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T^venty- Second lo^va 
Volunteer Infantry 

Giving its Organization, Marches, Skirmishes, 

Battles, and Sieges, as taken 

from the diary of 

of Company A 




Two C' i)ies rtewiveo ' 

JAN 10 1908 

Coi)> Ift'ol r.iif.V 

Cci H ((/o'J 



Copyright, 1907 
By S. C. Jones. 


In the writing of this • book there is no desire to 
antagonize any written history of the Twenty-second 
Regiment of Iowa Volunteer Infantry. We do not 
start out to give a complete history of the Regiment, 
but, having carefully kept a diary of the movements, 
marchings, battles fought, and skirmishes in which the 
Regiment was engaged during the three and more years 
that the Regiment served, and being a personal eye- 
witness and co-actor in all its battles, sieges, skirmishes, 
marches, and bivouacs, we aim to follow closely the 
every day routine of army life and conditions, entering 
into details where we were personal eye-witness of the 
same and adding a brief account of prison life in three 
of the worst prisons in the South. We will also give a 
list of the killed, wounded, and captured in all the bat- 
tles, sieges, and skirmishes wherever the Regiment par- 
ticipated, the number of troops in the Vicksburg, Miss., 
campaign under General Grant, and Lincoln's speech 
at Gettysburg, Pa. 



More than a year had now passed since the war com- 
menced. The feeHng had developed that we had a very 
serious matter on our hands. Up to this time I doubt 
if the people had felt that it was so serious a matter. 
True General Grant's successes at Forts Donaldson and 
Henry was a gleam of light amid the darkest days, yet 
there was a shadow of impenetrable gloom like a mantle 
settling down upon us. The battle of Pittsburg Land- 
ing was fought with great loss of life to the Union. 
Then there was a call for three hundred thousand men, 
and soon another call for that many more, as if the Gov- 
ernment had decided to arise in her mighty strength and 
power and crush the Rebellion at once. 

Enlistments had been going on steadily and the 
young and middle-aged had been perceptibly thinned 
out from among us. Up to this time I had not thought it 
necessary that I should go. I had had a feeling that those 
who were enlisting were doing it because they delighted 
in the public martial display of the soldier life; but a 
feeling came over me at this time that I was needed in 
the defense of my country, and that my country was 
fiercely assailed by subtle enemies. 

I was familiar with the agitation of the questions 
that had led to the war. The speeches in Congress and 
on the^tump I had read. The question in my mind 
was: — "Could the government subdue the slave power, 
the power that was in rebellion ? For the government 
to do it — am I needed?" We, the people, are the gov- 
ernment, was the thought. 

Thus it was that about the middle of June, 1862, I 



made u]) my mind to be a soldier and fight for my coun- 
try, as many thousands hke me were doing. By enhst- 
ing together and joining shoulder to shoulder, to subdue 
we brought to an end one of the most bloody wars, and 
brought it to an end in a most successful manner. 

These few pages will be the acts and reminiscences of 
the writer and his most intimate comrades, with the 
marches and battles of the Twenty-second Regiment, 
and, in order that we may have a full conception of 
the men who composed the Regiment, we will go back 
to the Spring of 1861, when President Lincoln issued 
his first call for troops, i. e., seventy-five thousand men. 

Along with other states, Iowa proceeded at once to 
furnish her quota of men. There was at this time at 
Iowa City, Johnson County, a militia company, a mil- 
itary organization that was well drilled. It had been in 
existence for years, called — "The Washington Guards." 
Upon the basis of this company was formed Co. B of the 
First Iowa Infantry, three months' men, as under the 
call. As the case was, many of the Washington Guards 
were not eligible for military duty, and possibly a few 
did not desire to go at that time, therefore the company 
was recruited until it had its full complement of men 
and officers. 

At this time the United States recruiting ofhcers 
were extremely particular as to the physical condition 
of the recruit and many were debarred to their chagrin, 
notably, one David J. Davis who had but one eye but 
otherwise perfectly sound in body. Not passing as a 
soldier, he went as Captain's clerk. At the battle of 
Wilson's Creek he picked up a gun and went into the 
fight as a j^rivate soldier. More will be written of him 
later. It will l^e necessary for us to refer to this com- 
pany throughout our sketch, as it perceptibly is the 
basis on which the Twenty-second Iowa Regiment was 


In the summer of 1862, the thought prevailed that 
a Regiment could be recruited in Johnson County, with 
Iowa City as a center. Many of the men of Co. B. of 
the First Iowa Infantry were living here awaiting an 
opportunity to go into the service again. Governor 
Kirkwood seeing the opportunity, placed recruiting 
commissions in the hands of the more energetic of them, 
and it was but a short time till the forming of six com- 
panies was in active operation. Harvey Graham who, 
in the early Spring, had partly recruited a company for 
the Eighthteenth Iowa Infantry, which was now at 
Clinton, Iowa, awaiting the formation of that Regiment 
was made Major of the Regiment forming at Iowa City. 
By Major Graham's personal request to Governor Kirk- 
wood, his company was brought back to Iowa City and 
entered the formation of the Johnson County Regiment 
on the 8th day of August, 1862. 

The greatest enthusiasm was manifested in Iowa 
City in the formation of the Twenty-second Iowa Reg- 
iment. Hardly a family in Iowa City and adjoining 
country but was represented in this Regiment. It be- 
came evident that we would be compelled to have out- 
side help to form a complete Regiment, so a company 
was taken from each of the following counties: Monroe, 
Wapello, and Jasper counties. 

Early in the month of August the barracks in Camp 
Pope were completed and on the 14th we moved into 

My diary, being my guiding star, I shall quote from it. 
"Camp Pope is situated southeast of Iowa City, at the 
edge of the town, and on a beautiful green. Barracks 
are being hurried to completion for a Regiment. The 
barracks and accompanying buildings are well arranged 
for the comfort and convenience of the men." 

Thomas Banbury who is our Post Quartermaster sees 
to it that we are well fed, while we are waiting for our 


clothing, camp, and garrison equipage. "September 
3rd, Company "A" marched down to the city and drew 
one month's pay. They had been in the service since 
early Spring and had not as yet received any pay. On 
September 9th, Captain Hendershott of the United 
States Army mustered us into United States Army "for 
three years or during the war." We have Regimental, 
company, and squad drill every day, and we have a 
Camp Guard. We have not received our arms and ac- 
couterments yet, but the boys have wooden guns and 
and swords of their own manufacture, and to us green 
soldiers they are quite formidable weapons. 

September 10th we are fully organized now as a Reg- 
iment of ten companies. Seven from this county. A, B, 
F, G, H, I, K, and D from Monroe County, and E 
from Wapello County and C from Jasper County. Now 
that we are fully organized as a Regiment we will refer 
to that organization only as we refer to each Company 
by letter. 

Harvey Graham having been made Major of the Reg- 
iment, the officers of Company A were promoted accord- 
ingly, except that S. C. Jones, 3rd Corporal, was made 
first Sergeant. 

We received our arms and accouterments, with all the 
paraphernalia of war, leather collars, epaulets, etc. 
Generally we were a motley looking crowd. Our uni- 
forms were mostly ridiculous misfits, some had to give 
their pants two or three rolls at the heels, others had 
shirts much too large which were, therefore, baggy, 
while others had to place paper in their hats so they 
would not slip down over their ears. The epaulets and 
leather collars were never worn. 

The boys were not long in the service until they could 
trim their clothing and repair them, making them quite 
respectably fitting garments. I can now recall many 
of the boys who could change the straight pocket in the 

Lieut. Col. E. G. AViiite 
Col. W. M. Stone 

Col. H. Graham 
Maj. J. H. Gearkee 


pants to the more modern style, or when the knee 
would wear thread bare could cut the leg off and turn the 
back to the front, and could use other devices to make 
their clothes last longer, and look more genteel. 

Orders came at last for us to go to the front. Ac- 
cordingly on the 15th of September, we pulled out of 
Camp Pope and boarded a train for Davenport, and 
thence south, aboard the boat, "Metropolitan". We 
awoke this morning September 16, at a little town above 
the Rapids called Montrose, landed from the boat, and 
took the cars for Keokuk. 

This morning September 17th, we feel as if we were 
without "form or void". We passed a miserably cold 
and wet night. Officers sought shelter somewhere and 
the men in broken masses did the same. 

On our way from Montrose, packed in freight cars of 
every variety, some of us on the tender, we partook of 
the first of the many inconveniences that befall an 
American soldier. Our hair, eyes, and ears, were full 
of cinders from the locomotive, and the accumulation 
of dirt on our bodies caused a most miserable feeling. 

We left the railroad at Keokuk and embarked on the 
boat "Sucker State," and continued on our way south. 


St. Louis, Mo. 

On the 18th, we reached St. Louis, and were immedi- 
ately marched to Benton Barracks, where we found 
comfortable quarters. The facilities for bathing and 
washing our clothes were taken advantage of, and soon 
we were feeling ourselves again. 

We had no guard duty to do, so we put in the time 
investigating the grounds and watching the recruits 
practice at horsemanship. Many a green city and 
country lad was seen pitched from his horse while train- 
ing him to jump ditches and fences. 

We were out on inspection and review, in heavy 
marching order, that means with gun and full accou- 
terments and full knapsack; General Davidson was the 
reviewing officer. On the 22nd, we received orders to 
march into town to go aboard a train which would take 
us to Rolla. 

We got aboard the cattle cars and proceeded on our 
way. Reached Franklin, 37 miles from St. Louis, after 

The 23rd, we arrived at Rolla at 12 m. and marched 
to camp, situated about two miles from town on the 
Springfield road. 

One year ago, General Franz Sigel's troops occupied 
this ground as a camp. We have wedge tents and plen- 
ty of good running water. The face of the country is 
rough and hilly. 

We have drill daily, company, regimental, and brig- 
ade drill. Major Atherton acts as drill officer usually. 
I will mention here that Garrett who was to be our Col- 



onel never came to us. Our Lieutenant Colonel, Wil- 
liam M. Stone, was promoted to Colonel, Major Harvey 
Graham to Lieutenant Colonel, and our Adjutant, J. B. 
Atherton was made Major, and First Lieutenant, John 
W. Porter of Company "F"', was made Adjutant. 
Promotions in Company "F" were made accordingly. 

There is some sickness' among the men, measles, 
mumps, and one case of smallpox. The last was put in 
a tent at some distance from camp and provided with a 
nurse, one who had had the disease. Food and medi- 
cine were provided every day for them. 

This is October 22nd. We moved our camp today. 
We are putting up Sibley tents. A little stove made 
purposely for them comes with them, Uncle Sam wants 
us to keep warm through the winter. The stove is cone 
shaped and sets in the middle of the tent, and we lay in 
a circle with our feet to the stove, except a place oppo- 
site the entrance that is left vacant, for passing in and 

This camp is alongside of the railroad. We have a 
field nearby where we drill. It is quite level and is a 
good and convenient drill ground. We have a Camp 

November 3rd, Company "A" went as guard to a 
train to Waynes ville. "I" went on the 4th, guarding 
a train to Waynesville. "A" Company returned on the 
8th, and "I" Company on the 14th. 

On the 17th, Company "F" had a little trouble in re- 
gard to the mode of punishing refractory soldiers. One 
of the men was tied up by the thumbs to the limb of a 
tree. It was demonstrated at once that the harsher 
treatment practiced by the regular army did not meet 
with approval by the Western Volunteers. Milder 
forms of punishment were therefore adopted. 

December 3rd, a detail of two commissioned officers, 
and sixty-one men was made on Company "A" to guard 


a train to Waynesville. It marched to Little Piney 12 
miles from RoUa, and went into camp about 3 p. m. 
December 4th, out on our march early this morning. 
Reached Waynesville, about sun down and went into 
camp. There were other troops somewhere near us as 
we could hear their bugle calls. 

We returned on the 4th, in empty wagons, making 
the return trip in one day. Company "F" is doing post 
duty at Salem, Mo. 

Thus we are actively employed, guarding trains, and 
doing post duty. December 20th, we are all excite- 
ment. We received orders and are preparing to move 
A, H, and I, on a march to guard a train to Houston, 

We go into camp in the evening on Little Piney River. 
December 21st we started briskly this morning, but 
evening finds us tired and footsore, from not being used 
to marching long distances. 

We go into camp near a Union man's house. It is 
almost impossible to know who are and who are not 
Union among the few who did not choose to go into the 
Union or Confederate army. It is the general impress- 
ion that many who remain are in sympathy with the 
South and at every opportunity aid those in rebellion 
by furnishing information regarding our movements, 
yet we are not to ignore the fact, that there were many 
Union men among them who stubbornly refused to aid 
and abet those who were in reloellion against their gov- 
ernment. Such had often been paid for their Union 
sentiments by having their houses burned down over 
their heads. Many after their property was thus de- 
stroyed fled to the Union lines, turned over the care of 
their families to the tender mercies of their freinds and 
the government, and enlisted to fight for their country. 

There were no better fighters in the Union service 
than the Missourians. During Grant's campaign in the 


rear of Vicksburg, it was said that in one of his series of 
battles, the 10th Missouri Union came directly in con- 
tact with the 10th Missouri Confederate, and the Union 
boys were the victors. 

No doubt there was decisive action and a determina- 
tion to even up old scores in a legitimate way. As I 
said we were tired and footsore and ready to lay down 
our tired bodies for the much needed rest. We little 
thought of the many hard marches and painful ex- 
igencies that were to meet us before the end of the war. 

December 22nd. On our march today we met an old 
wanderer with his ox team and tumble down wagon, 
who had concealed away among his worldly goods a 
two gallon keg full of whiskey. There always are 
among a number of men, some who have an intuition, if 
whiskey is in the neighborhood. They feel it in 
their system. So it was in this case. The whiskey 
was captured and would have been confiscated as con- 
traband, but Lieutenant David J. Davis of Company 
"A" changed the order of events for a while. He only 
allowed each man a small portion and returned to the 
owner what was left. He proceeded on his journey and 
we on our march. 

We went into camp eight miles from Houston. Soon 
after we went into camp there was a suspicion that some 
of the men had fallen out of ranks and had followed the 
owner of the ox team, and likely by some trick, taken 
what was left of the old traveler's whiskey. 

It was amusing to note the effect on the mood and 
manner on different men. Some were happy and joyful 
and wished everyone to be the same, others were fero- 
cious and unmanageable. As only a very few were 
noisy, it soon subsided and all were sleeping the sleep 
of the just. 

December 23rd. We were on the march early this 


morning, and though it rained, we arrived at Houston, 
11a. m., wet and hungry, and went into camp. 

We have running water near our camp, and plenty of 
wood. We went to work at once to build fireplaces in 
our tents to keep us warm. The December air is very 
chilly and some days the ground is quite frosty. 


Houston, Mo. 

This town fi Very much scattered over the hills. Gen. 
Fitz Henry Warren is in command of this Post. There 
is a large number of troops here, the Thirty-third and 
Ninety-ninth Illinois, Twenty-first Iowa, and others that 
I can not name now. 

There has been considerable sickness among the Illin- 
ois Regiments. A good deal of foraging is done. 

On December 26th, our detachment was sent to 
guard a train of wagons down to Spring Valley. Cap- 
tain Charles N. Lee was in command of the detachment. 
Lieutenant David J. Davis, in command of "A" 
Company, forgot to draw rations for the trip, conse- 
quently some foraging had to be done. 

Corporals Daniel J. Roberts and John L. Fleming, 
R. W. Pryce with W. Hockingberry, teamster, and a 
team under my command, went across the mountain into 
a distant valley to Martens' Mills where we found plen- 
ty of flour and meal. We took what we thought we 
would need and returned at nightfall. 

This was a very dangerous undertaking as the, coun- 
try was full of bushwhackers. It had been only a day 
or two before that they came through and took all 
there was in the mill. We only took enough to carry 
Company "A" back to Houston. 

The train of wagons had come for corn and hay for 
the horses and mules of the army. They did not dis- 
turb the food prepared for the citizens. 

We returned to Houston on the 28th, our wagons well 



loaded with corn and forage. The detachment is in 
good health and spirits. 

We have not drilled any since we came, nor do we 
furnish men for guard duty. 

This is a wood country, rough and hilly. The roads 
meander through the valleys, where the water accumu- 
lates quickly and when it rains the roads become almost 

Captain Charles N. Lee is still in command of the de- 

This is January 6th, 1863. Companies "F" and "D" 
came from Rolla. We moved our camp about forty 
rods south, so they could have room for their quarters 
in their proper places. Lieutenant David J. Davis who 
went to Rolla returned on the 10th. On the morning 
of the 11th, we were called into line in light marching 
order, and held in readiness to move at a moment's no- 

We could hear the booming of cannon and see troops 
depart for the front in wagons. 

We stacked arms in line, and cooked and ate our 
meals in anticipation of taking a hand in the battle that 
was in progress. 

A combination of several Guerrilla bands command- 
ed by Price and Magruder, came in contact with our 
troops near Hartsville. 

On the morning of the 12th, we were called ovit at 3 
a. m. and were expecting an attack on Houston, re- 
mained in line except at meal time. Word came that 
our forces were on the retreat. It w^as learned later 
that the Confederates were so roughly handled that they 
had no desire to follow. Our troops returned to Hous- 
ton and were not molested in their retreat. 

Again on the 14th, the camp was alarmed over a re- 
port that one of our trains on the way to Rolla was at- 


tacked. It proved to be a false alarm. Surgeon Lee 
joins us here on the 16th. 

On the 26th, the troops started on the march South, 
on the Thomasville road. The roads were so bad, our 
detachment returned and went into our old camp. 
Early on the 27th, we started on our march on the West 
Plains' road, leaving eight sick men there. We only 
marched eight miles. Exercise seems to do us good. 
We went into camp in an old clearing. 

A house stood not far off with a small pasture field 
near it, surrounded by a worm fence. Those rails rose 
up as if by magic and moved over to camp. An order 
came too late to stop the movement, Col. Samuel Mer- 
rill, Twenty-first Iowa Infantry, commands our brig- 

January 29th. We only marched thirteen miles 
today, yesterday we marched twenty miles. The roads 
are almost impassable. It is reported that our butch- 
ers are captured. They, with a small escort of mounted 
men, forage on each side of the line of march for beef 
and pork for the troops, and if they take anything from 
a Union man they must give him an order on the United 
States for the price. It would be very difficult for the 
owner to prove his loyalty in. most cases. 


West Plains, January 30th. We marched eight 
miles today, reached West Plains. Here we joined our 
left wing and headquarters. There are quite a num- 
ber of troops here commanded by General Davidson. 
We have wedge tents. It is cold and cloudy. Febru- 
ary 2nd. When we got up this morning there were ten 
inches of snow. As this is extreme weather to what we 
have been having, there is much suffering among the 
men. General Davidson had us on Brigade drill. 

February 3rd. Snow^ is melting under the hot sun. 
The men are destitute of shoes. The march from Hous- 
ton was hard on foot wear, at least one-fourth of Com- 
pany "A" need shoes. Other companies are similarly 
situated, and we could only get five pairs for "A" Com- 

February 8th. We leave West Plains. We take up 
our march going northeast on the Thomasville road, a 
very muddy one. Marched ten miles and go into camp 
for the night. 

We start out on our march early this morning. The 
wagon trains and artillery started out earlier than we 
did. We found wagons and artillery stuck in the mud, 
some of the wagons abandoned. The moving of the 
trains and artillery was almost an impossibility. There 
was much wrath and confusion. We had it to do and 
we tried to make the best of it. We reached Thomas- 
ville at 3 p. m. Our teams did not come in till ten 
p. m. We could get nothing to eat mitil they came, 
therefore, we got our supper at about eleven o'clock. 

We went into cam]) here on the banks of Eleven 



Point river. February 10th, we drew ninety -three 
pounds of coarse corn meal to each company. This meal is 
ground in the vicinity of our camp. The milling is done 
principally b}^ our soldiers. 

We are living on this and fresh meat, gathered up 
from the country by our butchers, driven along and 
killed as needed. 

February 1 2th. We pulled out on the march from this 
place (Thomasville) at six a. m., marched fifteen miles, 
mostly through a dense forest of large pine, tall and 
straight as an arrow. The country is rough and rocky, 
and we saw but one semblance of a house all day. It 
was eleven p. m. before we got our supper. 

February 13th, we started on our march at 7 a. m. 
Marched throtigh a valley all day, went into camp in a 
field on Jack's Fork of Current River. Wood and water 
are convenient. The teams came in early. 

February 14th, we crossed the river on a bridge made 
of wagons placed end to end. The river is about fifty 
yards wide, three feet deep, and runs very swiftly. It 
took the Brigade about three hours to cross over. We 
marched fifteen miles and on each side for six miles 
were high mountains, seeming almost to reach the 

February 15. This is a day to be long remembered, 
for two reasons. First, we saw the town of Eminence, 
of which so much has been said, as it is the place for 
which we were marching; but this town contained but 
one house, and we could not tell whether the streets 
were paved or not. Second, today, we were marched 
some distance out of the road into the woods to see a 
dead Confederate. Until this time we had not know- 
ingly seen a dead or a live one. 

I must say there were some tears shed in sympathy 
with the wife and little ones. We had not as yet been 


active in that part of war which makes widows and or- 

The dead Confederate was killed by our cavalry. He 
probably belonged to that type of Confederate soldiery, 
called Bushwhackers, for which our cavalry had little 
love, for the reason that many of these men had taken 
the oath of allegiance, and afterward were captured or 
killed fighting among the Bushwhackers. 

By this time, 1863, all suspicious characters were 
known to our cavalr}' . We went into camp on a branch 
of Current River. 

Camp near Eminence, February 16th. Aswe were lying 
in camp here for the day, some of the bo3^s explored a 
great cave in the mount ian. We crawled, wriggled, 
and w^alked about one hundred yards into the moun- 
tain, and came to a large roomy cavern twenty-five to 
thirty feet across, with ceiling twenty feet high, decora- 
ated with stalactites of all forms and sizes. From this, 
were passages leading farther into the mountain, possi- 
bly leading to other caverns. 

Along one side there passed a rivulet or stream, de- 
scending which three of our company followed for some 
distance, without finding any material change. I pre- 
ferred open daylight and sunshine, and withdrew as I 
had entered. 

On the 17th, we started on our march again, at four 
a. m. We crossed Current River above Eminence, 
passed the natural well which is twenty feet across on 
top, i^erfectly round, with dark blue w^ater, said to be 
sounded four hundred feet without finding bottom. 

Today we crossed Sink Creek fourteen times in twelve 

February 18th, 1863. Lieutenant Colonel Dunlap of 
the Twenty-first Iowa Regiment is in command of our 
Brigade. Company "A" drew three davs' rations — 


seventy pounds of flour. I presume the other compan- 
ies drew the same. 

February 22nd, Camp Kaolin. We reached this vil- 
lage last night. Our march for the last two days has 
been very tiresome. We followed Sink Creek, a small 
stream, for miles, crossing it eight times in one mile. 
We are about twenty miles from Pilot Knob. This is 
a small village. We are quartered wherever we can find 
shelter from the falling snow. Company "A" is quar- 
tered in an old log barn. There is no floor in it, nor 
anything combustible, so our fire is a large log heap in 
the middle of the structure. We are comfortable. The 
wind and snow make it very uncomfortable outside. 

February 23rd. The sun came out warm this morn- 
ing, and the soft snow makes the roads almost impassa- 
ble. Our camp ground last night was soft and wet. 

February 24th. We only marched six miles the 22nd, 
not many more yesterday. The pioneers had cut a 
road through the timber. The roads became impassa- 
ble. The artillery and wagon train cuts up the road, 
so that the men of the infantry column have to pick 
their way along the fence on each side of the road. 

We have gone into camp here five miles northwest 
from Pilot Knob, and remain all day eating and talking, 
too muddy to leave camp. 

On the 25th, we marched to Iron Mountain. The 
roads are very bad, and getting worse as a drizzling 
rain is falling. We went into camp on top of Iron 
Mountain. Iron ore covers the ground. The smelting 
works were near by our camp. The ore for smelting is 
quarried from the side of the mountain, and brought to 
the works on flat cars. It was in operation while we 
were there. The operators claimed to be Union men. 
We lay there until the 9th of March. We made out our 
pay rolls there. Lieutenant D. J. Davis was promoted 


to Adjutant, and S. C. Jones was promoted to first Lieu- 
tenant of Co. "A". 

Many of the Regiment visited Pilot Knob about five 
miles away. We pulled out from camp on the morning of 
the 9th for St. Genevieve, on the Mississippi River, by 
way of Farmington by the plank road. Went into 
camp one and a half miles from Farmington. This is a 
beautiful place, and nice, level country around here. 
The people also have the appearance of thrift and being 
well to do. 

On the tenth we went into camp sixteen miles from 
St. Genevieve. Resumed our march on the eleventh, with 
the Twenty-first Iowa Regiment in the lead. The 
Twenty-second boys thought that the Twenty-first 
marched too rapidly, thereby trying their pluck, and 
this was resented by the Twenty-second boys bulging for- 
ward so that when we came into camp in the evening, 
the two Regiments were commingled so that the first 
impression was the predominance of the Twenty-second 
Iowa. There was much good natured chaffing and 
some real downright hard feeling. 


St. Genevieve, Mo. 

On the afternoon of the eleventh of March, at three 
o'clock, we reached St. Genevieve, and went into camp 
on a ridge north of town. The ridge is covered with 
jack oak and altogether it is a very pleasant camp 

The citizens of the town are almost all French and 
are rebel at heart. At least a very few if any are found 
to be for the Union. 

The hucksters came upon the grounds as soon as we 
had arranged our camp and put up our tents. Our 
men are not civil to these huckster men. 

Today, March 17th, I saw them accidentally, as they 
said, overturn a barrel of apples that was brought in on 
a cart with a team of oxen. In the excitement the oxen 
were detached from the cart and driven off while the 
huckster was gathering up some of his apples. Then 
his box of pies was accidentally turned over, and more 
than thirty were readily and willingly helping him to 
gather them up. Unfortunately, the box was carried 
away, and most of the pies too, and with the difficulty 
of collecting any pay for them, he became disgusted, 
hitched his oxen to the cart and drove to the Colonel's 
tent and reported the boys. The Colonel told him 
to bring the men to his headquarters and he would pun- 
ish them. 

We care very little what these men are, for we expect 
our next move will be down the river. We hardly got 
settled before they came among us. Strong, able-bod- 



ied men, their days will not be all sunshine, as the boys 
despise an able-bodied citizen worse than a rebel sol- 
dier down here. They suspect all such as spies, and 
they are, unless they are Union and a Union man could 
not live among them a moment. Consequently only 
female hucksters continue to come among us. They 
are treated respectfully and are encouraged to come. 

Yesterday the camp and hillside was all excitement. 
The men had found a beer cellar, not far from camp, 
filled with large vats full of beer. They filled them- 
selves, then each in turn took an empty keg held it un- 
der a faucet until his keg was nearly full; the last one 
leaving the faucet open. The cave filling with beer 
they hurried out trying to bring their kegs to camp. 
The hillside was one pandemonium. As they proceed- 
ed at first the keg was hard to roll, it being full, at last 
the keg became empty, and the man became full, so he 
could not roll. One bucket full came to Co. "A" Head- 
quarters, causing a little noise and merriment. As soon 
as Captain Lee ascertained the cause, he immediately 
ordered the beer poured out, and so it was. 

March 19th. We have received orders to be ready 
to start down the river at a moment's notice. This has 
been one of our most healthy camping grounds. It is 
high and shady and the water is good. 

March 26. Seven companies of our Regiment went 
down the river on aboat on the 22nd inst., and the other 
three embark today. We are on our way farther south. 
We passed Cape Gerardeau on the Missouri side. We 
passed Cairo before day, and Island No. 10 at noon of 
the 27th. Reached Memphis at noon of the 28th. 
We, the three companies, joined the other seven here. 
Colonel Stone marched us up through the city and back 
to our boat to give us a little exercise, and to let the cit- 
izens know that there were still a few more Yankees 
on their way to take ])art in tlie little disturbance down 

Captain C. F. Lovelace 
Was our first Quartermaster. After the fall of Vicksburg he was 
promoted to Captain Commissary of Subsistence, transferred to 
the Army of the Tennessee, and to more responsible duties. 

Ass't Surg. W. A. Dinwiddie 
Capt. C. F. Lovelace 

Serg't Maj. Geo. A. Remley 
Surgeon J. C. Shrader 


South. It proved to be excellent exercise for us after 
being cramped on the boat so long. 

We started down the river on the 29th, 11a. m., 
reached Helena, 4 p. m. Here we met some of the 
Twenty-fourth Iowa. We lay over night at Helena. 
We were transferred to the boat, John Grosbeck, and 
started at 11 o'clock on the 30th. We anticipated being 
attacked from the river banks as we proceeded 
down, but were not molested. Boats loaded with 
troops were frequently fired on from the shore by Con- 
federate cavalry and artillery, which often caused loss 
of life to the men and damage to the boats. 

We landed at Milliken's Bend (or Landing), Louisi- 
ana, twenty miles by water above Vicksburg or seven 
by land. There had been a town here, but rebel guer- 
rillas so infested the place that it was burned down by 
shells from our gunboats. At this time there is no 
sign that there ever was a house here. There is a vast 
stretch of level country, with some cotton and corn 
stalks standing. General Grant is massing his troops 
here for a campaign against the stronghold of Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi. Here the Eleventh Wisconsin was 
attached to our Brigade, and we were made the Sec- 
ond Brigade of the Twenty-fourth Division, Thirteenth 
Army Corps, Brigadier General M. K. Lawler com- 
manding. Brigadier Major General E. A. Carr com- 
manding the Division and John A. McClernand com- 
manding the Corps. 

On the 3rd of April, seven companies of the Regiment 
were ordered on an expedition, and went as far as the 
river when the order was countermanded, and they re- 
turned to camp. 

We have considerable rain, making the ground soft 
and spongy. Orders came on the 12th for us to move. 
We started on our march southwest. After two or 


three hours marching, Co. "A" was detailed to return to 
camp, and proceed to the landing to help unload mules 
and wagons, etc., from the boats. We labored hard in 
the rain on the 13 th and 14th. There are hundreds of 
mules and wagons here. The mules are corralled and 
the wagons are parked. Teamsters with a wagon mas- 
ter at their head will come and sort out the mules, form- 
ing teams of six mules to each wagon. Then they will 
follow General Grant's army, wherever supplies can 
not be taken bv water. 


Vicksburg Campaign Under Grant, 1863. 

On the morning of the 15th, we, the "A" Co. turned 
over our tents to the Quartermaster, and he gave us a 
six mule team to haul our baggage, as we were ordered 
to join the Regiment as soon as possible. We joined 
the Regiment at Richmond in the evening. 

We started on our march early on the 16th, marching 
along the levee with the roaring Mississippi on one side 
and the submerged swamp on the other. The whole 
country is a water waste. The houses are built on 
stilts or posts, so that the water can flow through be- 
neath the living apartment. The levee being broken 
through or cut purposely is the reason of so much wa- 

We lay here at New Carthage, drew our pay on the 
2 1st, and on the 22nd started on our march again. Af- 
ter marching some time down on the levee, we came to 
Round About Bayou, boarded the boat "Silver Wave," 
which took us around and into the river, on down to 
James Plantation, where we disembarked. 

While we were making this difficult journey by 
land and water, to get below Vicksburg the gun- 
boats and transports were running the batteries 
of Vicksburg. The transports were loaded with 
baled hay and cotton for protection. Their holds 
were filled with rations and ammunition and all kinds 
of war material for the use of Grant's army. 

The men that manned the transports were mostly 
volunteers from our volunteer western regiments. 



Generally more men than were needed offered them- 
selves and desired to go on these perilous undertakings. 
It was gratifying to know that only two or three lives 
were lost on this perilous trip, and only one transport, 
while the gunboats passed unharmed. 

It was a goodly sight to see the old gunboats majes- 
tically, proudly coming through it all with only a few 

We moved down to Perkins Plantation and went into 
camp. There was a very large number of troops here. 

On the 25th, the Regiment was sent as a detail to 
James Plantation, to unload the transports, that had 
run past the batteries of Vicksburg. Among them 
were the Cheeseman, Anglo Saxon, and others. We 
labored all day and then returned to our camp at Per- 
kins Plantation. We moved over further in the field, 
nearer the other troops. 

I met here some comrades whom I played with when 
I was a boy. They were in an Ohio Regiment from 
Delaware county. I learned from them that many of 
our playmates were then enrolled, in Uncle Sam's army 
in different regiments. 

On the 27th, we received orders to prepare three days' 
rations, and hold ourselves in readiness to move at a 
moment's notice. We received marching orders, 
marched down to the river, and boarded the Cheeseman, 
and swung down the river, remained on the boat all 
night, started down the river at 10 a. m., arrived at 
a point above Grand Gulf, disembarked, and lay on 
the levee. Other transports kept going and coming all 
the time. It was quietly reported that the maneuver 
was to deceive the Confederates as Grant intended to 
attack Grand Gulf. 

On the 29th, more transports came heavil)' loaded 
with troops. At 8:30 a. m., the gunboats took their 
position in range of the forts and commenced their op- 


erations. They continued firing until one p. m. It 
was found that the height of the rebel" guns above the 
water level, gave them a plunging shot which would be 
disastrous to our gunboats, and at the same time would 
make it impossible for the gunboats to harm them. 

All this time there were troops aboard boats to make 
the assault, should the gunboats silence the batteries. 
The gunboats withdrew and we crossed over the levee, 
and marched on down below Grand Gulf. The gun- 
boats running the batteries and the transports laden 
with war material following them, received but very 
little injury, and were ready to transport us down the 

On the morning of the 30th, they met us below. We 
embarked and went down as far as Bruinsburg, a place 
of two or three houses. Here we disembarked on the 
Mississippi side, drew five days' rations, and started on 
our march for the interior of the state of Mississippi. 
After we drew our five days' rations and started on our 
march, occurred one of the most picturesque sights that 
had ever fallen to our lot to see. 

Five days rations were issued to the army. This 
was more than could be stowed away in the haversack. 
What should we do? A detail was made of two men 
who placed their guns so a box of crackers could be 
placed across them, and they marched along the side of 
the company, and were frequently relieved by a new 
detail. What should they do with the extra meat? 
The bayonets were placed on their guns and run through 
the meat, so each man had his extra ration of meat 
fixed on his bayonet. Then at a right shoulder shift, 
we proceeded on our march. When others saw how we 
had arranged to carry our extra rations they adopted 
the same plan, so that the whole army could be seen for 
miles, worming its way over that vast flat country with 
the bayonets gleaming in the sunshine, and the ration 


of meat in its place. It was picturesque and beautiful 
to behold. 

We were the second regiment in this majestic line. 
The Twenty-first Iowa was in front. The Thirteenth 
Army Corps was in our rear. When we started on our 
march after noon meal, we had j^lenty of room to stow 
away our extra rations, and the detail took its place in 
the line. 

We stopped for supper, then resumed our march 
reaching the broken and hill country about nine o'clock. 
We drove in the most advance pickets of the enemy, 
then our movements became slow and silent, with now 
and then a shot. All communication was in a whisper. 
The frogs and beetles were the only disturbers of the 
night vigils. 

Thus we moved, and stopped, and moved on until 
between twelve or one o'clock, midnight, when we came 
upon the enemy in considerable force. The Twenty- 
first Iowa deployed as skirmishers and forced them 
back on to their main line. As we followed up, an oc- 
casional dead Union soldier was seen. The Twenty- 
first now took their position, while we moved on to their 
left in position. The batteries were now brought up. 
The First Iowa Battery of two guns, was directly in 
front of our position. It was now about two o'clock 
a. m. They at once commenced firing, and a desperate 
artillery fight was continued for two hours between a 
Confederate battery and ours at short range. The fire 
from the guns was the only object that could be seen in 
the darkness. The Confederate battery was silenced, and 
our battery ceased firing, after two hours of hard and 
fast fighting. Then everything quieted down. The 
soldiers slept on their arms in line of battle, if sleep we 
could. The excitement we had just gone through and 
the anticipations of the morrow disturbed our rest, yet 
the long and tedious march caused a weariness that de- 


manded rest in sleep, of which some of us made good 

We were partially protected by a rise in the ground in 
front of us . Fortunately from the many shells that burst 
over us, there were none of us hurt. The artillery men 
and horses suffered severely in killed and wounded. 

Battle of Port Gibson or Magnolia Hills. 

May 1st, 1863. We were awake before dawn. It 
was a beautiful clear morning. There was a stillness 
that was ominous. Birds and beetles only had the 
right of way. About seven a. m. the battle began with 
a shot here and there by the sharpshooters, who caught 
the first glimpses of the wily enemy. Then came the rat- 
tle of musketry all along the line. In early morning the 
heaviest musketry fire was to the right of us, where our 
first brigade was pushing the Confederate left. Then 
opened a lively fire from our batteries. Besides our 
battery immediately in front of us, we could see an In- 
diana battery to our left firing and General McCler- 
nand swinging his hat, cheering them, indicating that 
the}^ were doing some damage to the enemy. 

About ten o'clock five Iowa regiments formed to 
charge en masse. The rebels seeing the movement, 
broke all along the line. It was when the Twenty-sec- 
ond was rounding a point of canebrake to form for this 
charge that Adjutant David J. Davis was struck with a 
minnie ball and slightly wounded. Previous to this, 
corapanies "B" and "G" were on the skirmish line down 
in this canebrake, and did good service. Captain 
Gearkee of "B" and Lieutenant Shockey of "G" highly 
distinguished themselves on the skirmish line in this 
canebrake. The Confederates fell back about a mile 
and formed a new line of battle, other regiments now 
took the lead. About four o'clock we were ordered to 
the front, in an open field where we were to direct our 


fire towards a grove from whence came evidences of 
sharpshooters. After a Httle time we were withdrawn 
again. Here Barny J. TaUman of "A" and Lieutenant 
Francisco of "K" were wounded by a shell. ' 

Later in the afternoon we were ordered to the front, 
and into the timber and engaged the Confederates. 
Here Lieutenant D. W. Henderson of "H" was severely 
wounded. About dark the enemy was driven at all 
points and made a hasty retreat towards Port Gibson 
followed by fresh forces of our troops. Thus ended our 
first great battle. We went into camp on the battle 
field, weary and hungry. A list of killed, wounded, and 
captured will be found in the appendix. 

We were up early this morning (May 2), and on our 
march in the direction of Port Gibson, evidences of the 
hasty retreat of the Confederates were seen on every 
side. When we reached the town of Port Gibson the 
inhabitants were gone. They had followed their friends 
the Confederate army. A great many Confederate 
wounded were left to our care. We went into camp 
west of the town. We subsequently moved our camp 
near the railroad bridge across Bayou Piere. Com- 
pany "A" was detailed for picket duty over on the 
ridge across the bridge. 

May 3, Brigadier General Lawler came to us and 
assumed command. 

May 5th, we started on our march at 4 p. m., and went 
eleven miles and went into camp at Willow Springs. 
Our camp was on a large ridge, very good camp, with 
plenty of good water. We remained here all day, the 
6th. We had orders to move on the next day. We 
started on our march at 3 a. m. and went into camp at 
a place called Rocky Springs, three miles from Big 
Black River. We had roll call every three hours, the 
men were kept in camp, no foraging being allowed. We 
remained here until the 10th, when we were moved 


nine miles, fifteen miles from the Jackson Railroad, 
where we remained until the 12th. 

May 12th. We were up at 3 a. m. Started on our 
march at break of day. We went into camp six miles 
from Edward's Ferry on the Jackson Railroad. On 
the 13th, we started on the march with the expectation 
of participating in a battle. The Confederates were de- 
feated by other troops before we came up. This was 
the Battle of Raymond. It was fought principally by 
General Logan's Division supported by General Crock- 
er's Seventeenth Corps. 

We went into camp six miles from Raymond. Evi- 
dences of the recent battle were seen on every side, the 
wreckage of all arms of the service, broken wagons, 
scarred trees, newly made graves, all indications of a 
short desperate struggle. 

The morning of the 14th, we start on our march in the 
direction of Jackson. Sherman with the Fifteenth 
Corps, is now in our front in that direction. We stop 
at Mississippi Spring (formerly a resort) , ten miles from 
Jackson. Word has reached us that Sherman has taken 

On the 15th, we march back to within three miles 
of Raymond, and go into camp. On the 16th we 
marched six miles, received orders to leave our knap- 
sacks with a guard over them. We were then marched 
some distance and took our position in line of battle. 
Some may dispute this, but as I was present, I know 
that the battle line extended still to our left, resting on 
a creek, perhaps Baker's Creek. We lay on our arms 
in the edge of the woods. I think there was but one 
shell that came into our position which I took to be a 
reminder that we were observed. There was no attack 
made upon our part of the line excepting that one shell. 
A regiment to our left and near the creek made a move 
to advance and were quickly repulsed. The fighting 


by Hovey and Logan's divisions was on the same line, 
only some distance to our right. 

After the Confederates were defeated by Hovey and 
Logan, and began to retreat, Company "A" was de- 
tailed as skirmishers and sent to the front. They cap- 
tured some prisoners,* but were soon fired upon with 
grape and canister by the retreating Confederates. 
The Regiment marched to the right and came on to the 
battle ground where the fighting had raged the fiercest, 
Company "A" joining it here. We then joined in fol- 
lowing the retreating Confederates, our (Carr's) Division 
taking the lead. Our Division came up with the Con- 
federates at Edward's Station, drove them through the 
Railroad Station, capturing an immense lot of war ma- 
terial, commissaries, etc. 

The Confederates had loaded the trains with guns and 
provisions but had failed to move them, and had set 
them on fire, in their haste. Our troops put the fire 
out and saved the trains and loaded material. 

We went into camp about eleven o'clock at the sta- 
tion. We received orders to go to the train loaded with 
corn and bacon and procure as much as was needed. 
Up to this time and later, we were living on what we 
could forage through the country; our diet was princi- 
pally nigger peas, fresh beef, and parched corn. 

We were called into line early on the morning of the 
1 7th. We were the second in line, the Eleventh Wiscon- 
sin in front of us. We came upon the Confederates at 
Black River, at the point where the Jackson Railroad 
crosses. The Eleventh Wisconsin sent out their skir- 
mishers and closed upon them. The Artillery came 
up and went into battery and commenced shelling their 
works. We came up along the north side of the rail- 
road track, filed to the left across the track, and came 
in behind a battery that had just commenced shelling 

*1 captured one prisoner. — Author. 


the works on the high bank at the west end of the rail- 
road bridge. The Confederate shells were falling thick 
and fast on the battery and on our position. Orders 
came to us to move to the left. We moved left in front, 
recrossing the railroad track then through a piece of 
woods, and came out of the north side of the woods 
where General Lawler had formed the balance of 
our brigade for a charge. No sooner had we reached 
the open field and taken our position, than the order to 
charge was given. Away we went, dead and wounded 
strewn over the field. One young soldier, lying 
wounded hallooed to us "go in boys, give 'em hell, they 
have fixed me." On we went, rushed through a bayou 
of water, blocking the rebel way of retreat, and taking 
a number of prisoners. 

This was a bold dash of our brigade for which we were 
highly complimented. General Lawler was compli- 
mented in a general order by General Grant. 

It is reported that we captured in this battle eighteen 
pieces of artillery and 1751 prisoners. Company "A" 
was detailed to help gather up the wounded, carry 
them to the hospital tent, and bury the dead. This 
Brigade was composed of the Twenty-first, Twenty- 
second and Twenty-third Iowa Regiments, and the 
Eleventh Wisconsin. In this charge the Twenty-third 
was in the lead. One of the boys of the Twenty-third 
was found on the field, with thirteen bullet wounds in 
his body. He was carried to the hospital tent and laid 
in the row outside to await his turn to have his wounds 
dressed. This young fellow was left to the last as it was 
thought he would be dead by that time. His time came, 
his wounds were carefully dressed, and in a few days he 
was much more buoyant than many who had had slight 
wounds. He recovered and was returned to his regi- 
ment for duty. "A" Company while on this duty took 
some cornpones (cooked in the hot ashes with no salt 


in them) from the dead Confederates' haversacks, and 
ate them with rehsh. I had some myself. All I had 
eaten that day was a piece of beef I had cooked in the 
blaze of the fire, just the juice of that had sustained me, 
until one of the boys gave me two of these delicious 
pones. Late in the evening we joined the regiment. 

This is the 18th, we are moving slowly to the front. 
Our battle line is forming a circle around the doomed 
city and its defenders. We move slowly. General 
Sherman with his Fifteenth Corps is closing in on the 
right of our line. 

May 19. There is fighting all along our line. The 
range of hills makes it very convenient for the Confeder- 
ates to hold us in check. They made a mistake, when 
they did not extend their works to these outer hills. 
We can see the Confederate works. The}^ look formid- 
able and strong, the guns showing their ugly muzzles. 
We have orders to move to the left. Here we are. 
Smith's men are on the crest of the hill; we come up 
this ravine immediately in their rear. This is a wooded 
ravine. The shrieking of shells, and their tearing 
through the tree tops with the smoke and roar of artil- 
lery and small arms is terrible and deafening. This is 
what takes the starch out of our knees and puts our 
hair on end. We are ordered back to the center. We 
lay on our arms all night. Before dawn the battle com- 
mences. We are fighting Pemberton's army. They 
have the short line. They are meeting us stubbornly. 
We are ordered to move up to support a battery. It 
seems like the whole Confederate artillery is firing its 
spiteful shells at this battery. We are again ordered 
to move to the left to support Smith's Division. It ap- 
pears that we are just in the immediate line to help 
where help is most needed. This moving us about is 
good for us; it would be terrible to have to stand and 
let them whale into us in this fashion. It is surprising 


that some of us are not torn to fragments. The old 
adage which says "more scared than hurt," fits in here 
very nicely. 

The 21st. We moved up here last night. We are 
on a parallel ridge with the Confederate fortifications. 
We are digging rifle pits to protect our men from the 
Confederate sharpshooters. A detail of men, in the 
darkness last night, wormed their way over to the Con- 
federate fortification. It was a perilous undertaking. 
There are soldiers who are ready and willing at any time 
to risk their lives for the good of the service. Among 
them was John Smiley of Company "G," who says: 
"We went down quietly until we became aware of the 
presence of the enemy's pickets, then we moved more 
cautiously. It was extremely dark. We wormed our- 
selves through the brush going a length at a time, pass- 
ing over each other till we came directly under the fort. 
We could distinguish the outlines of the construction of 
the fort between us and the sky. We gathered all the 
information we could and returned in the same noiseless 
way and reported to our commander." There is no 
doubt but the position from which we started on the 
charge the next day was selected from the observations 
of this detail who hazarded their lives for just such a 
purpose. The Pioneer Corps, assisted by details of our 
men, are throwing up works for siege guns and other 

The last three days have been especially severe on our 
Regiment, though not actively engaged, we have been 
under the most galling fire of shots and shell and other 
missiles which have made it very trying on the men. 
The number fit for duty is decreasing very rapidly. 

We rest on our arms in line of battle and snatch a little 
sleep. At about 12 or 1 midnight, we were quietly 
awakened, and formed into line and marched quietly 
down the side of the ridge, across the ravine and im- 


mediately under the fort, about 50 yards from the main 
structure, Fort Beauregard. 

May 22nd finds us in Hne of battle along the edge of 
the ravine under the fort. We were awakened before 
day and moved a little to the left of where we were. 
Orders are given in a whisper. Company "A" (Com- 
manded by Lieutenant S. C. Jones, the only commission- 
ed officer present) was ordered to the left, and deployed 
as sharpshooters. Company "B" (Captain John H. 
Gearkee in command) was ordered to the right with the 
same orders. The bugs and beetles, only, are allowed 
to make a noise. About 9 a. m., cannonading com- 
menced all around our line simultaneously. The Con- 
federates replied, but not vigorously. They knew this 
was a prelude to something more desperate and only 
fired when the men required action. Inaction tmder 
incessant fire demoralizes. Hundreds of guns and mor- 
tars opened their mouths and belched forth flame and 
missiles of death. For an hour or more the chasing shot 
and shell from both sides passed over us (as if we were 
not known to be there) with all their weird noises, hiss- 
es, and shrieks. About 10:15, our army arose at once 
as if by magic out of the ground. Then commenced the 
ordeal. The Regiment on a charge started for the Fort. 
At once the Confederates opened with grape and canis- 
ter, plowing gaps through our ranks. Steadily, we 
pushed on up the slope into the ditch and over the par- 
apet, placed the flag on the fort, and kept it there for 
some time. Thirteen prisoners were taken out of the 
fort, only a few of our boys got into the fort and they 
had to come out of it, and remained in the ditch outside. 
By this time the Confederates that fled or w-ere driven 
away returned with re-enforcements, so we now had to 
protect ourselves the best we could. That was done 
by all kinds of devices. On the open we dug holes for 
our bodies in the ground, or in the wall of the ditch wath 

Charge on Fort Beauregard by t? 

FwENTY-SECOND lowA, May 22, 1863 


our bayonets, or maybe a friendly stump protected us. 
As the Regiment moved forward, it was met with a tor- 
rent of shot and shell and minnie balls. The rebels for 
a moment stood on the top of their rifle pits, pouring 
their deadly shot into us. Then was our sharpshoot- 
er's opportunity, and well they made use of it. Many 
of the Confederates paid with their lives for their fool- 
hardiness. The noise of battle was fearfully awful, 
with shrieking shot, exploding shells, and the groans of 
the wounded and dying. Missiles of all kinds, dust 
and pow^der-smoke filled the air. This state of things 
continued for hours, then quieted down. About three ' 
o'clock reenforcements were sent, and an attempt was 
made to follow up our victory, but it proved useless. 
By that time the few left of our Regiment had secured 
partial safety till darkness would assist us to fall back 
to the rear. The Confederates dared not show them- 
selves nor could we safely. Some of our men in the 
ditch were captured. As soon as it became dusk we 
darted from our secluded places and ran to the rear, 
each for himself. We could only wait until each one 
would see his chance to get out. Many of us got a part- 
ing shot. As we reached the ridge that we left the 
night of the 2 1st, we were met by some of our Regiment 
and directed where to go to find our Quartermaster, 
who had prepared something for us to eat. 

We had had nothing to eat since morning. It was a 
very solemn banquet. The outlines of our faces were 
pale and rigid. Our hearts were sad, many friends had 
fallen since morn, and the end was not yet. After 
washing our dirt and powder stained faces, and eating 11 

supper, we strolled together, one after another, and J 

went into camp for the night. Our loss proved to be 
very great. Company "F" was not in the charge, and 
so many were on the sick list that our number for duty 
was not large. Of the number that went into the 


charge, 83 per cent or more had fallen. Many of them 
were still lying on the slope near the fort calling for wa- 
ter. The cool night shade was the onl}^ relief from a 
scorching southern sun. As many as could be brought 
away in the darkness were cared for, many were at 
the base of the works who could not be reached for 
the alertness of the enemy. 

May 23rd. We were aroused before day, and hardly 
got our breakfast, until we were ordered on the front 
line in the darkness of the morning. We were given a 
permanent place in the front line, imnjediately on the 
left front of the works we had so gallantly charged the 
day before, and in support of the Sixteenth Ohio Bat- 
tery. This position we kept during the siege. Our 
duties now were guard and fatigue duty. A detail was 
made to dig rifle pits during the night. We dug a zig 
zag rifle pit extending down the hill towards Fort 
Beauregard. A detail of negroes was worked during 
the daytime. We had a rifle pit dug in front, and par- 
allel with our camp. The Battery had thrown up 
breastworks to protect them from the solid shot from 
the rebel fort. Sometimes when we were at work in the 
rifle pits in front, the Confederates began shelling us, 
then our Battery would fire at them until they were 
compelled to cease. During these fusillades the shot 
and shell passed over us, and sometimes when the ar- 
tillery men would cut their fuse too short, we would get 
the benefit of the bursting shell. It did not happen thus 
often. There was an armistice and the dead near the 
fort were buried and those not able to move were 
cared for. The very sick and wounded were sent north 
as fast as they could be moved. 

On June 16th, 1863, we drew two months pay. Most 
of the men sent their money home. Adams Express 
Company followed the army quite closely and could be 
relied upon to carry money safely. While there was 

Capt. Geo. W. Clark 
Lieut. W. H. Needham 

Capt. A. R. Cree 
Capt. D. J. Davis 


always considerable card playing in the camp it was 
almost all for pastime. But little reading matter could 
be obtained, save a few enterprising dailies. Home 
letter-writing was one of the chief pastimes. Many, 
who could not write at enlistment, through the desire 
to write their own letters home became good penmen. 
Nearly every soldier carried a Bible. It was not an un- 
common thing for it to be almost an impossibility to get 
a deck of cards when we would go into camp unless the 
sutler was in our immediate locality. I have seen the 
ground strewn with cards when we would leave a camp 
where we had remained sometime. My impression is 
that few wanted to own and carry cards. They were 
an excellent pastime when on picket duty during the 
daytime. A game called "Chuck Luck" was frequently 
played. This was a game to mone}^ During the 
siege an order was issued to arrest those who were en- 
gaged in the game. It was entirely broken up. June 
the 19th the Confederates fired some shells that burst 
over our camp indicating that they knew our position. 
As soon as they commenced firing not less than from for- 
ty to fifty guns were concentrated on that one battery, so 
that it was immediately silenced. It was impossible 
for them to stand the down pour of lead and' iron. On 
June 20th there was incessant firing all around the line 
from four a. m. to ten a. m. Our regiment was ordered 
to the rifle pits. The rumor was that if there was an 
opportunity there would be an order for a general as- 
sault. The Confederates had built their earthworks 
with great labor and skill. And since our assault on the 
22nd of May they had added to their strength wherever 
needed. Yet, we on our line of works on the parallel 
ridge were equally strong. There was a rumor, that we 
heard often in camp, that the rebels would break 
through our lines and join Joe Johnston in our rear. 
With their force at this time they could not have broken 


our lines. The bristling cannon viewed upon our ram- 
parts was the awful warning the Confederates thought 
best to heed. So continued our duties day after day. 
On the second day of July the regiment was ordered on 
a march to the rear. We went into camp at a place 
called Red Bone Chapel after a day's weary march. 
We were not used to marching now. We returned on 
the third. I doubt if this march did us any good or the 
United States government either. We saw no Confed- 
erates. It was a very hot day. On our return march 
many of our men were stricken down w^ith the heat. 
This is July 4th. We did not get up this morning very 
early. We were very sore and stiff after our march yes- 
terday. When we marched daily we were after a night's 
rest as ready as ever to continue our march. We 
had gotten out of that habit. But the rumor or news 
that there was an armistice and that probably the Con- 
federates had surrendered put new life into us and 
every hill and knoll was covered by the waiting and 
anxious blue coat. It is finally an assured fact that it 
is really and truly a surrender. We can see Logan's 
Division of McPherson's Corps marching into the city 
from its position with flags unfurled and waving to the 
breeze and the dirty white flags on the Confederate forts. 
This is surely one of the happiest days of our lives. No 
demonstrations are made, in deference to the feelings of 
our captured foe. The Confederates come out and 
stack their arms. We walk over and join them on 
their works and converse with them. The sociability 
between the rival soldiers is the wonder of the ages. 
Many of the Confederates hoped this would be their 
last campaign. Some said if it were not for the con- 
scription acts they would not be there, others said they 
were fighting for the South, and would be there so long 
as any fighting was to be done. Alabamians and Car- 
olinians were mostly in our front. During the siege 


there was a perfect amicabilit}' between the picket Hnes, 
when not disturbed by necessar}^ orders. When we 
received orders to advance our picket Hne, we had to 
necessarily lap over that of our adversary which would 
create a friction for a while. However, occasions of 
this kind were soon healed over. Then our boys would 
explain that we were advancing towards the fort and 
we must obey orders. If they drove us back it was all 
right but we came to stay. They had to abide by the 
result. Many times it almost came to a fight between 
the pickets, but we always had a strong reserve in case of 
trouble. Some of us stole past the guard line and went 
over into the city. We did not feel as though we could 
fight around a city forty-seven days and march away 
without seeing a glimpse of it. We found the hills on 
which the city stands honeycombed with underground 
living apartments so constructed that shot or shell 
could not enter within its domain. Within these secret 
chambers was the only safe and sure retreat of the cit- 
izen, the only place where rest and sleep could be found. 
Commodore Porter's fleet never ceased to land his shells 
where they were most needed for the good of the gov- 

There was a regularity about our pay during the 
siege that we should mention. We received our pay at 
proper times. While on the march there was the great- 
est lack of the funds necessary for a commissioned officer 
to procure his living. An account with the sutler was 
often a matter of necessity, and when that vender of 
delicacies was cut off, or failed of transportation there 
was suffering. There was then nothing left for the offi- 
cer but the same ration as the rank and file, often cow 
peas and parched corn with a little foraged truck. 

Greeley in his "American Conflict" says of the capture 
of Vicksburg: "This was the heaviest single blow ever 
given to the muscular resources of the Rebellion." 


The morning of July 5th found us with marching or- 
ders. There were many misgivings in the minds of 
many of those who were taken from under the surgeon's 
care and placed on duty. As if to replace the needed 
strength of nature, an open-headed barrel, full of whis- 
key, well saturated with quinine, was set in our path, 
and we were marched past it in double file with our tin 
cups ready in our hands and each one took a tin cup full 
as he passed. Those of us who would not drink it got 
none and many of those who did got double their ration. 
The result was that there were a few who fell out on the 

We take up our line of march to the rear to find the 
Confederate General Johnston and his army, who has 
been operating in our rear for some time, whom General 
Sherman has been looking after during the siege. We 
go into camp for the night on White creek. Early 
morning finds us on the march. We cross Big Black 
river at 2 p. m. and go into camp near Edward's station. 

We start out again this morning at 6 a. m. We are 
pushing General Joe Johnston's army towards Jackson. 
We go into camp for the night to the left of Bolton sta- 
tion in line of battle. We did not march very fast today 
but we started at six and went into camp at 1 1 p. m. 
July 9th, we pass through Clinton, and go into camp. 
Have been marching since daybreak. On the lOth, we 
came u]) to the fortifications and took our ])osition in 
line of battle. On the 1 1 th, we were moved to the right 
and closer to the Confederate works. We can see the 



forts and the rifle pits in the front of our line. On the 
12th, we were ordered still closer to the fortifications. 
Before we moved to this position, a detail of skirmishers 
from our regiment, under my command, drove the Con- 
federates from the edge of the woods on the opposite 
side of an open field. We then placed our advanced 
pickets some distance away in this woods. A fine large 
house was now in front of us.' It was torn down for 
the convenience of a battery. Near where this house 
stood our battery was stationed. 

On the 14th, an armistice of two hours was agreed to, 
so that General Lauman on our right could bury the 
dead, those who were killed the day before in his fruit- 
less charge. I was an officer on picket duty during this 
armistice. When the Confederates in front of us 
learned of it they came over to us, and we had quite a 
little visit. They first wanted to know if there were 
any Ohio boys among us, there were none. We told 
them we were from Iowa. They had not seen any Iowa 
men before. They said they were from Arkansas. 
They expressed themselves as if they were not much in- 
terested in the war, and wished it would soon be over, 
and thought it would be much more reasonable if the 
politicians who brought on the war and are still push- 
ing it forward, were made to do the fighting part, rather 
than to put them to do the fighting who hardly know 
what the fighting is about. Thus we conversed until 
we received orders to resume hostilities and in a very 
few moments we were shooting at each other with intent 
to kill. The last remark made was for us not to shoot 
until they got within their rifle pits, a request that was 
always held sacred on both sides of the line. 

Today is the 16th, and I am in command of the sharjv 
shooters. We are very close to the enemy's rifle pits. 
We have only the trees to protect us. The zip zip is as 
frequent as it is familiar. The boys have a way of loca- 


ting their enemy by putting their hats on the muzzles of 
their guns, and ptishing them a httle out from behind the 
trees, when zip goes a bullet through them. The smoke 
of his gun locates the enemy, then it is his turn to take 
care of himself. Thus we are engaged in killing and 
maiming. This is war. 

About 10 a. m. on the 1 7th, we were surprised to learn 
that the Confederates had evacuated Jackson during the 
night. Then it was that many of the men on the picket 
line remembered they had heard during the night, a con- 
tinual rumbling noise, and some explosions. It was the 
wagon trains and artillery and cavalry forces crossing 
the bridge over Pearl river. General Joe Johnston was 
not going to be caught in the trap that General Sherman 
was laying for him. For sure enough Sherman was 
tightening the cords that would bind him as Grant did 
Pemberton. A sufficient number of men were left to 
destroy all property they could not take along and that 
would be of any service to us . As soon as it was possible for 
me to leave my Company, I went over into the town. 
Much of it was surely a blackened heap. There were 
verv few of the white element in sight, they had no 
doubt hid themselves or followed the Confederate army. 

On the 18th the Regiment was sent to tear up and 
destroy the railroad track. "A" and "F" were left in 
support of the battery, while the other Companies tore 
up the railroad tracks, burning the ties and twisting the 

On the 19th we moved back to our old camp that wc 
occupied during the siege. Here James McGuire of 
Company "A" died and was buried. On the 20th we 
started on our march back to Vicksburg and went into 
camp near Raymond. On the 21st we marched to 
Baker's Creek, near where we fought the battle of Cham- 
pion Hills on the 16th of May. A gentlemen by name of 
Champion, owning a farm in this hill country where this 


battle was fought, gives it the name. On the 23rd we 
reached Vicksburg and went into camp near the river 
below the town. On the 28th we were moved to the 
right that more troops might camp between us and the 
river. Our Colonel Wm. M. Stone and General A. J. 
Smith had a little controversy about the moving but the 
General was the ranking officer, therefore we moved. 
On the 4th of August we were paid two months pay. 
A great number of our officers and men were perrhitted 
to go home on leave of absence. On the 9th Captain C. 
N. Lee of Company "A" received his resignation pa- 
pers and started for home. Captain George Shockey 
was left in command of the Regiment. 

On the 11th I was detailed brigade officer of the day, 
indicating that a large portion of our commissioned 
officers were absent. There were quite a number on the 
sick roll, though the general health of the Regiment had 
much improved since our return from Jackson. Our 
loss by disease since we started on the Vicksburg cam- 
paign had been very heavy. We received orders on the 
13th to move. "A" and "F" embarked on the Autocrat 
and with a barge on each side of our boat we started 
down the river. The barges were loaded with army 
supplies. One of them struck a snag on the morning of 
the 14th near Natchez and was lost. We passed Port 
Hudson on the 15 th and anxiously scanned the works 
(from the boats) where Confederate General Gardner 
held General Banks at bay for so long. It was generally 
the opinion that the fall of Vicksburg hastened the 
surrender of Port Hudson. 

We arrived at CarroUton above New Orleans, a suburb 
of the latter city, in the evening and immediately dis- 
embarked. On the 16th we moved out to the edge of 
the town and went into camp, the other Companies 
joining us prior to going into camp. 

Camp CarroUton is a beautiful camping ground on the 


shell road. It has every convenience and is connected 
with New Orleans by railroad, trains running during 
the day hourly. The Regiment is now where they can 
take a much needed rest, there being scarcely any duty 
to perform. The air is invigorating. These are truly 
the best da}^s of our soldier life. The accumulated dust 
and red clay of Vicksburg will soon be things of the 

This is iVugust 3 1st and we are still in camp at Carrol- 
ton. We have become acquainted with many of their 
citizens. There are many unreconcilables. Quite a 
number of us boys who were brought up to go to Sab- 
bath School found a place where we could attend near 
our camp. It was not long till some of the unadjusta- 
ble element began to object to our attending. The 
superintendent ver)' politely requested us not to attend 
any more as it would break up the Sabbath School. 
We very complacently acquiesced. We naturally con- 
cluded it would be a boy's affair. We were believers in 
a mixed Sunday School. A Sunday School to us was 
not a Sunday School unless the fair sex were a part. I 
really could not find much fault with the powers that 
reigned, for the blue-coats in that Sunday School had 
become so interested in it that they would naturally 
have crowded out the original scholars very soon had no 
action been taken. 

September 4th, we are ordered on general review. 
The whole 13th Army Corps has been in camp here for 
some time. General Banks commands this department 
and Grant is here. The whole corps pass in review in 
column by companies, passed Grant and Banks and 
their immediate staff. We go into line and then the 
Generals pass us in review as we stand at a present arms. 
Grant was thrown from his horse and severely hurt. 
His horse stumbled. We have perfect faith in Grant 
and do not believe anv of the stories that he drinks. 


At Vicksburg,he, wearing a fatigue blouse and hat with 
no insignia of rank, would pass on foot through the camps 
and converse with the men. All the boys knew Grant 
and when they saw him coming they would say, "There 
comes General Grant", and were always ready to salute. 

As soon as the review was over our brigade marched 
down to the river and embarked on board transports 
and swung down to Algiers. On the 5th w^e boarded 
the train and proceeded to Bayou Beaoff. We reached 
our destination at one o'clock p. m. Captain A. B. 
Cree of "F" and Lieutenant D. W. Henderson of "H" 
and a number of furloughed men joined us. We are 
having a good deal of rain here. The mosquitoes are 
very annoying and are of a prodigious size. Our minds 
naturally revert to Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

On the 11th we moved to Brashear City. Lieutenant 
Joseph E. Griffith joined the Regiment today after an 
extended leave of absence. Lieutenant Griffith came 
to me and told me that my father was sick and not expect- 
ed tolive, when he left home. (Our homes are in the same 
neighborhood. ) I told him I had had no word from home 
for a long time. He urged me to apply for a leave of 
absence and wrote out an application and went with 
me until I procured the necessary signatures of Com- 
manders of Regiment, Brigade, and Division, and in- 
structed me where I would find General Washburn 
our Corps Commander. 


With the papers, on the 12th, I imraediately started 
for New Orleans, proceeded to the vicinity where our 
corps camp had been, found General Washburn and his 
staff still in their tents. I went to the General's tent 
and presented my papers. He asked me some ques- 
tions, such as if I had been home on leave since enlist- 
ment. I told him I had never desired a leave until one 
of my comrades from my home told me my father was 
on his deathbed. "Well," he said, " we are now start- 
ing on an extensive campaign, so that it is impossible 
to spare men or officers." He returned to his tent and 
his Adjutant General came out and questioned me at 
length, then he went into the tent, and the Surgeon 
came out and questioned me with regard to my past ser- 
vice. I gave him a pretty lengthy account of my illness 
in the trenches at Vicksburg, but told him my only de- 
sire was to see my father, and I rather think I shed some 
tears. He also went into the tent, and presently came 
out with a sick leave drawn out, the only way I could 
have gotten a leave to go home, for there were strict or- 
ders against leaves of absence. . 

With a somewhat lighter heart, and a very empty 
pocketbook, I made my way to the wharf to find out 
how soon I could get on my way home, and what it was 
going to cost me. Cabin passage to Cairo $18.00, deck 
passage $5.00 I- had not the money to go cabin passage, 
therefore my only way was to go deck passage. For- 
tunately, when I was looking up the matter of trans- 
portation, I ran across the drummer boy of Company 



"C", Frank Peabody, he was also a son of our assistant 
surgeon. He was in the same predicament as I in re- 
gard to money. We at once joined fortunes, and pre- 
pared to go deck passage. We packed a box with eat- 
ables, that would last us to Cairo, and Frank suggested 
a pint of good brandy to offset the poisonous effects of 
Mississippi water, to which I immediately acquiesced. 

On the evening of the 12th, Frank and I were at the 
wharf awaiting the boat, "Champion", to take on her 
cargo. We had secured our transportation, and our 
box and blankets were already aboard. It was eleven 
o'clock before the boat pulled out from the wharf. It 
was very dark and foggy. In about one hour after we 
started, we were aroused by an awful crash, and found 
ourselves almost sliding down into the water. We were 
lying on the second or cabin deck with our heads to the 
cabin and feet to the railing. Another boat had just 
barely missed our boat, tearing the support and railing 
from our side of the deck. We carried our box and 
blankets inside the cabin under the table, where we 
spent our nights till we got to Memphis. As soon as the 
collision happened, our Captain ran the boat to shore, 
to ascertain if there was any serious damage; there being 
none, he immediately proceeded on his way. Our Cap- 
tain was a very kind but queer man. A colored 
person was not allowed on his boat either as servant or 
passenger. When we arrived at Memphis the Cham- 
pion was pressed into the United States service to carry 
troops south. As soon as the Captain was in receipt of 
the order he set fire to his boat. It was said at the time 
he preferred to see it go up in smoke rather than carry 
Yankee soldiers. He returned us money enough to con- 
tinue our journey on another boat. Liberty No. 2; we 
had the same quarters but it was not as fine a boat. 

Arriving at Cairo, we took the Illinois Central for La- 
salle. Here we separated, Frank went north and I 


went west. It did not require money to travel on the 
cars; we presented our papers at the ticket office, the 
officer stamped them and handed them back, then we 
presented them to the conductor. When I arrived at 
home my father was going around in his usual health. 
I was fourteen days coming home. I had only six to be 
at home and return, but Uncle Sam had a pretty soft 
heart, he knew I could not get back, I had only had 
twenty days to come on and fourteen were gone be- 
fore I got home. He gave me twenty more to finish my 
visit and return. It was only about one year since w^e 
left Iowa City. I finished my visit and turned my face 
south again. With the exception of several scares on 
account of bushwhackers along the Mississippi river 
banks I was more lucky on my return. I lost no time 
in joining the Regiment, which was on its return from 
the Teche country, western Louisiana. 


New Iberia, La. 
I arrived here this morning. I found the Regiment 
in camp here. The health of the Regiment is good. 
The boys seemed to have enjoyed their campaign in 
western Louisiana. 

I reported to the Colonel and he ordered me on duty. 
I took command of Company "A", and Lieut. W. D. 
Henderson was relieved from that duty, and ordered to 
his Company ("H"). The boys of the Company were 
pleased to see me back again and in command, although 
Lieutenant Henderson was a favorite with them. 
Since the fall of Vicksburg I have been in continuous 
command of the Company, Captain Davis doing staff 
duty on General Fitz Henry Warren's staff. 

On November 6th, we were still at New Iberia. The 
Regiment was called out in line of battle, then was sent 
on picket duty. We received orders to move on the 
8th, and started at five a. m., on our march back 
towards Brashear City . We went into camp for the night 
near Franklin. We continued our march on the 9th, 
reaching Berwick on Berwick Bay, about 12 m., and 
went into camp. The men were not in the best of hum- 
or when we went into camp, fault was found with the 
Colonel for marching too fast without cause. We re- 
mained in camp here until the 17th. 

We enjoyed this camp as well as any we ever occu- 
pied. On the 17th, we embarked on the cars, right 
wing only, for New Orleans, reached Algiers at 8 p. m. 
We lay there till the 20th, when five companies of the 



Twenty-second and the Eleventh Wisconsin embarked 
on the T. A. Scott, bound for Texas. 

We lay a short time at anchor near the mouth of the 
Mississippi, then proceeded on our way to Texas. We 
arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande River on the 
24th of November, and cast anchor. The weather was 
rough and stormy. A boat was sent out and was re- 
turned with orders not to land there. It became so rough 
and stormy we were kept out all night, and on the 25th 
we anchored off Aransas Pass, about 12 m. We were 
transferred to another boat and disembarked on Mustang 
Island, tired and sore. Our voyage from New Orleans, 
here, was a stormy one. It was reported that there were 
some of the boats with troops that did not fare as well as 
we did. Our boat was a good substantial one. On the 
26th, Companies "A" and "I" were ordered on board 
the boat Matamoras. On the boat was General Fitz 
Henry Warren and his staff and a battery of tw^o guns. 
We sailed up Corpus Christi Bay. 

The intention was to proceed up the Bay and cut off 
the retreat of the Confederates from Fort Saluria, but on 
the 27th, we stuck on a sand bar and failed to get off. 
We drew rations for the two Companies ,"A" and "I", 
seventy- two men "all told." 

Captain Stone and Lieutenant Baker of General War- 
ren's staff, took their horses off the boat and rode to 

On the 2nd of December, Company "A" was taken 
ashore in yawls, with orders, "march by land and join 
the regiment." Company "A" went into camp the 
first night of their march, at a place called the Ferry. 
A num])er of the l)oys took their guns and tried to get 
some venison, as deer were plenty on Mustang Island. 
Our destination is Fort Saluria on Matagorda Bay, to help 
take by land what the fates denied us by water. Our 


inarch is along the smooth and level beach, which the 
water washes when the tide is high. 

On our right is the Gulf and on our left are sand 
hills. The sand drifted into piles by the wind. We 
marched ten miles yesterday and sixteen miles today, 
(the 4th) . Captain Stone and Lieutenant Baker passed 
us today, going to the front. A herd of deer ran near 
us today, passing between us and the sand hills, two or 
three shots were fired at them, and being satisfied that 
one or more had been hit, several of the boys were per- 
mitted to follow them. They killed one and brought 
it to camp in the evening, and as there was an abun- 
dance of sheep on the Island, we had that night for sup- 
per, beef, pork, mutton, and venison, a little more luxur- 
ious feast than usual. We were up at 6 a. m. but did 
not get started on our march till nine. Possibly our 
high living had something to do with it. We came to 
the Fort about sundown. The fighting was over, the 
Confederates had retreated across the Bay. We 
joined the right wing of the Regiment as they were 
embarking on the Ferry, to cross over the Bay. Com- 
pany "A" did not cross over, they lay on this side till 

This is 7th of December, Company "A" crossed over, 
and the whole Regiment went into camp. Our camp is 
Camp De Crow's point, Matagorda Island, Texas. On 
the 12th we moved our camp a little, to a better loca- 
tion. One of our Company "A's" men died on the 
22nd, Frank Butler. 

On the 3 1st we were ordered to march in the evening. 
The Regiment fell into line in marching order, stacked 
arms, and returned to quarters. Sometime after dark 
we were ordered out in line, took arms and returned to 
quarters. Such is soldiering. It is very sandy here in 
this camp. 


January 4th, we were ordered to Indianola, Texas. 
We embarked on the boat Planter, 10:45 a. m. and 
landed at Indianola, 4 p. m., and were at once sent to 
quarters, "A", "I", and "D" in the City Hospital, "F" 
and "H" in adjacent buildings. The right wing only, 
is quartered here. The left wing has its quarters in 
another part of town. 

On January 9th, while on dress parade, we were 
startled w^ith the news that the Confederates were 
marching on Old Town or Powderhorn as it is also 
called and that there was fighting in front. It turned 
out to be a few Confederate cavalry who ventured too 
close to our advanced pickets, creating a little disturb- 
ance. The Confederates were soon scattered and out 
of reach of bullets. 

We are short on rations since we came to this place. 
We lived on corn meal that we ground on a peculiar 
mill that they had here. Each Company in its turn 
sent a squad or detail of men, with an officer, to grind 
corn for the Company, two and one-half gallons to thir- 
ty-six men, which was not enough to satisfy us. Parch- 
ed corn was eaten to satisfy the deficiency. The capac- 
ity of the mill was not great enough to do any better for 
the number of men depending upon it for a subsistance. 
Rumors that we would soon have rations in abundance 
were heard so often, that finally no credit was given to 
them. We had plenty of nice fresh beef, and we could 
get some fresh vegetables. On the 10th, an order came 

for a detail to go and help unload boats filled with ra- 

Capt. Geo. W. Clark 
Lieut. W. H. Needham 

Capt. A. B. Cree 
Capt. D. J. Davis 


tions. Our long fast had come to an end. There was 
one good quaUfication in General Fitz Henry Warren, 
he would feed and clothe the men under him, if it were 
possible to get the means. 

Other exciting incidents were soon to draw our atten- 
tion. We could see daily on the far distant hills, the 
Confederate cavalry, watching our every movement. 
On the 12th, when we were on brigade drill, we received 
an order to prepare for action. The Confederates were 
advancing on vis in three separate columns. One col- 
umn marching towards us, one towards Old Town, and 
a center column. We could see them in the distance, 
but could not estimate their number. A line of bat- 
tle was at once formed, with batteries in position, and 
they soon began to pla}' on the head of the advancing 
Confederate column. Sharp skirmishing was also going 
on in front. Companies "A" and "F" were sent out on 
the skirmish line to relieve the Twenty -first Iowa Regi- 
ment, so they could return to the rear to get their supper. 
The fighting was done at long range, so that there were 
no casualties on our side. A very heavy picket line 
was thrown out to protect us against a surprise. 

On the 13th, more troops came and General N. T. 
Dana with them. On the 16th, we had general review 
and inspection. We were on our parade ground at 9:30, 
marched off and fell in with the other troops and 
marched out on the prairie, and were received by Gen- 
eral Benton and his staff. We then returned to our reg- 
imental parade ground and were inspected by Captain 
W. W. Horseman, acting Assistant Inspector General, 
then we returned to quarters, warm and tired. Jan- 
uary 19th, orders came for us to be ready to move at a 
moment's notice. At 11:30 a. m., we started on our 
march to Old Town, or Old Indianola, where we ex- 
pected to go into camp. And here we are at Old Town 


once more settled down, for a short time at least. We 
have our tents up and our quarters cleaned up, ready to 
take a "spell of enjoyment." We have a Company and 
Battalion drill each day. 

On the 22nd, we received news that W. H. Bechtel of 
Company "A", was taken prisoner near Lavaca. He 
was one of a detail of scouts from the regiment. On the 
26th, "A" and "B" Companies were detailed as an es- 
cort for a wood train. We went about four miles, tore 
down a house and some cattle sheds and loaded them on 
the wagons, and returned to camp. Companies "D" 
and "C" were a detail to unload boats on the 27th. 

On the next day our scouts had a hot race with a 
squad of the Confederate cavalry, an ambuscade was. 
laid to capture them. It was discovered when almost 
too late. Our scouts sounded a retreat and lit out, 
every one for himself, and the Confederates took the 
hindmost of them. There were several hairbreadth es- 
capes, the swiftest horses got out easily, wilhe the slow 
and lazy ones got the spur. It was a source of fun for a 
long time and a lesson to be more wary. More scouts 
were detailed, one each from "D", "B", and "E". 

On the 2nd of February, "A", "I", and "K" were de- 
tailed for the wood train. We went six miles out, and 
within eight miles of Lavaca. Rumors went back to 
camp that the escort and train were attacked. The 
Twenty-third Iowa was sent to our relief. We had 
not seen a Confederate and therefore had not been mo- 
lested, and returned to camp with our train in charge. 
We were reviewed on the 7th by E. O. C. Ord. The 
First Division, Thirteenth Army Corps, was in camp 

This is the 9th of February, Eighteen Hundred and 
Sixty-four. The present strength of our Regiment is 
as follows: 


Officers 25 

Enlisted men 624 

Total 649 

Total present for duty 397 

sick in camp 22 

Absent sick, detached duty, and prisoners 230 


A reorganization of the regiment was made today, 
by order of Colonel Harve}^ Graham, whereby Company 
"A" will rank as the tenth company and will take that 
position in the Regiment. On the 14th, we escorted 
the Eleventh Wisconsin down to New Indianola. 

We have brigade drill by General Fitz Henry Warren. 
He compliments our Regiment very much on their ap- 
pearance and drill. On the 21st, Adjutant David J. 
Davis received his commission as Captain of Company 
"A", and Sergeant Major S. D. Pryce, his commission 
as Adjutant of the Regiment. Captain Davis took 
command of Company "A" on the 24th. 

We are building a line of forts connected by rifle pits, 
to protect Old and New Indianola. We are working by 

Fourteen Confederates came in today under a flag of 
truce, (the 24th.) 

February 29, we have finished our fortifications. 
We have four substantial forts and an excellent line of 
rifle pits connecting them. Colonel Samuel Merrill of 
the Twenty-first Iowa Regiment is in command of our 

On the 9th of March we received orders to pack up 
and be ready to march at a moment's notice. All 
our baggage including tents, was loaded on boats. 

On the tenth, the Regiment with the exception of 
Company " A" , started on the march for Powder Horn, 


Texas. Company "A" was detailed to finish loading 
boats. It got so windy we could not that day, so we 
went into quarters in an empty house near by. On 
the 11th, Company "A" with two other Companies 
from the brigade, loaded the boat "Warrior" with sick 
soldiers, citizens, old lumber, and regimental goods. 
All was done by three p. m. 

This is the 12th; we are still at work. Today we are 
loading the Matamoras, filling every nook and corner 
with old lumber which we had piled on the wharf. The 
lumber being from old houses we had torn down. We 
have about one hundred men at work. 

We loaded the boat Planter and another smaller boat 

We board the Planter with our guns and accouter- 
ments and cooking utensils at 2 p. m. and are to start 
on our voyage tomorrow morning at six a.m. March 
13th, we were on the boat all night. I slept on the Hur- 
ricane deck, on top of the cabin. As we sailed up the 
Bay, we could see the long, marching columns of fours, 
with bayonets bristling in the sun for miles. It was a 
beautiful sight. Only those who were detailed to load 
the boats were allowed to ride aboard the boats. 

We landed at Fort Esperansas at 10 a. m. and un- 
loaded the boat Matamoras. We heard, here, that 
while the troops were crossing an arm of the Bay, twen- 
ty-two men of the Sixty-ninth Indiana Regiment, were 
drowned by the swamping of the old Ferry boat. 

The Regiment crossed over and went into camp. 

This is "Camp near Fort Esperansas". The Four- 
teenth Regiment Rhode Island, colored, is quartered in 
the Fort. I found the Major Commanding, and got a 
pass to go through the Fort. It is ])uilt here to protect 
this arm of the Gulf. 

As soon as I returned I took the Company across, 
while Captain Davis went to look after some ordinance 


stores, of which we were in need. The Regiment looks 
tired and weather-beaten, we have only shelter tents. 
I will give the description of what served me for a tent 
last night; two sticks driven in the ground, one stick 
across the top, two rubber blankets put up to the wind- 
ward side and end, with a woolen blanket on the other 
side, leaving one end open, loose boards for a floor. 

On the 16th our tents came, wedge tents for the men 
and wall tents for the officers. Captain Davis and I oc- 
cupy the same tent. We put it up and put in a board 
floor and raised bunks. We think we will be comforta- 
ble. We are waiting for the paymaster to come around 
and shake out some greenbacks. 

March 17th, I am Lieutenant of the Guard. I took 
our detail up to General Fitz Henry Warren's Head- 
quarters for duty. He sent us back to camp. We were 
there too early. We hadn't our blankets on right. 
Some of us had boots on with the pant legs in the boot 
tops. Some had hats and some had caps. We were 
sent back with strict orders how to return. In part we 
were to wear caps, roll our blankets the long way, tie 
the ends together, wearing them over the left shoulder, 
the tied ends under our right arm, pants over boot to^JS, 
and guns and accouterments thoroughly inspected. 
There were two Captains, three Lieutenants, four Sar- 
geants, twelve Corporals and one hundred and twenty 
men. Maj. Houston of the 23rd Iowa Infantry com- 
mands our Regiment today. We are building a chain 
of forts across the Island, connected b}^ rifle pits. 

On the 19th, the Twenty-second and Twenty-third 
Regiments were detailed from the brigade to go out and 
work on the forts and rifle pits. We were all relieved at 
noon. Thus we continue from day to day, working a 
part of each day as the hot sun compels us to be careful 
in our labor. 

On the 24th, the guard from the Regiment in my 


command, did not get up to headquarters in time, and 
General Warren ordered us to fall in, in the rear of the 
other portion of the guard. 

Adjutant General Stone asked if my portion of the 
guard was inspected, I answered in the negative. He 
ordered me to inspect it. Afterward we took our place 
in the line, and I being the ranking officer took com- 
mand of the guard. On the 29th, our Regiment was 
paid for four months, commencing August 31st., 1863. 
I received $429.89 in an order on the Assistant Treasur- 
er, U. S. A. 

I was officer of the Guard on the 30th and after taps. 
We were called out to guard the Fourteenth Rhode 
Island Regiment (Colored) , as they threatened to mutiny. 
It was 12 o'clock, midnight, when they were reported 
to us and put under guard. Later the greater part of 
the regiment was returned to duty, and only the ring- 
leaders were punished. ' 

The guard was relieved at 10 a. m. and the troops 
were inspected by General N. J. T. Dana. The weather 
was disagreeable, one of those frequent sand storms 
came up. 

April 6th, wc heard firing in the distance, seemingly 
on the water. 

On the 7 th there were several Confederate officers and 
men taken prisoners up at Indianola by our gunboats. 
That accounts for the cannonading we heard yesterday. 

The Regiment is in excellent health, only four or five 
are in the Hospital. 

Major L. B. Houston of the Twenty-third Iowa is 
commanding our Regiment, and has been for some time. 
Major General John A. McClearnand came up from 
Brownsville, Texeis, on the 9th. He has not forgotten 
how we fought under him at Vicksburg, Miss. On the 
13 th he granted furloughs to twenty-one men from our 


We have now, ten Captains, six First Lieutenants, 
and four Second Lieutenants, with four hundred and 
forty-seven (447) enlisted men, present for duty. Com- 
pany "I" is on detached duty. We had a good deal of 
excitement on the 14th. Competitive drill in all its 
forms, confined to our brigade. The Twenty-second 
Iowa, the Sixty-ninth Indiana and the Thirty-fourth 
Iowa were in the lead when I last heard from them. 
Colonel Washburn is the Judge. The best drilled Reg- 
iment was to get a new flag. On the 17th, the Eight- 
eenth Indiana started home on veteran furlough, the 
First Brigade escorting them to the landing. 

It will be one year in a few days, since they stood 
shoulder to shoulder with us in deadly conflict with the 
enemy. Their cheering voices were heard above the 
din and roar of the battle, in the thickest of the fight. 
General McClearnand and the Forty-ninth Indiana left 
us today for more active duty. We drill every day 
when we are not at work on the fortifications. 

On the 20th a detail from the Regiment of three hun- 
dred men, rank and file, received orders to march with 
three days cooked rations and two days uncooked ra- 
tions. The Twenty-first, at six a. m. "A", "F", and 
"D" Companies marched to the wharf and boarded the 
boats Zephyr and Warrior. The Zephyr stuck on the 
bar off the point, Old Indianola, but after much labor 
we got it off. A detail was made to go in a skiff and 
mark out the channel and a detail with an officer in an- 
other skiff to go to shore, where a number of people 
were waving a white flag. They proved to be Confed- 
erate soldiers who wished to surrender; there were two 
of them. We lay over night here at anchor. On the 
22nd we passed on u]) the Bay following our markers, 
cast anchor above Indianola and sent a detail in a skiff 
to locate the channel off Gallonnipper Point. I was sent 
in charge of the detail. The channel being marked, we 


passed safely through and on to Port Lavaca, without 
opposition. We pulled up to the wharf at 10 a. m. and 
landed. Company "A", myself in command led by 
the band, marched up into and through the town along 
one of the main streets to the open country. We form- 
ed a picket line of the whole Company, with orders to 
hold in check any enem)^ that might attempt to charge 
on the town. 

About dvisk General Warren sent orders to withdraw 
the picket line to the edge of the city, later on orders 
came to fall back to the pier where we camped for the 
night. On the morning of the 23rd, in a pouring rain. 
Companies "A" and "F" were ordered out after a squad 
of about thirty Confederates who were picketed about 
two miles from town in plain view. We approached to 
within about three hundred yards of them, and on 
charging them they fled, leaving their haversacks, sad- 
dles, harness, buggy and guns. A volley from the 
skirmishers of Company "A" appeared to do little dam- 
age. Subsequently, one Confederate was captured 
and again abandoned on account of a Confederate rush 
made on the picket. We were ordered to fall back 
to the city and at 4 p. m. were ordered on board the 
boats. We suffered no losses, neither did we inflict 
any great loss. It was reported that the captured Con- 
federate was killed. 

The object of the detail was to get these boats loaded 
with lumber for the use of the army, and now their 
holds being filled, we were ready to start on our return 
trip. Just as we were embarking at 4:30 p. m., a fire 
broke out in the town. Details were made from the 
troops to help put out the fire, which could not be done 
until one whole block was consumed. The soldiers 
labored manfully to put it out, for which they gained 
the thanks and admiration of the citizens, though they 
were mostly our enemies. When all was done that 


could be to extinguish the fire, we puUed from the wharf 
and anchored in the Bay. The morning of the 24th 
finds us steaming down the Bay. The Warrior stuck 
on the bar off Gallonnipper Point and delayed us some. 
We crossed the bar safely at Indianola, and as we 
passed Powder Horn the Zephyr stopped and took on a 
lot of goods and citizens, and nine Confederates who 
were at home on furlough, and who gave themselves up. 
We arrived at camp near Fort Esperansas at 5 p. m. 
Captain A. B. Cree of Company "F" was in command of 
the detail, General Fitz Henry Warren was in command 
of the expedition. 

On the 25th, the Twenty-second and Twenty-third 
Regiments received orders to move with ten days ra- 
tions. Two boats were there for us to embark on. 

April 27th, we fell in line yesterday and marched to 
the boats to embark when an order came for the left 
wing of the Regiment to await another boat. I was on 
picket duty. Colonel Bailey of the Ninety-ninth Illin- 
ois, who now commands the Brigade, visited our picket 
post this evening. He spoke well of our sentinels, gave 
a few instructions with regard to our dtity, and left us. 
Have with me on this post, two Sergeants, Thos. Buch- 
anan of Company "D" and L. Gabriel of "F" and four 
Corporals, with the full complement of men. 


The left wing boarded the side wheel steamer, "The 
Saint Mary" on the 29th. We left camp Fort Esperan- 
sas at 6:30 a. m., had everything on board and em- 
barked and pulled from the wharf at 10 a. m. It is said 
to be from Pass Cavalla to the mouth of the Mississippi 
River, 400 miles and from the mouth of the River to 
New Orleans, our destination, ninety miles. We mus- 
tered on the 30th, on board "The Saint Mary", and we 
reached the mouth of the River on the morning of May 
1st, just as it was breaking day. 

The boat reached New Orleans and pulled up at 
Bull's Head and we remained on board all night. 

We disembarked on the morning of the 2nd and 
marched to the Virginia Cotton Press and went into 
quarters there, we, the left wing, marched to the wharf 
on the fourth and boarded the boat Colonel Cowls, and 
started up the river. General Fitz Henry Warren and 
staff ai-e also on this boat. It seems so pleasant to 
look on the green banks of the Mississippi, and gaze on 
the broad plantations after l)eing so long on the barren 
coast of Texas. We passed Baton Rouge at dusk. 
On the 6th we reached the mouth of Red River at 1 a. 
m. and stopped about an hour. A few of us got off and 
took a stroll in the timber. The ground is a mat of blue 
grass and white clover. We resumed our journey up 
Red River. It appears to be a very crooked river. 
Our good old General got on one of his tantrum spells, 
and broke out saying the troops on the boat with him 
were "damn thieves". Just because, when we ran the 



boat up to the river bank for a little stop, the boys 
hopped off and did a little foraging on their own respon- 
sibility. We knew that his anger was only on the sur- 
face for he was good at heart. 

Proceeding up the river, May 7th, we are at the 
mouth of Black River twenty miles above the mouth of 
Red River at 12 m. just below, and in sight of Fort De 
Russy. The Ironclad gunboat, "Chucktaw", is here do- 
ing picket duty. The Twenty-third Iowa which is on 
one of our accompanying boats, was sent out on a re- 
connoitering expedition, and they found a few Confed- 
erates scattered through the timber. I am called up 
from my bunk at 10 p. m. to go on guard; two Lieuten- 
ants, three Sergeants, three Corporals and thirty-six 
men in all on guard duty. Rumors are conflicting. 
We anticipate a fight in the near future. 

On May 8th, General Warren and his staff boarded 
the Ironclad gunboat, Chocktaw, and with two Musketo 
boats proceeded up the river on a reconnoissance, re- 
turned at 12 m. He found that the rebels had placed 
obstructions in the river so that it was impossible for us 
to proceed any farther up the river by water. 

The 9th. About midnight last night we were sur- 
prised. A squad of cavalry with dispatches from Alex- 
andria came upon our pickets, thinking them Confeder- 
ates, and opened fire on them. Their fusilade came 
spattering against our boat in such a manner as to cause 
alarm. Company "A" landed instantly and deployed 
along the river bank in a shower of bullets, and other 
companies followed. It was soon learned that it was 
a mistake, luckily, no one was hurt on either side. 
Three officers and a guide with dispatches were immedi- 
ately started back to Alexandria; they, however, met with 
difficulties, two of the officers returned and reported the 
guide wounded and no word came from the other officer. 
Reports come in that Confederate cavalry are hovering 


around us. The gunboats shell the woods at intervals 
during each day. We anticipate trouble tonight, the 
9th. The anticipated attack last night did not mater- 
ialize. The pilot says it is forty miles from Fort De 
Russy to Alexandria and from the Fort to the mouth of 
Red River eighty miles. We start down the river at 
12 m. We see a great many bodies floating down 
stream and some lodged near the river bank and buz- 
zards picking at them. It is horrible ! We run down 
to the mouth of Black River and land on the opposite 
side, and station pickets out. We remained there all 
night. We just learned that there is a case of small- 
pox among the troops on the boat, Madison, one of our 
fleet. On the 11th we started down the river. A sol- 
dier of Company "C", (Charlie McDonald) in dipping 
water alongside the boat with a bucket, accidentally fell 
into the water and was drowned. We reached the 
mouth of Red River at 1 1 a. m. 

We counted fifteen large alligators sunning them- 
selves on the bar. We saw two human bodies today 
floating down. We disembarked and went into camp 
on the east bank of the river, and threw out pickets, two 
Lieutenants, two Sergeants, four Corporals and sixty 
men. We, attached to the Twenty-third Iowa, had 
dress parade. We remained in camp here until the 
16th. Company "F" left us here, it went off on the 
gunboat, Benton. While here General Canby visited 
us, it is said he will take command of the troops here. 
We were ordered on our boat, the Colonel Cowls, at 4 
p. m. We proceed up the Achafalaya river. General 
Warren and staff are still with us on this boat. We 
boys begin to think he is very fond of Iowa men. May 
the 17th. We are still not far from the mouth of Red 
River, at a very large plantation. There are as many 
as twenty-six transports here besides quite a number of 
gunboats. The transports are loaded with Commissary 

E. J. C. Dealer 
The Twenty-second Iowa Association made a wise choice when 
it selected Comrade E. J. C. Bealer to represent it on the Vicks- 
burg Park Commission. There was great labor and difficulty in 
getting the Markers and Tablets where the Regiment was entitled 
to have them. At present everything is quite satisfactory for 
which Mr. Bealer has the gratitude of his comrades. 

Lieut. R. W. Davis 
Corp'l E. J. C. Bealer 

Lieut. O. P. Hull 
Lieut. J. E. Griffith 


and sanitary goods for the sick and wounded soldiers. 
There are a great many stragglers and a great number 
of negroes. There are representatives from nearly 
every regiment of the army of Red River. We moved 
up the river at 4 p. m. to Simmesport. 

May 18th. Immediately after reaching this place 
we disembarked and commenced assisting in the con- 
struction of a bridge across the river. By placing the 
transports side by side, with their gang plank laid across 
their bows, we soon had a bridge constructed ready for 
General Bank's army to cross. It consists of nineteen 
large transports, some of them are the Metropolitan, 
Colonel Cowls, Ohio Bell, Star Light, Black Hawk, 
Madison, South Western, Rob Roy, Sally Robinson. 
The army commenced crossing as soon as the bridge was 
ready. Bank's army was vigorously pressed by the 
enemy, and only General A. J. Smith's troops stood be- 
tween them and destruction. 

On the 20th, I am on duty on the bridge, where I can 
witness the great panorama as it passes in my view. 
The Nineteenth Corps passed yesterday and last night, 
the Thirteenth Corps is passing today and will consume 
the most of the coming night. There are some cavalry. 
They will come later, will probably be the last. The 
troops look dusty and worn, tired and ragged. Gen- 
eral Banks looks dejected and worn, and is hooted at by 
his men. Gen. A. J. Smith's men look weary and tired, 
but alert and confident. The roar of battle has fol- 
lowed them till their feet are on the bridge. Artillery and 
sharpshooters are placed along the banks of the river 
on the east so the Confederates dare not come close 
enough to interrupt the crossing. We also have gun- 
boats on the river, grim sentinels that carry conviction 
and confusion. 

May 19th, the Thirteenth corps will go into camp 
here and rest awhile. On the 20th we, the left wing of 


the Twenty-second Iowa, started on our march for the 
mouth of Red River, in the evening at six o'clock, and 
reached the mouth of Red River at six in the morning 
of the 21st. We marched all night long, stopped here 
only long enough to get our breakfast, then marched 
on down the Mississippi, bound for Morganza's Bend. 
It is very warm, and we rest often by the way. We 
follow a bayou nearly all day, it seems to have been the 
bed of the river at an earlier day. We are in light 
marching order, and do not seem to feel the loss of sleep 
and w^eariness from the night's march. 

We went into camp on the 22nd, three miles above 
Morganza's Bend on the Mississippi river. There is 
part of the Nineteenth and Thirteenth corps here. 
Brigadier General Warren has command of the troops 
of the Thirteenth corps. 

On the 29th we move to another camp farther down 
the river. We are up at 3 a. m. It appeared for awhile 
as if the Confederates were about to attack us, they are 
hovering around us all the time. They are supposed to 
be scouting parties. 

Orders came for us to be ready at a moment's notice. 
Our Second Division is going out to look after the Con- 
federates who are hanging around our camp. They 
started at 2 a. m. We are placed behind the levee so 
that we may use it as a breastwork. It takes nearly 
the whole of our detachment for guard duty. We have 
very little space here behind the levee. 

Every man for duty is called out before headquar- 
ters of detachment. They number two commissioned 
officers, twenty non-commissioned officers, and fifteen 
privates. Then comes an order for one commissioned 
officer and twenty men. I am the lucky or unlucky 
oflficer and with two sergeants, six corporals and twelve 
men report for duty, leaving in camp one commissioned 
officer, twelve non-commissioned officers and three 


privates for duty. We have a good time on guard. 
Besides our men, we have twenty-three men from the 
One hundred and twentieth Ohio Regiment. They are line 
fellows. We enjoy our guard duty better than being 
crowded in camp. 

June 4th Company "A" was detailed for provost 
guard at Brigadier General Lawler's headquarters. 

At 2 p. m. on June 13 our detachment embarked 
on the boat Universe and moved down to Baton Rouge. 
We shook hands with General Warren. He asked how 
Company "A" got along. 

The old fellow had not forgotten the mischievousness 
of Company "A". He is a sharp old coon. A great 
disciplinarian, but wants his men fed and clothed and 
clean. Here we joined the right wing of our Regiment 
and were immediately ordered on duty. The camp is 
fiat but dry. We have had no rain to make it muddy. 
The mosquitoes are troublesome. We drew mosquito 
nets. We stick four sticks in the ground set the net 
over that and creep under, where we are safe from their 
annoying practice. 


June 18th, 1864, we are glad to get together again as 
a Regiment though we had a pretty good time while 
separated. Our left wing drew four months pay today. 
Among us mone}^ had become very scarce. We have 
this town guarded so that no one is allowed to come or 
go without a pass. There has been some traffic in gun 
caps and other contraband material between the Con- 
federate sympathizers and the Confederate army, so we 
have to search those going out who have not a pass. I 
am detailed for guard duty with two Sergeants, four 
Corporals and thirty men. We are assigned to post No. 
10. We have been very busy all day examining passes. 
The same duties are performed each day, besides the 
unloading of commissary boats that bring in our food 
and forage. 

On July 6th we received orders to move. We em- 
barked on a transport bound for New Orleans. 

The Twenty-first Indiana heavy artillery, 1000 strong 
and our Regiment, numbering about 600, with baggage 
for all make our boat very heavily loaded. We reached 
New Orleans on the 7th, at 4 p. m., crossed over to Al- 
giers and disembarked and remained all night. A very 
uncomfortable night it was. We laid down to rest 
where we disembarked wherever we could find room. 
We laid our blankets on boxes, covered ourselves over 
with one, and slept the best we could. This morning 
we made some warm tea, drank it, and felt better. Af- 
ter a while our tents came, we put them up, and were 
glad to get out of the boiling sun. On the 10th, Cap- 



tain D. J. Davis returned to the Regiment and reported 
for duty. He had been a detailed staff officer on Gen- 
eral Fitz Henry Warren's staff. On the 11th I was de- 
tailed in the evening to take charge of one hundred and 
fifty men to unload the commissary boat, Nebraska. 
We unloaded 800 boxes of crackers, 25 boxes of coffee, 
150 barrels of pork and beans. It was after 9 p. m. 
when we finished our work. On the 12th the Regiment 
was paid up to June 30, 1864. On the 16th, Captain 
W. W. Morseman of "I" Company returned to the 
Regiment, he had been a detailed staff officer. 

We were assigned to the Nineteenth Corps and sub- 
sequently the Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, and 
Twenty-eighth Iowa. The one hundred and Thirty- 
first and One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York were 
brigaded together, and remained thus until we were 
mustered out at Savannah, Georgia. 

On the 17th, we received orders to pack up and be 
ready to move at a moment's notice. At 2 p. m., 
we, the Twenty-second Iowa, One Hundred and Thirty- 
first and the One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York 
regiments, embarked on the steamship "Cahawba", 
an ocean steamer. This is a regular ocean steamer, 
which means we have a long trip before us. It means 
we are attached to the Nineteenth corps and hence- 
forth will be mixed with the eastern troops. We 
pulled out from the wharf at New Orleans at 4 a. m., 
July 18th. It is wicked to pack men as they are 
packed on this boat. Surely they will die off like sheep 
with the rot. We proceeded down the river and out on 
the Gulf. The 18th and 19th, the water was smooth. 
The 20th, we passed Tortugas Lighthouse 12 m. and the 
Florida reefs, 7 p. m. July 21st, this morning, there 
was a funeral at 9 a. m., one of the One Hundred and 
Fifty-ninth N. Y. was consigned to a watery grave, 
something I had read about and heard of but had never 


seen before. I think it was more solemn than placing 
a body in the earth. The weather still remains fine. 
We had another funeral on the 23rd, this 3 p. m., one of 
the One Hmidred and Fifty-ninth New York. It is 
getting stormy. This is the 24th, we had a very stormy 
night last night and also this forenoon. They fastened 
the hatches down and let the waves roll over us, which 
caused not a little discomfort to the minds of us who 
would rather be on land when it storms. They tell us 
that it almost invariably storms in rounding Cape Hat- 
teras. We are now running close to the Virginia shore, 
nearing Fortress Monroe through Hampton Roads. 
4 p. m., we are at Fortress Monroe taking on fresh water 
for our further trip up the James river. Bermuda Hun- 
dred is said to be our destination. We lay at anchor at 
Fortress Monroe until the 25th. We moved up the riv- 
er at 7 a. m. Passing City Point, w^e observed a great 
many vessels of different kinds and sizes lying here. 
The place was alive with business. General Grant 
makes this his headquarters for the present. We reach- 
ed Bermuda Hundred at 4 p. m. and disembarked and 
pitched our tents, glad to get on terra firma once again. 
Company "A" was detailed to assist in unloading the 
boat. The artillery at Fort Darling and Petersburg are 
plainly heard from here. 

July 26th, we received orders to move out at 3 p. m., 
marched six miles and went into camp close to head- 
quarters of the tenth army corps. The country is thickly 
timbered here with small, tall pines, and the soil is clay 
and gravel. Our tents and baggage came at dusk. 

Roads here are all corduroyed with pine logs. 

Received orders to he up in line of battle at 3 a. m. 
tomorrow. Remained in line of battle until day-light. 
Received orders to move at 7 a. m., we moved to the 
front about a mile from the rifle pits where General 
Butler fell l)ack from Drury's Bluffs. We are camp- 


ing in a grove of small pines, high and dry, with plenty 
of good spring water handy. Our baggage followed us up. 
We received orders to be up in line of battle every morn- 
ing at 3 a. m. and remain in line until daylight, until 
further orders. 

July 28th, up and in line of battle at the usual hour 
3 a. m. and stand in line till daylight. Received orders 
to move at 7 a. m. to camp one hundred and fifty yards 
from the line of breastworks. Heavy artillery firing 
in the direction of Petersburg and Malvern Hill. On 
the 29th, one hundred and thirty-one Confederates 
passed us guarded by cavalry. They were captured at 
Malvern Hill yesterday. On the 30th we moved our 
camp to battery No. 8, a formidable fort. This is one 
of a chain of forts encircling the Confederate stronghold 
of Petersburg. 

July 31st, up at 2 a. m. and marched to the landing 
at a quick time march, without breakfast, nearly tired 
out, we embarked on the "Wenona" 10 a. m. The One 
Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York was with us, we re- 
ported at Fortress Monroe at 12 m. 

August 1st, we are running up the Potomac River. 
We are a roving Regiment, we have no abiding place it 
seems. At 11 a. m., we pass Mt. Vernon. If the father 
of our country could see us he would rise up and swing 
his cap. August 1st we pass Alexandria where Colonel 
Ellsworth made his immortal name by giving his life 
for his country and flag. At 11 :30 a. m., we pass Fort 
Washington, eight miles from the city of Washington. 
At 2 p. m. we are lying at the wharf at Washington, D. 
C. awaiting orders. We are marched to the Soldier's 
Rest by way of the Capitol building. In the evening, 
John Allen and IngersoU of Iowa invited a part of the 
officers to supper, then they visited the Capitol and 
Senator James Harlan of Iowa. The officers were 
Graham, White, Gearkee, Shocky, Davis, Dudley, Clark, 


Dinwiddle, and Jones. August 2nd, we fall in line and 
march by the Capitol and White House to the west of 
the city and went into camp on a hill, then got our 
breakfast. It is so warm and sultry we are nearly suf- 
focated. August 3rd, we move our camp a few rods 
again today. We have orders to store our baggage in 
the city. It looks as if we were here to take care of the 
Confederate General, Jubal Early, who only a few days 
ago, tried to get into the city. August 4th, Captain 
J. C. Shrader of Company "H" received his commission 
as chief surgeon of the Regiment. There was a gath- 
ering at his tent in the evening, light drinks, melon, and 
cigars were passed around. The Colonel, Lieutenant 
Colonel, and Quartermaster of the One Hundred and 
Thirty-first New York, and Lieutenant Colonel of the 
One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York Regiments, 
and the officers of the Twenty-second Iowa Regiment 
were present. 

This camp is known as camp Tannally as it is near 
that part of Georgetown known as Tannally town. We 
drill every day. The weather is very fine. We have 
very poor accommodations here, we have to sleep on 
the ground, sit on the ground, and eat on the 
ground. The health of the Regiment is exceedingly 
good considering how we have been bounced around 
from one place to another. August 7th we were in- 
spected by a Major of the One Hundred and Fifty-ninth 
New York Regiment, he is one of General Grover's staff 
officers. Ingersoll and Elija Sells of Iowa visited us 
today. On the 8th we witnessed across the hollow 
from our camp ciuite a number of General Philip Sheri- 
dan's cavalry passing to the front. 

The troops are now on the move, between midnight 
and early morn our turn will come soon. We are doing 
picket duty near Fort Stephenson. Confederate Gen- 
eral Early pushed his troops up close to this fort not 


long ago. It was here he got the nearest to the city of 
Washington in his attempt to capture it. There was 
quite a sharp battle in front of this fort. 

This is the 9th. The Regiment moved its camp 
today. We are now to the right of Fort Gains, we have 
a very nice camp ground. On the 10th we received 
orders, while out on Battalion drill, to report at Fort 
Reno. We immediately marched to Fort Reno, 
stacked arms, went about three miles farther to cut and 
clear away underbrush and sprouts in front of the line 
of fortifications. We saw the place where a few Con- 
federates were killed in the late battle with General 
Early. In the evening we returned to camp near Fort 

On the 11th, two Captains, three Lieutenants, and 
one hundred and forty-five enlisted men were detailed 
for guard duty . When the guard reported for duty there 
was considerable trouble about where it should be sta- 
tioned to please all who were concerned. 


We received orders to be ready to move at a mo- 
ment's notice. On the morning of August 14th, we 
were up at one a. m. and started on our march at day- 
Hght, and crossed the Potomac on the long bridge near 
fort Ethan Allen. The road is very rocky. We went 
into camp on Difihcult Creek on Mr. Peacock's farm; 
good camp and water. We are in Virginia now. 
August 15th, up at 2 a. m. marched to Leesburg and 
went into camp. There are very nice farms in this part 
of the country. Leesburg is thirty miles from Wash- 
ington City. On the 17th we are on the march at 2 a. 
m. We guard a train. We went into camp four miles 
from Snicker's Gap, we lay there long enough to get our 
dinner. We hardly had time enough to get our dinner be- 
fore we were ordered to fall in and proceed on our march. 
The reason we are hurried on is that the Confederate 
General Longstreet's Corps is trying to cut us and the 
train off from the main part of the army. There was 
considerable skirmishing on our flanks and near Snick- 
er's Gap, between our cavalry and the Confederates. 
The cavalry finally drove them away and we passed 
through the Gap, it was abovit 10 o'clock, we could see 
the flash of the small arms and hear the cannons roar. 
After we passed through the Gap we came to the Shen- 
andoah River. There is no sign of a bridge or ferry. 
It soon dawns upon our minds that we will have to wade 
it and so we do. It is now about 1 1 o'clock. We pre- 
pare at once, some propose to wade through with their 
clothes on, others take their clothes off. We all make 



sure that our ammunition will be kept dry. It is a 
weird sight, but a jolly lot of boys. There is nothing 
that men can do, but would be done willingly by the 
men of our army. 

My height is five feet ten and the water took me un- 
der my chin and sometimes I had to tiptoe. It was as 
much as I could do to resist the current as it was swift. 
How those of the boys who were very little over five 
feet got through, I can not tell, but many of them could 
swim. There was much badgering and chaffing among 
them and no little swearing. We had the strictest or- 
ders to be silent, therefore all talking was done in a 
whisper, making it still more ludicrous. It took some 
little time to cross, it being quite dark, the only light 
was the stars above us. As soon as we were all across 
we received orders to join our corps at Berryville. 

Those of us who passed through the water with our 
clothes on, got very sleepy on the march. We would 
march, then halt, then march, then halt, in the interval 
we would fall asleep, as soon as we would halt. The 
time passed this way till midnight, when we went into 
camp in line of battle on an open farm near Berryville. 
We are aroused from our sleep at 5 a. m. to fall in and 
march with our corps toward Harper's Ferry. The 
Sixth Corps joined us at Berryville. We went into 
camp seven miles from Charlestown. We had a good 
deal of rain while we were marching on the pike. 
It was not muddy but wet and sloppy. 

This is the 18th. We moved our camp a little to the 
left in an o]3en field. We have a good camping ground. 

This is the 20th of August. Our tents, mess chests, 
valises, and all baggage have come up with us, and we 
are doing all we can to make ourselves as comfortable 
as possible under the circumstances. We are prepar- 
ing to stay a short time. We expect hot and bloody 


work before long. The implements we handle convey 
to us these thoughts and meditations. 

The 21st, we move again to the front, some dis- 
tance. We are digging rifle pits, and constructing 
breastworks of big logs, where there is timber. 

On the 22nd, we were aroused from our bunks last 
night at 9 p. m. and ordered to march to Harper's Fer- 
ry, via Charlestown. We halted three miles from Har- 
per's Ferry and went right to work digging rifle pits and 
breastworks. The Confederates followed us right up. 
We can see them in the distance. Now and then we ex- 
change lead with them. A battalion of Cavalry went 
out and tried to disperse them but there were too many 
of them for the Cavalry. Many of them came back 
by our picketposts wounded and bleeding. We only 
got about three hours of sleep last night. We get 
up and form into line of battle each day, sometimes at 
one o'clock, and from that to three, and stand in line 
until daN'light. As we do this every day, I feel disgust- 
ed with soldiering. We suppose this is one of the ways 
of crushing the Rebellion. 

August 24. We were in line of battle at 3 a. m. and 
were ordered on picket duty. We relieve the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-first New York. Our Cavalry had a 
lively shirmish fight just in front of us, in plain view. 
We saw many of them shot from their horses. Many 
of them came to the rear, wounded, coming into our 
lines near us. We did not hear what the losses were. 
They drove the Confederates back but they returned 
again to annoy us. We kept them busy all day at long 
range. We had no authority to leave our picket line, 
and they kejjt at a distance all day. They are probably 
800 yards away and our rifles will carry 1100. I was 
up in a locust tree watching the progress of the battle. 
Zip, zip, zip, very often; it is a wonder some of us are 
not hit. 


The 26th. In line of battle, 4 a. m.; two Captains, 
two Lieutenants, and one hundred and twenty men go 
out on picket at 5:30 a. m. We are working on the 
breastworks all along our front; five Confederate pris- 
oners just passed to the rear. There was heavy skir- 
mishing on our right \'esterday. One of our soldiers 
who had his discharge papers in his pocket was killed. 
Tents and mess chests are sent to Washington to be 
stored. One team is allowed to each regiment. In 
line of battles a.m., the 27th, the Confederates keep so 
close up to our line of breastworks, we can have a shot 
at a live Confederate any time we feel that way. 
Johnny Reb no doubt feels the same as we have to ac- 
knowdedge his compliments frequently. 

We received orders to move at a moment's notice. 
On the 28th up in line, 3 a. m. We have orders to pack 
up and be ready to move immediately. We did not 
move till daylight — then we moved towards Charles- 
town. The cavalry met a large force of the enemy 
near Charlestown and are driving them back, and we 
follow up, ready to take a hand, if needed. Two miles 
west of Charlestown we go into camp. We occupy the 
works previously occupied by the Sixth Corps. 

We are in the woods; very nice tall oak timber. 
There is heavy skirmishing in front all the time. Our 
camp is cool and shady. We were not here more than 
two hours before apples and green corn began to come 
in. The boys fill up their shelter tent, tie up the corn- 
ers, run a pole through it, andawa}^ they go to camp. 
We are short on rations, but we get plenty of corn and 
apples which is much for our good. The Cavalry are 
giving the Confederates plenty of warm work. There 
is still very heavy firing in front. The sound of the 
musketry assures us that the Confederates are giving 
way and falling back. 

August 30th. We received our blank paymaster 


rolls and commenced filling them out. It is reported 
that our Cavalry drove the Confederates as far as Win- 
chester. We are in line every morning at 3 a. m. and 
remain in line till daylight. Lieutenant Colonel White 
inspected the Regiment today, August 31st. 

September 1st. In line, just before day, did not re- 
main long under arms this morning. The Quarter- 
master brought up our tents, baggage, and mess chests. 
We soon had everything in order and prepared to either 
stay or pick up and go. We no longer feel disgusted 
at leaving a camp after laboring to make it pleas- 
ant without being given time to occupy it. This fix up, 
get ready, move about life has been drilled into us so 
that it is a part of our lives. 

September 2nd. We were up at 3 a. m. and in line 
of battle, remained under arms till daylight. We got 
our breakfast, then pitched our tents, which means to 
put them up, policed our quarters, which means to clean 
up and level off the ground in front of the tents of each 
Company. Each Company has its tents in regular order 
and in front of these is the Company parade ground. 
When the Company falls in for roll call or for duty of 
any kind, then the Regiment has its parade ground 
where it forms for dress parade or for any occasion 
where its formation is necessary. There is a detail for 
this work from the Companies. Our supplies come up 
from Harper's Ferry every four days regularly. We 
receive the "Baltimore American" every day. Yester- 
day we had the account of the Democrat Convention 
at Chicago telling us of the nomination of General Mc- 
Clelland for the Presidency. The western troops are 
more than twenty to one for Old Abe. We pin our 
faith to Old Abe for President, and give McClellan cred- 
it for being an organizer, but not a fighter. 

September 3rd. We received orders at midnight to 
have reveille at 3 a. m. and be ready to move at 4 a. m. 


Did not move till after daybreak, then marched 
toward Berryville. Halted for rest and coffee one-half 
mile from Berryville, at 6 a. m. The enemy attacked 
the Eighth Corps who were in front of our column. 
Sharp and lively skirmishing was kept up for awhile, 
then quieted down, then renewed with greater force. 
The Regiment was ordered to the front at quick time, 
formed on the line of battle, and sent out a heavy line 
of skirmishers. Then we lay down on our arms to rest. 
Shot and shell flew over us, showing bad aim on the Con- 
federate side. The shells went over us and into the 
midst of our corralled wagons and teams and caused a 
panic in that fraternity. It was. the last I ever saw of 
my negro servant and our mess pans and coffee pot. 
The battle raged to our right and left indicating that 
the enemy was working to flank us. 

September 4th. We were quietly aroused at 3 a. m. 
and formed in line. As soon as it was dawn we could 
see moving troops in all directions. We were changing 
our line of battle for the day. We were ordered back 
about one mile and threw up breastworks of rails and 
dirt. There is an occasional shot from the Confederate 
artillery and now and then a ftisilade by the pickets. 
A call is received for a detail of sharpshooters. P. C. 
Eberly of "A" Company volunteered for one. Firing 
was kept up all day between the sharpshooters and the 

September 5th. Up in line at 4:10 a. m. Had our 
breakfast at 6:20 a. m. A detail from the Regiment, 
of two Captains, two Lieutenants, and two hundred and 
fifty men was ordered. Company "A" furnished one 
Captain, one Sergeant, and twenty-six men. There 
was fighting all night. 

September 6th. Company "A" has in line one 
Lieutenant, three Sergeants, five Corporals and one 
private. Not a very large representation. The other 


Companies are probably in the same condition. Those 
of us who are left in camp were sent on a reconnoissance 
towards Winchester. Off we went, as far as the Ope- 
quan Creek or river, drove in the Confederates pickets, 
then hastened back to our old camp ground. 

September 10th. In Hne of battle at 3 a. m. Stood 
under arms till daylight. There is artillery thundering 
away in the direction of Bunker Hill. (Not the Bunker 
Hill of Revolutionary fame.) A forage train went out 
that way this morning. We think the Confederates 
are trying to capture our foraging party. There is 
heavy skirmishing on our right. 

September 12th. We were up in line at 4 a. m. Did 
not stand long, it was too cool. We were ordered into 
line without arms and escorted a Yank, a thief (but not 
of our Regiment) out of camp with the "Rogue's 
March." One thousand wagons with provisions for the 
army came in today. 

September 13th. We were moved from our camp 
about a quarter of a mile to the left, and to the left of 
the road. We occupy formidable works here that were 
built by some other troops. Wilson's Cavalry had an 
engagement with Kersaw's Division (Confederate) at 
Berryville Crossing, capturing the whole of the Eighth 
South Carolina Regiment, among them twent)'-three 
officers ranking from Colonel down. 

September 15th. Up in line of battle at 4 a. m. 
We anticipated a big battle this morning. The Con- 
federates did not come. Report is that two men were 
killed on picket post this morning. Each day we have 
Batallion and Brigade drills and dress parade. Forag- 
ing parties were sent out for hay and grain. The coun- 
try is getting scarce of forage. Two armies are sub- 
sisting off the country to some extent. That General 
Phil Sheridan is getting ready for a great movement, is 
reported. He has here three infantry corps, the Sixth, 


Eighth, and Nineteenth and three Divisions of Cavalry, 
Custer, Wilson, and Corbet. On the 18th we were or- 
dered to send our baggage to the rear. We are well 
supplied with all the necessary articles for quick and 
forced marches. 

September 19th. Up in line of battle at 2 a. m., with 
orders to march. We marched in the direction of Win- 
chester, met the Confederates in full force on the Ope- 
quan, fully entrenched and prepared for us. Their out- 
er advanced lines were driven in at about 9 a. m. We 
were brought up and formed on open ground to the ex- 
treme left of the Nineteenth Corps. The Confederate 
batteries recognized us at once and commenced shell- 
ing. They had perfect range. Shells and solid shot 
were dropping and exploding among us. They lost no 
time and saved no gunpowder from the time we came 
in sight, though we suffered but little. 

Orders came to advance at about 11 a. m. As we 
moved forward over the more open field they opened a 
concentrated fire from all their guns, and made the hills 
tremble and the air quiver with their missiles. One 
shell struck and burst in "B" Company, killing and 
wounding several. Gaps were closed up and onward 
we went until checked by the fierce fire. Here we lay 
firing, protecting ourselves as best we could. One of 
the boys remarked as we bent our heads forward, 
pressing through the murderous hail, "They have let 
loose their dogs of war on us." Great gaps were 
ploughed through our ranks with fearful effect. Not 
long after we reached this position the Sixth Corps on 
our left was forced back, and we were taken on the 
flank and rear and were forced back with great loss in 
killed, wounded, and prisoners. 

As I was among the latter, for the next five months 
I will have to refer to Simeon Barnett's History of the 
Twenty-second Regiment and other sources. 


"Battle of Winchester and Fisher's Hill," as given by 
Comrade Simeon Barnett, chief musician of the Reg- 

At 9 a. m. the 19th corps arrived upon the ground 
and formed in line of battle about one mile from Ope- 
quan Creek on a range of hills in the immediate front of 
the enemy. The enemy opened on us vigorously with 
their artillery pouring into us shell and solid shot. 
Our artillery coming up and taking their position, soon 
quieted them down. The lines being formed, we moved 
forward to the attack. The Twenty-second was on the 
left of the brigade, the latter being the extreme left of 
the 19th army corps. The Twenty-second passed over 
an open field in plain view of the enemy's works, the 
enemy pouring forth a most deadly concentrated fire on 
us making great gaps in our ranks only to be closed up, 
moving forward in the best of order to within a few 
hundred yards of the frowning works. Halted in this 
position for some time. At this time a shell burst in 
the ranks of Company "B", killing and wounding many. 
We lay on our arms in this position until forced back 
by the retirement of the Sixth Corps on our left. In 
this reverse movement we lost a number more of our 
valuable officers and men. 

The troops were rallied and formed a new line 
after retiring a short distance. The enemy was checked. 
A counter charge was ordered and we drove the enemy 
back and out of their works, forcing them to a most dis- 
astrous retreat, with a loss of many prisoners and much 
war material. 

One writer says: "In this desperate battle the 



Twenty-second Iowa occupied a very dangerous and ex- 
posed position, having advanced to the charge in the 
morning over an open field, while the greater portion of 
the troops advanced under cover of the timber. The 
total loss of the Regiment in this battle was one hundred 
and nine killed, wounded, and missing." 

On the morning of the 20th, the Twent3^-second took 
up the line of march with the whole army. The enemy 
in retreat towards Strausburg and Fisher's Hill. 
Marched through Newton, Middletown crossed Cedar 
Creek and came in front of the enemy in position on 
Fisher's Hill. On the 22nd, we took our position about 
a mile from the enemy's works. At 10 a. m. the Twen- 
ty-second and Twenty-eighth Iowa Regiments were 
ordered to advance and carry a line of rifle pits on the 
heights in front of the Fisher Hill that were occu- 
pied by the advanced skirmishers and sharpshooters. 
The two Regiments deployed as skirmishers and ad- 
vanced driving the enem)^ into their main line of works. 
The whole army charging, drove the enemy from their 
works . ■ The Eighth corps made a grand flank movement 
in this battle. The enemy being driven from their works 
and on the retreat, our troops following up the victory, 
moved at once after the fleeing enemy. The Twenty- 
second Iowa and the Eleventh Indiana in advance of 
the army marched, deployed as skirmishers, all night 
long, gathering up many prisoners . Thus they marched 
to Woodstock fifteen miles from Fisher's Hill. Only 
once did the enemy turn on them, then with two pieces 
of artillery and a support of infantry, but they were 
soon routed. On the 23rd, the army moved on in pur- 
suit, passing through Edenburg, Mount Jackson, New 
Market, Harrisonburg to Mount Crawford, ten miles 
from Stanton, they remained here one day, then re- 
turned to Harrisonburg and went into camp, and re- 
mained in this camp until the 6th of October. 


General Sheridan, thinking he had thoroughly de- 
moralized and destroyed the Confederate army in the 
Shenandoah Valley and had fulfilled the object of the 
campaign, returned with his army by the same route to 
Cedar Creek and commenced fortifying a position with 
the Eighth Corps on the left, the Nineteenth Corps in the 
center, and the Sixth Corps on the extreme right. The 
line formed a semicircle on a range of hills north of Ced- 
ar Creek. Here he no doubt felt that we would not be 
molested for some time to come, but our alert enemy 
were not thinking that way. For on the 13th they ap- 
peared making an attack on the Eighth and Nineteenth 
Corps pickets, who were stationed across the creek. 
The Twenty-second Iowa and the Thirteenth Connect- 
icut were sent out as skirmishers, fearing a general at- 
tack. No enemy was found, and the two Regiments 
lay on their arms on the open field. On the morning of 
the 14th the two Regiments were ordered forward at 
daylight. As they moved forward the enemy fell back 
without resistance, and the two Regiments returned to 

On the evening of the 18th the Twenty-second Iowa 
with the Brigade received orders to be ready to move at 
3 a. m. the following morning on a reconnoissance. Ac- 
cordingly, the Brigade was up and in line as ordered, 
ready to move. While waiting for orders to move out 
heavy firing was heard on the extreme left flank of the 
army. It was found that the enemy had furiously 
charged the Eighth corps and w^ere driving them into 
the rear of the Nineteenth and Sixth corps. Increasing 
noise of battle was coming nearer and nearer. The 
Twenty-second was then detached and ordered to 
double quick about a mile to save a battery. When 
within two hundred yards of the batter)^ it was in the 
hands of the enemy, the Regiment returned to the 
Brigade in perfect order, although it was compelled to 

Sergt. W. S. Tuttlk 
Corp'l H. H. Jones 

Lieut. J. S. Turxhull 
Com. Serg't J. W. Lee 


about face and return the fire of the jjursuing enemy 
four different times. The whole Union Army was now 
being driven doggedly in the direction of Winchester 
for three or four miles. At this point, Sheridan ar- 
rived on the field, and with his staff rode along the new- 
ly formed line of battle encouraging the men and offi- 
cers. The enemy appeared in front, driving the skir- 
mish line in. They came no further, the main line open- 
ed on them, then the order for the whole line to ad- 
vance came and the whole Union line moved forward. 
The enemy turned and fled in retreat over the breast- 
works, through the camp, and across Cedar Creek. The 
Cavalry was then sent in pursuit. The Regiment re- 
turned to its former camp. On the morning of 
the 20th the Brigade was sent out in the direction of 
Strausburg. The Twenty-second was detached and or- 
dered up the Blue Ridge where they succeeded in cap- 
turing a number of prisoners, and found the mountain- 
side covered with arms and accouterments thrown away 
by the fleeing rebels. The Regiment returned to its 
former camp and remained till the 9th of November. 
The Regimental loss in this battle was seventy-seven 
killed, wounded, and prisoners. On the 9th of Novem- 
ber the whole army moved to a position between Cedar 
Creek and Winchester, four miles from the latter place, 
the three different corps holding their relative positions, 
the Nineteenth corps in the center. The Twenty-sec- 
ond Iowa occupied the position as heretofore on the 
left of the Brigade occupying ground to the left of the 
Winchester pike. The boys had built log huts, chinked 
and plastered, with chimneys and fireplaces. The de- 
sire for comfortable winter quarters was evidently the 
cause of their activity. And they felt their present task 
was done, and they would probably winter here, but 
such was not the case. On the 30th day of December, 
orders were received to move. We broke camp and 


moved to Stevenson's Depot, and went into camp on a 
range of hills protecting the Depot, it being a base of 
supplies for the army operating in Shenandoah Valley. 
The troops went vigorously to work to build winter 
quarters, the ground being covered with snow and the 
air cold and raw. 

On the 6th of January, 1865, General Grover received 
orders to report with his command at Baltimore, Md. 
Accordingly, we broke camp, boarded the train at Ste- 
venson's Depot and proceeded to Baltimore by way of 
Harper's Ferry. At Baltimore we were quartered in 
barracks until the 11th at which time everything was 
loaded on the steamship, Illinois. The ship drawing 
too much water could not cross the bar with her cargo. 
The Twenty-second was ordered on board the Manhat- 
tan and proceeded up the bay to Annapolis, at which 
place they embarked on the Illinois and ran to Fortress 
Monroe where they took on fifteen days rations for the 
Brigade and put to sea. About sunset on the 16th, 
we cast anchor at the mouth of the Savannah river off 
Fort Pulaski, and remained until the 18th. On account 
of the obstruction we could not pass up the river. On 
the morning of the 19th, we disembarked on the trans- 
port Dountain and ran up the river to within seven 
miles of the city, ran aground, and remained all night. 
On the morning of the 20th we got off the bar and ran 
up to the city of Savannah and landed at noon. 
Marched through the city to the Charleston and Savan- 
nah railroad depot and went into quarters in the rail- 
road buildings, where we remained until Sherman's 
army had all left the city. Then we moved out into 
the defenses and went into camp. The Regiment went 
about making pleasant their quarters, hoping to remain 
here sometime. But it was not to be so, for on the 8th 
of March, we received orders to pack up and be ready to 
move by water. On the 12th we embarked on the 


steamship, Yazoo, bound for the department of North 
Carolina. On the 16th, the Regiment arrived at More- 
head City, North Carolina, disembarked, and proceeded 
to Newbern by rail. In accordance with our order to 
take the field at once, the Regiment was completely 
armed and clothed. An order came later for the Reg- 
ment to report at Morehead City for duty. According- 
ly, on the 20th, the Regiment reported for duty at that 
place. Here the writer joined the Regiment, after over 
five months a prisoner of war in Salisbury, Danville, 
and Libby. 


Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., February 22, 1865. 
We were awakened this morning at 4 a. m., marched 
out of the prison at dayUght, marched to Point of Rocks 
and got on the Confederate truce boat, ran down the 
James River and got off between the Confederate Hnes 
and the Federal lines, where we were turned over to 
officers who were there to receive us. The Confederate 
officers went no further. The Federal officers marched 
us by Fort Harrison and here at Fort Harrison we came 
under the Stars and Stripes whose folds were majestic- 
ally waving in the breeze above us. We were so glad 
that some of us shed tears of joy while others shouted in 
broken accents, while all removed their hats. It was 
surely one of the happiest moments of our lives. It 
was a transition from want and cruelty, starvation and 
neglect, misery and pain to freedom and plenty, sun- 
shine and home, tinder the old flag. We passed out of 
the fort and over the rifle pits to Harrison's Landing, 
and were immediately put aboard a hospital boat, 
where we were fed. I saw men drink down a quart of 
coffee and clamor for more. They had to be restricted 
in food and drink for many died from eating too much 
after getting where they could obtain it. This was a 
great and glorious day in our life's history, mind can not 
picture nor pen portray our feelings this day. We 
passed down the river, arrived at Aikens Landing, 12 
m., passed Fortress Monroe, 8 p. m. We were very 
much crowded on this boat but we were used to being 
crowded in much different circumstances. We were 


all so happy we could endure anything our weak bodies 
could stand. 

February 23rd, at daybreak we arrived at Annapolis, 
Md., were marched to the United States Hospital. 
The officers were marched to the officer's hospital and 
were assigned their quarters. Soon after we were 
marched to the hospital dining room to get our break- 
fast. The tables were loaded with wholesome food, 
mostly vegetables, something we very much needed. 
We then registered our names and made application for 
leave of absence to go home. The government thought 
it cheaper for us to board ourselves while we were re- 
cuperating. It was a wise move as we would be as well 
cared for at home and better, but a great many died be- 
fore their leave of absence came. Some no doubt has- 
tened their end by taking stimulants. There was noth- 
ing like good healthy food to bring to health our fear- 
fully weak and emaciated bodies. Stimulants acted 
like poison on us. 

I arose early on the 24th and after breakfast I went 
and got my pay rolls and drew pay to the amount of 
$214.00. i then went out to the city and bought some 
clothingtothe amount of $23.75. We have very com- 
fortable quarters, and I rest well at night. I feel that I 
eat too much but by taking a little rhubarb root occa- 
sionally I do not suffer much. I wrote letters to the 
U. S. Paymaster and to Adjutant S. D. Pryce. It is 
very wet and muddy. 

February 28th, I get up ciuite early and take as much 
exercise as I can, as I eat very heartily. I paid my 
. board bill up today, it amounted to $9.00. There are 
reading rooms here where we can spend our time in 
reading if we desire, but we are in need of exercise and 
therefore keep moving. 

On March 2nd, we visited the state buildings, as this 
is the Capitol of the State. It rains so much and the 


mud is so deep it makes it very unpleasant in getting 
around . 

March 4th, I received m}^ leave of absence. I at once 
packed all I had and prepared to start for home. Cap- 
tain Horseman, Lieutenant Davis and Hull, all of the 
Tvventy-sec'ond Iowa Regiment were also ready to 
leave for home. Our destination was Iowa City, low^a. 
We started from Annapolis at 4 p. m. and reached Bal- 
timore at 6 p. m. Here we lay over until 10 p. m. We 
travel very slowly and we are about six hours behind time . 
We go by way of Harrisburg. We arrived at Pittsburg 
at midnight, the 5th. We lay over here two hours. At 
each station there is such a rush to get tickets that it is 
almost impossible on account of the crowd. The 
weather is cold and raw. We started from Pittsburgh 
at 2 a. m., March 6th, and reached Chicago at 11 p. m. 
on the 7th; and started for Davenport, Iowa, at 1 a. m., 
next morning, and reached Iowa City in the evening. 
I found father, mother and other members of the family 
well, and expecting me as I had written them from the 
officer's hospital at Annapolis abovit what time I would 
reach home. 

On the 9th I went to Iowa City to get some medicine 
as I still felt the effects of my prison life and ex]:)osure. 
I visited m}^ brother Thomas who lived in the City, who 
was discharged for disability from Company "I" of the 
Twenty-second Regiment in the rear of Vicksburg, Miss. 

From March 8th to the 27th, I spent visiting among 
the different branches of the family and neighborhood 
friends. I surely tried to make up in eating the good 
things for the great loss I suffered while in Confederate 
prison. Everybody was glad to see me out alive. So 
many were mciurning their loved sons and husbands 
starved to death in those loathsome prison pens. By 


my father's request I had sent home to him all the mon- 
ey I could save out of my wages. Today, March 2 7th 
we had a settlement , by his desire. I had sent him 
$1087.11. He made a proposition that I take half the place 
and when I come home settle down alongside of them. 
He gave me till the morrow to think over it. March 
28th, my father sold me 80 acres of the farm and I paid 
him$1500.00 down. This I saved up in the army from 
my wages excepting $75.00 I had made teaching school 
before I enlisted. I felt very much honored that I 
owned a piece of land, and if I should not get home 
alive, my father and mother would still have my land. 

March 30th, I was up early. I bade farewell to father, 
mother, and two sisters at home. My youngest brother 
took me to the city at 11:30 a. m. I bade them all 
adieu and left on the 12 m. train for Davenport. On 
the train leaving Rock Island, I witnessed one of the 
too many instances where the American military officer 
becomes a disgrace to the uniform he wears. Several 
of these dissolute specimens came on board the cars, 
steaming with liquor and in company with a woman of 
bad repute. There was a repugnance to their presence 
that was stifling. The beastly besotted bipeds left the 
car as we started, but their victim remained to annoy 
decent people as far as Chicago. Among those whom 
she abused with her vile tongue was Charles Dillon, my 
friend and neighbor from near Iowa City, Iowa. 

Arriving in Chicago on the morning of the 31st, I 
took the Pittsburgh and Fort Wayne for the east. One 
thing that drew my attention was the immense travel 
going on, coaches so full that many remained standing. 

Arrived at Pittslnirgh at 2 a. m., April 1st., and took 
the Pennsylvania Central for Creson, a summer resort 
on that road, arrived there at 7:10 a. m., took theEbens- 
burg branch of this road, and reached Ebensburg about 
9 a. m. There were living here uncles, aunts, and 


cousins, I had never met before and probably never 
would again. Some of them met me at the train. Un- 
cle Thomas M. Jones owns and operates a woolen mill 
close to the depot. With him I made my home while 
in the neighborhood. I was born near here, July 27, 
1838. The log cabin in which I was born was torn down 
not long ago and a frame structure put up. Thus the 
old log cabin served its purpose and disappeared for 
something better to take its place, that is what we call 
civilization. I don't remember much about the old 
log cabin as I was only eleven months old when we left 
it and moved to Ohio, and I never was back to it until 
today. What child has not heard drop from fond par- 
ents lips, much concerning the surroundings of his 
babyhood? So today, tender memories cluster around 
the thoughts that here I was born, that it was in a cabin 
on this very spot about twenty-six years ago. Some 
of the people here nursed me, and they say that I was a 
bright child, and they thought I would make a preacher. 
In those times, Welsh parents above all else desired 
that their boys should grow up to be preachers. How- 
ever, there has not been much change in this place ex- 
cept in growth of population and civilization. It is a 
thoroughly patriotic settlement as all Welsh settlements 
are in the north. Many companies have gone out from 
here. The young and middle aged are in the service. 
This evening my Uncle took me to a neighbor's house 
where the father's body lay, he was killed at Fort 
Steadman at Petersburg where Confederate General 
John B. Gordon made his great charge and was defeated. 
My uncle and I were at his funeral the next day, Sun- 
day. He left a wife and six children. I met many of 
my relatives and friends of my parents. I spent a week 
here very pleasantly. 

April 6th, I started on my way to Annapolis, where I 


was ordered to report and get an order to report to my 
Regiment. This I did at 1 1 a. m. 

April 7th, procured transportation to Washington, 
where I remained a few days, stopped at the St. Charles 
Hotel. News came when I was at my hotel that Lee 
had surrendered to General Grant. On the tenth, I 
paid my bill at the hotel, went and bought me a sword 
and belt for $18, then went down to the wharf at the 
foot of 7th street to find some way of proceeding on my 
journey. Here I met Captain W. W. Horseman of my 
Regiment. I think it was a mutual joy as we both felt 
we needed company. We started at 3 p. m. for Fortress 
Monroe, arriving there the next morning at 7 a. m. 
We had two hours for ourselves at Fortress Monroe, 
during this time we visited the interior of the fort- 
ress, then we were one hour running over to Norfolk. 
Here we boarded a steam tug to go up the canal. They 
ran as long as it was daylight then tied up to the bank 
for the night. Captain Morseman and I found a house 
nearby where we got a bed to sleep in for the night, 
others slept in the boat or on the bank. This is called 
Courchuck Station. It is a dreary place, I heard nothing 
but the sad notes of the frogs and the toads. In the 
morning we boarded a tug and went a mile and a half 
and changed to another and larger boat called "Ulysses". 
We had much better accommodations on this boat 
and more room. 

April 13th, 12 m. on a rock at the mouth of the Neuce 
River near Wilkins' Point and no sign of our getting off. 
Were raised clear off the rocks by the rise of the tide 
about 3 p. m. Arrived at Newbern 5:30 and put up at 
the Gaston House. After breakfast, on the 14th, we 
went down town and procured transportation to More- 
head City where our Regiment is in camp. We intend- 
ed to go on the 9 a. m. train. We accidentally missed 
the train so we will have to stay until tomorrow. Our 


meals cost us one dollar per meal, and one dollar for bed 
and nothing extra either. 

We were up early this morning, April 15th, and went 
down to the depot at 8 a. m. and had to wait there till 
1 p. m. before we got off. Arrived at Morehead City at 
3 p. m. There were many of our Regiment at the train 
to welcome us. Went to Regimental headquarters 
and reported for duty. I was ordered to duty in my 
own company, and took command of the company, as 
Captain Pryce was doing staff duty at that time and was 
not on duty in the company. On my taking command, 
Lieutenant W. H. Needham of Company "D" was re- 
lieved. It was very sandy where our camp was located 
otherwise we had a nice location, and the men were 

I was over at Beaufort on the 17th, and there I heard 
the news that President Lincoln was shot by an assas- 
sin. It at once cast a gloom over all. It was as if 
some one very near and dear to us was stricken down. 
Tears were shed and voices were hushed. 

There was an undercurrent desire for retributive jus- 
tice upon all those who were guilty of the deed. The 
news of yesterday in regard to Lincoln's assassination 
is confirmed today. It has cast a gloom over every- 
body. The southern people feel that it is a great loss to 
them. A feeling had grown on them that Lincoln 
could and would do more for them than any other per- 
son. On April 19th, a dispatch came from General 
Sherman near Goldsboro, that there was a cessation 
of hostilities, until further orders. General Joseph E. 
Johnston was asking terms to surrender. It was glor- 
ious news, as the war would soon be over. General 
Grant and his staff passed through on the 23rd of April 
going to the camp of General Sherman. The report is 
that he goes to assist Sherman in arranging the terms 
of surrender that had been asked for by General R. E. 


Lee. History throws more light on that part of our 
war record. On the 25th, orders came to Colonel Gra- 
ham from Sherman that hostilities should be resumed 
the next day at 12 m. April 30th, the Regiment was 
mustered for pay . We were now ready for the paymaster 
to come along. We received orders on May 2nd to be 
ready to move the next morning at daylight. I went 
up to the commissary and drew rations for the Company. 
It was so cold today that an overcoat was comfortable. 

May 3, up at 3:40 a. m., and commenced packing. 
Having everything ready, we embarked on the steam- 
ship, Cassandra, at 12 m., started from the wharf at 
12:15 p. m., and anchored in the sound. This means 
that we are going to sea again. May 4th, I was on duty 
all of last night, was relieved at 8 a. m. We took in 
the anchor and pulled out for the briny sea. Nothing 
unusual transpired today. I am very sea sick. I man- 
aged to get up and eat a little at 9 a. m. on the sixth, 
the first I have eaten since we got on salt water. We 
arrived at Savannah, Georgia, about six p. m. May 6th, 
marched through the city and went into camp south of 
the city. In the hurry to disembark I lost my baggage, 
consisting of three blankets, three overcoats, and three 
and one-half shelter tents. Later on I was fortunate to 
have them returned to me by the finder. I had fixed 
my quarters neat and clean, and was exulting in my 
good fortune, when orders came to move camp. We 
moved about a half mile east, such is the fortune or mis- 
fortune of the American soldier. 

May 8th, we received orders to be ready to move at 
a moment's notice. 

May nth, orders came to be up at 2 a. m. and ready 
to march at 6 a. m. We were ready and in line, but did 
not march till 9 a. m., marched thirteen miles, resting 
four times. About five miles out of Savannah we came 
to a dense forest, the land low and wet. After we 


passed through this forest of pine we came into an open 
country, where the abandoned fields were grown over 
thickly with dewberries. Near one of these fields we 
went into camp about 6 p. m. On the 12th, we were up 
and had breakfast before daylight, started on our 
march at 5 a. m., went into camp for our dinner at 12 
m., only twenty-one miles from Savannah. 

The general devastation of the country is marked by 
places where houses and out buildings are burned. The 
few houses that are standing are unoccupied, as a gener- 
al rule, and those that are occupied, seem to be in a very 
destitute condition. Uncle Sam helps them a little, 
otherwise they subsist on berries. We went into camp 
eight miles from Sister's Ferry, Savannah River. 

Had our breakfast before daylight on May 13th, 
started on our march at 5 a. m., arrived at Sister's Ferry 
at 9:20 a. m. We remained here sometime. There are 
women here exchanging berries for provisions and some 
very fine intelligent ladies begging. They are in entire 
want, and with nothing to pay for a single mouthful of 
food. Two of the ladies referred to, came six miles on foot 
through the dust and heat of a southern sun. We load- 
ed them down with provisions and sent them homeward 
rejoicing, with a very much better opinion of the "hated 
Yankee' ' . What else could this country be, the Confed- 
erates in the first place made several drains on the 
country's resources, then Sherman with his vast army 
took what was left, and despoiled the country. "War 
is Heir ' , said General Sherman and he knew. 

We were up at 3 a. m.. May 14th, and started on our 
march at 4 a. m., went into camp for dinner at 9 a. m. 
We rest two hours. We came eleven miles this morn- 
ing. I have seen more cultivated land on this morn- 
ing's march than on all the balance of our march. 
Went into camp for the night on Black Creek at 6 p. m. 


We marched twenty-two miles today, and I feel very 
sore and tired. My feet are very sore. 

May 15th, we were up at 3 a. m. and started on our 
march at 4 a. m., went into camp for dinner at 9:45 a. 
m. We marched eleven miles. The farms along the 
roads today are only partly cultivated. We crossed 
Beaver Dam river at 3 p. m., then rested a short time. 
It is very hot this afternoon. I put green leaves in the 
top of my hat to protect my head from the heat of the 
sun and sunstroke. We went into camp for the night 
at 4:35 p. m., near a farmhouse, a very pleasant place, 
with plenty of good water and wood. We marched 
seventeen miles today. 

May 16th, we are up at 3 a. m., started on our march 
at 4 a. m., rested at 5 : 50 a. m. at a place called Bascom 
in Screven county. It is dull and foggy this morning. 
Went into camp for dinner at 12:15 p. m. near Waynes- 
borough, a station on the railroad. We marched twen- 
ty-eight miles today. We were so tired and weary, the 
men were angry. They whooped and yelled like In- 
dians, and threatened to march past the Colonel and 
other officers on horseback. This was done for the 
last four miles. Company officers did very little to re- 
strain them. The unnecessary hard and long marches 
angered the men, who seemed to think those who were 
riding failed to have sympathy for those who marched 
on foot. The American volunteer soldier is very sensi- 

We passed some well cultivated land today, the farm 
work is done by the negroes. A ,great many negroes 
are to be seen here. We only see white ladies, no gen- 
tlemen are seen at the houses. 

May 17th, we did not get up till after daylight. We 
started on our march at 3 p.m. We passed through the 
little town of Waynesborough, squads of the fair sex 
gazed on us as we passed through. Not a man was vis- 


ible. We went into camp five miles out from Waynes- 
borough on Brier Creek. There are strong forts here. 
They were built by General Joe Wheeler's cavalry (Con- 
federate) to stop General Kilpatrick's cavalry who were 
General Sherman's vanguard. The indications all 
about here are that there has been a recent struggle 
of desperate fighting. Went into camp here at 5 p. m. 
May 18th., we were up at 3 a. m., and started on our 
march at 5 a. m. We march in rear of the train today, 
therefore we must wait until all the other troops and the 
train are on the road. My feet are so sore I rode in the 
ambulance for an hour and a half, a thing I have never 
done before, in all my marching. We went into camp 
at 11:30 a. m. We are seventeen and one-half miles 
from Augusta, Georgia, our destination. Aaron Bell 
and Ed. Trine of Company "I" and myself took a stroll 
looking for vegetables. We failed to get anything but 
wild plums. There we ate to our entire satisfaction. 
There is a great deal of farming in this immediate 
neighborhood, done principally by the negroes. They 
flock to us and follow us. They must suffer for food. 
The whites suffer more, unless they have money to buy 
army rations. 

May 19th, we were up at 3 a. m. and started on our 
march at 4 a. m. I am in no condition to march today, 
but so many of the men have such very sore feet, I will 
not complain. It is cool this morning and good march- 
ing. We arrived at Augusta 10 a. m., marched down 
the street through the center of the city in columns by 
companies. The three Iowa Regiments, Twenty-sec- 
ond, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-eighth, in front, and 
and the Thirteenth Connecticut in the rear. We 
marched across the river to Hamburg and the Twenty- 
second, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-eighth Iowa went 
into camp on Shultz Hill. The Thirteenth Connecti- 
cut returned to Augusta and went into camp. We are 


now for the first time allowed to cast our lot on the sa- 
cred soil of South Carolina, "The Sovereign State." 
"The pugnacious little fire eating popinjay," "the hot 
bed of secession." Billy Sherman's army ought to have 
been turned out to forage for a whole week on her do- 
main. One of my feet and ankles are very much swol- 
len. We were up soon after sunrise, May 20th. I went 
to hunt the surgeon to show him my foot. He gave me 
some liniment to put on it and excused me from duty. 
As soon as we had our tents arranged the men planted 
shade trees along in front of the tents, the full length of 
the company quarters to protect us from the sun. We 
will soon have very comfortable quarters. Our camp 
is on high ground. The town of Hamburg lies on the 
low ground between us and the river, and just on the 
other side of the river is Augusta, a very fine city. 

May 21st is Sabbath, most of us Iowa boys were 
brought up to attend church on the Sabbath. As we 
are hardly settled yet our Chaplain will not have servi- 
ces today. 

I dressed my foot as comfortably as I could and went 
with Lieutenant Chandler of Company "H" over to Au- 
gusta to church. Among the congregation were many 
Confederate soldiers who had returned home from the 
war. About 10 p. m. it rained and blew like fury. I 
got up and put my clothes on and held on to my tent un- 
til the worst was over. The storm nearly blew it down. 
Was up May 22nd, about 6 a.m. My bunk got wet last 
night during the storm. The wind blew the rain in 
through the door of my tent. The Regiment procured 
some lumber. I got enough to put a floor in my tent 
and raised my bunk from the ground, which I think will 
be a great improvement in my apartment. A man and 
wife came in from the country and accused our boys of 
killing twenty blood hounds out of a pack of twenty- 
three. They were hounds that had been used to hunt 


escaped Yankee prisoners and runaway negroes. He 
and his wife rode along the line of each company to pick 
out the men who did the deed. After they had passed 
two companies, the soldiers broke ranks. The boys who 
had broken ranks began to bawl like the hounds, and 
yell "Shoot him! Shoot the d— mn old Rebel!" He 
soon had enough of that treatment, — he turned and drove 
away, and left us, and tried the two other Iowa Regi- 
ments with no better success. We never heard any 
more about the hounds. It was hinted that the Twen- 
ty-second and Twenty-eighth only were in this affair. 

May 23rd, the sun rose beautifully this morning. It 
is very hot just now, 10 a. m. Lieutenant Messenger 
and I went over to Augusta. We visited the City Hall 
where all the rebel ordinance is stored, and where are 
all kinds of war implements; some look as if they had 
been preserved since the dark ages. I visited a neigh- 
bor Dutchman and was kindly invited to help myvSelf 
to some plums and cherries, which I did immediately, 
with thanks. 

May 24th. Ten enlisted men and myself were de- 
tailed as Guard on board the boat Leesburg, running 
between Augusta and Savannah on the Savannah river. 
So now for awhile my narrative will be confined to the 
incidents that transpired along the river, with an occa- 
sional visit to the Regiment to get our mail. 

J. C. SwiTZER 

Comrade J. C. Switzer, now President of the Regimental As- 
sociation, has done more than any member to keep the boys in 
touch, for which they give him due credit. 



J. C. SwiTZER, President. Brevet Lieut. C. H. Bane 

Drummer "C", Frank Peabody Sutler, Charles Evans 


On board the Leesburg. We count ourselves very 
fortunate that we were selected for this duty, as we are 
alwa3^s under cover and do not have any severe guard 

On May 27th, we had for passengers, among others, 
one hundred paroled Confederate prisoners on their 
way to Savannah. We carry our freight in barges 
hitched on each side of our boat. It consist generally 
of cotton on the dow^n trip and forage on the return 
trip. We reached Savannah the 28th, 2:30 p. m., dis- 
posed of our barges at the lower wharf, came back and 
let off our passengers. We (the guard) are having 
what the boys call a "Soft Snap." 

May 29th. I made requisitions for provisions and 
clothing for the guard under me, and had them brought 
to the boat and issued to the men. Took a walk 
through the city of Savannah I could not see any dam- 
age done to the city by war's desolation, but I did see 
plenty of men, women, and children with empty stom- 
achs. Was up to the city again today. May 30th, met 
some Confederate officers, fine clever young men. One 
of them who had served as paymaster in the Confeder- 
ate service gave me a Confederate bill of $500 to 
remember him. He was a Virginian, his home was 
at Harrison's Landing, on the James River, a few, 
miles below Richmond. His name was Harrison, 
the landing was named after his family. I would be 
glad to meet him again. We start for Augusta, 2:50 p. 
m. Our cargo consists of commissaries and fifty-one 
passengers, forty-five of them were paroled Confederate 



soldiers who were going home. It is a sad reflection 
that they go back to home and friends penniless, with 
homes desolated, and subject to a government they 
have been seeking for four years to destroy. 

Something is wrong with the rope that has to do with 
the rudder and the pump. We tie up to the bank for 
the night at 10 p. m. 

May 31st, we are making good time today. If we 
could keep up this rate of speed, we would surpass all 
other boats on this river. We have two important 
landings between Savannah and Augusta, Sister's Fer- 
ry, sixty miles from Savannah, and Poor Robin one 
hundred and five miles, and it is two hundred and fifty- 
one miles to Augusta from Savannah. Considerable 
traffic is done at the intermediate places. We reached 
Poor Robin in the evening and tied up for the night. 

Morning of June 1st, we took on four lady passengers 
and considerable sutler goods and pulled out. We 
counted five bodies floating down stream this morning 
they are supposed to have belonged to the wreck of the 
steamer, "Governor Troup," We passed the wreck at 
8p.m. We tied up to the bank six miles below Augus- 
ta. The "Jeff Davis" passed us going up and the "Com- 
et" passed us going down. Some of these boats have 
outlived their usefulness. They ought to be put out 
of business. There is so much traffic just now that every 
old tub is made to help carry on the work. We arrived in 
Augusta at 6 a. m., July 3rd. We sent over to the Reg- 
iment for our mail. We witnessed a big fire in the 
evening. The Warrensburg depot and all the sur- 
rounding buildings were reduced to ashes in a very 
short time. 

On June 5th at 2 p.m., we started down the river with 
our cargo. We arrived here (Poor Robin) last night, 
June 6th. We are waiting here for a boat to take our 
cargo down, as we have orders to return from here. 


We discharged our cargo and loaded our barges with 
six hundred and nine sacks of oats and other stuff. 
There is so much rain the grain is in very bad condition. 
We saw several bodies floating down on the water as we 
came down. Human life is not considered of much ac- 
count any more. Reached Augusta, discharged our 
cargo, loaded up, and started on our return. On the 
9th at Poor Robin we came to the conclusion we would 
be justifiable in running on down, though against or- 
ders, for the reason that the passengers were on the 
point of starvation. Ran down fifteen miles and met 
"Jeff Davis," turned over our passengers, and loaded 
barges, and returned to Poor Robin landing, and took 
on our cargo. June 10th, we are on our up trip. We 
don't make good time, our rudder rope gives us much 
trouble and our barge of oats is too heavily loaded, it 
nearly went down. We safely arrived at Augusta, 
June 11th, 7 p. m., very much to our relief, though the 
guard is not held responsible except for the orderly 
conduct of the traveling public. 

June 13th. We started again on our down trip, at 
6 a. m. Met the "Jeff Davis" at 2 p. m. We pulled 
the two steamers together and commenced transferring 
our freight, a movement I can not understand. Why 
not each boat go on her way and handle the freight but 
once instead of twice. Such is "red tape". We were 
until midnight exchanging our freight. Captain Henry 
of the steamer, "Jeff Davis," treated us handsomely. 

June 15th. We started up the river, 3 a. m. We 
have hardly enough wood to run us fifty miles. 

June 16th. We tie up to the bank to get some wood. 
We have been lying here all day while the mate of our 
boat is getting wood cut and hauled for our use. There 
is and has been so much traffic on the river that the sup- 
ply of cut wood has been exhausted. Three years ago 
today I enlisted in the service at Iowa City, Iowa. 


Many a knock I have had since then. I would like to 
quit now, I don't always get what I like, so I '11 stick 
it out. Daniel J. Roberts (he and I enlisted together) 
went home to Iowa City, Iowa, from Vicksburg in 1863 
on furlough, and died in Iowa City of chronic diarrhoea, 
and I have lived to see the end of our term of enlistment. 
June 19th. We arrived in Augusta, 10 a. m. We 
discharged our cargo and found it in a bad condition. A 
board of survey was called. We (myself and guard) 
were discharged from our duties on the boat and ordered 
to join the Regiment to march down to Savannah to 
be mustered out of the service. June 20th, no guard 
coming to take our place, we-remained at the boat until 
this morning (June 20th). At about 4:30 p. m., I stood 
on the hurricane deck of our steamer and viewed our 
Regiment, the Twenty-second Iowa, crossing on the 
bridge that spans the river between Hamburg, South Car- 
olina, and Augusta, Georgia, on their march to Savannah 
to be mustered out. The Regiment, music in the front, 
flag unfurled to the breeze, marched with that easy swing 
it had become accustomed to by long marching, and 
the boys were happy. When we told the Captain of the 
boat that we were to join the Regiment to march to 
Savannah, he insisted that we must ride down on the 
boat with him, and argued on the grounds that we 
were unaccustomed to marching, and he was going 
down that evening, and could land us at Savannah long 
before the Regiment could reach there by land. He 
had no authority to take us on his boat at the wharf, 
but told us to go down the river four miles and wait on 
the bank of the river, and he would land and take us 
aboard. So, by a unanimous vote of the guard, we pro- 
ceeded down the river, after the Regiment had marched 
out of hearing on their way to Savannah, with drums 
beating and flags waving. There was, neverthe- 
less, some compunction of conscience for this move. I 


had reported to the Colonel the night before, yet, I 
was not with my command. We lay on the nice green 
grass on the bank of the river, debating in our minds, 
whether the old Captain would be as good as his word, 
and call for us and take us on his boat. It was 
disobedience of orders for him and we were taking, as it 
were, the "bit in our mouths" in not returning to our 
several companies. We had this excuse to fall back on, 
the new guard did not report for duty, relieving us until 
the Regiment was gone. We did not see the guard that 
was to relieve us till we were taken on the boat from the 
bank of the river. We had almost decided that our old 
friend, the Captain, had deceived us. About dusk 
when we had almost given up all hope that he would 
come, we saw our old steamer plowing her way down 
through the water and drawing towards us, and proud 
was the Captain that he had his old guard on with him 
again. As soon as we got on board, I saw things were 
different, the new guard was from a New York Regi- 
ment. The officers were a Captain and a Lieutenant. 
They had, besides a few flasks of whiskey, a two gallon 
jug stowed awa}^ in the New York Captain's State 
Room. They (the officers) were then all beastly full. 
As I never drank, I was no company for the officers of the 
guard. The Captain of the boat respected me the more. 
The conspicuous difference had its impression on him 
though he drank a little himself. Of course everything 
was lovely. We were towing a barge on each side of 
the boat, heavily loaded with cotton. One of the bar- 
ges sunk in less than an hour after we got on the boat, 
In rounding a bend in the river near Talamanka Land- 
ing about 8 p. m. the steamer ran on a snag and the 
water poured into her hold, a stream the thickness of 
one's leg. Wm. Barnes of the old guard, went with the 
Captain of the boat down into the hold and found the 
water pouring in as stated. As there was no way of 


stopping such a large opening, the Captain of the boat 
began to take measures to land the passengers. The 
New York officers and guard disappeared at this time. 
The Captain of the boat called for a volunteer to swim 
to land with a small rope to thereby drag out a cable 
to connect the boat with the land. Private Samuel 
Mackeral of the Twenty-fourth Iowa volunteered, and 
we soon had a cable from the stern of the lower deck of 
the boat to a large tree on the bank. The men of the 
old guard, after they had aided all they could, went to 
land hand over hand by this cable. The Captain of the 
boat insisted that I should assist him in caring for some 
lady passengers on board and in other matters. I as- 
certained by calling to the men on the bank that all the 
old guard but myself were safe on land. The Captain 
and I placed the ladies on the barge, as the steamer was 
gradually sinking. When everything was done that I 
could do to help I said to the Captain "since this is all 
I can do I will go to land on the cable." I went to the 
rear of thehurricane deck and swung down to the lower, 
but before I let go the upper deck, the stern of the steam- 
er sank, washing the upper deck. I had not loosed my 
hold on the upper deck . 1 1 was so sudden the water was 
up to my chin at once. I sprang to the up|)er deck again 
amid cordwood and every conceivable thing among the 
cargo, I made several springs, and landed myself on the 
wheel house, which was still above water. From there 
I made a leap for the barge and its precious freight, 
there I sat and rested a moment and watched the old 
steamer settle so that there was only the old pilot house 
in sight. The peril was not over, but I had pulled 
through thus far, and my mind was now turned toward 
how we were going to get to land. The Captain soon 
found that I like the flag was "still there" and gave me 
charge of some negroes who were working a ptmip that 
pumj^ed water from the barge, as with its added freight 


it was taking water. Four colored men were working 
the pump by reliefs. One burly fellow suggested rolling 
off a bale of cotton, getting on it and running the risk of 
getting to land, as several had already done, there were 
calls all along the banks below us. Those at the pump 
remained faithful, and after two hours of hard labor and 
losing several men by drowning, we got her to the shore. 
There was said to be seven men lost. As soon as we 
securely fastened our barge to the bank, one of our lady 
passengers fainted. We made a place for her beneath 
the shade of the trees, carried her there and laid her 
thereon, and left her for her companions to look after, 
as we had no physician with us. After caring for the 
helpless one, each sought a place to rest after the worry, 
fatigue, and excitement just gone through. My com- 
rades of the old guard had found an old tumble- 
down barn not far away, where they had prepared to 
arrtmge for the night, and there I joined them later. 

June 21st. We returned to the scene of our night's 
adventure and found our companions in misfortune 
trying to make the best of a very sad affair. Most of 
them were preparing a little something to eat. The 
lady who fainted had recovered. The Captain of the 
steamer was doing all he could for them under the cir- 
cumstances. We now had (the old guard) concluded 
that the best thing we could do was to join the Regi- 
ment who were on the march on the other side of the 
river from where we were now. We gathered all the 
information we could from our friend, the Captain of 
the unlucky steamer, in regard to the crossing of the 
river, and what roads we should take when we were 
once across. We bade him ' 'good bye' ' with the promise 
that we would eat our dinner with him the next day, his 
home being on the route he had instructed us to follow 
in order to join our command. We left our old steamer 
all under water but the pilot house. We went down 


the river in search of Demrie's Ferry in a drizzling rain, 
and stopped at an old negro's house to procure some- 
thing to eat. We were furnished with the best they 
had, and father and son came with us to direct us on our 
way to the Ferry. We could hardly have found it with- 
out a guide, and would not have known it when we had 
fotmd it, as it was a round log cut out like a trough. 
The ferry man was not there, he was with his dug out 
boat intercepting boxes and barrels that were floating 
down from our wrecked steamer. The father and son 
with Wm. L. Barnes went to hunt a boat that they knew 
of. Just at dusk, the ferryman appeared and was busy 
taking us across when the other party arrived with 
their boat. We were all ferried across without any mis- 
hap, but we were wet and cold. Though wet and hun- 
gry, we stopped long enough with the ferr}-man for sup- 
per, then pulled out on our march. We came to a very 
large, fine mansion a little after dark and for fear of los- 
ing our way, we thought it best to stop for the night. I 
sent one of my men to the house which was a little way 
from the road to ask if we could find shelter there. He 
returned and said we could not. I had him return and 
ask permission to sleep on the porch. He came back 
and said no, that there was a house a little further along 
that kept people. After a few minutes of consultation 
we concluded to go on. It had cleared off and the stars 
were shining, but there was no moon. After traveling 
two or three miles with no house to be seen, we were al- 
most despairing of finding a shelter. At last when we 
had become lost for want of a plain beaten track, we 
came to the object of our search, a negro cabin. You 
can imagine the state of our minds in regard to the oc- 
cupant of the mansion. We were soon sitting around 
a generous fire drying our blankets and clothes. This 
negro, or mulatto's name was Aleck Newness, a free 
colored man. He got us supper and would not take a 


cent in pay, which we freely offered for food and lodg- 
ing, but he said if we had any cartridges and caps he 
would be glad to have them. He said an Indiana sol- 
dier gave him a gun, but he had to keep it hid, 
under the law. We furnished him with all the ammu- 
nition we could spare and bade him good-bye. 

June 22nd. We started out on our march at 5 a. m. 
Had not time for breakfast. We went eight miles and 
stopped at Murphy's on Hudson's Plantation for break- 
fast. We were then thirty-four miles from Augusta 
from where we started. Marched ten miles farther and 
came to Captain David Filpot's of the steamer Lees- 
burg. He was at home to receive us, and a right hearty 
welcome he gave us, and we enjoyed sitting around his 
table at his home with his family. We bade adieu to 
the Captain and his family after a sumptuous dinner 
and started on our march. After marching two miles 
we came into the stage road. Ten miles from here is 
Brier Creek crossing, w^hich we reached about 12 m. 
We waited here two hours and a half to get ferried 
across. We could not find the ferryman to take us over. 
After six miles of weary marching we came to the road 
our Regiment was marching on. We were told that 
they passed in the afternoon. There was a house here 
occupied by white people. They told us there were 
troops passing all afternoon. They "lowed" they were 
not far from there then. We held a consultation, and 
owing to some of the men being entirely given out, we 
decided to stay here for the night. We had come thir- 
ty-two miles. The people gave us permission to sleep 
in the house and they fed us. We paid them for milk 
and corn pone, the only food they could furnish us, and 
all they had for themselves. 

June 23rd. We got up this morning stiff and foot- 
sore. We have not been used to marching. We start- 
ed on our way at 4 a. m. in quick time, we did not ex- 


pect to overtake the Regiment before noon. We found 
from the people along the road that the Regiment was 
about six miles ahead of us. We came up with them 
while they were taking their rest and dinner. We re- 
ported to our several companies and were ordered on 
duty. I am not sure in my own mind but that w^e did 
as we should have done, not to leave the boat until the 
new guard was present to relieve us. We, at least, had 
some show of military regulation in our act. I was so 
foot-sore I rode in the ambulance nearly all the after- 
noon, something I did but once or twice before in all our 
marches. The Regiment marched twenty miles today, 
our little guard marched twenty-six miles. 

June 24th, we were up at 3 a. m. and out on our 
march as soon as we could get ready. We aim to do 
our marching mostly in the cool of the morning. We 
march at quick march, and take short rests that the men 
may close up. My feet are very sore today; rode some 
in the ambulance. Watermelons are abundant and are 
foraged without reserve or hindrance. It does rain the 
most and the easiest down here of any place I know. 
Henry Loan and Peter Eberly of Company "A" found 
a pig somewhere and brought it in and that means I 
shall have a share. We marched twenty-two miles 

June 25th. On our march at 3 a. m. We crossed a 
creek early this morning. I pulled off my shoes and 
stockings, rolled up my pants, boy fashion, and waded. 
My clothes have not been dried since the wreck. It 
rained nearly all the afternoon. Sometimes we march- 
ed miles through the water up to our knees. We all had 
our shoes and stockings off and pants rolled above our 
knees. It was a picturesque scene to see the troops as 
far as the eye could reach, marching thus through the 

Major Gearkee who was in command of the Regiment 


inquired if we wanted to go through to Savannah. 
The boys were unanimous to go through to the city. 
Reached there, 6 p.m., and the Twenty-second and the 
Twenty-fourth Iowa Regiments camped in the railroad 

June 26th. We were up early this morning. My 
feet are very much swollen this morning and very sore. 
We moved out of the railroad warehouse 11a. m. to the 
ground we occupied when we first came to Savannah. 
Ben, my darkey, came with my valise and sword. I 
had to leave them in his care at the wrecked steamer, 
with orders to take care of them and bring them to 

June 29th, I am on the sick list and off duty. Have 
been busy making our quarters as comfortable as possi- 
ble. A wide plank was my bed for one or two of the 
first nights here. On the 30th, 12 m., we moved camp. 
The Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty- 
eighth Regiments are in camp together now. We 
marched from Augusta together, but we did not camp 
together as we would have were the war still in progress. 
We are busy making out our muster-out rolls. I went to 
the hospital for P. R. Baker's effects to send to his fath- 
er; I made out his papers and sent them off. Poor Pete 
served his three 3^ears faithfully, and was not allowed to 
enjoy the fruit of his labor. Two men have died out of 
the Regiment since we came here and about fifty report 
to the surgeon, which proves that this is not a health 

On the third of July we had a severe thunderstorm, 
during which one of the boys of the Twenty -fourth was 
struck by the lightning and killed instantly. He had 
his tent set up near a large tree, the lightning came 
down the tree, and followed his gun barrel to his head 
as he was lying in his tent. 

July 20th. Our Regiment was mustered out of the 


United States service today at 12 m. We are ready 
now to go to Iowa and be mustered out of the state ser- 

July 21st, the bugle sounded strike tents and in an 
hour we were at the wharf ready to embark for Iowa 
and home. All were on board the ocean steamer, 
"Fairbanks" at dark. This was getting there on quick 

July 22nd. We started from the wharf at 6 a. m., 
glad to leave this sickly place. I was but a little while 
on the water when I began to get seasick. 

July 23rd. Oh! Oh! I am seasick, and the sea is as 
calm as a lake. It does not require a rough sea to 
make me sick. We pass many ships and schooners 
bound for the southern ports. I am down in my state- 
room sweating as never man can sweat. Oh ! for a foot 
of land. The 24th, I have sweated until I am weak, 
my clothing is as wet as if I had had a ducking. Only 
a few are seasick. Several have ague and swamp 

July 25th. We are having remarkably fine weather 
this trip. For once the weather was calm when we 
rounded Cape Hatteras, a very rare thing. We reached 
Baltimore, Md., 4 p. m., and landed at once, to my in- 
expressible joy; I had not been able to eat one full meal 
during the whole trip. I feel weak, the Regiment was 
taken to the Soldier's Home and the officers to hotels. 

The 26th, we arose at 5 a. m.. Captains Mullen of "C" 
Company, Hartley of "H" and I are all that are at this 
hotel. We went down to the Regiment and we march- 
ed to the Harrisburg depot, where they had barrels of 
ice water to fill our canteens. We boarded the cars and 
started at 10:30 a. m. As we passed through Maryland 
the people along the route welcomed us home with wav- 
ing flags and handkerchiefs. From the windows of 
houses standing far off the road, flags and handkerchiefs 


were conspicuous. We arrived at Altoona, Pa., the 
27th, 4 a. m., staid there until 9:30 a. m., and reached 
Pittsburg, 4:30 p. m. The troops were taken off the 
cars to refreshment rooms and feasted grandly. We 
had no such patriotic reception anywhere. After the 
meal and a little rest, we boarded the train, bidding our 
friends a hearty good-bye. Reached Alliance, Ohio, 
the morning of the 28th, laid over more than two hours 
for the express train to pass us. We arrived in Chicago, 
12:30 a. m., the 29th, were met at the Pittsburg and 
Ft. Wayne depot by an agent of the Rock Island Road. 
He conducted us at once to the Rock Island depots and 
we started right away. We had only twenty minutes 
to change cars. On this line we are running on the ex- 
press schedule. We were provided with half box cars 
and half emigrant cars, with a coach for the officers. 
We were very coldly treated at Davenport. On the 
30th we were marched out three miles to camp. Col- 
onel Graham told me of sickness at home and advised 
me to go home and come back in the morning. 

July 3 1st, I went to camp and had the company sign 
the pay rolls, came back to town, got on the cars, and 
came home to Iowa City. Thomas Banbury met me at 
the train and took me to the Metropolitan Hall where 
there was a bountiful table set and waiters ready to 
wait on me. And this they did to all home coming sol- 
diers. That was the way the boys were welcomed back 
to Iowa City after they had been gone over three years. 
At the hall, my father and eldest brother met me. I 
went home with my father and found my mother con- 
fined to her bed, where she had been for some time with 
a complication of diseases, originating from liver trou- 

August 1st, as I could not be of much service at home 
and I was not fully mustered out and paid, I hastened 


back to Davenport; I did not remain in camp, I staid 
at the Pennsylvania House. 

August 2nd, I changed my place to a Mrs. Galipsie's, 
a private house. I found it a much better place. 
Lieutenant Messenger and one or two others were with 
me there. I finished all my papers, and had them ex- 
amined and a certificate made out and ready to be paid 

August 3rd, the Regiment are being paid off today. 
August 4th, I gathered my papers all together and went 
for my pay. The paymaster was not ready. August 
5th, I received a check on a bank for my pay. Came 
back to town, got my check cashed, and took the train 
for Iowa City and home, where I arrived in the evening. 
The train was loaded with soldiers. Now on this day I 
lay by my soldier clothes and don a citizen's garb after 
serving three years, one month and twenty days, hav- 
ing enlisted on the 16th day of June, 1862. This ends 
in brief the marches, battles, skirmishes, and other 
events of my military life and that of the Regiment and 
Company of which I was a member. We had al- 
most made a circuit of the so called Southern Confeder- 
acy, and traveled by land and water over 15,000 miles. 

The T\vk\tv-sec 
Taken in front of the Old Capil 

LUXTEER Infantry 

owa City, Iowa, May 22nd, 1 

In the Hands of the Rebels 

Tomsbrook, September 20th, 1864. 

The prisoners were started on the march last night 
from Winchester under a strong guard about twenty 
minutes of sundown. Marched all night, reached here 
at 6 this morning. Were furnished flour and beef here. 
We had the privilege to have it cooked by a family by 
the name of Leggett (Union). We had many little 
favors from this family (secretly) while here. I sold 
my watch for $100 Confederate money. I wrote home 
and to the Regiment giving the names of all the 
Iowa men here. We left these letters with this Union 
family, I bought a rubber pouch for $2.25 U. S. 
money. Some of the rebels treat us with due respect, 

September 21st. 

We can hear the booming of the cannon plain in the 
direction of Strasburg. The names of the officers with 
me are: 

Lt. Colonel H. B. Sprague, 13th Conn. 

Lt. Colonel W. P. Brinton, 18th Pa., Cav. 

Maj. Augustus Hammond, 4th N. Y. Cav. 

Maj, A. N. Wakefield, 49th Pa. Inft. 

Capt. W. F. Tieman, 159th N. Y, Inft. 

Capt. John R. Rouser, 6th Md. Inft. 

" F. A. Hopping, 75th N. Y. Inft. 

" G. M. Dickerman, 26th Mass. Inft. 

1st Lieut. O. P. Hull, 22nd Iowa Inft. 

J. P. Simpson, 11th Ind. Inft. 



W. H. Sergeant, 14th N. H. Inft. 
J. A. Clark, Adjt. 17th Pa. Cav. 
W. H. Harrison, 2nd U. S. Cav. 

W. C. Gardner, Adjt. 13th Conn. Inft. 
2nd Lieut. H. L. Esterbrook, 26th Mass Inft. 

W. C. Howe, 2nd Mass Cav. 

Of the above Lt. Colonel Brinton and Lt. Sergeant 
made their escape or were shot during the night by the 
guards as reported. 
September 22nd. 

All excitement, the officer in command of the guard 
does not know where to put us. General Sheridan's 
troops are flanking them. Finally they marched us to 
the rear through Woodstock, Edenburg, Mount Jack- 
son to New Market. The weather is cool and we are 
getting worn out. We are poorly fed. 
September 23rd. 

Arrived here at 8 a. m. after marching hard all night. 
I am sick, tired, and hungry. And it is raining very 
hard. 12 m. we received some flour and bacon. I paid 
$10 to have it cooked somehow. We are quartered in 
an old house. 

New Market, Va., September 24th. All in an uproar 
expecting General Sheridan's cavalry to swoop down on 
us any moment. We started on our march in the evening, 
with the promise not to march us all night. But here 
we go all night long. We pass through the following 
places. Sparta before dark, Harrisonburg just at dusk, 
Mount Crocker at midnight. In the morning we 
stopped for a few moments at Big Springs. We got 
about two cubic inches of soft bread here, then pulled 
out for Stanton, Va. 

Stanton, Va., Sunday, Sept. 25th. We reached here 
at 10 a. m. weary, worn, hungry, and foot-sore. Many 
of us were barefooted. We were promised transporta- 
tion by rail from here if we reached here by 10 a. m. It 


was with much difficulty that we got our sick and 
wounded along. (There were many severely wounded 
among us). We rode to Waynesborough on the cars 
and stopped for the night. 

Waynesborough, Va., September 26th. It is twelve 
miles back to Stanton. It is nineteen miles to Meach- 
am's Station and we have to walk it. Reached the 
above Station, then were piled on the cars in every con- 
ceivable shape, and glad to get on any way. Marching 
was an impossibility. One hundred and twenty-seven 
miles to Richmond by rail, flat cars, every conceivable 
shape. This was not the way we expected to visit 

September 27th. 

Here we are at Richmond. Prisoners of war. We 
are hurried off to Libby Prison, the much talked of pris- 
on. Captain, the commander, drunk as an idiot, to re- 
ceive us. 

The sooner he got rid of us the better for us. We 
were taken into one of the lower rooms and thoroughly 
searched from head to foot. Forty dollars Greenbacks 
found on Lieutenant O. P. Hull's person was taken. 
Haversacks, canteens, and blankets were taken, then 
we were sent to our rooms. We received breakfast 10 
a. m., consisting of a small piece of sour wheat bread and 
a cubic inch of fresh beef. What was intended for bean 
soup for supper 4 p. m. This was a mixture of flies, dirt, 
and a few beans. Windows all open except the iron 

September 28th. 

I could not rest last night on the cold hard floor, 
with windows all open, and no blanket. Our ration 
was the same this morning, our ration of soup was a gill 
of bean soup. We poured off the soup and found the 
most disgusting ingredients. The absorbing question 


was, is it this that we will have to satisfy our aching 

September 29th. 

The same routine. We are interested in some heavy 
cannonading in the direction of Fort Harrison and Mal- 
vern Hill. We can see the shells burst from our artil- 
lery. It gives us new life. 

September 30th. 

Some prisoners were brought in who were taken in the 
battle yesterday. We got the news from them that 
Fort Harrison was captured and our lines advanced. 
There is much cannonading in the same direction today. 

October 1st. 

We got a Richmond Whig this morning. Speaking 
of the battle of Fort Harrison, says it was a terrific on- 
slaught, they assaulted to recapture it three different 
times and failed. The whole citizen population turned 
out under arms and are going into rifle pits. 

Libby Prison, Va., October 2nd. We were aroused 
at half past one, fell in and marched between two ranks 
of guards across the James River to the railroad depot. 
By the time we all got on the cars it was daylight. I 
just got a half night's sleep under a blanket that I paid 
twenty dollars for in Confederate money. What little 
we got here they took from us again. Thieves never 

October 3rd. 

Clover Station. We laid over night here. Slept 
without shelter of any kind on a high bank beside the 
cars. On our way south. Reached Danville, 2 p. m. 
We were out in the rain here. Got soaking wet. Bis- 
cuits are five dollars a dozen. They are as small as a 
butter cracker. Boarded the cars for the south. 

October 4th. 

On our way South in a V)ox car, packed so we had to 
sit uj). It rained nearly all night. 


October 5 th. 

Greensboro, N. C. Reached here last night. They 
marched us off the cars to a green near the hospi- 
tal. Put a line of guards around us. I am so stiff I can 
hardly walk. 

Greensboro is a very nice place. The citizens 
gathered around the outside the guard line with looks 
of surprise. One of them said: "Wy, you's look just 
like we'uns." "Why shouldn't we?" said the soldier. 
"They done tole us you'ns had ho'ns." After they sat- 
isfied themselves that we really did not have "ho'ns" 
they declared we were not Yankees. After that the 
the western troops were just like "we'uns". While we 
were marching back to get on the cars to proceed on our 
journey two young ladies who had come South as teach- 
ers, years before, came marching alongside the column 
making inquiries in regard to people from their old 
home in Massachusetts. They were at present little 
rebels. Pay six dollars a dozen for apples and five dol- 
lars for a pie made of sweet potatoes. We reached 
Salisbury just at dark. This is our destination. As 
we were coming here, while we were stopping at a sta- 
tion, I got leave from the guards to go and get some- 
thing to eat. I found a man who was a Union man but 
dares not let it be known; he gave me a pint of sorghum. 

Salisbury Prison, N. C, October 6th. We arrived 
here last night. About three hundred of us were 
packed in a large brick building. During the night 
some thieves attempted to go through the prisoners but 
they got worsted. They would not have gotten any- 
thing anyway. The rebels got the first chance and did 
a clean job. I could not sleep much last night on the 
cold hard floor and with no blanket. We moved to 
some old negro quarters. These are four old log huts. 
Barney Tallman, R. J. Smith, and N. H. Boise of Com- 
pany "A" were brought here today. 


October 7 th. 

We receive a half loaf of bread and a gill of beans to 
each prisoner. Yesterday I bought a dozen onions for 
$2.50 Confederate money. Now you will want to know 
how I got this money. When the rebels had taken all 
we had. I exchanged an officer's blouse for a rebel 
jacket and got thirty dollars Confederate in the trade. 
With this I buy extras. We are chinking the cracks in 
our huts today. And I am making a fireplace of bricks 
to keep warm. 

October 9th. 

I bought a piece of soap for $2.50. Finished the fire- 
place. It is much warmer. 

October 10th. 

We get up early because our bones ache and being 
cold, I lay down with my clothes on, with only my 
blouse that I had thrown over my shoulders. Bought 
one sheet of paper and one envelope and six threads for 
one dollar. I wrote home to my sister Martha, I am 
afraid it will never reach her although we have sweet 

October 11th. 

Things go here about helter skelter, no regularity at 
all. For instance, meals. Sometimes we get our bread 
and meat at 12 m.when we should have them at 7 a.m., 
and when they do come they are only a taste. 

October 12th. 

Water is very scarce. We have to carry it about a 
mile between two files of guards. I and another of our 
mess went to the creek with a barrel, carried it back 
half full on our backs by turns. 

October 15th. 

I bought a small piece of ginger bread from a guard, 
and sent ten dollars with him to get some potatoes that 
was the last I saw of the guard and money. Our mess 


joined and got some Irish potatoes and we had some 

October 13th. 

Ofificers and enlisted men are in the same enclosures. 
Guard line between them. 

The prisoners here were brought from Belle Isle, 
Libby, and other prisons. You would scarcely believe 
men so emaciated could live any time. Still they are 
dying off very fast. It is horrible to look at the way we 
are treated and handled, dead or alive. Civilization is 
not responsible. When we came there were seven- 
teen prisoners here. They were civilians. Alfred D, 
Richardson (correspondent New York Tribune) was one 
of them. Train load after train load came after us until 
this enclosure was full. 

October 16th, Sunday. 

I have committed to memory a chapter in the Testa- 
ment, for today. About 1 p. m. Lieutenant John Dav- 
is, one Hundred and Fifty-fifth N. Y. Infantry, was shot 
dead by the guard, the bullet penetrating his heart. 
He was a very religious man. Was about twenty feet 
from me when it happened. There were no words from 
him to the guard. The guard spoke some word and 
fired. Chaplain preached his funeral sermon, then his 
body was turned over to the authorities. The guard 
was relieved, that was all. 

October 18th. 

We have been drawing sorghum instead of beef. It 
is not so good for us. There is a guard line separating 
the officers from the men. An officer threw a commu- 
nication tied to a stone to the men, was caught at it. 
It was as much as we could do to hide the officer from 
being caught and taken out and punished. There were 
strict orders not to communicate with the men. 

Sahsbury, N. C, October 19th. We are closely 
guarded. Six a. m. we received orders to pack up. 


Five p. m. we were put on the cars, three hundred and 
twenty-seven officers. We were put fifty-two in a car. 
We are to be taken to Danville, Va. 

October 20th. 

We suffered severely last night for rest and sleep, 
being packed so tightly. The night was very cold and 
disagreeable. Nine officers escaped last night by cut- 
ting a hole in the side of the car. We reached Greens- 
boro, 4 a. m., fifty -two miles from Salisbury. 
Changed cars for Danville, Va., forty-eight miles from 
here. Reached Danville, Va., 10 a. m. Was marched 
to our prison, a large tobacco house, about one hundred 
feet long and about forty feet wide. Three stories and 
basement. We had had nothing to eat since the morn- 
ing of the day we left Salisbury. Now we are furnished 
with a piece of corn bread six inches long, two inches 
wide and two inches thick. In the afternoon we are 
furnished with a gill of "Nigger pea" soup. The other 
ingredients I won't mention now. Our bed will be the 
floor of hard oak plank, no covering — windows all open 
for want of glass. 

Danville Prison, Va., October 21st. I was up and 
around at 2 a. m. It was so cold I could not sleep. I 
had nothing but the cold floor to lay on with no cover- 
ing. I can see the vermin crawling on the walls of this 
old dreary building. They will be crawling on me soon, 
uh! ! 

Our rations are the same today excepting they gave 
us a very small piece of beef at noon. I must try and 
sleep some tonight. I am worn out. 

October 22nd. 

One of the officers who got away through the hole in 
the car coming up from Salisbury prison, was captured 
and brought in today. His name is Lieutenant Far- 
well, 1st District of Columbia Cavalry. He was cap- 
tured before he got fifteen miles from where he escaped. 


They put bloodhounds on his track and followed him. 

October 24th. 

We lay down when w^e get tired sitting up, then lie 
down and catch a little sleep. I am up each morning 
at 2 a. m. Can't sleep after I wake up, and can't lie 
down when I am awake. We are wedged in so closely, 
we have to all turn when one turns. We are annoyed 
by vermin also. I pass some of the time away by 
committing to memory a portion of the New Testament 
each day. We have a sermon every Sunday. Many 
pass the time playing cards. 

October 25th. 

I have caught a very bad cold. Cough very much. 
News came that Captain W. W. Horseman and Lieu- 
tenant Davis of my Regiment were captured. It is as- 
tonishing how news come to us here. 

October 26th. 

I was up twice to warm last night. The authorities 
have given us an old metal stove of the drum pattern 
and a little wood so that we can stand by the stove and 
warm one side while the other is freezing. Such a 
noise. We organized today into squads of about twen- 
ty men each. Each squad elects a Captain to draw 
and issue our food. I bought four envelopes and two 
sheets of paper for two dollars Confederate. 

October 27th. 

I took my little ration of corn bread and grated it fine 
and made mush of it and with a little sorghum molasses 
I made a meal. Under our present organization the fol- 
lowing persons constitute my mess: 
CaptainGeorgeM.Dickerman, 26thMass., Lowell, Mass. 
F. A. Hopping, 75th N. York, Auburn, N. Y. 
Lieutenant O. P. Hull, 22nd Iowa, Washington, Iowa. 
S. C. Jones, 22nd Iowa, Box 192, Iowa 
City, Iowa. 


October 28th. 

I rested better and slept more last night than any 
night since I came here. It was quite warm through 
the night. I will finish three chapters committed to 
memory by next Sunday. Lieutenant Hull sent to 
Richmond for the forty dollars the Libby prison officer 
took from him. We don't think he will get it. 

October 29th. 

Fifteen officers were brought in today from Lynch- 
burg prison. Whenever I can I make mush out of part 
of my corn bread to eat with molasses. The rebel cooks 
put no salt in the corn bread. We think sometimes 
they grind cob and all to make our bread. 

October 31st. "^ 

I slept last night till I awoke from soreness of my hip 
bones. Our mess has a half shelter tent to sleep on and 
an old quilt that reaches to our knees, over us. I trad- 
ed a gold ring, given me by a young lady in Iowa, for an 
old blanket which will help some. I would not have 
parted with the ring under no other consideration, but 
to preserve my life. Sixteen of us are organized and at 
work on a tunnel that we hope will give us an outlet 
from this wretched place. Our beef ration has dwin- 
dled down to head and lights and swallow. 

November 1st. 

Up at three a. m. Eat a little rice for breakfast, 
cooked in a tin cup. You will wonder how I have 
money to buy rice. The prisoners occupy the two up- 
per stories of this building. The lower story is not oc- 
cupied only by a guard at the foot of the stairs where we 
go down and at the back door where we go out to a 
small back yard where the sinks are, and where we do a 
little cooking. We are only allowed to pass back and 
forth. We make details to sweep out every day, this 
dirt finds its wa}^ to the back yard. In among that rub- 
bish, one day, I found many buttons without legs. A 


thought struck me that I could use those buttons, as 
the rebel guards would ver}^ readily buy and pay a good 
price for them. I gathered up and when I had nearly 
a dozen of them, I gathered up so many pins, as it is not 
hard to find them. Then I went to work and made legs 
for the buttons out of the pins, then sdld them for two 
dollars apiece. Confederate money. That was the way 
I made money to get just a little extra, when I had 
traded all my clothes I could spare. But this was not 
the last way. 

November 2nd. 

Got up sore and stiff this morning. My hips were 
aching all night long, had to change from side to side to 
allay the pain. We are so packed that when one turns 
all must turn. They allowed us to take the glass from 
the windows in the lower floor and put them in our win- 
dows. Our room is warmer. We are on the Dan Riv- 
er and the cold winds follow the river and come whist- 
ling through our rooms. 

November 3rd. 

My corn bread ration was small today. We had fish 
(haddock) instead of beef. 

November 4th. 

Ten a. m. Seventy-three prisoners came. Captain 
W. W. Horseman and Lieutenant Davis of the Twenty- 
second Iowa among them. Whenever a squad of pris- 
one;rs come they are greeted as "fresh fish" from all over 
the building. Lieutenant Manning, chief of our squad, 
was taken to Richmond. He was at one time held as a 
hostage in Castle Thunder. With the additional pris- 
onejrs we will be packed like dried herrings. 

Kovember 5 th. 

We have preaching every Sunday. There is a chap- 
lain, prisoner among us. 

NTovember 7th. 

NTine a. m. Five naval officers were just brought in. 


They were welcomed with the cry of "fresh fish" as 
usual. We have been getting salt fish now for some- 
time. They are devoured skin and all. 

November 8th. 

I sold my blouse for twenty-five dollars and a rebel 
jacket to Lieutenant Goff. Held election. The vote 
stood 276 for Lincoln and 91 for McClellan, few did not 
wish to vote. 

November 10th. 

The authorities informed us, that if we wished to send • 
home for boxes of eatables or clothing, we could do so. 
I sent to my father for forty pounds of Boston crackers, 
four hams, two cheeses, two pounds soap, three quart 
buckets filled with butter, one peck of onions, and as 
much more as he saw fit. I got some sweet potatoes, 
could not take time to cook them, but ate them raw. 
Thought they were delicious. 

November 11th. 

Dreamed of home (last night) and all the good times 
and good things to eat. The table covered with the 
best of everything and they did not invite me to par- 
take. I spent two dollars for apples. Something to 
keep away scurvy as I hear of cases of that dread dis- 
ease. There are rumors at all times with regard to ex- 
change of prisoners. The Southern papers are fa\^or- 
able. They know their prisoners will be able to go 
right into the field while we could not for two months. 
And yet we are rotting in these fever dens and yards. 

November 12th. 

Captain Riley and Lieutenant Quigley of those who 
got away out of the cars coming from Salisbury were 
brought in today. They got within two miles of our 
lines and were then captured. They tell how they -were 
chased with hounds and narrow escapes from b'cing 


torn up by them. Those hounds are ugly brutes. I 
bought nine dollars worth of sweet potatoes, and twen- 
ty-two and one-half pounds of rice. Sold eighteen and 
one-half pounds for thirty dollars, Confederate. 
Bought twenty pounds of rice for thirty dollars and a 
pint of sorghum molasses. 

November 19th. 

We thoroughly scrubbed our floor yesterday. We 
received a large mail. The letters dated from the 3rd 
to the 27th of September. I bought twenty-five 
pounds of rice. A committee w^as appointed to draft a 
memorial and send it to Colonel Smith, Commander of 
our prisons, with regard to the quality and quantity of 
our rations. 

November 21st. 

I sold out all my rice today. M}^ general health has 
been pretty good for the last two weeks, but the agony 
of these long nights. We tramp the floor by day to 
keep warm. Sometimes hundreds at one time. The 
rebel guards are amazed at our noise and motion. 

We received our beef and soup together today. It 
came when I was out. It was the heads and lights or 
lungs, swallow and grass and all. Capt. W. W. Morseman 
had it planned for me when I came in. He had cut 
about six inches of the swallow where the chewed grass 
was still in, and laid it on the window sill. When I 
came around he called my attention to it, saying: 
"Jones they commenced feeding tis on the heads and 
lungs, now look there. What next?" 

November 23rd. 

These cold nights tries our mettle. We are wedged 
in so we can keep our bodies pretty warm but our legs and 
feet are half frozen. When we get to marching around 
to get warm this old building shakes from cellar to roof. 

November 24th. 

Our chaplain and surgeon went away today. I went 


and laid down at 8:30 p. m. last night. I was too tired 
and hungry to stay up and I am in misery when I lay 

November 26th. 

Lieutenant O. P. Hull is sick today. He was notified 
this evening that the $40, U. S. greenbacks taken from 
him at Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., were now in the 
hands of Lieutenant Colonel Smith, Commander of this 
prison, and he offers $3.50 Confederate money for one 

November 27th. 

Fifteen prisoners came, just came in. One of them 
is the Adjutant of the Third Iowa Infantry. Some of 
them were recaptured at Raymond, Miss., May 12th, 
1863. They escaped from prison at Columbia, S. C, 
and were captured when three miles from our lines. 

November 29th. 

I was out twice to the Dan River among the squad 
that brings us water. Lieutenant Hull and I had a 
good bath, this is my second since I came here. I have 
tried for four weeks to get a Bible or Testament and 
have not gotten one yet. 

December 1st. 

We had a serious accident today. The gtiard shot 
at one of our men through the window, missed him and 
hit a man in the room above us. The bullet struck him 
between the knuckles, penetrating the wrist mak- 
ing a most painful wound. No one knows why he shot. 

Lieutenant Hull and I went into another mess, which 
I don't fully approve. Our mess now will be Captain 
Morseman and Lieutenants Davis, Hull, and Jones. 
Captain Hopping and I are very much attached, there- 
fore I regret very much the change, still he and I will be 
near each other in our squad. I procured a Testament 
and Psalms for two dollars. 


December 3rd. 

Two officers were sent to Richmond today. 

December 4th. 

The officer of the guard and officer of the day were in 
to visit us today. The most of us did not care to enter- 
tain them. They were as drunk as they could be and 
get around on their pins. Southern chivalry I suppose. 
They are fair representatives of their dunghill stock. 

December 5 th. 

We have roll call every morning now and sweep every 
morning. Details are made from each mess in turn 
and Captain of mess makes his detail in turn. So each 
has his regular turn. 

December 6th. 

The Battalion of Veteran Confederate Soldiers were 
taken away to the front yesterday and a body of home 
guards now guard us. Old men and very small boys. 
Boys that can hardly carry their guns. They are just 
what we want. We are not difficult to guard so long as 
no opportunity presents itself. 

December 8th. 

More prisoners came in during the night. 

December 9 th. 

Arrangements are made to break out. The Militia 
have stacked their arms in plain view, not far from the 
prison. Details are made us follows : Two men to disarm 
the guard at the rear and gag him. Two men to disarm 
and gag the man at the foot of the stairs. A squad to 
go out after water, while at the door halt and over- 
power the guard. All was carried out well except (as 
there always is an exception) the man at the head of the 
water squad was a failure. They overpowered him 
and took in the situation at once. At this time, we, 
the prisoners, were in full force crowded down the stair- 
way to the main entrance. The guards commenced 
at once firing into us as we were retreating back up to 


our quarters. Fortunately the guards were excited and 
shot wildly. One prisoner was fatally wounded. We 
carried him up and laid him down and called for a sur- 
geon to dress his wounds. He was taken to their hos- 
pital and treated but died in a few days. 

Lieutenant Colonel Smith and three Lieutenants 
came into our prison to get the men who took the 
guards below and gagged them. We were called in line 
and the guards went along and picked out one of them, 
the others they failed to get. They took him away. 
The young Lieutenants wanted to shoot a lot of us. 
The Colonel told them there had been enough shooting 
done already. He made us a little speech which was 
all right. He told us if we attempted to get out we 
would have to expect rough treatment. That was 
what we had counted on. We only regretted that we 
had failed. The Colonel was a Maryland soldier, had 
served since the beginning of the war and was so badly 
wounded that he was not fit for active duty. Had been 
in prison in the North and had attempted to get out as 
we did. His little speech pleased us very much. We 
were ready to promise to be good until we had another 

December 10th. 

The Battalion of Militia were sent away this morn- 
ing. There have been some of the prisoners getting 
away for several days. They did not find it out till they 
happened to catch one of them, then he gave the game 
away. We had to play a Yankee trick on our Colonel 
or on his officer who came in to call the roll. Nine men 
had escaped while out after water, so we had to make 
U]) this discrepancy at roll call. We made a hole in the 
floor in the corner and when the officer was at the far- 
ther end nine fellows would slip through the hole to be 
counted again below. After they caught the prisoner 
outside they stopped up the hole, besides three officers 


came in and found then that there were eight still out. 
I think they never knew how they got away. 

December 11th. 

Only three have been allowed to go below at a time 
since the attempt to break out. Colonel Smith came in 
today and gave us our former privileges. He showed 
himself a soldier and a gentleman by that order. 
Twenty-three escaped prisoners were brought in. They 
were recaptured in the Smoky Mountains — as ragged 
as beggars. Thirty prisoners were brought from Rich- 
mond. This morning five gunboat officers were sent 
off to be exchanged. 

December 13th. 

Colonel Smith brought in the money to those officers 
who's money was purloined at Libby Prison. He 
charged them nothing for the expense of getting it. 

December 14th. 

The effort on our part to get better and more rations 
was unsuccessful. The rations don't half satisfy the 
appetite and Oh! the quality. 

December 15th. 

The authorities were so kind as to board up our stair- 
way. It is now much w^armer. Sixteen convalescents 
were brought in from the hospital. 

December 16th. 

There is now in this building four hundred and thirty- 
seven prisoners ranging in rank from a Brigadier Gener- 
al to a Second Lieutenant. 

December 18th. 

We were given Irish potatoes instead of pea soup. 

December 19th. 

We drew a ration of mixed bread ; we call it potatoes 
and beef. 

December 20th. 

We drew with our ordinary ration a good ration of 


Danville Prison, Va., January 1st, 1865. Captain 
W. W. Horseman, Lieutenants Davis, Hull, and myself 
lay in the same rank with Captains Hopping and Dick- 
erman. The bare hard plank floor under us and an old 
blanket over us. It is January. On the Dan river 
stands our prison. The glass in the windows broken. 
The wind whistling over us as w^e lay. Sometimes we 
can get a little wood to make a fire in an old stove that 
would not heat an ordinary room twenty feet square. 
We get our meager rations at ten or eleven o'clock a. m. 
each day. 

January 2nd. 

The same routine each day. It is a daily sight to see 
one hundred or two hundred hungry, starving men all 
looking anxiously out through the window in the di- 
rection from whence comes our daily ration. There are 
some here who get money somehow, somewhere. They 
have no anxiety whatever. They also have blankets. 
There are only a few of them. They no doubt would 
give another picture to these scenes were they to write 

January 3rd. 

Two recaptured prisoners were brought in today. It 
is almost certain for a prisoner to be recaptured if he 
does escape from prison. There are packs of hounds 
kept ready to run the country all over in almost a mo- 
ment's notice. And many a loyal soldiers has been torn 
to shreds ere help could come to his assistance. The 
negro slave was the only assistant and succor in their 
peril, except that frequently they would come across a 
Union man known of by the negroes. 

January 5 th. 

Our bread ration was increased a little. I was so 
hungry I ate it all and will have to wait twenty-four 
hours till I get any more. 


January 10th. 

Captain Dickerman and I washed our clothes today. 
Scalded them thoroughly. We chanced to get the fire 
and water, and made good use of it. Bread and water 
is our fare. (Corn bread). Once in a while we get a 
little beef and a large ration of sweet promises. 

January 16th. 

Lieutenant O. P. Hull and I met with a streak of good 
fortune this morning. A citizen of this city by name of 
John F. Ficklin came in and we induced him to furnish 
us with some Confederate money so we could buy some 
provisions. He was at one time a citizen of Keokuk, 

January 18th. 

The citizen spoken of came in and gave O.P. Hull and 
I two hundred dollars in Confederate money. For 
which Hull and I gave him a joint note for thirty dol- 
lars in greenbacks, payable after the war, to P. T. 
Lomax, Esq., Keokuk, Iowa, for him. 

January 19th. 

Captain Horseman and I tried to get some wood but 
failed. We got a few chips. We drew calf gruel today 
as we have often done before. It came about noon. I 
bought some flour, two dollars a pint tin cup full, in 
Confederate money. We make flour gravy and corn 
coffee, roast some of our corn bread to make corn coffee. 

January 24th. 

I procured a pass to visit our sick in the hospital. 
They are kept very clean, but do not have what they 
ought to have of medicine and food. 

January 26th. 

General Hayes and Lieutenant Lucas were sent to 
Richmond from the hospital last night. 

January 28th. 

It is very cold. It is hard for one in comfortable cir- 
cumstances to imagine our suft'ering from the want of 


food, and other necessities. I visited the hospital this 
afternoon. The men here look very pale and weak. 
Deaths occur frequently. 

January 29th. 

As soon as I got up this morning Major Wakefield lay 
down in my place and under my blankets. It is warm- 
er today, thank the Lord. 

January 31st. 

It is a consoling thought for us that the Southern 
Confederacy does not control the weather. Two Jews 
came into our prison yesterday to exchange Confederate 
money for greenbacks. They had about a peck of Con- 
federate money. In October, 1863, while we were 
camping at Algiers, La., the Jews came into our camp 
exchanging greenbacks for Confederate money. The 
flying straws tell which way the wind blows. I have 
symptoms of rheumatism. 

February 1st. 

I feel very unwell this morning. The surgeon left 
some blue mass and liniment for me. 
[ February 2nd. 

I am right down sick this morning with rheumatism. 
Had to get up at 9 p. m. last night. Severe pains in my 
back, side, and legs. Could not lie down or sit up, had 
to move around as best I could. Nothing but poor corn 
bread to eat. And not enough for one meal of that. 
Howllongfor alittle something to eat that I could relish. 

February 5th. 

I was up and around all night with severe pains in my 
back and bowels. The surgeon gave me a pill of blue 
mass. The Methodist minister preached us a sermon 
from Acts, 26:38, 39. Neither did me as much good as 
an ounce of liberty would. Five of our men escaped to- 
day while out after water. Slipped to one side into the 
ruins of an old mill while the guards were entertained 
with a thrilling yarn by the prisoners in front. 


February 6 th. 

Was up the greater part of the night, pacing the floor 
with great pains. I appUed the hniment left by the 
surgeon but it did not reUeve me. 

February 10th. 

Our friend John F. Ficklin sent me four nice biscuits 
with butter on. I think they were the best I ever ate. 

February 11th. 

A big mail. Good and bad news. I received a letter 
from father, all are well. One brother prisoner re- 
ceived news that his beloved wife was dead. So it was 
over the whole prison. Sorrow and gladness. 

February 12th. 

Got up this morning with severe rheumatism in my 
back and legs. Thus it is every day without a symptom 
of relief. Thus we are dragging out our days and weeks 
with no hopes of exchange. 

February 14th. 

Ten officers were ordered to Richmond today to be 
exchanged. Among them my friend Captain F. A. 
Hopping also Lieutenant Simpson and Captain Cook. 

February 15th. 

All the talk now is about the exchange. One can 
hear anything he wishes either good or bad news on 
that subject. 

February 16th. 

Rumor is strong that we will be exchanged. I 
would like to believe it, but will not. It is easier to dis- 
believe it than to be deceived. In the evening it was 
strongly believed that orders were here for our exchange. 

February 17th. 

The news is confirmed that we are to be exchanged. 
There was no sleep last night for tired eyes and not 
much rest for sore bodies. I saw mens' hair turn gray 
in a day, what will be the joy to those prisoners? 


Thanks are being rendered hourly to God, U. S. Grant, 
and the Government. 

February 18th. 

The weather is wet and muddy. We were ordered to 
be ready at 10 p. m. yesterday. We were marched to 
the train and boarded it at 12:15 midnight. All the 
officers on one train. I must say here that there were 
other prisons in Danville besides the one we were in. 
I think there were five filled with enlisted men. There 
were therefore, other trains that took these other pris- 
oners. We reached Richmond 1:20 p. m. and marched 
to Libby Prison like a lot of rollicking boys. So here 
we are in our old quarters again. The authorities did 
not make us strip off this time to examine us. They 
rather looked on in amazement. I have but little doubt 
that many of the guard would like to join us. 

Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., February 19th. Af- 
ter we were put in here last night, the officers of the 
prison brought in a great number of boxes that had 
been shipped to us from the North months ago. It 
was a show to see the men open up their boxes and dis- 
play the contents. Every conceivable article in the 
line of wearing apparel, bedding, and eatables, were to be 
seen. Captain Horseman and I each received a box. 
We divided with Lieutenants Davis and Hull, and no 
one went hungry away. I ate so much I was in a rack- 
ing pain all night. My father had put in medicine, 
kinds we often used at home, so I ate all I could, then 
took the medicine according to symptoms. I received 
another box today of clothing and bedding. The whole 
house is full of boxes of wholesome food and warm 

February 20th. 

I rested good last night. I still have rheumatism in 
my limbs. One would naturally take this for a cook 
house this morning.- We are signing the rolls, paroling 


US. We are in a great glee and excitement on the ex- 
change question. Unbelievers are constrained to say 
" 'Tis good for us to be here." We received rations af- 
ter the old style. Some of us did not need it. We put 
it where it was needed. 

February 21st. 

I was awakened by the tumult and uproar that was going 
last night at 10 o'clock. I did not sleep a moment after. 
I got up at three a. m. and boiled coffee and fried some 
ham and ate breakfast early. Eighty-five officers were 
taken out this morning. I am quite ill. 

February 22nd. 

We were awakened this morning at 4 a. m. Marched 
out of Libby Prison just at daylight. Marched to 
Point of Rocks and got on the Rebel truce boat. Ran 
down the James river and got off between the Rebel 
lines and ours. We marched by Fort Harrison, here we 
came under the stars and stripes. The prisoners took 
off their hats. Some of them shouted for joy, others 
cried with joy. It was probably one of the happiest 
periods in our lives. Boarded a hospital boat at Har- 
rison's Landing where we were fed. I saw men drink 
a quart of coffee and call for more. They had to be re- 
stricted. Many died from eating too much after get- 
ting where they could get it. This was a great and glor- 
ious day in our life-history. It was a transition from 
want and cruelty, starvation and neglect, misery and 
pain to freedom and plenty, sunshine and home. 

We arrived at Aikens Landing 12 m. Passed For- 
tress Monroe 8 p. m. We are very much crowded on 
this boat, but we have been used to being crowded in 
different circumstances. We were taken to Annapolis, 
Md., to the Marine Hospital where we were furloughed 


General Grant's Army, in the Battles in rear of Vicks- 
burg, May, June, and July, 1863. 

13th Army Corps, General McClernand, 
9th Division, Brig. General P. J. Osterhaus, 
10th Division, Brig. Gen'l A. J. Smith, 
12th Division, Brig. Gen'l A. P. Hovey, 
14th Division, Brig. Gen'l E. A. Carr, 

24,391 men and 62 guns. 
15th Army Corps, Gen'l W. T. Sherman, 
11th Division, Maj. Gen'l Fred Steele, 
5th Division, Maj. Gen'l F. P. Blair, 
8th Division, Brig. Gen'l J. M. Tuttle, 

19,238 men, 36 guns. v 

17th Army Corps, Gen'l J. B. McPherson, 
3rd Division, Maj. Gen'l J. A. Logan, 
6th Division, Brig. Gen'l J. McArthur, 
7th Division, Brig. Gen'l J. F. Quinby. 

17,482 men, 60 guns. 

Total 61,111 men, 158 guns. 
During the siege a part of the 9th Corps and a part 
of the 16th Corps were added to his army. 


Born February 12, 1809, Died April 15, 1865. 


Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought 
forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in lib- 
erty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are 
created equal. 

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing 
whether that nation, or any nation so conceived 
and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a 
great battlefield of that war. We have come to ded- 
icate a portion of that field as a final resting place for 
those who here gave their lives that that nation might 
live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should 
do this. 

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate — we can 
not consecrate — we can not hallow — this ground. The 
brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have 
consecrated it far above our power to add or de- 
tract. The world will little note nor long remember 
what we say here, but it can never forget what they did 
here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated 
here to the unfinished work which they who fought 
here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for 
us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining be- 
fore us — that from these honored dead we take in- 
creased devotion; that we here highly resolve that these 
dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation under 
God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that 
government of the people, by the people, and for the 
people, shall not perish from the earth. 




The number of enlisted men and officers of the Twen- 
ty-second Iowa, requiring transportation and who were 
discharged from the United States service at Savannah 

Co. Officers Enlisted Men 

A 2 47 

B 1 51 

C 2 29 

D 2 27 

E 2 39 

F 2 44 

G 1 47 

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Preface, 3 

Chapter I, The forming of the regiment, 5 

Chapter II, The Missouri campaign, 10 

Chapter III, March down through southeast Missouri, 15 

Chapter IV, Campaign in southeast, Missouri, 18 

Chapter V, Moved down the Mississippi, 23 

Chapter VI, Vicksburg campaign, 27 

Battle of Port Gibson or Magnolia Hills, 31 

Battle of Big Black River, 34 

Fighting around Vicksburg, 36 

Assault on the works, May 22, 38 

Siege and surrender, 40-43 
Chapter VII, Mississippi Campaign under Gen. W. T. Sherman, 44 

Movement down the Mississippi to New Orleans, La., 47 

Chapter VIII, On furlough home, 50 

Chapter IX, Campaign in western Louisiana and campaign in 
Texas, 53 

Chapter X, Campaign in Texas, 56 

Chapter XI, Return from Texas, 66 

Campaign up Red River, La., 66 

Return to Baton Rouge, La., 71 
Chapter XII, Return to New Orleans, La., 72 

Reorganization, assigned to the 19th Corps, 73 

Boarded a seagoing vessel, 73 

Marched to Bermuda Hundred, 74 

Marched to the wharf and boarded a vessel for Washington, 
D. C, 75 

In Camp at Tannallytown, Va., 76 

Chapter XIII, The Shenandoah Valley campaign under Gen. 
Phil Sheridan, 78 
Pass through Snicker's Gap and wade the Shenandoah River, 78 
Battle of Berry ville, 79 

Skirmishes around Harper's Ferry and Halltown, Va., 80 
Battle of Winchester, Va., 85 

Chapter XIV, Battle of Winchester and Fisher's Hill, 86 
Battle of Cedar Creek, Va., 88 

Chapter XV, The return from prison, 92 
Moved to Savannah, Georgia, 99 

Chapter XVI, Boating between Augusta and Savannah, 105 
Returned to Savannah, Ga., to be mustered out of the U. S. 

service, 115 
A prisoner of war in the hands of the Rebels ; five months and 

a few days in southern prisons, 119 
Number of troops and arms in General Grant's campaign 

against Vicksburg, Miss., 142 
Lincoln's Speech at Gettysburg, Pa., 143 

Appendix, 145 

Number of officers and men mustered out at Savannah, 145 

Casualties during the war, 146 

List of those who entered the fort at Vicksburg, 155 


Page 25, line 24, for Twenty- fourth Division, read Fourteenth. 
Page 25, Hne 26, omit the word "Brigadier" and read "Major 
General E. A. Carr." 

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