Support, so un- 
solicited, and from such unbiassed sources, 
speaks volumes for the acumen and ability of 
Dr. Warren. Those from the medical men are 
all uniform in declaring that Gen. Ketchum's 
symptoms could not have been caused by tar- 
tar emeticjbut more resembled those of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis; and the letters received 
from chemists declare that the chemical evi- 
dence for the State utteriy "broke down. 



While the limits of this sketch do not permit 
the publication of these comninnications, it 
seems appro))riate to reproduce the following 
extract from a letter from Professor Fordyce 
Barker, who is so favorably known for his high 
personal character and great professional learn- 
ing and ability: 

"In all my long experience I have never met with 
anything which displayed move thorough research 
and sounder logical reasoning than tlie testimony 
wliicli you have just given in the W'haiton-Ketcliuni 
case; aiid I am sure that iulelligent, tliinkiug men, 
both in and out ot tlie profession, will agree witli me 
in Ihis (i]iinic>n. When 1 read the evidence given by 
the ine(li<al attendants during the sickness of Gen- 
eral l\elclium, 1 said that it was absurd to ascribe his 
deatli to poisiiniug from JW)-/ : Aiitiiiuniii. 1 came to 
tiie cunelusiou, siuiif (/((//••-■ lic/iiir jlou yarc jiuiiy Ictiti- 
HiojK/, that he died of ceiel>ro-S])inal meningitis, and 
espi'essed that conviction whenever the case was the 
subject of conversation." 

One incident in this case attracted a good 
deal of attention and Ijrought many compli- 
ments from the daily press : itwasa rencountre 
between the Attorney-General, Mr. Syester, 
and the witness, and is given here as extracted 
from the phonographical reports in the New 
York newspapers : 

AtUyriiiii-GincraL — "Where will this lead to, 
Dr. Warren ?" 

Doctor Warren. — "It is impossible to tell, as 
the h}i:)Othesis itself is absurd." 

Attornei/-Gt'Hir'il. — " J3ut you medical men 
ought to know all about these medical matters.^' 

Doctor fVarrcti. — "We know, at least, as 
much idjout these m(dical matters as //(*// law- 

Attor)ie//-Ge)ier(il. — (Sjjringing from his seat, 
and with great emphasis.) "Bat i/oti doctors 
li(ir( the adra)itajii- of ax ; ijoa harji i/oar mistakes 
innhr the mrtli." 

Doctor Warren. — " Yes, but yon lawyers hany 
your mistakes in the ear.'''' 

This reply "brought down the house" to 
such an extent that the judges had to adjourn 
Court for a quarter of an hour so as to give the 
officers an opportunity to restore order. 

In attestation of the impression made upon 

the Attorney-General, the following letter 
was written by that gentleman to Dr. Warren 
upon the eve of his departure for Egypt, a 
short time after the trial : 
From the Attoniey-CrCiieral of the State of Marytantl. 

State ot Maryland, 
Office of Attorney-General. 

Hagerstow^n, March 25, 1873. 
My Deai! Doctor: — I cannot describe the unfeigned 
regret I experience in y(Uir loss to us all, es])ecially to 
me; for althnugli I have licit seen and lieen with you 
as niiuh as I desired — 1 always looked forward with 
jdeasure to soiiietiiue when our engagements would 
permit a closer acciuaintance, and lieioine wanned into 
a liiiiier and mioic fervid friendship. I dare not in- 
dulge the hope of hearing I nun yon in your new posi- 
tion, but not many things wcnild jirove more agiee- 
alile to me. Present my coiniiliinents to your wife. 
That you and she may ever be contented and happy 
in life, that y<ni may lie as prosperous as your great 
talent and uneiiualfed acquirements so richly de- 
serve, is the earnest hope of 

Your humble, but undeviating friend, 

In 1872, Dr. Wtirren was chosen Chair- 
man of the Section of Surgery of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, and presented to 
that body a new "Splint for Fractures of the 
Clavical," which attracted much attention, and 
really is an apparatus of great utility. Whilst 
it retains the fragments in opposition and gives 
no inconvenience to the patient, it permits all 
the normal movements of the forearm. Hav- 
ing retired from the faculty of the Washing- 
ton University, he then devoted himself to the 
organization of the Col/eye of Pliysieians and 
Saryeom, wliich has finally absorbed the former, 
and attracts classes as large as those of any 
.school_in Baltimore. The institution has wisely 
retained Dr. Warren's name at the head of tlie 
list of Professors, as Eaieritas Professor of Sur- 

Having become dissatisfied in Baltimore on 
account of a severe domestic affliction, he de- 
termined to remove elsewhere. His first idea 
was to procure a professorship in the Univer- 
sity of a neighboring city, and with that end 
in view he presented to its Faculty, testimo- 
nials of recommendation from a number of the 



most prominent physicians in tlie United 
States. Amonji the letters sc>nt to tlic Doctor 
for use in this connection, there were several, 
which, from the distinijuished reputation of 
their authors, and the enthusiastic manner in 
which they indorsed Dr. Warren, seem espe- 
cially to deserve a reproduction here- space 
will, however, oidy permit the puhlication <^f 
the following : — 

Fi-o)ii Professor S. 1). Urosn. 

Phh.adelphi.v May 8th, 1S73. 

My Dear Dr. Warren :— It is ditticnlt fur nit- to s:i.v 
anytliing respecting one who is .so will kiioun throii^li- 
out tlie cotuitvv asa geiitleiuaii, a practitioiic r, and a 
teat-Iiei- of iiiedii'iiie. Any medical scliool oUf;lit, I am 
.sure, to lie piond to fxive you a place \n Us Faculty. 
As a teaclicr of surgery— olt-liaiid. ready, and even 
brilliant— there is no one in the country tluit surjiasses 
you. As an operator and a general -piactitioner. youi 
ability lias long been everywhere lecoKuizcd. Vour 
success as a popular lecturer has been remarkably 
great. Asa journalist you have wiebled a ready and 
graceful pen". Some of your operations reflect great 
credit upon vour Judgment and skill. Of your moial 
character, I have never heard anything but what was 
good and lionorable, . . . 

I hope witli all inv heart you may obtain a position 
in one of the New York Schools. Your great popu- 
larity in the Southern States could not fail to be of 
service in drawing Southern Students. My only re- 
gret is that we have no place to offer you m Philadel- 

Wishing you eveiy possible success, I am, dear doc- 
tor, very truly your friend, nun^ju 

Professor of Surgery, Jefferson Medical Colletje. 
Professor Edward Warren, 
Baltimore, Md. 

From Professor Hunter McOuire. 

Richmond Va., May 10///, 1873. 
Gentlemen:— I beg leave to state that Dr. Wanen 
enjoys a most enviable reputation both as a phy.sician 
and as a gentleman, and from all I know and have 
heard of him, I have no doubt he would prove a most 
valuable addition to anv college. Dr. Warren held a 
prominent position in the Medical Department of the 
Confederate Arniv, and eiijovcd the respect and con- 
tidence of all wlio associated wilh hiui. He has re- 
centlv resigned the chair in one of the nudii'al schools 
of Baltimore. He tilhd this chair with great ability 
and attracted to the schocd a large number of students, 
especially from his native State, Xonh Carolina, 
Very respectfully, etc., 
Professor of Surijery. Medieal College of Virifniiu. 

To the Trustees of the 

University of New York. 

From Hon. E. J. Henkle. 

15ALTIMORE May 15th, 1873. 
Dear Sir: — I have been informed that my fiiend. 
Prof. Edward Warren, recently Professor of Surgery 

in tlie Washington University in this place, is an ap- 
plicant for the same position in the University of New 

I have known Dr. Warren tor many years past ; first, 
jirevioiis to the war, when Professor of Mateiia .Med- 
ica in the University of Maryland, which )iositi.ui to 
my peisonal knowledge, he Idled in a most accejitable 
manner to both faculty and students. 
Since tlio war and the rcoi gaiiizal ion of the Washing- 
ton Uni\<rsitv, he has residicl in lialtiinore and tilled 
the Chair of Snigery. In the capacity of President 
of the Hoard of Trnstccs of thai Institution, I have 
been thrown in I rccpieiit and iiilim.ite intercourse with 
him, and I take jih'asari' in Icstitv iiig to liisgreat zeal 
andability, and to lii^ success asa li-ctiircr and teacher. 
Dr. Warri-n has alwa\s bctn regarded in ISaltimore as 
a most iiopular and ellicieiil le<turer, exceedingly 
popularwilh the st udents, and untinng in his elforts 
to iironiotc the success of the institnti(Ui with which 
he has been idenlilied. 1 have no doubt that Uie Uni- 
versity of New ^ ork would be most fortunate in se- 
curing his valuable services. Very truly yours, 
President of the Board nf Trustees of 
Washint/lon I'nirersity, M. l>. 

Prof. Henry Draper, New York City. 
From Profexsor IF. //. Mcdiiffey, of the University oj 

U. OK Va., May I8th, 1873. 


Gentlemen :— It gives me great pleasure to recom- 
mend to your favorable consideration Dr. Edward 

1 have known Dr. Warren from his boyhood, and 
can testify to his excellent cliaracter, fine talents, in- 
domiuitable perseverence in the pursuit of knowledge 
and the discharge of iiridVs-ional duty. 

Dr. Warren's attainments are id a high orderin gen- 
uine scholar.shii). He made unusual proficiency in 
Moral Pliilosoidiy, and graduated also with distinc- 
tion in other srhools in the University, Va. 

Of his juofessional attainments I am not competent 
to Judge, but I know that he has been successful when 
coiiipetition was intense, and I learn from others, 
couipeteat to Judge, that he has every qualification to 
ensure success in the Chair of Surgery, and the place 
which I learn he seeks in your institution. 
Very respectfully, &c., 


Prof. Moral Philosojihy, U. of Va. 

Unfortunatel}' no vacancy existed at tlie 
time, and his efforts in this regard proved ahor- 
tive In 1873 he accepted a position in the 
service of the Khfedive and removed to Egypt, 
having heen urgently recommended for it by 
Greneral R. E. Lee, General Sherman, General 
G. W. Smith, General Hancock, Governor Z. B. 
Vance, Hon. M. C. Butler, General Gary, and 
other leading gentlemen in the United States, 

As soon as the President of the American 
Medical Association heard of his intended de- 



partiire,he sent him a commission as a Delegate 
to all the Medical Societies of Europe ; Drs. 
Gross, Pancoast and other prominent Ameri- 
can physicians gave him kind and most flatter- 
ing letters of introduction to the leading med- 
ical men in Europe ; and on the evening before 
he left Baltimore, a number of its first citizens 
tendered him a public dinner at Barnums' 
which was one of the most successful and bril- 
liant aiiairs of its kind that ever came off in 
that city. 

His career in Eg_ypt, though rendered brief 
by an attack of opthalmia, was signally brilliant^ 

Having been appointed Chief Surgeon of the 
General Staff, he soon had an opportunity of 
treatmg successfuU}' the Minister of War for 
strangulated hernia, who immediately officially 
requested the KhtJdive to h»nor Dr. WaiTen 
with the Decoration of the Medjdic and the 
title of Bey — which, when conferred, as it was 
in tills instance, by royal charter, ennol)les its 
possessor and his family; and in less than a 
year from his arrival in the country, he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the highest medical posi- 
tion known in the service of the Khedive, that 
of Surgeon in Chief of the Egyptian Army. 

The incident connected with his treatment 
of Kassim Pasha, who was the Minister of War, 
shows so well the moral force which enabled 
Dr. Warren to perform his duty in the face of 
discouraging circumstances, and serves to illus- 
trate in such an interesting way, certain phases 
of his life in Egypt, that it is given in full as 
related by the doctor. 

" Kassim Pasha was over 60 years old, and very fat, 
and had direct inguinal hernia, which the surgeons 
of Cairo failed to reduce after laboring over it three 
days. After he had been abandoned to die and the 
prepai'ations for his funeral were progressing, I was 
permitted to see the case. Finding that stcrcoraceous 
voniitiiig liad ^iist begun, and pcrsiuidcd I hat tlic pro- 
fciuiid depression which others niistiidk for tlie I'llects 
of till' lUscaso, was mainly due to the injections of an 
infusion of t()lia<c(> wliich they had employed to in- 
duce relaxation, I dcclaied the case not a hopelessone 
and undertook to treat it. Having stimulated the 
Pasha freely with brandy and water — wliicli the na- 
tives consider unholy treatment— I had the gratifica- 
tion of seeing some reaction established ; and deter- 

mined to administer chloroform, and either to reduce 
the tumor by taxis, or to perform herniotomy, if neces- 
sary. I found however, very great difHculty in getting 
any medical man to assist me. They all retired and 
said that they would have 'nothing to do with the 
murder of the Pasha.' The Harem, through its repre- 
sentative, the Chief Eunuch, declared that I should 
not proceed until the private physician of the Kliedive 
— a Frenchman — had given his consent. He was ac- 
cordingly sent for and asked what he thought of the 
measure which I proposed He replied that he be- 
lieved the Pasha would die inevitably, but he was in 
favor of permitting me to proceed, as every man was 
entitled to his chance. I tlien requested him to aid 
me to the extent of administering chloroform. This 
he agreed to do on condition that I would assume all 
the responsibility of the case, and give him time to 
dispatch a messenger to the Khedive, informing him 
upon what terras he had consented to aid me. In the 
presence of .ill the principal Pashas and Beys of the 
country, and the highest officials of the Court, the 
Minister was removed from his bed and placed upon 
a mattress in the middle of the room. None of the 
female portion of the household were present ; but 
they were represented by the Chief Eunuch, wlio stood 
at tlie feet of the invalid, slioiuing Allah ! Allah ! ! 
Allah ! ! ! whilst from tlie latticed H.arem in the rear 
there came continually that peculiar wail which seems 
to form the principal feature in the mourning 
of the East. With the exception of the French 
physician, above referred to, all the surgeons had 
deserted the chamber, and stood in the little gar- 
den outside of the house, some praying that the sick 
man might be saved, but the majority cursing the 
stranger who had the temerity to undertake that 
which they had pronounced impossible. 

" At this moment the Chief of the Staif took me 
.aside and said : 'Dr. Warren, consider well what you 
are undertaking; success means honor and fortune in 
this country, whilst /(li/i/rc means ruin to you and in- 
jury to those who are identilied with you. ' I replied: 
' 1 thank you for your caution ; but I was taught by 
my father to disregard all personal considerations in 
the practice of medicine and to think only of the in- 
terests of my patients. I sliall therefore do what my 
profes.sional duty recxuires tor tlie sick man and let 
the consequences take care of themselves.' Having 
made all the preperations necessary to perform /icch;'- 
otomy, should that operation become necessary, I 
boldiv administered chloroform, although the patient 
was still in a state of great depression. To my delight 
anfethesia was |)rompti.v developed, while the circula- 
tion improved with every inspiration — just as I have 
seen it improve in some cases of shock upon the battle- 
field. Confiding then the administration of the chlo- 
roform to the French physician, above referred to, I 
proceeded to examine the tumor and attempt its re- 
duction. I found an immense hydrocele and by the 
side of it a hernia of no unusual dimensions — which by 
rather a forcible maniiiulation I completely reduced, 
after a few moments of effort. By this time tlie sur- 
geons, unable to restrain their curiosity, had entered 
the room and crowded around me, anxiously awaiting 
the failnri' wliicli tliey liad so blatantly predicted. 
Turning to Meliemet-Ali-liey— the Profe.s8or of Sur- 
gery in the Medical School of Cairo — I said to him: 
' The hernia is reduced, as you can see by pushing 
your linger into the external ring.' ' Excuse me,' said 
lie, in the most supercilious manner, 'you have under- 
taken to cure Kassim Pasha and 1 can give you no 
help in the matter.' My French friend imraediatelv 
introduced his finger into the ring and said: 'Gentle- 
men, he needs no help from anyone; the hernia is re- 
duced and the Pasha is saved.' The doctors slunk 
away utterly discomtitted ; the Eunuchs, Pashas, Beys, 



ami officers uttered loml cries of 'Ilanulallali ! Ilani- 
dallali ! I Kismet ! Kismet ! ! Kismet ! ! ! ' (Tliaiik 
God ! Thank God ! ! It is fate ! It it fate ! ! ) and tlio 
Harem in tlio rear, calchinj; tlic ins|»ir;\tiiin of tlin 
scene, sent np a slioiit ofjoy wliidi smiiiili'il like tlie 
war-liooji of a wliole trtir of Indians. In a moment I 
was Seized Uy tlie Chief Kiinurh, einhiaced in the most 
impressive manner and kissed n|>(in eitiuM elieek — an 
example which was immediately f^'llowed by a num- 
ber ol those i)r<sent ;— and 1 fiiiind myself "suddoidy 
the most famoMs man in theconiilry. Tho I'asha at 
once liad a letter addressed to the Ivhedivo narratins 
wliat I had done for him, and askinjr that [ mi^lit bo 
decorated and made a Bey. His llijrhness sent for me, 
thaidced me warmly for having saved the life of his 
favorite Minister, and said h(> was happy to honorouo 
■wlio had done so well for him ; the Ilarem of the pa- 
tient presented me with a beautifnl gold waleh and 
eiiain ; my house was thronged afterwards with the 
hipliest dignitaries of the ''(Mintiy who came to thank 
and congratulate me ; and I immediately secured an 
immense practice among the natives — including nearly 
every incurable case iu Cairo. 

Tho spectacle of a stranger in a strange land 
without support, undertaking duties which had 
deeu declined by others, and boldly pushing 
forward, in spite of the jealous mutterings 
which fell upon his ears, has something of true 
sublimity in it, and should make us appreciate 
the benignant nature of that moral and ethical 
code under whose guidance the subject of our 
sketch acquired that devotion to duty which 
enabled him to dare and do. For, behold the 
alternative, which, surely, he must have recog- 
nised :-had he failed, and had the Pasha died, 
his audacity would have wrought his ruin, 
and he would have been driven from the land 
in disgrace. 

As it was, however this signal triumph re- 
sulted in Dr. Warren being made the "Chief 
Surgeon of the Egyptian Army." Colonel 
William McE. C. Dye-formely an officer in the 
United States Army and late a Colonel of the 
Egyptian Staff- in his interesting book qi\- 
tiileA.," Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia," 
refers iu the following terms to Dr. Warren's 
career in Egypt: "Dr. Edward Warren, Chief 
Surgeon of the Staft", by performing a surgical 
operation on the Minister of War for a com- 
plaint that had baffled the skill and courage of 
the other Cairo surgeons, and by his energy 
m the erection of hospitals and his faithful 

discharge of other duties, established a repu- 
tation which soon lifted him into place as Sur- 
geon-in-Chief of the Army;" and the London 
Lnnccl chronicled his success and advancement 
in these terms: "vVo understand that M. Ed- 
ward Warren of Cairo lias been promoted by 
his Highness tho Kliedive of Egypt to the po- 
sition of Chief Surgeon of the Egyptian Army. 
Mr. Warren's promotion in the East has been 
exceptionally rapid." 

In 1876, having obtained a furlough for six 
months, he visited Paris for the purpose of se- 
curing proper troitraont for his eyes, and, oa 
being informed by tho leading occulists that a 
longer residence in Egypt would involve tho 
loss of his left eye, he obtained an honorable 
discharge from the service of the Khedive 
who, in view of the services which Dr. War- 
ren had rendered in Egypt, treated him with 
great consideration and kindness. 

Through the influence of his own well-es- 
tablished reputation, aided by the cordial en- 
dorsement of his friends, Drs. Charcot and 
Ricord, of Paris ; Sir James Paget, Alfred, 
Swain Taylor, and Dr. Stevenson, of London ; 
Drs. Fordyce Barker and J. J. Crane, of New 
York; Professors Gross and Pancoast, of Phil- 
adelphia, he was soon able to commence the 
practice of medicine in Paris as a Licentiate of 
the University of France, a very great compli- 
ment in itself, and one rarely paid to a for- 

Dr. Warren's success in Paris has been ex- 
ceptionally rapid and brilliant. Practice and 
honors have flowed in an unbroken stream 
upon him. Foreigners of all nationlaities and 
of the highest titles have been as ready to 
avail themselves of his professional skill as 
have been his fellow-countrymen. The Lon- 
don Lancet promptly secured him as its "Spe- 
cial Correspondent." The Ottoman Govern- 
ment confided to him the delicate task of se- 
lecting surgeons and raising contributions for 



the wounded in tlie recent wnrwitli Russia. Tic 
received a special invitation to participate in 
the International Medical Congress which re- 
cently asserahled in Philadelphia,heing the only 
American residing ahroad who was thus hon- 
» ored. The College of Physcians and Sui-gcuns 
of Baltimore made him a Muster of Sdn/ci'i/ at 
a late commencement. The Governor of North 
Carolina made him a 'Special Commissioner" 
to the Paris Exposition ; while the Commis- 
sioner-General of the United States appointed 
him the Medical Officer of his Commission, 
jind the French Government awarded him a 
"medal of merit" for the services which he 
rendered in these regards. The Spanish Gov- 
crment, in 1877, created him a Knight of the 
Order of Isahella the Catholic, as a reward for 
tlie professional skill displayed in the success- 
ful treatment of a Spaniard of high jiosition. 
The French Government, in 1879, created him 
a Chevalier of the National Order of the Le. 
gion of Honor, as a special mark of distinction 
for his professional devotion and work in 
France. The Egyptian Government, in 1882^ 
made him a "Commander of the Imperial 
Order of the Osmanlie," for "valuable and 
important services rendered in Egypt and for 
great Medical skill displayed in Paris." He 
has recently been made an Officer of the Order 
of the redemption of the Holy Sepulchre, an 
Officer of the Ro^-al Order of the Samaritan of 
Geneva— all as rewards for professional services 
and successes. He was also selected by the 
American Medical Association as one of its 
delegates to the International Medical Con- 
gress which recently assembled in London and 
lias been made a member of the Historical So- 
ciety of Virginia and of the American Insti- 
tute of Christian Philosophj-, respectively, and 
the University of North Carolina at the last 
Commencement, conferred upon him the title 
of Doctor of Laws (LL. D.) 

The following letter announces the accession 
of this honor. 

Univkrsity of Nokth Carolina, 

Chapel Hill, N. C, June •20th 1884. 
Dr. Edwaui) Wakrkn (Bev). 

Sir: — In lecoffuitiou of your distinguished ability 
and learniufr, and .^^ervices to humanity, tlie Board of 
Trustet's and the Faculty of the University of North 
Carolina have unanimously conferred on you the hon- 
orary detrree ot Doctor of Laws. [LL. D,] 

They liojje that you will accept this evidence of the 
regard of the University of your native State. 
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant. 


Wliile space does not [lermit the publication 
ill this connection of the ninltitndinons essays, 
reports, lectures, letters, addresses, etc., which 
have emanated from his proline pen and ac- 
ti\e brain, enough has been said of Dr. War- 
ren to justify thestatement with which a distin- 
guished American surgeon (Professor S. D. 
(Tross, of Philadelphia) concludes a letter in 
regard to liim--viz. : "from these facts it is 
plain that he (Dr. Warren) has performed a 
great deal of work, that he is a man of indom- 
itable energy; that he po.ssesses great and varied 
talents; and that he has enjoyed a large share 
of professional and public confidence." Surely, 
no North Carolinian has had a more brilliant 
and remarkable record, or one which the State 
has a greater right to regard with pride -and 

Dr. Warren's general culture and his great 
literary ability are widely known. His prose 
writings are lucid and chaste, though suf- 
ficiently ornate to be very attractive. His far- 
flights into the domain of poesy attest a rich 
imagination, and considerable knowledge of 
rh^'thiu and versification. 

In politics the Warren family were old line 
Whigs, and the Doctor's affiliation brought 
him into intimate relations with North Caro- 
lina's great war Governor, Zebulon B. Vance, 
which time has only served to ripen into an 
afl'ectiouate and endm'ing friendship. 






Genealogy of the Blount Family. 

The late Gov. Henrj^ T. Clark considered 
this the oldest ofNorth Carolina families. No 
family, he believed, whose name is still extant 
as a family-name in North Carolina, came into 
the Province so early as James Blount, who 
settled in Chowan in 1669. This James 
Blount is said to have been a younger son of 
Sir Walter Blount, of Sodington, Worcester- 
shire, England, and a Captain m Charles I's 
Life Guards. His Coat of Arms engraved on 
a copper plate, which he brought with him, 
was in the possession of his descendants until 
about the year 1840, when it was destroyed 
by its possessor, the late James B. She'pard of 
Raleigh. A cut of it is given above, taken 
from an impression of the original plate. 

For convenience, the family may be divided 
into two branches; the descendants of James, 
the Chowan Blounts, and the descendants of 
his younger brother who settled about Choc- 
owinity in Beaufort County, the Taw River 

"To be read iu counectiou with pages 130-133. 

Blounts. The latter is much the more numer- 
ous branch of the family, and has become too 
extensively spread throughout the Southern 
and South-Western States, to be fully traced 
here. This brief genealogy is complied chief- 
ly from the family Bible of the Edenton fam- 
ily of Blounts. and from a Manuscript l)y the 
late Thomas H. Blount of Beaufort, and is a.s 
accurate as such accounts can ordinarily be 


James Blount, who settled in Chowan in 
1(»69, on a tract of land which remained in 
the possession of liis descendants until the 
death of Clement Hall Blount in 1842, was a 
man of some prominence in his day. He is 
spoken of in contemporary documents as a 
member of the Governor's Council, as one of 
the Burgesses of Chowan, and as a leading 
character in the infant and very disorderU' 
Colony. He left one son, .lohn. 

This John Blount (I) born 1669: died 1725, 



left ten children, six daughters and four sons. 
Three of the daughters married and left de- 
scendants in Hyde County and about Roanoke 
Island. They are the Worleys, Midgets and 
Manns.' The sons were— 

I. .John (II) born 170G, married and left 
three sons and two daughters: 

(a) James Blount, who married Ann Hall and 
and left three children: Clement Hall Blount 
(died unmarried in 1842) ; Sarah, left no issue; 
and Frederick Blount, his eldest sou who nuir- 
ricd Rachel Bryan, (nee Herritage) and left 
among others, Frederick S. Blount, who moved 
to Alabama and became the father ^ of a large 
family, Alexander Clement Blount, and 
Herritage Wistar Blount of Lenoir County. 

(b) Wilson Blount. 

(c) Fredrick Blount, whose daughter Mary 
(died 1856) married Wm. Shepard of New 
Berne and bore him Wm. B., Charles B., and 
James B. Shepard, Mrs. John H. Bryan, of 
Raleigh, Mrs. Ebeuezer Pettigrew, and several 

(d)Eiizabeth, married J. B. Beasley. 

(e) Mary married Rev. Charles Pettigrew 
1st Bishop (elect) of N. C. and left two 
sons, one of whom, Ebeuezer became a mem- 
ber of Congress; married Ann Shepard of 
New Berne, and left several children: the Rev. 
William S. Pettigrew, General James John- 
ston Pettigrew, Charles L. Pettigrew and two 

n. Thomas born 1709, left one daughter 
Winifred, who married Hon. Whitmel Hill 
of Martin. Among their numerous descendants 
are Thomas Blount Hill Esq. of Hillsboro' and 
the family of the late Whitmel J. Hill of Scot- 
land Neck. 

III. James, born 1710, left two daughters; 
(a) Nancy married Dempsey Connor (son of 
Dempsey Connor and Mary Pendleton, great- 
granddaughter of Governor Archdale) and left 

one daughter Frances Clark Pollock Connor, 
married 1st, Joseph Blount (III) and 2nd, 
Wm. Hill, late Secretary of State of North 
Carolina; and (b) Betsy who was married to 
Jeremiah Vail. 

IV. Joseph (I) born 1715, died 1777, who 
married Ist, Sarah Durant, born 1718, died 
1751, (a descendant of George Uurant, the first 
known English settler in N. C.) and left only 
one child Sarah, (born 1747, died 1807,) who 
married in 1771, William Littlejohn,by whom 
she became the mother of a large family, well 
known in this and other Southern States. Alter 
the death of his fi rst wi fe, Joseph B loun t ( I) mar- 
ried, (1752) Elizabeth Scarboro, by whom he 
had(be8idesone son, Leauiel Edwards, drowned 
at sea in 1778) one son: 

Joseph Blount (II) born 1755, died 1794, 
who married Ist, (1775) Lydia Bonner, and 
left two children: 

(a) John Bonner Blount, l)orn 1777, married 
Mary Mutter: they wei'C the parents of Thomas 
M. Blount, late of Washington city (whose son, 
Maj. Thomas M. Blount was Icilled at Malvern 
Hill), of Mrs. Thomas H. Blount, Mrs. Henry 
Hoyt and Mrs. James Treadwell of Washing- 
ton N. C. "and of Mrs. Henry M. Daniel, of 
Tenn. His sons Joseph and John died with- 
out issue. 

(b) Mary born 1779, married William T. 
.\luse,and had two sons, (I) William T.Muse, late 
of the U. S. and C. S. Navy, who mar- 
ried and left issue; (2) John B. .Mviso,died un- 

For a second wife Joseph Blount (H) m 
1782, married Ann Gray(boni 1757, died 1814,) 
daughter of Wm. Gray of Bertie, and left issue. 

(c) Joseph Blount (III) born 1785, died 
1822, who married (1808) Frances Clark Pol- 
lock Connor, and left one son Josei)h Blount 
(IV) who died unmarried. 

(d) Frances Lee married Henderson Stamlin. 
left one son, William II. Standin. 



(o) Sarah Elizalietli married Tlioinas Mor- 
gan but left no issiK>. 

(f) Klizabeth Ann, (horn 1790, died 1861),) 
iiiaiiied in (181:2) John Cheshire (horn 17(19, 
died 1830,) and left issue the IJev. .loseph 
Blount Chesiiire, 1). D., Mrs.E. I). .\huuair,of 
Tawboro, and Mrs. .fames Webl) of Iliilsboro. 

(iC) Eleanor Gray, married John Cox, loft 

IV. Thomas Blount,born 1759, died 1812;-^ 

V. Jacob Blount, born 1760, died . 

By his wife, Hannah SaltHjr, he left: 

VI. Willie Blount, born l7l>4L died 1835. 

VII. Sharp Blount, boiii 177l/>T«d 1810. 
Of these William, .lohn Gray/ 

Thomas and Willie became prominent and dis- 
tinguished men; among the most eminent in 

one daughter, Ann B. P., married Willie J. North Carolina and Tennessee for their high 

talents, public spirit, enterprise and wealth. 
Their marriages and descendants were as fol- 

Epps of Halifax. 


A younger brother of James Blount of Cho- 
wan, is thought to have settled on Taw or 
Pamplico River about 167.3. He left six sous 

I. William Blount, (born 1749, died 1800,) a 
Member of Congress in 1782 and 1786: of the 

Thomas, John, .James, Benjamin, Jacob and Constitutional Convention of 1787, was de- 
Esau, the last two being twins. The Tusca- Seated for the U. S. Senate by Benjamin 
rora Chief, King Blount, a valualde allv of the Hawkins, on the adoption of the Federal Con- 
whites in the Indian war of 1711, is said to stitution in 1789; appointed by Washington in 
have assumed that name from his attachment l'''^'^ Governor of the Territory south of the 
to one of these brothers. Nothing is known Ohio; removed to Tennessee and founded 
definitely of the deseer.dants of any of the six ^lie city of Knoxville ;wa8 elK)sen one of the iirst 
except the eldest, Thomas. Senators from Tennessee. In 1797, he was ex- 

This Thomas Bloimt married Ann Reading pelled by a vote of the Senate,and subsequently 
and left four sons, Reading, James, John and in>peached by the House of Representatives, 
Jacob. All of these left families, and from ^o'' alleged treasonable practices in endeavor- 
*hem are descended, no doubt, many persons of i"g to incite the Indian tribes on our South- 
this name in Beaufort and the adjacent Count- western frontier to hostilities against Spain, 
ies ; l)Ut we can trace the descendants of the The articles of impeachment were after ai-gu- 
pist named only. ment rpiashed in the Senate. On his return 

Jacob Blount (l)orn 1726, died 1789) was to Knoxville the Speaker of the State Senate 
an officer under Gov. Tryon in the battle of resigned, and William Blount was unani- 
Alamance; a member of the Assembly fre- mously chosen by the people to succeed him 
quently, and of the Halifax Congress of 1776; '" ^'^6* Senate, and by that body to succeed 
married 1st, (1748) Barbara Gray, of Bertie, him in the Chair, as an expression of popular 
sister to William Gray, mentioned in the ge- confidence and affection. His death early in 
nealogy of the Chowan Blounts; 2nd, Mrs. the year 1800, alone prevented him from 
Hannah; Baker (nee Salter); 3rd, Mrs. Marv l>eing elected Governor of Tennessee. He mar- 
Adams. By his last wife he had no children; "®*1 (1778) Mary Grainger, daughter of Col. 
by his wife, Barbara Gray, he left among Caleb Grainger, of Wilmington, and left issue: 
others — I. Ann married 1st, Henry I. Toole (II) of 

I. William Blount, born 1749, died 1800. Edgecombe, to whom she l)ore Henry I. Toole 

II. John Gray Blount, born 1752, died 1833. (Ill), and Mary Eliza, married Dr. Joseph 

III. Reading Blount, born 1757, died 1807. Lawrence: she married 2nd, Weeks Hadley,of 


Edgecombe, by whom she liacl several child- 

■2. Mary Louisa, married (1801) Pleasant M. 
Miller and left a large family; one of her 
daughters, Barbara, married Hon.Wm. H. Ste- 
phens, late of Memphis, now of Los Angelos, 

3. William Grainger Blount, member of 
Congress from Tennessee; he died unmarried 
in 1827. 

4. Richard Blackledge Blount, married and 
left I'hildren in Tennessee. 

5. Barbara married Geii. E. P. Gaines, left 
one son, Edmund Gaines of Washington city, 
D. C. 

6. Eliza married Dr. Edwin Wiatt and left 
two sons and one daughter. 

II. John Gray Blount (I), born 1752, died 
1833, in his youth a companion of Daniel Boone 
in the early explorations of Kentucky, but set- 
tled permanently in Washington, N". C. He 
was frequently a member of the Assembly, and 
though not ambitious of political office, prob- 
ably the most influential man in his section of 
the State. He is said to have been the largest 
land-owner in North Carolina. He married 
(1778), Mary Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles 
Harvey of Perquimans, and left issue: 

1. Thomas Harvey Blount, (born 1781, died 
1850,) who married 1st: (1810) Ellen Brown, 
by whom he liad no children, 2nd, (1827) 
Elizabeth M. daughter of Jno. Bonner Blount, 
of Edenton, and left issue, three sons and 
three daughters: Elizaiielh M. (Geer), Polly 
Ann (Hatton), John Gray Blount (III), Mary 
Bonner (Willard), Thomas Harvey Blount 
and Dr. Wm. Augustus Blount. 

2. John Gray Blount (II), born 1785, died 
1828, married Sally lla^'wood but left no 

3. Polly Ann, (born 1787, died 1821,) mar- 
ried Wm. Rodman and left issue: William 
Blount Rodman, late a Judge of the Supreme 

Court of North Carolina, Mary Marcia Blount, 
and Mary Olivia Blount who married J. G. B. 

4. William Augustus Blount, married 1st 
Nancy Haywood and 2nd Nancy Littlejohn: 
For him and his family see post, page 11, 
under Beaufort County. 

5. Lucy Olivia (born 1799, died 18-54,) mar- 
ried Bryan Grimes, and left, issue: Mary, 
Annie, Olivia, and John Gray Blount Grimes. 

i-i Patsy Baker, born 1802, still living unmar- 

III. Reading Blount, (born 1757, died 
1807,) a Major in the Revolutionary War; 
married Lucy Harvey, daughter of Col. Miles 
Harvey, and left five children: 

1. Polly who married John Myers and left 
a large family in Washington, N. C. 

2. Louisa, married Jos. W. Worthington, of 

3. Willie Blount, married Delia Blakemore 
of Tennessee. 

4. Caroline Jones, married Benjamin Run- 

5. Reading Blount, married Polly Ann 
Clark, and left one son, Reading Blount. 

IV. Thomas Blount (born 1759, died 
1812), an officer of distinction in the Revolu- 
tion, Major in Col. Buncombe's Regiment. Set- 
tled at Tawboro; was frequently a member of 
the Assembly from Edgecombe; a member of 
Congress for several sessions, and died in 
Washington City in 1812. He married .1st 
Patsy Baker; ^nd Jacky Sumner (afterwards 
known as Mrs. Mary Sumner Blount) daughter 
of Gen. Jethro Sumner of Warren. He had 
no children by either marriage. 

V. Jacob Blount, (born 1760 died ,) 

married 1st (1789) Ann Collins, daughter of 
Josiah Collins of Edenton, by whom he had 
two daughters, (a) Ann; and (b) Elizabeth, who 
married Jno. W. Littlejohn, of Edenton. He 
afterwards married Mrs, Augustus Harvey; 


liut liiul 11(1 cliildreii by the second niarriage. 

VL Willie Blount (born 1768: died 1835); 
went to Tennessee in 1790 as private Secre 
tarj to his eldest brother Gov. William Blount ; 
was elected Judge of the Supreme Court in 
1796; Governor from 1809 to 1815. He raised 
on his private credit the money with which to 
equip the three Tennessee regiments sent 
under Andrew .lackson to the defense of New 
Orleans during the war of 1812. In recog- 
nition of his eminent public services, the 
State of Tennessee in 1877 erected a mon- 
ument to his memory in Clarksville, Ten- 
nessee, lie married Lucinda Baker, and left 
two daughters, Mrs. Dabney and Mrs. Ddrtch, 
of Tennessee. For his second wife he mar- 
ried the widow of Judge Hugh Lawson 

VIL Sharp Blount (born 1771; died 1810,) 
married Penelope Little, daughter of Col. 
Geoi-ge Little of Hertford, and left three sons. 
(a) William Little Blount, (b) Jacob Blount, 

(c) George Little Blount. The first two died 
without issue. George Little Blount married 
a Miss Cannon of Pitt, and resided at Blount 
Hall in Pitt County, the seat of his grand- 
father Jacob Blount. 

It has been impossible to give moi'e than a 
summary of the genealogy of this extensive 
family. It is hoped that the above is sutH- 
cient to enable any one to trace the t'onnec- 
tioiis of its principal branches. 

It may ])e added that WiHiaiu and Willie 
Blount were both, in all probaliility, born 
at Blount Hall in Pitt County, and not in Ber- 
tie, as is sometimes stated, and as is inscribed 
on the monument ei-ectedliy the State of Ten- 
nessee to the memory of the latter. There is 
no reason to suppose that their father, Jacob 
Blount, ever lived in Bertie. Also the story 
of the absurd mscription on the stone on Mrs. 
Mary Sumner Blount's grave in Tawboro, is 
entirely untrue. 

Genealogy of the Barringer Family. 

John Paul Barringer, born in German}- 1721, 
came to America 1743; settled in Pennsylva- 
nia, where he married { 1 ) Ann Elizabeth Tseman 
called Ain lis; came to Mecklenburg Co. N. C. 
about 1746, and there married (2) Catherine 
Blackwelder. He died in 1807. 

Issue: I. Catherine married Ist to John Phifer, 
one of the signers of (20ch of May 1775) Dec- 
laration of Independence: Issue (a) Paul, who 
married Jane Alexander and had George, Mar- 
tin, John N., Nelson and Caleb; (b) Margaret 
married to John Simianer; she (Catherine) 
married a second time to George Savage and 
had (a) Catherine, who married Noah Partee, 
and Mary, who married Richard Harris. 

II. John (Mt. Pleasant family.) 

IIL Paul, born 1778, died 1844; married Eliz 
abeth Brandon, born 1783, died 1844; issue: 
(a) Daniel Moreau, born 1806, died 1873; in 
legislature 1829 to '34; '39, '54; Member of 
Congress 1843 to 1849; IT. S. Envoy to Spain, 
1849; in Peace Congress of 1861; married Kliz- 
abeth Withered, of Baltimore, and had(l)Lew- 
iu, born 1850; University of Virginia; married 
Miss Miles; (2) Daniel .\I., born I860; (b) .Mar- 
garet, married 1st to John Boyd; 2nd to An- 
drew Grier ; ( c ) Paul, married Carson ; ( d ) Mary, 
married C. W. Harris; (e) Matthew; (f) Wil- 
liam, married Alston, and had John. Paul. Wil- 
liam, Charles, Victor and Ella; (g) Elizabeth, 



married Edwin R.Harris; (h) Alfred; (i) Rufus, 
Brig. Gen. C. S. A., married 1st Eugenia Mor- 
rison, and Iiad Anna and l^aul; 2nd, Rosalie 
Chunn, and had Rufus; 3rd, Margaret Long, 
and had Osmond ; (k) Catherine, married Gen. 
W". C. Means. Issue: Paul, Robert, James, 
William, Bettie, George and A^ictor; (1) A^ic- 
tor, legislature of I860; Judge of International 
Court in Egypt; married Maria Massie. 

IV.Mattliias; V. Martin; VI. Elizabeth, mar- 
ried to 1st, George Pitts; 2nd, to John Boon, 

of Guilford; VII. Sarah, married to .Jacob 
Brem, of Lincolnton; A^III. Esther, married to 
Thomas ("'larke, of Tennessee; IX. Daniel L. 
Barringer, born 1788; died 18.52; legislature 
1813-'19-'23; in Congre.s8 1826 to 1835; mar- 

ried Miss White, granddaughter of 

Governor Caswell; removed to Tennessee, and 
was Speaker of the House; X. Jacob, married 
Mary Ury; XL Leah, married 1st David Hol- 
ton, 2nd Jacob Smith; XII. Marv, married to 
Wesley Harris, of Tennessee. 

Genealogy of the Clark Family. 

Christopher Clark, a sea-captain, and mer- 
chant in Edenton, came from North of England 
about 1760. After sonic years removed to Ber- 
tie County, near the niontli of Salmon Creek. 

He nuxrried 1st, Elizaltetli , by whom 

he had Elizabeth, Mary and Sarah. 

I. Elizabeth C'iark married Judge Blake Ba- 
ker, of Tarboi'o', and left no issue. 

If. Mary Clark married George West; liorn 
1758, died 1810, and left issue: [a] Robert 
West, who married Ann Dortcli, liy wliom he 
had Isaac D., Rol)ert, George Clark. Martha, 
married W. B. Johnson; Mary, married Chas. 
Minor; Arabella, married Q. C. Atkinson; Ann; 
Laura, married Robert McClure; Elizabeth and 

[b] Mary West, married Judge P. W. Hum- 
phrey, and left Judge West II. Humphrey, 
married Pillow; Elizabeth, married Baylis; 
Georgianna, nuirried Powell; Charles and 

[c] George West married Ann Lytle, and 
left Robert, George, Ann, married Gillespie. 

ni. Sarah Clark married William Clements, 
and left: 

[a] Sarah; [b] Arabella, married C. Bay- 
lis; [c] Mary, married R. Collier; [d] Dr. 
Christopher C; [e] John II., and [f] Robert W. 

After the death of his tirst wife, Christopher 
Clark married about 1778 or 1779, Hannah Tur- 
ner, of Bertie, daughter of Thomas Turner, and 

IV. James West Clark, born 1769, died 1845, 
who married Arabella E. Toole, born 1781, died 
1860, daughter of Henry I. Toole, of Edge- 
combe, and left issue: 

[a] Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died 1874, 
University of North Carolina, 1826; North Car- 
olina Senate, 1859-'60 ; Governor, 1861 ; he mar- 
ried, 1850, .Mrs. Mary Weeks Hargrove [ncc 
Parker] daughter of Theophilus Parker, of Tar- 
boro', and left the following children: Laura 
P., Haywood, Henry Irwin, Maria T. and Ara- 
bella T. 

[b] Maria Toole, born 1813, died 1859; mar- 
ried, 1852, Matt. Waddell; left no issue. 

[c] Laura Placidia, born 1816, died 1864; 
married, 1832, John W. Gotten, and left Mar- 
garet E., married -T. A. Englehard; Araliella 
C, married Wm. I). Barnes; Florida, married 
Wm. L. Saunders, and John AV., married Eliz- 
abeth Frick. 

[d] Mai'y Sumner, born 1817, married Dr. 
Wm. George Thomas, and have issue: George 
G., Arabella and Jordan T. 




Genealogy of the Haywood Family 

Joliii Ilaywodd, the fouiider of the family 
ill North Carolina, was bmn in Christ Church 
Parish, near 8t. Michael's, in the Island of 
Barbadoes. He was the son of John Haywood, 
a younger brother of Sir ITeniy Haywood a 
Kniglit and magistrate in the old country and 
must liave been a man of some note as Evelyn 
in his iMemoirs speaks of having met him at 
court and was not favorably impressed with 
his arrogant manner. He settled in 1730 at 
the mouth of Coneeanarie in Halifax, then a 
part of the great county of Edgecombe. He 
was Treasurer of the nortliern counties of the 
Province from 17;i2, until his death in 1758. 

He married .Mary Lo vet t, by whom he had 
six children. 

I. Elizabeth married .Jesse Hare, she died in 
1774 and had issue: [a] Ann married Isaac 
Croom and his son Isaac married Sarah Pear- 
son; [b] .Mary married, first Richard Croom 
and second to Hicks. 

II. Mary Haywood nuu'ried to tlie Kev. 
Thomas Burgess, 17G1, whose son Lovett, mar- 
ried first Elizabeth Irwin, sec(md l^riscilla Mon- 
nie, third Mrs. Black; to tlie last named 
were born [a] Maiy married to Alston, 1824, 
[!)] Elizabth married, 1.S12, to Alston, of Bed- 
ford county, "S'irginia; [c] Melissa married to 
(Jen. William Williams, whose daughter, Me- 
lissa, married to Col. Joseph John Long and 
their daughter, Ellen married to Gen. Junius 
Daniel, who was killed at Chancellorsville; — 
[d] John married Martha Alston and [e] 

Thomas, a distinguished lawyei' in Halifax, 
wlio left no i.ssue. 

III. Deborah married to .John Hardy but 
liad no issue. 

IV. Col. William Haywood, of Edgecombe, 
married Charity Hare; he died in 1779, and 
had ten children. [1] Jemima, married to 
John Whitfield of Lenoir, died 1837, with 
following issue; [a] William II. twice married 
and left seven children; [b] Constantine, left 
five children; [c] Sherwood, unmarried; [d] 
John Walter, left three children; [e] Jemima, 
left six children, married first to Middleton, 
second to Willams; [f] Mary Ruft'in; [g] Kiz- 
iah Arabella, had three children; [b] Racliel 
Daniel, married John Jones and had five chil- 
dren; [i] George Washington, not married. 

[2] John Haywood, State Treasurer for forty 
years; married 1st Sarali Leigh, and 2nd Eliza, 
daughter of John Pugh Williams and had issue; 
by last marriage [a] John, unmarried; [b] Geo. 
Washington, unmarried; [c] Thomas Burgess, 
unmarried, [d] Dr .fabius Julius, mari'ied Mar- 
tha Whitaker by whom he had issue; Fabius J., 
John Pugh, Joseph and Mary, married to Judge 
Daniel G. Fowle; [e] Eliza Eagles, unmarried, 
[f] Rebecca married to Alljert G. Hall, of 
Xew Hanover County; [g] Frances, unniar- 
ried; [h] Edmund Burke, who niai'ried Lucy 
Williams, and had issue; E l>urke, Alfred, 
Dr. Hubert, Ernest, Edgar, and Eliza 
Eagles, married to Preston Bridgers. [3] Ann, 
born 17G0, died 1842; married to Dr. Robert 



Williams, Burgeon iu tbe Continental Army, 
and bad issue; [a] Eliza, married to Rev. John 
Singletary, issue; three sons: Col. George B. 
killed in batMe, Col. Richard, and Col. Thomas. 
[b] Dr. Robert Williams jr., who left issue; 
[4] Chanty married to Col. Lawrence of Ala- 
bama and had three children; [5] Mary mar- 
ried to Etheldred RutRn, and had issue; [a] 
Sarah, married to Dr. Henry Haywood; [b] 
Henry J. G. Ruffin who married Miss Tart and 
was the father of Col. Sam. and also of Col. 
Thomas Ruffin, who fell at Hamilton Crossing, 
in Virginia. 

[(j] Sherwood, born 1762, died 1829; mar- 
ried Eleanor Hawkins, Ijorn in 177(J, died in 
1855, issue; [a] Ann, who married Wm. A 
Blount; their issue were Major Wm. A. Blount 
jr. of Raleigh and Ann, widow of Gen. L. 0' 
B. Branch, to the last named were born Susan 
0' Bryan, married to Robert H. Jones; Will- 
iam A. B.; Ann married to Armistead Jones; 
Josephine married to Kerr Craige of Salisbury, 
[b] Sarah married first to John Gray Blount, 
and second to Gavin Hogg, she left no issue; [c] 
Delia, married lirst to Gen. William Williams, 
and second to Hon. George E. Badger, issue 
to the first marriage Col. Joseph John Will- 
iams of Tallahassee, Florida, and to the second 
marriage: [1] Mary married to P. M. Hale; 
[2] George, fS] Major Richard Cogdell, [4] 
Thomas, [5] Sherwood, [6] Edward Stanley 
[7] Ann, married first to Bryan, second to 
Col. Paul Faison; [d] Dr. Rufus Haywood, died 
unmarried; [e] Lucy, married to John S. 
Bryan and had issue: [1] Mrs. Basil Manly, 
[2] Mrs. Thomas Badger, [3] Mrs. Wm. H. 
Young, and [4] John S. Bryan of Salisbury. 

[f] Francis P., married first Ann Farrall, 
second Mrs. Martha Austin, daughter of Col. 
Andrew Joyner of Halifax; 

[g] Robert W. married Mary White and 
left one child, Mary; 

[h] Maria T. unmarried. 

[i] Dr. Richard B., married Julia Hicks, 
issue: [1] Sherwood, [2] Graham, [3] Effie, 
married to Col. Carl A. Woodruff, U. S. A., 
[4] Lavinia, [5] Howard, [6] Marshall, [7] 
Eleanor, [8] Marian. 

[7J Elizabeth, born 1758, died 1832; married 
Henry Irwin Toole, [I] born 1750, died 1791, 
of Edgecombe, and left issue: Henry I. Toole 
[II] born 1778, died 1816; Arabella, born 1782, 
died 1860, and Mary, born 1787, died 1858. 

Henry I. Toole [II] married Ann Blount, 
daughter of Gov. Wm. Blount, of Tenn.; and 
left issue: [a] Henry I. Toole [HI] born 1810, 
died 1850; marrie.d Margaret Telfair ; [b] Mary 
Eliza, l)orn 1812, died ; married Dr. Jo- 
seph J. Lawrence, of Tawboro'. 

Arabella Toole, married to the Hon. James 
West Clark. For their descendants see the 
Clark Genealog}', page Ixii. 

Mary Toole, nuirried Theophilus Parker, born 
1775, died 1849, of Tawboro', and had issue: 
[a] the Rev. John Haywood Parker, born 1813, 
died "'858; [b] Catharine C, born 1817, mar- 
ried 1st John Ilargrave, 2nd Rev, Robert B. 
Drane, D. D.; [c] Elizabeth T., born 1820, mar- 
ried Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D. D.; [d] 
Mary W., born 1822, married 1st Frank liar- 
grave, 2nd Gov. Henry T. Clark; [e] Col. Fran- 
cis M. Parker, and [f] Araljella C. Parker. 

[8] Wm. Henry, born 1770,died 1857, mar- 
ried Anne Shepherd, issue; [1] Hon. Wm. II. 
Haywood, born 1801; U. S. Senator, who mar- 
ried Jane Graham, had issue: Wm. H. killed at 
the Wilderness, Duncan Cameron, killed at 
ColdHarbor; Edward G.; Minerva, married to 

Baker; Jane, married to Hon. Sion H. 

Rogers; Ann married to Samuel Ruffin; Mar- 
garet married to Cameron; Gertrude married 
to George Trapier; Elizabeth unmarried. [2] 
Charity, daughter of Wm. Henry Haywood 
married Governor Charles Manly, and left issue: 
Col. John IL, married Caroline Henry; Langdon 
C. ; Cora, married to Col. George B. Singletary; 



Helen married to John Oriines; Julia, married 
to Col. McDowell, who was killed in battle; 
Sophia married to Harding; Ida married to Dr 
Jos. Baker of Tarhoro, and Basil, commander 
of Manly's Battery, married Lucy Bryan. 

[9] Stephen born 177-2. died 1824, married, 
first MissLane 1798, by wiium he had Dr. John 
Leigh Haywood and Benjaman Franklin Tlay- 
wood; married second Delia Hawkins 1809, by 
whom he had Wm. Dallas,married Mary Cannon^ 
Margaret Craven married to George Little, Lu- 
einda, married to Sasser; and Sarah; and Phil- 
emon H. Haywood, U. S. Navy. 

[10] Elizabeth, married to Governor Dud- 
ley, died 1840, and had issue: Edward B.; Wra 
Henry, married Baker; Christopher; ElizaAnn, 
married toPurnell; Jane, married to Johnson, 
Margaret married Col. Mcllhenny. 

V. Sherwood [son of John Haywood of Con. 
ecanarie,] married Hannah Gra^' and had Adara 
John, who married his cousin, Sarah the daugh- 
ter of Egbert, issue: one daughtt"; Mai-garet, 
(died 1874,) who l)ecarae the wife of Hon. 
Louis D. Henry, horn 1788, died 1840^ and had 
Virginia, married to Col. Duncan K McRae ; Car- 
oline married to Col. John H. Manly; Augusta, 
wife of R. P. Waring; Margaret, married to Col. 
Ed. G. Haywood; Mary, married to Matt. P. 
Taylor; Malvina^to Douglas Bell, and Louis D.^ 
married Virginia Massenburg. 

Since the afore.sai<l sketch of the Haywood faiuily 
had been put in "forms," a note from Dr. E. Burke 
Haywood, of RalciKh, was receiveil, in which he col- 
lects the sketch in tliese paiticnlars: The cliildven of 
John Haywood, the founder of tiie family in North 
Carolina,' slionld be sketched in the followinfr order: 

I. William Haywood, of EdKec4)nil)e: II. Sherwood; 
III. Mary, wife of Rev. Thomas Buruess: IV. Eliza- 
betli. wife of Jesse Hare; V. Deahora; VI. Egbert. 
and VII. John, who died unmarried. 

VI. Egbert, the sixth child of John Hay- 
wood, died ISOl, married Sarah Ware and had 
issue: [aj Sarah, married Adam John Hay- 
wood, [b] .fohn, a Judge in North Carolina and 
in Tennessee, the historian, died in 1820; [c] 
Dr. Henry, who married Sarah Ruffin, [d] 
Mary married Robert Bell, and had [1] Mar- 
garet, married to Duffy, [2] Dr. E. If. Bell. 
[3] Col W. H. Bell, [4] Admiral Henry H. 
Bell U. S. Navy, [e] Betsy married to AVill- 
iam Shepperd and had issue: [1] Sarah married 
to Hon. Wm. B Grove of Fayetteville, a 
Member of Congress, 1791-1802; [4] Betsy 
married Col. Saml. Ashe, born 1763 died 1835, 
and to the last named were born Betsy, mar- 
ried to Owen Holmes; Mary Porter married to 
Dr. S. G. Moses of St. Louis; Hon* John B. 
Ashe, Member of Congress from Tennessee, 
married his cousin Eliza Hay, and moved to , 
Texas; Hon. Wm. S., married Sarah Ann 
Green; Thomas married Rosa Hill; Richard 
Porter of San Francisco, married Lina Loyal ; 
Susan married to her cousin David Grove; 
Sarah married Judge Samuel Hall of Georgia. 

[8] Susan Shepperd married David Hay; 

[4] Mary married Samuel P. Ashe of Halifax ; 

[5] Margaret married Dr. John Rogers; 

[G] William, [7] ?:gl)ert and [8] Henry. 

[See ante page :^3G.] 

VII. John, who died unmarried. 

The children of John Haywood, (State Treasurer for 
forty years, after wlioni Huywood County and the 
towii of Haywood were named,) the second child of 
William anil Charity Hare, should be named in the 
following order: „, , 

[a] Eliza Eades; [l.].Iohn Steele; Icl (George \\ ash ■ 
inglon; :dl FaUius Julius; [e] Alfred Moore; [H 'I'hos. 
Burgess; [g] Reliecca; [h] William D.ivie; ,il He.i.ia- 
niiu Rush; [k] Frances Ann; Ul Sarah Wool; [m] Ed- 
mund Burke. 



Genealogy of the Phifer Family. 

Tlie name PfeifFer is an old and honored 
one in G(*iinany. Very many of -the name 
have held high and honored positions in the 
management of the Civil and Military affairs 
o-tLthe Enqiire. A copy of the records of State, 
together with information sufKcient to estab- 
lish the identity of the American branch of the 
house has been elicited by a recent correspon. 
dence with branches of the family at Berne, 
Switzerland, and in Breslau, German}'. 

The two brothers, John and Martin PfeifFer 
who came to America, were descendants from 
the family of "Pfeiffers of PfeifJ'ersburgh." 

The rerords show the family to lie ''Pfeiffer 
of Pfeiffersburgh, knights of the order of 
Hereditary Austrian Knighthood; with armo- 
rial bearings as follows: Shield, lengthwise 
divi''ed; the right in silver, with a black, 
crowned Eagle looking to the right; the left 
in blue, from lower part of quarter ascending 
a white rock, with five summits, over the cen- 
ter one an eight-pointed star jiendant. (Schild 
der Lange getheilt; rechts in Silber ein 
rechtsselhender, gekronter, Schwarz Adler 
und links in Blau ein auc dem Feldesfusse 
aufsteigender, Weisser Fels niit funf Spitzen 
uber desen mittlerer ein achtstahliger, gold- 
ener Stern Schwebt.) They were desoeuded 

from Pfeiffer Von Heisselburgh. A diploma 
(patent,) of nobility was issued to .Martin 
Caspar Pfeiffer and Mathias Pfeiffer in 1590, 
with armorial bearings of Knights of Ileis- 
selburg order tif Nobility of the Empire. 
Johnu Baptist Pfeiffer Von Pfeiffcrsburg, 
Knight, -with avmorLu bearings as above stated 
was descendant of Knights of Heisselburgh and 
hereditary heir of Pfeiffersburgh; Achenranian 
Mining and Smelting works; with exclusive 
privilege granted by th'^ Crown, to trade in 
the "Brass of Achenrain and Copper of Schwatz. 
A diploma was issued to him May 10th, 17iil. 
He received an increase of arms on the 4th 
of March 1785, (right field and second helmet. ) 
The pedigree flourished, and a great-grand- 
son of Johnu Baptist Pfeiffer, Knight of Pfeiff- 
crsburg; Leopold Maria, Knight of Pfeiffers- 
burgh, born 1785,po.sses8or of llannsburg, coun- 
ty Ilallein. was matriculated into the nobility 
of the Kingdom of Bavaria after the invest- 
DLent of the same." 

" Caspar Pfeiffer Yon Pfeiffersburg, Knight, 
second brother to Jolinn Baptist Pfeiffer. 
Knight of Pfeiffersburg, possessor of Trecher- 
witz, County Oels, Gernumy, lived in the year 
1713 on his estates. In 1725 he pennanentlr 
located in Berne, Switzerland, and had con- 



trol of the sale of brass and copper from the 
Aeheiiraiiian mines, lie had two sons to come 
to America in the spring of the year 1737. 
Jolm Pfeiftcr and Martin Pfeiifer." 

.Martin Pfeitt'er carried on quite an extensive 
correspondence with his rehitives in Berne 
and in Germany. All these letters, together 
with an immense (puuitity of his son's( Martin 
Phifer Jr.) correspondence with the family 
in P)crnc and elsewhere; and all the records 
which Martin Pfeiffer and all his sons placed 
so much value upon and which had been so 
carefully preserved b}' the first mend)ors of the 
family, seem to have fallen into disfavor with 
John Phifer (born 177i>.) They were packed 
away in truidcs and kept up in the garret at 
the " Black Jacks. " 

All the mendjers of the f inily had spoken 
German np to the time of John Phifer (1779.) 
He never spoke German to any of his children. 
It was with him the change in spelling the 
name to Phifer occurred. 

The papers were consequently unknown to 
any of the various children who, when at play 
in the large old garret, saw- them. These pa- 
pers were all destroyed bj' the burning of 
George Locke Phifer's house. 

An Old gold watch set around with diamonds, 
and thought to bear the arms of the family, 
together with various old trinkets, were also 

The sketch of this family is writtsn from 
knowledge communicated by different mem- 
bers of the famil}-. 

The will of Martin Pfeiifer, sr., was kept until 
the year 1865, when it was lost. Some of the Bi- 
bles of the family have also been lost. The pres- 
ent history however is accurate and can be relied 
upon in every respect. The information in 
regard to tlie family in Germany lias lieen oli- 
tained by recent correspondence with a branch 
of the famih' in Berne,Switzerland and in Bres- 
lau, Germany. Great pains have been taken 

that every thing should be exact, and in many 
instances, the preparation of this paper has 
been delayed for months tliat a date should be 
correct. To the sketch of the life of John Phi- 
fer, the first son of Martin Pfeifter, sr., a great 
deal of valuable aid was afforded by >.!r. Victor 
C. Barringer. 

The Phifer family has been for five genera- 
tions the most wealthy and prominent in Ca- 
barrus County. For many successive years they 
have been appointed to places of honor and 
responsibility by the people of the Counties of 
Cabarrus and Mecklenburg, some in each gen- 
eration have occupied pi'ominent positions in 
the legislative halls of the State. Their'love 
for truth, honor and justice, their liberality of 
opinion and their sterling qualitiesof mind and 
of heart have necessarily made them leaders of 
the people for generations. They have exercised 
great influence in directing the political and 
social development of their county and State. 
Not one single instance can be found of a fam- 
ily quarrel, the contesting of a W'ill or any 
i)ankrupt proceeding by which the name could 
suffer. The men have all been nolde men, the 
women have all been good and pure, and have 
well sustained the good and ancient name. 

Martin Pfeiffer was an educated man, and 
must have come to America rather well pro- 
vided with money, as he immediately became 
possessed of large tracts of land; and became a 
prominent and influential man, a very short 
time after he settled in the State. The prom- 
inent place taken by his son John, as a leader, 
and as an orator in the early days also goes to 
show that his father must have been a man of 
unusual ability and distinction. 

John Pfeiff"er the younger of the two 
brothers who came to America in 1738, from 
Berne, settled in what is now known as Row- 
an County, N. C. Very little is known of his 
life. lie died some years before his brother 
Martin Pfeifter. He left his home in the up- 



per portion of Rowan county, to come down 
and visit his brother; after he had been gone 
for a week his family became alarmed about 
him and a messenger was sent to Martin Pfei- 
ffer's. It was found that he had not reached 
that point. The neighborhood was aroused 
and seaich was made for him. His body was 
found a da}' or so afterwards near the main 
road in an advanced state of decomposition, 
lie is supposed to have become ill, to have 
fallen tVom his horse and died, as no marks of 
violence were found on his person. He had 
it is supposed, only two children; a son Math- 
ias and a daughter who married a Mr. Webb' 
Matbias I'feitier jr. had one child, Paul, who 
was a Baptist preacher and had one daughter 
whose name ie now unknown. 

The above is all the information available 
as to this l)ranch of the family. Their off- 
spring does not seem to have been very num- 
erous, and the two branches appear to have 
di'ifted a[iart. 

Martin I'feitfer, born October ISth, 1720, 

in Switzerland, died Janiuiiy 18th, 1701, at 

"Cold Water," Cabarrus county, N. C. Reached 

Anicrica in 1738; in Legislature of 1777 from 

Mecklenburg county; married 1745, Margaret 

Blackwelder, wlio was Ijorn 1722, died 1803. 

Issue three sons: (I) John; (II) Caleb; (III) 



John l)orn at -'Cold Water," March 22nd. 
1747; died at "Red Hill," 1778; married 1768 
Catherine, daughter of Paul Barringei', (who 
was born 1750, died 1829; after John Phifer's 
death she married Savage ef Rowan county,) 
as a member of the Charlotte convention, 
John Phifer signed the Declaration of May 
20th, 1775; member of Provincial Assembly 
at Hillsbon.), August 21st, 1775, and at Ilali-- 
fax April 4th, 1776, and of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of November 12th, 1776; 
commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, in Colonel 

Griffith Rutherford's Regiment December 21st, 
1776; served in the campaign against the Cher- 
okee Indians and the Scovelite Tories. Bro- 
ken down by exposure and his own tireless 
enei'gy, he fell an early sacrifice in the cause 
of freed<im. 

A man of distinguished character and super- 
ior attainments, and appears to have been one 
of the most conspicuous of the i-emai'kable men 
who figured in the foreground of the move- 
ment which resulted in the independence. His 
burning and fervid eloquence did much to ig- 
nite the flames of indignation against the usur- 
pations of the mother countrj-. He left the fol- 
lowing issue: (A) Paul, born at Red Hill, Nov. 
14th, 1770; died May 20th, 1801; educated at 
"Queen's Museum" afterwards "Liberty Hall" 
in Charlotte; married 1799 Jane Alexander, 
born 1750, who, after his death married Mr. 
Means of Mecklenburg. 

Issue: (I) Martin jr., liorn 1792, died in 
childhood, (II) George Alexander, born'1794, 
died 1868; at the University; in 1835 moved to 
Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Union 
county, Arkansas, where he died. Four of 
his sons were killed in the battle of Shiloh. 
In 1820 he married Elizabeth Beard of Burke 
county, N. C. Issue: (a)George; (b) Margaret 
married to Mr. Pool; (c) Andrew Beard ;(d) 
William; (e) Locke; (f) John: (g) Paul; (h) 
xMary Locke. 

(Ill) John N., born March 19th 1795, died 
September 7th, 1856, married (June 10th 1822) 
Ann Phifer, the daughter of Caleb Phifer; 
moved to Tennessee, then to CofFeeville, Miss- 
issippi, where he died. Issue: (a)Paul,died in 
youth; (b) Caleb same; (c) Barbara Ann, who 
married Dr. Phillips of Alabama; (d) Sarah 
Jane; (e) Charles W., at the University: grad- 
uated at West Point Military Academy; com- 
missioned Lieutenant of Dragoons and sent to 
Texas. Entered C. S. Army as a Captain, pro- 
moted, for gallantry at Shiloh, to be Colonel; 



in 1864 made Brigadier General; the young- 
est General officer of the Confederac}-; (f) 

(IV) Nelson born December 1797. 

[B ] Margaret, born 1772, died 1806, second 
child of John I'hifer; she married Joim Sim- 
ianer, who for many years was Clerk of the 
Court, they had one child, Mary, who mar- 
ried Adolphus Erwin of Burke County and 
to them were liorn ijcven children; (1) Sim- 
ianer, (2) Bulow married and had a family ^ 
(3)Matilda; (4) Alfred; (5) Mary Ann; (6) 
Harriet, married to Colonel J. B. Kankin 
and lia.-i a family; (7) Louisa, married James 
W. Wilson, and has a family. 

Caleb, born at Cold Water, April 8tb, 1749; 
died July 3rd, 1811; in legislature 1778 to 
1792 from Mecklenburg; Senator from Ca- 
l)arrus 1793 to 1801 Colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War, served with distinction, married 
Barbara Fulenweider, born 1754; died 1815. 
Issue; seven daughters and one son: (A) E.sthcr, 
married April 10, 1793,to Nathaniel Alexander^ 
issue ten children: (1) Margaret, married 
Robert Smith and had only one child, Sarah 
who married AVm. F. Phifer, and they had only 
one child, Sarah, who married John Morehead 
and had Aiuiie, Margaret, William, Louisa and 
John. (2) Caleb, married Lunda Chisholni; 
moved to West Tennesse and there died. They 
had Chai'les and John, both now dead; (3) 
Jane, married 1st to Geo. F. Graham, and had 
one child, Ann Eliza, who married to Col. 
\Vm. Johiison; 2nd to Dr. Stanhope Harris 
and had Sarah, who married Jno. Moss; Jane 
married to Dr. Bingham, and Henrietta mar- 
ried to Caldwell. 

(4) Eliza married lirst, February 19th, 1821, 
to James A. .Means and 2nd, to Dr. Elim Harris, 

(5.) Sarah married ( 1825) to Francis Locke 
moved to Montgomery Co. N. C, issue to them : 
Caroline, married to Dr. Ingram; James killed 

in the civil war; Elizabeth married to Under- 
wood and has a family. 

(6) Mary, married to Dr. Elim Harris, 
removed to Missouri, and there both died. 

(7) Nancy, born 1810, married 1833 to John 
Moss, of .Montgomery County, N. C, issue: 
Esther, wife of Adolphus Gib.son; Mary, wife 
of D. F. Cannon; Margaret, wife of James 
Erwin; Edward; John. 

(8) Esther, married to Dr. James Gilmer. 

(9) Charles, moved to Memphis, Tenn., and 
acquired great wealth, died unmarried. 

(10) John moved to Tenn., but died in 

(B) Margaret, second child of Calel), born 
Nov. 14, 1777, died Aug. 14, 1799; married in 
[1794] to Matthew Locke of Rowan Co., had 
one son, John, who married Miss lk)uchclle, 
but left no issue. 

[C] Elizabeth, burn 1781, married [1802,] 
to Dr. Wm. M. Moore, Salisbury; on his death 
moved to Bedford Co., Tenn., then to Mar- 
shall Co., Miss., there died in 1845. Issue [1] 
Abigail died in infancy; (2) Moses W., l)orn 
Jan. 7, 1807, died 1851; married Rebecca Mc- 
Keuzie, [1840,] moved to Washington Co.? 
Texas. Issue: William; Sarah, who married to 
I)r Ferrill,of Anderson, Texas; they had three 
children, Bertie; Elizabeth and Robert;[3] Mar- 
garet E., born at Salisbury, Feb. 14, 1809, mar- 
ried 1824, to Edward Cross, who was born at 
Chestnut Hill, Penn., 1804, died 1833; moved 
to LaFayette Co., Tenn. Issue; seven child ren^ 
(a) Caroline V., born 1826, married 1849 to 
Wm.Sledge of Pauolacounty,. Mississippi, moved 
to Washington county, Texas in 1851, then to 
.Memphis, Tennessee in 1872. They had Win. 
M. born 1850: Margaret E.,born 1853 and Ed- 
ward C. born 1854. 

(b) Elizabeth .M., born at Salisbury, 1827; 
married (1843) Samuel P. Badhget, died in 
Texas in 1866; issue: Uphclia,died in infancy 



(c) Daniel F.,died in infancy, as did(tI)Susan- 

(e) Edward born April 1st, 1833, lives in 
Austin, Texas: 

(f) Mary An s born 1835 in Lafayette county, 
Tennessee, married first, 185(J, to Leonidas B. 
Lemay of Wake county ,N.G. ; in 1862 to Col. Al- 
len Lewis of Maine, who was lost at sea in 
1870. Issue: Ida, Elizalieth, Mary Ann who 
are dead; Leonidas B. Leniay, liorn January 
21st, 1857 and Allen Lewis,who are living in 
Memphis, Tennessee. 

(D.) Sarah, the fom-tli cliihl of Caleb Plii- 
fer, married Dr. Wra. Houston of Mecklenburg, 
a successful practitioner of great wealth. They 
moved to Bedford County, Tennessee. Issue: 
Lydia married 1823 to Dr. Wm. Rhoan, they 
moved to Tennessee and reared a large family; 
Caleb married and has a family, lives at Shel- 
by ville, Tennessee; Wm. married Miss Steele 
and has a family; Louisa married and has a 

(E.) Barbara born 1770, died 1810; married 
(1809) Abram C. McRee of Cal)arriis. Issue: 
(1) Cornelius, nuirried .Margaret Means and 
moved to Alabama, where they reared a fam- 
ily ;( 2) Mary Ann married to Dr. Robert 
Means, and had one child, Poindexter, tliey 
live in Alabama; (o)Margaret, and (4) Phifer 
who married Miss Burt of Alabama and has 
a family. 

(F) Mary, married Dr. Robert McKenzic, 
an eminent [)hysician of Charlotte; removed 
to Bedford county, Tennessee, then to Mis- 
sissippi, Lousiana and finally settled in Grimes 
count}', Texas, where they died and were 
buried on the same day. Issue: (1) Rebecca, 
wife of Dr. Moses W. .Moore (see ante page 
Ixix.) (2) Joseph, unmarried; (3) John, mar- 
ried and has three children;(4) Mary, died in 
infancy; (5) Lucy married Pinkston, living in 
Grimes county, Texas, has a family of tour 

(G) Ann, as has been stated became the 
wife of John N. Phifer. 

(II.) John Kulenwider, born 17^0, died 
1826; educated at Dr. Robertson's school, at 
Poplar Tent; entered the University; married 
Louisa .Morrison of Lancaster S. C. Issue: a son 
and a daughter, who died in infancy, and 
Caleb, born 1825, died 1844, distinguished for 
scholarship at school, and afterwards at Pnnce 
ton; then read law with Judge Pearson. So 
young and full of high promises of usefulness, 
he died in his 19th year, and so the Caleb 
Phifer branch of the f.imily became extinct, as 
he was the last male mendier of that branch 


Martin jr. born at "Cold Water," March 
25th, 1756, died at the "Blaek Jacks," Nov- 
ember 12th, 1837; married (1778) Elizabeth 
Locke, who was born 1758, died 1791; he was 
Colonel of a Regiment of horse, on duty at 
Philadelphia, and was distinguislied forgallan- 
trj' in the field. And received high mention 
for his personal bravei'y in the papers of State. 
He was the largest land-owner in the State, 
and had a great number of slaves. Had issue: 
John, George, .Mary, Ahirgaret and Ann. 

Issue:(A) John, horn at Cold Water, Sept- 
ember Ist, 1779; died October 18th, 1845; en- 
tei'ed at Dr. .McCorckle's school at Thytira 
church in Rowan C( unty: at the University in 
the first year of that institution, graduated in 
1799, with first honors; married August 27, 
1805, Esther Fulenwidcr, a daughter of John 
Fnlenwider of "High Shoals," Lincoln county 
N. C, who was born 1784, died 1846. 
Member of the Legislature 1803 to 1806; in 
House of Commons 1810 to 1819; and in the 
Senate in 1824. Defeated l)y Forney for Con- 
gress by twenty-five majiu'ity. "lie lived a 
blessing, and his name will ever remain an 
honor to his family, his county and his State." 

He was one of the most intellectual and 
highly cultivated men of his time. His speeches 


in the House and Senate show r(Mnark!il>le abil- 
ity. His public career, which iiroiuised ti) be 
one of unusual brilliancy, was cut oft' by the 
failure of hise3'e-sight. lie became almost to- 
tally blind in the latter part of his life. lie 
was noted for his .wonderful pojiularity, his 
great decision of character, and his eloquence 
as a speaker. 

Had issue: .Martin, John Fulonwider, Calel>, 
Elizabeth, Mary Simianer, George Locke, Sarah 
Ann, Margaret Locke, Esther Louisa, Mary 
Burton. (1) ALartin, born December 30th, 
1806, died September 11th, 1852; married Eliza, 
daughter of Jacob Kamseur, of Lincolnton, N. 
C; had no issue. (2) John Fulen wider, born 
August 13, 180S, died January 10, 1850; edu- 
cated by Dr. Wilson near Rocky River church; 
a merchant and planter, died unmarried. (3) 
Calel), born June 10, 1810; died .March 11, 1878; 
educated at Dr. Wilson's, most iirominent in 
financial and manufactui'ing schemes; director 
of N. R. for years. .Member of House of 
Commons in 1S44; and of ronstitulional Con- 
vention of 1X61-62. lie was a student all dur- 
ing his life, and was well posted in both the 
scientiticand current literature of the day. He 
married [1838] Mary Adeline, third child of 
David Ramsenr, of liincohitoii, who was liorn 
Aug. oth. 1817, died Sept. 20th, 1881. Issue: 
[a] EstliGr, born December 23,1840, died Sep- 
tendier 5th, 1857; [b] David Ramseur. born, 
April 14th, 1839; a graduate of Davidson and 
of William and Mary in Virginia; served in 
the C. S. Army; became a merchant in New- 
beri'v; married Sarah Whitmire; had issue: 
Mary, Henry, Mai'tin and Elizabeth. 

[d] John Locke, born October 28th, 1842, 
died January 26th, 1880: was educated in 
Philadelphia; served in 20th, N. C. Vols.; 
liacame a most sucessful merchant; [e] Char- 
les Henry, born September 28th 1847; served 
in the Confederate Artillery; then graduated 
at Davidson College (1866); a civil engineer 

by education. Now successful as a merchant; 
[f] Robert Kulenwider, born Novemlier 17th, 
184!); graduate of Davidson [1866J successful 
as a planter and cotton buyer; [g] Martin, 
born .Imie 26th, 1855, died .March 10th 1881; 
[h] Sarah Wilfong, born February 26th, 1859, 
married [1883] to Marshall N. Williamson in 

[4J Elizabeth, fourt ; child of John Phi- 
fer born April 20th, 181 2, married Dr. Edmund 
R. (Til)son at the '-Black Jacks," February 25th, 
1835. Dr. Gibson was born July Oth, 1809, 
died May 28th, 1872, in Rowan County, an 
eminent ph3'8ician, of large estate. Issue: 
[a] Esther Margaret, born 1836, died an infant; 
[b] WiUiam Henry borti June 2nd, 1837, kill- 
ed at Gettysburg, 1863; [c] John Phifer born 
January 5th, 1839; served as Lieutenant in 
the civil war; married Martha M. Kirkpatrick, 
[1804,] and had .Mary Grace. Now a mer- 
chant of Concord; [d] .Tames Cimningliam, 
born November 10th, 1840, served in the Con- 
federate Army, also Clerk of Court; married 
Elizabeth Puryear [1876] and has Elizabeth, 
William Henry, Richard Puryear and Jennie 
Marshall; [e] George Locke, born March 15tli, 
1844, died 1877;[f] Robert Erwin, born March 
15th, 1844, married [1876] Emily Magruderof 
AVinchester, Virginia, issue: Emily .Magruder 
and RoI)ert Magruder; successful merchant in 
( 'Oncord. 

(5) Mary Simianer, tifth child of .John Phi 
fer, born December 7th, 1814, died an infant. 

[0] George Locke, sixth child; born June 
7th, 1817, died June Oth, 1879; entered the 
school of Robert I. McDowell, and then at 
Greensboro; a planter; married [1847] Rosa 
Allen Peunick, daughter of Rev. Daniel Pen- 
nick,of the Virginia Presbytery; issue: [a] Ag- 
nes Tinsley l)orn August 24th, 1850, married 
[1876]to Albert Heilig of Rowan, had George 

[b] Esther Louisa born May 24th, 1852. 

[c] Sarah Maria born July 25th, 1854. 



[d] Annie Kosa boni March 29th, 1857. 

[e] Ma]7 Elizabeth born July 11th, 1859, 
died August 25th, 1882 married [1881] Will- 
Ramseur of Newton. 

[f] Daniel I^ennick born Decemljer 14th, 

[g] John Young, born June 5th, 1864. 

[h] George Willis born February Ist, 1868. 

[i] Emma Garland, liorn September 4th, 

[7] Sarah Ann, born October 23rd, 1819; 
married May 31st, 1842, to Robert W. Allison 
of Cabarrus, who was born April 24th, 1806, 
a man of prominence, chairman of CQunty Com- 
missioners, in legislature of 1865-66; delegate 
to Convention of 1875. 

Issue: [a] Esther Phifer, born November 27th 
1843, married [1866] Samuel White of York 
county S. C, Capt. 7th N. C. Vols., C. S. A. 
issue: four children, Grace Allison, the only 
one living. 

[b] Joseph Young, born July IGth, 1846, 
educated at the University of- Virginia; read 
law with Chief Justice Pearson, became apres- 
byterian clergyman, married [1876] Sarah Cave 

[c] .John Phi fer, born August 22d, 1848; a 
merchant in Concord: married [1880] Annie 
Erwin, daughter of Hon. Burton Craige. 

[d] Mary Louisa, born March 27th, 1850, 
died 1878. 

[e] Elizabeth Adeline, born March 26th, 
1852, married [1875] to John M White of 
Fort Mills, S. C; he was Colonel 6th S. C. 
Vols. C. S. A., and died 1877. She lives near 
Fort Mills, 

[f] William Henry, born February 26th, 
1854, died in infancy as did the three follow- 

[g] Caroline Jane, born October 23d, 1855. 
[h] Annie Susan, born December 16th 

l.S'57. [i] Robert Washington born March 15th 

[8] Margaret Locke, eighth child of John 
Phifer, born December 7th, 1821, died in in- 

[9] Esther Louisa, born May 31st, 1824; 
married to Robert Young of Cabarrus, Capt. 
C. S. A.; killed July 1864, she died July 9tli, 
1865; had John Young, Capt C. S. A., killed 
at Chancellorsville, May 3d, 1863, 

[10] Mary Burton, tenth child of John Phi- 
fer, born November 10th, 1826; educated in 
Philadelphia, married [1850] John A. Brad- 
shaw of Rowan, now lives in New York. Is- 
sue: Harriet Ellis, Mary Grace, Annie, Eliza- 
beth, John who died 1866. 

[B] Ge^orge, second child of Martin Phifer, 
jr., was born February 24th, 1782, died Jan- 
uary 23d, 1819; merchant and planter; Clerk 
of the Court; married [1808] Sarah, daugh- 
ter of John Fulenwider of High Shoals, 
Lincoln county, N. C. She was born 1786, and 
and after the death of George Phifer married 
.Joseph Young,whom she survived, and died 
-January 24th, 1868, at Hon. J. H. Wilson's 
house in Charlotte. 

Issue to George and Sarah Phifer: [a] Will- 
iam Fulenwider, born February 13th, 1809; 
graduate of Hampden-Sidney College; mer- 
chant at Concord; married [1833] Sarah Smith, 
and had Sarah, wife of John Morehead; who 
had Annie, Margaret, William, Louisa and 
John. On the death of liis wife, William [a] 
removed to Lownds County, Alabama; cotton 
planter there; returned to North Carolina and 
married [1849] Martba White, issue: [1] Wil- 
hani; [2] Robert Smith, educated in Germany; 
remarkable musical talent,he married Bella Mc. 
Ghee of Caswell county, and has Wilhelmine, 
Thomas Mc. Ghee and Robert; [3] George; 
[4] Mary married [1882] to M. C. Quinn; 
[5] Cordelia; [6] Josephine married [1880] 
William G. Durant of Fort Mills, S. C, they 
have Mary and William Gilmore; [7] Edward. 



[b] John Fulemvider, born May 1st, ISIO, 
married [1839] Elizabeth Caroline, a duugh tor 
of David Ramseur, she was born l!^10; re- 
moved to Lownds county, Alal)ania; roturned 
to Lincolnton. Issue: [1] George, born Febru- 
ary 10th, 1841; educated at Davidson; served 
with distinction as Captain in the line, [C. S 
Army,] and afterwards on General R. F. lloke's 
staff; married [1879] Martha Avery of Burke 
county; issue: John; Monlton; George; Edward; 
Isaac; Walton; Maud; \Yaightstill. lie is a 
cotton manufacturer at Lincolnton; [2] Will- 
iam Locke, born February ITth, 1843, killed 
at Chickamauga, Tennessee, September 20th, 
1863; [3] Edward born May 8th 1844; Cap- 
tain C. S. Vols. He died from wounds received 
before Petersburg, June 18th, 1864; [4] Mary 
Wilfong born December 2.5th, 1856, married 
[1881] to Stephen Smith of Livingston, Ala- 
bama, has one child Stephen. 

[c] Mary Louisa, born December 3d, 1814: 
married [1846] to Hon. Joseph Harvey Wil- 

•Wecopy fi 1)111 the RnU-iqh iVeit'S-Oterrcr, of Sei)t- 
embcrlStli, 1884, tlie fullowiiiK notice of Hon. Joseph 
Harvey Wilson, wlio was born in the comity of 
Mecklenburg. His fatlier, the Rev. Jolui Mc- 
Kiiniev Wilson, was a Scotch Presbyterian, ami a di- 
vine of considerable influence in that section of the 
State. The son inherited the talcnt.s and sterlinsrqua'- 
ities of the father, and was early imbued with the fa- 
ther's piety and he had been since his early manhood 
a consistent lucnilier of the Presbyterian church 

He was admitted to the bar and began the practice 
of the law in ('Ijailotte soon after he Ix'came of age, 
and for about titty years he enjoyed a large and luci-a- 
tive practice in Meckleiiliiug and the surronuding 
counties. After the retiienient ot William Julius Alex- 
ander and the death of his r(iiit<'ni|)i)raiies of :a past 
generation, Mr. Wilson an<l the late Judge (Jsborne, 
who were nearly of the same age au<l always fiieuds, 
contested the le'adersliip otthe inofcssion in Meeklen- 
biirg, though Mr. Wilsmi, on acronni of his jiaiiistak- 
ing industr}!-, always commanded a larger sliaie of the 
routine and remunerative liu-siness of the county. He 
never found it advisable to take au extended circuit 
as was the rule among the lawyers before the war; 
but in Union. Cabarrus an<l Gaston counties he en- 
joyed a leading business and was generally on one 
side or the other of every important case. Kver dili- 
gent and careful in the i)reparatiou of his cases, and 
eminently faithful to the interests of his clients, of 
sound judgment and thoroughly versed in the prin- 
ciples of the law, that he was a v ery successful prac- 
tioner is not remarkable. Probably no lawyer of his 
day reaped larger rewar<ls lu the legitimate proseca- 
tion of the legal profession in the State; and being 
ecnomical in the proper sense of the term, while lie 
was at the same time liberal when calls upon his charity 

son*; issue: [1] George married Bessie Wither- 
spoon of Sumter, S. C, who have Mary Louise, 
Hamilton, and Annie Witherspoon. He grad- 
uated at Davidson and at the University of 
Vii'ginia; [2] Mary married Charles E. John- 
ston, who have Mary AVilson and Charles. 

[d] Elizabeth Ann, the twin sister of Mary 
Louisa; educated at Hillsboro; married [1837] 
to E. Jones Erwin of Burke, who died in 1871. 
Issue: Phifer married [1875] Corrinna More- 
head Avery; and have Annie Phifer; Corrinna 
Morehead and Addie Avery; [2] Mary Jones 
married (1874)to .Mitchell Rogers and have 
one child Francis; [3] Sallie married [1882] to 
Dr. Moran and have one child, Annie Rankin. 

[e] Martin Locke born January 25th, 1818, 
died March 9th, 1853; educated at Bingham's 
school; removed to Lownds county, Alabama; 
a planter. Returned to N. C. [1848] married 
Sarah C. Hojle of Gaston county .Left no issue 

[C] Mary Phifer, third child of Martin Phi- 
fer, jr., born December 1st, 1774; died 1860, 

pud public spirit commended themselves to his judg- 
ment, he succeeded in accumulatiug a coosiderable 
fortune, of which he continued in possession to his 
death. In his success in his profession, as the result 
of patient, honest, faithful work, without any of the 
shiuini: qualities of the genius, Mr. Wilson is one of 
the best e.xamides to the younger members of the bar. 
He proved to the satisfaction of all who knew hini 
that a lawyer can be a good Christian and at tiie same 
time a successful business man. While he ever took 
a lively and patriotic interest in public attairs, he 
could never be seduced from tho jirosecution of his 
profession by the otter of political phiee or office, and 
he persistently refused even to oerve his people in the 
State legislature until he was forced [by a sense 9t 
public duty] to represent his county in the Senate m 
1866-67 when he was elected president of that body, 
a rare compliment to one who had never before ser- 
ved in a legislative body. It showed the very high 
esteem in which he was held in the State. . 

Mr. Wilson was twice married, his first wife being 
Miss Pattou t>f Buncombe, and the second. Miss Phifer 
of Cabarrus, who survives him, and he leaves three 
children of the tirst marriage and two of the second, one 
of whom, (ieorge E. Wilson Esq., was hispartner at the 
bar, and an other is the wife of our esteemed neigh- 
bor, Mr. Charles E. Johnson, of this city. Besides Ins 
widow aud children, a large circle of loving tTieuds 
mourn his departure. He died September 13th, \fm, 
ill the fullness of years and maturity of time, tUe 
loss of but few citizens in the State could create a 
more profound sensation in the communities iu 
which they respectively live than did the death of 
this good and honored man in the couut.v of Meck- 
lenburg. Tlie whole community were his friends; wa 
doubt if he left an enemy. 



and is buried at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Married 
[1803] to William Crawford, of Lauca-^ter, S. 
C. Issue: Elizabeth and William. After Mr. 
Crawford's death she married dame^ Childers, 
of N. C, and moved to Tusealooj^a. Issue: 

(a) Elizalieth Crawford married John Dobv, 
and had [1] Joseph, who married Margaret 
Harris and has a fanuly; [2] .Martin married 
SaUie Grier, and liad one rhild; on lier death 
he married Sallie Sadler; [-i] James married 
Mary Walker and has a family; [4] William 
married Altonia (irier, and had rhildren. 

(b) William Crawford married Lncretia Mull, 
and had [1] Thomas, nuirried 1st Mary I'riee, 
2nd Mrs. Klutz, and has a family; [2] WiUiam 
married Miss Smith, and has a family; [?>] 
James married Sallie Ileilig, and have chiMi'en; 
[4] Robert married Miss Crawford, and tliev 
have ehildren; [f)] Lee married .Miss reedeu, 
and has children. 

(c) Ann Childers married to Walker; 

issue: (1) Mary; (2) ;(3) Martin; (4) . 

(d) Susan Childers married Read, but lias no 

(e) Jas Childers, married, and has a family. 
(D) Margaret, fourth child of Martin Phifer, 

jr., born December 7th, 178G; married [January 
7th, 1808,] James Erwin of Burke, Co.,X. C. Is- 
sue, seven children: [1] William, married Ma- 
tilda Walton, and they had five children; mer- 
chant in Morgan ton; his second wife was Mrs. 
Gaston, but had no issue; after her death he 
married Kate lIappoldt,and to them were born 
two children. Ilis children are [a] Clara, mar- 
ried to Mclntyre, and has a fandly, the oldest 
named Matilda; [b] Anna, married Robert Me- 
Connehey, and they have children ; [c] Laura , 
married to M.Jones, but had no issue; [d] Hen- 
rietta, married to Gray Bynum; [e] Ella mar- 
ried George Greene, and they have three child- 
ren. By his third wife he had [f] Margaret 
and (g, Evelyn. 

(2) Joseph Erwin; married Elvira Ilolt. He 

has been in the Legislature several terms, and 
once serveil as clerkof the court. Issue: Mary 
L.; .Matilda; Margaret, married to Lawrence 
Holt, of Company Shops, and have five child- 
ren; Cora, married John Gi'aut, of Alamance 
Co. [3] Martin, married Jane Huie, of Salisbury, 
issue: five children; then to Miss Blackmaiin; 
issue: th"ee children; moved to .Maury Co., 
Tenii., and there died. (4] (George, married 
.Margaret Hiiison, of Burke Co., moved to 
Tenn.; they have nine children. 

(•3) Elizabeth, married Hon. Burton Craige, 
of Salisbury; i^sue: [:i] Jamos; [li] Kerr, a 
prominent lawyer, in Legislature from Rowan, 
declined nomination foi' (^ingress; married .lo- 
se[)hine, daugbt(M-or (J(>n. L. O'B. IJratiob, and 
their children are Nanni(\ Bui'ton, Branch, Jo- 
sephine, Bessie an<l Kerr; [cj Frank, married 
[1877]'' Fannie Williams, (jf Williamsport, 
Tenn., ba\e three children; [d] Mary Eliza- 
beth, married Alfred Young, of Cabarrus, and 
have Lizzie, Fannie, Annie and .Mary; [e] An- 
nie, married to John 1'. Allison, of Conc(jrd. 

(7) Alexander. 

(ti) Sarah, married John McDowell, of 
Burke; they have seven children, noneof whom 
are married; James E , Margaret, dolm, Wil- 
li;\ni, Fraid< ]']lizal)eth and Kate. 

[E] Ann, the fifth and last child of Martin 
Phifer, jr., born March 8th, 1788, died at 
Lancaster, S. C, .luly 1st, 1855; married John 
Crawford, of Lancaster, brother of William, 
who married her sister .Mary. 

Lssue: [1] Martin married Alice ILirris, tliey 
ha<l four children: Charles Harris, married Sa- 
die Baskins; Anne, James and John. 

[2] Elizabeth, married George Witherspoon, 
a lawyer of Lancaster, S. C, where they live, 
they have four children: John, who married 
Addie White, of Rock Hill, S. C; James, An- 
nie and George. 

[8] Robert, married Malivia Massey, and 
have three children: Martin, Robert and Ella. 
They live in Lancaster, S. C. 




Ijinj^HIS COUXTY preserves the nu'inories printed." These principles were deridi'd !)y 

^^^ of the first conflict of arms between tiie imperious Tryon, and terminated in open 

'il^^f the Hoyal Troojis of Enghuid, [16th conflict of arms. The lleguiators were van- 

f\ May, 1771,] and tiie people of the quisliod hy sn|>erior force and discipline, but 

Colonies. Then and there was the the ijroat germs of right and liberty were 

g first blood of tlie Colonists spilled in the firmly planted in their minds, and a few years 

i United States, in resistance to the oppres- hiter bore the fruits of victory and independ- 

sions of the English Government and the ence. Had this battle terminated differently, 

exactions of its unscrupulous agents. Tryon, (and underskilful leaders,and at a laterperiod, 

the Royal Governor of the Province of North this would have been the case,) the banks of 

Carolina, exhibited in his administration the the Alamance would have rivaled Bunker 

bloodthirsty temper of " the great wolf," as he Hill and Lexington; and the name of Hus- 

was so aiipropriatcly termed by the Indians of bands, Merrill and Cildwell would have ranked 

the State. with the Warrens and Piitnams of a later 

The officers of the Government, by exactions day. 
in the shape of fees and taxes, grieviously op- A writer on North Carolina History, as to 
pressed an industrious and needy people. The this revolt, states that " the cause of tiie Reg- 
people bore these exactions with patience; re- ulators lias been the subject of much unmerited 
inonstrating in their public meetings, in re- obloquy, clouded as it has been by the heavy 
spectful hut decided terms. This simple-minded pages of Williamson an<l Martin, and the ig- 
people, without aid from much learning or norant disquisitions of untutored scribblers. 
books, knew and laid down the great funda- Altliough on the occasion they were over- 
mental principles of good government, "that thrown, their principles were intimately con- 
taxation and representation should go together, iiected with the chain of events that directly 
that the people had the right to resist taxa- led to the Revolution, and struck out that 
tion when not imposed by their legal repre- spark of independence which soon blazed from 
sentatives. and also the right to know for what Ma.ssa(diusetts to Georgia." (Jos. Seawell 
purpose taxes were imposed, and how appro- Jones' Defence of North Carolina.) 


For Time at last sets all things even, -. They never fail who die 

And if we do but watch the hour, I" •' gi"e»t cause: 

There never yet was human power, Elapse, and oli^^ shaTas da^' a doom. 

That could evade if unforgiven, They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts 

The patient search, the vigil long, iy?"*^'^ overi)ower all otliers. and conduct 

^f,. , , *' The world at last to freedom. '"— 

Of him who treasures up a wrong. r Byron 1 

I copied from the Rolls Office when iti Eng- This comity was long the residence of 
land, a dispatch from tlie Royal Governor of Thomas Ruffin. [Born 1787— Died 1870.] 
North Carolina, (Martin) dated nillsboro, On entering the Supreme Court room of 
30th August, 1772, never before published, ^"orth Carolina, now more than fifty years 
The Governor describes his journey to the -''&") '^^'e observed on the bench of this exalted 
western part of North Carolina, through the tribunal the conmianding person of Thomas 
Moravian settlements, which he pronounces Kuffiu, for twenty years one of the Justices of 
" models of industry," to Salisbury. He that Court, and for many years its Chief Jus- 
passed through the region of the late disturb- ticc. During this long period he was called 
ances. He records: " My eyes have been opened ^^P"" to decide questions involving (he life and 
in regard to these commotions. These people interest of individuals, and complicated and 
have been provoked by the insolence and intricate points of constitutional, common and 
cruel advantages takeu of their ignorance by statute law. The able opinions delivered by 
mercenary, tricking attorneys, clerks, and other him have established his reputation as one of 
little officers, who have practiced upon them the first jurists of his age in this or any other 
every sort of rapine and extortion. The re- country. His opinions are models of learning 
sentment of the Government was craftily a"d 'ogio, and are quoted as authority not only 
worked up against the oppressed; protection '" our own courts but in those of other coun- - 
denied to them, when they expected to tries. Recently one of the Justices of the 
find it, and drove them to desperation, which Supreme Court of the United States, on read- 
ended in bloodshed. My indignation is not i"S one of Judge Ruffin's opinions, pronounced 
ly disarmed, but converted into pity." him " one of the ablest common law-jurists in 


Thus by the highest cotemporaneous au- America." 

thority are the acts and principles of the Reo-- I" his ministration of the law he was by 

ulators fully justified. These acts were but con- ^ome considered stringent and at times severe, 

necting links in the chain of events which led ''Ut he was always conscientious and inflexibly 

to the Revolution. Soon followed the events J"*^t. 

on the Cape Fear in 177:2-73 and 74, then the ^^^ ""'S i"'t demonstrative in his feelings, 

Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of hut was cautious in his words and acts, select 

20th May, 1775, then the actual conflict of arms ''^"^^ sincere in his friendships, and steadfast in 

at Moore's Creek in February, 177G. All acts his attachments. 

done in North Carolina, with few exceptions, I" his finances he was prudent even to rigid 

before any similar events had occurred else- economy. This he adopted as a principle, not 

where in this country-. How bright are such believing in wastefulness or extravagance, 

glorious records and how proud are we of the ^^^^ house was open to his friends and was well 

memories of the people who present them to known as the abode of unstinted hospitality, 

coming posterity ! He was exact and precise in his engagements, 

and punctual in performance. 

In person he was spare, uniform and neat in 


his dress, of a presence at once striking, com- Court the served his fellow citizens us presiding 

niaiiding and venerable. To many who knew Judge of the county court. In the Spring of 

them both, he resembled, not only in mental 18(11, he attended that barren convention at 

qualifications but in person, Thomas Jefferson; Washington, "The Peace Congress," with 

both highly educated; both of the same profes- John M. Morehead, David S. Keid, Daniel M. 

8ion;both of thesame political faith;both, in all TJarringer, and George Davis as colleagues. 

the domestic relations of life, devoted and af- " The judicial ermine so long and so worthily 

fectionate,aud both natives of the same State; worn," says Mrs. Spencer, " not only Bbielded 

and in person about same height, same colored him, but absolutely forbade all active partici- 

hair, and the same expression of countenance, pation in party politics." T5ut he was no idle 

iiidicatinggreat energy, re;5olution anddecision or unititerosted spectator of the current of 

of character. events. He was opposed to nuUitication in 

Not only as a jurist was .Judge Ruffin dis- 1832, and did not believe in the rights of se- 

tinguished, but as an able financier, and skilful cession in 1860. In private circles he combatted 

and successful as an agriculturist. both heresies with all that" inexorable logic" 

lie was born in King and (^ueen county, which the fjondon 7'')n('5 declared to be charac- 

Virginia, 17th November, 1787, the eldest son teristic of his judicial opinions, lie declared 

of Sterling and Alice Euffin. lie graduated " the sacred right of revolution " as the remedy 

at Princeton, 1805. Read law with David for the redress of our grievances. 

Robinson, an eminent lawyer in Petersburg, But the cloud in the political horizon grew 

in same office at the same time with AYinfield thicker and heavier. When the State took 

Scott. He came to North Carolina in 1807 the final stop of secession, he felt it to be a 

with his father and settled at Qillsboro, where duty to follow her fortunes, 

he married on 7th December, 1809, Ann, eldest He was elected to the State Convention at 

daughter of William Kirkland, by whom he Raleigh, and voted for the Ordinance of Se- 

had a large family of thirteen children, cession. Then was his last public service, 

among them was William Kirkland, (recently He was a communicant of the Episcopal 

deceased;) Sterling; Peter Brown; Thomas; Church, and warmly attached to that mode and 

John, doctor; Mrs. Roulhac; Ann, who mar- form of worship; but liberal and tolerant to 

ried Paul C. Cameron; Alice died unmarried; the worth and virtues of other denominations, 

Mrs. Brodnax; Mrs. Edmund Ruffin; Patty, and in the consolations of Christian faith and 

(unmarried;) Sally married Upton B.Gynn, Jr. hopes of its promises, in the full possession of 

He was elected to the Legislature from his mental faculties, in charity and peace with 

Hillsboro in 1813, 1815 and 1816; the latter all, he died on 15th January, 1870, at Ilills- 

year he was chosen Speaker; and the same year boro, loved and lamented by all who knew 

elected Judge of the Superior Court, which him. 

after two years' service he resigned. In 1825 sure the end of the good luan is peace, 

v,„ ,.. .„ „„„;„ „i„„f„,i T,,^i ,,, ,,^A ;., 1UOO ,.,,„ How cahu hia exit ! Nisht dews 

he was agam elected Judge, and m 1829 was j.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ge,,t,y ^^ ^,,^ „^.,^^,,^^i 

elected one of the Justices of the Supreme Nor weary, worn out winds expire more soft. 
Court, to till the vacancy occasioned by the Rufus Yancy McAden represented Ala- 
death of Judge Taylor, which in 1852 he re- niance County in 1865, and was elected Speaker 
signed. He was again elected in 1850, and of the House. 

again resigned in 1858. For several years after He graduated at Wake Forest College, 

bis retiring from the bench of the Supreme studicvl law and achieved prominence and posi- 


tion at the bar; liut liis fame rest3 cliiefly on 
his reputation as a skilful financier. He is the 
grandson of the distinguislied statesman and 
orator, Bartlet Yancy, and inherits much of 
the ability of his distinguished ancestor. 

Thomas Michael Holt was bom in Orange 
Count}', now Alamance County, on 17th Octo- 
ber, 1855; is by occupation a farmer and a man- 

He is the President of the State Agricultural 
Society since 1872. He is the princii)al owner 
of the "Haw Eiver Mills," which lias done 
much to encourage the cotton manufactories 

in the South. They are an ornament to tlie 
State. He was elected President of tlie 
North Carolina Railroad in 1874; and sena- 
tor from Alamance and Orange in Novem- 
ber, 187G. He is by all acknowledged to be 
afarmer of unequalled success; a manufacturer 
of great skill, and a friend and patron of in- 
ternal improvement, believing with the poet 
that — 

Art, commerce and fair science, three, 

And sisters linked in love, 
They traverse sky, land and sea. 

Protected from above. 


Anson at one time [1740] comprehended 
the whole western part of tlie State. Its early 
history is full of incident, of the sturdy oppo- 
sition of her sons to oppression, and .sympathy 
with the Regulators of Orange County against 
the unrighteous exactions of the administra- 
tion of the Government officers, which rose to 
such a height that the people in 1768 entered 
the court liouse and by force violently expelled 
the officers of the court, and each took an oath 
of self-defence and mutual protection. 

I copied from the Rolls Office in England 
the oath prescribed, transmitted to the Earl 
of Hillsboro by Gov. Tryon, in a disjiatcli 

" Brunswick, 24^/( Dec, 17G8. 
"I do solemnly swear that if awy officer or 
any other person do make distress of any goods 
or any other estate of any person sworne here- 
in, being a subscriber, for non-payment of 

taxes, that I will, with sufficient assistance, go 
and take, if in my power, the goods or other 
property thus distressed, and restore the same 
to the party from whom the same was taken. 
And in case anyone concerned herein should 
be imprisoned, or under arrest, I will immedi- 
ately do my best endeavours to raise as many 
of the said subscribers as will be a force suffi- 
cient to set said person and his estate at lib- 
erty. If any of our company for such acts be 
put to any expense or confinement, I will bear 
an e<iual share to make up the losses to the 

"All those I do promise, and subscribe my 

This paper has never before been published. 

In a memorial of the people,of Anson County 
to Gov. Tryon, they comi)lain of the conduct 
of " Col." Samuel Spencer, the clerk and mem- 
ber of the county, who purchased his office of 
Col. Frohawk, and gave £150 for it, and they 
allege that the people should not be taxed but 
by consent of themselves or their delegates, 


aiul ihey recoiiiuioiKl that: the niagistratos, 
ck'ik. and ."heriffshoulil he elected bi/ the people." 

What an earl\- and rapid stride did those 
patriuiic men take, at this early day, in tlio 
right of tlio [leoplo to ,<;overn themselves, and 
deciarj a priiiciple that fifty years after hecamo 
tlie law of the land! 

I find anions^ the early reci)rds the name 
Jame-- Cctten, and from curiosity more than a 
liope tiiat the memory of such a man may be 
i;sei"r.!, wo piesent his infamous eoiidnct. "We 
could wisli in describing the men of onr State, 
to present only the patriotic, the virtuous, and 
t!ic gc;od; and, like tlio motto of the Roman 
snii-dial — 

" !Xon nuiHero horas, nisi Serenas.'" 

But truth demands that we should present 
facts. Such men as Gotten, in these perilous 
times, were only 

" Vermin gendered on the Lien's mane— " 
whose acts consign them to contempt. the Colonial records in London, I 
find the following letter: 

" Cruiskr Sloop of War, 

" 21 Juh/, 1775. 
" I have received your letter of the 15th 
inst., by Mr. Cunningliam, and highly approve 
of your proper and spirited conduct, while I 
cannot sufficiently express my indignation and 
contempt of the proceedings of Captain-Gen- 
eral Spencer and his unworthy confederates. 
Yon and other friends of the Government 
have only to stand yonr ground lirndy ! 

'• Major Snead may be assured ol' my atten- 
tions to all his wishes. 

'• T l;og my compliments may be piresented 
to Colonel MacDonald. 
'■ I am, Sir, 

" Yourhumlde servant, 

"Jo. M.^RTIN. 

" To Lt. Col. James Gotten, 

" Anson Co., N. C." 

I found, also, among the Colonial records in 
London, the deposition of James Gotten, 

* For copy of this memorial, sec Wheeler's History 
of N. C. 11:2.1. 

taken 14th Aug., 1775, on boai'd of IlisMajes- 
ty'ssloop of war, the " Cruiser," wbei'c he had 
heen for succor and for safety. Anson County 
had becon:e ratlicr too hot for him, which 
proves the determined spirits of the patriots, 
and whose names should he cherished in his- 
tory. Tbis deposition states->- 

" I was called before tlie committee for 
Anson C'OUnty; and Samuel S[>encer, thv; chair- 
man, stated that they had sent for me as fine 
of the luirgcsses of the county, to know if I 
would sign and approve of the resolves of the 
Continental C-ongiess, wliich were read to me 
by Mr. Thomas Wade. I refused. They said 
tliat the}' should pi'oceed against me, and gave 
me two weeks to consider. 

•' On the Tuesilay following, David Love, 
accompanied by William Love, Samuel Curtis, 
William Covington, and another, all armed, 
came to my house and took me, nolens volenx, 
towards Mask's Ferry, on the Pedee. 

" I escaped from them, traveling as secretly 
as possible, sleeping in the woods at niglit, 
and reached this \'cssel on Sunday night last." 

Dep)ositi(Mi of Samuel Williams, who es- 
caped with Colonel Gotten, taken at the same 
time and place: 

From dispatch of Gov. Martin, dated — 

" New York, 15//* Sept., 1777. 

" Two vessels have arrived here from North 
(Carolina, bringing refugees. 

"A Mr. James Gotten, of No. Ca., who went 
hence some time ago, will pi'obably have waited 
on your Lordship. 

" He is a man of vulgar life and character, 
and is a native of New England, and I do not 
estimate him very highly." 

We now will bid " Good-bye to James." 
Allusion has been made to Samuel Spencer. 
He was a member of the Colonial Assembly 
at an early day, and in 1774 elected to the 
Provincial Congress at N^ew Lerne, which was 
the first organized movement of the people in 
a legislative capacity in open opposition, and 
independent of the lioyal Govertiment. This 
hody sent delegates to the Continental Gon- 
<rres3 at Philadcl;i!iia. 


It may be interesting for reference, to note ding and the red cap for a challenge to l)at- 

tho Provincial Congresses, the place and time tie, made so violent and unexpected an attack 

+■,. , n J? i. , t/ It 1 • 1 x> 1 ii 0" his Honor, that lie was thrown out of his 

troni the nrst to the hist, which tornicd the . ■ ^i ii t i i- i ,, / 

. . chair on the floor, and before he could get any 

Constitution. assistance, so lieat and bruised him tliat he 

l>t met on 25th August, 1774, Xcw Berne; died in a i'cw days." 

2d met on 4th April, 1775, Now Berne; 3d A Philadelphia paper, at the time, as to this 

met on 21st August, 1775, Ilillsboro; 4th met occurence, makes the foUowingjat iresprU. 

on 12th April, 177G, Halifax: 5th met on 12th t +1 v i„ „ ^ 

^ _' ' ' ' lu this degenerate age, 

Xovember, 1776, Halifax: which latter body What hosts of knaves engage, 

,, 1 X, ,-, . • , T , -r- , And do all they can 

lormed tiie Constitution on 18th December, To fetter liraver men; 

i77(j DreadinR they should be free. 

Leagued willi the scoundrel pack, 

lie was repeatedly elected to the State Even turkey cocks attack 

The red cap of Liberty. 
In this county resides Thomas Samuel Ashe. 

Congresses, and in 1777 was chosen one of the 

three judges of the Suiu^rior Courts, first 

. , , 1 ,, ] ,, ,,, , ,, ,., .. ,-1 one ot the Associate Justices of the Supreme 

elected under the State Constitution, wliich '■ 

, ^ •,. , , , -, ,•, 1 • 1 .1 Court of North Carolina. 

eie\ateil posuion he held until his death. 

TT \ .■ ., .• ^ -Tbe maxim is correct in history as in other 

He was a member ot the convention at ^. •' 

matters, " Vivoilrs voii licet ritimiiim I'ladarc.^'' 

But our Reminiscences of the State would 

Ilillsboro, in July, 1788, to deliberate upon 

the Fedora! Constitution, its able and active 

T ^ -1 ,. I XI . ■. be incomplete witlnnit a sketch of this worthy 

opponent, and contributed greatly to its re- ... . ', 


Ot Ills character and career as a judge (sine 

citizen. In doing so, however, the advice of 
Othello will bo observed : 

of iliis early day thci'e do not exist any • Speak of me as I am; 

,. ^," n' • • ,. , , Nothing extenuate, or set down aught in malice, 

reports ot tiie decisions irt the courts) we 

kmnv but little; but his long exercise There is no name more familiar to tlie peo- 
oi this high office with the approbation and pie of North Carolina, or more highly appreci- 
respect of liis associates, he was esteemed a ated by them, than that of Ashe. In every 
faithful and able jurist. He died in 1794. contest for liberty, from the earliest period of 
The account of the singular cause of his death, o"'" bistory, whether on tlie field of actual bat- 
as stated in my History of North (Carolina, tie or in the conflicts of politics, there is no 
having been doubted, we extract from the peri;>d when persons of this name have not 
Fayetteville G-izcllc of 17;>4 the following: ]>een first ;ind foremost in the defence of our 
" I)ii:u.-At his .seat in Anson County on the country's rights and liberty, and in the prompt 
2oth ulto., the Honorable Samuel Spencer, resistance to oppression. In grateful apipreci- 
L. L. D,, and one of the Judges of the Superior ation, the State has preserved the name of 

Courts of this State. His Honor's health had a 1 1 • •, • -j. i- 1 ^■ 

1 1 1- • r 1 ,. i. , , Ashe, bv inscrilnng it on one ot lier counties 

been declining tor about two years, i)nt he * 

performed the" last circuit three months since, ''^"^^ '^'" two of her m^)st flourishing towns.* 

and we understand intended to have left home Surely, then, none of ns of the present age, 

in:! few days for this town, where the Superior .yh,, have iniierited the rich legacy won bv 

Courtis now sitting, had it not been for the , . „. 1 , • , , 1 ,. 

f )llowing accident Ivliich it is thought hast- *''''i'' ^''^'"''■' ''^"'^ *'''^'"' ^'''""^' '^''" ["}'''''' *^i^' 

ened his death. respect and honor due to their sacrifices and 

" He was sitting on the piazza with a red cap their valor. 

on his hernl, when he attracted the attention of 

a large turktw gobbler. The judge being sleepy 

began to nod; the turkey mistaking the nod- * Asheville and Ashboro. 


The ancestor of tliis naino, Joliii B^.tistii and elsewhere. Wherever tliey have gone 

Ashe, a century and a lialf a,<;-o, [1730,] op- they are respected for their virtues, and es- 

posed the ahiises and usurpations of the Royal teemed for their abilities. They have occn- 

Governor, Bnrrington, by wlioni he was op- pied, in tlieir adopted homes, positions of 

pressed and imprisoned. His eldest son, in honor, trust, and prolit, illustrated and ele- 

the earliest dawn of our Revolution, was the vated such positions, as Jones, in his Defence. 

decided advocate and defender of popular lias expressed ir, " by genius, tnlent. ami ac- 

rights, and the resolute and unyielding oppo- eomplishmcnts." 

nent of tyranny and oiheial abuse. lie was Another son of John I'.aptista Ashe, and 
the daring patriot that -'bearded tlie ]>oug- whose patrononiic the subject of our sketch 
his in his castle," and defied " the wolf of the bears, was his direct ancestor. 
State," Gov. Tryon, to execute tlie infamous Judge Ashe was born in June, 1<S12, at ilaw- 
Stamp Act of his master. He seized, in his fields, then Orange County, now A'amance. 
very presence, the stamp master, and con>- lie received his education from William 15ing- 
pelled him to pledge himself not to execute ham, the elder, and at the University of the 
the odious enactment. It was he that drove State, v>here he graduated with high honors 
the last of the Roya.l Governors from his pal- in 1832, in the s;ime class with Thorn;. s L. 
ace, destroyed his fort, and compelled him to Ciingnum, James C. Dolibin, Jolni Jl. i laugh- 
seek refuge on hoard of the English man-of- ton, Cadwallader Jones, and other.s. Those 
war in the Cape Fear River. For these acts who kn<iw these names, and their splendid en- 
he was denounced by the Government in a dowments, an.l their briliiaut career in life. 
Royal proclamation. In the cause of popular will ai)preciato the honor attained in such 
rights he v/as willing " to spend and be spent," eompotition. He read law with Judge Huflin, 
and did spend his sul)stance, and was ready to with whom he always was a special favorite. 
lay down his life in the cause of the people. After being licensed to practice law, by the 
Uis course and conduct received, as it deserved, Supreme Court, he settled at Wadesboro, 
the support of the people. " They loved him where he now resides. He was elected a 
because he first loved them." " Xone feared member of the House of Commons in 1842, 
to follow where an Ashe led." So far from and a member of the Senate in 18.^4. 
heeding or f^e:irin.g the fuhninations of power. In the troubled times of the civil war, he 
he resigned the commission he had held in the was elected a member of the Confederate 
Royal service, and by pie Iging his estate be Congress, and in 18G4, a member of the Con- 
soon raised a regiment, which he was unani- federate Senate, but never took his seat, 
mously called to command, and rendered im- In 1808, he was nominated to lead a forlorn 
portant services in the Revolutionary Yfar to hope,astheI)emocraticcan(lidateforGovernor, 
the dav of his death. in o[iposition to Governor Ilolden, and made a 

"This family," says .Mr. Davis, in bis ad- gallant, Init unsuccessful, campaign. In i.s72, 

dress at the University, [1855,] '-contributed he received the unexpected and unsolicited 

largely to the cause of the country in the nomimiti on for tiie Congress of the United 

Revolution— every grown mule of the fam- States; and again in 1874. Ho was triuniph- 

ily." Deep, then, should he our gratitude, antly elected, and served faithfully and u.<e- 

They and their descendants have since per- fully. No member of either party stood higher 

vaded our country, from the Cape Fear to the in Congress for integrity, intelligence, and 

mountains; to Teimes.soe, California, Missouri, fidelity to the Constitution. A mendjcr of 


one of til" iiKist iiiiiKirtaut <('niiiiittoes (t'le Biirgwin, niul lias a lari!:e niid interesting fam- 

.Tuiliciavy), liu cniuiaiuled tlio rnniideiH-o and ily. IIo i.s a nienihcr of tho Ei-iscoi-al Clini-eli, 

respeft of his ass-ciatos, and ninny of their and a consistent and sinecre follower of its 

most important re'iiortswere the vesnlts of his saerod tenets. 

aeninon and jiatieiit investigation. Ur was We eonclndc our feeble sketch in the words 

most attentive to these onerous duties; al- of Cardinal Wolsey of Sir Thomas More : 

ways punctual in his attendance, and rendered He is a. leariiea niaii! 

essential service in their delihci ations. May tie continue I.jue; in tlie i.eoi,le\s favor, _ 

Anil do justice for tnitlis salce and Ins conscience; 

After four years' service in Congress, to the Th;it liis lioues, wlien lie lias done his cour.'^e and sleeps 

universal and profound regret of Ins associ- ]i>f.T.y liave'^Uniiirof orp'ians' tears wept over tliem. 

;'tes, he v,-as retired from Congress In tlio 

,. , . t\ ■ , , , [See Aiipendix, CcneaioaT ot the Aslie 

nominatiiiLC convenlnni ot Ins district, and lie , . ^ 

-, , , . ... , . , r Family. 1 

returned to his pi-otession, which was tarmorc • -' 

germane to his tastes ami his talents tlian the Richard Tyler Bennett was liorn near 

iiustle and excitement of political strife. It is Wadeslioro. IR' was prejured for college by 

well rememheicd by the writer of this sketch, the Anson In.stitiite, under the snpeniitend- 

how universal and sincere, in Congress and out ence of Professor Mclver, and was for a time 

of it, wei-o the expressions of regret at his re- a student at the University, llo read law 

tirement. Th.^ prediction was then made under Chief Justice L'earson, and finished his 

whirh soon became pro[iliecy, that "North legal studies at Lebanon College, Tennessee. 

Carolina was too proud of such a son to allow He ardently entered the Confederate service 

him to remain long in retirement; that soon in the Civil War as a private, refusing the po- 

lie would lie called on to occupy other and sition of an otHeer ; but afterwards, from his 

more elevated [lObitions." This prediction has gallantry and usefulness, was promoted to a 

been verified; for. \\-ithout any intimation or colonelcy. He was engaged in sevt-ral battles, 

exertion on bis part, in .Tune, 187S, be was severely wounded, and finally taken prisoner, 

nominated by the State Convention, on the and confined in Fort Delaware until tlie close 

first ballot, as one of the Associate Justices of of tlie war. 

the Supreme Court, in preference to a score of Since the war he has continually resided <it 
the ablest lawyers of the State. Wadosboi-o, and for some years was the part- 
He was triumphantly elected, at the bead ner of Hon. Thomas S. Ashe, 
of the ticket, by the peojile at the ptdls, and lie yvas a member of the Convention of 
we predict, again, that the ermine v.-oru s > 1375, and of tl;e House in 187-j-'7-1:. He was 
long and so gracefully by our Hall, IIe;ider- selected as elector for this [7th] district on 
son, Taylor, Euitin, Daniel, Caston and otliers the Hancock ticket, and was doing yeouian's 
will suffer no detriment from Judge Ashe. service in this position when he was n imi- 
Judge Ashe is now in the meridian of life, iiated as Sup:'rior Court Judge, in [ilace of 
and there are years of strem^tb and iisefu!ne-s Judge Buxton, resigned, in August, 18S0. 
yet to be employed by him in the interest, of " He is," says tlie Charlotte Dcmorrdf, " a 
the people of a State that love and honor him. gifted advocate, and highly esteemed liy the 
He married a daughter of the late George profession." 




Beauiokt CoiNTY prcsoi'vcs the n;uiie Henry 
Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, aiul although it 
is not within our proposed project, ytt 
we cannot refrain from recording, in a 
short note, the woi'th and charaeter of this il- 
histrioiis statesman. 

AVe copy from the " (iuntk'man's Maga- 
zine," (Loudon, 1803, vol. 73, S)94,) as a beau- 
tiful description of a model gentleman: 

" Died. — At his seat i'admenton. County of 
Gloucester, on 11 Oct., 1803, in liis 59th year, 
the most noble, Henry Sommerset, Duke of 

'•' His Grace will be much lamented Ijy his 
family, friends, and Ins numerous tenantry. 
lie maintained the dignity of liis station 
rather by the noble simjilicity of his manners, 
and his proverbial hospitality, thuii by any at- 
tention to exterior splendor or display of fash- 
ion. It was not his taste to solicit notice by 
any of those attractions at which the public 
gaze with temporary admiration. 

" In politics, he snppnted a tranquil, digui- 
iied iuclependence, and the support ho gener- 
ally gave to His Majesties' ^Ministers, could 
never be attributed to anj- motives but such 
as wereperfecth' consistent with the integrity 
wiiicli distinguished his life." 

He was a distinguished Free Mason; was 
Grand Master of England, and as such com- 
missioned Grand Master Montford, of North 
Carolina, in 1771, to estal)lish lodges in Amer- 
ica, and from whom the Grand Lodge of 
North Carolina holds its charter. He became, 
by purchase of the Duke of Albemarle, pos- 
sessed of the right as one of the Lord's Pro- 
prietors of the Province, which in 1729, re- 
vested in the crown. Worthy is the name 
preserved in our State. 

The capital of Beaufort preserves the name 
{cl'iruin el veneruldc.) of the immortal Wash- 

This name has been so frequently the sub- 
ject of eulogy and admiration, that any at- 

tem[)t to enlarge on his character and sersices 
would be ridiculous excess. P>nt we cannot 
refrain I'rom [jrinting and [ireserving the ex- 
(piisite and truthful extract from Mr. JcfiVr- 

sc:n's works: 

J<'J}'crson\'< Character of Waslthiritoi). * 

Letter IVoin Jefferson to Dr. Walter Jones, 
2d Jan., 1814: 

" I think I knew General Washington inti- 
mately and thoroughly. His mind was great 
and powerful without being of the ver\' first 
order; his penetration strong, thougli not so 
acute as that of a Newton, Bacon, or Locke, 
and as far as he saw, no judgment was e\'er 
sounder; it u'as slow in operation, being little 
aided by invention or imagimition, but sure in 
conclusion, hence the (;ommou remark of his 
officers of the ailvantage he derived from 
councils of war, where, hearing all suggestions, 
he selected whatever was best, and certainly 
ii(> General ever planned his battles more ju- 
diciously. But if deranged during the course 
of action, if any member of his plan was dis- 
located by sutldeu circumstances, ho was slow 
in a readjustment. The couse;pieuce was tliat 
he often failed in the tield, as at Monmouth, 
but rarely against an enemy in station, as at 
Boston and York. He Avas incap.d)le of, 
meeting [levsonal danger with the calmest un- 
concern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his 
character was 'prudence; never acting until 
every circumstance, every co:isideration, was 
maturely weighed, refraining if he saw a 
doubt; imt, when once decided, going through 
with his purpose whatever obstacles opposed. 
His integrity was most pure; his justice ninst 
inflexible I have never known; no motives of 
interest, or cons:inguinity of friendship or 
hatred, i)cing able to bias his decision. He 
was, indeed, in every sense of the word, a 
wise, a good, and a great man. His temper 
v>-as naturally irritable and high-toned; but 
reflection and I'esolution had obtained a fii'm 
and habitual ascendenc-y over it; if ever, 
however, it brolce its bounds, he was most 

■■'FrdUi the Doniubtic Life of Tlios. Jcllerson, by liis 
!Xran<luii.s;litei- Saral! N. Randolph; New York, Harper 
& Urulhers, 1872, p. 356. 



tremendous in his wrath. In liis expenses he 
was honorahle, but exact; liberal in contribu- 
tion to whatever promised utility, but frown- 
\u'j: and unyielding on all visionary projects, 
and all unworthy calls on his charity. His 
heart was not warm in its affections; but he 
exactly calculated every man's value and gave 
him solid esteem proportioned to it. His 
presence, you know, was fine; his stature ex- 
actly what one could wish. His deportment 
was easy, erect, and noldc; the best horseman 
of his age, and the most graceful figure that 
could be seen on horseback. 

" Althougli in the circle of. his friends, 
where he might be unreserved in safety, he 
took a free share in conversation, his collo- 
quial talents were not above mediocrity, pos- 
sessing neither copiousness of ideas nor fluency 
of words. In public, when called on for a 
sudden opinion, he was unready, short, and em- 
barrassed; yet he wrote readily, I'athcr dif- 
fusely, in an easy, correct style. This he had 
acquired by conversation with tlie world, for 
his education was merely reading, writing, 
and common arithmetic, to which he added 
surveying at a later day 

" His time was employed in action cluefly, 
reading little, and that only in agricultui'e and 
English history. His correspondence became 
necessarily extensive, and with journalizing 
his agricultural proceedings, occupied most of 
his leisure hours within doors. 

" On the whole, his character was, in its 
mass, perfect; in nothing bad; in a few points 
indifferent, and it may ti-uly be said, that never 
did nature and fortune combine more perfectly 
to make a man great, and to place in the same 
constellation with whatever worthies have 
merited from man an everlasting remembrance, 
for his was the singular destin}' and merit of 
leading the armies of his country successfully 
through an arduous war to the establisnment 
of its inde[)endence; of conducting its coun- 
cils through the birth of a Government, new 
in its forms and principles, until it settled 
down into a quiet and orderly train, and of 
scrupulously obe^'ing the laws through the 
whole of his career, civil and military, of 
which the history of the world furnishes no 
Other example. 

" He has often declared to me that he con- 
sidered our new Constitution as an experiment 
on the practicability of republican govern- 
ment, and with what dose of liberty man could 
be trusted with for his own good; tbat he was 

determined the experiment should have a fair 
trial, and would lose the last drop of his blood 
in support of it." 

To a friend, on one occasion, Mr. Jefferson 
exclaimed, in a burst of enthusiasm, "Wash- 
ington's fame will go on increasing until the 
brightest constellation in yonder heavens shall 
be called l)y his name." 

' His memory sparkles o'er tlie fduntaiu,' 
His iianiLVs inscrilied on loftiest mountain — 
Tlie gciitU' rill, the miffhticst river, 
Rolls niingted with his iiume forever I 

AVashington, like the great patromia of Beau- 
fort, was an enthusiastic Mason. 

In the language of Mr. Knapp, in his admira- 
ble sketch of Judge Gridley, Grand Master 
of Massachusetts — 

" It was fortunate for the Masonic frater- 
nity that a man of such fine elements should 
become engaged at this early period in the 
cause of tlie craft; his weight of character, his 
zeal and his ability to defend and support its 
cause, was imi^ortant, and did much to diffuse 
Masonic light and knowledge. This order of 
benevolence had just been established in this 
new world when he was appointed its Grand 
Master, and he wore its honors unsullied to 
the last hour of his life. His coadjutor in 
planting and cultivating this exuberant vine 
of charity, with whose fruit all nations have 
been blessed, was the sage and patriotic Erank- 
lin, under whose hands, by the smiles of Prov- 
idence, its roots have struck deeper and 
deeper, and its branches spread higher and 
wider; while the fondest hopes of philanthropy 
have been more than realized in the perma- 
nency Slid the prosperity of our country and 
our craft. If their spirits could revisit the earth 
and take note of what is doing here, with 
what joy would they witness the extension and 
progress of every Ijranch of knowledge among 
their descendants; and with what pleasure 
would they count the number of charitable in- 
stitutions which, like the dews of Heaven, so 
gentl}' spread their blissful influences and shed 
their healing balsams upon the wounds of 

"The history of benevolent and useful iu- 
titutioiis are as valuable to the community as 
are the lives of eminent men. These institu- 
tions are like rivers which spring from remote 
and hidden fountains, and are in their course 



enlarged by a thousand tributary streams, 
wliic'h all uniLo iu one grand current, to swell 
the amount of human happiness and lesson the 
ills wliieh licsh is heir to." 

This trutiiful eulogium may well be applied 
to North Carolina, fcir the men who fought 
for and framed her Constitution were earliest 
and devoted friends to the cause of Free Ma- 
sonry. Among her Grand Masters were Sam- 
uel Johnston, [1788,] Kichard Caswell, [from 
1789 to "92,] Wm. R. Davie, ['92 to 1799,] 
William Polk, [1800 to 1802,] John Louis 
Taylor, [1803,] John Uall, [1801,] Robert 
Strange, [1824,] Edwin G. Reade, [1805,] 
Robert B. Vance, [18(36.] 

These distinguislied men were proud to lay 
aside for a time the sword of the soldier, the 
ermine of the judge, and the laurels of the 
statesman, to labor as fellow-crafts in the 
cause of " Free and Accepted Masons." 

The craft is in a flourishing condition in 
North Carolina. There are now about 400 
Lodges and about 12,000 members, sustaining 
in asylums at Oxford and Mars Hill 134 or- 
phans, and advocated by the Orphans' 
Friend, a periodical. 

An incident worthy of record as to the hu- 
manizing influence of Masonry, even in the 
face of •' grim-visaged war," occurred at the 
battle of Manassas. A gallant Georgia officer 
was shot down as he was forming his company' 
iu line of battle. He refused to be taken from 
the field. His regiment, under an overwhelm- 
ing charge ot the enemy, was compelled to 
fall back, and the poor fellow, unable to move, 
was made prisoner. He was about to be bay- 
oneted, when he gave the Masonic sign of dis- 
tress. The uplifted weapon fell harmless, and 
he was taken up by brotherly hands, his 
wounds attended to, and his sufferings allevi- 
ated. This was Orderly Sergeant O. B. Eve, 
of the Miller Rifles, of Rome, Georgia. 

Many such incidents occurred at other 
times and places, proving the influence and 
value of Masonry. 

The BiiOUNTS of Be.vufokt." 

As early as 1782, General John Gray Blount 
represented the county of Beaufort in the 
Legislature. He was enterprising and success- 
ful in business, and a large land owner. Ilis 
father was Jacob Blount, who was an officer 
at the battle of Alamance and in the Revolu- 
tionar}' War. Jacol) was also the father of 
Governor William Blount, (for .sketch of 
whom see Craven,) who was Governor of Ten- 
nessee, and of Thomas, who was a volunteer 
in the Revolutionary arnu' at the age of six- 
teen, and commanded as major at the battle 
of Eutaw; was a member of Congress in 1793- 
'99 and 180o-'09, and died at Washington 
City 1812. Jacob was also the father of Wil- 
lie Blount, Governor of Tennessee from 1809 
to '1;'). 

General William A. Blount, born 1794, died 
1807, was the son of General John Gray 
Blount, and was well known in North Caro- 
lina, and much esteemed for his genial <iuali- 
ties, his extended and varied abilities, and his 
public services. At the early age of eighteen 
he entered the army of the United States as 
a subaltern, in the war of 1812, and continued 
in the army until the war was over. Such 
were his faithful services that he was promoted 
to the rank of captain. 

On his return from the a'-my he was elected 
major-general of the third division of North 
Carolina militia, a position at that time, in the 
unsettled condition of our aft'airs, of much 
distinction and responsibility. His next pub- 
lic service was as a member of the Legislature 
from Beaufort County, in 1825, and such was 
the acceptabilit}' of his that he was re- 
elected in 1826 and '27. 

When in the [)ublic councils, he advocated 
the most liljeral system of p)uLlic improve- 

*We present under Craven County a careful and elab- 
orate genealogy of the Blount family, which will, we 
trust, be acceptable for reference and worthy of 


luents, and waw for years a member of the " Bein,<^- thus fathered ami thus husbanded" 

Board of Internal Iiinir(_)veuieiits. He was the is the peerless rival of the Portias of ancient 

devoted friend of public schools, and for a Rome. 

lon<^ time a member t.if the Board of Trustees Mr. Cainbreling, of Xew York, born 178G, 

[ap[)ointed 18"25] of the Universit3'; its steady, died 1862. 

active, and consistent friend. Althougli the public services of Churchill 

lie was intensely southern iu liis whole Caklom Cambreling have redounded to the 

course of life; the active opponent of all pro- fame of another State, j-et lie is a native son of 

tection and class legislation; tlie devoted ad- Nortli Carolina; and w^e believe in the divine 

vocate of free trade and ihe rights of the injunction, to "give unto Caesar the things 

States. His course in the Erce Trade Conveii- that are C;csar's." We interid to claim the 

ti(_)n at i'hiladelphia, one of the ablest bodies merits, character, and services of every son of 

that ever assembled in this country, proves his North Carolina, wherever we can find them, 

ardent devotion to principle. The following is a partial list of the native 

But it was at home, iu the exercise of the sons of North Carolina who have distinguished 

kindly charities of life, tlieatfectionate parent, themselves as citizens of other States: 

the obliging and sympliathizing neighbor, the Allen, William, (Oliio,) born in Chowan 

sincere and uncalculating friend, his o}ien- Count}', 

handed charity— ^ ^«'^®' J'^''" ^•' i^^ T^nn.,) New Hanover. 

Cliarity that feels for another's woes, Bynum, Jesse, (La.,)_ Halifax. 

.*.nd hides the faults that we see;— Benton, Tlios. 11., (of Mo.,) Orange. 

,, , • n 1 1 ii 1-^ 11 .. r Bragg, John, (Ala.,) Warren, 

that specially marke<l the hie and character 01 th 1 i\t-\T .n^ , /-, 

^ •' BiDunts, Wilham, (Tenn.,) Craven. 

General Wilham A. Blount. Willie, (Tenn ,) Bertie. 

None that knew him (and the writer knew 
him long and well) can ever cease to remem- 

Cannon, Newton. (Tenn.,) Guilford. 

,. -.. Daniel, J. B, J., (La.,) Halifax, 

ijer lii.-i gonial manner, Ins commanding pres- r^ / < i \ \ 

. . Dargan, (Ala.,) Anson, 

euce, and his knightly bearing. Darby (Miss.) 

!Iis conversational powers were unrivaled; Dixon, Arcliiliald, (Ky.,) Caswell, 

though often inei.sive, pointed and witty, they Eaton, John II., (Tenn.,) Halifax. 

were never coarse or oifeusive. These quali- Etheridge, (of Tenn.,) Currituck, 

ties made him always a welcome, and Forney, W. 11., (Ala,,) Lincoln. 

'• tiie flashes of his wit often set the table in /i , .. i-j-i u m 

Gently, Jncreditli 1., lennessee. 

a Toar." Gause, (of Ark.,) Brunswick. 

O;' him may be truly said as Anthony of the Grant, James, (Iowa,) Halifax. 

noble Biutus— Ilawley, J. K., (Conn.,) Richmond. 

— His life was gentle; and the elements Hawks, F. L., (N. Y.,) Craven. 
So iiii.\ed iu him, that nature might stand up Bishoii (Mo ) Craven 

And say to all the world, this was a Man. ' i' v^- "v 

L.Julius Ca^sar, X,r,.] jaekson, Andrew, (Temi.,) Union. 

He was twice married; first to Nancy Hay- Johnson, Andrew, (Tenn.,) W^ake. 

wood, and second to AiissLittlejohn. By the King, Wm. R., (Ala.,) Sampson, 

first he loft a son, Major Wm. A. Blount, ^^j_^^,^^ G-.ihvid, (Ala.) 

and a daughter, Nancy, who still resides at Mosely, W. D., (Fla.,) Lenoir. 

Raleigh, and who married the lamented Gen. piekens, .Israel, (Ala.,) Mecklenburg. 

L. O'B. Branch. Polk, Jas. K., (Tenn.,) Mecklenburg.'" 


Kuburn Win., (of Go.>i-!j;iu,) Halifax. Felix Walker of Vir.oinia was a nienilior of 

Steele, J. H., (N. II.,) Uowau. *'- 1^'^'. [l^l'-'^^'l 1«^''- ^^-^l,] and 17th, 

Stoker, MoHtford, (Ark.,) ['21-'23] Congress^. 

Will. B., ('l\'nii.,) Flenry W. Connor, of Viriiiiiia, was a nieiii- 

,,.,., ,r ,, rv \T,.>i,n ber of the 19th, 20lli, 2lst, 2-2d, 2.-M, 24tii, 

WInto, lluiili L., (leiin.,) liedell. , i ? > ; 

Williams, Thomas, ( Miss.,) Surry. 25th, and 26th Congresses. 

Benjamin, (Ala.,) Surry. Al)rani W. Veiiably, of Virginia, was a 

• Marmaduke, (Ala ) Surry. niernb.-r of the 30th, [lS47-'49,] Slst, and 32d, 

Wiley, J. Calebs born in Cabarrus County; ^ '^ 'j ' 

niemlier of Congress from Alabama. Congresses. 

liichard C. Puryear, of Virii'inia, was a luem- 

I„ every portion of our nation may be found ^^^^^ ^ . ^,^^ ^^^^ [i8o3-'55] Congress, 

some native sons of the State, who, although ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^. j,,^^^^^ j^,^^^_^^^ ^^..^^ .^ 

separated, have never eeased to love their ,„,„^,,<.,, „^ t,,, 35th Congress. 

dear old mother; and who cherished to the ,^.^,^,,^^„.^,, ,5^,^.,!^,,,^ ,,f Massachusetts, David 

last an abiding alfection tor her-a love un- j^^,^^^^^^^ ^,,. (3,,;,,. j,,!^,^ r^ peweese,of Arkan- 

surpa.sii!g the of woman. ^,^^^ .^_^^^ j,^,^i^ j, i^^.^jj^h, of Xew Ilamp..liire, 

We can say with .Kneas to bis ./„/,.. Arha- ^,^_^ „,e,nbcrs of the 40th [18C7 -'G9] C\.n- 

Quis jam locus? ,, . » James C llari'cr, of reniisvlvaiiia was a 

Oil* regis in tenis uostri, non plena laDoris.* ^ ' 

member of the 41st [1871-7--!J Congress. 

iN.u- has Xorth Carolina be.'ii selfish or churl- .^^^^^ ^,|^.^ , .^j, . (H^tinguished wherever they 

ish to those of otlier Stales who have settled ^.^^.^^^^ |^^^. ^,^^^;,. i,,^!.;,,^;^^^ worth, their unobtru- 

aiid made her borders their home. ^j^.^ demeanor, their abhorence of vice and 

Of the members of the Continental Con- i,,^.^ (,f virtue, their tidelity to their promises 

gress Burke was from Ireland; Caswell from ^^,^^, contracts, their obedience and respect to 

Maryland; Hooper from MassachuseLls; Penii j.^^^._ .^,^_j ^^,,,^.,j elevated by a:i aiii)reciative 

from \'irgiiiia; Willi imson from I'ennsylva- j^.oplo, have been always eq-tal to and never 

"i:i- above or below th.; position they oceuiiied, 

Neither of the signers of the Declaration of ^^^^^ aiseliargcd every duty with integiity, in- 

Independeiice for Nortli Carolina was a native t.^iio-once, to the satisfaction, and a[)prob:ition 

of the State, llewes was a native of New ^^^. ''^,^^;,. ,,o„stituteuts, and honor to the 

Jersey: Hooper, of Massachusetts; Penii, of ^.^^mij-rv 

^ ''"J^""'^- To return to our subject: Mr. Cambreling 

l'enn,of Virginia, also signed the Constitu- ^^..^^ .^ member of Congress from New York 

tion as a Delegate from North Carolina. ^^.-^^^^ f,,^,,^^ ;^^^21 to 1839; chairman of the 

Of the 1st Congress, [1789 to 1791,] Samuel (jommitteeof Ways and Means at one time^ 

Johnston was a native of Scotland; Hugh .„,j „f p^oreign Affairs, which important posts 

Williamson, of Pennsylvania. ^^.^^.^ evidence of the higli appreciation of his 

Of the Gth Congress, [1799-1801,] William transcendent ability as a statcBnian. In 1840 

H. Hill was a native of Massachusetts. j^^ ^^,.^^ appointed Minister to Russia. 

Of the 10th Congress, James Turner was a jjj^ ,^.^,^^^ ^^..^^ .lerived from his great- 
native of Virginia, grandfather, Cluircbill Caldom, whose father 

eiune from Sc^otlaiid ami settled on Pamlico 

*Wliat i)l:ice, wliat countrv. on tlie clobe is not full ,.. ,-\ ^\ t , 1 r 1 .1 

of our labors -Vhgill, 4.^ii. liiver. On the maternal line he was the 



graiulsoM of John J'attnii, a gnllant oftifer of 
the Revohition, nuijor of 2d Keoinieiit of the 
X. C. Line in the Continental Armj, and 
was engaged in the liatth'S of Bi'andywine, 
Geniiantown and Monmontli. Tie was horn 
in Washington, ]]eanfort C'>unty, X. C, 
and educated in Xew Berne. From tlie 
situation of liis family, for he ^\■as early 
an or[ihan, he left school hef'.)re his edu- 
cation was con}[ilete, and went into a store as 
a clerk, llenioved in 18i)2 to Xew York, and 
engaged in niereaiitile pursuits with John 
Jacob Astor, and as his confidential clerk trav- 
eled extensively over tlie world. His reports 
in Congress, especially on commerce and navi- 
gation, were models of research and logic, and 
were re[iul)lislied in England. He died at 
West Xeck, Xew York, on 30tli Api'il, ls62. 
(See " Demo. Review," VII, Xo. 14 — '' Laa- 
man'.s Biographical Annals.") 

George K. B. Singletary. — On the Sth June, 
1862, in a skirmish which ensued across Tran- 
ter's Creek, near Washington, in tins county, 
hetween the 44th Xorth Carolina and a heavy 
force of LTnion tr<)0|)s, fell tlu^ gallant com- 
mander of the Xorth Carolina troops, Colonel 

Colonel Singletary was an experienced and 
gallant ofJicer, and had seen some service in 
the war with Mexico. 

Colonel S. was tlie oldest son of an P^pisco- 
pal clergyman, and much esteemecl for his 
legal ui;quirements and his genial social 

He had married Cora, ehlest daughter of 
Governor .Manly. 

He was succeeded by his younger brother in 
command of the regiment. 

Captain John Julius Guthrie who was 
drowned near Xag's Head in Xoveraber, 1877, 
while endeavoring to succor the passengers 
and crew of the U. S. Steamship "Huron," 
was a native of the town of Washington, the 
son of Dr. John W. Guthrie and his wife 

Elizahi'th, daughter of Captain William Mc- 

Captain Guthrie was no ordinary man, and 
well deserves remembrance for his virtues in 
l)rivate life, and his heoric gallantry. His 
education was conducted by Rev. Dr. Wm, 
MePheeters at Raleigh, and in 1833 he wasj 
appointed a i;adet at West Point; hut prefer- 
ing the adventurous life of a sailor, after one 
year's probation at West Point, his friends 
procured in 1834 a midshipman's warrant in 
tlie Xavy. He served with great acceptability 
at home and abroad, especially in the war 
with Mexico, and in the Anglo-French war 
in China; when our flag was insulted, displayed 
great gallantry and captured Barrier Forts, 
hauling down the Cliina flag, which trophy he 
presented to the State, and for which he re- 
ceived the thanks of the Legislature. 

The following is a copy of th(! letter of the 
Governor, and of the resolutions of the Legis- 

Testimony to Gallantry. 

[Cominunicateil to the Xatioual Intelligencer.] 

E.XEcuTivB Department, 
. Rfilcu/h, Atio;. 23, 1859. 

Sir: I have this day received from Capt. A. 
J. Lawrence a Chinese flag, taken by you in 
an assault upon the barrier forts in the Canton 
river in Xovember, 185G, by tlie forces of the 
United States ships "San Jacinto," -'Ports- 
mouth," and "Levant," as a present in your 
name to the State of Xorth Carolina. 

Having been apprised of your desire to 
make this disp!)sition of the flag, the last Gen- 
ei-al Assembly, by resolutions, authorized nie 
to receive it from you in behalf of the State, 
and at the same time to express to you the 
liigh appreciation of that liodv of your gal- 
lantry on the occasion referred to. and of this 
evidence of your veneration for the State of 
your birth. 

Believing that I cannot discharge this pleas- 
ing duty in a more acceptable manner tlian by 
transmitting these highly complimentary reso- 
lutions, I herewith enclose a copy of tiieni as 
transcribed from the statute book. 

These resolutions, I am well assured, are 



none t!ie less expressive of the ?eiitinieiits of 
the people of the State than of tlieir repre- 
sentatives who enacted tliem; for they have 
ever manifested a lively pleasure at the hon- 
orahle distinctions achieved hy the sons of 
North Carolina in every department of the 
pnhlic service. Every distinguished action of 
the citizens proves useful to the State in the 
example it affords to t!ic youths of the 
countr}', who arc thus apprised of the ixratify- 
ing rewards that ever await a faithful ilis- 
charge of duty. 

This flag, so gallantly taken by you in the 
niaintaiuanoe of the rights and iirotecticn of 
the persons of American citizens in a distant 
land, will he [ilaced among the valued treasures 
of the State, and will he looked upon by 
posterity, impressing all who may see it with 
the sentiments of esteem iti which are held 
the brave conduct of the faithful soldier in 
the service of his country; and to our youths, 
to whom from time to time the story of its 
capture may lie narrated, will bo told that it 
is a tro[)hy for which tliS State is indebted to 
one of her courageous sons who entered the 
service of the country when a mere boy, and 
who, without the aid of fortune or the in- 
fluence of powerful friends, won his way to 
honorable distinction by his own upright 
deportment and gallant spirit. Thus, sir, will 
a valuable lesson be taught them, exciting in 
their l)osoms a laudable ambition to emulate 
like honorable actions. 

Trusting that your career will prove one of 
continued usefulness to the country and dis- 
tinction to yourself, I have the honor to be, 
verv respectful 1\', yours, &c., 

joins' W. ELLIS. 

Lieut. John Jclus Gutiikie, U. S. Xavy. 

Resolutions autliorizins' the Governor of the State 
to receive :i flag tendered to tlie State of North 
Carolina by Lieut. Guthrie, of the U. S. Navy. 

"Whereas John Julius Guthrie, a lieutenant 
in the United States ^'avy and a native of the 
Stat:- of North Carolina, now on ofHcial duty 
at the National Observatory, AVashington, 
D. C, did, on tlie 20( h day of November, 18.')0, 
capture and carry off as a trojdn' of war a 
Chinese flag from the first of four barrier forts 
captured in a combined engagement bj' the 
"San Jacinto," -'I'ortsmouth," and"Levant,"on 
the part of the American naval force, and other 
vessels under the command of Kear Admiral 
Seymore. on the part of the Etiglish, in the 
Canton River: 

.\nd whereas the chastisement inflicted on 
that occasion was in defence of American and 
English citizens residing in that locality, an<l 
had the happy effect of secm-ing to them 
immu;;ity from violence and insult to their 
persons and property: 

And whereas said Lieut. Guthrie has been 
induced by his friends in the city of Raleigh 
and elsewhere to express a willingness to 
tender this flag to his native State, with a 
desire that she would accept it as an humble 
evidence of filial sentiments and atl'ectionatc 
recollection : Therefore — 

R,:s()lval: That the Governor of the State 
be authorized and requested to accept the flag 
thus tendered by Lieut. Guthrie at such time 
and place and in sucli way and manner as may 
appear suitable and proper. 

Rcsolnd finiher: That he bo roiiuested, in 
behalf of this (.ieneral Assembly, to express to 
Lieut. Guthrie its high apiircciation of hi-i 
gallantry on that occasion and tliis evidence 
of his venaration for the State of his birth. 

Resolved tliirJIi/: That the Governor be fur- 
ther requested to nnike such disposition of the 
flag, when received, as he may think this 
trophy of her son deserves. 

Ratified February 16, 1859. 

True copy from the original. 

Gr.\ii.\m Daves, 
Private Sccrciarij. 

Raleigh, August 22, 18.59. 

After service of nearly thirty years, when 
the civil war liroke out, he was under the 
necessity of resigning, and entered into the 
Confederate s-rvicc, where he did efficient 
and a(^tivc duty at New Orleans and elsewhere. 
He was at one time in ommand of the 
"Advance,"running till! blockade hot ween Wil- 
mington and the I>errnn(his. After the war was 
over, ho removed with liis family to I'orts- 
mouth, Va., and in the Fall of 18G5 was 
pardoned by tlie President, (Johnson'.) being 
the first officer of the regular service who bad 
received Executive clemencj". His disabilities 
being removed liy a unanimous reeonmienda- 
tion from the members of Congress, he was ap- 
pointed by Go;ieral Grant to the "Superiu- 
teudciicy of the Life-Saving Stations from 
Cai)0 Henry to Cape llatteras," in the dis- 
charge of the duties of which he lost his life. 



He left a wife (Louisa, dangliter of Benjiuinn 
Spratly,) ami cisildrcn to mourn his loss. It 
was near tlie dreaded Cajie Ilatteras so often 
Iiefoi'o and since the death-place of the brave, 
did tlie gallant Guthrie meet his death. 

This fearful spot has been beautifully and 
fearfully ih-picted in [loetry by another son of 
North Carolina, now, too, no more: 


The Wind Khig from the North came down. 
iS'or slopiied by river, mount, or town; 
!>ut like a i)oisterous god at play, 
l;c^i^tln^s. Ijouudiu.o; oi: lus Wily, 
lie shook the lake and tore the wood. 
And tlapped his wings in merry mood, 
Nor furleil them, till h(^ sided afar. 
The white caps flash on Ilatteras 15ar, 
Where fleree Atlantic landward bowls. 
O'er treacherous sands and hidden shoals. 

lie paused, tlien wreathed his horn of cloud. 
And blew detiance long and loud; 
•'L'ome upl Come up. thou torrid god, 

'that rul'st the Sonlhern Sea! 
ill)! lighlning-eyed and thunder-shod, 

t'ome wrestle here Avith me! 
As tossct thou tlie tangled cane 
I'll hurl thee o'er the boiling main.'' 

The angry lieavens hung dark and still. 
Like Arctic night on Ilecla's hill; 
The mermaids sporting on the waves. 
Affrighted, fled to coral ca,ves: 
The liillow checl-ed its curling crest. 
And, trembling, sank to hudilen rest; 
All ocean stilled its heaving breast. 
Reflected darkness, weird and dread, 
An iidvy plain the waters spread — 
So motionless, since life was fled! 

Amid this element;'.! lull, 
V\lifn uatui'edied, and death lay dull, 
As though itself were sleeping there- 
Becalmed uiion tliat ilisnial Hood. 
Ten fated vessels iilly stood. 
And not a tindjer creaked! 

■•Come up! Come up, thou torrid god. 
Thou lightning-eyed and thunder-shod. 
And wrestle here v,ith me!" 
Twas heanl and answered: "Lo! I come 

From azure Carribee, 
To drive thee, cowering, to thy home, 
Au'l inelt its walls of frozen foam." 

From every isle and mount;iin dell, 

I'T'om plains of pathless ch;iparral. 

From tide built bars, where sea-birds dwell. 

He drew his lurid legions forth — 

And sprang to meet the v.diite-plumed North 

Can mortal tongue in song convey 
The fury of that fearful frayV 
How ships were splint(^red at a blow — 
Sails shivered into sla'cds of snow— 
And seamen hurled to death below! 
Two gods commingling, liolt and Ijlast, 
';he huge waves on each otlier cast. 

And bellowed o'er the raging waste; 
Then sjied, like harnessed steeds, afar, 
'that drag a shattered liatlle-ear 
Amid the midnight din of war! 
Smile on, smile on, thou watery hell, 
And toss those skulls upon thy shore; 
The failor's widow knows thee well; 
His children beg from door to door. 
And shiver, while they strive to tell 
How thou hast robbed the wretched poor! 

[Jos. W. HOLDEN.] 

This theme has also inspired the pen of lu 
earlier poet: 


[From lh( 

National Gazette, I'hiladelphia. Mondav. 
-Tan nary IG, 1792.] 

In fathoms five, the anchor gone, 

While here Ave furl the sail, 
No longer vainly laboring on 

AgaiiiSt the western gale; 
While here thy bare and barren cliffs. 

O Hatteras, I survey. 
And shallow grounds and liroken reefs; 

\N hat shall amuse my stayV 

The Pilot comes. From yonder sands 

He slioves his banjuc so frail. 
And hurrying on, with busy hands, 

Employs both oar and sail. 
P>eneath this rude, unsettled sky 

Condemn'd to jiass his years; 
No other shores delight his eye. 

No foe alarms his feavs. 

In depths of woods his hut he builds. 

Where ocean round him flows. 
And blooming in the barren wilds 

His simple garden gruws. 
His wedded nymph, of sallow- hue, 

No nungied colors grace. 
For her he toils, to her is true. 

The caiitive of her face. 

Kind nature here, to make him blest. 

No quiet harbor plann'd. 
And i>overty. his constant guest, 

Ke^lrainsthe lurate band. 
His hopes are all in yonder flock 

Or M)me few hives of bees. 
Except, when lioun<l for Ocracock.t 

Some gliding banpie he sees; 

His Marian then he (piits with grief. 

And spreads his tottering .sdls. 
While, waving higli her haialkerchief. 

Her commoilore she hails. 
She grieves, and fears to see no more 

Tlie sail that now forsakes, 
From Ilatteras' sands to banks of Core. 

Such tedious journeys takes. 

Fond nymph! your sighs are breath'd in vain. 

Picstr'ain those idle fears. 
Can you, that should relieve his pain. 

Thus kill him with your tears? 
Can absence thus beget regard, 

Or does it only seem? 
He comes to meet a wandering band 

That seeks fair Ashlevs stream. 

BEvrFoirr county 


Tlio"(lisiiii)Oiiit('(l ill his vipws, 

>.'iit joyless will we |iart; 
Xor sliHll the f;()(l of iiiirth refuse 

Thr halsuiu of the he;iit. 
No iii^rSiU'l key sh:ill lock up joy; 

I'll sive liiiii hiilf iiiv store, 
Will he hut h;ilf liis skill eiuphiy 

'I'o guard us from your shore. 

Where western sjales once more awako 

What (lansers will he near. 
AlMs! I see the billows hreak. 

Alas! why came I here? 
With (piartsof rum ami pints of gin, 

<M). pilot, seek the land, 
And drink till you and all your kin 

Can neither sit nor stand. 


* Written off the Cape, .July, 1780, on a voyage to 
South Carolina, being detained sixteen days with strong 
g;iles ahead. 

t All vessels from the northward tha" pass within 
riatteras Shoals, bound for New IJerne and other places 
on Pinilico Sound, commonly, in favorable weather, 
take a Hatteras pilot to conduct them over the danger- 
ous bar of Oenieock. eleven leagues \V. S. W. of the 

Edwafd Stanley represented Ueaut'ort Coun- 
ty in lS-i-l-'46 and "48, ami was often Speaker 
of the House. 

He was elected Attorney-General in 1847, 
and a member of Conij:ress from 1837 to 1843 
and from 1849 to 1853. He removed then 
[1853] to California, to practice his profes- 

In 1857 he was tiie Republican candidate 
for Governor, and was defeated, receiving 
21,040 votes to 53,12:^ for the Democratic can- 
didate, AYeller. 

After the capture of ^ew Berne [14th March, 
18(52,] he was appointed by Mr. Lincoln Mili- 
tary Governor of 2sorth Carolina, which, after 
a few months, he resigned, and returned to 
Sau Francisco, where he died, on the 12tli 
July, 1872. 

We would fain tread lightly on the ashes of 
the dead, but faithful history demands, like 
Cromwell of his artist, " Paint me as I am, 
warts and all." 

Mr. Stanley was considered as a decided 
party leader in Congress, and acquired an un- 
happy reputation for an over-indulgence in 
vindictive feelings and ultra denunciation of 
his political opponents. This nnhaiipy trait 

of character, as was to be e.Npcctcd, invtdvcd 
him in tVeijuent didit-nlties, political and per- 
sonal. Perhaps it was constitutional, and a 
fatal iiilueritani'C; for his fathei had, in a 
political ([uarrel, killed Governor Spaigbt, and 
was considered aggressive and \iolent in his 
political conduct. Iidieriting this trait, Mr. 
Stanley had, in Congress, involved himself in a 
violent personal idtercation with his colleague, 
Hon. Thomas L. Clingman; another with 
llini. Mr. Inge, of Alabama, which terminated 
in a duel, and with Govii-nor Wise, of Vir- 
ginia, who aiiplied a i'i(ling-whi[i to his shoul- 

His career as Military Governor of North 
Carolina was a failure, not meeting the ap- 
jirobation of those who sent him, and destroy- 
ing his ri'putation with those with whom he 
Was reared, and by whom he had been hon- 
ored. The most notable achievement of his 
mission was his letter to General D. II. Hill, 
of 24th March, 18()2, abounding in bitterness, 
in which he declared that he " preferred serv- 
ing in a bi'igade of negroes " than to belong 
to the troops eoniniatulud by General Hill, 
who then was defending Mr. Stanley's native 

Wliatever motives influenced Mr. Staidey to 
undertake so hopeless a mission, all his at- 
tempts to compromise the difficulties were 
idle and abortive. The bloody chasm had 

0])ened its ponderous jaws, 
and any endeavt>r to heal the dissensions be- 
tween the excited belligerents only tended to 
bring suspicion from one side, and liatred from 
the other. 

The following letter, from one of the first 
men in point of ability in North Carolina, and 
a near kinsman of Mr. Stanley, shows public 
oiiirnon as to Mr. S.'s course, and the state of 
public afl'airs at the unhaiipy period, and de- 
serves to be preserved. It was written to 
Hon. Alfreil Ely, who was a member of Con- 
gress from New York, and was at the battle 


of T>ull Run as a s[ioctat(ir. He was taken York was so threatened, what avouM be 3-oar 

prisoner, and at the date of this letter was an feeiin-s and purposes? From these, you may 

inuiate of the Lihby I'rison in Richmond: •^"'c.^Vo h!ok\vith horror at the thought of 

'• Mr.ELY:-Your letter to Mr. Stanley, pro- l^-^^'S -'J^ain "nited in any political connection 

• „ v- 1 :, J. u„,.- 1 +1 „ r r L- './tt • witli t le ^ortii. We would rather, rar, that 

posinsr to him to cheri.^h the leehng ot " Llni- ^,^ ^ , , -, , ^ , ,• ^t^' \ ^ 

■ )5 • A^ J.1 ri .. r t- \ 1, our htate should lie a Colonv or England, or 

onism m Aorth Carolina, came to mv hands p, or- ' .-^ > 

in an unsealed envelope, directed to liiy wife. -^^ ran<-;e> "f feiy-i'i'iii^- 

T + 1-, +1 , i;i .„f„ .+• : ff!,, .. „ .-, ■.;„i,f ,,, . iiie JNorth mav no able (thuUii-h we do not 

i take the libertv ot settuiir you riofht upon a i ,• ■, , , " i , i 

+■ f „, 1 ,),.,„;,■;„ „ ,„ ,„i Tf „ i,.7 ,1 + 1 believe it) to conrpier us, and even to keep us 
lact, and showing vou what a hoijcless task / , -J-. i , , i ^, • '■ , 

YOU have proposed to Mr. Stanley. conquered, and it it shonld he the wise and 

^ "There i.s no Union feelin- in A^n-th Caro- f «'^ pu-pose ot he Almighty' that this sl.ould 

lina, as vou suppose, and is probably supposed '.=^l'f"^"' '^^ «''='" .f/'^^eavor to suffer with pa- 

1 ., (-1,, ^. ., ,,. .ni,, ^v AT ..,fi,„„, ,„ ' tience whatever ills may beiall u-; but a vol- 
liv the generality ot JNorthern men. ^ ^ ^ "^ ■ -..i \\ v ^i 

- ' untaiy return to any union with the iStU'th, 

-There ,/v,s m this State a veiy strong ^^^ cannot, will not, accept on any terms -a 

I nn.ii teelmg— a strong love tor the Union as revival of any Union sentiments is an imi)OS- 

established by our foretathers — but as soon as sil)ilitv. 

Mr. Lincoln's proclamation of Aiiril, 18(11, an- ,, t i i • , .i ■• ii iti. .i , 

pearcd, offering us the altermitive of joining ,l*'"",''-- ^^'^^'''Z' , '^ ^^'^', •>''-" '""'f-^ '''' 

an armed i.iytision of our Southern Siste' well _toadv,se Mr. btanloy to abandon his en- 

States, for their subjugation, or resisting the a u- teipiise. 

thorities .,f the Unified States, our 'p<)siti(m " He a Governor of North Carolina! a (:}ov- 

was taken without a moment's hesitation. A ^nior deriving his authority from a commis 
Convention was promptly called, and instant- 

.sion of Mr. Lincoln! 

I}-, without a dissenting voice, that Conven- " The ver}- title isan insrdt to us. The ver}^ 
tion resolved to take oiir sides witli the al- appointment is the assumption of the rights of 
ready seceded States, and siiare their fate for a conqueror. But we ai'e not yet conquered, 
good or evil. From tliat moment, however And do 3H)u think Mr. Stanle^-'s coming liere, 
we may have differed in other things, there in such a cliaracter, supported by Xortherii 
has not been, and there is not, any difference; bayonets, serves toconimeiHl him to our favor; 
hence our people with one heart s^jrung to to breathe in us the gentle sentiments of amity 
arms. Our people have now nearly si.xty regi- and peace toward himself or those who sent 
nients in the field, (not skeletons, but full him here? Mr, Ely, as you huve opened a 
regiments,) and among them not a single con- correspondence with Mr. Stanley, you had bet- 
script or drafted man. Hence we have taxed ter wi'ite to him yours-df, and say this to him: 
ourselves freely; havjj useil our credit freely " If he wishes tlie honored name of St:inluy 
in making loans to support the war. The" to lieconie a. bye-word and a reproach, and to 
sjiirit which has produced this has never be s[ioken with scorn and hatred by all Xorth 
fl:igged; hut is now as high and active as at Carolinians henceforth and forever, let him 
first. prosecute his present mission. If hs does not 
" .Mr. Ely, think a moment ! We liave been wish this, let liim return whence he came, and 
in\-adcd by an enemy as unrelenting and fe- leave us to fight out the contest as l»est we 
rocious as the hordes under Attilla and Alaric, may, without bis interference, 
wlio overrun tlie Roman Empire; he comes to "George E. r>.U)GEK." 
rol) us; to murder our people; to insult our ,,., ,,,-,, . , ,. , 
women; to enumcipate our slaves, and is now ^^ "^■'^'>'''' ^^''^ ^t'lulcy ever re.'Cived this let- 
preparing to add a n.'W element to this most ter or read it we are not advisjd; but, as al- 
atrocious ag/ression, and involve u.-s in the rendy stated, he soon resigned his post, went 

direful horrors of a civil war. He proiioses , ,-, ,-.• • r i i ^ i 

,, • 1 .ki i.- 1 i i- ,1 to (.'a iiirnia, irom whence be never retuL'ni-(. 

nothing else than our entire destruction ; the 

desolation of our country; universal emanci- Ri't '>^ to Judge Radger, when the finale of 

patiou — not from a love of the slaves, but from the unhap[)V contest was s.Htied, and all the 

hatred to us. 'To crush us;' 'to wipe out hoi)cs, as e.xi.ressed in the foregoing graphic 
the bouth;' to involve us i\\ irremediable , ... . , . ' , 

misery and hopeless ruin. IMqv, were destroyed, his majestic mmd sunk 

" Now, .Mr. Ely, if your own State of New under the Idow. Like some gallant shi[i in her 


proud career is suddenly tlirowu on liidden AViu. A. Rlduut, wliose liiograjiliy \vc liave 

and perilous roiks, quivers under the disaster, just [iresented. 

and iinally sinks under the overwlielniing He studied law and has attained the highest 

waves to ilarkness and to death. He died soon rank in liis [jrol'ession. His o|iinions as a 

after the war, [IStJti,] paralyzed in hody and Judge of the Supreme Court are considered by 

enfeebled in intellect. many as models of research and learning. To 

The ruins of the noblest man some, however, "that glorious uncertainty" 

That ever lived hi tide of times. g,-, ppoverbial to tlie law, is apparent in his 

Richard Spaight Donnell, born 1820, died rulings. Yet he is much esteemed by the pro- 

1865, represented this county in the Senate in fession as a just and learned jurist. He has 

1858, and in the Commons in IStid, '()2 and never mingled mucli in politics, for, like 

'64; and in the latter two sessions he was Alichuel Angcio of his profession, he tliinks 

elected Speaker. In 1847 he was elected a the law too jealous a mistress to allow an}' 

member of the 30th Congress, at the earlj- age rival in his affections. Like Hooker in his Ec- 

of twenty-seven. clesiastical Polity, he believes " of law there 

He was educated partly at Vale, and gradn- can be no less acknowledged than that her 

atcd at the University of North Carolina in seat is the bosom of Giod; her voice the har- 

1839. ii.ony of the world. All thing-- in heaven and 

He studied law and arose to high distinc- e.irtli do her homage; tin; veiy lea^t, as feel- 

tioii in the profession. He wrote in 18'!3 a ing her care; and the greatest, as not exempt 

letter on " the rebellion," wliich gave him from licr power. Both angels and men and 

mucii reputation as a statesman. creatures of wiiat condition soever, though 

Blest with a competency, if not a super- each in different sort and manner, yet all 
iiuit\' of estate, lie pursued his profession and witli uniform consent admiring her as tlie 
piditics more as an aniusement than forprotit motlier of their peace and joy." 
or promotion. Edward J. Warren lived and died in Beau- 
He was much loved by all who knew iiim fort County. He was a native of the State of 
for bis genial and gentle manners, his modest, Vermont. Came to North Carolina and set- 
un;issuming temper, and high-toned princi- tied in Washington, as a teacher. 
pies. As a man, he was just and faithful; as He read law and attained great eminence in 
a lawyer, of learning and probity, and as a the profession. He represented the county in 
statesman, above all intrigue or reproach. the Senate in 18G2 and 1SG4, and was Speaker 

He died unmarried, and his memoiy is en- of the Senate. He was appointed by Governor 

baluied in the affections of all who knew him. Worth one of the .ludges of the Superior 

"William Blount Kodman,born 29th January Court. 

1817, represented Beaufort County in the He marrie<l Deborah, daughter of Bichai'd 

Convention of 1868. He was elected one of Bonnor. He died in 1878, much esteemed 

the Justices of the Supreme Court, the term and regretted, leaving C'harlesF. Warren, now 

of whicli expired in 1878. at the bar, and Lucy, who mari-icd William 

He was educated at the University of North Rodman Myers. 

Carolina, and graduated in 1836 with the first James Cook, late a captain in the Confed- 

honors. crate Navy, says Dalton, was a native of Beau- 

His mother was the daughter of General fort, Carteret County, N. C. His name should 

John Gray Blount, and the sister of General be preserved among •' the men of North Caro- 


lina." [lis terrific eiigng-cineiit wliiie ooni- daring cliaraeter, and Ins tragic end, make iiis 

inaiidiiig tlic Confederate i^teaiiier " Albe- liiHtory interesting. 

marie" with the Federal fleet, and clearing lie was born in October, 1828, near the sea, 
tlie Soniid and tlie Roanoke river, after the (his father lieing for years collector of customs 
capture of I'lymouth ijy General Robert E. at Oci-aeock Inlet,) and possessed naturally a 
Hoke, who wjs so alilv seconded by Gem-ral love fir the ocean, which became the ruling 
M. W. Ransiun, was a feat unparalleled in the passion of his life, and eventually his grave, 
aniuds of our naval warfare. Never before At the early age of 10, he left home on his 
hail the size of such guns and the weiglit of first voyage, and in 1848, he shiiijied as an 
their crushing missiles been directed against ordinary sailor before the niast,on the United 
any sini:le vessel. Yet she struggled through States steamer " Oregon," on a voyage from 
it, having luid the misfortune to have carried Xew York to San Francisco, via Cape Horn, 
away oue-lialf of one of the two guns she took Ilis diligence, attention, and good conduct, 
into the action. She was literally loaded down were so nurkod that he was make first officer 
liv the en^.'my's shot, and in this condition liad of the ship " Ciilumbia," on the dangjrous and 
to fight to the end, until she gained a [lort of tlic^n unknown coast of Oregon. When s:)me 
refuge. <l:iys at sea, the ship was discovered to lie on fire. 
During the pci'ilous ordeal, Ca[itain Cook She had on board 400 troops, under tho corn- 
was calm and collected; no excitement marked mand of (leneral Wool. The coolness, intre- 
Jiis conduct. Quietly did he give his orders, pidity, and energy of young Tayloe, on this 
and his men partaking his spirit, promptly and perilous (occasion, contributed greatly to the 
rpiietly obeyed. saving of the ship, passengers and crew. This 
Captain Cook was as modest in his deport- was exiiressod in the grateful thanks of tiie 
mcnt as he was brave and fearless in action, passengers l)y resolutions. 

Had such an exj)loit occurred under the Eng- On his return to San Francisco, the war in 

lish flag, Cook would have ranked with the Nicaragua was found to be the exciting ques- 

Nelsons and Wellingt(Uis of his age; but, as it tion of the day, and ottered allurement to the 

is, he sinks into (obscurity, firgotteu, almost, daring. He tendered his services to General 

l)y his 'i.ative State, upon which he \Valker, and was assigned to the command of 

shed such imperishabde honor. He was the fleet of steamers and gunboats on the Lake 

then in very delicate health, and after of Nicaragua. He more readii}' engaged i;i 

this terrible conflict, nevei' completely this expedition of "the gray-eN'ed nnm of 

recovered again. Soon after this battle his destiny," since liisyoungcr brother, James, was 

brave spirit winged its fiiglit from the bosom an otiicer in Walker's army, and had borne a 

of his family, iri Portsmouth, Virginia, tojoin conspicuous part in many desperate battles 

the spirits of his gallant comrades that had from the breaking out of the war. It was 

gone before him, where merit is rewaided, then and here that I foi'med the acquaintance 

and not success alone, as in this vale of of these two gallant young men. I was at this 

sorrows. time the Minister Resident of the United 

Charles Frederick Tayloe, son of Colonel States near the Republic of Nicaragua, and I 

Joshua Tayloe, who represented Beaufort was much pleased with their modest and in- 

County, in 1844, in the Senate of the State telligent conduct. James fell in battle in the 

Legislature, should iu)t l)e forgotten. Ilis desperate endea\'or to raise the seige of 

sliort and eventful life, his chivalric and Grenada, thus relieving General Ilcnniugseu 


and liis conimatHlJjcloagiiered hy the tro(>i)S of alone eoulil not lia\e clt'ectt'd tliis, Imt our 
Guatemala. It may not bo uninteresting to Government, under lead of Go\ernor Marev 
record here tlie true facts in relation to this and others, denounced Walker, althongli 
expedition in which ro many nf our country- I'resident I'iorce riTcived I'adro \'ijil as the 
men took part, and whore f;o iiuuiy and valu. Kuvoy and Minister I'lenipctehtiary of Walk- 
able and enterprising lives were siicrificed. er's gove.-nnieut, and autl>')rized Captain 
The character and the objects of this expedi- J)avis, of the United States Xavy, to take 
tion have never been understood or fairly Walker and bring him to the United States; 
stated. Now, when more than a quarter of a which was done. I>ut soon Walker again re- 
ccntury has jnissed, and prejudice and passion turned to Central America, when, under or- 
subsided. the truth sliould appear. When 1 di-i-s, lu' was again seized by Commodore Paul- 
arrived in Nicaragua, I t\)und the republic ding and brought to the Unit(Hl States. This 
convulsed in civil war. War is the normal act was pr-uiDuncvd by the I'resident " a grave 
condition of Central ' America. The two error," and s.'vei'ely deuMuuvd in Congress, 
parties, the Democratic, headed by General and very gtnierally l)y the press of the country 
Casteilon, and tlieLegitimists, by General Cha- a^ unjust and iinccuistitutional. 
u'.ora, waged a fierce and bloody interneiniie ^A'alkel• again embarked inr Centi-al Am.'r- 
conte.-t. The Democratic party sent agetits to ica, and landed Avlth a few troops in Jlondii- 
California for men and arms. These engaged, where, aftt'r sun- l.l.iody and successful 
the services of General Walker ami others, skiinnsbing with the Honduras tro )ps, he en- 
who became en!i.sted in their service, and camiied near Truxillo. While here a superiir 
Walker was placed in command of a regimeiit, force, dis[iatehed by Captain Salmon, of the 
and became a naturalized citizen of Nieara- Dritisb man-of-war - I;-ariis,'' under coni- 
gua. He soon, by his energj- and activity, maud of Ahare/., of the lloiiduias army, de- 
trained the ragged, barefooted and half-naked mauded of Walker his Burre:ider. Walker 
natives to become disciplined trooi)S, and as then swvveudowd to tli.- Briiix/i offjci-r, \v\h) lic- 
such led them to victory. He soon took the livered him to the Honduras autlioi-ities. 'i'iie 
towns of San Juan del Sur,Virgin Bay,and the next day [12th Seiitember, l.SOOJ he wasshor. 
cities of liivas and (irenada, the latter die His fate was melancholy and undeserved, 
capital and a city of ly,OiJU inhabitants. I Dmibtless Walker bad faults, but he supplaut- 
Witnessed this battle, which was of short dur- ed a govei'ument of ignoranee, superstiti ui, 
ation, and which completed the conquest of indolence, indjeoility, and treachery. Had he 
the republic. The President of Nicaragua succeeded, he would have ri\-aled the fame ■);' 
fled, and after a short interim. Walker was Houston, and added to the area of human lib- 
elected President. Amei-icans from New York, erty and enjoyment. Compire the present con- 
New and California, and almost every dition of Texas and Calif u'liia now with wh it 
State of the Union, flocked to " this El it was under the rule of Mexico. There is a 
Dorado." Peace and prc)sperity for the time destiny in the affairs of nations, as well as of 
smiled on this beautiful country. men. 

From the natural fondness of these people Captain Tayloe, after the failure of Walk.T. 

for war and revolution, the other republics of was ordered to conduct his command through a 

Central America (as Costa Rica and Guate- trackless and almost inaccessible route, from 

mala) proclaimed hostility, and deterruiued to Rivasto Point Arenas, duringwbich marchthev 

drive the Americans from the country. They suffered every i)rivation that famine, disease, 


savage i'ocs, venomous reptiles, and a torrid eonntrynian; bnt neither sea nor time can 

climate could inflict. They reached I'oiiit bury his virtues and his gallantry from our 

Arenas worn down by exertion. He then memories, our sympathies, or our affections. 

embarked in abria^ to Panama, and from thence xoll for the brave! 

on the regular steamer to California. . ,T''«^ H'T'^ ^^''^^ 'i™ "" """"^^ ' 

. . . All sunk lieneath the wave, 

After remaining in San Francisco a few Fast by their native shore. 

weeks to recruit his exhausted s^-stem, in Toll for the brave ! 

-iQrPTi 1 iir 1-1 II- i- 15rave Tayloe ! he is gone; 

1857 lie omharked tor ins iiome and his native uj^ i^gt sea fight is fonu-ht 

land, a ]iiiss( iiger on the steamer "Central H is work of glory done. ' 

America." This gallant ship had nearly com- Toll for the brave! 

pleted her voyage, and was in sight of the It has been suggested as proper to recall 
home and birthplace of our hero, where his at- some furtlier memoiies of Central America, 
fectionate pai'cnts anxiously were awaiting and of a long residence in that interesting 
the return of their "war-worn son" when tlie country at a most exciting period. Even at 
alarming discovery was announced that the this day this countr}' is of rare interest, form- 
ship had sprung a leak. Young Tayloe, al- ing as it does the connecting link between 
though only a passenger, was the first to tender the two great oceans, and which from recent 
his services to the noble Ileriidoii; and tVom surveys by Caj^tain Lull, of United States 
that time until the brig " Marine " rounded to Navy, and others, will be the probable route 
under her lea, he was foremost in relieving the of the oceanic canal. 

steamer; working at the pumps until they were The resignation of Hon. Solon Borland 

■exhausted and useless. Wlien all hope of sav- caused a vacaiuT in the Mission to Central 

ing the steamer was abandoned, he remained America, and without any solicitation or ex- 

at his post, an example of coolness, of courage pectation on my part, my name as Minister 

and seamanship. He was indefatigable in aid- Eesident to the Republic of Nicaragua, was 

ing the ladies, children and others in embarking sent to the Senate, and on the 2d August, 1854, 

on the relieving ship, and could have saved (my birth-day) I received from the State De- 

himself but for his attention to others. But partment my commission. This was consid- 

on con.sideration with the otficers it was de- ered, from the position of the country and the 

cided that the ship would continue aiioat till complications as to the protectorate assumed 

daylight, and as did Captain Ilerndon and our by England, as an important and delicate 

lamented John V. Dobbin, (brother of James mission. Mr. Everett, of .Massachusetts, in 

C. Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy ],s5o-'57,) March, 1853, stated in the Senate that " it was 

Captain Tayloe retired to his stateroom, more important than the mission to London 

seeking that repose that his continued labors or Paris." After waiting for instructions and 

demanded. arranging my private affairs for a long ab- 

In the course of the night a huge wave sence, with my family I departed from Nor- 

swept with violence the ship's decks, and she folk, Virginia, on 31st October, 1854, on board 

went suddenly down with all on board, the U. S. steam frigate "Princeton," com- 

Thus perished, off his native coast of North manded bj' Captain Henry Eagle. We 

Carolina, near Cape Hatteras, one of her touched at Havanna for a supply of coal, and at 

boldest, bravest sons. Pensacola we went on board the " Columbia," 

The eternal sea in its dark waves have swal- the flag-ship of the home squadron, corn- 
lowed up the mortal remains of our gallant manded by Commodore Newton, a model of- 



ficer and .accomplished c;cntleni;ui, who hiiuh^d 
us in December, 1854, after a long voyage of 
nearly thirt}' days, at 8aii Juan del Norte. 
The mild climate, the gorgeous foliage and 
rich scenery, created pleasvn-e and surprise. 
One can hardly realize, who has never visited 
the tropics, the mildness and beauty of the 
climate; the very air is redolent with the 
fragrance of fruits and flowci-s, to breathe 
which renders existence itself n luxury. The 
evenings are still more delicious. These have 
been graphically described. 

" By and by night comes on; not as it comes 
to our northern latitudes, but it falls suddenly, 
like a rich drapery, around you. The sun goes 
down with a glow, intense and brief. There 
is no lingering twilight, but suddenly the stars 
burst forth, lightening, one by one, the hori- 
zon. They come in a laughing group, like 
bright-eyed children relieved from school, and 
reflected from tlie lake they seem to chase each 
other in frolicsome play, printing sparkling 
kisses on each other's luminous lips. The low 
shores, lined with heavy foliage of the man- 
groves, looked like a frame of massive antique 
carving around the mirror of tlie quiet lagoon, 
acrossWhose (juiet surface streamed a silvery 
shaft of light from ' the Southern Cross,' pal- 
pitating like a young britle at the altar. Then 
there were whispered ' voices of the night,' 
the drowsy winds hushing themselves to sleep, 
and the gentle music of the little ripples of 
the lake, pattering with fairy feet along the 
sandy shore. The distant heavy and monoto- 
nous beatings of the sea, and the occasional 
sullen plunge ot some marine animal, gave a 
novelt}' and enchantment to the scene, and 
entranced my senses during the delicious hours 
of iny iirst evening alone with nature on the 
Mosquito Shore."* 

AVe could well ask, with Kodgers: 

Tliis region is surely not of earth. 

Was it not dropped from Heaven V 

Not a grove hut is of citron, iiine. or cedar; 

Not a grot, sea worn, and mantled with tlie gadding 

But breathes encliantment. 

This lovely region, where Providence has 
done 80 much and man so little for himself, 

* '* Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore;" 
by Samuel A. Baird. 

we found, as already slated, itivolved in the 
tumults of civil war. As we journeyed to Cas- 
tillo, some seventy miles up the river, the 
marks of blood spilled in a battle fought on 
the day before on the wharf on which we 
landed were sec^n. As before stated, both i)ar- 
ties claimed to be the supreme power of the 
government. The Democratic party, headed 
by Castillon, held iiu)st of the repuldic except 
Grenada, and bad that city under close siege. 
I was assured that this would be soon raised, 
and the Legitimists resume the authority of 
government. I was instructed to present my 
credentials to " the President of Nicaragua." 
Now a knotty diplomatic problem came up, 
which I alone must solve. A mistake would 
be fatal. I applied for instructions, but none 
came. Mr. Stephen-:, a [iredecessor, was in- 
volved [1841] in a similar quandary. He 
tried in vain. Once, as he states, he 
thought " he came very near discovering a 
live President. But suddenly' he vamosed on 
the back of a mule." Mr. Squire [1849] did 
tind a rivsident in Bamirez. But when Mr. 
Kerr [in IB.Jl] came he was not so successful, 
for the republic, as now, was in civil war. 
Mr. Borland, my immediate predecessor, did 
find a President, (Don Fruto Chamoro,) but 
he is now beleagui'ed by superior force, and 

By instructions of the Government, I re- 
mained some time in Greytown, or San Juan 
del Norte, engaged in collecting testimony as 
to the destruction of property by the bom- 
bardment of Greytown [9th July, 1854] by 
Captain Hollins, and then went to Virgin Bay, 
on Lake Nicaragua, where I remained three 
months, during which time the siege of Gre- 
nada was raised. General Chamoro died of 
cholera, and General Estrada was declared 
President and assumed the duties, and in 
April, 1855, 1 was recognized by him as the 
Envoy Resident, and raised the flag of the 
United States at Grenada. 


Under instructions, a treaty was formed the profession of medicine and acquired 

[20tli June, 1855] of amity and commerce. l-:nowlcdg-o from the ablest masters, yet he 

The President was kind and polite, and more saw and felt that it was not as auspicious as 

of a poet and musician than a soldier or states- the profession of the law for an ambitious and 

man. Our intercourse was kindly and pleas- aspinng temperament. He entered the law 

ant, and the republic was quiet. But it was otlice of Edward and Andrew Ewing, and 

only the lull that precedes a fearful storm, remtiined there two years. He was admitted 

The agents of the Democratic party succeeded to the bar in .Tune, 1847, at New Orleans, 

at San Francisco in engaging the services of His active temper still sosigbt additional 

William Walker, and on the 4th of May, 1855, action, and he entered the stormy sea of 

he embarked on the brig ''Vesta" for Nicaragua, politics. He became editor of the New Orleans 

with fifty -two followers, to invade a territory Crrscoit. 

of more than 200,000 people. Was the act of In Jul^', 1850, he went to California, and 

Cortez in burning his ships after landing bis was connected with tiie Z>(»7y iZti/v/ZiZ, just then 

troops more daring or desperate? established by .Tohn Nugent. He hud some 

He and his force landed at Kealejo, and was difficulty with .Tmlge Pai'sous as to some 
strengtliened by three hundred native troops artii/lcs he wrote for the pa[>;'r,and he removed 
under General Valle. After a repulse at Rivas to .\Iarys\-ille. and devoted him-iolf to the law. 
by Colonel Bosque, in whicli Achilles Kewon In Octobei', 1853, he visited Sonora, and, 
and Timotliy Crocker and some of Walker's with Gilinan, Em:iry, Croeker, and others, 
best troops were killed, he attiicked Guardiola made an unsuceessfnl atteni[)t on the Mexican 
at Virgin Bay, whom he defeated with heavy autliorities. Walker returncil to San Fran- 
loss. He captured, without loss, the steamers eiseo, and was arrested and tried for violation 
on the Lake of Nicaragua, ami on the 12th of tlic neutrality law, Init was acquitted. 
October, after a sharp coiitiict, he ca[itured The Democratic party of Nicaragua for- 
Grenada, which, as before stated, com[)leted warded to him a commission as colonel and 
the conquest of tiie re[)ublie. The I'l-esident an extensive grant of land, through agency 
and Cabinet tied, and many res>)rted to my of Byron Cde. 

house and placed themselves under the flag Gathering a band of sixty-two followers, 

for protection. I met now, for the first time, (among whom were C. C. Hornliy, of North 

(ieneral William Walker. He ap[ieared to be Carolina, and .Julius de Brissot,) he landed at 

abdut tliirty-one years of age [born in Nash- Uealejo, in the northern part of Nicaragua, 

ville, Tennessee, on 8th May, 1824.] He wr.s His history will now lie connected with 

liberally educated, and graduated at the Uni- Nicaragua for all time, 

versify of Tennessee in October, 18-38. He had, asalready stated, captured Grenada, 

He studied medicine, and received a. diploma and was now ■• master of the situ:ition," and 

from the Medical University at rhiladcl[)hia, had the po.ssession of the capital. Had Walker 

in April, 1843. Ho then went to France and possessed some [lortion of that quality which 

England, wliere he conqileted his studios. He Genei-al Lee called "a rasrally virtue," he 

then traveled extensively on the Continent, could have attained conqilete success. The 

where he learned to speak and write tlie history of every nation lepeats only the history 

French, German, Italian, and Spanish lau- of nations gone before. First comes the 

gnages. He returned to the United States in adventurous pioneer, wifh his rifle; then the 

June, 1845. Although he had a. fondness foi' schoolmaster, with his books; then the clergy- 


man and bis crocd ; then the ir,erchant, the tnv,).^ wonhl venture, for they knew that no 

raih-oa.l. and the tele-raiih. I'O"'*^'' '■""''! •"''^■^' "'^■'" 't' '>'"''' '" "'« l'i""1^"f 

Tl:e advent of Walker was not uni-leasant <"<"™'- Appeals were made lo the Consuls 
nor ■ nnexpeeted to the simple-hearted and from Sardinia, Prussia, and France, resident at 
i^rcntle natives of Central America. They lia.l <^'i-<''n'.la, without success. Finally, the Arch- 
heen grievonsly oppressed by the Spanish '^'^'"'l' "f Grenada, with the a-ent of the'ion; nor" was their condition much Transit Company, called on mo, and heson-ht 
better under their successors. '-There was a '"^' ^'^ ■"■» -^^ =' '"essen-cr of peace. Thus 
tradition among them," says Crowe, in his m-ed by them, I agreed to go. Accordingly 
'' History of Central America," published iu :i steamer was made ready, and witli Mr. Vau 
London in 1850, " founded on an ancient %l<e, of Philadelphia, who was acting as 
prophecy made years ago, that these people Secretary of the Legation, and Don Juan 
would only be delivered In.m crnel oppression l^ni^-, late Secretary of War, we went to 
by ' a gray-eyed man.' " Mr. Crowe adds in a l^'^'^i-^ ^^■'f' ^1'^' certificate of election of Gen- 
note the pro}ihetic remark: -'We would remind ^ral ( orral. 

those who attach any importance to thi> pro- llivas is a walled town about fifty miles from 

phecy, that it may be reserved for our trans- t^renada. 

Atlantic brethren to fulfill this prophecy." ^^'^ found it closely picketed and full of in- 

"Last week we saw many of the native I'ni-iated soldiers, commanded by (icneral Za- 

Indians," says the Grenada Niennii/iwits-f, '• in truclie. 

our city, wiio desired to see General Walker; <»" mrpiiry for General Corral, T was in- 

and they laid at his feet the simple oiierings formed that he had just left Kivas with all his 

of their fruits and fields, and hailed his ap- f'>i'ees, to attack Walker at Grenada. A 

pearance, witb fair skin and gray eyes, as ' the <-'>'irier was immediately dispatched to Corral 

gray-eyed man of de-tiny,' so long and so ^^''f' the communication of lii.s election as 

an.xioiisly waited for by them and their President. Zatniche, the General in command, 

father- " ^^''** "^"^ "f t'le most bloodthirsty and perridi- 

Tlu' ne.xt day after tiie capture of (Jrenada, ""-^ »'e'i in Central America. Smarting under 

an election was held by th.' jieople for a pro- the defeat he had met with at Virgin Bay. 

visional President, anil under the policy of fmin Walker, he was in.solent and imperious.. 

Walker, and at his suggesti.ti, General Fonci- After waiting for some hours for Corral, (and 

alio Corral was chosen. General C. was at this we since ascertained that he was still in Ri vas,) 

time at Uiva.s, at the head of ;i large force of I directed the ho-ses to be brought, purposing 

troops, prepaiing to march on Grenada and to return to Virgin Bay and there await Cor- 

drive Walker out of the country. Walker raPs coming. My servant then came aiid in- 

knew th;;t with his small force and his unre- formed us '-that Zatruche had taken the 

liable allies, that an attack by Corral (who horses, and that a guard was then approaching 

had some military genius and e.Kperience. and to seize me and my secretary." They entered, 

much desperate courage) would be serious if and I never saw a more ferocious and villain- 

not disa.strous. He knew that Corral was ous looking crowd, armed to the teeth; their 

very ambitious, and fond of power and place, uniform was a scanty shirt tliat hardly reached 

Hence this election. tiie knee, a dilapidated straw hat, with a red 

But l:;iw to get this information to Corral ribbon, and barefooted. AVe were then placed 

was the point. Xot one of Walker's native in the qnartel witii a guard over us. Our poor 


boy (Carlos), after the doors were locked, ransom of two thousand dollars in gold, 

with sobs and tears, infonued us that we were That my destruction was imminent, is 

to he shot at sunrise to-morrow. Mr. Van proved by the letter of General Corral, that 

Dvke, with great emotion, said that he cared " he would not he responsible to what might 

but little for himself, hut much for me and my happen to me personally," as lie had issued 

little ones and wife at Cieiiada. Ifcltl)U)yed orders to Zatruehe to execute me. But the 

up by the consolation that I was in the line of kindness of Scott, and a gracious Providence 

(luty— on a mission of mercy and peace. Never prevented bis atrocious purpose, 

did I spend a more unbapi>y night; the dim The following letter, the original of which 

lamp revealed the army officials peering at iu- is in my possession, was received by me at Vir 

tcrvals to ascertain our confinement, and the giu Bay: 

watcli-woi-d, Ai,i:rto, (all well.) sounding in " Commander-in-Chiefof the 

on r 

^ars from the line of guards. I'.ut earlv " T^ep. of Nic'a. Headquakters, 

in the moining the sound of caiHKUi and rides 

" Mn-ching, llth Oct. ,1S^S, 

, , ,. / ,, , -/fill "To the Mh)isler of the United Stutrs: 

was beard hrniir on the town. Zatruehe had „ -^ i i i xi • • -t 

^ " I am placed under the imperious necessity 

felt th.ur fatal accuracy and danger. He ^^ manifest to the .Vlinister of the United 

rushed in and exclaimed, "In the mime of States that in consequence of his leaving the 

,M ■ t. , c! 1 „(. ,!-,„, fi,: , ,„,..,,, V " TTo city of Grenada in the steamer of the Acces- 

Clirist ! Senor. what does tins mean r tie -^ rn -i. /-i x i i ^i i • -c 

sory iransit Company', taken by the chiet 

was informed that my friends bad expected covlimanding the forces who occupy that place 

me to rciuru last night; that they liad deter- witli the object to hurt the forces of the Su- 

mincd to rescue me, and iu doing so would preme Government, whom I have the honor to 

. , command at Kivas, I noio inform >/ou that I dm 

not spare one ot !ns pai'ty; that they were ,,^,t, or iniU w,t he rr.^ponme for lohnt mail happen 

well-armed with riiies that were cei'tain, and lo i/ou permnnUi/, for having interfered in our 

with cannon. " Won't yu write a small let- domestic dissensions to tiie prejudice of tb° 

tcr [an Inllillc), to tliem to cease their tire? " 

Su[.ircmo Government, by whom he has been 
recognized; and has made him-ielf the bearer 

This was pre-enii)torily declined. He then of comniunicatious ami prochunations au-aiiist 
said, " You kn iw. S.'uor .Minister, that we the legitimately recognized authority'. There- 
are; vou are very dea,- to me. Go out to ^V-^ ^ '"'''' 'f'^^'T 'V"^ ="■*' /"" ''fV ^^'''^ '" 

this same date i have mtormed Govern >r 

itbem, forthwith, your horses are at the door, ^j.^,,^^^. .^,„| ^i^^ new^pipers of New York. 

and I will send a guard of honor to escort you I am your dear servant, D. P. L., 
and your Hag." Accei.ting the leave, l)ut de- -TOXCIANO CO!{RAL." 

dining the honor of the escort, \ve To which the following reiily was sent : 
mounted and were soon at the steamer wbei-e " lji:(iATioN of Uxitkd States, 

Captain Scott was with onlv six men an.l four " -^'ear Repuulic of XicAiiAaUA, 

^,, , ,„ ■ ,,,,.. " ViRciN Bay, 18//( O,-^, 1.S5.'). 

small brass caiinons. We so.>u roacucd \ irj;in 

„ , T 1 /-, , • xi t r xi ''To Grii'I. Pnitciajio Corral: 

Bay, where -ludge Gushing, the agent ot the . j j^.^^.g |,^„„, ^^ acknowledge the receipt of 

Transit Line, was, and who had dispaich -d t!ie your letter of yesterday, iu which yon inform 

steamer to relieve me, and who stated ibat me that 3-ou are compelL-d to_ manifeU:_ your 

, T X ,. ii 1 I i- 111 iirotest agaiiist me for leaving the cit\- of 

when 1 set out on the dav l-ietore. he had n;-ver \~. 1 -n ti • . .. t- • • i-' 1 

Greiiaila with the intent or injury ot rh:> 

expected my return. Judge Gushing, late our forces under your command ia tlio town of 

Minister at Bo>iota, and agent at .this time of Kivas. 

the Transit Company, bad, only a few davs " I I'eply, I li^^^ no such object in visiting 

' • Kivas, as will appear more tullv by a letter 

belore, been seize-l and imprisoned liy Za- ^^,\^-^,.\^ i ^-I'ote to the military governor of 

trucbe, and onl\- escaped i.iurder b}- paying a that department, a copy of which I enclose. 



" I had no personal desire to leave Grenada; 
nnd for some time positively objected; l)Ut 
inrtnenced by the cliicf citizens of Grenada 
(your own friends) the venerable fathers of 
the church, the tears of your own sisters, aiul 
your dauiihters, T consented to visit you, ac- 
coiripanied by Don duan Hui/., tlie Secretary 
of War, and yoin- superior in office, bearin.;^ 
the olive bi'aiich of peace; and a proposition 
from the comniandcr-general of the l»emocratic 
forces, to make 3-ou the provisional President 
of the Republic. When it was stated you 
were absent, I desired to return to this iilace. 
Judj^^e my surprise, when I was informed by 
the Prefect and Governor, that I should not 
return, my life threatened, and my per.son 
(with my secretary, servant, and the national 
flag) imprisoned in the ([uartel under sti-ict 

" For this violation of the laws of nations 
and my persomd rights, I protest, and lie 
assured, General, that my Government will 
h(dd 3H)U and your Government to a sevei'c 
responsibilitj' for such lawless conduct. 

•' You further inform nie that 'you will not 
be res[)onsible for what may happen to me 
for my personal safety,' and that you will 
inform Governor Marc}-, the Secretaiy of 
State, and the newspapers of Xew York of 
my conduct in this matter. In reply, I inform 
you that when I have kept my word of honor 
to the Governor of Rivas to remain here two 
days to await 3'our reply, I shall return to my 
post at Grenada; and that I do not request, 
nor have I evere.\i)ected,you tobe responsible 
foi- my personal safety. The flag of the United 
States is suiticiently powerful for my protec- 
tion, backed as it is by a patriotic Pi'esident 
and thirty millions of people. 

" I have myself fully informed Governor 
Maivy of all these matters; and feel in no way 
responsible to yciu. and the newspapers of 
New York tor my official conduct. 
" Yours faithfullv, 

" Minister of U. S. A. near 

" the Bcpilblir of NirdfiC/itl.'"' 

As I left Rivas a parting salute from a liea\'y 
cannon was fired at us, which struck near us an 
adobe gate, and covered us with dust and dirt, 
i)ut with no other effect than to naake us 
inciul our (jait in retreat. 

On my return to Grenada, (ieneral Walker 
called on me. On learning the cause of my 

delay, my imprisonment by Zat ruche, he ex- 
pressed but little surprise, but remarked quiet- 
ly, that he expected I would come to grief; 
and " it would have been a fortunate event 
had /at ruche carried out his intention to shoot 
me; for then," be ad(bMl,"your (Jovernment 
must have resented such outrage, and taken 
my part." This was cool, rather than con- 
soling, and characteristic of Walker, who 
looked upon men as the mere titulary pawns 
of the chess lioard, to be moved and sacrificed 
to advance the ambitions plans of others. His 
conduct can only lie justified or apologized 
forl)y the fact that he was at the time in immi- 
nent peril himself. The enemy had now the 
posses'don of that jiortion of the country on 
which the Transit Conqiany had their mute. 
From this reservoir hecould only receive rein- 
forcements. The enemy, exasperated to mad- 
ness, and infuriated by defeat in every battle 
liy an inferior force, theii' capital taken, their 
President and Cabinet fugitives, were ready for 
the most desperate deeds. The agent of tlie 
Transit Company, Judge Gushing, as already' 
stated, was seized and the office broken open, 
and his lite jeopardized. The steamer, loaded 
with passeng._'rsfn)ni New York and San Fran- 
cisco, was fired on by Fort Sau Carlos, to the 
imn\ineut pei'il of every one on board, and sev- 
eral persons killed, among them .Mrs. White, of 
Sharon, New York; and many wounded, 
among them .J. <}. Ivendi'ii-k, then of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, now of St. Louis. Many whose 
names were unknown were founil murdered, 
with their throats cut, and their bodies robbed 
even of their clothes. The steamer, u imble to 
pass the fort at the outlet of the river, or to 
land at Virgin Bay, on the 22d Oct., 1855, 
came to ( Jreuada, Nvit h 250 passengers, to claim 
the protei-tioii of the American .Ministei-. To 
add to the misfortunes, the cholera was raging 
among the crowded [lassengers. A committee 
• called on the Minister for relief, and I went 
on board. Such a scene I never before wit- 


nessed. Deiid and woimdod, sick and dying witli the instincts of his race and coh)r, he 

from chdiera, crowded the decks. One died was planning treason and murder. Letters 

(Nicholas Cari'ol) with the eiiolera, while I from him to Gardiohi and Zatruche were in- 

was on l)oard. Many of tliese were wealthy; tercepted, urging them to come with arms and 

ail rcspectahle, and all niy countrymen. I force, and overthrow tlie new government, 

persuaded them all to leave the crowded and He was arrested. impris(_)ned, tried for treason 

infected ship, took them into my own house, by a court-martial, and condemned to lie shot, 

as many as I could accommodate, and rented whicli sentence was executed in tlie plaza of 

a large house for the others. Grenada, at 2 p.m., on 8th November, 1855. 

Added to these misei'ies, evident prepara- I was on the plaza of Grenada on the 8th 

tions were making for a sanguinary l)attlo Novemijer. 1S55, in company with Captain 

whicli was near at hand. Arrests were hourly Scott, Judge Gushing. and some friends, when 

made and imjiri.-onmeuts, and continual appli- the tolling of the Cathedral hell, tlie solemn 

cations for protection and relief. air of crowds of spectators, indicated some 

The Secretary of Foreign Aftairs of the late event of deep and solemn importance. 

Govei-nment, Don ^Liteo Mayorga, I'or the out- A guard of soldiei's marclied out frcuvi the 

rages at San Carlos and other places, was lying quartel, witli whom ajijieared General P(_mci- 

dead at this time in tlie plaza, shot by order ano Coiral. On one side of him was a jiriest, 

of Walker; leading and wealthy citizens ar- bearing in his liand a small cross, and (ui the 

rested and imprisoned. other his faithful i'riend, I)on Pedro Rouhard, 

A\'hat a scene of hoi'ror! what a night of the Consul of Fi'aiice. The splenrlid person of 

anxiety and excitement was experienced! Corral seemed home down with calamity; his 

An anxious and fearful morning came; but features bore the nuirks of extreme mental 

General Corral, iuste;ul of attacking Grenada, suffering. He took his seat iu the fatal chair, 

made his appearance in tlie plaza accompanied which was placed with its back to the wall of 

by his staff and General Walker, with some the Cathedral. He calmly took out his hand- 

of his officers. A treaty of peace between kerchief, folding it in his hands, and bound it 

these generals was made,(2:!d October, 1855,) around his eyes; then, folding his hands in an 

by which Don Fatrico Rivas was named as attitude of pniyer, uttered the word "/)ro/(^j" 

provisional rresident— an oblivion of past dif- — ready. A detail of .Mississip[ii rifles, ;it the 

fereuces. Walker was made Commaiidcr-in- distance of about ten paces, at the word.flred, 

Chief of the Army and Corral Minister of and every ball piei'ced through and through 

War, the barricades of tlie streets destroyed, his liody; he fell dead from the chair, and his 

the prisons all opened, and peace dawneil on spirit departed to answer for the deeds done 

the land. Corral marched his forces into the on earth — 

city, wearing the blue ribbon, and they were With all liis crimes In-nad blown, 

incornorated into the nrmv of Wnll-er Tb,. And Iiow liis luulit stands, who knows, save heaven ? 

incoipoiaiea into tnt ai m\ or Walkei. llie But. iu our circumstance and course of thought, 

two chiefs embraced each other on the plaza, ' Tis heavy witli him. 

and the officers, military and civil, proceeded I witnessed, witli painful emotion, this tragic 
to the church " to return thanks to the God of scene. General Corral was of a soldiei'ly de- 
Peace for the termination of the war." meanor and commanding presence. He was 
Everything now seemed quiet. But it was rather [iortl\- in size, weighing about two hmi- 
only temporary. At this very time, when the dred pounds, social in his character, of daring 
real strength of Walker was known to Corral, courage and imioniitable purpose. He was ex- 



cessivoly jiolitc, uiid profuse in liis t'X[)rG3sioii.s 
of frieiidsliiii. He was as sincere as liis nature, 
education, atiil mixed hlood would allow. So 
natural was intrigue and treachery intrrained 
in his nature that he practiced these vices 
when it were easier to he lionest and sincere. 
He was poj/ular anionic; the people, and hia 
death caused a profound sensation in the State. 

It would bo foreign from the plan of this 
work to record all the spirit-stirring events in 
the cai'eer of Walker, or Jo attempt to de- 
scribe the character of tlie country or its in- 

The career of General Walker, many 
battles between the Kicaraguan forces and 
Costa Rica, as well as Guatem-ila, liad varied 
fortunes; from his injudicious interference with 
the Tran.sit Comjiany, and otliei- causes, his ca- 
reer was checked liy defeat, and in May, 1857, 
an agreement was entered into by him and 
Captain Cliarles Henry Davis, a Commander 
in the United States Xavy, ship " St. Mary." 
by which " General Walker, with sixteen offi- 
cers of his staff, marched out of Rivas with 
their side-arms, jiistols, horses, and personal 
baggage, under guai'antee of said Davis not to 
be niolested by tlic enemy, and be allowed to 
endsark on the ' St. M-jay,' then in the harbor 
of San Juan del Sur; and the said ])avis un- 
dertaking to transport them >-afely to Panama, 
in charge of a United States ofKcer." Fi'om 
Panama, Walker returned to the United 
States. He was received with much enthusi- 
asm; nor was he disturbed b^' the Government 
of the United States for any violation of law. 

He soon endjai'ked again for Nicaragua, with 
men and arms, when, whether with orders 
from tlie Government of the United States or 
not. he was seized by Captain Paulding, as ;J- 
ready alluded to. He M'as brought back to 
the United States. He again endjarked fur 
Centrril America, and landed in Ucniduras, he had some skirmishes near Truxillo, 
when he surrendered to the English officer 

commanding Him- Majesty's steamer " Icarus," 
who delivered him to General Alvarez, of the 
Honduras army, and on the 12th September, 
18G0, he was shot. 

This is a copy of the last note that Walker 
ever wrote: 

I iiereby jirotest, before the civilized 
world, that when I surrendered to the cajitain 
of Her Majesty's steamer, the '■ Icarus," that 
officer expressly received my sword and pistol, 
as well as the arms of Colonel Rutler, and the 
surrender was expressly, and in so many words, 
to him, as the representative of Her !5rittanic 
Majesty. William Walkkr. 

On board the Steamer ''Icarus," September 

5t/i, 18(i0. 

Thus iierished, in the prime of life, William 
W^alker, at the early age of Bti, as fearless a 
man as icir country ever [iroduced. Xecessa- 
rily brief has been this sketch, whicli tlie stir- 
ring events of the time atfv)rd anqjle material 
and might have much extended. But it is 
only a glance at these events, comprehending 
the salient points of interest, are attempted 
with ti'Uth and justice. Much that I have en- 
deavored to describe, if not 

Pars fui; mesirieiua vidi, 
and had Walker been prudent and successful, 
the battles of Grenada and Rivas would have 
rivaled the triumph of Sail Jacinto, and 
Walker ranked with the Houst.on of other 
days. His enterprise and valor deserve our 
respect, aud his tragic end our sympathy^ 

Duncan is in his gra\e. 

After lifn's fitful fever he sleeps well. 
Trertsou has done his worst, nor steel nor poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, 
Nothing can touch him further. 


From the disordered condition of this coun- 
try', and from individual danger incident to 
■duy foreigner, I was instructed l)y the State 
Department to retire fri)m Grenada to San 
Juan del Norte. In impaired health, I was 
allowed to return home, and in 1857 resigned. 
The events of tliese three years cau hardly be 
classed in my life as among " The Pleasures of 




\yhit.niill Hill, (born ]2tli February, 1743. dill, ami marched in 1812 in nUVnce of Nor- 

r>ied 12th Septenilier, 1797,) was born in lior- i'olk. He was for a perind of _yeai's a pillar of 

tie County, and the ancestor of a large and the Baptist Church, universally li)vcd for his 

wealtliy family in liastern Carolina. nol)le Christian qualitii's, ;ind was for a loni; 

He was educated at tlie T/nivcrsity of Pcnn- time tlie clerk of the county court, 

sylvania, and was the early and earnest advo- David Stone, horn February 17, 1770. 

cate of the rights of tlie Colonists in the Revo- Died 7th of October, l.SlS. 

liition, and served faithfully in all the legisla- Amon^- tiie distinguislied narnos in the ear- 

tivc bodies — Provincial, State, and IS^ational — lier history of X^M'tli (/arolina, is that of 

the devoted patriot and statesman. David Stone. 

He was a member of the Provincial Con- His father, Zcdekiali St<uie, came early to 

,i;r._ss that met at Hillsboro, 20th Au,ij,-ust, 1775, Xorfh Carolina from X'ew England (Vermont, 

and at Halifa.v, on Itli April, 177G, and elected we have understood,) and haviny- purchased 

to House of Commons from Martin County, lands irom the Tusearora Indians, settled in 

in 1777; Senr.tor, 177S-79 and "80. He was Bci'tie County and oiariied .Mi's. ]']lizal)c! h 

Speaker of the Senate in 1778. In 1778 he Hohson, (/,,,' Shri vers,) of .Martin Ciumty, 

was a delegate from Xorth Carolina to the lie lived at Hope, five miles fioni Windsor, 

Continental Coiigres.s, and served until 1781. and carried on mercantile and farming bnsi- 

He survived the perils of the Revolution, ness. 

and was one of the ablest advocates of the He was a devoted and a ready friend to the 

Constituti(.>n of the Pnited States in the Con- cause of liberty and i;ide[)endenco, and was a 

vention which met at Hillslioro in Jidy, 1788, mend).,rof the Provincial ('ongress, at Ilali- 

whicli rejected the Constitution by a vote of fax (1770) whlcli formed our State Constitn- 

184 to 84. He died at Hill's Fei-ry, Martin tion. 

County, on 12ih of Septend,er, 1707. jj^ ,,.^,,_ ,;,, „„„,. ,.^^„,,^ .nnuallv elected a 

His letters to (governor Purke, while a Senator ,,f the Pe-islature from Rertie, an.l 

member of the Continental Congress at Pliila- .^as .listiu-uishcd for his i>itelligenee and 

delphia, 1780, have i een preserved, (see Uni. «i,,vwdness of character. 
Ma--. X, Xo. 7, March, PSUl,) and ia'eatiie tin' 

..,.,.. , , ,,, Hi.s .son, l)a\id Stone, was boin at Hope, 

pure spirit ol patriotisin ami valor. We re- , , „ 

^ ^1 , I-. , I 1 , . , . ]7tn ot i^ el/i-iUM-X', 1770. 
grct tliat so little lias been presfr\-ed ot tnis 

IKitriotic statesman, whose character and 1 Hs early ed;icatiin was conducted by the 

whose services deserve the re-ard of posterity. ^""'^ loacheis that the country e.aild aifoid, 

The name of Jonathan Tayloe is remem- ""^^ ''^^ ^^'=^^ diligent, laborious, and aj.t to 

bered with veneration and regard in Pertie '«<"■"• 

County. One of this name is reconiud as a Ai'ter ijis acadendc studies were completed, 

freeholder in P)ertie County i'ar back in (Jolo- young Stone was sent to I'rinceton Colh'ge, 

nial times, and one of the name yet lingers where he graduateil in 1788, with the first 

upon tlie .scene of his long pilgrimage, though honors. Dr. ^Vitlierspo(ln, then the President 

he was cdd enough to be a soldier under Lieu- of the (J(.illege, often rei'erred with approba- 

tenant Gavin Hogg and Captain , lames Ire- tioii to his studious and e.\emplary conduct, 


atul predicted for liini n l>n"grit caioer df Con.ijrcsses, 1801 to LSOC. In 1808 Mr. Stone 
fiunornud usefulness. \v::S elected Goveiiinr o|" t!i • State, lie ilis- 
IIc studied hnv with General AVilliani \l. cliart'ed all the duties ul'tiiat elevated position 
Davie, whose knowledge a.ud successful prac- witlio-r<'at (lii;-nity duriny' his eoustituti.>nal 
tieo well (nialilied liiin to j>repare and tit. term. In 1-^11 ai.d 1M12 he a,i;-ain appeared 
upon his students that aricoi' whieli would as a mend er of the, and his ex- 
enable them to endure the tiUs o\ the Icijal porience, aliilities and principles gave hirn 
tonrnameiit. His teaciiin<>;s were inculcateil commanding' iniluence. This was a storinv 
with an eleo-anee of manners, and a suavity of period in tie- [Hilitienl history oftheStatc. 
touipor, that, while they instructed, ii-ave sat- A liill to confer the choice of electors for 
isfaction and pleasure. Judge Daniel, long President and \'ice-l'iesident. of the United 
one of the Judges ol' our Supreme Court, States upon t lie Legislal urc, so as to <i-ive an 
who read law with him, pronounced Gen- undivided vote (ii;stead of the district svstem 
eral JJavie one of the most :d)le jniists and then in vogue,) w:!s intrndueed and ad vocated 
acc(uupli.shed gentlemen he ever knew. Uiidcr by ( lovernor Stone; this failiiig, he introduced 
such a teacher, .Mr. Stone was well fitted for a similar measm-e to choose the electors hv a 
the duties of his profession; und iVcni his geu'ial ticket sysiem, whieh he advocated 
solid acquirements, his signal ability, his close with great ability and unecpialed ebxpience. 
attention to the inteicsts of his clients, the This measure w;!s opposed by l)uiican 
skiilful ;;nd careful i>repar;ii i<^ii of his epses Cameron, John Stanly, a;i<l oth-rs; and also 
he won the contideuee of the community, and misearried. He op]iosed the proposition of 
attai:;cd the highest ran.k in his profession. .Mr. I'hifer to make a choice of electors Iiy the 
Wlien in the L'Cth yearof his age, he was elect- disti'ict system, but this was adopted. At 
ed by the Legishilure a of the Superior this session he was again elected a Senator in 
Court of Law and Eipiiiy. Congress to serve for si.\ years, from the 4th 

lie early em!;arkeil on the st(U'm3- sju of of March, ISlo. 

pilitieal life, in whieh, from tlicsuavity of his lie possessed extraordinary and highly cnlti- 

niaui.ers and the solidity of his acquirements, vated i:itelle<-tii;il [lowers, eautions :;nd shrewd 

he enjoyed a long and lirilliant caroei-. Knun in business transactiiuis, fond of money, and 

ITIIO to 17[I4 he was a memlier of the House successful in the aecnmulatitm of propert}'. 

of ("oinmons. In 1795 ho was elected one of 1 le was twice married, first to .Miss Harriet 

the Judges of the Su[ierior Court, thediities of Turner, by wiiom be left several children; 

whieh ho discharged with dignity and a'dlity second to Miss Dasbield, of W'ashingtou Citv. 

until 1799, when he was chosen liepreseiitative (For Genealogy of the Stone faniilv of 

in Congress. In 1801 he was elected Senator in B'rtio County, N"orth Carolina, se,' Appendix.) 

Congress, which place he resigned in 18 17, on General Stone entered tiie Senate again at a 

being again elected Judge of Superior Court, period of intens.' national excitement. The 

Whilst a member of the Senate his distin- United States were at war with tlio most pow- 

gnished colleague, Je^so Krankliu, wa^ I'l'osi- erful nation on earth, and party spirit raided 

dent /)/-o /e/rt. of that body. It is a f;iet worthy with unwonted violeiue. The majority of the 

of recor;! that at this tiu»e the presiding officers |ie<'iile of Xorth Carcdina sup|iorted Madison 

of both Houses of Congr.'ss wore from X >rth and the war, and the Legislature electeil Gov- 

Carolina, .\Ir. .Macon having been S[)eakor of ernor Stone to sustain that policy-; but.unfor- 

tho L >wor House during the 7tli, 8th, ami 9th tumitely,ho diftered from the Legislature and 


the [icojile. His reasons \\'cre, as .■•tatcd in (see Craven Couiit3-,) anrl was his private soc- 

Xileb' Eegiister, (viil. vii., KiS,) tliat"tliese rctar}-. 

iii-easures had K. d to divisimi among ourscdves. He was a lawyer l)y pr()ffssioii,and so highl}' 
aii<l 10 liaiiki-ujitcy and ruin to tlie nation." est eeniod that, at the age of 2S, he was elected 
The embargo, a measure strongly recom- Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, 
nu'.nded hy tiie President, had passed the He was the Governor of Tennessee from 
House. It was rejeeted in the Senate Ijt two ISOD to 1815. Tins long period of public ser- 
vo.tes only, and one of them v.'as Governor vice, in so elevated a position, proves the wis- 
Stone'a. He also voted against a bill to raise dojii and [)ru<lence of his conduct and his ac- 
hy direct tax revenue to snppjort the war. He ceptable service. It was his fortune to be 
complained, personally, that to a call for in- Governor in a most exciting period of our his- 
formation from the Committee of "Ways and tory — during the war with England — and he 
Means, tlie re[dy was that '"there was not gave to the adnniiistration his cordial and 
time to furnish the desired information." constant su]>iiort. He tendered to I'resident 

In this course he differed from his enllcague, Madison 2,5(10 troops, and placed them under 

Governor Turner, of the Senate, and from conmuind of Andrew Jackson, who won for 

Willis Alston, Peter Forney, John Culjiepper, his coun.try the glorious victory at New Or- 

.Meshack Franklin, William R. King, Nathan- leans. 

id Mucon, William II, Murfree, Israel Pick- He was equally active in the Ci'eek war, 

ens, Richard Stanford, and Bartlett Yaneey. raising 2,000 volunteers and $300,000. 

Ilis course called down the censure of the Leg- He mai-ried Lucinda, dauii:hter of John and 

iBlature. Anne Norfleet Baker, of Bertie County. 

In I>eceinbe.r, 1S14, .Mr. Branch, afterwards He died at the residence of Wylie Johnson, 

Govei'uor, as chairman of the s[iecial com- near Nashville, in 1835. A monument was 

mittec upon the subject, reported a resolutwu erected b}' order of the Legislature unto his 

that " the conduct of David Stone had l)een memory at Clai'ksville. He left several cliil- 

iii opposition to his pi'ofcssions. and had jeop- dren, among them Mrs. J. T. Dabney,: .Mrs. 

ardized the safety and interest of the cuun- Dortch, whose son, Willie B . Doi'tch, m;irried 

tr^-, and had incuri'ed the disapiiroliation of a daughter of Governor A. V. Brown, 

this General Assembly." The names of Cherry and Outlaw ai';j jire- 

This jiassed, 40 to IS, and (lovernor Stone served b}' a patriotic and talented race full of 

forthwitli resigned his scat in the Senate, generous feeling and kindly dispositions. 

This chjsed his distinguished and eventful George Outlaw v\-as born, lived and died in 

public life, and four ^-ears afterward he died, Bortie (\>unty. He was distinguished, sa^'S 

in the 48th year of his age. Mr. .\Ioore m his History of North Carolina, 

Governor Stone was in person tall and com- for the blandness of his manners, and was :ts 

manding; of reddish hair, which he wore, as noted for his usefulness in the Chui'ch, as for 

was then the fashion, in a queue. his talents as a. statesman. He entered public 

Willie Blount, (iovernor of Tennessee, v\-as life as a member of the House of C'oannons in 


born in Bertie County 1768; died 1835. ^ 179G and in 179,9, and a niemberof the Senate 

He was tlie son of Jacob Blount, already re- from 1800 to 1822, with some intermissions, 

ferred to in a sketch of the Blounts of Beau- of which body he wa.s Speaker in 1812, '13, 

fort. He was the brother of Governor Wil- and '14, and elected a member of the 18tli 

liam Blount, the first Govei'uor of Tenne.-see, Congress, 1823-'25, to supply a vacamy occa- 


sioiied by Mio rcsi--iiatioii of II. CJ. l?ui-toii, liiui, Senator in Con.siress, Secretary of the 
elected CJoveriior. Ilewas the first Moderator Xavy; Mattliias E. Manly, Judge of the Snpe- 
oftheCiiowan Baptist Association, established rior and Siiprome Courts; Augnstus Moore, 
i" 1^06- Judge of Superior Courts; Edward I). Siinms, 

His fine personal appearance, his kind, genial nieiidier of Congress, 4824, from South Caro- 
maiiners, and his generous, charitable temper, Una. In even this galaxy of merit and talent 
rendered him universally popular. Ilis son, Mr. Outlaw was conspicuous. 
George B. Outlaw, succeeded him in Ihe State He studied law with that able and accom- 
Senate, in 1823 and 1S24, whose widow {m-c plished jurist, William Oaston, atid bv his 
Jordan) married CTOvernor John IJraneli. assiiiuity, al)ility and labor did credit to his 

'I'liomas Miles (larret was a resident of this accomplished preceptor. He was admitted to 
county, and lived near Colerain. Jliseduca- the bar in 18l'7, and soon rose to the front 
tion was good. He was prepared for college rank of his profession. For years he was the 
by John KinJjerly, and graduated in 1851, in Solicitor of the Edenton Circuit, in which 
same class with M. Carter, Bartholo- responsible p )sition he won the respect, confi- 
mew Fuller, Francis E. Shober and others, dencc and admiration of the l)eneh, bar and 
He read law, and by his dilig.'uce and capacity juries. When to his discriminating judg- 
attained renown. But the wai- hioke out, and meiit,oii[iression or persecution was attempted, 
he joined the army. He was brave and de- be was mild and yielding, but when the law 
voted to the cause, and fell in battle as colo- was violated, no matter bv whom, high or 
iiel, at the head of his regiment, amid the low, indigent or wealthy, it was firmly vindi- 
horrors of that fearful conflict. He remarked cated. 

on the eve of the engagement that the day Naturally generous and just, though reso- 
would end with a general's wreath or with lute, he was universally ]),>pular. His warm 
his life. Both were verified. A commission and enthusiastic temper was often roused when 
arrived next day as brigadier, but too late! duplicity or artifice was attempted; and he 

There are but few persons in North Carolina would assail his victim with resistless power 
who did not know David Outlaw (born about and matchless elorpience. This trait in his 
1805 and died 1808,) and appreciate his esti- character was well known to his associates at 
iiiable character. He was born, lived and died the bar, as also to the community at large. 
in Bertie County. He was endowed by nature Often has the trembling offender of justice, 
with a clear and iienetrating mind, which was when on trial, whimpered to counsel, " J)o,:'t 
highly improved by a liberal education. He midce Outlaw mad, for if you do, I shall not 
graduated in 1824 at the University of the have any chance to escape." He was truly 
State, at the head of his class. When it is '-a terror unto evil-doers, and a praise to them 
recollected who composed this class, and their vvho do well." " To the just, he was mild and 
mental material, this high honor will be gentle; but to tlu froward he was as fierce as 
appreciated. Among them were Daniel B. tire," 

Baker, Benjamin B. Blume, John FJragg, Such a man could not fail to .secure regard 
member of the Legislature, raendjer of Con- and respect. He frequently elected a 
gress, and Judge in Alabama; James W.Bry- member of the Legislature, and was elected 
an, distinguished lawyer. Senator 1836 from member of the 30th (1847,) 31st (1849,) and 
Jones County; Thomas Dews, of Lincolntoii; 32d (1851) Congresses. Here his unbending 
William A. Graham, Governor of North Caro- integrity, his unselfish patriotism, his unques- 


tioiied abilities, and his pure and unobtrusive tion. Tie was succeeded by Dr. Thomas IT. 

virtues, conmianded the respect and the ati'ec- Hull. 

tion of his associates. He was ever ready to He serve<l in 1827 as Chief Cleric of the 

doo'cnerousacts, while lie scorned any intrigue Xavy Department under Governor Branch. 

or artifice- tlic unflindiiTin: foe to eoi-ruption, lie was an enterprisiuL'', patriotic and lionest 

extra vag'ance or indirection. Sincere and man, loved and respected b\- all who kiiew 

honest himself, he was unsuspicious of deceit him. He man-ied Arabella, daughterof Henry 

or fraud in others. I. Toole. He died in 1843, leaving one son, 

In bis ]icrs<)n Colonel Outlaw was but little who became Govei'iior of the State, 18Gl,and 

fav(.rcd i'y nature. He was very near-sighted, two daughters, Maria, who married Mat Wad- 

aid constantly w, re glas-ses that weregieen, dell, and Laura, who married Cottcn. 

:ii;d wbidi to i^trangers made him appciir dis- (For the Genealogy of the Clark family, 

taut, received, and aAvkwai'd. Yet, witli .see Appendix. ) 

tlie?e di.sadvantnges, to tliose wlio kmw liim I'atrick Henry Winston resides in Bertie 

well, this rugged e.xterior did County, Imt is a native of Fi'anklin County. 

ii;.i„ ., . ,,..; „ • 1 ■ -1- 1 1 He was educated at Wake Forest, and at tb.- 
Jlide a i)recioiis .ic\vcl ni its liead, ' 

Columbian ITniversitv, at Wa8hingt<ui City. 

and present every quality of honor, truth, and ,,.5^,,,,^ ,,,. ^.,,„inated." He read law at Cbai^el 

ju>ti,.e that can dignify human nature. jj;,,^ ^^,,,1 ^ff,,, receiving a license to practice. 

l!is last public service was as a member of ^^.fj,^,,, ^„ Windsor. He represented Bertie 

the State Senate in 18(i:j. He died on 22d County in the Legislature u, 1850 and 1854. 
October, 18(J8. j,, ^^^^^ ],g together with Hon. B. F. .Moore 

His latter days were clouded by misfortune. ,„,,| p.,,,,., y. I'billips, were elected by the 

The vicissitudes of war, bis cmtidence in Legislature as Judges of the Court of Claims, 

fru.nds, and bis carelessness in iinaucial mat- tj^j^ ,,.^,, ,^ adicate and s.vere dntv, and this 

teis, bad wrecked his fortunes. The natural .,ble court discbar-ed it with tidelitv and 

infirmity (defective eyesight) terminated in 
tiital blindness. But his generous qualities 

After bis term in the court bad expired, be 

triumphed over calamity. To such men nniy ,,.^,, apiH.inted bv ( iovernor Vance Financial 

Xorth Carolina proudly point as the niotb.r .^^.^^^ ,,f the State in her fiscal with 

of the Gracci did to her sons, and sincerely the Confederate Government. 

■'• ' In LSG4 be was elected (uie of the Council 

Tliese are my jewels. i- Oi * 1 1 ii ^ 1 1 1 n ■ 1 >_ 

ot btate, and by that body chosen Bresuleiit, 

.lames W. Claik. born 177l>, died 1843, was a i>osition at this time involving great res[ioii- 

a native of Bertie C^iunty, son of Christoidier sibility. 

Cbirk. who died at Salmon creek. In 1*05 be was chosen a Tnenil)er of the 

He was liberally educated, and graduated Constitutiomil Convention from Fraid<lin, 

at I'l'inceton in 17i'ti. He was idected a mem- wbitln'r be had taken refuge during llu^ 

b('r of the Legislature from bis native county ti'oubles of the war, and no one did more to 

in 1S(l2-':i. Il(^ removed to Edgecombe C(Mm- build u^i the broken down walls of our [loliti- 

ty which be represented in 1810 and 1^11, cal Ziun than .Mr. Winston. He was of t!ie 

and in the Senate 1812-'13 and '14, and elected few men who declined to sign an open letter 

a member of the 14ib Congress — 1815-"17. to Governor Hi)lden, requesting him to be a 

He served out Ills term and declined a re-elec- candidate foi' Governor. In 18t!8 lie was 


oflored and ilecliiird the iicmiiii'ition lor d^w- A iV:irfnl ciiidctiiic iqipeared in Bertie C'oim- 

jgreFP, iircfcrring to purine the injictire of his ty, :is recorded in Nilcs' Register, vol. x, 364, 

{iroiessic.ii, of wliieh he is alike 11 pilliirand !Ui which was most fatal among the jpeople, 

oiiiament. lie possises mitiriiig industry, in M;iy, 1816. Some seetions, especially 

profound learning, and iin?polted reputation. Casliie Xeck, were nearl}- depopulated. The 

lie has a family likely to he iis distinguished .statement says that " tiie most roliust consti- 

as llieir fatiitr f( r ahility. intlui nee and in- tutions melted hefore it as wax hefore a fire." 



"With this county nre associated ii:any stir- and amongst others Janiw Porterfield, an 

rinu' events connected with the war of the Irishman hy hirth, hut who for some years 

TJcvohition, whii h iittested tlie [-atriotism of had hcen a resident of Pennsylvania. Mr. 

her sons, and their devotion to liherty. I'ortertield had live children — Eleanor, who 

The lattle of Elizahelhtown, fought in intermarriid with Col. Thomas Owen, the 

.July, 1781, was a complete victory of the father of Gen. Jauies and the late Gov. John 

"Whigs, led hy Thomas Brown, over the To- Owen ; one son who died in early life; John 

ries, commanded hy Slingshy and ' Godden. and James, who for many years were uier- 

This has heen already so fully recorded from chants in Fayctteville, and Penny, who is 

authentic documents in the History of Xorth the suhject of this hrief sketch. 

Carolina (II, :]t).) that its repetition is nn- On the hieaking out of the Revolutionary 

nctcssary heie. The heroic character of Denny war, the whole family of I 'orteriields espoused 

I'orttriield is detailed in The Mem(U-ies of the Whig cause. In the death of James I'or- 

Cross Creek. tcrtield, senior, the Wiiigs lost an ahle and in- 
fluential friend. But his widow, animated 

Ti!K Mk.moiuivs of Cno.sp Creek. ,^^^. ^j,^, ,.,,^,^, .,,a,„t temperament, nuidc her 

The Highlanders of Scotl.uid, after their mansion hcad<iuarters for the Whigs of Cross 
defeat at Cnlloden in 174(i, migiated toXorth Creek. She was celebrated as an expert cart- 
Carolina, under the advice of Xeill McNiell. ridgc-makcr, and fre-iuently spent niglits in 
They found a resting-place on the banks of preparing bullets to be used by the Americans. 
C;.pe Fear, at what has remained the head of At that time she livc<l in the house that has 
navigation on that river to the [.resent time, for many years heen known as the residence 

As early as 170:2 Cross Creek and CanibcU- of John McLeran, deceased, and now of his son 

toil (now Fayctteville) began to assume im- William. 

p(utaiice in a commercial point of view, the Under such a father and mother, mid in 

fame whereof attracted manv from abroad, such times, Denny i'orterlicld grew to man- 


ho'xl. lie became a solilier, served with dis- lay between converging fires, and in full sij;ht 

tinction in the American army, an<l attained of tlie British army. Porterfield modestly 

the rank of .Major. It is not our object to replied, that when he entered the American 

sive a detailed account of the exploits of army he had subjected his powers of mind and 

Deniiv Portei-field, but will sinii'ly endeavor b'.)dy to the glorious cause, and if needs he 

to record bis daring bravery as exhibited in was prepared to die in its behalf, 

iliis List battle. Greene communicated the command, which 

It is a well known fact tbat while Corn- was to order into service a reserved corps that 

wallis retreated from Guilford Court House lay in andniscade, ready to advance upon re- 

vi'i. Fayettcville and Wilmingtmi to York- ceiving the signal agreed on. 

town, where be was comiielled to surrender to With a brave and undaunted bearing Major 

the prowess of Washington, Gen. Greene, in- Pai'tei'lield dashed oif upon his fleet courser, 

stead of pursuing liini, determined to relieve and so sudden and unexpected was iiis ap- 

Nortb and South Carolina from the persecu- pearance among the British, and so hei'oic tlie 

tions of Lord liawdon, and so pressed upon deed, that tliey paused to admire bis bravery, 

!bim,tbatin July, 17"!1, he took post at the and omitted to tire until be beyond the 

Eutaw Springs, wliere the Americans attacked reach of their guns; hut on his return, they 

him and drove him from his entrenchments, fired, the shot took effect in bis breast, and 

Foremost in this intrepid cliarge was the the brave Uenny Porterfield fell, and sealed 

higb-souled and valorous D^nny Porterfield his devotion to the cause with his blood, on 

wlu) seemed to iiave » charmed life, as he ex- the plains of Eutaw. His horse escaped un- 

posi'd himself U[ion his mettled charger, with hurt galloped into the American lines, and 

epaulettes and red and bu+f vest on, to the never baited till he reached his accustomed 

murderous fire of the enemy. Lieut. Col. place in the iMiiks. 

Campbell received a mortal wound while lead- Ge.i. (ilreene, who witnessed the instinct of 

ing the successful charge. J'orterfield and his the animal, shed tears, and orvlercd David 

brave com[)anions rushed on to avenge his Twiggs, father of Miss Winny Twiggs, now of 

<k'atb, and took upwards of five hundred Fayetteville, to take charge of the horse and 

[iris.iners. carry him to Mrs. Porterfield at Cross Ci'cek. 

In their retreat the British took post in a And up.m a SumLiy afternoon tlie mother of 

strong brick iiouse and pic(^ueted garden, and the distinguislied gentleman who om.iuini- 

froiii tliis ad\antageous position, under cover, cated some of the facts detailed, remembered 

commenced firing. to have met David Twiggs coming into Cross 

At this crisis in the battle Gen. Greene de- Creek, who in one breath announced the fall of 

sired to bring forward re-inforccments to his beloved Major and the success of the 

storm the house. To save time it became American arms at Eutaw. lie brought with 

important that some one should ride within him the red butt' ve^t that Major Porterfield 

range of the British cannon. It was in reality wore, and Gjii. James Owen has informed me 

a forlorn hope. The Ajuerican General would tbat he remembers to have seen it, and tbat 

detail no one for the enterprise, but asked if there was a rent or tear on one side and 

any one would volunteer. Instantly Denny slightly blood-stained. On the retreat of 

Porterfield mounted hi.s charger and rode into Lord Kawd.on, Gen. Greene retained posses- 

his presence. Gen. Greene inquired if be was sion of the field, and there the body of Denny 

aware of the peril, if he knew that his path Porterfield found an honorable grave. Ilis 



■horse Tivefl for several years, a pensioner, roam- 
iiiiiat pleasure on the liaiiks of Cross Creek — 
kiidwii ami beloved hy all who venerated tiie 
valor and ehivalry of Denny I'orteriield. 

John Rutherford, or Rutherfiird, resided in 
Eladen County. 

He married Penelope Eden, the widow of 
•Governor Gabriel Johnston, and lived on the 
.place in Bladen, where the Governor had built 
a house. (Moore, I, 147.) 

He was one of the Council of Governor 
Martin, and should not be confounded with 
the name of General Gritttth Rutherford, who 
did great military service in the Revolution. 

John Owen, (born 1787; died 1841,) was 
the g»-andsoii of Major I'ortertield, above al- 
luded to, and the son of Thomas Owen, who 
<lied in 1803, and was a brave officer of the 
Revolution, and coinmanded a regiment at 

To many of our State, he was well known, 
and by all he was highly appreciated for his 
amiable character, his generous disposition, 
and pure and upright demeanor. It was not 
his taste, or his fortune, to command in the 
field of war, or even 

The applause of listening Senates to coinmana. 
He preferred rather to enjoy the quiet com- 
forts of home and his family, and the kindly 
.intercourse of neighbors and friends. 

Such was his popuhiriry that he was often 
elected hy the people of Bladen a member of 
the Legislature, (18l2-'27, and in 1828;) 
(luring the last year he was chosen Governor. 
He was within one vote of being elected Sen- 
.ator in Congress in 1831. 

He was President of the Convention at 
Harrisburg, in 1840, that nominated General 
Harrison for President. He was offered the 
nonnnati<m as Vice-President; he declined, 
•and ,Vlr. Tyler was nominated. Had his mod- 
esty allowed his acceptance, as was the course 
■of ^events, he would have been President of 

the United States. But his health was very 
precarious, and would not allow him to accept 
anv position. He died October, 1841, at 

He married, at an early age, the daughter of 
General Thomas Brown, the hero of the battle 
of Klizabethtown, leaving an only daughter, 
Who married Haywood Guion, deceased, and 
who now resides at Charlotte. 

Governor Owen was a true type of a North 
Carolinian. Sincere, but chary in his profes- 
sions and promises; and faithful and e.xact in 
his jterformances-, varied and deep in his 
acquirements, but modest, reticent and unob- 
trusive in his demeanor; firm and gallant in 
nuiiutaining his convictions of right. His 
name is worthy .to be chissed with Bayard of 
France: " Sans pear, sans veproclieJ' 

His brother, General James Owen, was well 
known for his urbane and intellectual charac- 
ter. He was elected a member of the 15tli 
Congress (1817,) and President of the North 
Carolina and Raleigh Railroad. 

His sister married Elisha Stedman, of Fay- 

Ja.mes J. McKay, (boru 1793; died 18.53,) of 
this county, was distinguished as a lawyer and 
statesman. He was often a member of the 
Legislature in the Senate (ISlf), '16, '17, '18., 
'22 and '26;,) district attorney of the United 
States, and a member of Congress from 1831 
to 1841), serving at one time with great accep- 
tability as Chairman of the Committee of 
Ways and Means. In the National Conven- 
tion of 1848 General McKay received the un- 
divided vote of North Carolina as a candidate 
for Vice-President. As a statesman he was of 
unquestioned ability, of stern integrity, capa- 
ble of great labor and patient investigation. 
He was in puldic, as in private life, a radical 
economist, and belonged tothat school of which 
Mr. Macon was the father, and he, with George 
W. Jones, Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, and 
John Letcher, of Virginia, were faithful disci- 


pics. General McK^ay died very siuldeiily at where lie u'radnated in 1843", in the same class 

Goldsl),.ro in 1853. with lion. John L. B'ridgers, Hon. Robert P. 

In olo-insi; our sketches of " The niciiiories Dick, I'liilo I'. Henderson, Judge Samuel J. 

oi' tiity years or mort>,'" as regards the men of IVrsori. and others, lie served in the Legisla- 

Bladen County, we should do injustice to the ture in 18IG to 1850 in the House, and 1854 

integrity of history and to merit and vii-tucto and '58 in the Senate, and in the Congress of 

pass over the name of Thomas David McDow- the Confederacy. 

ell.cuie of the pui-est men in [)ul)licand pi-i\ate He is a planter hy profession, and now lives 

life that lever knew. in dignified retirement like Cincinatus, r.Dtil 

He was Lorn in Bladen County, the son of he is called, like him, hy the iiec>ple, to posi- 

Dr. Alexander McDowell, on the 4th of Jan- tion of rcsponsihility and liouui-, which his 

nary, 1823. merits entitle him. and his talents so admira- 

His education was liheral. conducted at the bly qualify him to adorn, 
onaldson Academy and the University, 


There are so many memories that clu>tcr selves; never yielded quiet obedience to the 

around tlie early times of this ancient county, rule of the lords propi-ietors, nor were thev 

ns.-^uciated with the cbivali'ic daring of lier pa- even on good tiuaus with the rulors of Boy- 

triotic sons, tliat the liist'irian is embarrassed alty. Governor Dob'-s, with ainiaUe traits 

by the riclies the glowing record [>rcscnts. The of character and witii all the ii vtronage of the 

diilieulty aiises not so much in finding nuiterial Govcrnnieiit, could \vi:i l)Ut few advocates, 

for his study as in selecting o\-ents and sub- Goveriior fryoii, his succ;'ssoi-, i»y turiis threat- 

jeets most worthy of presersation. Here was ened and llattered them, imt in vaiu; .and 

the ancient Ijorough of Brunswick." This linally they di-ove out Gov, Mirtiii, the list 

seeiiou w:is the home of Howe, of Hariiett, of the Royal (Jovoruors, from tlu' country, 

and of Hill, where wealth and entcrjirise to whom, like the guest--, of Maebeth, tlie peo- 

rcared stalely mansitius; wIku'c geiierous hos- pie of* l>ruuswiek said, with more deeision 

pitality, gentle coui'tesy, and social hai'moiiy than c unity, 

prevailed, and whore wit, science and refine- At once, good ni^iit! 

iuent found a habita' ion Stand not uijou the order of .your going— 

Uut goat once. 

These people, when the Stamp Act was before 

.„, . , ,. -,, ., the Parliam.-nt, saw the storm aiinroachiui'-; 

I lie ancient town ol l>rnn^Wlck. once the seat of . i i .-^ 

llio Hoyal (iovernment, was on the left bank of the without tear the}' w.iccIkmI its coarse, and 

(ape Fear liiver, about 10 inilesfrom the present town „ i „ ;f ti i , i -^ r -n r 

of SniiUiville. It was nearly destroyed on the 7th -f ^^''^" ^^ '''"""' *''^'-) '" '''I'^'^^'l Us fury with hrm 

Sei.tember, 17(i9, by a hniTicane, which is deidctcl in au,l maid v spirit. When its liiial iiassage was 
a dispatch from Iryon. (Colunril Doc s from iiolls ^ ^ I -r, • 

Oiiice, London.) announced, the Chevalier Bayard of the day. 


people were happy when left to them- 


John Aphe.then Speaker of tli-,- Ifoiise of tlic and luarohod in trininpli to the lesiiloncc of 

Col'Miial As.^cinbly, boldly proclaimed to the the Governor at Wilmington. The whole 

Uoval (uivcrnor, surriauuU'd Ky his satraps, t^wn was wild with excitement, and was 

that "he would the execution of the illumiaated at ni :ht. The next mornini!; Col- 

aet to death!" one! Ashe, at Hk' head of a crowd of people, 

It was here occurred a scene which excels went to tin' hous- of the Ciovernor and de- 

iii daring any uvent of the age; and which man<hMl the ^^tamii-master, (William llous- 

leaves the Boston Tea Tarty a secondary ton,) who had lie I to the Govern >r lor s ifcty. 

legend in point of courage and patriotism. The Governor refuses to deliver him up, and 

In the year ].7C(J, an English slo.)p-of-war, forthwith preparations are made to surround 

(the •■ Diligence") isseon entering theharhor. and hum the house, in which was tlio Gover- 

" The meteor ilag of Hngland " Haunts pi'oudly nor. Stamp master and others. Tcrrilied, 

fV<im her mast, and her camion, lo ided and although a practiced soldier. t!io Governor 

ready, frowned n[ion the (U'voted town, yields, and l[oustnn is deli vered up. They do 

She sails gi-acefally into the harhor, and no act ..f Idoodshed ; hut tirmly conduct ih^us- 

drops her anchor. GovcrnorTryon, anxiously t'-.aitotlie .\larket-hou-e, where he makc^ a 

expecting her, announces her airival hy a .oleaiii pledg > in writing ■•never to receive 

],rorlamation dated (Jth January, ITCd, and the any stamped [.ap ^r which may arrive fivmi 

reception of stamps, and dii'ects '• all persons England, nor olliciai e in any way in thedisiri- 

authorized to distribute stamps to apply to bution of stamps in the Proviiu'e of North 

the eomniandcr." Carolina." 

i'.iit tither eyes than Tryon's were watching. Three bmd cheers ascend to Heaven, and 

Colonel Hugh. Waddcll fortlnvitli .sent from ring says Davis, '•thr.)ugh th- old market place, 

Binnswick a nies.'^enger to Ashe, annouming and the Stamii Act is dead in Xortli Carolina." 

the arrival of the " Dilig^ce " with stamiis; This was more than ten years before the 

he immediately repairs to Brunswick. Xow Declara.tion of Independence, and more than 

c(unes tb.o tug of war. Will the arrogant nine before tiie battle of Lexington, and nearly 

Tiyon, with his armed men, triumph; or will eight years bef);e the Boston Te:; Tarty. 

the daii::'>- A.-be which was in the night, and by men in dis- 

guisi', and upon the liarndess carriers ()f freight. 

IJeard the Houijlas in liin castle':' ' , , , , , . , ,• i> , " ^ 

Ilist'-ry has blazoned tins act ot Boston to 

Will he and V\'addell commit acts that are (|,,, world, but the act of the people of the 

treason, and will send them to pris:)n and f\,jn, y^^i- was far more (htring; done in open 

death? diy l)v men of cliaraeter, witii arms in their 

They felt the importance and the peril of imiuls, under the King's flag; and who has 

t!'C oc-easion. Like vhc ancient Romans they h^.■,^y^\ ,,f it v \Vh i remembers it ''. Who tells it ? 

felt ;< When," concludes the ebxpient adilres; of 

Gofl^I can a IJoinan Senate loiisj ilcliate , , .^ ,■ i ■ i r i 

AVliicli of tlie two to dioose. hbertv or flcathV .Mr. Davis, Irom winch i am promt to cojiy, 

No. let as rife at once, and at the Iiead " wMl historv d . justiec to North Carolina? 

Uf om- reni.unnig lesieiis. sird on our swords \> .u n. . ,» i j 

And charge hoMic upon hlni. Never until some faithful and loving son of 

Tliey with force prevent the landing of any her own shall gird up his loins to the task, 

one fi'(mi the ship; and intimidating the com- and with unwearied indn<ti-y and unflineliing 

mander, seizing tiie siiip's boat, brought it on devotion to the honor (jf his dear old mother, 

shore, mounted it on a cart, raised on it a flag, narrate the virtues and vafu- of her sous. 



This decided conduct on the jiart of the 
people, as was to lie expected, infuriated 
Tryun; and lie fnhninates in liis dispatclies to 
the Earl of Uillsl)oi\) his threats of vengeance. 
lie enclosed :a copy of the pledge extorted 
from his Stamp-master, whicli is filed in the 
Rolls Office, and vvhicli, for future historians, I 
copy and here rticord. 

Erom Kolls Office, London; extract from 
Governor Tryon^'s dispatch; dated 2Gth De- 
cember, 17Go; a pledge extorted from Wil- 
liam Houston liv John Ashe and uthers. 

" I do hereli}' jiromise that I never will re- 
ceive any stamp paper which may arri\e from 
Europe in consequence of any act lately passed 
in the Parliament of Great Britain, uor ofK- 
ciate in an}' manner as Stamp-master in the 
•distribution of stamps within the L^'ovince of 
Noith Carolina, cither directly or indirectly. 

'• Ldo hereby notify all tiie inhabitants of 
His Majesty's Province of North Carolina that 
notwithstanding my having received informa- 
tion of my being appointed to said office of 
Stamp-master, I will not apply hereafter for 
any stamp paper, or to distribute the same, 
until such time shall be agi'eeable to the 
inhabi.tanis of this Province. 

" Hereby declaring that I do execute these 
presents of my own free will and accord, with- 
out any equivocation or mental reservation 

'■ In witness hei'eof I have hereunto set my 
liand this KUh Xovembor, ITtio. 

"William Houstos." 

There are deeds wliicli should not pass away; 
Anil uames tliat mast not witlier. tho the earth 

Forgets her empire with a just decay. 
The enslavers and enslaved, their death and birth. 

Among the records I find a letter from 
Houston to Tiyon, in which lie states, " I am 
hated, abhorred and detested, and have no 
friend," that h« tiiinks John Moses HeKosset 
would not refuse a copy of his bond lodged in 
his hands, dated at Socrate, 21st Ajiril, 1766. 

Such was the enthusiasm and spirit of the 
aroused people, that fears for the personal 
safety of Governor Tryou were excited, and 
required all the efforts and popularity of Ashe 
to allay them. 

I find among the public records in London., 
never before jiublished, the following letter: 

'^ Fehrum-yld, 1766. 
" To Governor Tryon: 

" Sir: The inhabitants, dissatisfied witli the 
particular restrictions laid upon the trade of 
this Eivei' only, have determined to march t© 
Brunswick, in hopes of obtainiiig, hi a peaceful 
manner, a redress of their grievances from the 
Commanding Officers of His Majesty's ships, 
and hav« ciimjtelled us to coii<iuct them. We, 
therefore, think it our duty to acquaint Your 
Excellency that we are fully determined ta 
protect from insult your person and jiroperty, 
and that if it will be agreeable to your Ex- 
cellency, a guard of gentlemen shall bt; imme- 
diately detached for that purpose. 

" We have the honor to be, with tlie great- 
est respect, sir, 

" Your Exc€llency''s most 

'• Obedient, humble servants, 
" John Ashe, 
" Thomab Lloyd, 
" Alexamuer Lillington." 

This shows the well balanced temper of 
Ashe and his associates. He had raised a 
tempest, tierce and furious, in the cause of 
right and opposed to illegality and oppression. 
But he was a sufficiently potent Prospero t@ 
allay its excess. 

The position of the Govei'iior was humili- 
ating and galling to his pride. As a soldier 
he had been trained to ai'iiis. His temper was 
imperious, daring and desperate, as he after- 
wards evinced at Alamance. But he saw that 
he was no match before the people with the 
popular and fearless Ashe. 

His political sagacity induced him to change 
his course, for be knew well wIku to brag and 
bully and when to Hatter and fawn. "He 
began," says Uavis, " to court the people and 
Hatter them with shows and spiorts." " In 
Eebruary, of that sauie year, 1766, there was 
a muster of militia in Wilmington. The 
Governor pre[iarcd, at considerable expense, 
a tine repast for the people. But when the 
feast was ready the [leople rushed to the spot, 
poured the liquor in the street, and threw the 



vIiiikIs:, uiitastoil, into tlie river. llo fory-ot 
tliat he was in tlie home of ,lolin Asiie, and 
he hud .-^eeii tliat neither lie nor the iieojile 
couM l>e intimi(hxted or cajoled." 

I am indehtedto the able address of Hon. 
Gcoii;e Davis for much of the elotiuent style 
in which these events have been recorded, and 
use his language, so forcible and correct, and so 
much better than an}' I could eniploj. 

After the battle of Alamance, Tryon was 
transferred to the Governorshi[) of New York, 
and he left Xorth Carolina to the mutual sat- 
isfaction of himself and the peojile. lie de- 
clared in a dispatch to his Government, that 
"not all the wealth of the Indies could in- 
duce him to remain among such a daring and 
i-ebellious people." 

His successor. Governor Martin, found his 
place no bed of rose.s, notwiithstanding he 
used every means to reconcile the peo[ile to 
4he mother country. He early experienced 
the restive spirit of the age, and as already 
stated, found it convenient to take refuge (on 
10th Julj-, 1775) on board of His Majesty's 
ship of war, lying in the Cape Fear river. 
In a dispatch dated 20th July, 1775, from 
on board the "Cruiser," he informs his 
Government that " Fort Johnson had 
been burnt, and that Mr. John Ashe 
and Mr. Coi-nelius Harnett were the 
ringleaders of the savage and audacious 
mob." Governor Martin found as little pleas- 
ure in association with such daring men as 
had Governor Tr^'on, and with English squad- 
ron left the Cape Fear country for Charles- 
ton. Thus was the State free from anj' for- 
eign ruler. This same year, 20th of May, 
1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence w'as proclaimed, and the year follow- 
ing (18th November, 1776,) a Statu Constitu- 
tion was formed at Halifax. 

These were the. men tliat formed our State; 
these — 

I. ike Romans 111 Rome's qiwrrel. 

Spiiryd iieitlii'i- laud nor gold. 
Nor sou nor wife, nor limb nor life, 

In tlie brave days of old. 
Then iioni' \v:is for a party: 

'I'hcii all wen' for tlii^ State; 
Then tlic great man helped the poor. 

And the poor man loved the gieat. 

It has been the subj(K;t of frequent remark 
and admiration, that Xorth Carolina should 
haved formed, under such circumstances, so 
perfect a Constitution that it carried the State 
through the long and blood}' revolution in 
safety, and for nearly sixty years, in honor and 
happiness. For any people, long inured to aris- 
tocratic forms and monarchial rule, should, 
bursting from the gloom of monarchy into the 
light ot lii)ertv. to have created so perfect a 
form of Government, was indeed a subject 
full of wonder. It has been amended several 
times; but to tlie minds of many it has not 
been improved. It was the work of men who 
knew the great principles of liiierty, truth and 
justice, and many of them afterwards fought 
and died to secure them. 

It was adoj^ted on the 18th December 
1776, as reported by a committee, among 
whom were W. Avery, John and Samuel 
Ashe, Thomas Burke, Rich'd Caswell, Corne- 
lius Harnett, Joseph Hews, Robert Howe, 
Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, and others. 

It is recorded that it was chiefly the pro- 
ductioii of Caswell, Burke and Thomas Jones. 
But whoever they were, they proved them- 
selves master workmen in their craft. 

Thou, too, sail on, oh Ship of State, 
Sail on thy course, both strong and great, 

ilumanity with all its fears. 

With all the hopes of future years, 
Is hanging breathless ou thy fate. 

By many it is stated that our Constitution 
was the earliest formed. But this is error. 
When the [lower of the mother couiitr}- over 
the colonies was gone, and some Governnieut 
other than England was necessary, the Conti- 
nental Congress, by a resolution adopted 3d 
November, 1775, recommended the Colonies 
to adopt such Government as .should best 


conduce .to tlieir safety. In iuxordance with Brunswick County presented many patfi^ 

this resohition — otic sons to the cause of Independence, but 

I. New Ilanipshire formed a State Consti- """f more worthy of our memories than Rob- 
tution 28th December, 1775. '^^^ IJ^'^^'^^ ('j"™ 1^32; died 1785.) So little 

^^ ^ , ,, ,. ^,-. I X . , -,--,^ has t)een iireserveil and preseuted to the count V 

II. South Carolina, on 2tjth March, 1(76. . ,. . . , , , , - , i. ■ 

ot this distinwnished man that the mderatig- 

III. Virginia, June -29, 177(5. .^,,1^ .,,,,1 accurate historian* has been com- 

IV. New Jersey, July 3, 1776. pelled to state that history bears no record of 

V. Delaware, September 12, 177fi. his private lite. 

,.T n 1 • o t 1 oi i-7« The ri'pi-oach has been removed, in .some 

V I. 1 enns\lvania, Septenil)er 21, 1(78. ^ ' 

measure, by an abridgement of the memories 

VII. North Carolina, 12th November, 1776. .. ,, 'i ir " -i 3 i a i -i i i 

' 01 General Howe, compiled by Arcluliald 

VIII. Georgia, 5th February, 1777. Maclaine Hooper.t 

IX. New York, April 20, 1777. Had his services and sacrifices been rendered 
(See Ben: I'erley i'oore on Charters and '" ="^.V other State than North Carolina, he 

Constitutions ) would have been landed among the statesmen 

I. The Convention which furmed the iirst ^'"^ patriots of the nation. Let ns try to sup- 

Coustituti.ui for North Carolina met at Ilali- I'b' this .miission, and endeavor to preseut th« 

fax. 12th November, 1776, as above alluded to. chararter and services of General IL.nve as 

n. The Convention wliich revised and ^^^^y deserve, 

amended the Constitution, met at Raleigh on His nivine and fame lieloug to Brunswick; 

4th June, 18;!5, (Nath'l Macon, President.) for it was in this county he wa- l>orn, lived 

III. The Convention (secession) met at Ka- and died, 

leigh 20th May, 1861, (Webloii N Edwards, ITe was born in 17;;2. His fatlier's fimily 

Pre>ident.) „.as a, bi-aiieh of the noble house of Ilowe, in 

IW Tho Convention, under orders of the Emrl.and. He had t he misf u-tune to lose both 

I'resideiit of the United States, (.Tohnson,) of bis parents at any early age; and the guid- 

met at Raleigh 2d October, lSo5, farmed a ance of his boyhood was entrusted to a kind 

Constitution which was not ratiHe.l by the grandmother, who, like all grandmol hers, 

people, (Edwin G. Keade, rre.sid.Mit.) g„ completely indulged him that bis eiln- 

V. The Convention, under orders. d' General cation and tiainingwas murh neglected. 
Canby, of the United Slates Army, mot at ijg ^y,,^^ however, of an active, inquisitive 
Kalrigh lit h January, 1«68, formed a Constitu- |,j,,„(^ .,|j,i |,y ^vea desultory reading, 
tion, (Calvin J. Cowies, President.) ,^,„i conversation of literary men, he 

VI. The Convention to amend the Consti- .icquired miuh and varied ini'ormation. He 
tntion, met at Raleigh on 6th September, man-ied at an e.irly age a young lady of the 
1875, which was ratiiied by the people by u (jpauge family, much against, the will of her 
majority in November, 1876, ( Dr. Ew'd Ran- p.,,cnts. With his bride he visited his rela- 
som. President.) ^■^^.^. ;„ England, where he remained about 

Lists of the person.s who were members of t„.^, ^.^,.,,.^_ eiijoving the noble and muuitieeat 

the Conventions of 1776, 1835, 1861, 1865, ijospitality oi Ids tViends and ftmily. 

1868 and 1875, are to be fouml in tlie a<lmirable 

hand-book of L. L. Polk, C'omnnssioner of *Lo.-sino- n. 72V!. 

Agriculture, i)Ublislied at Paleigh, 187ib t University Magazine, vol. II.. June. lSi3. No. 6. 


On liis rotui'ii lie tomineiiced his public Tlowe was elected a ineniber of tlie Asseiiiiily. 

career. leoi.y iVdiii tlic Rnlls Office in London lie was also elected a delegate to the Cobmial 

the follnwinu-: ('on<rross whidi niet at Xow I5erne on 2')tli 

" 3(1 Nov 17(56. Anu-nst, 1774. This \va< the lirst assenilda,s,n- of 

"At a meetin- of the c^ouncil at Newburn, ^he reinvsontatives „f the people in uk-i.-Iative 

Robert Howe, Es,,., produced the Governor's ^"n-'^city in the Colony in du-ee-t opposition to 

(Trvon's) commission appointing- him captain the Royal authority. It was violently de- 

of Fort Johnston, and he took the oath and """"^'C'l I'J Governor .Vfartin. I [owe was ap- 

, -1 1 ii I t •) nointed chairman of a committee to wliom 

subscribed the test. ' 

the speech of Martin was referred, and wrote 

In a di.spatch of Gov. Martin to Earl of .^^^ :,i,ie and ehxpient reply. On the 8th Au,-;- 

Dartiiioutb dated December 24th, 1772, " the i,st, 1775, .Martin i>y proclamation dated Mb 

Governor complains that the Colonial Assem- ^.\„j^.,i^f,^ 1775^ on board the British ship 

biy had passed a resolution rerpiesiiiig Gover- ., (;,,„i^e,.;> , [enounced Howe for bavin,!? takm 

Tryon to forward their petition to the ^,^^, ^,^.|g ,,,• ,.oU,iie]. and for snininoniiiii- and 


Kill'' and thus overlookinix him.' 

trainiii!;- the militia, etc. 

-This," he adds, "was done by the iiiilu- This closed Howe's legislative career. By 

ence of Robert Howe and Isaac Edwards." j^^^ Colonial Congre.-s that met at liillslxu-o (;ii 

'■Of Mr. Howe," the Governor says, in the 21st August, 1775, he was apiiointed ccdoiiel 

?ame dispatch, " wlieii lie came to North Caro- of the 2d Regiment, then about to be raised oii^ 

Hna. Mr. Howe was the captain of Fort John- the Continental establishment. 

soiK and Baron of the E.xchequer; but b.diev- r|,,^^, „j}^,.,.,.,; api.ointcd to this regiment were 

ing the two otKces incongruous, !k! appointed j.,,!,^.,.^ Howe, colonel; John I'att.ui, major, 

Mr. Hasell Baron of the E.xchequer; by the (,„.,ternal grandfather of the lion. C. C. Canib- 

King-s appoint!! ent Cai.trdn Collet was made j,^.,j„j,_ ,^\^.^.,^,]y alladed to;) Alexander .Martin, 

captain of the fort, which deprived .Mr. Howe lieutenant colonel, afterwards Governor of t he 

of a iiost of contemiitihle profit to a man of v4(.,te. Aimmg the captains were James Blount, 

honor; but he, by extraordinary management ]i.i,.,ly .Murfree, Henry Irwin Toole, .Michael 

of moneys that came into his hands to sup- i>.,^^.„|.^ .,,,,] others. In this gallant regiment 

po.t the garrison, made it very lucrative, and n^ipifovd County cmtributed her first quota 

served to keep together the wreck of his for- ,,j- f |,,,^,^,^ enlisted for the war. They coiisii- 

tune. Mr. Howe is a man of lively parts and ^„j^,| Comi.any D, and were commanded by 

good under.standiug, but, in the present state j[.j,,,i_^. _\[m.f,ee. (;oloiici Benjamin Wyuus 

of his atiair.sof no account or considoiation, ^-onunanded the Hertford Battalion. Their 

and is trying to establish a reputation for |i| march under lb. we was to Norfolk, and 

patriotism." reached the Great Bridge only two days after 

" The Legi-l.iture res .Ived to continue the the battle. Thence they wont .south un- 

establishment of Fort Johnston only to the der Lee. One of the uest and truest of Hert- 

next session, which, I fear, is owing to the ford's sons was ;iidcde-camp to (ieiu'ral Howo. 

command, being held hy an oliicor nominated This was young Godwin Cotton, of .Mulberry 

liy His .Majesty, instead of .Mr. Howe, a native Grove. Like his 3'oung kinsman, Colonel 

of thiscountry." (Colonial Rec-ords, London.) James Gotten, of An.soii, he was the survej-or 

This year and in t!ie next, 1772 and 1773, of the county. He was the youngest sou of 



Captain Aithui Gotten, and lived at the old General Howe for compelling Sir Hen!'ry"'s 

homestead near St. Johns. He was as amiable friend, Lord Dunmore, to leave Virginia for- 

as he was brave, and universally beloved. He ever. 

lived long after the war, and many now alive General Howe was placed in command of 

may recollect his exemplary and pions char- the North Carolina troops in defence of 

actcr. He was the last of his name in Ilcrt- Charleston and Savannah; and the latter end 

ford, for he left no sons; but he left two of July General Lee undertook an e.vpedition 

daughters, who were the belles and beauties of against Florida. But by an express he 

their day. One of them was the lovely was ordered North, and" General James 

mother of Dr. Godwin Gotten Moore, of whom Moore succeeded him. Soon after General 

we shall write when we come to Hertford. — Moore was ordered to join the Army of 

(Moore's Hist., Sketches of Hertford, IX, the North, and Howe was appointed to 

XVI, 550 ) succeed iiim in the command of the Southern 

In Ueceniber, 1775, Howe was ordered to Department, 
take command of the troops raised in North o„ the 2(1 of October, 1777, Howe was ap- 
Carolina, and niarcli to aid Virginia. Unavoid- pointed by Congress major general; and in 
able circumstances prevented him from reach- the Spring of the next year he made an un- 
ing the Great Bridge until two days after the successful ex[)edition against Florida. From 
brilliant battle, [9 Dec. 1775] but he took post ^vant of proper supplies, insubordination 
at Norfolk, and rendered good service in driv- of some of the otticials of Georgia and 
ingthe Royal Governor (Lord Dunmore) and South Carolina and the health of his 
bis forces out of this section of the State; for troops, he was compelled to retreat 
this he received the thanks of the Convention to Savannah. The retreat was com- 
of Virginia, and of the General Congress at nienced in July, 1778; the conduct of 
Philadelphia, and was promoted to the rank of General Howe was severely commented upon 
brigadier general. in various publications. Among these was a 
Wbei! General Lee, in March, 177(3, arrived letter of General Gadsden, which was highly 
in Virginia, Howe joined him with his regi- otfensive to General Howe, and led to a duel 
jiient and went south. As he passed through „ear Charleston. Howe's second was C. G. 
North Carolina he received the thanks of the Pinekney, and Gadsden w^as accompanied by" 
Convention at Halifax and at New Berne for Colonel Barnard Elliot. They fought, 13th 
his services, and he was received with public August, 1778. Howe's ball grazed his oppo- 
honors. nent's ear, on which Gadsden fired iiis pistol 
As an additional evidence of apin-eciation of j,, tlie air. The parties then shook bunds, 
his patriotic efforts, he was especially excepted ^nd became reonciled. 
from the offer of pardon proclaimed by Sir 
Henry Clinton to all who should down their 
arms, and his estates on the Cape Fear were 
ravaged by the English troo^is. This was the l^'''^'" ^'^^ commencemeiit of Howe's a<l- 
second time that Howe had been the honored "'inistration. South Carolina and Georgia bad 
subject of Royal indignation and marked b^-'^" urgent in memorials to Congress to re- 
enmity. This second proclamation of Sir Henry call him and to replace him by 
Clinton was a grateful acknowledgment to n^o''e experience. 

lie was attacked at Savannah b\- the British 
in force, and defeated. 

icer of 



In compliance with these solicitations, in have been principally active in the late niu- 
•Septeniber, 1778, Howe was ordered to the tiny; to disarm the remainder, and to exam- 
headquarters of General Washington, and ine into all the circumstances relating 
General Linct)in appointed to succeed him, thereto." 

and to repair immediately to Charlestt>n. In May, 178.5, lie was appointed by Congress 

Howe was stationed on the Hudson river, and to treat with the Western Indians, 

ill 1780, was ill eoramaud at West Point, He remained at the North for some time 

where he rendered acceptable services, and 
for his energy aud activity at this and other 
important commands he received the thanks 
of Washington. 

In January, 1780, a committee of the 
Georgia Legislature, appointed to consider the 
situation of the State since 29th of Decem- 
ber, 1778, and extracts from the minutes of 
the assembly respecting the conduct of Gen- 
eral Howe, were transmitted to the Com- on accountof monies (§7,000) advanced.' " 

awaiting the adjustment of his claims for losses 
to his estates in North Carolina, ravaged by the 
enemy, and which were rendered useless and 
unproductive, and, from the depreciation of 
the currency, he \vi\s reduced to want. 

From the Journals of Congress, page 65: 
April Uih, 1785. 

" Mr. Hawkins introduced a resolution, pay- 
ing ' for depreciation, to Major General Howe, 

mander in Chief, " with a request that ho be 
directed to cause inquiry to be made into 
matters therein alleged, in such manner as he 
should judge proper." 

In pursuance of this order General Wash- 
ington summoned a Court Martial of thirteen 
officers — Baron DeKalh presided as President. 
After a rigid examination of six weeks he 
was acquitted " with the highest honors." 

Extract from Journals of Congress, 24th 
January, 1782: "The acquittal of General 
feowe by Court Martial with the highest 
honors is approved by Congress." (Journal 
1782, page 271. ) Although the war was over 
General Howe continued active in service. 

In 1781, Howe was sent by Washington to 
suppress a revolt of the New Jersey troops, 
llildreth. III, 359. 

Extract from Journals of Congress, Monday, 
1st July, 1783, page 64, ordered by Mr. Hamil- 
ton, and reported from a committee of which 

In the spring of 1785 he returned to North 
Carolina, and was welcomed by public honors 
at Fayetteville and by kind friends at home 
He was induced to allow his name to be used 
as a-candidate as a member from Brunswick 
of the General Assembly. He was triumph- 
antly elected. But exposure during the sum- 
mer produced a severe bilious fever, from 
which he partially recovered, aud in October 
started for the seat of Government. His first 
day's ride brought him to the house of his 
friend, General Clarke, about thirteen miles 
above Wilmington. Here he relapsed, and 
after two weeks' illness died in November, 

He had served his country from the first 
dawn of the Kevolution till the end of the 
war, with fidelity and valor, and his services 
demand the remembrance and regard of his 
country. One whose opinion is valuable, 

he was the chairman, that " Major General styles him " The wit, the scholar, and the 

Howe shall be directed to march such part of his soldier." 

force as he shall judge necessary to the State Drake describes General Howe as an olficer 

of Pennsylvania, in order that immediate of approved courage, well versed in military 

measures may be taken to confine and bring to tactics, a skilful engineer, and a rigid discipli- 

irial such persons belonging to the army as iiariau, and a man of cultivated mind. 


After all the toils of war and the vicissi- one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of 

tudes of fortune, he returns to his home, State, I extract the followins;: 

Life's long vexations passed, "Mr. Cornelins Harnett, another of the 

Here to return and die at home at last. Council, wais hred a merchant in Dublin and 

settled at Cape Fear in this Colony. I was 

Cnrnelius Harnett,* horn 20th April, 1723; assured by a letter I received in England that 

died 20th April, 1781. Harnett was worth six thousand pounds ster- 
ling, which induced me to place his name on 

Associated with Robert Howe in the cause the list of persons to be Councillors; when I 

of Liberty and Independence was Cornelius came to this country he was reputed to be 

-TT .X worth £7,000; but now he is known to have 

traded with other men's goods; and is not 

Both of these distinguished men, by the worth anything, and so reduced as to be corn- 
proclamation of Sir Henry Clinton, were ex- P^''«^^ ^'^ '^'^'^P "^ P^'^Ii" house." 
eluded from all pardon from the Royal Gov- There are other records that aid us. "At 
ernment. Although not, like Howe, a soldier, the General Court, sitting at Edenton, the 
it was not the fortune of Harnett to figure in 26th March, 1726, George Burrington, the 
"feats of broil and battle," yet he did equal Governor, was indicted, for that about the 2d 
deeds of daring and courage in the great drama of Decendjer, 1725, with Cornelius Harnett 
of life, in which men and arms are only sub- of Chowan County, and others, he assaulted 
ordinate parts, and " the value of whose ser- the house of Sir Richard Everhard." * 
vices," says Mr. Davis, " was only equalled by In the Register's office in New Hanover 
the extent of his sutierings and his .sacrifices." County | there is a record of a bond from 
We regret that so little has been accurately Colonel Maurice Moore, of New Hanover Pre- 
known of Mr. Harnett that even his birthplace ciuct, to Cornelius Harnett, "of the same 
is conjecture, Mr. Drake states, as does Loss- place," dated 30th June, 1726, &e. 
ing, " he was l)OFn in England," but gives no Since we know from the in.scription on the 
authority. Unquestionably there were two headstone of Cornelius Harnett, of Cape Fear, 
persons of the same name, both distinguished that he was born in 1723, it is clear that the 
in the annals of North Carolina. Cornelius Harne-tt, of Chowan, was another 

The father, name the subject of our person, probably the father, and that he was 

sketch bore, was not an obscure man, from the "''^ "*" English birth, but of Irish descent, 

fact that he was the abettor and friend of ^^''^ ''''' =^''*^ '^■'' ^" ^^''''^'^ ^''^t his son was 

Gov. Burrington in his quarrel with Everhard, ^»"" '" ^"'■^'' Carolina, and there was no 

and one of the Governor's councill<.rs, 1730. ™'^-^'"e»t from 1765 to 1780 in the cause of 

It may be inferred that he was a man of dis- independence in which he was nut ready and 

tinctionin North Carolina as early as 1725. ""■*'''^' "The Samuel Adams of North- Caro- 

But, as will be seen, he and Burrington did ''"^''" '^^ ''^ '^=^" *^^^''^'^ ^>' •^'^^^=^'' ^^•^"*^>'' ^^'''^ 

not remain friends very long. ^''^^^^'l '^'^ ^''^^^ in 1773. 

From the Rolls OflSce in London, in a dis- 

With Colonel John Ashe, he was denounced 

^ ^, , _„ „ by Governor Martin in 1775, for the burning 

patch dated Feb. 20th, 1732, of George Bur- ;, t,. , t i .r ^, • ... 

^ „ , . 01 l^ort Johnson. He was Chairman ot the 

rington, Governor of the Province of North „tm • , ^ ■ . ,- , ^ , ,- 

^ ,. ,,. ^ , T^ , ^-^-r . vVilmington Committee ot bafety, and atter 

Carolma, to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, „ ,r ,- , . . , .^ 

' Governor Martin s retreat the State was gov- 

*Drake's Biograiildcal Dictionary; Lossing's Field * Williamson II, 229. Davis at CUapel Hill, 1825. 
Book, II, 582. t Book, page 71 . 



erned by a Provincial Council, of wliicii liar- From liis delicate hnaltli ami liis distin- 

nett was chairman, and de fueto tlio Governor sjuislied character, he was admitted to parole, 

of the State, at a period when the affairs of He sul)mitted to the inovitaI)lo with di^'iiity 

the Government demanded the utmost prn- and philosophy. But broken in spirits, health 

dence and sagacity. He was elected a mem- and fortune, he died in captivity on his birtli- 

berof the Colonial Congress that rnet at Hali- day, 20th A jail, 1781. 

fax on the 4th April, 1776; ('hairman of the Tie lies buried in the northeast corner of the 

Committee to Consider the Usurpations of the grave yard of St. James Cbnnb, Wilmington, 

English King and I'arliament. lie presented with this inscrii)tion: 
resolutions directing the delegates from North 
Carolina in the Continental Congress to unite 

in declaring independence. This was unanimously 
adopted on I2th April, 177G, more than a 
month before the celebrated resolutions of 
Virginia. No one has ever heard of this for- 
ward step of " poor, pensive North Carolina," 
while the act of Virginia has been sounded by 
every tongue, and recorded on every page of 
her historj'. 

Mr. Harnett was of the Colonial Congress 
that met at Halifax on 12th November, 1776, 
which formed the Constitution of the State, 
and with Samuel Ashe, "Waightstill Avery, 
Thomas Burke, Richard Caswell, Hews, Willie 
and Thomas Jones, and others, was a commit- 
tee on this important subject. 

In 1777, 1778 and 177!t, Mr. Harnett was a 
rnenilierof the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia. His letters which are extant breathe 
the spirit of a patriot, and prove hira to have 
been a faithful and devoted public servant. * 
These letters also reflect much light on vhe 
condition of the country and the proceedings 
of the Continental Congress during this event- 
ful period. 

He returned home to North Carolina, and 
when, in 1781, the British forces, under Sir 
James Craig, occupied Wilmington, he was 
taken prisoner at the house of his friend 
Colonel Spicer. 

Conicliiis Ilariictt, 

Diefl2()tli Ainil, 1781. 

Aged 58. 

Slave to nn sect, lie took no private mad. 
But looked through nature u]) to nature's God 

* Life and Letters of Cornelius Haruett, coniiiiledhy 
Gov. Swain; Uni.Mag., Feb., 1861. 

Kotes relative to Cornelius Harnett; by Archibald 
Mcl^ine Hooper. 

A vvortby name of a worthy community. 

He is described by his biogi-apher, Mr; 
Hooper, as being delicate rather than stout in 
person; about 5 feet 9 inches high; hazel eyes 
and light brown hair; small but symmetrical 
features, ami graceful figure. Easy in his man- 
ners; affable and courteous; with a fine taste 
for letters, and a genius for music, he was at 
times a fascinating and always an agreeablo 

The capital of Harnett presents the honored 
name of Lillington. 

John Alexander Lillington was the son of 
Golonel George Lillington, who settleil on the 
Island of Barbadoos, and was a memiier of the 
Royal Council in 1698. 

His grandfather. .Major Alexander Lilling- 
ton, emigrated from Barl)adoes to the county 
of Albemarle, with his family. 

On the north side of the tomb of Governor 

Henderson Walker, five miles below Edeuton,* 

is inscribed the following: 

Here lyes ye body of 

(ieorge Lillington. 

Son of Major Alexander Lillington, 

who died in ye 15 year of his age 

Anno 1706. 

The oldest public record in the State is a 
commission issued to George Durant, Alex- 
ander Lillington, and others, to hold the pre- 
cinct Courts in Berkeley Precinct. t 

*Lossing's Field Book, IT, 586. 
tPavis, IV; Wheeler. I, 34. 



U]Miii the (leiiavtiire of Gov. Ludwell in 1G93, 
the aduiitiistrution of the Province devolved 
upon him as Deputy Governor.* Ills grand- 
son, tiie suhject of our sketch, was left early 
an orphan, and when Edward Moseley, who 
had married Ann, daughter of Major Alexan- 
der Lillington and the widow of Gov. Walker, 
(died 1712,) emigrated to the Cape Fear, 
young Lillington came with him, in 1734. 
A tine mansion, known as Lillington Hall, 
ahiiut 40 milesaliove Wilmington, on the New 
Berne road, is still standing, and an engraving 
of it is delineated in Lossing. 

When the notes of prepai'ation for the war 
with the mother country were heard, Lilling- 
ton responded ghidly to the call. 

He was early known as an active and decided 
Vv liig, and co-operated with Ashe in opiiosi- 
tion to Gov. Ti'yon. We have seen his letter, 
offering, with Ashe and Tliomas Lloyd (see 
ante, page 40,) to protect from insult the 
,person and property of the Governor. 

By the State Congress, which met on 21st 
August, 1775, at Ilillsboro, to put the State in 
military order, he was appointed colonel of 
the Wilmingtini district, and Caswell for the 
JS'cw Berne district. Together, these gallant 
otficcrs, with their forces, fought (February 27, 
1770, j and won the battle at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, over the Scotch Tories, which has 
been fully described, with its important cou- 
seLpieuces.t The State deeply appreciated bis 
services, for the Provincial Congress that met 
at Halifax on 4tli of April following, appointed 
liim colonel of the (jth Regiment of North 
Carolina troops on the Continental establish- 
ment. He served under General Gates at the 
ill-fated battle of Camden August 15, 1780. 
Though he served through the war with dis- 
tinguished honor, and was promoted to rank 
of brigadier general, his military fame rests 
ciiietly upon the battle of Moore's Creek. 

*Martlu, I, 134. 
t See Wheeler, 1, 76. 

General Lillington remained in service to 
the close of the war, when he retired to his 
estate at Lillington Hall, where he died; near 
his mansion rest the remains of General Lil- 
lington and his son John, who did good ser- 
vice in the whole Revolutionary war as col- 

" General Lillington," writes one of his 
descendants to Lossing,* " was a man of Her- 
culean frame and strength. He possessed 
intellectual powers of a high order, undaunted 
courage and of incorruptible integrit3^ He 
has left, 

on the footprints of Time, 

On of those names that never die. 

General Lillington was the grandson of 
Major Alexander Lillington who was Presi- 
dent of the Council, and ex officio Governor of 
North Carolina, in 1673. His grandmother 
was an Adams, from Massachusetts. One of her 
daughters married Governor Walker, and 
afterwards Edward Mosely. Another was 
the wife of the lirst Samuel Swanu. General 
Lillington left issue at his death in 1786, one 
daughter, who married her cousin, Sampson 
Mosely, and a son George, who left a son, 
John Alexander, (who represented Davie 
County in the Senate, in 1848,-'50,-'52,) who 
was the last of his name, a gentleman of line 
personal appearance, and talents. 

Mrs. Harden of Hickory, and Mrs. Dr. 
Anderson, of Wilmington, are the present 
representatives of the family. — (Moore, 
Letter of Hon. George Davis.) 

The Moores of Brunswick, 
It is now just about tifty years ago when I 
first entered the House of Commons (as it was 
then called,) as a member from my native 
County of Hertford, and my attention was 
drawn on the first day of the session to one of 
the best expressed and best delivered speeches 
that I ever heard, and which made an indeli- 

Lossiug, II, 3S5. 



ble imiiression on my own iiiiiul, and carried part of the records of the court, and the party 

■conviction to all who heard it. elected had no right to its possession 

The simple facts of the case were: One This able arsjument was more effective by 

of the members from the Cape Fear country the ornate and elegant manner with which it 

had lost or mislaid the certificate of his elec- was delivered. 

tion; the question arose in the minds of 
many, could a member take a seat without the 
evidence that he was duly elected ? Alfred 
Moore then arose and addressed the House. 

Ilis manner of speaking, the melody of his 
voice, the polished periods of his sentences, 
commanded the attention of all, while his 
argument and reasoning influenced their judg- 

Theje was no question of the fact that t)ie 
member had been elected, and that he had 
lost or mislaid the certificate of the sheriff 
holding the election. 

Mr. Moore traced the history of the mode 
of elections, as had existed from the founda- 
tion of the State, and also the mode in 
the Colonial period, that whenever the 
Governor called the Legislature, M'hich body 
was composed of a Council, who were ap- 
pointed by the Crown to a<lvise with the 
Governor, and the House, which was composed 
of members elected by the people from each 
county; he directed the Clerk of the Crown or 
the Secretary to issue writs of election to each 
sherift", to call together the people and to elect 
such number of names as the county was enti- 
tled to as members, and when executed and 
the election made, to endorse on said writ the 
names of the persons elected, and to transmit 
the said writ to the Clerk of the House or 
Crown or Secretary, as the case might be. 
This return was filed and recorded. On the 
day appointed for the meeting of the Assem- 
bly, the endorsement was read by him, and 
tiie persons called and qualiiied. 

He further argued the person elected had no 
right to the custody of the certificate, no more 
than a party who sues out a writ. It was a 

No reply was attempted, and the member 
was unanimously admitted. 

This question, we are aware, has been since 
decided differently; (Ennet's Case, 1842,) but 
it was when party arose superior to patriot- 

It has been often my good fortune to hear 
Clay in his happiest moods, and Calhoun's 
powerful logic, and Webster in his massive 
eloquence, but neither of these excelled this 
extempore effort of Mr. Moore, whose powers 
as a speaker were only excelled by courtly 
elegance of manners and simplicity and mod- 
esty of demeanor. 

Mr. Moore was of a family long and well 
known for their integrity, their intellectual 
powers, and their devotion to the cause of 
liberty and law. 

This family is of Irish descent, and claim to 
belong to the Chiefs O'More. The ancestor 
in America was James, who came to Charles- 
ton and married, in 1665, a daughter of Gov. 
Yeatnans, who was Governor of Carolina in 

He became Governor of Carolina in 1700, 
upon the death of Joseph Blake. He was 
supposed to be the grandson of Roger Moore, 
the leader of the Irish rebellion of 1641, and 
inherited the rebellious blood of his sire.* By 
his marriage with Miss Yeamans he had ten 

The eldest son, of the same name, was worthy 
of his father. He acquired military renown 
in his campaigns against the Indians. 

He, in 1703, marched to North Carolina to 

*See Hume's England. 
Money's Hist, of Ireland. 
Drake's Biographical Diet. 
Carrol's Collections of S. C. 
Davis at C. Hill, 26, 


subdue the Appalachian Itidiatis, who had other tliaii patriots, or to shrink from any sac- 
dune great mischief and murder in this (the rifire at the call of their country." In a dis- 
Cape Fear) section, and lie completely sub- patch IVom Governor Bui-rington as early as 
dued them. February, 1735-, he shows his instinctive dread 

He also commanded the forces setit b}' Gov. of such patriotic and pure-liearted men, and 

Charles Craven t(.) succor the iidiabitants, thus describes them: 

whose borders were ravaged by the Tuscaroras "About twenty m^Mi 'are settled at Cape 

in 1713,and many of theinhabitantsm-.issacred, Fear from South Carolina. Among these are 

among them John Lawson, the first liistorian three brothers of a noted family, by the name 

of North Carolina. He was accomiianied by of Moore. They are all of the set known by 

a sti'ong force, and completely routed the sav- the name of 'the (Joose Greek faction.' These 

ages. A severe engagement nciw Snow Hill people were always very troul)lesome in that 

in Greene County.* Government, and will be so, without doulit, 

He remained in Xorth Carolina about seven in this. Already I have bL-eti told they will 
months, when he returned home. Until 1603 spend a good di-al of money to get me turned 
the two Provinces were together, and under out. .Messengers are continually goi«g to- 
one Governor. The renown gained in the Mosely and his crew, to and from them." Such 
Indian wars was well calculated to render Col. was the repulsion of the representative of 
Moore a favorite with the people. In 1719, royalty to the advocates of popular rights and 
when the quarrelbetweeu tlie people and the equal justice. 

Government occurred, true to the instincts of Colonel Maurice Moore, to whom we have 

his race, he was with the peo[]le, and was well already alluded as the younger brother 

qualified to be a leader in pcj'ilous and troubled of (lovernor James Moore, the second, was 

times. Robert Johnson was at this time the a soldier, lirave, energetic and successful. 

Royal Governor. The people proclaimed He had accompanied his brother in his ex[)edi- 

against him and deposed him 28th 2^ovcmber, tions to Northern CaroIimi,and was impressed 

1719, and with this prochunation went up the with the character of the country. He had 

expiring sighs of the Proprietory Government, two years later commanded a troop of horse 

and James Moore was elected by the people in tlie service of Eden, (Govei'uor of North 

Governor. He was succeeded the same year, Carolina in 1713,) and marched to the Cape 

(1719) by Arthur Middleton, and as he <lis- Fear to subdue the Indians, who were fierce 

ap[iears from South Carolina history it is prob- and trou'olesome in that section. As (ioveruor 

able he came to Cape Feai.t • . . Eden resided in Chowan, it is inferred that 

He never mari'ied. His younger brother, he first went there. Three years after his ex- 
Maurice, accompanied him in his campaigns pedition lie was concerned with Edward 
against tlie Indians. Mosely in some mattcr.i of importance. He 

Such was tlie inviting character of this sec- is supposed by Martin to have settled niion 

tiou, its genial soil and mild (.limate, that the Cape Fear about 1723. The dispatch al- 

many of the family settled on the Cape Fear, ready quoted of Governor !5urringtori shows 

Of these Mr. Davis was correct when he said " that three brothers by the name of Moore 

" they inherited the rebellious stock of their were located, in 1730, on the Cape Fear." 

race; it vvas not in tlieir name or blood to be 'J'hese three brotliers were Colonel Maurice 

Moore, Roger and Nathaniel. To these three 
*Joliiison rnulitioiis, 230; Davis's Adilress, 12. 

tMartin, I, 2(;i. men is due the permanent settlement of the 


Caiie Fear. Witli these came others who iiii,^ tiie _<rrcat ri^ts at IIi!lslMM-.), in 1770, 

were distinsjuislied for their virtues and their wlieii Jiidi!;e llonderson tied, .Judge Howard 

valor, and were the germs of a iiohie colony, was driven from the bench, the house of Colo- 

" They were," says Mr. Davis, "No needy ad- nel Fantdng burned, and his },ers )n severely 

venturers, driven by nece?sity to seek a preca- chastised. Judge Moore was unmolested, 

rioiis living in a wild and savage country, hut lie was elioscn a member of the Provincial 

gentlemen of birth and education, bred to the Congress, at Hill.sboro, in 1778, and of the 

refinement of society, and bringing with them same at Halifax, in 1776, and materially aided 

ample fortunes, polislied manners, and culti- in forming the State Constitutiui. 

vnted minds. 'fc married Anne Grange, by wliom he had 

Colonel Maurice Moore, the founder of the two children, Alfred, born in 1755, of whom 

family, was the son of Governor James xMoore we shall write directly, and Sally, who mar- 

and .Miss Yeamans, and left a family of several ried (Jeneral Francis Xash, who fell at (!er- 

childreu. Among these were his eldest son, mantown, 1777. 

Judge Maurice Moore, judge under the Colo- He died the ne.\t year, ou- the 15th of Janu- 

nial Govcrnmer,t,a devoted advocate for pop- ary, 1777, at home, and by a wonderful coin- 

ulav rights, and decided opponent of wrong cidence, at the same time, same hour marly, 

and oppression. •'^"''1 i't the same place in an adjoining room. 

He was a lawyer,and was .so much esteemed died his distinguislied brother, Geiund Jasnes 

that he, with Richard Henderson and Martin Mooie. Ho was the son of Colonel Main ice 

Howard, constituted the judiciary of the Pro- Mo(n-e and .Miss Porter. A soldier by his 

vince. He was appointed 1st of March, 1708. taste, by education and profession. Ho was 

associate justice. devoted to the cause of his countiy, and co:i- 

This was no empty comidiment or idle ser- sidered the first military genius of his d ly. 
vice. There were five circuits at remote and He was early trained to arnis, and when 
almost inaccessible points; through bad roads Tryon met the Regulators at Alamance, in 
and worse accommodations, the judge had to 1771, Moore wa.s one of his officers, 
travel eleven hundred miles to make the cir- On the organization of the military f(,reos 
euit of these courts. of the State, he was a[)poiuted colonel of the 
But, although he was appointed and dis- First liegiment of North Carolina on the Con- 
charo-ed judicial duties under the Crov.'ii, he tinental establishment, by tlie State Congress 
was by no means the advocate of oppression. . that met at llillslioro on August 21, 1775. 
He sympathized with the Regulators in their This was a higli honor — to he preferred to 
sufferings, hnt did not sanction their violence. Colonel John Ashe and others to the corn- 
He denounced the high-hande.l measures of maud of the Hrst regiment raised l)y the State. 
Governor Tryon, in a series of letters signed He was em[iloyed in watching the enemy 
" Atticus," and showed the character of the on the Cape Fear, to prevent any junction of 
Governor in despicable colors. This so in- the forces of Clinton and .Martin. When Cliu- 
censed the Governor, that in a dispatch, ton appeared in the river, the clans of Scotland 
dated 1761), he recommends " the removal of gatheied together to connect and co-operate 
J.udge Moore, and the appointment of Ed- with the forees of Clinton. .Moore marched 
mund Fanning." But he continued on the his regiment to Ciimherland County to pre- 
beneh until the Revolution closed the courts, vent this, and give them battle; but they 
He was a favorite with the people. Dur- avoided the ofiV-r, only to meet another force, 


and experience a disastrous defeat at Moore's Nash, his brother-in-law, killed in battle. These 

Creek ^Bridge from Caswell and Lillington. calamities left a helpless family on his hands, 

On the departure of Geiiei-al Lee to the anil he was forced by these untoward events 

north from Cliarleston. Marcli, 1770, the Con- to resign. 

tinental Congress promoted Moore to the His patriotism and his martial spirit, how- 
rank of brigadier general and commander in ever, did not allow him to be idle or inactive, 
chief of the Southern Department. He raised a troop of volunteers, and so greatly 

He endeavored to discharge the duties of annoyed the enemy that Major Craig (after- 

tliis inipoitant station ^\ith iidelity, but his wards Sir James Craig, Governor-General of 

feeble health sunk under the duty, and lie Canada,) when in possession of Wilmington, 

returned home, there to die. sent troops to Captain Moore's house, who 

General .James Moore niari-ied Anna Ivey, plundered everything that was valuable, and 
b)' whom ho bad four children, Huncan destroyed the remainder. While the British 
Moore, Janies Moore, Mrs. Swann, Mrs. were at Wilmington, his condition was de- 
Waters, plcirable — without means, or even decent 

Judge Alfred .Moore (born 21st May, 1755; clothes, driven from his home and family, his 

died lOth October, 1810,) was the son of Judge pro[)erty destroyed, yet no murmur of com- 

.Mauiice Moore. He was sent to lioston to plaint was uttered by him; no abatement of 

acipiire his education. While there he made zeal. 

by hi^ genial disposition many friends, and Dear must that independence be, purchased 

was oflered a commission in the Royal Army, iit such a terrible price. After the battle of 

Thi-; was not accepted, but the presence of a Guilford Court-house (loth March, 1781,) 

large military garrison and the friendship of Captain Moore with others did good service 

one of its Oiiicers, added to an inherited taste in harrassing Lord Cornwallis in his march 

for the profession of arms, led him to acquire t'"'"" Guilford to Wilmington, 
accurate knowledge of military tactics, which But tlie war was soon to close. The Eiig- 

s ion was to bo called into requisition in Hsh were then on their marrli to Yorktown, 

defense of his luitive bind. He returned home, '^^'I'ich proved to be the Waterloo of the con- 

and wiien all hopes of reconciliation were lost test. 

and contest commenced, the State Congress But it was not in the field, although he had 

at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, organized two Jone a. soldier's duty with credit and gallantry, 

regiments for the Continental establishment, that Judge Moore's reputation was won, and 

he was commissioned as captain in the First which preserves his name to a grateful pos- 

Regiment,of wbieli his uncle, James Moore, terity. The General Assembly in 1782 elected 

was the colonel. He marched with bis com- 'li'" -Attorney-General of the State, when it 

mand to Charleston and was on duty there at ^^'"*^ known that be had never read a law book, 

the brilliant alfair of Fort ALjultrie, and This was done to alleviate, in a delicate man- 

evinc'd traits of cba-.icter that ranked him ii<3r, his immediate wants, and as some slight 

among the first captains of his day. acknowledgment of gratitude for his sacrifices 

But ciicumstancesunforeseon and disastrous ='"*^ sutierings. His habits of industry and 

cr^.wded heavily upon him. His father. Judge "•''^''^^ penetration soon supplied any deficiency. 

Maurice Mooie, and his uncle both died the ^" ^''° ^i'^'""" "i' the Supreme Court, in case 

same day. His tirotber Maurice was killed °^ ^*'^^*^ '^®- ^ernigan,* he " discharged the 

by mischance at Brunswick. General Fi'ancis "T^i^ige Taylor's opinion in 3d xMurpIiy Rep., 12. 


arduous duties of the office for u series of yours documents, by aid of .\[rs. Ilarvcy, one of tlie 

in a manner that commanded the admiration descendants. 

and gratitude of liis contemporaries." A The capital town of IJrunswick County pro- 
clear perspicuity of mind, methodical accu- serves tlie name of Benjamin Smith, wlio was 
racy and port'iiency of argument, a pleasing',im- governor of the State in 1810, and a sketch 
pressivc and natural eh)quence, distinguished of whom nniy bo found in tlio liistoiy of 
his legal efforts, lie soon arose to eminence. North Carolina, vol. H, p. 49. 
In 1798 was called to the bencli of North Governor Smith was at one time immensely 
Carolina; the next year he was appointed by wealthy, having large possessions on the Cape 
the President one of the Associate Justices of Fear river. His liberal donation to the Uni- 
the Supreme Court of the United States, lie versity in 17^9, of 20,000 acres of land, proves 
held the elevated position for si.K years, with his friendsbi[i for learning. 
credit to himself and satisfaction to his col- His temiiei', "sudden and (juick in quarrel," 
leagues and the nation. I!is liealth failing involved him in several duels. In one of 
he resigned. He died in 18)0 at the of tliem, with a man by the name of Leonard, 
2slajor Waddoll, in Bladen County, aged 55. he received the ball of liis adversary in his hi;), 
His private life was equally as interesting as which he carried to his grave, 
his brilliant public career. His manners grace- He died in Smithville in February, 1829, 
ful and winning, threw a charm over his entirely iienniless, and was buried the same 
domestic circle. His bi'iliiant wit and his niglit he dio<i b}- Major Wilson and Captain 
varied accomplishments, his gentle courtesy Frazier, of the United States army, under 
and unstinted hospitality, has, in the language the cover of the night, to prevent the sheriff 
of Mr. Davis, " handed his memor}' down to from levying upon the dead body for debt, 
posterity as a finished model of a Xorth which was allowable in those days, that when 
Carolina gentleman." a tv/. S(/. was levied, once levied on the body 

Judge Mooi-e married Susan Eagles, and it could be kept out of the grave in order to 

left four children; Maurice, colonel in war of force the friends to redeem it by satisfying 

1812; Alfred, with whom we opened this the claim in li;inils of the sheriff.* 

sketch of Brunswick Count}'; Anna, who There are many other names connected 

married Hugh Waddell, senior, son of General with the early history of this county, as 

Hugh Waddell, of the Regulation war; Sally, Thomas Allen, Archibald McLaine, Roger 

unmarried. Moore, AVilliam Lord, Thos. Leonard, Wil- 

Tiie best evidence of the high apprecia- liam R. Hail, Parker Quince, John Rowan, 

tion of the name and fame of Judge Alfred and others, weU deserving of oui- remeui- 

Moore, by the people of the State, is at this brance and record. 

time, 1878, there are two members of Con- It is hoped that some son of Brunswick 

gress, and hundreds of others in North Caro- will gather together the rich materials before 

lina, who proudly bear his name as their they are forever lost, and present their lives 

patronomic, and who re\erence his memory and services to posterity. A recent and 

and virtues. graphic sketch of Gov. Smith, from the pol- 

The genealogical diagram printed in the ished pen of President Battle, is well worth 

Aj)pendix will explain the branches and de- preserving. 

scent of this distinguished family, and has 

1 -1 1 -ii /• 1 ■ . - . ^Letter from Woodsides hotel, SmitliviUe, to the 

been compiled with some care from historical "Observer," lUileigh, October 4, 1878. 


Benjamin S.mittj, Soldier, Statesman, I'm- less, until the eai-th a.,.l sea shall -ive up their 

LANTHEOPisT. dead. And as its nature, so its name is 
Near the month of the hcantiful Cape Fear * * * *'"^ ^'"^'^ ''*' ^''''•" 

river, on its right bank, is a pleasant little The name of the sandy reach which I have 

town. It is fanned liy the delicious sea flescribed, so desolate, yet so full of interest, 

breezes; huge live oaks gratefully shade its '^ Smith Island. 

streets. In its sombre cemetery repose the The University of North Carolina has amid 

bodies of many excellent peojilc. Its harbor i^*^ g'l'onp of buildings, one, in its shape and 

is good. It is on the main channel of the r""'tico and columns, im itating a Greek tem- 

rivcr. From its wharves can be seen not far P''^- ^^^ basement was until recently the 

away the tliin white line of waves as they '^ome of the State Agricultural Experiment 

brenk on the sandy beach. I!nt the ships to Station, which has done so much to protect 

and from its neighbor. Wilmington, pay lit- ""'" t'Hiuers from frauds. Ijut now is the 

tie tribute as they pass and repass. Its chief laboi-atory of the professor of chemistry, 

fame is that it contains the court-house of the ^''"ve is a long and lofty room containing 

county of Brunswick. Its name isSmithville. ^'le library of the Univer.■^ity. 

Opposite this good old town is a desert Cn its shelves are many ancient books of 

island composed of undulating sand hills, with S''''iit value, but vacant spaces plead piteously 

here and there occasional green fiats and ^"'' "^"'^' books in all the departments of lit- 

dwarftd pines to relieve the geneial nion- ei-aturc and science. The nan}es of this build- 

otony. It is exposed to the full fury (jf the i"S' is "Smith Ilall." 

Atlantic storms. New Inlet once i)onred a ^^^''^it member of the widolj'-spread familv stream between the island and the °^' Smiths has thus given his familiar name to 

Uiainlaud. But daring and industrious man ^' county t(Mvn, an island, and a University 

seeks to foixe In- walls of stone the impetuous I^"!''^ His Cbii.stian name was Benjamin. 

Hoods through the river channel to the west, ^I*-' was an active ofKcer of the Kevolutiou 

and thus float larger ships up tiie river to the "'"^ '^ <-iovernor of oui' State, and the tii'st 

port of AVilmiugtoii. Its southern end forms '•'-■'"'t'act(U' of the University, 

the dangerous cape which Mr. George Davis Covernor Smith had many vicissitudes of 

so eloquently describes: fortune. In his youth he was aide-de-camp of 

"A naked, bleak elb,)w of sand juttin.^ far ^^'"'^''"'^'"» '» the dangerous but masterly 

out into the ocean. Inimediatel v in its front ''<^t''eat f'-oni Long Island after the defeat of 

are the Frying I'an Shoals, pushing out still the American torees. lie behaved with com- 

^::::^i:^:';:^:!;:':U'i:^io:::':5:it:.:^ r"r'"" ">' " "■' '•""■-« -*» » 

they catch the long majestic roll of th'e At- ^^■''"=" Moultrie drove the British from Port 
laiitic as it sweeps through a thousand miles l^"y:d Island and checked for a time the in- 

and tempests, the kingdom of silence and ^^^^^ " '^® S-^^'e on many occasions 

awe, disturbed by no sound save the sea-'nill's ^"*^'' various proof of activity and distin- 

sbnek, and the b.^akers' roar. * * guished bravery as to merit the approbation 

tliere It stands, beak and thrc'iten ,fi- • <.• i 

ingand pitiless, as it stood three hundmi " '"■^ ""l"-^''*'-' ^-""t'T-" After the strong 

years ago, when Greenville and White came *-'"*'" ^"pei'seded the nerveless Confederacy, 

iiigh unto death upon its And theie ^^^len there was danger of war with France 

n will stand, bleak and threatening and piti- or England, he was made general of milit^^' 



and when later, (hi aeedunt o\' insnlts and 
injuries of Fi-ance, oiii- (Jovi'mment made 
preparalion.-i ior active liostilitios, the entire 
militia of Brunswick t'ounty. oflicers and men, 
roused to enthusiasm hy an address from him 
full of energy and fire, volunteered to follow 
his lead in the legionary corps raised for ser- 
vice against tiie enemy. The confidence of 
his conntrMnen in his wisdom an.d integrity 
was shown hy their tiftceji times electing him 
to the Senate of the State. From this post 
he was chosen hy the General Asseudily as 
our Chief E.xocntive in 1810, when war witli 
England was constantly exiiected, and hy 
large numbers earnestly desired. Tiie charter 
of the University was granted in 1789. The 
trustees were tlie great men of that day-^the 
leaders in war and in peace. 

Of this hand of eminent men, Benjamin 
Smith was a worthy member. He is entitled 
to the signal lion or of being the first benefac- 
tor of tlie infant institution, the leader of the 
small corps of liberal supporters of education 
in North Carolina. For that reason alone his 
mime should be revered by all the long line of 
students who call the University their Alma 
^j[ater — by everyone who desires the enlight- 
enment of our people. 

The Trustees met, for organization, in Fay- 
etteville, on November loth, 1790, choosing as 
their chairman Colonel William Lenoir, the 
Speaker of the Senate. General Smith glad- 
dened these hearts by the munificent donation 
of patents for twenty thousand acres of land 
in Western Tennessee. A large poition of 
tliem was a gift to him for his gallant services 
during the dark hours of the Kevolution. 
They were the price of liberty. They wera 

the ottering of a generous heart and a wise 
head, which knew well that liberty could not 
be preserved without education— that ignor- 
ance must be slain or vice will be the ruler of 
our land. 

Generation after generation grew np and 
passed away. Year after year yi>ung men, 
their mental armor supplied and burnished 
through his wisdom and lilierality, went 
from the University walls to become sources 
of good influence in all our land, from the 
Potomac to the Uio Grande. The institution 
he loved so well, after many vicissitudes of 
trials and sufferings, had become wealthy and 
pros[ierous. Nearly five hundred matriculates 
every year entered their names on its roll to 
partake of its instruction. The revered donor 
had drunk to its dregs the cup of bitterness. 
His too generous disposition and misplacAl 
confidence in others had deprived him of his 
wealth. His once strong and vigorous body 
had lieen wasted by disease and racked by 
pain. In poverty and in wretchedness he had 
long since sunk into his grave under the weep- 
ing moss of the great swamp trees. Sixty 
vears after his generous gift the trustees of 
the Univer.sity honored themselves by bestow- 
ing his name on a beautiful structure devoted 
to literature and to science. The sacrifices of 
the old hero were not in vain. 1 lis monument 
is more enduring than marble or brass. Cen- 
turies will come and go. Men's fortunes will 
wax an<l wane. But the blessings of the gift 
of Benjamin Smith nearly a hundred years 
ao'o will never cease, and his name will keep 
green forever. 

Kemp P. Battle. 





Buncombe wortliily jiref^iTvos to all time 
the name of Edward riuncomlje, a [)atriot and 
a soldier, who served his coiiutr^' fuithfnlly, 
and who i^ave up his life in lier defence, a more 
minute account of whom is presented in the 
sketch of the men of Tyrrell County, of which 
h(,' was a resident. 

There is jierhajis no section of the State 
more familiar hy naine,and less known ahi'oad. 
" T;dkini;- for Buncombe " has become as 
faniiliar as a household word, not onl^- in 
our own naive, but has pervaded other 
countries.* 1 his slang phiase had tliis origin. 
Some years ago the member in Con- 
gress from this district t arose to address the 
House on a question of local importance; some 
of the meml)crs left the Hall, which he ob- 
serving, very naively said to those remaining, 
that the\' might go too; as he should speak 
for some time and was only " talking for Bun- 

Am[]le materials for description of the lovely 
scenery and the genial climate, the fertile soil, 
and its gold giving ore, exist, but these are 
not germane to our object; it is of the men of oidy V\'e prop,>se to write. 

Many of tlie earlier inhabitants and [lioneers 
of this lovely region of the State we are com- 
pelled to pass over. It were a pleasing duty 
to dwell upon the caaracterand services of the 
Alexanders; tlie Barnetts, (the first men that 
ever piloted a wagon over the mountains;) 
Th'j Beards, Readou and Zeijulou; Thomas 
Case, (who died in 184:), aged 82," who lived 
longer, easier and heartier, and left more de- 
scendants than any ni:in of his day;") the 
Davidsons; the Edueys; the Lowrics; the 

* Attache in England, by Judsre Ilalliburtou. 

t tiencral Felix Walker was member iu the Plouse of 
Representatives from the Buncombe District fi'om 
1817 to 1S23. 

Irwins; the Battons, (especially .fames, who 
died 1845, aged 90, the founder of the Warm 
Springs;) Rev. Ilnmphrey Posey; James Mc- 
Smith, the first white child born in the State 
west of Blue Ridge; and many others. 

We leave these for some son of Buncond)e as 
indicated by lion. George Davis, " who shall 
gird up his loins to tlie task, with unwearied 
iiuhistry and unflinching devotion to the honor 
of his dear old mother." 

"^ David Lowry Swain, liorn 4th of Januarj^, 
1801; died •JTth of August, 18fi8. 

Few men have lived in Nortli Carolina who 
have nuide a deeper or nnu'e lasting impres- 
sion on her history than tiie subject of our 
present sketch. 

Witlmut fortune or thorough education, or 
any jiersonal advantages, but by his own in- 
trinsic merits, his unspotted character ami 
sterling virtues, he was called on to fill the 
liighest offices in the State. 

If his education was, from his limited cir- 
cunistances, not c;)'iiplete, he was blessed with 
an un(p.ienchable tliirst for knowledge, habits 
of unremitting labor that was never sitistied 
until it e.Khausted a question, and a powerful 
memoiy. He remained a short time (1821) 
at the University, "but he did not need, (as 
Johnson says of Shakespeare,) the spectacles 
of b.)oks to study the great works of nature or 
the character of men." He was a student all 
his life. Truly — 

lie sought rich jewels 

From the dark Ciives of knowledge, 
To win his ransom from from those twin jailors of the 
daring heart, 

Low birth and iron fortune 

and so successfully did he labor, that at the 
time of his death lie had no superior in the 


■coTintry upon the science of Constitnticinal licitor of tlio Edcntun District, and rodo this 

law, moral science, or political economy.* circuit only once, when he re-signed. In 1830 

His ancestors were English. His father, he was a member of the Board of Tntcrnal 

George Swain, was a native of Roxhoro, Mas- Improvements, and was active in proiuot'ug 

sachusetts, (born 1763.) He came South, and the best interests of the State. In the winter 

settled in Georgia. He was a man of mark of this year he was elected Judge of the Su- 

and influence. He was a member of the con- perior Court of Law and Equity, 

vention that revised the Constitution of In December, 1835, he was called to the 

Georgia, and served in the Legislature for presidency of the University. Here was his 

five years. His health failing, he moved to proper element, and here he spent the best 

the health-giving climate of Buncombe, and years of his life, (till 1868.) 

was many years postmaster at Asbeviile. He " Never," says his able biograpiier. Governor 

married Mrs. Caroline Lowry, ividow of Cap- Vance, " did a Grecian iihilosophor gatlier 

tain Low ry, (who had been killed by tlie In- around him his disciples with more pride and 

dians,) and the daughter of Jesse Lane, of delight than did Governor Swain. In the 

Wake County, who was tiie grandfatlier of midst of his three or four hundred 'boys' 

General Joseph Lane, of Oregon, and Governor who annually surrounded him at Chapel ilill, 

Swain; by her Mr. Swain had seven children, he was entirely at home and happy, and such 

all now dead. society was the charm of his life. His 

Governor Swain was born, as stated, in knowledge was encyclopedic in its range, es- ' 

1801, at Asheville. His early education was pecially in English literature, Sooverwhelm- 

conducted by Eev. George Newton and Rev. ing were his stores, that the writer remembers 

E. M. Porter. lie often referi-ed in gratitude with grateful pleasure, when forgetting alto- 

to their patient labors, and they were proud gether the subject on hand he would stand up 

of their diligent pupil. His father was ambi- in front of his class, and in an outgush of elo- 

tious for him. He taught his son early to quence, poetry, history, anecdote and humor, 

choose only good society, and to aim at e.\cel- wrap us all as with enchantment. His 

lence in whatever pursuit he followed. After most remarkable trait of mind was his power- 

his early education was completed-ltercame (in ful memory, and the direction in which that 

1821) to Raleigh, where he entered the law faculty was notably exercised, was in biogra- / 

office of Hon. John Louis Taylor, and was ad- phy and genealogy. In this particular he had 1 

mitted to the bar in 1823. no superior in America. A youth coming to 

On the 12th of January following, he mar- college needed no letter of introduction. Not 

ried Eleanor "White, daughter of William only was it so in his own State, but from the 

White, late Secretary of State, and the grand- most distant Southern and Southwestern States 

daughter of Governor Caswell. He then re- it was the same. Knowing all the principal 

turned to his mountain home, and commenced families of the Southern Atlantic States, he 

the practice of law with great success. took note of their migrations we.stward; and | 

In 1824-'25-'26-'28 and '29 he was a mem- when their sons returned East for education j 

ber of the Legislature from Buncombe County, he would generally tell them more of their 

During this period (1827) he was elected So- family history than they knew before. 

" Amazed at his display of this genealogical 

* These were the subjects of which he was Professor history," Governor Vance continues, he once 

in the University, and uijon which he delivered lee- , , , . t^ , ,t i i 

tures. asked ium, " Don t you. Governor, know when 



every num of North Carolina cut his eye teeth?" in the historic field. As Caruthers, Wiley, 
•' Oh no," said he, "but I know very well "Wheeler, and Hawks could testify. Hemateri- 
when you, sir, had the measles." ally aided me in my poor efforts in this re- 
"Thus for a period of an ordinary lifetime spect, and in gratitude to him I dedicated my 
(33 years) he devoted himself to the highest " Historj' of North Carolina." 
and noblest service to his State and country At his suggestion and request, with a letter 
in training the future statesmen, jurists and from Governor Vance, in 1863 I visited Eng- 
divines of our country. Eternity alone can land, and epent all my time in the Rolls Of- 
reveal the influence which he thus indirectly fice collecting material from the original re- 
exerted on the intelligence and morals of cords as to the early history' of North Carolina, 
society; not only of his native State, but of But his name could not have received any 

all that vast region known as the South and 
Southwest, where his pupils filled every pos- 
sible place of honor, trust or profit. He pre- 
ferred to tread the noiseless tenor of his way 
in the quiet paths of science and philanthropy 
than those of political ambition. The plaudits 
of statesmanship, the renown of the warrior, 
had no charms for him. He felt truly — 

The wai'rior's name 

Tlio' (ipaledaiulcliiiiiecl on every tongue of fame, 
Sounds less harmonious to the grateful mind. 
Than he who fashions and improves mankind. 

" As all author," continues Governor Vance, 

" with all his stores of knowledge, and his 

additional lustre than it already enjoyed. 
His fame will forever rest upon the success 
with whieh hecoiulucted the University of the 
State. When he went to Chapel Hill there 
M'ere not ninety students. In 1860 there were 
nearly five bundled. He determined to make 
its influence powerful, and he succeeded. It 
was by intuitive perception of character, 
gentle but firm administration of authority, 
and high consideration and gentlemanly treat- 
ment of his pupils. In the classic halls of the 
University believer assumed the commanding 
and repellant attitude of a " Jupiter Tonans," 
it capacities, he left but little for posterity but like the course of the Apollo, leading by 

to judge and admire. His literary reputation 
is confined to those who were his cotempo- 
raries, and such traditions as affection and 
friendship may preserve. Many fragmentary 
articles from his pen and lectures exist; some 

graceful manners and gentle words his admir- 
ing votaries. 

But the unhappy internecine war came — the 
call for men and arms to defend the homes 
and hearths of the South was heard, and the 

of which are preserved in the University gallant youths of the University obeyed the 
Magazine, relating chiefly to North Carolina call. Of the class of I860,* every one, (with 
history. He had collected a considerable perhaps a single exception,) entered the ser- 
amount of historic material, and it was ex- vice, and more than a fourth of the entire 
pected that he would have left a work on that number now till a soldier's grave. Every ex- 
subject as a legacy to his countrymen. His ertion was used by Governor Swain to pre- 
agc, the troubled times, and an aversion to serve the University. It was owing to his e.\- 
continued systematic labor, doubtless pre- ertions that the conscript law, " that robbed 
vented liim." • alike the cradle and the grave," was not 
A vast numlierof rich traditions of the early rigidly enforced, and when the Federal army 
times and the men of Carolina were locked took possession of Chapel Hill in 1865, a few 
up in tbo vast stores of his memory; the students were still there. In order to avert 
key to which is buried with him. Yet he was 

ever forward and ready to aid other laborers 

* "Last Ninety Days of the War" by Cornelia Phil- 
lips Spencer, New York, 1860, 270. 


from till' institution the f:ite of nil othora 
lying ill the route of a oonquerinij army, Gov. 
Swain was appointed by Gov. Vance one of 
the commissioners to General Sherman to pre- 
serve the Capital and University. 

-After the war he visited New York and 
Washington to interest northern capitalists as 
to tlio financial condition of the University, 
and was greatly instrumental in securing the 
land scri[) donated by C'ungrcss for agricul- 
tural schools. 

But the election of 1SG8 adopted the new 
Constitution, and de.stroyed what war had 
spared. The doors of the University was 
closed by neirro troops, and with the vener- 
able president, fell, unwept, without a crime. 

"This was the unkiudest cut of all." This 
unexpected blow completelj^ prostrated Gov. 
Swain; his energies seemed subdued, and he 
seemed suddenly to grow old, losing all his 
vivacity and elasticity. 

The able tribute to the memory of Gov. 
Swain by his life-long friend Gov. Vance 
evinces the deep affection of the latter, which 
has been so liberally drawn on, and this feel- 
ing was fully reciprocated by " his gentle, 
patriotic, and distinguished preceptor." 

In a letter which I received from Gov. 
Swain when at West i\)int as one of the board 
of visitors to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at that place, dated ItJth June, 18tj5, he 
writes thus: 

" I have been detained here much longer than 
I expected; I eatmot leave earlier than .Mon- 
day next, and be in Washington on Wednes- 
day. I will be ver}- anxious to see Gov. 
Vance. Will it r.ot be in your power to obtain 
for me permission from the War Depart- 
ment to do so, in anticipation of my arrival ? 
I have been hoping constantly to hear of his 
receiving permission to return home. Please 
write to me immediately to Xew York. I 
will probably have only a day to spend in Wash- 
ington, and during that day I must see Gov. 

'' I remain very truly yours, 

" 1). L. SwAix." 

I procured for him the desired permit, and 
together we went to the Carroll Prison, where 
we met in the same place the Governors of 
three sovereign States " in durance vile," 
Gov. Vance. Gov. Brown, of Virginia, and 
Gov. Letcher, of Virginia. The cause of the 
visit of (iov. Swain to Washington at this 
time (20tb May, ISCf),) wasan invitation from 
the President of the United States, Andrew 
Johnson, extended also to B. F. Moore, and 
William Eaton, to consult in regard to" Recon- 
struction of the Union." 

This w-as no idle compliment. The country 
had just ended a long, exhausting and deso- 
lating war. The President, Lincoln, had been 
murdered b^' an assassin; every branch of 
industry was paralyzed; the commerce of 
a nation destroyed, and confusion and 
dismay pervaded every section. Tbaf the 
President should eall from their homes men 
who had nt^ver tigured in tiie field or the 
forum, but only known as pure, hoiiorableaiid 
conseientious men, was evidence of his sagacity, 
and of their high eharacler. 

They met the President on 22d May, 1865, 
at his office in the Treasury. Neither of them 
personally knew the President, and I intro- 
duced them. I then was about to retire when 
the President requested me to remain and 
participate in the consultation. Xo questions 
of more vital importance to the South since 
the foundation of the Government were ever 
di.scussed. All of those who participated in 
that conference have gone. No account has 
ever been published of their deliberations. 
From my diary of that date I extract the fol- 

" S<i(Knhiy, mh May, 1865.— Mr. A. G. 
Allen, editor of the National Intdliyencer, met 
me on the street and informed me that Gov. 
Vance, of our State, had been brought to the 
city, a prisoner of war, and that I might do 
good by going to see him, and that Gov. Swaiu 
was at the Elibitt and wished to see me. 
I went to the Ebbitt House and found Gov. 



S. and William Eaton, jr. Gov. S. aeconipa- 
iiied ine home. I soiit for. his haggage, as he 
wishes to he more (luiot than at the hotel. 
He, A\ith Messrs. Eaton and Mc^ore, are here, 
invited hy the President to advise measures to 
restore North Carolina to the LTnioii. 

" Suiuhii/, 21st Mil/. — Gov. S. aecompanicd 
me t(j chui'c. ])r. ]'inei<ney preaclied. 

" In evening, at request of Gov. S. and Mr. 
Moore, I called on the President and made 
ai'rangements for their meeting at 2. p. ni. 

^^Muiid'iy, 22il Maij. — Gov. Swain engaged 
in writing, prepai'ing for the conference with 
the President. 

"At 2 I we;it with him and Messrs. Moore 
and E iton to the President's uiHcc and intro- 
duced them. .Mr. Tiioniasand General Mussey, 
of Lewisbur:, were with him. 

''After intr.xlucing them I arose to retire, 
when the President again desired me to remain. 
A conference deeply interesting in all its de- 
tails occui'red. 

"The President directed his Secretary' to 
read a jiivjclamation which he proposed to 
issue, and an amnesty to certain classes b}- 
which Nortli Carolina was to be restored to the 
Union. He invited a frank, free, and open 

"Mr. Moore, with mucJi dei'ision, earnestness, 
and courage, lU.'nouiiced the plan, especially as 
to tiie classes who were to be exemjited from 
p-.ii(lon. The plan, he alleged, was illegal, and 
he denied the power of tlie President to issue 
it. ile ilenianded of him whei'e in the C.)n- 
stitution or Laws he found such power. The 
President replied 'that by IV Art., 4 Sec, the 
United States shall guarantee to every State 
a Republican foi-m of Government, &c. ' 
'True,' replied Mr. .Moore, 'but the Presi- 
dent is not the United States.' 

"As to exempting from all pardon, or requir- 
ing all pci'.^ons owning a certain amount of 
[iroperty to be [lardoneu, was simply ridicu- 
lous. You might as well s ly that eveiy man 
who had bi'ead and meat enough to feed his 
I'amily was a traitor, and must bo [lardoned.' 
Air. Moore continued in that same caustic 
manner, to examine other points of the pro- 
clamation, and specially the apiiointment of a 
(^-iovernor by the President, averring that the 
President had no sucli [lower. He finally sug- 
geste<l to the President to meddle as little as 
possible with the State, that she was able to 
take care of herself by aid of her own citi- 
zens; that his plan was to let the Legislature 
be called, which, as the Governor was a pris- 

oner, the Speakers of the Legislature could 
do; then the Legislature would authoi'ize the 
peo[)le to call a Convention, wlio could repeal 
the Secession Ordinance of the 20th of May, 
1861, and thus restore good correspondence 
with the Union, with the rightsof the State un- 
inqiaired and her digtiity respected. The 
President listened with much attention, and 
bore with great dignity the fiery philiipics 
of Mr. Moo\'e. 

" Governor Swain, in a long and temperate 
speech, but with much earnestness, advocaced 
the plan of Mr. Moore. He detailed circum- 
stances of much interest before utiknown, 
illustrative of his course, and that of Gov- 
ernors Graham and Vance. He read several 
letters from Governor Graham. 

" The President stated ' that he appreciated 
the able views and the frank enunciations of his 
friends, but still thought that the Provisional 
Governor should be appointed by the United 
States; that the President was the Executive 
Othcer of the United States, and therefore, 
the Governor, he thought, should be appointed 
by him. He did not seem much inclined to 
give an}' ground. As it was then half-past six 
o'clock he adjourned the Conference to meet 
again on Thursday next at 2 p. in.' " 

" Thwsddi/, 2i>th Maij, 1865. * « * 

" At 2 o'clock I went with Governor Swain 
to the President's liouse; we found Messrs. 
Moore and Eaton, and also W. W. liolden, 
\i. P. Dick, Pvichard Mason, J. P. H. Rus.s, 
Richardson, Rev. Mr. Skinner, i)r. Root. J. 
Powell, and Colonel Jones. The President 
laid before us tlie Amnesty Pro:j lama t ion, by 
which he proposed to restore the State of 
North Carolina to the Union, a Military Gov- 
ernor to be appointed by the President, who 
should proceed i'oi'thwith to organize the 
State Government; direct the people to call a 
Convention, appoint Judges, officers, &c. 

" The President further stated that the 
name of the person as Governor was purposely 
left blank in the proclamation, and requested 
that we should select some name, and that 
whoever we selected he would ap[)oint. The 
President then retired. 

" Governor Swain stated that it was a pre- 
ferable mode to him, and more in accordance 
with the laws of North Carolina, that the Con- 
vention should be called by the Legislature, 
which could be summoned by the Speaker of 
the Senate, or they might meet of their own ■ 
accord. But the President was unwilling to 
trust that body. 

" Mr. Eaton declared himself opposed to the 



appointment of Governor by tlie President; 
that he was only invited for advice and cou- 
feronco, and not for niaising offices, and that 
he would not unite in any recommendation of 
any one for this, or any other office. 

"It was then proposed to organize the 
meeting, and on motion of Dr. Powell, Mr. 
Moore was called to the chair. 

" Mr. Moore said he concurred in the saga- 
cious views of Slv. Eaton, and dticliucd to take 
the chair. He, with Governor Swain and 
Eaton, retired to another room." 

" Dr. Powell then moved that Colonel J. P. 
II. Hiiss be appointed chairman, which was 
carried, and on motion of Dr. Powell, the 
name of W. W. Holden was inserted as Gov- 

" The President was then sent for, who came 
in and seemed gratified at the selection. 

" Tlie party then dispersed. 

" The President gave Governor Swain and 
myself permits to visit Governor Vance in 

" Fridaj/, 26(h Mvj, 1865. ' * * 

" • * Governor Swain and m^-self rode 
to Carrol Prison where wo saw Governor 
Vance, Governor Letcher, and Governor 
Brown confined in the same place. Governor 
Vance was in good spirits and health. 

" Governor Corwin, of Ohio, also called to 
see Governor Vance, and denounced the out- 
rage of imprisoning him without process of 
law and without crime, three Governors of 
sovereign States confincjj together, and he 
promised Vance that he should use every effort 
to get him out. Which pledge he nobly re- 

•' He asked Vance, 'for what crime was he 
imprisoned ?' 

" Vance replied, ' he did not know,' 'un- 
less that Governor Holden, who had voted for 
the Ordinance of Secession in Convention, and 
had pledged the last man and the last dollar, 
and failed to redeem his pledge, and now he, 
Vance, was his securit.y, and had to suffer.' 

" We remained with Gov. Vance more than 
an hour, when we returned to my house. 

"As weather was rain\' and disagreeable. 
Gov. Swain remained within doors, and we 
conversed on l.istorical nuvtters, andthe stirring 
events of the last few days, of which he fore- 
bodes much evil. 

" I read, at his request, my diary," (as above 

■ " He asked for a copy, as he thought it con- 
cise and correct, to send to Mrs. S." 

The nuMnories of these times cannot but be 
interesting, as showing the prominent [lart 
that Gov. Swuin liore in these eventful scenes, 
and the sad condition of affairs. They have 
never been published. 

(tov. Swain, after visiting New York, re- 
turned home with feelings of depression and 

Hoping to restore tone to his mind and body, 
before taking a final leave of Chajiel Hill, he 
was ])re[iaring for a visit to his native moun- 
tains of Buncombe. On the 11th August, 
1808, riding in an 0[)en bugg}', his horse took 
fright, r.iii away, and threw him with violence 
to the gi'ound. He was carried home in a 
bruised coudilion. No one thought him seri- 
ously injured; but his hour had come. Ou 
27th August he fainted away, and without a 
struggle or groai) passed from time to eter- 

Gov. S. married, 12th January, 1824, as 
previously stated, Eleanor, daughter of Wil- 
liam White, Secretary' of State, (1778 to 1811,) 
and granddaughter of Gov. Richard (Jaswell. 
His widow now resides in Kaleigh. A daugh- 
ter, who married General Aikea (in 18G-3,) of 
Illinois, wliere she now resides. Gov. S.'s re- 
mains are interred at Raleigh. 

We have now finished, from authentic 
sources, an account of the services of Havid 
L. Swain, of which his State may well be 
proud. In his public as well as his private 
character, there was nuu-h to admire and to 

As a statesman and politician he was pat- 
I'ioiic, 3'et conservative and cautious. liither 
a believer in St. Paul's advice, if it be possi- 
ble, live in peace with all men — almost verg- 
ing ou the pi'actice of the good saint of — 

Being all things to all men. 

He certainly never was intolerant or vindic- 
tive. In the early days of the Republic he 
would have been a E<;deralist; in the log cabin 



age, lie was a Whig; and to his last dn^'s a 
Union man. 

As a Cliristian he was the admirer of piety 
and virtue in any sect. lie would say " my 
father was a Preshyterinn eldei' and ray mother 
a Methodist; Bish.op Aslujry hlessed me when 
a child, the Presbyterians tauglit me, and 
Hnmphrey Posey, a Baptist, pi'ayed for me. I 
was brought np to love all good Ciiristians." 

He was fo]' years a eomniunicant of the 
Presbyterian church, and gave largely to its 
support, lie was careful of nione_y; economi- 
cal in his expenses, punctual and }irecise, and 
faithful to his promises; simple in his habits 
and dress. He was little blessed hy nature in 
personal ap[>earance. " Certainly," says Gov- 
ermir Vance, " no man owed less to adventi- 
tb>us aids. His voice was pcculiai' and hiu-sh; 
in person he was exceedingly ill formed and 
uncouth; his knees smote together in a most 
unn\ilitary manner." 

l>nt his countenance redeemed his per.son, 
and one may say as did Hamlet of his father — 

- — - See what gnice was seated on this brow I 
A combinatidii and a form indeed, 
Where every God did seem to set liis seal 
To give the world assurance of a Man. 

A recent writer (Dalton) on a "Few Hours 
at Poplar Mount," has recorded of Governor 
Swain some appropriate remarks from his life 
long friend. Hon. ^\^eldon N. Edwards, that 
should be moi'e permanently iiroserved: 

" With (tov. Swaiu a vast store of historical 
and other infornuition was buried, perhaps 
beyond the possibility of resurrection. 

"There is no one left to ns who can fill bis 

"He was wrapped np in the University, and 
it was a serious blow to the State when the 
practised and learned facnlt}' was broken up 
by political interference and partisan malice. 
It was a grievous fault and a iilunder not to 
be tolerated in any part^-. 

"I have heard many of the friends of Gov. 
Swain state that he became melancholy and 
began to droop away on the termination of 
his duties as President of the University, and 
they believed a broken heart was as much the 

real cause of his death as the fall from his car- 
riage. He felt 'the last link was broken' that 
united his heart and hopes to all earthly 
objects. The whole manner of the man was 

"His step was tottering and slow; his mas- 
sive frame was bowed down in grief. His 
countenance, so wonted to be lifted up in 
smiles and playful wit, had already settled 
into the stern reality of the impending gloom 
and of perpetual silence. 

"It was thus I met for the last time this 
distinguished man. He said: 'My friend, since 
I last saw you my connection with the Uni- 
versitj' has been brought to a close; it was a 
trial I dreaded.' 

"What he suffered can only be known to the 
Great Searcher of all human hearts. There has 
never been a parallel case of injustice, prejudice 
and folly. It was a blow aimed at education, 
science, and civilization, and society; to Gov- 
ernor Swain it was malignant parricide, and 
its baleful effects were felt fhrougliout the 
Commonwealth. Col. Venable, the distin- 
guished and learned head of the University of 
Virginia, when this subject was, soon after its 
occurrence, discussed, declared that there was 
no Governor of V^irginia, not excepting Pier- 
point, who would exhibit a conti'ol similar to 
that of our Governor over the University of 
North Carolina." 

But another era has dawned on this vener- 
able institution, and we trust that it will soon 
regain its pristine prosperity. 

Connected with Gov. Swain and Professor 
Mitchell of the University was Rev. James 
Pbillijis, I). D. He was a native- of England, 
hf)rn at Nevenden, Essex County, in 1792. His 
father was a Minister of the Church of Eng- 

He came to America in 1818 with an elder 
brother, Samuel A. Phillips, and engaged in 
the profession of teaching at Hai'lem, where 
he had a flourishing school. In 1826 he was 
ajipointed Professor of Mathematics and Nat- 
ural Philosophy in the University of " North 
(Carolina, then in his 34th year. For forty 
years he labored to impress broad and deep 
the elements of science and knowledge; how 
faithfullj' that duty was performed many now 
alive can testify. As his life was useful so 



fiis death was sodden and unexpected. On But politics was not his apprdpi-iate sphere, 

tlie morning of tiie Hth of Mareli, 1867, he and he retired from its exciting arena to tlie 

set out to the chapel to officiate at morning more germane pursuits of liis profession. He 

prayers. The weather was tempestuous ; removed to Raleigh and formed a law [lart- 

he ventured fortli and took his seat hehiud nership with lion. A. S. Meriimon. This nlile 

the reading desk. The tlrst student who en- tirni enjoved a full share of practice: He was 

tared the chapel atur the hell conmienced unexpectedly to himself and others.iii 1870, 

ringing bowed and spoke to him. The salu- nominated by the Bepuhlican Convention as 

tation not being returned, as was hie wont, the Attorney General of the 8tatc. lion. Wni. 

student advanced toward him and saw him M. Shipp was elected; tliis was the subject of 

falling from his scat, and soon he was ex- no regret to Mr. Phillips, for it left him opi)or- 

tended on the floor in an apoplectic fit. Doctor tunity to pursue uninteiTuptedly the practice 

Mallet was sent foi-, but in a few moments life of his profession. When Judge Settle resigned 

was extinct. Such was the end of this excel- on the Supreme Court Bench, Mr. Phillips 

lent and useful man. He left three children: was tendered and declined this high position. 

Rev. Charles Phillips, I). I)., Professor in Uni- In December, 1871. he was confirmed by 

versity; Hon. Samuel F, Philliiis, Solicitor the Senate as Solicitor General of the United 

General of the United States; Mrs. Cornelia States, which position he now holds, with 

Phillips Spencer. credit to himself and confidence to the 

Hon. Samuel Field Phillips, LL. D., son of country. 

Professor James Phillips, a sketch (if whom we 1^^ married Fanny, the granddaughter of 

havejust presentedjWasborn at Harlem, N. Y., 
February 18,1824. He was carefully educated, 
and giadnated at the University in 1841, one 
of a distinguished class of which he took the 
first honois, and in which was Governor John 
W. Ellis, Judge Win. J. Clarke, Professor 
Charles Phillips. John F. Hoke, Robert 
Strange, and others. 

He lead law with Governor Swain and en- 
tered the prolession with most flattering pros- 

Governor David Stone, by whom he has an 
interesting family. 

Connected with the favorite and laborious 
portions of the life of Governor Swain, as 
President of the University, it is but proper 
to notice Elisha Mitchell, D. D., I'rofessor of 
Chemistr}', Mineralogy and Geology. lie was 
a native of Connecticut, born in 17tto. He 
graduated at Yale in 1803, in the same 
class with George E. Badger and Thomas P. 
Devereux. In 1818, by the influence of Judge 

He was elected a member of the House of Gaston, he was appointed to a Professorship 

C(>inn:ons fn^m Orange in 18.^2, with John i" the University with Professor Olmstead, 

Berry, Senator Josiah Turner, B. A. Durham .I's" -'i g-nuluate of Yale. 

and J. F. Lyon— and this compliment was Vov more than an ordinary lifetime, he 
more appreciable, as the county had presented served the institution with fidelity and zeal, 
a formidable majority against the Whig p.arty, an*' his pupils acknowledge to this day his 
to which he belonged. He was again elected learning and patience. He wasj not idle in va- 
in 1854, 1864, and 1865, at which- latter .ses- cations, but extende.l his surveys and le- 
sion he was chosen Speaker of the House." searches in every direction. No stream or 

mountain, no coal field, or gold, or other min- 

* lie was a memlier of the Constitutional Convention eral mine, escaped his acumen. He was the 

of 186 s and the Itepuner of the "eports of the y,,,^ ^o determine by barometic measurement 

Supreme Court iioiu ls()i) to loil. ui.-ii- i,^/ mv-xv- j 



that the Bhick nioutitniiis were higher tliaii 
the White rnniintaiiis in New Hainpsliire, and 
his name is borne hy its loftiest snnnnit. A 
conti'oversy arose lietwcen Dr. Mitclioll and 
Mr. Clingman, in regard to tliis highest peak, 
and in 1857, Dr. Mitehell again visited that 
mountain for the purpose of verifying his 
former measurement. On the 27tli June, he 
dismissed his son Charles, who was his oidy 
assistant, and requested Inni to return on 
Moiuhiy and renew tliis survey; ho said that 
lie would cro;;.; the great range and descend 
into the valley on the other side. He never 
was seen ag:iin alive. His hod^' was i"ouud 
lielow a [ire. ipiec' in a pool <d' water about 14 
feet deep, over whieli he had fallen and in 
which he had perished. 

Following the imperfect sketch of G :)veruor 
Swain, we take up that of his pupil and his 
life long friend, Zebulon Baird'Vance. 

The family is of Irish origin. From " An 
Account (d' the Family ol' Vance in Ireland," 
by Wm. JJalburnie, printed at Cork, 18Gt), we 
extract the following: 

"The next of the family proceeding from 
Dougal, is named William, wlio was located 
at Aughavid, Ball^dug, Tyrone. Hi.s will is 
dated' lUth iVjiri! " 1713. 'lie left four sons. 
One of these, David, went to America, and 
i'onght luider Washington. (I'age 31.) 

" 1 now return to the eldest son, John. He 
niarrieil and hud four sons and three chuighters. 
One of the-e daughters married Andrew 
Jackson, of Muhrafelt, who eniigr.ited to 
America, and there g;ive birth to Andivnv 
Jackson, late President of the Unitcil Slates, 
of whom it i:s written 'that he was the lu'av- 
est soldier, the wisest statesman lliat ancient 
or modern history !:as ever recorded.' 

" Another son was -in the American war, 
and was killed in battle. iV descendant of 
his was a menilier id' Coniiu-o.-s from .North 
Carolina in 1824.'"^ (Page 35.) 

Whatever credit may be given to this state- 
ment, (and there could be no object in the 
writer to violate the truth,) our own records 

• This was Dr. lloljert B. Vance. 

sliow that the grandfather, David Vance, was 
born near Winchester, Va., and came to North 
Caridina before the llevohitionary war, and first 
settled on the French Broad river; that when 
Lord Cornwallis sent a strong force under Colo- 
nel (or Major) Patrick Ferguson, and endeav- 
ored to win by force of arms or hlandishments 
of art the people of Western Carolina to the 
Royal cause, that Vance joined McDowell, who 
led the Burke and Rutherford boys to battle, 
and uudei' tlie gallant lead of Cleaveland, 
Shelby, and others, who attacked Ferguson on 
King's Mountain, killed him, and completel}' 
routed his arm}'. We shall speak more of this 
liattle when we reach Cleaveland County; of 
its gallant achievement and important results. 
It was the turning point of the Revolution, 
and was the cause of American success. 

At this time the ^vhole South lay prostrate 
before the anus of the British; Georgia had 
surrendered, so had South Carolina. Lord 
Cornwallis, defeating Gates at Caradeu, had 
unmolested possession of Charlotte. This bat- 
tle turned the tide of war, for soon followed 
the victoiy of Cow[)ens, then the drawn bat- 
tle ol' Guill'ord, and tlie fiuUe at i'ork- 

After the war was over, Mr. Vance returned 
to his home on the French Broad river, where 
he spent the remainder of his daj's, univer- 
sally esteemed for Jiis integrity and ability. 
Colonel Jose[)h McDowell, of Burke County, 
David Vance, of Buncombe, and Musentine 
Matthews, of Iredell County, (Speaker that 
year of the House, 171)6,) were appointed to 
run the line between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee. (Moore's History, ISfi.) 

He married a .\Iiss,Brank, and left several 
children, among them Dr. Robert B. Vance, 
who defeated for C;)ngress Hon. Feli.K Wal- 
ker, in 1823.* This singular canvass resulted 
in a tie in the iiopular vote, and was settled 

*For skctcli of Felix Walker, see Rutherford Couiitv. 


by votes of tlie returning ofRccrs (slieritl's.) East Tennessee. Tic iTiiprovcd these oppor- 

IIc ran auain for Congress (19th Congress, tniiities. TIio spark kindled l)y tlio izrcat Cal- 

182.5-'27,) and was defeated by Hon. Sanmel lionn was fanned into an ardent tianif; and 

P. Carson. This canvass unhappily ti'rniinatcd as soon as lie eouM ootrimand tlic means ho 

in a duel lietween Carson and Yaiue. in wliicli entered as a student at the Universit}', wliero 

the latter was killed. ho was noted for the quickness of his mind 

David Vance married Margaret Myral'aird, and his "irrepressible irnpudeuce," which, like 

and left two sons, Zebulon Baird Vance, and " I he wind, lilowcth where it listeth ; " all 

Robert Brank Vance, jr.; Zebnk>n I5aird yielded a willing homage to its irresistible aisd 

Vance was horn in the county of Buncombe, magic inflnencte. 

on the 13th day of May, 1830. Without the His humor wasinvoluntary and spontaneous. 

re-straining hand of a father to guide and cor- He could no more repress it than could the 

rect "the slippery paths of youth," he is skylark withhold its liquid lays from the 

reported to have l)'eeu a wild and wayward morning light, or the mountain stream prevent 

boy, so full of fun and frolic, that ho tried the its pclncid current from bubbling up in radi- 

verv soul of his mother and teachers to re- ance and beauty. 

strain him. But in all his pranks there was .\fter leaving college bo studied law and was 

nothing but humor and no malice. It was the adiidtted to practice and was chosen County 

sinqde outgushing of vohitile and irrepressible Solicitor. 

humor; he was always alile to make his peace On tlie resignatioii of Hon. Thos. L. Cling- 

for all his mischievous capers, in the hearts of man, (who was ap[)ointcd Senator in Congress, 

bis superiors, by the genial kindness of his vice Asa Biggs, appointed United States 

temper, his fearless and free disposition. As Judge, .May, 18.58, which ajipointmont of 

Mr. J. C. Calhoun was -spending a summer in Senator Clingman was confirmed by the 

the n.iountains of North Carolina, when Zol). Legislature, Novembi;r, 18-58,) Mr. \'ance was 

was about fourteen years old, he stopped for elected to Congre-ss over W. W. Avery, 

the night where Zeb. resided. which j)Osition lie held until the State 

Attracted by the vivacity and quickness of -seceded, (May, 18(1 1.) lie then returned 

the boy, and rather amused at the sprightliness home and raised one of the largest compan- 

of his manners, he invited him to take a ie^ for tin; war ever raised in the State, 

walk, and conversed for some time with him. of which he was elected captain, audit was 

He -so imiire.'^sed young Vance's mind b\' the incorjiorated into the 14th Xorth Carolina 

picture that he drew of what he might be if Kegiment. He was elected colonel of the 20th 

he would only cultivate bis mind and appl}- Kogimcut and attached to the brigade com- 

himselfto study, that the imaginative boy mended by Gcnera.l L. O'B. Branch. He was 

resolved to study in earnest, and to make his enu'aged in the disastrous battle of New 

mark "among those names which never die." Berne, and also in the seven days' battles 

Acting upon this advice, he entered Wash- around Richmond. 

ington College, Tennessee, remaining there The following year he was elected Governor 

two years, going thence to Newton Acad- of the State, over Colonel William .lohn.ston, 

emy; his funds failing, he acted for a of Charlotte, as the representative of the 

time as clerk at the Warm Springs. Here Union party, and opposed i)y the original se- 

he was thi-own in social contact with the first ccssionists. By some he was charged with the 

men of Western Carcdma, South Carolina and crime of deserting bis party. He never de- 



serted the time interests aiulhotior of the State. 
In a letter written by him to Governor 
Swain in January, 1864, he said: 

"Almost every argument can he answered 
but one — that is the cries of onr women and 
children for bread. Of all others that is the 
hardest for a man to meet. 

"But the historian shall not say it was the 
weakness of their Governor, or tiiat Saul was 
consenting to their death. As God liveth 
there is nothing I would not do or dare for a 
people wjio have honored me so far beyond my 

For tliis he was williiiij; to make any sacri- 
iice, even to death. lie felt as did the brave 
Ilorutius of Rome. 

To every man upon tbis earth 
Death cometh soon or late. 
And how can man die better 
Than facing fearful odds 
For tlie aslies of bis fatliers, 
And die teujples of bis Gods; 
And for the tender motlier 
Who 'landled liiin to rest, 
.•\nd for the wife who nurses 
His baby at her breast. 

To him tliese were no idle words or empty 
professions. During his whole term as Gov- 
ernor this was fully proved hy acts and deeds. 

lie, at the suggestion of General Martin, pur- 
chased from the Clyde a steamship, and estab- 
lished a system of supplies by carrying cotton 
to Europe, and receiving in return arms and 
necessaries for the people, that else must have 
jaerislied for food and raiment. 

If the troojis of North Carolina were the 
best clotlied and best equi^jped men in the 
Southern army, it was due to the sagacity and 
energy of Governor Vance. 

On the ap[)roach of Shernum's army the 
(Tovernor went to Statesville, where he had 
some time pi'eviously sent his wife and chil- 
dren; there he was ari-ested and brought to 
Washington City and placed in Carroll prison. 

There were man^' ridiculous statements 
made as to the capture of Governor Vance, 
which were offensive, and drew from him the 
following correction: 

« Charlotte, ISlh October, 1868. 
" To Editor of the New York World : 

"I see by the public prints that General 
Kilpatrick has decorated me with his disap- 
probation before the people of Pennsylvania. 
He informs them, substantially, that he tamed 
me by capturing me and riding me two hun- 
dred miles on a bareback mule. I will do hint 
tiie justice to say that he knew that was a 
lie when he uttered it. 

" I surrendered to General Schotield at 
Greensboro, N. C, on the 2d May, 1865, who 
told me to go to my home and remain there, 
saying if he got any orders to arrest me he 
would send there for me. Accordingly, I 
went home and there remained until I was 
arrested on 13th May, by a detachment of 300 
cavalry, under Major Porter of Ilarrisburg, 
from whom I received nothing but kindness 
and courtesy. I came in a buggy to Salisbury, 
where we took the cars. 

" I saw no mule on the trip, yet I thought 
I saw an ass at the general's headquarters; 
this impression has since been confirmed. 

" The general remembers, among other inci- 
dents of the war, the dressing u[) of a strum- 
pet, who assisted hirn in putting down the rebel- 
lion in the uniform of an orderlj', and 
introducing her into a respectable family of 
ladies. This and other /t:'(<5 o/ («/7rts and strat- 
egy so creditable would no doubt have been 
quite amusing, and far more true than the mule 
story. I wonder he forgot it. 

" Respectfully 3'Oars, 

"Z. B. Vance." 

How Governor Vance employed his time 
while in prison is shown by the following 
notes received from him. He b.tre his confine- 
ment with all the patience of a p.itriot, and 
'' submitted with philosophy to the inevita- 

" Carroll Prison, 16 Jutie, 1865. 
" Col. Wheeler, 

" My Dear Sir: I desire to study French 
while in contiiiemeut. I want a dictionary, 
grammai', and Ollendorf 's method. I am quite 
well, and see no hope of getting out soon. 
" Very truly j^ours, 

'• Z. B. Vance." 

I was, of course, pleased to oblige him, and 
sent the books. 


Jxbi 2(L 1865. 


In 1876, after a canvas of unexampled e.Ker- 
"' Col. J. H. Wheklee, tion and ahility on both sides, lie was elected 

"Dear Sir: Will you please do nio the ,,„^^,,.„,,j. i,^, .^ niajority of more than 3,000 
favor to borrow for nie the toUowniir law ^- V i o ..i • i , ;. m ... 

books? I am not able to buy them: Black- votes over Judge Settle, now a judge m Flor- 
stone, 2d volume only; Greenleaf on Evi- iJa, 

dence; Adams on Equity; Cliitty's Pleadings, 
1st volume. 

" I desire to refresh my law studies. I am 
getting on bravely in French. 
'• Tout a rous, 

"Z. B. Vance." 

I[e resigned on bomg elected by the Legis- 
lature Senator in Congress from 4th March, 
1879, to 3(j March, 1885, succeeding lion. A. 
S. Merrimon. His recent speech (19th May, 
1879,) on restoration of the Qnion, was a 

■nr 1 111 ,.;k.i H,^ Intopfir.wnf modcl of eloqiieucc, wit and Statesmanship. 

We have alrcadv described the intei view 01 i 

Governor Vance married on 2d August, 
1868, at Morganton, Harriet Newell, the or- 
phan daughter of the late Kev. Thomas Kspy, 
of the Presbyterian church. She recently 
died, (at Ealeigh, 3d November, 1878,) leav- 
ing several children. * 

We have now finished to this date, some 

Governor Swain, at which Governors Brown, 
Corwin and Letcher were present, and how 
cheerful Gov. V. bore his condition. 

I could but remark how polite and consid- 
erate the officers and the employees of the 
prison were to him. By his genial manners 
he had won their liearts. If he had been a 
candidate for any position in their gift, he 
would have received their unanimous vote. 

He was release by the efforts of Governor 
Corwin and others, and allowed to return to 
his family on parole not to go beyond certain 

In November, 1870, the Legislature so sym- 
pathized with his sufferings and so appreciated 

slight memories of the career of our Governor 
Vance. t They might well have been more 
elaborate and extended did our space and plan 
allow. We have tried to do justice to his 
merits, and — 

Nothing extenuate, 

Or set down aught in malice. 

Enough has been said to prove tljc iiigh 
reputation of Governor Vance as a philan- 
his services, that he was elected Senator; but thropist and a statesman. As a popular orator 
having been disfranchised he was refused by [je has no su[(erior, and but few equals. His 
the Senate, and in January, 1872, he resigned, " inHuite jests and most excellent fancy," to 
and General Matt. W. Ransom was elected, which he adds, at times, the most touching 
From 1865 to 1867 North Carolina had no pathos and brilliant eloquence carry the 
members in either branch of Congress. minds and hearts of his audience, and makes 
Gov. V. received a pardon from the Prcsi- hi,^^ irresistible and triumphant before the 
dent, (Andrew Johnson,) settled at Charlotte, people. In his public addresses, as in the so- 
aud entered into the practice of the law, in ^ial circle, he often illustrates his positions by 
partnership with that excellent gentleman and anecdote so pointed and piquant that the 
accomplished jurist, C. I)t)wd, Esq. Li enter- popular mind retains with pleasure the argu- 
ing this firm. Gov. Vance told his partner that ment, when a graver luode would be for- 
"in every firm there was one working man gotten. 

and one gentleman, and that it must be under- . . ., „, . , ., 

, , , , , , *IIe has agani maiiied to Mrs. Marten, of Ken- 
stood that he had to be the gentleman, as he tucky, nee Steele. 

, , *.„ 1 „ ti,,, „tK.„. » A ,],v,;,.nK1,T t Much of this sketcli is derived from autlieutic 

was too lazy to be the othei. Admuably ^^(;c^„^^e,^ts, ,, rival.' letters and personal recollections. 

both filled the assigned role. But the law was An anonymous article from the lapers of the day, in- 

° ^ serted, ahout 1S08, aftorded much aid, and wluch was 

not the natural element of Gov. V. freely copied. 


^ For the Genealogy of tlie Vance family, see the stirrup-leather. The act of dismonnting 

Appendix. no doubt saved Colonel Vance's life. 

His brother, Robert BrankA^ance, was horn After the battle of Murfreesboro, Vance 

the 24th of April, 1828, and is the oldest son, was taken sick with tj'phoid fever, and sent 

and second child, of David and Mira M. home by General Bra<i;g. In the mean time 

Vance, of Buncombe County, N. C. he was promoted to the rank of brigadier 

His education was very limited. His father general. On his return to the army General 

dying when Robert was in his sixteenth year, Bragg sent him back to North Carolina and 

a great portion of the burden of sustaining upper East Tennessee to organize the troops, 

his mother devolved on him. On attaining such as could be got up, and take command in 

his majority he was elected Clerk of tlie Court that portion. During a raid he made across 

of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, which office he the Smoky mountains into Tennessee, he was 

held i'or eight 3^, and voluntarily retiretl captured at Cosby Creek, where the Federals 

from in ISoi.i. Mr. A'ance's Inisiness was mer- attacked him, and he I'iding by mi.stake into 

chandising, which he followed until the \\ar their ranks. He was kept in prison till near 

bi-oke out in 1861. Being Union in sentiment, the close <>f the war, when be was paroled 

he voted against secession, but when the pro- until exchanged. 

clanuiti(m of Mr. Lincoln was received at In 18fi6, he was elected Grand Master of 

Aslicville, N. C, he, in common with most of Masons in Xortb Carolina, which ollice he held 

his neighbijrs, took sides with the South. All for two years. 

of the male members of the family, including In 1872, he was nominated to a seat in Oui- 

his brother Zebulon, and his three hrothers-in- gross fnun the Eighth district of North Caro- 

law, (one of whom. Rev. R. N. Price, was a lina, and lieat bis comjjetitor, W. G. Candler, 

traveling Methodist uiini.ster,) weu.t into the a Republican, 2,555 votes. 

army at once. Uol)ort was left in charge of He was re-elected in 1874, boating Plato 

the families; but, being dissatisfied, he went Durham, Indeiieudent Democrat, 4,442 votes, 

to wtu'k and raised a company, which was or- In 187t! he defeated E. R. Hampton, Repuhli- 

ganized as "The Buncombe Life Guards."' can, over 8,000 majority. In 1878, he was re-- 

He was elected captain. The companies came elected without opjiosition to Congress, 

and rendezvoused at Aslicville, wiiere the 10th At the time of this writing General Vance 

and the 29th Korth Carolina Kegimeuts were has succeeded in Laving daily mails to every 

oricanized at -'(.'amp Patton." Vance was county town in his district, and had mone}'- 

electeil colonel of these forces, receiving order o.ihces ostabiished all over the distiict. 

evory vote hut one — his own. His piincipal speeches in the House of Rep- 

The regiment was lirst ordered to Raleigh, resentatives have been on the civil rights' bill, 

and from there was sent to East Teiniessee, the taiitf, the internal I'evenue laws, the ueoes- 

where it formed a part of the garrison at sity of fraternal relations between the North 

Cumberland Gap, following E. Kirby Smith and South, the remonetization of silver, etc., 

into Kentucky. The regiment suffered con- whioh were acceptable to his pieople. 

sidorahly in the battle of .Murfreesboro, Colo- Many times, through the years since lay- 

nel Vance liaving his horse killed in that en- UiCn were admitted into the councils of the 

gagement. Hehad just gotten off his horse and Southern Methodist Ciiiu'ch, General Vance 

was holding tlie bridle, wlien a shell ex- has been elected delegate to the annual con- 

pioded near l)y, a piece entering the horse by ferences and two or three times to the gen- 



cval conferences of said ohnrch. In 1870 lie ][is father died in 1862, aged 97. The 
was appointed by the Bishops of the M. E. maternal grandfather of Judge I lenry, Kohert 

Church South as one of the Cape May com- 
mission which settled important matters be- 
tween tlie Northern and Southern Methodist 

General Vaiwe has given many years of his 
life to the work of delivering lectures on 

Love, was one of the earliest pioneers in the 
settlement of Western Carolina, and promi- 
nent in the early liistory of this section. He 
figured in the rise and fall of the State of 
Frankland, which Governor Sevier attempted 
to establish, out of a portion of North Caro- 

temperance, and the education of children in lina, now in Tennessee, (in 1785,) and with 

(Tcneval Tipton and others, arrested Sevier, 
under the charge of high treason,* and con- 
veyed him to jail at Morganton. Robert Love 
is progenitor of the large and iiiHucntial fam- 
ily of that name which pervades this and other 
sections of the west, and who have occupied 
portions of prominence in every walk of life. 

Judge Henry presided as judge with great 
acceptability, from 1868 to 1878, having pre- 
viously acted as solicitor for this (the 8th,) 
judicial district. 

He was editor, at the early age of 19, of 
the Asheville Spectator, and served in the Con- 
federate States arni}^ as adjutant of the 1st 
North Carolina cavalry, (General Robert Kan- 

Sunday schools. 

Getieral Vance was married to Miss Harriet 
V. McElroy, daughter of General John W. 
McElroy, of North Carolina. Six children — 
four sons and two daughters — wore born to 
them, four of whom are living. 

Such is a brief l)Ut accurate sketch of Gen- 
eral Yanoe. 

There are few public men in or out of Con- 
gress who possess that respect and regard of 
all who know him, more than General Vance. 
As a man he is true, sincere and frank in all 
the relations of life. As a Representative he 
is faithful, honest, attentive and active. His 
talents and success are duly appreciated in 

Cong-ess; being placed chairman of the im- som,) and on Hampton's and Stuart's staff, 
portant Committee on Patents in the 45th and as colonel of cavalry. 

and 4Gth Congresses, and second on the Com- 
mittee on Coinage, Weights and Measures; 
A. II. Stephens, of Georgia, l>eing chairman 
in the present Congress. 

As a friend he is faithful, obliging and sin- 
cere, and above all, as a Christian he is a " burn- 
ing and shining light," and a prominent and 
consistent memlier of tlie Methodist Episcopal 

James Love Henry, late one of the judges of 
the Superior courts of law and equity, was 
born in Buncombe County, in 1838. He 
received only such education as the schools of 
Asheville attbrded. 

His father, Robert Henry, was a patriot of 
the Revolution, and was in the battle of Kings 
Mountain, and practiced law for more than 
sixty years, with much success. 

He now resides at Asheville, engaged in the 
practice of his profession. 

Augustus Summerfxeld Merrimon, lately one 
of the Senators in Congress from North Caro- 
lina, was born (in that part of Buncombe 
County since erected into Transylvania,) on 
the 15th of September, 1380. 

His parents were Rev. Branch Hamline 
Merrimon and Mary E., nee Paxtou, whose 
father, William Paxton, was the brother of 
Hon. John Paxton, Judge of the Superior 
Courts from 1818 to 1826, and whose mother 
(Sally,) was the daughter of General Charles 

The subject of this sketch was the eldest of 
a family of ten children — seven sons and three 

*See Wheeler's History of North Carol iua, vol. I, 97. 



Tlie early ediication of Mr. Merriuion was 
as good as the circumstances of his father 
would allow. At the period when youths of 
his age were at college, he aided his father in 
working the farm to support the family, for in 
those daj'S Methodist ministers Avere not op- 
pressed with this world's goods. Yet the un- 
conquerable thirst for knowledge so possessed 
young Merrimon tfeat he embraced ever}' op- 
portunity for acquiring it. Oftem when at 
work on the farm, during the hour of rest for 
dinner, he would be found quietly ensconced 
in some shad}' place conning over bis Ijooks. 
One of the appendages to bis father's place 
was a saw-mill, which it was his duty to at- 
tend, and while the saw was at work in cut- 
ting the logs into plank, he would have his 
grammar or some other book, and improve 
every moment in study. His father appreciat- 
ing this thirst for knowledge, sent him to a 
schiiol in Asheville, then under the charge of 
Mr. Norwood. Such was bis application ami 
progress,, that within the lirst session Mr. Nor- 
wood pronounced him "the l)est English gram- 
marian that he ever knew." 

He was exceedingly anxious to be sent to 
college to complete liis classical studies, biit 
the res (Otijusii domi forbid. He commenced 
the study of the law in the office of John W. 
Woodiin, in whose office at the same time was 
Zebulon B. Vance, botli derttined to occupy 
high positions of honor in their county and 
State, and often rivals in political contests. 
Such was his proficiency in his legal studies, 
■svith such inadequate preparation, that in Jan- 
uary, 1852, he was admitted to practice in the 
Courts, and in 1853 in the Superior and Su- 
preme Courts of the State. 

l>y his close attention to business, his care- 
ful preparation and management of his cases, 
he soon made his mark. He was appointed 
Solicitor to several counties in his circuit, and 
by the Judge, Solicitor for the District in 1861. 
In 1860 he was elected to the Legislatuie as a 

member from Buncombe, by a few votes over 
CoL David Coleman. 

On the breaking out of the war, he took 
a decided stand for the Union. 

In the excited state of public feeling at 
this time of frenzy, such a step demanded not 
only moral, but physical courage. ^Ir. Merri- 
mon'^s position was rudely assailed. Angry 
cards passed between him and Nicholas W, 
"Woodiin, and a personal collision was immi- 
nent. On these occasions, he bore himself with 
dignity and courage. Though not over fond of 
arms, be felt — 

Rightly to be grea.t 

Is not to ?tir without great argument. 
But greatly to find ijuiirrel in a straw 
When honor 's at the stake. 

But in the issuing of Mr. Lincoln's procla- 
mation, calling for 75,000 men settled his- 
course, and he entered in Z. B. Vance's cora^- 
pany as a private, and! marched to Raleigh, 
He was attached to the Commissary Depart- 
ment as captain for a short time, on dut}- at 
Hatteras, Ocrocock, Raleigh and Weldon. On 
the call of Guvernoi' Ellis, the Legislature re- 
assembled, and he had to attend. 

In the fall of 1861, he was appointed by 
Judge French, Solicitor of the Eighth Circuit, 
and the next 3'ear was elected to that position 
by the Legislature. Just at the close of the 
war he was a canilidate as delcgiite to the 
State Convention called under the reconstruc- 
tion acts of President Jobitson, and was de- 
feated by Rev. L. Z. Stewart, a Presbyterian 
clergyman, the Republican candidate. This 
contest was remiu'kable, as it was conducted in 
the presence of the United States troops and 

By tlic next Legislature be was elc-ted Solic-^ 
itorof the Eigbtb Judicial Circuit. The office 
of Solicitor was no soft place at this time, but 
one of imminent peril. Tlie Democrats and 
"Mossy Backs" were in daily collision; aifrays, 
riots, robberies, and murders were daily occur- 
rences; deserters had to be arrested, aatd the 


place ptiritied. So satisfactory niid tinn wore all tliat is just and lawful to establish the- 

his eftbrts as Solicitor, Mr. Merrimon won I'i^'it. 

- , _ , , T <• T ■' L am yours truly, 

the respect oi the Judges, the regard oi the ' .. .^ ^; Mirhimon "" 

bar, and the esteem of tiie people. 

In 1866, he was elected a Judge of the The exccutiyeconunittce " died and gayc no 

Superior Courts b}' the Legislature. Here his sign;" tlio conservative charactei'of the people 

services were equally acceptable. preferi'ed to wait for that success which they 

Ih' bold the tirst regular Courts on tliis believed awaited them, and endure for a sea- 

Cirruit after the war under ojroumstancos of son some inconvenience and even injustice, 

great iioril, so tliat in most of the counties, In December following, Judge Merrimon 

a police force had to be organized under the was elected Senator in Congress for the teiTii. 

sheriff to preserve tlie place, and protect the of six years, from 4th Marcli, 1873. 

Court. While in the faithful discharge of It is due to the integrit}- of history to say 

his duty the cowimanding general of the this election produced much excitement, inas- 

United States forees, ((^anby.) issued military much as it was effected by the defeat of Gov., 

orders to the Courts, with instructions to the ernor \'ance, who was the Democratic nom- 

Judges to observe and administer them. This inee. 

gross military usurpation was resisted by This, Judge Merrimon contended, was 

Judge Merrimon, who, seeing tlio Courts brought ai.iout l)y Governor Yance and his 

could not be hold according to law, and his fiiends tampering with the caucus — pledging 

oath of ofhce, resigned his commission as and packing it. Several Democrats refused to 

Judge. go into the caucus unless Governor Vance and 

In 1.S72, the convention at Greensboro nom- Judge Merrimon would both withdraw their 

inatod liini for Governor against Todd K. names. This Judge Merrimon was willing 

Caldwell. to do, for the sake of harmony, but Governor 

The universal opinion of the Democrats was "\'anee, insisting that he duly nominated, 

that Judge Merrimon was fairly elected. The declined to withdraw. The balloting then 

returns were: Caldwell, 98,GoO; Merrimon, commenced, and continued for two weeks 

96,731; reported majority for Caldwell, 1,899. without any choice. Both then withdrew. 

lie was nni)ortuned by the press and hosts Afterwards, the name of Governor Yance was 

of friends to contest this result. In a letter to again brought forward by some members who 

S. A. Ashe, E^i[., of 12th September, 1872. luul veited for Judge Merrimon, and on the first 

Judge Merrimon says: ballot Judge Merrimon was elected, lie re- 

" I am satisfied by a variety of facts that eeived the entire Republican vote (72 votes,) 

have come to knowledge that enormous and 15 conservative votes, the remaining 

frauds were perpetrated at the election, and eighty conservatives voting for Governor 

great number ot illegal votes were cast against " ,„, , ,. ' ,. ,. -j, 

me and the other candidates on the Domo- ^ '^"^''- There was a deep feeling ot mortifi- 

cratic ticket. I sincerely believe that we cation in several sections of the State; not so 

received a majority of the lawful yotes. much because Judge Merrimon was elected, 

" It it so turns out, by the examination now , , ^ ^, ■ i • i ^i • i 

iw>;.,,r ,„..,'q «-v,,..AM,rV, ti. ,..„,„»;, •»* but at the manner in which this result was- 
t)eing maue throngn tlie executive committee, 

that substantial ground for contesting can be brought about. 

established I will contest the election, and ^y^ t„,,,, „„ .j^^ j,, ,,,;, question. We 

vindicate the rigiits ot the peojilc. 

'' I will not do an a lung rashly, or to gi'atify '"'^''-' »*l'»wn the appreciation in which we esti- 

partj' spirit, or political revenge, but will do mate both of these distinguished men, and we 



believe that either would do honor to the 
State and defend to " the last gasp of loyalty," 
her character and her intei'est. Many politi- 
cians will donbtless say, like Pope, 

How hapiiy would we be witli either, 
Were tlie other dear cliarmer away. 

Of Judge Merrimon's career in the Senate it 
is not necessary- to speak. It has given him a 
national reputation for integrity of purpose, 
for unsullied patriotism, and extensive acquire- 
ments. We may read its " History in a nation's 
eyes." To the interests of his constituents 
he has ever .manifested vigiLancc and ca'ition. 
IS^o one has ever applied to him for his kind 
othces that failed to receive jirompt and 
ctficient attention. Ahvaj's at his post, 
vigilant in ol)ser\'ation, he has proved Iiimself 
a faithful sentinel of the rights of the State, 
of individuals, and the Nation. 

That he deserves high reputation, is not 

He nmst have intrinsic meiit who, in spite 
of the disadvantages of a defective education, 
has heeome the peer vt' the proudest of our 
land, and raised himself from the labors of 
a saw mill to thu lunn.rr; of a Senate cnamber. 

He was succeeded by Governor Yance, 
March, 1879. 

Judge Meri'inion married on 14th Seiitem- 
ber, 1852, Margaret J, Baird, by whom he has 
an interesting family. 

Thomas Lanier Clingman resides at Ashe- 
ville, m this county. 

He was born in the county of Yadken, then 
Surry Couny, July 27, 1812, the son of Jacob 
Clingman and Jane i'oindexter,* and named 
for Dr. Thomas Lanier, his half uncle. 

^Alexander Clingman, the grandfatlier of General 
Clinguian, came to America from (iermany before the 
llevolutiou. The name signifies, in Genuaa, a swords- 
man and a fighter. He was a soldier in many battles 
in the Revolutionary war, and was a prisoner taken at 
Charleston at Lincoln's surrender. He married 
Elizabeth Kaiser and had several children, among 
theui was Jacob, wlio left four children, Thomas, 
John Fatillo, Elizabeth, who married Richard 
Piu'year, and Alexander. Tlie father of the 
mother of Gen 1 Clingman was of the Polndexters of 

His early educati<m was conducted by pri- 
vate instructors. He joined the sophomore 
class at the University, and graduated in 1832, 
with a class distinguished in after life for 
usefulness and talents. Judge Thomas S. 
Ashe, now of the Supreme Court; James C. 
Dobbin, Secretary of the Navy, 1853-'67; John 
H. Haughton, Cad. Jones, and others, were of 
the same class. 

In a diary kept by (governor Swain at that 
date, I found the following: 

"/(/)((', 1832. The graduating class acquitted 
themselves with much credit, especially young 
Clingman, of Surry Count}', who, if he lives, 
will be an ornament to the State." 

Mr. Clingman entered upon the study of the 
law with gieat enei'gy, and was about to enter 
njion the practice when he, in 1835, was elected 
a member of the Legislature from Surry 
Coimty, which was a iield more germane to 
his tastes, where he took a decided position. 

After this service was accomplished he re- 
moved to Banconibe Count}*, where he still 
resitles. He acquired much reputaticju for 
boldness and al.>ilit3'as a speaker, especially in a 
debate with Colonel Meniminger, at Columbia, 
S. C, in which Colonel Memminger found 
Iiimself overmatclied. Mr. Clingman, in 1840, 
was elected by a large majority to the Senate 
of the State Legislature from Buncombe 

This was an exciting epoch in political his- 
t(.)ry, and parties (Democratic and Whig) 
waired a tierce and ferocious warfare. In tlie 

Virginia. Her mother was the daughter of Henry 
Patillo, of Grandville ; her first husband was Kobert 
Lanier, whose sister was the mother of Hon. Lewis 
Williams. J-'olndexter is a Norman name, signifying 
spur horse. He, Alexander, was one of the three prom- 
inent Whigs or Kegulators who were compelled by 
Tryou to take the oath of allegiance every six months, 
at Court. 

Jane, Cliugman's mother, nee Poindexter, was a 
daughter of Henry Patillo, who was a prominent Whig 
in the Revolution. 

Rev. Mr. Patillo was a Presbyterian mini-ter, who 
did good service and whose sermons liave been pub- 
lished in a volume. Two of the sous of Mr. Patillo 
married the sisters of Robert Goodloe Harper. 


Xeg'islatiire or on the stuiii[i, Mr. Clii)L,niiaii led On rolirin;;- frnm tiio SiMuite with hi- distin- 
the cohorts of the Whi^-s, and liko llo-irv of gnislied rdUeanne, (iovernor Tlionms Brair<r, 
Navarre, his wliitc phune was seen proiully he felt liis dnty c-alh'd him to the liohl, and by 
floating in the van of every contest. Snch liis efforts to del'end his native soil. He 
was his ability and eloquence that he was joined the Confederate army and attained the 
elected a member of the 28th Congress (1843, rank of brigadier general. He was in many 
1845,) over that veteran politician Hon. James engagement in which he conducted his coni- 
Graham, He was elected to tlie 30th Con- mand with military skill and undaunted 
:gress, 1847-'49, and successively to 1857-'50, bravery. 

when (in May, 1858,) he succeeded Hon. Asa He was distinguished for his defence of 
Biggs, as Senator in Congress, in which elo- Goidslioro, (17th December, 1862,) which he 
vated position he continued until 18G1, when saved from a superior force under Foster, 
tiie State seceded from the Union. whoso retreat was so precipitate that he left 

To attempt to detail all the events in the much of his nuiteriais, as blankets, muskets. 
political career of Mr. Clingman, and the and even horses. 

prominent parts filled by him, would far e.x- General Clingnian's brigade consisted of the 
ceed the limits of our work. Ilis political 8th Keginient, Colonel Shr.w. 
history is so interwoven with that of the Na- 31st Regiment, Colonel Jordan, 
tion, that an accurate sketch of the one W(MUd 51st Regiment, Colonel McKethan. 

be a record of the other. In his long and va- 61st Regiment, Colonel Radclilfe. 
ried career there were few questions that lie In July, 18()3, he took command at SuUi- 
did not examine and exhaust. So acceptable van's Island, which ex[)Osed position he held 
were his views that he was, during his last until December following, during the most ac- 
year's service in the House, the chairman of tive part of the seige of Charleston. He was 
one of its most importa.nt committees (For- then ordered to Virginia, and in the attack on 
eign Aft'airs.) New Berne, February, 1864, led the advance 

His early career was in unison with Mr. force of General Pickett's army, in which he 
Clay, (with whom he was personally a great was wounded by the explosion of a shell. On 
favorite,) and the Whig party; but he never the 16th May following, in the battle of 
allowed the shackles of party co bind him to Drury's Bluff, he was ordered with General 
any cause in his opinion inimical to tiie true to attack General Butler. This was done 
interests of the State or the people. When with such spirit that the lines of Butler were 
his convictions of right were settled, he fol- broken, and he retreated rapidly to Bermuda 
lowed where they led regardless of conse- Hundreds, where he was, to use General 
quences, [lolitical or personal. lie became Grant's expression, " bottled up." 
convinced that the Whig party had become He was then ordered to Cold Harbor, and 
thoroughly denationalized, and tiiat the only on 31st May, met the advance of General 
national party with which Southern patriots Grant's army, and a severe engagement oc- 
could consistently act, with any hope of good, curred. The next evening (1st June) one of 
was the Democratic party. His exertions and the severest engagements of the war occurred, 
intiuence were used in promoting the election in which General Clingnian's command re- 
of Governor Reid, and of General Fierce. He ccivcd heavy loss, in rank and file, from its 
has for years been an able, decided and con- exposed position. Every staff officer, as well 
sistent Democrat. as iiimself, was wounded. One-third of the 



command fell on the field, including Colonel Clinrch, an admirer of its tenets, and an 

Murcliison and Major Henderson, of the 8th observer of its ordinances. 

Regiment. Thej' held the position and saved Though his fame rests on his long and ini- 

the day. portant service as a statesman and his gal- 

On the 10th of June following, General lantry as a soldier, yet he has not neglected 

Clingman repulsed an attack on the lines of the pursuits of literature and of science. His 

Petersburg, and on the e\ening following, held able defence of religion, and its support by 

his position against the attack of two army science, gained him "golden opinions from all 

corps (the 9th and 18th) commanded by Gen- sorts of men," both North and South; he has 

erals J3urnside and Smith, numbering in the in various publications demonstrated to the 

aggregate 43,000 men. Tliree brigades on his counti-y and to the world the capabilities and 

right, gave way eai'Iy in the engagement, but advantages of Western Carolina — its healthful 

he held his position until 11 o'clock. [>. m,, climate and prolific soil. Many have been in- 

wlien the cngagemtnt ceased — and Tetersburg duced by his descriptions to seek a home with 

was saved. us, liringmg wealth, talent, and industry. 

On the l!»th of August, following, an attack He has made important contributions to 

was made on the enemy's lines on the Weldon the science of gooiogy and mineralogy. His 

railroad, near Petersburg, by which 2,100 pris- articles on these subjects have appeared 

oners were taken, and liiany killed and in Sillinian's and othei' journals, and rank 

wounded. In this aft'air General Clingman with tluxe of Dana, Guyot, Shepard, and 

received so severe a wound that he was for other savans of the age. He has presented 

several months kept out of the field, and was much and varied information as to rnoun- 

only able to join his command a few days tains of North Canjlina, which he hasexplored 

prior to Johnson's surrender. in person, and in compliment of such exertions 

When the war closed (Sth April, 18Gt;,* ) his name has been worthily bestowed on one 

General Clingman, like many others, was '•*' it''^ highest peaks. 

left dest)late and de[iressed in mind, wounded 
and exhausted in liody, and utterly impover- 
i.sJied; yet he was ever ready to aid in build- 
ing up the waste places of his country, and to 

General ('lingman, as our I'eaders ujay know, 
has never married. His busy lit'c and active 
services in the cause of his eountiy have denied 
him that ple.ism'e. But he is far from uuder- 

repair as far us possible the desolations of estinuiting female society, and is a great 
internecine strife. He was elected a member 
of the Convention of 1875, and was \-igilant 
and active in the cause of the peopile. 

These are ia[iid and unsatisfactory sketches 
of the public services rendered liis country liy 
General Clingman. 

In his private life, he is exemplary andeou- 
sistciit. He is a member of the Episcopal 

admirer of grace, beauty and intelligence. 

No one possessing, his warmth of friendship 
for liis own sex can be indifi'erent to the charms 
of the otiier. As a friend, General (Jlingnian 
is frank, sincere and faithful, antl this is recip- 
rocated deeply by those who knew him best. 
No one that I know ever maintained such a 
hold on the atl'eetions of the people. The citi- 
zens of liis district possess such unbounded 

* The Supreme Court of the United States in case of confidence in his judgment and integrity that 

U. S. V. Kieiii in January, 1S72, decided tlie lieiiiiuiiiig .i +• n i i • ' ■ i * i i, 

of the civil war was on April l!i, 18(31, date of procht- ^^^'^y i"l''^wed him in whatever course he has 

mation as to blockade, and the end was 8, ISUG, pursued. For more than ] 5 years ( with exeep- 
date ot i'rcsideuts proclamatiou declaring the war at . . ^ \ r 

ail end. tion of one Congress,) he was elected i)y their 


SiiiFragcs. Nn matter how adi'oitly the di.striet 
was adversely ai'ranij;od, or wliat [iriiieiples ho 
advocati'd, the peoplt" were liis devoted sup- 
porters, and never d.'serted liiin. 

1 reeollect when the State was redistricted, 
in 1852, a few wlio aspired to his place 
arranged the district so tliat he wonid likely 
be defeated. But the power and the jiopu- 
kirity of Genei-al ('lini;-nian disappointed their 
ainis and Iiopes. ]lc was elected hy an 
inci'eased majority. Althoiijili kind, social 
and friendly in his private intercourse, his 
eharacter is not of that negative kind so con- 
eisel}' described by Dr. Johnson of one "ulio 
never had generosity enough to acquire a 
friend, or spirit enough to pro\-()ke an enemy." 
Whenever the rigiits of his State and his per- 
sonal honor were infringed, lie was prompt 
and read}' to repel the assailant. He has fol- 
lowed the advice of I'olonius to liis son — 

Beware of entrance 

Into a quarrel; but beingin. 
So bear thyself tliat tliy oiiposer 
W ill beware of thee. 

In 1845, Hon. William L. Yancey, of Ala- 
bama, well known in his day as '• a rabid lire 
eater,'" attempted some liberty' with General 
CHugman. A cliallenge ensued, linger, of 
Siiuth t'arolina, was Yancey's friend; and 
C'harli's Lee .lones. of Washington City, was 
tiie friend of Clinginan. Tlic\- fought at 

Air? J ones, the second of General Clingman, 
in his graphic description of tliis duel, pub- 
lished in tl:e Cu'pUal, states: 

'• Alter the principles had been posted, Mr. 
linger, who had won the giving of the word, 
asked, 'xVre yon ready ? Fire .' ' 

'• Mr. Clingman, who had remained perfectly 
eool, tired, missing his adversary, but drawing 
his iire, in the ground, consideiably out of line, 
the bullet .-cattering dust and gravel upon the 
person of Mr. Clingman. After this fire, the 
difficult}' was adjusted." 

lion. Kenneth liaynor, the colleague of Mr. 
Clingnum in Congress, was on the ground, 

states that " he hiid never seen more com- 
posure and firmness in danger than was mani- 
fested by Mr. Clingman on this occasion." 
On seeing his friend ciivered by the dust and 
gravel, and standing at his [lOst unmoved he 
thought he was mortally wounded, lie rushed 
to him and asked him if he was hurt. " He 
has thrown some dust on my new coat," he 
replied, quietly brushing off the dust and 

On other occasions, as with lion. Edward 
Stanle}- and others. General Clingman has 
evinced a proper regard for his own honor by 
repelling the insults of othei's; and in all 
these jiublic opinion has sustained the[>ropriet\' 
of his conduct; he has so borne liimseli" that 
the aggressor has ne\'er att(Mnpted to inqieat 
his insolence. 

He has been accused of being amijitious. If 

this be so, in reply, the ^vords of Anthony of 

Ciusar are appropriate — 

He is my friend, ''aitlifiil and just to ine. 
But l?rutus says he is ambitious, 
And Brutus is an honorable man. 

J. C. L. Gudger, nowone of the .Tudges of the 
Superior C'ourts, was born in r>UMcombeCountj^ 
in 1838; learned in the law, which he has suc- 
cessfully practiced for fifteen years. 

He entered the Confederate army as a [H';- 
vate in IStH, and rose to the rank of captain. 

After the war was over lie removed to 
AVaynesville, in Haywood County, where he 
was extensively engaged in tlie [iractice of his 
profession when he was elected to the higli 
position he so worthily occupies. 

l\obert M. Furrnan resides in Buncombe 
County, although a native of Franklin County, 
where he was born 21st September, 1S4(;. at 
Lonisburg. He early entered the Confederate 
ai'iiiy, luit on his health failing he was, at tlie 
end of five months, discharged. He, on recov- 
ery, again entered the army (in 18(34,) and 
served until the war closed. Hi.s young life 
has l)een s[)ent in the editorial line, iu which 
he attained much success. In 1866 he was in 



charge of the Louisburg E'igJr. lie next 
established the Heiulei'soii Index, and liecanie 
afterwards connected with tlie Norfolk Cour- 
ier, and the Raleigh Sentinel. lu 1872 he 
became editor of the Asheville Citizen, lie 
was reading clerk of the Senate of the State 
Legislature of 1870. He holds, also, the posi- 
tion of clerk to tlie United States Senate 
ConiHiittee on Railroads, of whicli General 
Ransom is chaii'man. 

Thomas Dilliard Jolmston resides at Ashe- 
ville; born 1st Aj^ril, 1813, at Waynesville, 
educated at Colonel S. D. Lee's Academy and 
the Univei'sitv, luit fi'om ill health did not 

graduate; entered the army in Z. B. Vance's 
comiiany, 14tli North Carolina, and at the 
battle of Malvern Hill was severely wounded, 
which disabled him from active service in the 
field. After war was over, he read law with 
that aecomplislied jurist and noble hearted 
gentleman, Judge J. L. Bail^', and was 
licensed to practice in IStitj. In 1870 lie was 
nominated to the House, and carried the county 
by 400 votes, a gain of 600 for the party. He 
was one of the managers iu the impeachment 
trial of Governor Holden. He was re-elected 
in 1872, and elected to the Senate in 1876. 


Waightstill Avery, born 1741, died 1821. 
Tliere is no name in the annals of North Caro- 
lina, (hat is more deserving of being perpetu- 
ated than the subject of this sketch. His 
family were the devoted friends of liberty, and 
many of them martyrs to its cause. In the 
Re\-olutionary war there wei'e eight brotliers 
of this name anil family, all patriots. Some of 
them were massacred at Groton, Connecticut, 
and at Fort Griswold; some perished at Wyo- 
ming Valley. Some of this family still reside 
at Groton, Connecticut, (where the sulyect of 
this sketch was born;) sijme reside at (_)swego 
and Seneca Lake, and some came to Virginia. 

It was early in the year 1631 that the ship 
Arabella arris-ed in Alassachusetts Uay, from 
London, and landed passengers at the place 
where now stand Boston and Charlestown, 
and where Governor John Winthrop, senior, 
liad commenced an English settlement the 

year before. ' Among the passengeis were 
Christopher Avery, of Salisbury, England, and 
his little son James, then eleven years of :ige. 
They proceeded to the point of Cape Ann, 
where Gloucester now stands, which was at 
that time one of the most flourishing Hsliing 
establishments along the shore, where tish 
Were cured for the European markets by hsh- 
ermeu from England, and in connection with 
which were agricultural and other profitable 

Christopher settled there as a farmer, and 
liecanie the possessor of valuable and produc- 
tive lands, which he cultivated to advantage. 
He had left Lis wife in England, like many of 
the leading men who tirst came over " to spy 
out the land," for it was not easy to persuade 
their wives to leave their comfortable Euglish 
homes and ventui'e olf upon the oceau on a 
passage of nearly a hundred days in a small 


vessel, crowded witli passengers, to share the 
doubtful fortunes of an unknown wilderness. 
The vessels sent from England hj^ the mer- 
chant adventurers had for years rendezvoused 
at Cape Ann to cure and prepare the large 
quantities of fish taken by them for the Euro- 
pean markets, and it was a i-emunorative trade 
for the farmers there. It had been a fishing 
and curing station for j'ears, and with its 
variety of vegetables and abundance of fish, 
added to the game and other animid food 
obtained in trade with the Indians, the thriv- 
ing comniunit}' did not lack the means of 
good and wholesome living. They also had 
their little chapel where common pra3^er was 
offered on the Sabbath by '■ one Master Rash- 
ley, their cliaplain," as we are told by Leck- 
ford. AVhon the Puritans afterward settled 
at Boston they received and fellowshipped 
Chaplain Rashie}- for eight or ten 3'ears, 
although he was not of them exactly. 

For ten 3'ears Mr. Avery, with his son James, 
enjoyed that pleasant community, his greatest 
privation being that of tl;e disinclination of 
his wife to come over ami join them in their 
new home. As he could not persuade her to 
cross the ocean, he was compelled to send her 
so much of his earnings and savings as he 
■could spai'e for her support there. She never 
came to America. 

In 1642 the Cape Ann settlement had become 
so considerable that the General Court of the 
Colony incorporated it as the Town of Glou- 
cester, and the Rev. Mr. Blinraan,a Dissenting 
minister, who had made an unsuccessful eftbrt 
to settle with the Pilgrims at Plymouth, was, 
by the Boston authorities, sent to Gloucester 
with a small company of Welshmen, who bad 
accompanied him over the sea, to settle. This 
was not so pleasant for Christopher Aver^', who 
had so long been the leading man of the set- 
tlement with Chapla'-u Rashley, l)Ut he was a 
man of so decided mark that he was neverthe- 
•less elected over and over again as selectman 

of his new town, notwithstanding the per- 
sistent and shameful jicrsecution of the new- 

In 1643 his son James Avery, then 23 3'ears 
old, went to Boston and brought to his home 
in Gloucester his young bride, Joanna Green- 
slade, who ha<l with her a certificate of good 
.standing in the Boston church, dated Januar^^ 
17, 1644. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Blinman's ecclesiasti- 
cal precedence, he was rather overshadowed 
by Christopher Aver}^ the civilian and some- 
times first selectman. Insomuclr that after he 
had been there six or seven years he became 
"dissatisfied with his teaching," (as old Gov- 
ernor Winthrop wrote to his son John, then 
Governorof Connecticut,) and gladly accepted 
the call to settle at the mouth of the Thames, 
(Pequot,) where New London now stands. 

He was accompanied by most of the leading 
members of his church at Gloucester, and 
among them James Avery with his young wife 
and three children. James sold all his land at 
Gloucester to his father Christopher in I60I, 
for he had settled at New L'lndon, October 
19, 1650, with what was called the Cape Ann 
Colony. Mr. Blinman preached at New Lon- 
don about as long as he bad at Gloucester, and 
then left, dissatisfied, for England, Christo- 
pher Avery remained in Massacliusetts until 
after Blinman had left for England, and then 
joined his son James at New London, and in 
the valley of the Pequounc. 

James Avery and Joanna Greenslade had 
ten children, three born at Gloucester, before 
1650, and seven at New London, afterwards. 
Their youngest son, Samuel, was born August 
14, 1664, wh.o married Susan Palmer, daughter 
of Major Edward Palmer and granddaughter 
of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., on the 27th 
of October, 1686, and with her had ten child- 
ren, to wit: Samuel, b. August 11,1687; Jona- 
than, b. January 18, 1689; William, b. August 
25,1692; Mai-y, b. January 10, 1695; Christo- 


pher, b. February 10, 1697; Ilniuplirey, b. July li. July 8, 170(5. The doacoii was a coteinpo- 

4, 1G99; Nathan, b. January 30, 1702; Lucy, li. rary of Samuel Avery, b. 1664, who was the 

April 17,1704; Waitstill, b. March 27,1708, si-randtather of Wai,2:htstiU, of Noith Care 

(had two wives;) Grace, b. June 2, 1712. lina. Alike prominent in Church and State 

When that portion of New London east of the affairs, Avery, the town's first selectman, and 

Tliamcs was set off as the se[iarate town of Seabury, the first deacon of the church, they 

Grotou, in 1705, Samuel Avery, the father, was were neighbors, friends, and tlieir families 

chosen the first moderator, and became the were intimate. 

first selectman, which resp^uisible position he Samuel Seabury, !>. July 8, 1700, was licensed 

held for twenty years —nearly up to the time and preached as a Coni^-regational minister in 

of his death. 1726, at the new church in North Groton. lie 

On the 5th of February'-, 1724, lln.niphrey declared himself a convert to Episcopacy in 

Avery, (the sixth child of Samuel,) b. July 4, 17.:jO, and next year went to London and was 

1690, married Jerusba Aidri^an, dan^-htei' ol' oi-dnined by the Uishop of London. Returned 

William and Margaret (Avery) Morgan, and in 1732, a,i)d was rector of the Episcopal 

had twelve chiidi'eii, to wit: IIum[)hrey^ b. church in Ni.-w Lundoii for eleven years. 

^Lirch 10, 1725; William, b. Septciriber 13, Moved to Hempstead, Long Island, in 174o, 

1726; Solomon, li. July 17, I72.'^, wlio died wliere he kept a hi_^h school as well as [ireached 

August, 1728; Solomon, b. June 17, 1729; Sam- until 1764, tiie year of his death. Hr it w,).s, 

uel, b. October 5, 1731; James, b. August 13, mdoaiU'db/, loho prfp rrcd WnUslUl Acerij for vol- 

17-'')3; Jerusba,!). June 7, 1735; I'auliua, b. [a/e, )rltirlt he cidcrxl lit 17G-2. 

A[iril 3, 1737; C'hristo[ihei', b. May 3, 1739; His son, Samuel, l)orii at Gr;)ton ^729,^vent 

Wailsiill, b. May 10, 1741; Isaac,!). Octoi)er to England in 1784, where he was consecrated 

27, 1743; Nathan, b. Novendjer 20, 1746. //,(■ lirsl Bislio/i of dir jE///'«-()/)«/ clmrch ui Aiiier- 

It wa^ this Waitstill, the tenth ehibl of /,.,/. On his return he took charge (jf the 

llumphrey, who, after graduating at I'rinee- church at Xew London, where he died in 

ton, (Nassau Hall) N. J., in 1766, studied law 179'i. My oj)ihion and belief is that on this 

in Maryland, and moved to North t'arolina in trip to England, he was accompanied by his 

1769, when he enteied college at the age of father's jiupil, Isaac, ^-oungest bi'other of 

twenty-one, he mat rieidated as Waightstill, Waiglitstill Av._-ry, wiio i)eeame a reetnr <.)f 

thus changing tb.e spelling of the old Wiiithrop tliat chureli in Virginia, and who is said to 

nanie. liis elilest br(jthei', liumphrey, mo\ed hu\'e iieen ordain jd in England. He was 21 

friun Groton, where his family and ancestors years old at the tiiue of ids old tutor's death, 

had lived so many years, to Hempstead, Long by wiiom, no doubt, he was educated for the 

Island, wdiere he raised a large fauiily. His Episcopal ministry, and about 40 whyn or- 

brother, Waitstill, sixteen years younger than dained in England. 

himself, as well as his youngest l)r(.)tlier, Isaac, There is ;i famil}' tradition in North Caro- 
lived with him in their youth, aid were b:)th Una that Waightstill graduated at Yale col- 
prepared for college at the select scIidqI of the lege bclore going to Trinceton, and that he 
Rev. Samuel Seabui-y there. was a tntur there; but his name nowhere ap- 

I>eacon John Seabury, of (Jroton, v.-ho had pears in tlie Yale catalogues, and all the dates 
married fjlizabeth Alden, in 1697, grand- and cii-cumstanees seem to show its incorrect- 
daughter of John Alden, of the Mayfiower, noss. L' lu' had graduated at Yale, the fact 
settled in Groton, 1704, and had ason, Samael, would be stated in the Princeton, as well as 


Hie Yiile catalDUiU'S; Imt nowhere dors it so defended only I13' aliont IfiO Aiiiei'ieaiis. After 


a stont I'osistance tlit.-\- took it after luaw 

As the name Wait.^till is so historical, it is losses on bi>tli sides. Colonel Ledyard, coin- 
to l,e res^retted that the master spirit of the mander of tlie fort, had ordered his rncn to 
Mecklenburg declaration and the patriarch of cease tiring, and stood near the gates prepared 
the Xortii Carolina bar, ever changed the to surrender. The British entered; the officer 
spelling. .S7(7/ was the name of -ne of the shouted, " who commands this fort? " Colonel 
maternal ancestors of the Wintlirops, in Eng- Ledyard replied " I did, sir; but yon do now," 
land, at Grotou manor, and 15'/!/ was another, presenting his sword with its point towards 
Mrs. Susan (Palmer) Avery had an uncle, himself. His sword was thrust back through 
(['('(7 Slid, who in a matter of record at New his bo<ly and he fell prone on the earth. Tliis 
London, April 16, 1718, is s^iyled 3I/ijor Gen- was a signal of indiscriminate slaughter, and 
end Wiilt Still WinUirop, the middle name was the British crossed the parade ground in plat- 
often (unitted in the signature in those early toons, tiring upon the defenseless garrison, who- 
days. S;isun named her son, b. .March 27, 170S, had grounded their arms. With the bayonet 
lifter her distinguished uncle, and her son they stabbed the dead and dying. Of the 
llnnip'lu-eygavo the name to the distinguish ■(! command of IGO they loft scarce 20 able to 
North Carohnian. The first James Avery, and stand; there they in heaps fallen one upon 
Eilward ralmer,were distinguished in military another, as brave a band as fought with l^eon- 
aud civil life; both were high comnianding idas of Therniopyhw. Of these are " immortal 
officers in succ■,•s^ful wars with tlie Indians_ naTiies that were not doomed to die," and 
They liad served many years together in the eleven of the name of Avery perished in that 
Legislature and upon the bench, and in the most infamous massacre by this (Uiniou of de- 
early history of New London, they are con- struction. 

staiUly named together as taking the Irad in In a letter from his brother Solomon .Xvery, 

all jiuhlic alfairs. The families being so mti- of July 11, 178:% a Copy of the original is to 

mate, it is not remarkable that Samuel, the be found in " Uiii. .Mag.," IV, 245, he states: 

yonn^e.-t son of James Avcrv, should have wed i-n i • *i c ..^ ,f 

•> -^ - " Eleven Avervs were killed m the iort at 

Susan, the daughter of .Major I'almer, and Qi-oton, and seven wounded; many Aveiys 

gi-anddau^hler of Governor .J.'hn Wiiithrop, have been killed in this war. Tliere has been 

Jr., of Com.ecticut. »" '^'"^y "'""^'^^ ^^^'^''T '"' t^'^se parts." 

For tliis full and satisfactory account of the From smh a stick was Waigbtstill Avery 

early history of this fatnily, we are indebted descended. 

to the unpublislied manuscript of J. George Waigbtstill Avery came to North Carolina. 

Harris, of the United States Navy, residing He was truly an acquisition to any State. He 

at Grotoii, who is :i lineal descendant of Chris- was a gentleman and a scholar. He graduated 

topher Avery, the common ancestor of all the at Princeton in 17iH3, studied law with Little- 

Averys named. ton Dennis, of the eastern shore of .Maryland, 

Of this family there v.ere eleven who wtav and came to North Candina, entering that 

massacred at Fort Griswold, at Groton, Con- province February 4, 17(i9, (d)tainc(i a license 

necticut, by the English troops, commanded to practice his pi-ofession, through Governor 

by that infamous traitor, Benedict Arindd, Dolibs, April 5, 1769, and settled in Mecklen- 

011 the 6th of September, 1781; about 800 burg, at the house of Hezokiah Alexander, 

troops under his comnumd attacked this fort, His diary is preserved in the " University Mag- 


aziuc-," vol. IV,j). oG6.giviiiy a niirraticin of his 1775, and the next year to the sairie, wliich 

travels throui^'.i the State, tVoui wliich it will met at Halifax, November 12, 1771). This 

be seen that he waswelenmod and aii[:)i-eeiated l)ody formed the State Constitution, in which 

by the leading men of the country. he rendered important service, and was one 

After entering the State, February 4, 17C9, of the committee who formed this instrument, 
iiiivingj;)as3ed the Virginia line he arrived at so wisely and perfectly formed that under it 
Edenton, where he became acquainted with the State lived for nearly sixty years in pros- 
Mr. Johnston, then clerk of the court, after- perity and peace. The next year (1777,) he 
ward Governor and judge, and also Joseph represented the county of Mecklenburg in the 
Ilewes; he passed on to General Allen Jones' Legislature. WilliamSharp, Joseph Winston, 
plantation, near the present town of Gaston; Robert Lanier, and himself, made a treaty 
thence to Halifax, and arrived at Salisbury on with the Cherokee Indians at the Long Island 
March 2,1709. Here he met Edumnd Fan- of the Holstein, " a treaty made without an 
ning, who was a native of the same province, oath, and one that has never been vic^lated." 
a man of fine address, a scholar, and a lawyer On January' 12, 177'S, he was elected Attorney- 
of liigii attainment, who used every art and General of the State. 

blandishment to draw Avery into an alliance July 3, 1779, he was appointed colonel of 

with Tryon and the adherents of royalty. A Jones County, (where he had removed,) in 

personal frientlship grew up, but no pilace of Xathan Uryan, resigned, aiid tin. ling 

alliance. After traversing every section of the climate of the h)\v country was impairing 

the province, from the Albemarle and the Cape his health, he removed, in 1781, to the cjunty 

Fear to the mountains, we finally find liim of 13arke, and settled on a beautiful and fer- 

settled at the house Ilezekiah Alexander, who tile estate near Morgautoii, on the Catawba 

agreed to board him "at the rate of £12 for River. 

eight months, making allowance if he should The year previous (1778,) he had married, 
not be there so long in the year." Here he near New Berne, Mrs. Leah Frank, widow of 
associated with the patriots of the incipient Mr. Frank, who lived and died in New Berne, 
Revolution, the Alexanders, the Brevards, and daughter of W^illiam Probart, of Snow 
the Grahams, Davidsons, Polks and others. Hill, xMaryland, a wealthy merchant there, who 
with wlioiji he cordially sympathized and died on a visit to London, 
united in the spirit of liberty and independence In 1780, whilst the British occupied Char- 
that soon pervaded the lovely valleys of the lotte, under Lord Corn wal lis, his office was 
Yadkin and the Catawba. set on lire, and all his books and papers 

This period was one of stirring interest, destroyed. In 1781 he removed to Burke 

The sentiment of revolution was beginning to County, and there he resided, in the practice 

rouse the gallant men of that day to arms, and of his profession, until the date of his death, 

tJie section where he had located was the first 1821. He represented this county in the 

and foremost in the fray. He united with the Legislature in 1782, '83, '81, '85, '93, in the 

men of Mecklenburg "in the declaration of House, and in 1796 in the Senate. At the 

independence of the 20th May, 1775, and peiiod of his death he was considered " the 

pledged his life, his fortune, and most sacred patriarch of the bar." 

honor " to the sacred cause of liberty. It is doubtful if any one family iu this State 

He was elected a member of the Provincial suftered more severely than did the distin- 

Congress which met at Ilillsboro, August 21, guished and gallant Averys. 



Alphonso Calliouii Avery, now one of tho 
Judges of the Superior Court, son of Colonel 
Isaac T. Avery, resides in ]?urke County. lie 
is the eldest niaIesnr\ivor of thisdistingnished 
faniil}-. Ilis three elder brothers, Waightstill, 
Chxrk, and Isanc J., (as wo have recorded.) 
were killed in the late civil war. 

He was horn about 1837, liberally educated, 
gratluated at the University in a large class of 
70 n)end)ers in 1857, among whom were B. B. 
Barnes, John W. Graham, L. M. Jeggitts, 
Thomas S. Kenan and others. In the pro- 
ceedings of the commencement, Mr. Avery, 
then in his sophomore year, received at the 
hands of Governor Swain a copy of Sliake- 
speare, a prize oti'ered by the professor of 
rhetoric for the best composition in that class. 
"Uni. Mag.,"IV, 278. 

He stu<lied law, and was just comntencing 
the practice when he obeyed the call of his 
country to do duty for her defence. He was 
engaged at the Iiattle of Manassas, where his 
leader, the gallant Colonel C. F. Fisher, fell, 
and did noble service under Pender. During 
the last closing years of the war,, he was on 
the statf of General D. H. Hill. 

Since the war he has devoted himself to the 
practice of his profession, of which he was the 
pride and ornament, only occasionally inter- 
rupted by his election to the Legislature, lie 
was a member of the Senate in 1866 and again 
1867, and a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1875. 

He was the Democratic elector in the 8th 
district; and by his ability and exertions did 
much to insure its success. 

He was elected Judge of Superior Courts, 
which elevated position he holds now. He 
married Susan, youngest daughter of Rev. 
Robert A. Morrison, and sister of Mrs. Stone- 
wall Jackson. 

"William Waightstill Avery was i»orn at 
Swan Ponds, in Burke County, on the 25th of 
May^ 1816. He was the oldest child of Col- 

onel Isaac T. Avery and Harriet E. Avery. 
His father was the only son of Waightstill 
Avery, and his mother was the eldest daughter 
of William W. Erwin,an<l a granddaughter of 
William Sharpe. 

There were, during his bo3'hood,no classical 
schools in the Picdnioiit region e(iual to Bing- 
ham and others in the central counties, and on 
attempting to enter college, in the year 1832, 
W. W. Avery found that he was not thor- 
oughly prepared in the ancient languages. He 
remained at Chapel Hill during the vacation 
and prosecuted his studies under the instruc- 
tion of the late Dr. Mitchell and Abram More- 
head, Esi|., then a tutor, and so faithfully did 
he apply himself that in one year he stood at 
the head of his class, and graduated with the 
first honors ia 1837 in same class with Perrin 
Busbee, Peter W. Hairston, Pride Jones and 

He studied law with Judge Gaston and was 
licensed to practice in the Superior Courts in 

He was from boyhood an ardent admirer of 
Mr. Calhoun, and naturally became a States- 
rights Democrat. He was unsuccessful as a 
candidate for the Legislature in 1840; but iu 
1842 was elected as a Democrat from Burke 
County, though Governor Morehead,the Whig 
candidate for Governor, carried the couiity by 
a veiT large majority. 

He had a large and lucrative practice as a 
lawyer, and did not appear again activeh' as 
a politician till the year 1850. In Ma^-, 1846, 
he was married to Corinna M. Morehead, a 
daughter of the late Governor Morehead. She 
is still living. 

He served afterwards in the Ihiuse of Com- 
mons, as a memlier from Burke, in 1850 and 

In 1856 he was chairman of the North Caro- 
lina delegation in the National Democratic 
Convention that nominated President Buchan- 
an, and during the same year was elected to 


the State Senate, of which body lie was cliosc!) After the expiration of his term in Con- 
Speaker, gress in 1862, he returned to his home with 

In 1858 he was a candidate for Congress, to antliority from the President to raise a regi- 
fill tlie vacancy made by the ap[)(>intment of ment; but was prevented from carr^-ing out 
lion. T. L. Clingman as United States Sen- his purpose b^' the earnest pmtests of his aged 
ator. Colonel David Coleman, who was also fatlier and four brothers, who were already in 
a Democrat, opjiosed him, and after they had active service. They insisted that he was be- 
canvassed a large portion of tlie district, Hon. yond the age for service, and it was his duty 
Z. B. Vance announced himself a candidate, to Ins family and country to remain at home, 
and Colonel Coleman withdrew; but the dis- He was an earnest and active supporter of 
trict had given Mr. Buchanan a very small the Confederate cause, and conlrilmted lib- 
majority, and the dissension was such that erally to the government and for the main- 
Vance was elected. tenance of the families of soldiers. 

In 18(J0, W. W. Avery was again chairman In 1864 an iiicni-siou was made bv a party 

of the North Car.ijina delegation in the Xa- of so-called Unionists from Tennessee, com- 

tional Convention at Charleston, and seceded manded by Colonel Kirk, who afterwards 

with the southern wing of the party that af- gained a very unenviable notoriety in Xorth 

terwards nominated Air. Breckeiiridge. I)ur- Carolina This party, after surprising and 

ing the same year he was again elected to the captniiiig a small body of conscripted boys in 

State Senate, and declined the nomination for Burke diuiity, retreated towards Tennessee. 

Speaker in favor of his friend II. T. Clark, Mr. Avery with a body of Noi-th Carolina 

who become (iovernor after the death of militia pui'sued the party, and in attacking the 

(/lovernor Ellis. After the election of .Vlr. retreating forces at a strong position in the 

Lincoln he Avas an avowed secessionist, and mountains, was mortally wounded. He was 

strongly urged the call of a convention during reinc.ived to his home in Morganton, where he 

the winter of 1860 and 1861. died on the od day of July, 1864. 

After the State seceded on' the 20th of In all the relations of life he was distin- 

May. 1861, he was elected by the Convention guished for his kindness and afl'abilit .\ and his 

as one of the members from the State at large unselHsh love for the comfort and happiness 

of the I'rovisiiiiial Congress. He served in of others. No man lias been more missed 

that body Uiitil the L'rovisional Government ami lamented by the community in wiiich 

was succ'ceded liy the permanent g(jverntnent, he lived, and his age<l father, ( then in his 

provided for in the Constitution adopted in eighti 'tli ye ir,) wont down to his grave sor- 

1861. He was a member and chairman on rowing for the loss of tliis the thii'd son who 

the Committee on Military Atfairs. had fdlc; in liaitlo within o:.e year. 

A majority of the Democrats in the Legis- For the LiMiealogy of the Avery family see 

lature of 1861 voted for Mr. Avery for Sena- Ap[>endi.\-. 
tor in the Congress of the Confederate States; 

but a large mi -ity supported Hon. T. L. M'T)owell F..\mily of Buuke Countv. 

Clingman, while the Whigs voted for a can- There are no iamiliesiu the State that have 

didate from their own party. After balloting rendered more imp.u'laut service to the State 

for several weeks the friends of the two candi- than the .McDowells. 

dates conipn.mised by electing Hon. W. T. Aliliough careful research has been made 

"'^^''^ h»r years in records of the State, and families, 



ami bv extensive corrospoiulencc, yet, in the 
earlier periods of our history, the want of tiie 
facilities of the press, and a carelessness in 
preserving family records, some obscurity rests 
on the history of the early founders of this 

In my " History of North Carolina," as to 
this family, it is stated that Charles and Jo- 
se[ih Mc]')owell were brothers, the sons of 
Josepii. who, with his wife Margaret 0'Xe:il, 
had eniiurate<l from Ireland, sottlod in Win- 
chester, Virginia, wliiTe Charles and Joseph 
were liorn. Kor authority of these facts, state- 
ments were furnished from members of this 
family and others which were believed. Ke- 
eent and more thorough examinations make 
these statements doubtful. A letter from one 
of the family * to me, states: 

" It is siniTular how inaccni'ate has been any 
knowledge as to this family. An investiga- 
tion, instituted .some time ago, with a view of 
establLsbinga descent which would lead to the 
seeming of a large estate through Margaret 
C'^Seal^ deveU)[ied the fact, beyond all ques- 
tion, that her husband (the fatiier of General 
Charles McDowell, and Ceneral Joseph,) was 
named John instead of Josei>h,that they mar- 
ried in Irelaml, and livid ai Quiker Meadows, 
in Burke County.'' 

Lanman, in his " Biograi)hical Annals of 
Congress," states: 

'•Joseph McDowell was a Representative in 
Coiigress Irom 179;^ to 17!t'); and again from 
nof to 1799." 

The family tradition ar.d record is, he died 
in 1795. The tirst error does not destroy the 
truth of history tlia.t thefauiily were of Ii'ish 
origin;'.e second arises from there being 
iwo of the same name of the same family. 
Kvery ett'ort and [lains have been takeri to 
make the i>re.sent sketch correct. If any error 
oecurs. the corrections will be gratefully re- 

*l)r. a. W. Midail, of Newton. N. C. to wlioni I 
am ir.debted for nu;cU information us to tlie Mc1>n\veU 

eeived. In compiling gcnealngical tables, or 
pedigrees, great attention is necessary in 
clearl}- stating the nnmb:-r of genei-at ions, in 
any given period, as they form a guide to the 
probability of persons ha\"ing' sprung from any 
part ienlar ancest(U' or individual. A genera- 
tion is the interval lietween the birth of a 
father and the birth of sun. Thirty-three 
^•ears have been allowed to a generation, or 
three generations for every hundred years.- 
The bii'tli and death dates, as well as the loca- 
tion, should lie stated, since " cbrcuiology and' 
locality are the eyes of histcu'y." The ie[)eti- 
tion of the same names, without dates ov 
l]laec, creates confusion in oui- American gene-- 
alog}', as it has caused in this instance. 

John McDowell, called "Hunting .loliii," 
who resided at Pleasant Gardens, was one of 
the early i)ioneers of Western (.!arolin;i. Ik- 
was, it is believed, a nati\-e of Ireland, lie 
and a man by the name of Henry A\'idener, 
(many of whose descendanls now live in Ca- 
tawba County, known by tlu; namj of White- 
ner,) came to this eoimtiy when it was an im- 
hruken \\ilderness, for the piuipose of limiting 
and securing homes for their t'amilies. John 
McD(.)well built bis bouse on the west side oi 
the Catawba Kiver, on land now called the 
Ilany Field, a [lart of the tine body of land 
well known as "The Pleasant Gardens," which. 
f(U- fertility of soil, healthfulness of climate 
and splendor of scenery, cannot be excelled. 

The date of his biitli, or the time of his 
settling, or the date of his death, from the 
loss of family recoi-ds, caniiot lie given; hut 
from tradition, he lived in this lovely spot 
with his wife (Mrs. Annie Edmnndston) to 
a good old age. 

He was a famous hunter, and delighted in 
" trapping," and to a late period of his life, he 
could be seen on his way to the mountains, 
with tour large bear tied behind him on 
his horse, with his trusty riHc on his shoulder. 
On these excursions lie would go alone, and be 

WllEELEUr^ ilh 1.: i-Li-XCES. 

aitrcnt K>r a wmth or m 
tarkies, ss-d bear-;, and : 

; re- 






M';; - "sn-, 

175^. at Pie. sant Gardens, in Barke County. 
He was aiwavri called -Colonel Joe of the 
Pk-asaut G;«rd-;ns," to distinzaish him from 
" fjerifrral J' e 

lie wa- a s . and the 

lii'. -" 

ih- ; joined <- 

an .-_ . , :n 1770. i._„ . 

I'idians, in which he di-plaved much gall -.ntry 

and de-pcratc- cmrage. It is known that in a 

lja;jd-to-han<i ii/!it he killed an Indian chief 

•.vi" ;. 

i. e in repre--iT>? the Tories, and 

t.'wjk pail iu the battle f - ilills. '-r. 

20th Jane. 1780, near .. . ^i.? men- 

tioned bj- General Graham in eulogistic terms, 
for hir conduct on that occa-ion. and mateTiallj 
aided in achieving a oraplete victory over a 
superior force. 

At Cane Creek, in Kutherford County, «nth 
General Charles McDo-vvelL he led thennlitia, 
■ hiefly of Burke County, and had a severe 
skiniiUh with a .strong detachment of Fer- 
gu&jn's army, then stationed at Gilbert Town, 
and drove them back. 

Irnmediately afttnvard he aided in measures 
which culminated in the glorious victoiy of 
Kinjf's Mountain. 

Tli'is was the darkest period of the dabioos 
conflict. Gates was defeated at Camden: 
Sii' . ,. .-lidered to the 

Br: J Creek, (18th 

Ar.^- valiL:, iu - all the pride 

ant; f a con'^aeror. hild the 

uiidispured possession of Charlotte and its 

Fergasiii, with s: . '.vinning 

the " ' - -^ ■ r ^ rv; "1 liberty to 
loyt r ries rava^ied the whole 

. of 
Vi:. ^ ~'.-aX- 

ter-- , and 

these brave men felt that they mu:^ - do or 

Amid all these disxstroascircamstanees, the 
patrivtic ■ " jell, 

Sevier, a Jney 

They w< 

Were in - iicL>jweii, ae 

wasenti:... . 

From H raanoscript letter of Shelby, ia my 
possesion, he s;»y-S: 

.-; f vj^.^^1 \{..]^>o^^<aii «vas t';*? c^m'Tianding 
offi jm- 

roii - ini- 

: ivas 
- too 
' 'm- 

-• ; J send to heatlquarters for 

some 5" v>iiiu<;i- to comiaaad the expedi- 



be ■- - r tj go •- He 

ace - .rted ixnm- -' his 

me.'i under his brother, Alajur Jv*»>;pii Me- 

The next day Shelby urged that time was 
precious and delays dangerous. The advance 
was made. Colonel Joseph McDowell, the 
subject of our present sketch, led the boys of 

:i corxTT 

Td Ct'QDties to buTile and J: 

>d in sratirarie : 
•'■ towB of Bnrke. 

' 'iri-ih tl 

e in 17i<: 


WHEELER'S reminiscences; 

James McDowell, the second son of Colonel 
Joseph McDowell tiiat lived to iiianiiood, pos- 
sessed the esteem of all who knew him. 

He was a meniber of the Senate in the Lea:is- 

olutionary tronl)les, he was the commander of ' 
an extensive district in his section of country, 
and was a brave and daring officer. 

It was not until the year 1780 that western 

lature, from Burke County, in 1832, and filled North Carolina became the field of military 

other offices of trust. Like each one of Col- 
onel Jose])h McDowell's children, he was 

operations in tlie Revolutionary war. After 
<ubduinii the States of Georijia and South 

remarkable for his modesty, for his integrity, Carolina, the British forces adv.mced to this 

State and commenced making demonstrations. 
McDowell was active in counteracting their 

and his open-handed charity. 

lie owned the Pleasant Gardens, where he 

lived until advanced in life. He then moved movements. 

to Yancey County, where he died. He married In June, 178(J, having been joined by Shelby, 

Margaret Erwin, and left five children, name- Sevier, and Clarke, of Georgia, near Cherokee 

ly: Dr. Joseph McDowell, Dr. John. Mc- Ford on Broad River, McDowell determined 

Dowell, of Burke County; William McDowell, to attack the British at a strongly fortitied 

of Asheville; Kate, who ujairied Montraville p)Ost on the Bacolet River, under c Humaiid of 

Patton; Margaret, who married Marcus Eiwin. Patrick Moore, which he gallantly, performed 

These are the descendants of the branch of and compielled him to surrender, 

which "Hunting John " was the ancestor. He also attacked the Tories at Musgrove 

John McDowell, of Quaker Meadows, was Mill on the Enoree River and routed them, 

the cousin of "Hunting John," (Dr. W. A. Many other brilliant aft'airs in this section 

Michal.) He was one of the pioneers of this marked iiis energy and efficiency as a soldier. 

regit)u of country, and settled "at Quaker We have recortled the facts of his missing a 

Meadows," on the Catawba River, about a participation in the battle of King's Moun- 

mile from Morganton. He was a native of tain. 

L'eland, and married Margaret O'Neal, (the As tiie several officers held e^ual rank, by a 

widow of Mr. (ireenlee,) by whom he had three council of officers McDowell was dispatched 

sons: Hugh McDowell, General Charles Mc- to headquarters, then near Salisbury, to have 

Dowell, Major John McDowell. General Sumner or General Davidson, who had 

Hugh McDowell, son of John and .Margaret been a.p[i(_>inted brigadier ge:iei'al in place of 

O'Neal, of <^)nakei' Meadows, left three daugh- General Rutherford, taken [uisoiier at Gates' 

ters: Mrs. Mc(Tintry, Mrs. McKinsey; Mai'- defeat. 

garet, who married James Murphy, who left This closed his military career. The people 
one son, John Murphy, who married Margaret of his county Were not ungrateful, to him for 
= Avery, and left three daughters and one son: his long and successful military service. He- 
Margaret, who married Thomas G. Walton; was the Senator from Burke from 1782 to 
Sarah, who married Alexander F. Gaston, 1788, and he had been also in 1778, and mem- 
son of Judge Gaston; Harriet, who married ber of the House 180y-'10-'ll. He died olst 
William M. Walton; John H. McDowell, who March, 1815. He married Grace Greenlee, who 
■^married Clara Patton. was distinguished among "the women of the 

General Charles McDowell, (son of John and Revolution." She W'as a woman of remarka- 
Mai'garet O'Neal, of (Quaker Meadows,) born ble emu-gy and firmness. Mrs. EUet has re- 
in 1743; died 1815, was probably a native of corded her extraordinary character, and relates 
Ireland. On the commencement of our Rev- that on one occasion some bummers, in the 


nhsence of lici- linsliaiiil, I'liiiidfred hor hoiiso. Athuii A Mi-!)o\vell serveil in tlic Creek 

"Witli sinne to \v friends she imrsiied the nia- war. lie was slierilf of Biiri<e Comity. Sen- 

raiulers and compelled them, at the muzzle of ator in the Legislature, 1815. He removed to 

a niusk.t. to give up iier property. While her Henderson County. He married Ann (Jood- 

hushand was .serretly making powder in a son, the stepdaugliter of Coloucd William 

cave, sjie aided him, and i)nrnt the charcoal Davenport, of Caldwell Comity, and left one 

herself. This very powder did good service ill son, (■liarles. and one daughtei-, Ijouisa, who 

the liattle of King''s .Mountain. I'revions to married Hon. James C. Har[ier, whose 

her mairiage with General Charles McDowell, daughter marrieil Hon. .ludge Cilly. 

she was the v.ife of Captain Uowman, who James K. McDowell lived a bachelor, and 

fell ill the battle of Ramsour's mill. She was died at the old homestead. He was a very 

the daughter of Margaret O'Xeal, by Mr. great favorite with all who knew him. lie 

Greenlee, anterior to the union with the father often contended with Hon. Samuel W Carson 

of General Charles McDowtdl. She had a in the political tield, with alternate success, 

daughter by this marriage wit h Captain IJow- Jle was a mendjer of the House in 1817-'18 

man, named Mary, who marrie<l C'olonel Wil- and '19, and of the Senate, in 1823-'25. 

liam Tate, and who was the niotiier of Junius Sarah married Colonel William I'axfcon, 

Tate, and Louisa, who was the mother of the In-other of Judge Paxton; had several chil- 

tirst Mrs. Z. B. Vance. dren; one of whom married Rev. Brank Mer- 

She had by (leneral Charles McDowell, three rimoii, father of Hon. A. S. .Merrimon, 

sons and luiir daughters: Captain Charles Mc- United States Senator; Kliza (iraee married 

Dowell; Athan A.; James U.; Sarah; Eliza Stanlioi.e Erwin; Margaret married Colonel 

Gr:;ce; .M;iigaret ; Sallie; in whom and in William J)ickson, whose son was in the Legisla- 

whose descendants, the blood of Grace Green- t'lre ]842-'44; Sallie; Mrs. Christian, 

it-e courses. It is curious as well as interesting, Major John McDowell, third son of John 

to observe the efi'ect of blood. Dr. Rush de- aiid Margaret O'Xeal, of Quaker Meadows, 

clared that '• the Idood of one intelligent :>nd brotlier of General Charles McDowell., 

woman would redeem three generations of live<l on Silver Creek, in Burke County, about 

fcKils." nine miles from .Morganton, 

This, like the golden tliread of Ariadne, is He was a member of the Legislature in 

clearly traceable in the genealogy of this 1792-'94. 

family, marking with intellect, beauty, and in He had the sad mishap to lose his sons 

enterprise, in clear and definite lines. As Dr. (three,) and a nephew, at the .same tinie,-hy 

Johnson, in bis epitai.h of Goldsmith, ex- the burning of his house. 

piesses the beautiful idea- He left two daughters: Margaret, whomar- 

Xiltetiget. iiuod noil oniavit. ried Robert McElrath; and Hannah, married 

Of these Captain Charles McDowell, who was J"'"' McElrath. 

always called •' Captain Charles," owned the General Joseph McDowell w-as the son of 
homestead of "The Quaker Meadows." He John and Margaret (of Quaker Meadows,) had 
was a member of the Legislature from J5urke the reputation of a brave officer of the Rev- 
County in 18O'.l-'10-'ll. He was much res- olution, a soldier and a statesman. We regret 
spected; an ardent politician. (For bis de- that so little is kiH)wn of his character and 
scendants see sketch of Annie McDowell, services. The aged men of l>urke that knew 
whom he married.) him describe him as beinggenial in his temper 


.ami heiievdieiit. In ajijicai ;i:ifo ho was tall Geoige Moti'ett, of Ai\n-iista County, Va., and 

anil commanding. tla^ sister of Margaret, wife of General .roso[ih 

He was a great favoiite with the people. ?\leDowcll. 

lie was for eight years snecessivcly elected to Their eliiidren wer^.' Samuel I'rice; ^^'illiam 

tlie House <if Commons, 1750 to 1758, and Sen- M.; Matilda; George and Jomilhan L. 

ator in 1791 to 17SI5. lie was elected a mem- Colnnel John Carson died on the 5tli of 

lier of Cm-rei^s in 17l»7-"09. He married March, 1S41. 

Margaret ?\l(di'ett, sister of the wife ol' Colonel Joseph McDowell Carson, son of John Car- 
Joseph McDowell. He lived on the east side son and Rachel McDowell, his first wife, was 
of Jolin's Riv.u-, ahont seven miles fi'(Mn Mor- distinguished for Ids integrity and hrilliant 
ganton. intelleet. lie practiced law for lUiiny years 

One of \n'A s-.nis, Ilugli Harvey, reddes in with emiin.'nt success. He much preferred 

Mi-souri and is the father of Mrs. Governor the st-.'ady and unif irm life of a juri-t to the 

Parsjus. uncerlain and titful career (d' a politician. ' Yet 

Another !-":i ■Jo-'0|ih J,,) is a citizen of he rejiresented his county in lihe Legislature; 

^>hio, ar.d \\-a> elected a memher of Congress in the C.imnrnrs i;i 181:2, 1813, 1814 anil 18a5; 

fiiun (ddii in 1813-'d7. and in theSeuaio in 18o2, 1836, and 1838, and 

Cue of his daughters nnirried Clndst- was a mendter id' the State Convention of 

unm, and after his death mairied Judge \\"ake, 1835, to amend the Constitutioiu He lived on 

of Kentucky. Green Uiver, in Rutherford Gountv. IIj mar- 

TuE Cai;sons of TkiuKR County. 

ried his cousin Rehecca, daughter of James 
Wilson, and Imd many descendants; Tench, 

John C.irson was the [irogenilor of this farn- wlio nnirried a ilaiighter of Vardy McBee; 

ily, so distinguishcil in the annals nf our Ste.te. R iciiel, who mari'ied Otis; Jason, who married 

He was a native of Ireland, horn on :24tli Moore; Margaret; Charles; Joseph McDo'.ve:'; 

day of Mardi, 1752; came to America and John; Catherine; James; Milton, 

settled in Burke (\)unty about 1773. One of his grandihuighters, Kehecca, was 

He possessed naturally a poweil'ul inlelieet, the wife of the late Washington M. Hardy, 

great decision of character, mie-h ca[>acity for librarian of the, House of Representa- 

basiiiess, quick, resolute, impidsive. He was tives, ( liS71'.) 

consequently a man of prominent character Willi. im M. Cars.m, son of Colonel ,)<diii 

and of much iniiuenee in his cmmiy, and for Carson, liy hks second wife, u'as born Decem- 

maiiy years its leaiiing magistrate. her iJ, 1801. 

In 1805 and 18';(.) he was a member of tlie ile reiUX-scntcid Burice County in 1833 and 

Legislature from iUirke County. . 1840. He had no fondness for political life, 

He lived on liuck Cieek, aecuinulatid a but was desei'vedly very popular, and rceeived 

hirge estate, runl ■aised a large faiidly. He nearl}' a unanimous vote for the Legislature, 

was twice imiiried. His iir,-r wife, as before iJut having id political aspii'ations decliaod 

•-tatcd, was the d,;Ughte!' of •vHmiting" [uiidie sei'\ ice. 

dohn AieDcweil, and their cidldren were He was twice mariled, first to Almyra, 

J:,mes, das '11, doscp'h McDowell, Rebecca, daughter of Samuel Wds)n, of Tennessee; and 

dohn, Charlrs and. Sally. his second wife was Catherine, the widow uf 

His second wife we.s tiie widow of Colonel Samuel P. Carson, daughter of James Wilson, 

Joseph McDowell, who was the daughter of of Tennessee. He lived on Buck Creek, in 



'.McDowell County, wiiere ho died in tlse fall of 

But the most distinguished of this family 
was Samuel 1'. Carson. 

Samuel Price Carson was the eldest son o( 
Colonel John Carson by ins last wife, who 
was the widow of Colonel .)ose[)h .McDowell, 
of the Pleasant Gardens. 

He was horn in tlie county of Burke, on 
the 22d day of January, 1798. 

His life, although short, was an eventful 
one. He entered political life early, and was 
elected to the State Senate in 1822. and again 
in 1824. But this was a iield much too small 
for his aspirations. In 182'), he became a 
candidate for a seat in tbo United States 
Congress. His competitors were the Hon. 
Felix Walker, Hon. Robert B. Vance, and 
Hon. James (iraham. 

Mr. Walker was an old man, and had been 
the member from 1817 to 1823. lie seemed 
highly amused at the idi-a of Carson's aspiring 
to such a position. In his final speech he 
announced Vance and Graham as his com- 
petitors, and added, '-and I'm told there's a 
boy from Burke, who wa(d:< to be a candi- 

In their speeches, Vance, who was then Con- 
gressman, and Graham made the usual excuses 
for being candidates. Each had had so many, 
and such strong solicitations, that he was 
unable to resist the juvssure upon him, and 
had at last, as a matter of duty, consented to 
present iiimself. Carson was not looked upon 
as being in the way by either, and idl their 
batteries were turned upon Walker. They 
told the people that at Washington City 
he boarded onl. of town, and w.iUed in; and rid- 
iculed the old man without stint or mercy. 

Carson, when he took the stand, told the 
people that all his friends had solicited him 
not to run, and he was a candidate because he 
icnited to r/o to He treated Mr. Wal- 
ker with the greatest respect; spoke of him as 

u Kevolutionury soldier, and delivered a iiand- 
some eulogy upon iiim. 

.\s the canvass progressed, it became evi- 
dent to ^'anee and Graham, that Carson, al- 
though so young, was not only a candidate, 
but I bat he possessed talents of a high order, 
and was winning hosts of friends. The con- 
test became warm, and l)efore the time for the 
election, Walker, who had been completely 
won by Carson's kind and considerate treat- 
ment, withdrew from the contest and gave 
him the whole weight of his inlluenc^o. 

This decided the contest, ami Carson was 

The contest in 1827, between Carson and 
Vance, terminated in an uahapiiy manner. 

Samuel P. Carson's temperament was such 
th:it he could not ijcsai' confinement ; therefore, 
slow, plodding study, was out of the question, 
and regular systematic learning be did not 
possess. Yet his inquiring mind caused him 
to read with avidity whatever came to hand, 
and witli powerful perceptive faculties, and a 
remarkaitl^' memory, he understood 
his sul)ject at a glance, and whatever he read 
he retained, consu(iueutl3' he was a well-in- 
formed man. 

Fond of merriment, with a genial, social 
disposition, and [lossessing great wit, he was a 
delightful companion, and "the soul" of every 
social circle which he entered. 

A great judge of human luiture, he could 
a<hipt himself to every one; and with the most 
ca[itivating manners he won all whom he met. 
Generous to a fault, a man so endowed could 
not be otherwise than innnensely popular with 
the people. And, with a superior intellect^ 
tine conversational powers, a chivalrous sense 
of iionor, and devoted attaeliment to his 
friends, he was as much sought by the great 
as by the more humble. 

L'erba[)S no man ever possessed warmer or 
more devoted friends. 

As a speaker he was argumentative, and his 


powers of analysis were very great, eiiabliiio' taking his position he told liis second, the Hon-, 
him to make liis sulijeet [)hiin to the must sim- Warren R. Davis, of Sonth Carolina, that he 
pie. At times, not otteii, he would illustrate did not intend to kill him ; tliat he could hit 
a point with anecdote, and always with him anywhere he pleased, (.Carson was a re- 
effect, lie had great command of huiguage, markahly good sliot with a pistol,) and that 
p)0ssessed a jiMwerful imagination, and a charm- he intended otdy to wound hinj. I)a\is re- 

ing voice. Perfectly- free from affectation, self- plied to him that Vance had coinetliere 

]iosscssed, with a manner dignified, easy, and to kill him; that if he only woumled him, au- 

graceful, he liad the p.iwer of swaying the other meeting would he the I'esult, and if he 

feelings of the crowd at will, and often held did not prorinse to tiy to kill him, that he 

his hearers, as if spell-honnd, hy his eloquence. (Davis) could not lie a party in the affair, and 

He was indeed au oi-atur. that he must seek another second. This had 

lie was said to he the l)est impromptu its influence on the mind of if.s prim-ipal, an<l 

.speaker in Congress. a tragic effect. 

The next event to he noticed in this sketch. Their positions Avere taken; tlie word was 

is one which could not hut have saddened the given, and A'ance fell to die in a i'evv hours, 

wlude after life of a man possessing the kind, Carson, like llannlton, was \ei'y much averse 

warm heart, and henevolent feelings of Samuel to duelling, and although on two occasions 

P. Carson. afterwards, he irgreed to act as second in affairs 

In that day, duelling was sustained hy pnl)- of honor, he only accepted the position in each 

lie s;'ntiment,and it heing ruinous to character instance with the hojie and for the purpose of 

to decline a challenge, or to neglect to send effecting an amicable adjustment of the difii- 

oue, niider projier provocation, it was a com- culty, and in li<'.t h instance^ he succeeded, 

mon thing, particularly among gt'ntlemen in In one of the-e, a strong and decided politi- 

political life. cal opponent of Samuel 1'. Carson, evinced 

Dr. Robert D. Vance, Carson's ri\al befoi'e his aiipreriation of the man isy calling on him 

the people, and his conipetittn- in the last two to act as his seroud in a diiKculty with one 

elections for Congress, was a nian of brilliant wliu was l)oth a [lolitiial-and personal tVieud 

talents, and i)ossessed many noble traits of oi' Cai'son. The paities alluded to were the 

character. lie was very popular witli the lion. J)a,vid F. Caldwell and the lion. Charles 

people; and ('arson's own personal friends Fisher, ol' Salisbui-y. In the other, he acted 

esteemed him highly. as second to (lovernor Praucli,of iNorth Caro- 

Unfortunately, passions amused in political liiui, in a dilHcnlty with Governor Forsyth, of 

contests became morl)id with him, and he was Georgia; A rehei', of Virginia, l>eing the friend 

led by them to provoke a challenge in siirh a, of the latter. 

way that Carson could not decline to send it ; General Jackson was t'leeted President of 

this was l)y an insult to his father. The cbal- the United States in the fall of 1828, and on 

lenge was promptl}- accepted. They met at the -Ith of March, 1S2'.), commenced an ad- 

Saluda Gap, on the South Carolina State ministration which will ever bo memorable in 

line. the annals of the country. 

Carson was accompanied to tTie Held liy the In that year Carson was re-elected to Con- 

H<in. David Crockett, and other friends, lie gress. lie and General Jackson belonged to 

shrank from the idea of taking Vanee'.s life; the same [lolitical part3', and a warm and inti- 

and, perfectly cool and self-possessed, before mate personal friendship grew up between 


tlu'in, which was destined to l>e tried hrjiolit- Tii noitlier of the States, however, was tlierc 

ieai dissensions that divided jiarties, alienated sneh unanimity among- tite friends of nuilili- 

fi'iends, and came veiy ni'ar dissolvino; tiie cation as to make it pnident, in their judirinent, 

bonds of the Uni(in itself. to aftempt to jiiit it into jiraetieal effect. 

Leadini,- statesmen of the South considered '1'''^' '■l':i"K'N *"", i" t'"^' ndniinistratiun led' 

high rates of tariff upon forei.srn importations t'lom to i.xj.ect a satisfactory moditication c^' 

asdestructive to tlie interests of the non- the obnoxious law,- and during tlie summer of 

manufacturing States. Tiiey regarded it as 182iUheir efforts were directed towards iti- 

exccedingly unjust on the part of the General fl'i«"<!iiiK the public mind in opposition to it. 

Governni^ent to institute such a policy. They "•'''« opponents of the administration hud a 

conceived that no siicli imposition isanthorized «l<'*i'le<l majority in Congress, and tlie Presi- 

by the Constitution of the United States, and ''''-'^ vetoed several Inlls that had been passed 

that any act of (^ongress, providing for the '-.v that body, which were antag.mistie to the 

collection of excessive duties, is in violation views(,f the States Rights party ; ar.d for some 

of the true intent and meaning of that instrn- time there was no open breaeh between Gen- 

ment, and is theref .re " null and void, and no ^''=>' •^'^^'l^-"'"" :i"f^ '"« P^i'-t.'' iViends, and to all 

[.,^y -I apiiearances they \verein harmony. Rut vari- 

„,, , ■ T , ■ T - •''•'■"* disturl)inii- elements :vero in existence 

1 liose wlio entertained those vu'ws retjarded , . , ' 

, • , ,. 1 ,,',., ii'id inl'uences were at work wliieii, by the 

the cause in the fundamental law which , . ' 

,,,,,; , , , end of the second session ot the 21st Congress, 
acknowledges that all powers nut delegated 

,,,,,-, " , the beginning ot 1831, imliealed plainly that 

to the General Government are reserved , " I . 

,. , . there was a dis'ision among the triends of the 

to ttie States ;'.s one ot tlie greatest imiiort- .... 

, , ,..,.,'", adnmnstration. 
ance; and that on its taitblul observance de- 

, , , , , , , Ri the election for members ot (Congress in 

pends llie growtii, devekii'nient and welfare ,„.,,,,, . , , 

,.,.,.".,,, " , . . 18.31, Mr. (-arson was again elected, 

ot th:' individual Mates, and the iierpetuitvof ^ , ^ .,.,", . .. , 

... ■ . j,j ^iig I'resulential election wtucli took 

the L nion. . , , .^ 

place in 183-2, tlie uitia States Rights men 

Li 1824, a vehement but inetlectual oppo..i- i,.,,.-„^. ,,,,f ,.<,nfidenee m General Jackson, re- 

tinn was made in to a protective fnse.l to support him, and there were different 

tariff bill; and when tliat body passed a law parties, some of which possessed great strength, 

increasing the rates of duty, as was done in i„ opposition to him; but the elements of op- 

1828, the whole country became pn.fonndly position were too incongruous to admit of any 

agitated. The delegation in Congress from „„ion between them, and General Jackson 

Siiiitli Carolina held a meeting, and discussed ^as re-elocteil. 

the rjuestion of resigning their seats; and also ^ever had there been rpiestions presented to 

the of declaring the law to be void, ^\^^ country wliieh involved such interests. 

and of no effect within the State. ^n the 27th of November, of the .same year, 

Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, and the Convention of South Carolina met, and 

other Southern States passed resolutions in soon after the Act of Nullification was passed, 

their respective Legislatures, exhibiting their Everywhere the feelings of the people were 

extreme opposition to the measure; and every wrought up to the highest pitch of excitement, 

where throughout the South there were in- Passions were aroused in many places, almost 

dieations of imminent danger of a disruption to a state of frenzy, and to all appearances 

of the Union. civil war was inevitable. 


Cdiigros-i mot, and by a iiioditicatiou uf the iiianncr which shows tlie kimlly impulsive na- 

tariff, oil was [inured u[i()n the troubled tare of Mr. Carson. At a large public ball, 

waters. Soon all warlike demo;isti'ati(jiis Mr. C'arsou in turning saw Mr. \Vel)Sler, who 

ceased, but still bitterness I'unkled in the was standing with his arms folded in rather 

bosoms of many. an absti'acted manner. Giving way to the 

Sainnel i'. Ijelievcd that the doctrine impulse of the moment, he immediately- ad- 

of States liiglits contained a vital principle in vaiiced to him with his hand extended, and 

our (Jovernnient, autl was. 'lierefore, one of its said, in his usual hearty nuiniier, "How do 

warmest advocates. A large aiajoiity of the you do, sir V Mr. Wei)ster grasped his hand 

peopile of his district I'egarded the preserv;ition most cordially and exclaimed: "Carson, I al- 

of the Union paramount to every other bless- ways liked you, I knew j'ou to be an honest 

ing, and at the Congressional election which man." And they were friends ever after, 

took jilace in iSoo, he was defeated by the Mr. Carson continued feeble; and indeed, he 

lion, .lames Gi-aham. never regained Ids health. ile passed Ids 

But Mr. Carson liad lost his health, and was time in the ipiiet enjoyment of the so(nety of 
not able to canvass his diotrict. ]jis fi-iends, until the year 18o5, when he re- 
lic never" ap[ieared before the people of his solved to remove to Texas — then struggling 
district again. under tlie o[i[iressions of .Mexico. In that 

Mr. Carson knew tlie strength of General year he visited that country for tlie purpose 

Jackson's prejudices, and the vigoi- of his tern- of selecting a home: and when he returned, he 

per, and l.ieing a ver^- warm personal friend, could not but have been gratilied at thcstrik- 

lelt anxious to know what ills feelings tow ai'ds ing evidence which the people of his native 

liim were after the cluinge in tlieir political county had given of their confidence in him, and 

relations. th ir Idgli esteem. They had elected him, 

Therefore, upon meeting General Jackson's during liis absence, as their mcndier of the 

biother-in-la\'.', immediately after returning to State Convention, which was held that year, 

Waouington, he iiKpiired wdiat the General's 18.3;3. He accept. -d the position, and discharged 

feelings toward liim \vere. lie replied: "liiey the duties with lidelity and acceptalnlity. 

always were to be cjf the kindest sort, he is In the fall of i8-j(J, he removed with his 

fond ot' your com[ian_)'; that he does not dis- family' to the county wduch he had selected; 

li.^e you or Sam lioUston," and the same year was elected member of the 

I'here never seemed the slightest abatement Convention of i'exas, of which G^uieral l)a\id 

iu the warmth of his feelings for Carson, iiis G. Burnett was President, and whic'n created 

invitations to him were just, us freijuent as the iiepublic. 

ever; tbeii' friendly and Svicial relations were Tins was a dark and gloomy houi'. Gladly 

never disturbed in tile slightest degree. When did fcxas welcome such a man as Samuel P. 

in 'w'a^hington City Mr. Carsoii was a genei'ai (jarson. In the iirganization ho was made 

favoiite among tlie Uiembei's of Cmigress, their Secretary of State; and it was owing to his 

relations were \ery kind, and his intercourse intimate acquidntance ami personal }iopularity 

\vith them was very [ileasant. with the public men of the United States he 

A occurred between him and the was sent to Washington City to intercede for 

great Daniel W'eiister, which preventtal them the recognition of the Kepubiic among the 

from speaking to each other for three or four nations of the ea.i'th. 

years. It was terminated however, and in a At this time the whole civilized world was 


shocked at tlic liorril)lc inassaci'c of Alamo, and material as to the McDowell fnmil}', I must 

sympathized \\ith Texas, strng'ffliii,<; acaiiist ai^ain express my thanks to Dr. Michal. 

the immense armies wliich .\Uxico had hiuled Israel Piiikons represented TJiirkc County in 

npon her. Her destruction seemed inevitahle. the Senate in 1808 and 1809. ■with Isaac T. 

I'nder these cir('um.--tances, rei'Ognitinn was Avery and Charles McDowell as colluai^ncs the 

out of the question. But when Texas, on the latter year. 

field of San Jacinto, had scattered the hosts lie was a nati\e of Mecklenhnrg County, of 

of Mexico, and made manifest her al>ilit_y to that part now Caharrus; horn oOth .January, 

maintain herself ai^ainst that power, recoifni- 1780. 

tion hy the I'nited Stairs came, and Mr. ile was theson of Saninel I'ickens, who i). i,- 

Carson, without douht. did niuch towards good service in the Revolutionary war against 

prepai'ing this country i'or it. the lii'itlsh and Tories. 

lie was not al>le much longer to discharge He was educated in Iredell County, ar.d fin- 

the active duties of life. ished his education at Washington College, 

His wife was Catherine, a daughter of I'ennsylvania, where he also completed his law 

James Wilson, of 'fennessoe. to whom he was ^t'ulies. lie was licensed to plead, and settled 

married on the lOtii d;iy of May, 1831. With '" Moiganton. 

her and Ids little dangiitcr, to whom he was He was the Representative in Congress from 

devoted, he spent the most of tlie remainder of ^''i'' 'li^f"''t in 1«!1 to 1817, and was suc- 

his life. 

ceeded hy Hon. i*\'!ix Walker. 

He -lied at Little Rock, Arkansas, in No- ^^^ ''''^'■'- *''"' the waruf 1812, and wasaiirm 

veniher, 1840, leavir.g one daughter, who is •'^upi''>''ter of Madis^.n. 

the wife of Dr. J. McD. Whitson, of Talla- In 1817 he removed to .\labama. and settled 

dc-ga, Alabama, ugreat gi'andson tif •'Hunting'' at St. Stevens, and was iippointcd l>y the 

John McDowell. Trcsident, Register of the Land Ottice. On 

Bur Carson was never the same man after the "'^^ '^^"'^^'^ "*" «»^''''''i<"' l^'i'''', ''C was elected, 

atiair which terminated in the death of the '" '*^-l' Governor of that State, and again in 

feailess and talented Vance, the un.cle of the ^^-^' ''^'"^ '" ^^-''' "'" ^'^^ ^^"■•"^'^^ "^" l^'"- ^'''^''- 

(Jovein... and (4cneral Vance, as he was before "'^'■^' ^^^ "''''-^ appointed Somit »• in Congress 

the tragic event. From a ruddy and robust fi'o'n Alabama. 

con.plexion, his countenance .so expressive of ^^^' '^'="^ api.ointod United States Judge for 

genius and good humor, a frame active and Alabatna, which he declined to accept. In 

buoyant, in Ids pallid cheek, his sunken eye, the fall of 18:20, in consequence of a serious 

and tottering .step, he showed the deep pangs -'ff^'^^ti"" o^" t^^^ li"iS^> he resigned his seat in 

and ravages of remorse. As expre.ssed hy the Senate; he repaired to Cuba, hoping that 

Home in Domi-l-is- ''''^ bealth would be restored by the mild cli- 
mate, where he died 24th A[)ril, 1827.* 
Happy in my mind was he that died. 

For many deaths has the survivor suffered; David Xewland was a native of Burke 
111 tlie wild desert on a rock lie hits, /i i ^ i. i ^.i • loi- 
Or on Some nameless stream's initrodden banks, County, and rei>resented the county m 182o- 
AiulniMnnatesalldayonhis.iuhai|i,y fHte. '27 and '2.S iii the Commons, and in 1830 in 
At times alas! not lu his i)erlect iimid. 

Holds secret converse with hLs dejiarted friend, the Senate. In 1832 he was a candidate for 

And oft at ninlit forsakes liis re tless couch. , • rr t ,-i . i 

To make sad orizons for him he slow. Congress ag,nnst Hon. James Crruham, una 

For the above sketch, and for most of the *l'ickett s Alaljama, 11, 432. 


believed that lie was fairly elected. It was Ilokleti. in 1871, he succeeded him as Gover- 

iieai'ly a tie in the [lopiilai' vote, and (Ti'ahani's v.or. 

seat was contested by him. The House, uuaMe As a criminal lawyer he had much reputa- 

or unwilling to decide, referred- the election tion; and as a politician, much success, rarely 

back to the people, and (Ti'aham was elected, failing in an election lielbre the people. In 

lie immigrated to Wisconsin, and wasso sac- 1<S72 he was nominated as Governor, and 

cessful in politics that he was elected to the opposed by Judge Merrimou. After a heated 

Legislature, and on sevei'al occasions waschoseu canvass he was elected. 

Speaker. But broken down in fortune and He married the eldest daugliter of Willianr 

■health and hopes, lie went to Washington Cain, and niece of late Judge Ruffin. He 

Cit}', where ln' engaged in " thi; wild hunt for died, after a short illness, at Ilillsboro, on the 

office." AftT fruitless attein[>ts, failing to 11th Kebruary. 1874, and was succeeded as 

obtain any [losition, however menial, he sunk Governor by Hon. C. A. Brogden, of Wayne 

in despair, and on 2tlth December, 1857, his Comity. 

body was found in the Tiber. He had com- p^_ ,, Pearson was one of the most useful 

mitted suicide. .^ij^j patriotic citizens of Burke County, where 

Alas, poor Yorick! 1 knew hiin, Horatio. A j^g ^y^^ born lived and died 

fellow of infinite jest, ami most excelleut humor. ' 

He was an honest and intelligent merchant, 

Todd R. Caldwell was born in Morganton, a skillful financier (president of the branch 
February 19, 1818. His father, John Cald- b^nk of the State,) and one of the most earn- 
well, was a native of Ireland; settled in Mor- g^^, friends of internal imiu'ovenients in the 
ganton in 1800,and became a leading merchant g^ate. From the day he organized the finst 
in that place. stockholders' meeting in 1855, at Salisbury, of 

He was well educated, and graduated at the ^^j Western, N. C, Railroad, and throagh the 

University, 1840, in a largo class, with such .^g.^,.^ ^^.^.^.^ fj^.^t followed, he was the stay 

men as Judge Barnes, Judge Shipp, John W. .^„ j backbone of the belt of counties between 

Cunningiiain, William Johnston, and others, Rowan and Buncombe. What Alorehead was 

with honor. He read law with Governor to the Central, so was Pearson to the Western 

Swain, and was admitted to the bar in 1840, Kailpoad 

and sion attained an extensive practice. 

He entered the arena of politics in 1842, 
and eontinuevl in its exciting pursuit as long 
as he lived. He was an old Line Wliig of the 
strictest sense. 

In 1848 he was one of the electors, and cast 
the vote of the State for Taylor and Filmore. 
On the i)reaking out of the civil war, he was 
the friend of the Union and the foe of seces- 

In lSti5, be was elected a delegate to the first 

But it was in pirivate life, as a friend and a 
neighbor, that the traits of his real character 
were most conspiicuons. During the long and 
bloody civil war, although firm in his devotion 
to his native land and people, his house and his 
heart was open to all Confederate wounded sol- 
diers, and an asylum for their widows and 
or[>haiis. Ills death caused a deeper sorrow than 
was ever evinced in our community, and bis 
memor\' — 

Slc-ejis iu blessings. 

State Convention that met after the war. In And has a tomb of orphan tears, 

10P0 1 • 1 1 T ■ 4. .. /I Wept over him. 
I8t)8 he was nominated as Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor on same ticket with Governor Holden, and He left several children to imitate his exam- 
was elected. On deposition of Governor pie and emulate bis virtues. 




Cabarrus County, during the Revolution and 
before a part of Mecklenburg, sbovved early 
resistance to the powers and oppressions of 
its rulers. The people lost no opportunity 
of opposing the Royal Government. 

I found, in the London Rolls Office, the list 
of persons who were concerned in destroying 
theanununition intended for Governor Tryon's 
army, en route from Charleston to Salisbury, 
in 1771, inclosed in a dispatch from Governor 
Martin; and they arc preserved, as numy of 
the descendants of these bold and patriotic 
men still reside in this section, as follows: 

James Ashmore; Benjamin Cochran; Rt)bcrt 
Caruthers; Robert Pavis; Joshua Iladley ; John 
"White; James White; William White, Jr. 

We present a name worthy of respect and 
remembrance. Our page^ have lieen hitherto 
devoted to the soldier and statesman, but we 
uow dwell upon one who stamped upon his 
day and generation, as a divine, a character 
worthy of all Grecian or Roman fame. 

Rev. John Robinson, D. D.,* was in all re- 
spects one of the highest type of men in mind 
and manners; resplendent in purity and use- 
fulness of his lite; peerless in consecrated 
genius; like Masselon, he was truly the Legate 
of the Skies. He was born in this county, 
near Sugar Creek Church, and received his ac- 
ademic education from Mr. Archibald, and 
completed it at Winnsboro, South Carolina. 
.He was licensed to preach in 1793, and becanie 
one of the most popular and acceptable minis- 
ters of the Presbyterian faith; ho taught 
school for many years, and some of the first 
minds of the country' were developed by his 
learning and assiduity, t These have adorned 

* Historical sketch of Poplar Tent C'lunc'n. by Wm. 
S. Harris. 

t As Governors Owen, rickens. Murphy, and Hon. 
Charles Fisher, D. M. Barriiiger, Col. Daniel Coleman 
and others. 

cvcrv stati(Mi of life; in testimony of their 
grateful appreciation of his services, his 
pupils built a handsome monument, on which 
is a beautiful inscription appropriate to his 
character. And although an ordinary life has 
ehqised since his decease, his memory is still 
cherished by m:iny with attection. 

lie married Mary Baldwin, whose lovely 
character did much to temper the ardent en- 
thusiasm of her husband. Only four children 
reached maturity, two sons and two (laughters. 
llis eldest, Samuel, was adventurous and daring 
in temper. lie participated in the South 
American and Turkish-Grecian struggles, and 
attained command of a splendid ship, which 
was lost at sea in February, 1843, with all 'm 

Connected with Cabarrus County and the 
church is the name of Rev. Ilezekiah .James 
Balch, who was born at Deer Creek, Harford' 
County, Maryland, in 1748. He was a gifted 
divine and a finished scholar. lie graduated 
at Princeton in 1766, in the same class with 
Waighstill Avery, Oliver Ellswi)rth, of Con- 
necticut, Luther Martin, of Maryland, and 
others. He came to North Carolina in 1761*. 
He was the first pastor of Poplar Tent Church, 
and remained so until his death. He com- 
bined in his character unspotted piety, enthu- 
siasm, and firmness. He was earnest and 
patriotic in the cause of liberty; and took an 
active part with the men of Mecklenburg, to 
which Cabarrus then belonged, in the conven- 
tion that declared Independence on the 20th 
of May, 1775. He did not, however, live to 
see the warmest wish of his heart gratified, 
the independence of his country, for which he 
was ready to give up his life. He died in 

In the ancient graveyard of the ven- 
erable Poplar Tent Church, stands a moss- 


The i'HiFEK Family. 


covered momimont wliich bears this iiiscrip- of General John Phifer, (son of Martin and 

^'°"~ Betsy Locke.) He was a usoful man, of deci- 

■ are ^'^i^Kj:^!^ .t ^^"" "*' ^^'^^^^^^ Patriotic and enterprising^ 

Hezekiah Jaiues l'>;ilcli. He oiten represented Cabarrus in the Le^isla- 

first pastorof Pophu- 7ent CoiioTesatitm. and one of ^„,.„ r ' io,..>^ 101- -. • , , ■> 

tlie niioiiial meuil)ers of the Oraiise i resbytery. He ti'ietioni l«0.j to 181i), and wielded great in- 

Wrts licensed a iireacher of the Everlasting Goipel of flncneo in unbli,- •itf-nr<j TTo ■H7.,a .,,> ^"l-, „t i 

the Presl,ytery of Don.^gal in 176(1, and rest?d from his °"'-"^" '" 1'"'^"^ altaiis. tie was an educated 

hibonrs in A. D. 177C; having been Pastor of the Uni- man; graduated at the University in 1709 
ted Congregations of I'ophxr Tent and I^ocky I?iver t ^■ ^ , , , " '"' 

ahont seven years. and died on the 18th October, 18-15, near 

Hewas distingni.-Iiedasoneof aCoininittee of three Po„,.nril * 

wlin prcjiared the I'edaniti(>n of Independence; ^ ""-'""• 
and hiseloqnence. tlie moreeftVctnal from liisacknowl- rp Fiirrr^- «,. P .,>„T^T ^„ ^ n 
edjied Wisdom, i.nrity Of motive, and diointy Of cliarac- ^"'' ^ '^^"" 01' bARRiNUERs OF C.vbarrtis. 
ter, contrihnted mnch to tlie nnanimons ad' ption of t ,1, , p,,,i t> ■ / , 
tliat instnimen- on 2i!th May, 1775. JolHiiaul bai'i'inger, (or as he wrote Ins 

Yet there are some few of mo.lern times "^""°' ''*'"' -=^''''5".'^<'''0 tl'e founder of the 

who alleged that no such e.,nvention ever oc- ^^nuly m ^orth Carolina, was burn in Wartom- 

Imrg, in Germany, on 4th of Juno, 1721. lie 
settled first ni J'ennsylvania, and afterwards 
in Cabarrus, tlieu Mecklenburg, about 17r;0. 

Tlie ancestor of this large family, Mar- When the Kovolution broke out, he took a 

tin I'hifer. (orPiifer,) was a mitive of Switz- decided stand with the o[ipressGd people of 

erland, and emigrated to America; went first Jii« ^tate, and from bis devotion to their, 

to Pennsylvania, and afterwards came to North 1"- suffered severely, for he was taken prisoner 

Cai-oliua, with the current of German, Irish '^J ' ''© Tories, and carried to 8outii Carolina, 

and Scotch, and settled in the then Mecklen- lie was elected a member of the Legisla- 

burg County. lie was much respected for his turo, the first from Cabarrus after its division 

industry, frugality, and sound sense. He was *'''>'" Mecklenburg in 1793, and was a pi'omi- 

elected in 1777 a mcndier of the Legislature "ent and influential citizen to the day of his 

from Mtcklcniiurg. witli Waightstill Avery as death, which occurred oji 1st January, 1807. 

a colleague in thi' Commons, and John Mc- He married, first, Ann Elizabeth Iseman ; and 

Knitt Alexander in the Sen;,te. He married second, Catlierinc Plackweldei', by whom he 

Margaret Blackwelder. He died in 1789^ had several chiblren, viz: 

leaving three sons. Daniel L. Barringer, born in Mecklen- 

For the (Genealogy of the Phifer Fannly, burg County, October 1st, 1788, studied law, 

sec Appeudi.x. and settled at R^deigli. He was elected a 

The genealogical table h:;s been carefully memlier of the House of Commons from Wake 

comjiiled, ;ind it is believed to be accurate. It County, 1813-'lll-'21 ; and a member of Con- 

emi'iaccs three generations and can be e.\- gress from 182tJ to KS'Jo. 

tended. It presents the members of a hirge Ite removed to Tennessee, and was one of 

family, many of whom are distinguished .for the Presidential electors in 1844, voting for 

their services and talents, :jnd all for their Mr. Clay. He v/as the Speaker of the House 

sterling virtues and exemplary chara.'ters. The of Representatives of that State. He married 

services 'of John Phifer. son of Martin and 

Margaret PlackN^'elder, in the war of the * ^Mach of the materi.U of the sketch of tlie Phifers 

^ ' has Ijeen gathered troni correspondence, and from an 

Ivovolnticm, and in the Councils of the State, excellent article in North Carolina University Maga- 

, 1 1 I, , 1 zinc (Vol. V-, p. -its, November, 1S5G,) entitled A 

de^ ei ve a pcrp< tual 1 en:end)rance; as also those memoir of Colonel John Phifer. 


Miss White, sister of Mrs. D. L. Swain, lie Colonel GeorL;;e Alexamler and .Major Tho.-;. 

died October 16th, 1852. -~_ Harris were natives of Cabarrus and officers of 

General Paul Rarringor, the eldest son the Continental line. They both were brave 

by a secoiul marriage, was horn 1778. Here- and true t'oiin-ht nnder the rvc of Washington 

ceived a good Knglish education, and was at Monmouth and Trenton and in t'ho battle 

distinguished tor his lousiness habits and his of Camden, where both were taken i)risonei'S 

Btrong praetical sense. lie was a member of and Harris severely wounded.* 

the House of Commons from 1806 to 1815, and Dr. Charles Harris was born in 1703; while 

in 1822 in the Senate of the Legislature. but a youth pursuing his studies in Charlotte, 

He married a second time, Elizabeth, he jf)ined the corps of cavalry under Genei'al 

daughter of Matthew Hrandon, of Rowan, \V. R. Davie, and rendered good service 

whose family arc distinguished for their abil- under that bra\'e and daring officer. After 

ities, patriotism and love of indejiendence. the war was ()\er ho resunied iiis studies, and 

Matthew Hrandon was a soldier of the be finished his classical as -well as his medical 

Revolution, and was v,ith General Joseph study in riiiladelpliia, under the charge of 

Graham and Colonel Locke in opposing the that eminent professor, Renjaniin Ru«li. On 

advance of the British near Charlotte, when his return he settled first in Salishury, and 

(iraham was severeh' wounded and Locke practised with great success. He then moved 

killed. His relati\-e, William Brandon,. was a to Cabarrus, where be lived a long and useful 

lieutenant in the Continental arm}', and was life, and died in lrS25. 

the child born south of the Vadkin. L'e He e.-tablished a medical school, and was 

died in Tennessee m 1836, aged ninety-nine eminent as a physician and surgeon. 

3'6^''^- His school was well patronized for more 

General Rarringcr died at Lincolnton (ui tlian forty years; pcrha^.s the only one ever 

June I'Oth, 1844, and his wife followed him established in the State. Among bis pupils 

soon after, (in November of the .same year.) ^vere Dr. Charles Caldwell, formerly a Rrofes- 

For Genealogy vi the J'.arringer family, .see j,,,,.;,, Transylvania University, Louisville, Ken- 

^I'Pendix. tucky. Dr. Robert MeKensie, and Dr. Robert 

Nathaniel Alexander was a native of this B. Vance, member of Congress from Asheville. 

county when yet a portion of Mecklenburg. m^ g„„^ William Shake.speare Harris, was 

His early education was commenced in a hum- ,„„ch esteemed for his talents and worth. He 

hie log cabin at Poplar Tent, near his paternal ,ei)resented Cabarrus in 1840. 

mansion, the Morebead Place, thence he went Kobert Simonton Young was a distiii- 

to Princeton, where he graduated in 1776. He guished, useful and exemplary citizen of tliis 

studied medicine, and was a successful phy- eonnty. Active and patriotic, he was much 

^^'''^"- esteemed. He was an officer in the Confed- 

He represented Mecklenburg in the House grate Army, ami fell in battle near Peters- 

of Commons in 1797, and in the Senate in 1802. bursj in 1864. 

In 1803 he was elected a member of the Sth Ug married first a daughter of John Phifer; 

Congress, 1803- '05. In 1805 he was elected second, a daughter of A. M. Burton. No nobler 

GovernoroftheState,and.servedtillhisdeath, offering was ever laid on the altar of public 

Sth March, 1808. He married a daughter of service. 

Colonel Thos. L'olk. His renu^ins lie in the 

Preslnteriau chui\b yard at Charlotte. *MSS. letters of Win. S. Harris. 


Daniel 'Cnleiiuin, ( horn 2Stli Marcli, 17"J9,) trict. After 'serving for four years he retired 

was horn in Ifowaii Comity; moved to Caliar- from tlie practice, and engaged in construc- 

rus in 1823. tion, with Dr. E. R. Gibson, of tlie North Cnro- 

Educated at Rocky River Academy, con- lina Raih'oad. Appointed to office in the 

ducted by Dr. J. M. Wil.son, father of J. liar- Treasury, in 1871, which position he held 

vey Wil-on, of Charlotte, and finished under until the time of his demise. 

l)v. John Rol)inson, at Poplar Tent, 182o, and He married Maria, daughter of John E. 

the latter part of this year s-ttled at Concord. Mahan, of Concord, and had two sons, William 

In the Spring following lie was elei'ted Clerk M., late Attorney General of J!^^orth Carolina, 

of the County Court, and served till 1828. and Daniel Raymond, who is now a teacher in 

Read law with Judge David F. Caldwell, and the Deaf and Dumb Institution, at city of 

was licensed to practice. In 1830 to '33 he Belville, Province of Ontario, Canada, 

was engrossing clei-k, and lS3i -'35, reading J. .M(;Calili Wiley was borti in Caiiarrus 

clerk of the State Senate. County, in 1806; removed to Bibb County, 

In 1830 he was ap[iointed Third Assistant Alabama, 1836; sei'ved in the army in the war 

Postmaster-Creneral under Amos Kendall, and with Mexico; member of Board of Visitors 

served till -May, 18-11. to West Point; elected Judge of the Eighth 

lie returned home ami resumed his practice Circuit of Alabama 1865; elected member of 

at the bar, and in 1848, was elected by the 39th _ Congress, and in 1871, again elected 

Legislature, Solicitor of the Sixth Judicial Dis- judge. 


Caldwell County has no Revolutionary wor- Patterson, worthily enjoyed the regard and 

thies to present, having been formed in 1841, respect of his country. lie died recently, 

I'rom the counties of Burke and Wilkes. But much regretted. 

slie presents a nunilier of names worthy of James C. Harper, who represented the dis- 
regard, trict in 42d Congress (1871-'73;) resides in 

Samuel F. Pattersor. lived and died in this this county. He is a native of Pennsylvania, 

county. He was highly esteemed, and tilled born in Cumberland County, 0th December, 

many positions of much rcsponsildlity with in- 1819; raised in (_)hio on a farm, and settled in 

tegritv and honor. As a linancier he had few this county in 1840, which he represented in 

superiors. He was, in 1836, Treasurer of the the Legislature in 180G and 1868. He in 

State, and President of th.e Raleigh and Gas- Congress, as in the Legislature, was distiu- 

ton Railroad. He was averse to popular [U-o- gui.shed for his and faithful attention to 

motions, but was elected to the Senate of the his duties, never in the way in obstructing 

State Legislature in 1864. useful legislation, and never out of the way iu 

He married a daughter of General Edmund opposing wild and extravagant measures. 

Jones, long a member of the Legislature from He married Louisa, daughter of Athan AIc- 

Wilkes, and universally respected for his Dowell, and the granddaughter of General 

probity and intelligence. His son, Rufus L. Charles and Grace Greenlee McDowell. The 



patriotic charactor of Grace Greenlee has al- 
read\' been alluded to. 

One of .Mr. Harper's dani>liters, Emma, mar- 
ried Clinton A. Ciily, who was, in 1868, one 
of the Judsjes of the Superior Courts of North 
Carolina. Judge Ciliy is a native of New 
Ilaiupshire, and was iui otiicei' in tlie army of 
the United States during the whole war. lie 
is a nephrw of the Hon. Jonathan Cilly.a dis- 
rt tinguislied member of Congress, who fell 
: February 24, 1838, at BJadejisburg, MaryUxnd, 
in a duel with William J. Graves, of Ken- 

Judge Ciliy, having settled since the war in 
North Carolina, is a standing reproof to the 
idea that meritorious men of northern biith 
are not welcome to tlie State, and an evidence 

that North Carolina appreciates and elevates 
integrity and talent wherever found. 

George Nathaniel Folk resides at Lenoir,—^ 
Caldwell County. He is a native of Isle of 
Wight County, Virginia; born in February, 
18.31. He removed to Watauga County in 
1852, and represented that county in 1856 and 
1861. He entered the Confederate army and 
served two years in the 1st Regiment Xorth 
Carolina Cavahy, and was proniote<l to a colo- 
nelcy of the 6th North Carolina Cavalry. 
Wounded at the battles of Chickamauga, Vine 
Vino, and in East Tennessee. He removed to 
Le-ioir in 1866, and represented that district 
in the Legislature in 1876. He is esteemed as 
an able lawyer, and was Chairman of the Ju- 
diciary C'ommittee. 


General Isaac Gregor}- was born, lived and 
died in this county. He was a brave and 
patriotic officer in the Revolutionary army, 
and did some service in the cause of Inde- 
pendence. He was one of the Committee 
of Safety in 177() for the Edenton district, 
and by the rroviucial Congress that met at 
Halifax, April 4, 1776, be was appointed 
one of the Held officers of one of the regi- 
ments of Pasquotank, of w-hich Camden 
was then a part.* He commanded a bri- 
gade of St;ite troops at the ilUfated battle of 
Camden, and was wounded severely. But. he 
was more of a politician than a soldier. He 
was the first Senator from Camden County in 
the Legislature, 1778, in which he was con- 
tinued, with some intermission, until 1796. 

We regret our material is so scant of the 
services and the character of General Gregory. 
He left a sou, General William Gregory, that 

* Autobiography of Lemuel Siiwyer, page 7. 

that many rocolK.'Ct, who was renuu'kable for 
style of dress and tine equipage, which won 
for biiu the sobriquet of " Beau Gregory."' His 
resemblance to General LaFayette was a sub- 
ject of remark by all who knew them both. 

He was fond of gay life and pleasure, 
but not of labor, either mental or physiciil. 
He was a member of the Legislature frt)ni 
I'asquotank in 1828. Sheritt' for some years, 
and postuuister at Elizabeth City. 

Dempsey Burgess, who resided and died in 
this couut3% was also one of the field officers 
appointed lieutenant-colonel with Genera! 
Gregory. He succeeded William Johnson 
Dawson as a member of Congress 1795 and 
1797, and re-elected in 1797 and 1799. 

His brother-in-law, Lemuel Sawyer, born 
1777, died 1852, was one of the moet eccentric 
men and successful politicians who entered 
public life about this time. He was elected 
a member of the Legislature iu 1800. 



He belonged to a large and distinguished wrote " The Life of John Randolph," his own 

family. His brother Enoch was the first col- biograiahy, " Black Beard," and other produc- 

lector of the customs, appointed in 1791 by tions. His easy disposition, his liberality, and 

Washington, and filled this responsible office his social eccentricities, while they made him 

till his death, in 1827. many friends, brought him, at the close of life, 

He was hern in Carnden County in 1777. to sntfering, if not to want. His life was pro- 
He was educated at Flatbrnsh Academy, on longed beyond its usefulness, if he ever wa« 
Long Island, under charge of Dr. Peter Wil- useful in any capacity. 

son, with such distinguished associates as Wil- His latter days were s|»ent in Washington 

liamand John Duer, Troop and Telfair, of Geor- City. He was another of the many instances 

gia. He studied law, but never made the pro- of persons who, charmed in more prosperous 

fession his oi>ject in life. He preferred the days by the glamor of this gay metropolis, 

giddy pursuits of politics and of pleasure. After feel, as did Madame Maintenon, that "there 

serving a session in the Legislature, he was were a hundred gates b}- which one nuiy enter 

elected one of the electors in 1804 for Presi- Paris, Imt only one by which you sliould leave 

dent, and voted for Jefferson, to whose prin- it." This he realized, fur he died 1852, aged 

ciples and jiolitics he was a constant follower. 75, in Washington, whore he had eked out a 

On the retiring of General Thomas Wynns, precarious existence from the salary of as-mall 

of Hertford County, from Congress in 1807, office in one of the departments.* 

Mr. Sawyer was elected to the I3th Congress His autobiography draws the last melan- 

over William H. Murfree, and from that date choly scene of his life, which, in his own lan- 

to 1829 (with but few intermissions,) he was gusvge — 

re-elected by the people over the most prom- " I have drained the bitter cup of existence 

inent and powerful opponents; amon"- them ff> the dregs. I have no earthly object to live 

^-K, ., r- ,, T 1 II .'^ , t'oi'; nor have I the mcaris to do SO with that 

^^ ere Mr. Murfree, G..veraor Iredell and others, eomfort and ease which alone can recmS 

\V hat was the secret of this extraordinary superannuated infirmity." 

success of twenty years' service it is difficult His nephew, Samuel T. Sawyer, lived in 

to conjecture, for he was not gifted as a Edenton, son of Dr. Matthias E. Sawyer. He 

speaker; he was negligent of his duties, often was a lawyer by profession; often in the Le^jis- 

a whole session passing without liis appearing laturc (1S29 to '32, and in Senate, 1834,) and 

a single day in his seat; eccentric in his con- elected to Congress 1837-'39. 

He was appointed by Mr. Pierce collector of 
Norfolk; he became the editor of the Argus, 
and served as commissary in the late civil 
war. He died in New Jersey, 29th Noveui- 

duct and private life, if not disreputable in 

some instances, as he himself confesses in his 

autobiography. Doubtless his principles, as 

his votes and his speeches in Congress show, 

were of the straightest sect of Democracy, ber, ItOo, aged 65 years.f 

and stern advocate of the rights of States. 

He commenced his political career by vt)ting 

for Jefferson, and ended it by advocating 

Jackson, Van Buren and Polk. 

He had a great fondness for literature, and 

*Froin National Intelligencer, of lotli January, 1852: 
Died.— Suddenly, on Friday, 9th January, 1852. at the 
residence of G. R^ Adams, 11th street, near F, (in Wash- 
ington City,) of a disease of the heart, Hon. Lemuel 
.Sawyer, for many years a member of Congress from 
North Carolina, 
tl^aimian s Biographical Annals. 


ClIAL'TKli X. 

Tins .■oiiiity has the honor of lu'iiig t1ie first carved (^ii tlic l)ark ofa tree. I) )uhtlo-;s they 

huid sighted by the expedition s, 'lit out under had becouic anr,il«-amatc'd with the native 

the iUispiees (if Sir Walter Ra'oii^h to this, con- Indians, for some of tliese had hhic eye-, and 

tinent. Two sliips, one called "the Tiger," said •' their parents could road from a hi>ok;" 

and the other "the Admiral," commanded by and there are names extant in Carteret .-orres- 

PhilipAmadasatid ArthurBarlowc.afterenter- ponding with the names of White's colony.* 

ing the Ocracoelce Inlet, sailed up the sound, Suhseqnently ( 1712,) the Indians, csjicdally 

and landed on Roanoke Island, viow in Dare tlic Cores and Tuscaroras, waged a. l)Ioo<1y and 

County, in July, 1584. destructive war upon the whites in this region. 

ThG-i.atent from Queen Elizabeth to Sir Much property an.l many lives were destroyed, 

Walter Raleigh, as well as the report of the ;';""'>>^ /l'^;"'^ -f"'"; ^';^""^'''^ '"'"f* 
officers, is recorded in Ilakluyt's Voyages, HI., 

historian' of the state. His work was pnb- 

lislied in Eondon in 1709. and is considered as 

good authoritv, giving the best descri[iUon of 
No people have a clearer, and more perfect ^. r " -^ ' i ^ ^ * ,. i i,; 

' / _ ' "^ ^North Carolina, its products and natui'ai lus- 

record of history than the people of our state 
From thirj time to the pi-eseiit, it is p 
in veritable and intelligilde languase. 

• ■ tor v. 

From tliirj time to the pi-eseiit, it is preserved ■■ , , i i i i- ii 

.\ '^ Lhwsou s liook has been so highly aiinre 

iated, that the legislature ordered it be re- 
No fabled fugitives from justice, no Norman pvinted. The original copies are very nsre. 
tyrant with force of arms, no i'izarro bent on ^j^, i^ives a particular account of the man- 
spoil and plunder, Ibrmed the civilized „g,.,, .,,,^1 eustcuus of the different tribes of 
settlement of our country; but "men, high- Indians of Carolina. The account he gives of 
minded men," under the [leaceful commis- ti,,.;,. (.[-uelty to piisoners is graidiic and terri- 
.sioii of lawful authorit}, and v/itii the cordial l)|^,^;,||d was most fearfully realized by LawsoU' 
consent of the native inhabitants of the in his own iiersou. lie savs: 

"'""*'*'*'' "Their cruelties to their i)risoners are 

•■ were the first that ever burst sueli as none l)ut Devils out of Hell could 

Into that silent scii/' invent. They never miss skniping of them, 

which is to cut the- skin from tlie tem- 

Wli:it a proud record for our contemplation pies, and taking the whole b.cad of hair along 

and pride' ^^'''^'^ ^^- f^O'i'^^times they take the to[p of the 

'■" "" ■ , ^, . skull with it, which thev preserve and carefully 

Connectcu with the name ol Carteret, is a j_.^^,^^ |^^, ^j^^,,,, j-^„. .^ f^.;,pi,y ^,t' their conquest 

tradition this was the refuge of the over their onemie-. Others keep tlieir enemy's 

colonv of White, who was the Governor of teeth which are taken in war, \yhilst others 

,, ". r 1 1 T ^1 i-n> I <• 1 split i.iiie into splinters and stick them into 

ItoanoKC Island In the year l.-,y.), he returned ^|^^ j,',i,o„er's body, yet alive, then they light 

to Carolina, after a visit in England of over tliem which burn like so many torches, aud in. 

a year's duration, but his colony bad this manner they make bim dance around a. 

l)eared. ^ ^^^^ iiiiwk's History ot North C'aro'.hia. I.. 100, 

White only discovered the word "Croaton" tH)-. 


greatfire, every one buffeting ;uid (leriiliiig him and she was full\- armed and equipped with 

till he expires." caiinoii, guns, and men. 

This cruel fate was fearfully realized hy The swiftness of the vessel, the skill with 

Lawson and his negro servant, and would have which she was managed by Bums, his intimate 

Ijeen liy his associiito, the Bardu De Graaf- knowledge of the dreaded and dangerous coast 

fcnreidf, whose life was only saved liy liis fine of Carolina, and the daring of a chosen crew of 

appearance, and because ho wore a gold medal men, soon made the name of Otwa}' Burns a 

which the Indians thought was an indication terror to all the British in American waters. 

of high rank. He captured and destroyed a large number 

Colonel Moore, of whom we have already of English prizes, and amassed fortunes for 

written, idosed this \\ar by marching into himself and his compatriots. 

Carteret, and coiiiph'tely subduing the He brought into Beaufort heavy cargoes of 

savages in a decisive l>attle near the pres- valuables, and established quite a market for 

ent ti'wn of Beaufort. Here, witliin -'the the merchants of all eastern Carolina. His 

sound of the cliurcli-going bells,'" oecured the house was bat a slnu't distance from the pres- 

last desperate struggle of the re<l man in this ent Atlantic Hotel, on the top of which he 

sectii.m fordoniinion over his nati\'e soil, wliich estalilished an ol)sei'vatory, from which he, by 

he could not, and ought not hold. aid of a spy-glass, commanded an extensive 

In 1712, a fort v/as built on Core Sound, view of the ocean. Here would the daring 

named in honor of Governor Hyde, to protect sailor watch and wait, while his ship was kept 

the inhabitants. with a ready crew and anchor tri[)ped. When 

There are many names connected with Car- ever he espied a vessel sailing under English 

teret worthy of record, as the Bells, Fullers, colors, he would hurry up the "Snai> Dragon" 

Bordens,HeUens,Marsballs,Sheppard,Piggots, and pursue the prize. From the sailing quali- 

Wards, and otlaers. ties of his ship, Burns would soon overhaul and 

Otwuy Burns, who represented this county capture the pursued vessel, 
often, (1822 to 1834,) is worthy of oui' mem- Such was the damage done by Captain 
ory. His name is more securely i)reserved in the Burns to the commerce of England, that the 
capital of the County ol' Yancey. He repre- British Council held consultations to devise 
sented Carteret County in the state senate, some meansforhiscapture. Finally, tliey order- 
when (1834) Yancey County was erected, ed the construction of a fast sailing vessel, fully 
Doubtless the C(un[iliinent secui'ed his ready armed, with a large crew, but built as a mer- 
advocacy for its formation. chant ship. This ship met our gallant " tar 

He came to Beaufort IVom Onslow County, heel" on the coast, and by a ruse, captured 

where lie was born, wlien (piite young, and him and his crew without firing a gun. The 

engaged in a seafaring life. He became a cap- Englishman, rigged as a merchantman, with 

tain lui a coasting vessel plying l)etween Beau- his guns concealed as well as his crew, suffered 

fort and INew York. the "Snap Dragon" to run alongside, and 

When the wa)' of 1812 commenced, he oh- hauled down his colors in token of surrender, 

tained from the Go\'eriiment of the Cnited As Bui'iis and his men commenced to board 

States, letters of marque and rejirisal, and the prize, her guns were run out and manned 

built, through the aid of several wealthy per- b\' the crew, who suddenly' appeared on deck, 

sons, as a stock company, a fast sailing ship ; on and the harmless nierchantmaii was presto con- 

her he bestowed the name of " Snap Dragon," verted into a terrible man-of-war, with shotted 


cannon ready to tire. 15nriis, with heai'tfolt daring e.xploits at sea, (about which he was 

cliagrin, was compelled to siii render. Thus he very fond of talking-.) made him a great favor- 

and his crew were taken prisoners. ite of the [jcopie. He was" sudden and <inick 

After the close of the war he was released, in quai'rel, " lull of frolic, fun and .fight, and 

and he returned home. With the character- towards the close of his life became very dis- 

istic extravagance of a sailor, lie squandered sipated. He died in 1849, while in command 

his propert}' and was very poor in the declin- of a light hoaf. His eventful life was so in- 

ing years of his life. His generous qualities terosting that it otice formed the subject of 

and social tcm})cramcnt, with the fame of his a lecture by Governor Swain. 


This county having l)een formed since our represent them in the as.sembly in 175-i. So 
Declaration of Independence, her revolutionary acceptable were his .'services that he was con- 
history is connected with that of Orange tinned until 1771, being chosen speaker during 
County, from which it was taken. It preserves the last two sessii)Ms. He was the colonel of 
the name of Richard Caswell, who was one the county, and as such eomniiinded the riglit- 
ofthe most active and efficient patriots of wing of Tryon's army at Alamance, May 16, 
that eventi'ul epoch. He was the first gov- 1771. This was his first appearance in the 
ernor after t!ie Ilo3'al governor had left, and profession of arms, which was congenial to 
did great service, not only as governor, but as Jiis iiature, and in which he was destined to 
a soldier and statesman. be so conspicuous. 

He was a native of Maryland; born in Cecil Lilce many other [latriots of that day, they 

County on August 3-, 1729. The year in which forbore, as lung as patience n'ould allow them, 

the Lord I'roprietors of North Carolina sur- the cruelties of the mother country towards 

rendered their charter to the Crown, George the colonies, but when the attempts of Eng- 

11. then being King. laiid to subjugate the liberties of the people 

Mr. Caswell came to North Carolina when became too oppressive he did not hesitate to 
quite a youth to seek fame and fortune. He advocate the rights of the many thus threat- 
was duly appreciated, and appointed clerk of ened by power and oppression. 
Orange County, and dejiuty surveyor of the By the first Provincial Congress that organ- 
colony, ized in opposition to the Royal Government, 

He read law, and practiced it with great (August 2.3th, 1774, at New Berne,) he was, 

success. He settled in Lenoir County, then with William Hooper and Joseph Hewes, ap- 

Dobbs, where he married Mary Mcllweane, pointed delegate to the Continental Congress 

and afterwards he removed to Johnston at Philadelphia, and attended for three years. 

County. The people were not slow to dis- He was looked upon with great respect by 

cern his abilities, and be was elected to the Royal Governor, Martin, and his course 


iiiivc Miirtin mncli .■liuLrnn, ;i8 will ;ippe:ir iVoni "Ann,t;-ent IkkI ln_>en dispatched to the iii- 

a ei.ja <.t his di,-;p:itch, dated— terior (•(niiitics of North Carolina to raise 

ti-<),)ps ill tliceoniitry to meet tlie troops cxpect- 

' A"(i ist -liitli, 1775. <?fl tVoiu !']i gland. Tiiree thousand men were 

"Ox Bo.\RD Ciit'isi'.K Sludp-of-wah. expeoted to he raised. 

"Ev(m'v device has l,ee;i practice.! l.v tiir sedi- .■,' '^'''7 liadheen checked, ahont seventeen 

tion-comniittee. to inflame the minds of the ""^'^'^ '}-'?^'^ \\ ilininoton, m an attempt to 

pe<.ph.; and most of all i.v f he retniii ni lihhar.l l'^'.«\"' '"■''^-.^ '''' -tehruary 2<th Alter sns- 

Casuell to tins provincJ, an,l no donl.t will in- ^"'."^"- ^^'?. '""" "^ Captain Donald .VlcLeod, a 

flame it with the extravaij-anl siiiiil .-f that •-'".''"'^ "^'^^'":''' ■""1 "^"'- t"'enty men killed 

darin- asseniMv at I'hiladelphia. At New i""l^V':'''"l^';K ""r forces were dispersed. 

Berne I am eredihlv inf,M-med ii • lia.i the in- . '' ^ ",^ nnlortnnate truth was too .soon con- 

solen.'eto ivpielaald the cn„in,irtee of ,h:,t ^''""^' '^^ H'l' '''''^"'' "^ ¥'; ^^^^^}''^ ^^'•• 

little town n.r sntlVrin- iie^ to remove fi,,i„ < ■'"'I'l'fH. -Mi. !^tuart, and .Mr. ^sichol, who, 

(•]j(-,,,i.,. with great dirncnlty, toniid their \vav to the 

» * * * # Scoi'niou, sloop-of-war, l\ing ai J>riinswiek. 

"1 his man. at his g.,ii,..- to the first eomn-ess. '^'''^ '■"''!'^' ^vas ahout 1,400 u^eii raised; hut tor 

appear,'.! to me t:. 'have <.;nhark.<l wilh re- W''"',"* ^'"^"'"'^15^'^"'".^ i'^ ^'"' '"'''• "''!?. 'y- 

liictancein the cause, that mn.h e.Ntenualed <1'" |^" to al.out ,00, ut them OOO were Iligh- 

hisg::ilt. Xowhcshowshimself a mosi active ''"'''''''• 

tooi ot sedition " " ' K"^' "-'''""'' ex[ircsscs the opinion that 

this little cheek which the loyadists received 

On his return from conuress in tlic sprin-of "'^'O"^'' ii"t have a,ny extensive ill coiisefiuences, 

I — ,, , ■ -i-^ , ' , , , Vet he sutfei's every anguish, nioititication 

liib, his militarv aiidr was rraised at lie ' i r ■ f j. r i.t i j- ,. r i ■ 

and aisa[>pointmeut from the deteat ot his 

alarming state of affairs at Ihmie. The endeavors.''* 
fleets of England ho\-ered around the coast 

Some controversy- has in late years arisen as 
to whom the honor of the victorv of ,Mo.')re's 

while the whcile regi-n of the Tape E^ai 

swarmed \\-ith disalfeeted and druire: o.i- 

, • 1 1 1 .1 7 • , ,• , Cre k l>iidi;e helonfced, or, at least, whether 

tones, v.'ho had n'athered m st roie.;- lorce t' ' ^ . . 

unite \\-itli Ciinton in suhjugaiing i lie sVa^e 
In c njunction wiih Coh'nel Ei ilinglon. ie 
suninioni-'d the minute \n n wt' Doh'i^ O'Uir.iv, 

the honors shoidd not he divided. Iloeoralile 
(ieorge ]>avis aiid Professor Iluldiai'd were 
0|/pnsed on this question. This shiaild not 

, , ,1 , • , ,, , ,, i> '., afl' et the reputation of eithei- Lilline-ton or 

and met the tones under (hnieral ,\h'J)ona, : 

, ,, , , 1 ,, ■ 1 ,. , .- , Oasev ell; h 't h \\ere hrave p;itiiois, and hotli 

at \!i'ore's( re dv Jlridge. mi !• ehrnary -Jith, '■ 

1770. ;md coniplettdy routed them \vith gi'eat, 


He received the thanks of tlie I 'roviiicial 

Congress (at Halifax. April 4th. 1776.) lor 

this lu-illi:iiit \ietorv, :ind ^^'.^r it he was pro. 

, , ^ ,, 1 \- 7. ■ T ,, I Cu.swell w:i,- president of tlie Provincial 

moted to the rank ot l)iig;nlier (.enei:d. ' 

n,, ■ , ^,, ,. ,r , ,. 1 1. ■ 1 L- Ce'im'res.s (wlilcli mct at Halifax Kovemher 

Jhis hattle ot .Moore- ( r>ek li'idge \vas ot - ^ 

1-, 1770.) and was one of the (;ommittee tlis.t 

lid theii' d it^'. The facts are that congress 
iluuiked Caswell, and in a iniisunic address 
hy Fr. jicois X. .M;irtin, deliwred sotju after 
this batth', at New Berne, he calls Caswell 
'■ the g;illant commander of .Moore's Creek." 

inlinite imp!irt;ince. as it pie\eiited the ,ju!ie- 
tion I'f the Scotch loyaii-ts wilh the British 
f.U'ces, and the cause of gr.';it illsMinfort r:> 
(ro\'. rimr M;irtin. 

In ;i dispat( h of Goverie r M;irtin lo E ei'd 
(4erm;iine,dated March 2, 1770. ( i i om die liolis 
(_)flice ill Ei'iidmi, never hcfoic [lahlished,) 
G )Vcrnor -\Eirtin says: *CoIonial Cocs., page 224 

formed a state constitution. He w:is elected 
tlie tiri^t governor of the state under the coii- 
stitutioii. ,'!;■ conducted the ship* of state in 
its u.Urieil and perilous voyage with .singular 
lidclity and nnitcliless sagacity during his 
term of office. After tliis expired, his active 


aud patriotic spirit hrooked no ivpose. He iiiiindrr-in-Cliiof in and over the State of 

, ■ . ■ 1 ^ .-fX fi v„,.i u Noitli {'ai'olina, in wljicli ail <rood and licirc 

s;i\v Ills country m daniror, and with tli'o 2\oilh ' , /. .• f ,i " 

J '^ ' ^ p<.'()[ile arc to tal<o notice, and ii;ovcM-n tweni- 

Carolina troops was cnga.ued in the battle ot selves accordinsilv. 

Camden, Amjiist 16, 17S0. " " William Blouxt, 

The .lisordei-ed state of tlu' financvs of the "Speaker of the House of -Commons. 
, ,,..-.• 1,. n -'KiNSTONjTI/'/y 13, l/8o." 
state deninndcd attention, and governor Cas- 
well was elected coniptrolk'r general, wliich With tiic ex'ce|)tion of Caswell, Benjamin 
duties he discharii'cd with greiit ability until VViliianis, (Governor in 1799 and in 1807,) and 
1785, when he wa-^ again elected governor of Governors lieid and Vance, no instance occurs 
the state, an unusual cirrnnistance \\hich in our hi-tory ()f the same person being twice 
jiroves the great acceptability of his services, oleeled to this elevated po.-ition. 
and the grateful appreciation of them ijy the Clovernor Casweli was elected a member of 
state. the Convent ion to meet in Pbiladel[>hiu in 

The foUowina addi-ess on this occasion may .May, 17^7, to i'orm the Constitution of the 

beint>.resting,asshowing how such ceremonials United States. This he declined, 

were comlucted in the good old times of yore. His last public service was as Senator from 

From the journals of the assi ini)ly of the Dobbs County (since divided into Greene and 

State of Xoitb Carolina: Lenoir.) in tlie legislature, wliieli met at Fay- 

ctteville, 1780, of which he was elected 

'^The address of tlu' Speaker of the House g.^i^^,. 

of Conniions, William Blount, on the qualiti- ' ,''^.,' . ,. . , ^ , , 

cation of Govern.or Caswell, .May UJ, 1785. W hile presiding m the senate he was .struck, 

" Mk. IJicH.MU. Caswkll, November 5th, with paralysis, and he died on 

Sip.: Tb.e genera! assembly of the State of the 10th, of that year. 

Korth Carolina, :it their last session, pro- Mr. Gaston informs us that once whilst on a 

ceeded to the choice of a chief magistrate visit to Boston, he called on the illustrious and 

to nresicie over the r.vecaitive department , , t , i i t 

of the .^. ^ei'nment of this ^tate, when you venerable John Adams. In an .nter...ting 

were eleetel by a large majority of both conversation with him as to the revolutionary 

houses; and it uave- me -rcat pleasure that worthies of North Carolina, Mr. Adams asked: 

it falls to nie as Speaker of the House of . ^^here is the family of Richard Caswell? 

Commons, in tlie name ot the rep.resentatives •' 

of the freemen of the state, and in the -pres- for he was, sir, a model man and true patriot, 

enee of tlu'se honorable gentlemen, to call We always looked to Caswell for Morth Cai'o- 

npon yor: to qualify, in pursuance of this, tlu-ir ,j,,.^ „ ^jj^ character is one of which bis 

hiii-hest mark ot iiublic reii'ard, wbn'li can bv ,, , i v ^ i -u- *. 

them, ie shown to the mo.^t worthy citizen. «>""t'T "i«y ^^ell be proud. Not brilliant, 

(The Ljovernor now qualities.) but solid: useful rather than showy; deliber- 

'^To yoi), sir. as the first chief magistrate of ;,te in counsel and decided in action. Mr. .Macon 

this state, we cennmit and deliver the Bill of . +■ ,< fi + , .„r^,.f,,i ,,,,,,, 

^,■ ,. ,.,/-, 4.-^ .• .1 ^■ „ dec are( him one ot " the most powertui men 

Ki^ht- a! (I the Constitution; the one asserting ' 

the ciV! :,nd iiolitical rights of the freemen that ever lived in this or any other country." 

of til' MMiy, the other giving existence to In bis career be closelv resembled the father 

>■'""■' :m(i the present happy form of gov- ^^,. ,^.^ ^„^,„t,,.; if Vi",-inia be proud of her 

ernme r. ; nat the same under voui' 2;nardi:in- ■ , " ,. 

shipn, , l^e sn.-tained,supporte<l, maintained Washington, North Carolina may be ot her 

and p -erved inviolate, and as an emblem of C'asweU. 

that p.) «cr:md aui-hority with which you are Governor Caswell's will is on record in 

inve:-ted. we present vou this sword, and do . i • i ^ i t i o it^t 

annou .cr .„d proclaiin you, Kichard Caswell, I^^noir county, and is dated July 2, 1(8/. 

Esq., Co.eiuor, Captain-General and Com- He left one son and one daughter. Ot bis son 


("Winston) but little is known to ns. His publican part}'. On bis retirin,£f from congress 

dang'hter, Anna, niarrieil twice. First Fon- he resolved to devote himself to bis profession, 

ville'^ and second to William White, who was but the people would not permit him to retire. 

Secretary of State from 1778 to 1811. Mrs. The next year thi^y elected him to represent 

White left three daughters:* the county in the senate, in which position he 

I. Anna, wlio married Governor David L. was continued until his death. The senate 
Swam. each year elected him unanimously its speaker. 

II. Another married General Daniel L. Bar- No one piossessed more popularity. On some 
ringer. occasions he received nearly every vote in 

III. Another married General Boone Felton, Caswell County. 

of Hertford County. (University Magazine As presiding ofRcer of a deliberate body 

IV., 1772.) he was pre-eminent, and scarcely ever ri- 

General Felton was a mitive of Hertford valed. Blessed with a manly person, of 

County, and a man of some wealth and cul- most engaging and bland manners, a (juick 

ture. He represented this county in 1809, and and well balanced mind, an accurate memory 

frequently afterwards. Ten years afterwards and clear and harmonious voice, he was pecu- 

he had a difficulty with his relative and col- liarly qualified for the duties of a speaker, 

league, which was the cause of much excite- As the journals will show, in Congress, the 

ment in the count} . speaker (Mr. Clay) often supplied his own 

The capital town of the county preserves a place by the suljstitution of Mr. Yance}'. His 

name equall}' as illustrious as the nameof Cas- efibrts for the benefit of the state arc monu- 

well, it is that of Bartlett Yancey, who was ments of his greatness as a statesman. The 

liorn, lived and dieil in Caswell County. He was organization of the judiciary; the system of 

educated at the university, although his name finance in the treasury and comptroller's 

doesnot appear among the list of graduates, and offices as also of the common schools, and 

for a time was a tutor in that institution. He other public measures attest his sagacity and 

studied law, and attained great eminence in usefulness. 

the profession. But political life was his He died in the meridian of his life and use- 
jM-oper element, and there he shone conspic- fulness in 1828. This sudden and unexpected 
uous. His first appearance in iiublic life was as a event caused a deep sensation of sorrow 
mendier of the Thirteenth Congress, 1818, -'15, throughout the state. All eyes were turned 
and again in the Fourteenth, (1815,-17.) Here, to him as the .successor of Governor Branch, 
by the solidity of his judgement, the suavity of in the United States Senate. He left five 
his manners, and the extent of his acquirements, daughters: Mrs. McAdden, Mrs. Giles Mebaue, 
he attained a high i)osition among such states- Mrs. Lemuel Mobane, Mrs. Thomas J. AVom- 
men as William Gaston, William K. King, mack and .Mrs. George W. Swep.son; and two 
William II. Murfree, Israel Pickens, Nathaniel sons: Rufns A., who graduated at the nniver- 
Macon, all of whom were his colleagues. He sity, with great credit, in 1829, in the same 
was the firm and fearless supporter of the class with Burton Craige, William Eaton, Dr. 
adnnnistration of Mr. Madison and the re- Sidney X. Johnston and others, he died in 
Richmond, Va., aliout 18-35 ; and Algernon 

*One of Goveruor Caswell's daughters married a flat- Sidney, who was a lawyer, died in 1840. 
Ini. -Ur. John (-iatlm.wlio was a surgeon ni the United -' -^ ' 

(States army, and was massacred at Dade's Defeat by Brobably there are few men, in either public 
the Seniinoles, in Florida, was a grandson of Caswell. . " ,.,. , ■,■,■,. 

Geneial Gatlin was a brother of Dr. Gatliii. or private lite, who occupied during their 



term of life more of public notice than Komu- 
1ns M. Saunders. 

From the time lie entered the legislature, 
in his 24th year, until his doatli, at which time 
he held the office of judge, he was either in 
office, or an applicant for otlice, or an aspirant 
for position, lie was the son of William 
Saunders, horn in Caswell County, 1791. His 
early education was defective.* He studied 
law, and practiced th.-it profession with suc- 
cess. He early entered political life, which 
was more germane to his tastes than law. From 
1815 to 1820, he was a member of the House 
of Commons, and twice its speaker. In 1821 to 
1827, he was in Congress. In 1828, he was 
elected attorney general, which position he 
filled till 1833, when he was appointed a com- 
niis-sioncr under the French Treaty, in which 
he served till 1835, when he was elected judge, 
which he resigned on being, in 18-10, nominated 
.candidate for governor, but was defeated by 
John M. Morehead. In 1841, elected to Con- 
gress, in which he served until 1846, when he 
was appointed Envoy to Spain, where he ser- 
ved till 1849; and in 1850, he was again elected 
a member of the House of Commons. In 1852, 
elected to House of Commons, and again he 
became Judge of Superior Courts, in which 
office he died, April 21, 1867. 

A good story (says Moore I., 463) is told by 
Judge Badger, of this extraordinary propensity 
for office. Mr. Badger was asked who would 
be the new Bishop, in place of Ives, on that 
prelate's defection to Rome: " I can't tell you 

who it will be, but I am certain Judge 

will be a candidate, a.s he wants everything 
else," replied the great lawyer. 

From History of North Carolina, by J. W. 
Moore, XL, page 98: 

" In 1852-'53, the democrats had a majority 

*From l^iilcigh Star, of March 20, ISl '. The trustees 
of the university of Xorth Ciiroliiia. liave lieen obliged 
to perform the [lainful duty of exi)ellius from the in 
stitution John Allen, of Pitt, Horace B rton, of 
Granville. Jiomulus Saunders, of Caswell Covuity. 
Pavid Stoke, President. 

in the legislature, Init failed to elect a senator 
to succeed Judge Mangnm. U. M. Saunders, 
as usual, was a candidate. He was one of our 
leading men but in.satiable in his thirst for 
office. He was equally profound and adroit 
as a lawyer, greatly respected as a judge, and 
unsurpassed as a stump orator. His four years 
of acquaintance with the formal etiquettcof the 
Sjianish Com't had failed to I'cmove his native 
aTul inherent roughness of manners." 

He was twice married; by his last marriage 
with a daughter of Judge William Johnson, of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, he 
left a son and tvv(.) daughters. 

That Judge Saunders possessed force of 
character and talents, the high positions he 
held are proof. But that he was seltish and 
uncertain in his friendships is admitted. The 
opinion expressed of Goldsmith by Dr. John- 
son was realized by him: " bis friondslii|)S were 
so easily acquired, and so lightly lost, as ren- 
dered them of JHit little consequence to any 
person." As a politician he was able and active, 
but even this character was obscured by the fact 
that he always hoped to be advanced personally-. 
In a memorable contest in 1852 for Senator in 
Congress, when his part}', with a majoi'ity of 
only one or two, and he himself a member of 
the body, nominated James C. Dobbin, than 
whom a purer man did not exist, SaUiiders 
refused to co-o[)erato, bolted the caucus ami 
with his friends, defeated the election of 
Dobbin. t 

In a subsequent contest for the same post he 
again played the same role, and thus defeated 
the election of Bedford Brown, who was the 
choice of the democratic party in 1842-'43, and 
so caused the election nf William H. Haywood, 
whose career as a senator not being successful, 
he resigned. Had Saunders followed the ad- 

tThis has been disputed by some friends of .fudge 
Saunders. We quote from History of North Carolina, 
by John W. >roore, 'page 227 ) 

•' Mr. Dolibin succeeded Governor Graham as Sec- 
retary of the Navy, Mr Dobbin was defeated for 
the United States" Senate by the friends of Judge 
Saunders, and Judge Manguni's term havmg expired, 
the state for the next two years had but one senator." 


vice of the great Girdiiial of Henry VIII. lie Colonel of a battalion raised in the Ilillsboro 

Wduhl have been a hajiiiier, if not a wiser and district. He was educated at t!)e Bingham 

better man. acadcmv in Orange, and sjient one vear at the 

•■ , I charge thee flmg away ambition. U"i^'^'''«ity. when he conunenced reading law 

By tliat sin fell the angels ; ;uk1 how can man tlien— with Judge Settle, his brother-in-law and 

ihe image of liis maker— liope to win by it '■ . , ■" ' 

finisned nntler Judge Henderson. He was 

AVe would fain have made this sketch more admitted to the Bar in 1827. His success in 

fa\i'rable, but in pen pictures as in portrait tl"- [iractice was flattering, but his tViiiie re.sts 

jiaiutiiig the truth demands a faithful, not a more on his efforts in t he legislature than his 

flattering, likeness. careei' as a jurist. 

Robei't AVilliams was a native of Cas- His flrst ap[iearaiice as a state.Mnaa was 

well County, distingiiish;.d I'or his attain- 'ts a nicmber of the eonveiiiion of 1;>J5 to 

meiits. He was adjutant-general of Noi'th reform the constitution. This was an able 

Cariiiina, and a representative in Congress, body of iiractieed statesmen, aiiil af- 

(Fiftli, Sixth and Seventh Congress) 1797 to forded an admiralde school for tlie young 

18(Jo, and was appointed commissioner of land politician. 'I'bis opjmiuinity was n>>; ne- 

titles in Mississippi Tci'ritory. He was also glected by .Mr. Graves In 1840 he was elected 

the govGrnor of the Tci'ritory of Mi.ssi.ssippi a meinber of the, and in 1842 wh mi iie 

from 1805 to 1809. He died in Loui.siana.\ was made speaker. In 1844 he was r,g,iin a 

Marniaduke Williams, who succeeded his member, l)Ut the whig party having a iiuijority, 

brother in Congress, was a native of Caswell elected Mr. Stanley speaker. In 1846 ho was 

County, born in 1772; married Mrs. Agnes returned as a member of the senate. 

Harris, «(■(■ Payne. He was by profession a During this sessi(n) a party move of mueh sig- 

lawyer. Ho represented Caswidl County in nificancc was made to re-distri ct the slate, and 

the state senate in 1802, and the district in opposed by .Mr. Craves. In 1848 he wa . again 

(the Eighth, Ninth and I'eiith Congress) 1803" elected to the senate, when the parties 

180ii. In IMO he removed with his family were evenly balanced, he was elected .-peaker 

to Alabama. He w:is repeatedly elected to notwithstanding. 

the legislature of that state, and was a dele- This was an important session. The 
gate Tuscaloosa Coui;ty to the eonven- lunatic a.sylum was constructed, and the 
tion which formed the state constitution, lie proposition to make internal imprtn-oments by 
was a candidate for governor and defeated by a railroad connecting the mountains \'> it!i the 
William W. Bibb. Fn 182(> he was a commis- seaboard,invol ving an apiiropriation of -J^jOOOj- 
siouei' to adjust the unsett led accounts between 000. The latter bill [lassod the lower House 
Alabama and Mississippi. In 18:j2 he was hy a close vote, and after a warm and able 
elected judge of the county court, whii h he discussion, which was maintained i.iy both 
resigned, having attained the ivge of seventy, -ides with elo^ience and aliiiity, and listened 
V\Tiich the constitution declared a disqualiflca- to with breathless anxiety hy a cro\\'dcd gal- 
tion in ajudge. He died October 29, 185n. lery, the vote was taken, and stood yeas 24, 

C;d',in Craves was lie,rn in Caswell County, nays 24. The vote was handed by the 

in January, 1804. He was the son of Azariali clerk to the speaker, upon whom all eves were 

(.^ra\'es. His mother was the daughter of now turned; Mr. Graves arose froi.i his 

Cobniel John AVilliams, who took a decided chair, and in a clear and audible voice an- 

[•art ill the revolution, and was Lieutenant- noanccd the cote: " The clerk reports twenty- 


fdur ill tlic affirniitivc aiul t\vc>nty-four ill the fnua public life, and moved to Mirisoiiri; hut 

ne','ative. The speaker votes in the afRrina- at'tvr a short time he returned to Nortli Caro- 

tive: the hill has passed the senate." lina, and was again elected a meniher ^f the 

The plaudits were deafenini;, and the session state senate from 1858 to 1862, and in ISOS. He 

of the senate hroken up, without adjourning; died at home December 6th, 1870, lamented 

tumultuous joy came from one side, and sullen by tlie state and nation. 

murmurs from the other. Whatever views His character as a statesman wa-; like 

may now he entertained .if the pdicy of this Bayard's," without fear or reproach." He was 

hnw,it was at the time an act of political suicide distinguished for his firmnchvs and unquestioned 

by Mr. Graves; lie never again appeared in the integrity. ILs friends did n^t claim f<.r him 

legislature. Like Coriolanus, when yielding an e<iual rank in the intellectual power winch 

to the entreaties of his mother, he might say: marked the career of many with whom ho 

" Mother, you may have saved your country, but you was associated, but he was the peer of aiiy in 

have lost your son." integrity, patriotism and purity of life. 

Mr. Graves married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Thompson is a native of diswell 

John C. Lea, by whom he had an interesting County; born May 15, 1810. His father, 

family. He died some few years ago. Nicholas Thompson, was a respectabb' and 

Bedford Brown was a native of Caswell, worthy man, wlio bestowed on his son every 

where he lived and died; he was born advantage of education. His early .-^tudic- 

in 1795, a farmer by profession, a patriotic were conducted by .\Ir. Bingham at Hillsboro, 

statesman, and an unflinching advocate of the and finished at the university, where he grad- 

ri"-hts of the state. uated in 1831, in a class with Thomas L. 

^He early embarked on the sea of politics, Clingman, James C. Dobbin, and others; and 

in which he bad a long and successful voy- he was for a time a tutor in the Cdllege. He 

age. He entered ihe House of Commons in studied law with Honorable John .\L Dick, and 

1815. At 'one time (1817,) this county was licensed in 1834, 

sent Bartlett Yancey to the senate, and Kom- The next year be moved to Pontotoc, Mis- 

nlus M. Saunders and Bedford Brown to sissippi, and entered at once upon the practice 

the commons. This was a triumvirate of of the law. 

ability r.ot excelled in the legislators of any He was elected a member of congress from 

other county in the state. Mr. Bn.wn entered Mississippi in 1839, and continued by suc- 

public life at an important epoch in our history, cessive elections in that position until 1851, 

The democratic principles he adopted then when he decline(i a re-uoinination. During 

and there, he maintained through life. He this period he passed though many scenes of 

was elected frequently to the legislature, and extraordinary interest and excitement. Ques- 

in 1828 and 1829 was chosen speaker of the i.ionsof importance were agitated, in which Mr. 

senate. In the latter year he was elected Thompson bore a distinguished part in defend- 

I'nited States Senator to succeed Governor ing the honor of the country and the interests 

r> ranch, who was appointed Secretary of the of his constituents. The sub-treasury, the 

Xavy. Here he served till 1840, when he re- Xew Jersey case, the Mexican war, Mississip^.i 

signed under instructions from the legislature, repudiations, and other questions agitated 

He again entered the legislature in 1842, the nation, 

and was again a candidate for the senate, but He bore himself as a statesman and a 

not elected. He then withdrew for a time patriot. 



On the resignation of Robert J. Walker mcnt. He and others were arrested by Georire 
as senator, in 1845, to assume the duties of W. Kirk. 

Secretary' of the Treasury under Mr. Polk, he 
was ap))ointed Senator of the United States; 
-but for some reason, he did not accept the 

In 1857, he was appointed Secretary of the 

Upon Ids ai>plieation for a writ of liabeas 
cor[:ius, I copy from the records the following: 

''Before Chief Justice Pearson, cr-parte John 
Kerr, at chambers in the rooms of the supreme 
court, August 2nd, 1870. 

'The counsel for the petitioner, upon the re- 

Tnteri\ir by .M''. Buchanan, over which depart- {,„.„ f,f ^\^^^ marshal of the supreme court, and 

ment bo presided with unexampled integrity the communication from George W. Kirk 

and abilit v, rntil tlie great civil war between ^f^'^ ''e^^^ contended that Kirk's response to 

the service of the writ of habeas corpus upon 

the states began, when he resigned, preserving i^;,,^ ^^hat lie held the prisoner under order of 

the resi)ect and regard of his associates When Governor lloldcn,) was insutiiuent upon sev- 

Mississipi.i sei-edod, xMr. Thompson deemed it era! grounds, and that he ought to be attached 

, . , , , ,. n , ,. , TT foi" niakinsi' it. Ilie counsel, thereiore, moved 

his duty to share her fortunes and her fate. He j.^,. .^ ^^.^^^^.^ to have the body of the peti- 

wasemploycil l)v the Confederate government tioiier brouglit before the chief justice, &c." 

as a financial agent, and suftei'ed deeply in the 
wreck of his once princely estate. He now 
resides nea'' Memphis, pursuing the vocation 
of [ilanter. 

He married in 1838, Miss Jones, whose kind 
disposition and genial manners shed a charm 

On this the chief justice delivered the fol- 
Idwiug decision: 

"Tlie motion is not allowed. I can say no 
more tiian I have already said. The power of 
the judiciary is exhausted. I have no posse 
coinii)it(itt(s. In this particular, ray situation 

over every circle. Their only son was in the iliffcrs from tliat of Chief Justice Taney, in 

'Merriman's case.' He had a posic cotnmitntus 
at his command, but considered 'the power of 
judiciary exhausted.' He did not deem it his 
duty to command the marshal with n posse 'to 
storm a fort.' " 

The time has not yet come to comment upon 

Confederate army, and fell in battle. 

John Keri', late one of the judges of the 
superior courts, resided in this county. He 
■was the son of t he lieverend John Kerr, who was 
,in eminent Baptist preacher of great elo- 
quence; h- lopresented the Lynchluirg dis- all these circumstances, yet some of the re- 
trict, Vii-ginia, in the Thirteenth and Four- corded facts may be detailed for future refer- 
teenth Congress. Hi.s son, the subject of our ence. It was, indeed, a fearful epoch in our 
present sketch, was boi'n on Febrniiry 10th, 1811, history wlien the lives and liberties of inno- 
in Pittsylvania Ci)unty, Vii-ginia. Educated cent and wortliy citizens were exposed to the 
at home and at Richniond, lie read law with tender mercies of lawless power. 
Judge Pear.son. He was elected a member of TTiat " the great writ of right " was power- 
the Thirty-third Congress from this less and exhausted in the state struck the 
district; and >vas the whig candidate for gov- whole country with dismay. 
eriior in 1S51, but was defeated by (jov^rnor It forcibly brought to mind the prophetic 
Reid. He' represented Caswell C:-unty in the remarks of Lord Shelburne to Mr. Laurens, of 
legislature in 1 8.58 and ISGO. South Carolina, once our envoy to Holland and 

During ilie civil war, he was employed in liis Pu'esid-ent of Congress, who had Ijeen a prisoner 

professional and agricultural pursuits. Wiien in the Tower ( 1779j for some time; after his re- 

the v.-ar clusod he suffered much tribulation lease, in au interview with England's Secre- 

and in. 'lignity at the hands of those who were tary of State, the following conversation oc- 

atten.pting to reconstruct the state govern- curred: 


"I am sorry for your people," said Lord Shcl- to tlic bench of the superior court.-, which ilis- 

huriie, "that thev liave gained their indcpen- tinsjuished post lie lield till Ids death, 

dence." "Why so ?" asked Mr. Laurens._ "We j^^^^ j^^.,.,. ,_^^,, ,,, -,,,,.0^ ,^^g„ app-i'itcd to 

Ensjlish people cnmed it, by centuries ot , , , , , wi 1 \ 

wrangling, years of battle and blood, and con- a seat on the bm,!; by the govcrMor, ( ( lark,) 

tinned it'hy at least fifty acts of parlianioiit," l,nt Judge' Gilliaui was elected by tlit- Icgisla- 

answered his lord.^hip. ' "All this taught the ^^^^.^^ 

nation its inestimable value, and it is so ' . , , . ... 

ingrained in their creed as to become the '^'^^^S^ Iv^-t, m the pahny day o. pohtic, 

foundation of our liberty and no judge or gained much reputation as a skiltul and elo- 

party will ever dare to trample upon it. quent debater; of a kind and social tempera- 

Your people will pick it up, and attempt „„„t, j,, „,,, ^^e who in the tilt and t<u,rha- 
to use It; but having cost them nothing, the} 

will not know how "to appreciate it. At the mcnt of the political arena, so bore hnasult that 

tirst internal feud you will have it trampled "the (.pposer would beware of him." Hut the 

under foot by the lawless power of the major- ,„g]|,3,,.j, . gft-^^.^ of i,ge lessened tbis trait, an<l 

ity; the people will permit It to be done, and ° .■ .^ n .■ ^ \ i 1 1 

away goes your boasted liberty." ^« ^ member ot the BaptKst church, he earned 

"gentle peace" and good will of all. He was 

An application was tlieii made to Judge an earnest advocate of education, one of the 

Brooks, of the United States District Court, trustees of the university, and the pre^ident 

on August 25th, 1870, for a writ. Tbis of the North Carolina Historical Society, 

he caused to be issued against Kirk, "reqnir- He died on September 5th, 1870,. at hi> 

ing him to bring before the court the prisoners home in Reidsville, after a lingering iUnoss 

detained in military custody." of several mDiitb-. 

Governor Graham, Judge Mcrrimon, and K. Connected with the memories of the past, 
H. Battle, jr., appeared for the petitioners, it may not be improper to record the myste- 
whilst the Attorney-General Olds, and Messrs. rious mui'der of John W. Stepli--ns, of this 
J. M. McCorkle and William H. Bailey, a[i- county, which occurred May 21, 1870. Stephens 
peared for the detViidant. On the return made was a native of Guilford County, loru Octo- 
to the writ, by Kirk, and after argument, the her, 1834; one of the disreputable waifs of cir- 
prisoners were released. No case had everoc- cumstance whom the troubled waves of civil 
(. urred that more excited the county. The war brought to the surface. ' He was of low 
course of Judge Brooks was commended, not origin, of dissolute habitsand disreputable char- 
only by public meetings in the state, but in acter. He had been arraigned for petit Larceny 
Baltimore and elsewhere. and other ofienses. His mother was found mur- 
On his return to his home in Elizabeth city, dered in his house in broad daylight, with her 
a perfect ovation by men of all parties awaited throat cut from ear to ear, and no one ever 
him. They expressed their "appreciation of knew, nor did the coroner's jury deciile, by 
his fidelity in er.foiving the law." No con- whom or how the murder was done. Yet, 
(lueringhero,returningfromthe field of victory, this man was, in 1868, elected senator over the 
could have received such applause. It was the Honorable Bedford Brown; and appointed by 
triumph of the law and of justice over misrule the governor, he served as a justice of the 
and oppression. (See sketch of Judge Brooks peace, and was granted a license l>) practice 
in Pasquotank County.) The sufferings and law by Judge A. \V. Tourgee. 
contumely thus endured by Judge Kerr e.x- On Saturday, May 21st, 1870, a meeting 
cited the sincere sympathy of the country, of the conservative party of Caswell County 
and he was elected by the legislature, in 1874, was held in the court house at l^'auceyville to 


nominate candidates for tlie le^-islnturo. knife, two in the throat, tiie other stab on the 

Speeches were made by Samuel P. Hill, Bed- loft (.>f the breast bone, penetrating the cavity 

ford lli'own, and otliors. A large number at- of the chest, inflicted by the iiands of some per- 

tended, among them M'as Steiihens. At night sons unknown; of which wound the said John 

he was missing, and search was made. The W. Stephens died, on May 21st, 1870. between 

next morning, in one of the rooms in the Ijasc- the hours of four and seven o'clock, p. m." 

ment of the court liouse, the dead lioily of A^arions surmises have been made as to the per- 

Stephens was found. The jury of inrpiest re- sons and motives of this mysterious murder, 

ported "tlie death of John W. Stepliens was But no positive evidence was elicited, and per- 

causL'(l 03' a small rope drawn around his neck haps it is only when the secrets of all hearts 

in a noose, and by three stabs with a pocket are known, will the facts be ascertained. 




There lived in this county during the rovo- bon>' ::!.l M-ized the Governor (Eurke.) and 

lutionai-y war, one of the most daring and des- other [,:ominent whigs, and carried them to 

perate tories that those dangiu-ous times pro- AVilmington as piison crs of war. 

duccd. by the name of David Fanning. lie I atlempted, in the history of K(U-th Caro- 

was born about 1754. in Wake County, and in linn, to give a brief sketch of this noted 

1778 moved to Chatham. The occupation of marauder Viudcr tliC liead of Chathani C(mnty. 

Wilmington by the British troops afforded an Since writing this, I have been so fortunate 

opportunity fu' his nefarious depredations, as to find in manuscript, an ant<'-biography 

One of the earliest sufferers was Charles Shear- writter. by Fanning himself, which is very 

inc, of Deep River, to whose house he went at lengtlir and minute; this has already l)een 

night, and shot him dead as he fled. His publifiiied. He was a refugee after the war 

energy and desperation were appreciated bj- closed, a.nd died in St. Johns, I'rovinee of Kew 

the British authorities, and be was made col- Brunswiek, in 1825. 

onel of the loyal militia, and Major Craig, at Ciiarles Manly, born 1795, died 1871, late 

Wilmington, presented him with a uniform Governor of Korth Carolina, was a native of 

and pisti)ls. this county. 

One of his earliest successes was the capture llis father, Basil Manly, was born and raised 

of Colonel Philip Alston, at his house. In July, in St. Mary's County, Mai'yhmd. II ,■ removed 

1784, be entered Canqibellton, now Fayette- to North Carolina before tlie revu!r,i-on, and 

ville, and ciirried oif Colonel P]imett, Captain seitled ir. Blailen Courity. He was ;^ bold and 

Winslow, and others. On Septendier 12th, active partizan ofiicer, holding the cj iimission 

following, he, with a troop, entered Hills- of captain during that war. 



He nianiod Elizabeth Maultshy. On iic- 
couiit of ill healtli, ho ixnnoved to Chathaiu 
County, where he died in 18:24, much respectoil 
I'or his high moral eouragc, and his intlexilile 
integrity. Having had hut a limited eduea- 
tion hiuiselt', he felt its importanee and ad- 
vantages, and he devoted all the energies 
of an indnstrioiis and frugal life to the ho- 
stowal of its benelits on his sons. Hl' lived 
to aeeomplish this cherished object of liis life, 
and with liis pious and exemplary wife, a 
woman of great mental endo\vmeMts, to rejoice 
in the happy result of their joint efforts and 
pravers, the eminent success in life of their 
three distinguished sons, Charles Manly, Basil 
Manly, (who graduated at the Siuth Carolina 
university, with the tirst honors of the institu- 
tion, liorn 1798- died at (Greenville, South 
Carolina, 18G8,) and Matthias Evans Manly, of 
New Berne, late judge of the superior and 
of the supreme courts in this state, also elected 
senator in congress, but denied his seat. 

Charles Manly, the eldest son, was born in 
-the County of Chatham, on May 13th, ITl'.J. 
He was prepared for college by that excellent 
classical schohir, the late William Bingham, 
at the Pittsboro academy, and graduated at t he 
university in 1814, with the tirst distinction in 
all his classes. In this class was AaronV. Brown, 
of Tennessee, (member of congress, 1839 to 
1843; Governor of Tennessee, 1844, and Post- 
master-General of the United States, 1857;) 
Hon.s. James Graham, and John Hill, both in 
after life members of congress, and others.* 

The treasurer of the state, the late John 
Haj'wood, attended this commencement, and 
was so attracted by the talents and proficiency 
of this young man, that he engaged him as a 
private tutor for his sons. This position \va.- 
highly advantageous. For besides the advai,t;i^ 
ges of enjoying the regard and society of Mr. 
Haywoe)d, one of the most popular men at 

*For much of this materi;il, I am indebted to a bio- 
graiihica! sketch by James M. Cleaveland. 

that time in the state, and an aseociation with 
prominent and leading men, he was enabled 
to [>ros(!cute the study of the law without 
eutrenehing upon the narrow income ot' his 
father, lie was admitted to the bar in 1816, 
and commenced the practice of law with great 

On the death of General Robert Williams, 
in whose office he read law, he was appointed 
his successor as treasvirer of the boaril of 
trustees of the university, and in that capacity, 
for a series of years, rendered faithful and 
signal ser\'ice to that venerable institution. 

In 1823, he was appointed, on the motion of 
John Stanley, the reading clerk of the House 
of Commons. The same year, (1823.) he was 
a[ipointed cderk to the commission under the 
treaty of Ghent, to examine the claims of 
American citizens for slaves and other proji- 
erty taken \>y the British, during the war 
of 1812. Langdon I'heves, of South Car- 
olina, and Henry Seawell, of North Carolina, 
were the American commissioners; George 
.Jackson and John .McTavish were the 
British commissioners. The board sat at 
Washingtiin. This was a position m :>.-t de- 
sirable and imiiroving to a young man. afford- 
ing a pa>s-port to the best society at the capital. 
But its duties interfered so much with his 
professional pursuits at home, that he soon 

The Alumni a.ssoeiation of the university 
resolved to have an annual address at each 
cornnieneemeMt, and Mr. Manly delivered the 
first in 1838, which was most acceptable, 
and was considereil a model of chaste and pop- 
ular elocution. 

In 1830, he succeeded that tine specimen of 
'• the old sch.iol gentlemen," Pleasant Hen- 
derson, as principal clerk of the House of Com- 
mons, aiid remained, by continuous elections 
in the san\(,' odice, with one intermission, until 
1848, v.-hen he was elected governor of the 
state. He had never been ambitious in polit- 


ical preferment. In 1S40, he was elected an ners, and nmgnetic humor. No or.e wasahetter 

elector, and in the electoral college of that year, conversationalist,oi' more abounded in anecdote 

cast the vote of North Carolina for Wil- and reminiscences of men and times. His 

liam II. Harrison and John Tyler. In 1S44, he keen sense of tiie ridiculous, and his inimita- 

was defeated as seiuitor foi' "VVake, Init he filled ble manner of narration, made him a welcome 

various otlier oiKces of confidence and trust guest, and " his flashes of men inient were wont 

with great credit to iiimself, and satisfaction to to set the table on a I'oar;" his wit was never 

the state. Among these positions were direct- used to wound, and left no sting behind. Pond 

or of the state l)ank, a commissioner to sell and of society, his house was the r^'sort of friends 

collect the proceeds of the sale of Cherokee who partook of his unstinted iios[iit;dity. To 

lands in the western part of the state, and the call of misfortune his hand was everopen. 

treasurer of the university-. As a counsellor he was an honest and safe one. 

In the campaign for governor in 1848, the Zealous in the interest of his client, and fair 

election being by popular suflrage, he can- in argument, respectful to the bench, and kind 

vassed the whole state with great satisfaction and considei'ate to the members of the bar, 

to his friends, and with the respect of his op- especially to his younger brethren. But with 

ponents. He was elected by a handsome all his other admirable traits of character, and 

majority; inaugurated governor on January nbove a\],he wasacliri.'^tiantjenllcm;//). He was 

1st, 1849, and served the constitutional for years in fidl communion and membership 

term of two years. In 1850, he was again of the Episcopal church; an admirer of its 

nominated by the whig convention tenets, and a follower of its pi-ecepts. 
was again op]iosed by that able and astute Such was Charles Manly. His latter days 

statesman, David S. Reid, and was defeated, were darkened by the cloud of civil war, and 

Afterwards he retired to private life. With him, the hand of disease. His substance was dis- 

" the sceptre departed " from the whig party poiled, his farms ravaged by hostile hands, and 

for a long time, for after Governor Reid. came his health prostrated. He dieil at Raleigh 

(Jovernors Bragg, Ellis, Clark and Vance. on May 1st, 1871. Like Wolsey 

Governor Manly married in 1817, Charity, '■ Full of repentance, 

daughter of William H. Haywood senior Contin.iecl meditations tears and sorrows. 

^ j^icij VI MDu, ^eijiui. He gave his honors to the world agam 

By this mari'iage he because the brother-in- His blessed part to Heaven, aud slept in peace." 

law of the late William H. Haywood, junior; Christopher Gale resided in Edenton 

senator in congress, (1843,) as also of E. B. and did such service in the defe.ise of the 

Dudley, the first governor of the state under colony that his name should be preserved. 
the amended constitution of 18:;5. We regret that neither traditi-u or record 

As might naturally be supposed, the promi- utfords much information as to his acts and 

nent positions he bad held, especially his long services, and that the dust of time is fast ob- 

connection witli the young and rising genera- scuring the little information we possess, yet 

tiou at the university, and with those in this should encourage others to rescue from 

active life in the legislature, as its principal oblivion bis life and character, 
clerk, and as governor, that he was extensively He was a native of England, bur:i in York 

known to every man of prominence and shire, son of Miles Gale, rector of a church in 

distinction, especially those in the South. He Yorkshire. He came t.) America, and in 1709 

was univerally respected wherever known, and was appointed receiver general, and in 1723 

became a great favorite with his genial man- was appointed one of the council of Governor 



George rturrington, witli Tlioums I'ollock, and Craii^c on tlic other, while Roncher circu- 

Francis Forster, John Lovick and otliers; hited quietly among the peojile, and gained 

when he was at the same time chief justice of the votes. He was elected a nieniher of the 

the colony. In 1729, with Colonel John Tweiity-tirst, Twenty-second, Twenty-tiiird, 

Lovick, Edward Mosely, and William Little, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Congress, 

he was appointed one of the commissioners to (1829 to ISSP.) He was again elected to the 

run the line hetween North Carolina and Vir- Twenty-seventh Congress, (1841 to 1843.) This 

ginia; Colonel William Byrd, Richard Fitz- was a stormy period of our political history. 

William and William nandri<lge, being the Harrison died after being in the presidential 

commissioners for Virginia. The journal of chair one m(»nth, and Tyler succeeded. The 

these commissioners has been preserved and friendsof the party calculated on Tylerpursuing 


William Little, chief justice, married a 
daughter of Judge Gale. He was active in 
resisting the attacks of the Tuscaroras, and 
went to South Carolina for aid, which was 
promptly furnished, and Colonel Moore was 
despatched with a sufficient force to subdue 

Chistouher Gale died in Edenton, where he 
lies buried, and left a name that was never 
mentioned but with respect. t 

Aliram Rencher resides in Chatham County, 
but was born in AYake about 1804. He fin- 
ished his education at the university where he 
graduated in 1822 In the same class was 
Bishop Davis, AYashington Morrison, and 

a course ditferent from the line he had marked 
out. Mr. Clay and other leaders often assailed 
him with great bitterness. This was a fierce 
and violent contest. A very few of the old 
whigs stood firm, and so they were called "the 
corporal's guard." One of these was Mr. 
Rencher. After his term in congress had ex- 
pired he was appointed, in 18i3 , eli'trge de ajf'aires 
to Portugal, where he remained four years. 

On his return home he took an active part 
in the election of Franklin Pierce, and was one 
of the electors of the state. 

He was made governor of the territory of 
New Mexico, by President Buchanan. 

John M. Mooring, speaker of the present 
house of representatives of the North Carolina 

others. He studied law with Judge Nash, at legislature, (1879,) is a native of Chatham 

IIillsbor(\ County, born March 11th, 1841. He was edu- 

Ile early engaged in political life. In 1829, cated at Graham, and at the university, and 

he was a candidate for the state senate, and would have graduated in the class of 1863 

was defeated; but in the same year, a vacancy had not the civil war prevented. He joined 

occuring in congress from this district, he be- the army as a private in company G, seventh 

came a candidate, with Judge Pearson and regiment, and was sergeant-major at the sur- 

Burton Craige as opponents. This was a strife 
involving much intellectual power, and the 
great question as to the power of the govern- 
ment, and the rights of the state, and other 
topics, were argued b}' Pearson on the one side 

* See W'estover Hss 

tKeconls from Board of Trade; University Magazine, 
volume v., 221.) 

render of Johnson at Greensboro, 1865. He 
studied law, and in 1872 elected member of 
the legislature, and re-elected in 1874, 1876 
and 1878, when he was chosen speaker. He 
is a good speaker, and a laborious member. 
His even touiper, genial disposition, and quick 
preception of jioints of order, render him an 
admirable presiding officer. 




Tills county, in tlio earlier days of the state, 
was the residence of the Ro\'ul governors, and 
its capital town preserves the name of Charles 
Eden, who was governor under the Lord 
Propiietors, from 1713 to 1722. The adminis- 
tratioii of Eden was eminently prosperous. His 
grave is still to be seen on Salmon Creek, in 
Bertie County, and tlie marble bears the in- 
scription tliat he governed the province for 
eight years; that he dietl March 26th, 1722, 
aged forty -nine years. Dining his adminis- 
tration a notorious pirate lived in North Caro- 
lina, and whose name is preserved by "Teach's 
Hole," near Ocracoke Inlet. Inasmuch as at 
this point be was in the habit of careening liis 
vessel, the "Adventure," and it was here, at 
the head of only seventeen inen, he met the 
Virginia naval expedition sent out for his cap- 
ture, of M'honi he killed and wounded thirty 
before he fell — gallantry and conduct worthy 
of a better cause! The reputation of Governor 
Eden suffered by a, supposed intimacy with 
Teach, and he was compelled to lay before the 
council an acc(.)unt of his conduct. 

I copy from a very scarce woi'k, "A General 
History of the 1 iratestrom their tii'st rise and 
settlement to the present time,'" by Charles 
Johnson, fourth edition: London 172G, referred 
to in AValdic's select circulating library, i'hil- 
adelphia, 1883,1., 123; 

"Edward Teach, better known as 'Black- 
iteard,' was born in Bristol, England. He was 
engaged as a private sailor till 1716, when a 
Captain Hornsgold,a noted pirate, placed him in 
command of a sloop which he had made prize 
of. They sailed together for the American coast, 
capturing mnuy ships and plundering them.' 
Alter various cruises they were shipwrecked 
on the coast of North Carolina. Teach hear- 
ing oi' a proclamation by which pirates who 

surrendered were to be pardoned, went with 
twenty of his men to the goveriKjr of the -tate, 
and received certificates of pardon from him. 
But it does not appear that their submission 
was from any reformation, but rather to gain 
time and opportunity for a renewal of their 
nefarious deeds. Teach had .succeeded in cul- 
tivating the kind offices of the governor, and 
soon after brought in, as a prize, a merchant 
ship, which the vice-admiralty court of the 
province awarded as a lawful prize to Teach. 
In June, 1718, he sailed for the Bermudas, and 
took many ships on his vo^-age, among them 
two French .ships, one was loaded with sugar 
and cocoa, and the other in ballast; the latter 
with both crews he released, and the other lie 
brought to North Carolina. Teach and his 
officers claimed them as lawful prizes, and 
made affidavits that they found the prize at 
sea without a smil on board, and the court 
condemned her. The governor (Eden,) re- 
ceived sixty hogsheads of sugar for his part, 
Mr. Kniglit, his secretary, one, and the collec- 
tor of the province twenty. 

"Thus countenanced and protected. Teach 
became most daring, desp'crate and dangerous, 
lie infested the whole coast, particularly the 
waters of Delaware, A^irginia, and the Caro- 
linas. In Novenilier, 1718, Governor Spotts- 
wood, of Virginia, offered a reward of £100 
for Teach, dead or alive. 

"On the 17th of the same month, Lieutenant 
Maynard sailed from Kicipietan, on the James 
river, in search of Blackbeard. On the 31st, 
at the mouth of Ocracoke Inlet, he came in 
sight of the pirate. Blackbeard had been ad- 
vised of this movement by a letter from Mr. 
Knight, Governor Eden's secretary. Ho im- 
mediately prepared for a desperate resistance. 
A terrible conliict ensued in which Blacicbeard 
Was slain, fighting with great fury and desper- 
ation. Maynard sailed up to Bath with the 
head of the pirate nailed to the bowsprit of 
his vessel. A letter was found in the pocket 
of the dead pirate from Kniglit, dated 
November 17th, 1717, a copy of which is 
preserved in Williamson's History of North 
Carolina. When the lieutenant came to Bath 
town lie seized the sugar that the governor 
and his secretary had received from Teach. 

(MIOWAN ("OrXTY. 117 

The statement goes oil to sav 'tliat the gov- 4tli, 1775, showing tliir> si.irit. Tlie coniiiiit- 

ernoi-, aiiprehensive tliat hf iiiiii'lit he called to j^,, ^-ere Kohort Ilaidy, (cliainnan.) Joseiili 

iK-eoant,hecamo ill of a fright ami died in a n^,^^.^,^ l^,l,oi-t Smith. Jasper Cliarlton, dulni 

icw days.' ' Kenihoiigh, William i'.ennet, Chailfs Bonti.dd, 

III an autohiographical sketrh of i'.eiiiaiiiin Thomas Jones, and John (^ree.,.^ 
Franklin, he sa\s that at a very eariy age Kven die menihers of tliv Kpiscopal clinrch, 
(ahout fourteen,") he took a strange fancy for who have been charged hy some as being op- 
poetry, and composed .several pieces, among P"sed to it.dapendence, were iirm and open 
thcm\vrie tu-o ballads, one called tho"Light- against the opiiressionn of the British Govern- 
hon.^e Tragedy," which contained an account nuMit, and resolved to stajid by the Contiuen- 
of the shipwreck of Captain AN^orthifake and tal C\nigre^s. 

his two daughters, the other was a sailor's We present a recv.rd from the proceedings 

song on the capture of the noted pirate called of the vestry of St. Paul's P^piscopal Church, at 

reach or BluckU'nrd. When they had been Edenton, copied by the kindness of Major 

printed, Franklin's brother sent iiini an-und Henry A. Gilliam, now of Kaleiglu 

the town to sell tlieiiK They had a prodigious ,,^ , ,■■,,■■ ii 

, ^ , "We, the undersigned, prote.ssing our alle- 

succcss, as the first event was then recent, and ^..^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ j^.,,^^^ ^,,,^^ acknowledging the 

created much excitement. constitutional executive power of the govern- 

FoUowino- the sound advice of his father meiit, do solemnly profess and declare, that we 

., • * T-i 1 1 fi „ ,.,;c.f^,.fn.,a do absolutely believe that neither the Parha- 

this great philosopher escaped the m.sfo.tune ^^^^^^ ^^. ^^^^^ Britian, nor any member, or 

of being a poor poet, tor the success of these constituent branch thereof, have a right to 

two ballads had greatly elated his young impose taxes upon these colonies to regulate 

mind, an.lliutlittle'eucouragement was needed t'.e internal policy thereof; and that all at- 

° . tempt^s by fraud or torce to establish and ex- 

to set him permanently to verse making. gj.^-^^ ^^^^^ ^1.^-^^^^ 3^,^^ powers are violations of 

It is due to the truth of history to .say tlie peace and the security of the people, and 

that there was no evidence to implicate Gov- ought to be resisted to the utmost; and that 

,, , . ^, ... , ,. .■ the people of this province, singly and collec- 

ernor Eden in the nefarious transactions ot ^.^.^1^^,^ 1_.^ ,^^^^^^^j ^^^ ^,^^ ^^^^ ,^^^(^ resolutions 

Teach. As to the statement "that he was so j^f ^f^g Continental and Provincial Congress, 

aiiprehensive, and was so frightened, that he because- in both they are fully represented by 

,. , . ,. 1 ,. : ,„,„k". ;„„,.,.,„. f^,v + Ki„ iiersons chosen by themselves. And we do sol- 

diod ill a tew (lavs, is trrossJv m erroi, toriuis ' , , . •• , • ^ ^ . 

"'^ ' >uy , -, ,) ^ , emnly and sincerely promise and engage, under 

was ill 1717, and Giivernor Eden, as appears ^j^^ sanctions of virtue, honor, and tiie sacred 

by the ilate on his tiMiibstone, died live years love of liherty and our countiy, to maintain- 

•ifterward-; '""-^ support all tli& acts and resolutions of the 

,^ ,'. . '""■ . . TT i-i > Ti 1 • *i said Continental and Provincial Congress to 

Tradition points to Iloluday s Island, in the ^j^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^, ^^^^^g^, ^^^^ .^^-y^^^, 

Chowan river, as one of Blaekbeard's haunts, " i^ testimony whereof, we have hereunto 

and the mouth of J'otecasi Creek, where it set our hands, this 19th day of June, 1775. _ 

.1 .1 r.i \r V. ..r;,> ,.;,..,. n. tin^ " Richard Iloskens, Wm. Boyd, David Rice, 

enters the mouth ot the Meherrin n.vei, as the ,^.^^^^^^ Benbury,t Aaron Hill, Jacob Hunter, 

[loint where he buried his spoils. Felatiah Walton, John Beasely, William 

The people of this section were, in the revo- Ilinton, William Bennet, Thomas Bonner, 

iiition, the firm friends of independence, and William Roberts." 
the determined foes to oppression. The North 

Carolina Gazdte, of February 24th, 1775, con- ^'I'^se names are doubtless familiar with 

tains the proceedings of the Committee of ";;:;,,„,„ Records in Holls Office, copied by me. 

Safety for the town ot Edenton, on February fThomas Eenbury was speaker in 1778 to 1784. 



many yet residing in Edenton. llnw proml 
nia}' they be of !^<> glowing a record! 

The patriotism of the men was ef|Ualled by 
the self denial of the women. 

There was brought from Gibraltar, many 
years ago, a lovelj painting of "a meeting of 
the ladies of Edenton destroying the tea, their 
favorite beverage, when taxed by the English 
Parliament." I saw this picture in the hands 
of Mr. Ahmniug in 1S30. 

The following r,eeord is from Ftirce's Ameri- 
can Archives-. 

'' As wc cannot be inditf'erent on any 'Occa- 
sion that aftVets the peace and happiness of 
onr count}', and as it has been thought neces- 
sary for the public good to enter into several 
particular reso'lves Ijv a meeting of the depu- 
ties of tlie wliole provinice, it is a duty we owe, 
not oni}- to ourselves, hut to our near and dear 
relations, to do everything as far as lies in our 
power to testify to our sincere adherence to the 
same; we, tlierefore, do subscribe this paper 
as a witness to our tixed intention and solemn 

Sign<?d b\' fifty -six ladies of Edenton, North 
Cai-olina, October 2.3tii, 1771:. 

There are liut few s.x'tinns of the states in 
in which have resided men more illustrious 
for ability, or who have written their names 
more indolilily in the history of their country. 

Among the first of thes3 is Samuel John- 
ston; bill 11 lloo, <licd Iblt). lie was a native 
of Dundee, Scotland, the son of John John- 
ston and Helen Scrymsoui'. His father in 
1736, followed Gabriel Johnston, who was his 
hrother, and who was in I'^4 the governor of 
the province of North Carolina, and after 
whom Johnstmie Count}' is called. He died 
July 17tb, 17o2. 

He was a Scoteliman by birth, a man of 
liberal views, and a iJiysician by profession. 
He married Tenelope, the only child of Gov- 
ernor Eden, and his gi'andson, William John- 
stone Dawson, distinguislicd for his acquire- 
ments and talents, in 1793 represented the 

Edenton district in congress, and with Willie 
Jones, .'oseph McDowell, Thomas Blount and 
James Martin, was on the committee in 1791 
to fi.x a permanent [)lace for the seat of gov- 
ernment. He died in 1798; an event universall}' 

John, his brother, was appointed surve}'- 
or-general of the province, and settled in 
Onsk»w County, whilst the subject of this 
sketch was yet an infant. His advantages of 
education were the best the country afforded. 
He studied law in Edenton, under Thomas 
Barker, ami resided at Ha^'s, near Edenton. 
When only nineteen he was appointed one of 
the clerks of the superior court for the dis- 
trict, and afterwards deputy naval officer for 
the port. 

Although holding this position, ho was the 
ardent and unflinching advocate of the rights 
of the people. 

In 1773, he was appointed with Caswell, 
Harnett and Hooper a committee of corres- 
pondence with the other colonies on the sub- 
ject of the conduct of England towards the 

In a dispatch from Governor Martin to tlie 
Earl of Dartmouth, of September 1st, 1774, he 
tlins speaks of the influence and the character 
of Mr. Johnston : 

" I have known the general a.ssembly to 
sacrifice everything to a faction. 

"four of them, namely Currituck. Perquim- 
ons, Pasquotank and Chowan, send each five 
members; Tyrell, Bertie and Martin send eight, 
besides one tV>r Edenton. These are always 
led by a man or two. They are now aiisolutel}' 
under the guidance of a Air. J(dmstone, who 
is deputy naval officer, and was one of the 
clerks of the superior courts while they existed 
in the province, who, under the prejudices of a 
New England education, is b}' no means a 
friend of the government, having taken a fore- 
most part in all the late opposition, joined with 
the Southern interest, which at pre--ent sup- 
ports a Mr. Ashe. 

•■'Your lordsbiji will not be surprised to hear 
that the people of this province have followed 
the example of the rest of the continent in 



caballing ami fonniiis; resolutions against the 
lueasuros of the Goveninient."* 

As was to 1)0 expected, (Jovernor M-irtin 
SLispemloil Mr. Johnston from office, which 
drew t'nmi iiim the following dignitiod letter, 
now on tile in the Rolls Oflice in London: 

"Edenton, A^ovembcr 16th, 177."). 

"Silt: L iiave this day had the honor of re- 
ceiving your e.xeellency's letter, signifying tiiat 
you had heen pleased to suspend me from act- 
ing as deputy- to Mr. Turner, in the Naval 
otHce, with the I'easons for such removal, and 
it gives me pleasure that I do not find neglect 
of the duties of ni}' ofHce iu tlie catalogue of 
my crimes; at the same time I hold m_yself 
obliged to you for the polite manner iu which 
you are pleased to express yourself of my i)ri- 
vate character. You will pardon me for saying 
that I had reason to complain of the invidious 
point of view in which you place my public 
transactions, when you state that 'the late 
meeting of the inhabitants of this province at 
llill^boro, was a body of my own creation.' 

'•Your excellency cannot be ignorant tliat I 
was a mere instrument on this occasion, under 
the direction of the people; a people among 
whom I have long resided, wiio have on all 
occasions placed the greatest confidence in me, 
and to whom I am bound b}' gratitude (that 
powerful and inviolate tie in every honest 
miinl,) to render an^' service they can demand 
of me, in defense of what they esteem their 
riglits, at the risk of my life and property. 

"You will further, sir, be pleased to under- 
stand, that I never considered myself in that 
honorable light in which you place me — 'om of 
the Kijitfs .'<erv<nils,^ being entiiely unknown to 
those who liave the disposal of the King's 
favors. I never enjoyed, nor had I right 
to expect, ail}- office under His Majesty. The 
office I held, and for some years exercised under 
the depv.tation of Mr. Turner, was an hon- 
est purchase for which I paid punctual!}' an 
annual sum, and which I shall continue to [lay 
until the expiration of the term for which I 
would have held it, agreeably to our contract. 

" i'ermit me, sir, to add that had all the 
King's servants in this province been as ^vell 
informed as to the disposition of tlie inbaiji- 
tants, as they might have been, or taken the 
same pains to promote peace, good order, and 
obedience to the laws, that I flatter myself I 

*Coloni:il Documents, Rolls Office, p. 184. 

liave done, tiie .source of your excellency's un- 
ceasing lamentations had never existed; or had 
it existed, it would have been in so small a 
degree that e'er this it would have been 
nearl}' exhausted. 

"But, sir, a recapitulation of pasi errors, 
which it is now too late to corroel, would he 
painful to me, and might appear impertinent 
to you; I shall therefore decline the ungracious 
tasic, and by and with all due respect, subscribe 

"Your excellency's most 

"obedient, bumble servant, 

" 8.\ .M U KL J IIXSTONE. " 

lie was a member from Chowan in 1775, to 
the provincial congri'ss of the state, and suc- 
ceeded, on the death of .lohn Harvey, as moder- 
ator or [)i'e.sident. 

He was present at Halifax at tiie formation 
of the constitution in November, 177G, and 
although not a member, afforded all the aid 
of his experience iuid ability to develope the 
conservative features of that instrument.. To 
man}' of the principles adopted, he was 
oi)i)Osed, fearing the depai'tui'e from the forms 
long established and practiced was too great 
to be useful. 

In 1780 to 1782, he was a member of the 
Continental Congress. f In 1787, he was elected 
govenor of the state. He was an ardent and 
enthusiastic admirer of tlie constitution of the 
United States, an<l presided at the convention, 
held July 21st, 1788, to consider that instru- 
ment, hut it was rejected by that body. 
In 17j9, he and Benjamin Hawkins were 
elected the first senators ?n>m North Corolina 
in the Congress of the United States: here 
they served till 1798. 

In February, 1800, he was appointed one of 
the judges of the superior courts of law and 
equity, which he resigned in November, 1803. 
Ho died in ISltb 

t While a meuiler of the (.'outinenta! ('oii}i:css he was 
elected to the hif,'h honor of i)resiilent of tlKit IhhIv: but 
he was coui|.i'11p(1 to forego this (li>tine(iiiii lucuuse of 
the condition of his fuKuices. This lonipelleil his re- 
turn to North Carolina, and he had thus to forego 
what was then the hitjhest civil function in America. 
— .Journal of Continental Consrcss- 


Governor Jolinston wns mentally and lie left two children, Reverend Samuel J. 
physically " eveiy inch a man." His intcllt'ct Johnston, D.D., for years routor of St. Paul's, 
was of the highest order, cultivated hy learn- Edenton, and Sallie Anne, who married James 
ing and experience. His person was imposing, H. Wynns. E.sther Cotten, the only otlier 
of a large and powerful frame, erect and stately child of Godwin Cotton, married in 1804 
in his carriage, and of ii'on will. He joined James Wright Moore, of Virginia. He was 
the graces of the scdiolar with the wisdom of the son of Captain William Edward Moore, 
the statesman.* and was noted for his manlj- and noble pres- 
He was a devoted of masoniy, and cnce, and his devotion to field sports. He, too, 
was in 1788, grand master of the oi'der in the died early, leaving one son, Dr. Godwin C. 
state. t Moore, and two daughters, Emeline, who mar- 
He married Frances Catln-art, and had issue, ried first, ])r. N. W. Fletcher, of Virginia; her 
among them James C. Johnston, who lived .second husl)and was Mr. LeVert, of Alabama, 
ncai' Edenton, and died during the war he- and Sarah Matilda, married to Turner F. 
tweeu the states, al)ont 1804, one of the Westray, of Nash, since dead. 
wealthiest men of tlie state. He was so de- The genealogy of the Johnston family: 
cidedly opposed to secession tliat he disin- John Johnston, brotlier to Gabriel John- 
Iierited all his relatives, because they identified ston. Governor North Carolina 1734, married 
themselves witli this war, and left his Helen Scrymsour, and had seven children. I. 
property, amounting to many nnllions, to his Samuel. II. John, married Miss Williams and 
personal friends. At the outbreak of the had the following children: [a] John, mar- 
war he freed his slaves. He was a great ried Cotton, of Hertford County; (/^) Samuel 
admirer of Henry Clay, whose debts, to a large Iredell, university class 182G, rector of St. 
amount, Mv J(din.ston discharged witliout Paul's, Edenton; (c) Sally Ann, married to J. 
Mr. Clay's knowledge; nor was Mr. Clay ever I>. Wynns ; ((i) Elizabeth, married to Philip 
able to ascertain who was his benefactor. His Alston had .six children, and (< ) Anne, mar- 
will was contested by his legal heirs, on the ried to Hunter, no issue. 

ground of his biung nou coiiii>o.s- uniitis. III. Penelope, mari'ied to Parson Stuart, no 
About this time John Johnston, who had, in issue. IV. ,lane, married to George Blair, 
1787, 1788, 1789, represented P.ertie County and had {a) Helen, married to Tredwdl, had 
in the senate, became a citizen of Hertford four children; {/i) William; (r-) Margaret, 
County. He had married Betsey Cotten,daugh- married first to Dr. Hornier, and second to 
ter of Godwin Cotten, of Mullierr_> Grove, and Mr. Sawyer, and had seven children; («/) Sam- 
resided near there. He was of the same name uel, and (r) George, married Miss King, mem- 
and nephew of Governor Johnston, of Chowan, bcr of legislature in 1829. 

He was a man of high culture, but died too V. Anne died unmarried. VI. Isabella died 

3'Oung to attain the traditional prominence unman led. VII. Hannah, married to James 

and usefulness of his family. Iredell, (Judge of the Supreme Court of the 

* University Magazine, V!il., 1. United States, born 1750, died 1799,) and had 

t '-111 the loil'-e room at E.lenton,'- .says Mr. Banks four children: ('0 Thomas; (b) Annie- (,) 

mtheOb-erver," there is a remarkable chair of heavy ^^ , ,,,>t , ^„n„^ ^^"^ 

mahogany, carved with all tlic emblems of masonr.y, Helen, and ((/) James, born 1788. Governor of 

with the words, -'virtuleetsileuto." This chair is the tv- ,.i /-i r i oot t^ -i. i o^ . 

one which Genera] Washinstou occupied at miliains ^'^'■tl> Carolina 1827, I nited States Senator 

?^mf.Vv™;v f' ^^■=*Vl''l'"-"rr'. ''«!'*' '^""»g t'»e revohi- 1828. died 1853, leaving issue. 

tiouary war tor safety. It is a venerable relic, and ' , f^ 

possesses the reverence and regard of all masons." It's stated that this family is a lu'aneh of 



the house of Aiiiiaiuhile of Scotland. An ilhi- 
sion is made in McRoo's "Life and Correspon- 
dence of James Iredell," to the dorniant claim 
to the Marquisitc of Annamlale, as existinic in 
the Johnston laniily vi' North Carolina nor 
is this claim a myth. 

From a work on genealogy, reliable and \al- 
iiahle, (the Peerage of Scotland, containing an 
historical and genealogioid account of the no- 
hility of that kingdom from their origin to 
the present generation, by Sir Kohert Douglas, 
in quarto, 1813,) I extract the following: 

"George, third Marquis of Annandale, died 
April •29th, 1792. He left an estate of £415,000. 
It is understood that the title devolved on 
James, (third Earl of Hopetown,) who, how- 
ever, did not a.ssume the title but took the 
name of Johnstone in addition to that of 
Hope. It has not been determined whether 
the title of the Marquis of Annandale has 
become extinct, or devolves on the beir male 
general of the family, or who is such heir male 

''The motto of the f;unily is 'Ntmqiunn von 
paratwi.^ — Vol. I., 77. 

"The Johnston es were a race of brave and 
warlike men, of great aower and authority on 
the borders."— Vol. I.,'70. 

From Family Romance; or, Episodes in the 
Domestic Annals of the Aristocracy of Great 
Britain. A work by Sir Bernard Burke, au- 
thor of the Peerage, &c., fourth edition: Lon- 
don, 1876: 

•'Margaret, Lady Ogiivy, (wife of David, 
Lord Ogiivy and daughter of Sir James Jq]ni- 
stone,) Third Baronet of Westerhall and 
Dame Barbara Murray, was one of the keenest 
supporters of the unfortunate Prince Charles 
Edwanl, when be raised his standard in Scot- 
land in 1744. 

" When the fortunes of Charles apjiroached 
its close, Lord Ogilv}- was unwilling to continue 
liis su|iport, and as the only way of securing 
her hn.sband's attendance at the battle of Cul- 
loden. Lady Ogiivy rode herself with him at 
the head of the clan to the battle field, she 
w:;s beautiful and graceful, and an admirable 
rider. At the close of the day, her husband 
rode breathless up to her, and told her ' the 

battle was' Tie escaped to France, where 
he entered the army, and attained the hiirb 
rank of Lieutenant-General under Najjoleon. 
Lady Ogiivy was taken prisoner, tried, con- 
victed, and sentenced to be executed in Edin- 
burgh. She made her escape, by a fearless 
stratagem, to France, where she joined her 
husband; there she died at the early age of 
tbirty-lhree. . She left one son, David, who 
died' without issue, and one daughter who 
nmrricd Sir John Wedderburn, heir of the of Airlic. 

" She had several talented, distinguished and 
fortunate brothers. Her second brother, Wil- 
liam, married Miss Pulteney, daughter of 
Daniel Pulteney, sole heiress of the Earl of 
P>atb. In consequence of succeeding to her 
innnense fortune Mr. Johstone assumed the 
name of Pulteney. He became Fifth Baronet 
and claimant of the Marquisate of Annandale 
on the death of his eldest brother. Her only 
daughter was created Countess of Bath, died 
without issue. Her vast estates were inherit ed 
by her maternal relatives; the Duke of Cleve- 
land, and Sir Richard Sutton; Sir William 
Johnstone Pulteney, heir in the WeshrhuU 
estate, the American possessicns, and the claimant 
to the Marquisate of Annandale is Sir 
Frederick, the Eighth Baronet, great grand 
son of the third soli of Sir James and Dame 

" Sir James's fourth son, John, went to India, 
made a fortune, and returned home, where he 
purchased large estates in his native country. 
Alva, ill the County of Clackmannan, and tiie 
Hanging Show, in the County of Selkirk. The 
family of Mr. .lohnstone's only son are numer- 
ous and ju-osperous." Many of them emigrated 
to America; pp. 108 to 173. 

Some members of tliis family were engaged 
in our late internicine war, and fell in batth-. 

Although it is unquestionable as stated by 
Whitman in his work on "American Geneal- 
ogy,'' that any given family in our country, 
claiming to be descended from any distin- 
o-uished English familv of the same name is 
doubtful, and .such claims should be severely 
scrutinized; yet en, ugh has been shown from 
the English authorities of unquestioned reli- 
ability, that the claim of the Johnston fam- 
ily in North Carolina to the title of the Mar- 
quisate of Annandale of Scotland has some 



fouHdution,aiul iiiiglit re\v;n'd the (lesceiidiuit.s 
in prosecuting tiie claim. 

Joseph Ilewes, horn 1735, died 1770, one of 
the signers of the Dechiration of Independence 
of July 4th, 1776, from North Carolina, was 
long a resident of Edenton. lie was a native 
of New Jersey, and a merchant. 

He was a member of the Colonial Congress 
at New Berne in 1774, and in Ilillshoro in 1775; 
olten a member of the House of Commons, 
and a member of the Continental Congress at 
Philadelphia, 1774 to 1777, and 1779 to 1780. 

He died while in Congress at Philadelphia, 
on November 10th, 1779. He left a large for- 
tune hut no children to inherit it. He was 
possessing in person, and of great amenity of 
manners. His original miniature, beautifidly 
executed, now in the possession of Miss Ire- 
dell, at Charlotte, shows that he was very 
handsome and of amiable countenance. 

Mr. Ilewes was a man of exquisite delicacy 
and retinement; he had been the accepted sui- 
tor of Isabella, the sister of Samuel Johnston. 
She died just previous to her nuptials, and he 
soon followed her to the grave.* 

It is not very complimentary to our state 
pride that neitlier one of the signers of the 
Declaration, as delegates from the state, were 
native sons of North Carolina. William 
Ilouper was a Roston man, Ilewes, a New 
Jersey man, and John Penn, a Virginian. 

Hugh Williamson, born 1735, died 1811), one 
of the signers of the Constitution of the 
United States, from North Carolina, resided 
for a long time in Edenton. 

He was a native of Pennsylvania, born De- 
cember 5th, 1735, at Nottingham, a phy- 
sician by profession. 

He represented the town in 1782, and the 
County of Chowan in 1785, in the legislature. 
In 1782, he was elected by the Provincial 
Congress of Nortli Carolina, a member of the 

*Moore's Historical Sl5;etches of Hertford Co. ntv 
XL, 556. ■^' 

Continental Congress at Philadelphia, and 
served till 1785, and again in 1787-'88. In 
1787 he, with William Blount and Richard 
Dobbs Spaight, was delegate to the conven- 
tion wiiich formed the Constitution uf the 
United States, and their names are appended 
to that immortal instrument. 

From his advocacy of the constitution,which 
was not accepted by North Carolina, he lost 
much popularity. But this was but momen- 
tary, for he represented the Edenton district 
in the Frst and Second Congress in the House 
of Representatives, (1789 to 1793.) 

He served his country faithfully at home and 
abroad; was appointed at the liead of the 
medical staff, liy Governor Caswell and was 
with him at the battle of Camden, 1780. He 
was literary in his tastes, and wrote (1812) a 
History of North Carolina. He died suddenly 
in New York, (where he had removed and 
where he had married,) on May 22d, 1819. 

Stephen Cabarrus, born 1754, died 180S, 
represented Edenton in the legislatui'e from 
1784 to 1787, and the county from 1788 
to 1805, with some intermission, and was an 
acceptable speaker of the House of Commons 
from 1800 to 1805; from him Cabarrus County 
derives its name. He resided and <lied at Pem- 
broke, near Edenton. 

He was a nativu of France, and posse-sed the 
usual great wit and vivacity of his countrymen. 
That he was popular is shown from the re- 
peated elections of the people, and that he 
was a useful member is evident by his long 
service as speaker. He lies buried at Pembroke, 
a large marble slat marks the spot t>f his last 
resting place. It is thus inscribed: 

" In memory of Stephen Cabarrus, who depiu'ted this 
life ou the 4th of August. 18.8, aged fifty-four yeare.'" 

Honorable Chailes Johnson was a useful and 
distinguished citizen of Chowan County. He 
often represented the county- in the senate, 
(1781 to '92,) and in 1782, 1789, was speaker 
of the senate. He represeiited the district in 



the Seveiitli Congress of tlie United States in 
1801; he died in congress in 1802. His son, 
Charles E. Johnson, represented tliis county 
frequently in the senate. 1817,-'19, 20, whose 
son, Dr. Charles Johnson, was surgeon-general 
of the state in the civil war, and who lived 
and died in Ealeigh. 

Thomas Henbury an early and active 
friend to the cause of the people — one of the 
Committee of Safety in 1775, was also a citi- 
zen of Chowan. He often represented the 
county in the legislature as early as 1774, and 
continued till 1781. He was speaker of the 
house in 1778,-'79,-'80,-'82. At one time 
Chowan County had her sons speakers of iioth 
houses of the asscmldy. One of his descend- 
ants I'epi'esented Chowan Count\' in the legis- 
lature in 18(52, -'f)4, with George M. L. Eure as 
colleague in the senate. 

James Iredell, born 1750, died 1799, one 
of the associate justices of the supreme court 
of the United States, resided in Edenton. 
He was a native of England. 

His father was a prosperous merchant at 
Bristol, eldest son of Francis Iredell, born at 
Lewes, in Sussex County, on October 5th, 1751. 

He came to North Carolina in the fall of 
1708, when only seventeen years old, and held 
the office of deput}' of the port of Edenton 
under his relative Henry Eustace McCullock. 
He was afterwards appointed collector, Feb- 
ruar}- 17th, 1774, by the Crown. He studied 
law, under Governor San)uel Johnston, whose 
sister, H.-innah, he ]^/^^ July 10th, 1773. 

He was licensed ^^^B)er 14th, 1770, and 
soon rose to eniineW^^i his profession. In 
1777, he was elected one of the judges of tlie 
superior courts, which he resigned in 1777. In 
July following he was made attorney general 
b\' Governor Caswell. In 1788, he was a 
member of the convention that met at Hills- 
boro to deliberate on the Constitution of the 
United States, and was the aide, l)ut unsuccess- 
ful, advocate of its adoption. 

Iti February, 1790, he was apjiointed I'y 
(Jeneral Washington, one of the justit-es of the 
supreme court of the United States. 

Full of years and honors he died at Edenton, 
October 20th, 1799. 

His name has been iiidelii)ly written on the 
history of the state, by calling after his name 
one of the most lovely counties of the state. 

Judge Iredell was, as expressed by Chief 
Justice Marshall in a letter to Judge Murphy, 
(October, 1S27,) a man of talents, and of great 
})rofessional worth. 

He left two daughters and one son: his 
death was hastened by his severe labors in 
riding the southern circuit. 

" Repeatedly," sa3-s McCree in his biography, 
" did this devoted public servant, in his stick 
gig, traverse the wide and weary distances 
between Philadelphia and Savannah." "The 
life and correspondence of Judge Iredell, by 
Griffith J. McCree," gives a full and accurate 
account of his character and services. This is 
the best work extract on North Carolina biog- 

James Iredell, junior, born 1788 died 1853, 
son of Judge Iredell, was born, lived and died 
in Edenton. He was liberally educated, a 
graduate of Princeton in 180G, and studied 
law. Both in his legal pursuits and in political 
life he attained great eminence. 

In the war of 1812, he raised a company of 
volunteers and became its captain. His asso- 
ciate and life long friend, Gavin IIogg,was one 
of the lieutenants. He marched with his 
company to Craney Island, near Norfolk, and 
aided in its defense against the Britisii. After 
the war he returned to his profession, of which 
he was a distinguished member. He entered 
public life in 1816 as a member from the town 
of Edenton; (in 1817 and 1818 he was speaker.) 
He was returned to the legislature for many 
years. In March, 1819, he was appointed a 
judge of the superior courts of law and equity, 
which, in the May following, he resigned. In 


1S27. he was elected Governor of the State of practice embraced the counties of Chowan, 
North Carolina, and the next year was elected Perquimons, Parqiiotatdc, Camden, P>ertie, 
a Senator in Congress, sncceeding Nathaniel Hertford and Martin, T.nt this large and 
Macon. He was succeeded by Judge Mangnm lucrative practice he was compelled to abandon 
as senator in congress. on account of his health. Apprehensive of the 
Ai'ter leaving the senate,where he was hn-ed consumption, he reimired to Philadelphia, 
by his associates, and esteemed by the nation, and consulted Dr. Rush, who prescribed along 
he retired to the practice of his profession, sea voyage. This advice was followed and for 
which the support of a young and increasing three years he was absent, visiting Calcutta 
family deman<led. He was for a time the able and other regions. He returned in restored 
and accurate reporter of the decisions of the health, and resumed his pra.-tice at Edenton. 
supreme court, which are regarded by the pro- Here he continued until his deatli. Ho was 
fession as models of their kind, and autluuity appointed surgeon in the army, which he soon 
in all the courts of the country. declined. lie was one of the first men of his 
Few men who knew Governt.a- Iredell that profession. He wrote much on medical sub- 
did not esteem him; and to his intimate jects, but only a few of his works have been 
friends he WHS an es[iecial favorite. Even in published. Among them were articles on 
the heat of political contests, he never forgot Tetanus, epidemic of 1816, on cholera, on 
the courtesy of life, or the dignity of agentle- scarlatina and on endemic fall and summer 
man. His social habits afiected much of his fever. He was a public spirited citizen and 
usefulness. christian patriot.* 

He married a daughter of Samuel Tread- Gavin Hogg was born in Orange County and 
well collector of Edenton, by whom he had an was distinguished as an advocate He corn- 
interesting and numerous family. One of his meueed the practice of the law in I3ertie 
daughters married Cadwallader Jones, now of County, and removed to Raleigh, where he 
South Carolina; another Griffith McRee, of lived for a long time, and where he died. He 
Wilmington; anotlier Dr. Charles E. Johnson, had few equals and no superiors as a lawyer, 
and another Honorable W. M. Shipp of Char- Hig family was distinguished in the revolu- 
jotte. tion. Governor Martin, the last of the Royal 
Governor Iredell died in Edenton on April Governors, in a dispatcli states: "The council 
13th, 1853. have maintained their loyalty, especially An - 
Dr. James Norcum, one of the most skillful drew Miller, John Hogg, and John Curden."t 
and successful physicians of the county, was Writing of Gavin Hogg, the Economist 
born and lived and died in Chowan County. (December 31st, 1878,) says " that Windsor 
He was l)orii in 1778, educated at the was the starting place of his professional ca- 
academy in Edenton, and studied his profes- reer, where he entered the legal arena, where 
siou under Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia, ■ he attained fame and f.jrtune; he was a great 
where he graduated in his twentieth year, hiwyer but had no social affinities. He was 
under such medical celebrities as Rush, Wistar, stern and austere. The people respected him 
Shippea and others. He returned home, and for his talents but never loved him as a friend. 
bv his skill and learning soon obtained an His learning and acumen gave him great 
extensive practice. So extensive that he was power and influence His argument in the 
often sent for in consultation from a distance — " ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^ of Dr. Norcum by Dr. S. S. Satchell, 
of more than one hundred miles. His field of is.j2, tColonial Documents, 225. 



case of Gregoiy agaiiis^t Hooker's administra- 
tor, is said to be one of the ablest aniong the 
reports of the supreme court, and when lie 
retired from the bar he left no superior. 

Joseph Bloiuit Skinticr, born 1780, died 
1851, distinguished as a lawyer and statesman, 
lived and died in Edenton. He was the 
eldest child of Joshua and Martha Skinner, of 
Harve^-'s Neck. After .^pending some time at 
Princeton C(illege,he read law under Governor 
Samuel Johnston, and attained distinction at 
the bar; so lucrative was his practice that in 
a few years he was the leading counsel in 
every case of importance in his circuit, and 
found himself possessed of ample competency. 
After the labors of iiiore than twenty years, 
he retired from the bar to the more congonial 
pursuits of agriculture; he purchased a farm 
near Edenton where he lived and died. In 
this, as in his profession, he was eminently 
successful. He was a model farmer, and caused 
the waste places in that section to rejoice and 
blossom as the rose. His large farm became 
the admiration of all in that section — beauti- 
ful beyond any other in our state. In other 
pursuits he was equally successful and enter- 
prising. He gave the first impulse in this sec- 
tion to that valuable industry, the herring and 
shad fisheries. Hitherto the fisheries had been 
confined to the Roanoke and Chowan rivers, 
and their triliutaries. They were few in num- 
ber and small in extent. iMr. Skinner, with 
his characteristic energ}-, ventured on the ex- 
periment, then deemed visionary and imprac- 
ticable, and boldly launched his seines on the 
broad and oft vexed Albemarle itself, and suc- 
ceeded beyond his own expectations. His 
example has been followed; previously the 
spring catch was confined to float nets and 
weirs, now the northern shore of the sound is 
literally studded with fisheries, and there are 
numerous seines 2,000 yards long, worked by 
windlass and horse power, creating a large in 
dustry, and adding annually hundreds of 

thousands of dollars to the wealth of this 

Such a man may empbatioaily i)e styled a 
public benefactor; the people of Chowan re- 
cognized his merits. In 1805 and 1807, be 
was elected a member of the legislature, and 
again in 1814 and 1815. He was a member of 
the convention in 1835 — the most distin- 
guished body of men ever assembled in tlie 

His course and po.sition in the public councils 
have thus been described by his friend, Judge 
Nash: "Ilis mind and character placed him 
among the ablest men of the legislature — and 
there were many of the highest range of in- 
tellect. Eminently practical, he brought to 
the discussions in that body a fund of knowl- 
edge and facts, and was always listened to 
with profound attention." 

lie died on December 23d, 1851. He mar- 
ried in early life Miss Lowtlier, the great grand 
daugher of Governor Gabriel Johnston, who 
died several years before him, leaving an only 
son and a grandaughter. This son. Major 
Tristam Lowther Skinner, fell in the battle of 
Ellison's Mill. He had several brothers. Rev- 
erend Dr. Thomas II. Skinner, distinguished 
as a Presbyterian divine, and Charles W. 

Thomas J. Jarvis was born in this county, 
July 18th, 183G, and graduated at Randolph, 
Macon; he studied law and obtained his li- 
cense to practice. During the war between 
the states he served as Captain in the Eighth 
Regiment of North Carolina troops. In the 
constitutional convention of 1865, he served 
as a member, as also in the lower branch of 
the legislature in 1808, in 1870 he was elected 
speaker of that body. Removing to Pitt, he 
was cliusen a delegate to the constitutional 
convention of 1875. In 1876 he was elected 
lieutenant governor of the state for four 
years, 1877 to 1881, but on the election of 
Governor Z. B. Vance to the United States 


Senate in 1879, he became tlie occupiuit of the We might extend our sketches by recording 

Executive Chair, and in 1880, h}' the suffrages the character, and services of other distin- 

of his people, became their chief magistrate for guished men of Chowan County, " wlio have 

four years. done the state some service," as the Johnsons, 

Augustus Moore, born 1803, died 1851, lived Benlmrys, Coffields, Brownriggs, Haskens, 

and died in Edenton. lie graduated at the Warrens, IL-aths, and others, did the limits 

university in 1824, in a class distingui.shed for of our work allow. But before we close 

ability, compo.sed of B. B. Blume, John Bragg, our sketch we cannot refrain from presenting 

(member of congress from Alabama 1851, and an amusing incident, which, by its humor, 

a judge in that state.) James W. Bryan, Mat- may relieve the dry detail imposed on our 

thias E. Maidy, (judge of the supreme court kind readers. Tlie account is from th^' gifted 

of North Carolina,) David Outlaw, (memiierof pen of ''Traveller." " I will my letter 

congress 1747 to 1853,) and others; studied by relating a true story of one of Edenton's 

Law with Charles H. Kinny, of Elizabeth City, gifted sons, J)r. Edward Warren, surgeon- 

aud practiced with great success. general of the state during the war, and who 

As an advocate, he had no superior for has been serving a foreign power, and now 

learning, diligence, accumen, or address. He resides in Paris. General Winfield Scott ac- 

was appointed judge of the superior court in cepted an invitation to visit Xag's Head, on 

1848, and presided with great acceptability, one occasion. Dr. Warren (than whom there 

lenrning, and integrity, but resigned the same are few better speakers,) was elected to make 

year. lie died very suddenly at Edenton, in the reception address. As General Scott's 

IS'-^l. coming was doubtful, it was understood that 

He married Miss Armistead and left several if General Scott was on board, it was to be 

children. One of them, William Armistead made known by raising a flag on the boat 

.Moore, late one of the judges of the state, and when a short distance from the wharf at Nag's 

who wore with equal dignity and ability the Head, when the salute would commence. The 

ermine of his illustrious father. immense crowd on the boat at Blackwater, 

William Allen, a representative in congress and business caused General Scott to return to 

from Ohio, 1832, senator from 1837 to 1849, Norfolk, and the steamer went on without him. 

and Governor of Ohio in 1874, was born in Before reaching Nag's Head, it was suggested, 

Edenton, in 1806. and determined " to play a trick on the boys." 

He was the son of Nathaniel Allen, who Colonel John B. Odem, late of N'orthanipton 

represented the borough in the House of Com- County, now of Baltimore, the only living 

mons, in 1802, and was much esteemed for his man in America who not only equalled, hut 

genial qualities and generous di.sposition. He surpassed General Scott in person, air, and 

married a Miss Granbury, and their daughter tigure was .selected to personate cd interim the 

married Mr. Thurman, a iMethodist minister, hero of Lundy's Lane. General Lawrence 8. 

and was the mother of Allen Granbury Thur- Baker, who was also along, kindly furnished a 

Uian, kite a distinguished senator from Ohio, new uniform, epaulettes, chapeau, sword, sjish, 

and president of the senate. &c., to which chapeau was appended a flaming 

As a statesman and politician, Governor plume of red feathers. He " looked every inch 

.\llen enjoyed a world wide reputation, and a King." Colonel Odem was squeezed in the 

North Carolina is proud of her son. He died uniform, for he was "a world too large" for the 

July, 1879, universally loveil and respected. war clothes of General Baker. He played his 



part to perfection, with foliled arms lio was 
stationed near the jiilot house and received 
" the upturned sea of faces " witii the dignity 
of a hero. As the hoat neared the wharf tiie 
flag was raised, loud cheers followed, and 
cannon after cannon runj^ out a cordial 
welcome. When the hoat gained the wharf, 
Colonel Odeni took oft" his chapeau and made 
a graceful and dignified ))0W. Then Dr. 
Warren mounted a harrel on the wharf, and 
with a loud voice comnieneed; "General 
Scott, we welcome you to North Carolina! 
We hail you with delight and glory, as the hero 
of Chippewa, Cerro Gordo, Lundy's Lane, and 
Mexico, the greatest living representative of 
the warrior, and the hero of two glorious 
wars. Like our Washingtoi:, without a model 
and without an equal, ' none I'ut thyself can 
he thy parallel.' " lie thus continued for ten 
minutes, making one of the most beautiful 
reception epieeches, which captivated his audi- 
ence. They expressed their admiration b}' loud 
and continued cheers. Now for General Scott. 
Colonel Odem, who stammers a little at times, 
and was evidently overcome, replied as fol- 

" Gent-gentle-nien; if, if, I, I, were Gen- 
General Scott; (which he pronounced Scart, 
witli a slight hiss,) I would make you a speech- 
a speech. But I am not General Scart, Scart, 
I am only John B. Odem, -John B. Odem; 
and I shan't do it." 

" The crowd were furious, and madness ruled 
the hour; some were for throwing him over- 
board, unif<n'm, fcatlieis and all; some cried 
'kill him, kill him, for he has fooled us all.' 
But Major Henry IL (William, who was the mar- 
plot of the whole matter, and who knows very 
well how to get a fellow out of a bad scrape 
either in court, or out of court, interpiosed. 
He said, ' boys, hold on, what are 3-ou mad 
about? Warren has given us as a good speech 
as you ever heard. I propose to wash it down 
in champagne: come up to the hotel, it is my 
treat.' This was unanimously agreetl to, and 
the crowd went to the hotel; the first order 
was for six baskets, and how many more has 
not been ascertained. At any rate there was 

not a bottle to be found, until the next boat 
from Norfolk brought a fresh supply."* 

This section of the state suifered sadly from 
the ravages of warfare, for after the fall of 
Roanoke Island the sounds and navigable 
rivers were open to the enemy's gunboats. 
These coasted up and down, and bore oft' the 
means and necessaries of life, living freights 
of t'ugitive negroes, and the low and skulking 
butt'aloes. These were shameless and mean 
whites, who turned traitors to their friends, 
and betrayed tluun to their unrelenting foes. 
These were held in abliorence and contempt. 
They established a stronghold at Wingfield — 
the lovely homesteatl for 3'ears of the Brow- 
rigg family, previously occupied by Dr. Dillard, 
but the Buftaloes took possession, and the s[ia- 
cious halls, once the scene of elegance and 
beauty, were occupied by a foul and cowardly 
crew, who became such an intolerable nui- 
sance that the building was iired. 

These miscreants plundered all alike, tlie 
plate and pianos of the rich, as also the poultry 
and bread stuft' of the poor. 

The conduct of the colored population con- 
trasted most honorably with tlie conduct of 
their professed friends, and is recorded to 
their und3ing credit. While every white 
man capable of bearing arms was in the field, 
the colored men remained at home cultivating 
the crops for the support of the helpless white 
women and their children. Although free- 
dom, plunder, and every allurement was lield 
out to them to leave their old homes and their 
old masters, many of them utterly refused, 
ami nmny of them became warmly attached 
to the cause of their struggling masters. 
Moore, from whom I quote, states that in 
December, 18C2, at Fort Warren, the humane 
federal commander. Colonel Dimmick, of- 
fei'ed to release two colored men from cap- 
tivit}', William, the servant of Captain 

* Raleigh Observer. 



Clements, and Brooks, tlie servant of Cap- sent his man, Harvey, through the country, 

tain Sparrow, upon their taking the oath of then swarminiz; with federal troops, to his 

allegiance. wife with two valuable horses and a consider- 

They spurned the offer, and remained to able amount of money. Harvey had every 

share the fallen fortunes of their old friends indueeuient and opportunity offered to desert 

and the playmates of their youth. Major his service, but he proved faithful to his trust, 

Moore relates the fact that, when in command and returned to his master before his furlough 

of the Third North Carolina Battalion, he had expired. 


^ Craven County, like C^howan, contained 
many patriotic spirits of the early age of the 
state, and presents a glowing record of history. 
Around its venerable metropolis, New Berne, 
are clustered many memories of rare interest. 
Here landed the J'alatincs, led by the Baron 
DeGraaffenreidt, from Switzerlatid. The name 
of New Berne was bestowed by them in re- 
membrance of the vine clad hills of tb.eir na- 
tive land. 

Here, for a hmg tiriie, was the seat of the 
Royal government, and from here were the 
affairs of the colony directed 1)y the long and 
gentle rule of Governor Dobl)s, and here his 
successor, Governor Tryoii, held his vice-regal 
court, and erected a mansion more palatial 
than any ever before seen on this continent. 

A drawing of Tryon's palace and its ground 
has been preserved by Lossing, and it nnu,t 
have been a most magnificent structure. Time 
and the accident of tire have efFa«ed its 
lieauties, but the stables are still in a good 
state of preservation, and are now used as 
school rooms^ 

John Hawks, the grand-father of Rev. I)r. 
Francis L. Hawks, was the architect of the 

Tryon palace. Martin, in his history of North 
Carolina, states this building had at the time 
no superior in America, and that he in 1783, 
in compan}' with Miranda visited it, and he 
stated that it had no superior in South Amer- 
ica. In December, 1770, Governor Tryon, for 
the first time, received the legislature in its 
princely halls. 

After the revolutionary war, the property 
was confiscated and sold. It was purchased 
hy the Daves family. J. P. Daves donated 
tlie stable buildings to the Episcopal church. 
One of Mr. Daves's daughters married Governor 
John W. Ellis, and after his death J. E. Nash, 
of I'etersburg. Governor Tryon's clock is in 
the possession of Charles C. (Mark, and is still 
a good time keeper. His writing desk is the 
proiierty of Z. Shide. It is of solid mahogany, 
and in perfect state of pruservatinn.* 

About the year 1709, Baron Christopher de 
Graaffenriedt led a large colony from the Palat- 
inate of the Rhine, and in September, 1710, 
founded the town of New Berne. He was 
born in 10^, and was made a land-grave of 

*RecoIlections of New Berne, fifty years ago. By 
Stephen F. Miller; Living and the Dead, January, 1875. 



Carolina by the lords proprietors. The Baron, 
after many trials and snfi'crings, nearly losing 
his life, became involved in pecuniarv difG- 
ciilties with Judge Gale, Governor Pollock 
and others. I fcinid a letter from the Palatines, 
among the records of the roll office, London, 
which is as follows: 

" Jnly 23d, 1747, letter received from the 
Palatines in is'^orth Carolina, to his majesty the 
King, that six hundred of them had been sent 
out under care of Christopher de Graaffenriedt ; 
that in 1711, an Indian war broke out; Graaffen- 
riedt was taken a prisoner by tliem; that 
Thomas Pollock, acting as governor, sent Cap- 
tain Bricc,and took everything they had, and 
in 1747, the heir of said Pollock came and 
turned them oif their lands, in order to settle 
the rebel soots." 

May 17th, 1748, letter from (Governor John- 
stOTi that the statement of the Palatines is 
true, that many of their relations were mur- 
dered by the Indians, and they had been dis- 
possessed as stated. 

'* Thej' are verj- sober and industrious. 

" Governor Johnston suggests that other 
lands be given tiien:i. Baron DeGraatfenriedt 
had returned home." 

•'M//r/, Wilt, 1748. 
■• Order of King in Council: 

" Govei'nor Johnston shall n.ake a grant of 
land to the Palatines as shall be equivalent to 
that that they have been di.spossessed of by 
one. Colonel Pollock, and his heirs."* 

J^)eGraaftenriedt's son. and Lewis Michel, of 
Berne, came with him to America. Some of 
the famii}' are still in this country. 

Inquiry has produced a letter to Mrs. Mary 
Ba3-ard Clark, dated Columbus, Georgia, Jan- 
tiary 18th, 1871, which shows the whereabouts 
ot the American branch of the family: 

" Christopher de Graaffenriedt (son of Baron 
Christopher de Graaffenriedt and Regina 
Tscharner, his wife,) married at Charleston, 
South Carolina, on Felu'uary 22d, 1714. They 
removed to Pliiladelphia, afterwards to Mary- 

*N. C, No. 11, B. 88. 

land, and linally to Williamsburg, Virginia, 
where, on November 28t!i, 1722, Tscharner, 
their son. was born, being the first of the 
name born in America, and from whom all 
the family in this country arc descended. 

'•■ This Tscharner was twice married, and had 
seven sons and four ilaughters. His oldest, 
Francis, the father of Dr. Edwin L. de Graaffen- 
riedt, is now the sole survivor. lie had sev- 
eral uncles who served in the revolutioary 
war; two of them killed in battle. His father 
was a captain in the revolution on the Amer- 
ican side. His brother, William, of Lunenburg, 
Virginia, was in the war of 1812. Matthew 
Fountaine, son of another uncle, was aid to 
General Jackson in the battle of New Orleans. 

" In the late civil war there were many <>f 
the name in the southern army. 

" Two of the daughters of Tscharner mar- 
ried brothers of John C. Calhoun, who were 
wealth}' planters, and lived on Broad river. 
South Carolina. 

' Christopher died in 1742, in Lunenburg, 

These people were keenly alive to their' 
rights, and opposed to ever\- form "f oppres- 
sion. It was in New Berne that the first 
jirovincial congress was held, in open opposi- 
tion to tlie authority of England, ( 25, 
1774,] whieh appointed deputies to the Con- 
tinental Congress at Philadelphia, (Caswell, 
Ilewes and Hooper,) and sympathising with 
their oppressed and plundered countrymen at 
lioston, sent relief in the way of provisions 
and necessaries, declaring "the aiast- of Boston, 
is (he came of all." What an illustrious cxam- 
[ilo to many who would still further distract 
and divide the people of our county! The com- 
mittee of safety for New Berne, were Dr. Alex- 
ander Gaston, Richard Cogdell, John Easton, 
Major Croom, Roger Ormond, Edward Salter, 
George Burrow, James Glasgow, and others. 
The town of New Berne was incorporated in 
1723, by the legislature then sitting at Eden- 

Francois Xavier Ahtrtiu, born 17G2, died 
184fJ, author of a bi.story of North Carolina, 
and some legal works, was long a resident of 
New Berne. 



He was a native of France, born at .Mar- 
seille^;, 1762. IIo was a iu'lnterand editoi-, and 
studied law, in wliich be became learned luid 

In 1806 and 1807, be was a member of the 
House of Commons from tlie borough of New 

He was appointed by Mr. Jefferson, a judge 

"The rebellion was a deliberate contrivance, 
sui)verting the govennnent, dis.solving the 
parliaments, imprisouing the lordship's depu- 
ties, putting the president of the country in 
jail, seizing and carrying away the records, 
assuming supreme power, convening assem- 
blies, and last of all, a most horrid and treas- 
sonable action, erecting courts to try cases of 
life and death without authority. 

" Captain Valentine Bird, collector, exported 

in tlie Mississippi Territory, and resided at 150,000 pounds of tobacco without paying any 

dues. On hearing that Eastchurst was comim. 

Natchez. So acceptable were his services that 
on Feliruary 1st, 1815, he was appointed one of 
the .supi'eme court judges of Louisiana, which 
elevated position he occupied till his death, 
December lOtli, 18-16. 

He became entiiely blind in his later years, 

but continued to [ireside with great accept- 

al)ility, and acknowledged ability. He wrote 

a histoiy of the State of Louisiana, as also of 

»-.-Nt)jrth Carolina. 

• The Blount family in North Carolina have 
been distinguished for more than a century for 
integrity, enterprise, intelligence and patriot- 

as governor, and Miller as collector, he took 
up arms with the rest of the subscribers and 
opposed Miller on his first landing, and drew 
his sword. 

'• George Durant contemned and opposed tiie 
governor with a rebel rout. 

" Captain James Blount, one of the deputy's 
assistants, is one of the chief among the insur- 
rectors. I wrote to him and theother bur- 
gesses of Chowan precinct. When the sheriff 
came, he, with one Captain John Vernham, 
took the sheriff prisoner, and raised forces to 
oppose the governor."* 

Sir Walter Blount's next son was: 


II. Thomas: he had five sons. 1st, Tbo 

i^ojj ias. 


had five sons: [a) Thomas, who mflrried Eliza- 

According to a genealogical table, prepared beth Reading, distinguished in the Indian 

by the late Governor Clark, this family was of wars 1708: (A) James; (c) John; [d) Jacob 

English origin, and figured in the reigns of and (e) Esau, twins.t 

Charles I. (1625,) and Charles 11. (1660.} IIL Thomas (.son of Thomas who married 
The head of the family was created a Baronet Elizabeth Reading,) had four sons: (a) Read- 
in 1642, as Sir Walter Blount. ing; {[>) James, Captain in Second Continen- 

He left four .sons and four daugliters. The tal regiment; (e) John; (d) Jaco!>. 

younger sons sought their fortunes in America. IV. Jacob, son of Thomas, was at Inittle of 

From them, this family can be clearly traced Alamance, 1771; a member of the provincial 

in distinct lines to the present. congress, and an officer in the revolutionary 

From Sir Waltei- Blount descended: war. He married first Barbara Gray, second 

I.James; came to North Carolina about Mrs. Salter, was the progenitor of the family, 

1664, and settled in Craven. -- -n -, . ^^d ten children, viz: 

He was a member of the House of Burgesses, I. William, who was born in Craven County, 

and was active in the Culpepper rebellion, 
which, for a time, held and controlled the 

From the Rolls Office, in London, I copy a 
paper directed to the Lords Proprietor, " con- 
cerning the rebellion in Carolina, from 1663 to 

in 1749, married Miss Granger, of Wilmington. 
Elected member of legislature 1783,-'84; of the 
continental congress, 1782-'83-'86-'87; in the 
convention which formed Constitution of the 
United States, in 1787; appointed governor of 

^Colonial Documents, London, !•'). 

tSee Williamson s, Koith Carolina, I, 202. 



ten-itoric-- ot" United States west of Ohio, 
1790; senator in congress tVoni Tennessee, 
179(5; expelled from senate in 17;i7; nieraber 
of the convention that formed state constitu- 
tion of Tennessee. Died in Knoxville, 1810. 
He left one son, William Granger, who was in 
congress from Tennessee, 1815 to 1819, and 
who died in 1827, unmarried ; and one daughter 
who was the first wife of General K. P. Gaines.* 

II. Ann, daiigliter of Jacob, married Henry. 

III. John Gray Blount, sou of Jacob, was 
horn 1752. Married Mary Harvey; he was 
often meiidjer of the legislature, from 1782 to 
1796, from Beaufort County. lie was an ex- 
tensive land owner and explorer. Often the 
companion of Daniel Boone. He died in 
January, 1S33, leaving six children, viz: («) 
Thomas Harvey, son of John Gray; (6) Jolwi 
Gray, in war of 1812; (c) William Augustus, 
(for sketch of whom see Beaufort County,) 
who died in 1867, leaving a son William, and 
a daughter who is the widow of General L. 
O'B. Branch, resides in Raleigh; (</) Polly, 
who married Rodman; (r) Lucy, who married 
General Grimes; [f) Patsy Baker, (unmar- 

IV. Louisa, who married to Richard l^ack- 

V. Reading, who married Lucy Harvey. 

VI. Thomas, born 1759, died 1807, was in 
tiie revolutionary war, sent to England a pris- 
oner. He was a meiidjer of the legislature from 
Edgecombe, 1798-'99, and a member of con- 
gress in 1793 to 1799, 1805 to 1809, and 1811, 
and 1812. He died at Washington, (without 
issue) leaving a widow, the daughter of 
General Jethro Sumner, named Mary Sum- 
ner Blount, who died near Tarboro in 
1822, made liberal bequests to Christ church 
in Raleigh, from which chietly funds were 
realized to buikl the beautiful stone edi- 
iice in that city. When the will was 
drawn, feai'ing that religious bodies could not 

*MSS. letter of Honorable Case Johnson. 

hold real estate against the clainjs of heirs at 
law, a provision was inserteil that in case of a 
contest t>ver the devises intended for Christ 
church, of Raleigh, those devises fihonld vest in 
Judge Cameron and Dr. Hooper in fee, to he 
disjiosed of as their consciences might dictate. 
The marl)le slab )narking her grave had been 
broken by the fall of a tree, or as scjmc say, by 
a stroke of lightning, and the \-os(ry of 
(yhrist's church, of Raleigh, determined to 
replace it, but these praise worthy intentions 
were frustrated by the inexcusable carlessness 
in the pi'eparation of the original epita[ili. It 
is verlHitim, as follows: 

" Sacred to the memory of 


relict of Ri'iil tliiinias lilount 

long a reiirt'scntiktivc in Uongre 

ss from this district 

and daughter of geul. jetliro hlount. 

Died the ISth Dec 1822 in her -ISth year " 

Mrs! Blount's father was General Jethro 
Sumner, not "Idonnt." It must have been a 
difficult task to comiiress so many errors in so 
small a space. 

VII. Jacob; l)orn 17C0; imvrried Collins. 

VIII. Barbara, born 1763. 

IX. Willie, son of Jacob, born 1768, secre- 
tary to his brother William, while governor of 
territory' west of the Ohio. Judge of the 
supreme court of Tennessee when only twentj-- 
two years old, and the Governor of Teunesse 
from 1809 to 1815, (.see Bertie County.) As 
governor he tendered to the United States 
2,500 volunteers in the war of 1812. He 
died near Na-shvilie, 1835, leaving two daugh- 
ters; one married Dr. J. T. Dabney, and 
another to Dortch. 

X. Sharp, who married Penelope Little, of 
Pitt County, who left two sons, William Little 
and George Little. 

I have thus endeavored to present a genea- 
logical diagram of a family whose members 
have been distinguished in the field, on the 
forum, and in legislative halls, as well as in. 
social life. 



The tnhle may be relied upon, as it has Iioeii 
the subject of imich labor and research. Their 
lives and offices have been briefly ailiideil to, 
figures and dates given, leaving to other hands 
the pious duty of comtiienting in detail on their 
character and services. 

Ahner was l>orn in i'rince Edward 
County, Virginia. At an early ago he went 
to New Berne, whei'o he studied and practiced 
law with great success. 

He was an able and active friend to the 
rights of the people, and a member of [iro- 
vincial congress in 1774. 

In the dispatcVi of Governor Martin, dated 
March lOtli, 1775, he informs his govern- 
ment that tlie seditious Icatlei's of tlie peo- 
ple ha\-e ti'.o effectually pi'evented the 
King's speech from operating to the extent he 
■wished. Instead of yielding the}- talk of re- 
sorting to violence. 

Enclosed is an advertisement of the com- 
mittee at New Berne, \\liich he calls "atro- 
cious falsehoods," and the composition of 
a Mr. Nash, one of the subscribers, who is an 
eminent lawyer, but the most unprincipled 
character of the county. 

In another dispatch dated at Fort Johnston, 
June 30th, 1775, he writes: 

" Since I had the Ixjiior of representing to 
your lordship the state of this country, various 
circumstances have occuri-ed of which I think 
it my duty to give the best account mj' infor- 
mation Gnal)les me to lay before 3'ou. 

" On Tuesday, May 23d, 1775, a set of peo- 
ple calling themselves a committee, met at 
New Berne. A motly crew, without any pre- 
vious notice of their purpose, appeared, coming 
towards my house; I supposed they were the 
connnittee of whose meeting I had heard. I 
directed my secretary to signif}' mj' resolution 
not to see them He soon came back, however, 
with a message that tliej- were the inhabitants 
of tlie town of New Berne, who had come to 
wait upon me, and requested to speak to me. 

"I directed them to be shown in, and I im- 
mediately went down to them. 

" Mr. Abner Nash, an attorney and oracle uf 

the committee, (of whom I have had occasion 
to mention to j'our lordship Iiefore as principal 
promoter of sedition,) came forward out of 
the crov/d and said he had been choseii by the 
people of New Berne, then present, to repre- 
sent that their purpose in waiting on me was 
in consequence of a general alarm of the peo- 
ple of that place at my dismounting some 
pieces of cannon which occasionally had been 
made use of on rejoicing da^^s; that the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia had lately dejirived the peo- 
ple of that colon}- of arms and ammunition. 
The inhabitants therefore requested and hoped 
that I would order the cannon to be I'en^ounted 
and restored to their former cfuidition. 

" Unprepared, my lord, for such a visit, and 
tilled with indignation at the absurdity and 
impertinence of the cause assigned by Mr. 
Nash, I am satisfied that it was a more pre- 
tense to insult me. I replied that the guns I 
had dis7iiouiited belonged to the king, and I 
was only responsible to His Majesty for any 
disposition I made of them, &c." 

But the next day, so precarious had his po- 
sition became, that Governor Martin sent his 
family to New York, and he himself went in 
much haste on board of His .Majest^^'s sloop of 
war, the Cruiser, Captain Parry, commander, 
never to exercise again the functions of Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina. 

In the same dispatch, Governor Martin says 
" he had received an account on April 20th, 
between the king's troops and the people 
near Bostoii, which reached him a little more 
than two months after the event." 

In this dispatch, Governoi- Martin enclosed 
the resolves of the committee of Mecklenburg 
in the Cap? Fair Mercury, a copy of which he 
says was sent by express to the congress at 
Philadelphia. This official dispatch would 
settle a (piestion, about which there never 
should have been any cavil, question, or doubt. 

These extracts from official sources prove 
the course which Mr. Nash pursued in perilous 
times. He was nu)re of a statesman, however, 
than a soldioi-, yet he did the cause of his 
countr}- as much service as if he were in the 
field. He played a leading part in that great 



drama in which men and guns are subordinate 
appendages. lie was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress in Novend)er 177*!, wiiicli met 
at Halifa.x, and formed the constitution of the 
state; and was tlietirst speai^cerof the iirst House 
of Commons that ever sat in tlie state. He was 
speaker in the senate in 1779, and was elected 
governor at that session and served till 1781. 
In 1782 and '83, he represented Jones County. 
He was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress in 1781, in which lie served till 178<j. 
He died at New "^'ork while attending con- 
gress, December 2d, 1780. 

He married the widow of Governor Dobbs. 
He was the brother of General Francis Nash, 
and the father of Frederick Nash, late Judge 
of supreme court of North Carolina, sketches 
of whom may be found in the I'ccord of Orange 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, of North Carolina, 
born March iJoth, 1758, died September 6th, 

He was born, lived ainl died in the 
town of New Berne. ]Iis family was dis- 
tinguished in the early history of the coun- 
try. His father was the secretary and clerk 
of the crown ; * an office in dignity next 
to that of the governoi'. His mother was the 
sister of Arthur Dobbs, governor of the prov- 
ince from 1754: to 17GG. He lost his parents 
at an early age. Blest \\ith a sound mind in a 
sound body, his education was of the highest 
order. He was sent to Ireland, when only 
nine years of age, where he pursued his acad- 
emic studies, his education being comjileted at 
the university of (;!lasgow. He returned to 
his native country in 1778, and found it in- 
volved in the fearful struggle.^ of the revolu- 
tionar}- war, his immediate section was the 
scene of lierce and l)loody conflict. His chiv- 

*jixtrait from Colonial Records in Rolls office, Lon- 
don; " Kichanl Spaight appointed secrrtary and clerk 

of the Crown' "111- seneral assenibly prefer 

charges (Jovernor Dobbs, amonj; them, that lie 
h'A appointed his nephew, Richard Spaight, a pay- 
master in the army." 

alrous temper caused him to volunteer his ser- 
vices to his country, and he was engaged in 
the disastrous battle of Cannlen, South Caro- 
lina, August 16th, 1780, as aid-de-camp to 
Governor Caswell. Although brave and en- 
thusiastic, there were fields otiier than those 
of war, more suited to his genius, where his 
services and talents could be as beneiicial to 
country's welfare and liberty, and in which 
men and arms are demanded, but not the most 
im[)cH-tant elements of success. His country- 
men apiireciated this fact, and the next year, 
he was elected a member of the general assem- 
bly from the borough of New Bjriie, and re- 
elected in 1782 and 1783. By the latter body, 
he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress, (which met at Annapolis on the 13th 
December, 1783,) with Benjamin Hawkins 
and Hugh Williamson as colleagues. The war 
had ended, and he witnessed the resignation 
by General Washington to that congress of 
his commission as commander-in-chief. 
The appreciation of the character and patriot- 
ism of Mr. Spaight, was evinced by being 
selected as one of " the committee of states;" 
in whom all the powers of the new govern- 
ment, (executive, legislative and judicial) 
were vested. When the convention was called 
to form the Constitution of the United States, 
which met at Philadelphia, (on May 1-ith, 
1787,) lie was elected a memljei'. His name, 
with that of William Blount and Hugh Wil- 
liamson, is ap[iended to the constitutn)n. He 
was a member of the state convention whit-li 
met at Hillsboro, on July 21st, 1788, to con- 
sider the Federal Constitution, and advocated 
with all liis energies its adoption. In this lie 
was aided by such distinguished names as 
Samuel Johnston, James Iredell, William U. 
Diivie, Jolin Steele, Ste[iben Caliarrus and 

But the active opposition of Willie Jones, 
David Caldwell, Eiisha Battle, C. Dowd, 
Griffith Rutherford, and others, caused its re- 


jection, and the State of North Carolina, from public life, hut private circles. Governor 

July, 1788, to November, 1789, (when the Cm- Spaight was the acknowledged leader of the 

stitution of the United States was ratified,) party which supported Mr. Jefferson and Mr. 

presented the extraordinary attitude of a sov- Stanly, its active adversary. Led on by the 

ereign state, independent and self-governing, maddening and malignant influence of party 

with no confusion within or coercion from spirit, on September 5th, 1802, Mr. Stanly 

without. This instructive page of history challenged Governor Spaight to tiglit a duel, in 

expresses the truth, tliat political reunion, like a note taunting in its terms, and very oppiobri- 

social union, can best be secured by concession, ous. They fought (.)u the same day. Gov- 

affection, and justice. ernor Spaight was mortally wounded, and died 

In 1792, Mr. Spaight was again returned to on the following day. This tragic event, from 

the general assenddy. and by that body was hislong, varied, and illustrious service, causoda 

chosen the governor of the state, which he deep sensation thi'oughout the state, and even 

held for three years, when he was succeeded by at this day is felt with sad regret. 
Samuel Ashe. Such were the [)ublic services of Richard 

He was the first native born son of North Dobbs Spaight. These are inscribed in the 

Carolina elected as governor. He served records of our nation. Of his private cliarac- 

while governor as presidential elector. ter we are not loft to conjecture. Cue who 

In 1797, he took his seat in the House of knew him long and well has informed us that 
Rejiresentatives, elected from North Carolina, "as a private citizen he v/as upright in his 
to lill the vacancy occasioned by the death of intentions, and sincere in his declarations. 
Honorable Nathan Bryan, (second session of Methodical aiul even mercantile in his busi- 
ihe Fifth Congress,) and re-elected a mendjcr ness; no errors of negligence or ignoran-e in- 
of the Sixth Congress, 1797 to 1799. This was volved him in litigation with his neighbors, 
an important epoch in our government. The Uniform in his conduct, resiioctful to author- 
two great parties (then called Federal and ity, and influential in his example. Hospitality 
Republican,) fought tierce and furious for was a conspicuous tiait of his character. The 
power. Governor Spaight voted with his re- stranger was welcouie, treated with cordiality, 
publican colleagues, Willis Alston, Nathaniel and entertained with kindness. His cliarity 
Macon, David Stone, and others. It wasdur- was universal For the tale of sorrow lie ever 
ing this congress that Governor William had a tear and relief. He was an atfeetionate 
Blount, Senator from Tennessee, was im- husiiand, an indulgent fatliei-, and a eompas- 
peached, (or threatened with impeachment,) sionate nuistei'; consistent in his hours of study 
and for the first time the election of a presi- and recreation, no ii'regularities disturbed his 
dent was made by the house. After these course, or improper indulgence his repose."* 
exciting scenes, Governor Spaight sought re- No one, as a public man, could have iield foi- 
tirement and repose. His health was seriously along and unintei-i-upted series of years, the 
imjiaired, and he sought relief in the milder affections, counten.nice, and support of his 
climate of the West Indies. But the people countrymen, without any effort on l;is part, 
called liim again to duty, and he was, in 1801, unless he possessed substantial merit aiid un- 
elected a senator in the general assendily. spotted integrity. 
This was destined to be his last public service. 

Party politics were never more active and *Reverend T. P Irvings^funeral discourse on the 

■^ ' . . death of Governor Richard Dobbs bi'aight, delivered at 

bitter. These animosities pervaded not only Kew iierue. isuii. 



Like him of Scotland it may be truly said: 

' ilus Dunciin 

Ilath borne his faculties so meek, liatli been 
So clear in liis great office, that his virtues 
Will plead like angels, tnuupet tongued, against 
The deep damnation of liis taking off." 

By his marriage with Miss Polly Leach he 
had four children. 

I. "William, who died \ouiig. 

IL i\ichard Dohbs, a leading statesman in 
the state; for years in the legislature; in con- 
gress from 1823 to 1825; governor in 1835; 
died unmarried. 

IIL Charles, who (TumI nnmarricd. 

TV. Margaret, wlio mai'ried Honorable John 
R. Donnel, one of the judge.s of the state from 
1819 to 183G, who left four children." 

An accurate portrait of Governor Spaight 
hangs in one of the rooms of Independence 
Hall, rhiladelphia, 


The kind dispositions of the people of the 
state, tlieir nnan)bitious tempers, together witli 
aversion to acts of violence and blood, have 
done much to discourage the practice of duel- 
ling. Of late years there have been but few 
" affairs of honor," so called. In our readings, 
however, we have niet some cases of a custom 
"more honored in the breach than in the ob- 
servance." Doubtless other cases have occurred 
that we have never heard of. 

Honorable John Baxter, (United States 
judge in Tennessee,) about 1850, met Colonel 
Marcus Erwin; exchanged tire, and Baxter 
slightly wounded; ca\ise, political. 

Bynum Jesse and Jennifer of Maryland, 
(same cause,) neither hurt. 

Honorable Duncan Cameron, and William 
Dutl'y, met near Ilillsboro; Judge Cameron 
wounded. Duffy represented Fayetteville in 
the legislature of 180G. 

Honorable Samuel ]'. Carson and Dr. R. B. 
Yi.iice, (see sketch of Carson.) 

*See sketch of Judge Dounel. 

Honorable Thomas L. Clingman and Wm L. 
Yancy, (see sketch of Clingman.) 

Joseph Klaniier and Walker, near Wilming- 
ton; latter killed. 

Louis D. Henry ami Thomas J. Stanly, 1812, 
latter killed. 

General Robert Howe and (iadsden, of 
South Carolina, fought May 13th, 1778, in 
South Carolina, neither hurt. 

Honorable J. J. Jackson and Jose^ih Pearson ; 
political, 1812, at Washington. 

Thomas F, Jones and Dr. Daniel Johnson 
at Bladensburg, 1840, latter killed. 

Law and Blanchard, (Bertie County.) 

Scattervvaite and Kennedy. 

Strong and Holmes, (Sampson County.) 

John_JStiHj.ly__and Governor Spaight, (see 
sketch of Spaight. ) 

Edward Stanly and Samuel W. Inge, of 
Alamance; political ; neither hurt. 

Montford Stokes and Jesse A. Pearson, 
(Roward County.) Governor Stokes wounded. 

Alexander Simpson and Thomas "White- 
hurst, in 1766; latter killed. 

Yellowby and Harris. 

John Stanly, born 1774^ died 1834, was a 
native of New Berne. The son of John "Wright 
Sianl^. He was educated for the law; strong 
in mental as well as personal gifts, he attained 
high distinction in his profession. Blessed 
with a clear and musical voice, with rnanneis 
at once graceful and dignified; bold and fear- 
less in his elocution, sarcastic and severe in ex- 
pression, he was in his day an advocate of great 
power and success. 

He early entered the stormy arena of ptJities, 
and took satisfaction in mingling in its fierce 
and furious strife. At an early age, (in 1798,) 
he was elected a member of the House of Com- 
mons, of which he was elecied speaker, ami in 
which he continued, with intermis.sions, until 
182ij, when he, whilst debating, was struck 
with paralysis and never recovered. He was 
a member of the Seventh Congress, 1801- '3, 



and ayiiin of tlie Eleventli Coiiyress, 1800-'ll. 
His aiiplication to Govei'iinr Williams for par- 
don, lias been published; and is ailniired as 
being eloquent and dignitied. 

I have in my possession, tlie original peti- 
tion of the niendiers of the legislature to tlie 
gdvernor, asking this pardon, signed by iJiincan 
Cameron, Calvin Jones, John Allison, Peter 
Hoyle, David Tate, Daniel Glisson, Durant 
Hatch, John G. Scull, W. Lord, Peter Forney, 
Ephin. Davidson, George Outlaw, Robert Wil- 
liams, and others. 

In his political campaigns, in discussions in 
the legislature, and in debate at the bar, and 
even in j)rivate life, Mr. Stanly's course to- 
wards his opponents was marked with vio- 
lence. Speaking of the unamiable trait in his 
character, Mr. Miller states: " Judge Donnell 
was an able, quiet, obstrusive, upright gentle- 
man. He bore with great equinamity the 
biting sarcasm which Mr. Stanly was in the 
habit of thrusting at the court, wliere Judge 
l)'>iniell presided, whenever it suited his 
l.oliL-y." Judge Donnell was the son-in-law 
lI' the first Governor Spaight. The same 
writer, speaking of Mr. Siiaight, the second, 

" ilichard D. Spaight held a license to 
practice law,l)ut was wealthy and diffident, lie 
was not destitute of talents and learning." 

" I always suspected that Mr. Stanly was an 
obstacle to the professional success of Mr. 
Spaight, as Stanly was a man of imperious 
temper, and not satisfied with killing tlie 
father of Mr. Spaight, he seemed to deliglit in 
tortui'ing the son, by looks and gestures, and 
intonations of his voice, when other methods 
were not used."* 

Mr. Stanly married a daughter of Mailin 
Frank, of Jones County, whose handsome 
estate laid the foundation of his fortu?je. Put 
it was not permanent. In the Recollections of 
New Berne lifty years ago, the writer says:t 

*See our Living and our Dead, November, 1S74. 
tStephen F. Miller, iu our Living and Dead, No- 
vember, 1874 

"Mrs. Stanly was a country heiress, with- 
out cultivation or opportunity. Their na- 
natures and habits were incompatible; she was 
a shouting Methodist, he a staid vestryman of 
the orthodox Episcopal church."' His affairs 
became so embarrassed, that debts and judg- 
ments pressed him. To the kindness of a per- 
sonal and political frieml, he owned the house 
in which he li\-ed and died. Here harrassed 
l)y creditors, witli a liody heljJess from disease, 
a mere wreck of his former self; he died 
August 3rd, 1835. We may well recall at 
such a scene, the words of Ophelia: 

" O, wliut a uolile mind is Iiere o'er thrown, 
The courtier's, soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue 

sword. * * * 
Now see tliat noble anil most sovereign reason, 
Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh." 

Mr. Stanly left one daughter, who married 
Walker K. Armstead, then an officer in the 
United States army, against Mr. Stanly's 
wishes. Mr. Miller says he never forgave hei'. 
When this worthy officer attained rank and 
distinction, in her old age Mrs. Stanly found a 
home under his hospitable roof, 'where she 
died. Mr. Stanly also died under General 
Arnistead's roof. 

His descendants, a number of sons, wore: 

I. John, idiotic from liirtb. 

II. Alfred, resided in Fairfax C(.unty. Vir- 

III. Frank, became a Methodist preacher. 

IV. Edward, was a member of the house 
from Beaufort, 1844 to 1847.^ 

V. Alexander.* 

VI. Faliius, United States navy (retired 
admiral,) resided in Washington. 

VII. Cicero. 
VIII James. 

Dr. Isaac Gnion,of New Perne, was surgeon 
to the First liegiment North Cart)lina Conti- 
nentals, commanded by Colonel James Moore. 
From neglect of duty he was suspended. 

On July 6th, 1776, he was appointed com- 

JFor his sketch see Beaufort County. 

CliAVEN (BOUNTY. 1;!7 

missary to an iiHle[iendont company under rliildron, a son, tlicn only three years i>lil, 1 ho 

Captain Selby JIarvey, stationed on tlie sea snhject ol' t his sketrli, an<l a. dan^ihter, who, in 

coast.* after years, hucanie the wife of Chief Jastire 

William (Taston,boni September 19th, 1778, Taylor, 
died January 23d, 1844, was the son of Dr llis early education was conducted under 
Alexander Gaston, wiio was one of the most the guidance of a pious ami patient mother, 
earnest and stevidfast friends of the people. In the fall of 1791 he was sent to the Catho- 
and one of the committee of safety for C!ravcn lir collc,i,'e at (leorgctown, where lie remained 
County. He gave up his lite to the cause of for two years, hut under the severe disci- 
liberty; for, as the tOAvn of Xew Berne was piine and rigors of a variahle climate, his 
attacked by the tories on August •20th, 1781, health gave away, and !)y advice of his physi- 
he escaped with his wife and children, lie cian, he returned to the inihl climatr.if his 
liad only time to pusli oft" in a boat, leaving nat ive land and the comforts of home. Under 
his wife and children on the wharf. One of the care of Reverend Thomas P. Irving, he 
these miscreants levelled his gun over the was prepared for Princeton, and where he cn- 
shoulder of Mrs. Gaston and tired. Her pa- tered the junior class. At the early age of 
triotic husband was shot. eighteen, he graduated with the tirst honors ot 

This tragic event has been graphically de- that icnovvned institution. lie returned home 

scried by a resident of this section of our and entered the law otHce of Judge Francois 

state, who states that Dr. Gaston and Colonel Xavier Martin. He was admitted to the bar 

Jolin Green were dining at Dr. Gaston's house, before reaching the age of twenty-one, and 

when an alarm was given that the tories were soon attained greet eminence in his profession, 

coming. Ga.ston and Green arose from the In 1799, he was ele^-ted to the state senate, 

table, hastened to the wharf only a few steps and LSU8 to the House of Commons, by which 

oft", and jumped into a canoe; when off Cornel's body he w-as chosen speaker. 

wharf a platoon of the tories tired np<m them, In 131 0, he was a candidate for congre-s, and 

and both fell. The tories then retraced their was defeated by William Blackledge, but was 

steps. The canoe was the property of an old ne- elected to the Thirteenth Congress, from 181.5 

gro, John, (vho, after some delay, procured aid to 1817, and tlie Fourteenth Congress, from 

and started in search of his canoe, which was 1817 to 1819. 

drifting about at the mercy of the winds and Hei'e be occupied a position as the peer of 
waves. On reaching it, he found lying at the Calhoun, Clay, Lowndes, Kandol^.h and Web- 
bottom of his boat Green, as he supposed dead, ster. His speeches on the loan bill and the 
and Gaston dying. He carried them back to previous question present some of the finest 
the wharf, and then to Dr. Ilazlin's house, specimens of reasoning and eloipience which 
The doctor pronounced Green mortally the country has ever furnished. He retired 
wounded, and Gaston seriously. Just the con- fi'om congress to pursue his law practice. 
verse of this ojiinion turned out true, for the I" 1824, he was elected to the House of (\)ni- 
latter soon died, and the former lived thirty mons, and in 1827-'28 and 1831. 
years afterwards. Dr. Gaston was buried in Here he rendered efficient and invaluable 
" Cedar Grove," tlie city cemetery. services to llie state. The perfect orgauiza- 
He left a disconsolate widow and two little tion of our then judicial system, and some of 
the best statutes of North Carolina, are the 

^Force's American Aichives. result of his sagacity and labor. 


Ill 1834,011 tlie death ot -liulyo nciKlevsni, was no sopliistr3- to mislead, no nieretvicious 
lie was elected one of the judges of the supreme ornament to beguile; his person seemed almost 
court, wliich eleviited position was so germane inspired, and his countenance expressed a be- 
to his talents and his tastes that he declined nignty of soul which ninrkod liis whole life and 
a seat in the Senate of the United States, which character. 

was tendered to iiim. Only once more did The writer (Dalton,) already quoted, says of 

lie appear as a statesman. lie was a member Jud^e Gaston: " lie was a great man in every 

of the convention of 1835, which liody was, sense of the word, (^ne was never tired of 

without doubt, the ablest that ever sat in the his compaiiv. His conversation was always 

state. Tlie tirst men from every section in the interesting and instructive. He did not pos- 

stute, of the highest positions, and of tlie sess the excursive genius of Mr. Badger, nor 

largest knowledge, were selected. the wit of Mr. Stanly. But his store of learn- 

Ile allied the conventinn in making health- ing and well balanced mind, added to his un- 

ful reforms, modified the thirty-second article sullied character, made him greatly their su- 

disfranchising Catholics, and opposed tlie prop- perior- He had more matter of fact than 

osition to deprive free colored people of the romance in his character. He would have 

right to vote. Until this time they had pos- made a better historian than a novelist, and 

sessod the right in North Carolina. The perhaps, too, a great actor." 

character of Judge Gaston asastatesmaii,pure His last days were bright and glorious, and 

and iiatriotic, is inscribed in the annals of the his end triumphant and happ}'. 

nation, and the state, llis ability and learn- On Januaiy 23d, 1844, while sitting on the 

ing as an advocate, none can question; and his bench of the supreme court at Raleigh, he 

jiatience with witnesses and suitors, his coiiqilained of a chilly sensation, attended with 

(irbanity to his associates, and Iiis respect to fainting feelings, and was carried from the 

untbority rendered him universally impular. court room to his chamber. On that evening 

His of aildress in a court or the he was better, many friends called wiio were 

legi dature was pM3culiar. charmed with his conversation ; and when relat- 

It was my fortune to sit two sessions of the ing an account of a convivial party at Washing- 
legislature in the next seat to. Judge Gaston, as tun, he spoke of one who avowed himself a 
alsooii thecommitteeon thejiidiciary vvithhim, free thinker in religion. 

and I had good opportunitiesof tibserving him. "From that time," be said, -'I regarded that 

He had, or seemed to have, when he first arose man with distrust. I do not say that sucli a 

to speak, a modesty that was as embarrassing to man niaj* not be an honorable man, but I dare 

himself as it was to bis audience. He trembled not trust him. A Ijelief in an all ruling 

percepitibly at first, but after a few monjents providence who shapes our deeds is necessary, 

his emphatic and deliberate manner and sub- We must believe and feel that there is a God, 

ducd times commanded profound silence and all wise and almighty " 

attention. He Ijecame [lerfectly possessed, and As lie pronounced these words, he raised 

he commenced his argument with matchless himself up from. his couch to give eni[ihasis to 

and thrilling elcxpience. As be [ir.igressed, the his expression, in a moment there seemed to 

grandeur of liis exiiression seemed to increase, be a rush of blood to the brain, and he fell 

whilst his illustrations were as Inminons as a backacor[ise. The spirit fied from the scenes of 

sunbeam, and his arguments carried conviction earth, to meet that God in whom he trusted, 

to the minds of his entranced auditors. There and whose name last vibrated on his tongue. 



Truly ilid his able associate, Judge Kuffin, 
say on the occasion of his death that he was '-a 
good man and a groat judge." His remains 
were deposited in the cemetery at New Berne. 
A ho.ivy hlock of marble, resting on the 
granite, surmounted b}- a cross, bears simply 
the name of William Gaston and the date of 
birth and death. 

"I saw," says the writer already quoted, 
"one morning, before the snn has risen Edward 
P^verett and John R. Doniiel standing together 
at tlie tomb of Gaston. Mr. Everett removed 
his hat, saying: 'This eminent man had low 
equals and no superior.' " 

Of sucli a man's memory- the state may Ije 
justly [irond. She has written his name on 
hei' towns and counties, and as long as talent 
is admired, cr virtue appreciated, so long will 
the name of Gaston be cherished. 

Judge Gaston was thrice married: 

I. Miss Ha}-, of Fayetteville; no issue. 

II. Hannah McClure,who died suddenly, in 
1814, from alarm at the incoming of the Brit- 
ish fleet. She left {<i) Alexander F. Gaston, 
who was in the legislature in 1830, and who 
mari'ied [Jini) Miss Jones, and (second) Miss 
Murphy of Burke, where he died; (h) and two 
daughters, one of whom was the first wife of 
Judge Manlj'; she left one child, Hannah, who 
married a son of the Rev. Dr. Francis L. Hawks; 
she has since died leaving several children. 
Tlie second daughter of Judge Gaston by this 
marriage was the wife of Robert Donaldson, 
of New York. 

III. MissWorthington, of Georgetown ; issue 
(r/) Mrs. Graham, who died recently near Marl- 
boro, Maryland; (6) Kate, single. 

John R. Donnel, born 1791, died 1864, a 
native of Ireland, and a mau of letters, was 
educated at the university of North Carolina, 
and graduated in 1807, in the same class with 
Gavin Hogg, and others. He studied law and 
practiced that profession with great success. 

In 1815, he was elected solicitor of the dis- 

trict, and in 1819 be was elecied judge nt" tin- 
superior courts of law, the duties of which be 
discharged with dignity and ability far st-ven- 
teen years. 

His extensive [U'operty suffered severely from 
the tumults and depredations of civil war. 

He died at lialeigb, October 15th, ISfU, a 
i-efugec from his large estates and i)rincely 

.ludge Doiinel married .Margaret, daughter 
of Governor Spaiubt, who left five children: 

I. Richard Spaight Donnel, distinguished as 
a lawyer.* 

II. Mary, who marrried Clnirles B. Sbep- 
pard. Mr. Sbeppard \\'as in congress 1839 to 
1841, and who died 1843, leaving two chil- 
dren; ('0 Margaret, who married Samuel S. 
Nelson; (li) Mary, who mari-ied James A. 

III. Anne, single. 

lY. Fannie, who married James B. Shep- 
pard; Mr. Sheppard died in 1870, leaving ;m' 
son, John R. D. SlRq'pard, now in Paris. 

Y. C. Spaight Donnel, married Thomas M. 
Keerl, of Baltimore, where they reside. 

John Sitgreaves, late United States judge, 
was a resident of New Berne. The first United 
States district judge for the District of Kortb 
Carolina, was John Stokes, f ajipointed b\' 
Gen e ra I ^Yash i ngt on . 

He was succeeded i)y Jolm Sitgreaves in 
1790, a[ipointed by Jefi'erson. He was suc- 
ceeded by Henry Potter in 1803, who held the 
position until his death, December 20th, 1859. 
He was succeeded by Asa Biggs, apjioiuted by 
Bucb:inan; the war suspended his functions. 
George W. Brooks was appointed August 9th, 

The state has been divided recently into two 
districts, and Robert P. Dick| was appointed 
for the Y''estern district by General Grant. 

*For sketch of whom see Beaufort Coimty. 

tFor sketch, see Stokes County. 

tSee sketch of Judge Dick, Guilford County. 



Jnd^-e Siticreavcs, was like his predecessor, a 
soldier of the revolution. 

It is a remarkable historical fact tliat after a, 
war, whether foi-eign or domestic, that the pop- 
ular feeliiiy centers on those " who have done 
the state sduie service " in the field. The re- 
mark (if Ldi'd Bacon is verified liy facts. "In 
the ycnth of a nation, the profession of arms 
Hoiirish; in its middle age, the useful arts; and 
in its old ai^'o, the tine arts." See America, 
England, and Italy to prove the truth of tliis 

dudge Sitgi'i\aves was apiiointe<l by the Pro- 
vincial Congress in ITTH, an officer in Captain 
Cassell's company, and was in the l)attle of 
Camden, August, 1780. 

lie was a member of the fjontinental Con- 
gress in 1784, and a member of the House of 
commons (1780 to 1789) from the borough of 
New Berne. 

Mr. Jefferson's diary contains the following: 

" 1789, Hawkins recommended John Sit- 
groaves, as a very clever gentlemen, of good 
;deportinent, well pkilled in the law for a man 
of his age, and if he lives long enough, will be 
.an ornament to Ids profession. Si>aight and 
Ijlount concurring, he was nominated." 

He .iied at Halifax, March 4th, 1802, where 
he lies buried. 

John Herritage Bryan, born 1798, died May 
loth, 1870, was a native of New Borne. 

In the J'rovincial Congress of Xovember, 
177(3, at Halifax, three of this name were 
meuibers. His early education was conducted 
by the Reverend T. P. Irving, and he gradu- 
ated at the university in 1815. in the same 
class with Isaac Ci'oom, Edward Hall, Francis 
L. Hawks, Willie P. Mangum, Ricliard Dobbs 
Spaiglit, and othei's. He read law and at- 
tained high rank in !iis profession. 

He was elected to the state senate in 1823 
and '24, and in the next year also, and at the 
same time he was elected a member of the 
Nineteenth Congress, from 1825 to 1827; an 

unprecedented event, and the more so as he 
was away from home when elected to both of 
these popular positions. He accepted the seat 
ill congress, and he was elected to the Twen- 
tieth Congress. He declined a re-election, 
the care of a young and increasing familj' 
demanding his services. He removed to Ra- 
leigh, where he lived many years, loved and 
respected li}- all who knew him, ami where he 
died, universally regretted, in 1870. 

He married the daughter of William Shep- 
ard, of New Berne, and leaves a large and 
interesting family. One of his sons, Francis, 
graduated at West Point, and was distin- 
guished in liattles in Mexico. 

F](hvard Graham, born 1765, died 1833, son 
of Edward Graham, (who came from Argyle- 
shire, Scotland,) was born in New York city, 
graduated at Princeton 1785, read law with 
Chief Justice Jay, and settled in New Berne. 

He was a member in the legislature from 
New Berne, in 1797 — his only public service. 
He was the second of Mr. Stanly in his fatal 
duel with Governor Spaight. He died in New 
Berne, March 22d, 1838. 

He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Ed- 
ward Batchelor, and had two children: 

I. Elizabeth, born 1804, who married John 
P. Daves. 

II. Jane Frances, married to William II. 
Haywood, late United States senator. 

Francis Lister Hawks, born W', died LSOfi, 
the son of John Hawks, was a native of New 
Berne, and distinguished as a writer and pul- 
[)it orator. 

One of his ancestors was the architect and 
superintended the building of the governor's 
residence at New Berne in 1771. Among the 
Colonial Records in London, I find that in 
June 20th, 1771, at a meeting of the eoancil, 
he suhmitted his accounts of expenses for 
building the palace. 

He graduated at the university in 1815, in 
the same class with Mr. Bryan, and others, as 



alluded to in the sketch of Mr. Bryiin: studied 
Ihw and was the reporter of tlie decisions of 
tiie supreme court for five years, (1820 to '26.) 

In 1821, he was elected a mcndjer of the 
House of Commons from Xew Berne, l)ut he 
resolved to devote himself to the ministry, 
and was ordained hy Bishop Ravenscroft He, 
in 1827, was assistant minister of Dr. Harry 
Croswell, of New Haven, Conne'.:ticut. In 
1829, he was the assistant of P.ishop ^Yhite, 
at St. James, Philadelphia, and from 1832 
to 1834, was the rei:tor of St. Stejihen's 
church, New York; during which period he 
visited Europe, with an introduction to Ihe 
Archhishop of Canterbury, to collect material 
for a history of the Episcopal church in the 
United States, a fragment of which may be 
seen in his biography of Bishop White. 

From St. Stephen's he passed to St. Thomas 
in 1832, aud continued his connection with this 
parish until he removed to Mississippi in 1844. 
He was elected bishop of the diocese; which 
he declined, as also his election to be bishop of 
Rhode Island. At the close of 1844, he took 
charge of Christ church in New Orleans, where 
he continued for iive years, during which time 
he gave his aid to the establisl)mont of a .state 
university, of wliich he was made tho, presi- 
dent. But he was called to fill the pulpit of 
Cavalry church, and he returned to New York 
and continued in this charge until 1861; he 
then resigned because lie sympathized with 
the soutli, and took clnirge of a Baltimore 
church. One of his sons was major in the 
Confederate army. After the war was over 
he returned to and preached in tlie Cliurch of 
the Annunciation, New York, where he died 
Se[itember 27, 1666. 

He married a la<ly in Connecticut, by v/hom 
he had. several children. 

Dr. Hawks was true to North Carolina and 
proud of her glorious history.* 

* This sketch ia compiled from origiuiil doeuiuente 
and from a memorial of F. L. Hawk-, Di). LL1>., 

As a divine, his merits were brilliant and 
unsurpassed. An agreeable address, an amia- 
ble and placi<l countenance, a deep toned 
voice, expressive of pathos and feeling, modu- 
lated and eloquent in all its utterances, a warm 
southern sensibility and all markeil with 
maidy frankness, distinguished Dr. Hawks as 
one of the first pulpit orators of hia age. 

As an author he exhibited great learning 
and laborious research; the most voluminous 
our state has ever produced. Among his most 
important works are: 

I. Reports of Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, (182(1-'26,) in four volumes. 

II. Digest of all the cases decided and re- 
ported in North Carolina. 

HI. Contributiotis to the Ecclesiastical Ilis- 
tor}- of the United States, two volumes, em- 
bracing New York, Maryland, and Virginia. 

IV. Egypt and her Monuments, (1849.) 

V. Auricular Confession in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, (1850.) 

VI. History of North Carolina, two volumos, 

VII. Antiquities of Peru, (1854.) 

VIII. OtReial and Other Papers of Alexan- 
der Hamilton, (1842.) 

IX. Romance of Biography. 

X. Appleton's Cyclopedia; of Biography. 
XL Journal of General Conventions (1856) 

of the Protestant Episcopal church of the 
United States, from 1785. 

XII. Under the pseudonym of Uncle Philip, 
several juvenile works for Harper's "Boys' and 
Girls' Library." 

XIH. He compiled from Perry's original 
notes " the Narrative of Commodore Perry's 
Expedition to the China Seas and Japan," 

XIV. Lecture on Sir Walter Raleigh. 

by Everitt A. nuyckinck, read before Kew York 

Historical Society, May, 1867. 
'•Cyclopedia of American Literature.'' 
" Dictionary of American Biography by I'raucis.S. 

Drake, 1876." 


X^.^. Lecture estaMishiiig tiie authenticity appearance, of _ij;reat geniality of temper he 

of the Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Declara- was a favorite witii all liis associates, 

tion of Independence of May 2G'th, 1775. descended to the ludicrous. Of fine personal 

At the time of his death he was preparing But his transcendent powers as an advocate 

a work " on the Ancient Monuments of Cen- did iu)t detract from his usefulness; not unlike 

tral and Western America," and a Physical Erskine, the giant lawyer, they did not dwarf 

Geography. the aide statesman. It was liis custom wlien 

George Edmun<l Badger, horn 1795, died entering the senate, to linger in the morning 

1866, was a native of New Berne. His fathei', and have a pleasant word with neai'ly ewuy 

a devoted patriot, was a native of Connecticut, mend/er, lud'ore he took lii.^ seat. This he 

His mother was a daughter of Richard Cog- would not retain long, for he was less frerpient 

dell; who was one of the council of safety in in liis own seat than in that of other niend^ers. 

1775. He was educated at Yale College, grad- Yet, with liii^ aiiparent carelessness, he would 

uated in 1815, and studied law witli John catchaiid remoudru-cveiT word, whether trivial 

Stanly, who was his relative. or important, uttered in debate, and ready to 

He was elected a inendier of the legislature answer any ((iiestion. He had a I'ertain kind 

1816; and in 1820, at the early age of 25, elec- of hunioi- to riilicule, in a jileasant way, even 

ted one of the judges of the superior courts, tlie most digiiitied of that distinguished hody 

which he resigned in 1825. He then settled al.iout any little mistake or blunder, either in 

in Raleigh and pursued with great success his their speeches or conversutiiju. 
profession. He was appointed Secretary of (Mi one nc^•asion, when a senator was con- 

the Navy in 1841, but resigned on Tyler's ve- cludinga long and Iaboi-ed speech, (J. P. Hale) 

toing the re-charter of tlie United States he remarkcMl: " I guess I baves.iid enougli;" Mr. 

Bank.* Badger who was just behind him said " I know 

From 1846 to 1855 he was United States you have." This descent from the sublime to 

SL-natoi'. the ridiculous created a pleasant smile. 

In 1851, he was nominateil one of thejudges On another occasiMii, when he had moved 

of the Supreme Court of the United States, that the senate adjnni'u over ne.\t day, 

but was not confirmed by the senate. l>eing Good Friday, the metion was lost. 

In 1861, he was a member of the convention "Weil,' lie said, "I submit, but this is the 

and signed the ordinance of secession. His only judicial body that has ev(r sat on (.-iood 

adniiralde letter to Mr. Ely, already presented, Friday, since the days of Puntius Pilate, who 

(see Eeaurfort) gives the "form and jires- tried and condemned our Saviour." Mr. AVeb- 

sure " of those unhappy times. The attendant ster was present and remarked: " That Badger 

calamities (hiubtless shortened bis days. is the greatest tiifler I ever knew; we are all 

As an advocate he had few equals, and no afraid of him; he can make more out of a 

superior in the highest tribunals (.>f the country, trifling occurrence than any man I ever knew." 

As an orator he waseloquent, learned and able; But there ^vas pith and point in all he said 

aliounding in wit and humor, which sometimes and did. He had no ^n}leriol• or eipial in his 

matchless ability for winnowing cliatl' from 

" It is singular that North Carolina has rarely been , , ' i •ii- 
houored by liaviiig one of her citizen.s inade a cabhiet wheat, or tlie most brilliant flowers oi elo- 

S'ea'"''"'°^°''°'''^"'"'^°'"''"°'^^^^ a"ence from the dry detail of sophistry; and 

I. John IJranch, 1829; II. f^eorge E Badger, 1S41 ; wdiile he indulged in the humorous or ludicrous. 

lA. \Mlluim A. Graham, tSoO ; IV. James C. Dob- ,.,,,,'. 

bill. 1S53. he wielded his arguments with the force of 


aTilaii. ills iiiiiid seemed so construeteil, lie sttulii'il law with (Joveninr Manly and 
tliat like the proboscis of the elephant, it could settled in Xew i'xTne. lie entered the House 
pickup with etiual faeility the nnnutest oh- of Commons in 1S;!4, as the mend)er fnnn New 
ject or the most weighty subject in its course. Bcnie and re-elected in 1835, was last repre- 
lle would often treat theliiiht and feeble ar<?u- sentative from New Berne, for in that year the 
metit with great seriousness, while he struck convention abolished tiie borough membeis. 
with ponderous blows the more weighty. His He was elected in 1840 one of the judges of 
great power as a lawyer was acknowledged l)y the sujicrior courts, which he held until 1860, 
both bench and bar and the whole community, when lie was elected one of tlie justices of the 
He had no taste for mathematics, as he supreme court; this he r^^signed when 
used to say him-self he was never "skilled in war and violence "exhausted the judiciary." 
arithmetic;" his stnuig forte was his power of After the war Wius over, and the state re- 
analysis, bnrningeloquencc, his deep and vaiied eoustrncted, Judge Manly was elected senator 
knowledge of ids pi-ofes.<ion. Whatever argn- in congrers, but was not allowed to take his 
menl was made adversely to his cause, with a seat. 

wizard wand, he would transfurm the object He then, with commendable pa':ri(>tism, pre- 

to his tastes and wishes, and impress the nund sided as one of the county judges of Craven, 

of the court, jury, and audience with the sound- devoting his learning and abilities to the good 

ness of his position. ol' his country. 

Is not this genius, and v/as not Badger There are few men of our state who posses.-ed 

pre-eminently a genius in Xiu-th Carolina? to a greater e.xtent the sincere regard of their 

He was a consistent memhei' of the Kpisco- countrymen tlum Judge Maidy. 

pal church, and strictly conrormed to its usa- Charles Randolph Tliomas, who resides in 

o-es. Tiiis ehurch, in 1853, had much troidde; New Berne, is a native of Carteret County; 

its bishop (Ives) had shocked the diocese bj^ born in 1827, he graduated at the university 

an apostasy to the church of Rome. Judge 1849, in same class with Kemp P. Battle, Wil- 

Badfer had for some time iirevious resisted the liam B. Dortch, Forney George, Charles E. 

stealthy stei.>s i)f the recreant jirclate, and by Lowtiier, William G. Pool, James P. Scales 

his efforts counteracted his sinister influence, and others. He studied law and settled in 

Judge Badger was nuirried three times; New Berne. In IHtU, lie was elected secretary a daughter of Governor Turnei'; second, of state, and in 18tj8 elected one of the judges 

adauuhtcrof Colonel William Polk; third, a of the superior courts, which lie resigned on 

dau"-hter of Mrs. Williams, y«fe Haywood. being elected a member of the Forty-secMid 

He died of paralysis, at Raleigh, on .May Congress, 1871-73, and re-elected to the Forty • 

11th 18G6. third, 1873 and 187o. he served 

Matthias Evans Manly, whose distinguished most acceptably and faithfully as a membei'Mf 
brother. Governor Charles .Manly, we have al- the committee ow elections. He was not re- 
ready sketched, (see Chatham) iived and died nominated to the Forty-fourth Congress, but 
in New Berne, Julv 2, l'^81. He native in hisstead agentlciiian of African descent was 
of Chatham county; giadu.ated at the elected 

university in 1824, in a class of great merit; William J. Clarke rcsidesiii New Bcrno; hois 

William A. (-.raham, Augustus .Moore, David anativeof Wake ('ounty; he was liberally ed- 

Outlaw. and Thomas Dews, were among its ueated,aiidgradu:ited at the univer.sityin 1841, 

members. i" the same class with R. R. Bridgers, John F. 


Hoke, Moiitt'ord McGehee, Charles iuid Samuel mother was the grand-daughter of the cele- 

F. riiillips, Horatio M. I'olk, Jesse G. Shop- brated Jonathan Edwards, distinguished as a 

herd, and otliers. metaphysician, the president of the Frince- 

He studied law, and was very laborious and ton College. The early education of Mrs. 

ujef\il. Clarke was liberal, for blest with ample means. 

In 184(1, he volunteered for the Mexican war, every advantage that wealth could bestow was 

and was appointed captain of company I., 12th lavished upon her. Her genius early displayed 

regiment of United States Infantry, with itself in prose and poetry; but her productions 

John F. Hoke as first lieutenant and Junius were then mere pastime. The civil war brought 

B. "Wheeler and others as privates. At the adversities to all, and unusual disaster added 

action at the National Bridge he was severely to this, her bealtli began to fail and she 

wounded. He was also in the battles of Pasa sought the mild climate of Cubix for its resto- 

Ovejas and Cerro Gordo. For his gallantry he ration. With renewed health she commenced 

was promoted. This war being ended, and his her career as an authoress. Some of her 

command disbanded, he returned home to his poems were cidlected and published in a 

professional practice. volume. " Mosses from a Rolling Stone," "The 

In 1850, he Avas elected by the legislature of Idle Moments of a Busy Woman," and many 

North Carolina as comiitroUer of tiie state, other gems. Her many war pieces as "The 

which.after fouryears service, he resigned, and Battle of Manassas;" " Battle of the Hampton 

was succeeded by George W. Brooks. Roads," and her" Rebel Sick,", are calculated 

When the civil war began he was apiiointed to rouse the feelings, while the simple touches 

colonel of the 24th North Carolina regiment, of nature in her " Mothers' Dream," "My 

and did much and varied service ; endured Cliildren," and " Smiles and Roses," awaken 

much suffering and encountered the tender sensibilities of the heart. The 

" Most disastrous chances, "Reminiscences of Cuba," and "Of noted 

Of moving accidents by flood and field; North Carolinians," show her skill and power 

Of hair breadth escapes in tlie inuninent deadly breacb. 

Of being talceu by the insolent foe, and placed into as a pen painter of genius. In 1S.J4, Mrs. 

captivity '• Clarke published " Wood Notes;" in 1871, 

for at one time, like Governor Vance, he was " Clytie and Zenobia; or, the Lily and the 

an inmate of the prison at Washington. I'alm." 

After the war was over, he returned to his William Edwards Clarke is the son of the 

profession, and was made one of the judges of above. He was born in Raleigh on March 7, 

superior courts of law and equity, in which posi- 1850. 
he was succeeded by Judge A. S. Se\-niour. He was educated at Davidson College, and 

Judge Clarke married Maiy Bayard, daugh- read law at Columbia College, New York, 
ter of the late Thomas Pollock Devercux, who He was elected in 1876 a member of the 

was (listinguished as a la\A'3'er,and a successful legislature by 1.500 majority. lie was a tutor 

and extensive planter on the Roanoke river; his in the Deaf and Dumb Institution. 


ClTAPTiat XV. 

With tliis county is aBsocinteil the natne of Another character appears in the onrl.y his- 

Flora Mai'Doiiakl, born at South Uist, Scot- tory of this county, and as he was snniewhat 

land in 1720, and died Marcli 4th, 1790. \ notorious, his name is presented— Farrpiard 

She is celebrated for having aided and ac- Camiibell. 

complished the escape of Charles lidward, the lie was a slirowd and active politician, and 

young pretender, after the battle of Culloden, tried to make favor with both sides, but as in 

April 16, 1746. all similar efforts, the favor of both sides was 

In 1750, she married Alexander .MacDonald, lost, 

with whom she came to North Carolina in I find from a di-^patch of Governor Martin 

1773, and settled near Fayetteville in this to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated on boaril of 

county. He was a captain of the Royal the Cruiser, October 16th, 1775, the following: 

Highlander.s, and was engaged in the battle of . ..i n-i a f t u; i 

" ' °° " lam sm'iu'ised tohear that the Scotcn Hu'-li- 

Moore's Creek Bridge, where he was taken |;^„ders have. leclaicd themselves neutral. Tins I 

prisoner, and confined in Halifax jail Flora atti'ibute to the influence of a certain Far(inar<l 

returned to Skye, Scotland. She was of much Campbell, an ignorant man who has settle,! 

, „ ' , , from Ills childhood in this county, an old 

personal beauty, and ot great energy and de- ,„e,„i,er of the assembly, and has in,bii,ed all 

termination of character. On the voyage the American prejudices. By advice of somo 

home an attack on the ship was made by a of my countrymen, I was induced to coni- 

T^ 1 1- f ,. , 1 „,u^., fi. ^ TT,. ,.i;m, .1,;,. niunicato with him, and sound him, in case mat- 
French sun ot war, and when tlie English ship ^ <- -i- 1 ,,,. 1 *■ 
' ' r> i (.^^^ fame to extremities, and was assured ot 
was aljout to be taken, she rushed on the deck, his ioy:dty. lie expressed to me his abhor- 
and by her examule and courage drove the ence of the violence done at Fort Johnstone, 
enemy'. In the contest herarm was broken. '""J *» ^'^^i^r i.ista.nccs and discovered so much 
•^ , „. . , iealousv and apprehension or the ill designs 
Several of her sons were odicers in the army. ;,i- the "leaders in .edition, giving n,e at the 
One of them was a colonel, and a Fellow of the same time so strong assurances of his loyalty, 
Koval Society. and of the good dispositions of his country- 
j;' '", / , ,.,. ,. Tj,, ^f TV II men, that I, never suspecting his dissimulation 
The character and lite ot Hora MacDonald ^^^^^ treachery, was led to impart to him the 
have excited the imagination of Sir Walter encouragements I was authorized to hold out 
Scott, Mrs. Ellett and others. A more full to ] lis 'Majesty*s loyal subjects, which he re- 

-, 1 . -1 1 1 i 1 r u 1-j.- 1 1 t ceived with much auiirobation. From the 

and dotal ed sketch of her lite and character "". , . ' /' . t i i ^ ti , i 

time ot this conversation, in July last, i heard 

maybe found m" the History ot the Jacobites," nothing from Mr. Campbell, until the late con- 

and in the History of North Carolina, II., 126. r vention at llillsboro, when he appeared as a 

She died in 1790, and luu- name is still re- cU'legate from the County of Cuinberland, and 

T, ^, ,,,.,, , ,1. ,, ■,, there, according to my mtormation, umisked 

membered by the old folks about hayetteville ,,,j^j unsolicited, and without provocation of 

with reverence and regard, any sort, he was guilty of the base treachery 

Foote hassaid of this amiable and illustrious of promulgating all I had .said to him^ in confi- 

, ^ ,.17 1 1 1 „ V i.>i- 1 fi -v-- dential secrecy, which ho had promised sacredly 

character, "England has her Eli^.abeth, ^ ,r- ^^^ ^^^^^^,^^^^ J^^ aggravating the crimeof false- 

ginia her Pocahoritas, and North Carolina her i„,m| i,y adding his own invention, in de- 
Flora MacDonald." daring he had rejected all my propositions." 


Tliis shows the opinion of Govornni- Maitin. oliiia deh'.t^ation in the house who sniiported 

Cumiibell reeoiveil as little favor tVoni the the sedition law, wlneh passed the house 

other side, for the next fall he was seized \>y Max 21, 1798. He supiiorted Jay's British 

Colonel Folsoine in his own liouse, while en- Treaty, so universally reiiiidiated hy the south, 

tertaininu- a party of Iligiiland loyalists, and He was joined by Govei'iior Martin in su[iport 

taken to Halifax jail. of these Fedei'al irieasures, which was the death 

The following lettei' from Colonel Moore wai'rant of l>oth in tlieir politieal lives. Gov- 

will show the status of Mr. Canipl.iell with thu ernor Miu'tin in 1801, was succeeded by Gover- 

whig side. nor Franklin and (ilrove hy Samuel 0. Purvi- 

" Camp at Moore's ureek, anee of Fayetteville. 

" Fcbrwirn 21ll,, 1770. ji^ nmrried Sarah, daughter of Egbert llay- 

"Sir: I have thought proper to send down ^^.o,„i .„„i g.,i|y ^yj,,.^.^ ^(-,3 .^„„t ^j- Honorable 

Mr. Farqnard Camijbell to be examined Ity -,,r-,i- o < "1 

^ ■,, '■ •' \\ illiam S. Ashe, 
your committee. 

" lie has been accused of aiding and abett- Mi'- Moore says that he was prompt, viva- 

ing the tories in their late schemes, and was eious and a devoted advocate lor the adoption 

airied a prisoner to Colonel Casw.-irs can,p ^,j. ^j^^ ,,^^^^, constitution: that he and John 

lie has now fallen into my liauds, and I send 
him to \ on to deal with him asyoutbiidsproper. 

Ilav had married the daughters of C'olonel 

"A Daniel "Williams, of Duplin, who was a Kowan, l)oth residents of Fayetteville. 
prisoner among the tories, says that ho heard j^,).,,, Louis Taylor born March l,17C9,died 
Cai)tain McCloud say that they intended to ^ ,„^,_, . , , ,. . -r, 
go to the governor hy the way of Kocklish; '^'"uiary, 18211, resided lor many years ,n Fay- 
hut that Mr. F. Canipl>ell advised them to etteville. lie was born in London, of Irish 
take the route they have done, and that in a parents; he was deprived, at an early age, of 

few hours, by liis means they might have 1 ■ , ,1 i 1 1 <- 4. ^i ■ " ,.' i, 

,. ' • , . ^, . , •' ^'^ , . his tathei', and was brought to this country by 

notice ot anything that was transacted m our ^ •' •' 

canni I ain, sir." ^'i elder brothei', when he was only twelve 

" Y(Uirvery humble servant, years old. I'.y the aid of this brother, he en- 

".Iamks Moore." joyed the advantages of education, and spent 

- To the chairman of the connnitte of Wil- \^^,^^ ^.^.^^.^ ^^ William and Marv college in Vir- 

mingt"i!, js. C." ..'-,,. , . ^ ... 

ginia. He then came to this state, studied 

" E\er strong upon the stiongei' side," when law, and settled at Fayetteville. His success 

the revolution ended in our indepen<lence, at the bar was complete. His gentle and un- 

Campboll was claimed to lie a wliig, and was obstrusive bearing, bis deep learning, and kind 

senator in 1791-'02-'9?., fVom Cumbei'land. temper soon gained him practice and "troops 

Win. IJarry Grove, resbled in Cundieilaiul of friends." He was elected in 1792,-'93,-'94 

County, and represented it in tlie legislaini-e to represent the town of Fayetteville in the 

in 1788-'89, and this district in c(uigress 1791 House of Commons. During this last year, 

to 18*);!. He was in congi-ess during the sting- the oflice of attorney -general became vacant; 

gle bet ween Jefferson and I>urr, and suiipoi-ted be with Messrs. Blake Baker and Itobert 

the latter for presidency. Williams were nominated for the office, and 

We have been able to gathei- but little IVom Mr. Baker was electc<l. 

the annals (d' congress or from private sources, He now tlevoted all bis talents and time to 

<if the life and character of Mr. (-Jrove, and his profession , and even with such competitors 

leave this duty to some son of the Ca-c Fear as Hay, Dntfy, Williams, and others, he had a 

district. large and lucrative practice. He removed to 

He was the onlv mend.ier of the North Car- New Berne in 1796. 


In 17i'8, lie was elected a judge of the .hu- I5y tlie -.xri nf 1817, he whs aiipoiutcd with 

porior ciiurts of law and equity. .\t this time iloury I'ly-ter and Bartlett Yancey to revise 

the slate was divided into eight judiidal dis- the statute law of tho state, ami the stat- 

tricts,Edenton, Halifax, New Berne, Wilniiiig- utes of Enghiiul iii force in the state. This 

ton, Fayetteville, ilillshoro, Salishui-y, and work was coiniiieted and [Hildished in 1<S21. 

Morgantoii. Court was held twice a year, at in 1H25, .(udgo Taylor continued this work. 

which two of the four judges had to [iresido. lie, ahoiit the same time, puhlishcd a, treatise 

These courts had .^u^ireme jurisdiction, for '-on the Duties of Executors and .\dniinistra- 

tliere was no court of appeals, and their deci- tors," 

sions were tinal. This obvious defect was en- This devoted loyalty to his profession did 

deavored to be I'eiiiedied by the act of 1799, not prevent .Judge Taylor from worshipping at 

directing the judges to meet together at Uu- the shrine of the muses. There was not, per- 

leigh twice a year to settle questions of law ha[is, a b^^tter hd/.s- lellres scholar in bis day. 

and equity arising on the circuits. In ISUl, While at the Inir he possessed a singular 

the act of 1799 was continual for three years, felicity ■.)f e.Npression, wliich always seized the 

and the meeting of tlie juilges was called "the most apjjropriate word suited to the thought. 

court of conference." His eiiorls were distinguished by a playful, he- 

In 1804, this was made a permanent tribu- iicvolent humor, great ingenuity and skill in 

nal, and its name changed in the following argment, a)id a ni.ost retentive memory. 

year to that of •' the Supreme Court." In Always polite to his assoi-iates, and res[iectful 

1808 the judges were authorized to appoint to the court, witli high and generous feelings, 

one of their number chief justice, and Judge ho was lo\ed and respected. Of the mode in 

Taylor was selected. In 1818, tlie supreme which iie exercised the functions of a judge of 

court was established, and John Lewis Taylor, this highest tribunal in our laud, his recorded 

John Hall and Leonard Henderson were ap- o])inion3 will demonstrate, and these are 

pointed to hold it. Judge Taylor continued models of eloquence and logic, whilst thev are 

as chief justice until his death, which oc- admired for their research and classic beautv. 

cuvred at Raleigh, January 29, 1829. As a neig!il)or, no one bad a more benevo- 

Soon after liis appointment, Judge Taylor lent disposition, moie .sincere in his friendships 
began to take notes of the cases decided by or nuu-e affectionate in all the relations of 
him and his associates; and in 1802 he puli- life. Ilistiibute to the memory of the late 
lished " Determined in the Sqerior James F. Taylor, who died in 1H28, is credita- 
Courts of Law and Equity of the State of ble alike to his liead and heart.* This gen- 
North Carolina." tleman, though bearing the same name, was no 

In 1814, he published anonymously the fiist, blood relation, and was only connected by 

and in 1816 the second volume of " the Caro- having married his adopted daughter, Eliza 

lina Repository;" also another volume of re- L. .Mannmg. Judge Taylor was twice mairiel. 

ports from 1816 to 1818, known as " Taylor's His tirst wife was .fulia Rowan, by wliDin he had 

Term 1-Jcports." His charge to the grand oue daughtci', who married .Major Snjcd, a 

jury of Edgecombe, in 1817, was published at son of whom was attorney -general of Teuues- 

the request of the grand jury, and is a model see. The second wife was Jane Gaston, a 

of its kind, showing the various oftences that sister of Juilge Gaston, by whom he had one 

grand juries are bound to notice, and a general daughter, who married David E. Sumner, of 

summary of their duties. *'^:^ ,,.,. i „<• 7 ■ , r^ i^ » -,- 

* rins may be found 111 1 Devereux Reports, o27. 


llerlfurt Countv, un.l a son, John Loni., who not elected by the legislature. In 183G, he 
die.] yen-, a.-o/unmarried. ^vas again on the superior court bench which 

Ilonry Potter born 17u5, died 1857, was he resigned fron, ill health in 1840. He v. as 
forvaor'e than half a century judge of the an eloquct advocate, a learned judge, a writer 
TTnited States District Court for the state of of great literary attainments, and an accom- 
North Carolina, appointed in 1801 by Mr. Jef- plished and urbane gentleman. He died m 
fe.-son He resided in Fayettevillo; he was a Pittsboro in 1856. 

uptivJof Granville Countv. Louis D. Henry, born 1788, died 1816, re- 

Of his early education we have no in forma- sided for years in this county. He was a 
tion But he was for years a trustee and an native of New Jersey, educated at Princeton, 
active friend of the university. Kind and where be graduated in 1809. He read law 
courteous in his manners, upright and patient with his uncle, Edward Grahan>, m New 
as a ju.lo-e,he iK)s.sesf=ed abilities of a reputa- Berne, and practiced with great success. He 
ble order- but to preside as the associate was distinguished for his courteous manners, 
of Marshal, Daniel, and Wayne, demanded no bis finished eb.cution, and bis accurate and 
ordinarv powers. In the latter days of bis extensive memory. His genial temper and 
life be was fond of narrating the events of his popular manners were duly appreciated by bis 
voutb He bad known Washington, and lieard fellow citizens. He represented the county 
him deliver his first address to congress at 1821 and 1822, and the town in 1830-'.31 and 
Pliiladelpbia. He knew Adams. Jefferson, '32, and in the latter year was chosen speaker. 
Madison, Monroe, Hamilton, Charles Carroll. In early life, when .luite young, he beoame 
Rufus King and other celebrities of the revo- involved in a duel with Thomas J. Stanly, 
lution, a. well Richard Caswell, Judge Iredell, (about 1812) which terminated m the death 
Governor Johnstone, Nash, Burke, Spaight, of the latter. 

.Xshe Davie and others of our own state, and He was appointed .Minister to Belguim by 
.uch'-iants as Cameron, Gaston Toomer, the President (VanBuren,) which mis.sion he 
Means^ Dutty and Strange bad practiced before declined, but he accepted the appointment of 
him; a'll of whom prccede<I liim to the grave, commissioner to settle claims against Spain, 
llad'be written tlie rendn^sceiiees of his times. In 1842, he nuide an unsuccessful campaign 
How agreeable would such a work have been r,s candidate for governor of the state. This 
tooura<'-e! ^^''is bis last appearance in political life, tor 

He wi" te a work - on the Duties of a Justice four years after be died suddenly at bis resi- 
of the Peace," and with Yancey and Taylor re- dence in Raleigh. 
' vised our statute laws. He died J)ecemher Mr. Henry was no ordinary man. Gifted 
2Q ig57 l)y nature with high mental endowments, cul- 

John D. Toomer was a native of Wilming- tivated by education, of a most agreeable pre- 
ton; educated at the university but diil not sence, an exquisite taste for poetry and music, 
"•raduate. ^^'if' '"ost melodious voice, he was a welcome 

*" He reiu-esented this eoiinty in the senate of and favoured guest wherever be mowd.^ 
the state le-islature in IS^H and 1832, and Mr. Henry was twice married. By bis last 

su.'ceeded Jud..e Strange, in the house in 183tJ. wife, who survived him, he had several chil- 

lle had been a judge of the su^ierior ronvt. 

dren. One of whom married Duncan K. 

1818, an.l was on the supreme court l..neb in .McUae. another John H. Manly, and another 
1829, by ai.pointment of the governor,but was was the first wife of R. P. Waring, of Charlotte. 

cr.\nM^:RLAXD county. 149 

Robert Strange, born 1796, died February llaiiylitoii, di-itingnised as a statesman and 

19th, 1854, who lived and died in Fayette- advocate; Cadwailader Jones, late attorney- 

ville, was a native of Virginia. lie was edu- general of the state; Richard II. Smith, and 

cated at Hampden Sydney, stndied law and otlicrs, composed the class, 

settled at Fayetteville, from which town he His gentle and genial mannera, and frank 

was elected a representative to the legisiatnre and gentlemanly deportment made him a nni- 

1821; re-elected, with two intermissions, nntil versal favorite with the faculty and students, 

1836, when he was elected one of the judges and so won upon the aiFections of the vener- 

of the superior courts, in which position he able president, Dr. Caldwell, that he was often 

was .so acceptable that in 1836, he was elected heard to say: " it would gladden his heart to be 

United States senator. Here he shone con- the father of such a son as James C. Dobbin." 

spicuous for the suavity of his manners, his He read law with -ludge Strange, then one 

afFalile demeanor, and his brilliant abilities, of thejudges of tliesu[)erior coui'ts, with whom 

Under instructions from the legislature, he was a special favorite. 

elected in the pbrensy of the "Log Cabin " lie wasadmitted to the bar in 1835, and de- 
campaign of 1849, he resigned, glad to escape voted all of his enei'giesto the [irofession. In 
from " the peltings of the storm " of political it he was eininiently successful; this, too, at a 
life to tiie more germane and profitable pur- adorned by Toomei', Eccles, Henry, asid 
suits of the law, which lie practiced with great others. 

success until his death. He was twice married. He was often solicited to represent his 

His second wife, .Mrs. Nelson, survived him countj', l)Ut he invariably declined, alledging 

but a sliort time. that he felt more satisfaction in the discharge 

James Cochrane Dobbin, horn 1814, died of his professional duties, and in the quiet eon)- 

August 4, 1857, was born, lived, and died in forts of his family', thati in the contests of 

Fayetteville. He was the son of Johti .VI. political warfare. 

Dobbin, and Abiiess, daughter of James Coch- But such talents and merit could imt re- 

rane, after whom he was named, and who main unappreciated. In 1845, unsolicited and 

represented the Orange district in the Twelfth unexpectedly to him, he was nominated for 

Congress, 1811 and 1S13. His father, a sue- congress by a convention in the Raleigh dis- 

cessful merchant in Fayette\ille for thirt}' trict. The district was a doubtful one, and 

3'eai's, died in 1837 univei'sall}- loved and la- had previously only been cariied by a small 

mented. majority for the democratic ticket. 

Mr. Dobbin was prejiared for college by The opposition was able and active, and his 

William J. Bingham, of Hillsboro; in 1828 he com[ietitor, John H. Haughton, a practiced 

entered the freshman class. His course in col- and successful politician. Yet such was the 

lege was marked by a faithful discharge of gallant and genial bearing of Mr. Dobbin a.nd 

every diuy. Though much thcyoungest mem- liis captivating and svinning cbK|uence, that 

ber of the chiss, during the whole collegiate he was elected by a majority of two thousand 

coarse, he was among the first, and graduated votes. His fame preceded him to congress, 

with high honors in 1882, and tliis was no idle and he was placed on the coiximittee of elec- 

iind empty compliment, when it is stated that tioiis, a most important and trying position for 

sucli minds as Thouias S. Ashe, (now one of the a youngandinex[)erienced member. But bei'e 

judges of the supreme court,) Thomas L. Cling- he so bore himself as to win the approbation 

man, late United States s.^nator; John H. of his associates, by a close attention to Ins 



dnties, deciding according to the justice of 
each case, and his own convictions of right 
although frequently to the prejudice of his own 
own party. 

His speech on the Oregon question; the 
tliree niillion bill; Mexican war; public lands; 
the tariff, and other questions, established for 
liiin the reputation of a sagacious and honest 
statesman. After his term expired he de- 
clined a re-election to congress, intending to 
devote himself to his profe.ssion, in which he 
now stood in the foremost rank. But the 
people did not allow him to retire from their 
service; he was returned from the ciunty in 
1848, 1850 and 1852, to the legislature. He 
was chosen the speaker of the house in 1848 
and 1850. His course, so patriotic and yet so 
modest, commanded the respect and regard of 
all. His efibrts in behalf of the Insane Asy- 
lum, on the memorial of that "white winged 
messenger of peace," Miss JHx, is the monu- 
ment of his patrotism and his pliilanthrophy. 
The memorial was referred to a select commit- 
tee, on motion of John W. Ellis, and a bill 
was reported by him appropriating one Imn- 
dred thousand dollars. In the mean time, 
Mr. Ellis, -n being elected judge, resigned, 
the laboring oar was then allotted to Hon. 
Kenneth Rayner, who, in a speech of great 
power and of impassioned eloquence, advoca- 
ted the measure; hut it was lost by a vote of 
66 to 44, and the measure seemed to be irre- 
trievably lost. 

Miss Dix felt deeply the failure of a measure 
no dear to her heart and to humanity; she 
called on Mr. Doljbin, who had not been pre- 
sent at the discussion, his lovely wife having 
only a day or so previously died; Miss Uix 
reminded him of his wife's earnest request to 
support this bill. The appeal did not fall un- 
heeded. Tlie next day the bill was reconsid- 
ered. Mr. Dobbin, in the language of the 
Raleigh Register, •' delivered one of the most 
touching and beautiful etforts ever heard in 

the legislature." The bill passed almost unan- 

The stranger, wandering in our midst, as he 
gazes in pride on " the cloud capt turrets " of 
this splendid edifice, erected at our capital, may 
well pause iind breath a benediction and 
tliaid<:s to the 'names of Doi'athea Dix, Ken- 
neth Rayner and James C. Dobbin. 

Mr. Dolibin's ne.\t public service was as a 
delegate to the convention at Baltimore to 
nominate candidates for president and vice- 
president. He was elected the chairman of 
the North Carolina delegation. After a pro- 
tracted and animated canvass, it was found 
impossible co nominate Buchanan, Marcy, 
Cass, or I>ougla8, or any one acceptable to the 
contending factions. It was apprehended that 
the convi.'ntiiin ^Nould adjourn in confusion, 
and witliout any nomination. At this crisis 
Mr. Dobbin arose, and in a modest, unobstru- 
sive manner, and with matchless eloquence, 

" Like the sweet Soutli, 

J5re:itlihig on a bank of violets, 
Stealing and giving odor," 

spoke as follows: 

"Mr. President: I'ai'don me for obtruding otie 
wi)rd before North Carolina casts her vote. 
AVe came to jiander to no factions artiiices 'ufve, 
to enlist under no man's banner at the hazard 
of principle; to endiark in no crusade to 
jirostrate any aspirant for the sake of sec- 
tional or personal triumph. We came here 
to select one of the ariuy of noble spirits in 
our ranks to be our leader and champion in the 
glorious struggle for the great principles of 

"Again, and again, have we tendered the 
banner to tlie Noi'th. Save our h'lpiij/ Union, 
guard well the rights of the states, say we, 
and you can have the honor of the standard 
bearer. Zealously and sincerely have we pre- 
sented the name of Buchanan, the nobe son 
of the Key Stone state, around whom the af- 
fections of our hearts have so long clustered. 
We have turned to the Empire State, New 
York, a!id sought to honor one of her distin- 
guished sons. We now feel that in the midst 
of discord and destruction, the olive branch, if 
tendered once more, cannot be refused. We 


{eel the hour now has conv wheu tlie spirit of lots Mr. Dobbin I'eeeiveil witliiii one or two 

strife must be banished, and the mild, gentler ^f enough votes to eleet bini. All of us who 

and holier siiirit of patriotism reign in its , l- i . , • i , 

stead! Come then, Mr. President, let us go were members ot that legislature can remem- 

to the altar and make sacrifices for our beloved ber the intense excitement of the time. The 

country. We now propose, with other friends, opposition was able, active, and not over scru- 

the name of one wlio was in the field just 1 oiig ,^„ n^u, ,,i i ,„j. „i„,,. |,„^ u ;i .p 

, ^ 1 ■ 11- M . 11- T Milous. Ihey couki not elect; but bv aid ot 

enough to prove himself a >j;ailant soldier, and i ^ > . 

who was long enough in \he councils of the one or two meddling marplots of tlie other 

nation to demonstrate that he is a statesman side they could [irevcnt the election of the 

of the stnnij mivd and honeM heart; who has democratic candi.iate. Amid all this excito- 

exbibited in the career ot leijislation, that he ,r ta i i ■ i i i . i 

knew the rights of the South, while he re- »'«"* ^i'- Dobbin appeared the only calm and 

spected those of the North, as well as of the considerate person among us. After some 

East and the West; whose principles of de- fo,,ty ballotings, he requested that a caucus 

mocracv are as solid and en<luring as the , , , , n , i -.i n.- i. t ■ 

•* ■ 1 -n fi- „ x' Tj ' 1 ;., ebould be caled, and with unaffected sincerity 

granite hills of Ins own iSew Hampshire iia- ' •' 

tive land— General Fnmkliii fierce. and glowing eloquence he requested his name 

" Come, friends and brothers, let us strike to be withdrawn and some other person voted 

hands now; now tor harmony and conciliation, ^.^^^. ^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^.j^,^ ^^^.^.^^^^ ^,,g . di.ti-acted 

and save our cherished principles and our be- ' . . 

loved countrv " ''.^' jealousies, and a fearful chasm of disorder 

bad been opened, engulphing its unity, if not 

This i^peecu was cheered with the wihlest its very existence. He withdrew his nam.'; 

enthusiasm. Several states, as Vermont and but it was in vain. If he could not be elected 

New Jerse}', changed their votes to Pierce, no other person should be, and the state had 

The delegations from New York, Pennsylva- only one senator for a long time. 

Ilia, Indiana and other states, retired for con- On the accession of General Pierce, without 

sulfation, but soon returned and joined their any effort of friends or himself, and une.x- 

voices in the general pean of joy. Dispatches peeted to all, for he had recommended another, 

and eongratnlations on the event wei'c received he was tendered the position of Secretary of 

from J)ouglas, Houston, and others. Thepresi- the Navy. The manner of his successful dis- 

dent of the convention then announced the charge of these important duties, his pure and 

vote (two hinidred and eighty-three) for unspotted integrit\', gave more strength to this 

Franklin Pierce. branch of the public service than it has ever 

It was ackiK)wledged that the address of received before or since. His decided and 

Mr. Dobbin had done much to secure this re- frank course, his gentle and knightly courtesy, 

suit. He was selected as one of electors with his frank and open demeanour won theheartsof 

Burton Craige.L.O'B. Branch, Thomas Bragg, those in the service, and he left the depart- 

aiid others, and made a gallant campaign for inent without an enemy in or out of the navy, 

the ticket and cast the vote of the state for He possessed in a lugii degree the faculty 

Pitrce and King. of '' reading men," and the talent of discern- 

At this time (1852,) the legislature liad to ing merit. He granted with pi'oin[itness any 
elect a senator in congress. The democratic reasonable rettuest, while lie could refuse with 
p;iit\" in caucus, with much unanimity, nomi- delicacy and t ict, any improper application. 
luited Mr. Dobbin. The parties (democrat Whilst his health was ahvaj^s delicate, yet he 
and whig) wei'e nearly equally divided. The attended laboriously every duty of tliis import- 
selfish ambition of one or two aspirants pre- ant position. It is a singular fact, already al- 
vented an election; although on several bal- ludcd to, that our state has rarely been h(ni- 



ored by ;i caWiiiet appoiiitineiit, but when it has 
it was the Navy Department. 

It is also sinji;ular tliat the cabinet of Pierce, 
which has had no superior in the history ofthe 
republic for integrity, ability, or usefulness, is 
the only ca!)inet that ever existed, in whicli 
there was, during its legal existence, perfect in- 
tegrity, with out resignation or change. These 
distinguished men seemed to be as united in 
their social and official relations, as they were 
for the welfare and honor of their country. 

This terminated, the public life of .Mr. 
Dobbin, a career so brilliant and yet so short. 

In private life his character exhibited it- 
self still more lovely. As a son, he was 
obedient and docile; as a husband, tender; as a 
father, proviilent and affectionate, and as a 
friend sincere, fiaid-c, and unselrish. 

I trust it will not bo deemed ostentations 
when I say of Mr. Dobbin, as did Antluniy of 
Civsar: " He was my friend, faitiiful and just, 
to me ■' earnest and sincere. He sustained my 
course, when absent from the country under 
peculiar circumstances, when assailed by pre- 
judice and sectional jealousy. I allude to the 
course [mrsued by me in (^'-ntrul America. To 
the la-t hour of his life he continued his 
kinilly offices. 

As I was leaving the country, I received the 
following letter, which bettei' expresses his 
friendship and generous, noble nature tiian any 
possible language of miiie: 

" Washikgtox, Ociobtr Bnl, 1854. 
"■ Dear Wheeler: 

"The beautiful painting has arrived, and 
shall conspicuously adorn my parlor. 

"I prize it highly. It is the picture of the 
l;eloved Washington. It is one of ' Sully's " 
V'aiutings too. It comes to nu_' from the warm 
heart of a true friend, and therebj' seems to 
iiave borrowed a richer touch, which lends it 
additional l.ieauty. 

" I shall remember you, when j-ou are far, 
f::raway; and when you return, aiul see my 
little folks, tell them how warm was the 
friendship between yourself and their father, 
whose life was so hopeful and yet so short. 

" Should, however, the scene be changed and 
otherwise, let your better-half and your boys 
know that Mr. Dobbin is one that they may 
approach and find their steady friend. But 
perhaps we may meet in years to come, and 
then v.'hat friendly chats, Shakespeare, poli- 
tics. Good-bye. G-od preserve and bless you, 
" James C. DuuiiiN." 

But if the life of Mr. Dobl)in was one con- 
tinued exercise of the noblest functions of our 
nature, and his career as short as it \\'as bril- 
liant, it was eclipsed by the sublime manner 
of hi-, death. 

Ilis beidtb never strong, was exhausted by 
his (ifHcial labors at Washington, and he re- 
turned home only to die. We are Informed 
l)y Rev. Mr. Gilchrist, wlio was with him in 
his last moments, that Mr. Dobbin was con- 
scious for some tin>.e of his approacliing disso- 
lution, and when t!ic ii-y band of death touched 
his hcai't, lie did not shrink fi-oni its a,pi)i' 
but calmly bade his little children and his 
weeping friends adieu; and with fixed liands, 
comi>osing himself in his bed, he was heard to 
whisper, " praise the Lord, oh my soul!" and 
with these words his spirit departed. 

" -Sure the last eiiil 

Of the iiooil man is peace ! How calin liis exit; 
Nigiit dews fall not more gently to the groimd 
>for weary worn o t winds expire inoro soft." 

Mr. ])obbin left th-.-i-o children; two sons, 
both since dead, and a (hinghter. Tlie sad 
fate of his lu'othei', John V. Doljbin, who per- 
ished at sea, in tlie steam ship Central America, 
has already been allinled to. (See Beaufort 
County ) 

"Waircn Winslow, born 1810, died 18t)2, 
was I'orn, lived and died in Fayettevilie. He 
was educated at the rniversity-wf ]N'o'th Car- 
olina, and graduated in 1827, in s-iiue class 
with. Judge A. 0. P. Nicholson, of 'J'eiuiessee, 
Charles B. Shcphard, Lewis Tlionip.-on and 

He studied law, and (uitered public life as 
senator in the state legislature the ycai-. 
(1851,) and was chosen speaker. In the election 


of Governor Reid as senator in cong-rcss he a Imvvor, luit nliaiidoned (lie [irofession and 

became ex officio governor of tlie state. The joined tlie ministry. As a writer siie has at- 

next year he was elected a member of the taiiied s^feat succe;;s. Many of lier [jrodnctions 

Thirty-fonrth Congress, l855,-'o7, and was show the tire of genius. 

re-elected to the Thirty-fifth, 1857, -'59, and Tiie Presbyterian lioard of iiuljliration havo 

Thirty-sixth Congress, 1850,-'G1, when the issncd several of her works as Sunday-sclidol 

state secceded. books, and her i)0('ms in (ho North Carolina 

He (in 1854) was sent on a s[»evial mission l^-osliyterian and the Central Trosliytorian, 

1>y Mr. Pierce to ]\hulrid, in reference to [lulilisheil at Pichmond, Virginia, have at- 

tlie ]>lack Warrior affair. taincd celehritv, and snch happy conceits, as 

AVhen the civil war commenced he took an that of' Linda Loe " address alike the fancy 

active i)art. lie died in Fayettevilie in 18()o. as the heart. 

Governor Winslow had many genial and A few of her poems are preserved in " Wood 

generons qualities, and was much loved by his Notes," a collection of North Carolina poety, 

friends. The troubles of the country hurried made by .Mrs. Clai'ki\ and published in 1854, 

him to an early grave. but most of them have appeared only in the 

Duncan Kirkland MacKae, born Au"-nst 


l()th, 1820, is a native of Fayettevilie, son of Henry Washington Ililliard, mentioned in 
John MacUae, Esq. lie was educated at the the same work "The Living Writers of the 
University of Virginia, and at William and South," is a native of Cumberland Countv, 
Mary; studied law with Judge Strange, and born ISOS. lie has been distinguished as a 
was a successful andeloquent advocate. ?]leeted lawyer, a di[il()mist, a ]> ditieian, and a divine, 
to the legislature in 1842. He was educated at Columi)ia, S mtb Caro- 
He was an unsuccessful candidate lor gov- linn; studied law and settled at Athens, 
ernor in 1848, being defeated by Governor Ellis. Geoi'gia. In JSal, he was elected a professor 
On the accession of General Pierce, he was in the University of (Jeorgia; and in 1838, was 
appointed Consul of the LTnited States at a member of the legislature. Three years 
i'aris, where he remained only a few years. later he was appointed rhnrrjc (V'/frklres to 
On his return he removed to Memphis, Ten- Belgium. From 18i5 to 1852, he was a rep- 
nessee, then to Chicago, and recontl3M-eturned res'-ntative in congress from Georgia, subse- 
to his native state, and is now residing at (piently he l>ecame a Mi'thodist preacher. 
Wilmington. He became envoy ext)aordinary and minis- 
He married Virginia, daughter of Louis D. ter plenipotentiary of the United States to 
Henry, and has several children. Brazil. 

Mrs. Mary Aver Miller, is mentioned among His litei'ary productions are — 

the "living female writers of the south." I. Speeches and Addresses, which contain 

She was born in Fa3'etteville, and on tlie death his speeches delivered in congress and some 

of her father, General Henry A3-er, removed literaiy addresses. 

with her mother, when she was oidy eight II. DeVane, a storv of Plebeians and Patri- 

years old, to Lexington, North Carolina, to be cians, (1866,) which exhibits the highest evi- 

educated by her uncle, the Kev. Jesse Rankin dence of scholarship, and a high appreciation 

of the Pi-esb^-terian church, who had a school of the true, the beautiful and the good, 

at that place. She married a j'oung lawyer, Wesley Clark Troy pjsides in Fayettevilie, 

Willis M. Miller, who gave great jiromise as but is a native of Randolph County, where he 


was horn ou July 30. 1833. His father was a a native North Carolinian, and has many warm 

reiiresentative from Randoliih m 1827. Ills friends. He now resides in the city of New 

motlier was a danghter of Colonel Andi'ew York, and as a hook puhlisher has been greatly 

Balfonr, whose atrocious murder is recorded heneticial to southern literature.* 

under the head of Randolph County. Many other names worthy of record are pre- 

Mr. Troy was a meudjer of the liouse in sented in the history of Cumberland, as 

187G. Bethurn,in congress 1831,-'33; Cameron, judge 

Edward J. Hale, who for a long time con- in Florida, Davis, Duffy, Eccles, Jordan, Mil- 
ducted the Fayetteville Observer with iudc- ler, Porterfield, S. D. Pnrviance, and many 
fatigalile industry and unsurpassed ability, is others; but to those who have accurate infor- 
a native of Moore County, boi-n in 1802. Ilis mation as to their lives and services we must 
press was the leading one of the state, and con- leave this pleasing task, and especially as more 
ducted at times with much violence, which space has been devoted to this interesting 
doubtless age and time have corrected. He is county that the limits of our work justify. 



Dr.. Henry Marchand Suaw, burn Novem- several sharp and heavy engagements at Roan- 

ber 'Jiitli, 1819, died February 1st, 181)4, oke Island, Now Berne, and other places, in 

resided in this county, whbdi he re[iresentcd which he boi'e himself with coolness, gallantry 

in the senate of the state legislature in 1852; and enterprise. 

and tlie Edenton district in the Thirty-third On February 1, 18t)4, he became engaged in 

Congress, 1853,-'55, and Thirty-tifth Congress, a skirmish with some advanced troop s at 

18o7,-'50 Batchelor's Creek, near New Berne, was mor- 

He was one <>f the electors in 1857 on the tally wounded, and died immediately on the 

Buchanan ticket. field. His fall was deeply lamented by his 

He was born in Newport, Rhode Island; '-oinrades and his country. He died the death 

the son of Rev. William A. Shaw, a minister be had often expressed a wish for — the death 

of the Baptist church. Ho graduated as a of a soldier in defence of his country's rights, 

physician in I'lnladelphia, in 183ij, and came ^I'l^l bis country's honor. 

with his father to North Carolina, and settled " Tre, vero felix Agricohi; non vit?e tantum 

in this county. claritate, sed etiam opportunitate mortis. "t 

Wh.'U our civil war commenced, be cast Ins Emerson Etheridge, was born September 28, 

fortunes witli the destiny of his adopted 1819, in tins county, and, when thirteen years 

Uate, and was appointed colonel of the eighth 
sgiment of North Carolina troo^is, and diil 

.+;,'„ oo,.,.;,./^ ;,, fi.; . ■ u- tt • from the l)rilliaiicv of yoiir life, but in the ch'cum- 

jtive sen ice m this po.-ition. He wa, m stancesof your death.'' 

_,. .. , „ ,. "-.Moore n., 411 

regiment ot North Carolina troo^is, and did t •• Thou truly art happy. Aarieola, not so much 


cihl, i-noved to Tennossoe, iuid hecamo a ineiii- by few persons in tlii.s or any other country. 

her of congress from Tennessee in the Thirty- Many other names chister around this aii- 

thirtl (1853,-'55) Thirty-fourth, (1855, 1857,) cient county, the memories of whom deserve 

also, Thirt^'-sixth Congress, (1859, -'60.) On to be cherished. The Baxters, Bells, Doziers. 

the meeting of the Thirty -seventh Congress the Etheridges, (Willis, Caleb and Joseph 

(1861, -'63) he was elected clerk of tiie house, W.) Ferrebees, Halls, Jones, Lindsays, Salyear 

the dutiesof which he discharged with fidelity Simmons, and otiiers; hut our limits do not 

and ability. He is a lawyer by profession, of allow the space, and we leave this duty to 

large observation of men and measures, and some son of Currituck to rescue these materials 

possesses rare conversational powers equalled from the carroding tooth of time. 


The revolutionary history of this count}' is In the war he entered the confederate army, 

connected with that of Rowan County, from and served as colonel of the eleventh regiment 

which it was taken in 1822. of North Carolina troops. But on being elec- 

James Madison Leach I'esides in tliis county, ted a member of the confederate congress, 1864, 

He is a native of Randolph County, born 1821, -'65, he resigned his commission in the army, 

educated chiefly at home. He was for a time Since the war he has served as a member of 

a cadet of the military academy at West Point, the Forty-second and Fort\--tliird Congresses. 

He read law with his brother Julian E. Leach, 1871,-'75. 

and attained nmch distinction at the bai- as an The political career of General Leach ha.~ 

able, astute, and successful advocate. But his been brilliant and successful. In no instance 

fame is chiefly based upon his success as a has he ever been defeated in an election be 

statesman. In 1848, he was elected to the fore the people. His shrewdness as a politician, 

legislature, and continuously to 1856, and his powers as an orator and logician, conil)ined 

in 1856 he was one of the Filmore electors, with a pleasing address, render him invincible. 

He was elected to the senate in 1865,-'66,-'67, He married iti 1846, Lizzie Montgomery 

and again in 1879. He was elected a member Lewis, and has an interesting famil}' of three 

of the Thirty-fourth Congress, 18o9,-'61, liis sons, Wilmont, Henr}^ Archer and James M. 

opponent being General A. M. Scales. to inherit his name and reputation. 


The men of this ancient county in revolu- ration in 1777, the original is on file in the 

tionary times, proved their devotion to the clerk's olHce ofthe county, they held that, "The 

cause of liberty. They united in wresting King of England, nor an}' other foreign power, 

their independence from England, in a decla- iiad anv right to the sovereignty of this state: 


and they reiioniR'ed all allegiance to the same, A nionunient marks his grave in the Gotl- 
and resolved to support and maintain th.> in- gressional hurying ground, 
dependence of the state against the said Owen Rand'Keenan, son of Thomas, was 
Kin^'." born March 24, 1806. Studied medicine, and 

This is siirned by H^nry Cannon, William afterwards law. Member of the legislature 
Dickson, Alexander Gray, Samuel Houston, 1834,-'35,-'36, and of the confederate con- 
James Lockhart, Michael Keiinon, James Ken- gress, 1862. 

non, James Sampson, Edward Toole, and Cliarles Hooks, a native of this county, often 

others. represented it in the legishitui'e. In 1817, he 

James Oillaspie was a native of this county, succeeded William R. King in congress, and 

We know but little of him, except from the was re-elected to congress in 1821,-':^3. He 

pul>!ic records, which inform ns that ho was also moved to Alabama. 

often a member of the legislature, and amemiier Thomas Ke^nan,also a native of this county, 

iVom this district in the Third Congress, (1703, and frcun whose family the county town de- 

'95;) Fonrtii Cvingress, (1795,-'97;) Fifth (.'on- rives its name, was, in 1804, in the senate of 

givss, (1798,-'99;) Eighth Congress, and until tlie legislature, and from 1805 to 1811, repre- 

liis death, which occurod while he was in con- sented this district in congress. He removed 

gress, January, lSij5, at Washington city. to Alabama, whore he died near Selma, in 1822. 


CiiAELKS Pkice, late speaker of the house John E. Iltissey, represented Dulphin in 1815,- 

(1876,) resides at Mocksville. He was born "K^-'^j-'lS, in the house, and from 1833 to 

in AVarren County, July 2(!, 1847. He read 1836, in the senate. 

law with ,hidgo J'earsoii; and after obtaining John B. Hus>ey received all the educational 
a lit'cnse settled at Mocks\ille, where he soon advanta:xes of tlie day. He was educated at 
by bis attainments, his pileasant address, and the Kenansville academy, the Cablwell insti- 
bigb moral character, won '• troops of friends." tute, and the university. The war prevented 
Sucli was the appreciation of the people that his graduating, and at the eai'ly ago of fifteen 
in 1872, they elected him to the senate. He he entered the army in the thirty-eighth 
was also a member of the constitutional con- North Carolina regiment, and was in several 
vention of 1875, and a member of the house in engagements around Richmond. In 1863, he 
1876. of which body, over members of more was assigned to the signal service at Smith- 
years, he was chosen S[ie:iker; a just conipli-- ville, and was the signal officer of "The Helen," 
ment to his genius, talents and aldlity. a Liveriiool blockade runner, in which capacity 

We would do injustice to modest and sub- he made many successful trips to Nassau, Ber- 

stantial merit, and solid ability, were we to mndas and Halifax. After this service hewas 

omit in our sketches the name and services of assigned to duty on the Cape Fear, and was 

John Bryan Ilussey. wounded at the fearful b.ittle of Fort Pislier, 

He is a I'.ative of Dr.lplii Co'mty, boi-n Jan- taken pri-^onor and confined at Fortress Mon- 

uai-y 1, 1846. His family is well known for roe and Fort Delaware. The war being over, 

their abilit,> and integi'ity. A near relative, be was released. He studied law with Wil- 



liaiii A. Allen, iui d was liceiisod in 1868. lie ville, and 8nbse(|uently conducted ) he News at 

removed to Newton, and thence to Hickory, Kaleigh. He was appointed librarian to the 

where he established the Piedmont Press, house of representatives in 1879, which position 

In 1874, he started the Landmark at States- he now occupies with great saiisFaction to all. 


ALTiioroii this county, from its inland 
tion, was not exposed to the dangers of attack 
in the revolution, yet no section of the state 
was more sensitive of its duty, or sent more 
willing and patriotic sons to do battle in the 
cause of the country. 

Among these, conspicuously stands the name 
of Henry Irwin, killed in battle 1777. He had 
for a long time been a resident and merchant 
of Tarboro, much esteemed i'or his integrity, 
patriotism, and cournge, and very popular. 
He was a member of the provincial congress, 
at New Berne, in 1775, also of the congress at 
Halifa.x, in 1776, and by that body appointed 
lieutenant-colonel of the second regiment, 
of which Edward Buncombe was colonel. 
This gallant regiment marched to join the 
army of tlie north, and on the fatal field of 
Germantown, (October 4th, 1777,) both he 
and his commandcr.fell. 

Colonel Irwin left one son and two daugh- 
ters. One of his daughters married Lovatt 
Burgess, only son.Thonuii Burgess, dis- 
tinguished as a lawyer, die<l in Halifa.x a few 
years since. Another daughter married Gov- 
ernor Aionford Stokes, whoso only child l)y 
this marriage was Mrs. William B. Lewis, of 
Nashville, Tennessee, whose only daughter 
married Monsieur Pageot, the French Min- 

The battle of Germantown brought sailness 
and sorrow to manv a hearthstone of North 
Carolina, for in it the p.atriotic generals, Nash, 
Turner, Lucas, and many others, gave up their 
lives for their country, and here the veteran, 

Colonel William Polk, received a severe and 
dangerous wound. With a patriotism de- 
serving all praise, a marble monument has 
been erected over their graves by the lili- 
erality of J. F. Watson, of Philadelphia. 

A sister of Colonel Irwin married Lawrence 
Toole, whose son, grandson, and great grand 
son, bear the same name — Henry Irwin Toole, 
all distinguished for ability- and influence. 
The first took a connuission in the war, and 
was in the battle of the Great Bridge, ^'ir- 

It would be unpardonable on this oc- 
casion says an able article on the County 
of Edgecombe in 1810, by Dr. Jeremiah Bat- 
tle, (see University Magazine, April, 1861,) 
not to mention the merits and services of 
Colonel Jonas Johnston, born 1740, died Jul}' 
29th 1779, who rose from obscurity and 
acted a conspicuous part in our revolution- 
ary struggles. Ho was born in the year 
1740, in Southampton County, Virginia, 
and came when a youth with his father to 
this county. He was raised a plain indus- 
trious farmer, without education. But he 
•possessed native talent, and unflinching 
patriotism. At an early day he embarked in 
the cause of liberty, and ever proved himself a 
true patriot, hero and statesman. From time 
to time, he filled every office in the county 
both civil and military. He repiresented the 
county in the convention, 1776, and was ap- 
pointed majoi' by the provincial congress. Ho 
was a member of the commons in 1777,-'7S. 

lie was a natural orator. After one of his 



speeches in the general assemhly, more remark- 
able for sound sense, tlian for granniiatieal 
stj'le, he was asked liy a professional gentle- 
man '• where he got his education." He replied, 
" at the plough handles." He was modest, yet 
determined, prompt, yet cautions. From the 
date of ills commission to his death he was 
constantly employed. He was at thehattleof 
jMoore's Creek Bridge, and in 1779 in com- 
mand of a regimeut, he went to the assistance 
of South Carolina. He was in the battle of 
Stono, where he bore himself with the intrep- 
edity of a veteran, receiving a wound. His 
care and tenderness of the soldiers under his 
command are remembered to this day with 
affect I'm and gratitude ]>y those who served 
under him. 

From the privations of war, and the de- 
bilitating effects of a soutiiern climate, bis 
health gave way, arid he died, on his return 
home, at the house of Mr. Amis, on Drowning 
Creek, near the South Carolina line, on July 
29, 1779. 

He left- several children, one of whom was 
the nuiternal grand-motiier of the late Richard 
Hiues, member from this district to the Xine- 
teenth Congress, (1825,-'27.) 

The Haywood family, one of the most nunj- 
erous, also one of the most distinguished in 
the state, had its tirst origin in North Caro- 
lina, iu this county. 

For the genealogy of the Haywood family 
see ajipendix. 

Tliis genealogical table was the work of 
much research, and is for the first time printed. 
!t was compiled chiefly by the late Governor 
Henry T. Clarke, one of this numerous family, 
and may be useful in tracing lines of relation- 
ship that would otherwise be obliterated by 
time. Of the progenitor, John Haywood, lit- 
tle infoi'iuation of his life and services are 

Of his son, William Haywood, died 1779, 
we liave more information. He was a mem- 

bei- of the committee of safety for the Hali- 
fax district, 1775; a member of the pi'ovincial 
congress at Halifax, in A[iril, 1776, also of 
the same body at the same place in ^November 
following, and was one of the committee to 
form the state constitution, and by that body 
appointed one of the council of the state. He 
was the father often children, most of wiiom 
reared families to usefulness and distinction. 
These will be severally iKiticed in the coun- 
ties in which they resided. 

There are few families in the state with 
whom are connected names better kno^vn. 

Among them are two United States Sena- 
tors, William Haywood and George E. Bad- 
ger; three Governors, Dudley, Clarke, and 
Manly; two Judges, Badger and John Hay- 
wood, the historian of Tennessee; four mem- 
bers of congress, William S. Ashe, E. B. Dud- 
ley, Sion II. Rogers, and Thomas Ruffin; army 
officers. General Junius Daniel, Colonel Wil- 
liam H. Bell; navy officers. Admiral H. II. 
Bell; lawyers, Badger, Burgess, Hogg, McRae, 
Edward G. Haywood, and others. 

Thomas Bloiiut who resided in this county, 
and re[.resented this district iu congress, and 
died while in congress, February 7th, 1812? 
has already been noticed. 

Henry Toole Clark, born 1808, died April 
14th, 1874, .son of Honorable James W. 
Clark, was l)oi'n on Iiis father's farm, " Wal- 
nut Creek," about nine miles above Tarboro, 
on the banks of Tar River. 

His early education was conducted at a 
school in Tarlxu'o, kei>t by George Phillips, and 
the Louisburg academy, and when only four- 
teen years old hewasseiit to the university at 
Chapel Hill. Among his class mates were Hon- 
orable Daniel M. Barringer, Rev. Samuel Ire- 
dell Johnstone, and othei's. At this time this 
veneralde institution contained a body of young 
men unsurpassed at any period of Its history. 
Graham and Manly (both afterwards govern- 
or) Folk, and others, were on its rolls. 



After gi-adnating in 182(i, he read law in 
Raleigh under the guidance of his kindsman 
William II. Haywood, jr., who was his iiestor 
in politics, as well as in law. Ho was admitted 
to the !)ar, Imt never iirarticed, nor did ho 
take much interest in politics until 1850, when 
he was elected senator in the legislature from 
Edgecomhe, and continued to occupy this 
position without intermission until 18G1. In 
1858, ho was chosen speaker which he occupied 
until early in the summer of 1801, when he 
summoned to IJaleigh, upon the illness of Gov- 
ernor Ellis, and on his death he iiecamo gover- 
nor of iliG state. Tliis was a perilous period of 
our history and demanded the exercise of pru- 
dence and sagacity; Governor Clark discharged 
his duties to the host of his ability. 

At the close of his administration he retired 
to his iioine. near Tarlior, whore he was near 
being captured by a raid of Federal cavalry. 
He escaped, but his house was plundered, the 
jewelry and watches taken from the ladies 
of his family, and all the stores for their sup- 
port carried off or destroj'ed. 

After the war closed, Governor Clark was 
agairi elected to the senate (ISiJG) under 
Johnson's reconstruction acts. This was his 
last public servic. 

He had been for years the presiiling justice 
of the peace for the cmmty. 

During the whole course of his life he was 
a laborious and devoted student of the history 
of his -state. As a local chi-onicler of tlie 
present, or a jiatieut antiquarian of the past, 
he was uiirpiestionabie authority, recognized 
as sucli by all. It was for many the 
earnest wish of his heart to have printed the 
early journals of the assembly and such docu- 
ments in theoifice of the secretary of the state, 
as illustrated the early b.istory of our state, but 
in vain. A distinguished statesman of South 
Caroliiui, Waddy Thompson, was wont to say: 
" North Carolina has a [ir.iud and glorious 
revolutionary history, far superior to any of 

her sister states, but has had none since." It is 
because we have had so few like Governoi' 
Clark, who wisli to [iroserve these precious 
memorials, and 

" l?e((U('atli tlicm 
As a rich legacy unto tlieir issue '' 

Thcue were few men in North Carolina bet- 
ter posted iis to hoi' men, families and sections. 
Gnly a year or two before his death, ho pro- 
posed to mo t(j uiiito in a periodical, devoted 
to history and genealogy, lie left on his table 
at the time of his death, a letter on this sub- 
ject to the Honorable Kemp P. Battle. 

NVe do not claim for Governor Clark the 
renown of the accomplished statesman, or tho 
thrilling eloipience of the orator, but he v^'a- 
an honesi man, and always oqual to any duty 
assigned to him by his country; never above 
or below, but just equal to the duties of his 

Simple and unart'ectod and unassuming in 
his manners, modest in his demeanor, a gen- 
tleman by birth and education, as well as by 
disposition and natui'e; warm in his attach- 
ments and sincere in his friendships, he lived 
honored, respected, and trusted in life, and 
enjoying the esteem, respect, and regard of 
everyone who knew him. 

He departed this life on April 14th, 1874. 
On the day of his burial all business was sus- 
pended, and the town and surrounding coun- 
try united in the last tribute of resjiect to his 

He was married m February, 1850, to Mrs. 
Mary \V. Hargr.iye, daughter of '!?heophilus 
I'arker, who, with two sons and throe (laugh- 
ters survive him. Truly to him miy be ap- 
plied the exquisite lines of Bryant: 

■' He so lived, that whea the s>nuiaous came to joiu 
The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His cuambei- in tlie halls of death. 

.Sustained and soothed 

By an unfaltering trust, he approached the grave. 
Like one tliat draws the drapery off his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.'" 


The Battle family, one of the most mimerous oiul edition of the first volume of Haj'wood's 
and distinguished families of the state, had Reports, greatly enhanced in value by the ad- 
its origin in this county. Elisha Battle, the dition of notes showing the changes made in 
progenitor of the family, was born in Nanse- the course of forty j^ears' legislation, and new 
niond Cwunty, Virginia, Januar}- 9, 1723. lie decisions construing the law. This edition 
moved to Tar River, in this county, in 1748. was received by the profession with great 
About 17(]4 he joined the Baptists, was chosen commendation, and gave Mr. Battle su -h a 
deacon, and continued a consistent and zeal- reputation that he was appointed by the gov- 
ons member of tliis denomination until his ernor, with other able jurists, to revise the 
death. Equally useful was he in the affairs of statutes of the state. After the labor of three 
state; he was elected for twenty years sue- years, these "Revised Statutes" were submitted 
cessively to represent this county in the leg- to the legislature for ratification, and adapted, 
islature; he was also a member of the provin- Mr. Battle had been associated with Mr. 
cial congress at Halifax, which formed the Devereux as reporter of the decisions; of the 
state constitution, and a member of the con- supreme court. On the resignation of his 
vention at Ilillsboro, to deliberate uiion the associate in 1830, Mr. Battle became the sole 
ratification of the Constitution of the United reporter. The fidelity and accuracv with 
States. In 1742, he was married to Elizabeth whicli he discharged the duties of this post, 
Sumner; in 1799 (March 6th,) he died, leav- won for him the approbation and applause of 
ing eight children. the profession on the bench and at the bar, 

William Horn Battle, late one of the judges and, therefore, upon the resignation olMudire 
of the supreme and superior courts of North Toonier, bs^ was appointed by Goveruor Dud- 
Carolina, was a native of this county, born ley, in August, 1840, one of the judii'es of the 
October 17, 1802. lie was tlie son of Joel superior court, which ap[iointnient '.vas con • 
Battle, and grandson of William, the fifth firmed at its next session by the Icgi.sla- 
ehild of Elisha liattle, ju-^t mentioned. His ture. 

education was received at the university. In 1843 he removed to Cluipel Hii!,nndin 

where he graduated in 1820, delivering the 1845 was elected, by the trustees of the uni- 

valedictory, then the prize of the scholar sec- versify, Professor of Law, conferring upon him, 

oud ill rank. This was no small distinction at the same time, the degree of LL.D. On 

among such scbolai-s as Bartholmnew F. ^Moore, the death of Judge Daniel, be was appointed 

Bisliop Otey, Charles G. Spaight, and others (May, 1848.) by Governor Graham, one of the 

of that class. He read law with Judge Hen- justices of the supreme court of tlie state, 

derson, and M-as licensed to practice in 1S24. but this appointmenc was not confirmed by 

From his modest and retiring demeanor, Ids the legislature, although, by the same body, 

success was but slow, and gave I)Ut little pro- upon the resignation of Honorable Augustus 

nnse of future eminence, and for years but Moore, one of the judges of the superior 

few bi-iefs engaged his services. But he per- court, he was elected to fill that vacaiicj,-. He 

severed, and finally attained the highest lion- liold this position for sonjc time. I:: Decem- 

ors of his profession. This example should ber. 1852, he was elected by the legislature 

certainly afi'ord encouragement to young and one of the justices of the supreme court. The 

briefiess lawyers. His time was occupied in circumstances, so gratifying and honorable, 

constant study, and in laying deep and broad connected v/ith this appointment are best ex- 

his knowledge of the law. He prepared a sec- plained by the following correspondence: 



"CiTV OF Raleigh, 

"House of Commons, 
'•December Serf, 1852. 
"SiK: The general assembly of the State of 
North Carolina, now in session, on yostonlay, 
with an unaniniitj' seldom equalled in the 
conncils of the state, have elected you to the 
elevated position of judge of the supreme 

"This will be doubtless unexpected to you, 
but we trust that it will be gratifying. Tt 
was done without any caucus or convention 
arrangement; but both of the great pnrtius, 
now so equally balanced in the legislature, 
have with patriotic unaiiiniity thrown aside 
the shackles of party, and offer to 3'our hands 
the highest ofKce in their gift. 

"In the languageof oneof your distinguished 
compeers, we can say: 'To give a wholesome 
exposition of the law, to settle the flnotn;i- 
ting and reconcile the seeming conflicting 
analogies of judicial deci-sious, to administer 
justice in the last resort with a stead}' hand 
ancTupriglit purpose,' are among the highest 
civil functions that in our republic a citizen 
can be called upon to discharge. This post we 
now tender to you. In this case' the office has 
sought the man, and not the man the olHce.' 
We sincerely hope that you will ace<;pt it. 

"With assurance of our personal regards fur 
your health and happiness, we are faithfully 
3'our friends, 

"Jxo. II. Wheeler, J. G. iM.wDuuald, 
"Jxo. Baxter, W. K. Martin, 

"A. M. Scales, H. Sherrill. 

"J. A. Waugii, Tv. a. Russell, 

"0. H. Wiley, R. G. A. Love, 

"JosiAH Turner, jr., B. L. Durham, 
"W. J. LoNc. 

"To Hou. Wm. H. Battle, 

''Raleigh, N. C" 

"Chapel Hill, 

"Derember 10, 18.52. 
"Gentlemen: Your note, directed to me at 
this place, informing me that the general as- 
sembly had elected me to the office of judge 
of the supreme court, and asking my accept- 
ance of it, did not find me here, for the 
reason that I had not then returned from my 
circuit. You are aware that upon my arrival 
in Raleigh, on my way home, I addressed a 
communication to the honorable body, of 
which you are members, in whicli I signified 
my acceptance of the post which their partial- 
ity had assigned me. This would seem to 

render unnecessary an}- re|)ly to your note, but 
tlie kind and frionrlly spirit which dict:ited it, 
and the highly complimentary terms in which 
it is couched, forbid my leaving it unnotice I. 
"I do not pretend to be exempt from the 
ambition of standing fair in the estimation of 
my fellow-citizons, nor can I receive with in- 
diif.M'ence any manifestation of their I'avor. T 
accept with a grateful heart the high and rc- 
spon.qhle office whi'jh they, by their represen- 
tatives, have onferred ujion me I aoc^'pt it 
with a deeper feeling of gratitude because it 
was bestowed spontaneously and without dis- 
tinction of party. I know full well that its 
duties are of the gravest and most important 
character, and that the successful pei'formance 
of them demands the highest attributes of 
the head and heart; attribute- Vvhich distin- 
guished and illustrated the i>fficial life of him 
whose vacant place I am now called upon to 
occupy. I sometimes fear that I may not be 
equal to the task which I have consented to 
assume. I might shrink from the attempt 
were I not cheered on b}' the reflection tlnit 
my labors for twelve years in a scarcely L'ss 
responsible ])osition have beea approved by 
the i)res>jnt action of your honorable body. 
With thisauimating refl>'ction, and trusting in 
the beneficence of tlnit Providence which h:is 
hitherto upheld and supported me, I enter 
upon the discharge of the duties of rny pres- 
ent offic3, determined to spend m^-self in the 
service of my native state, which has so 
highly honored me. 1 

"For the kind and flatteringmanncr iti which 
you have thought [)roi)er to aihlress me, please 
accept the assurances of my most grateful ac- 

"I am, with sincere regard, very truly \'oiirs, 
"William H. Battle. 
"To Messrs. 
"John H. Wheeler, J. G. MacDu'IALd, 
"John Baxter, W.m. K. Martin, 

"Alfred M. Scales, . II. Sherrill, 
"J. A. Waugh, R. a. Ru.ssej.l, 

"Calvin H. Wiley, R. G. A. Lo\ e, 
"Josiah Turxee, jr., B. L. Durham, 
"W. J.Long. 

"Raleigh, N. C." 

lie hell] this high position until th.e civil 
war closed the courts, and in 1868 he returned 
to Raleigh. The siiace allowed for this sketch 
does not pjrmitany exteuded comments upon 
the judicial decisions of Judge Battle. Ha 


won. liv lung 3-ears of diligence and lalior, a the i)rofessor8 in the ITiiitcd States Ohserva- 

repatation of the highest or(hjr for modest toiy at Wasliington eitj',) Colonel W. L. 

inerit, extoiisivc learning, ass:ieiated witli a Saundci's, Colonel Juiii us C Wheeler, (Profes- 

firni and steady administration of justice. sor of Engineering at West Point,) Alexander 

His moral character was spotless; he was a Mclver, Hon. A. M. W^addell, Joseph A. En- 
consistent member of the Episcopal church, glehard, W'illiain and Eobert Bingham, and 
His death occurred at Chapel Hill, March 14, many others. The classes of Mr. Battle were 
1879. He was married June 1, 185'), to Lucy, remarkable for their order, attention, and ap- 
second daughter of the late Kemp Plummer, a i>lication. He resigned this post in 185-1, and 
distinguished lawyer of Warrenton ; she died having ali'cad}' been licensed, opened a law 
February '24, 1874, bived and appreciated by offic>Mn Raleigh, and practiced with much sue- 
all who knew her, for her ai.-complishments cess. 

and \irtncs. The childi'en of tiiis distin- On the organization of the Bank of North 

gui>lied couple are ])r. Joel D. (deceased,) Carolina, Mr. Battle, young as he was, was 

Susan C. (deceased,) Kemp Plummer, Dr. chosen one of the directors with such veteran 

William Horn, who mniried Miss Lindsay; financiers as George W. Mordecai, Gef)rge E. 

Kicliai-d Henry, married the daughter of Judge Badger, ,r<ilin H. I5ryan,and others. In 1800, 

Tiiomas S. Asbe; Mary (deceased,) married he was candidate for the legislature, and 

to William Van Wyck, of New York; Junius, failed of an election by tlireo votes, 

.killed at South Mountain, 1862; Lewis, killed In the .stirring and exciting scenes that 

:at Gettysburg, 18G3. followed, Mr. Battle was for the Union, 

Kemp Plummer Battle, the eldest living and the President of the Union Club of 
pon of Judge William Horn Battle, was liorn Wake. But when Lincoln called for men to 
near Lnuisbni-g, in Franklin County, De- sul.ijugate the south, he cast his fortunes with 
cember 10, ]8:_)1. He was educatcil at the his state, and l.iecame a member of the con- 
best schools in the country, and graduated at vention of 1861. and with Mr. Badger and the 
tlie university in 1849, rec.-i\ing the first dis- other members, signed tlie ordinance of seccs- 
tinetion in all bis studies. His companions in si<.>n He united with the conservative [larty 
tbesc honors were Petei' ^1. Hale and T. J in electing Goverrioi- Vance b\- a large major- 
Robiitson. Mr. Battle was made tutor of ity, and during the whole war was th,j warm 
Latin and Greek immediately aftei' graduat- supporter of his measures. 

ing; and after serving in that capacity for one In 18()0, he became a candidate for treasurer 

session, be was chosen tutor of mathematics, of the state, at the I'eque^t of Governor 

This position he held ior four years, during Wcu-tli. ami was almost unanimously elected, 

the palmiest days (if this ancient and renowned His official ro[ioi't.s are considered models of 

in-tirution. He -cems peculiarly lifted by na- financial ability, conciseness and accuracy, lie 

turo and education for this oceU[)ation; his shared the fortunes of the conservative party 

mind is clear and discriminating, cultivated to v-itii Govei'nor Worth and other officials, ami 

a liigh degree, apt to l.^arn, and patient in ini- was depiived of his office in Julj-, 18(58, by the 

parting iiistructioii, kind and generous in bis mandate of militarj- power. This is the last 

temper, he had much success as a tutor. This ['ost of [)olitical [irerernient which .Mr. Battle 

is e\inced by his training to usefulness such iield.norwas he sorry to quit the excitement 

miiids as those of \V. L. DeRo.ssctt, I)uBrut7. and contests of such a life, since they were not 

Cutlar, Major A. W. Lawrence, (late one of germane to his tastes, although he discharged 

EnGEr( )M1^ K COUNTY. 


the (Infills (lovolviiiii; u[i(iii liiiu with talent 
and fidelity. 

But the mission of his life is the res- 
toration of the nniversitj' of the state. It is his 
almn mitcr'wx very truth, from wliich he imhihed 
the knowledge and usefulness he liad taught in 
her halls, and to huild up the hroken walls of 
this literary Zion, he has devoted his time, all 
his attention, and his private fortune. He was 
elected a trustee of the university in 1S'!2, and 
served on the executive committee until 1868; 
he made an elahorate and exhaustive report of 
a plan to reorganize the imiversity. Tliis 
plan was not completed in consequence of a 
change \n the hoard, hut when the appninr- 
ment of trustetis became vested in the legis- 
lature, he was elected one of the trustees, and 
at the first meeting of the board was unani- 
mously chosen secretary and treasurer. Here 
was a field of labor demanding constant exei-- 
tion, unflinching zeal, and intelligence. All 
kinds of legal obstructions presented them- 
selves, and the destitution of all financial 
measures seemed to render the mission well 
nigh hopeless. But Mr. Battle seemed a very 
Hercules in this work, and threw himself with 
such devotion into the cause, that success 
smiled on liis efforts. The pa\'nient of inter- 
est on the land scrip by the state, his elo- 
quent ai^ieals to the Alumni and others for 
aid, the attendance of a goodly number of 
pupils, prove liis work to have been successful. 
He is now the president of the university, 
and we trust, under his guidance and his able 
corps of co-adjutors, its usefulness and fame 
will rival its former renown. Mr. Battle mar- 
ried, in 18.5.5, Martha, daughter of James S. 
Battle. Three of his sons have been stu<leuts in 
the classes of the university — the fourth gener- 
ation of this family who have joined this in- 

The genealogy of the Battle family: 
Elisha Battle, born January 9, 1723, died 
March C, 1799, married Elizabeth Sutuuer 

1742, had eight children, to-wit: Sarah, John, 
Elizabeth, Elisha, William, Denqisey, Jacob 
and .letlu'o. 

I. Sarah married (first) Jacol) Ililliard, and 
had Elizabeth Ililliard, (who married \Vm. 
Fort, and had Sarah who was married to 
Orren Battle; 1 also .raeob, James, Maiw and 
.Teremiah; and to Sarah and Jacoi) ITilliard 
wore also born Jeremiah, who married Xaney 
Ililliard. Sarah also marrie<l (second) Henry 
Horn, and had I'iety, Charity, who married 
T>nrweII Bunn, to whom were born .Teremiah, 
William, Henry and Celia Bann, who was 
married (first) to Sngg, and (second) Doctor 
Fort; to Sarah and Henry Movn were lioi'n 
(their last child) llenr^y. 

n. John (ilied 1700,) marrieil France-! 
Davis, to whom were born Mary, married to 
Allen Andrews, to whom were horn Elizabeth 
Andrews, mari-ied to John Cotton; John mar- 
ried Miss l'o[)e and.Fesse married Miss Battle. 

ITT. Elizabeth married to Josiah Crndup, 
member of Congress, 1821,-'2:i, to \\h,)m were 
born George, maia'ied Leah VMU; Josiah mai'- 
ried Ann I)avis, who had Martha, -\rchibald 
Davis, James, Eilward, Alston, and CuHeii 
married .Miss Jones; to Elizabeth and Josiah 
C^ruilup Were born two moi'G cliihlren, Chloe, 
(married Joseph 1'., Leo, their (hiugbter Eliza- 
betli married ("nlieii Andrews,) and Bethesdii 
married to Fowler. 

IV. Elisha Battle, dunijor, horn 1749, mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Benjamni Bunn, had 
Amelia, married Ross, Doctor Jeremiah, died 
1824, WiUiam married Laraond, Jesse mar- 
ried Vick, Bennett married Hiiiton.and Sarah, 
marrieil Andrews. 

V. William, died 17^1, married Charity 
Horn, . had Isa:ie, married -Mary; Ann married 
Ross, (to whom were born William, .Tames B,, 
and Charity who married Ilines;) Joel l)orn 
1779, died 1820, married Mary, daughter of 
Amos Johnson. These last had Laura married 
to Phillips, Susan married to McKee, GhristOr 


pher Columbus, Benjamin Dnssey, Cathovine, was member of eitber one or the other 
married 'Ooctor Lewis, Richard, Amos John- l)ranches of the legishnture. 
son, and William IIoili, (see his slvetoii for He was a member of that distinguished con- 
bis descendants ) vention of 1835, t(^ amend the constitution of 

VI. i)em[isey, born 1758, died 1857, married the state. The meed of exalted statesmanship, 
-Tano Andrews, had Amelia, married to Cuth- or of brilliant eloquence, or of deep philoso- 
bert of Georgia, Andrews married Duggan, phical research, cannot be claimed for him. 
CuUcn married (tir.-t) P]lizalietb, dauglitor of Yet he was honest in his principles, and sin- 
Jacob Rattle, and (second) Jane Lamon. cere in his convictinns, and a laborious and 

VII. Jacob, born 1774, died 1S14, married useful man, rather than pretentious or showy, 
.Mrs. Edwards, bad Marmaduke, Elizalietb, but of great popularity. 

married in (1802) to Doctor Cullen Battle; After more than thirty years in the civil 

Cullen, Thomas, Lucy, James S., born 1786, service of his state, in the war between the 

died 1854, married (tirst) Tempy Battle, and United States and Mexico, he joined the army, 

(second) ILirriet Westray;to James S., were and as captain of tlie line, and marched to the 

born Marmaduke, William S., married seat of war. "Without any application or 

Dancy, T'nrncr Westray married daughter of knowledge on his part, he was made C(~)lonel of 

.Fudge Daniel; Cornelia married John S. Dan- the twelfth regiment of infantry. While su- 

cy; Mary E. married (iirst) to W. F. Dancy, perintending a forward movement of this 

(second) to Dr. N. J. Pittman, Martha married regiment from Vera Cruz, the visissitudes of 

to Kemi) P. Battle, and Penelope married to war, the dangerous climate, with the weight 

W. R. Co.x. of three score years, proved too much for his 

VIII. Jethro married Martha Lane, died constitution. He was seized with the fever 
1813, bad Joseph S., married (first) r.>unn, of the country, and died on May 12, 1847. 
(second) Horn, to whom was born Temper- He was never married. By his will his 
ance. married to .Marriott; H. L. Battle, ]^)i-. patrimonial estate, (land and slaves,) was be- 
James, John, George, Mai'y Ann married queathed to his next of kin, (a nephew and a 
Bridgers, Marcus and Martha; to Jethro and neice.) and the residue, about $40,000, to the 
.Martha Battle was also born Orren, married poor of Edgecombe County. 

Fort, and moved to Teriuessee; and Alfred, Tlie county court of Edgecombe has ordered 

who bad -jethro: this Jetliro ilied in the Mex- the erection of an appropriate asylum as one 

ican war; James L., M:u-y married to Tillory; of the first investments of the fund. 

Elizabeth married, to Fort. This nolde chailty. as also the ei'eetion of a 

The above table is i'rom a geneological county called after his name, perpetuates his 

paper drawn by Governor Henry T. Clark, and 'ito bmg services in the councils of the state, 

may therefore be relied upon as being aecu- '^-'kI Ids hiinented death, leading the columns 

rate. of his troops to subdue the enemies of his 

Louis Dickson Wilson, born 1789, died Au- country will keep his memory ever fresh in the 

gust 12, 1847, was born, raised and lived in beart of every North Carolinian The end of 

this county. his life was just as he could have wished it: 

His education was not classical. He was " Whether on the scaffold high, 

placed in a coimting-honse, and became 

Or in the hattle's van, 
The fittest pl^^ce for man to die, 

student of men rather than of books. He was ^^ ^^''"'" ™^" <^'^'^* ^^'■' '"«■"•' 

sueces-ful in business. From 1815 to 1846, he The brilliant eulogium [ironounced by Gov- 



cnior Brogdoii in con,<?ress, in muniory of (Jeu- 
eral Wilson, was worthy of the theme. 

" Louis I). Wilson was one of nature's no- 
l)lenien, and his s3-mpathie.s was ever on the 
side of justice and humanity. 

" lie was a man of strict integrit_y of cliarac- 
ter, a friend of the poor and needy, and pos- 
sessed many of the best traits and qualities of 
human nature. lie was aifahie and social in 
his maimer, the embodiment of patriotism and 
the soul of lionor. 

" Studiously- neat in his person, he was a 
favorite- in all circles; he won the sohriquet 
for years of the Chesterfield of the senate." 

Duncan Ijamond Clinch, born 1798, died 
1849, late brigadier-general in the United 
States ;irniy, was a native of this count}'. 

He was the sou of Joseiih Clinch, by a 
daughter of ])uncan Laniond, a colonel in tlie 
revolutionary wai', and a terror (otlie tories — 
one of these tie hung in Nash County. 

General Clinch had attained the rank of a 
brigadier-general. "When the Seminole war 
broke out in Florida, in 1835, he was in com- 
mand of that district, and at the battle of 
Onithlecooche (December 31st, 1835,) dis- 
played tlie most ir.trepid coui-age. He re- 
signed his commission the next year, and from 
1848 to 1845, was a member of congress from 

He married a Mcintosh. He died at 
Macon, Georgia. November •27tli, 1849, leaving 
several (children; one of his daughters married 
General Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter 
fame. A son. John Houston Mcintosh Clinch, 
graduated at the university in 1844, in the 
same t-lass with William A. Blount, Joseph 
M. Graham. I'hilemon B. Hawkins, Thomas 
Ruffin, and others. 

Anotlier son, with his father's name, gradu- 
ated at the same university in 1847, in the 
same class with James J. I'ettigrew, John 
i'ool, Matthew W. Ransom, and others. 

The genealogy' of this family is connected 
with tliat of the Bellamy's, which see. 

William Dorsey Tender was a native and 
resident of this county. He was educated at 
the United States Military Academy at West 
Point. One of the earliest and most enthusi- 
astic in the cause he deemed just, he was made, 
May 27, 1861, colonel of sixth regiment of 
North Carolina troops, and such were his ser- 
vices that he soon became a brigadier general. 
He was universall_y regarded as one of the 
bravest and most eflUcient officers in the army. 
General A. I'. Hill pronounced him " one of 
the best officers of his grade he ever knew." 

General Lee, in his report on the Pennsyl- 
vania campaign, dated July 31, 1863, thus 

'' General Pender has since died. This 
lamented officer has borne a distinguished part 
in every engagement of this army, and was 
wounded on several occasions, wliile leading 
his command with conspicuous gallantry and 
ability. The confidence and admiration in- 
spired by his courage and capacity as an officer, 
were only equalled by the esteem and respect 
entertained, by all with whom he was associat- 
ed, for the noble qualities of his modest and 
unassuming character."' 

Universally lamented and loved, he fell on 
the bloody iiebl of Gettj'sburg, and his remains 
now lie in the cemetery of Calvary church in 

An appropriate memorial window erected 
l3y liis brother, Mr. David Pender, bears this 

"III Meraoriain, 

I liave fought a good tight; I have kept the faith '' 

Major General VVilliarn Dorsey Pender, 

born Febiuary 6th, 1834, died July 18th, 1863. 

His name, so dear to every patriot, has been 
preserved by calling a county after him, and 
causes his gallantry and [latriotism to fie 
cherislied in our hearts. 

The battle of Gettysburg, enduring the first 
three days in July, 181)3. was the bloodiest en- 
counter of the whole war, and proved the 
Waterloo of the unhaitpy contest. For here 
the flag of the confederacy fell never to 


no-nin. Es[)ecially did the loss fall on North in all the hattles fought hy this noble arrny of 
Carolina, for here thousands of her bravest, Northern Virginia, until the curtain foil at 
noblest sons found a soldier's grave. Not Appomattox, on tlie bloody drama, 
only did General Pender, full of gallantry and After the war. Major Englehard rcsum-d the 
spirit, but Colonel Isaac E. Avery, J. K. Mar- practice of the lawatTarboro, and in addition 
shal also fell in this battle, General Pettigrew to his professional duties, exercised those of the 
was wounded, a few days afterwards, died, clerk and master in ei-juity. 
General Scales, Colonel Lowe, and others of He purchased, in 1865, James Pulton's in- 
equal merit, were wounded. Of the ten terest in the Wilmington Journal, and became 
thousand men lost by the confederates, the the successor, from March, 1866, of that able 
larger portion were North Carolinians. Of editor, and so became a citizen of Wilmington, 
Colonel Burgwyn's command, who was killed, then wielding a powerful influence throughout 
(the Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiment,) the state. 

five hundred and forty were killed out of In June, 1876, he was nominated at Kaloigh, 

eight hundred. The heavy loss of the union by the democratic state convention for secre- 

army could lie easily replaced, but the great tary of state. He entered with energy and 

gaps in the confederate ranks could never ability into the canvass. He stood before the 

be closed again. people almost every day, and with a po'>ver of 

In reply to a recent letter of General Scales elocution rarely surpassed, and an oratory iire- 

and Captain J. J. Davis, Colonel John B. sistable, so urged the cause that, on Noveni- 

Bachelder has given a graphic account of this her 7, the whole ticket was elected, and he 

desperate conflict, which, with the diagram?, the first in the number of votes received, 

affords an intelligible and reliable account. He performed all the duties of his position 

Joseph A. Englehard, the only son of Ed- with satisfaction and intelligence, e.itablished 

ward Englehard, was born at Monticello, Mis- order out of chaos, and system iVoin ccuiiusiun. 

sis.sippi, September 27, 1832. Major Englehard was a devoted friend 

He was an educated man and graduated at to the cause of education. He delivered 
the University of North Carolina, with the the Alumni address at the university, wiiere 
first honors, in 1854, in the same class with his son had recently graduated. But this 
William L. Saunders, and others. He then usefulness was soon to end, and after a short ill- 
studied law at the Harvard law school, and ness he died on February 15, 1879, at tht; 
with Judge Battle; in 1856 lie was licensed to Yarboro House, Raleigh. His death was the 
practice. He settled at Tarboro, where he regret of his friends, and an irremediable loss 
had married in 1855, Margaret, daughter of to the state. 
John W. Gotten. Robert Rufus Bridgers, is a native (-f this 

He entered the army in May, 1861, as captain county. He was born on Town Creek, No- 

and quarter-master of the thirty-third regi- vcndier 23, 1819. 

inent, and the next j'ear he was promoted to His early education was conducted by Ben- 
quarter-master of General Branch's brigade, jamin Sumner, and finished at the uni\er,sity 
with the rank of major. He was transferred in in 18-11, when he graduated in tlie sam- class 
December, 1862, to Pender's brigade and be- with Governor Ellis, Samuel F. and Ih-. 
came adjutant-general, and in May following Charles I'hillips, Judge Clarke, Vi'illi:::ii F. 
he was made adjutant-general of Pender's, Dancy, John F. Hoke, and others. To receive 
afterwards Wilcox's division, and participated honors in sueii a class was no light praise. 



He reail law, while pursuing his collegiate gress, aud was an active, useful, and able 

studies, witli Governor Swain, and was licensed member. 

by tlie supreme court to [iractice the week After the war he was elected president of 
after he graduated, and soon entered upon an the Wilmington and Weldon railroad corn- 
extensive and lucrative practice. He entered pany, and is distinguished for the ability and 
the legislature in 1844. and was re-elected in fidelity with which he manages this important 
18o6,-'58 and '60, trust. 

After the state joined tlie confederacy, he lie married Margaret Johnston and 

was elected a member of the confederate con- has an interesting family. 


This county presents the name of Colonel 
Benjamin Forsythe, a native of this section, 
who fell in l)attle in the war of 1812. He 
resided at Germantown, was a native of 
Stokes, and represented that county in the 
legislature in 1807 and '08. He received a 
lieutenant's commission, April 2-3, 1808, in the 
regular arm}', and marched to Canada. In 
September, 1812, he crossed at Cape Vincent, 
attacked the British, and routed them. He 
took many prisoners and much ammunition and 
stores, with the loss of only one man. 

•• In February following, he left Ogdensburg, 
and crossed at Morristown, sur[)rised the Brit- 
ish, and took tifty-two prisoners, among them 
a major, three captains and two lieutenants, 
without the loss of a man."* In 1813, he was 
distinguished at the capture of Fort George, 
Upper Canada. 

For his gallant conduct he was rapidly pro- 
moted, and attained the rank of colonel. 

On June 28, 1814, General Smyth formed a 
[ilan for ambuscading the British near Odel- 
lowii. Colonel F(M'sytbe had orders to luake 

♦Xiles Uegistt-r, III.. 408. 

the attack and then retreat; so as to draw the 
enemy into the snare. He made the attack, but 
instead of falling back as ordered, his personal 
courage tempted him to made a stand on the 
roail within fifteen rods of the enem\'. In 
this exposed and perilous position he received 
a fatal wound, which broke his collar bone. 
He fell, mortally wounded, exclaiming with 
his last breath: " Boys, rush on!" He was the 
only person killed; several were wounded. The 
enemy lost seventeen killed. His loss was uni- 
versally lamented, and he was buried the next 
day with the honors of war. 

By his intrepid courage and his fearless dar- 
ing, he became the idol of his troops, and the 
terror of the enem^'. He was one of the best 
partisan officers that ever lived. t 

The legislature of North Carolina, in 1817, 
with patriotic philanthrophy, adopted the 
only son of Colonel Forsythe, and the only 
daughter of Captain Blakel}^ of the navy, as 
children of the state, and made provision for 
their education at the public expense. James 

tSoe Gardiner's Diet, of the Army; Drake's Biogra- 
phy Sketches: >siles' Register, ill., 48. 


X. Forsvthe, tlie son, entered the freshman with the command of Captain George Moft'ett, 

class at the universitj' in 182i, and suljse- (maldng sixty men altogether.) they pnrsued a 

quently, with the acqniescoiice of Governor party of Indians between Forts Yonng and 

Burton, he was appointed a midshipman in the Dinwiddie, and were drawn into an ambuscade 

United States navy. He was on l>oard the on September 30, 1703. They were fired on 

sloop of war, tlie Hornet, wliich was lost at from both sides of the trail, but maintained 

sea.* the fight for a considerable time; at length 

The c.unty seat of Forsyth preserves the tliey wei'e overpowered by numbers and were 

name of Joseph Winston. forced to give awa\-, scatteiing as best they 

He was born June 17, 1746, in Louisa County, could.- Se\eral were killed; young Winston 
Virginia; a branch of tiie family, originally had his horse killed under him and was him- 
from Yorlcshire, England, settled in Wales, self twice wounded in the body and through 
and thence migrated to Virginia, where, says the thigh, making him well nigh helpless. 
Alexander H. Everett, they were the most He managed, however, to conceal himself un- 
distinguished in the colon}-. til the Indians had gone in pursuit of the 

"Two hundred years ago," says the bio- fugitives, when a comrade fortunately came 
graphical sketch of William Winston Seaton, to his aid, cari-ied him upon his back for three 
(of the firm of Gales & Seaton,) " five broth- days, living upon wild roseberries, until at 
ers, Winston, from Winston Hall, Yorkshire, length they reached a friendly frontier caljin. 
England, gentlemen of fortune and family, Although he in time recovered, yet the ball 
emigrated to the colony of Virginia. These in his body was never extracted, ami occasion- 
brothers were men of comely statue and ap- ally caused him exquisite jiain. 
pearauce. They settled in Hanover County, Early trained to arms, ibr he was in Brad- 
stocking Virginia with a stalwait and pro- dock's defeat in 1755; in the rcvoluti(ni he 
phetic race, extending to Kentucky, Mis- was the earl}- and devoted friend to the cause 
sissippi, and North Carolina, in which states, of independauce, and co-operated with the 
to this day, they are noted for their fine patriots of that period in the meetings of the 
personal appearance." " The family of Win- people. 

stons," says Mr. Sparks, '• was among the most In 1769 we fin<l that Joseph Winston and 

distinguisiied of the colony, and the genius others petitioned the Virginia authorities for 

and eloquence of Patrick Henry nuiy be sup- a grant of 10/)00 acres of land on the south 

posed to have been transmitted through this side of the Gnyandotte river; failing in this^ 

line, from which he desceiuled." The fiery he emigrated to North Carolina, and settled 

spirit "in words that breathed and thoughts on the town fork of the Dan, in that part of 

that burned," lighted the flame of liberty in tlie state, now Forsyth County. In 177'), he 

the hearts of his countrymen and relations, ^y^s a member of the Hillsboro convention. 

Among them his cousin, Joseph Winston, who which met on August 21, 1775, and erected v. 

wou renown by his military career. provisional form of go\ernment for the state, 

.roseph Winston received a. fair education, all hopes of reconciliation with the Royal 

but at the age of seventeen, joined a com- government having been eudeil. Tlie .-word 

pany of rangers, under Captain Phelps, who ^as drawn and the scabbard thrown away. In 

marched from Louisa County to Jackson February, 1776, he was in the expedition 

river, on the then frontiers, v»-here, uniting against the Scotch tories on Cross creek. In 

^MSS. letter of Governor Swain. this year he was created ranger (jf Suriy 

F0K8YT1I COUXTY. 1^,9 

County, luid major of militia, serving in lluth- two-hundroil paces tliey wore again hailed and 
erford's oxpeditiou against the Cherokee shown their true line of march, and wire then 
Indians. In 1777, he was a meiid)er of the assured they were yet a mile from their posi- 
Ilouse of Commons from Surry, and with tion in the alignment for the battle. They 
Waightstill Avery, William Sliarpe and Rob- tlien lan down the declivity with great pre- 
ert Lamer, placed u[H>n that commission cipitation to their horses, and mounting them, 
which made a treaty with the Cherokees rode, like so many fox-hunters, at almost a 
at Long Island on the Ilolston, a treaty break-neck s[ieed, through rough woods and 
made without an oatli and yet one that has brambles, leaping branches and crossing ridges, 
never been violated. In 1780, lie served without any guide who had a personal kuowl- 
with Colonel Davidson in pursuit of Bryan's edge of the country. They soon came upon 
tories, and was with Cleaveland in his move- the enemy, and, as if directed by the Provi- 
ments against the loyalists on New River; lie dence itself, at the very point of their intend- 
was in a skirmish on the Alamance, and com- ed destination, where they did great havoc in 
manded a portion of the right wing at King's that bloody fray.* Li a few minutes the 
mountain, October 9, 178i». action became general and severe, continuing 

At King's mountain he was a major of the furiously for three-fourths of an hoar, when 
North Carolina line, ser\ing with Colonels the enemy being driven from the east to the 
McDowell and Cleaveland. The battle was west end of the mountain, surrendered at dis- 
tierce and bloody, i:i wliich the Americans cretion. Ferguson was killed with two hun- 
drove the British and tories from their lofty dred and six oi his officers and men, and eight 
position, whence their commander. Colonel hundred and ninety-nine of tlie British were 
Patrick Ferguson, had impi.iusly declared captured. Tlie Americans had eighty-eight 
•' that (iod Almighty could not drive them." killed and wounded. ^' The whole mountain 
In tlie plan of battle adopted by the colonels was covered with smoke and seemed to thun- 
preseut on that occasion, Winston's battalion der." For his distinguished .services on that 
had to make a lengthy detour of the mountain day the legislature of the state voted Joseph 
from a [loint at the junction of King'^s Creek, Winston an elegant swonl. 
and the (Quarry Koail, and thence to move to CoU.uel John Campbell, of Abington, in pre- 
the east .-ide of the battle field and so reach a paring his " .Memoir of the Military Transac- 
poiut where his men were to move up the tions of Virginia," says: 
juountain's side, an<l make part of the " wall ^,^^^ ^,^^ ^^^^.^^^^ ^^.^.^, ^^^ j..,^^,^ Mountain, 
of lire " around Ferguson. The several corps Col^,„el Winston played a conspicuous part, 
were put in motion for the posts they were He led the right wing on this- Bunker Hill ot 
assigned in the day's operation. Both the the south,' and contributed greatly to. that 
" , ■ , . , • ■ momentous victory, ot which the battle ot 

right and left wmgs were .somewhat longer in (j^^^pg^^^ Guilford, and the surrender of Corn- 
reaching their designated positions than had wallis at Yorktown, were the direct conse- 
beeu expected. Winston's party had marched quences." 

about a mile, when they reached a very steep ^j^. Jefferson, in a letter now before me,6ays: 
ascent, which they took to be the point where ^. ^^^ ,e,acmbered well the deep and grateful 
they were to move up to the enemy's lines. ^,^^^^,^,35,3,^ ,„,,,|^, 1,^ t,,;,t memorable vict.uw. 
Some men came in view and directed them to j^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ .^^^,,.,^1 ;„(„„.i.^f,o„ of the first turn 

dismount and proceed, as being at the point of ^^ 

attack assigned them, but before they had gone *Wlieeler's History of Kortli Carolina, II., 106. 


of the tiilo of f?iK'cess that euded the war with sister, who had a babe a month old, called to 

the s'iil (if our independence." visit the mother, and proposed to adopt one 

In Febrnarv, 1781,iieh'd a pa rtj- against a of the trio, and thus each would practically have 
band of tories, had a running fight with them, a set of twins to rear. Mrs. Winston regarded 
killed some and dispersed theresiduo; he then the proposition favorably-, and, asshe sat up in 
joined General Greene with one hundred rifle- bed, carefully e.xamined all three to determine 
men, and took part in tlie l)attle of Guilford which to part with and which to keep for her 
Court House, .March 15, 1781; in which, al- own; at length she exclaimed: " I cannot, for 
though Lord Cornwallis held the battle field, my life, decide; you cannot have either of 
yet his losses were so great, and the shock he them, sister! As God has given them to me, 
received so severe, that he afterward avoided He will give me strength to nurse them !" 
battle, which before he so anxious!}' sought. And so He did, all of them lived and were 
Crippled and wounded, he retired to Wil- well educated. One of thorn became a major- 
mington, drew his slow length along, hoping general, another a judge, whilst the tliii'd be- 
to meet Arnold, if not Clinton, but from the came a state senator and lieutenant-governor 
effects of his barren victory at Guilford, he of Mississippi ; a brother of th'ese triplets, who 
never recovered, and tinally was compelled to remained in North Carolina, fought in the war 
snn-endei' at Yorktown, October 19, 1781. of 1812, became a major-general and a member 

111 1711-3 and in 1803, Joseph Winston was a of the legislature, 
memlier of congress. In 1800, he was a Israel G. Law, born 1810, died 1878, at 

dential elector, voting for Jefferson, ami again Bethania, (then in St(.ikes,) worked on a 

in 1812, voting for Madis(m. farm till manhood, and then engaged in mer- 

For three temns he represented Snrry chandizing, mannfactnring, and banking, in 

County in the state sen.ite, and when Stokes all of which he was eminently successful. He 

County was erected, he was appointed lieuten- was, in 1847, president of the branch bank of 

ant-colonel, and for fi\-e terms represented Cape Fear, at Salem, and at the close of the 

that county in the state senate, between 1700 war. obtained a charter for the First National 

and 1812; in was during this last service that Bank at Salem. 

he Was [ir.isented witli the sword for military He was a member of the state convention in 

ser\ices in 1780,-'81 The county seat of For- 1865, with Judge Starbuek, and of the Fortieth 

syth county derives its name from him. He and Forty-first ('ongress, 1867 to '71. 
is its patron saint. He was a man of large v.'ealth, and well 

He was a man of stately form, old school known as a sagacious financier. He died 

manners, and of a commanding presence. His April 7th, 1878. 

home was witinn the lofty mountains of Stokes We should do injustice to the trutli of his- 
and Surry, whose " cloud eapit summits seemed tory to make no reference to the M<M-avians, 
within a squirrel's jump of heaven." Here he located in this county. 

died April 21, 1815, leaving many worthy de- "There is not," says Williamson, "a more 
eendants. He was the uncle of AVilliam Win- industrious and temperate bodj' of people than 
ston Seaton.of the Ndtio/hil ltitdliijfi)cn\ Wash- the Moravians, who live lietween the Dan and 
ington city. Yadkin Rivers." 

l>r. Di'aper, in his "King's Mountain In 1740, the British Parliament passed an 
Heroes," adds the following incident: He left act by which the Uiiitas Fratuni, was acknowl- 
tiiree sons, born at a single birth. A married edged as a Pi-otestaiit Episcopal Chureh. By 


this act, the free exercise of all their rights as called from ( Wach, the principal creek; and uxr 

a church was secured throu^jhout Englaiul meadow,) aud made the savvey. In 1782, 

and her colonies, which rigiit was denied to the legislature of Xorth (Carolina vested "in 

them in other countries. Hence it was de- F. W. Marshal, and his heirs and assigns 

sirable to make settlements, where this liberty forever, the Wachovia tract, and all the lands 

of conscience could be enjoyed. Offers of in North Carolina acquired by tlie brethren, 

land were made from various quarters; but Of the thirty thousand Germans who left their 

the most acceptable was that of Lord Gran- native land for the far west, eighteen thou- 

ville, the owner of large posse.ssions in North sand eventually settled in North Carolimi. 

Q.,,.^li,i., The colony of Moravians sutlered all the trials 

The Lord Proprietors, under charter of Charies and tribulations incident to a settlement in a 

II., (March 24th, 1663,) on account of the new country. Their salt was Ijrought from Vir- 

expenses incident to a distant colony, and ginia; and the first bee hive, (an emblem of 

the small revenue derived, in 1729, surren- their industry,) from Tar River. The Indians 

dered their claims to the Crown, receiving for a while committed depredations and mur- 

in return X2,o00 steriing each ; only Lord Gran- ders. The war of the Regulation, and that of 

ville retained his eighth part, which was laid the revolution iM-onght many troubles to these 

off for him in 1743. He continued to receive peaceful and industrious non combatants. Hos- 

rents, and have his agent and land office tile troops ravaged their fields and plundered 

until the revolution. In the present century their property. But tlie mild character of 

his heir brought suit in the circuit court of their people, their peaceful and indnstrions 

the United States to assert his rights. Mr. lives, their patient labor, and indefatigable 

Gaston was his counsel. The suit went on industry triumphed eventually. lu 1791, 

appeal to the Supreme Court of tiie United they were visited by Geneial Wasliington, 

States, and there was dismissed for want of i^'id the brethren of Wachnvia addressed him 

an appeal bond.' ^ "«te of welcome, to wbi.h he responded as 

Lord Granville ottered to Count Zinzendorft' to. low?:* 

100,000 acres on reasonable terms. At a con- ,, y^ ^j^^ ^^-^^^ Brd/nvn of Wu.!,orl'> : 

ference of the brethren, held in London, No- „ Gentlemen: I am greatly indebted to your 

vember 29, 1751, the otter was accepted, and respectful and att'ectionate expression of per- 

on August 9, 1753, John, Earl of Granville, sonal regard, and I am not le.^s obliged by the 

, ,, ^.,, , 4. t I • • xi patriotic sentiment contained in your address. 

conveyed the title to a tract lying m the 1 a j^^.^n, a society whose governing principles 

forks of Gargalee, or Muddy Creek, Rowan .^YQ industry aud "love of order, much may l)e 

Countv, to James Hutton,of London, Secre- expected towards the improvement ami pros- 

taryot-the UrdUis Fratnu,>. By the repeated Parity of the country, in which these sUtle- 

■^ 1 ments are tornied; and exi)erience autiiorizes 

divisions of Rowan, this tract has been sue- the belief that much will be attained. 

cessively in Rowan county; in 1770, in Surry; "Thanking you with grateful sincerity 

in 178!K in Stokes; and in 1848, in Forsvth. foi' y^u^' P'-ayers in my behalf, I desire to 

^ ,,,. , ^ " assure you of mv best wishes tor your 

An agent was sent out (Bishop tepangeu- social and iudividurd happiness, 
berg,) in 1752, who, with Churton, the Sur- " Gicorge Washington." 

vey or General and Agent of Lord Granville, 

... ,.,, ,,. . , Bishop Ravenscroft, in his letters, describes 

atter enduring incredible suflering and many ^ ' 

privations, reached the Wachovia tract, so * The Moravians: For this vahuilile information we 

are iudelited to the work of Rev. I.evin T. Reicliel, of 

*Swaiu's Lecture on the Regulations: Moure I., 71. Salem, N. C, published in 18.57. 


at great length, a visit he made in August, 1827 wick, Ann and Elizabeth Kirkland, and Mary 

to this benignant settlement , how cheerfully he riiillips. 

was received, communed with the church, and We have not been favored with any recent 

received with greatest cordiality and brotherly statistics of this academy, but up to 1S56 there 

icreeting. had been three thousand four-hundred and 

Tlie great feature of usefulness, and the seventy scholars entered; and in evidence of 

most enduring monument of the societj' is the the healthfulness of the place, only twelve had 

Salem Female Academy. The ancients were died while at school. 

accustomed to inaugurate their rulers on the The founders and the principals, (all are 

banks of a pure stream, hoping that their rule, M(.)ravians,) have rendered this service to the 

like the pelucid stream, would refresh and country. They may well rejoice in their work, 

fructify the v/hole land by its benign influ- and feel 

enccs. So has this institution for nearly three- "The warrior's name! 

*■„,(-! f „„t„,.,, „,,,t r,^,.fii i;,.;.wi. of,.n..,^i. 'Tho iiealert aiul cliimert on every tongue of fame, 

tnurths ot a century sent toi th In ing stieamb g,^„,^^\^ j^^^ h:u-monioas to tlie grateful mi.ul, 

of virtue and beauty to delight, purify, and Than he who fashions and ira.n-oves manldml " 
invigorate our land It was established in Thomas Johnson Wilson, is a native of this 
1804, therefore it is one of the oldest literary county. Lorn December 81, 1815. Studied 
institutions in the south, and is held in grate- law, and was licensed 1874; elected solicitor 
ful remembrance by many Christian mothers of Stokes and of Davidson Counties. He was 
who here received their elementary education a member of the convention, 1861. and advo- 
and the holy impressions of eternal truth, and cated the propriety of sulnnitting the question 
liad the satisfaction of seeing their daughters of secession to the people, 
and grand-daughters, educated at the same He was elected in 1874, judge of the eighth 
place, connected with such pleasing and useful judicial circuit, and held the courts for six- 
remembrances of their earlier days, months until the supreme court decided that 
.The pupils connected with the Salem his predeces-or. Judge Cloud, was entitled to 
academy, from Hillsboro,were Elizabeth Strud- hold over. 



The origin of lynchlav,- i During the revo- had a daughter, beautiful and accomplished, 

lution there was a noted tory, (and thei'e were Iiy whose charms Beard was captiviited; and 

but few.) in that portion formerly called Bute the tradition runs, that the hamlsome figure and 

County, now embraced within the counties of commanding air of Beard had its effect on the 

Franklin and Nash, called Major Beard, young lady, notwithstanding the difi'ereijce in 

Major John H. Drake lived near Hilliardston ; politics between him and her father. On one 

he and his family were decided whigs. He occasion. Beard encam[)ed for the night near 


a mill on Swift Ureek. This became known son committeil any offence of magnitude, that 

to Major Drake and other whigs, and they or- '• he ought to be taken to Lynch Creek;" and so 

ganized a force to capture him. They came the word "Lynch law " became a tixture iu 

upon the tories early in the morning while at the English language.' 

breakfa-st, surprised and dispersed tiiem in Joseph J. Davis was born and l)red in Frank- 
great confusion; they leaving their breakfast liu County. He is the sou of Jonathan Davis, 
and horses. The whigs pursued them with great and his wife, Mary Butler; was born in 1828. 
earnestness. Britton Drake, brother of the His early education was conducted by John 
voung lady, of powerful frame and strength, B. Bobbib, and finished at Wake Forest Col- 
araied with a rifle led the chase, and came sud- lege. He received the degree of batchelor of 
dcnly on Beard, who wa.i hid behind some law, at the university in 1850, and after re- 
small pines. He did not move until Drake, ceiving a license to practice, settled in Oxford, 
who wa.s not aware of his position came right In 1852, he moved to Louisburg. In 1866, he 
upon him. Beard was armed only with a was elected to the legislature, receiving every 
sword; he sprang upon Drake, who was too vote in the county. When the civil war began 
near and closely pursued, to shoot. He cLub- he entered the army as captain of the forty- 
bed his rifle and felled Beard to the ground; seventh regiment, commanded by the late 
and as Drake thought he was dead, for he was Sion H. Rogers. His i-ompany was ordered to 
senseless, Drake left him for dead and went in New Berne, where he received his "first bap- 
pursuit of other fugitives. When the pursuit tism of tire," at Banrington's Ferry; and 
was over, he returned to the place of rencounter again at Blount's Creek. At the bloody bat- 
with Beard, and found that he was not dead, tie of Grettysbury, his regiment was in the 
After some consultation it was resolved to heaviest of the tight, and Captain Davis was 
take him as a prisoner to headquarters of woundedand taken a prisoner; he v^as confined 
Colonel Seawell, commanding in camp at a at Fort Delaware and at Johnson's Island for 
ford on Lynch Creek, in Franklin County, twenty months, during this period, the curtain 
about twenty miles oft". Ho was tied on his fell on the scene of war and he was discharged 
liorse and carried under guard. After reach- on parole. He returned home and resumed 
ing camp, it was determined to organize a his profession. 

court-martial, and try him for his life. But He was selected as one of the electors in 

before proceeding to trial, a report came that 1868, on the Seymour and Blair ticket, and was 

a strong body of tories were in pursuit to res- nominated in 1874, and triumphantly elected 

cue him; this created a panic, for they knew to congress; again in 1876, and again in 1S78. 

Ins popularity and power, so they hung him. He married Kate, the daughter of Robert J - 

Th'j^ reported pursuit proved a false alarm, and Shaw, and has an interesting family. 

it lieitig suii-ge^ted that as the sentence had been We might say much of Mr. Davis' course in 

inflicted, before the judgment of the court had congress, but this speaks for itself. No one 

been pronounced therefore it was illegal. The was more attentive and faithful, and earnestly 

body was then taken down, the court reorgati- esteemed by all who knew him. Much to tao 

ized, he was tiied, condeuined,<uid re-hung by loss of the nation and the regrets of his associ- 

the neck until he was dead. ates, he declined a re-nomination to congress. 

The tree on which he was hung stood not — 

s- ,. ^•,.-.,., -R^-.Vv Vovl ,», r v.uOr^ CiPPk- -md *The Hon. B. F. Moore coiumuuicated the afore- 
far from Koclcv J^oia,on J.ynchs L.,ee^, ana g^j„g tradition to me, he received it froiu the L>r»ke 

it became a saying in Franklin, when a per- family. 



Thomas Person, who died in November, 
1799, at the home of his sister, Mrs. Tom Tay- 
lor, in Franklin County, was a native of Gran- 
ville. He was distingniished for his enter- 
prise, his devotion to tlie cnnse of liberty, the 
foe of oppression, and the friend of the down 
trodden and persecuted. 

He sympathized deeply with the RegiUa- 
tors, suffering from the opi)ressive measures of 
the public officers. I find in the journals of 
the Colonial Assembly in the Public Records, 
in London, as follows: 

'■1770, December 6, Mr. Husbands presented 
a petition of the in habitants of Orange 
County, complaining of sundry grievances; 
and praying for relief. 

•• Mr. Person pres< nted a i>etition from the 
inhabitants of Bute County, complaining of 
the many exhorbitant and oppressive meas- 
ures practiced by the public officers."* 

For this independent course General Per- 
son received severe treatment from General 
7.'ryon; and was for a time confined in prison, 
and at other times in prison bounds or on his 
parole. When on parole, he boarded at the 
house of Rev. Mr. Micklejolm, who preached 
in Hillsboro. Soon after the battle of Ala- 
mance, six of the Regulators were hanged 
by order of Tryon, in sight of the Court 

At one tinie his life was m eminent peril 
from the choleric Tryon, who in 1771 issued 
his proclamation offering pardon to those who 
would come in and take the oath of allegiance 
to the King, except Thomas Person, and some 

The reverend divine, on one occasion, in 
regard to his prisoner, is said to have dodged 
the truth, or clearly equivocated. It was 
suspected that the general had broken his parole 
by passing the bounds of Hillsboro. In fact he 
had much money and bonds at his home at 
Goshen, exposed to marauders and thieves. 

* Colonial Documents. 180 

With the connivaTice of his friend, at night, 
he mounted his fleet mare, rode to Goshen, 
secured his valuables in a l)rick kiln, and re- 
turned by dawn of day to Hilhboro. The 
officers of Tryon demanded of the parson: 
"If General Person had not left bis prison 
lionds the night before." " I supped and break- 
fasted witn the general," was the delphic 

The University Magazine, IV,, 2.i)0, says: 

" A faithful biographical sketch of tbe Rev- 
erend George Micklejolm is greatly to he de- 
sired. He resided in Hillslioro before and 
many j'cars after the revolution. <.'ii tlie first 
attempt at organization of tbe university in 
1794, be among others was named fur tliepresi 

Bishop Meade in bis work " Old Churclies, 
Ministers and Families in Virginia" stat'es that 
"tbe successor of the Revei'end Johti Cameron, 
(father of Judge Duncan Cameron) as the 
rector of (himberland Parish in A'ii-ginia, at 
his death 1815, was the Rovei'end John Mickle- 
jolm, but not as tlie regul-ir minister. He 
was then at an advanced age, and probably 
died there." 

But severe as liis trials were. General Per- 
son was ready to take up arms in 1774, for 
the cause of the people and against tlio pow- 
ers of royaUy. 

He was a member from (liranville, in 1774, 
of the first colonial asseml)Iy tliat met at New 
Berne, in open defiance of tbe royal governor. 
He was also a mendjer of tbe pro\iiicial con- 
gress that met at Halifax, April 1-5, 1776, and 
again on November 12th following, which 
body formed the constitution, and with Cor- 
nelius Harnett and others was appointed one 
of the council of state. This pnivos tli.' confi- 
dence entertained for iiis patri<)ti.--iii and in- 

He was elected to the first legislature under 
the constitution (1777,) and continued in the 
service of the [leople, enjoying their regard 


and confidence till the day of his death. He two years old, and educated him at Sprig'.s 

was a surveyor by profession and was an ex- college near Willianishoro, in Granville County, 

tensive land owner. His deeds covered 70.- where John Hay wood, Sherwood IIayw(^od and 

000 acres. He gave largely to the university, Robert Goodloe Ilarjier,* were educated, 

and a hall called by his name hoars testimony lie died in 1799, and was buried at Persoutnn . 

to his ability. He gave his friend, who had in Warren County, five miles from Littleton, 

stood by him in his troubles. Parson Mickle- Judge Henderson, of our supreme court, 

John, his " Goshen place" in Granville, where always spoke of General Person with the 

he lived, which is called to tiiis day "the fondest afi'ection, (and acted as his counsel, 

Glebe." wrote his will, which was, however, not found 

General Person was never married. He after his death,) and often declared that "he 

left two sisters, one of whom, Martha, married was one of nature's noblemen." His services 

Major Thomas Taylor, in Franklin, at whose and his sufferings demand our respect, and his 

house he died; and Mary, who married George patriotism our gratitude. His memory is very 

Little;and one brother, William. He adopted appropriately preserved by calling one of the 

William P. Little, his sister's child, when only best counties of the state after his name.t 




TuE character and services of Kev. Hum- with credit and honor. He also served in a 

phrey Hunter, born 1755, deserves a place in campaign against the Indians, umler Colonel 

our record and renieml>rances,a3 a true christian Robert Mebane. He also served as lieutenant 

and a patriotic citizen. •' lie was a native of in Captain Given's company, under General 

Ireland and a man of letters," born near Lou- Rutherford, and was in the battle of Camden, 

donderry; he combined in his character all the (August, 1780,) where he was taken prisoner, 

elements of that Scotch-IrisU character, so After some time spent in confinement, he es- 

conspicuous a type in our struggles for liberty, caped and returned home. After remaining at 

With a widowed mother he came to America his mother's residence afew days heagain joined 

and settled near Poplar Tent, then Mecklen- the army, under General Greene, as a lieuten- 

burg County, and here he was raised. When ant under Colonel Henry Lee, and was 

the orders were ottered for a convention, at woundeil in the severe battle of Eutaw 

Charlotte, whieli met on May 19 and 20, 1775, 

he attended, and his testimonv is clear on the * -Mr- Harper acquired great distinction iu after 

"'-'"'' • .. life. There is a tradition that lie was born m this state, 

subject of the celebrated dechiration of inde- and many have so stated. Dr. Hawks and Mr. Drake 

,,,^^. 1 1 ir„ ,, think d iff erentlv. 

pendence at that timj an.l place, lie soon tTIio sketch, meagre as it is, is collated from the 

„f>,.i- o„liii-,.fl •,« -1 iirivfitp ii' 'I corus of cav- journals of the colonial assembly iu London, our own 

aftei eniisted as a pi u ate u. a coip^ or ca\ iegislative journals, and from a recent article in the 

airy, commanded by Charles Polk, and served iiiileigh Observer. 



Springs. This closed his military ca.reer. He 
returned home and renewed hie classical 
studies. In 1787, he graduated at Mount Zion 
College, in Winnsboro, South Carolina. He 
then studied theology, under the care of the 
presbytry of South Carolina, and was licensed 
to practice. In the tirst years his services 
were confined to South Caroliim. In 1805, 
he accepted a call from the Steel Creek 
church, in Mecklenbui-g County, and here he 
labored successfully and acceptably for many 
years, and there he died on August 21, 1827, 
in the peaceful hope of a glorious immortality. 
lie left several children, one of whom, Dr. C. 
L. Hunter, is distinguished as an author and a 
gentleman. He lies in the church yard of 
Steel Creek church, and on his tombstone is 
recorded the inscription: 

" Sacred to the memory of the Reverend Humphrey 
Hunter, who departed this life August 21, 1827, in the 
T3d year of his age. He was a native of Ireland and 
emigrated to America at an early period of his life. He 
was one of tliose who early promoted the cause of lib- 
erty in Meclilenbnrg County, May 20. 1775, and subse- 
quently bore an active part in securing the independ- 
ence of his country. For nearly thirty -eight years he 
labored as a faithful and assiduous embassador of 
Clirist, strenuously urging the necessity of repentance, 
and pointing out the terms of salvation. As a parent, 
he was kind and affectionate; as a friend, warm and 
sincere; as a minister, persuasive and convincing. " 

On tlie heights of King's Mountain, in the 
southern part of this county, stands a plain 
headstone bearing these words: 

" Sacred to the memory of Maior William Chronicle 
Captain WilIiHui Mattocks, William Raljb, and John 
Boyd, who were killed iiere figliting in defense of 
America, on the 7tli of October, 17S0 '' 

William Chronicle lived near Armstrong's 
ford, on the south fork of the Catawba river. 
His mother was first married to a Mr. McKee, 
and by this marriage she had one son, the late 
James McKee, who was a soldier of the revo- 
I'ltion, and the ancestor of several families of 
t!iat name in this neighborhood. After his 
death she married Mr. Chronicle, by whom 
she had an only son, the gallant soldier of 
King's Mountain. The universal testimony of 
all who knew Major Chronicle is, that he was 

an intrepid soldier and an earnest advocate of 
liberty. His fii-st appearance in the war was 
in South Carolina in 1779, after the fall of 
Savannah. In the fall of 1780, a call was made 
for a regiment from Lincoln, (then Tryon 
County,) to repel the enemy marching from the 
south, and flushed with victory. Of this regi- 
ment William Graham was colonel, Frederick 
Ilambright, lieutenant-colonel, William Chron- 
icle, major. Major Chronicle was peculiarly 
fitted for the life of a soldier. Brave to a 
fault, energetic in movement, and calm in 

Colonel Graham, on account of illness, was 
not at the battle of King's Mountain, and the 
conmiand of the regiment devolved on Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hambright and Major Chroni- 
cle. Onward these brave men marched with 
their leaders, and approached within gunshot 
of the etiemy, when a volley was fired by the 
enemy, who then retreated. The brave 
Chronicle fell, pierced through the heart by a 
rifle ball. At the same time fell Captain 
Mattocks, William Rabb, and -lohti Boyd. 

This battle of King's Mountain, from its lo- 
cation and other causes, has never had the 
important place in history that it deserves 
" There is no difiiculty in declaring, that if 
Ferguson had not fallen at King's Mountain, 
Cornwallis would not have surrendered at 
Yorktown. It was the pivot on which the 
revolutionary war in the south turned."* It 
is in many respects, the most important, the 
most glorious battle fought in tlie great con- 
test for liberty. It was fought on our side 
exclusively by volunteers, without the pres- 
ence or advice of a single regular officer. It 
was won by raw militia, never before under 
fire, over trained troops, commanded by a vet- 
eran officer of approved and desperate courage, 
who had no superior in the English army. 

Frederick Hambright, born 1740, died 
1817, was also one of the gallant heroes of 

*Ujnversity Magazine, February, 1858, VH., p. 245. 



King's Mountain. He wa3 a native of Ger- 
many; emigrated to America in 1727, and 
tinally settled on Long Creek, then in Tryon 
County, where he lived when the hattio of 
King'8 Mountain took phice. lie early em- 
harked in the of independence; in 1777, 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and was 
throughout the war an active and fearless offi- 
cer. At the battle of King's Mountain, 
Colonel William Graham, who had command 
of the Lincoln regiment, on account of sick- 
ness in his family, was absent, and the com- 
mand devolved upon Colonel Hambright. 
Nobly did he sustain this perilous charge; in 
the conflict he was severely wounded by a 
large rifle ball passing through his thigh; but 
tie refused to leave the field, and continued 
encouraging his men, he led them to battle 
and to victory. The effects of this wound 
caused him to falter in his walk, during the 
remainder of his life. 

He was twice married, and left a large 
family to emulate his patriotic example. He 
died in 1817, and was buried at Shiloh, in the 
limits of the present county of Cleaveland. 
His tombstone bears this inscription: 

" In memory of Colonel Frederick Hambright, who 
departed this life March, 1817, in the 90th year of his 

Robert Hall Morrison, D.D., resides at Cot- 
tage Home, near the line between Gaston and 
Lincoln Counties. 

He was educated at the university and grad- 
uated in 1818, in the same class with James K. 

Polk, Robert Donaldson, William D. .Mosely, 

Hamilton C.Jones, Hugh Waddell, and others. 

He studied for the ministry, and has spent a 

life long service in this iioly calling. 

He has had the charge of several Presbyterian 

churches in the state; has been president of the 

Davidson college, and until recently the loved 

and venerated pastor of Unity church, near 

Beattie's Ford. It has been my privilege to 

sit for many years under the teachings of this 

most excellent man. I can sa}' that I never 

more truly felt the influence of religious 

truth and its importance, than as it fell from 

his lips, as also the force of the example of one 

" Whose doctrine and life 

Uo-incident exhibit lucid proof, 
That he is honest in the sacred cause.'' 

He is now near the close of a long and v/ell 
spent life; possessing the esteem of all who 
know him. 

He married Mary, the third daughter of 
General Joseph (Jrahani,* by whom he had 
several children: 

L Isabella, married to General D. H. Hill. 

II. Ann, married to General T. J. Jackson 

III. Margaret, married to .lames $rwin. 
IV". Eugenia, married to General Rufus Bar- 

V. Joseph, married to Miss Davis. 

VI. Alfred. 

VII. Laura, married to John E". Brown. 

VIII. Robert. 

IX. Susan, married to Alphonzo C. Avery. 


William Paul Roberts is a native of this moted to a captaincy, and in a short time, al- 

county, born July 11, 1841. though the junior captain, was made major; 

His occupation is that of a farmer, but his war and in that same year was promoted to a col- 
record is brilliant. Entering the army in June, onelcy. I