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^"' 'IL'dRARY 



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Organization of tlic Grays — General JoabHiatt — Original mem- 
bers—Election of Officers- -Drill — Arms received — First pul)lic 
parade — " Jake Causey ' ' — Exercises at Edgeworth — May Queen ; 
presentation of banner. 


The Greys celebrate Fourth of July — Visit the Orange Guards 
at Hillsboro — Dinner and B:^ 11— Celebrate 22d Febuary at Green- 
boro — The " boom " of War — Secession ot the Gulf States — Cor- 
respondence between Gov. Ellis and Secretary Holt — Organiza- 
tion of the Confederacy at Montgomer}:— W-Ccclebrdte our own 
Auirersary — Our Visitoi*s — The Ladies — Feasting and Dancing — 
"C^l" on Gov. Ellis for troops — Ellis' Response. 


Effect of Lincoln's call for troops — Gov. Ellis convenes the Leg- 
islature — The Greys ordered to report at Goldsboro with three 
days rations — Ordered to report at Fort Macon — Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety — Political excitement — North C'^ ollna Secedes — New re- 
cruits — The Greys sworn in — Arrival at Fort Macon — Latham's 
Woodpeckers — Assigned to the 9th Regiment — Assigned finally 
to the 27th Regiment— Deaths — New recruits — Routine duty at 
the Fort — Sports and Past-times. 


Election of Regimental Officers — Ordered to New Berne— Burn- 
side approaches — Fleet arrives on the 12th — The morning of the 
14tli — The Battle — The retreat — At Kinston — Changes and pro- 
motions — Expiration of enlistments — Regiment reorganized — 
Grays reorganized as Company B — Election of commissioned and 
non-commissioned officers, 


More recruits — Sam'l Park Weir — Leave North Carolina for 
Virginia — The Seven Pines — The seven days fight — Malvern Hill. 



Marching in the rain — From Driiry's Bluff to Petersburg- 
Riddling the "Daniel Webster"— Shelling McClellan's camp- 
Ordered to Richmond — At Rapidan Station— Discharges and 
deaths — Regimental Band formed — First Maryland campaigne — 
Across the Potomac— Two Grays captured— Lost in the woods — 
Turn up in Loudon County, Va. — At Harper's Ferry — Surrender 
of Harper's Ferry. 


Battle of Sharpsburg— The 27th Regiment in the fight— Com- 
plimentary notice by President Davis, Gen. Lee and others — 
Cook's heroism — Casualties— Captain Wm. Adams — Recross the 
Potomac — Rest at Occoquan — Election of Officers to fill vacan- 
cies — Deaths. 


McClellan moves Southward — Our march through the Valley 
— At Upperville — Return to Paris — Cedar Mountain — Col. Cooke 
promoted — Major J. A. Gilmer made Colonel — On to Fredericks- 
burg — Incidents on the march — Burnside advances — Battle of 
Fredericksburg — Casualties. 


Muster Roll of Grays in December, 1862 — Ordered to Rich- 
mond — To Petersburg — Take cars for North Carolina — At Bur- 
gaw — The sweet potato vine — On to Charleston, S. C. — The Al- 
ligators of Pocataligo — In camp at Coosawhatchie — More deaths 
— Return to North Carolina — On the old grounds near Kinston. 


The affair at Bristow Station. 


Th*e affair at Bristow — Gallant conduct of Color-Guard W. C. 
Story — Losses of the Gra3^s — Lieut. McKnight killed — Sergeant- 
Major R. D. Weatherly mortally wounded — The affair a crimi- 
nal blunder — President Davis' comments — The surprise at Kel- 
ly's Ford — Meade crosses the Rapidan — Lee advances — Meade's 
retreat — In winter quarters near Orange Court-House. 


Company promotions — Our " Fighting Parson " appointed 
Chaplain — New recruits— Transfers — Deaths — Virginia Xmas 
hospitality— Visited by Rev. J. H. Smith,- of Greensboro. 



Relative slrenjith of the two armies in May — Their respective 
positions — The Wihh'rness —Private Williams receives a wound 
— Casualties. 


The enemy rc-cnlbrced by Burnsidc's Corps — Iletli and Wilcox 
overpowered — Critical situation — General Lee charires with the 
Texas Brigade — Enemy routed — Longstreet wounded — Nij^ht 
march — Movins; towards Spottsylvania Court- House — Fortifying 
at Spottsylvania. 


Barlow's attack upon our left — The little brick church — The 
enemy's advance on Ew(dl at the salient — Gen. Lee exi)()seshim- 
self— Territic contlict — Heth's Division moved to the left — The 
enemy repulsed — Rest for a few days — Grant's desperate attack 
on the 18th. 


Grant abandonshis plans — Moves towards Bowling Greene — On 
the road to Hanover Junction — Weary marches — A " Georgy " 
soldier's costume — His idea of Music and Medicine — Anecdote of 
General Grant — Grant changes his tactics — Engagement at At- 
tlee's Station — Brush at Tolopotomy Creek — Skirmish at Pole — 
Green Church — Lieut. Campbell mortally wounded. 


The army at Cold Harbor — Battle at Pharr's farm — Casualties 
— At Cold Harbor — Lieut. Frank Banner's death. 


Marching towards the James — Our Brigade in the Chickahom- 
iny Swamps — Cavalry skirmish at Hawe's Shops — Sergeant W. 
M. Paisley mortally wounded — Ordered to support the cavalry 
on the 21st. — Fighting under difficulties — On the lines near Peters- 
burg . 


The Crater — Warren's corps seize the Weldon Railroad — The 
27th at Ream's Station — The Grays lose heavily — AVarreu holds 
the railroad. 


In the trenches before Petersburg — Casualties— The Federals 
cross to the north side of the .lames — Skirmish near Battery No. 
45 — At Hatcher's Run — At Burgess' Mill — In line of battle — 
Building winter quarters — On a raid at Bellfield — The enemy in 
full flight — Grant creeping up on our lines. 



In winter quarters at Hatcher's Run — A midnight tramp — An 
affair at Hare's Hill— Our picket line in the hands of the enemy 
—Recaptured— At Fort Euliss— Our lines broken— The retreat- 
Fight at Sutherland's Tavern — Sorely pressed — Reach Deep 
Creek — Camp near Goode's Bridge — We celebrate — Reorganiza- 
tion of the regiment — A halt at Amelia Court-House — Wagon 
trains attacked and burned — Every man for himself— Reach Ap- 
pomattox — In line of battle — Awaiting orders. 


To the reader — The morning of the 9th— Preparations to attack 
— A flag of truce — Negotiations between Generals Grant and 
Lee — The surrender— The Guilford Grays present at Appomat- 
tox — Comrades — Closing scene — Retrospect. 


The names of all who were at any time on our rolls, and a sketch 
of the military record of each member — Battles fought. 

t^ r e f oi c e 

I hope no one will think that I aspire to the severe dii^iiit}' of 
a historian in these rambling reminiscences which are to follow. 
I am well content to take an humbler part. AVith the political 
(juestions of the past, with the conduct of politicians and states- 
men, with the skill of military leaders, with tlie criticism of cam- 
paigns, with the causes and effects of the civil war, I have here 
no concern, much less with the personal interests and rivalries of 
individuals. But for all this, the writer hopes that these contri- 
butions will not be unfavorably received by those who were act-, 
ors in the scenes which are here recalled. He hopes that what 
is lacklno- of the general history of those eventful times will be 
compensated for in the details touching the history of the Guil- 
ford Grays themselves. 

From the period when our company was called into the field 
by Gov. Ellis, down to the surrender at Appomattox, the writer 
kept a record of those events Avhich came under his own obser- 
vation, and which he thought might jn'ove useful and interesting 
in future time. " Forscui et haec olim rnemirdsne j atahit." 

These records up to the capture of Newberne were lost, and 
for this period of our liistor}^ I have relied principally upon my 
memory. From the battle of Newberne to the final catastrophe, 
I have accurate notes of the most important events and incidents 
in which the Grays participated and shared. 

To the memory of my comrades who fell, and as a testimonial 
to those who survive, these reminiscences are dedicated. To the 
derelict in duty, if such there may have been, the writer will 
have naught to say. Let their names stand forever in the shad- 
ows of oblivion. 




In the year eigliteeu lumdred and sixty the military 
spirit was rife in the South. The clouds were threat- 
ening. No one knew what a day would bring forth. 
The organization, the equipment and drill of volun- 
teer companies was, accordingly, the order of the times. 
The first assembl}- to perfect the organization of the 
Guilford Grays was held in the court-house in Greens- 
boro, N. C, on the evening of the 9th of January, 
1860. The meeting was presided over by General 
Joab Hiatt — now deceased — a favorite and friend of 
the young men. Gen. Hiatt won his military laurels 
as commander of the militia, in the piping times of 
peace. Whoever has seen him arraj-ed in the gorge- 
ous uniform of a militia brigadier on the field of the 
general muster cannot fail to recall liis commanding 
presence. He was the proper man to fill the chair at 
our first meeting. James \V. Albright (who is still 
in the flesh) acted as secretary. The usual committees 
were appointed. A constitution and by-laws were 
drafted and adopted. The constitution provided for a 
volunteer company of infantry, to be known as the 
Guilford Grays. Each member was required to sign 
the constitution and bv-laws. Tlie followinu" is a com- 


plete list of the signers, in the order of their signa- 
tures : 

Jolin A. Sloan, William P. Wilson, Thomas J. 
Sloan, Jos. M. Morehead, John Sloan, David Gundling, 
Henrv C. Gorrel, William U. Steiner, Otto Huber, 
James E. Pearce, Jas. T. Morehead, Jr., P. B. Taylor, 
Chas. A. Campbell, J. II. Tarpley, William Adams, 
James W. Albright, Maben Lamb, James Thomas, Ed- 
ward G. Sterling, Jos. H. Fetzer, William P. Moring, 
Wilbur F. Owen. George H, Gregory, David X. Kirk- 
patrick, Andrew D. Lindsay, John Domiell, Benjamin 
G. Graham. W. W. Cansey^, William L. Brj^au, Chas. 
E. Porter, John D. Smith, James R. Cole, John H. Ale- 
Knight, Jed. H. Lindsay, Jr., W. C. Bourne, John A. 
Gilmer, Jr., Samuel B. Jordan. 

The loregoing persons signed the constitution and 
by-laws on the yth of January, 1860, when the com- 
panj- was first organized, and are entitled to the honor 
of being the '' original panel." 

The company was organized by the election of the 
following commissioned and non-commissioned offi- 
cers, viz. : 

John Sloan, Captain ; William Adams, 1st Lieuten- 
ant ; James T. Morehead, 2d Lieutenant ; John A. 
Pritchett, 8d Lieutenant ; Henry C. Gorrell, Ensign 
hvith rank of Lieutenant); W. C. Bourne, Orderly 
oergeant ; William P. Wilson, 2d Sergeant; Samuel 
B. Jordan, 3d Sergeant; Geo. W. Howlett, 4th Ser- 
geant ; Thos. J. Sloan, Corporal ; Benjamin G. Gra- 
ham, 2d Corporal ; George H. Gregory, 3d Corporal ; 
Silas C. Dodson, 4th Corporal. 


The following musicians were selected from the col- 
ored t roops : 

Jake Mebaiie, lifer ; Bob Ilaigrove, kettle-drummer ; 
Caesar Lindsay, base -drummer. 

The auuiversary of the battle of Guilford Court- 
Ilouse is an honored day among the people of old 
(iuilford. It was the turning point in the future of 
Lord Coi-nwallis. When the Earl of Chatham heard 
the defeat announced in the House of Parliament, he 
exclaimed : " One more such victory would ruin the 
British." This battle was fought by General Greene 
on the 15th of March, 176L On this anniversary', the 
15th of March, lyGO, our officers received their com- 
missions from Governor Ellis. This is the date of our 
formal organization. 

Friday night of each week was set apart for the pur- 
pose of drill and improvement. Our drill-room was 
in the second story of Tate's old cotton factor}', where 
we Avere instructed in the vari(ms manoeuvers and ev- 
olutions, as then laid down in Scott's tactics. 

Earh^ in April we received our arms, consisting of 
fifty stand of old fiint-and- steel, smooth-bore muskets, 
a species ot ordnance Yevy effective at the breech. 
They were supposed to have descended from 1776, and 
to have been wrested bv order of the Governor from 
the worms and rust of the Arsenal at Fayettsville. 
By the first of Ma}' we had received our handsome 
gray uniforms from Philadelphia. These uniforms, 
Avhicli we so gaily donned and proudly wore, consisted 
of a frouk coat, single-breasted, with two rows of State 
buttons, pants to match, with black stripe, waist belt 


of black leather, cross belt of white webbing, gray cap 
with pompon. 

Our first public parade was a day long to be remem- 
bered. It occurred on the 5th day of May, 18(^0. The 
occasion was the coronation of a May-queen in the 
grove at Edgewortb Female Seminary. The Grays 
were invited by tlie ladies to lend their presence at the 
celebration, and it was whispered that we were to be 
the recipients of a banner. 

It will be readily imagined that we were transported 
with the anticipation of so joyous a day. We did our 
best to make ourselves perfect in the drill and manual 
— for would not all eyes be upon us? The day came 
at last, and at 10 a. m. we assembled in front of the 
court- house The roll was called and no absentees 
noted. The uniforms were immaculate, our ofl&cers 
wore the beautiful swords presented to them by the 
fair ladies of Greensboro Female College, the musket 
barrels and bayonets flashed and gleamed in the glori- 
ous May sunshine, and with high heads in jaunty caps, 
and with the proud military step, as we supposed it 
ought to be, we marched now in single file, and now in 
platoons, down the street towards the Edgeworth 
grounds, keeping time to the music of " Old Jake," 
whose "spirit-stirring fife'' never sounded shriller, and 
whose rainbow- arc] L(:d legs never bore him witli such 

When we ariived at our destination, we found the 
beautiful green grounds, which were tastefully decor- 
ated, already filled with happy spectators. The young 
ladies, whose guests we were to be, were formed in 

procession. :iii<I wcit awaitiii.L!' tlic ai'i-i\al of the (.^ueeii 
and lier suite, 'i'lic appearance of tliis distingaished 
cortege on tlie scene was tlie signal for tlie [)rocession 
to move. 

Tlie following was the order of procession : 

First. Fonrteen of her maids of honor. 

Second. ^I'en Floras, wi h baskets of flowers, which 
they scattered in the pathway. 

Third. Sceptre and crown bearer. 

Fourth. The Queen, with Lady Hope and the Arch- 
bishop on either side. 

Fifth. Two maids of honor. 

Sixth. Ten pages. 

Seventh. The Militar}^ (Grays). 

As the Queen advanced to the throne, erected in the 

centre of the grove, the young hidies greeted her with 

the salutation : 

"Yon are tlie fairest, and of beauty rarest, 
And you our Queen shall be.'' 

Lady Hope (Miss Mary Arendell) addressed the 
Queen : 

O, maiden fair, -with lii::lit brown hair I " 

The Archbishop (Miss Hennie Erwin) then pro- 
ceeded to the crowning ceremony, and Miss Mary 
Morehead was crowned Queen of May. 

After these pleasant and ever-to-be-remembered 
ceremonies, the Queen (Miss Mamie) in the name of 
the ladies of the seminary, presented to the Grays a 
bandsome silk flag, in the following happy speech : 

"In the name of my subjects, the fair donors of 


Edgeworth, I present this banner to the Guilford 
Grays. Feign would we have it a " banner of peace," 
and have inscribed upon its graceful folds "peace on 
earth and good-will to man ; " tor our womanly na- 
tures shrink from the horrors of war and bloodshed. 
But we have placed upon it the " oak," fit emblem of 
the firm heroic spirits over which it is to float. 
Strength, energy, and decision mark the character of 
the sons of Guilford, whuse noble sires have taught 
their sons to know but one fear — the fear of doing 
wrong." * * ^ ^ -:f -jf 

Cadet K. 0. Sterling, of the jST. C. Military Institute, 
received the banner at the hands of the Queen, and, ad- 
vancing, placed it in the hands of Ensign H. C. Gor- 
rell, who accepted the trust as folloAVs : 

" Most noble C2"L^een, on the part of the Guilford 
Grays I accept this beautiful banner, for which I ten- 
der the thanks of those whom I represent. Your ma- 
jesty calls to remembrance the days of ' Auld Lang 
Syne,' when the banners of our country proudly and 
triumphantly waved over our own battle field, and 
when our fathers, on the soil of old Guilford, 'struck 
for their altars and their fires.' Here, indeed, was 
fought the great battle of the South ; here was decided 
the great struggle of the Revolution ; here was achieved 
the great victory of American over British general- 
ship ; here was evidenced the great military talent and 
skill of Nathaniel Greene, the blacksmith boy, Avhose 
immortal name our town bears. 

" If any earthly pride be justifiable, are not the sons 
of Guilford entitled to entertain it ? If any spot on 
earth be appropriate for the presentation of a " banner 
of peace," where will you find it, if it be not here, five 
miles from the battle-field of Martinsville; here at 
Guilford Court-House in the boro of Nathaniel Greene ; 
here in the classic grounds of old Edgeworth, sur- 


rounded with beauty and intelligence; in the presence 
of our wives, our sisters, and our sweethearts. And 
who could more appropriately present this banner than 
your majesty and her fair subjects ? You are the 
daughter of a Revolutionary mother to whom we 
would render all the honor due — 

'No l)raver d:imcs liad Sparta, 
No nobler matrons lionie. 
Then let us laud and honor them, 
E'en in their own green homes.' 

"They have passed from the stage of earthly action, 
and while we pay to their memories the grateful trib- 
ute of a sigh, we would again express our thanks to 
their daughters for this beautiful banner, and as a token 
of our gratitude, we, the Guilford Grays, do here be- 
neath its graceftd folds pledge our lives, our fortunes, 
and our sacred honor, and swear for them to live, them 
to love, and, if need be, for them to die. 

" Noble Queen, we render to you, and through you 
to your subjects, our hearty, sincere, and lasting thanks 
for this entertainment ; and to the rulers, in your vast 
domain, for the privilege of trespassing upon their 
provinces which lie under their immediate supervision. 

"In time of war, or in time of peace, in prosperity 
or adversity, we would have you ever remember the 
Guilford Grays — for be assured your memories will 
ever be cherished by them." 

This beautiful banner was designed by Dr. D. P. 
Weir and executed in Philadelphia — the size is 6 feet 
by 5, being made of heavy blue silk. On the one side 
is a painting in oils, representing the coat-of-arms of 
North Carolina encircled b}^ a heavy wreath of oak 
leaves and acorns. Above is a spread eagle with scroll 
containing the motto, " E Pluribus Unum,'' a similar 
scroll below with words, "Greensboro, North Caro- 

. 10 

lina." The otlier side, similar in design, except within 
the Avreath the words, " Presented by the Ladies of 
EdgCAVorth Female Seminary, May 5th, I860;" on the 
scroll above, "Guilford Grays," and on scroll below, 
" Organized March 5th, 1860," all edged with heavy 
yellow silk fringe, cord and tassel blue and gold, the 
staff of ebony, surmounted with a heavily plated bat- 
tle axe. This flag is still preserved and in the writer's 


More than a year in advance of the National Paper, 
attributed to Mr. Jefferson, the people of Mecklenburg 
County declared themselves a free people and took the 
lead in throwing off the British yoke. On the 4th. day 
of July, 1776, the National Declaration, adopting (?) 
some of the language of the Mecklenburg convention, 
"rang out " the glad tidings "that these United Colo- 
nies are, and, of right, ought to be,/ree and independent 

To celebrate the " glorious lourth," the good people 
of Alamance County unveiled and dedicated a monu- 
ment at Alamance church to the memory of Colonel 
Arthur Forbis, a gallant officer of the North Carolina 
troops, who fell mortally wounded at the battle of Guil- 
ford, March 25th, 1781. By invitation of the commit- 
tee— Eev. C. H. Wiley and Dr. D. P. Weir— the Grays 
participated. Invitations of this kind were never de- 
clined. The day was intensely hot, and the distance 
from Greensboro being too far for a march in those 
days, wagons were furnished for our transportation. 


The exercises of the occasion were opened with prayer 
by Rev. E. W. Caruthers. He was followed by Gov. 
Jolin ^[. Morehead, who, taking the sword which the 
brave Vorbis had carried while he was an officer, with 
it lifted the veil from the monument. The Governor's 
remarks were just such as those who knew him would 
have expected of him. The exercises were closed by 
Rev. Samuel Paisley, that venerable man of God. The 
Grays, after tiring a salute and performing such du- 
ties as were required, returned to Greensboro, having 
spent an interesting " fourth." 

On the 1st of October, in the same year, we visited 
by invitation the Orange Guards, a military organiza- 
tion at Hillsboro, N. C. The occasion was their fifth 
anniversary. We took the morning train to Hillsboro, 
and in a few hours reached our destination. We found 
the Guards at the depot awaiting our arrival. Lieu- 
tenant John W. Graham, on behalf of the Guards, re- 
ceived us with a most cordial welcome. Lieutenant 
James T. Morehead, Jr., responded upon the part of 
the Grays. We were then escorted to quarters, which 
were prepared for us, at the Orange Hotel, wdiere we 
enjoyed the delicacies, luxuries, and liquids so bounti- 
fully " set out " at this famed hostelry, then presided 
over by the genius of Messrs. Hedgpeth and Stroud. 
In the afternoon we were escorted to the Hillsboro 
Military Institute, and gave the young gentlemen there 
an opportunity of observing our superior skill, both in 
the manual and the evolutions. At night the chivalry 
and beauty of "ye ancient borough " assembled in the 
Odd Fellows' hall to do us honor at a ball. 


" And then the viols phiyed their best; 
Lamps above and hiiighs below. 
Love me sounded like a jest, 
Fit for yes, or fit for no." 

As Aurora began to paint the East in rosy colors of the 
dawn, we boarded the train for home. Some Avith ach- 
ing heads, some with aching hearts. 

The Orange Guards were closely and intimately as- 
sociated with us during the entire tour years of the Avar. 
We entered the service about the same time, at the 
same place, and served in the same regiment. Our 
friendships Avere there renewed, and many, so many, 
are the memories sweet and sad, which Ave mutually 
share. Our marches, our wants, our abundance, our 
sorrows, and our rejoicings — each and all, they were 
common to us both. In love and allegiance to our na- 
tive State we marched forth to take our places among 
her gallant sons, be it for Aveal or woe ; hand in-hand 
together till Appomattox Court- House, we struggled 
and endured. The]^e like a vesture no longer for use, 
we folded and laid away our tattered and battle -stained 
banner, to be kept forever sacred, in the sepulchre of a 
lost cause. 

My diary intimates no occasion for even a " skirm- 
ish" until the 22d of February, 1861, when we again 
donned the gray to honor the memory of " George 
W." and his little hatchet. We were entertained dur 
ing the day Avith an address at the court-house by Jas. 
A. Long, Esq., on the all-absorbing question of the 

The Congress of the United States had assembled 
as usual in December, and Avas at this time in session. 


The clouds surcharged with sectional hate and politi- 
cal fanaticism were now lowering over us, and the 
distant mutterings of that storm which had been heard 
so long, and against which tlic wise and patriotic had 
given solemn warning, foreboded evil times. South 
Carolina had already, on the 20tli of December, adopted 
her ordinance of secession ; Mississippi on the 9th of 
January ; Florida followed on the 10th, Alabama on 
the 11th, Georgia on the 18th, Louisiana on the 26th, 
and Texas on the 1st of February. 

Events now crowded upon each other with the ra- 
pidity of a drama. On the 10th of Januarj^, 1861, 
Governor Ellis telegraphed Hon. Warren Winslow 
of North Carolina, at Washington, to call on General 
Winlield Scott and demand of him to know if he had 
been instructed to garrison the forts of North Caro- 
lina. The Governor stated that he was informed that 
it was the purpose of the Administration to coerce the 
seceded States, and that troops were already on their 
way to garrison the Southern forts. On the 12th, Gov- 
ernor Ellis addressed the following letter to President 
Buchanan : 

" Your Excellency will pardon me for asking 
whether the United States forts in this State w\\\ be 
garrisoned with Federal troops during your adminis- 
tration. Should I receive assurances that no troops 
will be sent to this State prior to the 4th of March 
next, then all will be peace and quiet here, and the 
property of the United States will be protected as 
heretofore. If, however, I am unable to get such as 
surances, I will not undertake to answer for the con- 
sequences. Believing your Excellency to be desirous 
of preserving the peace, I have deemed it my duty to 

yourself, as well as to the people of North Carolina, to 
make the foregoing inquiry, and to acquaint you with 
the state of the public mind here." 

On the 15th day ot January, J. Holt, Secretary of 
War {ad interim), in behalf of the President, replied as 
tolloAVs : 

" It is not his (Buchanan's) purpose to garrison the 
forts to which you refer, because he considers them en- 
tirely safe under the shelter of that law-abiding senti- 
ment for which the people of North Carolina have 
^ver been distinguished." 

The congress of delegates from the seceeded States 
convened at Montgomery, Alabama, on the 4:th of Feb- 
ruary, 1861, and on the 9th, Jefferson Davis, of Missis- 
sippi, was chosen by this body for President, and Alex- 
ander H. Stephens, of Georgia, for Vice President of the 
Confederate States. On the 18th of February Mr. Davis 
was inaugurated and the Provisional Government was 

On the 4th of March, " at the other end of the ave- 
nue," Abraham Lincoln, nominated by a sectional con- 
vention, elected by a sectional vote, and that the vote 
of a minority of the people, was inducted into ofl&ce. 

Eager now were the inquiries as to the probabilities of 
a war betAveen the sections. Everything was wrapped 
in the greatest uncertainty. North Carolina still ad- 
hered to the Union. 

The anniversary of our company occurring on the 
15th of March, which was now near at hand, we deter- 
mined to celebrate the occasion. We accordingly is- 
vsued invitations to the Rowan Rifles, of Salisbury, tli€ 


Blues and Grab's, of Danville, Va., and tlie Oran«ie 
Guards, of Ilillsboro, to be present with us. The Dan- 
ville Grays, commanded by Capt. Claiburne, arrived 
on the evening of the l-ith, the Eowan Rifles, Capt. 
McNeely, accompanied by Prof. Neave's brass band, 
greeted us on the morning of the 15th ; the Orange 
Guards, Capt. Pride Jones, brought up the rear a few- 
hours afterw^ards. Our visiting companies were wel- 
comed, and the hospitalities of the city extended in an 
appropriate address by our then \vorthy Mayor, A. P. 
Eckel, Esq. Special addresses of welcome were made 
to the Danville companies by John A. Gilmer, Jr. ; to 
the Rowan Kifies, by Lieut. James T. Morehead, Jr. ; 
and to the Orange Guards, by Lieut. Wm. Adams. 
Having formed a battalion, under the command of 
Col. E. E. Withers, wdio had accompanied the Dan- 
ville companies, we paraded the streets some hours. 
We repaired, by invitation of Prof. Sterling, to the 
Edgeworth grounds, wdiere we found a bountiful lunch 
read}^ for us, prepared by the hospitable hostess. 
From Edgew^orth we marched to the college, and 
passed in review before the bright eyes and smiling 
faces of the assembled beauty of that institution. At 
night our guests were entertained at a sumptuous col- 
lation in Yates' Hall, prepared by the ladies of our 
city. After we had refreshed the inner man, and re- 
galed ourselves at the groaning tables, we moved, by 
w^ay of a temporary bridge, constructed from the third- 
story window of the Yates building to the large hall in the 
Garrett building adjacent. Here, under the soul-stir- 
ring music discoursed by the Salisbury band, the feet 


began to t^\dnkle and sound in quadrille, and continued 


"The jagged, brazen arrows fell 
Athwart the feathers of the night." 

On the next day all departed for tlieir homes. Ah ! 
who surmised so soon to leave them again, and on so 
different a mission ! 

Vf e now pass from these holiday reflections, which 
are germane only to the introduction of these reminis- 
cences, and arrive at the period when our law-abiding 
old State called her sons to arms ; when we pledged our 
most sacred honor in the cause of freedom, and willingly 
made the sacrifice : — 

"All these were men, who knew to count, 
Front-faced, the cost of honor — 
Kor did shrink from its full payment." 

On Friday, the 12th day of April, 1861, General G. 
T. Beauregard, then in command of the provisional 
forces of the Confederate States at Charleston, S. C, 
opened fire upon Fort Sumter. Then, on the 15th, 
came the proclamation of Mr. Lincoln; calling for 75,- 
UOO troops. As this levy could only mean war, Vir- 
ginia determined to cast her lot with the Confederate 
States, and, accordingly, on the 17th added herself to 
their number. 

This proclamation Avas the out-burst of the storm, 
and with lightning speed the current of events rushed 
on to the desolating war so soon to ensue. 

On the 16th of April, Governor Ellis received from 
Mr. Cameron, Secretary of War, the following telegram, 


Washington, D. C, April lotli, 1861. 
To J. W. Ellis: 

Call made on you by to-night's mail for two regiments 
of military for immediate service. 

Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War. 

Governor Ellis immediately telegraphed back the fol- 
lowing re})ly : 

Executive Department, 
Kaleigh, N. C, April loth, 1861. 
To Simon Cameron, 

Secretary of War. 

Sir : Your dispatch is received, and if genuine, which 
its extraordinary character leads me to doubt, I have 
to say in repl}^, that I regard that levy of troops made 
by the administration for the purpose of subjugating 
the States of the South as in violation of the Constitu- 
tion, and as a gross "usurpation of power. I can be no 
party to this wicked violation of the laws of the coun- 
try, and to this war upon the liberties of a free people. 
You can yet no troops J'rom North Carolina. I will re- 
ply more in detail when 1 receive your " call." 

John W. Ellis, 
Governor of North Carolina. 

It is to be remarked that as early as the 19th of 
March, Senator Thos. L. Clingman had dispatched 
Gov. Ellis, to wit : 

" It is believed that the North Carolina forts will 
immediately be garrisoned by Lincoln." 


Mr. Lincoln's " call " for troops excited indignation 

and alarm throughout the South; and "law-abiding" 


North Carolina had now to decide what it was her 
duty to do. 

On tJie 17th of April, Gov. Ellis issued a proclama- 
tion convening the General Assembly to meet in spec- 
ial session on the first day of May. 

On the evening of the day of the issuing of the proc- 
lamation, Capt John Sloan, commanding the Grays, 
received orders from Gov. Ellis, "to report with his 
company, with three days' rations, at Goldsboro, N. C." 
This order was countermanded on the following morn- 
ing, " to rei)ort to Col. C. C. Tew, commanding tlie gar- 
rison at Eort Macon." 

In obedience to this order the Guilford Grays, on 
Friday night, April 18th, 1861, left Greensboro for 
Fort Macon. Thus the Rubicon was crossed ; thus did 
North Carolina find herself in armed confli(;t with the 
United States; and thus were the Guilford Grays pre- 
cipitated in the contest in which they were to suffer 
and endure for four long years. 

Our departure wns the occasion of dilYerent and con- 
flicting emotions. Tlie Grays, young, ardent, and full 
of enthusinsni, were the most liglit-heartcd and happy 
of all, and marched with as little thought of coming 
trouble, as if on the way to some festive entertainment. 
Not so with mothers, sisters, and sweethearts — for ex- 
cept our captain, ii()n(^ of us were married — nature 
seemed to have granted to lhese a vision of the future, 
wliic'h was denied to us, and while they cheered us on 
with encouraging words, there was manifest in their ex- 
pression a (\c,v.]) but silent under-current of sad ibrel)od- 
ings, not iniaccompanied witli tears. We marched to 

the depot with drums heating, and with that flag flying, 
which hnt twelve months heibrc the girls had given us 
as a "hnniici" of peace." 

Previous to our departure on Friday night the com- 
pany assembled in the court-house, when Lieut. John 
A. Pritchett and Orderly Sergeant W. H. Bourne, re- 
signed their oOices. Jolm A. Gilmer, Jr., was elected 
to fill the vacancy of heuteuant, and Wm. P. Wilson 
that of orderl}' sergeant. 

The following is tlie roll of members who left for 
Fort Macon on the night mentioned : 

Jolm Sloan, Captain; William Adams, 1st Lieuten- 
ant; James T. Morehead, Jr., 2d Lieutenant; John A. 
Gilmer, Jr., {3d Lieutenant ; John E. Logan, M. D., Sur- 
geon ; Henry C. Gorrell, Ensign ; William P. Wilson, 
Orderly Sergeant ; John A. Sloan, 2d Sergeant ; Geo. 
W. Howlett, 3d Sergeant; Samuel B. Jordan, 4th Ser- 
geant; Thos. J. Sloan, Corporal; Benjamin G.Graham, 
2d Corporal ; Edward M. CrowsokU, 3d Corporal ; J. 
Harper Lindsay, Jr., 4th Corporal. Privates : Hardy 
Ayres, James Ayers, William L. Bryan, Peter M. Brown, 
John D. Collins, Allison C. Cheely, Chas. A. Campbell, 
H. Rufus For bis, Rufus B. Gibson, Walter Green, 
Frank A. Hanner, Alfred W. Klutts, Andrew D. Lind- 
say, John H. McKnight, J. W. McDowell, James R. 
Peafce, Chas. E. Porter, Wilham U. Steiner, Edw. G. 
Sterhng, John E. Wharton, Richard B. Worrell, Rob- 
ert D. Weatherly, Samuel P. Weir, A. Lafayette Or- 
rell, James Gray, Samuel Robinson, J. Frank Erwin, 
Joseph E. Brown, Edward Switz, Thos. D. Brooks, W, 
G. DuvalL 


A few da3^s after onr deiDarture, tlie ladies of Greens* 
boro organized a committee, consisting of Mrs. D. P. 
Weir, Mrs. R. G. Sterling, Airs. T. M. Jones, Mrs. A. P. 
Eckel, and Mrs. J. A. Gilmer, to see that we were sup- 
plied with provisions and such clothing as was needful, 
and nobly did these blessed ladies — three of whom have 
since " crossed the River ; resting under the shade on 
the other side " — perform their work of love. We were 
constantly receiving boxes, containing, not only every 
comfort, but luxuries and dainties, from this commit- 
tee, in addition to those sent us by the dear ones in our 
private homes. 

In the meanwhile our newspapers and politicians 
were urging immediate action upon the part of our 
State. The following c[uotation from The Patriot of 
May 2d, 18()1, will serve to show the state of public 
opinion at that time. 77ie Patriot says : 

" Our streets are filled with excited crowds, and ad- 
dresses were made during the day by Governor More- 
head, Hons. R. G. Puryear, John A. Gilmer, Sr., Rob't 
P. Dick, and Thomas Settle. These speeches all 
breathed the spirit of resistance to tyrants, and our peo- 
ple were told that the time had come for North Caro^- 
lina to make common cause- with her brethren of the 
South in driving back the abolition horde." 

On the 20th day of May, 1861 (being the 86th anni- 
versary of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independ- 
ence), North Carolina severed her relations with the 
Federal Union, and nuide " common cause with her 
brethren of the South." 

During the months of May and June our company re- 


ceivcd many volunteer recruits, all, with one or two eX' 
ceptions, coming from Guilford County. Below are 
their u;)ines and the dat(\^ ol' their enlistnu-nt : 

Edward B. Iliggins, J. T. Edwards, H. M. Boon, 
Ki chard G. Boling, L. G. Hunt, John W. Nelson, Jas. 
A. Orrell, Chas. W. Westbrooks, Jos. W Pvankin, C. 
W. Stratford, William M. Summers and Jas. S. Scott, 
on the first of May. A. F. Coble, R. S. Coble, Robert 
L. Donnell, Mike Gretter, G. D. Hines, Robert A. Hamp- 
ton, Isaac F. Lane, Walter D. McAdoo, on tlie 4tli, 
Wash. D. Archer, on the 9th of June. James M. 
Ilardm, T. M. Woodburn, on the lUth. Wilbur F. 
Owen, Hal Pur^-ear, Rob't. B. McLean. Edward B. Lind- 
say, S. A. Hunter, W. I. L. Hunt, W. C. Clapp, Lsrael 
N. Clapp, Jas. C. Davis, David H. Edwards, W. C. Story, 
Andy L. Stanley, RoVt. B. Tate, on the lltli, Jas. M. 
Marsh on the 18th, John W. McNairy, H. Smiley For- 
bis, AYilliam Dennis, John W. Reid on the 15th, Thos. 
J. Rhodes on the 25th, and on the 19th of July, Jas. L* 

A large majority of the members of the Grays were 
sworn in, some two months after our arrival at the Fort, 
as twelve months State troops. Some few at this time 
returned to their homes, and others enhsted in different 
commands. Ensign H. C. Gorrell returned to Greens- 
boro, raised a company for active service, was elected 
its captain, and assigned to the 2d North Carolina regi- 
ment. He w^as killed June 21st, 1862, while gallantly lead- 
ing a charge against one of the enemy's strongholds on 
the Chickahominy. Our surgeon. Dr. John E. Logan, 
remained with us about four months as surgeon of the 
post, fie was then assigned to the 4th North Carolina 


Regiment in active service, and, later during the war, 
to the 14:th North Carohna, where he served as surgeon 
until the close of the war. 

The war fever had now reached its height, and com- 
panies were forming throughout the State, and rapidly 
hastening to Virginia, which Avas soon to become the 
theatre of active oi^erations. In the meanwhile, the 
seat of government was transferred from Montgomery, 
Alabama, to Richmond, Va,., where, on the 20th day 
of July, 1861, the first Confederate Congress convened. 

On our arrival at Fort Macon, on the nig-ht of the 
20th of April, we found our old friends, the Orange 
Guards, also the Goldsboro Rifles and the Wilson Light 
Infantry, in quiet possession of the citadel. The Uni- 
ted States garrison, consisting of Sergeant Alexander, 
supported by one six-pounder mounted on the inner 
parapet to herald the rising of the sun, and the going 
down of the same, had surrendered on the 1 1th, Avith- 
out bloodshed, to Capt. Pender, of Beaufort. The ser- 
geant was paroled, and alloAved to leave the fort with 
his flag and side-arms. The ordnance was retained. 
On the next morning we saw floating from the flag- 
staff over the fort the Pine Tree flag, with the rattle- 
snake coiled around the base. This was the State flag. 
About ten days afterAvards for some cause, and by Avhat 
authority is not known, the State flag A\"as pulled down 
and a Confederate fhig run up in its place. North Car- 
olina liad not yet seceded, and this Avas looked upon as 
an unAvarrantable assumption of command, and some of 
our company left for home, but returned Avhen the State 
afterwards seceded. 


A i'ew weeks ni'tcrwards our jiarrif^on Avas reinforced 
l)V Capt. Latliam's (artillcrv) '' Woo(l})eckcrs," from 
Craven. This eonmiand received its very appropriate 
nickname from the fact that, wlien tliey entered the 
fort, they wore very tight -fitting scarlet caps. (This 
company, with a detail from the 27tli N. C. Regiment, 
did splendid service at the battle of Newberne.) 

Some time in June we were assigned to the 9th North 
Carolina regiment ; but, for some reason unknown to 
us, we were taken from this regiment, and another corn- 
pan}^ substituted. On the 22d we were placed, with 
live other companies, in a battalion, commanded by 
Col, Geo. B. Singletary. Our position was retained in 
this battalion until some time in September, when we 
Avere assigned to the 27th North Carolina regiment, 
which was organized witli Col. Singletary as Colonel, 
Capt. John Sloan (of the Grays) Lieut. -Colonel, and 
Lieut. Thomas C. Singletary as Major. Seven com- 
panies of this regiment were then in camp near New- 
berne, and the remaining three companicvS — one of 
which was the Grays, and designated in the regiment . 
as Company " B " — were on detached service at Fort 
JMacon, where we remained until the 28th of Febru- 
ary, 1862. 

Owing to the promotion of Capt. Sloan to the Lieut. 
Colonelcy of the regiment, Lieut. William Adams was 
elected captain of the Grays and Sergeant William P. 
W^ilson elected 8d Lieutenant. 

Private William Cook died in Greensboro of typhoid 
fever, on the otli of June, having been a member of the 
company about one month. 


On tlie 8l8t of Jul}', private George J. Sloan, after 
severe illness, died at the fort. 

On the 1 st of August the following new members en- 
hsted, viz. : Jno. T. Sockwell, R. D. Brown, Frank G. 
Chilcutt, George W. Lemons, James H. Gant, Eichard 
Smith, and L. L. Prather. 

Our special employment at the Fort, outside of the 
militarj^ routine, and to relieve its tedium, was " totin " 
sand bags. Thad Coleman was our chief of ordnance, 
and as the duties of this office were important and im- 
perative, Sergeant Howlett and private A. D. Lindsay 
were detailed as assistants or aids-de-camp. While 
waiting the arrival of our artillery to equip the fort, 
Capt. Guion, our civil engineer, instructed our chief of 
ordnance and his aids to erect embrasures and traverses, 
of sand bags, on the parapets. The bags were first 
tarred, then filled with sand and carried by the men to 
the parapets. This interesting recreation was indulged 
in during the dog-days of the hottest August that our 
boys ever experienced. At the early dawn of ever}' 
morning, upon the parapet, with a pair of opera glasses, 
intensely scanning the horizon of the deep, deep blue 
sea, might have been observed the inclined form of 
Capt. Guion, on the look-out for a United States man- 
of-war. But Avhether a man-of-war or the "idly-flap- 
ping" sail of some crab hunter hove in sight, the order 
for more sand bags was placed on file at the ordnance 
department. We built traverses day after day. We 
pulled them down and built them up again, exactly as 
they were before. At length the raw material, of bag, 
failed, and Sergeant-aid-de-camp Howlett was dispatched 


iiiidci- scaled orders to Greensboro on some mysterious 
errand. We employed onr leisure time wliicli we now 
enjoyed (thanks to the ha^ii' i'ailui'e and tlie mysterious 
errand of Sergeant Ilowlett), inciting delinquents to a|)- 
})ear before a court-martial of High Privates, which we 
now organized. Among the culprits were Sergeant 
Ilowlett and private Summers. It had transpired that 
Sergeant Ilowlett's mysterious errand had been to fill 
a requisition, made by Capt. Guion and approved by 
Lieut. Colennm, chief of ordnance, I'or a Grover and. 
Baker sewing machine (extra size) to be employed in 
the furtherance of the tarred sand-bag business. The 
prisoner was tried, convicted, and sentenced to change 
his sleeping quarters to No. 14 1. This casemate was 
occupied by Harper Lindsay, Ed. Higgins, Tom. Sloan, 
Jim. Pearce, and McDowell. Any man was entitled to 
all the sleep he could get in these (quarters. 

Private Summers, who had obtained leave to visit 
home on what he rejiresented as urgent business, was 
also arraigned in due form. The charges and specifica- 
tions amounted substantially to this, that he went home 
to see his sweetheart. He was permitted by the Court 
to defend with counsel. " Long " Coble appeared for 
liim, and in his eloquent appeal for mercy — in which 
his legs and arms plaved the principal part of the argu- 
ment — he compared the prisoner to a little ship, which 
had sailed past her proper ancliorage at home and cast 
her lines at a neighbor's house. The evidence being cir- 
cumstantial he was acquitted, but was ever known after- 
wards as " Little Ship " Summers. He served faithfully 
during the entire war ; has anchored ijroperly since, 


and tlie little " crafts " around his liappy liome indicate 
that he has laid the keels for a navy. 

Eunning the " blockade " to Beaufort was another fa- 
vorite amusement. The popular and sable boatman for 
this " secret service " was Caesar Manson. Caesar's 
knowledge of the waters of the sound was full and ac- 
curate, and his pilotage around the " pint o' marsh " was 
unerring. Privates McDowell, Jim Pearce, and Ed Hig- 
gins employed Caesar a dark, rainy night on one of these 
secret expeditions to Beaufort. Owing to the fog on 
the sound and the fog in the boat, the return of the 
party was delayed till late in the night. The faithful 
sentinel, Mike Wood (of the Goldsboro Eifles), being on 
post at the wharf that night, and this fact being known 
to prudent Ciesar, he steered for the creek to avoid him. 
As these festive revellers were wading ashore, Mike, 
hearing the splashing in the water, sung out, " who 
comes there ! " receiving no repl}^, he cocked his gun, 
and became ver}^ emphatic. Pearce, knowing that Mike 
would shoot, answered yqtj fluently^ while in the water 
to his waist, "don't you shoot me, Mike Wood, I am 
coming in as fast as I can." Mike escorted the party 
to head quarters, and they performed some one else's 
guard duty for several days. 

We must not forget to mention our genial commis- 
sary, Capt. King, and his courteous assistant, Mike Gret- 
ter, of the Grays. " Billy " King and his little cosey 
quarters were just outside the fort, and so convenient of 
a cold frosty morning, to call upon liiin and interview 
his vial of distilled fruit, hid away in the corner. Vive 
le Moi, Bilh'e. 


On the 8tli of September, private James Davis died 
at the fort. 

On. September the' 28th, private Ed. Sterhug, who 
Avas absent on furlough, died at his home in Greensboro, 
N. G. 

On tlie 2r)th of Oetober, the U. S. Steamer '' Union " 
\\'as wrecked off Bogne Banks near the fort. Iler crew 
A\-as brought to the fort and eonlined there for a short 
time. What is of more interest was, that we received 
vahiable stores from the wreck, among others, elegant 
iiair mattresses, which now took the place of our shucks 
and straw. 

These days at tlie fort were our halcyon days, as the 
dark hours were to us yet unborn. Tlie war had been 
^o far a mere frolic. In the radiant sunshine of the 
moment, it was the amusing phase of the situation, not 
the tragic, that impressed us. 


On the 7th of November, Lieut. -Col. John Sloan was 
ordered to report for duty, to his regiment at Newberne. 
Some time in December Col. George Singletary resigned 
and Lieut. -Col. John Sloan Avas elected colonel of the 
regiment; Maj. T. C. Singletary was elected Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, and Lieut. John A. Gilmer, of the Grays — 
who had been acting as adjutant of the regiment at 
Newberne — was elected Major. The promotion of 
Lieut. Gilmer made a vacancy in the offices of our com- 
pany, and Sergeant John A. Sloan — at the time ser- 
geant-major of ihe fort — was elected to fill it. 


On the 28tli of February, 1862, we Avere ordered to 
join onr regiment then encamped at Fort Lane, on the 
Neu?e River, below Newberne, North Carohna. About 
mid-day we filed through the eally-port and bade a long 
and sad farewell to Fort Macon. We were transported 
by boat to Morehead City, and thence by rail to New- 
berne. We arrived at Fort Lane late in the evening, 
and in the pouring rain, marched to our quarters. Our 
position in camp was assigned us, and Ave began to make 
ourselves comfortable in our new home. We had much 
baggage, more than Avould have been allowed an entire 
corps a A^ear afterAA'ards. Every private had a trunk, 
and cA^ery mess a cooking-stove, to speak nothing of 
the extras of the officers. All this portable property 
Ave turned over to Gen. Burnside, later in the season, 
for Avant of convenient transportation. 

We had scarcely made ourselves snug in our AA^nter 
quarters Avhen we learned that a large land and naval 
force, conjoined under command of Gen. Burnside, was 
approaching NeAvberne. The fleet arrived in Neuse 
River on the 12th of March, and the land forces Avere 
in our front on the fblloAving day. On the night of the 
18th Ave left our quarters and moved down the south 
bank of the Neute a short distance, where we Avere 
placed in line of battle, in entrenchments Avhich had 
previously been constructed under the orders of Gen. L. 
0. B. Braiich, commanding our forces — our regiment be- 
ing tlie extreme left of the lines, and resting upon the 
river. The morning of the Htli broke raAV and cold, 
the fog was so dense that avc could not see fifty yards 
beyond our Avorks. As soon as it hfied, a skirmish be- 


gan upon the right of our hues between the opposing 
pickets. About the same time the gLinl)oats, which 
were creeping slowly up the river, began to shell the 
woods. Under cover of this random lii-ing the land 
forces advanced. Our })ickets along the entire line 
were rapidly driven in, and the battle of Newberne be- 
gan. It is not my purpose here to venture a descrip- 
tion of this engagement or to make any remarks by 
way of criticism. 

After repeated attacks, the right of the Confederate 
lines gave way, which exposed our portion of the lines 
to an enfilade fire ; the enemy took immediate advan- 
tage of their success, and were now endeavorinu- to turn 
our flank and get in our rear. We were ordered to 
fall back a short distance, and. made a stand a few hun- 
dred yards to the rear in the woods. Meanwhile the 
guns in Fort Lane had been silenced by the shots from 
the enemy's fleet ; this gave the boats an unobstructed 
passage to Newberne. Had they succeeded in reach- 
ing Newberne ahead of us, they would have destroyed 
the bridges and thus cut off* our retreat, and Ibrced a 
surrender of our entire command. Under these new 
and trying circumstances, a devil-may-care retreat was 
ordered, with instructions to reform at the depot in 
Newberne. We stood not upon the order of going but 
"Avent," rivaling in speed the celerit^^ of the famed 
North Carolina militia at the battle of Guilibrd Court- 

Before leaving our entrenchments, private S. H. Hun- 
ter was struck by a fragment of shell, which had ex- 
ploded near us, and killed. This was the only casualty 


in our company and tlie first. Poor Hunter was struck 
on the head and rendered unconscious. He was car- 
ried from the field and brought with us to Kinston in 
an ambuhmce, but died on the way. His remains were 
conveyed under escort to Greensboro. Sergeant Samuel 
B. Jordan was captured on the retreat. He was ex' 
changed and paroled afterwards, but his term of enlist- 
ment having expired, he did not again enlist. 

The company, or at least a portion of it, reformed at 
the depot in Newberne. From here Ave continued our 
retreat unmolested to Kinston, where we arrived at a 
late hour in the night. 

While at the depot in NcAvberne a special train was 
ordered for the transportation of the sick and wounded* 
Some fcAV others apparently healthy and able-bodied, 
but constitutionally exhausted, sought shelter on this 
train. Among these was my body-guard " Bill," who, 
with prudential forecast, had secured a berth early in 
the action and " held his ground " until the train reached 
Greensboro. Bill says he simply went home to inform 
"mar's" Eobert that "mar's" John was safe and "un- 
touched." He returned in due season and enlisted with 
me " durin " the war, was faithful to the end, and is part 
of our history. 

We I'cmaiiied in and around Kinston performing 
picket duty on the roads leading toward Newberne until 
the 22d of March. About the 25th we cluxnged our 
camp to "Black-jack," and on the 29th we moved to 
Southwest Church. 

The muster-roll of our company at this period con- 
tained one hundred and twenty names, but of this 

number, owing to the measles, wliooj)ing-congli, itcli, 
and otlier " diseases dire," onlv scvciitv-tliree were re- 
ported for duty. 

On the 18tli of Mareli, Mike Gretter was detached and 
appointed brigade commissary sergeant, in whicli posi- 
tion he served during tlie entire war. On tlie 1st of 
Ajn-il, A. D. Lindsay — a graduate of tlie sand-bag de- 
partment of Fort Macon — was appointed Ordnance Ser- 
geant of our regiment. About the 20th of April, our 
1st Lieutenant, James T. Morehead, Jr., resigned, to ac- 
cept the position of captain in the 45th North Carohna 
regiment. He was afterwards elected heutenant-colonel 
of the 53d regiment, and after the death of CoL Owens, 
was promoted to the colonelcy. Colonel Morehead was 
wounded at Spotts3dYania Court- House, Gettysburg, and 
Hares' Plill, at which latter place he was made a pris- 
oner in a gallant charge of his command, and was held 
until after the war. 

Private John W. JSTclson was detailed as permanent 
teamster to regimental quarter-master, some time in 
April, and acted as such until the 17th of March, 1863, 
when he died in the hospital at Charleston, S. C. 

The expiration of the term of enlistment of the twelve 
months' men Avas now near at hand ; and to provide 
measures to levy new troops, and to hold those already 
in the field, President Davis was authorized by an act 
of Congress " to call out and place in the military ser- 
vice for three years all white male residents between 
the ages of 18 and 35 years, and to continue those al- 
ready in the field until three years from the date of en- 
listment, but those under 18 years and over 35 were to 


remain 90 days.'* Under ^tliis act our company lost 
privates R. B. Jones, W. D. Planner, W. Hopkins, W. 
C. Winfree, and W. Burnsides, all of whom were over 
85 A^ears of age. W. Burnsides rejoined us in April, 
1863. Private John E. Wharton substituted P. A. 
Ricks on the 1st of May, and returned to Guilford, 
where he raised a company and re-entered the service 
as its commandant. Private Ed. Lindsey, who lefi us, 
beino" under 18 years of age, was made a lieutenant in 
Capt. Wharton's company. Ed. was killed in the 
month of April 1865. 

On the 16th of April, the 27th North Carolina regi- 
ment reorganized. Major John H. Cooke, who was at 
that time cliief of artillery on Gen. Holmes' staff, was 
elected colonel, P. W. Singletary re-elected lieutenant- 
colonel, and John A. Gilmer, Jr., re-elected major. The 
regiment was then assigned to Gen. Robert Ransom's 
Brio-ade, under wliose command we remained until the 
1st of June. 

On the 22d of April, our company reorganized as 
company " B." Wilham Adams was re-elected captain, 
John A. Sloan was elected 1st leutenant, John PI. Mc- 
Knight 2d lieutenant, and Frank A. Planner, 2d lieuten- 
ant junior; Benjamin G. Graham was appointed or- 
derly sergeant, Samuel B. Jordan (still prisoner) 2d ser- 
geant, Thos. J. Sloan, 3d sergeant, George W. Howlett, 
4th sergeant. Will U. Steiner, 5th sergeant, Ed B. Crow- 
son, 1st coi'poral, Jed 11. Lindsay, Jr., 2d corporal, John 
1). Colhns, 3dcorporal, and Chas. A. Campbell, 1th cor- 
poral. Lieutenant W. P. Wilson declined re-election 
in the company to accept the position of adjutant of the 


regiment, tendered him by Col. Cooko, wliicli oflice lie 
filled with much ci'edit to hini.-clf and icginient. lie 
died in Greeni-boi-o on March od, 1.^6'3, after a severe 

From the 4th to the 7th of May, we assisted in tear- 
ing up and destroying the A. k N. C. Railroad I'rom 
Kinston to Core Creek. We made up our minds if 
Burnside pursued us again, he should come slowly, and 
on foot. 


From February to the tenth of ^Fay, the following 
men hdd joined our company : Benjamin Burnsides, 
Henry Coble, R. L. Colt rain, John Colt rain, D. L. 
Clark, John Cannady, W. W. Underwood, Jas. Hall, 
Jas. R. Wiley, Hugh Hall. Wash. Williams, Lewis N. 
Isley, Stephen D. Wmbourne, W. W. McLean, Geo. 
H. Woolen, Wm. McFarland, Sam'l Young, Lemuel 
May, Thos. L. Greeson, Rnsper Foe, B. N. Smith, J. 
M. Edwards, John H. Smith, R. L. Smith, AYm. Seats, 
Paisley Sheppard, Newton Kirk man, James Lemons, 
AYm. Horney, Silas C. Dodson (rejoined), Jas. E. Mc- 
Lean, Wm. May, S. F. McLean, E, F. Shuler, and J. 
J. Thom. 

Samuel Park Weir, who had acted as cliaplain to 
our company, in connection with his duties as a pri- 
vate soldier, was transferred, in May, to the 4()th North 
Carolina regiment, to acc-ept the o!Tice of Licu-enunt in 
one of the companies of that regiment. ^Yhen the war 

commenced, Sam was at the TheoWical Seminarv in 
5 ° ^ 


Columbia, S. C. Leaving his studies, lie sliouldered 
his musket and entered the ranks of the Grays in 
April, 1861. At the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 
loth, 1862, as his regiment was passing in our rear, at 
the foot of Marye's Hill, Sam halted a moment to 
speak to Col. Gilmer, who had been wounded as we 
were moving into our position, and was advising him 
to leave the field. While thus conversing with the 
colonel and the writer, he was struck by a minie-ball, 
and instantly killed, falling lifeless at our feet. His 
remains were carried to Greensboro, and buried in the 
Presbyterian burying-grounds. 

On the front line, he crossed the silent stream, leav- 
ing behind him the fragrant memory of a name en- 
graven to remain in the affections of his comrades, and 
an example of modesty, purity, courage, and devotion 
to principle unsurpassed. He sleeps the sleep of the 
blessed, and no spot of earth contains a more gallant 
soldier, a truer patriot, or a more faithful and sincere 
friend — 

" Sleep, soldier I Still, in honored rest^ 
Your truth and valor wearing; 
The bravest are the tenderest — 
The loving are the daring," 

On the 31st of May we folded our tents, made our 
preparations for a hasty adieu to North Carolina, and 
left Kinston for the seat of war in Virginia. We 
reached Richmond about one o'clock on the first of 
June. As we neared the city, we could hear distinctly 
the guns of the battle of Seven Pines, and as soon as 
we reached the depot, we were ordered to the battle- 
field. We were marched rapidly through Eichmond, 


all anxious to take part in the battle now raging. Be- 
fore we arrived on the Held, the] fight had been 
fought and won, and our services were not called for. 

On the following (Uu' we were assigned to Gen. J. G. 
Walker's brigade, and ordered into camp atJDrury'a 
BlulV, where we remained, constructing fortifications, 
until the latter part of June. While in camp here, 
B. N. Smith substituted Paul Crutchfield. Dr. L. G. 
Hunt, acting surgeon of our company, was appointed 
assistant surgeon of the regiment. " Gvvyn," with his 
amiable and handsome hospital steward, C. M. Parks, 
of the Orange Guards, continued to prescribe " them 
thar pills" until the war ended. 

On the 27th of June, 1^62, the memoral)le " Seven 
Days' Fight" around Richmond began. The Grays 
formed a portion of the reserve under Gen. Holmes, and 
were marched from battle-field to battle field, receiving 
the shells of the enemy, and acting as targets for their 
sharp shooters. On tlie 29th, Gen. Holmes crossed from 
the south side of the James River, and on the 30th, be- 
ing re- enforced by Gen. Wise's brigade, moved down the 
river road with a view to gain, near to Malvern Hill, a 
position which would command the supposed route of 
McClellan's retreating army. V/e were posted on this 
road at New Market, which was supposed to be the 
route McClellan would pursue in his retreat to the 
James. Our generals and their guides, being ignorant 
of the country, subsequently learned there was another 
road running by the Willis church which would better 
serve the purpose of the retreating foe, and we were 
moved to a position on this road. Here we remained 

under the fire of the enemy's gun-boats, whose hnge, 
shrieking shells crashing through the trees and burst- 
ing in Qiir midst, inspired a degree of terror not justi- 
fied by their effectiyeness. The dust created by our 
march gaye the enemy a knowledge of our position, 
and caused the gun-boats to open this heayy fire upon 
us. Instead of finding the enemy a straggling mass, as 
had been reported, they were entrenched between West's 
house and Malyern Hill, commanding our position with 
an open field between us. 

General Holmes' artillery opened fire upon the ene- 
my's infantry, wliich immediately gaye way, and simul- 
taneously their batteries, of twenty-five or thirty guns, 
and their gun boats made a cross-fire upon us. Their 
force, both in infantry and artillery, being yastly su- 
perior to ours, any attempt upon our part to make 
an assault being considered worse than useless, we 
were withdrawn at night-fall. The enemy kept up 
their cannonading until after dark. 

On the 1st of July, late in the afternoon, line of bat- 
tle was formed and orders were issued for a general ad- 
vance at a giyen signal, and the bloody battle of Mal- 
vern Hill began. Several determined efforts were made 
to storm Crews Hill ; " brigades advanced bravely 
across the open field raked by the fire of a hundred 
cannon and the muskets of large bodies of infantry. 
Some were broken and gave way ; others approached 
close to the guns, driving back the infantry, compelling 
the advance batteries to retire to escape capture and 
mingling their dead with tlio;-e of the enemy. For 
want of co-operation the assaults of the attacking col- 


limns were too weak to break the enemy's line, and 
aCter struggling gallantly, sustaining and inllieting great 
1«'S8, tliev were com])elled sueeessively to retire. The 
firing continued until after \) p. m., but no decided re- 
sult was gained. At the cessation of firing several 
fragments of different commands were lying down and 
holding their ground within a short distance of the en- 
emy's line, and as soon as the lighting ceased an in- 
formal truce was established by common consent. 
Parties from both armies, with lanterns and litters, 
wandered over the field seeking for the wounded, 
whose groans could not fail to move with pity the 
hearts of friends and foe.'' ^IcClellan w^ithdrew with 
his army during the night, and hastily retreated to 
Harrison's landino" on the James. 



Earh^ on the next morning the rain began to fall in 
torrents, and continued f« r forty-eight hours, render- 
ing the roads almost impassable. It was reported that 
the enemy were crossing the James, and we were or- 
dered back to our camp near Drury's Bluff". About 
sun-down we commenced our weary and hard march. 
Our men were w'orn out by continuous marching and 
loss of sleep, still we plodded along, reaching our camp, 
17 miles distant, about 8 o'clock in the morning thor- 
oughly drenched. Col. Cooke had gone ahead of us, 
and having aroused the men left in charge of the camp, 
had great blazing fires in front of our tents awaiting 
our arrival. 


On the 6tli, we left Drury's Bluff and marched to 
Petersburg, spending a day there ; on the morning of 
the 8th we were ordered to Fort Powhatan on the 
James below City Point. About daylight on the morn- 
ing of the 11th we were placed in ambush on a high 
bluif on the river with instructions to fire into any ves- 
sel that might attempt^to pass. We had not been long 
in our position when a transport called the " Daniel 
Webster " was spied approaching us. When she 
steamed up opposite us, the batteries which had ac- 
companied us let loose the " dogs of war," and riddled 
her cabins and hull. She floated off down the river 
disabled, but we had no means of knowing what dam- 
age we had done to the crew. Very soon the gun- 
boats below opened fire upon us, and, for a mile below, 
the woods and banks of the river were alive with shot 
and shell. We withdrew our artillery and made a 
similar attempt the next day, but found no game. 

We returned to Petersburg and remained in camp 
there until the 19th of August, picketing up and down 
the eJames River. 

On tlie 81st of July we were sent down the river as 
support to the artillery which had been ordered to 
Coggins' Point to shell McClellan's camp. On the 
night of the 1st of August we had about fifty pieces of 
our artillery in position ; we could not show^ ourselves 
in the daytime, as the enemy had their balloons up 
and could almost see the " promised land " around 
Eichmond. About 2 o'clock in the morning we 
opened fire upon McClellan's camp on the oppc site 
hank of the river. His camp fires and the lights 


from the shipping in the river formed a grand |)ano- 
ranui. After a lew shots from our artillery, these 
lights quickly disappeared. We kej)t up a constant lire 
for several hours, withdrew, and at daylight took up 
the line of marcli for Petersburg. After we had re- 
tired far out of reach of their guns, the enemy o[)ened 
the valves of their ordnance and belched ibrth sounds 
infernal, but their gunijowder and iron was all wasted 
upon imaginary forces. 

On the 20th of August w^e were ordered to liicli- 
mond, remaining there, at Camp Lee, until the 26th, 
when we boarded the train for Eayddan Station, on the 
Orange & Alexandria Eailroad. We remained in camp 
at tins point until the 1st of September. 

Sergeant Geo. W. Ilowdett, being disabled for ser- 
vice in the field on account of bis eyes, left us on the 
28dof July. Private K. L. Coltrain was discharged 
by surgeon's certificate about the same time. Corporal 
John D. Collins, on detail as one of the color-guard^ — 
and who, in the absence of the regular color-guard of the 
regiment, had carried our flag in the battles around 
Kichmond — died of typhoid fever, while we were en- 
camped at Drury's Bluff'. On the 8th of August, pri- 
vate W. C. Clapp died at his home, and private John 
H. Smith at the hospital in Petersburg. On the 17th, 
Hal Puryear substituted a most excellent soldier in the 
person of Louis Lineberry. About this time a regi- 
mental band w^as formed, and the Grays furnished as 
their quota : Ed. B. liiggins, Samuel Lipsicomb, and 
Thomas J. Sloan ; each of whom became excellent 
" tooters." 


After the series of engagements at Bull Run and on 
the Plains of Manassas, the condition of Marjdand en- 
couraged the belief that the presence of our army would 
excite some active demonstration upon the part of her 
people, and that a military success would regain Mary- 
land. Under these considerations, it was decided by 
our leaders to cross the army of Northern Virginia in- 
to Western Maryland, and then, by threatening Penn- 
sylvania, to induce the Federal army to withdraw from 
our territory to protect their own. 

Gen. J. G. Walker, our brigadier — now in command 
of the division — ordered us from our camp at Eapidan 
Station, on the morning of September 1st, and we set 
out with the army of Northern Virginia on what is 
termed the "first Maryland campaign." Our first day's 
march halted us at Warrenton. On the 4th, we 
reached the battle-field of Manassas, finding many of 
the enemy's dead still unburied, from the engagement 
a few days previous. On the 5th, we passed through 
the villages of Haymarket and New Baltimore, and 
rested at Leesburg on the evening of the 6th. McClel- 
lan was ignorant of Lee's plans, and his army remained 
in close vicinity to the lines of fortifications around 
Washington, until the sixth. Early next morn- 
ing (Sunday), we forded the Potomac at Noland's 
Ferry, and were occupying the shores of " My Mary- 
land." Our band struck up the " tune," but the citizens 
we came in contact with did not seem disposed to 
" come." We had evidently crossed at the wrong ford. 
On the next day, the 8th, we arrived at a small place 
called Buckettown, where we rested until the morn- 


in;4 of the ninth. Abont 10 o'clock, wo reached Fred- 
erick citv; here we Ibnnd the main army, and our 
division was assigned to Gen. Longstreet's corps. In a 
skirmish with the enemy's cavalry, near the city, Jas. 
A. Orrell and 'J'hos. R. Greeson were caj)tured. 

On the night of the Dth, we, in company with our 
division, were quietly marched to the mouth of the Mo- 
nocacy river to destroy the aqueduct. We were tramp- 
ing all night and accomplished nothing ; the manoeuver, 
as it afterward appeared, was but a feint to draw the 
attention of the enemy away from the movements of 
" Stonewall's " corps, then marching on Plarper's Ferry. 
About daylight next morning we found ourselves again 
in the vicinity of Buckettown; we proceeded some 5 
miles further, where we formed a line of battle, and 
rested on our arms in this position all day in full view of 
the enemy, who were posted on the hills bej'ond us, and 
to the east of Buckettown. As soon as night came, we 
started otY hurriedly in the direction of Frederick ; hav- 
ing gone in this course some three miles w^e coun- 
termarched and took the road for Point of Eocks on the 
Potomac. Just as day was breaking, on the morning 
of the i2th, after a rapid march, we reached Point of 
Rocks and recrossed the Potomac. We were com- 
pletely bewildered as to our course, and no one seemed 
to know what all this manoeuvering would lead to. Dur- 
ing the day, we ascertained we were on the road lead- 
ing to Harper's Ferry, but our course w^as so repeatedly 
changed that w^e had but this consolation, that "if we 
did not know where we were, or where w^e were going, 
the Yankees didn't, for the Devil himself could not keep 


track of us." At night we reached Hillshoro, in Lou- 
doun County, Va., and camped near there. On the 
18th, we were in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, and at 
night took possession of Loudon Heights, on the east 
side of the Shenandoah, and were in readiness to open 
fire upon Harper's Ferry. General McLaws liad been 
ordered to seize Mary hind Heights, on the north side 
of the Potomac, opposite Harper's Ferry. Finding them 
in possession of the enemy, he assailed their works and 
carried them ; they retreated to Harper's Ferry, and on 
the 14th, its inyestment by our forces was complete. 
As soon as we gained our position, which was accom- 
plished by a circuitous route up the steep and ragged 
mountain, the enemy in and around Harper's Ferry 
opened fire upon us from their batteries. Ov.'ingtothe 
extreme elevation, most of their shells fell short ; a few 
burst over us, but did no damage. The batteries at- 
tached to our division were carried by hand to the top 
of the Heights, and placed in position. Early on the 
morning of the 15th, the attack upon the garrison be- 
gan. Stonewall Jackson's batteries opened fire from 
Bolivar Heights, in conjunction with ours and the ar- 
tillery on Maryland Heights ; in about two hours, " by 
the grace of God," as Jackson had foretold, the garri- 
son, consisting of 11,000 men, surrendered. Seventy- 
three pieces of artillery, 18,000 small arms, and a large 
quantity of military stores fell into our hands. 

On the night of the 15th we made our descent from 
the Heights, crossed tlie mountain and resumed our 
march. About midday of the 16th we readied Shep- 
lierdstown, crossed the Potomac and went into camp 
near Sharpsburg, Marvland. 


On the morning of the 17th of Septeml)er, just be- 
fore day-break, we were aroused from our shimbers and 
moved to a position in line of battle on the exti'eme 
right of the Confederate lines. At early dawn the en- 
emy o])ened their artillery from both sides of the An- 
tietam, the heaviest lire being direeted against our left. 
Under cover of this fire a large force of infantry at- 
tacked Gen. Jackson's division, and for some time the 
conflict raged with fury and alternate success. Gen. 
Early, in command of Ewell's division, was sent to their 
-up])ort. when Jackson's division was withdrawn, its 
amunition being nearly exhausted. The battle was 
now renewed with great violence, and the troops of Mc- 
Laws and J. G. Walker were brouo;ht from the right. 
With these re-enforcements Gen. Early attacked reso- 
lutely the large force opposed to him, and drove them 
back in some confusion beyond the position our troops 
had occupied at the beginning of the engagement. This 
attack upon our left was speedily followed by one in 
heavy force on the centre, and our regiment was double- 
quicked one and a. half miles to near the centre, and 
placed in line about one mile to the left of the town of 

The gallant and conspicuous part which the 27th 
regiment took in the fight, Capt. Graliam, of the Orange 
Guards, describes graphically as follows : 

" Forming in a corn-field we advanced under a heavy 
fire of grape and canister at a quick step up a little rise 
and hailed at a rail fence, our riglit considerably ad- 
vanced. After holding this position for half an hour 


or more our front was changed so as to be on a line witli 
the other troops. In the meantime we had suffered 
heavily, and I think had inflicted equally as much 
damage. [On this first advance Capt. Adams was shot 
down.] About 1 o'clock the enemy having retired be- 
hind the hill upon which they were posted, and none 
appearing Avithin range in our front, Col. Cooke ordered 
us to fall back some twenty steps in the corn and lie down 
so as to draw them on ; he, in the meantime, regardless 
of personal danger from sharpshooters, remained at the 
fence beside a small tree. Alter remaining there some 
20 minutes, the enemy attempted to sneak up a section 
of artillery to the little woods upon our left. Colonel 
Cooke, watching the movement, ordered the four left 
companies of oui" regiment up to the fence and directed 
them to fire upon this artillery. At the first fire, be- 
fore they had gotten into position, nearly every horse 
and more than half the men fell, and the infantry line 
which had moved up to support them showed evident 
sio'ns of wavering^. Col. Cooke seeino- this, and havinoj 
received orders to charge if opportunity offered, im- 
mediately ordered a charge. Without waiting a sec- 
ond word of command we leaped the fence and ' made 
at them,' and soon we had captured three guns and had 
the troops opposed to us in full retreat. A battery 
posted near a little brick church upon a hill to our lett 
was playing sad havoc with us, but supposing that 
would be taken by the troops upon our left — who we 
concluded were charging with us — we still pursued the 
flying foe. Numbers of them surrendered to us and 
they were ordered to the rear. We pushed on and 
soon wheeled to the right, drove down their line, giv- 
ing them all the while an enfilade fire, and succeeded 
in breaking six regiments who lied in confusion. After 
pushing on this way for a while we found ourselves op- 
posed by a large body of troops behind a stone wall in 
a corn-field. ;Stoi)ping to contend with these, we found 
that we were almost out of amunition. Owing to this 


fact, and not bcintjf su})])orted in our charge, wc were 
ordered to fall back to our original ])osition. This of 
course was done at double-quick. As we returned we 
ex])erienced the perfidy of those who had previously 
siin-endered to us, and whom we had not taken time to 
disarm. They, seeing that we were not su})})ortcd, at- 
tempted to form a line in our rear, and in a few min- 
utes would have done so. As it was w^e had to pass 
between two fires ; a })art of the troops having been 
thrown back to oppose our movement on their flank, 
and these supposed prisoners having formed on the 
other side. A bloody lane indeed it proved to us. 
Man}' a brave man lost his life in that retreat. At 
some points the lines were not sixty yards distant on 
either side. Arriving at our original position, we halted 
and reformed behind the rail fence. We opened fire 
with the few remaining cartridges we had left and soon 
checked the advance of the enemy, who did not come 
beyond the line which they occupied in the morning. 
In a short w^hile all our amunition w^as exhausted. 
Courier after courier was sent after amunition, but 
none was received. Four or five times during the af- 
ternoon, couriers came from Gen. Longstreet, telling 
Col. Cooke to hold his position at all hazards, ' as it 
was the key to the whole line.' Cooke's re|)ly was, 
' tell Gen. Longstreet to send me some amunition. I 
have not a cartridge in my command, but I will hold 
my position at the point of the bayonet.' " 

Mr. Davis, in his historj^, says: " Col. Coohe^ with the 
^7th North Carolina rerjiment, stood boldly in line with- 
out a cartridyey 

" About 5 o'clock in the afternoon Ave were relieved, 
and moved to the rear about one mile. After resting 
half an hour and getting fresh amunition, we were again 
marched to the front, and placed in line in the rear of 
the troops who had relieved us. Here we were sub- 
jected to a severe shelling, but had no chance to leturn 


tlie tire. After niglitfall Ave rejoined our division on 
the left, and with them bivouaced upon the battle-field." 

General R. E. Lee, in his report of this battle, makes 
complimentary mention of our regiment, and says, fur- 
ther, " this battle was fought by less than forty thou- 
sand men on our side, all of whom had undergone the 
greatest labors and hardships in the field and on the 
march. Nothing could surpass the determined valor 
with which they. met the large arni}^ of the enemy, 
fully supplied and equipped, and the result reflected the 
highest credit on the officers and men engaged." 

General McClellan, in his official report, states that 
he had in action in the battle 87,184 men of all arms. 
Lee's entire strength was 85,255. " These 35,000 Con- 
federates were the very flower of the army of northern 
Virginia, who. with indomitable courage and inflexible 
tenacity, wrestled for the mastery in the ratio of one to 
three of their adversaries; at times it appeared as if 
disaster was inevitable, but succor never failed, and 
night found Lee's lines unbroken and his army still de* 
fiant. The drawn battle of Sharpsburg was as forcible 
an illustration of southern valor and determination as 
was furnished during the whole period of the war, when 
the great disparity in numbers between the two armies 
is considered. 

The; Graj^'^ went into this battle with 32 men, rank 
and file. Capt. William Adams, privates Jas. E. Ed- 
wards, A. F. Coble, James M. Edwards, R. Le^^ton Smith 
and Samuel Young were killed on the field. Privates 
I^etcr M. Browai, Benjamin Burnsides and Robert L. 
l)(»nncll wer(; badlv wounded and foil into the hands of 


tlie enemv. H. L. Donncll tliocl of liis woiiiids at Clies- 
tcr, ?:i.. NovembiT Gtli, 18i)2. Privates W. D. Arclior, 
WalU'i- I). McAdoo, J. K. McLean, Samuel K. ^^cLcall, 
L. L. Pratlier and W. W . Underwood were wounded 
and sent to the hospital. W. W. Underwood died of 
his wounds September 2\)t\\, 1S(V2. Privates Paul 
Crutehlield, II. Hul'us Forhis, Rul'us B. Gil.son, James 
M. Hardin, James L. Wilson and William MeFarland 
were exchanged and returned to their company ihe 
following Novenil'jer, except MeFarland, who was re- 
ported dead. 

On account of the forced and continuous march from 
Rapidan, many of our men from sheer exhaustion and 
sickness Avere compelled to fall out of ranks, among them 
some of the best soldiers in the company. 

Captain Adams, as before stated, fell early in the ac- 
tion. He was carried from the iield and buried in the 
cemetery at Shepherdstown. His remains were after- 
wards removed and interred in the cemetery at Greens- 
boro. He was a brave and gallant officer, and fell front- 
faced with his armor on. The other members of the 
company who were killed, wrapped in their martial 
garb, sleep in some unknown grave, on the spot where 
they fell, amid the carnage and gore of the battle-field : 

"Whether unknown or known to fiime — 
Their cause and country still the same — 
They died, and wore the gray.'* 

On the 18th we occupied the position of the preced- 
ing day. Our ranks were increased during the day, 
and our general forces were augmented by the arrival 
of troops ; but our army was in no condition to take 


the offensive, and the army of McClellan had been too 
severely handled to jnstifj a reneAval of the attack, con- 
sequently the day passed without any hostile demon- 
strations. During the night our army was withdrawn 
from Sharpsburg, and at day-break on the morning of 
the 19th we recrossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown. 
After fording the river, we halted a short distance on 
the hills near by, and were engaged in drying our cloth- 
ing and making a breakfast from our scanty rations of 
pop- corn and hard tack, when a force of the enemy, 
(Porter's corps,) who had the temerity to cross the 
river in pursuit, made their appearance. Gen. A. P. 
Hill, in charge of the rear guard of the army, met them, 
made a charge upon tliem and drove them into the river. 
In his report of this engagement he says : " The broad 
surface of the Potomac was blue with the floating bod- 
ies of our foe. But few escaped to tell the tale. By 
their own account they lost three thousand men, killed 
and drowned. Some two hundred prisoners were taken." 

The condition of our troops now demanding repose, 
we were ordered to the Occoquan, near Martinsburg. 
On our march another attempt to harrass our rear was 
reported, and we were sent back to the vicinity of Shep- 
herdstown; finding "all quiet on the Potomac," the 
march was again resumed at night, and on the 21st we 
went into camp near Martinsburg. After spending a 
few days here we Avere moved to the neighborhood of 
Bunker Hill and Winchester, and remained in camp 
until the 23d of October. 

On the 22d of September, while in camp near Mar- 
tinsburg, the Grays proceeded to fill the offices made 


vacant hy tlie hattlc of tl:c 17tli. Lieut. J. A. Sloan 
'was promoted to caj^tain ; 2(1 Lieut. ^IcKnight to 1st 
Lieutenant; Frank A. ILinner to 2d Lieutenant; and 
Sergeant B. G. Graham to junior 2d Lieutenant. J. 
Harper Lindsay was appointed orderly sergeant. Cor- 
porals Wm. A[. Paisley and A. C. Clieely were made 
Sergeants. Privates P. D. Weatlierly, Tlios. J. Rhodes, 
and IL Rufus Forbis were appointed corporals. 

On the bth of September, private P. D. Brown died 
at the hospital in Petersburg, Ya. ; on tlie 12th, pri- 
vate P. L. Coble, at Frederick City, Md. ; on the IDth, 
Hugh Hall in hospital at Pichmond; and on the 24th, 
privates Wm. Seats and Wm. H. ^fcLean died in hos- 
pital at Winchester, Ya. 


About the middle of October, IMcClellan moved his 
army across the Potomac, east of the Blue Ridge, and 
bent his course southward. Later in the month, he be- 
^an to incline eastwardly from the mountains, and fin- 
ally concentrated his forces in the neighborhood of War- 
rcnton, Yirginia. On the 7th of November he was re- 
lieved of the command of the army of the Potomac, and 
Gen. Burnside, "under Federal dispensation," became his 
successor. The indications were that Fredericksburg 
was again to be occupied. Gen. Lee, with his 
usual foresight, divining his purpose, promptly made 
such disposition as was necessary to forestall him. Mc- 
Law's and Ransom's divisions were ordered to proceed 
at once to that city. 


On the morning of the 28d we broke up our camp at 
Winchester, and after a long but pleasant day's march, 
reached the vicinity of Millwood ; from thence we jour- 
neyed on to Paris, in Loudon County. Our march 
through this Arcadia ofYirginia, with its picturesque 
scenery, and along those splendid and wonderful turn- 
pikes, as they stretched out before us, formed a pano- 
rama never to be forgotten. The giant hills stood 
around like sentinels wrapped in their everlasting si- 
lence ; behind these, still bolder hills, and again behind 
these, the blueuess of the distant mountains. The day 
was glad with the golden brightness of an October sun, 
and as I gazed upon these mountains, clothed in their 
autumnal beauty, and in their everlasting fixity of re- 
pose, I could but contrast this grandeur and silence with 
the too recent scenes of blood and tumult upon the hills 
of Antietam. How brief, how insignificant is man's 
existence ! Encamped so high above the world filled 
us with a sense of exaltation and awe. Fires were soon 
lighted, and the men, weary with marching, wrapped 
in their blankets, stretched themselves upon the ground 
to sleep, perchance to dream of firesides in distant 
homes where — 

" Belike sad eyes with tearful strain, 
Gazed northward very wisttully 
For liini that ne'er \voiikl come again." 

The next mornintj; broke cold and threatening^. We 
resumed our march and had proceeded but a few miles 
when the rain began to fall. Later in the day it came 
down in torrents, and the wind was blowing gales. 
About dark, in the midst of this storm, we were halted 

in a large hickory grove on the side of the Blue Ridge, 
near the small village of Uppervillc. Our men com- 
prehended the situation at once, and, though thoroughly 
drenched and chilled, soon had their axes ringing in 
the forest, and large log fires were ablaze over the camp. 
Tlie storm continued with fury all night, to sleep was 
impossible, and we were forced to pass the most disa- 
greeable night we had ever experienced. 

On the '.iUtli we retraced our steps to Paris. On the 
following morning, acting as an escort to a foraging 
party, we proceeded to Middleboro. At night we re- 
turned to camp, rich in wagon loads of corn and pro- 
vender, also securing a large lot of fine beeves. On the 
next day, leaving Paris, we moved by way of Salem in 
the direction of Culpepper Court-IIouse, which place 
we reached on the 2d of November, and remained there 
until the -ith. Sergeant Harper Lindsay, while here, 
accepted the position of adjutant of the ioth North 
Carolina regiment, and Sergeant Chas. Campbell was 
promoted to orderly sergeant in his stead. 

On the night of the 4th, after a tiresome daj^'s march, 
we went into camp on the top of Cedar Mountain. We 
were halted on a bleak and barren hill with no fuel 
within our reach. Col. Cooke, under the circumstances, 
suspended "special orders" in reference to destroying 
private property, and gave the men permission to burn 
the rails from the fences near by. For this necessary 
disobedience some spiteful person reported him and he 
was placed in arrest, from which he was released next 
day without a court martial. After our company had 
made its fires and were busy trying to make a supper 
from their scanty rations, I strolled over to Cooke's 


headquarters and found him sitting moodily over Ms fire 
of rails. We began to discuss the officers of the brigade, 
and while he was idly turning a splinter he held in his 
fingers, it fell from his hand and stuck upright in the 
ground. He turned quickly to me, slapped me on the 
back and laughingly said : " John, that is an omen of 
good luck." I surmised to what he had reference — a 
probability of his promotion had been whispered — and 
replied, I did not take much stock in splinters, but I 
hoped in this instance the omen might be realized. In 
a few moments, several men from the regiment, with 
their canteens, passed near us and one of them, a lank, 
lean soldier, inquired of Cooke if lie could tell him 
where the spring of water Avas. AYith some irritability 
in his tone he replied, " A'o, go hunt for it." The thirsty 
questioner, possibly recognizing him, made no reply, 
but turned away thinking, no doubt, under other cir- 
cumstances, he would have answered him differently. 
The soldier had gone but a short distance when Cooke 
called him back, apologized for his hasty speech and - 
indifference, and informed him kindly where he could 
find the water. 

Not manj^ days afterwards the splinter omen was inter- 
pireted, and Col. John E. Cooke, of the 27th North Car- 
olina regiment (though junior colonel of the brigade), 
was promoted for gallantry to brigadier general, and as- 
signed to the command of Gen. J. G. Walker's brigade, 
who was transferred to the Mississippi department. 
I have introduced these incidents, merely to illus- 
trate the noble traits of character of this gallant 
and courteous gentleman and soldier, who was acknowl- 
edged by Gen. Lee himself to be tlic brigadier of his 


armv. Of his services with his North Carolina brigade 
histoiy ah'eady leaves him a record. He is a man of 
ehivalric courage, and po;^sesFes that magnanimity ot 
heart which ever wins the alYections of a soldier. lie 
was beloved by liis entire command. A truer sword 
was not drawn in defence of the South and her 
cause, and a more untarnished blade never returned to 
its scabbard when the unhappy conflict was over. 

Upon the promotion of CoL Cooke — Lieut. -CoL Sin- 
gletary having resigned on account of wounds — Major 
John A. Gilmer was promoted to Colonel, Capt. George 
F. Whiteheld, of Company C, to Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
Capt. Jos. C. Webb, of the Orange Guards, to Major. 
The brigades in our division Avere also changed, and 
under the reassignment of regiments, Cooke's command 
consisted entire!}^ of Nc/rth Carolina troops, and was 
well knoicn in Lee's army as " Cooke's North Carolina 

On the 8th of November we were moved to Madison 
Court-IIouee, where we remained until the 18th. About 
the Loth tlie army of the Potomac was reported in mo- 
tion, and their gun-boats and transports had entered 
Aquia Creek in their " on to Fredericksburg." On 
the morning of the 18th, our division received march- 
ing orders, and we also set out for Fredericksburg. 
Tlie weather w^as very cold, and our march was made 
through rain and sleet ; the ground was frozen, and 
some of our men being bareiooted, their feet cut by the 
ice, loft their bloody tracks along the route. The men, 
under all the.<-e liardshij)s and exposures, Avere in excel- 
lent spirits, and no one escaped their gibes and jokes. 
Every few miles, growing in the corner of the fences 


niul in tlio old (iold, the povsimnioii tree ever dear to a 
North Caroliiiiairs i^oul ap})oared, and immediately dis- 
cipline "Was ibruotten, ranks l)rokcn, and the tree be- 
sieged. Sam lliatt once remarked that the green per- 
simmon was invalnable to an ordii..i:y soldier, as a few 
ot'tliem would always draw his stomach to the propor- 
tions snited to a Confederate ration. On lono- marches 
the brigades marched by turns to the front. On one 
occasion, while we were seated on both sides of the 
road waiting for the rear brigades to pass to the front, 
a young and clever olhcer of our command, who had 
assiduously cultivated his upper lip, and by the aid of 
various tonsorial applications made pretense of possess- 
ing a mustache. ste}ipcd out into the middle of the road 
and commenced, as is usual with beginners, to toy with 
his hairs ; presently a rougli specimen of a soldier came 
trotting along astride of a pack mule, and as he neared 
the otlicer he halted his steed with a loud and long 
" whoa I " Leaning forward, with a quizzical look, he 
politely but firmly requested the officer '' to please re- 
move that mustache from the nnun highway and allow 
him and his mule to pass." [The mustache was raze-rd 
at Fredericksburg.] 

On the 2od we reached the vicinity of Fredericks- 
burg, and employed the interval — before ihe advance 
nuide by the enemy on the 11th of December — in 
strengthening our line, which reached from the Eap- 
pahannock. about one mile above Fredericksburg, along 
the hills in rear of that city to the Eichmond <.V- Fred- 
ericksburg Railroad. 

About 11 o'clock on the morning of the loth. Burn- 
side, "whose turn it now was to wrestle with General 


Lee," massed his forces under cover uf the houses of 
Fredericksburg and moved forward witli liis grand divi- 
sions to seize Marve's and Willis Hills — 

"With a hundred thousand men 
For the Rebel slaughter-pen, 
And the blessed Union flag a-flying o'er him." 

At the foot of Mar3-e's Hill ran the Telegraph Road, 
along which, for some four hundred yards, is a stone 
revetement. On the crest of the hill, at intervals, in pits, 
were posted nine guns of the Washington artillery, un- 
der Col. Walton. Three regiments of Cobb's brigade, 
and commanded bv him, were in position behind this 
stone wall at the foot of the hill. Some two hundred 
yards in a ravine, and immediately behind the Wash- 
ington artillery, lay our (Cooke's) brigade. About one 
o'clock all the guns on Stafford Heights were directed 
against oui' guns on Marye's Hill, endeavoring to draw 
their fire so as to cover the advance of their infantry. 
Our artillery, instead of reph'ing, remained silent until 
their infantry had deployed, when they poured a storm 
of canister into them. French's di^dsion came first, and 
they were swept away before the deployment was com- 
pleted. The battle now lulled for some twenty min- 
utes, when the enemy ''entered the ring"' with Han- 
cock to the front. 

About this time our brigade was moved to the crest 
of the hill. The 4<3th. ISth and loth regiments were 
halted on the hill on the hue of the batteries, while our 
regiment ('27th), in the midst of a terrific fire, passed 
rapidly through the Washington artillery, and double- 
quicked down the steep incline into the Telegraph 
Road and joined in the fire. Duringf our advance Col. 


Gilmer was severely woundecl in the leg, but succeeded 
in reacliino- the foot of the hill. 


Hancock was repulsed with terrible slaughter. Gen. 
Cobb had been previously killed, and Gen. Kershaw 
now took command of the troops in the road. After 
we had reached our position behind the stone wall, Gen. 
Cooke received a severe Avound in the head and was 
carried from the field. The command of the brigade 
now devolved upon Col. Hall of the 46th regiment, who 
moved his and the other regiments of the brigade into 
the Telegraph Eoad. The enemy now made his 
third effort, when Howard\s and Sturgis' and Getty's 
divisions advanced bravely to the desperate work as- 
signed them. We took heavy toll from their columns, 
and, like their predecessors, they fell back in confusion. 
Lastly came the sixth and final assault by Humphrey's 
division, of Hooker's corps, and charge it did, as game 
as death. They, too, had to bite the dust, and their 
broken and shattered columns fled in disorder to the 
city, leaving the field strewn with their slain. 

About 9 o'clock we threw forward our pickets and, 
in the darkness, many of their raw recruits came into 
our lines, their guns and accoutrements perfectly new ; 
some of them had not fired a shot and could scarcely 
tell their nativity. 

We remained in line of battle during the night, ex- 
pecting and hoping for a renewal of the assault on the 
next day. The 14tli (Sunday) came, however, and 
went away witliout a renewal. On the loth we were 
moved a few hundred yards farther to our lelt, and re- 
mained in this position until the morning of the 16th, 

when it was discovered that the enemy, availing him- 
self of the darkness of the night, had rccrossed the 

" A river has always been considered a good line of 
defence by most writers on the art of war, provided cer- 
tain principles be observed in defending. When Na- 
poleon crossed the Danube, in 1809, in the presence of 
the Archduke Charles, who was a good general, he was 
forced to retreat to the islands of Lobau and Enzers- 
dorf, after the bloody days of Essling. Had not the 
Archduke assumed the olfensive so vujoroudij^ the Em- 
peror's loss would not have been so great, and he could 
have remained on the left bank." This later " Es- 
sling " armj^ was fairly and terribly beaten, forced to 
recross the river, after great loss of life and labor, and 
was spared (thanks to his bridges and darkness of the 
night) utter anniliilation. 

Burnside testified, before the committee on the con- 
duct of the war, that he had, in round numbers, one 
hundred thousand men, all of whom were engaged in 
this battle, and that he failed because it was found im- 
possible to get the men up to the works ; that the Con- 
federates' fire was too hot for them. Of Lee's forces, 
only about twenty thousand men were actively en- 
gaged. The casualties in our company, owing to the 
protection afforded us by the stone wall behind which 
we were posted, were comparatively few. Private 
William D. Archer, a splendid specimen of a soldier, 
was killed; Privates James M. Hardin severely, and 
Frank G. Chilcutt slightly, wounded. On the IGth, 
we were removed to near Hamilton's Crossiug, and re- 


mained in camp there until the 3d day of January, 
1863. While here, some of our officers and men were 
in demand, and Lieut. B. G. Graham was detailed as 
brigade ordnance officer. Silas C. Dodson was ap- 
pointed clerk in the commissary department under Ma- 
jor Hays, and David H. Edwards, quartermaster-ser- 
geant. On the 4th of December, Private John W. 
Eeid was transferred to the -iSth North Carolina regi- 
ment, having been elected to the position of lieutenant 
in one of its companies. On the 17th, Corporal Will 
L. Bryan, having contracted a severe cold on the march 
from Madison Court- House, died in camp. Private 
Thos. J. Eh odes was appointed corporal in his stead. 


The muster-roll of the Grays, in camp near Freder- 
icksburg, numbered, on the 31st day of December, for 
duty, two commissioned ofi&cers, four sergeants, four 
corporals, and thirty-eight privates ; on detached serv- 
ice, six privates ; sick (present), three privates ; sick 
and wounded (absent) twent3''-three privates ; total pres- 
ent and absent, rank and file, eighty-nine. 

On the third of January, 1863, we were ordered to 
hold ourselves in readiness to march, and about 10 
o'clock we were on the road leading towards Eichmond. 
The first day's march found us encamped on the Tele- 
graph Eoad, 15 miles from Fredericksburg. We ar- 
rived at Eichmond on the 6th, passed through the 
city, and made camp on the Eichmond & Petersburg 
turnpike. The following day we registered at Peters- 


burg, camping just outside of the city limits, and re- 
maining there until the 14th. Next morning (15th) 
we boarded the cars lor North Carolina, and reached 
the city of Goldsboro on the evening cf the 16th — be- 
ing our first visit to the State since our summary ex- 
pulsion from Newberue by Burnside. 

The l*.>th found us on the outskirts of the straggling 
little village of Kenansville ; thence onward, we 
marched through a sparsely-settled country to South 
Washington, where we remained until the 1st of Feb- 
ruary. From South Washington, we moved about 7 
miles eastward to the scattered town of Burgaw, where 
we remained until the 20th. 

It was here at Burgaw that our loot-sore and weary 
boys found realized those blissful dreams which some- 
times hover over the hard couch of a soldier and lure 
him into the fable land of unknown joys from which 
he hears 

" The horns of Elfland faintly blowing." 

It was here that we found the sweet potato, the per- 
fectly cultured sweet potato, as it only grows and ri- 
pens in that portion of eastern North Carolina. Imag- 
ine, if you can, the solid comfort — after the many hard- 
ships and adventures of the bustling year of 1862 — it 
would allbrd a native Carolina " Cornfed," to be able to 
sit down under his own pines 

"An' hear among their furry boughs 
The baskin' West wind purr contented," 

and occupy his leisure moments in roasting a genuine 
yam. There were no armed blue-coats here, like little 
Miss Muffett's spider, to frighten us away. We were 


in a land imtoiiclied as yet by the foot of war ; no wat^ 
doo' liad baved here — it was still the domain of ancient 
peace; and the little villages slept in the hollows of 
the pine -clad hills, or perched in secnrity upon the up- 
lands. It was also at that delightful season of the year 
when the women and children were no longer vexed 
with the cares of agricultural pursuits. The sweet po- 
tato crop had been dug, the virgin dip had been 
scooped out of the last box, and nothing now remained 
but to enjoy in peace the products of honest industry. 
On the night of the 20th we left these plaintive pines, 
marched to Wilmington, and were soon aboard of the 
cars destined for Charleston, S. C. About mid-day of 
the 22d — after slight detentions at Marion Court House 
and Florence — we arrived at the depot in Charleston. 
While here awaiting orders- — the men remaining upon 
the open flat cars — several impudent and inquisitive 
idlers, necessary adjuncts to every depot, gathered 
around us. Among them happened to be a well- 
dressed, dapper fellow, in his home -guard -suit- of- gray 
and snow-white " b'iled " shirt. Being of an inquisi- 
tive nature, and seeking information, he had the rash- 
ness to address Jim Pearce, and inquire of him-: 
^^ Whose commmidf Where are you stationed, sirf^'' 
Jim, who was silting on the edge of the car, idly dang- 
ling his feet, seemed to " take him in " at once, and ris- 
ing to the dignity of a full-fledged veteran, replied (very 
feelingly) : " Stationed ! Stationed^ sir ! Stationed^ 
the II — l-fire ! We have chased and been chased by 
the Yankees from beyond the shores of Maryland to 
this city, and we are still on the wing ! " As the cars 


mm'cd otV, Jiin Liiive him a (piizzical look out of liis left 
eye, smiled, and faintly whispered "stationed?" 

It is a peeuliar trait of the faeidty of memory that 
it is very prone to gather np the " unconsidered trifles 
of life," and to let slip many of its apparently more im- 
portant events. But my reader must remember that 
war is not all tragedy, — that there are smiles as well as 
tears in the drama. 

The evening of the 23d found us at Pocataligo, a 
small railway station on the Charleston & Savannah 
Railroad. Remaining here a few days, we next located 
at Coosa whatchie, another depot, eight miles away, and 
about sixty miles from Charleston. Having an ample 
supply ot tents, we laid out a regular camp ; with no 
battle to figlit, and very light picket duty to perform, 
we passed a quiet and pleasant time, until the 23d of 
April. The country around Coosawhatchie is low and 
marshy ; the lakes and streams abound with alligators ; 
the forests of live-oak, shrouded and festooned Avith a 
gray moss, present a weird and picturesque appearance ; 
the products are rice, pinders, and grits ; the pasturage 
is confined to a few lean, lank cattle, called by the na- 
tives "high-walk." We relied upon the markets of 
Charleston and Savannah for our commissary stores, 
and the morning train rarely failed to bring us fresh 
shad. Our provident surgeon had a good supply of 
wet groceries, which sustained our s/c/t, and our stay in 
South Carolina wore pleasantly, having no special fight- 
ing to do. 

While in camp at Coosawhatchie, the writer and a 
comrade (Maj. Webb) mounted our horses one bright 


Sunday morning to enjoy the charming beauty of the 
day, and the invigorating influences of the sea air. 
After riding for about two hours over the level coun- 
try with its monotonous aspect, we came suddenly and 
unexpectedly upon one of those charming country seats, 
which were once the pride and delight of the landed 
proprietor. The mansion, situated upon a gentle ele- 
vation, was of old-time construction with the wide hall, 
large rooms and broad staircases, and colonade of im- 
mense pillars supporting the roof of the front porch. 
It was embowered in thick clusters of live oaks which 
stood round in a kind of outer park, while the inner 
park was composed of terraces covered with flowers 
and shrubber}^, while thickets of rose gardens seemed 
to stretch in every direction. An aged negro was the 
only living being about the place. He told us that the 
place was called " Roseland ;" that old massa was dead; 
that the two boys were in the army, and that Miss Min- 
nie was at school in Ealeigh, N. C. 

" A merry place, 'tis said, in days of yore: 
But something ails it now." — 

Vandal hands had done their accustomed work. The 
beautiful grounds were sadly disfigured ; the shrubbery 
was broken down ; the crops and forage had been gath- 
ered by alien hands, and only the poor ghost remained 
of this once peaceful and happy home. 

During our encampment in South Carolina, we were 
notified of the death of private R. G. Boling, at hospital 
in Richmond. Jas. H. Gant died on the 18th of Feb- 
ruary ; about the same time, Isaac F. Lane died at 
Leesburg, N. C. ; his remains were carried to Guilford. 


On the 1st of March, James M. Lemons died at his 
home. On the 14th of April, Jas. S. Hall died in hos- 
pital at Hardyville, S. C, and was buried in the ceme- 
tery at Charleston. 

Private Sam Smith, unfit lor active service, substi- 
tuted Jas. E. Lloyd, and private Jas. R. Wiley was dis- 
charged upon surgeon's certificate on the 7th of Febru- 

On the 27th of March, corporal R. D. Weatherly was 
promoted to sergeant-major of the regiment, and pri- 
vate William C. Story was appointed corporal in his 

On the 23d of April, we received orders to return to 
North Carolina. We left Coosawhatchie the same day, 
arrived at Charleston, S. C, tbe following day, and on 
the 25th reached Wilmington, N. C. We remained in 
camp near Wilmington until the otli of May, when we 
moved to Magnolia. Remaining hete a few days, we 
were moved to Goldsboro ; from here we were ordered 
to our old tramping-grounds near Kinston, where we 
arrived on the 16th. Meanwhile, a detachment of the 
enemy from Newberne, on a raiding expedition, had en- 
countered General Ransom's brigade near Gum Swamp. 
General Ransom undertook to drive them within their 
lines, and made a feint upon Newberne. We formed a 
portion of the troops engaged in this expedition, and 
succeeded in driving the enemy witliin their lines, and 
destroying the block-houses they had made for their 
defence. We gained nothing by this tramping, except 
a few cases of malarial fever, occasioned by our swamp- 
wading. With the exception of an occasional skirm- 


ish with the enemy's cavaby on Batchelor's Creek, 
there is nothing worthy of mention during our encamp- 
ment in the vicinity of Kinston. We remained here 
until the 5th of June, when once more we received or- 
ders to proceed to Virginia. 


In the latter part of April, 1863, the Army of the 
Potomac, under the command of Major-General Hooker, 
occupied its position in front of Fredericksburg. Here 
he constructed a formidable line of earthworks ; from 
which secure position, he purposed to move on General 
Lee's flank. With this view, he crossed the Eappahan- 
nock and took position at Chancellorsville. 

Meamvhile, General Lee, watching him, was en- 
trenched on the line of hills south of the Eappahan- 
nock, near Fredericksburo-. 

On the 2d of Mav, these two confronting; armies met 
each other, and commenced the memorable eno;ao;e' 
ments of Chancellorsville. " On this field the star of 
Confederate destiny reached its zenith, when the im- 
mortal Jackson fell wounded at the head of his victor- 
ious troops ; it began to set on the 10th of May, when 
Jackson Avas no more." 

General Lee, deeming the true policy now to take 
the aggressive, at once set to work to manoeuver so as 
to draw Hooker's army from Fredericksburg, and re^ 
move hostilities bc3'ond the Potomac. 

In pursuance of this design, our army — now reor- 
ganized into three corps, respectively commanded by 


Lieuteiiaiit-Geuerals Ix)ngstreet, E^vcll, and A. P. Hill 
— earlv in June moved northward, with tlic view of 
marching into Maryland and Pennsylvania. On our 
arrival at Kichmond, on the 6th of June, we were as- 
signed to Ileth's division of A. P. Hill's corps — wliicli 
corps still occupied the lines in front of Fredericksburg, 
the corps of Ewell and Longstreet having advanced as 
far as Cidpepper Court- House. On the night of the 
13th, Hooker retired from his position, and on the 14th 
the corps of A. P. Hill left for the valley. At the ur- 
gent request of General Elzey, in command at Rich- 
mond, our brigade (Cooke's) was retained there, and 
Davis' Mississippi brigade was assigned to Heth's divi- 
sion in our stead ; throuofh which circumstance, we 
ftxiled to participate in the Pennsylvania campaign and 
to sliare in the fatal battle of Gettysburg. 

On the 9th of June we were sent to the South Anna 
bridge, on the Virginia Central road, to repel a threat- 
ened attack from the enemy's cavalry. .Remaining 
here until the 11th, we returned to Richmond, and 
were ordered to Chapin's Bluff, on the James. John 
F. McQuiston joined the company here. We remained 
at the Bluff onlv a few days, when Ave were again re- 
turned to Richmond, and camped in the vicinity until 
the 8th of July. On the 11th, we moved to Tajdors- 
ville, on the R. & F. R. R. Remaining here until the 
1st of August, we moved to F'redericksburg, and pick- 
eted the various fords on the Rappahannock. On the 
28th, we retraced our steps to Ta^dorsville, went into 
camp in pine, forest near the railroad, and passed the 
time quietly until the 21:th of September. 

On the 13th of July, the shattered remnant of our 


army recrossed the Potomac into Virginia. General 
Meade, now in command of the Federal troops, ad- 
vanced east of the mountains, and General Lee, so as 
to confront him, moved his army, and established a 
line of defence along the Eapidan Eiver. In this posi- 
tion the two armies remained, in comparative quiet, 
about two months. Early in October, General Lee, 
with Swell's and Hill's corps, crossed the Eapidan to 
attack Meade's flank, or force him to retire from his po- 

The Grays, having been encamped at Gordonsville 
since the 24th of September, were ordered to rejoin 
their corps, and on the 9th of October we left Gordons- 
ville, marchirjg via Madison Court-House, where we 
camped on the 10th. On Sunday morning (11th), we 
reached Culpepper Court-ELouse. Just before our ar- 
rival it was ascertained that Meade was on the farther 
side of the Eappahannock Eiver, which would render 
it necessary for our troops to make another flank move- 
ment. On Monday, the 12th, therefore, we started for 
Warrenton. Passing near Salem, we camped that 
night at Amisville. The next day, passing Warrenton 
Springs, we reached Yf arrenton. On the morning of 
the 14th, we resumed our march, and about ten 
o'clock we came upon a little place called Grinage. 
Here we found the deserted camp of the enemy. Their 
campfiies vere still burning, many articles of camp 
equipage were lying around, everything showing that 
a panic had seized them and that their retreat was hasty 
and terrified. We hastened on in pursuit, at a rapid 
rate, capturirg their stragglers at every turn. At the 
^ame time, we knew that Ewell was driving another 


corps ot the enemy on our right up the Orange k Al- 
exandria Railroad. Our men were in the higliest spir- 
its, confident not only of victory, but of destroying or 
capturing everythino- in front of us. We knew the 
river in their rear was swollen, and possibly the bridges 
gone, and there would be no outlet for them. Gov- 
ernor A^ance's faithful ship, the "Advance,"' had come 
in "heavily laden," and we were proudly and splendidly 
dressed in some of the gray cloth of its cargo, which, 
but a few days before, we had received; our hopes 
were buoyant, our rations plentiful, and it is easy to 
imagine with what pace we kept up the pursuit. Rea- 
sonable expectations doomed to a speedy and bitter dis- 
appointment ! 

After keeping up the pursuit at this rapid rate for 
some three hours along the main road leading to Bris- 
toe station, our brigade filed out into the woods upon 
our right when we arrived within a short distance of 
the station. Cooke's brigade formed the advance of 
the pursuing column, Kirkland's brigade followed, then 
came the remainder of A. P. Hill's corps. At the time 
we filed to our right in the woods, Kirkland's brigade 
moved up and filed ofi' to the left of the road ; the rest 
of our corps was halted and remained in the road in the 
rear. Our brigade (Cooke's) was immediately thrown 
into line of battle, the 46tli N. C. regiment on the ex- 
treme right, the 15th N. C. next, the 27th N. C. next, 
and the 48th N. C. next, with their left resting upon 
the main road. In this position we were ordered to 
move forward. Advancing some five hundred yards 
thi'ough a dense forest of pines, we were halted near a 
small stream in an open field. About 800 yards in our 


front and to onr left upon a hill, we could see several 
brigades of the enemy ; while in the road in their front 
a larae waoon train was hurriedly moving off. About 
this time a battery of guns concealed in the woods 
opened a heavy fire upon our right flank, seemingly to 
cover the retreat of their wagon train. Just then a 
courier from Gen. Pleth handed to Gen. Cooke orders 
from Gen. Hill to advance ; in the meanwhile a mes^ 
sage was received from Col. Hall, commanding our 
right flank, informing Gen. Cooke that the enemy had 
driven in his skirmishers and was pressing him on his 
flank. Thereupon Cooke sent Heth's courier back to 
him with the information that the enemy were in force 
upon his right, and before he could advance that his 
flank must be protected. The courier from Gen. Heth 
returned a second t:me with orders to advance, and 
while delivering the orders one of Gen. Lee's staff-offi- 
cers rode up, and being informed of our situation, said 
to Cooke that lie would go to Gen. Hill for him. Be- 
fore he had time to reach Gen. Hill, a courier arrived 
direct from Hill to Gen. Cooke with orders to advance 
at once. Cooke replied, " I will do so, and if I am 
flanked I will face about and cut my way out," and im- 
mediately gave the command " forward ! " Advancing 
at a quick step up a slight elevation we came in full 
view of the enemy. Simultaneous Avith our advance 
five pieces of our artillerj^, posted in the main road upon 
our left, opened fire on the enemy in sight, who retired 
apparently in confusion. 

About 800 yards in the valley in our front ran the 
track of the Orange & Alexandria Eailroad. The road 
here formed an embankment from six to eigh t feet high^ 


extending far enough to overlap our brigade and a por- 
tion of Kirkland's on our left. The space between us 
and the railroad was a barren, open field, descending 
with a gradual declivity to the railroad embankment. 
Across and beyond the railroad about 300 yards, upon 
a considerable elevation, were extensive woods and 
thickets; here the enemy had posted their artillery. 
In front of these woods, and on the face of the hill de- 
scending to the railroad embankment, was posted what 
we then supposed was the enemy's skirmish line, but 
which proved to be a decoy, for the troops which had 
retired at the firing of our artillery in the road, and a 
large body of those who had been retj eating before Ew- 
ell, had stretched themselves behind the railroad em- 
bankment, forming their real line of battle, which con- 
sisted of the entire second corps and one division of the 
6th corps of Meade's army. 

We had advanced rapidly some 25 yards when our 
regiment, being slightly in advance, was halted until 
the regiments upon our right and left came up. Here 
we discovered for the first time the real position of the 
enemy behind the railroad embankment. We were 
going down the hill ; they, secure behind the bank, had 
only to lie down on the slope, rest their muskets on the 
track of the railroad and sweep the open field as we at- 
tacked. The attack was made. 

" Kot tho* the soldier knew, 
Some one had blundered: 
Their's not to make reply, 
Thcir's not to reason why, 
Their's but to do and die; 
Into the Valley of Death, 
Into the mouth of Hell, 
Stormed at with shot and shell, 
Marched the six hundred." 



AVe had scarcely emerged from the woods and began 
to advance down the hill, when Gen. Cooke, in com- 
mand of the brigade, was shot and fell from his horse 
severely wounded. Col. Gilmer, in command of our 
regiment, was shot down about the same moment. The 
command of the brigade now devolved upon Col. Hall, 
of the 46th X. C. regiment, and the command of our 
regiment fell upon Lieut.-Col. Whitfield. TTe were 
now suffering from the terrific fire of the enemy's ar- 
tillerv posted in the thickets on the elevation beyond 
the railroad, and from the murderous fire of their in- 
fantrv in safe position behind the embankment, Col. 
Whitfield seeing that our. entire force would soon be 
annihilated by the concentrated fire of the enemy, re* 
ported to Col. Hall that the brigade must either retreat 
or make a charge. Col. Hall thought a charge was 
the best to be done, and Col. Whitfield gave the order 
to advance. In a moment we were double-quicking 
down the hill, our men falhng at everv step. When 
we came to within a few yards of the railroad, the en* 
emy rose up from behind the embankment and poured 
a volley into our ranks which almost swept the rem- 
nant of us out of existence. At this juncture some of 
our company sought shelter in a httle shanty on our 
left, where they were afterwards captured by the en* 
emy. Col. Whitfield was now shot down, and Major 
Webb as.'.umed the command. In our perilous condi- 
tion but two courses were open, either to surrender or 
to take our chance in a retreat up the hill, the descent 


of which had been so, disastrous. Major Webb chose 
the latter and gave the order to fall back. 

During our advance our colors were cut down three 
times. The third time they were caught up by cor- 
poral William C. Story, of the Grays, on the color- 
guard, and carried by him during the rest of the fight. 
For his gallantry upon this occasion he was compli- 
mented in special orders, and was afterwards appointed 
ensign of the regiment, with the rank of lieutenant. 
The cause of the war may be forgotten, but the achieve- 
ments of each soldier are the common property and 
common glory of the country, and are imperishable. 
The calm and cool courage displayed by this young 
lad of Guilford, who bore so well the brunt of this 
hard-fought field is worthy of the heroes who fell at 
Culloden. He bore the flag of his country's trust until 
the surrender. He returned to his home broken down 
in health, and in a few months surrendered to his last 
enemy — Death ! In the quiet church yard at Taber- 
nacle, in the southeastern part of Guilford, Story sleeps 
near those who loved him. In this consecrated spot 
may memory come to embalm his name, and love be- 
dew with her fondest tears the turf which wraps his 

We continued to fall back, under a continuous deadly 

fire, until we had passed the brow of the hiU, and were 

under shelter. 

"Thev that had fought so well 
Came back from the mouth of Hell — 
All that was left of them."' 

Dui ing the night the enemy continued their retreat 
toward Centreville. We, with litters and canteens of 


water, repaired to the battle-field to care for our 
wounded, where " Death wagged his slim jaws gleefully 
over his feast," and gorged himself wdth many more 
victims ere the dawn of the 15th. 

The Grays went into this battle wnth three commis- 
sioned officers, four Sergeants, four Corporals, and fif- 
ty-two privates. 

Killed: First Lieutenant John H. McKnight ; pri- 
vates John Cannady, Henry Crider, and John T, Sock- 
well were killed on the field. 

Wounded: Capt. John A. Sloan, Corporal C. W. 
Stratford, Sergeant Chas. A. Campbell ; privates Ems- 
ley F. Sliuler, W . Burnsides, Henry G. Coble, Lewis 
N. Isley, Wm. D. Dennis, L. L. Lineberry, J. W. Mc- 
Dowell, Eobt. B. McLean, William May, Cyrus Crow- 
son, A. L. Orrell, Rufus B. Gibson, Samuel Gray, R. S. 
Smith, W. M. Summers, were wounded. Sergeant E. 
M. Crowson was W'Ounded, taken prisoner, and died of 
his wounds at Point Lookout, Jan. 28, 1864. Private 
H. Rufus Forbis died of his wounds at Richmond, Oct. 
27, 1863. Joseph E. Hankin died of Avounds, October 
24. W. F. Hunter died of his w^ounds, ISlov. 7, and 
John W. McNairy lost a leg. 

Prisoners: Sergeant W. U. Steiner (wounded and 
captured) ; privates H. ^L Boon, Paul Crutchfield, Jno. 
Coltrain, Geo. W, Lemons, James M. Marsh, James A. 
Orrell, Wilbur F. Owen, Jas. R. Pearce, Andrew L. 
Stanley, Paisley Shepperd, T. M. Woodburn, R. B. 
Worrell, Geo. li. Woolen, Thos. R. Greeson, and Jas. 
L. Wilson were captured and carried to Point Lookout. 

Walter Greene, who was detached as courier to Gen. 


Cooke,- was shot frora liis lior.^e, and severely but not 
ser i ousl y -wound ed . 

So r.ii-eant- Major Eobcrt I). Wcatlierly was mortally 
wounded, and died of bis wounds in Hiclinnond, Octo- 
ber 24, 18()8. He i^erved in the ranks uf the Grays 
from their organization as private and corporal, until 
the '21st of March, when he received the ai:)pointment 
of Sergeant- Major of our regiment. Bob was a noble 
boy, and bravest of the brave. Fear was no word in his 
vocabulary. He was always at his post, and though 
slight in stature, his form was ever seen in the thickest 
of the light. His remains were carried to Greensboro, 
and buried in the Presbyterian church-j-ard. 

John H. McKnight, at the outbreak of the war, was 
quietly pursuing his studies at Trinity College. When 
we received our orders to go to Fort Macon, he left his 
books and joined his company at the depot, on the night 
of the 19tli of April, 1.8l)l, and served as private, cor- 
poral, and sergeant until September iTth, when he was 
promoted to 1st Lieutenant. He fell at Bristoe mor- 
tally wounded, foremost in the charge ; was left on the 
field, and captured by the enemy. On the morning of 
the 15th, we found his body in the thicket beyond the 
railroad, where the enemy had left him to die. Here 
we buried him. His remains were afterwards removed, 
and interred in the cemetery at Greensboro. 

These two noble boj^s sleep among their loved ones, 
where, each returning spring, loving hands may plant 
the flowers which speak of the resurrection of the 
true and just, and of the land where eternal summer 



" May young April o'er their lowly monnds 
Shake the violets from her hair, 
And glorious June Avith fervid kiss 
Ever bid the roses blossom there." 

A worse-managed affair than this fight at Bristoe- 
Station did not take place during the war. With the 
rest of our corps in the rear, at a moment's call, Cooke's 
and Kirkland's North Carolina brigades were made to 
fight this battle alone. Pi-esident Davis characterized it 
"as a rash and ill-conducted affair." Col. Taylor says 
that " too few ol our corps was engaged ; it was unpar- 
donable mismanagement, and there was no earthly ex- 
cuse for it." Gen. Lee said to the ofiicer who essayed 
to explain to him this occurrence : " Bury joux jooor 
dead^ and say nothing more about it." 

This terminated Gen. Lee's attempt to bring on a 
pitched battle with Gen. Meade. 

On the following day we were busy burying our dead. 
Our wounded were all cared for, and sent off in ambu- 
lances and wagons. On the 16th, we were emploj-ed 
in destroying the railroad track, which we did most ef- 
fectually, as far down as Eappahannock Station. On 
the 19th, we crossed the Eappahannock River, went in- 
to camp, and remained until the 6th of November. 

On the 7th, our forces met with another surprise at 
Kelley's Ford, on the Rappahannock River, which re- 
sulted in the loss of several hundred of our men and 
some few pieces of artillery. The loss of this position 
made it necessary to abandon the design of our making 
an attack, and on the 9th we were withdrawn to near 
Culpepper Court-House ; at night we fell back across 
Robertson River. This position not being regarded 


as favorable, we returned to the south side of the Rap- 
idau on the following night. We picketed along this 
river, above Kapidau Station, until the 26th of Novem- 

At this time, the army under Gen. Meade crossed 
the Rapidan, and we were busy getting ready for a 
counter-move, as he was supposed to be moving down 
the river. At the dawn of day, on the 27th, we were 
on our way to meet Meade's army. The weather was 
intensely cold, and our men suffered greatly. 

We proceeded to advance towards Fredericksburg. 
In the evening we met the enemy, and had quite a skir- 
mish, losing several men from the regiment. On Sat- 
urday, a position was selected on the line of Mine Run, 
and in a short while we were strongly entrenched, and 
anxious for the enemy to attack us. On Monday, the 
80th, the enemy being in our immediate front, we cer- 
tainly expected an attack. They were found to be 
busily entrenching, also, and Tuesday passed without 
an}' demonstration. 

As Gen. Meade seemed reluctant to bring on an en- 
gagement. Gen. Lee determined to assail him ; conse- 
quently, during the night, he made necessary arrange- 
ments for a grand battle. When dawn broke over the 
hills on the morning of the 2d of December, Meade's 
camps were found deserted, and his army fast making 
their way back to the river. We immediately made 
pursuit, but he had too much the start and reached the 
north side of the Rapidan before we could overtake 
him. Both armies then retired to their original posi- 
tions on the Rapidan. We returned to our winter 


quarters wliicli we had prepared, about 3J miles south- 
east from Orange C. H. We were then, in turn, em- 
ploj-ed in picketing along the Enpidan until the 4th of 
February, when we were relieved by Kirkland's North 
Carolina brigade, and we again sought shelter in our 
log cabins. 


On the 18th of December, Lieutenant Frank A. Han- 
ner was promoted to 1st Lieutenant, vice Lieutenant 
McKnight killed. Orderly Sergeant Chas. A. Camp- 
bell to 2d Lieutenant, Jr.; Sergeant William M. Pais- 
ley was appointed Orderly Sergeant ; Corporal C. W. 
Stratford, Sergeant, and privates Alfred W. Klutts and 
Eufus B. Gibeon were promoted to. Corporals. 

During the month of December, under special orders 
No. 72, Lee's headquarters, a general court martial was 
convened for our (Heth's) division. Capt. J. A. Sloan 
was detailed as judge-advocate; CoL E. Mayo, of the 
47-th Virginia regiment, as president, and Sergeant 
William U. Steiner, of the Grays, appointed recorder. 
With the exception of a temporary suspension in Feb- 
ruary and again in March, to accompany our several 
commands on expeditions made at those times, the 
court was in regular session at Orange Court-IIouse. 
In the meanwhile Lieutenant llanner was in command 
of the Grays. 

On the 8th of January, private Chas. W. West- 
brooks, our company chaplain, and known as our 
"fighting parson," was discharged by order of the Sec- 


retnry of War, and received an appointment as regular 
chaplain in the army. Cliarlie preached as he shot 
without fear and to the mark. 

On the l()tli of January, private Henry G. Kellogg, 
at home on surgeon's eertiiicate, was permanently de- 
tailed in the commissary department at Salisbury, 
North Carolina. 

On the 18th of February, W. II. Donnell joined the 

On the 20th, Corporal Thomas J. Rhodes was pro- 
moted to Sergeant, and private Richard S. Smith was 
appointed Corporal. 

On the 1st of ^^larch, Preston P. Dick joined the 
company. At the same time private Henry W. Aver, 
who joined the Grays in May, 1863, w^as transferred to 
company " C," i8th N. C. regiment. 

On the 12th, II. Smiley Forbis died of disease at 
hospital in Lynchburg, Va. 

On the 81st, private A. Laffayette Orrell was trans- 
ferred to the C. S. Navy, " or words to that effect." 

On the loth of April, private Pleasant Ricks died in 
camp of typhoid fever. 

On the 'ioth, E. Tonkey Sharpe w^as detached, by 
order of Gen. Ileth, for duty with the provost guard. 

On our return from the Mine Run '' freeze-out," we 
planned, built, and improved our winter quarters, and 
soon had a city of log cabins. It was now our turn to 
watch the wary "yank " on the borders of the Rapidan, 
and we picketed up and down the stream in the cold 
and ice until early in February, when Kirkland's N. C. 
brigade was sent to our relief. 


While we were in camp near Orange Court-Hoiise 
in December, 1863, the good mothers, wives, and daugh- 
ters of Virginia, with the ready hands and loving hearts 
that had always characterized them from the beginning 
to the end of the fearful struggle, bethought themselves 
to give Lee's army a Christmas dinner. Every pantry, 
turkey-roost, and hog-pen in the dear old State Avas 
called upon to furnish its quota for the feast. Our in- 
finitesimal ration dimmed with the prospect, and we 
looked forward to that day, which ever stirs all the 
better and sweeter impulses of our humanity, with 
longing desires. In our log cabins we lay upon our 
hard beds and dreamed of its past celebrations, of its 
anthems and its carols ; we thought of its bays and its 
wreaths of evergreen ; its sprigs of holly in the parlor, 
and the sacred immortelles around the portraits of the 
lost ones ; its gift-giving and all those interchanges of 
tokens that make friendship sweet ; its suppressions of 
self; its lessons of generosity, and its going out to oth- 
ers. Need you wonder, under these circumstances, that 
Lee's hungry rebels were all anticipation. • The day 
was ushered in mth a snow storm, bu.t, nothing daunted, 
our brigade wagon was soon on its way to the depot 
to receive our share of the feast; but, unfortunately, 
these same pantrj^s, turkey-roosts, and hog-pens had 
been invaded so often before that our part of the grand 
dinner assumed microscopic proportions, and the wagon 
returned with about a half-bushel measure of dissected 
gobblers — our Christmas dinner ! 

" O, ever tlms, from childhood's hour" — 

Early in Februarj^ we received a most delightful and 


interesting visit from Greensboro's eminent divine, Eev_ 
J. Henry Sniitli, who preached for us in the large log 
tabernacle erected by the boys for divine service. Dur- 
ing his visit the cr}^ of the " Philistines be upon you " 
from the other side of the river was heard, and we 
were ordered out to resist the threatened attack. The 
parson exhibited an eagerness to become a " soldier of 
Lee " for the occasion. After spending two days and 
nights of bitter cold weather on the banks of the Eapi- 
dan, the enemy making no further demonstrations, we 
were returned to our quarters. 

On the 2Gth of February, three formidable columns of 
cavalry, under the command respectively of Generals 
Kilpatrick, Custer, and Col. Dahlgren, proceeded by 
different routes towards Richmond to surprise and, if 
possible, capture the city; and, if successful, to sack 
and burn the city, pillage the buildings, and kill '' old 
Jeff Davis and his cabinet." In the meanwhile two 
corps of the enemy crossed the river and proceeded to 
Madison Court House ; their object being, by a feint, 
to cover their cavalry demonstration upon Richmond. 
Two days later another army corps left for Madison, 
and our corps (Hill's) was ordered to follow them. We 
left our camp before day on the morning of March 1st 
and reached Madison late in the evening, after a long 
and weary march in the rain and mud. On our ar- 
rival we found that the enemy had retired, and were 
returning to their former position on the Rapidan. The 
weather turned very cold during the night, and the 
next morning we retraced our steps through snow and 
ice to our camp, the men suffering greatly from fatigue 


and cold. We remained quietly in onr winter quar- 
ters until tlie -itli of May. 

Sometime in March, 1864, Major-General Ulysses 
S. Grant was appointed Lieutenant-General and assumed 
command of the armies of the United States. In 
April he made his headquarters at Culpeper Court- 
House, and took personal command of the army of the 
Potomac. During the months of March and April re- 
enforcements were gathered from the four quarters of 
the globe and sent to this army. 


On the 1st day of May, the official return of the Army 
of the Potomac showed, present for duty, one hundred 
and forty-one thousand one hundred and sixty men, of 
all arms. General Lee had, in round numbers, sixty- 
four thousand men. 

I give the relative strength of the two armies, in 
order that the reader may have a proper appreciation 
of the difficulties Avhich beset our army in thwarting 
the designs of our Avily adversary, in the campaign we 
were now just entering. That the brilliant genius of 
our immortal Lee, made amends for paucity in num- 
bers, and proved more than a match for brutal force, 
the bloody field extending from the Wilderness to the 
James River will attest. 

On the 3d of May, our army held the south bank of 
the Rapidan River. Its right rested near the mouth 
of Mine Run ; its left extended as far as Liberty Mills, 
on the road to Gordonsville. Grant, with his main 


bo(iv en('ain])(-'(l in C^ulprpper Oounty, occupiinl tlic 
iioi-tli l);iiik of tilt' Kipichni. On t ln' 4l li of M;i v, (i rant 
crossed his lb rocs to the south side, and began liis ad- 
vance into the " Wilderness." 

Eunniiig castwardly to Fredericksburg, IVoni Orange 
Court House, are 1 wo paralkd roads; the one neaiest 
th(^ I'iver is calletl the "Stone Turn[)ike," and the other 
the -l*lank-Hoa(L" 

As soon as Grant's movcMiients were known, our 
army was put in motion. On tlie morning of the llh, 
our division (Ileth's) and Wilcox's, of A. P. Jlill's 
corps, moved castwardly aU)ng tlie '' IMank- KN)ad." Si- 
multaneously Kwcirs corj)s movcMl on the stone turn- 
j>ike. That night we bivouacked at VerchiU'sville, near 
whei'e \\v. [\ ught the battle of ^[ine Run. 

The " WiltkuMicss " is an ahnost imjicnctrable thicket 
of undergrowth ; and our sagacious J^ec; resolved to 
fight Grant in pathless woods, wheiv. their artil- 
lery would be least available, and wheii*- tlu>ii' nuissive 
columns would be most end)ariasscd in their move- 

()n the moiMiing of the oth, \vc, rcsunuMl our march, 

with Ivii-klaiid's bi'igadc, ol" oni* di\'ision, in front. 

About one o'clock, our advance-guard canui iri)ou a 

body of the enemy, and a spirited musketry lire was 

opened in our front. Kirklaiid's brigade at once de- 

])l()vcd on both sidiN of the " Plank- Koad," and (\)oke\s 

brigade was thrown into line of battle with our ixjgi- 

ment (27th), on the left of the road. About three 

o'clock, our skii'mishei's wci'e (h'ivcn in by a nuissive 

column of the enemy, who advanccMl iii-ing I'apidly. 

. 82 

Thus commenced the " Wilderness " fight ; and the 
bloody contest continued until near sundown. 

This stubborn and heroic resistance was made by the 
divisions of Heth's and Wilcox's, fifteen thousand 
strong, against the repeated assaults of four divisions 
of Hancock's and one division of Sedgwick's corps, 
numbering about forty-five thousand men. After dark, 
we were relieved by Kirlvland's brigade. As we were 
retiring from our position, we got into a country-road, 
parallel to the " Plank-Road," and had proceeded but 
a short distance, when my attention was directed to a 
similar body of troops, marching quietly in the road 
with us; the night was very dark, and it was 'difficult 
to distinguish friend from foe. I felt some anxiety, as 
they seemed to possess uniform knapsacks and were of 
better appearance than our men, to know who they 
were. I therefore approached their column, and found 
to my utter astonishment that they were " blue-coats." 
I immediately rushed to Col. Whitfield, and informed 
him of our situation. He replied, " Impossible ! " On 
close inspection, he found that they were really Fede- 
ral troops. He drew his pistol, and, in a surprised and 
excited manner, called out: "Yes, they are Yankees! 
Shoot them, boys! Shoot them!" Some few guns 
were fired ; but as the surprise was so great both upon 
our part and that of our " Yankee brethren," a hasty 
retreat was made on both sides, and each soon lost tKe 
other in the darkness. They were evidently on the 
wrong road " to get out of the Wilderness." 

We soon reached the " Plank-Road," and were 
marched to the rear about one and a-half miles to a 


ridge, upon which our hue was established. Our men 
began at once to fortify ; and while we had no imple- 
ments for the purpose, we succeeded, bj the aid of our 
bayonets and tin-cups, to build what proved to be on 
the following day a great protection. 

During the progress of the battle on the 5th, there 
came a lull in the firing and an almost deathlike still- 
ness prevailed, as though the god of war had stopped 
a minute to take a long breath, and pull himself to- 
gether for a fresh start. Presently, a sharp, quick re- 
port of a rifle trom the other side broke the stillness. 
Simultaneously with the report, private Wash Wil- 
liams was struck and paintally wounded. He uttered 
a long, loud yell, which seemed, to reverberate up and 
down the lines for at least a mile. Almost immedi- 
ately afterwards, a gun was fired from our side, and 
some one on the Yankee line mimicked the cry of Wil- 
liams perfectly. Tliis incident created general laugh- 
ter on both sides, thus giving the opposing forces an 
idea of each other's position, and the contest opened in 
good earnest. 

Our casualties in this, the first of the series of bat- 
tles of this campaign, were as follows : Privates Sam'l 
F. McLean and Louis Lineberry were killed. Serge- 
ant C. W. Stratford, Corporal A. W. Klutts, privates 
Frank G. Chilcutt, WilUam Horney, R. B. Tate, Jas. 
M. Hardin, Wash. Williams, Thos. R. Greeson, Sam'l 
Hiatt, John R. Siler, and Jas. L. Wilson were 
wounded. Chilcutt lost an arm, Horney lost a leg, 
and R. B. Tate died of his wounds in July, 1864. 



At dawn on the morning of the 6th the enemy, hav- 
ing been re- enforced by the 9th army corps nnder Gen. 
Burnside, and a fresh division commanded by Wads- 
worth, advanced. 

The intervening space between the position now held 
by our brigade, and tlie point at which we fought on 
the 5th, was occupied by our (Hill's) corps camped in 
irregular order, and in no condition for an asf-ault ; con- 
sequently, when the enemy made their advance and at- 
tacked, these forces were thrown into confusion and 
driven back to the line where our brigade had formed 
the night previous. After a severe contest a portion 
of Heth's and Wilcox's divisions were overpowered and 
forced to fall back ; our brigade, iinder protection of 
our hastily constructed earthworks, held its position. 
The condition of affairs was now assuming a very criti- 
cal phase, when Kershaw's brigade of South Carolin- 
ians, of Longstreet's coj'ps, arrived upon the scene and 
for a short while arrested their further advance. The 
repulsed portions of our divisions were in considerable 
disorder, and the battle began to rage with intense fury. 

General Lee, anxious and appreciating the impending 
crisis, rode up with hat in hand, dashed among the men, 
and calling upon them to rally, said he would lead the 
charge. The reins of his horse were seized by the men 
and he was told he must go " to the rear," or they 
would not go forward. Being evidently touched at 
this manifestation of anxiety upon the part of his men, 
the great, grand, and towering old hero waved his hand 


and retired. In a few moments Anderson's gallant 
Texas boys came up at a double-quick, deployed into 
line of battle, and, with Longstrcet at their head, went 
forward with a yell, ^lajor Webb, while standing on 
our works cheering, was severely wounded and retired 
to the rear. In a short while the ground lost by our 
troops was recovered, and the enemy forced back to 
the position originally held by them. General Long- 
street now took the defensive, and about mid-day made 
an attack on their rear and left flank. The assault re- 
sulted in their utter rout, and they were forced back 
some distance in rear of the lines occupied by them on 
the 5th. So far, this movement was a complete suc- 
cess, and Longstreet began preparations to follow up 
his advantages with a flank movement by the Brock 

AVhile advancing at the head of Gen. Jenkins' bri- 
gade, a portion of his flanking column, which had con- 
tinued through the woods in the former charge, mis- 
taking the brigade for the enemy fired into them, kilh 
ing Gen. Jenkins, and seriously wounding Gen. Long- 
street. This unfortunate and strange fatahty checked 
our forward movement, and afforded the enemy time 
and opportunity to rally and reform behind their en- 

At dark we began to move slowly to the right, and 
after we had proceeded about one mile a rebel yell, as 
if a rushing mighty wind, rolled down upon us from 
the right of our lines. Our army now was in a contin- 
uous hue of battle, and the cheering was taken up spon- 
taneously by brigade after brigade until it swelled into 


one exulting roar of defiance. At first it seemed like 
the soft murmuring of the wind in the tree tops, and as 
it came nearer it made one vast tempest of sound, and 
thus it swayed back and forth for some time. Its effect 
was tragic in the extreme, and I readily recall the sen- 
sation it produced upon all at the time. The enemy's 
pickets thought we were making a grand charge and 
fled so precipitately to their main line that, as the pris- 
oners we captured the next day informed us, they were 
fired into by their own men and many of them killed. 

On the morning of the 7th an advance was made and 
Grant was found to have retired from his line of works 
on his right. We had several skirmishes, and desul- 
tory firing continued during the day. 

lie now attempted by a flank movement to secure 
possession of Spottsylvania Court-House, and Warren's 
corps, of his advance guard, marched out of the Wil- 
derness by the Brock road. On his arrival at the Po 
Kiver, on the following da}^, he found in his path, ready 
to dispute his passage, Gen. E. II. Anderson's division 
of Long-street's corps. Each army, now forming on its 
advance guard as a nucleus, swung round, and on the 
9th confronted each other in line of battle. 

On our march on the 8tli we were interrupted by 
several skirmishes, and were frequently shelled by the 
enemy. In the evening we reached Spottsylvania Court 
House, and were placed in line, without regard to align- 
ment, a short distance to the left of the court-house 
building, where we at once proceeded to fortify. We 
were moved afterwards to different parts of the lines, 
but finally took our position not far from where we first 



On the lOtli Barlow's division made an attack upon 
onr left and obtained temporary possession of a portion 
of Eweirs line. Gen. Lee said that tlicse lines must be 
re-established, if he had to attend to it in person. Our 
(ITeth's) division was called upon to do the work. "We 
received our orders and were soon in readiness. Ad- 
vancing cautiously for some little time, we came upon 
the enemy about one mile this side of a branch of the 
Po, we deployed into line and began to push them back. 
They finally halted in some earth-works, freshly thrown 
up, in front of Mrs. Graves' house, in front of which 
was a large open "Geld. As soon as we got into the 
road running parallel to these works, we were halted 
and reformed, and, after some little delay, we were or- 
dered to charge their w^orks and drive them away. 
AYe charged across the open iield under a heavy fire of 
artillerj^ from their batteries on the hills beyond the 
little stream, which ran a short distance in the rear of 
their earth-works. Before we reached the works they, 
deeming " prudence the better part of valor," fled and 
made good their retreat, leaving behind them one piece 
of artillery, their dead and wounded, and several pris- 
oners. We remained several hours at their works un- 
der a heavy shelling ; some few of the shells exploding 
in our ranks. Gen. Cooke was slightly wounded in 
the charge, and Ensign W. C. Story, after we reached 
the works. We w^ere finally withdrawn and marched 
back to our position on the main lines, afier we had re- 
covered the last ground and forced the enemy to re- 


linquish their temporary advantage. The 11th was 
passed in comparative quiet, with the exception of our 
usual salutation from the enemy's batteries. They 
made daily practice on our works, and endeavored to 
batter down and destroy the buildings in the village. 
They appeared to have a special spite at the little brick 
church immediately in rear of our regiment, occupied 
by our surgeon (Dr. Hunt) as a dispensary. " Gwin " 
had hardly "opened up" when a wicked shell came 
thundering through the gable, and he concluded to va- 
cate, which he did in considerable disorder. When we 
quit our lines the little church was sadly in need of a 
contribution box. 

During the night of the 11th the enemy, under the 
cover of the dense Avoods, advanced without discovery, 
and massed a large force in E well's front at the point 
known as the " salient," which was occupied by Gen. 
Edward Johnson's division. On the next morning^ at 


daylight these troops vigorously attacked and overran 
this portion of our lines and captured most of the divi- 
sion, including its commander, who was quietly enjoy- 
ing his breakfast. 

General Lee at once hurried troops from our right 
and left, and made dispositions to dispute their further 
progress. As Harris' Mississippi brigade was coming 
up at double quick, Gen. Lee, already in a very exposed 
position, now joined them and started to the front with 
them. The minnies were flying :^ast and thick, and 
shot and shell ploughing the ground and bursting in 
the air. As they neared the lines a round-shot struck 
immediately in front of the [jrand old chieftain, and 


<^:uised bim to halt and take breath. The offieers and 
men now plead and insisted that he should retire from 
tliis exposed position. He, in his calm manner, his 
feelin,<2s exhibitino- a purity and nobleness of heart never 
witnessed in any hero of ancient or modern time, re- 
plied : "If you will promise to drive tliose j^^ople from 
our works I will go back " The brigade quickly 
shouted the promise, and in a moment commenced the 
most terrific musketry -fire that took place during the 

" From the side of the salient in the possession of the 
Federals, and the new line forming the base of the tri- 
angle occupied by the Confederates, poured forth, from 
continuous lines of hissing fire, an incessant hail of 
deadly missiles. No living man nor thing could stand 
within the doomed space embraced within those angry 
lines ; even large trees were felled, their trunks cut 
in twain b}^ the bullets of small arms.- Never did the 
troops on either side display greater valor and deter- 
mination. After several hand-to-hand conflicts, while 
we failed to dislodge the enemy, the assault which 
threatened such serious consequences was checked, and 
the result of the advantage to the enemy was limited 
to the possession of the narrow space of the salient and 
the capture of Johnson's division. The loss of this fine 
body of troops was seriously felt by Gen. Lee, and, 
though his army was sadly reduced by this and a week's 
incessant fighting, his lines, thus forcibly rectified, 
proved thereafter impregnable." 

While this desperate attack was going on, our 
(Hetli's) division and Mahone's were moved to the left 
near the Fredericksburg road, to make a feint and create 
a diversion. We leaped over our works, and formed in- 
side ol them, to make the movement, and bravely did 


the boys move off, although nothing is so demorahzing 
to troops as to leave breastworks to do battle inside of 
them. We attacked the enemy, and drove them from 
two lines into a third. Finding that they were get- 
ting re -enforcements, and in a fortified position, we 
were gradually withdrawn to our former position on 
the main lines. 

Several days of comparative quiet now ensued, dur- 
ing which time Grant was refurnishing his decimated 
brigades with heavy re -enforcements from Washington. 
In his official report to the 39th Congress, he said : "The 
time from the 13th to the 18th was consumed in ma- 
noeuvering and awaiting the arrival of re-enforcements." 

After covering the entire front of our army with 
double lines, he still had a large reserve force with 
which to extend his flank and compel a corresponding 
move upon our part, in order to keep between him and 

On the 18th, Gen. Grant made his final and desper- 
ate attack, by hurling division after division against 
our lines. He commenced the attack in the morning, 
and soon the battle became continuous along the lines, 
and raged with the utmost fury and desperation. The 
cannon's shot and shell seemed winged with impetuous 
rage, and with hissing red flame bellowed through the 
air and over hill and plain, withering and blasting 
everything in their flight. War had now indeed 
stalked forth unmasked from his infernal den. In the 
smoke and carnage. Grant drove his troops mercilessly 
up to the slaughter, but it produced no impression, and 
the hopeless task was relinquished. 


We had now completed twelve days of battle at 
Spottsylvania, and at no time, day or night, did the fir- 
ing on the lines entirely cease. 


General Grant, giving up all hope of succeeding in 
his plans by direct assault, on the night of the 20th 
began a flank movement in the direction of Bowling 
Green, hoping thereby to interpose between our army 
and the Ions; - coveted Richmond. On the 21st, 
Wright's corps began the initiative and moved south- 

To counteract and defeat this new purpose, General 
Lee, at midnight, dispatched Longstreet's corps on the 
road leading to Hanover Junction. On the day and 
night of the 21st, Ewell's and Hill's (our) corps 
marched for the same point. 

The twelve long days and nights, in the trenches at 
Spottsylvania, of weary watching and desperate fight- 
ing, was telling on our men, and nothing but the in- 
domitable courage and hope of success, which at all 
times and under all circumstances characterized the 
starved and ragged Confederates, sustained them. They 
placed every confidence in their great and good leader, 
and looked forward to the time when the sunlight of 
this hope, with its golden radiance, would remove the 
veil and permit them to look out on the long and lovely 
paths that wind, amid beauty, to the far-oflt* but glit- 
tering temples of their dreams, and find them realities, 

" What can we not endure, 
When pains are lessened by the hope of cure ? " 


During tlie day and the night of the 22d, we contin- 
tied our toilsome march. 

On these long marches, to prevent straggling,, we are 
frequently halted for a rest, and this opportunity is 
taken by those who have fallen back to catch up with 
their commands. Any one passing through the troops 
at this time, be he officer or private, had to run the 
gauntlet of the gibes and witticisms of the men. On 
one occasion, while thus resting, a very tall, lean, lank 
soldier of the 5th " Georgy Eegement," appeared in the 
road, dragging along his weary length. His long black 
tousled hair hung in uncombed ringlets from the holes 
in his rimless hat ; his coat or jacket, a very scant pat- 
tern of gray jeans, seemed to be widely at variance 
with his copperas- colored breeches, as the leather 
strings attached to them by thorns, to serve as " gal- 
lasses," failed to effect a compromise between the two ; 
the pants, from his oft-repeated restings, had been badly 
attacked and routed in the rear, and, from long U-se^ 
" swunk up " in apparent fright from his sockless pedal 
extremities, whose coverings of untanned leather were 
held together by a withe as a shoe-string. In form and 
stature, he was modeled strictly after the heron. His 
avoirdupois gave evidence of unswerving observance 
of forty days' Lenten season, and that in so-ul and body 
he had, and was now, wrestling with that plague inci- 
dent and concomitant to the experience of every sol- 
dier,, called the "dia-ree." 

As he approached near where our regimental band 
was seated, at the head of the regiment, he ap23eared 
to halt from sheer exhaustion, and, as he did so, he 


came to an order and leaned in rest upon Lis gun. 
Near bim stood, leaning on liis drum, tlie tall bass- 
drum beater (Bill Burroughs) of the band. Bill was 
a fellow of " infinite jest,'' and possessed one of those 
large souls, full of sympathy and concern for the woes 
of others. He turned to this gaunt straggler, suppos* 
ing him to be " somebody's darling," and entered into 
conversation with him. The " poor fellow " in detail 
related his hairbreadth escapes from battle, hunger, 
exposure, &c. When he had scarcely told all. Bill re- 
marked to him that he ought to take notes for some 
future historian^ and by all means to keep a diary. He 
raised his head, and as his eyes dimmed with the start- 
ing tear, now coursing down his bronzed and furrowed 
cheek, he replied, " Lord ! stranger, that's what ails me 
now, I have had it nigh-on-to four months." The gen- 
erous cords of Burroughs' haversack and canteen were 
unloosed and their gratuitous contents speedily disap- 
peared. The order was now given to " fall in." The 
" Georgy " fellow shouldered his gun, and Bill swung 
his big drum on his back. Just as they parted the 
soldier extended his long bony fingers and grasped the 
hand of his Good Samaritan, thanked him kindly, and, 
in subdued tones of feigned grief, said : " My stranger 
friend, I am so much obleeged to you ; can you not fur- 
ther oblige me by picking a tune for a sick man on that 
Ihare instruments^ Thus agreeably employed our his- 
tory leaves them— and we return to the course of our story. 
On the morning of the 23d we reached the North 
Anna River in advance of the enemy, and about day- 
light crossed to the south side. Warren's corps crossed 


at Jericho ford without opposition. Hancock's corps 
attempted to cross lower down, at the county bridge. 
Our brigade obstinately resisted them, and they did 
not succeed in crossino' until the 24th. 

General Cooke relates an interesting incident which 
occurred during the progress of Grant's army to the 
North Anna, as told by a prominent citizen of Carohne 
County, Ya., who was captured by Grant in the march. 
He says : " Grant had halted at a house on the road- 
side with a number of his officers around him with 
whom he was discussing with deep interest the move- 
ments in progress. During the discussion Grant pulled 
out his watch, and opening it, said : ' Gentlemen, if we 
do not hear firing in ten minutes we will at last have 
gotten ahead of Lee ! ' He stood quietly, watch in 
hand, an occasional remark, only, breaking the silence, 
when, scarcely five minutes having elapsed, the boom- 
ing of guns was heard in the direction of Hanover Junc- 
tion. He closed his watch and impatiently remarked, 
' I'll be damned if he has not beaten us again !' And so 
it was, as our brigade was at the time resisting Hancock. 

General Lee, on the next day, did not further dispute 
in force the crossing of the enemy, but formed his lines 
with liis left resting on Little Eiver, and his right near 
the North Anna below the enemy, covering Hanover 
Junction. Here he awaited attack. 

Owing to our well-selected position. Grant could not 
get at our flanks ; and to take us by direct assault, after 
his bitter experience at Spottsylvania, caused him to 
"pause, ponder, study, and plan." 

Perceiving he had made a blunder, and that his army 


was in a position of inucli peril, he, on tlie night of the 
26th, recrossed to the north side of the river, and made 
another detour to the eastward, as far down as the Pa- 
munkey River. 

On the 28th he crossed the Pamunkey at Hanover- 
town. On the 80th his advance ran against onr bri- 
gade, on the left of our lines, at Atlee's Station, where 
we entertained him for some little time to his discomfi- 
ture. The next day we had a sharp engagement near 
Tolopotomy creek, and on June 1st, they attacked us 
in heavy force at Pole-Green church, the skirmish con- 
tinuing for some time. Our brigade and regiment suf- 
fered considerably from their shells and sharpshooters. 

Lieutenant Chas. A. Campbell was mortally wounded 
and was carried to the rear, where he died the next 
day. Campbell was one of the " original panel," serv- 
ing as private until April, 1862, corporal until August, 
when he was promoted to sergeant. He was wounded 
at the battle of Sharpsburg. On his return to his com- 
mand, November 1st, he was appointed Orderly Ser- 
geant, serving as such until the lltb of December, when 
he was promoted to Junior 2d Lieutenant. With the 
exception of a short furlough from camp at Orange 
Court- House, he was always at his post, ready and 
cheerful at all times to perform his duties. Soon after 
he was shot down, he was carried to the field hospital, 
where he died and was buried the following day. As 
he passed me on his litter, he stretched out his almost 
pulseless arm and remarked, " Goodbye, Captain ; if I 
don't come back, tell them I fell fighting at the front." 

God's peace be with liim in his rest, 
Lone dweller in the stranjier's land. 



Ou tlic 3d of June the two armies were brought face 
to face at Cold Harbor, where but two years before 
" Little Mc " had struggled in vain for the mastery. 

On the night of the 2d our brigade was placed in 
line on the extreme left, with our regiment upon what 
is known as Pharr's farm. As soon as we were halted 
we began to fortify, and by early dawn had constructed 
good temporary works. Owing to the dense, heavy 
body of woods the enemy were enabled to make near 
approaches in our front, and previous to their advance, 
on the following morning, we could hear distinctly the 
orders given by their officers. After some little firing 
by tlieir shar|)s]iooters, about 8 o'clock, they, began to 
attack, and kept up their assaults until late in the even- 
ing. Brigade after brigade was hurled against us, until 
the ground in our front was literally covered with their 
dead and wounded. Their assaults were repulsed along 
the whole line. Finally, when the order was given to 
renew the attack, their men sullenly and emphatically 
refused to move forward under our withering fire. The 
prisoners we captured denounced and cursed Grant for 
this slaughter, and dubbed him the "champion butcher." 
In the evening a battery of artillery was sent to our 
aid. They came up at a gallop and endeavored to take 
position on a slight elevation, in the skirt of pines, im- 
mediately in rear of our regiment. Before they had 
time to inilimber, every hor.^c in the battery was shot 
down. The men then endeavored to run the guns for- 
ward by hand, when nearly all the men were killed or 


wounded. One gun only was gotten in position, and it 
rendered but little j-erviee before it was dismantled. 
Having been under eonstant lire, and fn-ing i-njiidly all 
day ourselves — eacb man averaging two hundred rounds 
of cartridges — it became necessary to replenish our am- 
munition. An attempt to go to the rear, or to leave 
our works in any direction, was almost certain death. 
Lieut. -Col. Whitfield, who was now in command of our 
regiment, disliked to force a detail to go to the wagons 
for ammunition, and therefore called for volunteers. A 
sufficient number came forward at once, and set out on 
their perilous expedition; among the number was pri- 
vate R. F. Hampton, of the Grays. In due time they 
all returned, each bringing a supply of cartridges, but 
waited some distance back of us for a lull in the firing 
so as to run the gauntlet of the sharpshooters to the 
lines. Several were badly wounded in making the 
trip, among the number private E. F. Hampton, who 
had almost reached the lines when he was shot down 
by a sharpshootor, mortally wounded, and afterwards 
died of his wounds. During the battle, private W. J. 
Hunt was killed, and Dal'l B. Coltrain and Benjamin 
Burnsides severely wounded. Private Hunt, when shot, 
was standing near me. We w^ere trying to locate a 
sharpshooter in our front, who had become very troub- 
lesome by the accuracy of his aim. We had been ex- 
posed in our position but a few moments, when a min- 
ie-ball pierced his head, scattering his brains in my 
face, and he sunk down lifeless at my feet. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Whitfield was severely wounded in the 

head, and was carried from the field. The command 


now devolved -upon Capt. Herring, the senior officer, 
who acted as Colonel, and Captain Sloan, next in rank, 
as Major. 

On the following morning, we fonnd that the enemy, 
nnder cover of darkness, had left our front ; and we 
were moved to the right, and placed in position imme- 
diately at Cold Harbor, with our respective lines so 
near as to be able to converse with each other. We 
remained here in line of battle, under constant fire ; 
happily, our immediate command had no serious cas- 
ualties. Grant used every expedient to break through 
our lines, but he had so mercilessly slaughtered and 
cowed his men in his first charges at Cold Harbor, that 
his men refused to charge a second time. So deter- 
mined was he to clean us up, at all hazards, that he re- 
marked he would do so, " if it took him all summer." 
The sequel proved that he did not overestimate the 
time, but the process cost considerable bloodshed. 

Stanton (Secretary of War) says, officially, that 
Grant's force, on the 1st of May, was over one hund- 
red and twenty thousand men. Shortly afterwards, 
the 9th army corjDs was sent to him. This army, then 
aggregating over one hundred and forty thousand men, 
with a reserve to draw from of one liundred and thirty 
thousand more, in round numbers, was ruthlessly hurled 
against Lee's less than fifty thousand men. Lee had 
no reserve — the cradle and the grave had long since 
mustered, and our ports were closed to mercenary hire- 
lings. Their own historians prove and show that their 
"butcher" slaughtered nearly one hundred thousand 
men in his " On to Eichraond," from the wilds of the 


" Wilderness " to the desolated fields of Cold Harbor. 
In other words, he sacrificed about twice as many men 
as Lee had, in order to take a position he could have 
taken at first without firing a gun or losing a man. 

On the 3d of June, Lieut. Frank A. Hanner, who 
had been for some weeks confined by disease in the 
hospital at Eichmond, died. He served as private un- 
til April, 1862 ; at the reorganization of the twelve- 
months' troops, he was elected 2d Lieutenant ; was pro- 
moted to Senior 2d, September 17th, 1862, and again 
on the 15th of October, I860, to 1st Lieutenant. On 
the 1st of June, private Joel J. Thom was appointed 


The Army of the Potomac having now apparently 
had sufficient amusement on this portion of its consti- 
tuted " all summer route," again adopted " Little Mc's " 
tactics, " sought water," and on the 12tli of June began 
its march towards the historic James. 

On the 14th and loth, by means of his pontoon 
bridges near Wilcox's Landing, Grant crossed to the 
south side of the river. On the evening of the loth 
his advance made a feint demonstration against Peters- 
burg, and on the 16th made his attack in force. This 
attack was promptly met, and successfully repulsed by 
our forces under Gen. Beauregard. Our brigade, as 
yet, in the swamps of the Chickahominy, was almost 
daily employed in skirmishes with the enemy's calvary. 
On the 15th of June we came across a large force of 


calvary at Gary's farm. They had met a small force 
of our calvary and had been driving them. When we 
arrived they dismounted and sent their horses to the 
rear, formed their lines and showed fight. After a 
sharp ^'struggle their lines gave way, and we pursued 
them some distance through the woods. Their sharp- 
shooters were armed with seven shooters, and they used 
them against us on our advance with telling effect. 
When they reached their horses they quickly re- 
mounted and were soon beyond our reach. Orderly 
Sergeant William M. Paisley and private Henry J. 
Coble were wounded. 

We had advanced in line but a short distance, when 
Sergeant Paisley, at the head and slightly in advance 
of his company, was shot by a sharpshooter, and fell 
mortally wounded. He was carried Irom the field and 
sent to the hosj^ital in Pichmond, there he suffered and 
lingered until the 13th' of July, when he died in the 
arms of his broken-hearted father, who carried his re- 
mains to Guilford, and interred them at Alamance 
church. He was among the first of Guilford's gallant 
boys Avho went forth to do battle for truth and right. 
He kept his vows to his God and his Southland sacred 
alike, and at his post, on the front line in the fight, fell 
wounded to the death. 

'* Od otlier brows let careless fame 

Her fadeless wreath of laurel twine, 
Enough for thee— thy epitaph! 
First in the foremost line." 

After this encounter we were granted a short respite 
until the 21st, when our calvary was routed by the en- 


emy at Yellow Tavern, and onr brigade was ordered 
to tlicir support. When \tG reached there, we found 
them slowly retiring before tlie enemy in a dense woods. 
Gen. Cooke at once ordered forward his sharpsliooters, 
and very soon a spirited light began. Our regiment 
was tlirown into line and we began to press them back. 
As they had been driving our calvary they were loth 
to retire, and fouglit us obstinately. Cooke then or- 
dered his whole brigade into line. They, seeing now 
that they could not cope with us in fair light, set fire 
to the woods and leaves in our front, and we were forced 
to advance through fire and smoke, our men suffering 
terribly from the heat, the day, besides, being exceed- 
ingly hot. We had been in too many hot places to be 
afraid of fire, so we made at them with a j^ell, and soon 
had their lines broken and in rapid retreat, with our 
calvary — who had recovered — in pursuit of them. Our 
loss was not so great, but the men experienced great 
thirst, and many were scorched by the fires; in some 
instances the cartridges were exploded in their boxes. 

About the 2oth Gen. Butler, having pontooned the 
James Eiver at Deep Bottom, crossed a heavy force to 
the north side. Our brigade was ordered to reconnoi- 
tre this force, and some fiohtino" ensued. We found 
them in force and strongly fortified, and an attack was 
deemed inadvisable, so we were withdrawn and ordered 
to Petersburg. We reached Petersburg on the 1st of 
July, and were placed on the lines a short distance from 
the city, to the left of the Weldon Eailroad. 

On the 15th of Julj^ private Daniel W. McConnell 
was appointed Orderly Sergeant. 


We remained near Petersburg comparatively quiet 
Until the 26tb of July, wlien Grant crossed another corps 
at Deep Bottom, to attack our pontoons at Drurj^'s 
Bluff, and prevent Lee from sending re-enforcements to 
the north side of the river. Our brigade was ordered 
back in haste to this point, and, although the enemy 
had gained some partial success, we drove him back 
and defeated the expedition. As events afterwards 
proved, these movements were only feints to draw our 
troops from Petersburg to better enable Grant to carry 
out his plans to make a breach in our lines in front of 
Petersburg. Uniform failure had now rendered him 
desperate, and Grant concluded the only wise thing now 
to do, was to " blow us up." Burnside was duly ap- 
pointed "blower." 


On the night of the 28th, Hancock's corps was se- 
cretly withdrawn from the north side, and every prep- 
aration was made for the great forthcoming event. 

Grant had constructed a mine under one of our forts 
in front of Petersburg, the main gallery of which was 
five hundred and tAventy-two feet in length, witn eight 
side galleries; in each of these galleries was placed 
about fourteen hundred pounds of powder. Gen. Burn- 
side, in charge of this new feature of warfare, was to 
explode the " infernal machine," and walk into Peters- 
burg with his colored troops, supposedly unmolested. 

About daylight on the morning of the 30th, this 
famous mine — afterw-iirds known as the " crater " — was 


exploded with a great noise, as of a "rusliing mighty 
wind, and there was a great eartliqiiake, and tlic si*in 
became black." Ahoiit one hnndred ol' oui- men and 
three or four gnns were moved out of tlieir places into 
tlie air, and when the smoke cleared away an opening 
about one hundred and fifty feet long, sixty feet wide, 
and thirty fcet deep appeared in place of our earth- 
works. Simultaneously with this explosion the enemy 
opened a terriiic fire along their whole front, and the 
Avhite division selected for this occasion came slowly 
through the abattis up to this liole^ where they were 
met by a merciless fire from our artillery, enfilading 
tliem right and left, with our infantry In their front. 
They were badly led, and, being demoralized, they fal- 
tered and sought shelter in the crater. IN^ext came the 
''nigger" division, and the "colored troops fought 
bravely," until tiie withering fire from our guns created- 
a panic, when [into the crater pell-mell they rushed, 
white rnd. black, a disordered, mangled, quivering 
mass; our shot, shells, balls, and canister creating a per- 
fect carnival of death. Some few endeavored to leave 
the crater and run back, but they were immediately 
shot down. Those who witnessed the ccene say it Avas 
beyond the power of words to describe. Our lines Avere 
soon re-established, and our brigade was sent to relieve 
the troops holding the lines where the mine was sprung. 
Thus ended this " miserable affair." 

The space between the two lines, as now formed, was 
so close as to endanger any exposure whatever, and we 
had to hug our earthworks very closely. Our com- 
pany was in line immediately at the crater. In our 


front, and almost under our noses, lay the bloated, fes- 
tering bodies of their dead, exposed to tlie scorching 
rays of a July son. To make our situation still more 
interesting, it was supposed that the battery on our 
right was also mined ; and we were daily and nightly 
in fear of another explosion, and to be landed— no tell- 
ing where. We remained in this position for a week, 
when Grant asked for a truce to bury his dead. We 
were then moved a short distance to our right, where 
we remained until about the middle of August. While 
on these lines, we literally lived under the ground. 
We had to pass to and from the front in covered ways ; 
our rations were all prepared in the rear, and sent to us. 
We were compelled to sleep in bomb-proofs to avoid 
their mortar shells, with which they enlivened the 
scene at night. 

On the 18th of August, Warren's corps seized a por- 
tion of the Weldon Railroad near Petersburg, when we 
were withdrawn from our position in front of the city 
and moved to this point. On the 25th, this success 
was followed up by an attempt under Gen. Hancock to 
take possession of Keam's Station, farther south, on the 
same road. A. P. Hill's corps was selected to drive 
him from this position. On our arrival we were de- 
ployed inline, and ordered to go forward. The under- 
growth and fallen trees over which we had to climb 
our way retarded our advance, and Gen. Cooke ordered 
the 27th and 48th regiments forward first. When they 
had gotten sulliciently advanced, he directed the other 
two regiments of our brigade, the 4Gth and loth, to ad- 
vance. When we reached the enemy'^s works, we 

IouikI tliciii lieavilv manned witli infantry and artil- 
lery, Notliin;^; dannted, however, we still advaneed 
tbrougli sliot and shell until we came to a hand to- 
hand fight across the breastworks. The two other reg- 
iments now came up and in a few moments the enemy 
broke and fled in confusion, leaving their guns. The 
colors of the 27tli, carried by Sergeant Eichards, 
of the Orange Guards, were the first seen on their 
works. We pursued them, and turned their own guns 
upon them : but having no friction primers, we could 
not use them to advantage. We captured over two 
thousand prisoners and tw^elve pieces of artillery. 

Our loss in this brilliant dash was very heavy, and 
North Carolina's troops alone, consisting of Cooke's, 
McRea's, and Lane's brigades, were engaged. The 27th 
regiment came out of the fight with less than seventy- 
five men ! 

The Grays lost in killed, private John Coltrain ; in 
wounded. Sergeants William U. Steiner and A. C. 
Cheely, privates Hardy Ayers, James S. Scott, Emsley 
W. Stratford, and Wash. Williams. 

Warren had now^ made good his hold upon the rail- 
road, and these events did not materially affect the gen- 
eral result. The enemy's left gradually reached far- 
ther westward, until, in October, it was established on 
the left bank of Hatcher's Run, eight miles southwest 
of Petersburg. 


On the 26tli of August, we returned to our position in 
the trenches, where we remained until the latter part 
of September. 

On the 16th, Robert T. Heath and James Hacket 
joined the Grays. 

The casualties in the campaign so far had sadly re- 
duced oar ranks. At the battle of Ream's Station, 
Capt. Herring, senior officer of the regiment, was wound- 
ed, when Capt. J. A. Sloan, next in rank, took com- 
mand of the regiment, and Sergeant Thomas J. 
Rhodes commanded the Grays. Our muster-roll on 
the 31st of August contained sixty names rank and file. 
One captain, one sergeant, two corporals, and sixteen 
privates were reported for duty. One officer and thir- 
ty-five men absent, wounded, and prisoners ; four men 
on detached service. 

On the 18th of September, private Geo. H. Woolen 
died while a prisoner of war at Point Lookout, Md. 
On the 18th, Samuel E. B. Gray was killed in the 
trenches before Petersburg, and on the 27th, private 
Wm. X. Kirkman. About the same time, Sergeant 
Daniel McCoonell, Avhile lying sick in the field hos- 
pital in rear of our lines, was seriously injured by a 
shell passing through the hospital and so near to him 
as to cause a paralysis of his limbs, from which he 

On the night of the 28th of September, Butler, with 
the corps of Birney and Ord, crossed to the north side 
of the James, and moved up the river, with tlie view of 


attackiii;!:" Fort Hari'isoii, near Cluipiii's Farm. A ])()r- 
tion of his force made a feint upon the Newmarket 
road, and while this engagement was in process, a col- 
umn moved on the fort and captured it. This re- 
sulted in giving to the enemy a secret lodgment on the 
north side of the James, and a position very menacing 
to Richmond. 

On the '20th, \ve were moved still further to the 
right ; and on the next day, were engaged in a spirited 
skirmish near Batt-ery Xo. 45, on our advanced lines. 
Every lew days, we were moved still farther to the 
right, skirmishing and picketing, until we reached 
Hatcher's Run, about the 1st of December. 

About dajdight, on the morning of the 27th of Oc- 
tober, three corps of the enemy moved towards the 
BoydtQn Plank-Road with a view to turn our right 
Hank and get possession of tlie Southside railroad, which 
was now Lee's principal communication. When they 
reached the Boydton road, they found our troops en- 
trenched at every point. Hancock's corps continued 
to advance in the direction of Stonj^ Creek, supposing 
this to be the termination of our lines, and thereby 
creating a gap between his right and the left of the 5th 
army corps. Mahone's division, taking advantage of 
this opening in their lines, assailed Hancock's right, and 
drove Gibbons' division some distance back. Mean- 
while, Hampton with his cavalry began to attack his 
rear. Our brigade was moved up the creek (Hatcher's 
Run) as far as Burgess' Mill, and was placed in position 
to be ready on the next morning to charge the enemy 
from their position on the other side of the creek. The 

only means of crossing the stream was a natrow coun-- 
try bridge, which was guarded by their sharpshooters, 
and beyond on the hills, about one hundred yards off, 
was posted their artillery. The charge was to be made 
at daylight; and with thii^ pleasant prospect before us, 
you may imagine we passed a comfortable iiight in an^ 
ticipatjon. When morning came, our sharpshooters 
were advanced, and found, to our comfort and dcliglit, 
that Grant liad withdrawn his trooj)s during the night, 
and retraced his steps to tlieir intrenchments in front 
of Petersburg. He had been completely frustrated, 
and thus failed in his flank movement. 

On the following day we were in position on the left 
of .Hatcher's Kun, and as active operations were con- 
sidered closed tor the winter, w^e began to build winter 
quarters. In a short while we had comfortable cabins, 
in which we remained quietly until the 8th of Decem 

On the 8th of December the 2d army corps, by way 
of diversion, made a raid on the Petersburg & Weldon 
Eailroad, and A. P. Hill's corps was ordered to meet 
them. On the evening of the 8th we quit our comfort^ 
able quarters, and in tlie sleet and driving snow, marched 
until 2 o'clock a. m. of the 9th, wlien we bivouacked till 
morning. We then marched on, in the bitter cold, to 
Bellfleld, when we found the enemy were retreating up 
the Jerusalem Planlc-road. From here we were or- 
dered back to Jarratt's Station to try to intercept them. 
Just as we reached this point we encountered a large 
force of their cavalry. Pegram's artillery was thrown 
torward, and our brigade, concealed in the pines, clad 
with ice and sleet, was thrown into line as support. 


The enerriy were not iiware of our presence, and 
charged upon the artillery. Our skirmishers received 
the charge. Seeing tliat the battery was supported, 
they began to retreat. \Vc ])n]-sued thcni across the 
railroad and pushed forward rapidly for several miles, 
hoping to intercept their infantry, but we found the 
pursuit useless. As darkness was now upon us, we 
halted for the night, and next morning resumed our 
march for our camp, which we reached, hungry and 
almost frozen, on the loth. 

(irant behaved himself now tolerably well mitil Sun^ 
day morning, February 5th, when, becoming restless, lie 
began one of his periodical movements, and succeeded 
in getting very near our lines before we w^ere aware of 
his movements. About the middle of the day Davis' 
Mississippi brigade, which was a mile to our left, was 
marched down to our position and relieved us. We 
were then marched up the lines some two miles, wdiere 
we crossed our w^orks and formed a line outside of them. 
We then marched to the front about one mile, Avlien 
we turned to the riiilit. and forming line of battle, be^ 
gan to advance and soon struck the skirmish line of tlie 
enemy, which we drove with our line of battle some 
distance, until we came in view of their line posted upon 
a hill in a field behind earth^vorks. We Avere ordered 
to charge. We started up the hill, and when we had 
gone some distance, and seeing the brigade on our left 
was not charging with us, we fell back to the edge of 
the woods. The enemy now made a strong demon- 
stration on our right flank, and to prevent this move- 
ment we had to fall back to our reserve line, when a 
Georgia brigade took the place of ours. A^ they were 


ordered forward a portion of our regiment, among them 
the Grays, thinking the order came from our command- 
ing officer, advanced with this brigade and fought 
through the remainder of the day. After dark we 
were returned to our breastworks, and when we reached 
them we found that we had been fighting in front of 
our former position, and had been moved two miles up 
the lines to be marched back again to fight in the place 
of other troops wlio had been moved into our earth 
works, and almost directly in front of our camp. [There 
are some things past finding out and beyond explana- 
tion, but as the deductions of a citizen soldier are at no 
time of valuable consideration, I forbear.] 

On the following day we were returned to our quar- 
ters, where we enjoyed quiet and rest until the latter 
part of March. 

While we were in the heat of the battle of the oth 
of Februar}', some few of the new recruits who had re- 
cently joined our brigade, not exactly fancying the shot 
and shell which were flying around, thought the rear 
was a safer place, and suiting the action to the thought, 
^' dusted." Gen. Lee with several of his staff was seated 
on horseback in rear of our lines and in proximity to 
the battle, awaiting the issue, when observing these 
men crossing the works without their guns, in seeming 
alarm and haste, he rode toward them, endeavoring to 
halt and return them to their command, when one of 
the '' dusters," in grave alarm, raised his hands and voice 
in terror, exclaiming : " Great God, old man, get out of 
the way, you don't know nothing," continued his rapid 
flight too terrified to recognize or obey chieftain or or- 



The Grays were in winter quarters on the left side 
ol Hatcher's Run, one mile and a half below Burgess' 
mill While here we received orders, at midnight on 
the 24tli of March, to be in readiness to move in tlie di- 
rection of Petersburo-. Leaving- the sick and wounded 
to take care of the camp and tlie lines in our immedi- 
ate front, we began our marcli, not knowing the cause 
of this seeming untimely order. After two hours rapid 
marchino; we reached Petersburg, and bivouaced near 
the water- works. About daylight we were quietly 
marched into our trenches in front of and to the right 
of Hare's Hill. The troops who had just occupied 
these trenches where we now were had been marched 
out, and were in readiness, under General Gordon, to 
make a prearranged sortie upon the Federal forts on 
Hare's Hill. 

The attack was made in force about daylight. Our 
troops gained possession of the enemy's works, but were 
soon compelled to abandon them, owing to the superior 
force of the enemy and to the fact that our forces were 
bewildered in the darkness. 

About two o'clock p. m. we were ordered back to our 
camp on Hatcher's Kim. Before reaching it, however, 
we were informed that our sick and wounded had been 
routed, and that the enemy was in possession gf our 
picket line. Gen. Cooke immediately ordered out his 
sharpshooters, and by a flank movement drove off the 
enemy and regained possession of his line. Next morn- 
ing the sharpshooters were relieved by the regular pick- 


ets, under command of Capt. Jolin A. Sloan of the 
Gravs, who held the lines against repeated attacks until 
the iirst of April. 

At midnight of the first of April our brigade was re- 
lieved by Davis' Mississippi brigade. Our brigade now 
crossed the creek and took position in Fort Evliss. As 
soon as day dawned the enemy, being on three sides of 
us, opened fire upon us with artillery and infantry. Al- 
though protected to some extent, some of our men were 
killed by their shells during the morning. In the 
meanwhile a desperate fight was going on between fort 
Evliss, the position we were occupying, and Petersburg. 
Oar position in the fort was only tenable, provided the 
troops on our left held their position. Consequently, 
the issiie of the fight was awaited by us with much 
anxiety. Just before sunrise a courier dashed into the 
fort with news that the lines had been broken and our 
troops were in retreat. We were, in consequence, im- 
mediately withdrawn from our works, and began our 
retreat from Petersburg. After retreating some five 
miles, being pressed sorely by the enemy, two regiments 
of our brigade w^ere deployed as skirmishers. 

Arriving now at South erland's tavern, on the South- 
side road, we formed line of battle and awaited the en- 
emy's advance. They soon came up flushed with suc- 
cess, and attacked with great confidence. But we re- 
pulsed them with heavy loss, capturing many prisoners. 
Reinforcements coming up we were flanked and com- 
pelled again to retreat. After following us cautiously 
for some hours, and night coming on, the enemy aban- 
doned further pursuit. 


We now eiulcavorcd to cross tlic river so as to Join 
thv, main army, from which we had been separated by 
the break in the lines that morning. We followed up 
our retreat until two o'clock that night, when we halted 
and rested on our arms until morning. At sunrise we 
began our journeyings again, reaching Deep Creek, un- 
molested, about nine o'clock. We wandered up this 
creek about three miles, fording it at this point. We 
then endeavored to make Goode's bridge on the Ap- 
pomattox, but night overtaking us, we camped at the 
cross-roads near Goode's bridge, At one o'clock at 
night we received marching orders. After three hours 
hard marching through fields, bog, and fen, we came 
upon the advance of the main army, which had just 
crossed the Appomattox on a pontoon bridge. We 
were delighted to meet our old comrades once more 
after a three days' separation. What added to the in- 
terest of the occasion in a private way was the fact that 
Major Webb had found a canteen full of something^ and 
my ever faithful " Bill " had captured a hen's nest and 
scouped in half a dozen or more of eggs. We cele- 
brated our deliverance and reunion. 

At the suggestion of the officers of our regiment, it 
was agreed, there being only about seventy men for 
duty, that we should form a battalion of tw^o compan- 
ies, the officers giving up their rank temporarily, and 
the non-commissioned officers going into the ranks. 
Lieut.-Col. J. C. Webb commanded the battalion. Major 
Calvin Herring took command of the first company, 
and Capt. John A. Sloan took command of the second. 
This organization was maintained until the surrender. 

On the nisht of the fourth we camped at Amelia 


Court-House, in the woods just outside of the town, and 
rested on our arms in line of battle. The next day 
was consumed in protecting our wagon trains from the 
frequent attacks of the enemy's cavalry. We now con- 
tinued our march, fighting by day and retreating by 
night. Our provision train was burned by the enemy 
near Kice's station, and our rations that night consisted 
of one quart of corn per man in lieu of meal. The next 
day we passed through Farmville. Having been the 
rear guard for several days, we were now relieved by 
Scales' North Carolina brigade. Organization and dis- 
cipline was now rapidly giving away. We were skirm- 
ishing and fighting to protect ourselves at every point 
in a kind of Guerrilla warfare, every man, for the most 
part, doing his fighting on his own hook. 

Saturday night, April the 8th, we camped in about 
three miles of Appomattox Court-House. Before day 
next morning we were hastily ordered up and moved 
to the front. We were rapidly marched up the road 
filled with ambulances and wagons until we came with- 
in full view of Appomattox Court-House, where we 
could plainly see the Federal line of battle on the hills 
at and beyond the court-house. We were immediately 
thrown into line of battle on the right of the road and 
ordered to hold ourselves in readiness to advance at any 
moment. On the front line we awaited further orders. 


Reader ! The writer said, when he began the " Rem- 
iniscences of the Guilford Grays," that it was not his 
purpose to undertake the severe labors of the histor- 


Kin, but to confine hinisell' to the humbler task of re- 
lating what has been part of his own experience. 

To make the thread of narrative continuous and in- 
telligible, it deserves to be mentioned, however, that it 
has been necessary to allude to portions of the history 
of those eventful times in which the Grays were only 
generally interested, which the circumstance will justify. 

The writer closes this, his last chapter, with the con- 
sciousness that he has been actuated by the very kind- 
est feelings to all, and that if an intimation has escaped 
him which may have injuriously touched the feelings 
of any one, none such was intended. How he has per- 
formed his work, the reader will judge. This much 
he will say for himself, that he has attempted to do it 
faithfully and — lovingly. 

But little more now remains to be said. The morn- 
ing of the 9th of April presented a spectacle never to 
be forgotten by those who saw it. General Gordon 
was at the front with a meagre two thousand men ; be- 
hind us smoked the remnants of the wagon-trains ; in 
the rear, drawn up and ready again to strike, was the 
shattered wreck of Longstreet's once grand and noble 
command. About ten o'clock dispositions were made 
for attack, when Gordon was ordered to advance. 

In vain ! A las^ in vain ! Ye yallant few ! Sud- 
denly a halt was called, a flag of truce appeared upon 
the scene, hostihties ceased, and a dreamy sadness 
filled the April air. The grand old Army of North- 
ern Virginia was environed ! " I have done what I 
thought best for you," " the gray-headed man " said to 
his men. " My heart is too full to speak, but I wish 
you all health and happiness." 


The negotiations relating to the surrender had been 
instituted on the 7th by a note from General Grant to 
General Lee. The correspondence was continued un- 
til the 9th, when the terms proposed by General Grant 
were accepted. 

On the 10th, General Lee issued his farewell address 
to his army. On the afternoon ot the 11th, the gallant 
Gordon spoke most eloquently to the little remnant 
massed in the open field. 

The sun hid his face in sullen sympathy behind the 

clouds, night settled drearily over the camp, and the 

brave ola army fell asleep. 

" Hushed was the roll of the Rebel drum, 
The sabres were sheathed and the cannon was dumb; 
And Fate, with pitiless hand, had furled 
The flag that once challenged the gaze of the world." 

On the 12th, the Army of Northern Virginia was 
marshaled for the last time, not to do battle, but to 
stack its arms and pass out of existence — forevermore. 

Of the Guilford Grays who were present at the final 
scene of this eventful history, the following answered 
to roll-call : " Captain Jno. A. Sloan, Lieut. Eufus B. 
Gibson, 1st Sergeant Thomas J. Ehodes, Sergeant Joel 
J. Thorn ; privates Peter M. Brown, Lewis N. Isley, 
Jas. M. Hardin, Walter Green, E. Tonkey Sharpe, Geo 
W. Lemons, Silas C. Dodson, and Samuel M. Lipscomb. 

On the 11th, printed certificates, certifying that we 
were paroled prisoners of war, were issued and distrib- 
uted among us, bearing date April 10th, 1865, Appo- 
mattox Court-IIouse, granting us " permission to go 
home, and remain there undisturbed.'^ 

Comrades ! We entered the service in the bloom of 
youthful vigor and hope, with cheerful step and will- 


in;^- heart, leaving liaj)py lioincs in peace and prosper- 
ity behind. We took the field for a principle as sa- 
cred as ever led a hero to the cannon's mouth, oi- a mar- 
tyr to the place of execution. 

This principle was honor and patriotism ; a firm deter- 
mination to dclend to the last that constitution which 
oui- fathers had handed down and taiiglit iis to revere as 
the only safeguard of our personal rights and liberties. 

After lour long years, we returned to our homes in 
tattered and battle-stained garments, footsore, weary, 
and with aching hearts. We returned to see poverty, 
desolation, and ruin; to find the hearts of our loved 
(jnes buried in the graves of the dead Confederacy. 
Aye ! and we have seen other sorrows. We have seen 
that constitution subverted under the forms of law ; we 
have seen the rights of individuals and communities 
trampled in the dust without hope of redress. Nay, 
more! We have seen the government of the fathers 
removed from existence, and an engine of oppression, 
no longer a Union of States, but a A^o^?'on, like the dev- 
il-fish of the siia, reaching its hideous and devouring 
arms in all directions from one common centre, know- 
ing only one law of action and of motive — the insatiate 
greed of avarice and plunder. 

But though the Confederacy went down in lire and 
smoke, in bh^od and in tears, that truth, which was the 
guiding-star of the devoted soldiers who fought its bat- 
tles, and of those at home who toiled and |)rayed for 
its success — that truth did not low^er its standard or sur- 
render its sword at Appomattox. We submit to the 
inevitable. We submit in dignity and in silence. But 
because we accept, with becoming nunds and conduc^t, 


that subjugation which the fortune of war has entailed 
upon us, shall we therefore pronounce the word " cra- 
ven?" Shall we noiv recant? Shall we now sol- 
emnly declare that we did not believe what we pro- 
fessed to fight for? Shall we thus insult, either in 
word or act, the memories of the dead heroes — and we 
dare maintain they died heroes — who sleep on a thous- 
and hillsides and in the valleys of our common country ? 

Should we thus prostrate ourselves to invite the 
scorn and contempt which even our enemies would 
have the right to bestow upon us? Never! A thou- 
sand times never ! " Will not history consent, will not 
mankind applaud, when we still uphold our principles 
as right, our cause as just, our country to be honored, 
when those principles had for disciple, that cause for 
defender, that country for son — Eobert Lee? 

" Not to his honor shall extorted tributes carve the 
shaft or mould the statute ; but a grateful people will 
in time give of their poverty gladly that, in pure mar- 
ble or time -defying bronze, future generations may see 
the counterfeit presentment of this man — the ideal and 
consummate flower of our civilization ; not an Alexan- 
der, it may be ; nor Napoleon, nor Timour, nor Church- 
ill — greater far than they, thank heaven — the brother 
and the equal of Sidney and of Falkland, of Hampden 
and of Washington ! " 

'' He sleeps all quietly and cold 

Beneath the soil that gave him birth, 
Then brake his battle-brand in twain 
And lay it with him in the earth. ' ' 

A word to the survivors of the Guilford Grays, and 
I close these reminiscences. From the period of the 


outbreak of the war in April, 1^61, to the suri'eudcr 
of the Confederate army in April, 1865, the muster- 
rolls ^of the Grays have contained one hundred and 
eighty names. Of this number, some were transferred 
to other commands, some were discharged for physical 
disabilities and other causes. A large proportion sleep, 
unmindful of the rude farmer's ploughshare upon the 
fields made memorable by their deeds. Some rest un- 
der the shades of the trees in the quiet cemeteries of 
your forest-green city, and some in the sacred church- 
yards of your historic country. Oh ! they suffered a 
sad, dark fate — fallen in unsuccessful war ! 

On each return of Spring, come and bring flowers, 
nature's choicest, and scatter them on their graves. So 
long as tears fall, come and shed them there, and show 
to the world that we, of all men, are not ashamed of 
their memories or afraid to vindicate their motives. 

And as we stand upon this hallowed ground, let us 
bury all animosities engendered by the war. In the 
grave there can be no rancorous hates ; between the 
sleepers there is perpetual truce. Shall the living have 
less ? Savages, only, perpetuate immortal hates. Then 
permit no "barbarian memory of wrong" to lodge in 
our breasts while w^e keep vigils over these graves of 
our illustrious dead. 

To you who stood by me through all these eventful 
scenes, and came up out of the great tribulation, I pray 
Heaven's choicest blessings ever attend you — and now 
— adieu. 



Captain John Sloan. — Elected Lieutenant-Colonel of the 27tli 
North Carolina Regiment, September, 1^61 ; promoted to col- 
onelcy December, 1861; resigned April, 1862; died since 

1st Lieutenant William Adams. — Elected Captain, vice Capt. 
John Sloan promoted, October 5tli, 1861; killed at battle of 
Sharpsburg September 1.7th, 1862.* 

2d Lieutenant Jas. T. Morehead, Jr. — Resigned April 20tli, 
1861; appointed captain in the 45th North Carolina Regi- 
ment; promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in the 53d Regiment, 
and after the death of Colonel Owens, became its Colonel; 
w^ounded at Spottsylvania, Gettysburg, and captured at Hare's 

2d Jr. Lieutenant John A. Gilmer, Jr. — Detailed as adjutant 
of the 27th North Carolina Regt. September, 1861; elected 
Major December, 1861; promoted to Colonelcy November, 
1862; wounded at battle of Fredericksburg, December 13th, 
1862; severely wounded at Bristow, October 14th, 1863; re- 
signed, on account of wounds, January, 1865. 

Logan, Jno. E., M. D. — Entered the service as Surgeon of the 
Grays; remained at Fort Macon about four months; appointed 
Surgeon of the 4th North Carolina Regiment; transferred to 
the i4th North Carolina Regiment, where he served as Surgeon 
until close of the war. 

1st Sergeant William P. Wilson.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; 
elected 2d Lieutenant Jr., vice J. A. Gilmer promoted, Sep- 
tember, 1861; appointed Adjutant of 27th North Carolina 
Regiment, at reorganization of State troops, April, 1862; died 
of clisease at Greensboro March 3, 1863. 

2d Sergeant John A. Sloan. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed 
Sergeant-Major of the post at Fort Macon May, 1861 ; elected 

*William Adams was born in Greensboro on the 18th of February, 
1836. In June. 18.58, he graduated at the University of the State. Short- 
ly after his return from the University, he entered the office of R. P. 
Dick, Esq., as a student of the law. He was licensed to practise in the 
county courts in December, 1859, and was admitted to the bar at Febru- 
ary Term, 1860, At the formation of the Grays in 1860, he was chosen 
and appointed 1st Lieutenant. On the night of the 19th of April, 1861, 
he left with the Grays for Fort Macon. On the 5th of October, 1861, he 
was unanimously elected to tlic captaincy of the Grays, vice Capt. John 
Sloan, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 27th JRegiment. 

On the 2:i(\ of April, the Grays reorganized under the conscript act, 
and Capt, Adams was re-elected without opposition, his men having im- 
plicit confidence in his skill, ability, and courage. At the battle of 
Sharpsburg, he tell wounded to the death, a martyr to the cause he 
loved so well. Young in .years, high in hopes, illustrious in daring and 
chivalrous deeds, he lills a soldier's grave in the (luiet country of his 
native town— mourned by all who knew him. 


2(1 Licutenunt January 14, 18()'2; clerted 1st Lleutonant April 
22. 18G2; promoted to Captain Septonilxjr 17, ISOi; Judge 
Advocate of Hclirs Division court-martial; surrendered at 
Appomattox Court- House. 

3d Ser.iieant Gico. W. IIowlktt— Enlisted April 20, ISOI; dis- 
charjj;ed on account of allection of his eyes July 2:>, 1S(')2. 

4tli Seri^eant Sam'l B. Jordax.— Enlisted Aprir2(), 18(51; cap- 
tured at battle ot New Berne March 14, 1802; e.\chanii;ed and 
discharixed at reorganization of State troops April 22, 1862; 
died since the "war. 

1st CoriH)ral Tnos. J. Sloan.— Enlisted April 20, 1801; detached 
at General Ransom's Ilead-Quarlcrs Fcibruary, 1802; ap- 
pointed Sergeant April, 1802; detailed as musician August 1, 

2d Corporal Ben.t. G. Graham.— Enlisted April 20, 1801; ap- 
pointed Ser<i;eant January, 1802; appointed Orderly-Sergeant 
April 22, 1802; elected 2d Lieutenant September 22. 18(52; de- 
tailed as Ordnance Officer December, 1802; resigned Novem- 
ber 9, 1804. 

3d Corporal Silas C. Dodson. — Returned to his home from Fort 
Macon; re-enlisted May 10, 1802; detailed as tJlerk Commis- 
sary Department December 15, 1802; surrendered at Appo- 
mattox Court-House. 

4th Corporal Ed. B, Crowson.— Enlisted April 20, 1801; ap- 
pointed Sergeant August 1, 1802; captured at Bristow Octo- 
ber 14, 1808; died in prison at Point Lookout January 23, 1864. 


Ayer.s, Hatidy. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; wounded at Ream's 
Station August 25, 1804; died since the war. 

Ayers, James! — Enlisted April 20, 1801; discharged for disability 
:May 12. 1802. 

Archer, W. D.— Enlisted June 9, 1801; wounded at Sharpsburg 
September 17, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 

Ayer. Henry W.— Enlisted May 15, 1863; transferred to Com- 
pany C, 48th Regiment, North Carolina troops, March 1, 1864; 
died since the war. • 

Bryan, Will L.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed Corporal 
September 21, 1862; died of disease in camp near Fredericks- 
burg December 17, 1862. 

Brown, Peter M. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; severely wounded 

at Sharpsburg September 17, 1862; detailed on Provost Guard 

February 14, 1804; surrendered at Appomattox Court-House. 

Boon, Henry M. — Enlisted May 1, 1801; captured at Bristow 

October 14, 1803. 

Boling, Rich'd G. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; died of disease in 
General Hospital. Richmond, Va., January 10. 18^53. 

Brown, R. D.— Enlisted August 1, 1801; died of disease in hos- 

phal, Petersburg. Va., September 21, 1802. 
Burnsides, Benj. F. — Enlisted February 28, 1802; wounded at 


Sliarpsbnrg September 17, 1862; detailed as teamster during 
1863; wounded at 2d Cold Harbor June 3, 1804. 

Burns iDKs, W. W. — Enlisted July loth, 18G1; discharged under 
Conscript Act, Ma}^ 22d, 18G2; rejoined the company April 
7tli, 1863; wounded at Bristow October 14th, 18(53. 

Campbell, Chas. A. — Enlisted April 20th, 1861; appointed Cor- 
poral April 22, 1862; appointed Sergeant August 1, 1862; 
promoted to Orderly-Sergeant November 1, 1862; wounded 
at Sharpsburg September 17, 1862; elected 2d Lieutenant De- 
cember 18, 1863; killed at Pole Green Church, on skirmish- 
line, June 2, 1864. 

Collins, John D. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed Cor- 
poral April 22, 1862; transferred to the color-guard in May; 
died of disease in camp at Drurj^'s Bluff, July 16, 1862. 

Cheely, Allison C. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed Cor- 
poral August 1 1862; promoted to Sergeant xsovember 1, 
1862; detailed as Chief of Ambulance Corps, September, 
1863; wounded at Ream's Station, August 25, 1864 (arm am- 

Coble, Alfked F.— Enlisted May 4, 1861; killed at Sharps- 
burg, September 17, 1862. 

Coble,"Robert S. — Enlisted May 4, 1861; died of disease at 
Frederick City, September 12, 1862. 

Coble, Henky I. — Enlisted February 25, 1862; wounded at 
Bristow, October 14, 1863; wounded at Gary's Farm, June 
15, 1861. 

Clapp, William C. — Enlisted June 11, 1861; died at his home 
of disease, August 8, 1862. 

Clapp, Israel N. — Enlisted June 11, 1861; discharged (for dis- 
ability) May 12, 1862; died since the w^ar- 

CoOK, AViLLiAM.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; died of disease at 
Greensboro, N. C, June 5, 1861. 

Chilcutt, Frank G. — Enlisted August 1, 1861; wounded at 
battle of Wilderness May 5, 1864; (arm amputated.) 

Crider, Henry — Enlisted April 12, 1862; killed at Bristow Oc- 
tober 14, 1863. 

Crutchfield, Paul. — Enlisted June 1, 1862, as a substitute for 
B. N. Smith; captured at Sharpsburg September 17, 1862; 
released in October; captured again at Bristow Octolber 14, 


CoLTitAiN, John.— Enlisted February 27, 1862; captured at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863; exchanged and returned to his com- 
pany June 18, 1864; killed at Beam's Station August 25, 1864. 

Cannady John.— Enlisted February 27, 1862; killed at Bristow 
Octo])er 14, 1863; (a christian, a hero, a friend.^ 

CoLTRAiN, Kob't L.— Enlistcd February 27, 1862; discharged 
(disal)ility) July 23, 1862. 

Clark, I). Logan.— Enlisted February 27, 1862; discharged 
(disability) June, 1862. 

Crowson, Cyrus M. — Enlisted August 4, 1862; v/ounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863; shot through both legs. 


CoLTHAiN, Dan'l B.— Knlislctl()ct<)l)(;r20, 180:3; wounded at 2d 
Cold lIiiil)or June 3, 1804. 

Donm;ll, Koh't L. — Enlisted May 4, 1801; wounded and cap- 
tured at Siiarpsburij: September 17, 1S()"2; imprisoned at (Ches- 
ter, Pa., where lie died of his wounds November 0, 1H()2. 

Davis. Jas. ('.—Enlisted May 4, 1801; died of disease at Fort 
Macon September 8, 1801.* 

Dknxis, NVilliam. — Enlisted July 20, 1802. 

Dennis, Jamfos. — Enlisted July 20, 1802; diseliarL!;ed (disability) 
May 15, 1803. 

Dennis, \Vm. D. — Enlisted June 15, 1801; wounded in the face 
at liristow, ()ctt)ber 14, 1803. 

Donnell, Wm II.— Enlisted February 18, 1804. 

Dick, Preston P.— Enlisted March l,'l804. 

Edwauds, James T. — Enlisted May 1, 1801; killed at Sliarps- 
])urt;- September 17, 1802. 

Edwards, Jas. M— Enlisted March 4, 1862; killed at Sharps- 
burg September 17, 1802. 

Edwards, David II. — Enlisted June 1, 1801; detailed as cour- 
ier to General L. O. B. Branch, May 1, 1862; appointed 
Regimeut-Ciuartermaster Sergeant, December 1, 1802; capt- 
ured at Bristow October 14, 1803. 

Forijis, H. Kufus. —Enlisted April 20, 1861; captured at 
Sharpsburg, September 17, 1802; exchanged and returned to 
his company November 25; appointed Corjioral December 
20, 1802; wounded at Bristow October 14, 1803; died of his 
wounds in hospital at Richmond, October 27, 1863. 

Forbis, II, Smiley. — Enlisted June 15, 1801; died of disease in 
Lynchburg, Va., March 12, 18ii4. 

Gorrell, Henry C. ^Ensign, ■with rank of Lieutenant; re- 
signed at Fort ^Nlacon, May, 1801; re-entered the service as 
Captain; killed near Richmond in a gallant charge at the 
liead of his company, June 21, 1802. 

Gibson, Rufus B. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; captured at Sharps- 
burg; exchanged and returned to his company November 25, 
1862; appointed Corporal December 18, 1863; wounded at 
Bristow; elected 2d Lieutenant November 9, 1864. • 

Greene, AValter. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed courier 
to General Cooke December, 1862; w^ounded at Bristow; sur- 
rendered at Appomattox Court-House. 

Gretter Mike.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; acting Commissary 
Sergeant at Fort Macon; appointed Brigade Commissary-Ser- 
geant March 18, 1862. 

Gray, Sam'i. E. B.— Enlisted February 28, 1802; wounded at 
Bristow October 14, 1863; killed on the lines near Petersburg 
September 13, 1864. 

Gant, Jas. H.— Enlisted August 1, 1861; died of disease in hos- 
pital at Richmond February 24, 1863. 

Greeson, Thos. R.— Enlisted"^ February 28, 1862; captured at 
Frederick City September 11, 1862; returned to his company 
February 10, 1863; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 


HA^'NEIl, Frank A.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; elected 2d Lieu- 
tenant Jr., at reorganization of company, April 22, 1862; pro- 
moted to Senior 2d Lieutenant September 17, 1862; promoted 
to 1st Lieutenant October 15, 1863; died of disease in hospital 
at Richmond June 3. 1864. 

HiGGiNs, Ed. B.— Enlisted May 1, 1861; detailed as musician 
August 1, 1862. 

Hunt,"L. G. — Enlisted May 1, 1861 ; acted as Surgeon of the com- 
pany at Fort Macon; appointed Assistant Surgeon of 27th 
Regiment, North Carolina troops, June 13, 1862. 

Hood, Abe. — Enlisted April, 1861; discharged under conscript 
act May 22, 1862. 

Hanner, VV. D. — Discharged under conscript act May 22, 1862. 

Hopkins, W.— Discharged under conscript act May 22, 1862. 

Hampton, Robert F. — Enlisted May 4, 1861; wounded at 2d 
Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864; died of wounds. 

Ha-rdin, James M. — Enlisted June 10, 1861; captured at Sharps- 
burg, September 17, 1882; wounded at battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December 13, 1863; detailed as teamster, July 7, 1863; 
• returned to duty April 22d, 1864; wounded at battle of the 
Wilderness, May 5tli, 1864; surrendered at Appomattox. 

Hunt, W. L. J. -Enlisted September 22, 1862, detailed as pio- 
neer November 25, 1862; killed at 2d Cold Harbor, June 3, 

Hunter, S. A.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; killed at battle of New- 
berne, March 14, 1862. 

Hunter, W. F, —Enlisted June 11, 1861; wounded at Bristow 
October 14, 1863; died ot w^ounds in hospital at Richmond, 
November 7, 1863. 

Hiatt. Samuel S. — Enlisted June 15, 1861; wounded at the 
Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

Hall. James S. — Enlisted February 28, 1862; died of disease at 
Hardy ville, S. C. April 14, 1863^ buried in Magnolia Ceme- 
tery, Charleston, S. C. 

Heath, Robert F. — Sent to the company from Camp Plolmes, 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under bounty act, Aug. 16, 1864. 

Hackett, Jas. — Sent to the company from Camp Holmes, Ra- 
leigh, North Carolina, under bounty act, August 16, 1864. 

Hall, Hugh A — Enlisted February 28, 1862; died of disease 
in hospital at Richmond, September 19, 1862. 

Horney, Wm. a. — Enlisted May 14, 1861; detailed as nurse in 
hf spital near Danville, Va. ; returned to duty November 22, 
1863; appointed clerk at brigade headquarters, December, 
1863; wounded at the Wilderness, May 5. 1863 (leg ampu- 

IsLEY, Lewls N. — Enlisted February 28, 1862; wounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863; surrendered at Ai)p(miattox. 

Jones, R. IJ.— Discharged under conscript act May 22, 1862. 

Klutt.s, Alfred W.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed Cor- 
poral December 18, 1863; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864, 


KiRKMAN, Newton W.— Enlisted March 1, 1802; killed on the 
lines in front of Petersburir September 27. 18G4. 

KniKM VN, Frank N. — Dischiiru;ed under conscript act May 22, 

KELi,«)(ir,. Henry G.— Enlisted Auiiiust 1. 18'')1; detailed at Bri- 
gade Commissary Department January, lS(>-5, until January, 
18154, when, by special order, he was detailed in Oommissary 
Department at Salisbury, X. C, under Capt. A. G. Brenizer. 

Lindsay, R. IIi:ni{Y— Enlisied April 2u. 18!)l; transferred to 
Captain Evans' Cavalry Company May, 18G1; died in camp 
Shortly afterwards. 

Lindsay. Anduew D.— Enlisted April 20, 1871; appointed Ord- 
nanee-Serii'eant of 27th North Carolina Ue;^im<nt April 1, 
1S(;2; served as such during the entire war; died since the war. 

Lindsay, Jed II. Jr.— Enlisted April 20, l^Gl; appointed Cor- 
poral 1801; appointed Sergeant April 22, 1832; promoted to 
Orderly-Sergeant September 22. 18G2; appointed Adjutant of 
45th North Carolina lleginient November 1, 18G2; died since 
the war. 

Lane, Isaac F, — Enlisted May 4, 1861; died of disease at Lees- 
burg. N. C, February 18, 'l8G3; (his remains were carried to 

Lindsey. Ed. B. — Enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged — under 
age — by conscript act May 22, 1862; re-entered the service as 
Lieutenant in 5th North Carolina Cavalry Regiment; killed 
in April, 1865. 

Lemons, Geo. \V — Enlisted August 1, 1861; captured at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863; surrendered at xVppomattox, 

Lemons, Jas. M. — Enlisted May 1, 1862; died of disease at his 
home March 1, 1863. 

LiNKBEUKY, Lours S- — Enlisted August 17, 1832, as a substitute 
for H S. Puryear: wounded at Bristow, October 14, 1863;t 

killed at AYilderness, :May 5, 1864. 

LiPsicoMB, Samuel B. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; detailed as 
musician in regiment band, August 1, 1862; surrendered at 

Lloyd, Tuos. E.— Enlisted January 26, 1863, as a substitute for 
Samuel Smith. 

McKnight, John H. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed Ser- 
geant at Fort Macon; elected 2d Lieutenant, Jr., April 22d, 
1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant September 17, 1862; killed 
at Bristow October 14, 1863. 

McDowell, J. W.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; wounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863. 

McAdoo. Walter D. — Enlisted May 4, 1861 ; wounded at 
Sharpsburg September 17, 1802, transferred to 53d North 
Carolina Regiment February 16, 1863. 

McLean, Robert B. — Enlisted June 11. 1861; wounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

McLean, Samuel F.— Enlisted May 6, 1862; killed at Wilder- 
ness May 5, 1864, 


Maesh, James M. — Enlisted June 15, 1861; captured at Bristow 
Octoher 14, 1863; exchanged and returned to company June 
18, 1864. 

McTnairy, John W.— Enlisted June 15, 1861; Avounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 18S3 (leg amputated). 

McLean, Joseph E.— Enlisted May 6, 1862; wounded at Sliarps- 
buro; September 17, 1862; detailed on Ambulance corps July 
10, 1863. 

McLain, Wm. H.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; died of disease 
at Winchester, Va., October 24, 1862. 

McFarland, Wm. H.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; captured at 
Sharpsburg September 17,' 1862. 

McConnell, "Daniel W. — Enlisted July 4, 1863; appointed Or- 
derly-Sergeant July 15, 1864; killed at Petersburg August, 

May, Lemuel — Enlisted February 28, 1862; with the excej)lion 
of a furlough for 18 days — January 4, 1864, from Orange 0. 
H. —was never absent from his post. 

Mat, William — Enlisted May 6, 1862; wounded at Bristow 
October 14, 1863. 

McQuisTON, John F.— Enlisted June 22, 1863. 

Nelson, John W. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; detailed as teamster- 
died of disease in hospital, Charleston, S. C, March 17, 1863. 

Okeell, Jas. a. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; captured at Bristow 
October 14, 1863. 

Oreell, a. L.\r'T — Enlisted April 20, 1861 ; wounded at Bristow^ 
October 14, 1863; transferred to Confederate States Navy 
March 31, 1864. 

Owen, Wilbur F. — Enlisted June 11, 1861; captured at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1863. 

Poetee, Chas. E.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; discharged (disa- 
bility) May 12, 1862; died of disease in Greensboro. 

Pearce, Jas.'^R. — Enlisted April 20, 1861; captured at Bristow 
October 14, 1863. 

PuRYEAR, H. S. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; substituted Lineberry 
August 17, 1862. 

Prathee, L. L.— Enlisted August 1, 1861; wounded at Sharps- 
burg September 17, 1862; discharged (disability) March 20, 

PoE, Wm. E.— Enlisted February 28, 1862. 

Paisley, Wm. M.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed corporal 
August 1, 1862; Sergeant Septeml)er 22, 1862; promoted to 
Orderly-Sergeant December 18; 1863; mortally wounded at 
Garv's farm June 15, 1864; died of wounds in hospital at 
Richmond July 13, 1864. 

RajSkin, Jos. W. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; wounded at Bristow 
October 14, 1863; died of wounds in hospital at Richmond 
October 24, 1863. 

Reid, John W.— Enlisted June 16, 1861; transferred to 48th 
North Carolina Regiment; promoted to Lieutenant in Com- 
pany K December 4, 1862. 


Rhodks, Thos. J. — Enlisted June 25, 18GI; iippointed Corporal, 
l)('ceni1»er 17, 18(52; Serii-eant, F'ebruaiy 20, IH*)-!; j^ronioted 
to Orderly-Sergeant, ISeplember, 1801; surrendered at Ai)po- 

Ricks, Plkas. A. — Enlisted May 1, 18G2, as a substitute for.Tno. 
E. AVHiarton; died ot disease in hospital at Lynchl)urL;;, Va., 
iMareh 12, 1804. 

Sloan, Ueo. J.— Enlisted April 20, 1801; died of disease at Fort 
Mixcon, July 31, 1801. 

Smith, John 11. — Enlisted February 28, 1802; died of disease at 
Pelersburg. August 8. 18(i2. 

Steulino. Ed. G. — Enlisted April 20, 1801; died of disease in 
Greensboro, Sei)teniber 28, 1801. 

Steinek, VVm. U. — Enlisted April 20, 1801; appointed Corporal 
June 1801; Sergeant, April 22, 1802; wounded at Bristow, 
October 14, 180;J; Recorder for Hetli Division. Court-Martial; 
wounded at Ream's Station, August 25, 1804. 

SwEi'iz. Edward — Enlisted April 20, 1801, as a substitutefor J. 
II. Tarpley. 

Stratford, C. W. — Enlisted May 1, 1801; appointed Corporal, 
August 1, 1802; Sergeant, December 18, 1803; wounded at 
Bristow, October 14, 1803; wounded at Wilderness, May 5, 

Stratford, Emsley F. — Enlisted May 1, 1801; wounded at 
Ream's Station, October 25, 1804. 

Summers, Wm. M. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; wounded at Bristow, 
October 14, 1803. 

Scott, J as. S. — Enlisted May 1, 1861; wounded at Ream's Sta- 
tion August 25, 1804; wounded on the lines near Burgess' 
Mills; died of wounds May 0, 1805. 

SiLER, John R. — Enlisted July 18, 1802; wounded at Wilder- 
ness May 5, 1804. 

Stanley, Andy L. — Enlisted June 11, 1801; captured at Bris- 
tow, October 14, 1863. (The "Champion Forager" of 
Cooke's N. C. Brigade.) 

Smith, Richard S. — Enlisted August 8, 1862; wounded at Bris- 
tow October 14, 1803; appointed Corporal February 20, 1804. 

Smith, Samuel — Enlisted August 8, 1802; broken down in health 
he furnished a substitute in the person of Thomas E. Lloyd 
January 20, 1803. 

Smith, B. N.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; substituted Paul 
Crutchfield June 6, 1802. 

Smith, R. Leyton— Enlisted February 28, 1802; killed at Sharps- 
burg September 17, 1802. 

Story, Wm. C. — Enlisted June 11. 1801; appointed Corporal 
March 21, 1863; detailed on Color-guard; complimented in 
special orders for gallantry at Bristow; wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-House May 10, 1804; appointed Ensign, with 
rank of Lieutenant, June 1804. 

Seats, Wm.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; died of disease at Win- 
chester, Va., January, 18»3. 


SocKWELL, John T. — Enlisted August 1, 1861; killed at Bris- 

tow October 14, 1863. 
Sheppaiw, Paisley— Enlisted February 28, 1862; captured at 
Bristow October 14, 1863; died while prisoner at Camp Look- 
SnuLLER, Emsley F. — Enlisted May 6, 1862; wounded and dis- 
abled at Hristow October 14, 1863. 
Shaepe, E. Tokkey— Enlisted IMay 7, 1863; detailed as Provost 
Guard April 26, 1864; surrendered at Appomattox. 

Tate, Robejjt B.— Enlisted June 11, 1861; wounded at Wilder- 
ness ]\[ay 5, 18 4; died of wounds June (?). 1864. 

TnOM, Joel J. — Enlisted May 10, 1862; appointed Corporal June 
1, 1864; appointed Sergeant 1864; surrendered at Appomattox. 

Wiley, Jas. K. — Enlisted Februar}- 28, 1«62; discharged (disa- 
bility) February 7, 1863. 

Underwood, W. W —Enlisted Februar}^ 28, 1862; wounded at 
Sharpsburg September 17, 1862; died of wounds in hospital 
at Richmond September 29, 1863. 

WiiAKTON, JouN E.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; substituted P. A. 
Ricks May 1, 1861; organized a company soon thereafter, and 
re- entered the service as Captain in 5th North Carolina Cav- 

WoKUELL, R. B.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; captured at Bristow 
October 14, 1863. 

Weathekly, Robert D.— Enlisted April 20, 1861; appointed 
Corporal November 1, 1862; appointed Sergeant-Major of 27th 
North Carolina Regiment March 27, 1863, mortally wounded 
at Bristow October" 14, 1863; died of wounds in hospital at 
Richmond October 24, J 863; buried at Greensboro, N. C. 

Weir, Samuel Park— Entered the service as Chaplain of the 
Grays xlpril 20, 1861; transferred in 'May, 1862, to take posi- 
tion of Lieutenant in 46th Regiment, North Carolina troops; 
killed, instantly, at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Westbrooks, Chas. W.— Enlisted May 1, 1861; performed the 
duties of soldier and Chaplain until December 20, 1862; ap- 
pointed Corporal August 1, 1862; appointed Chaplain in P. 
A. C. S. A. January 8, 1864. 

WooDBURN, T. M.— Enlisted June 10, 1861; captured at Bristow 
October 14, 1863. 

Wilson, Jas. L— Enlisted July 19, 1861; captured at Sharps- 
burg September 17, 1862; 'exchanged November 25, 1863; 
wounded at AVilderness May 5, 1864. 

Winfree, W. C— Enlisted February, 1862; discharged under 
Conscript Act May 22, 1862. 

Williams, Wash J.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; wounded at 
Wildernass May 5, 1864; wounded at Ream's Station August 
25, 1864. 

WiNBOURNE, Steph. D.— Eulistcd April 28, 1862. 

Woolen, Geo. II.— Enlisted April 28, 1862; captured at Bris- 
tow. October 14, 1863; died in prison at Point Lookout, Sep- 
tember 18. 1864. 


Young, Sam'l S.— Enlisted February 28, 1862; killed at Sharps- 
burg, September 17, 18()2. 
Bkown, Jos. E. — Served witli the company until June, 18G1. 
li HOOKS, Tiios. D. " " " " 

HoiUNsoN, Samuel. 
EuwiN, Fhank. 
GuiiGOKY, Gko. H. — Enlisted in 12th Virginia Artillery and 

served through the war. 
Albuight, Jas. VV. — Entered the service in ^lay, 1802; served 

as Ordnance Olhcer in 12tli Virginia Artillery. 
PiiiTCiiHTT, Jno. a. — Kesigned as Lieutenaut,'^ April 19, 18G1, 

and did not re-enter the service. 
Causky. W. W. — Did not go into service. 
CoLK, Jas. K. — Lett his studies at Trinity College, and served 

Avitli the company at Fort Macon until June, 18G1, when he 

joined his brother's cavalry company. 
BoriiNE, W. C. — Was Order'lySergeaut in ante-bellum days 

resigned at outbreak of the war. 
Kikki'atkick, David N. — Did not go into service. 
Lamu, Mat.en. — Did not go into service. 
]MouiKG, Wm. p. — Did not go into service, 
MoiJEHEAD, Jos. i\[. — Did not sro into service. 
Tai^pley, J. II.— Substituted Ed. Sweilz April 20, 1861. 
FiTZER, Jos. II. — Did not enter the service. 
Don NELL, Jno. D. — Did not enter the service. 
lIuiJEK, Otto. — Did not enter the service. 
GuNDLiNG, David — Did not enter the service. 


in which the Gmj^s (Company B, 27th North Carolina troops) 
participated in from 1861 to 18G5. 

New Berne, N. C March 14, 1862. 

Seven Days' Battles Around Richmond. .June 26 to July 27, 1862. 

Harper's Ferry, Va September 15, 1862. 

Sharpshurg, Md September 17, 1862. 

Fredericksburg, Va December 13, 1862. 

Bristow Station, Va October 14, 1863. 

Mine Run, Va November 27 to December 3, 1863. 

Wilderness, Va May 5 and 6, 1864. 

Graves' Farm, Va May 10, 1864. 

Spottsylvania Court-House, Va May 12, 1864. 

Attlee's Station, Va May 30, 1864. 

Pole Green Church, Va June 2, 1864. 

Cold Harbor (2d), Va June 3, 1864. 

Gary's Farm, Va June 15, 1864. 

Yellow Tavern, Va August 21, 1864. 

Ream's Station, Va August 25, 1864. 

Bellfield, Va December 9, 1864. 

Hatcher's Run, Va February 5, 1865. 

Fort Euliss, Va March 30 to April 2, 1865 

Sutherland's Tavern, Va April 2, 1865 

a C5ard to tfte l?tt6fic» 

Last May I issued to our people a card in which I stated that 

It was my purpose to prepare and publish a w^ork to be entitled : 

"North Carolina in the War between the States." I also stated 

that "the effort will be made to give, in a connected form, aii 

the events pertaining to the history of the war, so far as they re- 

late to North Carolina." 

Since the publication of the card, I have been steadily en- 
gaged in the work proposed. Owing to the aid of many friends, 
and the material furnished by them, together with the rich sup- 
ply of documents to be had here (Washington), and the material 
which I had already collected myself, I have been able to make 
more rapid progress than I anticipated when I began my under- 

If no unforeseen event occurs, I expect to have the work 
ready for the printer in the summer of 18S3. 

I again earnestly request all friends who desire to see vindi- 
cated the name and fame of those gallant North Carolinians who 
aided in our great struggle for Constitutional freedom, to send 
me any material they may have on hand, or any information in 
their possession which they maj^ judge would be of interest. 
"Let those who made the history tell it as it was." 
Address — 

John A. Sloan, 

No. 1426 33d Street, 
Washington, D. C.