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CIQ/qR ^ n/1NgF/lCTyREKS ^ in? 



Smoke the COURT ROYAL all Ihiviiiui Sumatm 
Wrapper aiul Hand Made ^c. Ci,i,'';ir. 



^> rsiEw f=^e:e:d baf=rinj <:^ 


^^,.,„.^__....„__ PEOPLE3 & RICE, Prop'rs. 





Is equal to most Fen Cent Cigars bi:t it niilv costs 
live Cents. Manufactured bv 

T. C. CORBETT, Decatur, Ind. 



^ JCirsch dc Sel/emei/ery 

Proprietors of the 

Riverside LdrRbepYards 

Complete Stock of BUILDING MATERIAL, 
TILE, Etc., Constantly on Hand. 

Estimates Furnished Free. Telephone No. 12. 


J. D. HALE, 


L 1, 1, 






Office and Retail Warehouse, 

S. E. Cor. Second and Jefferson Streets. 

Your Patronage Solicited. 



Jeweiei, iwm lO Opiici, 

Fxamining Eyes and 
Repairing of all Kinds 
a Specialty. 




Hand-Made Hapness 

Carriage Trimming and Upholstering. 
Horse Goods of all kinds. 
Repairing Done. 


N^W and 5?coDd=fiaDd Goods 

Stoves, Ranges, Furniture, Etc. 
Also Tents and Awnings. 







Comfort, Style, Beauty and Durability 

are combined in the 

Artistic Foot Covering sold by 

Holthouse & Mougey. 

While in the City give them a call. 

They will be pleased to show you 

through their Store. 


A. Holthouse's Old Stand. 


Barney Wemhoff, 

Manufacturers and 
Dealers in . . . 

i/farble and Sranite 




GEO. WEMHOFF. Manager. 

German Lettering: Executed in the 
Finest Style of the Art. 





The Latest Improved, the Easiest Running and the Best Washing Machine 
Now in existence. If you have no Washing Machine, give this 
Washer a trial. If your Dealer does not handle this Washer, address 
the undersigned and you will be accommodated. 

Very Respectfully Yours, 


Manufacturer of 



II MM [ii! i lilie ftp 

Manufacturers ef and Dealers in 

26/ooe/ and Steel Wind V/iiis, 

Tjanks, J umps, Qtni^/nes, Cisterns 
and y^/pe 





During the last Paris exposition there was upon exhibition 
a wonderful piece of skill and ingenuity, a clock made by Stephen 
Engle, of Hazelton, Pa. The work, when complete, shows con- 
clusively that America can proudly take her place at the head of 
nations for inventions and mechanical skill. The following is a 
description of this wonderful clock. All the figures are nine 
inches in height ; there are twenty-six in all. When the hour hand 
approaches the first quarter "Father Time" reverses his hour- 
glass and strikes one on a bell with his scythe, when another bell 
inside responds, then childhood appears. When the hour-hand 
reaches the second quarter or half-hour, then you hear two strokes 
of the bell, youth apears and the organ plays a hymn. "Father 
Time" strikes two and reverses his glass; then two bells respond 
on the inside. One minute later a chime of bells is heard, when 
a folding door opens in a lower porch and one at the right of the 
court, when the Saviour comes walking out, and one by one the 
Apostles come forth and join him, as w^ell as the three Marys. 
As the Apostles slowly pass the Savior they bow to him, with the 
exception of Peter, who turne slowly away; then the cock on the 
right flaps its wings and crows; Satan then appears above at a 
window on the left side, the figure of Justice raises her scales; 
Judas, as he advances, does not k)ok upon the Savious because 
the devil follows immediately after him, staying long enough to 
see that Judas is all right, but appears six times at different places 
during the Apostles' march. At the third quarter Time strikes 
three blows with her scythe and turns his hour-glass. Manhood 
then appears. As the hour-hamd approaches the hour four bells 
are heard and the organ plays again (a different tune). Two 
minutes after old age appears, Death strikes the hour with a bone 
on the skull, and one minute after the procession of the Apostles 
takes place. A truly wonderful piece of mechanicism which ranks 
as the eighth wonder of the world. Yet with all due respect to a 
mechanical mind, there are other inventions which should be con- 
sidered before placing the laurels upon the head of one man. 
This work shows careful study and a very ingenious mind, yet 
does all this time benefit mankind? Let us contrast another in- 
vention of about the same date, 1858. A young man invents a 
shoe that has features possessed by no other make. It is well 
made, perfect fitting, stylish and thoroughly up to date always. 
Forty odd years he continues to make and sell these goods, the 


millions of people who found ease and comfort by their use are 
benefitted. These goods are as well made to-day as forty years 
ago. The high standard set then has been maintained; an eniva- 
ble reputation. To make shoes does not require as much mechani- 
cal thought as it does to make a clock, but it taks sound judgment 
and business sagacity to conduct such a business. Therefore 
I claim that J. B. Lewis and his "Wear Resisters" should be 
awarded the palm. That his "Wear Resisters" are the eighth 
wonder of the world is truth without question and their remark- 
able footwear can be bought from 


Decatur, Ind. 


Light and Heavy hand-made Harness, Carriage Trimming 
and Upholstering. Horse goods of all kinds, repairing done. I 
buy and sell new and second-hand goods, stoves ranges, furniture, 
etc. Also Tents and Awnings. Big bargains, big satisfaction. 


Buys Oak and Hickory forrest and second growth. Have their 
chair factory, which is a substantial building and forty-six by one 
hundred and fifty feet, located on the C. & E. R. R., will sell or 
trade the entire plant. Also have some very fine building lots for 
sale. Call on or address 



Almost at your own price for strictly cash. Tan, willow, 
wine, chocolate, enameled or patent leather for men, women, 
misses and children, men's Kangaroo shoes, all grade of women's 
low shoes and all other shades of shoes kept in a first-class store. 
All stock warranted. 

GEORGE ROOP, Opposite Hale's Ware House. 


H. F. LINN. 
Contractor and Building Carpenter. 


Our complete stock of Hardware. Farming- Machinery, 
Wag-ons, Buggies, Surreys, Sewing Machines are worthy of in- 
vestigation. Call and get our prices. We will not be undersold. 

Call on G. W. BARNETT 

For a clean shave or hair cut. 

Dealer in New and Second-hand Bicycles. Wheels livery. 
Repairing a specialty. 

Dry Goods. Notions and Groceries. 

KUEBLER & MOLTZ. I. O. O. F. block. 


Near Erie depot. Warm meals, hot coffee and lunch at 
reasonable prices. Call and see us. 




Office and residence nearly oposite M. E. church, No. 199 
Fifth street, first door north of Monroe. Attention given to both 
general and special practice. Specialties, dieseases of women 
and children. 

See MOSER, the Lightening Shadow Catcher. 
Ground floor gallery, one square south of Court House. 


Leading JVIodiste. Parlors over Yager Brothers, east side 
of Second street. Ladies desiring good fits should call. All 
wori< oruaranteed. 


I have put in new machinery and am prepared to make as 
good flour as any mill in the state. Keep on hand bolted corn 
meal, rye and buckwheat flour and spring wheat flour. j\Iill 
feed of all kinds at lowest prices. Give me a trial. 

Call for Gold Dust or White Lily Flour. 

Call at JOHN ELIC 
l-'or Tile. You will always find a good assortment and Rock 
Bottom Prices. 


ATTENTION! Ladies wishing Milliner Goods, the best, 
finest and latest styles, call on 


South Second Street. 


City Buss and Hack Line. 

Rates $i.oo per day Mrs. Mary Beglin, Prop. 


Dealer in Staple Groceries and provisions, corner of Monroe 
and Eighth streets. 


Builders of Carriages, Buggies, Wagons and dealers in Har- 
ness Goods, Agricultural Implements, Carriages and Wagons. 
Repairing a specialty. Corner First and Monroe streets. 


Stone Quarries, for your stone. 


DRS. NEPTUNE, Brothers, 
Dentists, Extracting and Bridgework a specialty. 

Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, Silverware, Musical Instruments, Etc. 

Eor fine Sewing and Dress ^Making. Second street. 

D. B. THOMAS, M. D. 

Office over Paterson & Burner's. 

C. S. CLARKE, M. D. 

Office, corner Second and Madison streets. 


Dentist. L O. O. E. block. Professional dentist. Teeth ex- 
tracted without pain. Especial attention given to bridge work. 
Terms reasonable. Office, Second street, over Rosenthall's 
clothing store. 

Office, over B. J. Terveer's hardware store. Residence, 
Third street, first house north of Monroe. 


Divorce suits avoided and married life made happy by using 
Natural Gas. Supply received daily. Quality and quantity 



Druggists, dealers in Drugs, Medicines, Toilet Articles. Sta- 
tionery, Wall Paper, Paints, Oils, Varnishes, &c. Prescriptions 
carefully compounded. East side Main street. 

Fruits and Oysters in season. Leave orders for bread and 


Attorneys and Counselors-at-Law, rooms i and 2, over 
Auth's Jewelry store, first stairs south" of Holthouse's shoe store. 
Collections a specialty. Money to loan and insurance. 


Attorney-at-law. ' Patents a specialty, 


Attorney s-at-La\v. 

Go to J. T. COOT'S 

For your Pianos and Organs. 



Boarding House, south side Monroe street. 


Atiorneys-at-Lavv, L O. O. F. Block. 



Attorneys-at-Law. Office, Nos. i, 2 and 3, over the Adams 

County bank. Collections a specialty. 

Druggists, The Old Dorwin Durg Store, Established 1861. 


Dealer in Harness, Robes, Blankets, Whips, Curry Combs, 
Brushes and all things found in a first class shop. Repairing 
promptly and neatly done. 


Clothing Store. We always have what you are looking for, 
up-to-date goods at up-to-date prices. Fancy Dress Goods and 
Cloaks in endless varieties. Immense assortments in Carpets, 
Lace Curtains, Window Blinds and Rugs. We carry the best 
makes from reliable manufacturers. Reliable manufacturers' 
prices guaranteed to be the lowest. See our line before buying. 
No trouble to show vou. 

' JNO. & W. H. NIBLICK, Executors. 

Capital and surplus, $125,000. W. H. Niblick, Pres.; D. 
Studabaker, Vice-Pres. ; R. K. Allison, Cashier; C. S. Niblick, 
Assistant Cashier. 

Manufacturer of Wagon and Buggy Materials. 


For your Livery, 


Dealers in Buggies and Harness. 

Manufacturer of fine Cigars. Brands, '"The Favorite, 
'Boquet," "Grand Opera" 5c Cigars. 

If you want first-class Blacksmithing and Horse Shoeing. 

Plumbing, Steam and Gas Fitter and dealer in Pumps and 
Brass goods. Iron and Lead Pipe. 



Manufacturerer of Tile. 


Carpenter, Building and Contractor. 

All kinds of Mattresses made to order, all upholstering, such 
as Mattress, Lounges and Chairs repaired, buggy cushions and 
tops repaired by experienced workmen. 

Shop on Madison street, south of Court House. 


Carpenter and Contractor 

When you want a good Shave, Shampoo or a genuine Bath, 
remember the only place to be accommodated is at 


Grand Rapids Barber Shop, located on Monroe street, near 
G. R. & I. R. R.Good Hair cuts and easy Shaves. Ladies' and 
Children's work a specialty. Give us a call. 




E. F. COFFEE, Agent, Decatur, Ind. 

For your plain and fancy sewing and dress making. Perfect 
fit guaranteed. Over Democrat office. 


Dell Locke, Proprietor. 

Dealers in Groceries and Provisions, corner Second and 
Monroe and Seventh and Monroe streets. 


Marble Works. 


It is now conceded that the DECATUR STEAM LAUN- 
DRY is one of the BEST and most convenient laundries in the 
state. None but skilled labor employed and all work turned out 
is strictly first-class. If you are not a customer give us a trial. 
Corner First and Monroe streets. Agents wanted in all towns. 

GEO. TOWN, Prop. 



Dealers in Dry Goods, Notions, Groceries and Q'.ieensware. 
Fine holiday goods a specialty. 


Pianos and Organs, Sheet Music and books. Also head- 
quarters for Bicycle Sundries and Repairs. 


Boarding and lodging. Fruits, vegetables and refreshments 
of all kinds. Four doors north of Court House, 

J. S. COLCHIN, Prop. 


Dealers in Cheap, IMedium and Fine Furniture, China Glass 
and Queensware, Onyx Stands, Banquet Lamps, in fact everthing 
kept in a first-class furniture store. Call in and see us. South 
Second Street. 

If you want a neat, clean shave, hair cut or shampoo, call on 


Under the Elm Tree. 

I hereby notify the public that I keep constantly on hand a 
full assortment of fine fresh and salt meats, dried beef, sausages of 
all kinds, dressed poultry and fresh country-made butter. My 
personal attention is given customers. Your patronage is re- 
spectfully solicited. Cash paid for all stock that can be used in 
mv market. TAMES BAIN. 


Staple and Fancy Groceries, Notions and Queensware. M-^roe St. 



All kinds of Ladies' Hats in straw and felt cleaned, dyed and 
re-shaped into the best and latest shapes. Also plumes and 
ribbons colored at reasonable prices. 

Seventh street, opposite G. R. & I. Depot. 

For your Fine Boots and Shoes and Rubber Goods. 


Dressmaker, with Miss Marker's assistance, will continue 
her business at the old stand. Second street. Give us a call. 

Pork Packers. Dealers in all kinds of meats, wholesale and 
retail. Office, Madison street. Telephone 96. Packing house, 
First street. Telephone 81. 

Physio-Medical physician and surgeon. Office, west side 
of Second street, opposite National bank. Residence on Fourth 
street, opposite the Catholic church. Lock box, 144. 

E. H. LeBRUN, 
Veternary Surgeon. Treats all domestic animals. 


Stone and Brick Contractor. 


Cigar Manufacturer. 



Proprietor of 


Dry Goods, Qroceries, Notloms, 
Boots, Shoes, Medlcmes, Etc, 

Call on or address 

H. Burning Sc Son. 

We keep on hands of our own manufactured 

Stock, TILE 3 to 18 inches. Also 

Good Hard Brick. 





Also owner of the 

Call on me when in need of anything in 
nny line. 

C. E. BURR, 


The Q. 5. Picket Nursery, 


All Stock Guaranteed. 

When in need of anything in my line please 
send me a card and I will call and see you 

C. E. BURR. 



Dealer in 

Seneral 7/ferchanciise 

7/fanufacturer of 

Hardwood Lumber and 


]p1. G. /\pdfew8, 



Meats and Gpocepies 

Buys all kinds of 


M. L. Ohrer, 









Hardwood Lumber and 




Lmeemeaer (^ Jaelbkerc 


others fail, 

CaJl amd give us a chajice to hM on your 
work and we will Save you iloiniey. 



IR VCDU WAIMX A.=44iii-. 

Chamber Suit 
Spring Bed 

or anything to be found in a first-class 

consult your best interest and call on 

Stucky & Schipdlc]- 

ni III Ml H. tflllE. li. 

Also a tnll line of book cases, side boards, 
cupboards, etc. Baby carriages the 
finest and best makes and latest styles. 
The finest assortment of pictures and 
moulding. Fancy rockers at lowest 
prices. Bed lounges and couches of 
all kinds. 




^aum£^artner brothers. 


General HapduJare 

r 77TTTTT7TTT7T7T7T7 T 7TTT7T7 T 7T7T7TT7T7 T , ^ 


1 -^^^ 

^ Livery and Sale. 




About one man out of ten can't be expected to know 
that we are headquarters for 

Pure Drugs, 
Patent Medicines, 
Toilet Articles 

Because he hasn't entered our store. 




And we expect to get his trade. 

75rc You the Tenth Man? 






Gottschalk's Diarrhoea Remedy, 

A sure cure for Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Flux, Cholera florbus, 
and Summer Complaint. 


GOTTSCHALK'S CONDITION POWDER is no ordinary medicine 
but when fed to any stock, it improves the health and appearance. 

A well aninal, when fed this medicine, can perform more work on the same 
feed. It improves the digestion, purifies the blood and gives tone to the system 
and the muscles. The Condition Powder is cheaper by far than any other, as 
half the dose has greater effect. EVERY PACKAGE WARRANTED. 


Simison & Solciner^ 



IN .^ ^ «^ .^ 

General MercbaDdis?, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Clothing, Boots 
and Shoes, Groceries, Provisions, 
Etc. You will find every depart- 
ment in our store completely 
stocked with seasonable goods 
which we will be pleased to show 
you. They need only to be seen 
to be appreciated. 

We invite an inspection of our 

Yours Respectfully, 

Simison dt Soldner. 



Shakers^ Liquid Paints 
A large collection of Wall Paper 
A complete line of Drugs 
and Druggists^ Sundries 
Oils for all purposes 
Groceries* ^«^^ 

Qualities Guaranteed. -^v^-^^*^ 
Prices to meet Competion.-^'^-^-^ 



•»Os:kWest Main Street. 


o. m 

Jeweler and Optician. 


Watches, Clocks, JeuJelry, 

Silverware^ Spectacls^ Etc. 

Also Watches, Clocks, Jewelry and Spectacles 

This is the only place in Berne to get your eyes 
tested, and fitted with the required glasses, by scien- 
tific methods, same as practiced by the best Oculist 
in our large cities. If you have any difficulty in see- 
ing distinct, headache or pain in the eyes, haiie your 
eyes examined and see for yourself how much your 
sight can be improved. No case will be too difficult. 
Ex.AMiN.-VTiOF Free! No effort is made to sell glasses 
to those not in need of them. 

If Furniture is what you 
want, go to . . . 


One Square North of Wind Pump, 

Who will sell you Furniture 
at Reduced Prices. 





Spfipgej" Sl Lehjnap 

Dry Goods, 


Boots and Shoes, 





Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots, Shoes, 


Hats, Caps and General IVIerchandise 

1 carry at all times a full line of fresh goods. 


^ r T. HAECKER. 



Tin and Steel Roofs 




Traction Engines and Threshers 

Milujaakee Mouiers and Binders. 

Come and see me before buying elsewhere. 


grine Macnme ^iraop. 

We, having completed our Hachine Re- 
pairing 5hop, are now ready to do all kinds 
of Repairing, such as Engines, Threshers, 
Saw Mills and Harvesting flachins of all 

We employ only skilled workmen, guar- 
antee our work and save you money. 

We also have in stock a full line of Re- 
Repairs, such as Valves, Throttles, Steam 
Qagues, Etc. 


in I iiili. 

West Main Street. 


' Opposite G. R. & I. depot, Berne, Ind. Rates, $2.00 per day. 

J. M. ROSE, Prop. 


Incorporated 1891. A. A. Sprunger, President; C. A. 
Neuenschwander, Vice President; Rud. Lehman, Cashier; S. 
Simison, Assistant Cashier. Capital, $40,000; surplus, $30,000. 


Compliments of D. A. GILLIOM, 

Dealer in all kinds of Musical Instruments, Sewing Machines, 
Findings and repairs. The celebrated World's Best, Weaver 
Organs and Pianos, our specialty. West end Main street, 




Milliner and Dress-making. 


D. L. SHALLEY, Photographer. 

All sizes and styles of Photographs, Hand Crayons, Water 
Color and Flash Light Pictures. Frames of all descriptions at 
the lowest prices. All work guaranteed. 


Blacksmith and Repair Shop. 

If you want a nice clean shave or hair cut call on 





Geo. R. Ellis. 



r3 J 










Wm. He'fenberger 





M. REED, Farmland, Ino., 


162 to 172 S. Senate Ave., INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 


Call for PLACE'S Ice Cream and 
Soft Drinks. Have no other. 
Write for prices for 
Pic-Nics and Public Gatherings. 






OF THE^^iA^ 

Largest General Retail Stores 


Everything in Dry Goods, Hats and Caps, Shoes and Slippers, 
Ladies' and Hisses' Fine Shoes, besides an extensive 
assortment of fine Groceries. 

Everything handled by fir. Rteff is of the best quality and 
sold at remarkably low prices. His motto is quick 
sales and small profits. 

A large number of clerks are employed to attend to the 
wants of his many patrons. 

Mr. Rieff is fully conversant with every detail of his 
business and is regarded among our most enter- 
prising important trade factors. 




Felix & Co.'s Fine Shoes for Ladies and Misses. 
The Baillec Shoe for Children. 
The Trojan Shirt Waist. 

Imported and Domestic Dry Goods. 
Lowry & Qeoble's Carpets. 

Balls, Jackson, Kahs, Duplex Corsets. 
American Curtains and Portiers. 


Oldest Dry Goods Firm of 

ReHaMe Merclhaedjse 

^ Tireless Toilers for Your Patronage, oc 

The Douglas Shoe for Hen and Boys. 
The Bengal Drillers for all Men. 

The Robbins Hats for Men, Boys and Youths. 

The Cones Boss Pants, Shirts and Overalls. 
Gold and Silver Shirts. 

Trunks and Vaiises. 






Ladies' & Gents' Furnishing Goods. 



S. O. WELDAN, Proprietor. 


Boots and Shoes and Rabber Goods. 


Clothing Store for bargains. 



Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Provisions, Fine 
Cigars, Tobaccos and Notions. 


Dealer in Harness, Whips, Robes, and everything in the 
harness line. 


Call on P. I.VaTSON, 
Dealer in Fancy and Staple Groceries and Provisions. 



General ^Merchandise. 


Wagon and Carriage Alanufacturer, Blacksmith and Repair shop. 

S. W. HALE. 
Dealer in Grain. Established in 1872. 

We have the only self-fitting chart in town. 

MRS. L. FRITTS, Dressmaker. 




Miners of Indiana petroleum. Those concerns which are 
the more prominent in Geneva's upbuilding are the first to receive 
consideration in a work of this character. . One that we will 
notice is the Superior Oil Co. This concern is successor to the 
well-known firm of Collins, Hardison & Leonard, and is a recent 
incorporation. It is officered as follows: President, C, P. Col- 
lins, of Bradford, Pa.; vice president, J. H. Hardison, of Geneva; 
secretary, Harry Heasley, Butler, Pa.; treasurer, J. R. Leonard, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

This company is composed of reliable and capable business 
men, who jointly represent a large amount of capital. They are 
among the heaviest operators in the Indiana oil field. The vice 
president and resident manager of the concern is J. H. Hardison, 
who has lived here four years, and is one of the best posted oil 
men in this field. 


Dealer in Furniture. 


Dealer in Staple and Fancy Groceries. 


Dealer in Salt and Fresh Meats. 




Call on R R GREGG, 

The Geneva Artist. 



Attorneys-at-law and Notaries Public. Collections receive 
prompt attention. We execute pension vouchers with the greatest 
care so that no delay to the pension occurs in receiving the money 
on the same.Decendent estates a specialty. Office over Aspry 
& Miller's drug store, 


Chas. D. Porter, Cashier; A. G. Briggs, President; S. W. Hale, 
Vice President. Directors — David Studabaker, Dan Porter, R. 
Ballison, W. H. Niblick, S. W. Hale, A. G. Briggs, Chas. D. 


Will always receive the most careful, scientific treatment at 
the office of 


The progressive dentist of Geneva. Fine gold work a specialty. 
Opposite the post office. 


In the month of January 1896 my Mother was visiting me at 
my home in Decatur, Indiana. Duringherstay she said, Martha, 
under any circumstance never bury me in the Miller Cemetery, 
and if they lay out the new cemetery while I am living I will 
remove Papa and the Children there. Little did I think that in 
less than three weeks it would be left to us to select a place two 
weeks from the next Sabbath. The news came Mother was 
found dead in her bed. How her words rang in my ears. Even 
now I see the hand that was raised to emphasize her words, 
"Never under any circum.stance bury me in the Miller Cemetery. ' ' 
We laid her in the Wells Cemetery, and on the next Friday, 
having the graves prepared, we went to have Papa and the 
Children removed when Mr. and Mrs. Alberson .said they would 
survey and lay out a cemetery if we would burj- there, and as 
the sun was sinking in the West they were laid away, bringing 
Mother back the next day, and there they sleep side by side on 
the hill in site of our child-hood home. 

It is done then, we stop to think, they lay in an open field, 
it is like making a home here .seventy years ago, there is no fence, 
no nothing; and if we wait for the sale of lots to improve it it 
will be 3-ears. 

I have taken this plan to get money to fence it. I have 
asked the old people in Adams, Jay and Randolph Counties to 
write their hi.stories and the business men to place an "ad" in 
this book to help financially. By examining this book you will 
.see how the}- have responded. 

I take this opportunity to thank the business men for their 
aid and the pioneers for their promptness and kindness, I will bid 
)-ou god .speed. 

Yours truly, 

Mrs. Martha C. M. Lynch. 



On the 15th day of February, 1821, Mr. Peter Studabaker 
and Miss Mary Simison were joined in the bonds of holy wedlock 
at the house of the Simison family, where Fort Recovery, now 
Mercer County, Ohio, now stands,. The newh- married pair re- 
solved to go still farther on the frontier and hew out for them- 
selves a home in the wilderness. So they gathered their house- 
hold goods, and with several friends entered the wilds, soon 
striking the "Quaker Trace" leading from Richmond to Fort 
Wayne, which they followed until they reached the Wabash 
River. This spot was their destination, and upon the low bank, 
near the water's edge, they prepared to "camp." Cutting four 
forked poles, they drove one end of each into the ground, laid 
poles and brush across the top, and their camp was completed. A 
fire was kindled at one end, by which the young wife cooked 
supper for her company — hei first experience in house, or rather 
camp-keeping, by herself. Their simple repast was highly 
relislied and soon dispatched, and they retired to rest, blankets 
spread upon the ground serving for beds. 

Sleep had scarcely calmed the wearied compan\- when they 
were aroused by the yells of a gang of approaching wolves. 
Elsewhere came an answering howl, then another and another, 
till the forests seemed ringing with their hideous yells. The 
howling became so terrific, the dog sprang out and threatened to 
give battle, but soon came bounding back, panic stricken, and 
jumped upon the nuptial bed. As they lay there, so close to the 
bank, they could see about a dozen wolves at the water's edge on 
the opposite shore. Soon they heard the shaq?, savage snap of 


wolf-teeth near their bed, and glaring eyes shone in the darkness 
within six feet of their camp. The men sprang from the ground 
in alarm, seized their rifles and fired. The howling pack fled in 
haste and did not return. Again the men lay down, and soon 
"tired nature's sweet restorer" calmed their fears, and they slept 
soundly till morning — perhaps dreaming of the pleasant homes 
and dear friends of their childhood. Thus camped and slept the 
first white family that ever trod the wilderness which fifteen years 
afterward became Jay County. 

This was on the farm now^ owned by Samuel Hall, on the 
south bank of the Wabash, at New Corydon. Soon Mr. S. built 
a cabin, "all of the olden time," and into it they moved, v.'ith the 
naked earth for a floor. This cabin, the fist home of that now 
widely known pioneer family — a rude hut twelve by sixteen, of 
small round logs, with clapboard roof held on by "weight poles," 
— was the first civihzed dwelling ever erected in our county. Un- 
broken forests w-ere on every hand; no house within fifteen miles 
— no mill or store in thirty-five. Their only companions were 
Indians — their only foes were wolves. 

These animals, always annoying by their constant howling,, 
were often very troublesome. It was next to impossible to raise 
stock of any kind. Once a wolf came up to the house in open 
daylight, to attack a calf, when Mrs. S. appeared, and it ran off.' 
At other times they were still bolder. One night a pack attacked 
the hogs. Mr. S. went out with his gun, his wif£ holding a torch 
while he shot at them five times, but without effect, and they 
came still nearer, snapping their teeth almost within reach. They 
seemed bent on an attack, and the entreaties of his wife prevailed 
on him to go into the house. 

Mr. Studabaker obtained a livelihod in various ways — prin- 
cipally by hunting. His delight was to be in the wilderness, be- 
yond the reach of society and its innovations. He loved the 
cjuiet grandeur of the forest, and the excitement of hunting deer, 
squirrels, otters, wild ducks, wolves and bears, possessed to him 
irresistible charms. The game he killed furnished meat for his 
table in abundance, and of the rarest kind. But they had other 
sources of income. Even at that early day many travelers passed 
along the "Quaker Trace," and they all stopped to enjoy the hos- 
pitality of these pioneers. In fact, at that time it was rather a 
matter of necessity, as the distance in either direction to any 
other house was a day's travel. The "Quaker Trace" was so 
called because it was opened and traveled by the Quakers of 
Wayne County, on their way to Fort Wayne market. 

Mr. S. sometimes traded provisions to the Indians for furs,. 


and by selling the furs added something to his income. An inci- 
dent of this kind is worth relating. 

In the fall of 1821, Mr. S. and Thomas Robinson, who then 
lived on the "Prairie," in what is now Adams County, went to 
Greenville and got some flour, and bringing it to the Wabash, dug 
out a large canoe and started down the river, to sell their flour to 
the J\Iiami Indians, in a town at the mouth of the Mississinewa — 
one hundred miles by the river route, and a few miles above 
Peru, Miami County, Indiana. Easily and rapidly they glided 
■down the smooth waters of the Wabash. In the afternoon of the 
second day they came in sight of the town. They soon saw that 
the Indians were on a desperate "spree," and were dancing, sing- 
ing, yelling and fighting. They wisely concluded it would not be 
safe to visit the town that night; so they rowed up the river a 
short distance, anchored their canoe, went ashore and camped for 
the night. The next day they went down towards the town. 
Robinson staid with the canoe, while Studabaker went to nego- 
tiate a sale of the flour. The first Indian he met was a squaw, 
named "Big Knife," with whom he was well acquainted. She told 
him they had had a terrible time the night before, and that in the 
fighting several Indians had been killed, and that they were then 
.all in their huts, sleeping off the efifects of their revelry. He in- 
quired if any of the men were sober. She replied that one was, 
and offered to conduct him to the hut where that Indian slept. On 
their way through the village, which seemed almost deserted, they 
passed by a young Indian who was lying with his stomach ripped 
open, and part of his entrails lying upon the ground, but still 
alive. They went and aroused the sober Indian, who, after much 
painting and ornamenting, went with Mr. Studabaker to the 
canoe. On their way they passed the wounded Indian. A 
squaw was sitting by his side, weeping, replacing the entrails, and 
with an awl and deer's sinew was sewing up the horrible wound. 
The Indian looked at the flour, and pointing to the sun and the 
western sky, said that when the sun reached such a place the 
Indians would get hungry and come and buy. At the appointed 
time this sober Indian came down to the canoe, followed by the 
•others, each of whom purchased a small quantity of flour. Our 
adventurers then returned, occupying about three days in their 
up-stream rowing. 

Thus the family endured ver}^ many severe hardships during 
their stay at this point on the Wabash. So the first families who 
•settled in each section of the county endured privatations and trials 
which would have overwhelmed others less patient, energetic and 
brave. To the comfortably situated residents at the present time 


these trials seem almost incredible. Here is a leaf from the life 
of ]\Iary Studabaker: 

Late in the autumn of 1822, the Indians, as they were some- 
times in the habit of doing:, stole two colts — one from Mr. Studa- 
baker, and one from his brother-in-law, John Simison. In the 
early part of winter Simison came to Studabaker's, and the two 
men set out for Wapakoneta, Ohio, in search of the colts among 
the Indians of that country. Before leaving, Mr. Studabaker 
hired a boy from the settlement to stay with his wife, who then 
liad a babe only three months old, to cut the wood and build fires. 
The men had been gone scarcely an hour when this boy proved 
treacherous, and left Mrs. Studabaker and her child entirely alone. 
This placed her in an alarming situation. Her husband expected 
to be absent nearly a week; the weather was very cold, and she 
had no wood and iDUt little strength. She was fifteen miles from 
any neighbors, in a wilderness full of roving gangs of Indians and 
wolves. The prospect was a dreary one. She saw her dangerous 
situation, and with heroic fortitude resolved to do her utmost to 
save herself and child. She devoted herself assiduously to chop- 
])ing wood and building fires. Quite naturally she. sought the 
kinds of wood which would chop the easiest, and sometimes cut 
"buckeye," the poores.t of all wood. This made it difficult to 
keep good fires; but she managed to get along without suffering 
much, except from lonliness, until the fifth day, when the weather 
turned extremely cold. All this time had passed, and she had not 
seen a human being. Even the sight of an Indian would have 
gladdened her heart. This day she built a fire, but it would not 
1)urn. She chopped more wood and piled the great fire-])lace full ; 
but all in vain. To use her own words, "It seemed to be. as it 
is saifl to be in Greenland sometimes, too cold for the fire to burn." 
Disheartened and despairing, as her last hope, she took her babe 
and went to bed. Here they must He until assistance came, or 
freeze to death! But the kind care of an ever-watchful Father in 
Heaven was upon her. In about two hurs Mr. Studal^aker came 
home, bringing the stolen colt. He soon built a large, comfort- 
able, crackling fire. How great was her joy at this very op- 
portune rescue! 

Airs. .Studabaker gives the following account of the survey 
<i this part of Indiana by the government surveyors. In the 
winter of 1821 and 1822 James Worthington, of Columbus. Ohio, 
son of Governor Worthington, accompanied by nine assistants, 
'■ame to Mr. Studabaker's, and made their home with him during 
he three months occupied in making the survey. Having two 
-its of instruments, \hv\ operated in two distinct companies, nnrl 


surveyed the territory now making the counties of Jay, Adams and 
Wells. They gave ^Ir. Studabaker a plat of their survey, which 
was very useful to the early settlers for many years. 

About forty rods below Hall & Arnett's mill, at New Cory- 
don, is a tree on which many dates have been cut, and among 
others the figures "1822." They are now grown up, so as to be 
barely visable, and have every appearance of having been put 
there at that time. It is quite likely the work of the government 

The first person born in Jay County was Abram Studa- 
baker. . He was born in the little cabin on the Wabash, Sep- 
tember 29th, 1822, a child of the wilderness — the first born of the 
family and of the county. His life was but a blossom, having died 
March nth, 1824, at Fort Recovery. Another son was afterward 
given the same name. 

Mr. Studabaker moved to the Wabash with the intention of 
making that his permanent home ; but the frequent overflows of 
the river at that time discouraged him, and finally led him to move 
away. One evening in the spring of 1822 several travelers 
stopped to stay all night. The Wabash was quite high, but not 
unusually so. Mrs. Studabaker made a bed on the floor, in which 
the travelers retired to rest. In the night, one of them thought 
]>e felt rather "'moist," and on turning over found the puncheons 
were floating. They got up; one went up in the "loft," and the 
other concluded to nap the rest of the night away on the logs of 
wood by the fire place. But the family, being more fortunate, 
were on a bedstead, and slept there until morning, when they 
found all the puncheons except the two on which the bedposts 
rested, floating about the room. Mr. Studabaker waded out and 
brought his canoe into the house, and took his family to dry land 
in the woods, where they camped until the water went down, 
which was in four or five days. In this way the Wabash over- 
flowd the land about his cabin, and he moved back to Fort Re- 
covery, having lived in Jay County about two years. -^ 

Mary Studabaker has been a pioneer all her life. She 
was born March i6th, 1796, in Sherman \'alley, Penn. At the age 
of two years her father, John Simison, moved to Kentucky and 
settled within six miles of Lexington. Residing there six years, 
they moved to W^arren County, Ohio. After living there ten or 
twelve years, they moved to Greenville, and froni there, in the 
spring of 181 7, to Fort Recovery. There was not a single family 
living in the region of the Upper Wabash. They were the first 
pioneers of Fort Recovery — that place so celebrated in history 
as the scene of St. Clair's defeat, and Marv was afterward of Tav, 


and still later of the south part of Adams County. There was a 
trading house then at Fort Recovery, built by David Connor. It 
was about twelve feet square, and surrounded by pickets — logs set 
in the ground reaching about eight feet high — as a protection 
against the Indians. Into this house John Simison and family 
moved. Mr. Simison farmed the ground upon which the town 
is now built, while his boys did the hunting. He raised most of 
the living for the family, but had to go to Greenville to find a 
store and mill. He had a hand mill, and sometimes ground on 

It was while living here that the Treaty was made with the 
Indians, October 6th, 1818. Dr. Perrine, of Greenville, attended 
that meeting. Starting in the morning, on foot, he expected to 
reach Simison's that evening; but night overtook him while he 
was in what is now Madison Township. Finding he must camp 
out, he was much alarmed lest the wolves should devour him. 
Coming upon a much-broken tree-top, he set about building a 
camp that would protect him. Out of the broken limbs he built 
a very small, oval-shaped pen. leaving a hole at the bottom. Into 
this he crept, and drew a stick, prepared for the purpose, into the 
hole after him, thus effectually blocking all entrance. Curling up 
there, he slept soundly. Some time after this Thomas Robinson 
settled beside Mr. Simison — then soon moved to Adams County. 

But sorrow was in store for this family. Mrs. Simison died 
in September, 1820, and on the last day of that ever-memorable 
year, she was followed by her husband. His burial took place on 
New Year's day, 1821. Thomas Robinson and Peter Studabakei 
happened to be there at the time of his death, and making a rough 
box which had to answer for a cofifin, they buried their pioneer 
friend. But for the fortunate presence of these men, none beside 
the mourning orphans would have been there to perform the last 
sad offices for the lamented dead. 

In a few weeks Mar}' was married, and entered upon her 
brief life of trials in Jay County. After moving back to Fort Re- 
about twelve years, wiien he moved to Adams County, where he 
died June 15th, 1840. He was born in 1790, in Moreland County, 
Pennsylvania. Mary now lives with ker son Abram, in 
Adams County, Indiana, in a log house, with one of those great 
old-fashioned cabin fire places, which so abundantly dispense 
warmth and cheerfulness to the inmates. It is about sixty feet 
from the river, upon the banks of which she has lived since her 
childhood days, nearly half a century. By the side of its quiet 
waters she was wooed and won, and has devotedly braved many 
dangers, reared a large family, and followed her husband and 


several children to the silent tomb. She is now seventy-four 
years of age, and though in feeble health, her mind still retains its 
original vigor. Strong common sense, quick perception and 
good judg-ment are her characteristics. Indeed, without these 
qualities, she could not have passed through so rugged and event- 
ful a life. Her son, Hon. David Studabaker, has resided for 
many years in Decatur, Indiana, where he has been, and still is, 
a prominent attorney. He has represented that county in the 
Legislature of the State, and was for four years the State Senator 
from that district composed of the counties of Jay, Adams and 
Wells, in which position he sustained himself with credit. 




Jesse Niblick, one of Decatur's early settlers and honest, re- 
spected and honorable influential citizens has passed away. His 
death occurred Sunday night near the midnight hour, and many 
were the words of sympathy and regret, when the announcement 
grew into circulation at an early hour Monday morning, October 
6th, 1896. He had been ailing for several weeks, yet his confine- 
ment to his home was less than a week, and while many of his 
friends and acquaintances knew he was sick, yet they were un- 
prepared for the shock, which accompanied the announcement of 
his death. He had been a pillar in the foundation of so many 
creditable business enterprises, and a leader in all these since the 
formation of the county and city, that it's but little wonder that 
he was known, loved, hpnored, respected and admired by every 
man, woman and child. FJut death is no respector of persons, so 
we will simply abide its decisions and console ourselves by trying 
to emulate his many virtues. 

The deceased was born in CaiToll County, Ohio, although 
his father was a native of Ireland. His parents located in Adams 
County in 1836, at which time Jesse was ten years of age. This 
date takes us back to the time when Adams Count}- was a dense 
and unbroken wilderness, which has now been transformed into 
a region of thrift and prosperity, by the untiring zeal and energy 
of such entenirising citizens as Mr. Niblick. He has seen the 
trails of the tra])ers and hunters give place for railroads and 
vehicles, the cabins and garden patches succeeded by comfortable 
houses and board fields of waiving grain, the additions of 
churches, school houses, and everv other conceivable institution 



that tended to broaden the mind, extend the markets of com- 
merce, trade and traffic, and make the history of Adams County 
of such thrilHng interest, grand practical results, and lessons that 
now may be perused with profit by the present Adams County 
generation, and by citizens of other regions. 

In 1846 Mr. K'iblick engaged in the boot and shoe business, 
being then twenty years old. This business he was engaged in 
until 1866, having been more than successful in building up trade 
and a reputation of honesty, that has been beneficial to him in 
various ways ever since. That reputation has been worth more 
to him than all the gold in the universe. In these later years it 
no doubt Jias been a source of satisfaction and gratification to him 
to know, that after a life time devoted exclusively to business and 
its various competition, he is able to extend the right hand of 
fellowship to all those whom he has come in contact with, all these 
years. In 1866 he connected himself with John Crawford in a 
general merchantile business, under the firm name of Niblick & 
Crawford. Several years later the firm was extended to Niblick, 
Crawford & Sons, a son of each having been taken into the 
partnership. This finu existed until some seven years ago, when 
it again changed to Jesse Niklick & Son, and which firm is still 
doing business, being one of Decatur's prominent businesc in- 

In 1871 Niblick & Nuttman engaged in the banking business 
in the name of the Adams County Bank. Later it was organized 
under tlie state laws, and J\Ir. Niblick became a airector and its 
first president. He was still a director in the bank at the time of 
his death. This bank is also identified as one of the most solid 
and prominent banking houses in the state. Thus it will be seen 
that every business enterprise in which Mr. Niblick was engaged, 
prospered and thrived, nuich of this thrift being due to the ex- 
cellent business judgment and ideas advanced by J\lr. Niblick. 

Politically the deceased always cast his suffrage with the 
Democratic party, being at all times one of the chief promoters 
and organizers. In 1848 he was elected trustee of Washington 
Township, and from 1865-8 he very efficiently filled the office of 
County Treasurer. He was always enthusiastic in his support of 
the party, at the same time respecting in the greatest degree the 
opinions of his friends and others who chose to dier with him in 
political preferment. He was also a public spirited citizen, and 
always devoted time, aid, money and advice to any movement or 
project that had a tendency towards advancing the progression 
of this city and county, to both of which he was ven- devotedly 


In 1 85 1 he was married to his present bereaved widow. Her 
maiden name was Catharine Closs, a native of Germany. Their 
hves together have been one continued Hne of sunshine and de- 
votional happiness, which had much to do with the kind-hearted 
manifestations on every demanded occasion, by the deceased. 
In her present breavement Mrs. NibHck is joined by seven 
children, one having already passed into that world on high, 
William Niblick, president, and Charles, assistant cashier of the 
Old Adams County Bank; John, James K. and Daniel M. being 
associated with him in business, and J\Iary and Amelia, who reside 
at home, comprise the family who are now grieved beyond ex- 
pression at the death of their long cherished, honored and rever- 
enced counsellor and advisor. To him they have come with many 
preplexities which he has gladly solved. Now they will have to 
profit by the dictates of his past life, which is a worth example to 
follow and emulate. 

The funeral services were conducted yesterday morning. As 
a mark of respect to the deceased every business house in the city 
was closed during the services, and people from all over the 
county came in to pay him homage. It was perhaps the largest 
gathering of people ever assembled to pay their last respects to the 
dead. And they were all friends; friends with whom the deceased 
had been associated for years, and not for a day. They knew him 
and they loved him. It was a fitting tribute to a long life of use- 
fulness and honor. The pall-bearers who conveyed the remains 
to its last resting place was composed of R. B. Allison, David 
Studabaker, John Meibers, John Shane, Conrad Brake and 
Ezra Lister, all old associates of the deceased, who had known 
him for half a century. 

He was born August 12th, 1826; died October 6th, 1895, 
being aged sixty-nine years, one month and twenty-four days. 
Funeral services were held at the St. Mary's Catholic churcli, and 
that large structural auditorium would not hold half the sympa- 
thizing friends who sought admission. Interment in the St. 
Joseph cemetery. 

So ends the life of our beloved and honored friend and citizen. 



I will give briefly the joys and sorrows that were and is now 
experienced in youth and old age. 

I am a native of America, and proud of it. I was born April 
nth, 1836, near Livingston, Overton County Tennessee. 
The oldest son of James B. and Elizabeth Simcoke (deceased). 
The father a native of North Carolina, the mother a native of 
Tennessee. Their marriage occurred in March, 1835. Five 
children were born to them, two boys and three girls, the sub- 
ject herself and Andrew Jackson, Victoria, Mary Brady, and 
Elizabeth. Victoria, (now Mrs. Hill), w'ho resides in Decatur, 
was born in Tennessee in 1838. Andrew Jackson was born in 
Columbia City, Ind. He learned the printing trade and was 
w^orking in the printing office when he concluded that it would be 
better to fig"ht for his country, in the late rebellion, than setting 
type, and enlisted in the 13th Indiana Cavalry as an orderly, but 
soon received a lieutenant's commission. He contracted con- 
sumption and died on board a gunboat on the Mississippi River. 
Mary Brady was born in Decatur, and at present lives in Chicago. 
Sister Elizabeth was born in Decatur, and died early in life. There 
are only three of the family living. We were all raised in Decatur. 
My father and family left Tennessee for the north in the year of 
1841, landing in Richmond, Ind., remained there a short time 
thence moved to Whitley County, Ind., arriving there in wagons 
after many days' hard traveling, we settled in the almost dense 
forrrest, but the county seat, called Columbia City, among 
Indians and wolves ; very few white people were there, the county 
sparsely settled. Father was a physician and had some practice 


among the Indians and the few whites, until he was selected and 
elected sheriff and served one term. In the spring of 1844 he 
concluded to move to Adams County, getting there with many 
difficulties. He settled in Decatur, Ind., where he engaged in 
clearing land in the summer and teaching school in the winter, 
until the year 1846, when he was chosen and elected sheriff, and 
served one year. In the year 1846 he was chosen and elected 
Treasurer of Adams County and served two terms. In the year 
1852 (his wife) my mother died. The following year he moved 
with his children to Cincinnati. The object was to school them 
and attend law school himself. After father graduated in law at 
the Cincinnati Law^ College, he, with his family, returned to 
Decatur, he having married in the meantime an estimable widow 
lady who resided near Decatur, with four children, who is now 
dead; also three of the four children. One survives them all, 
Mrs. Alary Eley, now residing in Decatur. In the year 1853, 
father was elected County Clerk and served two terms or eight 
years. In the year 1868 he left Adams County and emigrated to 
California. There he met with business reverses and disappoint- 
ments, and soon returned to his old home, Decatur, and remained 
v.-ith us until 1873, when he left us and returned to his native state, 
North Carolina; from there to Tennessee. He made that his 
home until his death at the age of nearly 80 years, and was burietl 
on his own plantation in Jackson County, Tennessee. 

To write a history of a fellow's own life is a prettv hard task, 
as there are so many thoughts, all conglomerated. Yet I will 
pen those that will be interesting to myself and family and a few 
others who may scan this that will recollect the transactions. A 
full history of my career, cither private or public, would be a novel 
therefore I shall not enumerate all the events of my life. The 
first distinct recollection of this turbulent world was when I wore 
a little red cape and shoes and scarlet dress. Red seemed to be 
the color of the southern people. Yet I did not eminate from ( ireat 
Britain (directly. The next recollection was when I saw the first 
Indian, which I feared then, and even now. I remember my 
mother breaking flax and sjiinning it, the tow pants ] wore, the 
knit suspenders, the red top boots; and I'll never forget the willow 
switch slie wielded on my tow covered back for my unfaithfulness. 
The many times I accompanied mother to the huckle and cran- 
berry patches, where now stands the best business part of Colum- 
bia City. I well remember the log cuttings and rollings there, 
the majority of the help being Indians, On these occasions 
there were no jangling, fighting or getting drunk, as I have wit- 
nessed in lat'-r -b\^ rini.ino- ili,,v,. tliat were considered civili/rd 


christians. The first school I ever attended was in an old log 
house at Columbia City. The school was taught by James H. 
Smith, known as "Dandy Jim." He followed us to Adams 
County and taught school in Decatur, where I also attended. The 
next important recollection I have of this mundane sphere was 
when we were on our road moving to Decatur from Columbia 
City. We stayed all night at Fort Wayne. I discovered a crowd 
of boys and men on the street, listening to the music of the fife 
and drum. I went to the crowd, and had not been there but a few 
minutes when I was surrounded by a crowd of boys. I seemed 
to be a curiosity, and I concluded at once that I would soon have 
to fight or run, and it was for life or a licking. I concluded to run 
— I run. The camping out on the road to Decatur was Gypsy 
like, but we were compelled to do so, and were several days on 
the road before we reached our destination, where we landed 
about noon, and anchored on the lot now the southeast corner of 
Third and Monroe streets . We remained there until we moved 
to the jail house, (I mean the sheriff's residence). 

My acquaintance with the populace of our adopted town grew 
rapidly, especially with the boys and girls of the village. The 
first boy I became acquainted with was DeWitt C. Rugg, a youth 
near my own age. My mother sent to a well near by for a 
bucket of water. There I met young Rugg holding a large 
gourd dipper. He remarked to me: "Say, boy, how would you 
like to be baptized?" At the same time and moment he dashed 
the contents of the dipper on my frame. I concluded I was about 
drowned. When I recovered from the shock an engagement 
ensued with fists, stones and clubs. When the smoke of the 
battle had cleared away, we discovered our faces were bloody and 
scratched. My new calico vest was in shreds. I found also a 
knot on my cranium, made by a blow from the old gourd dipper. 
Of course the dipper was ruined. That scrap made us fast friends 
unto iianhood. Another little incident occurred when I was a 
sprightly youth. The Smith, alias "Dandy Jim," referred to 
above, was teaching school. All the village youngsters attended 
said school, including myself and one Susanah McLeod. that was 
my spouse, and of course I paid my honors to her during school 
hours. We would write small thumb paper letters and pass them 
to each other. The teacher secured one of the cupid letters. He 
called me upon the floor, also the young damsel in question, and 
related to us that our courtship had went on long enough, and 
we must be married. He ordered us to catch hands, which was 
done with fear and trembling. The said "Dandy Jim" went 
through a pow-wow and pronounced us man and wife. The 
school generally concluded that we were married in fact. In the 


evening of that day the boys and young men of the village 
marshalled with all the old tin pans, horns, &c., and visited our 
homes and belled us completely. The grown brothers of my 
Susanah were awaiting the coming of the mob, and at last they 
reached the home of the girl, when the brothers used their whips 
to a good purpose, and some of the boys remembers w^ell the time 
yet, as they did not attend school next day. That act of the 
teacher caused the school to dwindle away, and he had to hunt 
other quarters. Whether the person, Susanah, is living I cannot 

The following occurrence will be remembered by some of the 
readers of this sketch. About the time the declaration of war 
was made against Mexico (perhaps 1847) one Andrew Lucky, a 
young single man, was teaching school in the Court House in 
Decatur. Of course, all the village children attended. The his- 
tory class was out on the floor in Hne, reciting, when a knock was 
heard at the door. The teacher responded by opening the door. 
There stood before him and the school his best friend and chum, 
Joseph Reynolds, and a recruiting officer in his military clothes. 
They invited Mr. Luckey, our teacher, to volunteer. Mr. Rey- 
nolds remarked he would volunteer also. Without hesitating a 
moment both subscribed their names and was sworn in, in the 
presence of the school. He dismissed the school, and bidding the 
scholars a good-bye, w'ith tears rolling down his manly cheeks. 
That teacher's good-bye still rings in my ears, for it was the last 
god-bye he ever proclaimed to us. The two brave and patriotic 
young men never returned; they fell victims to disease on the 
Gulf of Mexico and were buried in its waters. 

Somewhere about the year 1848 the court docket will show 
that a most horrible murder was committed in Decatur, it being 
the most outrageous act ever committed in the county up to that 
time, and was a great sensation among the pioneers. A young 
gentleman (for sucli he was) and, by the way, a prosperous mer- 
chant in our village by the name of Hugh Muldoon, with no bad 
habits, was courting and paying his attentions to a Miss Mary 
Foetick, who was living with her parents. She was a beutiful 
young lady and accomplished. John Foetick, a brother of the 
said Mary, seriously objected to their wooing. Soon the young 
couple were engaged to be married, the day fixed and arrived. 
The invited guests were on hand. The said brother. John, heard 
what was going to transpire. He approached Mr. Muldoon, the 
intended groom, and frankly told him if he (Muldoon attempted 
to marry his sister Mary, he would kill him. Mr. Muldoon paid 
no attention to the threat. The party was in waiting for more 
guests to arrive at her parents' liome. At last the fatal moment 


came. The pastor asked the young people to stand and join 
hands. As they arose and joined hands before those good, 
honest, unsuspecting friends and neighbors of the village, the 
cowardly assassin rushed in the room and pulling a single-barreled 
pistol, stuck the gun to the breast of the defenceless man and 
fired, the ball penetrating the breast. The murdered man sprang 
upon young Foestick and weighed him down to the floor with a 
death grip about his neck and would have choked him to death in 
a moment had not Jacob King and my father interfered and took 
Muldooon ofif. The murdered man raised to his feet and sprang 
through a window. He ran across the lot, striking a fence and 
fell dead. It was supposed he was unconscious the moment he 
was shot. Foetick gave himself up to the sheriff, was imprisoned 
and tried by a jury of pioneers of Adams County, and set at 
liberty. Mr. Foetick left the country and never returned but 
once since. 

You can imagine, dear reader, what jolly times us little ones 
had away back half a century ago at Christmas and New Year time 
going from house to house and scaling logs, dodging under 
brush and bushes, that stood in our paths. Our mothers were as 
jubilant as the children those days. The cakes, pies and krulls 
wxre baked and served to those who called to pass the Christmas 
or New Years greeting. One little incident occurred that will 
never be forgotten by many who have heard the story. John and 
David King and myself were on our usual rounds one Christmas 
morning, the mud was about as deep as it could get those days, 
that winter being an open winter. We called upon one Doctor 
Little. The doctor was in bed, but responded to our call. He 
told us he had got us presents, but they were in his office (which 
said of^ce stood about 20 feet away from his residence. He came 
out in his night clothes, which made him look little like a corpse. 
We were in dread and fear of him at any rate, for he naturally 
looked hideous, but we followed him to his ofBce and we went in 
the oflfice. The doctor locked the door, which added ten-fold 
more fear. Our minds began to reconoite to know what would 
become of us. He ghost-like w-alked across the room, got a 
board and reached after and picked up a large knife, which I 
supposed to be a butcher's knife. He threw the board across his 
white skeleton legs and began to whet the supposed knife across 
the board, and looking up at us with a demonical look and re- 
marked: "This Christmas morn is your last begging, for you 
will have to die, every damn one of you." The only exit to any 
advantage was a small window in the rear of the office. As for 
myself I did not await to hear the word "die" completely finished. 
I landed below in the mud, sash and all, and David King followed, 


lighting on me and almost burying me in the mud, leaving John 
in the hands of the doctor to be carved, but by pleadings of the 
most piteous was spared and was released at the door. That 
settled the Christmas fun of that day. I feared the doctor so long 
as he remained in Decatur, and us boys rejoiced when he gave 
Decatur adieu. 

The natives of the village were always anxious to hear news, 
and delighted when a little puppet show came along to be ex- 
hibited in tiie Court House. Everybody that could raise a dime 
attended the first circus that ever struck Decatur. I think it was 
the Robi^on sliov.-. that came in wagons and pitched their small 
tent on the lot next to the Burt house, east. Their prices were 
above a dime, and we boys were not familiar with such prices, 
conse(iuently we started a peep show outside the canvass. 
Occasionally a boy would raise the canvass and pop in. but would 
be popped out, then the stones would fly; as we called it, we 
peppered the show. 

Jacob Closs was a shoemaker, and us boys would bother him 
a great deal, but invariably he would catch us and give us strap 
oil until we would dance with rage. I remember well when John 
King and myself visited another old shoemaker named Philer. 
He locked us up in a room and made us eat raw potatoes for 
dinner and afterwards gave us bompus with his knee strap. 
(Bompus was a licking. He called it bompus. 

The first steam works we got in Adams County was a steam 
saw mill, brought to Decatur by Samuel L. Rugg, the founder of 
Decatur, to saw plank for a plank road to be built from Fort 
Wayne to St. Marys, Ohio, through Decatur. The mill was 
located on the St. Mary's river southeast of the Court House, 
where Si Hammel's mill is located, and near the C. & E. R. R. 
bridge. There was one Johnson, a mill wright by trade, came 
along to finish the mill and he told the people of the many acci- 
dents and blow-ups which were caused by steam power that 
caused all the people to fear the business. The children were all 
warned to keep away. There were no visitors to bother the 
workmen on account of the danger. At last the mill was ready 
to start up, the log yard was jammed full of fine oak logs, the 
building was up and all the steam works to their proper places. 
Mr. Rugg concluded to have a jubilee and invited the people far 
and near to come and witness the greatest curiosity of their lives, 
assuring the people of no danger. The day arrived and with it 
the people from afar. They came in every conceivable way to get 
there. The building was a large two story frame with 4x4 girders 
running around the entire building about 4 feet from the ground. 


The siding was not nailed on yet, consequently the girders were 
fine seats for men and boys, which was filled all around. The 
population of Decatur ventured to see the fun. Ladies and 
gentlemen, with their children, and the elderly people occupied 
the log yard, as they feared to venture closer. Everybody await- 
ing anxiously to see the thing go. Steam was up, fizzing and 
fretting, occasionally the engineer would touch a small steam 
gage, when there would be a scream from some woman, perhaps 
a dozen or more. A thought struck the engineer that there was 
fun ahead, and he took the poker and raised the safety valve and 
let her off. There never was such a stampede in our day as was 
exhibited there. Women fainted and some screamed, ran and fell 
over everything. Men did not wait to see if anybody was killed. 
The girders were empty in a jiffy. Clothing were left upon the 
stumps, logs and bushes. Horses ran away, causing havoc 
among the natives. All I can remember of it was that infernal 
blast. I found myself about two hundred yards from the blow-off 
and seeing old man Elefritz whiz past me like a meteor, and likely 
is running yet. I had crossed a creek near by and after I came too 
I was a walking mud boy. One Hobart Scott, a young man then, 
jumped in the river and dove down and across the river, a dozen 
following. ]\Iy mother tore her fine calico dress in fragments 
getting away, and father lost his fine plug hat. At intervals the 
engineed would cause a blast from the cussed thing. There was 
not a female soul within half a mile of it. The people talked of 
killing that engineer, but better heads pursuaded the people to 
drop it. as he meant only fun. 

( )h, carry me back to the scenes of my boyhood days. I 
now often meet old playmates of our boyhood days and we refer 
back to some sport we had and talk of our youthful frolics when 
the rosy blush of life was upon us and the world was bright and 
beautiful, when we had great expectations of still happier days to 
come, but the\- never came and now it is a sweet thought, though 
sad cosolation to let memory go back and for a time refresh us 
with the j:)leasures that never will return. 

I was about 14 years old when I went to learn the printing 
trade. I went to work in the only printing office in Adams 
County. Joshua R. Randell was publishing a newspaper called 
the Decatur Gazette, a whig paper. I remained in the ofiicc 
nearly two years, when Mr, John Peterson (father of Lawyer 
Smith Peterson, now of Decatur) bought the outfit. I had ac- 
quired the printing business sufificient to manage the business with 
a little assistance. I induced my father to purchase the office, 
which changed the political aspect, and we have the honor of 


publishing the first Democratic newspaper in the County, called 
the Adams County "Democrat." I worked in the office until 
my mother died. I taught school until the year 1856, then I 
went to Portland and hired with Mr. John Hoover, who was then 
publishing the Portland Journal. I remained w-ith him one 
summer. Also w^orked a short time in the Liber Lamp office at 
Liber college, two miles south of Portland. My associations 
with Hon. David Baker, John Hawkins and Hon. John Peter 
Clever Shanks while in Portland were very pleasant. Also many 
others will remember the many gum sucks, play parties we had. 
The following winter I returned home and worked in the printing 
office until the fall of 1857. I secured a license to teach school 
and taught a three months' term in Wabash Township, called the 
Meyers school, on the old mud pike, receiving $40 for the term 
and paying $;[2 board, price of board in proportion to wages. 
After school term I returned to Decatur and commenced the study 
of law with Hon. David Studabaker, remaining at my studies until 
I was compelled to abandon them on account of bronchitis. I 
was admitted to the bar to practice law in 1858, of w^hich I had a 
large amount, as the court docket will show. In the spring of 
i860 I began the study of dentistry, and finished the profession 
with Dr. Isaac Knapp, at Fort Wayne. I returned to Decatur 
and practiced dentistry successfully for five years. On the 24th 
day of December, i860, I married Mrs. Mary A. Pierce, of 
Decatur. Our marriage relations were very pleasant and pro- 
fitable for twelve years, when she died of consumption after an 
illness of about two years. She was a faithful member of the First 
M. E. church, also one of the first members of Olive Lodge, 
Rebeckah Degree of Odd Fellows. She was also a milliner and 
carried on an extensive business. I added to her stock nearly 
three thousand dollars by buying out another dry goods estab- 
lishment and we ran the business until her death. I sold the store 
and invested my means in speculations that proved worthless. I 
was elected Recorder of Adams County in 1866, served four 
years. I joined the Odd Fellows in the year 1863, and when the 
Knights of Pythias was first organized in Decatur I became a 
member and remained with both orders until I moved to Monroe, 
in 1878. I have ever cherished the principles of the two orders, 
and ever shall. The latch string upon my doors are ever out to 
receive an honorable Odd Fellow and Knight. I was commis- 
sioned as the first notary public in Adams County in 1858, and 
also serv'ed as Town Clerk several terms after Decatur w-as first 
incorporated. The many ups and downs from boyhood to man- 
hood were varied and many. Pleasures and displeasures untold. 


I will never forget the beautiful pike and bass fish we used to catch 
in the river. The gams of town ball, bull pen, hat ball, tag, hide 
go seek, were our merriest times, the sapplings we cut down, the 
log and brush heaps and stumps we burned at night and day, 
where now stands the finest buildings in the city, and all the re- 
numeration we received was out living, clothing and rosy cheeks, 
for w'hich I congratulate dame nature to this day. I remember 
climbing the little elm tree (now the beautiful large one that 
stands near the Court yard) when it was but a small shade tree. 
That tree ought to stand there as a memonto so long as natre will 
permit. It is the only monument of away back that has stood 
the tempests of the element for over sixtyyears, and when we look 
upon that old elm tree and behold its foliage we ought to thank 
and think of the founder, S. L. Rugg, of this beautiful growing 
city, (Decatur, and right here I will say that there ought to be a 
statue of Samuel L. Rugg, the founder of Decatur, sitting in the 
Court House square, he being the doner of the lot and square 
for the purpose it is used. The citizens of Adams Comity owes it 
to his memory. 

The young people of our day were not classified as now. the 
boys and girls were friendly, sociable and we all joined hands in 
the ring round Rosy, also with the ball and bat the girls were our 
equals and possessed good manners and breeding. Our mothers 
would attend quilting parties, wool pickings and aid each other 
in cooking for the log rollers and all other hard tasks that often 
happened in those pioneer days. The log cabins, with a coon 
skin or a deer skin tacked up against the outside walls, was a 
palace, and within the walls were friendly, honest and kind hearted 

There are but few of the boys and girls of long ago. Many 
have passed over the river, and what are left are getting old, and 
soon they too will hand in their checks. 

In the year 1874 I was united in marriage with Miss Ada 
Hendricks, of Adams County, to whom four children were born, 
one boy and three girls. Charles M. is 20 years old, Grace and 
Iv>' (twins are 18 years old, and were born in Decatur; Catherine 
Elizabeth, the baby, is now 15 years old, and was born in Monroe, 
our present place of living. I moved from Decatur to Monroe in 
the fall of 1878. Since that time I have been engaged in the 
drug and dry goods business. I invested in the mill and factory 
business, which proved a failure, and at present am acting as 
Justice of the Peace for Monroe Township. Yet with all this 
and a good comfortable home in Monroe, with no malice to any- 


one, I and my family will never forsake nor forget Decatur and its 

I can see what ravages and changes time has made. Let 
U9 look upon the city of Decatur, let what we see testify. A 
beautiful and growing city lies before us, the pioneers who 
watched it in infancy and planted deep and sure the foundations of 
its present growth and prosperitv. have nearlv all passed away. 

Monroe, Ind., June 2, 1896.' ' M. V. B. S. 




D. C. INIathias Miller, Sr.. was born June 28th, 182 1, in the 
Province of Rhine, Prussia. My mother died when I was seven 
years old and father died when I was fourteen years old. In the 
year 1838 I learned the turner and chair making trade and worked 
steady on the trade till 1840, after which I left my home and 
started for America, on October 12th. I left Haver with the 
United States ship Tallahasse for New Orleans, La., and arrived 
there on December ist, 1840. There was a great time there that 
day I arrived. Everybody was hurrahing for Tip and Taylor. 
I was very much pleased with the city of New Orleans. I never 
saw so many oranges and lemons before nor ever afterwards. A 
person would think they were in Paradise seeing such beautiful 
fruit. Well, after taking the sights in at New Orleans, the next 
day I took a steam boat for JMadison, Indiana. It took thirteen 
days to come to Madison, Ind., from New Orleans, La., and the 
fare was very cheap, which was only $4.00 for a thirteen days' 
ride. Then from Madison, Ind., to Decatur, Ind., I traveled afoot 
through snow, mud and bad roads. It took me seven days to reach 
Decatur. The journey was awful hard, for I was a green Dutch 
man: nevertheless I was not in the least discouraged, for the peo- 
ple were very sociable and kind to me, which pleased me very 
much. I had plenty of money and therefore I had the best of 
board, but when I came to settle my board bill up and they refused 
to take any pay you may believe I never offered the second. I 
thought to myself, so much the more in my pocket-book, and I 
thought they must have pitied me then when I wanted to pay 
them I would show my pocket-book, for it would be no use to 
talk to them, for they could not understand German, and they 
would answer by shaking their head no, and saying nicks, nicks. 


Many a time I tliink about this and must laugh over it. I know 
if I coukl talk English I could get acquainted with the girls very 
easy. The places where I remained over night the girls would 
not leave me go to bed unless they would say Dutchman sing 
Dutch, and you may believe 1 gave them a song in Dutch that 
was clear out of sight. The songs I still remember and think I 
will as long as I live. That was the only English I could under- 
stand when the girls said Dutch sing Dutch, so therefore I will 
never forget those English words. When I arrived at Decatur 
I found Brother John and Sister Margaret here. There were 
very few inhabitants here at that time. Mr. Samuel L. Rugg, Mr. 
Reynolds, Mr. John Closs, Mr. James Niblick, Samuel Patterson, 
James Patterson, Nicholas Fitick, Frederick Tyler, Harry Scott, 
John Lahr, Jacob Huffer, William and Front are the names of 
whom I can remember when I came to Decatur. There was a 
frame Court House and a log jail here at that time. The names 
of the officers at that time were Samuel L. Rugg, Postmaster 
George A. Dent. Jacharia Smith and Mr. Randell. I don't re- 
member all their names. At that time there were three judges 
whose names were Cillgore, Evans and Elzie. Lawyers came 
from a far distance to attend to court on horseback. The people 
don't need to complain now that live here at the present time. 
Everything is improved wonderfully since I came, but it was a 
hard-looking place when I came first, but I was well pleased any 
way and am better satisfied now. I left Decatur in 1842 and went 
to Ohio to work on the canal, where Spencerville and De^phos 
stands now, which was all a wilderness at that time. Also worked 
on the canal between Fort Wayne and Fort Defiance, Ohio, in 
1844. I went to Monroeville, Huron County, (^hio, and drove 
team until 1851. From there I went to Europe. I left New York 
April 9th, 1 85 1, and arrived at Haver in France after a voyage on 
the sea of twent-two days. From there I went to my native 
home, which took me two days. After remaining for months I 
returned to my adopted country on September 14th, 1851. I 
could not get married there because I had lost my rights, as I 
was considered an American citizen, so I got angry and she and I 
(my best girl) left for America and arrived in New York October 
nth, 1851. Her parents were perfectly willing for us to be mar- 
ried, so we got married in New York on October 13th, 1851, in 
the Catholic church without the civil laws of Prussia. We did 
not run there to ask every Tom, Dick and Harry In order to get 
married in New "S'ork. Soon after I wrote to the old country that 
my wife was Americanized and lived in a free country. After our 
marriage the next day we started for Decatur, but not afoot, and 


moved on our farm three miles south of town. We lived there 
until March, 1853. From there we moved to Monroeville. Ohio. 
There I was at my old place again and remained there until the 
spring- of 1857. and then returned to our farm again in Decatur, 
Ind. I enlisted in the United States army August 15th, 1862, for 
three years or until discharged, in Company R, Regiment 89, 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry. I was in the battle of Mompford- 
ville, Ky., September 14th and 16th, 1862. I stood guard during 
that battle; also was in the battle of Fort De Russa, Louisana; also 
the battle of Pleasant Hill, La., on April 9th, 1864, where I was 
severely wounded and was sent to Jackson barracks hospital, near 
New Orlean, Louisana. Was in the hospital about two weeks 
and afterwards they sent me to Memphis, Tenn, in the Overton 
hospital. Was kept there till August 15th, 1864, then was sent 
to Jefferson barracks. Mo. The} kept me there and then dis- 
charged me December 19th, 1864, on account of a gun shot 
wound in the left shoulder and the loss of the use of my left arm, 
received in the battle of Pleasant Hill. La. After my discharge I 
went home and found my wife and five little children all well. A 
few days after I got home was Christmas and it was a very happy 
one. When the paymaster paid me in St. Louis, Mo., he asked 
me what kind of a road there was from Fort Wayne to Decatur. 
I told him a mud road. He wanted to know if there was an 
omnibus running there, but I did not know for I was afraid and 
had to foot it again like I often did before, but I liad good luck 
and got a ride from Mr. August LaBrun from French Township 
in Fort Wayne, and he gave me a ride in his wagon. So this is 
all I can write for I am 75 years old. If 1 was younger I could 
write more, and another thing, I never went to an English school 
so therefore it is hard work for me and my spelling needs cor- 

Decatur. Ind. MR. MATHIAS MILLER. Sen. 



Mrs. L. P. Ferry, daughter of L. T. Bourie, possibly one of 
the very first traders and merchants in this vicinity, was present 
at the meeting this morning. Mrs. Ferry drew a pen picture of 
early Fort Wayne, which her grand-daughter, Miss Minnie Orvis, 
read as follows: 

My father, Louis T. Bourie, whose life will be spoken of in 
this meeting by one of his descendants, came to Fort Wayne from 
Detroit in 1762 as an Indian trader and interpreter, built a house 
and store near the English fort. This fort was located on the 
south bank of the St. Mary's river by Captain D'\'incennes, 
founder of Vincennes, Ind. Gen. Wayne traced this fort in 1794- 
My parents were warm personal friends of both General Wayne 
and Harrison. My father, after his house was completed, 
brought his family to Fort Wayne to live. There were only two 
houses besides his own. They returned to Detroit in 1814. When 
I was three months old we returned to Fort Wayne, down the 
river in a peroque — a boat hewn from a large log and propelled by 
paddles. The boat was large enough to hold trunks, bedding, 
provisions and passengers. When we arrived* there we found 
our house had been destroyed by fire, so we lived in the fort until 
it was rc-built. The house w-as located on what is now the present 
site of Columbia street, between Clinton and Barr streets. I first 
went to school in the fort about the year 1822. Mf teacher l)eing 
a Baptist missionary named McCoy. I next went to scliool in the 
council house. In this room was a long row of cupboards where 
the tobacco supplies were kept. When the boys were unruly the 
schoolmaster would shut them up in ^hese cupboards until they 
would almost suflfocate. The girls in those days never required 
punishment. I next went to school in the jail (the present site of 


the court house) until a brick school could be completed whicli 
wes being erected where the jail now stands. This old jail was 
built of logs and was divided into two rooms, an upper and lower. 
The lower room was used for criminals, and the upper, where we 
studied, was used for prisoners of debt. People at that itme were 
incarcerated for debt. One man named Alexander, was im- 
prisoned quite frequently, but by some means escaped as soon as 
he was put in. It was finally discovered that by putting his 
shoulder under a log he could crawl out. After my return from 
school in Detroit I met my husband, Lucian P. Ferry, a young 
lawyer, and in August, 1831, we were married. I cooked my first 
meal in a fireplace ten feet long, as in those days cook stoves were 
an unknown luxury in this part of the country, as there was no 
way of bringing them here. In 1836 my husband bought me the 
first cook stove ever brought to Fort Wayne. 

A family traveling through by wagon stopped in Mr. Ferry's 
office and offered to sell it. It proved a great curiosity, as people 
came from miles around to see the "saddle bags," as they termed 
it, because of the manner in which it was built, having a hole on 
each side and an oven built underneath. 

The only means of travel was on horseback or by water. 
You may like to hear something of social life in those days. While 
we lived in a primative \N^y, we did not dress in primative style. 
Life was very gay, as the garrison was filled with officers and 
their wives from eastern cities, and many parties were given which 
were equal in elegance to the parties of to-day. After the officers 
left other people came in to take their places. 

The ladies' dresses were rich brocaded silks, satins and 
canton crepes, bcKlices cut decolktte and sleeveless. Men wore 
the dress suit of to-day with the exception of satin vests, ruffled 
shirts of linen cambric and silk or satin stock. For general use 
the satin vest was worn, but for traveling wore black broadcloth. 

Provisions were brought in covered wagons from Piqua. 
The Indians loved wild fruits, and in this region, on the present 
site of the Pittsburg depot, there was an abundance of straw- 
berries, wild plums and other fruits. The Indians were accus- 
tomed to cherish the belief that for them the Great Spirit had 
especially caused these to come forth and ripen each season, and 
every specie of food from the roots, vegetables and fpuits io the 
animals themselves were alike considered as imbued with the 
same peculiar principle, in which the Great Spirit had infused 
some special element of excellence intended to impart to the red 
man both health and strength. Here more especially the black- 
berry was most abundant, and from this fact this point was long 


known to the Indians as Ke-ki-on-ga, signifying "blackberry 
patch." Chas. B. LaSalle says Ke-ki-on-ga passed among the 
Miamis as a symbol of antiquity. But whether this name was 
given on account of the spot being covered with blackberry or 
meant to represent it as the most ancient village of their race in 
this country is not known to tradation. Thus unusual regard for 
the place and the tenacity with which they so long defended it 
would imply the latter supposition. 

I have seen Fort Wayne grow from a hamlet to the city it 
now is, and I have the privilege of being the oldest settler in Fort 

At the conclusion of these reminiscences Mrs. Ferry bowed 
to the audience as the meeting was brought to a close. 




Who hasn't a curiosity to know of the beginning? 

The beginning is the theme of the naturaHst, the scientist and 
the theologist, aHke. In the beginning "the evening and the 
morning were the first day." In the beginning of the state, the 
first settler, the first marriage, the first binh, the first death, the 
first church and first school are each and all items sought out and 
recorded by the historian. People usually take some interest in 
the beginnings, that promote their happiness or contribute to the 
record of development and growth of institutions with which they 
may have been related. The theme of this sketch shall have re- 
ferenc to a few of the hardy pioneers who heeeded the timely 
advice of Horace Greeley, who said: "Go west, young man; go 
west and grow up with the country." When this advice was 
given, the Mississippi valley was a wilderness, with but a few trad- 
ing posts west of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. But as Kingley says: 
"Westward, the Empire takes its way." So with the Snows. When 
it first snowed is yet an enigma. Perhaps away back in merry 
England ere the "War of the oses," or previous to the time when 
Henry VIII. discovered a "pang of conscience" in living wtih his 
deceased brother's wife, Catherine, while the beautiful Anna 
Boleyn, w?as in sight and unmarried. 

We are told that the doubtful things in history are very un- 
certain; yet, in the history of Plymouth, written by one of Harv- 
ard's "sages," we find that "Nicholas, Anthony and William 
Snow, came over early from England. Tlie two former brought 
fan>ilies;the later was an apprentice and settled in Doxbury. 
Anthony was first at Plymouth; then, in 1642, at Marshfield. 
Nicholas, who came in the "Ann," in 1623, had a share in the 
division of the land at Plymouth, settled in Eastham." 


From the above bit of history we infer that it snowed early 
in the New England colonies. The true delineator of New- York 
life in the days of Detrich Nickerbocker — the inimitable Washing- 
ton Irving — in his history of the Empire state, illuminates many 
ridiculous and peculiar features of the Dutch and names many 
customs of interest, but fails to tell us when it first snowed at 
Auburn. Buel also omits an account of the first snow squall in 
St. Louis. Both of these cities are well represented with the 
name Snow. At the close of the Revolution several families of 
Snows settled in West Moreland County, Pennsylvania, near the 
town of Chester. A James Snow there married an Irish lady by 
the name of Eleanor Tate, and perhaps as early as 1812, came 
west to Upper Sandusky, Ohio. In 1833, or near that date, they 
settled near Defiance, and in 1837 moved to Jackon Township, 
Jay County, Indiana. From that date frequent Snow squalls 
were heard in Jay and Adams Counties 

Of James Snow's family there were nine boys and one girl, 
six of whom lived to adult age. William moved to Illinios and 
died in 1883. James B. and Barton B. last resided in Adams 
County. The former died in 1876 and the later in 1875. -^ g'^'^y 
granite monument in the Bloomfield cemetery — Jay County — 
marks the resting place of a majority of the pioneer Snow family. 
Of James li. Snow's family but he is married and lives near 
Geneva. Indiana. His wife was a Miss Mary . Vance, the daugh- 
ter of one of the pioneers of Adams County. They are the parents 
of two little girls — Gracie and Bertha Snow. The wife of Barton 
B. Snow was ]\Iiss Rebecca H. McDonald, a lady of Scotch-Irish 
descent, whose parents formerly resided in Cumberland County, 
Ohio. Of the nine children born to them but three survive, 
Loretta G., Ada V. and John F., the later of whom is married. 
He married a Miss Sadie A. Hoskinson, a lady of Virginian an- 
cestry who formerly resided near Newark, Ohio. They are the 
parents of two sons, Horace H. and Eral E.. who are respectively 
nine and thirteen years of age. 

Of James Snow's family two sons, James B. and Barton B.. 
were doctors. The former graduated from Jefferson Medical 
College at Philadelphia, and the later from Louisville Medical 
College. Kentucky. 

Of Barton B. Snow's family — five — two sons and three 
daughters, grew to maturity, and all were teachers in the public 

From the American School Board Journal, of Chicago, for 
April. 1892. we clip the following sketch: 

"The subject of this sketch. John F. Snow, was born in Port- 


land, Ind., June 17th, 1854. His mother, Rebecca H. McDonald, 
was of Scotch-Irish parentage. Burton B. Snow, M. D., his 
father, was a descendant of Puritan residents of Boston, Mass. 
He received his first ideas of education from his mother, who was 
a teacher. His early "years were devoted to agricultural pursuits 
and attendance at the district schools until the age of eighteen, 
at which time he entered Ridgeville College. Ill-health and the 
death of his parents greatly retarded his educational progress. 
After ten years devoted to the work of student and teacher in 
the various grades, from the district schools to the Normal and 
high school, he attained the degree of Bachelor of Science. 

In 1833 he was chosen County Superintendent of Adams 
County, Ind., and has since been four times re-elected to the same 
position. As member of the Indiana County Superintendent's 
Association he has served on various educational connnittees, 
and in 1890 was chosen president of the Association. 

In politices he is a Democrat, and has at various times re- 
presented his party in county and state conventions. 

Being possessed of ample energy and indomitable will- 
power, his undertakings are usually crowned with a merited de- 
gree of success." 



Jacob Closs, Sr.. one of the pioneers of Adams County, was 
born in Mar Dinger, Prussia (Germany) in 1827, wkose parents 
were John and Catherine (Longerdiffer) Closs, who were among 
the early settlers of Adams County. In 1834 the parents emi- 
grated to America, settling in Maumee City, Ohio, where they 
engaged in farming until 1838, when they moved to Adain> 
County, Indiana, a distance of about one hundred miles. 

The subject of this sketch then being eleven years old he 
walked the entire distance and drove eight head of cattle, arriving 
here January ist. 1839. The parents lived on the Zimmerman 
farm, east of Decatur, until 1840, when they moved on their own 
land, one mile and a half west of Decatur, and lived there one year, 
w hen they moved to the town of Decatur, being composed of four 
families. The nearest trading points at that time being Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, and Piqua, Ohio, to which latter place the 
early settlers were compelled to go to get their groceries. It 
would take two weeks at that time to make the trip to Piqua 
and return, as they had to go through the Black Swamps and 
were comi)elled to stay three nights at one tavern in the swamps, 
being unable to make more than one mile a day while crossing 
the swamps on account of the condition of the roads. The first 
stage-coach between Fort Wayne and Piqua was driven over the 
route about 1846, which carried mail and passengers and was 
drawn b\- four horses. When they reached the Black Swamps 
the male passengers were compelled to walk, each one carrying 
a pole in order that they might l)e able to pry up the coach, which 
was often nccesary while crossing the same. In 1843 the sub- 
ject of this sketch being then 16 years old, carried fifty pounds 


of flour from Pleasant Mills, a small town on the banks of the St. 
Marys River, five miles southeast of Decatur, to this city. The 
next day after arriving from Pleasant Mills with the flour his 
father gave him fifty cents and told him to go to Fort Wayne 
and look for work, at which place he secured work for three days 
at thirty-seven cents a day. The next job of work was secured 
after a lapse of three days, at which time he had but six cents in 
money, and that not being sufficient to enable him to stay all night 
at a hotel, he was compelled to sleep in the ashry, taking his six 
cents the next morning to buy a loaf of bread, which lasted him 
one day. Being then out of money he went to the nearest store 
keeper and purchased a bag on time and started for the cranberry 
marsh. The first day he stood in water eight inches deep and 
picked one bushel of cranberries, which he sold to the store- 
keeper that eening for seventy-five cents; returning next morning 
and picking another bushel which he sold that evening at the 
same price. The next job was working on a canal boat at ten 
dollars per month, payable in goodsi, after which he hired out to 
drive horses to a packet boat for ten dollars per month, but at 
the end of the month received but twenty-five cents and was left 
stranded eighteen miles from Fort Wayne. He then walked to 
P'ort Wayne and worked two weeks for a man who promised to 
pay him fifty cents a day, but who, at the end of that time, refused 
to pay him anything, after which he returned to his home in 
Decatur. Shortly after his return home there was a circus in 
Fort Wayne, to which place he and his sister Catherine, now the 
widow of Jesse Xiblick, deceased, walked to see the same, return- 
ing on the following day. 

After remaining at home a few days he and his brother, 
Motts, erected a hotel building on the ground now occupied by 
the Old Adams County Bank, which building is now situated by 
the river bridge at the east end of Monroe street. At the time 
the building was erected there was no saw mills in the country 
and they were compelled to split the lath and shingles tliemselves. 
The household furniture in those days was composed of a few 
three-legged stools without backs, a broad puncheon for a table, 
and bed-steads to match. Tlie cupboard was made by boring 
holes in the wall into which was driven pins and clapboards laid 
lengthwise across the pins; the wash basin was an ordinary sugar 
trough, which , for convenience, was always left outside the house. 
A kitchen clock sold for one thousand pounds of bacon. 

The parents of Mr. Closs had six children, John, ]Motts, 
Catherin, William, Mary and Jacob, of which only two, Jacob 
and Catherine, are now living. Mr. Closs learned the shoemaker 


trade by working nights, which trade he followed until 1848, 
when he and his brother-in-law, Jesse Niblick, engaged in the 
boot and shoe business, which business he followed until 1874, 
when he sold out and engaged in the grocery business, which busi- 
ness he followed for nine years, after which he engaged in the 
jewelry business, which business he is engaged in at the present 

Mr. Closs was married to Catherine Spuller, October 18th, 
1855, at the St. Mary's church at Fort Wayne, Indiana, by Rev. 
Father Edward Fowler. Mrs. Closs was born August 23rd, 1835. 
Her parents were natives of Richland County, Ohio, who emi- 
grated to Adams County in 1838. Two children have been born 
to Mr. and ]\Irs. Closs, Jacob, Jr., of the firm of J. Closs & Son, 
Jewelers, and Mary, owner and manager of one of the finest 
millinary stores and ice cream parlors in the city of Decatur. 

The family are all members of the St. Mary's Catholic 



At the earnest request of a friend I am asked to pen a few of 
the many reminicences of bygone days spent in Indiana. 

In the fall of 1864 my wife and I and one child emigrated 
from Hocking County, (Jhio, in a two-horse wagon with our 
household effects to Indiana. On the evening of the loth of 
September. 1864. we drew up in front of Daniel Weldy's house, 
in Kirkland Township, Adams County. Ind. Some two weeks 
later we moved into a log house two mils west of Decatur, on the 
Fitzgerald farm. In November I was employed to teach the 
Beach Grove school in Kirkland Township, seven miles west of 
Decatur, where I spent the winter. The old log school house 
situated at a cross-road in the forrest, at that time presented a 
rather wild appearance at its surroundings. From where I lived, 
on the Bob Niblick farm, to the school house a distance of one 
mile through the woods, was the grand crossing for deer, wild 
turkey, coons, opussums and the porcupine, all of which 1 often 
got sight of in the spring of 1865. With the mud fourteen inches 
deep, with my few household effects it took a four-horse team to 
haul what little we had at that time to Pleasant Mills, in St. Mary's 
Township, where we remained until the following September, 
when we moved to Decatur. At this time it was not an infre- 
quent occurrence to see teams mire down to the axle of the wagon 
and have to be pried up with rails any where between where the 
Old Adams County Bank now stands and the Presbyterian 
church on Second street. There were two different times, be- 
tween 1865 and 1867. that I paid $16.00 per barrel for flour and 
2C cents for smoked hams, and other things in proportion. At 


that time the old county cemetery was far out in the woods south 
of town, and the present site of the Cathohc church was then 
west of the now city of Decatur, far out among the logs and 
stumps, and where the G. R. & I. depot now stands was a lake of 
water where the boys fished in summer and skated in the winter, 
and those who came to town on foot in the spring had to cross 
this lake on the rail fence. At this time it was nothing strange 
to see the old St. Mary's river two weeks raising and two weeks 
falling with a lo-foot depth of water on the Zimmerman bottom 
land. In 1867 or 1868, after a heavy rainfall, the water was deep 
enough on Second street to run a large skift or row boat, with 
every cellar in town indunated. On Christmas day in 1871 the 
first construction train on the G. R. & I. came into town, at which 
time a free dinner was given, and what a time we had. It was 
said that a man living suoth of town ate one-half of a roasted 
ox and drank a barrel of beer, but with all this the iron horse 
went through. In 1864 Decatur had 800 of a population, and 
now with the muitiplied resources of our country Decatur can 
baost of 4,500, with three railroads and brick paved streets and a 
first-class water works plant and also an electric light plant. But 
now the scene has changed, the birds have grown, and they have 
flown: then I was 28. and now 1 am 60. The shades of the even- 
ing of life is fast approaching, but with all this the invention of 
man will only make the world hustle that much the faster. 
From a friend. 
May 25, 1896. I. H. STOXE. 




Jacob Buhler, dealer in lime, hair, cement and plaster of 
paris, also flour and feed exchange, at Decatur, Ind., was born in 
Canton Berne, Switzerland, February 25th, 1825. He learned 
the stone-cutters' trade when a young- man and traveled as a 
journeyman in his native coiintry in the interest of his trade for 
three years. In 1847 l^e came to America, landing at Xew York 
July 26th; from there he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he 
worked at his trade until 1848. He then went to Licking County, 
Ohio, still working at his trade, until coming to Adams County, 
Ind., in 1849, where, with the exception of five years spent in 
\Vabash County, he has resided in Decatur. After coming to 
Decatur he followed contracting and in 1875 began dealing in 
lime and building material, in which he is still engaged. Jacob 
B. was united in marriage at Decatur June 3rd. 1 851. to Rose Ann 
Chronister, who was born in Cumberland County, Penn., a 
daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Helm) Chronister, who were 
natives of Pennsylvania and of (icrman decent. They came to 
Adams County, Ind., in 1847. when Mrs. Buhler was about six- 
teen years old. and located on a farm in Union Township. Here 
her father died in 1859, aged sixty-four years, and the mother died 
at Decatur in 1884. at the age of seventy-nine years. Both were 
members of the Lutheran church. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Buhler were born eight children, all 
of whom were boys. Of these six are living, each l)eing engaged 


in business in Decatur, except the youngest, Chester Buhler, 
wljo is freight agent at Ridgeville, Incl. 

Mr. Jacob B. is a member of St. Mary's Lodge No. 167, I. O. 
O. F. In poHtics he is a DemocratTand an honest and influential 
citizen. He and wife have worshiped at the EvangeHcal church 
at Decatur, and for three years he has served as steward of that 
church. At the present time they are recognized as memljers of 
the United Brethren church. Mr. B. has always led a Ciiristian 
life, and is now, at the age of seventy-one years, in very good 
health, with the exception of the disability to walk well, the effects 
of a slight stroke of paralysis in 1893. 




Peter Jackson, of Washington Township, Adams County, 
was born in Ashland County, Ohio, in the year 1825. He was 
educated in the common school of Ohio, which was very common 
at that time. My father subscribed for one-half of us children 
and we went day about in turns. What would you think of send- 
ing a student now-a-days every other day? But this was sub- 
scription school; no public school there at that time. I came 
here about 1848, was married' in 1851. Locating as a farmer 
in St. Alary's Township when it was a dense forrest. Have now 
lived long enough to see two counties cleared up; Ash County, 
Ohio, and this dear old Adams. The Steele boys and I had many 
a good frolic together, helping each other clear land. Well do I 
recollect the first year I was in this county. I went sixty days 
to log rollings. We all turned out to help each other. It would 
be said I went one mile or went six miles to help my neighbors 
roll his logs. You in this day might say, how did you class your 
neighbors, was it the man who joined land with you in all casses? 
Xo; it was those who were willing to go and help any one who 
would ask him to help him bear his burdens. A man who had to 
do a little work for himself or refused to go when called on seldom 
got to refuse more than once, as he would be spotted as a selfish 
crank and it would be said, we will simply leave him alone. 

I was raised a Presbyterian in their old strict way. Aly 
father would not allow us to buy a water melon on the Sabbath 
day, but we used to get out the oldcow bell and rattle it on one 
side of the corn field opposite the melon patch and the owner 
would go to drive the cows out of his corn, then some of the 


gang of us would wolf his melons and he would find no cows in 
his field. On his return he would find some clear head had 
carried ofif his choicest melons. Tricks of these kind were played 
all for fun these days. 

Well do I recollect the fall of 1854, when the cold fever raged 
here. Many people died with it. There were not enough well 
people to care for the sick. This was a great year of sickness and 
hard times. 

I belong to no church, yet I am a Methodist. Politically a 
Democrat, the Democrats have elected me for twenty-two years 
as township assessor. 

Very truly vours, 




1 came to this state in 1835, ^^ith an older brother, Benjamin, 
and worked in the woods on land my father had entered from the 
government the previous spring. This land was m section 14, 
Root Townsliip. We built a log cabin, one story high, with 
puncheon floor, clapboard roof and an old-fashioned w^ooden 
chinmey, with the back and jams of mud. We boarded with 
Benjamin Pillars, who had settled here the previous year. Our 
experience that first year was no exception to that encountered 
by every pioneer. Nature had been on the ground a good long 
while, and when we, as the van guard of approaching civilization, 
undertook to take possession of the small territory which the 
government said was ours, Ben and I had to fight for it. Father 
and the other children came in the spring of 1836. A few years 
later he built a hewed log house, a story and a half high, where 
he died in 1848. He was bom in London County, Ya., in 1789, 
and was a soldier in the war of 181 2. I was born in Culpeper 
County, Va., in 1820, the ist of January, and like other boys, 
worked at home until I was "of age." I then went to work for 
myself. The first man 1 worked for was Thos. Fisher, receiving 
$9.00 per month for clearing, making rails, &c. The next was 
George A. Dent, from whom I received $11.00 per month for 
similar work. I remained with him until 1 saved enough money 
to pay for entering forty acres of land. On this I built a shanty 
in the year 1842, and a year later, with my "pardner for life," went 
to housekeeping in the woods, not on Brussels carpet and under 
gas lights, but on a puncheon floor, lighted by "tallow dip" or 
sometimes a grease lamp. Our household goods were not what 
people buy, but what your grandfather used to make. I have 


loved a small house ever since, for in it I learned to make sacrifice.^ 
and to be hospitable. This home in the woods was four miles 
southeast of Alonroeville, and we lived there until 1865. In that 
year I bought the farm owned by George A. Dent and moved 
to it early in the spring. For this land I paid $15,000 — 280 
acres. I have lived in this county sixty-one years. 1 have seen 
the coming of the telegraph, the railroads, the telephone and the 
electric light. J\Iy memory is more clear upon the events of those 
early days and what happened in them, than upon the happenings 
of this age of bustle. Some young men of to-day will beg rather 
than work for less than one dollar a day, while their grandfather 
has probably made rails for 37^ cents per day, as I have, then set 
down to a dinner of corn bread and bacon. Store box politicians 
will tell us of these "hard times." while they chew^ tobacco, earned 
by their wives washing. I wish they had been men in 1835, when 
flour had to he hauled from Piqua, Ohio, and cost $12.00 a barrel. 
We had no churches, no schools, no railroads and no canals, and 
30 to 50 cents per day was good wages. Then with an apprecia- 
tion of what they cost, look to-day at our magnificent school 
system, backed by the laws of the state, our beautiful churches 
in which to worship. The railroads with their wheeled palaces, 
the telegraph with its language of truth, and the telephone, which 
makes the residents of New York and Chicago neighbors. Then, 
in the name of the improvements of the past sixtv years, I sav. 
young man. get down of¥ that box and go to work, if you wish to 
have a man's place among the men of vour town. 

W. P. RICE. 




Jacob King was born on November 29tli, 1810, at Little 
York, Pa., and died at Decatur, Ind., on the 19th day of May, 
1894, aged 83 years 5 months and 20 days. At the age of 5 
years he removed with his parents from Little York, Pa., to New 
Philadelphia, Ohio, where he learned and engaged in the black- 
smith trade, and was one of the best blacksmiths of his time. 

In 1840, at the age of 30 years, he removed to Adams 
County, Ind., which was then an almost uninhabited wilderness; 
only five houses, and they in the woods and swamps, composed 
the present city of Decatur. Cheerfully and hopefully did they 
address themselves to the difficult task of clearing av/ay the 
timber, ditching the swamps and laying the foundation on which 
we have builded. They labored for us more than for themselves, 
and we owe these old pioneers a lasting debt of gratitude im- 
possible to repay. Surely "one soweth and another reapeth." 
They labored and sacrificed and suffered to lay the foundations of 
our boasted civilization, and of that peace and of those instutions 
which we by inheirtance to-day enjoy. Mr. King was twice 
married. In 1832 he was married to Catherine Gofif, to whom 
were born eight children. In 1853 he was married to Maria Lin- 
coln, to whom were given four children. 

Fond of home, to him there was no place so dear as the old 
fireside, and he was never so happy as when surrounded there by 
his children and grandchildren. He was a Jacksonian Democrat 


all his life, and his party honored him by entrusting to his hands 
several offices in his county. He was constable for seventeen 
years, marshal for four years and sheriff four years. He was a 
good and efficient officer. Faithfully and well did he do his duty 
in this capacity as in every other. He was raised in the Lutheran 
church, his father and mother being ardent and strict members 
of that denomination, but a short time before his death he united 
with the Presbyterian church of this city. 

Not now, but in the coming years, 

It may be in the better land. 
We'll read the meaning of our tears. 

And there, sometimes, we'll understand. 

We'll catch the broken threadsi again. 

And finish what we here began; 
Heav'n will the mysteries explain, 

And then, ah then, we'll understand. 

God knows the way, He holds the key. 

He guides us with unerring hands; 
Sometimes with tearless eyes we'll see. 
Yes, there, up there, we'll understand. 



PREBLE. Ind., Adams Comity. 

I who write this was born in this state, Adams County, in 
1838. ]\Iy parents came to this county in 1835 ^"^1 settled at 
Fort Wayne for a period of one year, which place at that time 
contained about twelve little log cabins. Then later they came 
to Preble, Adams County, where they remained until they died. 
Their home was a little log cabin, which had one room, one win- 
dow and door. Their nearest neighbors were Indians, wolves and 
bears. They started to work hard to cut down timber in order 
to have a few fields cleared for wheat, corn and so on. Their 
work seemed indeed hard, as it had to be done all by their own 
hands. Their wheat and corn was ground in a coffee mill, out of 
which our bread was made and mother could prepare our meals 
in only a short time when she returned home from hard work. 
We had a small fire place, a table made of two rough boards, and 
a few cut down logs for chairs. We lived in this style for about 
twelve years, and enjoyed our little home and hard work more 
than many people now days who live in luxury. There was no 
church nor schools to go to there at that time, and all the educa- 
tion we got was a life of hard work. There were fourteen children 
of us, of which there are seven living yet, three girls and four 
boys. I well remember (then I was just a little boy) the time ' f 
the Meican war, to which just one of our neighbors went to. Of 
course there were only a very few neighbors at that time. Then 
at about the same time I had the misfortune of having a limb 


broken, but as people didn't know anything about a doctor then, 
we liad to content ourselves with home treatments, in fact, I did 
not know what a doctor was at all until years afterwards, when a 
neighbor took down sick and they called a doctor from Fort 
Wayne, which was twelve miles from the place where we lived. 
I then learned to know that he was a human person and not a 
beast, as I had always imagined before. I lived with my parents 
on the farm until the age of 21, when I left home and stopped at 
Fort Wayne to learn the blacksmith trade. My salary was $2.50 
a month, out of w-hich I had to pay my own washing besides. 
From there I went to Newville, where I stayed a short time, and 
then enlisted in the 89th volunteers of 1862, for three years, in 
which I helped to fight seven battles besides the little skirmishes 
we met with every day. These were indeed three very hard 
years, and we had to live on an ear of corn a day very often, and 
then get up and light like brave men. We were happy when we 
heard the news, "war closed," which was in April, 1865. I then 
returned to my old home on the farm in August, the same year, 
where I started up a blacksmith shop and worked seven years at 
the trade. I was married to Miss Tressa Bley, from our neigh- 
borhood, on November 30th, 1865. We lived there seven years, 
and in that time three little girls w^ere born to us, Mary, Rosy and 
Susie. Then in that year, 1872, in the month of April, I bought a 
frame house in Preble Township in the woods, and we lived there 
four years, when a little boy was born to us, and we called him 
Edwin, and in that way we passed many peaceful, happy years 
until the year of 1890 brough sickness to our once happy home. 
My oldest daughter, Mary, who was married and lived at Fort 
Wayne, died quite suddenly of typhiod fever, leaving a little boy 
of ten months behind. Of course this was a sad blow to us all. 
After she was laid away to rest in the cemetery at Fort Wayne, 
we took her little boy home with us and lived a few more weeks 
in quietness, when my w^ife took sick with some unknown disease, 
and after my children and I fought hard to save her life, we had 
to learn at the close of each day that death was drawing nearer. 
Then to add to our cup of sadness, about two weeks before my 
wife's death, one morning my son Edwin, who was 15 years old, 
was getting ready to go to school he was su<ldenly overtaken with 
a heavy sack spell, and after suffering every thing imaginable, 
died three days later, which was the 4th of November, 1890. We 
laid him to rest in the little village church-yard here at Preble, 
and on the 17th of the same month, when darkness had shadowed 
our home, my two daughters and I were called to my wife's bed- 
side to bid her forwell forever in life. Thus our happy home was 


broken up, and she was also laid away to rest in the village church 
yard by Edwin's side. I could not bear to stay at the old home 
where so many sad memories recalled the dear ones each day, 
and besides I could not get along on the farm. I sold the farm 
in 1892 and came here to Preble, a little town of about 100 inhabi- 
tants. I bought a home here and had living with me my two 
daughters and little grandson, until 1894, when his father married 
again and took him back to his own home at Fort Wayne. This 
summer; the 25tli of June, my youngest daughter, Susie, was 
married and makes her future home at Wilders, Ind. So now my 
daughter Rosy and I are keeping house alone, and altogether it 
seems a lonely life. It is a home of peace and quietness. I hope 
that all my friends whose eyes may rest on these pages will be 
able to recall in these memories part of the life story of 

CHALES CONRAD. Aged s8 years. 



Washington Steele, a farmer of Washington Township, 
Adams County, Indiana, was born in Bedford County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in the year 1830. In the year 1837 I emigrated with my 
perents to Richland County, Ohio. My father, George Steele, 
was born in Bedford County, Penn., in the year 1799. In his 
young days he followed boating and building boats. My mother 
Margaret (Shoup) Steele, was born in Bedford County, Penn., in 
the year 1803, and is now living with her daughter, Rebecca A. 
Ernst, in Peterson, Indiana. She is now in the 93 year of her age, 
apparently in good health. She has her second sight, she can 
read without glasses. 

I remember well of seeing the stars fall November 13th, 
1833. I lived with my parents in Richland County and Ashland 
County until the fall of 1848, wiien I emigrated with my parents 
to Adams County, Indiana. We settled in Kirkland Township, 
where my father had previously entered 120 acres of land on the 
outlet of the grim prarie. My father built a hewed log house. 
Lumber was scarce at that time, so he split out puncheons and 
made a puncheon floor. My father l>eing a carpenter h€ done 
all the work himself. I helped to clear up a part of my father's 
farm. In the winter of 1849 I taught school in Wells County in 
a rude school called the Hetric school house, it being the first 
money I ever earned. The summer of 1850 1 worked for my 
brother-in-law, John Hartman, on his farm. When we first 
came to this state I went to log rolling and raising from five to 
six days in the week. In the spring of the year their work was 
log rolling and raising nearly every day in the week for two or 


three weeks. Game was plenty at that time, such as deer and 
turkey. Possums were so numerous you could not track them 
after a snow would lay for two or three days, the woods were 
just tracked over. I being no hunter I did not hunt much. I 
never killed but one deer, but shot at them frequently. There 
were some porcupine with the balance of the game. My father 
being somewhat of a hunter, he killed a great many deers, and a 
noted bee hunter, he found a great many bee treees. We had 
plenty of corn bread, jerked venison and honey. 

When we first came to this state the roads were very bad. 
When any farmer would go to town or any place with a team he 
would take an ax along and when one place would get bad they 
would cut a road around it. Where the G. R. & T. railroad depot 
is now it was full of old logs and large dead trees. Joseph Crabb, 
an old resident, owned the land where the depot is. He gave forty 
acres for clearing forty. The road was so full of logs and trees 
a person could hardly get through. In the fall of 1851 I com- 
menced to work for Samuel L. Rugg in a saw mill, sawing plank 
for a plank road running from St. Marys to Fort Wayne. Mr. 
Riigg having a contract to furnish plank for so many miles, I 
worked there nearly three years. I was head sawyer a part of 
the time and part of the time run the engine. I got 75 cents per 
day. In the winter we run the mill day and night. There were 
six of us. Joseph C. Plunmier, D. D. Bevelheimer and I. W. 
Bixler run in the fore part of the day and night; Thomas Mickle, 
John Clark and myself run in the after part of the day and night. 
W^e did not work in them days like they do now, the ten hour 
system ; we worked from daylight to dark the year round, winter 
and siunmer. While working there I had some good times and 
some hard work. The logs were all sixteen feet long, sawed into 
three inch planks. So we had some heavy lumber to handle. 

In the spring of 1853 I married Miss Polly Zimmerman. We 
had four children, all living. Mary F. married L. P. Swarts; 
Eli \\'., single, living at home; Emma E. married Jacob Koos; 
John D. married Mary Drayer, of Reading, Penn. I oflen heard 
my father-in-law tell how he had to do when he first came to this 
state in 1834. He had to go to Fort Wayne to mill. He went 
sometimes with an ox team. It would take about three days to 
mal<e the trip. Sometime one or more of the neighbors would 
join in with him and they would go down the St. Mary's river in 
.what he called the keel boat. He said it was easy going down 
stream, but coming back it was hard work running up stream. 
When he built his new house about the year 1845 1^*-' 'i^<i to go to 
ri(|ua. ().. foF his hardware with an ox team. It would take five 


or six days to make the trip. He also had to haul some of his 
lumber from Piqua, Ohio. By hard work and good management 
he accumulated a great deal of property. He had about 1.500 
acres of land when he died in the year 1878. Before he died he 
deeded to his son Eli Zimmerman, 900 acres of land, the old home 
place, he paying back to the other five heirs $5,500 and did not 
get any share of his other estate. Eli Zimmerman, Sen., had his 
second wife. His first died in the year 1872. He had three farms 
in Mercer County, Ohio. I sold one of them for $8,000, one for 
$5,000 and one for $4,500, as his executor. He gave each of his 
children, when he got married, 200 acres of land. He had five 
children living when he died. It took sixteen years to settle his 
estate. A great many people said that I w-ould have some law 
suits in court before I got the estate settled, but I settled the estate 
without any lawing at all. 

The first schooling I got was in Richland County, Ohio, 
near Jeromeville. I learned my letters and first spelling in the 
Cobbs' spelling book; then we got United Speller, then the Ele- 
mentry, then the McGuflfey's. The first arithmetic was called 
the Federal Calculater. In them days they used the quill pen. It 
would take the teacher morning and noon to make pens. We 
had no bladcboard in the school then. When I went to school 
the teacher always had his rod in his hand and whiped for most 
every thing. 

I was born in Wayne County, Ohio, August 4th, 1833, and 
emigrated to Adams County, Ind., ten years later, the country 
being comparatively a wilderness at that time, with no schools 
or churches, church generally being hekl at private houses. 

I remember the first school I attended was one built of rough 
logs and with a clapboaicl roof, puncheon floor and seats of split 
logs and with rough boards to serve as desks. 

Young men at that time, when wanting a general good time, 
wou4d go to Mammouth, which was then quite a business place. 

On one occasion a crowd of us went to Mammouth, the 
metropolis, and stopped with old Mr. Dorwin, who run a hotel 
and general store. Mr. V. B. Simcooke, who was one of the 
party, on retiring for the night concluded to sleep within the 
feather bed, instead of on top, and done so, getting in boots, 
clothes and all. His clothes being somewhat damp from a driz- 
zling rain, you can imagine what a sad looking spectacle he \^s 
the following morning on arising. But his folly made much 
sport for the boys. 

Neighbors were few, but they thought nothing of going 
seven or eight miles to help a new-comer raise a log house or barn 


or attend a log rolling, which was one of thesports of the time. 
On those occasions the ground would be divided into equal space, 
a captain selected for each side and the men evenly divided and it 
would be a race until finished, the side coming out victorious 
would receive a prize of four or five pounds of tobacco. 

Our market was Fort Wayne, and it would require four days 
to make the trip, and supplies enough to last for a period of six 
months would be purchased at one time. 

In 1852 a plank road was built from St. Marys to Fort Wayne 
that opened commerce to a great extent and helped in getting 
different enterprises at Decatur. 

In those days corn was ground on a coffee mill and when 
soft, grated. When further advanced a Mr. Anderson built a 
mill of burrs dressed from two large boulders. Men served as 
elevators and fed the wheat by hand into hoppers which run it 
through the bolting cloths. The engine consisted of a team of 
oxen or horses. 

The pumpkin was then the main stand-by, and when sitting 
at dinner you would generally see pumpkin butter, pumpkin 
molasses, pumpkin preserves and other eatables too numerous 
to mention, all made from a common pumpkin, which took the 
place of fruit. 

Game was plenty, deer, turkey, bear and wild hogs were in 

In 1874 I built the first fair ground and held the first fair 
ever held in Adams County. 

I have been interested in a great many of Decatur's enter- 
prises and have resided in Adams County for the past fifty years 
with the exception of two years spent in the mining districts of 
the Black Hills in South Dakota. 





I came to this state in 1840. Decatur had but one house in 
it and it was all woods and Indians were plenty; tliere were 400 
in one camp. It was a very lonesome place, but we had our 
pleasures as well as our sorrows. We had many happy meeting- ; 
we went summer and winter. I will tell you how we went. 
When the weather was good. we walked, but when it was too bad 
to walk, we went with our oxteam. We took all of the children 
with us; we didn't leave them at home as they do now. We had 
mile and three-qarters to g-o to meeting. The brush was cut out 
and the trees biased so we could find our way. I went to church 
one Sunday and I had went about a quarter of a mile when I saw 
a big black bear lying on a log in the sun asleep. It was about 
fifteen feet from me. I run, and lost the road, but I went on and 
came out where I knew the place and I went on to church, and 
when I came back the bear was gone. 

We had no saw mills, no planks, had i)uncheon for floors and 
clapboard tables; a log house and no partition in it. one window 
and a fire i)lacc and a clay hearth, and nothing to make doors out 
of. Hung a quilt up at the door and then put the clapboard 
table against it to keep the wolves out at night. A panther ate 
up our little dog. It was a picnic to go to a new country to live. 
We had i)lenty to eat. Had honey, wild turkey and deer. XVe 
went to I'^ort Wayne for our flour. We raised our children care- 
fully and prayerfully, and I hope parents will be more careful to 
raise their children and raise them in the fear of God and with 


kindness. Do not whip with a stick, but with kind words, for 
kindness is a pleasure and makes happy children, and when you 
go to church take all of the children along- with you. 

I live in the city of Decatur, and I have a pleasant home, al- 
tliough a lonely widow. I am eighty years old. I have lived a 
Christian life for sixty-four years. I feel that nothing can move, 
that I am founded on the ock. Christ Jesus, how glorious it is 
to live a Christian life. I hope all will come in to the fold of 
Christ and be saved. 

My first husband died and left me with eight children, and 
with the help and grace of God I kept them together. The two 
oldest children, Elizabeth and William Fisher, were both preach- 
ers; they had a good father, a man of God. Yours truly, 





Horses boiigM, solsl or exchanged. 
Horses always on hand for retaO trade, 



wiL_x &. ©(=ade:. 




Class, Lime, Hair and Lath. Large stock to select from. 

The Public invited to inspect onr Stock and get 
estimate on Building Material. 

Yard and Planing Hill at Crossing of the Q. R. & I. 
and L. E. & W. 













The New York Store. 



Portland's Great Department Store, 





Cartwrlght& Headmgtoii 

Portlaed, Imidlaania, 

Alexaiidna, Jndllana, 

UpUaed, Indaamia, 

Dry Goods &> Clothing 


Largest Stock of Carpets, 
Largest Stock of Clothing, 

Largest Stock Boots and Shoes, 

Largest Stock Dry Goods. 
Lowest Prices in Eastern Indiana. 


Cartwrlght & Headington, 






AND . . . 



Marble -^ Granil? Works 



All kinds oi Foreign & American Marble & Granite 









We are Headquarters for 



Opp & WilliarRSOD, 

Red Key, Ind. Portland, Ind. 



You will always find the 
Largest Stock and 

Best Assortment 

and Lowest Prices in 
Furniture, at 




When you are in need of 

Dry Goods, Dress Goods, 
Millinery, Notions and 
Cloaks, visit the 
Cincinnati Store. 

More Goods for your Money than 
any store in Jay County. 

Cincinnati Store. 











WHEAT DRILLvS: Superior and Buckeye Wheat Drills. 

6-Foot Standard Mowing Machine: The frictionless 6-foot 
Mower compels the surrender of all opposition. Lightest draft 
of all machines for cutting 

Hay Loaders and Steel and Wood Rakes. 

Riding and Walking Cultivators: Tlie Conklin, John Deere. 
The Malta and Tongueless Riding. 

Wagons: The Turnbull and Tiffin. 

Also a full line of General Hardware and Building Materials, 
Doors and Sash. 


GEO W. BARNES, Pres't. THOS. McDONALD, OenI Secy. 



Oil and Gas Well Supplies, General Hardware 


Our Stores are Located at the PriDcipal Points Tlirougliout tlie County. 


Harness, Dusters and Wlilps, 

Robes, Blankets and Horse Clothing. 

.Casli Paid lor Hides, Pelts, Tallow and Furs., 







►y T7T7 T 7 T T TT T7 T 7 T. y '^J^^J^7^Z7-'^J^J^^.\^ 




Portiaimd, Indiana* 


All the Leading 


bought direct from the 
factories and sold on 
easy terms at low prices. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Cunningham Bros. 


When you go to Portland, go to the 


and have your horses taken care of. South Meridian street, close 
to the Salamonia River, opposite Turner's old buggy store. 
Horses fed by the day or week. 

I. NORTH, Proprietor. 


Dealer in ladies' and gents' furnishing goods, notions, groc- 
eries and cured meats. Terms with the lowest for cash. Quick 
sales and small profits my motto. Call and see me and learn 
prices. Location, North Meridian street, near G. R. & L R. R. 

Call at W. T. RAINIER. The Barber. 


Dealers in PVesh and Cured Meats, Poultry, Game, &c. 
Strictly pure Lard a specialty. No. 70 West Main street. 

W. H. MULL, 

Manufacturer of Boots and Shoes. Fine sewed work a 
■specialty. Repairing neatly done. Employ only first-class work- 
men and cfuarantec satisfaction. Prices reasonable. 



Proprietor City Book and Jewelry store. Fine watch repair- 
ing a specialty. Dealer in watches, clocks, jewelry, books, sta- 
tionery, wall paper, pianos, organs, sewing machines and supplies. 


Capital and surplus, $87,000.00. Officers: J. M. Haynes, 
President Mm. Newton, Vice President; W. M. Haynes, Cashier; 
W. A. Moorman, Assistant Cashier. Directors: A. Lupton, 
Thos. F. Moorman, J. G. Crowell, Wm. Newton, Jos. Kidder, 
J. M. HaYnes, C. F. Headington. 



Merchant Tailor. 


Fine candies, choice fruits, cigars and tobacco. No. 31 North 
Meridian street. 

W. H. HOOD, 

Wholesale dealer in Groceries, P'ruits and Vegetables. Nos. 
23, 2y, 29 and 31 Walnut street. Telephone No. 17. 




Daily and Weekly. 



(Successors to T. S. Johnson.) 
Dealers in Stoves, Tinware and house-furnishing Goods, Gas 
Fixtures, Silverware, Table and Pocket Cutlery. Spouting, Tin 
and Slate Roofing a specialtv. 


The Leading One-Price Clothiers. 


Organized 1875. Capital and surplus. $69,000. W. H. 
Reed, President; Isaac Silvernale, Vice-President; N. B. Haw- 
kins. Cashier; J. A. Jaqua. Assistant Cashier. 

For your Livery and to get your horses fed, south side of Main St. 

City Bakery and Restaurant. Fresh Bread, Cakes, Pies, Sec. 
Oysters and Ice Cream in season. Meals. 25 cents. Fine Cigars 
:ind Tobacco a specialty. 35 Meridian street. 



Dealer in Drugs, Medicines, Paints and Oiis, Painters' Sup- 
iilies, Notions, Perfumery, Toilet and Fancy Articles. 



W. A. Sherwood, Proprietor. Agents work a specialty. 
Corner of Walnut and Commerce streets. Phone i6. 

Call and See WM. E.. MARSH, 
Cash Grocer. 


Grocery and Meat JNIarket. 


Eclipse Studio. Photo rooms. 89 North Meridian street. 
Reed & Mackenbach block. 


For Pictures in Platinum and Gloss Finish. All work guar- 
anteed at bottom prices. 


Wholesale and retail dealer in General IMerchandise. 


General blacksmiths. Plow work and horse shoeing a specialty. 
R. W. Randel. L. S. Amos. J. B. Thornton. R. L. Hearn. 


Portland, Indiana, and Washington, D. C. 
Patents obtained in all coimtries, patents, trade-marks, labels, 
re-issnes and copyrights, obtained for inventors and authors. 
The sale of patents negotiated and all kinds of patent business 
tranacted. The name and address of all the leading manufac- 
turer? in the line of your patent for $i. 


F. M. & c. w. McLaughlin, 

Abstracters, real estate, loan and insurance agents. 


WM. GOODZIKE, The Barber. 

\V.. P. JONES, 

The Dentist. 



Pension and Claim Attorney, 

DR. M. F. JAY. 

Diseases of the Eye and Ear only. Office hours: 8:30 to 
II :30 a. m., i :30 to 4:30, 6:30 to/ 130 p. m.; Sundays, 3:30 to 4:30 
p. m. Marsh-Sebring block, near Merchants Hotel. 

Attornevs^at-Law. Loans, Real Estate and Insurance. 

W. A. Hart. Will Relley. 

Attorneys-at-La\v. Collections a specialty. 

Frank H. Snyder. Geo. Bergman. 


Attorney s-at- Law. 
It is with pleasure that we can inform our patrons and friends that 


Call at The REPUBLICAN Office. 

Staple and Fancy Groceries. Meridian street. 


Livery, Sale and Feed Stable. Good rigs with or without 
drivers. Terms reasonable. Traveling patronage solicited. 
Corner ]\Iain and Commerce streets, west of Court House. Tele- 
phone 2^. 


Reastaurant. Opposite Court House. 

Buy your Boots, Shoes and Harness of 

R. R. ROWE. 

Try him when you need Boots, Shoes and Harness. He will 
save vou monev. 



Uealer in Fancy Groceries. Fruits and \ cgctables a spe- 
•ialty. No. ;<) North Meridian street. 


You are kindly invited to call at the store of the undersigned 
when wishing anything in the line of Pure Drugs and Medicines, 
Si K . t Toilet Articles, Choice Perfumes, Fancy Goods, etc. The 
rincst brand of Foreign and Domestic Cigars. Pure Wines and 
Liquors for medicinal use. Physicians' prescriptions prepared 
with greatest care and accuracy. 





For a first-class shave or hair cut call on A. C. Mix, West 
Main street. Yours, 

■A. C MIX. 

Call at L. A. WINTER'S 

Tailor Shoj-) for fi^t-cla^-s work. 


Manufacturer of fine Cigars. Private brands to order a spe- 
cialty. Opposite G. R. & I. depot. 



Is again a million dollar company, with a surplus of over 
$100,000.00. The fact that this company has made s.ich gains 
show us that the pople have confidence in the "Honest Old Ohio 
Farmers." A good story will stand twice telling — "Insure in the 
Ohio Farmers!" "Insure in the Ohio Farmers!" 


Rooms. Hawkins' block — with Baily & Whipple. 

Dealer in Buggies and Waggons. 


Dealers in Fresh and Salt Meats and Dressed Poultry on 
Saturdays. We pay cash for cattle, veal, hogs, poultry, hides and 
tallow. Yours respectfuUv. 


Call on R. SMITH 
If you want a clean shave, hair cut and shampoo. 

PALMER'S BUGGIES saves $ $ $ $ 



Confectionery and Fruits. West Main street. 


Merchants' Hotel, 



Fashionable Dressmaking. 

Dealers in Hay, Corn, Oats and Ground Feed of all kinds. 
Feed barn. East j\Iain street. 

Special high grade Wheels made to order. Pattern, model 
and experimental work. Specialties in repairing: Bicycles, 
Locks, Lawn ]\Iowers, Upholstering, Baby Carriages, Pumps 
and Saw Filing. 


Proprietor of the Headington Restaurant. Best kmch 
counter in the city. Board by the day, week or meal. 26 North 
Meridian street. 




With a $5,000.00 Stock of Drugs, 
Books, Stationery, Notions of all kinds, 
their good will and patronage. 




Medicines^ Paints^ Oils^ Wall Paper^ 
we greet our friends as candidates for 
Yours RespectfuII y t 




Good Rigs, with or without Drivers, Furnished on Short Notice, 
Day or Night. 

The Patronage of the Traveling Public is Especially Solicited. 


J. D. SniTH. E. R. SniTH. 



Furniture, Stoves, Carpets, 
Hardware, Etc. . . . 










Also Buggies, Wagons and a 




Coover Hotel, 



T. J. BARR, 

Restaurant. Boarding by day, week or meal. Fine cigars 
and tobaccos, fresh fruits and candies. 

Dealers in Tin, Stoves and Hardware. Roofing and Sheeting. 


Restaurant and Bakery. 

F. E. MOVER, M. D., 

Calls answered promptly from office, night or day. Office, ^ 
opposite Coover House. 



Adelma Lupton, President; A. Grant Lupton, Vice President; 
John S. Emmons, Cashier, A general banking business trans- 
acted. Special attention given to collections. 


Proprietor of Camden Roller Flouring Mills, manufacturer 
of Wheat, Buckwheat and Rye Flour and Ground Feed. Cash 
paid for wheat. 



Blacksmith and repair shop. 


Harness maker, has again located in Pennville with a neat 
and new stock of Harness. All are hand-made goods. Repair- 
ing neatly and promptly done. All work guaranteed. 


Blacksmith and repair work. 



Boots, Shoes, 

Rubbers and 



Seneral Cheap Cash Store / 

All kinds of Fancy Groceries, Dry 
Goods, Notions, Hats, Caps, Gent's 
Furnishing Goods, Jewelry, Cut- 
lery, General Hardware and 
Woodenware, Pumps, Guns, Bicy- 
cles, Garden Tools, Garden Seeds, 
Queensware, Glassware, Patent 
Medicines, Oils, Paints and every- 
thing commonly kept in a first- 
class General Store, and at 


Our aim is to please in Qality, 
Quanty and Price 




Why pay 60 to 90c. a rod for fence when you can 
EARTH, Horse-High, BuU-Strong, Pig and 
Chicken Tight, for 12 to 20 CENTS A ROD. 

A man and boy can make from 40 to 60 rods'a 
day. Illustrated Catalogue Free. 

ORNAMENTAL FENCE. If you have a 
Lawn, nothing in the world would be a substitute 
for our Fine Ornamental Fence. Beautiful, Dura- 
ble, Strong and Cheap. Plain galvanized FENCE 
WIRE sold to Farmers at wholesale prices. 

Circulars and Price List Free. 





Manufacturer of Brick and Tile. 


Druggist and Hardware. 


Grocery and Restaurant. 


Wholesale dealer in Butter, Eggs and Poultry. Business, 
$25,000 a year. 

Dry Goods, Boots and Shoes and Groceries. 

Consult with DR. S. D. GREY, 

The Cancer specialist. My past -and uniform success en- 
courages me in promising full satisfaction to all whom I treat. 
Over thirty years' practice in this special line. 


Trade at the BIG STORE. 

We positively carry the largest and most complete line in the 
way of Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Groceries, Oueensware, etc. 
In fact, everything to be found in a complete, well regulated gen- 
eral store. Highest market price paid for country produce. 



jManufacturers of Waggons, Buggies, Surries and Jaggers, 

Call on I. A. WIBLE for your livery. 


Green Street, proprietor. Also, livery feed and sales stable. 
Good rigs always on hand, with or without drivers. Also, see 
his fine hand-made harness, which can not be excelled. 





Capital, $50,000.00; surplus, $40,000.00. Op ned for busi- 
ness May 5, 1893. Earl W. Merry, President; John W. Rees, 
Vice-President; Myron L, Case, Cashier. Directors: C. P. 
Cole, J. B. Newton, T. H. Johnson, Edwin Hoover. We solicit 
your patronage. 

Clinton P. Cole. Luther I. Baker, 




James Taft, Proprietor, 



Physicians and Surgeons. Mitchell block. Phone, office, 
31; residence, 41. . 


Prorpietor of the Cottage Hotel.Rates, $1.00 per day. No. 
26 Railroad street. 


Dealers in Fresh and Salt Meats. 



Dealer in Drugs, Books, Wall Paper &c. A druggist of 
over twenty years' experience. Prepares some very valuable 
remedies of his own getting up, such as Cholera Balm, Compound 
Cough Syrup and Toothache Remedy. No family should be 
without either of these remedies. Price of Cholera Balm, 25c 
bottle; Cough Syrup, 25c bottle; Tothache Remedy, loc. If 
once tried you never will be without them. Send for a bottle of 
each at once. 


Fine Millinery and Notions.Michell block. 




Manufacturers of Fine Cigars. Smoke Havana Bloom, our 
special 5c cigar. 

R. J. BARNES & CO., 

Manufacturers of Perfection Flour and dealers in Flour, 
Meal, Feed, Grain, etc. We make a specialty of high grade flour. 

M. C. Carl. O. Ford. 


General blacksmithing, buggy, waggon and repair shop. 
North j\Iain street. 



Dealer in Diamonds, Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, etc. Re- 
pairing a specialty. 


Blacksmith and Repair Shop. 

Dealer in Fancy Groceries, Dry Goods and Notions. 

Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Oueensware, etc. 



Go to J. R. DUDLEY'S 

Restaurant for your meal-. 

T. G. McDONALD, M. D., 
Physician and Surgeon. South High street. 




Repair Sliop. '; 

Saddlery and Harness. 

I Notions. 

DS^'srf.ftf' X^^^X^^^^X) 




ir vour 





Drugs & Druggists' Specialties, 


NOTIONS . . . 


Oils, Drugs, Paints, Varnishes, Tube Paints, Paint Brushes, Pocket Cutlery, 

Cigars and Tobaccos, School Supplies, Best Perfumes, Fine Candies, 

^ ^ ^ ^ Stationery, Razors, Toys. S ,^ ^ S 




Roots, Sboes, Cured Meats, 

Vegetables and Notions. 

Highest market price for country 
produce. Come and see me. 



The genial harness maker keeps a full line of Harness, Col- 
lars, Pads, Whips, etc. His work speaks for itself. See him. 





The blasksmith, manufacturer of Buggies, Carriages and 
Waggosn. General repairing done. 


Does a general banking, exchange and collection business. 
M. T. Sumption, banker; M. A. Mastick, cashier. 


White, THE DRUGGIST, of course. 



Leading hotel. Only office and sample room in town. 
Rates, $1.50 per day. Luther Hawthorne, Proprietor. 


Call for PLACE'S Ice Cream and Soft Drinks. 

Have no other. 

Write for Prices for Picnics and Public Gatherings. 

Decatar, Ind. >J. ^M. FLAOE. 



On Sunday, September i, a reunion of the Coats family was 
held in W. R. Diehl's grove, four miles west of Winchester. 
Music, and speaking by A. J. Studebaker was the order of the 
forenoon exercises, after which a table about two hundred feet 
long was loaded with the choicest the country affords, all hands 
doing what they could to hide from view as much of the good 
things in sight as possible. 

Elder D. S. Davenport invoked the Divine blessing, after 
which there was an engagement of a half-hour's duration in which 
knives and forks were dexterously used. Verily to the victors 
belong the spoils, as after the smoke had cleared away it was 
quite perceptible that much had been accomplished, yet, after all 
had been satisfied that all could not be eaten, there was enough 
left to raise another generation of Coatses. After dinner the 
brass band from Saratoga rendered some excellent music, inter- 
spersed with some choice selections from the choir, after which 
Robert Do<ld was introduced and in a very entertaining manner 
gave a detailed history of the Coats family. He said that grand- 
father, John Coats, was born in North Carolina in the year 1787, 
and grandmother, Sally Wright Coats, was born in the same 
state in the year 1788. They were married in 1808, moving soon 
thereafter to Covington, Ohio, where there were six children born 
t(j them, viz.: Thomas W., Isaac, Charlotte, Charity. William 
and James. In the year 181 9 they came to Randolph County, 
then almost an unknown wilderness, stopping on the farm now 
occujiicd by Tyre Puckett, our present Township Trustee. 

JAY COL-NTY. - 133 

Grandfather Coats entered the land he selected for a home three 
miles east of Winchester, on the Big Four railroad, where there 
were fourteen children born to them, two dying in infancy. They 
raised twelve children to man and womanhood, all married and 
settled around them so near that they could go home for break- 
fast. Grandfather Coats was Justice of the Peace when that ofifice 
done about all the legal business of the county. He was a man 
of almost iron constitution, working by the day for the support 
of his large family and clearing his farm after night. With the 
assistance of grandmother they struggled through, making their 
clothing from the lint or flax and skins of animals, going on 
horseback to Richmond, Indiana, to mill through almost impene- 
trable forests, being frequently disturbed by Indians and wild 
beasts. Their house was a stopping place for travelers in the early 
settlement of the county, many weary, hungry traveler found a 
welcome beneath their friendly roof. Grandfather and Grand^ 
mother Coats belonged to the society of Friends and led an up- 
right, honorable life, ever ready to extend a helping hand to those 
less fortunate than themselves. They lived to a ripe old age and 
were gathered to their Father as a shock of corn cometh in its 
season. The Coats family have been closely identified with the 
history of Randolph County. 

Other speeches were made by Ann Coats, Joel Pickett, D. S. 
Davenport, G. C. Shultz, S. D. Coats and A. J. Studebaker. A 
pleasant feature of the afternoon exercise was the spinning of flax 
with an old-fashioned spinning wheel by the only living daughter. 
Aunt Polly Pogue, seventy-four years old, who was placed upon 
the platform and the entire crowd passed around and saw how 
the clothing of our grand-parents was made. After the exercises 
were concluded the family was formed and marched out and 
counted, there being i8o present. Charles Pierce was present 
with his camera and took a picture of the group. 

An organization was effected by the election of D. S. Daven- 
port, president; Otis Coats, treasurer; George Coats, secretary, 
and Ann Coats, assistant secretary. W. Diehl, Robert Dodd, 
Simeon Cox. S. D. Coats and Simon Snyder were appointed a 
committee of arrangements for our next annual reunion. 

The Coats family are good eaters, but Seth can surround 
more saltrising bread than most men of his size. W. R. Deihl 
brought down the house by singing in a most laughable manner 
"The Old Arm Chair." There were other features of the occa- 
sion deserving mention, but for fear of being consigned to the 
waste basket, I will close. 

GEORGE COATS. Secretarv. 



As time in its onward and never ceasing march shortens the 
path of Hfe, we are many times made to feel sad when our thoughts 
carry us back to the happy days of childhood — mixed here and 
there by a dark page as the sands of life grow less. I am almost 
the last and only survivor of the small village of Portland of 57 
years ago. No doubt there are yet some left to call to mind the 
childish thoughts of years long ago. The few links that have held 
together the great chain of memory are well nigh severed by the 
ravages of time. 

On the 22nd day of August, 1838, my father, Jason Whipple, 
started from Delaware County, Ohio, with his family, consisting 
of my mother and six children. The time that it took to reach 
Jay County, Indiana, was six days. On the night of the 24th of 
August we camped on the hill where the Prospect church now 
stands, three miles east of Deerfield, Randolph County, Indiana. 
This was Saturday night. In the morning, Sunday, the teams 
drove through Deerfield and one of the teamsters bought of old 
Edward Edger two plugs of what is now called "dog-leg" tobacco 
for 5 cents. The teams drove across the Massasinewa river where 
now stands a store house which, until a few years ago, was oc- 
cupied by one of the young Collinses, It was a beautiful morn- 
ing, and very dry. The entire journey was made without a drop 
of rain, and many times it was hard to find water for the horses or 
even for family use. The road from old Deerfield north was just 
a single track that wound round stumps such as usually beset a 
new cut road. The teams reached Whipple Cook's, who lived in 
a log cabin 18x24, with a fire place in the north end. His family 
consisted of himself, wife and five children; and. when my father's 
family was added, as the reader may well imagine, standing room 
was at a premium. * 


Of course my father supposed that the man who Hved on the 
land he had entered in August, 1836, would vacate the premises 
as per agreement. But he did not, and father was compelled to 
set him out by a writ of ejectment; and then he would not cut up 
the corn that grew on a small patch that had been cleared around 
the house. The cabin stood on the high ground almost directly 
north of the cemetery at Liber. After Phillip Brown was dis- 
possessed of his pretended home my father moved into the cabin 
— 16x20 — on the last day of September. There still came no 
rain, and w-ater became alarmingly scarce. The little Salamonia 
was as dry as the slab road, w^ith only a small pond here and there. 
However, later on, the water seemed to get clear and pure. That 
fall, or in the fall of 1838, father hired E. B. Kikendall, formerly 
of your city, Jackson Knapp and Edward Kikendall, to make 
4,000 rails, and they boarded with us, all stowed in that little 16x20 
cabin. Well, I confess I am unable to tell just how we did get 
along. My father did little else but hunt. Deer were so plenti- 
ful that no day did he fail to get one or more. They were in 
splendid condition and we did not lack for meat of that kind. 

About the ist of November, 1838, one Joshua Penock 
brought a barrel of flour and sold it to my father and Amnion 
Cook. w4io landed in Jay County about the ist of October of that 
year. He came from Massachusetts by way of Toledo and Fort 
Wayne. The flour was brought from Fountain City, then called 
Newport. There was no way by which the flour could be 
divided equally, so father sawed the barrel in two at the center, 
first spreading a sheet on the ground and rolling the barrel upon 
it to save any possible w-aste that might result from this novel rule 
of division. This man Penock then lived directly west of the 
ho htouse, one and one-half mile south of Portland. The old 
cabin was occupied in after years by John Peterson, Robert Stran- 
ahan and others whose names I cannot now call to mind. The 
first fried cake or doughnut was made from some of that flour and 
fried in coon fat. 

Along in November, the fall of '^8, father went hunting, as 
he did almost every day, back in the woods. He was coming 
home, and it was almost dark, when he saw a large coon coming 
towards him and he shot it, brought it home, took ofT the hide 
and then took of( a large flake of fat, mother rendered it out and 
the cakes were fried in the fat. The soda that was used on that 
occasion was the melted ashes by burning a beech stump that 
was hollow from ground to top. The ashes were put in a crock 
and water poured on, and some of that was used. Of course it 


did not take very much. Salaratus, soda and baking powder 
were things that was not thought of at that date. All of this 
came to pass and a thousand other things that I am unable to 
call to mind after so many long and varied years. 

No one can be made to realize the many privations that beset 
the man that went from his home more than half a century ago 
to try and make a home for his wife and family. Things without 
name that made many a dark page in the great volume of a 
pioneer s life. One great blessing was we were blessed with good 
health and was always ready to eat more than we had to eat. 
Something to keep us from freezing was among the most essen- 
tial things at that date. Shoes were almost out of the question ; 
when the ground was bare or the snow. dry, rags around the feet 
were all O. K. The winter of '38 was very cold and dry; stock 
that lived in the woods at that date, with little or no feed, suffered 
much for the want of water and some died with thirst. 

Early in the spring of '39 every old hunter of that date, as 
soon as the frost was out of the ground and the frogs began to 
croak, started for the woods to set coon traps along the branches 
and on old logs that lay in and across the ponds. It was not a 
common thing for the ponds to go dry, but they did in the fall 
of '38. The heavy snows that fell in the winter of '38 and '39 went 
ofif with long continuous rains, which made high waters almost 
everywhere. Travelers were compelled to lay at fording places 
until the waters subsided, which was a slow thing as vast amount 
of water was held back by leaves and drift in the ponds and 
branches. The price of coon pelts at that date made them an 
object. The money that rewarded the hunter in those trying 
times made many a glad heart and brought joy to the cabin home 
of the early pioneer of Jay County. 

Late in March, '39, which was well nigh the end of the trap- 
ping season, my mother told me to get up and hurry to one of my 
traps, which was almost on the old road leading through my 
fathers land, coming down from the Bickle settlement and lead- 
ing out to Richmond and Fort Wayne state road, at the corner 
of Jonas Votaw's land. C. H. Clark knows all about it, as it was 
the only path by which the Hawkinses, Mays. Dickies, Ensm- 
ingers and Hardy come to the town of Portland. Mother says I 
dreamed that there was a coon in the trap close to the path which 
led to town. I jumped up and started in my bare feet. There 
was lots of frost and the ground had frozen some, but I did not 
have any shoes or boots. I tripped over the little rise of ground, 
and I could .see that my trap was down. My heart leaped with 


anxious fear that the trap had been thrown by something that* 
had escaped; but no, Mr. Coon was there, as dead as a chelsy. It 
was as black as coal and worth 25 cents more than coons of a 
lighter color. I sold the hide to Jos. Nixon for one Mexican dol- 
lar and an old Spanish pillared 25-cent piece. This was the first 
money that I had ever owned, except four cents that I had earned 
riding horse to plow corn in the summer of 1834. I worked 
three days and got four cents. The dollar I got for the coon hide 
was, by direction of my mother, spent with old Sallie Conno for 
its value in meat. There was a man who brought out a lot of 
meat from Richmond, Ind., and left it for old John Conno to sell. 
She cut me ofY a square chunk about 8x8 inches thick, guessing 
at the weight, and said that it was a dollar's worth, and I took it. 
Now my dollar was gone! I gave the 25-cent piece to Nathan 
B. Hawkins for a jack-knife. I never got another dollar until 
1845, but I got smaller amounts that I sold gingerbread for. ]My 
father was so poor, for several years after we landed in Jay County, 
that it was out of the question to get enough to cover our backs, 
and many has been the time that I have watched my mother's 
anxious face when she was striving to get food for her helpless 
children. When the meal sack was empty the situation was not 
a pleasant one by any means. Many were the silent tears that 
moistened that careworn cheek when the mind traveled back to 
tlie Iwppy days of childhood, when want and destitution were 
strangers. Words can never tell any part of the many trying 
moments that came to those who settled in Jay County fifty-seven 
years ago. 

My father sowed a small patch of wheat in the fall of '38. and 
of course after harvest bread stufif was not so much of an object, 
as we had a bountiful yield. We threshed some of it on the 
around, and the balance was stacked. And in the winter of '39 
and '40 we hauled the entire stack down in a field where there was 
a pond that was frozen to the bottom. The snow had fallen in 
the water and it froze and the ice was not smooth. It was all put 
'lown at one flooring and the old oxen were driven up and down 
the pond until all was threshed. I went down to where Green 
Crowell now lives, to Obadiah Winters', and hauled his fanning 
mill up on the old sled and the wheat was cleaned, and I set quail 
traps in the chafT. I made a trap that was four feet square, and 
I caught one dozen the first haul. I sold them the next day to 
Nathan B. Hawkins for a stiff round-crown white wool hat. I 
wore it a year or so and then sold it to Frederick Wible, and lie 
painted it red and wore it till after James K. Polk's election. 


The people did not know but little of what was going on in 
the world at that date, as the mails did not bring but few letters 
from those we left back in the land of plenty. The first letter 
that came to my father was in November, '39. The post-olifice 
was kept by Daniel Farber in his own cabin just across the road 
from the residence of Dr. Joseph Watson, at College Corners. It 
cost 25 cents and was on the road thirteen days. It was mailed 
at Hyanis, ]\Iass. The next letter came to an office in Portland. 
William Haines was postmaster. The office was kept in the 
office of Dr. Dixon ]\Iilligan. The building stood at what is 
the south end of the old Trade Palace. That letter came from 
Ohio, mailed at Delaware, and was six days on the road and cost 
25 cents to pay the postage. 

William Haines came to Jay Conty in 1839 and built a place 
to live in by putting some saplings in the ground on the lot that 
James Powell now lives on, south of the Commercial House. He 
split out clapboards four feet long and nailed them from post to 
post, and did not have any floor but mother earth. He staid there 
until he built on the corner where the old Trade Palace now 
stands, and with the many additions that he put to the main 
building, he run a hotel, but just how many years I can not tell, 
but it was three or four. 

ll \ / / \\HfikP(^' 





Forty-seven years ago to-day, November 15th, 1842, I, with 
my brother, Reuben Whipple, went out to hunt for coons. Our 
mother protested against us going, as it was almost one vast un- 
broken forest for miles in any direction. But as we had made up 
our minds to have a hunt, away we went, and when we were once 
out in the woods all was alike to us. We started for what was 
known as the old Geo. Knapp place. There was a small patch 
cleared, and a cabin. This was situated on the north bank of the 
big Salamonia, below the old Robert Jones' farm, about two and 
a half miles above Portland. We had not gone very far before 
things did not look right to us and it grew very dark and we were 
compelled to start a fire to light a hickory bark torch, so I got out 
my old jack-knife and I had a part of an old Indian dart in my 
pocket and some tinder, that father had got of old Joe Flesher, 
that was made out of linen rages. Father had a small apartment 
in his shot pouch to carry it. We "hooked" some of it and had 
it with us, there was no matches then. We started a fire and lit 
a torch of hickory bark. One carried an ax and the other the 
torch, but we had not gone far before we run into a nest of wild 
hogs and small pigs that got run over in their fright and squealed, 
and then fun did commence in earnest. The dog ran back to us 
and the hogs after him, and if it had not been for the torch that 

140 • JAY COUNTY. 

frightened them a\va\', Heaven only knows how the matter would 
have terminated, but we shied off and left them and went on, but 
we had gone not gone far before we heard a strange noise, and 
back came the dog with his tail tucked between his legs, and we 
could not induce him to hunt any more that night. So we wan- 
dered about, thinking that we would come to some spot that 
would give us some idea of where home was, but nothing could be 
found, and it grew darker and began to rain and continued to rain 
harder and my brother began to cry and said that we were lost 
and we would have to lay in the woods and would be eaten up by 
wolves before morning. The situation was not a pleasant one 
by any means, and what to do I did not know as this was the first 
time I was ever lost and knew that if we did not get in by mid- 
night mother would be nearly crazy, wondering what on earth 
was wrong or had happened to us; still we walked on and on, 
nothing turned up that gave us any clue of where we were. Tired 
and hungry, cold and wet, we thought that we would build a fire 
and dry our clothes, so we came to an old dry beech stump that 
was hollow and it was a small task to start a fire, and when we got 
warm sleep made heavy demands upon us and we soon fell an 
easy prey, so we curled up by the fire and the dog laid close by 
our feet. It had turned much colder and the rain slacked up. 
When daylight came the sun came up from the east. We knew 
that our home must be west from where we were, so we started 
the contrary way from where the sun came up. and after a long 
walk, we came to the old Greenville state road that run in former 
days through the lands of Andrew Reid and a part of Jason Whip- 
ple's. We came to it just north of the residence of Daniel Miller, 
we knew that the south end would take us to the old wheat road 
that passed or left the state road at College Corner, right where 
old Judge Bowden first settled in Jay County, I think, in 1835. 
The tomahawk i')ath that led you through the woods of Isaac 
Myers. Robert Jones, Thomas Wheat, Joseph Gillcts and how 
nnich furtiier I cannot say. We soon were in sight of home, and 
were glad once more to see something to eat. Mother had a 
thousand questions to ask, where we stayed and why we did not 
come home. Time in its onward march has wrought many 
•changes, the old have many of them gone to their reward. The 
\oung have grown to man and womanhood and have been iden- 
tified among those that early and later have brought about many 
and lasting improvements of our county. Few are left to bear 
witness of those pioneer days and the hardships that were ex- 
perienced by those that lived at that date. Of what would seem 


Strange to many when they become conversant with the ages of 
us. I, Olney Whipple, was 13 years and 4 months, my brother, 
Ruben Whipple was 9 }ears and 1 1 month old. 

Now, Mr. Editor, let me say one word in conclusion. No 
greater plasure could be participated in by me than to speak to 
my many old, tried and true friend of some little incident of days 
long ago. May the blessing of a Merciful Heaven be their por- 
tions is the wish of the grateful heart of him who penned these 
lines. I am ever yours, 




How the Jay County Boys Celebrated Valentine Day Forty-one 
Years Ago. 

Editor Sun: — Forty-one years ago this night I, with many 
others, met at the house of Aunt Polly Hardy, in Pike Township, 
for the purpose of having a wax pulling. Arrangements had been 
made some days previous so that refreshments could be prepared 
and the necessary amount of sugar scraped up. Each one of the 
boys was required to bring two pounds, and I think nearly 60 
pounds were brought in. I will never forget what a time I had 
to get my part. My father never had any money for anything, 
so I was compelled to find some one that I could borrow 12I/2 
cents from to get the sugar. I, like many other boys, was back- 
ward asking for that amount of money at that date. Father and 
John Shanks, a brother to the late Aunt Rebecca Headington, 
were standing on the old log porch, nearly or quite opposite of 
the Conunercial ofifice, as that was used for a hotel — the old 
building that William Ilaynes put up — and when I came up Mr. 
Shanks asked me if I wanted anything. I dared not say before 
my father that I wanted 12^4 cents to buy sugar, but just then old 
Dan McNeal called father away, and that gave me a chance to 
tell Mr. Shanks what I wanted. He gave me the money, and I 
promised to pay him in a day or two, or as soon as my 'possum 


skins was dry enough to sell. No one knows the heartfelt grati- 
tude that I entertained toward that man for that act of kindness. 
I went home as happy as a lark, as the tug of war was then over, 
and when the day, or rather the night, came, I saddled up an old 
blind horse that was used on the farm, and went for my girl — the 
daughter of Amnion Cook. There were but a few tliat came on 
horseback. Nearly all walked. The ground was l)are of snow, 
but frozen, and the moon shown. The most of us arrived at the 
place of pleasure about dark. All preparations had been made 
for making the wax.. A large 15-gallon iron kettle was hung 
over a slow fire to make the great luxury. The pies had been 
made for a day or so. Curtis Hardy went one mile and a half 
below old Deerfield, to old Geo. Reitenours, and bought one and a 
half bushels of apples for 75 cents and brought them home on 
horseback, and the pies were made by Aunt Policy Hardy and 
her daughter Orpha ,who in after years became the wife of Reuben 
Jellison. But the oddest thing to all was that by some cause, not 
known to me or any one, a small amount of salt got into the boil- 
ing syrup and that was "good-by John to the wax." It was soon 
discovered that there was something wrong about the thick syrup, 
as it was repeatedly tried and no wax. Finally it was emptied 
into a tub of cold water, that it might cool. Well, we rolled it 
around in the tub until we could handle it and then it was laid on 
the table and many were the efforts to cut, brake or pull any part 
of this huge mass of sweetness loose from the big lump, but all 
was in vain. There it laid, about the size of an ox head. We ate 
the pies and had a good time, anyhow. 

I wish I could call to mind all who were there that night. A 
few are left to sigh in sadness when the mind travels back over 
forty-one eventual years. Of all the rosy cheeked maidens that 
formed that happy crowd I am unable to call to mind anyone, and 
of the stalwart youths of that night time will soon blot out all who 
remain, as the sands of life with many of them have well nigh 
passed. O, those happy days! Could we recall them, or say: 
''time, stop thy onward march! and let me live thee over again 
that I may drink deeper of the fountain of youth!" A few more 
years at the longest and we will have filled the allotted mission of 
mortal man. I extend my dearest regard to all that see this and 
note, remember that night. It was the last night that I ever 
met with any of my associates in this county, as my father moved 
ofT to Randolph County on the 17th of February, 1848. 

I am ever yours. 
Briant, Ind., February 14th, 1889. OLNEY WHIPPLE. 



The Great Liber Spring was Discovered by Olney Whipple, Who 
Now Tells About it, and also Remembers Several Other 

Alany years ago, when but a small boy, I was out in the 
woods (it was nearly all woods then) digging sand on the hills in 
and about the old town of Liber, when I accidentally stepped into 
or upon a very cold, damp place, almost hidden with leaves and 
rank vegetation, and as it was so far up the side of the hill it caused 
me to stop and examine the spot. I had no hoe or mattock t-o 
dig out the damp leaves and so I used the sang digger, made 
from a crooked beech limb. I soon saw that I had found a very 
strong spring of the best water, which had for years, for aught I 
know, been running under the leaves until it was absorbed by the 
rich loniy soil of the lianks of the Salamonia. Another reason for 
it not having been discovered before this date was that there was 
no road near by and owing to the steepness of the hill none but 
footmen could go up and down it. This happened on the fore- 
noon of the i/tli day of June, 1843. -^t noon I mentioned what 
I had found and father and I took a hoe and shovel and ting it 
out. Freed from obstructions the water poured forth in a large 
stream and made quite a small branch down the hillside. 


Along in tlie after part of the summer, after water became 
an object to many, J. H. Smith, upon his own account, improved 
the spring by walling it up and enlarging so that many pails of 
water could be taken out at one time without roiling it up — and it 
remained the same, gushing forth the pure crystal fluid to quench 
the burning thirst of him who perchance came that way. Smith 
carried the water in what he called a neck-yoke, worked out of 
the part of a buckeye tree, scooped or hollowed out so as to fit the 
shoulders and come down a little on the back, and then a round 
notch cut out to admit his neck. This brought the weight square 
over the shoulders, the ends of the yoke extending each way from 
the center until they came in line with the outside of the arms, 
and tliere was a rope then attached with a hook to fasten to the 
bail of the bucket. This took almost the entire weight ofif the 
arms, and a man could carry two pails of water half a mile with 
comparative ease. 

The spring in a short time became a noted place for basket 
dinners and there was many a happy hour whiled away by those 
who came to see and be seen and have a social and pleasant chat 
with their neighbors and those that came many times from the 
older settled parts of our adjoining counties. I believe the first 
lecture ever delivered on the hill was by Theophilus Wilson to a 
large crowd of the citizens of Jay, Randolph and Adams Counties. 
The stand was situated under a sugar tree on the west side of a 
large sweet oak that had been cut for coon, in the fall of 1835, by 
Jacob Ringer, who was the pioneer of that patch of cleared land 
where Isaac N. Taylor erected his "gambol roofed house." I 
will mention for the benefit of those who may yet be living that 
this man Ringer built in the spring of i835Aeyx — dtogvaoininn 
the old cabin that this man Ringer built in the spring of 1835 was 
occupied by him until some time in 1837, when he "lit out," and 
no one lived there afterwards except in the winter of 1838, when 
it was occupied by an old lady by the name of Parsons, the 
divorced wife of Robert Parsons, of Randolph County. There 
was but her and her son, Robert, and two daughters, Catherine 
and Lucinda. The oldest several years afterward married Josiah 
Penock, as his second wife; Lucinda married Agrififith Jones, 
also his second wife. The after history of the Penocks and 
Jones I cannot say. But the old cabin still stood, and in the sum- 
mer of 1839, Elizabeth Bosworth, daughter of Dr. Jacob Bos- 
worth, taught school in it, and I had the good fortune to be one 
of her pupils. She, in after years, married Lewis J. Bell and 
made him a good wife and kind mother. The Bosworth family 


are all well known to the present as well as the older citizens of 
Jay County as a highly respectable class of citizens, marked for 
their morality and temperance proclivites. 

John H. Smith, whom we mention as having improved the 
spring, used to impose enormous tasks upon his son, Peter, the 
only one that was with him, and if the task was not done accord- 
ing to his English idea, Peter had to take a thrashing. He re- 
peated this inhuman brutality so often that Peter became de- 
ranged and had an attack of fits that came near taking him across 
to the other shore. I remember one night that he lay at the 
house of John Spade. He was so raving and distracted that 
it took three good men to hold him in bed. I w^as there and 
went with William Spade after Dr. Bosworth at night. It was 
raining and very dark and we had but a cow path to follow, but 
still we found the way. Dr. Bosworth was very indignant to be 
called up at that hour of the night and more so when he was told 
that John Smith wanted him to come and see what he could do 
for Pete. Dr. Bosworth was conversant with Smith's conduct 
toward Pete. When we got back Pete was easier, as his physical 
nature could not hold out against a continuous attack of fits. 
Smith mentioned that he hardly knew what to do, as he could 
not trust Pete out in the woods' at work as he might fall a tree 
upon himself. Dr. Bosworth replied, "there has been too many 
small trees fell on Pete already!" Fortunately for the old man. 
Pete never had another attack after that night, and in the summer 
of 1846, George Smith, the younger son of John H., came out 
from Troy, Ohio, and then things were diflferent. 

I do not know the exact date that Isaac N. Taylor built the 
college at Liber, as my father left Jay County on the 17th day of 
February, 1848, and it was many years before I came back to 
learn much of the improvement that had gone forward while I 
was away. 

Of the Whipples I will speak a word. In 1814 Reuben 
Whipple, my grandfather, came from the state of Massachusetts 
— walked to Delaware County, Ohio. My father came with him 
when he moved, in 1821, and they settled on the west branch of 
Allen creek. Reuben Whipple built a saw mill in 1822-23 and 
father, Jason Whipple, walked back to iMassachusetts in 1824 and 
married Eliza Hellett in 1825 or 1826. Father, worked in the 
machine shop and mother worked in the old Blackstone factory 
at the fall of Blackstone River, R. I. In the fall of 1829 father 
came west to Delaware County, O., and lived there until August, 
1838. We landed in this county August 2S, 1838, and sad to say, 


that there is but one living soul at Portland that was a man when 
my father came, and that is a man who has been more than any one 
else identified with the early history of our county and its many 
varied improvements — Robert Huey. He came as one of the 
pioneers, and he almost stands alone in the great army of those 
that came after him. There are but few left to speak of the happy 
days of childhood or to call to mind the many incidents of our 
early history — time has gathered nearly all the sheaves. Forty- 
four years more and we will live in history and our records will 
be weighed by their merits. 

Pardon me, dear editor, for this short note and I am ever 




Forty-nine years ago this day (August 28, 1838,) Jason 
Whipple and Henry Moore with their famihes set foot upon the 
soil of Jay County, which ended a journey of eight days. Delaware 
County, Ohio, had been our former home for nine }'ears, as my 
father lived in that county before he came west in 1835. Father 
built the acqueduct across Painter creek at Chillicothe. and in the 
fall of 1836 he and his brother, Noah Whipple, and Aaron Grant 
came to Jay County and entered land. Father engaged what is 
known now as the Wiggs farm, north of Liber. Grant entered 
what forms the northwest corner of Bluffpoint. and Noah Whip- 
ple entered what is known as the James Wilson farm. We 
landed at the house of Whipple Cook and was compelled to remain 
there for several weeks, by reason that Philli]) Llrown had squatted 
upon the land, sometime in 1835, and to all land hunters that 
came through that part of the country, Brown always conveyed 
the idea that the land belonged to him. but father got some one. to 
show him such and such tracts that were still vacant, and he 
selected the one that Brown lived upon, and when he was request 
to vacate the old hut he absolutely refused to go. and a suit was 
threatened to be instituted against him, which he paid but little 
attention to at first, but finally moved out. In the latter part of 
October we took possession of the old hut. As the fall of 1838 
was a very late and dry fall, late corn matured and made a very 
^i JO ipnui jou sB.w ojDin snuiq .(ubjy •.Uuiuod sup aoj doj.-> jibj 


left after the coons and other '"varmints" took their share. Brown 
had the small patch about the houste planted in corn and pump- 
kins, and father sent word to Brown to come and cut up the corn, 
as he wanted to sow wheat and it was already to sow ; he refused 
to cut the corn, and finally we cut what little there was left, and on 
the 29th of November, John Spade sowed the wheat and plowed it 
in with a two-horse plow and it soon turned cold and did not 
come up that fall, but in the spring it was very favorable, and the 
wheat came up and there was a splendid crop for this country at 
that date. Father did not thrash but a part of the crop in the fall 
after it was harvested, and the next winter we hauled it to a pond 
that was frozen over and the entire crop was put down at one 
flooring on the ice and was tramped out with the old oxen and 
cleaned upon the ice. I then set a quail trap where the chafT and 
straw was, and caught all that come there, and sold them to old 
Bill Brandon for $1.00 a dozen. In the winter and spring of '38 and 
'39, Edward Kikendall, Butler Kikendall, (of your city) and 
Jason Knapp, made 4,000 rails for father and boarded with us, and 
in Heaven's name I cannot tell how we lived in that old hut 16x20, 
only one room and an outside chimney six feet in the back, I 
know mother would make the children stand in the corners of the 
fire place while she got breakfast in the morning. Along about 
the last of November when meat was scarce, as it usually is at 
that time in the year, father went out hunting and was unfortunate 
and did not see any deer. As he came home nearly dark there 
was a coon coming on a log towards him, he made a slight noise 
and the coon stopped and raised his head and father shot him in 
the end of the nose. He was so awful fat father concluded to 
skin him and save the oil, so mother rendered out the fat. About 
that date old Joshua Penock brought out a barred of flour from 
old New Port, and sold it to Ammon Cook and father, and of 
course each one wanted his part of the flour, and there was not a 
pair of steel yards or scales to the ten miles square, so they meas- 
ured and got the center of the barrel and sawed it in two with a 
hand saw. each one took his end, and out of the flour mother made 
fried cakes or doughnuts and they were fried in that coon fat. 
They were the first fried cakes I ever ate in Jay County and was 
cooked in coon fat. Fur at that date brought price, was plenty 
and about all the money the early settlers got hold of was by the 
sale of hides and pelts. In the latter part of the winter of '38 and 
'39 father bought from Henry Welch, an old pioneer citizen, one 
hundred pounds of bacon and it had been fattened on beech nuts 
and was about two inches thick and about sixteen inches square. 


when it was fried the meat was gone, but there was a lake of oil 
and there was nothing remained of the meat but the hide or rind 
and I could not think of anything but an old fashioned hame 
string floating around in the skillet. Of course it came very 
handy, as it took a good deal of sop to get some of the corn pones 
to migrate down a fellow's neck. 

Allow me to mention a little incident that happened in the 
fall of 1839. About the ist of November, Caleb Penock, the son 
of Joehua Penock, came over to our house to get a gun to shoot 
a fat hog. Father sent me along to bring the gun home. Well, 
the road came out into the state road just where the hot house 
is south of Portland, and the hog was in the cornfield that forms 
the southeast corner of John R. Perdieu's land. Cale, of course, 
shot the hog as soon as he seen it. Well, the hog was more 
than 200 yards from the house and had to be drawn through the 
corn down to the house, which stood in the field southeast of J. 
R. Perdieu's residence; however, we hauled it down, there was 
a large kettle on a log fire, and boiling. But the hog had not 
been stuck and there was not a formed thing to bleed the hog 
with, and old Josh wanted Cole to stick him with the drawing 
knife, and finally old Josh brought out the spoke gimlet and un- 
dertook to draw the crimson fluid by boring into the dead porker's 
neck. As the gimlet did not bring the answer, old Josh says, 
"bring me the broad-ax," and amputation of the head came next, 
but what followed was worse than all. They each one took a hold 
on a leg, and went to the kettle and gave the pig a circumbendebus 
souse. The water was boiling and, of course, not a hair could be 
pulled out, as the water was too hot. I did not stay until the hair 
was ofif, but left them using the drawing knife in getting off the 
most of the hair. 

It seems more like a dream than reality, when our minds 
travel back over the many and varied scenes of our early child- 
hood. But nevertheless they are all realities, and those that 
figured at that date are among the blessed, and we arc spared to 
buffet the storms of life, and hand down to our children the early 
traditions of our boyhood days. Most respectfully. 





George Washington ]\Iarquis was a rich land owner in France 
Avhen the people of France were oppressed. He took sides with 
the people against the Empire, for which he had to leave the 
country. His friends smuggled him to America and his friends 
sent him large sums of money with which he bought land and 
slaves in the state of Virginia. Marques was a second cousin of 
General jMarques De Lafayette. Marques was the father of six 
children, four boys and two girls, viz: Wm. Kid, Gardner, Wil- 
son, James, Kissiah and Rebecka. ' 

Kissiah is the mother of the waiter's father, J. G. Martin, and 
a near relative of Captain Kidd, the pirate. Her older brother 
was named in honor of the captain. 

John Gardner Martin was born October the 20th, 1820, in 
Harden County, Virginia. He was the second son of John and 
Kissiah (Marques) Martin. His mother died when he was seven 
years old, leaving a baby, James, a few months old, and Smith, the 
oldest, was twelve years of age. Shortly after the death of Mrs. 
Matin her brothers. Kid and James, moved to Dark County, O., 
near Union City, bringing the two oldest Martin boys w^ith them. 
Remaining a short time in Dark County, Ohio, James Marquis 
moved to Jay County, Indiana, bringing J. G. Martin with him, 
and lived with him till he was married, in 1843. As this connects 
their lives up to this last date, I will not take up the history of 
James Marques. He entered a farm in Jackson Township, Jay 
County, Ind. A little later in the year he bought of Michael 
Zimmerman the farm now owned by Rev. Aaron Worth. The 
house that Marquis lived in was a split log house, the chickens 
roosting on the joists in one corner. On the south side of the 


house as a shed used for a stable and the north side by the chimney 
was a pig pen. 

In May, 1836, the Methodist Episcopal class was organized 
at Marques' house, it being the first religious organization in Jay 
County. The members were Marquis, William Vail, Jesse Gray, 
senior, David and William Baldwin, and their wives. The first 
temperance meeting was held at the same place in 1837. In June, 
1837, Marquis commenced to build a water grist mill on Bear 
Creek. Boys and girls, you know this creek; can you imagine 
this stream large or swift enough to turn the wheels of a mill. 
The mill was built on the farm now^ owned by Samuel Read, where 
the oil wells are now thickest. They did not know that there was 
a richer investment a thousand feet below the ground than above 
it, so old time with his never ceasing discoveries was left to tell 
the story. But in January of 1838 that little stream of water 
began to turn the wheels of the second grist mill in Jay County. 
Like all of the pioneer mills it was a great blessing to a large sec- 
tion of country people coming to the mill from Adams, Wells and 
Blackford Counties, some coming horse-back carrying their grist 
on their shoulders. My father, at this time, was a boy of eighteen 
summers, helping to build the mill, and after its completion was 
the miller. Judge Studabaker told me of going there to mill and 
finding it full of people who had stayed all night. He said there 
was where he first met my father, who was but a few years his 

But how time has changed things. That little stream that 
once turned the wheels of that mill to grind the grist of the peo- 
ple; it 1-Tas gone down to a mere branch. So has the stream of 
time turned the boys of that day to gray haired men and brought 
new faces to us and stamped their existence on the era of time so 
it has left but few traces of the old mill, and has called that boy 
who stood by the hopper in the old mill to try the realities of aii 
unknown world to us. Marquis also built the first saw mill in 
Jay County in the year 1839. 

[Marquis, raised in the south by parents who owned slaves 
and thought it right, he was unlike them in that belief and thought 
every one created free and equal, and with the assistance of Mar- 
tin, ran the railroad known as the und>erground railroad. How I 
wish I could recall .some of the stories told by father about help- 
ing the negroes to their freedom. How easy it is to trace that dis- 
position of spirit back to where it would cause people to fight for 
what they thought was right. A grandfather banished from 
France because he took sides with a people he thought oppressed 


and slaved. My grandfather Martin was once a slave owner, but 
he helped runaway slaves from the country in which they were 
held in bondage, and going contrary to the la\vs of their own state 
because they thought slavery wTong. 

James Marquis made the first abolishment speech ever made 
in Adams County. It was made in the forties; Judge Studabaker 
told me about it. Marquis was a large man, six feet and seven 
inches in height. Studabaker said the people of Adams County 
said no man could make such a speech as that in the county, but 
it was made at Alexander, now Geneva. So the day came, and 
so did Marquis. Some of the people in favor of slavery came w-ith 
fife and drum with the intention of making so much noise that he 
could not speak ; they had a little fight ; someone had a gun and 
went to use it. Marquis grabbed it and held it up, and some one 
threw a wash tub that was sitting by, striking him on the shoulder. 
That quieted the racket and he made his speech. 

James Marquis was chaplain of Company E, Seventh Indiana 
Cavalry. I will tell a story that I have often heard told about him. 

It was on the Sabbath day and he was preaching with all the 
eloquence of an old time Methodist minister and there was a 
skirmish near by ; the noise of the battle grew louder and louder 
and Marquis preached the louder, but the battle grew closer and 
closer and Marquis could stand it no more and said, "boys we 
had a d — sight better fight than pray." After the war was over 
he moved to Missouri and there fought his last battle of death. 
The death is unknown to us, but in writing this history I speak 
of one who was a father in action to my father. 

John Gardner Martin was married to Margaret Fitzpatrick 
in August, 1843. To them was born nine children, one boy and 
eight girls; the boy being the oldest child, died when he was six 
months old. The sixth daughter died when she was five years 
and some months old. The rest of the girls living, Margaret 
Fitzpatrick, was born on the Nations birthday, July 4, 1827. in 
Muncie, Delaware County, Indiana. Miss Fitzpatrick was a true 
American in every sense of the word, making no difference with 
her how low was the situation of any one, she was always ready to 
give them a kind word of encouragement for a better life. Her 
parents moved to Camden, now Pennville. wdien she was a little 
girl; she was converted and joined the Methodist church when she 
was 10 years old and was ever found ready to do her duty as a 
Christian. She was but sixteen years old when married. What 
*;?nder age to take the cares of a house, yet what a wife and 
<-her she proved to he. She would often say she wanted us to 


walk alone, but in real need we ever found a helping hand held out 
by mother. When mother was married she could not read with- 
out spelling every word, but with that determination to know- 
something she mastered that difficulty herself. As a Bible scholar 
she was good; she was well posted on the political issues of the 
day, studying everything on that line she could come in contact 
with. Being a great reader and having a good memory, there 
was few subjects but what she could talk on. In short, I was 
proud of mother and realize the old ade, a person's best friend 
is their mother. I do not know where or how my parents went 
to house keeping. Father entered a piece of land in Jackson 
Township, Jay County, (now owned by John Karney) when they 
were married. For five or six years they went into the dry goods 
business. Having none of the older girls to tell me of the early 
part of their business, I will leave that blank and take up the year 
of 1854. At the time they were keeping a general store in Alex- 
ander — Sale Buffalo — and now known as the city of Geneva, 
noted for her hustling business men, which I will make you ac- 
quainted with by reading their advertisements in this book. On 
the 5th of April, 1854, your humble servant, the writer of this 
sketch and author of this book, came to live at J. G. Martin's and 
boss the other three girls around for the next three years. 
At that time there was another girl came to make me dance to her 
music. In 1857 they were keeping store in Camden. They 
moved from there to West Liberty in '58 or '59. In looking over 
the Jay County Torchlight, the first Republican paper printed in 
Jay County, I see he was an authorized agent for the paper in the 
fall of 1863. H^ thought he would try farming, and he moved 
on a farm he then owned, and now owned by j\Irs. Dillavon. 
Father had often wished to enlist in the service of his country, but 
by the pursuasion of wife, children, relatives and friends, waited, 
but in 1864, when the Union called for volunteers, he knowing 
that his country needed his service, he could stand it no longer, 
and enhsted on the 12th day of October, 1864. Telling wife he 
was going to her Brother Harvey Fitzpatrick, at Winchester, on 
business, never hinting his intentions of the business of his coun- 
try. I will never forget the day he started. There were seven 
girls of us. The way he kissed us so tenderly and elapsed mother 
to him as never before, taught us of what was coming, as we 
watched him as he rode away on his favorite black horse, we wav- 
ing our hands and the winds tossing our flaxen hair till he was out 
of sight, thinking his business was at Winchester, but a day or 
two later brought us the news that his business in the defense of 


our glorious flag of the free and the home of the brave. He en- 
listed in Company F, 140 Indiana Infantry. He said he could not 
stand it to stay at home when his country needed his service and 
he hated to bid farewell to wife and babies and them knowing 
where he was going. 

I do not know where he did go, but think it was in Alabama, 
but that which, they all expected happened. He was of a delicate 
constitution and could not stand the hardships of war, was taken 
sick and removed to the hospital. The next we heard of him was 
when he was brought home on a horse, a man on each side of him 
holding him, and they carried him in the house. I do not know 
whether he went back or not. He was offered a discharge for dis- 
ability, but would not accept it, as his company was to receive 
their discharge on the nth of July, 1865. While father was in 
the army mother moved to West Liberty. They moved to the 
farm a year or two and he went to West Liberty in the goods 
business again. He was keeping store there when the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana railroad went through and Bryant was laid out 
He built the second business house in Bryant, putting goods in 
he keeping the two stores for about a year. He built a dwelling 
house, the one now owned by the heirs. It is on Main street. We 
moved in the latter part of December, 1872, and in May, 1874, 
the news came to us that father was sick, and in the two weeks he 
lay sick everything that medical skill could do was done, but to no 
avail. He told us he hated to leave his family, but it was a change 
we all had to make. On the i6th day of May he was called to 
the unknown shore and to him death's mystery was a mystery no 
more. He was buried in the Miller cemetery. He had accumu- 
lated a great deal of property which he left to our mother, which 
she knew well how to take care of. He had always told and con- 
sulted her about business. She sold the store goods to Dr. M. 
Glentzer and brother. She bought and sold land, town property, 
horses, cattle, hogs, in fact everything there was any money in. 

On June 23rd, 1876, mother was married to Wm. Moore, 
who died in January, 1892. After that time she kept house, her 
daughter, Mrs. Bailey, a widow with three children, living with 
her. On the 17th of January, 1896, motlier came to our house 
and stayed till the 25th. During that time she told me that she 
intended to have father removed from the Miller cemetery as soon 
as they would lay out a new one somewhere. They had been try- 
ing to get ground here where the new cemetery is for twenty-three 
years, but could not succeed. She looked up at me and said, 
■'■'Matt, if anything should hapen to me never lay me in the Miller 


cemetery." Little did I think that in three short weeks we should 
be called in some way to fullfil her r«qnest, but on Sunday morn- 
ing of the 9th of February, 1896, brought us a dispatch that 
mother was found dead in her bed. What a death, how sad, and 
yet how sweet to go to sleep in health on earth and wake up in 
eternity. While writing this the song comes to me, "What is 
Home Without a Mother?" How fully I realize it when I go 
back to the old home and other dear ones meet and welcome me, 
but the true friend and magnet of the home is gone it does not 
seem like home wothout Mother, We laid her in the Wells ceme- 
ter}', about live miles from home, and on the next Friday took up 
father and the children from the Miller cemetery with the inten- 
tion of laying them by the side of mother, when Mr. Alberson 
ofifered to lay out three acres in cemetery lots if we would lay them 
there, and when the sun had set they laid them away. The next 
day they brought the mother back and they all sleep side by side 
on the hill between their old home, W^est Liberty and Bryant. 

I do not want to tire the readers but will give a little sketch 
of my own life for my boys. 

On the 23rd of January, 1873, I "^^'^s married to Mr. Allen T. 
Lynch, a Buckeye boy, he being twenty years and seven months 
old. We went to housekeeping in Adams County, Ohio; moved 
on a farm first thing. It was a quarter of a mile from the road 
and it was a novelty for me. I had been used to being in the 
store and with a big family. I amused myself by riding on the 
plows, fishing, tending the chickens and turkeys. The first of 
September we moved back to West Liberty, Jay County, Indiana. 
On the 7th of November, 1873, ^ stranger came to our house to 
live and boss the ranch. We named him Bertie Gardner. In 
the spring of '74 we moved on a farm owned by my father, and in 
August of the same year moved to Ridgevillc, Randolph County, 
and lived there about three months, and then moved to Bryant, 
Mr. Lynch buying timber. On the nth of April, '83. another 
little boy baby made its appearance at our house, but made a short 
stay with us. In teji days he was taken from us, but in that short 
time he had won a place in our hearts that can never be filled by 
any one else. In August, 1883. Lynch went in the goods busi- 
ness, keeping a line of dry goods, groceries, boots and shoes, and 
ready made clothing. In the spring of 1884 I made a visit to my 
sister, Mrs. John Hammett, in Davison County. South Dakota. 
The country was new; it had only been settled about six years. I 
was not ver\' favorably impressed with the country. Indiana is 
good enougii for me. In 1886 A. T. Lynch was the candidate for 
sheriff of Jay County, being nominated on the 13th ballot, but 



Avas defeated at the election by a small majority. I suppose what 
defeated him was my believing on the otlier side of the political 
fence. I have heard it said that a house divided could not stand,, 
but ours has stood for twenty-three and one-half years and all the 
change is a little improvement on my side. Our oldest boy votes 
the Republican ticket and I live in hopes that in sixteen years 
from now the other one will vote the same way with a prohibition 
addition. In the spring of 1887 we added to our line of goods a 
millinery goods department, and on the 23rd of June sold out to 
Jeol Townsan. 

Then he went in partnership with Votaw and moved to Win- 
chester, Ind., and started a spoke and hub factory and remained in 
parternership with him till the last of June, 1889, then selling his 
half interest to his partner, A. Votaw. Mr. Lynch then moved 
to Decatur, arriving at this place August 10, at 6 o'clock p. m., 
bought the brick property on Madison street and moved in it in 
the afternoon. We took dinner at A. E. Huffman's, supper at 
home. Lynch had brought the machinery and started a spoke 
factory in the Studabaker factory building on the G. R. & L rail- 
road. In January of 93 I caught a severe cold and it settled on 
my lungs. The doctors pronounced it consumption and said only 
a change of climate was the only relief, so on January 25th they 
carried me to the sleigh of Pendleton Rice, whose history you will 
find in this book. He drove me to the G. R. & I. train and Lynch 
sent me to the land of oranges and flowers, known as Florida. 
At that time baby Ralph was only one year, nine months and six 
days old. They wanted me to leave him with my sister, ]\Irs. 
\'otaw. but I would not do it and took him with me. Bertie, the 
oldest boy, went with us to take care of us. We left a land of 
2l^ feet of snow and three days we were in sunshine and flowers 
in central Florida. Our longest stay was at St. Petersburg, 
on the Gulf of Mexico. We were at Leesburg, Wild wood, 
Polatka, Tampo, Pansdeloon Springs, St. Augustine, Jacksonville 
and some other towns I do not remember the names of. Bertie 
left me at St. Petersburg and came home. I had partly recovered 
my health. Was you ever sick away from home and have some 
one to go back and leave you? I was very lonesome after he left, 
and traveled around some, finely landing at Atlanta, Georgia. I 
was there a week when I got a letter from home telling me I could 
come home about the 20th. This was the 13th of April. T 
packed my trunk and the next morning started for home; stayed 
two nights in Chatanooga, went up on Lookout Mountain. Mis- 
sionary Ridge, National cemetery and all the places of interest. 


Arrived at home on the 17th of April and it was snowing and they 
had all the carpets up and the stoves out and were cleaning house, 
thinking I was safely housed in Chattanooga. 

But be it ever so dirty, there is no place like home, at least I 
thought so when I got back. In the summer of '93 Lynch bought 
fourteen acres of land at the west side of the city and laid it out 
in town lots, calling it Lynch's addition. It was done with the 
understanding that the lots were to be sold and the proceeds 
to go to building a chair factory. There were thirty-four of said 
lots sold, the contract to pay for lots wdien said factory was in 
operation. Lynch built the factory and had it in operation on the 
ist of January, 1894. There were twenty-three men paid for 
their lots, and there were eleven refused to pay, and he brought 
suit against them and carried it to the supreme court. But the 
courts decided it a lottery and the contracts illegal. The supreme 
court said where you place a name in a hat and a number in an- 
other is was a lottery, and that is the way they decided location of 
lots. The lots were sold for $100 to $250, the location depend- 
ing. We had to sell spokes, home and everything saleable at 
from a discount of a third and a half of valuation to meet 
our obligations, and in the fall of 1894 we had a fire at the storage 
room. We had $900 worth of A and B hub blocks, the building 
had cost us $185 and about $400 worth of machinery stored in 
the building, with $500 of insurance. Everything burned, 
also buggy and harness and several other little things.. He 
tried to pull through, but it and the panic in times was too 
much for him, so on the 23rd of February, 1895, he deeded every- 
thing to preferred creditors. On the i8th day of May, 1895, I 
got my mother to go on my note for $500 to go in the spoke busi- 
ness again and with that assistance we have been able to make a 
living and paid some of our debts, and at the time of writing I 
have a brick chair factory 150 feet long by 50 feet wide with a brick 
engine room and chair machinery and no money to operate with, 
a nice big mortgage of $2,425 which we would like to sell. With 
good health and plenty of grit we hope to soon be able to pay. 
When we are, like the old honest blacksmith in the old reader, 
w-e can look the whole world in the face and owe not any man. 
Well, I don't think Decatur will be big enough to hold us, we 
will have to lay out another addition. Now I will tell you a 
little secret. On the 21st of July I will be that most dreaded of 
beings, a mother-in-law. The future Mrs. Bertie Lynch is now 
Miss Mammic Houlthouse, the daughter of T. Houlthouse. the 
shoe man. Yours truly, 




I was born in Columbian County, Ohio, November 23rd, 
1834. My ancestors on the father's side came from England, 
settling in Pennsylvania. Tliey were members of the society of 
Friends. My father was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 
November nth, 1790, and moved with his father to Ohio, Colum- 
bian County. He was twice married, I being the youngest of the 
last marriage. My parents move to Jay County, Indiana in 1837, 
when I was three years old. My grand parents on my mother's 
side come from Ireland before the revolutionary war. Grand- 
father died on the passage, and was buried in the ocean. The 
children were put out amongst strangers on their arrival in 
America, Mad Anthony, or General Wayne, taking my grand- 
father. He and young General Wayne were raised boys to- 
gether. i\Iy granxJfather's name was George McNely. He mar- 
ried in Philadelphia a Quaker girl by the name of Jane Register, 
moved to Columbian County, Ohio, after they had three children. 
The only thing I can remember when we lived in Ohio was stand- 
ing at the fence with my father watching the carriages as the 
Friend Quakers went by to yearly meeting at Damascus. Moved 
to Indiana in 1837 in the fall, father, mother and three children 
then at home. We were accompanied on our trip to Jav County 
by Aaron Register and wife, and they had a carriage, we a big 
wagon. Thomas Register and Enoch Hunter (young men) came 
along. All I can remember on the road out was some men kill- 
ing our dog. He had treed a squirrel, but never came back to 


the wagon. The men, I think, were drunk. I remember the 
men and the boys with us having a racket. We were nine days 
on the road, making the quickest trip that had been made. My 
oldest brother, William, and brother-iii-law, Abraham Smith, had 
moved out some two or three years before we came. Brother 
William had a house up and an acre or two of ground cleared. 
Though my father was not one of the early pioneers, yet we hatl 
some of the experience of pioneer life. In my mind's eye I can 
see the old log cabin with its small windows, its puncheon floor, 
the stake ridden roof, stick chimney and clapboard door with the 
latch string always out. I can see the small patch of ground 
around the house, and remember how year by year it widened, 
and the neighbors seemed to get closer together as the woods 
disappeared. ]\Iy brother, older than myself, was quite a hunter 
in a small way, though he never killed a deer or turkey. He was 
death on mink and opossum. The worst small varment dreaded 
by the hunter was the porcupine, for the dog was almost sure to 
get his mouth full of quills, then they had to be pulled out with 
the bullet molds or pinchers. Never saw but one wolf aud that 
after it was killed. Remember hearing them howl after night; 
never killed but one wild turkey. The deer used to come in our 
meadow to pasture, three or four at a time. Mother was a great 
nurse in sickness and used to go far and near when the diphtheria 
broke out first. She was a faithful hand, never fearing for her- 
self. She was something of a tailor, having worked at the trade 
in her younger days, and long hours after we were in bed she 
often plied her needle making garments for the neighbors. Can 
see her yet at the old spinning wheel, and how well I remember 
the wall pickings, quiltings and log rollings, the visits to her 
neighbors in winter on the big sled, in warmer weather on foot 
with the hickory bark torch to light us home. My father was a 
jovial, jokey man, but very firm. I always knew that when he 
told me anything that he meant it. Remember when one of my 
cousins was married Eli (Paxson) he and his wife were at our 
house for dinner my father asked the young lady if she could 
make a shirt. Yes, she said. Well, then you can get along, for 
Eli can make a shift, he has made many a one. One night a 
cousin was staying at our house, something got after the chickens, 
the young man (Joe Davis) jumped out of bed, jerked on his boots 
and ran to the hen house. As he came up something started to 
run for the woods, and iiaving no club or anything to kill it with, 
Davis jumped onto it and stamped it to death. When he came 
in to the light anrl 1iw>livl nt lii^ \uu^\< tluM wrri- full i>f n, .r.-n|tin.' 


quills. Our new ground was plowed with a single shovel with a 
cutter in front to keep it from catching on the roots. Many were 
the rides my brother gave me and my sister sitting between the 
plow handles. Must say it was not very smooth riding, as the 
plow jumped over the roots. I was always a sickly child. When 
about two years old I fell in a bucket of water where mother was 
washing, drowned so they had to fetch me to.- Then had the 
whooping cough, was twice laid down for dead; then the third day 
ague. Dr. Arthur says he gave me quinine enough to kill a 
horse, but outlived it all. It seemed to fall to my lot to go for the 
doctor when any one else was sick. I first went to school at 
West Grove, then to Balbec, but finally a school house was put 
up close to us which went by the name of Paxson's school house. 
My father died in 1862. Mother afterward married and moved 
to Randolph County, Indiana, where, after my marriage, we lived 
for seven years till mother's death, on November 23rd, 1869. 

I was married to Deliah B. Manley, daughter of Jeremiah 
L. and Mary A. Manley. My wife's parents moved from Athens 
County, Ohio, to Jay County, Ind., in 1 851, making the trip in a 
big wagon, when their oldest child was a little over one year old. 
remained in Jay County about four years, then went back to 
Athens County, Ohio, where they remained two years, then again 
moved back to Indiana, Jay County. You people that load your 
household goods on the train, then take the express and reach 
your destination in so short .a time, know nothing about the hard- 
ships of a trip of two or three weeks in the big wagon. Not many 
of the women of Jay County have made their trips in a big wagon 
of that distance before they were seven years old. Mr. Manley 
was a cooper, so that occupation came in good play in the new 
county; he was also somewhat of a shoe maker. On one occasion 
he had piled in a lot of wood and roots for the morning fire, laid 
his boots on the wood when they were taken off at night. His 
wife getting up first to build the fire, piled on the wood and with 
them both of the boots, not noticing the difference till they were 
badly burned. 

(letting home late one night after a hard day's work for a 
neighbor some miles away, Mr. Manley lost his way in the woods 
and was followed by a lot of wolves. Knowing that he was not 
far from home he called to his wife to make the dog bark. Guided 
by this he soon got home. Another experience his wife had re- 
turning home one evening on foot with her sister-in-law and two 
children (having been to see her father-in-law, some four miles 
away), Mrs. INIanley saw some wolves in the woods close to the 


path. Being cool-headed, she picked up one of the children, 
telling her sister-in-law to pick up the other, said, lets walk a little 
faster, never telling aboyt the wolves till they reached home. 
Manley tried farming, then the goods business, finally studied 
law, in the practice of which he was proving very successful at the 
time of his death, in Geneva. Adams County, December 6th, 1880, 
aged 54, leaving a* family of six children. 

]\Iany little incidents of early life will never be told in history, 
but I wish to drop a few of them ; especially wish to remember the 
faithful old pioneer dog, not the fine-haired, imported dog, but 
the old that has stood his part. Remember our old dog would 
go for the cows as far as he could hear the bells and even farther. 
He has been seen a mile from home standing on a big stump list- 
ening for the bell. Then the old harvest field in which the 
dinner and evening pieces were brought out and how myself 
and sister used to dozen the sheaves; they must be six on a side 
and laid even. The sickle was only used for down wheat when 
I was a boy, but will carry a scar on my finger from its use while 
I live. Have raked wheat after the cradel and bound the end 
sheaf many a day for 25 cents per day. On one occasion I had 
taken mother to town in an old-fashioned jumper, as they were 
called ; a pin sled with a hickory pole for a shaft and a clapboard 
bed on it. There was a fine haired young fellow from the east in 
town. As it chanced I knew his name, which was Pointer. As 
I drove up and hitched he came up^ pushed his hat back, marched 
around our sled and said, do you call that a cutter? No, sir; I re- 
plied; its a pointer. A what? A pointer, I answered. He 
looked at me a moment and walked oflf. Always made it a prac- 
tcie to tell mother where I was going when I went away. For 
several years before my father's death he was troubled with palpi- 
tation of the heart. We never let him go any where alone. We 
used to haul -stove wood to Camden, a distance of three miles. 
Froze my feet once on the road. We lived on the line of the under- 
ground railroad, as it was called. Many times I have seen the 
darkies going by our house after night to the next station, just 
north of us, on their road to Canada. Was raised a Republican, 
but in 1884, realizing that the party would not stand out for the 
destruction of the liquor traflfic, I pulled in with the Prohibition 
jjarty and have worked with them ever since. Never took a drink 
in my life, do not use tobacco, and my brother that is now living, 
can say the same. Though the forests of timber has been cleared 
away and the log house given place to the fine mansions in our 
county, we can see a forest of sin growing around us that it be- 


hooves us to clear away. The open saloon, the gambhng den, 
prostitution, Sabbath descreation making a far worse wilderness 
than has been cleared away. Brothers get your prohibition ax 
and help clear it away. 



Ruth A. Headington, wife of Col. Nim Headington, but 
known and loved far and near as "Aunt Ruth/' is one of the pio- 
neer women of Jay County. Of the women identified with the 
earliest history of Portland, she alone remains; and Hon. Robert 
Huey, who will soon celebrate his 86th birthday, is the only man 
now living who was here when she first came to this place. 

Airs. Headington's mind is stored with many interesting re- 
miniscences of the earlier settlrs of Portland and vicinity. When 
she first came to Portland our populous little city could boast of 
but two houses. One of these was a log house, occupying the 
ground where the Silvernale store now stands. It was used as a 
court house, and the hickory trees stood so close that in the fall 
the nuts beat a lively tattoo upon the clapboard roof. The other 
house was a long.double log house, and stood where the Miller 
& Huston building now stands; this was the residence of Chris- 
topher Hanna. 

In building the first hewed log structure in the town, it took 
all the men within five miles two days to raise it and several 
gallons of whiskey to keep up the steam. This building after- 
ward became famous as "Hickory Hall." 

The first frame house was built by Dr. Dixon Milligan, where 
the "Trade Palace" now stands. The lumber was hauled from 
Richmond with oxen, and it often took seven or eight days to 
bring one load. This eventually became the first tavern in the 
town. The first store of any note was started by William Shull, 
and was afterward transferred to William Brandon. 



It was a common thing to see a "'log rolling" in what are 
now the streets of Portland, and it was a long time before there 
was any kind of a bridge over the Salamonia river. Sometimes 
there would be weeks and weeks that they could not ford the 
river and often had to swim horses across. 

It would be a pleasant task to go on recording the many and 
varied recollections and experiences of Mrs. Headington, but 
space will not permit. Her career has been identical with the 
growth of Portland, and its ever increasing prosperity must be a 
gratifying feature for her contemplation. 

Aunt Ruth's life is a beautiful example of noble womanhood. 
The laurel wreath of fame lured her not, yet she has made herself 
a name more to be desired than fame and far above rubies. 

Her church duties and acts of benevolence furnish her an 
ample field for usefulness. She has a kind word of encourage- 
ment for the weak and a sincere prayer for the erring. 

Her home has that attractive restfulness and comfort which 
even palaces do not possess, where the magical touches or the 
true home-maker are about, and her bright, cheery face is sure 
to beam a welcome to all who cross her threshold. 

Having no children of her own, she has made for herself a 
place in the hearts of many of earth's helpless ones, and to them 
ner memory will ever be a sweet fragrance of tender thoughts 
and pleasant recollections of kindly deeds and loving words. 
One of these whom she thus befriended, in deepest gratitude and 
loving tribute, signs her name. ADALYN. 




I was born in Knox County, Ohio, December 13th, 1833. 
My parents were Nicholas and Ruth (PhilHps) Headington, who 
emigrated from Maryland in the early part of the present cen- 
tury. I was educated in the common schools of Ohio and came 
to Portland in September, 1853, where I have lived ever since. 
In 1856 I commenced the study of law with Hon. J. M. Haynes, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1858. In May, 1858, I was mar- 
ried to Miss Nancey Bos worth, a daughter of Dr. Jacob Bos- 
worth, who died in 1874. In August, 1862, I enlisted as a private 
in Co. H., 100 Regiment Indiana Vol. Inft. On the organiza- 
tion of the company I was elected captain of the company at 
Wabash, Indiana, where we first went into camp. We were at 
once ordered to Indianapolis and in old Camp Morton we began 
to school ourselves as soldiers. We graduated early, partly on 
account of our proficiency and partly because of necessity. On 
the lithe of November, 1862, we started for the field of battle 
and landed at Memphis, Tenn., where we joiiK^d Grant's army on 
his campaign through Mississippi, which was defeated by the 
fall of Holley Springs in our rear, and we were forced to rehire to 
Grand Jucntion, Tenn.. here we spent the winter (1862 and '63) 
guarding the Memphis & Charleston railroad until June, 1863. 
We went to Vicksburg and participated in what is known as the 
"Vicksburg campaign." In the fall of 1863 we came to Memphis 
and thence across the country to Chattanooga, where we joined 
with the army of Thomas and fought the battle of Chattanooga 



and Mission Ridge, here our regiment lost in killed and wounded 
a greater per cent, of our force than the loss of the famous 600 
and greater than any other regiments engaged in that great battle 
except the 90th Illinois, on our immediate left, and the 40th 
Indian regiment in Sheridan's division. We marched to the re- 
lief of Burnsides at Knoxville after the battle of Chattanooga, 
thottgh our men were worn out and barefooted or nearly so. We 
returned to Bellefonte, Alabama, where we spent the winter, and 
on the 1st day of May, 1864, we started on the "Atlanta cam- 
paign," which lasted until the 3rd day of September, and we were 
under fire every day from May 3rd to September 3rd, 1864. We 
made the march to the sea with Sherman, and after the fall of 
Savannah and a short rest, we made the campaign through the 
Carolinas and were at Raleigh, N, C, when the war closed. Our 
regiment participated in the battle sof Vicksburg, Jackson, Chat- 
tanooga, Dalton, Snake Creek Gap, Resact, Kingston, New 
Hope Church, Rome, Dalas, Chattahoocha River, Big Shanta, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Manitta, Atlanta, Nickerjack Creek, Jones- 
boro, Lovejoy, Gresworldville, Savannah, Bentonville and a host 
of other smaller engagements and skirmishes, and it never lired 
a gun at the enemy when I was not with it. In June, 1864, I was 
promoted to the rank of Major of the regiment and later on I was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel of the regiment. On 
the 22nd of November, 1864, while on the march to the sea, our 
brigade, then numbering 1,300 men present for duty, had an en- 
gagement with the nemy at Gresworldville, Ga., which I desire 
to mention particularly because of the fact that on account of our 
being in the rear of the wagon train and away from the great 
body of the army, the historian has never done us justice. The 
enemy, 10,000 strong, attacked us about noon and we were com- 
pelled to fight them with our 1,300 men until darkness closed 
the bloody scene, and we held our ground and slaughtered the 
enemy the worst they ever experienced. The southern papers 
admitted a loss of 614, but the estimates of our generals place 
their loss much higher. In that engagement I was in command 
of six companies of our regiment, (the looth Ind.) and occupied 
the center of our lines wdiere our loss was the greatest. Every 
horse in our brigade, including the artillery horses, were killed 
or wounded except mine, and six of the number (four killed and 
two wounded were killed or wounded within 30 feet of me. You 
may imagine we slaughtered the enemy when I tell you we shot 
at them 92,000 rounds of fixed amunition besides what was 
thrown by the two pieces of artillery. After the close of the war 


I returned to Portland and resumed the practice of the law in 
this and adjoining counties, where I have remained ever since. 
I commenced in the "free for all" a poor boy and have had many 
ups and downs like most people who have to struggle for them- 
selves. In my early practice of the law, being poor in purse, I 
was compelled to practice in justices' courts all over the county, 
and occasionally a little over the line. We have had some lively 
times and many amusing incidents connected with the practice 
before justices of the peace. On one occasion I was called upon 
to defend a \\ell-known farmer, who I will call Mr. "A." who 
was charged with the crime of perjury before one of the justices of 
was charged ith the crime of perjury before one of the justices of 
the county. Mr, "A." was a very noisy man when excited, had 
a course, loud voice, and when he wanted to he could make more 
noise than a dozen wild beasts. On the way out, knowing so well 
his disposition to make a noise, I said to him, "I know your ability 
to make a noise, and I will warn you now if you don't keep still 
and let me do the talking I will withdraw from the case on the 
first outbreak, and if you don't promise to keep still I won't begin 
the case. He promised to keep still until the case was decided, 
and kept his promise, but when the justice, about midnight, in 
a room full of pople waiting in breathless silence, made his" de- 
cision "not guilty," he gave way to his pent-up feelings in his 
best and most improved style, so that in a few minutes he and the 
justice were alone in the room, all the balance having retreated 
as from a cyclone. In early days in our practice in this county 
turnpikes and gravel roads were not dreamed of, and we were 
compelled to trudge through the mud on horseback. There 
were no buggies in the country to be had, and for about nine 
months of the year a horse coukl not have pulled them through 
the mud if we had had them. On one occasion we tried a case 
before Esquire "B." which lasted until late in the night. It was 
his first case and he tried hard to be on both sides of the case all 
through, and when both sides were done he deliberateld for a time 
and finally said, "when the plaintifif rested his case I could have 
decided it easily, but since the defendant has got through it is so 
mixed up that the d — 1 can't decide it." 

Esquire C, Q Township, issued an injunction enjoining 

a party from removing a lot of corn in the shock, and on the re- 
fusal of the defendant to obey the injunction he attached him 
for contempt. His attention was called to the fact that a justice 
of the peace could not issue injunctions, he demanded to be 
shown the law that prohibited him from doing so. One justice 


of the peace, 'Squire D., who was a justice for several years in 

Township, always held that a party arrested for a crime was 
presumed to be guilty or he would not have been arrested, and it 
was his rule to require the defendant to prove himself "not 
guilty," or he was sure to convict him, and on one occasion he 
found a party guilty of grand larceny, and seeing the statute 
providede for imprisonment in the state prison, proceeded to 
sentence him to the states prison. 

In 1876 I married Laura E. Haines, with whom I am still 



Levina C. Griffin was born in Pelham, Mass., in 1809. Her 
parents and grand parents were born twelve miles from Provi- 
dence, R. I., in Cumberland. Her father was a mmister in the 
Friends' church. Her mother was a member of his church. 
]\Irs. Griffin remembers of goinng to school at the age of 4 years; 
the distance to her school was one-half mile. There were two old 
maids that lived near the school would always have her come in 
and dr}- her dress every morning that was wet with dew. Mrs. 
Griffin only had one sister, at the age of 4 or 5 years. She re- 
members of her sister weaving yarn that was spun at the "Slater's 
factory," the first factory that was in New England. There was 
no weaving done at the factory at that time. Her sister, who 
was weaving with another girl, would say when Mrs. Griffin would 
go to see them. "Well, let's drive a nail through that little girl's 
ear and hang her up to the side of the house." She would go down 
stairs in a hurry. Her mother would say to her. "thee had better 
stay with me." Mrs. Griffin would attend school six months in a 
year, three months in the summer and three in the winter, until 
she was nine years old, then she only went to school in the winter 
until she was eighteen years old. At that age she was through 
in orthrography, reading, writing, arthmetic, grammar and 
geography. Then she attended school in her 22nd year in Provi- 
dence, R. I., at the New England yearly meeting boarding school. 
She taught in all two years in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. 
She had si.x brothers, one younger and five older than herself. 
Her sister was married when she was only six year old. She aufl 
her younger brother were born in Massachusetts, the rest being 
l)orn in Rhode Island. The oldest and youngest died when they 
were born. Whipple Cook, next oldest, was thrown out of a 
wagon and killed near Portland, Ind., at the age of 84 years. 
Simon Cook, next oldest, died in Dixon County. Neb., at the 
<ige of 75 years. Tremer Cook, died in Baltimore, Md., at the 


age of 50 years. Amnion Cook died in Howard County, Ind., 
and her sister died in Boston, Mass. She was married to Sum- 
ner Griffin August 27th, 1837. ^^ was the son of Johnath and 
Mary Griffin, who were old residents of Pelham, Mass. She 
started with her brother, Whipple Cook, and his family of six 
children for Indiana in September ist, 1837. It took them two 
days to come to Troy, N. Y., one week they were on the canal to 
Bufifalo, N. Y. There they took a steam boat to a little town by 
the name of Huron, at the west end of Lake Erie. There they 
hired two teams and they brought them within about two miles 
of their destination. There the teamsters swore that they would 
not bring them another step. They unloaded their goods and 
left. Then Whipple Cook started for Jay County, and hired 
three men with teams, Mr. Spade, George Bickle and Henry 
Welch, and returned the fourth day. They reloaded their goods 
and they started for Jay County and arrived at Whipple Cook's 
farm of sixty acres, just one month from the time they left Massa- 
chusetts. Whipple Cook had come out the year before and 
Mrs. Griffin. Not a tree was cut on their land, and in the spring 
Mrs. Griffin. Not a tree was cut on their land, and the spring 
was a mud hole full of deer tracks. Inside of a week they had a 
cabin built 16 feet square a'tid the floor was laid with puncheons 
two-thirds over the room. Whipple Cook had put in six acres 
of corn, pumpkins and potatoes. Whipple gave Mrs. Griffin two 
nice pumpkins and they were used as chairs. The first meat that 
they had to eat in their little cabin these pumpkins were used ta 
sit on, and there goods box as their table. Mrs. Cook said once 
to Mrs. Griffin, "1 have brought all the school books of my 
children and paper for them to write with, and now there is no 
school, and I would of never come here if it hadn't been for you." 
And Mrs. Griffin answered, "I never urged you to come; I only 
told you I was coming. But if you will send your children up to 
our cabin I will do my best to teach them." The Widow Hardy, 
living three-fourths of a mile olT, had three children that attend, 
Henry Welch had two and he lived one mile off. Win. Clark 
had four that lived about one and one-fourth of a mile ofif, three 
sons and a daughter, Wilson, Curtis, George and Patsy, all of 
these children being well known all over the county. Curtis H. 
is now a resident of Portland, Ind. Mr. Ware had four one-fourth 
of a mile away, and her brother had live children that attended. 
She had a $1 fee for three months and take pay in anything they 
had, except her brother's, which she taught for nothing. She 
remembers of taking soap grease from one and think it too 
tedious to the rest. In Massachusetts there were no women 


worked out doors, not even to make garden. She thought to 
work out doors and turned her attention to making something in 
the house, and as she came to Indiana with the determination of 
making an honest Hving or die trying, she brought pahiileaf with 
her to braid, and the second year they were out here they had two 
cows. She making cheese, which they had plenty to use and some 
to sell. She was thoughtful enough to bring two brass kettles with 
her. Mr. Grififin, on their arrival, went to Portland, Ind., then a 
town of three or four houses, to get some cooking utensils. There 
he could get nothing but a tea kettle. They then borrowed a 
bake kettle of Widow Hardy, which had a lid on it. That was 
all they had the first year. Then there was a neighbor that died 
and had two big iron kettles that Mrs. Grifitin bought. That was 
all they had until the next spring. The next spring Edward 
Edger, at Deerfield, brought on plenty of iron ware, and they 
had a chance to get all they needed. They had to live on corn 
bread mostly for two years, as they could get no flour on this 
side of New Port. 

Mr. Grififin cleared up four acres of land the first winter and 
put it in corn in the spring. He traded his watch for a gun and 
went around the field three times a day to keep the squirrels 
from destroying his corn. He killed more than one dozen a day. 
They had all they could use and gave them to Widow Hardy for 
her hogs. Mr. Griffin started to go over to Maring to the raising 
of a barn, four miles off, at George Bickle's. He handn't been 
gone an hour until he came home with a deer on his back. He 
dressed that and started again, and within an hour he came back 
again with another; dressed that and left his gun at home and 
started again, saying the higher the logs were laid the more help 
they would need. I can do some good yet. Mrs. Griffin says 
that almost every one that talks with her of it says, "you must 
have had a hard time," but she said it never seemed hard until 
they began to have somthing to sell, and they then had a hard 
time, as she began to experience the rub. No matter for what 
they had to sell, and it brought so little that it seemed very dis- 
couraging. The third year they were out here Mr. Griffin sold 
some hogs at $1.25 a hundred. He sold them to Edward Edger, 
at Deerfield. He had to take one-third of his pay in goods. He 
paid 25 cents per yard for calico, 20 cents for muslin, and other 
things in proportion. 

Mr. Griffin took a pail of butter to Portland 
and could not get but 3 cents per pound; he said, "well, I won't 
take it back. But one thing certain, I won't bother you with any 
more." He took a load of wheat to Piqua and got only 30 cents 


a bushel, and said if we lived like a white man he couldn't make a 
cent. It took five days to go and come. Mrs.. Griffin packed 
his basket, which was all the food he had while he was gone. 
]\Irs. Griffin could make more money braiding hats and making 
cheese than he could with all the grain he could raise. Could 
not get but very little money, but they needed furniture very 
badly and exchanged cheese for it; also a clock. Mrs. Griffin 
sent "home," (as she called it) to Massachusetts for $40 worth 
of palmleaf, which took her three years to braid. She sold her 
hats at the store, but would have one-third cash, and there she 
got her money back for her palmleaf. j\Irs. Griffin is the mother 
of Mrs. John Hardy, who was born August 14th, 1839, on the 
land they entered. Mr.Griffin died February 3rd, 1876, and since 
that time she has lived with her only child, Mrs. John Hardy. 
Mrs. Griffin says when they came to Jay County that the woods 
looked like a beautiful flower garden. There was the blue bells, 
beautiful for-get-me-nots, deep red and vermine kinds of yellow 
fourners that she never knew the name of. She said when they 
were moving out here a man at Sidney, Ohio, asked where they 
were going, Mr. Griffin answering, Jay County, Indiana. Well, 
I would not live there if they would give me the whole county; 
one half of the land is under water and the other half is mud knee 
deep. Cattle and horses could live with very little feed. A neigh- 
bor said that he had fed his stock but very little feed all winter; if 
they could not browse they could bark. Mrs. Griffin would 
often get the "blues," as we term it. But Mr. Griffin swears he 
never wanted to go back east on a visit. He was left an orphan 
at six years of age. The man that took him to raise died when 
he was sixteen years old. His widow was left with very little to 
help herself with. Mr. Griffin then had to make his own living. 
He got a good conmion school education, but had no steady 
home until he was married and then came to Jay County, and was 
happy and thankful to think he had a home of his own where he 
could sit under his own vine and sugar tree, and no one to molest 
or make afraid. Mr. Griffin was a member of the New Light (or 
Christian) church, at Salamonia. he helping to build two meeting 
houses there of his own demonination, and did his full share or a 
little more in supporting the church. Had a long, painful sick- 
ness and died in hopes of another happier and better life. Mrs. 
Griffin still survives, enjoying unsual health for one of her age. 
But yet in a few days, months or years she hopes to pass to a 
better life where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary 
are at rest. 



My father was John J. Hawkins. He was born in Bourbon 
County, Kentucky, September 25th, 1789, and was a soldier in 
the war of 181 2, and served three years. Aly mother was also 
born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, June 4th, 1789. Her name 
was Nancy Sellers Hawkins. I am their youngest child and was 
born in Eatom, Preble County, Ohio, October loth, 1820. My 
father moved to Jay County in 1829. We started to move the ist 
day of March and arrived in Jay County the 8th. It took us^ight 
days to travel fifty miles from Eaton, Ohio, to Jay County. We 
got to Greenville, Ohio, the 4th of March, the day that General 
Jackson was inaugurated president, 1829. The men were march- 
ing around a hickory pole with fife and drums. I asked my 
father if it was the 4th of July, and he said it was in honor of Gen- 
eral Jackson. I have since learned that it takes the hickory poles 
to reach the public crib. 

Our nearest neighbor was ten miles away. The Indians 
were ])lcnty for three years after we came, then the government 
moved them west of the Mississippi. My playmates were little 
Indian girls. We shot with bows and arrows, ran races and rode 
the ponies. We had no house to live in when we came to Jay 
County. We built a half-faced camp by a big oak log and lived 
in it six months before we built our cabin. The first thing we 
done after we got here was to make a brush fence back of the big 
log to pen our sheep in at night. Well, the very first night the 
wolves came and killed four of the sh«ep, and don't you think we 
only had fourteen dogs. I will tell you there names. There was 
Cay, he was dady's deer dog; there was Cuff and King and Rover, 


Wallie and Spry, Music and Sound, Rauge, Sauce, Don, Trail 
and lyoud and Tiger. Well, Don was Brother Joe's dog; he was 
no account and all wanted to kill him. Well, when the wolves 
got after the .sheep they tried to hiss the dogs onto them, but not 
one of them would go after them but Don. The next day dady 
and the boys built a wolf pen and put some of the dead sheep into 
it. That night they caught a great big wcJlf . They took the dogs 
and us children to see the wolf; they cut its ham strings and let it 
out of the pen and set the dogs onto it, and they soon killed it. 
The next day father and the boys went hunting. Daddy killed 
three deers and Brother Nathen killed two turkeys. From that 
time on we had plenty of wild meat. W>11, the next thing to be 
done was to clear a corn field in the green woods. It was bottom 
land and covered all over with spice brush. Brother Sam grubed 
five acres and the rest choped the trees down and picked the and planted it in corn and pumpkins, the 25th of May. 
We had a good crop of corn and such fine pumpkins the sheep 
had to be watched. Brother Ben was the shepard. We" then 
cleaned a turnip patch and raised about five hundred bushels of 
the finest turnips I ever saw. The ist of August, the .same j-ear 
that we came. Town Shalar came and settled right across the road 
from the Liber grave-yard and lived in an Indian hut. L. Wil- 
liamson, a young man, came about the same time and made his 
home with us the most of the time. He and Shalar were both 
born in Kentucky. Our cabin was Uventy-two feet long and 
twenty feet wide. It had a great big fire place ten feet wide and 
a puncheon floor. That fall the hunters came by the dozen, some 
from Cincinnati, some from Eaton and some from Kentucky. 
Oh, Kentucky, the hunters of Kentucky? It is'nt often that you 
.see a hunter from Kentucky. Later men came to pick out 
homesteads. Our house was the .stopping place of everybody 
that came to the country. We were so glad to see them come. 
One evening daddy said to the boys, "we must get up early and 
go to the rich woods and bring the hogs home to butcher, ' ' so 
they got up early and Ben .said, "I drempt last night that you 
started for the hogs and killed a great big bear right in sight of 
the house," and sure enough, he killed the bear just as Ben had 
dreamed, and sent Sam to the house for the oxen and cart to haul 
it home. It was the fattest thing I ever .saw. Daddy says, 
"Now boys, we go for the hogs to-morrow." We got up early 
and low and behold, Ben had dreamed again. He dreamed they 
started after the hogs again and daddy told Sam to go to the right 
of him and Nate to the left so they would be sure to find the hogs. 
They went about a mile and saw a gang of deer. Nate killed 


two and daddy one and Sam one. They didn't get the hogs that 
day. Well, they started and they killed the deer just as Ben had 
dreamed. Next morning they asked Ben what he had dreamed, and 
he said, ''if you go you will get the hogs to-day," and so they did. 
We always had plenty to eat, game was .so plenty. Our wonst 
trouble was going to mill; we had to go to Richmond, Ind., or 
Greenville. Ohio. It took a week to go and come and oh, such 
roads. The next .settler that came was Phillip Brown, who settled 
near Liber. People soon came to .settle around us. 

One fall the news came to the men that there was lots of bear 
out north, where Adams County now is, so every man in the 
County went off for to hunt the bears. Ben Goldsmith lived 
where Lancaster now is, and Sally May and I went to staj- with 
Nancy while Ben went on the bear hunt. It was three miles from 
our house, and as we went we saw a great big bear; it crossed 
the road about a lumdred )'ards in front of us. We were very 
badl^. scared, but we went ahead and .soon got there and told 
of .seeing the bear. Before sun down Nancy told we two children 
to go to the spring and bring night water. There was fom- of us, 
Lizzie and John Goldsmith, Sally May and me. The spring was 
close to the creek; John .says, now galls, let's go across the 
creek and get .some grapes and black hawes." John says, "you 
get hawes and I'll climb the tree and get the grapes." Just then 
we heard a noise up the tree; we looked up, and there .sat a great 
big bear. I think it was eating grapes. 

We were badly scared, and we ran to the house. There was 
no door shutter .so we stood a table up in the door and put a bed- 
-stead against it and brought the ax in and prepared to fight the 
bear, but he did not come. The day that the men got home Mary 
Ann Brown, a little girl about eleven years old, treed a bear in the 
corn field and went to a neighbors that had gotten home from the 
bear hunt, and he came and .shot it for her. The men that went 
hunting did not .see a bear. About that time Tom Shalar took 
his team and went to Batavia, Ohio, to move his brother-in-law to 
this county. I .stayed with his family while he was gone, tlarl 
Porter was l)uilding a cabin for his son, George, about a mile 
below vShalar's. He stayed with us at night. A lot of hunters 
came from Kentucky and .stayed in a cabin Tom had built, but 
liad not moved into it yet. Well, they all went a hunting. In the 
afternoon two of them came in and they had whiskey and they got 
drunk. They came to the house and told us to cook their dinner 
or they would shoot us. Mrs. Shalar refused and shut the door, 
put a bar of iron across it. They .swore they would tear the roof 


off if we did not let them in. She told them she would shoot 
them. There was a log cut out at the back of the house, next to 
tlie prariro, with a greased paper pasted over it to let in the light 
in place of a window. She tore the paper off and told me to creep 
out at the hole and run into the prarire and run in the higli grass 
until 1 got out of sight and then go out into the path antl go and 
tell Porter to come quick. Well, I went as fast as I could and 
just as I got to the path I met Porter coming. I was so glad 
when I saw him coming if I had been one of the fainty kind Ithink 
I would have swooned for joy. We son got to. the house and 
Porter soon settled them. That night Porter lay fight across 
the door with his gun by his side. The next day the hunters 
pulled up stakes and left. 

Tom Shalar moved to the prarie close to where Camden now 
is; he was the fist settler in Penn Township. 

A lot of us girls and boys went to see them ; there were eight 
of us. They were Jim Simons, John Hardy, Ben and Jo Haw- 
kins, Phebe Simons, Sally May, Avaline Hawkins and myself. 
The horses were all in the woods but one, and we had to go 
seventeen miles to get there. Our plan was for us girls to take 
the one horse and ride tum about. Well, Avaline said she 
would ride first. Well, she started and soon got out of sight and 
that was the last we saw of her until we got to Shaler's. We 
walked that seventeen miles against noon. Well, Avaline said 
she tliought she had better ride on and have dinner ready against 
we got tliere and so she had it all ready. The next day the boys 
went hunting and killed a dozen half grown turkeys. We all 
went fishing and caught a big turtle and a fine lot of fish. We 
went to the Indian village at the Godfrey farm. 

When our crop of corn was eaten up by the coons and squir- 
rels we had to buy our corn for our bread. The boys would 
pack the deer hides and go to Greenville and sell them and buy 
corn and get it ground and bring it home on pack horses that 
were trained to follow the leaders without being driven or led. 
People moved into the neighborhood with big families of boys 
and girls, young men and women, and then our glorious times 
caiue. We had house raisings, log rollings, flax pullings, Christ- 
mas and Xew Years. Holly eve and Valentine drawings, and 
always had a dance at night too. Our dances were a different 
kind to what they have now; we danced reels and jigs. We were 
all poor and had no fine clothes; we all wore home-made clothes; 
we had no shoes, and wore moscasins or went barefooted. We 
had a flax pulling at George Bickels and a dance, and we were 


all barefooted; the floor was very roug-h and I got a splinter in 
my big toe. Sally May took my place in the reel while Nancy 
Bickle picked the splinter out and rubbed some coon grease onto 
it, and then I went on with the dance. When such things hap- 
pened there were no remarks made about it. I'll tell you why it 
was; just because we were all ladies and gentlemen, every one of 
us. My sister Avaline got married to James Simmons and 
moved to Randolph County. They lived in a shanty built of 
rails and covered with clapboars until they got their cabin built. 
That was before Jay County was laid out. When anybody got 
married they had to get their license and a squire from Randolph 
County to marry them. 

My father took sick in two years after we came to the coun- 
try. He lived a year and died, and left us for a better world. 
You may imagine how we felt but can never know how it was. 
Only two neighbors, one six miles off and the other three, and 
our father lying dead in the house. My brothers, Sam and Ben, 
went to the woods and cut down a tree and split a puncheon out 
of it and laid father out on it and dug his grave, and mother made 
his burying clothes; they were Irish linen, pants and hunjting shirt. 
Tom Shalar went to Winchester and got some lyn boards and 
him and Billy Odel made the coffin. It was a great bereavement. 
Like all such things we had to bear it. We did the best wc could 
It has been sixty-five years since he died, but it is still fresh in 
my mind. I was eleven years old when he died. There was no 
school in the county until I was a woman. I can only read and 
write. I can't read figures; I have to write every thing at full 

I am almost seventy-six years old. I am the youngest of the 
family and all the one living. I have been married twice; my first 
husband was Jesse Maxwell, the second was B. W. Clark. I was 
a Hawkins; I had four l)rothers and one sister. Their names 
were Sanuicl. Nathan. Benjamin. Joseph and Avaline. 



\'IXE COTTAGE, REDKEY, May 9th, 1896. 

The grand army, Epworth League, 

May unfurl their banner high ; 
The foot of their soldier may be on earth. 

And the top may reach the sky. 

Their grand aspirations may ascend 

To the great Shepherd that dwells on high; 

The angels of love and mercy will descend, 
And crown their labors by and by. 

Even the very honored name they bear. 
Is grand, the name of Mr. Wesley's home; 

In tliat home was talents, rich and rare. 
As will be read in history yet to come. 

The grand army, Epworth League, 

Will be enrolling soldiers more and more. 

Until they meet their illustrious Captain, 
Upon the sacred and Heavenly shore. 

They mav meet Him by the river, 

There they may cross the rushing stream; 

By the Dear Saviour he may be resting, 
Beneath the palms of evergreen. 

Then songs of praise they will loudly sing. 

To Him who died to save us all, 
Until the courts of Heaven ring, 

^^'hen the Epworth- roll is called. 

Composetl and written by Mary, wife of Rev. D. B. Sutton. 


VINE COTTAGE, February 20th, 1894. 

The very name of this honored organization indicates noble 
principles, aleviation or remedies of wrong or suffering. This 
is the third anniversary of the Woman's Relief Corps in our 
beautiful city. Yet we remember in 1861, the great foundation 
of this noble work was laid, when our brave soldiers offered their 
bodies as a sacrifice to maintain the glory of our flag. The 
beautiful emblem of our liberty, which but for their bravery 
would have been trailed in the dust. I remember with what anxiety 
the ladies worked that they might send such things as would re- 
lieve the wounded and suffering. They sent delicacies to relieve 
their hunger; they sent soft linen and precious ointment to be 
aplied to the wounds they might receive in defending our loved 
country from oi)i3ression. The patriotic and loyal ladies followed 
with such relief as distance and circumstances would admit. It 
was among daily anxiety and prayers and the sacredness of many 
tears that the foundation of this organization, the W. R. C. was 
laid and sealed with the loyal and brave blood of our country. 

Their grand work and prayers may ascend 
To the great Captain that rules on high ; 

The angels of mercy and love may descend 
And crown their labors bv and bv. 


(A tribute in honor of General Washington's ./U-thclay. 

George Washington is the grand, illustrious name, 
That gained for our world such honored fame ; 
It is to celebrate his birthday, with pleasure and delight, 
That we have assembled in this room to-night. 

We now are gathered in this beautiful hall 

With those, like him, that went to their country's call, 

To defend for us the glorious Hag he had raised, 

That filled our country with happiness, cheer and praise. 

On January 22nd this wonderous infant, George, was given. 
As an angel sent from the shining courts of Heaven, 
To teach, love of country and of liberty, should be our fame. 
Signed by George Washington, our President's honored name. 


He had grc^wn from childhood to strong and interesting youth, 
Ahva3'S observing the laws of honesty and sacred truth, 
Until the people of our country united as an independent band, 
And gave him the highest office that could be given in our land. 

He stepped into wedded bliss ; ne met Miss Aiartha when passing 

along the flowery path of life. 
He was attracted, and asked her if she was willing to be his true 

and loving wife. 
[ am willing, she said, to take you as my husband and my guide ; 
Vour splendid wisdom never would misuse my station by your 


riieir home was to them as Eden, bright and pleasant and fare, 
N'othing but pleasure and happiness could enter there ; 
rhey ever plucked from love's embrosial tree 
[n this life we hope they will through all Eternity. 

Composed and written by i\lary, wife of Rev. D. B. Sutton. 

VINE COTTAGE, REDKEY, May 5th, 1896. 

Rev. D. B. Sutton, local elder in the M. E. church and one 
)f the local pioneer ministers of Jay County, Indiana, was born 
March 8th, 1816, in Ohio, Green County. He is the youngest 
except one, of a family of ten children. All except him have gone 
:o the great beyond or glory world. He received such education 
IS the school privileges of that time and period offered. He was 
?arly converted at a camp meeting held in Green County, Ohio, 
;ixty-five years ago. Through all these years that have inter- 
i^ened since that hour, he has never wavered in his faith nor 
•altered in his duty. In the meantime his interest in the M. E. 
:hurch began to attract attention, and his brethren recognizing 
lis ability and integrity and seeing in him the requisite qualities 
>f leadership, called him early to engage in public service. Dur- 
ing his early days his parents moved to Green County, Ohio, 
where he resided till the date of his marriage, which was March 
23rd, 1836, when he was united in holy matrimony to Miss Mary 
Roberts, bv Rev. Brown, of the Ohio conference. 


She was born in Berkley County, Virginia, August 4th, 
1 81 5. She came with her parents early in Hfe to Chillecothe, 
Ross County, Ohio. This was my earhest recollection of a 
home, my parents having settled there shortly after their mar- 
riage, where they established a home like the ancient Patriarch. 
They erected an altar from which each morning and evening- 
ascended the inscene of prayer and praise. They also furnished 
a chamber for the prophets, and many of the toil worn 
preachers rested there. If any of those veterans are still living 
they may perhaps remember my sainted mother and father, and 
recollect incidents of association with them. My ancestors were 
nearly all Methodists. I can recollect Father Finley, Father 
Collins and Mr. Bascom in his oratoral brilliancy. Those I heard 
proclaim a full and free salvation. When I was 16 my father 
moved to Green County, Ohio, where Mr. Sutton and I were 
united in marriage. The pleasant associations that we enjoyed 
while living in Green County have been the subject of grateful 
recollection, and it is with feelings of no ordinary character that 
I address these few lines. It recalls vividly to my mind many 
pleasant scenes. 

In 1845 ^^'^ '^'^^ adue to our home and all its hallowed associa- 
tions, the friends of our youth. We came to Jay County, which 
was almost a wilderness. Mr. Sutton had to open the road before 
we could get to our intended home. We soon erected a small 
cabin with four window lights in one side and a stick chimney, 
and blankets for doors. Here as formerly our room was soon 
enlivened by the cheerful presence of kind friends. By indus- 
try and economy and proper improvement of time we soon be- 
came more comfortably situated. There was a great many wild 
animals infested this uncultivated country, such as wolves and 
(leers, and turkeys, and wild hogs, and some of the more danger- 
ous animals, would often approach the houses. Some ladies were 
brave euQugh to shoot at them to the great delight of the settlers, 
and sometimes would meet one of the reptile tribe that tempted 
Eve. Sometimes they would ofYer battle and effect their designs, 
to the great suffering of the individuals. But notwithstanding, 
we had our disadvantages we had our pleasures. There was a 
grand quality of socibility among the people. One instance we 
had a great number visiting at our house, I jestingly said to Mr. 
Sutton, "please step out and kill a wild turkey for dinner." He 
went to where they ranged and killed three at one shot. They 
were sitting on the fence. It gave great amusement to the 
visitors. At another time he killed two deers at one shot. Many 
others were fortunate in obtaining wild meat for their families. 


Sometimes there would be wagon loads of friends go and 
assist some lady quilt and the gentlemen would gather at the 
same place and assist in rolling logs and clearing. They would 
have grand enjoyment in each others society and partaking of a 
fine dinner, such as the new country afforded, rare delicacies 
When we had week day preaching we would lay our work by and 
attend without fail. It often would last all day and sometimes 
part of the night. In times of quarterly or two days' meetings, 
we would take home with us fifteen or twenty persons. We 
w^orshiped in log houses or cabins. The dear Savious met with 
us and we were happy. Our benches were made of split timber, 
and no person thought strange of it. I could name many things 
that would seem strange to the people in this advanced age. In 
our united efforts to serve the Lord we sometimes traveled 
through muddy roads and deep water. It will not be long until 
all of those land marks will be gone and will be known only in the 
hearts of grateful people. We may forget the gratitude we owe 
to those brave men and families. They have toiled and denied 
themselves the comforts of life to give the followmg generation. 
They have conquered the forrest and subdued the wilderness and 
made it to but and blossom as the rose with the richest flowers, 
and to bring forth fruit in most bountiful profusion for the en- 
joyment of rising generations. How thankful we ought to be. 
how sacredly should we cherish their memory. They occupy in 
the temple of fame a place which in the great rush of modern life, 
people are apt to pass by unnoticed. If their hard labors of years 
ago were borne in mind they would be recognized as being the 
more worthy of earth. 

The great foundation that was laid by our pioneer citizens; 
the wilderness was cleared, but on it was made the great and 
marvelous improvement of to-day. Too much credit cannot be 
given to these enterprising citizens for the grand work that has 
been accomplished, to the great advantage of all the people of Jay 
County. The original town of Redkey was laid out under the 
name of jNIount X'ernon about the year 1848. The first store and 
first postoffice was established one-half mile south of the present 
location. From that time forward to the time of finding of large 
quantities of gas, the town has steadly increased. Redkey has 
enjoyed a steady growth ; the population is 4.000. We have three 
large glass factories, heading and hub factory, slate factory, 
three saw mills, one grist mill, one fine elevator, a very fine 
$25,000 school building, and a new J\l. E. church costing near 
$15,000, and square after square of imposing and city-like brick 


business blocks, miles and miles of cement and brick sidewalks. 
With our large natural gas territory and the prospect of oil in 
the near future, will make Redkey the metropolis of the great 
Indiana gas and oil field. We are situated at the crossing of the 
Panhandle and the L. E. & W. railroads. It gives great oppor- 
tunity for shipping. We are favored with one of the best lumber 
yards in the state, and also a fine printing press and postofBce of 
modern style. The muddy roads have given place to miles of 
fine pike; the log cabins are something of the past, and instead 
there are large and valuable frame and brick residences, and 
grandly improved farms. We cannot do justice between now 
and fifty years past, the contrast is too great. 

VINE COTTAGE, REDKEY, May 9th, 1896. 

Dear Sister Lynch : — I have not been well since you was at 
our house. I fear I have not done justice to this imperfect his- 
tory. But I have done the best I could Under the circumstances. 
Some pieces of history that I will send have been printed years 
ago. The one on temperance I composed and wrote years ago, 
to be read at a temperance meeting. An editor was there and 
wished to print it. It recalls to my mind the real circumstances 
in connection with it, that you may please return the history. I 
have had a very imperfect education. I only went to school six 
months in all, and that was to a country school. Mr. Sutton and 
I have been married sixty years last March, 23rd, 1836. He 
was born March 8th, 1816, and I was born August 4th, 181 5, so 
we are 80 years old. He engages in all the activities of life, in 
matrimony and church services, and I continue to write history 
and compose poetry, as I have done for years past, ever since I 
could write. Dear sister, you must excuse mistakes that I have 
made in writing or spelling, especially. 

MARY SUTTON, Wife of Rev. D. B. Sutton. 

Mr. Sutton took me when a girl, 
Into his home and heart, 

To bear in all his after part, 
A fond and faithful part. 


I have never tried 

That pleasure to forego, 
And I have never been joyful 

When he had care or woe. 

I would rather share his sorrows, 
Than any other's smiles or glee; 

If he is nothing to this world, 
He is all this world to nTe. 

He makes a palace of our home, 

And where we stay a throne 
There is pleasure for me in his voice, 

There is affection in his tone. 

Composed and written ^y Mary, wife of Rev. D. B. Sutton. 

VINE COTTAGE, February 21st, 1895. 

(Composed in her 74th year.) 

Holy men were impressed in early times by the Divine Spirit 
to go forth without script or staff, proclaiming the wilderness and 
the solitary places shall be glad for them, and dessert shall re- 
joice and blossom as the rose. 

There was a time when this country was shaded 
With trees and beautiful bloom. 
And the cirucuit riders took their saddlebags 
And rode forth to give the Gospel a boom. 

In the saddlebags they carried the precious Gospel truths, 
Which they kindly taught, to the aged, as well as to the youths. 
The saddlebag was regarded with very sacred awe, 
As in them was carried the whole Gospel law. 

A message to be delivered, with true Gospel love, 
As handed down from the pure courts of Heaven above, 
\\^ith a pearl surpassing grandure or eloquence for, 
Even so much as the sun would, the dim evening star. 


The shouts and the songs would go up from the saints, all around 
They felt that they had gained more Gospel ground, 
On which they might build a log cabin, a home, 
In which they might invite the preacher to take his saddlebags 
and welcome come. 

And they would receive him as a messenger sent from on high, 
To tell them of the joys that awaits them in the sweet by and by, 
When the labors and cares of this life are all over. 
And the dear Saviour take us to dwell with him on the golden 

Our circuit riders took their saddlebags and traveled forth 
Through the wilderness of beauty and true natural worth. 
To proclaim in language most pure and sublime. 
That there is glory coming in the near future time. 

When the wilderness shall blossom and bloom as the rose, 

Then the pious circuit riders will lay aside their saddlebags 

And put on nice and comfortable clothes. 

Our salary is just sixty dollars, that is very true. 

But that is all sufficient, as our wants are very few. 

The dear Savious has said in His own written word, 
We shall never want if we trust in the Lord, 
And our children should never, never beg bread, 
It was by kind Providence poor old Elizabeth was fed. 

The preacher's faith grows strong when he takes from his saddle- 

The words the Saviour has given to teach him to travel to a 
mansion in Heaven; 

The he prays the dear Saviour to direct where to go, 

Even if he should travel through the mud and cold freezing snow. 

That he might plant a Bethel in the name of the Lord, ' 

In which His sacred name might ever be adored, 

Then he rises from prayer and looks far ahead, 

There is a place I can administer, where saints need to be fed. 

He looks and he listens, as his faith grows strong, 

He takes up his saddlebags and slowly marches on; 

He looks until he sees the flames of the clearing mountain high. 

As though it was (the) flames of electricity ascending to the sky. 


He Stops, and he listens, and hears the voice of a singer sounding 

"Dear Saviour, send us glad tidings of great joy in this wilder- 
ness here," 

The tired preacher slowly walks up to him, and meekly nodding 
his head. 

And saying, "Dear brother, I truly have need of some nourishing 

"Oh, come home with us. we will gladly have you with us eat. 
We have corn, we have pumpkin, we have vension, the finest of 

"I will accept the kind invitation and thankfully come, 
For I am a poor wearied traveler, seeking a rest at some home.' 

"I have traveled many miles in deep, muddy roads, 
To bring to you, dear friends, the pure word of God, 
On which you might feed Heavenly things, 
With such brotherly love as the true Gospel brings." 

The voice as of telegraph sounding out clear, 

"Oh, come to our log cabin, for a Gospel minister is here. 

To tell us we may have a glorious mansion upon high. 

Even to exceed the brightness of the sun on the ethereal sky." 

They met in the log cabin to praise the dear Lord, 

Their vioces ascended high, as they sang, may his name ever be 

Our homes have fallen to us in a Heavenly place, 
For surely Thou hast sent us a preacher to teach us free grace. 

Just as the faithful old-fashioned clock struck four. 
The preacher said, "Dear friends, it is time our meeting was oe'r. 
But we will stay with our dear brother the balance of the night. 
And praise our dear Saviour again in the bright morning light." 

Dear wife, just spread a soft blanket upon this puncheon floor. 
That will make room for the preacher and two or three more. 
Dear sister, if you need those pillows to lay on the trunel bed. 
Just hand to me my saddlebags, on which I have so often rested 
my head. 


Xow we will take sweet rest the balance of the night, 
We will praise our dear Saviour, if He should spare us to see the 

morning light; 
Then we will trust Him to give us bread and meat, the substan- 

tials of Hfe, 
Which will sustain our mothers and children, and dear loving 


Composed and written by ]\Iary, wife of Rev. D. B. Sutton. 




My father and mother, Jacob and Alary Bowersock, Uved in 
Adams County, Pa. They were strict members of the Lutheran 
church. I was born May 2nd, 181 3. Mother died when I was> 
eight years old. Father was a weaver by trade and he kept the 
family together by hiring an old lady to assist until the year 1825, 
when we moved to Columbian County, Ohio. I was then 12 
years old. I do not think I ever went to school over six months. 
At the age of 14 I went to live with my uncle, William Galbreith. 
I was married at the age of 18 to William Farrington. William 
worked in a saw mill for several years. W^e moved to Jay 
County, Ind., in October, 1838. We first stopped at William 
Mendenhall's. From there we went to our place in Jackson 
Township, joining on the west the place now owned by Albert 
Bronson. Myself and children set around on logs while William 
built a three sided shanty. We lived in this six weeks. We hung 
a coverlet in front of our three sided shanty. At night the wolves 
often came and stuck their noses under the quilt so I could see 
their eyes. William would have his gun standing in reach and 
would fire at them. That would be the last of them for that 
night. One reason the wolves were so bad, we had built our 
house right on their trail, which was packed down like cow paths. 
Game of all kind were plenty. William often killed a turkey or 
two and sometimes two deers before breakfast. Once he killed 
two deers at one shot. He tanned his own deer skins and made 
his own buckskin pants. For the vest he would take fawn skins 


when they were spotted and tan them with the hair on. We often 
would see eight or ten deers in a drove and had six deer hides 
tanning in the house at one time. After Hving in the shanty six 
weeks, William and his brother John, built a cabin in the woods. 
William chopped down trees and trimmed them up, leaving the 
brush lay until evening, when I and the children would go out and 
pick up and burn brush until nine and ten o'clock at night. We 
got five acres cleared and put in corn the next spring. Some of 
thq corn grew 15 feet high. We paid $i a bushel for corn meal 
from the time we came to Jay County until we raised a crop. The 
meal was brought here by Nathionel Col^n, from Winchester, 
until Joshua Bond's mill was built. 

One of the necessaries of those times was the successful use 
of the gun in which I proved very successful. I went squirrel 
hunting ; the first time I missed the squirrel, but the second shot 
brought it down. After this I shot at marks with Dr. Lewis and 
Thomas Sumption, easily beating them. 

One afternoon I went to William Mendenhall's, a distance 
of one and one-half miles, and was late in getting started home; 
darkness overtook me. I had a small dog with me and the 
wolves got after us; the dog growled and snapped at them, keep- 
ing them off until we got home. In five years after we landed 
in Jay County William died. He took the milk-sick in June and 
only lived ten days. He was attended by old Dr. Becl, and was 
buried at West Grove. At the grave I took sick and commenced 
vomiting. I was taken home in Daniel Votaw's wagon. I and 
two of the children were sick four weeks. I was left a widow in 
the woods with seven children, four boys and three girls. My 
oldest boy was 12 and the youngest six months old. 

William had sowed about five acres of oats besides the corn 
we had out. About the time the oats began to get ripe Seth 
Rigby's and Isaac Irey's horses got to breaking in. As we could 
not keep them out, Jonah Irey loaded a gun with shot and broken 
nails and told me to shoot them and he would stand by me. 
They would break in at the same place every time after night. 
One of them had a bell on so when I heard them coming I took 
the gun, and my boy, Jesse, went with me. I went to a tree that 
stood in the field close to where the horses came in. I put the 
butt of the gun against the tree so it would not kick me, aimed 
the gun at them the best Icould, and pulled the trigger. The 
gun went off and so did the horses, Seth Rigby's horse carrying 
a lot of shot and broken nails in her neck and shoulders. They 
were but little bother after that and did not come back after any 
more oats or nails. '1 nis was mv first horse hunt. The next 


spring- after William's death John Reecl and Ensley Lewis moved 
us on Ensley's farm, where J. R. Hopkins now lives. After liv- 
ing- a widow a little over a year William Mendenhall and I were 
married. I had seven children and he had six, and from this 
union one more wasi born, making in all fourteen children in the 
family. We also adopted a weakly little girl, Lib Slack, by name. 
After doctoring- her up she got to be a stout, hearty girl. So we 
had fifteen in the family. We took this girl when our youngest 
was three years old. 

We made our own clothing. After getting our wool carded 
we spun it. As one of the girls was a weaver one w^ould spin, 
one weave, one do the cooking, one wash the dishes and one rock 
the cradle. You see we had enough to carry on the whole busi- 
ness. We also raised our own flax and made our linen. In the 
spring we would make quite a lot of sugar. My husband mended 
our shoes. 

In the year 1849 the bloody flux broke out. Holyfurness 
Wood lived southwest of Rifesberg. about twelve miles from us. 
His neighbors were so afraid of the disease that they would not 
go in the house to help them, so Thomas Sumption came down 
and told us about it. ^largaret Lewis and William and I saddled 
our horses and went up there to lay out one of the girls who had 
died. There was five of them down with the flux. As soon as 
they were able to be moved w^e took tw^o and Enos Lew^is took 
two of them and cared for them until they were w^ell. The same 
year Seth Rigby's family took the flux; Margaret Lewis and I 
went and took care of them for three weeks. There was five 
deaths in this family. After this George Stansbury and his wife 
took the milk sick. After his wife died George was brought to 
our house on stretchers and we took care of him until he got 
w^ell. We also took care of his baby for a few weeks until it took 
the diphtheria and died. 

My first call as a midwife was by a family by the name of 
Whitacre, in the year 1840. Since then up to this date I have 
attended nine hundred and eighty cases. In all these cases I have 
never had a woman to die while under my care. In two instances 
I have waited on three generations, grand parent, parent and 
child. I always went when called upon. Went through rain 
and cold many times wet to the skin. 

One night I started home by myself at 11 o'clock at nighc, 
from north of my home. The man peeled me a hickory bark 
torch some three feet long. I took off my garter and tied it 
around the torch and away I went with old Charley on the gallop. 


When I got to where Sam William's lived the horse kept shying 
at something in the woods so I could hardly make him go. 1 
threw away my torch, garter and all, put whip to the horse and 
went home on the run. The house we lived in when my first hus- 
band lived, was of round logs, skutched down on the inside. It 
was 18x20 feet big and had but one door and one six-light win- 
dow. It had puncheon floor and the floor over head was laid 
with 4-feet clapboards. The roof was held on by weight poles. 
The fire place had mud jams and a stick chimney. 

After my second marriage our house still had a stick chim- 
ney. In this short sketch it will be impossible to tell the inci- 
dents of pioneer, life, but as the years went a daughter died and 
two of the children were taken in and cared for by th large- 
hearted grandparents and kept until they could care for them- 
selves. Then a stepdaughter, her husband and children were 
given a home under the roof of the old homestead for a while. 
After living near thirtyeight years with her last husband, William 
Mendenhall, she was again left a widow. 

Thus the old pioneers have been dropping off one by one 
until the subject of this sketch is almost the last one left. She 
passed her 83rd milestone' May 2nd, 1896. The young people of 
today, as they drive over the smooth gravel roads in their fine 
carriages, will never realize the hardships and privations our 
pioneer fathers and mothers had to undergo to give us the com- 
forts we now enjoy. Grandmother Mendenhall is now living 
with her step-daughter, Mrs. George Paxson. 



Since the organization of this county many events of special 
interests connected with its history, from lapse of time and the 
death or removal of those who were intimately connected with 
them, are now seldom brought to mind. Among those is the 
robbery of the county treasury, which occured on the 4th day of 
February, 1862. 

At that time the county was without a court house or build- 
ing for the accommodation of the county officers. The office of 
the county treasurer Avas in the building known as "Miller's 
building, ' ' a frame structure standing on the corner of Main and 
Meridian streets, which was burned down a few years ago. There 
being no bank in Portland or in Jay County at that time, a safe 
was kept in the office, in which the public funds were deposited. 
The door to the office was secured by an ordinary lock fastened 
b^' a key, and the safe doors were secured in the .same manner, 
it being before the day of combination locks. Joseph P. Winters 
was county treasurer at the time above referred to, and on the 
evening of .said day closed his safe and office as usual, taking the 
keys in his pocket to his residence, a distance of some two 
squares, and on retiring for the night left the ke^^s in his pocket. 
On the following morning the keys were mi.ssing. Going to the 
office he found the door locked. Without much difficulty or 
delay he effected an entrance, when he found that the .safe had 
been opened and all the money it contained missing (except 
a package containing $500, which had evid^^ntly been overlooked). 


The amount taken was something over $7,000. This discovery 
of course, produced great excitement. The robbery had eve- 
dently been commited by some person who knew who was the 
custodian of the ke)'S and where he lived. But there was no one 
on whom suspicion rested. It was pretty soon learned that two 
horses had been taken from the stable of Robert Stranathan, 
who lived on the fram south of town, on which John R. Perdieu 
now resides and that they had been ridden in the direction of 
Union City. A person sent to that place reported that the horses 
were found running at large in the suburbs of that town on the 
morning after the robbery had been committed. This raised the 
presumption that the robbers had taken an early train leaving 
Union City on the railroad running to Dayton. No further clue, 
however, was obtained as to the perpetrators of the crime for 
some time. The officers at Portland soon had information that 
a rather bad character by the name of James Hull, who had been 
staying about Whinchester, had left that place under rather sus- 
picious circumstances on the evening before the robbery was 
committed. On this hint he was taken into custody. He, how- 
ever, had no difficulty in showing by trustworthy persons that 
he was in the city of Richmond on the night of the robery. He, 
however, stated that he had some knowledge of the affair and 
could find out who the perpetrators were if funds were furnished 
him to enable him to ferrit them out. Trusting to his represen- 
tations PIull was sent to Dayton. After a stay of two or three 
weeks he reported that he had ascertained who the parties were, 
and the part that each one performed in connection with the 
affair. On the information furnished by him, a prosecution was 
connnenced against John Barker, Samuel Johns and William 
Blackburn, residents of Dayton, Ohio, and William Beardon, a 
resident of Union City, Ind. A requisition from the governor of 
Indiana on the governor of Ohio was procured for Barker, Johns 
and Blackburn, and they were arrested and brought to Portland. 
Breandon was also arrested. They were brought before the 
proper authorities and the amounts of their bonds fixed for their 
appearance at the next term of court of the Jay Circuit Court. 
Failing to give the required bonds they were confined in the 
Randolph County jail, there being no .safe jail in Jay County. 
At the April term of the Jay Circuit Court they were all indicted 
for burglary and grand larceny. Barker, John and Breandon 
took a change of venue from the county. The cases were .sent 
to Delaware County; Blackburn having broken out of the Ran- 
dolph County jail, was at large when the indictments were found. 


At the April term, 1862, of the Delaware Circuit Court, the cases 
came up for trial. Barker was first tried. Prior to the time 
fixed for the trial, Breandon, who had for maiw years been a 
resident of Portland, indicated to some of his old friends that he 
would testify for the state in case he would not be put on trial. 
As the state had no positive evidence against him, and the under- 
standing- was that he got none of the money, and further the 
evidence that Hull could furnish would be of such a character 
that it would not be admissable on the trial, it was thought 
best to accept his proposition. His statement was that Barker 
made an arrangement with him (Brandon) that he was to go to 
Portland a day or two prior to the 4th of February under the pre- 
tense of buying hogs; that Barker and Blackburn would meet 
him at the bridge over the Salamonia at Portland, about 9 o'clock 
in the evening; that he was to conduct Barker into town and point 
out to him the treasurer's of^ce and his residence. Bearndon 
was then to go to the hotel and retire so that no suspicion should 
attach to him. He stated that the plan was carried out as ar- 
ranged. On the trial of Barker, Brandon testified substantially 
to the facts above stated, that he met Barker and Blackburn at 
the bridge, that he pointed out to Barker the office and residence 
of the treasurer, and further, that Barker informed him that they 
left Dayton on the morning of that day, went to Winchester. 
Indiana, by railroad, and walked from that town to Portland. 
The conductor of the train that left Union City for Dayton on 
the morning after the robbery testified that Barker was a pas- 
senger on that train. There were other circumstances proved 
tending to corroborate the testimony of Brandon. Barker's de- 
fense was an abibi. He had witnesses from Dayton who testified 
positively that he was at Dayton on the evening of the night when 
the robbery was committed. He, however, was convicted and 
sentenced to imprisonment in the state prison for two years. 
Johns was then put on trial. He was connected with the afifair 
only as an assessary before the fact. He counselled with and 
aided Barker and Blackburn in laying the plans for the robbery, 
and was to share in the spoils. Hull's information relative to the 
matter was procured chiefl\- from Johns, and he w^as the principle 
witness against him. He was also, convicted and sentenced to 
imprisonment in the state prison for three years. The case 
against him was taken to the supreme court and was reversed, 
for the reason that he being only an asscessory before the fact, 
and was not within the state of Indiana, the courts of the state had 
no jurisdiction in the case — Sec. 19 Ind., Reports page 421. 


Blackburn was afterwards arrested and brought to Portland. 
In the meantime a jail had been built at Portland, in which he 
was confined, but escaped therefrom. In 1863 he was re-arrested 
and was tried in Randolph County, was convicted and imprisoned 
in the state prison for five years. 

The county recovered none of the money, but the citizens, 
and especially the public officers who were instrumental in the 
detection and prosecution of the perpetrators of the crime, had 
the satisfaction of knowing that thev were dulv punished for the 
offense. ' J. 'M. HAYNES. 

Portland, May 28, 1896. 



In addition to the above data it has been ehcited and it is the 
purpose of this sketch to give to the piibHc some of the unwritten 
history of the Jay County robbery. 

Soon after the burglary had been so successfully effected, 
George H. Moore was at Winchester on business when he was 
informed that Mrs. James Hull would be pleased to see him ; he of 
course called as requested and was surprised to be told by ]\Irs. 
Hull that her husband had left home the day after the robbery, 
was now at Marion, Ind., and probably knew something about 
the case; she furnished him with a good description of her hus- 
band and Mr. Moore, after thanking her, hurried back to Portland 
to impart the news to those citizens to whom he deemed it wise 
to confide. Among the number whom he told was William G. 
Sutton, at that time auditor of the county, who was known as a 
shrewd and sagacious business man, and whom he thought would 
be valuable in assisting to place a true estimate on the woman's 

About a dozen gathered to discuss the matter in all its lights, 
and unanimously agreed that Mr. Sutton should start immed- 
iately for Marion in a buggy, accompanied by James T. Stan- 
ton. They began their wearisome trip on one of the most bitterly 
cold nights and with instructions to arrest Hull, if found, without 
process. We who now can settle ours/;lves in a well heated, well 
lighted and elegantly furnished palace car, can illy imagine the 
the slow porgress amid dark, dismal and foreboding surround- 
ings, that was made by those two determined citizens as they 


pluckly urged their horses over the rough, frozen road. By 9 
o'clock the next morning they had reached their destination, and 
after making guarded inquiries, located a man who fitted exactly 
the description furnished them. They arrested him and started 
to return hoiiie, when their prisoner confessed that he was Hull; 
that he had been invited by those committing the robbery to join 
them in their nefarious operations, and gave his captors to under- 
stand who had given him what knowledge of the matter he pos- 
sessed, and that he was willing to assist in running his would-be 
confederates to earth. After accepting his proffered aid and 
making arrangements for him to meet Mr. Sutton at Dayton, 
Ohio, where Hull stated all the parties lived, except William 
Brandon, who resided at Union City, Ind., they permitted him to 
go. A full report was made of the above, and the meeting re- 
solved that W. G. Sutton should go to Cincinnati, Ohio, call on 
the chief of police, secure a first-class detective, disguise and pro- 
ceed to Dayton, there to meet Hull, who had already gone to 
Dayton, and by urging another robbery and giving plausible ex- 
cuses for not assisting in the first, had succeeded in ingratiating 
himself in the confidence of the entire gang, except Barker, who 
was conceded to be the smart one of the lot. The plan was exe- 
cuted and the detective secured the necessary evidence to convict 
the suspects by means known only to the profession. The Jay 
County sheriff was notified by wire, and by the next day had ar- 
rived at Indianapolis and soon had a requisition from Governor 
Oliver P. Morton on Governor John Brough, of Ohio, for the 
parties wanted. 

After various difiiculties had been overcome at Dayton, such 
as getting rid of habeas corpus proceedings, etc., the prisoners. 
Barker, Johns, Bell, Blackburn and Barker's mistress, Etta 
Smith by name, were escorted to Muncie. where the prisoners 
were confined. 

The successful prosecutions that followed were due to the 
untiring efforts of the writer of the first sketch. Judge Jacob M. 
Haynes, at that time judge of Jay Court of Common Pleas. 

The trials were conducted singly, and on the part of the 
prosecution with a degree of success that speaks for itself of the 
care, ability and vigor that were used by the principle attorney 
for the state. 

The venerable and honorable lawyer referred to is still one 
of the most prominent of Jay County's residents, and when talk- 
ing of his experiences in the above cases shows a memory re- 
markable for one of his years. 




I was born March 4th, 181 5, in Biirkly County, Virginia. 
Was married the ith day of May, 1838. to Rebecca Murphy. 
Moved to Clinton County, Ohio, in the fall of 1838; lived there 
until i860, when I moved to Jay County, Indiana, onto a farm in 
Jackson Township, on the 14th day of October, i860. While 
on our way to Indiana my wife was taken sick and died and was 
buried at Xenia, Ohio. After she was buried I, with my six chil- 
dren, came on to the farm in Jay County, that I had already pur- 
chased in the summer of 1861. I built a cabin on my farm and 
moved into it, where I and my children lived till April 15th, 1868, 
when I was marreid to Elizabeth Sisk, who I lived with until 
December 13th, 1893, when death again deprived me of my com- 
panion, since which time I have lived with my daughter. 1 lived 
at Polingtown during the time I lived with my second wife, nearly 
twenty-five years.When I move onto my farm it was nearly all 
in woods. It is now all under cultivation except about six acres. 
In the year 1840 I joined the new Christian church in Clinton 
County, Ohio, of which I remained a member until I came to Ind- 
iana. In the fall of 1866 I united' with the Christian church at 
West Liberty, wliere T still hold membership. 




The following sketch was give me by Simon Cox himself. 
He intended writing a full history, but sickness and other things 
prevented. Simon Cox was my step-father. 



I was born in North Carolina, Randolph County, the 15th 
day of second month, (February), 1798. My father and mother's 
names were John and Patience. I had four brothers, Benjamin, 
John, Joshua and Isah; five sisters, Margery, Patience, Ruth, 
Martha and Hannah. I was about two years old when we moved 
to Ohio. Recollect once on the road they set me in the hind end 
of the waggon, and in driving through a mud hole I fell out in the 
mud. Father settled in Ross Comity, on Salt Creek, near a town 
called Richmond. Father bought sixty acres ; only had to go two 
miles to mill. We used to go twelve to fifteen miles from home 
hunting; often fire hunted, which took two hunters; one to carry 
a pine knot torch and one to do the shooting; whenever I saw a 
deer's eyes shinning I would hand the light back for the others to 
hold so I could see along the gun barrel. Aimed to shoot about 
one foot below the eyes and generally fetched them down. One 
night I hit one in tlic end of tlie nose. There was one buck that 
was too sharp for us; could never get him to stand long enough 
to shot; got so close one night I could see him, but he got behind 
something before I could get a shot. Three or four of us used to 
go together in purchasing our powder and get it by the keg. 


Have some of the powder yet, and I am nearly y^. There was 
a big shelving rock we used to camp under when we went hunt- 
ing; built our fire out from the rock and slept between the fire and 
the rock. Did not kill any bears while we lived in Ohio. Re- 
member one time I shot three deers from one tree a s fast 
as I could load and shoot. None of them ran out of sight after 
being shot. In about 1818 Brother Benjamin moved to Ran- 
dolph County, Ind., settling near where Winchester now stands. 
Isah, sister Margery and myself came along out in the fall. In 
the spring I and brother Isah cleared a field on a place father had 
been out and entered before we came. Planted the field in corn. 
After harvest I went home and father and myself moved out. 
Father entered 160 acres at $1.25 per acre. I was married the 
next spring after father came out, in Wayne County, to Tamer 
Shugart. We settled on 80 acres of the land father entered; the 
east 80 acres it was. I was a little turned of 20 and Tamer a little 
over 18. We put up a log cabin 16x18, round logs (hewed them 
down after); put on a weight pole roof; had no chimney; built 
only the logs cut out for the fire place and two rounds of the back 
wall; laid no hearth, no floor, no door up, no windows cut out, 
and none of the cracks chunked or daubed ; laid a few clapboards 
on the sleepers to lay our bed on ; the tick was home-made, and 
the slats (though we did not use them) were home-made shaved 
out of walnut. It snowed the first night after we moved in. The 
first summer after we were married I stayed and farmed father-in- 
law's place and in the fall moved on the land I had got of father. 
All the stock I had when we were married was a heifer and spring 
colt. My ax and gun was the rest of my property. Had it not 
been for my gun we would have starved. Remember one day a 
neighbor, fames Coats, was at our house a squirrel jumped up 
on a tree and Coats picked up his gun, rested it on the jam of the 
fire place, shot the squirrel from where he was setting. Wild 
turkeys were so fat sometimes that when shot from the trees they 
would burst open when falling to the ground. The winter I 
moved in my cabin I hauled my corn up from Wayne County in 
the snow. The first time went after a load there was no road. 
We tc">k the section line two miles east of where Winchester 
now stands (was no town there then) one hand traced the line and 
the rest cleared the road. It was a pretty crooked one, too; only 
got about seven miles the first day. When we got to the five 
mile section there was a forked beech stood there. Brother Ben- 
jamin cut W on it for White River, and 5 for miles. About two 
miles south of that we camped; had Benjamin's waggon, the one 


he moved in, which had a cover on ; snowed a pretty smart. Snow 
that night with what we had, made the snow pretty deep. The 
next day we had two more miles of road to clear before we struck 
any other road. We had cleared nine miles of road and drove the 
first team over it. I stopped at New Corydon; the rest went to 
^\'^lite Water after corn to feed their horses. Brother Joshua and 
I got a team at New Corydon, took a load of corn I had raised, 
got a late start, so we had to camp out that night and found where 
a hollow tree had blown up; the top part of the log ran over, 
forming a roof. We built a fire in front and slept back in the 
hollow, keeping pretty warm ; got home the next day a little after 
noon. I had a big stew pot I used to take in the fore end of the 
sled when I went after corn ; kept fire in it to warm by. The first 
winter only got our house chunked and plastered to the joist, the 
chimney above the jam ; cleared four acres of ground and fenced 
it that winter, on which I raised, the following summer, enough 
corn to do us the following winter. In clearing we took every 
advantage of the timber we could. Game of all kind was plenty. 
Here my history ends as taken from his own lips, twenty 
years ago, but wish to add a few lines from memory. Himself 
and wife were a hard working, saving couple; they rocked their 
first born in a sugar trough, and shared life's toils together. To 
theme were born three children, neither of whom are now living. 
They were two boys and one girl, she dying young. The oldest, 
George Cox, so well known near Winchester, passed away a few 
years ago, leaving severaJ children and grand children. The 
other. Elish Cox, has been dead for over twenty years, leaving 
but one child, now living. For seven years I lived with the sub- 
ject of this sketch, he having married my mother, Abigail Paxson, 
of Jay County, as his last wife. He was married three times. 
Simon Cox was a member of the Orthodox society of Friends, 
and for several years of the last years of his life set ahead of the 
meeting regularly. When physically able he attended meeting at 
Jerecho. his home, meeting twice a week. The kind, quiet old 
man that I called father Cox holds a place in my memory never to 
be forgotten it seems, yet I can almost feel the pressure of his 
arm about my neck as I bid him good-bye when he was too far 
gone to speak. His last wife died five years before him on No- 
vember 8th, 1881. He quietly passed away aged 83 years, 8 
months and 23 days; was laid to rest in the quiet country grave 
yard at Jericho. Though being a farmer, he worked at cabinet 
making and the undertaking business together with his youngest 
son. assisting in making their own coffins. His life was an ex- 
ample of honest and piety. 



Curtis H. Clark was born in Preble County, Ohio, February 
loth, 1828. I was then small and can't remember very much 
about my few first years of life. My father and mother were 
Kentuckians and emigrated to Ohio on account of slavery, and 
being religiously opposed to the system, although Grandfather 
Clark was the owner of slaves. At the time of the great Caine 
Ridge revival he did not get religion enough to emanicipate them 
and that did not suit my father, and he emigrated to the then 
wilds of Ohio, and in a few years enlisted in Gen. Wm. H. Harri- 
son's army, or in other w'ords, in the "war of 1812, and served 
almost two years. Was at the battle of Tippecanoe and at the 
battle of the Thames, but did not claim the honor of killing 
Tecumsia. After the war he settled in Preble County, Ohio, and 
was married to Lucy Hardy. I can't give the date, but think it 
was in 1816. In the course of time to tliem was born seven chil- 
dren; two died and the other five lived to become men and wo- 
men. I was the sixth child and next to the yougesnt. We had 
very poor facilities for schooling, even in Ohio, at that time. The 
school house in our district was a round log cabin about 20x20 
feet, and we had but three months school each year, and we lived 
two miles and a quarter from the school house, and the district 
was full of scholars. Some days there would be as many as 
twenty full grown young men and as many girls, and that gave us 
little fellows a poor chance. But it is astonishing how one can 
remember things so long ago. It is now sixty-two years since 
that school, and I can tell the names of the scholars and things 


that happened then better than I can what happened at Liber when 
I was thirty. I remember on the Christmas of 1834 the big boys 
was going to make the master, as we called him, treat to the apple 
cider and ginger cakes or they would duck him in the creek near 
by. Christmas came and with it all the big boys and girls, and it 
was very cold and the creek was frozen over solid. Everything 
went well, until near noon a big fellow by the nam^ of Ned Felton, 
stepped up to the master and handed him the written demand, 
and if not complied with the result. He was determined he would 
not treat. At a given signal the big boys closed in on him and 
carried him to the creek, cut the ice and asked him if he would 
comply with the terms. He says, *'no; I will drown first." Four 
boys, one at each leg and arm, gently let him in the cold water. 
It took the third imersion before he agreed to comply with the 
terms. I remember most all the names of the actors in this case 
and if I was called into court to-day I could give better evidence 
on that than on many things that have happened in the last few 
years. I write this to show how vividly things may be engraven 
on the young mind. Another thing, I remember the first funeral 
I ever was at. It was in harvest and mother was going and asked 
me to go with her. I remember having my forebodings, but 
I went. After the preaching they took the corpse out in the yard 
for the last view. When it came our turn mother took me by the 
hand and I can never forget the sight. They did not embalm 
them days and this woman had passed into a bad state of decom- 
position ; the smell was unbearable. There were two women with 
a big brush on each side of the coffin keeping the flies off. I 
asked my mother as we went home if everybody had to die and 
smell. Many other things I might mention that might be inter- 
esting to some, but I will now leave my Ohio home and go to Ind- 

My father owned a smiall piece of land consisting of 65 acres, 
which he sold for $800. $400 down and balance in one and two 
years' time. After paying all his debts he had enough left to 
enter 160 acres of congress land, as we then called it. He first 
went up to the Tegarden settlement, in Dark County, Ohio, but 
not liking the looks of things as well as he expected, he con- 
cluded to go to Indiana, or the Hawkins settlement, as it w^as 
called, on the Little Salamonia. Here he found land in abund- 
ance for entry at $1.25 per acre. He had friends here who all 
wanted new neighbors and all had the best land adjoining the 
best land. A man had to be on the lookout for dry land at that 
time. He located on what is now the James Haynes' place, in 


what is now Pike Township. He bought out old Billy Bunch, 
who had squatted on forty acres and had put up a cabin and a 
small stable; had cleared five acres and planted it in corn. This 
improvement he sold to father for $50. so that he now could but 
enter only 120 acres, instead of 160, as expected, but he had the 
house and stable to go into and corn and fodder to winter our 
horse and cows, with the assistance of the browse from trees we 
felled for said purpose. He now returned home and the prepara- 
tions commenced to move to Indiana, a great place in our estima- 
tion. The 1st of November, 1835. we were ready to move; we 
had killed our hogs and every thing now being ready it was a 
great day for us children. Father had hired two four-horse and 
one two-horse teams to move us. (We had but one horse.) These 
men were regular teamsters and wagons as large as a canal boat 
with the old-fashioned Pennsylvania beds. A man could walk 
upright under the cover. Tliey made it a business hauling goods 
to and froiTT) Eaton and Richmond to Cincinnati the year around. 
We loaded our goods in these three large wagons and moved at 
daylight, Thursday morning. By agreement Mr. Wilkinson was 
fo meet us at Eaton with another large wagon drawn by three 
horses, moving his son, C. C. Wilkinson, to the same settlement, 
which consisted almost entirely of Preble County people; Haw- 
kins being first, in 1829, then George Bickle, George Hardy, Eli 
Longnecker, Henry Welch, Ben Goldsmith, Wm. Isenhart and 
John S. Mays those that made the settlement for eight miles 
along the creek when we came. I left our train at Eaton; we 
moved on to near New Paris and went in camp for the night. 
You may think we had a high old time with those old waggoners, 
they being used to that way of living, and we children totally 
imacquainted, but all went well on the road. We crossed the 
Mississimewa at William Simmons and here our roads ended. 
It was but a trace, with never but a few wagons along it now. 
Our train beat all ever in these parts; two 4-horse, one 3-horse 
and one 2-horse wagons stretched out them woods for ten miles 
that Sunday morning and not one single house to be seen on the 
entire route, but we landed at our home a little before sun-down 
and all our friends for miles was there to greet us in our new 
home. We soon had the beds out and with the help we had, 
made things look home-like. Our teamsters stayed with us that 
night and the next morning bidding us good bye. We were 
ensconed in our new home in the then wilderness. It was very 
lonesome for a while, but we got used to it. Father hunted most 
of the time; he could make more hunting than at anything else. 


He would often kill two or three deers a day, and besides the 
meat the hides brought a good price; from '^^jVi cents to 75 cents. 
We had our smoke house nearly full of dry deer meat at a time. 
This was good at all times and ready for use; the hams, (there 
was nothing of the meat kind better) after being smoked were 
sliced and fried in butter. Our worst trouble was to get milling 
done, as we called it. The nearest mill was a little water mill on 
the Alississinewa, twelve miles away and only run about three 
months in the year. 

In April. 1836, Dr. Bosworth moved in and was our nearest 
neighbor. They were eastern people and well educated; the 
great difference in our talk and conversation almost put a divi- 
sion between us that was insurmountable, but we all had to have 
favors ; we adopted some of their ways and they adopted some of 
ours and we soon became fused, as the saying is, and other 
Yankees came in and land of nativity forgotten. 

In June. 1836, my mother died very suddenly. .She had 
eaten iier supper and lit her pipe, went out on the porch to smoke 
and took a spell of coughing and broke a blood vessel and died 
in five minutes. This was a terrible trial for us children, for we 
loved our mother above all others and confided everything in 
mother. There had been two funerals in this neighborhood be- 
fore mother's, John Hawkins and Uncle George Hardy. Tliey 
had split blue ash puncheons and made coffins for them, but now 
the question was, what will we do? It being very warm weather, 
something must be done at once; no planks nearer than Win- 
chester, no nails nearer than Deerfield, twelve miles away. Dr. 
Bosworth came to our relief; he had a new poplar wagon bed he 
had made to move in, which he ofTered as the best he could do. 
Now the qusetion of tools and nails. The country was gone over 
from Obediah Winters to Ben Goldsmith's, a distance of eight 
miles, and all the old rusty nails that could be found were donated. 
Late in the evening the coffin, or in other words, the box, was 
done and mother was laid in and then we took the last sad view 
of her remains; the top or lid was then put on and nailed down 
with the hammer and connnon nails, then carrietl by hand half 
a mile to its resting place. This was a difYerent funeral from the 
present. Two years from the next August, in 1838, father took 
sick and in two weeks he died. He had conmienced to build a 
ncAV and had brought three poplar batten doors for house. 
Thos<.» they took and made his coffin, in which he was buried. 
There was a young man at our house building a saw mill and had 
nails and screws to make it. Here I am at the age of 10 without 
father or mother, thrown on the cold charities of the world. We 


broke up house-keeping and went back to Preble County and 
staid one year, and I was lonesome, as all the rest of the family 
were in Indiana. I had a good place and was well used and hated 
to leave the old man that had taken me down there, as he was 
going to move out to Indiana, and told him he had brought me 
there he must take me back. When the old man bid me good- 
bye he cried, and so did I. WTien he got on his horse to start 
back I had a great notion to mount on behind again and go back 
to Jay County, but as it had got to be, I stayed with C. C. Wilkin- 
son the next winter. I remember going to mill on horseback; 
early in April we shelled five bushels of corn and put it in two 
sacks, 2^ bushels in each, and in the morning, just at daylight, 
cold and frosty, light scum of ice, he put one sack on old Bet and 
histed me on it; the other on Rock, and he mounted, to go twelve 
miles to the mill. It was almost through the woods and briddle 
paths, as they were called. We got to the mill a little before 
noon; the old miller told us we could get our grinding in two 
hours. We got it all right, but it was growing cold and we 
twelve miles from home. I was not well clad for the weather 
and before we got half way home it began to freeze, and when I 
got home and was taken off the horse I could neither stand or 
walk, I was so near frozen and so hungry. By and by I thawed 
out and ate a hearty supper and was all right. In August, 1840, 
I was bound out to Hiram Rathbun for seven and a half years, 
or until I was 21 years old. for the consideration of $100 and one 
year's schooling, a freedom suit of clothes, to cost at least $20. 
I served my time as per contract and was a free man at 21. Since 
that time I have had many ups and downs, as most men. T was 
the fist man to volunterr for three vears in fav Count v. in 1861. 




A sketch of the life of F. AI. AlcLaughhii, now a resident of 
tlie city of Portland, Jay County, Ind. 

His father, John McLaughlin, \vas one of the pioneers of Jay 
County, Indiana; he was born in Bath County, Virginia, Febr- 
uary 2 1 St, 1799, and resided there until he was 22 years of age. 

Although a native of a slave state, he imbided a hatred of 
slavery, and the cause of his leaving his native state was the 
danger he incurred for chastising a slave driver for beating a 

His mother was also a native of Randolph County, A'irginia, 
being born December 21st, 1805, and resided there until her 15th 
year, when her father, Christopher Spillman, emigraed to Meigs 
County, Ohio, where she was married to my father, John Mc- 
Laughlin, August 24th, 1824. 

To this union eleven children were born, six boys and five 
girls, six of whom are still living. William, John, Wiley and the 
subject of this sketch were soldiers during the late war of the 
Rebellion. Wiley was killed at the battle of Franklin, Tenn,, 
while making a charge on the rebel lines. 

My father emigrated to Jay County in November, 1833, 
and settled in Madison Township, on the farm now owned by 
J. Armstrong. 

On his arrival he found that he had insufficient money to pay 
tlie entry fee on the land he wished to enter, consequently he 
was obliged to rt'Hnquis.h this land for the time, and with the hope 
of securing some land for his own. he went to Kosciosko County 
where he rented a farm on which he lived until October ist, 1837, 
when he returned to Jay Countv and entered t6o acres of land 


one half of a mile east of the village of Salanionia. While living 
in Kosciosko Comity, the subject of this sketch was born, April 
9th, 1836, and was one year and six months old when he arrived 
in Jay County, so that I was born the same year that Jay County 
was organized and came to the county in the same year that the 
town, now city, of Portland was laid out, so that you will see that 
I have saw the county transformed from a vast wilderness to 
what it now is. 

Aly father killed a wolf near the house the same day that my 
Brother John was born. I was but one and a half years old when 
Ave arrived in this county, and here I was reared on a farm and 
subject to all of the hardships of a pioneer life; 1 never had a 
pair of shoes until I was 13 years old; there was quite a number 
of Indians in Jay County at the time of the McLaughlin family 
coming to the county, and I just then learning to talk, and one 
Indian took quite a fancy to what they called the white papoose, 
and learned me to talk the Indian language, some of which I 
now remember yet. I recollect very well the first cigar I ever 
saw; some person found it about half a mile from our house, near 
the blacksmith shop of George Beard, and when I heard that 
they had found a cigar I had no idea what it looked like. I 
imagined that it was a fancy pipe of some kind, so I told mother 
that I was going to see it. She refused me this privilege, but I 
told her that I would go, and she said that I must not, as it was 
through the woods all the way, but my curiosity was so aroused 
that I ran away and went, and when I arrived at Mr. Beard's I 
told them that I had come to see that cigar that had been found. 
They got it and showed it to me, but I told them that they could 
not play that kind of a trick on me, as I wanted to see the cigar 
that had been found, and not a leaf of tobacco that had been 
twisted up, but Mrs. Beard told me that it was the cigar, and I 
think that I went home the worst disgusted boy you ever saw. 

I had no opportunity to go to school and had no clothes 
sufficient to keep me warm in winter time, and there was no 
school in the summer time, and if there had been, we could not 
have went, as we all had to work in the summer to clear up the 
farm. The only way that I got any education at all was that 
every dime I got I bought a book with and every moment that 
I had from work I was readin or writing on something with a 
piece of chalk or coal or anything I could get hold of. 

There was a preacher at our house one time and we stole 
his pony out and run a race with one of our horsese and they 
collided in the race and knocked me oflf and pretty nearly broke 
my neck. We had a cross ram and we used to take it by turns 


and stand out and let him make a run at us and see who could 
dodge him, and my Brother John one day failed to dodge him. 
and he nearly broke his back for him, and father did not know 
we had been teasing the ram and he killed him for butting John. 
In those times we could only farm the higher lands, and the 
black soil that is now the best of land was all under water and was 
only inhabited with frogs and snakes the whole }ear round, and 
when we got a piece of ground cleared and raised a crop of corn 
on it, it was almost impossible to save it, as there were so many 
coons, foxes, squirrels, turkeys and deers to eat it that we had 
to constantly watch it until it was ripe sufficient to be shucked 
and brought in, and I can now hardly believe how plenty these 
wild animals were. I have saw twenty to twenty-five deers at one 
time. I at one time shot twenty squirrels from one tree, and very 
well remember the day that my oldest sister, Jane, was married. 
I think that it was in January, 1846. The old folks did not in- 
form us of the wedding, but we found it out and my older 
brothers, Hugh, William and John, felt that they had been 
slighted, and they ran away and went hunting, and it being Sun- 
day, they felt hurt about the slight, took to the wckxIs early in the 
morning; I could not go, as 1 had no shoes to wear, and they 
never returned until it was getting dark in the evening. Just 
about the time that the preacher was ready to perform the cere- 
mony the three boys came marching in. They had ten rabbits, 
eight opossums, two raccoons, a fox and a mink. They had them 
all strung on one pole and it was a little embarrassing for father, 
but they all had a good laugh on the amount of game the boys 
had caught and the wedding went on all the same. I had for- 
gotten what kind of a dress that my sister wore no that occasion, 
I interviewed her a few days ago and she says that she thinks 
that it was a blue calico that she could buy anywhere now for 4 
cents a yard; she says she worked out and waited on sick folks 
for 50 cents a week and took calico at 37J/2 cents per yard for her 
pay, and that was the way that she got her wedding dress, and six 
yards made the dress, as that was all that they put in a dress at 
that time. I remem^ber that she wore a cap; all brides at that 
time wore a cap like their grandmothers wore when they got 
married. We think that we have hard times now, but we are 
living in paradise to what we did then. I have often saw the 
time when we got up in the morning that we could not get any 
breakfast until we grated meal enough for a big family on a 
piece of tin with holes punched through it with a nail. I could 
give you many more incidents of early life in Jay County, but I 
have already taken up too much space. 


Aly father died in March, i860, leaving my mother not in 
good circumstances; he had 40 acres of land near the village of 
Salamonia, which she choose as her dower in the estate; there 
was no house on it, only an old log cabin, and I did not think it 
fit for her to live in, so 1 set out to build her a house. I cut and 
hewed the logs for a house and Brother Hugh hauled them for 
me, and I built her a hewed log house. It took all the money 
that she and I both had to complete it and I had to trade my sil- 
ver watch to the carpenters to get it finished. About that time 
the war came on and we all went to the army and left her and 
my youngest sister, Rebecca, who now lives near Toledo, Ohio, 
to do the farming and to get along the best that they could. 

I left the serv'ice in the fall of 1863 and returned home. 
Miss Susan Keck, a Liber student, was borading at my mother's 
and teaching the village school, and on the i8th day of October, 
1863, we were married and connnenced housekeeping in the old 
cabin that was situated near my mother's house. Mv wife was 
a good scholar and was a great help to me; she being a fine mathe- 
matecian, 1 learned much from her teaching after our marriage. 
I rented mother's farm and we started to make a living. I had 
$60 in money that I had saved up, and that was all the money we 
had to start on, and that only bought us a cook stove, six wooden 
chairs and a few other trinkets, and all our money was gone and 
Mrs. McLaughlin traded her watch for a set of dishes, and we 
thought that we were pretty well fixed. I farmed for a living 
until 1871, taking jobs of ditching and farming, and I managed 
to make a living until 1871, when I was elected as recorder of Jay 
County, serving two terms of four years each, and by economy 
and by the help of my good wife, we secured a reasonable good 
home. Six children have been born to us, three girls and three 
boys, all of whom are now living, three being married and three 
single. My wife was always a faithful and a noble wife and a 
hard worker, and through exposure she contracted consumption, 
which bafiled all medical skill, and on the 23rd day of April, 1894. 
she died, since which time I have had a very lonely life and am 
onlv waiting for the time to come when we mav be united in the 
spirit land. F. M. McLAUGHLIN. 



William G. Sutton was born in Green County, Ohio, on the 
1 2th of April, 1828. 

In the month of September, 1837, his father (Isaiah Sutton) 
and family emirated to eastern Indiana, opening a farm on the 
present site of the beautiful city of Dunkirk, in Jay County. 

At that time this country was a vast wilderness. His father 
had to cut a road three miles or more throuh the timber to reach 
his land. The nearest neighbor on the south was three miles; 
on the east, four miles; on the west, five miles, and on the north, 
eight miles. 

The nearest postoffice was at Muncie, eighteen miles dis- 
tance. The nearest mills for grinding grain were at Chester- 
field, Madison County, and Hagerstown, Wayne County. 

Newspapers were unknown. 

When they began to build school houses they made them 
of unhewn logs with fire places big enough to burn wootl four 
feet long, the back wall and jams made of mud, as were also the 
chimnies with sticks and mud. The cracks of the buildings were 
daubed with mud, that making the houses comparatively com- 
fortable. To secure light, sufficient openings were made in the 
walls, over which was pasted greased paper instead of glass, 
thus permitting light enough for the pupils to pursue their 
studies.The seats for the children were made of long puncheons 
hewn from a large sappling split, with legs and arranged so the 
pupils all faced inward. The teachers were suposed to have 
some knowledge of reading, writing and arithemetic. 

Mr. Sutton's younger days were devoted to securing an 
education in the common schools of the neighborhood, after 
which he engaged in farming and teaching. He began teaching 
at 20 years of age, devoting thirteen years to the profession in 



this immediate vicinity, where he has hved since childhood, 
excepting nine years, from 1859 to 1868, he Hved in Portland, 
the county seat. 

In April, 1859, he was nominated for the office of auditor 
on the Republican ticket, and in October was elected to said 
office by a majority of sixty-five votes over Dr. Manuel Reed, 
Democrat. At the October election in 1863, he was re-elected 
by a majority of eighty over James G. Adair, Democrat, serving 
in said office eight years. 

Mr. Sutton has lived in Jay County almost sixty yeaps and 
has witnessed the growth and development of his early home 
with pardonable pride, for to himself and father, more than any 
others is due the credit for placing the substantial foundations 
upon which tlie city of Dunkiry is built. He has used every 
legitimate means within his power to induce the location of manu- 
facturing industries that would tend to increase the importance of 
the town. 

When natural gas was discovered in 1887, he platted three 
additions to Dunkirk and placed sixty-five lots on the market at 
$100 each, the proceeds, $6,500, being presented as a bonus to 
J. T. Wilcox, who established the first window glass factory in 
the city. He has been foremost in all enterprises that had for 
their object increased municipal importance. Socially he is a 
genial and friendly gentleman who stands high in the estimation 
of his fellow citizens, who are not slow to recognize the true 
value of such a man in the community. He is a member of the 
Congregational church, also a member of the leading local 
fraternial organizations, and there, as elsewhere, he stands in the 
foremost ranks. 

September 5th, 1847, Mr. Sutton was married to Miss Judith 
Gauntt, of Randolph County, who died on the nth day of April, 
1893. Their three sons and one daughter, who are now living, 
are residents of Dunkirk, and are highly respected citizens. 

January 4th, 1894, Mr. Sutton was united in marriage to his 
second wife, Miss Angle Graham, of Julesburg, Colorado. 

Although practically retired from active business life, Mr. 
Sutton is still directly interested in a number of leading enter- 
prises, and his judgment and advice is eagerly sought by business 
men of the younger generation. 

For his generosity, benevolence and leniency he is known 
far and near, and by his courteous manner and pleasant way has 
done what few can do — made every acquaintance a steadfast 




I was born in Bloomfield, Essex County, New Jersey, 
January ist, 1819. At the age of eight years I was sent to school 
and my parents being poor, I could only go three months. There 
was no free school those days and as there were several children 
of us our school privileges had to be divided among us all. We 
had to pay $1.25 per quarter. So in my three months I learned 
to read, write and cipher, as it was then called. At the age be- 
tween nine and ten I went to work in a woolen factory, managed 
by a firm named Wile's, at $1.50 per week, and by being promoted 
my wages were raised and on less time, and as there was a night 
school started I went to it at night. 

At school we used to try and surpass each other in learning. 
Our books were the old Daybold arithemetic, the old green leaf 
granmiar and the old English reader. At the age of thirteen I 
went to work at wall paper printing. There was no machinery 
those days and we had to take paper by sheets and past them to- 
gether to make them long enough to make a bolt and then put 
on the ground work with burshes by hand and print the paper 
by blocks. We could only put one color on at a time and press 
the blanks with a hand press; and now what a change progres- 
sion has made in that line. At the age of seventeen and a half 
I went to the city of Newark, N. J., to learn the cabinet makers' 
trade. I was bound to my preceptor until I was 21 years old, but 
when I was 20 I had some difificulty with my boss and I ran away 
and went to New York city, and still continued at my trade. At 
the age of twenty-two and a half I married, it being July 3rd, 


1841, to Elizabeth Casterline. After that I went into business 
for myself, and in the spring of '55 I came to Indiana. I lived in 
Fairfield, Franklin County, in this state, and in the spring I 
moved to Green Township, Jay County, in the woods on the 
farm now owned by Jacob Whiteman, and in '64 I bought the farm 
known as the Timberlake, which we own yet. To look at Jay 
County then and now, the rising generation would hardly believe 
the change it has made. No horses and no fine buggies to ride 
in; horse back was the only mode of conveyance then in winter 
and muddy times. I went to one of our neighbors, George 
Wliitemen, and got 300 pounds of hay and yet got stuck in the 
mud and had to walk a mile to Adam Zigle's and get his oxen to 
pull me out and help me home with it. I was elected in 1862 as 
assessor for Green Township. I served three years, then by the 
persuasion of my friends, was elected justice of the peace and 
served four years. That gave me enough of public oflfice. Al- 
though I was a strong Democrat and took an active part in 
politics, I would decline all office. 

There was splendid hunting them days. You could hear the 
crack of the rifle every hour of the day; squirrel was plenty, wild 
turkey was plenty, and some deer. James Spahn,Mathias Spahn 
and Jacob Koup and myself, in the fall, would take a trip to 
Paulding County and camp out two or three weeks. My experi- 
ence in deer hunting was very limited, not knowing how to hunt 
deer. James Spahn went out to hunt deer and we separated and 
in a few minutes I heard his rifle crack and he hoted like an owl 
and I went to him, and he had killed one. We hung him up and 
started out again. I had not gone far before two deers jumped 
up before me not twent}- steps from me, and I had a double gun 
and could have killed them both, but I was so excited to see 
their tails pop up that I took the gun down from my face and let 
them run off. forgetting that I had a gun until they had gone out 
of my sight. J\Iy luck eneded there ; I had no such chance after 
that. I was out turkey hunting with Redman Gaunt and we got 
after a flock of turkeys. He told me to go to the old Timl>erlak 
school house, in a narrow strip of woods, and set down ; that they 
would all come down through them. I went down, but they were 
hollowing up in the deadening; I was so anxious I could not wait, 
so I went after them, but they all slipped through where I had 
been and the consequence was I got none and Gaunt got four, and 
he said to me that the next time he would put me under a brush 
heap to keep me still, but I finally learned how to hunt. In 1869 
I left the farm and moved to the place called Dunkirk, and started 
business in the furniture line. It was a small place then; about 


200 inhabitants then, and in 1872 I commenced practice in law. 
I was appointed deputy prosecutor under Jesse Lafallett, Lutner 
L Baker, Adair, George Whitaker and R. H. Hatfield. 1 quit 
the furniture and undertaking business about twelve years ago. 
My w^ife died about six years ago and I broke up keeping house 
and lived with my son. The town of Dunkirk has grown from 
200 inhabitants to a city of 5,000, with brick streets, good walks, 
large brick business houses, splendid churches, two large school 
houses, which now has an attendance of 1,000 children. It seems 
wonderful to me that I have lived from the time that there W'cre 
no railroads, no telegraph, no photograph, no phonegraph and 
with all of the progressiveness that has been made. While so 
many have been denied this grand privilege I have lived to see 
all of my mother's family of eleven children go, while I am the 
only one left, but such is life. 



The Cunninghams, of the eastern part of Jay Count}', repre- 
sent a pioneer family that figured in the border wars of Virginia. 

An aunt of Benjamin Cunningham, one of the subjects of 
this sketch, was taken pri.soner by the Indians, her arm pinioned 
and she was made to carry her babe on her hands until becoming 
exhausted, the child was taken from her, its brains dashed out 
against a tree and the body cast upon the ground. She was 
some weeks in captivit}-, but was finally bought and set at 
liberty by the notorious Simon Girt>-. 

Benjamin and Margaret Cunningham mo\-ed from Gillia 
County, Ohio, in 1832, and settled first one-half mile west of 
Fort Recovery, moving across the state line into Indiana a couple 
of years later. In 1838 they selected a site on a small hill mid- 
way between Fort Recovery, Ohio and Liber, Ind., and there 
Margaret, or as her friends nick-named her, "Aunt Peggy," still 
lives as this sketch is put to press, at the advanced age of 96. 

Three of their sons served in the late war. Jacob, the second 
son, died in the south, and Abraham, the third son, came home 
and died from consumption contracted while a prisoner. Isaac 
and William, Sarah and Orinda, the surviving children are resi- 
dents of Jay County. Among the grand-childen of this pioneer 
couple we number the Cunningham brothers, the music dealers 
of Portland. 



111 regard to my ancestors, we trace lineage to William Kd- 
mundson, who died in June, 171 2, aged 85 years, and left 
memories or accounts of his travels in the wilds of America, the 
West Indias and the British Empire as a Quaker preacher. The 
account of these and other acts of his life, as kept by him, were 
published about two years later in a book of 335 pages, a copy of 
which has come to me b}' decent from generation to generation. 
He was a man of very strong self-will and enthusiastic in religious 
work and would not stop for cold or storm, and he spent most of 
his time in what would now be called missionar)- work. That 
strong self-will predominates yet in his decendents. Back to my 
grandparents the age ran to about 90 years. As to myself, I was 
born April 17th, 1825, in Frederick County, Maryland. lam 
the son of Thomas and Elizabeth Edmundson. I have five sisters 
and two brothers. We moved to Clinton County, Ohio, in 1833, 
it took five weeks to make the trip with a wagon. 
One sister was left in Maryland. As .small as I was I walked 
much of the way. The pine in the mountains was so in 
some places that the .sun did not .shine on the ground, and .some 
places they were on fire and the fire was so fierce that we were 
afraid it would burn the wagon. We .stayed in Ohio untill 1837, 
then we moved to Jay County. The oldest si.ster was married 
in Ohio. We moved in the .same wagon and four horses, having 
three cows and a small amount of clothing and hou.schold goods, 
and only $40 in money, and we had 240 acres of unimproved land. 
My father and two brothers came here alwut the time the snow 
went off in the si)ring; got their wagon along to Montpelier, then 
went on foot. With gun and what they could carry they got 


well on toward the Salamonia river. Night coming on, they .shot 
into a hollow tree and got a fire the first shot. Having some 
wraps they got along qnite well. A man named Haines and 
another man started on their trail in the snow, but failed to over- 
take father. They came near perishing with the cold. One of 
them had enough energy to walk about and the other did not and 
the other dragged him about to keep him alive till morning. 
When day came he got life enough to walk on. Father struck 
the river south of the old Sam Gri.sel farm. There was a tree 
across the river and a rail fastened above it and the river was so high 
that they had to cross over on it. Father and brothers came to 
the land I live on and built a cabin about twenty feet .square, cut 
a door and one window, laid a puncheon floor on about one- half 
of it, and cut afire place at the other end, cleared a little land 
and rai.sed some truck and rented a part of the Godfrey farm and 
rai.sed .some corn and the biggest crop of .Spanish needles I have 
ever seen. That seemed to be what the Indians seeded their 
ground with, and they and the bones of the Indians on the 
banks of the Slokum and the old brick is among the land 
marks left by the Indians, and there was many elm trees .stand- 
ing that they had peeled to get bark from to cover their Wig- 
wams and to make canoes. I never .seen a tree peeled so nicely 
b}- a write man. But I have lost track of mother and .sister 
while I have been looking after the Indians, (but that was no 
uncomon occurrance in the early settlements, and to return to 
find them .scalped). When father and son returned to Clarke 
County, Ohio, about the finst of 1837 Mother and the 
rest of the family was ready to try their fortunes where Uncle 
Sam with his good sword and rifle had .said: Mr. Indian, move on 
I am going to liave all of this fair land, except enought to bury 
you in and we will .soon have that for a garden .spot. As we 
were mo^■ing we crossed the river valley about Dayton and Rich- 
mond the wheat was being cut, and the trees was loaded with 
ripe cherries and made one of the loveliest land .scapes ever .seen. 
Some of my readers may think it a mi.stake about cutting the quality of wheat in, but when father got home on 
the 6th of August his wheat was .so geen that he would not have 
it cut. 

We will go back to to beautiful fruit which we will have to 
leave and go to a wilderness, when would we .see cherries again, 
what will we find in our new home to make up for the of 
fruit; I suppose that was what dear mother was thinking about 
and what did we find. (Father had been in good circumstances 
and went securety for those he thought his friends and had it to 


pay.) What did we get; a farm in the wilderness which, after 
man}- years of hard labor, has made a good home. What did we 
get at once; we got a fish sein long enough to reach across 
the river. There was J. Paxon, E. Davis, E. Irey, all together. 
There were nine shares. A few days after we all got home we 
all went to the river, some two miles, in the forenoon. It rained 
and seemed ver}^ cold to us, and we did not get many fish. We 
got dinner at George Porter's. It cleared off and we went back 
and got all the fish we needed and got back in good time. They 
were about as large as a man's wrist. There was but little brush 
in the river then. Then there was deer. Hunting was my favor- 
ite .sport. Now my sons will go hundreds of miles to see the 
deer. I used to stand at the window and .see a dozen of them go 
by, and sometimes .shoot them from the window. They came in 
our garden many a time and eat cabbage. Under circum- 
stances, I had the luck to kill the last wild deer that I know of 
around here, on one of my farms. I borrowed the gun from 
Sarah Miller, or Sally as she is most always called. I remember 
of one of my wife's si-sters holding a candle ever}' night in the 
week except Sunday, for me to dress deer. My father and two 
brothers could do the work on the farm and I was chore boy. I 
had to kill .squirrels from the time corn was in roasting ears, till 
in the crib. I could make more with my gun in good hunting 
time than I could at work. I have followed as many as twenty - 
seven deer in one gang, but could not see them all at once. 
They mo.stly run. a doe and two fawns together until .some of 
them get killed. In the winter a buck or two would get with 
them, and after part of them were killed two or more gangs 
would get together. When a man has hunted as long as I did ii 
is hard for him to give it up, or even quit telling about it untill 
all get tired li.stening. There is something .so fascinating aboiu 
hunting that it overbalences the hardships of a hunter's life, 
which was made up, to a great extent, of need. After I was 
married, I u.sed to keep my father's family and my own in the 
hunting sea.son. I had barrels of it .salted and the rounds dried. 
Turkeys were very plentiful; I have .shot as high as five out of a 
flock after they had gone to roost. After referring to .some of 
the pleasures of a hunter's life I will refer to .some of my 
ciates in backwoods life. 

In the forepart of August, 1.S37, I got to Jay County, 
(where I now live). Came with my father and mother, Thomas, 
and Elizabeth Edmund.son, and brothers William and Thomas, 
and Mariah and Anna, sisters. We stopped at Samuel Gri.sel's east of where Camden is now. He had been here for a few 


years and had made: considerable money by keeping a list of un- 
sold land and showing it to woud-be purchasers. He had se- 
lected the choice land of Jay County, counting soil and the oil it 
has produced. Then we went to our lonely cabin, half puncheon 
and half dirt floor. It w^as the last cabin from the Salamonia 
settlement till we got to the Blufifton settlement, fifteen miles. I 
soon went to where Camden is. William Samuels and John 
Jones were commencing to build log houses. Joseph Paxson 
and Eli Davis started improvements three-fourths of a mile 
south; Stephen Kruse and Ely Irey a little west of John Allen's; 
going between them jMoses Allen settled two miles nothwest. A 
little latter the Allen house was raised. I went with sacks near 
where it was raised and picked up two bushels of shell bark 
hickory nuts and left the ground covered with nuts under the 
trees. Samuel Grissel's son, Amos, was at the raising on horse- 
back, and he carried them home for me. All of our folks and 
neighbors were at the raising. I have known Grissels to go nine 
miles to help raise a house. We had to go a long way to get 
enough to handle the logs. 

There was the two families of Johnathan Hyitts just north 
of Camden; just a little east of them was Joshiah Bond, who 
built a grist mill and threashing machine under the same roof, 
and the house was built on back. Some of them were trees with 
the stumps just the right height for the second story. When we 
went with grain we had to furnish teams, and two or more would 
go together. I have spent many a weary hour waiting my turn, 
and then when it came, it was very hard and particular. Once 
when I was driving in with another man that furnished a part of 
the team, Bond complained very much for us not driving fast 
enough. In a little bit he run out of the mill scared so that he 
could hardly go back in the mill for fear the burr would jump 
out and run over him. It was dangerous, but boys often do more 
reckless things than driving too fast. See what a change in 
milling here since that. 

Now as to the way we had to live in our little settlements. 
There was not enough grain raised, to bread us and we had to go 
south to get flour and meal. 

Soon after our arrival my father went to Richmond to get 
supplies, in Avhich several families were interested. There was 
not enough flour and meal to last until they got back, and it was 
borrow and lend until it was all gone; then we all lived on pota- 
toes, and then some others would go to mill. Sometimes we 
could get milling done at Ridgeville. but grain was not always 
to be had there. It is said that "roses have thorns, and trials are 


often softened by kindness," but the freedom with which the 
lending was done and the kindly intercourse it caused more than 
balanced the privation we endured. 

We all went together to log rollings and house raisings as 
one common class, .there being no aristrocracy. Adelina Lup- 
ton was as poor as the rest of us, he being the village blacksmith 
of good repute. Many a weary day have I spent in his shop. I 
will relate a little incident: I was doing some work in the shop 
and one of Del's younger brothers got very much out of fix with 
Del and I and we shut him out of the shop. He stormed the 
shop for a long time, hue finally got in a good humor and the 
Luptons and Edmundsons have since always been good friends. 

You ask how we lived. Mostly on corn bread, butter, milk, 
pork and wild meats, and we parched corn for cofTee, as a rule. 
I think we use as much sugar now in a week as was used in a 
year in olden times, except when maple sugar was made, then 
it was used more freely. What we had to buy was high, and 
what we sold was low. because of the cost of getting it to market. 
My brother went to Piqua. Ohio, and got salt, and I think he 
sold it at $io per pound. Eggs were sold at 3 cents per dozen: 
calico cost 18 cents per yard, and eight yards made a full dress. 
The waist was made plain to fit the lady neat, and also the sleeves: 
the skirts were gathered full and showed a woman of¥ to a better 
advantage than of the new styles. But look at their bonnets: a 
piece of paste board about a foot square, but in a half circle, and 
calico or silk fitted over it, so that one end would fit on the head 
and the other was open so that they could see straight ahead, but 
not to the right or left, and a frill sewed to the lower edge to reach 
the shoulders. T belong to the Quakers and we are very much 
opposed to following the fashions of the world. Once when at- 
tending a meeting at Richmond there were over one thousand 
women with bonnets on similar to these, with the lower corners 
rounded and not quite so much frill. I never saw a class of peo- 
ple more afraid that their children would not dress in their 
fashion, and my readers can magne how those goon old friends 
felt when their daughter came out with a beautiful new hat. Tt 
is nicer than the old sun1)onnet. if it is so bad. Before sewing 
machines and knitting mills were manufactured there was not 
so much work on a lady's clothing. 

Go back to the foreingers: go in their cabins at night: we see 
a log fire; it is cold; the ladies are knitting, if the supper dishes are 
put away. Maybe one is sewing a patch on brother's trousers, 
and another smaller girl feeding the fire with wood or shellbark 


to make the room lig^ht enough to see. Then there was a sHght 
improvement for light; a small tin or iron dish, with a wick that 
reached across the bottom and up at one end, and lard in the dish 
to make it burn. Then tnose that could afford to kill beef would 
make dip candles, and those that could raise the candle moulds 
had moulded candles, and that was the best light obtainable. 

The Fitzpatricks were among the early settlers and kept a 
grocery and raised a family of bright children. One of them> 
Grant, went to Randolph County, another to Wells County and 
practiced medicine and conducted a store, and recently he and 
his sons moved to Dunkirk, Ind. One of the girls married Gar- 
ner Martin. They went into the mercantile business and her 
husband died many years ago and left her with some money and 
a family of girls. She knew well how to take care of the money 
and the girls. Some learned to take care of themselves, and I 
will say for the benefit of that family, that I have been traveling 
as a salesman more or less for fifty years over this and adjoining 
counties, and often meet the descendents of the old Fitzpatricks, 
and am always met with a pleasant greeting. 

Being asked by my friend. Mrs. Lynch, of Decatur, as an 
old settler of Jay County, requesting an account of my ancestors 
and where and how I lived, the pleasures of such a life and its 
sociability and the hardships, where I went to school and the 
many frolics we had helping our neighbors roll logs and catch 
liis snipes, the deer or bear hunts, and in fact anj'thing to make a 
good spicy story. 

My ancestors trace back to William Edmundson, who died 
June, 1712. I was born April 17th, 1825, son of Thomas and Eli- 
zabeth Edmundson, his wife, in Frederick County, Maryland. 
There were many negroes around there and were very fond 
of sport. The white farmers would take advantage of heat to 
get his corn husked. They would top the corn and blade it, then 
they would lean rails against a ridge pole and nail lathe on them 
and cover it very thick with the tops of the corn: then they would 
snap the corn and haul it in the fodder house, as it was then called. 
They would send word to the negroes and whites as far around 
as they thought necessary to get help enough to husk all the crop 
by common bed time. There would be two captains choosen and 
they would choose all the ladies and gentlemen that were able to 
husk, then they would put a rail on the middle of the pile, then the 
captains took two ladies up for choice of ends; then the fun began, 
for each red ear husked by a gent he was entitled to the girl of his 
choice. The ladies of the house always had a good supper, and 


best they could get. The supper cost nearly as much as to have 
hired help to do the husking, but where would we go to see such 
sport and merry making as we had after supper, and the next 
night we would go to some other farm, and so on until all the 
corn was husked. 

I went to school in luaryland. It was Xmas time and the 
weather was as pleasant as May, and the scholars wanted a holi- 
day, and the teacher would not grant it, so we locked the door on 
the teacher and threw the key in the school house and would not 
let him in to get it until it was time to dismiss school in the even- 
ing. What a jolly good time we did have roaming about the 
beautiful grove. The next spring we moved to Clinton County 
Ohio, and I went to school there that summer, and everythmg 
was as pleasant as could be. The next spring we were in Clark 
County, and the schools we had there is enough to make a man's 
blood boil to think of uiem. It was a common occurrence to 
see a scholar with hands or wrists tied together with a handker- 
chief and hung over one of the pins in the wall they used to hang 
clothes on. We seemed to think we were slighted if were not 
whipped each day. It was apparently distributed impartially to 
all, each received so much with regard to good or bad conduct. 
There were other punishments that would not kill, yet were very 
unpleasant to the scholars. One of the scholars took a pistol to 
school to shoot the teacher, and he made a very narrow escape, 
and I think all the children were sorry that he did escape. I 
think if the children had told their parents how they had been 
treated the teacher would have been discharged. 

The next spring, 1836, I went to a district two miles east of 
there, but they did not have summer school. I moved here in 
1837, and what chance I had I went to a low grade school in a 
log house about one mile east of Camden. Afterward Benjamin 
Denis built a good frame school house where the grave yard is 
now. I went there a short time. The punishment there was 
dismissal if we did not obey the rules. We had very good order 
and few dismissals and the teacher did not study most of the time 
how to get even with the tyrants who abused them. I did not 
go to school after I was seventeen years old. I got most of my 
education in the woods with a gun, as most of my chums did. 
George Porter is, I think^ the only man living here, when we 
moved here. He now lives at Montpelier. We used to go fish- 
ing and we could get all the fish we could use in three hours' 

My sister Ester, who married Stanton Scott, in 1836, moved 
here soon after we did. She has been a widow for near fortv 


years. She is now eighty-six years old. She Hves about six 
miles from here. The rest of my sisters and brothers have gone 
to their last resting place. I will now tell you of some of my 
hunting exploits. When I was about thirteen years of age I 
could handle a gun as well as any man. The second deer I shot 
I put a ball through its heart. 

Joshua and Cyrus Paxson, Newton Miller and myself went 
one day in the woods to hunt. We had not gone far, however, 
until I noticed a deer trail some seventy yards beyond. There 
was a high bank of dirt and roots, caused by a fallen tree, and I 
told the boys I would stop there and wait for a deer. They had 
gone about three hundren yards when they heard the crack of 
my rifle and came running back with the dogs to see what I had 
killed. I told them I had shot a buck with a nice head of horns 
and that I had got the ball about two inches above the heart and 
that the dogs would have a good run and a fight if they caught 
it. The boys thought it strange I could tell just where the ball 
hit, but I could see just as well where the sight ranged as I can 
see these letters I am making. I had been doing scarcely any- 
thing but shooting hundreds of squirrels for weeks to save the 
core. We started the dogs on the bloody trail and we ran as fast 
as we could for about three-quarters of a mile. We all came up 
at once. It was one of the most desperate fights for life I ever 
witnessed. The dogs did not understand their business very 
well, although they were good dogs. I think the deer would 
have killed them, but they were desperately in earnest and the 
deer's horns and the dogs would come together with a crash ; the 
dogs would get a hold of the deer's nose and the deer would 
spring forward and land about thirty or forty feet with his head 
in a different direction, only to make the next spring to bring 
deer and dogs together. You ask why we didn't shoot. We 
were afraid of kilHng the dogs, and the deer came towards us so 
often that a man was very near lost that wanted to handle a stout 
mad deer. We watched the fight for some time, changing our 
positions so as to keep out of their way, not doubting that four 
men and throe guns and two dogs would finally conquer the 
wounded deer. Paxson shot once and just missed the dogs. I 
was afraid to shoot for fear I should not do so well. The deer 
got clear of llie dogs for a short time and it started for Miller. It 
got within twenty feet of him and he shot, but the bullet did not 
go toward the deer, and if you had seen him run you would have 
thought him mad. I never saw a nicer race ot one I enjoyed 
more. I was sure the dogs would not let it strike him. I then 


had seen as hard and long a fight as I cared to, and begged Pax- 
son to shoot it, and he did, and thus ended its struggle for life. 
After I cleaned the legs and head off it weighed 128 pounds. 
Some years later I, at the place where Jacob Miller now lives, 
came to an open place where I thought would be a good place 
to shoot deer. Just then one jumped up close by me and ran 
about seventy yards off and turned its head to see me. I aimed 
to shoot between the eyes. It fell and layed still. I run to it 
without loading my gun. I had a very good pocket knife; I 
tried to cut its throat. The skin was about a half inch thick on 
the throat and its horns would not begin to go in a bushel basket. 
I was not doing much good with the knife, and the deer began to 
wink pretty lively and I began to think it a good thing to get 
away from there. I went away about a rod. I had a young dog 
with me that weighed seventy-five pounds; he had never fought 
with a deer before. He stood by me while I loaded my gun, and 
by that time the deer was making a great effort to get up. I put 
another bullet through its head, and it sprang at me, just missing 
me. The dog shut its mouth on its ham string and it seemed to 
forgoe me in its struggle with the dog. It went leap after leap 
with the dog's hold unbroken until it came to the top of a bur oak 
tree, and it went over the highest part of the tree, but the dog 
dropped off. I supposed he would not be unable to catch it again, 
but he soon regained his hold and away they went with the dog' 
swinging high in the air, and twenty or thirty feet at a leap, cir- 
cling in gun sot distance. When about seventy yards off, as I 
got the gun loaded, it failed to raise the dog from the ground, 
and his legs ceased pulling back, every limb was trembling with 
the great exertion, I shot it through the neck. It fell over and 
I went to it and tried to stick it with my knife, but it would not 
be still long enough, so I pounded it on the head with a club and 
then shot it again. It then had four bullets in its head and one 
in its neck. It was dead. When animals are greatly enraged 
they will live a long time with wounds that would kill them ins- 
tantly if sustained when perfectly cool. When the deer was fully 
dressed it weighed 140 pounds. 

I killed and dressed another there and took the hide and cut 
them to fit and made me a pair of pants, which I wore for several 
years. They Avere nice in dry weather, but not so in wet weather. 
Talk about grit; there were three deers came in open space in 
front of me. I shot at the largest one, with a nice set of horns; 
they all ran about one hundred yards and stopped there. I began 
loading my gun and they watched me. The one I shot at turned 


his head forward and started after me. I could not get the cap 
in quite soon enough to shoot, so I grabbed the gun as a cUib 
with the intention of jumping to one side and striking it as it 
passed. It got within ten feet of me and made a great efifort to 
jump against me. It fell dead in the effort. I was in prarie 
grass and about forty yards from me there w^as a big buck. He 
put his head down in the grass just as I saw it. I couldn't see 
anything but its back, but I shot and it fell and I went to bleeding 
directly. It got up and looked at me and turned toward me, and 
it was my turn to fall, and I loaded my gun and got up and lo! 
the deer was gone. My dear readers, if you think you would like 
to see a wounded buck in an open prarie, with an empty gun, 
you certainly have not seen as many as I have. The last one we 
had I killed while out shooting blackbirds in the cornfield. 
There was a cornfield in full bloom just east of our house. I saw^ 
a deer and a fawn cross the field and I started after them and 
Herman Sullivan followed me. We followed it into the woods 
and I shot it dead. I left Herman there and I went back to find 
the fawn. I knew it would be near where the mother left it, and 
sure enough there it was in a fence corner, behind a stump. I 
wanted to get it alive if possible. I fixed my gun so as to shoot 
low and quick, and I crawled flat in the clover, and- as I got close 
it made a spring to go through the fence, but it could not get 
through quick enough to keep me from grabbing it by the hind 
legs. I held it in the fence until Herman came and got it by the 
forelegs. I took it home and it was tame at once as a pet lamb. 
There was no other animal on the farm that made as many friends 
as it did. It would come in the house and try to go up a common 
ladder. It would go to the field with my wife to get green beans 
and would not offer to eat any, but when laid on the table would 
eat them with a relish. I carried her when she was small. She 
always loved company. I had a bell on her and a red ribbon 
around her neck. I had her trained to track wild deer for me, 
and she could trail better than a dog. She would go to the woods 
with me and stay right by me until I saw signs of deer and I 
would show her the trail and tell her to follow it fast or slow, and 
I would follow. When she came up with them she would stay 
with them until I shot one and then go home with me . I could 
hear the bell for half a mile, and thus it enabled me to be ready 
to shoot. When there was snow on the ground they could not 
escape. One day I started her after two not far from the house. 
She run about a half mile and came up with them. I heard 
some one fire a gun and they started back toward me. I was 


Standing by a log about four feet from them. The deer came on 
the other side of the log rather too far back to suit the pet, and 
the other stopped opposite me, sixty yards off. The pet was just 
a little in advance and I watched a minute and then decided to 
break the wild one's neck. When the smoke cleared away there 
stood a deer without any head. I thought at first I had killed the 
pet. In the confusion they had changed places. But as luck 
would have it, she was safe. One cold morning, about the cold- 
est I ever saw, I was looking out of the window and saw the pet 
coming with another deer. I got my gun and shot at it, but did 
not kill it. There was snow on the ground and I followed them 
about a fourth of a mile and shot again. All I could see was the 
ears of a deer. The woods was so thick I could not see its body. 
I was back of a large tree waiting to see the ears more. It shook 
its head and no bell tingled, so I knew it was not the pet, so I shot 
again, aiming to hit it in the neck. The deer never stirred, that 
I could see. I tried to load my gun but my fingers were almost 
frozen; I had to put them under my clothes to get them warm 
enough to load my gun. All this time the deer stood as still as 
death, as much as I could tell by the moving of its ears. I shot 
four tomes, each time a little lower. When I got to where the 
deer was it sprang high up in the air and fell dead several yards 
away. Just then pet came running up ready to go home with 
me. I could tell you of a great many more adventures, but for 
fear of tiring the reader. We had to kill the pet, finally, we did 
not like its ways. Some pet deers are good natured and some 
are bad. I have seen some in the "Park" at Chicago chew to- 
bacco. Fanny, as we called our pet, made friends with every- 

The early settlers of this country used to dress very queer. 
As I would be going to Fort Wayne I have seen men and women 
dressed in calico or any other kind of goods, rapped around 
them, commencing just above the feet. The goods was about 
twenty inches wide, and did not take so long,as if it was narrower. 
They rapped themselves to the arms and then threw a blanket 
over their shoulder. All this was fastened with just a few pins. 
Now my dear lady friend is there one of you with the sewing 
machine that can take a bolt of goods and dress yourself as quick 
as these people did and enjoy yourselves as much? Now this is 
no fancy sketch; it is the way we saw them. These ancient set- 
tlers loved finery and brick houses. We all like to sec things 
new to us, especially if we think them pretty. I was passing a 
good brick house southeast of Fort Wayne that was occupied by 


Indians. I wanted to go inside and see how they were fixed, but 
how to get there I didn't know. I had just passed the house, 
however, when of the most beautiful ladies I ever saw came out 
and asked me to come in. Of course I did not make many ex- 
cuses; I was too glad for the invitation. One of the first things 
I noticed was one of the most beautiful store carpets I had ever 
seen, and everything else seemed to correspond, except the over- 
seerer; she was a dark Indian. The lady that invited me in was 
part French and about sixteen years old. She could talk good, 
but the other could not, so our conversation had to be interpreted,, 
but I was in no hurry to go. I would just as soon stayed all 
night, but they saw brooms in the wagon and they gave me some 
money and I went on. In referring to early settlers brings to 
mind a tract of a short distance northwest of Winchester. It is 
a beautiful place; there is an enbankment about six feet high 
surrounding about forty acres, with a mound in the middle for a 
signal station, or in time of war it seems as though it was far 
enough from the outer wall to prevent arrows from reaching the 
center station. It seems that men lived on this land, fought for 
possession long before the whites drove the Indians out, and it 
seems as though no one ever published a book, as Mrs. Lynch 
did, to hand down to our descendents, telling them of our hard- 
ships and pleasures of a backwoods life. One of the greatest 
pleasures was, we were of honorable families, moved in the same 
society and enjoyed ourselves a great deal more than the many 
classes of people do in these days. Every house seemed open to 
all who cared to come, to borrowers or pleasure seekers. Truly 
it is said all roses have thorns. Yours trulv, 


Balbeck, Ind. 


Goodrich Bros. 

General HardWar? 


Tb? = Old = Pioneer = Sho? = Dealer 


5till leads the trade in Fine Boots and Shoes and at priees 
^^that defy competition. 

I am still agent for the Lambertville Snag Proof Rubber Boot. 
^^ None genuine unless marked E. Stout's Patent. 


Southwest Cor. of Public Square, WINCHESTER, IHD. 




Dry Goods. Notions and Ladies' Furnishings 





The Flare Itiire Dealer, 

Masonic Block, Winchester, Ind. 




Fine Carriages, Surreys, Harness and Whips. 

Farming Implements, Heavy Machinery, 
Binders and Mowers. 


Wm. J'itzman^s 

J^oundrt/ and Ti/achine 

,,,, ^hop, , . . 


The McKinley, Reed, Morton, Allison 

and others fight 
Is all right, let the best man win. 
So with SHOES, let the best Shoe win. 

You can find them at 

e, F. HILLS, 


Winchester Tannery 


Harness Manufacturer, Etc. 











Hardware, Stouts and TtnuJar^, 


Including flcCormick Binders and flowers, Kraus, Tiger 
and Hamilton Cultivators. 



Paiets and Wall Paper, 

C. E. McGEE & SON, 


Refrigerators, Stoves, Guns, Bicycles, Ammunition, 

Fishing Tackle. 

Tin, iron and Slate Roofing. 

No. 27 Opera House Block. 






J, C. MD3ER 


Stapled Fancy Groceries 





Harness, Robes, Blankets, Wlips 

Trunks • • 
Valises, Etc. 

South Side Public Square. 


^< -Boots ^Slhoes, >; 


>1 and Provisions, >< 

^ P. 




fi's a Good jVlafk 


[| Ills ii [iilii Mt III [l 

And Look Right, 5ee 




Wimclhester Handle Co, 

Manufacturers of \\ j) jt ji Handles for 


Hay and 


Dealer in Staple and Fancy Groceries, west side of the Square. 


Has had seventeen years experience in practice. Teeth ex- 
tracted without pain. 

Insuarance and loans. Randolph County Bank. 


Attorney-at-Law. Civil and criminal practice. Collecting 
and settling estates a specialty. Office, up-stairs over Helm's 
hardware store. 


Jewelry and Optician. 


Attorney-at-Law, Pythias Block. 

W. W. REED, 

Druggist and Book Dealer. 


Phvsio. Medical. 


W. W. Canada. F. S. Caldwell. 


Attorneys-at-Law. All legal business promptly attended 
to. Also make loans. Offices, Canada's block. 

Insurance, Loans and Real Estate. Office over Postoffice. 


Fire, Tornado and Life Insurance. 

Insurance, Loans and Abstract office, Pythian block. 




John J. Cheney. J. W. Macy. J. P. Goodrich. 


Attorneys-at-Law. Probate business and collection a spe- 
cilty. Offices, over Randolph County bank. 




Capital, $80,000; surplus, $11,500. A. C. Beeson, Presilent; 
Thos. Moorman, Vice-Presidnet, T. F. Moorman, Cashier. Di- 
rectors: A. C. Beeson, Thomas Moorman, A. O. Marsh Wm. 
D. Kizer, T. F. Moorman. 


Manufacturer of finished spokes. All orders by mail will 
receive prompt attention. 

Proprietor, Livery, Sale and Feed Stable. Ira D. Haw- 
thorne, foreman. Digg's old stand. 


Manufacturer of and dealer in all kinds of slack barrel staves 
and heading. Also dealer in butter tub staves and heading. 
Wants the following timber delivered at his plant : 

Sizes of Timber wanted: Hackberry split stave bolts, bark 
off, 32 inches long, 6 to 7 inches thick; red oak split stave bolts, 
bark ofT, 32 inches long, 6 to 7 inches thick; elm split stave bolts, 
bark off, 32 inches long, 6 to 7 inches thick ; white ash split stave 
bolts, bark ofT, 32 inches long, 6 to 7 inches thick or quartered; 
lind heading bolts, 42 inches long, 8 to 18 inches in diameter, 
bark ofT;white and gray ash heading bolts, 52 inches long, 8 to 18 
inches in diameter, bark on; black ash heading bolts, 52 inches 
long, 8 to 18 inches in diameter, bark on; soft maple heading 
bolts, 42 inches long, 8 to 18 inches in diameter, bark on; elm 
heading bolts, 42 inches long, 8 to 18 inches in diameter, bark off. 

When round heading bolts run over 18 inches in diameter 
it is best to halve them on account of hauling and handling, but 
do not quarter them. All bolts must be barked, except maple 
and ash heading bolts. All timber must be sound and free from 
rotten streaks, knots and worm holes. 

W. H. Hippenheimer. Henry Pflasterer. 


Manufacturers of verandas, turned work, hard-wood paper 
plugs, pump handles, acrons, pump trimmings, house finishings 
etc. I ; 




Capital, $100,000; surplus, $18,000.00. S. D. Coats, Presi- 
dent; C. E. Ferris, Cashier; T. L. Ward, Assistant Cashier. 


Proprietor Big Four Restaurant. 

A. Rice, proprietor; manufacturer of pump fixtures, such as 
are used in trimming pumps. All kinds of novelties, including 
paper plugs. All sizes hardwood lumber. Orders filled prompt- 
ly and work guaranteed. 

Merchant Tailor and dealer in ready-made clothing. 

On Main street. Rates, $2.00. 

COL. IRVEN, Proprietor. 

Funeral Director and Embalmer. Opposite now postofifice 

Blue Front Barn, Main street. 

Always in the lead. Agents wanted in other towns; write for 
terms. I. O. O. F. block. 

D. F. HARDMAN, Proprietor. 

Bakery and confectionery. Fine cakes and ice cream a specialty. 


Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries. 



Drugs and Medicines, Sponges, Brushes, Perfumery, Fancy 
and Toilet articles. Physicians' prescriptions carefully com- 

The best advertising medium in Randolph County. 

W. P. NEEDHAM, Editor and Proprietor. 

Manufacturers of Boots and Shoes, and all kinds of repair- 
ing done. 



Retail Millinery, southwest corner Franklin and Meridian Sts. 




1843. The Pioneer Paper of Randolph County, 1897 


Oldest. Largest. Best. 

Fine Job Printing. Largest Circulation. 

A. C BEESON & SONS, Publishers. 


Florist and grower of choice Cut Flowers, Greenhouse and 
Bedding Plants. Floral designs made to order. Greenhouse, 
North Main street, opposite Huston house. 

Portraits and general photograph work. Fine work a specialty. 


Jeweler and Optician. 


Restaurant and Bakery. 


For Staple and Fancy Groceries. 


Novelties and Queensware. 

Greocers, on North Alain street, opposite Huston House. 


Washing Machine Manufacturer. 

Go to E. A. THOMAS for your 
Picture Frames, picture cords, screw eyes, bread boards, 
steak boards, ironing boards, camp stools, saw filing of all kinds. 
All kinds of furniture made and repaired. Chair seats and backs. 
Chairs caned and upholstered, furniture castors, locks, handles 
and catchers. Just received the largest and finest stock of 
mouldings ever in the city. Remember the place. No. 50, Blue 
Front, North Main street. 

Best brand of Cigars and tobacco. Fresh candies received 
daily. Lunch, soft Drinks and Ice Cream always on hand. Se- 
lect fruits, all at lowest prices. Butter and Eggs a specialty. 



Dry Goods, Notions, 

and oi_oaks. 



Maniafactiarers of 
all kands of 



Is Headquarters for all goods 
in his line, jt jt ^ ^ 

nm Ml mEmmMmmuwi mm 

The Bicycle Department includes 
the Standard Wheels.«^«^ 
A complete line of Bicycle Sundries 
and Repairs always in stock. 

Prices suited to the times. ^ ^ ^ 


HI ill SPG IDS. 

iS. W i ii 

...Always Up=to=Date... 

The Finest Line in the City. 

Prices Always Right. 



Harness, Whips, Robes, 

Blankets and .... 
Horse Clothing. 


M I mmmn ©. 




edkaees, Paaets, Oils, 


Columbia Street, - - UNION CITY, IND. 

Postal Cards and Stamps for the Accommodation of Customers. 



C. W. Pierce & 5on, 

Dealers in 

Grain^ Seeds^ Flour^ Salt and Agricultural 
Implements* ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Highest Cash Price paid for all Grain and Seeds. 
A Full Line of Implements carried in stock. 

OUR SPECIALTIES: Solid Comfort Sulky and Gang Plows, 
Deering Ball and Valler Bearing Binders and Mowers. 
Thompson Riding Corn Cultivator. 

C. K. Wright. P. C. Worth. 

C. K. Wright & Worth, 

Ross Opera Block, Oak Street. 

Day and Night Calls receive prompt attention. 
Black and White Cars. 

C. K. Wright & Worth, 


Michael & Hoffman, 

The Leaders of the Trade in the 
Furniture Line in the City. 

They have a full line of all Staple and Fancy Goods 
such as 

Bed Room Suits, Cupboards, Tables, Chairs, 
Hat Racks, Lounges, Couches, Side 
Boards, Book Cases, Music Racks, Pictures, 
Mouldings of all kinds. ^ v^ ^ «^ ^ 
In fact, a full line of all goods belonging 
to a first-class Furniture Store, -ji -^ 
Our goods are easily superior to anything 
ever before shown in this Section, and 
OF THE SAME. ^ .^ ^ 

We will not be undersold. 'j>t ^ ^ ^ 

Michael & Hoffman, 

THE i^ks:dkrs. 

I. 0. 0. F. Block, Oak Street. 


Dealer in Watches, Clocks and Jewelry. Columbia street. 


Xo. ii6 West Oak street, opposite Times office. 
RUD. HUEBER, Proprietor. 

Dealers in Fancy Millinery, Ribbons, Laces, Etc. 

The Leading Merchant Tailor and Gents' Furnisher. 

W. R. Mason, Proprietor. Newly furnished. Pleated by 
natural gas. Two squares from depot, corner Oak and Howard 

No matter what road you live on ; no matter how far you are 
from Union City, if you live in Randolph County, you can't 
afiford to miss seeing us before buying a 

or having yaur wheel repaired. Our prices are the very lowest. 
ENSIGN & MACY, 104 Oak street. 

Dealers in Harness and Saddles, Blankets, Trunks, ^^alises, 
Oils, &c. All kinds of horse furnishing goods. 70 North 
Colmbia street. 

Attorney, notary public, United States claim and real estate 
agent. All kinds of legal instruments carfefully prepared. 



Manufacturing chemist. No. 74 Oak street. 


Republican in Politics. 

Prints all the news. Has the circulation. 


For bargains in everything go to 

=^ * * * McKENZIE'S, * * * * 

Oak Street Novelty. Store. 

Are the leaders in Staple and Fancy Groceries, opposite P. O. 

R. B. McKEE, 
Livery and feed stable. First-class rigs; gentle horses for 
funerals. East Oak street. 

Open day and night. Cigar store in connection 

A. L. BRANHAM, Proprietor. 

Transacts a general banking business. Prompt attention 
given to collections. M. H. Mendenhall, President; C. C. Fisher, 

Fresh bread, cakes, pies, etc., etc. Select oysters by can or dish. 


Jeweler. Pianos, Organs, ]\Iusical goods of all kinds. 

Dealers in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Fruits and Vege- 
tables in season. 


Of Union City, Indiana. Capital, $100,000; surplus fund, 
$15,000. Wm. Kerr, President; C. S. Hardy, Vice-President; J. 
F. Rubey, Cashier. 


Union City, Ind. An old and reliable newspaper. 

W. S. ENSIGN, Proprietor. 

Dress-making and Milliner. The latest French paterns. 


P. M. BLY. Everything in the drug line. Largest and 
most complete stock in Randolph County, 

Merchant Tailor, over Farmers' and Citizens' bank. Large 
line of samples of newest styles woolens. All work made satis- 


Watchmaker and Jeweler. 


ARTHUR HUBBARD, Proprietor. 

I. O. O. F. Block. 


Jeweler. Watches, docks, Jewelery and Silver Plated 

Ware and Spectacles. Repairing a specialty. 

Dealer in all kinds of Grain, Agricultural Imulements, Barrel 







One Price Store ! 

Is the place to buy your 



Carpets, Window Blinds, 





JeWelpy, Fiirniltipe, OndertakiDg 

Hnd the Only E5$cliisiue Shoe Store 
in Parker City 

stoves and Tinware. 

Watch and Clock Repairing a Specialty. 





Highest Grade of flechanics' Tools. 


Notary and Conveyancer, Pensions and Insurance, sells all 
kinds of implements — the Empire Binder and Mower, the Ham- 
ilton and Indiana Riding and Tongueless Cultivators, Planters 
and Checkrowers, the I. L. ElUvood Wove Wire Fence, Binder 
TAvine and Oil. 


J. B. Shook, proprietor. Located in new Woodlawn block. 
Rates, $2 per day. New hotel, newly furnished, new landlord. 
For first-class board and lodging and reasonable prices call on 


Rooms well ventilated. 


Dealer in and manufacturer of all kinds of Harness and 
everything kept in a harness store. 

Dealer in Furniture and L^ndertaker. 


Call for PLACE'S Ice Cream and Soft Drinks. 

Have no other. 

Write for Prices for Picnics and Public Gatherings. 

Decattir. Ind. J. UJ. PLAOE. 



Dealer in Hardware, Furniture, Bicycles, Picture Frames 
and Moulding. 

For all kinds of Fancy Millinery goods call on 


On South Main Street. 

Dealer in Staple and Fancy Groceries, Glass and Queensware. 


H. D. & W. A. Nichols. 

LYNN, Randolph County. Indiana. 


Dealers in Hardware, Tinware, Stoves, Pumps and Farming 

Druggist and Apothecary. 

Dealers in General ^Merchandise and Grain. 

Dealer in Groceries and Confectioneries, Notions, Tobacco, 
Cigars and all ki^ids of refreshments. Watches and Jewelry. 
Lunch. Fruits. NEWS DEPOT. Agency for 4,000 news- 
papers and magazines. 

The best newspaper in Randolph County. An excellent 
advertising medium. Fancy and Commercial printing neatly 
executed. , LYNN, IND. 

i^kcu^^ /U^TU/J^ /Sfo/y^ /^l4^a^^^\^ 



At once there rose so wild a yell, 

From out that dark and narrow dell, 

As if all the angels from Heaven fell. 

Had pealed the banner cry of hell. — Rush. 

Just one hundred years ago from last November 4th, or prop- 
erly speaking, November 4th, 1791, there was encamped on a 
knoll or rising piece of ground on the bank of the Wabash river^ 
now the site of the beautiful village of Fort Recovery, twenty 
miles from Ridgeville, an army of two thousand regulars and 
about one thousand of undrilled, untamed, untried irregulars, 
all under command of General Arthur St. Clair, a brave office and 
gallant leader who knew^ how to lead his forces against a civilized 
enemy, but who knew as much about fighting the cunning red- 
man as John Smith knows about the Bland silver bill or the Re- 
ciprocity of the Plumed Knight. St. Clair had been sent with this 
little army into the very heart of the wilderness to conquer and 
bring under subjection the several tribes of Indians — among 
them the bloody Potawatomies, Miamies, Wyandottes, Chippe- 
was and others, under the leadership of such famous chiefs as 
Little Turtle, LaFontaine, Rushville and others fully as war- 
like, brave and cunning as they. This little army had penetrated 
the wilderness thus far without any serious disaster; building 
forts and block houses as they moved deeper and deeper into the 
forests, that they might have a place to fall back to in case of de- 
feat or lack of supplies or other necessities. All had gone well 
thus far, and our little anny had almost dispaired a brush, as they 
called it. with the Indians. It is said, in extenuation of what fol- 
lowed, that St. Clair was suffering from an attack of rheumatism, 
and was hardlv able to walk, much less mount a horse and take 


command in such a crisis. The fact is, probably, that being so 
long without meeting hostile Indians, the little army became 
careless and unconcerned. The very situation the redman was 
waiting for, be tiiis as it may, came just at day-break and just as 
the guard was being relieved. The terrible warwhoop that be- 
gins this chapter, and a sound heard never forgotten, was heard 
on all sides at once. A great many of the tired soldiers were 
yet sleeping soundly, while others were cooking their breakfast; 
in fact all except the guards unarmed. Could the redmen have 
selected a better time to begin the massacre? 

I do not intend to describe the battle, if battle it might be 
called, for that is already history. Let it suffice that time and 
again the Indians, with blood-curdling whoops and upraised 
tomahawks, charged right into the midst of the camp. Again 
and again, w^ere they driven back by heroic men fighting for their 
very lives, and again would they return to the charge more de- 
termined and bloody than ever, and as might be expected, that 
which for a brief time arose to the dignity of a battle became a de- 
feat — a rout, ruin, murder, slaughter. Many of the men were 
tomahawked in their tents without firing a gun ; resistance seemed 
of no more use, and then every man, especially the irregulars, 
tried to save his own life; the nearest fort, Greenville, twelve or 
fifteen miles away, became the only hope. The deeds of heroism, 
of self-sacrifice for the lives of others on that terrible retreat, is a 
history of itself. Many were killed as they ran, refusing even to 
fight for their lives. How many reached the fort at Greenville 
was never exactly known, but when the pursuit stopped and tHe 
Indians returened to the real enjoymentof the light (scalping 
and tomahawking) they found nine hundred dead and dying 
\vhitc men; heroes who had lain down their lives at the com- 
mand and through the incompetency of their leaders, as many, 
very many, have done in later years. An old squaw speaking of 
this many years later, said she became so tired scalping the white 
men that she had to lay down the knife and rest. The loss of life 
to the Indians was never known ; but of course was comparatively 
small. The defeat of St. Clair was a crushing blow, but at last 
it cost the redman dearly. Another expedition was immediately 
sent against the Indians under the command of General Anthony 
Wayne — Mad Anthony, as he was familiarly called — who per- 
fectly understood their mode of warfare, and he so thoroughly 
whipped and cowed them that they sued for peace, which treaty 
was ratified at Greenville in 1795; and so afraid had the Indians 
became of Wayne that he made them believe that if they again 


took up the tomahawk, he would arise from the grave and ex- 
terminate the last living redman, and it is needless to say they 
never broke the contract, but stood solemnly by and saw the pale- 
face rob him; saw him clear, plow, plant, and reap ground that 
for generations had been a home for his ancestors; where he had 
killed game, trapped the fur, raised the maize that fed and clothed 
his children, bought his powder and his lead. Poor Lo; you are 
not in it; however, our government would not do that way now. 
We are more civilized and christianized and under no circum- 
stances would we rob or cheat the poor ignorant redman; would 
we? Perish the thought. 

By the Greenville treaty the Indians ceded to the govern- 
ment all the land lying east and south of a line beginning at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga river, running thence west to Fort Re- 
covery, thence in a southwesterly direction to the Ohio river, 
intersecting that river at a point opposite the Kentucky river. 

Comparatively few know it, but nearly every man and wo- 
man in Ridgcville cross that famous historical line daily. It 
enters Ridgeville from the farm of Hannah Ward, crosses Main 
street west of the G. R. & I. railroad, the lots of James Cunning- 
ham, and Richards, angling across the old cemetery, the lot of 
Eve Ginger, on the corner of Race and Second streets, through 
Hawthorne's restaurant, the Bank, the McKew grove, thence 
northeast to Fort Recovery. 

We have several relics from the field of St. Clair's defeat, 
presented to my family by Comrade John M. Clum, of Fort Re- 
covery; among them a bayonet, broken Indian tomahawk, gun 
lock, bullets, etc. 

At that time the Mississinewa countr^% where Ridgeville now 
stands, was known as the best hunting, trapping and fishing 
grounds in the northwest, and it rfas natural to suppose that a 
great many of these scattered tribes of Indians would seek the 
Mississinewa as their future homes. Mississinewa in the Miami 
tongue means clear running water; and it is with these Indians, 
good and bad, and the few white settlers that came and settled 
among them, that the writer proposes to deal. 

Thou shall not covert thy neighbor's house nor his wife, nor 
his man servant, nor his maid servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, 
nor anything that is they neighbors. — Tenth Commandment. 

Among the Indians that made the Mississinewa their home, 
was a bad Indian named Fleming; this particular red man was 
not onlv feared and dreaded bv the whites, but the Indians them- 


selves felt more safe with their lives and property when Fleming- 
was away from them. He was a perfect fiend for fire-water, and 
when by any means he could get it, he became a ferocious devil, 
and had killed one or two Indians and no telling how many wdiite 
men, but had, through his superior cunning managed to escape 
the laws of both the redmen and the statutes of the white men, 
by a plea of self-defense, justifiable homicide, or some other 
lucky circumstance. 

It was the custom of the Indians, when they saw that Flem- 
ing was getting about drunk enough to be boisterous and dan- 
gerous, for three or four of the stoutest of them to jump upon 
him unawares and tie him head and heels, take away his knife and 
tomahawk and then bind him to a tree, where he staid until he 
sobered and promised to be a good "Injun." 

Now it so happened that there w-as a mulatto, named Smith, 
(probably a descendant of Pocahontas John) who had married 
an Indian woman or squaw, and was not very well liked by the 
red men in general, and cordially hated by Fleming in particular. 
And, moreover, to complicate the situation, this untutored sav- 
age, not having the benefit of christian civilization, and of course 
never having heard of the ten commandments, did covert his 
neighbor's wife, and had a strong hankering for an excellent 
flint lock rifle that Smith owned and possessed. Mrs. Smith, 
poor, unelightened heathen, not being one of the Four Hundred, 
and knowing little of the custom of civilized society, was not 
averse to being coveted by one of her own race, and one vastly 
supperior to her "nigger'' husband. Of course such things do 
not happen in these times; so much for our education; it would 
be rare indeed to find a covetous man in this respect to-day, or a 
woman that would harbor such a thought. But bear in mind 
that these people were nothing but savages and had no teacher 
but nature in these matters. Well, as might be expected, this 
covetous Indian began to devise ways and means by which he 
might possess this dusky squaw, and have, hold and keep her as 
his very own. In order to succeed in this precarious and doubt- 
ful enterprise, it was necessary to have the assistance of the wo- 
man in the case. So a council was called with Fleming, the 
Indian, and Mrs. Smith, the squaw, the only ones present; even 
Smith was not invited, and they way that Indian and squaw fixed 
up the plan to remove Smith, and allow Fleming to possess him- 
self of the wife, rifle, cabin and all else pertaining thereto, was 
worthy of a betttr cause; and for cold-blooded villainy and shrewd 
cunning has rarely been excelled. At this time Smith, or the 


"nigger,' as he was called, lived in a log cabin near where Stone 
Station now is, and his only neighbor, living in a somewhat larger 
cabin near him, was a white man named Jesse Gray, and who 
will be the hero and the noblest Roman of them all in these remi- 
niscences later on. 

When the council held by Fleming and the squaw adjourned 
sine die, it was thus arranged: Mrs. Smith was to forget that 
she had left her petticoat hanging on a bush in front of their 
cabin and in the early morning ask her hubby. Air. Smith, to 
please step out and get it for her, while the wily Fleming was 
lying concealed behind a log, a nice rifle shot distance, with his 
trusty flint lock pointed directly towards Smith's cabin. This 
part of the plot was all right so far, but the wisest schemes of men 
and mice, gang aft aglee. The petticoat was there, and Fleming, 
the Indian, and the rifle was there, the squaw was there, and the 
"nigger" was there. Just as the first faint streaks of the morning 
sun shone through the tops of the maples. Smith stepped from 
his cabin door and stood for a moment taking in the beauties of 
the spring morn, and listening to the gobble-gobble of the wild 
turkeys and the song of the hundreds of the beutiful birds be- 
ginning their morning concert. He finally stepped to the bush, 
raised his hand to get the petticoat, but he didn't. 

O, I could play the woman with mine eyes and braggart with 
mine tongue ; but front to front bring thou this fiend of Scotland, 
and myself; within my sword length set him. and if he escape. 
Heaven forgive him, too. — Macbeth. 

And why he didn't we will have to go back to the style of 
dress worn at that period. Of course some of the older readers 
will remember the flap that embellished the front of the pants 
worn by the men of that day, somewhat resembling a barn door, 
only instead of swinging sideways, as the door, the flap swung 
outward and downward, and was suported at the top with two or 
three large buttons. The man that could afford metal buttons 
was considered one of the four hundred, and it so happened that 
the "niger" was the happy owner of a beautiful metalic button, 
pure shining brass, and as large as a half dollar. This button 
supported the flap of Smith's pants just above the center of his 
abdomen. Well, what has this button to do with the Indian, the 
nigger, or the squaw, the reader will ask. Patience, reader, you 
will see that it has lots to do with it. As Smith raised his hand 
to take the rag from the bush his face was turned to the east, the 
morning sunshining on that button made it a target so tempting 


that the Indian could not resist the temptation to draw a bead on 
it; although it was not the spot to do the nigger to death the 
most speedy, it would do it just as surely; swish — bang — Smith 
saw the flash but could not dodge the bullet. It struck that 
button fair and square; Smith sprang about six feet in the air, 
gave a yell that could be heard in the next county, and came 
down, rolling over, believing, of course, that he had a bullet hole 
right through his vitals. The Indian, thinking he had done him 
sure, did not exercise the usual caution of the red man in making 
a sneak away ; and the nigger about that time discovered that he 
was not dead, raised up and started for the cabin door. In so 
doing he had a fair view of Fleming, and he knew to a dead cer- 
tainity who had shot him. Just then the squaw opened the door, 
rushed out yelling, "who shoot! who shoot!" and when she saw 
that her poor husband was shot (and not killed) her grief was 
pitiable to behold; "who shoot! who shoot Smith!' she repeated, 
of course having no idea who did it. "D — n black coward Flem- 
ing," said Smith. '"Oh, no, Flemin', he good Injun, he no shoot 
Smithy; he friend to Smithy." They finally got into the cabin 
where Smith took an inventory of the damage done by the In- 
dian's bullet. He found the bullet had glanced from the button, 
passed just under the skin, struck a rib, followe<:l the rib around 
and came out on the back, making a very painful, but not dan- 
gerous wound. 

When the nigger discovered that he was not killed outright 
his rage was awful to behold. He raved and fairly pawed the 
earth; swore he would load his old flint lock musket and before 
sun-down he would have that d — d Injun Fleming's scalp hang- 
ing to his belt. But his squaw had no trouble in persuading 
him out of the notion, telling him it was very wicked and con- 
trary to the law to kill Injuns ,and moreover, she was quite sure 
tliat Fleming did not shoot him. "Look here, old woman, don't 
I done told you it was Flemin', didn't I see him sneak away?" 
said Smith. This settled the squaw for the time being, at least, 
and Smith hugged the cabin mighty close for a week or so, 
waiting for his wound to heal, in the meantime keeping his 
weather eye on the squaw, for at last he had begun to tumble, as 
we call it to-day. He flatly told Mrs. Smith that if she left her 
])etticoat on the l)ush any more she might get it herself; and, 
moreover, he thought there was too much malaria in this flat 
country to be healthy, and they had better move down on White 
Water where there was less malaria and fewer Indians; and in 
the meantime he would consult his old white friend, Jesse Gray, 


who hated all Indians in general, and Fleming in particular. 

As Jesse Gray will be a prominent character in these remi- 
niscences, it will be proper to give a brief biography of the man 
so the reader may know who and what he was, and how he come 
to be such a bitter and unrelenting enemy of the red man. Jesse 
Gray, at that time a youth of nineteen or twenty, was living with 
his family, near where Fountain City now stands. The family 
consisted of his sjtep-father, mother, two younger brothers and 
two or three step-brothers and sisters, the youngest a baby sister 
a half a year old, and Jesse himself the main dependence of the 
family. They were on the best of terms with the young Indians; 
Jesse associated with the young Indians so much tliat he was an 
Indian himself in all but blood and color; he was the equal of the 
best of them and superior to the most of them in the use of the 
rifle, in running, jumping, wrestling, and in fact in all the athletic 
sports that the Indian so much delight in. Even when the writer 
first made his acquaii>tance, nearly fifty years ago, he was then a 
man of seventy or more, as straight asi an arrow and six feet or 
more in height, with the eye of an eagle, and walking with that 
cat-like step common to all pioneers that had to deal with the 
cunning of the red man of the country. As I lay on my back 
in our hunter's camp, a boy of 12 ori4, on a dark stormy night 
with the owls hooting and a hundred wolves howling and snarling 
around our camp, and listening to the grand old man recount 
those thrilling tragedies, I would cuddle down closer to my 
father, feeling almost as if the l)loody savages were just ready to 
swoop down on our camp and tomahawk and scalp us. 

As the old man told his story tears would fill his eyes, and 
his voice become husky, although a half century had intervened 
since the occurrences he was relating. As stated in a previous 
chapter, at this time this country abounded in fine sugar groves, 
and everybody, white or red, that could own or borrow an iron 
kettle, would engage in sugar making in the spring, and the 
sugar, with other products, was shipped down the Alississinewa 
in flat boats and bartered for amunition, salt, muslin, blankets, 
etc. Gray's family were busily engaged in this sugar making, all 
unmindful of the terrible fate hanging over them. The sap l)eing 
abundant that spring required their presence day and night, and 
on this fatal night in particular they were all present except Jesse, 
who had been sent to a neighbors several miles distant to try and 
get an extra kettle, and would not return till the next day. and it 
was good for him that he was absent. It was with extreme re- 
luctance that Jesse consented to go. telling his father that he did 


not like the actions of the Indians for some time back, but his 
father hooted at his fears, and bade him go, telHng him, "we have 
nothing to fear from the red man; are they not our friends? Did 
not two of their prominent men partake of our Jiospitality this 
very day?" Fatal security; still Jesse was not satisfied and in- 
sisted on leaving his gun with the family; but this, too, his father 
refused, saying, "that they were about out of meat and he might 
kill a deer on his return home." With a heavy and misgiving 
heart he left the family; will he every see them again alive? 
Long before the peep of day next morning he was on his way 
home, walking or rather running at a rate of speed that a deer 
might have crossed his path within reach of his gun with perfect 
safety; his only desire being to see his dear family as he had left 
them in the evening before. But, Oh! what awful heart l)reaks 
await us sometimes in this world of sorrow and uncertainly; 
what crushing- events may happen in a single day; yea, witliin an 
hour. It was just at sunrise when Jesse reached a little knoll or 
rising ground from whence he could see the camp or rather see 
where the camp should be. He paused for a moment, almost 
afraid to look; the stillness of death reigned; even the morning 
songsters seemed to realize that something terrible w-as happen- 
ing; his faithful hunting dog "Fleet," who was always wont to 
come running and barking to meet his kind master, was nowhere 
to be seen or heard. This simple incident was more ominous to 
the young man than all else, but he was forced to look; and where 
the camp should be, was now a smouldering ruin. Could he, 
dare he go on and look on the horrible sight that he instinctively 
knew must greet him there? Yes, go he must, for this dreaded 
uncertainty w^as worse than death itself, and hope still whispered 
some might be spared. 

Witch — Fillet of a Fenny snake. 

In the caldron boil and bake, 
Eye of newt and toe of frog. 
Wool of bat and tongue of dog. 
Adder's fork and blind worm's sting. 
Lizard's legs and owlet's wing, 
For a charm of powerful trouble; 
Like a hell broth boil and bubble. 

All — Double, double toil and trouble. 
Fire burn and caldron bubble. 

— Shakespear. 


Surely they could not, savages though they be, find it in their 
cruel hearts to murder his little innocent sisters! They would 
not be that bloody minded ! But he must go on ; before he started 
again he leaned against a tree for support; he could hear the beat- 
ing of his heart; his knees trembled, and it seemed as if he must 
sink to the ground, but he made one more super-human effort to 
compose himself, and went forward to that awful scene of 
destruction, upon which he must look, though it killed him. As 
he started he gave a sharp, familiar whistle for his dog, feeling 
that the companionship of that poor dumb brute was worth a 
world to him then; but the only answer he received to his call 
was the echo of his own voice. A few hasty steps brought him 
to the spot where, only a brief twelve hours before, he had left 
all activity and bustle, but now as silent as the grave. One 
swift, hasty glance showed to the young man that his worst fears 
were more than realized; every member of his loved family lay 
dead before his eyes, and he was an orphan indeed; even his 
faithful dog lay in the ruins of the camp half consumed by the 
fire. When the old man told this part of the horrible tragedy, 
his eyes filled with tears and he had to stop a while to weep, 
though a half a century or more had intervened since the occur- 
rence. Is it any wonder that as the boy stood there viewing the 
awful havoc that at once made him an orphan and left him all 
alone in the world, he should become insanely enraged and begin 
to devise a plan for revenge? Pie kneeled by the body of his 
mother and baby sister and registered a solemn oath before high 
Heaven that henceforth no Indian should cross his path and live. 
How well he kept his vow, will appear further along in these 
reminiscences. Young Gray at once alarmed the few scattering 
neighbors who assembled at the Gray residence and with tearful 
eyes and heavy hearts proceeded to bury the murdered victims 
in the best manner possible at that day. A company was organ- 
ized to pursue, and if possible to punish, the murderers of the 
Gray's, but it is needless to say it came to naught. Where the 
Indians came from, or of what they were, it was hard to tell; of 
course every Indian in the neighljorhood could prove that he 
was in his own sugar camp on that night in particular. The sup- 
position was finally reached that they were a roving band of cut- 
throats from the Miami tribe down on the Wabash river, near 
Avhere ■Marion now stands. But while this brave little company 
of neighbors failed to punish the murderers, young Gray was all 
the more determined, single handed and alone, to hunt them to 
death. One peculiar thing they could not understand, was that 


the Grays were the only family struck; not another person was 
disturbed. The only solution at which they could arrive was that 
Gray at some time or times had incurred the enmity of the In- 
dians by beating them at their games, and having them laughed 
at by onlookers, and this was their mode of getting even. Young 
Jesse, being trained in the same school, made up his mind to take 
every advantage, fair or foul, to revenge the killing of his family. 
He soon concluded, however, that he would have to modify his 
first intention to kill indiscriminately, and confined himself more 
particularly to the wiping out of those Indians that had done him 
such great wrong, and for this purpose he must have some friends 
among the Indians; for he wisely concluded that the murderers 
were known to some of the Indians camped on the Mississinewa 
and that by degrees he could wring the secret from them one way 
or another. By his superior cunning and skill, it did not take him 
long to get the superstitious reds in mortal dread of the pale face 
hunter, who in spite of their ever watchful eye, and more watch- 
ful dogs, would be standing right in the midst of them, in front of 
their wigwams while they were quietly smoking their pipes; here 
he would be. all of a sudden, as if he had descended from the sky, 
with the palm of his hand turned toward them, and the friendly 
greeting, "How," which at once made him an honored guest- 
Little by little, by hunting with them, by giving them tobacco, 
beads, etc., he managed to find out the murderers to be a band of 
six, from the Miamis, down the river, and that this red deviU 
Fleming, although not in the massacre himself, had been the 
ruling spirit in the plot. This was all young Gray wished to 
know, and at once set about his revenge. It is well for the 
reader to remember that the law was equally strict against killing 
an Indian or white man; and, in fact, it was more dreaded, for to 
kill an Indian it was likely to bring down swift vengeance on the 
whole settlement: blood for blood was the Indian's only creed. 

It was noticed by his neighbors that Jesse would prepare a 
large amount of powder and bullets and start off on a hunt, never 
telling any one where he was going or what kind of game he was 
going to hunt. On these trips he would be gone for months; 
at other times only a few weeks, but always soon after his return, 
word would reach the settlement that an Indian or two was found 
dead with a bullet hole through his heart or brain. Of course 
some of the Indians that knew him well, had a strong suspicion 
that Gray was the avenger, but so afraid of Gray were they, that 
they kept their own counsel, only wishing that they might not 
^ain his enmity. One of the tricks that he played on the super- 


stitious redsjwas, that when they visited his camp, Jesse, while 
cooking the meal, would set down by the boiling pot and mum- 
ble over some giberish and then tell them that all true friends 
could eat to their satisfaction ; but if a treacherous enemy ate of 
the food it would make him very sick, and that he could never 
more have luck with the gun. By these tricks, and by invaria- 
bly keeping faith with them, he made many true friends among 
them. In the meantime Jesse had married the woman of his 
choice, and had made considerable headway clearing up his farm. 
With the exception of his periodical trips down the river on the 
hunt, he was considered a very ordinary man. 

The law of self preservation is higher than all law, and a 
man may resort to it, even to the taking of life of another, in the 
defense of himself or family. — Revised Statutes. 

We will not attempt to follow him throug-h all his thrilling 
adventures with the red man, but let it be sufftce that in ten years 
or less not a single Indian connected with the killing of his family 
was alive, except Fleming, the plotter, and Gray was hot on his 
trail, but the wily savage, knowing that Gray was after him, al- 
ways managed to lay very low when he heard that Gray was on 
the war-path. He had sent word to Gray that he would kill him 
on sight, but he was careful not to get him in sight. Things 
were in about this condition when the shooting of the *'nigger" 
occured. Gray, as before stated, had built a cabin near his black 
neighbor, about four miles south of where Ridgeville now stands, 
and he and Smith were fast friends in their common cause against 
the red man. 

In the meantime, the country along the Mississinewa had 
rapidly been settled. Jacob Ward had settled here and cleared 
up a farm, planted an orchard, and was preparing his residence, 
the house where Sherman Brooks now lives, on the bank of the 
river just south of town. The Llewellyns had settled where Mrs. 
Elmira McKew now lives, and several, other white families had 
settled along the river. This did not suit the Indians; they con- 
sidered it an encroachment on their hunting grounds; conse- 
quently they were rather impudent and aggressive, and left no 
opportunity to get up a (luarrel with the wliites; but the settlers 
knowing the danger of getting into serious trouble with the reds, 
had to grin and bear it as best they could. However, when an 
Indian became too abusive, and was considered dangerous the 
few settlers would meet and talk the matter over and soon there- 
after Jesse Gray would take one of those periodical hunts, and 


that particular bad Indian would be missed. It was supposed 
that he had gone where there was more game; to the happy 
hunting ground probably; at least he never came back. I may 
stop here to say, that one of the peculiarities of these old timers 
was, that they never would say plainly that they had wiped out 
an Indian, but always stopped short by saying, "I left the Indian 
here," etc. I can only account for this on the ground that as the 
law was very severe for killing a red man, they had from necessity 
learned that a still tongue makes a wise head. I remember on 
one occasion that Grandfather Ward was telling me about a bad 
insolent Indian who was a thief, and would rob every trap he 
could find with a mink or a coon in it, and when he accused him 
of the theft he gotheap mad and swore in bad English that he 
would kill white man who called him thief. Some time after that 
quarrel Jacob told me he was hunting on this side of the river up 
about the northwest corner of the corporation line now. when he 
discovered this same Indian slipping through the woods. He did 
not think it necessary to inform the Indian of his presence just 
then, especially as he saw the Indian take from the trap a large 
mink; "but," said Jacob,"he never skinned that mink, nor robbed 
another trap for me or any one else," and only a few years ago a 
gun barrel was plowed up just about the place he described to 
me, and I have that same gun barrel in my possession at present. 
Once in talking with Grandfather Ward about the Indian, I said, 
"well, grandfather, I suppose there are some good honest In- 
dians." "Yes," he said, and after a considerable pause, added, 
"dead ones." Indeed, it was generally understood that the red 
man was treacherous and when his avowals and eternal friendship 
were the most profuse, then was he the most to be feared. But 
had he not even learned this from his pale faced brother? Time 
and again had he not been driven from his best hunting grounds, 
cheated out of best land, and even his family murdered by the 
treacherous white man? How is it to-day? Is he not still 
robbed and forced to leave the land he loves, the only home he 
has ever known, and then if he happens to object to this treat- 
ment and stand up for his rights, does not this big government 
send out a force of well drilled and equipped soldiers and slaugh- 
ter them indiscriminately, even to their women and children? 
As at Wounded Knee, S. D. How long, oh how long, will this 
government that boasts of the highest civilization on earth, stand 
by and see this terrible wrong continued; How long will it be 
until the Indian, like the bufifalo, will live in history? But pardon 
this digression. I have spoken of the family of Llewellyn's, that 


lived where Mrs. Almira McKew now lives. The head of the 
family was Meshac Llewellyn, and his oldest three sons, Shad- 
rach, Meshac and Abednigo, and several younger sons and 
daughters. It seemed that from some cause, probably from their 
Wm. Penn religion, Quakers, they were very friendly to the 
Indians, which caused some of the old settlers and especially the 
Indian haters among them, to call the Llewellyn's Tories. But 
with what reason I could not understand ; but certainly it is, that 
the Llewellyn home was a great place for the Indians to assemble 
and hold their pow-wows, etc., and when an Indian was seriously 
sick, or dangerously wounded, he found a ready welcome at the 
Lleweelyn's. But notwithstanding the friendship existing be- 
tween the Llewellyns and the Indians, one of the Llewellyn boys 
shot and killed an Indian, among the very first troubles that ex- 
isted between the two races. It happened thus: It seems that 
Shad Llewellyn was a little off occasionally owing to some kind 
of fits to which he was subject, and the Indians knowing this, 
would have some fun with him at his expense when they would 
catch him away from home, although they had repeatedly been 
told that it was dangerous sport by the older Indians, and it so 
proved one day in the fall hunting time. Shad had taken down 
his flint lock from over the door, picked the .flint, and as he was 
returning, coming down tlie river bank he saw two Indians on the 
opposite side of the river just this side of the Burket Pierce farm, 
along the high bluff bank which most of my readers are familiar 
w'ith. The Indians concluded that would be a good time to give 
Shad a good scare, and they commenced jumping behind trees 
and pointing and snapping their guns at him. It did not take 
Shad a minute to tumble ; he knew the Indian character to a dot, 
and although a little off in some respects, was no coward; he also 
took a tree, examined his gun to see if she was all right, and 
waited for a shot; the Indians thinking they had scared him so 
bad he could not shoot, one of them tried to get to another tree 
where he might see better the result of the scare. In doing this 
he exposed himself for a moment, but that moment was fatal; 
"bang," a wreath of smoke and a hunter getting away on the 
other side of the river wae what he saw when he stepped out to 
see what had become of his partner. Looking over a log a few 
feet away there he lay as dead as a clam with a bullet through his 
heart; he soon gave the alarm and had a lot of Indians assembled 
and buried him right w-here he fell. Some of the more war-like 
reds tried to make trouble about it, but the older men said he had 
onlv received what he deserved, as he had been warnd not to 


molest Shad; and moreover, until this day the Indian has a 
supreme dread of having trouble with a person that is insane or 
queer in the upper story. In proof of this statement it is related 
that a party of six of Fremont's men, in crossing the Rocky 
]\Iountains on his first trip, had got lost from the main body and 
wandered around until their provisions were gone and two of 
them had perished from starvation and exposure, and the rest had 
given up to die ; they were sitting huddled around a few smoking 
embers, reduced to gibbering idiots when they were found by a 
body of Camanche Indians, who were the most inveterate enemies 
of the whites and never lost an opportunity to tomahawk and 
scalp any white man or woman that fell into their power, but on 
discovering the condition of these wretched people they not only 
spared them, but divided their dried bufifalo and venison with 
them, built them a fire and left them to their fate, where they 
were found a few days afterwards by their friends and restored 
to life and health, to kill, perhaps, at some time in the future the 
very men that had spared them in their great extremity. Many 
of my readers will remember of seeing the grave of Shad 
Llewellyn's Indian about a mile or so up the river, and if any 
should doubt the correctness of the story, step into Dr. Smith's 
ofifice in Winchester and see the skeleton of that same Indian. 

The times have been, that when the brains were out, the man 
would die, and there an end. But now they rise again with 
twenty mortal murders on their crowns. — Macbeth. 

The killing of the Llewellyn Indian brings us back to the 
shooting of Smith, by Fleming, the devil of all Indians, and to 
the beginning of one of the most thrilling Indian adventures that 
ever occurred in the Mississinewa country. 

As stated before, the negro, soon as he found it safe and ad- 
visable, started ofif to find and counsel his friend Gray, and when 
at last he did meet him he told him about his close call from Flem- 
ing's and the squaw's plot to murder him. He also told him that 
while Fleming breathed neither of their lives was secure for an 
hour. Gray told Smith that he was well aware of the Indian's 
hatred of himself, and that he was just waiting for an opportunity 
to kill him on sight; and in the meantime for him (Smith) to con- 
ceal himself in a certain thicket near his house, where Fleming 
and the s(|uaw were in the habit of meeting and holding their 
pow-wows and etc., etc., and to be sure that his gun was in the 
best of order for sure fire, and when thelndian made his appear- 
ance put a bullet hole right through his cowardly heart. But the 


negro could not see it in that light, and told Jese that he would 
rather part with the squaw. 

It is said that all things come to him who has patience to 
wait. It so proved in the case of Gray and the negro. While 
they were watching for an opportunity to do up this bad Indian 
Fleming, an extra supply of fire water and his own devilish 
daring put him in just the right shape for them to get their long 
sought revenge. 

As stated, Joab Ward was living on the river bank, where 
Sherman Brooks now lives, at the south end of the railroad 
bridge. Stopping with him was his brother-in-law, Ellis Kizer, 
father of Tom and Henry Kizer, of Winchester. It so happened 
on a warm day in September, just as the Ward family were eat- 
ing dinner, that a very unwelcome guest in the shape of an Indian 
entered the house. It took but one glance to see that the Indian 
was Fleming, and that he was drunk and bent on mischief. In 
one hand he carried a huge butcher knife and in the other his 
ever ready rifle. The Wards, not desiring to have trouble with 
him, asked him to sit down and have dinner with them. But this 
did not suit the mood of the cut-throat, and he demanded 
whiske. He was informed that they had none for him. Then he 
wanted money. This too, he was told, was an article fully as 
scarce as whiskey; but all this would not do; he had come for 
blood. When Joab began to realize the serious and dangerous 
fix in which they were placed, he cast a longing glance at his rifle 
that lay resting in its hooks over the door. But the Indian was 
on to that glance, and placed himself between Joab and the gun, 
and flourished his huge butcher knife in a manner that threatened 
certain death to any one who dared to oppose him. But some- 
thing had to be done and done quickly. Ellis Kizer, sitting on 
the other side of the table, caught the longing glance of Joab 
towards the gun. and as Joab jumped to his feet with a chair be- 
tween him and the Indian. Kizer went for the gun; the Indian 
seeing they were too many for him made a break for the door and 
the river. He managed by running zigzag to keep Kizer from 
getting a bead on him until he gained the middle of the river, 
which at that time was a mere rifile, but Kizer was a marksman, 
and notwithstanding the dif^cult shot from the Indian's crooked 
and fleet running he got a half chance and fired ; the Indian gave 
a whoop, but still kept on running. It so happened by the In- 
dian's leg being raised the shot took efifect in the heel and ranging 
upward came out near the knee, making a severe flesh wound, 
but breaking no bones; it made him terriblv sick, and when he 


reached the mouth of the Httle creek tliat runs through the west 
part of town and flows into the river just this side of the rock 
dam, he was compelled to lay down. 

Now it is astonishing how soon the news reached Jesse Gray 
that the very Indian above all others that he wished to meet had 
had been shot at Wards, and had run down the river, and in less 
than two hours Gray was seen to take his track at the bank of the 
river and follow it, which he had no trouble in doing, by the 
blood left on the leaves as the wounded Indian ran. The Indian 
in the meantime had managed to tear off a piece of his hunting 
shirt and by twisting it around his leg had stopped the flow of 
blood. Of course he rather expected to be followed and man- 
aged to conceal himself in a clump of bushes, where he was laying 
to give a warm reception to any one who might be on his trail; 
and by being so well concealed he expected to get the first 
shot, but he little dreamed that his worst dreaded foe, and one he 
had more reason to fear than all others, and one more cunning 
in woodcraft than even himself, and one whom he well knew 
thirsted for his blood, was even then on his trail. It so happened 
that each discovered the other about the same time, and as Gray 
raised his gun to fire it seemed as if the Indian lost all his boasted 
bravery and resorted to flight rather than fight. He commenced 
rolling over and over like a log until he reached a tree, and before 
Gray could lire he had jumped behind it. The most of hunters 
would have waited patiently for him to show himself or make a 
break for another tree; but Gray w'as too smart to be beaten by 
this kind of a trick; he immediately changed his position off to 
one side and discovered the Indian crawling close to the ground 
and getting away as fast and as quietly as a serpent, and so 
very unsteady were his motions that it was almost impossible to 
get a good shot; but Jesse knew that the Indian's object was to 
draw his fire, and if he missed, before he could load again the 
Indian would have him at a disadvantage. So he seen he would 
have to force the fight. He made a break for the red man, and 
this too, the Indian was prepared for, and he again started on a 
run; always managing to keep a tree between him and Gray, and 
when he did expose himself he would run from side to side, mak- 
ing a line like a rail fence; but the superior skill of the white man 
was too much for him. Gray stopped short, threw his gun to 
his shoulder, and before the Indian could get behind another tree, 
he fired. The Indian gave a bound up in the air and fell flat on 
his face. Gray did not stop to see the effect of his shot, but pre- 
suming he had killed him stone dead, he reloaded his gun and re- 


turned home, told the negro their mutual enemy was at last be- 
yond doing either of them any more harm, for him to keep posted 
when the officers of the law got on his track, bade his family a 
hasty farewell, and started for Wayne County, thinking that in a 
few months at least the trouble would have blown over and he 
could return home on the Mississinewa. 

It may well be imagined what was his surprise about four 
weeks after the shooting of Fleming to see the darkey at his door 
with his eyes fairly bulging out and trembling like he had the 
ague. "AVhy, Smith, what's the matter?" said Jesse. "Oh, I 
done tole you, Mr. Gray, dat Injun Fleming got already done 
killed; he a'int killed at all, and dem Llewellyn's got him up dar 
to de house, and sent away off and got a big medicine man, and 
when he come he look at dat Injun mighty sorry, and den he tuck 
a silk handkerchief an he put de end in dat bullet hole, an he 
takes a ramrod an he punched dat handkerchief clar through dat 
Injun, an den he put that handkerchife to him nose an smell it, 
an fore de Lord, Mr. Gray, he say good Injun get well; and Jesse 
Gray an dis nigger had better look out or leab de country." 

After Gray had heard Smith to the end of his story he asked 
him what he intended to do about it. This was a stunner to the 
poor darkey, and he scratched his woolly head a moment and 
said, "why, dat's just zactly what I cum to see you for, Mr. Gray; 
dars one thing mighty powerful sure, somebody has got to kill 
dat Injun; he seems to hab as many lives as a cat." "Well," 
said Gray, wanting to have a little fun with the darkey; "will you 
undertake to finish him before he gets well and kills us both?" 
"Oh, Lordy, Mr. Gray, I neber could kill dat Injun; he entirely 
to smart for dis nigger, an he dun kill me fore I git my gun off 
my shoulder." It was finally arranged that if Gray would go 
with the nigger to the Llewellyn house and protect him from 
harm he (Smith) would shoot the Indian without fail. The 
price to be paid Gray for going along and seeing fair play was 
a grubbing hoe, two bars of lead, and three gun flints. The 
next Saturday was set down for the time, and how well they suc- 
ceeded in the undertaking will apear in the next chapter. 

Lady IM. — Are you a man? 

Macbeth — Ay, and a bold one that dare look on that which 
might apall the devil. — Shakespear. 

As agreed upon, on the next Saturday Gray and the darkey 
met and decided to immediately start on their somewhat uncer- 
tain and dangerous undertaking of killing Fleming. On this 


occasion there was to be no mistake; that devlish cut-throat In- 
dian had to die, or each of them lay down their lives in the at- 
tempt. Gray was to take the lead, and when they once got into 
the room where the Indian lay, Smith was to do the shooting. 
Gray told Smith to follow right in his footsteps, but not to make a 
motion, or to speak a word only when he was told to do so. 
About the time they were ready to start the darkey began to re- 
pent of his rashness. Gray turned on him with a look fairly 
paralyzing him, and told him if he did not stand right up to the 
work and do just as he bade him, he would blow his head off. 
This settled the poor darkey, as it was sure death if he backed 
out. The two men of different color started on a mission of 
blood, to wipe from the face of the earth a man of still another 
race and color from either of them. When they reached the 
Llewellyn home it was just after supper. Gray placed the negro 
behind a tree while he went forward to reconoiter, and the sight 
that greeted him was well calculated to appall a stouter heart 
than his. Seated on the grass in the shade of the forest trees 
that surrounded the house, were six or eight stalwart Indians, 
who, after the excitement of the day's hunt, were smoking their 
pipes and telling to each other the adventures of the day, all un- 
mindful of the presence of the man they dreaded more than all 
the rest of their white neighbors combined. As usual they had 
placed their guns in the house, not needing them until the 
morrow. Gray returned to Smith and told him to follow directly 
in his foot-steps, and on pain of instant death, to neither speak 
nor show signs of fear. 

Before the Indians had time to realize what was happening 
Gray and the negro Vere standing right in the path that led to 
the house, and between them and their guns. One or two of 
them started to rise, but Gray, by a single motion of the hand 
and without speaking a word, bade them stay right where they 
were if they wished to live, and they obeyed without a murmur. 
All this time the darkey was stepping on Gray's heels, and his 
teeth were chattering like a buzz saw. A few hasty steps brought 
them to the door of the wounded Indian. Mrs. Llewellyn, 
knowing Gray well, at once defined his mission and tried to bar 
their way, but Gray as quietly pushed her aside and they entered. 
She connncnced remonstrating and positively forbid them shed- 
ding blood in her house. Gray told her in language more em- 
l)hatic than polite, that they had come to kill the Indian, and if 
powder would burn they would do it; if she did not wish to see 
the tragedy she had better retire. This she positively refused to 


do. Then Gray took her by the arm and pushed her out and 
barred the door. All this time the Indians lay there eyeing 
them as coolly as if they had no interest in the matter wahtever. 
After the woman was out of the room, Gray turned to the negro 
and told him to do his business, but he might as well have talked 
to a stump. The darkey stood there with his eyes bulged out, 
and his complexion in a few minutes turned from a black to a 
shade whiter than Gray himself; his knees were knocking to- 
gether, his teeth rattled and in fact he had a terrible attack of 
buck ague. He could not raise the hanuner of the gun to save 
his life: and when he went to raise the gun to his shoulder he took 
it by the wrong end. Gray seeing he was more apt to kill him- 
self than the Indian, gave the poor fellow one withering glance of 
contempt, and stepping to the bed on which the wounded red 
man lay. told him he could have one minute in which to make 
peace with the Great Spirit. The Indian answered by a defiant 
look and drew the blanket over his head. Gray placed the muz- 
zle of the gun within two feet of the Indian's forehead and fired. 
The blood and brains spattered the ceiling overhead and Flem- 
ing, the thief and murderer, had started on the voyage to the 
happy hunting grounds. 

At the crack of the gun some of the Indians on the outside 
got up and peered through the cracks to see what was going on, 
but none of them attempted to get their guns. After the shot 
that settled Fleming, Gray stepped to the fire place, took out his 
pipe, filled it with tobacco, lighted it, and after giving the darkey 
a meaning look as much as to say, "If you dare to run I'll kill 
you," stepped out and coolly walked away, with the darkey 
almost stepping on his heels. Not an Indian spoke a word or 
made a movement to get up. The two kept up this moderate 
gait until they got down the little hill and just out of sight, when 
Gray turned to the negro and said, "Now if you value your life, 
run for it," and run they did. Gray said, in telling this adventure, 
"I never saw the Indian that could outrun me, but with the 
darkey I was nowhere; and every now and then he had to stop 
and wait till I caught up, for he was too badly scared to run 

They finally reached Gray's house after a run of four or five 
miles. After they had something to eat. Gray said, "now to- 
night them Indians will attack us, so we will prepare to receive 
them.'' So they fortified the house as best they could, moulded 
all the lead about the house into bullets, picked the flints and sat 
down to wait. At this time Gray's oldest boy could handle a gun 


by taking a rest off a log or fence, and it was arranged that this 
boy should conceal himself behind the bars that crossed the lane 
that ran up to the house and when an Indian made his appear- 
ance, he was to lire at him and run for the house, ^ 1 ere the door 
would be left ajar for him, and when safely inside they would be 
prepared to stand a siege for several days. The boy had not 
waited for more than an hour or so when up trotted an Indian 
dog. The boy ran to tell his father about the dog. "Now go 
back," said Gray, "and keep a sharp lookout, for the dog shows 
that they are coming, and if they find that we are prepared for 
them they will not be anxious to tackle us." The boy was armed 
with an old flint lock musket loaded with buckshot, a gun that 
had done duty at Fort Recovery. The boy had only time to con- 
ceal himself, when bang went the old musket and the boy went 
tumbling into the house heels over head. "I gave it to one In- 
dian, dad, sure; I seen him fall and heard him grunt.' The men 
peered out at the loop holes in the cabin and looking every min- 
ute to see an Indian slipping up on the house. But daylight came 
without the sign of an Indian. The men finally ventured out 
cautiously, fearing the cunning Indians might have a trap laid for 
them. They went to the bars where the boy had fired the musket 
and instead of a dead Indian, there lay a yearling calf perforated 
with twenty buckshot. As the old man told this story he laughed 
till he had to hold his sides. "The worst of it was," said he, "it 
was the only animal on the place, and I could never get that boy 
to talk about fighting Indians after that. But there is no doubt 
that the shot warned the reds that we were ready for them and 
saved us a fight, and maybe our lives." 

It is needless to say that after the killing ofFleming, the cut- 
throat Indian, Gray and the negro had to lay pretty low for a 
while. Tliey took a trip south, to Gray's old stamping grounds 
in Wayne County, and allowed the aft"air to blow over. It was 
while Gray and Smith were taking this lay off that Gray received 
the word from Mississinewa country tliat the famous Indian 
marksman and hunter, Pequannah. which in the Indian language 
signifies dead or sure shot with the rifle, was going on his trail 
and would never rest until he had avenged the death of Fleming 
by killing Gray and the negro. Gray was well acquainted with 
this celebrated warrior, having frequently met him at the shoot- 
ing matches of the Indians and settlers, where Pequannah was 
sure to carry away a big load of beef and furs and other traps 
that wer put up and shot for. He also knew that he had a foeman 
worthv of his steel in this Indian, but he lost no time in this, 


iccepting the Indian's challenge and sent the Indian word that 
)efore three moons he would hang Pequannah's scalp to his belt. 

Xow commenced one of the most exciting, most daring still 
lunts that ever occurred; the hunt to be to the death, and it was 
liamond cut diamond; the superior skill and daring bravery of 
he white man against the equally skillful and more cunning red 
nan. Gray put his gun in the best of order and started for the 
Jississinewa. While he did his best to keep from being seen by 
my one it was almost impossible to do so, and of course the 
ndian was speedily informed that the terror of all the Indians, 
esse Gray, was in the county and thirsting for his blood. The 
ndian was just as anxious as Gray for the combat that must 
ome sooner or later; for he would gain more honor by killing 
iray than twenty other white men ; so day after day these two 
lien hunted, each bent on shedding the blood of the other. Days 
engthened into months and yet neither had gained the oportunity 
ought. The fatest bear or deer might have crossed the path of 
ither in safety, as the crack of a rifle would warn the foe of the 
thereabouts of his enemy, or any Indian might pass right under 
he tree in which the white hunter was concealed and never know 
low near he was to the man thirsting for the blood of one of his 
ribe. The Indian was pursuing exactly the same tactics. Jesse 
jray was the onh^ white man he was looking for. Nearly three 
nonths had elapsed since these two men started on the war path, 
md so terribly cautious was each, they never had a glimpse of 
)ne another. 

It was about the middle of the afternoon, on a very hot and 
ultry day in September, when the climax came. Many of my 
eaders will remember a beautiful clear, cool spring just a few 
ods above the old lime kilns and near the southwest corner of the 
iver cemetery and southeast corner of the corporation line, 
iven as late as twenty-five years ago, the spring was cared for, 
md was a favorite place to get a cool, refreshing drink on a sum- 
ner Sunday afternoon, or when on a fishing tour. A beautiful 
vild crabapple tree leaned over and formed a complete shade 
or the spring, and in the early spring the fragrance of its magni- 
icent white blossoms was a rare treat, indeed. I believe the 
pring is now relegated to innocuous dessuetude. On the south 
ide of the rive and opposite this spring Gray had climbed into the 
hick branches of a large spreading oak, which position placed 
lim about one hundred yards from the spring. He wisely con- 
:luded that some time during the day the Indian would come to 


that spring for a drink, the day being extremely hot and dry 
His theory was correct. 

When Greek meets Greek then comes the tug of war. 

He had been concealed among the branches for several hours 
and was getting very tired, and had about made up his mind to 
climb down and give up the hunt for that day, when his trained 
eye caught sight of a peculiar movement in the thicket some two 
hundred yards below the spring, and on that side of the river. 
He watched closely, and in a few minutes saw an Indian emerge 
from the thicket. He knew at a glance that it was an Indian, but 
was not sure at first that it was the game he was hunting, as al- 
ready two whites and one Indian had drank at the spring since he 
had climbed into the tree. But it was Pequannah. He noted 
every motion of that Indian, and the time it took him to get to 
that spring showed the extreme caution of the man. He stepped 
as lightly as a cat, and every bush that barred his way he put 
aside without creating the least sound. Every time he stopped, 
it was behind a tree large enough to conceal the body from an 
enemy in front, and there he would stand for several minutes as 
silent and motionless as the sphinx, scanning every bush and tree 
with the practiced eye of the born woodsman. Once when within 
about one hundred yards of the spring he stopped as usual be- 
hind a tree, and for many minutes his eye seemed to rest on the 
identical tree in which Gray was concealed. It seemed as if the 
untutored savage instinctively scented danger. He stood and 
gazed so long in that direction that the white hunter thought that 
he must surely be discovered. The distance was too great for 
anything like a dead shot, but he was at last relieved by seeing 
the Indian step behind the tree and cautiously move toward the 
spring. Never for one moment did Gray allow his eye to wander 
from that wiry form, gliding througii the bushes with the stillness 
of the panther approaching his prey. It seemed to Gray that the 
Indian would never reach the spring, so cautious and slow were 
his movements. All this time Gray sat with his back resting 
against the body of the tree with his gun resting on a limb and 
pointing directly to the spring. Of course he did not dare to 
move a muscle, nor change the position of his gun. for well he 
knew that the practical eye of the wily foe he had to deal with 
would detect the least motion he might make, and in a second ot 
time spoil the only chance and advantage he had been month? in 
securing. But he was equal to the task. Not a single motion 
did he make. Slowly, cautiously, the Indian approached the 


spring; so fearful of an ambush we he, that instead of leaving his 
gun against a tree as usual while he drank, he laid down with his 
right hand clutching the gun. As he lay there drinking, if a line 
had been drawn from the pupil of Gray's eye through the notch 
of the rear sight and over the front head of his gun, that line 
would have intersected a spot directly over the Indian's heart. 

The clear, sharp crack of a rifle, reverberating up and down 
the palcid waters of the Mississinewa, a wreath of smoke curling 
up high above the top branches of the majestic oak, until lost in 
the mist of the blue dome above. A white hunter sitting rigid^ 
with his back against the tree, with a face ghastly pale, and his. 
eager eye intently riveted on the form of an Indian at the spring 
across the river, and Pequannah's spirit, if he had any, had started 
to join his fathers, and face the grand sachem in the sweet re- 
motely, or the red man's happy hunting ground, where he might 
smoke his kinnicanick and join in the beautiful esthetic ghost 
dance, where no pale face hunter or United States troops dare 
molest or make him afraid. When the gun cracked the Indian 
clutched his rifle, whirled over on his back and made one last 
dying effort to get his gun to his shoulder, but the effort was in 
vain ; he gave one spasmodic gasp and fell back dead. The ball 
had pierced his heart. Alas, poor Lo, he had at least died with 
his face toward his enemy. We all listened to hear the old man 
say that he either did or did not kill the Indian, but the old man 
simply said, "Pequannah was still lying there drinking when I 
climbed down from the tree and started for Wayne County, and 
I never saw him again." But a little mound near the spring, still 
visible forty years ago, tells the story. • 

I should have said in a previous chapter that there was two 
other Indians with Fleming when he went to the house of Joab 
Ward at the time Fleming was shot by Kizer, and things looked 
extremely blue for Joab and the rest of the settlers, as thre was 
a camp of fiv or six hundred Indians down the river on what is 
now kno\yn as the Kitselman farm. Joab and Kizer well knew 
that if these Indians got an exaggerated and one sided account of 
the shooting and took it into their heads to go on the war path, 
not a man, woman or child of the pale faces in the settlement 
would be spared. So when Joab saw the two Indians start west 
for the camp on the run he halted them and told them to come 
back and hear what he had to say. They did not want to stop, 
and kept on increasing their speed, but when Joab threw his 
trusty rifle to his shoulder and looked rather longingly in their 
direction, they immediately changed their minds and returned. 


The first thing the white men did was to disarm the two Indians, 
and then Joab spoke to them in substance about as follows: 
"Now go to your friends and tell them the exact truth about the 
shooting as you know it to be. Say to them we have always 
been their friends, have kept faith with them, and have always 
treated them like brothers. As you well know, we were com- 
pelled to shoot Fleming or lose our own lives. Tell them to come 
and get Fleming and if he is dead, bury him; and if alive, take 
him and take care of him. Tell them to come unarmed, not to 
bring a single gun, or there will be serious trouble ; and after you 
have taken care of Fleming come and get your guns." So the two 
braves .started, and it seems as if they delivered the message, for 
about sundown six or eight stalwart Indians came up, finding 
Fleming still alive lying where Gray had left him, picked him up, 
and as already stated, took him to the Llewellyn residence. I had 
also forgotten the fact that Gray and the negro went to the house 
of Joab Ward on the day they shot Fleming at the Llewellyns, 
presumably to get Joab to go along and to share in the glory, 
but Aunt Amy, as she was familiarly called, told them that Joab 
was not in and she could not tell when he would return, which 
Joel thinks a little white pardonable "fib." Many times in after 
years he said to his father, "as a matter of fact was thee not, at 
that very time, concealed somewhere in the house?" which ques- 
tion caused the old gentleman to begin to look for bees and ob- 
serve rather hastily that it was high time to be at work in the 
vcornfield. Thus it was with all these old settlers, they would tell 
you an interesting story of early adventure but always leave some- 
thing to guess at, and the moment you would begin to question 
them they would break oflf abruptly and change the subject. 

Before we say good bye to our old friend and hero, Jesse 
Gray, we will give an instance or two of the terrible dread the 
red man had of the famous white hunter. Gray had found ex- 
cellent hunting ground on the Loblolly about twenty-five miles 
north of the Mississinewa, where at the mouth of a little creek 
emptying into the Loblolly, he had established his camp and 
where every fall with a few congenial spirits, he repaired to take 
his annual hunt. The Indians, too, had discovered this rich hunt- 
ing ground and had built several camps, and every autumn some 
six or eight braves and their squaws and papooses camped there 
and killed their winter venison and trapped a large amount of 
fur. This arrangement did not suit Gray, of course, and he 
warned them to pull up stakes and get away from there. This 
the Indians refused to do, contending, and with reason, too, 


they had as much right to hunt there as the white man. And as 
Gray had wiped out the last Indian that had anything to do with 
the murdering of his family and as the law^ was getting more and 
more severe for the killing of Indians, he concluded to resort to 
stratagem, and if that failed he would try something else. 

Talk of your sign language. One frosty morning, when the 
red men arose at the peep of day to start out on the day's hunt, 
the chief of the band was noticed to halt abruptly and intently 
scan some peculiarly mark he noticed on a tree about one hun- 
dred yards from the camp. After gazing for some time at the 
mark he called the other braves to him and explained something 
to them that caused them to retrace their steps and to immedi- 
ately begin to pack their traps and prepare for a journey. In 
the meantime the chief continued his investigation and this is 
what he discovered: There were six camps and six braves, and 
in six trees there was a little notch cut with a shary tomahawk, 
and in each notch there was a bullet and a load of powder. It is 
needless to say the Indians understood this language better than 
they would the plainest English or their own Miami tongue. At 
least it had the desired efifect, for about the meridian of that day 
six braves, w-ith their rifles on their shoulders and six squawks, 
with their six papooses, and the tents, furs and pelts strapped on 
their backs, stood in single or Indian file, with their faces turned 
toward the setting sun, awaiting the command of the chief. It 
came in the single word Puccachee. 

Wizards know their times; deep night, dark night, the silent 
of the night, the time of night when Troy was set on fire; the 
time when screech owls cry, and ban dogs howl, and ghosts 
break up their graves. — King Henry VI. 

Puccachee, in the Indian language means forward, march! 
Git up and git! Skedaddle! Vamoose the ranch! So the six 
warriors, six squaws, and six papooses started west to find a 
more congenial hunting ground. Before the next autumn's 
hunting season came around all the camps on that creek were 
burned to the ground. No one knew who did it, but the strong 
presumption was that Jesse Gray knew something about it ; and 
to this day that creek is known as burnt camp creek, and it was 
while camped on the banks of that creek, in company with Jesse 
Gray, my father, elder brother, Uncle Joe and several others, 
that I heard many of the thrilling adventures which are related 
in the "reminiscences" from Jesse Gray himself, the great hunter 
and Indian slayer and noblest Roman of them all. It was while 
encamped here with Gray, my father and many others, that oc- 


curred one of those peculiar and to this day laughable incidents 
that so vividly illustrates the superstition of the huntei* of that day, 
and in fact may still be found with many hunters, actors and 
gamblers of the present time. My father was an old Virginia 
Dutchman, and as full of dreams, sighs and tokens as an egg is 
of meat, and the rest of the party were much like him in that re- 
spect. Father was always recognized as the Grand Sachem or 
boss of the party, and it being necessary for Gray to go home for 
a few days to attend to some urgent business, after which he 
w^ould join us and finish up the hunt. As he shouldered his gun 
just at the peep o' day he turned to my father and said: "Now 
Lew, if an old devil and wizard named Harshish should come 
here in my absence, which he is almost sure to do, don't under 
any circumstances give him anything, for if you do he will spell 
your guns, and you will not hit another deer this hunt." With 
this parting injunction the old man took his leave. After Gray 
left some of the party laughed rather lightly at the old man's 
warning, but the most of them considered it more seriously. My 
brother, Jim, wdio was considered the best hunter in the party, 
•concluded that he knew more about "spelling" guns than father, 
Gray or any one else, and said that the idea that a gun could be 
"spelled" was too absured to be talked of for a moment, and if he 
was at the camp when Harshish called he would give him the 
whole camp just to show^ them that they were all superstitious 
lunatics. But Jim changed his mind before thirty-six hours had 
passed. It was about four o'clock in the evening of the day that 
Gray left for home; I, a boy of twelve or thereabout, and the 
camp keeper of the party, was stirring the lire preparatory to 
setting on the cofifee pot and hanging over the blazing logs the 
dinner pot, well filled with young venison. I was startled by 
an apparition of, well I will not say a man, yet it was a living, 
moving, breathing animal of the genuine homo. I would like.. 
if possible, to describe that singular looking being for the reader, 
but alas the pen is unequal to the task, and 1 pause dumbfounded, 
not knowing where to begin or what to say; nay, not even the 
hasty little kodak of to-day could catch him, so uncertain were his 
movements, so restless his motions, so glittering and piercing his 
little deep-sunken eyes; indeed, he was one that might well appall 
the devil, and what of a twelve year old boy? 1 presume that had 
it not been that Gray's description had jjrepared me for such a 
sight, these "rominisccnces" would never have been written, and 
yet I had as much grit as the average boy of that day and age. I 
assure you that his greeting was not calculated to nerve me, as 
his first words were in a tone of voice something between the 


screech of a locomotive and the plaintive wail of a Scotch bag- 
pipe. "What the devil is the matter boy, did you never see a man 
before?" "N' — ,n' — , no," I managed to say, "I never had." I 
suppose I meant to such a man as that. He was about five feet 
in height, slimly built and could not have weighed over ninety 
pounds, with a shock of grizzly hair, a snow white beard that 
covered every inch of his repulsive features, and neither hair nor 
beard had ever known the use of a comb. His little deep-set, 
piercing eyes reminded one of two holes cut in a venison ham, or 
two holes burnt in a blanket. But now to attempt to describe his 
dress: A hunting shirt which at the beginning was buckskin, 
but now from the numerous patches sewed on, tied on with 
strings, tied on with hickory bark, patch upon patch, until all the 
colors of the rainbow were blended into one inconceivable but- 
ternut hue; moccasins of a pre-historic type, were tied upon his 
feet with leatherwood bark, while his pants out-generaled his coat 
for color and patches; his hands, which scorned the use of soap, 
reminded one of the talons of a chicken hawk; on his head he 
wore what once had been a cap, made of deer skin with the hair 
side out, but now it looked somewhat like a last year's inverted 
bird's nest after the breaking up of a hard winter; but compari- 
sons are vain, and I'll give it up in despair. An old United States 
flint-lock musket was slung over his shoulder, a dilapidated 
greasy shot-pouch and powder horn hung by his side, while a 
much worn shoemaker's knife, in a leather scabbard, was tied to 
his belt. His next words were: "Give me something to eat, 
boy; I'm hungray as a bar;" but by this time I had partially re- 
gained my senses and told the ghoul or gobblin that there was 
not a morsel of cooked food in the camp, but if he would tarry a 
while, the hunters would be in and by that time I would have 
supper ready, and would be very much pleased to have him sup 
with us. This invitation he readily accepted, and standing his 
gun against a tree with a satisfied grunt, sat down on a log to 
await the return of the hunters and supper. In a short time all 
returned, and as they greeted the visitor it was plain to be seen 
they knew who he was from Gray's description; and indeed, he 
introduced himself as Harshish, the oldest and greatest hunter of 
the classic Loblolly; had killed more deer and bear than any 
man in the world. While he would be talking to one, the rest 
would be out behind the camp discussing the situation. It was 
finally decided that by allowing the wizard to take supper with us 
would not be giving him anything any way, and, moreover was 
any man ever known to come to the home of father hungry and 


go away empty? So Harshish took supper with us. He did not 
tarry long after supper, but picked up his gun to start. For the 
sake of good manners, father asked him to stay all night. No, he 
would go to his own cabin, which was not more than a mile 
away, and he had traveled those woods darker nights than that. 
Just before leaving he turned to father rather carelessly and said 
he had always made it a point when he was having good luck 
hunting to divide with his less fortunate neighbors, and he had 
been hunting several days and killed nothing, and his family being 
entirely out of meat and nothing else in the house to eat but a 
little unground corn, he would be very thankful for a small piece 
of venison. Now, of course, father could not refuse that appeal, 
especially when the wizard referred to his family, and had his 
mind fully made up to offer him meat without asking, regardless 
of the wishes of the others, but he wisely concluded to have their 
consent, so if any disaster followed the gift, would not bear all 
the blame. And moreover, we could not plead scarcity, as there 
right in front of the gent hung three fine deer, the fruits of the 
day's hunt. So father said, "Well, 'tis true we have the venison, 
and to spare, but I am only one and as for me you can have the 
meat and welcome." Then Jim, the man who did not believe in 
"spells," spoke up, "certainly, give him all the meat he wants, and 
we can kill more when this is gone." Uncle Joe was of the same 
opinion, and gave his assent. Old Coon Thompson, the next 
oldest to father, and the most superstitious of the party, was the 
hardest nut to crack. But as all the rest were against him, gave 
a reluctant consent, saying he thought any man who was not too 
d — d lazy might get all the game he wanted without begging for 
it. If Hirshish heard this remark, he did not heed it, and father 
stepped out to one of the deer hanging on the pole, cut off a fore- 
quarter and handed it to the apparently thankful Hirshish, who 
speedily took his departure. For hours after he was gone the 
men lay there discussing the pro's and con's, and wondering 
what the morrow would bring forth, which interesting question 
will be answered in the next chapter. 

Tlicy ripped and tore, cussed and swore, and swore they 
wouldn't stay there any more. — Old Negro IMelody. 

A better time for stalking deer never dawned than the morn- 
ing after the wizard of the Loblolly left the camp with his quarter 
of fat venison. A crisp white frost covered the ground and 
hung like sparkling diamonds from the trees and underbrush; 
just such a morning as gladdens the heart of a hunter, and sends 


him forth with the assurance that before the frost has melted 
from the leaves he will get a shot; for on such a morning, any old 
deer hunter will tell you, that every deer in the woods is on the 
move, especially in the height of running time. It was not more 
than a half hour until bang, went a gun. That's father, said I, 
and I'll bet my boots there's one less deer in the woods. I wish 
to explain here that after being in the woods a few days, hunters 
can tell the crack of each other's guns as well by the sound, as if 
they saw them fired. In five or ten minutes more, bang, bang, I 
heard Jim's gun, two shots in quick succession, and in less time 
than it takes to record it, the shots became so fast and furious that 
it reminded one of a skirmish line, and I began to wonder what 
we would do with all the deer killed that morning. But before 
dinner time my mind was set at rest on the subject. The first to 
get to camp was father; he came tearing through the woods like 
a mad steer. As he threw off his shot pouch and slanmied his 
gun down in the tent he muttered, "d — m old Hirshish; what in 
the dickens did them fellows mean by giving him meat, anyway ; 
two broad-side shots and not a hair touched." Next came Uncle 
Joe, puffing and blowing with the same refrain, "d — m that old 
scoundrel; three as fair shots as I ever had in my life and not a 
hair or drop of blood. Lew, what in thunder ever possessed you 
to give that old d — 1 that quarter of venison?" 'T didn't give it 
any more than the rest of yo," replied father, rather hotly. Next 
came Jim, the wise man, that did not believe in the hoodoo art. 
Oh, but he was hot. "What do you think?" said he, 'T stood 
right in my tracks and shot five times at the biggest five point 
buck that runs the woods and never made him bat his eye; I 
know I took as good sight and had as steady a nerve as I ever 
had, and I did not shoot an inch over sixty yards. That villain 
has "spelled" my gun, I am ready to swear, for I never miss a 
deer that distance, you all know." This was a fact, for Jim was 
known as the greatest deer hunter of that day, and had the proud 
distinction of standing in his tracks and piling up five full grown 
deer, and that' with an old-fashioned muzzle loading, single bar- 
reled rifle, which would be a considerable feat to-day, even with 
the improved Winchester. In fact it was not ncommon for Jim 
to kill more deer than all the rest of the party, and as a matter of 
course when he reported having missed five fair shots, some- 
thing had to be wrong with his gun, that was dead sure. After 
each one related his terrible luck, and blamed old Hirshish with 
it, father says: "Well, we will wait for old Coon Thompson, and 
if he has missed we may as well hang up the fiddle and break for 


They had not long to wait, for at last came not satan, but 
something worse. It was old Coon ; you might have heard him 
swear for a mile or more; he fairly turned the woods bule with 
profanity. "Didn't I warn you, Lew, not to give that old devil 
anything? Didn't Jesse Gray tell you that if we give him any- 
thing our luck was done and our goose was cooked? Why, I 
would have seen the old sun of a gun starve before I would have 
given him a crumb of bread to save his cussed life. We may just 
as well pull up stakes and start for New Paris, (where we lived at 
that time). If I only had that old devil here for one minute he 
would never "spell" another gun," said old Coon. "Why, have 
you forgotten, John that nothing but a silver bullet will kill a 
witch or wizard?" said my father, half jeeringly, half earnest. 
"I'd risk it," replied old Cooney; "I'd take the ax, chop him into 
mince meat and throw it into the fire." "Well," said father, "you 
have not told us yet what your luck has been; we heard you 
cannonading, and thought you had a wagon load of deer hung 
up." "Deer," said Cooney, "devil a deer have I touched this day, 
though I have shot away every bullet in my pouch. The first 
chance I had was a doe and two fawns ; they ran up within twenty 
steps of me; I could see their very eye winkers, and knew if I 
could knock the doe down in her tracks I was about sure of all 
three of them. I held for the doe's heart, when fiz went the cap. 
They never stirred. I put on a new cap, and click, it went again; 
there them three deer stood until I busted seven caps, and then 
galloped away without even seeing me. I then concluded the 
powder in the tube had got damp, and sighted at a spot on a tree 
and the gun cracked as clear as a bell. I loaded again, and had 
not gone two hundred yards until six deer came running and 
stopped w'ithin sixty yards of me. There I stood and banged 
away, shot after shot, while them deer circled around nic until I 
hadn't a bullet left in my pouch. I'll take my oath I did not 
shoot overy twenty-five yards at some of the deer, and never 
touched a hair. Its all your fault. Lew, I told you not to give 
that old cuss anything, but you would have your own way, and 
now you see what's come of it. Our guns are "spelled," and we 
will not kill another deer." 

I should have stated that the other two hunters, one of them 
Hurst Porterfield, of New Paris, and the D. G. of the same place, 
had come in just before old Cooney and had about the same ex- 
perience to report; plenty of shots, or snaps, but no game. Espe- 
cially was D. G. badly demoralized; he had got a half mile from 
camp, when a large black bear came running and jumped up on 


3. log- not over fifteen steps away, and on seeing the hunter, 
raised upon his haunches and took a hasty survey of him. The 
hunter aimed for his heart, when chck went the cap; he snapped 
again, and again, and the gun failed to fire. He went to put on 
a new cap. and in his great haste and excitement allowed the cap 
box to slip from his hand and roll away in the leaves, and as he 
stooped to recover it the bear took the alarm and jumped the log 
and in a very brief time was lost in the underbrush. Thus it was 
each man had a story more dismal than the one preceding him. 
So they jawed and quarreled, criwiination and recrimination was 
the order of the day; each one positively denying that he had been 
responsible for the bad luck in giving- the wizard the venison. 
So after they had quarreled until they became tired of that sport, 
father said that the witch did not live that could put on a charm 
that he could not break, that he was not born right in the shadow 
of the natural bridge in old Virginia to be out-generaled by such 
a little shriveled up wizard as old Harshish. and if they would all 
be governed by him he would break the spell. To this they 
readily assented, you may be sure. Each man took his gun bar- 
rel out of the stock; this being done, the vents or tubes were 
closely plugged up a pole was placed over the big log fire, high 
enough for the lower end of the barrels to hang a foot or more 
above the fire. A piece of hickory bark was tied around the 
muzzel and was filled with a fluid readily obtainable, then each 
barrel was suspended from the pole, until they should boil dry, 
while an incantation or witch jargan. something like the following 
was repeated thrice: 

Boil away, boil away, till the pot boils dry; 
Away to the clouds the charm will fly ; 
If the witch comes back, the witch will die; 
Howly poke, up in smoke, and all's well. 

The guns having all boiled until they were perfectly dry, 
were taken down, thoroughly washed out with hot water and 
ashes, and wiped dry with tow. They were then fitted to their 
stocks and were ready for the next morning's hunt. About sun- 
down Jesse Gray returned, and laughed heartily when told of the 
morning adventures, he himself having killed a large five point 
buck on his way to camp. We staid there three more days, and 
had more game than we could haul home. Besides the deer 
killed, we had six or eight wild turkeys, and nearly a barrel of 


lam aware that some of my readers will think, Old Timer 
is exagerating, but I can assure them that while the language is 
my own, the facts as here set down are substantially true as Holy 
Writ. Is it more unreasonable to believe these stories of super- 
stition and witchcraft, than it is to believe that Mrs. Stuckenberg,. 
of Louisville, Ky., at precisely the same hour, 3 o'clock p. m. of 
each Friday, has apearing on her forehead a perfect cross and on 
her breast the initials I. H. S., and the nail holes through her 
hands and feet? Also the spear thrust in her side, and these 
wounds bleed afresh the hour named, as if just taken down from 
the cross? Is it more difficult, I ask, to believe the story of the 
wizard spelling guns than this miraculous story that is religiously 
believed by hundreds of thousands of intelligent people all over 
our broad land? I may say I well remember of people coming 
to my father to get him to mold silver bullets with which to kill 
witches. In fact things every whit absured and unreasonable are 
believed by many people of to-day, and not the most ignorant 
people either. 

The pitcher that goes to the well too often Is sure to get 
broken. — Proverb. 

In closing the first part of the "reminisences" it will be 
necessary to go back some little way and relate incidents that had 
escaped our memory. A few days after Gray's family had been 
murdered by the Indians, the same tribe made a raid in the same 
locality and ruthlessly murdered the Morgan family, consisting 
of father, brother and one son. As a matter of course, Jesse 
Gray was one of the first to volunteer his valuable services and 
experience in Indian fighting to wipe out the band of bloody 
butchers who did the work. In this undertaking the famous old 
hunter came near losing his life. Gray, in company with Josh 
Addington, another old Indian fighter and hunter of note, with 
several others whose names I have forgotten, pursued and over- 
took the red men before they reached th Mississinewa. E^ch 
party was mounted, but the reds outnumbered the whites two to 
one. With such men as Gray, Addington, and the other settlers 
of equal mettle and daring, numbers were not considered. The 
instant the whites got in range they opened fire, and the reds 
seeing their advantage in numbers, wheeled about and returned 
the fire with interest. As the aim from off a horse was uncertain 
at best, both sides dismounted, and each man took a tree and 
fought on his own hook. It soon became apparent that the 
Indians were too much for the whites, as some of their guns had 
gotten damp and would not fire at all. while others had fired his 


last bullet. The Indians being quick to discover their advant- 
age, were trying to flank the whites, that is to get in the rear and 
surround them, in which case not a white man would have es- 
caped. So the order was given for each man to mount and save 
himself. It was at this critical time that Gray, in attempting 
to get on his horse, slipped and came near falling, which caused 
his horse to shy, and for a moment it looked as if Jesse was to fall 
a victim to the now enraged and confident Indians. At this 
point Josh Addington, seeing the danger of his old friend Gray, 
■discovered a big brave drawing a bead on Jesse. Although his 
own gun had refused to fire for the twentieth time, jumped from 
behind his tree, and in fair view of the Indian, leveled his gun at 
him, well knowing it would not lire, but knowing just as well 
that the Indian did not know it. At the same time he yelled to 
Gray for Heaven sake to mount and get away. The ruse had the 
desired efifect ; when the Indian saw Josh's gun aimed straight at 
his heart he droped his aim from Gray and jumped behnd a tree. 
This little diversion enabled Gray and Addington to get on their 
horses and get away, although the bullets of the red men were 
cutting the brush close around them. The fight on the part of 
the whites resulted in two or three being wounded; on the part 
of the Indians it is hard to tell, as they invariably remove their 
■dead and wounded, even while the fight is on; but it is known 
that at least one Indian bit the dust, and several others more or 
less severely wounded. 

This was the last raid that wes ever made in the settlement 
of the Mississinewa, though for years after the death of a white 
man might be laid at the door of an Indian, and as to the Indians, 
a good one disappeared with almost frightful rapidity for many 
years after the IMorgan murder. 

Among the early settlers of the Mississinewa were Peter 
Dailey, Joseph Flesher, Tom Shaler and several others who 
found it necessary occasionally, in order to save the furs caught 
in their traps, to serve notice on bad Indians to immediately 
leave the country, and it is needless to add they always obeyed, 
and never bothered the traps more. One of those thieving In- 
dians was known by the rather peculiar name of Duck. Peter 
Dailey was a very successful trapper, and the coon and mink 
skiuK that he took in were a legal tender for all debts, public and 
private, and even to paying taxes and entering land. It is a fact 
not generally known that many quarter sections of land in this 
part of the state, that are now well improved farms, were entered 
and the price paid in coon skins; so when Pe-ter discovered that 
his traps were being robbed, he saw that a nice eighty acre farm 


on whch he had been keeping his weather eye, was Hkely to sHp^ 
through his fingers if this steaHng of his furs kept on. So Pete 
told Mr. Duck plump and plain that he believed him to be the 
thief. This, of course, he denied, and got fighting mad, talked 
shoot and told Peter he must not call him thief or there would be 
serious trouble. Peter told Duck that he understood the use of 
the gun pretty well himself, and if he was spoiling for a fight, he 
might sail in whenever it suited his convenience, but for the time 
being all he wanted was his traps to be let alone, and if he every 
caught the Indian at his traps he was a dead Duck sure. For 
some time after his traps were not molested, which convinced him 
that he had spotted the right man. 

It so happend that year fur ran away up to a fabulous price 
for those times, and Peter discovered that although his traps 
would be set and the bait be in its place, there were signs that to 
his practiced eye convinced him that there had been a coon or 
mink in the trap, and it had been taken out, and the trap reset with 
the greatest care. As a matter of course this made Peter red hot 
and he commenced laying for the thief, but in spite of his best 
efforts he could not catch the Indian in the act, nor could he ever 
catch Duck in the vicinity of his traps. Yet the stealing went on, 
and he was dead sure Duck was the thief. Fnally Peter tumbled 
to the racket. The cunning Indian was going to the traps before 
daylight. About two o'clock one morning Peter went to one of 
his surest traps, and concealing himself in easy rifle range, sat 
down to await events. He ha<l waited an hour or more when he 
heard a step going toward the trap; it was too dark to make out 
clearly what the object was that stopped by the trap, but through 
the gloom he finally made out that it was a man. He could see 
him stoop down and take something from the trap, but what 
puzzled Peter was how was he going to set the trap again and 
leave everything in proper shape as dark as it was ; and moreover 
he did not like to risk a shot at that distance in the dark, and yet 
he could not think of letting the thief get away ; he was soon en- 
lightened, and more, when the Indian drew a flint and steel from 
his pouch and with a sharp click struck the flint and the sparks 
dropped on some dry tow, blazed up, and in a moment was ap- 
plied to some dry shavings and soon made a pretty fair but small 
light, by which Peter was able to see plainly the stalwart form of 
Duck, with a large raccoon lying at his feet. The light also en- 
abled him to get a good bead on the Indian, and it is presmed his 
gun did not miss fire; but in relating the incident Peter only said, 
"Duck did not set the trap and he must have went ofT on a long 
hunt, for he has never been seen in this countrv since." 



Uncle Joe Flesher had an experience with a bad Indian very 
similar to that of Peter Dailey. His traps were being robbed 
almost daily and he had a strong suspicion of who was doing the 
mischief. So he set out to catch the thief; he concealed himself 
near some of his best traps very early in the morning, and about 
daylight he heard a turkey calling right near one of his traps; he 
listened attnetively for a time and fancied that the turkey had a 
rather peculiar call, so he waited and refused to answer the call. 
In a few moments he was rewarded by seeing that turkey in the 
shape of the very Indian he was looking for, step up to the trap, 
and after cautously looking in every direction, place the caller to 
his lips and give a very good intimation of the call of a wild tur- 
key, yet the call was not quite enough to deceive Uncle Joe 
Flesher. He saw at a glance the ruse of the wily red man was a 
good one. His scheme was to give the call of the turkey and if 
it was answered his well traned ear would warn him whether it 
was a man or turkey, and if a man, he w^ould slip away leaving 
the trap undisturbed; but if answered by a turkey he would take 
the coon or mink from the trap and proceed on his way to another 
trap. I may stop here to explain that the turkey caller is made 
from the small bone of the wing of a turkey, and w^hen used by an 
expert will deceive the most cunning old gobbler in the woods, 
and draw^ him on to his death. The Indian was fooling with a 
white man that knew the genuine from a false call of the turkey, 
as well or better than himself, and that's where he made his mis- 

And your sons and daughters shall prophecy, and your 
young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dread 
dreams. — Bible. 

Before entering upon the bear hunt with our old friend Gray, 
I wish to relate an occurrence as showing how wonderfully strong 
was the belief in dreams, signs and tokens of the men of fifty years 
ago. How almost miraculously some of their dreams at least 
were fulfilled. As said in a previous chapter, my father was one 
of the greatest deer and bear hunters of his time, and could boast 
an achievement that probably could not truthfully be claimed 
by another man in Indiana or Ohio, and that was that he had 
killed a deer in every year for sixty years. Of course some years 
he killed many more, but what I mean is, that for sixty years 
there was no year in which he did not kill one or more deer. He 
killed his first deer in Rockbridge County, \^irginia, when he 
was eleven or twelve years of age, and his last one in Jay County, 
Indiana, when he was seventy-two or seventy-three. He died 
in Camden, Jay County, Indiana, in 1875, ^t almost 80. 


The Story I wish to relate is this: As usual in each year 
when October, about the 8th to i6th, came around, our party, 
six, eight or ten, were ready to start on our annual deer hunt, 
with a two-horse wagon well loaded with bread, corn meal, pota- 
toes, sugar and coffee, camp equipage, good tent, axes, augurs, 
saws, etc. We started from New Paris, Ohio, and drove to the 
Mississinewa, where we were joined by Jesse Gray and Charles 
Sumption, another great hunter of the time. We hunted for two 
or three days there with rather poor luck; in fact a few wild tur- 
keys, squrrels and pheasants were all we had for camp meat, 
which was humilating to such hunters as composed our camp. 
Finally Gray, who understood perfectly the habits and haunts of 
deer, said the game had left the Mississinewa and gone to Still- 
water, where there was plenty of mast, (acorns and beechnuts) 
and we had better go to that river if we expected a successful 
hunt. So next morning we started for Stillwater and camped 
the first night on Greenville creek, ten or twelve miles from our 
destination, which was the crossing of Stillwater on the Shanes- 
ville road twelve or fifteen miles north of Greenville, Ohio, and 
now comes the singular fulfillment of the dream. Just at the 
peep of day next morning father awoke in good humor, and be- 
fore he had even got out of bed said, "boys, venison for the pot 
to-day, and a fat buck it will be, too." "Why, what are you 
talking about, Lew?" said old Coon. "We will do mighty well if 
we even reach the camp ground to-day, as bad as the roads are." 
"No difference," replied father. "\\e will have venison in the pot 
for supper and a good fat buck at that or I will never say dream 
again; for" said he, "I dreamed of cattle in the night and I am 
just sure of killing a deer when I have that dream as I am of liv- 
ing, and if I dream of cattle with horns it will be a buck, and if I 
dream of muleys it will be a doe or fawn. As the day began to 
draw to a close and several of the party, especially old Coon 
Thompson, began to give it to father about his dream, and among 
other jokes asked him if he would just as leave have squirrd for 
supper? "No." said he, "nothing but venison goes for supper 
this night, and rest assured I will have the venison for the pot by 
the time the pot is ready to boil." So just as we crossed on the 
bridge and drove up to a pretty clear space on the north bank 
and stopped, the sun was sinking behind the tree tops. "Now." 
said father, "some of you take care of the horses, others put up 
the tent and build a goo<l fire, and Sam, you go down the river 
and bring up some water and set the pot on the fire about half 
filled with water, and I will have tlie venison here when the water 
boils." So father put a fresh cap on his gun a-nd started in a 


brisk walk directly north from camp while the most of the hunters 
gave him the laugh; even Jesse Gray, himself a firm believer in 
dream and unbounded confidence in father's skill as a hunter, re- 
marked that Lew's dream would certainly fool him this time. 
But about the time the tent was raised and just as I had placed 
the pot over a bright fire in front of the tent, bang! we heard 
father's gun ring clear and sharp; every man raised to his feet 
and intently listened for our signal, which was "Tally Ho," and 
signifies "I have killed the game and need help;" but instead of 
"Tally Ho," came the no less exciting request, "bring the dogs, 
and be in a hurr>' about it; I have wounded a big buck." We had 
three as good Virginia deer hounds as ever gave tongue on a 
track, and you may be sure that every man left the task he might 
be at and started on the run for father, with the dogs. We did 
not have more than two hundred yards to go before we reached 
father, the dogs had struck the track and had the deer on the go; 
but he was a game deer and the wickedest one 1 ever saw, and 
the excitement for a few minutes was of the grandest kind, but 
came near being serious if not fatal to brother Jim. It is very 
rare indeed that a good hound will ever take hold of a deer or 
bear, and our dogs were no exception to the rule; they would 
stand and bay the buck, but when he pitched at one of them they 
would get out of his way in a hurry ; and with the dogs charging 
and retreating, it was difficult to get a dead shot at the buck for 
fear of killing a dog^ every time the deer caught sight of a hunter 
he started for him with his hair turned the wrong way, and his 
eyes blazing like two balls of fire, and that hunter had to climb a 
sapling or get a big tree between him and the buck in mighty 
short order. In the excitement, father had overlooked me 
standing there enjoying the sport without a gun or even a club, 
all unmindful of the great danger in which I was placed; when he 
discovered me he fairly screamed, "run for you life, boy, and 
climb up on that big log;" you know that for once at least I obeyed 
him wnthout grumbling, and about the time I had got safe on the 
log our best dog, in running away from the buck, had ran against 
a tree which knocked him over, and before he could recover the 
buck jumped on him with his shary hoofs and horns and was do- 
ing the poor dog up in great shape. Jim could not stand this, 
as the dog belonged to him, and was a favorite of all the party; 
so he stepped boldly forth and stood within fifteen steps of the 
deer with his gun to his shoulder ready for a shot at the first op- 
portunity. The moment the deer saw Jim, he left the dog and 
pitched at him. Jim, who was a man of ner^-e, stood like a 
statue awaiting the charge of the buck, and when the deer was 


within two jumps of him, we were all horrified to hear his gun 
snap. It was too late to retreat, so Jim dropped his gun and 
reached for his tomahawk, but before he could get it from his belt 
the enraged buck had raised on his haunches for the leap that 
would have borne Jim to the ground, and possibly ended his 
hunting adventiuxs then and there, but fortunately at this criti- 
cal moment the sharp crack of a rifle rang out and the buck fell 
dead at Jim's feet. Uncle Joe, seeing the danger in which Jim 
was placed, and realizing that something must be done, and that 
instantly, had taken a snap shot and his bullet had broken the 
buck's neck. It is needless to say that everybody was happy, 
and in much less time than it takes to record it, the deer was car- 
ried to the camp, dressed, and the big pot was boiling merrily, 
well filled with the fat ribs of the deer, while the hunters sat 
around the bright camp fire waiting impatiently for the meat to 
get done. Of course Uncle Joe was the hero of the hour, for 
making the capital and difficult shot that probably saved the life 
of brother Jim, while father raosted old Coon Thompson over 
making light of his dream. We found game so abundant that 
in less than a week we returned home to New Paris with all the 
meat and honey we could haul. 

Now for the bear hunt. When Jesse Gray was living over 
south of the Mississinewa about three or four miles, he was the 
proud possessor of just one hog, which he kept in a stout log pen 
near the house, thinking the nearness to the house would protect 
the porker from the ravages of bears and w^olves, which were 
very abundant at that time. Be it remembered hogs were hogs 
in the country, and it was not every settler that could boast of 
even one hog, so we may imagine the surprise and anger of Jesse 
when he went one morning to feed that same hogs, to find the 
pen empty and a huge bear track going to and from the pen. 
Jesse stood nuite in surprise for a moment and then he said some 
things very uncomplimentary about that bear. But Gray was a 
man of action, and his mind was soon made up. He went to the 
house and said to his wife, "get to work right away and bake n>e 
enough corn dodgers to last me at least three days." "What in 
the name of sense are you up to now, all of a sudden." said Mrs. 
(jray. "Why. an infernal bear has come and carried away our 
only hog, and I'm going after that bear if this snow don't melt 
away too soon, and I'll have that bear's hide before you see me 

It was nip and tuck, but tuck had it. 

When the old lady heard of the loss of the hog, she went to 


work with a will and by the time Jesse had his guii in the best of 
trim and a goodly supply of bullets run, she had the corn bread 
ready; Jesse, putting the bread in the sack which he slung over 
his shoulder, started on the bear's track. A good tracking snow, 
and all the water courses frozen over, very much favored the 
pursuit. The bear had started north for the Mississinewa, and 
in about a quarter of a mile from the house he found where Bruin 
had stopped and enjoyed a hearty meal off the hog, and had 
dragged the rest to one side and covered it over with leaves and 
twigs for future reference. He did not go but a mile or so until 
he started the bear, but did not see him; he increased his speed 
and was not long in giving that bear to understand that he had a 
nemesis on his track as stern and unrelenting as fate itself. 

The track led on north until it crossed the Salanionia, then 
he turned eastward and crossed the Wabash near Fort Recovery. 
By this time he was getting pretty tired and manifested a desire 
to rest by lying down in a thicket every now and then, but it was 
no go. Gray was in sight of the bear one fourth of the time and 
might have had several shots, but that was not exactly the idea 
of the hunter; his woodcraft taught him that if pursued long 
enough the bear would return for a meal off the hog. After 
crossing the Wabash he turned south, and began to show signs 
of being very tired. By this time, night was at hand, and the 
ordinary hunter would have encamped for the night, but Jesse 
Gray was no ordinary hunter; he had been raised in the woods 
and' inured to all the hardships of frontier life, and consequently 
as tough as a whale bone. So he kept Mr. Bear moving till near 
midnight, at which time he could no longer see the tracks in the 
snow, as the moon had gone down. He hunted some dry wood, 
took out his flint and steel, (matches were not thought of at that 
time) and struck a spark in some dry tow and soon had a bright 
fire. After a good square meal of corn bread, he lay down by 
the fire and was very soon enjoying natures sweet restorer, balmy 
sleep. At the peep o' day. Gray was up and away on the track, 
not even taking time to eat his lunch, but attended to that affair 
as he followed the animal he was bent on destroymg. The bear 
had not gone but a short distance until he, too, tumbled down in 
a tree top for a much needed rest; but on the approach of Gray he 
got up, but was so terribly stiff and sore that he showed signs of 
fight, and Jesse could have killed him then and there, but that 
was too far from home. Jesse seeing he had the bear at his 
mercy, concluded to drive him right back if possible to the spot 
where he had killed the hog, and there take his sweet revenge. 
He threw a club at the bear, which had the desired effect and 


Started him off in a slow and sullen walk ; for awhile Gray was in 
sight of the game all the time, but as bruin began to warm up, 
his stiffened muscles relaxed, he began to get up a rate of speed 
that astonished Jesse, and he began to think perhaps he had mis- 
calculated the nedurance of the bear and possibly lost his oppor- 
tunity. This caused him to accelerate his own speed, and for 
several miles it was nip and tuch, but tuck was the winner, and 
Jesse soon had the pleasure of again being in sight of his hated 
enemy. The chase led across. the Mississinewa to the south, and 
again back and across the river to the north, then he turned 
down the river in exactly the course Gray wished him to go. 
When he got down about two miles above where Ridgeville now 
stands, he crossed the river again, going almost straight for 
Gray's home, and he thought he would have the pleasure of kill- 
ing the bear right at home; but Jesse himself was beginning to 
weaken, and the bear would turn and growl and show fight 
frequently, and as it was getting near sunset, and he was only two 
miles or less from home, he concluded to bring the hunt to a 
close, so he sat down on a log to rest for a moment and the bear 
dropped over in a tree top and in a minute was sleeping his last 
sleep. Gray walked up to within twenty feet of the bear and tak- 
ing good sight for the bruin, fired, and bruin was done hog steal- 
ing. He was an immense bear, weighing fully five hundred 
pounds. Jesse took off the animal's hide, and after hanging the 
carcass up out of the way of wolves, he reached home just at 
dark, the most exhausted he every was in his life, and almost as 
w^ell satisfied as if he had wiped out an Indian. The meat of the 
bear he sent down the river on a flat boat, where it brough him 
$20, and the hide was sold to an Indian trader at Richmond for 
$10, making in all $30 for his two day's hunt; enough, he said to 
buy him twenty hogs better than the one taken by the bear; "be- 
sides," said the old man, *'the satisfaction of kilHng that b'ar was 
worth more than the money." 

As tiiis is probably the last time our hero, Jesse Gray, will 
appear in the Reminiscences, I will here state the last time I 
heard the old man speak of his thrilling experiences with the red 
men, he seemed to regret that he had been so liard on them, al- 
though the provocation had been great. He had become quite 
a zealous Christian, (Methodist. I believe) and probably felt that 
"Vcngenace is mine, saith the Lord,'" and if his eventful life was 
to be led over, he would leave vengeance to the Lord. The grand 
old man, hero, hunter and Indian slayer died in Noble Township, 
Jay County, Indiana, at the advanced age of four score, in 1872, 
and was buried in tlie cemetery at Camden, Jay County, Indiana, 
where a decent monument should mark his last resting place. 


Among the pioneer hunters of the Mississinewa was Tom 
Shaler. I remember of his telling how difficult it was to get 
ammunition, especially lead; so very craeful was he of the lead 
that he would not shoot a deer until he got the deer directly be- 
tween him and a big tree, so that if the ball passed through the 
deer it would lodge in the tree, where the hunter would cut it out 
and mold it into a bullet again. I have had pointed out to me 
near Camden, a large oak tree with two notches cut out where 
Shaler shot two deer on the same day and saved both bullets. 
This sounds funny to us now, but Grandmother Ward has often 
told me about the squirrels being so destructive on the com, and 
lead being scarce and costly, that she would put a small grain of 
corn or a bean in the bullet molds and run the lead in around it, 
thereby saving one-half or two-thirds of the lead. 

In our next chapter we will tell about the flat boats that were 
built on the south side of the river just between the wagon and 
railroad bridges, and there loaded and sent down the river and 
the produce bartered for such goods as the settlers needed in 
those days. It will be news to some of my younger readers to 
know that the Mississinewa was at one time declared navigable 
as far up as Ward's crossing, now Ridgeville. 

A ship in distress is a wonderful sight, 
It is worse thau two armies a goin' to fight 
For a soldier can throw down his gun and run, 
While a seaman must submit to a watery tomb. 

— Burlesque on Raging Canal. 
As said in the last chapter, the Misissinewa was at one time 
a navigable river as far up as Ridgeville, at times Ward's crossing. 
As strange as it may seem now, good sized flat boats were built 
here, and the amount of different kinds of produce one of these 
boats would carry, is simply marvelous. Sometimes a whole ^ 
fleet of these boats were built and anchored at the same time. 
The building of the flat boat was an art that was possessed by a 
very few. Among the chief of the builders, I have been in- 
formed, were Grandfather Joab Ward, Arthur McKew and John 
Sumption, father of Malon Sumption, president of the Ridgeville 
bank at this time. Of course there were many others that worked 
on the boat building and as the boat was built bottom side up, it 
required the whole settlement to turn one over. The turning of 
a boat was a holiday, and the feats of strength performed on 
these occasions would astonish the athletic of to-da>y. No block 
and tackle, jack screws, derricks, steam hoisting machines, were 
known, but every man put his shoulder to the wheel, or rather the 


boat, and over she went. One boat in the fleet, at least, haa a 
cabin, built about the center, in which the cooking done. 

In the meantime, while the boat was building, the produce 
with which it was to be loaded was being collected and stored in 
a ware house built near where the G. R. & I. water tank now 
stands. The basement was an excellent place to store fruit, 
butter, pork, honey, etc., while the upper story, built of hewed 
logs, was used for storing furs, pelts, dried fruits and such articles 
as had to be kept dry. The ware house was built and owned by 
Joab Ward, and was a great convenience to the settlers wishing 
to ship goods down the raging Mississinewa, and even unto this 
day, my mouth waters to think of the big bellflowers and rambos 
that Joel and I used to purloin from that cellar. 

After the boat was built and the produce all to be loaded 
there was another very essential requisite for a successful voyage, 
and the time for this was somewhat uncertain. It sometimes 
occurred almost every month in the year, and at other times it 
might be almost a year without occurring at all. This much de- 
sired event was a freshet or high water, for be it known the path- 
way of the navigator was strewn with many dangerous obstruc- 
tions ; if the water was not high enough his boat was liable to run 
square into a big rock that would be concealed just a few inches 
beneath the surface. If the boat happened to be in a ripple and 
going at high speed, it was liabel to stave a hole in it and cause 
it to sink, or, as sometimes happened, the boat would be so 
firmly lodged on the rock that it had to remain there until there 
came higher water and floated it ofif; or, they might unload it, 
and thus lightened, would free itself, and be reloaded and another 
start made. But this process required so much work it was only 
resorted to when all else failed. 

One of the early settlers tells me of a fleet of twelve boats 
that were built here and loaded with charcoal, and in addition to 
the coal, the firm of Edger & Co., of Deerfield, had on one of the 
boats several hundred dollars worth of furs. The boats had been 
built of green timber, and by inexperienced workmen, and the 
consequence was that when they were launched they were almost 
ready to sink of their own weight. By careful handling the 
most of them got down as far as the McKinney dam. now Fair- 
view. When the big. or family boat, reached the dam it was a 
question whether or no it would ride the dam with safety. Two 
or three of the most experienced sailors volunteered to make the 
attempt to shoot the dam. When all was ready they put the 
boat in the swiftest current, and the water was the deepest on the 
dam; they put on all the steam (the steam was stored in a jijg in 


the pilot house- and let her go. The attempt was a "dam" fail- 
ure. Tlie boat ran about one-third over the dam and there 
stopped, and no power possessed by the crew could budge it an 
inch. After remaining there several days and when every plan 
to get off failed, it was finally abandoned. The goods were un- 
loaded on shore by means of canoes, and Edger & Co. were com- 
pelled to take their furs back to Deerfield and wait for another 
and better fleet of boats. While the other boats were strung 
along the river from the starting point to the jMcKinney dam, 
some sank to the bottom and were seen no more until the water 
went down later in the summer; while others were run to the 
shore and there left, and all the blacksmiths in the country had 
<:harcoal for two or three years just for the hauling. After the 
coal was unloaded, the boats were taken away by the settlers, 
and hog pens were made of them. It is useless to say that the 
charcoal merchant was forced to the wall with liabilities up in 
the hundreds, and assets, nix. In other words, he was badly 
broken up and left the country in disgust. 

No, his name on the note is not sufficient; it used to be, but 
I have noticed that when a man sells a good farm and goes into 
mercantile business, and lets others sell his goods on commission, 
he is about sure to come to grief. — Uncle Jimmie Moorman. 

As the country was cleared up and ditches cut so the water 
could run ofT, the Mississinewa came to an end. Besides the 
roads were getting so the trip could be made with wagons, and 
the salt, ammunition, etc., that the settlers were obliged to have, 
were brought from Richmond, Picjua and other points within 

At this time there were no bridges or foot logs across the 
river, which necessitated each settler keeping a canoe or dugout, 
and it would astonish the professional oarsman of to-day to see 
how one of the old settlers, with only a single paddle could run 
across or up and down the swiftest current. 

The canoe business often led up to quarrels among the set- 
tlers. Unfortunately people quarreled and took the advantage 
of each other very much as they do to-day. and probably will until 
Gabriel blows his trumpet. Among some of the rather eccentric 
characters of the early times were Edward AIcKew, who lived 
on the farm now owned by Mrs. Elmira McKew. and Ezekiel 
Roe, who lived on the farm now belonging to our old friend Joe 
Nicholson. It so happened that Roe had a canoe which he prized 
very highly, for it had many a time and oft carried hrm and his 
friends across the raging river when miles would have had to been 


traveled to cross in any other way. So Zeke's rage may be 
imagined when one morning he went down the river to cross 
and found his canoe spHt into smithereens. Of course somebody 
done it, and as he and McKew were not on the best of terms, he 
at once jumped to the conclusion that the vandal was Edward 
^McKcAv. It is said that when Zeke would accuse Edward in the 
presence of witness, Edward would deny it in the most emphatic 
language, but when they were alorke old Edward would say, "of 
course I split your d — d old canoe, but you can't prove it, and I 
would like to see you help yourself." The story goes that when 
they would meet in a crowd, Zeke would say, "Old Edward Mc- 
Kew, you split my canoe," and McKew would reply, "Old Zekiel 
Roe, how do you know." They finally went to law over the 
trouble and it cost almost a farm to each, and then wound up by 
a terrible hard fist fight in Winchester, in which the honors were 
about even, according to some of my informants, and others say 
that both were the victors, according to their individual prefer- 

It is no wonder these early settlers had their quarrels and 
difificulties when we reflect that the stock were allowed to run at 
large, and the fences were of the poorest kind, and when stcok 
(lid break in there was no justice of the peace handy like there is 
to-day. Aniother fruitful source of trouble was the trapping of 
furs. The traps would be robbed, and somebody was sure to be 
accused of it. One man would find a bee tree and place his mark 
on it, and when he went to cut the tree and get the honey, he 
would find that somebody had been there and cut his tree and 
secured possibly a barrel of honey. In fact, there was a thousand 
things for the early settlers to quarrel about that do not exist to- 
day. One of the incidents of the time we write about occurred 
between Joab Ward and Ben Llewellyn. The two men had been 
rather bitter toward each other for some time, and of course there 
were busy bodies to carry threats from one to the other, until 
things began to look serious, as both men were known to possess 
enough of the backwoods grit to make it interesting if the came 
together. It so fell that one day these two men met in the woods 
over south of the River Side school house. Each had his ever 
ready and trusty rifle with him, and it was almost out of the ques- 
tion to avoid a more or less fatal meeting, so after discussing their 
differences and coming to no amicable understanding, Joab 
stepped over to Ben and, raising the cap that covers the powder 
in the pan of the flint lock, told Ben to observe that the powder 
was perfectly dry, and there was wo danger of the gun missing 
fire. With this somewhat pointed observation, they each turned 


and went their way, in the meantime keeping' his eye on the other 
until they were out of sight and gun shot. 

Joab told of a close call he had from a source he little ex- 
pected. My readers will remember a pond and thicket just a few- 
rods this side of the house occupied at present by Date Simmons. 
In that pond a man had concealed himself as a hired assassin, to 
shoot Joab as he was returning on horseback from Richmond, 
where he had been to mill. He lay there in wait with his rifle 
resting on a log, and when Joab came riding along all unsuspect- 
ing of danger and feeling glad that his trip would soon be at an 
end and his family supplied with bread, which was an item at that 
early day, the assassin drew a bead on Joab and his finger lightly 
pressed the trigger, but when, in after years, he was relating the 
incident and Joab asked him why he did not fire, he said, "My 
heart failed me when I thought of the many kind acts of yours, 
and the times I had partaken of your hospitality, and when I tried 
to press the trigger my finger refused to move." He told grand- 
father who had hired him to do the dirty work, but as all the 
actors in that almost tragedy have long passed from the stage I 
will not name them. 

One of the amusing incidents connected with the flat boating 
I will relate as a finale of boating on the Mississinewa. A gentle- 
man had fitted up a boat and loaded it with a cargo of venison, 
hams, honey, corn, dried fruits, furs, pelts, etc., and started it 
down the river consigned to a commission merchant at Attica, on 
the Wabash canal. He expected the load to bring enough to 
pay for 160 acres of land which he expected to enter when he re- 
ceived the money for his cargo. He waited and waited to hear 
from the commission merchant, and as no news came he wrote 
the merchant to know if the goods were sold, and if not, why not. 
After he had waited until his patience was nearly exhausted he 
received word that the goods were sold, and the following bill, 
the merchant informed him, would be deducted for his trouble : 

Storage $25.00 

Drayage 20.00 

Boata^e 30.00 

Shrinkage 15.00 

Commissionage 40.00 

Total $130.00 

This left the shiper abpout sixty dollars for his load. He 
sat down and sent the merchant the following reply: "You d — d 
infernel villain, put in stealage and keep it all." 

Truly yours. SAM GIXGER. 



Airs. Lynch : — On receipt of your letter asking me to write 
a short, concise history of this part of Randolph County or of 
what came under my own personal observation and other an- 
theuticated transactions of which I my know about in the early 
settlement and anectdotes and doings of the pioneers, I hardly 
felt myself capable of doing the subject justice. Thousands of 
those men and women wdio braved the trials of pioneer life have 
passed on to the other, and let us hope, the better life; their stories 
are untold and unsung by this generation of people, and where 
was once heard the ax of the frontiersman as he felled the mighty 
trees, the melodies of the modern musical instruments is wafted 
over well kept lawns and fertile fields, fine carriages, phaetons, 
and surrays have taken the place of the mud boat, cart and 
wagons, as in early times these were the vehicles used to go visit- 
ing and trading and, yes, to funerals. 

What a change has taken place since that time. Those 
piooneers are gone; the wild beasts of the forest that they fought 
are gone; the game that they hunted to supply their tables are 
gone; the waist land for which they had no use has been sirb- 
dued and is now yielding the golden grain, and finds a market a 
thousand miles from where it was grown, quicker than they could 
market it six miles in those early days. Then it could only be 
taken to market during the summer or in the frozen winter. 

Their wants were few, but at times they were hard to obtain. 
In their rude cabins they were happy with their axes and trusty 
guns, surrounded by wife and children. He was a monarch of 
his domain. Do not think for a moment sorrow and trouble 
never came to those people; with the country reeking with 
nuiasing swamps, sometimes whole families would be stricken 
with chills and fever, or better known in those days as ague. 
Xoble men and women laid down their lives in the terrible strug- 
gle to subdue the fair state of Indiana from the terrible wilderness 
when thev first came to it. 


Everything they had to sell was cheap; everything they had 
to buy was dear. A few prices will not be amiss at this place: 
Eggs, 3 cents per dozen; corn, 123/2 cents per bushel; wheat, 40 
cents, marketed in Piqua, Ohio, mostly; salt, $3.00 per barrel; 
calico, 25 cents per yard; common casinet, $1.25 per yard; shirt- 
ing, 25 cents; New Orleans sugar, 123/2 cents per pound; labor, 
25 to 50 cents per day from sun-up until sun-down. 

j\Iy father moved his family from Cincinnati to Randolph 
County in 1832, and on Easter morning went over to the grocery 
to buy some eggs, and as baskets were scarce, he picked up a 
half bushel one and started for the eggs. Arriving at the grocery 
he told the proprietor to give him a quarters worth of eggs, hand- 
ing him the basket. Soon he came out of the little ware room, 
the basket full of eggs and asked father if he anything to put the 
rest of the quarters worth in. Explanations were made, matters 
adjusted, and he went home with a basket full of eggs and some 
change. I have seen no better eggs sold at 50 cents per dozen. 
What a change. 

These were good Democratic days; we heard no talk about 
greenbacks nor silver certificates; nothing but gold, silver and 
wild cat bank money. When a man got fifty miles from home 
with the paper money he was obliged to keep it or have it dis^- 
counted. A hundred dollars in the morning was apt not to be 
worth a hundred cents in the evening; but these were good Demo- 
cratic times and the people did not complain. In these good 
times postage on a letter was twenty-five cents, payable on de- 
livery. I have known letters to lay in the postoffice two weeks 
because the man to whom it was addressed did not have the 
tw^enty-five cents to pay the postage ; he then borrowed the quar- 
ter from the clerk of the court, and it was eight months before 
he could pay the money back. Oh, those were splendid times! 

There was one consolation that always filled the hearts of the 
pioneers with joy, and that was that when they got a patch of 
ground cleared ofT. It would produce an abundance of every- 
thing they planted. There was one old gentleman, Mr. James 
Forsythe, who always raised a large quantity of water melons. 
On one occasion a young man, a neighbor's) son, who lived about 
three miles away, called on Mr. Forsythe. When ready to return 
home Forsythe told him he could take some melons home with 
him. He filled up a three bushel tow linnen sack and loaned the 
young man a blind horse on which to carry his melons home. 
The horse was named Dragon. He was told that when he came 
to a log all he had to do was jerk the bridle rein gently and say, 
"over Dragon," and the horse would do the rest. So on coming 


to a log that laid across the path he jerked the rein and gave the 
word, but all too soon, for the horse lit on top of the log and fell 
about twenty feet on the other side, spilling the boy and bursting 
the melons at the same time. Fortunately the boy was not hurt, 
and regaining his feet he placed his hands on his hips and was 
surveying the wreck in silent meditation. Soon finding his voice 
he merely remarked, "that was one h — 1 of an over.' ' 

In early times in this county there were many wild animals 
that was a menace to the flocks of the early settlers, such as 
wolves, wildcats, panthers and some bear. My father, on one 
occasion, went out to try his hand killing bear. He carried a 
rifle and a double barreled shot gun which was loaded with buck 
shot. When he got about a mile from home he went up to the 
west side of a cat-tail pond, and climbing up on a lodged tree near 
the edge of the pond and getting a position that gave him a com- 
manding view , he set up a hallowing which started two bears out 
of the pond on the opposite side. He discharge all his artillery 
at their retreating forms, but got no bear. The old gentleman 
says he thinks they are running yet, as that was what they were 
doing when he last saw them. There were many deer and tur- 
keys throughout all the country. I was born in 1837, and I re- 
member to have seen bear tracks in the snow, and treid hard to 
shoot deer, and have killed several wild turkeys north of Win- 
chester. It was practically an unbroken forest as far as Fort 
Wayne. Throughout Jay, Wells and Adams Counties for long 
years hoop poles and coon skins were a legal tender for all 
debts, public and private, except taxes and marriage licenses, 
which had to be paid in gold and silver. The politics of those 
counties was mostly Democratic, and there was a story I heard 
in my younger days, that every Sunday morning the people had 
to catch their children with dogs to put their clean clothes on. I 
always thought that was a lie, and feel free to say at this time that 
I am yet of that opinion, although Mr. Lynch has told me 
some things that leads me to believe that there was was some 
truth in the hoop pole and coon skin stories. 

Of the old residents of this township (White River), and 
more especially in what was called the Salt creek and Sugar creek 
neighborhood, they are nearly all gone; and in some instances 
every one in tiie family liave passed away to the other side of life. 
Some of the children of those pioneers faced the stern realities of 
life on the sanguine battle fields. Many of my school mates of 
1844, 1845, 1846 and 1847 and later years now sleep the sleep 
that comes to the soldiers far away from the home of their chil- 
dren. Some of their bones are bleaching on the bottom of the 


Gulf of Mexico ; others lie beneath the waters of the turbid Mis- 
sissippi river; one I assisted to bury on a noil in the woods above 
Memphis, Tenn. They were children of men and women that 
conquered the towering forests and provided happy homes in 
their younger days for those that in time yielded up their lives to 
pereptuate those home, to fall in defence of that flag that in early 
life they were taught to honor and respect. Many returned 
home again after the struggle, wounded and broken in health 
and have fallen in the race of life. Doubtless some are hurried 
in the cemetery which you are proposing to fence by the proceeds 
of the sale of this little book. Let us hope that if for no other 
reason the generous and patriotic people to whom it may be of- 
fered will gladly and willingly respond and that you will be suc- 
cessful in your efforts ; that it may be said that no grave of a man 
who fought for his home, his country, his flag, shall be turned out 
to the commons, that the horses of the husbandman shall trample 
them, nor brouse above their mouldering ashes. 


Winchester, Ind. 



John C. Meier, son of Lorenz and Barbara Meier, was born 
in Gesees, near Bayrenth, Bavaria, Germany. His father died 
November 9th, 1881, and his mother in 1892. He received a good 
common school education, after which he assisted his father in 
farm work until he was 18 years old, when he learned wagon 
making. On April 9th, 1870, he bid adue to his native home; 
on the 13th he boarded the fated steamer "Cimbria;" on the 27th 
he landed in New York city; on May 4th he arrived at Cincinnati, 
where he soon found employment at his trade. In 1871 he con- 
cluded to learn the baker's trade, of which he made a success. 
In 1873 he came to Winchester at the request of Mr. Mander- 
bach, for whom he worked five years. In 1874 he married Miss 
C. E. Keller, daughter of G. G. Keller. J\Iiss Keller received 
her education in short winter and subscription terms of school. 
She also attended the seminary under Prof. Ferris. Mr. and 
Mrs. Meier had ten children, Alice J., Lorenz G., Bertha C. (died 
October 7th, 1894) twins died in infancy, Hugo H., Edwin J., 
Alma A., Irene L. and Clifford S. 

In 1878 Mr. Meier moved to Union City, Ind., where he 
started a bakery, which he carried on very successfully for three 
years. At this time his father-in-law, Mr. G. G. Kelley, who 
kept a grocery under the firm name of Keller & Son., wished to 
retire from business and offered his place to Mr. Meier, which he 
accepted, and for this purpose removed to Winchester. After 
January ist, 1881, the business was carried on under the firm 
URme of Keller & Meier. Mr. Meier not being contented with 
his trade soon added a bakery to the already rosperous business. 
In March, 1887. the bakery was destroyed' by fire, but was im- 
mediately rebuilt and the baking capacity enlarged. The firm 
continued successfully until the end of 1892, when G. W. Keller 
retired, Mr. Meier taking sole charge and continuing the same, 
assisted by his children. On the 13th of May, 1887, Mr. Meier 
left here for a visit to his aged mother and two brothers. He re- 
turned in three months, content to spend the remainder of life in 
this land of liberty and plenty. 


Mr, Meier is prominent among fraternal orders. He was 
instrumental in instituting the I. O. R. M. in this place on Janu- 
ary 28th, 1894. He has passed through all the offices of the or- 
der. He has also held important state offices, and now is United 
States representative of the Hay Makers' association. He has 
also filled all the offices of the K. of P's, has also been state repre- 
sentative of the same order. He is also a member of the I. O. O. 
F. Mr. Meier has filled the office of vice president, and is now 
one of the directors of the Winchester Home and Savings asso- 
ciation. Although not a church member, Mr. Meier has con- 
tributed to the various churches which have been erected during 
his residence here. 

In politics Mr. Meier is a Democrat, of which he is an en- 
thusiastic and valued member. 






(By Elijah Peacock.) 

Time, Oh, how swiftly it is passing, 
Swiftly passing aw^ay. 
Carrying down its thousands 
In its currents to the grave, 
And I know not day nor hour. 
Or the midnight cry may come 
And summon me to judgment 
From my family and my home, 
And the messenger will not await 
A preparation long. 
But may hurry its victims suddenly, 
Like the sounding of a gong. 
Its been upon my mind of late 
To pen a few thoughts down 
About my loving parents, dear. 
Who lived in days of old renown; 
But the task I feel incompetent 
Their history to adorn, 
For many things of note transpired 
Long before that I was born; 
But much I have heard them speak about 
That's yet in memory clear, 
And by us children now that's left, 
Is held in reverence dear. 
In North Carolina's sunny clime. 
In seventeen ninety-three, 
The year that mother there was bom. 
As in her Bible seen; 
In seventeen hundred and eighty-seven 
My father too was born; 
Of honest parents came they of. 
Lived near each other's farm; 
They grew up as children often do, 
They knew each other well, 
And in their childhood days they learned 


To read and write and spell; 

But little education then 

Was enough for common lore, 

But father had a little more 

Than was usual held in store, 

And rude was all their equipments then, 

How happy, too, they were, 

And coarse their garments and their food, 

Yet 'twas their daily fare; 

But hale and hearty they grew up 

To manhood and womanhood. 

They feared not neither heat nor cold. 

Nor work in field or wood ; 

The sound of ax and maul then fell 

Like music in their ears. 

And cares and labors shared alike 

Unto maturer years. 

But now the time had fully come 

When they took each other's hand. 
And, according to the rules of Friends, 
Were joined in holy bands. 

Near eighteen hundred and tw^elve was this, 

The day I ha vent got. 

And little in this it seemed 

Had fallen to their lot ; 

But contentment was their greatest gain 

While in that sunny clime, 

Until a little was saved up 

By frugal care in time. 

But little now I know of them 

By history at command. 

Until ther}^'re found in readiness 

For a journey to Northern lands. 

To Indiana's fertile state 

In wagons wend their way, 

With few relations in their band 

They journeyed many a day, 

'Till they came to Richmond, a little towr 

On White Water — rugged stream. 

The date, as near as I can find. 

Was eighteen hundred and eighteen. 

There one crop it seems they raised 

And then were Northern bound, 

To the wild, dense forest of Randolph, 



Where their relatives were found. 

In Wayne township and county named, 

In section thirty-one, 

In range fifteen, a cabin was built, 

And here their home begun ; 

This, too, was of the rudest kind, 

No lumber near was bought ; 

But what their ax and maul and wedge. 

And fro had fitted out; 

But rough constructed as it was 

In it content to dwell, 

And soon, before their willing hands. 

The mighty forest fell. 

Still in the wilds and by the streams 

The Indian wigwam found, 

And by their dreadful warhoop 

Once made the woods resound; 

And often to their cabin door 

Those forest children came 

And shared with them their frugal meal: 

They turned none empty away. 

Though hardships often were their lot, 

And scanty their means; 

They labored hard and faltered not 

In the mighty wooden green. 

And the roaring of the heavy winds 

Through the tree tops standing nigh. 

Or the howling of the wolves 

Oft their nightly lullaby. 

And often in a needed time 

They were supplied with game. 

And ever and anon it fell 

Before the flint-lock's deadly aim; 

And many a deer and turkey, too. 

Their life blood stained the ground, 

And plenteous in those early days 

The forest did abound ; 

Thus in the absence of the tame 

The wild meat did supply; 

Above the cabin's wide fire place 

It often hung to dry. 

Rude was their furniture here too. 

Made mostly by hands 

With the few and very simple tools 


They had at their command. 

Thus labored they for many years, 

And heart and hand 'tis true, 

While both the family and the farm 

It large, larger grew, 

Until the cabin was too small 

For comfort there to dwell; 

And soon another house was built — 

For it large trees were felled, 

Both sides were hew^n — a heavy task — 

But this they did not mind ; 

The neighbors then were gathered in. 

Who were so very kind, 

And one by one these heavy logs 

Were placed by willing hands ; 

Two stories high were this reared up 

By the faithful little band; 

A smaller kitchen on the west 

With double chimney between 

Formed a commodious spacious house 

As seldom there was seen. 

Here, too, it was commenced my life 

In eighteen thirty-one, 

With brother Elisha — twin with me — 

And here my memory began; 

Here, too, I'll pause enough to say 

Nine children to them were born; 

One girl, two boys were called away 

In life's right early morn ; 

Two sons yet, at mature age, 

Obey death's surest call. 

Two sons, two daughters yet are left, 

I, the youngest of them all; 

But onward I must press with this — 

No time nor space for all — 

But most my subjects have to end 

With a short and hasty call. 

In each house was a wide fireplace. 

So common in those days. 

Upon its broad commodious hearth 

The cheerful fire blazed. 

By these the cooking then was done. 

No stoves were here in use, 

And simple were the vessels, too — 


Their memory I cannot loose. 

The frying pan with handle long, 

And skillet large and wide, 

And oven where the corn-pones baked 

By the fireplace's side; 

Here to the mantle by a string 

The spare rib hung to roast, 

So sweet and nice when it was done 

That of it kings might boast. 

The "reflector" then was brought in use 

And baked the bread so nice; 

It set in front of the blazing fire — 

The heat it would suffice. 

Within the kitchen wide fireplace 

The iron crane was swung; 

On it with proper iron hooks 

The dinner pot was hung, 

And here was boiled and cook so well 

The mush and meat and beans, 

And hominy, that heathful food; 

In summer time the "greens." 

I seem to almost hear it seeth 

With pot-pie loaded down; 

Of all, it was at least with me, 

"Peach cobbler" took the crown. 

This lucious fruit was in those days 

Most penteous to be found, 

And often in the fall of year 

Lay rotting on the ground. 

Fast to the kitchen's western wall 

By where the table stood 

Was ever found the old "dough-break" 

Used to knead the dough for bread. 

And underneath the old stairway 

The hominy mortars found. 

And by the firelight's cheerful blaze 

Its pestle oft resound. 

To beat the husks from ofif the grains 

Was quite laborous work, 

Of which, with me as one at least, 

Sometimes inclined to shirk. 

This was one of our staple food. 

Used in the winter time, 


Which gave us health and vigor, too, 

Hard labor to perform. 

And yet I almost seem to hear 

The hum of the spinning wheel 

Which mother and the girls oft pUed, 

Also the clack of the reel, 

Which was so common in those days. 

On long, long winter nights 

By the "high trucks'' ever briUiant blaze, 

Or the candle's glimmering light. 

The huge old loom that father made, 

. Long in the kitchen stood 
Where ever and anon was wove 
Our usual wearing goods. 
The same hand, too, that thus prepared 
Our clothing, cut and made 
From threads of little spinning wheel 
By mother's feet was sped. 
The old distaff of dogwood bough 
On which the flax was wound, 
And hour after hour its flyers 
Gave forth its humming sound; 
And in the springtime in the yard, 
Or some convenient place was found, 
Long webs of strongest linen cloth 
Lay bleaching on the ground. 
Thus far have I some items gave 
Of the housework then performed 
By faithful mother and the girls 
The old home then adorned. 
How valiant was the housewife then — 
How trusty and how true — 
A tribute to their memory 
I ever think is due. 
And now I turn to outdoor work — 
The farming past I mean — 
Where father's ever ready hand 
Made most of the implements seen. 

The old bar-share with wooden mould 

Long traced the furrows through; 

Each field, however long or short, 

It turned the soil when new, 

And still was used when I was young. 

Though many years have flown 


Since first the virgin soil it broke, 

But large the crops were grown. 

The cast plow then was introduced, 

Which was of great renown; 

Though ill-shaped as compared with now, 

The soil turned upside down ; 

The old bar-share still kept in use — 

I followed it many a day — 

And dropped the corn right in the cross 

Where it had passed both ways; 

And then to tend the corn 'twas used, 

Three furrows between each row, 

To clear the weeds from out the hill 

We used to ply the hoe. 

And when the wheat was fully ripened. 

With the sickles in their hands 

To the fields was seen a-marching 

Every able boy and man. 

Though the work was slow and tedious, 

And in the midst of burning sun, 

Yet they went on still unflinching 

'Till the field was fully done. 

Then soon followed in its wake 

The making of the hay; 

Here father with his ready scythe 

Mostly led the way. 

No horse was used for raking up. 

But all was done by hand. 

With wooden pitchfork and small rake — 

All we had at our command. 

When fully cured 'twas placed in cocks. 

When the weather was nice and warm; 

With rope and pole and horse attached 

'Twas dragged into the barn. 

So far have I somewhat described 
Their modes of work 'tis true. 
This generation for to show, 
The hardships they passed through. 
That they may prize their privilege. 
That they may now enjoy. 
Above that in those early days, 
So much labor did enjoy. 
Notwithstanding all of this 


My parents prospered well, 

In basket and in store were blessed, 

In peace and love to dwell. 

And here I'll pause awhile and say 

The profession, they did adorn. 

Was of the society of Friends, 

Members of which they were born. 

Elders were they in high esteem 

And faithful did they serve, 

Neither to the right nor left 

Could they be made to swerve. 

Though few their words "twas easy told 

By action more than they 

Their Master's) voice they often heard 

And willingly obeyed. 

How devoted were they in the truth 

As owned and believed by Friends. 

The poor and needy had them lent 

Their ready helping hand. 

Mounted upon their favorite steeds 

To meeting usually went, 

Neither heat nor cold nor storms of rain 

This duty seldom prevent, 

To White River and Dunkirk 

And Cherry Grove they rode 

And Richmond and Newgarden, too, 

Took the patient beasts their load. 

:|= * * * * * * 

But I must haste along with this 

Already growing long 

In which the truth I want to tell. 

And no one ere to wrong. 

Years rolled on and with it came 

Improvements thick and fast, 

And I and Elisha larger grew. 

It lightens much the task, 

For now the family had married and gone, 

Save us two boys alone, 

With Father and Mother all that's left 

At our old ancient home. 

And age was creaping slowly on. 

Their cheeks were much care-worn, 

By the hardships they'd passed through, 

And we was nearly grown. 


But He who rules and reigns above 

And doeth all thing's well, 

Saw best to take our father away, 

No longer here to dwell. 

No longer to enjoy their home, 

Nor the dear ones here he loved. 

To join the hosts above, 

In eighteen fifty, seventh month. 

The twenty-fourth the day, 

We all were summoned to the bed, 

No longer could he stay. 

Oh, how affecting was the scene. 

Those loving ones to part, 

So long had together dwelt, 

Joined truly as one heart, 

Each others burdens long had borne. 

In joy, sorrow and toil, 

No earthly power had yet availed, 

Those kindred ties to foil. 

They embraced each other in their arms 

In the dearest bonds of love. 

Lit by the "well-spring" from on high 

That's gentle like a dove. 

And peacefully he passed away, 

We hope he's gone to rest, 

With all the ransomed and redeemed 

To the home where all are blessed. 

The heart that ever beat so warm 

Zions mission to fulfill, 

} Ceased its pulsations here on earth 

V And was forever still. 

But, Oh! we missed at our home 

His council and cheering words. 

So much for which he was noted for, 

No more could now be heard. 

So did the meeting feel his loss 

Where he long sat at the head 

And served it there so faithfully, 

In business rather led. 

In which transaction far excelled 

Most of the members here, 

And readily he sake his mind 

In meekness, love and fear. 

But heavilv did mother feel 


The stroke upon her fall, 

And patiently she did submit 

To the blessed Master's call. 

She knew the promise He'd fulfill 

To those His will had done, 

A father to the fatherless, 

And a husband to the widow ones. 

The few years now that did elapse 

We three lived there alone, 

Until I married and moved away 

To a home that was my own. 

And faithful Elisha stayed with her, 

And provided with tender care 

The comforts that she needed here, 

No pains he seemed to spare. 

lit * * * * * 

Near a dozen years had rolled away, 

Disease had seized her frame, 

So severe and painful as it was, 

She almost helpless came; 

Yet more afflictions lay in store. 

For in eighteen sixty-five 

Elisha, too, was stricken down, 

But few days did survive. 

While yet upon the cooling board, 

She tottered to his side, 

Bent over his lifeless form and said: 

"He was an obedient child." 

Heavy, heavy did we feel 

The stroke upon us fall, 

And to our aged, feeble mother 

More than any one, or all. 

But He who rules and reigns above, 

Her hopes were on Him stayed, 

She knew would lend a helping hand, 

Deep waters yet to wade. 

To leave her dear old ancient home 

No little trial it seemed, 

And neighbors, and her loving friends. 

Long held in high esteem. 

Her choice it seemed was now to go 

To sister Anna's home, 

Not far from twenty miles away. 

Near a place called Poplar Run. 


But meek and quiet this was done — 

She saw them never more, 

For soon it was destined that she 

Should leave-this world of woe. 

With willing hands and tender care 

They watched her while she lived, 

The needed comforts here to add 

They most cheerfully would give. 

Once on a visit when I came 

Dear Anna Hobbs was there, 

Who many years had fed the flocks 

With deep and earnest care. 

Her tender voice I often heard 

In broken accents plead 

To turn our minds more unto Christ, 

His inward voice to heed. 

But, Oh! how solemn was the scene 

For those aged pilgrims to part, 

No more to meet on earth again, 

Sank deep into our hearts. 

Ever modest was their apparel. 

Unspotted of the world. 

Just waiting their blessed Master's call, 

Whose banner they'd long unfurled. 

Not long did mother have to wait — 

Her longed for message came 

To relieve her of her stififering here. 

She patiently bore in His name. 

In eighteen sixty-seven it was 

And ninth month, eighth the day, 

As though one fallen into sleep 

She quietly passed away. 

A heavenly smile it seemed remained 

Long shone upon her face. 

The Master's image did reflect 

Through His ever blessed grace. 

But a secret joy sprang upward. 

Rose above all sorrow and grief. 

That she was gathered a ripened shock, 

Jjringing with her many a shief. 

Side by side in yonder graveyard 

Were their bodies laid to rest, 

Some modest grave stones at their heads 

Dates their birth and age of death. 





UNION CITY, Ind., June 8, 8196. 

Mrs. M. C. Lyncli: — Your postal requesting- me to write 
something for your forthcoming book came to hand this after- 
noon, and I write some of the antics, some of the historical facts, 
some of the crosses, some of the losses, some of the escapes from 
dangerous accidents, some of the toils of a hard fate in life, some 
of the trials of a back-woodsman's struggle for existence in the 
real battle for success on earth, some of the exciting scenes of my 
life while fighting for my country upon the hard fought battle 
fields, of two wars, through which, to maintain its honor, its 
existence and perpetuity, this glorious republic marched to vic- 
tory and to glory, and maintained its honor, its dignity, its unity, 
and perpetuity. 

Erza Stone, my father, was born in New Jersey; Elizabeth 
Dye, my mother, was born in Ohio. These two were married in 
1816. To this union were born six children, three boys and three 
girls. Of these, Asachel, the oldest, whose life is prominently 
connected with the development of Randolph County, materi- 
ally, socially and politically, died in 1891, after a short but painful 
sickness. He was prominent in both state and county affairs. 
He had represented this county in both the House of Representa- 
tives and State senate. He also took a prominent part in the 
Union cause in the great Rebellion, having served both as com- 
missary general and ([uarter-master general under Governor 
jNIorton during the most of the war period. His remains are 
buried in the beautiful cemetery he laid out and donated to the 
city of Winchester, Randolph County, Ind. 

The writer hereof was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
Ohio, June i6th, 1826. His parents were poor in this world's 
goods, but had a good reputation as honest, pious Christians. 
Father was a strict Baptist, while mother was a most devout 


Methodist. I was always known as "Mother's boy." The older 
children tormented me a great deal for always siding with mother. 
It is said that "every one has his price." In the saying there is 
"more truth than poetry." My first distinct desire was for a pair 
of "red-top boots!" This was the soft spot, the salient point. I 
was about four years of age. I sold out, soul, body and heart. 
I was honest in the transfer. The boots came. I was no longer 
"mother's bay!" I was "pap's booted man!" I was tormented 
by all the children of the family. Five of us were then living. I 
am still impressed with the fact that nearly every child of that 
household could show bruises made by those boot toes I had 
always gone to church with mother. My parents would go to the • 
front gate together then mother would start east and father west 
to their respective churches. This was a part of the bargain. I 
had not considered ; I paused at the gat. Father and mother had 
gone two or three steps and paused. The war was raging in 
their hearts as deadly as in mine. Father spoke: "Hurry up; 
go with one of us." Just then I got a glympse of my boots and 
jumped to father. Looking back I saw mother wipe tears from • 
her eyes. She had lost her boy! No! She had saved a soul ^ 
for whom she would have died! Upon our return home I was 
taunted by the other children till I was almost crazed for being a ■ 
"turn-coat." I pulled the boots ofT. slammed them on the floor ■ 
in defiance, and from that moment those boots never were again ' 
put on my feet. From that day to this no power can compel me ; 
to do what I believe to be wrong. i 

My father was a carpenter by trade, and frequently he would * 
go to New Orleans in the fall and back to Cincinnati. Usually . 
he would leave my mother and the children in Cincinnati during^ 
the summer and return in the fall. In 1837 he moved the family < 
to New Orleans. That summer my motherland one sister died 
in New Orleans and were buried there. In 1838 my brother and 
wife moved to Winchester, Randolph County, Ind. Father and 1 
I returned to New Orleans, and in 1839 we returned to Win- 
chester, and father bought a farm near town, including a part of | 
the present I'^air ground. L^pon this farm I lived and worked for \ 
father till 1847, when contrary to his advice and wishes, I left | 
home and volunteered in the Mexican war. My father and i 
brother, General A. Stone, saved the letters I wrote to them 1 
while there. These letters are rich and racy, and many young- , 
sters call at my home to hear the Mexican letters read. I also j 
kept a dairy, one-half of which is still preserved, giving an ac- 
count nf every important mo\c made 1>\- our forces. In this 


many of my tantrams and oddities are made amusing by their 
drolleries. I was in several battles and skirmishes. Was injured 
in my left knee by the explosion of the steamer Ann Chase, which 
attempted to transport us from New Orleans to Brazos. Several 
men were killed or injured by this explosion. Sixty-five of us 
got ashore on the Louisiana coast and marched through swamps, 
thickets and canebrakes to Sabin City, Texas, sixty-five miles. 
Some perished on the route. From Sabin we were taken by a 
sail vessel to Galveston. Thereon to the Rio Grande to Taylor's 
army. We were then ordered to Vere Cruz to General Scott, on 
the road to the City of Mexico. When we arrived at Vere Cruz 
Scott had started to the "Halls of the Montezumas." The Mexi- 
cans had many of them gotten in Scott's rear and re-occupied the 



LYNN, Ind., May 15, 1896. 

Mrs. A. S. L}nch, Decatur, Ind.: — As per agreement I will 
write "just a little." 

I was born in Randolph County, North Carolina, September 
27th, 1826. My father having died about five or six years 
after my birth, mother, with nine of us, seven boys and two girls, 
I the youngest, moved to Randolph County, Ind., in the spring 
of 1 83 1, and I live now on the land she entered from the govern- 
ment, (I having since bought it of her) and built a log house on 
it. In the fall her and I, with a man to show the land to us, 
came to hunt a place for the house, the woods was so thick we 
could not ride on horse-back, but had to hitch and walk it was so 
very heavy timber and thick of underbrush, and now at this time 
there is not a stick of timber on it, only as I have grown them 
since 1850. Oh. but we had fun cutting the lareg trees and dig- 
ging the small ones up by the roots, called grubbing. I have 
picked and burned brush many nights till 10 o'clock and thought 
it good sport, etc. Well, after a while I began to think I was a 
man; got married in 1845, ^i^<^l being pretty well off in the world 
(having a yearling colt and $6.50 in money, all my wealth) when 
married, so concluded to get good property to start with, viz.: 
my first bedstead, had but one post, and needed no more, as the 
house was made of round logs and I had only to bore holes in 
the logs in one corner of the house, which met in one post«from 
the corner; then small poles were put in the holes in the logs, 
and laid on the side rails to use for cord or slats, as is now used, 
but we slept first-rate after a hard day's work in the woods. The 
floor of the house was split in.stead of sawed lumber; it was called 
a puncheon floor; the roof was slit or rove clapboards, and the 
roof was the ceiling or loft floor; and in the winter I have walked 
from the bed to the fire place of a morning ankle deep in snow. 
Roys, how would you like to get up out of l)cd in snow ankle 


deep to build fires now, eh? Was but one door bung, and to 
open outside, and a big crack between two logs tor a window. 
I found a muskrat under our bed one day helping himself to a 
water melon. I got the gun and shot him while he was stealing 
my melon; so look out, boys, when you think of stealing melons, 
and think of the fate of the muskrat. Our diet was all kinds of 
bread that could be made of corn, from mush to ash cake, etc. 
Our meat was wild game and none a general rule. Well, you will 
see by my writing, spelling and grammar that I had some school- 
ing. To illustrate and give some idea of it, I will say the school 
house was a log house, puncheon floor, puncheon benches, stick 
and clay chimney in one of the house big enough for log fires; 
house in the woods, not fenced in! hogs could get under the 
floor. An incident, one day when cold, the hogs got under the 
floor as near the fire as they could, and in their scuffle to keep 
warm, the tail of one hog stuck up through a crack in the floor; 
a mischievious boy, rich enough to carry a jack-knife, slipped his 
knife out and taking hold of the hog's tail with one hand, knife in 
the other hand, cut the tail off and threw it on the live coals, 
where it curled about as if yet alive, which made a little girl (who 
is now my sister-in-law; she is now older) laugh out loud, which 
caused the teacher to investigate, with switch in hand. I will 
not now say the boy ever cut another pig's tail ofif in time of 
school to cook for his dinner. So you see how schools were then. 
I could fill a book with similar incidents of school and farm life 
in early times, &c. One incident of church life in early times: 
Mother was a Quakeress and consequently we all had birthrights 
in that society, and as their meetings are very difTerent now and 
then, I will say we never had music of any kind in church, and 
and occasionally reaching; we went to meeting twice each week, 
to sit still and quiet and think. The older ones in secret worship 
if so disposed, and some to sleep and nod, and us boys to think in 
some cases of mischief. The house of logs and the south door- 
step was about two feet to the floor from the ground, and the door 
shut from the outside of the house, and there was a young man, 
a tall, gangling fellow, always sitting in the summer, on the end 
of a bench at the door, with his head in his hands, elbows on his 
knees, facing the door to get the cool air; and to show you hov^ 
evil the writer was, I one day saw him begin to nod, and a wish 
or prayer instantly went through my evil brain that his elbows 
might slip off his knees, and the next instant my wish was fully 
answered and he went head foremost to the ground with his bare 
10- indi feet and legs to his knees sticking up at about 45 degrees 
inside. He could not get up until he crawled out on all fours. 


which he did, and then returned to hihseU", but did not sleep any 
more that meeting. The old friends did not tell me to laugh. I 
did so without any telling; so did some others. Well, that was 
at old Quaker Lynn, many years ago. Not many living now 
that were there that day, and that young man has since got old 
and died a good Christian, and I have no doubt is now happy. 
He has some children and grandchildren here yet; and now we 
have a new Quaker Lynn that no one could well go to sleep in 
time of worship, as it is lively with song and prayer. As there is 
now six recorded ministers that belongs to that class and they 
know how to sing praises as well as preach, and it is probably one 
of the best and most lively class in the county at present. Quite 
a change since my boyhood days. (I am and old boy. now). 
But one more incident of the old Quaker Lynn ; (pardon me for 
telling such) it was in the first frame house; it had a raised gallery 
of three benches, then raised floor back to the door, where the 
raise of each part began, were two benches, where people sat 
facing each other; the old friends sat there and sometimes twirled 
their thumbs until nodding. One time I sat watching two old 
brothers with their hats ofi until the got to nodding with their 
heads very close to each other, and as in the other case, my evil 
thought said how I desired to see their heads come together, as 
I had seen sleeers do, and I did not have to wait over one minute 
until the bald spots hit each other. Tliey waked without any one 
shaking them, and as I did before, laughed without any telling. 
Enough, I am old now, and do not make such prayers as I did 
then, but still attend Quaker Lynn meeting, not as it used to be, 
but as it is now; and I humbly ask all that reads this, if passing 
this way in Quaker meeting time, to spend one hour at meeting, 
and I assure you sleeping, <S:c., will not be seen now, but you will 
have to say, surely the Lord has done great things for Quaker 
Lynn; and if religiously inclined you will say it is good to be there. 
You will not be treated to any such freaks as I have stated hap- 
l)encd at old Quaker Lynn, for this is now one of the best meet- 
ings for life in reach of Lynn, and but very few of us that were 
young sixty years ago will be seen there now. I am trying to 
live right, &c. As I think my note is long enough I will let some 
one else tell of the fun and games of brogue. &c., we had at log 
rollings, raisings, &c. I had the honor of killing the last wild 
deer that passed through our township. That has been many 
years ago. 

You will have to curtail and add to make this grannnatically 
fit to read, &c., as I know nothing of grannnar, &c. 

Respectfully, JACOB A. HTNSHAW. 




Richard Williams. 
Rev. Daniel Williams. 
Nathan Hunt Williams. 
Joel Hiat Williams. 
Carlton O. Williams. 

Richard Williams, the first part of this sketch ; his birth, life 
and death is but little known to the writer, therefore will only say 
that he was a resident of Guilford County, North Carolina, near 
the Friends' meeting house, known as New Garden. 

Rev. Daniel Williams, the second part of this work, was born 
near New Garden meeting house in Guilford County, N. C, 8th 
month, 23d day, 1792, died near Richmond. Ind., 8th month, 14th 
day, 1873. 

He was a renowned and devoted minister of the Gospel, be- 
longing to the denomination of h>icnds. His early life was spent 
in North Carolina, then Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, from 
whence he moved, in 1833, near to the place of his death. 

In 1814 he was married to Margaret Janes, who died in 1821, 
leaving five children, Lydia, Rebecca, Susan, Nathan and Mary. 

About the year 181 5 he began the work of the ministery, and 
was recorded as such within a year after he began the work. In 
1823 he was married to his second wife, Mrs. Margaret Shoe- 
maker, which was again broken in later years by the death of the 
wife. By this union there were six children, Solomon, Jesse, 
Jacob, Sarah, Margaret and Daniel. 

In 1848 he was married to his third wife, Lydia Rider, who 
survived him by about eight years. P>y this union there was one 
child, K. R. Williams. Daniel was known especially in the de- 
nomination to which he belonged, in many parts of the country 
for his many acts of kindness and good deeds. He made several 
extended religious visits' two or three of which were to the old 
world, Great Britian and Ireland, at which time and place was 
spent in the vineyard of the Lord, endeavoring to win precious 
souls to God and from an endless ruin. He became so feeble 
before his death that he would sit down to finish preaching. Be- 
fore his deathhe made a request that four of his grandsons (as he 
thought a great deal of his grandchildren) should convey him to 
his grave and let liim down, which was complied with . 


At this time the number of offsprings is as follows: 

Children 12 

Grandchildren 125 

Great grandchildren iS^ 

Great great grandchildren 11 

Total number, including marriages, &c. . .335 
Before closing with the sketch of Daniel Williams we will 
give one of the incidents of his life, recorded by Daniel Hill (in 
liis Reminiscences of Nathan Hunt) who said in connection with 
the influence that the older may have upon the young — let me 
pause here a moment and relate the following circumstance, re- 
lated to me by the venerable Daniel Williams, of Wayne County, 
Ind., during the winter of 1872. Myself and family during that 
winter lived next door and often went to spend a social hour 
with Bro. Williams. One evening he said to me: 

"I remember well the visit of Nathan Hunt to my father's 
house when I was only a boy of 8 or 10 years. 1 stood in the 
corner near the great fire place and listened to the conversation be- 
tween him and my parents. When dinner was announced and 
as they passed to the kitchen, for our dinning room and the 
kitchen were all one, as he passed me he laid his hand upon my 
head and said. 'God bless thee, lad, what is thy name, my son?' I 
told him, 'Daniel Williams:' he said, 'Well, Daniel, if thou wilt 
be true and faithful to thy heavenly father, thou wilt cross the 
ocean and stand before kings and princess for His name's sake." 
It made a deep impression on my mind at that time, but as years 
passed away I forgot it. A few years later my parents moved to 
the west, as we called Indiana then, and in the course of time I 
became a preacher. I traveled much in the Master's service, and 
finally I felt impressed to cross the ocean and visit old England. 
I ol)tained a minute of concurrance from my monthly and quar- 
terly meetings and it was endorsed by the yearly meeting. I 
started on my mission. When 1 got on board the great ship at 
New York and had sailed on through the narrows, soon our ship 
began to roll on the great Atlantic ocean. I got to thinking on 
my position, when it occured to me I had made a great mistake. 
It was all wrong. I had undertaken a mission that I was not 
fitted for. I thought that not only had I made a mistake, but 
that my monthly and quarterly and even my yearly meetings 
had all made a great nustake in allowing me to undertake such a 
nn'ssion. I was greatly distressed. I did not know what to do. 
When all at once the memory of Grandfather Hunt's blessings 
on me, as he laid his hanrl upon my head, when a boy, now fjaslu-fl 


across my mind. I seemed to feel his warm hand again, I could 
hear the tones of his voice as he said, 'Thou shalt stand before 
kings and princess for His name's sake.' Instantly all fear left 
me. I had no further difficulty; I realized that I was in my right 
place. 1 performed my Master's service in the old world and re- 
turned to my native land with great peace and joy." 

Nathan H. W'illims. the third part of this sketch, was born 
near Philadelphia, Penn, ist month, 5th, 1820, and with his pa- 
rents moved to Wayne County, Ind., about the twelfth year of his 
age: The greater portion of his life was spent in farming and 
carpentering. In 1841 he was married to ^Iary Ann, daughter 
of Thomas and Sarah Brown, both of whom have since died in 
Winchester. After marriage he moved to Randolph County, 
near Spartansburg. By this union there were five children, Eli- 
zabeth. Luther, JMahala, Joel and Wesley. 

In 1853 he removed to a 40-acre farm near Olive Branch, 
same county, at which place he spent the most part of his after 
life, until death, which occured ist month, 15th, 1887. Mary 
Ann, his wife, died 3rd month, 5th. 1857, and he broke up house- 
keeping and the children separated no telling when to meet again. 
But in 1858 he was remarried to Sarah Milner, and tlie children 
were again brought home. Sad to relate, but this union of wife 
and husband, mother and children, were soon broken l)y the death 
of the mother. Elizabeth, the oldest of the children, now being 
of sufficient age. took up the responsibilities of the house work. 
In 1861 he was re-married to his third wife, Mrs. Eliza McKee, 
who still survives and lives on the old home farm. By this union 
there were three children, Alice. Ro])ert and Daniel, the second 
having died when an infant. 

At this time the offsprings is as follows: 

No. of children 8 

No. of grandchildren 32 

No. of great grandchildren i 

Total number, including marriages. &;c. . . .51 
Joel H. Williams, the fourth part of this sketch, and the 
w riter of the whole, was born in Fountain City, Wayne Count}', 
Ind., 7th month. 7th, 1850. \\'hen le*;s than a year old. with his 
parents moved to this county (Randolph) and settled on a farm 
near Spartansburg. In 1853 removed to a farm near Olive 
Branch, same county. His mother died when but a child, leav- 
ing him without the tender care and kind advice of a loving- 
mother. He was sent to live with his uncle in Wa\ne Countv. 


Avhere he was brought up under the strict teachings of Friends. 
Later on his father having re-married, he was brought back to his 
old home, at which place he remained until he arrived at the age 
of 19, at which time he went forward for himself in the great battle 
of life, first working by the month for John Clayton on a farm 
near Farmland. The most part of his education was obtained at 
Olive Branch, the first part of which was in the old log school 
house, with seats or benches as they were called, made from legs 
and no backs: he remember of an incident once when a little 
one became sleepy, top-heavy or over-balanced and the floor 
caught it from behind, and then it said to its sister in a loud voice, 
"Jane, why didn't you ketch me?" The writing desks were made 
by boring slanting holes in the wall, placing wooden pins in the 
same on which was nailed a wide plank. As the ink would not 
sit on this inclined plank it had to be placed in the windows. The 
writing pens were made from the goose quill. When the teacher 
gave the signal or play the books from all parts of the room would 
go flying for the writing desk, helter skelter, sometimes knocking 
the ink to the floor and making a general splash which was only 
a small matter at that time; — all eager to get to the play ground. 
"Black man'" and "bull pen" were the leading games of the day; 
"Molly Brown" came in later on. As a signal that some one was 
out in time of books, the teacher had varied ways. One was a 
little board or shingle on one side of which was the word "out," 
on the other side "in;" the shingle had to be turned in either 
leaving the room or returning so as to show the condition of 
afl^airs inwardly and outwardl}-. 

Another was a forked stick to be ])laced in the window near 
the door, which was to be taken by the one leaving the room and 
returned to its proper place when coming in. Sometimes the 
little ones (as was the case once with the writer) would forget and 
leave the forked .stick at the other end of the route, thereby caus- 
ing an e.xtra trip into the deep wood. 

My finst teacher. Lib Stark, was an old foggy; had her hed 
in one corner of the school room and would cook a part of lier 
victuals on the school stove. 

Once upon a time my father came home from town and 
brought me a new primer. The next day I gathered my new 
book and off 1 went to .school with much glee, and was found in 
my place at recitation hour, ready to recite from my new book. 
But what did Mrs. Stark do? Jerked my new primer from my 
hand, threw it on the floor ajid stamped on it, then gave me an old 
McClufi'ey's Elementary spelling book and told me to study that. 


Ater she departed I picked my new primer from out the dust, 
took it home and left it there, where I thought it would receive 
l)etter care. 

My next was Martin Shiim. a little better than the first: then 
came John Hedgepeth. He would not allow the boys to hollow 
for Abraham Lincoln. ()h, it was a task to refrain, but never- 
theless we stood the racket. 

Next came Henry Schoofield. Charlie Steele. Lib Parker. 
David Graham, Page Loofborough, Calvin Diggs and R. A. 
Leavell. So ends my country schooling. After this I attended 
the Farmland graded school. Prof. Lee Ault. superintendent, and 
by the way, a line instructor. Also attended the Ridgeville col- 
lege, where I had the work of book-keeping, penmanship. Ger- 
man language and vocal music. 

Later on I attended the Pen Art schools, of Delaware. Ohio, 
Prof. G. W. Michael, superintendent, who was considered one of 
the best instructors of the art in the United tates. 

December 25th, 1875 ^ ^'^'^s married to Marietta Wright, 
daughter of Amos and Deliah Wright, at the residence of the 
bride's home, two miles west of Winchester, Ind.. Rev. P. S. 
Stephens offtciating. Several of the inunediate friends and rela- 
tives were in attendance. This union has been blessed by the 
adition of two. Carlton (the last mention in this sketch) and Lyra 
Myrtle, born 8th month. 8th, 1881. 

The most part of his public life has been speni m carpenter- 
ing, merchandising and school teaching, having done business at 
Stone Station. Fannland and \\'inchester. Taught school in the 
following townships: White River, Washington, Monroe, Green, 
Stony Creek and Franklin, all in the county of Randolph. At 
the present time is the proprietor of the "Mid-Way (jrocery," 
south side public scjuare. Winchester, Ind. About two years ago 
he began the geneology (chantform) of his grandfather. Daniel 
Williams, which is now nearly complete, giving all the decend- 
ants of D. W.. to whom and where married, names, births, dates 
and deaths. He is writing a book of religious songs, which, 
when complete, will be an excellent selection, giving it the title 
of "Sacred ^lelodies." for social worships and revival services. 
He is also writing a book of poetry and prose under the title name 
of "Read and Reflect," or "Golden (iems of Clroicest Thoughts 
for Thinking People to Ponder." The selections are charming, 
captivating and entertaining, as well as exalting, elevating and 
ennobling, suitable for both young and old, being of a moral and 
religious sentiment. When means will suffice for its publication 


the work will be completed and a copy should find its way to each 
and every family, as the tendency will be toward a better obser- 
vance and in keeping with all the principles of righteousness. 

Carlton O. Williams, the last of this sketch, and completing 
the five generations, was born in Winchester, Ind., nth month, 
19th, 1876, and has spent the greater portion of his life in the 
town of his birth. He began his schooling in the country, but 
with his parents soon moved to town, where he has since gradu- 
ated. He is now in the emplov of his father under the firm name 
of T. H. Willims & Son. 



By request I submit this as a part of my early experiences of 
pioneer life in Randolph County, Indiana. 

My parents were among- the early settlers, and emigrated 
from the state of \'irginia in 1819, the year after the county was 
organized. Thirteen constituted the family, and I am the young- 
est of eleven children. My father's first improvement was a 
round log cabin. His trials were many, but they were over- 
come with an indomitable spirit to make an honest living for his 
family. He went forty miles to get corn cracked to feed his 
young on and cut his road through the wilderness a great part of 
the way. Forty miles to get a barrel of salt, when the roads were 
so bad that one barrel made a two horse load through the swamps. 
It cost at that time from six to seven dollars a barrel and the pay 
had to be in specie or coon skins, which was a legal tender in 
business transactions; 25 to yjYi cents a pelt, with no source of 
income, but to draw sap from the maple and convert into sugar 
and molasses, and then had no market for it short of twenty-five 
or one hundred miles. But to myself more particularly. I have 
often been requested to write about myself and give my own ex- 
periences. For many reasons I have often declined from doing 
anything of the kind, for the simple reason that the eternal "F' 
of so many writers is to me more than half disgustmg. It seems 
egotistic to be always repeating the story of your own achieve- 
ments. Feeling thus, I avoid, so far as possible, writing or talk- 
ing solely of self. I know that I was born in great poverty. The 
log cabin in which I first breathed and saw the light of day has 
long since passed away: but it was so indellably imj^ressed on my 
mind, that it is fresh to mv vision now. My living was meager 
and scant. I hardly knew what luxury was. My bread was 
principally of corn, occasionally biscuit, and that was served on 
strong enough to intoxicate. Our salt meats were fatted on 
maste in the woods; our fresh meats in the heated season con- 
sisted of wild game which abounded in plenty. 

The opportunity for obtaining an education was very limited 
compared with the present. The school houses were rudely con- 
structed, built cf round logs with wi'le tire places on one side and 
a log cut out on the other with greased paper pasted on for a 
window, to write by. and in turn each scholar was permitted in 
order and limited to so nnich time for writing each day. The 
most of m\- schooling cost me six miles' walk through nuid and 


water each clay of the term, and the term was from two and 
sometimes three months in the year, and that in the winter sea- 
son. For night study I had to resort to a log- fire, sometimes I 
would get hickory bark to get a more brilliant light. Occasion- 
ally got the benefit of an old iron lamp that consumed the dirty 
grease with wick made of the remnants of our worn out shirts. 
How does this compare with the age of kerosene, gas and elec- 
tricity for heat and illumination? 

The wearing apparel was principally home-made. Flax and 
linen were used for summer raiment. Nearly every household 
raised a small amount of flax for the lint, and instead of having 
drawing room parties, we had flax pulling frolicks and the com- 
pany would mate, male and female, gent selecting his best girl, 
march to the field two by two and side by side, pull the crop by 
hand, spread it in swathes upon the ground to cure. Later on it 
would be taken up and spread upon the meadows to bleach. 
Then came the breaking, scratching and hackling. All this was 
attended with the loss of many drops of sweat; but was enjoyed 
hughly, knowing it to be a matter of necessity. 

Refinement was not considered an accomplisliment so much 
as a good worker. Industry was the prominent motive and 
greatest ambition. The most desired topic of the women in their 
associations was how many cuts such an one could spin a day. 
Everything merged into industry, and the hum of the spining 
wheel made music for the neighborhool instead of the pianos. 1 
have seen my good father and mother take the wool from the 
sheep's back, wash the fleece and sit up until a late hour in the 
night before a blazing fire carding the wool by hand into rolls, 
spin, color and weave the same into cloth, cut and make it into 
garments for the family. Jeans and Hncey for the winter, flax and 
tow linen for the sunmier. One other circumstance 1 will never 
forget. 1 feel delicate to mention it in this day of refinement. b.ut 
as people were at that time honest and unassuming, it did not 
occasion any gossip. It may seem strange to you, but neverthe- 
less a fact to me. 

1 well remember the first j^air of breeches (as they were 
called) T wore. As a lamentable fact I was big enough to make 
love to tlie girls. Well, to be sure, it was somewhat embarras- 
sing, but everything went. No critics then, and as evrybody 
was honest, nothing was said about it. Style and fashion cut no 
figure, the motto was do the best you can and you were called a 
hero. We had no division or classification in the social circle, 
all belonged to the same great family. Conset:|uently God's law 
pre\ail(>'l (harmony) and people lived happy . 


My mother employed a widowed lady, who Hved near by, to 
make my breeches, and when done I was sent after them. She 
requested me to go beliind the door, (as there was but one apart- 
ment) and put them on, and don't you know I was as proud as 
Lucifer. I moved, stepping as high as a bhnd horse. I traversed 
every path in the vicinity that led to a neighbor's house, that they 
might see my improvement, and some of the okler people, to guy 
me, would say, "where are you going young man?" and in retort 
I would reply, "I am putting for the settlement," as different 
neighborhoods were called settlements in those times. But 
such was life in this new country before civilization had driven 
all the native red men of the forest to the far ofif west. 

I was a pupil of the first Sabbath school organized in Win- 
chester and 1 was faithful and prompt in attendance, and hailed 
with gladness the coming Sabbath as a day of recreation, and re- 
peat so many lines of the Bible that I committed to memory as 
was apportioned by my teacher for each Sabbath. I had to travel 
three miles to enjoy that Sunday feast, and as I was limited to 
one pair of shoes a year I was very careful not to wear them out 
too soon, as I have made barefooted tracks many times in the 
snow before I got my new ones. My shoes were made of heavy 
cow skin, home tanned, and about half tanned at that, and in 
July and August they woulld get hard as rawhide, so I would be- 
gin to grease and set in the sun about h>iday to have them soft 
for to go to Sabbath school. Being limited in footwear I was so 
careful that I carried them in my hands until 1 neared the village 
before I put them on, and the same on my return. 

My mother died at the age of sixty. My father lived to the 
ripe age of ninety-seven, and died a heahliy man; no disease; just 
wore out and died. I am in my sixty-ninth anniversary, and 
contemplate living three years longer than my father and make 
out the hundred. 

One other event occurred in our family tliat created alarm 
and consternation throughout tlic wlule scttiement. and that was 
the loss of three children in the woods, (lur sheep had to be 
herded to browse in the woods. When evening came on it 
clouded over and they took the wrong direction for home, conr 
trary to the inclination of the flock. Xight came on. dark and 
dismal, and the pelting snow^ began to fall, and three children 
gone. No one knew where except in the wild woods, with In- 
dians skulking around and the woods infested with howling 
wolves and screaming panthers, barefooted and without food. 
Imagine if you please, the feelings of a kind father and mother. 
The alarm was given and enmass the whole neighborhoo<l re- 


sponded. Some afoot, others mounted on horesback, equiped 
with bugles and loaded guns, the sounds of which made the air 
vibirate with an echo. At last the signals were answered, the 
children were found and returned to their home, to father and 
mother and such rejoicing was beyond expression. 

My first schooling was in a log house in the woods. After 
I got to be a good sized boy I attended the seminary school in 
Winchester. My receptor, James S. Ferris, one of the noted 
teachers, to whom I owe much as to my habits of life, was offered 
and accepted a situation at Muncie, Ind., for more money, and 
as I was a favorite pupil for my obedience, insisted that I should 
go with him and persue my studies. I declined on account of not 
having means to defray my expenses. Bue he over-persuaded 
and I paid my contingences as an assistant in hearing recitations 
in minor branches. Later on I was furnished a scholarship to 
attend the Asbury university, where I finished what little educa- 
tion I have. Being unable for the want of funds to complete m\- 
coUegeate course, I withdrew and concluded to take unto myself 
my best girl and entered the l)usy scenes of life, and thus far my 
scholastic days ended. 

I have followed many avocations. I have been a farmer, a 
counter-hoper, a school teacher, a railroader, a shipper and a 
dentist and photographer. I might say Jack of all trades, and 
at present a hotel landlord and have been for nineteen years feed- 
ing the hungry, but let the naked clothe themselves. 

Sometimes I think it a burning shame that I was born so 
soon, when 1 see how nice the little ones have it now, wearing fine 
shoes the year round, and clad with such nice wearing apparel. 
They must have fine baby carriages, wMth body on springs, cush- 
ioned most elaborately and silk or satin parasol adjusted over 
them to shelter from the sunshine or storm. But how diflferent 
it is now. When I was a baby of course T thought I was just as 
good as any other baby. But 1 had to be rocked in a sugar 
trough, and if I got restless and fretful, as most children do, I 
got my bottom spanked and set down on a puncheon floor. 

rift times when I reflect on my early birth I feel sorrow that 
my time was so soon. J^)Ut when I consider, and truthfully say 
that 1 have seen and experienced things that the ])resent and 
future generations'never can, it gives me consolation. 

Omitting the many long winded stories of my deer and bear 
hunts and the pleasant times that were so enjoyalile at our frol- 
icks T will close, least T tire the readers' patience. 

This is all T care to give of mv pioneer life. 





Written a few months before the death of Minerva J. Harri- 
son, whose suffering was long and most severe. She Hved until 
November 4th, 1893, the eighty-fifth anniversary of her birth, 
when she passed away in terrible agony, but strong in the faith 
of a blessed Immortality. 

There's a woman that I love, an' I can't tell you why, 
'Taint because she's pretty, or has a beamin' eye ; 
Nor is it 'cause she's dressed in the neatest of the style, 
Nor 'cause when she laughs, that she has the sweetest smile. 

She has the marks of sorrow, an' a mighty sight of care. 
Her form is very stooped, an' her body frail and weir; 
But I tell you after all, when I hear her precious voice, 
I feel so kind o' good, that it makes me to rejoice. 

She's livin' in a cottage that was built long ago. 
Where she's felt much of sorrow an' not a little woe; 
It's where she sang her songs, in her olden time way, 
With hopes just as bright as a fine summer day. 

An' when I go to see her in that quiet little home. 
Where I first saw the light, an' my feet began to roam. 
An' see her bended form, and shake her bony hand, 
So many tender feelin'scomc, I can't hardly stand. 

An when I stoop to kiss her, an' sec her eyes so dim. 
An' see her wrinkled brow, with face so very slim. 
An' feel the touch of lips that I felt when a boy, 
i\Iy mind is full of thinkin' an' my heart f'ull of joy. 

So when I say I love her, the story is untold. 

I can't tell you why, though my words were of gold ; 

My feelin's whisper though, yet none but angels hear. 

An' waft the mvsterv to the skies — the love of ^Mother dear. 


In all her siififerin' pains an' aches, I can't tell you why, 
I feel somethin' in my mind a runnin' to the sky, 
A callin' for the Saviour dear, a kind an' lovin' Friend, 
Just to send a little help, an' let the angels tend. 

An' when they want to take her far up into the skies, 
They'll bear her up so tenderly, just like an angel flies: 
An' show her to the Saviour, an' all the heavenly throng. 
An' join with her a singin' the great Redemption song. 
June 27th, 1893. — H. A. HARRISON. 


Did you ever stand a lookin' in the fall of the year 
An' see the leaves a droppin' of a color brown an' sear? 
Did you ever stand a lookin' at the falls of a stream 
An' see the quiet waters as they pour o'er so clean? 

I've seen the sticks a floatin', an' I've watched 'em while they go, 

Just to see which's first to reach the falls below. 

I've watched 'em in the front an' I've pointed to the one 

That'd reach the falls first, as they smoothly glided on; 

But afore I was a tiiinking apast would float another. 

An' reach the falls ahead, just as if 'twas no bother. 
An' then I'd stand an' gaze an' ponder in my niina 
How a little stick a floatin" in the same stream l)ehitul. 
Could dart apast the other in such a quiet way 
An' reach the falls below, an' be hid 'neath the spray 
While the other was a floatin' an' a comin' in the stream 
A little bit behind — but why, could not be seen. 

o the floatin' of the sticks an' the fallin' of the leaves 
Have stirred me up to thinkin', an a thinkin' at my ease. 
An' I Ssee a mighty stream, an' its glidin' smoothly on. 
An' we're all just a floatin' by the current we are drawn, 
We see the aged comin' an 'wc count 'em in advance. 
While the younger float behind without a better cnance; 
Hut all at once they dart as per force of stream 
An' a past the aged go, though we get but a gleam. 
An' so we see the leaves, an' some are fallin' slow. 
While others dart a past, an' reach the earth below. 


From these we gather lessons which I trust in my mind 
Will teach us God's wisdom, though we seem far behind. 
The stream of Time's a river with its currents fast and slow, 
An' we're all just a floatin' to the falls now below; 
We know not what the current that'll speed us thus along, 
Or what may be the eddy with its checking force so strong; 
So whether fore or aft, as we glide down the stream, 
We'll not forget our Anchor, though our life's but a dream. 
For now we look around us, as we did a year ago, 
An' see that some are missin', they've darted on oefore. 
We scarcely saw a ripple as they glided swiftly on — 
We feel that we are passin' — we know that they are gone: 
lUit oh. the blessed Hope, an" the anchor sure an' strong 
Whicli is given by our Pilot, as we float amidst the storm. 

An' thus as years roll on, an' we're passin' one by one 
We'll ever trust in Jesus, who'll guide us through the storm. 
An' when we pass the falls, and are hid 'neath the 9|:)ray. 
We'll rise with Him in glory to see a brighter day. 
An' then with loved ones dear an' others in the throng. 
We'll tune our throats anew an' sing a sweeter song. 

I'nion City. Ind.. June 9, 1895. — H. A. HARRISON. 



Dr. I. N. Rarick, of Bluff Point, Jay County, Indiana, was 
born April 19th, 1835, in Washington Township, Darke County, 
Ohio. He came with his parents to Jay County, Ind.. April 3rd, 
1 85 1. He settled on the farm on the east side of the Winchester 
and Portland road, the first farm in Jay County. All was timber 
for miles around except now and then a small cleared spot. As 
he grew up the timber vanished and when the war broke out 120 
acres had been cleared. He still stayed in the county clearing 
up a part of three farms, either with his money or his mliscle, and 
has studied and practiced medicine in the same county. He is 
now one of the best posted and most successful physicians in the 
county, if good rapid cures make success. December 31, 1863. 
he married Miss Adaline Wood, who has been known as a 
teacher and Sabbath school worker in Jay and Randolph Coun- 
ties. His grandfather moved to Darke County, Ohio, at what is 
now called Shary Eye P. O., in 181 8. His father, Phillip Rarick, 
was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, September 16. 1808, 
and when ten years old came with his father to Darke County, 
where he grew up and helped him clear uj) what is now the Wm. 
I'^lston place. 'J'he characteristic mark of the Rarick race is red 
wavy hair. Philip Rarick, to be consistent, married Miss Sarah 
Chenweth, who also had red hair. The result was a family of 
ten, all of whom had red wavy hair, but Adam, who had straight, 
but very red hair. His brothers and sisters and their husbands 
and wives have a landed possession of 22,000 acres of land, the 
most of which is their own earning. His brothers, Abraham C. 
Jacob J., Adam C. and Charles W., were soldiers to help put 
down tile rebellion of '61 to "65, they serving a total of thirteen 
years, all returning home without the loss of a limb. Charles W. 
went through three years in Co. H. looth Ind. V. 1., which com- 
pany was made up in Jay County. Charles W., then a boy, re- 
fused a corporal three times to have the honor of going through 
the war a private. He had a detail to forage from Savannah to 
the close of the war, seldom marching with the column as Sher- 
man went iiortli through the Carolinas. 


After the war closed he started to school at Liber, and ended 
at Marietta college with the degree of A. B., 1874; M. A., 1877, 
M. D. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1883, paying for it all by his own 
earnings. He taught several terms of school in Jay County, and 
now is practicing medicine at Greenville, Ohio. 

Abraham C. rose to second lieutenant; Jacob J., to major, 
and had command of the 69th Regt. O. V. I. from Atlanta to 
Savannah and up to Goldsborough. His regiment was in the 
lead at Bentonville, S. C, when Rebel General Joe Johnson and 
( leneral Braggs tried to surprise Sherman and whip him corps at 
a time. Bue he struck too many good fighters to succeed. 

Adam arose to sargeant. He did his service in the 6th Iowa 
with the 15th corps, he now has retired from the farm to live 
in Osceola, la. He has earned and cultivated 800 acres of land 
in Clarke County, Iowa. 

Ira O. Rarick was too young to be a soldier, but has made 
his wealth in farming and dairying in Cass County, Mo. 

IVIrs. Chas. Moorehouse is his sister; also Mrs. S. L. Roberts, 
of Collins, Neb., is his youngest full sister. John Rarick, of Pike 
Township, Jay County, is his uncle. 

Dr. I. N. Rarick has been a resident of Jay County from a 
boy of 15, except a short time he was in the west . 

Note:— This is to certify that we have publi.shed 6,000 copies 
of thi.s book for Mrs. A. T. Lynch, of Decatur, Ind. 






Dry Goods and Groceries, 

Boots, Shoes and Clothing. 

Dr. RoIsIOD, M. D. 




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Dry Goods and 
G r oce r i es^ ^ 


G. A. MU1?H, 




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General Store. 



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J. R. STAFFORD, JR., Proprietor. 




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•5> xhe: <^ 

DniLT nm weekly mk. 


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Clothing Store. 





n. i cunninonnn, 


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' Livery, 



Fruits, Nuts, Candies, 

And Staple Groceries. 




Staple and Fancy Groceries, 

Fitzpatrick Bros. 














!7i. ^, Scarries d Co, 

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